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* -^m •ta,«— %-i , *«» 



. P/3 






'< In this, as in every other field of labour, no man can put aside the cusse pro- 
nounced on him— that by the sweat of his brow he shall reap his harvest. Before 
he can reach that elevation from whence he may look down upon and comprehend 
the mysteries of the natural world, his way is steep and toilsome, and he must read 
the records of creation in a strange, and to many minds a repulsive language, which, 
rejecting both the senses and the imagination, speaks only to the understanding. 
But when this language is once learned, it becomes a mighty instrument of thought, 
teaching us to link together the phenomena of past and future times ; and gives 
the mind a domination over many parts of the material world, by teaching it to 
comprehend the laws by which the actions of material things are governed."— 
Sbdowick's (kimfyridge Discourse. 













Th* Riaht fif TranjtlMtinti. iM rMtamnA 


Should it be asked why I publish this Tolume, I answer, 
along with many others, Because I believe such a Handbook 
to be greatly needed ; and under this conviction have done 
my best, within moderate limits, to render it useful Go 
where you will — ^to the popular platform, the public lecture- 
room, or the private parlour — and you hear immense interest 
professed in the science of Geology j but the profession, for 
the most part, accompanied by the regret that its ''hard 
words and forbidding technicalities'' should render it so 
difficult of acquirement. Kow, while deprecating, in the 
strongest manner, the introduction of unnecessary terms, it 

^ is quite evident that every science must have its own tech^ 
t nicalities and modes of expression : new objects require new 

^ names, and new flEu^ts new phrases to express their relations. 

r) There is no avoiding this necessity in any progressive branch 
of human knowledge, and the only thing that can be done to 

^ lessen the difficulty — ^next to the rigid exclusion of whatever 

C seems superfluous — is to explain these terms in brief and 
simple language. This I have endeavoured to do, chiefly 
with a view to the requirements of the general reader, at the 


same time appending sucli details as might render the volume 
an acceptable Handbook of Eefeience to the student and 
professed Geologist. Thus the ordinary reader wiU generally 
find the information he requires in the first and second sen- 
tences of a definition ; what follows is addressed more espe- 
cially to the professional inquirer — ^to the student, miner, 
engineer, architect, agriculturist, and others, who may have 
occasion to deal with geological facts, and yet who might not 
be inclined to turn up half-a-dozen volumes, or go through a 
course of geological readings, for an explanation of the term 
in question. 

Such is the aim and object of this " Handbook of Geolo- 
gical Terms." I lay claim to little more than the arrange- 
ment of the matter, which has been gleaned and sifted from 
many sources — care having always been taken to present the 
science in its newest aspects, and to express its facts in the 
clearest and simplest language. Sensible of many imperfec- 
tions, I would respectfully solicit corrections from those who 
may generally approve of the work, in order that any subse- 
quent edition may be rendered more worthy of the Science 
whose truths we are labouring to establish — ^a science which, 
whether intellectually or economically considered, stands 
second to none on the roll of human acquirements. 

D. P. 

GiLMORE Place, Edutburgh, 
Augutt 1859. 


In preparing this edition, alterations rendered necessary by 
the progress of the science have been freely made, and the 
more important terms introduced by recent discovery ex- 
tensively inserted. To have inserted all or nearly all would 
have increased the volume beyond the limits of a " Hand- 
book," and merely cumbered its pages with names, a great 
proportion of which are avowedly provisional, and many even 
of doubtful validity. As a new feature, the leading techni- 
calities of Physical Geography have been given along with 
those of Gteology — the Author believing that the two sciences 
are inseparably associated, and that the readiest way to a 
comprehension of the world's past is through the study of 
its existing phenomena. 

Atigtut 1865. 










Note.— " It is, indeed," says Agassiz, in his recent 'Essay on Classifica- 
tion/ "a very unfortunate tendency, which preyails now almost uniyersally 
among naturalists, with reference to all kinds of groups, of whatever value 
they may be, from the branches down to the species, to separate at once 
from one another any types which exhibit marked differences, without even 
inquiring first whether these differences are of a kind that justifies such 
separations. In our systems, the quantitative element of differentiation 
prevails too exclusively over the qualitative. If such distinctions are 
introduced imder weU-sounding names, they are almost certain to be 
adopted ; as if science gained anything by concealing a difficulty under a 
Greek or Latin name, or was advanced by the additional burden of a new 
nomenclature. Another objectionable practice, prevailing quite as exten- 
sively also, consists in the change of names, or the modification of the 
extent and meaning of old ones, without the addition of new information 
or of new views. If this practice is not abandoned, it will necessarily end 
in making Natiutd History a mere matter of nomenclature, instead of 
fostering its higher philosophical character." Influenced by this opinion, 
I have adopted in the following tabulations such arrangements of the 
Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal kingdoms as have been sanctioned l^ our 
leading naturalists— which appear to be most intelligible to the general 
reader — and on which, indeed, the greater portion of the nomenclature of 
Geology and PalsBontology has been founded. 





EzhibitiDg the so-called "Elementary Substances" in alphabetical 

order, with their symbols and chemical equivalents — Hydrogen being 
taken as 1. 

Elements. SymboU. E^iwdenis. 

Aluminium Al 13.69 

Antimony (5SJiWtMii) Sb 129.03 

Arsenic As 76. 

Barium Ba 68.64 

Bismuth Bi 70.95 

Boron B 10.90 

Bromine Br 78.26 

Cadmium Cd 55.74 

Caesium Cs 138. 

Calcium Ca 20. 

Carbon C 6. 

Cerium Ce 46. 

Chlorine CI 35.50 

Chromium Cr 28.16 

Cobalt Co 29.52 

Copper (Cuprum) Cu 31.66 

Didymium — 48. 

Erbium — — 

Fluorine P 18.70 

Glucinium or Beryllium Gl 26.60 

Gold (Aurum) Au 98.33 

Hydrogen H 1.* 

Ilmenium II — 

Todine I 126.86 

Iridium Ir 98.68 

Iron (i^mwn) Pe 28. 

Lanthanum Ln 48. 

Lead {Plumbum) Pb 103.56 

Lithium U 6.43 

Magnesium Mg 12.67 

Manganese Mn 27.67 

'Hercory {Hydrargyrum) Hg 100.07 

Molybdenum Mo ...^. 47.88 

NickeL Ni 29.57 

Niobium Nb — 

Nitrogen N .., 14. 

Norium No — 




ElemtnU. Symbols. 

Osmium Oa ., 

Oxygen . 

Palladium Pd . 

Pelopium Pe . 

Phosphorus P ., 

Platinum Pt ., 

Poiaaavim (Kalium) K ., 

Rhodium R . 

Ruthenium Ru . 

Selenium Se . 

SiUcium, SiHoon Si . 

Silver (Argentum) Ag . 

Sodium {yalrium) Na . 

Strontium Sr . 

Sulphur S 

Tantalum or Columhium ... Ta . 

Tellurium Te . 

Terbium — . 

ThalUum Tl . 

Thorium Th . 

Tin (Stannum) Sn . 

Titanium Ti . 

Tungsten or Wolf ram W . 

Uranium U . 

Vanadium V * 

Yttrium Y . 

Zinc ; Zn . 

Zirconium Zr . 

... 95.56 
... 8. 
... 53.27 

. 32. 
, 98.68 
, 39. 
. 52.11 
. 52.11 
. 89.57 
. 21.35 

. 22.97 
. 48.84 
. 16. 
. 92.30 
. 66.14 

. 59.59 
. 58.82 
. 24.29 
. 94.64 
. 60. 
. 68.65 
. 32.20 
. 32.52 
. 33.62 

Of the preceding elementary or ultimate substances only a few enter 
largely into the composition of the earth^s crust ; and of the others many 
are extremely rare, or only eyolved from their natural unions by chemical 
analysis. In the following list the most important (geologically speak- 
ing) are printed in capitals, their characters being given as under the 
ordinary pressure and temperature of the atmosphere : — 


Non-Metallic Liquids and Solids — Bromine, iodine, sulphur, phos- 
phorus, selenium, oabbon, boron, silicon. 

Metals being the basis of the Earths and Alkalies— "PoTAasnm, SODIUM, 
lithium; barium, strontium, oaloium; magnbsium, aluminium, 
thorium, glucinium, zirconium, yttrium. 

The if eto^— Manganese, zmo, iron, tin, cadmium, cobalt, nickel ; 
ABSENio, OHBOMIUM, Vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, oolumbium, 
ANTIMONT, uranium, cerium, bismuth, titanium, tellurium, copper, 
lead; mercubt, silyeb, gold, platinum, palladium, rhodium, 
osmium, iridium, ruthenium ; (and the following, of which little is 
yet determined), caesium, erbium, terbium, didymium, lanthanum, 
niobium, norium, ilmenium, pelopium, thallium. 



Exhibiting the gimple minerals, or constituents of rock-masses, as ar- 
ranged by Professor Weiss, of Berlin, into Orders and Families. 


'Families:—!, Quartz. 7. Mica. 

2. Felspab. 8. Hornblende. 


4. Haloid Stones. 10. Gabnet. 

5. Leucite. 11. Gems. 

6. Zbolitbs. 12. Metaluo Stones. 


Families:—). Calo-sfab. 4. Gtpsum. 

2. Fluob-spab. 5. Book-salt. 

3. Heayt-spab. 


Families:—!. Spabbt Ibon Obes. 8. Lead Sai/ts. 
2. COPPEB Sai/ts. 


Families:—!. Ibon Obes. 4. Red Coppeb Obes. 

2. Tinstone. 5. White Antikont Ores. 

3. Manganese Obes. 


Form onZy one Family. 


Families:—!. Ibon Pybites. 4. Gbet Coppeb Obe. 

2. Galena. 5. Blende. 

8. Gbet Antdiont Obe. 6. Rubt Blende. 


Families:—!. Sulfhub. 4. Minebal Resins. 

2. Diamond. 5. Combustible Salts. 

8. Coal. 



I The following list contains the so-called Species usually arranged under 

the respective families— the more abundant and better known being marked 
in Italics. 


1. Quartz Famu.y (2 Species).— Quarts, Oped, 


2. Felspar Family (14 Species).— Or<Aocto*«, Ryacolite, AlhiUy Andesin, 

Saccharite^ LahradorUe, Couzeranite, Anorthite, Oligoclase, Petalite, 
Spodumene, Kastor, Pollux, Avwrphotu Felspar. 

3. SCAPOLITB Family (13 Species).— /Steapo/ite, Nuttalite, Barsowite, Ottre- 
I lite, Paldffonite, Dipyr, Nepheline, Davyne, Grehlenite^ Humboldtilite, 
: PrehniU, Zeuxite, Nephrite, 

' ^\ 4. Haloid Stones (9 Species). — LazuXite, Calaite, Wavellite, Wagnerite, 

Amblygonite, Alunite, Aluminite, Pissophane, Latrobite. 

5. Leuoite (8 Species). — LeucUe, Porcelain spar, Sodalite, Hauyne, 

Nosean, Ittnerite, Lapis LaztUi, Eudialite. 

6. Zeolites (22 Species). — Analcime, NiUrolUe, ScoUzvUy Damourite, 

Thomsonite, StUbite, Aedelforsite, JffevJanditef Brewsterite, EpiMilhite^ 
ApophylliUf Okenite, Pectolite, Ckahasite, Faujasite, Harmotomef Phil- 
lipaite, Zeagonite, Laumonite, Leonhardite, Qlottalite, Edingtonite. 

7. Mica Family (31 Species). — Potash Mica, Lithia Mica, Magnesia Mica, 

Lepidomelane, Chloritoid, Chlorite, Ripidolite, Talc, Schillerspar, 
Antigorite, Hydropite, Serpentine, Picrosmine, Villarsite, Spadaite, 
Gymnite, Chonikrite, Pyrosklerite, Kammererite, Pyrosmalite, Cron- 
stedtite, Stilpnomelan, Brucite, Hydromagnedte, Nemalite, Seybertite, 
Margarite, Pyrophyllite, Anausite, Pholerite, Rosellan. 

8. Hornblende Family (19 Species). — Hornblende, Augite, Hyperstheney 

Bronzite, Dialloffe, Rhodonite, Tephroite, Troostite, WoUastonite, Ach- 
mite, Sordawalite, Erokydolite, Pyrallolite, Pyrargillite, Earpolite, 
Babbingtonite, Isopyre^ Polylite^ Tachylite. 

9. Clays (24 Species).— JTao^m, Clay, Rock-soap, Plinthite, Gh'een-EarUi, 

Yellow -Earth, Halloysite, FvUeri -Earth, Allophane, SchrStterite, 
Challilite, Bole, Teratolite, Kollyrite, Lithomarge, Miloschin, Kerolite, 
Agalmaiolite, Soapstone, Pipestone, Meerschaum, Pimelite, Dermatin, 

10. Garnet Family (15 Species). — Garnet, Pyrope, Helvine, Idocrase, 
Epidote, Axinite, Cyaniie, Sillimanite, Bamlite, AndalusUe, Staurolite, 
Diaspore, Hydrargillite, Periclase, Glauoophane. 

11. Gems (16 Species). — Zircon, Malacon, Spinel, Automalite, Cory/ndum, 
Crysoberyl, Topaz, Pycnite, Leucophane, Evfilase, Emerald, Phenakite, 
lolite, Tourmaline, Crysolite, Chondrodite. 

12. Metallic Stones (22 Species). — LiSvrUe, Hisingerite, Anthosiderite, 
Nontronite, Pinguite, Chloropal, CKlorophceUe, Thorite, Eulytine, Gado- 
linite, AllanOe, Tschewkinite, CerOe, Pyrochlore, KeiUiauite, Polymig- 
nite, JPolyorase, Peroskite, Aeschynite, Mengite, Monazite, Samarskite. 




1. Calo-spar FamtTjY (6 Species).— Co/c-jpar, Dolomite, Breunnerite, Mag- 

fiesite, Mesitme Spar, Arragonite, 

2. Fluob-spah Family (14 Species).— JFYteor-ipar, Yttrocerite, FluocerUe, 

Fluocerine, Cryolite, Chyolite, Hopeite, A'patite, Herderite, Children- 
ite, Xenoidme, Boracite, Hydrohoriiciie, Datholite. 

3. Heavt-spar Family (7 Species).— ^ary<«», Dteelite, Witherite, AUtm- 

ite, Baryto-CaUite, Celestirie, SirotUianite. 

4. Gypsum Family (7 Species). — Gyptum, Anhydrite, Polyhalite, Olau- 

herite, Pharmacolite, Haidingerite, Berzelite, 

5. Rock-Salt Family (28 Species). — Rock-SaU, Alvm, Alunogene, Glau- 

her Salt, MelaiUerite, Botryogene, Copiapite, Coquimbite, Tectizite, 
Cyanose, Groslarite, Bieberite, Johaiinite, NoXron, Thermonatrite, 
Trona, Gaylussite, Borax, SoMOline, Nitre, Niiraiine, Nitrocaleite, 
Nitro-Magnesite, Sal-Ammonia^;, Mascagnine, Arcanite, Thenardite, 


1. Sparry Iron Ores (17 Species). ~*Swfente, Ankerite, Diallogite, Man- 

ganocaloite, Lanthanite, Parisite, Calamine, Galmei, Williamite, Tri- 
plite, Zwi^selite, Triphyline, Hureaulite, Heterozite, Alluaudite, 
Pitticite, Diadocliite. 

2. Copper Salts (32 Species). — Dioptase, Chrysocolla, Azurite, Malachite, 

Aurichalcite, Chalcophyllite, Tirolite, Erinite, liroconite, Olivenite, 
Euchroite, Elinoclaise, Photphorocalcite, Thrombolite, Libethenite, 
Tagilite, Ehlite, Atacamite, Volborthite, Arseniosiderite, Pharmako- 
siderite, Scorodite, Symplesite, Brochantite, Vivianite, Dufrenite, 
Uranite, Cha^olite, Erythrine, Nickeline, Langite, Lyellite. 

3. Lead Salts (27 Species). — Centssite, AnglesiUy Leadhillite, LanarhUe, 

Caledonite, Lineirite, Phosgenite, Mendipite, Ootunnite> Pyronu)rphite, 
Mimetesite, Bleinierite, Yanadinite, Wtdfenite, Scheelitine, Plomb- 
gomme, Crocoisiie, Melanocbroite, Vattqtidenite, Bismutbite, Kerate, 
Calomel, lodite, Coccinite, Bromite^ Romeite, Scheelite, 


1. Oxidised Iron Ores (9 Species). — Magnetite, Chromite, Franklinite, 

HamMite, Irite, Limonite, GotheUe, Ilm^nite, Iserine. 

2. Tin Ore Family (13 Species).— CoMiimte, Woljram, ColumhUe, Tan- 

talUe, Yttrotantalite, Euxiuite, Fergusonite, Sphene, Broohite, RutUe, 
Anatase, Pechurane, FlaMnerite. 

3. Manganese Ores (20 Species). — Pyrolvsite, Polianite, Manganite, 

Hausmannite, Braunite, Psilomelan^, Credneiite, Cupremu Manganete, 

Earthy Cobalt, Wad; (Ochres), Cobalt 0., Molybdena 0., Bismuth 

O., Antimony 0., Tungsten 0., Uranium 0., Minium, Lead 0., Chroma 
0., Tellurite. 

4. Red Copper Ores (4 Species).— Caprice, ChdUotrichite, Tenorite, 


5. White Antimony Orbs (2 Species).— VaXentinite, Artenite, 




1. Thb Metals (18 Species).— P^mum, PalladiuM, Osmiumiridium, 
Iridium, Gold, Silver, Antimony-Silver, Mercury, AmaXgam, Anti- 
mony, Arsenio-Antimony, Arsenic, Tellurium, Lead, Tin, Bismuth, 
• Copper, Iron. 


1. Ptbitbb Familt (21 Species). — PyriU, Mareasite, Pyrrholine, Leuco- 

pyrite, Mispickel, Cohaltine, Sm/Utine, Modumite, Liuneite, Griinauite, 
Gersdiyrgite, Ullmannite, Breithauptite, Plakodine, Nickeline, Ram- 
melsbergite, Millerite, Chalcopyrite, Bornite, Domeykite, ArsenicUe of 

2. Lead Glance Family (17 Species).— G^a^e^uiy Cwproplumhite, (Dlaus- 

thalite, Selencopper Lead, Onofrito, Naumannite, ArgerUite, Strome- 
yerite, Redruthite, Eupferinding, Eukairite, Berzeline, NcLgyagiie, 
Altaite, Hessite, Tetradymite, Molybdenite. 

3. Gbet AirriMOirr Obbs (16 Species). — StiUne, JamesoniU, Zinchenite, 

Pla^onite, Boulangerite, Geokronite, Steinmannite, Plumosite, Duf- 
r^ynoysite, Wolfsbergite, Kermes, Bertbierite, Bismuihine, ActctUite, 
Kobellite, Sylvanite. 

4. Gbet Copper Obbs (11 Species).— JViAZore, Tennantite, Boumoniie^ 

Wolchite, Freieslebenite, Stephimite, Polyhasite, Stembergite, Stan- 
nine, Cupreous Bismuth, Bismuthie Silver, 

5. Blendes (5 Species). — Blende, Woltzine, Alaibandine, Hauerite, Gi'een- 


6. RuBT Blendes (6 Species).' — Pyrargyrite, Miargyrite, Xanthokon, 

Cinnabar, Realgar, Orpiment. 


1. Sulphub Yaxily,— Sulphur, Selen-Sulphur, 

2. Diamond. — Diamond, 

8. Coals (5 Species). — Graphite, AnChaucite, Ccmmon Coal, Lignite, Peal, 

4. Mineral Resins (21 Species). — Bitumen, JElateritef Asphaltwm^ Piauz- 

ite, Izolyte, Ainber, Retinite, Walchowite, Copaline, Berengelite, Guy' 
aquillitet Hartine, Middletonite, Ozokerite, Hatchetine, Fichtelite, Hart- 
ite, KSnlite, Scheererite, Idrialite, Scleretinite. 

5. Inflammablb Salts (2 Spedes). — Mellite, Oxalate. 



The Vegetable Kingdom may be arranged into two grand divisions — ^the 
Cellular and Vasoulab ; and these, according to their modes of growth 
and reproduction, into the following groups and classes : — 

I. Cbllulab — ^Without regular vessels, but composed of fibres which 

sometimes cross and interlace each other. The ConfenuB (green scum- 
like aquatic growths), the lAchens (which incrust stones and decaying 
trees), the Fungi (or mushroom tribe), and the Algce (or sea-weeds), 
belong to this division. In some of these families there are no appa- 
rent seed-organs. From their mode of growth — viz., sprout-like in- 
crease of the same organ— they are known as Thallogens or Amphi- 


II. Vasculab — ^With vessels which form organs of nutrition and repro- 
duction. According to the arrangement of these organs, vascular 
plants have been grouped into two great divisions— Obyptogamic 
(no visible seed-organs), and Phanerogamic (apparent flowers or 
seed-organs). These have been further subdivided into the following 
classes : — 

1. Cbtptogams — Without perfect flowers, and with no visible seed- 

organs. To this class belong the mosseSf equiselwms, ferns, and 
Itfcopodiums, It embraces many fossil forms allied to these 
families. From their mode of growth — ^viz., increase at the 
top or growing point only — they are known as Acbooens. 

2. Phanebogamio Monocotyledons — Flowering plants with one 

cotyledon or seed-lobe. This class comprises the vater-lilies, 
lilieSf aloes, rushes, grasses, canes, and palms. In allusion to their 

^y growth, by increase within, they are termed Endogens. 

'^ 3. Phanebogamio GTMNOSPERMS—This class, as the name indicates, 

is furnished with flowers, but has naked seeds. It embraces 
the cycadeoi or pine-apple tribe, and the eoniferce or firs. In 
allusion to their naked seeds, these plants are also known as 
4. Phanerogamic Dicotyledons — Flowering plants with two 
cotyledons or seed-lobes. This class embraces all forest trees 
and shrubs — the compositce, leguminosce, umhelliferce, cmciferai, 
and other similar orders. None of the other families of plants 
have the true woody structure, except the coniferce or firs, which 
seem to hold an intermediate place between monocotyledons 
and dicotyledons ; but the wood of these is readily distinguished 
from true dicotyledonous wood. From their mode of growth, 
increase by external rings or layers, they are termed Ezogens. 
/-? 17 B 


• M oB 




• • 




Or, following the arrangement adopted by Professor Lindley, we have the 
subjoined classes, sections, and alliances:— 

Class I. Thalloqens — Asexual or Flowerless plants, without proper 
stems or leaves. These include three alliances — Algcdes, 
FungaleSf and Liehenales. 

Class n. AoROQENS — Asexual or Flowerless plants with stems and 
leaves. Includes three alliances — Muscales, Lycopadales, 
and Filicales. 
Class III. Ehizogens — Sexual or Flowering plants with Acotyledonous 
embryos and fructification, springfing from a thallus — as in 

Class lY. Endogbns — Monocotyledonous Flowering plants with Endo- 
genous stems, parallel venation, and ternary synmietry. 
This class is subdivided into four sections : — 

1. Plants with glumaceous flowers formed by imbricated 


2. Petaloid unisexual flowers. 

3. Petaloid hermaphrodite flowers adherent to the ovary. 

4. Petaloid hermaphrodite flowers free from the ovary. 
Under these sections are included 11 alliances, such as 
Olumales, Aralei, Palnudes, NardssaUsy OrchidaleSf JunccUes, 
and LilicUes. 

Class V. DiCTYoaENS — Monocotyledonous plants with reticulated ven- 
ation, including such orders as DiscoreacecB,. SmUacece, and 
Class VI. Gymnoqens — Polycotyledonous Exogens with naked seeds, as 
Coniferce and Cycadaeece. 
Class VII. ExooENS — Dicotyledonous plants with seeds in a seed-vessel. 
Under this head are arranged the following sub-classes : — 
Sub-class 1. Diclinous Exogens, or Dicotyledons with 
unisexual flowers, and no tendency to form hermaphro- 
dite flowers ; includes 8 alliances, such as AmentaUst 
Urticales, Euphorhicdes, Menispermales, Cucurhitales. 
Sub-class 2. Hypogynous Exogens, or Dicotyledons with 
hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers, and stamens 
entirely free from the calyx and corolla ; including 14 
alliances, such as Violates, Cistales, McUvales, Nymph- 
CBcUesj RanaleSf Berherales, Ericales, RtUaUs, Geraniales, 
Silenales, Chenopodaletf and Piperales. 
Sub-class 8. Perigynous Exogens, or Dicotyledons with 
hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers, the stamens 
growing to the side of either the calyx or corolla, 
ovary superior, or nearly so ; includes 10 alliances, 
such as DaphnaleSf Rotates, Saxifiagales, Gentianales, 
SolanaleSf EchiaZes, cmd Bignoniales. 
Sub-class 4. Epigynous Exogens, or Dicotyledons with 
hermaphrodite or polygamous flowers, the stamens 
growing to the side of either the calyx or corolla, 
ovary inferior or nearly so. This includes 7 alliances 
— CampanaleSf Myrtales, Cactales, GrossaUs, Cindum- 
ales, UmbellaZeSf and Asara^, 














'aBnuodsofSay ^ "^ 

I I 

I §• I ig 

5* J 3 --^ 
-^ c5 P ^ 

^ ei CO 




Of these minute vegetable organisms, the following genera and species 
are those usually given as occurring most abundantly in the diatomaceous 
or microphytal earths that have been submitted to the microscope. The 
shields or cases of the Diatoms are siliceous ; hence their beautiful and 
almost perfect preservation. The Desmidiese or Desmids, also micro- 
scopic plant-growths consisting of one or only a few cells, are found in flint 
and homstone, but they secrete little or no silica ; hence their less fre- 
quent occurrence in a fossil state. 































. cuspidata. 







Epithemia granulata. 



■ proboscidea. 













— — rhabdosoma. 

















































Navicula viridis. 

























The following arraDgement — beiog chiefly that of Cuvier, with such 
modifications as the progress of science demands — will render sufficiently 
apparent the main subdivisions and relations of the animal kingdom, and 
enable the reader to determine more readily the position of any fossil form 
in the scheme of vitality : — 


Or animals with backbone and bony skeleton, and comprehending 

I. MAMMALIA or Sucklers, subdivided into Placental and Aplacental. 

1. Placental, bringing forth mature young. 

BiMANA (Ttoo-kanded) — Man. 

QUADBUMANA (Four-haTided) — Monkeys, Apes, Lemurs. 
Chbiboftbra {Hand-winged) — Bats, Vampyre-bats, Fox-bats. 
iNSEcnvoBA {Insect-ealert) — Mole, Shrew, Hedgehog, Banxring. 
Cabniyoba {FU8h-eaUr»)—T>o^, Wolf, Tiger, Lion, Badger, Bear. 
PiNNiPEDiA (-FMi'/oofoei)— Seals, Wabrus. 
BODENTIA {Onawert) — Hare, Beaver, Bat, Squirrel, Porcupine. 
Edentata {Toothless) — Ant-eater, Armadillo, Pangolin, Sloth. 
BnviNANTiA {Cud-chewers) — Camel, Llama, Deer, Goat, Sheep, Ox. 
SOLIDTJNOULA {Solid'hx>ofs) — Horso, Ass, Zebra, Quagga. 
Paohtdebmata {Thick-skins) — Elephant, Hippopotamus, Rhinoceros, Pig. 
Cetaoba ( Whales) — Whale, Porpoise, Dolphin, Lamantin. 

2. Aplacental, bringing forth immature young. 

Mabsufialia {PoiLck^) — Kangaroo, Opossum, Pouched Wolf, &;c. 
MONOTBEMATA {07ie-vented)-^0rmiYiorYijsiQ\i\ia, Porcupine-ant-eaters. 


Raftobes {Seizers) — Eagles, Falcons, Hawks, Owls, Vultures. 
Insessobbs (/'6rcAer«)— Jays, Crows, Finches, Sparrows, Thrushes. 
SCANSOBES {Climbers) — Woodpeckers, Parrots, Parroqueets, Cockatoos. 
CoLTTMBiE {Pigeons) — Common Dove, Turtle Dove, Ground Dove. 



Rasores (Scrapert) — Bamfowl, Partridge, Grouse, Pheasant. 
CcTBSOBES (Runnen) — Ostrich, Emu, Rhea, Apertyz. 
Graliatores ( Woden) — Bails, Storks, Cranes, Herons, Bitterns. 
Natatobes (jSfirimm«r«)— Diyers, Gulls, Ducks, Pelicans. 

III. BEPTILIA, subdiYided into Keptiles Proper and Batrachians. 

1. Reptiles Pbofeb. 

Cetolonia {Tortoises) — Turtles, Tortoises. 

LoRiCATA {Covered with jScu^)— Crocodile, Gavial, Alligator. 

Sauria {Lizards) — Lizard, Iguana, Chameleon. 

Ophedia {Serpents) — Vipers, Snakes, Boas, Pythons. 

2. BATRACHiAifS or FRoas. 

Anoura {Tail-less)— ToAd, Frog, Tree-Frog. 
Urodela {Tailed}— Sir&n, Triton, Salamander. 
Afoda {FooUess) — Lepidosiren, Blindworm. 


Selaohia {Cartilaffinotis) — Chimsera, Sharks, Sawfish, Rays. 
Ganoidea {EnaTnel-scaXes) — Amia, Bony-pike, Sturgeon. 
Teleostia {Perfect-boTies) — Eels, Salmon, Herring, Cod, Pike. 
Cyclostomata {Circle-Tnovths) — Lamprey. 
Leftocardia {Slender-harts) — ^Amphioxus. 


Or animals void of backbone and bony skeleton, and comprehending 

I. ARTICULATA, subdivided into Articulates and Vermes. 

1. ARTICULATA or Jbinted Animals Proper. 

Insecta {Insects) — ^Beetles, Butterflies, Flies, Bees. 
Mtriapoda {Many-feet) — Scolopendra, Centipedes. 
Arachnida {SIpiders) — Spiders, Scorpions, Mites. 
Crustacea {Crust-clad) — Crayfish, Crabs, Shrimps, Woodlice. 
CiRRHOFODA {Curl-fect) — Acorn-shells, Barnacles. 

2. Vermes or Worms Proper. 

Annelida {Small riiigs) — Lobworm, and almost all the marine worms. 
Rotifera ( Wheel-hearers), — Rotifers, Hydatina. 
Gefhtria {Intermediaies — urchin-like) — Sipunculus, Echinurus. 
LuMBRiciNA {Earth-worms) — Earth-worms, Nais. 
HiRUDiNEi {Leeches) — Leeches, Branchellion. 
Turbellaria (2Vrfte^fert«)— Planaria, Ribbon- worms. 
Helminthes {Gvi-worms) — Intestinal worms. 



II. MOLLUSCA, subdivided into Mollusca and Mollusooida. 
1. Mollusca or SheU-fish Proper. 


Cephalopoda (ffead-f(x>t€d)—C\ittle-&ahf Octopus, Caiamary, Nautilus. 
Ptebopoda ( Wifig-footed)— Clio, Hyalsea. 
Gasteropoda (Belly-footed) — Snails, Slugs, Whelks, Cowries. 
AcEFHALA (ffeadlets) — Oysters, Mussels, Cockles, Shipworms. 
Bbachiopoda (Arm-footed) — Terebratula, Liogula. 

2. Mollusooida, or Mollusc-like Animals. 

TONIOATA (Coated, but Shdl-lm)- { ^''^^^^^^'' "^^ Oo^f°<^^ 

POLYZOA (Compound animals)^ 

or ^Flustra, Eschara, Plumatella, &c. 

Bbtozoa (Mos8-lihe animals) ) 

III. KADIATA or ZOOPHYTES— Ray-like Animals. 

EOHINODEBHATA (CTrchin- skinned) — Sea-urchins, Star-fishes. 

AcALBPHiE (Sea-nettles) — Jelly-fish, Beroes. 

POLTPi (Many-feet) — Coral animals, Sea-anemones, Hydras. 

IV. PROTOZOA or LOWBST-UFE— Globular Animals. 

Infusobia (Ir^fusories) — Monads, Volvoces, Vorticella. 
PoBiFEBA (Pore-hearers) — Sponges, Fresh- water Sponges. 
Bhizopoda (Root-footed) — Amoeba, Polythalamia (Foramimfera). 

The following tabulations exhibit, in detail, the orders, families, and 
genera of those Classes which come most frequently under the notice of 
the Palseontologist, in order that the reader may perceive, at a glance, the 
relation which the extinct forms already determined bear to those still ex- 
isting, and thus be in some measure enabled to arrive at broader concep- 
tions of the great creational scheme of vitality : — 



Sub-olaas I. PLACENTAUA— bringing forth perfect young. 

Order I. Bdiana Man. 

Sub-fossil — ^in recent formations only. 

Order II. Quadbumana. 

Fam. 1. Gfdeopitheoidn ... Flying Lemurs. 

Fam. 2. ChiromydsB Aye- Ayes. 

Fam. 8. Tarsidsd Thumbed Lemurs. % 

Fam. 4. NycticebidflD Slow Lemurs. >Pro6imi». 

Fam. 5. Lemuridw Lemurs. J 

Fam. 6. Hepalida Marmosets. '\ 

Fam. 7. Cebid» New World Apes. VSimisD. 

Fam. 8. Simiidw Old World Apes. ) 

Fossil Forms. — Pliapitheciu, DryopithecuSf Mesopithecus, 
Semnopithecw, and species of the existing genus Ma4xunu. 

Order III. Cheibofteba. 

Fam. 1. VespertilionidsB... True fiats. 

Fam. 2. Bhinolophidse Horseshoe Bats. 

Fam. 8. Phyllostomida ... Vampyre Bats. 

Fam. 4. PteropodidsD Fox Bats. 

Fossil Forms. — Species of Vespertilio, Rhinolophus, and 
other existing genera in bone-caves. 

Orderly. Inseotivoba. 

Fam. 1. Talpids Moles. 

FaoL 2. SoricidsB Shrews. 




Sub-fam. SoricinsB True Shrews. 

f, MacroscelidinsQ Long-legged Shrews. 

„ Erinaoeinse Hedgehogs. 

„ TupainsB Banxrlngs. 

Fossil Forms. — Pakeospalaa, Spalacodon, Spakuxitherium, 
and species of the existing genera ErinaceuSf Talpa, and 

Order V. Cabnivoba. 

Fam, 1. Canid» Dogs. \ 

Fam. 2. Felidw Calts. llHgitigrade. 

Fam. 3. HysBnida Hyaenas. J 

Fam. 4. ViverridsB Civets. lo • i x* j 

Fam. 6. Mustelida Weasels. | Semiplantigrade. 

Fam. 6. Melidse Badgers. \ 

Fam. 7. Ursidse Bears. ^Plantigrade. 

Fam. 8. Cercoleptidse Kinkajous. j 

Fossil Forms. — Machairodus, Oalecymts, FcUasocyon, Amphi- 
cyon, Hycenodofif Cynodon, LeptarctuSj and species of the 
existing genera Canis, Vulpes, Felis, Hyoena, PrUoritu, 
Mtutelaf Meles, Ui'stu, &c. 

Order VI. Pinnipedia. 

Fam. I. Phocid» Seals. 

Fam. 2. Tricheoidse Walruses. 

Fossil Forms. — Species of existing genus Phoca. 

Order VII. Rodentia- 

Fam. 1. LeporidsB Hares. 

Fam. 2. Cavidte Cavies. 

Fam. 3. Hystricidse Porcupines. 

Fam. 4. Castoridse Beavers. 

Fam. 5. Muridse Bats. 

Fam. 6. Psammorychidse Sand-Bats. 

Fam. 7. Georychidse Mole-Bats. 

Fam. 8. Chinchillidse.^.... Chinchillas. 

Fam. 9. Dipopidse Jerboas. 

Fam. 10. Myoxidse Dormice. 

Fam. 11. Sciurid» Squirrels. 

Fossil Forms. — TrogonUheriumj Arehasomyf, Adelomys, Chali- 
comya, JEumys, Plesiarctomys, and species of existing 
genera Arvicola, Castor, Arclomys, Lagomyt, Lqnu, 
and Mils. 




Order VIII. Edentata, 

Fam, 1. Myrmeoophagida Ant-eaters. 

Fam. 2. DasfpodidaB Armadilloes. 

Fam. 3. Bradypodida ffloths. 

Foflsil Forms. — Olyptodon, MegaJtheriwn,' Megalonyx, Mylo- 
don, Maa-otheriumf Seelidotherium, fto. 

Order IX. Ruhinantia. 

Fam. 1. Camelid» Camels, Llamas. 

Fam. 2. Moschid» Musk-deers. 

Fam. 3. Cervidse Deers. 

Fam. 4. Camelopardidse ... Giraffe. 

Fam. 5. Bovida Oxen, Sheep, Antelopes. 

Fossil Forms. — Several species of ox, sheep, goat, antelope, 
deer ; Megaceros; species of musk-deer ; species of camel ; 
giraffe ; Lejpiaudienia, Macrattchenia, DorcoUherium, Siva- 
therium, Merycotherivmf Merycodus, ProtomeryXf CoMelops, 

Order X. Soudungula or Soupedia. 

Fam. 1. EquidsB Horses, Asses, Zebras. 

Fossil Forms. — ATichitheriunif Hipparum, Hippotherium, 
Merychippvs; and species of the existing genera Equut 
and Atintu, 

> Proboscidea. 

Order XI. Pachyderhata. 

Fam. 1. Elephantidto Elephants. 

Fam. 2. Tapirid» Tapirs. 

Fam. 3. Hippopotamidse... Hippopotami. 

Fam. 4. RUnoceridss Rhinoceroses. 

Fam. 6. Suidse Swine. 

Fam. 6. Hyracid» Conies. 

Fossil Forms. — PaUKotheriunif Palophtherium, Anoplotker- 
turn, Titanotherium ; Hyopotamvs, CkceropotamtM, Micro- 
chcerus; Dichobune, Coryphodony Dichodon, Oreodon; Hyra- 
cotherium; Mammoihf Mastodon; and several species of 
elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, &o. 

Order XII. Cetacea. 

Sub-order I. Cete. 

Fam. 1. BalffinidBB True Whales. \ 

Fam. 2. PhyseteridsB Sperm Whales. sZoophagous* 

Fam. 3. Delphinid» Dolphins. j 


Sab-order n. Sirxnia. 

Fam. 2. Manatida Sea-cows. / ^^^^P**^'"- 

Fossil Forms. — BaUenodon, Zeuglodon, SqwUodon; HaXi- 
therium, Dinotherium (f), BhytiiM ; and sub-fossil species 
of existing genera Balsena, Physter, Delphinus, &c. 

Sub-class IL APLACENTALIA— bringing forth imperfect young. 

Order I. Marsufialia. 

Fam. 1. PhascolomydBB ... Wombats. ^ 

Fam. 2. Macropodidse Kangaroos. >Phytophagous. 

Fam. 3. Phalangistidto Phalangers. ) 

Fam. 4. PeramelidsB Bandicoots. \ 

Fam. 5. Didelphidse Opossums. I Bapa- 

Fam. 6. MyrmecobiidjB ... Banded Ant-Eaters. r cious. 

Fam. 7. Dasyuridse Dasyures. / 

Fossil Forms. — AmphUkeriumf PhaseolGtherium, Droma- 
therium, Thylacotherium, Trictmodorif Plagiavlax, Mwro- 
lestet, AmphilesU*, Notofherium, Diprotodon, Zygomaturus, 
Tkylaccleo; and sub-fossil species of existing genera. 

Order II. Monotremata. 

Fam. 1. Omithorhyncidn.. Omithorhynchus. 
Fam. 2. EohidnidsB Porcupine Ant-Eaters. 



There is no other zoological form so slenderiy represented in geological 
times as the Birds. The footprints of Runners and Waders are thought 
to occur on the slabs of the Trias ; one doubtful portion of bone is said to 
have been found in the Upper Trias of America ; an imperfect skeleton 
has been recently discovered in the Oolites of Germany ; one questionable 
bone has been detected in the Chalk ; and comparatively few bones and frag- 
ments in the Tertiaries. It is only in Post-tertiary times that bird-remains 
— ^bones and eggs — occur in anything like notable abundance. Whatever 
the cause, the paucity of ornithic remains is undoubted ; and hence the 
merest remmS of the orders will suffice for palseontological purposes : — 

Order I. Raptores or Seizors. — Remains of vulturine. birds in the 
Tertiaries; Lithomis, <Sse. 

Order II. Insessores or Perchers. — Remains of crow-like birds in the 
Upper Tertiaries. 

Order III. Soansobes or Climbors. — Remains of woodpecker-like birds 
in the Tertiaries. 

Order IV. CoLUMBiB or Pigeons. — Remains of several genera in Post- 
tertiary and recent accumulations — some, like the dodo, 
tolitaire, &c., of gigantic proportions. 

Order V. Rasores or Scrapers. — Remains of quail-like and pheasant- 
like birds in the Tertiaries. 

Order VI. Cursores or Runners. — Remains of ostrich-like birds in the 
Tertiaries ; and gigantic genera, dinomis, cepiomiSf palap- 
teryx, &c., in the Post-tertiaries. 

Order VII. Grallatores or Waders. — Remaips of waders occur in some 
abundance in the Tertiaries, gastomis, haleycnmis, &c ; and 
footprints {Brontozoum) are thought to be impressed on 
flagstones of Triassic date. 

Order VIII. Natatores or Swimmers.— Remains of this order {dttcks, 
gulls, auks, divers, &c. ) occur in the Tertiaries and Post- 
tertiaries in some abundance. 



{Afixfr Prof taw OwerCt arrangement of 1859.) 

Order I. Ganocbfhala (Head composed of enamelled bones). 

Fossil Forms. — Archegosaurus, Anthrakerpeton, Fholidogaster, 

Order II. Labtrinthodontia (Labyrintbine-teeth). 

Fossil Forms. —Labyrinthodoti, MastodonsauruSf Odontoeaurtu, 
Capitosaunie, Trematosaurtu, Z^gosaurtts, Anthra,cosaurus, 
Baphetes, BaihygrMihfus, &c. 

Order III. Ichthtoptebygia (Fisb-finned saurians). 
Fossil Form. — IMiyosaurm. 

Order IV. Sauboptertgia (lizard-finned saurians). 

Fossil Forms. — Plesiosaurus, Pliosaurus, Svmosaurus, Pisto- 
mwruif NothoeauruSf Polyptychodon. 

Order V. Anomodontia (Irregular-tootbed). 

Fam. 1. Dicynodontia Dicyiiodon, Ptychogjiathui, 

Fam. 2. Cryptodontia Ovdenodon, 

Fam. 3. Gnatbodontia Ithynchosaunu, 

Fossil Forms. — ^As given in tbe preceding examples. 

Order VI. Ptbrosaubia (Winged saurians). 

Fossil Forms. — PUrodactylus, BAamphorhynckus, Dimorphodon, 



Order VII. Theoodontia. (Sheath or socket-toothed). 

FoaalFormB.—TkecodotUosaurtu, StagonoltpU, Protorotaurus, 
Palceotaurtu, Cladydon, Bdodon, &c. 

Order VIIL Dinosauria (Terrible sauiians). 

Fossil Forms. — IgtLaiiadon, HyUxomvnu (Herbivorous), Mega- 
lotaurtUf Regnoiauma (CamiTorous), Scelidotaurtu, 

Order IX. Cbocodilia (Crocodiles). 

Sub-order 1. AmphiccBlia Haying bi-concave vertebna. 

Fossil Forms. — Teleoaaurus, Migtriotaurju, Macrospoiidylus, 
Massospondylus, Pdagosaurus, Steneotauras, Suchosaurua, 
OonwpholiSf PcRciltepUuray &c. 

Sub-order 2. Opisthoooelia. Haying conyexo-concaye yertebrse. 

Fossil Forms. — CetiosauruSf Streptoipmidyltu. 

Sub-order 3. Procoelia Having concavo-convex vertebra. 

Fossil Forms. — Species of the existing genera Crooodilus, Alli- 
gatoTf avd Gavialis, 

Order X. Laoebtilia (Lizards). 

Fam. 1. ScincidsB Skinks. 

Fam. 2. Chalcidse 

Fam. 3. Lacertid» lizards. 

Fam. 4. Teidse Ameivas. 

Fam. 5. VaranidsB Varanas. 

Fam. 6. Iguanidse Iguanas. 

Fam. 7. Geckotidse Geckos. 

Fam. 8. ChamseleonidsD Chameleons. 

Fossil Forms. — Telerpeton, DeTidrerpeton, Hylerpeton, ffylono- 
muSf Leiodon, Macellodtu, Lacerta, Cotiiosaums, Dolicluh 
tauruSf &c. 

Order XI. Ophidia. 

Fam. 1. CrotalidsD Rattlesnakes. 

Fam. 2. Viperida Vipers. 

Fam. 3. ColubridsB Snakes. 

Fam. 4. Hydrophidse Water-Snakes. 

Fam. 5. Dendrophidse Tree-Snakes. 

Fam. 6. Boidse Boas. 

Fossil Forms. — Palceaphis, JLaophis, Paleryx; detached bones 
and eggs of undetermined genera apparently related to the 
water-snakes and pythons. 



Orc^erXII. Chelonia. 

Fam. 1. ChelonidsB Turtles Marine. 

Fam. 2. Tryonicidfle Soft Tortoises Fluvial. 

Fam. 3. EmydidsB Box Tortoises Marsh. 

Fam. 4. TestudinidsB Land Tortoises Terrestrial. 

Fossil Forms. — Colossochelys, Pleurostemon, Protemys, PUUemys; 
fossil footprints, as Cheli^niM, &c. ; and species of the exist- 
ing genera Ckelone, Testiido, Tryonyx, and Emyt, 

Order XIII. Batbaohia or Amphibia. 

Sub-order I. Apoda. 

Fam. 1. Cceciliidse Blindworms. 

Fam. 2. Lepidotid» Lepidosiren. 

Sub-order II. Urodela. 

Fam. 1. ProteidsB Proteus. 

Fam. 2. SirenidsB Sirens. 

Fam. 3. AmphiumidsB Amphiuma. 

Fam. 4. Salamandridse Tritons. 

Fossil Forms. — ParcLbatrachus, Palaiophrynos, Andrias, &c. 

Sub-order III. Anura. 

Fam. 1. PipidsB Surinam Toads. 

Fam. 2. Bufonidse Toads. 

Fam. 3. BanidsD Frogs. 

Sub-fam. — HylinesB Tree-Frogs. 

Fossil Forms. — Ranlceps; Batrachoptu, Savropus, and other 
frog-like footprints. 



{Chi^y from. MorrW^t CcUcUofftie of British Fossils, as modijied from 

MUlUr and Owen,) 

Order I. Dermopteri. [Cycloidei, Agaas.] 

Sub-order I. Pharyngobranchii, sou Cirrhostond, 
Fam. 1; Amphioxidfld Lancelot. 

Sab-order II. Maraipobranchii. [Cycloslomif Cur.] 

Fam. 1. Myxinidse Myzine. 

Fam. 2. Petromyzontid» Lamprey. 

Order II. Malaooftebi {Physostomif Mliller). [Cydoidei, Agass.] 

Sub-order I. M. apodes. 

Fam. I. Symbranchidse Cuchia. 

Fam. 2. MursenidsB Eel. 

Fam. 3. GynmotidsD Gymnotus. 

Sub-order II. M. abdominales. 

Fam. 1. Heteropygii Amblyopsis. 

Fam. 2. ClupeidsD Herring. 

Fam. 3. SalmonidsB Salmon. 

Fam. 4. Scopelidas Saurus. 

Fam. 5. Characinid» Myletes. 

Fam. 6. GkJaxidfle Galaxias. 

Tam. 7. EsocidfiB Pike. 

Fam. 8. MormyridsB Mormyrus. 

Fam. 9. Cyprinodontidse Umber. 

Fam. 10. CyprinidflB Carp. 

Fam. 11. Siluridse Sheat-fish. 

Order III. Phartngognathi {MiJkller). [Cycloidei et Ctenoidei, Agass.] 

Sub-order I. Ph. malacopterygii. 

Fam. 1. Scomber-esocida Saury-Pike. 

Sub-order II. Ph. acanthopterygii. 

Fam. 1. ChromidflB Chromis. 

Fam. 2. Cycloabrid» Wrasse. 

Fam. 3. Ctenolabrid» Pomacentrus. 



Order IV. Anacanthini (MiUler). [Cydoidei et Ctenoidei, Agass.] 

Sub-order I. A. apodes. | 

Fam. 1. Ophidida Ophidium. 

Sub-order II. A. thoracica. 

Fam. 1. GadidsB Cod. 

Fam. 2. PluronectidfiB Plaice. 

Order V. Aoanthofteri {MiUler), [Cyeloidei et Ctenotdei, Agass.] 

Fam. 1. Percid» Perch. 

Fam. 2. Sclerogenidse Quraard. 

Fam. 8. SparicUe Spams. 

Fam. 4. Sci»md» Maigre. 

Fam. 5. Labyrinthobranchii Anabas. 

Fam. 6. Mugilidfle Mullet. 

Fam. 7. Notacanthidse Notaoanth. 

Fam. 8. Scomberid» Mackerel. 

Fam. 9. Squammipemies Ob»todon. 

Fam. 10. Tsniodei Riband-fish. 

Fam. 11. Theutyid» Lanoet-fish. 

Fam. 12. Fistularida Pipe-mouth. 

Fam. 18. Gobiida Goby. 

Fam. 14. Blenniida Wolf-fish. 

Fam. 15. Lophiida Angler. 

Order VI. Plectoonathi {Cwoier). [Oanovdeiy Agass.] 

Fam. 1. BaUstini FUe-fish. 

Fam. 2. Ostraciontidffi Trunk-fish. 

Fam. 3. Gymnodontidsd Globe-fish. 

Order VII. LoFHOBBANCHn{C7uvier). [d'anotcfn, Agass.] 

Fam. 1. Hippocampida Sea-horse. 

Fam. 2. Syngnathida Pipe-fish. 

Order VIII. Ganozdei, seu OonioUpidoH {Agass.; as restricted by MUller). 

''Fam. 1. SaJamandroidei LepidosteusandPolypterus. 

- {Sauroidei, Agass,) 

Fam. 2. Pycnodontida Pycnodus. 

Fam. 3. Lepidoidei Dapedius. 

Fam. 4. SturionidsB Sturgeon. (Acipenserini, Agass,) 

Fam. 5. Acanthodei Acanthodes. 

Fam. 6. Dipterida Dipterus. (Sauroidei-dipterini, Agass.) 

Fam. 7. [Coelacanthi, Agass Ccelacanthus.] 

^Fam. 8. Cephalaspides Cephalaspis, Pteraspis. 


Order IX. Pbotofteri. [Oanoidei, Agass.] 

Fam. 1. Sirenoidei Lepidosiren. 



Order X. Holocefhali. [Plcteoidei, Agass.] 

Fam. 1. ChixnsBridsD Chinuera. 

Fam. 2. Edaphodontidsd Edaphodon. 

Order XI. Plaqiobtomi. [Placoidei, Agass.] 

Fam. 1. HybodontidsB Hybodus. 

Fam. 2. Cestraciontidse Cestracion. 

Fam. 3. NotidanidsD Grey Shark. 

Fam. 4. Spinaoidsd Piked Dog-fish. 

Fam. 5. Scylliadse Spotted Dog-fish. 

Fam. 6. Niotitantes Tope. 

Fam. 7. Lamnidfle Porbeagle. 

Fam. 8. Alopecidae Fox Shark. 

Fam. 9. Scymniidse Greenland Shark. 

Fam. 10. Squatinas Monk-fish. 

Fam. 11. Zygsenidse Hammerhead ffliark. 

Fam. 12. Pristidse Saw-fish. 

Fam. 13. Bhinobatidse Bhinobates. 

Fam. 14. Torpedinidae Electric Bay. 

Fam. 15. Kaiid» Skate. 

Fam. 16. Trygonidse Sting Kay. 

Fam. 17. Myliobatidse Eagle Ray. 

Fam. 18. Cephalopteridsd Cephalopterus. 



Frail and fragile as they may seem, the insect tribes are nevertiheless 
pretty numerously represented in all the formations, from the Coal- 
measures upwards. The foUowing outline of the leading Orders may 
assist the student in his discriminations : — 

1. FumuM. with hard coriaceavs jawt or mandihlet. 

Order I. Htmenopteba, having four membranous veined wings, the 
anterior the larger ; as the Bee, Humble-bee, Wasp. 

Order IT. Nettbofteba, having four similar membranous reticulated 
wings, as the Dragon-fly, Termes, Caddis-fly, Day-fly. 

Fostil genera {Lihdlvla, Ephemera^ PhrygoMea, &c.) have 
been found in the Coal, Oolite, and Tertiaries. 

Order III. Obthofteba, having the wings straight and the outer pair 
a little coriaceous, as the Lootist, Grasshopper, Cock- 

Fossil gerura of this order {Blattinaf GryUus, DichfOfieura, 
&c.) have been found in the Coal, Oolite, and Tertiaries. 

Order lY. Coleoffeba, having the outer wings wholly coriaceous and 
neatly meeting along the back, so as to form a sheath or 
shield for the inner pair when at rest, as in the various 

Fossil genera {Carahu, Curculioides, F later, kc.) have 
been found in the Coal, Oolite, Wealdeh, and Tertiaries. 


2. Fumitked wUk sucking mouiOa andprobotea. 

Order V. HEmprEBA, having the outer wings coriaceous for about 
half ^their length orlj, as the Squash-bog, or uniformly 
thin, as in the Crickets. 

Fossil ffenera are said to occur in the Oolite and Fresh- 
water Tertiaries. 

Order V I. Diftera, having two membranous wings only, as the House- 

Fossil genera {Asilus, Culex, Rkypkits, &c.) have been found 
in the Lias and Purbeck beds of England. 

Order VIL Lefidoftera, having large wings covered with minute 
scales, as the Butterflies and Moths. 

Fossil genera are said to occur in the Tertiaries. 



{Extinct Families and Genera are printed in Italics.) 


Legion 1. Lofhybofoda. 

Order 1. Copepoda. 

Fam. 1, CyclopidsD. 

Order 2. Ostracoda. 

Fam. 1. CyprididsD. 
Genus Cypris. 

Fam. 2. Cytheridse. 
Genus Cythere. 
Sub-genus Bairdia. 




Fam. 3. Cypridinidse. 
Genus Cypridina. 

Legion 2. Bbanohiofoda. 

Order 1. Oladoceba. 

Fam. 1. Dapbniadse. 
Genus Dapbnia^ kc. 

Order 2. Phtllofoda. 

Fam. 1. LinnadiadsB. 
Genus Limnadia. 

Fam. 2. Nebaliad». 
Genus NebaHa. 




Fam. 3. Apodidse. 
G^nus Apus. 


Fam. 4. Brancbiopodidse. 
Genus CheirocepbaluS; &c. 
Extinct Group. Trilobttce. 
Fam. JTarpedidas. 

Legion 3. P(Ecilofoda. 

Fam. 1. LimulidsB. 

Genus Limulus, &c. 

Extinct Fam. 2. Eurypteridce, 
Genus Eurypterus. 

Legion 4. Sifhonostomata. 


Legion 1. Podophthalhia. 

Order 1. Deoapoda. 

Fam. 1. Brachyura=Crab8, 

Fam. 2. Anomura=H6rmit 
Crab, kc. 

Fam. 3. Macrura=Lobst6r, 

Order 2. STOMAPODA=Squills, &c. 

Legion 2. Edriofhthalmia. 

Order 1. AMFHiFODA=€rammar- 
us, kc. 

Order 2. Losmifoda = Caprella, 

Order 3. IsopODA^Oniscus, &c. 




{Modified from Woodward! 8 ManucU, — the fotsU families and genera 

heiiig printed in Italics.) 

Order I. DiBRAifCHiATA = Aoetabulipera (Cuttle-Fishes.) 


Fam. 1. Argonautids. — Argonauta. 

Fam« 2. OctopodidsD. — Octopus, Pinnoctopus, Eledone, Cirroteu- 
this, Philonexis. 

h. Decapoda. 

Fam. 3. Teuthidse. — Loligo, Qonatus, Sepioteuthis, Beloteuthis, 
OeotetUhis, LeptotetUhit, Cranohia, Sepiola, Loligopsis, Cheiro- 
teuthis, Onychoteuthis, Enoploteuthis, Ommastrephes. 

Fam. 4. Belemnitidoi. — Belemnites, Belemnitella, AcaniliotetUhie, 
BelemnotetUhis, Conoteuthis. 

Fam. 5. Sepiadse. — Sepia, Spirulirostraf Beloptera, Belemnosis. 

Fam. 6. Spirolidse. — Spirula. 

Ordei-II. Tbtbabranchiata=Tentaculifera (Nautiloid Cephalopods). 

Fam. 1. Nautilidffi.— 'Nautilus, Lituitee, Trochocerojt, Clymenia, 
Fam. 2. OrthoceraMdo!. — Orthocet^as, Oomphoceras, Oncocenu, 

Phragmoceras, Cyrtoceraa, Oyroceraa^ Ascoceras. 
Fam. 3. Ammonitidai. — Ooniaiitet, Bactrites, Ceratitee, Ammonites, 

Crioceras, Turrilites, Hamites, Plychoceras, Ba^rulites, 

a. Thecasomata. 

Fam. 1. Hyaleidffi. — Hyalea, Cleodora, Cuvieria, Theca, Ptero- 

theca, ConvXaria, Eurybia, Cymbulia, Tiedemannia. 
Fam. 2. Limaoinidsd. — Limacina, Spinalis. 

h. GTimosoMATA. 

Fam. 3. Cliid».— Clio, Pneumodermon, Pelagia, Cymodocea. 



Order I. Pbosobranohiata. 


Fam. I. Strombidse. — Strombus, Pterooeraft, Bostellaria, Seraphs. 

Fam. 2. Muricidn. — Murex^ Pisania, Ranella, Triton, Fasciolaria, 
Turbinella, CanceUaria, Trichotropis, Pyrula, Fusus. 

Fam. 3. Buooinidse. — Buccinum, Pseudoliva, Anolax, Halia> Tere- 
bra, Ebuma, Nassa, Phos, Ringicula (?), Purpura, Purpwrina, 
Monoceros, Pedicularia, Ricinula, Planaxis, Magilus, Cassis, 
Onisoia, Cithara, Cassidaria, Dolium, Harpa, Colmnbella, 
Oliva, Ancillaria. 

Fam. 4. Conidse. — Conus, Pleurotoma. 

Fam. 5. Volutids. — Voluta, Cymba, Mitra, Volvaria, Marginella. 

Fam. 6. Cyprseidie. — Cypreaa, Erato, Ovulum. 


Fam. 1. Naticidffi. — Natica, Sigaretus, Lamellaria, Narica, Vel- 

Fam. 2. Pyramidellida. — Pyramidella, Odostomia, Chemnitzia, 

Eulima, Stylina, Loxoiiema, Macrocheilvs. 
Fam. 3. CeritbiadsB. — Cerithium, Potamides, Nerinaeaf Fastigiella, 

Aporrhais, Struthiolaria. 
Fam. 4. Melaniadse. — Melania, Paludomus, Melanopsis. 
Fam. 5. Turritellidfle,— Turritella, Aclis, Caecum, Vermetus, Sili- 

quaria, Scalaria. 
Fam. 6. litorinidffi. — litorina, Solarium, Phorus, Lacuna, litiopa, 

Bissoa, Skenea, Truncatella (?), Lithoglyphus. 
Fam. 7. Paludinidse. — Paludina, Ampullaria, Amphibola, Valvata. 
Fam. 8. Neritidse. — Nerita, Pileolus, Neritina, Navicella. 
Fam. 9. Turbinids.— Turbo, Phasianella, Imperator, Troohus, 

Botella, Monodonta, Delphinula, Adeorbis, Evamphaluty Sto- 

matella, Broderipia. 
Fam. 10. Haliotis. — Haliotis, Stomatia, Scissurella, Pleurotomarta, 

Murc^dsonia, Trochotoma, Cirrus, lanthina. 
Fam. 11. Fissurellidsd. — Fissurella, Puncturella, Bimula, Emar- 

ginula, Parmophorus. 
Fam. 12. Calyptrseidae. — Calyptrssa, Crepidula, Pileopsis, Hippo- 

Fam. 13. Patellidae. — PateUa, Acmsea, Gadinia, Sipbonaria. 
Fam. 14. Dentaliadse.— Dentalium. 
Fam. 15. Cbitonidae. — Chiton. 

Order II. Pulhokifera. 

a. Inoperculata. 

Fam. 1. Helicids. — Helix, Vitrina, Succinea, Bulimus, Achatina, 
Pupa, Cylindrella, Balea, Tomatellina, Paxillus, Clausilia. 

Fam. 2. Limacid». — limax, Incilaria, Arion, Parmacella, Tes- 

Fam. 3. Oncidiadse.— Oncidium, Vaginulus. 



Fam. 4. limnieidsB. — limniea, Chilinia, Physa, Anoylns, Plan- 

Fam. 5. Auriculidte.— Auricula, ConoTulas, Carychium (Siphon - 


b, Operoulata. 

Fam. 6. Cyclostomidae. — Cydostoma, Fenusina (?), Cyclophonis, 

Pupina, Helicina, Stoastoma. 
FajxL 7. Aciculidse. — Acicula^ Geomelania. 

Order III.— Ombthobranohiata. 

a. Tbctibranchiata. 

Fam. 1. TomatelUdse. — Tomatella, Ciavulia, Blngicula, Globicon- 

cha, Varigera, Tylostama, PterodojUa {!), Tomatina(?). 
Fam. 2. filillidse.— fiulla, Acera, Cylichna, Amphisphyra, Aplus- 

trum, Scaphander, Bulleea, Doridium, Gastropteron. 
Fam. 3. Aplysiadse. — Aplysia, DolabeUa, Notarchus, Icaras, Lo- 

Fam. 4. Pleurobranchidn. — Pleurobranchus, Posterobranchsea^ 

Buncina, Umbrella, Tylodina. 
Fam. 5. Phyllidiadfie.— PbylUdia, DiphyUidia. 


Fam. 6. Doridse. — Doris, Goniodoris, Triopa, ^girus, Thecacera, 

Polycera, Idalia, Ancola, Ceratosoma. 
Fam. 7. Tritoniadse. — Tritonia, Scyllaea, Tethys, Bomella, Den- 

dronotus, Doto, Melibsea, Lomanotus. 
Fam. 8. JSolldse.— .^lis, Glaucns, Fiona, Embletonia, Procton- 

otus, Antiopa, Hermsea, Alderia. 
Fam. 9. PhylUrhoidae.— Phyllirhoe. 
Fam. 10. ElysiadsB. — Elysia, Acteonia, Cenia, limapontia. 

Order IV. Nuolbobranchiata. 

Fam. 1. FirolidsB. — f^rola, Carinaria, Cardiapoda. 
Fam. 2. Atlantidse. — Atlanta, PorceUia, Bellerophon, Cyrtoliies, 
Maclurea (?). 



Fam. 1. Ostreidse. — Ostrea, Anomia, Placuna, Pecten, Lima, Spon- 

dylus. Pedum, Plicatula. 
Fam. 2. Aviculidse. — Avicula, Posidonomya, AvictUopecten, Oer- 

vUlia, Pema, Inoceramtis, Pinna. 
Fam. 8. Mytilidse. — Mytilus, Myalina, Modiola, lithodomus, 

Crenella, Dreissena. 
Fam. 4. Arcadee. — ^Arca, Cucullsea, Pectunculus, limopsis, Nu- 

cula, Isoaroa, Leda, Solenella, Solemya. 
Fam. 5. Trigoniadse. — Trigonia, Myophoria, Aximu, LyrodesTMi. 
Fam. 6. UnionidsB. — Unio, Castalia, Anodon, Iridina, Mycetopus, 

^theria, MuUeria. 

h. Siphonida; Integro-pallialia. 

Fam. 7. Chamidae. — Chama, Monopleura, Diceras, Itequienia. 



Fam. 8. ffippuritid€e.—Bippurties, Radiolites, CaprineUa, Cap- 
Hna, CaproHna, Madurea (?). 

Fam. 9. Tridacnid». — Tridacna, Hippopus. 

Fam. 10. CardiadsB. — Cardium, Hemioardium, LithocardivM, Ser- 
ripes; Adacna^ Conocardium, 

Fam. 11. Lucinidse. — Lucina, Cryptodon, Corbis, Tancredia^ Bip- 
lodonta, Ungulina, Eellia, Montaouta, Lepton, Galeomma. 

Fam. 12. Cycladidse. — Cyclas, Cyrenoidea, Cyrena. 

Fam. 13. Cyprinidae.— Cyprina, Circe, Astarte, Crafisatella, Iso- 
cardia, Cypricardia, PleurophoruSf Cardilia, MegcUodon, Pa- 
chydomuSf Pachyrisma, Opis, Cardinia, Myoconcha, Hippo- 
podium, Cardita, Venericardia, Verticordia. 

c. Sifhonida; Simu-pallialia. 

Fam. 14. Venerid». — ^Venus, Cytherea, Meroe, Trigona, Gratelou- 

pia, Artemis, Luoinopsis, Tapes, Venerupis, Petricola, Glau- 

Fam. 15. Mactridse. — Mactra, Gnathodon, Lutraria, Anatinella. 
Fam. 16. Tellinidfle.— Tellina, Diodonta, Capsula, Psammobia, 

Sanguinolaria, Semele, Syndosmya, Sorobicularia, Mesodes- 

ma, Ervilia, Donax, Galatea. 
Fam. 17. Solenida.— Solen, Cultellus, Ceratisolen, Machsera, Sole- 

curtus, Novaculina. 
Fam. 18. Myacidae.— Mya, Corbula, Sphenia, Neaera, Thetis, Pan- 

opsea, Saxicava, Glycimeris. 
Fam. 19. AnatinidsB.— Anatina, Cochlodesma, Thracia, Phola- 

domya, Myadtes, Ooniomya, Ceromya, Cardwrnorpha, Ed- 

mondia, Lyonsia, Pandora, Myadora, Myochama, Chamos- 

Fam. 20. GastrochaenidaB.— Gastrochaena, Chaena, Clavagella, As- 

Fam. 21. Pholadidae.— Pholas, Pholadidea, Jouamietia, Xylopha- 

ga, Teredo, Teredina. 


Fam. 1. Terebratulidae. — Terebratula, Terebratella, Argiope, The- 

cidium, Stringocephaltu. 
Fam. 2. Spiriferidce. — Spirifera, Aikyris, ReUia, Uncitet, 
Fam. 8. BhynchonellidaB. — Rkynchonella, Camarophoria, PeTUa- 

menu, A try pa, 
Fam. 4. Orthidas. — Orthis, Strophomena, Leptcmaf Koninckia, 

Davidsonia^ Caiceoku 
Fam. 6. Prodiictidas. — ProducUii Aidotteges, StropJuilosia, Chonetes, 
Fam. 6. Craniadae. — Crania. 
Fam. 7. Disoinidae. — Discina, Siphonotreta, 
Fam. 8. Lingulidae. — Lingula, Obolut. 

%* All the Brachiopodous families occur largely in a fossil state ; the 
genera, species, and individuals, being much more abundant in Palaeozoic 
than in Mesozoic or Cainozoic times. 



CLASS I.~TUNICATA : doubtfully known in a fossil state. 


Fam. 1. Esoharidse. — Eschara, PtUodictya, Olaueonome, LunulUes, 

Fam. 2. Celleporidse. — Cellepora, Flustra Lepralia^ Discopora, 

Fam. 3. Reteporidse. — Betepora^ Fenestdla, Polypora, Phyllo- 

pora, Ptilopora, Synocladia. 
Fam. 4. Crisidae. — Crisia^ Idmojiea, Hippothoa. 
Fam. 6. MyriaporidcB. — Fascicularia, Terfhellaria, Tkeonoa. 
Fam. 6. Tubuliporidse. — Tubulipora, Beteropora^ Ceriopora, Ac- 

tinopora, Diagtopora, Cricopora, PetcUhpora, Pustulo- 

pora, Zonopora. 



{Fossil Families and Examples printed in Italics. ) 

Order I. Cbinoedea. 

Fam. 1. ComatulidsB Comatula. 

Fam. 2. Marsupitidce Marsupites. 

Fam. 8. Apiocrinida Apiocrinv^jBourgudicrinus^Millericrinus, 

Fam. 4. Pentacrinidse Pentacrinus, ExtracrinuSf Cainocrinus. 

Fam. 5. Cyaihocrinidce Cya^^fwcrinus, Poteriocrimu, HAodocrintu, 


Fam. 6. Melocrinidoi, Adinocrinus, HexacrinuSf Platycrinus. 

Fam. 7. CupressocrinidcB Cupressocrinus. 

Fam. 8. Polycrinidas Eucalyptocrinus. 

Order II. Cystoidba. 

Fam. 1. CystidcB Psevdocrinites, Hemicosmites, CaryodstUes, 


Order III. Blastoidea. 
Fam. 1. Pentremitido! Pentremites, Codonaster, Elceacrimu. 

Order IV. OPHroROiDBA. 

Fam. 1. Ophiuridse Ophiura^ Amphiura, Aspidvaui Ophio- 

derma, Protaster, 


Yam. 1. Asteridse Asterias, Astrapeden, Goniaster, Oreaster, 

SolasteTf VrasUr, 
Fam. 2. Crenasteridse Crenaster, Euryale. 

Order VI. Pebisoho-eohinoidsa. 

Fam. 1. Palaxihinidat Palaschinus. 

Fam. 2. Arcfuxocida/ridas Archceocidaris, Perisehodom%u, 




Order VII. Eohinoidea. i 

Fam. 1. Eohinidffi Echinus, Cyph^uoma, Diadema, Ditcoidea, 

Echinopni, Hemiaster, Hemicidaris, So- 

Fam. 2. Cidaridse Cidaris. | 

Fam. 8. Oaleritidce Galeritetf Dytaster, HoUctypus, Hybocltfpus. 

Fam. 4. Echiwrneidce Echinotn^amuSf Echinarachnitu, 

Fam. 5. Cassidulidse NucUotiiM, PygoMtTy Pygurm. 

Fam. 6. Ananchytidas Ananckytety Cardiatter, HemipneuHet. 

Fam. 7. Spatangide Spatangus, MicraMer, Schizaster. 

Order Vni. Holothuboidea. 

Fam. ]. HolothuridsB Holothuria, Psolus. 

- Fam. 2. Synaptidie Synaptis. 




{Fossil Families and ^Examples printed in Italics.) 


Order I. Zoanthabia. 

Sect, a, Apobosa. 

Fam. 1. Twrhinolidai. — Turln/nolia, Cyaihmaf Cyclocya^uSf Disco- 

Fam. 2. Oculinidae. — Ocalina^ Diphelia, Synhelia. 
Fam. 3. Astreeidse. — Astrsea, Cladophyllia, Montlivaltia, Paras- 

Fam. 4. Fmigidse. — Fungia, AnaAa^na, Micrdbada. 

Sect. h. Perforata. 

Fam. 1. EupsammidsB. — Balanophyllia, Stephanophyllia. 
Fam. 2. Madreporidse. — Stereopsammia, Detidrophyllia. 
Fam. 3. Poritidse. — Holorcea, LUharasa^ Pleurodietyum. 

Sect. c. Tabulata. 

Fam. 1. MilleporidflB. — Millepora, Astroeopora, Heliolites. 
Fam. 2. Favositidse. — Favosites, Alveolites, Chaetetes, Halysites. 
Fam. 3. Seriatoporidee. — Dendropora. 
Fam. 4. Thecidse. — Thecia, Columnaria. 

Sect. d. RUGOSA. 

Fam. 1. Stauridce. — Stauria, Polycodia, Holocystis. 

Fam. 2. Cyatkoxonido!. — Cyathoxonia, 

Fam. 3. Cya^hophyllidce. — Cyathophyllum, Acervularia, Amplexus, 

Clisiophyllum, lAthodeTidron^ Lithostrotion, Zaphrentis, &c. 
Fam. 4. Cystiphyllidce. — Cystvphyllwn, 

Sect. e. Caulioulata. 

Fam. 1. Antipathidse. — Antipathes. 



Order II. Alotonaria. 

Fam. 1. Aloyonids. — Alcyonium, Cladochonut. 

Fam. 2. TubiporidsB. — Tubipora, StronuUopora, 

Fam. 8. Gk>rgonid8B. — Gorgonia, Mopsea, PyriUmema, VirgukLria, 

Fam. 4. Cfraptolitidce. — Oraptolitkus, Didynwgrapnu, Diplograp- 

nUf Mcutrites, 
Fam. 5. Pemmlatidae.— Pennatula, Chaphnlaria, 

Order III. Podactinabia.— 


Fam. 1. Hydridse. — Hydra. 

Fam. 2. SertularidsB. — Sertularia. 

Fam. 8. Corynidse. — Coryne. 

Fam. 4. Calycophoridse. — 

Fam. 5. Physophoridse. — 

Fam. 6. Luoemidse. — Lucemaria. 

Fam. 7. Medusidse. — Medusa, Cyansea, Equorea. 




{Sponge-like organisms occurring most ctbundantly in British formations.) 


Fam. Amobphobpongid^. 
Gen. Acanthospongia. 

Fam. Calcispongidjb. 
Gen. Grantia. 

Fam. Haliohondbidjs. 
Gen. Cliona. 






Fam. Lyhnobeidjs. 
Gen, Mammillopora. 

Fam. Sfabsxspongidjs. 
Gen. Chenendopora. 


Gen. Choanites. 



Gen. Braohiolites. 



{Foraminijera whote ealoareout ccuet occur most abundantly in 

British strata). 

Gen, Lagena. 

Ord. 2. Ctclostegia. 
Gen. Orbiculina. 

Ord. 3. Stiohostegia. 
Gen. Dentaliiia. 

Ord. 4. Heuoostegia. 
Gen. Alrelolina. 

* ♦ 











Ord. 6. Entomostegia. 
Gen. Amphistegina. 

Ord. 6. Enallostegia. 
Gen. Cuneolina. 

Ord. 7. Agathestegia. 
Gen. Biloculina. 

^ The Polycystina, an allied group, are furnished with siliceous and 
not with calcareous shells. 



All our ideas of geological arrangement are founded on the &ct; that in 
the earth's crust there are two great sets of rocks, the Stratified and the 
Ukstbatified — the former the results of deposition in water, and hence 
also known as Aqueous and Sedimentary, the latter the products of igneous 
fusion, and consequently termed igneous and eruptive, thus : — 

I. Stratipibd, Sedimentabt, Aqueous, or Neptunian— the results of 

deposition in water, and consequently arranged in layers or strata 
more or less persistent and regular, as sandstone, shale, limestone, 
coal, and the like. 

II. Unstratcfixd, Eruptivb, Igneous, or Plutonic— the products of 
igneous fusion, and cast forth, for the most part, in irregular and 
amorphous masses, as granite, greenstone, basalt, lava, and the like. 

The following arrangement of the Stratuied Formations is that which 
gaye direction and consistency to the researches of British Geologists 
during the earlier portion of the present century — ^is still, in part» retained 
in its nomenclature, and continues less or more to influence our ideas of 
succession and chronology : — 

Kbcent.— All superficial accumulations, as sand, gravel, silt, marl, 
peat-moss, coral-reefs, &c. Contain the remains of existing plants 
and animals only partially fossilised or svh-fossU. 

Tebtiart. — Local and limited deposits of regular strata occurring 
above the Chalk. Contain the remains of plants and animaXs not 
differing widely in chara/^er from those tww existing, 

Seoondart. — Embracing all the strata known as Chalk, Oolite, lias, 
Coal-measures, Mountain Limestone, and Old Bed Sandstone. 
< Contain fossil plants and animals of species totally different from, 
those now existing. 

Transition. — ^Strata of slaty and siliceous sandstones, known as 
''greywack^," calcareous shales, and limestones. Contain few 
or no fossil plants, and the remahis of no higher animals than 
Crustacea^ sJiell-Jish, and zoophytes. 

Primary. — ^AU slaty and crystalline strata-^s roofing-slate, mica- 
schist, and gneiss, very hard and compact, and totsdly destitute 
of organic remains. 







Although the Igneous rocks hvarst through and appear among the strati- 
fied without order or arrangement^ it is customary to speak of them as 
Gbanitic^ Traffean, and Volcanic ; meaning, by the term Granitic, the 
igneous rocks which, like granite, are usually found associated with tlie 
older strata ; by the term Trappean, the igneous rocks most frequently 
associated with the Secondary and Tertiary strata ; and by the term Vol- 
canic, those that have made their appearance during the current epoch. 
Classifying them according to this view, we have— 

Volcanic. — Lava, trachyte, tu£Et, pumice, scoriae, &c., associated 
with recent accumulations. 

Trappean. — ^Trap-tuflF, amygdaloid, greenstone, basalt, &c., as- 
sociated for the most part with Tertiary and Secondaiy strata. 

Granitic.— Granite, syenite, porphyry, &c., associated in greatest 
force with Transition and Primary strata. 

By a more extensive examination of the strata in different countries, 
and especially by a more minute investigation of their fossil contents, tlie 
'' formations " of the earlier geologists have, to a certain extent, become 
obsolete, and other subdivisions and groupings been adopted. This new 
arrangement has been founded either on mineral or on fossil distinctions 
— such differences being sufficient to warrant the conclusion that each set 
of strata was formed during successive epochs, under different distributions 
of sea and land, and consequently under different conditions of climate and 
other modifying influences; and as geological investigation advances, it 
is more than probable that we must still farther abandon our Rock Format 
tions, and adhere to great Life Periods as the true exponents of the world's 
progress and history. In the mean time the following arrangement gives 
consistency to the researches of European and American geologists : — 



1. Post-Tertiary. ^ 

2. Tertiary. | 


(Becent life). 

8. Cretaceous. 

4. Oolitic or Jurassic. > 


6. Triassic. 

(Middle Life). 

6. Permian. 

7. Carboniferous. 

8. Devonian or Old Bed. v 

9. Silurian. [ 

(Ancient Life). 

10. Cambrian. 

11. TAurenti'an. ' 

12. Metamorphic, \ 
Crystalline, or > 
Non-fossiliferous. ) 

(Void of Tiife). 








The following tabulation exhibits the arrangement of the firitish stratified 
rockS; as accepted by our leading geologists — minor and local deviations 
of superposition being subordinated for the sake of distinct comprehen- 
sion and ready reference : — 



















Groups, Periods, 

{ In progress. 
( Recent. 


( Greensand. 

f Wealden. 

< OoUte. 
( Lias. 

f Saliferous Marls. 

< Muschelkalk (?). 
( Upper New Red Sandstone. 

{Magnesian Limestone. -^ 
Lower New Red Sandstone. 

! Coal-measures. 
Millstone Grit. 
Mountain Limestone. 
Lower Coal-measures. 

Tellow Sandstones. 

DeTonian Limestones and 

Red Sandstones, Conglom- 
erates, and Comstones. 

Grey fissile Sandstones 
(''flagstones") and Con- 
! Upper Silurian. 
Lower Silurian. 

Schists and Grits. 

Hard Gneissic Schists, &c.y 

Clay -slate, Mica- schist, ) ^^^^ ^^ 
Gneiss, and Granitoid > ^^ 
Schists. ) "''^^"^"- 




\ Palsozoic. 







{AfUr Sir Chaarla Lyell, 1865.) 

1. Recent. 

2. Post-Pliocene. 
8. Newer Pliocene. 

4. Older Pliocene. 

5. Upper Miocene. 

6. Lower Miocene. 

7. Upper Eocene. 

8. Middle Eocene. 

9. Lower Eocene. 

10. Maestricht Beds. 

11. White Chalk. 

12. Upper Greensand. 

13. Gault. 

14. Lower Greensand. 

15. Wealden. 

16. Purbeck Beds. 

17. Portland Stone. 

18. EJmmeridge Clay. 

19. Coral Rag. 

20. Oxford Clay. 

21. Great or Bath Oolite. 

22. Inferior Oolite. 
28. lias. 

24. Upper Trias. 

25. Middle Trias. 

26. Lower Trias. 

27. Permian. 

28. Coal-measTires. ) 

29. Carboniferous Limestone, j 
80. Upper \ 

31. Middle > Devonian. 

32. Lower / 
83. Upper \ 

34. Middle VSilorian. 
85. Lower ) 

36. Upper ) Cambrian. 
87. Lower) 
38. Upper i-. ^ 

89. Lower f^^'^*^^'^- 

> Post-Tebtiart. 
I Pliocene. 
I Miocene. 












>^ 2 

« o 

& » 

pt3 ^ 

w < 

H O 







% 3 

8 ^ 










(After jyOrUgny, 1852.) 



BrUWh Equivalenti. 



27. Subapennin 

Red and Coralline Crag of 

- ^ V ^^r ^^v ^^ ^^w ^^ ^Vflv^v^B^^v^i^B VVV VVV Pv9V 

r26. Falunien 

• ""^^ 


125. Parisien 

. Upper and Middle Eocenes' 


1 24. Suessonien 

. Lower Eocene. 

\23. "Danien 

22. S^nonien 

. Upper White Chalk. 
. Lower White Chalk. 

21. Turonien 

20. C^Qomanien 

. Upper Greensand. 

CRiiTAOjSs. { 


. Gault. 

18. Aptien 

Lower Greensand; in part. 
Do. and Wealden. 

17. N^ocomien 

<1Q. Portlandien 

. Portland Group. 

(15. Kimm^ridgien 

. Eimmeridge day. 

14. Corallien^ 

Coral Rag. 


Oxford Clay. 

12. CalloTien 

Eelloway Rock. 


11. Bathonien 

Bath Oolite. 

10. Baiocien 

Inferior Oolite. 

9. Toafcien 

Upper lias. 

8. Liasien ,. 

Middle Lias ; Marlstone. 

. 7. Sinemurien 

Lower Lias. 


5. Conohylien 

Salif erous Marls. 


Variegated Sandstones, in 

part ; Upper New Red. 

4. Permien 

Magnesian Limestone, &c. 


3. Carbonif^rien 



, 2. Deyonien 

Old Red Sandstone. 

1. Silurian .{ , 5: . 

I Inf ^neur 

' Upper Silurian. 

Lower Silurian. 
















{AJiei* Marcou, JBigshy, and Logan,) 


( Peat-Mosses and Sayannalis. 
( Biver Alluvia and Deltas. 
Superficial Gravels and Raised Beaches 

(Boulder Formation of the Northern ^ 
\ States and Canada. I 

\ Clays and Sands of North Carolina, &c. I 
( Greensand and Marls of Maryland, &c. / 
j Limestones and Clays of the Carolinas, I 
t &c. • j 

Tellow Limestone and Greensand of) 
New Jersey, &c. J 

Sandstones, Shale, and Coal of Rich-) 
mond, Virginia. ) 

Red Sandstones of Connecticut, Mass. &c. 
( Do. of Chatham, N. Caro- ) 

( Una, &c. j 

Coal-formation or Coal-measures. 
Lower Carboniferous Limestone. 

/Sandstones and Conglomerates of Penn- 
Gypsum, Marls, and Conglomerates of 
Nova Scotia. 


Old Red Sandstone. 

Chemung Rocks ; Portage Sandstone ; 

Genessee Slate ; Tully Limestone ; 

Hamilton Rocks ; Maroellus Shales. 
Carboniferous Limestone ; Onondago 

Limestone; Schoharie Grit; Caudi- 

galllGrit; Oriskany Limestone. 

Upper Pentamerus Limestone ; Delthy-' 
ns shaly Limestone; Lower Penta- 
merus Limestone ; Waterlime Rocks ; 
Onondago Salt Rock ;''Coralline Lime- 
stone, Schoharie ; Niagara Shale and 

Clinton Rocks ; Medina Sandstone 
Oneida Conglomerate. 

Hudson-River Rocks ; Utica Slate ; 
Trenton Limestone; Birdseye Lime- 
stone ; Chazy Limestone ; Calcifer- 
ous Sandstone ; Potsdam Sandstone. 

Huronian Sandstones ; Conglomerates ; 
Chloritic and Quartzose Schists ; Crys- 
talline Limestones. 

Laurentian Gneissoid and Hornblende 1 
Schists ; Quartzites, Crystalline Lime- > 
stones, and Serpentines. J 



BrUish Equivalents. 




Oolitic (?). 

Triassio (?). 
Permian (?). 









{.After Profenm- H. D, Rogers, 1869.) 


« fSeral, 

Pj < Umbral, ..,. 

^ V Vespertine,. 

New York 




BrUish EquivaXentSf 

> Carbonifbrous. 


Ponent, Cats^ Group. 

Vergent, Chemung Group. 

Cadent, Hamilton Group. 

Post-Meridian, ... Upper Helderberg Limestone. 
Meridian, Oriskany Sandstone. 

Pre-Meridian, ... Lower Helderbei^ Limestone. 

Scalent, Niagara Group. 

Surgent, Clinton Group. 

Levant, Medina Group. 




Matinal, Hudson and Trenton Ei v. Gr. 

( Blue River, Chazy, and Calci- 

' ' f erous Sandstone Groups. 

Primal, Potsdam Sandstone. 


" These fifteen formations, or series of deposits," says Professor Rogers, 
" defined by their prevalent organic remains, and by the physical horizons 
vrhich separate them as sediments, are called by names significant of their 
relative ages —the words employed suggesting metaphorically the different 
periods of the day. Thus, beginning with the lowest or earliest, they 
mean respectively Dawn, Daybreak, Morning, Sunrise, Mounting-day, 
Climbing-day, Forenoon, Noon, Afternoon, Declining-day, Descending-day, 
Sunset, Evening, Dusk, and Nightfall. Some such nomenclature, hcued on 
time, is, for many reasons, preferable to the inexpressive ones which rest 
for the most part on geographical terms, only locally correct, or on narrow 
and inconstant palseontological characters." 







Peat of Great Britain and 
Ireland, with human re- 
mainS; &o. 

Fens, marshes, and river- 
deposits, with ancient 
canoes, implements, &c. 

Lake -silts, fresh -water 
marls, &c., with canoes, 
metal implements, re- 
mains of domesticated 
animals, &c. 

Accumulations of sand- 
drift, shore- cave- and 
beach-deposits, consid- 
erably beyond the reach 
of existing tides. 




Peat-moss, Lake-silts, and 
other alluvia, with tree- 
canoes, pile-dwellings, 
and stone implements. 

Alluvia and river-deposits, 
with remains of Irish- 
deer, wild oxen, mam- 
moth, and other extinct 

Cave-deposits in part, with 
bones of extinct mam- 
mals, stone implements, 
and fragments of charred 



Terrain quatemaire of French 
authors, in part. — ^Modern 
portion of Deltas of Rhine, 
X^ile, Ganges, Mississippi, 
&c. — Marine strata enclos- 
ing temple of Serapis at Pu2- 
zuoli. —Fresh- water strata . 
enclosing temple in Cash- 

/ mere. — Tundras of Siberia ; 

\ Tarai or Jungle soil of In- 
dia; Cypress swamps, &c. 
of America. — Modem part 
of coral-reefs of Red Sea 
and Pacific. — Travertine of 
Italy ; calcareous tufa of 
Guadaloupe ; and Lavas of 
Vesuvius and Etna, over- 
spreading objects of human 
art, &c. 

^Terrain quatemaire of French 
authors, in part. — Upper 
river-gravels of the Somme, 
Seine, &c., with fliqt imple- 
ments, and bones of extinct 
mammalia. — Upper Alluvia 
of Tigris and Euphrates. — 
River silt of Upper Egypt 
in part. — Upper portion of 
cave - deposits of France, 
Belgium, Mediterranean, 
and Southern Europe, with 
stone implements and char- 
red woo(L — Plain of Holland 
in part ; plain of China in 
part ; and much of the river- 
alluvia of America. — Din- 
ornis silts of New Zealand. 




^Shell - marl under peat, ^ 
and submarine forests 
of modem trees. 

Raised beaches at various 
heights, with species of 
shells more boreal thim 
those of existing seas. 

Ancient alluvia and gra- 
vel of most of our carses, 
—the "Brick Clay" of . 
J many authors. Contains \ 
\ remains of seals, whales, ' 
&c. ; and of extinct 
land mammals, as mam- 
moth, rhinoceros, urus, 

Cave-deposits in part, with 
bones of extinct and liv- 
ing camivora and her- 
bivora — ursus, hysena, 
megaceros, rhinoceros, 
hippopotamus, &c. No 
\^ human remains. / 


Loess of the Rhine, with recent 
fresh- water sheUs and mam- 
moth bones. — ^Volcanic tufa 
of Ischia, with living species 
of marine shells, and with- 
out human remains or works 
of art. — Newer boulder for- 
mation in Sweden. — ^Blufis 
of the Mississippi. — Drift- 
wood and mammoth-gravel 
of the Arctic seas. — ^Tchor- 
nozem or black-earth of the 
Aralo-Caspian plain. — Up- 
per portion of great Chinese 
plain. — Auriferous Drift, in 
part, of the Uralian, Au- 
stralian, and Califomian 






''Glacial drift or boulder for- 
mation of Norfolk, of the 
Clyde, of North Wales 
— the "Boulder Clay" 
of many authors. — Nor- 
wich Crag. — Cave-depo- 
sits of Kirkdale, &c. 
with bones of extinct 
and living quadrupeds. 

Red Crag of Suffolk, Coral- 
line Crag of Suffolk. 




Marine strata of this age 
wanting in the British i 
Islands. — Ferruginous \ 
sands of North Downs (?). 


Terrain quatemaire, diluvium. 
Terrain tertiaire sup^rieur. 
— Glacial drift of Northern 
V Europe; of Northern United 
' States ; and Alpine erratics. 
— Limestone of Girgenti 
Kunkur of India (?) ; Au- 
stralian cave-breccias. 

Sub-Apennine strata. — Hills 
of Rome, Monte Mario, &c. 
— Antwerp and Normandy 
Crag. — Aralo-Caucasian de- 
posits, older part. — Pampas 
Formation of South Amer- 
ica, &c. 

' Falurien sup€rieur. — Faluns 
of Touraine. — Part of Bor- 
deaux beds. — Bolderberg 
strata in Belgium. — Part of 
Vienna Basin. — Part of Mol- 
lasse inSwitzerland. — Sands 
of James River and Rich- 
mond, Virginia. — Green- 
sands and marls of Mary- 
land, United States. 











Hempstead beds near Yar- 
mouth, Isle of Wight. 
Lignites and clays of 
Bovey, in Devonshire. 
Leaf- bed of Mull. Lig- 
nites of Antrim. 



1. Bagshot and Braokles- 
ham Beds. 

2. White clays of Alum 
Bay, Isle of Wight 


1. Bembridge or Binsted 
Beds, Isle of Wight. 

2. Osborne or St Helens 

3. Headon Series. 

4. Headon Hill sands and 
Barton clay. 

1. London Clay and Bog- 
nor Beds. 

2. Plastic and mottled 
clays and sands ; Wool- 
wich Beds. 

3. Thanet Sands. 

Lower part of Terrain terti- 
aire moyen. — Calcaire lac- 
ustre sup^rieur, and gr^ do 
Fontainebleau. — Part of the 
Lacustrine strata of Au- 
vergne. — Limburgbeds3el- 
gium. — (Rupelian and Ton- 
grian system of Dumont). 
Mayence Basin. Part of 
brown coal of Germany. — 
Hermsdorf tile -clay, near 
Berlin. Lignites of New 
Zealand (?). 

(\, Gypseous series of Mont- 
martre, and Calcaire laoustre 
2 and 3. Calcaire Silicieuz. 
( 2 and 3. Gr^ de Beauchamp, 
or sables moyens. — Laecken 
beds, Belgium. 
4. Upper and Middle Calcaire 

1. Bruxillien or Brussels Beds 

of Dumont. 
I. Lower Calcaire grossier, or 

glauconie grossi^re. 

1. Caiborne beds, Alabama. 
1 and 2. Nummulitic forma- 
tion of Europe, Asia, &o. 

2. Soissonnais Sands, or Lits 
< Coquilliers. 

1. Wanting in Paris Basin, 
occurs at Cassel in French 
Flanders. — Limestones and 
Clays of the Carolinas (?). 

2. ArgilePlastiqueet lignite. 
8. Lower Landenian of Bel- 
gium, in part. 


^^Zf^ \ ^^^^^^ '^ England. 

IDanien of d'Orbigny. 
ClJcaire pisolitique, Paris. 
Maestricht Beds. 
Coralline limestone of Faxoe 
in Denmark. 


(Senonien of d'Orbigny. 
Obere Ereide and Upper Qua- 
der-sandstein of the Ger- 
La Soaglia of the Italians. 
Yellow Limestone and Green- 
sand of New Jersey, in part. 





Chalk without flints. 
Chalk Marl. 


Tiironian of d'Orbigny. 
Calcaire k hippurites, Pyre- 
Upper Planer Kalk of Saxony. 
Yellow Limestone and Green- 
sand of New Jersey, in part. 
Limestones of the West Indies 
and Colombia, S. America. 

FJSi^^nfS Mo-ii,.™ 4n G"» Vert Sup6ieur. 
Forestone of Meirtham, m V (j^j^ chlorit^. 

Mar^tone, with Chert, 1*^' Q"a<le™«n«l8tdn of the 
Isle of Wight J uonnans. 

( Dark-blue Marl. Kent. ( ^''"° °/ d'Orbigny. 
Folkestone Marl I G1«««>B'« Crayeuse. 

G.^T. i^^p^_:^(«^±J^^dTz^^^^:^!. 


j stone and chert), Devon- 
I shire. 


and Vancouver's 

Lower ; 
Greensand. \ 


/Greensand of Kent and 
Limestone (Kentish Bag). 
Sands and Clay, with cal- 
careous concretions and 
chert, Atherfield, Isle of 
, Speeton Clay, Yorkshire. 

' Clay, with occasional bands 
of limestone and sand- 
stone ; Weald of Kent, 
Surrey, and Sussex. 

Sand, with calcareous grit 
and clay ; Hastings, 
Cuckfield, Sussex. 

Gres Vert Inf^rieur. 
Neocomien Sup^rieur. 
Aptien of d'Orbigny. 
Hils Conglomerat of Germany. 
Hils-thon of Brunswick. 

Neocomien Inf^rietir. 
Formation Waldienne. 
Wfilderformation of North 




1. Purbeck Beds. 

2. Portland Stone 

3. Kimmeridge Clay. 

1. Calcareous Grit. 

2. Coral Bag. 
8. Oxford Clay. 

4. Eelloway Bock. 


1. Serpuliten Kalk and Wal- 
derformation of N. G^- 
many, in part. — 2. Portlan- 
and j dienof d'Orbigny.— 3. Kim- 
meridgien of d'Orbigny. — 
Calcaire k gryph^es vi^gules^ 
of Thirria. — Argiles de Hon- 
fleur of de Beaumont. 

and 2. Corallien of Beudant 
and d'Orbigny. — Calcaire k 
Nerinn^es of Thurmann. — 
8. Oxfordien Sup^rieur.— 4. 
Oxf ordien Inf^neur or Cal- 
lovien of d'Orbigny. 





1. Combrash and Forest \ 

2. Great (or Bath) OoUte 
and Stonesfield Slates. 

3. Fuller's Earth, Bath. 

4. Calcareous Freestone 
and Yellow Sands (In- 
ferior Oolite). 

1. Upper lias. 

2. Marlstone. 

3. Lower Lias. 



1 and 2. Bathonien ; Grand 
Oolithe ; Calcaire de Caen. 

3 and 4. Oolithe in£^rieur; 
Oolithe ferrugineuz of Nor- 
mandy ; Oolitne de Bayeux ; 
Bajocien of d'Orbigny. 

(1. Toarcien of d'Orbigny. 
2. Idas Moyen; liasien of 

4. Oaloaire h gxyph6e arqu6e ; 

Sinemurien of d'Orbigny ; 

Coal-field of Richmond, Vir- 

finia (?) ; and Coal-fields of 
ndia (?). 



fBone-bed of Axmouth ; / SaJ^erien of d'Orbigny ; 

Dolomitic Conglomerate Maizes ins^es of the French; 

ftf Tt^a4-^i . Q»i;«/>«^,,« J St Cassian or Rhaetic beds : 
I of Bristol , Sahferous J ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Germans. 

and Gypseous Shales 
and Sandstones of Che- 

Middle. < Wanting in England. 

Red and White Sandstones 
and Quartzose Conglo- 
merates of Lancashire 
Lower. / ajid Cheshire. White 
sandstones of Lossie- 
mouth and Cumming- 
stone, Morayshire (?). 

Coal-fields of Richmond, 
Virginia, and of Chatham, 
North Carolina. 

Conchylien of d'Orbigny, in 
part; Calcaire 4 Clratites 
of Cordier ; Muschelkalk of 

Bunter Sandstein of the G^- 
mans ; Gr^ bigarr^ of the 
French ; Conchylien of 
d'Orbigny, in pa!rt ; Red 
Sandstones of C!onnecticut, 




/ 1. Laminated and Concre- 
tionary Limestones of 
York and Durham. 

2. Brecciated Limestone do. 

8. Fossiliferous Limestone. 

4. Compact Limestone, do. 

5. Marl-slate of Durham. , 

1. Stinkstein of Thuringia. 

2. Rauchwack^ do. 

^ 3. Dolomit or Upper Zech- 
' stein. 

4. Zechstein proper. 

5. Mergel or ^upfer schiefer. 

Red Sandstones, Grits, and f Rottliegendes of Thunngia. 
Marls ; Dolomitic Con- J P®™^? sandstones, conglo- 
glomerate of Bristol, \ ^^^^^> a^d magnesian 

I'-ro^^Ai. ^r^r^.^^A^^i^ sir» hmcstones of Russia. 

Exeter, Annandale, &c. [ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ 








BrUUh. Foreign. 

L Upper or True CoalO L Coal-fields of the United 



1. Millstone Grit of Eng- 

2. Mountain or Carboni- ( 
ferous Limestone. j 

L Lower Coal - measures \ 1. 
and '< Calciferous Sand- 1 
stones" of Scotland.— I * 
Lower Limestone Shale, [ 
Mendips. — Carbonifer- 1 
ous Slates of IreLeuid. f 


Calcaire Carbonif^re of the 
French. — Bergkalk or Eohl- 
enkalk of the Germans. — 
Pentremite Limestone, U.S. 

Kiesel Schief er and Jiingere 
Grauwack^ of the Germans. 
Gypseous Beds and Encrin- 
ital Limestones of Nova 
Scotia. — Cypridina Sohiefer 
of Nassau, Saxony, &c. 


Upper. • / 



c\. Yellow Sandstones of ^ 
Dura Den, Fif eshire ; 
Kilkenny Ireland; and 
Pilton and Petherwyn 
Groups Devonshire. 
2. White and chocolate- 
coloured Sandstones and 
Grits of Berwiok and 
Bozbuigh. J 

f\. Red Sandstones and 
Marls of Fife, Perth, 
Forfar, Hereford, &o. 

2. Middle Schists and 
Limestones of Devon- 

3. Micaceous and Bitu- 
minous Flags of Caith- 

1. Upper Devonians of Russia; 
V Cypridina Schiefer of Ger- 
^ many, in part. 

2. Catskill Group, U.S. 


'1. Lower Devonian 
North Devon. 


1. Eifel Limestone ; and Up- 
per and Middle Devonians 

, of Russia, in part. 

/ 2 and 3. Middle Devonians of 
Russia, in part ; Chemung, 
G«nessee, and Hamilton 
Groups, NorUi America. 


1. Spuifer Sandstone 

2. Grey Flagstones of « ^i*^'- t^ 
Perth andForfer. Great \^' Rufian Devonian, lower 
Pebbly conglomerate of / E^T*. J ^^^ Onondago and 
Scotland; Klestones of Oriskany Groups, North 
Hereford, in part. j America. 



1. Upper Ludlow Rocks; 
Lesmahago Tilestones. 

2. Aymestry Limestone. 

3. Lower Ludlow. 

4. Wenlock Limestone and 

5. Llandovery Rocks. 


1-5. Upper stages of Bohe- 
mian Basin; E to H of 

1-3. Pentamerus, Delthyris, 
and Onondago Groups, New 
York. — 4. &hoharie Coral- 
line Limestone. — 5. Medina 




1. Garadoc Sandstone. 

2. Bala Beds. 

3. Llandeillo and Lingula 

4. Longmynd or " Bottom J 
Rocks.''^ I 


^l and 8. Lower stages of Bo- 
hemian Basin; C and D 
Barrande. — 4. Primordial 
, zone of Barrande ; Slates of 
\ Angers, France. — 1-4. From 
Oneida Conglomerates to 
Potsdam Sandstone inclu- 




C Fossiliferous Schists of ^ Alum Schists of Sweden ; 
< Wioklow ; Schists and > lowest fossiliferous rocks of 
( Slates of North Wales, j Wisconsin and Minnesota. 


Lower Grits and Schists 
of Dumfries ; and Grits, 
Schists, and Conglome- 
rates of Northern High- 

Huronian Sandstones and 
Chloritio and Gneissic 




/ Gneiss and Crystalline "N Gneissic and homeblende 
) Schists of the Northern f Schists of the St Lawrence 
J Hebrides; Hypersthene j and Adirondack Moun- 
V rocks of Skye, &c. ) tains. 

/Gneissic Schists, quartzites, 
) crystalline limestones and 
(?) } serpentines of the Lauren- 

V. tide Mountains, Canada. 





A — ABN 

A. — In words derived from tbe Greek, the prefix a is used privatively, or 
in a negative sense, and has the effect of the English word vjiUiout, as 
apocUms, withoiit feet ; acephalous, without a head ; acotyUdorwiu, having 
no seed-lobes ; and aaoic^ destitute of organic remains. 

A1>l)eyille Flints.— Rude flint implements in the form of spear-heads, 
&c., found in great abundance in the Post-Tertiary sands and gravels of 
the Somme, in the neighbourhood of Abbeville. These were first discov- 
ered in 1847; by M. Boucher de Perthes, associated with bones of extinct 
mammalia in such a way as to lead him to the inference that the fiint im- 
plement makers and the Mammoth {Elephas primigenius), the Tichorhine 
Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus Major, Irish Elk (MegoAxrot Ifibemiau), &c., 
had been contemporaneous — an inference that has since been corroborated 
by similar discoveries in other parts of Europe. 

Abddmen (Lat abdo, I conceal).— In animals, the belly or cavity contain- 
ing the viscera. AbdominaL — Pertaining to the belly. 

Abdomindles (Lat. abdo, I conceal ; hence aMometif the belly). — In the 
zoological arrangement of Cuvier, a section of the MeUacopUrffffiany or soft- 
finned fishes, which have their ventral fins placed on the abdomen, behind 
the pectorals. The section includes the carps, the silures, the salmons, 
the herrings, and the pikes. 

Aberrant (Lat. ab, and erro, I wander from).— Applied in natural his- 
tory classification to those species (" aberrant species") which differ widely 
from the type of the natural group or family to which they belong, or 
rather under which they are usually arranged. 

AbietitM (Lat. (dnes, the fir-tree). — A genus of coniferse occurring in the 
Wealden and Lower Greensand. The genus has been foimded chiefly on 
the fossil cones, which are often found in great perfection — ^theee cones 
being composed of scales that terminate in a point, and not in a rhomboi- 
dal disc as in Pinus, which see. 

Abndnnal, Abnormons (Lat. ab, from, and norma, a rule).— Without 
rule or order ; irregulu* ; in a condition differing from that produced in 
the regular course of nature ; deviating from the general type or form ; not 



oocurring in tbe UBual order^ or according to that which is generally con- 
sidered as the natural law. Abndrmitj. — Irregularity, deformity. 

Aborigines (Lat. ab, from; origo^ a beginning or origin). — The first 
or primitive inhabitants of a country ; tbe original stock (flora or fauna) 
of any geographical area. Aboriginal. — First, primitive, original. 

AbdrtiYO (Lat. ahortio, a miscarriage).— Failing to arrive at a state of 
perfection or maturity ; applied in botany and zoology to such organs as 
appear only in an imperfect or rudimentary state, or which stop short at 
a certain stage of their growth, and never attain to full or perfect develop- 

AbraachiAta (6r. a, without, and hranchia, gills). — Applied to animals 
which have no apparant external oi^;ans of respiration, as the leech, earth- 
worm, &o., and which respire by the entire surface of the skin, or by inter- 
nal cavities. The Ahranchiaia constitute the third order of the Anne- 
lida of Cuvier. The term Abranchia has also been applied to certain 
amphibia, as the me^wpoma and amphiuma^ which do not undergo meta- 
morphosis, but breathe by lungs during the whole of their existence. — See 
Branchia and its compounds. 

Abrdsion (Lat. ah, from, and rasuSy rubbed or scraped). — ^The opera- 
tion of wearing away by rubbing or friction. Currents of water laden 
with sand, shingle, and other rock-debris are the chief abrading agents in 
nature. Abrason may also result from the passage of icebergs, the de- 
scent of glaciers, &c. ; hence the frequency of abraded rock-surfaces in 
connection with the Boulder-clay. Abrasion, as a geological result, 
presents some important distinctions, as compared with DenvdcUion and 
DegradcutioTif which see. 

A'brazite (Gr. a, without ; brazo, to bubble). — One of the Zeolite family, 

known also as zeagonite and giamondiiie, and so named from its not effer- 

' vescing under the blowpipe. Its crystals occur in hemispherical bundles 

in the cavities of volcanic rocks ; are of a greyish-white to a reddish-brown 

or red colour ; and consist essentially of silica, alumina, lime, and potash. 

Absdrbent (Lat. ah, and sorbeOf I suck in).— Capable of sucking in fluids ; 
in geology, applied to soils, rocks, and minerals which have the quality of 
readily imbibing water into their pores and interstices. 

Abstergent (Lat. abstergo, I cleanse). —Having a cleansing property ; 
fuUer^s earth is an abstergent. 

Acalephe (6r. aJkaUphe, a nettle). — A zoological term for the soft 
gelatinous radiata known as medusae, sea-nettles, jelly-fish, &c. The term 
has reference to the property which many of them possess^ of causing, 
when touched, a hot stinging sensation like that produced by the nettle. 

Acdnthodes (Gr. aJsantha, a spine or thorn). — One of Agassiz's genera of 
ganoid fishes occurring from the lower Old Bied Sandstone to the Permian, 
inclusive, and characterised by its thorn-like ichthyodorulites or fin-spines. 
The type of the tdJOiWy Acam^thodidcB, in which all the fins are furnished with 
strong spinous rays — ^the dorsal and anal being single. 

Acanthopter^giau (Gr. akanika, a spine or prickle, and pterygion, a 
winglet or fin). — A term applied to fishes having the back or dorsal fin 
composed of spiny rays, as the perch, gurnard, &c. The Acanthopterygii 
constitute one of Cuvier's orders of osseous fishes. 

Acdnthotetithis (Gr. ahdntha, a thorn, and teuthis a cuttle-fish). — A 
genus of fossil cuttle-fishes occurring in oolitic strata, and so termed from 
the homy booklets that arm their tentacles, which appear to have been ten 



in number. These booklets, the horny sucking-discs, and internal bones 
or osselets (belemnites), are generally the only portions preserved. 

Acanticonite. — ^An all but obsolete synonyme for plstacite, a sub-species 
of prismatic augite spar or epidote, which see. Is said to derive its name 
from Gr. akdntkiSf a goldfinch, and konis, powder, because the colour of 
the powdered mineral resembles that of the plumes of the goldfinch. 

Acirida or Acarea (Lat. acdrtis, a mite).— The Mite family (so called 
from the typical genus ctcartu), to which the mite, the tick, the water-mite, 
and other minute arachnidans belong. They are chiefly of geological 
interest from the experiments of Crosse, who imagined he could produce 
some species {Acarus Crostei, &c.) at will, by passing long-continued cur- 
rents of electricity through certain siliceous solutions. 

Accipens^rida (Lat. accipefiser, the sturgeon). — The Sturgeon family, a 
well-known but limited group of ganoid fishes belonging to the sub-order 
Chondrostea or Loricata, and especially characterised by the almost total 
absence of an osseous vertebral column, and by the presence, in most 
species, of a strong dermal covering or exo-skeleton consistmg of large 
bony tuberculated plates arranged in rows on the upper surface of the 
body, and shielding the head as if in solid piece. The existing sturgeons 
are chiefly of large size, and inhabit the sea, but ascend the laiger rivers 
for the purpose of spawning : the fossil species seem to have been governed 
by a similar habit, and are found firom the lower Tertiaries upwards. 

Aodpitres (Lat. accipiter, a hawk ; from aecipere, to seize). — The ornitho* 
logical term for the rapacious birds, such as the eagles, falcons, hawks, 
&c., which seize their prey with their talons. There are two subdivisions, 
the diurnal and the nocturnal. Their remains occur, though very spar- 
ingly, from the lower Tertiaries upwards. 

Acclimatise (Fr. <icclimater). — To accustom a plant or animal to a 
climate not natural to it ; to accustom to the temperature of a new region. 
Plants and animals may, within certain limits, become acclimatised, and 
flourish and increase in a new country, though not indigenous to it. Ac- 
climated. — Accustomed to a climate. 

Acerdtioii (Lat. a<;cr«^to).— Increase by external addition of new matter; 
applied strictly to mineral or inorganic increase. Plants and animals grow 
by alimentation, or the assimilation of additional matter ; minerals enlarge 
by accretion, 

Aceons. — Terminations in dceotu denote resemblance to, or partak- 
ing of the qualities of, a substance, as argillaceovs, less or more clayey; 
carboTiaceotiSf partaking of the qualities or appearance of carbon ; sapon- 
aaeout, having a soapy feel. 

Ac^phala, Acephalous (Or. a, without, and iepTtale, the head). — Applied 
to those mollusca which, like the oyster and scallop, have no distinct head, 
in contradistinction from the £!ncephalotL8, or those with a distinct head. 
The division Acephala comprehends most of the bivalve molluscs, and 
several that are destitute of shells — in other words, the brackiopoda, con- 
chifera, and tunicata. 

Acescent (Lat. a^sco, to become sour).— Slightly acid ; having a tendency 
to pass into an acid state ; applied to substances which, like vegetable and 
animal juices, become sour spontaneously — that is, on exposure to the 
oxygen of the atmosphere. 

Acetabulifera (Lat. acetdMUum, a sucker, and fero, I bear).— Literally 
" sucker-bearers ; " that section of the cephalopodous molluscs whose arms 



or tentacles are furnished with rows of little cups or suckers, a character- 
istic peculiar to Neozoic genera. — See tabulations, ''Molluboa." 

AoetAbnluni (Lat. a sucker). — Applied in zoology to such organs as the 
cup-like sucking-discs {ctcetalnUa) with which the arms of the cuttle-6sh are 
provided. So far as yet known, the arms of the Paleeozoio cephalopods 
were void of sucking-discs — organs abundantly common to Mesozoic and 
Neozoic genera. 

A'chmite (Gr. akme, a sharp point). — One of the hornblende family oc- 
curring in the granites and syenites of Norway in long greenish-black pris- 
matic crystals, which terminate very acutely ; hence the name. It con- 
sists of 55.6 silica^ 32 iron peroxide, and 12.4 soda. 

A'chroite (Gr. a, without, and chroa, colour). — A term employed by 
Hermann to designate the colourless varieties of tourmaline, as distin- 
guished from the dark-coloured varieties {Scliorl), and from the red 

Acicnlar (Lat. acicula^ a little needle). — Mineral crystals occurring in 
slender needle-like prisms or prickles, as actynolite, are said to be adcular. 
Irregular aggregations of these slender prisms constitute the ''acicular 
texture " of actynolite-rock and actynolite-slate. 

Acicnlite (Lat. acictUa, a needle). — Needle ore ; a plumbo-cupreous 
sulphuret of bismuth occurring imbedded in quartz in long, thin, steel- 
grey cr3rstscls, strongly marked with vertical striae, and apparently in four 
or six-sided prisms. It consists of 35.8 lead, 11 copper, 36.7 bismuth, and 
16.5 sulphur, and usually accompanies native gold. 

Add^spiB (Gr. akis, spear-point, and atpis, buckler). — A genus of tri- 
lobites, so named by Murchison from the central lobe of the head-plate 
or cephalic shield projecting over the body in the form of a pointed 

Acidulous, Acidulated.— Slightly acid or sub-acid. Applied to certain 
waters and springs that hold in solution a small percentage of sulphuric or 
other acid. 

Adndse (Lat. acinus, a seed or germ). — Granulated ; applied to mineral 
textures and surfaces which have a granulated appearance like the fruit of 
the raspberry. 

Acotjl^donoos (Gr. a, without, and cotfledon, seed-lobe). — Plants whose 
embryos have no seed-lobes or seminal leaves are so termed, in contra- 
distinction to Monocotyledons and DicotyUdons, — See tabulations, " V£a£- 
TABLE Scheme." 

A'crita (Gr. ahUos, indistinct). — In some zoological classifications, a 
primary division of the animal kingdom, comprising the lowest classes of 
radiata, which are characterised by an ifidistinct, diffused, or molecular 
condition of the nervous system The Acrita constitute the Protozoa, the 
Cryptontura, the Oozoa, and Globular zoophytes of other systematists. 

Acrooephalic (Gr. ahros, raised to a point, high ; and kephale, the head). 
—High-headed or pyramidal-headed ; eg., the pyramidal or high-skulled 
tribes of the human family. 

A'crodont (Gr. akros, the summit, and odotts, tooth). — A term applied by 
Professor Owen to those squamate or loricated saurians whose teeth are 
anchylosed to the summit of the alveolar ridge. — See Theoodont. 

A'crodn8(Gr. akros, the ridge, and odous, tooth).— Literally "ridge-tooth;" 
a genus of Cestraciont fish- teeth occurring abundantly in the Oolitic and 
Chalk formations, and characterised by their enamelled surface being 



covered with fine grooves and strisB which divei^ firom a central longi- 
tudinal ridge. They are known to collectors as fo*tU leeches, from a fanci- 
ful resemblance to a contracted leech. 

Acrdgeoaons (Gr. <ikros, the top, and ginomai, I am formed). — ^Applied to 
those cryptogamic plants which increase by growth at the summit, or 
"growing-point," as the tree-ferns. Acrogens are therefore separated as 
a great botanical division from Thallogens, Endogens, and Ezogens. — See 
tabulations, " Vegetable Scheme." 

Acrogndthns (6r. akros, high, and gjuUkos, the jaw). — Literally '' deep- 
jaw ; " a genus of fishes from the Lower Chalk, and arranged by Agassiz 
under the ScUmonidce, or Salmon-family. 

Acrosatinis (Gr. akros, the point or summit, and sauros, lizard).— One 
of the extraordinary fossil reptiles discovered by Mr Bain in the supposed 
Triassic sandstones of South Africa. It has thirty or forty teeth on the 
alveolar ridge (hence the name), and a broad process of the cheekbone 
extending downwards over the side of the lower jaw. 

Acteosannis (Gr. akte, the sea-shore, and sauros, lizard). — A lacertian 
reptile of the Chalk period, with concavo-convex vertebr», remarkably 
small extremities, and allied to Dolichosaurus (which see), but of consider- 
ably smaller dimensions. The genus was established by Von Meyer from 
a finely preserved specimen in the City Museum of Trieste, and so named 
from its having been foimd near the Istrian shore, and also from the belief 
that the creature when living had a littoral habitat. 

Actinia (Gr. ahtin^ a ray). — ^The sea-anemone ; so called from the ray- 
like arrangement of its tentacles, which surround the mouth like the petals 
of a flower. The Actinias belong to the class Polypi, or true polypes, and 
from their structure are sometimes named '* Fleshy Polypes.'* Tt has been 
suggested by Dr ManteU that some of the minute siliceous spicules so 
abundant in Chalk, and commonly ascribed to sponges, may have belonged 
to ActinisB, in whose structure such organisms cJso occur. 

Actiii6cri]»iB, Actindcrinite (Gr. aMin, a ray or thorn). — A genus of 
encrinites found chiefly in the Carboniferous limestone, and distinguished 
by the thorn-like side-arms which project from the main column or stalk 
at irregular distances. — See Enobinite. 

Act^oUte, Actindte {Qit.ahtiriotos, radiated, and lithos, stone). — A mineral 
occurring in the crystalline rocks, composed of radiating or thorn-like crys- 
tals of a dark or greenish hue, and in composition closely allied to horn- 
blende ; in fact, comprehends the glassy fibrous and granular varieties of 
that mineral — ^Actynolite-rock and actynolite-schist are the common forms 
in which the mineral appears— the latter consisting of a basis of felspar 
with intermingled crystals of actynolite. According to Bonsdorf, speci- 
mens from Tabei^g consist of 59.75 silica, 21.10 magnesia, 14.25 lime, 3.95 
protoxide of iron, with traces of manganese and fluoric acid. 

A'damant (Gr. adamas, adamarUos, unsubdued, strong). — An old term 
given to several minerals having the property of excessive hardness, as to 
the diamond. Adamantine and Adamantean. —Hard as adamant ; exces- 
sively hard ; having the lustre of diamond. 

AdamAntine Spar. — ^The diamond spar of Werner ; a variety of corundum 
occurring in rough crystals, with very distinct cleavage, hair-brown 
colour, and adamantine lustre. 

Ad^ic. — Of or pertaining to Adam ; Adamic earth, an old term for com- 
mon red clay, from the belief that the name '' Adam" signifies red earth. 



A'dapis (Gr. a, not, and dapis, a carpet). — Literally ''no-carpet ; " a name 
giyen in allusion to its rough or prickly skin. An extinct Tertiary pachy- 
derm, somewhat resembling a hedgehog, but three times the size of that 
animaL It seems, according to Cuvier, to have formed a link connecting 
the PcuAydemu with the Intectivora. 

AUhM/m (Latb ad, and Aoro, to stick together). — The force of cohesion 
acting between solid masses which come in contact at many points ; tho 
more intimate the contact the greater the force. 

AdiaatitesMCrr. adianiot, of a dry luUwre, membranaceous). — ^A genus 
of fossil ferns found in the Coal-measures, and so termed from their resem- 
blance to the existing adiaiUvm or maiden-hair. 

Adipooere (Lat. adept, fat, and cera, wax). — ^A light, waxy, fatty sub- 
stance, of a light-brown or whitish-grey colour, into which animal muscle is 
converted when buried in moist earth, or when subjected to long immersion 
in water. It is occasionally found in graveyards (hence "grave-wax'*), 
in peat-bogs, and other similar situations ; and is frequently caist up Hx 
lumps on the shores of tidal estuaries. It is chiefly vuirgaroiU of am- 
vumia, and is obviously generated by the reaction of the ammonia 
upon the margarine and oleine of the animal substances from which it 
is produced. 

Adip6cerit6, or Adipooere Hineral.— A fatty unctuous matter found in 
certain peat-mosses (the " creeshy clods*' of the Scotch peat-digger) ; in 
connection with ironstone of the Coal-measures, as at Merthyr ; and with 
sandstone strata, as at Binny in Linlithgowshire. 

Adit (Lat. adXtiu, an approach or entrance). — An imderground horizon- 
tal gallery or tunnel, generally opening from the lower level of a ravine or 
hiU-side into a mine for the purpose of carrying off its waters, or for the 
purposes of entrance, and removal of the ores. 

AdvUria (Gr. adularot, sweetly-fair, in allumon to its soft lustre). — A 
transparent or translucent variety of potash felspar, known also as ic^ 
spar, with splendid lustre, and either colourless and white, or slightly 
tinged with grey, green, or yellowish-brown. Specimens with a bluish 
opalescence are termed Moonstones, which see. 

Mcbmodju (Gr. aichme, a point, and odous, tooth).— A genus of ganoid 
fishes belonging to the Lepidoid fomily, and so named from their small, 
sharp-pointed teeth. They are almost exclusively confined to the Lias 
formation, and are readily distinguished by their deeply oval contour — 
their bodies being about as deep as long, and covered with transversely- 
arranged four-cornered oblong scales. Formerly ranked under the genus 
tetragonolepis, or " four-cornered scale." 

JEpy^mifl, JEpidmis (Gr. aiptts, immense, and omis, bird). — ^An extinct 
cursorial bird of gigantic dimensions, the eggs and a few scattered bones of 
which have been discovered in the alluvial deposits of Madagascar. The 
egg has six times the capacity of that of the ostrich ; but judging from 
the large size of the egg of the New Zealand Apteryx, Professor Owen does 
not believe that the JSpiomis exceeded, if indeed it equalled, the DinarwU 
in stature. The bones would seem to indicate a bird at least double the 
size of the ostrich ; and from their recentness, it appears not improbable 
that the creature may still be in existence in the interior of the island, 
which is almost unknown- to Europeans. 

Afirial (Gr. aSr, the air). — Of or belonging to the air or atmosphere ; fre- 
quenting the air ; growing in the air. Sub-aerial.— Taking place under 



the air, or on the earth's surface, in contradistinction to Sub-aqueous, or 
under the water. 

Aexifoxm (Lat. a?r, the air, and /orma).— Air-like ; applied to gaseous 
fluids, from their resemblance to common air; hence we hear of solid, 
liqxdd, and aeriform bodies. 

Aerolite (Gr. air, air, and lithot, stone). — ^literally air-stone ; a meteoric 
stone or mineral mass, which falls through the air, emitting light in its 
passage as if red hot, generally accompanied with a hissing or crackling 
sound, and occasionally with a report like thunder. Aerolites are by no 
means uncommon ; and according to Schroabers, the greater number of 
them have always the same general form, which is that of an oblique or 
slanting pyramid ; and they are also alike in external appearance, present- 
ing to view a black shining crust, as if the body had been coated with 
pitch. This crust or film is extremely thin, and is of the same composition 
with the mass, which, when broken, displays a semi-metallic ash-grey 
colour. So like are they to one another in colour and in external appear- 
ance, that Berzelius remarks, "We might believe them to have been 
struck out of one piece." In composition they are also remarkable for 
containing malleable metallie iron, nickel, and dirome — ^metals which, in a 
native state, are rarely if ever found in terrestrial substances. Besides 
these ingredients, th^ contain upwards of a dozen others (silica, magnesia 
potash, cobalt, &c.) ; and their specific gravities range from 8.35 to 4.28. 
These common characteristics seem to indicate a common origin, and 
many ingenious arguments have been advanced to prove that they are not 
of terrestrial production. This is not the place to enter upon such specu- 
lations, but we may indicate briefly the leading hypotheses that have been 
advanced to account for the origin of these extraordinary bodies, which 
cannot in the mean time be associated with any known terrestrial minerals. 
It has been supposed — 1st, That they are ejected from terrestrial vol- 
canoes ; 2d, That they are produced in the atmosphere, being generated 
from vapours exhaled from the earth, and containing volatilised metallic 
products ; 3d, That they are thrown from lunar volcanoes ; and 4th, That 
they are celestial bodies, revolving either about the earth or the sun, in 
the manner of planets, and being involved in the earth's influences are 
carried downwards by the force of gravitation. — See Mbteobite. 

iBrtigo (Lat. ow, a»ris, copper). — Literally copper-rust; verdigris; a 
sub-acetate of copper formed by the action of weak acids on its sur- 
face, as that produced naturally by the oxygen and carbonic acid of the 

Atnary.— See Estuabt. 

AfhiopB (Gr. aitho, I bum, and ops, the eye or countenance).— Applied 
to various chemical compounds in allusion to their black appearance, re- 
sembling that of the Ethiop. Thus we have JEihiop$ mineral, the black 
sulphuret of mercury ; JSthiops per se, the grey oxide of mercury, &c. 

JBtitos or iBtites Lapis (Gr. aetos, an eagle).— A variety of nodular iron- 
stone or ffeode, consisting of concentric layers, and either hollow or contain- 
ing a loose central core. — Is said to derive its name from a popular notion 
that it was found in eagles' nests, where it was supposed to prevent the 
eggs from becoming rotten. — See Eaole-Stokis. 

Affinity (Lat. affinis, neighbouring, bordering f>n, related to). — ^A term 
frequently, but often very loosely, used by writers on natund history. 
" Affinity," as first defiued by Macleay in contradistinction from '* analogy," 



signifies the relationship which one animal bears to another in its stmcture, 
and is the closer as the similarity of structure is grater. Swainson illus- 
trates this idea by comparing a goatsucker witii a swallow and with a bat : 
with the one its relation is intimate, with the otiier renufte ; the goatsucker 
has affinity with the swallow, inasmuch as the structural organisation of 
the one bird is intimately related to the other ; but it has only ''analogy" 
to the bat, inasmuch as bird and mammal, though differing in structure, 
have the common function of feeding in the same manner on insects, and 
flying at the same hour of the day. — See Analoot and Homoloot. 

Affluent (Lat. €Ld, to, and fiuens, flowing). — Applied to any stream that 
flows directly into another — the larger or more important being regarded 
as the recipient, and the smaller the affiuerU. — See Tributary. 

After-Damp. — Another name for "choke-damp," or carbonic acid, as 
occurring in coal mines after an explosion of " fire-damp," or light car- 
buretted hydrogen. 

Agalmdtolite. — (Gr. a^aJma, an image, and liihot, stone). — ^A variety 
of altered clay or clay-slate (a silicate of alumina with potash), usually 
brought from China, and so called from its being carved into images and 
other figures. —See Fiourb-Stone and Pagodttk 

Agdric Mineral (Lat. agaricus, a species of fungus).— A soft variety of 
carbonate of lime found in clefts and on other surfaces of rocks, in light 
and loosely-cohering incrustations. It is so light as to float for a time on 
water, and obtains its name from its resemblance to a fungus in texture 
and colour. 

Agate (said to be from the river Achates in Sicily, where fine varieties 
occur, and by others from the Phoenician word nakadt, signifying spotted). 
— ^A mixed, siliceous, semi-pellucid mineral usually found in veins, in 
nodules, and in geodes within igneous rocks. The geodes often consist of 
alternating bands or deposits of camelian, calcedony, jasper, opal, quartz, 
&c. ; hence the varieties of the mineral are known by such na^es as 
ribbon-agate, fortification-agate, brecciated agate, moss-agate, and the 
like. When cut and polished, the ribbon-agates exhibit the calcedony, 
jasper, quartz, &c., in parallel stripes ; the fortification-agates show the 
alternating bands in zigzag arrangements like the plan of a modem forti- 
fication ; the brecciated consist of irregular fragments of the two former 
imbedded in a matrix of amethyst ; and the moss-agates exhibit minute 
dendritic ramifications resembling fragments of moss, conferve, &c.; hence 
their respective names. The finer varieties of agate are termed orienial ; 
the Arabian moss-agates are known to the jeweller as mocha-tiones ; and 
the most beautiful British varieties, being found in the traps of Scotland, 
are termed Scotch pebbles. The colouring matter of agates being due to 
metallic oxides, factitious colours of greater intensity can be produced by 
heat or by boiling in various chemical solutions. 

Agglomerate. — A term employed by Sir Charles Lyell to designate those 
accumulations of angular fragments of rock which are thrown up by vol- 
canic eruptions, and showered to greater or less distances around the cone 
or crater of eruption. When they are carried to a distance by running 
water, and get worn and rounded, they become congUymeraies, 

Agn68taf (Gr. agnostos, unknown, obscure). — A genus of minute trilo- 
bites supposed to be characteristic of, and peculiar to, the lowest Silurian 
zones. Little, however, is known of them either as to their zoological 
characteristics or geological distribution. 



Aignflle (Fr.) — A needle ; applied in physical geography and geology to 
fche sharp serrated peaks of lofty mountains. It is generally the crystalline 
rockS; such as gneiss, quartz, and the like, which weather into the aiguille 
or needle-top. 

Air-conrse. — In coal-mining, a general name for the air-traversing work- 
ings where ventilation is going on. The fresh air descending into the 
mine is termed the " irUaie ; " and that which ascends after having passed 
through the workings is the "return." 

Aix, Aiz Beds. — A town in Provence, situated in a deep valley, the 
immediate flanks of which are composed of a thick fresh-water Tertiary 
formation, consisting of greyish- white calcareous marls, calcareo-siliceous 
grits, and beds of gypsum ; the whole being a perfect storehouse of fossil 
fishes, plants, and insects. 

Almmlte Series (Gr. akHmos, tranquil). — According to Dr Fleming ('Lith- 
ology of Edinburgh'), the modem epoch, from the commencement of the 
Boulder-clay upwards, may be divided into three series — viz., the Taragmite, 
the Ahumite, and the Fhanerite. The first embraces the Boulder-drift, or 
period of disturbance ; the second, those laminated clays and sands which 
immediately overlie the Boulder-clay, and seem to in<Ucate the aJBSorting 
power of water under circumstances of comparative tranquillity; and the 
third, all those more superficial deposits whose modes and causes of for- 
mation are sufficiently evident.— See Modebn or Post-Tebtiabt Epoch. 

Alabindine.— Sulphuret of manganese or hexahedral glance-blende. It 
occurs crystalline, but usually massive, granular, and disseminated, of an 
iron-black colour and semi-metallic lustre. It is found in veins with 
foliated tellurium, blende, and quartz, in Saxony, Mexico, and Brazil ; and 
consists of 6.36 manganese, and 36.4 sulphur. 

Alabdster (Or. alaba>stron).— There are two well-known varieties of this 
marble-like mineral— the gypseous and the calcareous. The former is a 
semi-transparent, granular -crystalline variety of gypsum, or sulphate of 
lime, of various colours, but most esteemed when of a pure snow-white, 
and usually compact enough to stand the turning-lathe ; the latter is a 
carboTiate of lime (Oriental alabaster), usually white or yellowish-white, 
and found as a stalactite or stalagmite. Alabaster is a mineral of common 
occurrence in Secondary and Tertiary formations (Cheshire, Montmartre 
near Paris, Volterra in Tuscany, &c.) ; and being soft and readily turned 
by the lathe, is manufactured into statuettes, vases, and other domestic 
ornaments ; hence, perhaps, the term alaboMron, an ink or perfume vase. 
Others derive it from AUibastron, a town in Egypt famous for the manu- 
facture of such vases. — See. Gypsum. 

Albdni Stone (Lat. lapis alhanus). — The peperino of the Italians; a well- 
known volcanic rock, much used at Rome before building with marble 
became common. — See Peperino. 

Albert Coal, Albertite. — The name given to a bituminous mineral oc- 
curring at Hillsboro', Albert County, in the province of New Brunswick, 
and within four miles of the Peticodiac river. It is an injected vein, cut- 
ting the associated strata almost vertically, and from one to sixteen feet 
in thickness. The accompanying rocks are highly charged with bitumen ; 
but the vein, tiiough called a " coal," has none of the stratigraphical char- 
acteristics or accompaniments that distinguish coal deposits. The mineral 
is extremely brilliant, breaks with a conchoidal fracture, does not soil the 
fingers, and is strongly electric. It melts and drops in the flame of a 



candle, and dissolves in naphtha and other solvents, forming a varnish. 
It has all the essential properties of asphalt, while it is void of those 
which constitute true coal. According to G^esner its composition is — 
carbon 85.4, hydrogen 9.2, nitrogen 8.0, sulphur a trace, oxygen 2.2, and 
ash 12. Known also as MelanasphaM, whidi see. 

AlUte (Lat. alba, white). — ^A variety of felspar of a greyish- white or 
milky-white colour, composed of silex 70.5, alumina 19.5, soda 9.5, and 
traces of lime and manganese. It is a frequent constituent of granites, 
syenites, and greenstones, and is known also as Cleavlandite and soda 

Album GrsBCnm. — ^The whitish hardened excrement of dogs, wolves, 
hyeenas, and other camivora partially feeding on bones. It consists of the 
earth-of -bones or lime, in combination with phosphoric acid. Dr Buckland 
{Reliq. IHluv., &c.) detected the substance in a fossil state in ossiferous 
caverns, such as those of Kirkdale and Kent* s Hole, which are therefore 
concluded to have been, the dens of Tertiaiy camivora. More recently, Dr 
Falconer has found it abundantly in the bone-caves near Palermo, and 
indicative of animals of greater size than any of the existing hysenas. 

Ali^nite. — A general term for the spongiferous fossils so common in the 
Chalk formation. They are fossil alcyonia, and very frequently form the 
basis or organic nucleus round which flints have collected. It has also 
been surmised by Dr Mantell that some of the minute siliceous spicules so 
common in the Chalk may have belonged to alcyonia. 

Aleih6pteri8 (Gr. aletkos, true; pteris, fern). — One of Sternberg's genera 
of fossil ferns, closely allied to pecopteris, and merged by Lindley into that 
genus. It abounds particularly in the lower Coal formation, but some of 
the species range up through the Oolite and Wealden. — See Pecoftbris. 

A'lga (Lat. alga, sea- weed). — Cellular aquatic plants, mostly of marine 
habitat, though many genera are strictly fluviatile or lacustrine. They 
are found fossil, less or more, in every formation from the Silurian up- 
wards : and are known by such term§ as fucUes, cfumdrUes^ palasocharda, 
&c., from their resemblance to the living ./tM^M, chondrus, chorda, &c. 

Algbdonite. — ^A new mineral, consisting of copper 83.80, and arsenic 
16.28, with a trace of silver ; found in the silver mines of Algodes, near 
Coquimbo, in Chili — ^whence the name. 

Alkalies (Arabic, al, the, and kali, the name of a plant yielding the 
alkali). — In chemistry, a class of bodies which possess a strong acrid and 
caustic taste; exercise a corrosive action upon all animal matter; turn 
vegetable blues green, and v^^table yellows brown, and which neturalise 
the acids by combining with them in definite proportions, and forming 
compounds called salts. The principal mineral alkalies are potass, soda, 
lithia, and ammonia. 

Alkaline Earths. — A term applied to baryta, lime, magnesia, and 
strontia, in consequence of their possessing a^aline properties, as caus- 
ticity, action on vegetable colours, and the like. 

Allanite. — ^A silico-aluminate of cerium, containing varying proportions 
of iron, lime, and magnesia, &o. It is named afber the late Mr Allan, of 
Edinburgh, and is closely allied to, if not identical with, the cerine and 
orthite of other mineralogists. 

Alligator. — ^The generic term for the crocodilians of the American con- 
tinent, which have a broad, obtuse snout, and the canine teeth of the lower 
jaw received into a pit of the upper. Remains of closely allied forms have 



been found in the Teriiaries of Europe; 6.^., A . HaiiionieTuis, from the Eocene 
beds of the Hampshire basin. 

A116chrolte (Gr. aJlos, different, and chroa, oolour). — A fine-grained, 
massive variety of iron-garnet, so called from the colours it exhibits when 
melted with phosphate of soda before the blowpipa 

AUophaae (6r. cUlos, different, and phaino, I appear). — One of the clay 
family, consisting essentially of silica^ alumina^ and water of crystallisation. 
It occurs in translucent, reniform, or encrusting masses, of a pale blue, 
white, green, or brown colour ; lustre resinous, and very brittle. 

A116trop7, AUotr6pic (Gr. allotrifpoi, turning otherwise, of a different 
nature). — A term employed by Berzelius to denote the fact that the same 
body may exist in more than one usual condition, and have different 
physical characteristics. Carbon is a good example of tiiis condition, as 
it crystallises perfectly in the diamond, imperfectly in graphite, and is 
amorphous and quite distinct in anthracite and coal. 

AIl6y (Fr. aloi, mixture of one metal with another). — A natural or arti- 
ficial compound of one or more metals ; as Inus, an alloy of copper and 
zinc ; bell-metal, a compound of copper and tin ; brome, an alloy of copper 
and tin ; type-meUU, an alloy of lead and antimony. 

Alltivinm, Alluvial (Lat. luere, to wash, and ad, together). — Matter 
washed or brought together by the ordinary operations of water is said to 
be alluvial, and the soil or land so formed is spoken of as aUuvivm, The 
soil of most of our river-plains (the " straths" and " carses" of Scotland, 
and the ''dales" and '* holmes" and "fens" of England) is chiefly of alluvial 
formation ; these low grounds having once been the sites of lakes, estuaries, 
and shallow arms of the sea. All mud-deposits, as silt, warp, and the like, 
when converted into dry land, constitute alluvium. — See Diluvium. 

Almandine. — A lapidary's term for the violet or violet-red varieties of 
the spinM-ruby ; for the noble garnet, which is also of a columbine red 
approaching to violet ; and for the pyrope or '* Elie ruby," whieh see. 

Alpine.— Pertaining to the Alps, or to any lofty mountain-range ; ap- 
plied to plants and animals whose natural stations and habitats are the 
higher zones of lofty mountains like the Alps. 

Alstonite. — The haryto-ealcUe of Johnston, a carbonate of baryta and 
lime, so called from occurring in the lead mines of Alston Moor, in Cumber- 
land.— See Bartto-Calcitb. 

Altaite. — Hexahedral tellurium; a metallic ore occurring massive in 
granular aggregates of a yellowish-white colour, and consisting of 60.85 
lead, 1.28 silver, and 38.87 tellurium. It is found mixed with tellur- 
silver in the Sawodinski mine in the Altai mountains ; hence the name. 

Alternate Generation. — ^A mode of reproduction, not unfrequent among 
the radiata, in which the young do not resemble the immediate parent form 
but that of the grand-parent. The species is thus maintained by an alter- 
nating series of generations. 

Alum (Lat. alumen, Gr. aU, dot, salt). — ^Alum is a double salt, the sul- 
phate of alumina and potash, the crystals of which contain nearly 50 per 
cent of water. Mineralogists mention several varieties, differing slightly 
in external and other characters, according as one isomorphic element is 
replaced by another, as pota^sh-alum (34 sulphuric acid, 18 alumina, 10 
potash, and 46 water), sodorolum, Ammonia-alum, magnesia-alum^ Andiron 
or feather alum* The alum of commerce is chiefly manufactured from 
certain transition slates (Norway), from coal shales (Lanarkshire, &c.), 



lias shales (Torkshire), from lignite shales (Germany), and it occurs also 
in the yolcanic formations of Sicily, &;c. ; hence the geolc^cal terms alum- 
slaUf aiuM'dude, aXuminite, alum-stone, &c. Bocks containing alum in 
notable proportion generally manifest its presence, when exposed to air and 
moisture, by emitting whitish or yellowish- white efiSorescences of the salt ; 
and these as well as the water which trickles from the rocks are readily 
detected by their strong styptic taste. 

AH^miwa, — The pure plastic principle of clay, which is usually a silicate 
of alumina. Alumina is, in fact, an oxide of the metal aluminium, consist- 
ing of aluminium 12, and oxygen 8. Alumina is rarely found in a pure 
state in nature, and occurs chiefly as the basis of the clays, boles, loams, 
and other argillaceous earths. In its pure crystallised state it constitutes 
the sapphire, corundum, and other of our hardest gems. 

Altimiiiite. — The mineralogical term for the native hydrated sub-sulphate 
of alumina, which generally occurs in roundish or renif orm masses of a white 
or yellowish- white colour. 

^mmiwiifn ^ AliixniniTim, or Al^wifatn. — The metallic base of alumina; 
as calcium is the metallic base of lime, or tedium of soda. As a metal it 
is now being prepared to some extent, in France and England, from the 
CryoliU of Greenland ; and from its lightness and briUiant white colour 
has been employed, though as yet with very indifferent success, as a sub- 
stitute for silver. One of its most important applications is the manufac- 
ture of a hrome, consisting of from 90 to 95 of copper, and from 10 to 15 of 
aluminium. This bronze is extremely hard and tenacious, and bars of it 
may be worked hot as easily as the best quality of steel. 

Alimite (Fr. aXun, alum). — Alumstone; occurring in minute rhombo- 
hedral crystals, but very frequently in fine, granular, earthy, or compact 
masses, intimately mixed with quartz or felspar. The mineral in its 
purity consists of about 37 alumina, 39 sulphuric acid, 11 potash, and 13 
water ; but the compact rock varies largely in its proportions of silica, some 
kinds being so silicious as to be suitable for millstones. It is foimd in 
Hungary, the Greek Isles, and in many parts of Italy — the Roman alum, 
valued on account of its purity, being chiefly obtained from this mineral by 
repeated roasting and lixivation. ** In volcanic regions," says Nicol, " it 
is often formed by the action of sulphurous vapours on trachyte, and in 
other felspar rocks by the decomposition of iron-pyrites." 

Altbiogene {alun, alum, and ginomai, I produce).— A sulphate of 
alumina, known also as hair-salt or featker-alum. It occurs in fine capil- 
lary fibres forming crusts, and irregular botryoidal masses; has a silky 
lustre, yellowish-white colour; tastes like alum; and consists of 36.05 
sulphuric acid, 15.40 alumina, and 48.55 water. It seems to be, for the 
most part, a product of chemical changes now in progress ; often forms in 
volcanic solfataras, or in clays, and felspar rocks containing pyrites ; and 
is a frequent efflorescence on the walls of quarries and mines. 

Alv^lni (Lat.) — ^A little trough or hollow channel ; applied variously in 
natural history, as the alveolus or conical chamber of the belemnite. 
Alveolites.— ;A genus of corals composed of concentrically arranged tables 
of short tubes, externally angular, and rounded within. 

fiwAigft-m — ^A compound of mercury with other metals is termed an 
amalgam ; the union of any other metal with another, an aVbuy. Some 
derive the term from the Greek ama, together, and 'gam£o, I wed ; others 
with more probability from malagnuif a poultice or paste (from maloMO, 1 



soften), in reference to the pasty nature of the admixture. A native 
amalgam (of 36 silver and 64 mercury) occurs in the mines of Sweden, 
Hungary, Spain, and South America, in fine silver-white plates, crusts, 
and arborescent forms ; and in America another, under the name of ar- 
querite, is worked as an ore of silver. 

AmrigMnation. — The process of making an amalgam of mercury with 
some other metal, for the purpose of separating the silver and gold they 
may contain. This operation is founded on the property which mercury 
possesses of dissolving these metals out of the minerals with which they 
are associated. 

Amason-Stone. — A variety of common felspar coloured green by the 
oxide of copper, and so named from its occurring in rolled masses near the 
river Amazon. — See Aze-Stone. 

Amber (Arabic). — ^A well-known fossil gum or gum-resin, usually found 
in connection with Tertiary lignites. It is hard, rather brittle, easily cut, 
of various shades of yellow, and semi-transparent. It is very light, becomes 
negatively electric by friction, and bums, like other hydro-carbons, with 
much smoke and flame. It consists of about 70 carbon, 12 hydrogen, and 
8 oxygen ; and frequently encloses chips of leaves, insects, and the like — 
showing that it most once have been in fhe state of a gummy or viscous 
exudation. It occurs in irregular nodules, from the size of a hazel-nut to 
ih&t of a man's head, the latter size, however, being very rare. It is found 
in Sicily, Poland, Saxony, Siberia, and Greenland, in Tertiary clays ; on 
the Yorkshire coast of our own country ; but in particular on the Baltic 
coast of East Prussia, where it is thrown up after storms, and strewn like 
pebbles along the shore. It is also, but very seldom, obtained by digging 
down to the looser beds of the Tertiary lignites in Northern Germany ; and 
there it appears in connection with coniferous trunks and branches. These 
forests of Amber Pines {Pinites sttccinifer) seem to have been situated in 
the south-eastern part of what is now the bed of the Baltic (about 56° N. 
lat., and 87° to 88° E. long.), and were probably destroyed at the com- 
mencement of the Drift period. 

Ambergris (Fr. Orey-amber, in allusion to its amber-like character). — 
An odorous solid substance, supposed by some to be a morbid secretion 
from the liver or intestines of the spermaceti whale, analogous to the 
biliary calculi ; and by others, to be merely the indurated fseces of the 
animal, perhaps somewhat altered by disease. It is usually found floating 
or cast on shore, in irregular lumps. No analogous fossil substance is yet 
known to geologists. 

Ambl^onite (Gr. amblygonios, having an obtuse angle). — ^A phosphate 
of alumina and lithia occurring in granitic rocks, either massive or in 
oblique rhombic prisms, which are rough externally and of a greenish- 
white or sea-green colour ; translucent ; with a vitreous lustre inclining 
to pearly. 

Ambl^teroi (Gr. amblys, blunt, and pteron, fin). — Literally ** blunt or 
broad fin ; " a genus of ganoid fishes belonging to the Lepidoid family, 
occurring in the Carboniferous formation, and characterised, as the name 
implies, by their very large and wide fins, composed of numerous rays. 
Scales rhomboidal and highly enamelled ; tail boldly heterocerque. 

Amblytmis (Gr. amblyt, blunt, and <mra, a tail). — Literally ''blunt or 
broad ttdl ;" a genus of Lepidoid fishes, found fossil in the Lias formation, 
and so named from the full development of the caudal fin. 



Ambnldcra (Lat. ambtUacrum, an avenue or walking-plaoe). — ^The per- 
forated series of plates in the crust of the sea-urchins, through which the 
walking-feet are protruded, and which form marked bands or zones on the 
exterior when the crust is denuded of its spines. AmbnlacraL — Applied to 
these plates in contradistinction to the imperforate or iTUerambuliicral ones. 

A'mefhyst. — Quartz or rock-crystal, coloured by a minute portion of 
iron and manganese. The amethyst is a transparent gem of a purple or 
violet-blue colour ; it is sometimes naturally colourless, and may at any 
time be deprived of its colour by the action of heat. Some derive the 
name from its colour, which resembles wine mixed with water; while 
others think it obtained its name (Gr. a, priv., and methystes, drunkard), 
from its supposed virtue of preventing intoxication, and hence worn by 
topers as an amulet. Ameth^tine. — Possessing the properties of an am- 
ethyst ; having that violet-blue tinge or colour peculiar to the amethyst, 
as "Amethystine Quartz." 

Amethystoline. — The name given to the volatile fluid observed by Sir 
David Brewster in the minute cavities of amethyst. 

Amianthinite. — A massive variety of actinolite, of a yellowish-grey or 
ash colour, and having a confusedly foliated and fibrous fracture, whence 
the name. 

Ami&nthiui (Gr. a, priv., and miaiiio, to soil).— This term, though often 
used as synonymous with asbestos, properly includes only the varieties 
which occur in delicate and reg^ar silky fibres. The name is said to 
be derived from the incombustible nature of the mineral, which, when 
woven into cloth, admits of being cleansed by being thrown into the fire. 
That small fancy fabrics can be manufactured of amianthus is well known : 
it was occasionally so employed by the ancients, uid is still used for that 
purpose in Siberia, Italy, and the Pyrenees. It is also employed as incom- 
bustible lamp- wicks ; for filling gas-grates — the fibres remaining red-hot 
without being consumed ; and attempts have been made to manufacture 
it into an incombustible paper. Amianthus is found abundantly in many 
countries, particularly in primitive districts ; and occurs in veins in which 
the filaments or fibres are perpendicular to the surfaces of the vein, and of 
various lengths, according to the thickness of the vein, which is sometimes, 
though rarely, a foot. like tiie Hornblendes, to which it belongs, it con- 
sists chiefly of silica (58), magnesia (25), lime (12), with traces of alumina, 
iron, manganese, and water.— See Asbestos. Amianthifoxm and Amian- 
thoid. — Having the form or likeness of amianthus. 

Ammite (Gr. ammos, sand). — An old mineralogical term for roestone or 
oolite, and indeed for all those sandstones composed of rounded and loosely 
compacted grains like oolite. 

Ammonia. — A transparent pungent gas, formed by the union of nitrogen 
and hydrogen, and named from sal-ammofiiaxi (muriate of ammonia), of 
which it forms the basis. Ammonia is of geological interest, as being one 
of the products given off by active volcanoes. — See Sal- Ammoniac. 

A'mxnonite.— The fossil ^ell of a numerous and varied genus of cephalo- 
podous moUusca, coiled in a plane spiral, and chambered within like the 
existing nautilus ; so called from the resemblance of the shell to the horns 
on the statue of Jupiter Ammon. " Oomu Ammonis," "Whitby snakes," 
and "snakestones," are obsolete synonymes. — See A^monitida. In the 
ammonites proper, the shell is discoidal ; inner whorls more or less con- 
cealed; septa undulated; sutures lobed and foliated; siphunqje dorsal. 



The range of the genus is irom the Trias to the Chalk indusiye ; and already 
upwards of 500 species have been described. These have been arranged 
hj palsBontologists (Von Buch and D'Orbigny) into tiz sections, according 
as the back of the shell is keeled, crenated, sharp, channeled, squared, or 
round and convex ; and these sections have been again divided into Jlfteen 
groups, according to form, armature, sutures, or other peculiarity. They 
are as follows : — 

1. Arietes, ^ 

2. FcUciferi. > Back keeled. 

3. Criitaii. ) 

t: ^iS¥15,«.ri.. } Back crenated. 

6. IHtcL ^ Back sharp. 

7. DerUati, Back channeled. 

8. Armati. 

9. Capricomi, ^ Back squared. 

10. Oniati. 

11. Beterophylli. 

12. Ligatz, 

13. A nnulnii, \ Back round, convex. 

14. ConyiULti, 

15. Fimbriati. 

Figures of these types or groups are given by D'Orbigny, and on the Pal»- 
ontological Map of the British Islands in Johnston*s ' Physical Atlas.* 

AmmoxiltidflB. — ^A numerous extinct family of tetrabranchiate cephalo- 
pods of which the well-known ammonite is the tyi>e. The family ranges 
fi^m the Devonian to the Chalk inclusive, becoming extremely abundant 
and varied in form in the upper Secondary formations. It includes the 
goniatiteSf bactrites, ceratites, ammonites proper, crioceritesy toxocerUes, anicy- 
locerites, scaphUes, keliocerites, turrilUeSf hatnites, ptychocerites, and bacuHtes, 
which see. In the Ammonitidao the shell is external and many-chambered ; 
body-chamber elongated ; apertiu^ guarded by processes, and closed 
by an operculum ; sutures angylated, lobed, or foliated ; siphuncle ex- 
ternal (or dorsal as regards the shell). The shell has essentially the same 
structure as that of the nautilus — a porcellanous layer externally, and a 
nacreous lining internally. In some species of ammonite the shell is armed 
with prominent spines or tubercles ; and in others the outer margin is 
furnished with curious projecting processes. The AmmonitidsB, in one or 
other of their genera, are perhaps the most remarkable of Secondary 
moUusca. — See Cephalopoda. 

Am6rphOTis (Gr. a, without, and morpke, form). — ^Applied in geology and 
mineralogy to rock-masses and minerals that have no regular or determi- 
nate structure, in contradistinction from those which, like basalt and rock- 
crystal, always appear in some definite form. Void of structure ; massive. 

Amoxphoz6a (Gr. a, without ; morphe, form ; and zoon, an animal). — ^The 
lowest class of the animal kingdom, containing the sponges and their allies ; 
so called from their want of regular symmetrical structure. Fossil remains 
of this class occur in notable abundance in the Chalk formation. 

A'mpelite (Gr. ampelot, the vine). — A term used by Brongniart for alum- 
slate, which occurs both in the metamorphic and fossiliferous series. 

AmphL — A Greek prepositional prefix signifying about, on both sides, 
near to, or concerning ; and frequently used to imply doubt as to which of 

81 I 


two sides, or to whicli of two things, the object in question belongs ; as 
amphibiotbt, capable of living either in the water or on land. 

Amphibia (Gr. amphi, both, and bios, life). — Applied to animals capable 
of living either in water or on land ; but in zoology more strictly to those 
batrachians or frog-like reptiles — the axolotls, menobranchi, sirens, and 
proteus — which have both lungs and gills, and consequently adapted for 
life in either element. 

AmpMbichnites {amphibiaf animals capable of living on land or in 
water, and ichnon, a footstep). — The generic term for fossil footprints 
that seem to have been impressed by the feet of amphibious reptiles as 
they passed over the soft 3delding beach to and from the waters. 

AmphiboU and AmpMbolite. — The names usually given by French 
geologists to Honiblende and Hornblende Rock, which see. The terms are 
derived from the Greek amphibolos, ambiguous or equivocal, in allusion to 
the difiQculty of distinguishing hornblende from augite, which is similarly 

Amphlcyon (trr. amphi, implying doubt, and hUon, dog). — A large car- 
nivorous quadruped, found principally in miocene Tertiaries, and so termed 
from its intermediate position between the digitigrade and plantigrade 
families, as indicated by its tuberculated molars or carnassial teeth. 

A'mphigenB (Gr. amphi, all around, and giiwrnai, I am formed). — ^Plants 
which increase by the growth or development of their cellular tissue on all 
sides, as the lichens. — See tabulations, " Vboetable Scheme." 

AmphilSstes (Gr. amphi, implying doubt, and testes, beast of prey). — A 
small quadruped of doubtful relationship, only the lower jaw of which has 
yet been found in the Stonesfield oolite, Oxfordshire. From the structure 
of its teeth — the molars having three cusps, the large middle one of which 
has two small accessory tubercles or cuspules — ^it is supposed to be an in- 
sectivorous marsupial, allied perhaps to amphitherium. 

Amphipeltis (Gr. amphi, doubtful, and peltis, provided with a shield or 
buckler).— A provisional genus of small crustaceans from the Devonian 
rocks of Nova Scotia, and so called from the doubtful afBnity of its frag- 
mentary carapace and segments to any existing order. Apparently allied 
to the phyllopods. 

Amphistegina (Gr. amj^i, on both sides, and stege, a roof). — A genus of 
foraminiferous shells, occurring abundantly in the Tertiary basin of Vienna, 
and so termed from the flatly conical or roof-like aspect both of its upper 
and under surface. According to D'Archiac, it takes the same place among 
the foraminifera of the Miocene era which the nummulites occupy in the 
Eocene period. 

Amphith^Tinm (Gr. amphi, implying doubt, and therion, wild beast). — An 
insectivorous mammal of the Oolitic epoch, whose teeth and jawbones 
have been found in the Stonesfield slate of Oxfordshire. The doubt that 
hangs over the true affinities of these remains (whether marsupial or 
placental) has necessitated the provisional name of amphitherium. 

AmphordcriniiB (Lat. amphora, a cup or goblet.) — A genus or rather sub- 
genus of Carboniferous crinoids, chiefly distinguished by the arrangement 
of their radial plates. The <'cup" or body of this genus is small and 
shallow as in a4:tinocrimis, to which it is closely related* 

Am^daloid (Gr. amygcUUon, an almond, and eidos, appearance). — This 
term is applied to certain Igneous rocks containing small almond-shaped 
vesicular cavities, either partially or entirely filled with agate, jasper, calc- 



spar, and other minerals. These minerals being of a different colour from 
the mass of the rock in which they are imbedded, look like almonds in a 
cake ; hence the terms amygdaZoid and amygdaloidoL The amygdaloids — 
as " amygdaloidal trap-tuff," ** amygdaloidal wackfe," &c.— are especially 
abundant in the Trap series, and mauy of them seem to have originally 
been open vesicular lavas, through which water charged with siliceous and 
calcareous solutions had percolated for ages, until, finally filling up the 
cavities with the agates, calc-spars, &c., already alluded to, they became 
the amygdaloids in question. 

Anddromous (Or. ana, upwards, and dromoa, a flight or running). — Liter- 
ally ** running up •" applied in zoology to aquatic animals which, like the 
salmon and sturgeon, periodically forsake the waters of the ocean and 
ascend into fresh-water lakes and rivers for the purpose of spawning. 
Fishes are thus spoken of as mariTief freah-iDater, and anadromotLS, — the 
two former never quitting their native elements, and incapable of subsist- 
ing in any other, and the latter possessing the power and habit alretuly 
alluded to. 

Anal (Lat. aniu). — Pertaining to or sitiiated near the anus, — as the anal 
fin. The av/il fin in fishes is that which is placed between the vent and 
tail, and expands vertically downwards. 

A'nalcime (Gr. a, without, and alkimog, strong). — ^A zeolitic mineral found 
abundantly in trappean rocks, and so named by HaUy on account of its 
feebly electric properties. A specimen from Kilpatrick Hills consisted 
(according to Connel) of silica 55.07, alumina 22.23, soda 13.71> potash 
and lime a trace, and water 8.22. 

A'nalogae (Gr. ana, with, and logos, reasoning). — ^An object that has a re- 
semblance to, or correspondence with, another. "Analogue" has reference 
to similarity offwMiion; "homologue" to identity of parts* Thus, the wing 
of a bird and the dermal expansion of a bat are analogues, because they 
each enable their respective possessors to fly or sustain themselves in the 
air ; but the wing-rbones of the bird and the arm-bones of the quadruped 
are homologues, being anatomically identical. Analogue and honiologue 
(which see), and analogotts and homologotis, are contradistinguishing terms. 

AnAlogy (Gr. ana, with, and logos, reasoning). — That relationship, re- 
semblance, or correspondence which one object bears to another in 
functional duty or performance. For the precise differences between 
analt^t affinity, and homology, see these terms. 

Ananch^es. — ^A genus or subdivision of fossil sea-urchins belonging to 
the tribe Spaiangidoe, and especially characteristic of the upper Chalk 
formation. They are readily distinguished by their elevated helmet-like 
form, by their simple ambulacra converging towards the summit, and by 
the transverse mouth and oblong outlet situated on the inferior face of the 
flat base, and towards the margin. Known in the south of England as 
** shepherd's crowns," and " fairy-loaves." — See Spatanqid^. 

Axidstomose (Gr. ana, and sUm.a, mouth). — To inosculate, to unite the 
mouth of one vessel with that of another, as the arteries with the veins ; 
hence such vessels are said to be anastomosing, or running one into the other. 

A'natase (Gr. anatasis, stretching forth). — Another name for pyramidal 
titanium ore, or octaidrite, which is all but a pure oxide of titanium. Anatase 
is remarkable for its electrical properties; occurs in the granitic and 
crystalline rocks ; of a dark indigo blue, hyacinth red, or yellowish-brown 
colour; and in elongated pyramidal crystals — ^whence the name. 



Anchorage or Anchor-groimcL — Any portion of a bay, estuary, cliannel, 
or arm of the sea, where the bottom is unimpeded by rocks, and the water 
of a suitable depth for ships riding at anchor. 

Ancylbceru (6r. ankulos, incurred ; lercu, horn). — ^A genus of the Am- 
monitidse peculiar to the Oolite and Chalk, and so named from the singular 
shape of the shell, which is at first discoidal, with separate whorls, after- 
wards produced at a tangent, and bent back again like a hook or crosier. 

Andaltielte. — One of the garnet family, found chie6y imbedded in mica- 
schist, or in druses in other crystalline rocks, and so called from its being 
first discovered in Andalusia. It occurs for the most part in large pris- 
matic crystals ; is always coloured, grey to green, fiesh of peach-blossom 
red, violet blue or reddish-brown ; and consists of -40 -silica and 60 alumina, 
with traces of iron, manganese, and lime. 

A'ndeslte. — The name given by Gustavus Rose to a trachyte of the 
Andes, which contains the felspar called Andesine, together with glassy 
felspar (orthoclase) and hornblende disseminated through a dark-coloured 

Andrias. — The generic name given by Cuvier to the great aquatic Sala- 
mander, from the Miocene fresh- water beds of (Eningen, whose remains 
in 1700 were supposed to be human, and described by Scheuchzer as ** homo 
diluvii testis." 

Anemometer (6r. ariemoa, the wind, and mdron, a measure). — ^An instru- 
ment for determining the direction and measuring the force and velocity 
of the winds f which see. 

A'neroid (Gr. ) — Literally without fluid. In the aneriod barometer the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere is measured by the elevation or depression of the 
surf ace. of a closed metallic vessel partially exhausted of air. The pres- 
sure of the atmosphere being marked at a given time, any alteration is 
indicated by the movements of the surface of the thin corrugated metal, 
and communicated to wheels marking the change on a dial furnished with 
an index. Being easily carried about, the aneriod is extremely useful in 
enabling the geologist and traveller to approximate the relative heights of 

Angiospenns (Gr. aKigeion, a vessel, and tperma, seed). — Plants whose 
seeds are encased, or in seed-vessels, in contradistinction to gymwysperms. 
— See tabulations, " Vegetable Scheme." 

Anh:^drite (Gr. a, without, and hydw, water). — A transparent gypsum 
or sulphate of lime occurring in a crystalline form without water of crystal- 
lisation. Anhydrite occurs chiefly with rock salt and gypsum, or in the 
clays associated with these deposits. The fine crystalline varieties are 
known sa muriacite—thQ granular aswdpinite; and all are much harder 
and heavier than ordinary gypsum, into which, however, they become con- 
verted by the slow absorption of water. 

Anh;^droii8 (Gr. a, without, and kydoTf water). — Without water ; applied 
to minerals which do not contain water as an ingredient. Without water 
of crystallisation. The opposite oiErihydrous. 

Animilcnles (Lat., diminutive of animal). — ^A general term in zoology 
for exceedingly minute animals which cannot be studied without the 
assistance of the microscope. Speaking of the fossil animalcules of the 
Chalk, Dr Mantell remarks that " for the most part the microscopic shells 
in chalk and flint are filled with amorphous mineral matter ; but recent 
observations have shown that in numerous examples the shell contains the 


"body of the animal, in some instances silicified, but in others in the state of 
a dried animal iubstanee like the ink-bag of the cuttle-fish in lias, the soft 
part of (Sephalopods in^ clay, and the capsule of the eye, and the membranes 
of the stomach of certain fishes in chalk." 

Ann^alingf. — The process by which glass and porcelain are rendered less 
brittle, and by which the metals become tougher and more malleable. 
It is performed by placing the materials to be operated on in furnaces or 
ovens heated to a certain temperature, and then allowing them to cool gra- 
dually and slowly. During the process the molecular arrangement of tiie 
material undergoes a change analogous to what takes place in lava, which 
forms granular or glassy rocks according to the rapidity with which it is 
cooled — ^the quicker the process, the glassier and more brittle the product. 
Anfi^nMa (Lat. anTielltts, a little ring). — ^Annelids. One of the classes of 
the animal kingdom having their bodies formed of a great number of small 
rings like the earth-worm, a double-ganglionated nervous cord, and red 
blood. They have been variously subdivided ; but that arrangement which 
ranks them as J^rran^ta, walking or swimming annelids, like the nereis; 
Tubieola, those which inhabit solid tubes, like the serpula ; Terricola, 
those burrowing in the earth, as the earth-worm (lumbriciu); and Suctoria, 
those furnished with a sucking cavity at each end, like the leech {hirudo), 
is perhaps the most intelligible. The casts, and tracks, and burrow-holes 
of annelids occur in all formations, arenicolites, seolUes, &o. 

AimiilAria (Lat. annvlus^ a ring). — ^A genus of fossil herbaceous plants 
with verticillate foliage like axterophyllites, but having the whorls arranged 
on the same plane with the stems on which they grew. It is supposed that 
they were aquatic plants, and that the stems and leaves floated on the 
surface of the water. 

Aimiil68a (Lat. annvlus, a ring). — A designation given by Macleay to 
the Articvlaiay in allusion to their ringed or annulated bodies. The term 
in this sense is seldom employed by other zoologists. 

A'xiodon, Anoddnta (Gr. a, priv., and odons, odontos, a tooth). — The swan 
mussel ; a genus of the Unionidas or river mussels, deriving its name from 
the circumstance that its shell has no teeth or articular processes at the 
hinge. Kecent and fossil. 

Anomalous (6r. a, not, and omalos, like to, or similar). — Irregular, 
deviating from a general rule, order, method, or analogy. Anomaly.— Ir- 
regularity, deviation from the common rule. 

Anomodontia (Or. antymotj irregular, and odous, a tooth). — One of Pro. 
fessor Owen's orders of extinct reptiles, embracing three families — the 
Dicynodonts, Cryptodonts, and Gnathodonts— and apparently restricted 
to the Triassic period. The order is characterised by the teeth being either 
wanting, or confluent with tusk-shaped premaxiUaria, or confined to a 
single pair in the upper jaw, having the form and proportions of canine 
tusks. The vertebra are bi-concave, the pleura-pophyses of the trunk 
long and curved, the pelvic bones large, and the limbs formed for walking. 
Anom6pteriB (Gr. an<mos, without rule, and pteris^ fern). — Literally 
** anomalous fern," and so named because the plants differ from all recent 
and fossil ferns. In this genus, which is peculiar to the New Ked Sand- 
- stone, the leaves are very large, and deeply pinnate ; the leaflets long, 
linear, entire, and traversed by a distinct median rib ; the secondary veins 
are simple, perpendicular to the mid-rib, and thickening towards their free 



Anomotbra, Anomtira (6r. anomos, irregular, without rule; and oura, tail). 
—A family or sub-order of the decapod crustaceans characterised by 
their irregular tails — €,g,f the hermit-crab — and so named in contradistinc- 
tion to ihA hrachyurout or short-tailed crabs, and the Tiuucmroui or long- 
tailed lobsters, &c. 

Axioploth6riiim (Gr. a, without ; oplon^ weapon ; and therion, beast). — 
A genus of quadrupeds found in European Tertiaries, and so called from 
being destitute of any organs of defence, as tusks, claws, or horns. The 
common anoplothere {A, eomitiune) has been taken as the type of a small 
family, the ANOFLOTHERiDiB, which seem to constitute a sort of transi- 
tion from the pachyderms to the ruminants. There are several species, 
from the size of a hare to that of a dwarf ass ; and from the situations in 
which they are found, they appear to have lived in herds, in swamps and 
marshes. In some the tail is long and thick, as if it had assisted the 
animal in swimming, in others it is short and taper ; in all, the legs are 
slender, and the feet terminate in two large toes as in the ruminants, while 
their tarsal bones resemble those of the camel. Their dentition is peculiar 
— there being six incisors in each jaw, on each side of which was a small 
canine, and behind these {witkoiU leaving any interval) seven molars, re- 
sembling those of the rhinoceros. According to Cuvier, the anoplothere 
stands in one respect between the rhinoceros and horse, and in another be- 
tween the hippopotamus, hog, and camel. 

Axi6rthite (Or. a, without, and orthoa, upright). — One of the felspar 
family ; and so called {witkoui right angles) to distinguish it from ortkoclaM, 
two of whose cleavages are at right angles to each other. 

Anoiira (Or. a, without, and oura, tail). — Tailless ; a class of the batra- 
chian reptiles, including the frog, toad, &c., which are all atwurous, or 
destitute of tails. — See tabulations, ''Animal Scheme." 

Antagonist Foroes. — Two powers in nature, one counteracting the other, 
and preserving a general equilibrium on or within the earth's crust ; e.g., 
fire uid water. 

Antarctic (Gr. anii, opposite, and arctic). — ^Applied to the regions sur- 
rounding the South Pole, as being directly opposite to those of the Arctic 
or North Pole; hence we speak of the "Antarctic Circle," "Antarctic 
Seas," kc. 

Antholites or Antholithes (Gr. anthos, flower, and litho8, stone). — The 
general term for the fossil inflorescence of plants, or rather the impress of 
their flowers. Such inflorescence occurs in the shales of the Coal-measures, 
and more abundantly in Tertiary strata. The afi&nities of the Palaeozoic 
antholites are altogetiier imdetermined ; those of the Tertiary epoch seem 
related to the LUiaceoi and other existing orders. 

Anthophyllite (Gr. aivthos, flower, and phyllon, a leaf). — ^A species of 
hornblende (tremolite), of a clove-brown colour, occurring in radiating 
columnar aggregates ; and so named from the resemblance of its colour 
to that of the anthophyllum, or clove. 

A'nthracite (Gr. anthraa, carbon). — A species of coal almost wholly de- 
prived of its bitumen. It may be r^arded as a natural coke or charcoal, 
formed by subterranean or chemical heat. Ordinary bituminiferous coal is 
often found converted into a kind of coke by the contact of igneous rocks ; 
and in this way some anthracites may have originated, though the majority 
seem to be the result of that slow change or metamorphosis which all rock- 
masses seem to undergo in the course of ages. As a mineral, anthracite 



occurs massive and amorphous (though portions have occasionally a slaty, 
columnar, or fibrous structure), has a sub-conchoidal fracture, less or more 
of a metallic lustre, or a greyish-black or iron-black colour, streak un- 
altered, conducts electricity perfectly, and bums open witii a very weak or 
no flame. It varies greatly in composition, though good American sorts 
generally yield about 90 cabron, 3 hydrogen, 5 ashes, and the remainder 
oxygen and hydrogen. Submitted to the microscope, either in thin slices 
or in a state of ash, many varieties exhibit the vegetable structure, and 
leave no doubt as to the organic origin of alL Though not so convenient 
in an industrial point of view as ordinary coal, anthracite is gradually 
rising in importance for the manufacture of the metals, steam-raising, and 
even for household purposes— the United States at present consuming 
annually about six miUions of tons. '' It is very common " (Nicors * Man. 
of Mineral.') ''in many parts of the English, Scottish, and Irish coal-fields. 
It forms whole beds in the Alps, as in the Valais, Piedmont, Savoy, and 
Dauphin^ ; in the Pyrenees ; and in various parts of France. In Germany 
it occurs in Silesia, Bohemia, Saxony, and the Hsu*z, but not in very large 
amount. It is especially abundant in the United States, as in Bhode 
Island, Massachusetts, and above all in Pennsylvania, where it seems to be 
an altered portion of the common bituminous coal of the Western States." 
— See Coal Family. 

Authrdconite (Gr. anthrax, coal). — A mineralogical term applied to 
those varieties of marble which, like tiie Kilkenny, have a coal-black lustre 
when polished. Most of the black marbles contain bitumen, and yield a 
sulphureo-bituminons odour when struck by the hammer ; and in this case, 
like other fetid limestones, are known as svnnettones or stinksteins. 

Authracopala^mon (Gr. anihrax, coal ; paicenumf prawn). — A genus of 
macrurous crustacean, from the Carboniferous formation of Lanarkshire, 
and founded by Mr Salter on the carapace, and some other fragments 
from the Shotts coal-field. Carapace rectangular-oblong, serrate in front 
and along the sides, with a faint cervical furrow at the anterior third. 
Rostrum strong, projecting ; posterior ridge prominent, complete to the 
hinder margin, separated abruptly from the rostrum by the transverse 
furrow. — See PALiBOCBANOON. 

Authracosalinu (Gr. aiuhrajc, coal, and saurot). — Literally ''coal- 
saurian ; " a large labyrinthadont saurian occurring in some abundance in 
the coal-fields of Lanarkshire, and founded by Professor Huxley, in 1862, 
on a beautifully preserved skull, with palatine surface, exhibiting all the 
teeth in situ, from the black-band ironstone of Airdrie. This skull (see 
' Geological Journal') was 15 inches long, by 12 inches in width ; but frag- 
ments since discovered indicate individuals nearly double these dimensions. 

Authracothfoinm (Gr. arUhrax, coal, and therion^ beast). — A fossil pachy- 
dermatous animal, first found in the Tertiary lignites or wood-coals of 
Cadibona in liguria; hence the name. So far as yet determined, the 
genus seems to stand intermediate between river-hog and hippopotamus. 
In the lignites of Savone, remains of camivora, marsupialia, bats, birds, 
crocodiles, tortoises, and fish occur along with those of the anthracothere. 

Authrak6rpeton (Gr. a^i^Arcu?, coal ; erpeton, lizard). — ^A genus of rep- 
tiles, founded by Professor Owen, in 1864, on some remains (teeth, ribs, 
and portions of the cranial bones) from the coal-field of Glamorganshire. 
According to its describer, this small reptile "belonged to that low, pro- 
bably primitive, air-breathing type, which, with developmental condi- 



tions of the bones like those in some fishes, and very common in Deroman 
fishes, showed forms of the skeleton more resembling those in satirian 
reptiles than are attained by any of the more specialised batrachian air- 
breathers of the present day." 

Authropdgraphy.— That branch of physical geography which treats of 
the distribution of the human species^ as distinguished by physical features, 
language, institutions, and customs. 

Anthropoid (Gr. arUhrOpos, man, and eidos, form).— Besembling the 
human form ; applied, for example, to those species of the monkey tribe 
(the "anthropoid apes ") that most closely approach to the form of man. 

Authrdpolite (Gr. aitthropos, man, and lithos, stone).— A petrifaction of 
the humtui body ; a term which has been applied to the petrified human 
bones from Guadaloupe and other localities. These remains can scarcely 
be considered fossil, or even sub-fossil ; but must be r^arded in the same 
light as any recent petrifaction produced by the incrusting action of 
calcareous waters. 

Anthropology. — Literally a discourse or reasoning about human nature ; 
the science that treats of man in a natural history point of view ; the 
natural history of the human species, physiological, intellectual, and moral. 
AuthropologicaL — Pertaining to the science or natural history of Man. 

Auticlfiial (Gr. anti, on opposite sides, and klino, I bend). — Applied to 
strata which dip in opporate directions from a common ridge or axis, like 
the roof of a house, and form what is termed an ''anticline" or " saddle- 
back." Syndine and Synclinal are the opposite terms, which see. 

A'ntimoiiy. — One of the metals, of a tin-white colour, with a greyish or 
yellowish tarnish; somewhat seotile, but so brittle as to be easily reduced 
to powder by trituration ; fuses at 900, and has a specific gravity of 6.712. 
The most abundant ore is the sulphuret of antimony, occurring in veins in 
the older Secondary and Transition strata. The metal is used in medicine, 
but principally to form alloys with other metals, as type-metal, which is a 
compound of lead and antimony. The name is derived by some from the 
Greek words anti and monos, signifying that it is never found by itself, but 
in combination with other metals ; and by others from antimoine, that is 
"anti-monk," in allusion to a ridiculous story told of Basil Valentine, its 
discoverer in 1620, who, observing that hogs fattened rapidly on receiving 
small doses of it, administered it to his fellow-monks, but unluckily in such 
proportions as to prove fatal to them ; hence the term anti-moine. 

AutipodOB (Gr. anti, opposite, and potts, podos, foot). — Applied to those 
who dwell on opposite sides of the globe, as having their feet opposed to 
each other. Those dwelling in New Zealand, for example, are the anti- 
podes of' those in Britain. 

AutiB^ptic (Gr. anti, opposed to, and sepo, I putrefy). — Substances which, 
like common salt and tcmnin, prevent putrefaction in animal and vegetable 
matter, are said to be antiseptics, or to possess antiseptic properties. 

Ap&teon (Gr. a cheat; deceptive). — The name originally proposed by 
Von Mayer for the then imperfect remains of the archegosaurtis ; because, 
so far as the fragments admitted of discrimination, "its head might be 
that of a fish^ as well as that of a lizard or of a batrachian.** — See Arche- 


Apatite (Gr. apaU, deceptive). — A genus of calcareous earths, composed 
of 55.75 lime, and 44.25 phosphoric acid ; hence known as phosphates of 
lime. In most varieties hydrochloric ac\d is also present, from a mere 



trace up to 2.10 per cent. Apatites are of various colours, white, yellow- 
ish-white, greenish'white, brown, blue, &c, and occur boUi massive and 
crystallised. From their fracture, &c., they are spoken of as foliated, 
conchoidal, and massive — the massive having an uneven fracture, and 
being generally known by the name of *' photphorUe** Apatite occurs in 
connection with metalliferous veins in the metamorphic and granitic rocks, 
and is found in Cumberland, Devon, and Cornwall ; in Spain, Germany, 
Norway, and America. The phosphorites of Spain and Norway have 
recently acquired additional interest from the proposal to employ them in 
the preparation of phosphatic manures — a purpose ta which the phosphatic 
nodules of the English greensand have been applied with eminent success. 
According to Daubeny, the phosphorite of Estramadura consists of 81.15 
phosphate of lime, 14.00 fluoride of calcium, 3.15 peroxide of iron, 1.70 
silica, and 0.2 per cent chlorine. There is also a iak-apcUite or magneti'an- 
apatite, found in the Ural Mountains, which is jH'obably a decomposed 
apatite— the lime being replaced to the extent of from 6 to 8 per cent by 
magnesia. From their variety of colour, fracture, &c., the apatites are apt 
to be mistaken for other minerals ; hence the designation deceptive. 

A'phanite (6r. aphanes, not discernible). — A compact homogeneous rock 
of the Trap family, breaking with a smooth surface like some basalts, and 
consisting of hornblende, quarts, and felspar, in combination so intimate, 
that they are individually UTiditcernible ; hence the name. It is known 
also as coTMan {cornu, a horn), in allusion to its toughness and compact 

AphSUon (6r. apo, from ; heliot, the sun). — ^The point in a planet's orbit 
at which it is farthest from the sun ; its perihelion being the point at which 
it is nearest. 

A'phrite (6r. apkros, froth or foam). — Known also as earth-foam and 
foam-spar. A fine scaly variety of calcareous spar or carbonate of lime, 
having a shining pearly lustre and somewhat greasy feel. Found in veins 
and cavities in various formations. 

Apidcrinite (Gr. apion, a pear, and encrinite, which see). — A sub-genus of 
encrinites, distinguished by their pear-diaped receptacle, and peculiar to 
the Chalk and Oolitic formations. In the Pear Encrinite the roots seem to 
have been confluent, the stem round and of moderate length, the digestive 
cavity pear-shaped, the arms rather short than slender. ''When living," 
says Dr Buckland (' Bridgewater Treatise *), " their roots were confluent, 
and formed a thin pavement or crust over the bottom of the sea, from 
which their stems and branches rose into a thick submarine forest, com- 
posed of those beautiful zoophytes. Its stems and bodies &re occasionally 
found united, as in their living state ; the arms and fingers have almost 
always been separated ; but tiieir dislocated fragments still remain cover- 
ing the pavement of roots that overspreads the surface of the subjacent 
Oolitic limestone.'* 

A'podal (Gr. a, without, poiu, podos, foot).— Literally without feet; ap- 
plied in zoology to those fishes which, like the eel, sword-fish, wolf-fish, &c., 
are destitute of ventral fins. The Apodes constitute the fourth order in 
Cuvier's arrangement, but merely a sub-order in more recent systems. 

A'pogee (Gr. apo, from ; ge, the earth). — That point of the moon's orbit 
in which she is farthest from the earth ; her perigee being the point in 
which she is nearest the earth. 

Apoph^Uite (Gr. apophyllizo, to strip off leaves).— One of the Zeolite 



family, known also as tchthyophUuilm'Ue or fish-eye-stone, and deriving its 
present name from its lamellar or leaf-like texture, and ready exfoliation 
under the action of the blowpipe. It consists of 52.7 silica, 26 lime, 4.4 
potash, and 16.7 water. 

Apdphysis (Gr. springing from, of the same nature). — A process of a 
bone, and part of the same bone; and in this respect differing from 
epiphysis, which is a process attached to a bone, and not a part of the 
same bone. 

A'pteryz (6r. a, without; pieryx, a wing). — Literally " wingless ;" a rare 
cursorial bird peculiar to New Zealand, uid apparently approaching the 
verge of extinction. The existing apteryx, or "kiwi," of which there are 
two or three species, is little larger than a Guinea-fowl ; but an extinct 
species, the paXapteryx, has been found in the ancient river-silts of New 
Zealand, rivalling in size the emeu and ostrich. 

A.'p'tychiu (Gr. a, without, and ptycke, fold). — A term applied by some 
authors to the shelly or homy organisms better known as trigonellites, 
which see. The name Aptychtts refers to the plates or valves being with- 
out fold or hinge. 

Aquafdrtis. — Literally strong water ; a familiar term for nitric acid, in 
allusion to its power of dissolving the metals. 

Aqua Marine. — A lapidary's designation for the finest beryls, in allusion to 
the varying shades of " sea-green" which they usually present.—See Beryl. 

Aqua B^gia. — Literally royal water : a designation of the alchemists for 
nitro-muriatic acid, from its property of dissolving gold, the " king of the 

Aqndtic (Lat. a^tia, water). — Relating to the water; having its habitat 
or usual position in water. Applied to plants which, like the water-lily, 
grow in water, and to animals which, like the diver and duck, live in or 
frequent the waters. 

A'qneoQB (Lat. aqtta, water). — Watery; pertaining to, or formed by, 
water. Usually applied to the seditnentary or stratified rocks, as having 
been formed by deposition from water, in contradistinction to the unstrati- 
fed, or those arising from igneous fusion. Sab-aqueooB. — Occurring under 
the water ; in contradistinction to sub-aerial, or under the open air. 

Aralo-Ca8pian.--In physical geography this teim is applied to the ex- 
tensive basin or depressed area occupied by the Aral and Caspian Seas, and 
which is a true ** basin of continental streams," having no communication 
with the ocean. Tn geology, the name AraXo-Ca>spian formaJLion has been 
given by Sir B. Murchison and M. de Vemeuil to the limestone and asso- 
ciated sandy beds of brackish- water origin, which have been traced over a 
very extensive area, surrounding the Caspian, Azov, and Aral Seas, and 
parts of the northern and western coasts of the Black Sea. The fossil 
shells are partly fresh-water and partly marine ; pai*tly belong to living 
and partly to extinct species ; but are in both cases related to species now 
inhabiting the seas and lakes of central Asia, rather than to oceanic types. 
The limestone rises several hundred feet above the sea, and is supposed to 
indicate the existence, in latter Tertiary times (Pliocene), of a vast sheet 
of brackish water as large or even larger than the Mediterranean. 

Arancarites.— '' This term," says Mantell, " is employed to designate 
the fossil wood whose structure is identical with that of the living Arau- 
carise, having the same kind of medullary rays, and the woody fibre, 
studded with discs or areoisB, which are polygonal, often hexagonal, and 



disposed in seyeral alternating series." This wood is commoii in the 
Chalk, Wealden, Oolite, and Lias of Britain ; and trunks closely resembling 
the existing A . excelm have been found in the Carboniferous formation, 
as at Craigleith and Granton, near Edinburgh, and also in Fifeshire. The 
AraucaHcB are natives of the southern hemisphere, and are all more or less 
gigantic trees, growing from 150 to 200 feet in height, and often from 20 
to 80 feet in circumference. It is an interesting fact, therefore, to find 
that trees closely resembling those of Australia and the adjacent islands 
should at one period have flourished extensively in the northern latitudes 
now occupied by Great Britain. 

Arbor6scexLce (Lat. arboresco). — Literally growing like a tree; applied 
to those dendritic or tree-like forms of crystallisation often observable in 
mineral productions. 

Area (Lat. a chest). — A genus of conchifera having a world-wide distribu- 
tion, though most abundant in warm seas ; and occurring in many species, 
from the Lower Silurian upwards. The species are characterised by their 
equivalve, thick, strongly-ribbed, ventricose shells, which are smooth op 
dentated at the margin, have a straight hinge with numerous teeth, and 
their umbones anterior and separated by a fiat, lozenge-shaped ligamental 
area. The ABCADiE or ark-shell family embraces such genera as cucullcea, 
pectunculus, limopsis, nucula, isoarca, leda, Yoldia, and tolanella. 

A'rcanite (Lat. arcanus, hidden, concealed). — Sulphate of potash, occur- 
ring mostly in crusts and pulverulent coatings ; colourless or white ; having 
a saline, bitter taste, and soluble in water. It is found in volcanic lavas, 
and in solution in the water of some salt springs. 

ArchsBOcidaris (Gr. archaios, ancient, and ddaris, a turban, hence the 
"sea-egg," from its turban shape). — A genus of sea-urchins or cidaris, 
occurring in Carboniferous and Permian strata, and characterised by their 
small hexagonal plates, and long spines, which in some species are smooth, 
in others notched and sharply denticulated. 

ArchflBOniflCiu (Gr. archaios, ancient, and oniscus, woodlouse). — A genus 
of fossil Isopods (equal-footed cnistaceans) occurring in the Purbeck or 
uppermost Oolitic strata, and so termed by the Bev. P. B. Brodie, from 
their close resemblance to the common woodlouse. 

Archssdpteryx (Gr.) — Literally "ancient wing or bird." A unique 
specimen of bird-remains from the Oolitic limestone of Solenhofen, and not, 
as was at first supposed, a creature intermediate between the birds and 
reptiles. This ancient bird, according to Professor Owen, was about the 
size of a rook, and differs from all known birds in having two free claws 
belonging to the wing, and also in having the vertebrae of the tail (about 
twenty in number) free and prolonged as in mammals— each vertebra sup- 
porting a pair of quill-feathers which give to the tail a long and vane-like 
appearance. This unique specimen (now in the British Museum) exhibits 
in its tail a retention of structure which is " embryonal and transitory in 
tiie modem representatives of the class, Aves, and consequently a closer 
adhesion to the general vertebrate type." — See Ornitholitks. 

Archegosatinu (Gr. archegos, beginning, and saurus, lizard). — Literally 
"primeval lizard ; ** a reptile of the Carboniferous era, having, according 
to Owen and Goldfuss, a near alliance to the protetis, lepidodren, and otljier 
perennibranchiate reptiles of the present day. 

Archetype (Gr. arche, beginning, and typos, type).— An original model 
or pattern ; the type after which subsequent forms are moulded. 



ArcbipelagO. — A term ori^ifinally applied to the numerous islands that 
stud the JBgean Sea — the Orecian Archipelago; but now used to denote 
any similar cluster of islands — €.ff,f the Indian Archipelago, or East India 

A'retic (Or. ardot, a bear). — Relating to the North Pole or Polar Regions ; 
in reference to the constellations of the Great and Little Bears which occur 
in the northern quarter of the heavens, and point, as it were, to the North 
Pole. — Arctic Region*, the high latitudes surrounding the North Pole; 
Arctic Circle, an imaginary line extending round the North Pole 92 J** from 
the Equator, and parallel to it ; hence certain parts are said to " lie within 
the Arctic Circle." The term is also familiarly used as synonymous with 
cold, boreal, and frozen. 

Arctic Current. — A well-known ocean current which originates in the 
polar regions of the north, and flows southwards towards the equator. 
The main current seems to originate to the north of Spitsbergen, takes a 
westerly direction, and thence runs southward along the eastern shores of 
Greenland, till it meets with a minor branch flowing from Davis Strait. 
The two then unite in one great current, which follows the Labrador 
coast, runs to the east of Newfoundland, and evidently loses itself in the 
" Gulf Stream ; *' or rather perhaps, from its greater density, passes in 
part under the Gulf Stream in latitudes 45°-47°, and holds on towards the 
equator. It is to this current that we owe the phenomenon of icebergs in 
the Atlantic ; and as these are frequently laden with boulders, gravel, and 
other miscellaneous debris, together with the remains of arctic animals, 
there must be now forming along the bed of the North Atlantic a deposit 
analogous in many respects to the " Northern Drift " or " Boulder Clay " 
of a former epoch. 

Arendoeoiu (Lat. arSna, sand). — ^Rocks composed of grains or particles 
of sand, or containing sand iii any notable degree (as grits and sandstones), 
are said to be arenaceotu. Compound rocks partaking of this quality are 
spr ken of as arenaeeo-calcareoiiSt arenaceo-argillaceoiu, and so on, as their 
composition may indicate. 

AreniiMditeB. — ^A term applied to those circular holes or markings which 
appear in twos or twins on the uppw surfsMje of many sandstones, and 
which seem to have been worm-burrows like those of the Arenicdla or lob- 
worm {arena, sand, and colo, I inhabit). 

ArgentlfSnroiiB (Lat. argentum, silver, and /ero, I bear).— Applied to veins, 
rooks, and other matrices containing the ores of silver, or silver in the 
native or metallic state. 

Argentite (Lat. argeiUum, silver). — Sulphiuret of silver; an important 
ore of silver, occurring crystallised, also in crusts, or massive and dissemi- 
nated ; of a blackish lead-grey ; feebly lustrous ; malleable and flexible. 
It is found in the granitic, porphyritio, and crystalline rocks of many 
countries, and is one of the most important of the ores of silver. Consists 
of about 86.5 silver and 13.5 sulphur. 

Argile Flastiqne. — Towards the base of the Tertiary system in France 
are extensive deposits of sands, with occasional beds of day used for 
pottery purposes ; hence the term argile pUutvqvA, — See Tertiart System. 

Argillioeoiu (Lat. argiUa, clay). — ^Applied to all rocks or substances 
composed of clay, or having a notable proportion of clay in their composi- 
tion, as roofing-slate, shale, &c. Argillaceous rocks are readily distin- 
guished by the peculiar odour they emit when breathed on, and known in 



miDeralogy as the ''argillaceous odour/' Compound clayey substances are 
spoken of as argillo-caloareous, argUlo-armh^^mt, &c., as the case may be. 

AigiUite (Lat. argilla, clay). — A mineralogical term for clay-slate ; but 
very seldom used in geology. 

A'rkoBe. — A name given by Brongniart to a compound of the same mate- 
rials as granite^ from which its materials have evidently been derived by 
disintegration. " It is found/' says Lyell, " at the junction of granite with 
formations of di£ferent ages, and consists of crystals of felspar, quartz, and 
sometimes mica, which, after separation from their original matrix by 
disintegration, have been reunited by a siliceous or quartzose cement." 
In Sweden it immediately flanks the granite, and forms a coarse-grained 
sandstone or grit. 

Arm. — In geography, any deep and comparatively narrow branch of the 
sea running inland, in contradistinction to gul& and firths. 

Armadillo (Span.) — A well-known genus of edentate quadrupeds peculiar 
to the American continent, and so called from their being armed with an 
external bony shield composed of separate plates like a coat of maiL The 
Glyptodon and other gigantic congeners of the armadillo are found in the 
Post-Tertiary deposits of South America. 

Arqnerite. — A silver amalgam occurring in small octahedral crystals and 
in arborescent crusts in the mines of Arqu^ros, near Coquimbo, in Chili, 
whence the name. It is ductile and malleable, and consists of 86.5 silver 
and 13.5 mercury. — See Amalgam. 

Arrdgonite. — One of the caJc-spar family, generally found in radiated 
and fibrous aggregates, in amygdaloidal cavities, and in fissures in basalt 
and basaltic tufas. It derives its name from Arragon in Spain, where it 
occurs in large macled crystals in gypsum. The coralloid varieties are 
usually known as flos-ferri, and the finely-fibrous and silky as satin spar. 
It differs from common calc-spar, or calcite, in containing from 1 to 3 per 
cent of strontia ; but ** is most readily distinguished from it by falling to 
pieces at a low temperature which does not affect the latter, and also by its 
prismatic cleavage." 

A'rsenic (Gr. arsenihon, masculine). — The metal arsenic, so called from 
its possessing strong or powerful properties. Arsenic occurs chiefly in 
veins in the crystalline and transition strata, along with ores of antimony, 
silver, and lead ; and the purest specimens usually contain traces of anti- 
mony, iron, silver, or gold. As an ore it is generally found in granular 
irregular masses or disseminated ; is brittle; has a whitish lead-grey colour 
when newly broken, but soon tarnishes o]} exposure to the atmosphere, 
and becomes coated with a black sub-oxide of the metal. When struck 
or heated it gives off a strong garlicky smell known as the '' arsenical 
odour ;" and on being pulverised and moistened it undergoes spontaneous 
combustion. It has a strong tendency to combine with other metals, hence 
such natural compounds as arsenic-silver^ arsenic-aniimony, arsenic-glance, 
&c. Arsenic is used in various pharamaceutical preparations uid in metal- 
lurgic processes, but is usually injurious when mixed with ores. The metal 
and all its compounds are violent poisons. The white arsenic of the shops 
is arsenious acid ; realgar or red arsenic is the protosulphuret ; orpimerU or 
yellow arsenic is the sesquisulphuret, and constitutes the colouring matter 
of the pigment called Kin^s yellow; and the well-known pigment Scheel^s 
mineral green is an arsenite of copper. The metallic arsenic of commerce 
is chiefly obtained from arsenical iron pyrites or mispickel, which see. 



ArtMaa Wells. — Wells sunk by boring perpendicularly through the 
solid strata, and in which the subterranean waters rise to the surface or 
nearly so— a method long known and practised in the province of Artois 
(the ancient Artesinm) in France. Many of the Artesian wells in London 
and Paris are of great depth — that in tiie plain of Grenelle being about 
1800 feet deep, bore 10 inches in diameter, discharge 517 gallons per min- 
ute, and temperature of water 82** Fahr. ; a depth exceeded by that at 
Columbus, in Ohio, which in 1860 was 2576 ft., the thermometer register- 
ing 88** Fahr., while the work was still proceeding. Artesian wells are 
generally situated in plains or in basin-shaped yalleys, towards which the 
strata dip on one or more sides, and their principle depends upon the 
hydrostatic pressure of the water percolating through the inclined strata 
and forcing its way upward by the artificial orifice to the highest level of 
the water-containing strata. The greater the depth the higher the tem- 
perature ; and the lower the surface of the well compared with the outcrop 
of the water-yielding stratum, the higher will the jet d^eau rise above the 
orifice of the bore. 

ArticoUlta (Lat. ariicuhu^ a joint). — One of Cuvier's great subdivisions 
of the animal kingdom, comprehending all the invertebrata with jointed 
bodies — ^as insects, spiders, crustaceans, m3rriapods, and worms. — See tabu- 
lations, " Animal Scheme." 

Articulated (Lat. articulut, a joint). — Jointed ; composed of parts united 
by joint-like processes. Occasionally applied in geology to the columns 
of basalt and greenstone, which, like those cf the Giant's Causeway, are 
separable into blocks more or less regular, and thus seem jointed or articu- 
lated. Indeed, in some of the more perfect columns there is a regular ball- 
and-socket arrangement of the separable portions. 

AmiLdindceoiu (Lat. amndOf a reed). — Resembling, or having the struc- 
ture of, reeds. Arundinaceous (that is, striated and jointed) stems are 
common in the Coal-measures. 

A'saphns (Gr. <uaphes, obscure). — A genus of trilobites, so called from 
the obscurity which long rested on the true nature of these crustaceans. 
In this genus the carapace is wide and much depressed; the middle lobe 
distinct ; the head-shield rounded in front, and terminating posteriorly in 
a sharp process on each side. The eye of the asaphus is compound, and 
contains several thousand lenses. 

Asbestos, Asbestos (Gr. a, priv., and sbestoSf consumable or extinguishable). 
— EjQOwn also as amianthus and hyssolUe. Fine fibrous varieties of sevenU 
of the hornblende family, as augite, tremolite, and actinolite, found chiefly 
in connection with serpentine. The fibres, often readily separable, elastic, 
and flexible, were used by the ancients in the manufacture of an incom- 
bustible cloth ; hence the name asbestos, inconsumable. There are many 
varieties, and these receive their names from their appearance and quality 
— as rock-woodf rock-cork, mmcntain-leather, fossil-paper, fossil-JUtx, &c. In 
rock- wood the fibres are long, parallel, curved, and compact ; in rock-cork 
they have a felted texture, and so light as to swim on water ; in mountain- 
leather they form flat flexible pieces; and in fossil-flax they are so loose 
and silky that Dolomieu used it for packing his other minerals. Asbestos 
thus passes from the silky flexibility of amianthus to a degree of compact- 
ness which admits of receiving a fine polish.— See Amiaitthus. 

Ascfdia or Ascidlans (Gr. ashidium, a little leathern bottle). — ^An order 
of the Tunicata or shell-less mollusca, so called from their resemblance to 



small leathern pouches. They are either social or solitary, and appear as 
pap-like gelatinous incrustations on rocks, dead shells, and other bodies. 

Asparagus-Stone. — The name given to a translucent variety of apatite, 
from its greenish-yellow colour, which occasionally passes into wine-yellow. 

A'sphalt (Gr. asphaltos). — This term is \isually applied to a black, hard, 
brittle, and glossy variety of bitumen, which is distinguished from other 
varieties chiefly by its more difficult fusibility, and by its fracture being 
clean, conchoidal, and vitreous. It occurs in formations of all ages, and is 
associated with different kinds of rocks, though most frequently in connec- 
tion with sandstones and limestones. The asphalt foimd floating on the 
Dead Sea {Lacus AsphaliUes) was well known to the ancients ; it was ob- 
tained from pits or springs near the Euphrates and Tigris, and used as 
mortar by the Babylonians ; it is still largely found in Persia ; it forms 
the principal feature of the " Pitch-lake" of Trinidad; an abundant com- 
mercial supply is obtained from Seyssel and other places near the Jura 
Mountains ; and it occurs sparingly in rents and cavities in the Carbonifer- 
ous limestones of Britain.— See Bitumen. 

Aspididria (6r. aspiSf cLspidos, a shield).— A genus of lycopodian-like 
Coal-measure stems, so ccjled from the shape of. the leaf-scars, which 
closely connect them with lejyidodendron. 

Aspidorh^chus (Gr. aspitf aspidos, a shield, axLdrhynchos, a beak).— liter- 
ally ''Buckler-beak;" a genus of sauroid fishes occurring in the Jurassic 
and upper Secondary formations, and distinguished by the tapering or 
beak-like prolongation of their upper jaws, which were armed with numer- 
ous sharp-pointed conical teeth. 

Aspidlira (Gr. aspis, a shield, and oura, tail). — A genus of star-fishes 
peculiar to the Muschelkalk of (jrermany. They are closely related to the 
existing opkiurat and are named from the buckler-like arrangement of the 
ossicles that protect the arms, which are four in number. 

Asplenidpteris. — A fossil fern from the Oolite and Lias ; so called from 
its resemblance to the existing cLsplenium ; but regarded by lindley as 
identical with Pteeophtllum, which see. 

Assdy (Fr. essayer, to try). — In mining and metallurgy, the determination 
of the quantity of gold or silver contained in ores or alloys of these metals 
by cupellation. It differs from chemical analysit in merely furnishing the 
quantity of the precious metal contained in the sample examined, instead 
of the nature and proportion of all the ingredients. 

AssimilatioiL (Lat. ctssimilo, 1 liken to).— The process by which organ- 
ised bodies convert aliment into the various tissues of their own proper 
substance. Plants and animals increase by assimilation and transformo' 
tion, minerals by attraction and aggregation, 

Astdcolite (Gr. aM&kos, the crayfish or lobster). — Applied to fossil or 
petrified crustaceans like the crayfish and lobster. 

Asteracdnihiis (Gr. a^ter, star, and acarUha, spine). — Literally " Starry- 
spine ;" a genus of ichthyodorulites, so termed from having their surfaces 
richly ornamented with star-like tubercles. These fin-rays (often of 
large size) are common in the Lias, Oolite, and Wealden strata. 

Astoria (Gr. cuter, a star). — A variety of corundum or " star-sapphire," so 
called because, when cut en caibockon perpendicular to the axis of the prism, 
it shows a bright opalescent star of six rays corresponding to the other axes. 

Astdrialite (Gr. a^er, star, and liihos, stone). — A term, now rarely used, 
for fossil or petrified a^eriaSf or star-fish. 



Afltfirida (Gr. aster, a star). — The Star-fish family, of which the common 
five-rayed star-fish {asUrias), so abundant on our own coasts, has been 
taken as the type. Bepresentatives of the family occur, according to 
E. Forbes, so early as Upper Silurian etr&isk (Uraater) ; but this has been 
questioned by others, who would restrict the fiunily to Mesozoic and 
Neozoic strata in which such forms as tropidatser, solaster, and gonicuter 
are unmisti^able and abundant. 

Aster6idA (Gr. aster, a star, and eidos, resemblance). — An order of polypes, 
so called from the star-like or rayed arrangement of their tentacles when 
fiilly expanded. The asteroid polypes are all compound animals, inhabiting 
a polypidom, which consists of a fleshy external layer, supported upon an 
axis more or less calcareous and compact. The order embraces the tuMpo- 
rides, or ''organ-pipe corals;" the ali/conidce, or ''dead men's fingers;" 
the Oorgonidoe, or " sea-fans ;" and the pennatvXdias, or " sea-pens." 

Asteroids (Gr. cuter, star; eid4)s, likeness). — A term applied by Herschel 
to the minor planets or planetoids — Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta^ &c. — of 
which there are now upwards of seventy known to astronomers. 

AsterolSpis (Gr. aster, star, and lepis, scale). — Star-scale; a gigantic 
ganoid fish of the Old Bed Sandstone, so named from the stellate markings 
on the dermal plates of the head, which are of great size, and form a 
strong expanded buckler, the orbits of the eyes being situated near the 
anterior border. The mouth of the asterolepis was furnished both with 
rows of small ^A-teeth, and a thinly-set row of huge rep^t^-teeth. . The 
true a£Ginities of the asterolepis are yet undecided, if indeed it is en- 
titled to rank even as a separate genus. See Hugh MilWs work, ' Foot- 
prints of the Creator, or the Asterolepis of Stromness.' 

Asterophyllites (Gr. aster, a star, and pkyllon, a leaf). — An assemblage of 
plants found abundantly in the Coal-measures, Lias, and Oolite ; and so 
called from the star-like whorls of linear leaves (verticillate leaves) which 
surround the jointed stems, as in equisetum, hippuris, and the like. " The 
genus asterophyllites is so vague," says lindley, " that it will comprehend 
any fine-leaved verticillate plants, the basis of whose leaves do not run into 
an annular rim." Beyond this, and the fact that they are dicotyledonous 
plants, botanists have not yet determined ; so that many remains now classed 
under " asterophyllites " may in reality belong to very different families. 

Astrseidse (Gr. astraea, from aster, a star). — The family of " star-corals," 
to whose stony calcareous secretions the formation of coral reefs is mainly 
owing. They differ from the cyathophylUdce or "cup-corals," and from 
the madreporides or " tree-corsds," not only in their forms, but in tiie 
arrangement of their cell-rays, as well as in their mode of reproduction. 
The members of the family usually form thick stony masses ; have the rays 
of the cells exceedingly numerous — the cells penetrating deeply into the 
mass of the coral ; and most of them appear to increase by spontaneous 
division. The common astrcea or "star-coral," and mea/ndriria or "brain- 
coral," are familiar examples. 

Astringent (Lat. ad, to, and stringo, I draw tight). — Applied to those 
substances which, like the gall-nut, oak-bark, alum, &c., have the property 
of contracting or drawing together the muscular fibre ; hence also such 
substances are spoken of as "astringents." 

A'tacamite. — A native muriate of copper, so called from being found in 
the desert of Atiioama, between Chili and Peru. It occurs in aggregates 
of small prismatic crystals, or massive with a granular structure. In the 



granular or arenaceous state it is known as " copper sand," and consists 
of 72 copper protoxide, 16 muriatic acid, and 12 water. It often appears 
on copper long exposed to the atmosphere or sea-water, and is the derugo 
nobilis seen on antique bronzes. 

Afherfield Point.— On the southern coast of the Isle of Wight— a locality 
of geological importance, as elucidating the nature and relations of the 
Greensand or lower group of Cretaceous system, and the subject of various 
papers by Fltton, Mantell, Ibbetson, Forbes, and others. — See Table of 
" Equivalent Deposits." 

Atmdmeter (Gr. atmo8, vapour, and metron, measure). — ^An instrument 
invented by Sir John Leslie for measuring the amount of evaporation from 
any moist surface in a given time. It consists of a thin hoUow ball of 
porous earthenware, in which is inserted a tube of glass with divisions. 
The cavity of the ball and the tube are filled with water, and the top of the 
tube closed. In this state the instrument is exposed to the free action of 
the air, when the water transudes the porous substance and is evaporated 
— the scale on the glass tube marking the relative rapidity. 

Atmosphere (Gr. atmos, vapour, and spkaira, sphere). — ^The gase<}u8 
envelope or volume of air which surrounds the earth on every side, and 
which is either directly or indirectly the cause of numerous geological 
operations, — ^being the great laboratory in which all meteorological and 
electrical phenomena are elaborated, as winds, clouds, rains, snow, hail, and 
thunderstorms. As an air, it is composed of about 79 parts nitrogen and 
21 oxygen, with variable traces of carbonic acid and other impurities. 
CalcuUtting from its decreasing density, as well as from its diminished 
power of refracting light as we ascend from the earth, the height or extent 
of the atmosphere has been estimated at 45 miles ; and the pressure of the 
whole volume on every square inch of the earth's surface (at the ordinary 
sea-level) at 14.6 lb. avoirdupois. This pressure is counterbalanced by a 
mercurial column of 30 inches in length ; hence a column of 60 inches will 
be equal to two atmospheres ; and it is customary to estimate the force of 
steam, of liquid lava, and other fluid pressures, by cUmospheres—ih&t is, in 
round numbers, at the rate of 15 lb. per square inch for every atmo- 
sphere. As a geological agent, it is indispensable to the life of plants and 
animals, and any change in its normal composition would at once affect 
their existence. Increasing in density as we approach the earth, it be- 
comes, as it were, the retainer and equable diffuser of the sun*s rays. It 
is also the recipient and difiPaser of all aqueous vapours arising from the 
earth ; hence clouds, rains, snow, hail, &c Its denser strata being heated 
in one region, they become lighter and ascend, and the colder and denser 
masses from other r^ons rush in to supply their place ; hence a&'rial cur-, 
rents or winds ; and hence also, from the contact and friction of its cloudy 
masses, the discharges of thunderstorms, uid other electrical phenomena. 

A'toll — The name given to a coral island of an annular form — that is, 
consisting of a circular belt or strip of coral reef more or less continuous, 
with an enclosed lagoon. — See C!obal Reefs. 

A'tom (Gr. a, priv., and temno, I cut). — In chemistry, an ultimate particle 
of matter incapable of further division or reduction. In geology, applied 
loosely to minute particles or molecules of solid matter. 

A'trypa (Gr. a, without, and trypa, aforeaneTi). — ^A genus of brachiopods. 
closely related to rhynconeUa, and often mistaken for species of terdraivXa. 
They are rounded shells, not furrowed like spirifer, but ornamented with 

97 o 


squamous lines of growth ; the beak is small compared with terebratula^ 
often closely incurred, and the foramen either concealed or very small and 
round (hence the name) ; hinge-line very short, and shell not punctured as 
in terebratula. About a dozen species are found, from the Lower Silurian 
to the Trias indusiye. 

AtUe. — A Cornish term for rubbish thrown out of a mine, containing 
little or no ore. 

Attraotiim (Lat. ac2, to, and trahOf I draw). — Literally a drawing towards; 
a term denoting the mutual tendency of bodies towards one another — a 
power in nature which has been assumed as explanatory of many physical 
and chemical phenomena; hence such phrases as AUraetion of Cohesion, 
Attraction of Oravitationf Attraction of Affinity, Capillary Attraction, Mag- 
netic Attraction, and so forth. — See Cohesion, Gravitation, Capillart 
AND Maonetio. 

Attrition (Lat. aUritus, worn or rubbed down). — The act of wearing by 
friction or rubbing. Tn geology, the wearing and smoothing of rock- 
surfaces by the passage of water chai^ged with sand and gravel, by the 
passage of sand-drift, the descent of glaciers, and the like. — See Abrasion. 

Anehenitpifl (Gr. atteken, the back part of the neck, and a^is a buckler). 
—A provincial genus of Old Bed Sandstone fishes, closely allied to, and in 
all likelihood identical with, cephalaspis, but separated by Sir P. Egerton 
in consequence of the appearance of a post-cephidic or neck plate in a 
single specimen from the neighbourhood of Ludlow. 

Adgite (Gr. auge, lustre). — ^A mineral of the hornblende family, entering 
largely into the composition of many trap and volcanic rocks, as of basalt, 
greenstone, clinkstone, augite, porphyry, &c. In composition it is closely 
allied to hornblende proper, but differs in the form of crystal, contains less 
silica, is of greater specific gravity, and is also less fusible. Augite, 
known also as Pyroxene, has several varieties, which are distinguished by 
such names as diopside, saMUe, malacolite, Baikalite, Fassaite, coccolite, 
ffedenhergitef &c., which see. Augite, as it usually occurs, is of a greenish- 
black, pitch or velvet black, occasionally leek-green, but rarely brown ; 
lustre vitreous to resinous ; translucent or opaque ; fracture conchoidal and 
uneven : crystallises in six or eight sided prisms, terminated by dihedral 
summits. Its constituents, taking the average of several analyses, are 53 
silica, 19 lime, 15 magnesia, 6 iron protoxide, 2 manganese protoxide, and 
5 alimiina. 

Angitic. — Containing augite ; resembling augite, as Augitie Porphyry, 
a rock with a dark-grey or greenish base, containing crystals of augite and 
Labrador felspar. Augitie traps are frequently spoken of in contradis- 
tinction to felspathie traps and clajrstones. 

Auricle (Lat. auricula, a little ear). — ^In natural history, any appendage 
or projection resembling ears. Anrided. — Furnished with such appendages. 
Anriculated. —Ear-shaped. 

Aariferons (Lat. aurum, gold, and^o, I yield). — Yielding or containing 
gold ; applied to rocks and veins containing the precious metal, as " auri- 
ferous veins," "auriferous sands," &c 

Aliriform (Lat. auris, the ear, and forma, shape). — Ear-shaped ; having 
a form resembling the human ear, as the haJiotis or ear-shell, the otopteris 
or ear-fern, &c. 

Anrora Borealis (Lat.)— Literally the "Aurora of the North;" known 
also as the Northern Lights, Polar lAghts, Streamers, &c. A luminous 



meteor, generally appearing in the northern heayens, and so called from 
its resemblance to the aurora or morning twilight. It is usually referred to 
electrical agency in the upper regions of the atmosphere. Changing from 
the purest and softest white to all the colours of the rainbow, and flickering 
and flitting from the horizon to the zenith with inconceivable rapidity, the 
auro^ borealis is one of the most attractive of celestial phenomena. 

Auroral (Lat) — ^Appertaining to the early mom ; the second of the 
fifteen series into which Professor Rogers subdivides the Palaeozoic strata 
of the Appalachian Chain — ^the " Daybreak " of the North American palseo- 
zoics, and the equivalent in part of our Middle Cambrians. — See Paleo- 
zoic Formations. 

Autdmalite (Gr. auUmiolot^ inconstant). — Octahedral corundum. A 
variety of corundum containing oxide of zinc, found crystallised (some- 
times simple, sometimes as a macle) in talc schist, and associated with 
zinc-blende and c^ena. Its constituents, accprding to Abich, are 57.09 
alumina, 34.80 zinc oxide, 4.55 iron oxide, 2.22 magnesia, 1.92 silica, and 
traces of manganese. 

Antonm (Lat.)— The third quarter of the- year, which commences when 
the sum enters Lihra, that is, about the 21st or 22d of September, when 
the days and nights are equal ; hence the term Aviumnal Equinox or 
AtUumnal PoiM, referring to the descending point of the ecliptic. 

Anvergne. — ^A district in central France celebrated for its extinct vol- 
canoes, its fresh- water limestones, lacustrine formations, and other ancient 
alluvia. The subject of Mr Scrope's valuable monograph, * The Volcanoes 
of Central France.* 

Avaldnehe (Fr. avalange, lavange, lavaiiake). — An accumulation of snow, 
or of snow and ice, which descends from precipitous mountains like the 
Alps into the valleys below. Avalanches originate in the higher regions 
of mountains, and begin to descend when the gravity of their mass be- 
comes too great for the slope on which it rests, or when fresh weather 
destroys its adhesion to the surface. They are usually distinguished as 
Drift, Rolling, Sliding, and Glacial ; — Drift are those caused by the action 
of the wind on the snow while loose and powdery ; rolling^ when a detached 
piece of snow rolls down the steep, licks up the snow over which it passes, 
and thus acquires bulk and impetus as it descends ; sliding, when the mass 
loses its adhesion to the surface, and descends carrying everything before 
it unable to resist its pressure ; and glacialf when masses of frozen snow 
and ice are loosened by the heat of summer and precipitated into the plains 
below. — See Glacier. • 

Avintnrine or Aventnrine. — A variety of quartz deriving its peculiar 
play of colour from imbedded spangles of mica, or merely from the inter* 
section of minute fissures. Also, a variety of felspar or sun»iojie (which 
see), whose play of colour, according to Scheerer, arises from minute im- 
bedded crystals of iron-glance. "The name AvarUurinef* says Jackson 
('Minerals and their Uses'), ''is said to be derived from the following cir- 
cumstance : — A French workman having by accident, or par aventure, dropt 
some copper filings into a vitreous mixture in fusion, gave the name Avan- 
turine to the sparkling mass which was thus produced; and it is still 
by a similar process, though greatly improved, that the artificial produc- 
tion is now manufactured, to be employed for various ornamental purposes. 
The artificial far exceeds in brilliancy the natural avanturine. A species 
of avanturine is also produced by heating pieces of quartz to a certain 


AYi — AZO 

degree and suddenly cooling them ; this occasioiis a number of minute 
fissures in the mass, which, by the unequal refraction of the light, gives the 
stone the desired appearance." 

ATienla (Lat. a little bird). — A free, unequal-valyed shell, fixing itself 
by a byssus, the hinge without a tooth, and rather callous, valves some- 
what gaping near the beaks. . The type of the Avieulidaif which eml^races 
avicula, poitidonomya, avicidopecten, gervUlia, perna, inoceramus, and pmna. 
** The living shells or pearl-oysters," says Woodward, ** are natives of 
tropical and temperate seas : there are no living species in northern lati- 
tudes, where their fossil forms are very numerous." 

Avicula Contorta Zone. — A series of beds characterised by the presence 
of the Avioida contorta, and by some regarded as the upper portion of the 
Eeuper, and by others as the basement of the lias. From recent researches 
it would seem tiiat the facies of the fauna of this zone has more affinities 
with the Trias than with the lias, and may, therefore, be considered as the 
capping of the former system. — See Rhaetic Beds. 

Avicnlopecten. — The avicula-like pecten, an extensive genus of mon- 
omyarian bivalves peculiar to the Carboniferous limestone, and often so 
well preserved that even the colours of the living shell are retained. The 
form in the several species is more elongated than in pecten ; valves slightly 
unequal, and hinge without a tooth. 

Aze-Stone. — A sub-species of jade, of a deep sea-green or leek colour, 
used by the New Zealanders, and other natives of the Pacific, for making 
hatchets, hangers, &c. It is sometimes called Ainazoman stone, from its 
being found on the banks of the river Amazon. According to Dr Wake- 
field, it occurs largely in the middle island of New Zealand. — See Jade. 

A'zinite (6r. axine, an axe). — One of the Garnet family, so called from 
the axe-like form of its crystals ; the Thumerstein of Werner, who found 
it at Thum, in Saxony. " The crystals are attached singly, or united in 
druses ; it also occurs massive in laminar or broadly radiated aggregates, 
lustre vitreous, colour clove-brown, inclining to smoke-grey or plain blue. 
According to Wiegmann it consists of 45 silica, 19 alumina, 12.5 lime, 
12.25 iron peroxide, 9 manganese peroxide, 2 boracic acid, and 25 magnesia. 
It is not very abundant, and occurs chiefly in fissures, veins, or subordinate 
beds, in granite and the metamorphio schists, associated with quartz, 
felspar, asbestus, &c. The finest crystals are from Dauphin^, and from 
Cornwall."— (Nicol's 'Man. of Mineral.') 

Axis (Lat. axis, a pole or axle-tree). — A word used largely and variously 
in natural science ; applied to the line about which objects are symmetrical, 
about which they are bent, around which they turn, or to which they have 
some common relation; hence ''vertebral axis," "axis of elevation,'' 
" synclinal axis," " axis of rotation," " axis of a crystal," &o. 

Azdtomoos (Gr. axon, axis, and temno, I cut). — Applied to minerals 
deavable in one particular direction. 

A'ymestry Limestone. — The middle member, according to Murohison's 
sections, of the Ludlow group of Silurian strata ; so named from the village of 
Aymestryin Herefordshire, where it is well exposed.— See Silurian System. 

Ayr Stone. — A soft variety of whet-stone, used also for polishing marble, 
copper-plates, and the like ; and so called from, its being found near the 
Water of Ayr. Sometimes called Snake-ttoM, from its mottled appearance. 
—See Hone. 

Az6ic (Gr. a, without, and zoe, life).— Without life, void of life ; a term 



aj^Iied to the lowest or deepest-seated strata in the crast of the globe^ 
such as gneiss, mica-schist, and other crystalline schists, which have yet 
yielded no fossils or traces of life to the palseontologist. The term is 
merely proyisional, and founded on negative evidence, as rocks at one 
time regarded azoic have since been found to yield fossils. Used by many 
as synonymous ynXtiHypozoic, Non-fossiliferouSf and Metamorphic, which see. 

Ajdte (Gr. a, priv., and zoe, life). — An early, and still used, chemical 
term for nitrogen, because of its fatal effects (when breathed) on animal 
life. —See Nitroobn. 

Ainre Stone (so named from its colour). — A familiar term for Lapis 
LazvZi, which see. 

A'snxite (from its colour). — Prismatic azure-spar, or lazulite. A mineral 
usually occurring in mica-schist, and consisting of alumina^ silica, magnesia^ 
lime, and oxide of iron. 


Babel Qnarti. — A variety of rock crystal. " Instead of tapering gradually 
towards their extremities,*^ says Mr Bristow, '* as is the case with many 
crystals of quartz, these diminish suddenly at intervals, and are built up, as 
it were, of a series of short steps, which, from their fanciful resemblance to 
the successive storeys of the Tower of Babel, have given rise to the name." 

Bibingtonite (after Dr Babington).— One of the hornblende family; the 
" axotomous augite-spar" of Mobs. It occurs chiefly in beds of magnetic 
iron ore, and in veins of quartz and felspar, in small, black, attached 
crystals ; and consists essentially of silica, iron protoxide, and lime. 

BicUlaria (Lat. badtlumf a little stick). — ^A genus or rather group of Dia- 
toms, consisting of simple siliceous frustules of a prismatic shape (whence 
the name), and forming a brilliant chain, which often appears in zigzag, 
in consequence of incomplete self-division. They abound in all waters, 
fresh and marine ; and fossil species are equally abundant in all the so-called 
infusorial or microphytal earths. 

Back. — ^A miner's term for ''joints ;" hence ''backs and cutters" applied 
to jointed structure ; the backs running in lines less or more parallel to the 
strike of the strata, and the cutters crossing these generally at right 
angles. Applied also in mining phraseology to that part of a mineral lode 
which is nearest the surface. — See Joints. 

Bactrites. — According to Sandberger, a genus of straight, subconical- 
chambered shells, peculiar to the Devonian epoch ; apparently the Steno- 
cents of lyOrbigny. 

Biculite (Lat. haculumt a staff).— A straight, many-chambered, conical 
shell of the Chalk epoch, somewhat compressed, with marginal siphuncle, 
and much elongated ; and so named from its straight, tapering, staff-like 
shape. Like other AmmonUidce, it consists of numerous chambers divided 
by transverse sinuous septa, the outer or inhabited chamber being much 
larger than the others, and guarded by a dorsal process. The baculites, 
though not specifically numerous, were individually abundant, and highly 
characteristic of the Cretaceous epoch. From its prevalence in the Chalk 
of Normandy, that rock is sometimes termed the Baculite Limestone. 



Bagsliot Sands. — A series of Lower Tertiary beds, consisting chiefly of 
siliceous sand, and occupying eztensiye tracts round Bagshot in Surrey, 
and in the New Forest, Hampshire. They are the equivalents of the 
Bracklesham beds, and may be separated into three divisions, the upper 
and lower consisting of light yellow sands, and the middle of dark-green 
sands and brown clays, the whole reposing on the London Clay. 

Baikalite. — A light green, finely-crystallised variety of augite, occurring 
in acicular prisms, and found in granite in the vicinity of Lake Baikal 
in Siberia. 

Bala limestone.— (Bala in Merionethshire). — A series of dark-coloured, 
slaty, and sub-crystalline limestones, alternating with black slaty shales, 
the whole rarely exceeding twenty feet in thickness, and forming a subordi- 
nate group of the Lower Silurian, as developed in Wales. — See Silurian 

BalsDxiidA (Gr. phcUaiTia, Lat. halcena, a whale). — ^The Whale family. 
According to Owen, '* the remains of great whales, referable to existing 
genera or species, have been found in Britain, in gravel adjacent to estu- 
aries or lai^ rivers, in marine drift or shingle, and in the newer Pliocene 
beds." The remains of the great Airthrey whale, discovered in 1825, and 
of those found in the Clay-pits of Stirling in 1858 and 1864, were all im- 
bedded in fine plastic marine silt, varying from twenty to thirty feet above 
the present medium tide-level of the Firth of Forth. 

Balafoodon {hcUcenaf and ocUmSf odontos, tooth). — Sub-fossil teeth of 
whales not exactly rejferable to any known species ; e.g.f B, physcdoides, 
which most nearly resembles the tooth of the cachalot {Physeter macro- 
cephcUtu). — See Owen's 'Fossil Mammals.' 

Bdlaiiite (Lat. baUCntu, a barnacle). — The name given to fossils of the 
barnacle family, whose shells in general consist of six principal valves 
arranged in conical form. The cirripeds or barnacles are scarcely, if at all, 
known till the commencement of the Oolitic era. 

Balis or Baldss Bnby.— The ruby of Balaksh or Balakshan.— A lapidary's 
term for the fine rose-red varieties of the spinM ruby, which see. 

Balistes (Gr. haleso, I strike as with a dart). — The file-fish, so called from 
its rough, jagged, and dart-like fin-spines ; a cartilaginous fish belonging 
to the sclerodermatous or bard-skinned division of the Plectognalhi. The 
genus is characterised by its sub-globular body, hard, scaly, or granular 
dermal covering, solid teeth implanted in the jaws, and somewhat resem- 
bling the front teeth of man, and by their strong denticulated fin-spines. 
Speaking of fossil fin-spines or ichthyodonUites, Dr Buckland remarks 
" that the spines of balistes and silurus have not their base, like that of 
the spines of sharks, simply imbedded in the flesh, and attached to strong 
muscles ; but artictdate, with a bone beneath them. The spine of balistes 
also is kept erect by a second spine behind its base, acting like a bolt or 
wedge, which is simultaneously inserted or withdrawn by the same mus- 
cular motion that raises or depresses ihe spine." 

Banwell Cave. — An ossiferous cavern situated in the Carboniferous 
Limestone of the Mendip Hills in Somersetshire, and celebrated for its 
having jdelded a nimiber of mammalian remains characteristic of the 
Pleistocene period. — See Ossiferous Caverns. 

Barbddoes Tar. — A commercial term for petroleum or mineral tar, which 
is found in several of our West India islands. 

Bar^gine. — The name given to a curious infusorial deposit occurring in 




certain thermal waters, and so termed from its being first discovered in 
the hot springs of Bareges in the Western Pyrenees. When these waters 
are allowed to rest for some time, the bar^gine falls to the bottom as a 
greasy, amorphous, gelatinous substance, consisting (as shown by the mi- 
croscope) of the exuvise of infusoria, and emitting an odour when cast on a 
fire, like that of burnt horn. The origin of such organic deposits has not 
yet been satisfactorily accounted for by geological science. 

Barilla (Span.) — ^The ashes left by the combustion of salsola, salicomia, 
chenopodium, and other maritime plants. It consists chiefly of an impure 
carbonate and sulphate of soda, and is used in the manufacture of soap 
and glass. Like British barilla or hdp (obtained from the burning of sea- 
weed), barilla has fallen in demand since the introduction of Le Blanc^s 
method of obtaining soda from common sea-salt. 

Birinm (Gr. barys, heavy). — The metallic basis of baryta, discovwed by 
Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808. Like sodium and potassium, it is known only 
to the chemist ; is of a whitish-grey colour ; possesses little lustre ; and on 
exposure to air or water becomes rapidly converted into its oxide, baryta. 

Bdmacle (Sax. beam, child, and ooo, oak). — Literally "child of the 
oak," expressive of the old belief that the barnacle or aeom-shell grew on 
trees. Whether sessile or pedunculated, the barnacles are now well-known 
articulated animals, either found on rocks or shells at a depth ranging from 
eight to ten fathoms, or affixed to bottoms of ships and other floating 
bodies. They belong to the Cirripeds or "curl-footed** order of the 
Articulata. — See Cibbifbda. 

Bdiolite (Gr. barys, heavy, and lUhos, stone). — Heavy stone ; carbonate of 
baryta, or Witherite (which see). According to its discoverer, Dr Wither- 
ing, it consists of 80 barytes and 20 carbonic acid. 

Bardmeter (Gr. baros, weight, and metron, measure). — A well-known in- 
strument for measuring the weight or pressure of the atmosphere by 
balancing a column of air against a column of mercuryt; and by this test 
determining variations in the state of the air, foretelling changes in the 
weather, as dependent on the conditions of the air, and measuring heights 
and depths as indicated by the proportional pressure of the air. 

Baros^lenite {barys and selenite; selene, lustre). — ^Heavy spar; native 
sulphate of baryta. It occurs both massive and crystallised ; generally of 
lustrous foliated texture, hence the name. Consists of QQ baiyta and 34 
sulphuric acid. 

Barrier-Beef. — ^A name given by voyagers to those coral-reefs which run 
parallel {barrier-like) to the shores of islands and continents, but separated 
therefrom by a lagoon-channel more or less extensive. The barrier-reefs 
of Australia and of New Caledonia, owing to their enormous dimensions, 
have long attracted the attention of voyagers. — See CoRAir Reefs. 

Barystrdntianite {barys and strontian), — Known also as S^omnite, from 
its occurring at Stromness in Orkney. It occurs in greyish or yellowish- 
white semi-translucent masses, with a faint pearly histre and crystalline 
structure ; consists, according to Dr Traill, of 68.6 carbonate of strontian, 
27.5 sulphate of barjrta, 2.6 carbonate of lime, and a trace of oxide of iron ; 
and seems a mere mechanical mixture and not a true mineral species. 

Bar;^teB, Baryta (Gr. barys, heavy). — One of the simple earths, deriving 
its name from its great specific gravity, which is about 4.2. As determined 
by Davy in 1808, it is a protoxide of the metal bariufn* In nature it occurs 
chiefly as a sulphate or carbonate ; and both of these traversing the older 



formatioiu in veins are spoken of as " heavy-spars." The native sulphate 
(65.63 baryta and 84.87 sulphuric aoid) is generally known as cawk or 
heavy-tpar; the carbonate (77.59 barj^ta and 22.41 carbonic add) as With' 
mie, after its discoverer Dr Withering. There is also a sulphato-carbonate 
described by Dr Thomson. About 10,(X)0 tons of the sulphate and 1500 
tons of the carbonate are annually raised in Great Britain — Derbyshire 
being the principal seat of the former, and Northumberland that of the 

Bar^to-Cilcltt. — Known also as AUtoniU, from its occurring as a gangue 
or vein-stone in the lead-mines of Alston Moor in Cumberland ; a mineral 
consisting of 66 carbonate of baryta, and 34 carbonate of lime. 

Basdlt (Gr. and Lat. basaltes, but of unknown origin, some deriving it 
from a Syriac word, basil, baked or burnt ; others from an Ethiopio word, 
hatal, iron ; and others again from als, salt, in allusion to its usually crys- 
tallised or colunmar structure). — ^A well-known igneous rock occurring in 
the Trap and Volcanic series, but most abundantly in the former. Basalt 
belongs to the augitic division of trap-rocks, and consists essentially of 
augite and felspar — ^the former predominating. It is close-grained, hard, 
usually black, and frequently columnar; the columns or rather prisms 
being three, five, or more sided, regular and jointed. The columnar 
structure seems to be the result of cooling, and the columns always lie at 
right angles to the cooling surface ; but the columnar structure is by no 
means essential to basalt> which also occurs tabular and massive, and 
passes insensibly through basaltic clinkstone and basaltic greenstone to 
greenstone proper. The typical basalt (like that of Giant's Causeway, 
Fingal's Cave, Samson's Bibs near Edinbui^gh, &c.) generally contains 
crystals of the olive-green minend olivine, disseminated iron-pyrites, and 
oUier substances. The most remarkable basaltic columns are perhaps 
those of Mont Bonnevie near Murat in Auvez^gne, where they can be ob- 
tained from 50 to 60 feet in length unbroken by joint or flaw, and not more 
than 8 or 10 inches in diameter. — See Tbappsa.n Bocks. 

Baidltic. — Composed of basalt ; containing basalt. Baaaltifonii. — Re- 
sembling basalt in its columnar structure. 

Baidltfne. — The name given by Eirwan to crystallised hornblende, be- 
cause it is *' mostly found in basalts and lavas." 

BAsanlte (Gr. batamzo, to test ; hence hatanm, a touchstone). — Lydian 
stone or touchstone ; a variety of schistose homstone formerly, and still 
occasionally, used for testing the purity of gold. Consists of upwards of 
75 silica, with lime, magnesia, carbon, and iron. Also a name given by 
Brongniart to a rock having a base of basalt, with more or less distinct 
crystals of augite disseminated through it. 

Basflosanms (Gr. latiUut, a king, and mums, lizard).— Literally ''King 
of the Saurians," the name originally given by Dr Harlan to the huge 
skeleton (between 70 and 80 feet long) discovex^ in the Eocene beds of 
Alabama, from the belief that it was of saurian affinity. Now known to 
be a cetacean or whale, and termed Zeuglodon, which see. 

Basin. — In geology, any dipping or disposition of strata towards a com- 
mon centre or axis is termed a hadn, trough, or syncline. As the natural 
disposition of strata is less or more horizontal, such basins must have been 
formed by upheaval and subsidence of the earth's crust; and just in pro- 
portion to the intensity of the disturbing causes, so we find basins of 
greater or les? extent, and in which the beds dip at all angles towards the 



axis of depression. The Tertiary formations often occapy limited areas, 
and fill up such depressions in the older rocks ; hence the use of such 
plu-ases as "London Basin," "Paris Basin," "Vienna Basin," &c. lu 
geography, the term applies to the whole extent of valley-shaped or basin- 
shaped country drained by any river and its tributaiies, as the "Basin of 
the Forth," &c. In a wider sense, also, to the depression or receptacle of. 
seas and lakes and the areas from which they receive their waters, as the 
" Basin of the Caspian," the " Basin of the Mediterranean," &c. 

B^set or Basset Edge. — A miner*s term for the outcrop or surface-edge 
of any inclined stratum. — See Outcrop. 

Bastard (Fr.)— Spurious ; not genuine. Often applied by workmen to 
rocks and min^^s that are impure, or contain such admixture of impu- 
rity as to render them economically worthless; as "bastard limestone," 
an impure siliceous limestone incapable of being converted into quicklime 
when burnt in the kiln. 

Bath-Brick. — A well-known material used for cleaning and polishing 
metal goods and utensils. It is manufactured at Bridgewater from a tidal 
• deposit of fine siliceous silt, deposited in the river Parret in Somerset- 
shire, at the junction of the fresh and salt water. " The peculiar proper- 
ties of this material," says Ansted, "are probably owing to the siliceous 
cases of infusorial animalcules destroyed by the salt tidal- water where it 
meets the fresh water of the river." 

Bath-Stone.— A familiar term for the "Great Oolite," which is exten- 
sively quarried for building purposes in the neighbourhood of Bath. When 
raised from the quany the Oolitic freestones are soft and easily dressed, 
but become hard on exposure to the atmosphere. — See Oolite. 

BathymStrical (Or. bathys, deep, and metron, measure). — Applied to the 
distribution of plants and animyals along the sea-bottom, according to the 
depth of the zone (measuring from the shore) which they inhabit. — See Zone. 

Batrichia (Gr. hdlrdchoSf a frog). — ^A subdivision of the ReptUia, com- 
prising the frog, toad, salamander, and siren. Regarding the Batrachia 
as an order. Professor Owen (1859) specialises some as having biconcave 
vertebrae {Siren), some concave before and convex behind, as the frog 
(RaTia), and others as concave behind and convex in front, as Ripa. In 
all, the pleurapophyses are short and straight ; the occipital condyles two; 
two vomerine bones mostly dentigerous ; no scales or scutes. True batra- 
chians are found chiefly in Tertiary and Post-Tertiary strata. — See Bep- 


Batracholites (Gr. Jbdtrdckot, frog, and lithos, stone). — Fossil remains of 
true batrachians or animals of the frog kind. " The skeletons, vestiges of 
the soft parts, and imprints of the feet of several genera of true batrachi- 
ans," says Mantell, "occur in a fossil state in Tertiary deposits, all of which, 
like existing races, appear to belong to fresh- water or terrestrial species. 
In the Pliocene or newer Tertiary strata, on the banks of the Rhine at 
(Eningen, and in the papier-kokle of the Eif el, several species of frog, toad, 
and newt have been discovered. Fossil frogs of a small species, very 
similar to the recent, occur in numbers in a dark shale, overlaid by basalt, 
in the vicinity of Bombay." 

Batrichnis (Gr. bAlrdchoSf a frog, and ichnon, footprint). — A provisional 
genus of batrachjan or frog-like footprints occurring in the New Red or 
Triassic sandstones of Corncockle Muir, Dumfriesshire, and described by 
Sir W. Jardine in his ' Ichnology of Annandale.' 



Bay. — Any bending of the ocean into the land, less sudden and con- 
tracted than a creeh or harhoury and communicating more openly with the 
main ocean than a tea or fftUf; ''Bay of Biscay," *'Bay of Bengal" Geo- 
logically, bays are the grand recipients of marine drift, and are usually 
fringed or headed by belts or expanses of sand-drift or sand-dunes. 

Bay Sail — ^A general term for coarse-grained salt, but properly applied 
to salt obtained by spontaneous or natural evaporation of sea-water in 
large shallow tanks or hays. 

Beach. — The shore of the sea ; the strand. Strictly that space along 
the margin of a tidal sea over which the tide alternately flows and ebbs. — 
See Raised Beaches. 

Beatrlcea. — A remarkable fossil occurring in the Middle Silurians of 
Canada, and at first supposed by Mr Billings to be the stem of a tree-fern. 
The appearance of vegetable structure has since, however, been ascertained 
by Dr Hooker to be deceptive, and due to crystallisation. Mr Salter 
believes that the Beatricea, though thirty feet long, may be a gigantic 
annelide tube allied to Comulites. The living Ampbitrite has a shelly 
tube several feet in length. 

B^dieira. — One of Brongniart's genera of fossil plants with tumid articu- 
late stems and verticillate leaves ; now merged into Astebophyllitbs. 

Bed. — ^This term is usually applied both by geolog^ts and quarrymen to 
a stratum of considerable thickness, and of uniform homogeneous texture 
— e.g., "bed of sandstone," "bed of clay," &c. Originally and strictly, 
however, the term bed referred to the surface-junction of two different 
strata, and seam to the line of separation between them. Thus the upper 
surfistce of a stratum may be smooth, or it may be rough and irregular, and 
the under surface of the stratum deposited on it must partake of this 
smoothness or this irregularity — this is bedding ; the line that marks the 
separation between two strata is the seam, 

Beekites. — After Dr Beeke, Bean of Bristol, by whom they were first 
noticed. Concretionary forms of chalcedony found encrusting fossil 
sponges, corals, shells, and the like ; and occurring for the most part in 
the conglomerates of the New Red Sandstone. They resemble in form 
the pebbles among which they are imbedded, but are readily distinguished 
by their composition and tubercular surface. They are frequently hollow, 
— ^the organic nucleus being entirely decomposed. Abundant in the pebbly 
conglomerate of Torbay. 

Beetle-Stone. — A name given to coprolitic nodules of ironstone, &c., 
from the fanciful resemblance (when the nodule is split up) of the enclosed 
coprolite, and its radiating films of calc-spar, to the body and limbs of a 
beetle. The finest specimens are found in the ferriferous shales of the 
Coal-measures— many of them being susceptible of a fair polish, which 
materially assists in bringing out the beetle-like aspects of the fossil 
nucleus. — See Septaria. 

Belfomite (Or. beUmnon, a dart). — An abundant Cretaceous and Oolitic 
fossil, apparently the internal bone or shell of extinct naked cephalopods 
allied to the squid and cuttle-fish. Belemnites are usually found as 
straight, solid, tapering (dart-like) fossils ; but occasionally the upper or 
chambered portion is attached, and even in some instances the colouring 
matter of the ink-bag has not been altogether deistroyed. The pen of the 
common squid {loligo) is a slender and insignificant organ compared with 
the belemnito and its extinct congeners, which seemed to have thronged 



the seas of the upper Secondary period. Upwards of eighty species have 
been described^ and nearly one half of these occur in British strata. "A 
belemnite/' says Dr Buckland (' Bridgewater Treatise ^), ''was a compound 
internal shell, made up of three essential parts, which are rarely found 
together in perfect preservation. First, A fibro-calcareous cone-shaped 
shell, terminating at its larger end in a hollow cone. Secimdly^ A conical 
thin homy sheath or cup, commencing from the base of the hollow cone 
of the fibro-calcareous sheath, and enlarging rapidly as it extends outwards 
to a considerable distance. This homy cup formed the anterior chamber 
of the belemnite, and contained the ink-bag and some other viscera. 
Thirdly, A thin conical internal - chambered shell, called the alveolus, 
placed within the calcareous hollvw cone above described. This cham- 
bered portion of the shell is closely allied in form, and in the principles 
of its construction, both to the nautilus and orthoceratite. It is divided 
by thin transverse plates into a series of narrow air-chambers or areoloB 
resembling a pile of watch-glasses, gradually diminishing towards the 
apex. The transverse plates are outwardly convex, and are perforated by 
a continuous siphuncle, placed on the inferior or ventral margin.'* 

SeUmnoteathis (6r. heUmnon, a dart, and teuihis, the squid or cuttle- 
fish.) — A genus of the Belemnite family of cephalopoda occurring in the 
lias and Oolite, and occajBionally so well preserved that the receptacle and 
ink-bag have been found in their natural relative positions, together with 
the remains and impressions of the mantle, body, tentacles with their 
hooks, and the fins I According to Mr Woodwai'd, the belenmoteuthis 
had eight nearly equal arms, each furnished with twenty to forty pairs of 
hooks, forming a double alternating row ; and the tentacles, which were 
not longer than the arms, were similarly provided. In all essential points 
of structure it is most nearly related to the existing calamaries (Teuthidce), 
but in consequence of its posteriorly-pointed shell, its fins were lateral in- 
stead of terminal, whilst the chambered structure of its shell and the cha- 
racter of tentacles show that it must be regarded as a type distinct from 
and equal in importance to the existing calamaries. 

Selfimnoziphiiui (6r. belemrum, dart, and xiphos, sword). — A genus of 
solid-beaked dolphins occurring in upper Tertiary strata, and so named by 
Professor Huxley from their long straight snouts, the only portions of their 
skeletons which have yet been detected. 

Bellfirophon (a fanciful appellation from Bellerophon, n fabulous hero of 
Grecian antiquity). — An extensive genus of fossil nautiloid shells, consisting 
of a single chamber like the living argonaut. They occur in the Silurian, De- 
vonian, and Carboniferous strata^ upwards of twenty species being met with 
in the mountain-limestone. The Bellerophontidce are most generally regard- 
ed as belonging to the Heteropoda, and allied to the Glass-shell {carifiaria) ; 
though by some they are considered to be a simple form of Cephalopod, 

Bell-Metal. — A well-known alloy of copper and tin, to which small pro- 
portions of other metals (zinc, lead, &c.) are occasionally added, according 
to the quality of the tone required — the larger the proportion of copper 
the graver the tone. 

Bell-Metal Ore. — A Cornish miner^s term for Stannine or sulphuret of 
tin, in allusion to its brilliant bell-metal colour. As an ore it consists 
essentially of tin and copper-pyrites. 

Beldptera (Gr. hdoSf a dart, and pteron, wing). — ^A curious belemnite- 
looking ox^ganism occurring in Tertiary strata, and evidently the internal 


bone of a cephalopoda bat less pointed than the belemnites, and having 
a wing-like projection or process on each side; whence the name. As 
a genus it holds a place Intermediate between the Cuttle-fish and the 

Belos^ia (6r. helos, a dart, and sepia, the cuttle-fish.) — A provisional 
genus of shorty flattened, belemnite-looldng organisms occurring in Terti- 
ary strata^ and evidently the internal bone or shell of a cephalopod allied 
to the existing Sepia ; hence the name. 

BelotedthiB (6r. hdot, a dart, and ttfut^if, a squid or calamary). — A 
genus of flattened, spear-head-shaped belemnites occurring in the Lias, 
and so termed from their apparent afiSuity to the squids or calamaries of 
existing seas. 

Ber^ngellite.— One of the mineral resins, occurring, according to Profes- 
sor Johnston, in large amorphous masses, having a conchoidal fracture, 
dark-brown colour inclining to olive, a resinous unpleasant odour, and 
bitter taste. It consists of 72.40 carbon, 9.28 hydrcgen, and 18.31 oxygen. 
It is said to form a lake in the province of St Juan de. Berangela in South 
America, and is used at Arica to caulk vessels. 

Berg (Swedish herg, a mountain.) — ^An abbreviated term for iceberg, 
which see. 

Berg-Mahl, Berg-Mehl (Swedish).— Literally "mountain-meal;" a re- 
cent infusorial or rather microphytal earth of a whitish colour and mealy 
grain ; hence the name, and hence also the tenn *' fotsU farina, * by which 
it is occasionally designated. Such earths are of common occurrence in 
bog and ancient lake-deposits (as in Finland, Iceland, San Flora in Tus- 
cany, &c.), and consist almost exclusively of the siliceous shields of micro- 
scopic plant-growths (Diatoms) and of InfusorisB. In times of scarcity the 
Finns and Laps are said to mix the herg-moM with their food, just as the 
Indians swallow similar clays to appease the cravings of hunger ; but be- 
yond mere traces of organic matter, analysis does not seem to indicate the 
presence of any nutritive principle. 

B^l (Persian helur, Lat. heryllus), — A lapidary's term for the less bril- 
liant and colourless varieties of the emerald— this want of colour arising 
from the absence of chromium, which gives to the emerald its deep rich 
green. The finest beryls or aqua marine are foimd in Siberia, chiefly in 
druses or veins in granite, along with rock-crystal or tourmaline and topaz. 
Some crystals exceed a foot in length, but others of still laiger dimensions 
have been found in the United States. Esteemed gems also occur in the 
granites of Wicklow and Aberdeen ; in Norway, Bavaria, the tin-mines 
of Bohemia, Brazil, and other localities. "Pebbles of quartz," says Mr 
Bristow, "are sometimes taken for beryls, and vice verta. The two may 
be distinguished by observing that the crystals of beryl are striated longi- 
tudinally, while those of quartz are striated transversely, or at right angles 
to the axis of the prism. Moreover, the fracture of the two minerals is 
widely different, for the beryl breaks in smooth planes, the faces of which 
are at right angles to the axis of the crystals, whereas the fractured sur- 
face of quartz is invariably conchoidaL" — See Embbald. 

Beryz. — ^A genus of ctenoid fishes belonging to the Perch family, the 
living species of which inhabit the seas of Australia. A number of species 
have been obtained from the Chidk of the south-east of England, where it 
is one of the most common ichthyolites, and known to the quarrymen by 
the name of "Johnny Dory." The specimens are short, robust, perch- 



like fishes from four to twelre inclies long, having very large heads, large 
eye-orbits, broad opercular pieces covered with sculptured rays, and the 
margins of the jaws furnished with a broad band of brush-teeth. The 
body is covered with large round scales having several concentric rows of 
denticles, and the single dorsal fin has several spinous rays in front of the 
soft rays. 

Beneline (after Berzelius, the chemist). — Seleniuret of copper, occurring 
in crystalline dendritic crusts in fissures of calc-spar in the copper-mines 
of Sweden and Saxony. 

B^elite (after Berzelius). — A name given to several minerals in honour 
of the great Swedish chemist. The Berzelite of Eiihn is a honey'-coloured, 
massive arseniate of lime and magnesia ; the Berzelite of L^vy a muriate 
of lead — ^a very rare mineral, generally known as Mendipite, from its occur- 
ring in the Mendip Hills, Somersetshire. 

Bethenden Marble (from Bethersden in the Wealds of Kent).— A fresh- 
water limestone of the Wealden formation, and better known as Stusex or 
Paworth Marble, which see. 

Beyrichia (after M. Beyrich). — ^A genus of minute phyllopodous orusta^ 
ceans belonging to the family Limiuidiada!, of which the existing Limnadia 
has been taken as the type. They are bivalved, and their minute three- 
lobed-like coverings occur in profiision both in lower and upper Silurian 
strata, but more abundantly in the latter — ^where hundreds, from the size 
of pin-heads and upwards, may be seen attached to the crusts of Euryp- 
terites, as if they had led, like many of their existing congeners, a para- 
sitic life on crustaceans and fishes. 

Bezoar Stones. — A term occasionally employed to designate those stony 
concretions which are usually composed of several crusts, one within an- 
other, and having these crusts closely cohering without any internal cavity. 

Bi (Lat. Ms, twice). — ^A frequent prefix signifjring tvfo, twice, or in twos ; 
as bimana, two-handed ; biennial, living for two years, or occurring every 
second year ; bifurcate, two-forked, and so on. 

Bictispid (Lat. bi», and cutpit, a spear). — Two-pointed; two-fanged; 
two-pronged. The ''false molars" or pre-molar teeth in the human sub- 
ject are frequently termed the bunupide. 

^^^■n<ft.1 (Lat. big, and annus, a year).— In botany, enduring through- 
out two years and then perishing ; applied to plants which do not bear 
flowers and seed till the second year, and then die. 

Bifid (Lat. bis, twice, and Jindo, fidi, I cleave).— Cleft or cloven into 
two ; opening with a cleft, but not deeply divided. 

Bifdrcated, Biflucation (Lat. bis, and furca, a fork). — ^Forked; divided 
into two heads or branches. 

Bildteral Symmetry (Lat. his, both, and laius, the side). — That con- 
struction in veterbrate animals by which the organs of the body are 
arranged more or less distinctly in pairs on each side of the body. 

Bildstein (Ger. bild, shape, and stein, stone). — ^A German term, some- 
times used in English works for agalmatolite ot fignre-sUme (which see). 
Called steaiite-pagodite by Brongniart, from its coming from China in gro- 
tesque figures and pagodas. 

Bimana (Lat. bis, twice, and maniis, hand). — Literally two-handed. In 
zoology, the order of mammalia of which Man is the sole representative ; 
the apes and monkeys being quadrumaTums, or four-handed. — See tabula- 
tions, " Animal Schemb." 



with traces of lime and magnesia. When the magnesia is in notable pro- 
portion, the boles become greasy or soapy in feel ; hence the terms "monn- 
tain-soap," the ''fett-bol'' of the Germans, and the ''Sinopian" and 
''Lemnian earths" of antiquity, which see. 

Bol6giiiaii or Bolognese Stone. — ^A radiated variety of sulphate of barytes, 
found in rounded masses near Bologna, which, after being heated and 
placed in the sun*s rays, phosphoresces in the dark. 

Bone Bed.— A term applied to several thin strata or layers, from their 
containing innumerable fragments of fossil bones, scales, teeth, coprolites, 
and other organic debris. One of the best known is that which caps the 
New Red Sandstone or Trias in the south of England. It is found at Ax- 
mouth in Devonshire, and at Westbury and Aust in Gloucestershire — 
places fully sixty miles apart — the bed itself never being more than two or 
three feet thick, and frequently only as many inches. Another occurs at 
the junction of the Upper Silurian and Old Red Sandstone in Hereford- 
shire. This is rarely more than a foot thick, and often only one or two 
inches, and has been traced at intervals over a space of forty-five miles, 
from Pyrton Passage to the banks of the Teme near Ludlow. 

Bone Breccia. — A conglomerate, or rather admixture of fragments of 
limestone and bones, cemented together into a hard rock by a reddish 
calcareous concretion, and occurring in caverns, fissures, and the like, of 
later Tertiary date. This breccia is found in almost all the islands on the 
shores of the Mediterranean Sea, as at Gibraltar, Cette, Nice, Corsica, 
Palermo, &c. ; in many of the ossiferous caverns of Europe ; and similar 
admixtures occur also in the bone caves of England. Bone breccias of 
analogous date, but containing the bones of marsupial animals only, have 
been found in the caves of Australia. — See Ossiferous Caverns. 

Bone Earth. — The earthy or mineral part of bones, which consists 
chiefly of the phosphate of lime. 

Boracic Add. — The Sassoline of some mineralogists ; a compound of 
boron and oxygen, occurring in minute pearly scales, in crusts, or stalactitic 
aggregates, in the neighbourhood of hot springs and volcanoes. Upwards 
of 200,000 lb. are annually obtained from the hot springs or lagoni of 
Tuscany, by evaporating the water. 

B6racite. — Borate of magnesia ; an anhydrous compound of magnesia 
and boracic acid, consisting of 30.2 magnesia and 69.8 boracic acid. It is 
usually associated with gypsum ; but a compact variety occurs in Germany, 
forming beds with rock-salt and gypsum. 

Borax. — Native borate or bi-borate of soda, found associated with rock- 
salt in loose crystals in the clay on the shores of certain lakes in Tibet 
and Nepaul, in South America and in Ceylon. In its rough or impure 
state it is known as tincal, and from this the pure borax of commerce is 
derived. It is also made in large quantities from the boracic acid of the 
Tuscan lagoons. Borax forms the most valuable reagent for blowpipe 
experiments ; is used in the preparation of fine glass and artificial gems, 
in medicine, and in South America as a flux for smelting copper. 

Bord. — ^A miner^s term for the face of coal parallel to the natural fis- 
sures, in contradistinction to End, which is at right angles to the natural 

Bore. — A violent rush of tidal water ; the advancing edge or front of 
the tidal wave as it ascends a river or estuary; e,g., the ''bore" of the 
Hooghly, the Garonne, the Severn, the Tsientang^ &c. The bore of the 



Teientang is said to advance up that river, at Hangchau, like a wall of 
water, thirty feet in height, and at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour, 
sweeping everything before it. 

Bbreal (Lat. Boreas^ the north wind). — Of or belonging to the north; e.g.f 
Boreal Regions, Boreal Fauna, &c. The shells of the " Clyde Beds " re- 
sembling those of Greenland and other existing arctic seas, these beds are 
said to have been deposited undw cold or '' boreal conditions." 

Boniia. — Stembeig's term for a genus of Coal-measure plants with ver- 
ticillate leaves ; the same as the Asterophyllites equisetiformu of Brongniart 
and lindley, which see. 

Bomite. — The "purple copper" and "variegated copper" of some 
mineralogists ; an ore of copper of a reddish pinchbeck colour and pale- 
blue tarnish ; mostly found massive and disseminated in rocks of various 
ages, as in the copper-slate of Germany, the crystalline schists of Norway, 
&c. ; and consisting of about 60 copper, 14 iron, and 26 sulphur. — See 

Boron. — In chemistry, one of the elementary substances ; the indecom- 
p(Miable base of boracic acid, from which it was obtained by Davy, by the 
action of the voltaic battery. It occurs in the form of a fine mealy -white 
powder, and has a weakly bitter taste, but not at all acid. 

Bort or Boort — ^A kind of diamond, forming fi*om two to ten per cent of 
the rough diamonds imported from Brazil. "It is generally," says Mr 
Bristow, " of a spherical shape, and appears to be formed of a confused 
mass of interlaced and twisted parts, like the knots in a piece of wood. 
For this r^tson it cannot be cleaned like ordinary diamonds, and is only of 
use as a material for polishing other stones, for which purpose it is broken 
and reduced to powder in a mortar. Its colour is mostly greyish- white, 
and its specific gravity exceeds that of ordinary diamonds." 

Bos (Lat.) — In zoology, the technical generic term for the Ox kind, of 
which there are several existing species — taurus or common ox, urus or 
aurock, &tson, httbaltts or bufiBaJo, grunnieiia or yak, moschodvA or musk-ox, 
&c. The genus occurs fossil, or rather sub-fossil, in the Upper Tertiaries 
and Post-Tertiaries of Europe and Asia. — See BoyiDJis. 

Bobs (Fr. hoase). — A knob or protuberance; a convenient term in geology 
for rounded masses of rock that have resisted denudation, for sudden 
mound-like swellings of quaquaversal strata, and for sudden protrusions 
of trap or other igneous rock. 

Bothrodi§ndroiL (Gr. bothros, a pit or cavity, and dendron, a tree). — A 
genus of Coal-measure stems with dotted surfaces, and distinguished from 
sigillaria and stigmaria by two opposite rows of deep oval concavities 
which appear to have been made by the bases of lai^ge cones or seed- 
bracts {* Bossil Flora,' vol. ii.). In the Ulodendron (which see) the pit-like 
scars are rounder and more closely placed, while the surface of the stem 
is covered with tesselated scales like the lepidodendron, and not dotted. 

Botryoidal (Gr. hotrys, a bunch of grapes).— Applied to certain concre- 
tionary forms, as those occurring in the magnesian limestones of Durham, 
the hsematites of Westmoreland, &;c., which resemble clusters of grapes. 

Botr;^lite (Gr. hotrys, a bunch of grapes, and lUhoSy stone). — ^A variety 
of Datholiief or borate of lime, occurring in small botryoidal or reniform 
crusts in the magnetic iron-ore of Arendal in Norway. 

BotUe-Track. — The name given to the course pursued by bottles which 
are thrown overboard with a note enclosed of the longitude and latitude 



where and the date when they are dropped in the ocean. Bj this means 
the set-in and yelooity of currents are rudely indicated. 

Bottom Beds. — A term occasionally employed by English geologists to 
designate those partially or doubtfully fosdliferous strata which imme- 
diately underlie the Silurian system in Wales. They constitute the Lower 
Cambrian formation of Sedgwick, and embrace the Bangor slates, Harlech 
grits, and Llanberis schists. 

Bonlden (Sax.) — ^Any rounded or water- worn blocks of stone, which 
would not, from their size, be regarded as pebbles or gravel, are termed 
boulders. The name, however, is usually restricted to the lai^e water- 
worn and smoothed blocks ("erratic blocks") found imbedded in the 
clays and gravels of the Drift formation of the Pleistocene epoch, which 
covers the northern hemisphere, in both worlds, down to the 40th or 42d 
parallel of latitude. 

Bonldeir-Clay. — A term in frequent use by British geologists to desig- 
nate those stiff, tenacious, unlaminated clays of the glacial or " Drift " 
epoch, which are widely spread over Great Britain, and easily distinguish- 
able from other clays by the numerous boulders and pebbles interspersed 
throughout their mass. These water-worn blocks have evidently been 
dropt in deep water from floating ice, and have settled in the clayey silt, 
without regBurd to specific gravity, or any other arrangement. The clay 
itself usually partakes of the colour of the formations from whose imme- 
diate waste it has been derived : red in Old Red Sandstone tracts, dark- 
blue in Coal-bearing districts, and creamy or chalky white in Oolite and 
Chalk areas.~See Drift. 

Bonrgnetfcrijiiis (after M. Boui^et). — A genus of encrinites occurring 
in the Chalk and Lower Tertiaries, and much resembling Apiocrimts, under 
which it was at one time included. 

Bodrnonite. — A plumbo-cupreous sulphuret of antimony, named after 
Count Boumon, who first discovered it at Endollion in Cornwall, and 
hence known also as Efidellumite. It is of a steel-grey colour, and occurs 
in thick tabular crystals or massive in granular aggregates, and consists of 
41.8 lead, 12.9 copper, 26 antimony, and 19.8 sulphur. 

Bonmms.— The name giv«n to the fierce snow-storms that blow from 
the north-east over the steppes of Russia, and which often rage for twenty- 
four hours at a time. 

Bdvey CoaL — A local designation far the Tertiary lignite or brown coal 
which occurs at Bovey in Devonshire, where it is worked for the potteries. 
There are several beds, varying from two to sixteen feet in thiclmess, and 
interstratified with clays — the whole forming a local deposit of limited 
extent. The lignite appears in every degree of purity, from the woody- 
looking '* board coal " of the miner to a soft earthy mass idmost imdistin- 
guishable from peat.— See Liqnitb. 

B^Tidn (Lat. hos, bovisy an ox). — The Ox tribe ; a well-known family 
of ruminants, whose remains are not known to occur in deposits of older 
date than the Pliocene and Pleistocene Tertiaries. " At those periods,'* 
says Ow«i, " there existed in Britain a very large species of bison {Bison 
priscus), and a lax^ species of ox (Bos <mtiquus) from fresh-water Pliocene 
beds ; whilst a somewhat smaller but still stupendous wild ox {B, primi- 
geitius) has left its remains in Pleistocene marls, both in England and Soot- 
land. With this was assopiated an aboriginal British ox of much smaller 
stature, and with short horns {B. longifr&M)^ which continued to exist un- 



til the historical i>eriod, and was probably the source of the domesticated 
cattle of the Celtic races before the Roman inyasion. A buffalo not dis- 
tinguishable from the musk kind {BubcUm moscluUus), now confined to the 
northern latitudes of North America^ roamed over similar latitudes of 
Europe and Asia, in company with the hair-clad elephants (Mammoths) 
and rhinoceroses."— <' British Fossil Mammals.*) 

Bracluolites (6r. brackion, an arm, and litkos, stone). — A fossil zoophyte 
or bryozoon occurring abundantly in the Chalk of the south of England, 
presenting a puckered or folded fungiform appearance, and furnished 
with radical and lateral processes; whence the name. — See Mr Toulmin 
Smith's 'Memoir on the Ventriculidae.' 

B3rachi6poda (6r. bmchion, an arm, and pous, podos, a foot). — A numer- 
ous order of moUusca, including equal and unequal yalved genera, and 
having one shell placed on the back of the animal, and the other in 
front. They have no special breathing organs, but the mantle performs 
that office : they take their name from two long, spiral, ciliated arms, de- 
veloped from the sides of the mouth, which they can uncoil and protrude, 
and with which they create currents that bring them food — e.^., terelnuttUaf 
spirifer, prodtKUif &c. The Brachiopods were more abundant, generally 
and numerically, in Palseozoic than in Neozoic epochs, and have been much 
studied by palaeontologists.— See Mollusca and Palliobranchiata. 

Bradiy. — A Greek word signifying short, and frequently made use of in 
scientific compounds; as brachyurotts, short-tailed; bra^chypteryx, short- 
winged ; brachy(xra, short-homed, &c. 

Brachyceph&lic (Gr. brachys, short; i^;7Aa^,thehead).— Literally ''short- 
headed;" applied in scientific descriptions to the form of the head in 
animals — e.ff., the brachycephalic or short-headed tribes of the human 

Brachyph^Unm (Gr. brachys, short, and phyllum, leaf). — ^A coniferous- 
looking plant occurring in terminal twigs oxkd branches in the Oolitic 
formation, and so called from the short, ovate, ribless, scale-like leaves 
which surround the branches. Judging from its leaves and general aspect, 
lindley would ally it with the Araucaria, Callitris, and Jkurydiwrn, 

Brachytira (Gr. brachys, short, and <mra, tail). — ^A sub-order of the 
Decapod crustaceans, in which the abdomen is always converted into a 
short jointed tail, quite destitute of terminal appendages, and bent round 
so as to fold closely under the breast, as in the common edible crabs. The 
brachyura are not known in a fossil state earlier than the Lower Cretaceous 
or Greensand period. 

BraddeslLam Beds. — A series of Lower Tertiary sands and clays immedi- 
ately overlying the Lobdon Clay, and so called from being well exposed at 
Bracklesham Bay, near Chichester, in Sussex. They contain the gigantic 
cerithium, volutes, cowries, bones of fishes, crocodiles, and sea-serpents ; 
and thus seem to favour the idea of a warm climate having prevailed in 
these latitudes during the period of their deposit. 

Bradford day.— A member of the Oolitic system, equivalent with, or 
immediately overlying, the Great Oolite. It is well developed near Brad- 
ford, and consists of a pale greyish clay, slightly calcareous, and enclosing 
thin slabs of tough brownish limestone. It rarely exceeds sixty feet in 
thickness, and is remarkable for the number of its Apiocrinites, which are 
consequently sometimes termed the "Bradford Encrinite." 

Brandlia (Gr. a gill).— The braTichiai or gills are the respiratory organs 



of those animals that breathe water instead of air. They vary greatly in 
their structure and position in different animals. 

Branchidsteg^ BraachidBtegons (6r. braiichia, gill, and stego, I cover). 
— Gill -covering ; applied to certain bones or bent rays that support the 
membrane which covers and protects the gills of fishes. The branchiostegal 
rays are often very beautiflilly preserved even in Palssozoic fishes. 

Brard's Process. — A method adopted by M. Brard to discover in a short 
time the relative resistance offered by different kinds of rock to the action 
of damp and frost, and therefore to determine their durability with re- 
ference to exposure. It consists in boiling small cubes of the stones to be 
tested in a saturated solution of sulphate of soda ( Glauber *& salts), and 
then suspending them for four or five days in the open air. As they dry 
they become covered with an efflorescence of crystals, which must be suc- 
cessively washed off till the efflorescence ceases. If the stone resists the 
decomposing action of damp and frost, the salt does not force out any 
portions of the stone with it ; on the other hand, if it yields to this action, 
small fragments will be perceived to separate themselves, and the cube will 
gradually lose its angles and sharp edges. The amount of this disinte- 
gration affords, according to the author of the process, a criterion of what 
would be produced in course of time by the action of the weather. Ac- 
cording to other authorities, the expansion of water under frost, and the 
almost inappreciable expansion of Glauber salt while crystallising, are 
so very different things, that the one cannot by any means be taken as a 
test of the effects of the other. 

Brash. — " In almost every country,*' says Sir Charles Lyell, '* the allu- 
vium consists in its upper pe^ of transported materials, but it often passes 
downwards into a mass of broken and angular fragments, derived from the 
subjacent rocks. To this mass the provincial name of ' rubble ' or ' brash' 
is given in many parts of England. It may be referred to the weathering 
or disintegration of stone on the spot, — ^the effects of air and water, sun 
and frost, and chemical decomposition." — See Cornbbash. 

Brattioe. — In coal-mining, an undeiground wall or partition made of 
wood, or &ced up with wood, to prevent the escape of gases or water, or 
to alter the current of ventilation. 

Brannite (in honour of M. Braun of Grotha). — ^An abundant ore of man- 
ganese, consisting, according to analyses of Indian specimens, of 73.79 
binoxide of manganese, 12.91 peroxide of iron, 8.80 silica, with magnesia, 
oxygen, and water. — See Manganese. 

BrazOian Bnby. — The name given by lapidaries to light rose-coloured 
Bpinelle, and pink-coloured topaz. 

Bnudliaii Sapphire. — The name given by some authors to light-blue 
topaz, and by lapidaries to indicolite. 

BrazUiaa Tourmaline.— The name given by lapidaries to Brazilian 

Breast. — A miner^s term for the face or front of a coal-seam at which 
he is working. The term is also applied to the wooden partition that 
divides a shaft, firom bottom to top, into two compartments— the one 
forming an '' upcast " the otiier a '' downcast " current of ventilation. 

Br6ccia (Ital. a crumb or fragment). — ^A term applied to any rock com- 
posed of an agglutination of angular fragments, as '' volcanic breccia^" 
" osseous breccia," " calcareous breccia," &o. A breccia, or breceiaied rock, 
differs Arom a conglomerate in having its component fragments irregular 



and angular, whereas tlie pebbles of the latter are rounded and water-worn. 
The origin of many breccias and breccio-oonglomerates is extremely 
puzzling to geologists. Many of them seem to point to the action of frost 
on exposed rock-surfaces, and to the transporting power of ground and 
river ice for their deposit in water ; e.g., the Permian Breccias of Devon 
and Annandale. 

Breese. — The general term for a wind of some briskness, but of limited 
extent and duration ; less violent than a gale, 

Breithauptite (after Professor Breithaupt of Freybei^). — Antimonial 
nickel ; occurring in the Hartz with ores of cobalt, lead, zinc, and pyrai^y- 
rite ; either crystalline, arborescent, or disseminated ; of a light copper-red, 
with a violet-blue tarnish ; and consisting of 31.4 nickel, and %SS antimony. 

BrewBtexite (after Sir D. Brewster). — One of the Zeolite family, occur- 
ring in short prismatic crystals of a greyish white or yellowish colour and 
vitreous lustre, formed by several vertical prisms, and consisting of 54 
silica, 17 alumina, 8.7 strontia, 6. 4 baryta with lime, and 13.5 water. 

Brewstoline (after Sir D. Brewster, by whom the first accurate researches 
were made into the nature of the liquids and gases which occur in the 
cavities of rock-crystal and other gems). — Brewstoline is a transparent, 
colourless fluid, occurring in the minute cavities of rock-crystal, amethyst, 
topaz, &c. ; is thirty-two times more expansible than water, and is said to 
be liquid carbonic acid. — See Ametbtstolinb. 

Brisk-Clay. — ^The familiar term for any clay used in the manufetcture of 
bricks, tiles, and the like. A good hrick-day consists of a tolerably pure 
silicate of alumina, combined with sand in various proportions, and free 
from lime and other alkaline earth, of which there ought not to be more 
than 2 per cent, — ^more than this acting as a flux in the brick-kiln. A 
little iron is also present in most varieties ; hence the red colour of the 
bricks as the iron passes into the state of peroxide. Brick-clays are gene- 
rally superficial deposits, but may also be obtained from any of the strati- 
fied formations. In geological classification^ the term ** Brick-clay" is 

frequently used in contradistinction to that of '' Boulder-clay " — meaning 
thereby those finely-laminated clays of the Pleistocene epoch which imme- 
diately overlie the true Boulder-clay, and have evidently been derived from 
it by the wasting and re-assorting agency of water. 

Bristol-Stone, or Bristol-Biamond. — ^A familiar term for small brilliant 
crystals of quartz or rock-crystal, occurring in the limestones of Clifton, 
near Bristol. 

Britileness. — That quality of minerals and other solids by which they 
admit of being easily broken into fragments. The opposite of tough or 
tenacious : thus a substance may be hird yet brittle, be soft and yet tenacumt, 

Brocatfllo (Span.) — ^A species of brecciated marble, the component frag- 
ments of which are of various colours — white, grey, yellow, and red. 
Brocatello is of Tertiary age, and makes a curious rather than an elegant 
ornamental stone. 

Br6mine (Or. hrovnos, a stench). — One of the non-metallic elements, dis- 
covered by M. Balard of Montpeller in 1826. It occurs in the state of a 
deep-red liquid, having a fetid odour somewhat resembling chlorine, and 
is usually obtained from the uncrystallisable residuum of sea water called 
hiitem. It is found, however, not only in sea water, but in several salt 
springs, as well as in certain marine plants and animals. 

Bronite. — Bromic-silver, an ore of silver occurring in olive-green grains, 



and consisting of 57.5 silver and 42.5 bromine. It is often mixed with 
carbonate of lead, peroxide of iron, and clay, and is found in the silver 
mines of Mexico and South America, where it is termed vet-de plata, or 
"green silver." 

Brdngniartin (after Brongniart), known also as QlavherUe. — A double 
sulphate of soda and lime — a rare salt, occurring in connection with rock- 
salt and clay. 

Brdntes (Gr. Ironies, a giant).— A genus of Devonian trilobites, especially 
characterised by their broad, radiating, fan-like tail, and so termed from 
their great size compared with the other genera of the family. Little is 
known of the true form of the head or die^>osition of the eyes. 

Brontosdnm (Gr. hronUs, a giant, and zoon, an animal). — ^A provisional 
name given by Professor Hitchcock to certain gigantic bird-like footmarks 
discovered in the New Red Sandstone of Massachusetts and Connecticut. 
Some of these footmarks, as those of the B. parallelum, sure fully 20 inches 
in length, with a corresponding breadth or divarication of the toes. — 
(' Silliman's Journal ' for 1847. ) 

Br<nu0 (Fr.)— A well and anciently known alloy of tin and copper — ^the 
proportions of the admixture varying according to the purposes to which 
it was to be applied, and the hardness and toughness depending more on 
the mode of tempering than on the relative quantities of the ingredients. 
Ancient bronze usually contains from 4 to 15 per cent of tin. Modem 
bronze, when used for statues, medals, and the like, usually contains a 
small percentage of zmc and lead ; but Idiat for bells, cannon, and other 
articles subjected to great strain, is injured by such admixture. The best 
''gun-metal," it is said, consists of 91 copper and 9 tin; the best "bell- 
metal," of 78 copper and 22 tin. 

Bnmrite. — A variety ef diallage er schiller-spar, so called from its 
metallic lustre and pinchbeck or clove-brown colour. It differs from dial- 
Hige and schiller-spar in being less fiisible,^^ and also by its greater hardness 
and specific gravity. — See Sohilleb-spab. 

Brookite (after Brooke). — Same as Anaiase, which see ; an ore of titan- 
ium occurring in rhombic prisms of a brownish-yellow or reddish colour, 
with a brilliant lustre inclining to metallic. Consists of oxide of titanium 
or titanic acid, with traces of iron peroxide and alumina. 

Brown Coal. — Another name for Tertiary lignite, in allusion to its colour, 
as distinguished from the clear, shining, or crystalline black of true coal. 
"Wood-coal," "bituminous wood," and "board-coal," are occasional local 
synonymes. — See Lignite. 

Brown Spar. — Siderite, sphserosiderite, or sparry carbonate of iron ; an 
abundant ore of iron, consisting generally of from 50 to 60 x>er cent of iron 
protoxide, and from 30 to 40 carbonic acid, with traces of lime, manganese, 
and other minor impurities. The name is also given to the brown crystal- 
lised varieties of Dolomite, whose colouring matter is derived from a small 
percentage of iron. — See Iron. 

Bmcite (after Dr Bruce of New York, by whom it was discovered and 
described). — ^A native hydrate of magnesia, consisting of 69 magnesia and 
31 water ; a synonyme also given to Condrodite or Chrysolite, which consists 
of silica, magnesia, fluorine, and iron. 

Bmdanaimia (after Bruckmann).r-Count Sternberg's term for certain 
closely-jointed stems with vertidllate leaves which occur in the Coal-meas- 
ures, now ranked under the general head Astebofhtllites. 



Br70B6a (Gr. bryos, moss, and zoon, animal). — ^This term embraces all the 
minute mollusca which inhabit compound structures, and which were 
formerly regarded as zoophytes or corallines — e.^., reUpcra, feneiieUa, 
polypcra, &c. The term (introduced by Ehrenberg) has reference to their 
branched and moss-like aggregation. — See Poltzoa. 

Btibalns (Lat. a bufEiedo). — Remains of the Musk-buffiUo {B, mosduxttu), 
a well-known living inhabitant of arctic regions, haye been found in the 
glacial drift of England, Germany, and other European localities — thus 
indicating the climatal conditions that - prevailed over these latitudes 
during the close of the Tertiary period. — See BoviD^. 

Bneholrite (after Bucholz, the German chemist).— Known also as fibre- 
lite ; a term for the finely-fibrous varieties of Andalusite or Sillimanite, 
which see. 

Bnckiog (in mining). — Crushing ore. A bucking-iron is the tool (a flattish 
hammer) with which the ore is crushed by the hand ; a huching-plate is the 
plate on which the ore is bucked. 

Btieklaadite (after Dr Buckland).— A variety of epidote or prismatoidal 
augite-spar, occurring in small black vitreous crystals in the granitic rocks, 
and described as a piu« iron epidote. 

Buddie (in mining).— A pit, trough, or frame filled with water, by means 
of which ores are separated from earthy substances by washing. 

Bdfoxiite (Lat. hufoy a toad). — Literally toad-stone ; a name given to the 
fossil teeth and palatal bones of fishes belonging to the family of Pycno- 
dorUs (thick-teeth), whose remains occur abundantly in the Oolitic and 
Chalk formations. The term bvfonite, like those of "serpent's eyes," 
"batrachites," and " crapaudines," by which they are also known, refers 
to the vulgar notion that those organisms wwe originally formed in the 
heads of serpents, frogs, and toads. 

BnnUuitiis (Gr. a bunch of lai^ge grapes — ^literally each large as a cow's 
nipple, bou and mastos). — A genus or sub-genus of Silurian trilobites, so 
called from their oblong-oval or grape-like form, and known to collectors 
as the "Barr Trilobite," from their plentiful occurrence in the limestone 
of Barr, in Staffordshire. In bumastus, which may be regarded as a sub- 
generic form of Ilcenus, the. general form is oblong-oval and very convex ; 
the head, thorax, and abdomen are of nearly equal length; the head 
and tail plates much rounded ; the eyes smooth and not granulose ; the 
thorax of ten narrow segments, in which the trilobation is scarcely discern- 
ible ; and in most species the crust studded with minute punctures. 

Bunch. — ^A miner's term for an irregular lump of ore — ^more than a stone, 
and not so much as a continuous vein. A mine is said to be bunchy when 
the yield is irregular — sometimes rich, sometimes poor. 

Bnnter (Ger. variegated). — ^The German term for the New Bed Sandstone 
of English geologists, in allusion to its variegated colour; the lowest group 
of the Tbiabsic System, which see. 

Bupr§stls. — A genus of coleopterous insects remarkable for their bril- 
liant metallic tints ; chiefly inhabitants of warm and intertropical climates, 
and frequenters of woods and pine-forests. Their elytra or wing-sheaths 
have been long known in the Oolitic flags of Stonesfield, near Oxford. 

Boxdiehonse.- About three miles south from Edinburgh, situated on 
the Lower Coal-measures, and celebrated for its estuaiy or fresh- water lime- 
stone, which has yielded many fine fishes {pcUceoniscus, amblyptenu, megctX' 
ichthySf rhizodus, holapiychius, kc), and beautifully preserved plants, as 



sphejiopteru, calamites, cuterophyllUa, ttigmaria, lepidodendron, lepidostro- 
bus, &c.— See Dr Uibbert's paper in 13th toI. 'Trans. Royal Soc. of Edin- 
burgh/ and Page in 'Brit. Assoc. Reports' for 1855. 

Bnxrh or Burr-Stone. — A name given to certain siliceous or rather siliceo- 
calcareous rocks, whose dressed surfaces present a hurr or keen-cutting 
texture ; hence their use as millstones. The most esteemed varieties are 
obtained from the upper fresh-water beds of the Paris basin, and from the 
Eocene strata of South America. The French burrhs are porous, or rather 
vesicular, in texture, and of a whitish or cream colour. They are exten- 
sively used in this country. 

B;^88olit6 (Gr. hyaos, fine flax, and liihos). — A somewhat indefinite term 
applied to fine fibrous varieties of amianthus, tremolite, actinolite, and 
other filamentous minerals. The Byssolith of Hausmann is a fine, trans- 
parent, azure-coloured variety of actinolite, consisting, according to Du- 
frenoy, of 26.98 oxide of zinc, 4.17 oxide of copper, 26.69 lime, and 39.16 
water and carbonic acid. 

B;^B8ii8 (Gr. hyuot, fine flax). — In conchology, the fine silky filaments by 
which the pinna, mussel, and other bivalves attach themselves to the rocks 
and sea-bottom. In botany, the silky tufts of mould or fungus-growth 
which spring from damp and decaying substances. 

Cabocle. — The name given in Brazil to a compact brick-red mineral found 
in the diamond sand of the province of Bahia. It resembles jasper, but con- 
tains phosphoric acid, alumina, lime, and water. 

Cdchaloiig. — ^A milk or bluish white variety of opal, so called from its 
being found in great beauty on the borders of the river Cach in Bucharia. 
In the Ealmuc language, cholong is said to signify a precious stone. Ac- 
cording to Forchammer, a cachalong from the Far5e Islands yielded 95.32 
silica, 3.47 water, iron peroxide a trace, .07 potash, .06 soda, .06 lime, .40 
magnesia. — See Opal. 

Caddis-Worms or CSase-Worms. — The larvae or grubs of the trichopterous 
(hairy-winged) insects, and so called because they are enclosed in a case or 
sheath, composed of agglutinated extraneous substances, such as fragments 
of straw, twigs, shells, &o. Some pass their larval state under water {e,g., 
the May-flies), and are thus sometimes found fossil in such masses as to 
constitute layers of fresh-water limestone. — See Indusial Limestone. 

Cddent (Lat.)— Falling ; the tenth of the fifteenth series into which Pro- 
fessor Rogers subdivides the Palseozoic strata of the Appalachian chain 
— ^the " Declining Day" of the North American Paleozoics, and the 
equivalent of our Lower-Middle Devonian.— See tabulations, " Geological 

Cddminm. — A bluish-white metal, discovered in 1818 by Stronmeyer and 
Hermann in several of the ores of zinc, and named from cadmia fossiliif an 
old term for zinc ore. Cadmium greatly resembles tin in appearance, but 
it is harder than that metal ; it is ductile and malleable ; melts a little be- 



low 500° Fahr., or under' a red-beat^ and is about as volatile as mercury. 
Its scarcity prevents its use in the arts^ but its oxide has been used as a 

Caen Stone.— The French equivalent of our " Great or Bath Oolite," an 
Oolitic limestone so termed from its being extensively quarried in the neigh- 
bourhood of Caen in Normandy, where it is developed in thick nearly 
horizontal beds. As a building-stone it is of admirable quality ; soft in 
the quarry, of a delicate uniform cream colour, and extreme fineness of 
texture, but hardens on exposiire, and is found to be exceedingly durable. 

Cain6zoic or Csenozoic (Gr. kainos, recent, and zoe, life). — Applied to the 
upper stratified systems holding recent forms of life, as distinguished from 
Mesozoic (holding intermediate) and Palceozoic (holding ancient and extinct 
forms). As a palseontological division, the Cainozoic embraces the Terti- 
ary and Post-Tertiary systems of British geologists. — See tabulations, 
" Geological Scheme." 

Cairngorm.— A brownish-yellow or amber-coloured variety of rock- 
crystal, 80 called from its being found in great perfection in the Cairngorm 
Mountains, Aberdeenshire. " It was formerly much valued," says Pro- 
fessor J. Nicol, " for ornamental purposes, and an Edinburgh lapidary cut 
nearly £400 worth of jeweUery out of a single crystal" — See Quartz. 

Caithness Flags.— A well-known series of dark-coloured bituminous 
flaggy beds, slightly micaceous and calcareous, of great toughness and 
durability, and largely employed for paving. They belong to the lower- 
middle portion of the Old Bed Sandstone as developed in Scotland, and are 
celebrated for their abundance and variety of fossil fishes — as eoccosteus, 
ptericMhySy dipteruSf diploptenUf cheiracanthuSf asterolqris, &c. — See Agassiz, 
' Poisons Fossils des Vieux Grfes Bouge/ and Miller's * Old Bed Sandstone.' 

Caking CoaL — ^The name given to certain varieties of bituminous coal, 
which, like those of the Newcastle coal-field, cake or run together in the 
act of combustion. — See Coal. 

C^Iaite. — A mineralogical term for the turqiwis, from its being supposed 
to be the precious stone alluded to by PUny under the name of Callais. 

Calamine. — The common name for the carb<mate of zinc, which occurs, 
massive or crystallised, in beds and veins in the crystalline and transition 
rocks, and also in the Carboniferous and Oolitic formations. It is most 
abundant in limestone, and is often associated with calc-spar, quartz, blende, 
and ores of iron and lead. The name is said to be derived from ccdamuSy 
a reed, because during the process of smelting it adheres to the bottom of 
. the furnace in the form of reeds. 

Calaniites (Lat. caXamus^ a reed). — A genus of fossil stems occurring 
abundantly in the Coal-measures, and so termed from their resemblance to 
gigantic reeds. Their true affinities, however,' are not well known, and all 
that can as yet be said of them is, that they were tall hollow articulated 
stems, furnished with leaves or branches at the joints, possessing a dis- 
tinctly separable wood and bark, and readily disarticulating at the nodi. 
The surface of their wood was marked with numerous parallel furrows, 
which gives to the fossil stems their striated or channeled appearance ; 
the leaf or branch scars are observable at all the joints, and their siibstance 
seems to have been so soft as to offer little or no resistance to pressure. 
According to some, they seem analogous to reeds, but this opinion is not 
well founded. Brongniart would ally them to the equisetums ; but lindJey 
and others regard their true affinities as yet imdiscovered. This much seems 



certain, that they were both numerically and specifically abundant ; that 
their habitat was the soft marshy silt of the river edge and estuary ; and 
that they contributed largely to the formation of our coal-seams. 

Calamod6ndron {calamus, a reed, and dendron, tree). — Literally '* reed- 
tree ; " one of Brongniart's genera of Coal-measure plants, often of consider- 
able thickness, and having their surfaces or outer barks smooth, their stems 
solid, and containing a deeply striated, articulated, reed-like pith ; hence 
the name. Their real nature and affinity to the ordinary calamite are by 
no means satisfactorily determined. 

Calamoph^llia {calamus, a reed, and phyllon, a leaf). — A genus of Meso- 
zoic or Oolitic corals, so called by Milne Edwards fh)m their being com- 
posed of masses of radiating tubes, with striated reed-like surfaces. Indi- 
vidual masses have been foimd several feet in diameter— the progeny, likp 
the existing brain-coral, of a single germ. Known also as Eunouia. 

Calcaire Orossier {Ft., literally coarse limestone). — An important mem- 
ber of the Eocene beds of the Paris basin ; usually co-ordinated with the 
Barton, Bagshot, and Bracklesham beds of the English Tertiaries. 

Calcaire SilideTiz. — A designation of the French geologists for a compact 
siliceous limestone of the Paris basin, which sometimes takes the place of 
the CaJcaire Orossier. 

Calcdreons (Lat. calx, colds, lime). — Composed of or containing a con- 
siderable portion of lime. Thus we speak of calcareoiu spar or CalcUe, 
which is a pure carbonate of lime, and of calcareous shale or caXcare(nis 
mndsUme, which only contain a portion of lime. Geologists also compound 
the term, as calcareo-argillaeeouSf calcareo-siliee&us, &c. 

Calcariferons. — Literally '^ lime-yielding." A term occasionally applied 
to springs charged with carbonate of lime, and which on issuing into the 
air deposit incrustations of calcareous tufa. The "petrifying springs" 
of ordinary language. 

Calc^dony (Lat. calcedonius, found at Calcedon, in Bithynia).— A semi- 
transparent siliceous mineral, of the quartz family, closely allied to the 
opal and agate, and often found associated with them in geodes and vein- 
bands. It is usually uncrystallised, of a uniform milky-white or pale 
yellow, and, when occurring as an incrustation or sinter, has a wavy inter- 
nal structure and peculiar mammillated surface. 

Calctela (Lat. a little shoe or slipper). — A fossil brachiopod, so called 
from its under or ventral valve, which is flatly conical, or compressed like 
the point of a shoe, and fitted with an opercular or Ud-like upper valve. 
It is characteristic of the Middle Devonian period, and so abundant in the 
schists underlying the Eifel limestone, that these are known to German 
geologists as *' Calceola-schiefer." 

CaldferouB (Lat. calx, lime, and/<^o, I bear). — Producing or containing 
lime ; applied to groups of strata containing subordinate beds of limestone ; 
e.g,, " caloiferous grits," " calciferous sandstones"— the latter term being 
usually applied to the Lower Coal-measures in the neighbourhood of Edin- 
b\irgh, after Mr C. Maclaren, who first made use of the designation ; the 
equivalents of the Carboniferous slates of the Irish geologists. 

Calcine (Lat. calx, colds, lime).— To reduce a substance, by heat, to a calx 
or friable state, by the expulsion of some volatile matter either combined 
with it or forming its cementing principle, as the carbonic acid from lime- 
stone, or the water of crystallisation from salts. To oxidise as a metal ; to 
reduce to a metallic calx. Calcination.— The process of reducing any ore 



or mineral to a calx by the application of heat. Thus chalk by burning is 
reduced to quuhliiMt and gypcnim to plaster-of-Paris, 

Ciicite (Lat. calx, lime). — ^A common mineralogical term for the crystal- 
lised varieties of carbonate of Ume, which are known also as Calcareotts or 
Calc-gpars, which see. The calcites are among the most universally diffused 
of mineral crystals. 

CAIdimi (Lat. calx, quicklime).— The metallic basis of lime, originally 
discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808. It is a whiter metal than 
strontium and barium, and is extremely oxidable, rapidly becoming the 
'protoxide^ or quicklime, on exposure to the atmosphere. 

Galc»Si]iter (Ger. tinUm, to drop). — This term is usually applied to 
compact stalagmitical or stalactitical deposits from calcareous waters. 
The gradual increment of calc-sinter is usually marked by lines or layers 
of varying hardness and colour.— See Sintbb aud Calo-Tufp. 

Calc-Spar or Calcareous Spar. — The general term for crystallised car- 
bonate of lime or caZcite, which occurs in a vast variety of forms, and in 
various degrees of purity — from the pure pellucid rhombs of Iceland spar 
to the confusedly crystalline aggregates of the ordinary marbles. The 
primitive crystal of calc-spar is rhombohedral, with obtuse angles of 105*^ 8' 
and 74** 52^. The derivative forms and combinations are said to exceed 800 ; 
they are all easily cleavable, and when irregular are readily distinguished 
from quartz by being easily scratched, or by effervescing under acids. 
Calc-spar, in its purest form, consists of 44 carbonic acid and 56 lime ; or 
40 calciimi, 12 carbon, and 48 .'oxygen. — See Limestone. 

Calc-Tiiff or Calcareous ToilEt.— A porous or vesicular carbonate of lime, 
generally deposited near the sources and along the courses of calcareous 
springs, incmsting and binding together moss, twigs, shells, and other 
objects that lie in the way. Occasionally, when such springs discharge 
tiiemselves into lakes and seas, beds of considerable thickness are formed, 
producing a light calcareous rock like the travertine of Italy. Wlien slowly 
formed in the open air, compact incrustations are the iisual result, and 
these are known by the name of oalc-tiTUer, In these calcareous springs, 
commonly known as ''petrifying springs," the lime is held in solution by 
an excess of carbonic acid, or by heat, if it be a hot spring, until the water 
in issuing from the earth cools or loaea part of its acid, and then the cal- 
careous matter is precipitated in a solid state.;— See Travertine. 

Caldfoa. — A Spanish term for the deep caldron-like cavities which 
occur on the summits of extinct volcanic mountains and islands, and evi- 
dently the extinguished craters of andent volcanoes. 

Cal^donite. — ^A mineralogical term for a cupreous sulphate- carbonate of 
lead, occurring in long prismatic crystals, or in acicular tufts of a fine 
verdigris or mountain-green; transparent or translucent, and having a 
resinous lustre ; consists, according to Brooke, of 55.S sulphate of lead, 
82.8 carbonate of lead, and 11.4 carbonate of copper. So called by Beudant 
from its bang found at Leadhills in Scotland (Caledonia). 

CalUaxd (Gr. chcdlis, Fr. caUlon, a flinty pebble). — A local name for any 
hard siliceous stone ; often applied by English miners and quarrymen to 
beds of cherty or sUieeous limestone. 

CiUimiuu — The name given to the loose and movable central core of 
the Aetites, or Eagle-stone, which see. 

Calomel (Gr. kalos, fair ; melat, black or Ethiops mineral).— Chloride of 
mercury (15.1 chlorine and 84.9 mercury), a rare mineral, occurring in the 



quicksilver mines of Europe in pyramidal crystals or tubercular crusts^ of 
a greyish-white colour, occasionally translucent, and sectile. A prepara- 
tion of mercury (the submuriate or diohloride), much used in medicine. 

Calp. — A provincial Irish term for an impure argillaceous limestone, or 
rather argillo-ferruginous limestone ; hence the name Calp-sloUes, adopted 
by Mr Griffiths for a considerable thickness of shale, argillaceous lime- 
stone (calp), and flaggy sandstone, which occurs between the two great 
bands of Carboniferous limestone, as developed in Ireland. The Calp-slates 
lie above the lower band, the Carboniferous slates beneath it. 

Calymdne (Gr. kekalymene, concealed, obscure.) — A genus of trilobites 
deriving its name from the obscurity which long hung over the real nature 
of these crustaceans ; the " Dudley Trilobite " or " Dudley Locust " of col- 
lectors. The genus occurs throughout the Silurian system, but more 
especially in the Ludlow rocks of England, and is distinguished by its 
ovate, convex, and deeply-trilobed shell or crust, which is foimd either 
expanded or coiled up like the oniscus or wood-louse. The common 
Calymejie Blumenbachiif or '* Dudley Trilobite,'* is found from one to five 
inches in length ; has the head or cephalic shield large, convex, rounded 
in front with a well-marked border, boldly three-lobed, and having the two 
compound facetted eyes set widely apart on the sides of the shield ; the 
thoracic portion consists of thirteen segments, and the pygidium or tail- 
plate is small and nearly semicircular. 

Cumbrian {Cambriaf the ancient name for Wales). — Belonging to Wales. 
In geology, a term employed by Professor Sedgwick to designate the lowest 
fossiliferous rocks as developed in North Wales. As originally employed, 
the term embraced several series of strata (the Caradoc or May HiU sand- 
stone, the Llandeilo flags, and the Bala limestone) which have since been 
ranked as Lower SUurian. As now received by geologists, the *' Cambrian 
SjTstem" embraces the lingula flags of North Wales, the Sbiperstones of 
Shropshire, the lower Greywacke of the south of Scotland, and the lowest 
fossilf erous rocks of Wicklow in Ireland, and is regarded as the equivalent 
of the Hnronian System of North America, which see.— See also tabula- 
tions, ''Geological Scheme." 

Cam^lidsB (Lat. camelus, a camel). — ^The Camel family, which includes 
the true camels of the eastern hemisphere and the llamas of the western. 
They are the only ruminants having incisors in the upper jaw, and are now 
a limited family, though remains of an extinct species have been found in 
the Tertiaries of the Siwalik hills in India, and of allied genera, such as 
Sivaiherium from the same deposits, and Macraw^ienia from the later 
Tertiaries of South America. 

Cimeo (It. cammeo). — A precious stone engraved in relief, as opposed to 
an intaglio, which is cut into the stone. The earliest cameos appear to 
have been cut upon the onyx, and subsequently upon the agate. The true 
cameo is formed upon a stone of two or more layers differing in colour, and 
the art of the engraver consists in so cutting as ,to appropriate these differ- 
ent coloured layers to distinct parts or elevations of the figure to be pro- 
duced. Porcelain and glass have been employed with indifferent success 
as a substitute for the natural gems ; and the shells of various mollusca 
are now chiefly used to produce cheap and not inelegant imitations. 

CampfiodiflCiis (Gr. kampylos, bent, and discos, a quoit or disc).— A 
genu9 of Tertiary infusorial organisms ; so called from their form, which 
is that of an ovsJ disc, somewhat incurved or bent inwards upon itself. 



Their siliceous shields occur in profusion in the tripoli or polishing-slate 
of Bohemia and other r^ons. 

Cdncellated (Lat. cancelHf a grating of bars, lattice-work). — Latticed ; 
anything which is cross-barred, or marked by lines which cross each other 
at right angles. This cancellated arrangement is coc&mon in leaves, in 
bones of certain mammals, in the bryozoa, and other organic structures. 

Cangdua (Span.) — A South 'American term for the volcanic mud of the 
Quitenian Andes. This mud is compact, slightly argillaceous, and more or 
less saline, and occurs in rock-like masses, yielding very slowly to atmos- 
pheric agency, or even to running water. 

Cinine, Canines (Lat. cants, a dog). — Dog-like ; partaking of the nature 
of, or exhibiting the characteristics of, the Dog tribe. The ** canines" or 
canine teeth in mammals are those strong, sharp-pointed teeth (one on 
each side in either jaw), inserted between the incisors and premolars ; and 
are so termed from their well-marked development in the dog, for whom, 
as for other animals possessed of them, they perform the function of cutting 
and tearing. — See Teeth. 

C^jinal CoaL — A compact, brittle, jet-like variety of coal, sonorous when 
struck, breaks with a conchoidal fracture, and does not soil the fingers 
when handled. It is said to derive its name from the candle-like light it 
yields when burning ; and is known to the Scotch miners as '* parrot-coal," 
from the crackling, chattering noise it emits when first thrown into the fire. 
It occurs interstratified in the Coal-measures of certain districts along with 
ordinary coal, and often forms, in the Scotch coal-fields, the upper poiiion 
of a seam of splint-coal, or even of a bed of black-band ironstone. Occa- 
sionally these ironstones become so bituminous as to pass into a cannel 
coal more or less pure; and vice versd, a cannel coal often becomes so 
ferriferous as to afford an available ironstone. Cannel coal appears to 
have been formed either by the greater maceration of the vegetable mass, 
or under such conditions as permitted a more equable and thorough bitu- 
minisation than in ordinary coal. It is used chiefly in the manufacture of 
gas, for which it is admirably fitted ; and some of the more lustrous and 
tougher varieties are worked, like jet, into ornaments and curiosities. 

Ca&ons (Span.) — The name given in western America to the profound 
gorges or river-channels that occur in the region of the Bocky Mountains. 
Many of these chasms {e.g., those of the Colorado) are wall-sided and cut 
through stratified rooks as well as granites to the enormous depth of 3000 
and 4000 feet. 

Cautalite. — A variety of pitchstone containing crystals of glassy felspar, 
of a green colour, slightly translucent, and so named from its occurring in 
the Cantal. 

Capillary (Lat. capiMtu, a hair). — Hair-like. Applied to amianthus, 
certain zeolites, and other minerals whose crystals occur in filaments or fine 
hair-lihe masses ; also to fine tubes less than the twentieth of an inch in 
diameter, and cabbie of sustaining or attracting any liquid considerably 
above the level at which they may be immersed. This capUlary atlraction, 
as it is termed, is a phenomenon which occurs less or more in all porous 
bodies — the minute interstices acting as capillary tubes, and "drawing" 
or ** attracting" any liquid considerably above the level of its mass. 

Cibradoe Sandstone. — The upper member or series of the " Lower 
Silurian ** formation, as it occurs in the hiUy range of Caer Caradoc in 
Shropshire, from which it takes its name {Caractaait, king of the ancient 



Britons, corrupted Caradoc). In the typical district, the Caradoc group 
consists of sandy shales, courses of shelly sandstone occasionally passing 
into bastard limestone, and light-coloured siliceous sandstones and grits. 
They are worked as freestones ; and notwithstanding their soft and sectile 
character, these Caradoc sandstones are laden with a profusion of fossils of 
the same species as occur in the slaty argillaceous rocks of large tracts of 
Wales — e*g., Snowdon and Bala.— See Silubian Ststem. 

Cdrapace (Gr. kwi'abos, a crustaceous animal like the crab and lobster). 
— A general term for the crustaceous uid homy coverings of certain classes 
of animals, which, like the plates of the armadillo, the homy shell of the 
tortoise, and the calcareous crusts of the crab, protect the internal parts 
from injury, and become, as it were, a sort of external skeletons. The 
term, however, is mainly applied to the shields of the tortoises, Crustacea^ 
and infusorial animalcules. 

Carbon (Lat. carbo, the inflammable matter forming charcoal). — Carbon 
is one of the elementary substances, and in its pure form exists only in tiie 
diamond. By combustion in oxygen it forms carbonic acid gas. In its 
impure or mixed forms carbon occurs largely in nature, as in the substance 
of all wood plants ; in the tissues of animals ; and abundantly in many 
minerals, as in the coals, bitumens, mineral resins, &c. 

Carlxm^useoiis (Lat. carlo, coal). — Coaly ; applied to rocks containing 
abundant traces of fossil carbon, or vegetable debris ; hence " carbona- 
ceous shales,'' " carbonaceous sandstones," &c 

Cirbonate. — In chemistry, any compound of carbonic acid with a base ; 
as carbonate of lime, carbonate of iron, &;c. 

Carb6nic Add. — An acid formed by the chemical tmion of carbon and 
oxygen. It is the gas given off during the effervescing of soda-water, 
champagne, and other similar liquids. It occurs lai^ly in nature, being 
given off by volcanic vents, by fissures iu mines, caves, and wells, by many 
mineral waters, by the respiration of animals, and during the decay of 
vegetable substances. It is an essential ingredient of all calcareous rock- 
masses (carbonate of lime), and an active agent of disintegration, whether 
combined with the atmosphere or with the waters that deeply percolate 
the rocky strata. 

CarboniferoQB- (Lat. ccurbo, coal, and fero, I bear). — Coal-bearing ; coal- 
yielding. The term is usually applied to that system of PalsBozoic strata 
from which our main supplies of coal are obtained, or to the respective 
groups or members of that system ; hence we speak not only of the ** Car- 
boniferous system," but of the " Carboniferous limestone," the " Carboni- 
ferous slates," and so forth. 

Carboniferons System.— That fonnation, or system of fossiliferous strata, 
which, in order of time, succeeds the Old Bed Sandstone, and is in turn 
surmounted by the Permian or New Bed Sandstone of the earlier English 
geologists. As a system, it constitutes the younger or upper portion of 
the Palseozoic cycle, and derives its importance from being, in Britain, 
North America, and other countries, the great repository from which are 
obtained the chief supplies of Coal, so indispensable to the industrial arts 
and manufisictures of modem civilisation. LUhologically, the system con- 
sists of alternations of sandstones, shales, clays, limestones, coals, and 
ironstones, in every degree of admixture and purity, and of every condi- 
tion of formation— terrestrial, fresh-water, estuary, and marine. PaUeon- 
tohgicaUy, there have been discovered in its strata representatives of all 



the great forms of life, with the exception, perhaps, of true diootyledonous 
plants in its flora, and of birds and mammals in its fauna. As its name 
implies, the most striking peculiarity in the formation is the profusion of 
fossil vegetation, which marks lees or more almost every stratum, and 
which in numerous instances forms thick seajns of solid coal. Although 
this eoaXy or earbona>ceov4 aspect prevails throughout the whole, it has been 
found convenient to arrange the system into three groups— the Jjower Coal- 
measures or Carboniferous Slates, the Mountain or Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, and the Upper or True Coal-measures ; or more minutely, as is 
generally done by British geologists, into — 

1. Upper Coal-measures. 

2. Millstone Grit. 

8. Mountain Limestone ; and 
4. Lower Coal-measures. 

Other subdivisions have been attempted according to the local peculiarities 
of different coal-fields; but it is enough for the purposes of the general 
reader to know, that all these minor arrangements can be readily oo- 
ordinated with one or other of the above four series. Thus Sir R. Grriffiths, 
in his Geological Map of Ireland, gives the annexed subdivisions : — 

a. Coal-measures, upper and lower, . 1000 to 2200 feet. 

b. Millstone Grit, . . . . 350 „ 1800 „ 

c. Mountain Limestone, upper, middle, and 

lower, .... 1200 „ 6400 ,, 

d. Carboniferous Skte, . . . 700 „ 1200 „ 

e. Yellow Sandstones (of Mayo, &c.), with 

shales and limestones, . . 400 „ 2C00 „ 

Now, here there is this little difficulty in co-ordinating, as we have first 
the usual members of the system, a, b, c, and d, and a subjacent series, 
which lies fairly open to the question whether it is not the equivalent of 
the "yeUow sandstones " which form the uppermost portion of the Old Bed 
Sandstone or Devonian system in other localities. A gain, the Carboniferous 
strata of the south of England (on the Avon near Bristol) are given in the 
' Geological Survey's Memoirs' as consisting of: — 

a. Millstone Grit — ^here mostly a hard reddish grit- 

stone, the grains often almost confluent, as in what 

are called quartzites and quartz-rocks, . . 950 feet. 

b. Alternations of Limestone, red or grey, compact or 

granular, with shales, red, dark, or grey, and sand- 
stones. Most of the strata fossiliferous, and PrO' 
ducta ffigantea abundant near the base, . . 400 », 

c. Scar Limestones — grey, reddish, mottled, brown, and 

black ; compact, shelly, crinoidal, and oolitic, in 
beds varying in thickness, and partially divided by 
shales, . . ' . . . . 1440 „ 

d. Lower Series, enclosing many alternations of lime- 

stones and shales, the former often black, brown, 
yellowish, sometimes impure, and in one part 
charged with fish-remains and cyprides in abun- 
dance, . ..... 500 ,, 

%♦ The upper part of the Old Red shows yellow and grey sandstones 
and marls. 

In this case there can be no difficulty in at once assigning b and c to the 
great series of the Mountain Limestone ; while d is evidently the equiva- 

129 I 


lent of tbe " Lower Coal-measures " of Scotland^ with a few of its beds 
graduating, it may be, into the yellow sandstones of the underlying Devo- 
nian. In Fifeshire, on the other hand, we have — ' 

a. True Coal-measures— consisting of numerous alter- 
nations of coal, shales, sandstones, ironstones, 
and occasional beds of impure limestone, . 2500 feet. 

h. Several strata of crinoidal and producta limestone, 
with intervening beds of shale, sandstones, and 
thin seams of coal, .... 300 „ 

c. A vast thickness of whitish fine-grained sandstones, 
bituminous shales, a few thin seams of coal, 
mussel-bands or shell-limestone, and fresh-water 
limestones abounding in cyprides, . . 2000 „ 

In this instance there is no development of Millstone Grit — ^the whole 
system resolving itself, as it does in many other regions, into CJpper Coal, 
Mountain Limestone, and Lower Coal. In Nova Scotia, again, we have in 
the lower series a vast development of gypseous beds, which look some- 
what puzzling at first sight to an English geologist ; but which, when 
taken in connection with the associated shales and coals and fossils, admit 
of easy co-oixli nation on the large scale with the main subdivisions estab- 
lished by British geology. How far these subdivisions may indicate 
separate life-periods, or only portions of one great epoch, has yet to be de- 
termined by a more minute and rigorous comparison both of vegetable 
and animal species. In the mean time, existing evid&nce rather favours 
the latter opinion, and geologists are nearly at one in regarding the Car- 
boniferous system as a great life-period, characterised from all others by 
many forms of a varied marine and estuary fauna — its gigantic sauroid 
fishes, crustaceans, eacrinites, and corals ; but in particular by the vast 
profusion of its endogenous flora — ^its stigmaria, sigillariaf lepidodendra, 
favularice, Knorrice, bothrodendra, ulodendra, catamites, a^terophyllites, 
and fil^icites —plants which rose, culminated, and died out with the period, 
never again to be repeated in the onward phases of vegetable development. 
, Carhiiiicle (Lat. carbunculus, a little coal, from carbo), — The name given 
by jewellers to the variety of precious garnet {Pyrope) which is set en ca- 
hochon. It is of a deep red colour, with a mixture of scarlet, and when 
held up to the sun becomes exactly of the colour of a burning coal. 

Carchirodon (Gr.) — Literally "jagged tooth;" a genus of Tertiary 
sharks, so termed from their notched or jagged teeth, which are often of 
great size, and indicating dimensions more than double that of the largest 
existing species. The living genus Carckarias comprises the large sharks 
with cutting triangular teeth, crenated or notched oh their margins, and 
having a broad base. In the extinct Carcharodon the teeth differ from 
those of Carcharias in being solid in the centre, while in the latter they 
are hollow ; but in both genera the teeth exhibit the same reticulated 
structure of medullary and calcigerous tubes. 

Carcharopsis (Gr.) — Literally ** shark-like ; " a genus of Carboniferous 
shark-like fishes, founded by Agassiz on their teeth — the only portions 
yet discovered. These teeth occur in the Carboniferous Limestone ; are 
compressed, triangular, crenated on the edges, with large plaits or folds in 
the enamelled surface, towards the base of the crown. 

Cardiglio Marble. — ^A grey, clouded variety of marble obtained for 
ornamental purposes from the island of Corsica. 



Cardinal (Lat. cardo, a hinge).— A term implying importance, and sug- 
gestive of the hinge or point on which a thing turns or depends. Thus the 
cardinal points of the compass are the North, South, East, and West ; the 
cardinal siffTis of the zodiac, Aries, Cancer, Libra, and Capricorn. 

CardiocArpon (Gr. kardia^ the heart, and karpos, fruit). — A genus of 
small heart-shaped seeds occurring in groups on the shales of the Coal- 
measures as if they had grown in clusters. Supposed by Brongniart to be 
LycopodicuxotLs ; by others, to hare fallen from some species of Atterophyl- 
lites ; and by Lindley, to have, like other genera of the Coal era, no very 
positive modem analogy. 

Cdrdlnm (Gr. kardia, the heart).— The cockle-shell, so named in allu- 
sion to its heart-like form ; a well-known dimyarian bivalve occurring in 
many specific forms, both recent and fossil, in almost every sea, and from 
the Lias upwards. The cockle-like bivalves occurring in palseozoic forma- 
tions are Cardiola, CardioTiiorphat and similar provisional genera: Cardita, 
Cardinta, Cardilia, &c., are chiefly mesozoic and neozoic forms, and be- 
long to the family Ctpbinid^. 

Carnfliaai (Lat. caro, carnis, flesh). — Applied originally to a flesh-colour- 
ed variety of calcedony ; but now a lapidary's term for the more trans- 
parent varieties, whether brown, blood-red, yellow, white, or almost 
black. Camelian is uniform in colour, or it may be less or more clouded, 
but it is never figured or striped like the agates. The colouring matter 
seems to be peroxide of iron, which may be acted upon by heat so as to 
convert specimens ori^nally yellow into a fine deep red, as is done with 
those found at Cambaya, near Surat. The finest camelians are found in 
India, Arabia, Surinam, and Siberia ; but fair specimens are also obtained 
from Bohemia, Saxony, and Scotland. According to Heintz, a Chinese 
variety yielded — silica, 99.37 ; alumina, .081 ; iron peroxide, .050 ; mag- 
nesia, .028 ; potash, .004 ; soda, .075 ; carbon, .003 ; and water, .891. 

Carniyora (Lat. caro, camis^ flesh, and voro, I devour). — One of Cuvier's 
orders of the mammalia (hyaena, tiger, &c.), so called from their subsist- 
ing solely on flesh. CamiyoroiiB. — Living on flesh, in contradistinction to 
kerbivorotLs, Jrv^ivorous, &c. — ^See tabulations, " Animal Scheme." 

CarpolitheB (Gr. carpos^ fruit, and litkos, stone).— The general term for 
fossil fruits, such as those found in the Tertiary clays of the London basin, 
in the Coal shales of Newcastle, &c. 

Carrira Marble.— A pure white, semi-transparent saccharoid marble 
obtained from the moimtains of Massa Carrara in Italy, and highly valued 
for statuary purposes. It is an altered or metamorphic limestone of the 
Oolitic period. 

Cary6caris (Gr. haryon, a nut, and haris, shrimp). — A small crustacean, 
from the Lower Silurian slates of Skiddaw, having a long, pod-shaped, 
bivalved carapace, rounded anteriorly, sub-truncate behind, and with the 
back and front sub-paraUel. The surface is smooth, or with only oblique 
wrinkles near the margins, but with no parallel lines of sculpture. Body, 
teison, and appendages unknown. 

Caryoph^^Uia (Gr. karyophyllon, a clove). — Literally "clove-shaped;" 
a genus or section of lamellated Anthozoarian corals occurring from the 
Upper Silurian to the Chalk inclusive. The polyparium or calcareous axis 
is turbinated or cylindrical, simple or branched, longitudinally striated, 
fixed at the base ; the cells boldly lamellated. 

CascAde (Fr. from Ital. cascare, to fall).— A waterfall ; usually applied in 



geography to waterfalls on streams and riyulets, in contradistinction to 
the falls or cataracts on larger rivers. 

Case^UliO (Span.) — The name given in Brazil to the auriferous or gold- 
bearing detritus of the country. " The common cascalho/' says Ansted, 
''is an indurated soil in which gold is contained, and seems to consist of 
the fragments of veins which have been by some means broken up, rolled 
about by the action of water, and buried by it among the clays which have 
composed its bed." The cascalho is also the principal repository of the 
Brazilian diamonds. 

Cassiterite (Gr. lassiteros, tin). — A mineralogical term for the oxide of 
tin, or ordinary tin-ore, which consists of 79 tin and 21 oxygen, but often 
mixed with impurities of iron peroxide, silica, manganese, and the like. 
M(»t of the tin of commerce is derived from this ore. 

Castoroides (Gr. kastor, beaver, and eidos, like). — A large rodent allied 
to the beaver and oapybara, and found, along with the remains of mastodon, 
in the post-glacial deposits of North America ; e. g., the Cantoroides Ohioen- 
sis of Foster and Wyman. 

Cdtadysm (Gr. kcUaklysmos, inundation).— Any violent flood or inun- 
dation that overspreads or sweeps over a country ; deluge ; debacle. 
Catadysmal. — Applied to the effects or destructive power of such violent 

Cat^pdra (Lat. catena, a chain, and pora, cell). — Chain-pore coral ; a 
genus peculiar to palaeozoic strata, and so termed from the chain-like 
arrangement of its pores or cells in polished specimens. In catenipora the 
polyparium is hemispherical, composed of vertical anastomosing lamellae ; 
cells tubular, oval, terminal, and united laterally, so that in transverse 
sections they present a chain-like arrangement. Often found in hemi- 
spherical masses more than a foot in diameter. Known also by the Greek 
synonyme, jffaly sites, which see. 

Cat's-Eye. — A variety of chalcedonic quartz, of a greenish-white or grey, 
olive-green, red, brown, or yellow colour, and containing parallel fibres of 
amianthus, which produce a peculiar play of light ; hence the name. For 
this peculiar play of light the French use the term chatoyant. The finest 
varieties of this mineral are brought from Ceylon and Malabar. 

Catlinite (after Catlin, the American traveller). — A reddish variety of 
claystone from the Cdteau des Prairies, west of the Mississippi, which is 
carved into tobacco-pipes by the North American Indians. 

Caudal (Lat. cauda, the tail). — Belonging to or connected with tiie tail ; 
as " caudal fin," the tail fin ; ** caudal vertebrae," vertebrae of the tail. 

Candez (Lat. caiuiex, a stem or stock). — In botany, usually applied to 
the upright stem of ferns, the leaves of which are technically termed 
fiaTids, and the root-like or underground stem a rhizome. 

Caal6pteri8 (Gr. kaulos, stem, and pteris, fern). — Literally tree-fern ; a 
genus of stems or trunks found in the Coal-measures, and by lindley re- 
garded as decidedly the stems of tree-ferns, in consequence of their shal- 
low sinuous furrows, and spirally-arranged long oval leaf -scars. 

Caves, Caverns (Lat. cavus, hollow). — Caves occur less or more along the 
rocky shores of all free-fiowing seas, and are the results of abrasion by 
waves laden with gravel, &c., and acting upon pre-existing fissures or the 
softer portions of the exposed rocks. They occur chiefly in trap-rocks 
and in limestone strata— the former from structural and irregular wasting, 
the latter from infiltration and chemical erosion. The most celebrated 



cayemS; however, occur in limestone strata, and appear to be the results 
partly of fissuring by subterranean disturbance, and partly of waste by the 
percolation and passage of carbonated waters. They are sometimes ar- 
ranged into /<mr kinds — '* 1. Those which have 'arisen from fissures in the 
rock, and are therefore wedge-shaped crevices, widest at the opening. 2. 
Those that face the sea-shore, and are merely holes that have been worn 
out by the dashing of the waves against the cliff. 3. Those which open to 
the face of an inland cliff, and give egress to water. 4. Those whose en- 
trances are holes in the ground opening very wide beneath, and having 
the appearance of water having at one time flowed in from above." —(J. E. 
Woods, 'Geol. Observ. So. Australia.') Some are celebrated for their great 
extent and subterranean waters (Kentucky) ; others for their gorgeou3 
stalactites and stalagmites (Antiparos); and many, of late, for their 
treasures of sub-fossil bones (Eirkdale, Kenfs-hole), and consequently 
known as " Bone Caves," or " Ossiferous Caverns," which see. 

Cawk.— A familiar term for heavy-spar or native sulphate of barytes, 
which see. 

Cflestiiie (Lat. ccdum, the sky). — A mineralogical term for sulphate of 
strontian, in allusion to its colour (sky-blue), which usually ranges from 
bluish-white to indigo blue, and is rarely reddish or yellow. Celestine 
occiirs in rocks of all ages, but more frequently in the newer formations. 
Its average composition is 56.5 strontia, 42.5 sulphuric acid; with traces 
of iron,- bar3rta, lime, and water. 

Cem^t (Lat. camenlum), — In building, literally chips for filling up the 
Interstices between the lai^r blocks ; now applied to mortar or any simi- 
lar substance used for uniting other materials, and which ultimately 
hardens and binds them together. Roman cement, a mortar made of lime 
and puozzolano (volcanic tufa) ground to fine powder ; hydraulic cement, 
any mortar that sets rapidly and hardens under water (which see). Ther 
are numerous builders' or architects* cements in the market, some for 
facing walls in imitation of stoue, others for setting under water, some 
for resisting fire, and others for the exclusion of damp (as Gibb's, Parker's, 
Eeene's, Pew's, Martin's, &o.) ; but in all of them lime, silica, and alumina 
in various proportions, and in different states of calcination, are the prime 

Centres of Creati0iL— '' When the £Eiuna or flora of a province (we quote 
the late Edward Forbes) has been thoroughly investigated, the diffusion 
of the individuals of the characteristic species is found to indicate that 
the manifestation of the creative energy has not been equal in all parts of 
the area ; but that in some portion of it, and that usually more or less 
central, the genesis of new beings has been more intensely exerted than 
elsewhere. Hence, to represent a province diagrammatically, we might 
colour a nebulous space, in which the intensity of the hue would be exhi- 
bited towards the centre, and become fainter and fainter towards the cir- 
cumference. This feature of zoological and botanical provinces gives rise 
to the term centres of creation ; and in none, except one centre of creation, 
do we find the same assemblage of typical species; in other words, no 
species has been called forth originally in more areas than one." — See 
Specific Centres. 

CephalAspis (Gr. hephale, the head, and aspis, a shield).— A fish of the 
Lower Old Red or Devonian period, so called from having the bones of 
the head united into a single shield-like case, and terminating posteriorly 



in three pointed spines or prongs — one on each side below, and a third in 
the mesial or dorsal ridge. The body also seems to have been protected 
by osseous bands and quadrangular scales, leaving the tail, pectorals, and 
other fins free as in tibie living trunk-fish. There are several species, all 
having the head lai^e in proportion to the body, and none exceeding ten 
or twelve inches in length. The dentition, and even the position of the 
mouth, is unknown, though evidently placed beneath the head, and in all 
likelihood suctorial, as in the living sturgeon. The Cephalaspidas form a 
very limited family, and embrace such provisional genera as Cepkalaspis 
proper, Aiichendspis, Pteraspis, and others of which very little is yet known. 
Cephalopoda (Gr. hephale, the head, and pouSy podos, foot). — The highest 
class of mollusca, so called from the principal organs of locomotion being 
attached to the head in the form of muscular arms or tentacles, as in the 
cuttle-fish and nautilus. In addition to their tentacular organs of motion, 
many have fin-like processes, and all can propel themselves by the forcible 
expulsion of water from their respiratory chamber. Of living forms one 
or two, like the nautilus, have external shells; all the others, like the 
cuttle-fish, are ''naked" or shell-less, but possess an internal bone or 
" pen," the representative of the shell. On the other hand, most of the 
fossil forms, as orthoceratitef ammonite, &c., have external shells, either 
straight, coiled in a vertical plane, or curved variously; though a large 
section also of the extinct forms were naked, and possessed internal ** pens" 
or shelly organs which occur abundantly in Secondary strata, and are 
known as belemnites, helemnoteuthites, and the like. Having numerous 
orguis of prehension, powerful jaws like the mandibles of a parrot, spiny 
tongues, lai^e eyes, acute senses, active locomotion, and a more concen- 
trated nervous system than other mollusca, the cephalopods, both now and 
in former ages, appear to have been the tyrant scavengers of the waters. 
They are all marine and predatory, liviog on shellfish, crabs, and fishes. 
They occur fossil in all formations, and appear to have culminated in 
point of numbers and power during the Oolitic period— each great period 
having its own peculiar and characteristic forms. It is usual to divide 
the Cephalopods into two orders— the Tetrabranchiata and the Di- 
BRANCHIATA, the former having four branchial plumes, two on each side, 
and the latter only two branchial plumes, one on each side. The tetra- 
branchs or Nautiloids form two families, the Nautilidce, and AmmonitidcB — 
the former including the existing nautilus (the only living representative 
of the order), the orthoceratite, lituite, and others having external cham- 
bered shells with plain partitions, or sutural jimctions and siphuncle 
more or less ceni3*al; the latter the extinct ammonites, baciilites, - and 
others having also external chambered shells, but these with foliaceous 
complex sutures, and siphuncle dorsal, or on the back of the chambers. 
The dibranchs or cuttle-fishes, on the other hand, have almost always 
internal shells or ** pens," which are frequently rudimentary, and when 
external, or rather pseudo-exteVnal, are never chambered. They constitute 
two main sections — Ist, Those with ten tentacular organs (decapoda), such 
as the Spiralidce or spirulaa, the Sepiadce or cuttle-fishes, the Loligidce or 
squids, and the fossil Belemnitidce or belemnites ; and 2d, Those with 
eight tentacles (octopoda), such as the OdopodicUe or poulpes, and the 
ArgoTiatUidas or paper-nautili, which are provided with a thin fragile 
pseudo-external shell. To the palsBontologist many of these distinctions 
are of prime importance, and are curiously indicative of creational pro- 



gross. ThuS; in the Paleeozoic genera the sutnral junctions are plain and 
simple, while in the Mesozoic they become foliaceous and complex — 
TvatUilites, goniatites, ceratites, and ammonite*, not only indicatiog generic 
distinctions, but time and successive formations. So also in Paleeozoio 
genera their tentacles were void of acetabula or sucking-cups (Tektacul- 
ifeba) ; while those of Neozoic periods are almost invariably provided 
with them (Acetabulifera). In like manner the tetrabranchs preceded 
the dibranciu, and thus, while the former is now represented by a single 
genus, the latter has representative families and genera in every region of 
the existing ocean. — See tabulations, " Animal Scheme." 

Ceratidcaiis (Gr. keratUm, a pod, and kdris, shrimp). — An upper Silu- 
rian crustacean, whose exact affinities are unknown, but whose form 
apparently connects it with aptts and dithyrocains. It derives its name 
from its large, finely-striated, pod-like, bivalved carapace (which has fre- 
quently been mistaken for a bivalve shell) ; and its shrimp-like segmented 
body, which consists of five or six &ee segments, terminated by three strong 
sharp-pointed spines — the leptocheles of palEeontologists before they were 
found in attachment. The finest specimens have been found in the upper 
Silurians of Lesmahagow. 

Ceratites (Gr. ieraSf a horn — curved like a ram's horn). — A genus of Am- 
monitidse, having the lobes of the sutures peculiarly crenulated. The 
ceratites are characteristic of the Trias (in which upwards of twenty 
species have been discovered), and are distinguished from the ammonites 
of the superincumbent Lias and Oolite by the absence of foliaceous sutures 
— the descending lobes terminating in small denticulations, as above 

Cerdtodns (Gr. hercus, a horn, and odous, tooth). — ^A genus of cestraeiont 
fish-teeth occurring abundantly in the /' Bone-bed," between the Trias and 
Idas formations, and very puzzling from the variety of shapes they assume. 
They have in general an imeven or \mdulating upper surface of dentine 
and enamel, and an under layer of reticulated osseous tissue ; the several 
plates or teeth apparently varying in form according to the position they 
occupied in the pavement-like palates of the cestraeiont. 

Ceratose (Gr. keras, a horn). — Homy ; having the texture and consistence 
of horn. Applied to organic structures that have a homy aspect or con- 
sistence ; e.g.f the sponges, which are usually divided into the "ceratose,** 
"siliceous," and "calcareous," or the homyffiiTUy, and limy* 

Cerite, Cererite.— A siliceous protoxide of cerium, occurring in short 
six-sided prisms, also massive and granular ; of a dark peach-red or clove- 
brown colour; very hard, and of dull adamantine or resinous lustre. Con- 
sists of 64.55 protoxide of cerium, 19.18 silica, 7.28 protoxides of lanthanum 
and didymium, 1.54 protoxide of iron, 1.85 lime, and 5.71 water. 

COTithiaxL. — A term occasionally applied to certain strata of the Vienna 
Tertiary basin, from their being charged with several species of the spiral, 
elongated, gasteropod shell, Cerithium. 

CeritMnm (Gr. her<Uionf a small horn). — A well-known gasteropod 
genus, the type of the Cerithiadce. Shell turreted, elongated, many- 
whorled, with indistinct varices ; aperture small, with a tortuous canal in 
front; outer lip expanded; inner lip thickened. The existing species 
(about 100) have a world-wide distribution ; the fossil (about 400) range 
from the Trias upwards, some species being especially characteristic of 
Tertiary strata. 



CMnm. — One of the rarer metals discoyered by Hisinger and Berzelios 
in 1803; in the mineral named cerite, which consists of silica and protoxide 
of cerium with minor proportions of iron, lime, and water, together with 
the less-known metals didymium and luTiUuinum. 

Oerliissite (Fr. ceruMf white-lead).— Carbonate of lead occurring crystal- 
lised, fine, granular, or earthy ; colourless or white, and often grey or 
yellowish- white, and consisting of 83.58 protoxide of lead and 16.42 car- 
bonic acid. It is a common ore of lead, especially in beds or veins with 
galena (sulphuret of lead), from the decomposition of which it is supposed 
to be derived ; the liberated sulphuric acid acting on calc-spu*, whose car- 
bonic acid combines with the protoxide of lead. 

Cervical (Lat. cervix, the neck). — Belonging to the neck, as the oervicaZ 
vertebrae, or vertebrsB which form the neck. 

Cestrddonte, CestradontidflB (Gr. keslra, a pike, a kind of fish, so called 
from its formidable teeth). — The first and oldest sub-family of sharks, 
beginning, says Buckland in his 'Bridgewater Treatise,' with the Transition 
strata, appearing in every subsequent formation till the commencement 
of the Tertiary, and having only one living representative — viz., the Cei- 
tracion PhUijypi, or Port- Jackson shark. The character of the cestracionts 
is marked by the presence of large polygonal obtuse enamelled teetii, 
covering the interior of the mouth with a kind of tessellated pavement. 
In some species not less than sixty of these teeth occupied each jaw. 
They are rarely found connected t<^ether in a fossil state, in consequence 
of tiie perishable nature of the cartilaginous bones to which they were 
attached ; hence the spines and teeth usually afford the only evidence of 
the former existence of these extinct fossil species. They are dispersed 
abundantly throughout all strata, from the Carboniferous series to the 
most recent Chalk ; e.g., psamnwdtLS, dadodtu, helodugf ceratodns, stropho- 
dus, acrodtUf &c.— See tabulations, " Animal Soheme." 

Cetdcea (Gr. ketos, a whale). —Cuvier's eighth order of mammalia, which 
includes the whales, dolphins, and other warm-blooded animals inhabiting 
the ocean. It is now usual to subdivide the order into sections — Ist, the 
CetaoSa, including the Balcenidce or northern whales, the Physiteridce or 
sperm whales, and the Delphinidce or dolphins ; and, 2d, the Sirenia, or 
herbivorous cetaceans, which embraces the Hhytinida, and the Manatidce 
or sea-cows. Remains of cetaceous animals occur only in recent and 
Tertiary strata ; e.g., Dinoikeriurn, {f), zeuglodon, balcBfioptera, &c. 

CetiOBaliniB (Gr. ketos, whale, and saurus, lizard).— A genus of marine 
saurians, whose vertebrs and other bones occur in the Oolite and Wealden, 
and which has been so named by Professor Owen from the presumed 
general resemblance to the Cetaceans, in the short doubly-concave verte- 
brse, and the solid bones and natatory character of the extremities. 

Cetotolites (Gr. ketos, a whale, and otu, otos, the ear, and litho8),—A term 
applied by Owen to the fossil petro-tympanics or ear-bones of whales, 
which occur abundantly in upper Tertiary formations, Hke the Suffolk and 
Norfolk ''Crag." In general, the peculiar conchoidal-shaped tympanic 
bone is the only portion preserved. 

CS^lanite. — ^Known also as Candite, from Candy in Ceylon; a dark- 
coloured variety of spinel, which see. 

Chibasie or Chibasite (Gr. chabos, narrow, compressed). — One of the 
Zeolite family, occurring in compressed, striated, rhombohedral crystals, 
chiefly in the vesicular cavities and fissures of amygdaloid and other 



trap-rocks. Its colour is usually white, but sometimes passing into a 
greyish-yellow or pinkish tinge ; its composition uncertain, analyses giving 
about 50 silica, 18 alumina, 9 lime, and 10 water, with traces of soda, 
potash, and iron. 

CShalc^dony. — More frequently Cakedony, which see. 

Chalcolite (Gr. duUeos, bronze, and lithi>8).—'A combination of uranium 
with phosphoric acid and copper, forming a cupreo-phosphate of uranium. 
It occurs in scales of an emerald or verdigris green colour, and is found in 
metalliferous veins traversing the granitic rocks and crystalline schists. 
Differs from Uranitb (which see) only in containing copper instead of 

Chalcopyrite (Gr. chakos, copper, and pyrites). — Copper pyrites ; a com- 
mon ore of copper, consisting of 34.78 copper, 30.47 iron, and 84.78 sul- 
phur. Though a poor ore, nearly one-third of the copper of commerce is 
said to be obtained from this source. It may be distinguished from iron 
pyrites by its inferior hardness and deeper yellow colour, and from gold by 
i'te brittleness and want of malleability. . The fine yellow varieties with a 
variegated (pavonine) tarnish are esteemed the richest. 

Chalicothexinm (Gr. chaliXf ckcUicos, gravel).— A genus of fossil pachy- 
derms {Anisodon of M. Lartet) intermediate between the rhinoceros and 
anoplothere, and characteristic of the upper Miocene strata of southern 
Europe and India. So named from its occurrence in the gravelly bed of 
the Eppelsheim strata. 

CkiXk (Lat. calx, Ger. kcUk, lime).— The familiar as well as technical 
term for the soft and earthy-looking varieties of limestone. The Chalk of 
the south of England is well known, both as a rock and as the upper mem- 
ber of the Cretac&ms System, which see. While the white chalk of com- 
merce is well known as a soft amorphous carbonate oi lime, which can be 
converted into quicklime by calcination, and used for all the purposes of 
ordinary limestone, it should be borne in mind that the term '* chalk" has 
also been applied to other substances which are in no sense of the word 
limestones, as Red Chalk, a natural clay containing from 15 to 20 per cent 
of the protoxide and carbonate of iron ; Brown Chalk, a familiar name for 
umber ; Black Chalk, a variety of drawing-slate ; and French Chalk, a 
variety of steatite or soapstone — a well-known soft magnetlan mineral. — 
See Cbetaoeous System. 

Chalybeate (Gr. chalybs, iron or steel). — Applied to springs and waters 
impregnated with iron, or holding iron in solution. Springs, whose active 
principle is iron, are of two kinds — ^the carbonated, containing carbonate of 
the protoxide of iron ; and the stUphoUed, containing the sulphate of iron. 

Chalybite (Gr. chalyhs, iron or steel). — Sparry or spathose iron, carbon- 
ate of iron, or siderite.-— See Iron. The spathose iron-ores are said to 
afford the best kind o£ iron, and one which is admirably suited for the 
manufacturing of steel. *' Nearly all the Styrian and Carinthian iron,*' 
says Mr Brislow, ** is manufactured from chalybite. In those and the ad- 
joining countries it forms extensive tracts, traversing gneiss, extending 
along the chain of the Alps on one side into Austria, and on the other into 
Salzburg. In Britain it occurs chiefly in Cornwall and N. W. of Devonshire 
and Somersetshire, where considerable quantities are raised on Exmoor 
and the Bmndon Hills." 

Chambered. — Usually applied to shells internally divided into chambers 
or compartments^ like the existing nautilus. 



Ghannel (Lat. canalis). — In geography, the course or excavation in which 
a river flows ; the deeper part of a strait, bay, or estuary where the princi- 
pal current flows, whether of tidal or fresh water, and which is most con- 
venient for navigation. 

ChAoB (Gr. chaos, literally an immense void or chasm). — Matter without 
form or arrangement ; according to the poets, the primal condition of the 
material universe before it was arranged and fashioned into Cosmos, 
Cha6tic. — Confused ; thrown together into a vast heap without any order or 
arrangement, like the debris resulting from a violent land-flood or debacle. 

Charcoal. — The carbonaceous residue of animal, vegetable, and combus- 
tible mineral substances, when heated to redness in close vessels, or when 
they undergo smothered combustion. We have thus lamp-black or 
animal charcoal, derived from oils and fats; vfood charcoal, from twigs 
and faggots ; and coke or mineral charcoal, from ordinary pit-coal. — See 

Chart (Lat. charta). — A hydrographical or marine map, a draught or pro- 
jection on paper of some part of the earth's superficies, with the coasts, 
islands, rocks, banks, channels, or entrances into harbours, rivers, and 
bays, the points of compass, soundings or depth of water, &c., to regulate 
the courses of ships in their voyages. While the term map is chiefly ap- 
plied to delineations of terrestrial surfaces, chart on the other hand is 
applied to those of marine. There are various kinds of charts, plane, gldbw- 
lar, &c., according to the mode in which the surface is projected or repre- 
sented to the eye. 

Chat6ya]it (Fr.) — Changing in lustre like the cat's eye ; a word expres- 
sive of that changeable lustre exhibited by various minerals, as they are 
turned less or more to the light ; e.g., cat's-eye opal, Labrador felspar, &c. 

Cheiracdnthns (6r. ctieir, the hand, and akantha, a thorn). — Literally 
" thorny hand," in allusion to the ichthyodorulite or spine that protects 
the pectoral fins of this fish. The Cheiracanthus belongs to the Acanthod 
family ; is found in Devonian strata ; was a small, slim fish, covered with 
minute, angular, brightly enamelled scales, each having a slight median 
ridge, and aimed in all its fins with defensive spines. 

Cheir61epis (Gr. cheir, the hand, and lepis, a scale). — Literally "scaly 
hand," in allusion to its scaly pectorals ; a genus of Devonian fishes belong- 
ing to the family Acanthodes, and characterised by the great development 
of their pectoral and ventral fins, and by the presence only of a small sub- 
dorsal. In Cheirolepis the scales are lozenge-shaped, and richly adorned 
with minute waving strias on their posterior margins. 

Cheir6ptera (Gr. cheir, the hand, andpteron, awing). — Literally ''hand- 
wings," — the Bats ; a well-known order of mammalia, whose fore-feet or 
hands are so modified as to enable them to exercise the power of flight — a 
power which they aJone of all the existing mammalia possess. They are 
found in all parts of the world, but most abundantly in tropical countries ; 
are crepuscular and nocturnal in their habits ; and live, some on insects, 
others on the blood of the larger mammalia, and others again on fruits. 
Remains of the order occur in Tertiary strata, and also in many of the 
ossiferous caverns, where they seem to have lodged after the manner of their 
existing congeners. 

Cheirothfirinm (Gr. cheir, the hand, and therum, beast). — A term applied 
by Dr Kaup to an unknown quadruped, the hand-like impressions of whose 
feet are common on the slabs of the Trias or Upper New Bed Sandstone. 



It is supposed by Professor Owen to be one and the same with the batrach- 
ian or frog-like Labtrinthodon, which see. 

Cheir&zns (Gr. (^jeir, hand, and oura, a tail). — Literally "hand-tail ;" a 
genus of Lower Silurian trilobites, so termed from their tail or terminal 
portion presenting four or five finger-like spines or processes. 

ChSisB (Gr. cheU, a claw). — Applied particularly to the bifid claws or 
pincers of the crustaoea, the scorpion, &c. Fossil (^Icb {Leptockeles) occur 
as early as the Upper Silurian epoch. 

Cheliclmis (Gr. cheloru, a tortoise, and ichnon, footprint). — The supposed 
footprints of tortoises occurring on the slabs of the Permian Sandstones of 
Corncockle Muir, in Dumfriesshire, and so termed by Sir W. Jardine, who 
has figured them in his ' Ichnology of Annandale.' 

Cheldxiia (Gr. chelotie, the tortoise). — In Ouvier's arrangement, the first 
order of the Reptilia, including the tortoise, the turtle, &c., in which the 
skeleton of the trunk is external, shell-like, and immovable — the upper 
portion being termed the carapcux, and the lower or abdominal plate the 
'plastron, Ohelonian foot-tracks are supposed to have been discovered as 
early as the Old Red Saudstone period ; but their actual remains have as 
yet been found only in the Oolite, Chalk, and Tertiary formations. In 
the Tertiaries of the Siwalik hills Dr Falconer discovered the carapace of 
the gigantic Testudo Atlas, or Colossochelys, measuring about 20 feet in 

Cheropdtamos, CShoeropotainiiB (Gr. choiros, a hog, tjid potamos, river). — 
Literally "river-hog;" a pachydermatous quadruped occurring in the 
Tertiaries of France and England ; very closely related to the Hog family, 
and forming, as it were, a link between the extinct anoplothere and the 
existing peccary. From its geological position. Professor Owen regards it 
as the earliest representative of the hog tribe on our globe ; and from its 
dentition, considers it to have been more predacious or carnivorous than 
any of the existing species. 

Chert (quasi quartz), — A mixed siliceous or impure flinty rock, or rather 
flinty portions occurring in other strata, as in limestone, &c. Resembles 
some varieties of flint and homstone, but less conchoidal in the fracture, 
tougher, and fusible, which latter property is owing to an admixture, less 
or more, of calcareous matter. A limestone so siliceous as to be worthless 
for the limekiln, is said to be " cherty." 

Chesil Bank (Ger. hiesel, a pebble). — Literally "Pebble bank;" the well- 
known shifting pebble beach that extends from Portland to Abbotsbury, 
on the southern coast of England. 

Chessylite. — The name given by Brooke and Miller to a fine crystalline 
variety of the blue carbonate of copper, from its occurring at Chessy, near 
Lyons. Known also as Chessy Copper, The primary form of Chessylite is 
an oblique rhombic prism ; its colour from azure to Berlin-blue, and in 
earthy varieties, smaJt-blue. " It is probably the result," says Bristow, 
" of the decomposition of other ores of copper. It generally occurs lining 
cavities in primary and secondary rocks, and associated with malachite 
and red-copper. It forms a valuable ore of copper when abundant. It is 
also used when pulverised as a pigment, under the name of Mineral-hltie or 
Mountain-blue ; but it is not of much value, from its liability to turn 

ChiAstolite (Gr. chiastos, marked with the letter x, or cleft, aud lithos, 
stone). — A crystalline mineral, by some regarded as a variety of Ando' 



ItuUe, and by others as a distinct species. It occurs in long four-sided 
prisms of a pale-grey or greyish-green colour, with a dull vitreous lustre, 
which present a black or bluish-black crop in their transverse section. It 
is found imbedded in clay-slate, especially near granitic outbursts. 

China-Clay. — A general term for the finer varieties of pottery clay, 
technically known as Kaolin, which see. 

China-Stone. — A familiar term for the decomposed granites which yield 
the China-clay or Kaolin of commerce. 

Chiton (6r. chiton, a coat of mail). — A well-known gasteropod mollusc 
(the type of the family Chitonidce), whose elongated flexible covering or 
shell consists of eight transverse imbricating plates, lodged in a coriaceous 
mantle, which forms an expanded margin round the body ; e.g., the C 
octovalvis of our own shores. Chitons occur fossil from the Silurian 
upwards. Their detached plates are apt to be mistaken for the patelliform 
shells of other genera ; but may be distinguished, in good specimens, by 
their granulated or sculptured surfaces, which are divisible into dorsal and 
lateral areas, by their processes of attachment on their anterior margins, 
as well as by their inner surfaces when these can be freed from the matrix. 

Chitonellns (diminutive of chiton). — A sub-generic form of chiton, chiefly 
distinguished, at least in the fossil species, by the form of the plates, which 
were isolated or placed independently on the mantle, to which they were 
fixed by much larger processes of attachment than in chiton proper. Chit- 
onelli occur fossil in several specific forms, the Permian limestones of Dur- 
ham having as yet yielded the finest specimens. 

Chlorite (Gr. chloros, green). —A soft friable mineral, closely allied in 
character to talc and mica, and so called from its greenish colour. It is 
generally massive and scaly, or imbedded and interspersed through other 
rocks. '' Chlorite,'* says Nicol ('Man. of Mineral.'), '*is one of the most 
widely dispersed and geologically important minerals. Externally it re- 
sembles mica [is flexible but not elastic like mica], and is frequently asso- 
ciated with, or replaces, it in granite, gneiss, and similar rocks. It is a 
component of the diabase porphyries and amygdaloids, and then often crys- 
tallised ; and it is occasionally found in diorite, euphotide, and serpentine ; 
more rarely in greenstone-porphyry, amygdaloid, basalt, and trachyte. It 
is most abundant in chlorite slate, or in beds of potstone, intimately mixed 
with talc, for which it shows a strong affinity. From these it has passed 
into various sedimentary rocks, which owe to it their green colour. The 
Alps, Scandinavia, the Ural, the Harz, and many parts of Scotland, are 
well-known localities of chlorite, both in its crystallised variety and as a 
constituent of rocks." According to Kobell, a Grerman variety consisted 
of silica 27.32, alumina 20.69, magnesia 24.89, iron protoxide 15.23, man- 
ganese protoxide 0.47, water 12.00. The most abundant varieties are com- 
mon chlorite, chlorite slate (which contains upwards of 40 per cent of 
magnesia), and foliated chlorite. 

Chloritic Sand (Gr. chloros, green). — Any sand coloured green by an 
admixture of the simple mineral chlorite, which see. The term is generally 
applied to the *^ Greensand " of the Chalk formation, which owes its pre- 
vailing colour to a chloritous silicate of iron. 

Chlorophdeite (Gr. chloros, green, and phaios, brown, in allusion to the 
change of colour produced by exposure). — A soft sectile earthy mineral, 
occurring massive, or disseminated in amygdaloidal trap-rocks; translu- 
cent and olive-green when first exposed, but soon changes to blackish- 



brown, and becomes opaque. Consists of 32.85 silica, 22.08 iron peroxide, 
8.44 magnesia, and 41. 63 water. 

Chlorophine (Gr. cfUoroSy green, and^^i^io, I shine). — ^A variety of fluor- 
spar, so called from its exhibiting a bright-green phosphorescent light 
when heated. 

Choanites (Gr. choane, a funnel). — A genus of spongiform zoophytes 
occurring in the Chalk formation, and usually converted into flint. They 
are of a sub-ovate form, and appear to have been composed (accordiDg to 
Dr Mantell, who first described them) of a softer tissue than the ordinary 
sponges. They have a central funnel-like cavity (whence the name), were 
fixed at the base by long rootlets, and had their mass traversed by nume- 
rous channels whidi opened on tiie inner surface of the cavity, and which, 
in transverse sections, gives them the radiating appearance of a sea-ane- 
mone ; hence the familiar term of " petrified anemones." The choanite is 
the commonest sponge in the Brighton brooch-pebbles. 

Choke-Damp.— A miner^s term for carbonic acid gas, as distinct from 
"fire-damp" or light carburetted hydrogen. — See After-Damp. 

Chondrites (Lat. chondnUf a species of sea^weed). — Fossil marine plants 
of the Chalk and other formations ; so called from their resemblance to the 
existing Chondrus critpua, or Irish moss of our own shores. The frond is 
thick, branched, dichotomous, or forking into cylindrical or claviform divi- 
sions, with a smooth surface, and without tubercles. 

Chdndrodite (Gr. chondrot, a grain). — The hemi-prismatio chrysolite of 
HaUy. One of the gems occurring in grains in crystalline limestone, &c., 
of various shades of yellow and red ; transparent ; and consisting of sili- 
cate of magnesia, with iron, potash, and fluorine. 

Chondropterygfii or Cartilaginel (Gr. chmdros, cartilage). — One of the 
great Cuvierian sections of fishes. The chondrcpteryffians are distinguished 
from the teUogleaTU^ or fishes with true bones, by their cartilaginous skele- 
tons, and include sharks, sturgeons, rays, and lampreys. 

Chondr^steus (Gr.) — Literally "cartilage-bone ; " a provisional genus of 
fishes from the liassic formation, having affinities to the sturgeons in the 
osseous scutes by which their bodies were protected. 

Chrome, Chromium (Gr. chroma, colour). — One of the metals discovered 
by Vauquelin in 1797, and so named from its property of imparting colour 
to other bodies in a remarkable degree. Combined with oxygen it forms 
chromic acid, and this again, with other substances, forms chromates, as 
chromate of lead, chromate of iron, kc. In nature, chromium forms the 
colouring matter of various gems, as the emerald, ruby, &c. ; and in the 
arts its preparations are extensively used as pigments. 

Chrome Ochre. — Oxide of chrome, occurring in loose earthy masses, 
disseminated or investing, of a fine yellowish-green, but generally so 
mixed up with the rock in which it occurs as to be separable only by 
chemical means, and hence termed chrome-stone. 

Chr6mite or Chromate of Iron.— A mineral consisting essentially of pro- 
toxide of iron and oxide of chromium, and occurring generally in serpentine 
or serpentinous limestones, either in veins, in nests, or disseminated. It 
is occasionally crystallised in octahedrons, but more frequently massive 
and dissemiDated in grains; of an iron-black or brownish-black colour, 
with a shining sub-metallic lustre. It is used in the preparation of various 
pigments, as chrome-green, chrome-yellow, &c. 

Chr^b^ryl (Gr. chrysos,- gold, and heryUion, a gem).— A species of cor- 




undum^ of a yellowish or asparagus green, and consisting chiefly of alumina, 
with glucina and protoxide of iron. When large and transparent it is used 
as a gem ; the opalescent varieties, named cymophane (floating light), being 
most esteemed. 

GhrysocdUa (Gr. chrysos^ golden, and colla, glue). — A silicate of the pro- 
toxide of copper, occurring in botryoidal or reniform crusts, of a fine 
emerald green, and apparently a product from the decomposition of copper 
ores, which it usually accompanies. Derives its name from the weak 
resinous lustre and peculiar transparency of its fractured edges. 

Chrysolite (6r. chtysos, gold, and litkos). — A green-coloured mineral 
occurring in trap and volcanic rocks, and consisting of about 40 silica, 50 
magnesia, and 9 protoxide of iron, with traces of alumina, manganese, and 
nickel. The fine green-coloured transparent crystals are known as chryso- 
lite; the less pellucid granular masses as oliviTie ; and less-known and 
duller-coloured varieties as chusiie, fazcUite, hycUosiderite, &c. 

Chr;^pra8e (Gr. chrysas, gold, and prasirtos, leek-green). — A fine apple- 
green to leek-green variety of calcedony, which owes its colour, according 
to Klaproth, to a small percentage of oxide of nickeL 

CidaxiSi Gidarites (Gr. kidaris, a turban). — ^A genus o£ the family 
Echinidea or sea-urchins, characterised by their hemispherical, globular, 
or sub-oval shape ; parallel ambulacra, that is, diverging equally on all 
sides from the vent to the mouth ; vent vertical ; mouth beneath and 
central Living, and fossil from the Carboniferous Limestone upwards. 
Many of the cidarites are of large size, and are furnished with long and 
often curiously ornamented spines. 

Cflia (Lat. cilium, an eyelash). — Applied in zoology to a peculiar sort 
of moving organs, resembling microscopic hairs ; e.g., the hair-like fila- 
ments that surround the mouths of polypes. Cilixited, furnished or fringed 
with cilia; ciliary motion^ that rapid vibratile motion characteristic of 
cilia in a state of action. 

Cixnoli6nii8 (Gr. himolia, a kind of fuller's clay, and orniSf bird). — 
Literally Chalk-marl Bird ; a generic term applied by Professor Owen to 
certain bones from the Lower Chalk-marls, and considered to be those of 
birds. It is doubtful, however, whether they do not belong to the Ptero- 
dadylus compreaslrostris, and until more is known of the osteology of the 
Pterodactyles, the name must be received merely as provisional. 

Cimolite. — Cimolian earth ; a pure white or greyish- white variety of clay, 
or hydrous silicate of alumina, so called from its occurring in the island of 
Cimola (now Argentiera) in the Grecian Archipelago. It is used as a 
fuller^s earth ; and, like kaolin, results from the decomposition of felspar 
in trachyte or other felspathic rock. 

Cinder-Bed. — A stratum of the Upper Purbeck series, almost wholly 
composed of oyster-shells ; and so named by the quarrymen from its loose 
incoherent composition. 

Cixmabar (Gr. kinnd^ri). — Sulphuret of mercuiy, occurring in crystals, 
disseminated and granular, compact, or earthy, and usually of a fine 
cochineal-red or vermilion colour. It is found in the crystalline, transi- 
tion, and secondary strata, in beds or veins, and associated with native 
mercury, iron-pyrites, and other ores. It is the principal ore of mercury, 
which is obtained from it by sublimation or distillation. The purer 
varieties are used as a pigment ; but the vermilion of commerce, which is 
an artificial cinnabar, is prepared from the crude ore. 



Cinnamon-Stone.— A variety of garnet, belonging to what is termed the 
** Lime-alumina" division of the family, and so called from its cinnamon or 
orange-yellow colour. — See Oabnet. 

Cipolin or Cipollino. — An Italian term for a whitish marble, variegated 
with zones or shadings of green talc or chlorite ; and so called from its 
resemblance to the alternating green and white coats of an onion 
{eipollina, a shallot or onion). 

Cirripedes, Clrrhip^dia, Cirr]i6poda (6r. hirrosy a curl, and p(m8, podos, 
a foot). — A class of articulated animals, including the barnacles and 
acorn-shells, which obtain their name (curl-footed) from the many-jointed 
curled tentacles which terminate their feet In their adult stage they 
are furnished with a shelly covering consisting of several pieces, some 
being sessile, others attached by a long fleshy peduncle. They are found 
fossil from the Oolite VLpw&rda—pollicipes, balanus, sccUpellwn., &c. 

Clathriria (Lat. dcUhrum, a lattice). — A genus of fossil stems, first dis- 
covered by Dr Mantell in the Wealden of Sussex, and so named from the 
lattice-like arrangement of the lozenge-shaped leaf-scars which ornament 
their surface. They are evidently gymnogens, and appeu* to have the 
nearest relation to the Oycas family, though certain fruits generally found 
along with them seem to point to the true Coniferas. 

Clathr6pteris (Lat. clathrum, a lattice, and pteris, fern). — Literally 
" Lattice-fern ; " a genus of gigantic ferns apparently peculiar to the 
Wealden. The leaf is deeply pinoatifld ; leaflets elongated and traversed 
by a strong midrib ; secondary veins perpendicular to the midrib, and 
united by transverse branches, which produce a network of quadrangular 
meshes ; hence the name. 

Clavate (Lat. clava, a club). — Club-shaped ; slender at one extremity, 
and gradually thickening and terminating obtusely at the other. 

Clay Ironstone. — A familiar term for the impure earthy cai-bonates of 
iron which occur in nodules, layers, and bands, chiefly in the Coal-forma- 
tion ; hence clay-hand in contradistinction to hlojck-hand. — See Ironstone. 

Claystone. — An earthy felspathic rock of the Trap group, occurring in 
veins as well as in mountain masses, and differing from compact felspar 
in being softer, and having the aspect and texture of a baked or indurated 
clay. It becomes porphyritic by the intermixture of felspar crystals, and 
is then known as claystone porphyry. The prevailing colours are buf& and 
reddish-browns, with various tints approaching to purple. 

Cleavage. — That peculiar structure in many fine-grained stratified rocks, 
such as clay-slate, which renders them capable of being split indefinitely 
into thin plates or laminae, and this in a direction independent of their 
bedding or stratification. Occasionally the lines of cleavage may coincide 
with those of bedding when the strata stand at high angles, but for the 
most part it is transverse, and even often at right angles to the original 
sedimentary layers. As a superinduced structure occurring among the 
semi-crystalline or metamorphic strata, its origin has given rise to many 
hypotheses— the chief of which may be regarded as mechanical or chemical^ 
according as they are founded on physical or on chemical considerations. 
Thus, those who regard cleavage as a minute species of jointing, generally 
running parallel to great axes of elevation, and altogether independent of 
the strike or dip of the strata through which it passes, adopt the mechani- 
cal theory of great lines of cosmical uprise and contraction, which pro- 
duced immense pressure on the irregular particles or interstitial cavities 



of the cleaved masses ; while those who regard it as a species of crystal- 
lisation or new molecular arrangement adopt a chemical view, and ascribe 
the appearances to the long-continued but as yet imperfectly understood 
operation of electrical or chemical forces. Professor Sedgwick, for 
instance, who has directed much of his attention to metamorphic pheno- 
mena, propounds a chemico-electrical hypothesis (founded on the artificial 
production of clearage by passing magnetic currents through masses of 
moistened clay), by which ''crystalline or polar forces have rearrauged 
whole mountain-masses, producing a beautifid crystalline cleavage, passing 
alike through all the strata ; " while Professor Phillips appeals in the main 
to " mechanical forces compressing the sediment at right angles to the 
lines of cleavage." On the other hand, Mr Daniel Sharpe attempts to 
combine with this mechanical theory ''the action of some peculiar crystal- 
line force ; " while Messrs Sorby and Tyndall adopt the purely mechanical 
view — ^the former maintaining that the flattish unequiaxed pfuiides of the 
ancient mud and sand greatly aided the compressing force in producing 
cleavage ; and the latter, that the result was unaided by the shape of the 
particles, but was caused by the extension under pressure of the minute 
interstices which must eziBt in even the most finely levigated mudstones. 
— See Metamorphism. 

dfovelaiLdlte (after Professor Cleaveland). — One of the Felspar family, 
and known also as albite, but differs little either in form or composition 
from ordinary felspar or orthodase, 

CleithxolepiB (Gr. hleithrofif a lock, and lepig, scale). — A genus of Pyc- 
nodont fishes from the Carboniferous rocks of Sydney, New South Wales ; 
and so called by Sir P. Egerton, from the mode in which the transversely 
oblong scales are locked by articulating processes into each other. In 
general aspect Cleithrolepis greatly resembles Platysomtis, but differs in 
the dorsal and anal fins being placed farther back, and in their rays increas- 
ing in length backward, instead of diminishing ; and also in the tail being 
less decidedly heterocercal. In Cleithrolepis the cranial bones and scales 
are also ornamented with fine granulations. — ('Oeol. Journal' for 1863.) 

CSlereland Iromtone. — An important ore of iron obtained from the 
Cleveland district in Yorkshire, where a stratum, 16 feet thick, of a 
rusty-looking sandstone (the " Lias Band ") crops out from the middle of 
the Lias formation, and is considered to yield on an average about 80 per 
cent of iron. ''It is chiefly," says Ansted, "a carbonate of the protoxide 
of iron, with about 30 per cent of impurity, consisting of silica, alumina, 
lime, and magnesia, and a little water. It is sometimes massive, and 
sometimes alternates with shaly bands, and is generally oolitic in struc- 
ture. It extends over a district of some hundreds of square miles, thin- 
ning out to the south, and capped by sandy shales containing scattered 
nodules of ironstone. Upwards of a million of tons of ironstone are 
annually extracted from this deposit, chiefly near Middlesborough." 

Climate (6r. llifna, an inclination). — Originally applied in a technical or 
astronomical sense to the various belts of the earth as influenced by the 
length of the day— each zone from the equator to the polar circles being 
measured by half-an-hour^s increase on the longest day, and from the 
polar circles to the poles by the increase of a month. The length of the 
day at the equator being twelve hours, the first climatic belt exteuded to 
the latitiide where the longest day was twelve and a half hours long, and 
so on for every half-hour's iacrease, there being iwmJty-fiMr such dimes 



between the equator and the polar circles, and fix between the polar 
circles and the poles. The term is now applied to the general weather- 
conditions of any district, as these may be mild or rigorous, genial or un- 
genial, salubrious or obnoxious, &c. In a wider sense, when treating of 
countries geographers speak of insular and continental climates : the for- 
mer, from their proximity to the sea, being comparatiTely mild in winter, 
and cool in summer ; and the latter, cold in winter, but excessively hot in 
summer. Climatology.— The science which treats of the different climates 
of the earth, their causes, products, and peculiarities. 

Clinker. — In mineralogy, the black oxide of iron, readily obtained in 
scales and globules from red-hot iron while under the hammer of the 
blacksmith. In familiar language the term is applied to the slaggy ferru- 
ginous crusts that form on the bars of engine-furnaces, round the taps of 
iron-furnaces, and the like. 

Cliiikstone. — A flinty felspathic rock or hornstone, of a greyish-blue 
colour, having a tendency to divide into slabs, and ringing or "clinking" 
with a sort of metallic sound when struck by the hammer. Many so-called 
clinkstoTies are merely basaltic greenstones, having a shivery or fissile 
structure — the thin slabs ringing under the hammer. When the rock 
contains disseminated felspar, it is called Clinkstone Porphyry, — Same as 
Phonoute, which see. 

CUnodase (Gr. Kino, to incline, and IcUWf to break). — ^Arseniate of cop- 
per, so called in illusion to its oblique cleavage. Occurs in the copper 
mines of Cornwall and other localities in small oblique rhombic prisms of 
a dark verdigris-green inclining to blue. 

CUn6m6ter (Gr. IclinjOf to lean, and m^^rtm, a measure). — An instrument, 
of which there are several sorts, for measuring the dip or angle at which 
strata incline from the horizon. One of the most commodious and port- 
able is that formed by attaching a pendule to the pivot of the common 
field-compass — ^the frame of which being laid to the surfiace of the stratum 
the pendule indicates the angle of inclination. 

Clionites. — A genus of minute fossil sponges, or rather the silicified casts 
of these sponges, occurring in perforations of shells found in the Chalk 
formation. They are named after the existing parasitical sponge cliona, 
whose perforations often completely riddle the oyster and other shells. 

Qimch. — ^An English provincial term for any tough coarse clay ; applied 
to certain days of the Coal-measures, and also to the hard clayey beds of 
the Gault or Chalk-marl. 

Clym^nia (Gr. elymenef a sea-nymph). — A genus of nautiloid shells 
peculiar to Devonian strata, in which upwards of forty species have been 
detected. In the clymenia, the septa of the chambers are simple or 
slightly lobed, and the siphuncle is internal, or on the inner side of the 
whorls; hence the occasional synonyme, Endosiphonites. 

Clype&BtridsB (Lat. clypeus, a buckler).— A family of fossil sea-urchins 
occurring in the Chalk, and characterised by their oblong or rounded form ; 
mouth somewhat angular, and furnished with well-developed teeth ; out- 
let distant from the summit ; tubercles mere granulations, and the spines 
proportionably smalL The group is usually divided into the Galeritida 
(helmet-like) and the Clypeidas (buckler-like). 

Coal (Gr. kohle; Fr. houille), — In mineralogical systems the COALS con- 
stitute a limited, but very distinct and highly important family, which 
embraces such species as graphite, anthracUe, common coal, Irown-coal or 

145 K 


lignite, and pecuL Chemically, their chief constituent is carbon, in com- 
bination wii^ yarying proportions of hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen ; and 
in all there exists a greater or less amount of earthy impurities, which 
being incombustible, remain, after burning, as ashes. From their com- 
position, which only differs from vegetable or woody matter in the dimin- 
ished amount of its gaseous and volatile elements — from their internal 
structure, which, for the most part, exhibits to the naked eye, and almost 
always to the microscope, abundance of vegetable tissue — and from their 
lithological and other characteristics — there can be no doubt of their vege- 
table origin ; whether occurring as peat and lignite, in which the ligneous 
structure is still apparent, or as common coal and anthracite, in which, for 
the most part, mineralisation is so perfect as to have obliterated every ex- 
ternal trace of their organic origin. We have thus the most satisfactory 
evidence that Coal, in all its species, is merely mineralised vegetation— 
vegetation which, in part, grew and was submei^ed in situ as peat-mosses, 
cypress-swamps, jungles, and forest-growths, and in part was drifts by 
rivers into the seas of deposit, whose varied strata of sandstones, lime- 
stones, shales, mudstones, coals, and ironstone, now constitute our avail- 
able Coal-Fields. Of course, as the operations of nature are uniform and 
incessant, we have Coals of all periods— graphites and anthracites of the 
Silurian and Devonian, bituminous coals of the Carboniferous and Jurassic, 
lignites of the Tertiary, and peats of the current epoch — the products dif- 
fering in quality according to the amount of mineralisation and subsequent 
metamorphism to which they may have been subjected. The available 
coal of Great Britain is no doubt of Carboniferous age, but many excellent 
coal-fields in India, America, and other countries, belong to the Jurassic 
and Chalk periods, while anthracites and graphites may belong to any epoch, 
just as the original bituminous coal may have been subjected to heat and 
other metamorphic processes. like all mixed rocks, common coal pre- 
sents ' many varieties — and these, according to their structure, texture, 
and qualities, have received various names, as caJeing coal, which is soft or 
"tender" in the mass, like that of Newcastle, and swells and cakes 
together in burning ; spliifU or sUUe coal^ which bums free and open, and is 
hard and slaty in texture ; cannel, which is compact and jet-like in tex- 
ture, and bums with a clear candle-like flame, and, from its composition, 
is chiefly used in gas manufacture ; and coarse, foliated, or ctibic coal, which 
is more or less soft, breaks up into large fragments, and contains in gene- 
ral a large percentage of earthy impurities. Between these there is, of 
course, every gradation — coals so pure as to leave only one or two per cent 
of ash, others so mixed as to yield from ten to thirty per cent, and many 
so impure as to be unfit for fuel, and so to pass into sh4zles more or less 
bituminous. The following analysis exhibits proximately these gradations, 
but mainly that varying proportion of gaseous elements which marks the 
passage of wood into peat, peat into coal, and coal into anthracite and 
graphite : — 

(At 212\) Carbon. Hydrogen. Oxygen. Nitrogen. ^^f^'^^ 

Wood 48—54 6-10 35—45 

Peat 56—66 5— 9 18-33 2—4 1— 6 

Lignite 56—70 8— 7 13—27 1—0 1-13 

Coal 70—92 2—6 1—8 0-2 8—14 

Anthracite.... 74-94 1—4 0—8 trace 1—7 

Graphite 80—98 ... ... ... 1— 7 



According to M. Fremy, the following a^e the degrees of alteration of 
woody tissue : 1. Turf and Peat. — Characterised by the presence of ulmio 
acid^ and also by the woody fibres or the cellules of the medullary rays, 
which may be purified or extracted in notable quantities by means of nitric 
acid or h3rpochloiriteSj in which they are insoluble. 2. Fossil Wood or Woody 
lAgnite. — This, like the preceding, is partially soluble in alkalies, but its 
alteration is more advanced, for it is nearly wholly dissolved by nitric acid 
and hypochlorites. 3. ComvpcuA or Perfed Lignite. — This substance is char- 
acterised by its complete solubility in hydrochlorites and in nitric acid. 
Alkaline solutions do not in general act on perfect lignites. Beagents in 
this variety show a passage of the organic matter into coal. 4. Coal. — 
Insoluble in alkaline solutions and hydrochlorites. 5. AnJQvrac^. — An 
approximation to Graphite ; resists the reagents which act on the above- 
mentioned combustibles, and is only acted on by nitric acid with extreme 

Cob&lt (Ger. Kohold, the demon of German mines). — ^A metal discovered 
by Brandt in 1733. As an ore it is found chiefly in combination with 
arsenic as arsenical cobalt or sm^Uine, or with sulphur and arsenic as grey 
cobalt ore. As a metal it is white and brittle, unchanged in the air, has a 
high melting-point, is strongly magnetic, and has a specific gravity of 8.5. 
It is seldom used in the metallic state, owing to the difficulty of reducing 
its ores, but these are extensively employed in the arts, as in the produc- 
tion of pigments, inks, stains, and glazes. The ores of cobalt (smaltine, 
sulphuret of cobalt, &c.) occur in granitic, crystalline, and secondary for- 
mations, in connection with ores of silver, copper, &c. ; and being at first 
mysterious and intractable, received their name from the mysterious 
Kohold, who is supposed to obstruct the operations of the miners. *' The 
quite recent discovery (says Sir J. Herschel in his 'Physical Geography,* 
1861) of the exceeding tenacity of metallic cobalt, loKich is double that of 
iron, promises to place this metal in the first rank of mechanical utility." 

CobaltiBe. — Arsenical ore of cobalt, occurring in cubical crystals, and 
also in arborescent, stalactitic, and amorphous masses. Consists of 13.95 
cobalt, 11.71 iron, 70.31 arsenic, with traces of nickel, copper, &c. This 
ore of cobalt and smaltine furnish the greater portion of the smalt of com- 
merce. It is prepared by roasting the ore, and then melting the oxide of 
cobalt so produced in certain proportions wiUi pure potash and pounded 
quartz, which is afterwards ground to powder and carefully washed. 

Cdccolite (Gr. kokkos, a berry, and lithos), — Granular sahlite ; a variety 
or sub-species of augite occurring in the iron-mines of Norway and Sweden 
in grantilar or berry-like concretions ; hence the name. 

Cocc68teiis (Gr. kokkos, a berry, and osteon, a bone). — Literally " berry- 
bone ; *' a fish of the Old Red Sandstone, and so termed from the small 
berry-like tubercles with which the plates of its cranial buckler and body 
are thickly studded. In general appearance Coccosteus resembles Pterich- 
ihys, but wants the arm-like appendages, and is usually much larger — 
ranging in the Caithness flagstones from a few inches to two feet in length. 
In both, the body-plates were similarly arranged and tuberculated ; in both, 
the tail or terminal portion was covered with scales, and supported a fin 
or fins ; and both seem to have possessed small bony teeth in either jaw. 
Hugh Miller and Dr Pander have attempted outlines, but the data are yet 
insufficient for a satisfactory restoration. It is usual to arrange Coccosteus 
and Pterichthys under the family CephalaspidoB ; but the group is yet too 





little understood for this arrangement^ and in the mean time all that can 
safely be done is to rank them as members of the great order of Placo- 
DERMS or PlacooanoidS; in allusion to the bony plates which constitute 
their eztei-nal covering or skeleton. 

C6cli]iodn8 (Gr. hochlids, a cockle, and odous, tooth). — Literally " cockle- 
like tooth ; " a genus of Oestraciont fish-teeth occurring in the mountain 
limestone, and so termed from their cockle-shell-like aspect. 

CcelacdnfM (6r. hoUos, hollow, and acantha, spine). — Literally " hollow- 
spines ; " an extensive group of fossil sauroid fishes, that derive their name 
from the central cavity in their fin-rays, which, however, may have had 
originally cartilaginous cores. They occur from the Devonian to the Chalk 
inclusive, and embrace such genera as ccelacaTithtu, asterolepis, dendrodns, 
holoptycMus, rhUodtis, mouropoma, &c. 

Codlodont (Gr. koUos, hollow, and odous, tooth). — Literally "hollow- 
toothed ; " a term applied to those lacertilians or lizard-like reptiles which 
have hollow teeth, in contradistinction to the Pleodont or solid-toothed. 

Codlopt^cliitLm (6r. kailosy hollow, and ptyche, a fold or wrinkle). — A 
genus of sponges occurring in the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary beds near 
Bnmswick in Germany. They are mushroom-shaped organisms mounted 
on a short tapering stalk — ^the main body or hood being hollow, and more or 
less lobed and wrinkled at the margin, whence the name "hollow-wrinkle." 

Coelorh^chTis (Gr. hoUos, hollow, andrAyn<;Ao«, beak). — Literally "hollow- 
beak;" a genus of sword-fishes whose prolonged premaxillary bones or 
" swords " have been found in the Upper Chalk and Eocene Tertiaries of 

CkBXUB'cimn (Gr. hoinos, common, and (yikos, dwelling). — The term em- 
ployed by Professor Allman to designate the plant-like structure or common 
dermal system of the polyzoa. In contradistinction to the polypary or 
polypidom of the true polypes. 

Coke. — Charcoal; the carbonaceous residue of coal after the volatile 
matters have been driven off by heat. Formerly coke was prepared by a 
smothered combustion of the coal in open-air heaps ; now it is prepared in 
ovens specially constructed for the purpose. 

Cioledptera (Gr. koleos, a sheath or case, and pteron, wing). — Sheath- 
winged ; an order of insects, like the beetles, furnished with hard crustace- 
ous sheaths {elytra) which cover and protect their membraneous wings or 
organs of flight. Coleopterous insects are found fossil from the Coal for- 
mation upwards. 

Ck)llyw^8ton Slates.— Also known as " Collyweston Tilestones ;" a sub- 
ordinate series of laminated calcareous beds occurring at Collyweston, near 
Stamford, in Lincolnshire ; and from their position supposed to be the 
equivalents of the celebrated " Stonesfield Slate." 
- Cologne Earth. — An earthy, peaty mass of lignite, or partially fossilised 
wood, of a deep brown colour, occurring in an irregular bed of from 30 to 
50 feet thick, near Cologne, Lower Rhine. 

Cololites (Gr. kolon and lithos). — A name given to certain tortuous and 
convoluted intestinal-like masses and impressions which appesur in some 
instances to be either the petrified intestines of fishes, or the contents of 
their intestines, stiU retaining the forms of the tortuous tube in which 
they were lodged, — hence the name ; but which in the majority of cases 
are undoubted worm-casts, like those of the lob-worm. 

Col6880Ch^ly8 (Gr. holossos, a statue of enormous size, and ehelyt, a tor- 




toise). — The generic term given by Dr Falconer to the bones and portions 
of the carapace of a tortoise of ^gantic dimensions, discovered by him and 
Captain Cautley in the Upper Tertiaries of the Siwalik Hills in India. The 
remains discovered indicate a length of twelve or fourteen feet. 

Colonr of IQneraU. — In describing rocks and minerals, their colours are 
usually mentioned as a simple and obvious aid to identification. Miner- 
alogists divide these into the metallic and iion-metallic, — ^the latter embrac- 
ing the ordinary colours, as hlach, white, red, gre&i, &c. ; or combinations 
of them, as yelhvnshrwki^, reddish-hrown, blackish-green, and the like ; or 
peculiar hues taken from familiar objects, as chestmU-hrovm, olive-green, 
sky-hlue, and so forth. The metallic colours, on the other hand, are less 
numerous, and much more decided and peculiar ; hence we have copper-red, 
the colour of native copper ; hr&nze-yellow, as iron-pyrites ; brass-yellow, 
copper-pyrites ; gold-yellow ; silver-white ; tin-white ; lead-grey, as galena ; 
steel-grey ; iroti-black, as specular iron-ore ; and a few other shades equally 
distinct and decided. 

Columbian {Columbia, America). — The metal now generally known as 
Taaitalite (which see), but said to have been first discovered in ore found 
in Connecticut, North America. 

Collinmar (Lat. columna, a column). — Having the form of columns; 
arranged in columns. The basalts of Staf& and the Giant's Causeway are 
said to be columnar, because composed of column-like masses less or more 
r^ularin form and arrangement. When the form and arrangement of 
these masses are indistinct and irregular, the structure is said to be stib- 

Combe or Coomb (Sax.) — A common term in the south of England for 
an upland valley, generally narrow, and without a stream of water. Dr 
Buckland remarks, " The term combe is usually applied to that un watered 
portion of a valley which forms its continuation beyond and above the most 
elevated spring that issues into it ; at this point or spring-head the valley 
ends and the combe begins." 

Combiiiation (Lat. con, together, and bina, two by two). — In chemical lan- 
guage, a combination is not a mere mingling of two substances producing 
a mixture intermediate between the two^ but a uni(m producing a third 
svhstance difierent from either. 

Combustion (Lat. con, together, and uro, I bum). — Consumption by fire ; 
the act of burning. In chemistry, this term is generally applied to the 
phenomena exhibited by burning bodies, and which depend upon the rapid 
union of the combustihle with the oxygen of the air. The heat and light 
which accompany ordinary combustion, announce intense chemical action ; 
and the consequence is that combustion is always attended by the produc- 
tion of new compounds. Combustible.— Susceptible of being burnt ; having 
the property of catching fire. In mineralogy the combustible or inflam- 
mable minerals are — sulphur, diamond, the coals, bitumens, mineral resins, 
and the inflammable salts. 

C6mminiLte (Lat. con, and minuo, I lessen).— To reduce to small frag, 
ments. Comminuted. — Reduced to small fragments, like the broken shells 
(shell-sand) of the sea-shore. 

C6mptonite.— Known also as Thomsonite, after the well-known chemist ; 
one of the Zeolite family, occurring with calc^spar and other zeolitic 
minerals in cavities, in tiup-rocks, and in old lavas. Named after Lord 
Compton, who brought it from Vesuvius in 1818. 



Conchifera (Gr. conche, a shell, and fero, I bear).— An extensive class of 
acephalous bivalve moUusca, including the oysters, scallops, mussels, and 
cockles. The conchifera are mostly equivalve, and are usually divided* 
into two orders — the Morwmyaria, or those having only one muscular im- 
pression on the valve ; and the Dimyariaf or those having two muscular 
impressions, and consequently furnished with two adductors. — See tabula- 
tions, " Animal Scheme." 

Conchitic (Gr. cancke, a shell).— Composed of sheUs ; containing shells 
in abundance. Applied to limestones and marbles in which the remains of 
shells are a noticeable feature. The simpler terms ''shell-limestone " or 
" shell-marble " are now more frequently employed. 

Conch6idal (Gr. conche and eidos, form).— Shell-like ; applied to that 
peoMliar Jraciure of rocks and minerals which exhibits concave and convex 
surfaces resembling shells ; thus, when we chip a piece of flint or cumel- 
coal, the newly-exposed surface exhibits the coiwkoidal fracture. 

Conchorh^ohns (Gr. cmwhoSf a shell, and rkyrickos, a beak). — Do Blain- 
ville's generic term for the fossil calcareous mandibles of cephalopods, in 
contradistinction to rhyncholites, which is Usually applied to the upper 
mandible. — See Rhyncholites. 

Cdncrete (Lat. con, together, and cretusj grown). — A compact mass,' com- 
posed of coarse pebbles and sand, run or cemented together by lime. 
Concrete is employed in the foundations of buildings, as a groundwork for 
causewaying, and occasionally as an artificial stone or pavement. About 
60 parts of pebbles, 25 of river-sand, and 15 of lime, form a good concrete. 

Concr^tioii, Concretionary (Lat. con and cretus, grown together). — 
Nodules like those of chert and ironstone, the grains and spherules of 
oolite, and the grape-like clusters of the magnesian limestone, are termed 
" concretions," as formed by a molecular aggregation distinct from crys- 
talliscUion, The concretionary structure is very apparent in certain deposits 
from calcareous springs {e.g., the pisolite of Carlsbad), in many greenstones, 
and in other rocks both of ancient and recent formation. 

Conferviteg. — Fossil plants, apparently allied to the aquatic confervas ; 
occurring chiefly in the Chalk formation. 

C6nflnence (Lat. con, a;iidJl7io, I flow. — The point at which two or more 
streams meet ; the junction of a tributary stream with the main river. 

Confbrmable. — Strata or groups of strata lying one above another in 
parallel order are said to be conformable ; when not in the same plane, 
or not dipping at the same angle, with those on which they are deposited, 
they are termed unconformable, which see. 

Congeners. — Applied in natural history to plants and animals that be- 
long to the same genus. 

Cong^rian. — A term occasionally applied to certain strata of the Vienna 
Tei-tiary basin, from there being charged with species of the mussel-like 
shell Con^eria, known also as MytUomya and Dreissena. 

Congl6merate (Lat. con, together, and glomerare, to gather in round 
heaps). — ^Bocks composed of consolidated gravels, just as sandstones are 
composed of consolidated sands ; known also as puddin^stones, from the 
resemblance of the pebbles in the mass to the fruit in a plum-pudding. 
In breccias the fragments are more or less angular ; in conglomerates they 
are rounded and water- worn, and may vary from pebbles the size of a pea to 
boulders half a ton in weight. —See Puddingstonb. 

Coniferse, Coniferous. — Cone-bearing ; applied to the pine tribe, whose 



seeda occur in cones, as the larch, pine, &c. The order includes the firs, 
pines, yews, junipers, &c., some of which have berry-shaped rather than 
scaly- coned fruit ; but in all the family resemblance, habit, and woody 
structure are greatly alike. Structurally considered, the wnJifwi stand 
intermediate between the endogens and exogeTu, forming the gymjiogens or 
ffymnosperms of the botanist. Undoubted coniferous wood makes its first 
appearance in the Carboniferous system, and continues upwards through- 
out all the subsequent formations. — See tabulations, "Vegetable Scheme/' 

Gdnodonts. — Literally "cone-teeth;" minute, glistening, slender, conical 
bodies, hollow at the base, pointed at the end, more or less bent, with 
sharp opposite margins, and occurring in thousands in the Lower Silurian 
schists of Russia. They are supposed by Pander to be the homy teeth of 
cartilaginous fishes ; but this view is opposed by- Huxley, Owen, and other 
naturalists, who r^^rd them as more l^ely to be the " spines or booklets 
or denticles of naked molluscs and annelids " — an opinion which has many 
geological coincidences to support it. 

ContempordneonB (Lat. con, together, and tempiu, temporis, time). — Ex- 
isting at the same period ; formed during, or belonging to, the same geo- 
logical epoch. Contemporan^itj. — The state of being contemporaneous 
with; hence we speak of lines and strata of contemporaneity in widely 
separated portions of the same system. 

Contorted (Lat. con, together, and torsus, twisted). — Applied to strata 
which, like gneiss and mica-schist, exhibit frequent irregular bondings and 
fiexures^ as if they had been crumpled and twisted while in a soft and 
yielding condition. 

Contour (Fr. contour, from con, and tour, a turn). — In geography, the 
outline or horizontal configuration of any portion of the land^ as defined 
by the waters of the ocean that surround it. 

Connldria (Lat. conulua, a little cone). — A genus of Pteropod shells, so 
called from their tapering conical outline. Conularia is four-sided, straight, 
tapering, the angles grooved, and the sides striated transversely, as if the 
thin shell had been divided by numerous septa. Several species are found 
in the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous formations. 

Copaline.— A fossil resin, found in the London and other Tertiary clays. 
It occurs in irregular pieces of a pale yellowish or dusty brown colour, 
and is so named from its resemblance to copal -resin in colour, lustre, 
transparency, hardness, and difficulty of solution in alcohol. It is brittle, 
yields readily to the knife, and melts easily, giving off a resinous and 
aromatic odour. 

Cophinns (Gr. kophlnos, a basket). — A term applied to curious organic 
markings, as yet detected only in Silurian shales, but common, in all pro- 
bability, to all Palnozoic and Mesozoic mudstones. Their shape is in- 
versely pyramidal, more or less circular and upright, and having the sides 
scored with elegant transvejse grooves resembling fine wicker-work, whence 
the name. They are supposed to be impressions made by the stems of 
encrinites, which, rooted and half -buried in the micaceous mud, have pro- 
duced, bytheirwavy and somewhat rotatory motion, the beautiful pattern, 
every line of which answers to one of the projecting rings of the jointed 
stem. The funnel-shaped hollow produced in wet soil by the waving of a 
flower-stem in a windy day is an analogous phenomenon. 

Copper (Lat. cuprum, a corruption of Cyprium, from the island of Cyprus, 
whence it was anciently brought).— One of the most abundant and earliest 



known metals, being the cliief ingredient in domestic utensils and imple- 
ments of war before the use of iron. It occurs native in the metamorphio 
and igneous rocks in threads, strings, and arborescent incrustations ; in 
plates and laminse ; also investing, massive, and disseminated ; but rarely 
in loose grains or lumps. Occasionally it is foimd deposited in mines from 
water containing the sulphate, after the manner of the electrotype pro- 
cess ; and not unfrequently large anomalous masses, weighing from 1600 to 
4000 lb. (like those of Lake Superior and South America), are found in ihe 
igneous rocks. More frequently and more abundantly it occurs as an ore 
in many formations — ^the yellow copper-ores (pyrites), the grey copper- 
ores, the red copper-ores, and some of the copper salts bei^ the most im- 
portant and valuable. As a metal it is distinguished by its peculiar red 
(" copper-red ") colour ; has a hardness of from 2.5 to 3 ; specific gravity, 
from 8.5 to 8.9 ; is malleable and ductile; and requires a temperature of 
nearly 2000** Fahr., or that of white heat, to fuse it. It is readily acted on 
by acids, which form with it blue or green salts ; and as these are poison- 
ous, hence the necessity of care in the use of copper utensils for culinary 
and domestic purposes. It is readily detected in solution by the bright 
blue produced by the addition of liquid ammonia — by the brown precipi- 
tate formed by the ferrocyanate of potash— or by its speedily coating a slip 
of polished iron or steel (a knife-blade, for example) with a thin film of 
metallic copper. Copper is largely employed in the arts and industry of 
all civilised nations, either alone or as an alloy — ^bronze, brass, bell-metal, 
and gun- metal being some of its most important admixtures. 

Copperas (Ger. kupfer-was«er). — The familiar term for sulphate of iron. 
The sulphate of copper occurs in blue, and the sulphate of iron in green 
crystals ; hence apparently the term copperas. It is prepared by moisten- 
ing the pyritous shales (sulphurets of iron) which are found abundantly in 
the Coal-measures, &c.« and exposing them to the air, when decomposition 
takes place and the sulphuret is converted into the sulphate of iron, which 
is subsequenty dissolved and evaporated, to procure it in the crystallised 
state. It is largely used in dyeing and tanning ; in the manufacture of 
writing-ink, prussian-blue, sulphuric acid ; and in various other arts and 

Copper-Glaace. — A valuable but rather scarce ore of copper (the disul- 
phide), occurring most frequently in blackish lead-grey prismatic (six-sided) 
crystals, but also massive and amorphous. Copper-glance is lamellar in 
structure, sectile and soft, slightly malleable, and much more easily fusible 
than copper. Specimens from Cornwall were found to consist of 77*16 
copper, 20.62 sulphur, and 1.45 iron. 

Copper-Nickel. — Known also as nicheline; a native arseniuret of nickel, 
generaUy occurring in veins in the crystalline and transition rocks, associ- 
ated with cobalt, silver, and other ores. It derives its name from its light 
copper-red colour, and is used as an ore of nickel in the manufacture of 
Grcrman silver. 

C^prolite (Or. hopros, dung, and Utko8, stone). — Petrified excrements or 
dungstone. Coprolites are found in all the Secondary and Tertiary strata,, 
and appear to be the voidings chiefly of saurians and sauroid fishes. In 
many instances they contain fragments of scales, shells, &c., the undigested 
portions of the prey of these voracious creatures. Many specimens exhibit 
on their surfaces the corrugations and vascular impressions of the intes- 
tines ; and masses of coprolites have been detected in titu within the ribs 



of liassio ichthyosauri. Coprolites are found in greatest perfection stud- 
ding the surfaces of certain aigillo-calcareous shales in the Lias and Coal- 
measures ; enclosed as the central nucleus of nodules and balls of ironstone 
in the Coal-measures ; and in those phosphatic nodules of the Greensand 
and Lower Chalk now used for manurial purposes. 

Coral (Gr. korallion). — The comprehensive term for all calcareous or 
stony structures secreted by the marine asteroid polypes or zoophytes. 
Cors^oid. — Having the appearance or structure of coral. Condliiie. — 
Partaking of the nature of coral. 

Coral Sag. — The upper member of the Middle Oolite, so called because 
it consists, in part« of continuous beds of petrified corals, for the most part 
retainiDg the position in which they grew, and sometimes forming masses 
15 feet thick.— See Oolite. 

Coral-Beef. — The term applied by naturalists, as well as by mariners, to 
any connected mass of coral structures, whether trending away in long 
partially-submerged ledges, encircling islands like breakwater-barriers, or 
rising as low ring-shaped islets above the waters of the ocean. Such masses 
are found studding the Pacific on both sides of the equator to the thirtieth 
degree of latitude ; abounding in the southern part of the Indian Ocean ; 
trending for hundreds of miles along the north-east coast of Australia ; and 
occurring less or more plentifully, in patches, in the Persian, Arabian, Bed, 
and Mediterranean Seas. In the Pacific, where volcanic agency is actively 
upheaving and submerging, coral-reefs are found forming low circular 
islands, enclosing lagoons {atolls or lagoon islands) ; surrounding islands of 
igneous and other origin {fringing or shx)re reefs) ; crowning others already 
upheaved {coral ledges) ; or stretching along shore in surf-beaten ridges 
{die true harrier or encircling reef) of many leagues in length, and from 20 
to more than 200 feet in thickness. Regarding them as mainly composed 
of coral, and knowing that the zoophytes ccm add, imless in some very 
favourable situations, only a foot or two to the structure during a century, 
many of these reefs must have been commenced before the dawn of the 
present epoch ; and looking upon them as consisting essentially of carbon- 
ate of lime, we have calcareous accumulations now in progress rivalling in 
magnitude the limestones of the Secondary formations. 

The composition and construction of coral-reefs, though'effected chiefly 
by lime-secreting zoophytes, seem owing in some measure to the promiscu- 
ous aggregation of marine debris. The more abundant reef-builders, ac- 
cording to Darwin, are the madrepores, astrcBas, poriies, meandrincef and 
nullipores, at moderate depths, and the millepores, seriatopores, and other 
delicate forms, at depths from fifteen to twenty fathoms — the great field of 
coral development thus lying between low water and twenty fathoms. As 
produced by these minute workers, coral is almost a pure carbonate of 
Hme, soft and porous at first, but gradually becoming so hard and compact 
as to be used in the South Sea Islands for building. During its formation, 
however, it encloses shells, fragments of drift-coral, sea-weeds, sponges, 
star-fishes, sea-urchins, drift-wood, and the like ; and these being cemented 
in one mass by the growth of new coral, the drift of coral- sand, and the 
infiltration of carbonate of lime from decomposed coral, the rock presents 
a brecciated appearance extremely analogous to some older limestones. 
Again, the sediment deposited in the lagoons and sheltered water-channels, 
and which arises from the raspings and droppings of the animals which 
bore into or browse upon it, produces, when dried and consolidated, a 



substance scarcely distinguishable from some earthy varieties of chalk. 
Further, where reefs have been upheaved by subterranean agency, as the 
strata of fossil coral on the hills of Tahiti, or enveloped in volcanic tufas, 
as in the Isle of France, where a bed ten feet thick oociirs between two 
lava currents, the " coral-stone" has a sparry crystalline aspect— thus pre- 
senting the geologist with almost every gradation of limestone, from the 
soft chalky mass of yesterday's secretion to the compact textiure of saccha- 
roid marble. On the subject of corals and coral-reefs, the reader may 
consult Darwin ' On the Structure and Distribution of Coral-Reefs ; ' Dana 
in the ' Report on the Gedogy of the United States Exploring Expedi- 
tion ; ' Stutchbury in the * West of England Journal ; * Beechey in his 
' Voyage to the Pacific ; ' and other recent voyagers. 

Coral Zone. — In marine zoology, the coral zone, as its name implies, is 
the region of the calcareous and stronger corals, and extends from 300 to 
600 feet — a depth rarely found in true British seas, but where found, char- 
acterised by forms of star-fish, cidaris, and brachiopod moUusca, which 
cannot exist in shallower waters. 

Coralline Zone. — That zone of marine life which extends from 90 to about 
300 feet in depth, and is, in our latitudes, the great theatre of marine life : 
the common sea-weeds cease, and corallines luxuriate ; the ordinary shore- 
shells disappear, and buccinum, fusus, trochus, venus, pecten, and tiie 
like, abound. 

Corax (Or., a kind of shark-fish). — A genus of shark teeth occurring in 
the Chalk formation, and differing chiefly from those of the recent genus 
Oaletts, to which the Tope or Grey Shark belongs, in being solid. They 
are of small size, of triangular form, with a deep concavity on the posterior 
margin, the base of which is prolonged, and forms three or four angular 
points, and have the anterior edge finely serrated. The root of the tooth, 
as in NotidanuSf is a broad bony plate. 

Coriiu^ons (Liat. coriunif a hide). — Having a tough leathery consistence; 
having the texture of rough skin. Applied to many vegetable and animal 

Combrash. — A provincial term used by Smith, for a coarse shelly lime- 
stone of the Upper Oolite. It is said to derive its name from the facility 
. with which it disintegrates and breaks up {brashy) for the purposes of corn- 
land. — See OoLino System. 

Corncockle Unir, in Dumfriesshire, celebrated for the fossil footprints 
which occur on the slabs of its Permian sandstones, and which form the 
subject of Sir W. Jardine^s monograph, 'The Ichnology of Annandale.' 

C6mean (Lat. comu, a horn).— An igneous rock, so called from its 
tough, compact, and horn-like texture ; known also as Apkantte, which 

C6meon8 (Lat. comu, a horn). — Homy ; having the colour and texture 
of horn ; e.g., the operculum and dried epidermis of many shells, the cara- 
pace of the turtle, &c. 

Cornish Diamonds.— A name given to varieties of rock-crystal found in 
the Cornish mines, and frequently cut for ornamental purposes.* The true 
Cornish diamond is usually covered with an opaque coating of silica. 

Comstone.— A term usually applied to the reddish and bluish-red con- 
cretionary limestones which occur in the middle formation of the Old Red 
Sandstone. In Hereford, Fife, and Forfar, they occur associated with 
reddish marls and sandstones ; are often irregular in their stratification ; 




are frequently too siliceous to be used as limestones ; and are altogether 
void of fossils. They are said to derive their name from the fertile corn- 
soil that overlies them in Hereford, as compared with the tenaceous clays 
which cover the marls and sandstones. 

Corna A'mmonis (Lat. cwmu, a horn). — An obsolete term for the ammon- 
ite, from its fancied resemblance to the horn with which the head of 
Jupiter Ammon was sculptured. 

Ciomnlites (Lat. comUf a horn). — A genus of ringed or annulated shelly 
tubes occurring in Silurian strata, and so called from their shape. At one 
time supposed to be tentacles or encrinal stems, they are now regarded as 
the shelly tubes of marine annelids. — See Tentaculitbs. 

Corroded (Lat. corrodo, I eat or wear away). — Eaten away by degrees ; 
worn away as limestone is by the carbonic acid and moisture of the atmo- 
sphere. Corrosion, the act or state of being so worn away ; and corrosive, 
having the power of dissolving and gradually wearing away. 

Corrngated (Lat. con, together ; rugat a wrinkle). — Wrinkled ; covered 
with irregular folds ; having a crumpled and uneven surface. 

Conmdimi, ComndTmi Stone (Hindoo, Zorun^).— Crystallised alumina 
or oxide of aluminum, consisting of from 93 to 95 alumina and 3 water, 
with traces of lime, silica, and magnesia. It usually occurs in six-sided 
prisms, and also in obtuse and acute six-sided pyramids, but is likewise 
found granular and massive. It is generally of a greyish or greenish- 
brown tint ; uneven in fracture ; tough when compact ; and the hardest 
of all known minerals except the diamond. " The name coruTidum,*' says 
Bristow, " is commonly confined to the opaque, rough crystals and cleav- 
able masses, generally of a dingy colour, and often dark ; while the term 
emery embraces the more or less impure, massive, granular, and compact 
kinds ; and sapphire and niby comprise the transparent, brightly-tinted 
varieties." It is extensively used for polishing steel and cutting gems. 

Cor^hodon (Gr. koryphe, a point, and odous, tooth).— A sub-genus of 
Lophlodont tapir-like pachyderms found in the Eocene and Miocene Terti- 
aries of France and England ; and so termed by Owen because the angles 
of the ridges of its molar teeth are developed into points. The broad, 
ridged, and pointed grinding surface of the tooth indicates its adaptation 
to comminute the coarser kinds of vegetable substances. 

C6smical (6r. kosmos, order— natural order, as that of the universe). — 
Belating to the world or universe, as "cosmical laws," or laws of the 

Cosm6goxiy (Gr. kosmos, world, and gone, origin). — Reasoning or specu- 
lation as to the origin or creation of the universe. Distinct from Geology, 
whose object is to unfold the history of our globe as far only as fact and 
observation will permit of sound deduction. 

Go8m6grapliy (Gr. kosmos, and grapho, I write).— A description of the 
world or universe ; the science which treats of the several parts of the 
world, their laws and relations. 

6osm61ogy (Gr. kosmos, and logos, reasoning). — The science which treats 
of the laws that govern the universe ; the study of the world in general. 

CdsmoB (Gr. kosmos), — Literally " order ; " natural order, like that pre- 
vailing in the universe. The whole framework of the material universe ; 
the world, from the orderly arrangement and symmetry of its component 
parts, in contradistinction to cfmos, the confused and disorderly mass from 
which it arose. 



Coste^billg. — In mining, sinking shallow pits at intervals down to the 
solid rock, and then driving headings at right angles to the general course 
of the veins in a country, for the purpose of discovering ore. 

.Gotham Marble. — Known also as Ruin or Landscape Marble, A light- 
grey argillaceous limestone of the White lias, occurring in thin layers 
at Cotham and other places near Bristol. Slices of the stone, taken at 
right angles to the bedding, exhibit, when polished, fanciful representa- 
tions of landscapes and ruins ; hence the name. 

Conines (Fr. couUr, to flow as melted metal).^ — In frequent use by geolo- 
gists for streams of lava, whether in the act of flowing or long since con- 
solidated into rock-material. 

Courses. — Applied in geology to thin regular strata from their being 
superimposed upon one another like the hewn ** courses" of a building ; 
hence we hear such phrases as "alternate courses of limestone and shale." 

Crag (Celt, cteggan^ shell). — Shelly Tertiary deposits of the Pliocene 
epoch, occurring in Norfolk and Suffolk, and generally subdivided into 
three members— viz., the upper or " Mammaliferous Crag," the "Red 
Crag," and the lower or " Coralline Crag."— See Tertiaet System. 

Crag and Tail (properly "craig and tail").— Applied to a form of 
Secondary hills common 'in Britain, where a bold precipitous front is ex- 
posed to the west or north-west, and a sloping declivity towards the east. 
The phenomenon of crag and tail is evidently the result of the currents of 
the Drift epoch, which in our latitude swept from north-west to north- 
east, laying bare the opposing heights, but leaving untouched the shel- 
tered slopes and terraces. 

Craigleith Stone. — ^A compact, flne-grained, free-dressing, whitish-grey 
sandstone quarried at Craigleith, near Edinburgh, and largely used in the 
Scotch metropolis as a building-stone. It is almost entirely composed of 
siliceous sand ; the purer beds containing about 98 per cent of silica — ^the 
admixtures being carbonate of lime, alumina, and iron. 

Crinia (Or. hrajMS, a helmet or head-piece). — A genus of small brachio- 
podous molluscs, which attach themselves to other bodies, and conse- 
quently have the lower valve flat, and the upper limpet-like or helmet- 
shaped. They occur from the Lower Silurian to the Chalk inclusive. 

Cranium (Lat.)— The skull or brain-case. Cranial.— Of or belonging to 
the skull. In treating of the form of the human skull as a mark of race or 
tribe, ethnologists are in the habit of speaking of hrachyc^halic or short- 
headed ; dolichocephalic or long-skulled ; acrocephalic, high or pyramidal 
skulled ; and platycephalic or flat-headed. As human remains often occur 
in prehistoric deposits, these terms are also employed by the palseon- 

Crater (Gr. Jtrater, a cup or bowl). — The mouth or orifice of a volcano ; 
so called from its cup or bowl shape. Craters may be central or lateral in 
the mountain in which they occur ; there may be one principal and several 
subsidiary ones ; and they may shift their places and become absorbed by 
subsidence, or be obliterated by eruptions from more active orifices. The 
craters of active volcanoes have in general one side a little lower, owing to 
the prevailing winds carrying the greater portion of t^e light material 
(scorise and ashes) to the opposite side. — See Volcai70. 

Crateriform. — Applied to hills whose summits present bowl-shaped and 
other circular depressions that seem to have been the craters of once active 
volcanoes. We thus speak of the " craterif oim hills of Auvergne" — hills 



which were undoubtedly in a state of igneous activity during the Tertiary 

Creatikm, Centres of.— See Centres of Creation. 

CSreep. — In coal-mining^ when the pressure of the superincumbent strata 
becomes so great as to thrust the ** pillars " or masses of coal which are 
left to support the roofs of the galleries down into the subjacent shales, 
and thus cause the floors to bulge upwardi^ this slow bulging is termed 
a creep, and frequently continues till it reaches the roof and entirely chokes 
up the gallery. The pressing down of the roof, on the other hand, is 
known as a thrust or cruthf .which see. 

Cretdceons or Chalk System (Lat. cretay chalk). — The Cretaceous system 
— so called from the chalk beds which form its most notable feature — is the 
last or uppermost of the Secondary formations. As typically developed in 
the south of England, it is composed of calcareous, argillaceous, and arena- 
ceous rocks — ^the former predominating in the upper, and the two latter in 
the lower portion of the system. The calcareous members are generally 
known as " chalk " and " chalk-marls,'*— the former bemg applied to the 
purer beds, and the latter to those that are more earthy and clayey ; the 
argillaceous strata, which are for the most part stiff blue marly clays, are 
known by the provincial term " gauli " or " golt ; " and the sandy beds, 
being frequently coloured green by the presence of chloritic matter, are 
distinguished as " greensands." The nodular masses of '' flint" that occur 
in the Chal^ consist almost of pure silex, more or less coloured by iron ; 
and the impure calcareo-siliceous nodules and concretions are spoken of as 
*' chert." The system, as occurring in the south of England, is usually 
grouped as follows : — 

Upper Chalk. — Generally soft white chalk, containing 
numerous flint and chert nodules more or less arranged 
in layers. 

Lower Chalk. — Harder and less white than the upper, 
and generally with fewer flints. (Reddish in the north 
of England, and with abimdance of flints.) 

Chalk Marl. — A greyish earthy or yellowish marly 
chalk, sometimes indurated. 

Upper Greensand.— Beds of siliceous sand, occasionally 
indurated to chalky or cherty sandstone (the ''fire- 
stone" of Surrey), of a green or greyish white, with 
nodules of chert. 

Gault. — ^A provincial name for a bluish tenacious clay, 
^ sometimes marly, with indurated argillaceous concre- 
^ tions and layers of greensand. 

Lower Greensand. — Beds of green or ferruginous 
sands, witii layers of chert and indurated sandstones, 
local beds of gault, rocks of chalky or cherty limestone 
(Kentish rag), and fuller's earth. 

Or, adopting the recent views of paleontologists respecting the cretaceous 
affinities of the Wealden, and adding certain Continental beds which are 
wanting in England, we have then an Upper and a Lower group, compris- 
ing the following subdivisions : — 

Upper Cretaceous. 

1. Maestricht beds and Faxoe limestones. 

2. White chalk, with flints. 


Chalk. ^ 



8. Chalk marl, or grey chalk slightly argillaceous. 

4. Upper greensand, occasionally with beds of chert, and with chloritic 

marl {craie chloriUe of French authors) in the upper portion. 

5. Gault, including the Blackdown beds. 

Lower CREiu.OEons (N'eocomian). 

1. Lower greensand — Greensand, ironsand, clay, and occasional beds of 

limestone (Kentish rag). 

2. Wealden beds — or Weedd clay and Hastings sands. 

Whichever view is adopted, the entire suite of strata — with the excep- 
tion of the fluvio-marine beds of the Weald — bear evidence of shifting and 
widespread seas, and of a climate favourable to the growth of cycads and 
zamias on land, and of corals, gigantic saurians, and turtles in the waters. 
PalsBontologically, the remains of the Chalk and Greensand are eminently 
marine, and comprise numerous species of sponges, corals, star-fishes, sea- 
urchins, shell-fish, Crustacea, fishes, and reptiles. Indications of bird and 
mammalian remains have also been detected, but these are as yet too 
scanty and obscure to warrant any definite conclusion. On the whole, all 
the Life-types of the system are stiictly Mesozoic, and of the numerous 
species found in the lS*ias, Oolite, and Chalk, not one, it is affirmed by 
palsBontoIogists, have been detected in Tertiary strata. 

Industrially, the chief products of the system are chalk and fiint. 
Chalk, as an almost pure carbonate of lime, is calcined like ordinary lime- 
stones, and employed by the bricklayer, plasterer, cemen^maker, and 
farmer; and levigated, it furnishes the well-known "whiting" of the 
painter. Flint calcined and ground is used in the manufacture of china, 
porcelain, and flint-glass ; and before the invention of percussion-caps was 
in universal use for gim-fiints. In the south of England flints are exten- 
sively used as road-material ; and the larger nodules are frequently taken 
for the building of walls and fences. Beds of fuller's earth are worked in 
the Greensands, whose indurated strata likewise famish supplies of not 
indifferent building-stone and road- material. From the Gault and Upper 
Greensand of Famham in Surrey are also obtained those phosphatic nod- 
ules, now used as a manure by being ground to powder and converted into 
the superphosphate by the action of Bulph\u*ic acid ; as well as that " fire- 
stone rock," which is said to contain from 30 to 70 per cent of silica 
soluble in alkalies, and employed in like manner for manurial purposes. 

Crinoids, Crinoidea (Gr. krinon, a lily, and eidos, likeness). — Literally, 
" lily-like animals ; " the Encrinites ; an extensive order chiefly of fossil 
Echinoderms, so termed from the resemblance which their rayed bodies, 
surmounted on long slender stalks, have, when closed, to a tulip or lily. 
In existing seas the Crinoids are represented by the ComcUuUe or " feather- 
stars'' of our own shores, and by the rare and all but extinct Fentacrinites 
of the West Indies. The Comatula, though free-floating in its adult state, 
is attached by a stalk when young ; the marsupite, a fossil form, appears 
also to have been free in its mature state ; but all the other families were 
fixed to the sea-bottom or to other objects by their long, slender, many- 
jointed stems. The characteristics of the order, which is of vast geolo- 
gical interest, are well exemplified in the PenitacrintUf specimens of which 
are in the British Museum, tiie College of Surgeons Museum, London, and 
in the Hunterian Museum, Glasgow. This animal has a long stem or 
column, which is composed of calcareous joints or ossicles, articulated to 
each other by radiated surfaces, and is fixed by the base to a rock or other 



firm body. The stem, which gives ofif a number of slender side-branches, 
supports a vasiform receptacle or cup, formed of five calcareous plates in 
close apposition ; and in this receptacle the digestive and other viscera are 
situated. The upper part of the receptacle is covered by a plated integu- 
ment in which there is an aperture for the mouth. From the m^gin or 
brim of the receptacle, or pelvis as it is sometimes termed, proceed ten 
many-rayed arms which subdivide into branches of extreme tenuity. On 
the upper and inner side of the arms are numerous articulated feelers or 
pinntB capable of expansion and contraction, for the capture of prey. Tn 
fact, the pentacrinite may be described, without much error, as a stalked 
comatula, and this designation of ** stalked star-fishes " is more or less ap- 
propriate to the entire order of Encriuites. The innumerable calcareous 
joints which constitute the skeleton of the pentacrinite are held in vital 
union partly by a fieshy investing integument, and partly by the central 
perforation which connects the stalk and all the other members with the 
receptacle containing the viscera or body of the animal. Such is the Pen- 
tacrinus, and such, in general terms, is the whole of the order — the main 
difierences lying in the stems, which are round and smooth in the Encrin- 
ties proper, and pentagonal and ornamented in the Pentacrinites ; some 
having the stem simple, others branched ; some having the joints equal 
and similar, others having them large and small alternately ; some having 
the plates of the receptacle larger and more numerous than others ; some 
having the arms in few biftircations, others having them in many branches, 
and armed with innumerable feelers. On these and similar distinctions are 
founded such families as the Apiocrinites or pear-encrinites, the Cyathocnn- 
ites or cup-encrinites, and others which appear in the usual subdivisions of 
the order. — See Encbinites. 

(Geologically, the Encrinites range from the Silurian up to the present 
epoch— most abundantly in Pal»ozoic and Mesozoic strata, rarely in Cain- 
ozoic, and now represented only by comatidaf and the all but extinct penta- 
crinus. Like the corals, their fimction seems to have been, to a great 
extent, the secretion of lime from the ocean— whole strata of limestone, 
Silurian and Carboniferous, being almost entirely made up of their re- 
mains. As in other life-forms, each epoch has had its own peculiar genera 
and species, and thus we rise from the platycriniies, poteriocrinites, cyatho- 
crinites, and actinocrinites of the Palaeozoic formations, to the peTitcicriniieSf 
apiocriniteSf and unarsupUes of the Mesozoic, as certainly as we pass from 
these to the wmatula of existing seas. — See tabulations, " Animal 


Cri6c6ra8, Crioclratite (Gr. hrios, a ram, and heras, horn). — A genus of 
the Ammonite family peculiar to the Gault and Greensand, and so named 
from its shape, the whorls being separate, like the coils of a ram's horn. 

Crocodilia. — ^A well-known.'group or order of reptiles, represented by the 
crocodiles, gavials, and alligators of existing rivers. They have their body 
supported on four partially webbed feet, and encased in an armour of bony 
plates or scutes, hence they are said to be loricated or mailed. Crocodil- 
ians occur fossil from the Lias upwards ; but those occurring up to the 
Chalk inclusive differ from existing genera in the character of their verte- 
brae, which are either doubly flat, doubly concave {amphicoelian), or convex 
before and concave behind {opisthocoelian) ; while in recent species, and in 
those occurring in Tertiary strata, the vertebrae are concave in front and 
convex behind {proccelian). Besides these differences, the genera having 



broad muzzles, like tho cayman and alligator, are unknown below the Ter- 
tiary formations — all the Secondary genera being referable to the diyision 
having elongated beaks, like the recent gavial. Crocodiltu, alligator, 
and gavialii, are recent and Tertiary genera; goniopholis, tdeosaurut 
steneosanrus, ko,, are those foimd in the Chalk and Oolitic formations. 

CSrocoisite (Gr. krokoeis, aurora-yellow). — Monochromate of lead, consist- 
ing, according to Berzelius, of 68.5 oxide of lead and 31.5 chromic acid. 
Occurs in narrow veins in gneiss and the older crystalline rocks, either 
crystallised in oblique rhombic prisms, or massive ; colour, various tints of 
hyacinth red ; streak, orange-yellow. Used as a pigment. 

Crop. —The edge of any inclined stratum when it comes to the surface is 
called the crop or otttcrop, which see. 

Chross-Ck>iirfle. — A miner^s term for a vein or lode which intersects at 
right angles (literally crosses) the general direction of productive metalli- 
ferous veins in any mining district. 

Cro88-Cat. — In mining, a level driven at right angles to the known direc- 
tion of a lode with a view to intersect it. 

Crosf-Stone. —A synonyme of ffarmotome or Staurolite, one of the Zeolite 
family — either of which see. 

Crotaldcrinos (Gr. krotalon, a child's rattle). — An Upper Silurian encri- 
nite, so called from its very peculiar shape and structure. In most eucri- 
nites, the arms issue immediately from the edge of the pelvic cup, com- 
mencing with a single joint, and soon branching into two, three, or four ; 
the subdivisions varying in different' species. But in this genus the sub- 
divisions commence at the very edge of the cup, and become so numerous 
as to form a perfect network— the five primary reticulate arms overlap- 
ping each other, and forming, as it were, a convoluted funnd-shaped 
oi^^anism of the finest basket-work, instead of the rayed arrangement of 
the common encrinite. The stem was made up of close tuberculated joints 
— each tubercle near the root lengthening into tubular processes for 
attachment to shells and corals. 

Crow-Coal. — A miner's term for certain earthy coals which contain very 
little bitumen and a lai^ percentage of indestructible ash. 

Crush. — Applied in mining to any breaking or crushing down of strata 
by superincumbent pressure, as, for example, the breaking down of the 
roof of a gallery. The upward bulging of the floor from the same cause is 
termed a creep, which see. 

Cmsticea (Lat. crusta, a hard covering or crust). — Literally "crust- 
clad ;'* an extensive and varied class of the Articulata or jointed animals, 
comprising such well-known forms as the crab, crayfish, lobster, shrimp, 
and prawn. In very general terms they may be described as free animals, 
having articulated or segmented bodies, jointed limbs, a branchial or gill 
respiration, a double or complete circulation of blood, which is colourless, 
a nervous system consisting of chains of ganglions more or less numerous, 
the sexes distinct, and reproduction by ova or eggs. In many families the 
crust or covering, to which the class owes its name, is tough and flexible, 
and has for its base the peculiar substance termed chitine; in others it is 
hard and stony, and consists mainly of carbonate of lime. Such crusts 
being incapable of expansion so as to accommodate themselves to the in- 
creasing size of the animals, they are motilted or cast off at stated periods, 
and this very frequently during the younger stages — a circumstance which 
accounts for the infinite numbers of the exuvis of certain fEuuilies in the 



deposits of lakes and estuaries. According to physiologists, the normal 
number of segments in the Crustacea is twenty-one — seven for the head, 
seven for the thorax, and seven for the abdomen; but most frequently 
several of the anterior segments are fused or soldered into a single piece 
termed the cephalo-tJiorax, leaving the abdomen or post-abdomen free, and 
terminated by a variously compounded tail-plate, telson or pygidivm. It 
is this interfusion of parts which renders the forms of the Crustacean fami- 
lies so varied ; and the metamorphoses which many of them undei^o, from 
the larval to the adult stage, that render them so difficult of discrimination. 
This difficulty is further increased by their great variety of habitat — some 
living in the ocean, others in lakes and estuaries ; some chiefly on land, 
others partly in trees ; some inhabiting the shells and coverings of other 
animals, and others being parasitic, either for a portion or for the whole of 
their existence. Their function is also as varied as their habitats — most of 
them being carnivorous, many of them phytophagous, a large portion om- 
nivorous, while the whole class act less gt more as scavengers in clearing 
away dead and decaying matter. 

For these reasons the classification and arrangement of the Crustacea by 
different systematists differ according to the point of view from which they 
have been studied. Thus they are often primarily subdivided into Ento- 
MOSTRAOA (within shells) and Malaoostbaca (soft shells)— the former 
embracing those small forms (cypris, nebaJia, &c.) which are often par- 
tially or wholly enclosed in a bivalvular shell-like carapace ; and the latter 
the larger forms (crayfish, lobster &c), originally termed ** soft-shells," 
in comparison with the true testacea or shell- fish. Again, viewing them 
in reference to their organs of motion, we have such orders as Copepoda 
(oar-footed), PhyUopoda (leaf -footed), Poecilopoda (various-footed), and the 
like, according as these members are more especiidly fitted for swimming, 
walking, or prehension. Farther, looking at the position of the eyes in 
the Malacostraca, we have Podophthalmia (stalk-eyed), and EdrwpkthaXmia 
(sessile-eyed) ; at their limbs, and we have Decapoda (ten-footed), Isopoda 
(equal-footed), and so forth ; or at their caudal terminations, and we have 
Macrura (long-tailed), like the lobster, Brachyura (short-tailed), like the 
crab, and Anomura (taiUess), like the hermit-crab. These and similar 
subdivisions show at once the multiplicity and complexity of form in the 
class— a complexity which is greatly mcreased by the discovery of widely- 
divergent fossil forms for which new subdivisions and families have had to 
be erected. 

Qeologically, the Crustacea are of prime interest and importance. They 
occur in the oldest as well as in the most recent formations ; the extinct 
forms have greatly enlax^ed our conceptions of vitality ; and their occur- 
rence in particular strata, and often in inconceivable numbers, enables us 
to reason on their uniformity of function, even when their forms and 
organisation appear to be altogether different. The more ancient forms 
— trilobites and eurypterites—h&YQ now no representatives, and resemble 
rather the larval than the adult form of any existing genus ; in the Meso- 
zoic {orma—glyphaiaf &c. — ^we catch a glimpse of the existing long-tailed 
decapods ; and not till we ascend to upper Mesozoic and Cainozoic strata 
do we discover the more concentrated structures of the short-tailed crabs 
and their congeners. — For structural and systematic arrangements, see 
tabulations, " Animal Scheme." 

Cr;^lite (Gr. kruos, hoar-frost, and litko8),—The double hydrofluate of 

161 L 



soda and alumina, a rare mineral found only in the Gneiss of West Green- 
land, where it occurs in thick veins, massive, and of a lamellar structure. 
There are two varieties, the snow-white and the rusty-yellow ; and both 
are now used as the commercial ore of aluminium. Cryolite melts like 
ice in the flame of a candle ; hence the name. 

Cryptogdmia, Cryptogamlc (Gr. hryptos, concealed, and gamos, nuptials). 
— Literally, fiowerless ; one of the great divisions of the vegetable kingdom, 
comprising the mushrooms, lichens, mosses, sea-weeds, and ferns, in 
which the organs of fructification are concealed or not apparent, as in the 
Pkanerogamia or flowering plants. They are also termed offammu, aooty- 
ledoiwus, and edlular plantt. Fossil in all formations. — See tabulations, 
"Vegetable Sohemb." 

CxyBtal (Gr. hystcUlot, ice). — Originally applied to transparent gems, 
but now extended to all minerals having regular geometricckl forms. 
Crystallised. — Having the structure of a crystal, as rock-crystal. Crystal- 
line. — Confusedly crystalline, as granite. Snb-crystalHne. —Indistinctly or 
faintly crystalline, as some varieties of limestone. — See Crystalloobafht. 

Crystal]i8ati0n. — The process (natural or artificial) by which the particles 
of liquid or gaseous bodies are converted into crystals, or solid bodies of a 
regularly limited form ; e»g,, the production of common salt by the evapo* 
ration of sea-brine, of sugar-candy by the evaporation of syrup. In 
mineral or unorganised bodies the ultimate or component pcurticles are 
polygonal solids or crystals ; in organised bodies they are hollow spherical 
cells. As in the organic world, therefore, every variety of structure is but 
the result of modifications of the primitive spherical cell; so in the inor- 
ganic world every rock and mineral is composed of original angvdmr solids, 
or determinate modifications of these. Why calcareous spar should assume 
one form of crystal, and quartz or rock-crystal another, science cannot tell ; 
but must, in the mean time, content itself with the determination and 
description of these curious and multifarious forms. 

Cxystalldgraphy (Gr. hrytUdlos, and grapho, I write). — Literally, a de- 
scription of crystals ; that sub-science of mineralogy which investigates 
the relation of crystalline forms, and tlie origin and structure of crystals. 
** The word crystal in mineralogy designates a solid body, exhibiting an 
original (not artificial) more or less regular polyhedric form. It is thus 
bounded by plane surfaces named faces, which intersect in straight lines 
or edges, and these again meet in points and form angles, which, when 
bounded by three or more faces, are named solid angles. The space 
occupied by a crystal, and bounded by its faces, is often named a form 
qf crystallisation, which is thus merely the mathematical figure regarded 
as independent of the matter that fills it. Some crystals are bounded by 
equal and similar faces, and are named simple forms; whilst those in which 
the faces are not equal and similar, are named compound forms or combinor 
tions — ^being regarded as produced by the union or combination of the faces 
of two or more simple forms. The cube or hexahedron bounded by six 
equal and similar squares, the octahedral by eight equilateral triangles, 
and the rhombohedron by six rhombs, are thus simple forms. The axis 
of a crystal is a line passing through its centre, and terminating either in 
the middle of two faces, or of two edges, or in two angles ; and axes 
terminating in similar parts of a crystal are named similar axes. In 
describing a crystal, one of its axes is supposed to be vertical or upright, 
and is then named the principal axis. When the axes of the crystals are 



properly chosen, and placed in a right position, the various faces are 
observed to group themselves in a regular and beautiful manner around 
these axes, and to be all so related to them as to compose a connected 
series produced according to definite laws. It appears that every mineral 
species is characterised by a certain form of crystal, with axes intersecting 
at fixed angles, and bearing to each otiier definite proportions, from which 
as a primary every other form of crystal observed in that mineral species 
may be deduced, simply by varying the proportion of these axes. When 
viewed in this manner, and referred to their simplest forms, it is seen that 
the innumerable variety of crystals occurring in nature may be all reduced 
to six distinct groups, or> as they are named, systems of crystcUlisatMn. 
According to Naumann, these systems are the Tesseral, Tetragonal, Hexa- 
gonal, Bhombic, Monoclinohedric, and Triclinohedric ; and a description 
of these, with their combinations and derivations, constitutes the main 
portion of Crystallography. In a description of these systems, the ciystals 
are supposed to be perfect ; that is, the planes smooth and even, and the 
faces equal and uniform. A perfect crystal can only be produced when 
daring its formation it is completely isolated, so as to have full room to 
expand on every side. These conditions, however, seldom occur in nature ; 
hence we have imperfect crystallisation — that is, crystals terminating 
abruptly, having their faces striated, rough, and drusy, their edges 
curved, and their comers rounded. Amid all these changes and modifica- 
tions, however, one important element remains unchanged — viz., Uieir 
angular m^asuremetU. This is obtained either by the contact, or by the 
reflecting goniometer." — {' Manual of Mineralogy,' passim^ ) So far the de^ 
termination of crystalline forms and species is strictly mathematical, and 
Crystallography, properly speaking, restricts itself to this formation ; but 
as in nature minerals are often irregularly aggregated, and as the great 
bulk of the rooks have been formed tmder conditions that excluded the 
free development of regular crystallised forms, the mineralogist in his 
discriminations has to call in the aid of physical characteristios, such 
as cleavage, Jracture, hardfiess, lustre, and optical properties — and even 
these only assume precision and geological importance when guided by 
the more exact and satisfactory results of chemical analysis, — ^See Mineb- 


Ctenis (Gr. hteis, itenos, a comb). — A provisional genus of Pl^fessor 
lindley for certain cycadaceous- looking leaves furnished with narrow 
pointed leaflets (hence their pectinated aspect), but differing from oycads 
in having their veins bifurcating instead of undivided and parallel. 

Ctenoid, Ctenoidean (6r. kteis, a comb, and eidos, form). — The third 
order of fishes in Agassiz's arrangement. They are distinguished by their 
scales, which are jagged or pectinated (like the teeth of a comb) on the 
posterior margin : these scales are formed of laminsB of horn or bone, but 
have no enamel. The Ctenoideane appear with the Chalk ; the Perch is a 
familiar example. — See Iohthtoloot. 

Ctenopt^chias (6r. kteis, Henos, a comb, 9Xid,ptyche, a wrinkle).— A genus 
of palatal fish-teeth belonging to the Cestraciont family, and found chiefly 
in the Carboniferous limestone. They are readily distinguished by the 
serrated or comb-like maigin of their free-cutting edges. 

Cabe-Qre.— An arseniate of iron, of an olive-green or pistacio-green 
colour, and occurring in perfect cubes in the copper-ores of Cornwall and 
other localities. 


cue — CUT 

Cnenmitet (Lat cueumis, a ououmber). — Fossil fruits from the London 
Clay, so closely resembling the seeds of various members of the recent 
genus Cueumis (comprising the gourd, water-melon, &c. ), both in outward 
form and internal structure, that there is no reasonable doubt of their 
belonging to plants of the same family; hence the name Cuaimiteaf or 
fossil cucumbers. 

Calm (Welsh). — An impure shaly kind of coal, or anthracitic shale. The 
oulmiferous or anthracitic shales of North Devon are well known in 
geology, and are sometimes treated as a lower Carboniferous group under 
the term " Culm Measures." 

Cnlmites (Lat. eulmus, a stem like that of com). — A provisional genus of 
Tertiary articulated stems, with two or more scars at the joints. 

CdmbriaB (the ancient Cumbria). — Professor Sedgwick ^s term for tiie 
lowest slaty and partially •fossiliferous beds of Westmoreland and Cumber- 
land, as indicating an older and earlier system than the Silurian of Mur- 
chison. — See Cambrian. 

Cdneifbrm (Lat. euneut, a wedge, and ^nta, likeness). — Wedge-shaped ; 
Cuneate, tapering like a wedge; a form characteristic of many mineral 
forms, and abruptly terminating stratiform masses. 

Cupresslnites {cupressus, the C3rpress-tree).~A genus of fossil fruits 
occurring in Tertiary strata, and evidently allied to those of the existing 
Cjrpress. Known also as Callitrites, Frenilites, and Solenostrchus. 

CapreMitet. — The generic term employed by Brongniart for all coniferous 
remains that are nearly allied to, or identical with, the existing cypress. 
Their leaves are enlarged at the base, sessile, and inserted spirally in six or 
seven rows ; their fruit consists of peltate scales. They have been found 
in the Trias, Lias, Oolite, and Wealden. 

Capriferovf (Lat. cuprum, copper, and /ero, I bear). — Applied to veins, 
rocks, and other matrices containing the ores of copper, or copper in the 
native or metallic state. 

Cuprite (Lat. cuprum, copper). — A mlneralogical term for the red oxids 
of copper, known also as octahedral copper ore, from the form of its crystals, 
which are usually attached and combined in druses. It also occurs in 
granular or compact aggregates, has a metallic-adamantine lustre, a co- 
chineal or shining red colour; and consists of 88.5 copper and 11.5 
oxygen. It is found in beds or veins, in granite, in the crystalline schists 
and transition rocks, and usually along with other ores of copper, blende, 
galena, and pyrites. 

CnpropldmUte (Lat. cuprum^ copper; plumbum, lead). — Literally copper- 
lead, a massive-granular grej ore with a cubic cleavage, chiefly obtained 
from Chili, and consisting of 64.9 lead, 19.5 copper, 0.5 silver, and 15.1 

Cnrsdres (Lat curro, I run). — Runners or Coursers. An order of birds, 
so named from the peculiar adaptation of their legs and feet for running. 
The order includes the ostrich, emu, cassowary, and apteryx, in all of 
which the wings are merely rudimentary and unfitted for flight. Remains 
of gigantic cursorial birds {Dinomis, Epiomis, &c.) have been found 
in the Upper Tertiary and Newer Pleistocene formations. 

Crdspidftte (Lat. cuspis, a spear). — Spear-shaped ; tapering abruptly to a 
■tiif short point, in contradistinotion to lanceolate, which indicates a slen- 
der and slowly tapering form. 

Catten. — A quarryman's term for any narrow crack or fissure that cuts 



or crosses the strata ; henoe " backs and cutters/' for what is known to 
geologists as the jointed structure. 

C^anite (Gr. kyanos, azure blue). — One of the Garnet family, occurring 
in broad prismatic crystals, chiefly in mica and talc schists, and so called 
from its prevailing azure-blue colour. Transparent blue cyanite is often 
polished and substituted for sapphire, but is easily known from its inferior 

C;^wiose, Cydnoslte (Gr. kyajioSf azure blue). — Sulphate of copper, or 
blue vitriol, a well-known substance, occurring in nature as a secondary 
production from copper pyrites> or from iron pyrites containing small 
quantities of copper, but more frequently prepared artificially — either by 
the roasting and lixiviation of pyrites and other copper ores, by treating 
these or metallic copper with sulphuric acid, or as a residuary product of 
metallui^c operations. Used as a pigment and dye-stuff. 

Cly4thifbrm (Gr. cyaihos, a cup, and forma, likeness). — Cup -shaped ; 
having the form of a cup, as certain flowers,. polypes, corals, &c. 

Qyathoph^^Unm (Gr. cyathost a cup or goblet, and phyllouy leaf). — A 
genus of cup-corals, having a turbinated polyparium or calcareous axis, 
simple or compound, and internally lamellated ; the cells polygonal, radi- 
ated, and depressed or cup-like in the centre ; whence the name. They 
are extremely abundant in Silurian strata, in the mountain limestone, and 
in the coral-rag of the Oolite. The simple turbinated forms are often of 
considerable size (the iwrHnolixL of early authors), and from their shape are 
known by the familiar term of "petrified ram's-homs." 

Qycadeoidea.— Literally cycas-like; a term which implies merely general 
resemblance, without hazarding any opinion as to absolute identity. A 
genus of roundish or oblong stems, covered with densely imbricated scales, 
and greatly resembling those of the cycas. They are found in the Lias, 
Oolite, and Wealden strata, and afford evidence of a warm genial climate 
in the latitudes where they occiir. — See Mantellia. 

Qycadites. — Fossil plants of the younger Secondary epochs — Oolite and 
Chalk— apparently allied to the existing cycas. The leaves only are known, 
and these are pinnated; leaflets linear, entire, adhering by their whole 
base, having a single thick midrib and no secondary veins. 

Qyclas (Gr. kuMo», a circle).— A genus of fresh- water bivalves, having 
oval, transverse, equivalved shells, with the hinge-teeth very small ; the 
substance of the shell thin and fragile. The species occur recent, and in 
the Tertiary and Wealden formations. In the older formations many 
organisms formerly regarded as Cydas are now known to be JEstheria, a 
bivalved entomostracous crustacean, w}iich see. 

Cyde (Gr. iuklosy a circle). — Literally a circle of time, like the revolution 
of the year and seasons ; a periodical or recurrent space of time. Often 
loosely employed for periods of indefinite duration. 

Qycloclidia (Gr. kuklos, circle, and klados, branch). — A name given to 
certain Coal-measure plants, consisting of detached whorls of circular 
leaf-scars, each scar being about half an inch in diameter, and deeply 

CSi^cloid, Qycloidean (Gr. kuklos, a circle, and eidos, form). — The fourth 
order of Fishes in Agassiz's arrangement. They are distinguished by their 
scales, which are rounded, smooth and simple at the margin, and often 
ornamented with various figures on the upper surface : these scales are 
composed of laminsa of horn or bone, but have no enamel. The Cycloi- 




deans are chiefly Tertiaty and recent species ; the salmon and herring are 
examples. — See Ichthyology. 

Cyddne (Gr. huklos, a circle).— A term applied by navigators to those 
rotatory hurricanes which occur most frequently between the equator and 
the tropics^ and near the equatorial limit of the trade- winds. They sweep 
round and round with a progressive motion, their course describing a 
curve, and their violence being greater tiie narrower the limit of their whirl. 
In both hemispheres the rotation of a cyclone is contrary to that of the 
sun ; those in the northern hemisphere moving counter, so to speak, to the 
motion of a watch-hand, those in the southern following that motion. 

Cyddpteris (Gr. kuklos, a circle, and pteris, fern).— An extensive genus of 
fern-like plants, ranging from the Devonian to the Oolite inclusive ; and 
so called from the rounded or circular shape of their leaflets, which are 
entire, have no midrib, but are thickly marked with dichotomous veins 
which radiate from the base to the margin. 

Q^bifbrm (Lat. cymha, a boat, and forma, likeness). — Boat-shaped ; 
navicular ; having the form of a boat or skiff ; as many shells, the glumes 
of grasses, &c 

Ci^ophane (Gr. hwnut, a wave, and phaino, I appear). — The name given 
to those semi-iaransparent varieties oi chrysoberyl which display a peculiar 
milky or opalescent appearance. When cut en cabochon they exhibit a 
white floating band of light ; hence the name. 

Cynochdrnpsa (Gr. ht/on, dog, and champtai, crocodile). — A genus of 
Crocodilian reptiles, founded by Professor Owen on remains from the sand- 
stone rocks of Ehenosterberg, South Afiica ; and so named from the large 
carnivorous-looking canines that arm the long slender jaws which termin- 
ate, as in Teleoaaurus, in a single nostriL 

Cyperites {cyperacece, the rush tribe). — Long, narrow, ensiform leaves 
which occur in the Coal-measures, and so called from their general resem- 
blance to those of the Cyperus. According to Lindley, cyperUes, as a genus, 
is distinguished by the want of a midrib, and by the presence of parallel 
lateral veins. 

Qyprn'ide (Lat. Cypris, a name of Venus). — The Cowry family, including 
the genera Cyprasa, £r<Uo, and Ovtdum. The Cowries or Porcelain shells 
are carnivorous gasteropods inhabiting the shores of warm seas, and are 
well known from their convolute, enamelled, and often spotted, barred, 
and otherwise ornamented shells. In the yoimg the spire is apparent, but 
in the adult shell it becomes concealed by the last whorl enveloping all the 
others. They occur fossil from the Chalk upwards, but are not known be- 
fore that period. , 

Cypridiiia-Schiefer. — Slaty bands of limestone occurring, in Belgium and 
Germany, on the uppermost verge of the Devonian system ; and so termed 
from their containing as their mosi> characteristic fossil the small crustacean 
Cypridina serrato-stricUa. The " Cypridina-Schiefer" is regarded by M. 
Sandberger and Sir B. Murchison as the typical rock of the Upper 
Devonians of the lUiine district. 

Cyprinoid {cyprinus, a carp, and eidos, likeness). — Carp-like ; applied to 
many species of small fossil fishes which occur in the fluviatile and lacus- 
trine deposits of the Tertiary formation, and which, like the living carps, 
seem to have inhabited fresh waters, or the brackish waters of estuaries. 
Beautiful specimens are obtained from the Tertiary beds of (Eningen 
and the marls of Aix— the latter locality also yielding vast numbers of 



CSyprinodonts, the recent species of which' are also small fishes, inhabiting 
the fresh- water lakes of temperate zones. 

Qypxis, Qyprididse* — A genus and family of minute crustaceans, having 
two enveloping crusts like those of a bivalve shell, but united by a dorsal 
fold without hinge. They inhabit the waters of lakes, marshes, and 
estuaries ; moult or renew their integuments yearly ; and are variously 
termed and divided by zoologists. Fossil forms under the generic terms of 
Cypris, Cypridea, Cjffftridina, Cyprella, and Cypriddla, occur in all rocks 
from the Lower Coal-measures upwards. 

Clystiden (Gr. cystU, a bladder). — A family of Silurian echinoderms, so 
called from their spherical or bladder-like form : the sphceronites of earlier 
authors. They constituted, in the primeval seas, the representatives of 
the sea-urchins of the Secondary, Tertiary, and current epochs ; and appear 
to have been sessile, or furnished with a short jointed foot-stalk, and not 
to have been free-moving, like the cidaris and eAiinus. According to E. 
Forbes, they have affinities with the Crinoids on the one hand (some pos- 
sessing very perfectly formed arms and tentacles), and with the Sea- 
urchins on the other ; while others also point out affinities to tiie Pen- 
tremites of the mountain limestone. The more frequent genera are 
Echinosphceriiea, Pseudocriniiet, Caryocisliiei, Hemicotmites, JSckino-encrimu, 
and Cryptocrinites.^Soe Ctstoidea. 

.Cystiph^Uam (6r. cystis^ a bladder, and pkylloji, leaf). — A genus of 
Silurian turbinated corals, externally striated, and internally composed of 
small bladder-shaped cells, hence the name. 

Cystoidea. — Under this title the Cyslidece (which see) have been erecte'd 
by Von Buch and others into a small independent group or " order" of 
echinoderms. Their leading characteristics are — '* a globular body covered 
with close-fitting polygonal plates and attached by a simple jointed stem ; 
mouth minute and opposite to the stalk ; close to it is the small anal 
opening ; and a little more distant the generative orifice, covered by a 
pyramid of five or six little valves. Some genera, like Pseudocrinus, have 
two or four tentaculiferous arms, bent down over the body and lodged in 
grooves to which they are anchylosed ; others, like Spkoeronites, have only 
obscure indications of tentacles situated close to the mouth. *' 

Cyfh^rida. — A family of Entomostraca, or minute bivalve cnistaceans, 
occurring in every formation ; but most abundantly in the genera Cythere, 
Cytkereis, .and Cytkerella in the Chalk and older Tertiaries. There are 
doubts as to the precise affinities of the so-called Palfisozoic species. 

Daddxylon (Gr.) — Literally "pine or torch-wood;" Endlicher^s generic 
term for fossil wood whose structure is apparently identical with that of 
the living species of Arauoarise; same aa Araucarites, which see. Wood 
of this structure is common in the Lias, OoHte, Wealden, and Chalk. 

Damps. — A miner's term for the gaseous products that are eliminated in 
coal-mines— carbonic acid being choke-damp, from its extinguishing life 
and flame, and light carburetted hydrogen being Jlre-damp, from its 
exploding when brought in contact with flame. 



DapMivB (Gr. dapedon, a payement). — A genus of ganoid fishes peculiar 
to the lias, and so named from the arrangement of the rhomboidal scales 
resembling a tesselated pavement. The Dapedius is a wide^ laterally-com- 
pressed fish, with a rounded head, fins of moderate size, and body rapidly 
contracting, and terminating in an equally-lobed tail. The mouth is fur- 
nished with several rows of small conical teeth, crenated at their summits^ 
and has brush-teeth on the palatine bones. 

Dirwinite. — An arseniate of copper occurring in thin veins in the por- 
phyritic claystones of Chili and Peru, and named after Darwin in honour 
of his geological researches in South America. It is found massive, of a 
dark silver-grey, high metallic lustre, rather brittle, and consists of 88.07 
copper, 11.69 arsenic, and 0.24 silver. 

Disyceps (6r.) — literally "rough-head;" a provisional genus of laby- 
rinthodont reptiles occurring in the Bunter Sandstein or Permian forma- 
tion of Warwickshire, ^yond the cranium and teeth nothing further is 
yet known of the genus. 

DisypuB (Gr. dasys, hairy or rough, and potu, a foot). — The zoological 
term for the Armadilloes, in allusion to the common character of their 
feet, the soles of which are covered with strong hairs, and on which they 
walk, with their claws expanded. The armadOloes are edentate, that is, 
possess only grinders; are covered with a cuirass compdlsed of strong 
homy rings ; are nocturnal, live in burrows, and prey alike on animal and 
vegetable substances. They inhabit the warmer parts of South America, 
in the Upper Tertiaries of which are found the remains of the Olyptodon, 
and other extinct congeners. 

D&tholite or Datolite.— A siliceous borate of lime, forming one of the 
Fluor-spar family, and occurring in various formations, in druses and in 
coarse granular masses. It consists of 38.8 silica, 21.5 boracic acid, 34.6 
lime, and 5.6 water. 

Dank or Dawk. — A mining and quarry term for bands and beds of 
tough, compact, sandy clay. — See DoUK. 

D&vite. — In honour of Sir Humphrey Davy. — A native sulphate of alu- 
mina, of a yellow or greenish-yellow colour, and nauseous and highly as- 
tringent taste. It occurs as a deposit from certain thermal springs, con- 
taining free sulphuric acid, near Bogota in the Columbian Andes. 

Davy-Lamp. — A form of lamp invented by Sir Humphrey Davy, and now 
extensively used in coal-mines subject to explosions of fire-damp. The 
principles involved in this invention 9se— firsts that no mixture of fire-damp 
with common air, however dangerous, conveys an explosion through tubes 
or openings, the diameter of which is less than about one-eighth of an inch ; 
and secondlif, that these explosive mixtures need a much stronger heat 
for their explosion than mixtures of common inflammable gas, since neither 
charcoal nor iron at a red-heat will produce this effect, which requires, 
indeed, that iron be raised to a white heat. Proceeding upon these prin- 
ciples, the light of a lamp is surrounded by wire-gauze, the meshes of 
which are from 4^ to lAr of an inch ; and through these, any explosions that 
may take place inside the lamp are not communicsited to the outside, so 
that the miner can pursue his calling with the light of a " Davy " in 
workings which would otherwise be unapproachable. There are several 
modifications of the Davy-lamp ; but in all, the fundamental principles 
are the same. 

Deads.— In mining, any vein-stone or mine-stuff, broken underground, 



that does not contain enough of ore to make it worth removing for dress- 
ing ; mine waste ; mine rubbish. 

M>acle (Fr. dSbacler, to unbar). — A term originally signifying the 
breaking-up of the ice on a river — a freshet ; but now applied to any sud- 
den flood or rush of water which breaks down opposing barriers, and 
hurls forward and disperses blocks of stone and other debris. 

Debris (Fr., wreck or waste). — A convenient term, adopted from the 
French, for any accumulation of loose material arising from the waste of 
rocks ; also for drifted accumulations of vegetable or animal matter. 

Dec&poda (Or. deka, ten, and pout, podos, foot).-— Literally ten-footed ; 
the highest order of Crustacea, including all the stalk-eyed families, in 
which the whole of the thoracic segments are united with those of the 
head into a single piece (the cephalo-thwax), encased in a common crust, 
with no traces of segmentary division (the carajMce) ; and which have the 
branchial oi^ns enclosed within a cavity on each side the cephalo-thorax. 
The true thoracic legs are almost always ten in number, whence the name 
of the order. The order includes three subdivisions — the Macrura, or long- 
taUed, such as the crayfish ; the Brachyura, or short-tailed, as the common 
crab ; and the Anomura, or tailless, as the hermit-crab. 

Decomposition (Lat.)— Literally "set free from composition : " the reso- 
lution of compounds into their elements, or the alteration of their chemical 
constitution in such a manner that new products are formed. Thus, we 
speak of deeompoting granite, when its particles of quartz, felspar, and 
mica fall asunder under the action of the atmosphere ; and of the further 
decompasitum of the felspar when it becomes converted into clay, and the 
soda, potash, and iron with which the clay was combined are set free. 

Decdrticated (Lat. de, from off, and eortext the bark).— Having the bark, 
skin, husk, or other integument removed or stripped off. Thus, many 
fossil plants have their bark converted into a thin pellicle of coal, and 
accordingly t^ieir leaf-scars or external sculptures present very different 
aspects according as the specimens retain their bark or are decortieated. 

Decr6pitate (Lat. de, and erepUo, to make a crackling noise). — To fly in 
particles with a crackling noise when exposed to heat, as common salt and 
many other mineral substances do when they thus part with their water 
of crystallisation. 

DeAagr&tion (Lat. de, from, and flagro, to bum vehemently). — The 
sudden combustion of any substance for the purpose of producing some 
change in its composition by the joint action of heat and oxygen. The 
process is commonly performed by projecting into a red-hot crucible, in 
small quantities at a time, a mixture of about equal parts of nitre and the 
bodi/ to be oxidised. 

Degrad&tion (Lat. de, down, and gradus, step). — Bemoving or wasting 
down step by step. The degradation of hills and cliffs is caused by atmos- 
pheric and aqueous agency ; hence water is said to exert a degrading in- 
fluence on the earth's crust ; waves and tidal currents a degrading action 
on certain sea-shores. It is usual to arrange degrading causes or agencies 
into three sets — the atmospheric, or those connected with the atmosphere ; 
HiQ Jluviatile, or those depending on rivers; and the oceanic, or those in 
which the ocean is the immediate agent. 

Deindmifl, Dinonds (6r. deifios, terrible or monstrous, and omis, bird). 
— A gigantic cursorial bird, whose remains (fragments of eggs as well as 
numerous bones) have been discovered, in a sub-fossil state, in the river- 



silts of New Zealand The affinities of the DinomU, or Moa of the natives, 
are not yet clearly defined, though, according to Owen and Mantell^ it has 
evidently been a wingless cursorial bird of great size and strength — varying 
from ten to fourteen feet in height, or considerably larger than the existing 
ostrich, and occurriDg in several well-marked species. The epoch of the 
Dinomis is strictly Post-Tertiary, and the traditions of the natives would 
indicate its contemporaneity with the Apteryx and Notomit — ^wingless 
birds which still inhabit these islands. Tho PalapteryXf Aptomit, &e., 
are sub-fossil congeners, found in the same deposits. — See Mantell's ' Petri- 
factions and their Teachings ; ' and Owen in ' Zoological Transactions' for 

BeinosatiriaiiB, Dinosaur (Gr. ddnos, monstrous ; sawnu, lizard). — ^Liter- 
ally " fearfully-great lizards ; " a term employed by Professor Owen to desig- 
nate an order of terrestrial reptiles peculiar to the upper Secondary for- 
mations, and comprising the Igtianodon, Megalosautnu, and SylcBOsaurus, 
which see. As an order, the Dinosauria are characterised by their free 
vertebrsB being flat at both ends, but in some species the cervical become 
convex in front and concave behind. The limbs are ambulatory, strong, 
long, and miguiculate ; and the femur has, in some, a third trochanter. 
The species are of great bulk, and eminently fitted for terrestrial life — 
some being vegetable-feeders, like igtianodon, and others, like megalosaur, 
being carnivorous. — (* British Association Report on Fossil Beptiles,' 1841 
and 1859 ; Dr Mantell's various works.) 

Deinoth^rium (Qr. deifios, terrible, and iherium, wild beast). — A huge 
proboscidean mammal found in the Miocene Tertiaries of Europe and 
Asia. The zoological position of the dinothere (of which there seem to be 
several species) is not yet distinctly ascertained — ^the skull, molar teeth, 
scapular bone, and pelvis being the only portions yet discovered. From 
these it appears that the animal wa.s fum&hed with a short proboscis like 
the tapirs ; lived on vegetable food, like the tapirs and lamantins ; and had 
the lower jaw armed with two enormous tusks, depressed downwards, and 
gently curved inwards. Professor Kaup regards the Dinothere as inter- 
mediate between the mastodons and tapirs, and truly terrestrial ; MM. 
Blainville and Pictet consider it a herbivorous cetacean which inhabited 
the embouchures of great rivers, and uprooted with its tusks the marsh 
and aquatic plants which constituted its food ; while M: Solaro, who has 
recently discovered the pelvis of the animal (nearly 6 feet in diameter, by 
4 feet 3 inches in height) in the deposits of tiie Haute Oaronne, believes it 
to have been marsupial and of true terrestrial habits. "The adult denti- 
tion of Deinotherium (according to Dr Falconer) is characterised by two 
vertically succeeding premolars, and three true molars — five teeth in all, 
with transverse crenulated ridges closely resembling those of the tapir ; 
and by two huge inferior recurved incisors, implanted in an enormously 
thickened and deflected beak, or prolongation of the symphasis of the 
lower jaw." 

Delesserftes. — A genus of fossil Algss (chiefly Tertiary), so named by 
Sternberg from their resemblance to the existing Delessena, which has 
thin, flat or imdulated, smooth, membraneous fronds, with a median rib. 

DeUqn^Bcence (Lat. deligruesco, to melt away, to become liquid). — The 
property of certain salts, acids, and alkalies, to become liquid by their 
gradual absorption of moisture from the atmosphere. Such salts, &c., are 
said to be deliquetcent, 



DelpbfnidA (Lat. ddphinus, a dolphin). — The Dolphin family ; a tribe of 
oetaceans distinguished from the true whales chiefly by the more propor- 
tionate size of the head, whioh in general is about one-seventh of the 
entire length of the animal. The family includes the dolphins proper, 
with long slender snouts and numerous conical teeth ; the porpoises ; the 
narwhal, &c. Found fossil in the later Tertiary and Post-Tertiary strata. 

Delta. — The alluvial land formed at the mouth of a river, such as that 
of the Nile, which received this name from the resemblance of the space 
enclosed by the two main branches of the river to the Qreek letter A, 
ddta. The deltas of many ejdsting rivers, such as the Mississippi, Niger, 
Granges, &:c., present the inquirer with the most instructive, perhaps, of 
geological phenomena — exhibiting in their magnitude, the variety of their 
composition, alternation of their beds, and the entombment of plants and 
animals, the perfect analogues of many of the older formations. Beltic. — 
Of or belonging to a delta. Deltoid. — ^In the form of the Greek letter A ; 
resembling a delta. 

D^drachate (Qr. dendron^ tree, and achaieSi agate). — Arborescent agate ; 
moss-agate ; agate exhibiting in its sections the forms or figures of vege- 
table growths. 

Dendr^rpeton (Or. dendr(yn^ a tree, and erpetonf a lizard). — A small 
lizard-like reptile, discovered by Mr Dawson and Sir 0. Lyell in the 
Lower Coal-measures of Nova Scotia ; so named from its being found in the 
interior of a fossil trunk, and thence supposed to have been of arboreal 

Dendritic (Or. dendron, a tree). — Applied to certain branching moss-like 
appearances which occur on the surfaces of the fissures and joints in rocks. 
They are apt to be mistaken for fossil vegetation, but are strictly inor- 
ganic, and of chemical origin — as much, so as the dendritic frost-work of a 
winter's night on the surface of a window-pane. 

D^ndrodontB (Or. dendron, a tree, and odous, tooth). — An extinct family 
of fishes, characteristic of the Old Bed Sandstone or Devonian system ; 
and so called from the section of their seemingly simple conical teeth, 
which presents numerous fissures radiating or spreadiifig like the branches 
of a tree from a central mass of " vasodentine," or vascular uncalcified 

D^ndrolite (Gr. dendron, tree, and lithos, stone). — Fossil wood ; a gene- 
ral term for any fossil stem, branch, or other fragment of a tree. 

D6nfdty (Lat. densus, thick, set close). — That property of bodies which 
relates to 'the comparative compadnets or closeness of their component 
particles or moleciiles— bulk for bulk, the denser being the heavier. As 
gravity is thus in proportion to density, the specific gravity of bodies is 
taken as the measure of their densities. — See Grayitt, Specifio. 

Dental Fonniila. — A notation now generally used by zoologists to denote 
the number and kind of teeth of a mammiferous animal— the teeth forming 
one of the elements in its generic character. Thus, the dental formula of 
Man is, incisors | ; canine k, i ; premolars, f , f ; molars, |, I = 32 ; or 
placing them as they occur on each side of the incisors, f , }, h l» h h I 
— which signifies that there are 4 incisors in either jaw, with 1 canine, 2 
premolars or false molars, and H molars on either side of these incisors, 
both in the upper and in the lower jaw. In other words, the incisors 
being taken as the centre, the upper figures refer to the upper jaw in either 
side, and the lower figures to the lower jaw. — ^See Teeth. 



D&itine (Lat. dens, tooth). — ^The tisgues that compose the teeth in verte- 
brate animalB are arranged by anatomists into deniine, which forms the 
body of the tooth ; cement, which forms the outer crust ; and enamel, which 
(when present) is situated between the dentine and cement. 

Denldtloii (Lat. dens^ a tooth). — ^The period at which the teeth of mam- 
malia makes their first appearance through the gums ; also the character 
and arrangement of the teeth in different families, which becomes a most 
important aid to the palseontologist in the discrimination of fossil species. 
Dennddtlon (Lat. de, down, and nudus, naked). — Laying bare by re- 
moval. The removal of superficial matter, so as to lay bare the subjacent 
strata, is an act of denudation ; so also the removal by water of any for- 
mation, or part of a formation. We thus speak of denuded rock-surfaces, 
and of strata destroyed or removed by denudatwn. Before a current of 
water can lay down a quantity of matter in one place, it must manifestly 
take it up from another ; hence, as a geological operatiop, denudation 
must accompany and precede deposition. 

Bedzidised, Deoxidated. — Literally, " deprived of oxygen ; " disunited 
from oxygen. 

Depdirit (Lat. de, down, and poeitus, placed).— Applied to matter which 
has settled down from suspension in water. Mud, sand, &c., are deposits, 
so also are the shales, sandstones, &c., of older date. Deposits are usually 
distinguished by the positions in which they occur, or by the agencies con- 
cerned in their formation, as fiuviatUe, lacustrine, estuary, marine, &c. 
The deposition of rock-matter is going forward less or more rapidly in all 
waters on the surface of the globe. 

Derby-Spar. — A familiar name for fluate of lime or fluor-spar, from its 
occurring abundantly in the Derbyshire limestones. — See Fluor-Spab. 

Dero6tiB (Gr., a sea-god, so termed from his glittering scales). — A ganoid, 
eel -like fish of the Chalk formation, belonging to the family of Plectognathi, 
and known to the quarrymen as " petrified eel." In Deroetis the body is 
very elongated (often two and three feet long) ; the head short, with a 
pointed beak, the upper jaw being a litUe longer than the lower ; and both 
jaws armed with long, conical, elevated teeth, and several rows of very 
small ones. On each side of the fish there are three rows of osseous scutes 
like those of the sturgeon — the rest of the body being also covered with 
small scales. 

Dermal (Gr. derrna, t^e skin). — Belonging to the skin ; hence we speak 
of the dermal or enveloping integuments of plants and animals. 

Dermo-Skeleton (Gr. derma, the skin). — The hard integument which 
covers and affords protection to most invertebrate, and also to many verte- 
brate animals ; the exterruU or " exo-skeleton," in contradiction to tiie in* 
temal or true bony skeleton of the higher animals. It makes its appear- 
ance as a tough coriaceous membrane, as shell, crust, scales, horny scutes, 
&c. ; but never as true bone. 

Disert. — In geography, applied somewhat loosely to any waste and un- 
inhabited tract of land ; but strictly and more especially to wide, open, 
and comparatively barren tracts, as the Deserts of Africa, Arabia, and 
Central Asia, which are arid, sandy, and shingly ; the desert steppes of 
Northern Asia, which are partiy barren and partly covered with rough 
grasses ; and the desert plains of Australia, which are scrubby and waterless. 
Desiccation, Desiceatlon Cracks (Lat. de, and siams, dry). — The drying 
of solid bodies by the evaporation of whatever moisture they may contain. 



Thus clay and clayey beds are desiccaUd by the stin's heat, and as they be- 
come dry they shrink and crack in all directions. Were such beds to be 
overlaid by a new deposit of mud or other soft matter, portions of it would 
enter these cracks, and the two strata, on being separated (after consolida- 
tion) would present— the lower the "mould," and the upper the " casts" 
of these fissures. Such appearances are frequent among the strata of all 
formations, are known as desiccation cracls, and are not to be confounded 
with "joints," ''cleavage," and similar phenomena. 

Detritus (Lat. de, down, and trittu, rubbed or worn). — ^An appropriate 
term for accumulations arising from the waste or disintegration of exposed 
rock-surfoces. Betrital matter may thus consist of clay, sand, gravel, 
rubbly fragments, or of any admixture of these, according to the nature 
of the rocks and tiie amount of attrition to which their particles have been 

Devil's Toe-nails.— A familiar term in some districts of England for the 
Liassic shell, Gryphcea incurva, whose form somewhat resembles a distorted 

Devdniaa. — A common, but not always appropriate synonyme of the 
Old Red Sandstone, portions of which are extensively developed in Devon- 
shire. The term was introduced by Sir B. MurcMson (and harmonises 
with his " Silurian," " Permian," &c.), " because the strata of that age in 
Devonshire — lithologically very unlike the Old Red Sandstone of Scotland, 
Hereford, and the South Welsh counties — contain a much more copious 
and rich fossil &una, and were shown to occupy the same intermediate 
position between the Silurian and Carboniferous rocks." — See Old Red 

D^yonite. — A name given by Dr Thomson to Wavellite, a phosphate of 
alumina originally discovered by Dr Wavel in the north of Devonshire. — 
See Wavellite. 

D^xtral (Lat. dexter, belonging to the right hand— right-handed). — This 
term is usually applied to spiral shells whose whorls, when the mouth is 
placed towards tiie observer, turn from left to right ;. and this is the general 
course in nature. SinUiral or reverted shells are those whose spires turn 
from right to left. In other words, when spiral shells are placed vertically 
with the spires uppermost, and the mouth towards the observer, the aper- 
ture in dextral shells is towards the right ; in tinistral it is towards the left. 

Diabase. — ^A term adopted from the French, and occasionally applied to 
those greenstones whose constituents are hornblende and felspar; same 
as Dioriie. 

Diadasite (6r. dia and hlao, to cleave through). — A laminated or bladed 
mineral with the pale colours of diallage passing into brass yellow, but in 
composition intermediate between diallage and hypersthene. 

Diallsge (Or. diallagi, interchange). — ^A siliceo-magnesian mineral, hav- 
ing a laminated or bladed cleavage, and so called from its changeable colour 
— forms diallage rock, and enters into the composition of serpentine. 
Closely related to Schiller-spar, which see. 

DUUlogite. — Manganese spar, or red manganese ; a carbonate of man- 
ganese, occurring in crystallised druses, in columnar aggregates, or in 
grranular masses ; having a rose-red or flesh-red colour, and glassy pearly 
lustre. It is found in various formations, but chiefly in veins in gneiss and 
porphyry along with silver, galena, blende, hssmatite, and other ores. 

IMamond (Or. adamus, unsubdued). — The diamond ; so called in allusion 



to its unparalleled hardness. The diamond is the most precious of known 
gems ; and, chemically speaking, is carbon or charcoal in its pure and crys- 
tallised form. This form is primarily that of a regular octahedron, but 
of this there are numerous modifications ; and the crystals having often 
curved faces, they more or less approximate to spheres. They occur loose 
in alluvial sands and gravel ; or singly imbedded — in a matrix of sandstone 
in India, and of mioa-slate in Brazil and South America. Geologically, 
they have been found chiefly in India and Borneo, and the Brazils ; more 
sparingly and in minor crystals in the Urals, in the Carolinas, and in 
Mexico. The ''Diamond Sandstone" of India, and which furnishes the 
detritus in which most of the specimens are found, is apparently of Tor- 
tiary or recent origin ; the age of the micaceous schists which yield the 
diamonds of Brazil and the Urals is unknown. Diamonds are found of all 
colours ; those which are colourless, or which have some very decided tint, 
are most esteemed ; those slightly discoloured are the least valuable. 
Diamonds are cut and polished only by their own dust or powder — an art 
known from remote antiquity in the East^ but introduced into Europe only 
about the end of the fifteenth century. They are cut chiefly into three 
forms — table, rose, and brilliant; the latter having the finest effect, but 
requiring a greater sacrifice of bulk — some crystals being reduced nearly 
one half in weight by the operation. 

Respecting the origin of the diamond, neither chemistry nor geol<^y has 
thrown much light on the subject We know that it consists of carbon in 
its purest and most concentrated form; but whether this carbon is of 
v^etable or of animal origin, or whether it may not be a purely chemical 
elimination altogether apart from orgimic growth, science has not yet de- 
termined. It is true that some observers have thought they detected trac^ 
of vegetable structure in the ashes of the diamond, but their observations 
have not been confirmed ; and none of the specimens containing foreign 
matter have as yet given any hint of their origin. It has been remarked 
that their occurrence in mica-slate does not favour the idea of their 
immediate vegetable oAgin ; nor does their occurrence in a soft quartzose 
sandstone indicate the operation of excessive heat. Indeed, their com- 
bustible nature forbids the idea of intense heat in connection with their 
formation ; and yet high heat under pressure, or a long-continued low heat 
manifesting itself in chemical change, may have effected the crystallisation 
of carbon in decaying organic matter. Unlike amber, however, diamonds 
are never found in connection with vegetable or animal substances ; so 
that the primary source of their carbon, as well as the cause of its subse- 
quent crystallisation, remains a mystery. 

Diamond Spar. — A familiar term for corundum, which next to diamond 
is the hardest known mineral. 

DiiphanooB (Gr. dia^ through, and phano, I appear). — Applied to gems 
and minerals that may be seen through ; transparent ; pellucid. 

Diatoms, DiotomdcesB (Gr. dia, through, and temno, to cut asunder). — 
In botany, a group of microscopic organisms, referred by Ehrenberg to 
the animalcules, but by most naturalists of the present day to the algae ; 
and so named from the genus dia^oma, whose frustules are connected to- 
gether by the angles so as to form a zigzag chain, which looks like a stem 
cut into several portions. These finstoles consist of a single cell, and 
are invested with a siliceous epidermis ; hence deposits of these minute 



growths, or '' microphytal earths/' are sUiceous, and unlike those of the 
foraminifera, which are caXcareout. — See Tbifoli, Micbophttes, &c. 

IMceraB (6r. di, two, and Jcera»f horn). — ^A massive bivalve of the Upper 
and Middle Oolites; belonging to the Chamidoe or Clam-shells; and so 
termed from its prominent umbtmes or beaks, which are twisted backward 
in ram's-hom fietshion, and furrowed externally by ligamental grooves. 
There are several species in which the beaks are more or less spiral and 
horn-like, and the valves less or more unequal. Bieeras Liinestone. — ^A 
division of the Oolite in the Alps, regarded by most geologists as the equi- 
valent of the English "coral rag," and so called from its containing abun- 
dantly the shells of the diceraa. 

Dichobtixie (6r. dicfM, divided in two, and hounos, a ridge). — A genus of 
anoplotheroid quadrupeds whose remains occur chiefly in the Eocene or 
Lower Tertiaries of Europe ; so called from the deeply-cleft ridges of 4he 
upper molars. 

BichodOB (6r. dicha, in two parts, and odous, odontos, a tooth). — A Middle 
Tertiary artiodactyle (even-toed) mammal, showing affinities, according to 
Owen, to the Hog tribe among the non-ruminant section, and to the Camel 
tribe among the ruminants; so called from the double crescent-shaped 
lines of enamel on t^e upper sur&ce of its true molars. 

Dichroism (Gr. die, twice; chroa, colour). — ^The property by which a 
crystallised body assumes two or more colours, according to the direction 
in which light is transmitted througfh it ; hence the Dichroiie of Cordier, 
-*-a silicate of alumina and magnesia which exhibits three or more colours 
along its chief axis. 

JAoatylMxmoaa (Gr. dis, double, and cotyledon, seed-lobe). — A grand divi- 
sion of the vegetable kingdom, comprising all those plants whose seeds 
are composed of two lobes or seed-leaves. They are exogenous, or in- 
crease by external layers of growth, and the venation of their leaves is 
reticulated or net-like, and not in parallel order, as in monocotyledonous 
endogens.— See tabulations, "Veoetablb Sohemb." 

Bictyop]i;^lliim (Gr. diotyon, a net, and phyWm, leaf).->^Literally " net- 
leaf ; *' a provisional genus erected for the reception of all unknown fossil 
dicotyledonous leaves which exhibit the common reticulated structure. 
IHctyophylla have been found as low as the Trias and Permian. 

Biety^teris (Gr. dictyon, net ; pteris, fern). — ^A genus of Carboniferous 
ferns established by Gutbier, for tiiose forms possessing the general habit 
of Neuropteris, but differing from it in having a somewhat radiaU-retunt- 
lUe venuUion and no distinct midrib, 

Biotyop^ge (Gr. diktyon, net, and pyge, anus). — ^A genus of ganoid fishes, 
with smooth rhomboidal scales, heterooercal tails, and broad flowing fins, 
from the Triassic coal-field of Virginia, and so named by Sir P. Egerton 
from the net-like appearance of the large anal fin. The species vary from 
four to six or eight inches in length. 

Bie^xukUm (Gr. di, two ; cyon., dog ; and odous, tooth). — Literally "two 
canine teeth ;" a provisional genus of very peculiar reptiles occurring in a 
sandstone, supposed to be of Triassic age, in Southern Africa. The princi- 
pal remains yet found are the bones of the head, which seem to indicate a 
gigantic type between the lizards and turtles. The eye orbits are very 
large, the cranium flat, with nostrils divided as in lizards ; and the jaws 
toothless, with the exception that the upper jaw possesses a pair of long 



tusks, implanted in sockets and turned downwards like those of the wali*us 
— hence tiie name dicynodon. 

DidAphys, Didelphida (Ghr. dit, two, and ddphys, womb).— The opos- 
siun family, so termed from Uieir external abdominal pouch or margupium, 
in which the foetus is placed after a very short period of uterine gestation, 
and where it remains (as if in a second womb), suspended to the nipple by 
its mouth until sufficiently matured to come forth to the open air. Re- 
mains of didelpkijie animals occur as early as the Oolitic if not Triassic 

Bid^lum. — One of the rarer metals, of whose properties little is yet 
known, found along with lanthanum in the ores of Cerium, which see. 

Didymogripans (Gr. didymot, twin or double, and grapms).— The twin 
or double graptolite ; a common form in the Silurians of Wales and Scot- 
land, having the stems or axes united in pairs. The cells are arranged in 
single rows as in the common graptolite, but the axes are in twins, or two- 

Die-Earth. — A. local term at Coalbrook Dale for the Wenlook shale, 
because this stratum lies beneath all the mining ground of the district — 
the minerals " dying out," as it were, at this stage of descent. 

Differentiate, DifferentiatioxL — ^In zoology, the vital functions are said 
to be more and more ''differentiated,'* when, instead of several functions 
being performed by the same organ, each Unction is performed by an 
organ specially devoted to it. " Differentiation " is, therefore, a mark of 
higher organisation — the higher the animal in the seale of being, the more 
specialised is its organisation. 

Digitate (Lat. digitus, a finger). — Finger-shaped. Applied to bodies 
whose parts expand in finger-like process ; e.g,, the alcyonia, or " dead- 
men's-fingers" of the sea-shore ; the Korpion trombus, whose outer Up is 
armed with strong finger-like spines; the leaves of the horse-chestnut, &c. 

Digltigrdda (Lat. digitus, the toe, and gradtu, a step). — ^An extensive 
tribe of the Carnivorovs animals, as the Hon, tiger, cat, weasel, &c., whose 
feet are constructed for walking on the toes, and therefore capable of a 
swift bounding motion, as compared with the slow shuffling \ralk of the 
Plantigrades (bear, badger, &c.), that set down the entire phalanges of 
the foot. 

Dill&viiim, DUuYial (Lat. dis, asunder, and luere, to wash). — ^Alluvium 
(which see) has been described as the term usually applied to matter 
brought together by the ordinary operations of water ; diluvium, on the 
other hand, is regarded as implying the extraordinary action of water. 
In this sense it was at one time restricted to those accumulations of gravel, 
&c., supposed to have been the result of the Noachian deluge ; but it has 
now a wider signification in geology, being applied to all masses apparent- 
ly the result of powerful aqueous agency. 

Dlll&Yialists. — Theorists who regard the boulder-clay, abraded and 
polished rock-surfaces, ossiferous gravels, and similar superficial pheno- 
mena, as the result of' the Noachian deluge ; in other words, those who 
ascribe to a universal deluge such superficial results as they cannot readily 
reconcile with the ordinary operations of water now going on around 

DimdrpMBxn (Gr. dis, two, and morphe, form). — ''It is sometimes sup- 
posed," says Nicol ('Manual of Mineralogy'), "that each particular sub- 
stance can crystallise only in one particular form or series of forms. 



Mitscberlich has, however, shown that this is only partially true, and 
that sulphur, for instance, which usually crystallises in the rhombic 
system, when melted, may form monoclinohedric crystals. This property 
is named diinorpkUmf and has been explained by its discoverer on the 
principle that the form, and with it the other physical characters of a 
body, depend not merely on the chemical nature of the atoms, but also on 
their relative position. Hence the same chemical substance may form two, 
or even more, distinct bodies or mineral species. Thus carbon in one 
form is the diamond, in another, graphite ; and carbonate of lime appears 
as oalc-spar or as arragonite. Even the temperature at which a substance 
crystallises influences its forms, and so far its composition, as seen in 
arragonite, Glauber salt, borax, &o." 

Dimyiria (Gr. dit, twice, and mtu, a muscle). — That division of the con- 
ohiferous bivalves whose shells are closed by two adductor muscles, as the 
common edible mussel.— See Conchifeba. 

Biopside (Gr. dia, through, and opsis, appearance ; in allusion to its oc- 
casional transparency). — A variety or sub-species of augite, occurring in 
various shades of greyish-green, and crystallised in broad columnar or 
concentric lamellar aggr^ates. A similarly crystallised body has been pro- 
duced by fusing silica, lime, and magnesia in due proportion. — See Auoite. 

IMoptase (Gr., capable of being seen through, in allusion to the natural 
joints being visible by transmitted light).— Emerald copper, or rhombo- 
hedral emerald malachite ; occurring in fine emerald-green, transparent, or 
translucent crystals, and consisting of 38.7 silica, 50 copper protoxide, 
and 11.3 water. It is found in limestone veins in Tartary, and when first 
brought to Europe was sold as emerald ; but may be distinguished by its 
inferior hardness, and greater specific gravity. 

Diorite (Gr. dioros, a clear distinction). — A variety of greenstone, com- 
posed of hornblende and felspar, and of a dark colour in consequence of 
the disseminated plates of hornblende. It receives its name from being 
unmistakable, in contradistinction to dolerite. 

Dip. — ^The inclination or angle at which strata slope or dip downwards 
into the earth. This angle is measured, of course, from the plane of the 
horizon or level, and may be readily ascertained by the common spirit- 
level and plummet, or, as is usual among geologists, by a small pocket 
instrument called the clinometer (which see). The opposite of dip is the 
term rise; and either may be used, according to the position of the 
observer. Thus, standing on the surface, we speak of a bed of coal dipping 
to the south; while at the bottom of the pit, the miner, looking at the 
same bed, would say that it rose to the north. It is usual, on geological 
maps, to indicate the direction of the dip by an arrow, and the line of 
outcrop or strike of a stratum by a bold line — the one being at right angles 
to the other. — See Strike. 

Diplogr&psng.^Literally " double graptolite." That section of grapto- 
lites in which the cells are arranged in two rows — one on each side the 
central axis, like the feathers on a quill. The diplograptolites have a 
foliaceous appearance, and are presumed to resemble the existing Pen- 
natula and Virgularia.— See Graptolite. 

Diplost^lns (Gr.) — Literally "double tail ;" a genus of small shrimp-like 
crustaceans, from the Coal formation of Nova Scotia, and so named by Mr 
Salter from the two pairs of appendages to the last segment, telson, or 

177 M 


IMprion (Gr. rfw, two, and prion, a saw). — Literally " double saw." A 
synonyme of diplograpttu — the serrated cells on each side the central axis 
giving the organism the appearance of a double saw. 

Bipr^todon {Gr. dis, two ; protoa, first ; and odous, tooth). — A gigantic 
pachydermoid marsupial mammal from the Pleistocence or Upper Tertiary 
beds of Australia ; and so termed from the large scalpriform character of 
its incisors or front teeth. The head of a specimen now in the British 
Museum measures three feet in length, and gives some idea of the immense 
sijse of the creature, which, while nearly related to the kangaroo, has, 
according to Owen, " osculuit relationship with the herbivorous wombats." 
The hind limbs are shorter and stronger, and the front limbs are longer 
and stronger than those of the existing kangaroos. 

IMpyre (Gr. dit, and^yr, fire).— One of the Scapolite family, usually im- 
bedded in slate or limestone, and occurring in rounded eight-sided prisms. 
Consists of 55.5 silica, 24.8 alumina, 9.6 lime, and 9.5 soda; and is said 
to derive its name " ttom its twofold susceptibility to the action of fire. 
When heated before the blow-pipe it first becomes phosphorescent, and 
then fuses." 

Dirt-Beds. — The name given to certain dark-coloured loam-like beds that 
occur interstratified with the Oolitic limestones and sandstones of Port- 
land— evidently the soils inwhich grew the cycads, zamias, and other plants 
of the period. " At the distance of two feet," says Mr Bakewell, *' we 
find an entire change from marine strata to strata once supporting terres- 
trial plants ; and should any doubt arise respecting the original place and 
position of these plants, there is over the lower dirt-bed a stratum of fresh- 
water limestone, and upon this a thick dirt-bed, containing not only 
cycadese, but stumps of trees from three to seven feet in height, in an erect 
position, with their roots extending beneath them. Stems of trees are 
found prostrate upon the same stratum, some of them from twenty to 
twenty-five feet in length, and from one to two feet in diameter." 

Dlfleons, Discoid (Gr. discos, a quoit, and eidos, likeness).— Quoit- 
shaped ; in the form of a disc ; e.g., the shell of the planorhis. 

Dlscrase, Discrasite (Gr. dis, twofold, and hrasis, admixture). — Antimon- 
ide of silver, a rare ore, consisting of 76 silver and 24 antimony, and so 
called in allusion to its composition. It occurs in hexagonal prisms, radiat- 
ed forms, massive, disseminated, and in grains ; is of a silver and tin-white 
colour ; metaJlic lustre, lamellar, brittle, but slightly malleable. It is 
foimd in veins in the granitic and crystalline rocks, along with galena, 
silver, iron-pyrites, and other ores. 

Disintegration (Lat. dis, asunder, and integer, whole). — ^The breaking 
asunder of any whole or solid matter. The disintegration of rocks is caused 
chiefiy by the slow action of frosts, rains, and other atmospheric influences ; 
and the facility with which some kinds are acted upon by these influences 
depends partly on their chemical composition, partly on the aggregation 
of their particles, and partly on the readiness with which they absorb 

Dislocation (Lat. dis, asunder, and hcus, place or position). — A general 
term for any ^splacement of the stratified rocks from their original hori- 
zontal or sedimentary position. Slips, Favlts, and the like, are " dislo- 

Disrupting (Lat. dis, asunder, and ruptus, rent or broken). — When 
igneous matter forces its way through the stratified rocks, and fills up the 



rents and fissures so made, it is termed disrupting ; when, having passed 
through the strata, it spreads over their surface in sheet'like masses, it is 
said to he overlying; and when these discharges have taken place at the 
bottom of the sea, and have been in turn covered over by neir deposits of 
sediment, they then appear as interstratijied. 

Bifhyrdcaris (Gr. dithyros, having two valves, and caris, shrimp).— A 
genus of phyllopod crustaceans, first discovered by Dr Scouler in the coal 
shales of Lanarkshire, and so named from its being enclosed, like the 
existing genus apus, in a thin flattish bivalved carapace. The abdominal 
portion, which is not enclosed in the carapace, consists of five or six 
segments, and terminates in a trifid tail like Ceratiocaris. 

Diyaricating (Lat. dis, asunder, and varicOf I stride). — Applied to roots, 
branches, and other members that spread widely and decidedly from each 

DiTining-Sod, Known also in Cornwall and Wales as the Dmosing-Rod. — 
A hazel-rod by the aid of which some persons pretend to be able to tell 
where water and minerals lie below the surface by a process of divination. 
The rod is balanced in the hands of the diviner in a peculiar way, and is 
supposed to indicate the position of the substcmce sought, by turning 
towards it with a slow rotatory motion. This superstition is occasionally 
still practised, and passes under the learned names of MetaMoscopy, 
Hydroscopy, or Rhahdomancy — the last of which see. 

DivisionflJ Planes. — A technical term for those lines of separation which 
traverse rock-masses, and divide them into blocks or fragments, more or 
less regular. It is usual to speak of them as congenital, or those which, 
like lamination and stratification, are formed at the same time as the rocks 
themselves ; resultant, or those arising, like joints, from consolidation and 
contraction ; accidental, such as fissures, faults, and veins ; and tuperin- 
duced, or those which, like cleavage and foliation, are accompanied by a 
change in the internal structure of the rocks themselves. 

Doab. — The name given in India to the tongue of land that lies between 
the confluence of two or more rivers, as the doabs of the Punjab, or plains 
that lie between the rivers of that region. 

Dodo. — An extinct gigantic bird belonging, as has been shown by MM. « 

Strickland and Melville in their monograph — * The Dodo and its Kindred' 
— ^to the order ColumbaB or Pigeons, and constituting the type of a new 
family (the Dididoe), to which several fossil species have been ascribed. 
At the discovery of the island of Mauritius in 1598, the Dodo was still 
abundant there, and formed a principal portion of the food of the inhabit- 
ants ; but in the course of a few years it was completely extirpated by the 
sailors, and its bones are now found only in the silt and tufaceous deposits 
of that island. A few specimens were, however, brought to Europe in the ^^ 

period which intervened between its discovery and its final destructioD, 
and from these several paintings were made, which, with two heads, a 
foot, and a few feathers, are now the only proofs of the existence of a large 
bird which was certainly living within the last two hundred years. The 
Dodo is described as having been considerably larger than a swan, weighing 
sometimes fifty pounds ; of a very bulky and heavy form ; having a strong 
predaceous bill, hooked at the tip ; face or front of the head covered with 
a naked skin ; feet short and stout, but resembling those of a pigeon ; 
wings short, incapable of flight, and composed of soft tufty plumes like • 

those of the' ostrich. The Solitaire^ and other kindred species said to have 



recently existed in the islands of the Mauritius, are in like manner extinct ; 
and the nearest living approach to the family now known is the little 
DidunetUut of the Navigators' Islands. 

Dog's-tooth Spar. — A familiar name given to to certain crystals of cal- 
cite or oalc-spar, from their fanciful resemblance to the tooth of a dog. 

SdldnimB. — ^A sailor's term for the tropical zones of calms and variables 
— belts in which they are often detained for weeks by baffling calms, 
storms, and rains. 

Ddlexite (6r. doleros, deceptive). — ^A variety of greenstone, composed of 
felspar and augite ; so called from the difficulty of discriminating these 
compounds. — See Dioritb. 

Bdliehooeph41ic (Gr. dolichot, long, and kephaU, the head). — Long-headed ; 
e.ff.f the dolichocephalic or long-skulled tribes of the human family. 

2)olicho6at!ini8 (Gr.)— Literally ''long lizard;" a snake-like reptilian, 
whose remains, found in the Chalk formation, indicate a creature from two 
to three feet in length, and probably of aquatic habits. According to Pro- 
fessor Owen, the Doliehosaurtu presents somewhat of the ophidian charac- 
ter in the number and size of its cervical vertebrae, in the size and shape of 
its ribs, and in the slender proportions of its trunk and head ; but with 
these partial exceptions, its aiffinities are truly lacertian. 

I)6]0]nite (after the French geologist Dolomieu). — ^A crystalline, or 
granulo-crystalline, variety of magnesian limestone, occurring largely in 
many Secondary formations, and often in the vicinity of igneous rocks, 
whose heat seems, in most instances, to have been the proximate cause of 
the superinduced crystalline texture. Ordinary magnesian limestone, 
though occurring in all stages of compactness, is void of this crystalline 
texture.— See Maqnesian Limestone. 

D6mite. — ^A granular arenaceous-looking variety of trachyte found in 
the Puy de Dome, Auverg^e : hence the name. 

D6r8al (Lat. dorsum, the back). — Appertaining to the back; as the 
dorsal vertebrae, or vertebrae of the back ; the dorsal fin, or back-fin, &c. 

Donk, Dank, or Dangh (Sax. deaggan, to knead). — Applied in mining to 
beds or bands of hard, tough clay or clayey admixture ; generally without 
lamination, and more or less compact and homogeneous, hence the idea of 
daugk or dough. 

Do¥mB (Brit, dune, a hillock). — Applied in the south of England to the 
rounded, dry, and unwooded chalk hills of Kent, Surrey, Sussex, and ad- 
jacent counties. These " downs " are described aa " covered with a sweet, 
short herbage, forming excellent sheep-pasture, generally bare of trees, 
and singularly dry even in the valleys that wind for miles between them." 
Applied also to the low hills of blown sand which skirt the shores of many 

Dragons' Skin. — A fiuniliar term among miners and quarrymen for the 
stems of Lepidodendron, whose rhomboidal leaf-scars somewhat resemble 
the scales of reptiles in their form and arrangement. 

Dreelite (after the Marquis de Dree). — One of the heavy spars, generally 
occurring as a whitish crystallised gangue or vein-stone in the lead-mines 
of the moimtain-limestone, and consisting essentially of sulphate of barytes 
and sulphate of lime. According to Dufrenoy, a specimen from the lead- 
mines of Nassifere yielded 61.73 sulphate of barytes, 14.27 sulphate of lime, 
8.05 carbonate of lime, and 9.71 silica, with alumina and water. 

Dressing. — In mining, the ''dressing of ores" consists in breaking, 


-■V71WW -*,'«'" •'■*,' 


stamping, and washing them so as to separate as much as possible of the 
stony matrix from the metallic ore. 

Drift. — literally, 'Hhat which is driven ;" as tand-drifi, sand driven and 
accumulated by the wind; drift-wood, wood carried down by rivers and 
driven by tides and currents to distant shores. In geology the word is 
frequently used as an abbreviated term for the " Glacial Drift/' '* North- 
em Drift," or " Dilluvial Drift " of the Pleistocene epoch. — See Glacial 

Drift-Currents. — ^The name given to oceanic currents which mainly de- 
pend on the winds. The monsoons which prevail in the Indian Ocean give 
rise to drift-currents, which set alternately in one direction and then in 
another, according to the season of these winds. 

Dromatb^um (Gr. dromaiosj swift-running, and therum, beast).— The 
name given to a small mammal, teeth, jaws, and detached bones of which 
have been discovered by Mr Emmons in the Bed Sandstones of Virginia 
and North Carolina — strata which, by some, are regarded as Triassic, and 
by others as the equivalents of our European Permians. Supposed to be, 
like aniphitherium and phascolotherium, of marsupial affinity. 

Drosdxneter (Gr. drosos, dew; metron, measure). — litendly "dew-meas- 
urer ; " any apparatus or instrument for determining the amount of dew 
deposited during a single night. "The most simple process," says Pro- 
fessor Kaemtz, " consists in exposing to the open air bodies whose exact 
weight is known, and then weighing them afresh aft^r they are covered 
with dew. According to Dr Wells, locks of wool, weighing five deci- 
grammes, are to be preferred, whijch are to be d^vi^ed into spherical 
masses, of the diameter of about five centimetres." 

Dnise (Gr. drosos, dew). — A mineralogical term for any hollow space in 
veins of ore, or vesicular cavity in igneous rocks, like amygdaloid, that is 
lined or studded with ciystals — literally ** dewy with ciystals ; " hence we 
speak of drusy and sparry cavities. 

DryopithScns (Gr. dryos, a wood, and pithekos, ape). — Literally "tree- 
monkey ;" the generic term applied by M. Lartet (1856) to a large species 
of monkey found in the Miocene beds of the south of France, and appa- 
rently related to the modem long-armed apes (hylobates). It is supposed 
to have been a frigivorous, tree-climbing ape, equalling Man in stature. 

Dactility (Lat. dttctus, drawn out). — The property which certain metals 
possess of being drawn out into wire or thread-like filaments more or less 
slender. Platinum, gold, and silver, are the most ductile of the metals — 
a single grain of gold being capable of being drawn into a wire nearly 600 
feet in length ! 

Done (Brit., a hillock).— Usually applied to hillocks of blown sand. 
Sand-dunes, sand-drift, like that which, in so many places, skirts the 
shores of our own island, Holland, and other countries. 

Dnnstone. — A local term for certain magnesian limestones of a yellow- 
ish dun or cream colour, occurring in the valley of the Derwent, near 
Matlock, in Derbyshire. They are of a granular texture, extremely hard, 
and rich in lead and calamine^ for which they have been extensively 

Dyke (Scot., a wall or fence). — Applied to those wall-like intrusions of 
igneous rock which fill up rents and fissures in the stratified systems. In 
general they burst through and displace the strata, though occasionally 
they merely fill up pre-existing rents and fissures. In dykes composed of 



basalt and basaltic greenstone, the columnar structure is horizontal or at 
right angles to the stratified walls of the rent or fissure which they occupy. 
When the matter of the dyke is harder than the intersected strata, and 
these have been subje<Sted to waste and denudation, the igneous wall-liko 
mass may be traced for miles across a country ; and, on the other hand, 
where the rock-matter of the dyke has been softer, its course may also be 
traced by narrow wall-sided fissures and linear ditch-Hke depressions. 
Both phenomena are well exhibited in the island of Arran. 

D^MdOe (Gr. dysodes, fetid, and ilys, mud). — Thd name given to a bitu- 
minous shale or Tertiary mud of a greenish-grey colour, composed of thin 
paper}' laminae, and frequently containing the impressions of fish and 
dicotyledonous leaves. Its bitumen is evidently of animal origin ; it bums 
slowly with much smoke and fiame, and emits a highly fetid odour ; hence 
the name. 


Eagle-Stone.~The cetites lapis of the ancients, fabled to have been 
hatched in the nest of the eagle. A variety of nodular argillaceous iron- 
ore, having a concentric structure, and occasionally so decomposed within 
as to have a loose kernel which rattles on being shaken. This kernel was 
known by the name of callimuSf and was supposed to be the young in the 
womb of the parent nodule ; hence the fable of the cetite* bringing forth 
young. When there is no internal kernel the nodule becomes simply a 
ffeode, which see. 

Ear-BonOB. — The tympanic or petro-tympanic bones of the higher osseous 
and cartilaginous fishes, as well as those of whales, are of freq\ient occur- 
rence in a fossil state in the Crag of Norfolk, and other Tertiary strata. 
They are termed otolvthes or otolites, that is, " ear-stones ; ** and though 
varying greatly in size and configuration, are readily distinguished from. 
ther bones by their greater density and smooth unattached forms. — See 

Earth. — In chemistry, a solid, opaque, friable substance, without lustre, 
and incombustible ; it is thus distinguished from metals on the one hand, 
and from carbon and other combustible substances on the other. The 
primitive earths are thus said to be — baryta, strontia, lime, magnesia, 
aluviina, glvcina, zirconia, yttria, donaria, and tkorina. The first four are 
termed alkaline earths, from their partial solubility in water, their alkaline 
taste, and their action on vegetable colours ; the remainder constitute the 
earths proper, are insoluble in water, and only imperfectly neutralise the 
acids. — In geology, as well as in familiar language, the word Earth is 
often loosely employed — the earths of the agriculturist being the soils he 
cultivates, while fuller's earth (an absorbent clay), hone-ear'th (phosphate of 
lime), and the like, are everyday terms. The epithet earthy refers more 
strictly to the character and consistency of a rock, as an '* earthy lime- 
stone," meaning thereby that it is soft, friable, and non-crystalline. — In 
geography, the distinctive name for our planet, as associated with the Sun, 



Moon, and other bodies of the solar system ; hence such phrases as the 
"Earth's mass," *« Earth's orbit," "Earth's axis of rotation," and so 

Earth's Cmst. — That external rind or shell of our planet which is acces- 
sible to human investigation ; in contradistinction to the internal mass, of 
which we can know nothing by direct observation ; the Erdrrinde of the 
German geologist.— See Tehperatube of the Eabth. 

Earth of Bone. — A phosphate of lime, sometimes termed "bone phos- 
phate," existing in bones after calcination. 

Earth-Foam. — A fine, light, scaly variety of calcite or calc-spar, techni- 
cally known as aphrite, which see. 

Earthquake. — The familiar as well as technical term for any shaking or 
tremor of the earth's crust produced by subterranean agency. As the 
name implies, an earthquake consists of an agitation of some particular 
portion of the earth — the shock or convulsion being less or more violent, 
and extending over a less or greater area, according to the intensity of the 
motive power, and according to conditions of internal siaructure, with which 
we are but slenderly acquainted. The conditions accompanying earth- 
quakes are by no means uniform, and though science has recorded a great 
many facts in connection with their occurrence, it is by no means in a 
position to enunciate any law either as regards their premonitoiy warnings, 
their intensity, their duration, or the direction of their movements. In 
some instances they are preceded by an unusual stillness of the air, by an 
unnatural agitation of the waters, and by hollow subterranean rumblings. 
In others, the shodc comes on at once with or without noise — the earth is 
violently agitated by perpendicular lifts or heaves— rolls from side to side 
— or undulates with uneasy motion as if it were floating away fi:^>m beneath 
the feet of the observer. The single shock of an earthquake seldom lasts 
more than a minute — often for a few seconds only ; but they frequently 
follow each other after short intervals, and for a considerable length of 
time, and these paroicysms occur at certain periods more intensely than at 
others. Of course such movements of a solid, unelastic, and variously 
composed mass like the earth's crust — as if it were extensively cavernous 
or floated on a sea of molten matter — ^must be followed by fractures, fis- 
sures, and chasms ; by upheavals and depressions ; by elevations of the 
sea's bed into dry land, and the submergence of diy land beneath the 
waters of the ocean. Of all these we have abundant evidence and record 
within the historical period ; and the further testimony, that these fissures 
often emit smoke and flame, and more frequently discharge fragments of 
stone and torrents of water. 

From these and similar circumstances, as well as from their greater 
frequency in volcanic districts, there can be little doubt that earthquakes 
are intimately associated with volcanoes — in fact, are but varied expres- 
sions of the same primal agency. They produce modifications of the earth's 
crust chiefly by fracture, subsidence, and elevation. During their convul- 
sions the level plain may be thrown into abrupt heights or rent by chasms 
and ravines ; lakes may disappear and rivers change their courses ; islands 
may be submerged or elevated and joined to the mainland ; and nraritime 
tracts may be sunk beneath the waters, or the adjacent sea-bed raised 
into dry land. Their geological function is therefore, like that of vol- 
canoes, to diversify the surface of the globe, and to render irregular what 
aqueous agency is perpetually striving to render smooth and uniform. 



Presuming on the uniformity of nature's operations, in subordination to 
the higher law of Creational Progress, the effects of earthquakes must 
have been similar in all time past, and to them, therefore, must be 
ascribed many of the fractures, dislocations, and contortions, so prevalent 
among the earlier rock-formations of the globe. — See Seismoorafhy. 

Earthqnake-WaTes. — The name given to those huge and sudden waves, 
or rather walls of water, which during earthquake convulsions are some- 
times thrown with tremendous impetus upon the land. That rolled in upon 
the coasts of Portugal, during the great Lisbon earthquake in 1755, was 
estimated at 60 feet high. 

EbotilemexLt (Fr. ihouler, to tumble down). — A term adopted from the 
French for sudden rock-falls and earth-slips in mountainous regions. 

Ebullition (Lat. ebullitio, a boiling or bubbling-up). — ^The boiling or bub- 
bling-up of liquids after they have been heated to the boUifig-pointf which 
varies, of course, according to the altitude of the situation above the level 
of the sea. Many thermal springs are in a state of constant ebullition.— 
See BoiLiKG Point. 

Eccnlidrnphaliis (6r., unrolled navel). — An obscure Lower Silurian shell, 
thin, curved or discoidal, with a few widely-separate whorls, slightly un- 
symmetrical and keeled. Usually placed among the Gasteropods, but by 
some regarded as a peculiar form of Pteropod. 

Echixdda, Echinoidea (6r. echinos, the sea-urchin). — A well-known 
family of the Badiata, comprehending those marine animals commonly 
known by the name of sea-eggs or seorurchtTis, and constituting, according 
to zoologists, the third order of the class EchifiodemuUa, which see. The 
Echinida are found fossil in all formations, but are most abundant and 
beautifully preserved in the Chalk. 

E'chiiiite. — The general palseontological term for any fossil, sea-urchin, 
or cidaris, or portion thereof. EchiniUs are common in many formations, 
and wherever they occur give evidence of true marine conditions. 

Echinobriflsiu (6r. echinos, sea-urchin ; brissos, sea-urchin). — An echino- 
derm of the Oolite and Chalk periods, so called from its closer resemblance 
to the existing sea-urchin in the form and arrangement of its spines. 

Echxnoc^amiu (Gr. echinos, and hyamos, bean). — A minute echinoderm 
of the Pleiocene period, so termed from the bean-shaped form of its crust 
or shell. 

Echinodfonata (Gr. echinos, and derma, the skin). — A numerous class, 
recent and fossil, of Badiata like the star-fish and sea-urchin — all less or 
more covered with a firm coriaceous or crustaceous integument, which in 
many instances is densely armed with spines. It embraces, according to 
recent zoological arrangements, the following orders : — 

1. The Crinoida, or those species, almost exclusively fossil, which are 
fixed by a long jointed stalk, and have branching articulated tentacula 
extending from around the abdominal cavity, as in the common encriniie, 

2. The Asterida or Stellerida, comprising the free, flexible, and star- 
shaped species, which are destitute of stalk or peduncle, as the common 
star-fish {asteria). The asterida are recent as well as fossil in all forma- 

3. Echinida, in which the body is inflexible, and composed of a solid 
articulated crust, the exterior surface of which is covered with movable 
calcareous spines, as in echin%LS, Becent as well as fossil in all formations. 

4. The Holothurida, in which the axis of the body is placed horizontally, 



and there is a soft coriaceous skin, seldom protected with spines, as in 
holothuria. Found in the glacial clays of the Clyde. 

Or including fossil genera, we have the further subdiyisions given in the 
preliminary tabulations, " Animal Scheme." 

EchinOBpluBrltes (Gr. echinos, and sphaira, a ball). — literally ''prickly 
ball ; " a genus of echinoderms characterised by their small size and globular 
form, and restricted apparently to the Lower Silurian and Upper Cambrian 

EchinostdchyB (6r. echinot, and ttachys, a head of flowers). — A term 
applied to a singular fossil occurring in the New Red Sandstone ; ap- 
parently a spike of inflorescence, beset on all sides with sessile, contiguous, 
sub-conical flowers or fruits. Supposed to be akin to the Typliaceas or 

E'dogite (6r., select).— The name given to a coarse or flne grained mix- 
ture of green smeragdite with red garnet — a rock apparently of metamor- 
phic origin. Some varieties take a good polish, and are coming into use as 
ornamental stones. 

Ecnme de Mer, or Meerschaum. —literally " foam of the sea ; " a light 
white earthy silicate of magnesia, much esteemed for the bowls of 
tobacco-pipes.— See Meebschaum. 

Eddphodon (Gr.) — Literally "pavement-tooth ; " 'a genus of Lower Ter- 
tiary fishes, founded chiefly on the jaws and dental £^paratus, which resem>' 
ble those of the existing ijdmxera, but yet differ so much as to have induced 
Professor Owen to erect the Edaphodonts {EdaphodonUidoe) into a separate 
family. Known also as Passalodon (peg-tooth), and PHttacodon (parrot- 

Eddy (Sax. ed, water, and ea, backwards).— Any rotatory motion of 
water caused by the meeting of opposing currents. Eddies generally occur 
in estuaries where the tide meets the current of the river ; and in seas 
where currents from different quarters meet, or where tidal currents are 
thrown back on themselves by opposing obstacles. — See Whirlpool. 

Edentdta (Lat. edentula, toothless). — The sixth order of mammalia in 
Cuvier's arrangement, or quadrupeds agreeing in the unimportant charac- 
ter of being destitute of front or incisive teeth. It comprehends the Eden- 
tata proper — ^viz., ant-eaters, armadilloes, &c. — and the Tardiffrada or 
sloths. Many of the huge Tertiary mammals of South America belong 
to the Edentate order. — See tabulations, "Animal Scheme." 

Edingtanite. — So called after its discoverer. A member of the Zeolite 
family, found implanted in minute crystals on Thomsonite in the Kilpat- 
rick Hills, but very rare. 

EdriophthalmoiUB (Gr. edraios, sessile, and opkthaIm/>g, the eye). — Applied 
to those crustaceans which, like the sandhopper and woodlouse, have im- 
movable sessile eyes ; in contradistinction to those which, like the crab 
and lobster, are stalk-eyed or podophthalmotts. The group Edriopkthalma 
comprises the amphipods, lasmidopods, and isopods. — See tabulations, 
"Animal Scheme." 

Effianr^Bcenoe (Lat. ^ervesco, I boil or bubble up).— The bubbling, hiss- 
ing commotion which takes place in fluids when gas is generated and given 
off with rapidity. The effervescence of a Seidlitz powder, and of limestone 
under the action of muriatic acid, are familiar examples. 

Efflorescence (Lat. effioresco, I put forth flowers). — Applied in mineral- 
ogy to those saline excrescences which cover certain minerals, like alum- 


£GG "^-^ EliE 

shale, sulphuret of iron, &o., when exposed to the action of the atmo^here 
— ^the air decomposing the saline crystals and abstracting their water of 
crystallisation. Effiortsceiux is caused by the removal of moisture, just as 
deliquescence is caused by the absorption of it. 

Eggs, FoMiL — The eggs of turtles occur in a sub-fossil, or rather in a 
petrified state in the shore-deposits of Ascension and other islands ; those 
of snakes in fresh-water limestones of comparatively recent origin in Ger- 
many ; those of birds {dinomis and epiomie) in the ancient river-silts of 
New Zealand and Madagascar; and those of imknown animals (birds, 
pterodactyles, or other reptiles) so early as the Oolitic formation. — Such 
remains are termed Oolithes and Ovulites, which see. 

Egyptian Jasper, Egyptian Pebble. — '* A variety of jasper occurring in 
roundish pieces, scattered over the surface of the desert between Cairo and 
the Red Sea. The surfieice of these masses is rough, and of a yellowish 
chestnut-brown colour, but internally the brown colour forms irregular 
concentric zones, between which are black spots and small black dendritic 
markings in a base of pale yellowish-brown colour" (Bristow). When cut 
and polished these jaspers are used as gem-stones. 

EifeL —A district on the Lower Rhine, celebrated in geology for its re- 
cent volcanic rocks, its brown-coal, and other Tertiary deposits, as well as 
for its highly fossiliferous Devonian and Silurian strata. The subject of 
papers in the geological journals by Lyell, Scrope, Homer, Hibbert, Ham- 
ilton, and others, as to its Tertiary phenomena ; and the fertile field of 
research to Sandberger, R5emer, Von Dechen, and others, in its Palseo- 
zoic aspects. 

Eideben in Saxony ; a locality well known for its finely-preserved palceo' 
nisei, and other fishes peculiar to the Carboniferous and Permian formations. 

Eleolite (Gr. elaion, oil; lithos, stone). — A mineral of the Scapolite family, 
having a dull opalescent or fatly resinous lustre ; the FeUstein or fatstone 
of Werner. Composition, 45 silica, 32 alumina, 15 soda, 5 potash, and 
traces of lime, magnesia, and iron peroxide. 

Eldterite.— Known also as elastic " mineral pitch " and " mineral 
caoutchouc." A variety of bitumen possessing a certain degree of elas- 
ticity, and generally found in the crevices of Carboniferous limestone, .as in 
Derbyshire and Fifeshire. On exposure to the atmosphere, elaterite gra- 
dually loses its elasticity, and becomes hard and brittle like asphalt. 
According to Johnston, it consists of about 85 carbon and 13 hydrogen, 
with traces of oxygen and nitrogen. 

Elbersentb, near Bareuth, in the N.E. of Bavaria; celebrated for its 
Devonian strata, which abound in the shells of Clymenia — upwards of 
thirty species having been found there, and the greater number of them 
peculiar to the locality. 

Elfetmm. — A term of the ancients for argentiferous gold-ore, and still 
applied to those varieties which contain more than 20 per cent of silver, 
and of a light brass or bronze-yellow colour. 

Element. — A simple substance; one which chemistiy cannot resolve 
into other component substances. Iron, for example, is a simple substance 
or elementaiy body ; rust of iron, a compound, consisting of metallic iron 
and oxygen. Elements are spoken of as proximate or irUermediate, and uUi- 
mate. Thus, limestone consists of lime and carbonic acid — these are its 
intermediate elements ; but the lime is still further resolvable into calcium 
and oxygen, and the carbonic acid into carbon and oxygen— the calciiun, 




oxygen^ and carbon being ultimate elements. Upwards of sixty elemen- 
tary substances are known to the chemist, and of these all the countless 
combinations and matters in the mineral, vegetable, and animal world are 
composed.— See Chemistby, and tabulations, *' Chemical Scheme.'* 

Elevatiiig Causes. — Under this head are comprehended those agencies 
which refer to the operation of volcanoes, earthquakes, and gradually 
elevating forces. The operations of the volcano and earthquake are 
sudden and violent, and depend proximately on the presence of subter- 
ranean heat ; gradual elevation, on the other hand, may arise from slow 
secular movements in the earth's crust, with the proximate causes of which 
geologists are yet unacquainted. The elevatory power of the volcaiw is 
seen partly in the upheaval of portions of the earth's crust into mountain 
chains and ridges, and partly in the accumulation round some centre of 
eruption of ejected lava, scorise, and other materials. The power of the 
earthquake is manifested both by subsidence and elevation— subsidence, as 
in the sinking of the Allah Bund at the mouth of the Indus in 1819 ; and 
elevation, as in the uprise of the coast of Chili in 1822. Qradnal elevation 
manifests itself in such uprises as those of the Scandinavian peninsula (to 
the extent of some three or four feet in a century), and appears to depend 
on movements in the earth's mass with which we are yet unacquainted. 

Elie Snby. — A variety ofpyrope found in small garnet-like grains in the 
trap-tuff of Eincraig Point, near Elie, in Fifeshire. 

Elntriation (Lat. eluere, to wash out or cleanse). — In chemistry and 
metallurgy, the process of washing by which the lighter earthy parts are 
separated from the heavier and metallic. 

Elvan, ElvaiL Courses. — A Cornish name for a f elspathic rock or porphyry 
occurring in dykes in the mining districts of that county. 

Elytra (Gr. elytron, a sheath). — The hard crustaceous case or sheath 
which covers the membraneous wings of coleopterous insects like the 
beetle ; the wing-sheath. The elytra of beetles are found fossil from the 
Coal formation upwards. 

Emboachiire (Fr.) — The mouth of a river, or that part where it dis- 
charges itself into a lake or sea. 

Emerald (Fr. emeraude ; Ital. emeraJdo ; Lat. gmaragdm). — One of the 
gems, and generally of a rich deep-green colour; the less brilliant and 
colourless varieties being known as heryU. ' The crystals occur in hexa- 
gonal prisms, rarely in columnar aggr^ates, and usually marked with 
vertical striae. The emerald is found either imbedded or in druses in some 
countries in the crystalline schists, but in the most celebrated modem 
locality (Muzo, in New Grenada), in a Secondary limestone abounding in 
ammonites. The finest specimens are brought from South America, but 
fair varieties have been found in Bavaria, India, and Siberia. According 
to Vauquelin, who, in analysing the emerald, first discovered the earth 
glucina, the purest specimens consist of 65 silica, 14 alumina, 13 glucina, 
2.56 lime, and 3.50 oxide of chromium, to which last the gem was supposed 
to owe its fine green colour. According to the more recent researches of 
M. Levy, howevei*, the colouring matter is considered to be a carburet of 
hydrogen, and of animal origin — a supposition to which the fossiliferous 
limestone of Muzo gives great support. The colour of the emerald can 
easily be destroyed by heat— a circumstance which does not occur in those 
gems that are coloured by oxide of chromium. — See Bebtl. 
Emergence, Emergent (Lat. tfm^r^o).— Rising out of that by which it was 



covered ; applied to islands and shores gradually rising from the ocean. 
Emex^nce and Subsidence are contradistinguishing terms. 

Emery. — A massive, nearly opaque, greyish-black, or indigo-coloured 
variety of rhombohedral corundum, consisting of alumina, with a small 
percentage of silica and peroxide of iron. It occurs in Spain, the Greek 
Islands, and other localities, and derives its name from Cape Emeri, in the 
island of Nazos, from which most of the emery of commerce is derived, 
and where it occurs in large blocks in the soil, and sometimes in white 
marble. Triturated, sifted, and attached to paper or cloth^ it forms the 
emery-paper and emery-cloth of the polisher. 

Enunonite (after Professor Emmons of Massachusetts). — A snow-white 
variety of Strontianite, with an obscurely foliated structure, and a scaly 
appearance not unlike some varieties of gypsum. Consists of 82.7 car- 
bonate of strontia and 12.5 carbonate of lime. 

E'mydse (Gr. ewy«, the fresh-water turtle). — Fresh-water turtles or mud- 
tortoises ; a family of chelonian reptiles intermediate between the marine 
turtles and the land-tortoises. In form they are flatter than the land- 
tortoises ; their toes are longer and webbed, but not so long as those of the 
marine turtles. Fossil species have been found in the Wealden and Terti- 
aiy strata. — See Reftilia in preliminary tabulations, ''Animal Scheme." 

EnAliOBatiria (Gr. eaalios, noarine, and tauros, lizard). — Literally sea- 
saurians ; a group of fossil reptilians, including the aquatic forms — 
ichthyosaurus, pliosaurus, plesiosaurus, &o.— See Saurians. 

EndmeL —In anatomy, the smooth, hard, glossy substance which in 
various forms constitutes Uie outer surface of the teeth ; seen also on the 
scales of the fossil gq.noid or enamelled-scale fishes. 

Enc^phaloos (Gr. en, in, and bephcUe, the head). — ^Applied to those mol- 
lusca which, like the limpet and periwinkle, have a distinct head. The 
division £ncephala comprehends the cephalopods, gasteropods, and ptero- 
pods — in other words, idl the univalves. — See Acephalous. 

E'ncrinite, Encrinites (Gr. knnontei, lily).— The original and general term 
for the Crinoidea or lily-like echinoderms — an extensive and chiefly fossil 
class, characterised by their long many- jointed stalks, surmounted by lily- 
shaped bodies or receptacles, which were furnished with numerous finger- 
like rays capable of closing and expanding. The internal calcareous skele- 
tons of the encrinites (in scattered joints and fragments) are so abundant 
in some Carboniferous limestones as to compose the greater portion of the 
mass ; hence the term encrifial or encrinital limestone. The minuter joints 
of the fingers and rays are usually termed ewtrochi or wheel-stones, and 
these, when abounding in certain limestones, confer on them the title en- 
irochal limestone*. The stalk having been perforated by a canal which 
kept the whole in vital union, the separated joints present a bead-like 
appearance ; hence such familiar terms as '' St Cuthbert^s beads " and 
" wheel-stones " for the solid pieceis ; and " pulley-stones " and " screw- 
stones" for their hollow casts in limestones. It is usual, in a general 
way, to apply the term Encrinites to the genera having rounded stalks, 
and Pentacrinites to those which are angular or pentangular. — See 

Endo (Gr. endon, within). — A common prefix in geology, as well as in 
other of the natural sciences; as endogens, plants increasing in growth 
from within ; endosiphonites^ a genus of fossil cephalopods having the 
siphuncle placed at the inner side of the whorls, &c. 



S'ndocarp (Gr. mdon, within, and larpos, fruit). — The stone or shell 
which, in fruits like the peach and cherry, encloses the embryo or kernel ; 
the outer skin being the qticarp^ and the fleshy edible substance the 

ITxidogenB (6r. endan, within ; ginomai, I am formed). — That division of 
the vegetable kingdom — palms, grasses, rushes, and liliaceous plants — 
whose growth takes place from within, and not by external concentric 
layers as in the £xoffe'M,—See Monooottledonoub, and tabulations, 
'* Vegetable Schemb." 

Endogenites. — Fossil stems and fragments exhibiting the endogenous 
structure are so termed. " It is merely," says Brongniart, "a provisional 
assemblage of objects to be further examined." 

EndoiiphoiiiteB (Gr. endon, within). — A synonyme of Prof. Ansted's for 
the nautiloid shell clymenia, whose siphuncle is on the inner side of the 
whorls, therein differing from the ammonite, whose siphuncle is on the 
outer side or dorsal, and from the nautilus, in which it is central. 

Engis, Engihonl.— The caverns of Engis and Engihoul— -the former on 
the left bank, and the latter on the right bank, of the Mouse, about eight 
miles from Li^e — have become celebrated in the question of man^s an- 
tiquity, from their containing human remains imbedded in the same muds 
and breccias with those of mammoth, rhinoceros, cave-bear, reindeer, and 
other mammalia now extinct in Europe. 

Enh^drons, Enhydrite (Gr. en, within, and hydor, water). — The name 
given to crystals and minerals containing water ; the opposite of an- 

E'xisiform (Lat. eimSf sword, and forma, likeness). — Sword-shaped ; 
straight, flat, and pointed, like the leaf of the iris ; slender and more 
tapering forms being lanceolate; and those less or more recurved, falciform, 

Eixt6ino]ite (Gr. entoma, insects, and lithot, stone). — Tbegenerskl term for 
a fossil insect, or any part or fragment thereof. 

Entomollthns Paxadoziis (Gr. entoma, insects). — The term given by the 
eariier palaeontologists to the trilobite, which was long confounded with 
insects in consequence of the segmented aspect of its body. 

Entom6logy (Gr. ejUoma, insects, and logos, reasoning). — The science 
of insects ; that branch of natural history that treats of the history and 
habits of insects. Entomological.— Pertaining to the science of insects. 
Entomologist. — One devoted to the study of insects. 

Entom^phagons (Gr. entoma, insects, and phago, I devour). — Insect-eat- 
ing ; applied to those animals which chiefly subsist on insects. Same as 
Insectivorous, which see. 

Entomdstraca (Gr. entomon, insect, and osirahon, shell). — Literally 
"shelled insect ; *' an extensive sub-class of Crustacea, generally of small 
sixe, covered with a delicate skin, and usually protected by a broad shield 
or sort of bivalve shell. The branchiae, when present, are attached to the 
feet, which, with the antennae, are generally furnished with bristles that 
render them efficient organs of locomotion. Occur recent, and fossil in all 
formations, as cypris, ceratiocaris, dithyroearis, &c. —See Crustacea in pre- 
liminary tabulations. 

E'ntrocM, Entrochites, and Trochitn (Lat. trochus, a wheel).— Names 
given to the wheel-like joints of theencrinite, which are frequently scattered 
in great profusion through certain limestones ; hence entrochal marble, — 
See Scbew-Stones, Pulley-Stones, and St Cuthbert's Beads. 



Enrelope (Fr. envelopper, to roll or wrap up). — A wrapper ; a cover ; any 
investing integument ; applied to superfloial soils, clays, and gravela that 
mask or cover up the subjacent rocky strata. 

Eocene (Gr. eos, the dawn, and kainotf recent). — A term introduced by 
Sir Charles Lyell to designate the Lower Tertiary strata, from the idea that 
the very smaU percentage of living testacea contained in these strata (ac- 
cording to Deshayes only 3^ per cent) indicates what may be regarded as 
the datpfi or commencement of the existing or current condition of creation. 
—See Tertiary System. 

Edlian (Eoliu, the god of wind). — A term given by Nelson to loose 
material (sand and the like) drifted and arranged by the wind. As we 
have aqti«ms formations, so we may have tolian or guh-aMriaX, which is the 
term most fi*equently employed. 

Eoittdnui (Gr. eot^ dawn, and iauros). — A provisional genus of Enaliosau- 
rians, occurring in the Nova Scotian Goal formation, and founded on some 
vertebrse which indicate, according to Mr Marsh their discoverer, " a rep- 
tile of large size, air-breathing, carnivorous, and aquatic, probably marine." 

EOBOic (Gr. eo9, dawn; zoe^ Ufe). — A term recently introduced to express 
the oldest fossiliferous rocks, such as the Laurentian and Huronian of 
Canada, fi:^>m their containing the first or earliest traces of life in the 
stratified systems. In this case Bozoic signifies older than the Palaozoic, 
and takes the place of Azoic and Hypozoic, which were formerly applied to 
such metamorphic strata. 

EoKOOn (Gr. am, dawn, and zoon, animal). — A foraminiferal organism 
occurring in the Laurentian limestones of Canada, and so named by Prin- 
cipal Dawson from its position in the oldest stratified rocks yet known to 
geology. It is found in large sessile patches, after the manner of Carpen- 
teria; and though greatly mineralised, yet reveals to the microscope a 
structure resemoling that of other foraminiferal forms. According to 
Drs Carpenter and Dawson, its affinities are towards the Nummuline 

Epi (Gr. epif upon). — A prefix adopted from the Greek, and having, as 
the case may be, the signification of upon, over, outer, all through, besides. 

Epicarp (Gr. epi, and harpos, fruit). — Th^ outer skin or husk of certain 
fruits ; the fleshy or edible portion being the sarcocarjp, and the stone the 

Epid§nniB (Gr. epi, and derma, the skin). — The outer skin, scarf-skin, or 
cuticle. Used in many branches of natural history, as in conchology, to 
the membranaceous homy cuticle that covers many shells ; in botany, to 
the membrane or outer bark that covers the stems of plants ; and in zoo- 
logy, to the pellicle or scarf-skin that covers the true skin of animals. In 
general the epidermis can be peeled or rubbed off without injury to the 
underlying parts, and in many instances it peels and falls off with the in- 
creasing size and age of the plant or animaL 

E'pidote (Gr. epi, and didomai, I give or add to). — ^A member of the Gar- 
net family, known also as pritmatic augite-tpar, jnstacite, and Arendhal- 
ite; and said to derive its name from its crystals, which always appear 
horizontal-prismatic, but are prolonged (or added to, epididowmi) at the 
base of the prism in one direction. It is generally of a green or greyish 
colour, and occurs regularly crystallised in druses, or in granular, pris- 
matic, and fibrous concretions. It is found in granite, dlorite, and other 
crystalline rocks, and has many sub-species or varieties, as zoisite, Thallite, 




Buchlandite, manganese-epidote, &c. It consists of 38 silica, 28 alumina, 
14 lime, 17 peroxide of iron, and traces of manganese and magnesia. 

Epigastric (6r. epi, and gaster, the belly).— Belonging to the upper por- 
tion of the belly, or epigastric region. 

Epimera (Gr. epi, and meros, a part or portion). — Those parts of the seg- 
ment of an articulate animal which lie immediately aboYe the joint of the 
limb ; e.g., the epimera or side-segments of the lobster. 

Epiornis. — A gigantic extinct bird of Madagascar. — See ^fiornis^ 

Epiphyte (Or. epi, and phyUm, a plant or shoot). — A term for those 
plants which grow upon others, adhering to their bark, and rooting among 
the decaying portions of their epidermis. Generally restricted to those 
orchids that grow upon trees. 

Epoch (Gr. epoche, a pause in the reckoning of time). — A term literally 
signifying a stop or fixed point of timd from which succeeding years are 
numbered, but somewhat loosely used in geology as synonymous with age 
or era ; as the " Silurian epoch," ''epoch of gigantic reptilians." 

E'psoxnite, Epsom Salt. — Sulphate of magnesia, consisting of 16.26 mag- 
nesia, 32.52* sulphuric acid, and 51.22 water. It occurs in botryoidal 
masses and capillary efflorescences in many mines, veins, and old coal- 
workings, and is a common ingredient in many mineral waters, like those 
of Epsom and Surrey. The greater portion of the Epsom salts of com- 
merce, however, is manufactured from magnesian limestone. 

EqnAtor (Lat. CBqutu, equal). — The great circle on the earth's surface, 
every point of which is equally distant from the poles ; such a circle cuts 
the globe into two equal parts or halves, — in other words, into hemispheres 
— ^viz., the Northern and Southern. When the sun is in the line of the 
equator, day and night are of equal duration, hence it is also termed the 
equinoctial line {ibox, the night). Eqoatdiial. — ^Belonging to, or in the 
region of the equator; as the "equatorial diameter" of the earth, the 
" equatorial current" of the Atlantic. 

Equatorial Current. — That great current which manifests itself within 
the equatorial region of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. In either 
ocean it has a decided westerly flow, is warmer by several degrees than the 
adjacent waters, and spreads over many degrees of latitude. It is influ- 
enced in its course and character partly by the trade- winds, and partly by 
the earth's rotation, and being unobstructed by islands is most decidedly 
felt in the Atlantic. In the Atlantic, as it spikes the South American 
shores it bifurcates into the Brazil and Guiana currents ; in the Pacific, 
as it nears the Asiatic islands it separates into the Australian and Japan 
currents ; and in the Indian Ocean, as it impinges on the African coast 
it is mainly deflected southward into the strong flow of the Mozambique 

Eqni (Lat. cequuSf equal). — A common prefix in scientific terminology 
signifying equal or alike; as equidistant, equally distant; equilateral 
equal- sided ; equivalved, having both valves alike. 

E'qnidflB (Lat. equtis, a horse). — The Horse tribe ; the family of solidun- 
gulous pachyderms, having only one apparent toe and a single hoof to each 
foot. It includes the horse, ass, zebra,, &c.; and members of the family, 
differing slightly from the existing species, occur fossil in the middle and 
upper Tertiaries. 

Equine (Lat. eqwus, a horse). — Pertaining to the horse ; belonging to the 
Horse family. 



Eqnisetices (Lai. equiu, a horse, and teta, a hair or bristle ; whence the 
English name horaetait).— kxi extensive order of marsh or boggy crypto- 
gams or flowerless plants, well represented by the common "horsetail" of 
our bogs and ditches. They occur in every region from Lapland to the 
equator, but acquire their greatest magnitude and abundance in moist 
warm r^ons. They are also found fossil in all formations, the most gi- 
gantic specimens occurring in Carboniferous and Oolitic strata. The 
equisetums are readily distinguished by their erect hollow stems, which 
are striated and jointed, frequently with whorls of small attenuated leaves 
at the joints, and all less or more rough from the quantity of silex con- 
tained in their cuticle. 

Eqnisetltes (Lat. equUetum, the plant horsetail). — Fossil plants resem- 
bling the equisetum of our pools and marshes, and found in all formations 
from the Devonian upwards. In equwtnm the stems are jointed, and sur- 
rounded by closely-fitting cylindrical sheaths, which are regularly tooth- 
letted, and which leave their impress on the stems ; but the stems are not 
channeled throughout as in Calamitet, for which they are apt to be mis- 
taken. — See Calamites. 

EqnlTalent. — A term frequently employed by geologists to designate 
strata or series of strata that have been formed contemporaneously in 
distant regions, or which, palseontologically speaking, are characterised 
by similar suites of fossils. Thus the "Keuper" of Germany, and the 
*' Mames Irises " of France, are said to be the equivalents of the saliferous 
and gypseous sandstone and marls of Cheshire ; the "Calcaire de Caen," 
or celebrated building-stone of Caen, the equivalent of our Great or Bath 
Oolite. — See Table of Contemporary or Equivalent Strata, in preliminary 
tabulations, " Geological Scheme." 

Era (Lat.) — In chronology, a fixed point of time, at which the computa- 
tion of ensuing years is commenced, as the "Christian era." In geology 
the term is somewhat loosely employed, not only to denote the commence- 
ment <rf a new "system " or " formation," but the entire duration of that 
system or formation ; as " the plants of the Carboniferous era," "the era 
of gigantic reptiles." 

Erbiiim. — One of the rarer metals, of which very little is known. Ac- 
cording to Mossander, the earth called yttria is a mixture of the oxides of 
three metals — yftWum, erbiunit and terbiunif which differ in the character 
of their salts, and some other particulars. 

Eremacatisis (Gr. ereme, slow, and hausis, burning). — Slow-burning; 
decay. Liebig^s term for that slow chemical change brought about by the 
action of the oxygen of the atmosphere on moist organic bodies, by which 
they are consumed or burnt without any sensible increase of temperature ; 
e.g., the conversion of vegetable substances into humus. 

E'rinite {Erin, the ancient name of Ireland). — The name given by Haid- 
inger to a beautiful green arseniate of copper (69.5 protoxide of copper, 
83.5 arsenic acid, 5 water, and 2 alumina), from its being found in the 
county of Limerick, in Ireland, where it occurs in mammillary crystalline 
groups. Also the name given by Thomson to a dull brownish-red variety 
of bole found in the amygdaloid of Antrim, and which consists of 47 
silica, 18.5 alumina, 6.5 iron peroxide, 25 water, with traces of lime, salt, 
and magnesia. 

ErismacdnthuB (Gr. erisma, subject of dispute, and ocaTiiha). — A provi- 
sional genus of fish-spines belonging to the Coal period, and so called from 



their doubtful character-* that is, whether a distinct genus or merely a 
species of ctenstcanthus. 

Erbsion (Lat. erottts, gnawed or worn away). — The act of gradually 
wearing away ; the state of being gradually worn away ; e.g., ** Valleys 
of erosion/' or those valleys which have been gradually cut out of the 
solid strata by the long-continued action of the rirer or rivers that flow 
through them. Most of the ravines and glens and river-channels in the 
British Islands are the result of erosion; for, whatever inequalities of 
surface may have originally directed the waters into their channels, all the 
subsequent deepening, and scooping out, and widening of the valleys, 
have been owing to the erosive force of running water laden wilh sand, 
gravel, and other triturating debris. 

Erpetdlogy (Gr. erpetos, reptile, and logos, reasoning). — That branch of 
natural science which treats of the structure, habits, and history of reptiles. 

Erratic Block Oronp. — ^A synonyme of the Boulder Clay, so called from 
the laige transported blocks which are thickly strewn through it.~See 
Pleistocene and Drift Fobmation. 

Erratic Blocks, Erratics.— A term frequently applied to those large 
water-worn and ice-borne blocks of stone (boulders) which are scattered so 
generally over the higher and middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere. 

Eructation (Lat. erudatio). — A violent bursting forth of gaseous and 
liquid matter from any orifice or opening, as from the crater of a volcano 
or geyser. 

Emption (Lat. e, out of, and ruptits, burst forth). — A violent and for* 
cible breaking out of enclosed matters; as the outburst of lava, ashes, 
mud, hot water, or steam from an opening in the earth's crust. Empted. — 
Forcibly thrown forth, as stones, scorisB, &c., from the crater of a volcano. 
Ernptire. — ^Applied to such igneous rocks as have evidently burst through 
the sedimentary strata, in contradistinction to those which have gently 
overflowed, and become interstrai\fied, 

Eiythrine (Gr. ent^ros, red). —The name given to cobalt-bloom, which 
occurs in small botryoidal masses and acicular diverging crystals, generally 
of a flne carmine or peach-red colour. As an arseniate of cobalt, its normal 
composition is 38.43 arsenic acid, 37.55 oxide of cobalt, and 24.02 water ; 
but most specimens contain oxide of nickel and protoxide of iron. 

Exythrite (Gr. erutkros, red). — ^A flesh-coloured variety of felspfu-, oc- 
curring in the amygdaloid of the Kilpatrick Hills, and so named by Thom- 
son from its colour. 

EBcizpnient (Fr. escarper, to cut steep).— The abrupt face or cliff of a 
ridge or hill-range. 

Eskin or Escars. — ^The name given in Ireland to the elongated and often 
flat-topped mounds of post-glacial gravel which occur abundantly in the 
greater river- valleys of that country. Known as Kaims in Scotland and 
Osars in Sweden, which see. 

Es^ddsB (Lat. esox, the pike). — The Pike family; represented by the 
well-known fresh-water fish of that name. The pik«s are extremely vora- 
cious fishes, and for this purpose have their •mouths abundantly armed 
with formidable teeth. Fossil species are said to occur from the Chalk 
period upwards. 

EsdphagBS or (Eaophagiui (Gr. olo, oiso, I carry, and phage, I eat).— The 
canal through which the food passes (or is carried) from the mouth to the 

193 V 


E'ltnary (Lat. (utus—ceHuo, I boil— the tide ; so called from the troubled 
boiling-up of the water-line, which marks its approach in river-mouths). — 
Estuaries are, properly speaking, tidal river-mouths, like those 6f the 
Thames, Severn, Solway, &c. ; whose fauna and flora are mixed fresh-water 
and marine, or composed of such species as are peculiar to brackish waters. 
From these peculiarities, the geologist is enabled to determine that cer- 
tain formations, such as the Wealden, have been deposited in estuaries, 
and not in fresh-water lakes, nor in the open ocean ; and hence also the 
frequent use of such phraseology as "estuary limestones," " estuary mud- 
stones," and the like. 

EtMan (Gr. etaiot, annual).— The JEtetian Wind of Europe is a northerly, 
or rather north-easterly wind, that prevails in early spring all over the 
continent. The word 4s appUed, in Greek and Roman authors, to the 
periodical winds in the Mecliterranean, from whatever quarter they blow. 

Ethmoid (Gr. ethmo», a sieve, and eidas, like). — Sieve-like ; perforated like 
a sieve. Generally applied to the bone of the nose, which is perforated 
like a sieve, for the passage of the olfactory nerves. 

Efh]i6graphy (Gr. ethnot, a race, and graphe, a description).— An accoimt 
or description of the origin, dispersion, conneetion, and characteristics of 
the various races of mankind. Ethnology. — The science of races, in all that 
relates to physical features, language, manners, religion, and other charac- 

Etiolate (Fr. etioler). — In gardening, to grow up long-shanked and 
colourless ; to blanch or make white, by concealment from the light. The 
inner leaves of lettuce and cabbages become etiolated by exclusion from 
the light ; and the blanching or etiolcUion of celery is produced by earthing 
up, so as to exclude the actinic or colouring effect of the sun's light. 

EtLchroite (Gr. eu, beautiful, and chroa, colour). — A rare arseniate of 
copper of a fine green colour ; hence the name. 

Eiiclase (Gr. eu, easily, and hlasitf fracture). — The prismatic emerald of 
Mohs; a very rare mineral, found chiefly in Brazil and Peru, in trans- 
parent crystals of a pale bright green colour. It consists, according to 
Berzelius, of 43.22 silica, 80.56 alumina, 21.78 glucina, with the oxides of 
iron and tin. Its form is an oblique prism, variously modified. It is 
characterised by great brittleness (whence its name), the facility with 
which it becomes electric by heat, and the length of time it retains this 
property. These characters distinguish it from the true emerald and 
beryl ; and its brittleness prevents its being employed as a gem. 

EddiaUte (Gr. eu, easily, and dialyo, I dissolve). — The rhombohedric 
almandine-spar of Mohs, one of the Haloid family, and so named from its 
easy solubility in acids. A rare mineral from Greenland, occurring in 
octahedral crystals of a soft reddish-lilac or hyacinthine colour, and con- 
taining zircon with silica and soda. It much resembles aXvMindine or noble 
garnet, but is distinguished by its crystalline form, its lower specific 
gravity, inferior hardness, and action under the blow-pipe. 

Ea61ep]uw (Gr. «», well, and elephas). — Founding chiefly on their denti- 
tion, Dr Falconer proposes to divide the Elephants into three sub-generic 
groups — the Stegodons, the Loxodomi, and the Buelep^nU — ^the latter 
term having reference to the typical elephants most familiarly known. 

Enkairite (Gr. euJcairos, convenient, well-situated). — A cupreous seleni- 
uret of copper, found disseminated in the calcareous rocks of Smoland in 
Sweden. Consists of 39 silver, 26 selenium, 23 copper, and 8 alumina. 


*_ ■!■ 


Eim6tia (Gr. eu, well, and notos, back). — A genus of Diatoms or micro- 
scopic plant-growths, having a siliceoas simple or bivalve shield, flat 
below, and convex, and often richly dentated above ; whence the name. 
Occurs in the mountain-meal of St Fiora, and in similar accumulations. 

£ii6mp]ialiis (Gr. eu, well, and ompItaloSf navel). — A whorled discoidal 
shell, ranging from the Lower Silurian to the Trias inclusive, but specially 
abundant in the Carboniferous limestone. In the euomphaliis, which be- 
longs to the family Turbinidse and order Gasteropoda^ the whorls are 
angular or coronated, the aperture polygonal, the umbilicus very large, and 
the shell frequently of gigantic dimensions. 

Ea68]nite (Gr. eu, well, and osmoa, odour).— The name givem by Dr 
GUmbel to a fossil resin occurring in the lignites of the Upper Palatinate, 
Bavaria ; and so termed from its strong, peculiar, and pleasant odour. 
The miners give it the name of ''Kampferharz," its odour resembling that 
of camphor, and at the same time partaking of that of rosemary. It occm*s 
either in semi-pulverulent masses of a brownish-yellow, or fiirm, and of the 
colour of cherry-gum. It is brittle, electric when rubbed, dissolves readily 
in alcohol or ether, and consists of 81.89 carbon, 11.73 hydrogen, and 6.38 
oxygen. It is evidently the produce of the coniferous trees which con- 
stitute the bulk of the lignite. 

Enphorbites.— Artis's term for the Sigillaria poAiliyderma, from its sup- 
posed affinity to the Euphorbias. 

Edphotide (Gr. ew, well, and phos, photo9, light).— A crystalline rock 
consisting essentially of Labrador felspar and diallage, with subordinate 
intermixtures of hornblende or augite. So called from irridescent lustre 
or quality of reflecting light.' The Oabbro of the Italian artists. 

Etirite.— The whitestone or weiss-stein of Werner. A term of the 
French mineralogists for a variety of granite in which felspar predominates 
so as to give it a uniform white colour ; generally small-grained, with a few 
crystals of quartz, and occasional scales of white silvery mica ; sometimes 
porphyritic from the interspersion of larger ciystals of felspar. 

EiiTyn6tiu (Gr. euros, breadth, and notos, the back). — Literally "broad 
back ; " a genus of Lepidoid fishes occurring in the Carboniferous forma- 
tion, and differing from PaXceoniscas, with which they were at one time 
united, in their high bream-like back, stronger crenulated scales, and 
generally larger size. 

Enr^terite. — ^A convenient Anglicised term for any of the Eurypterus 
family, or for any undetermined portion or specimen thereof. Iiltroduced 
to harmonise with Trilobite; hence we speak of the trilohUes of the 
Silurian and the eurypterites of the Devonian epoch. 

Enr^tenu, Enxypt^dse (Gr. euros, breadth, and pteron, wing or fin). 
— A genus and family of extinct crustaceans, ranging from the Upper Silu- 
rians to the Lower Coal-measures inclusive, and so termed in allusion to 
their broad oar-like swimming feet. The family embraces eurypterus 
proper, pterygottis, and others— all characterised by their long lobster-like 
forms, which consist (in the dorsal aspect) of an oblong-oval cephalo- 
thorax or carapace, with maiginal or sub-central eyes ; eleven abdominal 
or thoracico-abdominal segments, free and devoid of appendages ; and a 
telson or tail-plate more or less elongated, and usually pointed. The 
carapace (in the oral or ventral aspect) is furnished with three pairs of 
five- or six-jointed members — the two first variously formed in the different 
^nera (some furnished with spines, others with prehensile pincers), and 



the posterior forming the broad swimmiog feet which give name to the 
family. The oral apparatus consists^ as in the Eing-crab| of the serrated 
basal joints of the limbs, and is protected by a broad heart-shaped meta- 
stome or mouthpiece. In all the genera the exterior crust is ornamented 
with a peculiar scale-like sculpture, which becomes bolder and stronger on 
the free or exposed margins. The relations of the Eurypteridse to other 
crustacean families are by no means well determined, and geolc^ists must 
in the mean time rest satisfied with mere hints as to affinities with Copepoda, 
PoBcilipods, and other existing orders.— See Ptjertgotus, Crustacea, and 
tabulations, " Aiqhal Scheme.** 

BnrythMum (Gr.) — literally ''broad beast;" a provisional genus of 
mammalia, apparently pachyderm and aquatic, from the Eocene and Mio- 
cene Tertiaries of Europe. Allied to ffalitheriuni, which see. 

Eathacdnthiu (Gr. euthys, straight, acantha, spine). — A genus of fishes 
(apparently placoid) occurring in the Lower Old Bed of Forfarshire, rang- 
ing fi'om seven to eighteen inches in length, and thus characterised by 
its discoverer, Mr Powrie : — Head smaU, rather compressed ; body rather 
elongated ; branchial arches numerous and exposed ; tail heterocercal ; 
fins membranous, preceded by conical spines — ^two dorsals, two pectorals, 
two ventrals, one anal ; several pairs of intermediate dermal scutes ; spines 
straight, and ridged longitudinally ; scales smooth and minute. 

Eyaporatiioii (Lat. evaporo, I send off in vapour). — ^The act of convert- 
ing into vapour such liquids as water, either by natural or by artificial 
means, the former being termed " tpoTUaneoiu evaporation," Heat is the 
grand evaporating agent in nature, and its effects are greatly facilitated 
by the removal of the vapour as soon as it is formed either by currents of 
wind, by absorption, or by other analogous means. — See Vapour. 

EzcaTatloiL (Lat. er, out of, and cavus, hollow). — Any cavity or hollow, 
whether natural or artificial. Bocks are excavated naturally by the action 
of waves, by subterranean springs, by rivers, and other currents of water. 
E'xcrement (Lat. excrenientum),—Tha,t which is separated from the food 
Biter digestion, and ejected from the body of animals by the intestinal 
canal. Sxcremeniitioue or faecal matter is found abimdantly in a fossil 
state, and known as coproltte, which see. 

Excr^Boence (Lat. ex, out of, and cretco, I grow). — Any body or sub- 
stance growing upon or out of another in an unusual manner ; any pre- 
ternatural growth of a substance, mineral or organic. 

Exerfition (Lat. excrettu, thrown out of, separted). — The act of separat- 
ing or voiding excrementitious matter from the blood and food ; also the 
substances excreted, as perspiration, fecal matter, &;c. 

Exfdliate (Lat. ex, from off, and folium, a leaf). — To separate or &U off 
in laminsB or scales. Exfoliation, by weathering, is very perceptible in 
some varieties of greenstone which disintegrate, coating after coating (leaf 
after leaf), till the whole of the rock-face looks like a pile of concentric 
concretions in various stages of decay. 

Exhalation (Lat. exhalatio, a breathing out of). — Any vapour or gaseous 
matter arising from substances or STirfaces exposed to the atmosphere ; as 
the '' sulphurous exhalations ** from a volcanic crater, the ** poisonous ex- 
halations " or miasm from a putrid bog or fen, 

Exogenites. — Any fragment of fossil wood exhibiting the exogenous 
structure, and otherwise of unknown affinity, is so termed. 
E'xogens (Gr. exo, without, and ginomai, I am formed).— That division 




of the vegetable kingdom whose growth takes place by external concentric 
layers of annual increment^ like the beech, ash, elm, &c., in contradistinc- 
tion to the JSndogent, or those whose growth is not indicated by concentric 
layers. All the trees in cold climates, and most of those in hot latitudes, 
are txagerums, and are easily distinguished from the endogenous by the 
reticulated venation of their leaves. — See Dicotyledonous. 

Ezog^ra (Gr. exo, outward, and gyros, a twist or turn). — ^The sub-generic 
term employed by Sowerby and others to designate the Chama-shaped 
species of Orypkcea having the umbones sub-spiral, and turned outwards 
or towards the posterior side. These shells are now usually included in 
the wider genus Gryphaoa, though some still retain gryphcea and exogyra as 
sub-genera of the more typical genus Osirea or oyster. 

Xz6tie (Gr. exotikos, thence, from a strange country). — Applied to plants 
and animals, but chiefly to the former, that have been introduced into a 
country from other regions — ^that is, from without. Used in contradistinc- 
tion to indigenous, or naturally belonging to a region, which see. 

Sq^amdon (Lat. expanstts, spread out). — The increased bulk which bodies 
assume when heated. All substances, solid as well as liquid, when chemi- 
cal change does not take place, expand by heat and contract by cold. 
Water presents an apparent exception to this rule, inasmuch as it attains 
its minimum volume at 40*^, expands and is converted into steam above 
this temperature,|and also expands as it fcUls below it, till converted at 82° 
into ice, a solid crystalline mass, which being lighter (or occupying a 
larger volume) floats on the surface. Clay also, from its losing its water 
of plasticity, shrinks or contracts by heat ; but such contraction applies to 
the compound mass only— not to separate sabetanceBpense, 

Explosion (Lat. exphsio). — The sudden and violent expansion of any 
object, by which its constituent parts are burst asunder. Explosion differs 
from expansion inasmuch as it is always sudden and of momentary dura- 
tion, whereas the latter is gradual, and more or less continuous. Explosion 
is also for the most part accompanied by chemical change ; expansion, on 
the other hand, is mainly mechanical. Explosion has reference chiefly to 
gaseous substances ; expansion, to solids and liquids. 

Exsiccition (Lat. ex, out of, and siccus, dried up). — The drying up ofsolid 
bodies ; the expulsion of moisture from their structure by heat, by pres- 
sure, or by any other means. 

Eztracrlnns. — A sub-genus of Pentacrinus, and separated from that 
genus by Major Austin, in consequence of the more frequent bifurcation 
or subdivision of its tentacular arms. It occurs in tangled masses, forming 
beds of considerable extent in the Lower Lias of Dorset, Gloucestershire, 
and Yorkshire. "This Crinoid," says Lyell, "with its innumerable ten- 
tacular arms, appears to have been frequentiy attached to the drift-wood 
of the Liassic Sea, in the same manner as barnacles float about at the 
present day." 

Exdviss (Lat., cast clothes). — In zoology this term is applied to the 
moulted or cast-off coverings of animals, such as the skin of the snake, 
the crust of the crab, &c. ; but in geology it has a wider sense, and ap- 
plies to all fossil animal matter or fragments of whatever description. 

Eye-Stone.— The name given to those varieties of circle-agate which show, 
in the centre, a spot or spots more highly coloured than the concentric 
layers. Also given to varieties of stalactite which, when cut across, show 
a dark-coloured or hollow central portion, fancifully resembling an eye. 



Faboidea (Lat. fala, a bean).— A term applied by Mr Bowerbank to 
certain bean-shaped leguminous seeds found in the London, or Lower Ter- 
tiary, clays of the Isle of Sheppey. 

Face.— In crystallography, one of the planes which form the surfece of 
a regular solid. A cube has six such " faces," or plane surfaces. 

Fao6t (Fr. facette^ a little face).— Applied to the small terminal faces of 
crystals and cut gems. Precious stones cut into numerous faces are said 
to be f(icettedf in contradistinction to being polished into rounded forms, 
or cut, as lapidaries term it, " en cobochon,** 

Fides (Lat.)— A convenient term in natural history, introduced to ex- 
press any common resemblance or aspect among the rocks, plants, ani- 
mals, or fossils of any area or epoch. Thus we speak of the " facies of the 
Carboniferous flora " as distinct from the floras of other epochs ; and of the 
" facies of the Australian fauna " as distinguished from the animals of other 
regfions by their common marsupial characteristics. 

Factltloiis {L&t. factut, made).— Made or fashioned by art, in contradis- 
tinction to that formed by nature. We have thus factitious waters and fac- 
titious stones made to resemble the natural products. 

FsBces, Fseeal (Lat. fasx, pi. fceces, excrement, worthless sediment). — 
The fossil faeces of fishes, saurians, &c., are known as coprolites ; the hard- 
ened excrement of dogs and wolves, album grcecam. ; that of mice, album 
nigrum. The preservaiion of /cecal matter is common in all the geological 

Fihlore, F&hleiz (Ger. Juki, ash-coloured, and erz, ore). — The mineral- 
ogical term for *' grey copper-ore,* and the type of a family of minerals 
containing that important metal. — See tabulations, " Mineral Scheme." 

F&hlnnite. — A sub-species of octahedral corundum, found in taloose rocks 
at Fahlun in Sweden, hence the name. — See Automalitb. 

Fahrenheit.— Fahrenheit's thermometer is that arrangement of the ther- 
mometrical scale in which the space between the freezing and the boiling 
points of water, under a medium pressure of the atmosphere, is divided 
into 180° ; the freezing point being marked 32", and the boiling 212".— See 

Faikes or Fakes. — A Scotch miner's term for fissile sandy shales, or 
shaly sandstones, as distinct from the dark bituminous shales known as 
«»blaes"or "blaize." 

Fairy-Stone. — A name given by the peasantry in the south of England to 
the flinty fossil sea-urchins found in the Chalk ; also a term used by geolo- 
gists for recent concretions of hardened clay or clay-ironstone occurring 
near the sources of certain chalybeate springs. In some districts the term 
*' Fairy loaves " is that most frequently applied to the Chalk ananchytes, 

F&lcate, Falcated (Lat. /a/a7,/a^a9, a reaping-hook). — Sickle-shaped, bent, 
or shaped like a reaping-hook. 

Fdldlbrm (L&t.falx, a reaping-hook, and /orwa). — Shaped like asc3rthe 
or reaping-hook ; e.g., certain bivalves and fish-spines. 


W^ "~ — -••---**• ^•t' M. I .'It. ■■■I -■»■■■ mip miMx»iw»"^»^»^MwwM—i I ma iiP— i^i 


FaUing-Stoues. — A familiar term for aSrolites or meteoric stoneS| which 

Faluns. — A French provincial term for the shelly Tertiary (Upper 
Miocene) strata of Touraine and the Loire, which resemble the " Crag " of 
Norfolk and Suffolk. Though generally composed of shelly sand and marl, 
in some districts they form a soft building-stone, chiefly composed of an 
aggregate of broken shells, bryozoa, corals, and echinoderms, united by a 
calcareous cement. 

Family. — In natural history classifications this term denotes the group 
next in value and comprehensiveness above the gentu. As species con^ 
stitute a genus, so genera constitute a family. The word, however, is 
often used in a loose and general way, as equivalent to kind, tribe, or 

Farewell Bock. — The famUiar term in the South Welsh coal-field for the 
MilUtoiu Grit, because on striking it the miner bids farewell to all workable 
seams of coal. In Wales, some beds of this grit possess the valuable pro- 
perty of resisting, for a long time, the action of the most intense heat, and 
are therefore used for the " hearths " of iron furnaces. 

Farina (Lat. far, com). — Meal or flour, obtained by grinding and sifting 
wheat or other com. Fossil Farina. — A mealy-looking infusorial or micro- 
phytal earth— the B&rg-mafd of the Swedes and Laplanders. 

Farnham Beds. — ^A portion of the Upper Greensand, near Famham in 
Surrey, which yields phosphate of lime in such abundance as to be largely 
used by agriculturists as a fertiliser. *' It is doubtless of animal origin," 
says Lyell, " and partly coprolitic, derived from the excrement offish and 
reptiles."— See Coprolites. 

Fasdcular (Lat./eMcu;«^2w, a little bundle). — United or growing together 
in bundles or tufts, as the needle-shaped crystals of some of the zeolites^ 
or the leaflets of the larch, pine, and other coniferse. 

Fasdcnldria (Lat. fatdcuXm, a cluster or little bundle). — A genus of 
polyzoa occurring in the Coralline Crag of Suffolk, and so named from its 
clustered or globular form. It belongs to the family of TuhtUiporidce» 

Fasdoliria (Lat. fcuciola, a swathing band or stripe). — A genus of 
gasteropods belonging to the family MuricidcB, and so termed from the 
smooth band-like surface of their windings. They are thus distinguished 
from Murex, whose windings are rough with "varices" or wrinkle-like 
swellings, and from Fusus by their spirally-plaited columella. The exist- 
ing species are found chiefly in warm and southern seas ; the fossil occur in 
the Chalk and Upper Tertiaries. 

Fdssaite. — ^A variety or sub-species of augite, occurring in fine sharp 
crystals of high lustre, and dark or pistacio-green colour, in traps, altered 
limestones, and magnetic ores. It derives its name &om Fassaihal, in the 
Tyrol, where it is found in great perfection. 

Fal^ Morgana. — The phenomenon of the mirage at sea. It arises from 
two currents of air of different density or temperature coming suddenly in 
contact ; and as at sea the upper is generally the warmer and the lower the 
colder, the former becomes condensed at the place of contact, and forms, 
as it were, a mirror for the objects which are in the lower current, so that 
their images are inversely reflected. As the surface of separation is not 
level throughout, various refractions and distortions result, which often 
impart to the whole a singular and fantastic appearance. On land, where 
the warmer current of air is on the surface of the ground, the atrial mirror 




is formed beneath the eye of the obserrer, by which the same phenomenon 
is produced that results from the reflection of objects on the surfistce of the 
water. The name is said to be of Breton origin — mor, sea, and gaaut, fine 
lady— the fairy mermaid of our popular legends. — See Mirage. 

Fault. — The term for any fissure accompanied by a displacement of the 
strata on either side. On one side the strata may be thrown down, many 
fathoms, on the other, thrcwn up ; and at the same time may be altered 
in their dip or inclination. Strata so fissured and displaced are said to be 
**favUed" &Hp, slide, tk^ft, heaven hitch^ throw, trouble, and the like, are 
familiar and synonymous terms. — See Throw. 

Faima (Lat. rural deities). — A convenient term for the animals of any 
given epoch or area ; e.g., the '' fauna of South America," the " fauna of 
the Permian Era." As the Animals of an area or epoch constitute its 
Fadna, so the plants constitute its Flora. 

FaTmrftes (Lat. favtu, a honeycomb). — A genus of sessile-spreading 
corals common to the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous systems ; and 
so called from the regfular polygonal arrangement of their pore-cells. 

Faynldria (Lat favosus, honeycombed). — A genus of Coal-measure stems, 
so called from the aspect of their leaf-scars, which resemble in closeness 
and regularity the arrangement of a honeycomb. The Favularia have 
furrowed stems, with square-shaped leaf-scars on the ridges — the scars 
being of a breadth with the ridges. The stems seem to have been clothed 
with a -densely imbricated foliage, the leaves running in parallel rows, 
which were separated by narrow intermediate ftirrows. 

FflidsB (Lat. felist a cat). — The Cat kind ; a family of carnivorous mam- 
malia, characterised, like the lion, tiger, cat, &c., by their short powerful 
jaws, retractile claws, and the peculiar adaptation of their teeth for cutting 
(trenchant). Geologically, the Felidsa are of recent origin, their remains 
not occurring prior to the Pleistocene cave-period ; e,g., the Machairodus, 
—See tabulations, " Andcal Scheme." 

Fflspar (6er. feldspcUh, rock-spar). — An important rock-constituent or 
simple mineral, consisting essentially of silica and alumina, with potash or 
soda, and traces of lime, magnesia, and peroxide of iron. It is the 
representative of a family — the Felspar family — whose species enter 
largely into the composition of all igneous rocks — granite, porphyry, 
greenstone, and trachyte. It occurs crystallised, disseminated, massive, or 
amorphous ; is colourless, but usually of shades of greyish- white, reddish, 
yellow, or green ; when crystallised, breaks into rhomboidal fragments, 
whose flat surfaces have a peculiar pearly-vitreous or resino- vitreous lustre ; 
and its crystals have a hardiless about 6, with a specific gravity varying 
from 2.5 to 2.75. In ordinary granite it is readily distinguished from the 
quartz, with which it is associated, by its fiat lustrous fracture, and by 
its being scratched by the knife while the quartz resists it. The more 
abundant and better-faaown species are Orthocltue or potash-felspar, with 
its varieties adularia, common felspar, glassy-felspar, and telstone or 
compact felspar ; Albite or soda-felspar, known also as Cleavelandite ; La- 
hradorUe; Oli^oclase ; and Amorphous felspar, with its varieties obsidian, 
pumice, pearlstone, and pitchstone — all of which are noticed under their 
respective names. Mineralogically and geologically, the felsparo are most 
important minerals, and industrially they have also their value — some, as 
adularia, being used by the lapidary ; others, as common felspar, for enamels^ 
artificial teeth, and the like ; and the decomposable varieties yielding in 



nature the finest Jcoalinf or china clay, to the potter. Mineralogically, 
the interchanges of soda, potash, and lime in the several varieties, 
are curious and instructive ; and geologically, the fact that potash abounds 
in the more siliceous felspars of the older Plutonic rocks, whereas soda and 
lime prevail in the less siliceous or volcanic, is not without its significance 
and value. The following exhibits their range of composition, and conse- 
quently accounts for their varying external or physical characteristics : — 














Felstone ... 

71 80 

11 15 


• • ■ 










Tjabradorite . 





9 12 


Anorthite ... 







Oligoclase ... 







Obsidian ... 





1 4 












• • • 




Pelspdthic. — Of the nature of felspar ; containing felspar. Any mineral 
or rock in which felspar greatly predominates is said to be felspathic ; as, 
''felspathic claystone," '* felspathic greenstone," &o. 

Felstone. — The term now generally employed by geologists to designate 
compoAi felspar which occurs in amorphous rock-masses, and used in con- 
tradistinction tofeUpar proper which occurs in more or less definite crys- 
tallised forms. The term Fddte was at one time employed for the same 
purpose, but is now all but obsolete. 

Fen (Sax.) — ^In geography, low land overflowed, or covered wholly or 
partially with water, but producing reeds, sedges, coarse grasses, and 
other aquatic plants ; low marshy tracts like the fens of Lincolnshire, 
Kent, and Cambridgeshire. 

Fenestfflla (Lat., a little window). — ^An extensive genus of polyzoans, 
resembling the retepora or fiustra of existing shores, and found in all the 
PalsBozoic strata, from the Silurian upwards. In fenestella the cells are 
very small, indistinct externally, with minute prominent openings ; and 
the polypary or coencBoium composed of branches which unite by growth 
and form a cup. 

Fennentaticni {ljBX.femientatio). — The spontaneous decomposition of the 
proximate principles of organic bodies, under the joint influence of warmth, 
air, and moisture, and the reunion of their elements forming new com- 
pounds ; e.g., the conversion of the expressed juice of the grape into winc^, 
or a solution of malt into alcohol or spirit. The simplest case of fermenta- 
tion is that of mvM, or the expressed juice of the grape, which, when ex- 
posed, either in close or open vessels, to a temperature of about 70°, soon 
be^s to give off carbonic acid, and to become turbid and frothy ; after 
a time a scum collects upon the surface, and a sediment is deposited ; the 
liquor, which had grown warm, gradually cools and clears, loses its sweet 
taste, and is converted into wifie. This is the ''vinous fermentation;" 
but if the wine be further exposed to air, and a due temperature, a second 
fermentation ensues, which is called the ''acetous fermentation," and which 
terminates in the production of vinegar or a^ietic acid. In other words, the 
oxygen of the air converts the hydrogen of the alcohol— alcohol consisting 
theoretically of carbon, water, and hydrogen — into water, and leaves in 
the acetic acid an indestructible or permanent residue of carbon and water 



only. Fermeniaiion, or putrefaction, thus differs from eremocaiem, ot decay, 
in being limited to changes occurring in and beneath the surface of water, 
the effect being a mere transposition of elements or a metamorphosis of 
the organic body. Eremacausis, on the other hand, refers to the decom- 
IKMition of moist organic matter, when freely exposed to the air, by the 
oxygen of which it is gradually burned and destroyed, without any sensible 
eleyation of temperature. In the economy of nature as well as in the arts 
of life, fermentation or putrefaction is an agency of the highest interest 
and importance. ''like the labours of a scavenger,'' says Dr Cooley, 
from whom we abridge, '* it speedily removes from the surface of our globe 
those matters which would otherwise remain for some time without under- 
going decomposition. It either dissipates in air, or reduces to more fixed 
and useful forms of matter, those organic substances which by their 
presence would prove noxious, or at all events useless, to the animal and 
vegetable kingdoms. It is the great power that cleans the Augean stable 
of nature, at the same time that it provides some of the most esteemed 
articles of utility and luxury (the fermented liquors, &c.) for the wellbeing 
and enjoyment of man." 

Ferricalcite (Lat. fermiaii, iron, calx, ccUcis, lime).— A term occasionally 
applied to those varieties of limestone which contain a notable percentage 
of iron, from seven per cent and upwards. 

FerrlfiBroiis (Lat. ferrum, and fero, I yield). — ^Applied to veins, strata, 
and other matrices that yield or contain iron. 

Ferrdginons (Lat. ferrum, iron). — Impregnated or coated with oxide of 
iron; rusty-looking. 

Fenliginoiis Quarts, or Iron Flint. — ^A variety of quartz occurring in 
various formations ; containing from 4 to 7 per cent of iron as an admix- 
ture, and forming the transition into jasper. Very hard. 

Fdttstein (Ger., fat-stone). — Same as elcnolUe (oil-stone) or nepheline. 
One of the Scapolite family, so called from its fatty or resinous lustre. 
Consists of silica 45, alumina 32, soda 15, and potash 5, with traces of 
lime, magnesia, iron, and water. 

Ffbrolite.— A term occasionally applied to the fine fibrous varieties of 
Andalusite. They consist of from 38 to 46 silica, 50 to 58 alumina ; and 
.75 to 2.5 iron peroxide ; and are known also by the name of Bucholzite. 
— See Andalubite. 

Ffbront (Lat. ^fibra, a thread or fibre). — ^Applied in geology and miner- 
alogy to rock and mineral textures which consist of or resemble fibres, as 
amianthus or asbestos. 

Ficlit^te. — A fossil resin occurring chiefly in the form of yellowish 
transparent scales between the annual rings of growth of a species of pine 
which have separated from each other in the process of decay. So named 
from being found in the turf -beds of the Fichtelgebirge, North Bavaria. 

Ficoidites (fig-like).— The generic term used by Artis, in his 'Antedilu- 
vian Phytology,' for the Stigmariaficoidei, which see. 

Flgnlind {leX. flgulut, a potter, troisi Jingo, I fashion). — ^A term occasion- 
ally applied by mineralogists to potter's clay. — See Clat. 

Flgnre-Stone. — A variety of talc-mica or steatite ; known also as Agal- 
matholite. Its usual colour is white or red, or both colours intermingled 
in bands and patches. The finest are brought from China, where it is cut 
into various figures, pagodas, &c.; hence the uamen Jlgure-tione, pagodite, 
and the like. 



Kles. — A familiar term among the peasantry of the sotith of England 
for the striated and tuberculated spines of Cidaris, 

Fflices (Lat. Jilix, a fern).— In botany, the Fern tribe— the Filicales or 
Filical Alliance of Lindley.— See tabulations, " Vegetable Scheme." 

FilidteB (Lat. ,filix, a fern).— Sclotheim's generic term for the fern-like 
plants now called neuropteris and pecopteris; used also as a general term 
for any fossil fern or filicoid plant. 

Eilicoid (Lat. JUix, fern, and eidas, likeness).— Applied to plants, recent 
or fossil, which resemble or partake of the nature of the fern tribe. 

Tfliform (Lat. Jilum, a thread). — Thread-like ; slender as a thread. 

nitration (Lat jiUrumf an instrument for straining liquids). — The separ- 
ation of liquids from substances mechanically suspended in them, by pass- 
ing them through the pores of media sufficiently fine to keep back the 
particles of solid matter. Gravel, sand, sandstone, and other porous strata, 
ai>e the great filtering media in nature. 

Fiorite.— Pearl-sinter ; a variety of siliceous sinter found incrusting vol- 
canic tufa at Santa Fiora in Tuscany, whence the name. It is not un- 
common in the vicinity of hot springs and volcanoes, and consists chiefly 
of silex, with a little alumina, iron-peroxide, and water. 

Fire-Clay.— Any clay capable of resisting a great heat without slagging 
or vitrifying. This property arises from the absence of any alkaline earth 
to act as a flux. Fire-clays abound in the Coal-measures of Great Britain, 
and are largely employed in the manufacture of furnace and grate bricks, 
retorts, chimney-flues, and the like. The celebrated Stourbridge clay 
(Worcestershire) is said to consist of about 64 silica, 24 alumina, and 2.0 
oxide of iron — the rest being water and traces of carbonaceous matter. 

Fire-Bamp.— A miner's term for light carburetted hydrogen, which, when 
diffused in the atmosphere of the coal-workings to the amount of one-thir- 
teenth by volume, becomes explosive. The most explosive mixture is 
said to be seven volumes of air to one of fire-damp. When the proportions 
vary considerably either above or below that of seven to one, the mixture 
is not explosive. — See Apter-Damp and Chokb-Damf. 

Fire-Opal, or GirasoL — A fine lustrous variety of opal, which see. 

Fire-Stone. — Any stone that stands heat without injury ; generally ap- 
plied to certain Cretaceous and Oolitic sandstones employed in the con- 
struction of glass-furnaces. In geological classification, a calcareo-aren- 
aceous member of the Upper Greensand, so called from its yielding stone 
of this description. 

Flseile (Lat. JUailis), — Capable of being split ; applied to rocks which, 
like olay-slate, can be split or divided in the direction of the grain or 
jBleavage. Fissility. — The quality or chanwiteristic of admitting to be split 
in thin leaves or laminae. 

FissiparoiiB (Lat. Jissus, split or divided, and pario, I produce). — Gen- 
eration, or rather multiplication, by the self-division of the individual into 
two or more parts, each of which becomes a perfect creature similar to 
its parent-original. Generation may thus be jUsiparous (by division), 
gemmiparoiu (by buds), ovipanms (by eggs), or viviparous (by living young). 
Fissiparism is confined, of course, to the lower vegetable and animal forms. 
Fiftrare (Lat. fissiis, split asunder). — A crack, rent, or open crevice in 
rocks ; strata or rock-masses so rent are said to he fissured. 

FistnloiiBj Fistnlar (Lat^uto, a pipe).— Hollow like a pipe; tube-like. 
Applied to the stems of grasses, umbelliferous plants like the hemlock, &c. 



Fizod Air. — ^A name formerly given by chemists to oarTbonio aoid gas, 
from its being the air or gas fixed, as it were, in lime, magnesia, and the 

FlaheUAiia (LaA.Jiabellum, a faia). — A provisional genus intended to em- 
brace all those broad, flabelUform, palm-like leaves which occur particu- 
larly in the Coal formation and Tertiary lignites. 

FlabflUlbnn (Lat. fiaMllum, a fan, and forma, likeness). — Fan-shaped ; 
applied to the broad spreading leaves of certain palms, ^ such leaves being 
found in many lignites as well as in the older Coal formations. 

Flagstone. — A quanyman's term for any fissile sandstone which " beds," 
or splits up into flags, like the Arbroath and Caithness paving-stone. 
Flaggy. — Applied to the laminar strata capable of being split up. 

Flen^ OoaL — A peculiar variety of bituminous coal occurring abundantly 
in the Belgian coal-fields. It bums rapidly with much flame and smoke, 
not giving out an intense heat, and having a somewhat disagreeable odour. 
It resembles some of the seams found at Swansea in Wales. — See Coal 

Flexible Sandstone. — A fissile variety of sandstone, thin slabs of which 
have a certain amount of flexibility. This property, 'in some instances, 
arises from the dissemlDation of minute scales of micsy and in others from 
a peculiar arrangement of the particles, which stand apart as if some in- 
gredient had been removed by percolation. 

Flint Implements. — ^The general term for spear -heads, airow- heads, 
knife-like flakes, and other implements, whether for war, the chase, or 
domestic purposes, which are formed of flint, and are used or have been 
used by rude tribes unacquainted with the use of the metals. In Europe 
these implements are found abundantly in Post-TertiaTy or Upper Pleisto- 
cene drifts and caverns, and belong to what is termed the '* stone age " 
of archsDology ; and in some instances, as at Abbeville (which see), seem 
to have been imbedded contemporaneously with the bones of Mammoth, 
Irish Elk, and other extinct mammalia— thus bespeaking a vast antiquity 
for the people who fashioned them. 

Flints (Sax.) — ^The familiar as well as technical term for those siliceous 
nodules and concretions which occur so abundantiy in the white chalk of 
England, in many limestones, and other calcareous strata. Flinis are com- 
posed almost entirely of silex, with traces of iron, clay, and lime ; and 
where lime is present in any notable proportion, or when limestones be- 
come so siliceous as to be incapable of conversion into quicklime, the admix- 
ture is known as Chert, In the Chalk formation, flints are usually aggre- 
gated round some nucleus of sponge, shell, coral, or other organism ; and 
there is little difficulty in conceiviog the silex to have been originally in 
solution in the waters of deposit, and subsequentiy segregated by some 
chemical pf^cess into layers and nodules as we now behold it. Being so 
frequently collected round spongiform organisms, it has been ingeniously 
surmised by Br Bowerbank, '* that the geological office of the Sponges in 
creation is that of inducing the deposit of siliceous matter held in solution 
in the ocean, just as the corals assist in the consolidation of the calcareous 
matter." Economically, fliut is of considerable importance, being laigely 
used (when calcined and ground) in the manufacture of china, porcelain^ 
flint-glass, and the like. It is also employed, in absence of other material, 
as a building-stone ; and before the invention of percussion-caps and luoifer- 
matches, was in universal use for gun-flints and fire-production. 



noat-Stone (Ger. Sefiwimmttein), —A variety of earthy sUica^ of a coarse 
porous aspect, soft and often friable, and of a yellow or greyish-white 
colour. Being porous, it swims on water till saturated ; hence the name, 
Jloat'SUme or tpongifoirm quartz. According to Ehrenberg it consists chiefly 
of the siliceous coyerings of infusoria, and is thus closely related to trir 
poll, polisking-skUe, and other earthy silicas. An analysis by Sohaffgotsch 
gives 85.9 silica, 0.7 alumina, 9.1 carbonate of lime, and 8.3 water. 

Fldccnlexit {lAt.floccus, a lock of wool).— Applied to solutions or mechan- 
ical suspensions of impalpable mineral matter — the particles aggregating 
in light cloudy '' flocks " during the act of deposition. 

Flookan or FLucaiL — A miner's term for a soft clayey substance occa- 
sionally found in cross-courses and slides; a cross-course or transverse 
vein composed of clay. A croas-fioohan is a slide or fissure filled with clay 
which runs acrbss a lode and heaves it. 

Flora (Lat., the goddess of flowers). — A convenient term for the vegeta- 
tion of any given epoch or area — as " the flora of the Goal-measures " — 
'' the flora of South America." As the plants of a country or epoch con- 
stitute its Flora, so the a.nimalH constitute its Fauka. 

FlOB-Ferri (literally, flower-of-iron). — A fine radiated or corralloid variety 
of arragonite, common in the iron mines of Styria, and also in some lime- 
stone beds. Known also as NeedU-9par; and differs from Satin-spar, which 
is a fine fibrous silky variety of the same mineral. — See Abbagonite. 

FUMiS (Ger., a layer). — ^A term applied by Werner to the Secondary strata, 
because th^ were ^i>tz, or flat-lying, compared with the Primary and 
Transition rocks. 

Fluor-Spar (Lat. Jluere, to flow ; so called from being used as a fluz). — 
Fluate of lime, or fluoride of calcium, ccmsisting of 67.75 lime, and 33.25 
fluoric acid. It occurs chiefly in veins either crystallised in cubes, foliated, 
in granular crystalline masses, or compact and earthy. Its colours are 
various, the more common being violet-blue, honey- yellow, green, and 
purplish-blue passing into red. Beautiful crystals are found in the lead 
mines of Alston Moor and Derbyshire, and liie concretionary crystalline 
masses of Castleton in Derbyshire (known as Blue-Jchn or Derbyshire spar) 
are wrought into various ornamental articles. 

FltLviatile (Lat. fiuidus, a running river). — Belonging to a river ; pro- 
duced by river action ; growing or living in fresh-water rivers. 

Flnvio-Hariiie (Lat. fiuvius, a river, and marc, the sea). — Applied to stra- 
tified deposits which seem to own a mixed river and sea origin ; in other 
words, to deposits brought into the sea by river-currents, loaded with the 
detritus of the land : hence the occurrence in the same beds of terrestrial, 
fresh-water, and marine remains. 

Flux (Lat. fiuere, to flow). — In chemistry and metallurgy, any substance 
added to facUitate the fusion of metals or minerals. Alkaline fluxes are 
generally employed ; they render the earthy mixture fusible by converting 
it into glass. Salts of potash and soda, lime, borax, and the like, are well- 
known fluxes. — In hydrography, the flow of the tidal wave — ^the Flux 
being the rise, the Beflux the ebb of the tide. 

Flysch. — A provincial Swiss term for a series of Tertiary strata consist- 
ing of dark-coloured slates, marls, and fucoidal sandstones immediately 
overiying the nummulitic limestone. According to Lyell, the fly»^ occu- 
pies a middle place in the Eocene or older Tertiaries. 
F6I111. — The name given in Switzerland to the hot southerly winds of 



summer (the sirocoo), which, arising from the Dorthem tracts of Africa, 
CF088 the Mediterranean, and impinge on the snow-clad Alps, thereby 
annually causing a rapid diminution of the lower glaciers. " Were the 
desert tracts of Africa again covered, as they once were, by the ocean," 
says Prof. Phillips, "the wind would lose its excessive dissolving power, 
snows would gather on the Alps above, and glaciers extend below to levels 
and distances now quite unattainable without some great physical change." 

Foliated (Lat. folium, a leaf). — Resembling a leaf; composed of thin 
leaf-like layers. Thus certain shells a^re said to he foliatedf when their 
surfaces are covered with leaf-like projections, as the rose-bush murex; the 
substance of a shell is also said to be foliated when composed of thin flat 
layers overlapping each other, as in the oyster ; and we speak of foliated 
gypsum, when the texture is scaly or leafy, and not granular or compact. 

Foliation (Lat. folium, a leaf). — In botany, the manner in which the 
young leaves of plants are arranged in the leaf-bud ; synonjrmous with 
vernaUon., In geology, the laminse or plates into which gneiss, mica- 
schist, and other crystalline rocks are divided. *' Cleavage,'* says Mr 
Darwin, '' may be applied to those divisional planes which render a rock 
fissile, although it may appear to the eye quite or nearly homogenous ; 
foliation may be used for those alternating layers, or plates of different 
mineraiogical nature, of which gneiss and other metamorphic schists are 
composed." The subject of foliation has given rise to a great deal of 
unsatisfactory speculation and hypothesis, some associating the pheno- 
menon with cleavage, contending that the planes of both are generally 
coincident, and attempting to account for both by the same metamorphic 
process ; while others maintain that foliation is identical with the lines 
of bedding, and is a structure conferred on stratified rocks by their 
original deposition. While leaning to the latter hypothesis. Sir Charles 
Lyell, at the same time, " fully admits that the alternate layers of quartz, 
or of mica and quartz, of felspar, or of mica and felspar, or of carbonate 
of lime, are more distinct in certain metamorphic rocks than the ingre- 
dients composing alternate layers in most sedimentary deposits, so that 
similar particles must be supposed to have exerted a molecular attraction 
for each other, and to have congregated together in layers more distinct 
in mineral composition than before they were crystallised." 

Foralites (Lat. foro, I bore). — Applied to certain tube-like markings 
which occur in sandstones and other strata, and which seem to have been 
the burrows of annelidi having the habits of the common lob-worm. 

Foraminlfera (Lat. foramen, an orifice, and fero, I bear). — The name 
given by D'Orbigny to a group of minute, many-chambered shells, or 
rather many-celled organisms — the calcareous cells {loculi) of which are 
pierced, like a sieve, with numerous pores or foramina. The Foraminifera 
were supposed by D'Orbigny to be cephalopods, but more recent observa- 
tion (D^jardin) has shown tiiat they are not mollusca, but compound Pro- 
tozoa, whose cellular aggregation produces the many-chambered aspect in 
question — the numerous pores being for the protrusion of their delicate 
filaments. Physiologically speaking, and according to Owen, a Foramin- 
ifera may be regarded either as a series of individuals organically united ; 
or as a simple aggregate-being, compounded according to the law of vege- 
tative repetition. They occur in rocks of all formations, from the Lauren- 
tian upwards— their microscopic remains constituting the greater bulk of 
the Chalk and Tertiary limestones. — See Rhizopoda and Poltthalamia. 



Forest-Bed.— The name giren by EDglish geologists to a stratum which 
underlies the Glacial Drift at Cromer in Norfolk, because it imbeds abun- 
dant stumps, trunks, and branches of trees. This bed can be traced for 
miles between high and low water mark, and contains numerous erect 
stumps and prostrate trunks of trees, such as the Scotch fir, spruce, yew, 
alder, oak, &c., together with remains of elephant, rhinoceros, hippopo- 
tamus, horse, pig, and other mammals. The whole, in fsMt, exhibits both 
the flora and fauna of a forest of the preglacial era. 

Forest Marble. — An argillaceous laminated shelly limestone, alternating 
with clays and calcareous sandstones, and forming one of the upper por- 
tions of the Lower Oolite. It derives its name from Whichwood Forest in 
Oxfordshire, where the finer bands are quarried as a marble.— See Oolite. 

Formation. — "The teim formation,'** says Lyell, " expresses in geology 
any assemblage of rocks which have some character in common, whether 
of origin, age, or composition. Thus, we speak of stratified and unstrati- 
fied, fresh-water and marine, aqueous and volcanic, ancient and modern, 
metalliferous and non-metalliferous formations." In this wide sense, how- 
ever, the word is often loosely and inaccurately used ; and when speaking 
of the stratified rocks, it is better to restrict the t^rm to such An assem- 
blage of strata as are connected by mineral composition, by unbroken 
succession in point of time, and by continuity of fossil species. In this 
sense we have such assemblages as the "Chalk formation," "Coal forma- 
tion," &c., whose members, though differing in minor particulars, have evi- 
dently heen formed or deposited under a continuance of similar conditions. 

Fossil (Lat. fossiLS, dug up).— literally anything dug out of the es^h ; 
hence the earlier geologists spoke of Tiative fossils or minerals, and extra- 
neous fossils or the bodies of plants and animals accidentally buried in the 
earth. The term is now generally restricted to "organic remains," or the 
remains of plants and animals imbedded in the eartVs crust, and more or 
less altered in structure and composition by mechanical and chemical 
agencies. When these remains are only partially petrified, and occur in 
superficial or recent deposits, the term sub-fossil is employed. 

Fossiliferoos (Lat. fossilis, and /ero, I bear). — Applied to rocks and rock- 
systems containing organic remains, in contradistinction to non-fossil- 
iferous, or those which contain no such relics. 

Fossilis&tioxi, Fossilised, &c.— The conversion of vegetable and animal 
remains into fossils, by impregnation with mineral or metallic matter. — 
See Petbipaction. 

Fossil-Paper, Fossil-Wool, Fossil-Flax, Fossil-Ciork, &c.^ Familiar terms 
applied to certain varieties of amianthus, according as these appear in 
thin papery flakes, iajlax-lihe fibres, in loose tooolly floos, or in tough cwh- 
like fragments. — See Asbestos. 

Fracture (Lat. fra/Aus, broken). — When a mineral breaks up into deter- 
minate forms yfWki smooth regular surfaces, such surfaces are said to con- 
stitute its cleavage; but when a rock or mineral breaks up irregularly 
under a blow of the hammer, the appearance of the fresh surface so 
exposed is termed its fracture. Thus the fracture is said to be eo&n, when 
it forms a face or plane of some extent ; wM!9m.y when the surface is rough 
and unequal ; cmu^m^Ad, or shell-like, when concave on one side and 
convex on the other ; splintery, when the surface presents the appeajrance 
of numerous thin-edged scales ; and hackly, when covered with numerous 
sharp points or inequalities. 



EngBMBtarj (Lat. fragtMsidwii., a chip or portion broken off, from 
frwugOf I break). — ^Applied in geology to rook-masaeB oomposed of the 
fragments or debris of other rooks ; rocks not homogeneous in texture ; 
nearly synonymous with breooias or breccio-oonglomerates, which see. 

Fraagibility. — In geology, the degree of facility with which a rock 
yields to the hammer. 

Eranklinite (after Benjamin Franklin). — An ore of iron occurring in 
grains or in granular masses of an iron-black colour and metallic lustre, 
and found in veins, often of great thickness, as those of New Jersey in the 
United States. It consists of from 56 to 66 peroxide of iron, the remunder 
being composed of peroxide of manganese and oxide of sine in varying 
proportions. The oxides of manganese and zinc are said to exercise a very 
favourable influence upon the iron manufactured from this ore, increasing' 
its tenacity, rendering it less liable to rust, and fitting it for easy conver- 
sion into the finest steel. 

Freestone. — Any rock which admits of being freely out and dressed by 
the builder ; generally applied in Scotland to the varieties of sandstone. 

French Chalk. — A white or greyish-white variety of steatite, used for 
removing stains from silk, for slate-pencils, and, in powder, for lesseniog 

Freshet.^ A river-flood or inundation, occasioned by the sudden melting 
of the ice and snow in spring ; the predominance of fresh water in tidal 
estuaries, during periodical rain£alls and land-floods. 

Friable (Lat. frio, I grind or crumble). >- Easily broken into small pieces; 
easily crumbled or reduced to powder. The opposite of Umgh or Uwuwus, 

Frixigiiig-lteefs. — A class of coral-reefs, known also as ** shore-reefs," 
from their fringing or encircling islands at a moderate distance from 
shore. " They difier from barrier-reefs," says Darwin, '' in not lying so 
far from shore, and in not having within a broad channel of deep water." 
The ree& which fringe the island of ]£auritius form a good example of the 
dass. — See Cobal-Rbefs. 

Frith, Firth (Lat. ^return).— An arm of the sea, as the Frith of Forth, 
the Frith of Tay, &c. Originally applied to any strait narrow passa^, 
or inlet. 

Frond (Lat. fnms, a branch). — In botany, the term applied to the foli- 
aoeous or leaf -like part of ferns and other flowerless plants. The frond 
differs from a true leaf both in structure and function, and combines as it 
were branch, leaf, and fructification in one oi^gan. 

Frost (Sax.) — ^In meteorology, the fivesing, or oonversion into ice, of 
water and watery vt^urs by the influence of cold. In ordinary circum- 
stances water passes into ice when the temperature of the air falls to 82° 
of Fahrenheit ; but as the cold increases the frost becomes more intense, 
and substances (such as oils, mercury, &c.) which remained liquid at S2**, 
gradually lose their caloric and pass into the solid state. As a geological 
agent, frost exerts a purely mechanical influence, but this influence is of 
prime importance in disintegrating rooks and soils, moulding the contour 
of mountains, and assistiog in the dispersion of boulders and other debris, 
not only fr^m higher to lower levels, but from the land over the bottom 
of the ocean. SThus, the rain and moisture that enter the fissures of cliffii, 
and between the particles of all rocky matter, are often frozen during 
winter, and in this state of ice expand and force apart these rocks and 
particles. When thaw copies, the particles, having lost their cohesion, fall 



asunder ; and thus^ under all latitudes and at all altitudes, where frost 
occurs, vast waste is every winter effect^— and this in proportion to the 
intensity of the cold, which may range from freezing to 60° below freezing, 
and according to the rapidity and frequency of the alternations from fresh 
to freezing. It is also by the action of frost that avaJanohes, glaciers, and 
icebergs are formed on mountains above the snow-line and in arctic 
regions : the avalam^ of snow and ice, which, losing its coherence, is 
launched from the mountain-side, carrying masses of rock and soil and 
trees before it — the glacier , or ice-lake, that gathers in the mountain-glen 
above, and slowly grinds its way to the valley below, smoothing the rocks 
in its passage, and leaving as it melts away its lateral and terminal ridges 
of gravel and debris, technically termed ''moraines" — and the iceberg, 
detached by fracture from the projecting glacier of some arctic shore, that 
floats its burden of rock and gravel to warmer latitudes, there to drop 
them as it melts away on the bottom of the ocean. In the study of frost- 
operations, whether among the cliffs and gorges of mountains like the 
Alps and Himalayas, or along the shores of the Arctic Ocean, the observer 
discovers at once an important cause of present change and a key to the 
solution of some of the most interesting of geological problems. — See Ice, 


Fiicivorons {lAt.fucu8, sea- weed, and voro, I devour). — ^literally ''fucus- 
eating;" applied to animals that subsist on sea- weeds, e.g.^the "fuel- 
vorous moUusca," the " fucivorous cetaceans," &c. 

Facoides {Jjtcus, sea-weed, and eidos, likeness). — The generic term for any 
fossil fucus or fucus-like organism of unknown affinity. 

Fnooids (Juciu, sea- weed, and eidos, likeness). — Fucoids, or fucus-like 
impressions, occur in strata of every epoch, from the Lower Silurians 
to the Upper Tertiaries. Such terms, therefore, as " fucoidal sandstones," 
" fucoidal shales," &c., are not unfrequent in geological descriptions. 

FtUgnrite, FiUgorite (Lat. fidgur, lightning).— Any rocky substance 
that has been fused or vitrified by lightning. More strictly applied to a 
bore or tube produced by the passage of lightning into a sandy soU, which 
it sometimes penetrates to a depth of twenty feet, fusing and vitrifying 
the sand and gravel in its downward progress. Fulgoriies are occasionally 
dug up in the sandy plains of Silesia and Eastern Prussia. 

Fuller's Earth.— A term applied to certain soft unctuous clays (hydrous 
silicates of alumida) of the Oolite and Chalk systems, from their being 
employed in the fulling of woollens. Good fuller's earth is usually mas- 
sive, opaque, soft, dull, with a greasy feel and an earthy fracture ; scarcely 
adheres to the tongue, and when placed in water falls down to an impalp- 
able powder without forming a paste with it. So important at one time 
was this earth to the woollen manufacture of England that its exportation 
was prohibited by act of Parliament. Its place is now mainly supplied by 
soap and other detei^ents, though considerable quantities are still dug and 
prepared for the fuller in Surrey and Bedfordshire. In geological classifi- 
cation the term is applied to an argillaceous stratum (''the Fuller^s 
Earth") which lies between the Great and Inferior Oolites, near Bath. 

Fnmardle (Ital. fumare, to smoke). — ^An opening or orifice, in a volcanic 
district, from which mm^td and other gaseous fumes are emitted. 

Flingia, FdngidsD. — A genus and family of single lamellated corals, so 
called from the resemblance of their stony structure to that of a fungus or 
mushroom. They are of a depressed form, have the under surface scab- 


FUN — G^D 

rous, and are diyided above by numerous lamellsB or plates, which radiate 
from a central oblong depression. The original genus Fungia of Goldfuss 
is now broken up into micrabaciaf a form peculiar to the Chalk ajid Green- 
sand, aTiahacia to the Oolite, and paloBoeyclus to the Silurian system. 

Pongoidy FangifOTm (Lat. fungus^ a mushroom, and eidot, likeness). — 
Applied to nodular excrescences and petrifactions which resemble the 
clustering tubercular growth of the fungus ; also to single structures {e, g.f 
certain corals) which resemble the mushroom in form. 

Ftbiiform (Lat. funis, a cord or cable). — Cord-like ; rope-Uke ; resem- 
bling a cord or cable in appearance. 

Fusible Metal. — An alloy of eight parts of bismuth, five of lead, and 
three of tin, which melts at the boiling-point of water (212° F.), and may 
be fused over a candle in a piece of stiff paper, without burning the paper. 

Potdble QuaxtB. — A term occasionally applied by the older mineralogists 
to obsidian, which see. 

Fdsiform (L&t. fusvs, a spindle, and forma, likeness). — Spindle-shaped ; 
thickest in the middle, and tapering towards the extremities ; e.g., shells 
of the genus Fusus or "spindle-shell." 

Fusion (Lat. f%Lsus, melted, from fundo, I pour out). — The state of 
melting. Solid substances, as iron, basalt, &c., when rendered fluid by the 
application of heat, are said te be in a state of fttsion. Substances which 
admit of being melted are termed fisible ; those which resist the action of 
fire are termed refradory, 

FosTilliia (Lat., a little spindle). — A genus of foraminiferous organisms, 
occurring in the Carboniferous formation, and so termed from their fusi- 
form shells, which are elongated transversely — the cells being divided in- 
ternally by constrictions. Regarded as the earliest and most ancient type 
of the Foraminifera yet known. 

Fusus (Lat., a spindle). — An extensive genus of gasteropods belonging 
to the Muricidce or Mnrex family, having a world-wide distribution, and 
occurring also in a fossil state from the Oolite upwards. The spindle-shell, 
red-whelk or Imchie of our own shores, may be taken as a type. They 
inhabit sandy or muddy bottoms, and have a range from 5 to 70 fathoms. 


Gdbbro. — ^An Italian term for a rock consisting essentially of diallage 
and felspar ; the euphotide of French geologists, and the Verde di Corsica 
duro of artists. 

Gad. — In mining, a pointed wedge of a peculiar form, much used in 
Cornwall for underground purposes; hence the title "Pick and Gad" 
at one time adopted for a mining periodical. 

Gadoliiiite. — ^A greenish-black mineral, occurring massive, and in gran- 
ular and prismatic concretions, in granitic and felspathic rocks. It is 
named after the Russian chemist Gadolin, who, in 1794, discovered the 
earth yttria in specimens obtained from Ytterby in Sweden. According 


* GAH — GAN 

to Berzelius; it consists of 45.93 yttria, 24.16 silica, 16.90 protoxide of 
cerium, 11.34 protoxide of iron, with traces of magnesia, lime, and glucina. 
When heated, Gktdolinite becomes incandescent, but undergoes no change 
in weight— a property which Rose ascribes to the liberation of specific heat, 
the quantity in the mineral before and after ignition being different. 

Oahnite. — Known also asAutomcUite; a native aluminate of zinc, named 
after its discoverer, Gahn. 

Oalec^ns (Or. gale, weasel, and kyon, dog). — ^A term applied by Owen 
to the remains of a viverrine fox, from the freeh-water Tertiary (Miocene) 
deposits of (Eningen — ^the characters of the bones indicating a genus inter- 
mediate between the polecats and dogs — that is, viverra and cants. 

Galena (Gr. galeo, I shine). — Native protosulphide of lead ; lead -glance. 
So called from its bluish-grey colour and metallic lustre, (ralena is the 
chief ore of lead in this country, occasionally occurring in crystals, but 
most frequently massive, and disseminated in granular, compact, or lam- 
inar aggregates. It is found in veins in the crystalline rocks, and abund- 
antly in the Carboniferous limestone. It usually contains a smstll proportion 
of silica, vaiying from 1.03 to .06 per cent, and very rarely amounting to 
1 per cent. Small percentages of antimony, iron, zinc, and the like, occur 
in most British ores. 

Galeoc^rdo (Gr.)— Literally "fish-fox ;" a genus of sharks, whose broad- 
based, sharp, serrated teeth occur from the Lower Tertiaries upwards. 

GhileriteB, GkdeiritidsB (Lat. galea, a helmet). — ^A genus and family of sub- 
conical, helmet-shaped sea-urchins abounding in the Cbalk formation, and 
from their shape popularly known in Kent and Sussex as ''sugar-loaves." 
In the OalerUicUje the shell is high and much inflated, more or less conical 
above, and oblong-oval at the base, narrowing towards the hinder part. 
The ambulacra are simple, never petalloid ; the poriferous zones extend 
from the summit to the mouth, which is situated in the centre of the base ; 
the outlet near the posterior margin. One of the most abundant species 
is the aXbo-gaXems, so termed from its fanciful resemblance to the white 
conical caps of the priests of Jupiter. 

GktLesatbras (Gr. gale, polecat, and saunu, lizard). — A provisional genus 
of Crooodilians, founded on an entire cranium and lower jaw, from the 
sandstone rocks of Rhenosterberg, South Africa ; and so named by Pro- 
fessor Owen from the resemblance of its dentition (which is quite of a 
mammalian character) to that of the weasels and polecats. This peculia- 
rity of dentition is regarded by its describer as "a singular and suggestive 
approach to the mammalian class." 

Gftlionflla (Lat., a small helmet). — An abundant genus of Diatoms or 
microscopic plant-growths, so called from the cylindrical, globular, or helm 
shape of their siliceous shields. They are free, but usually occur in chains ; 
and abound in pools and lakes, as well as in Tertiary marls and other mi- 
crophytal earths. 

Gallery.— In mining, a working drift or level from which the mineral 
has been excavated. 

Gang, G^uigae. — The German term for a vein or lode ; literally a 
course or passage. — Oaaigiie, the veinstone, vein-stuff, or matrix in which 
the metallic ore occurs. 

G^biglioneora (Gr. gaaiglion, a knot, and neurtmy nerve). — Literally 
^' knotted nerves ; " a name applied by Rudolphi to the articulate and 
molluscous divisions of the animal kingdom, because characterised by a 


GAN — GAR • 

ganglionic type of the nervous system. In the Articulata the ganglia are 
always disposed symmetrically along the middle line of the body, and 
brought into communication by a double chord ; whence these have been 
termed E&mogangliata. In the Mollusca, on the other hand, the ganglia 
are dispersed and placed at a distance from each other, and from the 
mesial line, and are frequently unsymmetrical in their arrangement ; hence 
these have been termed Heterogamgliaia. 

Gdaiflter, Ghmnister. — The local name for a fine hard-grained grit 
which occurs under certain coal-beds in Derbyshire, Yorkshire, and the 
north of £ngland. 

Gaaoc^ph^ (Gr. ganos, lustre, and hephale, the head). — One of the 
orders into which Professor Owen proposes to arrange the Reptilia, living 
and extinct. The term has reference to the sculptured and externally 
polished or ganoid bony plates with which the entire head is defended. 
The order embraces the Archa^oaaurus and other allied palsBozoic forms, 
which, in addition to the peculiar bones of the head, are characterised by 
the absence of occipital condyles, by the persistence of the notochord (the 
vertebral arches and peripheral elements being ossified), by small natatory 
pectoral and pelvic limbs, by large median and lateral throat-plates, by 
their small, narrow, and sub-ganoid scutes, and, in some, by traces of 
branchial arches. 

Ganoidi Ganoideaii (Gr. ganos, splendour, and eidos, likeness). — The 
second order of fishes in Agassiz's arrangement. They have angular 
scales regularly arranged, and composed of homy or bony plates,' covered 
with a strong shining enamel. The Gtinoideans are chiefly palsdozoio and 
extinct forms: the bony pike of Canada and the sturgeon are Hving 

Garnet (Fr. grenat, Ital. ^renatOf quasi granwrHf a grain). — In modem 
systems of mineralogy the garnets constitute an extensive but extremely 
variable family, according as alumina, iron, lime, magnesia, or similar 
bases, are associated with the silica, which composes about half the mineral. 
They are all, in fact, silicates of one or more of these bases, and are usually 
arranged into six sections — viz., lime-garnets, magnesia-^mets, iron- 
gamets, manganese-garnets, iron-lime-garnets, and lime-chrome-gamets. 
They occur chiefly in mica-schist and other crystalline strata, but are 
found also in granite, trap, and other igneous rocks. The garnet. proper 
appears in dodecahedral crystals and druses, in grains, occasionally in thin 
subordinate bands, or so thickly studding portions of the gneiss and mica- 
schist that millstones have been made from the mass. The colour of the 
garnet is usually a deep amber-red, reddish-brown, or black, but occasion- 
ally olive-green passing into yellow ; its lustre is vitreous or resinous ; and 
it is transparent in all degrees. Of the better-known varieties we may 
mention the AlTnandine or noble garnet, of a beautiful columbine-red ; the 
Grosmlar or olive-green ; the ffessonite or Cinnamon-gtone ; the Colophonite 
or resinous gamet; the Pyro^e or^ fire-garnet ; the Topazolite, and the 
common iron-garaets so abundant in most localities. 

Giraa. — The local term for dense sea-fogs that occur periodiccdly along 
the Pacific coast of South America. During the Garua, it is said, the 
atmosphere loses its transparency, and the sun is obscured for months to- 
gether. The vapours of the Grarua of Lima are so thick that the sun, seen 
through them with the naked eye, assumes the appearance of the moon*s 
disc. They commence in the morning, and extend over the plains in the 



form of refreshing fogs, which disappear soon after mid-day, and are fol- 
lowed by heavy dews, which are precipitated during the night. 

GdseOQS (Tout, gas, air or breath). — In the form of gas ; consisting of 
gas— ^(M being the term applied to all permanently elastic or aeriform 
fluids, except the atmosphere, which is an admixture of two or more gases. 
In nature the gases play an important part, and geologically speaking, are 
of Tast significance. Some, like oxygen and carbonic aoid, are continually 
corroding, wasting, and forming new compounds; others, like carbonic 
acid, sulphuretted hydrogen, and carburetted hydrogen, are Iso^ely disen- 
gaged from the crust of the earth by volcanic vents, springs, mines, and 
other openings ; some again, as oxygen, carbonic acid, and nitrogen, are 
indispensable to vegetable and animal life ; while others, as oxygen and 
hydrogen, form permanent combinations, as in the rocks of the crust, the 
atmosphere that surrounds it, and the waters which cover so large a por- 
tion of its surface. 

Gasterdpoda (Gr. gasler, the belly, and ^tu, podos, a foot). — An exten- 
sive class of moUusoa which, like tiie periwinkle and garden-snail, have a 
distinct head, and move by means of a muscular foot attached to the 
lower part of the body ; hence the term "belly-footed." Bepresentatives 
of the class occur in all formations, from the Silurian upwards ; but both 
genera and species increase in ascending order. — See tabulations, " AiaMAL 

Oastdrnis {Gaston, after M. Gaston Plante, the discoverer, and omis, 
bird). — ^A provisional generic term applied to certain bird-remains from 
the Eocene Tertiaries of Meudon, near Paris. The leg and thigh bones are 
the only portions yet discovered, and these indicate a bird as large as an 
ostrich, but more robust, and having affinities to wading and aquatic 
orders— that is, of an extinct genud intermediate between the graUatores 
and cursores. 

Oanlt, Golt. — A provincial term, and now adopted in geology, for that 
series of dark-blue marls or calcareous clays which occur between the 
upper and lower greensands of the Chalk formation, as developed in the 
south of England. It is sometimes known as Fclhstone Marl; ranges from 
100 to 150, or even occasionally to 200 feet, in thickness ; and abounds in 
marine shells — ^ammonites, hamites, scaphites, belemnites, inocerami, &c., 
often in a beautiful state of preservation. When decomposed, it forms a 
strong fertile soil ; and, according to Mr Austin, is the main repository 
of those "phosphatic nodules " now so highly prized by the agriculturist. 

GaviaL — The Gavial or Gangetic Crocodile; an existing genus and 
species of crocodile, characterised by its prolonged, slender snout, which 
terminates in a csurtilaginous protuberance, in which the nostrils are 
situated — ^by its numerous teeth, of nearly equal size throughout the whole 
of the jaws — and by its hind feet, which are palmated to the extremities of 
the toes. Slender-snouted crocodiles of closely allied iortnA^teUosawirus, 
sUneosaurtLS, &c. — occur in the Lias, Oolite, and Wealden. 

Gaylenreath. — A village of Franconia in Germany, celebrated for its 
Bone-Cave, which lies to the north-west of the village, on the left bank of 
the Wiesent, which has cut its channel through the limestone. According 
to Cuvier, who examined lai^e collections of the bones, three-fourths of 
them belonged to bears {urstis spdams, and j)ris(^\ and the remaining 
portion to hyenas, tigers, wolves, foxes, gluttons, and other small camivora. 

Gay-lnssite (after the French chemist, Gay Lussac).— Hydrated carbon- 



ate of lime and soda ; a mineral occurring in the nalron beds of South 
America^ in long nail-like transparent prisms, and consisting of 34.5 car- 
bonate of soda 33.6 carbonate of lime, and 30.4 water. It is slowly and 
partially soluble in water. 

Ofiblenite. —One of the Scapolite family ; a mineral occurring in small 
greenish or greyish-brown four-sided prisms, along with calc-spar, in Mount 
Monzoni in the Fassa Valley, and so nam6d after Gehlen the chemist. It 
is a ffflTO-silicate of alumina and lime, and closely allied to Humboldtilite. 

Gem (Lat. gemma). — A general term for any precious stone. In miner- 
alogy the " Gems," which include the ruby, sapphire, topaz, emerald, &c., 
are usually erected into a separate /amiYy, and, as Professor Nicol observes, 
"notwithstanding their diverse chemicsd composition, must ever appear a 
hig^y natural one, when regarded as individual objects. Their great 
hardness, tenacity, high specific gravity without the metallic aspect, their 
brilliant lustre, transparent purity, and vivid colours,— all mark them out 
as a peculiar distinct family. Only the diamond, which might naturally 
seem to take the chief place in tlds class, differs so much, not only in 
elementary composition, but in physical properties, that it must be 
assigned to a diverse place in the system." Gems are usually arranged 
into real gems — the diamond, sapphire, ruby, spinelle, &c., which have great 
hardness, lustre, and colour — and preciotts stones, which have the same 
characters as the real gems, but only possess them in a less degree. The 
term Oriental is applied as a mark of excellence, whether coming from the 
East or not. Gems are also spoken of as natural, and artificial; the latter 
being composed of vitreous "pastes," coloured by different metallic oxides. 

Genuniparoiifi (Lat. gemina, a bud, and pario, I bring forth). — In phy- 
siolc^y, reproducing by buds on the body, which mature and fall off, and 
then become independent animals, as in many of the infusoria. 

Genus (Lat., kind or kindred). — In natural history, the word genus has 
often wide, and not well-defined limits, but is generally regarded as 
embracing such members of a Family or larger group as possess some 
common properties, more marked in them than in the other members of 
the family. Thus the Canidie or Dog family embraces the dog, wolf, 
jackal, fox, &c. ; but the dog, wolf, and jackal are regarded as one genus, 
Canis, while the foxes are separated into another genus, Vnlpes, the points 
of agreement between the dog and wolf being more numerous and intimate 
than between the dog and fox. The other permanent differences between 
the individuals of the same genus constitute a species ; and the a<xidentai 
differences found among the species give rise to varieties. 

Geodes (Gr. geodes, earthy).— Originally applied to nodules of indurated 
clay or ironstone, hollow within, filled with soft earthy ochre, or having a 
free nucleus or kernel, which rattled when the nodule was shaken ; the 
<etites, or eagle-stone, of the ancients. The term is now generally employed 
to denote all rounded nodules having internal cavities, whether empty, 
nucleated, or lined with crystals. Locally and familiarly known as ''potato- 
stones," ** cat-heads," and similar fanciful terms. 

Ge6gn08y (Gr. ge, the earth, and gnosu, knowledge).— A term invented 
to express absolute knowledge of the earth, in contradistinction to Geology, 
which embraces both the facts and our reasonings respecting them. The 
term, however, is seldom used by British geologists. 

Geogomy (Gr. ge, the earth, and gonos, generation). — Like cosmogony, 
geogony consists in abstract speculations regarding the original formation 



of the earth, and is altogether distinct from the definite and intelligible 
science of geology. 

Gedlogy (Gr. ge, the earth, and logoi, doctrine).— Embraces all that can 
be known of tiie constitution and history of our planet. Its object is to 
examine the various rock-materials of which our planet is composed, to 
describe their appearance and relative positions, to investigate their nature 
and mode of formation, and generally to discover the laws which seem to 
regulate their arrangement. As thus defined, the science may be viewed 
in three great aspects — Descriptive, Theoretical, and Practical : Descrip- 
tive Oedogy being that which restricts itself to a consideration of facts and 
appearances as presented in the rocky crust; Theoretical, that which 
attempts to account for the phenomena, and arrange them into a con- 
nected world-history ; and Practiced, that which, guided in its researches 
by the other two, treats of the mineral products of the globe, the methods 
of obtaining them, and their application to industrial or economic purposes. 

Oeosatinu (Gr. ge, the earth, »sid.9auro8, a lizard). — A gigantic terrestrial 
reptile of the Oolitic epoch. 

Oeotetifhis (Gr. ge, the earth— that is, fossil — and tewthis, a squid). — A 
genus of fossil squids or calamaries, whose short broad pens, pointed 
behind, and truncated in front, with lateral wings shorter than the shaft> 
occur abundantly and in many species in the clays of the Lias and Oolite. 
Besides the pens of this calamary, the inh-hag, tiie muscular mantle, and 
the bases of the arms, are preserved in the Oxford clay. Some of the 
ink-bags found in the lias are nearly a foot in length, and are invested 
with a brilliant nacreous layer ; the ink, like that of the recent analogues, 
forming excellent sepia. It is difficult to understand how these ink-bags 
were preserved, as the existing calamaries " spill their ink" on the 
slightest alarm ; unless we suppose, with Dr Buckland, that their pos- 
sessors were instantaneously enveloped in the muddy deposit that now 
entombs them. 

GervOlia (dedicated to M. Gerville, a French naturalist). — ^A genus of 
the Aviculidse, or wing-shells, found fossil in many species, from the Car- 
boniferous system to the Chalk inclusive. Shell like avicula ; elongated, 
anterior ear small, posterior ear wing-like ; area long and flat, cartilage 
pits several wide apart ; hinge-teeth obscure, diverging posteriorly. 

G^er (literally "rager" or "roarer "). — An Icelandic term for the inter- 
mittent boiling-springs, or spouting fountains, which occur in connection 
with the volcanic phenomena of that island. "These intermittent hot 
springs occur in a district situated in the south-western division of Iceland, 
where nearly one hundred of them are said to break out within a circle of 
two mUes. They rise through a thick covering of lava, which may perhaps 
have flowed from Mount Hecla, the summit of that volcano being seen from 
the spot, at the distance of more than thirty miles. In this district the 
rushing of water is sometimes heard in chasms beneath the surface ; for 
here, as on Etna, rivers flow in subterranean channels through the porous 
and cavernous lavas. It has more than once happened, after earthquakes, 
that some of the boiling fountains have increased or diminished in violence 
and volume, or entirely ceased, or that new ones have made their appear- 
ance — changes which may be explained by the opening of new rents, and 
the closing of pre-existing fissures. Few of the geysers play longer than 
five or six minutes at a time, and the intervals between their eruptions are 
for the most part very irregular. The Great Geyser rises out of a spacious 


GEY — GH\ 

basin at the summit of a circular mound, composed of siliceous incrusta- 
tionsj deposited from the spray of its waters. The diameter of this basin 
in one direction is fifty-six feet, and forty-six in another. In the centre is 
a pipe seventy-eight feet in perpendicular depth, and from eight to ten 
feet in diameter, but gradually widening as it rises into the basin. The 
inside of the basin is whitish, consisting of a siliceous crust, and perfectiy 
smooth, as are likewise two small channels on the sides of the mound, 
down which the water escapes when the bowl is filled to the mar^n. 
The circular basin is sometime empty, but it is usually fiUed with beauti- 
fully transparent water in a state of ebullition. During the rise of the 
boiling water in the pipe, especially when the ebullition is most violent, aud 
when the water is thrown up in jets, subterranean noises are heard, like the 
distant firing of cannon, and the earth is slightly shaken. The sound then 
increases, and the motion becomes more violent, till at length a column of 
water is thrown up, with loud explosions, to the height of one or two 
hundred feet. After playing for a time like an artificial fountain, and 
giving off great clouds of vapour, the pipe or tube is emptied, and a 
column of steam rushing up with amaring force, and a thundering noise, 
terminates the eruption. If stones are thrown into the crater, they are 
instantly ejected ; and such is the ei^losive force, that very hard rocks 
are sometimes i^vered by it into small pieces. Henderson found that, 
by throwing a great quantity of large stones into the pipe of Strockr (chum), 
one of the geysers, he could bring on an eruption in a few minutes. The 
fragments of stone, as well as the boiling water, were thrown in that case 
to a much greater height than usual. After the water had been ejected, a 
column of steam continued to rush up with a deafening roar for nearly an 
hour ; but the geyser, as if exhausted by this effort, did not send out a 
fresh eruption when its usual interval of rest had elapsed.*' — (Lyell's * Prin- 
ciples,' as condensed from Barrow, Henderson, Mackenzie, and others who 
have visited Iceland.) Various theories have been proposed to account for 
the phenomena of the geysers, but that proposed by Sir G. Mackenzie, 
and which connects the intermittent eruptions of steam and water with 
the formation and expansion of steam in caverns and fissures in the lava 
beneath, is tiiat which is generally accepted. It is obvious, if fissures and 
caverns exist, that steam of a very high pressure must be found in them 
by the passage of the boiling waters along the subterranean channels ; and 
as the pressure increases, the steam will force itself forward, and escape- 
by the nearest opening. Once discharged, it will require some time before 
another supply can be formed of the requisite pressure and temperature. 
According to Mr Roberts, all tiie waters issuing from these springs are 
highly charged with silica ; hence siliceous incrustations and deposits 
cover the adjacent country to the extent of four leagues, and the streams 
proceeding from the springs often resemble milk in appearance, owing to 
the argillaceous bole they take up in their passage among the siliceous 
concretions (palagonite tufa) and accumulations. 

G^yBerite. — The name given to a loose, porous, hydrated form of silica 
deposited in concretionary, cauliflower- like masses around such hot 
springs as the geysers of Iceland, those of the Sierra Nevada in Calif omia, 
and other regions. 

GhaatB. — A term applied originally to the narrow and difficult passes in 
the mountains of Central Hindostan, but has been gradually extended to 
the mountains themselves — viz., the Eastern and Western Ghauts, which 




consist of two great chains^ stretching along the east and west coasts of 
the Deccan or Indian Peninsola. 

GfibbOQS (Lat. giJtibut, bunched, humped). — ^Applied to forms that hare 
a suddenly conyez^ or hump-like external surface. Bossed ; abruptly pro- 
tuberant^ like the upper surface of the cyprcea gibhota or hump-backed 

Gir^e. — ^The tallest of known quadrupeds, and now restricted to the 
deserts of Africa, was once a native of Europe and Asia, for fossil bones of 
a species of this remarkable ruminant have been found in the Upper Ter- 
tiaries of Issoudun in France, at Pikermi in Greece, and in the SiwaJik 
Hills in Hindostan, associated with varieties of the Elk, Deer, &c. 

Girasol, Gyrasole (Lat. gyro, I turn, and sol, the sun). — Known also as 
jire-opal ; a transparent variety of opal, having a brilliant vitreous lustre, 
and of a bright hyacinth red, particularly when turned towards the sun, 
or any bright light: hence the name. The finest specimens are strongly 
translucent, and show a faint bluish light, coming as it were from the in-^ 
terior of the stone. 

GUuder (Lat. glades, ice). — ^Applied to those accumulations of ice, or of 
snow and ice, which collect in the valleys and ravines of snowy mountains 
like the Alps, and which move downward with a peculiar creeping motion, 
smoothing the rocks over which they pass, and leaving mounds of debris 
(moraines), lateral and terminal, as they melt away. According to Saussure, 
glaciers are of two kinds— those formed in valleys and following the wind- 
ings of their courses (the ice-river), and those formed in the slopes and 
higher peaks of the mountains in sheet-like masses. In both, the mode of 
action is almost identical ; and, combined with the avalaTiche and iceberg, 
the glacier is now, as it has been in ages past, one of the most important 
of geological agents. The evidence of glaciers in any country, during 
former epochs, consists partly in the polished and grooved surfaces of tiie 
rocks over which they sUd with their impacted boulders and shingle (these 
scratching and grooving in the direction of that movement) ; and partly 
by the peculiar contour and composition of the moraines, which differ ma- 
terially from beds of debris brought down by torrents and other currents 
of water. As glaciers can only be formed above the line of perpetual con- 
gelation, and melt when they descend to and below that level, important 
inferences as to climate can often be drawn from tiie occurrence of moraine, 
rock-groovings, and other kindred phenomena. 

Glader-Table. — The name given in Alpine regions to large table-like 
blocks of stone lying on the surface of glaciers, and more or less elevated 
on pedestals of ice — ^these pedestals being protected from the sun's rays 
by the superincumbent stone-blocks while the surrounding ice has been . 
melted down to a lower level. 

Glacis (Fr.) — A slope in fortification; applied to easy insensible slopes 
like those of a harbour-breakwater, or the shingle piled on the shore by 
the force of the waves ; less steep than a taZtis. 

Glance (literally, splendour). — A frequent term of the earlier miner- 
alogists, and applied to such minerals as exhibited a glancing or pseudo- 
metallic lustre, as lead-glance, iron-glance, glance-coal, &c The term is 
now seldom employed. 

Glaace-CoaL — A familiar term for anthracite (which see), in allusion to 
its semi-metallic lustre. 

GUsexite. — A sulphate of potash, oc^urrii^g in delicate white or yellow- 


GLA — GtE 

ish-white crystallisations, and in crusts and masses, sublimed around the 
fumerolos of active volcanoes. It has a semi-resinous lustre, is more or less 
translucent, and has a saline and bitter taste. Specimens from Vesuvius 
contained 71.4 sulphate of potash, 18.6 sulphate of soda, 4.6 chloride of 
sodium, and 5.4 chloride of ammonium, copper and iron. 

Glass. — The well-known silicates of potash and soda (quartz-sand fused 
with one or other of these alkalies) ; but which are variously compounded 
to give them colour, transparency, toughness, &c. Thus green or bottle 
gUuB consists of the silicates of alumina, of the oxides of iron, magnesia, 
and potash, or soda ; fiint-glau, a silicate of potash and lead ; window- 
glass, a silicate of soda and lime ; and plate-glcus, silicate of potash and 
lime. In mineralogy, the term glass is applied to several substances hav- 
ing a glassy appearance, as MtLscovy-gldss or mica, tin-glass or bismuth, 
glass of antimony or sulphuret of antimony. 

Glatibttite. — A rare crystallised salt, occurring in oblique four-sided 
prisms, and consisting of 51 parts sulphate of soda and 49 sulphate of 
lime. It is found associated with rock-salt in Spain, South America, and 
other localities, and is so named from containing a large amount of Glau- 

Olanber-Salt (after Glauber, a German chemist). — Native sulphate of 
soda ; the sal-mirahile of the older chemists. It occurs chiefly as an efflor- 
escence in quarries and on old walls, as in the salt-mines of Austria, Spain, 
and other countries; it is deposited in great abundance from tiie hot 
springs at Carlsbad, and is found in many other mineral waters ; and is 
lU^ewise procured from salt springs, and forms a crust or efflorescence on 
the borders of salt lakes in Egypt, Southern Russia, and other countries. 

Olaticolite (Gr. gUmcos, bluish-green, sea-green, and lithos), — A pale- 
blue or greenish variety of Labrador felspar, from Lake Baikal in Siberia. 

Olancdnie, Glancoxiie Crayeii8e.~The French term for certain strata 
(bluish chalky marls and greensands) which appear to be on the same 
horizon with, and in part the equivalents of, our Upper Greensand and 
Gauli— See Cretaceous Ststem. 

Olatkconite (Gr. glatux>s, bluish-green). — A mineral forming small round 
grains in the greensand of England, France, Germany, and North America, 
and very similar in colour, &c., to green-earth, but seems essentially a 
hydrous silicate of iron protoxide and potash. In green-earth, the iron is 
in the state of peroxide. 

Glen Boy, Parallel Boads of.—'' Glen Roy," says Sir Charles Lyell m his 
' Antiquity of Man,' is situated in the Western Highlands, about ten miles 
north of Fort William, near the western end of the great glen of Scotland, 
or Caledonian Canal, and near the foot of the highest of the Grampians, 
Ben Nevis. Throughout nearly its whole length — a distance of more than 
ten miles — three parallel roads or shelves are traced along the steep sides 
of the mountains, each maintaining a perfect horizontality, and continuing 
at exactly the same level on the opposite side of the glen. Seen at a dis- 
tance, they appear like ledges or roads out artificially out of the sides of 
the hills ; but when we are upon them, we scarcely recognise their exist- 
ence, so uneven is their surfiEtce and so covered with boulders. They are 
from ten to sixty feet broad, and merely differ from the side of the moun- 
tain in being somewhat less steep. On closer inspection we found that 
these terraces are stratified in the ordinary manner of alluvial or littoral 
deposits. . . . Numerous and diverse theories have been proposed 



to account for these ' roads ' or shelves ; but on one point they are all 
agreed — namely, that they are ancient beaches, or littoral formations, ac- 
cumulated round the edges of one or more sheets of water which once 
stood for a long time successiTely at the level of the several shelves." 

Qlimmer. — The term applied by Werner to the several varieties of mica ; 
by Haidinger and Hausmann to the variety called mvMovUe; and also 
occasionally used to designate talcose and micaceous compounds. 

Globigerina (Lat. glahus, a sphere, and gero, I carry). — A genus of fora- 
miuiferous organisms, whose many-celled shell is turbinated, cells sphe- 
roidal, and the last or terminal one furnished with a semicircular aperture 
at the imibiliccJ angle. Several fossil species abound in the Chalk and in 
Tertiary deposits ; and many species still swarm in our seas. Indeed, a 
large proportion of the ooze or calcareous mud brought up during the 
soundings of the Atlantic telegraph route consisted of Globigerinse, partly 
in the living state, but chiefly in, fragments, which formed a mud almost of 
the consistency of putiy, and which, when dried, was scarcely distinguish- 
able from a mass of soft, yellowish chalk. 

6l6biilar (Lat. globus, a ball). — Bound ; applied to forms more or less 
spherical. Globule, any minute rounded particle. 

Glossop^tra {Qr.glosse, the tongue, andj^tra, stone). — Literally "tongue- 
stone ; " an early term for the flattened tongue-shaped shark's teeth, so 
abundant in many of the Upper Secondary and earlier Tertiary for- 
mations. Known also as Lamiodonies or throat-teeth, and Odontopetrw or 

Glossdpteris (Gr. gloste, tongue, and pteris, fern). — A genus of Oolitic 
ferns, so called from their tongue-shaped leaves (which were four-<parted), 
and now known as Sa^/enopteris, which see. 

016ttalite (Lat. Glotta, the Clyde, and liihos), — A variety of analdme 
occurring in small aggregated and irregular white or colourless crystals in 
the trap walls near Port-Glasgow on the river Clyde, whence the name. 

Gludna (Gr. glucos, sweet). — A rare earth, discovered by Vauquelin in 
1798, and constituting nearly 14 per cent of tiie emerald and beryl, which 
owe to it their fine green colour. It combines with all the acids, and 
forms, with them, sweetish salts : hence its name. According to Sir H. 
Davy, it is an oxide of glttcinum — a metallic basis not yet obtained in a 
separate state. 

GlyphSMt (Chr. glyphe, sculpture). — A genus of small lobster-like crus- 
taceans {AstcLcidce), whose carapaces occur in the Oolite of England ; and 
so termed from the sculptured ornamentation of their outer surfaces. 

Glyptdcrinns ,(Gr. glyptos, sculptured). — A genus of Lower Silurian en- 
crinites, characterised by their highly-ornamented basal plates ; whence 
the name. 

Gl^todon (Gr. glyptos, sculptured, and odous, tooth). — So named from 
the deeply-grooved teelji ; a gigantic edentate animal from the Upper 
Tertiaries of South America ; allied to the armadilloes {DcuypiTia), and 
furnished with a carapace or coat of mail, formed of polygonal bony plates, 
united by sutures, which constituted an 'impenetrable covering for the 
upper part of the body. The plates of this bony integument were not 
disposed in rings as in the armadillo, but were articulated to each other 
and formed a tessellated cuirass ; the tail was enclosed in a case of this 
kind, like a sword in its scabbard. — See Dastpub. 

61ypt6Btrobii8 (Gr.)— Literally "carved cone;'* a genus of coniferous 



fruits occurring in the Upper Miocene beds of (Ening^, and so named 
from their resemblance to the Japanese G, heUrcphyllvm, now common in 
our shrubberies. 

Gmflinite (after Gmelin, the German chemist). — A soda • chabasite, 
occurring in amygdaloidal trap-rocks in flat six-sided prisms, terminated 
at both extremities by truncated six-sided pyramids ; of a white or yellow- 
ish-white colour ; yitreous lustre ; translucent ; and haying the surface of 
the prisms striated horizontally. 

GneiBS. — Originally a German term for a peculiar granitic-looking rock 
occurring at ihe very base of the so-called *' Primary strata ; " but now 
applied not only to the rock properly so-called, but to the whoU suite of 
hard crystalline granitoid schists which constitute the lowest portion of 
the metamorphic or non-fossiliferous strata. As a rock, it occurs in three 
main yarieties — ^yiz., Gnem Proper — an aggregate of quartz, felspar, and 
mica, occasionally gametiferous ; PorphyrUc OneiM — the same as pre- 
ceding, with large irregular macles of felspar or quttrtz ; and Syenitic 
Oiieist— of quartz, felspar, and hornblende. As a suite, or portion of the 
metamorphic system, it consists of irregularly interstratified schists — 
gneiss, mica-schist, quartz-rock, crystalline limestones, &e. — all of which 
haye been subjected to less or greater intensity of metamorphic action, 
though originally deposited as muds, clays, and sands. In whateyer state 
of aggregation the particles of Gneiss may haye been when originally de- 
posited, we know that it is now a hard, tough, crystalline rock, exhibit- 
ing curyed and flexured lines of stratification, and composed in the main 
of quartz, felspar, mica^ and hornblende. Mineralogically speaking, it 
differs from the granitic rocks with which it is associated chiefly in this, 
that while the crystals of quartz, felspar, &c., are distinct and entire 
in granite, in gneiss they are indistinct, and confusedly aggregated. 
There is also this essential distinction, eyen where the mineral aspects of 
the two rocks are most alike, that the gneiss neyer sends out dykes and 
yeins, like the granite, into contiguous strata ; nor does it eyer assume 
the tabular or sub-columnar structure so frequent in granite — ^a structure 
peculiar to rocks which are the products of cooling and consolidation from 
a state of igneous fusion. In the most granitoid masses of gneiss, the 
stratified disposition is neyer wholly obliterated; hence ^ea fissility in 
one direction as compared with the indeterminate and hackly ^o^^-ztr^ of 
the true igneous granites. Though Gneiss is thus (generally speaking) 
the oldest or lowest of the Primary strata, it may occur in any system, 
just as the strata of that system may haye been subjected to the necessary 
metamorphic agency of heat and other mineralising conditions ; and so it 
happens that many of the Secondary strata of the Alps are as highly 
crystalline as the Primary schists of the Grampians. 

Gneissic, Gneissose. — Haying the aspect of gneiss; partaking of the 
qualities of gneiss; exhibiting the crystalline texture and foliated and 
flexured structure of gneiss. 

Goaf, Gob. — ^In mining, the waste or empty space left by the extrac- 
tion of a seam of coal. It is in this '' Goaf " that the most destructiye 
accumulations of fire-damp generally occur. 

Gobbin, Goaifln. — ^A miner's term for the refuse of a coal mine which 
is thrown into the " Goaf*' or worked-out portion, to assist in supporting 
the roof. 

Gold (Ger.)— The most yaluable and longest known of the metals. It 



generally occurs native in capillary, thread-like, arborescent, and moss-like 
aggregates ; in scales and grains (granos) ; and in rolled masses known as 
pepvtcu and mbggeU. Very frequently it is found disseminated in minute 
microscopic particles or imperfectly formed crystals throughout the quartz 
or vein-stone in which it occurs. Geologically, it is distributed in veins, 
nests, and lodes in the Primary and Palsaozoic schists, but is most fre- 
quently found in the sands, gravels, and debris which have arisen from the 
waste and disintegration of these schists during the later Tertiary and 
Post- tertiary periods. Thus, though worked in the vein-mines of Mexico, 
South America, the Rocky Mountains, and Australia, the main commercial 
supply is obtained from the auriferous sands and gravels of the Ural, 
Hungary, Africa, California, Brazil, Australia, and other gold-yielding 
districts —the drift-workings being inexhaustible, though capriciously 
fertile, while the veins and lodes are said to become poorer the deeper they 
are followed. Gold is one of the most widely-disseminated metals, beiog 
found in every known region ; but rarely in such local abundance as to 
pay for its search, collection, and preparation. It is also frequently found 
in combination with other metals, as palladium, rhodium, and silver ; and 
sometimes also in minute quantities in the metallic sulphides, as galena, 
iron and copper pyrites ; but generaUy so disseminated as to require 
skilful and expensive methods of extraction and purification. Gold is said 
to occur most abundantly in mountain-ranges having a meridional direc- 
tion ; and, according to the observations of M. Laur in California, it is 
still in course of being deposited from hot siliceous springs along with iron, 
copper, and other metals — the gold being metallic or native, while the 
other metals are in the state of ores. 

As a metal, it is characterised by its yellow colour ; its extreme per- 
manence in air and fire— being little tami^ed by any amount of exposure, 
and melting at 2016° Fahr.; its usual hardness is about 2.6 ; its density or 
specific gravity from 18 to 19.4 ; its malleability is such that it may be 
beaten into leaves not more than rriftms of an inch in thickness ; and its 
ductility so great that one grain is capable of being drawn out into 500 
feet of wire. It readily forms alloys with other metals ; and in coinage as 
well as in the arts it is generally so alloyed (with copper, silver, &c.) to 
improve its hardness, and so render it better able to resist the tear and 
wear of circulation, handling, and cleaning. Gold is not acted upon by 
the common acids ; but chlorine and nitro-muriatic acid corrode and dis- 
solve it, forming a chloride of gold, which is soluble in water. 

G6mpliolite (Gr. gomplvos, nail, and lithos). — A term applied by Bron- 
gniart to certain sandy conglomerates of the Middle Tertiary epoch which 
occur in vast thickness at the foot of the Alps in the great Swiss valley, 
where they are known as Nagelfiue, which see. 

Goniister j[Gr. gonia, an angle, and agter, star). — A genus of fossil star- 
fishes occurring in the Greensand, Chalk, and older Tertiaries, and popu- 
larly known as Ctuhianrgtars* They are characterised by their solid pent- 
angular bodies, which in some species are obtuse at the angles, and in 
others more or less pointed and arm-like. The ossicles of the disc are 
generally punctuated, and the margins are provided with a double series 
of larger plates bearing granules or short spines. 

Goniatftes (Gr. gonia, an angle). — A genus of the Ammonite family, so 
called from the angular or zigzag lines which mark the junctions or 
sutures of its chambers. In the goniatite, which ranges from the Devonian 


. GON — GRA 

to the Trias, and of which there are about 150 species, the shell is dis- 
coidal, sutures lobed, lobes simply angulated, siphuncle dorsal. 

Goniometer (Gr. gonia, a comer, and mdron, a measure). -^An instru- 
ment for measuring angles, particularly those of crystals. Two instru- 
ments have been specially used for this purpose — ^the common or c(ytU(ict 
goniometer invented by Carangeau, and the r^fiecting goniometer of Dr 

Gonidpholis (Gr. gonia, comer or angle, and pholie, scale or scute). — 
Literally '* angle-scute ; " a genus of Crocodilians whose teeth, bones, and 
dermal scutes occur in the Purbeck and Wealden strata. So termed from 
the angular shape of its scutes, many of which are furnished with a lateral 
projection, which fits into a corresponding depression of the adjoining 
scute, thus connecting and giving great strength to the dermal cuirass. 
Popularly known as the "Swanage Crocodile," from the fine specimen now 
in the British Museum, having been discovered in the Purbeck beds of 
that locality in 1835. 

Gorg6nia, Gorgoniida {Qwgones, fabled personages whose heads bristled 
with serpents instead of hairs). — A genus of Anthozoan corals, so called 
from their branching fiexible axes ; and popularly known as " Venus's 
fans" and " Sea-fjEuis," from their spreading fan-like forms. The Gor- 
gonise are attached by a root ; have a shrub-like growth ; consist of a homy, 
flexible axis or central portion, which is covered by a calcareous cell-crust, 
like the bark of a tree, and often appear in elegant £an-shaped or flabel- 
lated forms. A few fossil species have been discovered in the Upper ChaJk 
of Maestricht and in Tertiary strata. 

GosLuite (Goslar in the Harz Mountains). — Sulphate of zinc, consisting of 
28.2 oxide of zinc, 27.5 sulphuric acid, and 44.3 water. Generally occurs 
in old mines and workings as a decomposition from zinc-blende (sulphuret 
of zinc), and appears in greyish and greenish-white efflorescences, also 
massive stalactitic, botryoidal, and incrusting. — See White Vitriol. 

Gdssaa (in Cornish mining). — *' A peculiar ferruginous condition," says 
Ansted, "of the top of a lode near its outcrop, considered to be very 
strongly indicative of the lode below. Some gossans are simply ferrugin- 
ous quartz, but others are solid iron ore. Gk>ssans are seldom found so 
deep as 30 fathoms. They not unfrequently have a strong decomposed or 
ochreous appearance, and sometimes contain gold." 

Gewer Caves. — The ossiferous caverns of the peninsula of Gower, in 
Glamorganshire, which have yielded in large abundance the remains of 
mammoth, tichorine rhinoceros, hippopotamus major, reindeer, and other 
extinct mammals, associated with species still living in Europe, such as the 
badger, fox, and wolf, together with flint knives and other rude imple- 
ments of human workmanship. From the position of these implements, 
Colonel Wood and the late Dr Falconer, who examined the caverns, con- 
sider them to have been unmistakably coeval with the extinct mammalia. 
Grallat6re8 (Lat., ''walkers on stilts '*).->The Waders or Stilt-birds; 
a well-known order of aquatic birds frequenting marshes and shallow 
waters, and so named from their being raised on their long legs as on 
stilts. The order comprises the rails, snipes, coots, herons, stilts, cranes, 
&c. ; and is represented in the Tertiary strata by remains having affinity 
to the curlew, rail, heron, and other grallatorial congeners. 

Granmi^ia (Gr. gramme, a line of writing, and my«, a mussel-shell). — 
A mussel-like bivalve occurring in Upper Silurian strata, and so named 



by De Vemeuil from the strong transyerse lines or furrows which cross its 
valres from the umbones to the middle of tiie ventral margin. Begarded 
as a sub-generic form of the fossil genus MyacUes, 

Granite (Lat. granum, a grain). — This weU-known rock is so termed from 
its granular-crystalline composition and aspect. The typical granite is a 
compound of quartz^ felspar, and mica, arranged in distinct grains or 
crystals ; and all rooks partaking of the character and appearance of 
granite are termed granitic. The epithets granitoid and granit%form are, on 
the other hand, applied to rocks having some resemblance to granite, 
though not decidedly of granitic nature, nor even, it may be, of true 
igneous origin. The granitic rocks, properly so called, are all highly crys- 
talline ; none of their crystals are rounded or water-worn ; they present 
no traces of deposition or stratification ; they occur in the crust as moun- 
tain masses and veins, bursting through and displacing the sedimentuy 
rocks ; and they indurate and otherwise alter (as all heated masses do) the 
strata with which they come in contact. From these circumstances they 
are held to be of igneous origin ; and as far as geologists have been able to 
discover, tiiey are the most deeply-seated of all rocks — forming, as it were, 
the floor or foundation for all the superincumbent formations. As the 
earliest of igneous rocks, they are generally found associated with primary 
and transition strata, tilting them up on their edges, bursting through 
them in-dykes and veins, and variously altering their positions and mineral 
character. Though occuring most abundantly among primitive strata, 
granitic outbursts may be found among rocks of all ages, but certainly not 
as a marked and general feature of the period— the great epoch of granitic 
intensity being that which terminated with the deposition of the Silurian 

Whether occurring in veins or mountain-masses, the structure of granite 
is irregular and amorphous. In its texture it varies from a close-grained 
compact rock to a coarse and loose aggregation of primary crystals. In 
the composition of granitic rocks there is also considerable variety. Thus, 
or^^joary gi'anite is composed of crystals of felspar, quartz, and mica ; when 
the dark glassy minisral called hornblende takes the place of the mica, the 
rock is known by the name of syenite (from Syene in Upper Egypt) ; and 
when both mica and hornblende are present, the compound is known as a 
syenitic granite. Occasionally talc supplants the mica, and then the ad- 
mixture of felspar, quartz, and talc, is known by the name of protogine 
(literally, first-formed) — a term by no means happily chosen, as many of 
these talcose granites (like those of the Alps) occur in connection with 
rocks of secondary formation. The term hypersthenic granite is applied to 
an admixture of quartz and hypersthene, with scattered flakes of mica ; 
and graphic granite is a binary compound of felspar and quartz — ^the quartz 
being disposed through the felspar matrix like the lines of Arabic writing 
— Whence the name. Another fine-grained compound of felspar and quartz, 
with minute scales of mica, is known by the name of pegmatite {pegma, 
compacted) ; and porphyriiic granite is the term employed when, in addi- 
tion to the crystals composing the general mass of the rock, there are 
indiscriminately mingled through it lai^ger and independent crystals of 

Besides the preceding there are other granitic compounds, in all of 
which felspar, quartz, mica, hornblende, and hypersthene are the princi- 
pal ingredients, and talc, steatite, chlorite, schorl, and adTnolite the 



accidental or modifying minerals. It is oostomcury, on this account^ to 
speak of granites as binary, ternary, and qwUemary, according to the 
number of simple minerals that enter into their composition. Thus graphic 
granite, as composed of felspar and quartz, is a binary ; ordinary granite, 
of felspar, quartz, and mica, is a ternary ; and syenitic granite, of felspar, 
quartz, hornblende, and mica, is a quaternary compound. — (See Granit- 
XLLB, &c.) There are, however, many blendings of these, one into the 
other ; and in the same hill, or even in the same quarry, we may find some 
half-dozen varieties of granite, if distinotions are to be founded upon the 
greater or less abundance of any one constituent mineral. However com- 
plicated the mineral admixtures of granitic rocks, and however varied 
their aspects, there are several features which tiiey preserve in common, 
and which serve to distinguish them from the later igneous rocks. For 
instance, they are more crystalline, or rather granular-crystalline, than 
any other variety of igneous rock ; they are never vesicular, cellular, or 
porous, like trap and volcanic lavas ; they exhibit less structure than trap- 
pean rocks, being generally massive or cuboidal, and void of that colunmar 
structure so common in basalts and greenstones ; they are never amygda- 
loidal like traps, conglomerated or brecciated like trap-tuffs, or scoriaceous 
like volcanic tufa. They seem to have been formed at greater depths or 
under greater pressure than either traps or lavas ; hence they are spoken 
of as pluUmdc, in contradistinction to volcanic, which may be originated 
under the open air. 

Industrially, granitic rooks are of prime importance — the hard and 
close-grained yielding the most durable building-stone for heavy struc- 
tures ; the soft and decomposable the finest kaolin, or china-clay ; the 
veins and vein-stones such accidental minerals as felspar, apatite, micsk, 
meerschaum, asbestos, rock-crystal, tourmaline, beryl, and other precious 

Graxiit^Ue. — ^A term employed by Eirwan to designate a binary granite, 
or granular aggregate of two ingredients. Thus a compound of quartz 
and felspar is a granitelle; of quartz, felspar, and mica, an ordinary or 
normal granite; of any other three ingredients than those constituting 
granite, as felspar, quartz, and schorl, or quartz, mica, and schorl, a 
ffranitine; and a compound of more than three ingredients, a granilite. 
The terms are rarely used by modem geologists. 

Granitic. — Composed of granite ; having some of the characteristics of 
granite ; belonging to the granitic series, which comprehends such rocks 
as granite proper, graphic granite, syenite, protogine, pegmatite, eurite, 
and many analogous porphyritic compounds. 

Qraiiitold (Gr. eidos, likeness).— Applied to such rocks as have the gran- 
ular-crystalline aspect of granite. Thus we speak of the ''granitoid 
schists," meaning thereby such rocks as gneiss, hornblende-schist, por- 
phyritic gneiss, and the like, which have much the aspect of granite with- 
out being so in reality. 

GTaiiii]i,tlo& (Lat. gnmunn, a grain).--The reduction of metals into grains, 
drops, or coarse powder — ^generally accomplished by pouring them in the 
iMiUed ttate into water. 

Graphic Granite (Gr. grapho, I write).— Literally "written granite;" a 
binary compound of felspar and quartz — ^the quartz being disposed through 
the felspar matrix like lines of Arabic writing : hence the name. 

Griphite (Gr. grapho, I write, and lithos, stone). — Literally " writing- 



stone ; " and so called from its use in making writing'pencils. Known also 
as plumbago and hlachlead from its appearance, though lead does not at 
aU enter into its composition. It consists almost entirely of pure carbon, 
with a small proportion of iron as an admixture, but not in chemical 
union — the amount being from 5 to 9 per cent. It occurs chiefly in pri- 
maiy formations, but occasionally in later strata in the neighbourhood of 
igneous irruptions. When ciystallised it appears in six-sided tabular and 
short prismatic crystals, but generally it is compact and massive, foliated 
or scaly, and disseminated or occurring in vein-like nests and patches. It 
is found in many localities — the purest in Britain being that of Borrowdale 
in Cumberland, where it is included in a bed of trap subordinate to the 
Clay-slate of the district. It is largely used for making writing-pencils, in 
the &brication of fire-proof crucibles, as a polishing material, &c. ; and 
has been artificially produced by placing an excess of charcoal in contact 
with fused cast-iron. — See Coal Familt. 

Graphnldria. — A genus of coralloid organisms, with a horny axis of sub- 
angular or cylindrical form, occurring in septarian nodules in the London 
Clay, and by some regarded as an extinct form of PennatiUa. 

Qriptolites (Or. graptos, written, and li4JM)s, stone). — Characteristic Sil- 
urian zoophytes, akin to the virgularia or sea-pen of modem seas ; hence 
the name. They consist of sessile polpye cells, arranged in one or two 
rows on a flexible stem, and have been subdivided into three groups — 
I. OrapboliUs proper, or those having a single row of cells united together 
at the base ; 2. Rastrites, those having the cells placed — not united, but 
placed — at wide intervals along tiie axis ; and 8. IHplograpsus, or those hav- 
ing two rows of united cells arranged along the axis, and presenting a 
foliaceous appearance. The two flrst groups seem related to tiie Sertula- 
ridce, the last to the PennuUvXa and Virgularia of the present day. There 
are also others having twin branches, to which the name Didymograptus 
is applied ; and the whole group of these slender serrated fossils is usually 
distinguished by zoologists as the Gbaftolithina. 

Graptop6ra (6r. grapho, I write, and pora). — A rare form of zoophyte 
occurring in Lower Silurian rocks, and interesting as showing a probable 
connection between the Fenestellidae and Graptolites. It is of homy tex- 
ture, and appears in leaf-like bundles of fine lines radiating from numerous 
central pores ; hence the name. — See Phtlloobafsus. 

Grave- Wax. — A familiar term for adipocere, because occasionally found 
in grave-yards. — See Adipooebb. 

GraveL — The flEtmiliar as well as technical term for accumulations of 
water- worn rock-fragments, where the pebbles vary from the size of a pea 
to that of a hen's egg. It is generally composed of the fragments of the 
harder and more siliceous rocks — ^those longest resisting the process of 
attrition. Accumulations of finer detritus, whose particles are less than a 
pea, are known as sands ; those whose fragments are larger than a hen's 
^^ are generally termed sihingle, 

Grdyity, QravitdtioiL (Lat. grams, heavy). — The mutual tendency which 
all bodies in nature have to approach each other, with forces which are 
directly as their masses and inversely proportional to the squares of their 
distances. As a force it is altogether independent of the nature of the 
substances on which it acts, and influences alike the particles of a fragment 
of rock, and the spheres which constitute the systems of the universe. 
This mutual tendency of all the particles of matter to each other is called 

^5 P 


the aUra4iion of gravitation ; in reference to any particular body, the 
aggr^;ate attraction of all its particles is usually called simply its gravity 
or weight. It is owing to this force that all hea^y bodies, when unsup- 
ported, fall towards the earth, and that in a direction perpendicular to the 
level surface of water ; or in other words, in the direction of the plumb- 
line, which always points towards the centre of the earth — the attraction 
of a sphere (as demonstrated by Newton) acting in the same manner as if 
all its matter were condensed into a single point at its centre. The phe- 
nomena of gravity, as manifested on and within the earth, is usually spoken 
of as terrutricU gravitation ; that which has reference to the mutual action 
and reaction of the planetary bodies is denominated univerml gravitatum. 
Thus the oscillations of the pendulum, and the perpetual tendency of 
water to fall or seek towards a lower level, depend on terrestrial gravita- 
tion ; the bi-diumal rise and fall of the tides, and the regular revolutions 
of the planets, are sustained by the force of universal gravitation. Owing 
to the oblate or spheroidal figure of the earth, which makes the distance 
between the earth's surface and the centre less by some 13 miles at the 
poles than at the equator, the gravity of a body slightly increases as we 
approach either pole. Thus, according to Newton, a body weighing 
194 lb. at the equator, would weigh, if transferred to the pole, 195 — and 
proportionally at all intermediate distances ; so that the attraction of 
gravity becomes not only a measure of weight, but a means of determining 
the earth's figure, by ascertaining the intensity of gravitation at dififerent 
latitudes. * 

Gravity, Specific.— The Specific Gravity of a body is the ratio of its 
weight to the weight of an equal volume of some other body assumed as a 
conventional standard. In Britain, the standard usually adopted for solids 
and liquids is distilled water at the temperature of 60° Fahr., and for goMS 
or aMriform bodies, the ordinary air of the atmosphere. In either case the 
standard is regarded as unity, or equal to 1. The following list exhibits 
the specific gravities of some of the more important and abundant rocks, 
minerals, and metals :— 

Agate 2.590 Diamond, Coloured 3.550 

Alum 1.714 „ Brazilian 8.444 

Amber 1.064 to 1.100 Dolomite 2.640 to 2.830 

Amethyst, Common 2.750 Emerald 2.600 „ 2.770 

„ Oriental 8.891 Felspar 2.450 „ 2.700 

Amianthus 0.315 tal.OOO Galena 6.565 „ 7.786 

Arragonite 2.900 Glass, crown 2.5*20 

Asphalt 0.905 to 1.220 „ green 2.642 

Azure-stone 2.850 „ flint 2.760 to 3.000 

Barytes, Sulphate of 4.550 Graphite 1.987 „ 2.400 

„ Carbonate of 4.600 Gypsum, Compact ...1.870 „ 2.288 

Basalt 2.421 to 3.000 „ Crystallised 2.811 „ 2.900 

Beryl 3.549 Heliotrope 2.629,, 8.000 

Borax 1.714 Honeystone Mellite 1.650 

Calcedony 2.600 to 2.650 Hornblende 8.250 to 3.880 

Camelian 2.615 Homstone 2.655 „ 2.810 

Chalk 2.000 to 2.265 Hyacinth 4.000 „ 4.780 

Chrysolite 8.400 Ironstone 3.000 „ 3.576 

Coals 1.026 to 1.360 Jasper 2.858,, 2.820 

Coral 2.500 ,,2.800 Jet 1.800 

Corundum 3.710 Limestone 2.886 to 3.000 

Diamond, Oriental 3.621 Magnesia, Carbonate 2.240 



Malachite 3.572 to 8.994 

Marble 2.500 „ 2.700 

Melanite 3.600 „ 3.800 


Antimony 6.702 

Arsenic 6.765 

Bismuth 9.880 

Brass 7.809 to 8.400 

Cadmium 8.600 

Chromium 6.900 

Cobalt 8.600 

Columbium 6.600 

Copper 8.900 

Gold, cast 19.258 

„ hammered 19.361 

Iridium, „ 23.000 

Iron, cast 7.248 

„ foraged 7.788 

Lead 11.352 

Manganese .^.000 

Mercury 13.598 

Molybdenum 8.600 

Nickel, cast 8.279 

„ for^^ed 8.666 

Osmium-indium 19.600 

Palladium 11.800 

Platma, forged 20.336 

„ wire 21.042 

„ plate 22.069 

Potassium 0.865 

Rhodium 11.000 

Selenium 4.300 

Silver 10.474 

,. hammered 10.510 

Sodium 0.972 

Steel, soft 7.833 

Steel, tempered 7.825 

Tellurium 6.700 to 6.110 

Tin 7.296 

Metals, contintied — 

Tungstein 17.400 

Uranium 9.000 

Zinc 6.200 to 7.200 

Mica 2.660 „ 2.934 

Mineral Tallow 0.780 

Naphtha ^ 0.700 to 0.840 

Nitre 1.900 

Obsidian 2.370 

OoUte 2.100 to 2.600 

Opal 1.968 ,; 2.110 

Pearlstone 2.340 

Pitchstone 2.000 to 2.700 

Porphyry 2.460 „ 2.960 

Pumice 0.762 „ 0.914 

Quartz 2.624 „ 8.760 

Rock-Crystal 2.580 „ 2.888 

Ruby, Oriental 4.286 

Sandstone, Craigleith 2.260 

Fife 2.100 

Glasgow 2.166 

Derbyshire 2.628 

Newcastle 2.229 

Sapphire, Oriental 4.200 

Schori 2.922 to 3.460 

Serpentine 2.264 „ 8.000 

Slate 2.000 „ 2.200 

Spar, Fluor 8.090 „ 8.790 

„ Calc 2.610 „ 2.830 

Sulphur, native 2.083 

„ fused 1.990 

Talc 2.000 to 8.000 

Topaa 4.000 ,,4.066 

Tourmaline 3.000 „ 3.680 

Turquoise 2.500 „ 3.000 

Ultramarine 2.360 

Woodstone 2.000 to 2.674 

Zeolite 2.076 „ 2.718 

Zircon 4.385 ,,4.700 


Atmospheric Air 1.000 Hydrogen, Sub-carburetted ...0.666 

Carbonic Acid 1627 „ Sulphuretted 1.180 

Chlorine 2.600 Nitrogen 1.041 

Hydrogen 0.069 Oxygen 1.111 

„ Carburetted 0.972 

Great Oolite.— The "Grand Oolithe" of the French; a frequent 
synonyme of the Bath Oolite, from the great development of its Oolitic 
limestones and freestones as compared with other members of the system. 
It belongs to the lower section of the system — having the Stonesfield slate 
for its base, and being overlaid by the Forest Marble and Combrash. 

Green-Earth. — An earthy variety of dUortte, occurring in various shades 
of green, having a greasy feel, and faint lustre when rubbed with the nail. 
It is common in the trap-rocks, occasionally massive, but more frequently 
filling amygdaloidal cavities, coating agate nodules, or colouring the 
sides of fissures, &c., with a thin streaky glaze. The finer varieties fur- 
nish the mountaiti-^reen of the colourman and artist. — See Glauconitb. 



Grefoockite. — Sulphuret of cadmium ; one of the blendes, consisting of 
77.3 cadmium, and 22.4 sulphur. It occurs in deep- yellow, hexagonal, 
translucent crystals with dissimilar terminations in porphyritio amyg- 
daloid, near Bishoptown in Renfrewshire, and is namedafter its discoverer. 
Lord Greenock, now Earl Cathcart. 

Greenaand. — The lo;wer portion of the Cretaceous or Chalk system as 
developed in the south of England, and so named from its greenish colour, 
which it owes to a chloritous silicate of iron. These sands, however, are 
not uniformly green, but partake of ochraceous and yellow tints ; present 
various d^rees of fineness, from compact sands to coarse nodular grits ; 
and not unfrequently imbed cherty bands, nodular sandstones, and irre- 
gular deposits of fuller's earth, fossil wood, and ochre. In England the 
greensand m usually divided into Lower and Upper, because of the stiff 
blue marly clays (gault) which occiur about the middle of the group ; but 
otherwise there is a great lithological similarity throughout its entire 
thickness, which rarely exceeds 400 or 500 feet. The gault or goU (a local 
term) is not of great thickness, nor very r^^lar in its occurrence. It is 
a bluish chalky clay, which effervesces strongly on the application of acids ; 
is interstratified with layers of greensand ; and in some localities holds 
irregular balls of argillaceous ironstone, collected round ammonites and 
other shells. In some districts the gault assumes a reddish tint, from the 
iron it contains ; but in other respects its composition is very persistent, 
and it rarely exceeds 80 or 100 feet in thickness. These three members — 
the Upper Greensand, the Gault, and the Lower Greensand — constitute 
the Cenomanienf the Aptierif and Neocomien, (in part) of French geolo- 
gists.— See Cretaceous System. 

Greenstone. — A general designation for the hard granular-crystalline 
varieties of trap, consisting mainly of felspar and hornblende, felspar and 
augite, or felspar and hypersthene. The term has reference to their green- 
ish or blackish-green colours, and though not very precise, these shades 
very largely prevail. Compared with the Basalts, the Greenstones {whin- 
stones oi Scotland) are less compact, more granular, exhibit distinctly their 
component crystals, often contain sulphuret of iron, and are usually mas- 
sive or tabular in their structure. It is customary to speak of them as 
hypersthenic greenstones, augitio greenstones, &c., according to the pre- 
dominating mineral ; and as many of them are porphyritic in their texture, 
we have greenstone porphyries, or porphyrUic greenstones. Adopting Conti- 
nental nomenclature, those exclusively composed of hornblende and fel- 
spar are termed diorites ; those of augite and felspar, dolerites. On the 
whole, though the trap-rocks often differ little in composition, the texture 
of the Greenstone is always more granular or granitic than the basalts, 
never earthy like the tuffs and wack^, vesicular like the amygdaloids, nor 
glassy like the obsidians and pitchstones. 

Grinatite (Fr. grenat, a garnet). — Prismatoidal garnet ; known also as 
Staurolite or Cross-stone, from the peculiar combination of its prisms. 

Gres Bigarr6 (Fr.)— literally "variegated sandstone;" the equivalent 
of the Buwter Sandstein of Germany, and the Variegated SandstoTies or Lower 
Trias of England. 

Gres de Voeges.— The lowest member of the Trias or Upper New Bed 
Sandstone of France, as extensively developed in the Vosgea. 

Greystone. — A variety of trachyte, of a lead-grey or greenish colour, 
and composed of felspar and augite — the felspar being more than 75 per 



cent of the admixture. " Greystone la^as/* says Lyell, " are intermediato 
between basaltic and trachytic lavas. " 

Ckeywack^ (Ger. grauwache). — A German term originally employed to 
designate the grey-coloured argillo-arenaoeous beds, or coarse slaty strata 
of the Transition rocks, and subsequently as a name for the entire transi- 
tion series. It is now seldom employed in this sense— the ''transition" 
rocks having been resolved mainly into the Silurian, and partly into the 
Cambrian and Hypozoic systems. It is still, however, used to designate 
the hard, gritty, brecciated, or breccio-conglomerate beds which occur in 
these formations ; and, as a mere lithological term for these ancient griii 
and breccias, is by no means without its convenience. 

Orey Wethen. — Known also as Sarsen Stonet and Druid Stones; the 
name given in the south of England to the weather-worn and half-rounded 
blocks of grey sandstone which are scattered over the surface of the Lower 
Downs and adjacent districts, and which are evidently the remains of the 
Eocene sands and sandstones that have been removed by denudation. 

Qri fllt hideB. — One of the three genera of small trilobites {Phillipsioj 
Oriffithides, and Brachymetoptts), the only examples yet discovered in the 
Carboniferous formation. Named after Sir R. Griffiths, the original 
expounder of the " Carboniferous slates '* of Ireland. 

Grit. — Any hard sandstone in which the component grains of quartz are 
less rounded or "sharper" than in ordinary sandstones, is technically 
termed a grit — as millstone grit, grindstone grit. 

GroBSvlar, Grossnlaire (Lat. grosstda, a gooseberry).—- The name given 
by mineralogists to the pale goosebeny-green varieties of translucent lime- 
alumina garnet.— See Garnet. 

Chronnd lee. — ^In northern countries, when the streams are reduced nearly 
to the freezing-point, congelation begins frequently at the bottom; the 
reason being, according to Arago, that the current is slowest there, and the 
gravel and large stones, having parted with much of their heat by xttdiation, 
acquire a temperature below the average of the main body of the river. It 
is therefore when the water is clear, and the sky free from clouds, that 
ground ice forms most readily, and of tener on pebbly than on muddy bot- 
toms. Sheets of such ice rising occasionally to the surface, bring up vrith 
them gravel and even large stones, and in this way become a means of 
transport wkere the ordinary current of the stream would be unavailing. 

Groimd-SwelL — The name given to those long heavy waves which occa- 
sionally set in-shore when there is no wind, these having been produced 
by storms far out at sea. Geologically, the ground-swell is one of the most 
destructive forms that the wind- wave assumes. 

Group. — An assemblage of objects having some resemblance or charac- 
ter in common ; hence we speak of groups of strata, of minerals, of plants, 
and of animals. 

Growan. — A mining term for decomposed granite. ** The word," says 
Ansted, " is old Cornish, and appears to have originally meant a rock of 
uneven composition, whether a conglomerate, a mere gravel, a decomposed 
porphyritio rock, or solid granite." The expression soft growan is some- 
times applied when the mineral is sandy. 

GrypluDa, Gr^hite (Lat. gryps, a griffin). — A sub-genus of the Oyster 
family, abounding in the lias. Oolite, and Chalk formations. It d^ves 
its name from the beak-like incurved umbo of its left or larger valve ; the 
right being small, opercular-like, and concave. 


■ «»MH»^» ^H^y^^ Jfcj»'^«a<»» - ttltim '^^nt^attin 


Gr^hite Idmestoiie. — A term occasionally applied to the limestones of 
the Lias, from the marked predominance of the shells of the grypJusa, 

Gndno. — A Peruyian term for the well-known manure obtaLied from the 
rocks and islets of the Pacific, and other rainless regions, favourable to the 
retention of the ammoniacaJ salts which constitute its principal value. It 
consists mainly of the droppings of countless sea-fowl, intermingled with 
their ^eletons and eggs, the decomposed bodies smd bones of fishes, seals, 
sea-lions, and other marine creatures frequenting these islands. Consider- 
ing the immense thickness of some guano deposits (40, 60, and 80 feet), 
and their necessarily slow accumulation, the lower beds must be of vast 
antiquity — carrying us back to the very verge of the current era. 

Oidf Stream. — One of the most important and influential of ascertained 
ocean-currents. It is generally considered as ** taking its rise in the Gulf 
of Mexico (whence its name), though it may be regarded as a continuation 
of the mighty equatorial current, which sets out from the western coast 
of Africa, and, after a course of four thousand miles, enters the Carribbean 
Sea. Absorbing the sun's rays as it advances, it passes into that magnifi- 
cent indentation in the Mexican coast which serves as a caldron ; for 
there its waters are raised to the temperature of 86**. It then sweeps 
through the Pass of Florida — its heat being 9° more than fJie ocean can lay 
claim to, by reason of its latitude — and skirts the shores of North America, 
until it takes that remarkable bend off Nova Scotia and Newfounclland, 
which throws its waters towards the coasts of Europe. One branch curves 
downwards and flits past the Azores to the south ; the other glides north- 
ward in the direction of the British Islands and the Polar Sea. This 
magnificent ocean-river is supposed to be equal in volume to three thou- 
sand Mississippis. Its length, reckoning from its Mexican head to the 
Azores, is upwards of three thousand miles. Its velocity in the Gulf of 
Florida is about 78 miles a-day, but its current dwindles down to a sober 
flow of 10 before it reaches the Azores. Its average velocity is about 
88 miles in the four-and-twenty hours. There are many peculiarities 
attached to this noble current. The colour of its waters is an indigo- 
blue as far as the coast of the Carolinas. Its margins, especially the 
left» are generally well-defined ; so that the voyager knows when he dips 
into its flood — the edge being made manifest by the ripplings which 
mark the line of division, as well as by other visible traits. It would 
appear, too, that this current actually runs up-hill, for the ttiermometer 
shows that the under part, in flowing from Cape Hatteras to the Capes of 
Virginia, makes an ascent of six hundred feet, being a gradient of five or 
six feet to the mile. It is noticeable, also, that the surface of this ocean- 
river slopes from the centre towards the margins, like the curve of a 
causeway, and thus boats and other objects, if left to themselves, naturally 
drift towards the edges. It is in this way that the Sargasso Sea (the 
expanse permanently covered with the fucas Tiaians) has been formed — 
the weeds, like the drift on an eddy, floating always towards the still and 
lower level." 

The great function of the Gulf Stream seems to be the equalisation of 
the superficial temperature of the globe. Acquiring in its fountain-head 
a temperature of 86°, and losing only some 13° or 14° in its progress, it 
diffuses a perennial supply of warmth, not only among the waters of the 
oceans, but throughout the atmosphere which passes over it, and over the 
countries along whose shores it travels. Thus, as its velocity slackens 



about mid Atlantic, it beg^s to diffuse itself over a wider area, and so 
counteracts the cold brought down by the Arctic Current. So perceptible 
is this, that while the sea beyond its influence is little above freezing, 
navigators, on fairly entering its waters, find the ocean gradually rise to 
50"* above freezing. As it diffuses itself, in virtue of its diminished velocity, 
it spreads over a wider area, and thus renders more genial a broader 
expanse of ocean ; while the winds passing over it are tempered, uid bear 
their balmier influences to wider regions. It is to the Gulf Stream that 
western Europe, and Britain in particular, owes a higher mean tempera- 
ture than other places in the same parallels of latitude ; and so, also, while 
modifying the rigours of our European winters, it sends its surplus warmth 
to Arctic regions and the Polar seas. Cosmically, it is thus a great modifier 
and regulator of the Life of the ocean, as well as of the countries against 
which its genial current impinges— conferring on regions which are geo- 
graphically sub-temperate, a truly temperate flora and fauna. Geologi- 
cally, it gives us vast insight into those modifications of former climate which 
may have been brought about by other distributions of land uid sea than 
those at present existing, and that without at all calling in the aid of those 
abnormal conditions of ''internal heat," "change of earth's axis," and the 
like, under which the slenderly informed theorist too often takes shelter. 
—See Maury's ' Physical Geography of the Ocean.' 

Gum-Lead. — The familiar term for plumbo-resinite (which see), from its 
appearance to gum-arabic. 

Gnrt (Sax. ) — In mining, a gutter or channel for water, usually hewn out 
of the " pavement " or bottom of a working drift. 

Gtiy&quillite. — A mineral resin occurring in friable amorphous masses of 
a pale-yellow colour, and melting at 157° Fahrenheit. It is found at 
Guyaquil in South America, on the site of ancient resiniferous forests, and, 
like amber, is evidently of vegetable origin.— See Minebal Resins. 

Gh^mnodonts (Gr. gynmos, naked, and odous, tooth). — A family of fishes 
belonging to the order Plectognathi (soldered jaws), and including the 
globe-fish, trunk-fish, &c., in which the jaws are covered with a substance 
resembling ivory arranged in small plates, representing united teeth. The 
gymnodonU appear only in the Chalk and Tertiary formations. 

G^mnospeniui (Gr. gymrvMf naked, and ipermay seed). — Flowering plants 
with naked seeds (that is, whose ovules are not enclosed in a pericarp), and 
so called in contradistinction to the Angiospermt, whose seeds are enclosed. 
The gymnosperms, or gymmogem, as they are also termed, differ only in 
this respect from the £xogent, and consequently have their wood arruiged 
in concentric layers ; e.g., the Con\ferai or Pine tribe. 

Gypseous.— Kesembling or partaking of the nature of g3rp8um, as " gyp- 
seous marls. " Gypsiferont.— Containing or producing gypsum, as ' ' gypsi- 
ferous limestones." 

Gypsum.— Sulphate of lime, plaster-of- Paris, or stucco-stone. The 
Greek word gypsos signifies lime in general, and seems to be derived from 
ge, the earth, and epso, I boil, in allusion to the heat given off when burnt 
lime is slacked with water. Gypsum is found in crystals^ in Jibrotu masses, 
and in gramdar-comp<ict beds, often of great extent. Its normal composition 
is 46.47 sulphuric acid, 32.65 lime, and 20.88 water. '< It is a very common 
mineral," says Nicol, " especially in the more recent sedimentary forma- 
tions, and is even now forming, either as a deposit fix)m water holding it in 
solution, or from the decomposition of iron-pyrites, when the sulphuric 



acid oombines with liine, or from the action of sulphurous vapours in 
volcanic regions on calcareous rocks. It is often imbedded in nests or 
reniform masses in clay or marl, more rarely makes part of mineral veins, 
but seldom or never forms veins by itself. The transparent crystals are 
termed selenite, and fine specimens occur in the salt mines of Bex in 
Switzerland, in those of the Tyrol, Salzburg, and Bohemia, in the sulphur 
mines of Sicily, at Lockport in New York, and other places in North 
America, in the day of Shotover Hill near Oxford, at Chatley near Bath, 
and many other localitieB. Fibrous gypsum {tatinrtpar) occurs of remark- 
able beauty at Ilfeld in the Harz, in the compact gypsum of northern 
Germany, and at Matlock in Derbyshire. Compact white gypsum or 
aXahatier is found in great beauty at Volterra in Tuscany, and also in the 
Harz. Massive or compact gypsum forms whole beds in the Trias and 
Permian Bed Sandstones of many parts of Germany, France, Italy, and 
England, and is often associated with rock-salt. In Nova Scotia it occurs 
with sindlar beds in the Lower Carboniferous formations. The fine varie- 
ties are cut into various ornamental articles, as vases, and the so-called 
Roman pecwls, chiefly distinguished from the true pearl by their specific 
gravity. Plaster-of- Paris, used for casts and other works of art, is formed 
by calcining the mineral and grinding it down to a fine powder, which 
forms a paste that soon hardens by absorbing the water driven off by the 
heat. It, however, loses this property when exposed to a temperature 
above 300° Fahrenheit, when it becomes similar to Anhydrite. Gypsum is 
also used for glazing porcelain, and the formation of potters' moulds ; in 
the manufacture of glass ; as mortar, and as manure, especially as a top- 
dressing for meadows." 

Gyracinfhiui (Gr. gt^roSf a circle or spire, and acanffuif a spine). — liter- 
ally "spiral or twisted spine;" a genus of cestraciont fin-spines or ich- 
thyodorulites occurring in the Carboniferous and Permian formations, often 
from ten to eighteen inches in length, and so termed from the sculptured 
ridges with which they are ornamented, and which run in a spiral or 
twisted-like manner, from the base upwards. 

Gyration (Gr. gyrost a circle). — The act of revolving; a revolution. 
Gyratory. — Having a revolving and twisting motion. 

G^odoB (Gr. gyros^ a circle, and odous, tooth). — Literally "circle 
tooth ; " a genus of pycnodont fishes, occurring in the Oolite and Chalk, 
and so termed from their circular grinding teeth, which are disposed in rows 
on the bones composing the roof, floor, and sides of the mouth. The fishes 
of this genus have the body large, flat, and elevated ; the dorsal and anal 
fins long ; the tail forked with unequal lobes ; and the scales laterally con- 
nected by strong processes, as in Lepidotm. 

Gyrogonitea (Gr. gyrosy twisted, and gons, seed). —The spiral seed-vessels 
of plants allied to the chara, and found fossil in fresh-water Tertiaries. 
" The CharcBy" says Lyell, " inhabit the bottom of lakes and ponds, abd 
flourish mostly where tilie water is charged with carbonate of lime. Their 
seed-vessels are covered with a very tough integument, capable of resisting 
decomposition, to which circumstance we may attribute their abundance 
in a fossil state." 

G^oUte (Gr. gyroi, a circle, and liihoa, stone). — A hydrous silicate of 
alumina occurring in spherical lamellar radiations within the cavities of 
basalt and greenstone. White and vitreous when fresh, but becomes pearly 
on ^posure to the air. 


HAA — HiK 

Hackles (Ger. hoar, liair).~A Gennan tenn for the native solphate of 
nickel, or MiUerUe, which ocean in very fine ftcioular and capillary crystals. 
It is known also as Capillary PyrUes, and consists of 64.76 nickel and 
35.24 sulphur. 

HaUtat. — Applied in botany and zoology to the country or district in 
which a plant or animal is indigenous; the tract or range to which it 
seems limited by external conditions of soil, climate, &c. More properly, 
the term ttatum is applied to plants, and habUal to animals. 

HacUy . —Having the surface rough with irregular protruding points ; a 
term applied to the fracture of rocks and minerals when they break up 
with a rough irregular surface, as certain greenstones and granites. 

Hade, Hading. — ^A miner's term for the inclination or slope of any slip, 
fault, vein, or lode. The amount of deviation from the vertical is spoken 
of as the hading ; and a fault or vein so sloping is said to hade. 

Hadrosatew (Gr. hadros, mighty, and tauros, lisard). — ^The name given 
by Dr Leidy of Philadelphia to a huge herbivorous reptile whose remains 
were discovered, in 1858, in the Chalk marls of Haddenfield, New Jersey. 
The remains comprised nearly the entire skeleton, and gave ample indica- 
tion of a genus closely allied to, but larger than the iguanodon of the 
English Weald. Dr Leidy thinks the creature was most probably amphi- 
bious ; and, from the greatly disproportioned size of the fore and back 
parts of the skeleton, suspects that it may have been in the habit of brows- 
ing, kangaroo-like, in an erect position, sustaining itself on the hinder ex- 
tremities and tail; or if it retained the ordinary prostrate condition, it 
must have progressed in the manner of the batrachians. CSalculating from 
the remains now preserved, the Hadrosaur must have been about 25 feet 
in length, from snout to tail, and in height from 9 to 10 feet upon the 

Hamatite, Hematite (Gr. haima, blood).' — Native oxide of iron, so 
named from its prevailing reddish colour and blood-like streak. It is 
customary to speak of the red hsematite and the brown haematite— the one 
being an anhydrous (70 iron, 80 oxygen), the other a hydrated peroxide 
of iron (85.6 peroxide of iron, and 14.4 water). The red haematite is an 
abundant ore, occurring in veins and beds in the older crystalline rocks, 
and passing from a state of sparry crystallisation (specular iron), through 
concentric kidney-shaped concretions {fibrout red iron), and compact or 
ochrey masses {hcematite proper), to a soft earthy variety known as reddle 
or red-chalk. The brown haematite, often termed Zimonite, occurs in 
beds, veins, and nests, in rooks of all ages, and also presents several varie- 
ties, as the f^broiu^ compact, and ochrey. It is frequently mixed with other 
mineral substances, such admixtures forming wnber, yeUow-ochre, hog^ron, 
and other well-known substances.— See Ibon. 

HaBmatocr^ (Gr. haima, blood, and hrms, cold). — Literally "cold- 
blooded ; " a term applied by Professor Owen to the cold-blooded verte- 
brates (fishes and reptiles), in contradistinction from the Hcematotherma 



or warm-blooded birds and mammals. Considering the linking and blend- 
ing of the fishes with the reptiles, he regards the UoemxUocrya as a wider 
group possessed of great natiirality of character. 

Hflematoth^rma (Gr. Aaima, blood, and thermos, heat). — Literally "warm- 
blooded ; " a term applied by Professor Owen to the warm-blooded verte- 
brates (birds and mammals), in contradistinction from the HoBnuUocrya or 
cold-blooded fishes and reptiles. 

Haidingerite (after Haidinger, the mineralogist). — A name given to two 
totally different minerals — the Haidingerite of Turner being a hydrous 
arseniate of lime (85.68 arseniate of lime, and 14.32 water) ; and that of 
Berthier being an ore of antimony, consisting of sulphuret of antimony 
and sulphuret of iron in varying proportions. 

Hail (Sax., so called from the rough, broken form of the hailstones). — 
Bain or other moisture that has been suddenly frozen in its downward 
course by passing through a stratum of air below the temperature of 32**. 
Hail pellets are of various forms — round, angular, or flat ; and though 
generally about a quarter of an inch in diameter, have yet been found two 
and three inches in diameter, especially during thunder-storms and in tro- 
pical countries. The phenomena attending the formation and fall of hail 
are not well understood, though sudden cold winds seem to be the chief 
promoters. The electricity usually accompanying hail-storms is an effect 
rather than a cause — the electric fluid being an accompaniment of the 
passage of water from a liquid to a solid state. 

Hair-Salt. — ^A familiar term for native sulphate of magnesia, from its 
frequent occurrence as a fine capillary incrustation on the walls of damp 
cellars and new buildings. 

Halcydmis (6r. halcy<m, the kingfisher, and omis, bird). — An extinct 
bird, whose remains occur in the Eocene beds of the isle of Sheppey ; and 
so termed fi*om its apparent affinities to the existing kingfisher. 

Halec6p8is (Gr.) — Literally "herring or sprat-like;" a genus of fishes 
founded by Agassiz on some remains from the London Clay of the isle of 
Sheppey, and so named from their fusiform, sprat-like appearance. 

HalithMnm (Gr. halt, haXos^ the sea, and therion, beast). — Literally "sea- 
beast ; " a Tertiary cetacean having evident affinities to the phytophagous 
family of the MancUidce or sea-cows. 

Hdlogene (Gr. hals, salt, and gennao, I produce).— A term employed by 
Berzelius to denote bodies which form salts with metals, as chlorine, brom- 
ine, iodine, fluorine, and cyanogen. The salts thus produced are termed 

Haloid Salts (Gr. halSf salt, and eidoi, resemblance). — Salt-like com- 
pounds consisting of ^ metal on the one hand, and of chlorine, iodine, and 
the radicals of the hydracids in general, excepting sulphur, on the other* 

Hal6nia.— A genus of fossil stems apparently intermediate between the 
Lycopods and Conifers,- and so called from its affinity, being nearest with 
Halonia, "It comprehends," according to Lindley, "all stems in which, 
to the surface of lepidodendron, is added the mode of branching of certain 
coniferse." According to others, Halonia is merely the branches of Knorria, 
and is described as " stem not furrowed, branched, covered with indistinct 
rhomboidal marks, and tubercular projections disposed in quincunx order.'* 

Halysites (Gr. halusis, a chain). — Chain-pore coral ; a genus peculiar to 
PalsBozoic strata, and better known as Catenipora, which see. 

Hamite (Lat. hamus, a hook). — A genus of the Ammonite family peculiar 



to the Chalk and Greensand, and so named from the shell, which is hook- 
shaped, or bent upon itself more than once — the courses being separate. 
D'Orbigny separates the Greehsand from the Chalk species, and erects them 
into a distinct genus under the title ffamtUina. 

Hardness of Minerals and Bocks.— In discriminating rocks and minerals, 
their hardness is one of the physical properties almost invariably made use 
of by the geologist and mineralogist. In mineralogy, it is estimated by 
a conventional scale of ten degrees, invented by Mohs, who assumed talc 
to be the lowest in the scale, and diamond the highest, thus : — 

Talc, 1 

Rock-salt, 2 

Calc-spar, 3 

Fluor-spar, 4 

Apatite, 5 

Adularia felspar, 6 

Rock-crystal, 7 

Topaz, 8 

Corundum, 9 

Diamond, 10 

If, for example, a mineral can be scratched by rock-crystal, but can in 
turn scratch felspar, it is evident its hardness lies between 6 and 7 of the 
scale, and may be expressed by 6.3 or 6.8, just as it seems to approach 
felspar on the one hand, or rock-crystal on the other. The hardness of 
minerals may also be tested by the application of a file or steel point ; and 
thus it is customary to say that taJc can be scratched with the nail of the 
finger, that felspsur pelds to the knife, while rock-crystal resists it. In 
treating of rocks it is impossible to determine their hardness with the 
same precision, though quartz-rock may be regarded as standing at one 
end of the scale, and ordinary white ohalk at the other. A very good test 
of the hardness and compactness of a rock is the sound that it emits when 
struck by the hammer — the harder yielding a sharp ringing sound, the 
softer a dull and heavy. It is thus that the French quarrymen estimate the 
quality of the celebrated Caen stone, their scale of hardness being indi- 
cated by the expressive sounds pif,pc^, pouf—ih.e pifhemg the hard and 
compact, the pouf the soft and friable. 

Hare. — Remains of the hare and rabbit have not yet been detected in 
deposits of older date than the Pleistocene bone-caverns of England and 
the south of Europe. 

Hdrmatome (Gr. harmos, a joint, and tome, a section).— One of the Zeolite 
family, consisting of 48.3 silica, 17.8 alimiina, 19.9 baryta, and 14 water, 
with traces of lime and potash. It is known also as Cross-stome, and 
derives its name from the joint-like intersection of its rhombic crystals. 
Associated with zeolite, &c., in the older metalliferous veins. 

Harmdttan. — The name given in Guinea and Senegambia to the simoom 
or hot dry wind which blows from the great African desert during the 
months of December, January, and February. — See Simoom. 

Hartite. — A fossil resin occurring in the brown coal of Oberhart, in 
Lower Austria, either in transparent clearable masses, in angular frag- 
ments, or in small tables with six faces. Resembles wax in appearance ; 
colourless or greyish white, with a somewhat greasy lustre ; translucent ; 
brittle ; melts at 165** Fahr., and consists of 87.5 carbon, 12.05 hydrogen. 

Hdtchetine (after Mr Hatchett, the mineralogist). — Mineral tallow; a 
waxy or spermaceti-like substance of a greenish-yellow colour, faint pearly 
lustre, and translucent. Occurs in thin flaky veins in the ironstone of 
Merthyr-Tydvil and other localities ; consists of .86 carbon and 14 hydro- 
gen; and is fusible, according to variety, at 116° to 160° Fahr.— See 
REsms, Mineral. 



Hatbmannite (after the mineralogist Hausmann). — Pyramidal mangan- 
ese ore, occurring, with other manganese ores, either as a protoxide or as 
a peroxide of that metal 

Hanyne (after the mineralogist Haiijr). — One of the Haloid minerals, of 
a fine asure-blue colour, and occurring in crystalline grains, in lava and 
other volcanic rocks. Its average composition seems to be 84.8 silica, 28.9 
alumina, 17.2 soda, 7.9 lime, and 11.2 sulphuric acid. 

Hayesiiie (after Hayes). — Borate of lime, occurring in globular, mammil- 
lated or reniform masses, from the size of a marble to that of a potato, on 
the dry plains of Iquique in Peru; in incrustations near the lagoons of 
Tuscany ; and in narrow veins in gypsum in Nova Scotia. On being broken 
the masses present the appearance of interwoven silky fibres of a snow- 
white colour ; are opaque, tasteless, but with a peculiar odour, and consist 
of *52 boracic acid, 11.5 lime, and 35 water, with traces of soda, sulphuric 
acid, and chlorine. Imported from Peru under the name of Tiza, which 

Heading. — In mining, a small gallery driven in advance of a gate-road 
or larger gallery ; or, it may be, driven for some temporary purpose. 

Headland. — Any projection of the land into the sea ; generally applied 
to a cape, nets, or promowlory, of some boldness and elevation. 

Heart-wood. — A familiar term for the hard and matured interior portion 
of exogenous stems or timber-trees, in contradistinction to the sajhwood, or 
soft, unmatured, exterior layers. Technically, the former is termed dura- 
men, the latter alburnum. 

Heave (in mining). — The displacement of a vein or bed by the inter- 
section of another vein or fault. When the intersected vein is thrown up, 
it is said to be a heave, and when thrown down a slide. Heave and slide 
are thus merely relative terms, according to the position from which they 
are viewed. — See Fault and Dislocation. 

Heavy-Spar. — A term often loosely applied to the carbonate as well as 
to the sulphate of baryta, and not unfrequently also to the carbonate and 
sulphate of strontia. Properly speaking, the " heavy-spar '* of the mineralo- 
gist is the sulphate of baiyta, occurring in veins massive, fibrous, lamellar, 
and in prismatic crystals. The rhomboidal carbonate is better known as 
WitherUe, the carbonate of strontia as Strontianile, and the sulphate of 
strontia as Celestine—BXL of which see. 

Hedenbergite. — An important variety of lime-iron augite, of a black or 
blackish-green colour, named after Hedenberg, the Swedish chemist. 

Helianfhoida (Or. heliM, the sun, and anthos, flower). — Literally " sun- 
flowers ; '* the actiniform zoophytes, which constitute an extensive order of 
the Anthozoa, and of which the aetinioB or sea-anemones may be taken as 
the type. The Helianthoids, except in the free species, as the Actinia, 
have a lamellated calcareous polypidom, the plates of which radiate (flower- 
like) from the centre ; and these stony structures enter laigely into the 
composition of coral-reefs, recent as well as fossil. 

HelicidsB (Lat. helix, a coil). — The land-snails ; a well-known family of 
vegetable-eating gasteropods, having a light, variously coloured, more or 
less turbinated shell, and of which the garden-snail may be taken as the 
type. The Helicid», of which there are upwards of 1200 living species, 
have a world-wide range ; the extinct species, about 50 in number, are 
found only in Tertiary and recent formations. 

Helidceras, Helioc^ratLte (Gr. h^ix, a spiral, and heras, horn). — A genus 



of the Ammonite family, ranging from the inferior Oolite to the Chalk in- 
clusive, and so named from the spiral arrangement of its chambered 

Heliolites (Gr. helloi, the smi, and lithot, stone). — ^An extensive genus 
of Silurian and Devonian corals, belonging to the family Milleparidde; and 
so called from the central-radiating or sun-like aspect of the septa of Uieir 
pores, compared with those of the Astraia or star-corals. 

Heliotrope (Gr. helios, the sun, and (rope, turning). — Bloodstone ; a 
variety of calcedony of a dark-green colour, and sprinkled with deep 
red spots. The name is also applied by lapidaries to stones, some of which 
are agates cmd others jaspers — the a^ate-hloodstones being- in greater 
part translucent, the Jasper-hloodstoneSf on the contrary, being mainly 

Holmiiithites (Gr. helminthos, a worm). — ^AppUed to those long sinuous 
tracks so common on the surfaces of many flaggy sandstones, and which 
are usually considered as worm-trails. 

Hflodns (G;r. helos, a stud, and odous, tooth). — Literally "stud-tooth;" 
a genus of cestraciont fish-teeth, occurring abundantly in the Carboniferous 
limestone, imd so termed from the stud-like aspect of their crushing 

Helladotli6riiun (Gr. Hellas, Graece, and <Amo»).— An extinct pachy- 
derm of Upper Tertiary, or perhaps Miocene, age, from the Pikermi beds 
at the foot of Moimt Pentelicus, in Greece ; whence the name. 

Hematite, more frequently HiBMATiTE, which see. 

Hemi. — A Greek word frequently employed as a prefix to denote half, 
and synonymous with the Latin semi ; as hemisphere, half a sphere ; hemi- 
piera, half-winged, &c. 

Hemicidaris (Gr. hemi, half, and cidaris). — A genus of turban-echinites 
characteristic of the Upper Jura Limestone of Switzerland, and distin- 
guished by its depressed form (hemi), and long sub-cylindrical spines. It 
occurs abundantly in the Oolites of England. 

Hemicosmites (Gr.)— Literally "half-sphere." A Lower Silurian cysti- 
dean, characterised by its epherical form, composed of numerous hexagonal 
and pentagonal plates ; central, proboscidiform mouth ; and absence of 
tentacles or arms. Originally known as EchiinosphoerUes. 

Hemipnelistis (Gr. hemi, half, and piievMis, blown). — M. Agassiz's generic 
term for the fossil sea-iurchin S^poiangus, in allusion to \X& jlaJie^hed or 
half'infiaUd shape. — See SPATANQiDiB. 

Hemiprlstis (Gr. pristis, a saw). — A provisional genus of shark's teeth 
occurring in the Chalk and Tertiary formations. They are distinguished 
by their serrated edges, that do not extend to the summit, which is sharply 

Hemitelites (Gr. heniiieles, half-finished, incomplete). — A term employed 
by GSeppert to designate certain Oolitic ferns, because of their abruptly 
terminating (incomplete-looking) pinnules. The Fhlebcpteris of Professor 
Lindley, which see. 

Hepdtic (Gr. hepar, the liver). — Applied in mineralogy to various sub- 
stances of a liver-like colour and consistency ; as Hepatic pi/rites, a variety 
of prismatic iron pyrites which, on exposure to the atmosphere, is gradually 
converted from a yellow sulphuret to a liver-brown compact oxide of iron, 
still retaining the original crystallised form ; Hepatic cinnabar, a variety 
of c inn a b a r of a dark liver colour, passing into steel-grey. 



Hepatite (6r. Iiepar, the liver), — A dark-grey variety of heavy-spar or 
sulphate of baryta, which, when rubbed, emits a fetid odour like sulphu- 
retted hydrogen. It seems a mere mixture of barytes with carbonaceous 

Herhdceons. — Applied in botany to stems that die down annually, in 
contradistinction to ligneotu, or woody, persistent stems. 

Herbivorous (Lat. herba, herb, and voro, I devour). — Herb-eating ; sub- 
sisting on vegetable food ; in contradistinction to carnivorous. 

Hermetically Sealed. — Sealing or closing-up by fusion, as the closing 
of a glass tube by melting the ends. Said to be derived from the Egyptian 
Hermes, the fabled father of chemistry. 

Herpetidmiu (Gr. herpeton, a reptile, and ichTion, footprint). — A pro- 
visional term employed by Sir W. Jardine for certain small lizard-like 
footsteps occurring on the New Bed Sandstone slabs of Corncockle Muir, 
Dumfriesshire, of Storeton, Cheshire, and similar localities. 

Herpet61ogy (Or. herpeton, reptile, and logos, discourse). — That branch 
of zoology which treats of the structure, habits, history, and arrangement 
of reptiles. 

Hervid^ro (Span, hervir, to boil). — The name given in Central America 
to the mud-volcanoes which occur in that and the contiguous districts of 
Mexico. The hervideros consist of mounds mo^ or less conical, with a 
crater at top, in which a clayey fetid mud of various colours and consis- 
tency is kept in continual ebullition, and which is occasionally thrown up 
in pasty flaJces that fall around and form the conical mounds in question. 
The vapours that escape from these hervideros are chiefly steam, sulphu- 
retted hydrogen, and sulphuric acid ; and in the fetid mud, as it cools and 
hardens, are detected numerous incipient cubes of iron-pyrites and flakes 
of selenite or crystallised gypsum. 

Hetero (Gr. heteros, the other, not the same). — A term often employed 
in composition to denote difference or dissimilarity, as hamo indicates 
sameness or similarity. Thus h^erogeneous, composed of different ma- 
terials ; heUrocercaly having unequal lobes, like the tail of the dog-fish, &c. 

Heteroc^al (Gr. heteros, other, not the same, and hrkos, tail). — A term 
applied by Agassiz to fishes having unequaUy-lobed tails, that is, where 
the rays are principally developed on the under side, and the vertebrae 
are produced far beyond, forming an upper and prominent lobe, as in the 
sharks and dog-fishes. Existing fishes hieive chiefly homocercal, or equally- 
lobed tails, as the herring, cod, salmon, &c.; several have undivided or 
single and rounded tails, as the wrasse; while the unequally-lobed» or 
heteroeercal tail is found only in the sharks, sturgeons, lepidosteus, and a 
few others. In the Palaeozoic periods, however, the heteroeercal form 
alone prevailed, no fish with a true homocercal tail occurring below the 
Triassic formation. 

H^terodite (Gr. heteros, other, not alike, and klytos, notable). — Irregular ; 
notably diverse ; dissimilar- in parts. Thus Cuvier designates the Plesio- 
saurus as the most heteroclite animal — that is, made of the most unexpected 
combination of parts— that had come under his knowledge. To the head 
of a lizard it united the teeth of a crocodile ; a neck of enormous length, 
resembling the body of a serpent ; the trunk and tail having the propor- 
tions of an ordinary quadruped ; the ribs resembling those of a chameleon ; 
and the paddles being like those of the whale. 
HetUaadite (after Mr Heuland, the English mineralogist). — Foliated or 



tabular zeolite ; the StUbtte of HaUy. Occurs chiefly in amygdaloid and 
other trap rocks ; is generally white, but often of reddish or hair-brown 
colour ; and consists of 58.1 silica, 18.4 alumina, 7.5 lime, and 16 water. 

H^agon (Gr. ^ex, six, and gonia, an angle). — A figure with six angles, 
and consequently having six sides. 

Hezigonal (Gr. hex, six, and gania, an angle). — Applied to figures 
haying six angles, and consequently six sides, more or less regular. Basalt 
occasionally appears in hexagonal or six-sided columns. 

Hezapr6todon (Gr.)— Literally ''six-front-teeth ;" the generic term for 
a large pachyderm whose remains occur in the Pliocene smd Miocene 
Tertiaries of Asia. It was, according to Owen, " essentially a hippopo- 
tamus, with six incisor teeth, instead of four, in each jaw." 

Highgate Besin. — ^A familiar term for a species of fossil gum-resin or co- 
pal found in nodular masses in the Tertiary Clay at Highgate, near London. 

High-Level Gravels. — A recent designation for those sands and gravels, 
consisting largely of rolled chalk-flints, which cover so much of the higher 
grounds in the south of England and north of France. It is believed that 
this deposit was spread over £he surface before the formation of the exist- 
ing valleys. No fossils have been found in the high-level gravels, and Mr 
Godwin Austen supposes that they may be of any age between that of 
the uppermost Eocenes and the Crag. 

HilB<-Conglomerat,HilB-Thon. — In Germany and Brunswick respectively, 
the equivaleuts of the Lower Greensand of England. — See tabulations, 
" Gbological Scheme." 

Hippopodinm (Gr. hippos, horse ; pmis, podos, foot). — Literally ** horse- 
foot ; " a large heavy bivalve, allied to Cypricardia, and characteristic of 
the Lower Lias shales of England. 

Hippopdtainiu (Gr. hippos, horse, and potamos, river). — A well-known 
amphibious pachyderm, now restricted to the rivers and swampy lakes of 
Africa, but whose remains are found abundantly in the Pleistocene or 
uppermost Tertiaries of England, France, Germany, and Italy. These 
remains, which occur in Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent deposits, seem 
to indicate the existence of several species, and some of these of more 
gigantic dimensions than the living animal. 

Hippoth^nm (Gr. hippos, horse, and therion, wild beast). — A mammal 
of the Miocene Tertiaries, so called from its close resemblance to the Horse 
family. Eemains from the Siwalik Hills indicated a size about that of the 
faUow-deer, with extreme length and slendemess of limb. 

Hippnrite (Gr. hippos, horse). — A massive horsehoof-like bivalve of the 
Chalk formation, having a deep conical or sub-cyndrical under- valve, with 
a flattish lid or upper-valve. As a family the Sippuritidas have no living 
dialogues ; hence the diversity of opinion that has been expressed as to 
their true relations. The family embraces the hippurites, radiolites, capri- 
nella, caprirva, caprotina, &c. — all very peculiar in form, and highly 
characteristic of the Lower Chalk both in Europe, Northern Africa, and 
America ; hence the occasional Continental term of the " Hippurite lime- 
stone" for the calcareous beds of that formation. For the structure and 
affinities of the Hippuritidse, see S. P. Woodward in the 11th vol. of the 
' Geological Journal.' 

Hippurites. — A genus of Coal-measure plants, so called from their close 
resemblance to the common hippuris vulgaris, or mare's-tail of our marshes. 
If they grew in the same relative proportions as the existing hippuris^ 


% ■ m t » ^ 


many of tbe fragments fouud would iDdicate a height of eighteen or 
twenty feet. Very little^ however, is known of their habits or true affi- 

Hiftdlogy (Or. histos, a tissue, and logos, a discourse). — The doctrine of 
the tissues which enter into the formation of the various organs of any 
living being ; that department of natural science which is specially con- 
nected with the investigation (by the microscope) of the minuter structures 
of Clonic life. 

Hog's Baeks. — ^The name given by geologists to the ridgy structure of 
certain districts, which consists of alternate ridges and ravines, occasioned 
either by the sharp undulations of the subjacent rocks, or more frequently 
by the erosive action of mountain-torrents that cut out the ravines and 
leave the ridges or " hog's backs " standing between. This structure 
occurs most abundantly on the lower slopes and flanks of mountain-ranges. 

HoUwter (Gr. holos, entire, and cutron, star). — A genus of Spatangidsd 
(which see) established by Agassiz for those echinites that are heart-shaped, 
with simple ambulacra converging towards the summit. The mouth is 
elongated transversely, and the vent is on the posterior face. The species 
are oommon in the Lower Chalk and Chalk-marl of England. 

Holtetypns (Gr. holos, entire, wholly, and ektypot, moulded or embossed). 
— ** In certain kinds of GcUerUes (fossil sea-urchins) the shell is strengthened 
internally," says Mantell, " by five strong ribs or projections, which of 
course leave corresponding deep furrows or channels on the flint casts 
moulded in them ; " hence the name. These echinites have been erected by 
M. Desor into the genus HolectypiLS, the characteristics of which are — sheU 
hemispherical and circular ; the base flat ; the tubercles disposed in series ; 
the inside of the case supported by five lamellae or ribs. 

Holtng. — In coal-mining, cutting under a seam of coal for a certain dis- 
tance, so as to deprive it of support, and thus facilitate its falling down 
when cut away at the sides of the gallery or when wedges are driven in at 
the roof. This " holing," which is one of the most laborious parts of coal- 
mining (inasmuch as it is frequently performed by the miner lying on his 
side), has been recently performed by an under-cutting machine, propelled 
by compressed air, and which, from its rapidity and greater depth of stroke, 
bids fair to come into very general operation. 

Holopte(Gr. holos, entire, ando^, opening). — Literally, "entire-mouth;" 
an obscure genus of Lower Silurian Gasteropods ; periwinkle-like in con- 
tour, and hence formerly regarded as a form of LUtorina. Outer lip situ- 
ated near the base. 

Holop^lla.— Another obscure genus of Silurian Gasteropods ; turrttella' 
like in form, and hence originally ranked under that genus. Peristome 
erUire, not produced in front. 

Eolopt^diiiis (Gr. holos, entire, and ptyche, wrinkle).— Literally " all- 
wrinkle ; " a genus of sauroid fishes belonging to the Devonian and Car- 
boniferous periods, and so called fix>m the corrugated or wrinkled sur&ces 
of their enamelled scales. They belong to the CodacarUhi or hollow-spines ; 
and judging from the bones of the head and the dorsal and fulcral scales, 
which are often from three to five inches in width, many of them must 
have been of great size — from eight to ten or even twelve feet in lengtii. 
In some species the wrinkles or furrows on the scales are disposed in laby- 
rinthine fashion ; in others they radiate in dichotomising lines from the 
anterior to the posterior margin ; and in others, again, they are arranged in 



somewhat conoentrio order. Besides being armed with numerous sharp- 
pointed fish-teeth, their jaws were furnished with larger reptilian teeth of 
conical form placed at intervals in either jaw, evidently for the purpose of 
seizing and cutting up their bulkier prey. In the Carboniferous genus 
Mkizodus, which has been separated from the Holopti/chii, the teeth are 
larger, compressed laterally, and more trenchant in form, while the scales 
also are lai^r and stronger, and covered with irregular granular corruga- 
lions. As yet the chief localities for Holoptychius have been the middle 
and upper Devonian sandstones of Elgin, of the Carse of Qowrie, and of 
Dura Den in Fife ; and the lower Carboniferous strata of Fife, Mid-Lothian, 
and Lanark in Scotland, and of Armagh in Ireland. Though remains are 
abundant enough, much yet remains to be done for the rigid determination 
of the so-called species. 

Hdbthnrioidea. — The sea -cucumbers; an order of eohinoderms, of 
which the common Holcihuria, or sea-cucumber of our own shores, has 
been taken as the type. They are characterised by their vermiform body, 
which is covered by a tough flexible integument with scattered reticu- 
late calcareous corpuscles, or beset with minute anchor-shaped spicula. 
Portions of the imbricated integument of one genus {Psolns) have been 
found in the^glacial clays of Bute ; and the spicula of others occur fossil 
so early as the Chalk and Oolite. 

H(miA]0n6ta8 (Gr. homalos, on the same level or plane, and notos, the 
back. — A genus of trilobites occurring in Silurian and Devonian strata, and 
so termed because the three-lobed aspect so charactaistic of the family is 
in a great measure obliterated, and the back appears smooth and uniform. 

Homo- (Gr. hoTnos, one and the same). — A term often employed in com- 
position to denote similarity or sameness, as hetero indicates difference or 
dissimilarity. Thus, homogeneous, consisting of similar parts or properties ; 
hoTnologoM, having the same ratio or proportion. 

H6moc^cal (Gr. Aomo«, alike, and kerhosy tail).— A term applied by 
Agassiz to those fishes which have equally-bilobate tails, as the herring, 
cod, salmon, &c., in contradistinction to those that are unequally lobed or 
heterocercalf like the sharks and sturgepns. In geological formations, the 
homocercal tail is not known till the Oolitic period — all the i>alseo2oic fishes 
being heterocerques. 

HomoBsdleA (Gr. homoios, similar, and^^^n, a tube). — A delicate branch- 
ing coral of the Chalk formation, composed, according to Lonsdale, ** of 
large and small tubes of similar form, all inclined in the same direction, 
partially visible on the surface, and limited to oue side of the coral ; mouths 
simple tubular extremities; back without pores, and forming a continuous 

Hom6ion)ic (Gr. homoios, the same, and zoe, life).~Zone8 or belts of the 
ocean which, being under nearly the same circumstances as to climate, 
and consequently peopled in their different parts either by the same or 
representative species of animals, are said to be homoiozoic, pr marked by 
the same life. 

HomQl6g^, Hom61ogoiis (Gr. homos, the same, and logos, reasoning). — 
" Analogue " has reference to simUarUy of function, as the wing of the bird 
and the dermal expansion of the bat, because they each enable their re- 
spective possessors to fly, or sustain themselves in the air. Homologue, 
on the other hand, has reference to ^identittf of parts, as the bone of the 
fore-limb, or hum>erus, whether it occurs in the arm of man, the wing 

241 Q 

" HOM — HOR 

of a bird| the paddle of a whale, or the fore-leg of the horse. — See Ana> 
LOOUE and Affikity. 

Hoin61ogy (Gr. homos, the same, and logos, reasoning). — In general terms, 
the idea or doctrine of the answerable relation of parts in animal stnictures; 
e.g., the bones of the human arm and hand find their homologues or an- 
swerable parts in the wing of the bird, in the fore-limb of the quadruped, 
and in the paddle of the whale — the identical parts being modified, fused 
together, or atrophied, so as best to answer the functions or economy of 
the animal. As with the homologies of the vertebrate skeleton or bones, so 
also with regard to the crust or outer skeleton and its appendages in the 
articulata ; and so also, as science adranoes, " the next important step," 
remarks Professor Owen, '' will be to determine the homologous parts of the 
nervous system, of the muscular system, of the respiratory and vascular 
system, and of the digestive, secretory, and generative oi^ns in the same 
primary group or province." — See Owen's 'Archetype of the Skeleton,* 
and Ogilvie's * Master-Builder's Plan,' for the doctrine of Homology. 

Hone (Sax. Koen). — Whet-slate; whet-stone. The best hones, or oil- 
stones, as they are generally termed by the workmen using them, are ob- 
tained from those varieties of talc-slate which are sufBciently compact, and 
in which the particles of quartz are extremely minute and regularly dis- 
seminated, so as to give them a uniform consistence. Among the varieties 
most prized are — ^the Turkey oilstones, obtained from the interior of Asia 
Minor ; the German razor-hone, from the slate hills in the neighbourhood of 
Batisbon ; the Arkansas oilstone, from North America ; the Water-of-Ayr 
or Snakeston£, chiefly used for polishing copper plates; the Welsh and 
Devon oilstones ; the Charrdey Forest oilstone, from Leicesterdiire ; and the 
Norway ra^stone, of a coarser and keener texture than the ordinary hones 
or oilstones. 

Honeystone. — A popular synonyme of melliie or meHUiUf which derives its 
name from its honey-yellow colour. — See Mellite. 

Hoo-CanneL — A miner's term in Yorkshire and Lancashire for an earthy 
and impure variety of cannel coal, showing lines of lamination like splint 
and other varieties of ordinary coal. 

Horizon (Gr., from lixyrizo, to bound, horos, a limit). — ^The horizon is 
usually defined as '' the line that terminates the view, when extended on 
the surface of the earth ; or a great circle of the sphere, 'dividing the 
world into two parts or hemispheres ; the upper hemisphere which is 
visible, and the lower which is hid. The horizon is sensible, and natural or 
rml. The sensible, apparent, or visible horizon, 'is a lesser circle of the 
sphere, which divides the visible part of the sphere from the invisible. It 
is eastern or western ; the eastern is that wherein the sun and stars rise ; 
the western, that wherein they set. The natural, true, or astronomical 
horizon, is a great circle whose plane passes through the centre of the earth, 
and whose poles are the nadir and zenith. This horizon would boimd the 
sight if the eye could take in the whole hemisphere." In familiar language, 
the line that bounds the view, and where earth and sky seem to meet. 

Hornblende. — The amphiboli of Haiiy. A simple mineral of frequent 
occurrence in granitic and trappean rocks; so called from its horn -like 
cleavage and peculiar lustre {hlenden, to dazzle). In mineralogy it is often 
taken as the type of a family under which are arranged hornblende, augite, 
hypersthene, bronzUe, diallage, &c.; and lithologically it enters lai^ely into 
the composition of many of the granites, syenites, greenstones, and por- 


f w — 


phyries. Of Hornblende proper there are several varieties (tremolite, 
actynolite, asbestos, &c.), the ordinary or common variety being of a black 
or dark-green colour, and occurring in fiat prismatic crystals in fibrous 
and radiated aggregates, or in lamellar, granular masses. Analyses also 
show considerable variations in composition, the chief ingredients being 
silica (46 to 60), magnesia (14 to 28), lime (7 to 14), with minor proportions 
of iron protoxide, alumina, and fluoric acid. It is softer than quartz or 
felspar, but heavier than either; it is also heavier, and contains more silica, 
but is softer and more fusible than augite ; its lamellar structure and soft- 
ness distinguish it from schorl ; and it emits a peculiar bitter odour when 
breathed on. It generally occurs confusedly crystalline, forming with 
quartz ** hornblende rock," which is massive, and '* hornblende schist," 
which is fissile and slaty; with quartz and felspar it forms "syenite;" 
and with felspar alone, the numerous varieties of "greenstone." As a 
mineral, hornblende is often confounded with augite, and from their simi- 
larity it has even been proposed to unite them into one species. "The 
former, however," as has been well remarked by Prof. Nicol, " contains 
more silica, and Bonsdorf has found in it from } to 1 per cent of fluoric 
acid, which does not appear in the latter. Hornblende, too, is more 
fusible than augite, and ranges lower in specific gravity. Though both 
possess a cleavage parallel to their vertical prisms, yet Uiese differ in an- 
gular dimensions, and both are never observed in the same individual. 
These minerals also occur in distinct geognostio positions : hornblende in 
rocks containing quartz or h«e silica, and mostly with minerals that are 
neutral compounds of silica, as orthoclase and albite ; augite in rocks that 
do not contain free silica, and mostly with minerals that are not neutral 
silicates, as labradorite, olivine, and leucite. Hence there are two distinct 
series of massive or igneous rocks — ^the korrd>lende terieSj including granite, 
syenite, diorite, diorite porphyry, and red porphyry ; and the augite series 
or hs^persthene rock, gabbro, dolerite, nepheline rock, augite porphyry, 
and leucite porphyry." — See tabulations, " Mineral Scheme." 

HomitOB or Homos. — Literally ovens ; a Spanish term for the low oven- 
shaped mounds or hillocks so frequent in the volcanic districts of South 
America, and from whose sides and summits columns of hot smoke and 
other vapours are usually emitted. They are only a few feet in height 
(five to ten), and, according to Humboldt, are not eruptive cones, but mere 
intumescences on the fields and sides of the larger volcanoes. ' They occur 
in vast numbers, sending up their dense hot vapours to the height of twenty 
or thirty feet, and in many of them a subterranetm noise is heard, which 
appears to announce the proximity of a fluid in ebullition. 

Homston'e. — A mixed siliceous mineral and rock of various colours 
(generaUy grey, tinged with blue, green, brown, or yellow), having a dull 
splintery or sub-conchoidal fractiure, and very much the aspect of a tough 
massive flint or chert. Indeed it is often difficult to distinguish between 
jasper, flint, and homstone, though the latter term is more properly ap- 
plied to all compact, tough, and massive varieties of siliceous rock, having 
in general a tendency to the slaty structure, and in the small fracture less 
translucent than the flints and jaspers. It consists chiefly of silex, with a 
varying proportion of alumina, and differs from the felspars in containing 
neither soda nor potash ; hence its infusibility. A common igneous rock, 
consisting of homstone, with imbedded crystals of quartz or felspar, is 
known as homstone porphyry, " Homstone," says Mr Bristow, "is used for 



snuff-boxes, seals, mortars, &o., but chiefly for the handles of knives and 
forks. It is exported from Germany in large quantities for mounting 
butter and dessert knives." 

Hone. — Remains of the existing genus Equus are not known in deposits 
of earlier date than the Pleistocene or uppermost Tertiary epoch. Bones 
and teeth of more than one species occur in the alluvia, osseous breccias, 
and bone-caves of Europe, Asia, and America, although in the latter con- 
tinent the horse was extinct t^ the period of its discovery by Columbus. 
A closely allied form (Hippctherivm), distinguished by the extreme length 
and slendemess of its limbs, and about the size of a common deer, occurs, 
however, in the Siwalik deposits associated with the gigantic pachyderms, 
ruminants, and camivora of that celebrated region. Horse. — In mining, a 
somewhat indefinite term, but usually appHed to some obstructing mass of 
rock-matter that lies in the way of the miner, whether situated in a metal- 
liferous vein or in the body of a coal-seam. 

Horses' Teeth. — A quarryman*s term for the large independent crystals 
of felspar which occur in the granites of Devon and Cornwall, and give to 
them their well-known porphyritic character. The term has reference to 
the elongated shape and whitish colour of these crystals. 

Hnckle. — A provincial mining term, used in Staffordshire and Derby- 
shire to designate the summit or apex of an anticline or saddle-back. As 
many of these saddles are sharply curved they are necessarily jointed and 
fissured, and that main joint which passes through the crown downwards 
is known as the " huckle-joint " or ''saddle-joint." 

Hiimh6ldtilite (after Humboldt).— A rather rare mineral, occurring in 
thick tabular or short prismatic crystals of a pale honey colour in the 
ejected blocks on Mount Vesuvius. Consists, according to Yon Kobell, of 
43.96 silica, 11.20 alumina, 31.96 lime, 6.10 magnesia, 2.32 iron peroxide, 
4.28 soda, and a trace of potae^. 

Hnmboldtfne. — Known also as Oxaliie. A native oxalate of iron occur- 
ring in yellowish capillary crystals in the brown coal of Germany. 

Hnxnite (after Sir A. Hume). — A variety of Chondrodiie, A gem of a 
transparent vitreous brown colour, found in the ejected masses of Monte 
Somma, Vesuvius. 

Hninmock (Sax., a knoll or mound). — Applied by sailors to blocks and 
masses of ice which have been frozen together so as to produce a rugged 
and uneven surface of the general ice-field. 

Humus (Lat. huimu, the soil).— When wood or woody fibre is exposed 
to the action of air and moisture, it suffers eremacatuis or decay, and 
crumbles down into a black or dark brown powder commonly called vege- 
table inouldf and to which chemists give the name of humtu. — See Erbha- 


Hiur6xuaii System. — A term applied by Sir W. Logan and the Canadian 
geologists to a vast formation of strata (in parts metamorphic) of siliceous 
sandstones and conglomerates, chloritic and quartzose schists, and ci^rs- 
talline limestones, interstratified with heavy beds of greenstone — the whole 
resting unconformably upon the Laurentian formation. The system con- 
tains important metalliferous veins, particularly of native copper; is 
destitute of organic remains ; and is considered the equivalent of the lower 
Cambrian rocks of Britain. It derives its name from its extensive devel- 
opment in the neighbourhood of Lakes Superior and Huron, where it 
acquires a total thickness of about 12,000 feet. 



Hurricane (Sp., allied to Lat. fwrio, I ra^). — ^A violent storm of wind, 
usually accompanied by thunder and lightning, and by rain or hail, and 
further characterised by its sudden changes and fitful vehemence. Hurri- 
canes are most frequent in tropical and sub-tropical latitudes ; appear to 
have an electrical origin ; and are alike destructive whether on land or at 
sea. — Typhoons and CycloTies are special varieties, which see. 

E;^lnfh (Gr. hyakintkot, said to be from an Oriental word yacurU, sig- 
nifying ruby). — A variety of pyramidal zircon, of a brilliant hyacinth-red. 
It is esteemed one of the gems, and is usually found in alluvial sands and 
gravels along with rubies, sapphires, and the like. — See ZmcoN. 

Hymia. — ^Bones, teeth, and the fossil excrement (album groecum) of 
hyeenas are common in all the ossiferous caverns and breccias of Europe — 
some of these remains indicating species larger and more powerful than 
any of the existing species of Africa. 

EyBB'nodon. — A carnivorous quadruped about the size of a lai^ hy»na 
or leopard, found in the eocene and miocene Tertiaries of Europe, and spe- 
cially characterised by its flesh -cutting teeth (camassials), which, '' instead 
of being one in each ramus of the jaw, as in modem felines, were three in 
number, and equally fitted by their trenchant shape to act like scissor- 
blades on the teeth of the upper jaw in the act of cutting flesh.*' 

Hi^alme (Gr. hyalos, glass).— Glassy ; having the lustre and transpar- 
ency of glass. 

H;^alite (Gr. hyalos, glass, and liihos, stone). — Glassy opal, or Muller^s 
Olass, A variety of opal found transparent, colourless, very glassy, small 
concretions or incrustations in vesicular basalt and basaltic greenstone. 

EyalOBlderite (Gr. hyalos, glass, and sideros, iron). — A brown or yellow- 
coloured, very ferruginous and metallic-looking variety of olivine. — See 
Olivine and Chrybolitb. 

H;^bodiu, Eybod6ntB (Gr. hybos, a hump, and odotis, tooth). — Interme- 
diate between the Cestracionts with obtuse crushing teeth, and the 
Squaloids with sharp, angular, and pointed ones, are those fishes which 
Agassiz has arranged in a sub-fiainily or group under the title Bybo^orUs. 
The teeth are the principal parts yet known, and these are transversely 
elongate, and furnished jeith a series of sub-conical cusps or knobs which 
compose the crown ; hence the name. Teeth and spines of the genus are 
common in the Trias, Oolite and Chalk systems — the former being readily 
distinguished by their knobbed crowns — the principal cusp or hump being 
in the centre. 

Hybrid (Gr. hyh'ts, wanton excess, lascivious assault). — The offspring of 
two nearly allied species, whether animal orvegetable — e.g., the mule, which 
is a hybrid between the horse and the ass. In the animal kiDgdom hybrids 
are naturally of very rare occurrence ; and in the vegetable kingdom they 
are for the most part produced by artificial fecundation ; that is, by cross- 
ing two species of the same genus, or two varieties of the same species — 
the pollen or fertilising principle of the one being applied to the pistil 
of the other. 

Hydr*, Hydro- (Gr. hydor, water). — A common prefix denoting the 
presence, action, or quality of water ; also the presence of Hydrogen in 
certain chemical compounds; as hydrosUieUe, a mineral composed of 
silica and water ; hydraulic press, an apparatus acting by the pressure of 
water ; hydraulic cement, mortar that sets or hardens under water ; and 
hydrocarbon, a compound of hydrogen and carbon. 

• 245 



Hydrdrgillite (Gr. hydor, and argilla, clay). — A rarish mineral occur- 
ring in small hexagonal crystals, and, as the name imports, composed of 
almnina and water. Some specimens, however, yield a small percentage 
of phosphoric acid, thus making it a phosphate of alumina. 

Hydrates (Gr. hydor, water). — A term applied to compounds containing 
water in a state of chemical combination, and in definite proportions ; as 
hydrate of lime (slaked lime), hydrated oxide of iron (iron rust), hydrate of 
magnesia (Bnicite), hydrate qf alumina (diaspone), &c. Water thus unites 
with several of the acids, the alkalies, and all salts that contain water of 

Hydraulic Cement. — Any cement or mortar which sets or becomes hard 
under water. Common lime does not possess this property; but lime- 
stones containing from 10 to 25 per cent of alumina, magnesia, and silica, 
yield a lime on burning, which does not slake when moistened with water, 
but forms a mortar with it, which hardens in a few days when covered 
by water. Ptuzuolana, teptaria, certain argillo-iiliceous limestones and 
calcareous earths, burnt either with or without the addition of common 
limestone, form the usual *' hydraulic cements." — See Cements. 

Hydroboraclte. — Hydrated borate of magnesia and lime ; a gypseous- 
looking compound having a radiating-fibrous and foliated structure, but 
distinguished from gypsum by its fusibility. In tiie mass, it is riddled 
with small holes, like worm-eaten wood, these being filled with clay and 
salt, and is generally freckled with spots of iron-oxide. 

HydroborocaXcite or Hayesiue, which see. —The name has reference to the 
composition of the mineral — ^viz., hydor, water; boron; and calx, calds, lime. 

Hydro-Carbons. — Composed of hydrogen and carbon. A term usually 
applied to the bitumens, mineral resins, and mineral fats, which are 
chiefiy or altogether composed of hydrogen and carbon in varying propor- 
tions ; as naphtha, petroleum, asphalt, amber, ozokerite, &c. 

Hydro-Carburet. — Carburettod hydrogen ; a compound of hydrogen and 
carbon. There are several definite combinations of these elements, such 
as Iwht carhonetted hydrogen or Jire-dam'p, and ol^iani gas, bi-carburet of 

Hydrogen (Gr. hydor, and gmnao, I produce). — ^literally " water-former;" 
one of the elementary gases which occurs most generally and abundantly 
in combination with oxygen, in the form of water — water being composed 
of eight parts by weight of oxygen and one of hydrogen, or of one volume 
of oxygen and two of hydrogen. As a simple substance hydrogen is 
colourless, and has commonly a slight odour of garlic ; is not absorbable 
by water ; is devoid of taste, and is destructive of life when breathed for 
any time. Tt is the lightest of all known bodies — 100 cubic inches weighing 
only 2.25 grains, or being nearly thirteen times lighter than atmospheric 
air (as 69 to 1000), and exactly sixteen times lighter than oxygen. It is 
combustible, and when pure bums with a pale-blue flame ; hence the early 
terms ''inflammable air," and ''phlogiston." In nature hydrogen is an 
abundant substance, and next to oxygen enters most largely into the com- 
position of the earth's crust. In common with other gases, it is evolved by 
volcanic vents ; as light carburetted hydrogen or fire-damp it is discharged 
from coal-mines and other openings in connection with dbaly strata ; in 
combination with carbon it forms the hydro-carburets, naphtha, petroleum, 
bitumen, &c. ; and as sulphuretted hydrogen it is largely dischai^ed by 
volcanoes, and evolved by organic substances in the process of decay. 




Hydr6fl[rap]i7 (Gr. hydor, and graphoj I write). — ^That branch of geo- 
graphy which treats of the waters that form part of the surface of the 
terraqueous globe — as streams, rivers, lakes, seas, and the great ocean. 
The art of describing and measuring the areas, depths, configurations, 
currents, velocities, &c., of the oceanic and terrestrial waters. 

Hydr^da (Gr. hydra and eidos, hydra-like).— The Hydroid or Hydra- 
form polypes ; an extensive order of zoophytes, occurring singly and inde- 
pendent, or in compound groups. In the compound species the body is 
implanted in a homy tabular sheath, and the polypidoms form branched 
corallines, which are fixed at the base to rocks, sea-weeds, and shells. 
The order embraces the Hydridce, SerHUaridas, and Tubidaridce; and under 
the same head palaeontologists would also arrange the extinct Oraptolites of 
the Silurian epoch. 

Hydr61ogy (Gr. hydor, and logos^ discourse). — ^That department of science 
which treats of water in all its properties, manifestations, and re^tions in 
the economy of nature. 

Hydroxni^Snesite. — Native carbonate of magnesia, occurring in white 
earthy, amorphous masses in serpentinous rocks, and consisting of 36.2 
carbonic acid, 44 magnesia, and 19.8 water. 

Hydrophone (Gr. hydor, and phaino, I appear). — A variety of cachalong- 
opal, which is pearly-opaque when dry, but becomes transparent when 
saturated with water ; hence the name. 

Hydrophytes {Gr.hydor, and phyton^ a shoot). — Literally "water-plants ; ** 
a term occasionally applied to the algce, fuci, and other strictly aquatic 
vegetation, whether fresh- water or marine. They occur fossil in all for- 
mations, but generally in states too imperfect to permit of being classed 
with existing families. 

Hydrothfonal. — Of or pertaining to hot water; applied to the action 
of heated waters in dissolving, re-depositing, and otherwise producing 
mineral changes within the crust of the globe. As these waters appear at 
all temperatures, from gently tepid (80**) to boiling-point (212**), and often 
far above it when under sufficient pressure, we can readily conceive the 
importance of their agency in the production of metamorphosis, the forma- 
tion of mineral veins, and other analogous phenomena. 

Hyetography (Gr. hyetot, rain, and graphe). — The science of rain ; the 
study of the quantities and localities in which rain has fallen in a given 
time. Hyetographlc. — Of or pertaining to the science of rain, as hyeto- 
graphic maps — ^sbowing by engraved tints, or otherwise, the comparative 
amount of rainfall in different regions. 

Hygr6meter (Gr. hygrot, moist, and metron, a measure). — ^An instrument 
for determining the humidity of the atmosphere. There are various kinds 
of hygrometers — some depending upon the principle of absorption of mois- 
ture, others upon the contraction of absorptive materials, and some, again, 
upon the principle of condensation upon cold polished surfaces. 

H^groBCOpe (Gr. hygrot, and acopeo, I perceive). — An instrument for 
indicating the presence of aqueous vapour in the atmosphere, without 
measuring its exact amount. 

HylnoeinroB (Gr. hyla, a wood, weald, or forest, and taurtu, lizard)^— 
One of the Dinosaurs ; a gigantic terrestrial reptile whose remains were 
first discovered (1832) by Dr Mantell in the Wealden strata of Tilgate 
Forest; hence the name. "The Hylffioeaurus," says the discoverer, "so 
far as the size and form of its body may be inferred from the remains of 



the skeleton hitherto discovered — ^for of its head and jaws nothing i£ at 
present [1851] known — probably attained a length of from twenty to thirty 
feet. The body was broader than high, and terminated in a long slender 
flexible tail ; the limbs were relatively short ; the skin was covered with 
sctttes and tubercles ; and a row of very lai^e, thin angular spines ex- 
tended down the bacl^ and formed a serrated dermal crest. The coracoids, 
scapulae, and ribs, indicate a pectoral arch, in which were blended the 
osteologioal characters of the Monitors and Crocodilians." The Hylaeo- 
saurus, we may add, occupies a prominent place among the Palsoontological 
restorations in the Crystal Palace Gardens. 

HyUrpeton (Gr. Kyle, wood, and kerpeton, reptile). — ^A provisional genus 
of reptiles, apparently belonging to the lower and earlier order of Oan(h 
cepluda, and instituted by Professor Owen to embrace some fragmentary 
remains of jaws and teeth from the Nova-Scotian coal-field. 

KjUa^mxa (Gr. hyle, a wood, and nomot, an abode). — Literally " wood- 
dweller ; " a small lacertian reptile, several species of which have been dis- 
covered by Principal Dawson enclosed in the fossil trunks of sigillarise from 
the lower Coal-measures of Nova Scotia. Other reptiles {dendrerpeton), 
small myriapods (xylobius), and land-shells like pupa, have been found in 
similar situations in the same formation. 

Eymen^caxiB (Gr. hymen, membrane, and cariit shrimp). — A small 
phyllopod or shrimp-like crustacean of the Silurian epoch, having its 
anterior portion enclosed in a thin bivalvular carapace, and its abdominal 
or terminal segments free, and capable of being turned under the body. 

Hyopdtamiui (Gr. hyt, hyos, a hog, and potamo*, river). — Literally 
''river-hog;" a non-ruminant, even-toed (artiodactyle) mammal, whose 
remains occur in the Tertiary strata of England and France. Described 
by Professor Owen (' G^logioal Journal,' vol. iv.), who regards it as allied 
to the Anthracotheriiim, Ckcaropotamus, and other hog-like mammals of 
that period. 

Hyp-, Hypo- (Gr. hypo, imder). — A common prefix in scientific ter- 
minology signifying under or below, in reference to place or position, 
and indicating defieietiey or lest than when applied to quality or composi- 
tion ; as hypogene, formed below ; hyponitrous afiid, an acid intermediate 
between nitric oxide and nitrous acid. Synonymous with the Latin pre- 
fix ni5. 

Hypajith6eriuiis (Gr. hypantheo, to begin to flower). — A genus of Rose- 
encrinites, occurring in Upper Silurian strata, and so termed from the 
flower-like contour of its ornamental receptacle and bifurcating arms. 
The column is cylindrical, but traversed internally by a pentagonal canal. 

Hyper- (Gr. hyper, above). — A frequent prefix in scientific terminology, 
signifying above or upon, in reference to places or position, and indicating 
excess, with regard to quality or composition. Thus hyperthyrum, the 
lintel or over-piece of a doorway ; hypercrtitcism, exaggerated or excessive 
criticism ; hypertrophy, a morbid enlai*gement of any organ^ as if from 
excess of nutrition. Synonymous with the Latin prefix super, 

H^persihene (Gr. hyper, above or excess, and sihenos, strength). — A 
mineral of the Hornblende fjetmily, so called from its power of resisting 
acids as compared with augite, to which it is closely related — the ''prisma- 
toidal schiller-spar " of Mohs, and the "Labrador hornblende** of other 
authors. It occurs massive, in crystalline and granular aggregates, or 
disseminated; has a vitreo-resinous lustre, but pearly-metallic on the 



principal oleavage-planes ; and has usually a pinchbeck-brown or greyish- 
green, colour, passing into black. It is a ferrosilicate of magnesia^ with 
traces of alumina and lime, and differs in this respect from augite, which 
contains from 18 to 24 per cent of lime. It is a constituent of several 
rockSj forming, with labradorite, "hypersthene rock;" with labradorite 
and chlorite, " diabase ; " and it occiurs also in the euphotide or " gabbro." 
Hypersthene rock is common in primary districts, and in Sweden the finer 
varieties are polished as an ornamental stone. 

Hypog^e (6r. hypo^ under, and ^'nomai, I am formed). — "As all the 
crystalline rocks," says LyeU, "may, in some respects, be viewed as belong- 
ing to one great family, whether they be stratified or unstratified, plutonic 
or metamorphic, it will often be convenient to speak of them by one com- 
mon name. For this purpose I propose the term 'hypogene' — a word 
implying the theory that granite, gneiss, and the other crystalline forma- 
tions, are aUke Tiether-formed rocks, or rocks which have not assumed their 
present form and structure at the surface. They occupy the lowest place 
in the order of superposition. £<ven in regions such as the Alps, where 
some masses of granite can be shown to be of Tertiary epoch, they are still 
underlying rooks." 

BypOBldlhite. — ^By some mineralogists regarded as an altered form of 
stilbite, and by others as a distinct mineral or hydrated lime-oligoclase. 
Occurs with stilbite, &c, in the Faroe Islands. 

Hypoidic (Gr. hypo, under, and zoe, life). — Applied to those rocks which, 
like gneiss and mica-schist, lie beneath the undoubtedly fossiliferous strata, 
and which have yet yielded no organic remains. "Azoic," which is also 
applied to these rooks, means destitute of fossils; "hypozoic" simply 
points out their position, without offering any opinion as to their fossili- 
ferous or non-fossiliferous character. Since the discovery of organisms 
in the Laurentian schists of Canada, it is very questionable whether any 
of the stratified rocks can be considered as s^ctly Azoic or Jffypozoic, — 
See tabulations, "Obologioal Scheme." 

Hypsiprynm^psiB.— A genus of small mammals whose teeth have been 
found by Mr B. Dawkins in the RhsBtic or Infra- liassic beds of Watchet 
in Somersetshire, and so named from the resemblance that these bear to 
the teeth of the existing ffyptiprymnut or Kangaroo-rat of Australia. 

H^psodon (Gr. hypsos, height, and odotts, tooth). — Literally "tall- 
tooth ; ** a genus of saury-pikes {scomber-esocidce) occurring in the Chalk of 
Kent and Sussex, and so termed from their > extremely upright, long, coni- 
cal, compressed, and pointed teeth. The teeth and fragments discovered 
indicate fishes of a very large size. 

Hyracoth^riiim (Gr. hyrax, the hare-rat or cony, and iherioTi, beast). — 
A small pachydermatous mammal, occurring in the Tertiary strata of Eng^ 
land, and so termed by Professor Owen (Toss. Mammals '), from its apparent 
relationship to the ffyraeida or Conies of Southern Africa. The genus 
stands intermediate between the Hog and Hyrax ; and the species range 
from the size of a rabbit to that of a large hare. 



Ice (Sax. ; Ger. ets). — The familiar as well as technical term for Jrozm 
water, or water converted into the solid state imder the influence of extreme 
cold. Water is at its minimum volume when about 40*^ Fahr.. and above 
or under this temperature it increases in bulk— passing into steam on the 
one hand, and being converted into ice on the other. At 32** or under, it 
exists in the condition of ice ; and this ioe, being greater in volume than 
the water of which it is composed, is lighter, and consequently floats on 
the surface. It is owing to this expansion of water that frost becomes 
such a powerful agent in the disintegration of soils and rock-masses — ^the 
water in their interstices being converted into ice, and irresistibly break- 
ing asunder the cohesion of their parts. It is also owing to this lightness 
and floating power that we have the phenomena of ground-ice lifting up 
and transporting masses of shingle and sand — of icebergs floating their bur- 
dens of boulders and rock -debris, and scattering them over the bed of the 
ocean — and of avcUaiiche and glacier wasting, smoothing, and moulding into 
new forms the contours of all arctic and Alpine mountains.— See Frost. 

Iceberg (Ger. eis, ice, and berg, mountain). — The name given to the 
mountainous masses of ice often found floating in polar seas. Sometimes 
they are formed by the accumulation of ice and snow on the surface of the 
water ; at other times they seem to have been originally glaciers launched 
from precipitous coasts into the ocean, and there farther augmented by 
numbers of them freezing en masse. These " fields" or " packs" are often 
of great extent— stretching across the ocean as far as the eye can reach, 
and rising in perpendicular cliffs from 80 to 100 or 150 feet above the 
water. Solitary or independent icebergs are also often of vast dimen- 
sions, and instances are given, both in arctic and antarctic voyages, of* 
bergs several miles in circumference, rising from 40 to 200 feet above the 
sea-level, and loaded with blocks of rocks and shingle. Some idea of their 
size may be formed irom the fact that little more than a tenth of their 
bulk rises above the surface (the specific gravity of ice being only 0.9) — 
the greater portion being submerged and apt to be grounded on shoals and 
flats. As they are floated by the polar currents to warmer latitudes they 
melt away, (h*opping their burdens of boulder and rock-debris on the 
bottom of the ocean. Could we lay bare this sea-bottom, we should find 
appearances strictly analogous to the "drift" or " boulder-olay" of geolo- 
gists ; and it is in this way that the boulder-clay or Northern Drift, with 
its water-worn blocks, its gravel and shingle, its smootiied and furrowed 
rock-surfaces, and other kindred appearances, can alone be accounted for. 
At the present day icebergs are familiar phenomena both in arctic and 
antarctic seas — those of the north being seldom carried southward beyond 
the 44th parallel of latitude, while those of the south are not unfrequently 
found northward as far as the Cape of Good Hope, or on an average at 10 
degrees lower latitude. As the glacier smooths and furrows the rocks 
over which it passes, so the iceberg, with its immense weight and greater 
motion, grinds, and rubs, and ploughs ; and while the one lays down its 



lateral and terminal moraines in ridge-like mounds^ the other carries from 
the cliffs and shores its mud and gravel and botUders, and strews them 
along the bottom of the ocean. 

Ice-Floe (Dan., ice-island). — Applied by voyagers to the smaller masses 
of ice that encumber the polar seas. Floes are rarely a quarter of a mile 
in circumference, and usu^ly much smaller. 

Iceland-Spar. — A variety of calcareous spar remarkable for its transpar- 
ency and double refraction. According to Nicol, it is not found in crystels, 
but occurs massive in a trap-rock in Iceland, and has been considered as a 
portion of altered limestone. 

Ice-Spar.— A familiar term for a variety of orthoclase or common pris- 
matic felspar; transparent or translucent; colourless and white, or but 
slightly tinged with grey or faint yellowish-green; and of a vitreous or 
glassy lustre. — See Felspab. 

Ichnites (Or. ichjwSf a footprint).— A term applied to all fossil footprints, 
many of which have been discovered in palaeozoic and secondary formations 
— as omithichniieSf bird- footsteps ; muroidickniies, saurian footsteps, &c. 
Footprints, supposed to be those of reptiles, have been discovered in rocks 
of Devonian age in Canada, and in Scotland, and also in the Coal-measures 
of Europe and America ; and those of reptiles, birds, and undetermined 
animals occur abundantly in the New Bed Sandstone of Britain, Germany, 
and North America. These creatures seem to have frequented muddy 
shores and estuaries, and to have left the impress of their feet on the yield- 
ing and half- dried mud, over which the next deposit of sediment spread 
and filled up the mould. On splitting many of these sediments (now con- 
verted into shales and sandstones) the mould and its cast are found in 
great perfection — so much so that not only the joints of the toes, but the 
very texture of the skin is apparent. Hildburghausen in Saxony, Corn- 
cockle ^uir in Dumfriesshire, Stourton, Weston, and Taporley in Cheshire, 
Grimsell in Shropshire, and the valley of the Connecticut in North Amer- 
ica, are the localities most celebrated for their fossil footprints — and this 
in strata of Permian or of Triassic age. 

Ichnolite (Gr. ichnos, a footprint, and lilhat, stone). — Any fossil foot- 
mark, or stone retaining the impression of the feet of extinct animals. 

Iclmdiogy, Ichnolithology (Gr. icknos, a footprint, litkos, and logos). — 
The science of fossil footprints; e.g., the 'Ichnologyof Annandale,' by 
Sir William Jardine ; the ' Ichnology of New England/ by Dr Hitchcock. 

Iclithyoc6pniB, Idithyoc6pro]ite (Gr. ichihys, fish ; copros, excrement ; 
and lithot), — Literally, the fossil excrement of fishes. Coprolites of this 
nature occur in all the Secondary formations ; but in great profusion and 
of gigantic size in the shales of the lower Coal formation. 

Ichthyod^mlite (Gr. ickihys, fish ; doru, spear ; and lithos, stone). — The 
fossil fin-spines or defences of fishes, found abundantly in all the fossilifer- 
ous strata— those of the shark-like fishes {Cttimcionts) of the lower Coal- 
measures being often more than a foot in length, and strong in proportion. 
These spines are generally straight and tapering, but many of them are 
more or less recurved or falcate. The inserted portion is blunt and plain ; 
the external defence enamelled and often highly sculptured — some being 
grooved transversely ^nd spirally {gyrucaiUhuB), others striated or fluted 
longitudinally {oTuhus) ^ some ornamented with points and tubercles {cos- 
macanthiu), and others serrated or hooked on the posterior margin (dCTut- 




Tchthyoid (Gr. ickthys, fish, and eidoi, likeness). — Fish-Hke ; partaking 
of the fish type, as the iohthyosauruSy which is partly ichthyoid and partly 

Ichfh^Mite (Gr. ichthi/tf fish, and lithos, stone). — A paleeontolc^cal term 
for a fossil fish, or any portion of a fish, as a scale, tooth, spine, &c. The 
most celehrated deposits of fossil fishes in Europe are the hituminous 
schists of the lower Old Bed of Orkney, Caithness, and Forfm- ; the yellow 
sandstones (upper Old Bed) of Dura Den, Fifeehire ; the lower Coal-measures 
of Burdiehouse, &c., near Edinburgh ; the Coal formation of Saarbruck in 
Lorraine ; the Permian bituminous slate of Mansfield in Thuringia ; the 
calcareous lithographic slate of Solenhofen (Oolitic) ; the compact blue slaty 
shale of Glaris (cretaceous) ; and the Tertiary limestones of Monte Boica, 
near Verona, the marlstones of Oeningen in Switzerland, and of Aiz in 

Ichthyology (Gr. ickthtfs, fish, and loffosj discourse).— That branch of 
zoology which treats of the structure, classification, habits, and history of 
fishes ; Ichtftyological, relating to the science of ichthyology ; Ichthyologittf 
one who studies, or is devoted to, the science of fishes. — See Pisoss, and 
tabulations, ** Animal Sohsme." 

lohthyopitolitet (Gr. ichthytt fish ; paJtot, footpath ; and lithos, stone). — 
Fish- tracks, or the imprints of the pectoral fin-rays of certain fishes, which, 
like the gurnard and climbing perch, can move on solid surfaces by means 
of these organs. Under this name DrBuckland described (* Proceedings 
of Geol. Soc.,' vol. iv.) certain problematical markings observed on a flag- 
stone from the Coal-measures of Flintshire. It consists of curvUineal 
scratches or imprints, disposed qrmmetrically at r^ular intervals on each 
side a smooth level space, about two inches wide, which may correspond 
to the body of a fish, the pectoral fins of which, Dr Buckland suggests, 
were the instruments that formed the markings in question. 

Icliihy6p]iagoii8 (Gr. ichthys, fish, and phagein, to eat). — ^Fish-eating ; 
feeding on fish. 

Ichthyophthdlmite (Gr. icMkyi, and ophtkalmot, the eye).— Fish-eye- 
stone; a variety of apophyllite or pyramidal eeolite, characterised by its 
peculiar pearly lustre. 

Ichthyopter^gia (Gr. ichihyi, a fish, and pteryxy a wing or fin).— One of 
the thirteen orders into which Professor Owen proposes to arrange the 
Beptilia, living and extinct. The term relates to the piscine character of 
the numerous and many-jointed rays or digits in the fore and hind paddles. 
The icMhyosaurus may be taken as the type of the order, the genera of 
which are exclusively marine. The bones of the head include the " post- 
orbital" and " supra-temporal" bo&es that characterise the Labyrintho* 
donts and Ganooephalans, but there are temporal and other vacuities be- 
tween the cranial bones ; there is a single, convex, occipital condyle ; the 
vertebral centres are ossified and biconcave ; the pleurapophyses long and 
bent, — the anterior ones with bifurcate heads ; the teeth are confined to 
the maxillary, premaxillary, and premandibular bones, — the premaxillary 
greatly exceeding in size ; the orbits large, the eyes being defended by a 
broad circle of sclerotic plates ; the limbs natatory, with more than five 
many-jointed digits ; no sacrum. 

Ichtiiyosircdlite (Gr. ichthyg, fish ; sareos, flesh ; and lithot, stone).— 
Literally, '' fish-flesh-stone ; " a term at one time applied to certain thick, 
heavy, tapering organisms from the Chalk, in allusion to their flaky or 



foliaceous structure. They are now known as Radiol'Ues and Sphcerulites', 
peouliar bivalye shells belonging to the family HiFPURiTiDiB, which see. 

Ichthyosatbrns (Or. ichthys, fish, and tawrus^ lizard). — Literally ''fish- 
lizard ; *' a well-known genus of the extinct EnaUoaaun or marine saurians, 
and so called from its combining the characters of saurian reptiles and of 
fishes With some of the peculiarities of the whales. The ichthyosaurs were 
in fact the "reptile whales" of their period — a period extending from the 
deposition of the middle Trias or muschelkalk till near the close of the Chalk 
formation. The peculiarities of their structure have been thus described : 
— Their vertebrae resemble those of fishes in being biconcave, or concave 
at both ends ; but the superior arches remain permanently detached as in 
reptiles. The cranium resembles that of the crocodiles, but is character- 
ised by a peculiarly large eye-orbit furnished with a circular series of bony 
sclerotic plates— a structure not occurring in fishes, but observable in the 
eyes of turiJes, lizards, and many birds. The nostrilA are situated, not, as 
in the crocodile, near the extremity of the snout, but close to the anterior 
part of the orbit, approaching in this respect some of the recent lizards. 
The teeth, which are extremely numerous (amounting in some species to 
nearly 200), resemble in structure those of the crocodiles — being conical, 
longitudinally striated, and expanded at the base ; but are implanted, as 
in some of the lizards, in a deep continuous groove, and not in distinct 
sockets. The locomotive extremities are similar in construction to the 
paddles of the whale ; but they are four instead of two in number, and the 
front paddles are connected by a broad coracoid, a complete clavicle, and a 
supplementary coracoid bone to a strong sternum ; the flattened phalan- 
geal bones supporting the fin are polygonal, and are relatively shorter and 
more numerous than in the whale. The hind paddles are smaller than the 
fore, and are attached to a pelvis similar to that of the crocodile. Small 
supplemental bones are wedged into the lower part of the joint of the 
atlas and occiput, and a few of the succeeding vertebral joints ; and the 
tail often presents a fhicture or abrupt bend about a third of its length 
from the extremity, as if it had been swayed aside during decomposition 
by the weight of a large vertical tail-fin. From the form and position of 
masses of crushed and apparently half-digested fish-bones and scales in 
the abdominal cavity of certain specimens, it is concluded that they preyed 
on fish ; and from the shape of their coprolites (fossil excrements) it is 
obvious that their intestinal canals were furnished with spiral valves as in 
the sharks. In one or two instances, very small, and to all appearance 
foOat specimens, have been found within the pelvic cavities of* large 
skeletons, and from this circumstance it has been inferred that the 
ichthyosaurs, like the whales, were viviparous. As already mentioned, 
the great era of ichthyosaur development was from the middle Trias to 
the Chalk inclusive — the lias formation being the chief repository, of their 
remains in England. In this deposit specimens of all ages and of all sizes 
have been found — from the foetus of a few inches to the adult more than 
thirty feet in length ; and of these the finest are now preserved in the 
British Museum, and the museum at York. 

I'docrase (Gr. eidos, form, and hrasit, mixture). — Known also as Vesuvian 
and Pyramidal Garnet, and differs from common garnet chiefly in form. 
Idocrase (so termed from its crystalline forms being mixed JigureSf which 
are apt to be mistaken for those of other minerals) was originally found in 
the ejected calcareous blocks on Vesuvius, in druses with garnet, augite, 



&c. ; but it also occurs in subordinate beds in the primitive rocks with 
calo-spar, garnet, epidote, chlorite, and other silicates. It forms an in- 
different ornamental stone, the brown being named hyacinth, and sold at 
Naples under the name of " Gemmes de Yesuye ; " the green, chrymlUe. 
Several local varieties are also distinguished, as WiluUe, firom Wiloui in 
Siberia, an obscure green ; Cyprine, a blue variety containing copper, from 
Norway ; and JSgrane^ a liver-brown sort from Eger in Bohemia. 

I'drikUxie, Idrialite. — One of the mineral resins, so named from its 
being found at Idria in Camiola, in thin layers among the slates containing 
the mercury ores. It occurs in soft, brownish-black, flaky masses, having 
a resinous lustre and a greasy feel ; and from these masses, which consist 
of idrialine and cinnabar, with a little silica, alumina, pyrites, and lime^ 
the pure pearly idrialine may be extracted by oil of turpentine. 

rgneons (Lat. ignis, fire). — Applied to all agencies, operations, and re- 
sults which seem connected with, or to have arisen from, subterranean heat, 
as "igneous rocks," "igneous fusion," &c. The igneovu rocks, properly 
so called, comprehend the Volcanic, Trappean, and Granitic series, all of 
which are evidently the products of fusion either in the interior or at the 
surface of the crust. The term igneotts is thus synonymous with unttrati^ 
Jied, Plvionic, pyrogenous, and others in use by geolc^ists. 

Ignlgenons (Lat. ignis, and Or. ginomai, I am formed). — Fire-formed ; 
used as synonymous with igneous, though, properly speaking, igneova re- 
fers to the operation or agency, and ignigenous to the result. 

Igadnodon. — One of the Dinosaurs ; a colossal lizard-like reptile found 
in the Wealden strata, and so caHed from the resemblance of its teeth to 
those of the existing iguana of South America. " According to the pre- 
sent state of our knowledge," says Dr Mantell in 1851, " it is not at all 
improbable that the largest iguanodons may have attained a length of from 
sixty to seventy feet. Although some important points in the osteology 
of the iguanodon are still unknown, we may safely conclude that the 
stupendous reptile equalled in bulk the largest herbivorous mammalia, 
and was as massive in proportions. Its limbs must have been of propor- 
tionate size and strengUi to sustain, and move, so enormous a carcass ; the 
hinder extremities in all probability resembled the unwieldy contour of 
the hippopotamus or rhinoceros, and were supported by strong short feet, 
protected by broad unequal phalanges : the fore-feet appear to have been 
less bulky, and adapted for seizing and pulling down the foliage and 
branches of trees ; the jaws and teeth demonstrate its power of mastica- 
tion, and the cheuracter of its food ; while the remains of the coniferous 
trees, arborescent ferns, and cycadeous plants which are found imbedded 
with its remains, attest the nature of the flora adapted for its sustenance." 
The iguanodon occupies a chief place among Mr Hawkins's palseontological 
restorations in the grounds of the Crystal Palace. 

Ilmenite. — Known also as titanitic iron; an ore of iron occurring in 
various formations, as in the miascite of the Ilmen mountains : hence the 
name. According to H. Rose and Scheerer, it is a combination of per- 
oxide of iron and the blue oxide of titanium in various proportions— the 
specific gravity increasing with the amount of iron. 

Imbricated (Lat. imbrex, a gutter-tile). —Overlapping, or laid over each 
other like the tiles or slates of a roof; applied to the scales of fishes, the 
scutes of reptiles, the persistent leaflets or petioles of certain trees, &c. 

ImpilpaUe (Lat.)— Not perceptible to the touch ; applied to dust, 



powdery substances^ mud^ and the like, in which no gritty particles can 
be felt by the touch. Eeduced to the minutest particles or ultimate stage 
of subdivision. 

Imp^orate, Imperforated (Lat im, not ; per, through; and /oro, I bore). 
— Not perforate ; having no opening or passage of communication ; not 
pierced. Applied in various branches of natural science. 

Imptoieable (Lat. tm, not ; per, through ; and meo, I pass). — Not ad- 
mitting the passage of water; applied to strata or other masses which, 
like clay, obstruct the natural passage or percolation of subterraneous 

Imp^rvioiis (Lat. m, not ; per, through ; and ma, a way). — Impenetrable ; 
impassable ; affording no way or passage. Hence we speak of certain 
strata being " impervious to water/' and so on. 

Imp6nderables (Lat. in, priv., and pondiM, weight). — A term applied in 
physical science to agents which, like heat, light, and electricity, are desti- 
tute of weight, and only known by their effects on other bodies. 

Incand^ence, Incaiideacent (Lat. candetco, to begin to grow white). 
— A glowing white heat; having a white heat^ or greater degree of heat 
than red heat. 

Indneratioii (Lat. in, and cinis, dneria, a cinder). — ^The act of burning 
or reducing to ashes ; distinct from calcination, which see. 

Indsorg (Lat. in, and ccedo, I cut). — The cutting teeth or front teeth of 
mammals, as distinguished from the grinding or molar teeth. — See Teeth. 

Incombtistible (Lat.) — Applied to substances that will not bum, or 
which cannot be consumed by the action of fire. 

Incrustation (Lat. in, and cruHa, a crust or rind). — ^A crust or coating 
formed on the surface of any substance. Waters containing lime, clay, 
and other mineral impurities, leave an " incrustation" on the inside of the 
vessels in which they are boiled ; calcareous waters "incrust" the rocky 
surfaces over which they flow with a coating of calc-tuff. 

rndianite. — A reddish-grey variety of Anorthite (one of the felspars) 
found in the Camatic, where it forms the matrix of the corundum. It 
consists of 42 silica, 34 alumina, and 15 lime, with iron, potash, and soda. 

Indian Sed. — A kind of ochre (protoxide of iron, silica, and alumina), of 
a deep red with a shade of purple, imported from the Persian Gulf in 
small lumps, and partly as a coarse^ hard, and gritty powder — the crude 
material from which the pigment of this name is obtained. 

IndicoUite, Indigolite. — A variety of tourmaline found at Utoe in 
Sweden, and so named from its deep-blue indigo colour. 

Indigenous (Lat. in, and geno, I produce). — Bom or produced in a par- 
ticular country ; native to a country. Applied to plants and animals, but 
more especially to the former, in contradistinction to exotic; that is, those 
not native to the country in which they are cultivated. , 

Indurated (Lat. durus, hard). — Restricted in geology to rocks that have 
been hardened by the action of heat, and in this sense distinct from 
" hard " or " compact." 

IndtUdal Idmestone. — " There is another remarkable form of fresh-water 
limestone in Auvergne," says LyeU, " called ' indusial,' from the cases or 
indusiai of caddis-worms (the larvso of Phryganea), great heaps of which 
have been incrusted, as they lay, by carbonate of lime, and formed into a 
hard travertin. The rock is sometimes purely calcareous, but there is 
occasionally an intermixture of siliceous matter. Several beds of it are 




frequently seen, either in continuous masses or in concretionary nodules^ 
one upon another, with layers of marl interposed/* These limestones 
point, of course, to a time (Eocene) when certain districts of Auvergne 
were covered by fresh- water lakes, in which the larrtB of the Phryganea 
swarmed as they do now in the sta^ant pools and ditches of England. 
It is but fair to state that Mr Waterhouse and some other entomologists 
entertain doubts as to this limestone being really of indusial origin. 

Indiirinm (Lat.)— Literally, a garment or covering. In natural science 
applied variously; e.g., the iiidusium or case of the caddis-worm; the 
brown dried epidermis which covers the fertile sori or reproductive q^cks 
on the fronds of ferns, &o. 

Inflammable Air.— An old chemical term for hydrogen gas : so named 
on account of its highly inflammable nature. 

Infiudria. — Minute animal organisms or animalcules ; so called from 
their being readily obtained (for microscopic investigation) in infusions of 
vegetable matter which have been freely exposed to the air. In modem 
zoology they constitute the highest class of the Protosoay and have been 
arranged into numerous families which are yet far from being well defined 
— partly from the minuteness of the organisms, and partly from the liability 
to mistake for infusoria the embryonic germs of other creatures, and, above 
all, the active germs or spores of the lower forms of vegetation. They 
are generally unicellular animals ; are furnished with a mouth and rudi- 
mentary digestive apparatus ; and their bodies, for the most part, consist 
of three disiinct layers, the outer of which is usually furnished with cilia 
or vibratory appendages. They inhabit lakes, pools, and ditches ; many 
are found in the ocean ; and some are in4ifferent alike to salt or fresh 
water. Mistaking other microscopic forms for infiuoria, it has been cus- 
tomary to speak of their calcareous and siliceous shields as entering largely 
into the composition of many recent muds and marls, as well as into that 
of several of the more ancient stratified deposits ; but according to the 
latest zoological authorities, there are no fossil infusoria, the organisms 
usually designated by this name being either Foraminifera, Polycygtina, 
or DiatomacecB.—7See Protozoa. 

Ink-Ba^. — In the Squids and Cuttle-fishes the bags or membranes 
which contain the inky fluid with which these cephalopods discolour the 
surrounding water when irritated or surprised. These organs have been 
found fossil in the Lias and Oolite of England in such a state of perfection, 
that Dr Buckland had drawings of the remains of extinct species of Sepia 
made with their own ink. 

Inlier. — ^A term introduced by Mr Drew, of the Geological Survey, to 
express the converse of ''outlier," which see. "It means,'* say» Mr 
Drew, ** a space occupied by one formation which is completely surrounded 
by another that rests upon it. It is useful to have a word that well ex- 
presses this ; and ' inlier ' is a very appropriate one ; for the circumstance 
to be named is the exact converse of ' outlier,' which is an isolated mjasa 
surrounded by a formation that underlies it." 

Inoc^ramns (Gr. is, inos, fibre, and keramos, vessel-shell). — A genus of 
fossil bivalves belonging to the AviciUidce (wing-shells or pearl-oysters), 
and so named from the fibrous structure of their shells. The valves are 
unequal, ventrioose radiately or concentrically farrowed, umbones promi-: 
neut ; hinge-line straight, elongated/ and pitted with numerous dose-set 
cartilage grooves. The species, which range from the Silurian to the Chalk 



inclusive, vary in size from one inch to three or four feet in diameter. 
The shell, in consequence of the vertical arrangement of the fibres, readily 
breaks to pieces, and lai^e flat fragments are found in the Chalk, often 
perforated, as in recent oysters, by the CUona {clumites). The French 
restrict the name Inoceramus to the beaked and laminated species of the 
Gault ; and arrange the Chalk Inooerami under the term CaliUus. 

Inoiffdnic (Lat. in^ not, and organum, a member or instrument). — ^Not 
produced by vital action. Applied to mineral substances which are the 
results of chemical or mechanical aggregation^ in contradistinction to 
vegetable and animal substances, which are produced by vital action, or 
through the instrumentality of vital organs. — See Organic. 

Insect Limestoiie. — A term applied by the Bev. P. B. Brodie (' History 
of Fossil Insects') to certain bands of the Lower Lias in the central and 
western counties of England, from their being charged with the remains 
of beetles, grasshoppers, dragon-flies, may-flies, and other insects, belong- 
ing, according to Mr Westwood, to not fewer than twenty-four fJEimilies. 
These insect remains are accompanied by ferns, cycads, and leaves of 
monoootyledonous plants, and also by some apparently brackish and fresh- 
water shells, so that they seem to have had an estuary or lagoon origin. 

Initeta (Lat. iTisectum, divided into segments). — An extensive class 
of articulated animals, and so called from the segfmented aspect of their 
bodies. In Cuvier^s arrangement it includes the following orders : Myria- 
poda (e,g., centipede) ; Thysanowra (springtail) ; Paratita (louse) ; Sttdoria 
(flea) ; ColeopUra (beetle) ; Orihoptera (earwig) ; Hemiptera (bug) ; Neu- 
roptera (ant-lion) ; Hymen&ptera (wasp) ; Lepidoptera (butterfly) ; Mhipiptera 
(stylops) ; and Diptera (fly). The insects are well known by their seg- 
mented bodies, three pairs of feet, one pair of antennse, compound eyes, 
generally undergo metamorphosis and acquire wings, and are oviparous, 
with the sexes distinct. Remains of some of the orders are found as early 
as the Carboniferous formation, and they abound in the Oolite and later 
deposits. — See the respective Orders. 

Insectivora (Lat. intecta, insects, and voro, 1 devour). — An interesting 
group of the Carnivorous mammalia, characterised by their molar teeth 
being studded with sharp points, which enables them to feed on insects. 
The group comprises the mole, hedgehog, shrew, bat, &c. The teeth and 
jaw-bones of animals apparently insectivorous (spalacotheriumf microlettes, 
&c) have been foimd as low as the Oolite and Upper Trias. 

Li situ (Lat.) — Literally ** in its natural position or place." A rock or 
fossil is said to be **in situ " when it is found in the situation or place in 
which it was originally formed or deposited ; but it is n&t in ntu when 
removed or drifted to another position or locality. 

Xnspiss^ted (Lat. in, and spissatus, thickened). — Thickened ; made thick 
by evaporation, whether natural or artificial ; as opium, which is the 
inspissated juice of the poppy. 

LiterambnUcra, Xntenunbnlacral (Lat. amlmlare, to walk). — The im-* 
perforate plates which lie between {inier) the perforate plates or ambulaau 
in the shells or crusts of the sea-urchin and cidaris. 

Int^calated, Xntercalition (Lat.)— Interposed, something placed be- 
tween ; the act of placing between. Subordinate beds of a different nature 
occurring between the main beds of a series are said to be ifUercalated ; the 
occurrence of such beds or of intervals of deposition are said to be inter- 
cakUions, Of frequent use in geology. 

257 R 

INT — lOD 

InterodUiiiB (Lat. interf between, and coUts, a hill). — A term proposed 
by Sir Charles Lyell to designate those valley-like spaces or hollows that 
occur in volcanic regions between the cols or crateriform hillocks of accum- 
ulation, and which are not formed by aqueous erosion, nor by subsidence^ 
nor by anticlinal or synclinal flexures, but simply by the building up on 
two or more sides of erupted materials. Such iniercolline spaces abound 
in all volcanic regions of sub-aSrial origin. 

Intermittent, Intermitting (Lat inter, between, and mitto, I send). — 
Ceasing for a time and then returning; ceasing and acting by turns. 
IntermiUing Springs are those which, having flowed for a certain time, 
stop altogether, and after a time begin to run again, and then stop ; and 
so on alternately, the flowings and intermissions generally succeeding each 
other at pretty regular intervals. Such phenomena are easily explicable 
on the supposition of caverns and subterranean areas being fed by small 
chinks, and discharged by larger fissures acting on the principle of the 
siphon — the larger outlet, acting more rapidly than the united chinks, 
when once set a-running, flows tiU the cavern is emptied, and then ceases 
till the water again accumulates to its siphon-level. 

Interstr&tified. — Occurring in the midst of, or along with, other strata. 
In tMs sense coal may be said to be interstratified with sandstones, shales, 
fire-clays, and limestones : but the term is generally restricted to those 
bed-like masses or overflows of igneous rock (lava, basalt, and greenstone) 
which occur imbedded with true stratified or sedimentary rocks — the 
igneous overflow having spread over the bottom of the sea of deposit, and 
been subsequently overlaid by other strata. 

Intertr6pieal (Lat. inter, between, and tropical). — Situated between the 
tropics ; applied also to pLeints and animals whose habitats lie between the 
tropics, or in the torrid zone. 

Introsive Bocks. — Applied to those igneous rocks which seem to have 
thrust themselves/when in a state of fusion^between the beds of the strat- 
ified formations. Intrusive masses of this kind are sometimes apt to be 
mistaken for contemporaneously interbedded overflows; but in general 
they are not so extensive, wedge-out or thin-out abruptly, and alter the 
strata both above and below them. 

Litnm^sce (Lat. intuniesco, to begin to swell). — ^To swell or bubble up as 
zeolite and other kindred minerals do under the action of the blow-pipe. 

Livertebr&ta. — One of the two great divisions of the animal kingdom ; 
animals toitkovi vertebrce or iMck-bones, including the Mollusca, Articulata, 
Hadiata, and Protozoa. — See tabulations, ''Animal Scheme. '* 

Livolntlna (Lat. involvo, to wind or coil up). — A genus of Foraminifera 
chiefly from the Lias, and so named by Mr H. Brady, its investigator, from 
the manner in which the tuberculated tube-like organism is coiled upon 
itself. The shell-wall between the successive coils is not double as in the 
true Rotalince, with which it is apt to be confounded ; the septa are some- 
what irregular, but increase with the enlarging whorls ; the shell-substance 
is partly composed of arenaceous grains, indicating a lower organisation 
than the nummulite ; and Mr Brady places it in the family Lituolidce, and 
near the genus Trochammina. » 

Iodine (Gr. ion, violet, and eidos, likeness; violet-coloured). — One of 
the chemical elements, occurring as a non-metallic, crystallised, acidifying, 
and basifying solid substance. It is obtained from marine plants, from 
sea-water, and from certain mineral springs, and is of considerable repute 


lOD — IRO 

in materia medica, Tt becomes volatile at a low temperature^ and passes 
off in a beautiful violet-coloured vapour; hence the name. 

I6dite or I6dic Silver. — An ore of silver, consisting of iodine and silver, 
and occurring in thin flexible folisB or plates of a pearl-grey or yellowish- 
grey colour. It is found in the mining districts of Mexico and South 
America, and recently in the south of Spain. 

I6lite (6r. ion, violet, and lithos, stone). — One of the Gems, known also 
as Dichroite, Cordierite, and Prismatic quartz. It occur* in granitic and 
primitive rocks, associated with quartz, garnet, and iron and copper 
pyrites, and derives its name from its colour, which ranges from violet to 
dark-blue. It has many allied and doubtful species; and according to 
Stronmeyer, consists of 48.35 silica, 31.71 alumina, 10.16 magnesia, 8.32 
iron protoxide, with traces of manganese. The transparent variety (clear 
white, with a tinge of celestial blue) found in rolled masses in Ceylon con- 
stitutes the Sapphire cPeau of the jewellers. 

Xrid^Etcent (Gr. iris, the rainbow). — The property of producing a play of 
colours resembling those of the rainbow ; possessed both by animal and 
mineral substances. Iridescence.— Shining with the colours of the rainbow ; 
a property depending generally on internal structure, or the arrangement 
of internal surfaces which refract the light ; but sometimes also arising 
from mere external tarnish, occasioned by partial decomposition, or the 
action of acids. 

Iridium (Gr. iris, the rainbow). ^-The most infusible of the known metals, 
and used chiefly in porcelain-painting to produce black and grey colours. 
It is also used for the nibs of steel-pens, and is said to be worth £24 an 
ounce. It occurs in nature in combination with platina, '•palladium, 
osmium, and copper ; and derives its name from the variety of hues which 
the mixture displays while dissolving in hydro-chloric acid. It was dis- 
covered by Dr Wollaston ; is of a grey colour, brittle, very infusible, and 
has a specific gravity of about 18.6. 

Irish Deer, Irish Elk.— Remains of the Iiish gigantic deer {Cenms 
megaceros, or deer with great antlers) are found in the peat-bogs, marls, 
gravels, and other superficial deposits of Europe ; but particularly In the 
shell-marls and peat-bogs (the sites of ancient lakes) in Ireland : hence the 
name. It is usually, but erroneously, termed JElk— the creature being a 
true deer, though far exceeding in magnitude any living species. Skeletons 
have been found ten feet high from the ground to the point of the antiers, 
which are palmated, and often measure from ten to fourteen feet from tip 
to tip. Chronologically, the Irish deer seems to have been antecedent to 
man in Europe, though some of the species appear also to have been 
contemporary with him, and to have been extirpated by the earliest hunter 
tribes that took possession of its plains and forests. — See Denny in 'Pro- 
ceedings of York Geolog. Soc' for 1855. 

Irish Diamond. — A frequent term, like '* Bristol Diamond," for fine 
transparent varieties of crystallised quartz or Rock-crystal, which see. 

Iron (Gr. sideros; Lat. /wrwrn y Fr. fer; Grer. eisen). — One of the best- 
known, and, economically speaking, by far the mgst important of the 
metals. Though readily tarnished, rusted, or oxidised by exposure to air 
and moisture, it has in the fresh fracture a peculiar grey colour, known 
as "iron-grey" or "steel-grey," and, when polished, possesses much 
lustre. It is not very malleable, but extremely ductile and very tenacious. 
At common temperatures it is hard and unyielding, but at a red heat it is 



soft and pliable, and at a high red heat two pieces may be inseparably 
united by hammerlDg— or welded, as it is technically termed^into one 
mass. It is very difficult of fusion, requiring for that purpose the highest 
heat of the blast-furnace. In this state it can be run into moulds, and is 
then known as cast-irony which is hard, brittle, and of a granular texture. 
Subjected to repeated heating and hammering {pvddXed, as it is termed), it 
becomes less fUsible, assumes a fibrous texture, gets tough and malleable, 
and is then knoWn 2a forged or wrought iron. The average specific gravity 
of cast-iron is 7.27; that of forged, 7.78. Iron is attracted by the 
magnet, and is itself susceptible of being rendered magnetic —a property 
possessed by no other metal except nickel. It is capable of forming alloys 
with several of the metals, though in this state little used ; and with a 
small proportion of combined carbon it forms tteel, a substance of incal- 
culable importance to all the industrial arts and manufactures. 

Unlike many of the other metals, iron is rarely found in a ntUive state ; 
and this in scarcely appreciable quantities, in stones and masses of 
meteoric origin. This meteoric iron, as it has been termed, contains nickel, 
along with cobalt and other metals ; and what is known as telluric iron 
occurs in minute grains and scales in other mineral veins, and contains 
carbon, graphite, or occasionally some other metal, but not nickel. On 
the whole, Tiative iron is a very rare and doubtful substance ; and all the 
iron of commerce is derived from ores (oxides, carbonates, &c. ) either pure 
or in combination with various earthy ingredients forming iroTistones. 
These ores and ironstones occur in rocks of all ages — ^the ores chiefly in 
veins and abnormid masses among metamorphic schists, the ironstones in 
bands and layers among the strata of the Carboniferous, Oolitic, and other 
later formations. The ores are usually regarded as belonging to two 
families—]^, the Sparby Iron Orbs, the most important member of 
which is siderite, spcUhose iron, or carbonate of iron, and which includes the 
clay ironstones, or the "clay-bands" and "black-bands" of the Coal and 
other formations ; and 2d, the Oxidised Iron Ores, embracing such well- 
known species as magnetite or magnetic iron, heinaiite or specular iron, 
limoniie or brown iron-ore, and the like. In nature, iron enters largely 
into the composition of many rocks and rocky compounds ; and also forms 
many chemical combinations, as oxides, carbonates, chromates, phosphates, 
sulphurets, and sulphates. Its presence in water is readily detected by 
the tincture of galls, or by the ferro-cyanateof potash — the former turn- 
ing weak solutions purple or dark-blue, and forming a black precipitate 
where the metal is more abundant — the latter producing Prussian blue 
under similar circumstances. — See tabulations, "Mineral SdHEME.'* 

IrOiii-Earfh. — A black pulyerulent compound of peroxide of iron imd 
protoxide of manganese, occurring in veins of ironstone in the crystalline 
schists. It attaches itself closely to anything on which it is rubbed, and 
is strongly attracted by the magnet. 

Iron-flinl— A familiar mineralogical term for some varieties of ferru- 
ginous quartz, which see. 

Iron Pyrites. — Bi-sulphurets of iron, of which mineralogists distinguish 
three species, — 1. Pyrite, yellow sulphuret of iron, or hexahedra) iron 
pyrites ; 2. Marcasiie, white sulphuret of iron, or prismatic iron pyrites ; 
and, 3. Pyrrlujiine, magnetic iron pyrites, or rhombohedral iron pjrrites. 

Iron Sinter. — Known also as pitchy iron ore or pittacite ; a recent pro- 
duct, arising apparently from the decomposition of mispickel, and occur- 



ring in old mines in reniform or stalactiiic brittle crusts of a dark-brown 
oolour and vitreous lustre. It consists of 85 iron protoxide, 26 arsenic 
acid, 9 sulphuric acid, and 30 water. 

Ironstone. — The ftimiUar as well as technical term for the ores of iron, 
whether occurring in sparry veins like ftematUe, fMngnetiiey and suleriu, or 
in regular strati6ed layers like the clay-hands and hlack-bands of the Coal- 
measures. Industrially, it is usual to apply the term to any ore, rock, or 
matrix that yields an available percentage of iron ; though in geology it 
were advisable to restrict it to ferriferous rocks of sedimentary origin. 

Isclmaciuithiis (Gr. ischnotf * slender, and a>cantha, spine).— A genus of 
Acanthodian fishes occurring abundantly in the Lower Old Bed Sandstone 
of Forfarshire, and resembling in general form the smaller species of dipla- 
canikuSf but differing in having the body longer and more fusiform, the 
scales smooth, the spines more slender, the teeth larger, the cranial bones 
covered with granular tubercles, and the eye-orbits larger and more 
widely apart. 

Iflch^tenu (Gr. itchy t, strength, and pteron, fin). — A genus of ganoid 
fishes, with smooth rhomboidal scales, from the Triassic strata of Virginia, 
and so named by Sir P. Egerton from the great size and strength of the 
fulcral rays of the dorsal fio. They differ from PalcBonisau, with which 
they were first classed, in being less heterocercal, having stoonger and 
more conical teeth, smaller mouth, and scales less ornamented. 

Islands (Lat. insula). — Occur either singly, when they are said to be 
independent ; or in groups or clusters, when they constitute archipdagoes. 
They are also distinguished as continental and pelagic— coTi^tiieTz^a^ when 
their proximity and geological character show them to be dependencies 
of the continent ; bsi6. pelagic when far o£r in the ocean they rise up inde- 
pendently, and are generally of volcanic or coralline formation. ^ 

Iso (Gr. isos, equal). — A prefix denoting equality or similarity, as iso- 
chronous, occurring in equal times ; isometrical, having similar dimensions. 

Isocdrdia (Gr. isos, like ; cardia, the heart). — The heart-cockle ; a genus 
of bivalve shells belonging to the family Cyprinidoe, and characterised by 
their large, ventricose, or sub-globujiar shells ; the umbones of which are 
distant and curved inwards, giving to the shell its peculiar heart-like 
shape. The living species are few, littoral, and burrowing in sand ; the 
fossil exceed seventy species, and are found in i^e Trias upwards. 

Isochelmal, Isocbim^nal (Gr. isos, and cheima, winter). — Having the 
same winter temperature ; hence isocheimal lines are those dravm through 
such places as have the same mean winter temperature. 

Isdchronons (Gr. isos, and chronos, time). — Occurring in equal times, or 
at intervals of the same duration ; as the strokes of the pulse, the swing 
of pendulums of equal lengths, and the like. 

Isocr^al (Gr. isos, and hrymos, extreme cold). — lines laid down on a 
map or chart to mark the limits of equal extreme cold are termed isocry- 
malt just as those of equal extreme heat are termed isothertnal, 

IsodyB&mic (Gr. isos, and dynamis, power). — Having the same power or 
force. Equal in power, and capable of producing the same results. 

Isogeoth6rmal (Gr. isos ; ge, the earth ; and therme, heat). ~ Applied to 
lines or divisions in the earth's crust wUch have the same mean annual 
temperature ; and employed a| being more definite than isothermal, inas- 
much as it refers solely to the land, whereas isothermal applies equally to 
air, land, and water. 


Tf ruiMT^iht* L*j 


Isdmerism^ Isomfoic (Gr. isos, and meros, part). — Applied in chemistry 
to express the relation existinf^ between bodies which agree in composition 
but differ in properties. Isomeric bodies generally agree in the relative 
proportion of their constituents only, and differ either in the aggr^ate 
number of their atoms, or in the manner in which these atoms are arranged. 

IiOin6rp]iisiii (6r. isoSf and morphe, form). — A term employed in chem- 
istry and mineralogy to designate the capability shown by two or more 
simple or compound substances to crystallise in one and the same form ; 
or often in forms which, though not identical, yet approximate very closely, 
when it has been named hoTnceotnorphitm, This similarity of form is gener- 
ally combined with a similarity in other physical properties. The law of 
isomorphism, as expressed by Mitscherlich, the discoverer of the doctrine, 
is this : — The same number of atoms combined in the same way produce 
the same crystalline form ; and crystalline form is independent of the 
chemical nature of the atoms, and determined only by their number and 
relative position. 

Is6poda (6r. isos, and potu, podos, a foot). — An order of Crustaceans, 
which, like the oniscits or woodlouse, have the trunk divided into seven 
rings or segments, each segment sustaining a pair of similar unguiculate 
feet ; hence the name. In the Isopods, the head or cephalic segment is 
distinct from the trunk ; is furnished with antennsd, and with sessile eyes, 
which are either composed of clusters of ocelli or compound. Remains of 
the order (Arckceoniscus) have been found in the Purbeck beds. 

I'sopyre (Gr. isos, and pyr^ fire). — An amorphous, brittle, greyish-black 
mineral, of a vitreous lustre, and slightly magnetic. It occurs in the 
granites of Cornwall, and in the trap-rocks near Edinburgh ; and consists, 
according to Turner, of 47.09 silica, 13.91 alumina, 15.43 lime, 20.07 iron 
peroxide, and 1.94 copper oxide. The name refers to the-slight change 
produced on its aspect by fusion. 

IflOtheral (Gr. isos, and theros, summer). — Having the same summer 
temperature; Isotheral lines, lines connecting all those places on the 
surface of the globe which have the same mean summer temperature. 

Isothermal (Gr. isos, and therme^ heat). — Having the same temperature ; 
of equal temperature. In physical geography. Isothermal lines are lines 
connecting aU those places on the surface of the globe which have the 
same mean temperature ; and as temperature is governed by relative dis- 
tribution of land and water, by altitude, and other conditions, places on 
the same parallels of latitude' are often on very different isothermal lines. 

Pttnerite (after Ittner). — A rather rare mineral, occurring in granular 
aggr^ates in trap and volcanic rocks, and consisting of silica, alumina, 
and soda, with lime, sulphuric acid, and water. Allied to sodalite, nosean, 
and hailyne. 

Ivory, Fossil. — ^The terms "Fossil Ivory" and "Siberian Ivory" are 
frequently given to the teeth and tusks of the mammoth, which at one 
time were, and are still, collected in considerable abundance from the 
plains, shores, and low islands of Siberia. In 1844, it is said that about 
16,000 lb. weight of this ivory was obtained from these regions, and of a 
quality, for the most part, superior to the recent ivory of Africa. 

rzolyte (Gr. ixos, glue or birdlime, and lithos, stone). — One of the min- 
eral resins, of a hyacinth-red colour, and found in amor^/hous lumps in tho 
Tertiary lignites of Austria ; allied to Hartite. It becomes soft at 169°, 
and is still viscid at 212° Fahr. ; hence its name. 


w— — '-- r^ 

m ■ iiii ■ I ip ■!" I WW 


Jade. — A hard, tough, siliceo-magnesian rook of a dark leek-green 
colour, smooth surface, and somewhat soapy feel. It o<ft:urs in compact 
masses, has a coarse, splintery fracture, and is found in various pai'ts of 
Europe, America, Egypt, China, and New Zealand. It consists chiefly of 
silica, magnesia, and Ume, with a small percentage of iron and alumina, 
and from its composition is supposed to be a peculiar condition of augite 
and hornblende. Being tenacious and susceptible of a fine polish, it is 
worked into amulets, ringstones, chains, and other ornaments. In China 
it is valued for its supposed medicinal properties in nephritic or kidney 
diseases, hence the synonyme nephrite; and in New Zealand a variety, 
called by the natives ''Poenamu," is fashioned into axes, hangers, idols, 
&c. : hence also the occasional term axe-stone. 

Jagged. — Irregularly cut or notched; denticulated or toothed like a 
saw. Applied to the sharp irregular edges and surfaces of minerals and 

Jamb. — A miner's term for any thick mass of rock which prevents them 
pursuing the lode or vein. 

Jamesonite (after Professor Jameson). — Sulphcmtimonite of lead ; an ore 
consisting principally of the sulphurets of lead and antimony ; or, accord- 
ing to analysis, of 43.44 lead, 35.47 antimony, 17.20 sulphur, with traces 
of copper, zinc, and iron. 

Japan Carrent. — That branch of the equatorial current of the Pacific 
which trends northward along the J apan coasts, and carries along with it 
the warm waters of the equator to the North Pacific. In its origin, course, 
and character, this current greatly resembles the Gulf Stream of the 
Atlantic, which see. 

Jargon or Jargon of Diamond.— A lapidary's term for a Cingalese variety 
of zircon, colourless specimens of which are often sold for diamonds. Col- 
oured sorts are known as " Matura diamonds," from a district in Ceylon 
where they occur in worn angular fr^ments among the river sands. — See 

Jasper (Gr. jaspis). — A somewhat loosely-applied term for many siliceous 
compounds. When quartz is combined with a small proportion of alu- 
mina and iron, it loses its transparency and becomes jasper, which is con-" 
sequently tougher or less easily broken. "Jasper," says Nicol, discol- 
oured red by the peroxide, yellow or brown by the hydrate of iron, but 
also exhibits many other colours, as green, grey, white, and black, in 
some kinds alone, in others in spots, veins, and bands — the latter the 
ribbon or Egyptian jasper.*^ It is found abundantly, in veins and bands, 
in rocks of all ages ; and some varieties, as the porcelain jasper, are evi- 
dently beds of slaty shale, altered by the action of heat. Jasper is sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish, and is largely manufactured into brooches, brace- 
lets, snuff-boxes, knife-handles, vases, inlaid-work, &c. 

Jaspideons, Jaspidean.— Resembling jasper ; of the nature of, or con- 
taining jasper. 



JfiffBTMiiite (after Jefferson). — A variety of augite from Sparta in New 
Jersey, of a dark olive or black colour, and resinous or semi-metallic 

Jet (jayet, gagitety from Gaga, a river in Asia Minor). — This well-known 
substance is rather a species of amber than coal, and is usually known in 
Prussia as " black amber." It occurs in nodiUes and lumps, in lignitic 
strata ; is electric when rubbed ; is more resinous in lustre than the finest 
cannel coal, and is also specifically lighter. Though evidently of vegetable 
origin, it seldomft-eveals to the naked eye the woody texture like lignite, 
but is uniform like asphalt — its intense velvety-black well adapting it for 
mourning ornaments, as ear-rings, brooches, bracelets, buttons, and the 
like. It is found in great purity and abundance in the cliffe of alum-shale 
on the Yorkshire coast ; hence the '' jet manufactories " of Whitby and 

Jigging. — ^A miner's term for a method of dressing the smaller ores of 
copper, lead, &c., by the aid of a wire sieve suiqpended and shaken in a vat 
of water, so that the smallest particles pass through the sieve, and the 
larger are ** Boi*ted " — ^that is, the lighter and more earthy remain at the 
top, and the heavier and mure metallic settle below. 

Johnaonite (after Professor Johnstone of Durham). — A supersulphide of 
lead, consisting of 90.38 galena and 8.71 sulphur. It occurs associated 
with galena in many lead mines, and seems merely a finely granular variety 
mixed with more or less free sulphur. It is known among miners by the 
name of ** burning galena." 

Joints. — The fissures or rents which divide rock-masses into blocks 
more or less regular are properly so termed. They have been defined as 
<' natural fissures, traversing rocks in straight and well-determined lines, 
and forming planes of separation which are often slightly open, and which, 
as they do not merely pass through strata, but through various semi- 
crystalline aggregations within tiie stratified mass, were evidently formed 
since tlie original accumulation of the strata." This jointed structure 
appears to have arisen in certain strata from shrinkage or contraction of 
the deposit while in the process of solidifying ; in many instances it is the 
result of mechanical upheaval and disturbance ; while in others the lines 
of fissure have definite compass-bearings, are arranged in sets, and seem 
to obey some more general but as yet undetermined law. In basalt and 
other columnar structures the joints are usually regarded as the results of 
crystallisation on a large scaJe. Referring the direction of joints in strati- 
fied rocks to lines of upheaval, Professor Sedgwick calls those which run 
parallel to the strike " strike joints ;" those parallel to the dip, " dip joints;*' 
and all others he calls " diagonal joints." It is also customary to speak of 
" master joints," or those that are regular and run parallel for considerable 
distances, in contradistinction to " ordinary joints," the former constitut- 
ing the *' backs '^ and the latter the '* cutters " of the quarryman. Again, 
in mining phraseology the jointings and fissures which accompany sudden 
flexures (anticlines or saddles, and synclines or troughs) are known respec- 
tively as *' saddle-joints," or *' huckle-joints," and " trough-joints." 

JtUoeido-Coprolites (6r. ioulos, a catkin, and eidos, resemblance). — ^The 
name given to the coprolites or fossil excrement of some unknown animal, 
in allusion to their catkin-like form. 

Jumper.— In mining and quarrying, a large iron borer steeled at each 
end and worked by the hand. 



Jnncites (Lat. jurucut, a rush). — Fossil stems and leaves apparently re- 
]atedtothe«/i£92,cacae or Rush family, which are chiefly inhabitants of marshy 
tracts in the temperate and colder regions. Such striated, grooved, and 
tapering rush-like fragments of leaves occur from the Devonian formation 
upwards, but their true af&nities are not yet determined. 

Jnniperites (Lat. juniper lu, the juniper-tree). — The generic term for 
such fossil coniierse as are evidently allied to the juniper. Several species 
occur in Tertiary lignites, and are known by their short, obtuse, broad- 
based leaves, arranged iu four opposite rows round irregularly-forking 

Jura Llmefltone. — A term applied by Continental geologists to the lime- 
stones of the Jura Mountains, as equivalent with the Oolite and Lias of 
English geologists. It is the Jura-kalk of German geologists. 

Jnrastic. — A synonyme of the Oolitic system, from the characteristic oc- 
currence of its strata in the Jura Mountidns, between France and Switzer- 
land. The Jura beds are composed of limestones of various qualities, 
sands, sandstones, and thin-bedded clays, and contain the same fossils as 
those found in the Oolite and Lias of England. Indeed, it is remarked by 
Sir C. Lyell, " that in the Jura (distant about 4(X) geographical miles) the 
analogy to the accepted English type, notwithstanding the thinness or 
occasional absence of the clays, is more perfect than in Yorkshire or Nor- 
mandy.*' There is this difference, however, to be observed, that while the 
English beds are little altered or disturbed from their original sedimentary 
character, those of the Jura and the outer ranges of the Alps are often 
highly indurated and crystalline. Continental geologists are in the habit 
of dividing the Jurassic formation into three groups — ^viz., the " White (or 
Upper) Jura," " Brown (or Middle) Jura," and "Black (or Lower) Jura." 
—See Oolitic System, and tabulations, " Geoloqioai^ Scheme." 


Kainu or Eames.— The name given in Scotland to the elongated and 
often flat-topped mounds of post-glacial gravel which occur scattered over 
the lower ends of almost all the great valleys of that country. Known as 
etkirs or etcars in Ireland, and as dsan in Sweden, which see. 

Kamp^caris (Gr. hvmpe, a grub or caterpillar, and carit, shrimp). — A 
small crustacean discovered by the Author in the grey flagstones (Lower 
Old Red) of Forfarshire, and so named from its appearance. From its 
imperfect preservation its true affinities cannot be well ascertained — 
that is, whether a small phyllopod, or the larval stage of some lai^ger 

KAmpyUte (Gr. kampylos, curved).— An arsenlate of lead or variety of 
mimetUe, occurring with other ores of the metal in bezagonid prisms of a 
fine orange-yeUow, and containing in addition phosphate of lime and traces 
of chromate of lead. So called from the curved or barrel-shaped form of 
its crystals. 

Kaiid or Caad. — A familiar term among Cornish miners for fluor-spar. 



Kaaeelsteiii. — A variety of garnet ranging from hyacinth-red to orange- 
yellow, and known also as Hessoniie and Cinnamon-stone, 

Kangaroo. — A well-known marsupial, the species of which are exclusively 
restricted to the Australian continent. Remains of more gigantic propor- 
tions than any existing species occur in the ossiferous cayems of Austra- 
lia ; and in the earlier Post-Tertiary deposits remains of still larger mar- 
supials {IHprotodonf ZygonuUwtu, &c.), apparently allied to the kangaroo, 
are by no means uncommon. — See Macropus. 

K4olin (Chin. Kau-ling^ high -ridge; the name of a hill whence the 
mineral is obtained). — The name given to the finest porcelain or China 
clays, arising for the most part from the decomposition of felspar in soft 
earthy granites. Kaolin occurs in beds and masses, more or less pure, and 
is generally prepared for use by repeated levigations. The best varieties 
of this hydrous silicate of alumina are of a white or grey colour, soft and 
meagre to the touch when dry, and plastic when wet. Their composition 
is variable ; bat 48 silica, 39 alumina, and 13 water, may be taken as an 
available average. 

Eapnite. — A variety of calamine or carbonate of sine, containing more 
than 15 per cent of iron protoxide. The light-green varieties are generally 
known as fermginoiLS zinc-spar ; and the dark-green, or those which be- 
come brown by the oxidation of the iron, as zinc-iron spar. 

Kaioo. — A term applied to the open clayey flats of Southern Africa, 
which often rise, terrace-like, to considerable elevations, and are hard and 
steppe-like in the dry season, but in the wet season are speedily trans- 
formed into grassy, flower-besplangled plains. The term is thought to be 
derived from the Hottentot word Karusaf signifying " hard," and to refer 
to the quality of the red clayey soil, which, being impregnated with iron 
and mixed with sand, becomes hard as burnt clay under the influence of 
continued drought. 

Slirpholite, Carpholite (Gr. harpkos, straw, and lUkos). — One of the 
hornblende family, occurring in zeolitic, or fine radiating capillary crystals, 
of a straw-yellow ; hence the name. 

Earphosiderite, Carphoaiderite (Gr. harpkos, straw, and sideros, iron). — 
A straw-coloured mineral occurring in kidney-shaped resinous-looking 
concretions, resembling iron-sinter ; and consisting, according to Harkort, 
of hydrous phosphate of iron, with a little oxide of zinc. 

Eantenite (after Karsten). — Hausmann's synonyme for anhydrite or 
prismatic gypsum. 

Eastor and Polinz. — Two minerals of the Felspar family, so named by 
Breithaupt from their always occun*ing together. They resemble quartz 
in their hardness, transparency, and vitreous lustre; and are the most 
siliceous of the crystalline silicates. 

Keene's Cement. — A calcareous cement or plaster now much used in the 
interior of houses, from its taking a fine polish. " If," says Ansted, " in- 
stead of being used with water, plaster-of-Paris in fine powder is thrown 
into a vessel containing a saturated solution of alum, and after soaking for 
some time is taken out, rebaked, once more reduced to powder, and then 
moistened with a solution of alum instead of pure water before use, you 
have Keen^s Cement.** 

EeiL — The same as reddle (rcethel) or red-clay. An argillaceous peroxide 
of iron, of a fine deep red, and used for marking. 

Xelloway-Bock.— A calcareous or rather calcareo-arenaoeous member of 



the Middle Oolite, from three to five feet thick, aboundiDg in fosail shells 
(often entirely made up of them), and so called from its being well de- 
veloped at Kelloway-bridge, Wiltshire.— See Oolitic System. 

Kelp. — The common term for the crude soda obtained from the ashes of 
various/ua, and other sea- weeds. It was at one time extensively prepcu^ 
along the northern coasts of Scotland and Ireland, as well as on the coasts 
of Holland and France, and used in the preparation of soap, alum, bottle- 
glass, &c., but is now almost entirely superseded by the soda obtained 
from sea-salt. — See Babilla. 

Eentiflh Bag. — A provincial term for a member of the Lower Greensand, 
consisting of a highly fossiliferous grey cherty or arenaceous limestone, 
much used for building in Kent and Sussex. 

Kent's Hole. — A celebrated ossiferous cavern situated in the Devonian 
limestone near Torquay, in Devonshire, and which has largely yielded to 
its explorers remains of mammoth, tichorhine rhinoceros, cave-bear, cave- 
hysBna, and other extinct mammals, associated with flint implements and 
other evidences of man*s comtemporaneity with this ancient and now ob- 
literated fauna. — See OssiFeBOUS Caverns. 

Kerate, Kerargyne (Gr. heraSf a horn, and argyroriy silver).— Chloride 
of silver ; horn silver — so called from ite cutting like horn. Ke^te is 
generally a recent formation, occurring in the upper part of veins, and on 
silver that has been buried in the earth, or long immersed in sea- water. 

Keratoph^ee (Gr. heras, horn, and phyton, a shoot). —An old zoological 
term for those polypes which have a homy axis like the sea-fans, in con- 
tradistinction to the lithophytet or true stony corals. 

KermeSi Kermesite {kermes, the cochineal insect).— One of the ores of 
antimony (oxy-sulphide), so called from its deep cherry-red colour. It 
consists, according to Eose, of 75.06 antimony, 4.78 oxygen, and 20.49 sul- 

K6rolite-(Gr. Jceros, wax, lUhos, stone). — Sesquihydrate of silicate of mag- 
nesia, consisting of 46.96 silica, 81.26 magnesia, and 21.22 water, and 
found in variously-shaped masses in connection with serplutine and other 
magnesian rocks. It is white or greenish white, has a resinous or waxy 
lustre, feels greasy, but does not adhere to the tongue. 

Keros^e Oil (Gr. Jceros, wax, and elaion, oil). — The name given by C. 
Gesner to a distillation from coals, bitumen, petroleum, or other bitumi- 
nous minerals, and largely employed for lighting purposes in the United 
States. The same or closely related to the paraffine oils of the British pa- 

Keuper (Ger.)— Literally "copper ;" an abbreviated term for the upper 
member of the Trias, which consists in Germany of variegated cupriferous 
marls and marl slates, sandstones, gypsum, and carbonaceous slate-clay — 
making in all a thickness of from 800 to 1000 feet. The keuper is the equi- 
valent of the saliferous and gypseous shales and sandstones of Cheshire. — 
See Tbiassio System. 

Kibble. — In mining, a bucket, usually of iron, in which ore is drawn to 
the surface. 

Kidney-Lron-ore. — A familiar term for those varieties of haematite which 
occur in reniform or kidney-shaped concretions. 

Kieselgnhr (Ger.) — Literally '' flint-fermentation ;" the German term for 
the bergmahl or mountain-meal of Lapland, which resembles a siliceous 
paste or yeast, and consists chiefly of the siliceous shields of diatomacese. 



iOL — KLE 

KiUEeniLy Goal— A name occasionally given to anthraoite, from its oc- 
curring at Kilkenny in Ireland. — See Aj^thracite. 

KUIm. — A Cornish name for a coarse argillaceous schist, or clay-slate, 
in which many of the metalliferous veins in that county and Devonshire 

KQlinite. — A greenish grey or yellowish mineral, belonging to the 
Felspar family, and supposed by some to be only a decomposed ipodumfne, 
with which it occurs in the granite at Eillioey, near Dublin. 

Kim-CoaL — A provincial term for a highly bituminous shale occurring in 
the Oolitic beds at Kimmeridge. This shale has been locally used as an 
inferior coal, and attempts have been made to distil from it naphtha, par- 
affine, and other analogous products. Sir C. Lyell is inclined to believe 
that its bitumen is partly of vegetable and partly of animal origin. 

Kimmeridgt (Say. — A member of the Upper Oolite, consisting of thick 
beds of bluish-grey slaty clay, and in great part of a bituminous shide, 
which sometimes forms an impure coal (Kim-CooU). The group is well 
developed at Eammeridge in the isle of Purbeck, Dorsetshire ; hence the 
name. It is also largely developed and highly fossiliferous near Hartwell, 
in the vale of Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. 

King-Crab. — Known also as the ''horse-shoe crab,*' from the shape of 
its carapace or shield ; the Limulut of systematic zoology, which see. 

Eirkdale Cave.— A celebrated cavern occurring in the Coralline Oolite 
at Eirkdale, about twenty-five miles N.N.E. of York, and remarkable for 
the variety as well as abundance of bones found imbedded in tiie calcareous 
mud that overspreads its floor. — See OsBiFBRons Caverns. 

Elrwanite (after Eichard Eirwan of Dublin, a distinguished mineralogist 
of the last century). — A mineral nearly allied to prehnite, of a dark olive 
green, and occurring in spheroidal masses, with a radiating fibrous texture 
in basalt in the Moume Mountains, Ireland. Probably a variety of Oreen 

Eitcheii-lKiddenB.— The shell-mounds or Kj^khen-mUddings of Denmark 
and other northern shores, which see. 

Kivi-ElTi. — The native name for the Apteryx, or wingless bird of New 
Zealand, sub-fossil congeners of which have been found in the river-silts of 
that country. — See Aftertz. 

EJdkken-Mddding (Dan. )~ Literally "Eitchen-middens ;" the name 
given by the Danes to certain mounds which occur along their sea-coasts, 
and which consist chiefly of the castaway shells of the oyster, cockle, peri- 
winkle, and other edible kinds of shell-fish. These mounds, which have 
also been found on the shores of Moray and the north of Scotland, are 
from 8 to 10 feet high, and from 100 to 1000 feet in their longest diameter. 
They greatly resemble heaps of shells formed by the Red Indians, along 
the eastern shores of the United States, before these tribes were extirpated. 
The "Eitchen-middens" of Europe are ascribed by archseologists to an 
early people unacquainted with the use of metal, as all the implements 
foimd in them are of stone, horn, bone, or wood, with fragments of rude 
pottery and traces of wood-fires. All the bones yet found are those of 
wild animals, with the exception perhaps of the dog, which seems to have 
been domesticated. 

EUprothlne (after Elaproth the chemist). — Same as Azurite, Prismatic 
Azure-spar, or Lazvlit, which see. 

El^yn Spawm or Idmbnrg BecU.- An important group of highly fossil- 



iferous strata belonging to the Upper Eocene or Lower Miocene epoch. 
They consist of sands, clays, and marls of marine or fluyio-marine origin, 
and are the equivalents of the Hempstead beds in the Isle of Wight. 

Enebellite.— A mineral of a grey, green, or reddish-brown colour, 
apparently a Tariety of olivine, and consisting of about equal parts of silica, 
iron protoxide, and manganese. 

Kn6rria (after Enorr). — ^A genus of Coal-measure plants, embracing 
those stems the leaves of which were densely arranged in spiral manner, 
and left projecting instead of depressed leaf-scars. They are usually ranked 
as Lycopodt, but seem intermediate between them and the Coniferos. — See 

Kobellite (after Von Kobell). — Sulphobismuthate of lead ; an ore occur- 
ring in the cobalt-mines of Sweden, of a dark lead-grey like grey anti- 
mony, but with a brighter lustre ; soft ; with a radiated structure. 

Koenen Beds.— Known also as the " Upper St Cassian Beds," from their 
occurrence at St Cassian in the Austrian Alps ; a series of grey and black 
limestone with calcareous marls, by some regarded as Upper Triassic and 
by others as Lower Liassic. They contain abundantly Avieula C07itorta, 
Cardium Rkceticum, &c., and are supposed to represent the bone bed of 
Swabia.— See Rhaetio Beds and Avicula Contorta Zonb. 

yffnlwftklffi. — In honour of M. De Koninck ; a genus of braohiopods 
belonging to the Orihidas, and characteristic of the St Cassian or Upper 
Triassic beds of the Austrian Alps. The shell is distinguished by its 
smooth, round, concavo-convex valves ; incurved beak destitute of hinge 
area and foramen; and by the four-coiled spiral furrows which mark 
either valve and were once occupied by the arms. 

Eeth. —A name given by the Spaniards to an earthy slimy substance 
ejected from the volcanoes of South America. It is of a blackish- brown 
colour ; has an earthy texture ; and is but slightly coherent. Known also 
as Moi/a and Canagua. 

EOnlite, EOnleinite. — One of the hydro-carbons (92.43 carbon, 7.57 
hydrogen) occurring in thin white plates and scales in the Brown Coals of 
(Germany, and resembling ScheererUe. 

Koi&pholite (Gr. kouphot, light, and litkos). — A term used by Lametheric 
for Prehnite, which see. 

Knuitiite (after Dr Krantz of Bonn). — A fossil resin of a yellowish- 
brown or dark-brown colour, occurring in grains and roundish pieces in 
the Brown Coals of Germany ; somewhat elastic ; sectile ; fuses at 437° 
Fahr., and at 57*2° distils over a brownish oil having a very disagreeable 
and penetrating odour. 
Kryolite ; more commonly Cryolite, which see. 

Knlock or Eahloch, near RabensteUi in Franconia, on the bank of the 
Esbach, celebrated for its remarkable ossiferous cave. — See Ossivebcus 

Kdnknr. — A Hindostanee term for a superficial accumulation, which in 
point of time seems to correspond pretty well with the Drift or Boulder- 
Clay ot Europe. ' ' 1 1 is compact, ' ' says Ansted, ' ' often nodular or tufaceous, 
and frequently small-concretionary ; of light-brown, reddish, or ash-grey 
coloiur ; and rarely fossilif erous. In its composition it is chiefly calcareous, 
containing about 72 per cent of carbonate of lime, and 15 per cent of 
silica, with 18 per cent of alumina. It spreads over a very large propor- 
tion of India and the adjoining countries, being more especially abundant 



in the line of country running up from Guzerat to the north-east^ towards 
Delhi. It is constantly observed, not only occup3ring the low ground, but 
reposing under the vegetable soil of the elevated plains and plateaux of 
Central India, and even on the summitR of hills between 2000 and 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea.'* Kunkur deposits are sometimes 60 and 70 
feet thick, and seem, according to Captain Newbold, to have arisen from 
calcareous springs. AU the lime of the Punjaub is derived from the 

EupHsr-Kickd (Grer.)— Copper-nickel, prismatic nickel pyrites, or Nickel- 
ine, which see. It consists of arsenic and nickel, with sulphur, traces of 
cobalt, iron, lead, &c., and is used as an ore of nickel, and in the manufac- 
ture of Grerman silver. 

Eupfer-Schiefisr (Ger.) — LiteraUy copper-slate; a dark bituminous- 
looking slaty marl-stone, associated with the Zechstein (mine-stone) of 
Germany, and richly impregnated with copper-pyrites, for which it is 
extensively worked. It is the equivalent of the magnesian marl-slates 
(Lower Permian) of Durham^ &c., and abounds in finely-preserved fishes — 
palsBoniscus, pygopterus, platysomus, &c. — peculiar to that formation. 

Eyanite. — Same as Cyanite, which see. 

Eyson Sands. — A bed of Eocene sand, occurring at Kyson or Kingston, 
a few miles east of Woodbridge in Suffolk, and celebrated for its yielding 
the remains j>f the monkey tribe — Macacm eoccenus of Owen. 

L&bradorlte. ^Called also opaUsceM felspar, or LaJbrador felspar , from' 
the locality where first found ; a variety of disseminated felspar having a 
peculiar pearly and iridescent play of colours when the light falls on it in 
certain directions. Bonsdorff ascribes this property to an excess of silica ; 
Haidinger affirms that the play of colours proceeds from certain regularly- 
defined points. Labradorite is a soda-lime felspar, and occurs most abun- 
dantly as a constituent of rocks ; when found in crystals or in veins it 
takes a fine polish, and is used as an onmmental stone. 

Labyrinthodon (Gr. lahyrinUios, a place full of intricate passages, and 
odouSf tooth). — A name given by Professor Owen to a batrachian reptile 
of the New Bed Sandstone, in allusion to the labyrinthine structure ex- 
hibited by sections of its teeth. No complete skeleton of the labyrinth- 
odon has yet been discovered, but it is supposed to be one and the same 
with the Cheiro^ierium, the hand-like impressions of whose feet are so 
frequent on the slabs of the New Red Sandstone formation. The Laby- 
rinthodont saurians, described at different times under the names Cheiro- 
therium, MastodonsauruSf SalamandroideSf and Phytosaurus, are all referred 
by Owen to the genus Labyrinthodon, and appear to range from the 
Devonian to the Triassic inclusive. 

Labyrinthodbntia (Gr. UibyrirUhos, a labyrinth, and od(yus, tooth). — One 
of the thirteen orders into which Professor Owen proposes to arrange the 


LAC — LAK • 

Reptilia^ living and extinct. The name refers to the complex structure 
characterising the teeth in the several genera of the order^the complications 
being produced by undulations and side-branches of the converging folds 
of cement. As in the GaTiocephala (which see), the head is defended by«a 
continuous casque of extemsJly sculptured and usually hard and polished 
osseous plates ; there are two occipital condyles ; the vomer is divided 
and is dentigerous ; there are two external nostrils ; the vertebral centres, 
as well as arches, are ossified and are biconcave ; the pleurapophyses of 
the trunk are long and bent ; the limbs ambulatory, and the hinder large 
in proportion. The order embraces such genera as Lalnfrinthodon, Masto- 
donsaurus, Capitomurus, &c., all founded on minor modifications of the 
skull, teeth, scutes, &c. 

Lac^rtian, Lacertflian (Lat. lacerta, a lizard). — ^Belonging to or resem- 
bling the Lacertinidae or Lizard family, a well-known group of saurian 
reptiles, recent and fossil. In Owen's arrangement of the Keptiles, the 
liacertilia constitute his tenth order ; and are specialised as having pro- 
coelian vertebrsB, with a single transverse process on each side, and with 
single-headed ribs ; the sacral vertebrae not exceeding two. The order 
seems to range from the Wealden to the present day, and includes such 
fossil forms as Coniosaums^ Dolichosaurus, Motesaurus, &c., the head of 
the latter being fully five feet long. 

Lacdstrine, Laedstral (Lat. la^cus, a lake). — Of or belonging to a lake ; 
as " lacustrine deposits," that is, deposits which have been accumulated 
in fresh-water areas, as lakes and marshes. They usually consist of mud, 
sand, clay, marl (fresh-water limestone), peat-moss, and the like, and 
contain the remains of aquatic plants an4 animals, mingled less or more 
with those of land species. — See Lakes. 

Lsemodipoda (Gr. laimos, the throat ; dis, two ; and potu, podos, foot).— 
A family of crustaceans, thus named because they have the anterior pair 
of feet placed under the head, as though at the throat — the first segment 
of the trunk, which carries these feet, being conjoined with that of the 
head ; e,g,, the cyamus, or whale-louse. In the Laemodipods the eyes are 
sesi^e; tiie posterior part of the body is little developed; they do not 
swim, but creep on marine plants and animals in search of food ; and in 
most (says Van der Hoeven) the feet are wanting in those rings that carry 
gill-vesicles, and conversely the gill-vesicles are wanting on those rings 
that have feet. 

Ldgomys (Gr. lagoSf hare, and mutj rat). — Literally, '* hare-rat;" the Pika 
of Siberia ; a small tailless rodent forming a link between the hare and the 
rat, and occurring only in the northern regions of Asia and America. 
Several species have been found fossil in the ossiferous caverns and breccia, 
as well as in the ancient lacustrine deposits of Europe. 

Lagoon, Lagttne (Ital. Zo^itTia).— Generally applied, as in the Adriatic, 
to shallow salt-water lakes or sheets of water cut off (or nearly so) from the 
sea by intervening strips of beach or river-deposit ; also to the waters en- 
closed by circular conJ-reefs ; as well as to the lake-like sheets th^t fre- 
quently occur in tidal and periodically inundated deltas. 

Lake (Lat. locus), — The general term for any inland body of water not 
connected with the ocean or any of its branches. Lakes occur in depres- 
sions of the earth's surface more or less below the level of the surrounding 
coimtry, and, generally speaking, have a tendency to become shallower, 
both from the silt that is carried int<r them by their feeding streams, and 


* LAK — LAM 

from the gradual deepening of the river-channel which forms their natund 
drainage. This tendency being continued, they, in process of time, become 
silted up, drained, and converted into tracts of alluvial land ; hence it may 
l^ laid down as a geological axiom that in all long-established continents 
and islands lakes are now shallower, smaller, and fewer than in former ages. 
In the Current as well as in the Tertiary epoch we have abundant evidence 
of such obliterations; the formations arising from lake-silt (lacustrine 
deposits) being characterised by peculiarities lithological and pal8eontolo« 
gical which separate them in a marked manner from marine sediments. 
These peculiarities are, tranquillity of deposition, absence of littoral action, 
the remains of fresh-water plants and animals, with a greater admixture of 
terrestrial organisms ; and with these as guides there is little difficulty in 
determining lacustrine from estuary or oceanic deposits. Existing lakes 
are usually divided into foiwr kinds — viz., 1. Those that have neither out- 
let nor inlet— subterranean springs and rains supplying the water, and 
evaporation carrying off the excess. These are usually small mountain- 
lakes or tarM, and the craters of extinct volcanoes. 2. Those which have 
an outlet, but receive no running water, being fed by springs rising from 
their bottoms and rocky margins. Lakes of this class are also small and 
situated in mountainous r^ons. 3. Those which both receive and dis- 
charge streams of running water, and which form alike the most numer- 
ous and most extensive in both hemispheres. 4. Those which, like the 
Caspian, &c., receive streams of running water, but have no visible outlet 
— the balance of level being maintained by evaporation. Such lakes are 
more or less impregnated with saline matter ; and their saltness must be 
on the increase. 

Lake-Basin.— In geography, ' the depressed area which contains the 
waters of a lake ; also the entire area drained by the streams that fall into 
a lake. In geology, the concavity or basin-shaped hollow in which the 
waters of a lake rest, and which in some instances has arisen from an ori- 
ginal depression of the surface, in others from a damming up of valleys by 
cross mounds of debris, such 'as moraines, &c., and in some again from 
excavations that have been scooped out by the forcible and long-continued 
pressure of glaciers and analogous ice-masses. 

Lake-Dwellings. — The name given by archaeologists and geologists to 
the remains of dwellings now found in marshes and lake-silts, and which 
seem to have been erected on piles driven in the water, or on mounds partly 
formed of stones, wood, and other debris. These lake-dwellings have been 
found in Switzerland, Ireland, Scotland, and other countries of Europe, 
and point to a time when the early inhabitants betook themselves to this 
style of habitation for purposes of defence and protection. In some in- 
stances, as in Switzerland, the piled area is of considerable extent (forming 
an aquatic village as it were) and connected with the shore by a piled 
way or causeway. Known in Ireland as Crannoges, and in Switzerland as 
PfaMbavien^ which scq. 

Ldmantin. — The manatus, manatee, or sea-cow; an herbivorous ceta- 
cean, inhabiting the mouths of tropical rivers in Africa and South America. 
Fossil species occur in the Miocene and Pliocene Tertiaries of Europe. 

Lam^ar, Lamellated (Lat. lamella, diminutive of lamiiia, a little plate). 
— Composed of very thin plates or scales ; foliated ; in paper-like leaves, %3 
talc, mica, the oyster-shell, &c. 

Lam6Uibranchi4ta {lamella, a little plate, and hranchio!, the gills). — 



Blainville's term for the Conchifera, a class of bivalve shell-fish which, like 
the oysters, scallops, mussels, and cockles, respire by membraneous or 
leaf-like gills attached to the mantle. — See Conchifera. 

Ldmina^ plur. T.atwi-nfff — The Latin term for any thin leaf-like plate, as 
of metal. Many stratified rocks split up into thin layers or lamince; hence 
the terms lamiiMxtedf laminar, &c. 

Laminirian Zone \lami71aria, the sea-tangle). — That zone or belt of ma- 
rine life which commences at low-water mark, and extends to a depth from 
forty to ninety feet, and in British seas is characterised, as its name im- 
plies, by the broad waving sea-tangle and larger algse, by star-fishes, the 
common echinus, by tubularia, modiola,, and puUastra. — See Zone. 

Laminarites (lami'MMriaf the broad sea- tangle). — A term applied by 
Brongniart to the broad-leaved fossil algse of the Upper, Secondary, and 
T^iary formations. 

Laminated (Lat lamina, a thin plate).— Applied to strata splitting up 
into thin layers, as certain fiagstones and tilestones, which occasionally 
exhibit from twenty to thirty laminae in the thickness of a single inch — 
each lamina being the result of an independent deposit in tranquil waters. 

Lamini^tion (Lat. lamina, a plate or layer.) — Arrangement in layers. 
Lamination prevails less or more in all sedimentary deposits, and is, for 
the most part, parallel to the lines of bedding or stratification ; oblique 
lamination or falH bedding occurs, however, in many coarse thick-bedded 
sandstones, and seems as if the material composing the stratum had been 
carried forward by currents into deep water, and laid mass after mass on 
the sloping edge of the advancing deposit. 

Limna (Gr., a plate of metal). — A genus of sharks whose thin, sharp, 
plate-like teeth occur abundantly in the Chalk and Tertiary formations. 
These teeth are rather flat, sharp-pointed, with smooth trenchant edged, 
and a small sharp denticle (or little tooth) on either side the base. 

Ldnarkite. — Sulphate and carbonate of lead, occurring either massive 
or in long, slender, right-rhombic prisms, of a greenish- white or grey colour, 
sectile, and in thin laminae fiiexible like gypsum. First found at Leadhills 
in Lanarkshire, hence the name. 

Ldnoeolate, Landform (Lat. lancea, a lance or spear). — Lance-shaped ; 
narrow and tapering like the leaves of many plants ; e.g., the common rib- 

Landes (Fr.) — Literally, heaths; but applied in particular by French 
writers to those extensive areas of sand-drift which stretch southward from 
the mouth of the Garonne along the Bay of Biscay, and inwaixls towards 
Bourdeaux— hence often spoken of as the " Landes de Bourdeaux." They 
are extensively planted with the sea-pine {Pinus maritimui) on the seaward 
side, but stretch away inland in heathy undulating plains, chiefly occupied 
as sheep-runs. 

Land-Locked. — Applied to seas that are isolated from the rest of the 
ocean by peninsulas and chains of islands, as the Sea of Japan, the Sea of 
Okhotsk, &o. Land-locked seas are thus only partially enclosed or locked 
in by the land, while inland seas are surrounded on all sides by the land 
in a continuous manner, as the Baltic and Mediterranean. 

Landslip. — Any portion of land that has slidden down in consequence of 
some undermining or disturbing action. Landslips, as might be expected, 
are most frequent in districts subjected to earthquake disturbance, end 
there they sometimes take place on such a scale as materially to aflect the 

273 8 



surface oonfiguration of the country. They also occur eztensiToly in steep 
mountainous regions like the Alps and Himalayas, especially on the break- 
ing up of the winter's frosts, when large masses of the cliffs and mountain- 
sides, losing their cohesion, are precipitated into the valleys and river- 
courses below, with all their burden of soil, shrubs, and trees. In our own 
country they are sometimes occasioned by the undermining action of the 
waves, and not imfrequently, after heavy rains, by the softening of sub- 
jacent clayey beds where iJie strata are considerably inclined. For ex- 
amples see LyeU^s ' Principles.* 

Langite (after Prof. Victor Von Lang). — A basic sulphate of copper 
occurring as an incrustation upon the very soft Killcu slate of Cornwall, 
in masses of a rich blue colour,' and accompanied by crystals belonging to 
the prismatic system. According to Professor Maskelyne, who first de- 
scribed it, Langite differs from common sulphate of copper in being inft>l- 
uble in water. 

LAaiary, Laaiiriform (Lat. lanio, I cut or tear).— Applied to the canine 
or cutting teeth of the Carnivora, in reference to their function. 

Lanth^nm, L^thannm (6r. tanthano, I conceal). — A rare metal, dis- 
covered by Mossander, associated with didymium in the oxide of cerium, 
and so named from i1» properties being concealed, as it were, by those of 
Cerium, which see. 

TiAflphl8 (Gr. loos, rock, and ophis, serpent). — A Tertiary serpent, the 
detached vertebr» of which, according to Owen, indicate a length of ten 
or twelve feet, and present some affinities to those of the rattlesnake. 

Lapidify, LapldificatioiL (Lat. lapis, a stone, and ^, I become). — Con- 
version into stone; the process by which soft, loose, or incohering sub- 
stances, organic or inorganic, are converted into stony matter. 

LapflU (Lat. lapilltu, a little stone). — Applied to a peculiar variety of 
volcanic cinders, or small slaggy concretions. 

Lapis (Lat.)— A general term for any kind of stone; as lapig oUari^, 
potstone ; lapis lazuli, ultramarine ; lapis cetites, eaglestone ; lapis ampelites 
jet or cannel-coal, &c. 

Lapis Ldznli — A well-known mineral of an ultramarine or fine azure- 
blue colour, of various intensity. It is generally found massive and dis- 
seminated; of a finely granular or compact texture; and so hard as to 
scratch glass. It varies considerably in composition, but on the whole may 
be said to consist of about 50 silica, 11 alumina, and 16 lime, with minor 
proportions of sulphuric acid,^iron peroxide, magnesia, and sulphur. The 
depth of its colour seems to depend on the amount of iron and sulphur. It 
is found chiefly in crystalline limestone, but occurs also in the granitic and 
crystalline rocks. The finest specimens are obtained from China and 
Central Asia. It is used as an ornamental stone when sufficiently large 
and pure ; but chiefly in the preparation of the fine pigment called ultror 
mariiie, which see. 

L&rids (Lat. lams, the sea-gull).— The Gull family, which includes the 
gulls, terns, petrels, and other well-known marine NoMtwes, or swimming- 
birds. The bones of allied species have been discovered in Post-tertiary 
and Tertiary strata ; e.g., halcyomis, pelagomis, &c. 

Larva (Lat., a mask). — Pi-operly, an insect in its grub, caterpillar, or mag- 
got state, before it has attained its winged or perfect condition. LarraL — 
Applied to the embryotic stage of Crustacea and other animals which under- 
go metamorphoses in their development^ as well as to the grubs of insects. 



Laslonite. — A phosphate of alumina^ better known as DevonUe and 
Wavellite, the latter of which see. 

Ldterite (Lat. later , a brick).— Literally '' brick-stone ; " a compound of 
clay (silicate of alumina) and oxide of iion^ often arising from the decom- 
position of trap and volcanic rocks. The term is most frequently applied, 
however, to a peculiar clayey deposit of Middle Tertiary age, found in India, 
and so named from being cut into bricks and used for building. ** It varies 
much,*' says Ansted, " in colour and compositioii. but generally consists 
of a reddish-brown or brick-coloured cellular clay, more or lees indurated, 
and used by the natives as bricks when cut square. It hardens greatly 
and permanently on exposure, and is well adapted for buildings and fortifi- 
cations." Portions of the deposit, however, pass into hard, compact jas- 
pideous rock on the one hand, or into loosely-aggregated grits and soft 
ochrey clays on the other. 

Latitadd (Lat. kaitvdo, breadth). — The latitude of a place on the earth's 
surface is its distance from the equator, measured in degrees, minutes, and 
seconds along its own meridian. If in the northern hemisphere, it is said 
to be in North Latitude (N. Lat.) ; and if in the southern, in South Latitude 
(S. Lat.) As the distance between the equator and either of the poles is 
only the fourth part of the earth^s circumference, or 90% the latitude of a 
place can never exceed that amount. Parallels of latitude are small circles 
drawn parallel to the equator ; and in each such circle every place has, of 
course, the same latitude. The terms longitude and Uuitude arose from a 
notion of the ancients that the earth was longer from east to west than 
from south to north ; in other words, that it had lengOi and breadth^ Which 
these terms express. 

Ldtrobite (after M. Latrobe). — A pink or rose-red mineral, allied to fel- 
spar, and occurring in indistinct crystals or massive, associated with fel- 
spar, mica, and calc-spar. 

Latunonite (after M. de Laumont). — One of the zeolites, occurring in 
druses in the trap-rocks, and known also as ^^^oresceat zeolite, because, 
when exposed to the air, it loses its lustre and transparency, and is de- 

Lavrentiaji, Lanrentiaa System.— The term employed by Sir W. Logan, 
of the Canadian Qeological Survey, to designate the h^hly crystalline 
sedimentary strata which belong especially to the valley of the St Law- 
rence, and constitute the Laurentide Mountains, the equivalents of the 
"Older Metamorphic" strata of Europe. "The rocks of this system," 
says Sir William, "are, almost without exception, ancient sedimentary 
strata which have become highly crystalline. They have been very much 
disturbed, and form ranges of hills having a direction nearly north-east 
and south-west, rising to the height of 2000 or 8000 feet, and even higher. 
The rocks of this formation are the most ancient known on the American 
continent, and correspond, probably, to the oldest gneiss of Finland and 
Scandinavia, and to some similar rocks in the north of Scotland. They 
consist, in great part, of ciystalline schists (chiefly gneissoid or hornblende), 
associated with felspars, quartzites, and limestones, and are laigely broken 
up by granites, syenites, and diorites, which form important intrusive 
masses. Among the economic minerals of the formation, the ores of iron 
are the most important, and are generally found associated with lime- 
stones." The total thickness of the system has been estimated at 28,000 
feet— See tabulations, " Gieolooical Scheme." 


w pi jUfc w" ^ u 



Lava (Ital.) — ^The general term for all rock-matter that flows in a molten 
state from volcanoes, and which, when cooled down, forms varieties of tufa, 
trachyte, trachytic greenstone, and basalt, according to the varying pro- 
portions of felspar, hornblende, augite, &c., which enter into the composi- 
tion of the mass ; and according to the slowness or rapidity with which it 
is cooled. The more rapid the process of cooling, the more compact the 
rock ; and thus we have among Volcanic products, just as among the older 
igneous rocks, every variety of texture, from that of a glassy basalt to a 
granular trachyte or greygtone, and from that to a soft earthy tufa or light 
vesicular pumice. The rocks known as obsidian, pumice, ioorice^ &c., are 
therefore mere vai-ieties of lava or volcanic rock-matter. Respecting the 
temperature, liquidity, rate of cooling, and other conditions of newly- 
ejected lava, we have no very certain data, nor is it likely that any two 
eruptions will exactly coincide in any of these particulars. This much, 
however, we know, that while some lavas are sufficiently hot to melt frag- 
ments of rocks thrown into their current, others are so little above the melt- 
ing-point that they are covered with a stony crust almost immediately on 
their exposure to the open air. Again, some are so liquid as to penetrate 
the fibres of wood, while others are so viscid that their flow is scarcely per- 
ceptible. The rate of cooling also depends on many correlative circum- 
stances ; and while the lava of Mauna Loa was covered with a crust which 
could be walked upon in a few days after eruption, that of Vesuvius has 
been known to remain red-hot for years at a few feet beneath the surface. 

L^ulite (Arabic, aaiU, sky-blue). — ^A mineral of a light-blue colour, 
known also as azwriie and prismatic aaure-spar. It is usually massive or 
disseminated in granular aggregations, and consists of a hydrous combina- 
tion of phosphate of alumina and phosphate of magnesia, with protoxide of 
iron. Distinct from Lapis-lcLitUif which it faintly resembles only in colour. 

Lead. — A well-known metal of a bluish-grey colour ; soft, flexible, and 
inelastic ; and though ductile and malleable, yet possessed of very little 
tenacity. Its specific gravity varies from 11.3 to 11.4; its hardness is 
1.5 ; and it fuses at a temperature of about 600** Fahr. In close vessels it 
does not appear to be volatile at a white heat, but melted in open vessels 
it soon oxidises and passes into a grey powder, which, upon further ex- 
posure to heat and air, becomes yellow, and is called massicot or protoxide 
of lead. If massicot be heated, and stirred to prevent fusion, it gra- 
dually absorbs oxygen, acquires a red colour, and is called red-lead ; and 
this red-lead, heated in nitric acid, is partly conveii^ed into a brown in- 
soluble powder which is a peroxide of lead. By treating these oxides with 
acids we obtain white- lead or carbonate of lead, and stiff ar of lead or 
acetate of lead — preparations extensively used in the arts and in pharmacy. 
Lead is rarely found native, and that chiefly in volcanic rocks, where it 
appears as a product of fusion. Commercially, it is wholly obtained from 
the ores, and these occur in rocks and formations of all ages — almost 
always in veins, as in the metamorphic schists and carboniferous limestones 
of our own country. One of the most abimdant and best known of its 
ores is Galena — sulphuret of lead or lead-glance — ^which has been taken as 
the representative of the Lead-Gla.nce Family ; of less importance com- 
mercially, but of great mineralogical interest, occur the Lead-Salts 
Familt, which are usually associated with the former in crystalline forms 
less or more distinct. — See tabulations, ''Mineral Scheme," for the 
species included under these respective families. 



Lead, Blade — Known also as Plumhago, and technically and more pro- 
perly as Graphite, which see. 

Lead-Glance. — An early and familiar term for the sulphuret of lead or 
Gale7ia, which see. 

LeadhiUite. — A sulphato-tri-carbonate of lead, occurring in tabular 
crystals, or in foliated aggregates ; and so called from its being first found 
among the usual ores of Leadbills in Scotland. 

Lead-Ochre. — A massive, opaque, sulphur-yellow oxide of lead, occurring 
among volcanic products, but in other respects similar to the artificial yel- 
low oxide. 

Lead-Spar. — The carbonate of lead, or Certtsite. Bed-Lead Spar. — The 
chromate of lead or CrocoisUe, both of which see. 

Leaia (After Dr J. Lea of Philadelphia). — A genus of small bivalved en- 
tomostraca from the Carboniferous formations of Europe and America, 
characterised by their dark-coloured, thin, homy, quadrangular valves, 
either lying separate or with their dorsal edges approximate, and marked 
with concentric furrows, running parallel with the three sides of the 
valves, and by two oblique transverse ridges crossing the valve, from 
the umbo to the ventral angles. Sometimes confounded with Edheria 
and Cypricardia. 

Lecdntlte (After Dr J. Le Conte). — Sulphate of soda and ammonia, with 
much water of crystallisation ; a substance occurring in rhombic crystals, 
clear and colourless when free from extraneous matter, and of a bitter 
saline taste. It was first discovered by Dr John Le Conte in a care in 
Honduras, in a black bituminous-looking matrix, considered to be the 
decomposed excrement of bats, which infest these caverns in vast numbers, 
and have likely inhabited them for ages. The caves in which this sub- 
stance occurs are worked out for nitre. 

L6ellte.— A species, or rather a variety, of compact felspar, of a reddish 
colour, waxy texture, and horn-like translucency ; found at Grypthyttan in 
Westmannia, and so named after Dr Lee of Cambridge. 

Leeward. — A nautical term of frequent occurrence in geographical de- 
scriptions. In sailing, that side of a ship against which the wind blows is 
called her wealher-side, while the opposite one is known as the lee-side. All 
objects on the weather-side are said to be to the loitidward, and those on 
the lee-side to be to the leeward of the vessel. 

Legion (Lat.) — Literally '' a gathering or group." A term occasionally 
used in natural history classification to express an assemblage of objects 
intermediate in extent between a class and order. A class may thus em- 
brace several legions, and a legion contain many orders. 

L^^nminosftes (Lat. legumen, a pod). — Fossils occurring chiefly in Ter- 
tiary strata, and apparently the seeds of pod-bearing plants. About twenty 
species from the London Clay have been enumerated by Dr Bowerbauk. 

Leliin. — An ancient alluvium of the Rhine, better known as Loess, which 

Leiac^thn8(Gr. leios, smooth, andacan^Aa, a spine). — Literally ''smooth 
spine ; " a provisional genus of fossil fishes, the ichthyodoruUtes or fin-spines 
of which are found in the Muschelkalk. 

L^don (Gr. leios, smooth; and odous, odontos, tooth). — A generic name 
given to certain smooth mosasauroid teeth from the Chalk formations, in 
order to separate them provisionally from Mosasaurus proper, xmder which 
they were at one time included. 



Ionian Earth. ~ A variety of olay or aluminoas earthy so called from 
the island of Lemnos in the JEgean Sea. It is of a yellowish-grey or white, 
with ochreous spots on the surface ; has a meagre feel ; adheres slightly to 
the tongue ; &l]s to powder in water'; and, according to some, seems to be 
only a decomposed trachyte. It has been used as a medicine firom the 
time of Homer, and is sometimes termed sphrctgide {sphragis, a seal) or 
terra-sigillata from its being made up in cakes and stamped for the 
market. This earth, like the " Armenian Bole" has been the subject 
of innumerable fobles and traditions. When Vulcan was hurled from 
heaven and fell on Lemnos, it stopped the bleeding of his wounds and 
bruises ; subsequently it was used not only to stop bleedings, but as an 
antidote to poisons and the plague ; and, from its reputation, has been 
greatly valued by all the successive possessors of the island, Greeks, 
Christians, and Mohammedans. Hence also the various stamps which it 
has successively borne — Diana, Vulcan, the Seal of the Grand Signer, and 
that of a goat, from the practice of working up the smaller and friable 
portions into a cake with goat's blood. If it has any medicinal properties, 
it is merely as an aluminous astringent. 

Lemniaa Beddle.— An ochre of a deep-red colour and firm consistence, 
occurring in conjunction with the Lemnian Earth, and used as a pigment. 

Lentiealar (Lat. lens, a lentil). — Resembling a lentil ; having the form 
of a lens. Hence we speak of " lenticular concretions," '' lenticular 
pebbles," &c. 

L^nsinite.— One of the Clay family ; a milk-white variety of HalhysUe 
or semi-translucent silicate of alumina, consisting of 37.5 silica, 27.5 
alumina, and 25 water, and named after Lenzins, a German mineralogist. 

Leonfna. — A rare variety of agate, of a pale-yellow colour, variegated 
with white, black, and green, and bearing some resemblance to a lion*s 
skin ; whence the name. 

Lepadites. — A term occasionally applied to fossil shells, apparently those 
of the goose-barnacle (leptu), as balanites is sometimes applied to those of 
the balanv4 or acom-bamacle. The term has also been used to designate 
those bivalvular shell-like organisms, better known as solanites, aptychus, 
and ii'igonellites, the last of which see. 

Lepidod^ndron (Gr. lepis, lepidos, a scale, and dendron, tree). — An 
abundant family of fossil plants, so called from the scale-like arrangement 
of the leaf-scars that adorn their stems. They are characteidstio of the 
Upper Paleozoic strata, and especially of the Carboniferous system, in 
which they figure as one of the prevailing vegetable forms. They occur 
of all sizes, from mere twigs and branchlets to stems more than fifty feet 
in length, and often from three to five feet in breadth. A great number 
of species have been recorded, but many of these must in the mean time 
be regarded as uncertain and provisional. As regards the affinities of the 
family, botanists are by no means agreed, and it is more than likely that 
the Lepidodendron, like many other fossil plants, has no existing analogies. 
Thus, in the arrangement of their leaf-scars they resemble both the 
Conifene and Lycopods ; in their foliage they more resemble the Conifers ; 
in their dichotomous ramification they are more like the Lycopods ; while 
in their texture and size they seem more akin to the Coniferee. " On the 
whole," says Professor Lindley, " we are led to conclude that the Lepido- 
dendron genus was not exactly like either Coniferse or Lycopodiacese, but 
that it occupied an intermediate station between those two orders, 



approaohing more nearly to the latter than to the former." On the other 
hand, M. Brongniart, Dr Joseph Hooker, and other eminent botanists, 
conour in regarding them as gigantic arborescent club-mosses, of which 
Lepidapkyllum was the leaf, and Lepidostrobus the fruit. From a minute 
examination of the cones {Lepidoitrolnu), Professor Schimper oonsideft the 
genus more nearly allied to Sdaginella than to Lycopodtum, 

Lepiidogdaoid, Lepidoganoldel (Gr. lepis, lepidos, a scale, and gano§f 
splendour). — A siib-order of the Ganoid fishes, and so termed in contra- 
distinction to the Placoganoids, because their external skeleton or cover- 
ing consists of scales, whereas that of the latter consiBts mainly of lai^ 
and often reticulated plates. The Lepidoganoids are more especially 
characteristic of the Upper Palaozoic strata, the Placoganoids of the 
Lower or Devonian. — See Placooanoid. 

Lcrpidoidei, Lepidoids (Gr. lepis, a scale, and eidos, resemblance). — A 
family of Ganoid fishes, characterised by their strong rhomboidal bony 
scales, and occurring in Carboniferous, Triassic, and Oolitic strata, but 
most abundantly in the latter. The scales of lepidoids are readily dis- 
tinguished by the hook-like process on their upper margins, this process 
fitting, like the hook of a roofing-tile, into a corresponding depression on 
the lower margin of the scale placed immediately above it. 

Lepidolite (Gr. lepis, a scale, and litkos, stone). — A term applied to the 
fine pink-coloured varieties of lithia-mica, which difibr chiefly from common 
or pota^irmica in containing a considerable percentage of fluorine, and 
from 2 to 6 per cent of lithia. 

L^pidomelane (Gr. lepis, scale, and melar, black). — ^A variety of uniaxial 
mica usually found in granitic veins, and occurring in small six-sided tables, 
or an aggregation of minute, opaque scales, united in granulo-laminar 
masses. So called from its usually raven-black colour. 

Lepidoph^lliim (Gr. lepis, scale, and phyllon, leaf).— Small lanceolate 
leaves occurring abundantly in the shales of the Coal-measures, evidently 
of a woody rigid texture, having a midrib, and triangular at ih.e base or 
point of attachment. They are regarded as the leaves of Lepidodendrwi ; 
hence the name. 

Lepiddptera (Gr.) — Literally " scale- wings ; *' an order of insects having 
two large wings covered with minute feathery-looking scales, as the Butter- 
fly and Moth. The Lepidopters, like the Dipters and Hemipters, have 
sucking mouths. They have been found in Eocene and Miocene strata. — 

Lepiddsteos (Gr. lepis, scale, and osteon, bone). — Bony Pikes ; a genus of 
malacopterygian or soft-finned fishes, remarkable for the hard, bony scales 
with which they are covered. The body is, as it were, encased in these, 
and the two outer rays of the tail and fins are fringed with them. There 
are only three or four species known, and these inhabit the lakes and rivers 
of the warmer parts of America. They belong to the Ganoid order of 
Agassiz, and, along with the genus Polypterus or Bony Pike of Northern 
Africa, are almost the only living representatives of the numerous ganoid 
or enamelled-scale fishes of the Secondary epoch. 

Lepiddstrobiu (Gr. lepis, scale, and strohUos, a fir-cone). — Fossil cone-like 
organisms occurring abundantly throughout the Carboniferous formation. 
There is considerable variety in their configuration, the arrangement of 
their scales, and the form of their bases or points of attachment ; and 
while there is no doubt of there being reproductive bodies analogous to the 



cones of reoent conifers and lycopods, there is still great difficulty in 
assigning the various forms to their proper places. In other words, while 
some may be the seed-cones of true Coniferse, others may belong to the 
Lepidodendron and Ulodendron, to Cycadaceee, or even to Calamity, with 
the stems of which they are so frequently associated. 

Leptac&nthiu (Gr. leptotf slight, and acantfui, a thorn or spine). —Liter- 
ally " slender-spine ; " a provisional genus of fossil fishes, so named by 
Agassiz, from their slender fin-spines, which are found in the Carboniferous 
Limestone, and in the Lias and Oolite. These ichthyodorulites are the 
only parts known ; and it is more than likely that the " slender-spines " of 
the Mountain Limestone and of the Oolite belong to very different species 
of cestraciont fishes. 

Leptolepis (Gr. leptos, slender, and lepis, scale). — Literally "slight or 
slender scale ; *' a genus of small sauroid fishes occurring in the Lias and 
Oolitic formations. 

Iileptopledron (Gr. leptos, slender, and pleurofif rib). — Literally '^slender* 
rib ; " the name originally proposed by Professor Owen for the small rep- 
tile foimd in the Upper Old Bed of Elgin, now generally known by the 
generic term telerpeton, which see. 

Leptospond^lus (Gr. UptoSf slender, and spondylos, vertebra). — The gen- 
eric term applied by Professor Owen to certain saurian vertebrae collected 
by Dr Orpen in the Drakenberg Mountains in Southern Africa. 

Leudte (Gr. leukos, white). — Literally " white-spar ;" a mineral allied to 
felspar, but by some taken as the type of a separate family. It is known 
also as amphigeM, and is frequently associated with augite in lava, tufa, 
and other recent volcanic rocks. It consists, according to Klaproth, of 
53.75 silica, 24.63 alumina, and 21.35 potash; and is remarkable as being 
the first mineral in which that chemist discovered that potash was a con- 
stituent of the mineral kingdom. From its occurring in trapezohedrons, 
similar to those of the common garnet, it is sometimes known as " white 
garnet ** or " white garnet of Vesuvius." 

Leuoopyrite (Gr. leuJkoSf white, and pyrites). — Arsenical pyrites ; arsen- 
ite of iron, consisting of 65.88 arsenic, 32.35 iron, and 1.77 sulphur. This 
ore is abundant in many localities, and is used for the production of 
white arsenic, and also of artificial orpiment. 

Letiooflitine (Gr. leukas, white). — A Continental term for a white-coloured 
felspathic variety of lava. 

Levant (Lat.) — Rising from below; the fourth of the fifteen series into 
which Professor Rogers subdivides the Palaeozoic strata of the Appalachian 
chain— the "Sunrise" of the North American palseozoios; and the equiva- 
lents in part of our Lower Silurians. — See Paleozoic Formations. 

Level. — An English term for any flat alluvial plain of recent formation, 
in allusion to its usually level-like surface; e.g., "Lewes Levels" and 
"Seeding Levels" in Sussex, "Bedford Level" in Lincolnshire, &c. 

Leyigation (Lat. levigo, I polish, from Icevis, smooth). — The process of 
pounding or rubbing down earths and minerals to a powder or paste. It 
is generally done with a midler on a metallic or stone table, and some 
fluid added to assist the operation. In this respect it differs from trUvra- 
tion, which may be called the dry method. 

Levyne (after Levy the mineralogist). — One of the Zeolite family; a 
variety of Chahasiie, occurring chiefly in amygdaloid and other trap- 
rooks, in white or yellowish hexagonal crystals. 



L^ or Lye. — ^A technical term for a solution of any alkali^ as soda or 
potasli, in water.— See Liziyiatiok. 

Idas, Liissic. — This term is said to be a oomiption of lyen, or layers , 
and was originally applied to those thiu-bedded limestones occurring at 
the base of the Oolitic system— the layers of limestone being conspicuously 
separated by thin partings of clay. It is now extended, in geological 
classification, to that group or series of strata which in England immedi- 
ately overlies the Trias or Upper New Red Sandstone, and is in turn over- 
laid by the thick-bedded limestones of the Oolite proper. As developed 
in England, the Lias occupies a belt of variable breadth, extending from 
Lyme R^s in Dorset, northwards by Bath, Gloucester, Leicester, Newark, 
and Gainsborough to the Humber, and thence to the east coast of York- 
shire. Taken in Yorkshire, Northampton, and Somerset, the formation 
(according to Professor Phillips) exhibits in descending order the following 
members : — 

1. Upper lias clay or shale, full of belemnites and other fossils, inter- 

calated with or graduating into the sands of the Inferior Oolite, and 
in some cases containing nodules and bands of limestone. 

2. Marlstone. — A suite of calcareous, sandy, and irony beds, very rich 

in fossils, and much analogous to the lowest beds of the Lower Oolite 

8. Lotoer lias clay or shaXe^ full of fossil remains, interlaminated with 
bands and nodules of limestone, especially in the lower part, where 
a collection of these layers constitutes the " Lias rock." 

4. Lias rock. — A suite of laminated limestones, with partings of clay, 
blue, grey, and white, the former in particular containing gryphites 
and ouier shells ; the latter usually devoid of organic remains. This 
rock is sometimes consolidated into a united mass, and sometimes 
divided into separate portions. 

For further details and foreign equivalents, see OOLITB Ststem, and pre- 
liminary tabulations, " Gbological Sobbme." 

Idbetiienite (Libethen in Hungary). — Phosphate of copper, occurring in 
many copper mines, in rhombic prisms or in radiated masses of an olive- 
green colour, resinous lustre, and brittle. 

LidLS. — An American term for swampy or boggy areas surrounding 
saline springs, the soil of which, being impregnated with salt or covered 
with saline incrustations, is licked by the wild cattle for the sake of the 
salt. Several of these seem to have been licks even during the Upper 
Tertiary period, for the surrounding soil contains the bones of the mastodon 
and other extinct mammals in such profusion (Big-bone Lick in Kentucky) 
as to warrant the conclusion that they were frequented by herds of those 
animals, just as they are by the herds of the present day, 

Idebigite (after Baron liebig, chemist). — Carbonate of uranium and lime, 
found in mammillary crusts and concretions in the mines of Saxony and 
Bohemia ; of a beautiful apple-green colour, vitreous lustre, and transparent. 

Iddrrite. — A brownish-black mineral, occurring in long vertically-striated 
prismatic crystals along with quartz, magnetic iron ore, and copper 
pyrites in veins in the crystalline strata, and consisting, according to 
Vauquelin, of 30 silica, 57.5 iron peroxide, and 12.5 lime. It is named 
after the discoverer, Le Lievre ; and is also known as Jlvaite, from Elba, 
and YetiUe, in commemoration of the battle of Jena in 1806. 



liigneoiii (Lat. lignum, wood).— Woody ; having the texture or quality 
of wood ; as " ligneous fibre," " ligneous stems," &c. 

Lignite (Lat. lignum, wood).— Wood-coal or fossil wood more or less 
mineralised and converted into coal. The lignites are usually of a dull 
dark-brown appearance ; compact or laminated, and revealing the woody 
texture ; and never present the crystalline structure or pitchy lustre of 
tnie coal. They bum with much smoke and dull flame ; are poorer in 
carbon or coke than common coal; give much less heat; and leave in 
general a large residuum of earthy ashes. Lignitic beds occur in the New 
Red Sandstone and Oolite, but chiefly in the Upper Cretaceous and Terti- 
ary formations, and present a great variety of aspects, some being almost 
as hard as true coal, and known as " stone-coal ;" others being distinctly 
woody, and hence called ''wood or board coal;" some again consisting 
of thin layers like compressed leaves, '' paper-coal ;" and others soft and 
earthy, and known as '' peat-coal." Lignite thus passes, it may be said, 
through every gradation of texture, from the compactor peat-beds of the 
present day to the stone or mineral coal of the older formations. According 
to M. Fremy, lignites may be distinguished from mere wood and peat, on the 
one hand, by their complete solubility in nitric acid and in hypochlorites ; 
and from the true coals, on the other, which are insoluble in hypochlor- 
ites, and only slowly attacked by nitric acid. The well-known lignites or 
" Brotpu Coals*' of Grermany and the continent of Europe are chiefly Ter- 
tiary, and from the leaves, fruits, and stems of palms (fan-palm, date- 
palm, cocoanut-palm, &c.) which they contain, give evidence of the more 
genial climate of these latitudes diuing the Tertiary epoch.— See Coal, 
and Tkbtiary Formation. 

lAgnitfferonB (lignite, and fero, I yield). — Applied to strata or forma- 
tions which contain subordinate beds of lignite or brown-coal. 

Idgnlate (Lat. lig%ila, a strap). — Strap - shaped ; applied in natural 
history to objects, organs, and processes which are long and narrow like 
a strap. 

Lignrite (from Liguria).—A variety of Sphene ; a mineral of an apple- 
green colour, consisting of silicate of alumina, lime, and magnesia ; occur- 
ring in mica and talc-schists ; and from its colour, hardness, and ti'ans- 
parency, used as a gem. 

Idly-Stone, LUy-Encrinite. — Familiar terms for the common Encrinite, 
from the fanciful resemblance of its stalk and clustered tentacles to the 
stem and flower of a lily.— See Encrinitk and Crinoidea. 

Idmbelite. — A subordinate variety of olivine or chiysolite, occurring in 
small honey-coloured masses, and so named by Saussure, from the volcanic 
hill of Limbourg, where it occurs. 

Lime. — (Chemically, the protoxide of calcium, one of the metallic bases 
discovered by Davy in 1807. Mineralogically, one of the primitive earths, 
usually occurring in nature as a limestone or carbonate of lime, from which 
it is obtained by roasting at a red heat so as to expel the carbonic acid, 
and thus leave the lime or quicklime behind. If the limestone employed 
be very pure, as white chalk or Carrara marble, the residue will be the 
earth "lime" — white, very infusible, highly luminous when heated to 
full redness, and of a specific gravity about 2.8. It requires for solution 
about 600 parts of water, but diluted as this may appear, it acts power- 
fully as an alkali ; has an acrid taste ; and is thence regarded as one of 
the alialine earths. If quicklime be sprinkled with water, it rapidly 



crumbles down to powder with great eyolation of heat, and becomes 
slaked lime or hydrate of lime ; and if this hydrate continue exposed to 
the air it gradually absorbs moisture and oarbonio.acid, and is reconverted 
into the carbonate. Combining readily with acids, the saltt of lime occur 
abundantly in nature as tulphate of lime or gypsum ; flttate of lime or 
fluor-spar ; plutsphaie of lime or apatite ; and so forth. The most abundant 
compound, however, ia the carbonate of lime or ordinar^Tlimestone, which 
occurs in all states of purity, and in all stages of mineralisation— from soft 
earthy chalk to crystalline limestones or even transparent crystallised 
calc-spars. As an earth, lime is profusely disseminated in nature : as a 
rock, it enters largely into the composition of the earth's crust ; it is less 
or more diffused in all its waters ; it forms the principal ingredient (earth 
of bone) in the skeletons of the larger animals ; and is secreted by many 
classes of the invertebrata to form their shells, crusts, shields, corals, and 
other means of protection. Economically it is also of vast importance, 
being used in the manufacture of mortars and cements, in tanning, bleach- 
ing, deodorising, and the like, and also in i^ricultiure as a fertiliser, or 
promoter of vegetable decay. 

Idmestone. — The familiar as well as technical term for all rocks and 
rook-masaes that are mainly composed of carbonate of lime, and are in 
their texture either earthy (chalk), compact (ordinary limestone), or 
crystalline (marble) — crystallised varieties of the carbonate being better 
known as calc-tpars. Limestones occur in all formations ; in all degrees 
of purity ; and ov» their origin— some to corals, encrinites, and ediell-fish, 
others to accumulations of foraminiferal and kindred organisms, and 
others again to chemical precipitation from the waters in which they were 
deposited. The names by which their varieties are known to the geologist 
have reference to their origin, composition, texture, or other physical pro- 
perty, as ''encrinal limestone," "shell limestone," "magnesian lime- 
stone," '' saccharoid limestone," " concretionary limestone," and the like. 
The quality or richness of a limestone is in general perceptible to the eye ; 
and where this fails to satisfy, the application of sulphuric or muriatic acid 
(both of which dissolve limestone wtth violent effervescence), or the heating 
of a fragment before the blowpipe so as to convert it into quicklime, will 
without much trouble give the necessary indication. 

jf^iwT»ai»<n« and IdnmeidA (Gr. limnet & marsh). — ^Terms applied to the 
River-snails ; a sub-family of the Helioin^ or true Snails, and represented 
by the well-known marsh-shells limneea, phym, and planorbis. 

IdnmiB'a (Gr. limnaioSf marshy). — The "Pond-shell;" a well-known 
genus of fresh- water molluscs inhabiting lakes and ponds, and character- 
ised by their pointed spire, elongated oval body, and delicate thin shell. 
About seventy species occur in Tertiary strata ; the existing species are 
somewhat fewer in number. 

Limonite. — The mineralogical term employed by Boudant and other 
modem writers for Brovm Iron Ore, which embraces the brown hsemitites, 
ochry iron ore, ochre, bog-iron-ore, and other allied varieties of hydrated 
peroxide of iron. — See Iron. 

limpid (Lat )— Clear, pure, transparent. Applied to fluids and crystals. 

Limnlns. — The Molucca-crab, king-crab, or horseshoe-crab. A genus 
of crustaceans belonging to the family Xiphotura or sword-tails, and to the 
order Pcee'di'poda, or those having feet of different forms. In the limulus 
the dorsal plates are united in one piece or carapace ; the abdominal shield 



is more complex ; of the feet some are leaf-like and fitted for swimmiD^, 
others are shear-shaped and perform the office of jaws, hence the term 
''jaw-feet." The tail is long, spear-shaped, and pointed. There are few 
species of existing limiili ; several limuloid crustaceans have been dis- 
covered in the Coal-measures ; but of these some may likely belong to the 
Eurypleridas, which are altogether fossil. 

Line of Dip and Line of Bearing.— The direction in which strata dip 
or incline from the horizon is said to be the " line of dip ; " the direction 
of their strike or outcrop ** the line of bearing." As the dip is always at 
right angles to the slrikef if the one is known the other can readily be 
laid down ; thus, if the dip be to the N.W., the line of bearing will run 
from S.W. to N.E, and vice verad, 

Lingnla (Lat., a little tongue). — A genus of brachiopodous moUusca, so 
called from the tongue-like form of their valves. In the lingula the two 
valves are nearly equal, of a homy texture, rather compressed, somewhat 
truncated in front, the hinge toothless, the beak of the valves rather 
pointed, and united to a tendinous pedicle by which the animal is attached 
to the sea-bottom. The existing linguls are found only in southern seas ; 
the fossil species, nearly forty in number, occur in all formations from the 
Lowest Silurian upwards, being found in British strata so recent as the 
Coralline Crag. The LingvXidas are thus one of the oldest families of 
mollusca — several species being highly characteristic of, and peculiar to, 
the lowest fossiliferous strata with which geology is yet acquainted. 

Lfwgnlate, Lingnifbrm (Lat. lingua, the tongue).— Applied to leaves 
and other oi^nisms which are shaped like the tongue ; tongue-shaped. 

Linntean. — Systems of classification, nomenclature, and methods intro- 
duced by Linnaeus the great Swedish naturalist, who was bom in 1707» 
and died in 1778, are so termed. The Linncgan Syttemt are often spoken 
of as Artificial, in contradistinction to the more NaXuraX systems intn^ 
duced by Jessieu in botany, and by Cuvier in zoology. 

Liqaefaction (Lat. liqttefacio, I make liquid). — Literally, the passing of a 
substance from the solid to the liquid state, as the melting of ice ; but also 
often used as synonymous with fusion, solution, and deliqv£scenoe, 

Liroconite (Gr. Uiros, pale, and konis, dust ; in allusion to the paleness 
of its streak). — A hydrated arseniate of copper occurring in several copper 
mines in obtuse pyramidal crystals ; of a sky-blue or verdigris green ; 
vitreous lustre ; translucent ; and sectile. 

Lfthia (6r. lithos, a stone). — An alkali or alkaline earth, discovered in 
1818 by Arfwedson in a mineral called peUUile, but since found in other 
minerals, and in very minute qw^itities in some mineral springs, as those 
of Carlsbad. As an earth it is caustic, alkaline, and sparingly soluble in 
water. It obtains its name from being found only in the mineral or stone 

Lithium. — The metallic base, of which liihia is the oxide, first obtained 
by Sir H. Davy from, the hydrate of that earth by the action of the 
galvanic battery. like sodium, &c., it is a white-coloured metal, but so 
exceeding oxidable that its properties cannot be fully examined. 

Lithocarp (Gr. liihos, and carpos, fruit). — Any fossil fruit; same as 
Carpolite, which is the term principally used. 

Lith6domi, Idthodomoiu (Gr. liihos, and domos, a house).— Applied to 
certain mollusca, which, like the pholas, bore into solid rocks and form 
for themselves permanent lodgments — the perforation widening as the 



aiumal grows larger and descends the deeper. It has been a long-dis- 
cussed question among naturalists whether the perforation is made by 
mere mechanical rasping, or by the secretion of some chemical solvent ; 
but the fact seems now well ascertained that the boring is performed 
solely by gradual and incessant friction. 

Iiith6genoa8 (Gr. liihos, stone, and ffinomai, I beget). — Applied to polyps 
which secrete or build up stony structures^ as the Coral-polype. 

Lithographic Limestone, Lithographic Slate. — A peculiar magnesian 
limestone, slaty, compact, and fine-grained, usually obtained from the 
Lias and Oolite, and extensively employed in lithography. The finest 
stones are from Solenhofen and Pappenheim in northern Bavaria, but some 
of fair quality have been procured from the Lias of England. The most 
esteemed colour is a pale cream yellow, but excellent slabs of bluish-grey 
are not uncommon. 

Lithoidal (Gr. lithogf and eidos, appearance). — Stone-Iike ; having the 
texture or appearance of stone. 

Lith6logy, Lithological (Gr. Hthos, a stone, and logos, doctrine). — Applied 
to the physical characteristics or stratigraphical relations of rock-groups, 
in . contradistinction to their palsdontology or palseontological aspects. 
LUhology or Paralogy treats of the earth's crust as made up of mere inor- 
ganic rock-masses, and endeavours to discover their composition, origin, 
and the successive changes to which they may have been subjected ; leav- 
ing to Palaeontology all that relates to the fossils they contain, as mani- 
festations of the life that has successively peopled the earth's surface. It 
has been proposed to distinguish between Lithology and Petralogy, by 
restricting the former to "the study of the internal structure, the miner- 
alogical composition, the texture, and other characters of rocks, such as 
could be determined in the closet by the aid of hand specimens ; " and the 
latter to " the study of rock-masses, their planes of division, their forms, 
their positions and mutual relations, and other characters that can only 
be studied in the field." Such a distinction, however, is rarely or never 
attended to— the two terms being employed synonymously. 

Llthoinarge (Gr. lUhos, and marga, marl). — Literally " stone-marrow;" 
a term applied to several varieties of clay or fine-grained silicate of 
alumina, arising in some cases from the decomposition of felspathic rocks 
{e. g.. Kaolin or China-clay) and in others from the deposition of aluminous 
springs. It is of various colours, striped and spotted ; is massive, soft, 
and opaque ; adheres strongly to the tongue ; falls to powder in water, 
bat does not form a paste, and has a greasy feel when containing a little 
magnesia, as is the case with some varieties. What is called Hard litho- 
marge is a more complex compound of a blue mottled colour, found in the 
Coal formation of Planitz in Saxony, and known as the Terra Mimculosa 
Saxonice, from its supposed medicinal virtues. 

Lith6phagi, LtthophdgidsB (Gr. lithos, and phago, I eat). — ^Applied to 
those shell-fish and other animals which bore holes, and form for them- 
selves a lodgment, in limestone, coral, and other stony masses. Certain 
fish, like the Scams, and many of the Holothurue, are said to be lilJutphagous, 
as browsing and subsisting on the living coral. 

Lithoph^Uiun (Gr. litJios, and phyllon,, leaf. — Yolkmann's term for the 
stigmaria ; and like phytolithus, which was Martin's designation for the 
same plant, often found in the older geologists. 

Litlioph;^ta) Lithophytes (Gr. lithos, and phyton, a shoot).— Literally 



'* stone-plants ;" those polyps which seci'ete a stony axis, as the Corals, in 
contradistinction to Ceratophyta, or those which secrete a homy axis, like 
the Gorffonia or Sea-fan. 

Idthdnds (Gr. lithag, stone, and orjiit, bird). — ^Literally "petrified bird ; " 

a generic term applied by Professor Owen to certain bird-remains from the 

London or Eocene clay of the isle of Sbeppey. From the close resemblance 

these bones to those of the vulture tribe, they are designated specifically 

as the Lithamu vtUturinus. 

Idthozyloin (Gr. lithos, stone, xtflon, wood). — A mineralogical term for 
Wood'Opalf which see. 

Idttonl (Lat. littus, the sea-shore).— Belonging to, inhabiting, or taking 
place on the shore. Applied to operations and deposits which take place 
near the shore, in contradistinction to those of a deep-water or pelagic 

Idttoral C6iicrete.— '* This term, which is of Bombay origin " (we quote 
Dr Buist of that town), " indicates distinctly and intelligibly a particular 
variety of rock, formed by the cementation of sea-sand or shells — the same 
as those now prevalent along our shores." The rains of certain regions 
are more surcharged with carbonic acid than others, and where this ia the 
case " littoral concrete," often of great hardness and durability, is sure to 
be formed, by the action of these carbonated waters on the shells and 
other calcareous matter of the sands — ^the dissolved lime acting as the 
cement in artificial Concretet, which see. 

Littoral Zone (Lat. littus, the shore). — That zone of marAe life which 
lies between high and low water mark (varying in extent according to the 
rise and fall of the tide, and the shallowness of the shore), and which in 
British seas is characterised, as the bottom may be rocky, sandy, or 
muddy, by such moUusca as the periwinkle, limpet, mussel, cockle, razors 
shell, &c., and by such plants as the bladder-wrack, dulse, and carigeen. 
— See Zone. 

Idtnltes (Lat. lUuuSy a trumpet). — A genus of chambered shells peculiar 
to Silurian strata, and so named from their form— their whorls being 
partially coiled up at the smaller end, and the last chamber being produced 
into a straight trumpet-like tube. The lituite is ranked under the nauti- 
lida; has the septa outwardly concave, and the siphuncle intemaL 

Idtdolite {lituola, diminutive form of lituut). — ^A genus of minute fora- 
minifera, so called from their spiral form and straight prolonged outer 
whorl ; occur chiefly in the Chalk formation. 

Idver Ore. — The Hepatic cinnabar of Phillips; a dark liver-coloured 
variety of sulphuret of mercury intimately intermixed with idrialite (Tosia. 
in Spain), carbon, and earthy matter. 

Liver Pyritei. — A familiar term for a liver-coloured concretionary variety 
of sulphuret of iron having an internal radiated texture. 

LiilTiatioii (Lat.) — The process of extracting the saline matter of bodies, 
more especially of ashes (as kelp), by means of steeping and washing in 
water. Such a solution is called a ley, lye, or lixitium, and the salts 
resulting from its evaporation lixiviaZ talU, 

Llandd^ery BoekB. — A term applied by Sir B. Murchison to certain 
sandstones »id shales which seem to form a connecting link between the 
LowerUnd Upper Silurian series of South Wales. They are specially char- 
aoterised by Pemtamertu, Airy pa, and Petraia, and derive their name 
from the locality where their relations are most dearly developed. 



Llaiios (Span.) — In physical geography, the flat treeless plains -that 
extend along the banks of the Orinoco. They are, for the most part, 
within the tropics, and during one half of the year are covered with grass, 
and for the rest desolate. They are of very recent alluyial growth, and 
are partly still in progress of formation. 

Loadstone, Lodestone (Eng. lead and ^stone), — A familiar term for the 
magnetf which see ; an ore of iron that possesses the peculiar property of 
attracting iron, and which, when freely suspended, invariably turns towards 
the North Pole or '' Magnetic North." 

Loam (Sax.) — ^A general, but not very definite term, applied to soils 
that are. native admixtures of clay, sand, and vegetable mould — as being 
moderately cohesive, less tenacious than clay, and more so than sand. 
Agrictdturists speak of ligM and heavy loams according to the proportion 
of clay they contain ; and also of sandy, calcareous, and gravelly loams, 
just as sand, lime, or gravel happen to be characteristic ingredients. 

Lode. — ^A Cornish term for any r^fular vein or course, whether metal- 
liferous or merely composed of veinstone. In the former instance they 
are said to be alive, in tixe latter they are termed dead lodes. 

Loess or Lehm. — A German term for an ancient alluvial deposit of the 
Khine replete with fresh- water shells of existing species. According to 
Lyell, '' it is a finely-comminuted sand or pulverulent loam of a yellowish 
gn^y colour, consisting chiefly of argillaceous matter, combined with a 
sixth part of carbonate of lime, and a sixth of quartzose and micaceous 
sand "—thus closely agreeing in composition, as ascertained by Bischoff, 
with the mud of the Nile. Interstratified with it are volcanic ashes thrown 
out by the now extinct volcanoes of the Eifel and adjacent districts, and 
the Rhine has since eaten out a passage, frequently leaving exposed olifis 
of considerable altitude. In general it ranges from thirty to fifty feet in 
thickness ; is found as much as 1500 feet above the present sea-level ; and 
where it terminates near Switzerland, it is said to repose on rolled flints 
and pebbles of the Older Drift period. 

Loganite (after Sir W. E. Logan, director of the Canadian Geological 
Survey). — A hydrated silicate of magnesia and lime ; a variety of Pyros- 
clerite occurring in the serpentinous rocks of Canada in short, thick, 
oblique-rhombic crystals, of a clove-brown colour, sub-transparent, and of 
a weak sub-resinous lustre. 

Logui-StoneB. — ^Properly "Logging-stones," and perhaps better known 
as ** Rocking-stones ; " weather-worn blocks so finely balanced on their 
pivot-like bases that a very ordinary force suffices to make them ''log," or 
*' rock " from side to side. The following description, by Dr Paris, of the 
celebrated Logan -stone near the Land's End, conveys an intelligible idea 
of the nature and origin of these curiously-i)oised blocks : ** The founda- 
tion of this part of the coast of Comwali is a stupendous group of granite 
rocks, which rise in pyramidal dusters to a great altitude and overhang 
the sea. The celebrated Logan-stone is an immense block, weighing above 
sixty tons. The surface in contact with the under rock is of very small 
extent, and the whole mass is so nicely balanced, that, notwithstanding its 
magnitude, tiie strength of a single man applied to its under edge is suffi- 
cient to make it oscillate. It is the nature of granite to disintegrate into 
rhomboidal and tabular masses, which, by the further operation of air and 
moisture, gradually lose their solid angles and approach the spheroidal 
form. The fact of the upper part of the cli£f being more exposed to the 


• 1^ 


atmoBpherio agency than the parts beneath, will suflSciently explain why 
these rounded masses so frequently rest on blocks which will preserve the 
tabular form ; and since such spheroidal blocks must obviously rest in 
that position in which their lesser axes are perpendicular to the horizon, it 
is equally evident that, whenever an adequate force is applied, they must 
vibrate on their point of support." 

Lonchdpterifl (6r. lonche, a spear, and pieris, fern). — Literally ''spear- 
leaf ; " a fossil fern-like frond occurring in the Coal - measures, Lias, 
Oolite, and Wealden, and so called from its resemblance to the recent 
Lanckitis. The leaves are many times pinnate ; leaflets adherent to each 
other at their base, traversed by a midrib, and furnished with reticulated 

London Clay.— One of the members of the Lower Tertiary or Eocene 
beds of the London basin, and so called from its being largely developed 
under, and in the vicinity of, the metropolis. It consists of a tenacious 
bluish-black clay, varying from 300 to 600 feet in thickness, enclosing 
numerous bands of septaria, and (along with the accompanying strata) 
abounding in marine shells of extinct species— crabs, lobsters, and other 
crustaceans — teeth of sharks and many other genera of fishes — ^bones of 
crocodiles, turtles, serpents, and birds — leaves, fruits, stems of plants, and 
rolled trunks of trees perforated by boring mollusca— aU indicating a warm 
and genial climate. — See Tertiary System. 

Longitude (Lat. longitudo, length). — The distance of a place measured in 
degrees, minutes, and seconds, east or west of any fixed meridian. In 
Britain, the fixed meridian is that of the Observatory of Greenwich ; and 
in other countries it is usually that of their capitals. If the place be east 
of the fixed meridian, it is said to be in E. Long., and if west, in W. Long. 
—See Latitude. 

Lengmynd Bocks. — In geological classification the terms ''Longmynd 
Rocks" or *' Bottom Rocks " are meant to embrace all those unfossiliferous^ 
or but sparingly fossiliferous, conglomerates, grits, schists, and slates, 
which lie at the base of the Silurian system. They are typically developed 
in the Longmynd Hills, Shropshire (whence the name) ; are regarded by 
tiie Government Geological Surveyors as constituting the "Cambrian 
System ; " but are still retained by Professor Sedgwick as the mere basis 
or under-group of his original " Cambrian Rocks." 

Lophiodon (Gr. lophion, a small crest or ridge, and odottSt tooth). — An 
extinct tapir-like pachyderm of the Tertiary epoch ; so called from certain 
points or eminences on its teeth. Several species have been catalogued, 
but as yet very little is known as to its true relationship. 

Lorate (Lat. lorum, a thong). — Applied in botany and zoology to organs 
or members having the shape of a thong or strap. 

Ldricated (Lat. loHca, a coat of mail). — Covered or clad with homy or 
bony plates or scutes, like the alligator and crocodile. 

Lower-Level Gravels.— The term now generally applied to all the sands 
and gravels that occur in the lower terraces of valleys, in contradistinction 
to the " high-level gravels," which see. While the high-level deposits are 
destitute or nearly so of organic remains, the lower are generally replete 
with the remains of extinct minerals, such as the mammoth, Irish elk, and 
reindeer, associated in many instances with flint implements and other 
evidences of human contemporaneity. 

Ldzodase (Gr. loxa, oblique, and klam, cleavage). — A variety of ortho- 



olase (which see), containing a large proportidn of soda (firom 7 to 9 per 
cent) ; of a yellowish-grey colour, an4 semi-translaoent. 

Ii6xodon (6r. loxos, oblique, and odous, tooth). — One of the sub-genera 
into which Dr Falconer divides the Elephants. The term has reference to 
the rhomb-shaped discs of the worn molars ; and comprises both extinct 
and liying species. 

Lozdnuna (Gr. loxot, oblique, and amMa, the eye). — ^A genus of labyrin- 
thodon reptiles founded by P^f essor Huxley on a portion of a skull in the 
University Museum, Edinburgh, from the Midlothian Coalfield ; and so 
named from the very oblique disposition of the long axes of the eye-orbits, 
which in addition to this feature are also larger and more backward in 
position than in any known genera of Labyrinthodonts. 

LozonSma (Gr. hxos, and nema, thread). — A fossil genus of pyramidal- 
shaped shells, belonging to the gasteropodous family Piframidellidce, and 
so named in allusion to the thread-like stri» which mark tiie surface of 
many species. The shell is elongated and many-whorled ; aperture simple, 
attenuated above, effused below, with a sigmoidal edge to the outer lip. 
The species are numerous, and occur frt>m the Silurian to the Trias 

Lnenllite. — A variety of black marble, so called from its being first 
brought by LuouUus to Rome, from an island in the Nile. 

Ludlow Bocks. — According to Murchison, the uppermost group of the 
Silurian system ; and so termed from being characteristically developed 
near the town and castle of Ludlow, in Shropshire. They consist, in that 
district; of thin flaggy sandstones (tilestones) ; of shales with calcareous 
bands ; and of limestones (Aymestry limestone) — all highly fossiliferous. 
—See Silurian System. 

Lndns Helmontli (after Von Helmont).— An old mineralogical term for 
a variety of Septarium (which see) in which the sparry veins were frequent 
and anastomosing. 

InunachOlo, LnmaeheUi (Ital.)— A variety of marble full of fossil shells, 
exhibiting beautiful iridescent colours ; sometimes deep red or orange, when 
it is known by the name of Fire-martie, 

Lumbar (Lat. lumhut, the loins).— Pertaining to the loins, as 'lumbar 
muscles," '' lumbar vertebra," &c. 

Loftre (in Bocks and Minerals). — Lustre, like colour, fracture, cleavage, 
&c., is often taken as a characteristic of minerals and rock-compounds, 
but cannot be well described without the inspection of actual specimens. 
It refers to the intensity and quality of the light reflected from their newly- 
fractured surfaces, and in this respect differs from colour, which is an in-- 
herent property. Several degrees of intensity have been named by miner- 
alogists ; as Splendmt, when a mineral reflects the light so as to be visible 
at a distance, and well-defined images are formed on its surface, as in 
galena and rock-crystal; Shining, when it is weaker and cloudy, and 
images only are formed, as in heavy-spar ; Glistenijig, when the light is 
not observable at greater distance than an arm's length; Glimmering, 
when only a number of small shining points are observable near the eye, 
as in crystalline limestone ; and DtM, when no lustre can be discerned, as 
in chalk. The kind or quality of lustre is also defined by such terms as 
Metallic, seen in pyrites and glance-coal; Adafnantine, as seen in the 
diamond ; Vitreoits, as in glass or rock-crystal ; Resinous, as in pitchstone 
and garnet ; Pearly, as in some gypsums, talc, and mica ; and SUhy, as 

289 T 


seen on the polisbod surfiices of amianthus. These degrees and qualities 
often shade insensibly into one another, and though exceedingly useful 
in description, often require a very practised eye to distinguish between 

Lnfiis Vat&ni. — Literally ** sport or freak of nature." A frequent term 
of the older naturalists for any appearance or production that seemed to 
lie out of the ordinary course of nature's operations. Thus fossil oi^gan- 
isms were regarded as " lutut natural" by those who believed that tbe 
earth's crust was the result of one simultaneous act of creation, and not 
the result of long-continued operations, such as those that are now taking 
place around us. 

LyoopodiicesB. — A natural order of Cryptogamic or flowerless plants, of 
which the lycopodium or dub-moss has been taken as the type. In their 
tissues and mode of fructification the dub-mosses resemble ferns ; in their 
foliage they approach the coniferse; and in their general aspect they 
are like the mosses ; hence they are said to stand intermediate between 
the Conifers and Ferns on the one hand, and the Ferns and Mosses on 
the other. Their stems divide by forking repeatedly, and are closely 
covered with simple leaves, which are arranged in two rows, having tiieir 
edges vertical with respect to the axis of growth, and not horizontal. 
These leaves are placed alternately, and are furnished with smaller lateral 
leaflets of the nature of stipules. The scars lefb by the leaves arrange 
themselves spirally round the stem, and in this arrangement, as well as in 
their rhomboidal or lanceolate shape, greatly resemble the leaf-scars of 
the Coniferss. — See Lepidodendra and CoNiFERiS. 

Lycopodites.— Fossil plants apparently allied to the Lycopodiums or 
club-mosses of the present day. They occur in the Tertiary, Secondary^ 
and Upper Palseosoic strata — those of the Coal-measures being represented 
by gigantic arborescent species. 

L^dian Stone. — Flinty slate ; a mixed siliceous rock, usually of a grey- 
ish-black colour^ splintery or conchoidal fracture, and keen cutting grain. 
It is common in many countries, and has long been used as a touchstone 
for gold, whose purity is shown by the colour of the streak which it leaves 
on the smoothened surface of tbe touch-slate. It often passes insensibly 
into jasper, homsUme, and other allied siliceous rocks ; and hence is some- 
times known as '* black jasper." — See Basanite. 

Lye or Ley. — ^A solution of an alkaline substance, as potash or soda, in 
water. — See Lixivium. 

Lynx Sapphire. — A lapidary's term for dark-grey or greenish-blue 
varieties of sapphire ; also for varieties of lolite, having the same colour. 
The paler shades are known as Saphire cPeau, or Water Sapphire.- 





Kaciciu. — The Bonnet-apes, or Ape-baboons. A genus of Old World 
monkeys, belonging to the group CercopiihKina and family Simiidce ; 
characterised by having a fifth tubercle on their last molars ; ischial cal- 
losities and check-pouches ; comparatively short and thick limbs ; a pro- 
jecting muzzle and prominent eyebrows ; and generally very short tails. 
According to Owen, remains of a genuine ape have been foimd in the 
Pliocene deposits of Efsex, and still earlier in the Eocenes of Suffolk ; hence 
the species Macacus eocanut. 

Haccagndne. — The Grotta di Maccagnone ; an important ossiferous 
cavern situated in the Hippurite limestone, westward of the Bay of Carini 
(between Palermo and Trapani), and containing the usual cave-remains of 
elephants, hippopotami, rhinoceroses, bears, hyeenas, horses, deers, &c., 
in the main mass of stalagmite ; and in the upper layers, bits of carbon, 
and abundance of flint and agate knives of human manufacture. 

HaoerAtion (Lat. niacerare, to make soft by steeping).— The steeping of 
vegetable or' animal substances in a cold liquid till their tissue or fibres 
become softened, and part more readily with any peculiar principle (oily, 
aromatic, &c.) which they may contain. Infmion is performed by pouring 
the hot liquid over them ; decoction, by boiling them in it for a longer or 
shorter period. 

Hachiirodiis (Gr. machaira, a sabre, and odofus, tooth). — A genus of car- 
nivorous mammals foimd in the Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene Terti- 
aries and bone-caves of Europe ; and so called from the trenchant, sharp- 
pointed, sabre shape of its upper canines. There were several species, 
some as large as the grizzly bear and lion, others about the size of the 
leopard and under. Professor Owen finds its nearest affinities in the lion ; 
hence his synonyme of Fdis speUxa. 

Hadgno or Hadgna Pi6tra. — An Italian term for a hard siliceous sand- 
stone, apparently of Cretaceous age, imbedding calcareous grains, &c., and 
occurring iuterstratified with the fine saccharoid marbles of Oarrara. 

Macled (Lat. nuictda, a spot). — literally '' spotted ;" applied to surfaces 
that are covered with spots of a hue deeper than, or different from, the 
main ground of the substsinoe. Some sandstones, for example, are macled 
with reddish spots of iron peroxide ; some clay-slates macled with crystals 
of iron-pyrites. 

Hades. — Applied in mineralogy to ''twin-crystals," which are united 
by simple contact of their faces by interpenetration, or by incorporation. 
These twin forms are often repeated so as to form groups or compound 
macles. Chicutolite (which see), from the twin form of its crystals, is not 
unfrequently termed " Macle.*' 

Xaddrea (after Dr Maclure).— A genus of flatly-spiral operculated 
shells, often of large dimensions, and especially characteristic of Lower 
Silurian strata. The species differ in the convexity and number of the 
whorls. Supposed by some to be gasteropod ; but the character of the 
spiral operculum or small upper valve inclines Mr Woodward to regard it 
as an ancient form of the Budista or Hippubftb group, which see. 



Kaddreite (after Dr Maclure). — One of the gems, known also as Bntcite, 
Memipritmatie Chrysolite, and Chondrodite^ which see. 

Haerauehfeia (Gr. mairos, long, and attchen, the neck). — ^Literally 
" long-neck ; " an extinct Tertiary mammal of South America, haying the 
nearest affinities to the existing llama of that continent, but of more 
gigtmtic dimensions, and standing intermediate, as it were, between the 
camels and llamas. 

Haoro- (Gr. makro$, large). — A frequent prefix in natural science, 
signifying large ; -as macrocephalous^ large-headed ; macrodactiflous, long^- 
toed ; nuicropodal, large-footed ; macrourow, long-tailed, &c 

]Iacrop6]na (Gr. mahros, large, and poma, operculum).— A genus of 
sauroid fishes peculiar to the Chalk and Wealden, and so named from its 
large opercula — the head being equal to one-fourth of the entire length of 
the body, which in full-grown specimens was about two feet. In the 
macropoma the scales were lai^, and the anterior dorsal fin armed with 
spines. The coprolites, which often contain scales of other fishes, show 
that it was carnivorous in its habits. 

HicropTU (Gr. mahros^ large, and pouSt foot). — The kangaroo, in allusion 
to the great length of its hind feet ; a well-known marsupial, confined ex- 
clusively to the Australian continent, and in the ossiferous caverns of which 
remains of much larger species than any now existing occur in considerable 

Hacroth^iim (Gr.) — Literally ''large beast;" a genus of edentate 
mammals from the Miocene Tertiaries of Europe, having affinities to the 
African pangolin or ant-eater, but six or eight times its size. 

Haordnra) Xacrdra (Gr. mahros, long, and oura, tail). — A femily of 
decapod crustaceans, characterised by the laige size of the tail, as in the 
common lobster ; and distinguished from the brachyoura or short-tailed, 
like the crab. Both families are found fossil in Secondary and Tertiary 
strata ; but in the PaUeozoic only the macroura are as yet known. 

Xactra (Gr., a kneading-trough). — A well-known littoral bivalve in- 
habiting sandy and muddy shores ranging from ten to twelve fathoms in 
depth, and so named from a fanciful aUusion to its shape. There are 
several species, recent and fossil ; the latter occurring only in the Upper 

Madrepore (Fr.) — Literally '' spotted pore ; ** an extensive genus of coral- 
building polypes, whose stony secretion is characterised by its spreading 
or branching form, and by the numerous star-shaped cavities that dot its 
surface, each cell being the abode of a single but united polype. The 
term is more frequently applied to the stony-coral than to the polype — 
madrepores being amongst the most abundant corals in the reefs of exist- 
ing seas. 

Hadreporite. — Fossil madrepore; also a variety of limestone having a 
small prismatic or columnar structure which looks like the pore arrange- 
ment of coral, but which in reality is a species of crystallisation. 

KUnstricht Beds.— "On the banks of the Meuse, at Msestrioht," says 
Lyell, " reposing on ordinary white chalk with flints, we find an upper 
calcareous formation about 100 feet thick, the fossils of which are on the 
whole very peculiar, and all distinct from Tertiary species. The upper 
part of the rock, about 20 feet thick, abounds in corals and bryozoa ; these 
beds are succeeded by a soft yellowish limestone 50 feet thick ; and the 
stone below is white, and encloses occasional nodules of grey chert and 


'■■^r • -- — ■■ 


chalcedony." These so-called "Msestrioht beds," from containing hdemnites, 
hamites, haculUes, See, are regarded as the uppermost member of the Chalk 
formation in Europe ; they are wanting in England ; and in geological 
classification are erected into a group which embraces the calcaire pisoli- 
iique near Paris, the McBstricM beds proper, and the coralline limestone of 
Faxoe in Denmark.— See Cretaceous Formatiok. 

Hagnes. — An ancient name for the Lodestone, after Magnesia, a pro- 
vince in Lydia, where it was said to have been first formed. 

Magnesia. — One of the alkaline earths, a light whitish substance, occur- 
ring abundantly in nature in various states of combination. It is found 
native in veins of serpentine, forming a hydrate of magnesia (69 magnesia 
and 81 water), but soon passes into the carbonate on exposure to the air. 
Magnesia enters largely into the composition of many primary rocks (stea- 
tite, serpentine, talc, &c.), giving to them a soft soapy feel : as a (XLrhimaJte, 
in combination with carbonate of lime, it constitutes magnesian limestone, 
found extensively in the Secondary and Palseozoic strata ; as a sulphate, it 
is common in many waters, as those of Epsom, Seidlitz, &c. ; as a muriaie, 
it is found in the waters of the ocean ; and other combinations, as borates, 
silicates, &c., are by no means rare. The origin of the word is conjectural ; 
some deriving it from the cil^ Magnesia; others from an old term applied 
to such substances as had the power of attracting some principle from air 
or water. 

Magnesia Alum. — A substance occurring in white fibrous masses and 
efflorescences in the salinas of South America, and consisting of 13.4 
sulphate of magnesia, 88.8 sulphate of alumina, and 47 water, with traces 
of lime and iron. 

Hagn^Biaii Limestone. — ^Any limestone containing upwards of 20 per 
cent of magnesia may be so called. The term is often used by English 
geologists as synonymous with Permian or Lower New Red Sandstone— 
magnesian limestone being largely developed in that formation in the 
North of England. As magnesian limestones occur, however, in other for- 
mations, the term should be regarded as descriptive of a rock merely, and 
not as the synonyme of any stratified series. Magnesian limestone, in its 
compactor states, forms a most durable building-stone ; and on assuming 
the semi-crystalline and crystalline state passes into Dolomite. — See Per- 
mian Stbtem. 

Hdgnesite.— A compact amorphous carbonate of magnesia, usually found 
in serpentine rocks, white or greyish-white, somewhaft meagre to the touch, 
adheres to the tongue, and consists in its purest state of about 51 magnesia 
and 49 carbonic acid. 

Magnesium. — The metallic base of magnesia, a silvery-looking metal, 
which fuses at a red heat, and on burning passes into magnesia or oxide of 
magnesium (61.4 magnesium, 88.6 oxygen). 

Magnet (said to be from Magnesia, where the loadstone, or native 
magnetic iron, was found in abundance). — Magnets are defined as '' sub- 
stances which attract certain metals ; which display towards one another 
a force partly attractive and partly repulsive ; and which exhibit a tend- 
ency to arrange their mass in certain directions, or according to a law of 
polarity." They are spoke9 of as natural and artifcial — the former being 
the " loadstone " or native magnetic iron, and the latter certain arrange- 
ments of steel bars to which the magnetic property has been communi- 
cated by induction, and known as '* bar magnets," ''horse-shoe magnets," 



"compound magneta/' &c. When the artifical magnet is left to move 
freely on a pivot or otherwise, as in the mariner^s compass, it is spoken of 
as a needle, and invariably assnmes a definite direction as regards the 
earth, this direction being towards the mc^fnetic north or mapietie pole, 

Xagndtic Fluid. — The hypothetical natural agent to which the various 
phenomena of magnetism are usually referred, and spoken of as a fiuid 
from its continuous motion or flow in certain fixed directions. 

Hagndtic Lnm Pyrites. — Known also as rhomhohednU iron pyrileg, and 
pyrrhotifief a native sulphuret of iron occurring in tabular or short pris- 
matic crystals of a bronze-yellow or copper-red colour, and more or less 
magnetic. It is found chiefly in veins with other ores in the igneous and 
older crystalline rocks. 

HagnStic Meridian, Magnetic Forth. — The mean direction which a freely 
suspended horizontal needle assumes when left to itself is termed the ''mag> 
netic meridian," in contradistinction to the true meridional north and south 
as indicated by the sun's shadow at noon. The magnetic meridians coincide 
with the geographical meridians in some places, and in these the magnet 
points to the true north and south — ^that is, to the poles of the earth's 
rotation. But if it be carried successively to different longitudes, it will 
deviate sometimes to the east and sometimes to the west of the true north. 
This deviation appears to be secular ; in other words, to oscillate within 
certain limits in a given time. Thus in 1660 the needle pointed due north 
in London ; after 1662 it began to divei^e to the westward, till in 1815 it 
pointed 24** 15' west of north. Since 1815 it has been gradually returning 
from this extreme divergence, till now, in the British Islands, the geologist 
has to idlow from 22° to 23° for his compass bearings. The dip and strike 
of strata, lines of fault, veins and cleavage, axis of elevation, and the like, 
are almost invariably laid down in reference to the true meridian. 

Magnetic Veedles.— The magnetised bars of steel known as "magnetic 
needles" are of two kinds— the declination-needle and the dipping-needle. 
The former, as seen on the common mariner's compass, revolves in a hori- 
zontal direction, and points to the magnetic north ; the latter moves in a 
plane perpendicular to the horizon, and dips more and more as we approach 
the magnetic poles, where its position becomes vertical. 

Magnetic Poles. — In the northern hemisphere the north end of the 
dipping-needle leads or dips to the north ; in the southern hemisphere 
the south end dips to the south ; but between the two there is a line en- 
circling the whole eaith where the needle remains horizontal. This line 
is termed the magnetic equaior, or "line of no dip." As we proceed north- 
wards or southwards of this line the needle dips more and more, till at last 
it becomes vertical or perpendicular to the horizon in two points, or rather 
linear spaces, which are known as the north and south magnetic poles. 
These poles difier from the poles of the earth's rotation — ^the north, as 
determined by Sir J. Ross, being in 70° N. lat. and 97** W. long, ; and the 
south in 75° 6' S. lat. and 164° 8' E. long. 

Mdgnetism.— Literally, the attractive and repulsive power of the natu- 
ral magnet or loadstone ; generally, that peculiar property possessed by 
many mineral bodies and by the whole mass of the earth itself, by which, 
under certain circumstances, they mutually attract and repel one another, 
according to determinate laws. " Very delicate experiments have shown 
that all bodies are more or less susceptible of magnetism. Many of the 
gems give signs of it; titanium -and nickel always possess the properties 



of attraction and repulsion ; but the magnetic agency is most powerfully 
developed in iron, and in that particular ore of iron called loadstone or 
moffnetite. A metal is often susceptible of magnetism if it contain only 
the 130; 000th part of its weight of iron — a quantity too small to be detected 
by any chemical test. One of the most distinguishing tests of magnetism 
is polarity, or the property a magnet possesses, when freely suspended, of 
spontaneously pointing nearly north and south, and always returning to 
that position after being disturbed. Induction is the power which a mag- 
net possesses of exciting temporary or permanent magnetism in such 
bodies in its vicinity as are ca(»able of receiving it. By this property the 
mere approach of a magnet renders iron or steel magnetic — ^the more 
powerfully, the less the distance. Iron acquires magnetism more readily 
than steel, yet it loses it as quickly on the removal of the magnet, whereas 
the steel is impressed with a lasting polarity. There can hardly be a 
doubt but that all the phenomena of magnetism, like those of electricity, 
may be explained on the hypothesis of one ethereal fluid, which is con- 
densed or redundant in the positive pole, and deficient in the negative."— 
(Mrs SomervilU, as abridged hy Dr Bumble.) While there can be little 
doubt of the identity of magnetism with electricity (since magnets can be 
made to exhibit all the phenomena of electrical machines), still it must be 
regarded in great measure as one of those unseen existences which are only 
known by their efifects. Terrestrial magnetism, which pervades the whole 
earth, and with which geologists have most to do, is a subject of extreme 
complicity ; and though often called in by the theorist to aid him in his 
views respecting crystallisation, cleavage, jointing, and other phenomena, 
it must be fairly admitted that science is not yet in a position to point out 
either the extent of its results or its precise mode of working. 

Mdgnetite. — Known also as magnetic iron, oxidulated iron, and octahedral 
iron-ore ; consists of about 69 iron peroxide, with 31 iron protoxide. It 
occurs largely in the igneous and metamorphic rocks, either in distinct 
octahedral crystals, disseminated through the mass, or more frequently in 
compact beds, forming, as in Norway, Sweden, and Russia, a most import- 
ant ore of iron. It rarely appears in veins ; and the largest known masses 
are situated in the northern parts of the globe — Scandinavia, Russia, Si- 
beria, and North America. 

Hailed (Fr. maille, a coat of armour).— Having the body protected by a 
coat or covering of scales, bony plates, or other hard substance; e. g., the 
Armadillo, Glypto<lon, &c. 

Hdlachite. — The green carbonate of copper, consisting of 71.8 copper 
protoxide, 20 carbonic acid, and 8.2 water, and deriving its name, it is said, 
from the Greek malache, the marsh-mallow, in allusion to its colour. As 
an ore of copper, malachite rarely occurs crystallised, but is either foliated, 
fibrous, compact, or earthy; and usually in reniform, concretionary, or 
stalactitiform masses. The copper mines of Siberia and the Ural furnish 
the finest specimens, which, when cut and polished, are highly prized for 
ornamental purposes. Malachite seems, in many instances, to be a recent 
production, caiused by the action of the water and carbonic acid of the 
atmosphere on other copper ores ; and is in fact a copper-stalagmite, 

Maldoolite (Gr. malakos, soft, and lOhos). — Known also as Sahliie ; a 
variety of augite of various shades of green, and of a vitreous or sub-pearly 
lustre. , 

Xalac61ogy (Gr. malahos, soft, and logos, discourse).— The science which 



treats of the moUusca — a term occanonally substituted for that of Concho- 
logy, as referring knore immediately to tiie structure and functions of the 
animals, many of which are shell-less ; while Conchology relates, on the 
other hand, more especially to tiie shell or mere external covering {condia, 
a shell) of those orders so provided. 

Malaoop te r^g i i (Gr. nuilakos, soft, and pterygion, winglet or fin). — One 
of Cuvier's primary divisions of Osseous Fishes, in which the fins are all soft 
or jointed. It is farther subdivided, according to the position or absence 
of the ventral fin, into — 1. M, abdoinmaUi, in which the ventral fins are 
attached to the abdomen behind tiie pectorals (chiefly fresh-water species) ; 
2. M. »iib-br<ickiati, in which the ventral fins are brought forward under 
the pectorals (chiefly marine fishes) ; and, 3. M. apoda, in which the ven- 
tral fins are always wanting, and not unfrequently the pectoral also. 

XalleaUe, Xalleaibility (Lat. malleut, a hammer). — ^A property of many 
metals, by which they are capable of being beaten out into thin plates or 
leaves by the hammer. Grold, silver, iron, copper, &c., are malUahle. 

Xalldtos (6r. nudUu, a lock of wool). ~ The oapelan, a small, soft-finned 
fish (whence the name) rather larger than a sprat, which inhabits the banks 
of Newfoundland, and other parts of the coasts of northern seas. Foscdl 
specimens occur in nodules of indurated clay-marl on the coast of Green- 
land ; but these are of very recent date, and, it may be said, still in the 
process of formation. 

Malm-B<HdL — ^A local term for a calcareous sandstone which forms por- 
tions of the Upper Oreentand in tiie counties of Surrey and Sussex. It is 
known also as " fire-stone.'* 

Maltha. — ^A term occasionally applied to slaggy mineral pitch, as distinct 
from fluid petroleum on the one hand, and from solid atphaU on the other. 

Hammalifbrons. — ^A term applied to strata containing mammalian re- 
mains, as the " Mammaliferous Crag " of Norfolk, the " Mammaliferous 
Gravels" of Siberia, &c. 

Mdnunals, MaminAlia (Lat. mamma, a teat or pap).— The general term 
for all animals that give suck to their young. They constitute the first or 
highest class of Vertebbata, and are usually divided into Placenialia and 
ImplaoemUdia — the former being those that are nourished previous to birth 
by a uterine network of blood-vessels called the pUicesUa, and do not come 
into the world until they are provided with all their organs ; th^ latter, 
those that are non-placental, or have no attachment to the uterus, and are 
brought forth in an imperfect state — the young being received into an ex- 
ternal pouch (m^ireupium), and there nourished till their organs are matured. 
The non-placentals are comparatively few in number, are chiefly confined 
to the Australasian continent, and are regarded as lower in the scale of 
being than the placentals. Eemains of Marsupial Mammals have been 
found in the Triassic and Oolitic rocks ; the higher orders not till the 
Chalk and Tertiaries. — See tabulations, '' Animal Scheme. " 

H^unmifen (Lat. mamma, a breast, and.^n>, I bear). — Literally ''breast* 
bearing animals," or those which give suck to their young. Same as 
mammals and mammalia, 

MAmmlHary, Haxnmillated (Lat. mamilla, little pap). — Applied to sur- 
faces covered with pap-like excrescences or concretions, as some mi^nesian 
limestones studded with rounded projections. — See Botbtoidal. 

Mammoth (Tartar). — ^The great fossil elephant of Siberia ; the Elephae 
primigenius of scientific authors. Remains of the mammoth are found 



abundantly in many of the Post-pliocene or Upper Tertiary deposits of 
northern Asia and Europe — ^the range of the animal being apparently be- 
tween the 40th and 70th parallels of latitude, and its metropolis, according 
to Professor Owen, " the northern exiareme of the temperate zone." The 
Mammoth differs from existing elephants chiefly in its greater size, its 
dentition, which was fitted for milling coarser and less succulent yegeta- 
tion, its immense recuryed tusks, and its dense corering of shaggy hair, 
which fitted it for a cold and rigorous climate. Whole drifts of its tusks 
and bones are found in tiie northern ocean, and in the tundras and river- 
gravels of Siberia ( Von Wrangd^ ; and scattered tusks and bones are fre- 
quent in ail the ancient alluvia of northern Europe and the British Islands. 
— Owen's * Fossil Mammals.' 

MftnAtf'^f* (Lat. ma»afi», the sea-cow). — The Sirenia of some S3rstem- 
atists ; a family of aquatic herbivorous mammals, including the manatee, 
dugong, ko. Remains apparently of this family are occasionally found in 
Pleistocene and ancient estuary-deposits. 

XiuigaaeBe (Lat.) — A hard, brittle, greyish- white metal (somewhat re- 
sembling iron), discovered by Gahn in the black oxide of manganese of 
commerce. Its spedfic gravity is about 8 ; it is fased with g^sat difficulty, 
but is readily oxidised. In an oxidised state manganese is abimdant in the 
mineral kin^om, and traces of it have been found in the ashes of plants, 
and in mineral waters. The ores of manganese are erected by some miner- 
alogists into a separate family, including such genera as fMrngaTiMe, or the 
grey oxide ; wad, or the earthy protoxide ; cupreut manganese; p^olusiie, 
or the dark peroxide ; psihmdane, a compound of the peroxide and baryta ; 
Batumannitef B^XLunUe, kQ. — all described under their separate heads. 
The ores of manganese are largely used in the arts : as in glass-making ; 
in pottery painting and glazing ; in painting glass and enamel ; in the 
production of oxygen, chlorine, and chloride of lime ; and occasionally for 
an admixture for improving the make of iron and steel. 

MAngaiitte. — Grey oxide of manganese, consisting, according to Turner, 
of 62.72 manganese, 27*18 oxygen, and 10.10 water. It occurs in veins in 
gneiss and other crystalline rocks, either in groups of prismatic crystals, 
or in radiating and columnar aggregates ; and is the purest and most 
beautifully crystallised of the ores of manganese. 

XantflUa. — Considering the fossil cycadeoidea of the Isle of Portland as 
a peculiar type, M. Brongniart has referred them to a new genus under the 
name of Manlelliaf in honour of the late Dr Mantell. These stems are 
of a sub-cylindrical shape, covered with rhomboidal leaf-scars, which are 
widest transversely, and are from one to two feet in height, and from one 
to three in circumference. They are termed ** Crows' nests " by the quarry- 
men, who regard them as the nests of the former inhabitants of the now 
petrified forests of the Oolite. 

Hmrble (Lat. marmor). — ^Any rock susceptible of a fine polish is termed 
'* marble" by the stone-cutters ; hence we hear of Portsoy marhU, which 
is a true serpentine ; of Silieian marble, which is often a brecoiated lava, 
and so forth. The term, however, should be, and is restricted by geolo- 
gists to limestones capable of receiving a polish, and frequently exhibiting 
a variety of colours. We have thus uni-eoloured marbles, such as pure 
blacks or whites ; and parti-oohured varieties, deriving their shades from 
accidental minerali, from metallic oxides giving them a veined and clouded 
appearance, or from shells, encrinites, corals, and other organisms which 



impart a variety of '* figure " as well as of hue. Every country has its own 
peculiar marbles, and idmost evwy age has had its own whims and fancies 
for certain varieties. The following are a few of the most esteemed varie- 
tieS; ancient and modem : — Cainwut pure white, crystalline, and semi- 
transparent ; highly esteemed for statuary purposes. Parian, of a waxy 
cream-colour, also crystalline, and employed in statuary. Oialh-atUico, 
yellow and mixed with a small proportion of hydrate of iron ; used for 
ornamental purposes. Rosto-afUico, a deep blood-red, less or more veined. 
Mandelato, a light red, veined and clouded. Verde-antique, a cloudy green 
mixed with serpentine. Cipoline, a mixture of talcose schist with white 
saccharoidal marble. Lumackello or fire-marhle, a dark brown variety, 
having brilliant chatoyant reflections, which it owes to the nacreous matter 
of enclosed shells. Black marbles, like those of Derbyshire and Kilkenny, 
deriving their dark colours from bitumen. EncriTuU marbles, like those of 
Derbyshire, and other Carboniferous districts, deriving their " figure" from 
the stems and joints of encrinites. SheU marbles, like those of Purbeck 
and Petworth in Dorset and Sussex, receiving their *' figure " from the 
enclosed shells of various moUusca. 

Xarcasite »(8aid to be from an Arabic word signifying "fire-giving 
stone "). —Iron pyrites, or bisulphide of iron, occurring crystallised in 
modified rhombic prisms, and also in reniform and botryoidal masses, and 
in stalactitio crusts ; hence such varieties as hepatic pyrites, cockscomb 
pyrites, radiated pyrites, &c. Marcasite is more liable to decomposition 
than ordinary pyrites, is of a paler colour, being nearly tin-white, and is 
more strongly metallic in lustre. Is abundant in nature ; used commer> 
oially as ordinary pyrites, and sometimes for ornamental purposes. By 
the older mineralogists the term Marcasite was applied to iron pyrites 
occurring in thin veins, and Pyrites to the varieties occurring in nodular 
masses. — See Pyrites. 

Haremme (Lat. mare, the sea). — The Italian term for those unwholesome 
sea-marshes that diffuse with more or less virulence their pestilential ex- 
halations along the whole west coast of Italy. — See Pontine Mabshes. 

Hargarite (Gr. margariies, a pearl). — One of the Mica family ; known 
also as pearl-mica, or hemiprismatic pearl-mica. A pearly-grey mineral 
generally occurring with chlorite in scaly irr^^ar masses, and rarely crys- 
tallised in six-sided tables. 

Harl (Sax.)— Any soft admixture of clay and lime is termed a marl — 
"clay-marl " when the clay predominates ; " marl-clay" when the lime is 
most abundant ; and " shell-marl " when it contains fresh- water shells, as 
the lymnea, puludina, &c. In geological nomenclature we have '' chalk- 
marls/' "lias marlstone," and other appropriate enough terms ; but occa- 
sionally the word is used to designate soft friable clays with which not 
a particle of lime is intermingled, just as agriculturists call any soil a 
"marl" that falls readily to pieces on exposure to the air. For farie- 
gaJUd Marls or Keuper, see Triassic System. 

Marlstone. — In geological classification, the middle member of the Lias 
formation, ranging in the eastern counties of England (York, Lincolnshire, 
&c.) from 100 to 150 feet in thickness, and consisting of arenaceous shales, 
laminated sandy limestones, and several bands of stratified and nodular 
limestone, the whole series being peculiarly rich in fossils — shells, corals, 
Crustacea, and fishes. "The marlstone beds," says Phillips, "are in fact 
the first term of the Oolitic deposits, interpolated among the last terms of 



the Lias ; and according as the clay above them is atteniiated or developed^ 
they may be ranked with the Oolite or Lias formation." 

Hirmolite (Gr. marmairo, to shine, and lithos), — A variety of foliated 
serpentine, of a pale-green, yellow, or light-grey colour. 

Harsapidlia, Marsapidta (Lat. marsupium, a pouch or purse).— Literally 
"pouched animals ;" an order of mammalia having a sack or pouch under 
the belly, in which they carry their young, as the kangaroo, wombat, and 
opossum. They are sometimes termed owyoiviparou* mammals, as being 
intermediate between the yiviparous mammals and the oviparous birds 
and reptiles. For the same reason they are classed as implacentcUia, in 
contradistinction to the true placental animals — the pouch-like apparatus 
for their imperfect young being a sort of extra- uterine gestation. Mar- 
supial remains occur in the Oolite and Trias {amphitkerium, pkoMolotherium, 
&c.), and, according to American authority, even in the Permian {droma- 
therium), thus making them the earliest mammiferous creatures with which 
pidsBontologists are yet acquainted. —See tabulations, "Animal Scheme." 

H&rsapite (Lat. mdrsupiumy a purse).— A genus of free-floating crinoidea 
found in the Chalk formation ; having a bag-like shape when closed ; and 
often known by the quarrymen*s term "cluster-stones." — See Crinoidea. 

Hdssicot. — ^Yellow protoxide of lead. The dross that forms on melted 
lead exposed to a current of air, and roasted till it acquires a uniform yellow 
colour. Used as a pigment. 

Hassospond^las (6r. maston, longer, and tpondylos, a vertebra). — A 
provisional genus of huge fossil saurians, occurring in the Triassic sand- 
stones of South Africa ; and so named by Professor Owen from the length 
of their vertebrae, the only remains yet discovered. 

Haster-Jointi. — A term applied to the larger planes of division which 
pass through rock-masses, and which run regularly parallel to each other 
for considerable distances, in contradistinction to the ordinary and smaller 
joints which traverse the rocks in all directions. In speaking of these 
Assures the quarryman employs the terms '* backs and cutters"— the 
former being the master-joints and the latter the smaller and ordinary 
ones. — See Joints. 

]Id8todon(Gr. magtos, nipple, and odout, tooth). — A genus of Tertiary and 
Post-tertiary elephantine mammals ; so called from the nipple-like protu- 
berances on the grinding-surfaces of their molar teeth. According to 
Falconer, who separates the Mastodons from the true Elephants, the genus 
includes " all the elephantoid species which have the crowns of the molars 
comparatively simple, and uniformly divided into two sub-equal divisions 
by a longitudinal line or cleft ; the ridges limited in number, elich with 
fewer mammillary eminences, fmd invariably more or less concave across ; 
the enamel thick, and in conical or compressed points ; and the valleys 
between the ridges deep and empty, or with but a sparing quantity of 
cement." The same authority divides the genus into two sub-genera 
{Trilophodon and Tetralophodon), and enumerates upwards of a dozen 
species, which seem to have had a truly cosmopolitan range during the 
Pliocene and Post-pliocene periods. — See ' Geological Journal,' vol. xiii. 

Hastodonsa'dniB (Gr. mastos, a nipple; odotis, tooth; and sauros, lizard). 
— A provisional genus of saurian reptiles occurring in Triassic strata, and 
so called from the peculiar form of their teeth — the only portion of their 
remains yet discovered. Regarded by Owen as the same with Labyrinth- 
ODON, which see. 


^" J" ■ i^jm^^nt^^m . m ^v««fe «•->» 


MAtJTial (Lat.)>-Appertaimng to the morning ; the third of the fifteen 
series into which Professoi* Rogers subdivides the Palsozoic strata of the 
Appalachian chain — ^the ''Morning" of the North American Palseozoics^ 
and the equivalents apparently of our Upper Cambrians.— See Paleozoic 

XatrU (Lat., the womb). — The rock or main substance in which any 
accidental crystal, mineral, or fossil is imbedded, is said to be the matrix 
of that mineral or fossil. 

Headow-Qre. — ^A term occasionally used for bog-iron ore, from its occur- 
rence in marshy or low-lying meadow-lands. 

Heandrlna (Lat.) — Brain-coral; madrepores in which the laminse 
assume a meandering direction. The Meandiinee are large hemispherical 
corals having their surfaces covered with serpentine ridges and depres- 
sions, resembling the convolutions of the human brain. They occur 
abundantly in modem coral-reefs, but seem not to be represented in 
earlier formations. 

Medina Sanditones. — An important group of North American Silurians 
which, taken in conjunction with the Oneida Conglomeratei, are believed to 
be the representatives, in time, of the Lower Llandovery rocks of £ngland — 
that is, the upper portion of the ** Lower Silurian" division of Murchison. 

Meenchanm (Ger., sea-scum; sea- foam).— A white, light, earthy or 
compact hydrated silicate of magnesia— the purer sorts consisting of 50 
silica, 25 magnesia, and 25 water. It occurs among the serpentine rocks 
of several countries, but that used for the bowls of tobacco-pipes comes 
chiefly from Greece and Asia Minor, and is found in stratified earthy or 
alluvial deposits. It has a soapy feel, adheres to the tongue, and is usually 
dull and opaque. Being capable of forming a paste with water, it is some- 
times spoken of as " plastic magnesia" — the commoner sorts being used in 
the manufacture of porcelain, and the finer (after undei^ing various pro- 
cesses, such as boiling in milk, &c.) in the making of meerschaum pipes. 

Megdceros HibSndciiB (Gr. megat great, and heras, horn). — Literally, 
the " great antlered deer of Ireland." The fossil or sub-fossil gigantic 
deer of our Pleistocene marls and peat-bogs, often, but erroneously, termed 
the " Irish Elk."— See Irish Deer. 

MegaUbiea. — The name given by Professor Owen to a gigantic sub-fossil 
land-lizard whose remains have been discovered in the Pleistocene deposits 
of Australia. These remains indicate an affinity to the existing lace-lizards 
of that continent, but must have belonged to an animal at least twenty 
feet in length, and equalling in size the largest crocodiles. 

Megaliclithjrs (Gr. megale, great, and ichthys, fish). — A large sauroid fish 
of the Carboniferous period, occurring most abundantly in the lower beds, 
and characterised by its smooth but minutely pimctured, enamelled, 
lozenge-shaped scales. The scales, jaws, and imperfect specimens which 
have been found in the Coal-measures of Scotland, indicate a fish of great 
size ; but the teeth (which are numerous, sharp, and conical) are small in 
comparison with those of holoptyehius and rhizodua, with which the remains 
of megalichthyg are often confounded. 

Hegaldnyz (Gr. megdU, great, and (myx, claw). — A huge edentate mam- 
mal, found chiefly in the Upper Tertiaries of America, and so called from 
the great size of its claw or unguiccd bones, the lai^gest of which was about 
seven inches long. From the admirable inductions of Cuvier and others, 
it would appear that the^egalonyx somewhat resembled the Megatherium 



in its general character, configuration, and habits, bat was a third smaller 
than that celossal animal. 

Hegalosanms (Gr. megale, great, and muros, lizard).— One of the Dino- 
saurs, or gigantic land-saurians, whose teeth, yertebrse, femoral and other 
bones occur in the Oolite and Wealden strata. In these remains the 
character of the monitors seems blended with that of the crocodiles ; and 
judging from its decidedly trenchant teeth, the Megalosaur was highly 
carnivorous, preying in all likelihood on smaUer reptiles, and on the young 
of its gigantic contemporaries, the iguanodon and hylseosaurus. 

Hegaph^tmn (Gr. m£ga, great, and phyUm, a shoot). -;A genus of Coal- 
measure stems, so called from the large size of their leaf-scars. In mega- 
phytum the stem is not furrowed, but irregularly dotted or rugose ; the 
leaf-scars large, horseshoe-shaped, and arranged on each side the stem in 
vertical rows. Allied to Botkrodendron and Ulodendaron, and apparently 

Hegathfoinm (Gr. mega, great, and therion, beast).— A huge edentate 
mammal whose remains occur abundantly in the Upper Tertiary or Pam- 
pean deposits of South America. In anatomical structure the Mega- 
therium exhibits features intermediate between the Sloths> Armadilloes, 
and Ant-eaters ; for while in its skull and shoulders it resembles the 
former, its legs and feet present an admixture of the characters of the 
latter. Larger than the largest rhinoceros, its length was about nine or 
ten feet ; but its bones were proportionally much more colossal than those 
either of the rhinoceros or elephant. The structure of its teeth indicates 
herbivorous habits, and its powerfully-clawed fore-feet (about a yard in 
length) seem admirably formed for digging up the succulent roots and 
luxuriant herbage whieh. would then adorn the fertile surface of the 
virgin Pampas. 

Heionite (Gr. Tneion, less). — ^Prismatic-pyramidal felspar, occurring in 
Monte Somma near Vesuvius, and so called from its terminating pyramids 
being lower or less acute than in Idocrase. Known also as WerTierUe and 
Scapolite, which see. 

Helaconite, Uelaconige (Gr. melcu, black, and kwiis, powder). — An earthy 
and impure black oxide of copper, occurring in veins in pulverulent masses 
(whence the name), and arising in all likelihood from the decomposition 
of other ores. 

Helanasphalt. — Literally "black asphalt," the name given by some 
American mineralogists to the Albert Coal or AUteriite of Nova Scotia, 
which see. 

Mflanite (Gr. melas, black). — A variety of iron garnet, so called from 
its black colour; and, according to Klaproth, consisting of 35.5 silica, 
6 alumina, 26 iron peroxide, and 82.5 lime. — See Garnet. 

Melanochroite (Gr. melas, black ; chroa, colour). — Chromate of lead, oc- 
curring in rhombic prisms or massive ; of a deep hyacinth-red ; resinous 
lustre ; and consists of 76.7 protoxide of lead, and 23.3 chromic acid. 

ItelAaterite (Gr. melcu, black). — The mineralogical term for the native 
sulphate of iron, which is a recent production from the decomposition of 
iron pyrites. 

HeUite (Lat. mel, honey).— Honey-stone; mellitate of alumina; a rare 
mineral, of a honey-yellow colour, resinous lustre, and more or less trans- 
parent, occurring in connection with Tertiary and Cretaceous lignites. 
According to Klaproth, it consists of 46 mellic acid, 16 alumina, and 38 water. 



H^niUte. — A rariety or sub-species of opaline quartZj occnrringf in com- 
pact kidney-shaped nodules, in a bed of adhesive slate at Mont Menil near 
Paris ; hence the name. It is sometimes known as *' liver opal/' from its 
brown oolour, though varying shades of bluish-grey are not uncommon. 

X^hitio (Lat. mephUit, an offensive odour). — Offensive to the smelly 
foul, noxious. Thus mephUic air, asote or nitrogen ; iiiephiiic ctcid, car- 
bonic acid. 

Uereury. — ^A well-known metal, which is always fluid at a temperature 
higher than — 39** ; and hence, from its mobility and silvery lustre, usually 
called " quiclsUv^.** At temperatures less than — 40*^ it becomes solid, and 
has a specific gravity of 15.6 ; when fluid, its gravity is only 13.5 ; under the 
blowpipe it is altogether volatile, or leaves a slight residuum of silver. It 
occurs in rocks of all ages, but is rarely found in a state of native purity — 
its more abundant ores being eiuTiaJbar or bisulphuret of mercury ; native 
amafgam, an ore consisting of silver and mercury ; and calomel^ or chloride 
of mercury. The best-known mercury mines in Europe are those of Idria 
in Camiola, and Almaden in Spain. At Almaden the mercury is said not 
to form veins, but to have impregnated the vertical strata of quartzose 
sandstone associated with carbonaceous dates; and in the Asturias the 
mines are worked in coal strata. 

Meridian (Lat.) — Mid-day ; the eighth of the fifteen series into which 
Professor Rogers subdivides tihe Palaeozoic strata of the Appalachian chain 
— the "Mid-day" of the North American Palseozoics, and the equivalents 
perhaps of our lowermost Devonians. — See Paleozoic Formations. 

Herycothfoiiim (Gr. meryho, I ruminate, and therion, beast). — A huge 
ruminant found along with the mammoth and rhinoceros in the " Drift " 
or Upper Tertiary beds of Siberia, and having affinity to the existing 
Bactrian camel. 

Meso- (Gr. mesos, the middle). — A frequent prefix of scientific com- 
pounds, signifying intermediate, or that which holds a middle place 
between others. 

Uesopith6cii8 (Gr. mefos, intermediate, and pitkecos, ape). — ^A generic 
term applied by Professor Wagner to the remains of a quadrumane dis- 
covered in the Tertiary formations of Greece, and regarded by him as 
intermediate between the long-armed apes {ki/lobates) and the tailed 
monkeys (aemnopithecut). 

Mesost^lns. — The generic term for a small crustacean, whose cheliferous 
claws or pincers occur abundantly in the Chalk formation, and that with- 
out any vestige of carapace or body-crust. From this circumstance, as 
well as from the fact of the right claw always being the largest, it is pre- 
sumed that the Mesostyltis had the structure and habit of the living Hermit- 
crab {Paguru8)—yiz., an abdomen unprotected by a calcareous crust, 
which it thrust for shelter into the shells of those molluscs with which 
its claws are now found associated. 

Hdsotype (Gr. mesos, intermediate, and iyposy form). — Prismatic Zeolite ; 
a silicate of soda and alumina occurring abundantly in trap-rocks, and 
known also as NairoliUj which see. 

]IesOK6ic (Gr. mesosy middle, and zoe^ life).— The great division of 

stratified formations holding the middle forms of Life, as differing from 

the Palaeozoic and Cainozoic. The Mesozoio period thus embraces the 

Triassic, the Oolitic, and Cretaceous systems. 

Metallic. — Of, or pertaining to, a metal ; partaking of the nature of a 


MET > 

metal. We thus speak of metallic ores, metaUic veins, metallic lustre, and so 
forth — all implying the nature, quality, and characteristics of metals. 

UetaUiferonB.— Literally ''metal-yielding;" applied to rocks, veins, 
and deposits productive of metals or metallic ores. 

Hetallograpliy. — Literally a description of the metals : that branch of 
science which treats of the nature and properties of the metals. 

HetaUoid (Gr. eidos, likeness). — A term sometimes applied to the metal- 
lic bases of the alkalies and earths, as calcium, potassium, sodium, kc. ; and 
also to the inflammable non-metallic bodies, as sulphur, phosphorus, &c. 

Uetallnrgy. — Literally metal-working ; the art of separating the metals 
firom their ores, and comprising the operations of smelting, refining, 
assaying, and so forth. 

Uetals (Gr. m^tallon, a mine, metal, or mineral). — A well-known class of 
elementary bodies, most of which are characterised by their peculiar lustre 
{metallic lustre), and generally speaking by their great specific gravities, 
some of them being the heaviest substances known. Geologically, few of 
them occur in a state of purity, or as native metals, the most of them being 
found in the state of ores — that is, in combination with other elements, and 
mixed with various mineral matters. Some occur in beds or strata, most 
of them in veins ; and these veins generally abound in the older rocks, 
and in districts which have been most subjected to igneous disturbance. 
Some metals also occur more abundantly in one rock-formation than 
anotiier, but the causes which have led to this peculiar arrangement ore 
yet unknown. Chemically, it is usual to arrange the metals into different 
classes, according to their affinity for oxygen, and the peculiar properties 
of their various oxides. Thus they are distinguished : — 1. Perfect Metals, or 
those which combine, with difficulty, with oxygen, and consequently are not 
easily oxidised ; and as such they readily part with oxygen by the simple 
application of heat, and are converted into pure metals. The best known 
of this class are platinum, gold, and silver. Mercury holds an intermediate 
place between these and the next class. 2. Base Metals, or those which 
readily combine with oxygen, partly by mere contact with the atmosphere, 
or when heated and fused they are not redtmble by the action of heat only, 
but require the admixture of some substance, as coal, to attract the oxygen 
from the oxide. The best known of this class are iron, copper, lead, tin, 
and zinc. The metals composing this and the preceding class are usually 
termed, from their great specific gravity, the heavy metals. 3. Acidifying 
Metals, or those which, entering into combination with oxygen, possess the 
property of acids, which are hence called metaUic acids. The metals of 
this class are — tellurium, arsenic, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, col- 
umbium, and selenium. 4. Terrigenous Metals, or those whose oxides con- 
stitute the Earths proper. They resist the action of heat, and are insol- 
uble in water. These are aluminium, yttrium, cerium, lantanum, thorium, 
glucinum, and zirconium. And, 5. Kaligenous Metals, or those which 
oxidise most readily, their oxides constituting the alkalies. These are 
magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, lithium, sodium, and potassium. 
As the metals of this and the preceding class are some lighter and some 
little heavier than water, they are usually called the light Tnetals, — See 
tabulations, " Chemical Scheme," Obes, Earths, and Alkalies. 

Uetam6ric (Gr. m£ta, implying change, and m&ros, part). — ^A term ap- 
plied to compounds in which the ultimate elements are the same as in 
other well-known combinations, but are considered to be arranged in a 



di£ferent way ; thus, oxygen, hydrogeo, sulphur, and a metal may be con- 
sidered as combined in the form of sulphuretted hydrogen and metallic 
oxide, or of water and metallic sulphuret. 

]Ietam6rphic (Gr. meta, change, and morpke, form). — Literally ''changed 
in form ;" applied to rocks and rock-formations which seem changed &om 
their original condition by some external or intenud agency. In geological 
nomenclature tiie crystalline stratified rocks — Gneiss, l^ca-schist. Clay- 
slate, &0. — are termed Metamorpkic, and erected into a separate system. 
Strictly speaking, '* metamorphic " applies to the power or force causing 
the change; " metamorphism," the process; and ''metamorphosis," the 
result. Hence we ought to speak of metamorphic agency, and metamcr- 
phased rocks. — See Mbtamobphism. 

Hetamorpliic System. — Although the rocks of every formation may be, 
and to a great extent often are, subjected to mineral metamorphisms, still 
in geological classification it is usual to restrict the term " Metamorphic 
System" to those crystalline schists — Gneiss, Quartz-rock, Mica-schist, and 
Clay-slate — ^which underlie all the fossiliferous strata, and in which no 
trace of organic remains has yet been detected. In grouping these schists 
it is often difficult to draw Ihies of distinction between them, and to say 
where the one ends or the other begins ; still, on the whole, it may be re- 
ceived as a truth that Gneiss, or rocks of a gneissic character, occupy the 
lowest position in the metamorphic system ; that these (at least in such 
typical districts as the Scottish Highlands) are succeeded by a zone of 
quartzitic compounds ; and these again by mica-schists, which graduate 
imperceptibly into the chloritic and argillaceous slates that cap the series, 
thus : — 

4. CiiAT-SLATE— Chloritic and argillaceous slates. 

3. MiCA-SOHiST — micaceous, talcose, and chloritic schists. 

2. QuABTZ-BOOK — quartzitic compounds, ^nerally thick-bedded. 

1. Gnbiss — gneiss-rock and granitoid schists. 

The rocks composing these groups are less or more indurated and crystal- 
line ; exhibit, for the most parf^ cleavage, crumpling, foliation, and other 
kind^d structure; have their lines of stratification indistinct, or often 
altogether obliterated ; and, as sedimentary strata, have evidently under- 
gone some peculiar change in their intenia] structure. This change, or 
metamorphism, whether produced by heat, pressure, or chemical agency, 
has conferred upon them the term of Metamorphic rods ; and by this 
designation they are now generally known among geologists. As strata, 
they are the deepest or lowest in the crust of the earth, and are therefore 
regarded as Primary or first-formed. They are also known as NonrJbssU' 
iferous, Azoic, or Hypoeok strata, from the fact that, with the exception 
of the Laurentian eozo&ti, no distinct traces of plants or animals haye yet 
been discovered in any part of the system. Azoic and Hypozoic are, 
however, mere provisional terms, the likelihood being that all stratified 
rocks, no matter how ancient, were originally fossiliferous. — See tabula- 
tions, " Geological Scheme." 

Metam6rp]ii8m (Gr. meta, change, and morphe, form), — Literally change 
of form, or transformation. That change of structure or of texture which 
has been efiected on many rocks by the agency of heat, chemical action, 
or otherwise ; as, for example, when chalk is converted into crystalline 
marble, or sandstone into jaspery quartz-rock. " The problem of meta- 
morphism," we have elsewhere observed ('Advanced Text-Book'), "isalto- 



gether a difficult one, and one involving so many questions in the obscurer 
departments of chemistry, electricity, and crystallography, that geology 
must rest satisfied, in the mean time, with indicating rather than defining 
the nature of the operative causes. The most obvious and general of 
these may be briefly enumerated : — 1. Heal by contact, as when any igneous 
mass, like lava, indurates, crystallises, or otherwise changes the strata 
over or through which it passes ; 2. Heat by transmission, conductum, or 
ctbsorption, which may also produce metamorphism, according to the tem- 
perature of the heated mass, the continuance of the heat, and the con- 
ducting powers of the strata affected ; 3. ffeat by permeation of hot vfoier, 
steam, aaid other vapours, all of which, at great depths, may produce vast 
changes among the strata, when we recollect that steam, under sufficient 
pressure, may acquire the temperature of molten lava ; 4. EUctrie and 
gaZvanic currents in the stratified crust, which may, as the e3q>eriments of 
Mr Fox and Mr Hunt suggest (passing galvanic currents through masses 
of moistened pottery-clay), produce cleavage and semi-crjrstalline arrange- 
ment of particles ; 5. Chemical action and reaction, which, both in the 
dry and moist way, are incessantly producing atomic change, and all the 
more readily when aided by an increasing temperature among the deeper- 
seated strata ; 6. Molecular arrangement by pressure and motionr—a. silent 
but efficient agent of change, as yet little' understood, but capable of pro- 
ducing curious alterations in internal structure, especially when accom- 
panied by heat, as we daily see in the manufacture of the metals, glass, 
and earthenware. Such are the more general and likely causes of rock- 
metamorphism, and as it is possible that several of them may be operating 
at the same time, the student will perceive that no hypothesis that limits 
itself to any one agent can be accepted as sufficient and satisfactory. 
Heat and chemical action and pressure are, no doubt, the chief causes of 
change, and by them we can readily account for new crystalline arrange- 
ments in semi-fused masses, for fissures, joints, and cleavage, and in a great 
measure for that flexuring and folding of the stratified lamin» known as 
foliation. And if to these we add electricity, and new crystallographic 
and molecular arrangement under further chemical reaction, we call in a 
sufficiency of agency, though we may not always perceive the precise 
modes of action." 

IKeteoric (Gr. meteoros, raised above the earth). — Of or belonging to the 
atmosphere, and used as synonymous with aimospheric. Thus ** meteoric 
erosion," erosion produced by rain, wind, and other wasting and weathering 
powers of the atmosphere ; " meteoric iron," the iron found native in 
aerolites or meteoric stones. 

Meteorite (Gr. meteoros, raised above the earth). — ^A general term for any 
stone or mineral mass which has fallen through the atmosphere, and 
which, judging from its composition and other properties, does not seem 
to be of terrestrial origin. Such meteoric masses are of geological inter- 
est as having been found in the auriferous drifts of the Ural and Altai 
ranges. Meteorites or meteoric stones are perhaps better known by the term 
aSrolvtes, which see. 

Hetrdpolis. — ^A term very frequently employed by naturalists when 
treating of the geographical distribution of plants and animals. '* Generic 
assemblages of plants and animals," says Edward Forbes, " whether ter- 
restrial or aquatic, whether fresh-water or marine, have their regions, or 
definite geographical areas : these are what are known as 'generic areas.' 

805 U 


Each of these has its * metropolis' or district of greatest number, either 
of typical or specific forms ; geographical unity seems to be one of the 
essentials of every generic group." 

Xeyeria (after Von Meyer). — A small lobster-like crustacean, having its 
crust highly ornamented with minute bead-like tubercles, and oceurrin^^ 
for the most part in the clays and marly beds of the Chalk formation. 

XlMkite, Miasdte (Miask in Siberia).— A granitic rock consisting of 
cleavable white felspar (orthoolase), black mica, and greyish or yellowish- 
white elaolite, with some hornblende and occasionally albite or quartz. 
It is usually associated with syenite. 

HIca (Lat mico, I glisten). — A mineral well known from its metallio 
lustre, and divisibility into thin glistening plates or scales— these ultimate 
lamin», according to Haiiy, being only ikAtvv of an inch thick ! It enters 
as aj9rtmary constituent into granite, gneiss, mica-schist, and other crystal- 
line rocks ; occurs also in several trappean and volcanic products ; and is 
sometimes artificially produced on the walls of iron and copper furnaces. 
As a secondary product — derived from the disentegration of the granitic 
and crystalline rocks^it occurs in many sedimentary strata, as shales and 
sandstones, giving to them their flaky and laminated texture. In miner^ 
alogy it is made the type of a family, which includes the micas proper, 
talc, chlorite, serpentine, &c.— minenils often differing more in aspect than 
in chemical constitution. The typical j>ota»h-mica consists of silica, alu- 
mina, iron-peroxide, and potash ; liJthiarmica has less alumina, with lithia 
and fluoric acid in addition ; in magtutia-mica the alumina becomes still 
less, and is replaced by magnesia ; while in pearl-mica the main constitu- 
ents are silica, alumina, iron-peroxide, and lime. In the cklorUes the 
silica becomes less, and is replaced by a greater percentage of magnesia 
and iron ; while in the softer and soapier talcs the alumina aU but disap- 
pears, and is replaced by magnesia. Mineralogically the varieties of mica 
are Imown as BiotUe, Lepidolite, Muscovite, Lefpidomelane, &c., which see. 
In some countries, like Russia and India, the large-plated variety of mica 
(muscovite) is regularly mined as an article of commerce, being used in 
the arts and for decorative purposes. 

][ic4o6<ni8. — ^Applied to rocks and compounds which are mainly com- 
posed of mica, or which contain mica in notable proportion; as ''mica- 
ceous schistus," '' micaceous sandstone," &c. 

Mica^lust (Gr. schisTMif a splitting). — A metamorphic foliated rock 
composed of mica and quartz — the two ingredients occurring in alternate 
folia with greater or less regularity. It is also, but improperly, known as 
" mica-slate " — the schistose structure of a foliated rock being very differ- 
ent from the platy cleavage of atrue slate. As a Rock, it passes through 
every stage of metamorphosis from that of a flaggy schist to a highly- 
crystalline compound almost undistinguishable from gneiss. As a Geolo- 
gical Group, the mica-schists hold an intermediate place in the Meta- 
morphic System between Gneiss and Clay-slate, often passing into chlo- 
ritic slate, and being associated with beds of quartsite, serpentine, and 
crystalline limestone. 

Micrdster (Gr. mikron, small, and astroti, star). — A genus of Spatangida; 
abounding in the Chalk, and so termed from the star-like arrangement of 
its small or incomplete ambnlaci ai furrows. In Micraster the case is some- 
what elongated, heart-shaped, and wider before than behind, with a 
sulcus or furrow in front. ''The shell is fragile, and composed of laiige 



polygonal plates ; the tubercles small and irregularly distributed ; the 
spines short. The mouth is transverse, situated anteriorly, and protec*ted 
by a strong projection of the odd interambulacrum, which is named the 
lip. The vent is terminal, and placed above the margin. There are but 
four ambulacra, and these are incomplete, comparatively of small extent, 
and situated in deep furrows." 

Microltetas (Gr. micros, small, and Uttes, beast of prey).— The generic 
term applied to a small insectivorous quadruped whose molar teeth and 
other remains were discovered in 1847 by Dr Plieninger in the bone-breccia 
of Wlirtemberg — a stratum which occurs among the upper beds of the 
Keuper, and occupying nearly the same place in the Triassio system as the 
celebrated "bone-bed" of Aust and Axmouth. 

Microph^ta^ Microphytes (Gr. micrmif small, and^A^ton, plant). — liter- 
ally "minute vegetables;" a term applied Jm those microscopic forms 
usually known as DiATOMAOEiB, and which at one time were confounded 
with the Infusoria, or minute forms of animal life. It has been pro* 
posed by Dr Mantell to substitute the term microphytal for that of inftt' 
serial, where deposits are chiefly of vegetable origin, and not of animal, as 
was originally supposed by Ehrenberg, who regarded the "polishing- 
slate" of Bilin, the "berg-mahl" of Tuscany, and the " Bichmond-earth " 
of Virginia, as of infusorial origin. 

Microz6a (Gr. miknm, small, and zoon, animal). — A convenient term to 
denote minute animal oi^ganisms whose forms can only be defined by the 
aid of the microscope, and this without reference to their exact place in 
zoological classification. The contradistinguishing term to Microphyta, 
which refers to minute vegetable organisms. 

Middletonite. — A mineral resin found in the older Coal formations, and 
occurring in layers or in rounded pea-like masses of a reddish-brown colour, 
resinous lustre, brittle, but easily sectile. So called from Middleton Col- 
lieries, near Leeds, where it was first discovered between the layers of ihe 
coal. Consists of 86 carbon, 8 hydrogen, and 5.5 oxygen. 

Mile. — A well-known unit of measure, of which there are two kinds — 
1, the Geographical or Nautical Mile, 60 of which are equal to one degree 
of latitude ; and 2, the Comfnon or Statute Mile, 69^ of which are equal to 
one degree. The geographical mile is about 6079 English feet; the 
statute mile, 5280 feet. / 

Miliolft. — A genus of minute foraminiferous shells, so called from Uieir 
occurring in myriads in certain tertiary strata. The Miliolite LinuHone, 
which belongs to th^ "calcaire grossier" group of the Paris bai^n, is 
almost entirely made up of these many-chambered microscopic shells^, and 
is the principal building-stone employed in the French capital. 

Milk-Quarti. — A compact vitreous variety of quartz, occurring in veins 
of the older rocks, of a milk-white colour, and somewhat greasy lustre 
whence known also as Gfreasy QuAirtz. 

Millep6ra, Milleporidn (Lat. mille, a thousand, and pora, a pore or pas- 
sage). — Literally " thousand-pore ; " a genus and family of branching 
corals, whose cells or pores are minute, distinct, and perpendicular to the 
sur&ce, giving to the interior a finely striated fracture, disposed somewhat 
irregularly. Species of Millepores occur fossil from the Silurian upwards. 

Millerite (after Prof. Miller of Cambridge).— Sulphide of nickel, occur- 
ring in delicate, six-sided prisms, or in divei^ging filaments, of a bronze- 
yellow, with a gi*ey or iridescent tarnish, metallic lustre, and brittle. 



XiUftoiie Gxit. — ^A group of the EngliBh Carboniferous system, so called 
from its hard gritty sandstones being eztensiyely used for milLstones. In 
the eastern and northern counties the MUUtmu OrU immediately under- 
lies the true Coal-measures, and passes downwards through a series of 
thick-bedded sandstones, shales, thin coals, and calcareous bands, into the 
Carboniferous limestone below. Kndwn as the "Farewell Bock" in the 
Welsh coal-fields, from the fact that the miner striking it bids fJEtrewell to 
profitable seams of coal. 

^<iip^4*r (Or. mimetihot, imitatire). — Applied in natural history to 
organs, &c., which in one plant or animal bear a close resemblance to those 
possessed by some other belonging to a distinct group. Organs ** imitat- 
ing," as it were, those that are regarded as special to, or characteristic of, 
another group or family. The term seems more applicable to habits and 
actions than to mere structural forms. 

Ximetite, Mimstesite (Or. mimetet, imitator). — Arseniate of lead, usually 
containing a small percentage of chloride and phosphate of lead ; occurs 
in regular six-sided prisms, also fibrous and mammillary ; of a yellowish- 
brown colour, resinous lustre, sectile, but brittle. So called from its resem- 
blance to pyromorphite, with which it is isomorpbous. 

XlmositM.— The term applied to fossil seed-pods apparently belonging 
to plants of the Mimota family. They occur in the London Clay, and in 
other Tertiary strata. 

Mine. — ^The familiar as well as technical term for any system of subter- 
ranean work or excavation which has for its object the discovery and ex- 
traction of the metallic ores or other mineral produce, as coal, rock-salt, 
&c. Hilling. — ^The art or systematic management of a mine in all that 
relates to winning, draining, ventilating, and the like. 

XineraL — Literally, any substance obtained from the earth's crust by 
mining or digging. The term, however, is used adjectively as well as sub- 
stantively ; hence we speak of the " mineral kingdom " in contradistinc- 
tion to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and in this sense it is equiva- 
lent to inorganic as contrasted with organic We also speak of " mineral 
oil" in contradistinction to animal or vegetable oil; and of "mineral 
green " as distinguished from vegetable green. Substantively a Minkral 
is regarded as an inorganic substance, the product of chemical or physical 
forces, in contradistinction to substances resulting from the operations of 
vitality ; and yet coral-reefs and shell-beds, peat-mosses and coal-seams, 
become "minerals" when entering into the composition of the earth's 
crust. In the stricter language of mineralogy, a " mineral tpeeiet " is a 
substance whose form, chemical composition, and physical properties, 
are sufficiently uniform and persistent as to permit of identification, as 
diamond, rock-crystal, garnet, and so forth. In this sense also geologists 
speak of " simple minerals " — ^meaning thereby the primary constituents of 
rock-masses. Thus ordinary granite, as a compound rock, consists of the 
simple minerals, quarts, felspar, and mica, though, chemically speaking, 
each of these is composed of several elementary ingredients. 

Xlnemlisation. — The process of converting any substance into a 
mineral ; as vegetable matter into coal, animal fibre into adipocere, or a 
metal into an oxide, sulphuret, or other ore. Mineralisation is strictly 
dependent on chemical changes, brought about by the natural action and 
reaction of substances one upon another, when placed in conditions favour- 
able to such reactions. 



Kbieralogy. — literally "the science of mineralB;" that branch of 
knowledge which investigates the qualities of, describes, and classifies the 
various mineral substances which enter into the composition of the crust 
of the globe. In describing and classifying minerals we may be guided 
either by their chemical composition, by their crystallographic forms, or 
simply by their physical properties of colour, lustre, hardness, fracture, 
and so forth; hence we hear of the ** tyitem" of tiiis author, and the 
** system** of that, according as they may have adopted one or other of 
these methods of discrimination. As yet the science of mineralogy, not- 
withstanding the sound progress which has been made of recent years, is 
in a very unsatisfactory state— cumbered by synonymes, overloaded with 
subdivisions into so-called '' species," and devoid of that unity of nomen- 
clature which makes the terms employed express a portion of the informa- 
tion attempted to be conveyed.~See Cbystalloorafhy. 

mneral Blue. — The name usually given to azuriie when reduced to an 
impalpable powder for colour purposes. 

Mineral Caoutchonc. — Known also as elaterite, or elastic mineral pitch ; 
a variety of bitumen resembling caoutchouc in elasticity and softness. — 
See Elaterite. 

Miiieral Chaicoal. — This term is usually applied to those silky fibrous 
layers of charcoal which are interlaminated in beds of ordinary bitumin- 
ous coal, and which give to it its staining or blackening properties. These 
layers seem to have arisen from some process of spontaneous combustion 
during the mineralisation of the vegetable mass, whereby their volatile pro- 
ducts have been expelled, and the carbon of the ligneous fibre left behind. 
Knovm to the miners as ** mother of coal." 

Mineral Oil. — A familiar term for petroleum or rock-oil, which is found 
oozing out from strata of all ages from the Silurian and Devonian upwards, 
and appears to be the result of the decomposition of marine and land 
plants (mainly the latter), and perhaps also of some non-nitrogenous animal 
tissues.— See Petroleum. 

Mineral Tallow. — A familiar term for Hatchetine, in allusion to its fatty 
or spermaceti-like appearance. — See Hatchbtinb. 

Miocene (6r. meion, less, and kainos, recent). — Sir Charles Lyell's term 
for the Middle Tertiaries, as holding a less percentage of recent shells than 
the Pliocene or Upper Tertiaries. In 1830, when the terms were intro- 
duced, the percentages were Pliocene, 35 to 50 ; Miocene, 17 ; and Eocene, 3^. 
—See Tertiary System. 

Mirdge (Fr.) — A meteorological phenomenon occurring most frequently 
on level tracts and during hot weather, and occasioned partly by the un- 
equal rarefication of the vapour of the atmosphere, and partly by the in- 
termixture of strata of air having different temperatures and densities. It 
assumes the appearance of a lake-like sheet of water, often exhibiting the 
reflected or inverted images of distant objects. — See Fata Morgana. 

MiBpickel (Gr. mysy, a kind of pyrites). — Arsenical pyrites ; an arsenide 
with sulphide of iron, consisting of 36 iron, 43 arsenic, and 21 sulphur, 
and occurring either crystallised in rhombic prisms, or more frequently 
massive, acicular, and columnar, in connection with iron or copper pyr- 
ites, with ores of zinc, tin, lead, and silver. It is of a tin-white colour, 
strong metallic lustre, brittle, and very hard ; and is worked as an ore oif 

Mist. ~ The term applied to atmospheric vapour when it becomes visible 



in consequence of a reduction of the temperature of the air. MitUf fogs, 
kaurt, and the like, are common phenomena in insular and estuary-inter- 
sected countries like Great Britain and Ireland. 

WHhTftffit^ — ^A proYiaional genus of brachyurous crustaceans found in 
the Lower Oreensand of England, and so termed from their general resem- 
blance to the mithrctda of the London' Clay. The genus is characteriaed 
by its well-defined carapace, pointed rostrum, and shallow orbits, having 
the under edge anterior to the upper. 

Koa. — ^Tbe Maori or native name for the Detnomit or gigantic extinct 
cursorial bird of New Zealand, which see. According to native accounts 
the moa was recently alive, if not still existing in the remote interior ; but 
of its comparatively recent extirpation we have evidence in the fact that 
its bones have been found along with charred wood, showing that it had 
been killed and eaten by the inhabitants. 

Hoeha Stone. — ^A variety of dendritic or moss agate, so called from its 
being found in abundance near Mocha in Arabia. The dendritic lines and 
patches, being of a dark colour, are finely shown off in the glassy translu- 
cent matrix of the agate.— See Au atb. 

Hodiola (Lat. modiolus, k small measure). — A genus of bivalves belong- 
ing to the family Mytilid®, but distinguished from the mussels by their 
habit of burrowing or spinning a nest. The living species are chiefly tropi- 
cal ; the fossil occur in all formations from the Silurian (?) upwards. The 
name has reference to the shape of the shell, which is oblong and inflated 
in front. 

KodidLdpsis (Gr.) — Literally " modiola-looking ; " a genus of fossil 
conohifera occurring in Silurian strata and sometimes known as mytUoides. 
Shell like modiola, thin and smooth, front end somewhat lobed ; anterior 
adductor scar large and oval. 

Holar (Lat. moUtf a mill). — The molar or grinding teeth of mammals ; 
so termed from their function of milling or grinding the food before it is 
fit to be swallowed. The shape of the molars differs in the different tribes 
of animals according to the nature of the food they consume, ilnd the kind 
of work they have accordingly to perform. Thus in the carnivorous or 
flesh-feeding tribes they are raised into sharp prongs, and often serrated 
edges, for cutting ; in the insectivora they are furnished with rounded 
tubercles fOr bruising and pounding ; and in tiie graminivorous and herbi- 
vorous races they have flattened surfaces more or less rough for the pur- 
pose of simply grinding or milling. These distinctions afford important 
aid to the discriminations of the palsdontologist.— See Odontoloot. 

tfolasse (Lat. mollis^ Fr. molf soft). — A provincial term for those soft 
arenaceous beds which constitute the Middle Tertiaries of Switzerland. 
This deposit, occasionally alternating with lignite, but generally composed 
of incoherent greenish sandstone, is thickly developed in the great Swiss 
yaliey, and spreads also over large tracts in France, overlying the other 
and better-known Tertiaries. The Molasse comprises three divisions, an 
upper fresh-water, a middle marine, and lower fresh-water, which is of 
older Miocene age. 

Holeciilar Attraction.— In natural philosophy, that force or attraction 
by which the particles or molecules of bodies are kept together en nuuse, 
as distinguished from the attraction or force of gravitation. " According 
to the molecular theory," says Hoblyn, '' all bodies are viewed as aggre- 
gates of minute particles or molecules, and are formed by the attiactivo 



and repulsiye forces acting on these molecules, at immeasnrably small 

Uolecnle (diminutive of moles, a mass). — Any minute particle of matter ; 
the ultimate visible particles of which any body or mass is composed, are 
usually termed moleciUes, 

Hollii8ea(Lat. mollis, soft). — One of Ouvier's grand divisions of the Ani- 
mal Kingdom, including all the ** shell-fish " proper, and having reference 
to the circumstance that these creatures have soft bodies, unsupported by 
any internal or tegumentary framevrork of sufficient density to merit the 
name of skeleton. The term has been much objected to, but the words 
mollusc, mollusca, and mx>llu9cous, are now too thoroughly incorporated 
with the language of zoology and palaeontology to be readily abandoned. 
Since Cuvier's time the meaning of the term has undergone some modifica- 
tion, and it is now common to speak of the Mollusca and the Mollcts- 
COIDA — the former embracing the " shell-fish " proper ; the latter, those 
which have only coriaceous or homy integuments ; thus — 

{Cephalopoda— cuttle-fish, calamary, nautilus. 
Pteropoda— hyaltea, clio. 
Gasteropoda — snails, slugs, whelks, cowries. 
Acephala — oysters, mussels, shipworms. 
Branchiopoda— terebratula, lingula. 

MoLLUSComA. [ Tupicata-biphora, simple and compound ascideans. 
\ Polyzoa or Bryozoa — plumatella, fiustra, eschara. 

The shells and frameworks of most of the mollusca being calcareous and 
readily preserved, and each family having its own habitat as to depth, 
nature of sea-bottom, and the like, their remains become important aids 
to the geologist in the solution of his problems. — See tabulations, " Ani- 
mal Scheme." 

UoUtiskite.— A dark-brown carbonaceous substance occurring in shelly 
marbles, and originating from the mineral transmutation of the soft bodies 
of the mollusca. Speaking of the Sussex marble, which is chiefly composed 
of paludinee (river-snails), Dr Mantell observes — " Those shells which were 
empty at the period of their becoming imbedded had their cavities filled 
with mud, silt, or other detritus, which has subsequently hardened into 
clay, marl, limestone, &c., but those which contained the gelatinous 
bodies of the snails are occupied by a mass consisting of carbon and a 
large proportion of phosphate of lime. In the polished sections of the 
marble, this carbonaceous animal matter often appears in black or dark- 
brown spots and veins; and the most beautiful slabs owe their varie- 
gated appearance to the contrast produced by the mA>UushUe with the white 
calcareous spar.** 

Molybdenite.— Sulphuret of molybdenum ; molybdena-glance ; an ore 
found in various rocks, as granite, gneiss, and chlorite slate, and in veins 
with tin and other ores. It much resembles graphite, but is readily dis- 
tinguished by its streak, lustre, and action before the blowpipe. It is 
used for preparing a blue pigment for pottery ware. 

Uolybdennm (Gr. m/>lyhd4>s, lead). — A very rare metal, discovered by 
Hielm in 1782, of a whitish colour, brittle, very infusible, and having a 
specific gravity of 8.625. It derives its name from the resemblance of the 
native sulphuret imolyhdenite) to that of lead. 

Hon-, ICono- (Gr. inoTvos, single) — A common prefix derived from the 



Greek, and sig^nifying Btngleness or unity ; as fnonoltth, a monument com- 
posed of a single stone ; monocereu, haring one horn ; monocotyledoiunu, 
possessed of a single cotyledon or seed-lobe. 

Konad (Gr. monas, an atom). — The smallest of all visible animalcules, 
and sometimes spoken of as constituting " the ultimate term of animality." 
According to Ehrenberg, monads have an average diameter of not more 
than 24,000th of an inch, so that 500,000,000 of them might be contained 
in a single drop of water. 

MimocJiniil (Gr. monot, single, and klino, I bend). — ^Applied to strata 
that dip for an indefinite or unlmown length in one direction, and which 
do not apparently form sides of ascertained anticlines or tynclines. Mono- 
cUnal strata often form series of hills— the abrupt outcrops constituting 
ridges which follow each other like the teeth of a saw. 

Monoootyledonoui (Gr. numos, one, and cotyUdon, seed-lobe). — A grand 
division of the vegetable kingdom, comprising all those plants whose seeds 
have only one lobe or seed-leaf. They i^re endoffenotu in growth, or increase 
from within like the palms, lilies, grasses, &c., and are characterised by a 
parallel venation of the leaves.— See tabulations, " Vegetable Scheme.*' 

Konograph (Gr. monos, sole, and graphe, description). — An account or 
description of a single object or class of objects ; as a monograph of the mas- 
todon : a mjonografh, of ike moUusca ; the m^ofnographs of the PaUBontologieal 

Monogr4pfii8 (Gr. mxmos, single, and grapho, I write). — A term proposed 
by Geiuitz to embrace all those graptolites with a single row of teeth-like 
cells, as rastriies, graptolithtu, &c., which see. 

Monolith (Gr. m<mos, single, alone, and lithos), — A pillar, obelisk, or 
other monument, consisting of a single stone. Many of the Egyptian 
monuments were of this monolithic character. 

Honomydria (Gr. m,onos, single, and mus, a muscle). — A term employed 
by Ijamarck to distinguish those bivalves whose shell is closed by a single 
adductor muscle, in contradistinction to the dimyaria, or those having a 
second adductor. The monomyaries are the oysters, aviculidffi, and clam- 

Monoprion (Gr. monos, alone, single, and prion, a saw). — Barrande*s 
term for the common graptolite, its toothleted cells being arranged, like 
the teeth of a saw, all on one side. 

Uonsoons (Arabic, m4>uMinf season). — The periodical or seasonal winds of 
the Indian Ocean — the south-west monsoon blowing, in general terms, from 
April to October ; and the north-east, from October to April. The alter- 
nate heating and cooling of the African and Asiatic continents during the 
southern and northern summers are the prime producers of these periodi- 
cal air-currents. 

Uonte Bolca, near Verona, in Italy ; a locality celebrated for its fossil 
fishes, which are found in a fissile, cream-coloured limestone of Upper Ter- 
tiary age — the deep-brown, semi-bituminous colour of the organisms con- 
trasting finely with Uie lighter hue of the matrix. According to Agassiz, 
the species, though related to those still existing, are aU extinct ; and from 
the immense numbers imbedded in so limited an area, it is conjectured that 
the limestone had been erupted as a calcareous mud by volcanic agency, 
and thus suddenly suffocated the fishes within its infiuence. 

Hoonstone. — A fine variety of adularia felspar, so called from the pale- 
bluish opalescence it exhibits when cut en cabochon. The rough mineral is 



said to constitute the famous petuntse or Titrifying ingredient of the Chinese 

Horaioes. — The name given in Switzerland to the longitudinal mounds 
of stony detritus which occur at the bases and along the edges of all the 
great glaciers. The formation of these accumulations is thus explained by 
Professor Agassiz : — The glaciers^ it is well known, are continually moving 
downwards, in consequence, probably, of the introduction of water into 
their fissures, which, in freezing, expands the ice ; and the ice being thus 
loosened or detached from the rocks on which it rests, is gradually pressed 
forward by its own weight. In consequence of this motion, the gravel and 
fragments of rocks, which fall upon the glaciers from the sides of the ad- 
jacent mountains, are accumulated in longitudinal ridges or moraines as the 
glacier melts away. There are thus two sets of moraines— viz., " lateral" 
and *' terminal," the former flanking the margins of the glacier in its down- 
ward course in lojig narrow spits, the latter occurring in mounds at the free 
edge or terminus that projects into the vaJley below. As the terminus ad- 
vances and retreats according to the nature of the seasons, there will often 
be several terminal moraines arranged in concentric form ; and this dispo- 
sition of gravel-mounds is very observable in all mountainous regions, either 
now or during former epochs, the theatres of glacial phenomena. Where 
the lateral moraines exhibit a terraced appearance, it proves a gradual 
diminution of the glacier — each shelf or terrace marking a former surface- 
level.— See Glacibb. 

Horass (Sax.)— A marsh, swamp, fen, or tract of low wet ground whose 
drainage is insufficient, either from its depressed area or from its uniform 
flatness. Marshes of tins kind are often partially silted-up lakes, and con- 
tain in their accumulations the usual remains of lacustrine areas. Occa- 
sionally they occupy estuarine areas, in which case they are ** salt-marshes," 
and contain the remains both of marine and terrestrial plants and animals. 
— See Swamp. 

Morphology (Gr. morphe, form, and logos, discourse or reasoning).— Liter- 
ally "the science of form ; " that department of biology which treats of liv- 
ing beings as possessing definite forms, which, in most instances, are found 
to be made up of a number of dissimilar parts or organs. Physiology, in 
contradistinction to Morphology, takes cognisance of the vital actions or 
^nctioTis which those organs perform. 

Mortar. — The term applied by builders to the well-known admixture of 
slaked lime and siliceous sand, with which they cement or bind together 
the stones and bricks of their buildings. Like other hydrates of lime, 
mortar, if well prepared, "sets" readily, and acquires great hardness and 

MofiSBBatmiB. — A gigantic marine reptile of the Upper Chalk, apparently 
intermediate between the monitors and iguanas ; and so called from its 
being first found in the Maestricht beds. The jaw of the Maestricht ani- 
mal is 3 feet 9 inches long, and the entire length of the skeleton is estimated 
at 24 feet — ^the head being thus about one-sixth of the whole length. In 
this respect it resembles the crocodiles more than the monitors ; but in the 
shortness of the tail it is altogether unlike the crocodiles and alligators. 
Its extremities are imperfectly known, but those attributed to the mosoB- 
saurus would indicate swimming rather than progression on land ; hence 
the inference of its marine nature. 

Moss Agate. — A variety of agate which, on being cut and polished, ex- 



hibits numerous minute dendritic branchings of various shades like the 
filaments of moss ; hence the oame. — See Agate. 

Mofhflr of CoaL — The name given by the miners to the fine silky-fibrous 
laminsd of carbon *or mineral charcoal, which occar imbedded in the seams 
of ordinary coal.— See Mineral Charcoal. 

Uonntain. — In physical geography, any portion of the earth's crust 
rising considerably above the siurounding surface. The term is usually 
applied to heights of more than 2000 feet, all beneath that amount being 
regarded as hills, and when of inconsiderable height, as hillocks. A Moun- 
tain-Chain or mouniain-range is a series of elevations having their bases in 
contact, and their axis continuous ov«r a considerable extent of country, as 
the Grampians, Urals, Himalayas, &c. Their summits are distinguished 
by such terms as coTies^ when gradually tapering to a point ; domes, when 
more massive and rounded ; peaks, when abrupt and insulated ; and needles 
or aiguiUes, when still more pointed and detached. As mountain-ranges 
exercise very decided influences on the natural history of the globe, and as 
they extend in directions more or less definite, various theories have been 
advanced to account for their upheaval, their parallelism, and geographical 
connection, and also to determine their age or relative antiquity. Thus, as 
their central masses generally consist of igneous rocks which have been 
protruded from below, and as this protruding force must have acted along 
the line of least resistance, the question arises, What is the determining 
cause of these directions ? According to Elie de Beaumont, eveiy system 
of mountains occupies a portion of a great circle of the globe — the deft 
being more easily made in that than in any other direction ; and he shows 
that the mountain-chains of the same age are parallel to one another, 
even when in opposite hemispheres. Mr Hopkins, treating the subject 
from a purely mathematical point of view, has also shown that when the 
upheaving force acts on a single point, the lines of upheaval must radiate 
from that point ; hence lofty central mountains with diverging spurs. He 
also shows that when the expansive force acts uniformly over a wide area, 
the lines of greatest tension or upheaval must be in the direction either of 
the length or breadth of the area, and that if the crust yields in more 
places than one, the fissures would necessarily be parallel. Proceeding 
upon these views, the various mountains of the world have been so far 
arranged into '' Systems ;" and their relative antiquities determined partly 
by these means, and partly by the stratified rocks which had been broken 
through, and which now flank their declivities. Of course this uniformity 
of system has been considerably obscured, if not modified, by subsequent 
geological changes ; and we can only accept such generalisations as initia- 
tory steps towards the elucidation of one of the most important problems 
connected with the history of our globe. 

tfonntain-Blne and Mountain-Green. — Familiar terms for the blue and 
green carbonates of copper ; the epithet '' mountain " being at one time 
very much used as synonymous with " mineral." 

Mountain-Cork, Mountain-Leather, &c. —Asbestos, as it occurs in veins 
and crevices, often assumes very curious appearances ; hence the light 
elastic variety is known as mountain-cork; the tough variety as mountain- 
leaJtJier ; the woody-fibrous looking variety as 'mountain-voood ; and when 
it occurs in thin papery pieces, it is known as mmbniain-paper. — See 

Mountain Limestone.— An early, and still used, term for the Carboni- 



feroui LimetUme, from ifcs being frequently thrown up in thick bluffs or 
soars on the flanks of such hills as those of Yorkshire and Derbyshire, 
and in contradistinction to the comparatively low-lying jstrata of the lias 
and Oolite Limestones. — See Carboniferous System. 

Honntain-MeaL — ^An infusorial earth, usually and better known perhaps 
as BergniaM^ which see. 

Mountaiii-Soap. — A variety of soapstone or silicate of magnesia found 
in the Isle of Skye, and used in crayon drawing. 

Hountain- Tallow. — Another name for mineraJ, tallow , or HatehUine 
(which see) ; terms which include several waxy or tallow-Uke mineral sub- 
stances, concerning whose nature and origin very little is yet known. 

Hqya (Span.) — A term applied in South America to the fetid sulphurous 
mud discharged by certain volcanoes ; the Koth of the natives. 

Unck (Sax.) — A familiar term for manure ; but applied also (especially 
by American geolog^ts) to those impure »urthy varieties of peat, bog- 
earths, and swamp-earths, which are employed as manures, and consist 
largely of decomposed vegetable matter. 

Mod (Gr. mudoSf moistness). — The familiar as well as scientific term for 
all wet slimy debris, whether produced by rains on the earthy surface, by 
sediment from turbid waters, or by ejections from springs and volcanoes. 
Mud may thus be argillaceous, calcareous, sulphurous, or otherwise, accord- 
ing to every notable ingredient which enters into its composition. Con- 
solidated mud becomes shale, and this assumes a less or more laminated 
structure according to composition, age, pressure, and other conditions to 
which it has been subjected. 

Mudstone. — A term originally applied by Sir R. Murchison to certain 
dark-grey, fine-grained, shivery shales of the Silurian system in Wales, 
which, on being exposed to the atmosphere, are rapidly decomposed and 
converted into their primitive state of mud ; but now extended to all 
similar shales in whatever formation they may occur. 

Mud, Volcanic— See Moya and Canoaua. 

Uuller's Glass. — Another name for glassy opal, or hyalite, which see. 

HiiltiYalTe (Lat. muUtu, many ; valval, valves or folding doors). — Shells 
composed of more valves or pieces than two (as the Clinton) are said to be 
muUivalve, in contradistinction to univalves, which consist of one piece, 
and bivalves, which have two. linneeus arranged the Testacea into these 
three great sections, univalve, bivalve, and multivalve— embracing under 
the last the barnacles, &c., which are not MoUusca, but belong to the 

Hiirchisdnia (after Sir R. Murchison). — ^An elongated spiral shell, having 
the outer lip deeply notched, as in the PUurotomaria. Of Murchisonia 
(family Haliotidas) about fifty species have been enumerated, and these 
occur in the Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Permian formations. 

Xtirdhisonlte (after Sir B. Murchison). — A golden or greyish-yellow 
variety of felspar from the granite of Arran, and from the New Red Sand- 
stone conglomerate of Dawliah in Devonshire. 

Xtoacite, XuriaBit.— A term usually applied to the crystalline varieties 
of anhydrous sulphate of lime, or anhydrite, which also occurs in granular, 
fibrous, compact, and fibro-compact masses. — See Anhydrite. 

Uuriate (Lat. muria^ brine). — Muriates are salts formed by the combin- 
ation of muriatic or hydrochloric acid with a base, as muriate of toda, 
muriate of iron, &c. 



■nrUUd Add (nurut, brine). — Known alto a» hi/dnxhlonc acid; an 
aaid ooa^ting of ohlorius and hrdrogsn, uid occurriDg s^undDjidy in 
■ea-water, in oombinaUon with uda and magoMin — oamnion aalb being a 
" muriate of soda." 

Xwleilelta (muWn, brine, bittemesa ; and ealx, lime). — Another name 
for rhontJhipar^ or bilUr-tpar (wbioh aae) ; a mineral eoauflting of the CAT- 

KdrldB (Lat. mut, nuHi, a moUBe).-Tha Aat famUy ; a well-tnown 
tribe of Bodente, inoluding tbe mioe, rata, water-voles, &o. Their re- 
« found in the bona-cafea and deposits of the Pleistacane dpooh. 
tt (Lfit. nunu, a wall, and/orma, UkBoeu).— Wall-like ; a term 
applied to tiuues and orgranio structures presanting the appeaiancs of 
briclu in a wall ; i.g., the mHr^orm (ittM wbioh oonatitutH the medullary 
rayi in plaota. 

■itickalkalk (Qer.)— Literallr "ghell-UmeetoDB;" the middle member 
of theTriassio system as it oocursin Germany — the Trias coaaisting of the 
Kenptr, MattAtltati, nnd Buviei^iaiuiiUin. The muaohelkalk is wanting^ 
in EoKlaad. but constitulsB the calcaire coqaillia; the adcaire d oraiiM, or 
the lATatn eoruh.jft\tn of French geoloKUits. In Oermany it oonusts chiefly 
of s oompact gieyish limestone, but includes beds of dolomite in many 
places, together with gypsum and rock-salt. It is rich in fossil sbella, as 
the name implies — the Mroliie, poiidoiiut, and avicaia being the pre™ling- 
forma.— Sao TEIiSSIc aiSTELM. 

MuKltM (l&t. muwu, moas). — A general term for fossil plants of the 
Hoss family, which as yet have been found oiJy in unber, and in certaiD 
fresh- water Tertiary strata. 

Kdacovj QIbh. — A familiar term for a Tariety of mica (mtumi^), most 
of the large plates used in the arts being brought from Eastern Russia, 
where they are employed as a substitute for glass. — See MlC&, 

■nik-Ol.— Properly the " musk-buitalo " (Bvhaliit Moichatm) ; a living 
Arctic form whose remwna occur in the "Drift" of middle and souUiem 
&u«pe.— Sea BOB ALUS. 

MnMd-Bind, Knuel-BMld.— A miner's term for thin shelly bands, 
calcareous and temiginous, that oocnr in the Coal-measiires. They are 
almost entirely composed of shells resembliog the existing fresh-water 
mussels, the anxbn and unie. 

■^ttda, Myiclda (Qr. myox, the gaping mussel).— A family of coaabi- 
ferous moUusce, generally known as the Gaping BiTolves, named from the 
genus njNi, and having the valies less or more gaping at one or both 
eitremities. It includes the mt/a, corbiiia, vaera, ikelit, panepaa, (on- 
cant, ftc, many species of which are fbseil as well as recent. 

KyliobAtia (Qr. myliat, a nullstoDe, and balit, the thorn-back, a specie* 
of skate or ray, from balia, a bramble). — A genus of rays (the Sagle-myt) 
characterised by the aitraordinary deTelopment of the median teeth in 
both jaws. Instead of pointed teeth, they have wide. Bat, teeselated 
dentary plates in each jaw, compoeed of distinct pieces, juitaposed and 
oonnooted by their margins, and united by fine sutures. These " milling " 
or " grinding " teeth occur abundantly in Tertiary strata— about twenty 
species having been found In the Isle of Sheppey, ha., while only five 
species of existing Mylwbata are known. 

X^IOdoB (Gr. ityiot, a mill, and odotu, tooth). — A gigantic edentate 
animal &om the Upper Tertiories of America, and bo called in illuaion 


to the flat grinding surfaces of its molar teeth. There is a skeleton of the 
Mylodon in the Hunterlan Museum, London, almost as perfect as if the 
animal had been but recently buried, and its bones dug up entire. It is 
eleven feet long from the muzzle to the extremity of the tail ; thus indi- 
cating a size as large as that of the hippopotamus, with the bones more 
than proportionately massive. The Mylodon, like the Megatherium, was 
a vegetable feeder ; and from the conformation of its fore feet and arms, 
which are fitted for grasping and wrenching, as well as that of its hinder 
extremities and strong thick tail, which seem adapted for supporting the 
body in an upright position, it is supposed that it sat in this position 
stripping the trees of their leaves and succulent branches. — See Owen's 
' Memoir on the Hunterian Skeleton,' published in 1842. 

Hy6caris (Gr. mys, myos, a bivalved-shell, and Icarisj shrimp). — A pro- 
visional genus of Silurian bivalved crustaceans, somewhat resembling Cer- 
atiocarU (which see), but more obtusely truncate in front, and furnished 
with two strongly projecting ridges which terminate in pointed processes 
behind. The valves (the only portions yet known) are marked with 
concentric strisd somewhat sparsely and indistinctly displayed. — Salter in 
'Geol. Magazine,' vol. i. page 11. 

HyriacAiithii8i(Gr. myrta, innumerable, and akantha, a thorn or spine). 
— Literally " many-spined ; " a genus of fossil rays whose ichthyodorulites, 
or serrated spines, occur abundantly in the Lias formation of England. 

Hyridpoda (Gr. myrict, innumerable, and pous, podos, foot). — An 
order of articulate or annulose animals, including the centipedes and 
millepedes, and represented by the Kolopendra and jvlus. They are so 
called from the numerous segments of the body being each provided with 
one or more pairs of jointed ambulatory feet. 

MyxiophyUites (Gr. myria, innumerable, and pkyllon, leaf). — Coal- 
measure stems, or rather roots, surrounded, as the name implies, with 
numerous fibres. Regarded by Lindley as '' aquatic plant roots," though 
by others ranked as having affinity with ffaloragece. 

Myripristis (Gr. myrioi, many, and pi'iHis, sawing). — A genus of fossil 
fishes of the Perch family occurring in the London Clay, and so called 
from their peculiar dentition. 

HytUdcen (Lat. myiilus, the sea-mussel). — The Mussel tribe ; also known 
as the Mttilida or mussel-family — an extensive group of conchiferous 
molluscs, including the genera mytilfis, myalina, modiola, lithodovnut, 
crenella, &c., many species of which are fossil as well as recent. Their 
shells are equivalve, oval or elongated, closed, umbones anterior, furnished 
with a thick epidermis, more or less pearly within, and have the hinge 
edentulous. Shells undetermined, but, approaching in form to that of the 
mytiltis or common mussel, are said to be mytihid. 


■ «■ -♦- -^r 



Kdereooi (Fr. nacr«, mother-of-pearl). — Applied to shells and mineral^ 
"which have a pearly or iridescent lustre like mother-of-pearl. The nacre- 
ous portion of some shells (the ammonite, for example) is still preserved in 
a fossil state. 

Kicrite (Fr. nacre, mother-of-pearl).— A mineral of the Mica family, 
having a pearly lustre, massive, and of a fine scaly texture. When rubbed 
between the fingers it leaves a pearly gloss. TalcUe, earthy- talc, and phol- 
ierite, are occasional synonymes. Consists of 41.78 silica, 43.10 alumina, 
And 15.12 water. 

Nadir (Arabic, down). — As the zenith is that point of the heavens direct- 
ly above the head of a spectator, so the nadir is that point diametrically 
opposite, or vertically beneath his feet. In other words, they are the op- 
posite poles of the visible horizon. 

Hi^elflne or ITagelfliihe (Ger.)— A provincial Swiss term for a soft 
arenaceo-calcareous conglomerate, occurring among the Middle or Miocene 
Tertiaries of the Alps, and said to derive its name from the enclosed 
pebbles appearing like swarms (Jltige) of nail-heads {ndgel) in the mass. It 
is termed gonipholite or nail-stone by Brongniart, and sometimes attains the 
truly wonderful thickness of 6000 or 8000 feet, as in the Kigi near Lucerne, 
and in the Speer near Woren. 

Kigyagite. — Foliated tellurium ; a mineral consisting of tellurium and 
lead, with traces of gold, silver, copper, and sulphur. So called by 
Haidinger from its occurring in veins with gold and other ores at Nagyag 
in the Siebenberg. 

Naiades {Nalas, a water-nymph). — The fresh-water mussels or Union- 
IDM, which see. 

iJTaker Feldspar. — Pearly felspar ; a mineralogical term somewhat loosely 
applied to varieties of adularia, moonstone, avanturine, and other pearly 

HAphtha. — A variety of bitumen (which see), thin, volatile, fluid, and 
highly inflammable. Springs of it exist in many volcanic countries, and 
in most districts where coal strata seem undergoing a slow natural process 
of distillation. One of the finest and purest varieties is that obtained 
from Baku and Scamachia on the western shores of the Caspian, where 
it rises from calcareous rocks in the state of an odorous inflammable 
vapour, or is collected in shallow wells. Naturally it Is of a yellowish 
colour, but may be rendered colourless by distillation. Its specific gra- 
vity is about .75 ; it boils at 160° ; and appears to be a pure hydro-carbon 
— 100 parts consisting of about 83 carbon and 15 hydrogen. Most of the 
naphtha of commerce is obtained by distillation from coal-tar, or directly 
from coal. Used largely as a solvent for caoutchouc. 

Niphthaline. — A soft, greyish- white, flaky crystalline substance found 
incrusting the pipes during the rectification of coal-tar. It also occurs in 
a native state associated with certain coals and lignites, ^t is a hydro- 
carbon, consisting of 60 carbon and 40 hydrogen ; has a peculiar aromatic 



odour ; is extremely volatile, fusing at 180°; bums with much smoke ; and 
dissolves in alcohol and ether. 

Hatat6re8, Hatatdrial (Lat ncUo, I swim). — In ornithology, the 
swimming or natatorial order of birds, readily distinguished by their oar- 
like, webbed, or partially-webbed feet. The order includes the ducks, 
gulls, pelicans, divers, and penguins. 

HatlcidflB. — Sea-snails ; a family of carnivorous gasteropods, named 
from the genus nalicaf which has been taken as the type of the family. 
The Naticidce occur fossil in all formations from the Silurian up- 
wards ; the existing genera are also widely distributed. . The natic® 
frequent sandy and gravelly bottoms, ranging from low- water to 90 

ITative. — A term largely employed in mineralogy to designate any min- 
eral or metallic substance which occurs in nature in a state of absolute 
purity, or all but absolute purity. We have thus native alum and naiive 
stdphuVf in contradistinction to those prepared artificially ; and native goM 
and ncUive copper occurring in the pure metallic slate and not in that of ores. 
Most of the substances termed '' native " are generally more or less con- 
taminated with extraneous impurities. 

Kitrolite. — Prismatic zeolite or mesotype, occurring in many varieties 
of trap-rock, either in veins, drusy cavities, or disseminated. Derives its 
name from the amount of soda it contains. According to Thomson, a 
specimen from Antrim consisted of 48 silica, 25 alumina, 16 soda, 10 water, 
and traces of potash, lime, and iron peroxide. 

HAtron {natrium, an early chemical term for sodium). — Natron is a 
native carbonate of soda, occurring in solution in the waters of many springs 
and salt lakes (Egypt) ; as a crystalline crust on the beds of dried-ap lakes, 
in deserted river- courses, and on numerous aalinas or upheaved sea-reaches 
(South America) ; as a pulverulent efflorescence on the ground, as in the 
plain of Debreczin in Hungary ; and as a product of decomposition in 
many lavas, traps, and other volctmic rocks. Natron is extensively em- 
ployed in the arts and in agriculture, and large quantities are annually im- 
ported from various regions. 

ISTanmaimite (after Dr Naumann, the Saxon mineralogist).— Selenide of 
silver, occurring in cubical crystals, and also massive, in thin plates and 
granular; of an iron- black colour, and metallic lustre. Consists of 26.8 
selenium, and 73.2 silver. 

HantilidsB. — A well-known family of tetrabranch cephalopods, of which 
the nautilus has been taken as the type. It includes the genera nautiltis, 
lituites, trochoceras, and clymenia, which see. Of the existing nautilus 
there are only three or four species found in Indian se€is, while the fossil 
species exceed 100. '* In the recent nautilus," remarks Dr Buckland, "the 
shell is smooth, but in many fossil species it is arranged like the patent 
iron-roofing, so remarkable for its strength and lightness." — See Cepha- 
lopoda, and tabulations, '* Animal Scheme." 

ITantilites. — A general term for fossil shells apparently allied to the 
existing nautilus. They are found in all formations from the Silurian 
upwards, but are now represented by three or four species only. They 
are distinguished from the ammonites by their central siphuncle, simple 
sutures, and fewer whorls. 

"Staxf^itSi {nautUuSf and eidos, likeness). — Literally ''nautilus-like;" a 
term usually applied to the many-chambered shells, or rather cell-cases, 



of those foraminifera whose coils present externally a remarkable resem- 
blance to those of the pearly nautilus. 

Haviciila (Lat., a little boat). — A genus of Diatoms or microscopic 
plant-growths, so called from their siliceous boat-like cases, whioh are 
perforated by six transverse slits, and in piany species exquisitely orna- 
mented. They are free floaters, and seem to moye by ciliary action ; 
abound in existing waters, as well as in many Post-tertiary and Tertiary 

VeanderfhaL — A portion of the valley of the IHissel near Dusseldorf, 
and celebrated since 1857 for its ossiferous cavern, and the peculiarly 
shaped human cranium discovered therein by Dr Fuhlrott The cave 
occurs in the precipitous southern or left side of the winding ravine, about 
sixty feet above the stream, and a hundred feet below the top of the cliff. 
The cranium whose conformation has given rise to much speculation is of 
unusual size and thickness, with a very low and narrow forehead, and 
enormously developed supra-orbital ridges — so much so that in this latter 
respect it somewhat resembles the skuU of the gorilla. Anatomists are 
now agreed that the skull is either abnormal, or belongs to an early and 
extinct European race. The cranium, along with other bones of the same 
skeleton, were found in the cave-mud, which is five feet thick, but imcovered 
by any crust of stalagmite. 

H^nlar Theory (Lat. nelmke, thin filmy clouds). — A theory or hypo- 
thesis often referred to in speculative geology. In the primal condition 
of the solar system, it is supposed that the sun was the centre or nucleus 
of a nebtUosity or luminous mass, which revolved on its axis, and extended 
far beyond the orbit of the most distant of the planets — these bodies then 
having no existence. The temperature gradually diminishing, and the 
nebula contracting by refrigeratioD, the rotation increased in rapidity, and 
zones of nebulosity were successively thrown off in consequence of the cen- 
trifugal force overpoweriog the central attraction. These zones, being 
condensed, and partaking of the primary rotation, constituted the planets, 
some of which in turn threw off zones which now form their satellites. In 
this way the formation of the Solar group is accounted for — a view which 
the nebulists attempt to support by certain appearances in space {nebtilce 
and nebulous clusters) which present themselves to the telescope of the 

Htoolite (Gr. neiros, dead, and lithos, stone). — A term applied to cer- 
tain nodules in limestone strata, such as those of Baltimore, U.S., which 
when struck exhale a fetid odour, like that of putrid flesh. Concentrated 
nodules of fetid limestone or stinkstein, which see. 

Hecronite. — ^A variety of orthoclase, which when struck gives off a fetid 

KeedleB. — A familiar term in geography and geology for pointed, de- 
tached masses of rock standing out from the cliffs or shores to which they 
geologically belong, and from which they have been severed by the erosive 
action of the tides and waves, as the *' Needles" off the Isle of Wight. 
AppHed also to the pointed summits of mountains, the aiguille or needle- 
top of the French, which see. 

Keedle-Stone. — A name given by the older mineralogists to acicular 
varieties of natrolite, scolecite, &c. Needle-spar, arragonite; Needle-ore, 
aikenite; &c. 

Kemacintluui (Or. Ttemo, I scatter, and aiarUha, spine). — A genus of 


NEO — l^R 

Oolitic Ichthyodoralites or ray-spines, so called from their being coyered 
with minute denticles or prickles, and supposed to belong to the oestraciont 
fish Ceratodus, which see. 

Veocdmiaa.— A term of D'Orbigny's for the Greensand or Lower Cretace- 
ous formation, which is specially developed in the vicinity of Neuf ohatel 
(Neocomum). The term is now very generally used by English and 
American geologists, some of whom (considering the intimate relation 
of the Lower Greensand and Wealden fossils) arrange the Wealden as 
"Lower Neocomian."— See tabulations, "Gbolooioal Scheme." 

K^ogene (Gr. new, new, and ginomaif I am formed). — The Pliocene and 
Miocene Tertiaries are grouped together by some Continental geologists 
under the term Neogene {new-hom), in contradistinction to the decidedly 
older strata of the Eoeene. 

Keolite (Gr. neatf new, liOiM, stone). — A massive or rather laminar-mas- 
(sive variety of talc, in which portion of the silica is replaced by alumina, 
and to which a blackish-green colour is imparted by the presence of pro- 
toxide of iron, so named by Scheeres from the belief of its being newly 
formed by the infiltration of waters which have passed over rocks con- 
taining magnesia. 

Heoc6ic (Gr. n«o(, new, and zoe, life).— Arranging the fossiliferous strata 
into two great catteries — the Palawzoic and Neozoio — ^the former includes 
all up to the close of the Permian, the latter all from the commencement 
of the Trias up to the existing order of things. It thus embraces the 
Mesozoic and Cainosoic of some paleontologists. The term was proposed 
by the late Edward Forbes on the ground that, while there was a wide dif- 
ference between Palaeozoic and Mesozoic fossils, there was.really no essen- 
tial difference between Mesozoic and Cainozoic, and that therefore it would 
be more philosophical to divide the whole lapse of geological time into two 
great epochs only — viz., the Palaotoic and Neozoic, — See tabulations, 
" Geolooioal Scheme.** 

V^pheline (Gr. nephele, a cloud). — A double silicate of alumina and 
soda, occurring in small crystals in the igneous rocks (imbedded or in 
druses), and so termed from its transparent fragments becoming cloudy in 
nitric acid. Closely related to or identical with elceolite—ihe nephelines 
being more or less transparent, of vitreous lustre, and colourless or white, 
whereas the elaeolites are more opaque, of resinous lustre, and generally of 
reddish-brown hues. Nepheline is also less fusible than eleolite. Being 
found in ejected blocks on Monte Somma, Vd&uvius, it is sometimes known 
as Sommite, 

V^phzite (Gr. nephros, a kidney). — A technical term for the tough 
siliceo-magnesifin mineral better known as Jade, which see. Formerly 
little plates of it were suspended from the neck as a charm in the case of 
Tiephritic or kidney complaints ; hence the name. 

Vepttbdan {yeptumis, god of the sea). — Applied to stratified rocks, or 
to those deposited in and by the agency of water (aqueous), in contradis- 
tinction to Plutonic or igneous. 

Vereltes. — Long, sinuous, annulated tracks and impressions occurring 
on Silurian and other strata, and from their numerous segments and cir- 
rhated or tentaoled feet, apparently allied to the existing Nereidoe or Sea- 
centipedes. The living family includes some elongated and distinctly 
annulated worms, which possess a well-developed head, furnished with 
tentacles and eyes, and a mouth with a proboscis which is sometimes 

321 X 



unarmed, and sometimes furnished with three or four feet. The cirri or 
tentacles attached to the feet are often of considerable length, and in 
some species are even annulated. Many of the fossil impressions present 
analogous chutust^rs, hence their presumed affinities to annelids of the 
Dorsibranchiate order {ErraiUi4i) ; but in others the characters are not so 
obvious, and it has been suggested by M. Geinitz that not a few of the 
so-called Nertiiet may be soft and Beshy forms of Graptolithina. 

VereogrApBUS. — A term applied by M. Geinitz to many of the Silurian 
oiganisms known as NereUea, from the belief that they were soft-stemmed 
creatures like the graptolites, and not anDelids resembling the existing 

iJTess, Naei, or Vaae (literally nose), — In geography, any promontory or 
sudden projection of the land into the sea ; as Dungeness, Fifeness, the 
"Naze," &c. 

Near6ptera (Gr. Tuuron, nerve, and pteron, wing). — Literally "nerve- 
wings ; " an order of insects characterised by the finely reticulated 
nervures of their membraneous wings, of which there are two pairs ; as 
the Dragonfly, the Phryganea, &c. Several fossil species have been 
found in the Oolitic i^trata of England and Germany, and these seem 
referable to the family LibellulidcB or Dragonflies. — See Insecta. 

Keiir6pteri8 (Gr. neuron, nerve, and pteris, fern).— An extensive, but 
indifferently defined, genus of fossil ferns occurring abundantly in the 
Coal-measures, and also, but in less profusion, in the Permian, Trias, and 
Oolite. In neuropteris the leaves are usually bi-pinnate ; leaflets more or 
less pointed at the apex, somewhat cordate at the base, and attached by 
the middle portion only, have no midrib but what is produced by the 
union of the nervures or veins, tiiat proceed from the axis of the leaflet 
in branching well-marked lines to the margin, which is entire in the Coal- 
measure and Permian species, but occasionally slightly serrated in those of 
the Oolite. The genus takes its name from the curved dichotomous veins 
of its leaflets ; many of the species were of gigantic habits ; and in several 
the pinnated divisions were furnished with a small circular leaflet, which, 
when detached, is apt to be mistaken for a cyclopteris. 

Hew Sed. — A brief expression for the New Bed Sandstones (Permian and 
Triassic) which occur above the Coal-measures, in contradistinction to the 
Old Red, which lies below. 

Kew Red Sandstone. — Immediately above the Coal-measures — in some 
instances lying unconformably on and in others insensibly graduating from 
them— occurs a set of red sandstones and pebbly conglomerates, yellowish 
magnesian limestones, and variegated shales and maris, enclosing irregular 
masses of rock-salt and gypsum. To this series of strata, as more especially 
developed in England, the earlier geologists applied the term New Red 
Sandstone, in contradistinction to the Old Red Sandstone system which 
lies beneath the Carboniferous formation. More recently it has been pro- 
posed to divide these new red sandstones, magnesian limestones, and 
saliferous marls into two distinct systems, the Permian and the Triassic — 
the former embracing the lower members, which are largely and typically 
developed in the government of Perm, in Russia ; and the latter com- 
prising the upper members, known as the " Trias," or triple group, in 
Germany. The reasons for this new arrangement are, that the fossils of 
the magnesian limestone and lower red sandstones seem more closely 
allied to those of the Coal-measures beneath, than to those of the varie- 



gated sandstones and saliferous marls above,— in other words, present a 
Patceozoic aspect ; while those of the upper sandstones and marls are de- 
cidedly Mesozaic, To render this new arrangement more intelligible, let 
us suppose all the red sandstones, marls, and magnesian limestones 
hitherto known in England as " The New Bed Sandstone,'* to be present 
in one section. We should then have, reposing unconformably on the Coal- 
measures, the following series of strata : — 

(Purple-coloured marls below the Idas. 
Alternations of red and bluish-white marls, 
with layers and nodules of gypsum. 
Thin layers of argillo-calcareous stone. 
Red ana bluish marls, with gypsum and beds 
< of rock-salt. 

4. Series of 
cured marls. 




3. VariegateJred 
and white sand- ' 


2. Magnesian lime- 

1. Yellow or purple 
sand and sandstone, 
and marl. 

'Bed and white sandstone, mostly fine-grained, 
and often impregnated with salt. 

Bed conglomerate, full of pebbles of older 

^Bed and white marls. 

Thin-bedded compact limestene, with very 
little magnesia, and few organic remains. 

Bed and white marls and gypsum. 

White, yellow, or reddish magnesian lime- 
stone in thick beds, crystallised, compact, 
or earthy, often full of sparry cavities, and 
containing marine organic remains. 

Marl slate in thin layers, occasionally enclos- 
ing fishes. 

An extremely variable series of sandstones, 
sands, and clays of various colours, irregu- 
lar thickness, and much local diversity of 
character. Plants like those of the Coal- 

From the preceding tabulation, the reader will perceive at a glance the 
nature of the strata formerly designated the New Bed Sandstone, as well 
as the limits of the Permian and Triassio systems into which it is now 
divided, and which are still occasionally spoken of as the Lower and Upper 
New Red Sandstones. 

Nickel (Ger.)~One of the metals ; white, ductile, malleable, attracted