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HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



IN 



IRELAND. 




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Xxt.\-A^\ -C^u.x\e.\cc6V^ \-avv*-.. Neil's: 



HANDBOOK EOR TRAVELLERS 



IN 



IRELAND. 



FOURTH EDITION, MEVI8ED, 



WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 



•* ' * 






J ■* 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMAELB STEBET. 

1878. 



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Ay 



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I: fmniD ninLUAii<iLa«'UAn>ait(^>iuiFuiu>n' 



PEEFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION. 



- ■ •»♦- 



The present Edition of this Handbook, like the last, has 
undergone careful revision, based in great part on personal 
visits and research made by the Editor on the spot, in order 
to render it as trustworthy as possible. An obliging friend, 
learned in the Celtic dialects, has carefully revised the 
derivations and spellings of Irish names of places, greatly to 
tlie advantage of this Handbook. The Editor also has to 
offer his thanks to many friends and correspondents for 
the help kindly afforded him during the progress of the work'. 
He will feel obliged for any reliable corrections, alterations, 
or additions, and requests that they may be sent to him, to 
tlie care of the Publisher, 50, Albemarle Street, London. 

Teavelling Maps of the most interesting districts resorted 
to hy travellers have been carefully compiled by Mr. Stanford 
on an enlarged scale ; and it is hoped will be found complete 
and useful on the score of clearness and correctness. 

Although the following extract from a leader in the T^mes 
did not give rise to the HandbooJcfor Ireland, which was nearly 
printed at the time it appeared, it furnishes at least a justi- 
fication for such a guide-book, in pointing out how great 
^e the attractions for travellers and visitors which Ireland 
possesses, and how little they have hitherto been explored. 

Extract from the ' Times,' 1864. 

"ITiere is nothing in these isles more beautiful and more picturesque 
tkn the «outh and west of Ireland. They who know the fairest portions 



\ 






HANDBOOK EOR TRAVELLERS 



IN 



IRELAND. 



JFOTJRTH EDITION, REVISED. 



WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 






: -'. : ^ \ 



* i 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUEEAT, ALBEMAELE STEi>ET. 

1878. 



t '■ « 






HANDBOOK EOR TRAVELLERS 



IN 



IRELAND. 



FO TTB.TH EDITION^ REVISED, 



WITH MAPS AND PLANS. 



» 



•* ■ 



• 






' ' ' : . . i* • 



» • I 



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• • • • ■ 



■* • 



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LONDON: 
JOHN MUEBAY, ALBEMAELE STEi>ET. 

1878. 









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LONDON : FBINTSD BX WILUAK CLOWES AND SONS, STAUFOiU) STBEKT 

AND OBABINO GKOSB. 



PREFACE TO THE PRESENT EDITION. 



■•^*- 



The present Edition of this Handbook, like the last, has 
undergone careful revision, based in great part on personal 
visits and research made by the Editor on the spot, in order 
to render it as trustworthy as possible. An obliging friend, 
learned in the Celtic dialects, has carefully revised the 
derivations and spellings of Irish names of places, greatly to 
the advantage of this Handbook. The Editor also has to 
offer his thanks to many friends and correspondents for 
the help kindly afforded him during the progi'css of the work*. 
He will feel obliged for any reliable corrections, alterations, 
or additions, and requests that they may be sent to him, to 
the care of the Publisher, 60, Albemarle Street, London. 

Travelling Maps of the most interesting districts resorted 
to by travellers have been carefully compiled by Mr. Stanford 
on an enlarged scale ; and it is hoped will be found complete 
and useful on the score of clearness and correctness. 

Although the following extract from a leader in the Times 
did not give rise to the HandhooJc for Ireland^ which was nearly 
printed at the time it appeared, it furnishes at least a justi- 
fication for such a guide-book, in pointing out how great 
are the attractions for travellers and visitors which Ireland 
possesses, and how little they have hitherto been explored. 

Extract fr<m the ' Times,' 1864. 

" ITiere is nothing in these isles more beautiful and more picturesque 
than the south and west of Ireland. They who know the fairest portions 



vi Preface. 

of Europe still find in Ireland that which they have seen nowhere else, 
and which has charms all its own. One might suppose the island just 
risen from the sea, and newly beamed on by the skies — as if sea and land 
were there first parting, and the spirit of light and order beginning its 
work ; such is the infinite confusion of surge and beach, bay, headland, 
river, lake, grass ; of land and sea, sunshine in showers, and rainbow 
over all. Thackeray doubted, and any one may doubt, whether there is 
in all the earth a grander view than that over Westport to Clew Bay. 
But the whole coast west and south, indeed all round the island, has 
beauties that many a travelled Englishman has not the least conception of. 
The time will come when the annual stream of tourists will lead the 
way, and when wealthy Englishmen, one after another, in rapid succes- 
sion, will seize the fairest spots, and fix here their summer quarters. 
They will not be practically further from London than the many seats 
of our nobility in the North-Midland counties were thirty years ago. 
Eighteen hours will even now take the Londoner to the Atlantic shore, 
and twenty will soon carry him to the furthest promontory of the island. 
There are those who will not welcome such a change upon the spirit of 
that scene ; but if we see in the beauty of Ireland even a surer heritage 
tlnan in hidden mine or fertile soil, why may we not hope that it will 
again cover her land with pleasant homes, and a busy, contented, and 
increasing people, such as we see in many other regions with nothing 
but their beauty and salubrity to reconunend them ?" 

With the progress of time the inn acoommodation in Ireland 
has considerably improved. Some of tbe local proprietors 
have erected handsome hotels on a most liberal scale. Never- 
theless, if the facilities for travelling in Ireland were greater, 
and more attention were paid to order iemd cleanliness, by the 
Irish inn-keeper, he would have a fair chance of diverting 
into that beautiful island a larger portion of ''the tourist 
flood " which now streams to the Continent. 



CONTENTS. 



Iyeboduction. 



PAGE 

[1] 



EOUTES. 



%* The Mmes of places are printed in italics only in those routes where 

the places are described. 



BOCTE PAGB 

!■ Holyhead to Kingstown 
and Dublin ... 2 

i Dublin to DrogrAcda and 
Dundalk .... 22 

3. 2)ttnda/A; to Belfast . . 34 
i Newry to Belfast, 
thiough Bostrevor and 
JDownpatrich ... 42 

5. Belfast to Donaghidee . 53 

6. Bundalk to Enniskillm 

— Florence Court, 
Swardinhar, and the 
"Shannon Pot" . . 61 

7. Enniskillen to Sligo by 

Coach 68 

8. Enniskillen to London- 

DEREY ..... 73 

9. Londonderry to Lough 

SwiUy, Mulroy Bay^ 
isidi Inishowen ... 80 

10. Sligo to Bundoran, Lough 

Mdvin and Manor 
Hamilton .... 83 

11. Bnndoran to Donegal 

andStrabane ... 86 

12. Enniskillen to Pettigoe, 

Donegal, and Carrick . 90 

13. Strabane to Letterkenny, 

Gweedore, Bunglow, 
Ardara, and Killybegs 95 



BOUTE PAGE 

14. Londonderry to Gwee- 

dore, through Bun- 
fanaghy 105 

15. Londonderry to Belfast, 

by the Northern Coun- 
ties Railway ... Ill 

16. Coleraine to Belfast, by 

Portrush, the Giant's 
Causeway and Bally- 
castle 119 

17. Dublin to Mtdlingar, 

Athlone, Ballinasloe, 
andQalway ... 132 

18. Enfield to Edenderryy 

Source of the Boyne 
and Drogheda, through 
Trim and Navan . . 142 

19. Drogheda to Navan, 

Kelts, and Cavan, by 
Bail . . . . . .157 

20. Mullingar to Portadown, 

through Cavan and 
Armagh 163 

21. Mullingar to Sb'go, 

through Longford^ 
Carrick -on - Shann^m, 
and Boyle .... 168 

22. Athlone to Boscommon, 

Castlereagh, Ballina, 
and BelmuUet . . . 175 



Yin 



CONTENTS. 



ROUTE PAGE 

23. Galway, Aran Islands, 

Lough Corrib; Galway 
toClifden .... 181 

24. Clifden to Leenane, West- 

port, and Sligo. . . 197 

25. Galway to Cong, Maum, 

Ballinrohe and West- 
port 212 

26. Dublin to Wexford 

throTigh Wicklow, Arh- 
low, and Ennisc(yrthy , 220 

27. Dublin to Bathdrum 

and Arklow. — Toue 

THROUGH WiCKLOW . 228 

28. Dublin to Cork, by Gt. 

Southern and Western 
Eailway 241 

29. Dublin to Carlow, 7i'i7- 

kennif, and Waterford, 
by Kail 263 

30. Kilkenny to Athenry, 

through Parsonstown 
and Louglirea . , . 275 



ROUTE PAGE 

31. Wexford to Cork, 

through Wateb- 
FOED, Dungarvan, and 
Toughal 279 

32. Toughal to Cahir, 

through Lismore and 
Fermoy 291 

33. Limerick to Waterford. 297 

34. Mallow to Killarney and 

Tralee 303 

35. Limerick to Tralee . . 320 

36. Limerick to Boyle, 

through Ennis and 
Tuam 332 

37. The Shannon, from Ath- 

lone to Limerick . 

38. Killarney to Valentia 

and Kenmare . 

39. Cork to Kenmare, via 

Bandon, Bantry, and 
Glen garr iff . . . . 

40. Cork to Bantry, via 

Macroom .... 



343 
351 



359 



369 



Index 379 



LIST OF MAPS AND PLANS. 









PAGE 


Plan of Dublin 




to face 5 


„ Belfast 




„ 55 


Sectional 


Map — North Donegal . 


80 


»» 




South Donegal . 


„ 86 


»j 




Giant's Causeway, &c. 


,. 119 


It 




Connemara, &e. . 


„ 181 


>» 




Killarney District 


„ 305 ^ 


j> 




Cork Harbour . 


„ 372 


Eailway and Station Map of Ireland 


at the end, i 



GENEEAL INTBODUCTION. 



PAGB 

I. K0UTE8 TO Ireland [1] 

n. SCEIIERY f4] 

m. Travelling m Ibeland [9] 

IV. Pbdestblanibm in Ireland [12] 

V. Irish Hotels [13] 

VL Geology [14] 

VII. AllTTIQUlTIES [17] 

VIII. Agbicdlturb [25] 

IX. MiNEBALB [26] 

X Population [28] 

XI. Guide to the Anquno Waters in Ireland .. .. [29] 

Xir. Skeleton Routes [52] 



I. SouTBS to Ireland. 

The tourist has now a choice of many routes to Ireland. We shall 
simply indicate them here, and describe some of the more important 
wider the heads of their respective landing-places. 

1. London to DubiJin, via Holyhead. — This may be regarded as 
tk main highway. The whole journey by mail train and packets 
from Euston to Dublin occupies less than 11 hours. Sea-passage 4 
liours. Two services of excellent steam-packets; one landing pas- 
sengers at Kingstown (five minutes' rail from Dublin), the other at the 
Xorth Wall in Dublin. 

2. London to Dublin by Sea, calling at Southampton, Portsmouth, 
Bymouth, and Falmouth. This trip occupies about 4 days, sometimes 
more. It is enjoyable by tourists who have good sea-legs and cor- 
responding stomachs. ITie packets sail from Miller's Wharf on Sundays 
and Wednesdays at 10 a.m., and returning from Dublin on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays. They are good sea-boats, conveying much cargo, with 
^ir accommodation for passengers, but no pretentions to luxury. The 
iijod is plain and substantial. 

3. London to Gbeenobe, via Holyhead, for Belfast and North of 
[Ireland.'] h 



[2] I. Boutes to Ireland, Introd. 

Ireland. Sea-passage 6 hours, in good packets, but not equal to those 
between Holyhead and Kingstown or Dublin. Euston to Greenore 
m hours. 

4. The Short Sea Eoute, vitl Stranraer to Lame. Total crossing 
passage under 3 hours, 2^ of which is on open sea, and ^-hour in 
loch. Larne is 50 minutes' rail from Belfast (see Eoute 16, for Lame 
and Giant's Causeway). From Euston to Stranraer 12i hours; to 
Lame 15 hours ; to Belfast 16 hours. Trains from Euston every 
evening. Trains from Glasgow and Paisley in correspondence with 
these packets. 

5. Glasgow and Dublin, calling at Greenock, about five times per 
week, as advertised. Office, Dublin and Glasgow Steam Packet Co., 
71, North Wall, Dublin. 

6. Liverpool and Dublin, with through rates and booking to and 
from all places in connection with the Midland Railway Company of 
England and the principal stations on the North Eastern, Eastern, 
Great Eastern, and South Eastern Railways. Offices, Wells and 
Holohan, 6, Eden Quay, Dublin, and stations on Midland Railway. 

7. Liverpool and Dublin, with through booking from stations on 
Great Northern, Manchester^ Sheffield and Lincolnshire^ South York- 
shire and Great Eastern Railways. Daily, as advertised, Sundays 
excepted. Office, James Hesketh, 5 and 6, North Wall, Dublin. 

8. Liverpool and Dublin, with through bookings from stations 
on Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway Co. Daily, except Sundays, as 
advertised. Office, A. Nicholl, 20, Eden Quay, Dublin. 

9. Liverpool and Dublin by steamers. Express, Star and 
Standard, as advertised. Offices, W. M*Master, 25, Water Street, 
Liverpool, and D. Middleton, 1a, North Wall, Dublin. 

10. Barrow-in-Furness to Dublin every Saturday. Office, J. 
Little & Co., Barrow-in-Furness. 

11. Bristol to Dublin. Every Friday. Office, 33, Prince Street, 
Bristol. 

12. Isle of Man and Dublin, vil Silloth,^ at times advertised in 
sailing biUs. Offices, Ardrossan Shipping Co. ; Allen Nicholl, North 
Wall, Dublin ; W. E. Young, Athol Street, Douglas. 

(6) Routes to Belfast and North op Ireland. 

13. Liverpool to Belfast and Londonderry, by Belfast Steam 
Ship Company. Daily to Belfast ; twice a week to Londonderry, as 
advertised. Offices, Johnson, Granger & Co., Chapel Street, Liverpool. 

14. Glasgow and Belfast, Two lines. 1st. Royal Mail Line. 
Two siervices daily, calling at Greenock (Sundays excepted, one service 
on Saturdays). Office, G. F. J. Burns, 267, Argyle Street, Glasgow. 
2nd. The Ardrossan Shipping CoJs packets. Daily, at advertised 
hours (Sundays excepted). Offices, 40, St. Enger Square, Glasgow, 
and 49, Queen's Square, Belfast. 

15. Fleetwood to Belfast every eveninjr, Sundays excepted. 

16. BARR0W-iN-FuRNE)gi>s TO BELFAST. Every evening, Sundays 



Introd. I. Boutes to Ireland. [8] 

excepted. Offices, J. Little & Co., Donegal Qoay, Belfast. (Booking 
from all parts of England.) 

17. Whitbhavbn and Belfast, at advertised dates. Offices, 
Ardiwsan Shipping Co. ; K. Henderson & Sons, Qneen's Square, 
Belfast 

18. BouoLAS (Isle of Man) and Belfast, at advertised dates 
and hours. Offices (see No. 14). 

19. Liverpool, Newby and Dundalk, by Dundalk and Newry 
Steam Backet Co.'s ships, about 4 times per week, as advertised. Office, 
Edward Collins, Sec. and Gen. Manager, Dundalk. 

20. Babbow-in-Furness to Newby (Warrenpoint), every Wed- 
nesday. Offices, James Little & Co., Warrenpoint, Newry. 

21. Livebpool and Dbooheda, about 4 times per week, as adver- 
tised. Offices, Drc^heda Steam Packet Co., Peter O'Neill, Sec, Drury 
Buildings, 23, Water Street, Liverpool. 

(c) Routes to the South of Ibeland. 

22. Milfobd Haven and South of Ibeland, via Watebfobd 
OB Cork, in connection with Great Western Eailway. Express service 
from Paddington, &c., to Watebfojeld daily; from Milford (except 
Mondays) in connection with the 5 p.m. express train from Paddington, 
due at 2.5 a.m. These steamers are advertised not to convey cattle^ 
dieep, or pigs, 

23. To (JoBK FBOH Milfobd every Thursday and Saturday at 8 p.m., 
on the arrival of the 9*12 a.m. express from Paddington. For further 
particulars, see Great Western time-tables. 

24. To (^BK FBOM Bbistol, Milfobd, Liverpool, Cabdiff, 
Xewpobt, and Plymouth, with through bookings from London by 
the City of Cork Steam Packet Co., and Bristol General Steam Naviga- 
tion Go. Frequent sailings from the above ports, as advertised. 
Offices, 32, Princes Street, Bristol; Wilson, Son, & Walter, 17, 
Water Street, Liverpool ; E. C. Downing, Bute Docks, Cardifif ; J. Mad- 
dock, Newport ; T. Nicholson, Plymouth ; and chief office, Penrose 
Quay Cork. 

25. Glasgow and Gbeenock to Cobk and Watebfobd, by 
Clyde Shipping Co., as advertised. Offices, 2, Oswald Street, Glasgow. 

26. Bbistol, Livebpool and Newpobt to Watebfobd, by Water- 
fad Steam Ship Co., with further sailings from Waterford to Dungaven, 
New Rofis and Duncannon, as advertised. Offices, The Mall, Water- 
ford. 

27. Bbistol to Wexfobd, calling at Tenby and Milford. Weekly. 
Office, 33, Prince Street, Bristol. 

Tourists' tickets are issued by the great English and Scotch railway 
companies in connection with the Irish railway companies, and avail- 
able for two months. The particulars of these are advertised every 
Kason in the company's time-tables. These are especially desirable 
for the tourist who only proposes to visit Dublin and the Killamey 
^'Strict, or Belfast and the Causeway; but if he intends to make a 

h 2 



I 



[4] II. Scenery. Introd. 

more varied and extensive trip, commencing at Dublin, he will do 
well to take an English tourist ticket only to Dublin, and when there 
examine the elaborate advertisements of the circular tours, &c., of the 
Irish railway companies, which are readily obtainable at the hotels 
and railway stations of Dublin. 

II. Scenery op Ireland. 

Ireland may be roughly described as an island consisting of a central 
plain or hollow, surrounded by an iriregular broad wall or rampart of 
mountains ; the continuity of this wall being, however, in several places 
broken by considerable gaps : these gaps are, for the most part, formed 
by wide water-paved valleys, the estuaries of rivers which flow down 
the inland or higher alluvial valleys, of which these sea-troughs are the 
mouths or outlets. 

This description at once indicates where the finest scenery of Ireland 
is to be found. It is on or near the coast, and especially at the out- 
thrust extremities of the coast, such as the north-west semi-detached 
corner of the island, the County Donegal ; the lake-riddled, ragged, 
Atlantic projection on the west, forming Connemara and County Mayo ; 
the south-western outstretch of Cork and Kerry ; the north-east basaltic 
elbow of County Antrim, and the eastward bulge below Dublin formed 
by the Wicklow Mountains. The central plain ofifers little that is 
interesting as regards scenery. Its chief features of interest are archaso- 
logical. 

The grandest features of Irish scenery are those presented by its pre- 
cipitous Headlands; and the finest of these are on the broken Atlaiitic 
coast of Donegal, a county which merits far more attention from t&e 
tourist than it has hitherto received. The writer has coasted the whole 
of Europe, Mediterranean and Oceanic, from the Bosphorus to the 
Arctic snores of Russia, and has seen nothing so fine as the clififs 
which bound the south-western projection of County Donegal, or north- 
western shore of Donegal Bay ; those of Slieve League, which form a 
jagged many-coloured precipice, rising peipendicularly from the sea to 
the summit of the wave-riven mountain, a rock-wall 1964 feet high. 

These and the other noble headlands of this county will be described 
in detail in their proper places, our present object in naming them is 
merely to indicate to the tourist the direction in which he should seek 
the characteristic features of the country. We name Donegal first as 
especially 's^brthy of a visit by all who enjoy magnificent sea-coast, or 
rather ocean-coast, scenery. 

The corresponding south-westernmost projection of County Mayo, 
formed by the Island of Achil, is of similar structure, the original 
oceanward slopes of the mountain headlands having been washed away 
by the perpetual beating of the Atlantic waves dashing with maximum 
force in the direction of the prevailing and most boisterous south-west 
winds. 

To the jsouth of Gkilway Bay is a remarkable sea-wall, extending 
from Black Head to Loop Head, and more or less broken by the sloping 



Introi II. Scenery. [5] 

openings of small sandy bays at the mouths of river-valleys. The 

finest portions of this wall are the cliffs of Mohir, and those extending 

from£ilkee to Loop Head. 
The north-eastern extremity of Ireland presents another and totally 

different class of cliffs. Fair Head, and the other precipitous rocks in 
the Tidnity of the Gianf s Causeway, are volcanic lava-walls, displaying 
hj their columnar structure the mechanical effect of slow shrinkage in 
cooling. 

The I^TUABiES naturally come next in order to the cliffs and head- 
lands. A glance at the map shows that the west coast of Ireland, like 
that of Scotland and Scandinavia, is broken up or serrated by a series 
of deep inlets, outstanding islets, and Small but bold peninsulas. 
While the grandest features of Irish scenery are those presented by the 
headlands and sea-cliffs, the most beautiful are to be found on the shores 
of these friths or i^ords, which in Ireland are generally called ** bays," a 
name which by no means conveys to Englishmen a correct idea of 
their character. 

The merits of these estuaries for boating, fishing, pedestrian rambles, 
and sea-side sojourn, are by no means worthily appreciated. This 
has prohably arisen from the difficulties of reaching them, which diffi- 
culties are yet but partially overcome by the development of Irish 
railways. One of the finest and longest of these, Lough Swilly, is now 
easily accessible by the railway which extends from Dublin or Belfast, 
via Londonderry, to Buncrana, 

Baiitry Bay, one of the most charming of the south-western estuaries, 
is now easily reached by a short car-ride from Dunmanaway, or by the 
daily tourist's public car that runs from Macroom to Killamey, via 
Inchageela to Glengariff. 

The other serious impediment to the full enjoyment of these hitherto 
neglected ocean-side resorts is the want of good hotels and [boarding 
houses. In a few cases this want has been supplied. There are two 
good hotels at Glengariff, where special arrangements are proffered for 
the benefit of those who desire to contract for weekly board and lodging 
"eft pension." There is a good hotel at Leenane on the well-known 
fjord of the Eilleries. A large, handsome, and well-appointed hotel is 
now erected on a most picturesque little promontory on Lough Swilly, 
oear to Buncrana Station. 

Thb Lakes of Ibelakd are almost countless. Excepting only 
^he S.E. quarter of the island, we may fairly describe the country 
^ a land of lakes and estuaries. The peculiar distribution of the 
iDoaDtains, which are arranged in groups rather than chains, neces- 
^y forms a number of basins, surrounded by hills, rather than 
the long river-troughs that lie between chains of mountains; and 
^ese basins, filled by the drainage of the mountain slopes, con- 
(%te a multitude of small highland lakes or tarns. The most re- 
niarkable, we may say extraordinary, group of such small lakes is that 
J|f the southern portion of County Qalway, especially the region lying 
"''tween Mannin Bay and the town of Galway. It attains its maximum 



[6] II. Lakes. Introd. 

development Iq the southern half of Connemara. The Ordnance map : 
of this region is quite a curiosity: the Government surveyors have.. 
evidently given up in despair any attempt to name the multitude oi ^ 
lakes there laid down. A drive through this region is a series of serpen- 
tine windings round the shore of one lake across a ridge to the banks of ^.^ 
another, round that, and across again ad infinitum. 

This region, and in fact the whole of Connemara, affords excellent . 
opportunities of studying the subject of the formation of lake-basins by ^ 
glacial erosion and moraine-dams. Loitgh Inagh is a very interesting ., 
illustration of the latter (see Rte. 23). 

Not only are the individual mountains thus distributed in groups or ^ 
clusters, with minor hollows or basins between, but the great groups of - 
the Irish Highlands are themselves similarly related to each other and 
surround the central plain or basin of Ireland ; the lowest depressions of 
which are filled with water, forming large lakes which stand but little 
above the sea-level. Many of these la'kes are very shallow, and, as we 
shall explain in describing them, have doubtless been formed by true 
chemical solution of the surface of the great central plain of limestoDe ; 
similar solution producing the caverns, the subterranean river-channels, 
and some of the deep bays, of the same limestone region. Many of the 
great peat-bogs occupy hollows that formerly were lakes or shallow pools ' 
in the limestone. Lough Neagh is the largest inland sheet of water in 
the British Isles ; it has a shore-line of 66 miles and an area of 98,255 , 
acres. L. Corrib, L. Allen, L. Erne, L. Ree, L. Derg, and half-a-dozen 
others, are all on a scale of great magnitude when regarded in propor- 
tion to the size of the island. Among these may be found every variety 
of lake scenery, from the frowning grandeur of deep, gloomy, dark rock- 
walled waters (one of the finest examples of which is afforded by the 
upper part of L. Beagh in Donegal) to the luxuriant beauty which has 
rendered the upper Lake of Killarney so justly celebrated. We say 
"justly" celebrated when speaking absolutely of the beauties of Kil- 
larney, but cannot apply this adjective when speaking of the reputation 
of Killarney relatively to that of the other lakes of Lreland. Many of 
these, whose beauties are unsung by poets, and whose names are barely 
known to ordinary tourists, are worthy to enter the lists as rivals of the 
Killarney group ; some of them truly carrying off the palm for one or 
another of the elements of scenic merit, though none, perhaps, combining 
so many of these elements as the three connected lakes of Killarney. 

The Mountains of Iuelakd are easily accessible to climbing 
tourists, and their general arrangement in groups renders the panorama 
obtainable from the summit of the highest of any of the groups very 
fine and varied. It usually includes a splendid sea view: a fore- 
ground of broken promontories stretching from the feet of the tourist 
far away into the Atlantic, with the deep bays between and the wide 
ocean beyond, studded with a multitude of rocky islands ; while the 
inland view presents a gigantic relief map of the lower hills, and a 
multitude of tarns and lakes lying between them. The most interesting 
of these mountain views will be described in their proper places, but we 



laiicoi n. MourUairu. [7] 

may boe yentore to predict that whenever a sturdy tourist and 
auttteur of mountain scenery finds himself at the foot of a prominent 
moostaiD in Ireland with a clear sky and a few hours to spare, he may 
be aagored that the scene presented from the summit will well repay 
th tmblB of an ascent Guides are but rarely, if ever, necessary, 
t&ODgh in some cases are very desirable where fine points of view exist 
00 other parts than the mountain summit This is commonly the case 
vith mountains close upon the coast — such, for example, as Slieve 
Lmguey where the grandeur of the sea clifis are best displayed from 
ostain projections or seaward knees of the mountain. 

Iruh patriotism and the innate courtesy of all classes to strangers 
isoaliy secure an appreciation of all the good things of the district by 
eren &e poorest peasant, and a cheerful willingness to display them to 
visitors — for a consideration. 

The following is the height of the principal summits of Ireland 
above the sea-level : 

Feet. 

Canantuohill Kerry 3414 

Caher „ 3200 

Brandon , 3127 

Lugnaqnilla Wicklow 3039 

Galtymore Tipperary 3015 

Slieve Donard Down 2796 

Gahirooniee Kerry 2796 

Mangerton „ 2756 

Bautregaum ,, 2713 

Muikea Mayo 2688 

Nephin , .. .. .. .'. 2646 

Benbuiy 2610 

Mt. Leinster Wexford 2610 

Knockmealedown Wateiford 2598 

Knockletteiagh Mayo 1715 

Knocklayd Antrim 1695 

Ox Mountains Shgo 1685 

Kaghthmore Donegal 1617 

Sugarloaf Wicklow 1659 

Brandon Hill Kilkenny 1644 

Crockerraterive Donegal 1627 

Devil's Bit Tipperary 1583 

Divis Antrim 1567 

Agnew'sHill „ 1558 

King's Mountain Sligo 1527 

Benhradagh Itoy 1536 

Binhane Donegal 1493 

Bralieve Mountain Rosconmiou .. .. 1450 

Munterlony Donegal 1456 

Scraig's , 1406 

Nagles Waterford 1406 

Mount Gabriel Cork 1339 

GroaghmOTle Mountains .. Mayo 1290 

SlieveOalfcne CJlare 1282 



[8] n. Bivers. Introd. 

• rG6ta 

Benyevenagh Deny 1260 

White Mountain Wexford 1259 

Mammakeogh Mayo 1243 

Bochra Cork 1209 

Kesh Oorran Leitrim 1183 

OaveHiU Down 1168 

Loughanleagh Oavan 1116 

Keady Derry 1101 

Knocknarea Sligo 1088 

Bloody Foreland Donegal 1018 

There are some fine Mountain Passes in Ireland, usually described 
as " gaps," but they are not sufficiently remarkable to be cited as great 
scenic features of the country ; they are, in fact, rather liable to be 
overrated locally on account of their comparative rarity. Such is the 
case with the celebrated Gap of Dunloe. The rarity of mountain 
chains explains the rarity of great glens and deep rocky gorges, com- 
parable to those of Scotland or Scandinavia. An exception to the 
general grouping of Irish mountains and valleys is seen in the long 
straight valleys of the Gweebarra and Owenbarrow in Donegal ; and 
there we have one of the wildest, if not the wildest, mountain pass in 
Ireland — that of Glen Beagh, and its westward branch the Poison 
Valley, above Dunlewy. It is almost unknown to tourists, but our own 
experience of its grandeur induces us to direct their special attention to 
it as described in Route 13. 

The Rivers op Ibeland, though most especially interesting to the 
trout and salmon fisher, are not without attractions to the tourist who 
is mainly in search of the picturesque. Their frequent expansions into 
noble lakes constitutes one of the most characteristic scenic features. 
This is the case with Ireland's greatest river, the Shannon, and still 
more notably with the Erne. The finest part of the Shannon is its 
noble estuary extending from Loop Head nearly to Limerick, and 
navigated by steamers available to tourists, though not remarkable for 
their luxurious appliances. 

The Black water is especially beautiful, both in its tidal estuary above 
Youghal, and in its upper waters, as in the neighbourhood of Lismore. 
The fair stretch of sweet sylvan river-scenery seen from the windows 
of Lismore Castle is scarcely to be equalled anywhere. 

The magnitude of the Irish rivers is shown by the following table, 
from Sir B. Kane : 



Sq. miles. 
Shannon has a total basin of 4544 
Barrow, Nore, and Suir .. 3400 

Slaney 815 

Avonmore 200 



8q. miles. 
Blaokwater and Boyne .. 1086 
Liffey, Dodder, and Tolka . . 568 

Erne 1585 

Foyle 1476 



Avoca 281lBann 1266 

Blackwater 1214 I Blaokwater (Armagh) .. 526 

Lee 735 ~ 

Bandon 228 



Galway River 1374 

Moy 1033 



Lagan 227 

Roughty 475 

Inny and Maine .. .. 511 

Feale and Geale 479 



Introi in. Travelling in Ireland. [9] 

IreU has no waterfalls demanding; a special pilgrimage, Powers- 
court lug a local reputation, only justified by the absence of rivals and 
its cammeat proximity to Dublin and the admirable facilities for 
picnic parties afforded by its surroundings. 

Tbe Oayebns of Ibeland must not he omitted in this summary of 
its pi(;taresque features. They occur, as in other countries, in the 
liroestxme dis^cts. The largest and most remarkable are those 
Dear MitcheUtovm. (See Boute 32.) After a long exploration of 
chamber after chamber, connected by low narrow tunnels, we were 
assQred by the guide that we might go on for many hours without 
mbiog the end ; and further, that nobody has yet explored them 

lihe cayems in the limestone district surrounding Gong are equally 
interesting, and are more celebrated mainly on account of the legends 
connected with them and their subterranean waters. (See Rte. 25.) 

There is another very curious, and apparently extensive, limestone 
cavern near to Westport, of which we have seen no detailed account. 

It is locally known as the " Gulf of Airle/* and is well worthy of 
further exploration by any tourist who can devote a few days to this 
object, and will attend to the precautions that are noted in the account 
of our hurried preliminary visit. (See Rte. 26.) 

A final anti-climax to the scenic beauties of Ireland is afforded by 
her Pbat-bogs. 

There are some tourists who, weary of the din aiid dazzle of luxurious 
town life, enjoy the wild drearkiess of a breezy desolate moorland. We 
commend to their special attention the famous bog of Allen, and the 
other saturated spongy deserts that they will not fail to meet on their 
^y. They are displayed on the grandest scale in the flattest 
portions of the great central plain of Ireland, on the beds of ancient 
lakes, and the sites of fallen forests. Their structure, their present 
growth, their economic possibilities as sources of fuel for the future ; 
the remains of pre-historic animal and vegetable life, and the vestiges 
of the primitive Irishman which they contain, all combine to render 
them objects of considerable interest. We shall describe some of 
in passing. 



III. Tbayelling in Ibelakd. 

hehnd is now provided with a network of railways, the extent of 
which is at once evident by a glance at the map. It will be observed, 
however, that some of the districts that we have already indicated are 
only touched at their boundaries by the terminal stations. This 
liaturally follows from the structure of the country already described. 
The central plain is well served by railways, simply because it presents 
small engineering difficulties, and is the most productive and best 
populated ; while the picturesque mountainous Atlantic coast regions 
of Don^al, Mayo^ Connemara, Clare and Kerry are almost wiSiout 
railways, because the cost of constructing them there would be out of 
Foportion to the traffic obtainable. The tourist is therefore driven to 



seek other means of travelling. These we will describe after a fe\| 
words on the 

Ibish Railways. 

They are by no means luxurious. When first built, the carriasej 
were quite equal to the best models of the j^eriod, but moderate traflScj 
and the rarity of serious collisions or other destructive accidents on th.^ 
Irish railways, have rendered the replacement of the old carriages b;5 
new ones of modern construction far less frequent than on English linesj 
Hence, as a rule, the carriages are antiquated, and occasionally ragged i 
The stations are sUU more primitive than the carriages, and the statios 
masters and their assistants at the minor stations are curiously iioJ 
sophisticated, and free from the restraints of red tape and uniformj 
English tourists may sometimes grumble at these defects, but wil^ 
always find more or less compensation in the prevalence of genuind 
civility and eagerness to render the best possible service that thel 
means of the company and the crude abilities of their servants can 
afford. 

A detailed account of the railway lines would be tedious, and of 
little practical value. Every tourist on landing in Ireland should pur- 
chase the " A B C," or " The Official Irish Travellers' Guide," or both. 
They are published monthly at Sd. each, and contain all railway 
tables, mail-car, stage-coach, and onmibus routes, cab fares, and regu- 
lations of the chief towns, besides sailing of packets, and other informa- 
tion demanding continual revision. 

On Lough Corrib there is a well-appointed steamer plying daily 
between Galway and Cong, and there is also one that plies on Lough 
Erne between Enniskillen and Belleek. 

Ibish Cabs. 

"Where the rail has not yet penetrated, the land is well supplied 
with coaches or public cars. The car is such a peculiar and charac- 
teristic institution that it will not be amiss to give a brief sketch of 
the author of the system, the late Mr. Charles Bianconi, of Longficld, 
near Cashel. A native of Milan, he arrived in Ireland about 1800, 
and set up in Clonmel as a picture-dealer. He was struck with the 
want of accommodation that existed between the various towns of the 
district, and brooded over the idea until, having saved some money, he 
determined to try and supply some of the deficiency by starting hi:^ 
first car in 1815 between Clonmel and Cahir. The foresight and the 
pluck evinced in this proceeding was wonderful in those days, when 
locomotion was not the necessity that it is now, and has long ere this 
reaped its just reward. Although meeting with many reverses, and — 
what is worse in the trial of a new scheme — with much indifference, 
people gradually began to make use of this solitary conveyance, until 
its owner was encouraged to run others to Limerick and Thurles. 
Since then the system has taken deep root, and, until the spread of 
railways, was the grand artery of communication over all the length 
and breadth of the land. A few years ago, before the engine hud 



1 



Introi m. Care. * [11] 

knocked some of the road conveyances off, Mr. Bianconi had in his 
establuhment upwards of 45 double cars, trayelling over 3600 miles 
daily. It is satisfactory to relate that his perseverance and spirit have 
l)e^ lewaided as fhey deserved, and that he was long esteemed as (me 
of iieluid's greatest benefactors. 

1h greater number of the roads are serviced by cars instead of 

coac&es, and there is no doubt but that the long car is more popular 

tliaa the coadi. Its advantages are that it holds a great many pas- 

piigers in addition to a fabulous quantity of Ing^age that is deposited 

io the well ; and should accidents occur, the traveller, unless he be 

blind or halt, can at once reach the ground vnth a very moderate 

iUDouDt of risk. Its disadvantages are, that there are no inside places 

(or bad weather or delicate passengers. The f<^owiug hints are worth 

atteading to pevious to a journey on a car. Ascertain which way the 

wiDd is blowing, if the weather is cold or likely to be bad, aud choose 

yoQT side accordingly, as the tourist will find it no slight comfort to 

iiear the rain beating on the other side while the well and the luggage 

shelter him. Aprons are provided in the car: at the same lime, a 

private waterproof apron is a great convenience ; added to which, the 

tiayeller ahoold obtain a strap by which he may buckle himself to the 

s^t dnring ni<;ht journeys, and thus go safely to sleep without fear of 

wing jerked forward. For seeing the view, the driver's box is, of 

course, the " post of vantage," but it is not comfortable, and cannot 

be iBcommended for a long journey. In conclusion, a good word 

8ix)uld be said for the drivers of the Bianconi cars, who are, with 

^Hiely an exception, steady, obligiog, and civil men, and pleasant 

companions to boot. Indeed, it may be acknowledged with truth, 

that the traveller in Ireland, as a general rule, meets with ready and 

cheerful ©vility. 

^^ Since the death of Mr. Bianconi, these cars are better known as 
'public cars" or "mail cats." Some of the public cars carry the 
j^ils, others do not. The former usually start from the post-ofGce, the 
latter from a grocery or public-house. 

An alphabetical list of the public-car routes is published in * The 
Official Irish Travelling Guide,' and the * A B C ' guide, under alpha- 
beticil heading of towns, with the times of starting from the terminal 
^M intermediate towns or villages of each route. 

Tourists arriving at a town in the evening, and intending to start by 
public car the next morning, should book tbeir places the night before, 
^^ in all cases as early as possible, as it often happens in the season 
toat there is an excess of passengers. Generally when this is the case 
^he cwitractor supplies a supplementary car. 

Private cars may be hired almost everywhere in Ireland. The usual 
cliarge for postii^ thus is 6d per mile for one person, Sd. or 9d, for 
^^^ To this must be added the fee to the driver, who receives no 
^^es fit>m the car pcoprietor. About 2d, per mile i»customary. 
Generally speaking, the public cars have four wheels, and are drawn 
"? ^vo or more horses, and are known as " long cars." 



[12] lY. Pedeatrianwn, Introd. 

To all but Irishmen, or those who have lived long enough in Ireland 
to have become educated in the art of adhering to the seat of a '' low- 
backed car," the long cars are decidedly preferable to those upon two 
wheels, as they are not subject to the wild swinging of the latter. 

It is usually asserted that these sideward flap-seated cars are the 
safest of vehicles. So far as actual falling off is concerned, there may 
be some truth in this, but the overhanging of the seat outside the 
wheels introduces a special element of danger. In the case of a side 
collision the traveller's legs are in great peril. The writer had a narrow 
escape in driving into Limerick from Glonmel one Saturday night. A 
drunken driver of a heavy country cart charged the car, and the driver 
only escaped a point-blank collision by a sudden turn aside, which 
resulted in a crash of the cart-wheel against the foot-board, which was 
carried away, and our legs would have gone with it had we not raised 
them in time to the back of the driver's seat. We mention this as a 
warning and suggestion to tourists, who should practise this evolution, 
and be prepared to make it when such a collision appears probable. 

The '* inside car," which nearly corresponds to an JSnglish cab, 
seems to be growing in popularity in the large cities, but in coimtry 
districts the '* outside car," in spite of its peculiar unsuitableness to a 
peculiarly rainy climate, is almost the only available vehicle. 

lY. Pedestbianism in Ireland. 

Ireland is a difficult country for pedestrians, on account of the long 
distances between the hotels, and the absence of country inns that are 
clean enough to be endurable even by tourists well prepared to '' rough 
it." The English roadside inn, the German " Gasthatis" the Italian 
** Osteria,*^ and the French " Auberge^ are here represented by the 
*' Sheebeen," a mere drinking-shop, with occasional sleeping accommo- 
dation of the vilest character. 

A means of escape from these is in many cases afforded by shop- 
keepers, who let lodgings, and are willing to supply decent refuge to a 
benighted tourist. We have had some dismal experience of arriving 
late at night, knapsack on back, and being mistaken for a pedlar or 
travelling tinker, on account of the utter inability of the people to 
understand the possibility of any man walking who could afford to 
hire even a donkey. After a little experience, we discovered a means of 
escaping from the dilemma : this was to apply at the constabulary 
barracks and state the case. In every instance we received most 
polite and considerate attention from the sergeant, who found the best 
available lodging, usually at a grocery store, and incomparably better 
than that afforded by the drinking-shop : in some cases even better 
than that of the self-styled '* hotel." Pedestrians should make special 
note of this hint, as they will find it of great practical value. 

Generally speaking, time is wasted in walking over any part of the 
central plain where railways abound, but the mountainous districts 
above named are splendid fields for the pedestrian. In the Killamey 
district^ in the neighbourhood of the Giant's Causeway, in Connemara, 






Introd. T. EoteU. [13] 

and reoentljr in Dcxiegal, a pedestrian is to some extent understood ; bnt 
in the rcgioos that are less visited by tourists, a knapsack-bearing 
pedestrian enconnters a risk of bearing that the hotel is quite full, even 
when lie reaches one. In such a case the best course is to appeal to the 
cosstaboky, who will ascertain the truth, and cause a bed to be found 
by satisfying the innkeeper that the tramping tourist belongs to " the 
qnalitj," and is likely to pay his bilL 

v. Lush Hotels. 

Speaking generally, the hotels of Ireland are inferior to those of 
England, So^tland, or the Continent. There are, however, some 
exoepdoDs to this general statement, and considerable improvement is 
in progress. Hotel accommodation is practically a simple question of 
snpply and demand. This is well shown in Ireland, for there we find 
that in all those places that are well appreciated by tourists or other 
Tisitora, good hotels are rapidly developed. Thus Eillamey and its 
lakes are well supplied ; the same may be said of those parts of Con- 
nemara where tourists and anglers do most congregate, and of the 
odglibourhood of the Giant's Causeway. Even Donegal, though 
only just beginning to receive the attention it deserves from tourists, 
is already provided with better hotels than might reasonably be 
expected. In this case the tourist has to thank the wise public 
spirit of such landlords as Lord (George Hill and others we shall 
name in describing the localities; who have made a temporary 
sacrifice by anticipating the demand, and building, and even maintaining, 
good hotels before tourists were sufficiently abundant to render them 
immediately remnnerative. Such very desirable enterprise will, how- 
ever, ultimately become profitable by attracting and retaining tourists 
who otherwise would go somewhere else. 

As an example of commercial response to hotel demand, we may cite 
Gieenore, which has a fine hotel before its name is to be found on ordi- 
iiary maps, simply because it has been made a packet-station communi- 
catiog with London, Belfast, &c,, vi& Holyhead. 

Kilkee, though practically unknown to English tourists, has two ex« 
cellent hotels to supply the demand of native visitors. Lisdoonvama, a 
came far less familiar to English ears than Tanganyika, has four or five 
good hotels, with well-spread table-dliotes, and drawing-rooms where 
merry parties, including many ladies, meet after dinner and join in song 
3nd dance. 

One of the features of most Irish hotels is the exalted position occu- 
pied by " boots." The waiter, especially in purely tourist districts, is 
an exotic luxury only engaged for the season from Dublin or other city, 
while " boots " is permanently attached, or a native of the district. This 
is a matter of practical importance to the tourist who may, by only 
snaking inquiries of the imported waiter, fail to obtain the local infor- 
loation wim which the native " boots " is abundantly stocked, and freely 
<!(>mmunicates. 

Many of the inferior hotels are not so bad as they appear at first 



[14] VI, Oeology. IntrodS 

glance. Broken bells, ragged wall-papers and carpets, doors without 
handles, ruptured sofa-cushions and chair-bottoms, and other outside 
indications of ch9,racteristic Irish free and easy carelessness, may he^ 
accompanied with substantial good food and approximately clean sleep- 
ing accommodation; almost invariably with good-humoured civility and 
attention. 

The hotel difficulty may be to some extent overcome by tourists -who 
have leisure, by making day excursions from such headquarters a£ 
Dublin, Belfast, Londonderry, Cork, and other cities, or from the ex- 
ceptionally good country hotels. We have sketched such excursions. 
The railways afford facilities for these, especially for visiting the beau- 
tiful scenery and historical localities around Dublin. Tourists whc 
desire it may make such excursions during the day, and generally find 
good musical, theatrical and other public entertainments in this city in 
the evening. 

Throughout this Handbook we have spared no effort to supply tlw 
best obtainable information respecting the hotels, and their respective 
merits. As changes of proprietors and other variations occur, we shal^ 
be especially glad to receive from tourists any further information or 
these subjects. 

VL The Geology of Ireland. 

This subject is too extensive and interesting to be formally treated ii 
this Introduction. 

A geological map of the country (such as that in Mr. Hull's excelleni ' 
sketch of the geology of Ireland, 1878) displays the chief grounds upoi 
which geologists have inferred that Ireland was, for the most party higl 
and dry land during that vast period when the central parts of England 
were under a deep sea, and those great strata forming the upper an( 
middle of the Liassic group of rocks, the oolites, the Purbeck beds, thi 
Keocomian beds, the Wealden and the lower chalk were being slowly 
deposited upon its bed and gradually shallowing its waters previous i 
the upheaval which subsequently formed our isUind. 

The exception to this is the the north-eastern and celebrated regioi 
of the Giant's Causeway, which was outpoured, and more or less up ^ 
heaved, at a later period. 

The total absence of so large a portion of the Mesozoic series, the scarcit; 
of those immediately below them — the lower Liassic, the Triassic, ani^: 
Permian, and an imperfect representation of the Carboniferous grouj ' 
constitute the characteristic features of Irish Geology; the oldest anr { 
newest of our British formations being well represented. 1 1 

This imperfect representation of the Carboniferous group demand ^ 
some explanation, lest the expression should be misunderstood ; the fac : 
being that about one-half of Ireland is covered by carboniferous bedt -c 
but these constitute mainly the lower members of the group ; the uppe 1 1 
strata including the very important " coal measures," from which w ^pj 
derive the great bulk of our fossil fuel, having been swept away from al o:; 
parts of Ireland excepting a few detadied patches. :!^t,v 

■•■1 



Introi VI. Qeoiogy, [15] 

Thegnatcentral plain of Ireland, which rarely rises 300 ft. above the 
sea, the average being less, is an undulating plateau of carboniferous 
limestone^ the strata of which are nearly horizontal, excepting near the 
margins sod in the neighbourhood of volcanic disturbance, or of local 
depr^oQS dne to the formation of caverns to which the limestone is 
so liable, and the bending down or the falling in of the strata above 
them. 

Tie tourist with only the ordinary means of observation may travel 
ojer considerable portions of this plain without finding any indications 
of this limestone. He may even travel through railway cuttings of 
considerable depth without seeing any sections of it. This is mainly 
owing to the fact that the latest, and probably most powerful, agent 
^'J its denudation, that which swept away the greater part of the de- 
joats which formerly rested upon it, was a great ice-sheet which, 
:iie an untidy housemaid, left a considerable quantity of its sweepings 
liehind. 

The limestone thus appears on the surface only here and there, chiefly 
3' its margins, the greater part lieing covered with beds of limestone 
,^vel planed from its own surface, or boulder clay brought by glaciers 
'^ the surrounding mountains, or by great peat-bogs; while its 
Wt hollows are filled by shallow lakes and sluggish rivers. 

'Hie glaciation of Ireland ifi one of its most interesting physical 
stores, and has the advantage of being easily observable by the tourist, 
^>so!ne of the most characteristic vestiges of the ancient glaciers are 
''^Mcial. 

lliey consist first of the present covering of the central plain already 
*J2aied. One portion of this covering, the boulder clay, which in many 
l-^s is of considerable depth and paves some of the U[)land valleys, is 
i%of varying degrees of stiffness or consistency, containing, as its 
^e implies, boulders or frau;ments of stone of all sizes, from lumps 
%^^ than a man's body duwn to mere gravel and sand, and finally 
'te powder which forms the clav itself. 

'or evidence of the glacial origin of this boulder clay and the cha- 
"^ffrofits varieties, such as the lower and older "till," and the more 
^3tand less cohesive forms, we must refer our readers who have not 
^'«a<ly studied the subject to the now abundant essays on glaciers and 
Nation, or Mr. Hull's treatise on the geology of Ireland (1878). 

Ljell's * Elements of Geology,* and his 'Principles of Geology,' 
^^ially the latter, contain a clear and sound exposition of the subject 
^^" too long or too much overloaded with details for the general reader. 

Tjndall's 'Forms of Water* is an admirable popular treatise on 
^JDg glaciers, but it does not deal so fully as Lyell with the geolo- 
?^ Wings of the subject. 

Jte other glacial covering is a kind cf heterogeneous gravel, which 
: Siies a considerable quantity of limestone detritus, evidently derived 
'''the rock upon which it rests. It appears to have been the 
^^rial which rested upon the surface or was imbedded in the sub- 

■^of a great ice-sheet that once covered the central plain of Ireland 



[16] VI. Oeology. Introc 

in nearly the same manner that the great table-lands of the Justed^l 
Folgefond, and Fondalen, of Norway, are now covered: the first c 
these being at present a great ice-field having an area of about 50< 
square miles, and thrusting outwards all around a multitude of ice 
torrents or valley glaciers. The great sheet, or rather bed, of ice tha 
covered Ireland appears to have been of considerable thickness, Mr. Hul 
speaks of " thousands of feet," and when it finally melted it must hav< 
left its burden behind instead of sweeping it into the sea as water woulc 
have done. 

The tourist may see sections of both of these classes of deposits, anc 
most of their varieties, as he travels across the country by any of the 
lines of railway. The till, being the deepest, is not so commonly seen as 
the less compact and more recent boulder clay, which he will usually 
traverse as he approaches the mountainous districts. It commonly 
forms hog-backed ridges, often succeeding each other so abundantly as 
to form a series of earthy undulations or successive mounds, across 
which the railway makes short shallow cuttings, in which the struc- 
ture is well displayed unless the banks are overgrown with vegetation. 
We must resist the temptation to expound or discuss any theory of 
their formation. 

The loose gravelly deposit is more evenly outspread and is best seen 
in gravel-pits, or similar workings, that are occasionally made for 
obtaining the lumps of limestone it contains. 

The other glacial vestiges are the eskers, long ridges of drift of doubt- 
ful origin, and the terminal morains which in many places dam up the 
mouths of valleys and thereby form lakes ; the " perched blocks ** of 
curiously elevated, and sometimes delicately poised, masses of rock that 
prove their ancient travelling by their composition, which in most cases 
is quite foreign to the rocks upon which they directly or indirectly 
rest. 

To these must be added the rock sur&ces which, by their rounded 
forms, their abrupt inclination in one direction, and elongated slope in 
another (" crag and tail "), and their polished face, chased with parallel 
scratches and groovings in certain definite directions, show the 
work done by the moving glacier upon its rocky bed, and are only to 
be seen where the rock is uncovered, that is, in the mountainous 
districts. 

We shall point out examples of these on the way, but the tourist 
should seek them for himself, as they are far too abundant for us to 
attempt anything more than to indicate some good characteristic 
examples. 

The other points of geological interest will, in like manner, be de- 
scribed on the spots where they occur, the object of the above sketch 
being merely to name, very generally, some of the points of interest, 
and to indicate the direction in which the tourist should make his 
observations. 

Before concluding, we must not omit to mention that the borderland 
on which the geologist meets the archaeologist or antiquary is par- 



Iniiod. yn. Antiquities, [17] 

ticulaily rich in Ireland In the glacial deposits above named have 
heen fomid the implements and other vestiges of many generations of 
hunum bdogs who preceded even those that built the romid towers, the 
crranleclis, raths, and barrows ; and who, according to the generally 
recdTed opinion of onr best geologists, must have lived in company 
ivith some of the gigantic mammalia that are now extinct. The re- 
wsm of these mammoths, these hippopotami, extinct oxen, aboriginal 
horses, gigantic deer, native real Irish long-legged pigs, bears, wolves, 
leiodeer, &c., have been found, in some cases very abundantly (espe- 
cialiy the great Irish deer (Megaceroa Etbemicua) in the glacial deposits 
which are so well adapted for their preservation, and in whicn are 
doohtless still entombed a practically inexhaustible supply of their 
hones, &c., for the benefit of future explorers. 

In the Museum of the Boyal Irisn Academy the tourist will find 
an interesting collection of the implements, &c^ of the prehistoric 
Irishmen. 

VIL Antiquitibb. 

Ireland is very rich in antiquities. JThey cannot be divided better 
than by Mr. Wakeman, in his excellent Httle Handbook, viz. : Pagan, 
i^ly Christian, and Anglo-Irish renudns. 

L Pagak may be subdivided into— 

1. Bdigious — 

a. Sepulchral' — such as Cromlechs, Caves, Mounds, and Cairns. 
h. Memorial — ^Pillars, Steles, Inscribed Stones. 

2. MUitary — Baths, Forts, &c. 

In Fergusson's * Rude Stone Monuments ' will be found an interest- 
ing chapter on Irish remains, and their relations to those in other parts 
of the world. 

a. The Cromlech^ about which there has been much discussion with 
reference to its use, would appear to have been used as a sepulchral 
monument in the dark ages antecedent to the Christian era; later 
discoveries, strongly militate against the formerly received opinion 
that they were used for sacrificial purposes. A singular feature in the 
cromlechs, and one which seems to have been generally overlooked, 
is their usual position, overlooking or very near to the seaf crom- 
lechs in the interior of the country being comparatively uncommon. 
The same peculiarity is noticeable in the cromlechs of Korth and 
South Wales. In Ireland there are some fine specimens, though 
few that have not sufiered from the hand of time or still more from 
mthless destruction. Amongst these may be mentioned the cromlechs 
of Mount Venus, Howth, and Shanganagh, near Dublin; Broad- 
stone, near Ballymena ; Kilclooney, near Narin, Co. Donegal ; the 
cromlechs on island Magee and Co. Antrim, and at Enockeen, Co. 
Waterford. 



[18] vn. TurmUu Introi 

Ikjimtdu — Monuments of this class abound in Ireland, from the 
simple cairn, which is common, to the rare and magnificent barrow, 
on which every species of barbarous ornamentation was lavished. 
The line of tumuli running from Drogheda to Slane, of which New- 
grange and Dowth are the principal, are in themselves worth a pilgrim- 
age to see, and cannot fail to strike the beholder with astonishment 
at the wonderful skill with which the interior is constructed, and with 
the ingenuity and taste of the carving on the stones. The Pagan Irish 
looked upon the sepulture of their kings and heroes as the most im- 
portant and venerable rite. They appear to have interred the body in 
both a horizontal and perpendicular position, or else to have performed 
incremation. '* The small square stone grave, or kistvaen, containing 
a single cinerary urn, placed beneath the surface of the soil and so fre- 
quently exposed by the spade ; the collection of urns, apparently marking 
the site of an ancient cemetery, possibly that of a battlefield ; the grassy 
mound and the massive cromlech breaking the level outline of the land- 
scape ; the large stone circle, or the oblong enclosure, popularly termed 
•a giant's grave;' the huge temple-like barrow, with its enveloping 
mound of stones or earth (the Western type of the true Orienttd 
pyramid) ; the simple rude pillar-stone ; the Ogham-inscribed mono- 
lith or the sculptured cross ; the wayside monument ; the horizontal 
gravestone ; the stone coffin ; the modem vault or stately mausoleum ; 
the carved recumbent figure in the decorated abbey, as well as the 
modern tablet in the modern church, all afford abundant examples of 
the use of stone materials in sepulchral and funeral rites, and evince 
the piety and reverence with which the dead were regarded in Ireland 
from the very earliest time." — Wtlde*8 Catalogue 6f B, I. A. Of 
cinerary urns, for the purpose of holding the ashes of the dead, beautifal 
examples are to be seen in the Academy Museum in Dublin, ornamented 
with most cunning workmanship. The usual position of these urns, 
when discovered, has been in small kists or churches. The tumulus, or 
mausoleum, like that at Newgrange, is of a difiierent order of sepulture, 
and consists of a large cavern, which contained one or more sarcophagi, 
and were probably also the receptacles of treasure. The Banes were 
evidently of this opinion, as we read of their having broken open the 
grave of Gobhan's wife at Drochat-atha, now Drogheda, a.d. 862. 
Stone circles and avenues are not unconmion, and are sometimes foxmd 
connected with sepulchral mounds, and at others apparently isolated. In 
the first case, they were evidently used for marking with greater effect 
the sacred enclosure, as is the case at Newgrange, where the circle sui^ 
rounds the tumulus ; in the latter case, however, it is probable that 
they were used to consecrate some spot to which unusual reverence was 
due from religious or judicial associations : such as the Giant's Ring 
and the Kempe Stones ; circles and raths in Hazlewood demesne, Co. 
Sligo ; Beltany HiU, near Raphoe ; Slieve na Griddle, near Down- 
^trick. An example of a burying-ground on a large scale will be found 
at ilathcroghan, in Co. Bosconmion, one of the cemeteries celebrated 
equally w^£those of the Boyne district. Detached and isolated graves, 




Introd. vn. Memorial and Defemive Antiquitiea, [19] 

popularly spoken of as giants' '' beds," are far from uncommon : ex- 
amples may be found at Lough 6ur. 

h. Memorial, — Pillars were used from the earliest times to mark the 
place of interment or to commemorate some deed. In these cases they 
were known as steles ; but when they were used, as in Wales, for the 
purpose of boundary or division, they were called " maen-hir," long 
stones. They were more generally plain, though sometimes inscribed 
with the name of the person to whose memory they were erected. Of 
this class are the famous Ogham stones, the elucidation of which has 
been a favourite study with antiquaries. 

'* The Ogham alphabet consists of lines or groups of lines, variously 
arranged Avith reference to a single stave-line or to an edge of the sub- 
stance on which they are traced. The spectator looking at an upright 
Ogham monument will, in general, observe groups of incised strokes of 
four different kinds : — 1. Groups of lines to the left ; 2. Others to the 
right; 3. Other longer strokes, crossing it obliquely; and 4. Small 
notches upon the edge itself. The inscriptions, in general, begin from 
the bottom, and are read upwards from left to right. Almost all those 
which have been deciphered present merely a proper name, with its 
patronymic, both in the genitive case. The monuments appear for tho 
most part to have been sepulchral in the first instance. But there is 
reason to suppose that they were used to indicate the proprietorship 
of land ; either standing as boundary stones, or buried in crypts as 
evidences to be referred to in cases of dispute arising. By far the 
greater number discovered in Ireland have been found in Cork and 
Kerry graves." 

2. Defensive and Social. — ^The ancient Irish lived after a veiy no- 
madic fashion ; in the summer retiring to their "booleys," or summer 
habitations, with their flocks and herds, and in winter returning to 
their entrenched villages and forts. Their houses were either of wood, 
wattles, clay, or stone, and in this latter case were termed cashels, or 
cabins, which, however, signifies properly the collection or enclosure of 
dwellings, the houses themselves being designated as cloghans. The 
best localities for examining these remains are in West Connaught 
(Arran Islands) and Co. Kerry, particularly in the Dingle promontory. 
Kor should we omit the singular stockaded islands called Crannoges, 
which were always foimd in districts where clusters of lakes were 
grouped together. From their difficulty of access, they were more 
likely places to which the owner might take his plunder in security 
than regular habitations. Examples may be seen in the Museum of 
the Boyal Irish Academy. 

The number of raths or fortified villages that still remain, notwith- 
standing the thousands that must have been swept away as the im- 
provements of agriculture extended over the country, is something 
incredible, as may be easily seen by inspecting the Ordnance map, in 
which the locality of each is carefully preserved. They were always a 
mound made of earth and surrounded by a breastwork, and in many 
cases by a ditch as well. They varied in extent from a few perches to 

c 2 



[20] vn. Forts — Oratories. Iniorod. 

more than an acre, according to the number and rank of the inhabitants. 
Some of the larger raths were celebrated in the early annals of Irish 
history, and were used for the accommodation of chieftains and even of 
royal personals. Among this latter class are the Hills of Tara, 
Tailtean, and Tlachtgha, in Meath; Grianan of Aileach, in Donegal ; 
Emania, or Fort Nayan, near Armagh, &c. '' Of the number of raths 
that we have examined, we have not in one instance known the mound 
to contain a chamber : but when the work consisted merely of a circular 
enclosure, excavations of a beehive form, lined with imcemented stones, 
and connected by passages sufficiently large to admit a man, are not 
unfrequently found. These chambers were probably used as places of 
temporary retreat, or as storehouses for com, &c. ; the want of any 
ventilation, save that derived from the narrow external entrance, 
rendering them unfit for the continued habitation of man." — WakemaTi. 
Specimens of these subterranean chambers are to be found at Clady, on 
the Boyne, and near Navan. The dun or cathair was a more ambitions 
and a purely military work, built of uncemented stones, and varying 
much in the complexity and amount of defensive walls. The chief locality 
of these works is in the west and south-west of Ireland, where they 
may be seen in wonderful preservation : for example, Dunaengus and 
Dimconnor^ in the Isle of Arran. '*To each of these forts, called 
raths, lisses, duns, cabins, or cahirs, were attached names which with 
some modifications have descended to modem times, such as Dunamgus, 
Dundermott, Dunmore, Dungannon, Dunboyne, Dunlavin, Dundealgan 
(now Dundalk) ; Lismore and Listowel ; Eathcormack, Rathcore, 
Rathcroghan, Eathowen ; Cahir, Cahir-conlick, &c. Many of these forts 
give names to townlands, which, with other topographical appellations, 
have been transmitted to us for at least 2000 years.** — Oaial, (f Acad, 
Mu8,, by Sir W. Wilde. 

As the most perfect example of a fort in Ireland, and probably in 
the known world, we must recommend the tourist to visit the Staigue 
Fort in Co. Kerry (Rte. 38), a model of which is to be found in the 
Academy. 

II. — ^Eably Ghbistian remains may be divided into Oratories, Round 
Towers, Churches, and Crosses. 

1. The Oratories, or ** duintheach," were originally built of wood, in 
contradistinction to the church or *' daimhliag," a'house of stone. But 
although wood appears to have been the original material out of which 
they were built, they were subsequently made of stone, and from their 
small size and peculiar features are among the most characteristic 
of early Irish remains. The average measurement was about 15 
feet in length bjr 10 in breadth ; and many were built without 
cement. They wire evidently for the private devotions of the founders, 
whoso cells and (tombs are so frequently observed in the immediate 
neighbourhood. 'The most singular of these are in the west and south- 
west of Ireland, a^d are generally in sequestered and sometimes almost 
inaccessible spots. \Examplcs are found in St. Senan's, at Scattery 



Introd. vn. Bound Towers^ dc, [21] 

Island ; on Bishop's Island, near Eilkee ; on High Island, off Conne- 
mara coast ; the very singular and beautiful oratory of St. Qallerus, 
near Dingle; oratory of St. Finan Cam, on Church Island, Lough 
Currane. A striking peculiarity in many of these buildings is the use of 
the domed roof, formed by the gradual approximation of stones laid hori- 
zontally, and closed at the top by a single stone. Dr. Petrie is inclined 
to refer to the class of ** duintheach " the larger buildings, which com- 
bined the oratory and the dwelling, and which are styled " houses " or 
'^donnitories," and usually possess an apartment or croft between the 
stone roof and the carved roof of the oratory. Of such are the dor- 
mitories of St Declan, at Ardmore ; St. Molaise's House on Devenish ; 
St Colomb's House at Kells ; St. Kevin's at Glendalough ; St. Flan- 
nan's at Eallaloe. 

2. Rofimd Towers have been deeply and fiilly discussed and illus- 
trated in Dr. Petrie's admirable work * On the Origin and Uses of the 
Round Towers of Ireland,* a work with which every traveller in 
Ireland should provide himself, and of which the writer of this Hand- 
book has largely made use. It will suffice now to. give a very brief 
outline of what the towers were considered by different antiquaries to 
have been, and what they are, with every appearance of probability, 
proved not to have been. 

a. They were supposed to have been erected by the Danes : a theory 
originally brought forward by John Lynch, the author of * Cambrensis 
Eversus,' and followed by Walsh, Molyneux, and Sedgwick. 

6. Their Phoenician, Persian, or Indo-Scythian origin, was advocated 
warmly by Gteneral Vallancey, who considered them to have been fire- 
temples, — places from which to proclaim the Druidic festivals, gnomons, 
or astronomical observatories. Phallic emblems, or Buddhist temples. 
These opinions, embracing what is called the Pagan doctrine of the 
Round Towers, were afterwards followed by O'Brien, Lanigan, Miss 
Beaufort, and Mr. Windele. 

The Christian origin and uses were successively declared to be— 

a. Anchorite towers, in imitation of the pillar of St. Simon Stylites : 
an opinion broached by Dean Richards, and followed by Harris, Milner, 
and King. 

h Penitential prisons : a theory advocated by Dr. South. 

The opinions which Dr. Petrie has so ably argued out, and which are 
now generally received, are that the roimd towers were designed for the 
double purpose of belfries and castles : for, if they had been erected for 
belfries only, there would have been no necessity for making the door- 
ways so small or so high from tha ground ; and if they had been 
intended for castles only, they need not have been so slender or so 
high. The following is the summary of his results. With respect to 
belfries : — 

1. It is most certain that the Irish ecclesiastics had from a very 
early period, in connexion with their cathedral and abbey churches, 
campanilia, or detached belfries, called in the Irish annals and other 
ancient authorities by the term " cloictheach " (cloiSTieAc). 

2. It is equally certain that in all parts of Irehmd where the Irish 



[22] vn. Bound Towers, Introd. 

language is yet retained, these towers are designated by the same term, 
except in a few districts, where they are called by the synonymous 
term " clogar " (clo34t), or by the term " cuiltheach" (ciiUsteAc), 
which is only a corrupted form of " cloictheach " by a transposition of 
letters very usual in modem Irish words. 

3. It is also certain that no other building, either round or square, 
suited to the purpose of a belfry, has ever been found in connexion 
with any church of an age anterior to the 12th century, with the single 
exception of the square belfry attached to a church on Inis Clothran, or 
Clovin, an island in Lough Ree, and which seems to be of earlier date. 

4. Lastly, it is certain that this use is assigned to them by the 
imiform tradition of the whole people of Ireland, and that they are 
appropriated to this use in many parts of the country even to this day. 

Their intended use for castles as well as belfries must be inferred — 

1. From some of the peculiarities found almost invariably in their 
construction, and particularly in their small doorways placed at so great 
a height from the ground : an obvious mode of securing safety which is 
very conunon in ancient castles. 

2. Many of the remaining doorways of the towers exhibit abundant 
evidences of their having been provided with double doors. 

3. An examination of our ancient literature tends strongly to the 
conclusion that the Irish people so generally reco^jnised this use of the 
round towers as a primary one, that they very rarely applied to a tower 
erected for defence any other term but that of cloictheach or belfry. 

4. It may be clearly inferred from several records in the Irish 
annals that the towers were used for the purposes of safety and defence. 

Although history gives the foundation of a round tower in the 6th 
century. Dr. Petrie shows that the majority of them were erected about 
the 9th and 10th centuries ; and there is no doubt that, owing to 
the destructive ravages of the Danes, the reconstruction of many 
towers was rendered necessary, and that they consequently show various 
styles of masonry and differences of materials, according to the times 
and circumstances of their restoration. To some towers, as tlie Great 
Tower of Clonmacnois, he ascribes a date of the 12th century. Mr. 
Marcus Keane, M.R.I.A., in a work entitled * The Towers and Temples 
of Ancient Ireland, their Origin and History discussed from a new 
Point of View,' disagrees with Dr. Petrie's theories, which, however, we 
have before stated are generally received by antiquaries as being the 
soundest. 

It is needless, in this place, to give a description of the towers, as in 
every locality where they are foSind the peculiar points of each are 
given in detail. The following are the principal 



Bound Towers. 
(The Figures refer to the Boutea), 



34. Aghadoe. 
28. Ardpatrick. 
28. Ardkyne. 
16. Annoy. 



15. Antrim. 
25. Aughagower. 
31. Ardmore. 
24. Balla. 



20. Beltnrbei 

28. Gashel. 

29. CSastle Dermot 
6. Clones. 



Introd. 



yn* Churches. 



[23] 



1. Okndalkiii. 
37. CSoimiacnois. 
40. CUoyne. 

6. Deyenish. 
18. Bonaghiiiore. 

2. Dromlskin. 
10. Dramcliff: 

5. Drnmbo. 

35. Dysert. 

36. Dysert O'Dea. 
27. Glendalotigh. 



87. IniscalthrA. 

35. loiflcattery. 
6. Inifikeen. 

28. Eilcullen. 

28. Eildare. 

29. Kilkenny. 
22. Killala. 

36. Eilmacdoagli. 
29. Kiliee. 

39. Khmeith. 
2. Lnak. 



2. Monasterboice. 
28. Oughteraid. 
15. Barn's Island. 
35. Rattoo. 
30. Bobcrea. 
30. Seir Keyran. 

2. Swords. 
17. Taghadoe. 

28. Timahoe. 

3. Tnimmery. 

29. Tiilloherin. 



3. Uarh/ Churches of Ireland were usually, if not always, built of 
stone and lime cement, and were invariably of small size, rarely exceed- 
ing 80 feet, and usually not more than 60 feet. The only exception 
was in the Cathedral church of Armagh, which was 140 feet in length. 
In form they are a simple quadrangle, in larger churches extending 
to a second oblong which forms the chancel. The peculiar features are 
the doorways and windows, the sides of which almost always incline, 
and are framed with a certain amount of Cyclopean masonry. The 
doorways are crowned by a horizontal lintel, or headed with a semi- 
circular arch, which is sometimes cut out of a single stone. The roofs, 
where they remain, are of exceedingly high pitch. 

^ In short these ancient temples are just such humble, unadorned 
structures, as we might expect them to have been ; but even if they 
were found to exhibit less of that expression of congruity and fitness, 
and more of that humbleness so characteristic of a religion not made for 
the rich but for the poor and lowly, that mind is but little to be envied 
which could look with apathy on the remains of national structures so 
venerable for their antiquity." 

The Churches of later date are extremely interesting in their archi- 
tectural features, arising from the proof that, anterior to the 11th cent., 
the Irish not only built decorated chs., but used a style of decoration 
which was generally supposed to be characteristic of the Norman period. 
We see in the ornamentation of the Bound Tower of Kildare — the 
tower at Timahoe — the chs. at Bahin — some of the chs. at Glenda- 
lough — the ch. of Killeshin — Teampull Fingain at Clonraacnois — the 
ch. at Inishcalthra — the ch. at Freshford — the stone-roofed ch. at Cashel 
— some of the most exquisite sculpturing in the moulding of the door- 
ways, the capitals of the arches, the reredos, &c. " Chevron and other 
decorations, which in England are supposed to indicate the Norman 
period, are commonly found ; but they are generally simple lines cut 
upon the face and soffit of the arch.. Pediments now appear ; and the 
various mouldings and other details of doorways become rich and 
striking, and in some respect bear considerable analogy to true Norman 
work. The capitals frequently represent human heads, the hair of 
which is interlaced with snakelike animals." — Wakeman, 

4. Crosses exhibit every degree of diversity from the rude cross with- 
out any ornament whatever — save, perhaps, that the upper part of the 



[24] 



yn. Orossea — Anglo-Norman Bemains, Introd. 



shaft is cut in the form of a circle from which the arms and top extend 
— to the elaborately sculptured crosses of the dates between the 9th and 
12th cents. Many of them are valuable for two reasons: the extreme 
beauty of the sculptures, and because they give an accurate representa- 
tion of the costumes, ecclesiastical and military, of the Irish during the 
9th and 10th cents., as in the case of the magnificent crosses of Monas- 
terboice and Clonmacnois. Inscribed flagstones were numerous, but 
have become to a great degree destroyed and defaced in the lapse of 
time. They generally consist of a plain cross rudely marked on the 
stone, together with the name of the person whom it is intended to me- 
morialise. It is also worth notice that the priests were usually buried 
with their face towards the congregation. The following are the principal 



28. CasheL 

29. Castle Dennot. 
1. Glondalkin. 

25. Cong. 

7. Camdonagh. 

6. Clones. 
37. Clomnacnoise. 



Crosses. 

7. Bonaghmore. 
10. Drumclifi: 
27: Fassaroe. 

1. Finglas. 
12. Glen. 
19. Eells. 
28. Eilcullen. 



86. Eilfenora. 
2. Monasterboice. 

19. Nevinstown. 
30. Boscrea. 
36. Tuam. 

20. Tynan. 



5. Anglo-Norman BemaiTis date from the time of the invasion by 
the EngUsh, who may have brought into the country their own styles 
of architecture, which became transplanted and acclimatised. " Certain 
it is that the close of the 12th and the beginning of the 13th cent, wit- 
nessed a great change in the style of architecture as applied to ecclesi« 
astical edifices in Ireland ; but that this change was in consequence of 
the invasion, or that the Pointed style was borrowed from or introduced 
into Ireland by the English, has not been ascertained." As might be 
expected, a great simUarity existe in the plans of nearly all the 
monastic churches in Ireland, which are generally cruciform, with 
aisles, transept, nave, and chancel, and a slender tower rising from 
the intersection. Of the same date, and erected under the same 
circumstances, are the greater portion of the Irish castles, which 
vary from the single keep-tower of the predatory chieftain to the 
defensive fortresses of Tuam and Boscommon, or the modernised 
castles of Malahide and Kilkenny. Of walls and gateways a good 
many remains are left, and from the style of their building and 
the history of the place, we know that they occupy the same date as 
the castles. Athlone, Drogheda, Londonderry, Clonmel, Wexford, all 
furnish good examples. 

" At no period of their history were the people of Ireland either so 
settled or prosperous as to be enabled to undertake the erection of any 

reat ecclesiastical buildings such as are found everywhere in Great 

iin, from Kirkwall to Cornwall. The cathedral of Dublin must 

have been a second-class edifice for a metropoUtan cbnrch, and 

' Oashel and Kildare are neither so large nor so richly onia> 

iny Engh^ parish churches. The same is true with regard 




^yJ 



Introd. vin. AgricuUure, [25] 

to the monasteries : they are generally small, though rieh in detail. Some 
of them still retain their cloisters, which in all instances have so foreign 
an aspect as to he quite startling."* — FergtuBon, 

YIIL Agricultube. 

Although a dissertation on farming scarcely comes within the province 
of a Handhook, a few statistics may not he uninteresting, in 1847 
an inquiry was instituted hy the Irish Government as to the annual 
amount of the agricultural produce in Ireland, which has heen regu- 
larly carried on every year by the R^istrar General, the returns being 
oollected by the Royal Irish Constabulary. The agriculture of Ireland 
as a whole is greatly advanced. In some localities the 'farming 
shows universal improvement in the adoption of alternate husbandry 
and stall-feeding, in draining and building, and the management of 
manure and tillage processes ; while in other parts of the country no 
perceptible progress has been made. An enormous amount of good 
has been effected by the working of the Encumbered Estates Court, 
which has disposed of lands to the amount of nearly 24,000,000?., 
and established a Parliamentary title over nearly 3,500,000 acres. As 
a consequence, a large amount of capital has been introduced into the 
country, bringing in its wake all the modem improvements of scientific 
farming. 

In (>). Cork the great feature consists in dairies : grazing lands pre- 
dominate, althou^ there is a fair proportion of tillage. The district 
principally consists of old red sandstone, with friable sandy loams, 
rented at from IBs, to 308. per acre, and in the limestone valleys at 40s. 
There are several model farms in the vicinity of Cork ; and the Duke 
of Devonshire has one at Lismore. 

The land in Co. Kerry is not nearly so rich, most farms having bog 
or mountain land in connexion, the value is estimated by the ** coUop, 
equal to the maintenance of one cow ; so that a farm contains so 
many collops, according to its size and qualities. The wild moun- 
tains maintain a good many sheep and cattle. In the lands which 
border the Lakes of Ejllamey a good deal of fine wheat is grown. 

There is productive grass and tillage land in Co. Limerick, particu- 
larly along the banks of the Shannon, where the alluvial land called 
''carcass" is of extraordinarily rich quality, and yields 3} tons to the 
acre, without flooding or manure. Excellent &rming will be found on 
Lord Dunraven's estate at Adare, and in the neighbourhood of Rathkeale. 

Tipperary possesses grazing-lands of high quality and fertility, and 
supports a large class of graziers and dairymen. No county can show 
more improvement than Galway, which supports a great number of 
sheep and cattle, and has, particularly in the E. districts, some very 
fine farms, such as that of Mr. Pollock, near Ballinasloe (Rte. 17). In 
the ndghbourhood of Clifden, Ballinakill and Kyelmore,too, a consider- 
able amount of improvement and reclamation of barren lands has taken 
place, in which Mr. Mitchell Henry, M.P., has set an excellent example. 

Mayo embraces a quantity of small farms, " exhibiting the same sloth, 



[26] IX. Agriculture. Introd. 

waste, and poverty that characterised them generations ago." The Earl 
of Lucan is the great landholder in this county, and cultivates one of 
the best estates in Ireland at Castlebar. 

Bosscommon is a producer of sheep and homed stock, which thrive 
well on the rich grazing-lands produced by the overflowings of the 
Suck and the Shannon. From hence, right through the centre 
of Ireland, including Westmeath and Meath, we find the principal 
grazing district, by far the greatest number and the best sort of stock 
&ttening in these pastures. Westmeath contains also a certain 
amount of tillage as well as grazing &rms. * Cavan is a butter 
country, with much grass depastured by cattle, but few sheep; but 
to the 5r. we enter quite a (Afferent character of land, Tyrone being 
principally plough-land and lea under grazing or hay. The neat 
English appearance of the farmnsteadings is a great contrast to ^e 
slovenly look of those in the W. " Both Tyrone and Deny display 
minute farming of good corn-land, unadapted for permanent pasture, by 
an industrious, thnfty population, mainly dependent upon flax, oats, 
and potatoes, and prospering and improving under the security of tenure 
obtained by peculiar Ulster tenant-right.'* 

The flax-crop was formerly regarded as a staple produce in Derry, 
Tyrone, Antrim, and Down, and exercised a peculiar and characteristic 
iidluence over the husbandry of the districts ; but for some years past 
it has declined, and the hopes once entertained of its future importance 
are now nearly abandoned. In the wilds of Donegal a vast amount of 
reformation is needed amongst the tlunly-scattered and poor popu- 
lation, though a great improvement has already been effected by the 
labours of Lord George Hill in his Gweedore estate (Rte. 13). 

Along the E. coast we find that Kildare is about the best-farmed 
county, and Waterford the worst ; the former containing fine tillage 
land, with large, well-kept farms ; and the latter presenting wretched 
small-farm husbandry, '* with half-starved oat-crops, and lazy-bed 
potatoes; yet with localities exhibiting great advance, where good laud- 
lords and considerate agents are assisting in building and draining, and 
generally instructing the tenants in better modes of Strming.** 

The development of agricultural industry is decidedly in the direction 
of rearing cattle, sheep, and pigs, and in dairy produce, for the humid 
climate of Ireland is especially adapted for grazing, and it has the great 
advantage of the proximity of the English market. 

IX. Minerals. 

A. Coal, — ^There are, in round numbers, 76 collieries: 9 are in 
Ulster, 7 in Gonnaught, 31 in Leinster, and 29 in Munster, but less 
than half of these are in actual working, and their produce is but small 
— insufficient to supply the local demand for domestic fuel, and there- 
fore not be at all regarded as a source of manufacturing prosperity. 
According to the estimate of Messrs. Hull, Kinahan, and O'Kelly, the 
quantity of unworked coal existing in Ireland is 205,652,000 tons, of 
which 182,280,000 are available for use, the difference being allowance 



Introd. EC. Minerals. [27] 

for loss in working. These figures may appear large, but practically 
they are insignificant, being about equal to the quantity rais«i in Great 
Britam during 16 months of the years 1877-8. 

B. Although Turf cannot be called a mineral, yet its general substi- 
tution for the purposes of coal entitles it to consideration amongst the 
industrial resources of Ireland. Indeed, no tourist can help being struck 
with the vast amount of turf which he sees either being cut or stacked 
for drying in the inland counties, or with the universal topic of conver- 
sation with respect to the turf-crop, the success or ill-success of which 
brings comfort or tribulation to hundreds and thousands of poor families. 
Various attempts have been made to dry and compress peat, so as to 
utilise it instead of coal. 

The total area of turf or peat bog is estimated at 2,830,000 acres — 
nearly one-seventh of the island. Of this total 1,576,000 acres are flat 
Ix^, spread over the limestone plains, the remaining 1,254,000 acres 
are moimtain bog. — Thorn's * Statistics.' 

C. Iron, — ^Although iron-ore in some shape or other is plentiful 
in Ireland, iron-making is, with one exception, not carried on at all ; 
a fact partly owing to the difficulty of obtaining the necessary fuel for 
smelting purposes. The brown hydrated oxide occurs in abundance in 
the Tyrone coal-field, together with clay ironstone in the Connaught and 
Leinster fields ; in the former being so abundant (at Arigna) as to have 
given the name of Slieve-ni-aran (Iron Mountain) to one of the hills. 

In the western districts of Achill and Donegal a large quantity of 
bog-iron ore is raised and shipped for Liverpool. It is valuable from 
its easy fusibility, and its adaptation to fine castings. It is now shipped 
to England and used in the purification of gas. 

D. Lead is extensively diffused in Ireland, though principally worked 
in the granite districts of Dublin and Wicklow, " the veins crossing in 
an oblique direction the junction of the granite with the mica-slate." 
The Lugganure vein is the finest in the district, having been traced for 
900 fathoms, and being usually 5 ft. wide, yielding about 4 tons of galena 
to the cubic fathom. The Lugganure mine yielded, in 1868, 1766 
tons of lead-ore and 13,245 ounces of silver. 

The principal mines in Ireland are at Newtownards, Ca Down, the 
College mines in Armagh, and some mines in Waterford ; the total 
produce of ore being 2298 tons, yielding 1407 of lead. The Mining 
Company of Ireland have smelting- works at Ballycorus, near Bray. ' 

E. The Copper-mines have been divided by Sir Robert Kane into 
three groups ; — 

1. The Wicklow group, which comprises the works at Ballymurtagh, 
Tigroney, Cronebane, and Connoree (fite. 27). 

2. The Waterford group embraces the mines at Knockmahon. 
Here the copper-lodes consist of quartz, and produce native copper, 
Bulphuret, black oxide, and grey copper-ore. 

3. The Cork and Kerry group contains the Audley, Roaring Water, 
Skull, Ballydehob, and the Allihies mines near Berehaven. 

The ores of nearly all these mines find their way to the Swansea 



[28] IX. MinercUs — Fisheries. IntrocL 

smelting-Iioases, the total quantity produced beli^ insignificant com- 
pared with the Australian and American supplies. 

F. In addition to these, there are a few others which are only locally 
important ; such as the salt-mines at Duncrue, near Belfast ; the gold 
deposits of Wicklow, at Croghan-Kinsheela, now partially exhausted 
(Rte. 27) ; and the working and quarrying of the different rocks, sucli 
as granite, carhoniferous limestone, steatite (in Achill), &c. 

G. A very valuable industrial resource has of late years been developed 
in the inland fisheries of Ireland, which are now being carried on in 
a systematic manner, the result of private enterprise, assisted by the 
salutary legislation which has within the last few years happily oome 
into fashion. It is a curious fact, that during the great famine in the 
west, although salmon and other fish was in abundance, and to be had 
for the catching, scarce one of the starving peasantry would touch it. 
Perhaps, if it had been more difficult to obtain, it would have been more 
valuable. Galway is indebted to the late Mr. Thomas Ashworth for 
the perseverance with which he has bred young salmon, and formed a 
salmon- walk between Loughs Mask and Gorrib. The same may be said 
of the late Mr. Cooper of Markree, who placed salmon-ladders at Bally- 
sadare, and thus created an extremely valuable fishery. The fisheries 
on the Moy at Ballina, on the Erne at Ballyshannon, on the Gweebarra 
at Doocharry Bridge, on the Bann at Coleraine, and on the Shannon at 
Killaloe, are, it is to be hoped, but beginnings of a profitable and 
economical trade. 

The sea fisheries are not in a very prosperous state, but within the last 
few years there has been a marked improvement. The South of Irehmd 
Fishing Company have a station at Kinsale, and have recently extended 
their operations to Howth. A large quantity of fish, principally 
mackerel, is sent to Holyhead and Milford for transmission to the 
English markets. The Royal Commissioners' Report on the Coast 
and Deep Sea Fisheries says (1870) that the entire sum realized from 
the* fisheries off the coast of Ireland in ordinary years does not exceed 
450,000iJ., which is said to be about the quantity consumed in London 
in a month. The commissioners reconmiend that loans on satisfactory 
security be advanced for the erection of curing houses and the repair 
and purchase of boats and gear. 

Particulars of agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial statistics, 
and other information on local subjects liable to variation from year to 
year, will be found in * Eason's Abnanac and Handbook for Ireland,' 
published annually, a copy of which should be in the hands of every 
visitor to the country. 

X. Population (Census 1871). 

The Census of 1871 was taken for the night of 2nd April, 1871, by the 
Boyal Irish Constabulary— except in Dublin, where it was done by the 
Metropolitan Police. 

The total population enumerated, as obtained from the Enumerators' 



\ 



Introd. 



XI. Population. 



[29] 



Smninaries, amounts to 5,402,759~the sexes being 2,634,123 males and 
2,768,636 females, or 896,208 of both sexes less than that returned for the 
7th of April, 1861 : being a decrease of 6*83 per cent, dnrmg the last ten 
years— 7' 16 per cent, as regards males, and 6*fl2 respecting females. 

The following is the Provincial Summary of the four last decennial 
eaumeiations : — 





NUMBER OF PERSONS IN 


PBoynrcEa. 


1841. 


1851. 


1861. 


1871. 


. . .... 

Decrease between 
1861 and 1871. 




Persons. 


Rate 
percent. 


Leinster 

Hnnster. 

Ulster 

Connanglit • . . . 


1,982,169 
2,404,460 
2,389,263 
1,420,706 


1,682,320 
1,866,600 
2,013,879 
1,012,479 


1,457,635 

1,513,568 

1,014,236 

913,136 

403 


1,336,966 

1,890,402 

1,830,398 

846,993 


121.669 

123,156 

83,838 

67,142 


8*36 

8*14 
4*38 
7*36 


Seamen and othere 
at Bea on Gensos > 
night 


— 


i. Total of Ireland 


8,196,597 


6,574,278 


6,798,967 


5,402,759 


396,208 


6*83 



The percentage of decrease was largest in the town of Galway, 22*30, 
the King's Comity, 15*84; Queen's County, 1498; Tipperary, N.R., 14*96; 
and Meath, 14*39. The only localities in which an increase of population 
has taken place are the Town of Belfast, 43*41 per cent. ; Londonderry 
City, 20*92 per cent. ; Dublin County, including Metropolitan Suburbs, 2*87 
per cent. ; the City of Waterford, -19 per cent. ; and the County of the 
Town of Canickfergus, '32 per cent. 

The religious profession^ enumeration showed that on the night of the 
2iid April, 1871, there were 4,141,933 Boman Catholics ; those returning 
themselves as belonging to the ** Church of Ireland," or ** Irish Church," were 
467,865; and as Frot^tant Episcopalians 215,430. These two together 
represent the denomination of the Established Church in 1861, and now 
amount to 683,295. Presbyterians numbered 503,461 ; Methodists. 41,185 ; 
Independents, 4485 ; Baptists, 4643 ; and the Society of Friends, 3834 ; 
other Christian persuasions, 19,635 ; Jews, 258. 



XI. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ieeland. 

The present Section upon the rivers of Ireland is specially meant as a 
giiide to the angler tourist. Anxious to inform the stranger as to where 
lie may hope for sport in his wanderings along the prolific waters of this 
country, we must at the start remind him that, as a rule, all fresh- 



[30] XI. Ouide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. Introd. 

water fishings are private property. They belong to the lord of the 
soil alongside of or over which the waters flow. Notwithstanding this 
fact, there are many open or " free " fishing-grounds on the rivers and 
lakes in Ireland, where very fair sport, and in some cases, when the 
season and weather answers, grand sport may be had. These free 
fishings, which, fm-ther on, we specify in connection with the various 
rivers, may be classified under two heads. First, those that occur on 
great navigable waters like the Shannon (which is free, except the 
stretch of water between Limerick and Killaloe), and also the fishing 
belonging to most of the great lakes throughout the country. • The long 
unchallenged user by the public of the privilege of fishing for salmon 
and white or brown trout and other fish in these waters, has come to 
be looked upon as a right which cannot now be questioned. Without 
inquiring whether this be a legal view of the matter or otherwise, the 
fact remains that those great sheets of water are, and have been, freely 
used by all anglers from time immemorial ; although on some of the 
most celebrated "free'* lakes — Loua;h Melvin, for instance — certain 
casts are reserved by adjoining landed proprietors, and to fish those 
special casts permission must be obtained. As a rule, the waters under 
this class are only open to persons fishing from boats. The " free ** fish- 
ings, under the second head to which we have alluded, are to be found, 
amongst the smaller lakes and streams, some of these — specially on the 
N. and W. coasts — are small salmon rivers of no mean capacity in tlie 
autumn. These lakes and streams are free to the angler simply 
because the respective proprietors from year to year accord a sort of 
general permission to the tourist, or rather they refrain from prohibitiag 
anglers freely passing along the banks and using the waters. This 
permission may be withdrawn at any time, and in fact every year less 
and less of such open water is to be met with, as the proprietors are 
becoming more alive to the necessity of taking their streams under 
charge for protective purposes. It ought to be no cause of regret to the 
sportsman that this should be so, because where such unrestrained use 
of the fishing is allowed, it too often happens that no protection what- 
ever is afforded to the fish, and many a good river is in consequence 
unmercifully poached and ruined by neglect. The tourist angler in 
Ireland may also chance to obtain some free sport by stopping at 
certain hotels, as many of the proprietors in angling quarters either 
rent water, or are allowed privileges with respect to the lakes and 
rivers near. Moreover the gentry throughout the country are pecu- 
liarly courteous as to their preserved waters ; and the sporting angler 
in Ireland seldom fails, on writing a letter or presenting his card, 
to get permission for a day or two for trout angling, at any rate, if 
not for salmon. Salmon and trout fishing is, however, in truth, 
becoming daily a more costly amusement. This is not to be wondered 
at. We have at least fifty anglers now to one we had twenty 
years ago. Property on a good salmon river or lake has in con- 
sequence risen much in value, and is more carefully looked after now 
than it was formerly. Not only do proprietors pay increased atten- 



Introd. XI. Quide to the Angling Waters in Ireland, [31] 

tion to tbe cultivation of their fish, but Parliament has also taken up 
the question on public grounds, and, for the increase of the national food 
supply, carefully looks after the preservation of the salmon. The 
year 1848 may be said to mark a new era in the history of the 
Irish salmon fisheries. The principle of license duties imposed on 
fishing implements, for the purpose of supplying fiinds for the pro- 
tection of the fish, was first adopted and bewime law by Act of 
Parliament passed that year. The act of 1848 has told wonderfully 
in increasing the amount of fish in the Irish rivers. Nets and rods 
now have all to pay an annual duty, to supply the means for pro- 
moting the common good. Several other acts for the preservation of 
the Irish salmon fisheries have been passed since then. 

The tourist intending to salmon fish must take out a license for his 
rod. This can be had at most of the fishing-tackle makers. By the Act 
of Parliament, one license includes all Ireland. However, it is made a 
condition on some watern that the angler must take out his license to fish 
in the inomediate neighbourhood. The cost of a license for a salmon 
rod has, by an order of the Inspectors, dated 1871, been made 11. 
throughout Ireland. This is much better than the varying charges 
formerly made. No license is required for trout fishing, llie sports- 
man in Ireland, who is willing to pay, can have splendid sport for 
his money, if only weather will favour him. This, of course, neither 
guide book nor fishery proprietor or lessee can secure : he must take 
his chance, and it may happen that the free fishings in Kerry, Mayo, 
Donegal, or elsewhere, if when he chances to visit them, wind, water, 
and weather be propitious, will repay the time and trouble of his 
journey better than the most costly stands on the Shannon, the Erne, 
or the absolutely teeming Gonnemara lakes and rivers. However, if 
weather favours, no man need regret the money he pays for the use of 
tbe preserved waters. 

As to the charges, the latest adjustment of which we have given 
further on, they, like the free fishings classified under the second 
head, are liable to vary more or less from year to year. 

The open season in Ireland for salmon fishing with single rod is 
from February 2nd to October Slst, with the exception of certain 
districts, for full particulars concerning which see the extracts fi:om 
Inspectors' reports at the end of this section. 

The narrow limits into which we have to compress our brief review 
of the Irish angling waters, have precluded the possibility of entering 
into any details, or attempting any hints, as to the flies used in the 
various localities. The best plan we have always found is to consult 
the local fishing-tackle makers. ITiey abound in plenty wherever there 
is fishing to be had. We a?:ree with the well-known practical angler 
and author of * Thames and Tweed,* &c., that for salmon angling, on all 
occasions, local flies are best ; while for the trout, presuming that the 
sportsman has a good supply of such standard fhes as the Green and 
^rey Drakes, the Black and Brown Palmers^ the March Brown and 
Stone Fly, &c, he will invariably add to his success by seeking out 



[82] XI. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland, Introd. 

and securing, in addition to his own stock, the particular &YOurites in 
use on the various waters he fishes. As to rods, men have so many 
fancies about their rods that we leave this subject altogether to their 
own discretion, only saying that whether the tourist makes his start 
from Dublin, Cork, or Limerick, he can suit himself. There are no 
better rod-makers in the kingdom than can be found in either of 
those cities. Before starting, we would advise the tourist to provide 
himself with wading boots or stockings, whichever he please ; he will 
have plenty of use for them, and we only hope he may meet with as 
much success as we have often met with in most of the splendid fishing 
waters we have so briefly sketched for his use. 

For facility of reference, we shall make our start from Dublin, and 
going N. follow the coast line in our guide to the angling waters and 
the various rivers. The rivers named belong more especially to the 
sea-coast counties, which we have given ; but the catchment basins of 
many of them of course extend through several of the inland counties 
as well. 

Dublin. — ^The angler tourist will hardly care to test the powers of 
the Lififey, in old days a very fair salmon angling river, but pollutions, 
obstructions; and abstracting of water have done their work, and though 
the net fishing below is of some commercial value, the salmon angling 
is at present only to be looked upon as a thing of the past. The 
trout fishing on the upper waters about Kilbride and Blessington is 
good. The trout, though small, are numerous. At the N. side of 
Dublin there is a good little stream for white and brown trout, called 
the Swords Eiver. It falls into the sea at Malahide, and is strictly 
preserved by a club. 

Louth and Meath. — ^These counties embrace the rivers belonging to 
the Drogheda district. The Boyne is the principal river. The take of 
fish in the tideway has increased much of late years. The average 
size of the salmon has also increased ; but both salmon and trout angling 
seem to have somewhat fallen off, at least so the local fishermen will 
tell you, attributing this to the rapid spread of the American weed, and 
the increase of pike which has been observed in the district. The de- 
crease in the number of fish is said to be most apparent as r^ards the 
trout. With respect to the salmon, the increased number of nets now 
used in the tideway and lower water would fully account for the decrease 
of angling. However, the rod and line fisher has stiU fine times of it on 
the Boyne, and constantly lands his twenty pound to thirty pounder and 
upwards. We are glad to find that one of the proprietors on the Boyne 
now gives the sporting tourist an opportunity of trying the river for 
himself. The stretch of the river we allude to lies at Blackcastle, just 
below Navan, where the Boyne and Blackwater unite. The Blackcastle 
water is about the best piece on the Boyne for salmon angling. It 
stretches for about 2i m. along the N. bank, and about f m. on the S. 
The charge for each rod is IQs, a day, the angler taking all the fish. 
There is trout fishing to be got on the upper streams and tributaries, 



Introd. YHi. Ouide to Ae Angling Waters in Ireland. [33] 

most of which are open. Between Dundalk and Drogheda there are some 
nice little salmon rivers — the Dee and Glyde — ^which fall into the sea 
at Annascassan ; and the Fane, coming from Gastleblaney Lake and 
Mime into Dundalk Bay, some 3 m. S. of the town. These rivers 
latterly have been much more strictly preserved and looked after than 
formerly, and are consequently improving. The proprietors are liberal 
in granting permission for a day's fishing. 

Antsih. — The Bann, falling into the sea below Coleraine, gathers 
in its waters from the Counties Down, Armagh, Tyrone, London- 
derry, and Antrim. Flax water, which is the bane of the angler in 
the North of Ireland, destroys many of the tributary streams belonging 
to this noble river. The largest of the Irish Lakes, Lough Neagh, 
belongs to the Bann, and has an area under water of 98,255 acres. The 
fishing in the Lake is free ; the cost of a boat and man is 5«. a day. 
Salmon fishing on the Bann at Coleraine is free, the rest of the river is 
strictly preserved. There is a stretch of water near Kilrea, where, on 
payment of £1, a week's salmon angling may be had. The Bann Kiver 
itself is not good for trout, excepting at Toome Bridge, where some good 
sport and open water noay be had. 

The Main Biver, a tributary to the Bann, falling into the east end of 
Lough Neagh, affords good salmon and heavy trput fishing in September 
and October. Anglers stopping at the " O'Neil Arms " at Randlestown are 
allowed the privilege of fishing in the Shane's Castle grounds, and there 
is other water free near Bandlestown. The Bush, falling into the sea 
below Bushmills, close by the Giant's Causeway, is a splendid salmon 
angling river. The lower part of the river is generally let to two or 
three rods for the season, application for which should be made to Mr. 
Douglas, Bushmills. The upper waters are strictly preserved, and the 
passing tourist has little chance of a day. There are a couple of nice 
little salmon rivers falling into the sea on the east coast of Antrim. 
Connected with them are fixed engine fisheries in the tideways, the 
owners of which are liberal in allowing the fair angler to fish the fresh 
"Waters. First of these rivers is the Glendun, entering the sea at Cush- 
endun Bay. The other is further south, the Glenarm falling in at 
Glenann Bay. 

LoNDONDEERY. — The Foyle Biver enters the sea at Lough Foyle, 
below the town of Londonderry, and retains its name only as for as 
Strabane, where it branches off into innumerable tributaries, the fol- 
lowing of which are the principal: — The Glenelly, the Owenreagh, 
Camowen, Drumragh, Fairy Water; the Mourne, formed of all those 
tributaries, with the stream from Lough Mourne, and another from 
Lough Derg, the scene of St. Patrick's purgatory ; the Fin, from Lough 
Pjn, the best of all the tributaries in the angler's point of view, many 
of the other streams being greatly spoiled by flax water. Some open 
salmon angling may be had about Newtown Stewart, but the salmon 
fishing is generally strictly preserved. The Foyle River draws much 

[Irdimd.'\ d 



[34] vni. Guide to tTie Angling Waters in Ireland. Introd. 

of its waters from the Counties Tyrone and Donegal, as well as from 
Tjondoriderry. 

Donegal. — ^Lord George Hill has done wonders in opening up the 
Northern waters and wild Donegal scenery for the angler and tourist. 
The Lord George Hill Hotel at Gweedore is a capital stopping- 
place, with every comfort. It is situated on the Claddy River, 
where grand salmon, sea trout, and brown trout fishing may be had. 
Visitors staying at the hotel have the privilege of fishing from this 
point up, and in the lakes and rivers belonging to Lord George Hill. 
Two fine lakes are connected with the Claddy — ^Lough Nacung, and 
Lough Dunlewy. From the hotel down to the sea is leased, and 
can be had at the following rates per rod: — Monthly, March, two 
guineas ; April and May, four guineas ; June, ^Ye guineas ; July and 
August, seven guineas ; September, five guineas. Daily tickets : March, 
5«. ; April and May, 6s. ; June, 7«. 6d. ; July and August, 10s. ; September, 
7s. 6d. Further rules in connection with this fishery are as follows : 
— The angler must take out his license at the hotel, at which he 
must be a resident as long as he fishes the river. Only six tickets 
are issued at a time, one of which the lessee can reserve for him- 
self. All salmon taken must be given up at the fish-house at Bun- 
beg. No angler shall continue to fish upon any pool on the river more 
than two hours after notice has been given to him by another wishing 
to fish it. The Gweedore River, with some lakes and streams, also 
belongs to Lord George Hill, and residents at the hotel can fish it free. 
The hotel tariff is as follows : — Boarding, coffee-room, and table-dTidte, 
£2 15s. weekly ; or private sitting-room with meals, £3 13s. Boats for 
ano;ling on lakes. Is. per day; each man employed. Is. 6c?. per day. 
The more northern waters of Donegal are Owencarrow River, connecting 
Lough Beagh with Lough Glen, and flowing into the sea by Doo Castle 
through Sheep Haven, holds salmon and white trout. The fishing, 
which is very good, can be easily obtained from the proprietors. The 
Lough Swilly rivers are first-rate, particularly the Lannan, flowing from 
Longh Gartan, several other mountain lakes, and Lough Fern, to join 
the tideway at Rathmelton. The April fishing in Lough Fern is par- 
ticularly good, and the owner of the best water around — Sir James 
Stewart — is most liberal in giving permission to fish. Milford is the 
best stat. for Lough Fern and the Lannan River, and the proprietor of 
the inn can generally arrange for permission to fish. Coming round 
the coast of Donegal, S. of Gweedore, we come by the Rosses Lakes to 
Dunglow. There are many lakes all about here connected with the 
sea by short rivers. Most of these hold salmon, all of them trout, 
and have capital fishing, and all are free. Some of the lakes hold 
particularly fine brown trout, running up to lour and five pounds. 
The Gweebarrow flows from the Gweebarrow Lake through a very 
desolate district. The fishing is good and open. The Shallogan, the 
Owenna River, with the Glenties falling into Loughross More Bay, are 
beautiful trout and salmon rivers, but as they are annually rented, the 



Introd. vni. Chtide to the Angling Waters in Ireland, [35] 

tourist cannot hope for a clay's fishing upon them. In the Killybegs 
district the Glen River, Kilcar, Oily, and Eanymore are all pretty good 
fishing streams, with lakes attached to them. The lake fishing ia 
generally free, and permission on the streams is easily obtained, 'llie 
Eask, fiowing from Lough Eask by the town of Donegal, has salmon and 
trout. Char is taken in the lake. Permission to fish must be had 
from the proprietor. 

The Erne. — ^The natural character of the country through which the 

Erne fiows, forming great lakes, provides for the storage of water, so 

that this river suffers less from annual droughts than perhaps any other 

river in the kingdom. The river collects its waters from the counties 

Monaghan, Cavan, and Fermanagh, and ends its course below Bally- 

sbannon, in DonegaL Around Belturbet and the upper waters are 

some good stations for trout angling and pike fishing. Upper Lough 

Erne holds heavy trout and tremendous pike. Lough Erne itself^ with 

its 28,000 acres under water, furnishes fine salmon, trout, pike, perch, 

and bream fishing, and is free for boat-fishing ; boats can be hired at 

many stations around the Lake. The outflow from Lough Erne to 

Ballyshannon is among the most celebrated salmon angling stations in 

Ireland. The great run of salmon commences in May, and the fishing 

is not continued after the 20th of August llie part of the river is 

held by a company, who let the angling by the rod per week ; the 

number of rods is usually restricted to nine. The charges vary ; but it 

is best to apply at the fishing office, Ballyshannon. 

Lettrim. — BuNDROWES RivER; LouGH Mblvtn. — The Bundrowes 
River, County Leitrim, is the outflow from Lough Melvin. The Lake is 
free for boat fishing, with the exception of a few private casts. Bun- 
doran, a favourite sea-bathing place, though rather far from the Lake, is 
a good Stat. Garrison, at the further end of the Lake, is a good station 
for the ander: tourists should write to the hotel at 6arrison to 
engage beds. Terms : £2 per week ; boat and two men 5«. per day. 
April and May are the best months for the spring salmon fishing. 
Grilse b^n to run about the middle of May. The trout fishing is 
good on the Lake. The Gilleroo Trout run to a large size. The 
bums and lakes in the neighbourhood after a fresh afford plenty of small 
brown trout fishing ; leave, however, must be obtained. 

SiiiGO. — ^The Sligo River rises in Lough Gleoade, and, flowing through 
Lough Gill, makes a short course to the sea through the town of Sligo. 
There is plenty of good fishing to be had in these waters. Lough Gill 
takes ten days to clear after a flood. The best salmon angling is from 
thence to the sea. All the fishing is strictly preserved, but a day or two 
may sometimes be had on application to the proprietors. The Drumcliff 
River, to the North of Sligo, with Glencar Lake, has good salmon and 
trout fishing, for which leave may be obtained on application. The Bal- 
lysodaie River falls into Sligo Bav. The history of this river is perhaps 

d 2 



[36] vhi. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. Introd. 

0116 of the most intecesting in Ireland. As a salmon river, it has been 
created by the late Mr. Cooper of Markree Castle. Formerly the entrance 
of Salmon was impossible, on account of the natural formation of the 
ground, or rather the rocks at the mov^ii of the riyer. Mr. Cooper, 
howevei, at a considerable outlay Qf money, built ladders over three 
natural &lls at Ballysodare and CoUopney. Artificial breeding of salmon 
was then resorted to, until the rivers were fully stocked, and many 
interesting experiments were made. The result is, these once barren 
waters are now estimated to yield in the tideway upwards of £1000 
woEtk of salmon per annum. The Ballysodace Biver is formed of several 
branehes ; at the head of one is Loug^ Arrow, which, in the May 
fly season, is well worth a visit for the trout fishing. The salmon 
angling on the river is good in June and July, but is generally let for 
the season. The fishing on Lough Arrow is free : the best station to 
fish it is Boyle, on the Midland Great Western Railway. The Easkey 
and oiher small salmon ai^d trout streams ^w into SUgo Bay. 

Mato. — ^The rich treasures of Mayo as a fishing ground were first 
brought to the notice of the tQuri3t by Maxwell's * Wild Sports of the 
West,' and Cwsar Otway's * Erris and Tirawley,' and is becoming every 
day more and more visited. Ballina, on the Moy, i^ a good starting- 
point to begin our e:q)loratH)n of Mayo waters. The first visit the 
angler should pay is to Pat Heams the fisherman, who will put him up 
to all manner ot wrinkles for getting the very best value out of Mayo, 
its streams and its lakes. The proprietor of the salmon fishing at 
Ballina allows the anglers to fish the fine waters near the town free ; 
the fish to be given up. This giving up of the fish is not to be looked 
upon as an illiberal arrangement. Before it was entered iuto, many 
persons around used to resort to the waters unceasingly, for the pur- 
pose of making money of the salmon they eaught. As may be sup- 
posed, it ruined the river for sportsmen. The upper waters of the Moy 
are strictly preserved. The lessee on Lord Clanmorriss' part of the river 
generally allows fair anglers to fish, and to keep what salmon they take. 
Loughs Conn and Cullin are open to everyone, and good salmon, white 
trout, brown trout, pike, and perch fishing are to be had. It often 
occurs, when the Moy itself is not in order, the lakes afibrd good sport. 
The Deel River, entering the head of Lough Conn, affords, after rain, 
excellent trout fishing. Ballina is, in fact,, one of the most satisfactory 
stations the angler can go to in Irelaaod. The hotel accommodation is 
all good. There are some nice streams on the N. coast of Mayo. The 
first, the Cloonaghmore, falling into Killala Bay, is carefully protected 
in the spawning season, and holds salmon, white trout, and brown 
trout, the fishing of which is free to the angler. The next stream is 
the Ballinglen, falling into Bunatrahir Bay. Of the same character, 
the Belderg, with a nice lake at its head, holds fine red-fleshed trout, 
running to herring size, and some white trout. The lake must be 
fished from the banks, as there is no boat. Coming round to the west 
coast, the Glenamoy River and the Muingnabo fall into Broad Haven. 



Introd* Yin. OtUde to ike Angling Waien in Ireland. [87] 

• 

Both rivers are well stocked with salmon and white trout in the 

antuimi. Throosh the season the white trout fishing in the estuary is 

good in the last hours of the ehb tide, as many as ^e or six may he 

taken by the fly in an hour. They also fish here with the eel and 

minnow. The next of the Mayo rivers on our list are Maxwell's 

Owenmofe, and Owenduff, which both fall into Tullaghan Bay. The 

upper waters of the Owenmore abote Corrick Bridge are generally free, 

and afford white and brown trout fishing after rain. Six miles of water 

from Gorrick Bridge to Bangor is let to anglers at the following rates : 

£14 per season ; £3 10s. per month ; 7«. per day. A nice little hotd 

at Corrick Bridge, and a good one at Bangor. Lough Carrowmore, 

united to the Owenmore by the Munhin River, has plenty of salmon in 

its waters, but they will not rise to a fly. The Owenduff or Ballycroy 

Biver has splendid angling for salmon, white trout, and brown trout 

after rain in the autumn, lliis river is generally rented. Achill 

Island, not far from this, has some little streams and lakes holding 

brown trout ; fishing free. The Clew Bay rivers, the Borrishoole, the 

Newport, Westport, and the Owenwee, all more or less hold salmon 

and trout, and fishing may be had on application to profMrietors. 

The Erriff Biver, falling into Killary Harbour, on the boundaries of 
Galway, surrounded by wild and beautifbl mountain scenery, with the 
Delphi River flowing from Lough Glencullen and Lough Doo, hold 
salmon, white and l^own trout in abundfemoe, but tae generally leased 
or let for the season. 

Galwat. — ^The wildis of Gonnemara, the Claddagh fisherfolk, and th6 

salmon rivers and Ukes of Galway, have all a fame of their own. Not 

so long ago the tourist here had plenty of free water, and could land 

his sa£ion and trout uhchallenged almost from one end of the county 

to the other. This is all changed now, and the celebrity attaching to 

the Galway salmon rivers has tended much to the change, the angling 

quahty of these waters being one of the strong inducements which have 

led wealthy gentlemen to purchase property, build, and settle down in 

this wild but beautiful country. Tourists, also, are fifty to one of what 

they were in former days. The angler must now pay, and in some 

instances heAvily, for his sport, and be thankful even when willing to 

pay, if he can get it. If he is no longer free of the waters, the toarist 

can reflect how greatly the GalwAy peasantry have benefited by the 

change, which brings civilization and plenty to their doors. The 

Galway River, draining Lough Gorrib and Lough Mask, draws some of 

its water supply from the neighbouring county of Mayo. The river is 

very short from the lake till it fails into the sea below the town of 

Galway. Its value as a salmoU fishery has been greatly enhanced by 

the late Mr. Thomas Ashworth, who, at a cost of upwards of £2000, 

erected a salmon ladder to connect Lough Mask with Lough Gorrib, 

thus throwing open a vast amount of breeding-ground in the upper 

waters, to protect which he employed 120 men as river watchers. 

Mr. Adiworih, in a little work published by him, explains how by 



[38] yni. Guide to the Angling WcUers in Ireland, Introd. 

careful cultivation he increased the annual yield of the Gal way fishery. 
In 1853 the number of salmon and grilse taken was 1603. Mr. Ash- 
worth gives figures for each year to show the gradual increase, until in 
1864 the same fishery produced 20,512 salmon and grilse. Anglers 
desirous of fishing the Galway River should apply for terms to the 
secretary of the Galway Ai^ling Club, Gal way. The "Eglinton 
Hotel," Galway, has the fishing three miles S. side of the river. 
Anglers stopping here can have the fishing free. Boat fishing in 
Corrib is free. Salmon, white trout, brown trout, pike, perch, and 
roach. The trout in Lough Mask run very heavy, having been taken 
up to 20 lbs. weight. Mr. J. Hewett, of Tourmakeady, has comfortable 
accommodation lor one, two, or three gentlemen. Any one staying at 
his house has permission from the proprietor to fish a good part of the 
lake free of charge. The Ballynahinch Fishery belongs to the Law Life 
Insurance Company. The fishings stretch for fifteen miles along the 
rivers and lakes of Inagh, Derryclare, Ballynahinch, Ballinafad, Glen- 
dalough, Attry, and Oorid. I'he charges are — ticket for whole season, 
£50 ; for the lunar month, £8 ; the week, £2 10s. ; day, lOs. 
Tickets are issued by the agent at Ballynahinch Castle, and also at the 
Glendalough and Derradda Hotels close by the fishery. The price of 
the ticket includes the use of the Society's boats, but not the wages 
of the boatmen, which are Is. 6d. per day each man. The boats and 
stands for salmon fishing in the river are allotted by the head-keeper 
at the hotels over night to each angler, and no angler will be allowed to 
fish unless the boat or stand has been so allotted to him. Visitors stay- 
ing at the hotels, at a charge of 58. per day, can fish the Glendalough 
Lake and Attry or the brown trout lakes belonging to the Company 
free of charge. The Doohulla Lake, 6 m. firom Clifden, has very good 
fishing — salmon and trout. Mr. H. Smith, of Doohulla Lodge, gives 
tickets for the proprietor, charging 5s. a day, and Is. to the boatmen. 
The Screeb and Furnace fishery includes several chains of lakes and 
rivers emptying into Camus Bay. It lies 28 m. W. of Galway. The 
lessees of these fisheries have wonderfully improved them since 1866, 
when they commenced operations by removing obstructions, strict jh*- 
servation and artificial propagation ; since then, the yield in white trout 
especially and salmon has become twentyfold greater than it was. By 
applying to the agent, Screeb House, via Galway, the tourist can learn 
whether the water is disengaged. If so, the charges from Febniary 1st 
to June 1st, £2 per week. From June Ist to October 15th, £3 per week. 
Screeb House affords accommodation for seven anglers. The manager 
supplies board, lodging, and attendance at lOs. a day. Mr. Mitchell 
Henry, M.P. for Galway, whose noble residence, Kylemore Castle, is 
situated on the N. side of Kylemore Lake, and other proprietors, in- 
duced principally by their love of fishing, have settled and built in the 
county ; and while doing much good to the peasantry around, they 
havedilligently cultivated the rivers and lakes in the district. Loughs 
Fee, Muck, Meledrolum, Kylemore, Nacorrigean, Pollacappul, and the 
'rivers have all profited by artificial propagation and the careful proteo 



Introd. Tm. Ouide to the Angling Water* tn Ireland. [39] 

tion afforded by these gentlemen. It was stopping at this house now 
occupied by Mr. Armstrong, that John Leech, famous for ever to the 
sahnon fisher for his ' Adventures of Mr. Briggs/ caught his first salmon 
in Lough Fee — ^a feat which is described with such humour in the 
' Little Tour in Ireland.' There are many more lakes and rivers in 
Galway, most of them in private hands. Happy for the tourist if he 
has a Mend who will give him a day or two on any of them. 

Clabb. — Clare is far less known to the angler than it deserves. 

The numerous lakes within easy distance of Ennis, connected with the 

Fergus River, hold, most of them, very fine trout. The Fergus 

also has some fine salmon fishing ; aod those who care for pike fishing 

can have abundance of it in the lakes. The best known of those 

lakes are Lough Inchiquin, Dromore Lake, Lough Inchicronan, Lough 

Muchanagh, Lough Bunny, Lough George, Lough Cullaun, and Bally- 

allia. llie latter is nearer Ennis and is preserved, but on the others there 

is only too little protection, and the fish suffer much at the hands of the 

poachers. There is a nice little river running into the sea near the 

favourite bathing-place of Miltown Malbay, which affords both salmon 

and trout fishing. There is a small charge made on this river for the 

purpose of keeping a water-bailiff. There are several nice trout lakes 

near Miltown Malbay, which are free to the angler. 

LiMEfUGK — The Shannon, — The immense size of the Shannon pre- 
cludes, in the present Section, anythitig beyond the most cursory view of 
its course as an angling river. Rising in the county Leitrim, it passes 
due south through the Counties Roscommon, Longford, Westmeath, 
King's County, Galway, Tipperary, Clare, and Limerick. The angling in 
this magnificent river between Limerick and Killaloe is world-wide in 
its fame. Nowhere will an angler have the chance to do battle with 
larger or more game fish than in these waters. The whole course of 
the river is full of fish life. The highest station for the angler on 
the Shannon is at Boyle, where Loughs Gara, Key, and Lough Allen, 
all abound in fish, and the sportsman is within easy distance of Lough 
Arrow, belonging to the Ballysodare River. All these lougbs, and some 
smaller ones around, are free, and afford excellent trout fishing ; and in 
May and June are hardly second to the famed Westmeath lakes when 
the Green Drake is on. In fact, all through the season those upper 
Shannon waters are well worth a visit. Trolling is first-rate ; heavy 
pike and perch, as well as grand trout, are plentiful. Carrick-on- 
Shannon is another good station for the upper waters. The river here 
is constantly expanding itself into what we may call lesser lakes, in 
which trout running up to 6 lbs. and 7 lbs. are to be taken — Lough 
Boderg being perhaps the best of the chain. After passing those 
lesser loughs, the river winds on for miles till it reaches Lanesborough, 
where it expands into the large irregular sheet of Lough Ree. The 
May-fly season here is best for the trout, and Athlone the best station 
for the angler to put up at for Lough Ree. Above Athlone the river 



[40] Tm. Guide to ike Amglimg Waien em Lrelawi. Introd. 

cuutractB itself again, and some miles down takes in fiie Snck, and 
winding on hy Baoagher to Portomna it again widens out into the ^eat 
Loogh Derg. All these upper waters are free, bat the sahnon-tisaing 
here of oomse is not to be compared with that below the lake. The 
extensiTe drainage works, and the severe fishing of the Lax weir, and 
the netting below Limerick, are all said to haTe affected the take of 
salmon in Loogh Derg. However the cross-lines at times land a good 
number, and the salmon fishing, especially at Scariff and Monnt 
Shannon, where the lake rons into the Cbonty Clare, is very fair. The 
Gillaroo tront are taken in Loogh Derg, and the troalrfishiDg, when the 
Mny-fly is np, is not to be despised. The Shannon waters are usnally 
fished from fiat-bottomed boats called ** cots." Killaloe, at the lower 
end of the lake, is the best station to pot up at. Here informatibii, 
boats, flies, and accommodation, can be had. "Piom Killalce down to 
Limerick the public have no right of fishing. The waters here are 
leased, and in some instances are sob-let by the day, week, month, or 
year. The stands at Castle Connell and Doonas are sometimes let at a 
very high figore. Toorists wishing to fish these splendid waters had 
better apply to some of the fishing-tackle makers in Ldmeiick, who 
woold be likely to know when a day could be got. 

Eebbt. — Comparatively speaking, small though the Eeny rivers 
are, their good qualities as angling watera deserv^y rank very highly 
in the south of Ireland. We give the stream draining the beautifal 
Killamey Lakes the place of honour, not exactly because the Laune 
can claim to be the best angling river in the district, for it is not ; but 
because the tourist angler is most likely when he goes io Kerry to 
make Elillamey his h^-quarters, or, at all events, a starting-place. 
The Laune River is strictly reserved by tiie proprietors ; howevei", a 
small part of it may be fished by parties staying at the Royal Laiine 
Hotel, Killorglin. This river is ** early,** and has been Instanced by 
the late Mr. Ffennell as a good example of a river holding early 
spring fish, on account of the deep lakes connected with it, while 
its near neighbour, the Maine, which falls into the same harbour, 
holds very late fish, there being no lakes on the Maine. The spring 
salmon angling in the Laune is, however, unsatisfactory, the fish 
seeming so intent on pushing up to the Lakes, that they will not 
stop to look at a fly. Salmon angling in the Killamey Lakes is all 
free. The constant use of cross-lines, particularly in the early months, 
ruins the sport for the single rod. 'Jlie River Flesk above the Lake 
is free, and has some good trout fishing. Lough Quitane holds good 
trout, and is strictly preserved. The Maine River, to which we have 
already alluded, has very good brown trout fishing, and its tributary, 
the Brown Flesk, is noted for its white trout fishing. All the trout 
fishing is free, and on most parts of the Mame leave to fish for 
salmon may be had on application. To the sout^ of the Laune is 
the Carra River, a great rendezvous of anglers. This river is also 
connected with lakes, and is celebrated for its early run of fish. 



Intro8. Ym. Ouide to the Angling Water* in Ireland. [41] 

The fiishibg oh Carra Lake is free, but the rivers connected with it 

are rented by hotel keepers, who offer as an inducement to tourists 

stopping at their houses the fishing of the waters free of charge. On 

the Lower Carra River is the Headly Arms at Rossbeigh, and on the 

upper waters the Glencar Hotel. Allthese waters abound with salmon^ 

white and brown trout. Going further south, there is salmon and trout 

fishing to be had in the little streams about Valencia. Into Ballinsklleg's 

Bay two rivers empty themselves, bearing the same characteristics one 

towards the other as the Laune and Maine, to which we have alread;^ 

referred, the Cummeragh River, connected with lakes, being early, yfrhWe 

the Inny River^ hardly two miles off, but with no lakes, holds fish only 

late in the season. Most of the Inny is free ; there is, however, one 

portion, extending for some four miles, strictly preserved. For these 

two rivers, the l»8t stopping-place is Waterville, on the Cummeragh 

River, just by Lough CurrAne, The Cunmeragh River connects Lough 

Currone with Loughs Derrina and Cloonaghlin, and several laked 

above here. The river is strictly preserved ; but Lough Currane, or 

Watertrille Lake, as it is more commonly called, Which is 18 miles 

in circumference, is free and well supplied with salmon and trout. The 

salmon fishing commences the 1st of Febuary, the white and brown 

trout fishing not till May or June. There are plenty of boats to be 

had at 8«. 4i. a day^ including two men, their lunch and drink. Some 

twelve miles to thie £. of Waterville is the great estuary of the Eenmare 

River, which runs far inland, and flowing into it on both sides are 

salmon and trout streams. Most of these are reserved, or let on lel&se. 

The Blflckwater is one of the best for salmon. Mr. Mahoney of Dro- 

more Castle, and Mr. Stewart Tretich, Eenmare, agent to Lord Lans- 

downe, are most active about the protection of salmon in the various 

riveris around, and take great interest in the artificial breeding 

establishments fbr salmon which help to keep up the stock of fish. 

On application to either of these gentlemen, anglers can generally 

obtain a day or two. Before leaving Kerry, we must say one 

word about another river belonging to the county, but which id 

generally included in the Limerick district, as it flows into the sea 

near the mouth of the River Shannon. The Feale River, flowing 

down by Listowel, holds salmon, sea trout, and brown trout, and is a 

very pleasant river to fish as long as the water supply keeps up ; nice 

banks untroubled with wood, and obliging proprietors, who seldom, 

if ever, refuse the privilege of a day's fishing to the sportsman 

who applies. 

CoBK. — ^There are three fine salmon rivers in Cork, the Black water, 
the Lee, and the Bandon ; the first is the most important, whether we 
view it commercially or for its sporting qualities. An immense 
amoilnt of salmon is annually taken out of the tidal waters, as well as 
from the Duke of Devonshire's celebrated fishery, situated under Lis- 
more Castle. The lessees of this fishery deserve well of all anglers, 



[42] Yin. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. Introd. 

as they are most liberal in affording the opportunity to any passing 
sportsmen who wish to test the capabilities of this truly sportino; and 
most beautiful river on the "The Scholar's Hole,** the "Powdering 
Tub/* and other well-known casts. It is a beautiful sight, let a man 
be a sportsman or only a lover of nature, to stand on the fishing weir, 
by the " Queen's Gap," and watch the salmon literally throwing them- 
selves out of the water; sometimes you think you can almost count a 
hundred in the air at a time, as they disport themselves in the pools 
below the weir, before passing up to the higher waters. Fermoy and 
Mallow are the two best stations for the ^hnon angler on this river. 
They lie pretty well midway upstream. At Fermoy the proprietor of 
the Royal Hotel rents a piece of water, with a fishing lodge attached, 
for the acconamodation of anglers. The fishing from this point down 
to Lismore is first-rate. J. 0. Harland, fishing-tackle maker at 
Mallow, rents some water near Mallow, for which he charges 58. a 
day. On the upper waters at Banteer Bridge, about four miles from 
Kanturk, there is a stretch of water free to the salmon fisher ; but, of 
course, the fishing is not first-class so high up. Free fishing for trout 
can also be had up here, and along down the river. We must not 
forget to mention the celebrated trouting tributary belonging to the 
Blackwater — the Bride — which flows down some four miles south of 
Fermoy, and falls into the tideway near Strancally. There is a capital 
little inn at Gonna, on the Bride. Gorki's own river, the Lee, is, we 
trust, about to see better days for the angler, as a fishing club 
has been established to protect the salmon. The river rises in the 
beautiful and far-famed Lake of Gouganebarra, and soon after flows 
through the deep Inchageelagh Lake. The upper waters abound 
with good fishing-streams ; there are good hotels for the angler both 
at Macroom and Inchageelagh, — Brophy's. The hotel proprietor has 
privileges on the Lake and rivers in the neighbourhood, which he 
offers as an inducement to tourists stopping at his hotel. The best 
salmon-angling waters on the Lee have been granted by the riparian 
owners to the Cork Anglers' Clvhy to be fished by them on l^iesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays in every week. The subscription to the club 
is, for eight days in the season, £1 ; for sixteen days, £2 — subscribers 
of £5 and upwards having liberty to fish on all open days during the 
season. The trout fishing on the Lee is, generally speaking, very poor. 
The Bandon has small storage of water, and so runs low very quickly, 
rendering salmon angling a very uncertain afiiair. There are some nice 
trout streams, however, in the upper waters, which are open ; indeed it 
is easy to obtain permission to angle for either salmon or trout along 
this rivBr. The best stretch of water for salmon and whit« trout lies 
between Bandon and Inmshannon, where the following charges are made : 
Is. 6c^. a day, or 258. the season, for salmon ; and lOs. or 2s, 6d. a day 
for trout, application to be made to Haynes, of Patrick Street, Cork. 
The Ilen, a small river in the west of Cork, flows into its estuary 
at Skibbereen. This is a late river, and runs so low in summer as to 



Introd. yin. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. [43] 

allow a very short season for angling. Its productive power as a salmon 
river is exemplified by the fact that as many as eight and nine thou- 
sand salmon are taken in a season by nets in the estuary. The fresh 
waters are managed by the *' Hen Fishery Association," the subscrip- 
tion to which is one guinea a year. Strangers are allowed the privilege 
of fishing by the week or month for a small sum. Trout fishing on the 
lien is lukd ; but in the streams and lakes around good sport may be 
had among the brown trout, the fishing for these is open. The sea- 
fishing on the coast is good, particularly for pollock, which can be 
iak&a with the fly or spinning. 

In the extreme west of Cork, around Bantry Bay, and by Glengariff, 
there are some nice small streams ; all are strictly preserved. 

The tourist in this district, who wishes to try the angling qualities of 
these rivers, would do well to pay a visit either to Mr. Haynes or Mr. 
Hackett, fishing-tackle makers, Patrick Street, Cork, who will supply 
him with both hints and flies suitable to the district, 

Watkrfobd. — ^The Suir, Nore, and Barrow, Spenser's "Three 
renowned Brethren," which rise in the Slieve Bloom Mountains, join 
tc^ether to fall into the sea below Waterford. These rivers drain 
great portions of the following counties: — Queen's County, Kildare, 
Tipperary, Kilkenny, Carlow, and Waterford, and annually yield a 
great amount of salmon. A Isirge export trade in the fish is carried on 
at Waterford. However, as angling waters for the tourist, there is not 
much inducement to visit them. The Suir is a grand salmon-angling 
river, but strictly preserved and fished by the proprietors. At Thurles, 
on the head-waters of this river, there are several hotels and some fine 
trout streams all round and down to Holycross, all more or less free. 
At Cahir, the proprietor of the " Glengal Arms " rents some water for 
the acconmiodation of his visitors. Around Clonmel and Carrick-on- 
Suir, lower down, there are some nice tributary trout streams, and the 
lakes among the Comeragh Mountains midway between the two towns 
are worth a visit. Leave to fish can easily be obtained. The fishing 
on the Nore or Barrow is not very good. The rivers are rather sluggish, 
and much impeded by the growth of weeds in the summer. The higher 
waters are not well protected, and although the angler can have free 
fishing on them, the sportsman would far prefer that more restrictions 
were put upon him, than that such evident abuse should be allowed 
to work its own destruction — spoiling what by a little care might be 
made of value both to proprietors and sportsmen. 

Wexfobd". — ^Wexford is not a very rich field for the angling tourist ; 
the Slaney is the principal river. From the town of Enniscorthy up, 
there are some four miles of water open to the salmon angler, where 
occasionally, when water and weather suit (a somewhat precarious 
matter) good sport is had. All the rest is preserved ; but here, as in 



'[44] viii. Guide to the Angling Waters in Irelafid. Introd. 

most parts, an application usually meets with courteous permission from 
the proprietor, 

WiCKLow. — Although the rivers in Wicklow are more visited hy 
tourists, for the sake of the scenery, they hold yet another ch^thn fur 
the angler, being very fairly stocked with trout. Soine nice days may 
be had on the Bray Kiver, with its tributaries, the Dargle, Glencree, and 
GlencuUen. The Glencree rises from Lough Bray, which lake is free, 
and holds plenty of rather poor trout. But the rivers are better 
off as to quality of fish, and white trout are sometimes taken in 
the Bray streams, permission to fish to be obtained from Lord Poi^ers- 
court's agent at Bray. The Vartry River is free. The Dublin Water- 
Works Company has erected a large resetvoir in connection irith the 
Vartry, and has stocked this great pond with trout from the W6stmeatli 
Lakes ; but no fishing is as yet permitted. The largest of the Wicklow 
rivers falls into the sea at Arklow, rising abdVe Lough Tay, and passing 
through Lough Ban, not far from Roundwood, where accommodation of 
a sort may be had, it flows down through much of the famed Wicklow 
scenery, and taking in a stream from Glehdalough and other lakes, it 
passes on through Rathdrum, below which the waters of the Avonbeg 
from the beautiful valley of Glenmanure unite at " The Meeting of the 
Waters," and dow through the Vale of Avoca. Lough Dan is very nice 
lake fishing, and there is a good little fisherman's-rest hard by. Bath- 
drum is another station for fishermen, as is also Wooden Bridge, lower 
down. 

Thb Westmbath Lakes. — Most of these Lakes are connected by 
tributaries with the Shannon, the others with the Boyne; but the 
.akes have a fame of their own, quite independent of the rivers with 
which they are connected. It is only those who are accustomed to fish 
in Westmeath Lakes who can know the anxiety with which the 
annual advent of the Green Drake or May-fly is watched. It appears 
on some of the lakes later than on others. Many fishermen will freely 
assert that the fly comes out on each lake in succession on the same 
respective days in each year, but this is absurd ; dry weather or wet, 
hot weather or cold, have, of course, their influence in bringing out the 
fly. However, somewhere in the last half of May, the fly is sure to 
make its appearance, always first on Lough Belvidere, and a fortnight 
later on Loughs Owel and Derevaragh and the other lakes. During 
this season, which lasts for about three or four weeks from the date 
when the fly flrst appears, is the best time. Both the quality of the 
fish and the fishing are splendid. The stations for stopping at are either 
the town of Mullingar or GaHtle Pollard. These stations are some miles 
from their respective fishing-grounds. Many keen sportsmen prefer 
camping out by the lakes, and come provided with tents ; this, no 
doubt, gives an additional zest to the sport. There is no need, how- 
ever, to be on the fishing-ground over early in the morning, for the 



Introd. vni. Guide to ihe Angling Waters in Ireland. [45] 

Gree^ Drake seldom rises on the water till between 10 and 12 o'clock. 
The Westmeath Lakes are not to be despised at other seasons of the 
year. Pike and trout are always to be had. There is some stream 
fishii^, apd ajil is free. 

The following extracts ' from the Appendix to the Report of 
Inspectors of Irish Fisheries for 1878 (see pages [46] to [61] ) will be 
useful to anglers visiting Ireland. 



Quantity op Salmon exported to itndebmentioned Plages in 
England, fbom Iceland, fhom Ist Janitafiy to SIst DiQCEMBKi^y 

1877. .. • . 

So. OfBoiM 

«r]6011a.eMli. 

London 6,373 

Nottingham 3,020 

Bradford 3,297 

Manchester 6,911 

Sheffield 4,699 

Wolverhampton 2,980 

Leeds 4,877 

Liverpool 8,768 

Binninghani 7,009 

Total 1877 47,934* 

Total 1876 46,058} 

Increase 1,875J 



* Computed at U. Zd. per lb. Yalue delivered at foregoiDg places would be £449,381 U. 



[46] vin. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland, IntrocL^ 
Table showing the Close Seasons fob Salmon and Tbout nr 



Mo. Mid Name of 
District. 



1. Dublin 



2. Wexford . 

3. Wateiford 

4. Lismore . 

5. Cork . . 



Bonndaxy of Distriot 



Skerries to Wicklow. 



WicklowtoKilnBay, 
East of Bannow 
Bay. 

Kiln Bay to Helvlck 
Head. 

Helvick Head to Bal- 
lyootton. 

Ballycotton Head to 
Galley Head. 



61. Skibbereen . 

62. Bantiy . . 
6*. Kenmare . . 

7. Eillaniej • . 



8. Limerick 



Galley Head to Mizen 
Head. 

Mizen Head to Crow 
Head. 

Crow Head to Lamb 
Head. 



Lamb Head to Dnn- 
more Head, inclnd- 
IngBlaaketa. 



Dnnmore to Hag's 
Head. 



TidaL 



From Howth to Dalkey Island, 
between 16th August and Ist 
February. For remainder of 
District, between 16th Sept. 
and 2nd March. 

Between 16th September and 
20th April. 



Between 15th August and 1st 
February. 

Between 31st August and 16th 
February. 

Between 15th August and the 
15th of Feb., save in Bandon 
and Argideen Rivers; be- 
tween 16th August and Ist 
March for Bandon, and be- 
tween 31st August and Ist 
March for Argideen. 

Between 30th September and 
1st May. 



Do. 



Do. 



Between 16ih September and 
1st ApriL 



Between Slst July and 16th 
January, save Rivers Maine, 
Ferta, or Valencia, Inny, 
and Waterville, and their 
Tributaries. Main, Ferta or 
Valencia, Inny, and Tribu- 
taries, between 16th Sept. 
and ist May. Waterville 
and its Tributaries, between 
16th July and Ist January. 

Between 3l8t July and 12th 
February, save River Cashoi 
and Tributaries, and save be- 
tween Kerry Head and Dun- 
more Head, and between 
Loop Head and Hag's Head, 
and all Rivers running into 
the sea between those points. 



FrediWMw. 



Same as TidaL 



Same as Tidal. 



Same as Tidal. 



Same as TidaL 



Same as TidaL 



Same as TidaL 



Same as Tidal. 



Same as Tidal. 



Same as Tidal. 



Same as TidaL* 



* Close Season for fixed engines for the capture of Eels, between the lOth January and 1st 
July, save in the River Shannon, which is between the Slst January and Ist July, and in all other 
rivers in the Limerick District between 31st December and 1st July in year following, and sa^ in 
Drogheda District, which is between 30th November and 1st July, and save in the GoleraiDe District, 
which is between 10th January and 1st June, in year following. 



itrod. yni. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. [47] 

IE DIFFERENT DISTRICTS IN IbELAND ON SlST DECEMBER, 1877. 



Angling with Grh 



1. Same as Netting. 



2. Same as Netting. 

3. Same as Netting. 

4. Same as Nettiiq;. 

5. Same as Netting. 



61 . Same as Netting. 



6>. S«me as Netting. 



6. Between 16th 

October and 1st 
April. 

7. Same as Netting. 



8. &ime as Netting. 



AagUog with Oji^e Bod and Una. 



Between 3l8t Oct and Ist Feb. 



Between 80th Sept. and 16th 
March. 



Between 30th Sept and 1st Feb. 



Between 12th Oct and 16th Feb. 



Between 12th Oct. and 16th Feb. 



Between Slst Oct and 17th Mar. 



Do. 



Do. 



Between Slst Oct and let. Feb. 



Between 30ih Sept. and Irt Feb., 
save in Maine, Laune, Carra, 
and Tributaries. Maine and 
Tribntaries, between 30th 
Sept and llth April. Laune, 
Carra, and Tributaries, between 
30th Sept and 16th Jan. 



Between 30th Sept and 1st Feb., 
save Cashen and Maigue 
Rivers and Tributories, and 
save in all Rivers running Into 
the sea, between Loop Hetd 
and Hag's Head, and between 
Dunmore Head andKerry Head. 
For Cashen and Tributaries, 



Data of laat Chang*. 



Priwsipal Rivwi In 
JNatriet. 



Uth Oct., 1874. 



26th Dec., 1873. 



12th Nov., 1874. 



16th Dec., 1876. 



20th Dec., 1876. 



29th Jan., 1873. 



Do. 



7th Feb., 1866. 



26th Apr., 1870. 
18th Dec., 1875. 
3rd Jan., 1876. 



13th Oct. 1874. 



LilTey, Bray, Var- 
try. 



Slaney, Conrtown, 
Indi, Urrin, Boro. 



Snir. Note, and Bar- 
row. 

Blackwater. 



Lee, Bandon, Argi- 
deen. 



Hen. 



GlengarllTe, Snave, 
kc 

Blackwater, 
Rougbty, Cloonee, 
Sneem. 

Inny, Rosbehy, Cnr- 
rane, Valencia, 
Maine, Laune, 
Carra. 



Shannon, Deel, 

FerRns, Doonbeg, 

Cashen, Maigue, 
Jlc. 



168 l^cTJ^i^ T^^t^tr^"" * ^'"^ ^^^ ^- ^"' ^"^ ^^ ^ -t be fewer than 
TrJ?^?*Sl5^i?f,?^^'I":®y .**** ^^ "^"^n of the 26th & 27th Vict, c. 114 no Salmon 
dock CD Saturday morning and six of the clock on the sucoeedmg Monday morninT 



or 
the 



[48] vsii. Ouide to the Angling Water* in Irdani. Introd 

Tablk SBntriNO THE ClobE SraboNS FOB SaLJION AKD TboDT IB 



"-sisr"' 


>^.,»„ 


TiU. 


~..». [ 


8. Umeilik 




Fot KlrerCaahen down to Its 








Uonth utd TribnUrfes, be- 
tween 3I>« Angust and let 

Becd <u>l amy B»d, and 

set belween tlio» polnis, 
between IBlh Seplembar 
and let April. Between 
Loop Heed and HanV Head. 
■Dd all ElTen nuinlng Inlo 
tlie eea betv eea tboM polnta 




».o.aw« . . 


H^^H-.SW. 


Between IfiUi Aiumal and Ist 
Febnary. 


BanK at Tidal 


wi. BkUiukui . 


Sljne Head to plgem 


Between Slat Aognrt and lllh 


8anieBTld.L 




folat. 


Febrnary, save in Loule- 
bnreh and QmiavnaAj 
Rl^f and Eetnaria. For 

niiky Rivera nod EsinaiieB, 

letJnlr, 




1S>. BangH . . 


Pigeon Point to Ben. 


Between Jlst August mdWlh 


SameaiTldaL 




wee Head. 


FebmiiT. «'« '" Newpotl 

Ertuaries. For Newport 
Et"er and Estnarj, aisl 
A11RUM and iOlta kaltb ; 
Gleoamoy River and Estu- 

garve Blver and iwraenm. 
sTwAuBBbtejBlieihUb. 




11. BalUu . . 




Between IJIbAnaoM and I6th 
March. Kve PiOinersloa and 


Between SIB July 

and 1» Feb.. 






EaeKeJ Rivers, wbich la be- 


Mve Priae™- 






tween Slit August and lat 


lon and tjb- 








key Rivera, 
■od lit Jaw. ' 


la. BLjo . . . 


Coonamoore to Unl 


Between IStbAognil and 4th 


Between l»Ui 


laghmon. 


Febraaiy. "" 8liB» Klyer, 


Aagonand Hita 
Febrnaiy. Hve 






i^hich 'i?'bet»een 31et Jul; 


Sllpi Kiver, 






•ml ISih Jauusrj. 


which i> be- 
tween 31ttJaly 
Uld Idth Jan- 



Introd. ' yni. Guide to the Angling Waters in Irdand. [49] 



DiFFEBEirr BisTBiGTS IN Ibelakd ON SlsT Deoembbb, 1877 — continued. 



Angling with Croa 



9. Same as Netting. 



101. Same as Netting. 



10>. Same as Netting. 



11. Same as Netting 
in fresb water. 



1 



12. Same as Netting 
In fresh water. 



t 



[Ireland.'] 



Angling with Single Bod and line. 



between 30th Sept. and 16th 
March ; for Maigue and Tribn- 
tarles, between 30th Sept and 
20th Feb. ; between Loop Head 
and Hag's Head, between 15th 
Sept. and 1st May; and be- 
tween Dunmore Head and 
Kerry Head, between 15tb 
Sept. and Ist April. 



Between 15 th Oct. and lit Feb., 
save in Cashla and Doohnlla, 
and Spiddal and Ballinabinch 
Rivers and their Tributaries, 
which is between 3l8t Oct and 
1st Feb. 

Between 31 st Oct and 1st Feb., 
save in Loutsburgh and Gar- 
rownisky Rivers — between 
aikt Oct. and 1st July. 



Between 30th September and Ist 
May, save in Owenmore and 
Munhim, which is between 30th 
September and 1st February; 
and save in Burrishoole, be- 
tween 3l8t October and ist 
February ; and save Oweugarve 
and Glenamoy, between 31st 
October and Ist May; and save 
OwcodufF or Ballycroy, and 
Ballyveeny and Owendi^, and 
all Rivers in Acbill Island, be- 
tween 3l8t Oct and 1st Feb. 

Between 15tb Sept. and Ist Feb., 
save Easkey River and Tribu- 
taries, between 30th Sept and 
1st June; and save Gloonagh- 
more or PaUnerston River and 
Tributaries — tidal, between 
81st Oct. and 1st Feb. ; upper, 
between 3l6t Oct. and 1st June. 

30th Sept. and 1st Feb., save in 
Dmmcliffe River and Glencar 
Lake, between 19th Oct. and 
1st Feb. 



Data of last 
Ohange. 



Prinoipal Blven in 



InlBlvei 
Diitriot 



26th Dec., 1871. 
23rd Oct, 1876. 
17th Sept., 1877. 



I8t Jane, 1872. 



Ist June, 1872. 
7th Oct., 1875. 
5th Dec., 1876. 



Corrib, Cashla, Doo- 
hulla, Spiddle, 
Ballinabinch. 



ErriflT, DanrosB, 
Louisburgb, 
Carrownisky. 



19tb Dec., 1870. 
10th July, 1877. 



24th April, 1871. 
27th Sept.. 1877. 



Newport, 
Owenmore, 
Burrishoole, 
Owengarve, 
Glenamoy, 
Bsdlycroy. 



Moy, Easkey, 
Cloonaghmore. 



Sligo. BalUsodare, 
Dmmcliffe. 





Guide io the Angling Waters in Ireland. Introi 




raa THB Close Sbasohs fob Salmon and Tbodt in mi J 




J 






Scud Mux ol 




lad. 


Fn*««<. 


13. BaUratuimon. 


Ilulli«1imo» to Bo«- 


Brtwcen ISth Angral and ist 


SameaaTMii 1 






U>rdi.«>Te River EBbiiml 
TrlbDtorlM. whicb la be- ' 
tvHQ 11th Septembor and ' 
Itt April. 




B«HnU>MiliiiU«d 


Brtween .Stb Awurt u>d 4th ' B«>v«b iW 
















C™» or-Bnngr«l» Ri.«. , L»lii« Ml 




1 betwMQllUiSepuinberuid Gweebitr. 




mth April t tot GweebuTi. Klren, Mot " 




liMweeo 30th Sepl. ood isi 


Tidal. 




April. . 






HtllD to DownhlU . B«iw«n Slat AogoW uid IWh 
Boondaty. , April. 


S«me«™^. 1 




DowDl.mBoDBl.ry to B«w«ii i9Ui Anicnst BKlilh 


mtli AoP« "J 




Fottnuh. 


Febniary. uiHarti. 


16. IWl7«.tl. . 


,„„..»»—. 


Between iwh Anplst and 4lh Ifllh Ao(o« "J 
February. | IBUanb 


1-1. DmsbHli . . 


SkecTleo «. CloghH | Belw«n «h Aognsl and l»li i Sanie.»Tid.L 




Hesd. 




IT'. Dundslk . 


aoghcrHBudloDom- 


Between 31sl Anguat and lat Same ai TiJiL 






Glyde.lSi^F^I^: 

BanRlvera.bet'wecnKlliAug. 1 

River brtween Ifllh August 
and lA April. 











Introd. vni. Guide to the Angling Waters in Ireland. [51] 

DIFFERKNT DiSTBICTS IN IRELAND ON 3l8T DECEMBER, 1877 — Continued. 



AngUngwttbQwB 






13. Same 88 Netting 



14. Same as Netting 



151. 28th Sept and 
15th AprlL 

152. 28th Sept. and 

16th March.* 



16. 2dth Sept. and 
lethMaiclL 



171. Same as Netting. 



Angling with Single Bod and Line. 



Between 9tfa Oct. and 1st March, 
save Bimdnff, Buodrowos, and 
Erne Rivers, and Tributaries; 
BundalF River, 30th Sept. and 
Ist Feb.; Bundrowes, 30th 
Sept. and 1st Jan., and Erne 
River, 30th Sept. and Ist Mar. 

Between 1st Nov. and 1st Feb., 
save in Crana or Buncrana, be- 
tween 31st Oct. and ist March. 



Date of last 
Change. 



Principal Biven in 
District 



24th Nov. 1871. Glen, Inver, Eske, 
26thJune,1875. 1 Bunduff, Bun- 

drowss, Erne. 



2nd Sept., 1857. ' Lennan, 



28th Feb., 1874. ' 
25th Nov., 1874. 
21st Mar., 1876. 



Gweedore, 

Gweebarra, 

Buncrana. 



Between 15th Oct. and 1st March. 



Between 19th Oct and 16th Mar., 
save Rivers Bann, Maine, Six- 
mile- water, Moyola and l^Iiin- 
derry, between 31st Oct and 
1st March. 



27th Jan., 1862. 
19th July, 1877. 

15th Dec, 1886. 
3lBt Mar., 1871. i 
23rd Aug., 1875. { 
15th Jan., 1876. 



Foyle, Roe. 
Bann. 



Ist November and 1st February. 15th Dec., 1856. 



4th August and 12th February. 



17^. Same as Netting. Between 11th Oct. and 1st Mar. 

I save in Annagassan, Glyde, 

I and Dee Rivers. In Anna- 

' gassan, Glyde, and Dee Rivers, 

; between 30th Sept. and 1st 

I February. 



20th Dec.. 1876. 



8th July, 1872. 
15th Jan., 1876. 



Ballycastle, 
Glenarm, Bush, 
Glendun. 

Boyne. 



Fane, Annagassen, 
Glyde, Dee, 



* Men Fishing by Trammel Nets in Lough Neagh, between 31st October and ist February. 



2 



^ Seei^tds' Boutcs. 

fS TOUR IN THE NOBTH. 

DouIou^'b, Halaliide, and Loak ; sleep at 

ID to Mdlifbot and Hoaastabotoe. and Daleet. 

ing bj inad to Drogbeda: see Slane, Ne«- 

Uu Boyne, and Dowtli. 

^ Enniatilliwi ; aeo DeTfauah. 

igh. Haible Anrh. If time in eveaiag, row 

le. 

id Enocfcnare*. 

re. Hasleiniad- 

rsbaiuion. BtJIiiiti*. The Palleof. Bleep al 

To Kill;b^i ai^ Canick. 

aeeGlenCoasL 

3etra to GlEutiee (rer; poor accommodatioD'. 
hm^ov, and Gweedote^ 
enj. 1\> ftrefanaghy. 
[e. Glen. LotKliSaK. BathmnUau. 
ideoan. LelteAOiny. 

limaTaiJdj. DaDgiven. Portnisb. 
raij. Sleep there. 
Medo. B^ycastle. Faiibeod. 
res. GlenaniL liuite. Oldetfleet Oaatlc. 
Hagee : aee Gamckfe^ns. To BeUaat 
uif s Bine. 

Antrim, JUmgh N«agh. 
ick. Stud. Ineb, &c. 
on to DnagannoD. 
Drive to BriaoBfbtd. 
Newcastle. 

bj mil to Dnblin. 

1 THROUGH CONNAUGHT. 
Holti£uubam. Longfa EhmeU. 

ing to Ballinaalae. 

Eitconnell. Athemy. 
J Knockmoy. Tuam. 
aa« Abbey. Clare-Galwaj'. Galwaj. 

Pigetm Hole, &c. 

Hen's Castle. InclissoilL Belvm to 

eoees. Ajcend Lissonghter. 



Introd. vu. Skeleton Routes. [53] 

11. To Roundstown. Urrisbeg. Glifden. 

12. See Clifden. Afternoon to Kylemore. 

13. Ascend Twelve Ping. 

14. Longh Fee. Salrock. Leenane. 

15. EiDaries. Delphi. Longh Doo. Ascend Muihrea. 

16. To Westport. Clew Bay, &c Aughagower. 

17. Murrisk. Ascend Groagh Patrick. 

18. To Achill. Sleep at the Settlement. 

19. Ascend Croghan. Visit Keem, Dooega, &c. 

20. Betum : see Burrishoole. Newport to Castlebar. 

21. Excursion to Balla and Ballintooer. The Ayle. 

22. To Ballina by Pontoon and Foxford. 

23. Boserk. Moyne. Killala. Ballycastle. 

24. Along the coast to Belmullet. 

25. Betum by Orossmolina to Ballina ; on to Sligo. 

26. See Abbey. Town. Lough Gill. 

27. Enocknarea. Glencar. 

28. Boyle Abbey. Garrick. Longford. Dublin. 

m. A TOUR OF SIX WEEKS THOUGH THE SOUTH. 

1. DnbUn to KUdare. Atby. Timahoe. Maryborough. 

2. By rail to Eoscrea. Parsonstown. Thurles. 

3. Holy Cross. Cashel. 

4. To Limerick : see the city. 

5. EiUaloe. Castle Gonnell. Scariff. Iniscalthra. 

6. Exctu*sion to Buuratty. Quin. Clare Castle. Ennis. 

7. Camgagunnell. Adare. Bathkeale. 

8. Askeaton. Shanagolden. Foynes ; and by steamer to Kilkee. 

9. Kilkee. 

10. Return to Tarbert. Listowell by Ballybunnion Caves. Tralee. 

11. Excursion to Dingle. 

12. Visit early remains at Smerwick. Return to Tralee. Evening to Kil- 

lamey. 

13. Lower Lake. 0'Sullivan*s Cascade. Innisfallen. Ross, &c. 

14. Aghadoe. Gap of Dunloe. Cummeenduff. 

15. Ascend Mangerton. MuckiOBS. Tore. 

16. Ascend Carrantuohill. 

17. Cahirciveen. Isle of Valeutia. 

18. To WaterviUe. Lough Curraun. 

19. To Kenmare, Staigue Fort, &c. 

20. To Glengairiff. 

21. To Castletown Bearhaven. Adragoole Waterfell. 

22. By water (if weather permit) to Bantry. Gougane Barra. Macroom. 

23. To Cork. 

24. See Cork. Afternoon to Blarney. 

25. Kinsale. Bandon. 

26. Queenstown. Cloyne Round Tower. Youghal. 

27. Up the Blackwater to Lismore and Fermoy. 

28. Mallow. Buttevant. KihnaUock. Sleep at Limerick Junction or 

Tipperarv. 

29. Athassel A^bbey. Cahir. 

30. Oaves. Mitchelstown Castle. Ardfinane. Clonmel. 



[54] VII. Sketetm HoiUes. 

31. Clownel. Ascend Slieve Naman, or visit Fethi 

32. Caniok. Coolnamnck. Waterford. 
S3. Excoiaion to Jerpoint Tbomaatown, 



^iogae. By water to Boss. Tramore to Waterford. 
Qcaonon. Donbrody. 
rough Clonmiues to Wexford. 
Arklow. Sleep at Wooden Bridge. 
Bathdown. Wicklow. Ashibrd. 
Anoamoe. 7 Cbnrches. 
elare. Boondvood. Lough Dan. 
d^ Oap. Glenciea, EDniaken?. 
Waterfall. Donee Mountain. Dalgle. 
iolis. Killiney. Kingatown. 

. A WEEK'S TOUR IN WICKLOW. 

>y. Bray Head or Sugarloaf. Kilruddery. GleD of 

loughter. Ashfoid. Devil's Glen, 
tbdnun. Wooden Bridge. Slielton. 

7 ChorcheB. 
Ascend Lngimqiiilla. 
Longh Dan. FoUaphnca. 
enciee. Lough Bray. Eoniakerry. 
iscourt. Bray. Scalp. 

T. A FOBTNIGHT IN KEBRT. 
j)w. Mallow to Eanturk and MiUstreet, 
Descend Valley of FUak to Eillamey. 



Ventry. 

lu. Sle^ at Dingle. 

ilentia (if weather permit). 



1. A WEEK« TOUB IN CLABE 

ilroHh. Iniacattery. 

p Head and up the coast to Eilkee. 

own Malbay. 

iUeve Callaae and Eonis. 

1. Liscannor. 

'. Eilfeoora. Ooiiofin. Ennis. 

Joe. Up the Sbaonon to Athlone). 



lotrod. Yii. Skeleton Eoutes. [55] 

Vn. A WEEK ON THE BOYNE AND BLACKWATEB. 

1. Dublin to Enfield. Carberry and Edendenr. 

2. Cbnard. Trim. 

3. Trim. Bective. Hill of Tara. 

4. Trim to Athboy and Eells. Oldcastle. Virginia. 

0. "By the Blackwater to Navan. 

6. }faTan to Slane and Drogheda. 

7. Drogheda. Mellifont. Monasterboice. 

Vin. A FORTNIGHT IN DONEGAL AND DERBY. 

1. Dablin to Enniskillen. 

2. Pettigoe. Iiough Derg. Donegal. 

3. Donegal. Killybegs. Carrick. 

4. Ascend Slieve League. Glen. 
d. GleDgeaak. Ardora. 

6. Ardara to Gweedore. 

7. Ascend Arrigal. Dunle"wy. Dunfanaghy. 

8. Horn Head. Lough Salt. Letterkenny. 

9. Lough Gartan. Milford. RathmuUan. 

10. Ratboiullan. Rathmelton. Grianan of Aileach. Deny. 

11. See Deny. Afternoon to Buncrana. 

12. MoviUe. Inishowen. Return to Derry. 

13. M!*Gilligan. Dungiven. Ooleraine. Portrush. 

14. Causeway. Dunluce. Portrush to Belfast by rail. 

IX. A WEEK IN DUBLIN. 

1, 2. Devote the first 2 days to the immediate city. 

3. Howth. Malahide. Swords. Glontarf. 

4. PhoBnix. Glaanevin. Dunsink. Lucan. 

5. ClondaUrin. Drimnagh. Celbridge. 

6. Rathmines. Rathfarnham. Kilteman. Shanganagh. Glendruid. 

Scalp. Bray. 

7. Kilniddery. Bray Head. Killiney. Kingstown. Monkstown. 

X. A MONTH IN THE SOUTH, 

commencing at Water ford (from Milford). 

1. Waterford. Thomaslown. Inishtiogue. Jerpoint. 

2. Kilkenny. * 

3. Clonmel. Cahir. 

4. Mitchelstown. Caves. Castle. Glanworth. Fermoy. 

5. Lismore. Cappoquin. Steamer to Youghal. 

6. Ardmore. Youghal. By rail to Cork. 

7. Cork. Blarney. 

8. By water to Queenstown. Cloyne. Aghadoe. Carrigaline. Drive to 

Einsale. 

9. Old Head of Kinsale. Bandon River. Bandon. 

10. Clonakilty. Roscarbeiy. Timoleague. SMbbereen. 



Til. Skeielon Souteg, 

ehob. Minea. Bantty. 

own-Bearbaven. Allibies Hinea. 

miffi 

if Keimoueigh and Inehlgeelah. 

iDam^. 



aUe Telegnipb Staforu 

lisit earlj remaioE— into Tralee. 
til, Ballrbimnion and TarberL 



latum and Scariff. 

-b; direct line to CbarleviUe and KJlmallock. 

1 Gut, Athaasel, Tippetatj. 



HANDBOOK 



FOR 



IRELAND 



* • 



ROUTES. 

The names of plaoes are printed in italia or capitals only in those roates where 

the j92aces are described. 



PAGE 



22 
34 

42 
53 



61 
68 
73 

80 

83 



BOUTE 

1. Holyhead to Kingstown and 

DaBLiN" 2 

2. Dublin to Drogheda and Dim- 

dalk 

3. Dimdalk to Belfast .... 

4. Newry to Belfast, through 

Rostrevor and Downpatrick , 

5. Belfast to Donaghadee . . 

6. Dundalk to ^nnis^i22en. — Flor- 

ence Court, Swanlmbar and 
the"ShannonFot" . . . 

7. Enniskillen to Sligo, by Coach 

8. Enniskillen to Londondebrt 

9. Londonderry to Lough StDilli/y 

MiUroy Bay, and Inishowen . 

10. Sligo to Bundoran, Lough 

Melvin and Manor Hamilton 

11. Bundoran to Donegal and 

Strabane 86 

12.. Enniskillen to Pettigoe, Done- 
gal, and Carrick .... 90 

13. Strabane to Letterkenny, 

Gweedore, IhmgloWy Ardara, 
and Killyb^ 95 

14. Londonderry to Gweedore, 

through Dunfanaghy . . . 

15. Londondeny to Belfast, by the 
Northern Counties KaUway . 

16. Coleraine to Belfast^ by Port- 

rush, the Giant's Causeway 
and Ballycastle «... 

17. Dublin to MuUinqar, Athlone, 

BaUinasloe, and Galway . . 

18. Enfield to Edenderry, Source 

of the Boyne and Drogheda, 
through Trim and Navan . 

19. Drogheda to Naoan, Kelkj and 
Cavan, by Rail 157 

20. Mnllingar to Portadown, 
through Caaxm and Armagh .-leS 



105 



111 



119 



132 



142 



BOUTE PAGE 

21. Mullingar to Sligo, through 
Longford, CarHck-on'Shan- 
non, and Boyle 168 

22. Athlone to Boscommonf Castle" 
reaghy Ballina, aikl Belmullet 175 

23. Galway, Aran Islands^ Loiigh 

Corrib. Galway to Clifden . 181 

24. Clifden to Leenane, Westport, 
and Sligo 197 

25. Galway to Cong, Maum, Ballin- 

robe and Westport .... 

26. Dublin to Wexford, through 

Wickloic, Arkiow, and Ennis- 
corthy 

27. Dublin to Eathdrum and Ark- 
low.— ToUR THROUGH Wick- 
low 

28. Dublin to Cork, by the Great 
Southern and Western Rail- 
way 

29. Dublin to Carlow, Kilkenny 
and Wateiford, by Rail . . 

30. Kilkenny to A theory, through 
Parsonstown and Loaghrea . 

31. Wexford to Cork, through 

Waterford, Dimgarvan, and 
Youghal 279 

32. Youghal to Cahir, through 
Lismore and Fermoy . . .291 

33. Limerick to Waterford . . . 297 

34. Mallow to irj7;a;7W?y and Tralee 303 

35. Limerick to Tra^ee .... 320 

36. Limerick to Boyle, through 
Ennis and Tuam .... 332 

37. The Shannon, from Athlone to 
Limerick 343 

38. Killamey to Vakntia and 
Kenmare 351 

39. Cork to Kenmare, vict Bandon, 

Bantry, and Glengarriff . .359 

40. Cor^ to Bantry, ©id ifocr 0071*. 369 



212 



220 



228 



241 



263 



275 



h 



2 



BotUe 1. — Holyhead to Dublin, 



Irexaio). 



ROUTE 1. 

HOLYHEAD TO KINGSTOWN AND 
DUBLIN. 

Few routes of travel, even in 
these days of speed and comfort, can 
show such palpable improvement 
as that between Holyhead and 
Kingstown. Instead of the old sail- 
ing packet-boat, that made its cross- 
ing subject to wind and weather, 
or in the subsequent small and un- 
comfortable steamers, the first of 
which was the * Talbot,' 1818, speed 
about 4 m. an hour, the tourist is 
conveyed by magnificent ships, each 
of 2000 tons and 700 horse-power, 
which perform the distance of 66 m. 
in 4 hours, with great regularity. 
The *Leinster,* built by Messrs. 
Samuda, London, and the ' Ulster,' 
*Munster,' and *Connaught' by 
Messrs. J. Laird and Sons, Birken- 
head, are four of the most comfortable 
and splendid steamers to be found 
in any mail-service. Two packets 
leave 

Holyhead {Hotd : Royal\ during 
the 24 hours ; one reaching Kings- 
town at 7*20 in the morning, and 
the other at 6*5 in the evening; 
English time or 7*5 and 5*50 Inah 
time ; the total distance from London 
to Dublin of 330 m. being performed 
in 11 hours by the night mail and 
steamers, or 11 hours and 40 minutes. 
It may not be amiss to advise the 
traveller by the night-mail to secure 
his sleeping-berth or sofa directly 
he puts his foot on board. We re- 
commend all who can spare the 
time, to take an ordinary fast train, 
such as that which now leaves 
Euston at 5'10 F.M., and arrives at 
Holyhead at 1 a.m. They may then 
go on board, and by payment of 
two shillings extra secure a berth, 



and get to sleep before the boat 
starts at 3 a.m., when the Irish mail 
leaving Eudton at 8*25 arrives. 
Thus a fair night's rest, and pro- 
bable escape from sea-sickness is 
obtained at' a sacrifice of only 3^ 
hours. 

The Great Western competes with 
the North Western between Lob- 
don and Holyhead, and from all 
its country stations. Aq the vessel 
emerges fipom the harbour it 
glides past the noble breakwater, 
and the quarries from whence the 
stone for the works is obtained; 
then past the Holy Head, with its 
telegraph - station, and l^e Stack 
Rock, with its lighthouse. The 
fijrst 20 m. of the passage is gene- 
rally rougher than the remainder, 
owing to the prevalence of stioDg 
currents in the Eace of Holyhead. 
In due course of time the distant 
hills of the Emerald Isle loom in the 
fax west, disclosing, as the steamer 
approaches near enough, a mag- 
nificent panorama of the whole coast 
from Balbriggan to Wicklow. Nearer 
still, the populous line of coast be- 
tween Bray and Dublin appears m 
though occupied by continuous chains 
of villas. To the rt. is the distant Lam- 
bay Island, with Ireland's Cye, and 
nearer home the Hill of Howtti, with 
the Baily Lighthouse. Some 8 m. 
from Kingstown vessels pass the Kibh 
light, placed th^re to designate 
a long chain of bank which rons 
down the coast from. Howth. The 
tourist has scarcely time to gnu>p 
the details of the exquisite views of 
the Bay of Dublin, ere the steamer 
enters the capacioas artificial harbour 
of 

Kingstown {Hotels. ' Royal Marine. 
Anglesey Arms — both exoellentX— a 
pleasant marine neighbour, when' 
much of the &shion of Dublin mi- 
grates for fresh air and sea-bathing, 
and many of the wealthier citizens 
reside. Most of this portion datts 
from 1821, when George IV. era- 
barked here, and gave pennissioD 



Ireland. 



Boute 1. — Kingatovm. 



to change the name from Ihmleary 
to Einggtown. This {set has been 
oommemoiated in an ugly cbdUk 
of granite surmounted by a crown, 
which the Fenians tried to blow up 
on the occasion of a royal visit, 
AnguBt 1871. 

The Harbour, towards which I^ar- 

liament advanced 505,0002., is a fine 

work, the first stone of which was 

laid by Lord Whitworth, the Lord 

Lieutenant, in 1817. It embraces an 

area of 251 acres, and is surrounded 

by piers to the extent of 8450 ft. ; 

these terminate towards the sea by 

an inclined plane, so as to make the 

thickness of the base 310 ft. At 

the pier-head, where there is 24 ft. 

of water at the lowest spring, is a 

lighthouse showing a revolving light. 

From the S. pier runs out a long 

covered quay, called the CSarlisle 

Landing Quay. This is laid down 

with rails, to allow the mail-packets 

to exchange passengers at once with 

the railway carriages, so that little 

or no time is lost in the transference. 

The whole of these massive works 

were built with granite from the 

neighbouring quarries of Eilliney 

(Rte. 27). 

Eingstovm harbour is the principal 
station of yachts in L^land. There 
are no less than three yacht clubs — 
the Boyal St. George's, the Royal 
Lish, and the Boyal Alfred Yacht 
Club; the two former having club 
houses on the very edge of the noble 
harbour, with every possible comfort 
andaocononodation. These two clubs 
take it in turn to give the annual 
regatta, v?hich is attended by the 
very best of the English, Lrish and 
Scotch clipper yachts, and the prizes 
are nun:ierous and valuable. The 
Royal St. George's, estabhshed 1832, 
A^iralty warrant 1847, has a red 
burgee with a white cross, and the 
Royal Irish, blue burgee with a harp 
and crown in the centre. It was es- 
tabhshed in 1846, and the Admiralty 
warrant was given in the same year. 
The Boyal iUfred is a more recent 



club (1869); flag, red burgee, and 
foul anchor. H.B.H. the Duke of 
Edinburgh is the Commodore. It 
is a very flourishing one, and is 
distinguished for the fact that the 
meml^rs spend the whole of their 
subscriptions in giving prizes, and 
are characterized for their ** Cor- 
inthian" matches. The course for 
these races is occasionally from 
Kingstown to Holyhead and back, 
where the yachtsman has a good op- 
portunity of showing his skill in the 
disturbed waters between the Hill of 
Howth and the South Stack. 

Yachtsmen belonging to English 
and Scotch yacht clubs are treated 
with great courtesy by the Lish 
yacht clubs, being made, as a nile, 
honorary members during their visit. 

There are several rowing clubs in 
Dublin and Kingstown. The Kings- 
town Royal Harbour Boat Club has 
just built a very handsome club 
house near the eastern pier. The 
other rowing clubs are the University, 
the University Boat Club, the Dol- 
phin Rowing Club, the Conmiercial, 
the FitzwilUam, the Neptune, and 
the Kingstown Township. 

The space immediately fronting 
the harbour is the rendezvous of the 
military bands of the Dublin Garri- 
son, or the Band of the Royal Irish 
Constabulary, which in the season 
play twice a week. 

The town itself is straggling, most 
of the houses fronting the sea l^ing of 
a superior class to those at the b^k, 
after the fashion of watering-places. 
But the chief beauty of Kingstown is 
in the neighbouring scenery, particu- 
larly towards the S., where a short trip 
by rail, or a very moderate walk, will 
enable the tourist to climb the steeps 
of KilUney Hill, the antiquary to 
visit Killiney ch. and a number of 
minor objects, and the geologist to 
hammer away at the granite quarries 
(Rte. 27). But the traveUer who 
has to make the tour of Ireland will 
not have much time to spare, so he 
must enter the train en route for 

B 2 



Boute 1. — Bvhlin : Hotels, 



Ireland. 



Dublin, 6 m. distant. This line was 
opened first m 1834, and extended 
from Kingstown to Bray in 1854, it 
cost 63,000Z. per mile. Trains rmi 
express from Dublin to Kingstown 
^ before every hour, and then on to 
Bray. Others stopping at stations 
between Dublin and Kingstown run 
at every hour and every half-hour. 
The line follows the curve of Dublin 
Bay, displaying a constant succession 
of channing views, while inland are 
numerous terraces and viUas, and now 
and then a wooded park, with occa- 
sional peeps of the Dublin Mountains 
in the background. The stations on 
the line between Dublin and Elings- 
town, are Merrion, Booterstown, 
Blackroek, Sandymount, and Monks- 
town, and beyond Kingstown,Dalkey, 
Killiney, Ballybrack— all of tiiem ac- 
commodating a large suburban popu- 
lation. 

Dublin (Pop. in 1871, 346,826)— 
which the tourist enters at the ter- 
minus in Westland Bow. 

The City op Dublin, the metro- 
polJB of Ireland, is situated on the 
fihore of Dubhn Bay, and in the basin 
of the Liffey, which, flowipg from W. 
to E., divides the city into two parts. 
In addition to this river, two or three 
minor streams water it, viz., the 
Tolka, whidh accompanies the Mid- 
land Great Western Bly . on the N., and 
flows into the bay above the N. Wall ; 
the Dodder, which rises in the Dublin 
Mountains, and, skirting the southern 
suburbs, joins the Li£Eey close to its 
mouth at Hingsend. Few cities in 
the world have such a magnifi- 
cent neighbourhood as Dublin — par- 
ticularly on the S., where it abounds 
in mountain-scenery of a high order, 
approaching the city sufficiently near 
to form a background in many of 
the street-views. The " watery high- 
way '* of the Liffey ia a great land- 
msrk which can never be mistaken, 
as it divides the city into the northem 
and southern portions. A great 
thoroughfare, running N. and S., in- 
tersects the Liffey at rt. angles, con- 



sisting of Rutland Square, Sackville 
Street, Carlisle Bridge, Westmoreland 
Street, Grafton Street, and Stephen s 
Green. As almost all the pubhc 
buildings are within a radius of 5 
minutes' walk firom one or other of 
these thorough&res, the tourist need 
not fear losing his way to any great 
extent. 

Hotels. — There are very good 
hotels in Dublin. On the S. side 
are the SheUxmme, in Stephen's 
Green, in every respect excellent, 
table-d'hote at 7 ; Morriswn's (first- 
class), Dawson Street, with its prin- 
cipal apartments looking into Tri- 
nity College Gardens and Park; 
the JSibemian^ also in Dawson Street 
very well conducted; Macken's, in 
the same street, is comfortable, and 
much frequented by military men 
and bachelors; Maples*8 private 
hotel, in Kildare Street, is also to be 
recommended. At the N. side of 
the city is the BiUon, in Sackville 
Street, a family hotel, very good; 
tbe Qreshamy nearly opposite to it, 
also very good; the Imperial, oppo- 
site the Post-office, tolerable. In 
College-green there is a good com- 
mercial botel, Juries — same pro- 
prietor as the Shelbourne — ^where 
there is an excellent table-d'hote. 
There are, of course, many others of 
every grade, from the hotel to the 
ooffee-liouse, but the above will in- 
clude everything necessary. 

There are several dubs in Dub- 
Un. The KUdare Street Club, which 
has a very handsome elevation in 
Clare Street (T.N. Deane, archi- 
tect); the University, in Stephen's 
Green; the Stephen's Green Club; 
the Sackville Street Club; the 
Friendly Brothers ; the Leinster 
Club; and the United Service, a 
military club, in Stephen's Green. 

Street Conveyances. — Tramways 
were opened in 1872 between Nel- 
son's Pillar, Bathmines, Rathgar. 
and Terenure, also between Kings- 
bridge and Westland Bow, and hoo\ \ 
Nelson's Pillar to Sandymount. Tbey 



Ireland. 



Boute 1. — Conveyances ; Bridget. 



have Hmoe been eztend^^d from 
Nelson's Pillar to Donnybrook, Qlas- 
nevin, Clontarf, and DoDymount, 
also horn College Green to James 
Street and Drumcondra. and from 
Carlisle Bridge to Eingsbridge and 
the Phoenix Park. The various 
routes and times of departure will be 
found in the local rly. guides. Cabs 
and "outside'* cars are legion — 
the former are after the London 
fashion, but the cars and their drivers 
are indigenous and characteristic. 
To see Ihe city, a car must be taken 
—the fiuies being but 6d. for what 
is called a set-down, viz., a drive to 
and from any place within the Corpo- 
ration bounds, or what is called the 
" Circular Bead,*' 9 m. in extent ; spe- 
cial bargains to be made for stoppages 
or hiring by time. As a rule, the 
Dublin carmen are civil and obliging 
—considerably more so than their 
confreres in London. 

In describing Dublin in detail, we 
should begin by its main artery, the 
Liffey, which, rising in the mountains 
of Wicklow, near Sally Grap, takes a 
circuitous course by Blessington, Kil- 
cnllen, and Newbridge, from whence 
it flows nearly due E. through 
Leixlip, with its salmon-leap (Bte. 
14), the Strawberry-beds near Chapel- 
Izod, and past the Phoenix-park, 
where it may be said to enter 
the city. A little before reaching 
the Wellington Testimonial, it is 
crossed by (1) the Sardh Bridge (after 
Sarah Countess of Westmoreland, 
who laid the first stone). Close to 
the terminus of the Great Southern 
and Western Bly. is (2) tiie King's 
Bridge^ built in commemoration of 
George rV.*s visit to Lreland in 1821. 
This also is a single arch of 100 "ft. 
span, with abutments of granite, and 
cost 13,000Z., collected by public sub- 
scription. Passing on 1. the Royal 
Banacks, it reaches (3) Barrtick 
Bridge, which replaced one of wood, 
known as the Bloody Bridge, and con- 
sists of 4 semiciiculaf arches. The 
luime of the Bloody Bridge origi- 



nated from a battle (1408) " between 
the Duke of Lancaster and the Lein- 
ster Irish under their King Art- 
Cavanagh, in which the English were 
defeated with such slaughter that the 
river ran red with blood for 3 days." 
(4) The Queen's Bridge, buUt in 1768, 
has 3 arches, and is 140 ft. in length. 
Arran Bridge, which preceded it, 
was swept away by a flood. A very 
ancient structure stood where is now 
the (6) Wkitutorth Bridge, built dur- 
ing the rule of Lord Whitworth, 
Viceroy in 1816. It was formerly 
called, at different times. Old, Dublin, 
and Ormond Bridge, and was rebuilt, 
after a fidl, in 1427, by the Domini- 
cans, **tbr the convenience of their 
school at Usher's Island. This 
bridge, like the Arran, was swept 
away by the flood in 1812. In sink- 
ing for the foundation of Whitworth 
Bridge, it was discovered that the 
foundation of the Old Bridge rested 
upon the ruins of another still more 
ancient, which is supposed to have 
been constructed in King John's 
reign." — Currey. It may be men- 
tioned that Church Street and Bridge 
Street, the streets on either side, are 
two of the oldest in Dublin. 

Passing 1. the Four Courts is (6) 
Bichmon^ Bridge, of 3 arches of 
Portland stone, and with an iron 
balustrade. The heads on the key- 
stones of the arches represent on one 
side Peace, Hibernia, and Commerce ; 
on the other. Plenty, the Liffey, and 
Industry. The space on the N. be- 
tween the Whitworth and Richmond 
Bridges is almost entirely occiipied 
by the magnificent front of tlie Four 
Courts, forming one of the finest 
views in Dublin. 

(7) Essex Bridge was rebuilt in 
1874, under the auspices of the Dub- 
lin Port and Docks Board, from de- 
signs of their engineer, B. B. Stoney. 
It has a roadway of 50 ft., and path- 
ways of 12 ft. each. On the 1st of 
January, 1875, its name was changed 
to Grattan Bridge. The vista 
at the S. end of Parliament Street is 



BotUe 1. — DvbUn : Bridges ; Port. iRELAin). 



fonned by the colonnade of the Ex- 
change. 

(8) The Wellington Bridge^ more 
commonly known as the Metal Bridge, 
is a light iron bridge of one arch. A 
toll of a halfpenny is exacted here. 

(9^ The bridge par excellence of 
Dublin is Carlisle Bridge, nearly in 
the centre of the city, which the in- 
habitants consider, and not without 
reason, as the point from whence 
the finest view of the public build- 
ings and the river can be obtained. 
It connects the two leading thorough- 
fares of Sackville Street and West- 
moreland Street. The view on the 
N. embraces the former, with the 
Nelson Pillar and the General Post- 
oflSce; on the W. the numerous 
bridges, the Four Courts, and the 
towers of Christ Ch. and St. Patrick ; 
and on the £. the docks crowded 
with shipping, the quays, and the 
Custom House. Its width has been 
greatly increased by the Dublin Port 
and Docks Board, to meet the de- 
mands of the extended business 
trafSc of the city. 

The long line of quays on the N., 
from whence most of the steamers 
start, is called the North WaUj and 
at the end of it is a fixed light. 
The South Wall begins at Eings- 
end, near the mouth of the Dodder, 
and was erected for the purpose of 
guarding the harbour against the en- 
croachments of the South Bull Sands. 
It is really an astonishing work, con- 
sisting of large blocks of granite 
cramped together, and running out in- 
to the Bay of Dublin for nearly 3^ m. 
Half-way is the Pigeon House Fort 
and Arsenal, together with a basin 
which was much in request prior to 
the formation of Kingstown. At 
very end of the wall is the Pool- 
beg Lighthouse, bearing a fixed light. 

To guard the harbour against the 
sands of the North Bull, another 
work, called l^e Bull WaU, was 
erected. It runs from the coast 
near DoUymount in a S.B. di- 
rection to within a few hundred 



yards of the lighthouse. The Port of 
Dublin is managed by a body en- 
titled '* The Dublin Poi-t and Docks 
Board,'* whose unceasing energies, 
during many years past, has 80 
greatly increased the facilities of 
the port, that trading ships and pas- 
senger steam-packets can now enter 
it at all times of the tide. The Dublin 
Bar which, in 1830. gave only 7 feet 
at low water, now gives about 18 feet, 
and the river has been deepened all 
along the quays on both sides. 

The tonnage of oversea vessels 
trading to the port has increased 
from 74,688 in 1857, to 312,798 in 
1877, the tonnage of coasting ves- 
sels, colliers, &c., between Dublin 
and the ports of Great Britain, has 
increased from 880,844 in 1857, to 
1,193,781 in 1877, and during the 
same period the income derived from 
dues on shipping has risen from 
26,702Z. to 60,250Z. 

At the present time important en- 
gineering works for the formation of 
new docks are in progress. These 
will extend the lines of the North 
Quay into Dublin Bay, so as to pro- 
vide the increased accommodation 
which the steadily developing trade 
of the port demands. 

A new opening bridge will cross 
the river at the Custom House, and 
afford important facilities to the 
commeroial traffic from the north 
side of the city to the south. 

The other water highways of Dub- 
lin are the Royal Caned, a branch 
of which enters the city alongside 
of the Midland Great Western 
Kly., while the main channel follows 
the course of the Circular Koad, and 
fedls into the Liffey at the North 
Wall. The Grand Canal makes a 
coiresponding curve on the 8. side, 
emd mils in at Kingsend with the 
Dodder. At its moutn are the Grand 
Canal Docks, which are weU seen 
from the Kingstown Bly. 



Ireulnd. Bouie 1. — BcUlway Stations ; Fublic Buildings, 



BaUway Stations. 

Dublin possesses 5 rly. stats. : — 

1. The terminus of the Kingstown 
line at Westland Bow. 

2. The Bray and WicJdow Stat., 
Harcoort Street, is a plain, but mas- 
sive Doric building, approached by a 
broad flight of steps and a colonnade. 

3. The Great 8(mthem and Western 
Stat, at Kingsbiidge has afine, though 
rather florid Corinthian firont, flanked 
on each side by wings sunnounted 
by clock-towers. These three are all 
iu the S. quarter of the city. 

4. The Midland Great Western at 
Broadstone is a heavy building, of 
a mixture of Grecian and Egyptian 
styles. The interior arrangement is 
good. 

5. The Droaheda terminus in 
Amiens Street decidedly carries off 
the palm for architectural beauty, with 
its hght and graceful Italian facade. 

Most of the public buildings are 
situated within a short distance of 
each other. In fact, with a few ex- 
ceptions, there is scarce 10 minutes* 
walk between any of them ; and this 
circumstance contributes to the noble 
street views, for which the city is so 
famous. Occupying the angles of 
Westmoreland and Dame Streets, and 
forming one of the sides of College 
Green, is 

The Bank of Ireland, which pos- 
sesses an additional interest uom 
its haying been the Irish Parlia- 
ment House. It was purchased from 
the Goyermnent for 40,000Z., after 
the Act of Union, ^ the Bank of 
Ireland Company. The whole of it 
was built, though at three separate 
intervals, during the last cent., at a 
cost of nearly 100,0002. Externally 
it consists of a magnificent Ionic front 
and colonnades, the centre occupying 
three sides of a receding square. The 
prindpol porch is supported by 4 
Ionic pillars, and is surmoimted by 
a pediment with the Eoyal arms, 
and a statue of Hibernia, with Fi- 
delity and Conmierce on each side, 



the last 2 having been modelled by 
Flaxman. The open colonnade ex- 
tends round the square to the wings, 
and is flanked on each side by a 
lofty entrance arch. This main front, 
which was the earliest portion of 
the building, is oonnectea with the 
E. and W. faces by a circular screen 
wall, with projecting columns and 
niches in the intervals. The E. 
front, looking down College Green, 
was a subsequent addition, and, 
by some inoonsistency, possesses a 
Corinthian porch of 6 columns. 
Over the tympanum is a statue of 
Fortitude. The W. front is the latest 
of all, and has an Ionic portico. Ad- 
joining this side, which is in Foster 
Place, is a guard-room, approached 
by an archway with Ionic columns. 
Internally the visitor should see the 
principal Hall, or Cash Office, form- 
ing the old Court of Bequests, which 
is entered through the main portico. 
It is a handsome room, decorated 
in the same classical style as the ex- 
terior. James Gandon was the archi- 
tect of the Corinthian portico (the en- 
trance to the House of Lords, 1785). 
The entrance to the House of Com- 
mons, under an Ionic portico, was de- 
signed 'by Mr. Bobert Parke, 1787. It 
is not very clearly ascertained who 
was the architect of the original 
building, commenced during Lord 
Carteret's administration, in 1729. 

The old House of Lords is not 
particularly striking. In the re- 
cess where the throne used to be, is 
a statue by Bacon, of George HI., in 
his Parliamentary robes. Of more 
interest are 2 large tapestries of the 
Siege of Derry and the Battle of 
the Boyne. 

By making special application to 
the Secreta^, an order can be ob- 
tained to see the operations for print- 
ing the notes, me machinery for 
which is most ingenious. 

There are several other banks 
worthy of notice. The Boyal Bank 
in Foster PJace ; the National Bank, 
College Green, opposite the Bank of 



8 



Boute 1. — DvMin : Public Buildings. iBELAin). 



Ireland ; a few doors further on, the 
Hibernian Bank: also in College 
Green, the Provincial Bank, a fine 
new huilding ; and in Dame Street, 
the Munster Bank, with which is 
incorporated the old bank of the 
La Touches. 

The General Post-office is an exten- 
sive building on the W. of Sackville 
Street, and was built for 50,0002. in 
1815. In the centre is a portico, 
of Ionic character, with 6 fluted 
pillars and a pediment with the 
Boyal arms. The architect was Mr. 
Francis Johnston. Notwithstanding 
the balustrade and cornice round the 
exterior, the &ont has a bald appear- 
ance. 

The Cfistom House is on Eden 
Quay, not far from Gcirlisle Bridge. 
Externally it is the finest building in 
Dublin, possessing 4 decorated faces, 
of which the S., facing the river, 
is, of course, the principal. It was 
designed by Gandon, and the cost, 
with the adjoining Docks, was 
397,2322. This front has a centre 
Doric portico, with a sculpture in 
the tympanum of the Union of 
England and Ireland. They are 
represented as seated on a shell, 
while Neptune is driving away 
Famine and Despair. From the 
portico extend wings, the basement 
portion of which is occupied by open 
arcades, while the summit is finished 
off by an entablature and cornice. 

Flanking each end of these wings 
are 2 "pavilions," above which are 
the arms of Ireland. The other 
fronts are in the same style, but 
plainer, and the carrying round of 
the open arcades gives a very light 
and graceful effect. The interior is 
occupied by 2 courts and a cen- 
tral pile of building, from which 
springs a fine dome, crowned by a 
monster statue of Hope. The Cus- 
tom House possesses what very few 
London buildings can boast, viz., 
an open space all round, so as to 
allow it to be seen to advantage. 
When all the different Bc^s of 



Customs were consolidated into a 
general department in London, this 
building was well nigh emptied, but 
is now used as offices for the Poor- 
Law Commissioners, Board of Public 
Works, and Inland Revenue. 

The Exchange (Thomas Cooley, 
architect) is in Cork Hill, at the 
top of Dame Street, and commands 
from its portico a long avenue of 
streets, looking down Parliament St., 
Essex Bridge, and Capel St. It is of 
the Corinthian order, and is a square 
building with 3 fronts. The N. or 
principal face has a portico of 6 co- 
lumns. The entablature, which is 
highly decorated, is continued round 
the 3 sides, as is also an elaborate 
balustrade on the summit, except 
where interrupted by the pedinent 
of the N. portico. In the centre is a 
door, though so low that it is scaroely 
visible. Owing to the rapid indine 
of the street, tiie end of the texraoe 
at tiie W. is on a level with it, but on 
the E. is considerably higher. 

The interior is singularly arranged 
in the form of a circle within the 
square, and contains statues of 
George HI. by Boubillac; Dr. Lucas, 
some time MP. for Dublin, by Ed- 
ward Smith ; Grattan, by Chantrey ; 
O'Connell, by the Irish sculptor, Ho- 
gan ; and Thomas Drummond, who 
served the office of Under Secretary 
for Ireland with much distinction. 

The Commercial Buildings and 
Stock Exchange are in Dame St, but 
do not offer anything very special. 

The Four Courts is a splendid 
and extensive pile, occupying the 
whole area of King's Inn Quay, be- 
tween the Richmond and Whitworth 
Bridges. It was built at an ex- 
pense of 2O0,0OOZ. at the end of the 
last cent, a portion being the work 
of Mr. Cooley, tlie architect of the 
Rojral Excl^nge ; but atler his death 
the remainder was finished by Mr. 
Gandon. It consists of a centre, 
flanked on each side by squares 
recessed back from the front, the 
continuity of which, however, is 



lRELA2n>. Bouie 1. — Four Courts; King^s Inn; Castle. 



preserved by arcades of rusticated 
masoDiy. 

The principal front is entered nnder 
a portioo of 6 Corinthian oohimns, 
having on the apex of the pediment 
a statue of Moses in the middle, with 
Justice and Mercy on each side. 
This leads into the central division, 
which externally is a square block 
of buildings, snrmounted by a cir- 
cular lantern and dome. Internally 
the square is occupied by the Su- 
perior Ck>arts, 4 Courts of Chan- 
cery, Queen's Bench, Coomion Pleas, 
and Exchequer, each of which occu- 
pies one of the angles, leaving the 
centre of the dome free, to form 
a noble hall, which in term time 
is the high 'change of lawyers. The 
poneU over the entrances to the 
Courts exhibit : — 1. William the Con- 
queror instituting Courts of Justice ; 
2. King John signing the Magna 
Charta; 3. Henry 11. granting the 
first charter to the Dublin ii^bi- 
tants; 4. James I. abolishing the 
Brehon Laws. Between the windows 
of the dome are allegorical statues of 
Punishment, Eloquence, Mercy, Pru- 
dence, Law, Wisdom, Justice, and 
Liberty. Besides these 4 principal 
Courts the winga and other por- 
tions of the building contain severed 
minor ooixrts and ofiSces, which are 
almost entirely consolidated in this 
single locality. There is, however, 
another law establishment at the 

King's Jrm, fronting the Constitu- 
tion Hill, and nearly opposite to 
the Midland Great Western stat., 
though on a much lower level. 
BubUn did not possess an Inn of 
Court tmtil the time of Edward I., 
in whose reign Collet's Inn was 
established; this was succeeded by 
Preston's Inn, but both were in 
course of time pulled down, obliging 
tiLe societies to migrate elsewhere. 
Towards the close of the last cent, 
the present building was raised. It 
consists of a centre, crowned by an 
octangular cupola, and flanked by 
2 wings of 2 stories, surmounted 
by a pediment. Here the Irish law 



student eats his dinners to entitle 
him to be called to the Irish Bar. 
A similar number of dinners must 
be eaten in one of the English Inns 
of Court before he finally puts on 
the wig and gown in the 4 Courts 
of Dublin. In this establishment 
are held the Consistorial, Probate, 
and Prerogative Courts. 

The Castle is situated on high 
^ound at the top of Dame St., ad- 
joining the Hoyal Exchange. Archi- 
tecturally spec^ng, there is litUe 
to admire in either of the 2 courts 
round which the buildings are 
grouped. Entering by the prin- 
cipal gateway from Cork Hill is the 
upper quadrangle, containing the 
Viceregal apartments (on the S. side), 
and the offices of the Chief Secretary 
for Ireland and officers of the House- 
hold. Between the 2 entrances on 
the K. side the facade is surmounted 
by a cupola, from the top of which a 
flag is hoist^ on State days. 

The principal objecte in the State 
apartments are the Presence Chamber 
and St. Patrick's Hall or Ball-room, 
which contains a ceiling painted 
with the following subjects : — St. 
Patrick converting the Irish; 
Henry U. receiving the submission 
of the Irish chiefs ; and (in the 
centre) George HI. supported by 
Liberty and Justice. 

In the lower court are offices of the 
Treasury, Registry, Auditor-General, 
&c. ; and on the S. side the Bound 
Tower and the Chapel, 

The former building was erected in 
place of one more ancient, known 
as the Bermingham Tower, which 
was occasionally used as a State 
prison. It is also called the Ward- 
robe Tower, from the fact of the 
Royal robes, &c., being kept in it; 
but is now almost entirely occupied 
with the offices and staff of the Re- 
cords, which include in their valuable 
deposite the pedigrees of the nobility 
of Ireland since Henry VIII.; re- 
cords of grants of arms ; plea-roUs of 
all the Courts from 1246 to 1625 ; 
records of the Parliament ; referencecf 



10 



Boute 1. — Dublin : Castle ; Trinity College. Ibelakd. 



to all grants of manors, lands, titles, 
fairs, markets, &c. 

The Chapel is a single aisle, with- 
out nave or transept, and is altogether 
built of Irish limestone, in a style of 
late Grothic, with curious external 
decorations of heads, which are over 
90 in number, including all the 
sovereigns of Britain ; and over the 
N. door the rather singular juxtapo- 
sition of the busts of St. Peter and 
Dean Swift. 

It is lighted by 6 pointed 
windows on each side and a fine 
stained glass E. window: subject, 
Christ before Pilate. The present 
building replaced an older one in 
1814, at a cost of 42,0002. 

The erection of Dublin Castle at the 
commencement of the 13th cent, is 
ascribed to Meyler Fitzhenry, grand- 
son to Henry I. ; and the completion 
of it to Henry de Loundres, Arch- 
bishop of Dublin in 1228. It was 
then built for and held as a fortress, 
and was defended by a single curtain 
wall and several flanking towers, 
surrounded by a deep moat. In the 
reign of Ehzabeth it was appro- 
priated »a the residence of the Vice- 
roys, which honourable duty it has 
ever since fulfilled, at least ofiQcially, 
as it is only on State occasions that 
the Lord-Lieutenant makes his ap- 
pearance here. The Castle may be 
said to be the seat of the Irish 
Grovemment, as from hence all the 
orders of the Chief Secretary are 
issued, together with the direction of 
af^drs, military, and police. The 
courts are seen to best advantage in 
the forenoon, when the guard is 
changed to the pleasant accompani- 
ment of a full band. The great ex- 
citement takes place, however, during 
the season, when the Vicerov gives 
his levees, to which all Dublm (that 
is eligible) makes a point of going. 
On the festival of St. Patrick (,the 
17th of March) his Excellencv, ac- 
cording to ancient custom, exhibits 
himself on the balcony with a bunch 
of shamrock in his buttonhole, and 
the military bands play national 



airs. The ball in the evening of this 
day is the grand affair of the season. 
It is held in St. Patrick's HaU. 

At the bottom of Dame St., and 
forming a grand point of junction 
for Dcmie, Grafton, and Westmore- 
land streets, is 

Trinity College, the cradle of much 
learning and wit, and the Alma Mater 
of as long a roll of names honour* 
able in science and literature as al- 
most any seat of learning in the world 
can boust. The principal £ront is 
a Corinthian feicade, £Etcing College 
Green; while the main premises, 
occupying altogether an area of 30 
acres, run back a considerable dis- 
tance, occupying the interval between 
Nassau and Brunswick streets. The 
interior is divided into several 
quadrangles. The first, or Parlia- 
ment Square, contains the chapel, 
marked externally by a colonnade 
of Corinthian pillars ; on the S. 
side the theatre for examinations, 
in which are portraits of bene- 
factors and one of Elizabeth, the 
foundress of the University; also a 
monument to Provost Baldwin, 1758, 
who bequeathed 80,000Z. ; the re- 
fectory, or dining-hall, in which are 
portraits of Henry Flood; Chief 
Justice Downs; Grattan; Frederic 
Prince of Wales; Cox, Archbishop 
of Cashel ; Provost Baldwin, &c 

The Lihraryt in Library Square, is 
a fine building, 270 ft. long, also of 
the Corinthian order. The interior is 
conveniently fitted up for the purpose 
of reading, and contains 140,000 
printed volumes and 1500 manu- 
scripts, together with many rare 
curiosities, such as the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics collected by Silt the 
traveller. Connected with this room 
is one in which is deposited the 
Fag:el Library, so called from its 
having been the property of a family 
of that name in Holland. The 
sanctum sanctorum, however, is the 
Manuscript - room, in which are 
Archbishop Usher's collection. Val- 
iancy's Irish MSS., Johnston's Ice- 
landic MSS., and Overbuiy's MSS. 



Ibeland. BoiUe 1. — Museum ; Obaervaiory; Nehan's Pillar, 11 



of Persia. Of Irish MSS. "the ool- 
lectioii in Trinity College consists of 
over 140 vols., several of them on 
vellmn, dating from the early part of 
the 12th, down to the middle of the 
last cent. There are also beautiful 
copies of the Grospels known as the 
Books of Eells and Durrow; and 
Dinma's Book, attributable to the 
6th and 7th cents. The Saltair of St. 
Bicemarch, Bishop of St. David's in 
the 11th cent., contains also an ex- 
quisite copy of the Boman Martyr- 
ology, and a very ancient Hiero- 
njmian version of the Gospels, the 
history of which is unknown, but 
which is evidently an Irish MS. of 
not later than the 9th cent. ; also the 
EvangeUstarium of St. Malins, Bishop 
of Ferns in the 7th cent, with its 
ancient box, and numerous Ossianic 
poems relating to the Fenian heroes, 
some of very great antiquity." — Prof. 
O'Ourry. 

A new Museum has been built, 
in the College Park (architects Sir 
Thomas Deane, Son, and Woodward). 
The old Museum, over the entrance 
gateway to the College, contains a 
number of interesting though miscel- 
laneous articles, and amongst them 
the harp of Brian Boroimhe, whose 
son Donogh presented it to the Pope 
in 1023. In his turn he gave it to 
Henry VIII., who passed it over to 
the first Earl of Clanricarde, and from 
him through several hands, until it 
finally rested here. 

Besides the squares described, there 
are Park Square and Botany Bay 
Square, principally for the accom- 
modation of students. On the N. side 
of the former is the Printing House, 
entered by a Doric portico. 

To the S. of the Librair is the 
FeUowi^ Garden, with the Magnetic 
Observaioryf the first of the kind 
ever estabUshed. The Transactions 
of the British Association embody 
most of the scientific observations 
that have been carried on here by 
Prof. Uoyd and the Irish astronomers. 
Adjoining these gardens is a pleasant 
park for me use of the students, well 



planted and laid out, and looking on 
to Nassau St. At the W. end, facing 
Grafton St., is the Provost's House. 
The Univermty dates from 1591, when 
Archdeacon Usher (afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Armagh) procured from 
Elizabeth a charter and '* mortmain 
licence for the site of the dissolved 
monastery of All Saints." The con- 
stitution of the Corporation at present 
consists of a provost, 7 senior lellows, 
28 junior fellows, and 70 scholars, 
and the average number of students 
is about 1500. The income of the 
College from land is about 36,4782. 
annually, and 27,3542. from students. 
—TTiom. 

The Boman CcUkolic University is 
situated on the S. side of Stephen's 
Green. It is quite modem, having 
been only esteblished in 1854. Dublin 
does not possess many public statues 
or monuments. The principal one 
is 

Nelson's PiUar, occupying a con- 
spicuous position in the centre of 
Sackville Street. It is a Doric co- 
lumn, 134 ft. in height, the summit 
of which is crowned by the statue of 
Nelson leaning against the capstan 
of a ship. It is worth ascending for 
the sake of the panorama of the city. 

The statue of the Pbinoe Consobt, 
by Foley, erected in 1872, stands 

The Wellington Testimonial — de- 
scribed at p. 16. 

In College Green is a bronze eques- 
trian Statue of William III., on a 
marble pedestal, — the object of ve- 
hement adoration and hatred in 
years gone by, when it was the 
custom to decorate it with orange 
ribbons, as the usual prelude to a 
party fight. Fortunately the strong 
arm of the law has stepped in to 
control those passions which could 
not be guided by moderation and 
common sense. 

Also in College Green is a statue 
of Henry Grattan, by Foley, erected 
in 1876. 

In front of the Mansion House (the 
residence of the Lord Mayor during 
his year of office), in Dawson Stree^ 



12 



Bonie 1. — Dublin : Scientific Societies. TlBELASH. 



is an equestrian statue of George I. 
In Stephen's Green there is one of 
Greorge 11. ; and on the N. side one to 
the late Earl of Eglinton, Lord Lieu- 
tenant of L-eland ; and George III. is 
placed in the Bank of Ireland and 
the Boyal Exchange. A memorial to 
the late Sir Philip Orampton, Bart., 
her Majesty's Surgeon in Ordinary 
in Irelajid, has been erected at the 
top of Brunswick Street It is by no 
means in good taste. There is one 
to the poet Thomas Moore in College 
Street. Statues to Oliver Groldsmith, 
and to Edmund Burke, both by 
Foley, stands in the front of Trinity 
College, facing College Green, and 
at the end of Westmoreland Street, 
close to Carlisle Bridge, there is a 
statue to the memory of William 
Smith O'Brien. 

The Boyal Dublin Society holds 
its meetings in Kildare Street, 
formerly the residence of the Duke 
of Leinster, the grounds extending 
as &J ba<;k as the N. side of Mer- 
rion Square. It boasts the honour 
of being the oldest Society in the 
kingdom, for it was incorporated in 
1750, and has been in the enjoyment 
of Parliamentary grants for more 
than 90 years. Parliamentary grant, 
1870-71, 75331, including charge 
for Botanic Garden. The visitor 
can see the library (which contains 
30,000 vols.) daily, on introduction 
by a member ; and the Natuiul His- 
tory Museum on Mondays, Wednes- 
days, and Fridays, free— on the re- 
maining days on payment of Qd. 

The Museum of the Boyal Irish 
Academy, 19, Dawson Street (Par- 
liamentary grant, 1870-71, 1684Z.) 
should be seen by every student of 
Irish history and antiquities. Visi- 
tors are admitted on a member's 
introduction, or on application to the 
Librarian. Strangers are invariably 
treated with courtesy and attention 
on visiting the public institutions. 
It contains a complete and classified 
series of early remains of all kinds 
that have hitherto been found in 
Ireland, for the admirable arrange- 



ment of which not only the Aca- 
demy, but every antiquary owes a 
debt of gratitude to the late Sir W. 
Wilde, who devoted an immense 
amount of time and knowledge in 
rendering the Museum an expoeition 
of the social features of the oountiy 
from the earliest times to the present. 
The catalogue written by him is more 
a history of Irish Antiquities than a 
mere catalogue. 

The visitor should pay particular 
attention to the department of celts, 
arrow-heads, and flint implements; 
also some exquisitely beautiful earth- 
en mortuary urns, the work of which 
will bear the most minute inspec- 
tion. Amongst the gold ornaments 
is the Cross of Cong (Bte. 25), 
*'made at Roscommon by native 
Irishmen about 1123, and contain- 
ing what was supposed to be a piece 
of the true Cross, as inscriptions in 
Irish and Latin in the Irish character 
upon two of its sides distinctly re- 
cord. The omamente generally con- 
sist of tracery and grotesque animals, 
fancifully combined, and similar in 
character to the decorations found 
upon crosses of stone of the same 
period. A large crystal, through 
which a portion of the wood which 
the cross was formed to enshrine is 
visible, is set in the 'centre, at the in- 
tersection." — Wilde. 

The Boyal CoUege of Science, for 
Ireland^ formerly the Museum of 
Irish Industry, was established undei 
the authority of the Science and Art 
Department, London, 1867. The 
College is governed by a Dean of 
Faculty and Council of Professors 
( Parliamentary grant, 1 870 - 71 , 
6793Z.), and is well yrorth. a visit. 
It is on the E. side of Stephen's 
Green, and contains a series of geo- 
logical, mineralogical, and chemical 
specimens, to exhibit the economic 
resomt^s of Ireland. 

The office of the Geological Surtfey 
is No. 14, Hume Street. No geolo- 
gist, about to visit the interior of the 
country, should leave Dublin without 
consulting the officers of the Survey, 



Ireland. Boute 1. — National GaUery ; Christ Ch. Cathedral. 13 



who are at all times most ready and 
anxious to famish information. 

The National GaUery of Ireland, 
on N. side of Leinster Lawn, opened 
1864, is devoted to collections of 
worfa of the Fine Arts, the lower story 
to scalptnre, the upper to paintings. 
The cciet has been defrayed by the 
Dttrgan Testimonial Fund and Parlia- 
mentaiy grants, amounting in all to 
about 26,OOOZ. 

On the opposite side of the 
Square is the Museom of Natural 
History. The bronze statue of Mr. 
WUIiam Dargan stands on the site of 
the Great Exhibition building of 1853, 
inaugurated by his munificence. He 
advanced 80,0002. for the purpose. 
Her Majesty offered him the honour 
of a Baronetcy, which he declined. 

The Royal Hibernian Academy, 
where there is an annual exhibition 
(open from May to July) of Painting 
and Sculpture, is in Abbey Street, 
off Sackville Street. Annual Par- 
liamentary grant, 3002. 

In addition to the Libraries of the 
University, Lish Academy, and Dub- 
lin Society, there is a public one 
known as 

Marsh's or 8t Patrick's Library, 
open to everybody, and situated close 
to St Patrick's Cathedral. It con- 
tains about 18,000 vols., and amongst 
them the whole of the collection of 
StillingfLeet, Bishop of Worcester, 
which was purchased and placed 
there by Archbishop Marsh in 1694. 
Dublin possesses two cathedrals. 
The CcUhedral of Christ Church is 
situated a little to the S. of the river, 
and to the W. of the Castle, in an 
unprepossessing neighbourhood. It 
is said to have been founded in 1038 
by Sihtric, son of Anlaf, Eling of the 
Danes, or Ostmen of Dublin ; and lest 
there should be any jealousy between 
the two cathedrals, an agreement was 
made tiiat Christ Church should have 
the precedence as being the elder, 
but that the Archbishops should be 
buried alternately in the one and the 
other. As it stood, since the resto- 
.ration in 1833, it was a venerable 



cruciform ch., consisting of nave, 
transepts, and choir, with a rather low 
tower rising from the intersection. 

At the time of the disestablish- 
ment of the Irish Protestant Church 
it was in anything but a creditable 
condition, notwithstanding its his- 
torical and architectural importance, 
and there was some question of hand- 
ing it over to the Roman Otholic 
Church, when Mr. Henry Eoe of 
Mount Annville Park, Dundrum, 
wrote to the Archbishop of Dublin, 
March 31. 1871— offering as "a 
thank-offering to the Great Head of 
the Church for mercies granted to 
me, and for prosperity far greater 
than I have either desired or de- 
served," the sum of 16,0002. for its 
restoration ; the amount required 
according to Mr. Street's first esti- 
mate. Gradually, however, the 
scheme of restoration developed it- 
self, and the erection of the Synod 
Hall was added to it, until finally 
more than 200,000^ was required, 
and munificently supplied by Mr. 
Boe. 

The original ground-plan of the 
choir and chapds has been deter- 
mined by examination of the crypts 
below, which display a short apsidal 
choir or presbytery projected east- 
ward from the central tower. An 
aisle or procession-path passed round 
this apse, and opened eastward into 
a square-ended chapel, North and 
South, with a larger chapel also 
square-ended, projecting somewhat 
beyond them in the centre. 

The transepts showed Transitional 
Norman work, the date, however, 
corresponding to what is usually de- 
scribed as Early English. Two of the 
original arches remained in the choii'. 
From these and fragments found 
in the walls, the style of the original 
builders was determined, and this has 
been followed so far as present re- 
quirements permit, rather than the 
work of the intermediate restorers. 

The restoration has swept away 
the mean houses and decaying walls 
of the exterior ; the stunted tower 



14 



Boute 1. — Dvhlin : St, Patrick 8 Gafhedrai, Irelakd. 



has been raised, and crowned with 
battlements and turrets, and a low 
spire. The exterior details are well 
harmonised; the gables are sur- 
mounted by crosses of varying de- 
sign. 

The Baptistery projecting from 
the second bay of the nave is a 
beautiful feature of the exterior seen 
from the North side. The West 
front is well seen from the street 
ascending from the river. 

The Southern portion of the nave 
which had fallen has been rebuilt in 
harmony wiih the North. The choir 
is the finest portion of the new work. 
The apse or cbevet has one wide 
central arch. The triforium and 
clerestory are in one broad and long 
division, the design based on that of 
the nave. The windows throughout 
the building are filled with stained 
glass. The old Lady Chapel has 
been replaced by a building of 2 sto- 
ries, to be used as the choir schools. 

The Synod House, approached by a 
covered bridge crossing the street at 
the South end of the nave, contains 
the grand central Hall of Convoca- 
tion of the Irish Church ; galleries 
for divisions ; rooms for the bishops 
and clergy, refreshment rooms, &c. 
It is built in strict harmony with 
the Transitional and Early English 
architecture of the cathedral. 

The restored — or we might say 
rebuilt cathedral — was opened on 
May Ist, 1878. 

Its younger sister, the Cathedral of 
8t, Patrick^ is situated more to Ihe 
S., between Stephen's Green and 
the district known as the Liberties. 
It is a fine cruciform ch. with a 
low tower surmounted by a granite 
spire rising from the N.W. angle, 
and is a good example of the E^iy 
Pointed style. The spire, however, 
is an addition of the last cent 
" The body of the ch. consists of a 
nave with aisles ; a N. and S. tran- 
sept, each with a western aisle; a 
choir with two aisles of great length, 
in comparison with the nave ; and a 
Lady Chapel. The aisles of the 



choir are carried out beyond the E. 
end as far as half the length of the 
Lady Chapel, which, on the exterior, 
appears almost detached, as it is so 
much lower than the choir. The 
latter is supported by flying but- 
tresses over the aisles, one of which 
at each angle is very remarkable 
for the period at which it was 
erected, being carried diagonally, 
the usual mode being to have them 
at right angles to the sides and 
end.** The expense of the restora- 
tion was entirely defrayed by the 
late Sir Benjamin Guinness, Bart, 
the well-known brewer, who devoted 
over 150,0002. to this noble work. 

The W. (Perp.) window was pre- 
sented to the Cathedral by Dr. Sbw- 
son, the late Dean. 

The choir is 90 ft. IcHig. "It 
was formerly roofed with stone 
flags of an azure colour, and in- 
laid with stars of gold; but the 
weight of the roof being too great 
for the support underneath, it was 
removed, and discovered traces of 100 
windows.** — Currey. It contains the 
throne of the Archbishop, and the 
prebendal stalls and those of the 
Knights of St. Patrick, over each one 
being the helmet, sword, and banner 
of the order. 

There is a good triforium, and the 
arches in the S. transept lE^ould be 
particularly noticed. 

St. Patrick's contains a laiger 
and more interesting collection of 
monuments than Christ Church. 
The principal are those of Arch- 
bishop Smith, 1771 ; Bishop Marsh, 
the founder of the library ; the 
Earl of Cavan, 1778; Dean Swift 
and Mtb. Hester Johnson, otherwise 
"Stella,* who are buried side by 
side in the same grave. The bitter- 
ness of the epitaph on the Dean's 
monument sumdently reveals its 
author : — 

** Vhl amy. Indignatio nlterioB oor Uaatn 
neqult." 

In the choir is a slab in memory of 
J)vke Sehomberg, hero of the Battle 



Irelai^. 



Boute 1. — Churches. 



15 



of the Boyne, with an epitaph by 
Swift, which gave mortal offence to 
George I., who declared that "the 
Dean of St Patrick s had put it there 
out of malice in order to stir np a 
quarrel between himHeif and the King 
of Prussia, who had married Schom- 
berg's granddaughter." At the S.W. 
comer of the nave is one of those 
immense and massive monuments 
in which ihe family of the Earls of 
Cork seemed to delight, and which 
contains a large number of figures, 
remarkable for the freshness of the 
colouring. In th^ upper part is 
Dean Weston ; and beneath him. 
Sir Geoffi-ey Fenton and his wife. 
StQl lower are the Earl and Countess 
of Clork, with 4 sons kneeling by them, 
and at the bottom are their 6 daugh- 
ters, together ^gtb a child, supposed 
to be Sir Robert Boyle. 

The remaining monuments of 
note are those of Sir E. Fytton, Lord 
President of Connaught, in the 8. 
aisle of the Rev. Charles Wolfe, 
author of * The Burial of Sir Thomas 
Moore,' and (in the N. transept) 
of the 18th Royal Irish, represent- 
ing the death of Col. Tomlinson at 
Chappoo, and the storming the Pa- 
goda at Rangoon. There is a bust 
to the memory of John Philpot 
Curran, by Christopher Moore the 
sculptor. A portion of the S. tran- 
sept was formerly known as the 
Chapel of St. Paul or the Old 
Chapter House, and is said to have 
been .the prison of the Inquisition. 
In it should be noticed the steps and 
enamelled tiles leading up to the altar. 

The organ is fine-toned, and 
was originally built for a church in 
Tigo. At the time of the restoration 
of the Cathedral it was practically 
rebuilt. 

Anoong the most noticeable of ihe 
Dublin churches are the following : — 

On the S. side— i5t. Audoen^s, be- 
tween Christ Church and the Corn 
Market. Here are some good speci- 
mens of Early Pointed architecture, 
although in ruins ; the only portion of 
the eh. that is used being the N. aisle 



of the ancient building, which con- 
sisted originally of a double aisle, 
separated by 6 octagonal columns, 
supporting pointed arches. The choir 
and side aisle were built by Lord Port- 
lester, who also erected a tomb with 
the recumbent figures of a knight 
and his lady. This ch. is the burial- 
place of Dr. Parry, Bishop of Kil- 
laloe; Sir Matthew Terrell, 1649; 
and the Molyneux family ; and con- 
tains several monuments of wood. 

St. Werberg*8, near the Castle, 
has a mixed front and several stories 
of the Corinthian and Ionic orders. 
In the interior are monuments of 
ecclesiastics and knights; and in 
the vaults lie the remains of Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald, who died of 
wounds received during his arrest 
in 1798. This ch., like its sister in 
Bristol, is dedicated to St. Werberg, 
daughter cf Wulfhere, King of 
Mercia. 

St. Andrew' 8,hetweeD. Grafton and 
Dame Streets, is a beautiful building. 

On the N. side of the Liffey are 
St. Michan*8, near ihe Four Courts, 
the vaults of which were celebrated 
for the extraordinary powers of pre- 
servation of the bodies within it. In 
some cases the corpses of people who 
had been buried for 30 years were 
found to be perfectly free from de- 
cay, a circumstance in all probability 
attributable to the extreme dryness 
of the vaults, and the ability of the 
stones to resist moisture. In these 
vaults are buried Dr. Lucas, once 
M.P. for Dublin, Jackson, Oliver 
Bond, and also the brothers Sheares, 
who were executed for high treason 
July 12, 1799. 

In the very N. of the city near 
Mountjoy Square, is St. George's, 
which has a lofty tower, steeple, and 
nortico, erected in 1802 from designs 
by Johnston, at a cost of 90,0002. 

The remaining chs. do not present 
any very particular objects of inter- 
est. They are St. Michael and St 
John's, St. Kevin's, and St. Peter's, 
all in the neighbourhood of Christ 
Church and St. Patrick's; St. 



16 



Boule 1. — Dublin : Phoenix Park. 



ISELAtlD. 



Ana's, in Dawson Street (where 
Mrs. Hemans and GsBsar Otway 
are buried, and where the musical 
service is well done), St. Bride's, 
St. Mary's, St. Stephen's (in Upper 
Mount Street), St. Catherine's, St. 
James's, St. Paul's,' St. Luke's, and 
St. Mark's; and a handsome Pres- 
byterian ch. in Eutland Square, 
erected by A. Findlater, Esq. 

Of the Roman Catholic Churches, 
the tourist should see the Metro- 
politan Chapel in Marlborough St. 
(opposite the Model and Training 
Schools of the Commissioners of Na- 
tional Education in Ireland, well 
worth a visit), which has a Doric front 
with a hexastyle portico raised on a 
platform, and a peaiment ornamented 
with figures of the Yirgin, St. Patrick, 
and St. Lawrence O'Toole. The inte- 
rior has a nave and aisles, and a beau- 
tiful white marble altar. 

8t. Andrew' i, with a fine spire, near 
the Westland Row Terminus, is 
worth visiting for the sake of a fine 
group representing the Transfigura- 
&on, the work of Hogan, one of the 
greatest sculptors that Ireland ever 
produced. 

The Church of St. Saviour's, in 
Dominick St., has one of the most 
elaborately decorated fronts in the 
whole city, and a particularly elegant 
rose-window. A new chapel, in good 
taste, has recently been built at 
Phibsborough in the N. of the city. 

The Phcenix Park — so called, ^- 
cording to Dr. Walsh (who wrote a 
history of Dublin), from Feiniski or 
Fionn-usig (clear water), there being 
a chalybeate spring in theneighbour- 
hood — is in truth an adjunct of which 
any city might be proud, containing an 
area of 1752 acres, of which 1300 are 
open to the public. Here there are 
frequent military reviews, polo 
matches, &c., for which it is scarcely 
possible to have a more suitable 
place. There is also a beautiful 
cricket-ground, where there are 
frequent matches. The principal 
objects in it are the WeEUngton 



Testimonial, near the S.K gate, a 
massive obelisk, on a pedestal of 
granite, on the 4 sides of which are 
panels and inscriptions commemo- 
rative of all the victories gained by 
the Duke during his long career. 
The total height of the obelisk is 
205 ft., and the cost of it was 
20,0002. From the kndl on which 
this memorial is placed, as also from 
the Magazine Fort a little to the £., 
some of the finest views of Duhlin 
are to be obtained. A piece of 
^ound near the Dublin gate to the 
Park has been laid out as a flower- 
garden and promenade, which is 
open free to the public. This gar- 
den, called the People's Garden, is 
frequented by persons of all classes. 
— Thom,, There is a bronze statoe 
here to the memory of the Earl of 
Carlisle, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

In the N.E. portion of the Park 
are the 2!oological Gardens (annual 
Parliamentary grant 500Z.), which 
contain a tolerable collection. Also 
the Lodge, which is the principal 
residence of the Lord Lieutenant, 
the houses of the Chief and Under 
Secretary, and the Barracks of the 
Royal Irish Constabulary, of which 
force there are about 12,000 in 
Ireland. Near to the W. are the 
Mountjoy Barracks, and on the S. 
side is the Hibemia Military School 
where 400 boys, sons of soldiers, are 
educated. 

The western extremity extends as 
far as Castleknock, and the Straw- 
berry Beds on the N. bonk of the 
Liffey. No tourist should quit Dub- 
lin without taking a drive round the 
Park. 

Returning to the city, 

The Botunda, at the top of Sack- 
ville St., is a fine series of public 
rooms, used for oonoerts and meet- 
ings. Externally, however, it is 
ecUpsed by the superior architecture 
of the Lying-in Hospital, which has a 
Doric ^iqade fronting towards Grt^at 
BritainSt., and flanked on each side by 
Tuscan colonnades terminated by por- 






Irelani). 



BofUe 1. — Kilmainham Hospitah 



17 



ticoes. It ifi a matter of regret that 
such a splendid line of building was 
not placed alittle more to the.E., where 
it would have terminated the yista of 
Saekville St. Such was the original 
intention, had not the founder, Dr. 
Moore, quarrelled with Lord Mount- 
joy, who was the owner of the 
ground. 

Kilmainham HaspHal, a little to the 
S.W. of Kingsbridge, is built on the 
site of the old priory of Kilmainham, 
an establishment of Knights Tem- 
plars, in 1 174, and was turned into an 
asylum for invalid soldiers in 1690. 
Here the Commander of the Forces 
in Ireland resides, and has his official 
staff. There are generally about 
20,000 troops stationed in Ireland, 
and the barracks in Dublin and its 
vicinity (8 in number) are large 
and commodious. The Hospital con- 
sists of a quadrangle encircling a 
court, said to have been built fitnn 
designs by Sir Christopher Wren. 
The visitor vnll see in the dining-hall 
a collection of portraits <^ celebrities 
of the 17th and 18th oeii^ The altar- 
screen in the chapel is oi Irish oak, 
carved by GrinUng Gibbons. 

At Earlsfoot Terrace, in a space of 
ground at the S. side of Stephen's 
Green, formerly known as the Ckburg 
Gardens, there is a haudsome build- 
ing called t)ie '* Exhibition Palace." 
It was here that the International 
Exhibition of 1865 was held, and 
which was opened by the Prince of 
Wales. Oratorios and concerts on a 
large scale are given in the Palace. 
Dublin possesses several musical So- 
cieties ; and there is no place where 
music of a high and clasbic cha- 
racter is more appreciated. Handel 's 
'Messiah,' it is said, according to 
the tradition preserved among the 
choir of St. Patrick's, Christ Church, 
and Trinity College, Dublin, and 
from other conclusive evidence, was 
first performed in Dublin.* 

The Theatre Boyal, opened in 

* yidt ' Townaend'g Account of Handel's 
visit to Dablin.' (McOlashun, 1842.) 
[Irefewid.] 



1821, is in Hawkins Street; the 
Queen's Theatre in Great Brunswick 
Street ; and a new one is about to be 
erected at the top of Grafton Street. 
The sites of the celebrated old 
theatres of Smock Alley, Fishamble 
Street and Crow Street, are scarcely 
recognizable. Gilbert, in his ad- 
mirable History of Dublin, says, 
**0n a portion of the site of Pres- 
ton Inn, and extending westwards 
from Essex Gate to Fishamble Street, 
at the rear of the lower Blind Quay, 
stands a narrow street formerly styled 
' Smock Alley,' memorable in the 
history of the drama as having been 
for upwards of a century the site of 
the principal theatre in Ireland/' 
Fishamble Street Theatre was in 
Fishamble Street, a street still in 
existence, and the site of Crow Street 
Theatre can still be seen. There is, 
or was a very short time ago, a por- 
tion of its eastern wall standing in 
the lower part of Fownes Street, in 
which are traces of the entrance-door 
to the gallery. In one or other of 
these ** play-houses," from time to 
time, the greatest representatives of 
the drama appeared — Wilks, Far- 
quhar, Doggett (famous for the coat 
and badge left to the best sculler of 
the Thames), Peg Woffington, Tho- 
mas Sheridan (father of Bichard 
Brinsley Sheridan), Kitty Clive, 
Spranger Barry— all natives of Ire- 
land. Garrick frequently trod the 
Irish boards; and later on, Mrs. 
Siddons, and Miss O'Neill, now Lady 
Becher. 

The remaining institutions of 
Dublin are the Royal CoUege of 
Surgeons on the £. side of Stephen's 
Green (the Anatomical Museum 
of which is well worth seeing;, 
Stevens' Hospital, City Hospital, 
Sir Patrick Dunn's, Simpuon's, 
Mercer's, Swift's Hospitals, Rich- 
mond Lunatic Asylum, and many 
others of lesser note; indeed, few 
cities are so well provided with institu- 
tions and societies for charitable pur- 
poses of all sorts. 

c 



18 



Boute 1, — DMin: Environs. 



Ibelaio). 



The antiquary will perhaps be dis- 
appointed in the modem aspect of 
Dublin, and in the few old build- 
ings that remain. Indeed, with the 
exception of the ancient Arehiepis- 
coped PaJeice in Kevin St., now used 
as a police barrack, there are no 
houses left prior to the commence- 
ment of the last cent. The Liberties 
will however fomish many specimens 
of the time of Queen Anne,, particu- 
larly in Rainsford St. They were 
once the abode of the rank and fashion 
of the period, but at present the popu- 
lation tiiat inhabit them are not of the 
choicest description, and the tourist 
may possibly obtain from them more 
notice than may be agreeable. 

The Historical Reminiscences con- 
nected with existing buUdings are 
scanty. Deaa. Swift was bom 30th 
Nov., 1667, in No. 7, Hoey^s Court, 
the house of hi»imcle Godwin Swift, 
now pulled down and its site taken 
into the Castle grounds. " Stella " 
lived in Swift's Row, leading from 
Ormond Quay to Jervis Street, N. of 
the Liffey ; Lord Edward Fitzgerald 
was arrested in Thomas Street. In 
the same street Lord Eilwarden was 
dragged from his carriage by the 
mob at the execution of Emmett. 
In Bridge Street the house is pointed 
out where the Committee of the 
United Irishmen assembled. It was 
here that Emmett was arrested. 
Thomas Moore, the poet, was bom at 
No. 12, Aungier Street, facing Great 
Longford Street, 30th May, 1780. 
Mrs. Hemans lodged and died at 21, 
Dawson Street. 

Dublin is famed for the manu- 
facture of poplinSj and there are 
several first-rate establishments for 
the special sale of this beautifal 
material. A little work, issued by 
Messrs. B. Atkinson and Co., manu- 
facturers, of 31, College Green, 
Dublin, entitled 'PopHn; a Short 
History of its Manufooture and In- 
troduction to Ireland,' states *' that 
the manufacture of poplins is con- 
fined exclusively to Dublin, and 



owes its origin, like other of our 
manufactures, to the persecution 
of French Protestants. When the 
Edict of Nantes was revoked by 
Louis XIV., in 1683, thousands of 
Huguenots left France and emi- 
grated to other countries. Many 
came to England, and some, pene- 
trating as far as Ireland, set up 
their looms in Dublin in 169B. 
Poplins are formed by the union of 
silk and wool, but the combination 
is so skilfully made, that whilst the 
surface of the texture is pure silk, 
the interior is composed of the finest 
wool." 



Environs. 

Kingstown by rail has been al- 
ready described (p. 2). Trains run 
3 times an hour through the day. 

DoNNYBBOOK (tram-cars from Nel- 
son's Pillar every 20 minutes), on 
the N. bank of the Dodder, celebrated 
for its fair, which with its noisy 
mirth and pugnacity was known 
throughout all the civilised world as 
the arena for breaking heads : — 

" An Irishman all In his glory was there. 
With his sprig of shillelagh and shamrock 
so green." 

It is now fortunately abolished, for, 
though the humours of Donnybrook 
were many, they were far counter- 
balanced by the riot and misery that 
the fair occasioned. Continuing S. 
this roadleadstoSriLLORGAN, passing 
a great many villas and residences, 
amongst which that of Mount Mer- 
rion, belonging to the late Lord 
Herbert of Lea, is conspicuous on ri 

Bathmineb, 2 m., titun-cara fn>m 
Nelson's Pillar, is a very populous 
and respectable suburb, aluiough 
it formerly had an infamous noto- 
riety for the slaughter of the early 
English colonists of Dublin by the 
Irish of Wicklow. 

Bathtabnham, 3} m. Tram-car 
from Nelson's Pillfur to Terennre. 
Here is the College of St Oolumba, 
for the education of students for the i 



Ireland. 



Boute 1. — Suburbs. 



19 



Protestant ministry. The castle was 
formerly the seat of the Lofkus family, 
and, more recently, was occupied by 
the late Lord Chancellor Blackbume. 
The grounds are pretty, and worth 
driving through. If the tourist wishes 
to ascertain what romantic scenery 
exists near Dublin, he may follow 
up the Dodder to its source in 
Glanasmole, or the Valley of the 
Thrush, a river which Wordsworth 
was accustomed to say was not much 
inferior to the Duddon. Southward 
the road leaves to 1. the Loretto Con- 
vent, and continues through Will- 
hrook to Bray, passing on rt. Mount 
Venus with its cromlech, and so 
through the Scalp (Rte. 27). 



To LucAN, through Chapel Izod 
and Palmerstown, the road runs 
past the Royal Hospital of Eilmain- 
bam, and crosses the Great Southern 
and Western Rly. at Inchicore. 
Chapel Izod is supposed to have 
obtained its name from La Belle 
Isode, a daughter of one of the Irish 
kings who possessed a chapel here. 
The lands that formerly belonged 
to the Knights Templars of Kilmain- 
ham, came into the possession of the 
Knights of Jerusalem until the dia- 
solution of the monasteries, when 
they were seized by the Crown, and 
taken to enclose the Phoenix Park, 
which, though on the opposite side 
of the river, is in this parish. 
A little further on is Palmerstown, 
which gave a well-known title to 
the faimly of Temple. Adjoining 
the village are Palmerstown House 
ftnd St. Lawrence House, both on 
the S. bank of the Liffey. 

9 m. Lucan (Rte. 17). 



To Clondalktn, by road either 
from Kilmainham, turning off from 
the Lucan road at Inchicore, or by 
^ more southerly course near the 
village of Crumlin. 3J m. on rt. is 
the weU-preserved castle of Drim- 



nagh, a remarkably perfect bawn 
and fosse. It was considered a 
place of great strength during the 
rebellion of 1641. 

6^ m. Clondalkin, a pretty village 
and station on the Great Southern 
and Western Rly., is famous for its 
round tower, the construction of which 
Dr. Petrie likens to that of Bronllys 
Castle in Breconshire. Clondalkin is 
remarkable for its projecting base 
nearly 13 ft. in height, and com- 
posed of solid masonry. " The aper- 
tures are all quadrangular, the jambs 
of the doorway inclining as in those 
of the oldest churches." The total 
height is 84 ft. 

The abbot St Mochua, who lived 
in the 7th cent, was the founder 
of the see of Cluain Dolcain, an 
ecclesiastical establishment of great 
importance. Nothing is now left to 
mark it but the tower, and a granite 
cross in the ch.-yard. The tourist 
can return to Dublin by raiL 



The road to Blanchardstown is 
on the N. bank of the river, imme- 
diately opposite the preceding and 
skirting the whole length of the 
Phoenix. It then passes the gate of 
Enockmaroon, and through the vil- 
lage of Castleknock to Blanchards- 
town 6 m. (Rte. 17). 



Glasnevtn. Tram-cars from 
Nelson's Pillar. (^Olas Naeidhen, 
"Naeidhen's brook") is a very 
pretty northern suburb, tram-cars 
every 20 minutes from Nelson's 
Pillar, the way to it running past 
the Midland Great Western Stat, at 
Broadstone and then through Phibs- 
borough. It next crosses the Liffey 
branch of the Royal Canal, leaving 
on L the Prospect Cemetery, where, 
amongst many other national cele- 
brities, the remains of John Philpot 
Curran lie buried. A very ugly and 
conspicuous Bound Tower 1ms been 
erected to the memory of O'Connell, 

o 2 



Soute 1. — Dublin: Ctmvei/anees. 



whole bodr voB placed in the crypt 
beneath it' in 1869, 

Glasnevin is faroonB for its Bo- 
tanical tJatdem, vhich ue upwards 
of 30 acres in eiteot— perhaps the 
moat beautiful in the ktngdum — and 
contain a fine collection of exotic 
~' ■ " [ to the Royal 
1 viBitor should 
9 ferns itk the 

icana, tiie fem 
The deraeene 
3 "ardens ori- 
1 Tiehell the 
here; indeed, 
neighbourhood 

fit others, me 
win, Delacey, 

Obiervatnry of 
)Q with Trinity 
ifesaor of Aetro- 
a. The tourist 
le Bake of the 
te from the ele- 
li the building 



liM, where there 
not only cele- 
rigiu, which is 
y nearly from 
k, but in later 
of May sports, 
the world, and 
relics of the 



«ars erery 20 
I's Pillar, and 
I per day. The 
jiffey branch of 
then the Tolka 
leaving to tho 
rumcondm Oh. 
Butler). The 
Cloutaif (Ir. 



Ireland. 

Cluain-tarbb, " meadow cf hullB": 
are Marino, the seat of the Eaild 
Charlemont, aud Clontarf Cestle 
(J. E. Temon, Esq.), a beautiful 
mansion of " mixed Elizabethan ud 
castellated styles." Here waa foi^M 
the great battle of Clontarf on GaA 
Friday, 1014, between the Danes un- 
der Sihtric, and the Irish under theii 
hing Brian Boroimhe, who receivd 
his death-wound on this oecafflon, 
together with 11,000 of the flower of 
his army. The Irish, notwithstand- 
ing their loss, were triumphsnt. and 
the decUne of the Danish pontf v"! 
he dated from thia action, altboogli 



protect! the harhoor of Dublin from 
the aanda of the N. Bull (p. 6). 

Convei/aneee from Dublia : — In 
addition to the local Bsrvicea esta- 
blished for the use of the dli. 
railways radiate to all quulen 
of t^e compass: 1. To Drogbeda, 
Dundalk, Newry. and Belfast, by '''^ 
Dublin and Drcf>hedB line in Amiens 
at.; 2. To MuUingar, Cavan, Long- 
ford, Athlone, RoaoommOD, OasOe- 
bar, Bligo, Westport, BaUioaaloe. 
and Galway, by the Midland Gre« 
Western (Broadstone) ; 3. To Kinp- 
to«n, Bray, and Wicklow. from Weil- 
land Row and Iforcourt St. ; 4. Eil- 
dare, TuEamore. Maiyborough, Kil- 
kenny, Waterford, Mallow, KilUr- 
ney, Tralee, Limerick, Cork, by Ibc 
Great Southern andWestem (Kjng'- 
bridge). Coaches and oars to Abh- 
bourne, Baltinglass, Blessiagton. 
Clonee, Garriatown, Wexford, and 
Eiiniskeny. Tramways to KiiiK«- 
bridge, Sandymonnt. Teremure. 
Dnimvondra and other snhurbs 
already named. Steamers to Eng- 
land. Scotland and Wales, see Jatro- 
duction. 

A brief notice of some prominent 
events in the history of Dublin may 
not be anintereBtin^, althongh io 
give it in detail would be tu 
writs the history of Ireland. The 



Ibelahd. 



Bonte 1. — Day Excursions. 



21 



name oi Eblana is occaaionally given 
to it because a city of this name 
is mentioned as existing in the 
same latitude by Ptolemy ; but with 
more probability it acquired its appel- 
lation from Duibh-linne, the Black- 
water ; *' in £Eict, so called from a lady 
named Dubh, who had been formerly 
drowned there. The Danish or 
English name Dublin is a mere 
modification of Duibh-linne, "Dubh's 
pool/* but the native Irish have al- 
iirays called, and still do call the 
city Ath Oliath, orBail^ AthaCliath, 
the Ford of Hurdles, or the Town 
of the Ford of Hurdles."— O'Cwry. 
Tradition says that in the time of 
St. Patrick, the Danes, or Ostmen, 
were well established as merchants, 
and we hear of his celebrating mass 
in one of the vaults of the cathedral 
built by them for storehouses. In 
the 9th cent., however, they en- 
tered &$ conquerors, and &om this 
d[ite tile annals of Dublin present 
very stormy details of wars and 
fights between the Ostmen and the 
native Irish. But the power of the 
Danes in Dublin received its great 
overthrow at the battie of Glontarf 
(p. 20), although they still kept 
possession of Dublin and founded 
Christian churches in the reign of 
Sihtric, 1038. 

In the same cent. Godfrey, King of 
Man, overran Dublin, and for some 
years exercised his sway. But on his 
death we find the city in the hands 
of native Irish rulers until the in- 
vasion of Wexford by the English in 
1169, who under Strongbow occu- 
pied it with the ostensible view of 
assisting MacMurrogh, Kingof Lein- 
Hter, against his enemy Bory O'Conor. 

The principal subsequent events 
were — ^tne arrival of Henry II., who 
granted a charter to the inhabitants ; 
the erection of the castle by King 
John; the attack and partial de- 
struction of Dublin by Edward 
Bruce in 1315; the coronation of 
Lambert Simnel in 1486 ; the rebel- 
lion of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, com- 



monly called Silken Thomas, during 
the reign of Henry VIII. ; the land- 
ing of Cromwell in 1649 ; and the 
insurrection of Robert Emmett in 
1803. The intervals between these 
dates, especially down to the 17th 
cent., were characertised by repeated 
outbreaks and attacks made by 
native Irish, who presumed on the 
weakness of the Government. 



DaT ExCfUBSIONS FBOM DlTBLIN. 

Tourists who have time to spare, 
and wish to oonibiue the comforts of 
a good hotel and tlie luxuries of 
town life with the enjoyment of beau- 
tiful scenery, will do well to stay at 
Dublin, Kingstown, or Bray, and 
from thence visit the following places, 
returning each day to their hotel to 
sleep ; if in Dublin, tiiey may, in the 
evening, visit the theatres, musical 
and other entertainments with which 
Dublin is usually well provided. 

The itineraries from Dublin and 
descriptions of the places will be 
found in the routes to which refer- 
ence is made below. 

Northtoard, 

1. Maynooth, see Bte. 17. 

2. Trim, Kells, &c., especially in- 

teresting to the antiquary, 
see Rtes. 18 & 19. 

3. Malahide and Swords (Rte. 2). 

4. Howth, &0. (Rte. 2). 

Southward, 

1. Killiney (every tourist should 

walk to tlie top of Kilhney 
Hill), Bray. 

2. Dargle, Powerscourt, Holly- 

brook, the seat of Sir George 
Hodgson, Bart. (Rte. 27). 

3. Kilruddery, Glen of the Downs, 

Devil's Glen (Rte. 27). 

4. Roundwood, Lugo:elaw, Lough 

Dan and Lou^h Tay (Rte. 27). 

5. Rathdrum, and car to Yale of 

Clara, Glendalough, and 7 
churches (Rte. 27). 



22 Botde 2. — Dublin to JDrogheda and Dundalk. Ireland. 



6. Rathdrum and Yale of Avoca 

(or this may be taken in a 
long day with No. 5 (Rte. 26). 

7. Killakee, Lough Bray, Glencree 

(reverse of Rte. 27). 

8. Sugar-loaf Mountain. 
Several of these excursions, as 

will be seen by reference to the map 
and distances, may be made wholly 
or partially on foot. Thus, by tak- 
ing rail to Rathdrum, a moderately 
good pedestrian may visit Glenda- 
lough. Vale of Clara, &c., or walk 
up the Vale of Avoca. He may 
combine No. 4 and 7, resting at 
Roundwood and crossing to Dublin 
by the mountain road ascending the 
Luggelaw Mountain, not forgetting 
to enjoy the view from the shepherd's 
cottage, then over the Military Road 
by Sally Gap to Lough Bray, pass- 
ing Glencree Reformatory, over to 
Killakee and the grounds of Mrs. 
"White, and to Rathfarnham and 
Terenure, where he may take the 
tram-car to Dublin. 



ROUTE 2. 

DUBLIN TO DROGHEDA AND DUNDALK. 

Starting from the stat. in Amiens 
Street, a graceful building with 
an Italian facade, the rly. is 
carried through the N.E. part of 
the city on a viaduct, crossing the 
Royal (banal by a fine iron lattice- 
beam bridge of 140 ft. span, and 
soon emerging on the sands of 
Clontarf Bay, which axe traversed 
by an embankment 30 ft. high. On 
1. is a granite bridge of 8 arches, 
known as the Annesley Bridget over 
the Tolka River, which here empties 
itself into the bay. From the em- 
bankment a very charming pano- 
ramic view is gained on every side, 
embracing the city with its forest of 
masts and chimneys, and the whole 
coast as &x as Kingstown, backed 



up by the Dublin and Wicklow 
Mountains, while inland are nume- 
rous villas and handsome seats. On 
1. is the gateway of the mansion of 
Marino, the seat of the Earl of 
Oharlemont ; and rt. is the pleasant 
suburb of Clontarf, with Clontarf 
Castle (J. E. Vernon, Esq.), and 
many oliier residences, as described 
in the environs of Dublin (Rte. 1). 

At Ij m. the line crosses the 
Howth turnpike-road, having on L 
Mount Temple and Donnycamey 
House, and soon enters the deep Kil- 
lester cutting in the black calp lime- 
stone, through which it is carried for 
IJ m. to JRaheny. On 1. of the rly. 
is KiUester ruined ch. and abbey. 
Artane, ^ m. 1., was the scene of 
a cruel murder perpetrated in 1534 
on John Allen, Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, and one of Wolsey's prote'gfe, 
when flying from the resentment 
of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald. "It 
is universally supposed that Fitz- 
gerald, moved with compassion, and 
intending only to have the pre- 
late imprisoned, cried out to the 
people in Irish, * Take away the 
clown,' but the attendants, wil- 
fully misconstruing his words, beat 
out the bishop's brains." On rt, 
close to the line, is Furry Tark (T. 
Bushe, Esq.), formerly the seat of the 
Earl of Shannon. 

3f m. Bdheny Stat., or more properly 
Ral^eny, from its situation near an 
ancient rath, still to. be traced. 
In the neighbourhood are Baheny 
Park and Sybil Hill (J. Barlow. 
Esq.). From hence the line passes 
through an undulating count^, oc- 
casionally affording pleasant peeps 
of coast scenery. 

4| m. Junction Stat. 



D4tour to Howth and IrelanSa Eye- 

From this point the rly. to Howth 
turns off to rt. On the shore are the 
remains of Kilbarrock Ch., onoe the 
votive chapel for all mariners of the 
bay of Dublin. It contains some 



Ireland. 



Boute 2. — Howth, 



23 



roTmd-headed and pointed arches. 
In the 13th cent, the manor 'was held 
by the tenure of presenting a pair of 
furred gloves to tiie Mng. 

6f m. Baldoyle Stat. From the 
bridge, crossing the line, there is a 
very lovely view of the promontory 
of Howth, with the roclgr island of 
Ireland's Eye a little to the N. 

On rt is Sutton, famous for its bed 
of oysters. Large quantities of dolo- 
mite or magnesian limestone have 
been quarried from the rocks in this 
vicinity. 

8^ m. Howth. Hotel: Hoyal. 
The hiU of Howth (Banish, Hoved, 
"head"), so dear to all the in- 
habitants of Dublin, is "an ele- 
vated promontory connected with 
the mainland by a sandy isthmus, 
and forming the northern entrance 
of Dublin Bay, over which it is ele- 
vated 560 ft. above low-water mark." 
The town, which is on the N. side, 
consistB of one street running along 
the edge of the cliff, and overlooking 
the Harbour, 52 acres in extent, 
and enclosed by 2 fine piers. Owing 
to the difficulties of the tmder- 
taking, the cost was very great (no 
less than 300,0002.), a large portion of 
which might have been saved by the 
choice of a more judicious spot. It 
once enjoyed the advantages of being 
the point of arrival and departure 
for the ^English packets, but since 
the selection of Kingstown the tragic 
of HovHh has become very small, 
and chiefly confined to coasters and 
fishing-smacks, Eoglish, Manx, and 
Irish; large vessels cannot enter. 
There is a fixed lightliouse at the en- 
trance of the harbour. The ch., or 
abbey, is situated on a precipitous 
bank above the sea, and is surrounded 
by a strong embattied wall. It is of 
the date of the 13th cent., and is a 
single-bodied building, the nave se- 
parated &om the aisle by 6 pointed 
arches, the 4 most westerly of which 
spring from rude quadrangular 
piers. The W. front is entered by 
a lound-headed doorway, and sur- 



mounted by a bell-turret of 2 stages. 
" The porch in connection with the 
northern doorway is a very unusual 
feature in Irish churches, a fiict not 
easily to be accounted for, as they 
appear to have been common in 
England during every age of Gothic 
architecture." — Wakeman, Howth 
Ch. was founded in the 13th cent, by 
a member of the &mily of St. Law- 
rence, who held the manorial estates 
of Howth, and whose original name 
was Tristram. It is related of Sir 
Armoricus Tristram that, being about 
to encounter the Danes at Glontarf, 
he made a vow to St. Lawrence, the 
patron saint of the day, that he would 
take his name as a surname if suc- 
cessful. The tomb of Christopher, 
20th Lord Howth (1580), stands in 
the nave, near the E. gable. It is 
an altar-tomb, containing recum- 
bent figures of a knight and lady, 
the former with his feet resting on 
a dog. On the sides are the armorial 
bearings of the St. Lawrences and 
Plunkets. The Castle (the seat of 
Lord Howth) is on the W. side of 
the town, and is a long and irregu- 
lar battlemented building, flanked 
by square towers. The hall contains 
a collection of weapons, and amongst 
them the 2-handed sword said to 
have been wielded by Sir Armoricus 
on the occasion of the battle of Glon- 
tarf (p. 20). There is also a painting 
representing the abduction of yoimg 
Lord Howth by Grace O'Malley, in 
the time of Elizabeth. Having landed 
at Howth, she requested the hospi- 
tality of its lord, which was refused, 
the family being at dinner with the 
doors shut. She therefore seized the 
son and heir and carried him off to 
her castle of Oarrigahooly, where she 
detained him until she had ex- 
tracted a promise from Lord Howth 
that the gates of his castle should 
be always thrown open during meals. 
In the upper apartments is the bed 
used by William III. on his visit to 
Ireland. The whole of the peninsula 
of Howth has been in the hands of 



24 Bouie 2. — Dvhlin to Ih'ogheda and Dwndalk, Ikelasd. 



the present fiimily ever since their 
earliest arrival from England in the 
13th cent. The walk through the 
grounds leading up to the hills is 
very charming. 

An excursion of 2 m. across the 
hills will bring the tourist to the 
Baily Lighthouse, one of the most 
prominent objects that greet the 
Eaglish traveller by night or day as 
he approaches the Bay of Dublin. It 
is finely situated on a peninsulated 
perpendicular rock,l 10 ft. above high- 
water mark, and in form is a frustrated 
cone, exhibiting a fixed white light. 
In an adjoining room a telescope is 
kept '''by means of which the shoals 
which obstruct the entrance to the 
bay may be observed, viz. the Great 
Kish, the Bennett, and Burford Banks, 
which are links of the chain extend- 
ing along the Wicklow and Wexford 
coasts, and known as the Irish 
Grounds. '* It was erected in 1814, the 
light that previously existed on the 
summit of the hill being uncertain on 
account of the mists which so often 
shrouded the head. An ancient 
stone fortress formerly occupied the 
site of the Baily Lighthouse, from 
whence the name (Ballium) was pro- 
bably derived ; and it is believed 
that these remains, which are still 
faintly visible, indicated the resi- 
dence of Crimthann-Niadhnair, who 
reigned over Ireland about the year 
10 ; and whose sepulchral cairn 
crowns the summit of Sliath Mar- 
tin. The whole of the coast scenery 
on the &> of Howth Hectd is very 
fine, particularly at the so-called 
"Lion's Head," and the NeedLss 
or Giindlesticks, some bold isolated 
rocks, a little to the W, of the Baily. 
Indeed it would be difficult to over- 
rate the beauty of the views from any 
part of the hill, but more pacticularly 
towards the 8., extending over the 
magnificent sweep of Dublin Bay 
and the Wicklow Mountains. On 
the eastern side of Ben Howtht 
which rises in the centre of the pro- 
montory to- the height of 560 ft., is 



8t. Fintans Ch,^ a remarkably sBiall 
building of the date of the 13th cent. 
Internally it measures only 16^ ft. 
by 7 ft. 8 in., and is lighted by 5 
windows of various forms, deeply 
splayed in the interior. There ifi 
a lancet doorway in the W. gable, 
which is surmounted by a dispro- 
portionate bell-turret. A little dis- 
tance off is the well of St. Fintan. 
Between this ch. and Howth Castle 
is a large dismounted cromlech, once 
formed of 10 supporters, and covered 
by a quartz block, 8 ft. in depth and 
about 18 ft. square. 

There are 2 Hotel* on the penin- 
sula besides the one in Howth, viz. 
Byrort\ near Sutton, and the Baily, 
near the lighthouse. 

As regards geological position, 
the coast of Howth affords clear 
sections of Cambrian rocks, princi- 
pally quartz, separated from each 
other oy bands of greenish-grey 
slate dipping to the S.W. At a point 
called the Cliffs, on the S. coaist, ia 
a large green homblendic dyke; 
while the formation of the Needles is 
of quartz rock resting on porphyritic 
greenstone. At the extreme end of 
the Nose of Howth, on the N.E., Dr. 
Kinahan foimd Oldhamia antiqua. 
The hills in. the centre of the district, 
such as Ben Howth, Longhoreen, 
Dang Hill (on which is the old light- 
house), are also formed of thick beds 
of quartz. ** Taking Howth as a 
whole, it presents hardly a feature 
in common with the Cambrian rocks 
of Wicklow or Wexford, with the ex- 
ception of some of the quartz rock 
masses, and the occurrence of green 
grits and slates at some points. 
Whether Cambrian or Silurian, it 
seems to occupy a horizon distinct 
from any rocks hitherto examined 
on the eastern coast." — Geoiogical 
Survey. Towards the N. and W., 
from the harbour of Howth to the S. 
part of the southern shore, the car- 
boniferous rocks (lower limestone) 
are visible. The glaceation of both 
shores of the neok of land conneoting 



Ireland. Boute 2. — Irdand^s Eye — Malahide. 



25 



Howth ^th the mainland shoald be i 
noted. Erica cineiea and Aspleninm 
Tnaj^imum have their habitat here. 

1 m. to the N. of Howth is the 
small island of Ireland's Eye (Dan- 
ish oe, "island"), a wedge-shaped 
mass of quartz rock resting on con- 
torted Cambrian grits, forming a 
good natmul breakwater for the 
harbour. It contains the mins of 
an ancient chapel founded in the 
6th cent, by St. Nessan, which 
was £imons for possessing a copy of 
the Four Gospels, called the " Gar- 
land of Howth," and of great sanc- 
tity. Kot many years ago the 
island obtained a less enviable noto- 
riety, from a terrible murder of a 
Mrs. Kirwan, wife of an artist of that 
pam& He was convicted: it hav- 
ing been proved that he was the only 
other person on the island at the time. 



Beturn to Main Boute. 

From the Howth Junction the 
line continues northward, having 
on 1. Grange House ; and crosses 
the Mayne River to 6f m. Port- 
mamock, a small village close to 
the shore, which is of so smooth a 
character as to have obtained the 
name of the Velvet Strand. The 
botanist will find here Ammi majus, 
Alyssum minimum, Equisetum varie- 
gatum, Garex extensa, Schienus ni- 
gricans. 

The singular ch. of St. Dou- 
hikghj 1 m. 1., has puzzled anti- 
quaries from the incongruity of its 
style, uniting the high stone roof 
of very early Irish date, with the 
pointed features of the 13th cent. 
It is an oblong oh., 48 ft. in length, 
from the centre of which rises a low 
sqnaie tower with graduated battle- 
tnents. *' A projection on the S. waU 
of the tower contains a passage lead- 
ing from the npper part of the build- 
ing to an exceedingly smaU cham- 
ber, in the E. wall of which are 2 
^dows, one commanding the only 



entrance to the cb., the other an 
altar in an apartment or chapel 
between the tower and the W. 
gable." — Wakeman, At the E. is 
a 2-light pointed window, while 
another of the same date, but with 
cinquefoil heads, occupies a singular 
position near the base of the S. side 
of the tower. **The vaults of the 
lower apartments form the floor of a 
croft, occupying uninterruptedly the 
whole length of the building. The 
roof is double, of an extremely high 
pitch, and between the 2 is a small 
dimly-lighted chamber.'* The Well, 
outside the ch.-yard, is covered in 
by an octagon-shaped, stone-roofed 
building, and has a circular interior, 
formerly decorated with religious 
paintings. Close by are a stone 
cross, and a subterranean bath 
known as St. Catherine's Pond. 
7^ m. 1., in the grounds of Grange, 
are the remains of an ancient fort. 
Still more on the 1., conspicuous 
by a windmill on its summit, is the 
SiU ofFeltrim, in the mansion-house 
of which James H. passed a night on 
his flight from the Boyne. Passing 
Hazelbrook, Beechwood House, and 
Broomfield, beyond which on the 
shore are remains of a castle known 
as Roebuck or Rob's Wall, the line 
arrives at 

9 m. Malahidb {Hotel: Royal, 
good), a somewhat dull bathing- 
place, frequented by the Inhabit- 
anta of Dublin, and situated at the 
mouth of a considerable estuary, 
called Meadow Water. 

The chief attraction to visitors 
is the Cattle of Malahide, the an- 
cient baronial residence of Lord 
Talbot of Malahide, whose family 
has been seated here for more 
than 700 years. The visitor is 
admitted on presenting a card, 
to be obtained at the hotel. The 
castle was founded by Richard Tal- 
bot, who received a grant of the 
lordship in the reign of Henry II., 
and is still an interesting building, 
though modem alterations and addi- 



ItorUe 2. — IStdahide — Steordt. 



fiona liBTe teen mftde, not altogetlier 
in the best tuste. As it at prpsetit 
Bbtnds, it is an ivy-covered building. 
Saiiked on each Bide by a sleader 
dnuD tower, witti Irish stepped battle- 



The o 



.t the 



is very moiiero. The principal fea- 
turea of interest in the interior are, 
an oak panelled room, with an elabo- 
rately carved chimnoy-pieoe, repre- 
eentog the Conception r reapectinK 
which the following legend is told. 
From 1653 the caetle was inhabited 
by tte regicide MilesCorbetf(*7yeare, 
during which time tlie figure of the 
Vii^in Mary took miiaeulouB flight, 
never appearing again until Ihe un- 
holy tenant haJ fled. The dining- 
hall, a fine lolly room, contains the 
original oak roof and gallery, with 
many fiunily portraits, amonpat which 
are Charka L and Henrietta Maria by 
id Ann Hyde 
ilnne (Sir O. 
rd Tyrconnel, 
and in James 
Iso a painting 
Albert Durer, 
irv Queen of 
ed by Charles 
as others by 
■ke. &e. The 
>cunienl8 of a 
i IV. to the 

is the ruined 
building, of 
led by a good 
trefoil win- 
perpendicular 
bete is also a 
the little bel- 
rocketed ogee 
altar- tomb of 
Tolne of Grif- 



rell ii 






celebration of 
ing her maid. 
I day, though 

hard l^bot. 

3d by her re- 



cumbent efflgy in Hie costume of the 
ISth cent. 

Delour to Swordt. 
3 m. to L of HflJahide is- the 
village of Siaordi, remarkable for its 
ch.. round tower, and caatle. It vas 
formerly a place of some importance, 
a ch. having been founded here in 
512 by St. Columb, which y/oM solHe- 
queoUy made the seat of a bishtq)' 
ric, under the jurisdiction of St. 
Finian. The round tower is 73 ft. 
in height, and vary perfect, even to 
the conical cap on the suminit It 
has a tower quadrangular doorway 
'i ft. above the level of the grounit, 
with a second apeiture of nearly the 
same shape, 20 (I. above the grouud. 
The castle, or the archiepiaeopal re^ 
sideuce, conaiats of long ranges of 
embattled waits flanked by aquare 
towera. It is said to have lieeu 
destroyed, together with tbe town, 
no less than 4 times by tbe DanES. 
Adjoining the round tower is 
ch. of the 14th cent., to whii 
is appended a modem excrescence 
formiugthebody of the building, la 
the neighbourhood of Swords are 
Braeienstown House, the seat of 
R. Mandera. Esq.. in whose grounds 
is a large ratb ; and Balhcary House 
(H. Baker. Esq.). 

Seturn to Main SouU. 

The line now crosses the estuary 
for H m. by means of a considerable 
embankment, divided in the centre 
by a timber viaduct set on piles. 
There is a fine view &om it over 
Malahide. Idmbay Island, and the 
promontoiy of Portraine. 

Hi m. To the 1. of DonabaU 
Stat., are the remains of the sqoare 
castle of Donabate, "the church of 
the boat." also Newbridge Hooee, 
the seat of the family of Cobbe. in 
whose demesne are the ivy-covered 
ruins of Landestown Castle : also on 1. 
i« Tursey House, the eatate of Lord 






Trimleston. On rt., overlookiDg the 
shore, is Porlraney the castellated 
seat of J. Evans, Esq. Close to 
the sea is a modern round tower, 
erected to the memory of a former 
member of the family by his widow. 



Irelahd. Boute 2. — LaTtibay Island — Baldcmgan Castle, 27 

with Irish stepped battlements. The 
further side is flanked by a round 
tower of undoubted antiquity, mea- 
suring 7| ft. diameter at its base, 
though deprived of its conical apex. 
The body of the ch. consists of 2 
aisles, divided by a range of blocked 
pointed arches, and contains a richly- 
decorated monument to Sir Christo- 
pher Bamewell and wife (16th cent.), 
** by whom he had issue 5 sons and 
15 daithers.*' Underneath the tower 
is a crypt in which the founder 
was buried, and this crypt, "being 
termed in Irish *lu8ca,' is supposed 
to have given name to the locality." — 
D^ Alton. In the black carboniferous 
shales of Lough Shinny, in which 
copper has been worked, may be 
found the fossil called " Posidonomya 
Becheri." 

15 m. rt. is Kenure Park^ once the 
residence of the Duke of Ormond, 
and now of Sir W. H. R. Palmer, Bart. 

16 m. 1., on an eminence, are the 
ruins of Baldangan Castle^ "the 
town 'of the fortification.'* Some 
square towers and walls are all now 
left of this once fine fortress, which 
formerly belonged to the De Berming- 
hams,from whom it passed to the Lords 
of Howth, and subsequently held out 
in 1641 for the confederates of the 
Pale, against the Parb'amentary army. 
Portions of a ch. are also visible. 
Passing rt. Hacketstown (J. Johnston, 
Esq.), and 1. 1 m. Milverton House 
(G. Woods, Esq.), the traveller ar- 
rives at 18 m. SkerrieSt a thriving 
little fishing harbour anciently called 
Holmpatrick, from a tradition that 
St. Patrick once landed here. The 
islands of the Skerries lie a short 
distance out. They are 3 in number — 
Red Island, Colt, and St. Patrick's ; 
beyond which is the Rock o' Bill. 
Connected at low water with the 
mainland is Sherricks Island, on 
which there is a martello tower. 
There is a lighthouse on one of the 
Skerries islands showing a red re- 
volving light. 

At Barnageera, 19 m., the antiquary 



Lambay Island, 

3 m. off the coast. It is the 
Limniiis of Pliny, the cli£Gs of 
which, rising to the height of 
418 ft., form a beautiful feature in 
the scenery. Geologically speak- 
ing, it consists of a mass of dark 
porphyry, overlaid at Kiln and 
Scotch Points (the S.E. and N.E. 
respectively) by grey Silurian lime- 
stone and grey slates. Both Kiln 
Point and the shore at Portraine 
are capital fields for Silurian fossUs, 
especially in the matter of trilo- 
bites and gasteropods. "There is 
a curious old polygon building evi- 
dently constructed for defending 
the place, which its battlements and 
spikeholes command in every direc- 
tion : it has been built entirely on 
arches without timber." — JU* Alton. 
The cHfGs of Lambay were the scene 
of the vnreck of the iron steam- 
vessel 'Tayleur.' The lands of 
Portraine, in which barony Lambay 
is included, were formerly given by 
Sihtric, the Danish King of Dublin, 
for the endowment of a Christian ch. 



Betum to Main Boute. 

14 m. Btuh and Lush Stat. Bush 
is a small maritime village on the 
rt., possessing no feature of interest ; 
but the visitor should by all means 
see the round tower of Ltuk 1 m. 1. 
An abbey was founded in the 5th 
cent, by St. Macculind, who is sup- 
posed to have been buried here. 
The chief peculiarity of the ch. is its 
square embattled steeple, probably of 
the latter time of E. E., supported 
on 3 sides by slender round towers. 



28 



Boute 2. — BaJbriggan — Betaghstown, 



Ibeland. 



may see a couple of sepulchral tu- 
muli, which in 1840 were opened, 
r 'elding a cofSn and hones. On 
are Ardgillan, the castellated re- 
sidence of the Bight Hon. Colonel 
Taylor, M.P., and Hampton HaU (H. 
A. Hamilton, Esq.). 

Ahout 1 m. 1. is Balrothery, the 
ch. of which possesses a peculiarity 
similar to Lusk in having a round 
tower flanking one of the angles of 
the steeple. As the line runs close 
along the coast, fine views are obtained 
in a northerly direction of the head 
of Ologher, above which, in clear 
weather, the Moume Mountains rise 
in noble ranges. 

22 m. BaJbriggan {Hold : Hamilton 
Arms), a town of about 2258 Inhab., 
associated with hosiery and stockings 
in particular, in which it still carries 
on an important trade. The stock- 
ings are much prized by ladies, and 
are remarkably fine in t^ture. The 
manufacturers have retail houses 
in Dublin. It owes its proi^>erity 
almost entirely to the family of 
Hamilton of Hampton, lind par- 
ticularly to Baron Hamilton, who 
in 1780, with the help of the Irish 
Parliament., established cotton-works, 
and built a pier 420 ft. in length ; 
subsequently to which an inner dock 
was constructed almost at the sole 
expense of another member of the 
same family. The harbour is lighted 
by a fixed Ught. 

The rly. is carried across the 
harbour by a viaduct of 11 arches 
of 30 ft. span. 

24 m. Gormanstomt. On 1. is Gor- 
manstown Castle, the finely wooded 
seat of Viscount Gormanstown, in 
whose possession it has been sLuce 
the time of Edward UI. It is a 
large rectangular pile of building 
flanked by slender round towers, and 
is not remarkable for much archi- 
tectural taste. The wooded glen of 
the Delvin Biver, which here se- 

Sarates the counties Dublin and 
[eath, offers a pretty contrast to the 
somewhat bleak ooaat-lands through 



which the line has hitherto lieen 
passing. On rt. is the headland of 
Knoeknucean, ** the hill of dead men's 
heads," in which excavations made 
by Mr. Hamilton revealed a cham- 
ber containing a va£t number of 
calcined bones. Bespecting these a 
tradition existed that a large body 
of giants, of Irish and Danish birth, 
overthrew an army of invaders- who 
landed at this spot in the 5th cent. 
26 m. rt. is Momey House (late Capt. 
Pepper). 

27 m. Layton Stat., from whence 
on 1. a tumulus is visible on the 
bank of the Kanny, a considerable 
stream, crossed by a viaduct 300 it 
long. On the S. bank is BaJlygarik, 
the castellated seat of the Peppere, 
who have inhabited it from the time 
of Charles II. There is an incident in 
the history of this family which sup- 
plied Samuel Lover with bis drama 
of the * White Horse of the Peppers,' 
in which poor Tyrone Power used to 
play the leading part. Further up the 
river are the village of Julianstown 
and Dardistoum Casde, the residence 
of Sir Thomas Boss. 

29 m. rt. is Betaghdown, oommonly 
called Bettystown, which is rising 
into repute as. a bathing-place vi^ 
the inhabitants of Drogheda, from 
whence omnibuses run several times 
a day. The Maiden Tower is a 
lonely tower on the coast, named 
after Queen Elizabeth. It is situated 
in the district of Momington, which 
gave a title to the Wellesley family. 
Close by is a solid mass of masonry, 
known as the Finger. '* They were 
evidently landmarks erected before 
lighthouses were employed in this 
country." 

32 m. Drogheda (Pop., in 1871, 
14,389), pronounced Ihrauhedd-a 
{Hold: Byrne's Imperial, newly 
opened in West Street by the adap- 
tation to hotel purpovses of the old 
house in which, according to popular 
tradition, Cromwell held a council 
of war, and Henry Dowdall, Becorder 
of Drogheda, delivered his fiamoiu 



IliEIiAND. 



Boute 2. — Drogheda. 



29 



address to King James 11. in April 
1689. It is also asserted that King 
James slept here on the night before 
the battle of the Boyne). An ancient 
city (Urbs P(mtana of the Romans) 
(Pop. 14,740). It is finely situated ou 
the Boyne, the bulk of the town being 
on the N. bank of the river, which runs 
in a de^ Talley, affording the tra- 
veller fine views from any of the sur- 
romiding high grounds. Apart 
from antiquities, tiie most striking 
part of the town is the harbour, 
which at the lower end is crossed by an 
extremely graceful railway viaduct, 
designed by Sir John McNeill, C.E., 
which in size and proportions ranks 
2Qd to none in the kingdom. On the 
S. side, and extending over the largest 
half of the river, it consists of 12 
arches of 60 ft. span, between which 
and 3 similar arches on the N. side, 
the communication is maintained by 
a lattice bridge of 3 beams, each 
550 ft. in length, and 90 ft. above the 
level of high water, sufficient to 
allow vessels of any size to pass 
underneath. The Harbour, which is 
formed "by the outfall of the Boyne, 
assisted by the ebb from a consider- 
able tide basin below the town," has 
been at different times much im- 
proved, greatly to the benefit of the 
trade, which has increased rapidly and 
has placed Drogheda high amongst 
Irish ports. 

The WcJls of Drogheda, some 
portions of which still remain, were 
about 1| m. in circumference, and 
were entered by 10 gates, 5 on the N. 
or Meath side of the town, and 5 on 
the S. or Lowth side ; of these the 
only ones remaining are a portion of 
the Weil or Butter Oate, an octangu- 
lar tower, defended by long narrow 
loopholes, and entered by a circular 
arched passage strengthened by a 
portcullis, and St. Laiorenoe^s Gate, 
one of the most perfect specimens in 
the kingdom. It consists of 2 lofty 
circular towers of 4 stories, between 
which is a retiring wall pierced like 
tbe towers with loopholes* 



The ruins of the Ahhey of St., Mary 
D'Urso, situated between West Gate 
and the Boyne, are small, and consist 
of a central tower with a fine pointed 
arch, spanning a dirty thoroughfare 
called the Abbey Lane. It was once 
an important and extensive building 
of 150 ft. in length, and is believed 
to have been founded by St. Patrick, 
and to have been the temporary re- 
sidence of St. Golumb in the 6th 
cent., subsequently to which it was 
occupied by Augustinian friars. 

The Dominican, or Monastery of 
Preaching Friars, is conspicuous 
in the N. portion of the town 
from its sole remaining feature, the 
Magdalene steeple, — ^a lofty tower 
of 2 stories springing from a noble 
pointed arch. It is lighted by 2 
pointed windows on each side, 
and contains 2 upper apartments. 
In the £. battlement is a breach 
made by OromweH's cannon. This 
religious house, which was once cru- 
ciform, was founded in 1224 by an 
archbishop of Armagh, and was the 
place where Kichard II. in 1394 
received the submission of O'Neill, 
Prince of Ulster, and his subordinate 
chieftains. 

On the N. or Meath side, the only 
other building worth notice is the 
ThoUeL, surmounted by a cupola. 
Close to it the Boyne is spanned by 
a fine new bridge. On the S. side 
are the ch. of St. Mary, formerly 
devoted to the use of the Carmelites ; 
the poor-house, a really handsome 
building for the accommodation of 
1000 inmates ; and a martello fort, 
commanding the whole of the town 
from a mount which was formerly 
the grave of the wife of Grobhan the 
smith, and which is recorded to have 
been robbed by the Danes of its 
contents in the 9th cent. Behind 
the poor-house is the mound from 
whence Cromwell, in his attack on 
the town (in 1649), "made the breach 
assaultaMe, and, by the help of God, 
stormed it.*' A handsome addition 



30 



Bouie 2. — Drogheda, 



Irelaxd. 



has been made to Dro^cheda, in the 
shape of a fine hall, called the Whit- 
worth Hall, presented to the town 
by Mr. Benjamin Whitworth, who re- 
presented the borongh ; he also con- 
tributed half the cost of new water- 
works by which means 800,000 gals, 
of the pnrest water will be conveyed 
to the town daily. 

The Irish name of Drogheda was 
Droched-atha — ^the Bridge of the 
Ford — afterwards Anglicised into 
Tredagh. Its history, traceable 
with remarkable regularity, in- 
cludes the holding of several parlia- 
ments, one of which, known as the 
Poynings Parliament, and held in 
1494, enacted that the Irish Parlia- 
ment should in future pass no laws 
not approved by the English Privy 
Council. It was frequently the ren- 
dezvous of the armies that were 
sent against the rebellious inhabi- 
tants of Ulster, and in 1641 held 
out successfully against Sir Phelim 
O'Neill under Sir Henry Tichbome 
and Lord Moore ; and again for a 
time in 1649 under Sir Arthur 
Aston against Cromwell, who at 
last took the town by storm, accom- 
panied by circumstances of great 
ferocity, ** so that, except some few, 
who during the time of the assault 
escaped at the other end of the town, 
there was not an officer, soldier, or 
reUgious person belonging to that 
garrison left alive." — Clarendon. 

In Cromwell's own letter, dated 
from Dublin. 17th Sept.. 1649, im- 
mediately after the capture of Dro- 
gheda, he says: — "Divers of the 
enemy retreated into the Millmount, 
a place very strong and of difficult 
access ; being exceedingly high, hav- 
ing a good graft [ditch^ and strongly 
pflJisadoed. The Governor, Sir Arthur 
Aston, and divers considerable officers, 
being there, our men, getting up to 
them, loere ordered hymeto pttt tJiem 
dlltothe 9word. And, indeed, being 
in the heat of action, I forbade them 
to spare any that were in arms in the 
town; and, I think, that night they 



put to the sword about two thousand 
men; — divera of the officers and 
soldiers being fled over the bridge 
into the other part of the town, where 
about one hundred of them possessed 
Si Peter's church steeple, some the 
west gate, and others a strong round 
tower next the gate called St Sun- 
day's. These, being summoned to 
yield to mercy, refused. Whereupon 
I ordered the steeple of St Petei'a 
church to be fired, when one of them 
was heard to say, in the midst of the 
flames, * G — d damn me ! G — d con- 
found me ! I burn, I bum 1' 

"The next day, the other two 
towers were summoned; in one of 
which was about six or seven score; 
but they refused to yield themselTes: 
and we, knowing that hunger must 
compel them, set only good guards to 
secure them from running away until 
their stomachs were come down. 
From one of the said towers, notwith- 
standing their condition, they killed 
and wounded some of our men. When 
they submitted, their officers were 
knocked on the head, and every tenth 
man of the soldiers killed ; and the : 
rest shipped for the Barbadoe& The i 
soldiers in the other tower were all : 
spared, as to their lives only, and , 
shipped likewise for the Baroadoes. 
I.am persuaded that this is a righte- 
ous judgment of God upon these bar- 
barous wretches, who have imbued 
their hands in so much innocent 
blood ; and that it will tend to pie- 
vent the effusion of blood for the 
future. Which are the satisfactoir 
grounds to such actions, which other- 
wise cannot but work remorse and 
regret. . . . And now," he con- 
tinues, '* give me leave to say how 
it comes to pass that this work is 
wrought. It was set upon some of 
our hearts, that a great thing should 
be done, not by power or might, but 
by the Spirit of God. ... It was 
this Spirit who gave your men courage, 
and took it away again; and gave 
the enemy courage, and took it away 
again; and gave your men ooniago 



Ireland. BoiUe 2. — Droghedct—Mellifont Ahhey, 



81 



again, and therewith this happy suc- 
cess. And therefore it is good that 
God alone have all glory." * 

Cofweyances. — By rail to Dublin, 
Bel&st ; also to Navan and Oldcastle ; 
by steam to Liverpool ; mail-car to 
Virginia, vii Slane and Navan, and 
to Oollon. 

JHgtances. — Dublin, 33 m.; Bel- 
fast 81 ; Liverpool, 133 ; Duleek, 4^ ; 
Betagbstown, 5; Mellifont Abbey, 
5 ,- Monasterboice, 6 ; Oldbridge, 2| ; 
N^ewgrange, 7 ; HiU of Dowth, 6 ; 
Dimleer, 10 ; Slane, 8. 

Excursions, — 

1. Oldbridge and the Boyne (Rte. 
18). 

2. Mellifont and Monasterboice. 

3. Newgrange and Dowth (Bte. 
18). 

4. Doleek and Athcame (Bte. 19). 



Excursion to MeUifont and Monas- 
teihoice. 

Mellifont — the first Cistercian 
Monastery ever founded in Ireland — 
owes its establishment to Donough 
O'CarroU, Lord of Oirgiall, in 
1142, who was influenced by the 
request of St. Malachy the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh. At the time of 
its consecration in 1157, a very im- 
portant synod was held here, at- 
tended 1^ the primate, 17 bishops, 
and 4 or 5 kings. On the intro- 
duction of the English power into 
Irelimd, Mellifont (an oflshoot of 
Clairvaux in France) was taken under 
the special protection of Henry 11., 
who granted it a charter. In 1540 the 
last abbot retired, and in Elizabeth's 
time the monastery became the resi- 
dence of Sir Edwajrd Moore (ancestor 
of the Marquises of Drogheda), and 
was besieged and taken during the 
Bebellion, 1641. At the time of the 
Dissolution it contained 140 monks, 
besides lay brothers and servitors. The 
rains are pleasantly situated on the 

• Danbiga6'8 * Protector.' 



steep banks of the Mattock, which 
here divides the countiesof Meath and 
Louth. On a projection of rock near 
the river is the gate-house, a massive 
square tower, carried up on one side 
to a considerable height. Admittance 
was gained by a circular arch, through 
which now runs a mill-stream. The 
baptistery is a singular octagon build- 
ing, of which only 5 sides remain. 
Each face is entered by a semi- 
circular door with good pillars and 
mouldings ; and above the crown of 
the arches externally runs a string- 
course. Although the roof is gone, 
the corbels in the interior show 
the points from which the arches 
sprang to support it. On the top, ac- 
cording to Ajchdall, was a reservoir 
for water, which was conveyed by 

Eipes to the different offices. Close 
y, and apparently of later date, is 
SL Bernards Chapel^ consisting of 
a crypt and an upper chamber, 
the basement floor being consider- 
ably lower than the surface ground 
outside. The crypt has a beauti- 
fully groined roof, and arches spring- 
ing from clustered columns, having 
capitals elaborately carved in foliage. 
The centre columns are carried down 
to the ground, but the others stop 
short at a basement running round at 
a little height from the floor. It is 
lighted by an eastern and 2 side win- 
dows, of Decorated style, with good 
mullions, though but little of the 
tracery, which resembles Flamboyant, 
remains. This chapel was formerly 
entered by a pointed doorway, 
that, to judge from plates given by 
Wright in * Louthiana,' and the 
'Irish Penny Journal,' 1832, was 
most elaborate in its ornamentation. 
Near the baptistery are remains 
of dungeons in which Dervorgoil, 
"whose abduction by Dermod Mac 
Morrough, king of Leinster, led to 
the introduction into Ireland of the 
English under Strongbow," is said to 
have closed her career. 

About 2 m. to the N.E. of Melli- 
font, and 6 firom Drogheda, are the 



32 



BofUe 2. — Monasterhoice. 



iRELiND. 



venerable niins oi Monasterboice^ con- | 
sisting of 2 churches, a round tower, 
and 3 of the finest crosses in Ireland. 
The churches are of different dates : 
the oldest, which is probably an- 
terior to the tower, measures 45 ft. 
in length, and formerly consisted 
of aisle and choir, separated by a 
round arch, which at present termi- 
nates the building, as the choir has 
disappeared. The doorway is in the 
centre of the vast gable, and has a 
rude horizontal head. The 2nd ch., 
adjoining 4he tower, is considerably 
smaller, and is of the date of the 
13tii cent. 

The Bound Tower^ the great feature 
of Monasterboice, is considered by 
Dr. Petrie to be about the date of 
the 9th cent. It is 17 yards in cir- 
cumference at the base, gradually 
diminishing to the summit, which is 
90 ft. in height, and is broken ofi^ 
presenting at a distance somewhat 
of the aspect of a huge steel pen. 
The most noticeable point about it 
is the door, standing 6 ft. from 
the ground, the head formed of 2 
stones laid horizontally one above 
the other. ** A band extends round 
the head and down the sides of the 
doorway, but terminates on a level 
with tiie sill, or rather turns off at 
a right angle, passing horizontally 
for a distance of 8 inches, from which 
point it ascends, and running upwards 
round the doorway head gives the 
aM)earance of a double band." — 
Wakeman, Above the doorway is 
a small pointed window, but all the 
others are square-headed. Of the 3 
Grosses, 2 are considered to be the 
finest specimens of the kind in Ire- 
land. The largest one is 27 ft. bigh, 
and is composed of 8 stones, viz., the 
shaift, the cross Tthe arms of which 
are bound together by a ring), and 
the top piece. The shaft is divided 
into 7 compartments, all of which 
were filled with elaborate sculpture, 
more or less weathered and worn. 
In tixe 2nd from the bottom are 5 
figures, of which one is presenting a 



book, while a bird rests on his head. 
In the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th are the 
Apostles. The body of the cross is 
filled with a representation of the 
Crucifixion. The circle by which 
tiie arms of the cross are connected 
are enriched with elaborate omament, 
conspicuous for its cable moulding. 
The 2nd cross is even more distmot, 
but is not nearly so large, being only 
15 ft. high. Casts of these crosses were 
exhibited in the Dublin Industiial 
Exhibition of 1853, and were at its 
close removed to the Crystal Palace 
at Sydenham, where they are now to 
be seen. There are 3 main compart- 
ments in the western face of the shaft, 
each of which is filled with 3 figiues 
haUted in theecclesiafiticalor miHtaij 
dress of the period, viz. the 9th or 
10th cent " The history which these 
sculptures are intended to com- 
memorate evidently ,fOpmmence8 in 
the lowest entablature, where an 
ecclesiastic in a long cloak fiifitened 
witb a brooch stands between 2 
figures, either soldiers or robbers, 
armed with long Danish swords. In 
the compartment over this, tiie same 
personages are represented as stu- 
dents, each with a book, but the 
soldiers have assumed tiie eccle- 
siastical garb, although they retain 
the moustache. In the top division 
the figures are again repeated, all in 
long flowing dresses ; the central one 
— men perhaps aged or at the point 
of death — ^is represented giving his 
staff to one and his book to the other 
of his former assailants." — Cotologtte 
of Irish Acad. The centre piece on the 
eastern f&ce represents our Saviour 
sitting in judgment, while below it 
are the Adoration of the Wise Hen, 
the Temptation, and ExpulsioD in 
the 5th and lowest division, besides 
1 or 2 compartments that are ob- 
scure. From an inscription on the 
lowest part of the shaft, which runs 
** A prayer for Muiredach, by whom 
was made this cross," we leam the 
name of the builder. From the Irish 
Annals it appears there were 2 Mui- 



Irelahd. 



Baute 2. — Barmeath, 



33 



redachs, one who died in 844, and the 
other in 924, to the latter of whom 
Br. Fetrie inclines, as it is known 
that he was a man of great wealth 
and distinction, and therefore more 
likely to have erected such a work 
of art To Cromwell is ascribed the 
odium of breaking the 3rd cross, 
which is very imperfect, the head 
and part of the shs^ only remaining 
nninjnied. Besides these crosses 
there is a monumental stone in- 
scribed in Irish, •* A prayer for En- 
archan." "The crosses of Monas- 
terboice may be regarded not only as 
memorials Of the piety and munifi- 
cence of a people whom ignorance 
and prejudice have too often sneered 
at as barbarous, but also as the 
finest works of sculptured art of 
their period now existing.'*— FaZte- 
man. This religious establishment 
was founded about the end of the 
5th cent, by St. Buithe» the son of 
Bronnagh, from whom it derived 
its name. Buithe, the founder, was 
buried himself here in 521, and sub- 
sequently to this period liie abbey 
was visited by St. Columb. With 
the exception of the destruction of 
the belfry by fire in 1097, the annals 
of this house are not marked by any 
events of importance. 



Main Mouie. 

After crossing the Boyne Viaduct 
(Great Northern Bail way), a smaller 
one is entered upon at Newfoundwell 
Bridge, built in a style to harmonise 
with the walls of Drogheda. On 
rt. 1^ m. is Beaulieu House (B. 
Montgomery, Esq.), pleasantly situ- 
ated just at the mouth of the 
Boyne. The family of Montgomery 
have inherited this estate from Sir 
Henry Tichbome, Governor of Dro- 
gheda in 1641. 

From henoe to Dundalk the line 
passes through a prettily cultivated 
country, though not so rich in 
archffiological remains as the dis- 
trict to the W. of Drogheda. The 

[Ireland.] 



tourist frequently obtains charming 
views of the Moume Mountains 
and the hilly country between Dun- 
dalk and Kewry. 

35| m. rt. 2 m. is the village of 
TisBMONTECKm, in former times the 
residence of the Abps. of Armagh, 
the last of whom was Abp. Ussher, 
who died in 1612. It was also the 
residence of the B. 0. Abp. Plunket, 
who was executed for treason at 
Tyburn, 1681. There are remains 
of the ancient castle. The name of 
Termon means "ohurchland," — ^the 
ohurohland of St. Fechan — it being 
the habit for a certain portion of 
land, answering to our glebe, and 
called ** Termon land/* to be set 
apart for the use of tiie clergy atr 
tached to the foundation.' 

37§ m. rt is Black Hall (G. Pent- ' 
land, Esq.), and some 2 m. to the E. 
the village and headland of Ologher, 
a very prominent object in aU the 
coast views. 

40| m. rt. is Babmbath, the seat of 
Lord Bellew; soon after which the 
traveller arrives at 42 m. rt. Dunleeb, 
a small town situated in the valley of 
the White Biver. By a charter given 
by Charles II., the mhabitants had 
the privilege of electing a Sovereign, 
which however has not been exer- 
cised since 181 1 . There were several 
of the old Corporate towns in Ireland 
whose chief magistrate was called 
^^ Sovereign." Athclare Castle, a 
little to file S. is a good specimen of 
the fortified manor-house, one end 
being defended by a massive battle- 
mented tower. 

From Dnnleer it is 5 m. S.W. to 
the hill of CoUon, 744 ft., on the 
slope of which is Temple, th§ beau- 
tifully wooded demesne of Viscount 
Massareene and Ferrard.] 



Ardee, 

About midway between Dunleer 
and Castle Bellingham» 6 m. L, is 

i> 



34 



Boute 8. — Dundalk to Belfast. 



IRELA.ND. 



Abdse, a town of about 2700 
Xnhab., -situated on the river Dee. 
It was of great importance in 
ancient times, chiefly through the 
exertions of Boger de Pippart, an 
English settler, who built a strong 
casQe, now used as a gaol. It is a 
quadningular building wilh a high 
roof; the E. and W. fronts are de- 
fended by projecting towers rising 
above the rest of the building. There 
is also another castellated building 
in the town, which is inhabited, and 
the residence of W. Hatch, Esq., to 
whose family it was granted by 
Cromwell. Scarce any traces are 
left of the Augustinian Friaiy and 
of the Carmelite Friary, which was 
burnt by Edward Bruce, as was 
indeed the Whole of Ardee by O'Neill 
in 1538. 

In later times it was occupied 
by James II.'s troops after leaving 
Dundalk, and also by William's 
army, who advanced direct from 
hence to the Boyne. 



Main Boute. 

44 m. rt. Charleville ( — Dease, 
Esq.), and a little beyond Drumcar 
(J. M'GUntock, Esq.) and Green- 
mount. At 47 m. tne line crosses 
the river Glyde, a stream rising in 3 
waterheads, under the name of the 
Lagan, in the counties Monaghan, 
Meath, and Louth, and arrives at 
Oastlebellingham, a neat little 
town, &mous for its ale, on the rt. of 
the line, flourishing under the pro- 
prietorship of Sir Alan E. BeUing- 
ham, whose residence is adjoining. 

49 m. ^. Dbomiskin, in addi- 
tion to a pretty ch., contains the 
lower . nortion of a round tower, 
which has been recapped and now 
serves as a belfry. On 1. 2 m. are 
Branganstown House (Rev. A. Gar- 
ston) and Darver Castle (Mrs. Booth); 
not far from which is MiUoum Ccu- 
Ue, a square fortress "defended by 
round towers 45 ft. high, surmounted 
by tall graduated battlements. Near 



the summit of a rising ground \ m. 
distant is an arched subterranean 
vault, supposed to have communi- 
cated with the castle.'* 

50 m. The line now crosses an- 
other river, the Fane, which, rising 
in Monaghan, skirts the county of 
Louth, and, passing through a pretty 
valley, fidls into the sea at Dundalk 
Bay, close to the village of Lurgan 
Green, and near the grounds of 
Clermont Park (Lord Clermont). 

'* The hills north of Dundalk are 
often intensely ice-moulded, and the 
* crag and tail forms indicate a move- 
ment, towards the south-east. These 
are well shown along the flanks of 
Fork Hill."--JTt««, • Geology of Ire- 
land.' 

54 m. DuiiDALK. Bte. 3. 



ROUTE 3. 

DUNDALK TO BELFAST. 

DunddUc (Ir. Dun-dealgan) (Iiiim: 
Imperial, Arthur's, poor) is a large, 
prosperous town (Pop. 10,360), in- 
teresting more in its ccHmnercial rela- 
tions than in its antiquarian features, 
though it played no unimportant part 
in the early history of tiie oountrv. 
It was taken and burned in 1315 by 
Edward Bruce, who was, in thu 
neighbourhood, crowned King of 
Ireland, and l^pt his titular kioj?- 
ship for three years. It was afte^ 
wards granted to the powerful family 
of the Verdons, who founded a Fran- 
ciscan' monastery in the reign of 
Henry IIL Charten were granted 



Irelaud, Boute 8. — Dundalk — Faughart. 



85 



by that king, as also by Bichard II. 
and Henry IV., who allowed the in- 
habitants to Burroiind their town by 
walls. 

Dnndalk is built on marshy ground 
on the S. bank of the estuary of 
the Oastleton Biver, as it fidls into 
the bay of Dnndalk, which extends 
for abont 7 m. across from the Moat 
of Oooley to Dxmany Point The 
entrance to the harbonr was ob- 
structed by a very dangerous shoal of 
sunken rocks, until Sir John M'Neill, 
the good genius of the neighbour- 
hood, remoyed them, and by so doing 
gare immense impetus to the trade 
of the port. An extensiye busineBs is 
done here in flax, leather, and com, 
besides which there are large dis- 
tilleries and breweries. 

The town itself will not detain 
the TisitoT long. He should see the 
cIl, which stands a little back j&om 
the main street, and has a singular 
wooden steeple sheathed with cop- 
per. The E. C. chapel, one of 
the handsomest in Ireland, was 
erected by Mr. Duff, from de- 
signs after Bang's College Chapel, 
Oambridge. There are also comrt- 
house, gaol, guildhall, and the usual 
collection of municipal buildings. 
The town has the advantage of a fine 
park, as well as the neighbourhood 
of the grounds of Lord Eoden at 
Dundalk House, which are free to 
visitors. To the E. are the ruins 
of the Franciscan Friary, consisting 
mainly of a high square tower. 

''On the plains of Ballynahatna 
are the remains of a Drui(Ucal tem- 
ple, partly enclosed by a curious 
rampart, on the outside of which is 
a circle of npright stones." — Lewis. 

Conveyances. — By rail to Dublin, 
Belfast, and Enniskillen. Mail-car 
to Garrickmacross. Steamer to Liver- 
pool. A line of railway between 
Dundalk and Greenore Point, 14 m., 
connects Dundalk with the deep 
water at Greenore, where there is 
a good hotel. From Greenore to 
Holyhead is 76 m. or 12 more than 
from Kingstown. Powerful steamers 



now do this distance in 5 hrs., and 
passengers from the North of Ireland 
save 3 hrs. in getting to Holyhead. 

2>t8tonce0. — Drogheda, 22 1 m. ; 
Portadown, 33^ ; Newry, 15 ; Ennis- 
killen, 62; Castle Blayney, 18; 
Louth, 5 J ; Castle Bellingham, 7. 

The Great Northern Bailway con- 
nects Dundalk with Clones, Ennis- 
killen, and Deny, rendering it an 
important centre of traffic. 



Excursion to Louth. 

5^ m. (Ir. Baile-Lughmhaigh) 
was formerly the seat of a cele- 
brated ecclesiastical establishment 
founded by St. Patrick, where 100 
bishops and 300 presbyters re- 
ceived their education. The ruins 
of the abbey, which occupy Uie site 
of the original monastery, are rather 
extensive, and contain some good 
traoeried windows. In the modem 
ch. on the hill above is a monument 
to the late rector, Dr. Littie, with the 
punning epitaph " Multum in parvo." 
There are several interesting traces of 
ancient earthworks in this parish, 
particularly in the glebe-land at 
Castlering near the village, where 
the foundations of an hexagonal mural 
fort may be examined. 



Main Boute. 

Leaving the Dundalk Stat, the 
line passes on 1. Lisnawully House 
(P. Byrne, Esq.), and further on 2 m. 
Caxdetown House, the seat of J. 
Eastwood, Esq. Adjoining the man- 
sion is the old quadrangular ca^tie, 
with slender square towers at the 
angles. 

3 m. is the hill of Faughart, "an 
ancient fort, consisting of an artificial 
mound, 60 ft. in height, surrounded 
by a deep trench with a counterscarp. 
The whole area of the summit is cir- 
cumscribed by the foundations of an 
octagonal building, but whether it 
was a tower or not is difficult to 
determine. Mr. Wright conjectures 
that it may have been a funeral monu'« 

D 2 



86 



BotUe 3. — Dundalk to Belfast, 



Ireland. 



ment, and in later tunes a beacon or 
fort to defend the frontier of the 
Pale." — Wakeman. Here it was that 
Edward Bruce lost his crown and 
his life in an encounter with a picked 
body of troops under Bermingham 
and Verdon in 1318. 2 m. to the 
E. of Faughart is a cromlech, re- 
markable for the size of the rock 
supported and the smallness of the 
points of support of the 3 stones 
on which it rests. Close to it 
is the giant's grave, an arrange- 
ment of stones, with a large one over- 
lapping them at one end. On the 
rt. of the rly. are several seats — 
Bellurgan (Oapt. Tipping), on the 
southern face of Trumpet Hill, 
Ballymascanlon House (F. J. Foster, 
Esq.), Mount Pleasant (Sir John 
M*Neill), Carrick Bridge House, 
and Claret Bock. 

4 m. To rt. of Mount Pleasant 
Stat, the beautiful Mavensdale opens 
out, emerging from the southern 
slopes of the Moume mountains. The 
river Flurry runs through it to Eavens- 
dale Park, the residence of Lord Cler- 
mont. It is magnificently situated at 
the foot of Clermont Cairn, which 
rises bluffly to the height of 1674 
ft In the lower portion of the glen 
is Annavema (late Mrs. M*Clell£md). 
The scenery has been gradually 
changing, from the undulating and 
pastoral country near Dundalk and 
CasHe Bellingham, to higher and less 
cultivated grounds. We are now at 
the southern base of a very remark- 
able group of mountains which shut 
off Ulster from . the county of Louth, 
and which contain in their ranges 
scenery of a very high order. The 
Moume mountains extend from 
Slieve Gullion, the highest westerly 
point, to Slieve Donard overlooking 
Dundrum bay, near Downpatrick, 
and occupy northwards a very con- 
siderable portion of Co. Down, the 
outlying groups indeed reaching to 
within sight of Bel&st 

The tourist who can afford the 
time to explore these hills at length. 



making his head-quarters at Newiy 
or Bosstrevor, will not regret his 
stay. 

The Moume and Carlingfori 
mountains have much geological in- 
terest, as affording illustrations of 
the conversion of Silurian strata into 
granite by '^ intense metamorphifim." 
This is especially observable along a 
line of country extending from Slieve 
Gullion to Slieve Corrib. 

" They — the Moume and Carliog- 
ford mountains — may undoubtedly 
be considered as the roots of volcanic 
mountains, the trunks and branches 
of which have been removed by de- 
nuding agents ; just as if a mountain 
like Etna were to be cut down into a 
group of lulls rising 2000 or 3000 ft. 
above the level of the Mediterranean. 
The intrusive character of the rocks; 
the association of felspathic and pyr- 
oxenic varieties, as in the case of &e 
more recent volcanic mountains; 
the innumerable dykes of trap which 
radiate from, or traverse, the whole 
district ; all point to this region as 
having been the seat of great vol- 
canic activity. Nor ought we to 
omit reference to the remarkable 
mass of agglomerate, made up (as on 
the southern flanks of Slieve Gul- 
lion) of bombs of granite, which have 
been torn up from the granitic bases 
of the hiU below, and blown through 
the throat of an old crater, as con- 
clusive evidence that these rocks m 
some places were erupted at the sajt- 
face of the land of the period." — 
HuU, 'Geology of Ireland.' 

At the Carlingford quarry good 
sections are displayed on which hori- 
zontal and inoHned dykes of basalt 
may be seen traversing tiie carboni- 
ferous limestone. On Slieve Foy the 
limestone is converted into crystal- 
line marble at its contact with the 
hypersthene dolerite. 

6 m. L at Moyry CaiUe, a single 
quadrangular tower, the line croeses 
the Carrickbroad river, and enters 
the CO. of Armagh. This is the 
locale of the famous Moyiy Paas, 



Ireland. 



BofUe 3. — Newry, 



87 



where in 1595 a severe action took 
place between the Elizabethan troops 
under Sir Wm. Eussell and those 
of Hugh O'Neill, who for 5 or 6 years 
subsequently held this defile against 
every attempt on the part of the 
English to dislodge him. He was, 
however, compelled to retire in 1600 
before Lord Mountjoy, who in his 
turn was a few days afterwards inter- 
cepted by O'Neill in Eavensdale, 
when the Lord Deputy was severely 
wounded, and the English compelled 
to retreat to Dunda^ leaving the 
northern districts in the hands of the 
Irish. Passing 1. under the base of the 
ForkhiU mountains, the line leaves 
on rt 7 UL the village of Jones- 
borough, burnt by the rebels in 1798 : 
near it is the singular pillar stone of 
Kilnasaggart, on the &ce of which 
is an inscription and a wheel-cross 
below it. We now enter a wild hilly 
region, little inhabited, and still less 
cultivated. 

On L the granitic head of Slieve 
Gullion rises abruptiy to the height 
of 1893 ft, being the most westerly 
point of the Moume range. At 
the summit is a cairn, contain- 
ing a chamber underneath, supposed 
to have been * the burial-place of 
Oualgne, son of Breogan, an early 
chie&dn, who fell in battle on the 
plain beneath. The locality of this 
mountain is the subject of a poem, 
believed to have been written by 
Ossian, in which he makes Fingal 
his principal hero. The mountains 
in this parish (EiUeary) were for- 
merly Infested by bands of robbers, 
of whom the &mous Bedmond 
O'Hanlon was the chief. At the base 
of Slieve Gullion is Killeary Castle, 
the Elizabethan residence of J. 
Foxall, Esq. 

9 m. rt. near the village of Meidh 
the line has reached its highest ele- 
vation, and enters a deep cutting 
through the Wellington ffill, emerg- 
ing at the base of the Newry moun- 
tams. A magnificent view now 
opens out to the traveller, who would 



willingly delay his rapid progress 
for a few minutes to feast upon it. 
On his rt the whole of the vale and 
town of Newry lie at his feet toge- 
ther with Garlingford Bay and the 
villages of Warrenpoint and Kos- 
trevor, the whole backed up by the 
lofty ranges of Moume, and forming 
altogether a panorama not to be sur- 
passed. 

15 m. Newry Stat. As the town is 
some little distance ofi^ it will be 
more convenient to the traveller to 
proceed as far as 18 m. Goragh 
Wood Stat., from whence a short 
line (a section of the Newry and 
Armagh Bly.) runs directly into the 
heart of the town. In its passage be- 
tween the 2 stations the main line 
is carried over the ravine of Craig- 
more by a remarkably fine viaduct 
2000 ft. in length and 110 hi^h, 
formed by a series of 18 arches of 50 
ft span. It conuuands a good view 
of the village and mills of Bees- 
brook; these mills are among the 
largest in Ireland. From Goragh 
Wood it is about 2} m. of steep gra- 
dient to 

Newry (Rte. 4) {Hotels: Victoria 
(Mrs. Hogg;) Newry Arms; Down- 
shire Arms), a rapidly increasing 
business town, much changed since 
the days when Swift wrote of it — 

" High church, low steeple, 
Dirty streets, and proud people." 

From its singularly beautiful posi- 
tion, and its proximity to a picturesque 
coast, Newry has attracted both 
the commercial and the tourist sec- 
tions of the community, advan- 
tages which the inhabitants have 
had the good sense not to abuse by 
exorbitant charges. Taking the 
whole district from the town to the 
end of Carlingford Bay, there are few 
places in the kingdom where the 
lover of scenery can spend his tune 
with such economy. It is situated 
in a broad vale, expanding towards 
the N.W., contracting on the S.E., 
and bounded by high hills on each 



88 



Boide 8. — DundaUc to BelfasL 



Ibelaio). 



Bide— on the W. by the Newry moun- 
tains (1385 ft), and Slieve Gullion, 
and on the E. by the wooded 
shonldeis of the more lofty Moume 
range, which are seen overtopping 
them. Through the centre of the 
Tale runs the river Olanrye, eclipsed 
to a considerable extent by the more 
important Newry Canal, which here 
empties itself into the sea, though 
the port of Newry may be pro- 
perly said to be at Warrenpoint, 
6 m. distant, and connected by a 
rly. (Rte. 4). The place iteelf 
is clean and well laid out, is re- 
markably free from the disagreeable 
suburbs of Irish towns, and has a 
pleasant air of bustle and business 
about it Four stone bridges cross 
the tidal river which separates the 
Cos. Down and Armagh, and 4 others 
span the canal ; of these the Ballybot 
Bridge is a handsome granite arch of 
90 ft span. The churches are aU 
modem or modernized buildings, 
although St Patrick's is said to have 
been iSie first professedly Protestant 
oh. ever erected in Irelimd, and still 
possesses a part of the tower, with 
the arms of the founder. Sir Nicholas 
Bagnall, 1578. The B. C. cathedral 
in Hill Street has a good Perp. ex- 
terior. There are scarce any traces 
whatever of the abbey of Newry, 
founded in 1157 for Cistercian monks 
by Maurice M'Loughlin, king of Ire- 
land. The charter of this founda- 
tion is still in existence, and was 
enlarged by Hugh de Lacy in 1287. 
Within the precinct a yew-tree was 
planted by St Patrick, whence the 
town derived the name of an-Tubhar, 
or "the yew-tree,'* afterwards cor- 
rupted into Newry. Bespecting this 
tree we find the following extract from 
the Annals of the Four Masters : — 
" 1162. The monastery of the monks 
of Newry was burnt, and also the yew- 
tree which St. Patrick himself had 
planted.'* The Bagnalls (the same 
who built St Patrick's ch.) possessed 
a castle formed out of a portion of 
tiie buildings of this abbey and built 



on its site, which was granted them 
by a patent of James I. This fiEunily 
long }X)6sessed the surrounding ma- 
nors of Newry, Moume, and Carliog- 
ford, which afterwards descended to 
the Anglesea and Eilmorey titles. 
At the northern entrance is a granite 
obelisk erected in memory of a Mr. 
Trevor Oorry. The town carries on 
a busy export and import trade, pos- 
sessing good quays and warehouses. 
The ^yrt might be made the safest in 
Ireland at a very moderate cost The 
lough is navigable for 6 m. by vessels 
of the greatest burden at all times, 
and the port admits vessels of 1000 
tons to Warrenpoint, where the larger 
vessels remain, but those drawing 
15 ft. water can go up by the Ship 
Canal to the Albert Basin, a distance 
of 5 m. from the sea. Barges ply 
by the Newry Canal Navigation to 
liough Neagh, 32 m. inland. 

The antiquary should vifiit the 
rath at Crown Bridge. It is sor- 
rounded by a ditch 600 ft. in cir- 
cumference, and has on the W. side 
a singular platform also surrounded 
by a fosse, the use of which is not 
very apparent 

Conveyances, — Bailway to Oarling- 
ford and Greenore, in connectieii 
with the Holyhead packets, and 
direct steamer-packets to Liverpool 
andtoGlasgow, vi& Androsaan. Bail 
to Dundalk, Bel&st, Armagh, and 
Warrenpoint Car to Downpatrick; 
oar to Kilkeel ; oar to Bathcryland. 

2>i8<afiee«.— Dundalk, 15 m.; Poria- 
down, l^ ; Banbridge, 17 ; HUltown. 
9 ; Warrenpoint, 6 ; Bostrevor, 8| ; 
Carlingford, 12 ; Omeath,7i; Green- 
ore, 15^ ; Kilkeel, 18 ; Newcastle, 30 ; 
Narrowwater, 4 ; Dundnun. 29 : 
Downpatrick, by coast road, 61 ; Ou- 
tleweUan, 18. 

Excursione, — 

1. Warrenpoint and Bostrevor 
(Bte. 4). 

2. Hilltown. 



i 



IfiELAin). Souie 8. — Newry Canal — Poyntz Pass, 

[FiomNewiy the pedestrian should 
walk to Warrenpoint, where there 
is a large hotel, and thence make 
his way round the coast to Down- 
Patrick and even to Donaghadee, by 
which route he will constently haye 
opportunities of exploring the mag- 
nificent mountain scenery of the 
Monme Mts. (Bte. 4).] 



89 



Pkoeeeding firom Goragh Wood is 
19 m. L Mount Norru, a small village 
mturking the position of a fort built 
in the leign of Elizabeth to guard 
one of the many passes near Kewry. 
It gives the title of baron to the 
Annesley &mily. 

20 ni. on rt, near the canal, is 
the tmnnlns of Cairn Bane, *' which 
has a deep sloping bank outside 
the central mound, enclosed with 
upright stones, and which is about 
20O yards in circumference, cover- 
ing above a rood of gpround. 'Williin 
the glacis or slope, the base of 
the Temple gradually rises towards 
the mound, which is 160 yurds in 
circumference, and is completely 
girt with long and ponderous stones 
set upon it and joined together. On 
the N.W. is tlie entrance, and on 
the opposite side is the altar, the 
slab of which is very ponderous, 
resting upon 3 upright stones, each 
10 ft. long."— Cioofe'* * Armagh.' 

A little further N. is Drumba- 
nagher, the residence of G. Maxwdl 
Close, Esq., built in Italian style, and 
situated in beautiful grounds. 

On rt. of the line is Drumantine 
House (A. C. Innes, Esq.). 

The Newry CancH keeps close 
fellowship with the rly. all tiie way 
from Newry to Portadown, near which 
place it enters the bed o£ the Bann, 
and thus flows into Lou^h Neagh. 
It was originally made with the in- 
tention of exporting large quantities 
of coal from the Dung^non district, 
and supplying Dublin, but ui^or- 
tnnately, tibe quality of the article 
not being sufficiently liked, tiie canal 
is itsed for importing ooals to the 



very districts which should have 
furnished them. It was commenced 
in 1730, and opened in 1741, at a 
cost of 896,0002., the average of the 
annual tolls being between 40002. 
and 50002. 

23 m. Poyntz Pass, so called from 
Sir Toby Poyntz, who defended the 
pass against Hugh O'Neill's Irish 
troops. There is a neat litfle town 
here, with an hoteL The antiquary 
should stop for the purpose of ex- 
amining the Dane's Caatf a sort of 
dyke, similar to that of Offit in Wales. 
It is called by the natives Glean-na- 
muic-duibh, ** the glen of the black 
pig,*' and was ascribed by them 
to enchantment. !^rom Lisnagade 
(Capt. Trevor), near Scarva, it ex- 
tended to the bay of Dundalk, 
having a depth of 12 to 20 ft., but, 
as in most of these early earthworks, 
the progress of agriculture and im- 
provements has obliterated it in 
very many places. Passing Acton 
House (J. Alexander, Esq.) and 
DruminargEd House, the tourist ar- 
rives at 

26 m. Scarva, where William in.'s 
army held its rendezvous on arriving 
in Ireland. Here are several archieo- 
logical remains of interest : viz. the 
ruins of Glenflesk Castle, built by 
Monk in the time of Cromwell ; and 
(of a much earlier date) the cairn 
of Cairn Cocky ^ an immense heap of 
stones 70 ft. high, which marks the 
spot of a battle, a.d. 332, ** between 
l&e 3 Collas, princes of Heremon's 
race, and Fergus Fogha, the last of 
the race of Ir. The battle, in which 
the latter was killed, lasted for 6 suc- 
cessive days." The parish of Agha- 
dery, meaning the red ford, takes its 
name from this occurrence. In the 
grounds of Lisnagade House is the 
fort, from whence the Dane's Cast is 
supposed to commence. It is circular, 
with triple ramparts, the 3 moats or 
intrenchiments being about 70 ft. in 
breadth. 



40 



lUmte 3. — Dundalk to Belfast. 



Ireland. 



[2} m. rt. is the small town 
of Loughbricikland, in the street of 
which William lU. is said to have 
sat on horsehack for many hours, 
while his army passed before him in 
single file.] 



Branch to Banbridge, 

From Scarva there is a junction line 
of 7 m. through the vlUage of Laurence- 
town to Banbridge {Hotel : Downshire 
Arms) (Pop. 4033), a pleasant busy 
little place on the Baim, although of 
an entirely modem date. It is pe- 
culiar &om the &ct of- the main 
street haymg been excavated in the 
centre, leaving a broad passage on 
eeu^h side for the purposes of &ffic. 
There is a monument in Church 
Square to the memory of Captain 
Crozier, B.N., a native of Banbridge. 
He was second in conmiand in Sir 
John Franklin's arctic expedition. 
Linen is the staple trade of Ban- 
bridge, as it is of ever^ northern town 
which the tourist will visit in this 
route. 

Distances. — Loughbrickland, 3 m. ; 
Dromore, 7 ; Lurgan, 9 J. A line is 
open between Banbridge, Dromore, 
and Idsbum. 



Bestwm to Main BofUe. 

28 m. Tandera^ee Stat., to the rt. of 
which is Gilford, another little linen 
town on the Baxm. The Earl of 
ClanwUliam is Baron Gilford. Gil- 
ford Castle, close to the town, was 
formerly a seat of Sir W. Johnston, 
but is now used as an hospital. 

About the same distance on the 
1. 'of the stat. is Tanderagee. The 
summit of the hill is crowned by 
the CasUe, a pretty Elizabethan 
mansion of the Duke of Manchester, 
originally built by the Count de 
SaOs on the site of the fortress of 
Bedmond O'Hanlon, the most re- 
nowned outlaw of Lish history, 
whose estates were confiscated in the 



reign of James I. From hence the 
line, crossing the Cusher riyer, 
follows the valley of the Bann, 
passing on 1. Mullavilly House, 
rt. MoyaUen (the residence of tbe 
Quaker £unily of Wakefield) and Car- 
rick House (Major Stewart Blacker) 
to 

34 m. Portadown Stat (Bte. 20), an 
important rly. centre. Portadown, 
from its position on the Bann, and 
its contiguity to Lough Neagh, has 
a large trade in Imen and agri- 
cultural products. The features of 
the country from Portadown to Bel- 
fast are not marked by any roman- 
tic scenery, nor by objects of archae- 
ological interest, but are rather 
ch£uaoterized by richly cultivated 
fields, prosperous linen towns and 
villages, and a general air of well- 
being. Crossing the Bann by a 
wooden viaduct of 5 arches, and 
leaving on 1. the ch. of Drumcree, the 
line traverses a rather flat low district 
lying between the hills and the 
shores of Lough Neagh, which is 
only a couple of miles distant. Oe- 
casional glimpses of the lough are 
obtained near Lurgan; but as the 
visitor to Antrim will see it to 
much greater advantage, it will be 
described in Bte. 15. As this district 
is watered wholly by the Upper 
Bann, the manufacturers have ob- 
tained a constant and equable water- 
power, by constructing a reservoir 
at Lough Island Beavy, which em- 
braces an area of 100 acres. The 
river rises in the northern &ce of 
Slieve Muck, in the Moume range, 
and flows N.W. with a considerable 
f&U past Hilltown to Banbrid^ and 
Gilford. Apart from its commercial 
value, it was long famous for its 
pearls, which, like those in the 
Conway river in N. Wales, are found 
in the shell of the muscle {Unio 
atratus), and which in the last 
century were so highly esteemed, 
especially those of rose colour, that 
I they were sold for 20Z. or 302. 
I 39 m. Lurgan, a popidous flax town 



Ireland. 



Bouie 3. — LUhum, 



41 



(7772), celebrated for its diapers, the 
numerous bleaching-greens in the 
vicinity betokening the prevailing 
occupation. There is little to see 
in it except the demesne of Lur- 
gan Castle, the modem residence of 
Lord Lurgan,a handsome Elizabethan 
house, bmlt of Scotch sandstone, and 
placed in a findy-wooded park. 

[3 m. S.E. is Waringstoum, a 
manu&ctnriag village established by 
a merchant of the name of Waring 
in the time of Queen Anne. Hard 
by is an old manor-house, in which 
is preserved a tapestried chamber 
occupied by Duke Schomberg in his 
passaged through the country.] 

Passing rt. Grace Hall (C. Douglas, 
Esq.), is 44} m. Moira, a prettily- 
placed town about 1 m. to the rt. of 
the stat. At this point we cross the 
liEigan Navigation or Ulster Canal, 
running from Lough Neagh by Moira 
and Lisbum to Belfeist, a distance of 
28 m., v^th a summit-level of 120 ft., 
and i^ording a cheap and convenient 
water-carriage to the busy manufac- 
turing villages on its course. Seve- 
ral pleasant seats are congregated 
near Moira, the property of Sir B. 
Bateson, Bart., viz., Moira Wood, be- 
longing to the Earls of Moira, Broom- 
mount (—Gorman, Esq.), Friar's Hill, 
Drumbane House, and Trumery 
Home.; where once stood a very 
beautiM round tower 60 ft. in 
height, which, however, has unfor- 
tunately &Jlen. Adjoining it is the 
gable of the old ch., containing a 
high pointed arched vdndow. Be- 
tween Moira and Lisbum the line 
passes L the ch. of Magheragall, and 
rt the Maze, a conmion on which 
the Hillsborough races are held. 

52 m. Lisbum {Hotels: Hertford 
Arms ; ^' Bail way "), a populous town 
of between 7000 and 8000 Inhab., all 
engaged in the staple trade, particu- 
larly in the manufacture of damasks. 
The tourist who is interested in it 



should visit the fectory of the Ooul- 
sons, one of the largest damask 
makers in Lreland. The creation 
of the place may be ascribed to the 
Conway family, to whom Charles L 
granted a patent, and who erected 
a castle here. The ch., which is 
conspicuous from its handsome oc- 
tagonal spire, is the cathedral ch. 
of the cuocese of Dromore, and 
contains a monument to the pious 
Jeremy Taylor, Bishop of Dovm and 
Connor in 1661 ; also to Lieut. Dobbs, 
who fell in an action against Paul 
Jones, the privateer, as he wa^ 
returning from a raid on the Scotch 
coast. In the ch.-yard are the 
gravestones of several Huguenots 
who settled here and introduced the 
finer branches of the linen manufac- 
ture. Lisbum and Lurgan suffered 
severely in the war of 1641, having 
been both burnt to the ground. Ad- 
joining the tovm are the castle 
gardens, which are at all times open 
to the townspeople by the liberality 
of the late Marquis of Hertford. In 
the centre of a triangular area is a 
handsome market-place, surmounted 
by a cupola. 



Branch to HUClsborough and Dromore. 

HtUsborough, 4 m., is an Eng- 
lish-looking little .town on the 
side of a hill, containing a well- 
preserved fort, built by Sir Arthur 
Hill in the reign of Charles I., and 
still kept up as a hereditary garrison 
imder the Marquis of Downshure, who 
enjoys the titles of Marshal of Ulster 
and Grovemor of the Boyal Fortress of 
Hillsborough. WiUiamin. tenanted it 
for a night during his march through 
this part of Ireland, ** while his army 
encamped on the Moor of Blaris 2 
m. on tiie 1. of the Lisbum road, 
which tract has ever since been 
exempt from paying tithe." It is a 
massive building defended by 4 
quadrangular bMlions, and entered 



42 



Boute 4. — Newry to Bdfast, 



iBELAin). 



by a good pointed arched gateway, 
above which are 3 pointed windows. 
Tliis fort (now used as an annonry for 
the yeomanry) is placed in the centre 
of a fine park, the modem demesne 
of the Marquis of Downshire, who 
owns Hillsborough as well as seve- 
ral other towns, aU of which are 
characterised by an unusual as- 
pect of neatness and care. There 
is here a pretty Gothic ch. with 
spire 200 feet in height. It con- 
tains some stained glass, a sweet- 
toned organ, and a monument by 
J^ollekens to Archdeacon Leslie. 
Crossing a somewhat hiUy district 
we arrive at 

Dromorey 8.^ m., from early ages the 
seat of an abbey of Canons Begular, 
whose church afterwards became 
the cathedral for the Protestant 
diocese of Down, Connor, and 
Dromore. It fell into ruins, how- 
ever, and the present ch« was 
built on its site by Bishop Jeremy 
Taylor, who, together with Dr. Percy, 
author of ' Beliques of Ancient Eng- 
lish Poetry,* are the 2 most note- 
worthy prelates. Adjoining the town 
is the Palace, the grounds designed 
and planted by the latter bishop after 
the model of Shenstone*s Leasowes. 
In the "See" House the several 
Bishops of the diocese resided up to 
1843, when, at the death of Bishop 
Saurin, it was annexed to Down and 
Connor. It is now occupied by James 
Quinn, Esq. The scanty rmns of a 
<^istle and some earthworks are to be 
seen near the town, and in the grounds 
of Gill Hall, the residence of B. C. 
Brush, Esq. To the N.E. is the 
rath of Druib Mor, 200 feet in 
diameter at the base, and surrounded 
by a rampart and parapet. It is 
said that there was a covered way 
between it and the Lagan. 



Beium to Main BotUe, 

From lisbum the rly. is accom- 
panied on 1. by a chain of hills 
attending to Belfiftst, where they 



assume a considerable height, and 
add very much to the beauty of 
that city. They are in feet a range 
of chalk rocks capped by basaltic 
strata, which run southward as 
fer as Lui^n, being the most 
southerly point in which chalk strata 
are observed in Ireland. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Lisbum the height is 
only 820 ft., but it soon increases to 
1567 at Divis, and 1142 at Cave Hill 
overlooking Belfest. 

54 m. L the village of Lambeg, and 
Glenmore, the seat of J. Richard- 
son, Esq. Crossing the Biver Der- 
raghy, and passing the pretty 
fectory village of Dunmurry, the 
tourist arrives at 60 m. the northem 
metropolis of 

Bdfasl (HoteU: Imperial — the 
best; Eoyal; Queen's). (Bte.5). 



BOUTE 4. 

NEWRY TO BELFAST, THBOUOfl ROS- 
TREVOR AXD DOWNPATRICK. 

Neujry (Bte. 3) is connected with 
Warrenpoint by a short rly., which 
leaves the town from stats, at Dublin 
Bridge and Edward St., and nms 
parallel with the Newry river, hav- 
ing on 1. a pretty road garnished 
with woods. 

At 4^ m. Narrow Water the estuaiy 
is suddenly contracted by the projec- 
tion of a tongue of rock, occupied by 
the ruins of Narrow Water Castl'e 
(Ir. Caislen-uisge), a singular square 
battlemented tower, which before 
the days of artillery was well situ- 



Ibelahd. Boute 4. — Warrenpoint — Carlingford. 

ated for defensive purposes. The 
present fortress was built by the 
Duke of Ormond in 1663 to re- 
place an older one that had been 
destroyed in the previous wars. It 
has seen many vicissitudes; amongst 
others, serving as a kennel for 
hounds, and a salt-work. The 
botanist will find Sagina maritinia 
near the mins. 

The woods overhanging the road 
on the L are those of Narrow 
Water House (Major Hall), a charm- 
ingly situated residence, oonmumd- 
ing grand views of the opposite 
monntains of Garlingford. The 
honse is a handsome Elizabethan 
mansion, and the grounds are well 
worth a visit. At the entrance 
of the Clanrye, or Newry Biver, 
into Carlingford Bay, is 



48 



modation for bathers. The town is 
now lighted with gas, and is well 
supplied with water. 

Dietanee8,—'Sewty, 6 m.; Garling- 
ford, 6 ; Kilkeel, 12 ; Bostrevor, 2. 

Excuniona,-^ 

1, Bostrevor and Slieve B&n. 

2. Garlingford and O'meath. 

Conveyances. — BailtoXewry. Om- 
nibus to Kilkeel. 



6 m. Warrenpoint, the port of Newry 
[HoteU : Victoria ; Grown ; Gom- 
merdal). It is a pleasant little 
town, exhibiting at one end the 
chajracteristics of a seaport, and, 
at the other, of a bathing-place, 
though from the latter portion, 
which is washed by the waters of 
the Lough, there is such a view 
as &lls to the lot of few watering- 
places in Great Britain. On the rt. are 
the large ranges of the Garlingford 
Mountams, amongst which the chief 
are Glermont Gaim 1674 ft.,-and Gar- 
Ungford 1935 ft. At their foot 
nestles the village of Omeath nearly 
opposite Warrenpoint, and further 
down is Garlingford itself; while on 
the horizon are the lighthouses of 
Greenore Point and the Block 
House. On the 1. the Moume Moun- 
tains rise still higher and more 
abruptly. In a corner, under Slieve 
B4n, is Bostrevor, embowered in 
woods, the road to it skirting the 
coast amidst a succession of pretty 
residences. Below Bostrevor the 
Lough expands, but contracts again 
at Greencastle, &om which point the 

open sea may be said to commence. 
Wacrenpomt haci abundant aooom- 



Excunion to Carlingford, 

Before quitting Warrenpoint the 
tourist should t^e a boat and cross 
over to O'meath {Hold : O'Hagan's), 
a picturesque little spot at the foot 
of the mountains, and thence proceed 
to Garlingford. The road runs close 
to the sea, but Uttle room being left 
for it by the hills which rise so 
abruptly. Soon the Two-mile Biver 
rushes down from the O'meath 
Mountain; and a little further on, 
the Golden Biver, after a rapid 
course from the rugged heights of 
Slieve Foy, fsdls into Sie sea. 

6 m. Carlingford {Irms: .Ty- 
nan's; Humphreys'), Pop. 777, 
claims the honour of being the land- 
ing place of St. Patrick in the 5th 
cent., and was once a town of such 
importance that it is said to have 
possessed no less than 32 buildings 
in the shape of castles and mona- 
steries. The probable explanation 
of this statement is, that in the war- 
like days of the Pale every house in 
Garlingford was built in the castel- 
lated form for the purposes of de- 
fence and protection. At the bidding 
of King John, Gourcy erected a 
castle here in 1210. The town 
quickly grew up around it, and 
played no inconsiderable part in the 
troublous history of the times. As 
evidence of the rank it took, Garling- 
ford obtained charters from Edwanl 
II., Henry IV., Henry VII., Eliza- 
beth, James I., and James II. It 



44 



Boute 4. — Newry to BdfaM — Carlingford. Ireland, 



is charmingly edtnated in a Utde 
nook of the Lough, and commands 
glorious views of the Mourne Moun- 
tains, but has this disadvantage, that, 
owing to the height and position of 
the hillfl behind, it gets shorn of a 
large proportion of sunlight. The 
ruins consist of — 

1. King John's Castle^ a rambling, 
massive fortress of the 13th cent., 
the situation of which is not the 
least curious thing about it It is 
built upon a rocs, somewhat the 
shape of a horseshoe, with the eastern 
side overlooking the sea. Here was 
the principal entrance, defended by 
a platform, the west or land side 
being protected by the mountain- 
pass. In the inteoior, in addition 
to the apartments, is a courtyard, 
round which ran a gallery, with 
recesses at the loopholes for the 
protection of the archers. The walls 
were of the thickness of 11 ft in some 
places. 

2. Between the castle and the 
monastery is a square tower, the 
windows of whicn are curiously 
carved with serpents, grotesque 
heads, and other devices. 

3. The monastery, founded by 
Bichard De Burgh, Earl of Ulster, 
in the 14th cent, for the Dominican 
order, combines in an unusual de- 
gree the military with the ecclesias- 
tical character. 

Its church has a nave and chan- 
cel, at the junction of which rises a 
square tower on pointed arches. At 
the W. end are two other towers or 
turrets connected by a battlement 
and at the E. end is a pointed 
window, all the tracery and mulUons 
having disappeared long ago. 

In 1649 Lord Inchiquin, then one 
of Orom well's generals, occupied Oar- 
lingford, and, with tiie usual irre- 
verence of those days, turned the 
church into a stable. 

There is one more square tower. 



which probably belonged to the 
fortified houses of the Pale. On the 
roof is the King's Seat " so called 
because the Lord Thomas of Lan- 
caster, son of Henry IV., who landed 
in 1408 as Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land, used often to sit upon a stone 
seat between the battlements to enjoy 
the prospect." 

Though Carlingford is well situ- 
ated for the purposes of trade, it has 
little, save in oysters. "The oyster 
fishery is late, not commencing be- 
fore the 1st Monday in November, 
and ending on the 1st Saturday in 
March. The beds extend from Green- 
ore Point up to Narrow Water, 
and during the season 8 or 10 sail- 
boats, and nearly 100 row-boats, vriUi 
5 men in each, are engaged in 
dredging.'* Should the traveller be 
in the N.E. of Ireland during the 
oyster season, he should pay a visit 
to Waxrenpoint for the purpose of 
tasting these oysters, and comparing 
them with those laken fix>m the 
famous Burren oyster-beds close to 
the Bay of Galway, which are 
thought to be more delicate in flavoor. 

The pedestrian should not leave 
thisbeautifcd neighbourhood without 
ascending OarUngford Mountain, the 
highest point of the lofty range that 
fills up this promontory of Louth. I 
It commences at Fathom HiU, oppo- 
site Newry, and from that point 
abruptly rises to 1000 ft., attaining 
the maximnm at Carlingford, 1935 ft., 
to the E. of which a deep glen runs up 
horn the sea, dividing the range like 
a fork. The view, as may be easily 
imagined, is superb. Northward are 
the Mourne Mountains, Slieve B&d, 
and Slieve Donard, with their at- 
tendant groups. Eastward are the 
Slieve GuUion Hills and the undu- 
lating country between Dundalk, 
Gastleblayney and Armagh. South- 
ward is the Bay of Dundalk with its 
headlands, from Cooley Point imme- 
diately underneath to Dunany Point 
and Glogher Head. The ^reological 
structure of the GarlingfordMountains 



Irelaih). 



Boute 4. — CarUngford — Boslrevor. 



45 



is trap, in Tarions states of ctystal- 
lizatloD, from amorphous basalt to 
porphyiated and crystalline green- 
stone. (See Kte. 3.) ** Garlingford- 
Lough affords a good illnslration 
of tnose sea-loughs or Qords so 
prevalent along the coasts of Soot- 
land and Norway, where glacial 
erosion has acted so powerfully, and 
must (as Professor Bamsay has de- 
inonstzated) be considered as the 
agent in wearing out such hollows 
amongst the hs^er rocks.** — HaU, 
This rook-basin character is indi- 
cated by the feict that at its sea- 
ward entrance it is but 4 &thoms 
deep; it deepens to 16 &thoms oppo- 
site KiUowen Point At the entrance 
of the bay, near Greenore, may be 
traced well-marked portions of an 
ancient sea margin or terrace of 
shelly giaYel about 10 feet aboye the 
sea-leveL This great terrace extends 
nnder the town and neighbourhood 
of Dundalk, and along the coast as 
far as Dublin Bay, where " it merges 
into the old estuary of the Biver 
Liffey, forming the leyel terrace on 
which the Custom Hous^, tiie Bank 
of Ireland, the UniYersity, and Sack- 
ville Street are built."— ^uK. 

There is a light-house on Haul- 
bowline Bock off Oarlingford Bay. 
3 m. rail, beyond Oarlingfora is Green- 
ore (hotel very good). This is now a 
packet station for steamers from 
Holyhead. It is connected vi& Dun- 
dalk and Newry with the whole 
railway system of the north and west 
of Ireland. 



Betum to Main Boute, 

The drive from Warrenpoint to 
fiosetrevor is hardly to be equalled 
for beauty, either of mountain or 
coast scenery. The road is lined 
with pretty seats, the most con- 
spicnons being Moygannon (Major 
Hall), Bladenbu]^h, ^erwise called 
TopOT-turvy (D. Boss, Esq.), Bosetta 
(8. Beid, Esq.), Garpenham (Mrs. 



Fade), Green . Park (Hon. Mrs. 
Maude), and Drumsisk (H. Bowan, 
Esq.), near which last is a lofty 
granite obelisk to the memory of 
Gen. Boss, who, according to the 
inscription, was present at l£e a£Eairs 
of Alexandria, Maida, Vittoria, Go- 
runna, and the Pyrenees. The obe- 
lisk stands on an eminence com- 
manding a view of the Lough at the 
entrance of the demesne of Garraig- 
bhan, the seat of B. Boss of Bla- 
densburg, landlord of the village of 
Bostrevor, and grandson of the 
General whose military services won 
from the Crown for his family the 
honorary addition of Bladensburg 
to the family name of Boss. 

4 m. Bostrevor (Woodside Hotel, 
good), ti^e sweetest tittle watering- 
place to be found in the 8 kingdoms, 
and, as Inglis says, ''one of the 
most beautiM spots in Ireland:" 
quiet, sheltered oy mighty moun- 
tains and shady woods, it wiU equally 
suit the deUcate invalid . requiring 
sea air, the artist seeking materials 
for his taste, and the general visitor. 
The tittle town is placed between 
the months of 2 rivers, and is 
flanked on one side by the Lodge, 
the residence of Gol. Boxbuigh. 
From the Woodhouse (the beautiful 
villa of S.Bamadge, Esq.), rather more 
than a mile from the town, the ascent 
is usually commenced of the Bostrevor 
Mountain, or Stieve Ban, which rises 
very steeply to the height of 1595 ft. 
About 2-3rds of the way up, at 987 
feet above the sea, on the top of a 
secondary hill, separated by a val- 
ley from Stieve Ban, is Clough- 
more (Ir. Gloch Mor, "great stone," 
a singular boulder mass of granite, 
of about 30 tons. There is a legend 
attached to it that the giant Finn 
M*Gomhal was challenged by Benan- 
donner, a Scoteh giant, which chal- 
lenge being accepted, the pcdr con- 
fronted each other, the one on Gar- 
lingford, the other on Slieve Bawn. 
Finn, by way of a preparatory train- 
ing, flung Gloughmore at his anta- 



46 



Boute 4. — Newry to Belfast — Kilkeel, iRELAiro. 



gonist across the Lough, who de- 
camped in a fright. The story told 
hj the geologist is quite as wonder- 
ful. The constitution of the granite 
proves that it comes from the dis- 
trict to the N. or N.N.W., and it 
must have travelled with a great 
glacier, which carried it across the 
valley of Bostrevor, and up the hill 
on which ifc rests. Parallel scratches 
may be observed on the shores of 
the lough. These footprints of the 
glacier show its movement in a 
8.S.E. direction. The walks in the 
neighbourhood of Bostrevor are 
numerous and varied, the Moume 
Hills alone furnishing as much 
collar-work as is needed by any 
pedestrian. The view from Olough- 
more on a clear day will well repay 
a walk there. 

ExcunionB, — 

1. Warrenpoint. 

2. Cloughmore and Slieve B&n. 

3. Kilbroney and Hilltown. 

4. Kilkeel and Greencastle. 

Two-horse tourist-cars run daily 
from Warrenpoint and Eogtrevor to 
Kilkeel and Newcastle, in connec- 
tion with rly. to Belfast 



Bostrevor to HUltoum, 

A picturesque road runs through 
a gap in the hills to 7 m. HHUown, 
passing Kilbroney and its ruined ch., 
one of the simplest and earliest form, 
overshadowed by the branches of a 
fine old oak, which has grown out of 
the wall to a great height Hilltown 
{Hotd, Devonshire Anns, very good) 
is a remarkably neat village under 
the care of the Marquess of Down- 
shire, situated at the confluence of 
the 2 or 3 streamlets that form the 
Bann. About 2 m. on the Down- 
patrick road is a cromlech supported 
on 3 stones, locally known as Finn's 
Fingerstone. 



Main Boute from Bostrevor, 
Passing on the rt. Ballyedmond 
(A. Stewart, Esq.), and crossLng 
the Causeway Water, the tourist 
reaches 15 m. Moume Park, the 
beautiful estate of the Earl of Kil- 
morey (Viscount Newry and Mome), 
the woods and grounds of which 
clothe the base of Knockchree (Hill 
Deer), of the 1013 ft., crowned on the 
summit with an observatory. Here 
the White Water is crossed, and a 
road on rt leads to the sands into 
which it empties itself, near Green- 
castle Point. The fortress, which 
gives this name, is one of those 
square massive towers erected br 
the Anglo-Norman barons to protect 
l^eir possessions, and prior to the 
days of ordnance it must have proved 
a sufficient guard for the entrance 
of GarUngford Lough. A direct 
road of 4|^ m. runs fi^m it to 

KiUced {Inn : Kilmorey Aims), 
a thriving townlet of some 1145 
Inhab. Though placed on a fine 
strand, affording every accommoda- 
tion for bathing, and not &r from 
the foot of the Moume Mountains, 
EJlkeel has not as yet assumed the 
position of a watering-place. Per- 
haps, however, in the estimation of 
many this may be an additkmal \ 
attraction. Near the town is the 
Abbey, l^e residence of T. Gihecn « 
Henry, Esq. Looking up the valler 
of the Kilkeel Biver from the S., a 
terrace or ancient sea margin may be 
seen at a height of 1000 fC above the 
present sea-level, skirting the base 
of Slieve Lough Shanagh. 

Conveyances. — Car to Newiy; to 
Newcastle; to Green Castle; to 
Warrenpoint. 

Distances. — Bostrevor, 10 m.; 
Newry, 18; Newcastle, 12; Dun- 
drum, 17 ; Greencastle, 4} ; Mooine 
Park, 3; Hilltown, 13. 

From Kilkeel the road, croasin": 
the Kilkeel Biver, speedily ap- 
proaches the coast, occupying tbe 
very limited strip of level gronnd be- 



Ibklans. Bottte 4. — NeweaiOe — SUeee Donard. 



47 



tween the mountains and the sea. 
At Annalong, near which is Glass 
Dmmmcmd, the seat of Mrs. Senior, 
another oltliese monnteun streams is 
cn^sed, and again a 3rd at Bloody 
Bridge, aboye which Spence's Moun- 
tain and CroBBone, 1777 ft., rise 
abruptly to the L " The road rises 
perpendicularly more than 100 ft. 
above the sea, from which it is so- 
parated by rocky precipices and 
shelving cliffs, indented with yawn- 
ing cavems, so terrifically lashed by 
the tiemendoas waves as to impart to 
the coast a character of extraordinary 
sablimitj." As we wind along the 
cli&, the beantifnl woods of Donard 
Lodge come in sight, and at the very 
foot of Slieve Donazd itself the little 
town of 

30 m. Newcastle {Hotel: Anneeley 
Arms, good), where the tourist, espe- 
cially if a pedestrian, should by idl 
means halt for a short time, that he 
may ascend Slieve Donard. 

Between Bloody Bridge and New- 
castle are several spots marked by 
some natural curiosities, and conse- 
quently invested with a legend ; such 
as Donard's Gave, Maggy's Leap, 
and Armer's Hole^ which latter 
attained its notoriety from a foul 
murder committed by one Edward 
Armer on his fSftther. 

Kewcastle must soon prove a 
formidable rival to Bostrevor, as, in 
addition to the usual advantages 
for bathing, and more romantic 
scenery, it possesKS a rather cele- 
brated Spa; indeed, Dr. Knox calls 
it the Scarborough of Ireland. The 
Spa is situated about ^ m. &om the 
town on the hill-side and adjoin- 
^ the beautifbl grounds of Do- 
nard Lodge, through which, by the 
ootirtesy of the Ooimtess of Annesley, 
the tourist is free to wander. There 
^ various pleasant and picturesque 
^<B in the neighbourhood of the 
^pa, such as the Hermit's Glen, the 
«»kery, the WaterfiBdl, &c 

(^(^aoeyanees from Newcastle daily 



to Ballynahinch ,* daily to Down- 
Patrick. 

Distonoeg.— Newry, 30 m. ; Bostre- 
vor, 22 ; Dundrum, 5 ; Annabng, 7 ; 
Eilkeel, 12 ; Gastlewellan, 4^. 

Excursions. — 

1. Armer's Hole, Maggy's Leap, 
and Kilkeel. 

2. Slieve Donard. 

3. Tollymore and Briansford. 

4. Dundrum and Ardglass. 



Tollymore Park and Casdewdlan, 

It is a longer excursion to 
Br3ransford {Hotel : Boden Anns, very 
good), a charming little village close 
to ToOymore Park, the seat of the 
Earl of Boden ; one of the most pic- 
turesque desmesnes in Ireland. The 
visitor will not easily tire of the 
beauties which meet him at everv 
turn during his weinderings through 
the ground. The Biver Shimna, — 

* a brooklet gashing 
From its rocky fountain near, 
Down Into the valley niahing, 
So fresh and wondrous clear." 

—flows through the grounds in a 
series of cascades to figJl into the sea 
at Newcastle, while the views of 
the ocean, the Isle of Man, and the 
overhanging mountains, are inex- 
pressibly fine. From Tollymore it is 
a little over 3 m. to Gastlewellan, 
another neat and flourishing little 
town, almost surrounded by plea- 
sant demesnes. Of these the most 
important is CastletoeUan House, also 
a seat of the Earl of Annesley, in 
the grounds of which is a consider- 
able lake. Near the town are the 
extensive flax-spinning mills of the 
Messrs. Murland. 

Distonccs.— Dundrum, 5 m. ; Hill- 
town, 9 J ; Newcastle, 4 J ; Newry, 19. 



48 



Boute 4. — Newry to Belfast. 



iBKiAin). 



Slieve Donard, 



This is the highest point of the 
lofty Moume range that stretches 
from Newry to Dundrum, at once 
the finest and most picturesque 
hills in the N. of Ireland, with the 
exception of the Donegal Moun- 
tains. The ii^ent may be made 
either from the Spa Well, or by 
following the course of the Glen 
Biver on the K. side. A precipitous 
escarpment that overhangs tiiis 
stream is called the Eagle Bock. 
Magnificent indeed is the view 
which greets the pedestrian from Ihe 
summit of Slieve Donard, 2796 ft. 
To the W. is a vast expanse of ocean, 
relieyed only by the blue hills of 
the Isle of Man, in which. Snafell is 
plainly Trisible ; while NewcasUe, An- 
nalong, and Dundrum lie snugly 
at the feet. To the N. are the 
rich and varied plains of the dis- 
trict known in fonner tunes as Lo- 
cale, embracing many a fruitful 
acre and many a prosperous town. 
To the W. and S.'W. are minor 
satellites in the shape of the less 
lofty peaks of the Moumes; the 
principal of which are Slieve Gom- 
medagh, 2512 ft. ; Slieve Bearuagh, 
2394 ; SUeve Meel, 2257 ; the Oock 
and the Hen Mountuns in the 
most northerly group ; the Ohimney 
Bock, 2152 ;— Sneve Bingian, 2449 ; 
Slieve Lamagan, 2306; Shanlieve, 
2055 ; and the Eagle Mountain, 
2084, more to the S. Over Bostre- 
vor are Slieve B&n and Enockchree ; 
while still further beyond Newry are 
the ranges of Slieve Gullion. South- 
wards we have the Oarlingford Hills, 
the Hill of Howtln and in clear wea- 
ther the fiBdnt ridges of the Wickbw 
Mountains. The sides of the moun- 
tain on the ridge above Tollymore 
Park are strewn with granite boul- 
ders that have been dropped there 
by a great ice-sheet travelling from 
the N. The solid granite of the 
mountain itself is ice-worn up to a 
height of 1400 to 1500 feet, and 



moraine material, in the form of 
boulder clay, recMshes to a similar 
height above the valley of the 
Bl,(»dy 3ridge river. This river has 
cut its present channel through this 
stonv clay deposit. 

The botanist will find on these 
hills Polypodium dryopteris, Lyoo- 
podium alpinum, Oarex spierostachya, 
Salix herbacea, Pinguicula Lmi- 
tanica, Melanopais cambrica^ &c. 
The geological composition of the 
Moume Mountains is granite, yield- 
ing in some places good spedmens of 
beryl, topaz, and emerald. "The 
principal place at which they may 
be obtained is the southern face of 
Slieve-na-Glogh or the DiamoDd 
Bock. Near the Ohimney Bock 
beryls have been found in great 
numbers." — Doyle. 

"A deep vale divides it from 
Slieve Guaven, or the Creeping Monn- 
tain, which stands to the S.W., and 
presents to the view a huge rock 
resembling at a distance an old forti- 
fication, very high, and detached, as 
it were, from the eastern side of the 
mountain.'* 

Beiwm to Main Boute. 

Newcastle is now connected by 
raU with Belfast The first statios, 
5 m., is 

Dundrum, a small bathing and 
fishing village, situated on the 
northerly sweep of Dundrum Bay, in 
which the * Great Britain' steam-ship, 
now so favourite and lucky a veasel 
in her passages to Australia, vent 
ashore, m the autumn of 1847, booq 
after tibe commencement of her career. 
The village occupies no very plea^ 
sant situation in me midst of a tract 
of sandhills. Lithos^rmmn mari- 
timum fiourishes in this locality. 

On an eminence overlookiiig the 
bay are the keep and a few outworia 
of the castle, generally reputed to ha^e 
been built by De Gourcy in the be- 
gmning of the 14th cent, and held 
by the Templars : it afterwaids pasBed 



Ireland. 



BaiUe 4. — Atdglass, 



49 



into the bandB of the Magennises, a 
poweiM claQ who had many posses- 
sions in this part of Ireland. It was 
a strong fortreBs, and, ** when in repair, 
often proved a good guard to this pass, 
and as often an offensive neighhour to 
the English planted in Lecale, aooord- 
ing to &e hands that possessed it." — 
Harris. Its principal features are a 
circular keep and tower, with a barbi- 
can and other outworks, which were 
dismantled by Cromwell. 

Niaar the castle is a ruined man- 
sion, of probably the 16th cent. 
Ihmdmm possesses a small pier 
built by the Marquess of Downshire, 
and an equally small trade : the 
navigation hereabouts is not very 
safe, owing to a bar at the entrance 
of the river, and an ugly reef of rocks, 
known as Oraigalea, and the Cow 
and Calf. The Marquess has built 
a bathing lodge, near the town, on 
the sands. There is steam communi- 
cation weekly between Dundrum, 
Silloth and Workington, and White- 
haven. The rly. proceeds, passing 
I nL 1. the small village of Clough, 
with the ruins of an old castle, and 
near the beautiful seat of Colonel 
Forde, to 7J m. Tullymurry Stat., 
with Ballykilbeg (W. Johnstone, 
Esq., M.P.). 



Cocui Drive to Doumpatrieh. 

Passing Tyrella, the road skirts 
the coast, which juts out to the Pro- 
montory of St. John, the western 
boondfijry of Dundrum Bay. On the 
point is a Coast Guard Stat., and a 
Lighthouse showing an intermittent 
light 

The ch. of St. John's contains a 
singular font, in which there is no 
I>as8age for the water to escape. 

6 m. KiUaugh, a fishing village, 
on the E. shore of the little bay of 
Killough, which runs up for some 
little distance, necessitating a con- 
»deiable d^toui in the road. On the 

[IrdandJ} 



opposite shore is Coney Island, and 
f m. further 

Ardglass, which in the days of its 
priory was the principal port in all 
Ulster, and was bought of such great 
importonoe as to require the prot^ ction 
of no less than 5 castles. Although 
these palmy times arie gone, Ardglass 
even yet enjoys a good deal of trade, 
from being the head-quarters of the 
northern herring fishery, in which 
something like 3000 fi^ermen are 
engaged. It is also an attractive 
bathing-place for the residents of 
Downpatrick. There is a harbour- 
light, and vessels of 500 tons can 
come in at all times. 

The name of Ardglass (Ir. Ard- 
glas, '* green height"), is derived 
from its position between two hills, 
the Ward of Ardglass on the W., 
and the Ward of Ardtole on the E., 
both useful landmarks to sailors. 
A large trading company obtained 
a grant from Henry lY. and settled 
here, and it is to them that with 
most probability must be ascribed 
the erection of the New Worhs^ a very 
singular range of buildings overlook- 
ing the rocks of the bay. They are in 
length 250 ft., and are fianlked by 
a square tower at each end, in ad- 
dition to one in the centre, the 
intervening walls being entered by 
15 arched doorways, between each of 
which is a square window. There 
were thus 18 rooms on the ground 
floor, with the same number in an 
upper story, and were evidently 
used as a fortified warehouse for mer- 
chants. "In 1789 Lord Charles 
Fitzgerald, son of the Duke of Lein- 
ster, who was th^ proprietor, caused 
that portion of the building between 
the central and western towers to be 
enlarged in the rear, and raised to 
the height of 3 stories in the. castel- 
lated style ; and from that time it has 
been called Ardglass Castle. It was 
formerly called Horn Castle, either 
from a great quantity of horns found 
on the spot, or from a high pillar 
which stood on its sunomit previously 



50 



Route 4. — Newry to JBdfaM — Doionpairick. Ibeland. 



to being roofe^.'* — Leiois. To the 
W. of this is the square tower of 
CSioud or Gowd Castle. Overlookiiig 
the town on the N.W. is the ancient 
King's Castle, which has been incor- 
porated with the handsome modem re- 
sidence of A. De y. Beauclerk, the 
proprietor of the town. Lastly, in the 
centre is Jordan's Castle, the only 
one which has any historical celebrily 
among the whole number. During 
the insurrection of the Eatl of Ty- 
rone, in the reign of Elizabeth, one 
Simon Jordan held this ibrtress suc- 
cessfully for 3 years, until he was 
relieved by the Lord Deputy Mount- 
joy. It is singular that, considering 
the former importance of Ardglass 
and the evident care bestowed on its 
defences, so little is known of its 
history or of the builders of these 
fortresses. Their age is probably that 
of the 15th cent. In the neighbouiv 
hood is a cavem at the head of the 
cieek of the Ardtole, about i m. 
from the town. 

Distances. — Dundrum, 9 m. ; 
Strangford, 10 ; Downpatrick, 7. 

The road continues at a short 
distance from the coast, which is 
locky and precipitous. At 10 m. is 
Guns Island, connected with the 
mainland by a causeway, and at 
Killard Point, a little further on, 
commence the narrow straits that 
connect Strangford Lough with the 
sea. 

13 m. Kilclieft a lofty square for- 
tress of AnglO'Norm, character, and 
generally ascribed to Courcy as 
the founder, although it subsequently 
came into the possession of the 
Bishops of Down,»who occasionally 
used it as a residence. The first 
story is vaulted, and the second 
has a carved chimney-piece. At 
the narrowest part of the straits, 
exactly opposite Portaferry (Rte. 5), 
is 

16 m. Strangford, a fishing town. 
At the N. end is Old Court, the re- 
sidence of Lord de Bos. A curious 
old chapel stands within the ground, 



built in the reign of Charles L by 
Qeorge Earl of Kildare. Adjonimg 
is Cs^leward, a beautiful estate of 
Viscount Bangor; and overlooking 
the town on the N. is the mined 
keep of Audley Castle, one of the 
27 fortresses that were founded by 
Courcy. 

Distances. — Portaferry, }m.; Down- 
patrick, 8 ; Ardglass, 10 ; Kilclief, 3. 

The tourist now leaves the wild 
sea-girt road, and follows an inland 
route, and rejoins the railway at 



11^ m. Doionpatrick (Hotd : Den- 
vir's). (Pop. 3840.) This ancient 
town is situated on the side of a 
hill, which, curving round like an 
amphitheatre^ overlooks a plain 
through which the Biver Quoile 
winds its teedy way towards Lougfa 
Strangford. Approaching either bf 
rail or road, the tourist has a good 
view of the cathedral, standing 
at the extreme W. of the town. 
There can be no doubt of its great 
age, as we hear of it even beftm 
St. Patrick's time as being the resi- 
dence of the native kings of Vltier 
and the Dunum of Ptolemj. St 
Patrick did not arrive till 432, and 
then founded a monastery, the site of 
which was granted to him by Dichn, 
son of Trichem, lord of ihe soil 
whom he had converted to Chris- 
tianity. The sanctity in which this 
abbey was held may be inferred fiom 
the fact that St. Patrick was buiied 
here, together with St. Bridget and 
St. Columb, two of Ireland's moat 
holy saints, a circumstance com- 
memorated by a distich of Sir John 
de Courcy in 1185, on the discovery 
of the graves — 



" Hi tres in Duno tomnlo tnmiilantnr in 
Brigida, Fatridus, atqae Golunl)* Pina." 

This de Courcy had established him- 
self in Down vi et ormta, and main- 
tained his position not only against th« 



Irelaisd. 



Boute 4. — Downpatnck. 



61 



natiye princes, but even against the 
army of King John, whose allegiance 
he had shaken off to transfer it to 
Arthur of Brittany. He was, how- 
ever, ultimately seized when perform- 
ing his devotions in the cathedral, 
and made prisoner. The cathedral 
suffered much at different times, 
haying been burnt down by Edward 
Bruce, and again by Lord Deputy 
Gray in 1538; this act formed one 
of the charges on which he was 
beheaded in 1541. 

The town is well built, and divided 
into English, Irish, and Scotch quar- 
ters, the latter being an important 
element in the population of all the 
North-eastern towna; there are also 
some handsome county buildings— 
such as the Court-house, Infirmary, 
and Gaol, the cost of this last being 
63,0002. The cathedral is com- 
paratively modem ; the old building, 
burnt by Lord Gray, continued in 
ruins for 250 years, the ch. of Lisbum 
doing dnty in the mean time as the 
cathedral. In 1790, however, the 
present Perp. building was raised, 
consisting of a nave, choir, and 
aisles, with clerestory, and a fine 
tower of 4 stages at the W. end. 
At the £. end are also 2 small 
castellated towers of 3 stages, sur- 
mounted by a parapet, and finished 
off with broach spires. There is 
an E. window of 12 compart- 
ments, and above it 3 ogee-headed 
niches which once contained the 
images of the saints so ruthlessly 
mutated by Lord Gray. Under 
the window is a deeply recessed 
doorway, which is said to have be- 
longed to the old cathedral. Tiie 
aisles are separated from the nave by 
ranges of pointed arches, and the 
roof is groined and ornamented at the 
intersections with clustered foliage. 
From earliest times tiie Bishopric 
of Down has been joined to that of 
Conor, although one or two bishops 
caused them to be separated : they 
were, however, again united in the 
15th cent, and are now united 



with that of Dromore. Amongst the 
Protestant bishops, after the Refor- 
mation, was the pious Jeremy Tay- 
lor, who administered the diooese of 
Dromore. 

The visitor will not fail to enjoy 
the exquisite panorama of distant 
hills from the ch.-yard, in which 
the Moume ranges are especially 
conspicuous. 

It may be mentioned that a line 
round tower once stood at the W. 
end, but was taken away, as fears 
were entertained lest it should fall 
and damage the cathedral. 

The antiquary should visit the 
Bath of Downpatrick, not far from 
the gaol. It was formerly known as 
Bath Keltain. "Fort of Keltan," 
and is the largest in the county, 
being 895 yards broad at the base 
and surrounded by 3 ramparts. 

There is also a remarkable Druid- 
ical ring, with an avenue of stones 
running for 35 ft. in a N.E. direc- 
tion, on the hill of 81ieve-i)a-<?ri(ldle, 
3 m. to the E. On the way thither 
are the wells of Struel (L*. Stru- 
thair, " a stream"), whither on Mid- 
summer-day crowd pilgrims from 
every quarter to try the efiicacy 
of the waters in washing away 
their sins. It is one of the most 
celebrated resorts in all Ireland, 
and famous, or rather infamous, 
for the mingled scenes of credu- 
lity, impiety, and indecency which 
are allowed to be openly carried 
on. Having completed their weary 
pilgrimage on bare knees up 
Struel HUl, they resort to the wells. 
•* These are 4 in number — the Body 
Well or Well of Sins, the Limb 
Well, the Eye Well, and the Well 
of Life. K they pay a fee, tiiey can 
go into the first, in which they are 
accommodated with a place to un- 
dress ; if not, they must go to the 
Limb Well, in which case they have 
to undress before the multitude, and 
repair in a state of nudity to the 
well, into which they plunge pro- 
miscuously. Having thus washed 

B 2 



62 



lUnUe 4. — Newry to Bdfast 



Ibelasd. 



away their sins at the expense of 
their modesty, they repair to the 
Eye Well to wash away the impedi- 
ments to their spiritual vision, after 
which they partake of the/ Waters 
of Life/ or, as some call it, ihe Well 
of Forgetfolness."— I>oyfo. The per- 
formances were usually closed with 
saturnalia, which, if the accounts of 
some writers be true, should have 
been long ago summarily stopped by 
the civil authorities. 

2 m. N.E. are slight remiuns of 
the monastery of Saul, built in the 
12th cent, by Malaohy O'Morgair, 
Bishop of Down. Here died St. 
Patrick in 493. It formerly had a 
cruciform ch., the greater part of 
which has disappeared. About a 
mile to the W^ on the shore of the 
estuary of the Quoile, stand the 
ruins of an embattled tower. 

On the opposite side of the estu- 
ary are the ruins of the abbey of 
Inch, erected in the 12th cent, by 
John de Oourcey, and supplied with 
monks from Fumess, in I^ncashire. 
Although originally a cruciform ch., 
little is left of it save the chancel, 
which is lighted by E. Eng. lancet 
windows of beautiful design. A 
primitive ch. of much earlier date 
still exists on the island, and is said 
to have been the predecessor of the 
present abbey. Over the 8. door is 
a sculpture, representing a person 
praying to l^e Saviour on tiie Gross. 

Conveyances to Bel&st by rail. Gar 
daily to Newry ; to Newcastle ; and 
to Ardglass. 

Digtances. — Newry, by the coast 
road, 61 m. : Dundrum, 8^ ; Strang- 
ford, 8 ; Ardglass, 7; Killough. 7i ; 
Eillyleagh, 6; Belfast, 27 ; Ballyna- 
hinch. by rail, 124 ; Struel, 3 ; Saul, 2. 

Excursions. — 

1. Stiangford and Kilclief. 

2. Struel and Saul. 

3. Ballynahinch, 



Passing the village and stai of 
Grossgar 5^ m.,we arrive at a junction 
from whence a short branch is given 
off to 



BdUynahiwh, 

Hotels: (Walker's Hotel, good), 
which of late years has attracted 
valetudinarians from its bracing 
air and the efScacy of its medici- 
nal waters. The Spa is two miles 
distant, and has a fair hotel. Gars 
at the station. There are 2 wells, 
the one containing lime, siulphuric, 
hydrochloric, and carbonic acids; 
and the other having, in addition, 
a small amount of protoxide of 
iron. They are strongly recom- 
mended by Dr. Knox in cases of he- 
patic affections, cutaneous diseases, 
and general debility. The Spa is 
tastefully planted and laid oat in 
ornamental walks, and the accom- 
modation in lodging-houses cheap 
and good. Adjoining the tovm is 
Montalto, formerly the residence 
of the Earls of Moira, and now of 
D. S. Ker, Esq., who rebuilt the 
mansion. Ballynahinch is situated 
pleasantly enough in a vale at the 
foot of the Slieve Gioob Mountains 
(1753 ft), which lie between it 
and Gastlewellan, and contain the 
sources of the River lagan, that 
runs by Dromore to Belfast Oa 
the side of Slieve Groob the anti- 
quary will find a very large rath, 80 
yards round at the base. Blxcursioiis 
may also be made to Hillsborougb. 
9 m.; Banbridge, 17 (Rte. 3j: and 
Gastlewellan, 12^. 

Excursions. — 

1. Hillsborough and Bromord 
(Rte. 3). 

2. Sheve Groob. 

3. Eillyleagh, a small town on the 
rt. of the rly., and beautifhll^ situ- 
ated on the ^ores of Lough Strang- 
ford. It is remarkable for being the 
birthplace of Sir Hans 81oa]ie,tba 



Irelai^d. Boute 5. — Bd/ast to Danaghadee. 

founder of the Britifih Museum. The 
leKBumed Dr. Hincka, so well known for 
his Egyptian and Assyrian researches, 
was the rector of the parish. A very 
ancient castle, beautifully restored 
by the late Archibald Hamilton, and 
of which one oi the towers certainly 
dates from the reign of King John, 
crowns the hill at the back of the 
town. 



63 



Betum to Mcun Soute. 

m m. from Downpatrick 19 Saint- 
field, a small but busy manufacturing 
town, where linens are made for the 
Belfast market. Here was fought 
the battle of Saintfield, June 9th, 
1798, a sharp and bloody engagement 
between the United Ir&hmen under 
Mnnroe, and the Yeomanry under 
Col. Stapleton. The latter retreated 
after losing 60 men, though the rebels 
are stated to have lost 360. Three 
days after this action Munroe ad- 
vanced on Ballynahinch with an 
army of 7000, but here his good 
fortune deserted him. The Boyal 
forces under Gen. Nugent had oc- 
cupied the town, and, although the 
rebels fought with desperate gal- 
lantry, discipline prevailed, and they 
were routed with great slaughter, 
Munroe himself being captured and 
executed. The ill-success of this 
last movemeiit completely crashed 
the rebellion in the north. 

19 m. CJomber Stat., the point of 
junction with the Donaghadee line 
(Bte. 5). From hence it is 8 m. to 
Belfast 



ROUTE 5. 

BELFAST TO DONAQHADEE. 

Belfast {Hoteh: Imperial, and 
Boyal, both good ; Queen's, and 
Eglinton, fair; besides several 
others inferior) is the metropolis 
of N. Ireland, and indeed ranks 
next to Dublin in the whole king- 
dom for size and importance. Its 
spacious and well-arranged streets 
and squares, its general cleanliness 
and good order, and the beautiftil 
examples of decorative architecture 
displayed so largely in its public 
buUdings, contrast favourably with 
the generality of Irish towns. The 
earliest mention of the site of Bel- 
fost is in the annals of the 4 Masters, 
A.D. 665, where it is called Fearsat, 
**the ford," and was the scene of 
a battle between the Picts and 
Ulidians. In 1333 a castle stood 
here, which was held by William 
de Burgo, Earl of Ulster. In 1476 
it was in possession of the O'Neills, 
&om which family it was wrested 
in 1597 by the Ohichesters, who 
planted a colony from Devonshire — 
incorporated by Charles in 1613. 
From this date it slowly increased 
in importance till, at the beginning 
of this century, it had about 20,000 
Inhab. ; at the census of 1871, 
174,412 ; now its population is esti- 
mated at upwards of 200,000 1 



54 



Baide h.— Belfast. 



ISELAND* 



The sitaation of Belfast is ^ell 
adapted for oommeicial purposes, and 
it is rapidly rising, in enterprise, 
wealth, and population, to the first 
place among Irish cities. The town 
stands at the hase of a lofty chain of 
hills that runs np firom the S., and 
ends abruptly wi& the Gave Hill, a 
somewhat precipitous basaltic emi- 
nence rising to the height of 1158 ft. 
To the E. is the noble Bel&st Longh, 
the head of which is marked by a 
singularly long bridge crossing the 
Lagan at its mouth. In consequence 
of file shelter afforded by these hUls, 
the temperature is very mild, being 
only one degree below that of Tor- 
quay. The head of the estuary is 
shallow, and a large portion of it is 
bare at low water; but by means of 
an artiiksial channel, completed in 
1840, vessels drawing 23 ft. can 
reach the quays and docks at high- 
water. 

Belfast is the mann&cturing and 
commercial metropohs of IHster, 
and is the centre of the linen-trade 
in all its branches of spinning, 
weaving, bleaching, &c. ; and to 
it all &e towns of Ulster send the 
production of their &ctories and 
works. 

The Harbour of Belfast is under 
the control of Commissioners, who 
are elected by the ratepayers, with 
power to levy dues on all imports 
and exports, and whose continued 
improvements have largely contri- 
buted to the wel&re of the bo- 
rough. There are six tidal docks, 
the Prince's and the Clarendon, 
the Hamilton Graving Dock and 
the Abercom Basin, the Spencer 
and the Dufferin Docks, also a tidal 
basin at the entrance of Spencer 
Dock. The last two were opened 
in August, 1872, and the reclama- 
tion ( f land for ftirther dock accom- 
modation is being steadily proceeded 
with. 

The tonnage of the port, entered 



for a series of years, will help to 
exhibit the extent of its trade : — 



Yeaar. 



Vessels. 



1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 
1876 



6929 
6947 
7442 
7817 
7156 
8225 
8H03 
9323 
8230 
7538 
7012 
7475 
7150 



Tods. 



1,020,037 
1,111,581 
1,366,788 
1,372,326 
1,201,306 
1.203,776 
1,225,566 
1,350,810 
1,309,251 
1,268,845 
1,305,016 
1.434,754 
1,497,585 



Ship-building is largely carried 
on; and the extensive iron sliip- 
building yard of the Messra Har- 
land and Wolff, on Queen's Island, 
calls for special notice. The vessels 
of the White Star line of packets 
were built by this firm, and the yaid 
Is placed on the Admiralty list as 
suitable for building for the Boyal 
Navy. 

The Linen trade of Belfast re- 
ceived a great impetus during the 
American war, and many new spin- 
ning and weaving factories, bleach- 
ing works, &c., were built; and all 
the subsidiary trades engaged in 
connection with this manufacture 
were greatly increased, and the 
population of tjie town grew largely 
during this period. Besides the 
linen trade and shipbuilding, Bel- 
fast has important iron-foundrie8» 
flour-mills, chemical works, brew- 
eries, distilleries, tanneries, saw-mills, 
and felt works. It has also factories 
for boots and shoes, brushes, boxes, 
matehes, agricultural implements, 
manures, &c. ; also bacon and ham 
curing works, and an important ex- 
port trade in provisions. 

The assizes for tlie County of An- 
trim are held in Bel&st, in the 
Cwmiy Court House (opened 1850) ; 



O-v 






jbmuxp*- 



Bouie b.-^BelfasL 



Si 



in Corinthian archi- 
by Sir Charles 
County Jail — b*y 
itect — is immediately 
)nnected by an nnder^ 



traverse the principal 

onnect the docks with 

Iway termini. 

\ is crossed by 4 bridges, 

I Queen*8 (of 5 granite 

ft. span) is the most 

It stands on the site of 

J^Bridge, which was 840 ft. in 

fThe other 3 are the new 

iSlige of the Central Railway, 

.. ^lert and the Ormean Bridges. 

ilttter, opened in 1863, cost 

V tig the public buildings may 
'^vjlentioned the Commercial 
^^8, m Waring Street, with 
^^Wc &9ade. The Cuetom-hotAte 
f fort Office form an imposing 

fate at the foot of High iStreet, 
present a beautiful Corinthian 

k front The Banks, however, 

£off the palm for decoratiye art, 
the Ulster Bank in particular 
Id be well studied for its elabo- 
^ details, particularly of the en- 
JBatures and cornices. The visitor 
r.ioiild also inspect the interior, 
'to is equally beautiful, though 
■wbaps as a whole a little overdone. 

The Queen** College, designed by 
Sir Cbarles Lanyon, architect, near 
the Botanic Gflidens (well worth 
visiting), is a Tudor building, with 
a front 600 ft. in length, reUeved 
oy a graceful tower in tiie centre. 

The General Aeeenibly's Theolo- 
IM CoUege, founded 1853, is a 
^ve stone building in the Roman 
^oric style. Its object is to afford 
* coarse of theological training to 
^^dates for the Presbyterian min- 
^^- These two institutions, as 
^e^l as the Methodise' College, are 
Jtuated close to one another and to 
tie Botanic Gardens. 



The Belfast Museum, in College 
Square, which contains a good col- 
lection of Irish antiquities, has ** its 
first story in imitation of the Cho« 
ragic monument of Thrasyllus, with 
a portico which is an exact copy of 
that of the octagon tower of Androni- 
cus at Athens; the upper portions 
are designed after the Temple of 
Minerva." 

The Albert Memorial^ a clock- 
tower in the Yenetian Ciothic style, 
138 fb. high, was erected in Queen 
St. by public subscription in 1870. 
Architect the late W. J. Barre. In 
a niche facing High Street is a statue 
of the Prince by tiie late Mr. Lynn. 

Churches: The older churches 
are chiefly of Classical architecture. 
Among them are The Parish Church, 
in Donegal Street, with a lofty tower ; 
8t George's, in High Street, with a 
Corinthian portico, which originally 
adorned Ballyscullion House, the 
seat of the Earl of Bristol, when Bp. 
of Derry. The Memorial Church of 
the Bev. Dr. Cooke, in May Street, 
has a handsome Ionic fii^ade. Some 
of the more recently br dt churches 
are Gothic. The mobi. notable are 
St, Jamei, Antrim Bead ; St. Thoma^, 
Lisbum Boad ; Presbyterian Church, 
Fitzroy Avenue, and Methodist 
Chapel, Carlisle Circus. The visitor 
should also notice the Ulster Hall 
in Bedford Street, the Music Hall 
in May Street, and a very fine Insti- 
tution, of the Tudor oraer, for the 
Deaf^ Dumb, and Blind. 

The Ormean PuUic Park, pur- 
chased from the Marquis of Donegal, 
was opened 1871. 

The flax-miJls are perhaps the 
most interesting objects in the city, 
and the visitor should not omit 
seeing one of these establishments. 
I'hat of the York St. Flax Spinning 
Co, — once Messrs. Mulhollands* — is 
the largest, and will give a better 
idea thaji almost any other of the ex- 



5e 



Bouie h,^— Belfast to Donaghadee. 



Ireland. 



tent of the trade. This enonnous &c- 
tory was one of the first erected for the 
linen-yam manufiaxiture in Belfieist, 
and now employs directly and in- 
directly nearly 25,000 persons. The 
other principal factories are those 
Messrs. Hinds and Co.; Messrs. 
Johnstone and Garlyle; Messrs. 
Ewart ; the Northern Spinning Co. ; 
&c, while the warehouses of Messrs. 
Bichardson and Messrs. Preston, 
Smyth, and Co., in Donegal Square, 
of Messrs. Ewart, in Bedford Street, 
and others, testify to the mercantile 
enterprise of the city. 

Nor is it only as a mannfao- 
taring centre that Belfast is pre^ 
eminent; she is equally noted for 
the position gained by her inhabit- 
ants in literature and the arts. 
Among these may be mentioned 
James Sheridan Knowles, once a 
teacher in the institution; the 
Bt. Hon. Sir J. Napier and Lord 
O'Hagan, ex-Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland; Chief Justice Whiteside; 
Lord Cairns, Lord Chancellor of Eng- 
land ; Sir James Emerson Tennant ; 
Dr. Hincks, the celebrated Oriental 
scholar, and others. The earliest 
edition of the Bible was printed here 
in 1704, and the third newspaper in 
the kingdom, as regards date, viz. 
* The Belfast Newsletter,* began its 
existence in 1737. The R(yyal Uhter 
Works, where the well known &ncy 
illuminated works of Messrs. Marcus 
"Ward and Co. are produced, will 
well repay a visit. 

The '• Boyal Ulster " Yacht aub, 
Belfast (1864), is a prosperous body. 
They have a good fleet of yachts, and 
their distinguishing burgee is blue 
with a white shield and bloody hand 
in the centre. Lord Dufferin is tlie 
commodore, whose delightfol book, 
'A Yacht Cruise to Iceland,' is so 
well known. 

Four lines of railway radiate 
from Belfast. These, with their 
branches, bring the city in communi- 
cation with the whole railway system 
of Ireland. 



Steamers leave the port daily for 
Qlasgow, Liverpool, Fleetwood, and 
Barrow-in-Furness; and at intemls, 
for London, Bristol, .Aidroaaan, 
Derry, Dublin. 

Distances, — ^Dublin, 113 m. ; Dro- 
gheda, 81 ; Dundalk, 59 ; Derry, 94; 
Downpatrick, 27 ; Donaghadee, 22 ; 
Holywood, 5 ; Bangor, 12 ; Newtown- 
ards, 13^ ; Comber, 8 ; Lisbum, 7; 
Moira, 14; Hillsborough, 19 ; Antrim, 
22 ; Carrickfergus^ 9^. 

Excursions. — 

1. Cave Hill and Divis. 

2. Dundonald, Kempe Stones. 

3. Drmnbo. 

4. Holywood. 

5. Carrickfergus (Bte. 13). 

6. Antrim (Bte. 12). 

Tlie tourist should not leave Bel- 
fast without paying a visit to Care 
HiU, which overhangs the city, at a 
distance of about 2 m., and is in- 
teresting both in a geological and 
antiquarian point of view. It forms 
the northern termination of the 
chalk ranges that stretch from Lifl- 
bum and are capped with basalt: 
although, geologically, the same 
strata are seen to recommence to the 
N.W. of Carrickfergus, and to extend 
along the coast as far as tiie Giant's 
Causeway. " It consists of an ove^ 
lying mass of tabular trap in a vast 
series of strata, which in some places 
exceed 900 ft. of thickness in the 
aggregate, resting upon a stratum 
01 white chalk in a highly vitrified 
state, in which there is a large 
quantity of flint both in laminn and 
nodules; the greensand underlies 
the chalks, beneath which the oolitic 
formation crops out, but of such a 
thickness that its series of beds of 
gray, white, and variegated gypseous 
marls have not yet been rally ex- 
plored." — Doyle, In the perpen- 
dicular face of the rock are the 8 
caves which have given its name to 
the hill ; the 2 lowest being 21 and 
10 ft. respectively in leng^ and 
Ithe upper one consideiably laiger, 



iRELAlin). 



Boute 5. — Drumbo. 



hi 



thougli 80 placed as to be well-nigh 
inacceaaible. The summit is crowned 
by an earthwork, known as the Fort 
of Mac Artk ** from its having been 
one of the last strongholds of Brian 
Mac Art (O'Neill^ who, with his 
sept, was exterminated by Deputy 
Monntjoy in the reign of Elizabeth." 
On one side it is protected by Ihe 
precipice, and on the other by a 
deep ditch. Gave Hill is not the 
highest point of this range, being 
overtopped on the S. side by Divis* 
1567 ft., and on the N. by OoUin- 
ward, 1196, while at the back are the 
Wolfs Hill, 1210, and Squire's Hill, 
1230. In tiie former hill are other 
caves in the chalk limestone, and at 
the base of the latter are several raths 
where implements of early war&re, 
such as celts, arrow-heads, and hat- 
chets were discovered. If the visitor 
be neither antiquary nor geologist, 
he will, nevertheless, be delighted 
with the view from any one of tliese 
heights, which embrace a panorama 
of great beauty. At the foot lies 
Be&st, with its churches, mills, 
and docks; the harbour, and the 
broad lough of Strangford; the 
hills of Down on the opposite side, 
sprinkled with many a smiling 
village; while a&r in the distance 
are the dim outlines of the Ayrshire 
coast, and on a clear day the clif& 
of the Isle of Man. To tlie W. is 
a broad expanse of Go. Antrim, in 
which Lough Neagh plays a con- 
spicuous pait, while the chalk hills in 
the neighbourhood of Ooleraine and 
Deny fiU up the background ■ with 
grand effect. The following plants 
are found here and at Golin Glen : 
Asplenium ceterach, Aspidium loba- 
tima, A. aculeatum, Equisetum va- 
negatum, Festuca caJamaria, Listera 
nidns avis, Orobanche rubra, Hiera- 
chimmurorum, Oircsea alpina, Adoxa 
moschatelUna. On the return to the 
^wn, the remains of an intrench- 
nient, thrown up by William III. in 
ti^e grounds of Fort William close to 
^ water's edge» may be visited ; 



and near the Belfast water-works the 
geologist should notice an elevated 
deposit of marine shells of the ter- 
tiary (pliocene) era. On the E. bank 
of tiie Lagan, 1 m. from Belfiist^ is 
Ormean, the seat of the Marquis 
of DonegaL 



Exeurium to Drumbo. 

The village of Newtown - breda 
overlooks the Lagan, from the foot of 
the hiU of CcuUereaght the site of the 
once famous palace of Oon O'Neill. 
By an inquisition in the reign of EHi- 
zabeth it appears that Gon O'Neill 
was the last of that sept, and was 
possessed of no less than 224 town- 
lands, aU freehold. Adjoining the 
village are a Grecian ch., built by 
Viscountess Midleton, and Belvoir 
Park, the seat of Sir R. Bateson, 
Bart. The ruins of the old parish 
ch. of Knock are in the S.E. 
portion of the district, and near 
it is a cromlech of 5 supporters, 
together with a rath. 

The round tower at Drumbo is 
35 ft. in height and 47 in circum- 
ference. Of this Petrie observes, 
" The oldest towers are obvi- 
ously those constructed of spawled 
masonry and large hammered stones, 
and which present simple quadran- 
gular and semicircular arched door- 
ways with sloping jambs. The door- 
way of Drumbo is only about 4 ft. 
from the ground, which has been 
much raised by interments about it, 
so that there is no doubt but that 
its elevation was originally at least 
8 or 10 ft" The foundations of the 
old ch., ascribed to St. Patrick, are 
visible to the S.E. of the town. A 
large quantity of bones and a por^ 
tion of skeleton were found within 
this tower, which, when opened, pre- 
sented all the appearances of vitrifi- 
cation. On the return from Drumbo 
the tourist should visit the Giant's 
Bing, one of the largest and most 
striking early remains existing in 



58 



Route 5. — Belfast to Donaghadee, 



tBELAHD. 



the kiDgdom. It is an extenedye 
circle, about 580 ft in diameter, 
embracing an area of 10 acres, and 
enclosed by a lofty mound, of which 
the thickness at the base is 80 ft. 
This will give some idea of what the 
height may have been when it was 
peifect, for even now, though greatly 
dilapidated, it is high enough to 
shut out the view of the country 
around. In the centre is the altar, 
4 large blocks supporting the in- 
cumbent stone, while on the W. and 
S. are also other detached stones, 
though in the time when Harris 
wrote his * History of County Down,' 
in 1744, the incumbent block is stated 
to have been supported by 2 ranges 
of pillars, 7 on each side. The pro- 
tection, which this venerable remain 
so greatly needed, has been afforded 
to it by the late Viscount Dungannon, 
who built a strong wall all round. 

The visitor may return to Belfast 
by Shaw's bridge, which crosses the 
Lagan, and then by Malone House 
(L) through the pleasant villa-dotted 
suburbs of Netting Hill, Windsor, 
and Wellington Park, to Queen's 
College. This is one of the most 
beauti^ drives about the town, 
commanding extensive and pictur- 
esque views of the vale of Lagan and 
the range of Divis and Cave Hills. 



Coast Road to Bangor and 
Donaghadee, 

Directly on leaving the town, a 
branch ekirts the shores of the 
lough to Sydenham and Eolyiooodf 
.5 m., both pleasant marine suburbs, 
where the Belfast merchants love 
to dwell. Sydenham has within 
the last few years been extensively 
built over with villas, some of which 
occupy the site of an ancient buiying- 
ground, said to have contained the 
tomb of Con O'Neill (see ante). 

Holy wood derives its name from a 
Franciscan monastery founded in 
1200 by one Thomas Whyte, but is 
now known only as an agreeable 



bathing-place, for which its poatioQ 
on the shore of the lough offen 
many advantages. The Bishop of 
Down and Connor has a residence 
here, known as the Palace. The 
rly. is qompleted 12} miles from Bel- 
fast. Trains run from 7 o'clock a.m. 
until 10 P.M. Steamers also dunug 
the summer ply between Bel&st and 
Bangor. Hotel at Bangor, £ur. 

Prom Bangor there is a pleasant 
drive or walk of 5 miles along the 
coast to Donaghadee. Cars may be 
had at the station. The coast of 
Scotland is clearly seen on fine days. 
After passing the village of Grooms' 
port (2 m.), the Copeland Islands 
come in view, with a lighthouse on 
the outer one. The northward view 
across the mouth of Bel&st Loogb 
to the wild headlands of Antrim is 
also very fine. In the distance may 
be seen the Mull of Cantyre and 
Ailsa Craig. Ne«» Donaghadee the 
woods of Portovoe House are <hi th« 
rt. The mansion waa burned down 
some years ago, and has not yet been 
rebuilt. Prom Donaghadee rail 
may be taken back to Belfiast by 
Newtownards and Comber. 



Betum to Main Boute, 

2i m. from Belfast, Knock, from 
whence the tourist may visit the 
Giant's King and Drumbo. 

5 m. Dundonald, 1 m. to the £. 
is a relic of antiquity known as 
the Kem/pe Stones^ an enonnoos 
mass of rock, weighing upwards 
of 40 tons, supported by 5 mde 
pillars. In appearance they re- 
semble Dniidiad altars, "but their 
name, and that of the townland in 
which they are situated, as well m 
tradition, seem to assign to them a 
different origin, and to raise the 
probability that they were erected 
as a memorial to the dead. The 
Celtic name of the district was 
Baille-clough-togal, t.e. 'The Town 
of the Stone of the Stianeen :' the 
townland is still called Gieen- 



Ireland. Baute 6. — Newtownardg — Orey Abbey. 



59 



graves."— jjrOOT»&. In the sninmer 
of 1832 the head and horns of a 
i3aooee-deer(iiow extinct) were found 
in. an adjaoeat hog resting on marl. 

8 m. Gombert the junction from 
Tw-hence the line to Downpatrick 
diveiges (Bte. 4), is a neat thriv- 
ing town, chiefly dependent on the 
linen tiade. The ch. is built on 
the site of an ancient abbey, founded 
in 1201, the monks of which were 
furnished from Whitland, or Alba- 
Lauda,in Caermarthenshire. It con- 
tains monuments to the memory of 
persons who fell in the battle of 
SaintfieM, 1798 (p. 53), and in the 
market-square is a monumental obe- 
lisk to Sir R. R. Gillespie, a native 
of this town, who fell in Nepaul. 

The rly. to Donaghadee now turns 
round the base of Scrabo Mount, and 
soon comes in sight of the craggy hill 
of Camgaver, 720 ft., which is capped 
by a tower erected in memory of 
Charles William Marquis of London- 
ierry, the landlord and owner of all 
this property. On the rt. is Strang- 
ford Lough, an inlet of which flows 
to within J m. of Comber. 

13^ m. Netotownards {Hotel : Lon- 
ionderry Arms), or Newtown of the 
^Lrds, the latter being the distinguish- 
ing name of the promontory lying 
between Lough Strangford and the 
}ea, foimerly designated ** Altitude 
[Jltorum juxta Mare Orientale." It is 
1 large and well-built town, possessing 
the advantages of a careful super- 
rision by the Londonderry family, 
whose seatMountStewart, tothe S.E., 
between Newtown and Grey Abbey, 
is a fine classic building, beautifully 
iitoatedin a wooded demesne on the 
shores of Strangford Lough. New- 
townards, though nowa bustling linen 
town, was formerly noted for having 
been the centre of a large number of 
Teligious establishments, the ruins 
of many of which are still in ex- 
istence. The Court-house, which pos- 
sesses a good doorway, was originally 
the old dL, built by Sir Hugh Mont- 
gomezy, to whom James I., after the 



forfeiture of Con ONeOl's estates, 
granted the whole of the district 
The town contains a handsome oc- 
tagonal cross, built to replace the 
one destroyed by the insurgents. 
Newtownards is well situated at the 
foot of the Scrabo hills (where 
limestone and lead-ore are obtained), 
and at the head of the lough of 
Strangford, an arm of the sea 20 
m. in length and 4 to 5 wide. 
The channd of Portaferry, however, 
which communicates with the sea, 
is so very narrow, that ihe lough looks 
almost like a freshwater lake — an 
appearance to which the number of 
sniall islands contributes; and this 
same cause makes it nearly useless 
for navigation purposes (Pop. 9543). 

Conveyances. — Rail to Belfisist and 
Donaghadee. Car to Grey Abbey 
and Portaferry vid Kircubbin. 

DUtcmoes. — Grey Abbey, 7 m. ; 
Mount Stewart, 5 ; Bangor, 5 ; Do- 
naghadee, 9} ; Comber, 5}. 

JExeua-sionB. — 

1. Scrabo. 

2. Grey Abbey and Mt. Stewart. 



Coast Road on E. of Strangford 
Lough, 

5 m. the Grecian mansion of Moimt 
Stewart, the seat of the Londonderry 
family. The house is built of Scrabo 
stone, and the interior is floored with 
bog flr found on the estates. The 
grounds are well wooded, and laid out 
with taste, and contain a classic 
temple, copied from the ** Temple of 
the Winds." 

7 m. Grey Abbey, a small town, 
which took its rise from the founda- 
tion of an abbey in the 12th cent, 
for Cistercian monks, by Afric, wife 
of John De Courcy, and daughter of 
Godred, King of Man. The ruins 
of this E. Eng. abbey are in re- 
markably good preservation, pro- 
bably owing to the fact that it was 
used as a parish ch. as late as 
1778. The choir contains some 



60 



Baute 5. — Bd/ad io Lonaghadee. Iselakd. 



lancet windows on the N. wall, and 
a noble E. window of 3 lights, 
upwards of 20 ft in height; a&o 2 
recumbent figures. A tower, now 
Mien, rose from the centre of the 
ch., and was supported by very 
graceful and lofty arches. The abb^ 
was destroyed in the rebellion of 
Tyrone, " ruinated in Tirowen's 
rebellion," but was subsequently re- 
built by the Montgomery fiunily 
(see ante), whose seat of Bose- 
mount adjoins the ruins, which still 
serve as their mausoleiun. From its 
picturesque situation on the lough 
and the beauty of the ruins. Grey 
Abbey is a &vourite excursion with 
the citizens of Belfast Anchusa 
sempervirens and Andromeda poly- 
folia grow here. Pursuing the road 
southward, the tourist reaches 

10| m. Kircubbin, a small town. 
The little bay on the shore of which 
it is situated, rejoices in the name of 
the Bloody Bum. 

15 m. rt Ardkeen, onoe the chief 
residence of the Bishops of Down, 
once possessed a monastery, of which 
slight traces still exist. 

17^ m. Portaferry {Hotel : Nugent 
Arms; "Commercial"), the most 
southerly town in the peninsula of 
Ards. '* It owes its origin to a castle 
built by the Savage fisimily, who came 
into this part of the country with 
John de Gourcy shortly after the 
arrival of the Englisli, and, the place 
being well secured and garrisoned by 
that powerful family, its situation on 
the strait made it a port of great im- 
portance in all the subsequent wars, 
during which neither it- nor the 
neighbouring district of the southern 
Ards ever fell into the hands of tlie 
Irish." — Lewi%, The visitor should 
ascend the hill of Blackbank to 
the N. of the town, from which 
he will obtain a very fine view 
of the whole of the Strangford 
Lough, or Lough Coyne, as it is also 
called. Portaferry is a neat, thriv- 
ing little town, carrying on a coasting 
trade with Scotland $knd liveipooL 



It contains the cnnnbling remains 
of the castle of the Savages, which 
once protected and fostered the vil- 
lage. It now enjoys the more favour- 
able protection of a good resident 
landlord, lieut-Gol. Andrew Nugent, 
whose residence, Portaferry House, 
is near the town. The channel 
that separates the town from the 
opposite one of Strangford is about 
5 m. in length and \ m. in breadth. 
"There is a violent tide through 
the channel in and out of Strangford 
Lough, and it makes a heavy swell 
when running against the wind, but 
it is not dangerous to persons ac- 
quainted with the passage.'"— fVa«er. 
The tourist can cross the feny to 
Strangford, and thence to Down- 
patrick (Bte. 4), or else retara by 
the coast to Donaghadee trough 
(jloghy and Ballyhalbert. Burial 
Island ofi' the shore at this point is 
the most eastern land in Ireland. 
From Ballywalter, near which i^ 
Springvale House (J. Mulhollaod, 
Esq.), it is 7^ m. of a rocky ooast- 
road to Donaghadee. 



Belum to Main Route, 

Donaglwdee {Hotels : Arthur's; 
Commercial), apart from its claims to 
admiration as a fine bathing-place 
and marine residence, derives much 
importance from the fact of its being 
the nearest port to Scotland, the 
distance to Portpatrick being only 
22 m. Indeed, so near is the Scot- 
tish coast that not only the outhnes 
of the hiUs but even the houses can 
be distinctly seen in clear weather. 
This is also the crossing point of 
one of the submarine Telegrapb& 
The harbour is good, and was im* 
proved at a cost of 145,000{^ Yeasels 
drawing 16 ft. of water can enter at 
any time of the tide. The piera are 
built of Anglesea marble, as is also 
the lighthouse, which shows a fixed 
red light The only relic of antiquity 
in the town is an enormous rath, 
70 ft high, of which advantage 



Irelakd. 



Boute 6. — DundcUh to EnniskiUen, 



61 



has been taken to erect a powder- 
magazine on tiie stnnmlt. The view 
from it is beautiful, embracing the 
sweep of the bay and town, and a long 
extent of Scotch coast (Pop. 2671.) 

Conveyances, — Car to Strangfora 
and to Newtownards via Kircubbin. 

-DMteMfif.— Grey Abbey, 9 m. ; 
Newtownards. 8^ : Groomsport, 4 ; 
Bangor, 5k, to which the shore-road 
may be taken, although there is a 
shorter one across country. 

Meetsnions. — 

1. Bangor. 

2. Grey Abbey. 

A little to the N. of Donaghadee 
the coast trends to the W., and forms 
the entrance to Belfaist Lough. 
8ome distance out at sea are Cope- 
land Island (of considerable size), 
Mew and Lighthouse Islands; on 
the latter is a fixed light. 

The fishing village of Groomsport 
is the spot of the disembarkment 
of the advanced guard of WiUiam 
IIL's army under Schomberg. Ad- 
joining is Groomsport House (the 
Elizal^than seat of B. P. Maxwell, 
Esq.). 

Bangor {Eotd : Royal), as its 
name implies (" Beann chair," White 
Church), was in former days the 
seat of an abbey of regular canons, 
fonnded by St. Comhgall in 552, 
and of a school long feunous for its 
learning. like most of this dis- 
trict, it formed a portion of O'Neill's 
confiscated property, and was trans- 
ferred by James I. to the &mily 
of Hamilton, afterwards Viscount 
Clandeboye. Only a very minute 
fragment is left of the abbey. The 
town is principally dependent on 
mnslin sewing and embroidering, and 
a large amount of work is annually 
Bent to England in the shape of fine 
embroideries for ladies' attire. The 
modem mansion, the seat of Bobert 
I*- Ward, Esq., is an Elizabethan 
bnilding near the town, and in close 

proximity to the site of tiie old castle. 
DiOancea. — Newtownards, 5 m.; 



Holywood, 7) ; Donaghadee, 5]^ ; 
Groomsport, 2. 

Steamers ply daily to Bel&st dur- 
ing summer. 

2 m. on the load leading from 
Bangor to Holywood is Clandeboye, 
the seat of the Earl of Dufferin. The 
house was originially erected in the 
reign of James I.; but subsequent 
alterations have obliterated its an- 
cient character. At the southern ex- 
tremity of the demesne rises a hill, 
crowned by a tower built for the pur- 
pose of enshrining some beautiful 
verses written by Lady Dufferin to 
her son. The structure has received 
the name of Helens Tovjer, and has 
been still ftirther dignified by a 
poetical inscription from the hand of 
Alfred Tennyson. A small private 
chapel in the park contains some 
ancient architectural fragments built 
into its inner walls, and an hiero- 
glyphic cartouche of Tirbakah, the 
contemporary of Hezekiah, Isaiah, 
and Sennacherib. From the western 
side of the demesne an avenue leads 
to the sea-shore, distant about 3 m. 

At Cultra, more than half-way be- 
tween Holywood and Bangor, the 
geologist will observe some singular 
beds of dolomite, considered by Sir 
B. Griffith, on litholog^cal grounds, 
to represent the Permian system of 
Irehmd. 



BOUTE 6. 

DUNDALK TO ENNISKILLEN. 

Through carriages run on the 
North-Westem Division of the 
Great Northern Bly. from Dundalk 
to Derry, thus saving a great deal of 



62 



Boute 6. — DundaJk to Enniskillen, 



Ireland. 



time between Dublin and Berry, 
in comparison with .the route to 
Bel&st. The rly. cannot be said 
to run through a pretty country in 
general, although spme portions, 
especially near finniskillen, are very 
charming. Quitting the Dimdalk 
Stat., there is nothing of interest 
until Inniskeen Stat. 7 m. is reached. 
On L are ruins (of no great extent or 
architectural beauties) of the abbey 
of Inniskeen : and here we may re- 
mark that the Irish tourist must 
not expect to find in eyery abbey 
ruin anything more than the re- 
mains of a simple ch., generally con- 
sisting of a nave and choir, with pro- 
bably a belfry. Inniskeen presents^ 
however, an additional attraction in 
the shape of the stump of a round 
tower and a stone cross. 



Carrickmacross 

{Inn : Shirley Anns), [a little 
town prettily situated on higb rocky 
ground of the lower limestone series, 
which is here surrounded by upper 
Silurian rocks. In the neighbour- 
hood are Lisinisk and Lough Fea 
House (E. P. Shirley, Esq. M.P.). 
The district to the S. of Carrick- 
macross becomes wild and hilly, 
rising to a considerable height at 
Loughanleagh (1116 fL), between 
Bailiborough and Kingscourt. 

Conveyances. — Gar to Inniskeen, 
to Dun<£ilk, to Kells, and to Kings- 
court Stat, for Navan and Dublin. 

Distances. — ^Inniskeen, 7^ m. ; Vir- 
ginia, 22; Kingscourt, 7; Bailibo- 
rough, 14 ; Ardee, 14.] 

Main Boute, 

From Inniskeen the line is carried 
up the little valley of the Fane 
through Silurian cuttings, in the 
intervals of which the traveller gains 
distant views on the N. of the Slieve 
Gullion group between Dundalk and 
Newry. 

12 m. CuUomUe, 2} m. rt. of which 
is the village of Oossmaglen. 



The country becomes more di- 
versified and prettier at Castle Bhy- 
ney {Inn: King's Arms), named 
after Sir E. Blayney, governor of 
Monaghan in the reign of James I., 
who gave him land on condi- 
tion of his erecting a fort between 
Newry and Monaghan. It is a 
pretty English-lookmg tovm on tiie 
borders of the lake of Muckna, em- 
bellished by the grounds of Castle 
Blayney, the residence of Mr. Hope. 

Distances, — Armagh, 17^ m. ; 
Keady, 10. 

24} m. BaUyhay, like Castle 
Blayney, owes its prosperity to the 
linen trade. Beyond being placed 
in a very pretty coimtry, it does 
not contain much of interest. ** The 
approach to the town opens upon a 
picturesque district. To the £. are 
seen, at the distance of 20 m., the 
blue smmnits of the lofly 81ieve 
Gullion, with the town about a 
quarter of a mile beneath, apparently 
embosomed in hills, and situated on 
the margin of a .lake 1 m. in dia- 
meter." 



CootehiU Branch. 

This runs S.W. from BaUybay, 
5 m. Rockoorry 

9 m. CootehiU {Eotds : H'Gabe's ; 
Belmont Arms), on the borders of 
Oavan co., a pleasant well-built 
town, on the banks of the river of 
the same name, which connects it 
by a chain of navigable lakes with 
Ballybay. There are some fine 
estates near the town : BeiUanHmt 
Forest, the former residence of the 
Earl of Bellamont» and now posaessed 
by R. Goote, Esq. ; Dartrey {Earl of 
Dartrey), the great place of this dis- 
trict, with a very fine modem man- 
sion situated in an extensive and 
finely wooded domaia ; and Ashfidd 
(Col. elements). (Pop. 1851.) 

A car road continues to Ballyhaise, 
passing Tullyvin House (J. Brom- 
ley, Esq.l and 4| m. Rakenny,wher^ 
in an ola fort a large gold fibula ww 



Ireland. JBoute &.—Clone» — Neutown Buder. 



63 



found in on iron pot. 11 m. Bally- 
haise (Bte. 20). 



Metum to Main Boute, 

34 m. Neuiblies, a neat village, 
close to which is Newbliss House 
(A. A. Mimay Kerr, Esq. 

39 m. Clones {Inn : Dacre Arms), 

an ancient and not over clean 

litUe town, though it is placed on 

a hill high enough to secure all 

the advantages of drainage. It has 

derived its name &om Gluain Inis, 

"the Island of Retreat," from having 

been fonnerly surrounded by water. 

It was also a celebrated ecclesiastical 

locality, and the seat of a bishopric, 

Si Tigemacb, the first bishop, died 

here of the plague in 548. The 

abbey was burnt in 1095, rebuilt, and 

finally dissolved in Henry yni.'8 

tune. The tourist shoidd stop at 

Clones to visit the ruins, though 

they are but small. They are 

sitoated at the foot of the Mil on 

the S. side of the town, together 

with the roimd tower, which is 

peculiarly rough and irregular on 

the outside, but of smooth hmestone 

within. The masonry is rude, and 

the top is wanting. At the summit of 

the hill is the market-place, adorned 

with a handsome ch. and the cross 

of Clones, in very fidr preservation, 

though the sculpture on the shaft is 

somewhat indistinct The arms of 

the cross are connected by circular 

portions^ similar to that at Tynan near 

Armagh (Bte. 20). (Pop. 2390.) 

Conveyance. — Gar to Cavan ; mail 
car to Belturbet. 

Distances, — Cavan, 15 m. ; Beltur- 
bet, 9 ; Monaghan, 1 1. 

The Great Northern Rly. here 
branches ofif to Belfast, &c., and the 
Great Western to Dublin, Galway, 
&c. 

44 m. At Newtown Butler, a 
bridge crosses a small tributary to 
Loogh £me. This village was the 
scene of a very decisive action in 



1689. "About 1 m. from Newtown 
Butler the Irish faced about and 
made a stand, ^hey were drawn up 
on a hill, at the foot of which lay a 
deep bog. A narrow paved cause- 
way which ran across the bog was 
the only road by which the cavalry 
of the Enniskilleners could advance. 
Macarthy placed his cannon in such 
a manner as to sweep this causeway. 
Wolseley ordered his infisintry to the 
attack. They struggled through the 
boe, made their way to firm ground, 
and rushed on the guns. The Irish 
cannoneers stood gallantly to their 
pieces till they were cut down to 
a man. The Irish dragoons, who 
had run away in the morning, were 
smitten with another panic, and 
without striking a blow galloped 
trom the field." — Ma^oaulay, In this 
affiay the Irish lost above 2000 men, 
while the loss of the Enniskilleners 
was only 20. 

Portions of the beautiful reaches 
of Lough £me eveiy now and then 
become visible, although on no 
point from the rly. is the lake 
seen to any extent. In the dis- 
tance to the S.W. the blue limestone 
ranges of Leitrim, in which the 
Shannon takes its rise, form very 
fine features in the landscape. 



2} m. 1. on the banks of Lough 
Erne is Crom Castle, the charming 
residence of the Earl of Erne, situated 
at the bend of a wooded promontory 
overlooking the windings of the 
upper lake. It is a castellated 
building, placed in very pictuifesque 
grounds, which also enclose the 
ruins of the old castle of Crom, in 
1689 "the frontier garrison of the 
Protestants of Fermanagh" It was 
besieged by Mountcashel, a circum- 
stance that induced the battle of 
Newtown Butler, in consequence of 
his being obliged to retire from 
Crom to meet Wolseley. 



64 



BotUe 6. — Dundalk to EnniaJdllen, 



Ireland. 



51 m. Lisnaskea Stat. {Hotel : Erne 
Anns), a neat town with well- 
built fichools, ch., market-house, &c. 
The town and neighbourhood owe 
much to the resident landlord, the 
Earl of Erne. Near lisnaskea is 
Clifton Lodge (Lieut.- Colonel Arch- 
dall). 

54 m. Magaire*9 Bridge, another 
townlet situated on the Colebrooke 
Biver, which flows into Lough Erne 
near here. 3 m. N. is the village of 
Brookeborough, and farther N. Cole- 
brooke, a fine park and mansion 
belonging to Sir Victor Brooke, 
Bart. To the 1. of Maguire*s Bridge 
is Lough Erne, studded with islands, 
on the largest of which is Belleisle, 
the residence of J. Porter, Esq. 

Soon after passing 57^ m. LiBbelr 
law, the rly. skirts the demesne of 
Castle Coole, and arrives at 

62 m. Enniskillen Stat., placed 
at the most disadvantageous point 
from whenciB to see the town 
— Ir. Inisceithlean — {Hotels: Impe- 
rial, Mr. Willis, the best; White 
Hart ; Koyal). Enniskillen is one of 
the prettiest places in Ireland, a cir- 
cumstance to which, together with 
its stirring Protestant associations, it 
owes its principal attractions, for it is 
destitute of any archaeological ob- 
jects of interest. From almost every 
point it has a peculiarly beautifol 
appearance, being entirely watergirt 
(bmlt like Interlaken between two 
lakes) by Lough Erne, or, to speak 
correctly, by tiie river which unites 
the upper and lower lake ; from the 
level of which the houses rise sym- 
metrically, the apex being formed 
by the graceful spire of the ch. 
It consists of one long street of 
well-built and well-ordered houses, 
and is remarkably free from those 
abominably dirty cabins which dis- 
grace the entrances of Ireland's best 
towns. The streets are broad and 
pretty clean, the shops good and well 
fill^ and a general air of prosperity 
and business pervades tiie whole 
place. In the reign of James I. Ennis- 



killen was merely a stronghold of the 
Maguires, chieftains of Fermanagh; 
but its great celebrity is subsequent 
to that period, when in 1689, not 
content with fortifying their to^ni 
against the soldiers of Tyiconnel, the 
gallant Enniskilleners actually pur- 
sued their invaders, who made a preci- 
pitate retreat, without stopping till 
they reached Cavan. The actions 
at Belturbet and Newtown Butler 
were stUl more telling and decisive 
affairs in the brief campaign. On a 
wooded hill overlooking the town 
above the stat. is a lofty pillar to 
commemorate tiie heroic deeds of 
Sir Lowry Cole of Peninsular fiaune. 
The view from the hill is very beau- 
tiful, though the trees are allowed to 
grow too densely around the column. 
At either end of the town is a foart, 
and there are also extensive barracks 
occupying the site of the castie, a 
portion of which stiU exists dose 
to liie W. bridge. From its posi- 
tion on the lake, a considerable teade 
is carried on by water between 
Enniskillen and Belleek at the 
western extremity of Lough Erne. 
Bsiilway communication exists be- 
tween this latter place and Bally- 
shannon, opening the way to a very 
extensive inland trade. With the 
towns on the lower lakes, as Bel- 
turbet, &c., there is at present little 
or none, probably owing to th« 
very serpentine course of the river. 

Conveyances from EnniskiUen.— 
Daily to Sligo by Manor Hamilton; 
daily to Oniagh; daily to Church 
Hill via Derry Gtonelly; daily to 
Tempo. 

Distances.— Bligo, 39 m. ; Donegal, 
34 ; Belcoo, 11^ ; Manor Hamilton, 25; 
Clones, 23; Ballyshannon, 27; Ely 
Lodge, 4| ; Devenish Island, 2 ; Petti- 
goe, 19 ; Kesh, 14 ; Florence Court, 
7 ; Swanlinbar, 12 ; Crum Castle, 22, 
by water ; DeiTy, 60 ; Dundalk, 62. 

Excursions from EnnitkUlen, — 
1 m. from the town is the mag- 
nificent demesne and manaioii of 



Ireland. 



Bouie 6. — Lough Erne, 



65 



CasOe Cook, the seat of the 
Eaxl of Belmore. It is a large 
Grecian house, built by the elder 
"Wyatt of Portland stone, and is very 
piettOy atoated. 

Lough Ernb. — ^To see the neigh- 
bourhood of Enniskillen to advantage 
the toonst should discard tena firma 
and take to the lake, for which pur- 
pose good boats may be had at the 
W. bridge. It is one of the largest 
and most beautiful of Irish laJces. 
It boasts little mountain scenery or 
craggy shores, but is, save at one 
locality, for the most yait sylvan in 
character, and indeed, for oombina- 
tions of wood and water is probably 
Qneqaalled. The Biver Erne, which 
feeds ii^ rises in Lough Gowna, about 
3 m. N. of Granard (Bte. 20), and runs 
dae N. until it expands into Lough 
Opghter, from whence it emerges 
^ti^ broader proportions, passing 
Butler's Bridge and Belturbet. At or 
near Oumit is generally called Lough 
Sme, though in &ct it is nothing 
more than a very broad river, frmeea 
with innumerable bays, and studded 
with islands, many of them of con- 
siderable size. The upper la^e is 
&t its broadest opposite Lisnaskea, 
and from this point soon narrows 
to assume the river character again. 
The variations of width, the out- 
spreading and contractions of this 
lake are interesting from a geological 
as well as scenic point of view. The 
^e rests partly on a limestone, and 
P^y on a slaty bed. The out- 
apreaidings occur chiefly on the lime- 
stone, the contractions on the slate. 
^ is attributed partly to the solu- 
tion of the limestone by the carbonic 
acid in the water, and partly to the 
inegolar distribution of the glacial 
deposit of boulder day which here 
abounds, and forms the numerous 
islands and a series of mounds and 
i^andB of moraine matter, round 
jbont which the river winds and 
"^ds in complex labyrinths, of 
cbannels, loops, and lakelets, with 
strangely broken shores. There are 
Urdofid.] ^ 



several pretty residences in this 
portion of its course, such as Crum, 
Belleisle, Belonia, and Li^goole 
Abbey (M. O. Jones, Esq.) — an 
abbey only in name, as there are no 
traces of ch. architecture about it; 
nevertheless the row from Enniskillen 
hither will amply repay the lover of 
river scenery. The reach from the 
town to the lower lake is about 1 m. 
in leng^ and passes on 1. Portora, 
a very beautifully situated school, 
built in 1777 to accommodate the 
scholars of the Boyal School, founded 
in 1626 by Charles I. The channel 
of the river at this point has been 
considerably deepened; and at the 
extranoe into the lake stand on 1. 
the ruins of a small fortress consist- 
ing of some circular towers. About 

2 m. from Enniskillen, on the rt. 
of the lake, lies the island of 
Devenith (Ir. Daim-hinis), with its 
melancholy-looking ruins, viz. an 
abbev, portions of a 2nd ch., and a 
round tower, the most perfect in the 
whole country. The lower ruins closd 
to the tower are very scanty, possess- 
ing only one or two round-headed 
windows deeply splayed inwardly. 
The round tower is 70 ffc. hign, 
and remarkable for the extraordinary 
fineness and regularity of the ma- 
sonry up to the very apex. Look- 
ing K.E. are 3 windows, the lower 
one round, the middle triangular, 
and the uppermost squaxe-h^ed. 
As usual tixere is no entrance, but 

3 rude steps have been made in the 
stones to the lower window, which 
is about 12 ft. from the ground. 
In addition to being remarkably 
well preserved, it has ,the unusutd 
decoration of a cornice or band im- 
mediately under the conical apex, 
of very rich design, and with a 
well-sculptured head in the centre 
of each side. A little higher up t^e 
hill are the ruins of the abbey, con- 
sisting of the tower and the N. wall 
of the choir, in which is a good 
pointed doorway deeply moulded and 
docketed. The intersecting arches 



66 



Baute 6. — Dundalh to EnnishUlen, 



iREUUn). 



are siinilar to thoee of Sligo, though { 
aoarcely so lofly. A spiral 'staircase 
leads to a chamber in ^e tower, and 
in the floor are holes for the beUiopes. 
Beyond Devenish, although this is 
generally the limit for a rowing ex- 
cursion, the lake gradually expands as 
far as Church Hill,' at which point it 
assumes the character of an inland sea, 
being 5 m. broad ; ** stretching from 
EnniskiUen to Bosscor House, a 
distance of 20 m., its greatest breadth 
5 m., and its least 2 m. It contains 
nesu-ly 28,000 statute acres, and em- 
braces 109 islets, many of them 
small and of trifling importance, 
others, and not a few, varymg from 
10 to 150 acres, while Boa Island, 
near the northern extremity of the 
lake, contains 1300 statute acres.** — 
Fraser. 

In Lough Erne there is a yacht 
club, with yachts varying from 40 
to 7 tons. 



2. BeUeek and BaUy shannon fhyBoad. 

This is a beautiful drive on the 
western shore of Lough Erne for 
nearly the whole distance to BeUeek, 
affording views that for soft beauty 
are almost equal to the foot of Win- 
dermere. 

4|m. rt is the entrance to Ely 
Lodge^ the lovely seat of the Mar- 
qtiis of Ely, upon an island con- 
nected by a bridge with the main- 
land. The grounds are exquisite, 
and the house contains some good 
paintings. The groimd on the 1. of 
the road begins to assume a more 
broken and rugged aspect, and near 
the village of Church Hill rises 
into lofty escarpments of blue moun- 
tain limestone some 1000 ft above 
the level of the sea. The ruins of 
TuUy Castle are close to the lake; 
it was a fortified mansion, built by 
the Humes, a branch of the Scotch 
family of Polwarth, who settled in 
Fermanagh in the reign of Elizabeth. 
It was the scene of a frightful mas- 



sacre in the rebellion of 1641, when 
Lady Himie, her fimiily, and all the 
inmates of the house, amounting to 
60, were slain by Bory, brother of 
Lord Maguire, who had induced 
them to surrender, under promise 
of a free pass to Enniakillen. A 
similar tower exists at Monea, a few 
miles to the S.£. The lake is here 
at its broadest ; the depth at many 
places is greats and its general level 
about 149 ft, which shows at once 
the very great descent that the 
Erne has to accomplish in the 5 m. 
between Belleek and BallyahannozL 
The opposite shore of the lake is 
rather low and wooded in comparison 
with the crags of Church Hill. A 
road (Bte. 12) runs along its hank to 
Pettigoe and Donegal ; it is fringed 
with fine residences, some of which 
are visible from the Ballyshannon 
road — such as Biversdale ( Wm. Hum- 
phreys Archdall, Esq.), Bockfield 
(Capt. Irvine), Castle Archdall (Capt 
Archdall, M.P.). On the ncH^hoD 
bank a littie beyond Church Hill are 
Castie CaldweU (J. C. Bloomfield, 
Esq.\ and the Elizabethan mansion of 
Magnerremena (J. Johnstone, Esq.). 
The lake soon narrows again, and 
reassumes its river character at Bd- 
leekt a small village prettily situated 
on tiie rt., containing a disused fort 
and a laige porcelain (Mr. McBir- 
ney's) manufactory, which gives &n- 
ployment to a good many hands. It 
is known as BeUeek Pottery, and is 
made of clay foimd on the spot. In 
iridescent lustre this ware vies with 
that of Gubbio. 



From Belleek a road runs S. 4} m. 
to the village of Crarrison, sitoated 
in a half-reclaimed wild district oo 
the eastern shore of Lou^ Kelvin. 
It is occasionally frequented by 
anglers, who will find a public-house 
in which to put up. 



Ireland. Boute 6. — EnniMUen to Florence Court. 



67 



The coone of the Erne from 
Belleek is marked by an eztraor- 
dinaiy seriee of rapids, which the 
tourist may observe at different 
points, thoogh he cannot skirt 
the banks of the riyer all the way 
down to Ballyshannon. ** From Bel- 
leek the angler will be enabled to 
fish Loch Erne, which contains some 
of the finest trout in the world, 
running from 2 to 20 lbs. weight. 
These troat, up to 6 and 7 lbs. weight, 
take the fly well. The lough abounds 
also in p^e, perch, and bream, of 
which cartloads may be taken in 
some spots. Flies can be had in 
Ballyshannon.'* — Angler*8 Begister. 

Passing 25 m. ri Gamlan, the cas- 
tellated mansion of John Tredennick, 
Esq., the tourist arriyes at 27 m. 
Ballyshannon {JSoteU : ** Imperial " ; 
Eme) (Rte. 11). The rly. from Ennis- 
killen to Beleek, Ballyshannon, and 
Bimdoran, vik Bundoran Junction, is 
now completed. Time and expense 
is saved mexeby, but the tourist loses 
the scenery of Lough Eme. 



3. Florence Court, The Marble Arch, 
Stoanlinbar, artd the ** Shannon 
Potr 

In the course of the beautiful and 
interesting excursion the magnificent 
limestone scenery is seen to great 
advantage. 4 m. 1. are Skea House 
(C. Haasard, Esq.), and Fairwood 
Park, followed by the exquisitely- 
aitnated grounds of Florence Court, 
the residence of the Earl of Ennis- 
kiUen. The house, which is worthy 
of the scDTOunding scenery, was built 
by Lord Mount Florence in 1771, and 
is in form "a centre connected by 
wings of handsome arcades adorned 
with an entablature and low ba- 
lastrabde, the whole fsi^ade^ being 
300 ft in length.*' In the interior 
are some good paintings by Bern* 
brandt, Foussin, Bubens (Jephtha's 



Vow), Sir P. Lely, &c. ; and a geo- 
logical museum which has an Eu- 
ropean reputation. As regards the 
carboniferous formation, and par- 
ticularly the fishes of the coal period, 
the name of Lord Enniskillen stands 
deservedly high in scientific circles. 
There is also a splendid skeleton of 
the Megaceros Hibemicus, or the 
Irish elk. The park extends for a 
long distance on the slopes of the 
hiUs, and affords views remarkable 
for their extent and variety, as well 
as some very fine timber, in which 
an avenue of the silver fir should 
be particularly noticed, as well 
as the parent plant of the Irish or 
Florence Court yew. The fountain 
called the ''Marble Arch," in Flo- 
rence Court Park, is an interesting 
example of one of those streams 
which pour through the limestone 
rock in cavities formed by the solvent 
action of carbonic acid. In this case 
the stream disappears where ti e 
Yoredale beds on the K. slope of 
Cuilcagh (a mountain 2188 ft. high, 
capped with millstone grit, and 
standing due S. of the Marble Arch) 
meet the upper limestone; it then 
penetrates the limestone, and flows 
on till it issues at the junction of 
this with the middle or " calp beds," 
where it issues and forms the fount- 
ain. The Belmore Mountain (1312 
ft.), which stands directly N. of the 
Marble Arch, and W. of Enniskillen, 
is curiously perforated with ramify- 
ing caverns due to thiii tiolvent action. 
At the rear of the house and grounds 
is a long continuous escarpment of 
mountain limestone hills, which ex- 
tend from Swanlinbar, past Manor 
Hamilton, to near Lough Gill, and 
are remarkable for the strange freaks 
of nature which abound in them, as 
indeed is the case more or less in all 
carboniferous regions. The principal 
of these heights are— Benaghlan, just 
above Florence Court ; Cratty, 
1212 ft. over Swanlinbar ; Cuilcagh, 
2188; Benbrack, 1648; andLachagh, 
1448. 

r 2 



68 



Bauie 7. — EnnishUlien to Sligo. 



Irela^. 



((I 



The Oalp limestone of this dis- 
trict extends from Lough Erne to 
Bundoran; and in Behnore near 
Enniskillen, and Ben Aghlaji near 
Florence Court, it is surmounted by 
600 ft. of upper carboniferous lime- 
stone. The calp in this district is 
highly fossiliferous, and full of encri- 
nital heads and stems, with large and 
perfect productions. In the lime- 
stone of Ben Aghlan is the rare Pen- 
tremitis ovalis; and the Hymeno« 
phyllum Tunbridgense fern grows 
upon the summit of the hOl" — 
Geclogist. 

12 m. Swardinbar, a decayed town, 
which formerly had a considerable 
reputation as a Spa, on account 
of its sulphuretted hydrogen spring, 
lies between the Slieve Bussell 
ch^in on the £., the principal height 
of which is Legavreagra, 1279 ft., 
and the Slieveanieran range on the 
W. The little riyer Cladda^h flows 
through the town. It rises in a fine 
gorge between Ouilcagh and Cratty, 
and has a subterranean course of 
8 m., through oavems abounding 
in stalactites. The tourist should by 
all means ascend Omlcagh, and thence 
make his way westward to a spot 
called Legmonshena, or the Source 
of the Shannon^ 7 m. from Swan- 
hnbar and 8 frt)m the Black lion 
at Belcoo. ** The actual head-waters 
of the Shannon are those of the 
Owenmore, a fine stream, with nu- 
merous confluents, draining the 
vfidley lying between Gmlcagh on 
the N. and Slieve KaMlla on the 
S., and which flows into the head of 
Lough AUen. But the traditionaiY 
source is a tributary stream, which 
takes its rise in a limestone cal- 
dron ("The Shannon Pot"), from 
which the water rises in a copious 
fountain. The real source of the 
water is, however, not at this spot, 
but in a little lough, situated about 
a mile from the Shannon Pot, which 
receives considerable drainage from 
the ground sunounding it at the 



base of Tiltibane, but has no visible 
outlet. The waters from the little 
lough flow in a subterranean channel 
till they issue forth at the so-called 
** Source of the Shannon." Mr. S. 
W. Wilkinson has proved by experi- 
ments the truth of this, having 
thrown hay or straw into the little 
lough, which on disappearing, has 
come up again in the waters of the 
Shannon Pot.'*— jHmK. 



ROUTE 7. 

ENNISKILLEN TO SLIGO, BT COACH. 

(39 m.) 

From Enniskillen a ooaoh starts 
to Sligo daily, passing through a 
richly-wooded and luxuriant coim- 
try. The traveller will notice the 
formal maimer in which part of the 
road is planted with elms and pop* 
lars, giving it the appearance of an 
approach to a Flemish town. Crosa- 
ing the Sillees Biver, is Usbofin 
House (T. Irwin, Esq.), beauti- 
ftdly situated under the to^rerinj; 
limestone hill of Belmore, 1812 ft., 
beneath which the road is canieti 
for several miles. On the opposite 



Ibelmd. Boide 7, — Mcmor HamiUan — SUgo. 



69 



aide are fte strozigly marked lime- 
stoxie ridges above Florence Court, 
^wbile fhe valley between is filled up 
with fhe bwer reach of Lough Mao- 
neaiif fanning altogether moet exqui- 
site landscapes. At 73} m. the river, 
which oannects the 2 lakes, is crossed 
to JSekoOi a particularly neat-looking 
hamlet, from which the tourist may 
pay a visit to the Muble Arch (see 
p. 67), which is within 3 m. distance. 
The npper Lough Macnean, about 
5 m. in length, and embracing a con- 
siderable area, now comes in view, 
and sufficiently occupies the atten- 
tion, although it certainly is not as 
romantic a lake as the lower reach. 
The northern eliore is well planted 
with timber belonging to the estate 
of Glen&me (the property of A. 
Loftus Tottenham, Esq.). 

At the hamlet of Bed Lion, several 
roads branch off southward into the 
wild and hilly districts of Leitrim. 
The geologist or pedestrian will find 
plenty to occupy him in this neigh- 
bourhood. L^gmonshena, the trsidi- 
tlonal source of the Shannon, is about 
3 m. distant. We now follow the 
course of the Glen&m, a mountain 
stream that &]ls into Lough Mac- 
nean, the road becoming rather dreary 
and uninteresting, as it passes through 
a bioadish mountain valley, bounded 
on L by the Lackagh range 1448 ft., 
and on rt by Mullaghatire 1275. 
Leaving on L Lakefield (— Buther- 
ford, E^.) and Hollymonnt (S. Arm- 
strong, Esq.), the tourist reaches 

25 m. Manor HamtUon {Irms: 
Imperial ; Johnston's ; Bobioson's^ 
a small town, situated in a hign 
valley, surrounded by ranges of lime- 
stone hiUs on every side. On the 
N. is the continuation of that noble 
lange which is terminated seaward 
by Benbulben (Bte. 10), and extends 
all the way to Lough Macnean, or 
indeed to Enniskillen. The charming 
^y of the Bonet, runs up to Gle- 
Q&de under the heights of Crock- 
aiallin 1408 fL, Saddle Hill 1245, 



and Doey 1511. The town itself 
need not detain the tourist long, 
as he can soon inspect the ivy- 
covered block of building which 
formed the bcunonial mansion of Sir 
Frederick Hamilton. It is a good 
example of the 17th cent, although 
the details are very plain. The 
road now crosses the Bonet, leaving 
to the rt the village of Lurganboy, 
which, as &r as situation goes, has the 
superiority over Manor Hamilton. 
Two roads here branch off on rt. : 1. to 
Glenade 5 m. ; 2. to Glencar, which, if 
time is no object, should be taken by 
the tourist, so as to visit the lake 
and water&lL The road to Sligo 
turns to the 1. underneath Benbo, 
1365 ft, and continues throug:h the 
same romantic formation until the 
high grounds above Lough Gill are 
reached. High as they are, however, 
not a single glimpse of this beautiful 
lough is obtained horn the ooach- 
road. 

39 m. Sligo {HoteU: Imperial 
and Victoria) is an important sea- 
port town of some 10,700 Inhab., 
m close neighbourhood to scenery 
such as falls to the lot of very 
few business towns. The tourist in 
search of the picturesque cannot 
do better than teke up his quarter's 
here for a time. It is remarkably 
well situated in the centre of a 
richly-wooded plain, encircled on 
all side^ save that of the sea, by 
lofty mountains, the ascent of which 
conmiences from 3 to 4 m. of the 
town, while on one side of it is 
a lake almost equal in beauty to 
any in Ireland, and on the other a 
wide and sheltered bay. The con- 
nexion between the two is main- 
tained by the broad Biver Garogne, 
issuingfrom Lough Gill, and empt^ng 
itself, after a course of nearly 3 m., 
into Sligo Bay. It is crossed by 2 
bridges joining the parish of St. 
John (in which is the greater portion 
of the town)^wi^ ^^^ of Galry on the 
N. bank. The Port, in which a good 



70 



BoiUe 7,—Sligo. 



Ibelasd. 



deal of business is carried on, was 
considerably improved by the forma- 
tion of the Ballast Bank Quay, 
2250 ft. long, where vessels drawing 
13 ft. water can moor, while those 
of larger draught can anchor safely 
in the pool. The approaches to the 
port are admirably lighted by 2 fixed 
lights on a small rock called Oyster 
Island, on which is also a be»B.con 
known as the Metal Man, and a 
3rd placed further out on the Black 
Bock. Steamers ply regularly to 
Glasgow and Liverpool. The anti- 
quities are few, notwithstanding the 
importance that Sligo (Ir. Sligeach, 
'* shelly*') attained as early as 1245 
by the residence of Maurice Fitz- 
gerald, Earl of Eildare, who founded 
a castle and monastery. Both were 
subsequently destroyed, first by 
O'Donell in 1270, and again by Mac 
William Burgh, after being rebuilt by 
the Earl of Ulster; of the former, 
there are no traces. Sligo was also 
the scene of a siege in 1641, when it 
was taken and garrisoned for a time 
by the Parliamentary army under Sir 
Charles Coote. 

The ruins of the monastery are just 
behind the Imperial HoteL The ch., 
which Fitzgerald first founded, was 
destroyed by fire in 1414, and " for its 
restoration Pope John XXII. granted 
indulgences to all who shoiUd visit 
it and contribute towards the expense 
of rebuilding it." — Lewis. It consists 
of a nave and choir with central 
tower of 2 stages, supported at the 
intersection by lofty pointed arches. 
The choir is lighted on the S. by 5 
delicate Early Pointed windows, and 
at the E. by an exquisitely traceried 
4-light window. It contains an 
alte^ with 9 compartments of good 
carving; also a mural monument 
(1623) to one of the O'Conors, on 
which he is represented with his 
wife, kneeling. On N. of the choir 
a low pointed arch leads to a rude 
room connected with the graveyard. 
Notice the groined roof underneath 
the tower, and the small arches which 



are formed between the spring and 
the apex of the intersecting ones. 
In the nave only 3 arches of the S. 
wall are standing, with octangular 
piers. There is another altar-tomb 
here, of beautiful design, 1616. On 
the N. of the nave are the cloisters 
very perfect on 3 sides, in each of 
which are 18 beautifully-worked 
arches about 4 ft. in height The 
visitor should study the pillars, which 
vary much in design, one of them 
having a head cut on the inside of 
the arch. These cloisters, as in most 
of the Irish examples, differ from the 
cloisters of our English cathedrals 
in their small dimensions, and in 
the fact that the interior passage is 
filled with gravestones, suggesting 
that they were intended more for 
burial purposes than for a promenade 
or ambulacrum. 

The Ch, of St John is a cracifonn 
Perp. ch., with a massive tower at 
the W. end. The parapet carried all 
round it gives a singular effect. 
The only otiier buildings in the town 
worth notice are the Lunatic Asylum 
and a new Town Hall in the modem 
Italian style of architecture. 

On Carrowmore, within 3 m. of 
SHgo, are very extensive remains of 
old stone monuments — stone cairns, 
Circles, Dolmens — 64 in nnmher, a 
more extensive assemblage than is to 
be found elsewhere in the British 
Isles. They are supposed to mark 
the site of the great battle of Mot- 
tura, in early bish history, and the 
burial-places of the slain. Some of 
the stones are very large. Fergus- 
son's ' Bude Stone Monuments.' 

Conveyances. — Ely. to Boyle, Ca^ 
rick, Longford, Mullingar, and Dub- 
lin. Car daily to BaUina; daily 
to Ballyshannon, Donegal* and Stra- 
bane ; daily to Manor Hamilton and 
Enniskillen ; daily to Tobercuny. 

Distances. — Boyle, 23J m.; Oar- 
rick, 33 ; Ballinafad, 19^ ; Longford, 
54 J; Ballysadare, 5; Maricree, 8^: 



Ishanb, lUmU 7. — ExeurBtanB from Sligo. 



71 



CoUooney, 6) ; Balliiia, 87 ; Dromore, 
21; LooghGill, t^ water, 2J; Dro- 
maiiaiie, 11 ; Hkzelwood, 8 ; Manor 
Hamiltcai, 14 ; Enniskillen, 89 ; Glen, 
4| ; BaDyBhimnon, 25^ ; Drmncliff, 
5; Knocknarea, 5; Benbulben, 8; 



l^mmfrom Sligo to Knocknarea^ 
5 m. 

ThiB is a singolar tmncated hill 
of carbonifeTons limestone which 
occapies the greater portion of 
the promontory hetween Sligo Bay 
and BaUysadare Bay, and which, 
from its extraordinary form and 
abrupt escarpments, is a great fea- 
ture in all Shgo and Donegal views. 
A road runs round the whole of 
the base of it, making the circnit 
about 11 m., passing on the N. side 
(kwmen House, the seat of the 
Ormsby fiunily. "Winding round 
Knocknarea, the tourist overlooks 
Colleenamore (J. Barrett, Esq.), and 
soon arriyes at the 

Glen of Knocknarea, This is an ex- 
ample of disrupted strata soconmion 
in limestone distriets, and is as ro- 
mantic as can well be couceiyed. It 
consists of a deep chasm, f m. long 
and 30 ft br(»d, bounded on each 
side by yerticsd cliffs about 40 ft in 
height, and overgrown and over- 
shadowed in every direction with 
trees and trailing underwood. A 
valk runs through the defile, at the 
entrance of which is a charming little 
cottage om6e, embedded in flowers, 
and commanding a irolendid prospect 
oyer BaUysadare Bay. Begaining 
the road, the tourist can easily 
aacend Knocknarea, although it is 
steep and sometimes slippery. The 
nmuuit, on which is an enormous 
ceum visible far and wide, com- 
loands a magnificent panoramic view, 
embracing on the N. the Donegal 
Homitains with the scarred pre- 
cipices of Slieve League and the pro- 
montory of Malin Head. Farther E. 



the visitor traces the gap of Barnes- 
more beyond Doneg^. Eastwards 
are tiie limestone ranges of Benbulben, 
Truskmore, and the Manor Hamilton 
hills, with the wooded banks of 
Lough Gill and the Slish Mountains 
nearer home. S. are the Curlew 
Mountains, and more westward the 
numeroxis ranges which intervene be- 
tween Sligo and Ballina, overtopped 
in clear weather by the conical heights 
of Nephinand OroaghPatrick at West- 
port. Due W. the e^e traces a long 
line of coast of Ems as far as the 
Stags of Broadhaven ; while just un- 
derneath one's feet is a perfect map 
of Sligo, with the bay, islands, and 
lighthouses, and the long sandy 
peninsula of Elsinore. On the S. side 
is BaUysadare, with its numerous 
estuaries : on the furthest shore the 
woods of Carroufmore (the residence 
of Bichard Olpherts, Esq.) ; on the 
northern bank of the estuary is Sea- 
field (Owen Phibbs, Esq.). Knock- 
narea forms the northern escarpment 
of that large tract of lower limestone 
that extends from Galway through 
Mayo and SUgo, and the geologist 
wiU find in ite shales many charac- 
teristic fossils, and especially corals. 
He may return to Shgo by a more 
southerly road, passing 1. Bathcarrick 
(Mrs. Walker), and rt. CloverhiU 
(W. Chalmers, Esq.) The antiquary 
may visit the ch. of KiUuspugbrone, 
buUt by St. Patrick for Bie^op 
Bronus in the 5th cent. It has a 
semicircular-headed doorway, placed 
in the S. waU, and not in the W., 
according to the usual custom. 



Excursion from Sligo to Loch €HU 
and Dromahaire. 

Lough GiU is considered by many, 
though on a smaU scale, to be almost 
equal to EdUamey. A little steamer 
pUes every 2nd day to the head of the 
lake, returning on the next This 
is the best way of seeing it; but 



72 



JRoute 7. — Laugh OUl — Dromahaire. Ireland. 



if the steamer does not suit, a 
row-boat may be engaged above 
the bridge. The 2J m. of the river 
that intervenes between the town 
and the lake is lined by a suc- 
cession of lawns and beautiM woods. 
Close to the town on the N. bank 
is the Glebe Honse, succeeded by the 
noble demesne of Hazelvoood (Eight 
Hon. John A. Wynne), one of Sie 
finest and most charming estates 
in Ireland. The domain, which is 
remarkable for the richness and 
variety of its wood, extends for seve- 
ral miles on both sides of the river and 
lake, and includes, besides Hazelwood 
proper, the estates of Percy Mount, 
the former residence of Sir Bichard 
Gethin, and Hollywell (formerly Hon. 
and Rev. J. Butler) on the northern 
shore. The mansion of Hazelwood 
is situated on a tongue of land be- 
tween the river and the lake. The 
great ornament of this estate is the 
remarkably fine timber, on which 
Mr. Wynne and his &.ther expend- 
ed many years of careful culture. 
Amongst others, the yew and the ar- 
butus have been inlioduced, which 
flourish in great abundance, increasing 
tiie similarity of the foliage to that of 
Killamey. Within the deer-park the 
antiquary wiU find a stone enclosure 
caUed Leacht Con Mic Buis, "the 
stone of Con, the son of Bush." The 
central space is 50 ft. long by 25 wide, 
and is connected by an avenue with 2 
smaller enclosures. Within a circuit 
of 3 m. no less than 80 raths are to 
be found. Lough Gill is about 5 m. 
in length by 1} broad, and is situa- 
ted in a basm surrounded on all sides 
by hills, those on the S. being rugged 
and precipitous. This range consists 
of Slieve Daeane (900 ft) and Blish 
Mountain (967), having a gneissic 
character, passing into granit^ whdse 
dark rocks contrast admirably with 
tiie foliage of the lake e^ores. 

There are several islands, many of 
them planted by Mr. Wynne. The 
largest of tiiem are Cottage Island 
at tiie entrance, and Church Island in 



the centre ; the latter contains some 
slight ruins. Both localities are the 
chosen resort of picnic parties from 
Sligo, who are particularly fovoured 
in having such a lovely rendezvous. 
The shores of some of these islands 
exhibit very strikingly the action of 
carbonic acid on the limestone, 
which is curiously perforated and 
corrugated by irregular solution. 
The £ike basin altogether appears to 
have been in the first place hollowed 
out by glacial erosion, aud then 
gradusdly deepened by chemical 
solution. This action is still pro- 
ceeding. It is 90 ft. deep. For 
tiiose who prefer driving, me lake 
may be seen to great advantage by & 
road on the S. side, carried along 
the side of Cairns Mountain (which 
should be ascended by every visitor 
to Sligo, as it is near the town, of easy 
access, and commands magnificent 
views). It then passes Caimsfoot 
(Peter O'Connor, Esq.), Abbeyriew, 
and Cleveragh, adjoining the Hazel- 
wood domain, and soon descends 
to the shores of the lake, running 
through a very romantic glen be^ 
tween Slieve Daeane and Blisli 
Mountain to Ballintogher. **From 
a small rock rising out of the wood 
which adorns the shores of Longh 
GiU, and which is about a mile £• 
of the new Ballintogher entrance 
to Hazelwood, perhaps the best 
view is obtained. The rock is jnst 
that height which exhibits tiie 
limited area of th6 lake, its shoies 
and little islands, to most advan- 
tage." — Fr<u€r, 

10 m. Drcmahairet a small town 
on the ri bank of tiie Bonet Biyer 
(steamers from Sligo), which, rising 
in the hills near Manor Hamilton, 
drains all that part of the country 
and falls into Liough Gill. There 
are several remains here that 
will interest the antiquary. The 
old Hall, the property of G. Lane 
Fox, Esq., oocnmes the site of a 
castle of the 0*Bourkes, chiefiB of 



TsKLASD, Bouie 8. — Ennishillen to Londonderry, 



78 



this district The former building, 

however, ma made use of in 1626 

by Sir William Villiers to erect a 

l^aronial mansion under a patent 

&om the Duke of Buddnghaim, by 

-which he was granted 11,500 acres of 

landinDramahaire. It has been con- 

sideiably modernised, but contains 

some traces of its old importance. 

On the opposite side of tiie river close 

to Friaretown f J. Johnstone Esq.). 

are remains of the monastery of 

Grevelea, founded for Franciscans by 

Margaret, wife of O'Ronrke, in 1508, 

and dissolved in James L's reign. 

O'Bonrke's tomb, with his effigy, is 

still visible, together **with some 

cnrions figures over the graves of 

the M(»Tonghs, Gomins, and others." 

Besides these remains there are also 

a mined ch. on the hill-side, the 

f omidation of which is attributed to 

Si Patrick, and a castle nearer the 

lake, known as Harrison's Gastle. 

Distances. — Sligo, 10 m.; Manor 
Hamilton, 9.}; Dmmkeeran, 8^. 

The toorist shonld return to Sligo 
on the N. side of the lake, passing 
3^ m. from Dromabaire the ruins of 
Xewton-Gore, the manorial estate 
of Sir Henry William Gore Booth, 
Sart From hence the road keeps 
at the back of Hollywell and Hazel' 
wood to Sligo 6 m. The whole of 
this circuit will be about 20 m. It 
may be mentioned, for the benefit 
of the angler, that ibe fishing in the 
lough is excellent, but application 
for permission must be made to the 
owner. 



ROUTE 8. 

ENNISKILLEN TO LONDONDERRY. 

Tbe whole of this route is per* 
formed by rail. The greater por- 
tion runs througb an uninteresting 
country, consisting of high lands, 
with a good deal of bleak hill and 
moor. The latter half is the most 
picturesque, particularly when we 
reach the valley of the Foyle and 
its tributaries. Lough Erne, which 
is skirted by Ibe line, is burely 
visible, high banks intervening. 

6 m. BMnamdUard, on the river 
of the same name. 

8^ UL Lowtherstown Boad. The 
station is 3} m. distant from the 
town, which lies to the 1. 

10 m. TriUiek, a thriving village, 
seated at the foot of the range of 
the Brocker Mountains, which, com- 
mencing at Lisbellaw, near Ennis- 
killen, run N.E. at an average 
heigbt of 1000 ft, and form a 
marked watershed for rivers running 
N. to the Foyle and S. to Lough Erne. 

17 m. 1. Dromore, which suffered 
much at the hands of the insurgents 
in 1641. St. Patrick is said to have 
founded here a monastery for the 
first woman wbo received the veil at 
his hands. 

20 m., connected by a short branch 
line, is FinUma, placed on the Fintona 
Water, and havmg a *' manufacture 
of linen and spades." The town 
dates from the reign of James L 
dose by are Ecdesville (0. Eccles, 
Esq.) and Derrybard (S. Yesey, Esq.). 



Bxewraons from Fintona, 

9 m. to the S., on the opposite 
side of the Broc&er range, is Five- 
mile Toum, also founded temp. James 
I. by Sir William Stewart, who built 
the castle of Aghentine, of which 
slight remains stiU exist 

9 m. E. of Fintona is Clogher, 



74 



Boute 8. — EnniakiUen to Londonderry. 



Xbelasd. 



the Begia of Ptolemy, and the 
seat of the most ancient bishopric 
in Ireland, originally founded by 
St. Patrick. The name is derived 
from Ir. Clochar, "the place of 
stone." It was the royal residence of 
the ancient princes of Ergallia, traces 
of which in the shape of earthworks 
are still extant within the grounds 
of the episcopal palace, a hand- 
some mansion, within a park of 500 
acres. The first Protestant bishop, 
Myler Magragh by name, did not 
taJse office until the reign of Eliza- 
beth ; and amongst succeeding pre- 
lates was Bishop Tennison, a great 
bene&ctor to the ch., who, together 
with Bishop Sterne, nearly rebuilt 
the cathedral in the last cent. It 
is a plain cruciform building with 
a tower rising from the W. front. 
The visitor, after having inspected 
the ch., should go and see a pretty 
cascade at Lumford Glen, a little 
way from the town. 

Conveyances. — Oar to Five-mile 
Town and Glasslough (Ete. 20), 
through Aughnacloy, a small town 
prettily placed on the Blackwater. 

Distances. — ^Five-mile Town, 7 m. ; 
Aughnacloy, 9.^; Glasslough, 18; 
Fintona, 9. 



Betum to Main Boute, 

From Fintona the rail stiU ascends 
through bleak and cold hills to 

26 m. Omagh {Hotel : White Hart), 
the county-town of Tyrone, a flourish- 
ing place of some 3600 Inhab., situ- 
ated at the junction of the Drumragh 
Biver with tiie Camowen, their united 
waters Mling into the Foyle. The 
castle of Omy played an important 
part in the wars of 1509, when it 
was rased to the ground ; and again 
in 1641, when Sir Phelim O'Neil 
took possession of it. The town 
contains little to detain the tour- 
ist, save! the usual county struc- 
tures — a courthouse with a good 
Doric front, a gaol, a barrack, and 
a church with a lofty spire, which 



looks very well from the rly. In 
the neighbourhood are OreeveDagh 
House (Oapt Thomas Auchinleck), 
and Idsanelly (S. Golhoun, Esq.). 

Conveyances. — Bail to Enniskill^ 
to Derry, to Portadown vi& Dan- 
gannon ; and car to Enniskillen Ti& 
Irvinestown. 



Braaick Line from Omagh to Durt' 
gannoH and Portadown, 

The Northern Division of the 
Great Northern Ely. branches east- 
ward from Omagh, and follows up 
the courae of the Camowen to 
7J m. Beragh, a decayed viJla^ 
at the foot of Shantauny, 1035 ft 
which on its southern face descends 
in a bold sweep, overlooking the little 
town of BaUygawley. Here are some 
walls of the castle built by Sir Geraid 
Lowther in the 17th cent 

1^ m. from the town is Ballygawlej 
House, the seat of Sir John H. 
Stewart, Bart. 

Crossing the Cloghfln Kiver, a 
branch of the Camowen, we arriye at 

9 m. Six^mile Cross, 

13 m. Carrickmorct or Termoti 
Eock, so called from the eleTation 
on which it is built. Adjoming it 
are the ruins of the old cL, a small 
E. Dec. building. 

The highest portion of the line i« 
reached at 18 m. Fomeroy, the hills 
on. each side of which rise to aboot 
900 ft. The demesne of Pomerov 
House (B. Lowry, Esq.) was fonnerl? 
celebrated for its timber, some of the 
oaks having measured 29 fL in cir- 
cumference. 

24 UL Donaghmore, Of the im- 
portant monastic buildings that 
once existed here, all that remains 
is a beautiful inscribed cross about 
16 ft. high, which, having, been 
mutilated and thrown down in 
1641, was subsequently re-erected 
The Eev. George Walker, of Deny 
celebrity, was rector of this paiisb- 
At Castle Caulfield, rt 2 hl, there 



Irecanb. 



Bouie 8. — Dungannon, 



76 



is a ruined mansion of the Gharle- 
monis, most pictoresq^uely situated 
on a limestone rock. It is a fine ex- 
ample of domestic architecture of the 
time of James I., who granted this 
property to Sir Toby Oaulfield, after- 
waida Lord Charlemont. It was 
quaintly described by Pynnar in his 
Survey as the fidrest house he had 
seen. F&rkanaur is the seat of 
J. Y. Bnigess, Esq. 

Crosang the Torrent Biver, we ar- 
liyeat 

27 m. Dungannon {Hotel: Ban- 
forly Arms), celebrated for having 
been in early days the chief resi- 
dence of the O'Neils, who, being 
in constant rebellion against the 
English Government, involved the 
town in a never-ending aeries of as- 
sault and siege which lasted until 
the close of the 17th cent. The 
independence of the Lish par- 
liament was claimed here in 1782 
by the delegates from the corps of 
the Ulster Volunteers. An abbey was 
founded by the O'Neils, and castles 
were built at different times by 
them and their successors the Chiches- 
ters, but all traces of them have dis- 
appeared, and Dungannon now pre- 
sents the features of a busy manufac- 
turing town, for which its position — 
about 3 m. from Lough Neagh, and 
in the centre of the Tyrone coal- 
lasin— well qualifies it. The princi- 
pal buildings are the ch., which has 
an octagonal spire, and a grammar- 
school and college founded by 
Charles I., and the object of special 
care from Primate Bobinson, who 
erected the present buildings on 
lands given by him. On iSiock- 
many Hill, which lies to the S.W., 
is a drcle, with singular tracings on 
fiome of the stones. (Pop. 4000.) 

In the neighbourhood of Dungan- 
non are Springfield (J. Irwin, Esq.) 
&Qd Northland House, the seat of 
Loid Baninrley. 

Conveyances, — Bail to Omagh and 
fortadown; car to Ck)okstown; car 
toAughnadoy. 



Distanoes. — Moy, 5} m.; Black- 
watertown, 8 ; Goal Island, 4J ; 
Stewartstown, 7 ; Cookstown, 11 ; 
Armagh, 13. 



The Tyrone CoaZfiM, 

This is interesting to the geolo- 
gist from the various and speedy 
succession of rocks occurring in so 
limited a space, and its commer- 
cial importance in the industrial 
economy of Ireland. The coal-secons 
rest on the limestone of Dungannon, 
and many of the hUls and high 
grounds are covered over with triassic 
or new red sandstone beds for a con- 
siderable distance. The basin is 
divided into two portions: — 1. The 
Coal Island district to the N.E. of 
Dungannon, which is about 6 m. in 
length by 2 in breadth, and contains 
7000 acres. Within a depth of 120 
fjBithoms, 6 beds of good workable 
coal are found, of the aggregate 
thickness of 22 to 32 ft. — a remark- 
able instance of so many seams being 
found close together at so short a 
depth. 2. The Annahone district 
is only 1 m. long, embracing 320 
acres, and affording 8 or 9 workable 
seams. ** Notwithstanding the small- 
ness of the basin, its strata are so 
much contorted and disturbed as to 
cause great irregularity in the work- 
ings by change of level and the oc- 
casional disappearance of the bed." — 
Kane, 

•* It has been worked generally in 
an unskilful manner, otherwise it 
might be much more productive 
and beneficial to the district than 
has actually been the case. The 
coal is bituminous.*' — Htdl, The 
principal collieries are at Annahone, 
Goal Island, and Drumglass. 

At Vemersbridge the line crosses 
the Blackwater, a considerable 
stream, which receives at Moy the 
waters of the Ulster canal connect- 
ing Lough Erne near Belturbet with 
Lough Neagh. 



76 



Boute 8* — EnnuikiUen to Berry. 



Ibeusi). 



3 m. on rt. is Moyt a small 
town on the Blackwater, built by 
Lord Charlemont on the pattern 
of Marengo in Italy ; on the opposite 
bank of the river is Charlemont — 
both of them places of importance 
in the days of Elizabeth. The 
latter was disgraced in 1641 by tiie 
treacherous murder of Lord Gaul- 
field, the ^yemor of Charlemont, 
by Sir Phehm O'Neil, who had been 
hospitably invited to supper. The 
castle, now a dep6t of the Ord- 
nance department, *' is still of great 
stren^h, fortified with bastions, a 
dry ditch, a scarp, and counterscaip ; 
and there are 2 ravehns, one in 
front, the other in rear of the works, 
surrounded by a glacis which runs 
along the side of the Blackwater.*' 
In ihe neighbourhood are Box- 
borough, the seat of Lord Charle- 
mont, and Church Hill (Sk W. 
Vomer, Bart. M.P.) 

2} m. to the S., between the river 
and the Ulster Canal, is Blackwater' 
tovm, a large village doing a good 
deal of business in the way of coals 
and timber. It played an miportant 
part in the Tyrone rebellion temp. 
Queen Elizabeth. 5 m. Armagh 
(Bte. 20.) A little higher up the 
river is the Castle of Benburb, on a 
lofty escarpment above the water, 
which surrounds it on two sides. 
Here Owen Roe O'Neill defeated 
the English army after a desperate 
battle in 1646. It does not present 
any interesting architectural fea- 
tures. 



35 m. Anaghmore, from whence the 
line runs in view of the 8. end of 
Lough Neagh to 41 m. Portadown 
(Bte. 3). 



Betum to Main Route, Omagh to 
Derry. 

2 m, from Omagh, at Fairy Water 
Bridge, the main line crosses the 



Fairy Water close to its junction 
with the Strule, and keeps parallel 
vrith the latter river, occasioiially 
crossing it, to 

9 m. Newtown Stewart {HoUl: 
Abercom Arms). Here the Shrule 
Biver joins the OwenkiUew, which 
rises in the lofty chain of the Hunter- 
lony Mountains, and fiows from E. to 
W. These hills, with the stiU higher 
ranges of the Sperrin Mountains, rnn 
E. as fEir as Maghera, and then tnni 
round to the N. into the neighbonrhood 
of Coleraine. Their southern hca 
are extremely steep, and the general 
altitude is not less than 2000 fL- 
the highest point, Sawel, being 22^0. 
The town of Newtown Stewart Ib 
finely situated on the side of a hill 
known by the pretty name of Bessy 
Bell (1386 ft.\ the counterpart of 
which (thougn not so lofty) is the 
eminence of Mary Gray, on the rtof 
the rly. The town is pleasant and 
pretty, and is rendered attractive by 
the close proximity of J^uon's Conrt 
the princely estate of the Doke of 
Abercom, in which ^i11, wood, and 
water afford many beautiftil land- 
scapes. James II. spent a night in 
Newtown Stewart, and in retiorn for 
the hospitalily received ordered the 
castle to be dismantled and tiie town 
to be burnt— a blow which it was 
long in recovering. Like most narih- 
em Irish towns, Unen- weaving af* 
fords plenty of employment There 
are remains of some forts which 
commanded the bridges on the 
Moume and Strule at Moyle. 

6 m. E. are the village of Goriint 
and Beltrim Castle rMajor Hamil- 
ton\ romantically placed in ihe 
valley of the Owenlollew, between 
the hills of Slievemore (1262 ft) and 
Curraghchosaly (1372). 

10 m. 1. on the Derg is CatUe Derg, 
through which tiie traveller can 
make a short out to StranorJar and 
Donegal (Bte. 11). 

Conveyanoe$, — Bail to EnniafcOIea 
and Derry. 



Ireland. Bauie 8. — Slrabane — Londonderry, 



77 



Distaneei, — Strabane, 11 m. ; 
Omagh,9; Oastle Derg, 10. 

12^ m. the Derg flows into the 
Monme, and on rt. the Sperrin Moun- 
tains are yerj conspicuous features 
in the landscape. The latter river is 
croBBed at 40 m. Victoria Bridge Stat. 
16 m. 8ion MtXU; soon after 
which the tourist aniyes in sight of^ 
19]f OL, the busy town of Strabane 
{H(M: Abercom Arms), situated, 
like Newtown Stewart, at the junc- 
tion of 2 rivers — the Moume and 
the Finn. Each of them is crossed 
by a remarkably long bridge, and 
from this point the Moume takes 
the name of the Foyle. The course 
of these rivers is marked by a con- 
liideTable expanse of alluvial land, 
which in wet weather is generally 
flooded— « state of things to which 
the Fmn in particular is very liable. 
Strabane contains very little to de- 
tam the visitor, who wiU speedily 
find out ^m his olfieustory senses 
that the inhabitants are principally 
dependent on flax. This is, however, 
only offensive in the autiunn, when 
the plant is bein^ steeped and dried 
in aU the fields of the neighbourhood. 
Strabane once possessed a castle 
built by the Marquis of Abercom in 
the time of James L, but it has dis- 
appeared, and has given place to a 
warehouse. The town has some 
dauns to be called a port, as it is 
connected by a short canal with the 
liayigable portion of the Foyle (Pop. 
4911). 

Comeyasiees, — ^Ball to Deny and 
Eoniskillen ; rail to Stranorlar ; car 
to Donegal ; car to Dunfanaghy and 
Gweedore; car to Derry on Monday, 
Wednesday, and Saturday; car to 
Castlederg; car to Letterkenny. 

l)MtofIC6l^— Derry, 15 m. ; lifford, 
1 ; Kewtoihi Stewart, 11; Oastle Finn, 
J; Umey, 8; Baphoe, 7; Letter- 
kenny, 16} ; Rathmelton, 23 ; Manor 
Cimningham, 12 ; Stranorlar, 13. 

The line now passes through the 
aOayial valley of the Foyle, whidi 



soon swells out into a stately stream. 
22 m. Porthall (J. Clarke, Esq.). 

Before arrivii^ at 26 m. St Johns- 
town Stat, we pass on 1. a square 
tower, all that is left of the Castle 
of Montgevlin, in which James II. 
held his court till the termination 
of the siege of Derry. 

28 m. Carrtgan$. The Foyle here 
loses the character of a river, and 
becomes an estuary, increasing in 
width until we arrive at 

34 m. the time-honoured city of 
Derry or Londondebbt {HoieU: 
Jury*s, — excellent ; Imperial, — 
good). 

Its situation is picturesque in the 
extreme, the great bulk of the town 
being on a hil£ 119 ft high, overlook- 
ing tiie 1. bank of the Foyle, which is 
here 1068 ft wide, ana is crossed 
by a long rly. bri<]^. It expands 
at the Bosses, a bttie below the 
town, to a width of 14 m. The 
geology of the hills on either side of 
tiie river oonsdsts " of primary schis- 
tose rocks, spreading over the whole 
of the parish of Templemore fin 
which the city is situatea), with the 
exception of a considerable detritio 
patch at Culmore, to the N.E., which 
probably conceals a part of the 
new rea sandstone. Associated with 
these are occasional beds of granu- 
lar limestone and greenstone." — 
OedL Survey, Previous to the 
reign of Elizabeth the history of 
Deny (in Irish ** the place of oaks "^ 
presents notliing remarkable, ana 
IS chiefly occupi^ with aflairs eccle- 
siastical, it having been one of the 
monasteries of St. Columba, the abbot 
of which, Flaherty O'Brollaghan, 
was made flrst bieuiop of Derry in 
1158. The last Koman Catholic 
biediop died in 1601, up to which 
time the city " may be regarded as 
being in the hanos of the native 
Irish, and governed by their chiefe, 
witii at best but an occasional ac- 
knowledgment of British power." 
But all previous historical events are 
thrown mto the shade by the great 



78 



Bouie 8. — Londonderry. 



Ibelaih). 



siege of Londonderry in 1689, when 
King James's Irish army, under Rosen 
and Richard Hamilton, laid close siege 
to the city for 105 days, and tried 
their best, by the horrors of assault, 
&mine, and pestilence, to reduce the 
courage of the brave Protestant de- 
fenders. The governor on this oc- 
casion was the treacherous Lnndy, 
who made many attempts to give up 
the city into the enemy's hands, and 
only succeeded in evading the rage 
of the garrison by escaping in the 
guise of a porter. The command 
was then taken by the Rev. George 
Walker, rector of Donaghmore, 
whose apostolic fervour and simple 
bravery will be the theme of admi- 
ration as long as religious liberty 
endures. The blockade was at 
length put an end to on the 30th of 
July, when the Mountjoy and Phca- 
nix, merchantmen of lUrke's fleet, 
filled with stores, gallantly broke 
through the barrier placed across the 
Foyle, and relieved the starving 
garrison. "Five generations have 
passed away, and still the wall of 
Londonderry is to the Protestants of 
Ulster what the trophy of Marathon 
wafi to the Athenians. A lofty pillar, 
rising from a bastion which bore 
during many weeks the heaviest fire 
of the enemy, is seen far up and 
down the Foyle. On the summit is 
the statue of Walker, such as when, 
in the last and most terrible emer- 
gency, his eloquence roused the 
&intmg courage of his brethren. 
In one hand he grasps a Bible; 
the other, pointing down the river, 
seems to direct the eyes of his 
£a.mished audience to the English 
topmasts in the distant bay. Such 
a monument was well deserved; 
yet it was scarcely needed ; for, in 
truth, the whole city is to this day 
a monument of the great deliver- 
ance. The wall is carefully pre- 
served, nor would any plea of health 
or convenience be neld by the in- 
habitants sufficient to justify the 
demolition of that sacred endosure 



which, in the evil time, gave shdter 
to their race and their religioiL The 
summit of the ramparts forms a 
pleasant walk. The bastions have 
been turned into little gardens. 
Here and there among the shrubs 
and flowers may be seen the old 
culvenns which scattered bricks 
cased with lead among the Irish 
ranks. One antique gun, the 
of the Fishmongers of London, wi 
distinguished during the 105 m 
morable days by the loudness of i 
report, and still bears the name ol 
* Roaring Meg.' The cathedral i 
filled with reUcs and trophies, 
the vestibule is a huge shelly on 
of many hundreds of shells whic 
were thrown into the city. Ov 
the altar are still seen the French 
flagstaves taken by the garrison in a 
desperate saUy; the white ensigns 
of the house of Bourbon have long 
been dust, but tiheir place has bee: 
supplied by new banners,^ the wori 
of the fairest hands of Ulster. Th 
anniversary of the day on which tb^ 
gates were closed, and the anni 
versary of the day on which the 
siege was raised, have been down to 
our own time celebrated by salutes, 
processions, banquets, and sermons. 
Lundy has been executed in effigy 
and ike sword said by tradition tc 
be that of Maumont has on great 
occasions been carried in triumph.' 
— Macaulay'B Hitt. of England, 

The principal objects of interes 
in Londonderry are the walls and 
the cathedral. The original £nglisa 
town, erected by Sir Henry Docwra 
was burned by Sir Gahir O'Dohert) 
in 1608, and the present town maj 
therefore be considered to have dd 
rived its origin firom the Londoners 
plantation, which was the immediate 
result of that catastrophe. The prej 
sent walls were built about 1609, a^ 
a cost of 83572., and were Imown 
during the siege as the Double BasJ 
tion, on which the gallows were 
erected for the threatened purpose <« 



Ireland. 



Bouie 8. — Londonderry, 



79 



hanging the prisonen; the Boyal 
Bastion, " from the adyancing of the 
red flags upon it, in defiance of the 
enemie;" Hangman's Bastion ; Gon- 
ners' Bastion; Cowards' Bastion, — 
**it lyeing most ont of danger, it's 
said it never wanted company good 
Btore;" Water Bastion; and Ferry 
Bastion. Some of these are still in 
existence (though others, together 
with the external dry ditch, have 
been remoyed in process of time), 
and contain many of the guns, giyen 
by various Companies. A gun, bear- 
ing the date 1642, and the arms and 
motto of the Baiters' Company, was 
dag up, in Ang. 1866, in excayating 
the foundations for a new Bank. The 
gates are 6 : Bidiop's Gate, erected 
to the memory of William III.; 
Shipquay Gate; Butchers' G^te; 
Fenryquay Gate; New Gate; and 
Oastle Gate. 

The Catiliedral stands on a lofty 
eminence oyerlooking the whole of 
the town, and is a oeautiful Perp. 
building. It consists of a naye and 
2 aisles, separated on either side 
by 6 pcnnted arches with octagonal 
piers, and lighted by Perp. windows. 
The erection of the oh. in 1633 is 
oommemoiated in a tablet which 
nms as follows : — 

ANO DO CAR REGIS 
1633. 

If . stones . cvld . speake . 

Then . London's . prayae . shoyld . sovnde . 

Who . bvilte . ibis . chvrch . 

AM . dttie . from . the . grovnde . 

Inserted into the top of this tablet is 
a smaller one with the inscription : — 

" In templo verus Dens est 
Vereque clemens." 

Amongst other curiosities are a 
Wmb-sheU fired into the town during 
^e si^e, as well as the poles of the 
^ captured from tiie enemy. 
There are also a couple of 17th- 
<^t. tablets and monuments to the 
nttmory of Bishop Knox, and of 
Oapt Boyd of H. M. S. Ajax, who 
P^hed in the storm at Kingstown 



in 1860, while attempting to rescue 
others. There is also a monument 
to him in St. Patrick's Cathedral, 
Dublin. 

The yisitor should on no account 
forget to mount the top of the tower, 
which commands a noble panorama, 
embracing the city with the walls. 
Walker's Monument, the Bishop's 
Palace and Grarden, the Gaol, the 
Lunatic Asylum, the Docks, the 
noble expanse of the Foyle, backed 
up by the distant outlines of the 
hUls of Inishowen, whUe, looking up 
the riyer, are the woods and grounds 
of Prehen, the seat of the &inily of 
Knox. The other buildings worth 
notice are the Coloration Hall, in 
the middle of the Diamond or prin- 
cipal square ; the Court House, the 
Ionic m9ade of which 4s modelled 
after the temple of Erechtheus at 
Athens; the Gaol, which is most 
complete, and designed on the cir- 
cular plan, with a panoptic gallery ; 
and the new Bridge, erected at a cost 
(including approaches) of 100,0002., 
which seryes both for the Northern 
Counties Rly. and a public road. It 
has superseded the old timber bridge, 
which was in its day a great curi- 
osity. "Its length was 1068 ft., 
and its breadth 40; being laid 
on oak-piles, the pieces of which 
were 16 ft. asunder, and were bound 
together by 13 strong pieces equally 
diyided and transyersely bolted. 
As both the water and the gas 
were brought across the bridge, 
they had to be separated when- 
eyer it was open for the passage of 
barges." The whole of tiiis singu- 
lar stracture was put up by Lemuel 
Cox, a Boston American, at an ex- 
pense of 16,000/. (Pop. in 1871, 
25,242.) 

From the port of Londonderry 
a large colonial and coasting trade 
is carried on. It is, moreoyer, 
a calling-station for the North Ame- 
rican steamers from Liyerpool, all 
the important telegrams being for- 
warded from Derry direct to Lon- 



[reland. 



Boute 9. — Buncanra. 



81 



imes as being the stronghold of 
Onel Owen, or the descei^ants of 
3weii, a son of Nial of the Nine 
Qostagea, who waged a constant and 
fierce war with the O^Dohertys, des- 
cendants of Connell Golban. These 
latter, however, about the 15th cent., 
dispossessed tiie older residents. The 
tourist cap proceed dther by rail to 
Fahao and Boncrana, or by road, 
which, f<Hr the first mile or so, runs 
along the side of the Foyle, but turns 
off to the 1. at Belmont (T. Mackay, 
Esq.), in the grounds of which is the 
stone of St. Golumb. It then passes 
in sight of Grianan Aileach Mountain, 
keeping it on 1., and strikes upon 
Lough SwiUy at Glen Oollan (T. 
(Gorman, Esq.), opposite the island 
)flnch. 

13^ m. Bunerana {Lough SunUy 
Eotd,a, new well-built house, beauti- 
tally situated on a promontory com- 
pianding fine views of the lough and 
its shores oa both sides) is a pleasant 
md pretty little bathing-place, situa- 
ted on the shores of Lough Swilly, 
between the embouchures of 2 rivers, 
the Mill and Grana, and at th6 base 
of the Meenkeeragh Hill, which rises 
on the E., and the Mouldy Moun- 
tain 1021 ft. on the S. It possesses 
Bome little trade arising fix)m flax- 
spinning and the manufacture of 
chemical products, such as iodine, 
Stc, and is also the head-quarters of 
the artillery for the district, em- 
bracing Loughs Foyle and Swilly. 
An old castle of the O'Dohertys is 
now incorporated with a modem 
building, and with its approaches 
^d gardens is a picturesque object. 
Dittances. — Oamdonagh, 12 m. ; 
Bathmelton by water, 4* ; Derry, 
\^. 

Conveyances, — By rail to Derry; 
i&il to Fahan ; and steam ferry across 
to Kathmullan. 

Lough Swilly is worthy of more 
attention from tourists than it has 
liUherto received. Now that the 
betel is completed, it is a charming 
place for sojoam, and centre for ex- 
[Irekmdi 



cnrsions. The noble estuary itself, 
penetrating about 30 miles inland, 
affords a most enjoyable boating- 
water. The tourist should not fail 
to make one or more excursions to 
the beautiful and neglected Mulroy 
Bay. He may cross at Fahan by the 
steam ferry or rowing-boat to Bath- 
mullan, where there is an inn from 
which he can hire a oar and drive 
to Milford (now rendered so pain- 
fully notorious by the murder of the 
Earl of Leitrim, his clerk, and driver, 
on the 2nd of April, 1878), and along 
either the E. or W. shore of Mulroy 
Bay. If the E., he may return over 
the hill from Dunmore, or by Oleg- 
gan, and along the W. shore of Lough 
Swilly. If he takes the W. side of 
Mulroy Bay, he may go on vift Gran- 
ford to Garrickart, thence to Glen, 
(Bte. 14) and retiurn by the moun- 
tain road to Rathmullan. On this 
mountain road he will pass some 
fine examples of naked knolls of 
glaciated rock. Before starting, he 
should distinctly bargain with the 
driver for the route he proposes to 
take, otherwise he may be treated 
to a short cut across, as from Gran- 
ford to Glen, instead of round by 
Garrickart. 

It is a pretty excursion to the 
Fort and Head of Dunree, 7 m., the 
road thither running at the base of 
Aghaweel Hill 1106 ft., and pass- 
ing Linsfort and the ruin of Boss 
Gastle. 

Dunree Head is the termination 
of the Urris Hills, a group occupying 
the N.-westem district of the Inish- 
owen peninsula. The road termi- 
nates here, but the pedestrian can 
scramble to Dunaff Head, the east- 
ern guardian of the entrance to 
Lough Swilly. On the western 
headland, Fanad Point, there is a 
lighthouse, with a fixed light 91 feet 
above the sea. It is worthy of ob- 
servation that the Urris Hills were 
evidently a continuation of the 
Glenalla Mountains on the oppo- 
site coast prior to the irruption of 

a 



82 



Boute 9. — Londonderry to Lough SwiUy. Ibslans. 



the sea which now forms Lough 
Swilly. 

Another and very fine route from 
Bunerana to Dunsifif Head is by 
Dunally and Straid; and then 
through the Gap of Marmore^ one 
of the finest pasfies in Ireland, though 
but rarely visited. 

The scenery of the coast is wild 
and rocky, and the hills rise with 
considerable abruptness from the 
shore. The road from Buncrana to 
Oamdonagh follows up the valley of 
the Owen Crana for some distance, 
giving off at Oarroghill Bridge a 
branch roctd to the villages of Du- 
nally and Ballyliffin on the N. 
coast. It then passes a tarn known 
as Mintiagh's Lough, and strikes 
into the heart of the mountains 
between Slieve Snaght (**Hill of 
Snow *'), 2019 ft., on the rt.,and the 
tJrris Hills on the 1. 

25^ m. Camdonagh, is a neat 
little town, which principally sup- 
plies the commissariat of the Inish- 
owen district. There is, however, but 
little to see, save a cross opposite the 
ch.-yard. From hence it is 19 m. 
by the direct road to Londonderry, 
and 3 m. to the village of Mcdin, 
which is situated at the head of 
the estuary of Trawbreaga Bay, an 
extensive sandy pill, that joins 
Ix)ugh Swilly, past the dreary dunes 
of Dough Isle. At its embouchure 
are Gkshedy Island and the 15 
Kocks, together with Oarrickabraby 
Castle, another of the O'Dohertys' 
ruined fortalices. Adjoining Maiin 
is Malin Hall ((xeorge Miller Har- 
vey, Esq.), said to be the most 
northerly residence in Ireland. 

8.^ m. N.E. of ^e village is Malin 
Head, one of the famous northerly 
promontories that are so conspicu- 
ous to passengers by the Montreal 
Bteamers. It is of no great height, 
but the coast is exceedingly fine, 
and a scramble along the clifis 
from the Five Fingers to the Head 
will amply repay the lover of stem 
rook soenery. On the head is a 



coastguard statioD, and a little way 
off shore is the group of the Gkwtn 
Hills. A revolving light, 181 iieet 
above the sea, visible 18 miles, is 
exhibited on the N.£. end of the 
island of Inishtrahull, some 6 m. to 
the E. and N. — a precaution vei; 
necessary along this stormy coast. 
Between Malin and Glengard Heads 
the clifb are very magnificent, being 
upwards of 800 ft. in height, and re- 
sembling those of Moherin Go. Clare, 
though not presenting the same sheer 
wall of precipice. From the village of 
Malin a road of 4 m. runs to Cvlda/, 
where the riyer of the same name 
runs into the sea. Ouldaff House )b 
the seat of G. Young, Esq. 

From hence it is 9} m. to MoviBi 
{Hold: Mrs. McOonnell's; Conh 
mercial), a watering-plaoe whidi 
the citizens of Derry love to fre- 
quent in the summer. A prettf 
place it is, for, ui addition to the 
sheltering ridges of the Squire's 
Cairn and Craig^namaddy at the back. 
it commands the fine outUnea of 
Benyevenagh and Keady, beyond 
Newtown Limavaddy, and is more- 
over enlivened by the oonsfauit 
stream of shipping entering and 
leaving the port It is a favouiits 
excursion to Inishawe^ Heady 6 m, 
on which there are two lighthovsei, 
passing about half-way the old fortres 
of GreencaeUe, erected in 1305 bf 
Richard Burke, the Bed Earl of 
Ulster, to keep down the O'Neilsaod 
O'Donnells, together with the mo- 
dem fort that commands the entry 
of the Lough and M*GiUigan Poini. 
The Montr^ Ocean Steamship Coid> 
pany, the Allan Line, call at Green- 
casUe, off Moville, on their way to 
and from. Liverpool. 

Cowveyaneee. — A steamer plies 
from Derry during the summer 
months. Car to Deny daily. 

J}istance$. — Deny, 18 m. ; Ouldail^ 
9} ; Inishowen, 6 ; Ureencastle, 3. 

The road Cirom Moville to Deny 
keeps nearly the whole distanee 
close to the ahorea of the Lougb, 



la&LiJH). 



JUmU lO.^BUgo to Bnnidoram. 



88 



passing 8 m. the village of Oanow- 
kee], where the Gabry Biver is Grossed, 
and a road to CSamdonagh giyen off. 
At this point the esti^Eury dt tiie 
Foyle is at its broadest 

13 m., adjoining the Tillage of 
Mnf^ \h Kilderry, the seat pt Gapi. 
6.y.Hart»BJ^. Here the Bimcrana 
road niDS in, passing, between Huff 
and Bnnfori; Miltown House, and 
skirting the base of the pietareeque 
Scalp Mountain, 1589 ft. Soon after 
ieaviflg Muff the trayeller sights the 
Fort of Culmore, and guesses, fiK>m 
the number of pretty villas that 
border the road and shore, that ha is 
approaching Dairy, 



BOUTE 10. 

SUGO TO BUNDORAN, LOUGH MEL- 
VIN, AND MANOR HAMILTON. 

Hail cars leave Sligo daily for 
Bundoran. The road runs past the 
barbour, and soon rises into some- 
what high ground, as it euts across 
the neck of the Ebdnore pronMmtor^. 
1 m. ri is Mount Shannon (F. M. 
Olpherta, Eeq.), and a little further 
on rt 1 m. are Doonally House (B. 
C. Parke, Esq.), and Willowbrook, a 
Ksidence of Major W. O. Gore. The 
whole of the road from Sligo to 
Oliffony and Bundoran is carried be- 
tween the sea and a long range of 
UountainB, which, from their vmAr 
^eD rise from the plain, theif fine 
<*carpment8, and tlieir plateau-like 
tommits, are marked features in the 
^ndscape. The general arrange- 
iDent of these hills is that of an 
amphitheatre of which the northern 
point is Benbulben (1722 ft); saO- 
5«eded by King's Mountam (1627), 
Tniskmore (2113), and Keelogyboy 
(H30), termed, from their similturtty 
« eothne^ the ** Three £i 



To the 8. of them are the basm 
of Lough GUI, with the phdn and 
town of Bligo. There are also 
'< Three Bisters,*' of whidi KilUney 
Hill forms the centre, terminating 
the sovthetn shore of the Bay S 
Dublin— 

"Rwm Edffa'g Mi, to where Three SigteiB 
timotr McOurtky, 

And on the coast of Kerry there is 
a headland of the same name, between 
Sibvl and Ballydarid heada. 

These limestone ranges offer good 
finds to the botanist, viz. Aspimum 
lonchitis, Asplenium viride, Poa 
alpina, Ozyria reniformis, Saxifraga 
yigoides, Arenaria ciiiata, Draba 
incana, Melanopais Oambrica, &c, 

5 m. rt is the pretty little ch. 
of DnmcUjf (Ir. Druim-chliabh, 
** ridge of baskets "), standing on the 
bank of the riwer of the same name, 
whidi here enters Drumchff Bay. A 
monastery was here founded by St 
CMumba in 590, and was made into 
a bishop's see, afterwards united to 
Elphin. The traces of its former 
greatness are now limited to two 
besntiful sculptured crosses in the 
Qh.-yaRi, and the broken base of a 
round tower on the opposite side of 
the road and adjoining the g^be. 



JMUmr to Baghiy, 

A road on L keeps along the K. 
side of DrumdiiT Bay through the 
village of Oamey to 4 m. iMtadeli, 
the seat of the late Sir Bobert Gore 
Booth, Bart, M.P., who was most suo- 
oessful in demonstrating how mudi 
can be done to improve and beautify 
a coast so exposed to tiie fury of the 
Atlantic and devastated by sand- 
heaps as this is. If the pedestrian 
can afford the time, he ^nll be in- 
terested in this wild promontory, 
aifd will be repaid by an excursion 
ronnd it. rejoiniog the high road at 
Grange. 

On the dbm,4d«ME> toUwidfiU, 



84 



BaiUe 10. — 'Sligo to Bundoran, 



Ibelakp. 



are fhe scanty ruins of Dmifort 
Castle, while those of Ardtermon 
are about 1 m. further on, close to 
the miseiiable fishing-village of 

EagMy. There is here, near the 
shore, a singular open basin called 
the Pigeon-holes, into which the 
tide rushes with great force through 
subterranecui channels, and, as might 
be expected, under strong westerly 
winds, exhibits extraordioary effects. 

The district to the N. of this is 
completely overrun with sand, and 
doubtless many a dwelling and per- 
haps churches have been buried here. 



Detour to Cflenear, 

1 m. beyond Drumcliff a road 
branches off to rt. passing through 
Glencar, one of the most beautiful 
and romantic spots in the whole 
country. It traverses a narrow defile, 
following the course of the Drumcliff 
river between the King's Mountain 
and some equally lofty mountains on 
the S. At 4 m. the source of the 
River is reached at Glencar Lough, 
a lovely sheet of water lying at 
the very base of the mounteins. 
Here is a fine waterfall 300 ft. in 
height, the water of which, the 
visitor may chance to be told in 
Bligo, runs up hill, a state of things 
explained- by the curious fact " that 
when- the wmd blows strongly from 
the S. the water is prevented from 
descending." Glencar is a justly 
favourite excursion from Bligo. The 
road beyond Glencar Lough con- 
tinues through an equally finei valley 
past the little ch. of Eillasnet to 
Manor Hamilton. 



Return to Main Route, 

At 10 m.. Orange, the mountains 
gradually retreat . further inland to- 
wards Lough Melvin. 

Some litUe way off the coast is the 



island of InUlvmurry, famous for its 
potheen, and containinga very ancient 
monastery enclosed in a circuJar stone 
fort. The ch. was dedicated to £t 
Molaise or Molash, of the date of the 
6th cent. It is built with a cement 
of lime; but the residences of the 
monks were constructed without any 
knowledge of the arch, with dome 
roof, and without any cement. In 
the interior is a wooden image of 
the saint. From Grange a singu- 
larly straight road runs for miles 
along the high ground overlocAsng 
the coast to 

Cliffony, 14 m., where the tourist 
interested in social improvements 
may inspect those made by Lord 
PaJmerston on his estates. Indeed, 
it must be evident to everybody, 
whether interested or not, that the 
cottages, gardens, fields, fences, and 
inhabitants, are under a different 
treatment from those of other uod 
less fortunate places, for there is 
an aspect of cleanliness and gene- 
ral comfort which at once strikes 
the English traveller. The view on 
the 1. embraces a large extent of 
dreary sand-hills, but improves a 
little further N. at the promontory 
of MuMaghmore, overlooking the 
sheltered little community and har- 
bour of Clastylaun, which, together 
with a store, was formed by the late 
Lord Palmerston, who caused to be 
planted a vast extent of Ammophila 
arundinacea, by which the soft 
ground was cemented, and ooold 
offer resistance to the driving sand. 

At 17^ m. the Duff River is 
crossed at Bunduff Bridge, from 
which point the road hugs the coast 
pretty close, as it trends in a NX. 
direction. The view opens out veir 
finely over Bundoran and the Bay of 
Donegal, backed up in the N. by 
the coast-line and mountains between 
Donegal and Killybegs. 
. 19^ m. a little beyond the village 
of Tullaghan, tiie Drowes Biver is- 
suing from Lough Melvin is crossed, 
and the county of Donegal entered. 



Ireland. 



BaiUe 10. — Bwndoran — Lough Mdvin. 



85 



On 1., between road and sea^ are 
remains of the castle of Duncarbry, 
built by Isabel MacGlancy in the 
reign of Elizabeth. The frequent 
aspect of neat roadside cottages,, 
together with now and then a more 
ambitions style of house, betokens 
the approach to 

21^ m. Bundoran {Hotels : Hamil- 
ton's and ''The CJoterie," Gray- 
don's— the latter new and clean), 
the popular N. W. bathing-place. It 
is well situated on a bold portion of 
the coast of Donegal Bay, but, like 
many o&er watering-places, it lacks 
vegetation and shelter; tiie hills, 
although fine objects as a land- 
scape, being too &r off to be 
avsolable for near resort The 
opposite coast affords views of 
St John*s Point and lighthouse, 
Inver and Killybegs Bays, termi- 
nated in the extreme distance by 
the clifGi of Teelin Head and Slieye 
League. Bundoran is the fayourite 
resort of the Enniskillen people, who 
frequent it in large numbers. The 
action of the sea has worn the cliffs 
into numerous grotesque forms, an 
example of which may be seen in 
**the Faiiy Bridge, a single arch 
24 ft in span, having a causeway of 
half that breadth perfectly formed 
and detached from all architectural 
encumbrances.*' — Wright, 

Conveyances. — ^Daily to Sligo ; daily 
to Donegal; Bail to Ballyshannon 
Enniskillen, and Londonderry vi& 
Bundoran Junction. The Sligo mail 
car goes on to Ballyshannon. 

Distances. — Ballyshannon, 4 m. : 
Sligo, 21| ; Enniskillen, 31 ; Donegal, 
17^ ; Einlough, 2^ ; Lough Melvin, 4 ; 
Glenade, 9^ ; Maoior Hunilton, 15. 

It is a very beautiful drive to 
Manor Hamilton through Kinlough, 
for which a private car may be taken 
at Bundoran. The Drowes is crossed 
at Lennox's Bridge. 

2^ m. KinUmgh (Ir. Geann-locha, 
" h4d of the lake **), prettily situated 
at the western extremity of Lough 
^elyin, contains a spring impreg- 



nated with' sulphuretted hydrogen. 
There are some nice residences 
in the neighbourhood — Kinlough 
House (J. Johnston, Esq.), Brook 
Hill, and, on the southern bank of 
Lough Melvin, Mount Prospect, the 
residence of Mr. St George John- 
ston, brother of the owner of Kinlough 
House. 

Lough Mdvin is a very consider- 
able sheet of water 7^ m. in lengfli ; 
but though l^e southern banks are 
extremely striking, it generaUy at- 
tracts the angler more than the 
general tourist The former will find 
accommodation at an inn at the little 
village of Oarrison on the W. side of 
the lake, and he can obtain per- 
mission to fish from Mr. Johnston of 
Kinlough House. There ia good 
salmon until the middle of May, 
after which grilse comes in; also 
splendid trout-fishing, especially of 
the sort named gillaroo. There 
are several islands of no great 
size, one dose to the S. shore con- 
taining the remains of tlie castle of 
Bossclogher, "and on the eastern 
shore are the ruins of the ancient ch. 
of Bossinver, supposed to have been 
that of the nunnery of Doiremell, 
founded by St. Tighemach for his 
mother St Melle." — Lewis. From 
Kinlough the road is carried up a 
splendid ravine, similar to the one 
at Glencar (p. 84), the hills on each 
side rising in sudden escarpments to 
the height of 1500 ft. At the top 
of the water-level is 

10 m. Lough Glenade^ a small lake 
buried in the heart of the mountains, 
on the E. bank of which is Glenade 
House (C. T. Cullen, Esq.). From 
this lake issues the Bonet Biver, which 
flows into Lough Gill at Droma- 
haire (p. 72). 

15} m. Manor Hamilton (Bte. 7). 
The tourist should, however, before 
arriving here, turn off to the rt to 
see the village of Lurganhoy, which 
is situated in the middle of the most 
romantic scenery ; and he may vary 
the retumjroute by driving to Qarri- 



86 



BoiUb 11. — Bfmdofim to Bmeg&l and Strabcme. ISELAin). 



SOD, ftnd foUowing llie K. baak of 
Looh Melym to Bundofan or BaUy- 
ahaimoiu 



ROUTE 11. 

BUNDORAN TO DONEGAL AVD 
STRABANE.- 

From Bundoran the road is tame 
and surroonded by sandbanks. Onl. 
is the -ruined ch. of Ini^Mhoctaint, 
which, as the name implies, was at 
one time situated on an isUmd pte- 
yions to the drifting of tiie sai^. 

4 m. BaUyshannon (Ir. Bel-atha- 
Seanaigh, "mouth of Shannagh's 
ford") {HoteU: Imperial; Erne), 
famous for its sahnon-leap, pre- 
sents from a distanoe an iiSOnitely 
pleasanter appearance than a nearer 
inspection warrants. Its situation is 
ahuost fine, on a steep hill over- 
looking the broad and rushing stream 
of the Erne, but the streets are dirty 
and mean, especially in the lower 
part of the town. The castle of 
BaUyshannon, of which scarce any 
traces remain, was the scene of a 
disastrous defeat of t&e English 
under Sir Gonyers OlifEbrd in 1597. 
They had besieged Hugh Boe 0*Don- 
nell, who was shut up here, for 5 
days ; but the garrison having made a 
desperate sally, the English retreated 
in haste, and lost a great portion of 
their force in an unsucceasful at- 
tempt to cross the Erne. The 2 
portions of the town, the lower 
one of which is called tiie Port, 
are connected by a bridge of 16 
arches, a few hundred yaras above 
the celebrated Falls, where an 
enormous body of water is preci- 
pitated over a cliff some 30 ffc. high 
and 10 above high water, with a 
noise that is penecUy deafening. 
This is the scene of the salmon-leap. 
"The lalmon that drop down m 



August and September return again 
up the same river in the months of 
sprine, and this can only be ac- 
complished by an ascent of the &U 
at BaUyshannon. Traps are laid 
in different parts of the faU, with 
Amnel-shaped entrances* into which 
the salmon swim, and are preserved 
untU required for the market; in- 
tervEds are also left between the 
traps, through which the fish reach 
the top of me &U by a spring of at 
least 14 ft in height, though it is at 
low water that the scene of leaping 
is displayed with the greatest axi- 
Uyitj:*— Wright, The fishery isveiy 
valuable, and is owned by Dr. Shiel, 
The antiquary wiU find, in the 
parish of Eilbarron, in which the 
X. part of BaUyshannon is situated, 
no less Uian 14 Danish raths, and 
between 3 and 4 m. to the N.W. 
the ruinfl of KUbcarron CasUe, an 
ancient fortress of the O'Glerys, re- 
nowned in their day ibr their skill 
in science, poetry, and history. Of 
this &mUy was Father Michael 
O'Oleiy, the leader of the iUustrioua 
quartett of the Four Masteis. It 
stands on a precipitous rock at the 
very edge of the coast. A Uttle to 
the N. of this is Ck>olmore, fre- 
quented as a bathing-place. On the 
return (about i m. from the town), 
visit the site and a portion of waU of 
the abbey founded in 1179 by Eodeiic 
le Oanavan, Prince of TirconneL 

A considerable trade is carried on 
at BaUyshannon, and many improve- 
ments were made by GoL Conolly, 
the late owner of the soil, although 
the existence of a dangerous bar at 
the mouth of the river acts injuri- 
ously to commerce. Pop. 3197. 

Conveyoficet.— Donegal daily, also 
to SUgo ; BaU to Ermiddllen and 
Bundoran. 

Distances.— Bliso, 25) m. ; Bundo- 
ian,4; Donegal, 13); BaUintia,6); 
BeUeek, 4| ; EnniskiUen, 27 ; Pet- 
tlgoe,17 ; Manor HamUton, 19 ; Ga^ 
riBon,9. 



/: 







(.11 



/ • 



\\ J ) i 



* A 



IbJOiASB. 



BaiUe 11. — BaUifUra — Donegal. 



87 



1. To Belleek and Bapids (Bte. 6). 

2. BallintiaandthdFallina. 

The route from BallyBhaimon to 
Donegal is throxigh a dreary unin- 
teresSig coimtiy. 7 m. 1. Cavan 
(xarden, the aeat of l^i J. Atkinson, 
Esq. 

10| m. is the Tillage of BaUintrci, 
in the neighbourhood of which the 
moontain fimestone is very largely 
de?eloped. Near it is Brown Hall 
(Major J. Hamilton)^ through the 
grounds of which the lEdlintra 
Rivet flows in a very singular man- 
ner. The locality is called the 
Pollins. *' It is formed by the 
coarse of a mountain torrent which 
runs nearly a mile through a most 
picturesque ravine shaded by a 
mass of deep wood. A solid bed of 
limestone seems to have been cleft 
from 30 to 40 ft. in depth, and in 
this narrow fissure, often turning at 
a very acute angle, the river foams 
along, frequently disappearing in 
caves, when its course passes under 
the rodk for a considerable space. 

'It seemed some momitaln rent and rlyen 
A dumnel for the stream had giveD, 
So hi(^ the difiiB of limestone grey 
Hqag beettinff o'er the toirent^ way.' 

After a ooime again of } m. through 
a meadow, the river reassumes its 
wild character, but with increased 
magnificence. It suddenly descends 
about 60 ft. in a deep chasm, the rocks 
actually meeting overhead, while a 
precijAtous wall bounds it on either 
side ; it then emerges under a perfect 
natural bridge, and, turning suddenly, 
a vista appears opening upon the 
sea in the distance, and on either 
side a perpendicular rock extends in 
a straight line to BalUntra, Ihe river 
^^^icfxpyi'^ the entire space between 
these walls."— ^oS. 

13 m. Ooxtown (J. Hamilton, Esq.), 
and a little further on the village 
of Laghv, to the 1. of which are 
Belle Me (A. H. Foster, Esq.), and. 



on an island at the entrance of Do- 
negal Bay, St. Emans, the seat of 
John Hamilton, Esq. 

17i m. Donegal (Ir. Dun na Qall) 
{Inn : Arran Arms (Dillon), a small 
county town of about 1550 Inhab., 
is) prettily situated at the mouth 
of the Esk and the head of the 
bay of Donegal. The numerous 
shoals and d&cidties of approach 
have, however, interfered sadly with 
its position as a port, the business 
done here being verjr small. The 
principal object of mterest is the 
ruined castle of the O'Donnella. 
"Tyrconnel is the Celtic name of 
Donegal ; meaning the Land of CSon- 
nel, who was son to Nial of the 9 
Hostages, a monarch of Ireland of 
ancient &me, from whom descended 
the O'DonneUs of Donegal. James L 
conferred the titl« of Earl of Tyr- 
connel and Baron Donegal on Boij 
O'Donnell, one of this race ; but it 
was lost to the fiimily from the want 
of male issue." — Dtiblin Univ. Mag, 
In 1587 Hugh Boe O'Donnell held 
his castle in defiance against the 
English Government, who, not hav- 
ing sufficient force to send against 
him, captured him by stratagem. A 
vessel was sent to the coast laden 
with wine, the effects of which were 
too powerful for the chief, who had 
rashly accepted the hospitalities of 
the captain. He was bound, when 
drunk, and carried to Dublin Castle, 
from which, however, he escaped in 
1591. The castle of Done^ is 
a beautiful Elizabethan building, 
combining defensive with domesiv) 
purposes, and consists of a tall 
gabled tower with 2 bartizan turrets, 
of which only one is perfect It is 
more than probable that it was re- 
built by Sir Basil Brooke, to whom 
a grant was made in 1610. The prin- 
cipal apartment is lighted by a very 
fine mtdlioned window, and contains a 
grand sculptured chimney-piece with 
the arms of Brooke and Leicester, 
below which may be noticed the ball- 
flower. Beneal^ this hall is a lower 



88 



BotUe 11. — Donegal. 



.Ibelasd. 



room with a mdely yanlted rpof^ the 
stones placed edgeways. In the other 
portion of the castle are a fine round- 
headed window-arch and a pointed 
doorway. The situation overlooking 
the Esk is very charming, and the 
castle, together wiihihe old-fashioned 
garden — 

" A garden wild. 
Where mix'd Jonquils and gowang grow, 
And roses 'midst rank clover blow" — 

make up a lovely picture. It now 
belongs to the Earl of Arran. There 
are several fine seats in the neigh- 
bourhood of Donegal: The Hall 
(Lord Francis Conyngham) ; Lough 
Eske (Thomas Brooke, Esq.). 

The monastery, founded for Fran- 
ciscan friars in 1474 by Hugh Roe 
O'Donnell, occupies a rocky position 
by the river-side. There is enough 
left to show that it was a large 
cruciform church, with probably a 
central tower. It has the remains 
of a good Dec. E. window, and also 
one in the S. transept. On the N. 
of the ch. are the cloisters, of which 
7 arches remain on the E. and 6 on 
the N. They were of the same 
height and character as those of 
Sligo (p. 70). In this monastery 
were compiled the famous * Annals 
of Donegal,' better known under the 
title of the * Annals of the Four 
Masters,' of whom Brother Michael 
O'Clery, of Eilbarron, was the chief. 

The object of this compilation was 
to detail the history of Ireland up 
to the time in wluch they lived, 
including all local events, such as 
the foundation and destruction of 
churches and castles, the deaths of 
remarkable persons, the inaugura- 
tions of kings, the battles of chiefs, 
the contests of clans, &c. ** Abook, 
consisting of 1100 quarto pages, be- 
ginning with the year of the world 
2242, and ending with the year of 
our Lord's incarnation 1616, thus 
covering the immense space of 4500 
years of a nation's history, must be 
dry and meagre of details in some, 
if not in all, parts of it. And al- 



though the learned compilers bad 
at their disposal, or within their 
reach, an immense mass of hisfaonc 
details, still the circumstances under 
which they wrote were 80 unfftvom- 
able, that they appear to have exer- 
cised a sound discretion, and one 
consistent with the economy of time 
and of their resources, when they left 
the details of our very early hiitoiT 
in the safe keeping or such ancient 
original records as from remote ages 
preserved them, and collected u 
much as they could make room for 
of the events of more modem times; 
and particularly of the eventful times 
in which they lived themselves."— 
Prof, O'Curry, 

The Protestant ch. is in the prin- 
cipal sq uare, and has a pretty spiie 
and a hideous body. A Dissentisg 
congregation have lately erected & 
chapel, which might possibly be 
admired, had the builder not com* 
mitted the unpardonable error of 
blocking up the best view of the 
old castle. 

GanveyanGes, — ^To Sligo daily; to 
Strabane daily ; to KiUybegs daily- 

Df8tonce8.-^Sligo, 39 m. ; Balhntn, 
7; BaUyshannon, 13^; Stninoriar, 
17 ; Strabane, 30 ; Barnesmore Gap, 
7 ; Lough Easke, 4i ; KillybegB,17; 
Inver, 71 ; Mount Charles, 4 ; Oarrict, 
24; Ardcura, 17}; Dunkaneely, U; 
Glenties, 17. 

Excursions, — 

1. Lough Easke. 

2. Ballintra. 

From Donegal the road now leaies 
the coast, turning inland and fol- 
lowing up the valley of the Esk. The 
mountains now assume a veiy besa- 
tiful appearance, as the road allows 
a fuU view of the ranges to the L, 
principally consisting of the Oroa^- 
gorm or Blue Stack Mountains (2219 
tt), Knockroe (2202), Groaghnageer 
(1793), all of which are a continna- 
tion of the chain which commences 
at Slieve League and Ardara. hn* 
mediately opposite is the fonnidsble 
Gap of Be^esmore, and happy i< 



LND. Baute 11. — Loughs Easke and Moume, 



89 



trayeller who gets through it on 

daj withoat the usual ac- 

ipaniment of wind and rain, or 

' as it is termed in Donegal. 

lost exquisite landscape opens out 

the L, in which the blue waters of 

Easke fill up tho hasin at the 

of the hills ; and on its banks 

the woods and groves of Lough 

';e House, the beautiful seat of 

ftooke, Esq. ; also the demesne 

AidDamona {Gt, C. Wray, Esq.). 

m island near the S. bank are 

nims of CyDonell's tower, said 

[iiaye been used by chiefis of that 

as a place of confinement. Poly- 

phegopteris and Asplenium 

ide grow near the waterfall at the 

ifl. 

Soon after quitting the neighbour- 
' of the Lough Easke, the road 
the Lowerymore Biver and 
the 6a|> of Bameamore, a 
)W mounteun pass, on either of 
ich rises abruptly Bamesmore 
91 ft), and (>oagh Gonellagh 
1724). It is supposed to be the 
el of an ancient river which 
flowed through it ** when the relative 
levels of the surrounding country 
were different from those of the 
present day; and that the ground 
which once supplied the stream has 
been lowered, and the channel not 
having been deepened with sufficient 
rapidity, the stream has forsaken it, 
and has been turned in another di- 
rection." When the day is fine and 
dear, ilie drive up to the watershed 
is very Bne, and on looking back the 
tntveller obtains an extensive view 
over Donegal and the bay ; but if the 
day is wet, the sooner he gets out of 
the pass the better. Very near the 
sumniit, 538 ft above the sea, a spot 
is pointed out where a man was hung 
in cfasBUiB, not many years ago, for a 
murder committed at this place. 

28} m. rt Lough Moume^ a small 
sheet of water, as sad and melan- 
choly as its name. At one end 
are aliffht traces of a castle, "in 
which it is supposed the Huguenot 



historian Bapin compiled his hiB- 
toTj,'*— Black, [A little before ar- 
riving at the lake a road on rt. is 
given ofi^ following the course of the 
Moume Beg river to Castle Derg, 
15 m. (Bte. 8).] 

From Lough Moume the road 
rapidly descends, following the stream 
of the Bum Daumett The views 
are extensive, but they are by no 
means equal to those that the tra- 
veller has left behind, as the cha- 
racter of the country is pastoral and 
fiax-producing, while the hills are 
much lower and monotonous in 
outline. 

34} m. BaUyhofey, a considerable 
village, adjoining the still larger one 
of Stranorlar {Inn: Queen's Arms, 
Bebecca Miller), the Biver Finn, 
which here first makes its appear- 
ance, intervening. The only build- 
ing of interest is a very handsome 
Boman Catholic ch. lately built 
Close to the town are the woods of 
Drumboe Castle (Sir 8. H. Hayes, 
Bart), and a little further S. of 
the town Tyrcallen (Marquis of 
Conyngham), Summer Hill (James 
Johnston, Esq.), and Meenglsuss, the 
seat of Viscount Lifford. 



Some very pretty scenery is to be 
met with bv following the Finn 
(abounding both in salmon and 
otters), up its stream on the N. bank 
to Fintown, or on the S. bank to 
Glenties (Bte. 13). 4 m. on S. bank 
is Glenmore, the residence of W. M. 
Style, Esq., and 7 m. on N. bank is 
Cloghan Lodge, that of Sir T. C. 
Style, to whose praiseworthy exer- 
tions the improvement, both social 
and moral, of a very large portao* 
of country is due. An ^i-vT* ,?^* 
amount of wild and usp*^® ™ 
was reclaimed, a ch. buil'* ^j ^, 
schools founded, and thj® ^ ^^^ 
dition of the peasant' ^*y» affording 
'^ ACS overlookiBg 



90 



Bauie 12. — EnnieJnUen to Ganrrick, 



Ireland. 



There is % piettr waterfiJl on the 
Finn, which is here crossed by a 
bridge connecting the two roads. 

The road now enters the hills, and 
the river assumes the character of 
a Highland stream, till the trayeller 
reaches 17 m. Fintoum, a small 
Tillage, beantifdlly sitoated on the 
banks of Longh Fmn, and under the 
steei) cUSb of Aghla (1953 ft.), and 
Soraigs (1410). Some lead-mines, 
likely to be productive, have been 
opened bere. From hence a road 
&lls into the Dunglow and Glen- 
ties road (Bte. 18). 



Stranorlar is connected with Stra- 
bane by the Finn Valley Bly., opened 
in 1863, which boasts the merit of 
being the cheapest rly. in Ireland, 
as it only cost 50002. a mile. 

88^ m. Killygordont a pleasant vil- 
lage, also on the banks of the Finn, 
contains nothing to detain the tourist. 
About 1 m. rt is a house where the 
Duke of Berwick is said to have 
passed the night in his northern 
campaign 1689. 

2 m. rt. are Mounthall (W. Young, 
Esq.\ and Monellan House ( — Delap, 
Esq.). Further on are Donaabmore (7^. 
and Houset the latter the glebe-house 
and residence of the Ir^g flEimily, 
the patrons of the living. 42 m. 
CasUe Finn was ancientiy a posses- 
sion of the O'Donells, from whose 
hands it passed in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. The Finn here becomes 
navigable for vessels of small burden. 

I>t«(ance«.— Baphoe (Bte. 18), 6 m. ; 
Gastie Derg, 7. 

At the village of Olady 44 m. the 
Finn is crosi^ as the road on 
the 1. bank keeps on to Lifibrd. 
Passing the demesne of Umey 
\A. F. Knox, Esq.), the traveller 
soon'mc^es 47^ m. Strahane (Bte. 8) 
(ITofaZTgjp's Aberoom Anns). 



EOUTB 12. 

ENNI8KILLEN TO PETTIGOE, DONE- 
GAU AND CARRICK. 

This route to Denial by the E. 
bank of Lough Erne, is not usoallj 
followed by travellers, who for the 
most part go by Bellyshannon. It 
is, however, a beautiful drive to 
Pettigoe, particularly if the tourist 
keeps the road alongside of the 
lake, and not the car-road through 
Irvmestown. For a short distance 
it runs close to the railway, diveig' 
ing at a small pool called the Bace- 
course Lake, ana approaching Loogh 
Erne at 4 m. Trony <dL On the 
rt of the road is the mound of 
Moasfield Fort. Before reaching the 
ch. a road turns off on rt to I^ i 
vinestown. At 5 m. the BalliD>'| 
mallard stream is crossed near iti 
mouth. On rt. is Biversdale (Major 
Archdall), and further on are tbe 
demesnes of Bossfad (H. M. Bichan^ 
son, Esq.). The views from this load 
are much finer than can be ohtained 
from the Ballyshannon road, a^ ^ 
embraces all the diff and hill BceneiT 
on the W. shore. The eststea too 
on this side are fine and beautift^ 
wooded, piurticularly those of C^ 
ArchdaU (Capt Archddl.) •» 
Bockfield (Oapt Irvine). ^ 

At 11 m. Litnaearriek, * ^ 
comes in fh>m Irvineslo**^ ^ 
Stromertown, 21 m. distwit 
to it is NeGom CagOe (H. HF 
Irvine, Esq.). 

15 m. Kei^ a mall plaoe <M 
river of the same name,eoBteii 
nothing wha^ "^tb* 

veller. Tl w 

get wilder, 



BaOe li.—Petttgoe. 



DDtbe 

»bmiti 

20 01 
Bed I 

Termo 
banko 



gtstb. 



obliged 
thebiBl 

eletgj 

denomi 



foe,it 



heretit 



neithe 
theali 
-Jngl 



92 



Bouie 12.^Enni8kiUen to Garrick. 



Ireland. 



Doorin and St. John's Promontories, 
on the latter of which there is a 
lighthouse, 98 ft. above high-water 
mark. 

40 m. Mountcharles, a large vil- 
lage, built on the side of a steep 
hill. Facing the sea is the Hall, 
a property belonging to the Mar- 
quis of Oonyngham, but generally 
occupied by his a^ent. Axrived at 
the top of the hill, it will be seen 
that tiie road cuts off the neck of 
Doorin Promontory, and descends 
a lon^f hill to Invert 44 m., which is 
conspicuous for a considerable dis- 
tance from its pretty ch. spire em- 
bosomed in woods. Notwithstand- 
ing the tediousness of these hilly 
roads, the tourist will rarely find the 
time hang heavy, for the views of 
the Donegal Mountains are superb. 
To his rt. he has the ranges of Blue 
Stack, Silver Hill, Benbane, and Mul- 
mosog, extending from Bamesmore 
Grap on the E. to Ardara on the W. ; 
while, in front of him is the great 
mass of Orownarad beyond Killy- 
begs, and (seen from some points) 
the distant precipices of SlieveLiagh 
or League. 

At Inver the Eanybeg Biver is 
crossed in its course from Silver Hill 
to the sea. In the woods to the rt. 
is Bonygkn, used as a fishing-lodge. 
The road again ascends and cuts off 
the St. John's Point, a singular 
narrow stretch of land that runs out 
to sea for some distance, and is 
teiminated at the extremity by a 
fixed lighthouse. 

48 m. Dunkineely, a decayed-look- 
ing village of one street, from 
which the traveller will be not loth 
to emerge. A little further on are 
the ch. and glebe-house of Eil- 
laghtee, overlooking the strand of 
M*Sweeny's Bay. This district was 
formerlypossessedby the M*Sw6enys, 
a very powerful sept, whose castle, a 
square massive tower, still exists dose 
to the sea. There is a pretty bit of 
landscape at Bruckless, where the 
Biver Corker flows past a miniature 



pier, mill, and mansion embosomed in 
trees. Grossing the next high ground, 
we descend upon the most charming 
of Umd-locked bays, on one aide 
of which, completely sheltered from 
storms, is 

54 m. KiUyhega (Ir. Gealha- 
beaga") (Bte. 13), a dean plea- 
sant litfle seaport, which, without 
any pretensions to the dignity of a 
watering-place, wiU, as feur as situa- 
tion goes, well repay a visit. (^Uotdi : 
Ooane's and Bogers' ; both comfort- 
able.) The tide comes up to the 
doors of the houses, although the 
harbour is a complete refiige, from 
its being so sheltered. At the en- 
trance to the bay is a lighthouse, and 
on the western shore are the wooded 
grounds and residence of the in- 
cumbent (Eev. — Ball), together 
with the remnants (very slight) of a 
castle and of a ch,, overgrown with 
brushwood, and not possessing any 
remarkable features. The visitor 
should inspect the schools built hy 
Mr. Murray, which are as well 
ordered as tiiey are of pretty and 
tasteful design. 

Conveyances. — Gar to Donegal and 
Garrick daily. 

Distances, — Donegal, 18 m. ; Inyer, 
10; Dunkaneely, 6; Ardara, 10; 
Glenties, 16 : Fintragh, 2 ; Kiksr, 
6i ; Garrick, 9 ; Slieve League, 12 : 
Glen, 16^; Malinmore, 17. 

The mail car leaves Killybegs for 
Garrick daily. 

The next descent brings us down 
to 6 m. Fintragh Bay, overhung by 
the block of mountain known as 
Grownarard, 1619 ft. Fintragh Honse 
is ihe residence of B. Hamilton, Esq. 
The searviews are very extensive as 
we journey along the elevated xoad, 
embracing tiie whole coast from the 
sandhiUs of Bundoran to Sligo, and 
the districts of Erris and Tyrawley. 
The limestone ranges of Benbdben 
and Truskmore are particularly con- 
spicuous. 

62 m. Ktlcar, a small vilbige on 
the dope of a hill, at the foot of 



Freland. 



Bouie l2.^Coarr%ck. 



93 



irhich IB the cL, and a biawling 
nountain torrent, fonning altogether 
i charming picture. As the road 
iscends the steep hills again, the 
geologist will notice the heaps of bog 
iion-ore, which is largely extracted 
&om this locality and taken to Teelin 
to be shipped, from whence it goes 
to Bel&st and Liverpool. The per^ 
centage of iron is not very great, but 
from its fusibility it is particularly 
adapted to fine castings. It is now 
used rather largely in me purification 
of gas. 

Again descending a wild moorland 
region, is 65} m. Carrick^ another 
highland village, situated on the 
bank of the Teelin River, and at the 
foot of the gigantic mass of Slieve 
Liagh or League, which rises to 1972 
ft, and has a very prominent and 
peculiar edge. The tourist should 
msike Garrick his head-quarters, 
at the hotel built by the late Mr. 
Conolly, M.P., and subsequently en- 
larged. Considering its outlying 
position, it is a remarkably good 
hotel. The present lessee, Mr. 
Walker, is making special efforts to 
render it a desirable sojourn for 
tourists. He provides guides, cars, 
boats, and all fELcilities lor exploring 
the glorious scenery around. Among 
these is a large-scale hand-map on 
card of the country around the hotel, 
with all the best points of view and 
other places of interest marked and 
described. Yisitors should ask for 
one of these, on the back of which is 
printed the very moderate tariff of 
the hotel, and other local informa- 
tion. 

Distances. — ^Killybeg8,9 m. ; Glen, 
6 ; Ardara by Glengeask, 14. 

The asoentiof Slieve League is by 
no means difficult. There is a pony 
load across the valley direct to the 
gommit much shorter than that de- 
scribed below, but far less interest- 
ing than the circuit by Bunglas and 
Carrigan Head, inasmuch as this 
afford a view of the unrivalled sea- 
clifis. The fatigue of this ascent 



may be oonsiderablv lightened by 
taking a car from the hotel to the 
foot of Bunglas, and then ascending 
by path to the left, and along the 
edge of the cliff. A guide is very 
desirable here, not on account of 
danger or di£Soulty, but in order 
that the tourist may not miss the 
finest points of view. 

Starting from the hotel the road 
follows the ,Glen or Teelin Biver, 
which like that at Killybegs speedily 
changes from a mountain torrent into 
a landlocked bay of great beauty. 
On the 1. bank is Boxborough, the 
residence of Bev. F. Labatt, the 
rector of Eilcar. The guide ^ould 
be told to bring the visitor first of 
all to Bunglas, by which route he 
passes Carrigan Head, a fine pro- 
montory jutting suddenly out in 
splendid clifib, which are seen to 
great perfection by this path. From 
hence is visible one of the many 
martello towers which are placed in 
regular rotation round the coast. 
At Bunglas Point a view of singular 
magnificence bursts upon you — a 
view that of its kind is probably un- 
equalled in the British Isles. The 
lofty mountain of Slieve League 
gives on the land side no promise 
of the magnificence that it presents 
from the sea, being/in fact a mural 
precipice of nearly 2000 ft. in height, 
descending to the water's edge in 
one superb escarpment — 

"around 
Whose cavemed Imso the whirlpools and the 

waves 
BuTStiDg and eddying Irresistibly, 
Rage and resound for ever." 

ShtUey, 

And not only in its height is 
it so sublime, but in the glorious 
colours which are grouped in 
masses on its face. Stains of metals, 
green, amber, gold, yellow, white, 
red, and every variety of shade 
are observed, particularly when seen 
under a bright sun, contrasting in 
a wonderful manner with the dark 
blue waters beneath. In cloudy or 



94 



Bauie 12. — EnniihiUen to Canick, 



Ibelakd. 



stormy weather this peculiarity is 
to a certaiQ degree lost, though 
other efiTects taJro its place and 
render it even more magnificent^ 
This range of sea-cliff extends with 
little variation all the way to Malin, 
though at nothing like the same 
altitude. Having feasted the eyes 
well with the beauties of the pre- 
cipices, the tourist should ascend, 
sMrting the cliffs the whole way. 
Near Sie summit the escarpment 
cuts off the land slope so suddenly 
as to leave only a Sharp edge with 
a fearful. precipice of above 1500 ft. 
on the side towards the sea, and a 
steep slope on the landward side. 
This ledge is termed the One MarCz 
Path, and is looked on by the in- 
habitants of the neighbourhood in 
the same light as the Striding Edge 
of Helvellyn or the Bwlch-y-Maen 
of Snowdon. There is a narrow 
track or ledge on the land slope a 
little below this edge, facetiously 
caUed **The OW Man's Path" by 
our guide. We chose it nevertheless, 
and recommend all tourists that are 
subject to giddiness to do the same. 
At the very summit are the remains 
of ancient oratories. The view is 
wondrous fine. Southwards is the 
whole coast of Sligo and Mayo, from 
Benbulben to the Stags of Broad- 
haven ; while further in the distance 
are faintly seen Nephin, near BalUna, 
and (it is also said) Groagh Patrick, 
at Westport. Nortiiward is a perfect 
sea of Donegal mountains, reaching 
as hi as Slieve Snaght and Arrigal, 
with all the intervening ranges 
near Ardara, Glenties, and Dunglow. 
In descending title tourist may take 
the pony road, passing down a deep 
olefi in the moimtain, at the bottom 
of which reposes a small tarn. 

A second excursion should be 
taken from Oarrick to Ardara, and 
the magnificent GUn of Qletuky 
through which the road is carried 
across the highland moors to Ar- 
dara. It is a very hilly road, over 



parts of which the tourist must leave 
the car and walk. The view from 
the highest ridge of the road ismig- 
nificent. 

A 3rd excursion should hj all 
means be made to Glen, a district 
which tourists should not &il to ex- 
plore, instead of stopping short at 
Slieve League, as most are oonteot 
to do. It is 6 m. from Carrick.' 

.At the 2nd m. a road turns off fa) 
the 1. to MaUnmore, where veiy com- 
fortable accommodation can be ob- 
tained at a farmhouse kept bj Hiffi 
Walker. The coast is very fioe, 
although not on such a grand scale u 
at Glen, a little further on. Then 
is a fixed lighthouse on Bsthlin 
O'Beime Island, 5| m. from Gam- 
gan Head. It is placed 116 ft above 
the sea. There is a coastgoaid itt- 
tion here alsa 

After traversing the high mow- 
ground the road suddenly desoeiMii 
or breaks into the Glen Valley, a 
remote highland glen of great beaiity> 
although impressed with a somevbit 
melancholy and sombre cast A 
rather large population is scattered 
up and down the glen, at the bot* 
tom of which are the ch. and villas' 
of Glen Columbkill. or the Glenrf 
St. Golumb, for it was in this retirrf 
spot that the Saint Columb particB- 
larly loved tp dwell. At a tan i> 
the road the visitor will notice u 
ancient cross in fine preserratioa, 
whidh, together with the gntiqoa' 
nan as well as legendary lore of tbe 
district, has been carefully and u^ 
ously looked after by the Bev. »• 
Griffith, the incumbent The re- 
mains which are accredited to St 
Golumb are the cross already aB^dw 
to, the house of the saint» hia bed, 
and his well, close to which an 
enormous pile of stones attests wt 
numbers of devout pilgrims. In "* 
interior of the 4 walls, said to faaT< 
been his bed, is a smooth ston^ 
'which, according to tradition, is •» 
to have been plaoed fay BtCohiBb 



Ireland. Bauie 13. — Strdbane to Carrtck or Killybeg$. 



95 



[who was blind of one eye) on the 
K>imd one^ that he might not over- 
deep himselfl Inconsequence of thici 
sacred use it is carried round the 
rillage 'with a yiew to exercising 
its miraculous powers of healing 
m cases of bad eyes. The well- 
marked path round the bed be- 
tokens the firequent pattern that is 
held here. 

A veiy curious belief exists in 
Glen, riz., that it was for a con- 
nderaUe time the hiding-place of the 
Pretender, ere he could find his way 
ont of Great Britain into another 
conntry. As has been shown by 
Mr. Griffith in the • Dublin Univer- 
nty Magazine,* the proo& of the 
itory certainly give strong reason to 
believe in its truth. A headland is 
pointed out where the prince used 
to repair each day with his servant 
to scan the offing in search of ships. 
The mountains and clifEs abound 
in renoarkable and &ntastic shapes, 
and the tourist will be amply repaid 
by a ramble of about 2 m. over 
the hills to Qlen Head, a predpioe of 
800 ft., which descends to the sea 
u Bhaip and clean as a knife. Im- 
practicable as it seems, the peasants 
think nothing of being swung down 
to collect the few bktdes of sweet 
graas that grow in the crevices. On 
the headluid above is one of ^e 
watch-towers that abound on this 
eoast As the cliffs trend to the east, 
they exhibit wonderful forms and 
positions, particularly at Tormore, 
where the rocks are pitched about as 
though the ancient giants had been 
P^&ying with them. The geologist 
^ observe the effects of sea action 
iQ a most marked manner ; instead 
of zetoraing to Glen, he should 
^p along the coast to Loughros 
% Bay, and so to Ardara (Bte. 13) 
'Inn; Coane's). The 20 m. from 
Teelin Bay to Loughros Bay is, as 
^ aa coast scenery goes, not to be 
^celled by any locality ^in Great 
Britain. 
No tooriflt stopping at Oazxick 



should fiul to make a boating excur- 
sion round the cliffs, if the weather 
permits him to do so. He should 
drive to Teelin Point or thereabouts, 
take a boat (which should be engagea 
the day before, conditionally, as re- 
gards weather), and row along Teelin 
Bay round Carrigan Head to the 
foot of the splendid precipice of 
Slieve League, where he may land 
at some caves and proceed, if time 
and weather permit, to the white 
strand of Malin Beg, passing what is 
looEilly described as a ** waterfall,** 
and may possibly be such in wet 
weather. It is impossible to exagge- 
rate the magnificence of the pano- 
rama of sea-cliff scenery presented 
in the course of this trip : it has no 
rival in Europe. The tourist who 
makes this excursion must keep his 
"weather-eye" open, for should a 
breeze spring up from the ocean, he 
may not be able to return, but have 
to hftud and lodge in the cavern, and 
be fed by means of baskets of pro- 
visions until released by a change of 
the wind, as happened to some viai- 
tors of the late Mr. GonoUy, M J". 



BOUTB 18. 

STRABANE TO LETTERKENrfY, 
GWEEDORE, DUNGLOW, ARDARA, 
Ain> KILLYBEGa 

A mail-car leaves Strabane 3 times 
daily for Letterkenny, 16^ m. Cross- 
ing the broad stream of the Foyle 
by a long and narrow bridge of 
12 arches, the traveller enters the 
little town of lAfford (Inn : Erne), 
which, although the county town, 
is so small that it seems entirely 



96 



SofUe 13. — Strahane'to Oarrick or KiUyhegs, Irelasd. 



made up of courlrhoiise and gaol, 
lifford was the scene of an obstinate 
battle in 1600, between the English 
garrison of Deny nnder Nial Garbh 
O'DonneU and the Irish under Hugh 
O'Donnell, and, though now the 
quietest of villages, was an important 
market-town in the time of James I. 
From hence the road runs over a 
hiUy open ground, pleasantly diversi- 
fied with occasional views over Stra- 
bane and the valley of the Foyle, 
while the traveller sees ahead of him 
the blue peaks of the Derryveagh 
Mountains.' 2 m. the River Deel is 
crossed, and the road passes through 
the village of Ballindrait, close to 
which are the woods of Cavanacor 
House ( — ^Humphrey, Esq.). Baphoej 
5 m., is a pleasanfly-situated little 
town, once mmous for being the seat 
of a bishopric, which was, however, 
united to IMt of Derry in 1835. A 
monastery established here by St. 
Oolumb was afterwards converted 
into a bishopric by St. Eunan in the 
llHi cent. From that time must 
be dated the commencement of the 
cathedral, a plain cruciform building, 
with a square tower of the last 
cent, which is also the date of the 
transepts added by Bishop Pooley in 
1702. The ruined episcopal residence 
stands near the cathedraL AtJ^eZ- 
tany, on the summit of a hill 2 m. 
from Raphoe, is a stone circle 150 
yds. in circumference, formed by 67 
upright stones, on the E. side of 
which is an opening formed by 2 
laigeT ones. ** The name Beltany is 
supposed to be a corruption of Baal 
tinne, ' the fire of Baal,' intimating a 
spot where that deity was particularly 
worshipped in Ireland, and having 
the same etymology in Gkielio as the 
Beltani tree burned at Midsum- 
mer." — HaU. Baphoe is well placed 
at the foot of the great range of 
Donegal Mountains, as they begin to 
decline into the lowlands, and many 
fine views may be obtained in the 
neighbourhood from Mullafin 954 ft., 
and from the Herd's Seat, which 



rises over the village of Convoy. 
Some 7 or 8 m. higher up, the Deel 
takes its rise in Lough Deel, a smalt 
lake at the summit of the Gark 
Mountain 1205 ft. The traveller 
will soon discover that he is in the 
head-quarters of the flax oountry, 
especially if it happen to be in the 
latter end of August or beginning of 
September. All the little streams 
are dammed up for the purpose of 
soaking the flax, whilst the fields are 
strewn with regularly laid bundles, 
more pleasing to the eye than the 
nose, which is offended by a fi^sh 
burst of odour every 100 yajrds. 

11^ m. a road on rt. branches off 
to the village of Martor Cuimingham, 
and soon Lough Swilly comes into 
view. As it appears from its lower 
end, it is tame and bare, although 
the hills which loom in the distance 
give promise of better scenery. 

16| m. Letterkenny (Hotd : Hegar- 
t/s — very comfortable), a pleasant 
little town of one long street, occu- 
pying the side of a hill and over- 
looking a large expanse of oountiy. 
With the exception of the ch., on 
tiie summit of the hill, the poor- 
house, and a new clock-tower, lately 
erected, Letterkenny itself contains 
nothing of interest, but it can be 
recommended as good head-quarters 
for those tourists who wish to explore 
the hill coimtry. There are some 
nice residences in the neighbourhood, 
as Ballymacool (J. B. Boyd, Esq.^ 
Gortlee (Oapt. Patterson), and Bock- 
hall (John Yandeleur Stewart, Esq.). 

Conveyances. — ^To Strabane daily. 
To Dun&naghy daily. To London- 
derry daily. 

Distances, — Strabane, 16| m. ; Dun- 
fimaghy, 22; Gweedore, 22; Dun- 
glow, 30 ; Derryveagh, 174 ; Kilmacre- 
nan, 7^; Ohurchtown, 9; Bathmel- 
ton, 7 ; Biaphoe, 8^ ; Doochaiiy Bridge, 
22. 

Excursions, — 

1. Eilmacrenan. 

2. Gartan Lough. 



Ireland. 



Botde 13. — Kilmacrean. 



97 



From Letterkeimy the road tra- 
verses an open hilly oountiy, di- 
versified with distant yiews of hill, 
river, and lake. 



At 20^ m. a road on rt. is given 
off to M^ord, 6^ m., passing 2^ m. 
rt. BaUyarr House, the seat of Ix)rd 
George Hill, to whom the whole dis- 
trict which the traveller is ahout to 
visit is under deep obligations. 

Crossing a small river at Drum- 
man Bridge, another road branches 
off to rt. and skirts Lough Fern, a 
sheet of water about 1^ m. in length, 
on the E. side of which it rises to 
500 ft, and then descends to Milford 
(Rte. 14), a small village, interest- 
ing only for its proximity to the 
beautifiii scenery of Mulroy Bay, and 
DOW painfully associated with the 
assassination of the Earl of Leitrim, 
1878. 



24 m. Kilmacrenan is very 
prettily situated in a mountain val- 
ley, through which the Lannan 
Kiver rushes down in picturesque 
stream. As the road descends into 
the village, the tourist gets distant 
views on rt of Lough Fern, and, 
considerably beyond it, the indented 
smmmts of the Glenalla Mountains, 
which intervene between it and 
Lough Swilly ; on rt are the ruins of 
Kilmacrenan Abbey, founded by St. 
Columb, consisting of a slender and 
rather graceful tower, lighted by 
pointed windows in the top stage, 
besides scanty remains of other build- 
ings surrounded by an enclosure. 
The parish ch. is said to have been 
built on the site of a Franciscan 
monastery, and has over the door 
the sculptured head of an abbot 
taken from the abbey. 

Not &r from the village is the 
^k of Dom, *• on which tiie O'Do- 
nells were always inaugurated by 
priests whom they regarded as de- 
scended from St Columb."— ietcM. 

[Ireidnd.] 



Distances. — Dunfanaghy, 14J m. ; 
Letterkenny, 7J; Milford, 5; Eath- 
melton, 6^ ; Lough Salt, 5. 

At the junction of the road to 
Dun&naghy the road crosses the 
Largy river, and traverses a wild 
uninhabited district round which 
groups of rugged hills soon begin to 
close. Winding up a long and tedious 
hill, the traveller is well repaid by 
a delicious distant view of the blue 
waters of Gartan Lottgh, which, with 
its wooded banks, breaks on the eye 
with peculiar pleasure, after the 
brown and monotonous hill-sides. 



At 29} m. a moorland road 
branches off to Gartan Lough and 
Church Hill, 4 m. What appears 
from the road to be one lake is 
really 2 sheets of water, the upper 
one. Lough Agibbon, being separated 
by a narrow neck of land from Lough 
Gartan, on the E. shore of which is 
Bellville, a seat of J. Stewart, Esq. 
Trollius EuropsBUS flourishes on these 
lakes. 

On the side of the upper lake is a 
ruined chapel, still used as the burial- 
place of the O'Donells. It was built 
on the spot where St. Colimib is said 
to have been bom in 521. His name 
was originally Crimthan, afterwards 
changed to Columb, from the sim- 
plici^ of his disposition (Columba), 
a dove. " He was of royal extraction, 
being, by the paternal side, descended 
(through Conall Gulban) from Niall, 
while his mother Athena was of an 
illustrious house of Leinster." 

From hence the traveller can 
return by a different road to Letter- 
kenny, 9 m., descending into the 
valley of the Swilly at Foxhall (J. 
Chambers, Esq.), passing afterwards 
the Glebe of Doon (Rev. Dr. Kings- 
mill). Rockhill (J. V. Stewart, Esq.), 
and Ballymacool (J. B. Boyd, Esq.), 
the last 2 demesnes lying on opposite 
banks of the river. 



98 



BoiUe 13. — Sirabane to Carrick iw Killyhegs. Ireland. 



The scenery from this point to 
Glenveagh resembles much of the 
Scottish Highlands — large extensive 
moors shut in on all sides by hills, 
some of them rising to a considerable 
height. For some distance it would 
appear that the way lies' up a broad 
depression running N. and S., but 
a sudden turn of the road reveals 
the singular summit of Muckish 
2197 ft., which, from its precipitous 
escarpment, seems higher than it really 
is. The traveller is now fairly 
amidst the mountain ranges, which, 
seen when the mist is rising, or the 
cloud shadows floating gently by, are 
charming, but which, when overtaJken 
by Donegal " Smirr," he will scarcely 
appreciate, for there is not a wilder 
or bleaker road in Great Britain, or 
one so open to storms. 

The geological composition of the 
mountains is granite, having a gneis- 
sic structure, the quartz lodes of 
which occasionally gleam with a 
brightness all the more dazzling 
from the contrast with the dark 
masses. 

32 m. the Owencarrow river is 
crossed as it enters Lough Beagh or 
Veagh. A little further on there is a 
very charming glimpse of the lake, 
a long narrow piece of water entirely 
shut in by mountains, which, espe- 
cially at the upper end, descend pre- 
cipitously to the very brink. On the 
1. bank, looking downwards, are Al- 
tachoastia (1737 ft.), and Kinnaveagh 
(1270), and on the opposite side is 
Keamnacally (1220), a portion of 
the great range of the Derryveagh 
Mountains, the highest point of 
which is Dooish •(2147). It would 
be well for the tourist to consult 
his map while journeying down 
this pass, in order that ne may 
understand the physical arrange- 
ment of tiiis part of Donegal. It 
appears that the country between 
Ix>ugh Swilly and the sea is traversed 
by several ranges of hills all running 
in nearly the same direction, viz. from 
N.E. to S.W. Conmiencing near 



Lough Swilly, we have the Gleoalla 
hills, which are separated by the 
vaUey of the Lannan from those 
which overlook and are parallel to 
Gartan Lough. Westward of this 
lake are the Glendowan Monntains, 
intervening between it and Glen- 
veagh. Then come the Denyvea^h 
Mountains just spoken of, divided by 
a considerable mountain valley from 
the Arrigal group, which abruptly 
slope towards the sea. There are, 
therefore, a succession of ranges, 
with more or less narrow glens be- 
tween, all having the same definite 
arrangement — a feature which will 
enable the traveller to understand 
his whereabouts with great ease. 



Lough Beagh (or Veagh,) and the 
Poisoned Glen. 

A road turning off by the police 
barracks runs down the glen aloDS 
the bank of the lake to Glenveagk 
the castellated mountain residence 
of J. Adair, Esq., who allows fM 
passage to the tourist over his pro- 
perty. Indeed, one of the in«t 
splendid pedestriim excnrsioDS in 
Ireland is to be found in Glenveagh, 
passing through it to the PoisontJ 
Glen. There is a good road as ftf 
as the castle, and a sort of road co- 
ward, over the pass, which a car 
might possibly traverse ; but we re- 
commend the tourist to take his car 
only to the castle, or, at farthest, to 
Glenbeagh cottage, and then proceed 
on foot or by pony. The descent by 
the Poisoned Glen is a mountaineer- 
ing excursion demanding some pre- 
caution in order to strike the risrbt 
I course acroi'S the moorland at tho 
top of the pass. It is easy to mi^ 
the Glen altogether, and oome upon 
the steep slope of the Derryveugh 
\ niountains, which walls in the valley 
, lying between them and the slope of 
j Errigal. In such case, the toorihi 
should descend by the best track he 
lean find to the main rood, which 



Ireland. 



Boute 13. — Olen Veagh. 



99 



rons round the foot of Errigal, skirts 
Liough Nacang, and proceeds to the 
Gweedore Hutel, the hospitalities of 
which will be fully appreciated after 
such an adventure. If successful 
in hitting the head of the Poisoned 
Glen, he will descend, hy a very 
steep incline, to Dunlewy, easily re- 
cognised from ahove hy its lake and 
church. Following the direction of 
the torrent down file Glen, he will 
pass Dnnlewy and enter the main- 
road, above-named, hy a hranch road 
hreaMng into it a little way beyond 
Dunlewy Church. In any case, 
wliether he descends by the Glen or 
otherwise, the church of Dunlewy is 
a good landmark, towards which he 
should steer. Novices in mountain 
climbing should take a guide for this 
grand excursion: none should miss 
it, if the weather is favourable. 

Assuming, as a matter of course, 
that every tourist in this region will 
make head-quarters at Lord George , 
Hill's Gweedore Hotel, the easiest 
way to do Lough Beagh and the 
Poisoned Glen is to take car from 
the hotel, drive by the road above- 
named, passing along the wild valley 
of the Oalabber (presently described 
in the continuation of the main 
route, but in opposite course), turn- 
ing off at Oalabber bridge to the 
lower end of Lough Beagh. This 
drive is about 12 English m. En- 
quire at the Post-office or police- 
barracks, if a guide is required. Then 
drive on to the castle, about 3 m. 
{briber, and send back the car to 
Ktnm to Dunlewy, which, after 
resting the horse, it will reach by 
about the time the tourist has found 
Ids way down the glen on foot. The 
tame may be done on the way from 
Letterkenny to Gweedore. From 
the castle to top of ridge 1} hr. ; 
across the moorland 1} hr. more, 
and ^ hr. to descend the glen to Dim- 
lewy. Dunlewy to Gweedore Hotel 
by road 5 m. Prom Letterkenny to 
Gweedore Hotel vi& Church Hill, 
lioagh Gartan, Lough Beagh, the 



Poisoned Glen and Dunlewy, is a 
heavy day's walk for stout pedes- 
trians, for which 12 hrs. should be 
allowed, including time for a mid- 
day rest and luncheon dl freeeo, 
which should be carried from Letter- 
kenny. Taking into consideration 
the climb up Glen Beagh and the 
steep descent of the Poisoned Glen, 
it is about equivalent to a 30 miles* 
walk. All who can manage this 
should do it. Lough Beagh (or 
Veagh) is regarded by many — the 
writer among the number — as the 
finest lake in L'eland as regards 
scenery. The lower part approaches 
Killamey in beauty, and the upper 
part surpasses it in grandeur. The 
mountains there rise directly from 
the water's edge to a height of 
1200 ft, with just enough shtpe to 
enable them to be covered with Al- 
pine vegetation. It is stated that 
the golden eagle still builds its nest 
there, but we do not vouch for this. 
The scenery at the wateifall of 
Astellion is particularly striking. 
If the excursionist does not wiSi 
to proceed to Gweedore by the 
Poisoned Glen, he may climb the 
pass and proceed to Doocharry 
Bridge, where he should pre- 
viously order a car to meet him 
to take him either to Dunglow or 
Glenties, in whichever direction he 
may be going. This precaution is 
necessary, as there is no inn or any 
accommodation at Doocharry Bridge. 
The distance from Owencarrow is 
15 m. 



Quitting the valley of Glen 
Veagh, the road winds round the 
base of Kingarrow (1068 ft.), and 
turns to the 1. to enter the last 
mountain valley. [A road straight 
on passes immediately under MucMsh 
at the Gap, and runs to Cross- 
roads 7 m.] This is the valley of 
the Calahber, which joins the Owen- 
carrow, and is singularly wild and 
desolate. On the rt. rises Muckiah 

H 2 



100 Boute 13. — Strahane to Carricic or Killyhegs, Ieeliiid. 



(" the pig's back "), remarkable for its 
peculiar shape and fine escarpment ; 
next to it are Grocknalaragagh 
(1554 ft.), Aghla Beg (1860). and 
Aghla More (1916), while on L is 
the Dooish range. The botanist will 
find on Muckish, Saxifraga serrata- 
folia and Melampyrum pratense. 
Peering loftily over the very end 
of the valley is the singular and 
beautiful summit of Arrigal (2466 
ft.), with its glistening seams of 
quartz. As the traveller ascends 
towards the watershed, he gains 
charming peeps of Glen Lough in 
the foreground, with Mulroy Bay in 
the distance, while near the summit- 
level the attention is arrested on the 
rt. by AUan Lough, a dark savage- 
looking tarn in a deep gap between 
Aghla More and Arrigal, both of 
which mountains slope down to its 
banks with great rapidity. At 37 J m. 
the watershed is gained, and a view 
opens up which is hardly to be sur- 
passed in Great Britain. The road 
winds by the side of a very deep 
valley, through which the Owen- 
wee runs. On the rt. is Arrigal 
Mountain^ rising up with startling 
abruptness, and presenting firom this 
side the regular cone that makes it 
so conspicuous among its brethren. 
Towards the summit, indeed, it pre- 
serves its conical shape so fsir as 
scarcely to allow room for a per- 
son to lie across it. On the 1. is a 
grand amphitheatre of mountains, 
heaped together in irregular masses 
and terminating in the .lofty, 
rounded head of Slievesnacht (**the 
Hill of Snow," 2240 ft.). A deep 
" corrie," known by the name of the 
Poisoned Glen, runs up in a cul-de- 
sac into the very heart of the moun- 
tains, guarded by steep precipices, 
down which a small stream glances 
on its way to join the Devlin River 
just before it &ll8 into Buvlewy 
Lake, which, together with Lough 
JS!a.cung, forms a sheet of water 4 m. 
in length, filling up the valley in 
such a manner as to appear more like 



an arm of the sea than a firesh-vater 
lake. On the opposite bank of Loogh 
Dunlewy is Dunlewy House, perched 
upon a knoll over the lake, and sur- 
rounded by woods. The situation 
is so exquisitely beautifal, that it 
is a pity that the intentions of the 
former proprietor, Mrs. BusseU, to re 
build the mansion, were not canied 
out, and a building more in character 
with the scenery substituted for the 
present one. At the head of the lake 
is a pretty ch., built of white marble 
quarried in the vicinity, with glebe 
house, schools, and other pleasant 
tokens of civilization. This charming 
route deserves to be more Imown, 
for there is scarcely any scenery in 
Ireland that surpasses it. From 
hence the road keeps rapidly dovn 
the side of Arrigal until it reacbt« 
the Clady River, the outlet of the 
lakes, and keeps along its bank to 

45 J m. Gvjeedore, where the traTel- 
ler will find a comfortable and well- 
managed hotel (the *'Lord Georse 
Hill"), fix)m whence he can make 
excursions through this picturesque 
district. The name of Lord George 
Hill, the proprietor of the estate, 
is so thoroughly identified with 
that of Gweedore, that it will nut 
be amiss to detaU a few &cts con- 
cerning him. He first settled in this 
part of the country in 1838. pu> 
chasing 23,000 acres in the parish of 
Tullaghobegly, which he found in a 
state of distress and want so great that 
it became the subject of a parliament* 
ary inquiry. Although there appeoivJ 
to have been a considerahle amount 
of exaggeration in the statement 
made, enough remained to show that 
famine, pestilence, andignorance were 
lamentably prevalent The prospects 
of the lantUord were &r from en- 
couraging, on account of the sornr 
nature of the ground, the aeveritj' o( 
the climate, t£e difficulty of collect- 
ing his rent, but, more than all 
the extraordinary though miseiabW 
system of Rundale, which was uni* 



Ireland. 



Boute 13. — Gweedore. 



101 



yersal through the disftrict. By this 
arrangement a parcel of land was 
divided and subdivided into an in- 
credible number of small holdings, 
in which the tenant very likely held 
his proportion or share in 30 or 40 
different places, which had no fences 
or walls whatever to mark them. The 
utter confusion and hopelessness of 
each tenant being able to know his 
own land, much more to plant or 
look after it, may well be imagined. 
And not only to land was this system 
applied, but also to more portable 
property. **In an adjacent island, 
3 men were concerned in one horse ; 
but the poor brute was rendered use- 
less, as the unfortunate foot of the 
Bupemumeiary long remained unshod, 
none of Hiem being willing to ac- 
knowledge its dependency, and ac- 
cordingly it became quite lame. 
There were many rows on the 
subject ; at length one of the * Com- 
pany' came to the mainland and 
called on a magistrate for advice, 
stating that the animal was entirely 
useless now ; that he had not only kept 
up decently his one hoof at his own 
expense, but had shod this 4th foot 
twice to boot" — Facts from Gvoeedore, 
With much perseverance and many 
struggles. Lord George Hill gradually 
changed the face of things. Though 
not without encountering a feari'ul 
amount of prejudice and opposition, 
he overcame and altered the Kundale 
system, improved the land, built 
schools, a ch., and a large store at 
Bunb^, made roads, established a 
post-office, and, what is perhaps of 
more importance to the tourist, an 
hotel, which is comfortable, well- 
managed, and reasonable. There is 
a fixed rate of charges, open to 
the inspection of visitors. His lord- 
i^hip takes a direct and personar 
interest in the good management of 
the hotel, and in the comfort of the 
tourists who visit it, frequently stop- 
ping at the house, dining and spend- 
ing the evening with the guests. 
TouriBts who hare been at Gweedore 



on such occasions have seen, in his 
unafiected geniality and kindliness 
of disposition and courtesy to every- 
body, the secret of his success in 
solving the great Irish problem of im- 
proving an estate hampered by old 
and vicious customs and peasant'pre- 
judices, and how the landlord has 
simultaneously won the warm affec- 
tion and sincere respect of all his 
tenantry. This is a capital place 
both for the fisherman and the gene- 
ral visitor ; the latter should by all 
means make an excursion to ArrigaXt 
taking a car to the foot of the moun- 
tain, which can be ascended in about 
2 hrs. ** Midway up there is an im- 
mense belt of broken stones, im- 
relieved by a vestige of vegetation. 
The mountain narrows towards the 
top to a mere rugged path of a few 
inches in width, with an awful abyss 
on either side." This narrow ridge 
connects the two conical summits 
which form so characteristic a fea- 
ture of the mountain. The ascent 
is easy and verv safe, though rather 
steep, up to this ^^ one man's path," 
along which is rather a giddying 
walk, though less so than the '^ one 
man's path " of Slieve League which 
it resembles. The view from the 
summit is magnificent, extending 
over a perfect sea of mountains, as 
&r as Knocklayde, near Ballycastle, 
in the county Antrim, and Benbul- 
ben and Bengore near Sligo, while 
the whole coa^ for miles lies at one's 
feet The fishing on the Clady and 
the fresh-water loughs is very good. 
If tolerably late in the season he 
will get sea-trout and some salmon ; 
** almost any files will do, something 
with red or black hackle, and a mix- 
ture with hare's ear in it." 

The geology of Donegal consists 
mmnly of gneiss and mica-slate, tra- 
versed in a N.E. direction by an axis 
of granite, containing the mineral 
called oligodase, whose occurrence in 
Great Britain has been lately noticed. 
The investigations of Prof. Haugh- 
ton and Mr. Scott show a close reia- 



102 Boute 13. — Strdbane to Carrick or KiUyhegs. Ireland. 



tlon between the granites of Norway 
and Donegal. 

Distances, — Duuglow, 13 hl ; Dnn- 
fonaghy, 17 ; Bunbeg, 4 ; Dunlewy, 4 ; 
Cross Roads, 10 ; Magheraclogher, 5. 

Conveyartces. — A mail-car daily to 
Duntanaghy and Letterkenny. 

Excursions,-^ 

1. Arrigal. 

2. Dunlewy and Slieve Snagbt 

3. Bunbeg. 

From Gweedore to Carrick is a 
long day's drive — about 12 hours, 
with but one poor little hottl be- 
tween. Luncheon should be carried. 
Glenties, 32 m., is the most that can 
be doQb by one horse ; a fresh and 
strong one is needed for this. An- 
other iiorsti and car can be obtained 
there. On this and similar matters 
the touiist should consult the mana- 
ger uf tlie Gweedore Hotel, and the 
tables of local fares and distances 
wliich are there supplied for his 
guidance. The road lies through a 
wUd and desolate district, broken 
here and there by a few scattered 
hamlets with their little patches of 
green conspicuous in the grey moun- 
tain scenery. Inland the lolly ranges 
occasionally peer over the moorlands, 
while seaward the view is broken by 
numberless inlets and creeks, beyond 
which the breakers are seen dashing 
over the cliffs of the numerous islands 
that dot the coast in such profusion 
in this district, which is known as 
the Rosses. The principal of these 
islands, generally inhabited for a 
portion of the year only, are Inish- 
tree, Owey, Gula, and Cruit. 

At 48^ m. the Choeedore River is 
crossed at a spot where a combina- 
tion of rock and waterMl offers 
charming scenery ; and at 51 1 m. is 
the creek of the Anagarry stream^ en- 
livened liy a police-barrack. On tlie 
coast at Mulladergh, near Anagarry, 
is a rock known as Spanish Rock, from 
the occurrence of a wreck ofa Spanish 
vessel, supposed to have belonged to 
the Armada. Within the memory of 



inhabitants of the parish, a number of 
well-finished brass guns were fished 
up, but unfortunately got into the 
hands of some travelling tinkers, by 
whose advice they were speedily 
broken up and sold to themselves, of 
course at a fitbulous profit 



56 m. rt. a road branches off to 
Roshin Lodge, the residence of Mrs. 
Forster. Close off the coast is i2u/- 
larul Island, where, during the Loni 
Lieutenancy of the Duke of Bot- 
land in 1785, 40,000Z. was expended 
in making a military station and 
general emporium for this part of the 
country. The sand has now ahn&^t 
entirely buried the costly enterpriiie 
in oblivion. At Burton Port, near 
Roshin, the Marquis of Conyngham. 
the proprietor of this estate, had 
built a large grain-store. 

A conspicuous feature in this 
scenery is Aran Island, which most 
not be confounded with those of 
the same name off the coast of 
Gralway. On its north-western ex- 
tremity is a lighthouse 75 ft. high. 
at 233 ft. above the sea, visible U* 
miles. The island is of considerable 
size, but contains nothing of intere^:- 
save some fine cliff and cave scenery. 

2 m. N. of Burton Port is the Im*- 
lated ruin of Dunglow Castle, after- 
wards called Castle Port 



58 m. Dunglow, a dreary-lookin^^ 
village on the side of a hill which 
rises rather sharply from the water's 
side. The inn is very poor ; but » 
car can be obtained. Between 3 and 
4 m. S.\V. of Dunglow is the heail- 
land of Crohy, which the tourist 
should visit; for, though it is no 
great height (800 ft\ it affords an 
admirable and curious view om 
the district of Templecrone, with i^^ 
numberless lakes and inlets. On the 
coast to the S.W. overloddng Gwei- 



Ireland. 



Boute 13. — Dunglow, 



103 



barra Bay is a edngular landslip, called 
by the mhabitants " Tholla Bristha " 
(l»x)ken earth), "The rocks seem 
to have been shaken and shivered to 
pieces — in fact, macadamized on a pro- 
digious scale, and present an awfully 
shattered appearance. The chasm 
varies in its dimensions, the greatest 
gash being 12 ft. wide above and 
upwards of 25 deep : at some places 
the edges accurately correspond and 
are serrated.'* — Donegal Tourist. 
There are also numerous caves and 
natural arches all round this bit 
of coast. In the open loughs near 
Dunglow are quantities of fine yellow 
trout rising up to 5 lbs. The best 
sport is found in the Meeiunore 
Lough, 2 m. to the N.W., near the 
old barracks. Wild fowl are abund- 
ant, and seal shooting to be had. 
At Lough Anure, 4 m. N.E., there 
is work for the geologist. "The 
environs consist of mica-slate with 
coarse granular dolomite : on one 
spot wiH be found basilar idiocrase 
and epidote crystallized in 6-slded 
prisms, with common garnet of a 
reddish-brown colour." — Giesecke. 
The whole of tliis district displays 
the action of ancient glaciers. It 
abounds in eroded lake-basins and 
estuary troughs, rounded knobs of 
rock, and moraioe materials. 

Distances. — Letterkenny, 36 m. ; 
Doocharry Bridge, 8 ; Glenties, 18 ; 
Gweedore, 13. 

For the next 7 or 8 m. the way 

lies through an untameably wild 

country ,'but with such constant and 

shifting panoramas of mountains that 

the attention is never fatigued. The 

ranges, at the base of which the road 

is carried, are those of the Crohy 

hills, with their nimierous shoulders 

and outliers. Farther back are the 

Dunlewy Mountains, ISlievesnacht, 

Crockatarrive, Arrigal, and, as we 

get further S., the Glendowan and 

Derryveagh chains. In fact, if the 

weather is fine — and it all depends 

on that— there is scarce such another 

mountain view in the kingdom. 67 m. 



at the brow of a steep hill, the tra- 
veller all at once looks over the deep 
glen of the Gweeborra river and up 
the Owenwee, until it is lost in the 
heights of the Glendowan Mountains. 
A road runs up the pass, through 
Derryveagh and emerges at Glen- 
veagh Bridge. The view, as the 
tourist descends the zigzag road, 
is of a very high order, and assumes 
an additional charm in contrast with 
the dreary moor that he has been tra- 
versing. The Gweebarra is crossed at 
Doocharry Bridge, where there aite a 
police-barrack and a fishing-station, 
but no inn, wliich is a pity, for the 
stages are long and fatiguing, and the 
scenery in the neighbourhood would 
be quite sufficient to attract visitors. 
The Gweebarra is a fine salmon 
fishery, and belongs to Mr. Daniel 
of Donegal. The distance from Doo- 
charry to Glenveagh Bridge is 11 nu 
A road runs across the hills to join 
the Fintown road, but a new on© 
keeping along the S. bank of the 
Gweebarra, which soon opens into a 
noble estuary, is easier and more 
generally followed. In about 3 m. 
it leaves the river and ascends the 
hills again, joining the Fintown and 
Donegal road at or near the 74th m. 
Near this point a short road jfrom 
Dunglow tails in, but it is im- 
practicable for cars, on account of 
the necessity of crossing the Gwee- 
barra at Ballynacarrick Ferry. There 
is a fine view, looking back over 
Crohy headland and the country 
toward Dunglow, while an equally 
fine one opens forward over the ranges 
of hills that intervene between Sie 
traveller and Donegal. In front of 
him, although, from the turnings of 
the road, it is difficult to keep one s 
bearings, are Knockrawer (1475 ft.), 
Aghla(1953), and Scraigs (1406), at 
the foot of which lie tlie mountain 
lough of Finn and the village of Fin- 
town (Rte. 11), in which district some 
lead-mines are now beiug worked. 
From the junction of the 2 roads the 
distance to Fintown is 6 m., and to 



104 Boute 13. — Strdbane to CarricJc or Kittyhegs, Ireland. 



Stranorlar 22 m. The watershed has 
now been reached, and the road 
rapidly descends a broad mountain 
Ysde to 

77 m. Glentiea (Irm: Devitt's), a 
small town, the situation of which, 
at the nimierous converging glens, 
is its best point It has a grand- 
looking union workhouse, which 
adds much to the distant beauty 
of the place. Indeed, all the work- 
houses in Ireland are, as a rule, ex- 
ternally attractive in architecture. 
They were designed by George 
Wilkinson, Esq., formerly architect 
to the Irish Poor-lAw Commission- 
ers. Good fishing is to be ob- 
tained here either in the Shallogan 
Biver, down whose vale we have 
been descending, or the Owenea, 
which rises in Lough Ea, a tarn 
some 7 m. in the moimtains to the 
W. It is preserved by Lord Mount- 
charles and CoL Whyte. ** The angler 
in the latter river wHl have sport if 
he is on at the time of a spate, but, 
as it rises and falls very quickly, it 
would be hardly worth his while to 
go there on a chiuice." 

Distances.— ArdBiX^ 6 m. ; Naran, 
8J ; Doocharry, 10 ; Dunglow by the 
ferry, 14 ; Killybegs, 14 ; Donegal, 18. 



Detour to Dunmore Head. 

If the tourist is not pressed for 
time, he may go on to Ardara by 
Naran, instead of by the direct road. 
For the first few miles the way lies 
at the foot of the hills, affording fine 
views of Gweebarra Bay. 8J m. 
Naran, is a primitive littie fii^ng- 
village, pleasantly situated opposite 
the island of Inishkeel, on which the 
antiquary will find a couple of ruined 
churches. The hills which rise just 
behind tiie village should be ascended 
for the sake of &e magnificent view, 
particuWly in the direction of Ar- 
dara, where the coast-scenery of the 



cliffs is of the highest order. The 
whole of the promontory between 
Naran and Ardara is worth exploring 
for the sake of the remains. On 
Dunmore Hill, a headland 1 m. to 
the W., there are 10 old forts. "It 
was probably the grand signal-station, 
so Ihat a signal made there would 
alarm the rest" To the S. of Naran 
is Lough Dooti, in which there is an 
island, containing the ** Bawan," a 
round fort a massive circular build- 
ing, which occupies the whole of the 
area. In former years, before the lake 
was partially drained, it appeared as 
if it was actually built out of the 
water. Close by is Lou^h Birro^ 
on which is another similar remam. 
About 1 m. to tiie S.W. is KiUoom 
Lough, on the banks of which is 
Eden House, the residence of 6. 
Hamilton, Esq. A rather large island 
rises from the centre, on which are 
the scanty ruins of a castle belonging 
to the O'Boyles. From Naran to 
Ardara the (ustance is 7 m. About 
half-way at Eilclooney there ifi a 
cromledi. 



The direct road from Glenties is 
carried over a more level country 
than we have hitherto been travers- 
ing. [At 79 m. L a road is given 
off to Donegal, which fsills into 
the Killybegs and Donegal route 
between Inver Bridge and Mount- 
charles (Rte. 9).] Directly after- 
wards it runs alongside of the Owen- 
tocker river, which rises amongst 
the heights of Binbane (1493 ft., 
and fcdls into an inlet of the sea 
QJLose by 

83 m. Ardara (pronounced with 
the accent on the last syllabled 
Hotel: Coane's, — a stupid little 
town, with nothing whatever of in- 
terest save its extremely pretty situa- 
tion, at the wooded base of steeply 
escarped hills. A pedestrian who is 
not particular about his accommoda- 
tion will find it a very good starting- 



Creland. MotUe 14. — Londonderry to Crweedore, 

point fiom whence to explore the 
pi^rid beauti^ of the coast round by 
[x>righro8, Tormore, and Glen (Rte. 
12). From the peculiarity of the 
dtuation of Ardara all the roads that 
esui out of it— viz. to Inver, Killy- 
>egs, and Carrick — are carried through 
K> many gaps in the hills, the finest 
>!' them being that which goes 
fcttrough the Pass of Glengeask, one 
^f the wildest and steepest glens in 
tlie district, in which the highest 
point of the road (a very bad one) is 
iboiit 1000 a Close to the town is 
Woodhill, the residence of li^jor Nes- 

ZHstances. — Carrick, 13 m.; 6ien, 
5 by road, but by coast about 17; 
iillybegs, 10 ; Inver, 10. 

The drive from Ardara to the very 
[esirable quarters at Carrick through 
rleneask has already been described 
Rte 12). If the tourist is late, or 
cx> much fieitigued for the walk up 
he stiff hill to the summit of the 
;len, he may drive to Eillybegs and 
roceed by mail or private car from 
bence to Carrick on the following 
lomin^. In this case he traverses 
wild mountain road, passing between 
iie heig^hts of Altnandewon (1652 
t.), and Mulmosog (1157). 87 m. 1. is 
lulmosog House. Soon afterwards 
be watershed is reached, and the 
oad descends the valley of the Oily 
tver to 93 m. Killybegs. Hotels: 
U>ger8's, Coane's ; hoih. comfortable. 



105 



ROUTE 14. 

LONDONDERRY TO GWEEDORE, 
TUBOUGH DUNFANAGHY. 

The most direct route lies through 
Letterkenny, from whence a car starts 
for Dun&naghy and Gweedore every 
morning ; but as the finest scenery of 
this district principcdly lies on the 
coast, it wiD be better for the tourist 
to proceed to Bathmelton, to which 
there are 3 ways of going. 



i. The road from Londonderry fol- 
lows the 1. bank of the Foyle, passing 
Foyle Hill, at which point it branches 
off to the rt., skirting a range of high 
ground, of which Greenan Hill is the 
most elevated point. 

6 m. rt. are Portlough, a small 
tarn, with an island and a ruined 
tower, and Castle Forward (T. Fergu- 
son, Esq.), situated at the comer of 
Blanket Nook, a piU given oflf by 
Lough Swilly, which is crossed by a 
ferry as it begins to narrow at Fort 
Stewart Ferry. On the opposite bank 
are the seats of Fort Stewart (Sir 
James Stewart, Bai-t.) and Shellfield 
(N. Stewart, Esq.). 

13 m. Bathmelton (JntM: Brown's; 
Coyle's). 



ii. Should the tmveller prefer going 
roimd all the way by the road, he 
will turn off to the 1. at Newtown 
Cimingham, and follow the E. bank 
of the Swilly Eiver to 

12^ m. the village of Manor Cun- 
ingham. 

18 m. Letterkenny {Hotel : Hegar- 
iy's, — comfortable), Ete. 13, 



106 



Boute 14. — Londonderry to Gtoeedore. Ireland. 



The load from hence to Bathmelton 
is very pretty, passing 1. Gortlee 
(T. Patterson, Esq.); rt. Barn Hill 
(Rev. J. Irwin), Castle Wray (Capt. 
Mansfield), and Castle Grove (6. 
Wood, Esq.). 

Leaving on 1. the Glebe House, 
the tourist reaches 

26 m. Bathmelton. 



As the greater portion of the route 
from Letterkenny is over elevated 
ground, the traveller gets beautiful 
views of the hills in the neighbour- 
hood of Inch and Buncrana, on the 
opposite side of the Lough. Bath- 
melton is prettily situated on the Lan- 
nan, a picturesque moimtain stream 
that flows past Kilmacrenan into 
Lough Fern, emerging from it under 
the Stone name, only a few yards from 
its point of entrance. Like the Bann, 
it was at one time famous for its 
pearls. 

The principsd objects of interest near 
Bathmelton are the ivy-covered ruins of 
Fort Stewart, built at the commence- 
ment of the 17th cent. ; the demesne 
of Fort Stewart (Sir J. Stewart, Bart. ) 
fiicing the Ferry ; and a little higher 
up, the ruins of the monastery of 
Killydonneli, a Franciscan house, 
founded in the 16th cent, by an 
O'Donnell. By an inquisition made 
by James I., it was found that the 
revenues amounted to the magnificent 
sum of 88. There is a legend about 
the bell of the Friary of Killydon- 
neli, to the efiect that it was carried 
off by some niamuders from Tyrone, 
who embarked on the Lough with 
the bell in their vessel. A storm 
arose, and the sacrilegious robbers 
were drowned ; to commemorate 
which act of retributive justice, tlie 
bell is heard to ring once every 7 
years at midnight. A legend with a 
similar finale is prevalent at Tintagel 
on the Coniish coast. 



The 3rd route to Bathmelton is 
by rail from Derry to Fahan and by 
steamers across to Bathmullan, and 
mail car to Bathmelton (see below). 
A steamer sometimes runs directly up 
the Ijough to Bathmelton. 

From Bathmelton the tourist nay 
proceed to Kilmacrenan, and ther^ 
catch the car for Dunfanaghy, o^ 
proceed by Gartan Lough to Dnn^ 
lewy. The road to Kilmacrenan is 
highly picturesque, and follows the 
rapid mountain stream of the Lac- 
nan, which is crossed at Tullyhall. 
near Ciaragh (Mrs. Watt) and Balljj 
arr, the seat of Lord George Hill. 



Distances from Bathmelton. — Let^ 
terkenny, 8 m. ; Derry, 13 ; Fort Stewj 
art Ferry, 3 ; Bathmullan, 6J ; KU 
macrenan, 6^ ; Milford, 4 ; KiUy] 
donneU, 4. 

Excursions.— 

1. Bathmullan. 

2. Milford. 

3. Kilmacrenan. 

The road to Bathmullan nin^ 
alongside the estuary of the Jannan. 
and the W. shore of Lough Swilly, 
and about half-way crosses the v-o.- 
bouchure of the Glenalla Kiver that 
rises in the high giounds betwtfii 
the Lough and Mulroy Bay, and 
flows past Glenalla House (T. Hart, 
Esq.) and woods, wliich are ven 
pretty features in the landscape 
Further down are the woods of HqUt 
mount, and 

19^ m. the little town dt Raikmui 
Ian. ( Inn : Mary Henderson s, good : 
** Close to it are the ruins of a pnory •! 
Carmelite friars, and a castle adjoinia.: 
formerly occupied by the M*Swe*-n; 
Faugh, the possessor of Fanad. T).< 
eastern part, used as a church unti 
a late period, exhibits considembl 
traoes of Pointed Gothic architecture 
Over the £. window there still n 



Irelaitd. Boute 14. — BaihmuUan — Fanad Head. 



107 



mains a figure of St. Patrick. The 
architecture of the remainder of the 
huilding is of the Elizahethan age, a 
great part of it haying heen rehuilt 
by Bish<^ Knox, of the diocese of 
Kaphoe, in 1618, on obtaining pos- 
session of the manor of Bathmullan 
from Turlt^h Oge M*Sweeny." —Lord 
G. HiU. In 3ie churchyard is a 
monument to the memory of the 
Hon. W. Pakenham, Captain of the 
' Saldanha,* wrecked off this coast in 
1811. 

Bathmullan occupies a sheltered 
position at the foot of a range of hills 
that intervene between Lough Swilly 
and Mulroy Bay, of which the highest 
point is Crochanatfrin, 1137 ft. It is 
worth while making an excursion 
either up this hill or Groaghan, 1010 
ft., which is nearer ; for the extra- 
ordinary view over the inlets and in- 
dentations of this sing^ular coast will 
put the traveller more in mind 
of Norwegian fiords than British 
scenery. 



Detour to Fanad, 

Before leaving RathmuUan for 
Milford, the tourist who is fond of 
wHd coast scenery should take the 
opportunity of exploring the penin- 
sula of Fanet or Fanait, the ancient 
property of " the sept of the O'Bres- 
lans, descendants of Gonaing, 3rd son 
of Conaill Gulban, son of Nial of the 
9 hostages, who possessed Tir Con- 
nell.'* The O'Breslans, however, 
were succeeded by the M'Sweenys, 
who established themselves and biult 
several fortresses. Physically speak- 
ing, Fanet is intersected by 3 short 
langes of hills running across the 
peninsula, viz., the Bathmullan range 
just mentioned; tibe Knockalla Hills, 
which attain a height of 1200 ft. ; 
and a still more northerly group, 
about 800 ft. 

A good road runs along the shore 
of Lough Swilly as &Lr as Knockalla 
Battery, but as the Knockedla Hills 



here intervene, rising precipitously 
from the water, the traveller by cac 
will be obliged to return and make a 
detour. Of course this does not apply 
to the pedestrian. This road is worth 
the drive, both for the sake of the 
rock scenery on the W., and the dis- 
tant hills on the £. or Buncrana 
side, comprising the district of Inlsh- 
owen. It passes Bathmullan House, 
the charming seat of T. Batt, Esq. ; 
Fort Eoyal (late Oupt. Wray; ; and 
Ednnegar Strand; succeeding which 
there is some good rock scenery ex- 
tending up to Lamb's Head Bay, and 
from thence to ELnockalla Battery. 
Near Lamb's Head Bay, at a village 
called Drumhallagh, is a tolerably per- 
fect "giant's bed," formed of large 
flat stones placed on their edge. 

The car-road to Fanait runs right 
across the peninsula to the shores of 
Mulroy Water, and keeps the E. bank 
of that beautiful estuary, skirting the 
base of the Knockalla Hills. 

10 m. on the shore of one of the 
narrow inlets of Mulroy is the tower 
of Moross Castle, the most im- 
portant of the fortresses of the 
M'Sweenys. Near this point the main 
road again crosses the peninsula, be- 
tween the 2 northerly ranges of hills, 
reappears on Lough Swilly at Bal- 
lymastocker Bay, the scene of the 
wreck of the * Saldanha ' in 181 1, and 
from thence skirts the coast to Doegh, 
one of the most primitive native 
villages that it is possible to conceive. 
The coast scenery here is particularly 
fine, especially at the Seven Arches, 
a series of marine caves accessible by 
land. Near the Brown George Bock 
is a splfflidid natural arch, 80 ft. in 
height. 

18 m. Fanad Head is the extreme 
westerly boundary of Lough SwiUy, 
the entrance of which between the 
2 heads, Fanad and Dunaff, is just 
4 m. This dangerous coast is pro- 
tected at this point by a lighthouse, 
90 ft. above high water, consisting of 9 
lamps, showing a deep red seawards, 
and a fixed white light towards the 



108 



BotUe 14. — LondoTiderry to Gtceedore. 



Ireland. 



harbour. If the tourist be a pedes- 
trian, he should, instead of return- 
ing by the same road, work his 
way to the S.W., and cross one of the 
narrow inlets of Mulroy by a ferry 
between Leatbeg and Lower Town, 
and thus proc^ either to Glen, 
through Carrickart, or Milford. 



Milford (Rte. 12), formerly known 
by the euphonious name of BaUyna- 
golloglough, is most chai-mingly 
placed nearly equidistant from the 
head of Mulroy Bay and Lough Fern ; 
the latter a fine sheet of water 4 m. 
in circumference, and fed by the 
Laiman. The scenery near Milford 
is well worth exploring, particularly 
on the Bunlin River, a small stream 
£hat flows through a romantic glen 
into Mulroy, forming in its course a 
fine water&U, known as the Goland 
Loop. 

(>ossing Bunlin Bridge, the road 
to Garric^rt skirts closely the W. 
shore of Mulroy, keeping on 1. the 
group of hills that intervene neckr 
Lough Glen and Bheephaven. The 
tourist may take a shorter out by 
a mountain road, and join the road 
from Kilmacrenan (Bte. 13) to 

Glen, a small village at the head 
of Glen Lough, a long narrow sheet 
of water running from N.E. to S.W., 
connected by a short stream, called 
the Lackagh Biver, with the Sheep- 
haven, and drained by the Owen 
Carrow, which runs hence to Glen- 
veagh (Rte. 10). 

The student of physical geography 
cannot fail to be struck with the pa- 
rallel directions of the great valleys 
of Donegal, together with their re- 
spective lakes and streams, from the 
N.E. to the 8.W. This and the form 
of the minor lakes lying to the W. 
of the Derryveagh Mountains, the 
longer axes of which lakes generally 
lie at right angles to the greater 
valleys, is now regarded as mainly a 
result of glacier erosion. 



An excursion may be made from 
Glen to visit Lough Salt, 3 m. to the 
S., and on the road to Kilmacrenan. 
It is situated at the height of 1000 ft. 
above the sea, and at tlie foot of 
a mountain, which rises perpendicu- 
larly on the E. to a height of 1546 ft. 
To this it owes its name — Lough- 
agus-Alt, " the Lough and the Crag," 
being corrupted into Lough Salt. 

The lake is of the great depth of 
240 fr., and is said to be never frozen. 
There is another tarn. Lough 
Greenan, at a lower elevation on the 
W. side ; and Lough Reelan, a still 
smaller one, on the N., giving off a 
streamlet that flows into Glen Lough. 
The view lookmg S. to Kilmacrenan, 

4 m. distant, is pretty, but not I 
to be compared to that extend- j 
ing on the N. over Glen Lough and , 
Sheephaven, with its noble cngs 
and the blue waters of the Atlantic; 
while to the W. the summits of the 
Donegal Alps are visible in the lofty 
crests of Muckish, Dooish, and 
Arrigal, with its cone-like top. 



1} m. hem. Glen the xoad craeaes 

the Lackagh, and emerges on the sands 
which form the head of Sheephayen, 
*' whose bay is not safe to lie long in. 
being exposed to the northerly and 
N.E. winds." — Imray* s Sailing Dint- 
tions. To the N.E. they extend for a 
long distance under the name of the 
Campion and Rosapenna SGaids—the 
latter reaching to beyond Carrickart. 
**A hue of coast and country 
extends from the sea deep inu^ 
the land, exhibiting one wide waste 
of sand ; for miles not a blade <<f 
grass, not a particle of bloom ; but 
hills and dales, and undulatiD^ 
swells, smooth, solitary, desolate, re- 
flecting the sun from their polisht^l 
sur&ce of one uniform hue. Fifly 
vears ago this line of coast was ad 
highly improved as the opootdte 
shore of Ards, and oontainea the 
comfortable mansioa of Lord Boynt*, 



Ireland. BotUe 14. — Doe Castle — M^ Sweeny* s Gun, 



109 



an old-&shi0Ded manorial house and 
garden, with avenues and terraces, 
surrounded with walled parks. But 
now not a yestige of this is to be 
seen— one conunon mountain of sand 
covers all." — Sketches in Ireland. 
The cause of all this mischief appears 
to have been the carelessly per- 
mitting the rabbits to gnaw the roots 
of the bent grass {Arundo arenaria), 
vrhich, when protected, serves as a 
sufficient guard against the incursion 
of the sand. 

Beyond Eoeapenna, at Downing's 
Bay, there is one of the finest views in 
l)onegal, looking up and down Sheep- 
haven, with the woods of Ards,. and 
the tower of Doe Castle — backed up 
in the distance by the ponderous mass 
of Muckish. 



Before arriving at Greeslough, the 
tourist should cross the Duntally, 
and visit Doe Castle, a singular 
stronghold of the M'Sweenys, which 
has been, to a certain extent, mo- 
demised and rendered habitable by 
the present owner. The prison will 
be found in the dairy, which contains 
the old gaUows, vnth its beam fitted 
with notches. The building as it 
at present stands is surroimded by a 
lawn, upon which some small cannons 
are mounted. A little to the N., but 
separated by a prolongation of the 
marsh at the head of Sheephaven, is 
Ards House (A. Stewart, Esq.), which, 
with its extensive mansion, beautiful 
woods, and adjacent £Eirm, is one of 
the most desirable places in the N. 
of Ireland. The views, however, 
&om this side the haven are not so 
diversified or pleasemt as they are 
from Boeapeima. 



4 m. Creedough is a poor little 
village situated on the N.E. slope of 
Mnckish, "The Pig's Back" (Rte. 
10), which raises its truncated mass 
to a height of 2197 ft. Crossing the 



Faymore River, the poad turns north- 
ward, having on 1. Sessiagh Lough, 
and on rt. Marble Hill, the seat 
of G. Fitzgerald, Esq., which over- 
looks a pretty bay near the entrance 
of Sheephaven. 

10 m. Dunfanctghy is a neat little 
town with a very fiaSr hotel, " Stew- 
art's Arms." 

Conveyances. — Car to Letterkenny 
and to Gweedore daily. 

Distances. — Letterkenny, 24 m. ; 
Eilmacrenan, 17 ; Milford, 18 ; Glen, 
10 ; Bathmullan, 25 ; Doe Ca^itle, 8 ; 
Ards, 6; Horn Head, 4; Cross 
Beads, 6i; Gweedore, 22. 

Excursions. — 

1. Tory Island. 

2. Horn Head. 

3. Falcarragh and Muckish. 

4. Doe and Ards. 



On the way from Dun&naghy a 
narrow channel is crossed, tlm)ugh 
which the tide rushes with great 
rapidity, to Horn Head House, the 
residence of C. F. Stewart. 

1 m. to the W. in a direct line will 
be found M'Sween^fs Gun, concern- 
ing which marvellous fables are told. 
The coast here is very precipitous, 
and perforated with caverns, one of 
which, running in some distence, is 
connected vrith the surface above by 
a narrow orifice, which is very diffi- 
cult to find without a guide, or very 
specific directions obtained on the 
spot, and in view of landmarks. 
Through this, in rough weather, the 
sea da^es, throwing up a volume of 
water, accompanied by a loud explo- 
sion or boom, said to have been heard 
as&rasDerry! Such blow-holes are 
not uncommon on the coast of South 
Wales and Cornwall, although, of 
course, the effects differ in proportion 
to the scale of the phenomenon. A 
little to the N.E. of this spot is a cii- 



no 



Botde 14. — Londonderry to Crweedore. Ikelasl. 



cnlar castle. Horn Head is a projec- 
tioD in shape somewhat resembling a 
horn, bordered on one side by the 
inlet of Sheephaven, though on the 
other the coast trends away to the S. 
The cliffs are 800 ft. in height, and 
grandly precipitous. The view from 
the summit of the head is one of 
boundless Atlantic ocean, broken 
only on the N.W. by the islands 
of Inishbeg, Inishdoey, Inislibofin, 
and Tory ; and on the N.E. by the 
different headlands of this rugged 
coast, viz., Melmore, Rinmore, Fanad, 
Dunaff, and Malin Heads, while on 
the E. is seen in the distance the 
little island of InishtrahuU. The 
diffe in many places are higher and 
more romantic, but the view from 
Horn Head is one per se, and should 
not be omitted by the northern tra- 
veller in Ireland. The student of 
Natural History will find plenty of 
ornithological interest amongst the 
various sea-birds that frequent these 
cliffs, amongst which are the shell- 
drake ( Tadoma mdpanser), the guil- 
lamot ( Una troile\ tne sea-parrot, the 
cormorant, the shag {Phalocrocorax 
gractdus), the gannet, the stormy 
petrel, the speckled diver {Colymhus 
gla/iiali8)f and many others. The 
distance from Dunfanaghy to the 
signal tower is about 4 m. 



Eoccursion to Tory Island, 

Should the tourist be adventurous 
enough to visit Tory Island, on which 
there is a lighthouse, 130 feet above 
the sea, visible 16 miles (Ir. toraoh, 
** full of tors "), which lies 7J miles 
north-west from Horn Head, he 
should start on his expedition 
from Dunfanaghy. It is a bleak 
and desolate island, although con- 
taining some objects of Interest; 
and if tradition \b wortii anything, 
was considered important enough to 
fight for in the early days, *• when 
giants were in the land." The Book 



of Ballymote states that it was pos- 
sessed by the Fomorians, a race of 
pirates and giants who inhabited 
Ireland 12 centuries before the 
Christian era. One of their number, 
named Conalng, erected a tower on 
the island, as is recorded in the 
Book of Leacan : — 

« The Tower of the Island, the Island of the 
Tower, 
The citadel of Ck>nataig, the son of Fcebar." 

It contains a portion of a round tower, 
called Clog-teach, " The BelhHouse," 
and the remains of a ruined castle, 
together with a modem lightliouse. 
the only token of the civilised world 
on tile island. The rock scenery of 
its coast is very fine and character- 
istic. " Some leagues out at sea, bnt 
seeming within your grasp, lay Tory 
Island, rising out of the deep like a 
castellated city, lofty towers, church 
spires, battlements, batteries, and 
bastions, apparently presented them- 
selves, so strangely varied and so fen- 
tastically deceptive were its clife"*— 
C. Ottoay. In 1847 the population 
amounted to about 420; in 1852 it 
was considerably less. The island- 
ers are good fishermen, pursning 
their avocation in "corraghs:" ^*- 
Columb, the patron saint of the 
place, is reported to have l«nded then 
in one. Porpbyritio syenite appean 
to be the geological structure. 

The tourist must be prepared to 
any emergencies in the matter of 
accommodation, and, in case of nrngh 
weather suddenly coming on, of un- 
limited detention on the island. 



6} m., from Dunfanaghy is the tO- 
lage of Cross Roads, or Falearrag^' 
adjoinmg which is BaUyeonneU 
House, &e seat of Wybrants Olphertj 
Esq., in whose grounds is a stone of 
some local notoriety, called Clon^h- 
a-neely. In old Myrath ch.-y»rf 
is the cross of St. GolumbkiU, mwe 
of one piece of rock, said to li»'^ 
been brought by Bi Oolumb fro"* 



RELAND. Boute 15. — Londonderry to BdfaaU 

MncMdh MonntaiQ. Falcarragh is a 
good point from whence to ascend 
Muckish, 2190 ft., wl.ich will well 
repay the troubh', though from its 
steeply escarped sides it is no easy 
work. "The geologiral structure 
cousists of a very thin slaty mica, 
granular quartz, and silver white 
mica. At the height of 500 ft. is an 
exteosiye bed of wiiite quartz sand 
in very minute grains, which has 
been exported to the glass-works of 
Dambaiton, being cou»idered an ex- 
cellent material. ' — Giesecke. 

A little further on, the Tullagho- 
begly is crossed, as it descends from 
the Altan Lough, a savage tarn 
under the precipices of Arrigal (Rte. 
10), the peak of which becomes a 
prominent object on the E. 

A mountain road turns off to 1., 
and runs through Muckish Gap and 
jwns the Dunlewry road to Gweedore. 
The tourist can take this or the 
longer but better road, which con- 
tinues coastwise and runs over a deso- 
late mountain district, keeping on rt. 
the Bloody Foreland, the hill above 
which rises to upwards of 1000 ft. 
As the coast is again approached, the 
islands of Inishsirrer, Inishmeane, 
andGola are conspicuous, within and 
among which are several passages 
and places for shelter for vessels. 

"The Gola Islands," says Oapt. 
Mudge, R.N., "form a secure and 
commodious anchorage, in which 
vessels of a large draught of water 
may find shelter in bad weather or 
when detained by contrary winds." 

18.^ m. Clady Bridge, or Bunbeg, 
where there are a store, a ch., and 
glebe-house, belonging to the Gwee- 
^property. 

22 m. Gweedore Hotel (Ete. 13). 



Ill 



ROUTE 15. 

LONDONDERRY TO BELFAST, BY TBC 

NORTHERN COUNTIES RAILWAY. 

The Northern Counties Rly. keeps 
close to the brink of the water for 
several miles, accompanied for some 
distance by the pretty villas of the 
Deny citizens. 

5 m. Cidmore. Here the Foyle 
narrows, previous to the sudden ex- 
pansion known as Lough Foyle, which 
in several places is 7 m. in breadth. 
The fort of Culmore, a triangular 
tower on the 1. of the rly., was built 
in the 16th cent, by the O'Dohertys, 
and afterwards kept up to secure 
the possessions of the English at 
Derry. 

Crossing the estuary of the Fan- 
ghan river, the line trends to the 
N.E., following the curve of the bay 
to 

7 J m. EglinUm. On rt. 2 m. are 
the "village of Eglington (formerly 
Muff), Foyle Park, and Templemoyle 
Agricultural School, occupying very 
pretty situations on the banks of 
the Muff Glen. On either side, the 
mountain scenery begins to assume 
larger dimensions ; on the 1. the hills 
of Inishowen loom in the distance ; 
the highest point being Slieve Snaght, 
2019 ft., between Buncrana and Mo- 
ville. On the rt. an important chain 
occupies the area between Derry and 
Dungiven, where it joins another 
and more marked group extending 
northwards between Newtown li- 
mavaddy and Coleraine. 

12^ m. CarHckhugh; on rt. is 
Walworth Wood and House (Col. 
Sampson). 



112 



Route 15. — Londonderry to Belfast, Ireland. 



13 J m. BaUykeUy, This village is 
the property of the Fishmongers' 
Company, who in 1619 erected a 
large fortified mansion. 



15 m. Limavaddy Junction, lead- 
ing to 2 m. rt. Newtown Limavaddy 
{Inn : Queen's Arms), which obtained 
its name from Lim-an-madadh, 
" Dog's Leap," a glen on the banks 
of which tiie O'Cahans, the first 
founders, erected a castle. Adjoin- 
ing this a second was built, in 1608, 
by Sir Thomas Phillips, forming the 
nucleus of a village (Pop. 2732). It is 
very beautifully situated in the valley 
of the Roe, and at the foot of a group 
of mountains, which are worth ex- 
ploration by the geological tourist. 
{Introd.f * Geology.') On the E. are 
Benyevenagh 1260 ft., and Keady 
Mountain 1101 ft., while to the S., 
Donald's Hill 1318, and Craiggore, 
are the most prominent. As far as 
the town of Newtown Limavaddy is 
concerned, there is little to detain 
the visitor, but the valley of the Roe 
may be followed up to Dungiven 9 m., 
and, thence to Maghera or Drapers- 
town, in which route the traveller 
will meet with some very peculiar 
and interesting scenery. In the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the town 
are Drenagh House (C. T. M'Causland, 
iSsq.), Streeve, Hermitage, &c. The 
Sperrin Hills run E. from Strabane 
to Draperstown ; then turn rather 
abruptly to the N. to Coleraine, their 
course being marked by the towns 
of Maghera and Garvagh on the E., 
Dungiven and Newtown on the W. 
Between these 2 places, however, 
a minor chain runs in from London- 
derry, interrupted only by the valley 
of the Roe. 

Excursions, — 

1. Dungiven. 
.. 2. Benyevenagh. 
3. Ready. 

Dungiven {Inn: Skinners' Aims) 



is in a charming situation at the 
confluence of the Roe with the 
2 rivers Owen Nagh and Oweu 
Beg, and at the foot of Ben- 
bradagh, which rises to the height 
of 1490 ft directly to the E. of the 
town, and is cultivated nearly to its 
summit. To the S. are the Sperrin 
Mountains, the most lofty points of 
which are Sawel, 2240 ft., and Mol 
laghaneany, 2070 ft Dungiven con- 
tains ruins of the Skinners' Com- 
pany's Castle, or fortified bawn, 
built in 1618, and also of a priorr, 
picturesquely placed on a rock 2(H> 
ft. above the Roe. It has a navs 
and chancel, the latter lighted by 
two lancet windows deeply Bplajwl 
within, with a mitre on each side, 
.the whole being surrounded by a 
blocked arch resting on corbeli; 
there is also a square-headed window 
above. The nave is separated from 
the chancel by a good circular arcli 
of apparently Trans.-Norm., and has 
also in the N. side a circular-headed 
doorway. The church has a belfiy 
at the S. angle of the W. front, 
which formerly exhibited the featui© 
of a round tower or cloietheach. 
Notice under an elaborate Dec. arti 
in the chancel the altar-tomb of O^o- 
ey-na-gall, a chief of the O'Cahuai 
It bears ttie effigy of a recumkn: 
knight, and the sides are sculptured 
with armed figures. This priory was 
founded in 1100 by the O'Cahans, and. 
having fiillen to ruins, was restored 
with great solemnity by the Arch- 
bishop of Armagh. The clanoftltf 
O'Cahans held their territoiy nndrr 
the O'NeUls, "and, being of the 
greatest authority in these parts, bad 
9ie honour of throwing the sh'ie 
over the head of 0*Neill when chosen, 
according to the barbarous ceremony 
then practised upon some high hill 
in the open air."— CW&son. Close to 
the town is Pellipar House (J. Ogiiby, 
Esq.). TUhe road to Draperstown 
runs over very elevated ground to 
the base of the White Mountaio* ifl 
which is the source of the Boe, and 



Ireland. Bauie 15. — Dungiven — MaeOiUigan. 

ihen emerges ihroiigh the romantic 
pass of Evishgore. The schist rocks 
in the neighbourhood of Dungiyen 
are famouB for theur quartz crystals, 
called Dungiven diamonds, many of 
which are found of great size. The 
old ch. of Banaahir, nearly 3 m. 
S.W. of the Tillage, should be 
Tisited for the sake of its doorway, 
which is square-headed, and has 
inclined sides, somewhat resembling 
the one at Glendalongh (Rte. 24). 
In the ch.-yurd is the tomb of St. 
Muiredach O'Heney, on which a 
curious relievo of the saint is 
depicted outside. Dr. Petrie con- 
siders it to date £rom the latter 
part of the 11th cent ** There 
is a custom in this neighbonr- 
hood which testifies the supersti- 
tious respect in which this monu- 
ment is still held. In any horse-race, 
if a handful of the sand adjacent to 
the tomb be thrown npon the horse 
as it passes, it is thought that it will 
ensure success in the race.'* — Doyle, 
A sindlar early tomb is found at 
Bovevagh ch., between Dungiven 
and Newton. It is £Ekced with sand- 
stone, though it is minus the like- 
ness of the saint 

Conveyances from Dungiven, — Oar 
to Limavaddy. 

Digtances. — Draperstown, 12 m. ; 
K. Limavaddy, 9; Maghera, 13; 
Deny, 19. 



113 



20 m. at BeUarena is a marine 
Tesidenoe of Sir F. Heygate, Bart., 
at the mouth of the Roe and 
the foot of the mountain of Benye- 
vtnagh 1260 ft., ** the £Eice of which 
is encumbered by ponderous and 
shapeless masses, rising in sncces- 
QTe stages to the base of the steep 
ha^ltic summit, and then breaking 
into pinnacles and precipitous cliffs. 
Standing on one of tnese and looking 
along the« face of the mountain, the 
successive lines of rudely-formed 
hillocks, the basaltic face they pre- 
sent to the great mountain pre* 

[Ireland.] 



cipices, and the various beds of 
basalt and ochre which occur in 
earth, together with the isolated 
pinnacles which yet remain on some 
of them, explain the nature of these 
vast landslips and this magnificent 
undercliff." — Pordock. The geologist 
will perceive that the general com- 
position of these masses of hill is 
chalk, capped by conglomerate and 
basalt, and resting on liassic or 
oolitic clays and shales. A little 
further on at MaeCriRigan the line 
approaches very closely to the es- 
carped rocks, which contain nume- 
rous caves, attesting the long-con- 
tinued and destructive action of the 
sea. Both this latter locality and 
Dovm HiU 26 m. are romantic in 
the extreme, and during the summer 
season attract large numbers of holi- 
day-makers from Derry for the pur- 
poses of bathing and picnic celebra- 
tions. High on one of the cliffs, 
with several cottages, stands the 
ch. of MacGilUgan. Both MacGiUi- 
gan and Benvevenagh are good bo- 
tanizing fields, yidding amongst 
others — Botrycbium lunaria, Ajuga 
alpina, Orobanche rubra, Hieiacium 
murorum, H. Lawsoni, Dryas octo- 
petala, Saxiiraga oppositofolia, Are- 
naria vema, Draba incana. Ranuncu- 
lus hirsutus. Looking across the estu- 
ary of the Foyle are the mountains 
forming the promontory of Inishowen 
Head. MacGilligan is interesting 
to scientific men, as being the base- 
line on which the Trigonometrical 
Survey of Ireland waa laid down 
in 1826. At Down Hill the rly. 
pierces the chalk by a longish tun- 
nel. The effects produced by the 
disruption of strata are even more 
pecuhar than at MacGilHgan, and 
show themselves in the foim of 
isolated pinnacles and cavos, the 
largest of which, called the Piper's 
Cave, is about 110 ft. in length. The 
geologist should also visit the Gap 
of Camowry, "which terminates in 
a very beautiful fall, formud of suc- 
cessive cascades, where the oohreous 

I 



114 



Boute 15. — Londonderry to Bd/asl, 



Irelam). 



oon«:lomerate and basalt are seen in 
contact The basalt penetrates as a 
vein into the conglomerate, and small 
fragments of flints are found in an 
amygdaloid, as at Ballycastle (Bte. 
16), indicating important chemical 
and mechanical changes.** — Port- 
lock. At Down Hill is the seat of Sir 
Her vey Bruce, Bart., MP., built by the 
eccentric Earl of Bristol, and famous 
for its library and picture-galleries, 
which were unfortunately destroyed 
by fire, including the sculpture of 
the Dolphin carrying the Wounded 
Child ashore, by Raphael, of which a 
cast is in the Dresden Gallery. The 
original was exhibited in the Indus- 
trial and Art Exhibition of Dublin 
(1853). It was purchased in Italy by 
the Bishop about a century ago for a 
very large sum. 

The line now runs close to the 
Bann. which is crossed by a long 
and peculiarly light bridge at 

33 m. Ccleraine {Ji. Cuil-rathain, 
•* comer of ferns.") {Hotels : McBol- 
lips* " Clothworkers* Arms,** ex- 
cellent; Henley's) (Rte. 16) dates 
its importance from the reign of 
James I., who granted the whole 
of this district to the London Com- 
panies. They, however, did not 
trouble themselves much about its 
sanitary arrangements, if we are 
to believe the statement of Pynnar 
in 1618, " that part of the town 
is so dirty that no man is able 
to go into it, especially what is 
called the market-place." Coleraine 
is now a clean, busy place, largely 
connected with the linen trade, and 
well situated on the Bann, which 
is crossed by a bridge connecting 
the suburb of Waterside with the 
main portions of the town (Pop. 5631). 
There are extensive salmon fisheries 
at the Crannagh, near the mouth of 
the river, and again higher up at the 
Uutt, where there is a faU of 13 ft., 
and consequently a salmon-leap. In 
former days Coleraine possessed a 
priory, monastery, and castle, — all of 



which have disappeared; but on 
Mount Sandel, 1 m. S.E., there is a 
very large rath 200 ft. high, and sur- 
rounded by a dry fosse. It is men- 
tioned in the * Annals of the Four 
Masters' as having been built in 
1197, and is supposed to have been 
the site of De Couroey's castle. In 
the immediate neighbourhood are 
Jackson Hall and Somerset (H. R. 
Richardson, Esq.), both of them situ- 
ated on the banks of the river. 

Though the Bann is here tidal, 
and Coleraine a seaport, there is at 
its mouth a bar, causing so much ob- 
struction that the real harbour maj 
be said to be at Portrush (Rte. 16,. 

Conveyances. — ^Rail to Derry, Port- 
rush, and Belfast. Car to Bmh- 
mills ; also to Kilrea. 

Ditftances. — Portstewart, 3J m. : 
Portrush, 6J; Ballymoney, 9; Mai- 
Gilligan, 10 ; Newtown Limavaddv. 
21 ; Bushmills, 8. 

(The tourist may here branch off 
Portrush and the Causeway, taking 
Rte. to Belfast). 

The rail now follows up the rt. 
bank of the Bann, quitting it at 

41 m. BaUpnoneff, which is an 
industrious town extensively con- 
cerned in the sales of " Coleraine^ '* 
and other linens, but does not possess 
much to interest the general tourist. 
Conveyances to Ballycastle, 17 m. 
distant (Rte. 16). At Dunloy, 49 m., 
the line is carried between 2 hilht 
about 400 ft. req)ectively, and bus 
on 1. 3 m. Lissanoure Castle, the seat 
of G. Macartney, Esq. Some 3 m. 
W. of Dunloy, in the pictmesqne 
mountain district known as the 
Craigs, is the interesting cmmkch 
of the Broadstone, of which the in- 
cumbent stone is 10 ft. in length, and 
rests partially upon 2 supporters, the 
others having fallen. We then crow 
the watershed, and follow the Main 
River, a small stream flowing due S. 
into Lough Neagh, to 

62 m. BaUymena {Hotd: Adair 
Arms), next to Coleraine the most 



Ireland. Boute 15. — BaUymena — Bandalstovm, 



115 



important town in the diatrict, 
which, since the introduction of the 
Unen trade in 1733, has largely in- 
creased in population. It is said that 
the sale of brown linens alone aver- 
ages l,(M)O,000i. yearly. It is a well- 
built and well-to-do town of some 
8000 Inhab., situated on the Braid, 
which soon joins the Main. Lord 
Waveney la the Lord of the soil, and 
has built within his demesne a beau- 
tiiul church, at a cost of 5000i. It 
is in good aiohitectural taste. 

About 1^ m. to the W. are Galgorm 
Castle, formerly a seat of the Earls of 
Mountcashel, and now of J. Young, 
lilsq., and Grace Hilt, a Moravian 
settlement, founded in 1746. 

Conveyances,— 'BXj. to Belfast. Car 
to Kilrea. Car to Glenarm. Oar to 
Port Glenone. 

Distances. — ^Maghera, 18 m. ; Port 
Glenone, 9. 

The line again runs side by side 
with the Main to 

70 m. Cookitown Junction. 



Branch to Chokstoum, passing 

3 m. Randahtown (Inn: O'Neill 
Arois), a pleasant little business 
town on the Main, which is crossed 
by a bridge of 9 arches. It suf- 
fered considerable damage from the 
hands of the insurgents in 1798. 
The church is B. £ng., with an oc- 
tagonal spire. The principal object 
ot interest* however, is the beautiful 
demesne of 8hane*8 Castle (Lord 
O'Neill), which stretches from the 
town to and along the shores of 
Lough Neagh for a distance of 3 m. 
The Main flows through the grounds, 
and is crossed by an ornamental 
bridge, connecting them with the 
Beer-park, which is of considerable 
extent The former mansion was 
utterly destroyed by fire in 1816, 
when nothing was saved but the 
family papers. At present a por- 
tion of the stables has been con- 
verted into a residence, all that 



is left of the castle being some 
ruined towers and the fortified espla- 
nade, upon which is a conservatory. 
The present representative of this 
once princely family — which claimed 
sovereigntv over all the chiefs of 
Ulster— is Lord O'Neill, created 1868, 
who, in 1855, assumed the name of 
O'Neill, in lieu of liis patronymic 
Chichester, in accordance with the 
will of Earl O'Neill. The tourist 
can visit the tomb of one of the 
O'Neills, in the jHivate burial-ground 
near the castle. The geologist will 
find traces of columnar basaltic for- 
mation at the back of tiie gardens. 

From Bandalstown tlie rly. sweeps 
along the northern bank of the lough, 
approaching it very closely at 11 m. 
Toome, where the Bann is crossed 
as it emerges from the lake, by a 
viaduct, as also by a bridge of 9 
arches carrying the turnpike-road. 
At Toome are the stables of a 
castle built by Lord Conway in 
the 17th cent. The river flows due 
N. for 1^ m.„and then expands into 
a small sheet of water known as 
Lough Beg. As the Bann is the 
only river carrying away tlie waters 
of Lough Neagh, which is supplied 
by 10 or 12 streams, it is not a 
matter of much wonder that the 
surrounding shores are very subject 
to inundations, though they have 
been consi<lerably checked by the 
operations of the Drainage Commis- 
sioners. This has been effected by 
lowering the Lough to its summer 
level, widening the lower basin, 
and forming a canal near the castle 
at Coleraine. 

16 m. Castle Dawson^ a small town 
possessed by the Dawson family since 
1633, whose seat, Moyola Park, 
(Peel Dawson, Esq.,) adjoins the 
town on the banks of the river of 
the same name. The eccentric Earl 
of Bristol erected an obelisk to com- 
memorate the virtues of this family. 

About 8 m. higber up the Moyola 
is Ma^hera, formerly a place of some 
antiquity, liiough now a quiet town, 

I 2 



116 



BoiUe 15. — Londonderry to Belfast. Ireland, 



pleaaantly situated at the base of the 
8.E. comer of the Sperrin Mountains, 
which mn hither from Strahane and 
torn suddenly to the N. to Coleraine. 
Oamtogher 1521 ft., White Mountain 
996, and Muinard 2064, are the 
principal heights. It is a fine moun- 
tain walk of 13 m. from Maghera 
to Dungiven through the pass of 
Glenshane. The old ch. contains 
over the W. door a rude sculpture of 
the Crucifixion, and in the ch.-yard 
is the tomb of Lenri, in whose graye, 
when opened some years since, a 
silver crucifix was found. The ar- 
chsBologist will also find several 
good raths in the neighbourhood. 

19 m. MagharafeU ( ffotd : M*FaU's) 
is a linen town, belonging to the 
Baiters' Company. The scenery on 
the W. is rather striking, the Slieve 
Gullion Mountains rising to the 
height of 1700 fL A second road 
leads from Mtgharafelt to Dungiven 
through Draperstown, near which is 
Perrynoyd (R. Babington, Esq.). 

26 m. Moneymore {Irm: Drapers' 
Anns), the property of the Dra- 
pers' Company, who have laid 
out large sums in the improve- 
ment of the place. Unfortunately, in 
the process the ancient castle was 
taken away to make itx)m for a 
public-house,— a circumstance to be 
regretted the more, as it is described 
by Pynnar as having been one of 
the most perfect in Ireland. Spring 
Hill is the residence of W. F. Lennox- 
Conyngham, Esq. ; the mansion is 
between 200 and 800 years old. The 
terminus of the branch line is reached 
at 

30 m. Cookttown (ffotd : Impe- 
rial), a pretty, though singularly 
built place of one street, more than 
a mile in length. The pleasant 
aspect of the town is enhanced by 
the proximity of Killymoon, formerly 
the residence of the £amily of Stew- 
art, the proprietors and founders of 
Cookstown. The house was built 
by Nash in the castellated style. It 
is noW the property of John Douglas 



Cooper, Esq. At Derryloran the 
antiquary will find ruins of an old 
ch., and at Loughry, 2 m. to the S^ 
a cromlech. 

At Ardbo on the shores of Lough 
Neagh, about 6 m. from Cookstown, 
are the ruins (of very rude work (of 
the Abbey of St. Kieran ; and close by 
stands a large sculptured cross, the 
figures of wMch are much weathered. 

Conveyances. — Car to Stewarte- 
town, and on to Dungannon, 

Distances. — Dungannon, 10 J m.; 
Stewartstown, 6.] 



Betum to Ufain Line. 

From Cookstown Junction the 
line keeps in sight of the lough to 

73 m. the county town of 
Antrim (Ir. Aontruibh), sitiwteii 
on the banks of the Six Vile 
Water as it joins the watere of 
Lough Neagh (Hotel: MasaareeDe 
Arms) (Pop. 2800). Historically, An- 
trim is loiowti as the scene of a 
battle in the reign of Edward III- 
between the English and natiTc 
Irish, and again in 1798 of a fiem- 
engagement with the insurgents 
who had marched on the town 
simultaneously from Belfast, Gar- 
rickfergus, Ballymena, and 6hane!> 
Castle. So obstinate, however, wa^ 
the defence, that they retreated 
with the loss of nearly 1000 men. 
though the victory was dearlv gaine^i 
by the death of Earl O'Neill. It \< 
a well-built pleasant town, doing n 
considerable trade in linen and pap^r 
making. The principal building if 
the church, which has a good tovt r 
and an octagonal spire; but thf 
suburbs possess far greater attraction^ 
than the town. Between the river an- ! 
the lake is Antrim Castle, the aeui »( 
Viscount Massareene and Fernin!- 
The present building dates from l^*^-- 
but IS approached by a Tudor gati*- 
way, "the doors of which are W't 
iron, and are opened from a room 



Ireland. Boute 15. — Antrim — Lough Neagh, 



117 



overhead by means of machineiy." 
The front of the house faces the gate, 
and is flanked by 2 square towers, 
each in their turn finished off by 
smaller round towers at the angles. 
It is decorated with the family arms, 
and medallions containing portraits 
of Charles I. and II. The principal 
beauty of the place is in the gardens, 
which are very well laid out, and 
embellished with fishponds. Sir John 
Clotworthy, the founder of the castle, 
was granted a patent for building 
and repairing as many barks on the 
lake as were needed for the king's 
use. In connection with this sin« 
gulai right, a naval battle took place 
in 1642 between the Irish garrison 
at Gharlemont and the amphibious 
garrison of Antrim, ** but the rebels, 
being freshwater soldiers, were soon 
forced on shore, and the victors, 
pursuing their fortune, followed them 
to the fort and forced them to sur- 
render it, and in this expedition 60 
rebels were slain, and as many 
bn)Uffht prisoners to Antrim."— iti^tr 
B.Coz, 

About j m. N.E. of the town, in 
the grounds of Steeple (G. J. Clarke, 
Esq. ), is a very perfect round tower. 
It is 95 ft. high, and 53 ft in circum- 
ference, and capped by a conical 
block, put up in lieu of the original, 
which was shattered by lightning. 
The door is between 9 and 10 n, 
from the ground, facing the N., 
and is formed of single large stones 
for the lintels outside and inside. 
' Between the 2 is fixed a larg^ beam 
of oak. The whole of the doorway 
is constructed of blocks of coarse 
gramed basalt, and is but 4 ft. 4 in. 
in height It is also remarkable ** for 
^ving a pierced cross within a circle, 
Bcalptured in relievo on the stone 
immediately over the lintel. Though 
the foundation of the church of An- 
trim is ascribed, perhaps erroneously, 
to St Mocliaoi, a contemporary of 
St Patrick, the popular tradition 
of the country gives the erection of 
tbe town to the celebrated builder 



Gobhan Saer, who flourished in the 
7th cent."— Fetrie, 

Conveyances from Antrim. — Bail 
to Belfast and Coleraine. 

Distances, — Shane's Castle, 3 m. ; 
Carrickfergus, 15^ ; Belfast, 22 ; Ban- 
dalstown, 5. 

Excursions. 

1. Bam Island. 

2. Carrickfergus. 

This would seem the proper 
place for a brief description of 
Lough Neagh (Ir. Loch n'Ecbach), 
the largest lake in the British 
Isles, being 20 m. in length, li in 
breadth, 80 in circumference, and 
embracing an area of 98,255 acres. 
Ko less than 5 counties are washed 
by its waters, which form an im- 
portant item in the physical geo- 
graphy and industrial resources of 
this part of Ulster. Although 10 
rivers contribute to swell its basin, 
only one, the Bann, serves as an 
escape ; to which circimistance may 
be attributed the inundations of the 
low shores, which frequently hap- 
pened to such an extent before the 
drainage improvements that 30,000 
acres were often flooded. The lake 
is about 45 ft. in the deep parts; 
though from the soundings of Lieut. 
Graves it appears to be 100 fi;. in 
some places. The difference between 
winter and summer level averages 
about 6 ft It contains char, and the 
species of trout known as gillaroo, also 
the puUan or fresh-water herring 
(Salmo lavaretus). Perhaps the 
principal interest that attaches to 
Lough Neagh arises from its great 
size, as, from the absence of mountain 
scenery from its immediate neigh- 
bourhood, it lacks a very important 
feature common to lake districts. 
** In the white sand on the shore very 
hard and beautiful stones, known as 
liough Neagh pebbles, are found; 
they are cliiefly chalcedony, gene- 
rally yeUow, or varied with red. 



118 



Boute. 15. — Londonderry to Belfast, Ireland. 



gusceptible of a fine polish, and much 
valued for seals and necklaces." — 
Lewis. The waters of this lake liad 
also the reputation of possessing 
petrifying properties, from trees 
having been found in this state at 
various times ; but it has been con- 
sidered by Gen. Portlock that they 
belong to the tertiary formations, 
from whence they have been washed 
out. " Lough Neagh is not only 
the largest fresh-water lake in the 
British Islands, but it is the oldest 
still surviving. Many of the exist- 
ing lakes owe their origin to glacial 
agencies, or to the solution of the 
strata by water, and have been 
formed during or since the glacial 
epoch. But Lough Neagh is older 
than the glacial epoch; and still 
survives as a lake, though in dimin- 
ished size, notwithstanding the phy- 
sical changes to which it has been 
subjected." — Hull. These inferences 
are based on the deposits surround- 
ing its shores, where pliocene clays 
of lacustrine origin rest against the 
miocene basalt up to 30 ft. above the 
present level of the lake, and glacial 
boulder-clay (post pliocene) overlap 
both. It was a tradition in the time 
of Giraldus, that Lough Neagh had 
been originally a fountain by whose 
sudden overflowing the country was 
inundated, and a whole region, like 
the Atlantus of Plato, overwhelmed. 
He says that the fishermen, in clear 
weather, used to point out to stran- 
gers the tall Ecclesiastical Towers 
under the water. The legend of the 
buried city has obtained a world- 
wide celebrity in one of Moore*s Irish 
Melodies, ^Let Erin remember the 
Days of Old':— 

" On Lough Neagh's banks, as the fiahennan 
strays, 

When the clear cold eve's declining;, 
He sees the Round Towers of other days. 

In the wave beneath hun shinuig." 

It is singular that such a large 
basin should contain so few islands, 
and none of any size. Bam Is- 
land should be visited, on account | 



of the pretty cottage omee of the 
late Earl O'Neill, and also for ltd 
round tower, which is not in such 
good preservation as the one at 
Antrim. It is almost 43 ft higb, 
and is lighted in the 2nd story 
by a square-headed window &cing 
the S.E., and in the 3rd by one 
facing the N. It is said, but upon 
doubtful authority, that at low 
water in summer, a bank connecitj 
the island with Gartree Point, and 
that it presents all the appearance 
of a paved causeway. 

From Antrim the rly. follows up 
the Six Mile Water (the OUarbha of 
ancient Irish romance), passing on 
either side BaUycraigy House, 
Muckamore Abbey (Maj. Thomf'- 
son), and CastLe-Upton (Viscount 
Templetown), in the parish oi 
Templepatrick. 

8S m. Carrickfergus Janction (Bt«. 
13.) 

90 m. White Abbey, so called from 
a monastic establishment, foundel 
in the 13th cent. An E. E. ruineil 
chapel is all that remains. 

Green CasUe, a suburb of Belfast, 
takes its name from slight ruiiu uf 
a fortress. 

The whole of the line from the 
junction to the terminus runs close 
to Belfast Lough, and on the lauti 
side is lined with a suocessioii of 
bleach-greens and the handsome k- 
sidences of the Bel&st merchants. 

94J m. Bel/ad (Rte. 6) {HoUh: 
Imperial; Boyal; Queen's; AlbioD^. 



■f 



Bouie 16. — Portrush, 



119 



IfileA. 



^ 



Is 



>UTE 16. 

BELFAST, BY PORT- 
GIANT'S CAUSEWAY/ 
fCASTLE. 



•♦I 



>J 



should make a point of 
roate, which is known 
Coast Road, for it in- 
excursion a large pro- 
interest and beauty of 
treland, whilst the scien- 
and the geologist in 
lave unlimited opportu- 
idying one of the most 
title districts in Europe, 
branch rly. runs from 
Portrush, passing 3.^ m. 
^watering-place of Port- 
lotdsj Portstewart), Im- 
Lercial), situated so as 
fiue views of the op- 
lontory of Inishowen. A 
tie, built by Mr. O liara, 
I placed on the cliffs, which 
linate on the W. of the 
Itic range, and contain 
oolite, ochre, and steatite, 
the station is Oromore, 
of the Gromie family. 
Portrush {Hotels : Antrim 
(Brown's), one of the best 
lost comfortable hotels in Ire- 
Goleman's, small, but clean 
leomlortable ; Portrush is every 
] becoming a more favourite spot, 
^m its attractions as a marine 
ince and its proximity to the 
2way. A peninsula of basalt, 
Wn as Bamore Head, runs out for 



f of a mile, and on this the town is 
built, having a deep bay on either 
side, and opposite it the picturesque 
line of the Skerries, winch form a 
very fine natural breakwater, in itself 
a great means of slielter to the har- 
bour of Portrush. The town is well 
built, and is rapidly increasing in 
size. Salmon-fishing is carried on 
to a considerable extent in the bay. 

The rock scenery, within five 
minutes' walk of the hotel, is rugged 
and picturesque, though the cliifs 
rise to no great iieight. On the S. 
side there are caverns in tiie white 
limestone of the chalk formation, 
and about 1^ m. inland from Port- 
rush may be seen a curious basaltic 
pillar, called '* Craig-a-Huller.' 

Both chalk and lias stiata have 
undergone considerable metamorphic 
action irom their juxta-position to 
the gneiss rocks, **as long grada- 
tions of changes from the siliceous 
chert-like strata, replete with organic 
remains, to the highly crystalline 
rock, may be here distinctly traced." 
— PorUock. The indurated lias strata 
of Portrush are identical with those of 
McGilligan and Ballintoy. The fossil 
collector will find Ammonites (sp. 
intermedins and McDonnellii) Pecteu, 
Lima pectinoides, PanopsBa elongata, 
Ac. {Introd.^ * Geology.*) 

Conveyances. — Bail to Coleraine ; 
car to Bushmills and to the Giant's 
Causeway ; steamer twice a week' to 
Glasgow. 

Distances, — Coleraine, 6^ m. ; Port- 
stewart, 3 ; Bushmills, 6h ; Giant's 
Causeway, 8J ; Bunluce Castle, 3J ; 
Ballintoy, 15^. 

Excursions. — 

1. Portstewart. 

2. Dunluce and Causeway. 

Keeping to the rt. of the strand of 
Portrush, the road soon gains a mag- 
nificent terrace elevation at a great 
height above the sea. The geologist 
should by all means walk to the 
Causeway, as he will thereby gain au 



120 



BotUe 16. — Coleraine to Belfast. 



Ibelanb. 



opportunity of more minute investi- 
gation. The White Rocks occur 
between the strand at Portrush and 
Dunluce. "Entering from the strand 
an arch in the chalk and passing 
through it, a deep hollow is ob- 
served at the top of the chalk, which 
is entirely filled by the massive over- 
lying trap." 

Between the points mentioned 
the junction of the basalt with the 
chalk may be well studied. It is 
amorphous, and caps all the pro- 
montories along the coast ; ** the 
surface of the chalk on which the 
basalt rests being very uneven, and 
in some places excavated into wide 
and deep gullies, like the transverse 
sections of river-courses ; at others, 
it presents bluffs or pointing head- 
lands, against which the ba^t has 
flowed, and which it eventually com- 
pletely overlays." — Du Nvyer. A 
section on the Portrush strand shows 
— 1. amorphous basalt ; 2. layers of 
drift-flints resting on the eroded sur- 
face of the chalk proper. The action 
of the sea has worn the cll£& into 
most singular and fSantastic shapes 
and gullies, across one of which, the 
Priest s Hole, the road is carried. A 
raised beach or terrace, about 15 ft. 
above the present sea-level, runs 
round the whole of this coast from 
Malin Head, Donegal, to Dublin 
Bay, and may be traced, with vary- 
ing degrees of distinctness, on the 
coast of Antrim. Caverns, evidently 
due to the action of the waves, but 
now far above their reach, are among 
the vestiges of this old sea-level. 

10 m. 1., overhanging a most pre- 
cipitous cliff, are the picturesque 
towers and gables of Dunluce Castle 
(Ir. Dun-lios, "strong fort "), which, 
as far as situation goes, is the most 
singular ruin in the north. It is 
built on a projecting rock, sepa- 
rated from the mainland by a deep 
chasm, which is bridged over by a 
single arch, 18 in. broad, the only 
approach to the castle, and one 
that is sufficiently dangerous and 



unprotected for a nervous vintor. 
Notwithstanding the great size of 
the castle, a nearer inspection is 
somewhat disappointing. The do- 
mestic apartments and offices ap- 
pear to have been principally placed 
on the mainland, while the boild- 
ing on the rock is occupied by a 
small courtyard, a number of small 
apartments, and some round flanking 
towers overhanging the sea, into 
which it is said a portion of the 
castle really fell during a storm in 
1639, when the Marchioness of Buck- 
InghEun was residing here. By whom 
or when it was firat erected is not 
known, but the site was occupied by 
a fortress of the McQuillans, who 
possessed a large portion of this 
northern district, until it was taken 
from them by the M'Donnells (after- 
wards Earls of Antrim), the repre- 
sentative of whom was Sorley Boy, a 
celebrated ciiaracter of those days. 
These possessors were in their torn 
ousted by Sir John Perrott, Lord 
Deputy, who occupied the castle by 
an English garrison. The rock oil 
which it stands is basaltic (portions 
of the building itself showings the 
polygonal structure), and contains 
large caves undemeatU said to com- 
municate with the building. It 
should be mentioned, for the lovers 
of Irish pedigree, that Rory O^e 
M'Qmllan could trace his family ftm 
their departure from Babylon 3000 
years ago, whence they came to 
Scotland, and from their name of 
Chaldseans gave origin to the word 
Oaledonian I 

12i m. BushmiOs (Hotel: McIIroy's, 
good), a neat little town on the banks 
of the Bush, celebrated for its distil- 
lery and its salmon-fishery, the latter 
being much in request among fisher- 
men. Near the bridge in tiie bed 
of the river some curved basaltic 
columns are visible. Adjoining the 
town is Dundarave, the beatitiful 
seat of Sir E. 0. Wurkman^Mc 
Naghten, Bart. 



Ireland. 



BofUe 16. — GianCs Causeway. 



121 



The GiAirr's Causeway. 

14^ m. The approach to the Cause* 
way Hotel (tolerable) is self-evident 
from the numbers of guides and 
others who -lie in wait for the 
traveller, and ran by the side of 
Ills car, proffering their services or 
selUng little boxes of fossils and 
minerals. As regards the former, 
the visitor had better avail himself 
of the knowledge of the head guide. 
As to the fossils, it may not be amiss 
to mention that many of the speci- 
mens offered for sale were never ob- 
tained at the Causeway or even in 
the neighbourhood. At the hotel the 
visitor may obtain a tariff of prices 
for guides, boats, &c., by which he 
Bhould strictly abide, and not allow 
any annoyance from the multitude 
of beggars, who, under pretence of 
showing some special curiosity, pes- 
ter everybody fur money. Should 
the day be calm enough,^ the first 
point is to see the caves which lie 
under the rocks a little to the N.W. 
of the hotel. The principal and 
most beautiftd is Porthcoon, into 
which a boat may be rowed for a 
long distance. It is 350 ft. in length 
and 45ft. in height; and although 
there is an entrance landwards, the 
wonderful effects produced by the 
colouring of the peroxide of iron and 
the deep green of the water are to a 
gteat extent lost to the visitor who 
approaches it thus. The geologist 
should notice a &ult which runs 
through the whole roof ; and to the 
west of the cave a large whindyke. 
The same phenomenon of intrusion of 
tmp may be seen at Dunkerry cave, 
which is 660 ft. long and 96 ft. 
high. 

The 3rd cave, called Backsley, 
cannot be entered, on account of 
Bunken rocks. After examining the 
caves, the visitor is rowed eastward 
and landed on the Causeway ; the 
fint impression of which is fre- 



quently one of disappointment, aris- 
ing perhaps from the overstrained 
accounts written at different times 
by older topographers. This feeling, 
however, spe^ily vields to astonish- 
ment when we take into considera- 
tion the immense scale on which all 
the phenomena exist, and more 
especially when we look minutely 
into the extraordinary arrangement 
of this pavement of nature. The 
basalt which forms the columnar 
bed known as the "Giant's Cause- 
way " is a stream of lava, at the most 
2600 ft. in width, or from E. to W.. 
and appearing along the coast as a 
lenticular-shaped bed, thinning out 
at either side, and is one of a series 
of successive lava-flows, the others 
being represented by the cliffs rising 
from the sea in a series of basaltic 
terraces. 

The columns on the E. slope to 
the E., others to the W., thus show- 
ing the direction of the longest axis 
of the lava-flow. 

It consists of three platforms, 
generally known as the Little, Mid- 
dle, and Great Causeways, as they 
are approached from the W. In 
the Middle or Honeycomb Causeway, 
the principal curiosity is the Lady's 
Chair, a single hexagon pillar, sur- 
rounded by several others of taller 
proportions, so as to form a com- 
forcible seat. Thence the Great 
Causeway is entered through the 
Giant's Gateway, a gap bounded on 
each side by basaltic columns. The 
beauty and order of arrangement of 
the pillars which form the pave- 
ment are the main attraction of the 
Great Causeway, and the guides take 
care to impress on the visitor the 
rarity of certain forms; that of 3- 
sided pillars there is but one, and of 
nonagons but 3 on the whole plat- 
form, while pentagons and hexagons 
are universal, and octagons, which 
they denominate the key-stone, are 
not so common. Each pillar will 
bear looking into, being not only dis- 
tinct from ite neighbours with which 



122 



BotUe 16. — Coleraine to Belfast. 



Irelasd. 



it is closely united, but, moreover, 
containing within itsself an aiTange- 
ment of small crystallizations radi- 
ating from a common centre. 
The idea that the columns were 
formed by regular crystallization is 
now generjiUy abandoned in favour 
of the explanation that they are the 
result of contraction and consequent 
cracking in cooling. They have 
been compared to the similar minia- 
ture columns formed by the contrac- 
tion of starch in the course of its 
manufacture for laundry purposes. 
" The columns of this particular bed 
appear to radiate from a line of 
imaginary centres, which are coinci- 
dent with the longest axis of the 
flow.*' — Du Noyer. Having exa- 
mined the forms of the columns 
and the various points of interest, 
such as the Giant's Loom, Well, 
Theatre, Pulpit, Bagpipes, Ac, all of 
which the guides will take care to 
notice, let us take a comprehensive 
view of the cliffs, which, after all, 
form the chief grandeur of the scene. 
From W. to E., proceeding from the 
hotel, or, still better, from the Portli- 
coon Cave headland, we have the Bay 
of Port-na-baw, Great Steucan Point 
271 ft.. Weir Rnoot 283, Ardsnoot 
307 (the latter overhanging the Cause- 
way), tlie Bay of Portnoffer, the 
Organ Columns, Seagull Island, Port- 
noffer Point 327, the Chimney Head 
320, Port-na-spania, Port-na-oaillain, 
the Nursing Child, Plaiskdn Head, 
Henbane Head, Giant's Pulpit, Ben- 
gore Head. This list will enable the 
visitor to trace the various salient 
points of the whole doast. Standing 
on the Causeway, the attention is 
principally attracted on the 1. by the 
Chimney Headland, consisting of 2 
thick beds of columnar basalt, a few 
isolated columns of which suggested 
the likeness to the chimney. Tiiese 
all rest upon the great " ochre-bed," 
a very marked i'eature in the whole 
section, and below this again con- 
sist of possibly 4 deposits of amor- 
phous basalt, each separated from the 



others by a thin layer of ocbre. At 
Portnoffer Point to the W. of this, the 
same arrangement prevails, thou^rh 
the ochre-bed thins out and is nearer 
to the sea. The columnar beds above 
it now change their character, losing 
their parallelism of deposition, as 
well as diistinct columnar structure : 
the ** ochre-bed" disappears, a deposit 
of amorphous basalt takes its place, 
and a new series of pillars are aeeo 
below, called the Organ. The regu- 
larity and beauty of these pilW 
which extend for about 200 ft, are 
particularly conspicuous, and may 
really be compared to the pip« 
of an organ without any violtnt 
stretcl 1 of i ma gination. The so-cnl y 
" ochre-beds " are bands of reddish 
bole, or volcanic ash, which separate 
successive streams of lava, the ash 
having covered one stream in tho 
interval between its consolidation 
and the flowing of that which fol* 
lowed. 

On the cliffs to the S. of Portnoffti 
** the 2 cqlumnar beds, which are so 
distinct at tiie summit of the Gliim- 
ney Headland, are represented by nut 
less than possibly 4 separate deposits 
of trap, the 2 lowest, which occupy 
the central position of the cliff, being 
rudely and massively columnar, and 
separated from each other by a layer 
of rather black shale." Overhanging 
the causeway is the Ard Snoot, to 
the W. of which is the Whindyke, 
15 ft. thick. Proceeding W. to the 
hotel, it will be perceived that the 
ochre-bed is agiiin visible by the 
pathway, overlaid by the same amt»i^ 
phous trap which rests on the Or^an- 
bed. The whole of the coast, therefore, 
is a cutting, transverse to tlie longest 
axis of the lava flow. The tourist 
who wishes to go more at length into 
the geology of the district should 
consult a very able paper by Mr. l>a 
Noyer, in the * Geologist,' vol. iii. No. 
25, to which the writer of this notice 
is much indebted. The foregoing de- 
scription embraces the principal nnd 
most curious features of the ooast^ but 



Ieeland. BoiUe 16. — Dunseverick — Bcdlintoy. 



123 



nevertheless no visitor should neg- 
lect to prolong his excursion to the 
K of tlie Ghinmey, as the finest coast 
ficenery in the north of Ireland oc- 
curs at Pleaskin. Between these two 
points is Port-na-Spania, so called 
from the clif& having been battered 
by a Spanish vessel, under the im- 
]»es8ioo that they were fortifications. 
From Plecufhifiy which is 354 ft. in 
height, the tourist has a magnificent 
view eastward over Bengore and 
Fairhead. ** The summit is covered 
with a thin grassy sod, under which 
lies the basaltic rock, having gene- 
rally a hard surface somewhat 
cracked and shivered. At the depth 
of 10 to 12 ft. from the summit this 
rock beguis to assume a columnar ten- 
dency and forms a range of massive 
pillarB, standing perpendicular to the 
horizon, and presenting the appear- 
ance of a magnificent gallery or colon- 
nade GO ft. in length." — HamUUma 
* A ntrim.' The seat so often occupied 
by the author just quoted is still 
p> Jnted out by the guides. The fan- 
u^itic arrangements of the cli£& do 
not end with Pleaskin, but are con- 
tinued in the Lion's Head, Ken- 
bane Head, the Twins (two isolated 
rudcs standing together), the Pulpit, 
the Ball Alley, and the Giants' 
(rraves; beyond which the mighty 
headland of Bengore closes the range 
of excrmsions which more immediately 
belong to the Causeway district. 

Uistanees from the Hotel. — Bally- 
eastle, 12 m. ; Bushmills, 2 ; Ballintoy, 
7 ; Gajrick-A-rede, 8 : Dunluce, 5. 

As there is no public conveyance 
eastward from the Causeway, the tra- 
veller will have to take a car, if he 
i<.>llow8 the northern coast road, which 
cuts across the promontory to 

17} m. Dunseverick (Dun Sob- 
hairce — ^the fortress of 6obhairce), 
where on an insulated rock stand the 
tnatnty ruins of a castle probably 
eifreted by the McQuillans, a &mily 
who arrived in Ireland among the 
tatfiiest British adventurers. It 
A&enmids came into possession of 



the O'Cahans or O'Haras, who 
settled in Antrim about the 13th 
cent. Very little is left, though the 
thickness of the walls (11 feet) 
attests its former strength. The 
views looking W. over Bengore 
Head are very fine, as also those 
over Fairhead to the E. The coast 
is worth exploring as far as Ben- 
gore, particularly at Portmoon and 
Portagoona, where there is a pic- 
turesque waterfall formed by the 
small river Feigh. Soon after leav- 
ing Dunseverick the road falls into 
the high road from Portrush and 
winds along the strand of White 
Park Bay to 

22 m. BaUifUoy, a small village 
situated at the foot of the furzy 
hill of Lannimore, 672 ft. The lias 
rocks here seen are identical with 
those of Portrush and McGilligan. 
Lignite has also been occasionally 
worked here. The coast abounds in 
fine views, particularly to the N.E., 
where the cliffs of Rathlin Island 
are most conspicuous ; and further in 
the horizon the Scotch coast in the 
neighbourhood of the Mull of Can- 
tire is plainly visible. Close off 
shore is Sheep Island, and about 1 
m. from the village is that of Car- 
Hck'Orrede^ one of the most singular 
curiosities of the north, on aocoimt of 
the swinging bridge which connects 
the island with the mainland. The 
tourist who wishes for a closer inspec- 
tion, or to cross over to the island, 
should get a boy to show him the 
way from Ballintoy, though a fine 
distant view is obtained from the 
road to Ballycastle. 

Carrick-a-rede is an insulated 
rock, separated from the mainland 
by a chasm 60 ft. wide and more 
than 80 ft. deep. **At this place 
the salmon are intercepted in their 
retreat to the rivers. The fishing 
commences early in spring and con- 
tinues till August ; a rude bridge of 
ropes is thrown across, which re< 
mains during the season." — Lem^. 



124 



Baute 16. — Ccleraine to Belfast 



Ieelahb. 



This bridge, which is protected by a 
single-rope rail, swings about in the 
most uncomfortable manner, often- 
times rendering it a dangerous feat 
in stormy weather, save to the na- 
tives, wlio cross it with the utmost 
indifference. The name is derived 
by Mr. Hamilton fi?om "Carrig-a- 
ramhadh '* (the rock in the road), on 
account of the intercepting of the 
salmon. On the W. side of the 
island is a cayem, like those of Bed 
Bay, and in which similar bones 
have been found. 

From here the way lies over a 
hilly district, leaving to the 1. 1 m. 
the headland of Kenbane (Ir. Cean- 
ban, "white head"), crowned with 
the shell of a castle of probably the 
same date as that of Dunseverick. 
Near it is a singular cave, known as 
Grace Staple's, the basaltic pillars of 
which are worth a visit 

26 m. Ballycagtle {Hotel : Antrim 
Arms, fair), a small uninteresting 
town, prettily placed at the foot of 
KnocMayd (Ir. Cnoc-leithid, "hill 
of breadth "), which rises to the S. to 
the height of 1695 ft., and should be 
ascended for the sake of the fine view 
over the coast and Bathlin Island. 
A part of the town is situated about 
i m. from the rest, on the banks of 
the Glenshesk Biver, near its embou- 
chure, and from its aspect it would 
seem as if an attempt luid been made 
to create some business at Bally- 
castle, which at one time was rather 
noted for its collieries. Basaltic 
dykes and intrusive sheets may be 
seen penetrating the carboniferous 
rocks of the Bay. Above the har- 
bour is a sea-stack, or pillar of rock, 
isolated by the action of the waves 
when the sea washed the ancient 
terrace of which the foot of this 
stack marks the level. On the rt 
iMink of the river is the ruined 
abbey of Bonamargy, of which only 
the shell remains, with one or two 

food pointed windows. It is the 
urying-plaoe of the Antrim fieunily. 



The name Bona,'or Bon-na-Hargy, 
signifies the foot or mouth of the 
Margey, which is the former name 
of the small river which here joins 
the Glenshesk, and now becomes the 
Carey. The chapel is 100 ft. long. 
On the N". of the choir are the refectoir 
and offices ; and ** the eastern porch 
was formerly ornamented with several 
well - executed bas - reliefs." — Me- 
Skimmin. The erection of Bona- 
margy is usually attributed to Sor- 
ley Boy or Somarle McDonnell in 
the 14th centy., though some as- 
cribe it to the M'QaiJlans ; at all 
events it was selected by many of the 
English nobles as their last resting- 
place ; among them by the Ist Eari 
of Antrim, whose continuance in tlis 
world must have had a great effect 
on the fortunes of the country, if we 
are to judge by an Irish inscriptioa 
on his oofiQ^ : — 

" At all times some calamity 

Befals the Irish once every seyenth year; j 

But now that the Marquis Is departed . 

It will happen every year." i 

■' 

s 

The abbey is said to have beetj 
burnt down in a raid made by tb] 
Scottish islanders, though afterwardlj 
rebuilt by the clan of M^Oonnick. 

About 2 m. up the Glenshesk onL 
bank is the site of a castle and rviai 
called after Crobhan Saer. It is a 
question whether it was erected )if 
or a residence of Grobhan, the aicbh 
tect who built the round tower d 
Antrim. A small ruin on the coiiK 
to the W. of Ballycastle complete! 
the antiquarian curioeitiea. The 
geologist will be tempted to explun 
tile cliff} towards Fairhead, fre- 
quented by eagles, which oontaia 
some coal strata, from which at cm 
time 10,000 to 15,000 tons wenj 
raised annually. A oonsldenbb 
quantity of ironstone is stUl raised. 

Cross HiU, on which the ooUitriei 
are situated, is about 500 ft. high, 
and is composed of oolumnar boaJt, 
resting on sandstone and day-sUie, 
beneath which is the coal at aa ei«- 



Ibblaih). Boute 16. — BaUycastle : Excursions. 



125 



Tation of 200 ft. above the beach. 
The seam is penetrated by a large 
dyke of fre^tone, called Oarrick 
Mawr. 

Conveyances. — To Ballymoney 
daily ; to Lame. 

Excurgians,-^ 

1. Fairbead. 

2. Cnshendun. 

3. Annoy. 

4. Carrick-€i-rede. 

5. Bathlin. 

instances. — Ballintoy, 4 m. ; Gianfe 
Causeway, 11^ ; Fairbead, 5 ; Ousben- 
dun, 12 ; Cnsbendall, 17; Ballymoney, 
17; Bathlin Island, 6. 



Exeurion to BatMin Island, 

Favourable weather must be 
chosen, as the sail or row across the 
Race of Slocb-na-marra, or the valley 
of the sea, is unpleasant, if not dan- 
gerous, when it is stormy. At ebb 
tide the opposing waters form a very 
rough sec^ which was anciently called 
the Caldron of Brecain, owing to the 
drowning of Brecain, son of Nial of 
the Nine Hostages, together with his 
fleet of 50 curraghs. Bathlin^ Beach- 
rainn, or Baghery Island, the Bicina 
of Ptolemy, is of considerable extent, 
cf the shape of a finger bent at right 
angles (or, as Sir W. Petty quaintly 
describes it, of an " Irish stoskinge, 
the toe of whi(^pointeth to the main 
lande"), measuring from E. to W. 
about 4 m. Its singular position be- 
tween Ireland and Scotland, its an- 
cient remains, and its natural beau- 
ties, all combine to make it a very 
interesting visit. St. Columb founded 
a church here in the 6th cent., an 
lionnur which may be attributed to its 
{•osjtion between lona and Ireland. 
When the Danes invaded the north, 
the island had to bear the first brunt 
uf their savage assaults. Later on it 
waa 80 repeatedly ravaged by the 
English and Scotch that in 1580 it 



was totally uninhabited. Bathlin 
is connected with the fortunes of 
Bobert Bruce, who for a long period 
sought concealment in the castle 
which still bears his name, and in 
which, according to the legend, the 
well-known episode of the spider 
and the web occurred. There is 
but one harbour in the island, viz. in 
Church Bay , and even this is untenable 
during westerly gales, to which it is 
freely exposed. Near the landing- 
place is the residence of Bobert 
Gage (of the Sussex family of tbat 
name), who, as proprietor of the 
island, lives amongst his people, and 
exercises patriarchal rule and in- 
fluence. In this respect Bathlin was 
not alwflys so fortunate, as at one 
time we read in the Ulster Visita- 
tion, " The isle of Baghline, possesste 
b^ the Earle of Antrym, has neither 
vicar nor curate, it not being able to 
mayntayne one." f m . from the bay on 
the E. side is Bruce^s Castle^ or what 
is left of it— a small portion of wall, 
situated on a lofty precipice, nearly 
insulated from the mainland by a 
deep chasm. The chief beauty of 
Bathlin is the cliffs, which maintain 
a considerable elevation all round, 
the highest point being at Slieve-a- 
cam, 447 ft, on the N.W. coast, while 
there is scarce any part lower than 
180 ft. The general structure of the 
rocks is chalk and basalt, the latter 
assuming, in some places, the same 
columnar aspect as on tlie opposite 
coast of Fairbead. At Doon Point, 
nearly 2 m. to the S. of Brace's 
Castle, they are most peculiar, having 
a curved form, "as if they slid over 
while in a state of softness, and took 
the inclination necessary to their 
descent. At the base there is a 
small mole, composed of compact 
erect columns, forming a natural 
pier." — Doyle. There are also some 
singular caverns in the basalt to the 
S. of Church Bay; and at Bunas- 
cariff the cliffs assume appearances 
similar to those at Doon. The island 
contains 3368 acres, of which about 



126 



Boute 16. — Coleraine to Belfast,' 



Ireland. 



one-fourth is arable and pasture ; the 
inhabitants are a simple quiet race, 
who chiefly ^ain their subsistence 
by fishing, gathering: kelp, and grow- 
ing barley, the last two of which are 
taken to Campbellton and Glas- 
gow. 



FairJiead. 

A second excursion should be 
undertaken to Fairiiead or Benmore 
(the Robogdium Promontorium of 
Ptolemy), whose magnificent escarp- 
ment is a striking feature in the drive 
from Ballintoy to Ballycastle, and 
forms a worthy finish to the basaltic 
wonders of the N. coast. 
. Tlie tourist should observe the 
roches moutonnea or smooth rounded 
bosses of basaltic rock which, in 
spite of its hardness, has been sliom 
of its angles by the grinding pro- 
gress of an ancient glacier which 
swept over the summit of the head- 
land. 

It is 639 ft. in height, of which 
319 or nearly half is occupied by a 
mural precipice of enormous green- 
stone columns, many of them up- 
wards of 30 ft. in width. From the 
base of these Brobdingnag piers, a 
buttress of ddbris runs at a sharp 
inclination down to the sea. A steep 
and broken path, called "FhirLeith," 
or the Grey MarCs Fath^ runs through 
a mighty chasm, across which a gi- 
gantic pillar has Mien: by follow- 
ing this the tourist will gain a good 
view of the columnar face of the pro- 
montory. The view jfrom the sum- 
mit is difficult to surpass for panora- 
mic extent, embracing the island of 
Bathlin, a considerable portion of the 
Scotch coast, Islay, the Mull of Can- 
tire, and in clear weather the Paps 
of Jura, while, to the W., the eye 
follows the coast to the Causeway, 
with the hills of Inishowen looming 
in the far distance. There are 3 
small tarns on the headland, one of 
which, Lough Doo, is close to the 



cliff, and empties itself over it by a 
waterfall. The waters of tlie other 2, 
Lough-na-Fanna and Lough Fadden, 
also form a fall over Carrick Mawr, 
the whinstone dyke of the Ballycastl** 
coal-field, which, it should be men- 
tioned, reappeara on the W. side of tU 
headland at Murlough Bay. Ev»n 
in this short distance, the effects »! 
the disturbance to which the be<l< 
have been subject are very strikinir. 
There are at Murlough 6 beds (■: 
coal, the 4 uppermost of which 
are bituminous, while the lower one? 
are anthracitic. The history of 
these collieries, which have all been 
worked by adits in the sea-tace t-f 
the clif^ would be interestin": if 
known. That they "were worktJ 
from a very early period is certain, 
for in 1770, when an English com- 
pany had taken possession of them, the 
colliers employed discovered a Ion? 
gallery, and chambers ctmtaiDin? 
baskets, tools, and candles, tije 
wicks of which were formed of ra^ 
there were also barrows made of 
boulders of basalt, clearly proving the 
very early efforts that were made tn 
get the coal. Mr. Hamilton also men- 
tions that in the mortar of which 
Bruce's Castle in Bathlin Island w»> 
built, cinders of coal were found. Thf 
best way to visit this coast is to take 
a boat from Ballvcastle, row round 
the head, and land at Murlough Ba5> 
returning by foot along the coast. 



Armoy and Glensheak. 

The antiquary may spend an in- 
teresting day in visiting Armoy (Jr. 
Airthr-maigiie, '* Eastern plain " . 
7 m. to the S.W.,— the road thither 
running at the foot of Knocklayd. 
In the cli.-yard is a round tower, 
35 ft high, by 46 round, with a 
circular doorway. A former reott»r 
surmounted it with a dome of win^ 
and stone, and restored it to iu 
original purpose of a Cloig-theagh, bT 



Treland. 



Boute 16. — Cushendall. 



Ill 



iceping the ch. bell in it. From 
Annoy, a by-road may be taken into 
iie lonely vale of the Glenahesk, 
^liich nises in the Sleive-an-Orra 
VIountain (1678 ft.), a portion of a 
ofty chain intervening between 
bkiUycastle and Cushendall. On 
the L bank of the river, 2 m. from 
BiiUycastle, is the Castle of Gobhan 
Saer, the architect of Antrim Round 
Tower. It has, however, been proved 
by Dr. Beeves to have been an old 
chapel, ** probably the Ecclesia de 
Druia Indict, of the Tripartite Life 
3f St. Patrick." Large numbers of 
(tone celts and weapons have been 
bund in this neighbourhood from 
ime to time, proving the struggles 
iiat have here taken place. On the 
miumit of Knocklayd is a large 
'iiira, said to have been erected to 
he memory of 3 Danish princesses, 
^.a inspection of the Abbey of Bona- 
uargy (p. 124) will conclude a good 
iay's work. 



Ketuming to our main route, 
he road from Ballycastle follows 
he vale of the Carey as far as the 
uimlet of (29 m.) Ballyvoy, where a 
>ranch is given off along the coast 
>Hst Torr and Bunabay Heads to 
^Udheudun, For pedestrians who 
ridh to obtain coast views, this route 
8 very advantageous, and only about 
^ m. longer. The car-road crosses 
^e Corey, and strikes into the 
lulls, passing along the base of Car- 
Beijrhaneigh (1036 ft.). 

The view from the top of the 
lull overlooking Cushendun (Jr. 
Coia-abhann-Duine, ** end of river 
Dun') is very charming, and em- 
braces the little village, with its 
pretty church and neat residences 
Bestling by the sea-shore, and on 
^ banks of the Glendun, a river 
of same volume rising in the Slieve- 
iin-Orra hills, and flowing for its 
wiiole course between mountains of 
considerable height. About 2 m. from 
the village it is crossed by a lofty 



and exceedingly picturesque via- 
duct, which, as seen from a distance, 
completely spans the vale. Close to 
the sea-shore (where the tourist will 
find more caves) are the residences 
of Nicholas Crommelin and B. C. 
Dobbs, Esqrs. 

Distance. — Cushendun from Cush- 
endall, 5 m. ; Ballycastle, 12. 

43 m. Cushendall {Hotel: Mar- 
tin's—comfortable) is another pretty 
little town, placed close to the sea 
at the mouth of the Glenaan, amidst 
very lovely scenery. The Dall, a 
small stream from which the name 
is derived, also falls in here. 

There are slight ruins of a castle 
on a mount hard by. The road now 
greatly improves in scenery, running 
close to the waterside, and affording 
magnificent coast views, in which 
the cliffs of Bed Bay are well set off 
by the chalk strata of Garron Point. 

The greater part of the district 
from Ballycastle to Cushendun, is 
composed of granitic rocks, oc- 
casionally interrupted by the coal- 
measures, and subsequently by the 
chalk. From the latter place, how- 
ever, the Devonian, or old Bed 
make their appearance, and are ex- 
posed in magnificent sections all 
along the coast, particularly at the 
romantic village of Glenariffy or 
Waterfoot (44| m.), in which the 
road is actually carried under short 
tunnels of old Bed. There are also 
several caves, perforated in the old 
coast cliff, doubtless by the action 
of the waves. Their mouths mark 
the level of the ancient beach before 
mentioned (p. 120). "Three of 
them at Port Ballingtoy were ex- 
plored by Mr. James Bryce (* Trans. 
Brit. Association, 1834,' p. 658), and 
Dr. McDonnell, and yielded bones 
of horse, ox, deer, sheep, goat (?), 
badger, otter, water-rat and several 
birds.'*— fl^W. 

Bed Bay is one of the most pic- 
turesque spots in the whole route. 
It is an irregular semicircle sur- 
rounded by cliffs; at one comer 



128 



Boute 16. — ColeratTte to Belfast 



Ibelaitd. 



are the white houses of the village, 
situated just where the glen of the 
Glenariff opens up into the moun- 
tains, which are here of a consi- 
derable height. Immediately over 
the village are the escarpments of 
Lurigetlian (1154 ft.), while Orocha- 
lough (1304), and Trostran (1817), 
the highest of the chain, close the 
view. The red sandstone now shortlv 
disappears, giving place to the chalx 
cli£Es, which have been blasted to 
form the magnificent terrace-road, 
executed by the perseverance and 
genius of the late Mr. Tumley. 

Isolated columns of chalk staiid 
fantastically along the seashore, by 
the side of which the road runs 
very closely, presenting sea views 
that are seldom surpassed. 48| m. 
at Ologh-a-stucan, one of the most 
peculiar of these columns, the road 
trends to the S., and passes Garron 
T&wer, the castellated residence of 
the Londonderry family, who pos< 
sess in this and the neighbouring 
county of Derry very large estates. 
It was a favourite residence of the 
late Dowager Marchioness of Lon- 
donderry, who visited it annually, 
and made extensive improvements on 
the property. Close to Garron Point 
is the rock of Drwnmail^ or Dunmaul, 
the summit of which is crowned by a 
fort» said by tradition to have been 
the locality where all the Irish rents 
were paid. From hence too the 
Danish ravagerstook their departure. 
(Continuing under the escarpments of 
Knockore (1179 ft.), which are every 
now and then interrupted by a lovely 
dell, we come to (51 m. rt.) Drurnna- 
sole (J. Turnley, Esq)., one of the 
most beautiful of the many beautiful 
localities in this district. 

53 m. Camlough (a good Inn), a 
pretty and cheerfid looking watering- 
place, has grovm up under the foster- 
ing eyes of the Londonderry femily, 
who erected a pier and tram-road 
for bringing the limestone from the 
quarries. It has the recommenda- 
tions of lovely scenery, smooth beach. 



and general cleanliness. A bid&U 
river falls into the sea here, rising 
in the hills of Gollm Top (1426 fti. 
About 3 m. to the rt another wind 
of the coast-road brings the touii^t 
in sight of the bay and valley of 
Glenarm, still more secluded than 
either Waterfoot or Camlough, 
{Hotel : Antrim Arms). Glenarm it 
a pretty Uttle town of about 10(Hi 
Inhab., adorned with a gracefiil 
spired ch., and the baronial residence 
of the fomily of Macdonnell, Earls 
of Antrim. The latter stands in a 
wooded park, on the opposite side of 
the river to the town, and is entered 
by a tower on the N. side of the bridge. 
The castle itself is a modernized sihI 
singular mixture of towers, pan- 
pete, and pinnacles, though the ex- 
quisite situation and scenery are sof* 
ficient compensation for any archi- 
tectural inconsistencies. The toori«t 
should visit the terrace which oyer- 
hangs the river, the walk down the 
glen to the sea, in the course of 
which are some charming water&IU 
and the Deer-park, which is hemmed 
in between the sea and a fine ranse 
of basaltic clifis over 200 ft. high. 
Glenarm Castle has been inhabited 
by the Antrim fiunily since IToo. 
their former residence having beea 
at Ballymagarry, until its destructioa 
by fire. 

Distances. — ^Lame, 11} m. ; Cu^* 
endall, 13; Ballycastle, 30; (Vd> 
lough, 3. 

Excursions, — 

1. Camlough and Garron. 

2. Lame and Carncastle. 

The old road is seen from the 
castle grounds to climb up a venr 
steep hill This was for Ion;? the 
only road to the place, but it va^* 
superseded in 1834 by the magnificent 
scheme of Mr. Bald, who, by blsAt- 
ing the chalk cliffis, and allowing tbf 
d&ria to serve as a bulwark against 
the sea, obtained room for a brood 
road, equal in every respect to the 



rsELAisD. Boute 16. — Lame — Island Magee. 



129 



one completed by Mr. Tumley. The 
pedestrian, however, will do well to 
take the old road, which keeps high 
ground nntil about half-way to 
Hiarne. Some miles out at sea, the 
two solitary Hulin or Maiden rocks 
are con^icuous, bearing a fixed light- 
house on each, 84 and 94 ft. re- 
spectively above high water. 

63 m. at Camcastle is a very fine 
development of cliff scenery ; on 
the rt. in the escarpments of Knock 
Dhu and Sallagh Braes, which are 
shaped like an amphitlieatre, and on 
1. in Ballygalley Head, where the 
basaltic columns are again visible. 

There are remains of a fort on an 
insulated rock between the road and 
the sea, and also of the Elizabethan 
manor-house of the Shaws : on 
rt. is Gamcastle Lodge (J. Chaine, 
Esq.). The road now winds along- 
side of Drains Bay, and, passing 
tlirough a basaltic tunnel known as 
Black Cave, arrives at 

67| m. Lame (It: Lathama) 
(Hotel: King's Arms), a prettily 
placed town, which, though not 
offering many attractions in it- 
self, is a convenient point from 
whence to explore Island Magee. 
From the security of ita land-locked 
Imrhour a very considerable trade 
has been carried on here, particu- 
larly in the article of lime, which is 
extensively shipped at Maghera- 
mome, about 4 m. to the S. A 
handsome Toum hall has been erected 
at the expense of Charles M'Grarel, 
Esq., and presented by him to the 
people of Lame. 

Between the town and the ferry the 
coast makes a singular curve, from 
its shape called Curraun (a reaping- 
hook) ; and at the termination of the 
carve stands a square tower, which 
in former days was celebrated un- 
der the name of Olderfleet Castle, 
Henry III. granted the possession of 
this district to the Scotch family 
of Bissett, who built the fortress for 
the protection of their property. 



though it was subsequently forfeited 
on account of their participation in 
rebellion. The only historical event 
of importance connected with the 
castle is the landing of Bruce (1315), 
with an army of 6000 men, for tiie in- 
vasion of Ireland. Baphanus mari- 
timus grows on the Curraun, near 
the salt-works. 

Distances. — Carrickfergus, 14} m. 
by rail ; Glenarm, 1} ; Maghera- 
morne, 4 ; Glynn, 2. 

Conveyances. — Car to Ballycastle 
and Glenarm ; rail to Carrickfergus 
and Belfast ; Steamer daily to Stran- 
raer, in Galloway, N. B. 

ExcursUms, — 

1. Magheramome and Glynn. 

2. Glenarm. 

3. Island Magee. 

4. Carrickfergus. 



Island Magee, 

1 m. from the tovm is a ferry (the 
rights of which were granted, toge- 
ther with the castle of Olderfleet, 
to the Chichester family in the 
17th cent.) between the so-called 
Island Magee and the mainland. 
In reality it is only a narrow pro- 
montory about 5 m. in length and 2 
in breadth, running parallel with 
and separating the mainland from 
the ocean. " The inhabitants are all 
of Scottish descent, and are still 
thoroughly Scotch in dialect, man- 
ners, and customs ; they are a re- 
markably intelligent race ; and it is 
worthy of notice, that out of a popu- 
lation of nearly 3000, no person 
living can recollect an instance of a 
native of this place being imprisoned 
for or convicted of any criminal 
offence."— JTaM. 

It was held by the singular tenure 
of a goshawk and a pair of gloves. 
On the E. coast the scenery is very 
fine, particularly at the Gobbins, a 
range of high cliffo, of basaltic cha- 



130 



BofUe 16. — Coleraine to Belfast, 



Ikelahtd. 



racter, and perforated by 7 caves. 
The W. coast is not remarkable for 
anything but its mud banks, particu- 
larly towards the S., where the shores 
of Lough Lame approximate. 

The antiquary ^1 find, near the 
landing-place, a cromlech formed of 
6 upright stones supporting a large 
flat slab nearly 6 ft. in length. Some 
years ago several gold ornaments, 
including a torque, were dug up 
near this cromlech. ** There is an 
ancient Pagan remain called Cam- 
doo, or locally * The Abbey,' on the 
face of Ballybooley Hill (near Port- 
muck), consisting of several huge 
stones ranged in a circle.*'— DoyZe. 
At Brown's Bay on the N. is a large 
roddng-stone, which was believed to 
tremble at the approach of a crimi- 
nal. Good as was Island Magee as 
regards moral character, it had an 
unlbrtunate notoriety for witchcraft 
and superstition, the last trial which 
took place in Ireland being that of a 
native of this district, who was pil- 
loried at Carrickfergus in 1711. 



The tourist may now proceed by 
road or rail, following the coast in 
either case. Immediately after leav- 
ing Lame the road crosses the Lame 
Water, which rises about 4 m. S.E. 
at Ceaun Gubha. the "Hill of 
Grief." Here Tuathal Teachtmar 
was slain in battle, a.d. 106, by Mai 
MacRochraide, King of Ulster. 

69i m. at Glynn (rly. stat.) are the 
ruins of a ch., the nave possessing 
square-headed windows of an earlier 
date than those of the chancel, which 
are Pointed. The latter is evidently 
an addition. 



Irdand Boad to Eden. 

From this village a road shorter 
by 2 m., but not so practica- 
ble, runs inland to Carrickfergus, 
rejoming the coast-road at Eden, 



and passing en route Cr2«no€, a 
very picturesque village in a deep 
glen, in which a waterMl adds to 
the beauty of the scene. A new ch. 
has been built in the vicinity by the 
exertions of the late liord Dun- 
gannon. 

Passing through the hamlet of 
Beltoy, we have on rt. Lough Moume, 
the waters of which are said to cover 
a large town, which was thus over- 
whelmed at the request of a pilgrim 
who had been refused hospitality, 
and had cursed it at his depsLrture. 

8| m. Eden. 



Between Glynn and Maghera- 
mome House (G. M*Garel, Esq., 
near which are the extensife 
lime-works before mentioned, the 
geologist will notice the effects of 
a large landslip which in 1834 car- 
ried away the coach-road. A narrov 
strip of lias runs alongside the lough 
and will yield a number of charac- 
teristic lias fossils to the collector 
— ^viz., Pentacrinites, Plagiostoma, 
Gryphffia, Ammonites, &c. 

Nearly opposite the commence- 
ment of the Lough Lame are the vil- 
lage of BaUyoarry (rly. stat.) and 
the ruined church of Temptecoran, 
noted for being the cradle of tie 
Presbyterian religion in Irelainl. 
where the first congregation wu^ 
established in 1613 by Bev. Edwaitl 
Brice. The living of Kilroot was 
the first appointment obtained by 
Dean Swift, but was soon resigne«i 
by him, on account of its unconge- 
nial solitude. Close to the high road 
is the dell of the Salt Hole, the 
scene of James McDonnell's in&- 
mous ambuscade in 1597, when Sir 
John Chichester, governor of Canick- 
fergus, was captured, to finish liis 
career by being executed at Glynn. 

Bed Hall is the seat of Bev. D. 
Bull. 

76 m. near Slaughterford Brid<re 
the road running through Island 



Ireland. 



Boute 16. — Carrickfergus. 



131 



Magee falls in. About f m. 1. on 
the coast are the remains of the 
castle of the Ghichesters, which thus 
protected the district on the S. as 
Oldeifleet did on the N. 1 m. further 
up the coast is the promontory of 
Black Head, well worth visiting for 
its beautiful cliff scenery. Two 
isolated rocks. My Lord and My 
Lady, are especial attractions. 

79 m. rt. are the demesnes of 
Bellahill (M. Dalway, Esq). CSastle 
Dobbs (C. Dobbs, Esq.), and Or- 
lands (J. Smyth, Esq.); and soon 
afterwards, the village of Eden, 
between which and Kilroot the 
botanist will find Orobanche rubra, 
Carex Baxhaumi, and Galama grostis. 
At Kilroot is an excellent section of 
the great terrace of the N.E. coast, 
"where shells and worked flints are 
exceedingly abundant. It is here 
that these works of ancient art were 
first discovered by the members of 
the Belfast Naturalists* Club ; they 
vere afterwards discovered by the 
late Mr. Du Meyer, who, judging 
by the great number of the chips 
of flint accompanying arrow-heads 
or spear-heads, came to the conclu- 
sion that the shore of Kilroot had 
been an ancient Palaeolithic work- 
shop where weapons of war or of the 
chase were made from the clialk 
flints of the adjoining hills." — Hull. 

82 m. the time-honoured port of 
Canrickfergus (Ir. Carraig - Fear- 
gusa) [Hotels: Victoria; Imperial) 
I Pop. 4028). The town is mean and 
dirfy, but its situation on the shores 
of the Belfast Lough, goes far to 
If deem these faults : added to which, 
its historic associations and its well- 
preserved remains will amply repay a 
day spent here. These remains are — 
1 The Castle ; 2. Walls ; 3. Church. 

The Castle is a magnificent speci- 
Dien of an inhabited Anglo-Norman 
fortress, and was built by De Courcy 
in 1178, to protect his Ulster posses- 
wons. It changed hands, however, 
during the invasion of Edw. Bruce, 
"tho, having captured Olderfleet, oc- 



cupied Carrickfergus after a long and 
spirited defence by the English garri- 
son under Mandeville. After Bruce's 
fall, in the battle near Dundalk, the 
castle again reverted to the English, 
and, with a few occasional changes 
into Scotch or Irish possession during 
the troubled times of 1641, remained 
with them. Mention should also be 
made of the attack by the French, 
under Thurot, in 1760, though their 
success was but shoi-tlived. The 
English squadron under Elliott over- 
took the French near the Isle of 
Man, and during the engagement 
tliat followed Thurot was killed. 
The castle occupies a strong position 
on a rock overlooking the Lough, 
and at high water is surrounded on 
3 sides, the harbour occupying the 
area to the S. The entrance from 
the land side is through a fine gate- 
way, flanked ou either side by a 
tower, called a Half-moon. TJie 
visitor will notice the usual defen- 
sive appliances, such as portcullis, 
embrasures for fire-arms, and the 
apertures for pouring melted lead, 
&c., upon the assailants. Within the 
gates is the lower yard or ballium, 
containing guard-rooms and bar- 
racks ; and to the S. again is the 
upper yard, from which rises the 
most conspicuous portion of the cas- 
tle — the great donjon or keep, a 
huge square tower of 5 stories. 
" The largest room, called Fergus's 
Dining-room, was in the 3rd story, 
with some circular windows ; it was 
25 ft. high, 38 ft. broad, 40 ft. long ; 
the ground story was bombproof, 
and within the keep was a di*aw-well 
37 ft. deep, but now nearly choked 
up with rubbish." — M*Skimmin 8 
* History of Carrickfergus.' The walls 
of the castle follow the sinuosities of 
the rock all round. Since 1843 it 
has been garrisoned for the crown 
by a detachment of artillery and pen- 
sioners, and has lately been refitted 
with guns of newer type and calibre. 
The visitor is allowed to Inspect the 
whole, with the exception of the 

K 2 



132 



BotUe 17. — Dublin to Galway, 



Irelakd- 



keep, part of which is used as a 
magazine. 

The walls have to a great extent 
disappeared, but they may be traced 
on the W. side of the town, and 
partly on the N., where a round 
arched gateway still exists. 

The ch., dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
is a cruciform building, surmounted 
by a broad spire with a balustrade 
round the base. Notice the singular 
Elizabethan style of the N. transept, 
with its gable ends. In the interior 
are some remarkable monuments, 
especially one to Lord Donegal, with 
2 principal kneeling figures, repre- 
senting Sir Arthur Chichester, first 
Earl of Belfast, and his wife. Below 
is the effigy of Sir John Chichester, 
who was taken in the ambuscade 
at Salthole, and beheaded. It is 
said that " James McDonnell, being 
in Carrickfergus, went to see the 
monuments in the ch., and, upon Sir 
John's effigy being pointed out, he 
said, * How the deil cam he to get 
his head again ? for I am sure I ance 
tak it frae him.' " 

The transept is divided from the 
nave by 2 round-headed arches and 
round piers. The ch. is lighted by a 
3-light window on N. of chancel, a 
stained-glass S. window, and 2 sin- 
gular rose lights on either side of the 
organ. A subterranean passage now 
blocked up communicates with a 
Franciscan monastery, which for- 
merly existed some way from the 
church. 

The oysters taken along the coast 
by Carrickfergus are much esteemed 
for their excellent flavour. 

The geologist may pay a visit to 
the salt-mines at Duncrue, that 
lie to the W. of the town. They 
are situated in the triassic sandstone 
deposit, which borders the Bel&st 
Lough all the way from White H^id 
to Belfast. 

Ctmveycmces, — From Carrickfergus 
to Belfast, Antrim, and Lame, by 
rail. Mail-car to Larne. 



Distances. — ^Belfast, 9 J m.; An- 
trim, 15J ; Lame, 12 ; Glenarin, 26. 

Leaving on 1. the ancient site of 
the Abbey of Woodbum, the tra- 
veller arrives at the Junction of the 
Antrim and Coleraine Bly., and is 
soon deposited at 

91^ m. Belfast (Rte. 5). 



ROUTE 17. 

DUBUN TO MULLINGAR, ATHLONE, 
BALLINASLOE, AND GALWAY. 

The whole of this route, 126 m.. 
is performed by the Midland Great 
Western Bly., opened in 1852, one 
of the great trunk lines of Ire- 
land, which cuts right across the 
country, dividing it as nearly as 
possible into 2 equal portions. It is 
the principal route to Connemara 
and the Western Highlands, and 
passes through such desolate tracti 
of land that the English tourist 
cannot be too thankful that he 
is travelling by the locomotive in- 
stead of an outside car. And 
yet the country is not altogether so 
bleak ; for the first 25 miles or so it i> 
characterised by wooded champaign 
country, watered by pretty streams, 
and dotted with ieima and resi- 
dences, while every now and then, 
even in the worst portion, a prettr 
bit of landscape breaks the mo- 
notony of the bog. The line starts 
from the Broadstone Stat, in the 
northern part of the city. It is a 
large, though somewhat heavy build- 
ii^, of a mixture of Grecian and 
Egyptian styles. Close to the stat, 
and indeed running side by sidd 



Ireland. 



Boute 17. — Clonsilla — Leixlip. 



133 



with the line for 50 m., is the 
Boyal CSanal, also the property of 
the Midland Great Western Ck). 
Emerging &om the offices of the 
stat. yard, the line passes through 
some of the pleasantost suburbs of 
Dublin, haying on 1. the Phoenix Park 
with its numerous objects of interest, 
and on rt. the Tillages of Glasneyin, 
with its cemetery and botanical gar- 
dens, and Finglas, also the observatory 
of DuDsink, all of which are adjacent 
to the valley of the Tolka River. They 
have been described in Bte. 1. A 
fine background is afforded on the 1. 
by the ranges of the Dublin and 
Wicklow mountains, which, however, 
after a few miles ^tulually trend to 
theS. 

4.^ m. Blanehardstoum Stat Here 
is a large religious house for nuns ; 
and adjoining the village is Abbots- 
town, the residence of Ion Trant 
Hamilton, Esq., M.P. 



1 m. 1., occupying the summit of 
Enockmaroon Hill, Ccistlekiioek, a 
small village, with the ruins of a 
fortress, formerly held by Hugh de 
Tyrrel against Edward Bruce in 
1316. It was on this occasion cap- 
tured, and again in 1642 by Monk, 
the future Duke of Albemarle, '* who 
slew in the assault 80 of its de- 
fenders, and subsequently hanged 
as many more." The worthy citi- 
zens of Dublin will doubtless find 
greater attractions in the strawberry- 
heds for which the valley of the 
Liffey is &mou8, and which extend 
for a considerable distance on the 
K. side of the river. 



7 m. Clonsilla, remarkable for a very 
deep canal cutting of 3 m. in length, 
through the calp or middle carbomfe- 
roQs limestone series. The Dublin 
&iid Meath line branches oli at this 
station. 



Between the rly. and the Ldffey are 
the picturesque grounds of Wood- 
lands, the well-planted demesne of 
Lord Annaly, and formerly the seat of 
the Earls of Oarhamptoii. The house 
is said to contain a room in which 
King John passed a night 

9 m. Luean Stat The village of 
the same name, which gives the title 
of Earl to the family of Bingham, is 
charmingly situated, about 1 m. to 
the L on the S. bank of the Liffey, 
here crossed by a single-arched stone 
bridge of 100 ft. span, with iron balus- 
trades. Lucan was celebrated for 
its spa, though fisishion has long ago 
deserted it " Its fiame was derived 
from its sulphuretted hydrogen water, 
flowing from a bed of calp limestone, 
which contains pyrites." — Knox. 
The banks of the river are charm- 
ingly set off by ornamental parks 
and residences, amongst which are 
Lucan House (0. Colthurst Esq.), 
Woodville House (Lady Scott), and 
St. Edmonsbury House (W. Ber- 
wick, Esq.). In the grounds of the 
former house, into which visitors are 
admitted, are the remains of the 
fortress of the Sarsfields, the ances- 
tors of the Binghams. 

[The tourist who may wish to 
return to town by a different route, 
can go across from Lucan to the other 
stat on the Great Southern and 
Western Bly. (Bte. 28), distant 1 J m. 
He may also proceed n-om the village 
to Leixlip, visit the salmon-leap, and 
rejoin the Midland line at Leixlip 
Stat] 

10 m. rt. (at which point the tra- 
veller enters Eildare county) are the 
partial remains of a curiously tall 
tower, known as Confey CcLStle, sup- 
posed to have been one of many that 
were erected by the early English 
colonists to protect themselves from 
the attacks of the native Irish. When 
in preservation, it consisted of a 
massive square tower of 5 stages, 



134 



Boute 17. — Dublin to Oaltoay. 



JjSXLASD. 



-with turrets at .the N. and W. angles, 
and had a principal entrance under 
a semicircular archway. 



11 m. Leixlip Stat. 

Salmon-Leap and Celbridge. f m. 
from which on 1. is the ancient little 
town of Leixhp (Dan. Lax -lob, 
*' salmon-run "), situated at the con- 
fluence of the Rye Water with the 
Liffey, which is crossed by a stone 
bridge of 3 arches. Overlooking the 
wooded banks of the river is the mo- 
dernized castle, flanked on the W. by 
a circular, and on the E. by a square 
tower, the building of which is 
attributed to Adam Fitz-Hereford, 
one of the earliest of Anglo-Norman 
settlers, and a follower of Strong- 
bow. It is now the residence of 
O. P. Hofl&nan, Esq. The chief part of 
the property round Leixlip formerly 
belonged to the Earls of Kildare, 
from whom it passed into the Go- 
noUy family. A short distance up 
the stream is the famous salmon- 
leap, where the Liffey tumbles over 
a broad though not high ledge of 
limestone rocks in a very picturesque 
cataract— a favourite resort of picnic- 
lovers from Dublin. 

The visitor must not found his 
hopes too strongly on seeing the 
sahnon ascend &e ledge "per sal- 
tum," as it is only at certam times 
and seasons that the operation is 
performed. The botanist will find 
Hieracium hirsutum growing near 
the Leap. 

1 m. higher up the river is crossed 
at Newlridge by a very ancient 
bridge of 4 arches (the 2 middle 
ones being pointed), built in 1308 by 
John le Decer, then Mayor of Dublin, 
and believed to be the oldest struc- 
ture of the kind now existing in 
Ireland. On the rt. bank of the 
lafley are the grounds of Si. WtU- 
stanSt containing some interesting 
Dec. gateways, the remains of 



the priory founded here by Adam 
Fitz-Hereford, at the beginning 
of the 13th cent, in honour of 
St. Wulfstan, Bishop of Worces- 
ter, who had been just before ca- 
nonized. On the opposite side of 
the stream is Castletown Houk, the 
seat of the late T. CJonolly, Esq., M.P., 
whose ancestor, the Bight Hon. Wil- 
liam Conolly, was Speaker of the 
House of Commons in the time oi* 
Queen Anne. The house is a fine 
though somewhat overgrown build- 
ing, consisting of a cen^e connected 
with 2 wings by semicircular colon- 
nades. By a £a.vourite Irish fiction, it 
is supposed to contain a window for 
every day in the year, just as all the 
lakes are said to be furnished with 
365 islands. The groimds contain 
some splendid cedar-trees. 

3 m. from Leixlip is the pretty 
village of Celbridge, noted for bein;; 
the residence of Miss Esther Yan- 
homrigh, the illfated Vanessa of Dean 
Swift. From hence the tourist can 
return to Dublin from Hazlehatch 
Stat li m. on the Great Southern 
line. 



Crossing the valley of the Rye 
Water, in company with an aqueduct 
100 ft. in height for the accommo- 
dation of the canal, and skirting the 
woods of Carton on rt, the line 
reaches 

15 m. Maynooih (Hotd: Leinster 
Arms), a small, tolerably built town, 
containing several interesting objects 
(Pop. 1497). Conspicuous from the 
rly. is the massive tower of the castle, 
renowned for its strength and 
magnificence during its tenure by 
the powerful family of Kildare. It 
was built in 1176 by Maurice Fitz- 
Gerald, who came over with Strong- 
bow, and enlarged by John Earl of 
Kildare, and remained in the pos- 
session of the Fitz-Geralds. In the 
reign of Henry Y III., in oonseqaence 



Ireland. 



BotUe 17. — Maynooth — Carton. 



135 



of the rebellion of Lord Thomas 
Fitz-Gerald, better known as Silken 
Thomas, from his followers wearing 
accoutrements of silken fringe on 
their helmets, it was besieged by Sir 
William Brereton, to whom it was 
treacherously yielded by Christopher 
Parese, the foster-brother of tiie 
Geraldines. The traitor weub, how- 
ever, rightly served, for, after pay- 
ment was made to him of the stipu- 
lated reward, ** his head was chopped 
ofiV or, as Stanihurst has it, " the 
GoTemor willed the money to be 
tolde to Parese, and presently caused 
him to be cut shorter by the head." 
The ruins, which have been neatly 
kept in order by the Duke of 
Leinster, the owner of the soil, 
consist of a massive keep, with a 
considerable extent of outworks, 
strengthened at intervals by towers. 
The importance of the fortress at 
the time of its capture is thus 
quaintly described: "Greate and 
riche was the spoile— such store of 
heddes, so many goodly hangings, 
80 riche a ward rob, such brave furni- 
ture, as truly it was accompted, for 
householde stuffe and utensils, one 
of the richest Earle his homes under 
the crowne of Englande." — HoHn- 
sM. Hard by is &e College which, 
&om the political and religious feel- 
ings called into play, has made May- 
nooth famous in modem Irish history. 
A college was founded here in 1513 
by Gerald 8th Earl of Kildare, who 
appointed provost and vice-provost, 
and endowed it with lands round the 
tower of Taghadoe. It was esta- 
blished as an institution for the 
education of Irishmen in 1795, in 
consequence of the suspension of the 
continental colleges &om the con- 
tinuance of the war. The former 
building was unsightly and inconve- 
lucnt, being in fact a series of addi- 
tions made at different times to a 
house built by Lord Leinster*s butier ; 
bat all this has since been remedied 
by the beautiful designs of Pugin, con- 
sisting of an E. Eng. quadrangle, 340 



by 300 ft. The College of Maynooth, 
ever since its foundation in 1795, 
has been maintained by grants, first 
from the Irish and afterwards from 
the Imperial Parliament, — the an- 
nual vote from 1808 to 1813 being 
8283Z., afterwards raised to 89282. . By 
an act passed in the present reign, 
8 & 9 Vict. c. 25, the college was per- 
manently endowed for the mainte- 
nance and education of 500 students 
and of 20 senior scholars on the 
foundation by Lord Dunboyne, be- 
sides which 30,000Z. was ket apart 
for the erection of the necessary 
buildings; the grant was 26,360Z. 
per annum. The course of study 
requires 8 years for its completion, 
and no student is admitted except 
he be intended for the Irish priest- 
hood. Adjoining the college is the 
parish ch., possessing a very massive 
tower, and some Dec. windows. 

dose to the town is the entrance 
gate to Carton, the seat of the 
Duke of Leinster. It is a hand- 
some Grecian building, consisting of 
centre with wings, connected by 
corridors, and possessing in the 
interior a library and some choice 
pictures. The entrance is by a 
porch surmounted by a triangular 
pediment, in the tympanum of which 
are the arms of the family. The 
park is very extensive, and is more 
thoroughly Enghsh in the character 
of its timber and scenery than al- 
most any estate in Ireland. Land- 
scape-gardening has been carried to 
a high pitch, and every point has 
been seized which could be made 
available for effect The property of 
Carton formerly belonged to the 
Earl of Kildare, by whom it was 
leased to Wm. Talbot, one of the 
Talbots of Malahide. It was sold 
to General Ingoldsby, and from his 
descendant, Mr. T. Ingoldsby, the 
lease was repurchased in 1738 by 
the 19th Earl of Kildare. The 
mansion was designed by Cassels, a 
celebrated architect, who built the 
town houses of the Leinster and 



186 



Boute 17. — Dublin to Ckiway. 



Ibelaxd. 



Waterford &milieB, as veil as the 
Lying-in Hospital. 

The visitor to Carton by road 
from Leixlip need not return by the 
same gate, but may proceed oirect 
to Maynooth. 

[A few m. to the S. of Maynooth is 
the round tower of Taghadoe, remark- 
able for being of greater dimensions 
than is usual in such structures. The 
.original College of Maynooth was 
endowed with the lands round this 
tower.] 

19\ m. Ktlcock, a little town on 
the rt, need not detain the tourist, 
as it possesses nothing save a cele- 
brity for provincial races. 

25^ m. 1., very near the line, is 
Cloncurry ruined ch., and a singular 
mound, probably of a sepulchral cha- 
racter. The traveller will notice 
with regret that the pretty English 
scenery through which he has been 
hitherto passing has been gradually 
changing and giving place to me- 
lancholy and dreary bog, a por- 
tion of the Bog of Allen, continu- 
ing for the greater portion of the 
way to Mulfingar. The beautiful 
though distant ranges of the Dublin 
Mountains have also nearly dis- 
appeared in the distance. 

26^ Enfield (Rte. 18), a neatly 
kept little town, where the tourist 
who wishes to explore the archsBO- 
logical treasures of the Boyne will 
have to leave the rly. 

instances. — Edenderry, 11 m. ; 
Trim, 11 ; Carbury, 7. 

30^ m. MoyvaUeyt close to which 
is Ballina, the seat of Bight Hon. 
More O'Ferrall ; and at 33 m. 
the line crosses the River Boyne, 
which, as far as picturesque features 
are concerned, will probably dis- 
appoint. In this early part of its 
course it is boggy and sluggish, a 
condition which the operations of 
the Draining Conmiissioners have not 
helped to remove, but have rather 



increased. About 2 m. to the L the 
tower of Clonard ch. is visible (Bte. 
18). 

At 36 m. HiU of Down Stat, 
the traveller may have an oppor- 
tunity of examining the ingenious 
manner in which Mr. Hemans, the 
engineer of the rly., overcame the 
difficulties which presented them- 
selves. **• In these bogs he has relied 
wholly on a careful and complete 
system of drainage, whereby the 
upper crust is so peifectly hardened 
and dried, that the rails and heavy 
trains are supported upon it by a 
light framework of timber." The 
Hill of Down itself is formed of 
drift gravel. 

41 m. KiUucan Stat. {Hotd: 
Moore's). The town, a little to the 
rt., contains nothing of interest. In 
the neighbourhood are Riversdale 
(E. I. Briscoe, Esq.), Grangemore 
(J. F. Briscoe, Esq.), Hyde Park ^G. 
D'Arcy, Esq.), Huntingdon House 
(W. Gorman, Esq.), Clonlost ''J. 
Nugent, Esq.), lisnabin (6. Purdon, 
Esq.), Killynon (R. Reynell, Esq. . 
A good view is obtained from Elnock- 
sheban Hill (473 ft.). 

The monotony of the bog now 
becomes more interrupted, and the 
country again assumes a cultivated 
and wooded appearance, till we arrive 
at the important inland town of^ 

50 m. MuUingar (Hotels: Murray's; 
Greville Arms, Mrs. Carroll \ one 
of the most extensive militarv 
de^ts in Ireland (Pop. 5426). The 
assizes and the county business 
for Westmeath are also carried on 
here. It is the centre of a large 
trade in butter, wool, frieze, and 
cattle: a horse-fair, which extends 
over several days, being held in 
November. Mullingar, both in the 
general appearance of its buildings 
and the absence of all archteological 
features, would seem to be of modem 
times, although it was in rieality one 
of the most ancient of palatinate 
towns, founded by the English settlers 



Ireland. Boute 17. — Lough Ennel-^Casdetovsn. 



137 



in Meath, and possessing a castle, a 
prioiy for canons of St. Augustine, 
and also one for Dominicans, of 
which buildings there are now no 
traces; It was the scene of an ob- 
stinate fight in 1339, when Lord 
Thomas Butlerwas attacked and slain 
by MacGeoghegan, and in later days 
it was garrisoned by Gen. Ginckel as 
the h^ul-quarters of William III.'s 
army previous to the siege of Athlone. 
As a military station it still keeps 
its pre-eminence, for which its cen- 
tral position makes it particularly 
Taluable. The coimtry in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood is pretty 
and wooded, and is moreover well 
watered by very considerable lakes 
and their attendant streams, afford- 
ing good sport to the fisherman : of 
these the principal are Lough Owel 
and Lough Derevaragh (Bte. 18) to 
the N., and Lough Ennel some 2 m. 
to the S. MulUngar itself is on the 
Brosna, which, in English, signifies 
** a bundle of firewood ; " and the 
whole district was formerly known 
as " The Country of the Waters." 

The tourist should visit Multi- 
famham Abbey on the Longford 
Rly. (Bte. 21). 

Conveyances. — ^Bail to Dublin, Ath- 
lone, Gralway, Oavan, Longford, and 
Sligo. Cars to Ballymahon and Kil- 
beggan. 

Di«tofUJe«.— Longford, 26 m.; Ca- 
van, 36 ; Multifarnham, 7 J ; Dublin, 
50 ; Athlone, 28 ; BaUymahon, 18 ; 
Kilbeggan, 14 ; Lough Owel, 2 ; Lough 
Emiel, 2. 

Excursions. — 

1. Lough Ennel. 

2. Lough Owel and Mnltifamham. 



Lough Ennelj otherwise called 
Belvedere Lake, from the mansion 
and estate of the same name over- 
looking it. It is a pretty lake of 



about 5 m. in length, well wooded 
on one side, though not presenting 
any scenery to entitle it to higher 
praise. The fii^ng is good, and 
the trout run from 1 to 10 lbs., 
the best season being at the end 
of May and June, when the green 
drake is on the water. There 
are several residences on either 
bank : on the rt. are Lynnburry (J. 
Butherford, Esq.), Bloomfield (Col. 
Caulfield), Belvidere (B. Marley, 
Esq.), a seat of the Earl of Lanes- 
borough, in whose grounds is a large 
pseudo-ruin intended for a priory; 
Bochfort House (Sir Francis Hop- 
kins, Bart.,) ; Anneville House 
(Hon. H. Pamell), Dunboden Park 
(Mrs. Cooper), Gaybrook (B. Smyth, 
Esq.). Carrick (W. Featherstone- 
haugh, Esq.) ; wMle on the W. side 
are lilliput House (W. Hodson,Esq.), 
Middleton House (G. Boyd, Esq.;, 
Bellmount (A. Beilly, Esq.), and 
Ladistown (J. Lyons, Esq.). 

At 53} m. the canal, which has 
hitherto ke^t closely alongside the 
rly., leaves it at BaUina Bridge and 
turns off N. to Longford. With an 
occasional view over the low shores 
of Lough Ennel on 1., the rly. now 
passes through a less attractive 
country to 



58 m. Castletown^ a small village 
on 1. The whole of this district is 
abundantly dotted with raths, re- 
lieved every few miles by a single 
ruined tower, marking the residence 
of some native chief. 

« 

62 m. Streamrioum, a little beyond 
which, on 1., close to the line, is the 
ruined tower of Laragh. At this 
point is a junction with the Clara 
branch of the Great Southern and 
Western Bailway. 

67 m. 1. is the newly-drained 
lakelet of BalUnderry, where the 
labourers employed on the rly. works 



138 



BoiUe 17. — Dublin to Gcdtoay. 



Ibelani). 



in 1850 discovered large quantities 
of bones of animals, associated with 
ancient spears and weapons, together 
with some very primitiye canoes cut 
out of a single tree. 

88 m. Moatef a thriying little 
place, much frequented by Quakers, 
** taking its name from a moat or 
rath at the back of the town, in what 
was originally the territory of the 
McLoughlins, and which was called 
after Grace McLoughlin * Grana oge,' 
or Grace's Moat." — Lewis, Close to 
the town are Mote Park, which was 
burnt in May, 1865 (Lord Crofton) 
and Ballynagartry. Passing 73 m. 
1. Glynwood House, the seat of J. 
Longworth, Esq., the traveller soon 
perceives on 1. the approaching 
junction line of the South-Western 
Hne, and, crossmg the noble stream 
of the Shannon, enters 

78 m. the city of Athlone {Inn : 
Haires, Royal, tolerably comfort- 
able), which has played a more 
important part in the history of Ire- 
land than any other town, with 
the exception perhaps of London- 
derry (Pop. 6227). Although a set- 
tlement existed here, known by the 
name of " Ath-Luain," the ford of the 
moon, or, according to others, ** Ath- 
Luan," the ford of the rapids, it was 
not until the reign of John that the 
castle was erected, and it became 
an important military station — so im- 
portant, indeed, that when Henry 
III. granted the dominion of Ireland 
to Prince Edward, Athlone was ex- 
pressly reserved. During the insur- 
rection of 1641 the castle and town 
under Lord Banelagh were closely 
besieged by the Connaught men for 
22 weeks, until the garrison, reduced 
by famine and disease, was reheved 
by a convoy from the Dublin army ; 
and it was afterwards taken by the 
Parliamentary army under Sir 0. 
Coote. It was, however, during 
James n.*8 reign that Athlone was 
the scene of such stirring events. 
Col. Grace then held it successfully 



for that king for 8 days against 
William in.'s army under Gen. Dou- 
glas, who retired to make way fv»r 
a more formidable opponent, G^d. 
Ginckell, who occupied the eastern 
part of the town and commenced a 
cannonade lasting from the 20th to 
the 30th of June, 1691, during which 
time 12,000 cannon-balls and GO' 
shells were thrown on to the castltr 
and the Boscommon side of the tow:.. 
So brave a defence was offered bv 
the Irish army under Gen. St. Eutli 
that it was at last detenuined tu 
storm the city by assault, and tbr 
final struggle took place at the ford 
of the Shannon, the narrow bridge 
over which had been well-nigh shat- 
tered during the cannonade. "It 
was 6 o'clock : a peal from the 
steeple of the ch. gave the agnal 
Prince George of Hesse Dannstadt 
and a brave soldier named HamiltorM 
whose services were afterwards ^- 
warded with the title of Lord Botm. 
descended first into the river. Tbea 
the grenadiers lifted the Duke of 
Wurtemburg on their shoulders, and 
with a great shout plunged ^ 
abreast up to their cravats in wattf. 
The Irish, taken unprepared, M 
one confused volley and fled, leaviw: 
their commander. Maxwell, a pri- 
soner. The victory was complete. 
Planks were placed on the brokea 
arches of the bridge, and pontooitf 
laid in the river, without any opp'^ 
sition on the part of the temiitd 
garrison. With the loss of 12 im* 
killed and about 30 wounded, tbe 
English had in a few minutes fonx'd 
their way into Connaught"— Jfc*^ 
aulay, St Buth remov^ his forces 
from hence to Aughrim, about 15 m. 
distant The loss of Athlone is gene- 
rally attributed to the overweenia: 
confidence of St Buth, who, intoxi- 
cated with success at the fiBilnre of 
the first attempt of the £nglL«ii 
army, "was rotused from his sIuk- 
bers just in time to learn the ii- 
remeoiable loss occasioned bj hL< 
presumptuous folly."— roytor. An 



Ireland. 



Boute 17. — AtMone — Lough Bea. 



139 



smDsing allusion is made to this 
in * The Battle of Aughrim'— 

" St. Buth.—l>are all the force of England be 
aobold 
T attempt to storm so brave a town, wben I 
With all Hibemias sons of war are nigh? 
Retam ; and If the Britons dare pursue. 
Tell tbem St Ruth is near, and that will 
do. 
" Postman. — ^Your aid would do much better 
than your name." 

A great portion of the town, in- 
clading^the citadel, was destroyed 
in 1697, from the explosion of the 
magazine during a bunder-storm. 
Although modem improvement has 
been busy, the greater part of the 
town, which is on the 1. bank of the 
Shannon, is ill-built and confined. 
The celebrated bridge, the scene of 
the contest, was built in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth, and was only 
12 ft broad. It was pulled down a 
few years ago to make way for the 
present one, as handsome and well- 
planned as the former was incon- 
Tenient It is commanded by the 
castle, the massive round tower of 
which looks more ancient than it is ; 
the whole building has been so 
altered and added to at different pe- 
riods, that the only old portion is the 
keep, in the centre of the court, now 
nded as a barrack. like MuUingar, 
Athlone is a very important mili&ry 
station, and conta.ins barracks (which 
line the road from, the rly. stat.) 
iijT 1500 men, besides 15,000 stand of 
anus, with hospital, and all the ne- 
cessary adjuncts to a garrison town, 
defended by forts and redoubts on 
the Connaught side of the town. The 
viator will not fail to observe the 
aingalar but graceful railway bridge 
over which the Dublin line is carried 
across the Shannon, "being a con- 
traction on the bowstring and lattice 
principle. It is entirely of iron, 
'"(apported by 12 cylindrical piers, 
and is 560 ft in extreme length, 
including' 2 spans over roads on 
either side of the river. It cou- 
nts of 2 spans of 175, and 2 of 40 ft 
esich, the hitter separated by a pier, 



formed by 4 cylinders, supporting a 
swivel, which admits of the naviga- 
tion of the adjacent opens." — Fraser. 
Athlone presents no archaeological 
remains, with the exception of the 
castle, or portion of the town wall 
(of considerable height and thick- 
ness), and the doorway of the house 
in which Gen. Ginckell resided. The 
Duke of Wellingtt»n, when a subal- 
tern, was quartered here, and the 
house where he lodged will be 
readily pointed out. The churches 
are all modem, although it for- 
merly possessed 2 or 3 conventual 
establishments. The parish church, 
close to the hotel, has 2 towers, 
one of which is isolated, and be- 
longed to an earlier building. 

Conveyances. — By rail to Dublin and 
Galway, to Boscommon and Castle- 
bar, also by Great Southern Ely. 
to Portarlington en route for the S. 

Distances. — Dublin, 78 m. ; Mullin- 
gar, '28; Ballinasloe, 13; lissoy, 8 
Lough Bea, 2^; Boscommon, 18^ 
Oastlereagh, 33; Clonmacnoise, 8^ 
Banagher, 20; Killaloe, 59; For 
tumna, 32^. 

Excursions. — 

1. Lough Bea and Bindown. 

2. Clonmacnoise. 

3. Ballymahon. 



Lough Rea, 

An excursion should be made to 
the foot of Lough Bea (Ir. Bibh), 
one of those extraordinary though pic- 
turesque expansions of the Shannon 
which are so peculiar to this river, com- 
mencing about 2 m. above Athlone, 
and extending N. for several miles. 
It appears to have been formed by 
chemical solation of the limestone, 
and presents that peculiarly broken 
outline common to lakes thus formed. 
Although the character of the scenery 
is not hilly, yet the banks are in 
many parts richly wooded, as are also 



140 



Boute 17. — Dublin to Ckdway. 



Ireland. 



the nmneroTis islands, some of them 
being of considerable size, and nearly 
all possessing some ecclesiastical 
ruins of ancient date. The principal 
are Inchcleraun, Saints' Island, Inch- 
turk, Inchmore, and Hare Island^ 
the latter a perfect gem of woodland 
scenery, aided by art in the shape of a 
lodge belonging to Lord Gastlemaine, 
who occasionally resides here. 



'* Avhum " and BaUymahon, 

At Ballykeeran, 3 m., the road 
crosses the Breensford Biver almost at 
its fall into one of the bays of Lough 
Bea. 1 m. rt. is Moydrum Castle, l£e 
beautiful mailsion of Lord Castle- 
maine. Following the shore of 
Lough Killinure, a small expansion 
of Lough Bea, the road passes 
through 5 m. Glassan, where a 
branch on 1. leads to the ferry to 
Hare Island. On rt. is Waterstown 
House (Hon. B. T. Harris-Temple). 
8 m., lie village of Liesoy or Au- 
burn, supposed to have been deli- 
neated by the poet Goldsmith in 
his * Deserted Village.' He is said to 
have been bom in this spot, although 
a place called Pallas, near BaUy- 
mahon, also claims the honour. It 
is not so clear that Lissoy was in 
his mind when he wrote his cele- 
brated poem; and although *The 
Three Pigeons,' the apple-tree, 

" The never-failing brook, the busy mill. 
The decent church that topp'd the neigh- 
b'ring hill," 

have always been considered by en- 
thusiasts as identical with the subjects 
of the poem, it is more probable 
" that everything in it is English, the 
feelings, incidents, descriptions, and 
allusions. Scenes of l^e poet's youth 
had doubtless risen in his memory as 
he wrote, mingling with and taking 
altered hue from later experiences." — 
Fareter's * Life of Goldsmith.' 

14 m. BaUymahcm, a small town, 
prettily situated on the Inney, 



which runs under a bridge of 5 
arches, and falls over ledges of lock, 
winding its way between wooded 
islands. In the neighbourhood are 
Newcastle (Hon. L. King-Harman, 
Castlecove (Captedn Hussy), and 
Creenaghmore. 



From Athlone the line mm 
through a dreary and uninteresting 
country to 

91 m. BaUf'jiadoe CIr. Bal-atba- 
na-sluaigheadh, " mouth of the foid 
of armies") {Hotel: Bail way), so 
well known through Great Britain far 
its enormous horse and cattle fans, 
held annually on the first Tuesciay 
in October, and continuing for 5 davs 
(Pop. 3911). The town lies m a lot 
position on the banks of the Suck 
Biver, which intersects and in fact 
divides Boscommon from Gal^J- 
On the eastern side are the Lunatic 
Asylum for Connaught, and tie 
ruins of Ballinasloe Castle, which 
in the reign of Elizabeth was one 
of the strongest fortresses in Ireland 
The outer walls only remain, and 
are incorporated with a modent 
residence. The great fair of thr 
year, which, to English eyes, presests 
a scene of rare confusion, is hdi 
from the 5th to the 9th of October, 
partly in the neighbouring gTonnd» 
of GarbaUy and partly in the town. 
In the park " the herds of the moel 
extensive flockmasters of Connangbt 
generally occupy the same localiti<» 
from year to year; but there dK 
sometimes stiff contests betK^tvn 
them, in order to maintain tbtrir 
ground against intruders." Adjoin- 
ing the town is Garbally, the w>T 
beautiful park of Lord ClaDcartf, 
who liberally throws it open for tht 
enjoyment of the townspeople. Tb<^ 
house contains some good paintings 

C(mveyanoe8,-~Cax to Ptasonstown 
through Eyrecourt and Banaffher; 
car to Portunma; car to Mount 
Bellew. 



Distances, — Parsonstown, 25} m. ; 
Banagher, 18; Eyrecourt, 11 J; Au- 
ghrim, 5 ; Kilcoimel], 9. 

Excursions. — 

1. Garbally. 

2. Kilconnell. 

3. Anghrim. 



Irexand. BaiUe 17. — Aughrim — Athenry — Kilconnell. lH 

abbey, founded in 1400 for Fran- 
ciscan friars by William O'Kelly, on 
the site of an earlier ch. raised by 
St. Connall. " As picturesque a ruin 
as can be where there are neither 
hills, rocks, lake, nor river, and but 
a few distant trees ; perhaps its iyy- 
mantled tower and roofless gables 
were better in keeping witih the 
waste and desolation that presided 
over the place, destitute as it is of 
any modem improvement and deco- 
ration whatever." — Otway, It is a 
cruciform ch., consisting of nave, 
choir, and transept, with cloisters 
and domestic buildings, and a very 
graceful though slender tower of 2 
stages rising from the intersection. 
The Dec. windows are remarkable 
for the lieauty of their tracery, while 
the cloisters afford one of the most 
perfect examples in Ireland. The 
area is small, only 48 ft. square, and 
is enclosed by pointed arches on each 
side, the columns of which are not 
carried down to the ground, but 
spring from a low waU. The whole 
effect is in fact " more like a cloister 
in Sicily or Spain than anything 
in these islands." — Fergttsson. In 
the interior of the ch. are some 
monimients, and a tablet to the 
memory of some members of the 
Trimleston fiamily, "whoe, being 
transplanted into Oonaght with others 
by orders of the vsvrper Cromwell, 
dyed at Moinivae, 1667." A pretty 
cross in the village has been restored 
by the Koman Catholic clergy. 



Aughrim. 

5 m. from Ballinasloe, on the 
road to Kilconnell. This village is 
^mious for the battle which took 
place on Aughrim Hill, about 1 m. 
to the S., on July 12th, 1691 Qjist 
after the siege of Aliklone), be- 
tween the Irish army under Gen. 
St. Ruth and Sarsfield (Lord Lucan) 
and the English army under Ginckel 
and Tahnash. The Irish position 
on Kilcommodon HiU (now capped 
by a modem ch.) was very strong, 
but, notwithstanding this advantage 
and the superiority of numbers, the 
Irish were routed with a loss of 
7000 men, besides their commander, 
St. Ruth, who was slain by a cannon- 
baU— 

" Aughrim is no more, St. Knth is dead. 
And all his guards are from the battle fled ; 
As he rode down the hill he met bis fall. 
And died a victim to a cannon-ball." 

Battle of Aughrim, 

A spot by the ch. is still known 
as St. Ruth's flag. 4 m. to the S. 
is Lismany, the model farm of Mr. 
PoUok, well worth a visit from those 
who are interested in the social 
progress of Ireland. 450 persons are 
kept constantly employed, and 700/. 
ia paid monthly for wages. 



KUconneU 

(Ir. Oil - chonaill, " Connall's 
Church '*) may be reached in 4 m. 
from "Woodlawn Stat. ; but as a car 
may not always be obtained, the safest 
plan will be to visit it from Ballina- 
sloe. It is celebrated for its ruined 



101} m. On 1. of WoodlatJim Stat, 
is "Woodlawn House, the seat of Lord 
Ashtown. On a hiU overlooking 
the station rt. is a castellated edi- 
fice, known as Trench's Monument, 
and used as a mausoleum for the 
Ashtown fiamily. From hence the 
rly. runs over a miserable, bleak, 
and stony country to 

113} m. Athenry (with accent 
on last syllable^ ^Hotd: Railway) 



142 



Bouie 18. — Enfidd to DrogJteda. 



IrelandJ 



(Rte. 30), a miserable town, which, 
as £Eur as rained antiquities go; is a 
veritable Tadmor in the Wilderness. 
It was thought by Sir James Ware 
to have been, with great probability, 
the chief town of the Anteri, whom 
Ptolemy places in this part of Ireland. 
At all events, it was of importance 
during the Anglo-Norman invasion, 
having been the first raised and the 
principal town of the De Burghs and 
Berminghams, whose fortress even 
now eiosts. Under the shelter of 
its defences many ecclesiastical esta- 
blishments rose up, amongst which 
were a Dominican monastery founded 
in 1261, which became the fiavourite 
ch. and burial-place of the Earls of 
Ulster and all the chief Irish families ; 
and a Franciscan priory, founded in 
1464 by the Earl of KHdare. The 
importance of the town, however, 
decayed in 1577, when the 2 sons 
of the Earl of Clanricarde nearly 
destroyed it by fire, a proceed- 
ing which was repeated (it hav- 
ing been rebuilt in the mean 
time) by the northern Irish in 
1596. The castle consists of a mas- 
sive quadrangular keep surrounded 
by outworks. It is of the usual 
square unomamented style, and 
lighted by a few eylet-holes. The 
walls of the town are in toler- 
able keeping, and retain a castel- 
lated gateway, the doorway of 
which presents some examples of 
interlacing work. The Dominican 
monastery has a cruciform chifrch of 
which the intersecting tower has 
disappeared. The E. window, of 4 
lights, is of beautiful design. The 
whole of the ruins, together with the 
modem ch., are surrounded by as 
miserable a collection of hovels as 
can well be seen in any Irish town. 
In the neighbourhood of Athenry are 
Castle Lambert (W. Lambert, Esq.), 
Castle Ellen (W. P. Lambert, Esq.), 
and Moyode (R. B. Persse, Esq.). 

Conveyances. — By rail to Dublin and 
Galway. By rail to Tuam. Mail-car 



to Tuam and Westport^ Mail-car 
Loughrea. 

Distances, — Galway, 13 m.; Oi 
more, 8; Loughrea, 11; Tuam, 1( 
Monivea, 7. 

Passing on 1. the square fortress 
Derrydonnel, the traveller reaches 

121 m. Oranmore^ a village 
ated at the head of a creek whic 
forms part of Galway Bay. Here 
another square tower, built by tl 
Earl of Clanricarde, who, on 
breaking out of the war in 164] 
"placed it under the command 
C&pt. Willoughby, who also held 
fort at Galway, and surrendered " 
of them to the Catholic forces 
1643."— Xeioi8. From hence the 
runs through a dreary and stoB 
district, though the monotony is 
reheved by exquisite views of 
Bay of Gralway, which stretches oi 
to the W. as £Bur as the eye 
see. Crossing an arm of the 
known as Lough Athaliah, on the 
shore of which are Merview (Pier 
Joyce, Esq.) and Renmore (Capt 
John Wilson Lynch), the toi 
arrives at 

126^ m. the ancient city of Galwi 
(Rte. 23) {HoteU: Railway ; Black'l 



ROUTE 18. 

ENFIELD TO EDENDERRY, SOURCC 
OF THE BOYNE, AND DROGHED^ 
THROUGH TRIM AND NAVAN. 

Enfield, a station, distant 26} 
m. from Dublin, on the Midland 
Great Western Rly., is the point 
from whence the traveller com* 
mences his excursion from the 
source of the Boyne to its mouth. 



Ireland. Boute 18. — Carhery — Edenderry, 



143 



Oars run from the stat. to Eden- 
derry, 11 m., but it is better to be 
independent of these. At Edenderry 
another conveyance may be procured 
to proceed to Trim. 

7 m. Oarbery Castle occupies a 
conspicuous position on the simmiit 
of an isolated hill (471 ft.), which, 
from the comparative level of the 
country round, commands very wide 
views. 

The ruins of Carbery (Ir. Cairbre- 
varciardha) cure extensive, although 
not all of the same date. The origi- 
nal castle was built by the Berming- 
haiDBy some of the earhest English 
settlers within the Pale, and suffered 
many rude attacks during the troubled 
times of the 15th cent., having been 
more than once demolished and 
banit. From the Berminghams it 
I«ased into the hands of the Col- 
It-ys or Cowleys (temp. 1548), the 
ancestors of the Duke of Welling- 
ton. Richard Colley was created 
Lord Momington in 1746. The 
general style of the buUding is 
that of a manorial castellated house 
of James I.'s time, embracing all 
the characteristic features of pointed 
gable, graceful chimneys, and mul- 
lioned windows, which are particu- 
larly good on the eastern side. Some 
of the chimneys have no less than 16 
faces, and are beautifully moulded; 
** but on a nearer inspection we per- 
teive, from the character of the ma- 
'^>nry, the massive walls, the deep 
fctone-roofed donjons, the principal of 
>»hich runs for 85 ft. undemeatii the 
^eat keep from. S. to. N., the mani- 
ftst antiquity of the entire of the 
western end, and the general arrange- 
Qient of the whole, tbat the present 
^ consists of structures which 
^ould appear to be as old as the 
12th cent"— ^tV W. Wilde. On the 
Munmit of the hill are some ancient 
I*agan remains, and the ruined cli. 
of Temple Death. 

About 1^ m. to the N. is the 
^nof Mylerstown Castle, consisting 
(>f a loffy tower. This was also a 



fortress of the Berminghams. The 
view from the summit of Carbery 
hill stretches over the counties 
of Meath, Westmeath, Carlow, Kil- 
dare, Dublin, King's, and Queen's ; 
looking westward, the hills of Cro- 
ghan, Edenderry, and Carrick rise 
conspicuous from the flats. S. are 
the ranges of Kildare, including the 
Chair; while, nearer home, the 
various casties and churches of Car- 
berry, Mylerstown, Edenderry, Kin- 
naiad, and Carrick are dotted about 

At the foot of the hill is New- 
berry Hall (F. Pilkington, Esq.}. 

11 m. Edenderry (Hotel: Now- 
lan's), a neat, well-to-do little town, 
under the care of the Marquess 
of Downshire, the owner of the 
sou. A statue in memory of the late 
Marquess occupies a conspicuous 
position near the ch. The castie of 
the Blimdells picturesquely crowns 
the limestone hill that overhangs 
it. The geologist should visit the 
quarry in the lower limestone at Kil- 
lan, a little to the S., which con- 
tains, in the lower portion, hori- 
zontal beds of black marble, and 
resting confonnably on them crys- 
talline limestones, jointed vertically, 
in such a way as to appear columnar. 

Distances. — Enfield, 11 m. ; Clo- 
nard, 6; Philipstown, 11 J. 

Conveyances. — Cars daily to En- 
field. 

In the demesne is Trinity WaU, 
the source of the River Boyne, 289 ft. 
above the sea. As might be ex- 
pected from, its varied course, and 
the historical incidents which every- 
where mark it, the Boyne has been 
the subject of divers legends in its 
infimcy, the bfesis of all which ap- 
pears to be that it was so named 
after an Irish princess, Boan or 
Boinne, who was drowned in it. 
From hence it has a course more or 
less sluggish for about 70 m. to the 
sea at Drogheda, running generally 
from S.W. to N.E. Many parts are 
extremely beautiful, while all are 
more or less replete with ruins, pa- 



lU 



BoiUe 18. — Enfield to Brogheda, 



Ireland. 



gan remains, and scenes of historical 
interest Probably no river in Ire- 
land possesses so many celebrated 
towns and neighbourhoods : — 

" Ecce Boan qui Trim oeler influit, istios 
undas 
Subdere se salBis Drogheda cemit aquls." 

Nechamt 1217. 

Continuing on the road to Olonard, 
the tourist arrives at 11 ^ m. the ruins 
of Monasteroru, a small ch. of the 
14th cent, with a double belfry ; also 
portions of a monastery with walls of 
great thickness, and, on an adjoining 
tumulus, of a square dovecot. This, 
too, was a foundation of the Ber- 
minghams, viz. Sir John, who be- 
came Earl of Louth in 1325. Monas- 
teroris is in Irish, Mainister Fheorais, 
which latter word is the Irish form 
of Piers, the first of the Berming- 
hams, a family well known by the 
Irish natives under the name of Clan- 
Feorais, or the Clan of Pierce. Close 
by is Monasteroris House (J. Hamil- 
ton, Esq.). 

The monastery sustained a long 
siege by the lirl of Surrey, the 
Lord Lieutenant, who marched into 
the district of Offaly (as it was 
termed) against the O'Moores who 
had invEtded the Pale. 

13^ m. a road on rt. leads across 
the river to Kinnafad Castle, also 
founded by the Berminghams, whoap- 
pear to have dotted the whole country 
with their strongholds. It is a large 
square tower, of massive plainness, 
and was doubtless erected to com- 
mand the ford. In deepening the 
bed of the river from Kinnafad to 
Edenderry, numbers of weapons and 
celts, together with human remains, 
were discovered. They are now in 
the Museum of the Boyal Irish 
Academy. The tourist should pro- 
ceed by this road, as he wiU fiius 
obtain the most interesting points on 
the Boyne. 

15^ m. is the partly inhabited 
fortress of Grange Castle, near which 
the Boyne receives a oonoderable 



accession in the Yellow Biver, tbat 
flows in here &om the W., separating 
Meath &om King's County. About 
1 m. to the rt. is Carrick Hill, rising 
387 ft. with conspicuous outline. Oq 
it are the ruins of a castle, the chief 
court of the treacherous Baron Pieive 
de Bermingham. Here, ** a.d. I'M 
Muiiagh O'Connor of Offidie, Mnl- 
morrey his brother, and CalTBgh 
O'Connor, with 29 of the choicest d 
their fieimily, were treacherously kiJJoi 
by Pyers Bermyngham, within the 
castle of Carrickifeorus." — Annaisi! 
Clonmcumoise, 

There now remains only the S. 
wall of a high keep, and an ati' 
joining ch. of the 13th or beginninj: 
of the 14th cent., with its E. and ?. 
walls. Both the W. and E. gabln 
have belfries. The hill of Cairick 
consists of mountain limestone, bui 
on the summit is a large block 
of trap, similar to that of Croghu 
from which place it was doubtlts 
transported by means of local drift 
action. It bears the name of the 
Witches' Kock, and was originally 
thrown at one of the saints fiyot 
Croghan by an individual of tiia! 
profession. 

An indented flat stone, piobeUr 
marking the site of a cell, is aU 
called the Mule's Leap on the same 
legendary grounds. Stretching aloo^ 
the banks of the Boyne is the dr 
mesne of Bahin (Rev. Mr. Pahner. 

18 J m. close to the river side iJ 
BaUyhogan Priory, with a very to 
cruciform xsh. (of which the transtpto 
have been destroyed), founded ia 
the 12th cent, by Jordan Comin, 
for Austin canons. The priory^ 
burned down in the 15th cent, and 
subsequently the lands and property 
fell into the hands of the Bermios- 
hams. The length of the ch. is 11)3 fU 
but there are remarkably few archi- 
tectural decorations about it Tbe 
W. gable is lighted by a long slendt r 
single window of E. Eng. date. I^ 
the N. wall of the choir are 3 treiou* 
arched sedllia. At the junction of 



[reland. 



Boute 18. — Clonard, 



145 



he 3 roads near the priory is a 
ncturesque holy welL 

[From hence a road recroeses the 
Boyne en route for Kinnafad. The 
:oimst may go to Glonard this way 
or the BBike of visiting Ticroghan 
justle ; but the distance is greater, 
md he will probably have seen 
IS many castles as he could wish 
before reaching Trim. It is worth 
recording, however, that when this 
stronghold was besieged by the Par- 
liamentary forces under CoL Rey- 
nolds, the siege was about being 
raised, when it was discovered that 
the defenders were firing silver 
bullets, which was such an evident 
proof of their want of ammunition, 
that the opposing forces set to work 
again and soon reduced the fortress. 

Crossing the river at Leinster 
Bridge, notice between the road 
and the river a moimd where 150 
Irishmen lie buried, part of a hody 
of insurgents who laid siege in 1798 
to the mansion belonging to Mr. 
Tyrrd, which he with 27 yeomen 
juccessfolly held for a whole day.] 

22} ra. Clonard now presents very 

little for the inspection of the ar- 

clueologist, but carries interest with 

it from its old associations, which 

extend back for the last 1000 years. 

Clonard or Cluain loraird ("The 

Retuement on the Western Height**) 

was in early times the most famous 

bishopric in Meath, the first bishop 

being St. Finian (a.d. 520), one of 

the unmediate successors of St. 

l*atrick. It was also the centre of 

learning in Ireland, and, like Llan- 

twit in S. Wales and Bardsey Island 

^ N. Wales, was the seat of a 

*orld-famed coUege, which numbered 

PO students, including St Kieran, 
Golumb, and aU the principal 
•aiTits. 

The buildings formerly consisted 
jrf abheys, chapels, cloictheachs or 
pind towers, &c. ; but of these ab- 
Nutely no trace is left, though many 
I [Ireland.^ 



of them existed at the beginning of 
this cent., and were described by Arch- 
dall in his 'Monasticon.' The only 
traces of archieological interest are a 
fragment of corbel over the door in 
the tower of the ch., and in the inte- 
rior a singular font of grey marble, 
in shape an octagonal Imsin, the 
external panels of which are each 
divided into 2 compartments, and are 
ornamented with very curious figures 
and scriptural subjects, representing 
the Flight into Egypt, the Baptism 
in the Jordan, &c. 

Near the ch. stands a singular 
tumulus or moat crowned by a 
spreading ash-tree. This was evi- 
dently sepulchral; but a little to 
the N.W. is a rath (military), very per- 
fect, consisting ** of an external fosse, 
encircling a raised ditch, within 
which we find a level platform, ele- 
vated somewhat above the surround- 
ing plain, but not so high as the 
earthen circle which encloses it" — 
WUde. 

p^om Clonard, the tourist who 
does not wish to extend his wander- 
ings to Trim may rejoin the Midland 
Bly., at the Hill of Down Stat, 2 m. 
distant] 

27 m. Keeping on the 1. bank of 
the Boyne aod crossmg a tributary 
stream, we amve at Eillyon (an old 
seat of the Magans), near which are 
the scanty remains of an ancient 
priory, and a little further on Donore 
Castle, a well-preserved square for- 
tress (like a peel-tower) of the date 
of the Anglo-Norman invasion. The 
river is here crossed at Inchmore 
Bridge. 

32 m. rt., near Doohstown House, 
the road again approaches the river, 
which has begun to improve very 
considerably in the character of its 
scenery. 

35 m. 1. Newhaggard House ; and 
beyond, though on the opposite side 
of the stream, is Trindeatown, the 
ruined seat of Lord Trimleston. It 



146 



Boute 18. — Enfield to Drogheda. 



Ireland. 



dates &om the 15th cent., and 
played a somewhat conspicuous part 
in the Parliamentary war, during 
which time it was garrisoned and 
fortified for 10 years. 

36 m. Trinhy county town of Meath 
(Ir. Ath-truim) {Hotd: Darling's), 
has been graphically described by 
Sir W.Wilde. " To see Trim aright, 
the tourist must approach it by the 
Blackbull-road from Dublin, when 
all the glorious ruins which crowd 
this historic locality, and which ex- 
tend over a space of above a mile, 
burst suddenly upon him; the re- 
mains of St. John's Friary and cas- 
tellated buildings at the bridge of 
Newtown — the stately abbey of St. 
Peter and St. Paul a little farther 
on, raising aloft its tall, light, and 
ivy-mantled wmdows— the neigh- 
bouring chapel, with its sculptured 
tombs and monumental tableis — the 
broad green lawns, through which 
the Boyne winds, between that and 
Trim— the grey massive towers of 
King John's Castle, with its outward 
walls and barbican, the gates and 
towers and bastion — the fosse, moat, 
and chapel — the sheepgate and por- 
tions of the town wall —and above all, 
the tall, commanding form of the 
Yellow Steeple, which seems the 
guardian genius of the surrounding 
ruins." 

The Yellow Steeple is supposed to 
occupy the site of the original abbey 
of St. Mary, founded in 432 by St. 
Patrick ; indeed Trim is believed to 
have been one of the oldest of the 
Irish sees. The present tower was 
erected in the Anglo-Norman period, 
and is a lofty biulding of 5 stages, 
125 ft. in height. The W. wall and 
part of the N. and S. have been de- 
stroyed, by the cannon of Cromwell 
according to some, thus leaving the 
interior exposed to view. From its 
great height it was probably built 
as a signal and watch tower over 
the adjoining country. Amongst the 
ruined portions of the wall near the 
Yellow Steeple is a round-headed 



arch, known as the Sheepgate, which 
with the Watergate are the only two 
remaining entrances of the old town. 
The abbey of Trim was rich and 
powerful, and cultivated intimate 
relations with the Court of England 

N. of the town and without the 
old walls are scanty remains of the 
Black Friary of the Dominicana, 
founded in the 13th cent., by Geoffrey 
de GenevUle, or de Joinville, Lord 
of Meath,. 

Of the Grey Friary of Observan- 
tines no traces remain. 

27*6 CdsUe of King John^ who br 
the way had no connection with it 
save that of lodging there on a visit 
to Ireland, was originally founded 
by Hugh de Lacy in 1173, who then 
departed to England, leaving it in 
custody of Hugh Tyrrel. 

Roderic O'Connor, King of Con- 
naught, marched against the forties 
to destroy it; but Tyrrel, finding 
himself too weak for defence, set 
it on fire and burnt it. The pre- 
sent building in extent surpasses anr- 
thing in the coimtry, and is beheved 
to have been rebuilt by one Richard 
Pipard, although it is asserted br 
Camden that this individual liv^ * 
previous to the grant of Meath beii^ 
made to Lacy. 

The ruins occupy an area of 2 
acres, and consist of a lofty keep 
80 ft. in height, and flanked by 
rectangular towers abutting frtMU 
each side, so that it presents ester* 
nally a figure of 20 sides. The outer 
wall is 486 yds. in length, and ii 
strengthened by 10 circular towers 
at equal distances. By means of « 
moat which ran all round, the wate» 
of the Boyne could be let in and thm 
completely isolate the castle. The 
barbican, portcullis, and drawbridge 
are still in remarkable preservation. 

To describe in detail the nomeruus 
events of which Trim was the scene 
would be to write the histoiy of 
medisBYal Ireland : it will suffice to 
mention briefly that Richard Earl 
of Ulster held a gaj court here 



Ireland. 



Boute 18. — Trim — Dangan. 



147 



in Edward II/s reign — that Hum- 
phrey of Gloucester and Henry of 
Lancaster, afterwards Henry V., were 
imprisoned here by Richard II. — ^and 
that successive parliaments were held, 
at one of which a mint was established. 
And not only is Trim celebrated for 
its heroes of early times, but it can 
boast of being the abode at one 
time of the Duke of Wellington, who 
lived in a house in Dublingate Street, 
at the top of which a lofty pillar has 



piers between, and the mouldings 
which run round them are orna- 
mented with beautifully designed 
bands. Sedilia of Norm, architec- 
ture may be seen in the wall, to the 
rt. of the space anciently occupied 
by the altar." — Wakeman. At the 
other end of the bridge are the ruins 
of the castle, a large rectangular 
keep with square towers at 2 of the 
angles, and a second smaller tower 
lower down. There is a good 3-light 



been erected, crowned by his statue, window in a small chapel within the 



Trim possessed 2 other fortresses, 
known as Nangle's Castle and Tal- 
bot's CJastle, built by Sir John 
Talbot, the Lord Lieutenant of Ire- 
land and the Scourge of France, in 
1415. This latter building was con- 
verted into the Diocesan School, 
where Wellington received his early 
education. The parish ch. is also 
an ancient edifice, and has a steeple 
erected in 1449 by Richard Duke of 
York. 

In addition to these objects of 
interest are a few modem county 
buildings, of which the gaol, one of 
the most complete in the county, is 
worth an inspection. About 3 m. 
&om the town on the Dublin rocul, 
and on both sides of the Boyne, 
which is crossed at the village of 
StwUm Trim, are the extensive 
remains of the Alhey of 8t, Peter 
ind St Paid. On the N. bank are 
the cathedral remains, which exhibit 
■iome fine features in Transition- 
Konnan. It was founded at the 
beginning of the 13th cent, by Simon 
fiochfort, the same ecclesiastic who 
removed the see of Clonard hither. 
" Broad strips of masonry, placed at 
a coDsiderable distance apart, project 
^ the walls of the ch. upon the 
exterior, a feature never found but in 
^ty work, and which is generally 
characteristic of the Norman period. 
Within, several chastely-formed de- 
("^^nted oorbel-shafls remain, and sup- 
P^ portions of the ribs by which 
the Tftolted roof was sustained. The 



rums. 

In a small ch. hard by are some 
remains of imposts, tombs, capitals, 
&c., recovered from the ruins, and 
placed here by the archaeological 
care of Rev. Mr. Butler, vicar of Trim. 
There is also an altar-tomb bearing 
the recumbent figures of Sir Lucas 
Dillon and his wife, Chief Baron of 
the Exchequer in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. On the sides are the arms of 
the Dillons, Baths, ancestor of the De 
Bathes, and BamewaUs. At the point 
where the Dublin road leaves the river 
is Scurloughstown Castle, — a singular 
massive peel-tower, or rectangular 
keep with 2 roimd towers placed dia- 
gonally at the comers. It was called 
after its builder, William de Scarloug, 
an Ang.-Norm. settler in 1180, and in 
later times suffered somewhat at the 
hands of Cromwell, who, being chal- 
lenged by the garrison, fired a cannon 
ball which caused a crack in one ot 
its sides. 

Conveyances. — Rail to Dublin. 

Distances. — KeUs, 16m.; Enfield, 
10; Tara, 9; Dangan, 4; Bective, 
5 ; Clonard, 14 ; Navan, 13 J. 



Dangan. 

In an excursion to Dangan Castle 
(4 m.), the tourist will pass, 1^ m., 
Larwcm, a quiet secluded little village 
associated with the name of Dean 



Swift, for it was once his residence. 

'"ndowB are of the lancet form, with I *• Here also hved SteUa and Mrs. 

L 2 



148 



Boute IS.— Enfield to Drogheda. 



Ibelasd. 



Dinglej, and here thej sauntered 
through the quiet roads with Dr. 
Baymond, the vicar of Trim, and 
witii the future author of Gulliver 
and the * Drapier's Letters.' '* The 
association is all that is left, as the 
dwelling of the witty divine has long 
ago crumbled to ruins. A modem 
church has replaced that in which 
Swift officiated to a flock of 10 or 12, 
but the stream which flows past is 
still bordered by willows, and a 
sparkling spring is called '* Stella's 
Well." 

4 m. Dangan was one of the seats 
of the Wellesley family, in which the 
late Duke of Wellington passed much 
of his early days, though he was 
not bom here, as some biographers 
make out. No. 24, Upper Merrion 
Street, Dublin (a house now occupied 
by the Irish Church Commissioners), 
is alleged to be the place of his birth, 
on the 29th of April, 1769. It 
was then the residence of his father, 
the Earl of Momiugton. There is 
Uttle to interest in the present build- 
ing, which consists of a keep, part of 
the old fortress, and attached to it a 
mansion in the Italian style. It is 
now almost a ruin, having fallen into 
the possession of a careless owner, 
who let the whole estate go to rack, 
— a proceeding that was considerably 
hastened by a fire. 

38 m. Scurloughstown Castle (see 
ante) ; and 39 m. on the opposite 
side of the Boyne is Kathnally House 
(W. Thompson, Esq.), where the 
scenery of the river begins greatly to 
improve, and to assume a peculiarly 
English character. The banks rise 
to a considerable height, thus shutting 
out the river from the road. 

40 J m. 1. Trubley Castle is a fortress 
of about the same importance as 
Scurloughstown, though very little is 
now left save the portion of a tower 
and. a round pigeon-house. It is said 
that Cromwell slept a night here 
during his passage up the Boyne. 

41 m. 1. Close to Bective Bridge, 
on the L bank, are the ruins of 



the noble dbhey of Beetive, one of 
the finest of the many remains of 
this district. Bective was founded 
for the Cistercian order in the 12th 
cent, by O'Melaghlin, King of 
Meath, who endowed it with 250 &t 
acres. Here was buried the body 
of Hugh de Lacy, treacherously 
murdered by a countryman while he 
was superintending the building of a 
new castle at Durrow. His head was 
taken to the abbey of St Thomas 
in Dublin, which so little contented 
the monks of that establishment, 
that they appealed to the Pope, who 
decided that the abbey of BectiTC 
should give up the remainder of the 
corpse. Very little remains to sboir 
the whereabouts of the ch., the 
whole style of the abbey indicating 
a remarkable union of monastic with 
military arrangements. It is in very 
good preservation, and enables as 
to trace the various apartments and 
halls. The general plan of the build- 
ings is quadrangular, with a strong 
battlemented tower, containing ft 
vaulted hall, at the S.W. comer. In 
the centre are the cloisters, the E 
Eng. arches of which are remarkahhr 
beautiful. They are cinquefofled 
and supported on light clustered 
pillars. " The featherings are mostly 
plain, but several are ornamented 
with flowers or leaves, and upon ooe 
a hawk-like bird is sculptured. The 
bases, which are cirdilar, rest upon 
square plinths, the angles of which 
are ornamented with a leai^ as it 
were, growing out of the base mould- 
ing." — Wakeman. From the splaying 
of the windows in the N. wall of the 
cloister, it might also have served tf 
the S. wall of the ch. 

The domestic portion of the mout^ 
stery is on the E. side, and is renuut' 
able for the great ^ckness of the 
walls, through which flues are carritt^ 
up to be ended in tapering chimDer- 
shafts. Much of this part of the 
building is of later date. 



Ireland. 



Baute IS.— Tara. 



149 



Detour to Tara. 

About 5 m. to the rt. of Bective 
is a spot that should be yisited by 
every Irish traveller, not for the 
sake of ruined castle or abbey, 
but for its old associations with eJl 
that was great and noble in Ireland's 
early history. The hill of Tara was 
for ages the centre of Ireland, the 
palace, the burial-place of her kings, 
and the sacred spot from which edicts 
were promulgated and justice dis- 
pensed; and yet nothing is left to 
mark this former metropolis but some 
grassy mounds and a few pillars. 
The 4th of the royal palaces "was 
that of Teamhair or Tarah, which 
originally belonged to the province 
of Leinster, where the states of the 
kingdom met in a parliamentary way, 
when several wise reg^ulations were 
made for the better governing of the 
state." — Comerford. Indeed, so sacred 
was the locali^ considered, that not 
even a king could reside there who 
had any personal blemish. Accord- 
ingly we read in the Irish MS. entitled 
* Senchas na Relec ' that Oormac, the 
Great King, held his court at Tara, 
until his eye was destroyed by -^ngus, 
when he was obliged to go and live 
at Oeanannus or KeUs. After the 
death of Dermot in the year 565, the 
liill was deserted in consequence of 
a curse pronounced against the king 
by St. Buadan, and subsequently it 
was the scene of a decisive battle 
in which the power of the Danes in 
Meath was overthrown. The present 
remains consist of certain mounds or. 
duns laid dovni in the Ordnance Map 
as Bath Biogh, Bath Laoghaire, Bath 
Grainne, and Bath Oaelchu. 

Of these the most important was 
Rath Biogh, of oval form, 850 ft. 
long, within the enclosure of which 
Tises up a moimd, known as the For- 
radh, and another called the Teach 
Corbmaic, " House of Oormac.** The 
Forradh is flattened at the top and 
surrounded by 2 lines of earth, with 
a ditch between. It is conspicuous 



from a single pillar stone, which has 
been suggesteid by Dr. Petrie, with 
great probability, to be no other than 
ike celebrated Lia Fail, or Stone 
of Destiny, upon which for many 
ages the monarchs of Ireland were 
crowned, and which is generally sup- 
posed to have been removed from 
Ireland to Scotland for the coronation 
of Fergus Mac Eark, a prince of the 
blood-royal of Ireland, there having 
been a prophecy that, in whatever 
country this feonous stone was pre- 
served, a king of the Scotic race 
should reign. Teach Oorbmiac ia 
joined to the Forradh on the S.E., 
and is a double enclosure of about 
140 ft. in diameter. On the N. of 
the Forradh is the Old Hall or Teach 
Miodhchuarta, consisting of 2 parallel 
lines of earth running N. and S., 
with 6 openings on each side denoting 
the ancient entrances. It was 360 
ft. long by 40 ft., and was evidently 
intended for the accommodation of a 
large number at the same time. 
*' The eating-hall had 12 stalls in each 
wing, tables and passages round them; 
16 attendants on each side— 8 to the 
astrologers, historians, and secretaries 
in the rere of the hall, and 2 to each 
table at the door — 100 guests in all : 
2 oxen, 2 sheep, and 2 hogs at each 
meal were divided equally on each 
mder—MSS. Between the Bath 
Biogh and the Old Hall is a mound 
known as the King's Chair, and N. 
of the latter are the Baths Grainne 
and Caelchu. A road leading to the 
N. was the Slighe fhan-na-gCarbad, 
or ** Slope of the Chariots." The 
visitor to this ancient mausoleum 
of Ireland's glories will sympathize 
with the poet in his melancholy 
strain : — 

'* No more to chiefs and ladies bright 
The harp of Tara swells. 
The chord alone that breaks at night 
Its tale of ruin tells."— ifoore. 

The geologist will be interested 
to know that both the Hills of Tara 
and Skreen are composed of rocks 



150 



lUmte 18. — Enjield to Brogheda. 



Ikelaxp. 



of the coal-measure formation, which 
abound in Posidonomya. 



Return to Main Eoute. 

42 m., on a small strip of land 
between ihe river and a tributary 
brooklet, are the ruins of Clady 
church, remarkable for possessing a 
transept, — a feature unusual in Irish 
early churches. In the S. chapel 
is a good E. Eng. window with 
cinquefoil arches. The brook is 
crossed by a singular bridge of 2 un- 
equal arches, which are supposed by 
some antiquaries to be coeval with 
the ch. A discovery was made near 
the ch. of 2 subterranean chambers 
of beehive-shape, formed of rows of 
stones, each layer of which projects a 
little beyond the layer below. So 
far they are similar to the chambers 
at Newgrange (p. 153), but with 
this difference, that the dome in the 
latter springs from upright piUars and 
does not commence from the ground, 
as it does at Glady. The cimmbers 
are 9 ft. high, and are connected by 
a small passage about 9 ft. long. 
" There can be little doubt that they 
are to be referred to Pagan times, 
before ^e use of the arch or the 
advantage of mortar was known, and 
were probably employed by some of 
the very early people of this island 
as places of security, temporary habi- 
tations, and granaries." — Wilde. It 
is unfortunate, however, that the 
beehive houses have so fallen in 
that it is very difficult for a 
strauger to make them out. On 
the same side of the river is Bective 
House, the residence of Mrs. Bolton. 
Opposite is Assey Castle, a fortress re- 
sembling the numerous Boyne castles, 
being a square keep with circular 
towers at alternate angles. There are 
also some ecclesiastical ruins hard by. 
Following the course of the river are 
Ballinter House and Bridge (45 m.), 
with Dowdstown House, on the rt. 
bank ; ArdsaUagh House, the Eliza- 
bethan seat of ti^e Duke of Bedford, 



on the 1. ; after which the tourist 
arrives at 

47i m. Kilcam, from whence the 
road crosses to the 1. bank to Navan. 

Before crossing, he may diverge 
about ^ m. to ^e rt., to visit the 
ruined ch. of Kilcam, which formeily 
contained one of the most perfect and 
beautiful fonts in the country. To 
prevent annihilation, the usual fate of 
every relic in Irish churches, it was 
buried, but afterwards dug up and 
placed in its present position in the 
Bom. Gath. chapel at Johnstone. The 
shaft is plain, but the basin is elabo- 
rately ornamented with a series of 12 
niches, each containing a carved figure. 
Two of them indeed contain 2 figures. 
of which one compartment rep^esent^ 
Christ blessing the Virgin Mary, h 
all the others are figures of the 
Apostles, carved with extraoidisarr 
dehcacy, and the utmost attention tc 
expression and costume. Each nicbt 
is surmounted by a small crocket. 

[If the tourist prefers crossmg the 
Boyne at Ballinter Bridge, he ^ 
pass near the ruins of Gannistown 
ch., a 13th-cent. ch., with a remark- 
ably good circular choir arch and £. 
window.] 

About I m. below Eilcam Bridge is ' 
Athlumney Castle — which gives title ) 
to Lord Athlumney, formerly Sir Wm. 
Somerville, Bi, who filled the office of 
Chief Secretary in Ireland, 1847-oi 
— a most picturesque fortress, or rather 
fortified mansion, ofthe 16th cent M 
one end is an ivy-covered tower, ad- 
joining the more modem mansion with 
its gables and mullioned windows. 
It is told of the former owner of this 
castle. Sir Launcelot Dowdall, that, 
rather than sufifer the Prince of 
Orange to enter beneath his roof, as 
he had reason to suppose he would 
do, he himself set fire to his ancestnl 
home. 

49 J m. Navan {Hotel: BmWs 
(Rt«. 19). 



Ireland. 



Movie 18. — Dunmoe — Castle Dexter, 



151 



From hence the road skirts the 
beautiful grounds of Black Castle 
(F. Rothwell, Esq.) to 51 m, Donagh- 
more, remarkable for its church and 
round tower. In^ early times the 
Donmach-mor, or *' Great church" 
was celebrated for the veneration in 
which it was held, on account of the 
sanctity of St. Cassanus, a disciple 
of St. Patrick, who particularly con- 
fided this ch. to his care. The old 
building, however, has evidently 
given place to a later one of the 13th 
cent, erected by the Anglo-Norman 
settlers. 

The round tower is similar in form 
to that at Eells (Bte. 19), and is con- 
sidered by Dr. Petrie to be of the 
10th cent. Its height is 100 ft., and 
the circumference at its base is 66 ft. ; 
but the top has been of late years re- 
paired, though not in a very accurate 
mamier, for it has not the conical apex 
nor the upper windows so peculiar 
to Irish towers. ** The doorway is 
remarkable for having a figure of our 
Saviour crucified, scxdptured in relievo 
on its keystone and the stone imme- 
diately above it. This doorway, 
which is placed at an elevation of 
12 ft. from the base of the tower, 
measures 5 ft. 2 in. in height, and its 
inclined jambs are 2 ft. 3 in. asunder 
at the sill, and 2 ft. at the spring of 
the arch. It will be perceived that 
there is a human head carved on 
each side of the door, the one partly 
on the band and the other outside 
it." — Petrie. The feet of there being 
sculpture over the door has been used 
by some antiquaries as a proof that 
it was an after work, which would 
consequently throw the origin of the 
tower into heathen times. 

52 m. rt. on the bank of the river 
opposite Ardmulchan is the ruined 
fortress of Dunmoe, an Anglo-Norm, 
castle of about the 16th cent. It had 
its share of hard treatment in its 
time, and in 1641 held its ground 
80 bravely against the Irish force sent 
against it that the assailants induced 
the commander. Captain Power, to 



surrender by means of a forged order 
from the Lords Justices. The river 
face is protected laterally by 2 cir- 
cular towers, and it occupies a very 
fine position, probably overlooking 
an ancient ford. 

53^ m. 1. Stackallan House, the 
seat of Viscount Boyne. 

55 m. rt., nearly opposite the 
wooded eminences of Beauparc (Kte. 
19), are the ruins of Cadle Dexter, 
said to have been erected by one of 
the Flemings, the early lords of Slane, 
but supposed with greater probability 
to have been built by the D'Exeter 
family, a Connaught sept who were 
located in Meath. It is a rambling, 
ivy-covered ruin, beautifully situated, 
but not possessing any very remark- 
able features. A little higher up is 
Cruicetown Lock and the Fall of 
Stackallan, above which the river is 
crossed at Broadboyne Bridge. ** The 
broad reach below the bridge has 
been supposed by some antiquaries 
to be in the vicinity of Brugh-na- 
Boinne, where the monarchs of Tara 
were interred of old ; but we think 
that the evidence is in favour of the 
locality beyond Slane." — Wilde. 

The traveller by road will notice 
nearly parallel with Castle Dexter 
the broken shaft of Baronstown Cross, 
the inscription on the sides showing 
that it was erected in 1590 by the 
Dowdall fenuly. 

57 m. Slane, in early days called 
Fearta-fear-feig {Inn: Dean's), a 
neat pretty town, in days gone by 
the residence and burial-place of 
King Slanius, of whom it was said, 
" This Slanius is entombed at a hill in 
Meath, which of him is named Slane." 

On a bank overlooking the river 
is Slane Castle, the modem resi- 
dence of the Marquis of Conyng- 
ham, who received a visit here from 
King George IV. The archssologi- 
cal tourist will find more interest in 
the ruins of the ck. and monastery^ 
so beautifully placed on the hill 
above the town, that is worth ascend' 
ing for the sake of the view, which 



152 



Boute 18. — Enfidd to Drogheda. 



Ireland. 



Sir W. Wilde justly considers to 
equal that from Bichinoiid Hill, and 
which embraces the whole course of 
the Boyne from Trim to Drogheda, 
with the classic hills of Skreen 
and Tara, and the mounds that 
mark the burial-places of the kings. 
The best part of the abbey ruins is 
a noble tower, with a round-headed 
doorway on the western side, and 
also a good window. The remains 
of the monastery are some little 
distance to the N.E. An abbey 
must have existed here for some 
time, as we i*ead that in 948 the 
cloictheach or round tower of Slane 
was burned by the Danes, together 
with the crozier and the bells^ ** the 
best of bells." Previous to this time 
there was an establishment of Canons 
Regular, in which Dagobert King 
of the Franks was educated. After 
being destroyed by the Danes the 
abbey gradually decayed, until it was 
restor^ by Sir Christopher Fleming 
in 1512. There are in the enclo- 
sure some singular gravestones, one 
of them formed of 2 headstones, 
shaped like the gable of a house. 
Sir W. Wilde considers it with great 
probab.lity tbbe of greater antiquity 
than any other Chj*istian tomb in 
Ireland. 

On the western brow of the hill, 
above the town, is a large circular 
rath, and on the same side of the 
river are the interesting ruins of 
the Hermitage of 8t Ere, the 1st 
Bishop of Slane, consecrated by St. 
Patrick towards the end of the 
6th cent., whose piety was so great, 
that **his custom was to remain 
immersed in the Boinn up to his 
2 armpits from morning till evening, 
having his Psalter before him on 
the strand, and constantly engaged 
in prayer." The building, which 
contains the tomb of the Earl of 
Drogheda, is of different dates, and 
the visitor will notice the fieur-de- 
lis and the rose ornaments on the 
inner pointed doorway. Also on the 
walk above, a stone, probably belong- 



ing to a tomb^ on which 12 lather 
elaborate figures are scnlptared. 

On the opposite side of the river. 
close to Slane Bridge, are the ruins 
of the ch. and castle of Fennor, that 
need not detain the visitor. 

Distances. — Drogheda, 8 m.; Na* 
van, 7 J. 

The district on the L bank of the 
Boyne, extending from within 1^ n. 
of Slane to the spot where the Biver 
Mattock joins the Boyne, was the 
Brugh-na-Boifmet the royal cemetery , I 
of the Boyne, the great burying- 
ground of the kings of Taia, an 
account of which is given in an 
article of an Irish MS., entitled * Sen- 
chasna Belec,' or History of the Ce- 
meteries, translated by Dr. Petrie. 
From this it appears that Coimac king 
of Tara, haviikg come to his death b; 
the bone of a salmon sticking in hu 
throat, desired his people not to- 
bury him at Brugh (because it was 
a cemetery of idolaters), but at' 
Bos-na-righ with his face to the E. 
His servants, however, came to 
resolution to bury him at Brugh, hoi 
the Boyne swelled up three times, 
that they coxdd not come. A 
of West Connaught writes as fol 
lows : — 

** The three cemeteries of Idolaters are. 
The cemetery of Tailten, the select, 
The cemetery of the ever-fair Gmadiin, 
And the cemetery of Brugh. 
The host of great Meath are burled 
Id the middle of the lofty Bnigfa ; 
The.great Ultonlans used to bury 
At Tailten with pomp." 

In the area just mentioned " we find th^ 
remains of no less than 17 sepulchi ' 
barrows, some of these— the smallc 
ones — situated in the ereen pa8tare*| 
lands which form the immediat 
valley of the Boyne, while the 3 
greatest magnitude, Dowth, Knoi 
and Newgrange, are placed on the^ 
summit of the ridge which bound:} 
the valley on the 1. bank, making 
upwards of 20 in idl, including the 
remains at Glogbalea and the great 
moat in which the fortress of Dro- 
gheda now stands (p. 29), and knowu 



Ireland. 



Boute 18. — TuiMtli : Netcgrange. 



153 



|n the annalB as the mound of the 
grave of the wife of Gtobhan.'* — WUde. 
Quittiiig tiie high road and turn- 
ing to the rt., the tourist arriTes at 

61 m. the very remarkable tumtdtu 
of Netugrangej which, for the extra- 
ordinary size and elaborate orna- 
mentation of its interior, is per- 
haps unsurpassed in Europe. **Its 
dimensions, as far as I can make out, 
are as follows : it has a diameter of 
210 to 315 ft. for the whole mound, 
at its junction with the natural hill 
on which it stands. The height is 
about 70 ft., made up of 44 ft. for 
the slope of the hill to the floor of 
the central chamber, and 56 ft. 
above it. The angle or extemid 
slope appears to be 35 degrees, or 
5 degrees steeper than 811 bury Hill, 
and consequently, if there is any- 
thing in that argument, it may, at 
least, be a century or two older. 
The platform on the top is 120 ft. 
across, the whole being formed of 
loose stones, with the smallest pos- 
sible admixture of earth and rubbisli. 
Around its base was a circle of large 
stone noonoliths. They stand, ac- 
cording to Sir W. Wilde, 10 yards 
apart, on a circumference of 400 
paces, or 1000 ft. If this were so, 
they were as nearly as may be 33 ft. 
from centre to centre, and their 
number consequently must originally 
have been thirty, or the same number 
as Stonehenge." ..." Lloyd, in his 
letter to Kowland, mentions one 
smaller stone standing on the sum- 
mit, but that had disappeared, as 
well as twenty of the outer circle, 
when Mr. Bouie*s survey was made.*' 
{Fergusson's *Rude Stone Monu- 
ments,* p. 204, where the reader will 
find furtiier details). Like the hill of 
Bowth, it is hollow in the interior, 
which is formed of large stones, the 
peculiarity of them being, that some 
are evidently brought from the bed of 
the Boyne, while others are basaltic, 
and otiiers again must have been 
transported from the Moume Moun- 
tains. The opening of the passage. 



first described by Edward Llwyd, 
the Welsh antiquary, in 1699, faces 
the S., and is remsu'kable for 2 
very beautifully-carved stones, the 
lower one, below the entrance, being 
marked with spirals **like snakes 
encircled, but without heads,'* and 
the other, which projects above the 
entrance, being of a sort of diagonal 
pattern. The passage is 63 ft. long, and 
IS formed of enormouil upright stones, 
22 on one side and 21 on the other ; 
and having forced himself through 
it with some trouble, the visitor 
emerges into a lofty dome-roofed 
chamber, nearly circular, with 3 re- 
cesses leading out from it. The 
basement of this chamber is com- 
posed of a circle of 11 upright 
stones, above which is the dome, 
formed by large stones placed hori- 
zontally, the edge of each project- 
ing somewhat more than the under 
one until the top is reached, and 
closed by a single big slab. Re- 
specting this form of roofing, Po- 
cocke has observed a similar structure 
in the pyramid of Dushour, called 
by the Arab name of Elkebere-el- 
Barieh; and all the visitors to the 
Cyclopean-walled Mycenae are well 
acquainted. with the appearance of 
the great cavern known by tradi- 
tion as the tomb of Agamemnon, and 
believed by some antiquaries to have 
been, the treasury of Atreus. Dr. 
Schliemann has opened this, and 
shown its great resemblance to New- 
grange. Perhaps the most extra- 
ordinary features in this chamber 
are the carvings on the stones in 
every direction, on the basement, 
up in the roof, and in the re- 
cesses.* They consist of coils, 
spirals, lozenges, and one in par- 
ticular in the western recess is orna- 
mented with what was apparently 
intended for a fern. As in Dowth, the 
interior contains stone oval basins. 
That the remains of those who were 

*The Celtic tomb of Locmariarker in 
Brittany exhibits ornamental earring similar 
to Newgrange. 



154 



Houie 18. — Enfield to Drogheda, 



Ireland. 



buried in these gigantic mausoleums, 
as well as other valuables deposited 
with them, were plundered by the 
Banes about a.i>. 860, is recorded in 
the * Four Masters,* and it need not 
therefore excite any surprise in the 
visitor that nothing but the bare 
walls remain, though at the excava- 
tions carried on at Dowth in 1847 
several articles were found, such as 
bones, pins, fibulsB, and a cinerary urn. 
On the opposite side of the river is 
Bosnaree, from whence the body of 
Bling Cormac was vainly endea- 
voured to be brought to Brugh-na- 
Boinne. 

1 m. farther W., and nearer to 
Slane, is the tumulus of Knowih (the 
Cnodhba of the * Four Masters '), an 
equally enormous mass, but to which 
there is no access as regards the in- 
terior. " If I may be allowed to offer 
a conjecture, I would say that New- 
grange might be the *Cumot or 
commensurate grave of Cairbre Life- 
achair.' He, according to the Four 
Masters, reigned from 271 to 288 — 
but probably 50 or 60 years later — 
and seems to have been a king de- 
serving of a right royal sepulchre ; 
and I feel great confidence that the 
unopened tumulus near the river may 
be what tradition says it is — the grave 
of the great Dagdha, the hero of Moy- 
tura " — Fergtbsson, p. 213. 

62^ m. Dowth or Dubhadh is a 
conical hill of considerable size, on 
the western side of which a passage 
had long existed, that might have 
been possibly formed by the Danes 
when they rifled the tumuli of their 
contents. This was further opened 
and explored, and led to very gra- 
tifying discoveries. The entrance 
passage, which is by no means easy 
of access, is composed of 11 very 
large stones on tlie 1. and 9 on the 
rt., set on end, and slightly inclined 
at top. It is 28 ft. long, and leads 
into a central chamber similar to 
the one at Newgrange. In 1842 
^' some workmen employed to dig in 
the mound near the entrance dis- 



covered two splendid gold toiqnes, a 
brooch, and a gold ring, and with 
them a gold coin of Geta (205- 
212 A.D.). A similar gold ringwa* 
found about the same time in the cell. 
and is in possession of Mrs. Caldwell 
the wife of the proprietor. Although 
we might feel inclined to hesitate 
about the value of the condusion t^ 
be drawn from the first discovery <^ 
coins (1699), this additional evidentf 
seems to be conclusive. Three Romai 
coins found in different parts at dif- 
ferent times, and with the torques and 
rings, are, it seems, quite sufficient 
to prove that it cannot have been 
erected before 380, while the pro- 
bable date for its completion may be 
about 400 A.D.'*— jFcrgft««m, •Rude 
Stone Monuments,' p. 210. Notice 
the singular and beautiful carvin^is 
on the stones, consisting of spirak 
concentric circles, and wheel crosei* 
together with straight lines li^tf 
Ogham characters. ** The walls d 
the chambers of this tomb are even 
more richly and elaborately orna- 
mented than those of the chambeTl 
at Newgrange, and are in a mem 
delicate style of workmanship. Al* 
together, I should be inclined ti 
consider it more modem than i 
more imposing rival." — Ftrgru»^ 
p. 209. In the centre of the chamUt 
is a shallow stone basiu measuriBf 
5 ft. by 3 fL in diameter. A*^ 
joining the chamber are 3 
cesses, between 5 and 6 fL deej^ 
the southern one of which 1< 
into another series of chambei 
and passages running southwan 
" Following the long southern galleiy; 
we find its floor formed by a singla 
stone, 10 ft. 6 in. long ; and in 
centre of this flag is a shallow oti 
excavation, capable of holding abo4 
a gallon, and apparently rabbeAl 
down wilh some ruae tool*' 

Near the tumulus of I>owth is St 
Bernard's Well and ruined ch., the 
latter containing a very singular 
figure built into its S. wall There 
are also remains of a castle^ a large 



Ireland. 



Rovie 18. — Valley of the Boyne, 



156 



military rath about 300 yards round, 
supposed to be "the Dun-na-ngeadh, 
or *• fort of the geese," where Domh- 
nall gave his celebrated feast; 
also a portion of a stone circle on 
tlie edge of a quarry overhang- 
ing the road. Dowth Castle is the 
estate of the late Lord Netter- 
ville, whose ancestor formed in the 
ground curious ramparts, baths, ponds, 
&c. 

The valley of the Boyne is here 
extremely beautiful ; the banks, which 
are in many places steep, are charm- 
ingly wooded and ornamented with 
fine residences, such as Townley Hall 
(B. T. Balfour, Esq.) and Oldbridge 
House (H. Coddington, Esq.). 

At ^ m., the point where the 
Mattock flows into the Boyne, the 
traveller arrives at the battle-field, 
where that decisive contest took 
place in 1690 which proved so fetal 
to the crown of James II. He will 
observe that the'Bojnie here flows E. 
and W., and that the area of the 
valley is bordered by a steepish hill, 
up which the road to Drogheda is 
carried. In the centre of this area 
is the obelisk that marks the most 
important point in the field. 

On looking down the river, notice 
2 largish islands — Green and Yel- 
low Island— close to the river-side. 
Higher up is the obelisk, from which 
the road, following the stream, takes 
a considerable curve, immediately 
under the beautiful woods of Townley 
Hall. At this point the Boyne doubles 
round upon itself and flows from the 
S., receiving the small brook called 
the Mattock, that joins it just beyond 
Townley Hall. A still smaller tribu- 
tary emerges near the obelisk from a 
deep wooded ravine known as King 
WiUiam's Glen; and a 3rd glen is 
occupied by a rivulet which flows 
into the same side of the Boyne about 
1 m. nearer to Drogheda. On the 
opposite or S. side the visitor will 
notice Oldbridge (immediately oppo- 
site the obelisk), and above it, rising 
up in a saocession of slopes, llie hiU 



of Donore, the summit of which will 
be about 1 m. from the bank of the 
river. "To the rt. or E. the bill 
fines off towards Drogheda 1^ m. 
distant. Its western side abuts upon 
and is completely protected by the 
high precipitous banks of the Boyne, 
now covered by the plantations of 
the demesne of Farm. Immediately 
behind it, towards the S., the way 
lies open to Dublin along the sea- 
ward line." — Wilde. The tide comes 
up as for as the weir just above where 
the Mattock fells in, and here tiie 
Boyne is fordable with difficulty. 
Another and much shallower ford oc- 
curs at Yellow Island, passable at low 
water for a carriage and horses in 
summer time . Oldbridge was a village 
at the time of the battle. It is abso- 
lutely necessary that the visitor 
should make himself thoroughly ac- 
quainted with these details before 
he can understand the plan of the 
battle. James's army, having marched 
through Drogheda, took up a posi- 
tion on the northern face of Do- 
nore, the Idng himself passing the 
night in the little ch. " The Irish 
csinnon were planted on 2 elevations 
commanding the fords, one a little 
to the S. of Oldbridge village, which 
was here intersected by narrow 
lanes ; the other nearly opposite the 
Yellow Island." The English army, 
which arrived from Ardee on the 
30th June, 1690, took up its posi- 
tion on the opposite slopes, with 
its right descending into the hollow 
of the King's Glen, and the left in 
the parallel ravine near Drogheda. 
Previous to the engagement an in- 
cident took place that gave great 
delight to the Irish army, viz. the 
wounding (which, however, happened 
to be very slight) of William as he 
was riding along the bank of the 
river reconnoitring. " The place 
where this happened was on the side 
of a small hillock by the water's 
edge, a little below the glen, and 
from which the stones have been 
taken to buHd the obelisk erected 



156 



Boute 18. — Enfield to Drogheda, 



IjiSLhM. 



just beside it." Although the Irish 
army was protected by Drogheda on 
its rt., it was not so on the 1., and, 
to take advantage of this, William 
despatched 10,000 men under the 
younger Schomberg to cross the ford 
near Slane, which they did before 
James could detach any force to 
meet them. 

The 2ud passage of the river at 
Oldbridge was made at 10^ a.m., 
the tide being out, by Schomberg, 
who, with the Blue Dutch Guards, 
the Enniskilleners, and the French 
Huguenots, emerged from the ravine 
opposite. Grove Island, and dashed 
into the water, when the brave old 
general met his death in the en- 
counter. " Without defensive armour 
he rode through the river and rallied 
the refugees, whom the fiiU of Gaille- 
mot had dismayed. * Goine on,' he 
cried to the French, pointing to the 
Popish squadrons; *come^n, gentle- 
men, there are your persecutors.' As 
he spoke a band of Irish horsemen 
rushed upon him and encircled him 
for a moment. When they retired he 
was on the ground. His Mends raised 
him; but he was already a corpse. 
Almost at the same moment, Walker, 
Bishop of Deny, while exhorting the 
colonists of Ulster to play the men, 
was shot dead." — Macaulay. 

** The 3rd passage was effected by 
the Danes and Germans at a shallow 
between the 2 principal islands, where 
the water must have been up to their 
armpits ; while the 1. wing, entirely 
composed of cavalry, passed or swam 
across opposite the eastern valley 
which intersects the hill of Tully- 
allen and effected a landing — ap- 
parently with little opposition — at 
a very deep and dangerous part of 
the river, nearly opposite one of the 
Irish batteries, and where the margin 
of the stream is wet and swampy. 
Here it was, however, that William 
himself, with his arm in a sling from 
the effects of his wound, plunged 
into the stream with Col. Woldey, 
and passed with great difficulty, fbr 



his horse was bogged on the other 
side, and he was forced to alight till 
a gentleman helped him to get his 
horse ont.**— Wilde. In this area 
26,000 men on the English side were 
engaged with 16,000 Irish, in addi- 
tion to the 10,000 English who had 
crossed at Slane, and were occupied 
with the Irish 1. wing. The result 
of the battle is well known: the 
Irish army falling back on Donore, 
and finally retreating to Duleek, 
where they passed the night, wliile 
King James himself fled to Dnblin, 
which he reached about 10 o'clock 
that night. 

It is to be hoped that the bitter 
animosities of party spirit which were, 
until very lately, so rampant on thi» 
subject, are becoming softened by 
time and the interchange of greats 
good will and forbearance. For more 
intimate details of the topography 
and incidents of the battle, tiw 
tourist is referred to Sir W. Wilde'i 
exhaustive memoir on the Boyne, to 
which, as well as to the learned 
author's personal help and leade^ 
ship, the writer of this notice is yeiT 
greatly indebted. 

From the battle-field the tTaTeIle( 
should he not wish to visit Mellifoni 
now, soon rejoins the great N. vM 
and arrives at 

65 m. Drogheda {Hotel, Byrne's 
Imperial), Bte. 2. 



BELAND. 



Bouie 19. — Drogheda to Cavan. 



157 



EOUTE 19. 

DROGHEDA TO NAVAN, KELLS, AND 
CAVAN, BY RAIL. 

The branch rly. to Oldcastle 
(HoUl: Griffiths'), 36 m. in length, 
nins through as well-wooded and 
well-watered a district as any in Ire- 
land, and for the antiquary a district 
richly stored with historic remains. 
It follows the S. bank of the Boyne, 
although, until the traveller arrives at 
Beauparc, the high grounds intervene 
and shut it out. The river is crossed 
at Navan, and the valley of the Black- 
water ascended from hence. 

4| UL From I>uleek Stat, a lane 
on rt. leads 1^ m. to the ^mall 
hamlet and ruined ch. of l>onore 
'Rte. 15), where James II. passed 
the night before his hopes were 
finally defeated at the battie of the 
Boyne. From Donore the Irish army 
*• retreated in tolerable order towards 
Duleek, towards which place the left 
wing, already beaten above Rosnaree, 
had retired. Here, with the Nanny 
water between them, both parties 
halted for the night, with the excep- 
tion of Bling James, who fled to 
Buhlin, which he reached about 10 
o'clock." — Wilde. A ch. was founded 
here in the 5th cent., by St. Kieran, a 
disciple of St. Patrick, and was called 
Duleek or Dam-liag, " because it was 
the fiist that was built with lime 
and mortar — and was so called from 
leac, a stone." — VaMancey. This ch. 
gave place to a priory for canons 
regular, founded in 1182 by Hugh De 
Itficy, who made it subject to that of 
Ijlanthony in Monmoutnshire, and at 
the Dissolution its possessions, which 
were large, were granted to Sir 



Gerald Moore, ancestor of the Dro- 
gheda &mily. 

The ruins, of E. Eng. date, 
consist of a spacious nave 100 ft. 
in length by 20 ft. broad, lighted 
at the W. end hj a 3-light lancet 
window, and temunated by a rather 
massive tower of 2 stages. Under 
the £. window are the armorial 
bearings of Sir John Bellew, 1587. 
Here is also the tombstone of an 
ecclesiastic. Adjoining the village is 
the demesne of the now extinct 
family of Earl of Thomond, entered 
by a castellated I gateway that once 
led to the abbey. The Nanny, a 
small stream, is crossed by an old 
bridge, built by William Bathe of 
Athcame and Genet his wife in 
1587. On the banks of the same 
river, 2J m. W., is Knightstown, the 
ancient seat of the de Bathe family, 
now represented by Major-General 
Sir Henry P. de Bathe, Bt. 

Athcame Castle (J. Gemon, Esq.), 
a large square Elizabethan building, 
defended at the angles by quadran- 
gular towers, the whole of which was 
formerly surrounded by a fosse. 2 
m. to the W. of Athcame is Somer- 
ville, the beautiful seat of Lord Ath- 
lumney. 

2} m. rt. is Flatten House (J. 
Gradwell, Esq.), built on the site of 
a castle of the time of Edward III., 
erected by Sir John D'Arcy (Lord 
Justice of Ireland). 

Grossing the turnpike-road to Slane, 
the rly. arrives at 12 m. Beauparc 
Stat., contiguous to Beauparc House, 
the seat of G. Lambart, Esq., situated 
on an elevation conmianding an ex- 
quisite prospect. " Beyond the fall 
of Stackallan we pass through the 
most delicious scenery : on the rt. the 
modem mansion of Beauparc peeps 
through the never-ending green of 
tall pines, sycamores, oaks, and elms. 
On the 1. the ivy-mantled walls of 
Castle Dexter (Rte. 18) raise them- 
selves above the dark plantation, 
while the limestone rock, here twisted 



158 



BotUe 19. — Drogheda to Cavan, 



Ireland. 



into a variety of contortionfi, breaks 
through the surface and relieves the 
eye, almost satiated with the endless 
variety both of colour and foliage." 
From Beauparc Stat, the pedestrian 
can reach Slane in 3^ m. From 
hence the rly. keeps nearly parallel 
with the road and the river to Navan. 
13 m. L is Dollardston House, and 
15 m. rt. Ardmulchan House (j. R. 
Taafe, Esq.), opposite whose residence 
are the ruins of Dunmore ch. and 
castle, and rt. the tower of Donagh- 
more (Rte. 18). Crossing the Boyne, 
the tourist arrives at 

17 m. Navan {Hotel : Brady's), an 
ill-biult dirty town, with a Pop; of 
some 4000, who have turned their 
backs upon the stream, sc£irce a 
glimpse of which can be obtained 
from any of its narrow streets." With 
the exception of the parochial and 
county structures, such as ch., bar- 
racks, infirmary, and gaol, it has little 
to interest the tourist ; though in the 
16th cent, it was sufficiently import- 
ant to have attracted a marauding 
expedition of the O'Neills and O'Don- 
nelis. Its ancient name was Nua- 
chongbhail, and it was originally 
wall^. 

Many antiquities now in the Irish 
Academy were discovered in rly. 
cuttings adjacent to the river, besides 
a singular subterranean passage on 
the W. bank near Athlumney, di- 
viding into 2 branches, which each 
ended in a rude circular beehived 
chamber. Kavan is a good central 
position from whence to explore 
either section of the Boyne, which by 
means of a canal has been rendered 
peurtly navigable. The tourist can 
either drive or walk to Beauparc and 
Slane, or else descend the river and 
canal by boat. 



Conveyances. — By rail to Drogheda, 
KeUs, Dublin, and Kingscourt. 

Distances. — Slane, 8 m. ; Drogheda, 
17 ; Beauparc, 5 ; Bective, 6 ; Trim, 
12 ; Athlumney, IJ ; Donaghmore, 
1}; Kellfi,10. 



Excwrsions, — 

1. Trim and Bective (Rte. 18). 

2. Slane and Newgrange. 

3. Kells. 

4. Duleek and Drogheda. 

The tourist now quits the Boyne 
and follows the course of the BUk^- 
water (Ir. Abhainn-mor, ** great 
river"), a river rising from I^ugb 
Ramor in the 6.E. comer cl the 
county of Oavan, which, after flowing 
for 20 m. in a winding lazy stream, 
joins the Boyne at Navan, -where 
they are nearly of the same size. 
The scenery of its banks is by no 
means as fine as that of the Boyne, 
but it is equally rich in early re- 
mains. 

19^ m. close to the line is Li%- 
cartan Ca^tl^t a noble-looking old 
fortress (partly inhabited), mainly 
consisting of 2 square towers con- 
nected together by a central hall, 
the whole of which forms a massivi* 
quadrangular building. It was held 
in 1633 by Sir William Talbot. Ad- 
joining it is the ch., containing 
some exquisite £. and W. windows 
(Dec.) with beautiful tracery. *• Upon 
the exterior faee may be observed 
weU-carved himian heads projecting 
from the dripstone." On the oppo- 
site bank is Rathaldron (Gapt. Donald- 
son), another specimen of the old 
quadrangular tower, to which a cas- 
tellated mansion has been added. 
The entrance is through a very fine 
avenue of limes. Between this spot 
and Navan is the mutilated cross of 
Nevinstoum, which from the re- 
searches by Mr. D. H. Smith appears 
to have been erected in memory of a 
knight of the Cusack &mily 1588. On 
1. of the line to the S. of Liscarton 
is Ardbraccan (Bp. of Meath). 



[21} m. rt., on &e opposite bank 
of the river, is the di. of Do- 
fiaghpairick, occupying the site of 
Domnachpadraig, the great ch. (rf* St 
Patrick, celebrated in the Book of 
J Armagh for being 60 feet long— 



RELAND. Bouie 19, — Donaghjpatrich — Kells, 



159 



pedibus ejuslx. pedum." This was 
he length prescribed by St. Patrick 
or this eh., "which the Prince 
)onall, the brother of the monarch 
jaoghaire, was to erect for him." — 
^etrie. The king even gave up his 
LOuse for a site. Near the ch. is a 
ipecimen of the miUtary rath, con- 
sisting of a mound rising out of as 
uany as 4 successive embankments i 
3r circumvallations. Sir W. Wilde 
[considers it to be the finest example 
)f the kind in Ireland ; but it is much 
to be regretted that planting opera- 
tions have to a great extent con- 
cealed it, and that at least one-half 
)f the lines of circumvallation have 
aeen levelled. A little further, 
)n the same side of the river, we 
:ome to Telton House, occupying 
he gradually sloping bank of a hill 
ivhich rises 292 ft. above the sea. 
The summit is crowned by a fort, 
Kath Dubh, which measures 321 
[)aces in circumference and has 
)peiiings N. and S. This was the 
iite of the ancient palace of Tailtean, 
Dne of the 4 celebrated royal resi- 
dences of Ireland, and for ages 
immemorial the scene of a great &ir, 
established in the year of the world 
3370, in remembrance of TaQlte, 
" wife of the last king of the Fir- 
bolgs." — Annals of the Four Masters. 
Up to the time of Rory O'Conor, 
the last king of Ireland, this fair was 
regularly held, when series of games, 
such as boxing, wrestling, chariot- 
races, and sham aquatic fights carried 
on in artificial lakes, were the order of 
the day. In addition to these attrac- 
tions, it was the custom of all the 
lads and lasses who wished to try 
theur luck, to arrange themselves on 
either side of a high wall in which 
^as a small opening, through which 
the female protruded her hand. If 
the swain admired it, fhe parties 
were married, an arrangement which, 
fortunately for both, only held good 
for a year and a day, when both 
were &ee to try their luck again. The 
proverb of a ** Telton marriage " is 



not yet obsolete in Meath. Should 
the visitor not succeed in tracing the 
outworks of the fort or the site of the 
lakes to his satisfaction, he will at all 
events be rewarded by the magnifi- 
cent view, embracing, W., Kells, the 
woods of Headford, and the ranges of 
the Cavan Mountains in the distance ; 
while E. he sees Liscarton, Bath- 
aldron, Navan, the hills of Tara and 
Skreen, and the wide green plains 
of Meath, watered by the Boyne and 
Blackwater, together with their tri- 
butaries, the Moynalty and Sile.] 

24 m. BaUybeg Stat., near which 
1. is Allenstown House (James N. 
Waller, Esq.). 

27 m. KelU {Inn : Hannon's ; Head- 
fort Arms, J. Lowry), a rather 
pleasant little town, containing much 
tliat is interesting in the highest de- 
gree to the antiquary. Kells (an- 
ciently Ceanannus) was celebrated 
in early Christian ages as being the 
residence of St. Columb, to whom 
a grant was made by Dermot, the 
son of Fearghus Oerrbhel, and who 
founded a monastery here in 550. 
Although no traces of this at present 
exist, the visitor will find 3 remark- 
able remains : 1. The house of St. 
Columb; 2. The roimd tower; and 
3. The crosses. 

The saint's house is of the same 
class of high-roofed buildings as St. 
Kevin's l^tchen at Glendalough, 
and offers a remarkable example of 
the earliest cylindrical vaulting (Rte. 
27). " It is of a simple oblong form, 
roofed with stone, and measures in 
height, from its base to the vertex of 
the gable, 38 ft. ; and as the height 
of the roof and width of the side 
walls are nearly equal, the gables 
form very nearly equilateral triangles. 
The lower part of the building is 
arched semicircularly with stone, and 
has at the E. end, a small semicir- 
cular-headed window, about 15 ft. 
from the ground ; and at the S. side 
there is a 2nd window, with a trian- 
gular or straight-lined head, measur- 



160 



Boule 19. — Drogheda to Cavan. 



Ibelakd. 



ing 1 ft. 9 in. in height. These 
windows splay considerably on the 
inside. The present doorway in the 
S. wall is not original or ancient; 
and the original doorway, which is 
now bnilt up, was placed in the W. 
end, and at a height of 8 ft from the 
ground. The apartment placed be- 
tween the arched floor and the slant- 
ing roof is 6 ft. high, and appears to 
haye been originally divided into 3 
compartments of unequal size. In 
the largest, which is at the E. end, is 
a flat stone, 6 ft. long and 1 ft. thick, 
now called St. Golumb's penitential 
bed." — Petrie. These buildings no 
doubt served the double purpose of 
habitation, together with rude ar- 
rangements for religious duties. 

The Round Tower, frequently 
referred to in the Annals of Tigher- 
nach as the steeple or cloictheach 
of Kells, is a remarkably perfect 
specimen. It is 100 ft. high, has a 
door 10 ffc. from the ground, and is 
lighted by 4 windows, which present 
all the varieties of form commonly 
found in Irish roimd towers, viz. 
round, square, and triangular-headed. 

Of the Crosses^ one, a little 
more than 11 ft. high, is close 
to the town ; three are in the 
ch.-yard ; while the Cross of Kells, 
par excellence, is in the market- 
place. The visitor to Moaaster- 
boice, near Drogheda, will at 
once recognise its similarity to the 
crosses there. The shaft, which is 
broken ofif at the top, is 8 ft. 9 
in. high ; the arms are 5 ft. 4 in. 
in width, and are connected by 
a wheel, perfect save a small por- 
tion where the top of the shaft 
should be. The cross is mounted 
on a broad base, having on its side 
a good sculpture of mounted horse- 
men in procession ; also a ** remark- 
able group of 5 flghting flgures, 
2 armed with spears and holding 
shields of a peculiar lunette shape." 
The shaft is divided into 4 compart- 
ments, representing military and 
ecclesiastical subjects, while a full- 



length figure occupies the centre of 
the arms. As an instance of the 
respect paid to these exquisite memo- 
rials, it may be mentioned thai a 
lately as 1798 this cross formed part 
of the gallows of Kells. The ch. is 
modem, but the beU-tower, like tiie 
one at Athlone, stands apart. It con- 
sists of 3 stages, and contains aom 
tablets buUt into the walls, and a 
black-letter inscription recording ite 
rebuilding in 1578. 

Only a small portion of a towei 
belonging to the walls remaiia, 
although it is known that KelJs vds 
strongly fortified and possessed a 
castie built by Walter de Lacy. 
The Four Masters and Tigliemach 
record many incidents in the his- 
tory of Kells, in which the town and 
churches sustained grievous loesa 
and damage at the hands of the 
native Irish, Norwegian hordes, and 
Danish robbers. It was devastated 
by fire, the sword, and pestilence 
many times; though the 2 greatest 
catastrophes were the destruction rf 
the abbey in 1019 by Sihtric and 
his Danes, and the burning of the 
town by Edward Bruce in 1315. 

Kells was celebrated, not only for 
its ecclesiastical greatness and sanc- 
tity, but also for its advancement m 
literature, evidenced by the prodnc- 
tion of the illuminated Book of Kell?. 
now in the Museum of the Boyal Irial' 
Academy, which, like its contem- 
porary the Book of Ballymote, gi^^ 
great insight into the national ])*" 
culiarities of that period, and is a 
marvellous example of elabomti- 
ornamentation. A fine view is ^^' 
tained fix)m the Hill of Lloyd, vhich 
is crowned with a column 100 ft- 
high, erected by Ist Earl of Bectirt. 

About 6 m. W. of Kells are the 
moat and dun of Dimor, the fonovr 
with a very large central mound and 
an outwork, like that at Newir. 
The dun is more ordinary, but there 
is a chain of 7 or 8 others on the 
green billa in the neighbourhood. 



161 



and anguis to consmne fhe sacrifices 
offered to their gods." — Crawford, 

11^ m. rt is Clifton Lodge, the 
residence of the Earl of Danilej. 
From hence the road approaches 
the valley of the Boyne to 16 m. 
Trim (Rte. 18). 



Ireland. Bcute 19. — Exeumonafrom KeOs. 

Abont 3 m. to the W. is Longh- 
crew, the seat of J. L. Naper, Esq. 

Kells is surronnded by many 
pleasant residences. The principid 
are Headfortt the seat of the Muquis 
of Headrort, adjoining the iovm^ the 
woods and groves of which skirt and 
indeed occupy islands in the middle 
of the Blackwater; Oddey Park 
(G. Bomford, Esq.), Williamstown 
(W. S. Gameitt, Esq.), Bloomesbury 
(R. Bamewall, Esq.), the Arch- 
aeaconry (Archd. Stopford). 

Contfeyancea. — By rail to Drogheda 
and Dublin; rly. to Oldcastle; car 
to Bailieboro*; car to Kingscourt 
and Ganikmacross,* car to Trim, vift 
Athboy. 

instances, — ^Navan, 10 m. ; Telton, 
5 ; Baillieborough, 14 ; Oldcastle, 14 ; 
B^^jamesduff, 17; Virginia, 11; 
Athboy, 8J; Kingscourt, l^ ; Trim, 
16. 



Excursion to Atliboy and Trim, 

This may be made by mail-car, 
passing 1^ m. rt. Cannonstown (W. 
(^adUer, Esq.), and 5^ m. rt. Johns- 
brook (J. Tandy, Esq.), and Drews- 
town. 

7J m. on 1. The ruined ch. or 
abbey of JRaihmore contains a por- 
tion of a sepulchral cross and a 
monument erected to a member of 
the Plunket family 1531. 

^ m, Athboy (Ir. Ath-buidhe, 
"yellow ford"), an inconsiderable 
little town, situated on the Athboy 
stream, which fsdls into the Boyne. 
There is a very handsome R. C. chapel 
here, with a steeple 90 ft. high. To 
the E. of the town rises the hill of 
Ward, 390 ft, celebrated like Tailtean 
for being the site of the palace of 
Tlachtga, and the locale of a great 
fiiir, "when the fire of Tlachtga 
^ras ordamed to be kindled on the 
3l8t October, to summon the priests 

[Irdand,'} 



Excursion to the Cairns of Slieve- 
na-CaUiagh, 

From Kells the rly. extends a 
few miles further to Oldcastle ; but 
the tourist should take the road to 
Virginia, which crosses the Black- 
water at Olavens Bridge 29 m., and 
thence keeps the L bank. 

3 m. 8.E. of Oldcastle is the range 
of hills called Slieve-na-Galliagh — 
the hags' or witches' hill. *^ On the 
ridge of this range, which is about 
2 m. in extent, are situated from 25 
to 30 cairns, some of considerable 
size, being 120 to 180 ft. in dia- 
meter; others are much smaller, 
and some so nearly obliterated that 
their dimensions can hardly be now 
ascertained." 

In 1867-68 Mr. Eugene Oonwell 
of Trim ** was enabled, with the as- 
sistance of the late Mr. Naper of 
Loughcrew, the proprietor of the 
soil, to excavate and explore the 
whole of them." A paper read by 
him to the Boyal Irish Academy in 
1868 has been printed for private 
circulation, and a full account, with 
plans and drawings, is projected, but 
" is still in abeyance for want of 
encouragement" 

** One of the most perfect of these 
tumuli is that distinguished by Mr. 
Oonwell as Coim T. It stands on 
the highest point of the hill, and is 
consequently the most conspicuous. 
It is a truncated cone, 116 ft dia- 
meter at the base, and with sloping 
%ide between 60 and 70 ft. in length. 
Around Its base are 37 stones laid 
on edge, and varying from 6 to 12 ft 



162 



Boute 19. — Drogheda to Cavan. 



iBSUItt). 



in lengfch. They are not detached, 
as at Newgiange, but fonn a re- 
taining wall to the monnd. On the 
N., and set about 4 ft. back from the 
circle, is a large stone, 10 ft long 
by 6 high and 2 ft. thick, weighing 
consequently above 10 tons. The 
upper part is fashioned as a rude 
seat, from which it obtains its name 
of the Hag's Chair, and there can be 
no doubt that it was intended as a 
seat or throne." Many of the stones 
of this and the other cairns are or- 
namented like those of Newgrange. 

Cairn L, a little further W., is 
135 ft. in diameter and surrounded 
by 42 stones, similar to Cairn T. 
The inner chamber is 29 ft. deep 
and 13 across at its greatest width. 
In one of the side chambers is the 
largest and best finished of the mys- 
terious flat basins yet discovered. 
It measures 5 ft. 9 in. by 3 fi;. 1 in., 
and is tooled and picked with as 
much care as if executed by a modem 
mason. 

Charred human bones, human 
teeth, &c., are found in most of 
these. In one. Cairn H, only be- 
tween 5 and 6 ft. high and 54 ft. 
^meter, Mr. Conway collected some 
300 fragments of human bones, 14 
fragments of rude pottery, 10 pieces 
of flint, 155 sea-shells in perfect 
condition, besides pebbles and small 
polished stones in quantities. '^ The 
most remarkable part of the collec- 
tion consisted of 4884 fragments, 
more or less perfect, of bone imple- 
ments. These are now in the Dublin 
Museum, and look like the remains 
of a paper-knife maker's stock-in- 
trade.'^ Several of these are polished 
and ornamented ; 13 combs engraved 
on both sides, and 91 by compass, 
With circles and curves of a high 
order of art. On one, in cross-hatch 
lines, is the representation of an 
antiered stag, the only attempt to 
depict a living thing. Besides these,^ 
were found in this cairn 7 beads' 
of amber, 3 small beads of glass of 
different colours, 2 fragments and a 



curious molten drop of glass 1 inch 
long, 6 perfect and 8 fragmenta of 
bronze rings, -and 7 specimens of 
iron implements much rusted. 

Cairn D, the largest of the group, 
180 ffc. in diameter and originally 
surrounded by 54 stones, has not yet 
been penetrated. (The above par- 
ticulars are from Fergusson's * Bude 
Stone Implements' (1872), where 
fur^er details and engravings \nll 
be found.) 



30J m. on the side of the rirer 
are the chapel and well ci St. Kieran. 
with the " remains of 5 termon crosses 
in its vicinity, 4 of which are placed 
N., S., E., and W. of the river. The 
northern one was erected in a ford 
in the river, a very remarkable situa- 
tion for one of these early Christian 
structures." — WUde. This is ac- 
countedfor bythe story that St. Kieran 
erected these crosses with a great deal 
of trouble, and that St. Columb, who 
was then building at Kells, envied 
them so greatly that he determined 
to abstract one. The saint had got 
half-way across the river with the 
stone on his back when St. Kieran 
awoke and caught him. A struggle 
took place, in which St. Columb 
threw the base of the cross down in 
the bed of the river, where it has 
ever since remained. The ch. is a 
plain singular building of the 14tli 
cent or Siereabouts, built on archer 
so as to form a sort of crypt 

35} m. the traveller arrives at the 
foot of Lough Bamor, firom when(v 
the Blackwater emerges, and fol- 
lows the N. shore of the lough and 
under the slopes of Ballybrui»h 
(1631 ft) to 

38i Virginia iinn: Fitzpatrick 
Hotel — ^good). A neat pretty town, 
originally founded " in pursuance of 
the plan for colonizing Ulster in the 
reign of James I., when 250 acres were 
allotted tor the site of a town, called 
Virginia, which was to have been 



IbelanI). BotUe 20. — MtdUnffor to Partadown, 



163 



made a borough, but was never in- 
corpoiated." — Lewis. There is a 
modem Grothic ch., which replaced 
one partly blown down and partly 
burnt in 1832. Henry Brooke, author 
of 'Gnstayus Yasa' and 'The Fool 
of Quality/ was bom in 1706 in the 
House of BiuitaYan, not very £ar 
&om Yiiginia. 

At Eibaleck, a little to the N. of 
Mi Nugent, a seam of anthracitic coal 
in the Lower Silurian beds was dis- 
covered by Mr. J. Kelly. 

Zotf^ft JSamor, about 5 m. in length, 
is prettily wooded and varied with 
islands, planted by the Marquess o£ 
Headfort, who has an estate close 
to Yiiginia, and a lodge occupied by 
his eon the Earl of Bedive. The 
lake is said in the * Annals of the 
Four Masters ' to have burs from a 
neighbouring height, called Sliabh 
Guaire, and it receives at Yirginia 
the River Sele, which is to all in- 
tents and purposes identical with 
the Blackwater, although the latter 
only takes its name &om the 
period of its rismg from the lake. 
The original name of the river was 
Abhainn Sele, till St Patrick cursed 
it and caused the water to become 
black, whence it took the name of 
Abhainn Dubh or Blackwater. 

Conveyances. — Gar to Drogheda 
and Yirginia Boad Stat 

Digfances. — Cavan, 19 m. ; Kells, 
11 ; Balljjamesduff, 6 ; OldcasUe, 7i ; 
HoimtXugent,!!; BaUlieborough,?^. 
The scenery has very much 
changed since the traveller left the 
&t pasture-lands of Meatii, and he 
DOW finds himself gradually ap- 
proaching high ground, although 
uot exceeding 1000 ft. 

45 m. New Inn [&om whence a 
rood on 1. branches off to 8 m. a 
sinall town of the euphonious name 
^^BaUyjamesduff, passing on the way 
a serpentine sheet of water called 
I^ttgh NadrageeL] The way lies 
o?er a dreary country, having on 1. 
^he conspicuous Cavan Mountains, 



Ardkilmore 767, and Slieve Glah 
1057 ft 

At 51^ m. on rt. is the village of 
Stradcne, with, adjoining it, Stradone 
House, the residence of B. Burrowes, 
"Esq., firom whence an uninteresting 
drive of 6 m. brings the tourist to 

57^ m. the dirty little county town 
of Cavan (Hotel: Globe). Bte. 20. 



ROUTE 20. 

MULLINQAR TO PORTADOWN 
THBOUGH CAVAN AND ARMAGH. 

A branch of the Midland Great 
Western Bly. conveys the traveller 
to Cavan. The first 11 m. firom 
Mullingar to Cavan Junction are 
described in Bte. 21. 

14 m. From Float Stat it is 6} m. rt. 
to Castle-Pollard (Bte. 21), through 
the village of Coole and the de- 
mesne of Turbotstown (J. A. Dease, 
Esq.). From hence the rly. pursues 
a northerly course through a very 
iminviting and dreary country, pass- 
ing 18 m. 1. Femsborough and the 
rumed ch. of Abbeylara, in the tower 
of which is a grotesquely sculptured 
female figure. 

20 m. BaUyvnUan Stat, close to 
a small sheet of water on rt. called 
Lough Einile, which is connected 
by a short stream with Lough Shee- 
Itn. This is one of the largest lakes 

M 2 



Boute 20. — MuUingar to Portadovm. Ireland. 

racks, &c., and a pretty BiHied 
ch., which, though in the town, 
belongs to the parish of Umey. It 
once contained the castle of the 
O'Reillys, and a monastery for the 
Dominican order, but they have 
long since disappeared. A diaip 
contest took place at Gavan in 1690 
between a body of James H-'s troopfl 
and the redoubtable EnniskOlenen 
under their gallant leader Wolaeley; 
when the latter, who only numbered 
1000, attacked the Duke of Ber- 
wick's reinforcements and utterly 
routed them. In the neighbonrhood 
of Cavan is Farnham CaMh the 
beautiful residence of Lord Farn- 
ham. 

jDwtonceg.— KeUs, 31 m. ; Viiginia, 
20 ; Clones, 17 ; Newton Butler, 14; 
Kilmore, 3 ; Mullingar. 36 ; Beltur- 
bet, 11. 

Conveyances. — Bail to Mullingtf 
and Clones. Cars to CrosBdoney m 
Arragh and to Belturbet. 

[3 m. distant, on the road to 
Crossdonej, is the seat of the an- 
cient bishopric of Kilmore (JA 
Coill-mor-narmBreathnach, " Grert 
Wood of the Welshmen "i the first 
dignitary being one Anorew Ma^ 
brady, in- 1454, although previous to 
that time prelates had been ap- 
pointed who were styled Bishops of 
Breffhi. In 1585 the see became 
Protestant, and was united in 1752 
to Tuapa, but, under the Church Tem- 
poralities Act, is now associated with 
Elphin and Ardagh. ThecatheM 
wluch has been restored, posBeasa 
no particular feature of interest, sare 
a richly-sculptured Norm, docffway. 
that was removed from the sbbej 
of Trinity Island in Loo^ Ongh- 
ter. Near the ch. is the Episcopal 
Palace. "The small lakes, which 
axe thickly scattered over a smfiu* 
of 76 square miles, by their labr* 
rinthine windings give to that space 
the appearance of kke and islain in 
alternate series. They are the prin* 



164 



in the county of Cavan, 4} m. in 
length, and covering an area of 8000 
Irish acres. On the E. shore is the 
small village of Mount Nugent, and on 
the S. of the lake is the ruined castle 
of Boss, beyond which the hills of 
Knocklaid form a very pleasing 
landscape. 

[3} m. 1. of the stat is the little 
town of Granard {Inn: Granard). 
It was burned by Eidward Bruce in 
1315, but afterwards rose to im- 
portance in the reign of James I. 
Hard by is the Moat of Granard, 
a considerable artificial mound, be- 
lieved to have been built by the 
Danes as a defensive post, and worth 
ascending for the sake of the view. 

Some 3 or 4 m. to the N.W. is 
Lough Govma, an irregularly-shaped 
lake, the shores of which in some 
places are steep and well wooded. 
On the island of Inchmore, at the S. 
end, is a ruined ch. The btuiks 
are adorned by pleasant residences — 
Derrycassan (Major Dopping-Hepen- 
stal). Erne Head (H. Dopping, Esq.), 
Woodville (O. Lambert, Esq.), and 
Frankford. The river Erne issues 
from its N. end.]. 

From this point the country be- 
comes still more boggy and dreary, 
though the monotony on the rt is re- 
lieved by the picturesque elevations of 
the Cavan HUls, which rise conspicu- 
ously to the height of 760 ft., in- 
creasing at Slieve Glagh to 1050 ft. 
On the 1. the line runs parallel with, 
though not very near to, the river 
Erne. 

In the neighbourhood of 81 m. 
CroBsdoney Stat are lismore and 
Bingfield (J. Storey, Esq.). 

36 m. Cavan {Inn: Globe). This 
dirty little town rPop. 3209) will 
not induce the visitor to make a 
long stay, although it is situated 
in a very pleasing country, diversi- 



fied by plenty of wood and water. 
It contains the usual county struc- 
tures, such as gaol, infirmaiy, bar- 



EtELANP. Boute20. — BeUurbet — Monaghan, 



165 



ipal feeders of the Erne, and are 
onnected with each other by small 
Lvere." — Fraser. They resemble 
Jpper Lough Erne, and their com- 
plex configuration is due to the same 
anses, viz. the formation of basins by 
olution of the limestone where ex- 
K)sed,and its protection from such 
olution where banks of drift occur.] 

4 m. N.E. of Cavan is BaUyhaise, 
i small town, with a markei-place 
milt on arches, dose to the town 
a Ballyhaise House (W. Humphreys, 
2)sq,), the &ont of which is also 
smiously ornamented with arches. 

40 m. at Butler'8 Bridge, the river 
iallyhaJse is crossed, near its junc^ 
ion with the Erne. 

43 m. L Clover Hill (Miss Saun- 
leison), soon after which a road 
fn 1. turns off to 3 m. Belturbet, a 
teat town on the Erne (crossed 
»y a bridge of 3 arches), a little 
listance from the expansion of 
hat river into the Upper Lough 
iJme. By means of the waters of 
he lake, the inhabitants have com- 
Aunication as &r as Belleek, 3 m. 
Fom Ballyshannon, in addition to 
he Ulster Canal that joins the Erne 
tfew miles above the town. A good 
leal of business is carried on in com 
tnd distilling. There are in "the 
'h.-yard the remains of a fortifica- 
ion enclosing an extensive area.*' 
Uso a portion of a round tower, 
)mlt of nmestone and red grit. 

Belturbet was, like most of the 
<Gwns in this neighbourhood, the 
icene of some sharp fighting in 
1690, when the Enniakilleners, prior 
«>.tlie battle of Newton Butler, 
^ized upon the town, which had 
t^een taken by the enemy, and, after 
^lodging them, fortified it for them- 
selves. 

A little beyond Castle Saunder- 
»^. 46i m. 1. (E. J. Saunder- 
^ Ssq.), the road crosses the 
^r Canal, that connects Lough 
*^e with Lough Neagh, and runs 
PMaUel with it to 51 m. the pic- 



turesque town of Clones, desoribed in 
Bte. 6, from whence the traveller 
can proceed by rail to EnniskiUen 
or Dundalk. 

57 m. Smithborough, an uninterest- 
ing little place, founded, as its name 
impUes, by a Mr. Smith. 

63 m. Monaghan {Hotd: Westenra 
Anns), a neat and thriving county 
town, but not offering sufficient in- 
terest to induce a prolonged visit 
(Pop. 3910). Of so modem a date 
is it, that on the settlement of Ulster, 
at ibe begmning of the 17th cent, 
when the Lord Deputy came hither 
to make arrangements respecting the 
forfeited lands, there was scarcely a 
house in which he and his train could 
be accommodated, and they were 
consequently obliged to pitch tents. 
The chief owner of the district is 
Lord Rosamore, whose beautiful seat 
of Bossmore Park is a little to the S. 
ontheroadtoNewbliss. The principal 
square in the town is called the Dia- 
mond, and contains a linen-haU. 

Conveyances, — Daily to Castle- 
blayney. By rail to Armagh* Porta- 
down, and Clones. 

DUtanees, — ^Armagh, 16 m. ; Porta- 
down, 26; Clones, 12; Cavan, 27; 
Newbliss, 10 ; Cootehill, 15 ; Emy- 
vale, 7. 

In the neighboiurhood of Mona- 
ghan are Bossmore Park (Lord Boss- 
more), Ballybeck (J. Brownlow,Esq.), 
Brandrum (Major Coote), Mount 
Louise (B. Evatt, Esq.), Castle Shane 
(Bight Hon. E. Lucas), Beechhill (W. 
Murray, Esq.). 

From hence the rly. passes through 
a hilly country to 

68 m. Okuslough, a small town, the 
parish ch. of which has a tower 
130 ft. high. Close to it is the fine 
estate of Castle Leslie (belonging 
to the Leslie £amily), on tiie banks 
of a small lake. 

Conveyances, — Car to Aughnacloy. 

72 m. rt Tynan, A portion of a 
stone cross, with bosses and line 
pattern, de&ced by Cromwell, stands 



166 



BotUe 20. — MnUingoT to Portadaum. Ibeland. 



W the roacbdde near the ch.-yard. 
There is a smaller one over a well in 
the grounds of Tynan Abbey, the 
seat of Sir J. M. Stronge, Baxt., M.P. 

About 1 m. 1. is Caledon, a thriving 
little market town, that has prospered 
under the auspices of the family of 
the Earl of Caledon, whose extensive 
park adjoins. It was formerly known 
by the name of Kennard, and was the 
head-quarters of Sir Phelim O'Neil, 
who in the 17th cent, successfally 
held the county of Tyrone for 
several years agamst the £higli^ 

79m. Armagh (Hotel: Beresford 
Arms), a finely situated cathedral 
town, and the see of the Primate of 
all Ireland. Pop. (1871) 7866. "No 
city is so rich in historical associations, 
and' yet has so little to show and so 
little to tell in the present day, as Ar- 
magh. St. Patrick's first ch. is now 
represented by the Bank of Ireland ; 
the Provincial Bank comes dose on 
St. Golumb's; St. Bride's shares its 
honours with a paddodc; St Peter 
and St. Paul afford stabling and 
garden-produce to a modem rus 
in wrhe; and St. Mary's is lost in 
a dwelling-house.*' — Beeves, There 
seems to be little doubt but that 
St. Patrick founded the early ch. 
in the 5th cent, on ground known as 
Bruim sailech, **the Bidge of Sal- 
low," given to the saint by Daire, 
the chieftain of the district. The hill 
was called Bathdaire, and subse- 
quently Ard-macha, after an Irish 
heroine of doubtful identity. Here, 
shortly after the foundation of the 
ch., was buried Lupita» tiie sister of 
St. Patrick. 

The early histoir of the ch. embraces 
a long hst of mishaps, long even for 
Irish religious establishments, which 
were particularly liable to misfortune. 
For 5 cents, or more it had to bear 
the repeated attacks of the Danes and 
other marauders, who, not content 
with plundering, burnt the city to 
the ground as often a3 it was rebuilt. 



The most complete ruin, however, tras 
sustained at the hands of a native 
chieftain, Shane O'Neill, in 1566, who 
reduced the cathedral to ashes. ** Pri- 
mate Loftus assailed the destroyer 
with the spiritual weapon of excom- 
munication, and rejected his pretext, 
which was that he burned the ca- 
thedral to prevent the English troops 
from polluting its sanctuary by lodgiDg 
within its walls. O'Neill was shcoliiy 
aftier most inhumanly butchered in 
the Scottish camp, and his body 
thrown into a pit, where it by 
inhumed for several days, imtil one 
William Hers disinterred it, and, 
severing the head, sent it * pidded in 
a pipkm* to the Lord Depuly at 
Drogheda."— Wright. 

P^vious to &e deetruotion by the 
Danes, Armagh was famous for its 
school of learning, the Alma Mater of 
many of the early scholars, viz. Aigil- 
bert. Bishop of the Western Saxons, 
Gildas Albanus, and others. Thei« 
is still a royal school here founded 
by Charles I., in 1627. 

Since the Reformation, Amui^ 
has been fortunate in its archbishop^ 
the bulk of whom exercised their 
influence to benefit the metrojxdi- 
tan see. Of these the principal 
were Primates Ussher, Hoadley, and 
Bobinson, who, after his translatioD 
from the bishopric of Kildaie, was 
created Baron Bokeby. To the ]ate 
primate Armagh owes the restoration 
of the cathedral, at a cost of 90,000/^ 
from his own private wealth ; also the 
erection of the episcopal residence, 
the town library, and the obeervatoiy. 
which has contributed very largely to 
the annals of astronomical science. 

The city is very finely sitiiated 
on the slopes of a steep hiU, the 
summit crowned by the yenerable 
cathedral, while separated by vallev^ 
arise other hills, one of which i^ 
likewise adorned by the new B. C. 
cathedral The viator wfll naik 
with pleasure the substantial and 
orderly streets, the dean tiottoir, tbi* 
prettily wooded mall, and the gene- 



Ireland. BotUe 20. — Armagh : Cathedral. 



167 



ral appearance of pioaperity and good 
govenmeni The geologist may dis- 
cern many limestone E&ells in the 
flags. 

The Cathedral, which is in the 
centre of a dose at the top of the 
hill, is a craciform ch., consisting 
of nave with aisles, choir, and tran- 
septs, with a massive and rather low 
tower rising from the intersection. 
It had, previous to the recent alterar 
tions, a spire surmonnting the tower, 
hutthis has heen removed, andwitiithe 
besteffect. Thetower,whichislighted 
with 2 windows on each side, should 
be ascended by the tourist for the sake 
of the extensive and beautifiil view. 
The nave is separated from each aisle 
by 4 painted arches with rounded 
and deeply moulded pillars, and is 
lighted by 5 Perp. wmdows, with 4 
clerestoiy windows above. At the 
W. end is a lancet-headed 3-light, 
of good stained glass, there b^g 
also a Perp. stained window at the 
W. of each aisle. The roof is of 
timber, well carved, and ornamented 
with gQt bosses. The nave contains 
monnments to Dr. Sir T. Molyneux, 
by Boubillac; to Dr. Stuart, late 
Primate, by Chantrey ; on elaborate 
memorial to the 3 brothers Kelly; 
to Archdeacon Robinson ; in the N. 
aisle to Dean Drelincourt, 1644, by 
Bysbraeck. Notice also good mould- 
ing on the W. door, and an octagonal 
sculptured font; also a most beau- 
tiful monument which has recently 
been put up to the late Primate, 
Lord J. Ber^ord. The N. transept 
is used as a vestry, and contains 
a monument resplendent in colours 
to Loid Charlemoni The choir is 
separated by a sculptured and stone- 
paneUed screen, is lighted by beau- 
tifol stained glass at Uie sides and E. 
end, and has a groined roof. The 
bells are remarkably sweet, and are 
enabled to be rung by one person. 
The whole cathedral is pleasing and 
gratefid to the English eye, for every 
portion of it denotes a carefol and 
zealous watch over it. The organ 



is good, and the choral service very 
well p^ormed. The toorist should 
visit Primate Robinson's library, over 
the door of which is inscribed to 
rris ^vxvs un-pttoy, and also the 
observatory, v^hich, with the astrono- 
mer's residence, is situated a short 
distance out of the town in prettily 
planted gardens. The sdentmo visi- 
tor will receive every attention either 
from the principal. Dr. T. Bomney 
Robinson or the sub-astronomer, Mr. 
Bambaut. About l}m.frx>m the town 
is the Archbishop's Palace, a flne 
block of building erected by Primate 
Robinson, togemer with a private 
chapel, and an obelisk commanding 
views over beautifiil groimds. A 
very conspicuous feature in Armagh 
is the B. 0. cathedral, a handsomo 
building in Dec. style. 

Of all the churches and religious 
establishments that Armagh ever 
boasted, nothing remains; though the 
archseological visitor may visit the 
site of Emania, known as the Navaii 
Fort, which occupies an area of 12 
acres, a little distance from the city. 
It is said to have been the seat of 
the Ulster sovereignty for 600 years, 
during which period a series of kings 
reign^ here prior to the year 332 ! 
In shape it is elliptical, embracing 
about 12 acres. "In the townland 
of Tray there is a mound to which 
tradition assigns the name of the 
King's Stables, and immediately ad- 
jacent was the palace of the Eiiights 
or Champions of the Ouraidhe na 
Graubh Buadh, or the Knights of 
the Red Branch." — Doyle, An in- 
teresting pamphlet has been vnitten 
by the Bev. Dr. Beeves on the 
'Ancient Ohurohes of Armagh,' 
which the antiquary should consiut. 

Another early monument exists 
on the banks of the Cullan Water 
on the road to Keady, in a mound 
that marks the tomb of Nial Gaille, 
who, when his army was drawn up 
in battle array against the Danes, 
I perished in an attempt to save one 



168 



Bouie 21. — Mfdlingar to Sligo. 



jKELiND. 



of his men who had &llen into the 
river.* 

A Uttle to the S. is Market HiU, 
with the Vicars Oaim 840 ft. high. 
Adjoining the town is Gtosford GasUe, 
the seat of the Earl of Grosford. 

The neighbourhoods of Armagh 
and Eeady are celebrated for the 
production of brown and coloured 
linens, such as blouses, and hollands 
for window blinds, the tint of which 
is obtained by sos^ldng the goods in 
solution of muriate of tin and cate- 
chu. After this operation they are 
glazed and finished by means of a 
" beetling " machine. This operation 
can be seen at Messrs. Kirk's factory 
in Eeady, where 200 beetling ma- 
chines are employed. 

About 2 m. N. of Armagh was 
fought the battle of the Yellow Ford 
(1598), wherein the English under 
Sir Henry Bagnal were defeated by 
the insurgent Hugh O'Neill. 

At a short distance to the W. of 
the city are some marble quarries, 
displaying an interesting geological 
section. The carboniferous lime- 
stone is there oovered by a deposit 
of (1st) a sandy breccia of limestone 
fragments, (SUid) a red stratified 
conglomerate, or breccia, (3rd) Per- 
mian boulder-beds, 2 ft., and fdl sur- 
mounted by boulder clay of the 
glacial or drift period. ^^In this 
quarry, therefore, we have the cu- 
rious concurrence of two boulder 
formations, of different and widely 
separated periods, superimposed one 
upon the other. Though somewhat 
similar in appearance, there is really 
a difference between them, which 
the practised eye may easily detect ; 
and the divisional line between tiie 
two formations may easUy be fol- 
lowed along the face of the cliff." — 
Htdl, This neighbourhood is farther 
interesting as displaying the only 
representatives of the Lower Permian 
beds at present known in Ireland. 

* The same Iwend, however, is carrent on 
the bftoks of the Nore, near Thomastown. | 



Conveyances. — ^By rail to dones, 
Monaghan, Portadown, and Newry. 
Oar to Keady and Oastleblayney. 
Oar to Loughgall. 

Distances. — Monaghan, 16 m. ; 
Portadown, 10 ; Richhill, 4 ; Keady, 
7i ; Moy, 7^ ; Blackwatertown, 5. 

83 m. BichhiU, another small town 
on rt. occupying high ground. In 
the demesne of Oastle Dillon (Sir G. 
Molyneux, Bart) adjoining is an obe- 
lisk erected by Sir Oapel Molyneux to 
commemorate the Irish volunteeis, 
1782. From hence the line tuhs 
through an agricultural district to 

89 m. Portadown (Rte. 3), where a 
junction is effected with the Ulster 
and the Dundalk rlys. 



ROUTE 21. 

MULLINGAR TO SLIGO, THROUGH 
LONGFORD, CARRICKON-SHANNONt 
AND BOYLE. 

A rly. extends from Mullingar to 
Longford, Oarrick, Boyle, and Sligo, 
branching from the Midland Great 
Western at Mullingar, and pasaiug 
on 1. the barracks and union-house. 

2 m. 1. is Levington Park (B. H. 
Levinge, Esq.), immediately after 
which the broad waters of Lough 
(hod (ano. Lough IJair) open out, 
the rly. running close atongside 
of it for the whole flitrfanfip^ 5 
m. in length. The area of this 



RELAND. 



BoiUe 21. — Lough Derevaragh. 



169 



ike occupies 2295 acres; and al- 
lough the scenery around it is by 
means striking, the wooded hills 
ad numerous fine seats on its banks 
ive it a pleasant and sheltered 
spect. On the opposite side is 
^orUammon, the residence of J. De 
tlaquiere, Esq., in whose grounds 
re slight remains of an abbey ch. 
i| m. rt. are Ballynegall (T. J. 
jmyth, Esq.), and Enockdrin Castle, 
he seat of Sir Richard Levinge, Bart. 
Vt the upper end of the lake, on 
he W. side, is Mountmurray (H. 
Murray, Esq.), and close to the rly. 
., Woodlands (E. Maxton, Esq.), and 
ylonhugh, a seat belonging to the 
Carl of Granard. 

The angler can get good sport in 
jQugh Owel, the trout running from 

to 10 lb. The best season is about 
he time of the May-fly. 

6^ m. Clonhugh Stat. 7} m. close 
Multifarnham Stat, amidst the 
rees on the 1., is Wilson's Hospital, 
n establishment founded by the 
ate Mr. Andrew Wilson, who be- 
[neathed 40002. a year for the edu- 
ation of Ftotestaiit orphans, and 
Iso for the maintenance of a certain 
lumber of old men. In the yilkge 
le the partial ruins of the monastery 
if Multifarnham, remarkable chiefly 
or its slender square steeple, 90 ft. 
a height. This house was founded 
or Franciscans in 1236 by William 
)elamere, and was notorious for 
laving maintained its early splen- 
lour later than any other establish- 
nent; for "although formally dis- 
jolved by Henry VIH., those to 
whom it was granted did not dis- 
possess the monks, who in 1622, even 
attempted the formation of a branch of 
their society at Mullingar." — Lewis. 
filany of the plans of Sie Gvil War 
of 1641 were concocted here, for 
which the Mars were driven awav. 
They, however, returned again m 
1823, and some Franciscans still 
dwell in the precincts of the ch. 



Lough Derevaragh, 



About 2 m. to the E. of Multi- 
farnham. It is an irregularly-shaped 
lake, about 6 m. in length. Its 
broadest expanse is in its northern 
portion, where it receives a consider- 
able stream known as the Inny. 
Like most of the neighbouring lakes, 
it is due to chemical solution of the 
limestone. Its banks are boggy and 
tame, but at the southern end the 
scenery improves wonderfully, be- 
coming almost fine. The lake here 
is narrow, and is bounded on each 
side by steep hills — on the W. by 
Knoc^oss (565 ft.), and on the E. 
by EnocMon (707), which rises 
sharply from the water. On the 
side of the latter hill is an old 
chapel and spring dedicated to St. 
Eyen, and an object of devout atten- 
tion to the peasantry. The summit 
offers an extensive view from the 
comparatively fiat nature of the 
country for many miles around. In- 
deed, it is asserted in Lewis's * Top. 
Diet.' that the Atlantic and Irish 
Channel are both visible from it. A 
little to tiie K. of Knockion is 
Faughalstown or Fahalty, where are 
the remains of a castle, the retreat 
of Mortimer Earl of March in the 
reign of Henry IV. The borders of 
the lake are studded with seats : on 
the W. Monintown, and Donore, 
the residence of Sir Percy Nugent, 
Bart ; and on the N. bank Ooolure 
(Right Hon. Sir R. Pakenham). 

2 m. to E. of the lake is CasUe 
PoUard (Inn: Reilly's, Naryles), a 
pleasant little agricultural town, in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the 
fiuely-wooded estates of Pakenham 
Hall (the Earl of Longford), and Ein- 
turk (the late Major Urquhart, M.P.). 
[Theantiquary will find at the village 
of Fore (Ir. Fobhar-feichin), 2^ m. 
on the road to Kells, the remains of an 
abbey founded by St. Fechin in 630, 
and rebuilt by De Lacy in the 13th 
cent. It was an important establish- 
ment, containing 3000 monks, and 



170 



Boute 21. — MuUingar to Sligo. 



Ibelaisi). 



I 
I 



known locally as Ballylichen, "the 
Town of Books." The remains are, 
however, much more of a military 
than ecclesiastical character, and 
stand on a rock in the noiddle of a 
morass. 

The village also contains portions 
of the ancient walls, a square tower 
used as a burial-place of the Del- 
vin feimily, and a defiaced stone cross. 
The ch. of St. Fechin (who died of 
a great plague in 664) is remarkable 
for its doorway. " It is perfectly Cy- 
clopean in character, constructed al- 
together of 6 stones, including the 
lintel. It has a plain architrave over 
it, which, however, is not continued 
along its sides, and above this there 
is a projecting tablet, in the centre 
of which is sculptured a plain cross 
within a circle." — Petrie. 

From Oastle Pollard the tourist 
who is on his way to Cavan may 
rejoin the rly. at Float Stat. (Bte. 20). 
Castle Polled is a good rendezvous 
for the angler, who will find plenty 
of large-sized ^out in Lough Dereva- 
ragh. 



Main Boute. 

11 m., after crossing a lazy stream 
that connects the last-named lough 
with Lough Iron, the line reaches 
Cavan Junction (Bte. 20). 

13 m. the rly. enters the county 
of Longford ; 1. 1 m. the village of 
Bathowen, near the small lake of 
Glen Lough. In the neighbourhood 
are Newpark (J. Auohmuty, Esq.), 
and Bockfield (M. Crawford, Esq.). 

17 m. EdgevjorthstowUt though in 
itself only a neat, plain village, has 
acquired an interest that will never 
fade away on account of the social 
benefits that have accrued, not only 
to Ireland, but to the world at 
large, from the Edgeworth family, 
established here ever since the 
year 1583, — ^the first of the family 
who came to Ireland having been 
made Bishop of Down and Connor. 



Each generalion of the Edgeworthi 
was remarkable for their endea- 
vours to improve the social con- 
dition of those around them, and 
none were more conspicuous in their 
efibrts than the late Mr. Bichari 
Edgeworth, who lived at the com* 
mencement of the present oentoiy, 
and was tax ahead of his age is 
scientific knowledge and practice^ 
as well as in his views on Irak 
education and questions of politial 
economy. The charming novels rf 
ML3S Edgeworth, his daughter, ban 
been read by all the world, and 
need no more than a passing ailn- 
sion. Apart from these aasociatioD^ 
Edgeworthstown House is a plm 
comfortable mansion, wi& no pa^ 
ticular architectural beauties aM 
it. The cb. should be visited oi 
account of its steeple, an ingeniool 
contrivance of the late Mr. Edgv* 
worth. It was formed of iron, coverel 
with slates, and was cleverly hoistel 
into its position by means of yM 
lasses — 

"The chimney widened and grew higher, 
Became a steeple with a spire." 

In the neighbourhood of Ed^ 
worthstown are Cokunber (Major K 
Blackall), Whitehill House (6. K 
Wilson Slater, Esq.), and 
(J. L. 0*Ferrall,Esq.). AtM 
which is a portion of this pro^ 
resided the Abb^ Edgeworth, 
attended Louis XYI. to the aaSM 
as his confessor. 

Distonceg.— Longford, 8J m. ; Gif 
nard, 13 ; Aidagh, 5. 

22 m., on 1. about 3 m. is Arda^ 
Hill (650 ft), firom the smnmit rf 
which there is a very fine view. 

25J m. Longford {Hoid: Lonp 
ford), a tolerably flourishing httb 
inland town, and the mostimpoit* 
ant that the traveller will meet witk 
in this route. It is the tenninni 
of the Boyal Canal, which is hen 
supplied Iqr the Camlin River. Beinf 
a county town, it contains the usual 
municipal buildings — such as gaol 




JSELAND. 



Boute 21. — Longford — Drwmod, 



171 



iourfrhonse, Innacks, and the like — 
ogether with a goodly number of 
itores and appliances for trade, which 
las been much encouraged by the 
Longford family. There are no re- 
nains of its castle or priory, both of 
which were at one time important, 
\ very large Dominican house, sub- 
sequently destroyed by fire, having 
been founded here in 1400 by O'Far- 
rell. Chief of Annaly. This family 
was all important here till the middle 
of the 17th cent., when the castle 
was taken, and all the garrison put 
to the sword. The tourist should 
Yisit the B. 0. cathedral, which has 
a very lofty tower, and occupied 20 
years in btulding. 

Conveyances. — Oar to Dmmlish, 
via Newtown Forbes; rail to Sligo 
and Mullingar. 

Distances. — Edgeworthstown, 8J 
m.; Lanesborough, 10; Oarrick-on- 
Shannon, 22 ; Newtown Forbes, 3 ; 
Dromod, 11 ; Strokestown, 14 ; Ath- 
lone, 27 ; Mullingar, 25i ; Dublin, 
76. 

The country, which hitherto has 
been little but a succession of bog, 
begins to improve soon after leaving 
Longford, and at 30 m. the village 
of Newtown Forbes, on 1. of rly., is 
wooded and pretty. Extending to 
the banks of the Shannon, which the 
tourist now reaches, is Castle Forbes, 
—the b^utiful seat of the Earl of 
Granard, to whose ancestor. Sir 
Arthur Forbes, the estate was granted 
by James 1. In 1641 the house sus- 
tained a severe siege at the hands of 
the insurgents, in which extremity, 
it was gSlantly defended by Sir 
Arthur's widow. The grounds ex- 
tend for some distance along one 
of the expansions of the Shannon, 
known as Lough Forbes, one of those 
loughs so peculiar to it in the earlier 
portions of its course. 

31 m. rt. a road is given off to the 

village of Dmmlish, 4 m. Crossing 

the River Rinn, the rly. leaves on 1. 

the village of 

Boosky, at which point the traveller 



quits the comity of Longford for that 
of Leitrim. Both counties are sepa- 
rated from Boscommon by the Shan- 
non, here croised by a swivel erected 
by the commissioners for the im- 
provement of that river. Augha- 
more House is the residence of 
H. N. Lawder, Esq. [A road on 
1., crossing the bridge, runs to 
1 m. Strckestovmy passing the S. 
end of Lough Bofin, and subse- 
quently of Lough Eilglass, both 
extensions of and connected with 
the Shannon, which twists about 
the country in an extraordinary 
manner.] From Boosky the road 
follows closely the E. bank of the 
Shannon, that here expands into 
Lough Bofin and Lough Boderg, 
which, from their indented and 
wooded shores, offer some very 
pretty scenery, all the more ac- 
ceptable after the bare flats of 
Longford. 

37 m. Drumod was at one period 
famous for its iron -works, esta- 
blished here to' work the ore found 
in the parish. 

39 m. 1., on a wooded promontory 
dipping into the Shannon, is Derry- 
came, the seat of W. Ormsby Grore, 
Esq., M.P. A sharp skirmish is re- 
corded as having taken place at this 
spot (where there is a ford) be- 
tween the soldiers of James U. and 
of William IH. 

[From Drumod it is 5 m. to 
MohtU, a small town situated near 
the head of Lough Biim. A fine 
abbey of canons regular existed 
here once, but no traces are left ex- 
cept a small circular tower. In the 
neighbourhood are Bynn Castle, a 
seat of the Earl of Leitrim, Lakefield 
(D. Crofton, Esq.), Clooncahir (Sir 
Morgan G. Crofton, Bart.), and Dru- 
mard House (W. P. Jones, Esq.).] 

43 m. 1. is the little ch. of Anna^ 
duff, and 

44 m. Drumsna, a village situated 
in the neighbourhood of very lovely 



172 



Boute 21. — Mtdlingar to Sligo. 



Ibelahd* 



scenery. '* In one direction are seen 
the windings of the Shannon through 
a fertile district, the projection of a 
wooded peninsula on its course, the 
heights of Sheebeg and Sheemore, 
'with the more lofty mountains of 
Slieve-an-ierin in the distance ; and 
in tiie other the luxuriant and varied 
swell of Teeraroon, the adjacent part 
of the coimty of Eoscommon.'* The 
Shannon here makes a complete 
turn upon itself, running between the 
demesnes of Mount Campbell (W. A. 
Lawder, Esq.), and Oharlestown, the 
seat of Sir Gilbert King, Bart. The 
road to Garrick, however, does not 
follow this serpentine course, but 
crosses the river twice within a mile, 
arriving at 

45 m. Jamestown, a small market- 
town, incorporated by James I., which 
was the scene of a few skirmishes 
in 1689 between the Enniskilleners 
and the Irish under Sarsfield. The 
road passes under a castellated gate- 
way, near which is Jamestown Lodge, 
the residence of Hugh O'Beime, 
Esq. 

47 J m. Carrick-on-Shannon {Inn: 
St. George's Arms), a small town, de- 
riving its sole importance from being 
the county town of Leitrim, where 
all the assize business is held. It 
formerly sent 2 members to the Irish 
parliament, but the franchise was 
abolished at the time of the Union, 
when 15,0002. was awarded as com- 
pensation. The town has been 
much benefited by its situation on 
the Shannon, which by means of the 
Improvement Commission has been 
rendered navigable as &r as Lough 
AUen. 

DietanceB. — ^Leitrim, 3J m. ; Boyle, 
9i ; Drumshambo, 7^ ; Longford, 22. 

The principal proprietor in this 
neighbourhood is C. St. George, 
Esq., who resides at Hatley Manor, 
in the town. 

Quitting Carrick, the traveller 
again crosses the Shannon for the 
last time, though in so doing he by 
no means loses sight of the chain 



of lakes, as the Boyle Eiver, which 
now accompanies the road, is even 
more peculiar in its lough Bystem 
than the Shannon. The Boyle water 
is in fact a succession of lakes, con- 
nected together by a short river. 

[At 52 m. a road on rt is given 
on to Leitrim and Drumshambd, 
crossing the Boyle at the E. end of 
Oakpo:^ Lough, and passing on L 
the grounds of Oakport House (- 
Molloy, Esq. J, while a little further 
on, near the en. and glebe of Ardcam, 
anotiier road crosses at the end of 
Lough Key, and traverses the country 
at the N.E. of Lough Arrow, to Col- 
looney and Sligo.] 

At Ardcam the tourist approaches 
the beautiful grounds of Bockinghai^ 
the seat of the Earl of Kingston 
(Viscount Lorton), which for chann- 
ing situation, imited to all the 
improvements secured by modem 
landscape gardening, is equal to any 
place in Ireland. In front of the rains 
of the mansion, which was unforton- 
ately burnt down in April 1863 (now 
restored), spreads out Lough Key, the :. 
prettiest and most varied of all these 
northern lakelets, studded with is- 
lands and fringed with woods. On 
one are the ruins of the Abbey of 
the Trinity, founded by the •* White 
Canons," and on another of a castle, 
formerly the stronghold of a chief- 
tain named M*Dermott. 

56 m. Boyle {It, Buill) {Hoieh 
Monson's) is in itself a dirty place, 
though redeemed by its very pretty 
situation on the river-side, and the 
unique ecclesiastio ruins hard by. 
The best part of the town is on 
the W. bank of the river, which is 
crossed by no less than 3 bridged, 
the principal one being balnstraded, 
and of 3 arches of remarkaUy good 
span. The old residence of the Kings- 
ton &mily is now used as a barrack. 
The ivy-clad abbey ruins, to which 
the attention of ibe archieologisi 
will be at once directed, are situated 



ilLAND. 



BoiUe 22. — JMone to BelmuUet, 



175 



8 m. CoUooney, as comfortable, 
ll-built, and pretty a village as 
I be met with in all Ireland. 

A road skirts the woods of Mark- 

Gastle, passing by Castle Dan- 

i (T. Ormsby, Esq.; and the village 

Ballintc^her, to 10 m. Promahaire 

te. U).] 



Distances, — ^Ballysadare* 1} 
'omahaire^ 10« 



m. 



The rly. nowi follows the rive 
81 m. BaUyaadare. Between 
»e two yillages a sharp skirmish 
>k place between a body of 
ench who landed at Eillala in 
)8, and a detachment of Limerick 
titla and some dragoons under 
i^Vereker, who had unsuccessfully 
acked the invaders. He was ulti- 
tely obliged to retreat to Sligo 
th the loss of his artillery. 
Ballysadare, like Gollooney, is a 
)sperons place, dependent to a 
!at extent on very valuable salmon- 
beries, which were the property 
the late Mr. Cooper of Maikree, 
10 placed a number of ladders by 
lich the fish might ascend the 
Is. The river here falls into Bally- 
lare Bay over a considerable dis- 
)ce of shelving rock, forming a 
^esque series of rapids. 
On the L bank of the river is 
small ivy-grown abbey, founded 
St. Fechm in the 7th cent., and 
lich in its day was richly en- 
wed. A good deal of business is 
*Qe in the exportation of com and 
*^ ; ships of 100 tons being enabled 
come into the little harbour. From 
^iu» it is a pleasant drive to Sligo ; 
pocknarea, with its truncated sum- 
it on the L, and the Slish Mountains 
} the rt., foiming constant changes 
'l^ndsGape. 

86 m. Sligo (Rte. 7) (.Hotds : Im- 
srial ; Victoria). 



ROUTE 22. 

ATHLONE TO ROSCOMMON, CASTLE- 
REACH, BALLINA, AND BELMULLET. 

The Great Northern and Western 
Rly. runs from Atblone to BalUna. 
For the first few miles some pretty 
views of Lough Rea are obtained 
onrt. 

12 m. Knockcrogkery (famous for 
its manufactory of tobacco-pipes) is 
the nearest station from whence to 
make an excursion to St. John's or 
Rindown Castle, about 5 m. to the 
S.E., occupying a promontory on tho 
shore of Lough Rea. "Rinn-duin," 
the point of the fort^ is mentioned 
in the 'Annals of the Four Masters * 
as having existed in 1156, and is 
believed to have been an early 
stronghold of the Danish King 
Turge-i-s (Thorgils) in the 9th cent 
It was long in tiie possession of the 
O'Connors, from whom it was taken 
by the English in the 13th cent. 
As described in Weld's 'Survey of 
Roscommon,' this castle was built 
in the form of a P, the tail of the 
letter being occupied by a banquet- 
ing-hall, and the head by the keep, 
a massive tower, about 50 ft. in 
breadth, overgrown with ivy of extra- 
ordinaiy richness of growlii. To tiie 
E. of the castie are tiie remains of a 
watch-tower, the whole being pro- 
tected by a broad ditch, which for- 
merly converted the peninsula into 
a promontory, and a wall 564 yds. 



174 



Boute 21. — IMlingar toSligo. 



ISELAIli). 



a branch 1. to EdmondsUn/on and 
Ballaghadereen, whence there is a 
car to Gastlerea, TiS. Loughglinn. 



Detour to Lough Arrow. 

On rt., about 48 m. from Boyle, 
by the Sligo road, ia BaUiiiafad, 
prettily situated on the shores of 
hough Arrow, a considerable lake 
about 5 m. in length, which, as far 
as a good many flourishing planta- 
tions go, is cheerful and smiling, 
though llie bleak character of the 
country round detracts considerably 
from its beauty. The castle of Bal- 
lina&d is on the 1. of the road, and 
consists of 3 circular towers with con- 
necting walls: On the W. side of 
Lough Arrow the road passes the 
well-wooded demesne of Hollybrook 
(J. Ffolliot, Esq/), while on the oppo- 
site shore are Ejngsborough House, 
with 2 or 3 small ruins, ecclesiastical 
and military, the latter of which are 
dotted over the country in marvel- 
lous profusion. This district also 
abounds with raths, erroneously be- 
lieved to be Danish. 

Immediately on 1. is a picturesque 
chain Imown as the Kesh Hills, con- 
sisting of 2 principal heights, Kesh 
Corrin (1183 ft), and Oarrowkesh 
(1062). From them there is a very 
fine view of the Ox Mountains, with 
the Sligo and Manor Hamilton Hills 
due N. On the W. face of Kesh 
Corrin, which is composed of tabular 
limestone, are the entrances to some 
extensive caves, said not to have 
been entirely explored. Here dwelt 
the harper Corran, to whom the 
Tuaiha de Danaan gave this district 
as a reward for musical skill.] 



Main Route* 

70 m. BaUymote (Ir. Baile-an- 
tohota, '* town of the moat") (^Hotd : 
Morrison^ good), now little more 



than a village, bat fonnerly of 
importEUice, owing to its fortress, 
which was built in 1300 by Bichaid 
de Burgo, Earl of Ulster, of such 
strength that it offered a seiioos 
impediment to the sdbjugation of 
Oonnaught. This castle, which is 
strengthened by towers at the angles, 
occupies an area of 150 square ft. 
There are also remains of a Fran- 
ciscan monastery, with the muti- 
lated figure of a pope over the eo- 
trance. The Mars of this establish- 
ment were celebrated for their learn- 
ing, and wrote the ' Book of Balh- 
mote,* extant to this day. ''Itvas 
written by different persons, hot 
chiefly by Solomon O'Droma and 
Manus O'Dtdgenan, and begins ^th 
an imperfect copy of the *Leabh&r 
Gabh^,* of Book of Invasions d 
Erin, followed by a series of ancient 
chronological, historicBJ, and genes- 
logical pieces, with pedigrees of Iiish 
saints, &c."— Pro/. O'Ottfry. Thech. 
of Ballymote has a very gracefoi 
tower and spire. A little beyond the 
town is Temple Lodge (CoL Pe^ 
ceval), on the banks of the laked 
the same name ; and in the gioonif 
are the ruins of a house formeriy 
belonging to the Knights Templais 
On rt., 3 m., is Newpark Uom 
(Jemmet Duke, Esq.), and beyond 
it lies the village of Dromfin asd 
Cooper's Hill, Sie seat of C. ^. 
O'Hara, Esq. The scenery now be- 
gins to improve, and tbe has bend- 
ing N. passes rt. Markree CSastle, the 
seat of the late E. J. Ooc^r, Esq- 
who contributed to the advancement 
of astronomical science, and possessdl 
some celebrated instruments for that 
purpose. The woods of this na^ 
nificent property extend for a loo^ 
distance, and abound in channios 
glades, which are watered by the 
Unshin Biver and a number of small 
tributary brooks. A little farther oa 
is Annaghmore (C. L. Estrange, 
Esq.), and on rt. is the bamlit 
of Toberscanavan, close to a small 
lou^. 



BiLANt). 



Boute 22. — Aihlone to Bdmulht 



175 



78 m. CoOooney, as comfortable, 
3ll-built» and pretty a village as 
ill be met with in aU Ireland. 

[A road skirts the woods of Mark- 
e Castle, passing by Castle Dan- 
m (T. Ormsby, Esq.; and the village 
' Ballintogber, to 10 m. Dromahaire 
Ite. 11).] 

Distances* — ^Ballysadare» 1} m. ; 
)romahaire» 10, 

The rly. nowi follows the rive 

81 m. BaUymdare. Between 
tiese two villages a sharp sitimuBh 
Dok place between a body of 
^neh who landed at Killala in 
798, and a detachment of Limerick 
nUtia and some dragoons under 
Jol^Yereker.who hadnnsuccesi^nlly 
ttacked the invaders. He was nlti- 
mtely obliged to retreat to Sligo 
rith the loss of his artillery. 

BaUysadare, like Collooney, is a 
tiosperona place, dependent to a 
:ieat extent on very valuable salmon- 
iaheries, which were the property 
f the late Mr. Cooper of Maikree, 
rho placed a number of ladders by 
rhich tiie fish might ascend the 
IelUs. The river here falls into Bally- 
adare Bay over a considerable dis- 
anee of shelving rock, forming a 
)icturesque series of rapids. 

On the 1. bank of the river is 

1 small ivy-grown abbey, founded 
>y St. Fechin in the 7th cent., and 
which in its day was richly en- 
lowed. A good deal of business is 
done in the exportation of com and 
flour ; ships of 100 tons being enabled 
to come into the little harbour. From 
hence it ia a pleasant drive to Sligo ; 
Knocknarea, with its truncated sum- 
mit on the L, and the Slish Mountains 
on the rt., forming constant changes 
of landscape. 

86 m. Sligo (Rte. 7) {Hotels : Im- 
perial ; Victoria). 



ROUTE 22. 

ATHLONE TO ROSCOMMON, CASTLE- 
REACH, BALUNA, AND BELMULLET. 

The Great Northern and Western 
Bly. runs from Atblone to Baltina. 
For the first few miles some pretty 
views of Lough Bea are obtained 
onrt. 

12 m. Knockcroghery (famous for 
its manufactory of tobacco-pipes) is 
the nearest station from whence to 
make an excursion to St. John's or 
Bindown Castle, about 5 m. to the 
S.E., occupying a promontory on tho 
shore of Lough Bea. "Binn-duin," 
the point of the fort^ is mentioned 
in the 'Annals of the Four Masters ' 
as having existed in 1156, and is 
believed to have been an early 
stronghold of the Danish King 
Turge-i-s (Thoigils) in the 9th cent. 
It was long in the possession of tho 
O'Connors, from whom it was taken 
by the English in the 13th cent 
As described in Weld's 'Survey of 
Boscommon,* this castle was built 
in the form of a P, the tail of the 
letter being occupied by a banquet- 
ing-hall, and the head by the keep, 
a massive tower, about 50 ft. in 
breadth, overgrown with ivy of extra- 
ordinary richness of growtiii. To tiie 
E. of the castle are the remains of a 
watch-tower, the whole being pro- 
tected by a broad ditch, which for-* 
merly converted the peninsula into 
a promontory, and a wall 564 yds. 



168 



Bouie 21. — MuUingar to Sligo. 



Ireland. : 



of his men who had &ll6n into the 
river.* 

A UUle to the S. is Market HiU, 
with the Vicars. Oaim 840 ft. high. 
Adjoining the town is Gk)sford GasUe, 
the seat of the Earl of Gosford. 

The neighbourhoods of Armagh 
and Ready are celebrated for the 
production of brown and coloured 
linens, such as blouses, and hollands 
for window blinds, the tint of which 
is obtained by soaking the goods in 
solution of muriate of tin and cate- 
chu. After this operation they are 
glazed and finished by means of a 
*' beetling " machine. This operation 
can be seen at Messrs. Kirk's factory 
in Ready, where 200 beetling ma- 
chines are employed. 

About 2 m. N. of Armagh was 
fought the battle of the Yellow Ford 
(1598), wherein the English under 
Sir Henry Bagnal were defeated by 
the insurgent Hugh O'Neill. 

At a wort distance to the W. of 
the city are some marble quarries, 
displaying an interesting geological 
section. The carboniferous lime- 
stone is there ooyered by a deposit 
of (1st) a sandy breccia of limestone 
fragments, (^d) a red stratified 
conglomerate, or breccia, (3rd) Per- 
mian boulder-beds, 2 ft., and fdl sur- 
mounted by boulder clay of the 
glacial or drift period. ''In this 
quarry, therefore, we have the cu- 
rious concurrence of two boulder 
formations, of different and widdy 
separated periods, superimposed one 
upon the other. Though somewhat 
similar in appearance, there is really 
a difference between them, which 
the practised eye may easily detect ; 
and the divisional line between tiie 
two formations may easily be fol- 
lowed along the face of tiie cliff.'* — 
HvU, This neighbourhood is farther 
interesting as displ^ing the only 
representatives of the Lower Permian 
beds at present known in Ireland. 



* The same l^end, however, is cnrrent on 
the banks of the Kore, near Thomastown. 



Conveyances, — By rail to Clones, 
Monaghan, Portadown, and Ke^ny. . ^ 
Oar to Ready and Gastleblayney. ' 
Gar to Loughgall. 

Distances, — Monaghan, 16 m. ; 
Portadown, 10; Ribhhill, 4 ; Ready, 
7^ ; Moy, 7^ ; Blackwatertown, 5. 

83 m. BichhiUt another small tovn 
on rt. occupying high ground. Id 
the demesne of Castle Dillon (Sir C. 
Molyneus, Bart) adjoining is an obe- 
lisk erected by Sir GapelMolynenxto 
commemorate the Irish volunteen, 
1782. From hence the line rnss 
through an agricultural district to 

89 m. Portadown (Rte. 3), where a 
junction is effected with the UUter 
and the Dundalk rlys. 



ROUTE 21. 

MULLINGAR TO SUQO, THROUGH 
LONGFORD, CARRICKON-SHANNON. 
AND BOYLE. 

A rly. extends from. MuUingar to 
Longford, Oarrick, Boyle, andSligo. 
branching from the Midland Great 
Western at MuUingar, and passiog 
on 1. the barracks and union-house. 

2 m. 1. is Levington Park (R. H. 
Levinge, Esq.), immediately after 
which the broad waters of Lough 
Ckod (anc. Lough IJair) open out, 
the rly. running close alongside 
of it for the whole flitft^w^*^ 5 
m. in length. The area of this 



ELAND. 



Bouie 21. — Lough Derevaragh. 



ze occupies 2295 acres; and al- 
ragh the scenery around it is by 
means striMng, the wooded hills 
d numerous fine seats on its banks 
7e it a pleasant and sheltered 
pect. On the opposite side is 
wUammon, the residence of J. De 
laquiere, lisq., in whose groimds 
re slight remains of an abbey ch. 
I m. rt. are Ballynegall (T. J. 
Tdjih^ Esq.), and Knockdrin Castle, 
tie seat of Sir Bichard Levinge, Bart 
Lt the upper end of the lake, on 
tie W. side, is Mountmurray (H. 
Inrray, Esq.)* and close to the rly. 
, Woodlands (E. Maxton, Esq.), and 
llonhngh, a seat belonging to the 
)arl of Granard. 

The angler can get good sport in 
lOugh Owel, the trout running from 
to 10 lb. The best season is about 
[le time of the May-fly. 
6^ m. Clonhugh Stat. 7} m. close 
} MulUfarnham Stat, amidst the 
rees on the 1., is Wilson's Hospital, 
n establishment founded by the 
ate Mr. Andrew Wilson, who be- 
queathed 4000Z. a year for the edu- 
ation of Protestant orphans, and 
Iso for the maintenance of a certain 
tmnber of old men. In the village 
re the partial ruins of the monastery 
I MviUifarnham, remarkible chiefly 
or its slender square steeple, 90 ft. 
a height This house was founded 
or Franciscans in 1236 by William 
)elamere, and was notorious for 
laying maintained its early splen- 
lour later than tmy other establish- 
nent; for "although formally dis- 
solved by Henry VHI., those to 
^hom it was granted did not dis- 
3088ess the momcs, who in 1622, even 
ittempted the formation of a branch of 
their society at Mullingar.'* — Lewis, 
Uany of the plans of me Gvil War 
of 1641 were concocted here, for 
which the friars were driven awa^. 
They, however, returned again m 
1823, and some Franciscans still 
dweU in the precincts of the ch. 



Lough Bereoaragh, 

About 2 m. to the E. of M 
famham. It is an irregularly-sh£ 
lake, about 6 m. in length, 
broadest expanse is in its nortl 
portion, where it receives a consi 
able stream known as the I] 
Like most of the neighbouring la 
it is due to chemical solution of 
limestone. Its banks are boggy 
tame, but at the southern end 
scenery improves wonderfully, 
coming almost flne. The lake ] 
is narrow, and is bounded on c 
side by steep hills— on the W 
Knockross (565 ft.), and on the 
by EnocMon (707), which i 
sharply from the water. On 
side of the latter hill is an 
chapel and spring dedicated to 
Eyen, and an object of devout at 
tion to the peasantry. The sun 
offers an extensive view from 
comparatively flat nature of 
country for many miles around, 
deed, it is asserted in Lewis's ' ^ 
Diet' that the Atlantic and I 
Channel are both visible from it 
litUe to the N. of KnocMoi 
Faughalstown or Fahalty, where 
the remains of a castle, the ret 
of Mortimer Earl of March in 
reign of Henry IV. The bordei 
the lake are studded with seats 
the W. Monintown, and Dor 
the residence of Sir Percy Nug 
Bart ; and on the N. bank Goo 
(Right Hon. Sir B. Pakenham). 

2 m. to E. of the lake is C 
FoUard (Inn: Reilly's, Narylee 
pleasant little agricultural towi 
the immediate neighbourhood oi 
finely-wooded estates of Paken 
Hall (the Earl of Longford), and ] 
turk (the late Major Urquhart, M 
[Theantiquary will find at the vil 
of Fore (Jr. Fobhar-feichin). 2{ 
on the road to Eells, the remains c 
abbey founded by St. Fechin in 
and rebuilt by De Lacy in the ] 
cent. It was an important estabi 
ment, containing 3000 monks, 



170 



Boute 21. — MuUingar to Sligo. 



iRELAm 



known locally as Ballylichen, "the 
Town of Books." The remains are, 
however, much more of a military 
than ecclesiastical character, and 
stand on a rock in the middle of a 
morass. 

The village also contains portions 
of the ancient walls, a square tower 
used as a burial-place of the Del- 
vin £eunlly, and a aefiaced stone cross. 
The ch. of St. Fechin (who died of 
a great plague in 664) is remarkable 
for its doorway. " It is perfectly Cy- 
clopean in character, constructed al- 
together of 6 stones, including the 
lintel. It has a plain architrave over 
it, which, however, is not continued 
along its sides, and above this there 
is a projecting tablet, in the centre 
of which is sculptured a plain cross 
within a circle." — Petrie. 

From Castle Pollsurd the tourist 
who is on his way to Cavan may 
rejoin the rly. at Float Stat. (Ete. 20). 
Castle Polwd is a good rendezvous 
for the angler, who will find plenty 
of large-sized trout in Lough Dereva- 
ragh. 



Main Boute, 

11 m., after crossing a lazy stream 
that connects the last-named lough 
with Lough Iron, the line reaches 
Cavan Junction (Bte. 20). 

13 m. the rly. enters the county 
of Longford ; 1. 1 m. the village of 
Bathowen, near the small lake of 
Glen Lough. In the neighbourhood 
are Newpark (J. Auchmuty, Esq.), 
and Rockfield (M. Crawford, Esq.). 

17 m. Edgevjorthgloim, though in 
itself only a neat, plain village, has 
acquired an interest that will never 
fade away on account of the social 
benefits that have accrued, not only 
to Ireland, but to the world at 
large, from the Edgeworth family, 
established here ever since the 
year 1583, — ^ttie first of the family 
who came to Ireland having been 
made Bishop of Down and Connor. 



Each generation of the Edgeworthi 
was remarkable for their endea- 
vours to improve the social con- 
dition of those around them, and 
none were more conspicuous in theit 
efforts than the late Mr. Bichaid 
Edgeworth, who lived at the co» 
mencement of the present oentuij, 
and was &r ahead of his age ii 
scientific knowledge and practice^ 
as well as in his views on IiiA 
education and questions of politkil 
economy. The charming novek rf 
Miss Edgeworth, his daughter, haw 
been read by all the world, aoA 
need no more than a passing alli* 
don. Apart from these associatio] 
Edgeworthstown House is a pi 
comfortable mansion, with no 
ticular architectural beauties aL^, 
it The ch. should be visited 
account of its steeple, an ingeni--. , 
contrivance of the late Mr. Edgr 
worth. It was formed of iron, cot< 
with slates, and was cleverly 
into its position by means of 
l a ss o s ' 

"The chimney widened and grew higtKf, 
Became a steeple with a spire." 

In the neighbourhood of 
worthstown are Colamber (Majorl 
Blackall), Whitehill House (G. ' 
Wilson Slator, Esq.), and 
(J. L. OTerrall,Esq.). At J?Vf 
which is a portion of tills pro[ 
resided the Abb^ Edgeworth, 
attended Louis XYI. to ihe 
as his confessor. 

Distonces.— Longford, 8^ m. ; 
nard, 13 ; Ardagh, 5. 

22 m., on 1. about 3 m. is 
Hill (650 ft.), from the summit 
which tiiere is a very fine view. 

25^ m. Longford {BM: ' 
ford), a tolerably flourishing 
inland town, and the mostim] 
ant that the traveller will meet 
in this route. It is the 
of the Royal Canal, which is hi 
supplied hy the Camlin River. Bei 
a county town, it contains the 
municipal buildings — such as 



EUBLANB. 



Boute 21. — Longford — Drumod. 



17] 



3iirt->hoii8e, lianacks, and the like — 
>gether with a goodly number of 
kores and appliances for trade, which 
as been much encouraged by the 
jongford family. There are no re- 
oains of its castle or priory, both of 
vhich were at one time important, 
I very large Dominican house, sub- 
seqnently destroyed by fire, having 
been founded here in 1400 by O'Far- 
rell, Oiief of Annaly. This fSunily 
was all important here till the middle 
of the 17th cent, when the castle 
was taken, and all the garrison put 
to the sword. The tourist should 
visit the B. 0. cathedral, which has 
a very lofty tower, and occupied 20 
years in bmlding. 

Conveyanee8. — Car to Dmmlish, 
via Newtown Forbes; rail to Sligo 
and Mullingar. 

Distonces. — Edgeworthstown, 8^ 
m.; Lanesborough, 10; Oarrick-on- 
Sbannon, 22 ; Newtown Forbes, 3 ; 
Dmmod, 11 ; Strokestown, 14 ; Ath- 
lone, 27 ; Mullingar, 25i ; Dublin, 
76. 

The country, which hitherto has 
been little but a succession of bog, 
begins to improve soon after leaving 
Longford, and at 30 m. the village 
of Newtown Forbes, on 1. of rly., is 
wooded and pretty. Extending to 
the banks of the Shannon, which the 
tomisit now reaches, is Castle Forbes, 
—the beautiful seat of the Earl of 
Granard, to whose ancestor. Sir 
Arthur Forbes, tiiie estate was granted 
by James I. In 1641 the house sus- 
tained a severe siege at the hands of 
the insurgents, in which extremity, 
it was gallantly defended by Sir 
Arthur's widow. The grounds ex- 
tend for some distance along one 
of the expansions of the Shannon, 
hown as Lough Forbes, one of those 
loughs so peculiar to it in the earli^ 
portions of its course. 

31 m. rt a road is given off to the 

^iBage of Drumlig^ 4 m. Crossing 

fte Biver Rinn, the rly. leaves on 1. 

flie village of 

FiOo»ky, at which point the traveller 



quits the comity of Longford for thai 
of Leitrim. Both counties are sepa 
rated from Roscommon by the Shan< 
non, here crossed by a swivel erectec 
by the commissioners for the im 
provement of that river. Augha 
more House is the residence a 
H. N. Lawder, Esq. [A road oi 
1., crossing the bridge, runs U 
1 m. Strokeetovm, passing the S 
end of Lough Bomi, and subse 
quently of Lough EJlglass, boli 
extensions of and connected witl 
the Shannon, which twists aboui 
the countiy in an extraordinarj 
manner.] From Roosky the roac 
follows closely the E. bank of the 
Shannon, that here expands intc 
Lough Bofin and Lou^h Boderg 
which, from their indented anc 
wooded shores, offer some ver} 
pretty scenery, all the more ac- 
ceptable after the bare fiats o: 
Longford. 

37 m. Drumod was at one perioc 
famous for its iron -works, esta- 
blished here to' work the ore founc 
in the parish. 

39 m. 1., on a wooded promontory 
dipping into the Shannon, is Derry 
came, the seat of W. Ormsby Gore 
Esq., M.P. A sharp skirmii^ is re 
corded as having taken place at thL 
spot (where there is a ford) be 
tween the soldiers of James II. anc 
of William IH. 

[From Drumod it is 5 m. t( 
MohiU, a small town situated nea: 
the head of Lough Rinn. A fin( 
abbey of canons regular existec 
here once, but no traces are left ex 
cept a small circular tower. In th< 
neighbourhood are Rynn Castle, t 
seat of the Earl of Leitrim, Lakefielc 
(D. Grofton, Esq.), Clooncahir (Si 
Morgan G. Crofton, Bart.), and Dru 
mard House (W. P. Jones, Esq.).] 

43 m. 1. is the little ch. of Anna 
duff, and 

44 m. Drumsna, a village situatec 
in the neighboiu*hood of very loveh 



172 



Boute 21. — Mullingar to Sligo» 



JsSLkSXkX 



scenery. *' In one direction are seen 
the windings of the Shannon through 
a fertile district, the projection of a 
wooded peninsula on its course, the 
heights of Sheebeg tuid Sheemore, 
'with the more lofty mountains of 
Slieve-an-ierin in the distance ; and 
in the other the luxuriant and varied 
swell of Teeraroon, the adjacent part 
of the coimty of Roscommon.'* The 
Sliannon here makes a complete 
turn upon itself, running between the 
demesnes of Mount Campbell (W. A. 
Lawder, Esq.), and Oharlestown, the 
seat of Sir Gilbert King, Bart. The 
road to Garrick, however, does not 
follow this serpentine course, but 
crosses the river twice within a mile, 
arriving at 

45 m. Jamestovm, a small market- 
town, incorporated by James I., which 
was the scene of a few skirmishes 
in 1689 between the Enniskilleners 
and the Irish under Sarsfield. The 
road passes under a castellated gate- 
way, near which is Jamestown Lodge, 
the residence of Hugh O'Beime, 
Esq. 

47J m. Carritk-^mrShannon {Inn: 
St. George's Arms), a small town, de- 
riving its sole importance from being 
the county town of Leitrim, where 
all the assize business is held. It 
formerly sent 2 members to the Irish 
parliament, but the franchise was 
abolished at the time of the Union, 
when 15,0002. was awarded as com- 
pensation. The town has been 
much benefited by its situation on 
the Shannon, which by means of the 
Improvement Commission has been 
rendered navigable as far as Lough 
Allen. 

Distances, — ^Leitrim, 3J m. ; Boyle, 
9i ; Drumshambo, 7} ; Longford, 22. 

The principal proprietor in this 
neighbourhocd is C. St. George, 
Esq., who resides at Hatley Manor, 
in the town. 

Quitting Carrick, the traveller 
again crosses the Shannon for the 
last time, though in so doing he by 
no means loses sight of the chain 



of lakes, as the Boyle River, which 
now accompanies the road, is eves 
more peculiar in its lough systen 
than the Shannon. The Boyle watef 
is in fact a succession of lakes, coDt 
nected together by a short river. 

[At 52 m. a road on rt is givei 
off to Leitrim and Drumsbambo^ 
crossing the Boyle at the E. end i 
Oakpo:^ Lough, and passing on I 
the grounds of Oakport House (— 
Molloy, Esq.), while a little further 
on, near the en. and glebe of Ardcan, 
another road crosses at the end of 
Lough Key, and traverses the countif 
at the N.E. of Lough Arrow, to W 
looney and Sligo.] 



At Ardcam the tourist approacbei 
the beautiful grounds of Bockinghaa, 
the seat of the Earl of Eingstoa 
(Viscount Lorton), which for chann- 
ing situation, imited to all th» 
improvements secured by modea 
landscape gardening, is equal to «ij 
place in Ireland. In front of tberaim 
of the mansion, which was uDfortaB* 
ately burnt down in April 1863 (nof 
restored), spreads out Lough Key, the 
prettiest and most varied of all th^ 
northern lakelets, studded with i^ 
lands and fringed with woods. Oa 
one are the ruins of the Abbey of 
the Trinity, founded by the •* White 
Canons," and on another of a cas^e, 
formerly the stronghold of a chief- 
tain named M*Dermott. 

56 m. Boyle (Ir. Buill) {Sotd: 
Monson's) is in itself a dirty v^^ 
though redeemed by its very pretty 
situation on the river-side, and the 
unique ecclesiastic ruins hard by. 
The best part of the town is on 
the W. bank of the river, which i« 
crossed by no less than 3 bridges 
the principal one being balnstraaed, 
and of 3 arches of remarkably good 
span. The old residence of the KiBgS' 
ton fiunily is now used as a barrack. 
The ivy-clad abbey ruins, to which 
the attention of ihe archsBologist 
will be at once directed, a re situated 



Hl^AKD. 



Boute 21. — Boyle — Curlew HSU. 



the N. of the tows, by the side of 

J river, which here flows swiftly 

i deeply through a charmingly 

oded glen, and is crossed by a 

od single-arched bridge. They 

3 in the private grounds of the 

isses Bobertson, by whom ad- 

isaion is granted instantly. Abbot 

Aurioe O'Duflfy here founded, in 

161, a Cistercian house, which in 

le same century took into its com- 

lunity M*Dennot, Lord of Moyluig ; 

at, like most monasteries, it suffered 

mch harsh treatment, first in 1235 

t the hands of the English forces 

nder the Lords Justices Fitegerald 

nd M*William« and again from the 

oldiers of Cromwell, who, according 

Q their usual piactioe, stable their 

torses in it, and carved their names 

»n the doors. From the road the 

isitor has a good view of the beau- 

ifol W. front, exhibiting the E. 

vindow at the end of the vista. 

[t contains a single Early Pointed 

window with good moulding and 

hipstone, and is flanked by square 

^ttresses. Like most of the monastic 

Khorches of that period, Bpyle was 

laracifcrm, with a central tower. 

Xhe nave, which is 131 ft. long, is 

"ii^ded on the N. side by 3 Early 

Pointed arches. Notice the exquisite 

mouldings that form the corbels of 

&e vaulting arches, and on the 

S. the 8 arches of pure Norm. 

character, with the curious dis- 

tbctiaa between the 4 westerly 

piUaiB, which are piers, while the 

remaining ones are columns. The 

Bcnlpture on the capitals of the 

per-arches is singular, and should 

w well studied. The arches on the 

Jtiier aide have been apparently 

Mocked. At the intersection of the 

^werare 3 exquisite segmentalarches, 

^Qgh the chancel arch itself is 

«ttly Pointed. The N. transept, 

^hich has an aisle, is lighted by a 

f-lig^t Norm, window deeply splayed 

^mudly, and contains, as also does 

ue 8. tnnsept, 2 Early Pointed 

AicheB leading mto a recessed chapel. 



perhaps a sacristy. Underneath 
courtyard is a subterranean pas» 
which communicates with the ban 
in the town. The offices were i 
extensive, and are in tolerable 
servation, especially as regards 
kitchen and hospitium. In 
porter's lodge the names of 
soldiers of Cromwell are yet vie 
carved on the doors. The abbey < 
tains the burial-place of the ni 
family of King, to whom it 
belongs, and the antiquary will 
fidl to give credit to Capt. Bol 
son for having so diligently 
zealously cleared the ruins from 
accumulated rubbish of centuries 

The otiier remains in the ne: 
bourhood of Boyle are the ch 
Asselyn, which stands on the ba 
of the river near Lough Key, ar 
cromlech *' on the rt. side of the r 
leading to Lough Gara, the ta 
stone of which is 15 ft. long and 
wide, and was formerly supported 
5 upright pillars." 

The Lieutenant of the Coui 
Col. E. K. Tenison, resides at ] 
ronan Castle. In the cemetery 
Kilronau, the bard Carolan - 
buried : he died in 1741. 

Besides Rockingham, there 
also the following residences in 
neighbourhood of Boyle — Coote^ 
(J. Barton, Esq.), Mount Erris 
Duckworth, Esq.), and Knockadc 

Dtstofices.— Longford, 31m. ; SI 
23); Tuam, 26; Frenchpark, 
Casllerea, 17 ; Ballina&d, 4 ; Qsixi 
9) ; Leitrim, 11. 

Soon after leaving Boyle the 
passes the Curlew SHU, wb 
though only 863 ft. in height, assi 
a certain importance from their \ 
den elevation. The views < 
Boyle, Lough Key, and, more to 
rt.. Lough Gara, are very beaul 
while from the summit an eqn 
extensive view opens out over B 
na&td and Lough Arrow. Desc( 
ing on the opposite side, we n 
62 m. Kilfree Junct, where thei 



174 



Boute 21.'^Muttingar to Sligo. 



ISELAllt). 



a branch 1. to Edmondstoum and 
Ballaghadereen, whence there is a 
car to Gastlerea, vld. Loughglinn. 



Detour to Lough Arrow. 

On rt., about 48 m. from Boyle, 
by the Sligo road, is BaUiiiafad, 
prettily sitnated on the shores of 
Jjough Arrow, a considerable lake 
about 5 m. in length, which, as far 
as a good many flourishing planta- 
tions go, is cheerful and smiling, 
though tiie bleak character of the 
country round detracts considerably 
from its beauty. The castle of Bal- 
lina&d is on the 1. of the road, and 
consists of 3 circular towers with con- 
necting walls: On the W. side of 
Lough Arrow the road passes the 
well-wooded demesne of Hollybrook 
(J. Ffolliot, Esq/), while on the oppo- 
site shore are Ejngsborough House, 
with 2 or 3 small ruins, ecclesiastical 
and military, the latter of which are 
dotted over the country in marvel- 
lous profusion. This district also 
abounds with raths, erroneously be- 
lieved to be Danish. 

Immediately on 1. is a picturesque 
chain known as the Kesh Hills, con- 
sisting of 2 principal heights, Kesh 
Corrin (1183 ft.), and Carrowkesh 
(1062). From them there is a very 
fine view of the Ox Mountains, with 
the Sligo and Manor Hamilton Hills 
due N. On the W. fiBice of Eesh 
Corrin, which is composed of tabular 
limestone, are the entrances to some 
extensive caves, said not to have 
been entirely explored. Here dwelt 
the harper Oorran, to whom the 
Tuatha de Danaan gave this district 
as a reward for musical skill.] 



Main Boute* 

70 m. BaXlymote (Ir. Baile-an- 
mhota, " town of the moat") {Hotd : 
Morrison'Sj good), now little more 



than a village, but formerly of 
importEUice, owing to its fortreae, 
wMch was built in 1300 by Bichaid 
de Burgo, Earl of Ulster, of such 
strength that it offered a seiioos 
impediment to the subjugation of 
Oonnaught. This castle, which is 
strengthened by towers at the angles, 
occupies an area of 150 square t 
There are also remains of a Fian- 
ciscan monastery, with the muti- 
lated figure of a pope over the en* 
trance. The Mars of this establish- 
ment were celebrated for then lean- 
ing, and wrote the *Book of BbUv 
mote,' extant to this day. "Itwu 
written by different persons, bat 
chiefly by Solomon O'Droma wA 
Manus O'Duigenan, and begins ^A 
an imperfect copy of the 'Leabbar 
GabhsQa,' or Book of Invasions d 
Erin, followed by a series of andeot 
chronological, historical, and gena- 
logical pieces, with pedigrees of M 
saints, Ac."— Pro/. 0*Ciwry. ThecL 
of Ballymote has a very giaoeM 
tower and spire. A little beyond tbs 
town is Temple Lodge (Col Pa; 
ceval), on the banks of the lake 
the same name ; and in the groi 
are the ruins of a house form 
belonging to the Knights Temp 
On rt., 3 m., is Newpark Hoi 
(Jemmet Duke, Esq.), ftnd beyi 
it lies the village oif Drmnfin i 
Cooper's Hill, me seat of G. W. 
O'llara, Esq. The scenery now be^ 
gins to improve, and tbe line bend' 
ing N. passes rt. Markree CSastle^ ^ 
seat of the late E. J. Cooper, 
who contributed to the advancem< 
of astronomical sdenoe, and 
some celebrated instruments for 
purpose. The woods of this mag 
nificent property extend for a ioi 
distance, and abound in c^ 
glades, which are watered by 
Unshin Biver and a number of 
tributary brooks. A little further oi 
is Annaghmore (C. L. Estnuige 
Esq.), and on rt. is the hamle 
of Toberscanavaii, close to a smal 
lough. 



EsqJ 



:MLAND. 



Soute 22.~Athlone to Bdmullet. 



{^^'(^oUooney, as comfortable, 
jU-bmlt* and pretty a village as 
11 be met with in all Ireland. 

[A road skirts the woods of Mark- 
a Castle, passing by Castle Dan- 
n (T. Onnsby, Esq.; and the village 
^ntogher, to 10 m. Dromahaire 

J>wtonoeg.— Ballysadare, U m. : 
lomahaiie, 10, 

The riy. nowj foUows the rive 
' 81 m. BaUysadare, Between 
«se two villages a shaip sfarmish 
oi place between a body of 
fench who landed at KiUala in 
^8, and a detachm^it of Limerick 
lata and some dragoons nnder 
M^Vereker, who had unsuccessfully 
tocked the invaders. He was ulti- 
*iv I °!*%«i to retreat to SUgo 
i^ the loss of his artiUeiy. 
BaUysadare, like CJoUooney, is a 
■'^roas place, dependent to a 
f^i extent on very valuable salmon- 
toes, which were the property 
;the late Mr. Cooper of Markree, 
to placed a number of ladders by 
Jjch ttie fish might ascend the 
"8. Ihe river here falls into Bally- 
jare Bay over a considerable dis- 
»fe of shelving rock, forming a 
'^'W^ue series of rapids. 
^ tile 1. bank of the river is 
rSTS ^?y-grown abbey, founded 
m Fechin in the 7th cent, and 
r^ \ ite day was richly en- 
r^- A good deal of business is 
r« m the exportation of com and 
K; • ? o^ 100 tons being enabled 
J^emto the Uttle harbour. From 
rf " ^ a pleasant drive to SUgo ; 
En^^^ ^**^ i*s truncated sum- 
iltt i® * ^^ *^® ®^^ Mountains 
I^Cdste' ^°™^S constant changes 



175 



ROUTE 22. 

ATHLONE TO ROSCOMMON, CASTLE- 
REACH, BALUNA, AND BELMULLET. 

The Great Northern and Western 
gly. runs from Athlone to Ballina. 
For the first few miles some pretty 
views of Lough Rea are obtained 
onrt. 

12 m. Knockcroghery (famous for 
its manufactory of tobacco-pipes) is 
the nearest station from whence to 
make an excursion to St. John's or 
Kindown Castle, about 5 m. to the 
S.E., occupymg a promontory on the 
shore of Lough Rea. "Rinn-duin," 



the pomt of the fort, is mentioned 
in the 'Annals of the Four Masters ' 
as having existed in 1156, and is 
behoved to have been an early 
stronghold of the Danish King 
Turge-i-s (ThorgUs) in the 9th cent 
It was long in the possession of the 
O Connors, from whom it was taken 
by tiie Enghsh in the 13th cent. 
As descnbed in Weld's * Survey of 
Roscommon,' this castle was built 
in the form of a P, the taU of the 
letter being occupied by a banquet- 
mg-haU, and the head by the keep, 
a massive tower, about 50 ft. in 
breadth, overgrown with ivy of extra- 
ordinary richness of growth. To the 
E. of the castle are the remains of a 
watch-tower, the whole being pro- 
tected by a broad ditch, which for- 
merly converted the peninsula into 
a promontory, and a wall 564 yds. 




ou^i 



95SV 






fUSa 



(■: 



\Jf 



wros 



r^ 



^/^r 



^. 



V 



*^ 



s^ 



XctfevVWMi 



I7t 



' 





C^' 



on; 



Boute 23. — Odway to Clifden. 



181 



fa 



looJM or " hooker " coast- 
BelmuUet through 
Westport or Gal- 
August, 1877, the 
(elmullet was made 
IS * packet, belonging 
[formed "West Coast 
\y Steam Navigation 
trial trip to Glare 
been made two days 
Directors propose to 
^rips considerably be- 
limitsy if the enter- 
mnerative. Tourists 
[.inquiries on the spot, 
le, avail themselves of 
lus afforded for enjoy- 
idid scenery of the 
fireland. 



>fm 



.^'r.ii 



m 






60UTE 23. 

KAN ISLANDS, LOUGH 
IGALWAY TO CLIFDEN. 

Pop. (1871) 13,134— 
^Hallway Hotel ; Black's, 
-well kept; there is 
[hotel at Salt HiU, * The 
^ rides being the ren- 
all tourists bound to 
^Oalway contains within 
1 80 much to interest, that 
should make a point 
'here for two or three 
fihe objects of interest in 
very irregularly dis- 
the old streets, much 
saved by taking a guide, 
ible by inquiry at the 



hoteL Independently of its being 
the principal town in the county, 
and indeed a coimty in itself, it 
enjoys considerable natural advan* 
tages, and has capabilities of be- 
coming an important place, should 
improvement continue at the same 
rate at which it has been progress- 
ing for the last 10 yeats. 

Under various names, a town has 
been established here from the 
earliest times, and Ptolemy mentions 
a city called Kagnata, which is 
generally considered to be identical 
with Gkdway. This latter is derived, 
according te some, from a legend to 
the effect that a woman named Galva 
was drowned in the river hard by ; 
by others, from the Gallseci of 
Spain, with whom the town carried 
on an extensive trade ; and by others 
again, from the Gaels or merchants 
by whom it was occupied. 

Nothing is known of Galway 
until 1124, when, according to the 
Four Masters, a fort was erected there 
by the 'Gonnaught men. This was 
thrice demolished by the Munster 
men, and as often rebuilt. About 
1240 it fell inte the hands of Walter 
de Burgh, Earl of Ulster. From 
this time Galway became a flourish- 
ing English colony. Among the 
new settlers were " a number of fa- 
milies, whose descendants are known 
to this day under the general appella- 
tion of * the Tribes of Galway,' an 
expression first invented by Crom- 
well's forces, as a term of reproach 
against the natives of the town for 
their singular friendship and attach- 
ment to each other during the time 
of their unparalleled troubles and 
persecutions, but which the latter 
afterwards adopted as an honourable 
mark of distinction between them- 
selves and their cruel oppressors." — 
Hardiman's Hist. There were 13 
of these so-called tribes, — the de- 
scendants of some of which, as Blake, 
Lynch, Athy, Bodkin, Browne, Ffont, 
Joyes, Kirwan, Morris, Skerrett, 
D'Arcy, Ffrench, Martin, &c., are 



182 



Soute 23.— 6aZtm^ : History » 



Ikelakb. 



still found amongst the leading 
citizens — ^who in those days care- 
fully guarded themselves from any 
intercourse with the native Irish. 
In one of the bye-laws, of the 
date of 1518, it is enacted "that no 
man of this towne shall oste or re- 
ceive into their housses at Ghriste- 
mas, Easter, nor no feaste elles, any 
of the Burkes, M*Williams, the Kel- 
lies, nor no cepte dies, without 
license of the mayor and counciD, 
on payn to forfeit 52., that neither O' 
nor M|M) shalle strutte ne swaggere 
thro' the streetes of Gallway.'* 

The following singular inscription 
was formerly to be seen over the 
W.gate— 

'* From the ftiry'of the (yilahcTties 
(jood Lord deliver ns." 

Owing to its excellent situation, Gal- 
way enjoyed for centuries the mo- 
nopoly of the trade with Spain, from 
whence it received large quantities of 
wine, salt, &c., which caused so much 
personal intercourse that the town 
became impressed to a certain degree 
with Spamsh features, both in the 
architecture of the streets and in 
the dress and manners of the popu- 
lation ; though it has been neverthe- 
less the habit of former writers to 
ascribe too much to the supposed 
Spanish origin of the town, overlook- 
ing the fact that it was inhabited by 
an essentially Anglo-Norman colony. 

The 1st charter of incorporation 
was granted by Bichard III., and 
confirmed in successive reigns. Gal- 
way reached its highest point of 
opulence at the conmiencement of 
the Irish Bebellion in 1641, during 
which period it was remarkable for 
its loyalty to the King, and suffered 
a siege and such barbarous treat- 
ment at the hands of the Parlia- 
mentary army, that at the Bestora- 
tion the town was almost wholly 
decayed. 

"After the battle of Aughrim, 
Gen. Ginkell, with 14,000 of Wil- 
liam's army, laid siege to it; and, 



after holding out for some time, it 
surrendered on the 20th July 1691, 
on condition of a safe-conduct for 
the garrison to Limerick and a free 
pardon of the inhabitants, with pre- 
servation of their property and pri- 
vileges." — Lewis. 

Gkilway is situated on gently riaog 
ground on the K. side and near the 
head of the bay. The greater portion 
of the town is built upon a tongae of 
land, bounded on the E. by Longh 
Athalia, an arm of the sea, and on 
the W. by the river which forms the 
outlet of Lough Corrib. The other 
and smaller part is on the opposite 
bank of the river and in the district 
known as lar-Connaught, the connec- 
tion being maintained by 1 wooden 
and 2 stone bridges. The W. Bridgt 
is a very ancient structure of the 
date of 1342, and formerly possessed 2 
tower gateways at the W. and centre ; 
these, however, have long disap- 
peared. The upper Bridget leading 
from tiie Court-house, was erected 
in 1818. From a map (of which only 
2 copies are extant) made in 1651, 
by the Marquis of Glanricarde, to 
ascertain the extent and value of the 
town, it appears that Galway was 
then entirely surrounded by walk 
defended by 14 towers and en- 
tered by as many gates. A poetical 
description in Latin appended to 
this map informs us that--- 

** Bis nrbis septem defendunt mcenia tunes 
IntuB, et ex doro est marmore qnaqw 
domva." 

Since the middle of the last cent 
Hie fortifications went fiast to de 
cay, and now nothing remains bat 
a fragment near the quay, and a 
massive arcfttray leading to SpasMth 
Place. There is also a square hoAm 
of great thickness in Fxuncis Street, 
and a portion of wall with a roimd- 
headed blocked arch, which was in 
a perfect state not many yean ago. 
Within the last cent the town haa 
so much increased as to cover more 
than double the space formerly oc- 



31L.AND. 



BotUe 23. — Qaiway: Streets, 



183 



pied within the walls. The streets, 
weirer, though containing several 
ndsome bnildings, are narrow, in- 
cLvenient, and dirty ; nevertheless, 
3 antiquary will find very much 

interest lum in the remarkable 
3liitectnral features of the houses, 
iicii are foreign to a degree un- 
o'WTi in any other town in the 
Qgdom. -Yet too much has been 
itten and said about tiie present 
'pearance of Gralway ; for time and 
odem improvements have to a 
rtain extent obliterated many of 
e ancient remains, which, with 
me exceptions, are not so patent 

the general tourist as might be 
lagined fix)m the glowing descrip- 
Dns. The old houses require looking 
r, and the more time and care that 
le traveller bestows on the back 
reets, the more will he be re- 
arded. Many of the houses are 
oilt Spanish fashion, with a small 
5urt (imtio) in the centre, and an 
rched gateway leading into the 
treet ; but it requires some effort of 
nagination to identify tiiese ill-kept 
nd overcrowded dwellings with the 
;ay residences of the Spanish mer- 
ibants. The most striking specimen 
»f domestic architecture is Lyme's 
Ifan^Um, a large square building at 
he comer of Shop and Abbeygate 
itreets, having square-headed door- 
fays and windows, with richly de- 
H)rated mouldings and dripstones. 
There is also a portion of the cornice 
)r projecting balustrade at the top 
ii the house, the horizontal support- 
ing pillars being terminated with 
grot^ue heads. On the street &ce 
are richly ornamented medallions, 
containing the arms of the Lynches, 
with their crest— na lynx. Notice 
also the carved figure of a monkey 
and child, which commemorates the 
saving of an infant belonging to the 
family, b^ a favourite monkey, on 
an occasion when the house was 
Immt. The same anecdote is told 
of John 1st Earl of Kildare, whose 
crest, taken from this occurrence, 



consists of a monkey. This monu- 
ment of a great and powerful family 
is now u^ as a chandler's shop. 
On the opposite side of the same 
street is another ancient house with 
windows of Saracenic character. 

In Market Street, at the back 
of St. Nicholas Church, is a stone 
bearing the following inscription — 

".This memorial of tbe stem and nnbending 
jufttioe of the chief magistrate of this 
city, James Lynch Fitxstephen, elected 
mayor a.d. 1493, who condemned and 
executed bis own guilty son, Walter, on 
tills spot, has been restored to its an- 
cient site A.D. 1854, with the approval 
of the Town Oommlssioner^ by their 
CSiaimian, Very Rev. Peter Daly, PJ»., 
and Vicar of St. Nicholas." 

Below this is a skull and cross-bones. 
James Lynch Fitzstephen had 
been one of the most successful of 
the citizens in promoting commerce 
with Spain, which he had himself 
personally visited, having been re- 
ceived "with every mark of hospi- 
tality. To make some return for all 
this kindness, he proposed and ob- 
tained permission from his Spanish 
host to take his only son back with 
him to L'elfimd. The mayor had 
also an only son, unfortunately ad- 
dicted to evil company, but who, 
he hoped, was likely to reform from 
the circumstance of his being at- 
tached to a Gkdway lad^ of good 
&mily. . And so it might have 
proved, had he not jealously fancied 
that tho lady looked too graciously 
upon tbe Spaniard. Boused to mad- 
ness, he watched the latter out of 
the hoTise, stabbed him, and tlien, 
stung with remorse, gave himself up 
to justice, to his father's unutter- 
able dir.may. Notwithstanding the 
entreaties of the townsfolk, with 
whom ifche youth was a favourite, 
the stem parent passed sentence of 
death, ttna actually hung him from 
the wuidow witb his own hand. 
Some 25 years ago a tragedy, 
foundedL on this drsumatic incidenl^ 
entitled the * Warden of Galway/ 



184 BotUe 23. — Galway : Chmch of St Nicholas. Irelasd. 



by the Rev. Edward Groves, was 
performed in the Theatre Royal, 
Hawkins Street, Dublin, — with great 
success, and afterwards in London, 
at the Olympic Theatre. The fa- 
mily of Lynch, — one of the most 
celebrated in Galway annals — is 
said to have originally come &om 
Linz in Austria, of which town one 
of them was governor during a siege. 
As a reward for his services, he re- 
ceived permission to take a lynx as a 
crest. The family came to Ireland 
in the 13th cent., and flourished till 
the middle of the 17th. In 1484 
Pierce Lynch was made first Mayor 
under the charter of Richard III., 
while his son Stephen was appointed 
first Warden by Innocent VIII., and 
during the period of 169 years 84 
members of this family were mayors. 
In Lombard Street is a fine gate- 
way belonging to the old Franciscan 
convent ; and in Abbeygate Street is 
the mansion of the Joyces, with a 
finely sculptured doorway and the 
inscription— 

" Nisi Dominus sedificaverit domum, &c." — 
1649. 

On a house in the adjoining street 
are the arms of Galway. 

The Ch. of St. Nicholas is a vene- 
rable crucifonn building, " evidently 
the work of different periods, but 
remarkable for uniformity in the 
execution, and for order and plan in 
the general design." It consists of 
nave, with aisles, chancel, transepts, 
and central tower surmounted by a 
singular pyramidal belfry of much 
later date than the rest of the ch. 
The breadth across the transepts is 
126 ft., and the total length 152 ft. 
The nave is separated from the 
aisles by 2 rows of good Pointed 
arches, defaced, however, by a mo- 
dem stone screen, which nearly blocks 
them up. The E. and W. windows 
(which are plain, of 6 lights) were 
formerly remarkable for the beautiful 
stained glass. The S. or Lynch's 
transept contains a small recess, in 
which is an altar of tho Joyco family ; 



2 headless effigies and coats of arms 
of the Lynches, 1644 ; a richly-de- 
corated side altar with finials ; also 
the organ placed on a raised stone 
floor, tbe sides and front of which 
are sculptured. Underneath this Uea 
Mayor Lynch, the hero of the tra- 
gedy mentioned above. The N. or 
French's transept is used as a vestry, 
and contains ai slab to the fiamily of 
Moriarty OTiemagh, 1580. In the 
N. aisle is what is supposed to be 
an ancient confessional ; though high 
authority— J. H. Parker's * Glossaiy 
of Architecture ' — doubts the preseot 
existence of any such thing. Tbe 
font rests on an antique base 
with sculptured sides. ExtemallT 
the visitor should notice the beau- 
tiful pointed W. doorway, and the 
S. porch, which has a groined rool 
Above it is the sexton s apartment, 
reached by a flight of steps. Clo» 
to the porch is the ruined chapel of 
St. Mary's, now blocked up, but ex- 
hibiting on its exterior some good 
carving. The church has been well 
restored. 

Galway waa formerly included 
within the diocese of Enachdone 
or Annaghdown (p. 192), united in 
1824 to the Archbishopric of TuanL 
The Irish clergy who were appointe*! 
gave rise to such dissensions mat the 
ch. was made collegiate in 1484. 
During the reigns of Edward VI. 
and Elizabeth a change was made in 
the ecclesiastical conditions, and tbe 
ch. put under tbe charge of a Pro- 
testant warden, — an arrangement 
which held good until the recent 
death of the late Warden Daly. He 
had a jurisdiction distinct from that 
of the diocese, but Galway is now a 
portion of the see of Tuam. 

The ancient collegiate estaUisfa- 
ment stood near me W. end of 
tho ch., but is now let out into 
various tenements. Galway contains 
the usual buildings of a county 
town : 2 barracks, 1 known as the 
Shambles, near the W. bridge, and 



AND. 



Bouie 23. — QcHway : Harbour, 



186 



ther near William Street, where 
e formerly stood ; a- "tholsel '* 
^change ; a handsome modem 
"house with a Doric front ; and 
a, remarkable for being built 
)ut any timber. The Roman 
olic parish chapel is a large plain 
ing in Middle Street, besides 
h are a chapel and nunnery 
lished by Father Daly. Galway 
le seat of a Roman Catholic 
>se. 

le best part of the town is Eyre 
re (Black's hotel is here), which 
uns some handsome residences, 
nk, club-house, and the rly. 
and hotel, all built of com- 
grey limestone. A statue to 
. Dunkellin, late M.P. for the 
ty, also stands here. 
I the other side of the river is 
ns CoUege^ a fine Gothic build- 
with a spacious quadrangle, the 
itectural adornments of which 
I feeble imitation of All Souls* 
jge, Oxford. There are excellent 
)um8 adapted to the educational 
ses, and a good library, in which 
transcribed copy of the Gralway 
:ds. The town can boast of seve- 
R^ell-known scholars, as Lynch, 
xuthor of * Cambrensis Eversus ;' 
laherty, who wrote the * Ogygia ;' 
ran, one of the most learned 
lists of his day, and more re- 
ly Hardiman, the librarian of the 
jge and author of the * History 
alway.' The visitor who is in- 
ited in the education question 
Id go and see the model school, 
rery well-managed institution on 
national system. 

tie Harbour has been much im- 
ed of late years, and has at- 
:ed a considerable share of pub- 
ittention in consequence of the 
intic Steam Company's contract 
ury the mails to America. The 
pany is not now in existence, 
a Transatlantic packet station 
e is no doubt that it pos- 
eg one advantage over other 
8, viz. its proximity to America, 



it being only 1636 m. to St. John^Si 
Newfoundland, 2165 to Halifax, 
2385 to Boston, and 2700 to New 
York. The distance from Galway 
to St. John's has been done in 5 
days. The Bay of Galway con- 
sists of a long arm of the sea, pro- 
tected at the entrance by the lofty 
cliffs of the islands of Aran, which 
in clear weather are visible at a 
distance of 29 m., and on the N. and 
S. by the coasts of Ghtlway and Clare 
respectively. A legend in the annals 
of Ireland states that it was once 
a freshwater lake known as Lough 
Lurgan, one of the 8 principal lakes 
in Ireland, and was converted into 
a bay by the Atlantic breaking over 
and uniting with the water therein. 

** At Bama^ probably 10 ft. below 
high-water mark, may be seen on 
the strand a turf bog of several feet 
in depth, in which are the stumps 
and roots of large trees and many 
branches of oak and birch inter- 
mixed. The same phenomena occur 
at the W. side of the island of Omey, 
which is fSetr advanced into the At- 
lantic Ocean." — DwttovCs Survey, 

At the entrance of the harbour is 
Mutton Islandt connected with the 
mainland by a ridge of sand at low 
water. There is a fixed light here 
33 ft. above the sea, visible about 
10 m., showing red towards the sea. 
The holding-ground is good, but 
there is a want of shelter from 
westerly gales, — a state of things 
which would be entirely obviated 
by the erection of the proposed 
breakwater, which is estimated to 
cost 150,0002. The spring tides 
rise in the bay from 12 to 15 ft. 
The American steamers, as long as 
they sailed, anchored outside Mutton 
Island. From Lough Corrib, which is 
only 3 m. distant, a river runs into 
the sea with such rapidity that it is 
only useful as a means of motive 
power, which is made available for 
working several flour-mills, but for 
the purposes of navigation a canal 
called after the Earl of Eglintouu 



186 



Boute 23. — Gidway : Eoscumons, 



Ibelakb. 



was cut by Nimmo, a celebrated 
engiaeer of his day, to connect the 
lake with the harbour, and thus en- 
able the small vessels plying inland 
to reach the sea. 

There is ample accommodation for 
vessels in the floating dock, which 
is 5 acres in extent, and admits 
vessels of 14 ft. draught, and the 
tongue of land which separates the 
dock from the river is quayed to the 
distance of 1300 ft. 

A large number of the population 
is employed in the salmon and 
herring fishery, and the Claddagh, 
the locality inhabited by the fisher- 
men, should be visited by every 
tourist. It is an extraordinary assem- 
blage of low thatched cottages, the 
denizens of which, in dress, liabits 
and customs, are as different from 
those of the town which they adjoin 
as though they were 100 m. off. 
** The colony from time immemorial 
has been ruled by one of their own 
body, periodically elected, who is 
dignified with the title of Mayor, 
regulates the community according 
to their own peculiar laws and cus- 
toms, and settles all their fishery 
disputes. His decisions are so de- 
cisive and so much respected, that 
the parties are seldom known to 
carry their differences before a legal 
tribunal or to trouble the civil ma- 
gistrates." — Hardiman'8 Hist. They 
never allow strangers to reside 
within their precincts, and always 
intermarry with each other, the 
marriage not being thought en regie 
unless preceded by an elopement. 
They have several gala-days, such 
as the Feast of St. Patrick and the 
Nativity of St. John (June 24), at 
which time a procession is organised 
through the town, and a number of 
ceremonies gone through, not forget- 
ting the indispensable bonfire. The 
dress of the women of the Gladdagh is 
very peculiar, and imparts a singu- 
Wly foreign aspect to the Galway 
streets and quays. It consists of a 
blue mantle, red body-gown and pet- 



ticoat, a handkerchief bound ronnd 
the head, and legs and feet an 
naturd. The traveller who is anxions 
to gain further particidais respecting 
this interesting community should 
consult Hardiman's * Bistory of Gftl- 
way.* 

Ualway is one of the finest loca- 
lities in Ireland for the sahnon 
fisher, who will feel grateful for the 
systematic endeavours of Mr. Ash* 
worth to improve the fishery by breetl- 
ing young salmon, and by establishing 
a fish-walk on the Cong River bt^ 
tween Loughs Gorrib and Mask. 

Conveyances. — To Olifden, throogii 
MoycuUen and Oughterarde ; Kail 
to Dublin, to Limerick, to Tuam 
via Athenry. Steamer once a fort- 
night to Westport and liverpooL 

Steamer to Gong via Longh Co^ 
rib. Steamer to BaUyvaughan. Cv 
thence to Lisdoonvarna. 

Distances. — Glifden, 47 m. ; Mov 
cullen, 7 ; Oughterard, 16^ ; Coiu; 
27 by water ; Westport, 54; Hdui- 
ford, 17 ; Clare-Galway, 6i ; Athenir. 
12^ ; Gort, 21 ; Oranmore, 5 ; B&m» 
3 ; Aran Islands, 29 ; Loaghrea, 21 

Many nice residences are foxtnd ii 
the neighbourhood of Galway, rx, 
Menloe Gastle, the seat of Sir Tbv)& 
Blake ; Furboe (A. Blake, Esq. : 
Bama (Nicholas Lynch, Esq.) ; Le- 
naboy (Gapt O'Hara) ; Ardfry (Lord 
Wallscourt) ; Merview and Renmore. 
the seats of Pat. Lynch, Esq., asX 
Piers Joyce, Esq., Doth very pnt- 
tily situated at the head of Locgli 
Athalia. 

Excursions, — 

1. Bama. 

2. Gong. 

3. Glare-Galway (Rte. 25). 

4. Moycullen. 

5. Aran Islands. 



Excursion to Aran Itituidt. 
The pleasant coast-road may be 



tELAND. SotUe 23. — Exeanton to Aran Mmda. 



187 



ken that runs on the N. of G^lway 
ly, throQgh 1 m. SaUItiU, tiie favour- 
i suburb of the wealthy Gralwegians^ 
[lo are gradually creating a marine 
est-end. The geologist will find 
itween this and Bama very much 
interest him. Immediately to the 
. of the road the granite is seen 
opping out and forming the high 
ounds to the N. almost as far as 
aghterard. On the opposite side 

the bay are the cliffs of Glare, 
inch present lower Silurian rocks 
inking the conglomerate (bedsnever 
en in Bngland), succeeded by a 
Uey of denudation in which the 
wer limestone shales are visible, 
-cm hence the cliffs rise to the W., 
th the upper limestones throwing 
:' millstone grit and thin worth- 
iS coal-seams. -The white low cliffs 
the water's edge are of drift, of 
lich a magnificent section is observ- 
Le nearly opposite Bama House, 

the projecting peninsula of Sea- 
ed Point. Here, and in the bays 

each side, the great deposit of 
•wer Boulder Clay or "till" is 
11 displayed in cliff sections, 
d on the shore, at the bottom of 
i cliffs, may be seen large blocks, 
ne washed out of the cliff, and 
lers still adherent to their bosses 

clay. Good specimens of glacial 
iation may be found among the 
3k fragments imbedded, or re- 
atly washed out of this, the oldest 
the glacial deposits. 
3 m. Bama House, a well-wooded 
mesne facing the sea, and the re- 
lence of Nicholas Lynch, Esq. 
here are slight remains of a castle 
lat formerly belonged to the 
'Hallorans, from whom the Lynches 
squired it by niarrit^e. 6 m. Fur- 
rugh or Furbo (A. Blake, Esq.), is 
Qother prettily-situated residence, 
ffording pleasant contrast to the 
^rile rocks and highlands inland, 
(ere the united streams of the 
knock and Loughinch rivers are 
roesed. 

9| m. Spiddle (or Spital, from its 



being the site of an ancient hospi" 
tium, of which slight remains still 
exist) is a small village at the 
moulh of the Owenboliska Biver, a 
rather considerable stream rising 
in the dreary moorlands of lar 
Oonnaught, a little to the S. of 
Oughterard. The village is some- 
times frequented by anglers. From 
hence a road is carried over the 
most desolate and barren hills to 
Moycullen 8} m. Indeed, the whole 
of the district is very little dif- 
ferent from that described by Moly- 
neux in 1709. "I did not see all 
this way three living creatures, not 
one house or ditch, not one bit' of 
com, nor, I may say, one bit of land, 
for stones: in short, nothing ap- 
peared but stones and sea." 

12 m. the Owenriff Biver is crossed 
near Gahir, where there is. a lead- 
mine. 

At Minna once stood the castle 
of Inveran, the locality, in 1649, 
of the murder of Walter Bourke, 
brother of " Iron Bichard," the hus- 
band of Grace O'Malley. 

19^ m. This road terminates at 
the coast of Gashla Bay, where, at the 
coast-guard station, a boat maybe ob- 
tained to cross the inlet. At 17^ m. 
a road on rt. runs for 3 m. to Derry- 
nea Lodge. Here a fishing-station 
has been establidhed by a few gentle- 
men who preserve the Gashla Biver, 
a stream of some breadth, which 
rises in the moors to the N., swell- 
ing in its course into numerous 
loughs. The region to the W., which 
lies principally in the baronies of 
Kilcumin and Eillanin, is seldom or 
never visited, and indeed holds out 
no inducement to the general tourist 
to do so, its principal features being 
moorlands of no great height, covered 
at different levels with small fresh- 
water lakes, and frequently indented 
with many bays. Detached from 
the coast are 2 considerable islands 
named Lettermore and Gorumna. 
Gonspicuous in the S.W. are the 

3 Islands of Aran (Ir. Ara- 



188 



Baute 23.— (ToZiMxy to Clifden. 



Irela:51]| 



Naoimh C*Ara of the Saints *'), 
known lOOO years ago as "Insolse 
in oceano occidentali positie cogno- 
mento Aiann,** and still believed by 
many of the peasantry to be the 
nearest land to the far-&med island 
of O'Brazil or Hy Brisail, the blessed 
paradise of the pagan Irish. It is 
supposed even to be visible firom the 
clif& of Aran on particular and rare 
occasions — 

" On the ocean that hollows the rocks where 
ye dwell 
A shadowy land has appeared, as they tell ; 
Men thought it a region of sunshine and 

rest, 
And they call'd it O'BraziU the isle of the 
blest." 

Griffin. 

Passing over the tradition of Lough 
Lurgan (p. 185), " the earliest refer- 
ence to its prsB-Ghristian history is to 
be found in the accounts of the battle 
of Muireadh, in which the Firbolgs, 
having been defeated by the Tuatha- 
de-Dananns, were driven for refuge 
into Aran and other islands on the 
Irish coast, as well as into the west- 
em islands of Scotland." — Haverty. 
Christianity was introduced in the 
6th cent, by St. Enda, or the first 
abbot of Aran, Endeus, who ob- 
tained a grant of the islands from 
^ngus, the Christian King of Mun- 
ster, and founded 10 religious esta- 
blishments. Like Bardsey Island in 
North Wales, Aramnore speedily ob- 
tained a world-wide renown for learn- 
ing, piety, and asceticism, and " many 
hundreds of lioly men from other 
parts of Ireland and foreign countries 
constantly resorted to it to study tiie 
Sacred Scriptures and to learn and 

Eractise the rigid austerities of a 
ermit's life;** in consequence of 
which the island was distinguished 
by the name of Ara-Naoimh or 
Ara of the Saints. In 1651 the 
Marquis of Clanricarde fortified the 
castle of Ardk3m, which held out 
against the Parliamentary army for 
more than a year after the surrender 
"f Galway, but on the occupation of 



the island the soldiers of Cromw( 
demolished the great ch. of 
Endeus to furnish materials for 
repair of the fort. 

The Aran islands lie across 
entrance of Gralway Bay, 29 m. fi 
the harbour, and consist of 3 
number- — ^Inishmore (the Great 
land), 9 m. long and 1^ broad ; I 
maan (Middle Island), 3 m. long 
1^ m. broad ; and Inisheer (So^ 
Eastern Island), 2^ m. long, on 
S.W. point of which is a lightho 
112 ft high, which shows a 
light at 110 ft above the sea. 

A yacht carrying the mails 
from Galway every second day, 
the traveller must be prepared 
emergencies; for, though he 
reach the island frequently in 4 
he may be detained 10 or e 
longer. The disembarkation is g' 
rally performed by means of 
"currach, or coragh, which is a 
8 ft. long, with one square and 
pointed end, capable of carryio^ 
persons. Such is the dexterity 
which it is usually managed, 
it will land from ships in 
through the roughest breakers. 
Arch. Canibr. Probably there a 
district so replete with early 
mains as this, and the tourist 
wishes to make himself mare minm 
acquainted with them should 
Dr. Petrie*s work on the Ancj 
Architecture of Ireland. 

There are 2 villages on I 
more — Kilronan, at which there 
a decent inn, and KtUeany^ both 
the shores of Killeany Bay, at 
S.E. end of the island. The k 
now a wretched village, was once 
great note, having obtained its 
from St. Endeus or Eaney, the 
Christian missionary. Close to lU 
sea are the slight mins of Ark^ 
Castle mentioned abov.e. It is aill 
more ancient than the time 4 
Elizabeth. Ascending the liill tk 
visitor arrives at the Bowtd Tt**^ 
of which, however, only the i>a* 
remains, about 5 ft. high and ^ 



LMD. 



Boute 23. — Inishmore. 



189 



rcnmference, though it was 
*y considerable height within 
emory of man. Near this, and 
e highest point of the eastern 
' the island, is TeampuU Benain, 
h. or oratory of St. Benan, a 
e specimen of an early Irish eh., 
lonsidered by Dr. Petrie to be 
e 6th cent. Externally it is 

11 ft. broad and 15 ft. in 
ii, and is remarkable for the 

height of the gables, which was 
ess than 17 ft., and most pro- 
formed of overlapping stones. 
3h. stands N. and h., instead of 
sual orientation. Close by are 
Binains of the hermitage, partly 

in the rock ; and of some clo- 
ns or stone-roOfed dwellings, 
ibly belonging to the monks 
Q eh. 

L the S.W. coast of the island 
hh Cahir C* Black Fort "), a dun 
»rtress, with walls of enormous 
:ne8S, of very rude masonry, over- 
ing the cli£&. A chevaux-de- 

of sharp stones served as an 
I means of defence on the land 

and in the interior are remains 
loghauns. Dr. O'Donovan con- 
's that this fort was raised by 
very earliest inhabitants of the 
itry. 
rom hence & walk of about 2^ m. 

bring the tourist to iTt'Zronan, 
principal village on the island, 
ere there is a decent inn. The 
intic), either retracing his steps 
>ngh Killeany or by keeping the 
-oast a little higher up to Dubh- 
hair'C Black City"), a fortress 
structed and defended in a similar 
mer to the last named. It is 
I. over the hill from this spot to 
Tonan. A walk of 2 m. to the 
W^. will, embrace a large number 

interesting antiquities. About 
Q. on the rt. is TeampuU Chiarain, 
kh. has a very beautiful E. window 
d some crosses. 1^ m. on the hill 

1. is OghiU Fort^ a large duo. 

the neighbourhood of Gowragh 
e Teampull-an-Cheathrair-alainn I 



(" Ch. of the 4 Comely Saints "), also 
a cromlech, and the ch. and Holy 
WeU of St. Soomey. 

4 m. from Eilronan, on the N. coast, 
are Kilmurvey and TeampuU Mic 
DiMch, a 6th-cent. ch., consisting of 
nave and choir in beautiful preserva- 
tion, exhibiting some very fine Cyclo- 
pean masonry. ** There are windows of 
extreme antiquity, with lintels formed 
of 2 leaning stones ; and although the 
beautiful semicircular E. window is 
of a more recent date, there is a 
stone leaning against the E. gable, 
with a rudely-cut opening, which 
seems to have been the head of the 
more ancient window.'* There is 
also a remarkable narrow doorway, 
shaped like the entrance to an 
Egyptian tomb. Besides these re- 
mains there is TeampuU Beg ('* Small 
Ch."), together with the Holy Well 
and an Aharla, or monastic en- 
closure. On the S. coast, barely 
1 m. distant, is the fortress of Dun 
MnguBt described by Dr. Petrie as 
** the most magnificent barbaric mo- 
nument now extant in Europe." It 
is built on the very edge of a sheer 
precipice 300 ft. in height, and is in 
form of horseshoe shape, although 
some antiquaries incline to the belief 
that it was originally oval, and that 
it acquired its present form from the 
falling of the precipices. It consists 
of 3 enclosures, the wall which 
surrounds the innermost being the 
thickest : this enclosure measures 
150 ft. from N. to S. Outside the 
second wall is the usual accompani- 
ment of chevaux-de-frises, formed 
by sharp stones placed on end, 
seemingly to hinder the approach 
of an enemy. About the 1st cent, of 
the Christian era, 3 brothers, Aen- 
gus, Conchobar, and Mil, came from 
Scotland to Aran, and their names 
are still preserved in connection 
with buildings on the island — " the 
ancient fort on the great island, 
. being called Dun Aengus ; the great 
fort of the middle island, superior in 



190 



Boute 23. — Oidway to CUfden. 



Ikelani 



strength and preservation to the 
former, bearing the name of Dun 
Connor or Gonchovar ; and the name 
of Mil being associated with the low 
strand of Port Mnrvey. formerly 
known as Muirveagh Mil, or the 
Sea-plain of Mil." — Haverty. 

5i m. Dun Onaght or Eoghanacht, 
on high ground to the 1., is a circular 
Firbolgic fort measuring 92 ft. across, 
like all the other duns in the island, 
the defences are maintained by 3 
walls one inside the other. " Upon 
the inner side are 4 sets of steps 
leading towards the top, like those 
in Staigue Fort in the county of 
Kerry." 

At the north-western extremity, 
6 m. from Kilronan, is another in- 
teresting archsBological group, con- 
sisting of the 7 churches, or at least 
what remains of them. There are only 
portions of a ch. known as TeampuU 
a PhoiU, or " Ch. of the Hollow," and 
Teampull Brecain, " Oh. of St. Bre- 
cain,'* who was the founder of the 
episcopal ch. of Ardbraocan, in the 
county of Meath, and grandson of the 
1st Christian Prince of Thomond. 
At the opening of the grave by 
Dr. Petrie many years ago, a skull 
was found supposed to belong to 
the saint. The ch. has a chancel 
of rude masonry, and a more modem 
choir, with a lancet E. window. 
Traces of a monastic building, an 
engraved cross, and an inscribed 
stone were found by Sir Wm. Wilde, 
who also disooveredandput together 
a richly-sculptured cross m the neigh- 
bouring Aharla, or sacred enclosure. 
Overlooking the beach are the ruins 
of a strong square castle, known 
as Sean Caislean, the Old Castle. 
The geological formation of the whole 
island is that of carboniferous lime- 
stone, which presents much bold 
and grand sea hont. " The soile is 
almost paved over with stones, soe 
as in some places nothing is to be 
scene but large stones with wide 



openings between them, where cai 
breake their legs." — O' Flaherty. 
the beach of Glenaghaun, near 
7 churches, the strata are horizoDi 
singularly broken up by vei 
fissures. Owin^ to the difficulty i 
walking on the nu^e limestone 
" the Aianites have adopted sane 
or pampooties, as they call iiiem,\ 
a very primitive kind. These, wl 
all the children are taught to 
at the age of 7, are formed of cowl 
with the hair left on, cut away 
at the sides, with only a little _ 
piece in front, just sufficient to 
the ends of the toes." — Ardi. Cat 
Traces of the drift are frequent 
the shape of granitic boolc' 
brought over from the high groi 
of Connemara. There is a very 
spicuous example near the mini 
Sean Caislean. 

There is a lighthouse on oq<? 
the Brannock Islands (Eeragh), 
westernmost one, 101 ft. high, 
above high-water mark, shoi 
flashing light every 3 minutes, 
16 miles from seaward. From 
to the S. light on Slyne Head is : 
miles. 

The middle island of Aran. 
Inishmaan, is separated from 
former by a strait about 1 m. aci 
known as Bealach-na-harte (f 
Biom Harte, an elevated part of 
Island), now Gregory's Sound, 
principal archseological fcatun^ 
Dun Connor, or Conchobhair, an 
fort on a steep cliff, surrounc 
by an external wall with a £>tr 
way, placed in a square fort C\c* 
by is the ruined church of Traa 
pull-saght-macrec. Between 1 and 
m. to the S. of Inishmaan, separuti^ 
by Bealach-na-fearbac, or *^the F«.« 
Sound," is Inisheer, or Xnnis-oiit* J 
the Eastern Isle. It was also calH 
Aran-Coemhan, in honour of N 
Coemhan (EevinX brother to ta 
celebrated St Kevin of Glendalon^i 
Hardiman says ** that he is the mc€i 
famous of the Saints of Aran, arJ 
that he is believed to have uA'i 



lELAND. 



Boute 23. — Excursion to Ckmj. 



191 



»ted storms after being piously 
voked." 

" The name of Uoaed Ooexnhan, who doth 

sho'w 
Pity unto the stonn-toeaed seaman's 

prayeTB."— jrcCVirtfty** Poam. 

Inisheer contains a circular dun 
illed Creggankeel ; Furmina Castle, 
ice a stronghold of the Clann 
'eige ; and St. Gobnet's rained ch. 
'he population of the 3 Aran islands 
{ upwards of 3000 souls, principally 
iipported by fishing, although the 
asturage, like on most limestone 
xiks, is of a very rich and sweet- 
avoured description. The owners 
f the soil are the Misses Digby, who 
ave done very much to ameliorate 
tie condition of the people. 

In 1857 the islands were visited 
y a detachment of the British As- 
ociation, under the leadership of Sir 
V. Wilde, and the results of the 
isit were subsequently embodied in 
A interesting pamphlet, to which 
he writer of this notice is in> 
lebted. 



Excursion from Oalway to Cong, hy 
Lough Cornb. 

27 m. A smaU steamer, the 
Elglinton,' plies daily, and the time 
Kscupied in the journey is about 
t hrs. The river, which at the 
itarting-point above the bridges is 
tolerably wide, soon narrows, and 
receives on rt., opposite the Distillery 
of Newcastle, an affluent known as 
Ferryland Biver. Close by are the 
alight rains of Tarryland, or Tirror 
km CasUe, a residence of the De 
Bargos in the 13th cent. 2 m. rt. 
is Menlough, or Merdo Castle (Sir 
Thos. Blate), an ivy-covered castel- 
lated mansion, very prettily situated 
on ihe bank of the river. About 
1 m. distant from the village of Men^ 
lough, and close on the bnnk of the 
lake, are the marble-quarries of Jn- 
^iham, which yield a very cele- 
brated quality of stone. The marble 



is jet black, and susceptible of high 
polish. "It has been raised in soUd 
blocks, often weighing upwards of 
4 tons, and measuring from 18 to 
20 ft. long,'* and the quarries are 
situated on the edge of that extra- 
ordinary plateau of the upper carbo- 
niferous limestone which surrounds 
Gralway on the N. and E. sides. 

From Menlough to the entrance 
of the lake the river narrows con- 
siderably, having on each side of it 
flat sedgy islands, the haunts of 
wild fowl. The other passages 
are scarcelv navigable. After a 
course of about 4 m. the steamer 
enters Lough Corrih (Ir. Lough 
Orbsen), one of the most exten- 
sive and peculiar of these fresh- 
water seas for which Ireland is so 
remarkable. The length of the 
lake to Cong is about 20 m., and 
the greatest breadth 6 m., not in- 
cluding, however, the arm that 
runs up to Maume. It possesses 
50 m. of shores, and occupies 30,000 
Irish acres, with a considerable fall 
from the summit-level to the sea, 
and a sur&ce of 13 ft. 9 in. above 
high water. A survey was made 
by the Grovemment with a view 
towards establishing a grand inland 
navigation from Gralway, Lough 
Corrib, Lough Mask, and Lough 
Conn to Killala, and thereby saving 
the inconvenience and dangers of 
the coast route. The lake was 
deepened in some parts, and loftr 
piles of stones erected so as to mark 
the channel, but with the exception 
of these improvements, and the 
canal to connect the lake with the 
sea at Gralway, the scheme became 
abortive — ^the navigation at present 
being limited to the steamer, and a 
few big barges which sail with the 
wind from Cong, cairying kelp, sand, 
&c. The direction in which Lough 
Corrib runs is N.W., and it is divided 
into 2 parts by & long narrow strait. 
Of these the northern is the largest, 
although, from the number of islands 
scattered about» it does not apparently 



192 



Botde 23. — Qalway to Olifden, 



Irelasp. 



present such a laige expanse of 
water. Altogether, the islands are 
said to number 365, one for every 
day in the year, but the tourist will 
soon find out that this is a popular 
delusion applied to almost every lake 
and bay in the country. The depth 
is very variable, in some places 
upwards of 28 ft., although in winter 
this is always increased somewhat; 
while in other parts it is scarcely 
3 ft ; long shoals of jagged rocks 
frequently appearing above the water. 
The solvent action of the carbonic 
acid of the water to which the exca- 
vation of this and so many other 
Irish lake-basins is due, is well 
shown by the configuration of these 
rocks and of those which crop out 
so abundantly on the land surface 
around, especially between the Lake 
and Galway. On first emerging into 
the lake the traveller obtains directly 
ahead of him and to the N.W. a very 
lovely view of the Connaught hills, 
especially those in the neighbour- 
hood of Maume. The shore on the 
rt. is flat and uninteresting, but on 
the 1. is a continuous and gradu- 
ally increasing chain of high ground, 
on the side of which the road to 
Oughterard is carried, lined with 
pleasant woods and residences, 
amongst which is conspicuous a 
nunnery for the Sisters of Mercy, 
established by Father Daly. 

A little to the N.£. is the isolated 
hill of Knocknaa, near Tuam, which, 
as the channel changes, shifts its 
position so much that the tourist is 
puzzled how to maintain his bear- 
ings. Numerous towers of castles or 
ruined churches stud the banks of 
the lake, the greater part of which 
will be found under their respective 
routes, as they are not capable of be- 
ing visited except by land. In the 
distance on the rt., about 1 m. up, are 
the towers of Clare-Galway castle 
and abbey (Rte. 25), while 1. nearer 
Ihe lake is the castle of MoycuUeUy 
otherwise called Hag*s Castle, or 
Gaislen-na-Oaillighe. In about 4 m. 



the lake contracts, and the steamer 
enters the long and tortuous channel 
of Knock. On rt., close to the shore, 
are the ruins of Annaghdown Ca^stle 
and ch., formerly the seat of the 
bishopric in which Galway was in- 
cluded; also the woods of Annagh- 
down House and Woodpark House. 

Half-way up the strait is the fern 
of Kilbeg or Knot^, at which a pier 
has been erected for the convenience 
of the traffic to Headford, 3 m. 
distant (Rte. 25). Close by the land- 
ing-place are Clydagh Houte, the 
beautifully-wooded seat of F. StauB- 
ton Lynch, Esq., and the ruins of 
Cargen's Castle. A httle fertk^r 
on is Anaghkeen CasUe ; and neark 
opposite on the other bank the 
tower of Auglirwi^ure Cagtk, the 
old residence of the O'Flaherties 
close to Oughterard. The lake now 
expands a^n, and presents soar 
beautiful vieifvsi towards Maume; the 
mountains being grouped together 
in a very peculiar manner. The hi: 
flat-topped hill is Benlavie, wUk 
the sharp escarpment to the rt. is thrf 
of Kilbride, which overhangs LonrJ 
Mask. The islands which form 80o!i 
an important item in the gur&ce" 
this portion of the lake occupy aM 
1000 acres, 6 of them bemg in- 
habited. The steamer passes on tl;^ 
1. an island graced by a wbss^ 
residence belonging to the Ret. J- 
D'Arcy, Warden of G^alway. 

The island of Inch-a-goill, or Usr 
an-Ghoill Oraibhthigh, " the )sm 
of the devout foreigner," should V 
visited by the antiquary for the sake 
of its interesting eccleaastical mini. 
and for this purpose a boat will bvi 
to be taken from Cong, distant aK'Ut 
3} m., as the steamer does not st(>p 
at the island. It contains the ruins 
of the small ch. of TempUpatrifi 
considered to be of the ageof,aiw 
indeed founded by, St. Patrick. J 
possesses a nave and chancel, aithooch 
Its total length is only 35J ft. Tbi 
doorway is of the simplest descrip- 
tion, with inclined sides. A sttc* 



Ireland. 



Boute 23. — Gdlway to Clifden, 



193 



stands in the ch. on which is inscrihed, 
according to Dr. Petrie — 

LIS LUGVAEDOH HACC LXEKUKH ; 

in English, **the stone of Lugnae- 
don, son of Limeneneh." 

The individual commemorated by 
this stone is supposed to have been 
a nephew of St. Patrick. The second 
ch., fdso ruined, is of much later 
iite, of similar form and dimensions, 
though of more beautiful architecture. 
Almost opposite Inch-a-goill, on the 
eastern bank of the lake, is Bally- 
carin Castle and House (C. Lynch, 
Esq.). A little distance from this 
shore is the island of Inuhmicatreer^ 
on which an abbey formerly existed. 

At the N.W. comer of the lake a 
narrow prolongation runs for some 
distance inland between the moun- 
tains terminating at Maume. 

25 m. at the head of the lake are 
the pretty woods of Ashford (Sir 
Arthur Guinness, Bart.), and the 
village of Cong. 



Galway to Clifden. 

A car leaves twice daily for Ough- 
terard and Clifden from Eyre Sciuare. 
Passing over the river and canal 
and by the Queen's College, the 
traveller enters the district of lar 
Connaught or Western Oonnaught, 
the headquarters of the powerful 
clan of the OTlahertys. This dis- 
trict extends for about 30 m., and 
is now comprised in the baronies of 
Moycullen and Ballynahinch. For 
several miles the road skirts the high 
pounds on the W. bank of Lough 
Corrib, passing many pretty wood- 
embowered villas, and amongst others 
a nunnery for Sisters of Mercy. Fine 
views are obtained of the hills at the 
head of the Lough, amongst which, 
on a clear day, the peak of Nephin, 
near Ballina, is very conspicuous. 
Far in the distance on the E. is 
Knocknaa, tlie Hill of the Fairies, in 
the direction of Tuam. 

llrelaiid.'} 



The tourist should observe that 
the country all around is curiously 
weathered limestone, strewn with 
boulders, a large proportion of which 
are of granite, which must have 
travelled a considerable distance. 
Many of the.'-e are of great size, 
and curiously perched in prominent 
positions. Tliey have been brought 
here by glaciers. 

4f m. 1. Woodstock House (F. 
Comyn, Esq.), well sheltered amidst 
thriving plantations ; and further on 
is Kirkullen House (Capt. Hare). 

6^ m. rt. is the small lake of Bally- 
cuirke^ beyond which is the lonely 
tower of Hag's CasUey or Caislen- 
na-CaHlighe, a fortress of the OFla- 
hertys, who possessed nearly the 
whole of this territory. 

In the time of Elizabeth the father 
of the then O'Flaherty was confined 
^n this castle of Moycullen, and 
starved to death! 7J m. Moycullen 
is a neat village with the usual pa- 
rochial institutions. The land in the 
immediate neighbourhood was the 
property of the late Lord Campbell, 
who did much towards its improve- 
ment; but very shortly the tourist 
enters upon the domain of Ballyna- 
hinch. A road on rt. runs up the 
side of th^ lake to 6^ m. Knock 
Ferry, en route for Headford, while 
one on the 1. crosses the desolate 
hills to 8| m. Spiddle (p. 187). 

8 m. 1. Danesiield House (G. Burke, 
Esq.) ; and bordering the road a little 
farther on are Drimcong, Deerfield, 
and Knockbane, the residence of A. 
O'Flaherty, Esq. 9 m. on rt. below 
the road is Ross L&ke, a long, narrow 
sheet of water, studded with prettily- 
wooded islets and patches of rock. 
Bo88 House — situated at the head 
of the lake — is the residence of Jas. 
Martin, Esq. There are several 
ruins in the vicinity — as Oghery 
Castle on a small island, and a 
ch. on the opposite side known as 
Templebegnaneeve. At this point 
of the route the traveller enters 
the widely-spread domain of Bully« 



194 



Boute 23. — CkUvHxy to Clifden^ 



iKELAin). 



nabinch (p. 197), throngh which 
he journeys for a distance of 26 m. 
The Law Life Insurance Company 
now hold this territory of the old 
Martin &,mily, a territory so wild 
and extensive that it was the boast 
of Connaught that ** the king*s writ 
could not run in it" The traveller 
will, however, observe for himself 
during his journey that ^ of this 
property might well be spared, as 
regards its agricultural qualities. 
From hence the country begins to 
lose a great deal of the wood and 
timber which has hitherto sheltered it, 
and relieved it from its native wild- 
ness, which very soon begins to show 
itself in the wide melancholy moors 
between this and Oughterard. On 
the 1. they gradually rise to a con- 
siderable height, the highest point, 
Knockalee Hill, being 955 ft. Innu- 
merable little streams, emerging from 
as many small lakes, permeate their 
brown moors in every direction, the 
only signs of civilization being the 
long straight road that is visible for 
miles, and an occasional group of 
cottages on the hill-sides, of such a 
dubious colour that it is some time 
ere the eye becomes accustomed to 
the sight of them. Just after passing 
the lodge-gate of Ross the first 
beautiful peep occurs of the Twelve 
Pins of Counemara, the highest 
points in the Western Highlands. 

15 m. rt., near a spot where a 
stream is crossed by a natural bridge 
of limestone, are the ruins of Augh- 
nanure Castle (the Field of tihie 
Yews), called otherwise the Castle 
of the O'Flahertys. Tfie remains 
consist of a massive square tower 
surrounded by outworks and a 
banqueting-haU, the date of the 
whole being probably of the 16th 
cent. Notice in the latter the in- 
terlacing patterns of the windows. 
A small river, which during a part 
of its course flows by a subterranean 
channel under the limestone and 
then reappears, washes the walls 
of the castle, which commands a 



I 



strong position over Lough Conib. 
The O'Flahertys, to whom it be- 
longed, were a powerful family who 
had held this country from time 
immemorial, and long straggled 
against the English Government, 
with which it waa always at vaii- 
ance, as also with its neighbours the 
Galway colonists. In ^e reign of 
Elizabeth, however, Goveminent re- 
duced it to obedience by foment 
ing discord amongst its membei\ 
and in 1569 Murrogh O'Flaherty 
was appointed governor of the coon^ 
of lar Connaught. The glories i 
the &mily establishment are enih 
merated in an ancient MS., as main* 
taining a physician, stondard-beaieivi 
brehon or judge, the keeper of tha 
black bell, the master of the re?el 
the keeper of the bees, &c. 
present representative is G. F. O 
herty, Esq., the owner of the nei| 
bourrng demesne of Lemonfield 

16^ m. Chighterard, a stragg] 
little town of a single broad 
situated picturesqu^y enough on 
river Owenriff, which flows in 
somewhat romantic channel 
Lough Corrib. With the exceptifll 
of its enormous Union House, it doef 
not contain anything worth notice 
but its proximifjT to the lake rendett 
it a convenient station for fishiBS 
parties {Hotel, Murphy's). About J ii< 
outside the town is an extren^ 
pretty waterfall, in the bed of whid^ 
when the water is low, the geologJAl 
can see a good section of the ca^ 
boniferous hmestone. 

Distances. — Gralway, 16J m. : K«- 
cess, 18 ; Maume, 12 ; Lough Bofiiv 
5J;Flynns,12. 

[A road on rt runs from Oughte- 
rard along the side of Lough Co^ 
rib, passing 1 or 2 little hamlets, and 
skirting the base of Gam Seefa 
(1009 ft.), on the sides of which t 
copper-mine was established. M 
Cappanalaura, opposite the bean- 
tifiilly-wooded hill of Doon, a boat 
may be obtained, and the pedestrian 



Ireland. Boute 23. — Loughs Agraffard <md Ourid. 



195 



may cross the arm of the lake, and 
follow the road on the N. bank to 
Maume.] 

For almost the whole distance to 
Olifden the road is now carried over a 
bleak moor, the geological character 
of which is mica rock, occasionaUj 
passing into talcose rock. 

At 20 m. 1. is Lough Agrafiieird, 
the first of the chain of lakes that 
accompany the road the whole way 
to the coast. It is succeeded by 
Lough Adrehid, and at 22| m. by 
Lough Bofin, one of the largest of 
tbe whole chain. The scenery is 
peculiar, and, unless under a bright 
sun, depressing from the monotonous 
outline of the hills and the sombre 
colour of the peat and lake water. 
There is a solitary school-house at 
Glengoula. 25 m. Ardderry Lough, 
communicating with 27 m. Lough 
Shindilla, is one of the prettiest be- 
cause the most wooded of the series. 
[A Uttle before arriving at the E. end 
of this lake, which is the watershed of 
the rivers running into Lough Oorrib 
and the Atlantic, a road on rt., at 
Butler's Lodge, turns over the moors 
to Maume (Bte. 25) 5 m., which 
spe-edily becomes interesting as it 
descends, from the views that 
open, over the arm of Lough Oorrib 
and the island of Castlekirke.] The 
mountains on the rt. have now 
assumed a very different outline and 
character from those which have 
hitherto accompanied us. In £a.ct, 
▼e have arrived at the great group 
of the Western Highlands, of which 
Bunnabeola, or the Twelve Pins, is 
the centre; and the traveller now 
loses all sense of dreariness in the con- 
templation of the magnificent and 
rugged heights that constantly open 
out The eastern portion of this range 
is mostly known as the Mamturk 
fountains, and comprises, amongst 
others, the heights of Shanfolagh 
(2003 ft.) and Leckavrea (2012). 
Polypodium dryopteris grows abun- 
dant]/ on these hills. At the end 



of Lough Shindilla is a small she- 
been-house, known as the Half- 
way House or Flynn's, where there 
is a change of horses. Miss Flynn, 
the daughter of a former occupant, 
was celebrated for her beauty, the 
praises of which were chanted re- 
peatedly in the works of Inglis 
Barrow, and others. The £a.mily» 
however, have long left the neigh- 
bourhood. This is the highest point 
of the road, as is soon evident from 
the change of direction of the water's 
flow. fFrom hence a road runs direct 
to Kylemore 14 m., formerly taken 
by travellers not wishing to go roimd 
by Olifden; but we now recom- 
mend the Glen Inagh road (page 
196) as finer.] 

Above 29^ m. 1. Lough Ourid, rises 
the Ourid HiU, 1174 ft. From hence 
the road rapidly descends by the side 
of a mountain stream to 34^ m. 
BecesSf where there is a good hotel, 
the proprietor of which, Mr. Ma- 
cready, of Dublin, has rented the 
shooting and fishing of the neigh- 
bourhood, and sublets it to visitors 
at daily or weekly rates. Garromin, 
one of the most beautiful of these 
lakes, stretches before it, having on 
its opposite bank Glendalaugh, beau- 
tifully situated in the midst of a 
thickly-wooded domain, and now 
converted into a comfortable hotel. 
On an eminence opposite the hotel 
is Lissoughter Lodge. The tourist 
should by all means ascend Lie- 
tottghter, which, though reaching 
the height of only 1314 ft., is so 
placed as to afford a better- know- 
ledge of the mountain scenery than 
almost any other hill. It is situated 
exactly at the end of a great trans- 
verse valley, of which it forms the 
key, the sides respectively being the 
Mamturk Mountains (Shanfolagh, 
&c.), and the Twelve Pins, which are 
seen to great advantage. This valley 
is almost entirely fiUed up by, the 
lakes of Derryclare and Lough Inagh, 
producing a magnificent scene seldom 

o 2 



196 



Baide 2S.^Galuxttf to Clifden. 



ISELAin). 



Buipassed, althoueh, from the lack 
of wood, invested with a severity 
peculiar to the Oonnemara scenery. 
On the side of the hill are marhle- 
quarries, from which a valuable stone 
known as Oonnemara marble is ex- 
tracted, and worked for the most 
part into ornamental articles. It 
is an ophi-calcite, or mixture of ser- 
pentine and limestone. 



Derrydare^ the first lake, com- 
municates with Glendalough {SoteL: 
Mullarky's) by a short stream called 
Bealnacarra, and also with Ballyna- 
hinch Lake by another. It is narrow, 
about 2^ m. long, and magnificently 
situated just at the foot of the 12 
Pins. A little above it is Lough 
Inaghf even more beautiful,, because 
occupying more fully the lei^h of 
the valleys for 3 m. 



Detour to Glen Inagh. 

The road through Glen Inagh to 
Kyleinore is now completed. It 
branches oflf to the rt, near to 
Becess, and skirts Lough Inagh, 
opening up distant and very beau- 
tiful views of Derryclare Lake, and 
continues at the foot of the Mam- 
turk mountains, the most conspi- 
cuous points of which are, com- 
mencing from the S., Shanfolagh 
(2008 ft.), Maumeen (2076), Knock- 
na-hillion (1993), and Letter-brec- 
kaun (2193). In this valley are 2 
oases of cultivation, Derryclare (Mr. 
Ounningham) and Ooolnacarton (Mr. 
Joyce). 

The 1. side of the glen is formed 
by the slope of the Twelve Pins, and 
the ri by that of the Mamturk Moun- 
tains; the road continues between 
these two ranges, presenting the 
finest combined panorama of both 
that is anywhere obtainable. The 
glaciation of this valley is very inter- | 



esting. At the upper part the track of 
the ancient glacier is marked by the 
smoothed and striated rocks, wbkli 
are laid bare in many places. The 
lower part of the valley is blocked 
by moraines through which tbe iwd 
is cut, the waters of Lake Inagh, and 
that of Glendalough, being dunmed 
up to their present level by these 
accumulations. 

The tourist who desires to see tbe 
wildest scenery of Oonnemara should 
not miss an excursion up this YallcT. 
He may either return to Becess, v»\ 
proceed directly to Clifden ; or g» 
on over Kylemore, round Kylemwe 
Lake, passing Kylemore Oastle (Rt& 
24) to Letterfrack. If he is w»i^% 
headquarters at Becess or Gleoditr 
lough, he may complete a grand 
circuit by proceeding as abow^ 
then from Letter&ack to Clifden, 
then round the coast of Mannn 
Buy to Boundstone (p. 199), and 
from Boundstone to Becess. Thii 
circuit will occupy two long dh\f 
or three easy days, halting at lit* 
terfrack or Olifden, or both. Be- 
tween Lettei^ck and Olifden then 
is a mail car. Private cars, obtas* 
able at Becess or Glendalough ud 
at Letterfrack or Olifden, are requutd 
for the other. The pedestrian viS 
find fair quarters at Boundstooc; I 
where cars and horses are also to be 
had. The drive or walk from Roimd' 
stone to Becess is a curious jooroef; 
After leaving the shore of Bocmd* 
stone Bay, the road winds abt'ok 
amidst a labyrinth of little laki^ 
round the shore of one, over a ri«ig» 
to another, then round that, sod 
over another ridge to the oounter 
part of the last, and so on, until a^ 
last the series is broken by the 
comparatively expansive wateis <» 
Glendalough. 



Betum to Main Bouts. 

Bunnahecia (Ir. Beanna-] 
<<^peakB of Beola," or the **Ti 



Ireland. 



Itoute 24. — Clifden to Westport. 



197 



Piiw" or "Bins") constitute the 
dominant feature of the route for 
many miles. They are a very re- 
markable group of mountains culmi- 
nating in Benbaun, 2395 feet, and 
varying from this to about 2000 feet. 
Their conical, dome-like forms, and 
the distinct individuality of each 
mountain, constitute their most re- 
m-trkable characteristic. This, and 
the fact that they rise from a plain 
which on an average is little more 
than 100 feet above the level of the 
Atlantic, gives them an appearance of 
greater altitude than is displayed 
by many mountains of double their 
height. Like the Siigarloaf Moun- 
tain near Dublin, Oroagh Patrick 
near Westport, and other hills of 
similar shape, they are composed of 
quartzite, the white exposures of 
which, when lighted by the sun- 
beams, add considerably to the scenic 
effect of this grand and picturesque 
range. 

Benbaun (2395 ft.) is surrounded 
by Derryclare (2220), Benlettery 
(1904), Bengower (2184), Benbreen 
(2276). Bencollaghduff (2290), Ben- 
corr (2336), Bencorrbeg (1908), 
Muckajiaght (2153), Benglenisky 
(2710), Benbrach (1922), and a small 
supplementary summit known as the 
Key of the Pins. The beauty of 
their scarred and precipitous sides is 
still further enhanced by the colour- 
ing imparted to them from the various 
heaths and lichens. The tourist 
who wishes for a magnificent view 
cannot do better than ascend Ben- 
lettery (1904 ft.), which, though 
not quite so high as some of ti^e 
otliers, is less surrounded by rival 
eminences. The view embraces 
Urrisbeg, Boundstone, and Bertn^h- 
boy Bays in the S., backed up in 
the distance by Galway Bay, while 
Oashel and Lettershanna mountains 
Berve as a foreground ; westward is 
Clifden and the whole country from 
Urrisbeg to Ardbear, Ballynakill 
Uay, the hill of Renvyle, with the 
Uihtnda of Bofin, Lushark, and many 



others; while further N. the sharp 
crags of Achill Head open out. £. 
are the ranges of the Mamturk 
Mountains, with thei melancholy pass 
of Maumeen. The botanist will find 
among the sides of the 12 Pins a 
rich harvest : Arbutus uva-ursi, Ly- 
copodium selago, Empetrum nigrum, 
Alchemilla alpina, Saxifraga um- 
brosa. Erica daboecia, S. opposito- 
folJa, &c. 

The road to Clifden crosses the 
Bealnacarra river, giving off on 1., a 
by-road, which runs down to the sea 
at Bertragh-boy Bay over a dreary 
moorland. The pedestrian who 
wishes to ascend either- Cashel (1024 
ft.) or Ijettershanna should follow 
this road, but, if on his way to 
Boundstone, should carefully avoid 
it and keep straight on to 

40 m. BaUynahinch, which stands 
a little off from and on the S. side 
of the lake of the same name. The 
road continues under the Twelve- 
Pins and their outliers to 47 m., 
the romantic little town of GUfden 
<Rte. 24). (Hotel: Mullarky.) 



ROUTE 24. 

CLIFDEN TO LEENANE, WESTPORT 
AND SLIGO. 

Clifd^ (Inn: Mullarky). After 
traversing ttie wild, heathery roads 
from Oughterard and the Becess, 
Clifden, with its picturesque streets 
and escarped situation, is pleasant 
to look upon. It mainly consists of 
2 streets, built at a considerable 



198 



Bauie M.-^Cli/den to Weslport 



Ibelasb. 



heiffht, overlookine the harbour of 
Ardbear — one of those beautiful in- 
lets which are at once the puzzle 
and the pride oi Gonnemaia. It has 
no antiquities to boast of^ being an 
entirely modem creation of the 
&mily of D'Arcy, who have been un- 
tiring in labouring for the good of the 
locality. Its buildings are a pretty 
eh. and schools, an Irish Imssion 
House, an orphanage, and an enor- 
mous workhouse, the district of Clif- 
den being one of those which suffered 
so fearfully in the fiunine year. The 
union comprises an area of 192,066 
acres. But for the invidid and the 
searcher after the pictureeque,Clifden 
will fiimish much pleasure from the 
beauty of the coast and its proximity 
to the Twelye Pins, which are seen 
to the greatest perfection from every 
road leading from the town. A river 
descends fr^ these mountains, form- 
ing a very pretty cascade close to 
the town, and Mling into Ardbear. 
The road to Roundstone and Erris- 
lannin crosses an inlet of Ardbear, 
giving occasion to the driver to call 
attention to the fact of the traveller 
crossing the Atlantic in a car. On 
the 1. the view is very pretty when 
the tide is up and fills the little 
ba^, an island with a crucifix on it 
bemg in the middle and a monastery 
on the opposite shore. The country 
between Olifden and Roundstone 
(Bte. 2H) is extremely dreary, as also 
all along the coast as fiir as Bun- 
owen, tlie seat of Valentine Blake, 
Esq. ; but by mounting the hill 
above it we get a good view of 
Sl3nie Head, on which are two light- 
houses with one fixed and one re- 
volving light. Slyne Head Light- 
house from Loop Head Lighthouse 
is 51i m. S. by W. IJ W. At Er- 
rislannin is the ruin of an old eh. 
The great Hon of Olifden is OUf- 
den Oastle, formerly the residence 
of the D'Arcy fiunily, and now of 
that of Eyre. 

From tiie castle there is a charm- 
ing walk down to the shore, and 



along the bay to Olifden, paanng a 
Mission House and the villa of 
Lakeeragh. But little trade is canied 
on, save in &ih. Bnoimoos quan* 
titles of lobsters are annually sent 
away. A good deal of kelp ia 
manu&ctured on the coast, and sent 
to Gleisgow. The price varies front 
22. 28. 6(2. to 2Z. 158. per ton. Thft 
mouth of the harbour is almost dosei 
by a reef of rocks, rendering th* 
approach exceedingly dangerous tl 
vessels. A family of the naiae ol 
McDonald manufacture pretty onui» 
ments out of the green serpentint 
marble abounding in this dis^iot. 

Conveyances. — To Oughterard and 
Galway, a car twice a day at 8.31 
A.M. and 4 p.m. To Westport dai^ 
at 10 AM. 

l>e«tonce«.— Galway, 47 m. ; Ou^ 
terard, 81 ; Recess, 13^ ; Boan^ 
stone, 11 ; Bunowen, 8 ; Streami^ 
town, 3 ; Kylemore, 13 : Leenan^ 
21 ; Errislannin, 5 ; Ballynakill, 6» 

Exourgiaiu. — 

1. Kylemore and Killaries. 

2. Bunowen. 

3. Roundstone. 

4. Twelve Pins. 






Excursion to Roundstone, 



Returning by the road towarcU 
Ballynahinoh to Oanal Bridge a road 
on rt. leads to Derrada and Bound- 
stone. The lake is irregular and 
picturesque, and contains in its 
western portion some wooded islands, 
on one of which stands the ancient 
castle, with only the keep, a square 
tower, remaining. The house* which 
was celebrated for being the resi- 
dence of the Martins, who ** reigned * 
for so many generations over thii 
county, is merely a plain embattled 
building, pleasantly situated betweei 
the lake and the river. It is nov 
the residence of Mr. Robinson, ageol 



Ire^^nd. 



Baute 24. — BoundsUme, 



199 



to the Law Life loguianoe Com- 
pany, who purohased the whole of 
this vast domain for 180,0002. when 
it came into the market. From all 
accounts, howeyer, it would seem 
that the district has not derived that 
henefit which might be expected 
from eacik an undertaking. "Col. 
Martin, the representative of the 
funily some 50 years ago, is said 
to have endeavoured to put the 
Prince Begent out of conceit with 
the £uBOU8 Long Walk of Windsor, 
by saying that the avenue which 
led to his hall-door was 30 m, in 
length. The pleasantry was true to 
this extent, that the greater part of 
the distance of 40 m. from Galway 
to Bally nahinch lay within the Martin 
estates, while the road from the one 
to the other stopped short of the 
loansion, beyond which there was 
httle else but rugged paths." From 
Ballynahinch, where there is an inu, 
the road follows the 1. bank of the 
Owenmore, a very pretty stream, and, 
what is more, an admirable sporting 
river, to 2 m. Deradda, a fishing 
station, where there is a very com- 
fortable little hotel. Near this is a 
salmon fishery. The fish are cured 
here and packed in tin boxes. The 
river is crossed by a bridge of 3 arches 
at this point, to which the tide comes 
up. About 200 yds. from hence on 
the L bank of the river are very slight 
remains of the abbey of Toombeola, 
of which nothing but a couple of 
gable walls and a doorway are left. 
A Dominican priory was founded here 
in 1427 by O'Flaherly, but was de- 
molished in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and partly carried away to build some 
other castle. 

About 2 m. &rther on is the 
little seaport of Boundstone {Hold : 
Kelly's). It is a pleasant little place, 
and for fine coast-scenery, and bay 
studded with islands, few can com- 
pare with it There is a monastery 
for brothers of the order of St. Francis, 
also a coast-g^uard station in the 
ialand of Inisblackan, and the remains 



of churches in Croeghnakeela Island 

some 6 m. out, formerly a deer-park 

belonging to the Martins. 

About 2 m. farther are more ch. 

ruins on St. Macdaia's Island and 

Mason Island, the former consisting 

of a very primitive ch. only 15 ft 

in length, and formerly possessing a 

high stone roof. The circular stone 

dwelling of the saint is adjoining, 

though greatly dilapidated. The 

boatmen to this day respect the 

saint and on passing the island 

lower the sail three times in rever* 

ence of him. 

"i^nd as i passed Mac Dara's sacred Isle, 
Thrice bowed my mast and thrice let dowii 
my aaXL"— McCarthy. 

On the tongue oi land adjoining is 
Ard Castle, a single tower with a stair- 
case and interior passage at the top. 
Immediately behind Boundstone 
rises Urrisbeg (987 ft.), which from 
its comparative isolation commands 
a remarkable view well worth the 
ascent A remarkable trap-dyke 
runs from the summit to tiie sea. 
The botanist will find it to his 
account to make an excui-sion to 
IJrrisb^, if only to obtain a specimen 
of the Erica Mediterranea, a heath 
peculiar to Connemara (Erica Can- 
tabrica of LinnsBus, now named Da- 
becia polifoha or St. Dabeoc's Heath), 
which grows luxuriantly for a space 
of 3 acres on the western decUvity. 
Another rare fern, Erica Mackaiana, 
grows on " a declivity of a hill by 
the road-side within 3 ul of Bound- 
stone." From this spot a road fol- 
lows the coast in a roundabout 
course to Clifden, and there is also a 
direct hilly road 11m. The former, 
which is preferable on account of 
the fine sea views of the bay and 
outlying islands, bounded by the 
Aran islands on the horizon, passes 
by Doohulla, where there is a lodge 
for anglers. A successful experi- 
ment has been carried on here of 
stocking the river by means of arti- 
ficial propagation. Tourists will 
doubtless forgive us if we drop » 



200 



Boute 24. — Clifden to Westport, 



Ibelakd. 



gentle hint oonoeming the lobeters 
tiiat abound hereabouts. At Bound- 
stone they are especially plentiful, 
and coming directly from the sea 
without the fati^^uing journey to 
which London lobsters are subjected, 
they are remarkably good. Ask for 
them at Recess, especially for break- 
fSeu9t. At the tabled'hdte there they 
are provided as a matter of course, 
and cooked in many ways. 



Main Route to WestporL 

From Clifden the road runs N. 
over high ground, the ascent of 
which is rewarded by a charming 
view on the 1. of the bay or inlet 
of Slareantstown, with the small 
island of Innishtaark, and the larger 
one of Omey^ at the enlrance. 
On the S. side of the bay is i^e 
ruined ch. of Omey, and on the N. 
the eastle of Doon—a fortress of the 
O'Flahertys, built upon a precipice 
with a trench round it. 3| m. 1. a 
road branches off to GleggBH Bay, 
iwliere there is good anchorage half- 
way up, in frosft 3 to -G fathoms. 
On the headland overlooking it is 
a Maxtello tower. The tourist will 
notice an increasing impfovement in 
the appearance of land and houses 
all the way from OHfden. There is 
comparatively little waste bog, and 
it is evident that a very superior 
class of settlers have brought capital, 
industry, and patience to bear upon 
this hitherto neglected district 

6 m. at BallynakiU the road sud- 
denly descends upon the bay and 
harbiour of BallynakiU, a broad and 
beautiful fiord, which sends its 
arms in for a long distance and is 
sheltered on every side by hills. On 
the N. is the rocky mass of Binvyle, 
rising almost directly from the shore, 
and on the E. the bay runs nearly 
to the foot of the outliers of Bunna- 
beola, or the Twelve Pins. 

Off Gleggan Head, about 8 m. from 
iha shore, is High leiand, or Ard- 



Oilean, uninhabited and difficult of 
access from its rocky sides. There 
are some curious remains here, con- 
sisting of a square of about 20 yards, 
at the comers of which were erected 
small houses, with walls 4 ft high, 
and domical roofe, the coveiing 
being formed of one big stone. There 
is also a eh. 12 ft long and 10 wide, 
with a stone altar. Many carved 
and sculptured stones are scattered 
about, on well as other graves— 
probably of those who w^e not in 
orders. The house of 6t Fechin, 
of which an illustration is given in 
Petrie's work, " is square in tiie inte- 
rior, and measures 9 ft. by 7 ft. 6 in. 
in height. The doorway is 2 ft 4 in. 
wide and 3 ft 6 in. high. The mate- 
rial of this structure, which dates 
from the 7th cent, is of mica-sbte; 
and though its external appearance 
is xerj rude, its interior is constructed 
with admirable art. The doonniy 
of the ch. is 2 ft. wide, and its hori- 
zontal lintel is inscribed with a ciosb. 
The E. window, the only one in the 
building, issemieircular-headed,and 
is but 1 ft. high and 6 in. wide. The 
chapel is surrounded by a wall, allow- 
ing a passage of 4 ft between them, 
and from this a covered pas^^ge 
about 15 ft long leads to a c^ 
which was {probably the abbot's 
habitation. There is also a covered 
passage or gallery, 24 ft. long and 
4 ft. 6 in. high, the use of which it 
is difBcult to conjecture.*' — Fetrit 
From these facts, and from statements 
made by O'Flaherty, it was evidently 
an establishment for hermit-moDlo. 
In addition to the interest of these 
rmns, the visitor, should he be for- 
tunate enough to have a calm day, 
wiU obtain grand views of the coast 
of Connemara. 

Inmiediately opposite Bcdlynakill 
harbour, a well sheltered inlet for 
large vessels, is the large ialaiMi of 
Inishbofin, containing a considerable 
population, mostly engaged in iiah- 
ing, and piobaUy in a litde potheen- 
distilling. On the ooast is some 



RKr^AKD. 



Boute 24. — Letter/rack, 



201 



lingular rock -scenery. Separated 
rom it by the Stags of Bofin is the 
smaller island of Inishark. At the 
snd. of Ballynakill bay are a pretty 
sh. and lodge belonging to F. Gra- 
[lazn, Esq. 

8^ m. LeUerfrach (two Inns, the 
t>est Carson's, kept by an English- 
K-oman, a native of Cumberland), a 
pleasant, well-to-do little colony, 
established by a Mr. Ellis, a Quaker, 
who built a neat village, with all 
the necessary stores, pohce-bar- 
rack, and schools for the establish- 
ment, besides draining and planting 
I very laa^e portion of moorland. 
Behind the village the beautiful 
uountain called Diamond Hill rises 
ibruptly to the height of 1460 ft;., 
'orming one of the western groups 
>f the Twelve Pins. The view fi.'om 
Jus is very fine and well repays the 
iscent, which is easy. The tourist 
ihould note the luxuriant fuchsia 
ledge skirting the lane leading from 
^arson's to the foot of the mountain. 

The road soon enters the lovely 
pass of Kylemore, one of the gems of 
Jonnemara. On the N. the glen is 
Donnded by Doaghrue (1717 ft.), the 
rocky, shoulders of which are covered 
nrith green shrubs and underwood. 
3n the N. side, in the very best intua- 
aon which could have been selected, 
Mitchell Henry, Esq., M.P. for Gal- 
way, has built a magnificent castle. 
yii. Henry, an English gentleman, 
first attracted by the good angling 
ia Connemara, eventually became 
the owner of large estates in this 
lovely district, and by his residence 
among the people and large expendi- 
ture, has effected, as can easily be 
understood, great good. He is now 
conducting extensive operations in 
reclamation of bog land, the results 
of which are strikingly displayed 
by the contrast between the rich 
meadows of the reclaimed land with 
the dreary bogs around. 

(Tourists interested in these efforts 
iriU find particulars xa^ Eason's 



Almanac for Ireland, 1877, p. lOlJ 
and 1878, p. 155.) 

On the S. are the Twelve Pins 
— Adergoole (1577 ft.), Benbrack 
(1922), Muchanaght (2155), and 
Benbarron (2395), rising one over 
the other in grand groups. Indeed, 
from no place can the Bunnabeola 
chain be seen to greater advantage- 
than from Eylemore, as in all the 
southern views such a vast amount 
of bog and fiat coast intervenes that 
their noble height is lost, while here 
they gain from comparison with 
other mountains. 

Before arriving at the Lough, 
which reposes placidly at the foot 
of the hills, we pass Adragoole, a 
well-planted settlement reclaimed 
from the barren wild by T. East- 
wood, Esq., an early English settler 
in Connemara. It is now Mr. Henry's 
home farm. 

The drive on the N. bank, from the 
residence of Andrew Armstrong, 
Esq., a Scotch gentleman (it was for- 
merly Duncan's Hotel), is exquisite, 
the road being carried under huge 
masses of rock, glittering in the 
sunlight with sc^es of mica, and 
festooned with creepers and ferns. 

JExcunnone,'-' 

1. Leenane. 

2. Lough Inagh. 

3. Salrock and Lough Fee. 

From hence a road on rt. (one 
of those completed in the famine 
year by the Board of Works) runs 
off to the S.E. to Lough Inagh. 
15 m. crossing the little Owenduff 
river, we catch a glimpse to the 1. 
of Lough Fee, a long sheet of water 
encircled on every side by lofty hills 
(on the S. 1973 ft.), save on the 
N.W. towards the sea. 

A road runs off to its N. bank, 
leading to Blaunrone, the very pretty 
residence of Sir W. R. WUde, who 
has pitched his soUtary tent in one 
of the finest of Connemara glens ; 
and &<Hn thence to Salrock, which 



f 



202 



Baule 24. — JSxcarnon to Lough Fee. 



iRELAin). 



the toarist had bettw visit from 
Leenane. 

Passing over a dreaiy extent of 
moor, the next rise of the hill 
brings us directly in front of the 
KUiary (anc. (>U)lshaile-lnadh) — 
that wonderful fiord, which has 
soaroe any parallel in the British 
Isles, and more resembles the coast 
Boenery in Norway. It is an arm 
of the Atlantic, capacious and fit 
tor the largest ^ips, running inland 
to the very heart of the moun* 
tains for a distance of some 9 m. 
On each side steep and pre^ 
cipitous mountains descend to the 
water's edge, on the S. leaving barely 
room for the road. The mountain- 
scenery on the N. of the fiord is 
incomparably the finest, the enor- 
mous walls of Muilrea, the Giant 
of the West, and Bengorm, rising 
abruptly to the heights of 2688 
and 2303 ft, while the excessive still- 
ness of the land-locked water, in 
which the shadows of the hills are 
clearly reflected, make it difficult for 
the tourist to believe that it is the 
actual ocean which he beholds. 

" A hAveu, beneath whose translacent floor 
The tremnlotts stars sparkled iinfiithom- 
ably, 
And around which the solid vapours hoar, 

Based on the level waters, to the sky 
Lifted their dreadful crags." 

SkeUey. 

A short drive along the S. bank 
brings him to 

21 m. Leenane, a solitary and 
welcome hotel, McKeon's, at the very 
edge of the water, not far from the 
head of the fiord, with lofty hills 
springing directly from the rear of 
the house, and a noble expanse of 
water in front. The hotel was en- 
larged in 1877 ; it now affords 
accommodation for many guests^ 
and is a favourite resort of sports- 
men. Mr. McKeon has about 
20,000 acres of shooting, which he 
lets to visitors. Also the salmon 
a^d trout fishery of the Eriff riyer, 



&c. These fisheries are let at a 
fixed charge per day — lOs. for sal* 
mon, 58. for trout. The Manm 
river and L. Nafooey are free. 
Sea fishing free. The car leaving 
Clifden for Westport at 10 a.m., 
stops twenty minutes for luncheoa 
here. Leenane is 18 m. from West* 
port. Many beautiful excuxaioDS ea 
be made from hence. 






Sxcumon to Lough Fee and 
Scdrock. 

The best way is to take a boat 
from Leenane, and row the wboli 
length of the KiUaiy, tumioi 
abruptiy round at the entnuw^ 
and then going up the Little KO^ 
lary, at the head of which \& &A' 
rode, the exquisitely situated KSh 
dence of Captain Thompson. A 
more &iry-like picture can scaroeiy 
be conceived than is presented &« 
the Pa88 of Sahrock, looking over tin 
Killary and the broad expanse d 
the Atlantic, dotted with oocasioDii 
islands— the largest of which, laii^ 
turk, lies some 11 m. out Ilf 
Pass of Salrock is said to have boa 
formed by the struggles of 8t Btfk 
who, having been chained by tk» 
Devil when ho was asleep, made lai 
way with an immense deal of fru^ 
tion through the mountain. From 
Salrock the visitor— having feasted 
his eyes with the beauties around-' 
should return by a car sent by ap- 
pointment from Leenane throagb 
the wild glen of Lough Fee. Toe 
whole of the mountains abound in 
rare and beautiful ferns and heatlu. 
amongst which the white heath 
and Menzesia polyfolia are con* 
spicuous. 

8 m. beyond Salrock is RinTvle 
House, the seat of the Blake frmily. 
finely placed on the edge (^ a lotiy 
series of cliff-rocks. The a:)[icit.it 
casUe of the Blakes — a weather- 



Ireland. Bouie 24. — Excursions to Delphi and Maume. 203 

beaten, masave tower — is about 1) 

m. further on. The best way of Exoursum to Maume. 

mting Binvyle is by water. A mountain-road foUows the 

course of the glens that intervene 
between the Mamturk and Lngna- 
bricka Mountains. Midway the 
tourist passes a very pretty waterfiill, 
and the solitary graveyard of the 
Joyce sept — fit burial-place for a 
race of hill-giants. Thence we attain 
the watershed and descend the val* 
ley of the B^nabrack river to 
Maume (Bte. 25). 



Excursion to Delphi. 

A boat must be taken to the 
little harbour of Bundorragha, where 
there are a small pier and a few 
cottages. From thence the course 
of a mountain-stream is followed 
up a narrow gorge, bounded on 
either side by Muilrea (2688 ft.) 
and Bengprm (230.3)— two of the 
finest mountains in the whole of 
the W. of Ireland. 1^ m., at the 
upper end of the little Fin Lough, 
are the woods and house of Del- 
phi, formerly belonging to the Mar- 
guia of Sligo, and now to the Hon. 
U Plunket It may be safely said 
that, if Connemara contained no 
other beauty, Delphi alone would 
be worth the journey from Lon- 
don, for the sake of the mouhtain- 
scenery. 1 m. higher up is Lough 
Doo, a long sheet of water, from the 
banks of which the hills rise to be- 
tween 2000 and 3000 ft. At the S. 
9nd is the pretty residence of Capt. 
Houston, wbo is the owner of an 
immense mountain property, and who 
possesses herds of horses, sheep, and 
**£it kine innumerable." From 
hence the road turns to rt. up the 
course of the Glenummera river, 
and, gradually ascending for many 
niiles the wildest and most un- 
tamable mountain-slopes, crosses the 
watershed, and descends into Glen- 
lawer. 8 m. at Sheffiry the cliff scenery 
is on a grand scale. A little &rther 
on the Owenmore is crossed, and at 
15 m. this road falls into the West- 
port high road. If the weather is fine, 
the tourist should by all means write 
£»r a car to Westport to meet him 
at Bundorragha, and take this route, 
which is very much finer than the 
usual one, though it must be confessed 
that the holes in the road require 
all the driver's attention and care. 



The angler will find plenty 'of 
sport in the waters of the Errive and 
in Lough Nafooey, which lies in the 
mountuns between Leenane and 
Lough Mask. The geologist will find 
work enough in the constant variety 
of hills, which contain many minerals. 
The one at the back of the hotel, 
which is nearly 1800 ft, contains ex- 
cellent specimens of jasper and mica. 
" Two distinct teiTaces (ancient sea- 
beaches) may be observed on the 
flanks of the mountains running up 
from Hillary Harbour to Delphi, 
when they are looked at from the 
south bank of the harbour, but are 
not so conspicuous when the hill- 
side itself is examined, the observer 
not being then in a favourable posi- 
tion. Not fur, however, from the 
spot, and facing the head of the 
harbour above Leenane, there are 
two well-formed terraces of gravel ; 
one at an elevation in the upper sur- 
face of about 60 It., and the other at 
an elevation of about 200 ft. This 
latter is very extensive, and is 
traversed by the ruad to Cong. 
Along the southern shores of Hil- 
lary Harbour the glacial pheno- 
mena are very striking. The rocks 
are intensely glaciated and scored 
with groovings pointing down the 
valley, while masses of moraine 
matter with huge boulders are 
strewn along the shore.** — MuU. 



204 



BotOe 24:.— Clifden to Westport. 



ISELAliD. 



Betum to Main Route, 



From Leenane the road winds 
round the head of the Killary, at 
the base of a lofty hill which rejoices 
in the name of the Devil's Mother. 

At Ashlee are the residence of 
the Bev. S. Gervons, and a pretty 
Protestant ch. The Errive, "whoae 
stream we are now following, is 
an impetuous salmon-river, rising, 
under the name of the Owenmore 
(Big river), in the chain of hills in- 
tervening between Lough Doo and 
Westport, where it is crossed by the 
road just mentioned. 

28| m. Errive Bridge, was the scene 
of a melancholy accident in 1860, 
when, the bridge having been carried 
away in a flood, an unfortunate lady 
was drowned in attempting to ford 
the stream in her car. As the roctd 
ascends the valley the vegetation be- 
comes more scanty and the moorland 
more extensive. Crossing the water- 
shed, we descend the valley of the 
Owen wee, and gain glorious views of 
the magical Clew Bay, which, if seen 
at sunset, forms, with its hundred 
islands, one of the most exquisite 
landscapes possible. 

41 m. Wegtport {ffoieU: Oibbon's 
Hallway Hotel — the best; the Con- 
nemara) is situated in a hollow, 
embosomed on every side in 
groves and woods, and watered 
by a small stream, which, after 
passing through the centre of the 
town and doing duty, botii useful 
and ornamental, in Lord Sligo's 
park, finds its level in Clew 
Bay, which is within a mile of the 
place. Beyond the rather foreign- 
looking main street, with a stream 
in the middle and lime-trees on 
each side, the town itself presents 
no object of interest save a statue 
to George Glendenning, a banker 
of Westport, who managed to enrich 
himself and his native town, out 
of which he had never put foot 
during his long life. " ' He was a 
rich mam of tlus place,* replied the 



lad, 'aiid so they made hmn a 
et&rta:''— Sir F. Head. The great 
charm of Westport is the park of the 
Marquis of Sligo, the gates of which 
are at the end of the street, and are 
ever op^n to all classes to wander 
about at their will and pleasure. 1b 
the centre of the park is the manaoo, 
a handsome square building on a 
balustrated terrace, fixjm the W. side 
of which is a fine view of Clef 
Bay. A very pretty Protestant eii, 
used by the Westport inhabitaotB> 
stands embowered amongst ^ 
woods. PassLQg through the paik ve 
arrive at the port, which is a melan- 
choly failure. ** There was a long 
handsome pier (which no doobt ie> 
mains at ttiis present minute), and 
one solitary cutter alongside of i^ 
which may or may not be there now. 
As for the warehouses, they are enor- 
mous, and might accommodate, I 
should think, not only the trade d 
Westport, but of Manchester tom 
There are huge streets of tb£« 
houses, 10 stories high, with coBOt 
owners' houses, &c., marked Wm 
Stores, Flour SStores, Bonded Tobaoff 
Warehouses, and so forth; disial 
mausoleums as vast as pyramub- 
places where the dead trade of We^ 
port lies buried." — Uuickeray. (Pof 
3819.) 

Conveyimcei,—BsSl to Castlebtf, 
Athlone, and Dublin; car W 
Athenry, Newport, to Gralwaydurin* 
the summer through Kylemore and 
Olifden. Steam-packet axcursiuti 
to Clare Island, to Achill Sound, 
Belmullet, Ac. {see p. 181). There 
is a steamer to GlaugoWy calling by 
request at Sligo. 

Distances. — Newport, 8 m. ; Achill 
Sound, 27; Murrisk. 6 ; CroaghPatrick, 
8 ; Louisburgh, 12^; Clare l8land,16; 
Clifden, 41 ; Leenane, 18 ; Oastlefcar, 
11 ; Pontoon Bridge, 22 ; BaUina. 33: 
Partly, 12 ; Ballintober, 10 ; Augha- 
gower, 4 ; Ayle, 5 ; Ballinrobe, W. 

Westport is a central point U 
many excursions — 



■ 

I 






Ibklahd. BotUe 2i. — Clew Bay — Croagh Patrick. 



205 



To Leenane, Lough Doo, and 
Delphi (see above). 

To the Gulf of Ayle, Aughagower 
Bound Tower and Ballintobber 
Abbey (Ete. 25). 



ExcurHon to Croagh Patrick and 
Murrisk Abbey. 

The road runs through the park 
and the port, emei^ing close on 
the S. side of Clew Bay, one of 
the most extraordinary and lovely 
of Irish inlets. ** The conical moun- 
tain on the L is Ooagh Patrick, or 
the Beek ; it is clothed in the most 
magnificent violet colour, and a 
couple of round clouds were ex- 
ploding as it were from the summit, 
that pari of them towards the sea 
lighted up .with the most delicate 
gold and rose colour. In the centre 
is the Clare Island, of which the 
edges were bright cobalt, while the 
middle was lighted up with a brilliant 
scarlet tinge. The islands in the 
bay looked like so many dolphins 
basking there." — Thackeray. The 
bay forms a noble expanse of shel- 
tered water about 15 m. in length ; the 
entrance being partially protected by 
the lofty clifib of Clare Island, while 
the eastern extremity is studded with 
immense numbers of islands which, 
while they add to the picturesque 
beauty of the scene, add also to the 
difficulty of approach to the harbour. 
These islands and channels are de- 
fended by a singular natural break- 
water extending from Westport to 
the shore under the Beek. "This 
bar is a breakwater 1} m. long, 
on which are situated the islands 
of Doreinch More and Doreinch 
Beg. It slopes seaward, in some 
places 1 in 30, and is formed of 
ooolders. Though natural, it is per- 
haps one of the most remarkable 
hydraulic works that exist in Europe ; 
its mass being greater than that of the 
breakwater at Plymouth or that of 
Cherbourg/*~J?a2c{. There aie 6 na- 



vigable openings, the principal of 
which is marked by a lighthouse, 
erected by the Marquis of Sligo. 
Probably no bav in the kingdom 
is surrounded by such magnifi- 
cent ranges of mountains. On the 
S. the rugged declivities of the Beek 
run down almost to the water's 
edge,, while further seaward the 
coast is overhung, though at a greater 
distance, by Muilrea, Benbury, and 
the mounljiins of the Murrisk dis- 
trict. On the N. are the wild and 
lofty ranges of the Nephin Beg, 
ending in the precipices of Slieve 
More and Croghan in Achill Island. 
The precipitous cUffs of Clare Island 
form a fitting seaward termina- 
tion to the beauties of this won- 
derful bay. The road passes by seve- 
ral pleasant seats to 6 m. Murrisk, 
an ancient monastery at the foot of 
Croagh Patrick, founded by the 
O'Maileys for Austin friars. It 
is of no great extent, being single- 
aisled, but has a beautiful Dee. E. 
window of 5 lights. On the N. of the 
chancel is a vaulted room, entered 
by a plain pointed doorway. The 
W. entrance, jpartially blocked up, is 
also by a pomted gateway. In the 
interior of the ch. is the tomb of 
the O'Malleys, part of a stone cross 
representing the Crucifixion, and 
a collection of the biggest thigh- 
bones that it is possible to con- 
ceive. From this point the ascent 
of the Beek (Ir. Oruach-phadraig, 
"Bick of St. Patrick") is always 
conmienced. This extraordinary 
mountain rises with great abruptness 
for a height of 2510 ft., terminating 
in what is apparently a point, though 
there is really a small platform of 
about ^ an acre on the summit. 
On the S. side is a very steep pre- 
cipice, known as Lug na Narrib, on 
the edge of which " St. Patrick stood 
bell in hand, and every time he 
rang it he flung it away from him, 
and it, instead of plunging down the 
Lug, was brought back to his hand 
by ministering spirits; and every 



206 



Boute 24. — Olifden to Sligo, 



iBELAin) 



time it thus hastily was rang, thou- 
sands of toads, adders, and noisome 
things, went down, tumbling neck 
and heels one after the o&er.*' — 
Otway. As may be imagined from 
its height and its isolation, the Beek 
affords most splendid panoramas c^ 
tiie W. of Ireland, extending north- 
wards over Murrisk, Ballycroy, Achill, 
Brris, even to Slieve League on the 
coast of Donegal, and southward to 
the Leenane district and the Twelye 
Pins ; but to Irish minds, the moun- 
tain has a far higher interest, it 
being a sacred hill, devoted to pat- 
terns, on which occasions the numbers 
of "voteens" or pilgrims would be 
incredible to a sfcranger. Many hun- 
dreds may on these occasions be 
seen ascending the hill, stopping at 
the different stations to say their 
paters, and in some places to ^o 
roimd on their knees. This part of 
the performance is generally reserved 
for the summit of the moimtain, the 
long station being 400 yards in cir- 
cumference, and around this the de- 
votees have to go 15 times, also on 
iheir knees, which before the termi- 
nation are in a state of laceration. 
A very important adjunct to the 
whole affedr is the whisky tent, a 
melancholy and suggestive feature of 
the occasion which requires such an 
excitement Extraordinary as are 
the scenes of Irish life and character 
to be witnessed at these patterns, the 
tourist will probably enjoy his visit 
to Croagh Patrick &r better in soli- 
tude and apart from these religious 
saturnalia. The botanist will find 
growing on this mountain Poa al- 
pina, Melampyrum pratense, Pin- 
guicula lusitanica, Saxifraga serra- 
tifolia. 

At the foot of the westerly ex- 
tension of hill, of which the Eeek 
is the central cone, is Louisburgh, 
a large village with a fine view over 
Clare Island. 



Exeursion to Newport and AehUL 

Before starting on this excursion 
the tourist should ascertain at tlu 
hotel whether a steam-packet tri{ 
is available, and arrange his time to 
take it either going out or return- 
ing. If there should be a trip anT< 
where out on the bay, it should not 
be lost. After struggling throngh 
the shallow water of the dreair 
port, and occasionally scraping the 
bottom if the tide is not at its ireir 
highest, the packet crosses the bar, 
and passes a multitude of the singnltf 
islands that are dotted all over the 
bay, and then sails out into the open, 
with a glorious panorama, rugged 
coast, and grand mountains ^de- 
scribed in land route) all aronini, 
and passing Achilbeg enters the 
picturesque channel of Achill Soand. 
Failing the packet, the mail car to 
Newport and Achill is available. Th« 
road to Newport runs for the greater 
part of the distance within yievcf 
the Clew Bay, so as effectnallj ^ 
prevent any monotony. On the nf 
the little river Kossow is crossed If 
a bridge of 2 arches, beneath oi 
of which a whole family long b|t 
house and home. 

8 m. Newport {Hotel: CarrV, • 
small seaport at the mouth ofthi 
Newport river, looking better jH 
distance than is warranted bf' 
nearer inspection. The N. bark "^ 
the river is embellished bythr 
sidence of Sir Richard O'Dorm 
adding considerably to the besi 
of the town. There is a good " 
where vessels of 200 tons can 
load, but the trade of the port is vc 
smalL 

Distances. — Gastlebar, 11| ^\ 
Burrishoole, 2. 

The road from Newport to Mj 
reimy is nearly a straight ]iJif ^ 
about 10 m., and depends fiv '| 
attractions very much on the «" 
tlier that accompanies the t|"^ 
If it be dear, there is a ma^fi<*^^ 
view seawards over the baj 



Ireland. 



Batde 24. — Burnshoole. 



207 



the oppoBite monniains of Murrisk, 
while on the rt. inland is the equally 
tine range of the Nephin Beg hills, 
which run in a curving direction from 
N.E. to W. with remarkahly bold 
outlines. The principal heights that 
are seen between Newport and the 
Sound are Buckoogh 1922 ft., Slieve 
Turk 1322, Nephin Beg 2012, Cush- 
camcurragh 2202, Knocknatintree 
1646, and Knocklettaragh 1509. The 
streams issuing from these hills, and 
running into Clew Bay, are of no 
great importance as the ascent is 
80 immediate, but on the N. and W. 
slopes they haye a longer course to 
Blacksod Bay, and are of considerably 
larger volume. 

10 m. Burnahoole, at the entry 
of the Burrishoole river, gives its 
name to the whole district from 
Newport to Achill. Here are remains 
of a large monastery founded for 
Dominicans by Kichard Burke, Lord 
Mac William Oughter. Its church 
was a cruciform building, with a 
central slender tower, and has some 
good pointed arches, the whole build- 
ing being of the 15th cent. Over- 
looking an arm of the sea is Oarrig- 
hooley Castle, a square plain tower, 
formerly one of the fortresses of 
Grace O'Malley, or Grana Uaile, the 
mountain Queen of the "West, who 
lorded it over Mayo and the islands 
with a prompt fierce sway, that even 
in those days of lawlessness and rude- 
ness commanded universal fear and 
respect. On the coast there are 
some singular caverns, believed to 
have been Druidical chambers. To 
the rt. of the road, running up into 
the heart of the hiUs, is Lough Fe- 
oogh, the head of which lies between 
Buckoogh and Slieve Turk; and on its 
bank is the ruin of an iron-smelting 
fdmace. At 18 m. Molrenny, a small 
** public "on the roadside overlooks 
a marvellouslv beautiful landscape. 
Very soon the road divides [on 
the rt winding round the base of 
Knocknatintree and opening out on a 
laadLocfced inlet from Bladood Bay.] 



At the month of the Owenavrea river 
there is a 2nd division, the one on the 
L taking a course near Annagh Sound 
and Tullaghan Bay to Cregganroe 
and Croy Lodge, both cultivated 
oases in this desert of the far West, 
which for untamed wildness sur- 
passes anythiug in the kingdom, but 
IS an Utopia for sportsmen according 
to the author of 'Wild Sports of 
the West* — Maxwell. The district, 
of Ballycroy embraces all tlie Ne- 
phin Beg range from Burrishoole to 
Erris, and contains in this enormous 
area scarce half^-dozen inhabited 
houses. ** Along the seashore there 
is some cultivation ; but inland, town- 
less, roadless, treeless, one wide waste 
of bog covers all. But it is not to 
be supposed this is like the great flat 
flow bogs in tlie centre of the island, 
such as the Bog of Allen. No ; the 
Bog of Erris, as well as those of 
Connemara, covers mountains, hills, 
champaigns, and vales : nature's 
universal brown vesture, it fits aU ; 
and that is what makes the recla- 
mation of these wastes hopeful."— 
C. Otway. On the seashore below 
Cregganroe is Duna CasHe^ an 
ancient stronghold of Grace O'Mal- 
ley's (Grana Uaile). It is a mas- 
sive square tower, with wonderfully 
strong masonry, though it could not 
withstand the heat of a large fire 
which had been accidentally kindled, 
causing the ruin to become ten 
times more a ruin. The main road, 
that parted company at the Owen- 
avrea, runs more inland through a 
monotonous district to Derrycorrib, 
where it joins the route to Belmullet 
(Rte. 22). 

The route to Achill now enters 
the peninsula of Curraun, which, by 
the Uttle inlet from Blacksod Bay 
just mentioned, is very nearly made 
an island. The whole of it is oc- 
cupied by the mountain of Knock- 
letteragh 1509 ft., and the road 
winds round the N. side to Achill 
Sound, a narrow strait of about i m., 
which communicates between Clew 



208 



BotUe 2L—Clifden to Sligo—Isle of AchiU. Ireland. 



aod Blacksod Ba]^ affording a most 
yaluable cut for ^ easels coasting up 
or dowQ, that would otherwise have 
to round the dangerous cli£fe of Cro- 
ghan and Slievemore in Aclull. On 
the land-side is an establishment for 
preserving fish and provisions, and 
on the Achill side is a convenient 
little store and Inn, where the 
tourist may procure a car. A small 
. toll is charged at the ferry. The 
traveller must bear in mind that in 
all probabiUty the inn at tho Sound 
will be the only place where he can 
procure a conveyance, and the only 
place where he can put up; so 
that he must make his arrange- 
ments accordingly. 

" The Island of AchiU (Pop. 5776). 
the largest off the Iri^ coast, is 
16 m. in length and 7 in breadth, 
forming a shore-line about 80 m. in 
circumference, and comprising 46,000 
acres. The western side is mostly 
a precipitous range of clifb, but 
the eastern is in every part well 
sheltered. Achill Head, a bold 
promontory, is situated on the S.W. 
extremity of the island, and at 
the N. end is Saddle Head, at the 
entrance of Blacksod Bay. Between 
this and the smaller island of Achill 
Beg is a channel called Achill Hole, 
where vessels drawing 10 or 12 ft. 
of water may rest in safety in all 
weathers. A very powerful tide runs 
in the Sound at the northern entrance 
called the Bull's Mouth." — LewU. 

The general aspect of the island 
is one unvaried mass of dark hea- 
ther, covering the broad undulating 
moors that stretch from the high 
ranges at the W. end of the district. A 
main road traverses the island, pass- 
ing 1. the residence of W. Pike, Esq., 
whose gardens, reclaimed from the 
bare mountain, are worth a visit. 
A little farther on is Bunahurra, 
the residence of the Boman Catho- 
lic priest, occupying a position 
tliat commands tiie most magni- 
ficent coast and mountain views, 
extending over Ballycroy, Blacksod 



Bay, the Nephin ranges, and the 
high grounds of Curraun. The i«wl 
soon gains the highest level, and the 
tourist is charmeid with an eqoaDj 
fine view westward of the mightr 
mass of Slievemore, the cloud-capped 
summit of Croghan, and to the S. 
the precipitous ridges of Minmiim. 
On rt a road runs for about 3 m. to 
the N. coast, where, sheltered under 
the steep rocks erf Slievemore, is the 
Protestant colony of Doogurth, com* 
monly known as ihe Set&ement, 10m. 
from the sound. It is a cheeifol' 
looking square of plain white houfti 
in the centre of which stand thech. 
and the clergyman's residence. In 
the square are residences for the 
various officials, a printing establish- 
ment, 3 schools, an orphan home. 
and dispensary. This missiooarr 
establishment was set on foot U 
the Rev. E. Nangle, to whose wlf- 
denial and labours many have borne 
testimony, as also to his uncdD- 
promising batties with the fiomia 
Catholics; as carried on in tb 
* Achill Herald.' It is not thep- 
vince of a Handbook to enter into 
religious discussions, but it mj 
not be out of place to warn eT>-.7' 
tourist in the west of Ireland t'Jt 
he must be prepared for extrtrot 
statements, whether from Prot*^ 
tants or Soman Catholics, and fvc 
a lack of rehgious charity which etch 
party would do well to discard. Tw 
ascent of Slievemore^ which orer- 
hangs the colony at a tieight of 221T 
ft, may be undertaken here, but if the 
tourist wishes to see Croghan, he hmi 
better reserve himself. Slievemoiv i^ 
an extraordinary cone of quartzi*? 
rocks rising abruptly from the setv 
and with its dark rifted 8ide8»occasioa- 
ally relieved by shining masses (^ 
mica, presents a study for the paintt'f 
at once grand and remarkable, 
especially at sunset, when its apex 
is often encircled by rose-coloiirvd 
clouds. Proceeding onwards, we come 
to the villain of Keel, a singular ci>l 
lection of wigwams peculiar to AchiU. 



■ 

I 



Ibeland. Boute 24. — The Croghan — Clare Island, 



209 



There is a beautiful strand here, 
bounded on the E. by the clififs of 
Minnaun t530 ft ; a path runs alone 
the clifb to Dooega, another AchiU 
Tiilage, at an altitude and of a cha- 
ract^ sufficient to try the nervous 
climber. The little heaps of yeUow- 
red earth all around are coloured 
with ochre, which is dug out with 
the bog iron ore in considerable 
quantities in this neighbourhood. 
We next come to Dooagh, and 
further on to Keem, 14 m. from 
the Sound, both miserable hamlets 
of round houses built without gable- 
ends. It would seem that the abori- 
gines of the island still hold their 
court here. Towering above Keem 
is the stupendous mass of Slieve 
Croghan, which, together with the 
cli£& of Mohir in Go. Clare and 
Slieve League in Donegal, is con- 
sidered the finest cliff scenery in 
Great Britain. 

The Croghan, 2222 a in height, 
is a long range of mountain run- 
ning along the N.W. coast of 
Achill, and cutting off the promon- 
tory of Saddle H^ul, which is to a 
certain extent an offidioot from it. 
But its grand and peculiar feature 
is that at the very highest point it 
would seem as if the rest of the 
mountain had been suddenly cut 
away, leaving a vast and tremendous 
precipice descending down to the 
water for nearly 1950 ft. " Here we 
came upon a precipice nearly 2000 ft. 
high that went down almost plumb ; 
and then there was an inclined plane 
covered with the d^ris of the upper 
Btratifications ; and then again, 200 
yards further on rt., there were cliffs 
about 300 ft high, against which the 
waves washed. Here wo sat, the 
cloud just festooning, as it were, a 
laised-up curtain over our heads, and 
all below was serene ; and from the 
lowest edges of the precipice at this 
point there extended a pretty little 
Tale in which was a tarn, so dear 
that it might have been taken for 
[Irdand!] 



a mermaid's looking-glass." — Cseear 
Otway. 

The view seawards is of coui'se 
boundless, the nearest land being 
America, unless we believe in the 
enchanted land of Hy Brisail (p. 188^, 
in which the dweUers on the W. 
coast have such a belief. Looking 
S. is the small isolated rock of the 
Billies, and northwards towards Mul- 
let are numerous islands, of which 
the principal are Ini$hkeen and JntVt- 
gloria, where, according to some, the 
dead are subject to such extraordinary 
and preserving influences, that their 
nails and their hair grow as in life, 
** so that their descendants to the 
10th generation can come, and with 
pious care pare the one and clip the 
other :"— 

** Cemere Inisglorla est Pelago, quod pro- 
spicit Irras 
Insula avos, atavos solo post fata sepultos, 
EfOgles servare snas vegetlsque vigere 
UnguibuB atque comis, hominum caro nulla 
pntresdt." 

Sir Wm. 0*£eay 

Further out is the Black Bock, on 
which is a lighthouse, 268 feet 
high. 

On the return, before recrossing 
the ferry, the traveller may diverge 
to the S. of the island, where at Eil- 
daunat, close to the water's edge, is 
another square tower, formerly one 
of Grana Uaile's fortresses. From 
thence a visit may be paid to the 
primitive village of Dhuega, lying 
underneath the cliffs of Minnaun ; or 
else the narrow strait may be crossed 
which separates Achill from Achill 
Beg, an inhabited isle of considerable 
extent; 



Exeur$ion to Clare Itland. 

The West Coast and Clew Bay 
Steam Navigation Company propose 
frequent trips to this island. It is 
about 4 m. in length, and com- 
prises an area of 3000 acres, the 
coast being for the most part de-^ 

p 



210 



Boute 24. — Clifden to Sligo* 



Ibela] 



fended by lofty cliffii. It contains 
Tery slight remains of an abbey 
founded for Carmelite friars in 1224. 
For many years the skull of Grace 
O'Malley was shown here^ decorated 
with ribbons. The cafide of this 
Queen of the Isles is a square mas- 
sive tower similar to that at Duna. 
Clare Island was the home and head- 
quarters of this Amazon, who lived in 
the reign of Elizabeth, to whom she 
once paid a visit. Her Majesty, 
o£fered to make her visitor a countess 
— an honour declined by Giana Uaile, 
who informed the queen that she 
considered herself equal to her 
Majesty in every respect. Her first 
husband was O'Flaherty, Prince of 
Connemara, and. the owner of the 
castle in Lough Corrib, which, being 
nearly lost to the Joyces through him, 
was saved by Giana's intrepidity, and 
so acquired the name of the Hen's 
Castle (p. 217). Her second husband 
was William Burke, McWilliam 
Oughter. " The marriage was to 
last for one year, and if at the end 
of that period either said to the other 
*I dismiss you/ the union vras dis- 
solved. It is said that during that 
year Grana took care to pui her 
own creatures into garrison in all 
McWilliam's coastward castles that 
were valuable to her, and then one 
fine day, as the lord of Mayo was com- 
ing up to tiie castle of Carigr-o-hooly, 
Grace spied him, and cried out the 
dissolving words, * I dismiss you.' " 



Betum to Main Boute. 

The tourist for Sligo may go as 
far as Castlebar by rail. With 
the exception of distant views of the 
Croaghmoyle and Nephin ranges, 
the way is uninteresting. Passing 
Greenhill ( — Staflford, Esq.), ana 
Spencer Park (J. Larminie, Eisq.), we 
arrive at 

52 m. Ccistlebar (Hotd: Gib- 
bon's), chiefly noted for its capture 



Lav 



in 1798 by the French, who 
landed at Killala Bay (Bte. 
under Gen. Humbert, and 
themselves masters of Castle 
putting a stronger force nadi 
General Lake to headlong fli^ 
This flight and pursuit is koown 
'^Castlebar Baces." Castlebar 
a good-looking place, with all 
buildings necessary to a small 
try town, viz., gaol, court-house, 
barracks, in addition to a shady ai 
well-timbered maU, which is ce 
a very pleasant adjunct The 
is the residence of the Earl of Lu 
who has done more than any lai 
lord in the country to improve tl 
agriculture of this district, of w 
he owns about 30,000 acres. T 
country around Castlebar is 
inviting, although the monntai 
some 5 m. to the N., rise to a 
siderable height, Knockmore to 12 
ft., and Spinkanilen 1290 fL, be 
the only barriers that separate C&>iii 
bar from the conical mass of Nepi 
2646 ft., one of the most lofty a 
conspicuous hills in the W., wl 
give such characteristic featorts 
the scenery of Lough Conn. 

Conveyances. — Bail to Westp; 
to Ballina, thence car to SU; 
rail to Castlereagh and Athlone. 

I>i«tonc6«.— Pontoon Bridge, 11 1 
Newport, 11 J; Westport, 11; 
lina, 22 ; Crossmolina, 19 ; Balla, 
Castlereagh, 37. 



col 



The antiquary may pay a 
from Castlebar to BaUa, a rill 
about 8 m. to the S.E. on the 
to Hollymount Here is a n> 
tower about 50 ft in height, and 
remains of a ch. built by St Mooi 
in the 7th cent. He also caiut>l| 
wells to be formed, which he encic 
with walls, from whence the 
took its name : " Unde oppidum 
vum nomen Balla et etiam MocLui! 
cognomen Ballensia acoepit" 



J 



Ireland. 



RotUe 24. — Turhugh — Ballina. 



211 



In the neighbourhood of Balla are 
Attavalley (Sir R. Blosse, Bt.), and 
Broomhill. A little to the S. is the 
district known as the Plains of 
Mayo, and in the village of the same 
name are slight ruins of an abbey, 
which was the seat of an uni- 
versity very celebrated in the 7th 
cent., and founded by St. Oolman, 
who for that purpose resigned his cell 
of Lindisfarne in Northumberland. 
There are one or two ancient fortified 
mansions in the neighbourhood. 



Following up the Castlebar river, 
56 m. is Turlough, in which parish is 
another round k)wer. The bleak and 
boggy scenery begins to improve, 
especially as we near the long rjvnges 
of the Croaghmoyle HiUs and the 
Loughs Conn and CuUen at Pontoon 
Bridge. The former is a very fine 
sheet of water 15 m. long, inter- 
spersed with beautiful islands, and 
overhung by mountains, especially on 
the W. bank, which is almost entirely 
occupied by the mighty mass of Ne- 
phin. Lough Oullen is sometimes 
called Lower Lough Conn, and is 
connected by a short stream, across 
which the road is carried by a 
bold single-arched bridge known as 
the Pontoon. The view looking up 
and down from this bridge is of a 
very remarkable and beautiful cha- 
racter. " An extraordinary pheno- 
menon is visible here in the alter- 
nate ebbing and flowing of these 
lukes ; the water is sometimes seen 
rashingf with great force through the 
channel into Lough Gullen, while at 
others it runs with equal force into 
Lough Conn. The shores of both 
lakes being composed in many places 
of a fine red sand, the line of high- 
water mark can be distinctly traced 
»jveral miles above the water, and 
then in the space of an hour it rises 
to the higher level in one lake, while 
it is low in the other." — Lewis. An 
hotel was built on the Castlebar 



side of the Pontoon by Lord Bing- 
ham, but it is now shut up. Near 
the bridge is a remarkably poised 
block of granite, usually described 
as a rocking-stone, and supposed to 
have been placed by Druids or other 
mythical personages. It is really 
but one among a multitude of other 
granite blocks which have been 
brought to this neighbourhood by 
glacial transport It rests upon a 
glaciated rock, one of the many fine 
examples of " roches moutonnees " and 
"crag and tail" configuration that 
abound hereabouts. 



[A road branches off along the 
W. side of the lough under Nephin 
to the Uttle town of 

CrossmoUna, situated on the line 
of road between Balhna and Erris. 
Previous to reaching it, we pass on 
rt. the peninsula of Errew, on which, 
overlooking the water, are remains 
of an abbey with a good E. window. 
The Deel runs through Crossmolina, 
and on its banks is the modernised 
mansion of Deel Castle, occupying 
the site of an ancient fortress. 

Conveyances. — To Ballina ; to Ban- 
gor and Belmullet ; the road to the 
latter places being carried over one 
of the wildest hill commons that 
even the dreary barony of Tyrawley 
can show.] 



Crossing the Pontoon Bridge rt. 
is a road to Foxford (Rte. 22). From 
hence we skirt the S.E. corner of the 
lake, obtaining magnificent mountain 
views of Nephin, on which, by the 
way, the botanist will find Pinguicula 
lusitanica. Soon approaching the 
valley of the Moy, we arrive at 

74 m. Ballina {Hotels: Flynn's Im- 
perial; Royal; Moy. Rail to Fox- 
ford), together with the northern 
coast of Killala and Downpatrick, 
described in Rte. 22. 

The road now runs over mo- 

F 2 



212 



Boute 25. — Galway to Wedport, 



Irelaijd. 



notonous high ground for many 
miles, crossing the Easky river, a 
considerable stream, the mountain 
valley of which is strewn with 
granite boulders, to 89 m. Dromore, 
a very pretty village on the wooded 
banks of a rushing stream that de- 
scends from the Slieve Gramph Moun- 
tains, at the foot of which the road 
runs nearly the whole way to Bally- 
sadare. They are of picturesque 
outline and considerable height, 
averaging 1600 ft. Woodhill is the 
residence of L. Jones, Esq. ; and Sea- 
view of — Jones, Esq. 

Suddenly the sea bursts upon the 
sight, and, with occasional inter- 
ruptions, forms a welcome feature in 
the landscape all the way to Sligo. 

In the distance, on the 1., is Aughris 
Head, and the ruins of the old castle 
of Ardnaglass, a stronghold of the 
M'Sweenys. This parish of Skreen^ 
the ch. of which stands prettily 
amongst the trees, is said at one time 
to have contained 7 churches. 

The beautiful woods of Tanrego 
(W. Knox, Esq,), and Dromore Ch., 
occupy the baiiks of Ballysadare 
Bay, which here forms a very charm- 
ing inlet, bounded on the N.E. by 
the truncated cone of Knocknarea. 

106 m. Ballysadare. 

110 m. Sligo {Hotels: Imperial; 
Victoria) (Ete. 7). 



KOUTE 25. 

GALWAY TO CONG, MAUM, BALLIN- 
ROBE, AND WESTPORT. 

For the first 2 or 3 m. the road tra- 
verses a paxticularly desolate-looking 
district, w^ch looks as if it was paved 
with stones— a huge table-land of 
carboniferous limestone, part of the 



same tract that strikes ihe toniist in 
his journey from Athenry by rail 

4 m. rt is Killeen House (P. 
Comyn, Esq.), in the grounds of 
which is the ruined tower of the same 
name. Border towers are very nume- 
rous over the whole of the W. of 
Galway and Mayo, and strongly im- 
press upon us the insecure tenure of 
life and land in those days of bani 
hitting. Eiltullagh Oastie is ymt 
such another tower about f m. to the 
rt., and there is a third on the L 
near Bocklawn. 

Adjoining Killeen is Rockwood. 

From hence, passing some pii- 
mitive mud-coloured Irish villages, 
worth notice from the extraOTdinary 
manner in which they are built and 
huddled together without any ap- 
parent plan, we arrive at 

7 m. Clare-Gcdway, a small village 
on the Clare-Gfalway river, poesefla- 
ing a picturesque castle and a Teiy 
beautiful monastery, erected in the 
13th cent, for Franciscan fnais by 
John de Oogan. Its church is croci^ 
form, consisting of nave, chdr, and 
transepts, surmounted by a giacefoj 
tower of 8 stages, lighted by a smsli 
square window in each stage, thoogii 
there is a Dec. window lookini: 
towards the E. The inteisedin: 
arches underneath the tower ist 
very beautiful, as is the mutilateii 
E. window of the choir, which b 
also lighted by 6 plain lancets 
on each side. It contains an altar- 
tomb of the date 1648. ThenaTe 
has only the S. wall standing, lightt^ 
by plain pointed windows, and havrng 
underneath 2 blocked arches, whidi 
probably served for altar-tombs. Of 
the N. wall there only remain 4 
noble arches springing from rounded 
piers. The castle, close to fbe road, 
is a massive square tower, lighted by 
a few loopholes, and is a good ex- 
ample of the better class of fortified 
mansions. It was erected by tby 
fisunily of De Burgo, and was guri- 
soned by the Marquis of Glanhoudtf 
in the war of 1641. S m. at Laght- 



Ireland. 



Soule 26. — Head/ord. 



213 



george 'a road diverges on rt. to 
Tuam. Grofising the Waterdale 
stream, on the banks of which lower 
down is another rained tower (Lis- 
cananaun), we reach Creag Castle, 
the wooded seat of F. Bulke, Esq., 
formerly the residence of Eirwan, 
the chemist and philosopher, and the 
birthplace of his brother Dean Kir- 
wan, equally celebrated as a theo- 
lo^n. A pretty river scene opens 
out as the road winds round the park 
and crosses the Cregg near some 
mills. 

[4 m. L, overlooking the low shores 
of Lough Corrib, are the ruined 
castle and ch. of Annaghdoumt which 
was, as Enachdone, a celebrated 
ecclesiastical establishment being the 
seat of a bishopric, and contaming 
a nunnery, an abbey, a monastery 
for Franciscans, and the college of 
St. Brendan.] 

A little beyond Cregg is the 
Currabeg monastery. 18^ m. 1. are 
small remains of Ologhanower Castle, 
and very soon the extensive woods 
and park of Headford Castle come 
in sight. The house is a fine 
old Elizabethan building, and the 
residence of C. St. George, Esq., 
to whom as resident landlord the 
town and neighbourhood of Head- 
ford are greatly indebted. 

20 m. Headford {Inns : Headford ; 
Hedington's), a neat little town, 
sheltered by the woods of the castle, 
and placed in a rather English- 
looking country. Although there is 
nothing in the town of interest, yet 
the tourist should by all means pay 
a visit to the monastery of Boss, about 
1| m. distant, one of the most ex- 
tensive and beautiful buildings in 
Ireland, built at the close of the 15th 
cent, by Lord Granard for Observan- 
tine Franciscans, and granted to the 
Earl of Clanricarde at l£e suppression 
of religious houses. Jncluding the 
religious and domestic buildings, it 
covers a very large space of ground 
on the banks of the Black river, and 
overlooking a considerable tract of 



bog. It is the cemetery of many good 
Connaught iamiUes, and probably 
contains more grinning and ghastly 
skulls than any catacomb, some of 
the tracery of the windows being 
filled up with thigh-bones and 
heads — a not uncommon way of dis- 
posing of these emblems of mortality 
in Irish monasteries. The ch. has a 
nave, choir, and S. transept, with a 
slender and graceful tower arising 
from the intersection. Atta^ched to 
the nave are N. and S. aisles, and 
a chapel running parallel with the 
S. transept. The latter, together 
with the S. aisle, are separated from 
the nave by round-headed arches 
with octangular piers. Two round 
arches also divide the transept from 
the aisle, and 2 blocked ones from a 
chapel on the E. In the W. chapel 
of the S. aisle is a small monument 
of the O'Donnells, 1646. The nave 
is shut off from the choir by a broad- 
headed segmental arch. The latter 
part of the ch. is lighted on S. by 4 
double-light trefoil windows ; and on 
the S. side of the altar is a double- 
arched niche used as an ambry. The 
E. window is Dec, with very delicate 
tracery, and is worth notice, as is 
also the moulding of the W. door, 
close to which is the stoup for 
holy water. To the N. of the nave 
are the cloisters, which are in 
good preservation. The area is 
small, and surrounded by 10 beauti- 
ful Pointed arches about 3 ft. high, 
the entrance of the passage within 
being under round-headed arches. 
From the N. of the choir runs a 
long chapel lighted by E. Eng. win- 
dows, those on the N. side having 
ogee heads. A projecting building 
also on the N. of the choir was pro- 
bably the warden's house, and be- 
yond the N. transept is the kitchen, 
with ample fireplace and spout for 
carrying the water away; also a 
stone reservoir and pipe connecting 
it with the river, probably used as a 
fish vivarium. On the E. of the 
kitchen is the guesten-hall, in which 



214 Boute 25. — Headford to Cong and Maume. Ireland. 



there is an aperture communicating 
m.ih the kitchen for the entrance of 
the viands. Probably there is no 
ruin in the kingdom showing the do- 
mestic arrangements to greater ad- 
vantage than Ross, which on this 
account deserves to be attentively 
studied. The monastery is now the 
property of Mr. St George, of Head- 
ford Castle. 

Conveyances. — Car to Galway and 
Westport ; car to Tuam. 

D/8towce8.— Galway, 20 m. ; Ballin- 
robe, 14; Tuam, 12 j; Shruel, 4; 
Cong, 10; Boss Monastery, 1^; 
Knock Ferry, 3^ ; Clydagh, 4. 



Headford to Cong and Maume. 

1^ m. rt., on the banks of the Black 
river, is Mojme Lodge (P. Ward, 
Esq.). In the grounds is Moyne 
Castle, a square tower, in the interior 
of which is a spiral staircase leading 
to a covered passage running round 
the bmldmg, and lighted by loopholes. 
On the high ground to the N. is 
Moyne ch. in ruind. The monastery 
buildings of Boss have an extremely 
beautiful effect when viewed from 
this side of the river. 

5 m. is Glencorrib, the seat of Col. 
O. Higgins ; and a littie further on is 
Houndswood (E. Dawson, Esq.). The 
road, as it traverses very high ground, 
affords exquisite views of Lough 
Corrib and Lough Mask, with the 
giant ranges of the Maume mountains, 
and Benlevy in the distance, while 
more to the N. are Bohaun and the 
Par^ mountains. In fact, a great 
portion of the wild Joyce's country 
is before the eyes, as regards its ex- 
ternal boundaries. 

7 m. the Cross, whence a road 
diverges to Ballinrobe. Garracloon 
Lodge is the residence of Dr. Veitch. 

On ri is Ballymacgibbon House. 

10 m. Cong {Hotel : Carlisle Arms ; 
small, dirty, and miserably over- 



crowded when the Galway boat 
arrives: the new hotel, of which 
we hear so much promise, is very 
sorely needed), is a quaint village 
situated in the middle of a district 
teeming with natural curiosities, 
which in former times would haye 
been considered as bordering on the 
supernatural, and hard by a rapid 
stream, that emerges from Lough 
Mask, and empties itself into Lough 
Corrib, after a course of about 4 m. 
The village is f m. from the landing- 
pier on &e latter lake, and near it 
on 1. is Ashford House, the resi- 
dence of Sir A. Guinness, Bart, and 
on ri Strandhill (Capt. Elwood). A 
new house has been built by Sir 
W. Wilde at Gort-na-curra, the site 
of the ancient battle-field of Southen 
Moylura. 

The principal arohseological re- 
mains are, 1. a stone cross in the 
centre of the street, with a Terr 
ancient Irish inscription in memorV ' 
of Filaberd and Nicol O'Dufiy, who 
were formerly abbots of Cong. 2. The 
abbey is remarkable for its beautiful 
Trans.-Norm. architecture, thoogb 
as a whole it is not an imposiBg 
or an extensive building. Borv 
O'Conor, the last native king of 
Ireland, spent the last 15 years of bis 
life here in the strictest seclusion, 
dyin^ in 1198, aged 82. The gnid« 
show his tombstone, although he 
was buried at Clonmacnois. The 
visitor should notice the beautifiil 
moulding of the entrance doorwaj, 
and also the W. front, which pre- 
sents internally a Norm, blocked 
door with bead-moulding, and on 
the exterior, 3 doors alao blocked, 
one being plain round-headed, and 
the others very rich Trans, (torn 
Norm, to E. Eng. There is a good 
3-light window of remarkable length, 
and others deeply splayed and 
round-headed. The chamel-houft' 
is called the Stranger's Comer. 
Concerning this abbey Dr. Petrie 
says, — " I nave found no autboritr 
to enable me to fix with predsiou 



Ireland. 



Boute 25. — Cong. 



215 



the date of the re-erection of this 
noble monastery, or ascertain the 
name of its rebuilder ; but the cha^ 
mcteristics of its style are such as 
will leave no doubt of its being a 
"work of the close of the 12th cent., 
while its magnificence indicates with 
no less certainty the pious bounty of 
the unhappy Boderic, who, in his 
later years, found refuge and, we may 
hope, tranquillity within its cloistered 
walls." Adjoining the abbey is a 
neat yOla, and part of the ancient 
fishing-house on the bank of the 
river, which runs swift and clear. 
The abbey of Cong was noted for its 
great riches and ornaments, of which 
fortunately the cross of Cong (now in 
the Boyal Irish Academy) still re- 
mains as an example of exquisite 
chasing, showing to what a high 
pitch decorative art had attained. It 
is of pure gold, containing a large 
crystal in the centre. An account 
of it will b© found at p. 12. Having 
examined the ruins, the visitor 
should explore the natural curi- 
osities of Cong, chiefly caused by 
the vagaries of the river connecting 
Lough Mask with Lough Corrib. 
Although the distance is really 4 m., 
its apparent career is only f m., 
as the remainder is hidden under- 
ground with but few tokens of its 
presence. The country to the N. 
of Cong, as &r as Lough Mask, 
is a series of carboniferous limestone 
plateaus, singularly perforated and 
undermined by the solvent action of 
the firee carbonic acid contained in 
the river water. The subterranean 
river, and the lofty tunnel through 
which it flows, is accessible in several 
places. The "Pigeon Hole/' about 
one mile from the village, is one of 
these. In the centre of a field there 
is a marked depression, having on 
one side a perpendicular hole of 
Bome 60 ft. deep, and of a diameter 
hjirely that of the shaft of a coal-pit 
The aspect of this aperture, covered 
&8 it is with ferns and dripping mosses, 
is ^erj peculiar, and it requires a 



little resolution and a good deal of 
care to descend the slippery steps to 
the bottom, where we find a con- 
siderable increase of room, in con- 
sequence of the hollowing away of the 
rocks. When the tourist's eyes get 
fairly accustomed to the semi-darkness, 
he will perhaps be fortunate enough 
to detect in the river, which runs 
babbling by him, the blessed white 
trout which always firequent this 
same spot, and to catch which was 
an act of impiety too gross to be 
committed. In addition to the guide, 
he is* accompanied down the hole 
by a woman carrying a bundle of 
straw, which she lights and carries 
as far into the depths of the cavern 
as the suffocating atmosphere will 
allow her to venture. As she follows 
its windings, every now and then 
disappearing behind the rocks, and 
then reappearing, waving the fitful 
torch above her head, the scene is 
at once mysterious and picturesque. 
After visiting this cavern, the tourist 
should walk up to the cairn of stones 
on Blake Hill to enjoy the fine view 
of Loughs Corrib and Mask, the 
intervening undermined limestone 
plateau, and the battle-field of 
Southern Moytura. Nearer Cong 
there are some more of these curious 
caverns : one of them is called " the 
Horse's Discovery," and contains 
stalactites. It is close to the old ch., 
which suffered so much injury from 
the depression of the ground, that a 
new one was obliged to be built 
The tourist should engage the services 
of a guide, who generally has a legend 
for every spot, and a reason for every- 
thing. "The Ladies' Buttery," 
"WebVs Hole," "Kelly's Cave," 
and the " Priest's Cave " are other 
openings, all difficult to find without 
a guide. The river emerges for a few 
hundred yards close to some mills, 
where the water is plainly observed 
to bubble up and immediately run off 
in different directions, forming 2 sepa- 
rate streams. The canal is the last, 
and probably the greatest, cuiiodly. 



216 



Boute 25. — GcduHiy to Westport. 



Irela3jt>. 



as an example, not to be matched 
in this kingdom, of a gigantic 
faUiire. During the frightful starva^ 
tion crisis in Ireland, many hun- 
dreds were employed in this scheme, 
which was to connect the 2 lakes, 
and thus extend the inland naviga- 
tion to Lough Conn and the Moy 
river at Ballina. As fetr as the 
relief given to the suffering peasants 
it was very good ; but by some mistake 
in the engineering calculations, the 
canal was found, when finished, to 
be utterly incapable of holding water, 
from the porous and permeated cha- 
racter of file stone ; and to this day 
it remains a huge useless blunder. 

Conveyances. — Steamer daily to 
Galway. 

Distances. — Headford, 10 m. ; 
Maume, 13^ ; Ballinrobe, 7 ; Lough 
Mask Castle, 4. Galway by water, 27. 

The tourist who prefers nn aquatic 
excursion, and would enjoy the lake 
scenery, may take a boat from Gong 
to Maume ; the usual charge for a 
four-oared boat carrying six pas- 
sengers is 158., or 9a. for a two-oared 
boat for two passengers. The arm 
of the lake stretching up to Maume 
is very wild and grand. 

The antiquary should not leave 
Cong without visiting the battle- 
field of Southern Moytura, or Moy- 
tura CoTigf,. which, together with that 
of Northern Moytura, has recently 
thrown so much light on the history 
and uses of mega lit hie monuments. 
"At a certain period of L-ish his- 
tory, a colony of Firbolgs, or BelgSB, 
as they are usually called by Irish 
antiquaries, settled in Ireland, dis- 
possessing the Formorians, who are 
said to have come from Africa. 
After possessing the country for 
thirty-seven years, they were in 
their turn attacked by a colony of 
Tuatha de Dananns, coming from 
the North, said to be of the same 
race, and speaking a tongue mutual- 
ly intelligible. On hearing of the 



arrival of these strangers, the Fir- . 
bolgs advanced from the plains of | 
Meath as far Oong, where the first | 
battle was fought, and, after being 
fiercely contested for four days, was 
decided in favour of the invaders. 
The second battle was fought seven 
years afterwards, near Sligo (Nor- 
thern Moytura), and resulted equally 
in favour of the Tuatha de Dananiu 
and tbey in consequence obtaint.'d 
possession of the country, which, 
according to the Four Masters, they 
held for 197 years. The field uu 
which the four days' battle of 
Southern Moytura was fought ex- 
tends from five to six miles nortii 
and south. Near the centre of the 
space, and nearly opposite the vil- I 
lage of Cong, is a group of five stoae j 
circles, one of which is 54 f«t 1 
In diameter. Another, very similar, 
is close by ; and a third, larger, bet 
pai-tiaUy ruined, is within a f^v 
yards of the first The other twj 
can only now be traced, and tTi> 
more are said to have existed close 
by, but have entirely disappeartd 
On other parts of the battle-firli 
there are six or seven large c&in> \ 
of stone, all of them more or Ids ] 
ruined, the stones having been vsA 
to build dykes. Sir Wm. Wi% 
has identified all these as connect- d 
with incidents of the battle, aoi 
there seems no reason to doubt hi> 
conclusions" {Fergttssoriy pp. IIB-^I 
For further, and very intereatirc 
particulars, the tourist should refer 
to Sir Wm. Wilde's ' Lough Oorrib 
its Shores and Islands,' Dublio. 
1867. 

From Cong the road to Maume con- 
tinues along the N. shore of Looirh 
Corrib ; passing on ri 2 m. BaesIiiiL 
a seat of the Earl of Leitrim, on tae 
banks of Lough Mask. In tii<^ 
groundsare inconaiderableniinsof the 
ch. or abbey of Eosediill ; and adjoin- 
ing is Benlevy Lodge (T. Bliike, 
£»].). Directly in front of the tra- 
veller the mountainB rise with fint^ 
abruptness ; on the it Benlery, 



Ireland. 



Bonte 25. — Headford to Westport, 



217 



1286 ft ; Bohami and Loughnabricka, 
1628 ; and to the 1. the ranges of the 
Mamtork, in which Shanfolagh, 2003 
ft., is most conspicuous. Towards 
Lough Mask the precipitous hill of 
Kilbride is seen. Benlevy mountain 
ia a yery good landmark for this 
district, in consequence of its pecu- 
liar square truncated summit, on 
which there is a clear lake. It is 
worth ascending, as by going more 
into the heart of the Joyce country 
the views over the lakes are a good 
deal shut out by the mountains im- 
mediately around them. At 8 m. the 
road crosses the Do(^hta river, rising 
in Loughnabricka, and skirts the 
^gular arm pushed by Lough Cor- 
rib into the very heart of the moun- 
tains. 21 m. 1., on an island, are the 
conspicuous ruins of CasUe Kirke, 
otherwise called Caislean-na-Circe, 
the Hen*8 Castle^ of such extent as to 
cover nearly the whole of the island. 
According to one legend, it was 
built in one night by a witch and her 
hen, which, together with the castle, 
she gave to the O'Flaherty, telhng 
him that, if he was besieged, the hen 
would lay sufficient eggs to keep him 
from starving. The event soon hap- 
pened, but OTlaherty, forgetting the 
injunctions, slew the bird, and was 
immediately starved out. (See page 
210 for another story.) "Enough 
remains to exhibit its original plan, 
which was that of an Anglo-Norm, 
castle or keep, in the form of a 
paraUelc^ram, with 3 projecting 
towers on its 2 longest sides; and 
the architectural features of the 13th 
cent, are also visible in some of its 
beautifully executed windows and 
doorways." — Irish Pen. Mag. It 
was really erected by the sons of 
Rory O 'Conor, last king of Ireland, 
with the help of RichaH de Burgo. 

23^ m. Maume Bridge (Bte. 24), 
where the traveller will find a Uttle 
inn, buQt, as well as the bridge, by 
Nimmo the engineer, to whom Con- 
nemara owes innumerable debts of 
gratitude. The situation is enchant- 



ing, at the base of the giant Lough- 
nabricka, and right in front of Leck- 
avrea and Shanvolagh ; while 2 
streams,the Bealnabrack and the Fail- 
more, take away from the solitude and 
tempt the fisherman. Two other 
roads meet here— one &om the Ough- 
terarde and Olifden road 4^ m. (Bte. 
23), and one from Leenane, running 
down the valley of the Joyce's river 
(Rte. 24). 

DUtances.— Gong, 13^ m.; Leenane, 
8} ; Ualfway-house, 6^. 



Headford to Westport. 

Taking the road which runs to the 
E. of that proceeding to Cong, the 
tourist passes on rt. Lisdonagh 
House. Far in the distance is 
Knocknaa Hill near Tuam, from its 
isolated position visible over a very 
large extent of country. 

24 m. &om Gal way, Shrule, a small 
town situated on the Blackwater, 
possessing the ruins of a monastery, 
a massive-towered castle, and the 
notoriety of as foul a massacre as was 
ever perpetrated in Christendom. 
In 1641 Sir Henry Bingham, with 
a nmnber of Protestant gentry and 
15 clergymen (among whom was the 
Bishop of Killala), arrived at Shrule 
from Castlebar (which he had been 
obliged to surrender from want of pro- 
visions), under promise of safe escort 
from Lord Mayo and the R. C. Arch- 
bishop of Tuam. Notwithstanding 
this promise, they were handed over 
at Shrule Bridge to the keeping of a 
relation of Lord Mayo, one Edmund 
Burke, " a notorious rebel and bitter 
papist, the man who not long before, 
having taken the Bishop of KUlala 
prisoner, wanted to feisten him to the 
Sow (a battering engine), with which 
he was attempting to beat down 
the walls of Caistlebar, in order that 
the besieged in firing might shoot 
their own prelate."— Otway. The un- 
fortunate Protestants were attacked 
by him in the most ferocious manner : 



218 



Boute 25. — Gcdway to Westport. 



Irelam) 



some were shot, others were piked, 
others cast into the river : in all 65 
were slaughtered. There is a very 
handsome B. C. chapel in Shrule. 

In the neighbourhood of the town 
is Dalgan House, the beautiful seat of 
Baroness De Clifford. The Blackwater 
in its course from Shrule to Thorpe 
plays the same vagaries as the river 
at Cong, and has an underground 
course for some little distance. 
28^ m. Kilmaine. 
34 m. Ballinrohe (Jr. Baile-an- 
rodhba) {Hotds: Victoria; Bailin- 
robe), a busy English-looking town of 
some 8000 Inhab., on the river Bobe, 
though in itself containing nothing 
of interest, save small remains of an 
abbey ch. and a fine B. C. chapel. 
It is, however, a good point from 
which to explore the beauties of 
Lough Mctek, a noble sheet of water, 
10 m. long by 4 broad, with 2 
arms about 1 m. distant from each 
other stretching into Joyce's Country, 
the one extending for 4 m., the other 
for 3, and having its waters 36 ft. 
above the summer level of Lough 
Corrib. The eastern shore of the 
lough is comparatively tame, but the 
W. is bounded by the fine, though 
somewhat monotonous, range of the 
Partry mountains, the highest points 
of which are ToneysaJ, 1270 ft. ; and 
Bohaun, 1294. 4J m. from Ballin- 
robe, on the shores of the lake, is 
Lough Mask Castle^ a solitary ruin 
of no great extent, but in a fine 
position. The island of Inishmaan, 
close to the shore, contains a ruined 
ch., originally built by St. Cormac 
in the 6th cent, and enlarged in the 
12th. It has a good side doorway 
of quadrangular form, in which the 
weight of the lintel is taken off by 
a semicircular arch. 

The geologist will find on the 
shores of this lake Upper Silurian 
strata, which are the equivalents of 
the May Hill deposits, and their 
passage upwards into Wenlock beds. 



6 m. 1. is HoUymomitj a small town, 
also on the Bobe, containing a ch. 
with a cast-iron spire, and (at no great 
distance off) an Agricultural School 
Adjoining the town are HoUymoimt 
Park (T. S. lindsay, Esq.) and 
Bloomfield (Col. Butledge). 



From Ballinrobe the road graduaUr 
approaches Lough Mask, and at Keel 
Bridge crosses a narrow isthmus be> 
tween it and Lattgh Carra^ an mt' 
gularly shaped lake, about 6 m. long, 
though never more than 1 broad, (hi 
the opposite bank of Lough Mask, 
under the Slieve Partry Hills, is 
Toormakeady, a seat of the Bi- 
shop of Tuam. 42 m. at the he«J 
of the lake is Partry^ a village that 
has attained an unenviable notoiielr 
from the number and frequency of 
evictions unfortunately necessaiy or 
considered to be so by the landlonl 
of the soil. Iron-works were od« 
established here, but are no longer 
worked. The road now diverges^ 
the direct and shortest route lo 
Westport being to the 1., but the 
antiquary will fiaid it to his ac> 
count in taking the other route, 
and thus visiting the ruins of BoRi*- 
iohber Ahbey (Ir. Baile-cuEi-Tobhair , 
which, though little known, are verr 
beautiful, and well worth a special 
expedition. Careful inquiries shoukl 
be made as to the direct locality, as 
they lie on a by-road to Ballyglass. 
and just opposite a publio^hoose 
called " Lyons." It has a lai^ge cmci- 
form ch., with nave, transepts, and 
choir, the latter still possessing its 
roof. Note the immense height of 
the gable ends, the mtersectioQ 
(where the tower once stood), which 
is marked by 4 splendid arches 
springing from sculptured imposts, 
and the vaulted roof of the choir 
which is divided into 8 bays. From 
each of them springs a vaulting arch 
right across to the opposite bay. as 
also one to the alternate angles, thm 






Ireland. 



Bouie 26. — Bcdlintchher Abbey, 



219 



produdng a singular intersection. 
Over the altar are 3 blocked win- 
dows of exquisite Norm, design, with 
double dog-tooth moulduig, and over 
ihe middle light is another smaller 
Xonn. window. On the S. side of the 
choir is an archway with 2 circular- 
headed arches, and on the N. is some 
moulding, apparently belonging to 
an altar-tomb. The nave is lighted 
by 8 Early Pointed windows. In the 
transept are 2 chapels, the most 
northerly containing a stoup, the 
design of which is a misshapen head 
and &,ce. The monastic buildings 
are at the end of the S. transept and 
adjoining the nave ; and in what was 
probably a chapel to the S. of the 
choir is an elaborate altar-tomb, on 
the pediment of which are 5 singu- 
lar figures representing ecclesiastics. 
The whole row was evidently filled 
by them, but the remainder have 
disappeared. The visitor should also 
notice the doorway, an exquisite 
pointed arch resting on 4 receding co- 
lumns. This fine abbey was founded 
in the 13th cent, by Cathal O'CJonnor, 
king of Connaught, for Canons Re- 
gular of the order of St. Augustine, 
and fortunately for the archaeologist 
has but little history, as such gene- 
nUly entailed the complete destarac- 
tion of all the finest features. A 
very dreary road leads from the 
abbey to 

48 m. the Triangle, point of junction 
of the Oastlebar and Ballinrobe roads. 

A little further on 1. is Ayle ch., 
and close by a mound surmounted 
bv the shell of a ruin, known as 
McPhilbin's Castle. 

Between the ch. and castle a by- 
road on the 1. leads to the curious 
cavern locally known as "tJie Gulf 
of Ayle " (or Aille). It is about } m. 
distant from the main road. The 
tourist should ask for a guide at one 
of the cottages, as it is not easy to find 
it without. There are two openings 
about 100 yards apart,where the lime- 
stone crops up in the field. They are 
uoceasible by descending a steep and 



slippery slope when the river is not 
flooded. The subterianean stream 
is then to be seen flowing under a 
noble calcareous arch or dome, and 
may even be followed for a consider- 
able distance. At other times, espe- 
cially after sudden and heavy rains, 
the deep and vnde semi-conical hole 
between the rock-face and the level 
of the field is completely filled with 
water, forming a deep bay, the 
waters of which in extreme cases 
rise above the level of the field and 
flood all the country around, ex- 
tending even to the muin road. The 
writer was told that in some cases 
the water has been deep enough in 
the main road to reach the shafts of 
cars, and that a man with a load 
of flour was warned of danger at 
Triangle, but proceeded, and was 
drowned in attempting to drive to 
Westport. These stories would have 
been very doubtfully received but 
for the evidences of their possibility 
which were presented on visiting 
the caverns, on August 23rd, 1877. 
The water was then so low that we 
were able to descend to the cavern, 
wade across the river to a sand- 
bank on the <^po0ite side, and follow 
this subterranean strand far away 
into the darkness of the cavern, 
aided only by a considerable con- 
sumption of wax matches. Only a 
few days before (on the 18th) some 
heavy summer rain had fallen, and 
the traces of the consequent flood 
were left on the sides of the semi- 
circular hole or bay by which descent 
was made to the cavern, and on the 
surface of the field, in the form of a 
muddy film, covering the recently^ 
grown grass and shrubs. This 
proved a rise of some 30 or 40 ft., 
and its subsidence within five days. 
The winter floods would of course 
be much greater. Having, before 
visiting the spot, heard nothing 
satisfactory concerning the magni- 
tude of the cavern, we were not pre- 
pared to explore it properly, but saw 
enough of stalactitic formation and 



220 



Boute 2^.— Dublin to W^/ord. 



Ikelano 



extension to justify ns in recommend- 
ing further exploration with the aid 
of torches and Bengal lights, or 
magnesium wire. It would *be 
imprudent to go far without com- 
pany lest there should be an accumu- 
lation of carbonic acid. No indica- 
tions of this were observed on the 
occasion of our solitary groping 
through the tunnel, though we 
should have detected any gradual 
approach to such danger, being ac- 
customed to a coal-pit atmosphere. 
The fact that the cavern must be 
open at each end, with a free flow of 
water through it, confirms this indi- 
cation of its safety. Nevertheless 
any further exploration should be 
made cautiously. 



Detour to Atighagower, 

\\ m. L and by same road thai leads 
to the cavern is the village of Augha- 
gower ' Ir. Achadh-fobhair, ** field of 
the spring,**), which should be visited 
on account of its round tower, a 
venerable ivy-covered tower, of ap- 
parently 5 stages, of rude workman- 
ship. It is lighted by 2 rude semi- 
circular arched windows, and entered 
by a square doorway. The conical 
top is wanting. Close by is the ruin 
of a chapel with gable ends and 
high-pitched root lighted on E. by 
a very pretty 3-light window splayed 
inwardly. On the 1. of the bmlcQng 
is an oratory. Eejoining the high 
road, on 1. is Mountbrown (J. Living- 
ston, Esq.). 

53 m. Westport (Kte. 24). Hotels : 
Gibbon's, and Gonnemara. 



ROUTE 26. 

DUBLIN TO WEXFORD, THBOCGS 
WICKLOW, ARKLOW, AND ENMS- 
CORTHY. 

The tourist may take his chcin 
of proceediog by 2 rlys. as far m 
Bray. The Kingstown and Bay 
line is described in Bte. 27. 

Quitting the Haroourt Street Stai. 
we pass through the submbs d 
Bathmines and Milltown, ue« 
which stat., 2 m., the Dodden i 
bright active stream running fim 
the Dublin mountains, is cnssodv 
thence passing Windy Harbour aaJ 
leaving on rt. Eathfarnham, we aniit 
at, 3 m., Dtmdrum, another snbnifc 
much resorted to as a residence br 
tlie worthy citizens. To I. of the sttt 
is Mount AnvtUe, the seat of the kk 
William Dargan, Esq., the vvU- 
known railway contractor, to vha» 
active enterprise and patriotLsm tl* 
most every portion of Ireland c^ 
bear testimony, although his greaiett 
improvements have been effected in 
Bray and the county Wicklow g«ie* 
rally. The house and grounds, vitk 
its conservatory and look-out tower, 
are well worth seeing; the fonixf 
contains statues of the Queen aod 
Prince Consort, presented by hvt 
Majesty to Mr. Dargan after her viiit 
to Mount Anville. Mount Anviile 
House is now a nunnery. 

We now get near sight on the it. 
of the beautiful ranges of mountains 
and can appreciate the advaatages 
which the Dublin inhabitant pos- 
sesses in being able to emeise ahno^i 
out of the s&eets of a great town 
into the heart of bold hill scenery 
Immediately on the rt the most coit 
spicuous object is the Three Bo^ii 
Moimtain, 1763 ft. (on which xL* 
Pinguicula Lusitanica is to be found , 



Ireland. 



Boyie 26. — Kilternan — Bray, 



221 



the advanced guard of granite hills 
that extend from hence to Naas, in 
the CO. of Kildare. It is worth while 
to make an excursion to the summit, 
leaving the rly. at 5| m., StiUorgan, 
from which point the distance is 
not great, though the collar-work is 
heavy. The views over Dublin Bay, 
the Hill of How.th, and the* ranges 
inland, are at once exquisite and 
peculiar. At the foot of the hill, 
near Step-aside, is the ruined tower 
of Kilgobbin, which, whether from 
its name or otherwise, is popularly 
attributed to Gobhan Saer, and was 
supposed to have contained marvel- 
lous treasures at its foundations. The 
neighbourhood to the 1. of the rail- 
way is crowded with villas and resi- 
dences ; amongst which are Newtown 
Park and StiUorgan, the seat of H. 
Guinness, Esq. (the latter contain- 
ing some remarkably fine lime- 
trees); the same may be said of 
Foxrock and Cabinteely, a village 
situated at the western foot of ¥dl- 
liney Hill, which, with the high 
ground running down from Kings- 
town and Dalkey, intercepts the 
view of the sea for the present. The 
line has been traversing, between 
this last range and the Three Bocks, 
a hill valley sometimes called the 
Vale of Dundnnn; and at Carrick- 
nineSy 7 m., it enters that of Shan- 
gannagh, emerging on the coast 
at Bray. Near the stat. are some 
antiquarian remains ; on the rt. the 
ruins of the little ch. of Tully 
(said by Ledwich to have bepn built 
by the Ostmen), with a cross in the 
burying-ground ; and on the 1., in 
the grounds of Glendruid, is a 
cromlech, consisting of a large table- 
stone, 14 ft. long by 12 brc^d, sup- 
Ij^pted by 6 uprights. 

At the village of Kilternan, near 
Golden Ball, 2 m. to rt., is a second 
cromlech, the covering stone of 
which measures 23 ft. 6 in. by 17 in 
breadth, and also rests on 6 sup- 
porters. 

The little ch. of Kilternan pre- 



sents an anncient side-wall and 
W. gable, with a blocked square- 
headed doorway, the present one 
being on the S. side. 

9^ m., at Shankhill stat., a junc- 
tion is formed with the Kingstown 
and Dalkey line, and a verv pic- 
turesque view is obtained of Kil- 
liney Hill, its quarries, and its villas, 
with a broad expanse of sea on the 1., 
while on the rt. are fresh summits 
and peaks — the Two Rock Moun- 
tain, 1699 ft., on the W., and the 
Sugarloaf, 1659 ft., just appearing 
on the S. Immediately to the rt. 
of the rly. is a rather low hill 
surmounted by a tower, serving 
both as a shot-tower and an outlet 
for the smoke of the lead-mines of 
Ballycorus. Behind this ridge is 
the Scalp, leading from Enniskerry 
to Dublin, described in Rte. 27. 

The parish of Bathmichaelt in 
which Shankhill is situated, was once 
of considerable importance, and was 
claimed by the vicars-choral of the 
cathedral of Dublin as their per- 
quisite. There are slight ruins of 
tlie ch. 

About ^ m. on rt. of stat. is another 
cromlech in good preservation, to- 
gether with a few remains of Puck's 
Castle and a round tower, though 
of this last only about 2 ft. exist. 

On rt. of the junction are Shan- 
ganah Castle (Capt. Hayman), a^d 
the ruins of Kilturk ch. 

The line now runs along the coast 
to 

12 m. Bray, described in Rte. 27. 
{Hotels : Breslin's, International, both 
nrst-rate.) 

For the remainder of the distance 
to Wicklow the rly. closely hugs the 
coast — ^so closely that in many places 
it timnels through projecting head- 
lands or is carried at great heights 
over clif&, gullies, and ravines, at the 
bottom of which the waves may be 
seen leaping up with terrible fury. 
Indeed it is dmcult to find any- 
where more romantically placed or 
bolder executed works. Gliding out 



222 



Boute 26. — Dublin to Wexford. 



Ieelaxd 



of the stat. at Bray, we round Bray 
Head by a succession of short tunnels, 
and on emerging on the other side 
obtain beauti&l views on rt. of the 
Sugarloaf (Great and Little), with the 
charming seat of Kilruddery (Earl 
of Meath) at the foot of the latter. 
(Rte. 27.) A little before arriving 
at Greystones, 17 m., we pass on the 
rt. the ruins of the ch. and Castle of 
Bathdo\vn. Greystones is a pleasant 
little batliing-place, about 1^ m. fix)m 
Delgany, which, with the Glen of 
the Downs, had better be visited by 
road from Bray. 

Near Kllcoole stat., 20 m., are 
Ballygannon and the village of Kil- 
coole 1 m. to rt., and Woodstock 
House (Col. Tottenham). 22 m., at 
Newcastle, the hills recede, and leave 
a considerable tract of level allu- 
vial ground. 25 ^ m. Killoughter 
stat. is 3 m. from Ashford and the 
neighbourhood of the Devil's Glen. 

From this point it is nearly 3 m. to 
Wicklow (Ir. CiJl-mantain, "ch. of St 
Mantan"). (Hotels: Railway; Fitz- 
william), which, with the quaint-look- 
ing town stretching in a semicircle 
round the bay, the tower of Black 
Castle, and the distant promontories 
of Wicklow Head, makes up a very 
charming landscape. 

It is said to have derived its name 
from its position at the outlet of a long 
narrow creek, called the Murragh, 
that runs N. nearly as &r as Kil- 
loughter, and receives the waters of 
the Vartry ; also to have been called 
Wigginge Lough, " The Lake of 
Ships,*' from its being one of the 
earliest maritime stations of the Danes. 
A castle was begim by Maurice Fitz- 
gerald in the 12th, and finished by 
Fitzwilliam in the 14th cent. Por- 
tions of the tower still remain on a 
promontory at the end of the town. 
The ch. possesses a copper cupola and 
a good Norm, doorway, that has been 
transplanted from an older building. 

The town itself, which is the county 
one, is not particularly clean or in- 
viting, but there are some fine walks in 



the neighbourliood along the clif& ti 
Bride's and Wicklow Heads, on ead 
of which is a fixed lighthouse. i 

Distances, — Dublin, 28 m. ; Earn 
drum, 8; Ashford, 4J; Corey, 25 
Arklow, 15 ; Avoca, 10 ; Bray, 16. 

Excursions. — 

1. Eathdrum and Vale of Avoa 

2. Ashford and Devil's Glen. 

3. Wicklow Head. , 

The rly. now turns inland to tha 
S.W., and ascends towards the diobd' 
tains, passing the village of GleDddyJ 
where the scenery is picturesque m 
varied with extensive woods. 

On rt. are Glencarrig (Rev. G. 
Drought), BaUyfree (Rev.ILToiiibt. 
and Hollywood (G. Tombe, Ee'^ 
situate at the wooded base of (^ 
rick Mountain, 1252 ft.; and oui 
is a wooded defile known as VM 
Deputy's Pass, from the fact of ij\ 
army of Sir William Fitzwillwa 
the Lord-Deputy, having marelU 
through it in 1595. 

36 m. Rathdrum (Rte. 27). 



Car Drive from Wicklow to ArJjf^' 

The road is not remarkable in «? 
way ; generally speaking it is prrtdi 
diversffled with hill and dale, krp- 
ing inland so as seldom to ob'i>3i 
views of the sea, though freqoeriy 
of the mountains which keep enof 
pany on the rt. At 32 m. is Ballf' 
money House C — Revel, Esq. , aii 
a little farther on, occupying ai 
elevated position, is Westaston, th 
seat of T. Acton, Esq. At tb( 
former spot the road divides ; the otf 
keeping closer to the coast, andtfa* 
other making a slight d^ur inland 
and crossing at Kilboy Bridge th 
Potters' River, a small stream tha 
runs down through the Deputy's Pa^s 
On its bank, between the 2 roads, i 
the ruined keep of Danganstovi 
Castle. The character of the coft.'' 
will be seen to have changed a goot 



Ireland. 



Boute 26. — ArJclow — Ferns. 



223 



deal, for, instead of the steep and 
rugged olifife of Wicklow Head, we 
have now low sandy dunes, inter- 
rapted. solely by the promontory of 
Mizen Head. The hills to the rt. 
and the distant woods to the W. of 
Arklow plainly show the course of 
the " sweet vale of Avoca," the mouth 
of which we cross by a long narrow 
bridge, and enter the little port of 

43 m. Arklow TRte. 27) (Inn : Kin- 
sela's), a busy fishing and shipping 
town, on the side of a hill overlooking 
the sea. Under the name of Arelogh 
it was included under those grants of 
territory for which Henry II. caused 
service to be done at Wexford, and 
possessed a castle and a monastery, 
which have both disappeared save a 
fragment of the tower of the former. 
Tins is the shipping port for the 
copper and lead-mines in the valley 
of the Avoca, the material being 
brought down by a tramroad. In 
consequence of this trade, Arklow is 
a rendezvous for a large number of 
coasters waiting to take the ore to 
Swansea. The beautifiil scenery in 
the neighbourhood of Shelton and 
Wooden Bridge is described in the 
Wicklow tour (Rte. 27). 

Distances. — Wicklow, 15 m. ; Go- 
rey, 10; Shelton, 2^ ; Wooden 
Bridge, 4. 



Main Boute. 

Ck)ntinuing by rail from Arklow, 
tlie traveller arrives at 

Gorey, a small town of one street 
} m. in length, associated with Ferns 
^ the seat of a bishopric. A little 
to the N. of the town is Ramsfort, 
tlie residence of the family of Ram, 
which was burned down by the in- 
Burgents in the troubles of 1798. 

3 m. to the S.E. is Courtown House 
^Earl of Courtown), in the sheltered 
valley of tiie Owenavorragh at its en- 
trance into the sea. The evergreens 
in the park are especially worthy of 
Qotice. '* Among them is one which 



has assumed more the habit of the 
bush than the tree. Its outline is 
domical ; the stem, at 3 ft. from the 
ground, is 16 ft. in circumference, 
but above this it divides into nume- 
rous ramifications : the branches ex- 
tend over an area whose peripheiy 
is 210 ft:'— Fraser. 

To the S. of Courtown is the 
mount of Ardamine, a singular 
earthen spherical mound standing 
on an artificial platform. It was 
probably sepulchral, as the ch. and 
graveyard of Ardamine are adjoining. 
The geologist may examine the 
Lower Silurian rocks in this neigh- 
bourhood, the equivalents of the 
Bala and Caradoc beds of Wales. 

Distances. — From Wexford, 25 m. ; 
Ferns, lOJ ; Newtown Barry, 19 ; 
Enniscorthy, 18. 

The rly. passes Camolin, a decayed 
village at the head of the valley of 
the Bann, a tributary of the Slaney. 
To the N. at the base of Sheveboy, 
1385 ft., is the extensive demesne of 
Camolin Park, formerly the seat of 
the Earl of Valentia, but now out 
of repair. 

Keeping on rt. some considerable 
woods, known as Kilbora, Coolpuck, 
and Coolroe Woods, we arrive at 

63 J m. Ferns, a poor, miserable town, 
yet claiming some importance as being 
the seat of a bishopric, united with 
those of Ossory and Leighlin. 

In 598 Brandubh King of Leinster 
made a grant of land to St. Endan, 
who forthwith built a monasterv, in 
which he was himself interred. Time 
after time did the city suffer from the 
incursions of the Danes. John Earl 
of Morton (afterwards King John), 
who built the castle, offered the bi- 
shopric to Giraldus Cambrensis, who, 
however, refused it. The cathedral 
is a modem Perp. building with a 
square embattled tower, built on the 
site of an old ch. which was sup- 
posed to have been the original ch. of 
St. Endan. There are remains of the 
monastery for Augustinians founded in 



224 



Boute 26. — Dublin to Wexford. 



Ieelaitd. 



the 12th cent, by Dermot M*Miiptogh, 
consistiiig of some E. Eng. windows 
and ** a tower of 2 stages, of which the 
lower is qnadiang^ular and the upper 
polygonal, and covered with moss 
and ivy, wMch give it a circular 
form; within is a geometrical stair- 
case leading to the top of the square 
tower." 

The castle was a quadrangular 
fortress overlooking the town. One 
of the roimd towers that flanked the 
comers is still in good preservation, 
and contEuns a chapel with a groined 
roof. The Episcopal Palace dates 
from the last cent., and is the centre 
of a pleasant demesne adjoining the 
cathedral. It was built by Thomas 
Eam in 1630, "who, being of very 
advanced age, placed this inscription 
above the porch — 

' This house Ram built for his snooeeding 

brothera : 
llius sheep bear wool, not for themselves, 
but others.'" 



Excunion to Slaney VaUey, Newton 
Barry, and Mount Leinster. 

From the high ground between 
Ferns and the Slaney the tourist 
gains splendid views of Mount 
Leinster, 2610 ft, Black Stairs, 2409, 
and White Mountam-, 1259— a noble 
and romantic range that intervenes 
from N. to S. between the valleys of 
the Slaney and the Barrow (Bte. 31). 
4^ m. the Enniscorthy road is joined 
on the 1. or E. bank of the Slaney, 
just between Clobemon Hall (M. De 
Benzy, Esq.) and Ballyrankin (Bev. 
J, Devereux). 

A little higher up is the village of 
Clobemon, with ite mill and cotton 
factory. 

Here the river is crossed, and the 
road continues on the W. bcknk to 

9 nu Newtown Barry (Hotel 
Gillis's), a neat and well-built town 
in a very fine position overlooking the 
Slaney, and at the feet of Greenogo 
and Black Bock Mountains, both 



shoulders of Mount Leinster. The 
Slaney is crossed by a bridge of 7 
arches, as is also the Glody, a small 
stream that here divides Carlow 
from Wexford. Newtown Bairy has 
a very good agricultural trade, 
and possesses several flour-mills. 
The ch.-spire rises prettily from a 
wooded grove, and the whole town 
is surrounded by ornamental resi- 
dences : Woodfield (B. Hall Dare, 
Esq., the lord of tne manor), the 
grounds of which are beautifully laid 
out, and extend for some distance on 
each bank of the Slaney ; Bainsford 
Lodge, Bavenswood, Brown Par^ 
Byland Hill, and Clohamon House. 

Distances. — Ferns, 9 ml; Bonis, 
14 ; Glonegall, 5 ; Enniscorthy, 12. 

Newtown Barry is a convenient 
point from whence to ascend Mount 
Leinster, as the rood to Bonis 
passes through the defile of Gonabut 
Gap between it and Kilbrammisb. 
Take the road to the S. that turns oH 
here, and follow it to a spot called 
Ninestones, from whence the ascent 
is steep, but direct. Ninestones is U 
m. from the town. 



Return to Main Soute. 

The Hue now follows tiie vaUev 
of the Barrow, and strikes upon the 
Slaney near Scarawaish Bridge, 67 
m., a road from which is carried on 
both sides of the river. On the £• 
bank is Elillabeg (8. Davis, Esq.)> 
Solsborough (Bev. S. Bichards), and 
Greenmount (T. Waring, Esq.). 

72 m. EnmscorOiy (JHotd : Nu- 
zam's), a pretty little town, the largest 
portion of it on a steep hill oi^ 
the rt. bank of the Slaney, whicl^ 
here becomes a deep and narigable 
stream, and is crossed by a bridge oi 
6 arches. From the stream above tlx^ 
bridge dividing its <diannel the pre^ 
fix Ennis (Lr. inis, island) was pn> 
bably obtained, and the latter half oi 



IitELAND. Boute 26. — Enniscorffiy — Wexford, 



m 



the name is said to have been derived 
from •• Oorthoe, the capital of tiie Oo- 
riondi." The things to be seen are 
a ch. in better taste than most in 
Ireland, a single tower of the old 
FranciBcan monastery, and the pic- 
turesqne ivy-covered square keep, 
flanked by drum towers, of the castle 
built by Kaymond le Gros. It has, 
however, been modernised, and is in- 
habited by a caretaker. . Overlook- 
ing the E. bank is Vinegar Hill, an 
eminence only 384 ft. in height, but 
worth ascending, partly for the very 
fine view over the valley of the Slaney, 
the Leinster range, and the district 
towards the coast, and partly from the 
association of the battle of Vinegar 
Hill, on the 21st June, 1798, when 
the insurgent rebels, in number up- 
wards of 10,000 men, were attacked 
by Gren. Lake and completely routed. 
The rebels had a short time previously 
succeeded in plundering and very 
nearly destroying Ennisoorthy, many 
of the loyal inhabitants having been 
captured, led to the camp, and put to 
death. A great deal of trade is car- 
ried on here, coal being brought up 
the river from Wexford into the inte- 
rior, and com and butter sent back. 

In the neighbourhood of the town 
are "Wilton (Lieut.-Col. H. Alcock), 
Verona (G. P. Newbery, Esq.), Daph- 
ney Castle (T. Davies, Esq.), Monart 
(Nathaniel N. Gookman, Esq.), and 
Killoughrim (Edward Purdon, Esq.); 
the latter in the midst of a thick 
and extensive plantation known as 
Killoughrim Forest. 

The Lieutenant of the county, 
Lord Carew, resides at Castle Boro, 
near the'village of Clonroche, about 6 
miles S. of Ennisoorthy. The river 
Boro flows through the demesne. 

Conveyances. — Cars daily to Water- 
ford, to Wexford ; rail to Dublin. 

Excursions. — 

1. Newtown Barry. 

2. Vinegar Hill. 

3. Ferns. 
[Ireland.^ 



Distances.— Goiey, 18 m. : Wex- 
ford, 13 J; Newtown Barry, 12 ; Perns, 
8; Ballywilliam, 14, [to which lat- 
ter place it is an uninteresting drive, 
relieved during the latter portion by 
fine views of Mount Leinster and 
Blackstairs.] 

The railway from Ennisoorthy to 
Wexford follows the Slaney, the lofty 
wooded banks of which aie very 
beautiful all the way; the natural 
beauties of the river and estuary 
valley being greatly heightened by 
the pleasant country houses and their 
ornamental surroundings. On tiie 
W. bank, a little below the confluence 
of the Urrin, is the site of St. John's 
House for Augustine Friars. On the 
rt. bank, Borodale (D. Beat^, Esq.) 
and Bormount (V. Bartolucci, Esq.) ; 
on the 1. bank Bochfort (Mrs. Ool- 
laghan), and Edermine, the charming 
seat of Sir J. Power, Bart. 

77 m., rt. bank, are Mackmine (J. 
Bichards, Esq.) ; and below, Bellevue 
(A. Cliffe, Esq.) and Brookhill (T. 
Bell, Esq.), opposite to which on rt, 
is Kyle House (Capt. Harvey). 

85J m. Wexford (Rte. 31) {Hotel: 
White's, by Walker, tolerable). Pop. 
11,673. At a distance Wei^ord is 
a pleasant-looking place, owing to its 
situation on the side of a hOl, the 
sunmiit of which is plentifully gar- 
nished with wood and overlooks the 
estuary of the Slaney and Wexford 
Haven. But the streets are incon- 
venient, and so narrow that it is a 
matter of arrangement to prevent 
2 vehicles meeting each other in the 
principal thoroughfares ; indeed, the 
tourist when ensconced in his hotel 
is rather stai-tled to find himself with 
an Asmodeus-like view of the interiors 
of the opposite houses. Wexford is, 
however, a quaint and ancient little 
place, and a day there may be spent 
to advantage. It was originally a 
settlement of Danish rovers, who 
founded it probably in the ninth 
, century, and from its secure harbour 
and its proximity to England was 

Q 



226 



Boute 26. — DfAlin to Wexford. 



Ireland. 



natnially one of the earliest landing- 
plflMKS of the Anglo-Normaii invaders. 
The Danes of Wexfcvd kept their 
independence nntil 1169, when the 
town surrendered to the allied forces 
of King Dermot MacMnrrogh, Fitz- 
stephen, and Fitzgerald. Here 
Strongbow resided and celebrated 
the mairiage of his sister Basilia with 
Eaymond le Gros in 1174. In 1649 
Cromwell took Wexford by storm, 
and made a terrible slaughter of the 
inhabitants; and here, in modem 
times, were the headquarters of the 
rebels in '98, who held it for nearly 
a month, and put to death 91 of the 
inhabitoiits. Wex&ftd was a walled 
town, and possessed an unusually early 
charter, granted by Adomar de Va- 
lence in 1318. Of these walls, " 5 of 
the towers, 3 sqnare and 2 round, are 
stm in a sufficient state of preserva- 
tion to show that the walls were 22 ft. 
high, and were supported on the in- 
side by a rampart of earth 21 ft. thick." 

At the W. end of the town, where 
the W. gate stood, are the ruins of the 
priory of SS. Peter and Paul, usually 
called Selsker ch. This priory was 
founded at the dose of the 12th cent, 
by the Roches, Lords of Fermoy, and 
seems to have partaken a good deal 
of the defensive character : but of late 
years so much modem building has 
taken place here, that it has almost de- 
stroyed the main features of the ruins. 
Connected with the ancient tower is 
the modem E. Eng. ch. of St. Selsker, 
on the site of the spot where the first 
treaty ever signed by the English and 
Irish was ratified in 1169. There is 
a singular legend that Cromwell took 
away the peal of bells from this ch., 
and shipped them off to a ch. in 
Liverpool ; in return for which, free- 
dom of the town and exemption from 
port dues were granted to Wexford 
merchants. 

Nearly in the centre of the town 
are the scanty ruins of St. Mary*s. 

As regards religious edifices, the 
Roman &tholics carry off the palm 
in Wexford, and the tourist should | 



not omit to visit St. Peter's ch., an 
elaborate and really beautiM Dee. 
building with a very lof^ sjrire and a 
remarkably good rose-window. TMs 
ch. is attached to St. Peter's CoUege m 
bummer Hill, which overlooks the 
town, and is, with its square central 
tower, a conspjcuous object. As a 
coimty-town, Wexford possesses the 
iostitutions usually found, but none 
of them are worth seeing, except the 
gaol at the W. end, a ficne castdlated 
building. 

The herring, 03rster, and salmoo 
fisheries employ many persons. 

One of its most singular Jkatnres 
is the wooden bridge built by 
Lemuel Cox, the American bridge 
architect ; as it stands at present it 
consists of 2 causeways projectiBg 
from opposite banks, 650 and 188 tt 
long respectively, llie roadway be- 
tween being 722 ft. The state of the 
bridge -flooring, however, is bocK 
that the traveller who crosses it by 
coach, and sees the boards tilt upas 
it passes, becomes very unceitaiQ 
as to the probability of getting safe 
to the other side : so bad is it indeci 
that the Wexford citizens are be- 
stirring themselves to build a nev 
one. The harbour is formed by ti« 
estuary of the Slaney, extending 8 a 
from N. to S. parallel with the eoBst^ 
and 4 m. wide, comprising an areaot 
14,000 acres. It is well situated for 
commerce from its proximity to Eng- 
land and being at tiie entrance of the 
Irish Channel. The quays extPDd 
1000 yards in length, and there is n 
dockyard and patent slip. 

Ckmveyanees.^'MaSl cars to Enmii- 
oorthy, to Churchtown vi& Broadway, 
and to Waterford. Weekly steamers 
to Bristol and Liverpool. 

Eaicursions. — 

1. Forth Mountains. 

2. Lady's Island* 

3. Ennisoorthy. 

4. Taghmon. (Bte. SI.) 

JDMeoncM*—- Dabtui» 79 in« ; Oony 



Ireland. Boute 26. — Wexfiyrd — Lady's Idand Lake. 22? 



26; Arklow, 36; Enniscorthy, ISJ; 
Forth Mountains, 5 ; New Boss, 22 ; 
Dimcannon, 23 ; BallywiUiam, 28. 



Excursion to Lady's Island Lake. 

The English baronies of Forth and 
Bargy, wiuch extend S. to the sea- 
coast, are replete with interest, partly 
from the number of fortified houses 
and towers, of which there are said 
to be nearly 60 in an area of 40,000 
acres, and partly from the fact that 
the baronies are inhabited by the de- 
scendants of a| Welsh colony, some- 
what in the same way as the districts 
of Oastlemartin and Grower on the 
opposite Pembrokeshire coast are 
inhabited by Flemings. Indeed, it 
would be more correct to say that 
the Wexford colonists were de- 
scended from old residents in Wales, 
rather than Welshmen, as there is 
no doubt but that the Norman, 
English, and Flemish &,milies who 
had gained possessions in South 
Wales, were the adventurers who 
pushed their fortunes and settled 
in Ireland. Many names belonging 
to the Principality, such as Carew, 
Boche, Scurlock, Bany, &c., are 
naturalized in Ireland. The present 
inhabitants of Forth and Bargy are 
said to be peculiar in their dialect, 
habits, and folk-lore. 

"The countye of Wexford" says Sir 
Henry WaUop, writing in 1581 , '* was 
the fyrst place our nation landed 
and inhabited in. To this day they 
generally speak otdde English." The 
Very Bev. Dr. Bussell, President of 
Ma}Tiooth Ck)Ilege, read a very inte- 
resting paper on the people of this 
<listrict, before the British Associa- 
tion, in Dublin, August, 1857. It is 
well worth perusal. 

Quitting Wexford by the S. road 
and leaving the Forth Mountains to 
the rt., the tourist reaches, 4 m., 
Johnstown Gastie (the Earl of Gra- 
oard), ft beautiful castellated resi- 
^nce built of Carlow granite and 



incorporated with a tower of the old 
fortress. The grounds are very orna- 
mental and well laid out. 

6} m. Bathmacknee (Gapt. Aim- 
strong), near which, in remarkably 
good preservation, is the ancient 
fortalioe of the same name. About 
4 m. to the S. is another castellated 
residence, that of Bargy, formerly 
the property of the ill-fated Bagenal 
Harvey, and now of his descendant 
Major EJArvey. It is situated at 
the head of Tacumshin Lake, a pill 
that runs inland for some littie dis- 
tance. 'The coast in this neigh- 
bourhood was notorious for the 
number of wrecks that annually 
took place, before it was lighted as 
well as it now is. The Saltee 
Islands enjoyed a particularly bad 
reputation amongst sailors, as there 
are a number of banks and half- 
tide rocks extending from thence to 
the Tuskar, but they are now pro- 
tected by a light-ship showing a 
fixed double light, moored in 32 
fathoms water, 4 miles from the 
great Saltee Island, and 19 miles 
from the Tuskar. Between Bargy 
and Bathmacknee is the ruined ch. 
of Mayglass, which possesses some 
semicircular-headed arches. 

13 m., at the head of Lady's 
Island Lake, are the ruins of tiie 
same name, erected in 1237 by 
Bodolph de Lamporte or Lambert, 
and consisting — 1, of a keep, entered 
by an arched gateway and con- 
nected by side walls with the water 
on either side ; 2, a tower adjoining 
appears to have been built at a later 
date, as it is of limestone, whereas 
the former one is of granite ; 3, of 
an Augustinian monastery, which, 
being dedicated to the Virgin, pro- 
bably gave the name to the island. 

On the coast to the E. is BaUy- 
trent House (J. Talbot, Esq.), in 
whose grounds is a remarkably 
perfect rath, consisting of 2 con- 
centric enclosures, the outer one 
being 649 yards in circumfeience. 

Q2 



228 



ttaiUe 27. — Dublin to Arklow, 



IHeUsd. 



Some distance out at sea is the 
famous Tuskar Rock, on which a 
lighthouse was established in 1815. 
"It consists of 21 Argand lamps 
acting on reflectors, having 7 lamps 
presenting one light every 2 minutes, 
while one seven of the 21 presents a 
deep red light every 6 minutes — the 
term of the revolution. The lights are 
105 ft. from the base, and the vane 
from highwater mark is 134 ft." 
The district to the W. between 
Wexford and Duncannon is de- 
scribed in Bte. 23. 



ROUTE 27. 

DUBLIN TO RATHDRUM AND ARK- 
LOW. — TOUR THROUGH WICKLOW. 

A tour through Widdow is the 
great delight of all Dublin residents, 
who are, indeed, fortunate in having 
almost at their own doors a succes- 
sion of changing scenery, in which 
mountain, sea, wood, and river, are 
blended together in delicious land- 
scapes, from the quietly beautiful to 
the strikingly romantic, furnishing 
an environ that no other city in the 
world can boast. 

The direct line from Dublin to 
Bray is described in Rte. 26, and the 
rly. from Kingstown to Dublin in 
Bte. 1. It will therefore be sufficient 
if we commence this route from Kings- 
town. The rly., which up to this 
point has closely hugged the sea- 



shore, now runs inland for a Bhort 
distance, cutting o£f the promontory of 
Dalkey 8 m., and passing on 1. Bul- 
lock's Castle, — a taU, square keep, 
with Irish stepped battlement 
flanked by a square turret at one 
angle, and surrounded by a bawn. 
A little distance from Sorrento Point, 
on which is a terraee of fiishionable 
residences, is Dalkey Idandy sepa- 
rated from the mainland by a somid 
900 yards long and 300 wide. Upm 
it is a small ruined ch., originally 
founded for Benedictines. Dalkey, 
however, does not found its claims to 
distinction upon this, but upon cer- 
tain farcical proceedings periodically 
enacted at the dose of the last cen- 
tury, when it was called the Kingdom 
of Dalkey, and was the seat of a an- 
gular mock ceremonial, where the so- 
called King held his Court amidst 
much noisy rejoicing and festivity. He 
was dignified with the title (^ "His 
facetious Majesty Stephen the Fiist, 
King of Dafkey, Emperor of Mng- 
lins. Prince of the Holy Island d 
Magee, Elector of Lambay and In^ 
land's Eye, Defender cf hia on 
Faith and Respecter of all otbtB« 
Sovereign of the Illustrious OitJ 
of the Lobster and Periwinkk/ 
Such an absurd burlesque iruori 
scarcely be worth the chronicling, l»i 
not the Epirit of the times, togethr 
with the social status of the actois 
infused into it a large amomit ft 

Solitics, so much so as to cause th' 
aily papers to devote a regular co- 
lumn to the doings of "the Kingdom 
of Dalkey." 

Conspicuous on the rt, are tb* 
granite-quarries of Dalkey and Xi'- 
liney Hill, which rises in bf>lJ 
outline to the height of 480 ft Tlh- 
former of these were wwked fWH» 
1817 to 1857, and suwlied most of the 
stone that was used in the formatioD 
of Kingstown Harbour. "la general 
character the Killiney and Dalkty 
granite is rather quartzoscY of pale. 
dear-gray colour, and is tnvencd 
by numerous veins of eurite. Tbi&«i 



Ireland. 



ifottfe 27. — KiUineii — Bray, 



229 



frequently assume the magnitude of 
thick dykes, one of which to the N. 
of the rock called Black Castle, on 
the shore of Killiney Bay, measures 
40 yds. across. On the southern flank 
of Roche's Hill, close to the garden 
wall of Killiney Park, is a remarkable 
granite dyke traversing the mica 
date," — Cfeological Survey. The 
hill itself is the property of R. War- 
ren, Esq., but he permits visitors 
with his written order access to enjoy 
the glorious panorama from the sum- 
mit. The botanist will find on its 
slopes Asplenium maximum, Galium 
erectum, G. saxatile, and Orithmum 
maritimnm or the samphire-plant. 

" The granite slopes of Dalkey and 
Killiney have received their contours 
from the action of ice moving towards 
the south-east ; that is to say, from 
ice ascending from the plain and 
moving over the ridge, the general 
direction being, according to Mr. 
Close, N. 43° W. The granite bosses 
at the comer of Killiney Park, near 
a small quarry, where they are worn 
into 'crag and tail,* show similar 
phenomena. The stream has also 
ascended and flowed over the quartz- 
ite ridge of Shankhill, in a direction 
nearly S., and at an elevation of 
912 ft. ; it has passed down the gorge 
of the Scalp and has swept along the 
Greater and Lesser Sugarloaf Hills, 
where glacial markings are recorded 
at elevations of 800 to 900 ft. The 
stream was here deflected slightly by 
the uprising of the former beautiful 
cone." — Hidl. 

Near the martello tower stands 
"The Druid's Judgment Seat,'* 
formed of rough granite blocks, 
" which bear many indications of 
having been re-arranged at no veiy 
distant period.'* Mr. Wakeman con- 
siders it to be an archaeological for- 
gery, founded on a veritable early 
remain. 

The antiquary should also visit 
Killiney ch., one of those ancient and 
primitive buildings so characteristic 
of early Irish architecture. It is about 



the same date as the ch. at Glenda- 
lough (p. 237), and consists of a nave 
measuring 12^ ft. in breadth, and a 
chancel only 9^ ft. The doorway is 
in the west gable, and is square- 
headed, with slightly inclined sides. 
Notice the primitive form of cross 
sculptured on the soffit of the lintel. 
The height of the circular choir arch 
is 6^ ft. The E. window is square- 
headed, with inwardly inclined splays. 
" The comparatively modem addition 
on the northern side of the nave, 
which appears to have been erected 
as a kind of aisle, is connected with 
the ancient ch. by several openings 
broken through the N. side wafi. 
The pointed doorway offers a striking 
contrast to that in the W. gable; 
and its eastern window differs from 
that in the chancel, being larger, 
and chamfered on the exterior." — 
Wakeman, At the summit of Kil- 
liney is an obelisk, marking the 
spot where a Duke of Dorset was 
thrown and killed when hunting. 
The visitor can, if he prefers, de- 
scend on the other side of the hill to 
Mount Druid, and, after seeing the 
cromlech, cateh a ^in on the Har- 
court Road line, 

13 J m. JBray^ the Brighton of Dublin, 
and the sunniest and gayest of water- 
ing-places. (Hoteh : Breslin^s Royal 
Marine and the International, both 
first-class; Jesson's Royal, formerly 
Quin's, facing the sea.) It is only 
within the last few years that Bray 
has emerged from the primitive quiet 
of the fishing-village into the full- 
blown gaiety which it now exhibits 
— a change partly owing to the exqui- 
site scenery of which it is the portal, 
and partly to the earnest spirit with 
which Mr. Dargan devoted himself to 
improving and beautifying a locality 
wMch his farseeing eye told him was 
so admirably adapted for it. In one 
respect, too, he was fortunate, for, as 
the ground was new, there was little or 
no portion of ancient Bray to be pulled 
down ; so that to all intents and puy- 



230 



Bouie 27.— DtMin to ArUow. 



iBOiAm 



poses we may consider it essentially 
a place of to-day. The station is close 
to tiie sea, between the two large 
hotels of Breslin and the Interna- 
tional, both of them establishments of 
great size, and some pretensions to 
architectmal beauty. The situation 
of the town is very charming, occupy- 
ing a broadish basin, and surrounded 
on all sides by hills, save on that which 
is bounded by the sea. On the N. 
are Eilliney and Two Bocks; on the 
W. the mountains at the back of En- 
nist^rry; more to the S. are the 
Sugarloaves, with the lofty range of 
Douce, which, as seen fiom Bray Head, 
rises directly fix>m the town. From 
all these hills wooded shoulders are 
thrown out, softening their stem fea- 
tures, and insensibly merging into 
the well-kept grounds and parks of 
the many residences in the neigh- 
bourhood. Bray itself contains little 
to interest the tourist, save a very 
pretty old ch. with a tower at the W. 
end, as almost all the other build- 
ings are modem. From the gene- 
ral loveliness of the place, its accessi- 
bility to Kingstown and Dublin, and 
its genial and even temperature, it is 
much sought after as a place of resi- 
dence ; and in consequence many fine 
terraces and streets have risen up with 
wonderful rapidity. The neighbour- 
hood, however, is not so soon ex- 
hausted as the town, and affords a 
constant succession of pleasant drives 
and excursions. 

ConveyancBB, — ^Bail to Dublin and 
WicMow; omnibus to Enniskeny 
three times a day. 

Distances, — ^Dublin, 12 m. ; Kil- 
liney, 4 ; Kingstown, 7 ; Shankill, 2\ ; 
the S(»lp, 5; KUteman, 6; the 
Dargle, 3 ; Tinnahinch, 3^ ; Powers- 
court, 4; Enniskerry, 3; Glencree, 
9 ; Waterfiall, 7 ; Boundwood, 124 ; 
Glendalough and seven churches, 19 ; 
Annamoe, 15; Lough Bray, 10; 
Delgany, 5; Bray Head, lA; Glen 
of the Downs, 5 ; Devil's Glen, 10 ; 



Newtown Mount Kennedy, 9; Bath- 
drum, 24; Wicklow, 16. 



EXCUBSIONS FBOM BBAT. 

1. Bray to Bray Head,--W 
southem road towards Delgany shoold 
be taken, passing 1. Newcourt; 1 m. 
the suburb of Newtown Vevay; and 
soon after on 1. the entrance to the 
demesne of Bray Head, the maoaoQ 
of which — once occupied by Mr. G. 
Putland — ^is now a convent. 2 m. 
rt is Kilmddery, — a very cfaanning 
Elizabethan residence of the Eailof 
Meath, who permits visitors to inspect 
it on Mondays and Tuesdays. In the 
interior is a fine hall, wainscoted vith 
oak, with a carved oak ceiling. This 
leads to several beautiful apartments, 
of which the drawing-room is par- 
ticularly worthy of notice. Kilrod- 
dery was built after designs by Ho^ 
risen, the architect of Shelton. The 
gardens are worth seeing, and the 
views from the grounds, which dope 
up towards the Little SugarkaC 
are exquisite. Opposite Kilniddeiy 
Gate is a road leading up to tbt 
Bray Head, 655 ft., a fine hreezr 
headland, commanding a noble peoo- 
rama of the Wicklow HUls and the 
sea. Should the pedestrian wish 
it, he may extend his ramble to the 
S., rejoining the turnpike at Wind- 
gate ; but the pleasantest way home- 
waids is to get on to what is called 
the Bailway Walk, which c&rs 
some fine scenery of the ravines and 
gullies across which l^e line is 
carried. The ramble to Windgate, 
and back by the Head, will be 6 m. 
The geologist will find at the feot of 
the Head specimens of the Oldhamia 
antiqua ; this, together with Howth, 
being the only known locality in 
Irelimd. He shoul4 also observe the 
polished and striated sur&oes of the 

Suartz rock which may be traced to 
tie summit of the hill, 793 fL The 
general direction of 8tnation(aooad- 
ing to Mr. Close) is S. 31 £. The 



Irbland. Bouie 27. — Excm'siona from Bra^. 



231 



lidge itself is swept bare, boulder 
clay is piled to great deptiis on the 
slopes, and erratic blocks of limestone 
from the North rest on this, all oon- 
cmring to demonstrate the south- 
eastward direction of the ice flow. 



2. The Glen of the Bourne is de- 
scribed in the cQQtmnation of the 
route (p. 233). 



3. To the Sodlp (p. 241), through 
Enniskerry, retnniing by Old Con- 
naught, once the residence of the 
celebrated Lord Plunket, Lord 
Chancellor of Lreland, whidi, fix>m 
its gdtuation, is a conspicuous object 
in all Bray views. 



4. The Dargle and Powerscourt ate 
the great lions of the district, and 
the favourite picnic resort of every 
Ihiblin holiday-maker. The road 
turns off from the one to Dublin, 
and runs through Little Bray, follow* 
ing upwards the valley of the Bray 
river, locally called tiie Valley of 
Diamonds; it is set off with manv 
a pretty viUa, and begirdled with 
woods, over which the distant hills 
show their summits. On the rt. are 
Cork Abbey, Woodbrook and Shan- 
ganna Castle. The seat of Mr. 
Phenias Biall, Old Conna Hill, is a 
prominent object looking from Bray ; 
and more to the S., Sir Charles 
Bomville's demesne may be seen. 
More extensive views are obtamed 
from Lord Herbert's new road, which 
£Edls into the main road at the pretty 
new ch. of Kilbride. On the N. side 
of the Cookstown stream is St. Valery, 
the picturesque residence of the late 
Judge Crampton, the grounds of which 
are worth a visit. It is now occupied 
by Lord Plunket. At Fassaioe (Ed- 
Ward Banington, Esq.) is a well- 



preserved cross, with a sculptui^ 
representation of Our Saviour. A 
little further, on 1., is the entrance 
to the Dargle, the road to En- 
niskerry keeping straight on by 
the Cookstown river. By this en- 
trance, however, pedestnans only 
are admitted, oars having to keep 
along the road and vrait for their 
occupants at the second gate. The 
walks on the northern beiuc, through 
which the visitor is allowed to ramHe, 
belong to the Powerscourt demesne ; 
and tiiose on the opposite side to 
CharleviUe, the property of Lord 
Monck. The Dargle, about which so 
much has been said and written, is 
a de^, thickly-wooded glen, at the 
bottom of which flows the Dargle 
river, an impetuous mountain-stream ; 
and in truth it well deserves ad- 
miration, for a more lovely dingle 
it is difficult to conceive. Neverthe- 
less it is a question whether it would 
have been me theme of so much ad- 
miration were it not for its easy acces- 
sibiliiy and its proximity to Dublin. 
The chief points of rendezvous are the 
Lover's Leap, " a huge rock, projecting 
&r from tiie glen's side, and overlook- 
ing rt. and 1. the still depths of the ra- 
vine. Shadowing, and bending away 
in a densely-wooaed slope, the oppo- 
site side of the glen rises grandly up- 
wards; while 300 ft. down below us 
steals the ever-present river towards 
the sea, the blue line of whose distant 
horizon rules the topmost branches of 
the trees away on our left." — PoweU. 
There are also the Moss House and 
the View Bock, &om whence a good 
distant view is gained of Powers- 
court, backed up by the lofty ranges 
of Kippure. Having exhausted tiie 
beauties of the Dargle, the tourist 
emerges from the second, or farthest 
gate, into the tumpikie-road, between 
Dublin and Bathdrum. If a short 
excursion only is intended, he can 
turn to the rt. to Enniskerry, and 
retrace his way back to Bray by the 
N. bank of the Cookstown stieam ; 
but, if bent on seeing the water- 



282 



Boute 27. — Dublin to ArJdow. 



Ibelanb. 



fall, he should follow the road to 
tiie 1., running between the woods 
of Powersoourt and the grounds of 
Tinnahinch (Lady Louisa Grattan), 
a plain house, surrounded by dense 
woods, which founds its reputation 
on having been the residence and fa- 
vourite retreat of Henry Grattan, to 
whom it was presented by the Irish 
Parliament. There is an exquisite 
view at Tinnahinch Bridge, where the 
Dargle is again crossed, and where the 
road asoends, having on 1. Bushy 
Park (Bt. Hon. Judge Keogh) and 
Ballyomey (Maj. Kenny); and on 
rt. Charleville, the seat of Lord 
Monck. At the S. end of these de- 
mesnes is the Glebe House, 4^ m., 
where a road on rt. turns off to enter 
Lord Powersoourt's deer-park, a large 
enclosure of some 800 acres. 

It is a charming excursion through 
the deer-park to the waterfall, where 
the Dargle is precipitated over a rock 
300 ft. in height, immediately under 
the N.E. side of the Douce Moun- 
tain. It is certainly a very fine fall, 
though, like every other, dependent for 
scenic effect on the volume of water 
in the river. From hence an ascent 
may be made to the siunmit of the 
Douce, 2384 ft., which, with its com- 
peers and neighbours, War Hill, 
2250 ft., and Kippure, 2475 ft., are 
amongst the loftiest of this northern 
chain of Wicklow mountains. The 
views, seawards and landwards, are 
wonderfully fine, the latter embracing 
range after range in Wicklow, and 
even in Waterfom. 

Powersoourt waterfall is usually 
the limit of a Bray excursion, but k 
the traveller has time he may, witii 
advantage, follow from tiie deer-park 
the road up the Glencree toLoughbray 
(5 m. from the point where the Dargle 
is crossed at Yalclusa). Here are ^o 
mountain tarns. Upper and Lower 
Lough Bray, occupying deep basins 
just under the summit of Kippure, 
being 1453 ft. and 1225 ft. respec- 
tively above the level of the sea. 
Amongst the plants that have their 



habitat here are, Isoetes lacustiis, 
Foa pratensis, and Listera cordata. 
On the N. bank of the ktter lake, 
which is much the largest, is a pio 
turesque old English cottage, bmlt 
for the late Sir Philip Crampton, the 
famous surgeon, by the Duke of 
Northumberland; very near whidi 
spot the road fiedls into the Giot 
Military Bead, and, winding roond 
the head of the glen at Glenoee 
Barracks, now a reformatory for boys, 
runs down on the opposite side 
to Enniskerry, passing at the back 
of the grouncU of Fowencoart (Loiti 
Powersoourt). To see the grounds and 
house an order is necessary, to be ob- 
tained from the agent at Enniskeiry, 
or from Mr. Breslin, Marine Hotd, 
Bray. The mansion is aplain building, 
chiefly remarkable for its size and tte 
unsurpassable beauty of its situatiaii. 
The principal interest internally is tbe 
large saloon, in which Greorge lY. par* 
tookofabanquetinl821. Thewholi? 
of the demesne occupies 26,000 acR^ 
being the largest and most vaiied 
estate of any in this part of the kis?- 
dom. The botanist will find in tb 
neighbourhood of Powersoourt and 
Dargle — Polypbdium phlegoptem. 
Aspidium dumetosum (and on Douk 
Mt.), Trichomanes brevisetum, Ht- 
menophyllum Tunbridgense, Carex 
pendula, C. strigosa (Dargle), Fes* 
tuca calamaria (Dargle), Poa pn* 
tensis, Gircsea lutetmna, Areittia 
trinervis, Viola palustris; and in 
Glencree, Onions pratensis, 'Ryvosssfy 
phyllum Wilsoni. If the tourist in- 
tends seeing the water&ll ate the 
house, he should leave the perk by 
a gate opposite Tinnahinch; bat if 
he is retmning to Bray, by a fina 
Grecian gateway very near uie little 
town of 

JSnniskerry {Hotel: Shirley's, 
where tickets to enter Fowenoobit 
demesne may be also had), &* 
mous for ite situation in Uie oenue 
of a district teeming with beautj. 
Nearly opposite the park-gates is a 
very pretty Protestant ch., the spire of 



i^£LANi>. BoiUe 27. — Hottyhroohi-'Newtcion Mount Kennedy. 238 

Ylnoh is sheathed with oopper. For in Kent, however, ig his native place. 
lie pedestrian who wishes to extend The Kev. C.Wolfe, who wrote the lines 
iia rambles with greater ease, or for on the death of Sir John Moore — 
:lie angler, Enniskeiry is more con- 
renient than Bray. 

An omnibus runs daily between 
Ike two places. The pedestrian 
dionld not omit to ascend the Great 
^xigarloa^ which is perfectly easy, 
uhoiigh steep, and commands a finer 
panoramic view than any mountain 
in the district, embracing in dear 
Breather the hills of Wales. 



Bray to Arklow.^ 

Three roads leave Bray for the S. ; 
the one nearest the coast runs direct 
o Wicklow peurallel with the rly. (Rte. 
26). The middle one should be fol- 
lowed by the tourist to Newtown 
Siount Kennedy. 

2 1. is HoUyhrooky the seat of Sir 
Greorge Hodson, and a &vourite show- 
plaoe for visitors to Bray. The house 
is of Tudor style, and in very good 
taste. It replaced an older mansion, 
dating &am the 17th century, a &ict 
to wMch may be attributed the age 
and luxuriance of the shrubs and 
evergreens, particularly the ilex and 
arbutus. HoUybrook was once the 
residence of Robin Adair, made 
famous in Irish song, — 'Aileen 
Aroon.' On the opposite side of the 
road is Wingfield (H. Darby, Esq.). 
The scenery is wonderfully pictu- 
rBsque, as the road passes a defile 
between the Great and Little Sugar- 
loaf, two of the most conspicuous 
and characteristic eminences in Wick- 
low, — the former 1659 ft., and the 
latter 1120 ft. Although steep and 
very conelike in summit, they are 
perfectly accessible, and afford a view 
well worth the trouble of ascent. 
The Hymenophyllum Wilsoni and 
the pretty Potentilla argentea grow 
on their sides. Thepeasants will tell 
you that General Wolfe was bom at 
Kilmurry, close by here ; Westerham, 



" Not a drum was heard," 

was a relation of General Wolfe's. 
He was bom in Kildare, and is 
buried in the parish churchyard of 
Queenstown, co. Cork. 

At the 5 m. the tourist enters a very 
charming scene at the Glen of ike 
Dovms, a deep woodland ravine of a 
good mile inlength, tlie banks of which 
on either side rise to the height of 
some 800 ft. It is probably the bed of 
an ancient river, the waters of which 
liave been displaced by a change in 
the relative levels of the surrounding 
country. At the entrance is Glen- 
view, the residence of W. lindesay, 
Esq.; and running parallel with it 
on the 1. is Bellevue, the beautiful 
park of the La Toudie fiamily. A 
very extensive view is obtained from 
a little temple erected on the top of 
the bank. At the S. entrance of the 
glen Fa road on 1. leads to Delgany 
{Hotel: Fitzsimon's), from whence 
the traveller may return to Bray by 
rail], 

9 m. Newtovm Mount Kennedy 
{Hotd: Newell's) is a small town, 
remarkable only for the charming 
scenery and for the number of hand- 
some residences in its neighbourhood 
— ^Mount Kennedy House (Major- 
Gen. Cuninghame); Tinnapark (J. 
Clarke, Esq.); Glendarragh (T. 
Barton, Esq.); Altadore (late Rev. 
L. Hepenstall), in the grounds of 
which are some well-arranged cas- 
cades; Woodstock House (Oal. Tot- 
tenham). 

Conveyances, — Cars to Delgany 
station ; to Greystones. 

Distances. — Bathdrum, 15 m. ; 
Devil's Glen, 8 ; Glen of the Downs, 
4 ; Kilcoole village, 2— station, 3. 

The next point of interest is at 
12 m, the prettily wooded glen of 



234 



Raule 27. — Dublin to ArhUno. 



Ireland 



Dunran, where there is some good 
rock-landscape. 

15 m. Afford (Hotd: Ashford) 
is a pleasant spot lor a short stay, 
and the centre of some of the pret- 
tiest scenery in Wicklow. It is situ- 
ated on the bank of the Vartry river, 
which, after flowing through the 
Devil's Glen, has but a short course 
prior to its entering the Murrough of 
Wicklow. lm.&om Ashford to the E. 
is Newiath Bridge {Hotd: Hunter's, 
good), adjoining which is Bosanna 
House, the seat of D. Tighe, Esq., a 
former member of whose fsmily lives in 
the recollection of the lovers of Irish 
poetry as the authoress of * Psyche.' 
The grounds and house of Broom- 
field (F, Wakefield, Esq.) are worth 
a visit. But the excursion par 
excellence of Ashford is the Devil's 
Glen, a very fine and romantic defile of 
nearly 2 m. in length, through which 
the Yartry flows. It is of a different 
nature &om that of the Dargle, the 
chief characteristic of which is wood ; 
while here rock scenery predominates. 
Oars are not allowed to drive up, but 
have to wait on the road some little 
distance fixxm the head of the glen. 
Bordering the ravine on either side 
are Glenmore Gastle, the seat of F. 
Synge, Esq., and Ballycuny House 
(0. Tottenham, Esq.); and imme- 
diately at the entrance, adjoining 
the bridge of Nun's Gross, is the 
Protestant ch. The botanist will 
find in the glen Asplenium ceterach. 
Between Boundwood and the he^ 
of the glen are the newly constructed 
reservoirs of the Dublin Waterworks, 
from whence the waters of the Vartry 
are made to supply the necessities of 
the Dublin population. Here is a 
storage reservoir of 400 acres, or five 
times that of the iU-fetted reservoir of 
Sheffield. When filled, this hawn 
will hold 2,482,810,483 gaUons of 
water, being a supply of 12,000,000 
gallons daily for 200 days. The em- 
bankment is 1600 feet long by 500 
wide, the material being puddled 
*aoed mth granite. 



DUtanoes from .i«^/ord.— Batb 
drum, 10 m. ; Devil's Glen, 1; New 
rath Bridge, 1 ; Bathnew, 2^; Wickj 
low, 4i ; Newtown Mount Kenned; 
6; Glendalough, 9^; Annamoe, 6 
Boundwood, 12. 

The visitor has choice of two ioa< 
—one, through Ballinalea to Glei 
(Bte. 26), a picturesque and prettily 
wooded route ; the other, on the Y 
side of C^jric^ Mount, 1252 ft., 
more hiUy and desolate, until ^i 
2 or 3 miles of 

BaOidnim {Irm»: ''Cowley's;' 
"Fitzwilliam"), perched in 
most romantic way, like many a Ty{ 
rolese village, on the ste^ banks of ' 
Annamoe, which runs through a 
beautifully wooded ravine. Nei 
the town itself nor the aoconunodati< 
offers sufficient inducement for 
traveller to stay here ; and he 
only bait his horse or change his 
previous to his excursion to Gle 
lough or Arklow, to which lai 
place he may, if he choose, proceedl 
by the rly. (Bte. 26), ronning betweo' 
Bray and Enniscorthy, but by tlitf 
means he will lose half the beaotf 
of the route. (For excursion to Gks- 
dalough, see p. 236.) 
. Corweyances. — Bail to Woodffl 
Bridge, Arklow, Ennisoorthy, 82^1 
Dublin. 

Distances, — Ashfoird, 10 in- : 
Wooden Bridge, 8 ; Wicklow, 8 ; Ark- 
low, 12; Meeting of the Waters, 3; 
Drumgoff, 7; Laragfa, 7; Sevia 
CJhurches, 8 ; Boundwood, 12 ; Anoa 
moe. 9i ; Devil's Glen, 11 ; Bray, 25. 

The road to Wooden Bridge an^ 
Arklow now follows the high gromnj 
on the rt. bank of the Annfliii<^< 
into the lovely vaUey of which tlie 
traveller gets firequent peeps. Fa^ 
ing Avondale ( — Edwards, EsqlanJ 
Kingston House, the magnmcent 
situation of Oastle Howard (R. Brooke, 
Esq.) is the principal object of atttro- 
tion, together with the exquisite vif v 
of the Vale of Avoca and ^e Meeting 
of the Waters, described in Moorc ^i 
well-known stanssas. 



Ibeland, jRouie 27.— Vale of Avoca — Tmmkdy, 



235 



Oyerlookiiig Gastte Howard is the 
bare ridge of Cronebane» on the 
summit of which, 816 ft., is "the 
Mottha Stone," which antiquaries 
have described as a Druidical altar, 
and the local tradition a>s hurling 
stone of Finn Maooul. It is about 
10 ft high, the same breadth, and 
H ft. long. The ridge upon which 
it rests is of Lower Silurian schist. 
** From its side the eye ranges across 
the richly wooded glens of Avoca, 
aad of the Avonbeg, away up into 
the wilds of Glenmalure and 
Glendalough, and then to the cloud- 
capped heights of Lugnaquilla, Glo- 
heroagh, and Kippure; the moun- 
tain birtiiplace of the great wanderer 
by our side." — HvXL 

"The meeting" is at the conflu- 
ence of the Avonmore and Avonbeg, 
which here unite in their course to 
the sea at Arklow. When seen firom 
above the vale is charming, though 
it must be confessed that tourists often 
feel a certain amount of disappoint- 
ment in it, a necessary result when 
any place or thing has been exagge- 
rated ; and were it not for the immor- 
tality conferred on Avoca by Ireland's 
poet, it would have simply ranked 
as one out of the hundreds of pretty 
valleys in this district. Moreover the 
soft charm about it is rather dispelled 
by the new rly. &om Bathdrum to 
Gorey, and by the fact that the vale 
has become the scene of very consider- 
able mining operations. ** The metal- 
liferous day-slate district occupies but 
a small space, being very narrow in 
breadth, and not more than 10 m. 
long from Groghan-Einshela on the 
S. to W. Acton on the N. At va- 
rioos depths occur beds of what is 
known as soft ground, containing one 
or more layers of copper pyrites, va- 
rying In thickness, and sometimes 
acquiring a breadth of several fathoms. 
Five of such beds are met with, one 
in Gonnaree, two in the old or upper 
mine of Oronbane, one in the new 
mine, and one in Tigroney." — K<me, 
These 3 mines are on the E, side 



of the Avoca, and on the W. are 
those of Ballymurtagh, which have 
yielded a great deal of copper. As- 
sociated with the copper lodes are 
beds of bisulphuret of iron, which for 
many years was an actual impedi- 
ment and detriment to the work ; but 
owing to an exorbitant tariff placed 
on the article of sulphur by the Nea- 
politan Government, the iron pyrites 
became very valuable as an article 
&om which to extract the pmre sul- 
phur. "The copper -ore at Bally- 
murtagh contains at least 30 per cent, 
of sulphmr-ore ; and the greater part 
of the pyrites workings in the same 
mine contain about 2J per cent, of 
copper." 

80 m. at Newbridge is a very pretty 
new ch. Continuing down the vale, 
and passing 1. Bsdlyarthur House 
(Col. G. Symes Bayley), the tourist 
arrives at a second and lar more beau- 
tiful meeting of the waters at 83 m. 
Wooden Bridge, where there is an ex- 
cellent hotel (G. Hunter). 

The vaUeys of the Aughrim and 
the Gold Mines rivers here fall into 
that of the Avoca, which turns to the 
S.E. to join the sea at Arklow. 



Branch to ShiUdagh, 

!Prom Wooden Bridge a branch 
rly. runs up the Aughrim valley, 
which contains some good scenery 
in the vicinity of Aughrim bridge 
and Bodenagh bridge, where the 
two streams of the Ow and Derry 
join to form the Aughrim. At the 
head of the valley of the Derry and 
surroimded by hills is Tirmdhdy, a 
neat little town belonging to Earl 
Fitzwilliam, whose seat of Coolattin 
is about 3 m. to the S. Adjoining 
it, and indeed forming part of the 
property, is the wood of Shillelagh, 
famous for having given its name 
to the Irishman's stick. As the 
greater portion of the wood was cut 
down about 1693 to supply the iron- 



236 



lioute 27. — Dublin to ArUaw, 



ISELAN 



works of that period, only a few 
plantations are left. Except for tide 
scenery, Tinnahely offers no induce- 
ment for a visit. 16-^ m. beyond is 
the village of Shillelagh, where the 
railway terminates. 



Return to Main Soute, 

instances from Wooden Bridge :— 
Tinnahely, 12 m. ; Aughrim, 4^ ; 
Bathdrum, 8 ; Arklow, 4, the road to 
which place is replete with beauties 
of wood and river, passing between 
the demesnes of rt. Glenart Castle, 
the seat of Gapt. the Hon. Wm. Proby, 
and 1. Shelton Abbey, a beautiful 
Gothic mansion of the Earl of Wick- 
low, built from designs by Morrison, 
•* meant to convey to the spectator 
the idea of an ancient abbey, changed 
after the Reformation into a baronial 
residence.'* In the interior are a 
beautiful hall and saloon, leading 
into the cloister gallery, by which 
the chief apartments are approached. 
There are some good paintings and 
a fine library, the greater portion of 
which was collected by Lord Chan- 
cellor West. Visitors are allowed to 
inspect the grounds. Passing rt. 
Ballyraine (H. Hodgson, Esq.) and 
Lambertown, the tourist arrives at 
37 m. Arklow (Bte. 26). 



Excursion from Ratlidrum to Glen- 
dalough and Boundwood, 

The tourist who prefers a wild 
mountain route instead of the shel- 
tered river valleys, may take a cir- 
cuitous course from Bathdrum to 
the Seven Churches by the Great 
Military Boad, joining it at Drum- 
goff Barracks, 7 m. This fine work 
was completed with a view to open- 
ing up the fastnesses of the Wick- 
low Mts. during the troublous times 
of the rebellion, and thus enabling 
large bo4ies of military and police 



to move quickly through the distiic 
It commences in the hilly coim^ 
some 4 m. N. of Tinnahely, and nm 
due N. to the Barracks of Agin 
vannagh, Drumgofi^ Laragb, an 
Glencree, keeping for the whole dv 
tai;ice a solitary mountain oouiae,«i 
the height of 1600 or 1700 ft abom 
the sea, and but seldom descendii|: 
to any of the valleys. From Glea 
cree it continues over the Killakeii 
HiUs (passing KiUakee House, the 
residence of Mrs. White, fromwhenea 
one of the finest possible views is ob- 
tained over l^e Dublin plain), ad 
finally ends at Bathfamham. Fioa 
Drumgoff a road runs W, to Paol** 
vin : this is a good route from wlici 
to ascend LugnaquiUa, which toveu 
on the 1. to the height of 3039 ft; 
the view extends a marvellona dis- 
tance, especially on the S. into Wex- 
ford, Waterford, and Cork. 

"The remarkably straight aaJ 
picturesque valley of Gl^iaobtrt, 
which lies along the line of a ^ 
&ult, and is drained by the Avoo^ 
river, furnishes at least two esmvft 
of terminal moraines. On asceixi^ 
the valley from the Vale of At«*» 
through Ballinaoor Park, w »» 
struck by the large number of hD.'i' 
boulders of gmnite which have Iw: 
brought down from the interior ff 
the mountains. One of these, nttf 
the road, measures 12 x 7 x 4 J ft, aii*^ 
from this a large fragment had a{-* 
parently been hroken oflf and 1'** 
alongside. At the upper end of tiit' 
park, near Strand Brioge, and vliiie 
a lateral valley enters ftom the J^- 
immense piles of moraine matttr 
laden with granite boulders he ac^'^* 
the valley, extending for some dis- 
tance lateridly along the nortbem 
side, and cut through by the Atod- 
beg near its centre. Here we have 
clearly an old terminal moraine oi 
the glacier which formerly extendt-J 
down this noble glen, and draiotd 
the snowfields of LugnaquiUa and 
the neighbouring" heights. Abo\{' 
the moraiae, the flanks of the vall« v 



\ 



lEELAKt). 



Houie 27. — Olendalough, 



237 



may be observed to be glaciated to a 
height of above 500 ft. above the bed 
of the river ; above which traces of 
glaciation become indistinct, or en- 
tirely disappear. A second and 
smaUer moraine occurs about two 
miles higher up Glenmalure, near 
the hotel, in the form of an irregular 
embankment, which has evidently 
extended originally across the valley 
from side to side. The terraced 
surface of the valley above the 
moraine may once have been the 
bed of a lake which has since been 
drained, the river having cut a 
deep channel for itself through the 
moraine. This is probably one of 
the latest examples of local moraines 
amongst the Wicklow mountains; 
formed during a pause in the retreat 
of the glacier towards the head of 
the valley, while the snows of the 
surrounding heights were melting 
away."— jBTwZZ. 

The return from Kathdrum to 
Dublin should be through the western 
portion of the co. of WicMow, following 
upwards the stream of the Avonmore ; 
the road runs through thick groves 
of wood, at a considerable height 
above the river, to 3 m. Clara Bridge, 
an extremely pretty village at tlie 
bottom of the Vale of Avonmore, on 
the sides of which rise Trooperstown 
Hill, 1408 ft., on rt., and Kirikee, 1559 
ft., on 1. Nearly at the head of the 
vale, at the entrance of the grounds 
of Derrybacon (Charles Forgill, Esq.), 
the great military road is joined, 1 m. 
^m which at Laragh, a road on 1. 
turns sharply oflf to 8 m. Jordan's 
Hotel, — a very comfortable and ro- 
niantic resting-place in the immediate 
vicinity of the Seven Chinrches and 
the Vale of Glendalough. 

Two valleys fall in at this point 
from the N.E.— the Vale of Glen- 
dasan, a river which has a course of 
about 3 m. from Lough Nahanagan, 
and the Vale of Glendalough, the upper 
portion of which is watered by a small 
rtream, the Glenealo, that descends 
^m its rocky fastnesses in the Table 



Mt. to fall into the upper and lower 
lakes ; the scenery of the upper 
lake is of a very grand character. 
On the N., Camaderry, 2296 ft., 
and on the S. Lugduff, 2176 ft., 
rise in fine escarpments from the 
brink of the water, approaching so 
closely together at the head as scarce 
to leave a passage for the moun- 
tain ton^nt that feeds the lake. The 
lower lake is much smaller, and 
the valley is much more open ; but 
the presence of the round tower and 
the deserted ruins gives it a very 
weird and melancholy aspect. 

The foundation of the city of Glen- 
dalough may be ascribed to St. Kevin, 
who as early as the 6th cent, founded 
a ch. on the S. bank of the upper 
lake, from which he subsequently 
removed to the opening of the valley. 
Even in the 12th cent, the city is 
described as having lain waste for 40 
years, and being a veritable den of 
robbers, "spelunca latronum." The 
objects of interest may be divided 
into 3 groups, according to their situ- 
ation. 

Immediately at the back of the 
hotel is an enclosure containing the 
ruins of the cathedral. Our Lady's 
ch., St. Kevin's House or Kitehen, 
and the Round Tower. 1. The en- 
closure is entered by a magnificent 
though terribly dilapidated gateway, 
which Dr. Petrie compares to the 
Roman-built Newport gate at Lin- 
coln. In form it was a square, having 
external and internal arches, from 
between which rose a tower. Enough 
of it remains to show the undressed 
blocks of mica-slate and the chiseUed 
granite blocks of the arches and 
pilasters. 2. The cathedral is con- 
sidered to have been erected about the 
commencement of the 7th cent., pro- 
bably by Gobhan Saer, the great archi- 
tect of that day ; the original ch. was 
55 ft. long, but the chancel appears to 
be of later date. It is entered by a 
square-headed doorway, in whidi the 
weight upon the lintel is taken off by 
a semicircular arch. The maeonry of 



238 



JRoute 27. — Dublin to ArJdow, 



Ireland 



the chancel is much less massiye than 
that in the bokly of the ch., and more- 
over is not bonded like that of the 
nave, thus showing its more modem 
erection. The E. window was re- 
markable for its ornamented character, 
possessing a chevron moulding and a 
sculptured frieze running on either 
side from the spring of the arch. It 
is worth notice that the stone of which 
this E. window is built is a sort of 
oolite not found anywhere in the dis- 
trict. 

3. The ch. of Our Lady is believed 
to have been the first erected in 
the lower part of the valley or the 
city of Glendalough by St. Kevin, 
"qui ibi duxit vitam eremiticam/' 
and was buried here. It possesses a 
remarkable doorway,' of a style re- 
sembling Greek architecture. It is 6 ft. 
high, 2 ft. 6 in. wide at the top and 
3 ft. at the bottom, being formed 
of 7 stones of the thickness of the 
wall ; the lintel is ornamented on its 
soffit with a cross, " saltier wise," 
somewhat after the fashion of Kil- 
liney (p. 228). 

4. The Round Tower, which stands 
at one comer of the enclosure, dose 
to the cathedral, is about 110 ft., and 
is deficient in the conical cap. It has 
a semicircular-headed doorway with- 
out any ornament, and " is constmcted 
of blodks of granite, chiselled, though 
the wall of the tower generally is 
formed of rubble masonry of the mica- 
slate of the adjacent mountains ; and 
in this circumstance it resembles the 
doorways of several chs. in the val- 
ley." Its probable date is the 7th 
cent. 

5. The most interesting feature in 
the enclosure is the cell of St. Kevin. 
The tourist who has visited KeUs 
(Rte. 19) wiU at once recognise the 
great similarity between St. Oolumb's 
house and St. Kevin's, although the 
latter has been to all iutents and pur- 
poses changed into a ch. by the sub- 
sequent addition of a chancel and bell 
turret, neither of which in all proba- 
bility belonged to the original build- 



ing; this chancel has been destioyc 
but it will be perceived on dose ea 
aminatian that the walls of the 



joining sacristy are not bonded 
those of the main bnilding. " It 
be observed also that the chancel 
is of subsequent formation ; for il 
semicircular head is not fonned 
the principle of the arcb, but by 
cuttmg away of the horizontally 
stones of the original wall, in vhii 
operation a portion of the orig' 
window placed in this wall was 
stroyed, and the remaining porti 
of the aperture built up with so' 
masonry." — Petrie, Divested of th( 
additions, we find that St Eeno 
house is an oblong bnUdiDg with 
very high-pitched stone roof^ 
arched room below, and a small e 
between. A stringcourse nms at 
base of the roof, and is carried aloi 
the base of the end wall. It iras 
tered by a door on the W. side, 
lighted by 2 plain windows in tbe 
end, one above the other, and one 
the S. wall ; the door, which is no 
blocked up, was square-headed, vi 
tlie weight taken off the lintel br* 
semicircular arch as in the cathedral 
door. Bising from the W. gable b 
the addition of a small round-toTrezaj 
belfry, 9 ft. high, with a conical m\ 
and 4 quadrangular apertures beim 
the cardinal points. The entranoe a 
froni the croft. 

The sacristy was apparently aso^ 
to" the chancel, being stone-roff*^ 
and ornamented with a rode strii^j 
course similar to that of the maiij 
building. 

It is considered by Dr. Petrie thai 
these additions took place not lor' 
after the death of Si Kevin, wh 
name was held in such reveren 
that naturally enough it was sough 
to convert his residence into a ch. 

The remaining chs. are all at some 
Uttle distance off; they are-6. Trinity 
ch., near the road leading ftooi I^' 
ragh to Glendalough. Inthedian^^ 
wall is a semidrcnlar-headed window, 
tbe arch cut out of a single stone— 



Ireland* 



Soute 27. — Olenddmgh 



239 



also a triangular -headed window,* 
the chancel arch is semicircular, 
and springs from jambs " which 
have an indUnation corresponding 
with the doorways and windows.*' 
A round tower was formerly at- 
tached to this ch. 7. On the opposite 
bank of the river, near Deriybawn, 
are the ruins of St. Saviour's, or tiie 
Monastery, which possess more inter- 
esting details than any of the others. 
The chancel contains a stone seat at 
the E. ' end, and 3 niches in the S. 
wall, which probably served for pis- 
cina or ambry. The piers only of the 
chancel arching are left, and, before 
the ch. became so dilapidated, must 
have shown some very interesting 
and beautiful sculpture. It consisted 
of 3 "receding piers with semi- 
columns," and the capitals and bases 
should be careftdly studied for the 
sake of the fantastic sculptures of 
human heads and animals — a not 
uncommon decoration of the 12^ 
cent, of Irish architecture.* Dr. Led- 
wich, whatever his authority may be 
worth, oonsidered that all this'oma- 
mentation was of Danish origin ; but 
Dr. Petrie holds that we are to look 
for the prototypes in the debased ar- 
chitectare of Greece and Borne. Si- 
milar sculpture and beauty of detail 
existed in the Priest* s House, of which 
however there is now scarcely any 
vestige. 

8. The ch. of Eeefert, situated on 
the S. bcuak of the upper lake, was 
the "clara cella" first founded by 
Bt Kevin before he moved to Hhe 
lower part of the valley. It contains 
a square-headed doorway of chiselled 
blocks of granite, and near the ch. 
stood a sepulchral cross, marking the 
spot of the cemetery of the ^ngs, 
where the celebrated King O'Toole 
is said to be buried. StSl further, 
near the diff of Lr^gduff; are— 10. 
the very scanty remains of the ch. c^ 
Teampol na Skellig. 
It is a oharming woodland walk 

fflmilar examples are found at Clon* 



along the S. bank of the lakes, and 
at the foot of Derrybawn Mountain, 
where the Osmunda regaHs flou- 
rishes. At the back of the inn, which 
is situated just between the 2 lakes, 
the tourist should* ascend Lugduff 
brook for a short distance to see the 
Pollanass waterfall: and having 
visited Reefert and Teampul na 
Skellig, should cross the Causeway 
and t&e boat on the upper lake to St. 
Kevin's Bed. " This wonder-working 
couch is a small cave in the &ce of a 
rock, capable of containing 3 persons 
at most, hanging perpendicularly over 
the lake ; the approach is by a narrow 
path along the steep side of the moun- 
tain, at every step of which the 
slightest false trip would precipitate 
the pedestrian into the lake below. 
After passing the Kubicon of the 
Lady's Leap, the landing-place im- 
mediately above the cave is soon 
reached without difficulty; but the 
visitor must descend with caution, his 
face turned to the rock down which 
he climbs, while the guide directe 
which way he is to turn, and where to 
plant his foot, until at last he reaches 
the mouth of the sainted bed."— 
Otway. Here it was that St. Kevin, 
to escape from the 

•* Eyes of most unholy blue ** 

of Kathleen, who loved him not wisely 
but too well, fixed his hermit's couch, 
fearing an interruption : — 

** * Here at least,' he calmly said, 
• Womaa ne'er shall find my bed.' 
Ah I the good saint little knew 
What that wily sex can do." 

MOOBE. 

But she traced him out, and St. Kevin 
woke one morning from his sleep to 
find her watehing his countenance. 
He rose, and with a sudden impul^ 
of madness hurled poor Kathleen into 
the lake : — 

** Down gazed he frenzied on the tide. 
Gathleen ! how comes he lonely ? , 
Why has she left her Kevin's side, 
That lived for Kevin only T* 

Gebau) Qmgns, 

Should the tourist have time, he 



240 



Bovie 27. — BMin to ArUow. 



Irela)^1)i 



should inake an excursion up the 
Glendasan valley, and past the Lug- 
ganamon lead-mines (which are 8 m. 
distant from the 7 chs.), to the summit 
level at Wicklow Gap, 1569 ft., from 
whence he will obtain very fine 
mountain views. The road from this 
point continues to Blessington and 
the plains of Kildare. 

Distances of the Hotel — from Bray, 
19 m. ; Boundwood, 6; Annamoe, 
3| ; Laragb, 1 ; Bathdrum, 8 ; Lug- 
gelaw, 11 ; Wicklow Gap, 4} ; De- 
vil's Glen, 8 ; Sally Gap, 13. 

On the return, the road is re- 
traced and followed to Laragh. 
Passing 1. Laragh House (G. Booth, 
Esq.), and winding up a steep and 
long hill, the village of Annamoe is 
reached, adjoining which is Glenda- 
lough, the seat of T. Barton, Esq. 
Between 3 and 4 m. to the rt., and 
visible from the road, is the entrance 
of the Devil's Glen. The tourist 
should visit the reservoir of the 
waterworks lately formed for the 
supply of the city of Dublin (p. 234). 

Boundioood (Hotel: Murphy's), a 
prettily situated village on tiie benks 
of tiie Vartry. This is a favourite 
place with many, the quarters being 
comfortable, and the situation central 
for Glendalough, the Devil's Glen, 
and Luggelaw. It is moreover a 
good fishing-station. In the neigh- 
bourhood are Boundwood Lodge and 
Boundwood Park (T. Gower, Esq.). 

From Boundwood 3 routes are avail- 
able : — 1. A direct road to Bray, run- 
ning through Galary, skirting the 
deer-park of Powerscourt, and cross- 
ing the Darglo at Tinnahinch 
Bridge (p. 232). 

2. A bleak mountain road to the 
E. of this lost, which steers clear of 
Powerscourt and Enniakerxy, and 
winds round the Great Sugarloaf, 
falling into the Bray road near Holly- 
brook. 

3. A more drcuitoufi route, by turn- 
ing off to the 1. at Anna Garter Bridge, 
and following the road to Luggelaw. 
From Bally Gap, where the military 



road is joined, it is 5 m. to Glencieo 
The pedestrian should not leave 
Boundwood without visiting Lough 
Dan, which he may do either by 
proceeding to the Old Bridge, and 
thence walking up the AniuuaQi 
river ; or else by turning oS from, in 
Luggelaw road near the Polled 
station, and following the Annamoe 
down. Lough Dan is a rather Iob^ 
sheet of water, 685 ft. above the 9t«, 
situated in a hollow between the moiUf 
tains of Knocknacloghole and SlieW 
Buckh; it is fed by the Annamw 
and Inchavore rivers, the former cj 
which discharges itself at the lowti 
end of the lake, near the desmesne ol 
Lake View. Although a characteri5U< 
mountain lake, it does not possess tlu 
stem and more romantic beauties ol 
Lough Tayt which is some 2 m- to thj 
N., and occupies a circular corrw 
nearly at the head of the glen of thti 
Annamoe. The cliff scenery here ti 
very fine, and agreeably contrasts with 
the woods and grounds of Luggilfl*'. 
a romantic retreat as far away f^^ 
the busy hum of men as any hennij 
could wish. "A monstrous ^4 
regular formation is distinctly traced 
in the outline of the rock, lookiEg 
gloomily and angrily on the lite 
below. The eyebrows, broad aaj 
dilating, are marked by moss m 
heath, and the prominent cheeks and 
deep-sunk eyes, perfectly formed tj 
the clefts in the rock."— ITniiti 
Carex axiUaris, Orobanche maj*' 
are to be found near the wateiaJf 
and char is an inhabitant of tlu 
lake as well as that of Glend&lou;rb 

It is said, by the way, that St 
Kevin dwelt at a cell at Luggela* 
until driven away by the iniportu 
nities of Kathleen. 

From Lough Tay and LuggeU^ 
the road keeps along the bank of th 
Annamoe, and on the S.W. side o 
Douce and War Hill, to join the mih 
tary road at Sally Gap. At tb< 
height of 1700 ft. is the waterslwt 
of the Annamoe and the liifey, tht 
source of which last is bat a ver^ 



Ibeland. 



Bovie 28. — Dublin to Cork, 



241 



short distance &om the Gap. From 
this point the military road rnns at 
an average elevation of 1700 ft. past 
Lough Bray to Glencree. 

The route from Enniskerry to 
Dublin ia carried on the W. flank 
of Siiankhill Mountain, through 
a -wild and singular ravine known as 
the Scalp, wMch appears to have 
been rent by some tremendous shock, 
leaving onlv just room for the forma- 
tion of the highway. Hull describes 
it as an old and dried-up river-v