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First Lieut. W. E. W. MacKINLAY, 

First Ca-valry, U. S. Army, 
Member American Oriental Society. 





Document No. 260. 


. f.' 


Page 29, ninth line from bottom. For "(Sp.)" read ''(Sp. : from 
Page 45. twenty -seventh line from bottom. For ''^ Loiigos-- read 

Page &2, eleventh line from bottom. For '"'' pmuiing " read '"'' paxiang.'''^ 




War Department, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 

Washington, August 30, 1905. 
Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a work 
entitled "A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language," consist- 
ing of 399 pages of typewriting, which I estimate will make about 200 pages 
in print. I would suggest that the work be bound in a substantial water- 
proof cover, similar to that used for the latest edition of the "Soldier's 
Handbook," and that the size be 8 by 5| inches, or approximately so. 

I would also invite attention to the folders accompanying. * * * it 
would be best to have the left-hand edge of the folders begin at the outside 
margin of the printed page, so that when extended the student could read 
the corresponding text to the synopsis at the same time and not be obhged 
to turn the pages back and forth. 

* * ^ * * * * 

Very respectfully, 

William E. W. MacKinlay, 
First Lieutenant, First Cavalry. 
Maj. William D. Beach, 

Chief, Second {Military Information) Division, 

Washington, D. C. 



: r».'«iXlLDiJr 


Shortly after the arrival of the author in the Philippines he, in common 
with inanj' others, felt the need of a work upon the Tagalog language in 
English, and began to prepare this compendium, working upon it from 
time to time as other military duties permitted, and, upon being ordered to 
duty in Washington for the purpose of having better facilities for the c(jm- 
pletionof the work, has been enabled to bring it to such completion, under 
the direction of Maj. W. D. Beach, Fifteenth Cavalry, chief of the Second 
Division, General Staff. 

As the Tagalog, belonging to a very different family of languages from 
those with which Americans are familiar, has extremely dissimilar char- 
acteristics from English or any Aryan tongue, the writer has devised a 
type scheme, presented in the folder herewith, by which the salient points 
of difference may be seen at a glance and vividly retained in the memory, 
thus enabling the student to use correct and intelligible Tagalog. 

Supplemented by that constant practice necessary for the ear, it is believed 
that the copious index to this work, together with the type scheme, selected 
vocabularies, and plain nontechnical (as far as possible) explanations of 
the grammatical structure of Tagalog, will prove to be of value to those 
whose duty or inclination may lead them to consult this book. Such, at 
least, is the hope of the writer. 

The Tagalog language is easily pronounced, regular in its forms, and 
although its structure is complex," yet when once grasped it is so plain that 
it is not only clearly comprehended, but is a key to all the INIalayan tongues, 
especially to those of the Philippines. It is an idiom which builds up its 
sentence's and parts of speech from roots by means of particles which 
are prefixed, infixed, or suffixed to the roots. Several of these particles 
may l)e combined with the same root, each having its share in the modifi- 
cation of the inherent idea of the root. 

Attention is also invited to the great use of the "definite" in Tagalog, 
the so-called "passive" of the Spanish writers upon this subject. 

The index, which has been made very full and copious, should be con- 
sulted, as every probable combination of particles has been noted, as well 
as Tagalog roots and English words occurring in the work. For example, 
every word preceded by the compound particle ipinag has been listed, thus 
enabling the root to be" found at once, and so on in like manner. 

The writer desires to express his appreciation for assistance received 
from the militarv authorities both in the Philippine Islands and the United 
States, from maiiv of his brother oflicers, and from Profs. Friedrich Hirth, 
of Columbia; E. W. Hopkins, of Yale (secretary of the American Oriental 
Societv) ; Paul Haupt and F. \V. Blake, of Johns Hopkins; Otis T. INIason, 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and the late John W. Huett, of Luther 
College, Illinois. Valuable suggestions were also received from Messrs. 
Pedro Serrano Laktaw, author of a Tagalog-Spanish dictionary; Luis 
Torres, and Vicente Albert, all of Manila. 



It is scarcely necessary to mention that authorities upon Tagalog have 
not been very plentiful, even with the great revival of interest in the 
Malayo-Polynesian languages which has taken place within the last few 
years. The number of works, old and new, large and small, upon this 
subject, or bearing upon it, is very close to forty, and many of these are 
of little value or are obsolete. The number of reprints, however, brings 
the aggregate up to about one hundred, but this has no bearing upon the 
material available for study. 

The isolation of the Philippine Islands under the Spanish regime also 
contributed to the neglect of the Philippine languages, and it seems almost 
as if Spanish and foreign workers in this field studiously avoided consulting 
one another's researches, or else were ignorant of them. In the review 
of books written upon Tagalog, or containing notices of it, works written 
to teach Spanish to the Tagalogs, novels — generally romances of the type 
current in the middle ages in Europe — lives of saints, and miscellaneous 
works, which make up what may be called the Tagalog literature, have 
been omitted. The total number of works in Tagalog may be estimated 
at from four to five hundred, and very few can be said to have a literary 

The energy of those who are able to write Tagalog well has mainly been 
absorbed in newspaper work, and no great work has as yet appeared in the 

It can scarcely be doubted that if some of the great works of the world 
were translated into Tagalog and placed where they would be accessible to 
the common })eop]e, who do not speak or read Spanish, and are almost too 
old to learn English well, that the results would be of great and immediate 
importance in the mental development of the race. 

The honor of the first written treatise upon the Tagalog language prob- 
ably belongs to the Friar Agustin de Alburquenjue, who arrived at Manila 
from Nueva Espafia (^lexico) in 1571, and after three years' residence in 
Taal, Balayan, and other parts of Batangas, became Prior of Tondoin 1575, 
holding the position until his death in 1580. This treatise has neter been 
published, and the assertion is opposed by the Franciscan order, which 
claims the credit for the first work upon this subject. (See Vol. II, p. 
563, " Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, de Zufiiga," edited by W. E. Retana, 
^Madrid, 1893; " La Poh'tica de Espafia en Filipinas," ano VI, niim. 134; and 
the "Cattilogo Bio-Bibliografico de los Religiosos Agustinos," Perez, 
Manila, 1901.) 

To the Franciscan friar Juan de Plasencia, or Portocarrero, who came 
to the Philippines with the first mission of his order in 1577, is attril)uted 
an '* Arte y Diccionario " of Tagalog in 1581, which has remained in manu- 
script. (See " Catalogo Biografico de los Religiosos Franciscanos, " Moya, 
Manila, 1880.) 


However, the most important point is when the first printed work upon 
the language was published, and this was undoubtedly in the year KilO, 
when an " Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala," by Friar Francisco de San 
Jose of the Dominican order, and who arrived in the Philippines in 1595, 
was printed in the "Fartido de Bataan," probaljly by Tomtts Pinpi'n, a 
Tagalog. The book is a quarto of 327 pages of rice paper. One copy 
exists in the ]\Iaseo-Biblioteca de Ultramar at Madrid. Other editions of 
this book were printed at Manila in 1752 and 1832. (See Retana' sedition 
of Zuniga, pp. 101-105.) 

This work was followed in 1612 by the "Yocabulario de la Lengua 
Tagala," by Friar Pedro de Ran Buenaventura of the Franciscan onler, 
who was in charge of parishes in the present province of La Laguna, and 
whose work was printed in Pila by Tomas Pinpin and Domingo Loag, 
Tagalogs. The book is described by Medina in his "La Imprenta en 
Manila," Santiago de Chile, 1896, and a facsimile of the title-page is given. 

The Franciscan friar Juan de Oliver, who died in the Camarines in 
1597, is said to have written a treatise upon the Tagalog, but his work 
seema to have been limited to correcting and adding to the "Arte y Diccio- 
nario" of Plasencia. Another of the same order, Francisco de San Anto- 
nio, who was in charge of Baler from 1611 to 1616, and from that time 
until his death in 1624 resided in the present La Laguna, wrote an 
" Arte " and a Tagalog-Spanish vocabulary, which works existed in manu- 
script in 1745, the author being known also as "Orejita." (See Cat. 
Biog. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880; and the preface to the "Arte" of Totanes.) 

The Augustinian friar Juan de Quinones, who died in Manila in 1587, 
also left a work ui^on the Tagalog, which is said by Beristain to have been 
printed in Manila in 1581. (See Beristain, Biblioteca Hispano-Americana 
Setentrional, Amecameca, Mexico, 1883-1887, 2d ed. ) The first edition 
was printed in Mexico City in 1816. (See Vol. II, p. 464.) The matter 
seems to be doubtful. 

The Franciscan friar Geronimo Monte y Escamilla, who died in 1614, 
is said to have left in manuscript an "Arte" and "Diccionario" in Taga- 
log, but the work, if extant, is in the archives of his order. (See Cat. 
Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 60.) A similar manuscript is said to have 
been written by Francisco de San Antonio, of the same order, who came 
to the Philippines in 1606 and died at Pila, La Laguna, in 1624. (See Id., 
p. 139.) 

The third printed work upon Tagalog was the "Arte de Idioma Taga- 
log," by the Franciscan Agustin de la Magdalena, who arrived in the 
islands in 1665 and lived in Tayabas and Laguna for some years. Return- 
ing to Mexico he there gave his manuscripts to the press in 1679, and in 
1684 returned to Manila, dying in Santa Cruz de La Laguna in 1689. (See 
La Imprenta en Mexico, Medina, Sevilla, 1893, No. 1784; and Cat. Rel. 
Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 292.) 

The Dominican friar Teodoro (Quiros) de la Madre de Dios, who came 
to the islands in 1627 and died in 1662, has been credited with an "Arte" 
of Tagalog by some bibliographers of Philippine literature, but ]\Iedina 
marks such a work as doubtful, as far as the printing is concerned. 

The eighteenth century witnessed a revival of interest in the language, 
and in 1703 two works, both of which have been reprinted, were printed. 

The first was the "Compendio de la Arte de la lengua Tagala," printed 
in Manila. This excellent treatise was reprinted at Sampaloc in 1787, and 
in Manila proper in 1879. Both the early editions are now rare. The 
author was the Augustinian friar Gaspar de San Agustin, who came to the 
Philippines in 1668, and died in Manila in 1724. He is better known as 
the author of the work "Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas," Part I, Mad- 
rid, 1698; Part II, Valladolid, 1890. The third edition, however, retains 
many obsolete words. 

The second work was a "Yocabulario," or dictionary of the Tagalog, 
written by the Franciscan friar Domingo de los Santos, who came to the 
Philippines in 1665, and after administering parishes mainly in La Laguna, 



(Facsimile ot llrjt T«g.lo» inmnur written.) 






f- PorFr. P edro de^anBucna Ventura->inuiil e In 





Gcnnal drfbi Kks^y pttfidntt dt fu Autl'^ncia y Chancillciia Real. 

( ^ ^ ^ ) jSJs, ^) 

Jh rt» •{< *♦ «i* 

« Con Tiewti» Impreflb «oTi noble Villad* Pila, Pot Thomat Pinpi'n, y Domui jo Lo^ 
cv T^lot. Anode. ifR. o» 

-cprint by Medina, Santiago de Chile.) 


died in Majayjay in 1695. His work was printed in the town of Taya])as 
in 1703, and but two copies seem to be known. One is from the Marsden 
collection, and is in the library of King's College, London, and the other 
in the archives of the Franciscan order. Some leaves of a manuscript 
"Arte" by the same author are also preserved in the archives. This dic- 
tionary was reprinted in Samp;iloc in 1794 and in INIanila in 1835. It is 
now obsolete. (See Cat. Kel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 294; Biblioteca Fili- 
pina, Retana, Madrid, 1898 [referred to hereafter as R.]; Nos. 77 and 148; 
Id., Nos. 26 note, 66 note, 66 and 594; and Cat. Bio.-Bib. Rel. Agustinos' 
Manila, 1901, pp. 133-134.) 

The next work upon this subject was the "Arte y Reglas de la lengua 
Tagala," by the Augustinian friar Tomus Ortiz, printed at the convento 
of Sampaloc in 1740. The author came to tlie Philippines in 1690, was a 
missionary in China until about 1712, and died in ^Manila in 1742. (See 
Medina, La Imprenta en Manila and Cat. Rel. Agustinos, p. 169.) 

In 1742 the Franciscan friar IMelchor Oyanguren de Santa Ines, who 
had lived in the Philippines, mainly at Los Baiios and Sariaya, from 1717 
to 1736, gave a work to the press in Mexico entitled "Tagalysmo." This 
interesting book, which has never been reprinted, compares with Tagalog 
the Mandarin dialect of Chinese, Hebrew, and Greek, the Tagalog being 
reduced as far as possible to a Latin basis. (R., 39.) 

In 1745 the work of the Franciscan Sebastian de Totanes was printed 
at Sampaloc. This valuable treatise, entitled "Arte de la lengua Tagala y 
Manual Tagalog," was rei)rinted at Sampaloc in 1796, at Manila in 1850, 
and in Binondo ( Manila) in 1865. (R., 42, 79, 202, and 329. ) The author 
came to the Philippines in 1717 and remained twenty-nine years in the 
islands. During his residence at Lilio and Pagsanhan, La Laguna, from 
1732 to 1738, he wrote the foregoing book. He died in ^Madrid in 1748, 
having left the Philippines in 1746. (Cat. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, pp. 

In 1754 the great " Vocabulario," or dictionary, of the Tagalog, explained 
in Spanish, was printed at Manila by the Jesuits. The main authors were 
Juan de Noceda, S. J., and Pedro de San Lucar, S. J. A second edition, 
with a Spanish-Tagalog api:)endix, was printed in Valladolid in 1832, which 
is now very rare, nearly all copies having been lost by shipwreck en route 
to the islands. There is a copy in the Library of Congress. Another 
edition, with additions, was printed by the Augustinian order at ^lanila 
in 1860. This work, although many words are obsolete, is the standard 
on Tagalog as yet. It is also becoming rare. (R., 48, 136, and 268. ) 

The next work containing a notice of Tagalog is in English. In Johann 
Reinhold Forster's "Observations made during a Voyage round the 
World" (London, 1778; German translation by his son, Georg Forster, 
Berlin, 1783) a list of 47 English words is given, with their equivalents in 
Tagalog, Pampango, Malay, and several Polynesian dialects. From some 
rare words the Tagalog would appear to have been taken from Noceda 
and San Lucar. Forster was born in Germany in 1729, a descendant of 
the Forester family of Scotland, and accompanied Captain Cook in his 
second voyage to tlie South Sea (1772-1775). After his return he became 
professor at Halle, Germany, where he died in 1798. His book is espe- 
cially valuable concerning the Polynesian races and islands. 

A few years later the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas (born 17-11, 
died 1811), who had become professor of natural history in the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersburg in 1768, published there in 1787- 
1789 the' work known as the " Vocabularium Catharina\" from its patron- 
ess, Catharine II. Written in Russian, it gives the corresponding word 
for nearlv 200 terms in 200 languages. In this list Pampango is No. 186 
and Tagalog No. 187. The source is not given, but that for the Tagalog is 
evidently the same as that of Forster. Tlie Latin equivalent for the Rus- 
sian words is given in the preface. The full title of the work is " Linguarum 
totius Orbis Vocabularia comparativa. " It is in two quarto volumes. 


At the .same time the Spanish author Lorenzo Hervas y Panduro (born 
1735, died 1809), of the Society of Jesus, ])ul)Ushed two works bearing 
upon Tagalogto a slight extent, but of importance as ins])irinu; other work 
upon the same line. The first Mas his "Aritmetica," published in Cesena, 
Italy, in 1785, and the second, his " Vocabolario Poliglotto," pul)Ushed at 
the same place in 1787, both in Italian. In the latter he gives specimens 
of the language of 1593, of 1604, and his own time. The Spanish edition, 
printed at Madrid in two volumes in 1801, has his observations upon 
Tagalog in the second volume. 

In 1803 Prof. Franz Carl Alter, librarian of the Imperial and Royal 
University of Vienna, published a work of 60 i:)ages upon the Tagalog, 
with the title "Ueber die tagalische Sprache." This work seems based 
upon a manuscript vocabulary from the library of Count Wrbna at Vienna, 
supplemented by words from Pallas and the works of the Abbe Hervas. 
The latter seems to have corresponded with Alter, who speaks of Hervas 
in the preface to his book, and also of Miss Knight, of England, probably 
a sister of Thomas Payne Knight, the numismatist, as being interested in 
his researches. 

A work which is yet of value to the student is that of Johann Christoph 
Adelung (born in Germany in 1731, died in Dresden, Saxony, 1806), 
entitled "^Nlithridates, oder Allgemeine Sprachenkunde." In the first 
volume, which appeared at Berlin in 1806, on pages 127 and 128, two ver- 
sions of the Lord's Prayer are given — one of 1593 and the other of current 
form — with an explanation of the granunatical forms as deduced from the 
W'Ords. The author, who gives specimens from over 500 languages, is best 
remembered for his great work in (German philology, and at the time of 
his death was principal librarian of the Elector of Saxony, at Dresden, 

Adriano Balbi (born in Venice in 1782, died there 1848) published an 
"Atlas Ethnographique du Globe" at Paris in 1826. (See Table No. 364 
and pp. 246 to 249, for remarks upon Tagalog.) 

The catalogue of "William Marsden, the eminent orientalist (born in 
England in 1754, died there 1836), puV)lished at London in 1827, contains 
mention of some manuscript "Artes" of Tagalog not known to have been 
printed. One is an "Arte" by a Dominican friar, dated 1736, and the 
other a " Vocabulario" by the Dominican INIiguel Ruiz, dated 1580. This, 
however, must be an error, as the Dominicans did not arrive in the Phil- 
ippines until 1587. Miguel Ruiz was one of their early friars, but little 
seems to have been recorded about him. In Marsden's Miscellaneous 
Works (London, 1834), page 94, are also some observations upon Tagalog. 

To the genius of the German author Wilhelm von Humboldt the world 
is indebted for his magnificent work upon the Malayo-Polynesian languages, 
which was published by the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, in three 
volumes, in 1838, under the title "Ueber die Kawi-Sprache auf der Insel 
Java." His dissertation upon the Tagalog verbal system and formations 
in Volume II, pages 347 to 396, clearly establishes the fact that the Tagalog 
and allied tongues of the Philippines have preserved the verbal modifying 
particles to a greater extent than any other members of this great linguistic 
family, and on page 288 of the same volume he goes so far as to say that at 
first view the student of Tagalog seems to have come into a wholly new 
system. This noted philologist, who was l)orn in 1767 and died in 1835, 
has evidently taken the greater part of his material upon the Tagalog from 
the second (1796) edition of Totanes, and hence lacked the advantage of 
having been upon the ground. 

The Augustinian friar Manuel Buzeta, better known as the author of the 
"Geographical Dictionary" or Gazetteer of the Philippines (in cooperation 
with Bravo), published a Tagalog grammar at Madrid in 1850. (R., 199.) 
The author, whose name is spelled "Buceta" in the Cat. Rel. Agustinos, 
came to the Philippines in 1827, where he was in charge of the church at 
Guiguinto in 1832 and of ]\Ialate in 1848. He returned to Spain in 1849, 
and resided at iladrid until 1854, in which year he left the order and 
returned to secular life. 


The work of Sinibaldo de I\Ia,s upon the islands, pubHshed at Madrid in 
two vohiines in 1843, contains a short comparative vocabulary (jf Tagalog, 
Visayan, Ilocano, Ibanaji (Cagayan), and Malay. (R., 180.) 

In 1854 the "Tagalog-Spanish Dictionary" of Rosalio Serrano, a Tagalog 
of Bulacau Province, was jjrinted atilanifa, and second and third editions 
have appeared, the third being printed in Binondo (]\huiila) in 1869. A 
Spanish-Tagalog dictionary bv the same author was printed in Manila in 
1872. (K., 227, 370, 426.) 

In 1855 Carlos Cuarteron, a priest who had also been a pilot in the 
Southern Islands, published a work at Rome entitled " Sp^gazione e tra- 
duzione," at the end of which there is a vocabularv of Italian, Malay, 
Tagalog, iind Joloano. (R., 229. ) 

In 1872 the grammar of Joaquin de Coria (Gil y Montes de Santo 
Domingo) was published at Madrid, where the author had accepteii the 
position of professor of Tagalog in the Central University. The work 
shows the careful study of the author, who came to the islands in 1831 
and resided in the Tagalog region until his return to Spain in 1866. On 
account of his accepting the chair of Tagalog against the wish of the prel- 
ate of his (jrder, he was dropped from its rolls; ):>ut, unfortunately, the plan 
of Minister ]\Ioret did not succeed, and the jiosition to which he was 
elected never became active. The author was bjrn in 1815 and entered 
the Franciscan Order in 1830. (R., 411; also Cat. Biog. Rel. Fran., p. 656. ) 

The same year, 1872, appeared the popular Spanish-Tagalog "Lessons 
upon the (irammar" of Bishop Jose Hevia Camponianes, bishop of Xueva 
vSegovia (Vigan). A second edition appeared in 1877,. the third in 1883, 
the fourtl; in 1888, and the sixth in 1901. All the editions were printed 
at ^Manila and are alike, no corrections or additions having been made. 
(R., 1133.) 

Here should be mentioned the interesting work of V. M. de Abella, the 
"Vade-mecum Filii:)ino," a manual of Spanish-Tagalog dialogues. It con- 
tains a vocaV)ulary of INIanila local words and phrases. The first edition 
was published in 1868 (T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Bib. Fil., No. 9), and other 
editions were published in 1809 and 1871, and the ninth had been reached 
in 1873. ( R., 2524. ) Alf editions were printed in Manila. 

The most practical of all Tagalog-Spanish grammars appeared in Manila 
in 1878, the work of the Recoleto friar Tori bio Minguella. Interlinear 
translations, simplicity of arrangement, and clearness of explanation make 
this little book of great value, and many of its suggestions and ideas have 
been very useful in the preparation of this present work. 

In 1880 Prof. H. Kern, a Javan-born Hollander, made a valuable con- 
tribution to philology by his list of words in Tagalog which are derived 
from the Sanskrit. This article, which appeared in the "Bijdragen tot 
de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederland-Indie " at The Hague, volg. 
(series) 4, deel (volume) 4, pages 535 to 564, shows the large number of 
such words and their importance in expressing some most necessary ideas 
of civilization. This field was further explored by T. H. Pardo de Tavera, 
who published a pamphlet of 55 pages at Paris in 1887, in which the San- 
skrit words which have passed into Pampango are also noted. (R., 1066. ) 
Kern remarks in his article that the scarcity of Sanskrit words in the dia- 
lects of northern Celelies indicates that the'Tagalog received this element 
directly from Cambodia and Sumatra, and not by Avay of Celebes. This is 
an interesting suggestion, which might lead to something if studied upon. 
Dr. F. R. Blake.'teacher of Tagalog and Visayan at Johns Hopkins I'ni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md., also read an article on "Sanskrit loan-words in 
Tagalog" at the April, 1903, meeting of the American Oriental Society, at 
Baltimore, Md. Doctor Blake has also written articles upon "Analogies 
between Semitic and Tagalog" and the "Differences between Tagalog and 

In 1882 appeared the second edition of a Spanish-Tagalog and Pampango 
vocabularv by E. Fernandez, printed at Manila. This was followed in 


1883 by his Tagaiog-Spanish vocabulary, both of which are very useful 
books. (P. T., 1061, and R., 756.) 

The valuable "rapport" of Dr. Joseph Montano, Paris, 1885, to the 
French minister of public instruction, contains several Philippine vocabu- 
laries, some of them of little known languages, and also Cjuite an analysis 
of the Tagalog. (R., 885.) 

Under the pseudonym of Julius Miles, an unknown author published a 
small Tagalog-Spanish grammar and phrase book at Barcelona, Spain, in 
1887. (R., 1054.) 

In 1889 Friar Toribio Minguella, Recoleto, published a work in Madrid 
upon the unity of the human race as proved by philology. In this work 
he makes some comparisons between Semitic and Tagalog. 

The same year Dr. Pardo de Tavera published his pamphlet upon the 
oingin of the names of the Tagalog numerals, at Manila. W. G. Seiple, of 
Johns Hopkins University, also i)ublished an article upon the Tagalog 
numerals in the Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 163, June, 1903, 
Baltimore, Md. 

In 1889 also appeared the "Spanish-Tagalog Dictionary" of Pedro Serrano 
Laktaw, son of Rosalio Serrano, and in 1903 director of the Spanish paper. 
El Pueblo, of Manila. It is understood that the author is now working 
upon a Tagalog-English dictionary. (R., 1260.) 

In 1890 a most valuable little work was published in Manila, under the 
title "Coleccion de Refranes, Frases y Modismos Tagalos," translated and 
explained in Spanish by the Franciscan Friars Gregorio Martin and Mariano 
Martinez Cuadrado, and edited by the Friar Miguel Lucio y Bustamente. 
The first came to the Philippines in 1874, the second in 1875, and the 
editor in 1860. All administered parishes mainly in J^a Laguna Province, 
Friar IVIartfnez also serving for many years at Binangonan de Lampon, on 
the Pacific. This collection comprises 879 proverl)s, phrases, and idiomatic 
ex]iressions as used in the vicinity of Tanay and Pililla, where the authors 
resided, and embraces but a part of the wealth of the language in this 
regard. Many of these expressions, marked "T. P." (Tagalog proverbs) 
have been quoted in the explanation of the language. (R., 1318. ) 

In 1893 Dr. Ferd. Blumentritt, of Leitmeritz, Bohemia, published a 
translation of a sketch of Tagalog orthography by Doctor Rizal, at The 
Hague, under the title "Die Transcription des Tagalog," von Dr. Jose Rizal. 

The advent of the United States forces at Manila and the occupation of 
the Tagalog region led to several small ]:)amphlets being issued with the 
English, Spanish, and Tagalog in parallel columns. One of these was 
written by Capt. John Bordman, jr., Twenty-sixth U. S. Volunteer 

In 1902 Constantino Lendoyro, a Spanish gentleman of more than 
twenty years' residence in the Philippines, published his work, entitled 
"The Tagalog Language," at Manila. It is a very good book, but is full 
of typographical errors, and in many places the English is not idiomatic. 
The author deserves much credit for his labor, and a corrected edition 
would be of great value. At any rate, he is entitled to commendation for 
having written, in a foreign language, a work upon the Tagalog which 
shows his thorough knowledge of the Philippine tongue. 

In 1902 R. Brandstetter issued a work upon the Tagalog and Malagasy 
languages at Lucerne, which is of interest as showing the resemblance 
between these two languages spoken at such distant points. 

In 1903 the " English-Tagalog Pocket Dictionary," of P. D. Neilson, was 
published at Manila, and, while merely giving the Tagalog equivalent for 
the English word, is of considerable value. The Tagalog-English part has 
also been published. 

i\Iention should also be made of ' ' Crawfurd's Grammar of the Malay Lan- 
guage," which has also a dictionary attached, London, 1852. Many valu- 
able comparisons are made between Tagalog and other Malayan languages. 

For a grammatical discussion of authority upon the Malayan languages 


the student is referred to the "Grundriss der Spraohwissenschaft," of F. 
Muller, II. Band, II. Abtheilung, pages 87-160 ( Vienna, 1887) . 


The Tagalog is the most important of the many tongues and dialects of 
the Phihpi^ines, which seem to number well over threescore,» on account 
of its being the most widely understood, the most euphonious, and the 
most developed by contact with foreign idioms. It thus occupies a similar 
position to that held by Malay farther to the south, and to English in the 
world at large. Spoken by over a million and a half of the most energetic 
race in the islands, occupying the city of Manila, eight provinces surround- 
ing the metropolis, and a number of outlying islands and districts beyond 
these limits, it is also generally understood by many far beyond its own 
territory, especially in seaport towns throughout the archipelago. 

The language seems to be divided into a northern and a southern dia- 
lect, the former being si)oken in Bulacan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, and 
Tarlac, and the latter occupying La Laguna, Batangas, Cavite, Tayabas, 
Marinduque, the coast of Mindoro, and part of Ambos Camarines. ' Each 
of these dialects is more or less split up, each town almost having local 
mannerisms by which the people of one neighborhood easily dintinguish 
a stranger. Yet the region above described is clearly the territory of one 
and the same language, which is different and distinguishable from the 
Pampangan language on the north and the Bicol on the south by the test 
of intelligibility. 

Philologically, Tagalog belongs to the Malayan branch of the great 
Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family, which extends from Hawaii to Mada- 
gascar and from Formosa to Easter Island west of Chile, including New 
Zealand, Tonga, and Samoa, as well as Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, 
the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines, from east to west, a distance of 
180°, or half the circumference of the earth. 

Considering the rudimentary state of culture existing up to compara- 
tively recent times of the majority of the peoples speaking the languages 
of this family, its unity is remarkable, and a thorough knowledge of one 
tongue is found to be of great utility in the acquirement of any other of the 
great group, especially in the same branch. 

Tagalog, together with other civilized tongues of the Philippines, such 
as Visayan, Pampangan, Ilocano and Bicol, has preserved the verbal system 
better than any other, and the basis for the comparative study of the 
family must be taken from the Philippine tongues and not from the more 
cultivated Malay, Kawi, or modern Javanese, all three of which have been 
profoundly affected by Sanskrit and to a lesser degree by Arabic, some- 
thing as English has been affected by Latin and French elements. 

The number of roots or primitive-itlea words in Tagalog seems to be 
about 17,000, there being 16,842 words in the Noceda and Sanlucar dic- 
tionary of 1832, according to Crawfurd, the distinguished INIalay scholar. 
("Malay Grammar," p. cxiv. ) Of these some 284 are derived from the 
Sanskrit, and are evidently borrowed through the Malay. Many of these 
are names for things unknown to the primitive Malayan peoples, but 
others are abstracts and various words, some of which would seem to have 
supplanted a primitive Malayan word. Thus in many cases American and 
Tagalog words in their own languages wliich are from the same remote 
source in India, and coming around the earth east and west meet again 
in the Philippines. Such a word is pad, "foot," from the Sanskrit j)ada, 
whidi has descended into English "foot" and Spanish "pie." The origin 
of these words is marked after each in the handbook. The names of the 
chief workers in this field have been given in the list of books consulted. 

«The Philippine Bureau of EthDologv, however, has given out as a result of its re- 
searches, that the number of distinct tongues is not over 15 or 16, the larger number being 
made up by counting very similar dialects. 


The Japanese languacje seeuis to have furnished no words to the Taga- 
log, although many Japanef^e came to the inlands during the f-eventeenth 
century, owing to the expuli^ion of Japanese converts^ to Catholicism, who 
found a refuge in Manila and the adjoining iirovinces, mainly in Pam- 
panga, Avhere it is said many of them settled around Macabebe. It is 
thought that some Japanese expressions still exist in the Macabebe dialect 
of the Pamj)angan language. 

Notwithstanding a com])aratively close contact with the Chinese for 
several centuries, and certainly antedating the Spanish conquest by many 
hundred years, very few words seem to have come into Tagalog from any 
of the numerous dialects of that Empire. The Chinese element in Tagalog 
seems limited to a few conmifrc'ial terms, some household implements, 
and a few miscellaneous terms, some of which are confined in their use to 
Sangley or Chinese-]\Iestizo iamilies. These words are noted wherever 
they occur in the handbook. Professor Hirth, the Chinese scholar, thinks 
that the tirst notices of the Philii)i)ines are to be found in the work of 
Chao Ju-kua, collector of customs of Chuan-chou, a city in Fo-Kien Prov- 
ince, between 1210 and 1240. In this work he speaks of the islands of 
Po-ni (Borneo), Ma-i (Mindoro? or Panay?), and of the Pi-Sho-y6 of 
Taiwan (Formosa). This latter name sounds something like "Bisaya," 
the native name for Yisava. The l)ook speaks also of the San-sii, or 
" Three Islands." Book 325 of the " History of the Ming Dynasty ( 1368- 
1643) of China," as abstracted by Groeneveldt, speaks of the Kings (Sultans) 
of Sulu as attacking Puni ( Borneo ) in 1368, and of the King of Sulu, Paduka 
(Javanese " Lord " ) Pahala as dying while on a visit to the Emperor at Te 
Chou on the Grand Canal (Shantung Province). The Emperor then 
recognized his eldest son, Tumohan, as Sultan of Sulu, in 1417. The 
brother of Pahala, who was named Suli, made a visit to China in 1421, 
but a few years after this no more was heard from this Kingdom. From 
this and other extracts it would seem that the Chinese knew of the Moham- 
medan settlements at Manila and Tondo ])rior to the arrival of the Span- 
iards, and must have carried on a lucrative trade with them, otherwise the 
pirate Li-Ma-hong would not have made such a desperate attempt t< > take 
the city so soon after its foundation in 1571. 

The Arabic words in Tagalog, which are hardly more than a dozen in 
numV)er, evidently came in with the Mohammedan religion, and upon the 
extinction of that faith around the mouth of the Pa^ig, all but a few words 
fell into disuse. INIohammedanism could have hardly become established 
in the Tagalog region before 1450 to 1500, as it came very slowly from India 
or Arabia to Java, and thence l\v way of Borneo and Sulu to the Bay of 
Manila and the Pasig Valley. It had apparently not extended to the 
inland provinces, its farthest northern point appearing to have been Hago- 
noy. Arabic words which were adopted by the Spanish and thus brought 
into Tagalog are not included in the above remarks. 

Spanish, as a matter of course, has contributed a great number of words 
to Tagalog, many of which have been thoroughly naturalized. They are 
mainly religious, governmental, social, legal, and abstract terms, including 
also terms for foreign articles and luxuries. Some names for Mexican 
articles are not Spanish but Nahuatl or Aztec, owing to the intimate con- 
nection between JNIexico and the Philippines for more than two centuries, 
and there are even some Arawak words from the tongue of CuT)a, Haiti, 
and Puerto Rico among these. 

English has as yet given but few words to Tagalog. Of these the news- 
papers use four, which seem to have no exact native or Spanish equiva- 
lents, viz: "Self-government," "high life," "sport," and "besbol," or 
baseball. The latter has been verbalized and taken into the language 
bodily, while the others are still quoted. 

The construction of Tagalog does not seem to have been influenced by 
any of the foregoing, but to have retained its Malayan structure. 



The most succinct statement upon the above subject is that given by- 
Rev. W. A. Goodell, of the Methodist mission in the Philippines, as printed 
in Stuntz's "The Philippines and the Far East," page 483: 

"II. The pronunciation of Tagalog is very simple, and there are no sounds 
to which the American vocal organs are not accustomed. Theletter (sound) 
most difficult to get is 'rig,' which has exactly the sound which it has in 
the middle of the word 'ringing,' but which becomes difficult when at the 
beginning of a word, as in the word(s) 'riguni't,' one of the words (terms) 
translating the conjunction ' but,' and which often occurs at the beginning 
of a sentence. 

"But although so simple in word pronunciation, Tagalog is extremely 
difficult in utterance, for one reason because of the great number of Ion» 
words (compounds) it contains, and for another and more important still, 
because of the rhythmic movement of the language, a quality that can not 
be described and a characteristic for which no rules whatever can be given, 
but which is entirely as much a part of the Tagalog language as are its 
words themselves." 

The "rhythmic movement" spoken of by the Rev. Mr. Goodell, who is 
an excellent speaker of Tagalog, is what may be called the "national 
"^accent," and, like the tones of Chinese and other allied tongues, can only 
be acquired by long practice. 

The vowels are really but three in number, although a, e, i, o, and u, 
with their Spanish values, are printed (ah, a, e, o, oo). Of these "e" and 
"i" are habitually confused, and "e" can hardly be said to exist in pure 
Tagalog. "O" and "u" are also confused, the tendency being to drop 
" o " and substitute "u" in many words, a process which has already taken 
effect in Pampangan. The diphthongs are ao (ow), au (aw), less nasal 
than ao, and ua (wa); but there are-no triphthongs, as each vowel in such 
combinations preserves its own sound. 

The native consonants, pronounced (except rig) as in English, are B, C 
(K ), D, G ( hard), H, L, M, N, NIt, P, R, S, and T. The sound of F does not 
exist in Tagalog, and is replaced by P. V is also a foreign sound merging 
with B to the Tagalog ear. Z is pronounced like S, and is found only in 
Spanish words. The same is true of X, which is pronounced at the begin- 
ning of a word as H. W is beginning to be used in native papers as a semi- 
vowel in place of initial ua (wa) and in ao (aw). K is also used by many 
in place of hard C and Q. Y is used as a part of the diphthong ay (ai), 
and also as an initial consonant. 

The pronunciation and construction of the language will be more clearly 
understood by carefully studying the two versions of the Dominical Oration, 
or Lord's Prayer, given below with interlinear pronunciation and trans- 

[From the Vulgate.] 

Tag. Ama namin sungmasalarigit ka; sambahfn 

Pro. Ah-mah ndlimeen soong-mali-mh-lahng-eet Jcah ; sahm-baJi-heen 
Eng. Father our(of us) art in heaven thou; adored (worshiped) 

Tag. ang rigalan mo; mapasaamin ang kaharian 

Pro. ahng ngdh-kihn moh ; wali-paJi-sah-dh-meen ahng kaJi-hah-ree-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee; come to us the kingdom 

Tag. mo; sundin ang loob mo; dito sa lupa para 
Pro. moh; soondeen ahng loh-obe moh; dee-tohsah loo-pah pAh-rah 
Eng. of thee; (be) done the will of thee; here upon earth according 

Tag. nang sa larigit; bigyun mo kami ilgayon nang 
Pro. nahng sah Wuuj-eet; beeg-iidhn moh kah-mee ngeye-6hn nahng 
Eng. to (that) in heaven; (be) given of thee we (us) now of the 


Tag. aming kanin sa :irao-arao at patawarin mo 

Pro. ah-meeng kdh-neen sah uh-roa-dh-row aht jxili-toir-ali-reen moh 
Eng. our food upon every day and (be) pardoned of thee 

Tag. kami nang aming maiigu utang, para nang 

Pro. kah-mee nahng ali-meeng mnhiuj-ah o6-tahng, pah-rah nnhng 

Eng. we (us) of the our (sign of plurality) debts, according as 

Tag. pagpatawad namin sa maiigagkakautang sa aniin; 

Pro. pahg-pa-tow-dd ndh-meen sah mah)~g-ahg-kah-kah-o6-tahngsah dh-meen; 
Eng. (are) forgiven of us to those indebted to us; 

Tag. at houag mo kaming ipahintulot sa tukso, 

Pro. aht hoo-dhg moh kah-meaig ee-pah-heen-to6-loht sah took-soh, 
Eng. and do not of thee (let) us (be) permitted into temptation, 

Tag. at iadya mo kami sa dilang masama. 

Pro. aht ee-dydh moh kah-mee salt (hclahng mah-sah-mcih. 

Eng. but (be) delivered of thee we (us) from all evil. 

The version from the translation of the American Bible Society, follow- 
ing the authorized, or King James, version, is as follows: 

Tag. Ama namin nanasalaiigit ka; sambahin 

Pro. Ah-mdh ndh-meen naJt-itah-sah-ldhng-eet kah; sahm-bah-heen 

Eng. Father our(of us) (art) in heaven thou; hallowed (worshiped) 

Tag. ang parigalan mo: dumating ang kaharian 

Pro. aJtng paluTg-dhl-ahn moh: doo-mdit-teeng ahng kaJt-hali-ree-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee: to arrive the kingdom 

Tag. mo. Gawin ang iyong kalooban, kung paano sa 

Pro. moh. Goween ahng eeyong kah-loli-6-hahn, koong pali-dh-no sah 

Eng. of thee. (Be) done the thy will if as in 

Tag. liiiigit, ay gayon din naman sa lupa. Ibigay mo 

Pro. IdhiTij-eei, eye guy-on deen nah-mdhn sah loo-pah. Ee-hig-eye moh 
Eng. heaven, be thus truly also in earth. (Be) given of thee 

Tag. sa amin rigayon ang aming kanin sa arao-arao. 

Pro. sah dh-meen iTgeye-ohn ahng dh-meeng kdh-neen sah dh-roir-dh-row. 

Eng. to us now(thisday) the our food on everyday. 

Tag. At ipatawad mo sa amin ang aming maiiga 

Pro. Aid ee-pah-tow-dhd moh sah dh-meen ahng dh-meeng mahiTg-dh 
Eng. And (be) pardoned of thee to us the our (sign of plur. ) 

Tag. utang, gaya naman namin na nagpatauad sa 

Pro. od-tahng, guyah nah-mdhn ndh-meen nah nalig-pah-tow-uhd sah 
Eng. debt(s), as also by us now (are) forgiven (to) 

Tag. maiiga may litang sa amin. At houag 

Pro. mahiTg-dh my oo-tahng sah dh-meen. Aht hoo-dhg 

Eng. (s. of plur. ) those-having debts against us. And do not 

Tag. mo kaming dalhin sa tukso, kungdi 

Pro. moh kah-meeng dahl-heen sah took-soh, koong-dee 

Eng. of thee (let) us (be) brought into temptation, but 

Tag. iligtas mo kami sa masama: Sapagka't 

Pro. ee-lig-tdss moh kah-mee .sa/i mah-sah-mdh: Sah-pdhg-kah't 

Eng. (be) delivered by thee us from evil: For (because) 

Tag. iyo ang kaharian at ang kapangyarihan at 

Pro. eeyoh ahng kah-hahree-ahn aht ahng kah-pahng-yahrei-hahn aht 
Eng. ttiine the kingdom and the power and 


Tag. ang kaloualhatian, magpakaildn man. 

Pro. ahng kah-luo-ahl-hah-tee-ahn, mahcj-puhcah-eeWin malm. 
Eng. the glory, ever (for ever) also 

Tag. SiyA nana. 
Pro. Seeynh ndiv-ah. 
Eng. Amen. 

The same prayer may be taken to show the changes in the language 
since it wat^ first reduced to Roman letters by the missionaries. 

From the Doctrina Cristiana of 1593, reprinted by Hervas in "Saggio 
Prattico," p. 129. Also found in Adelung's "iJithridates," Vol. I, p. 609. 

" Anid namin nasaldngit ca, ipasambn mo ancj ngala ma; moui (return) sa 
amin ang pagiaharl mo, Ipasovor (be obeyed) 7no ang l6ob mo, dito sa hipa 
paran sa l/uTgit. Big-idn mo cami ngaion nang ramin cacunin jtara. nang sa 
drao; at paraualin vto ang amin cnsalanan (sins), yagung (as) imianalan 
bahaln (equally) namin sa loob ang casaman (evils) nang 7nacas(tsa (of exist- 
ence) sa amin; houag mo earning {auan nang di cami) matalo nang tocs6; 
datajmua't (but) yadia (be delivered) mo cami sa dllan masamd." 

It may be said thatthis last version shows a comparative want of familiar- 
ity with the language, except as might be spoken by servants, etc., and it 
has doubtless suffered by reprinting, the proof having to be read by those 
ignorant of the language, and hence unable to detect errors except l)y copy. 

An example of the folklore stories is given in the "Tale of the Unlucky 
Rat" from the examples of Malayan languages, published atBatavia, Java, 
in 1868, by J. G. F. Riedel, the Dutch philologist. It is as follows: 

Tag. Ngayon din isang daga nagwika sa kaniyil 

Pro. Ngeye.-on deen eesdhng dahgd nahgweeka sah kahneeyd 

Eng. Now indeed (one time) a (one) rat said to himseif 

Tag. din, nasakit ang atay niyd: " Aydo na ako'y 

Pro. deen, naiisahkeft ahng ahtie neeydh: " Eyeyow nah ahkoy 

Eng. (self), (being) pained the liver his: "Not wish now I 

Tag. matira dito, sa bayan ko; ako'y paparoon aakyat 

Pro. malitelra deetoh, sah buy-an koh; ahkoy paparo-on ahahkydht 
Eng. (to) remain here, in town my; I willgo (and) ascend 

Tag. sa ano sa bundok, titiiigin nang ibang bayan, 

Pro. sah anoh sah boondoke, teeieengeen nahng eebdhng buyan, 

Eng. somewhere into ( the ) mountains, looking for another town, 

Tag. sd,an ako makakita nang kaibigan ko, nang pagkain 
Pro. sdhahn ahkomahkakeeta nahng kah-eebeegan koh, nahng pahgkdheen 
Eng. where I can see some of friend (s) my, some food 

Tag. masarap sa daga, at nang pakabiihay na mabuti." 
Pro. mahsahrdhp sah dahgdh, aht nahng pahkahboohigli nah mahbootee." 
Eng. agreeable for rat(s), and some living (of) good." 

Tag. Pumaruon ang daga, lumakad arao-arao, hangang 
Pro. Poomalirohon ahng dahgdh, loomdhkahd dhrou'-dlirmr, hdhiigahng 
Eng. Went there the rat, traveling daily, until 

Tag. dumating sa baybay, nakita isang taklobo 

Pro. doomdJtteeng sah bvybuy, nahkeeta eesdhng tahklohboh 

Eng. arriving at (the) beach, (it) saw a (one) giant clam 

Tag. nakaiTgariga nang kaunti. Nagwika ang dagd: "An6 

Pro. nahkaiTgdhnga nahng kountee. Nahgweeka ahng dahgdh: "Anoh 

Eng. opening-the-mouth (of) a little. Said the rat: "What 

Tag. ito? Totuong wala pa akong nakikita na 

Pro. eeloh? Tolitolt-ohng irahidh pah ahkohng nahkeekeetn nah 

Eng. this? Truly not yet I am seeing ( have seen) now 

6855—06 2 


Tag. ganiyan." Ngayon pumasok ang daga sa bi'big nang 
Pro. gdJtnrtyahn. )77/n//o/(7( poomdhsoke iiltrig dahr/dh sah beebeeg nahng 
Eng. the like. Then entered the rat into mouth of the 

Tag. taklobo, tinignan ang laman nito, nguni't nasipit 
Pro. iahklohbo, teeneegnahn ahng lahmdhn neetdh, /Tgoonee't nahseepit 
Eng. giant clam, looking at the meat of this, but was caught 

Tag. siyd hangang nasiril ang kaniyang ulu, at 

Pro. seeij&h hdlui-gang nahneera ahng kalineeydhng ooloo, oht 

Eng. he until was destroyed the his head, and 

Tag. napiitol ang kaniyang liig. 
Pro. nahpootole ahng kahneeydhrtg leeeeg. 
Eng. was cut off the his neck. 


Once upon a time there was a rat who said to himself, because his liver 
was out of order: "I do not wish to remain here in this town of mine; I 
will go and ascend the mountains, looking for another town, where I can 
see some of my friends, some agreeable food for rats, and some good liv- 
ing." The rat went out, traveling daily, until arriving at the seashore it 
saw a giant clam (Tridacna), with slightly opened mouth. Quoth the 
rat: "What is this? Truly, I have not seen anything like this yet." Then 
the rat went into the mouth of the giant clam {takloho) to look at the 
meat, but was caught (by it) until his head was cracked, and it was cut 
off at the neck. 


From the foregoing examples it will be seen that there are three accents 
used in Tagalog, the acute (^), the grave (^), and the circumflex (^). 

The acute accent may fall upon any syllable, but in Tagalog is generally 
to be found upon the last (ultima) or the next to the last syllable (penul- 
tima). The acute accent upon a word ending in a vowel indicates that 
the final vowel has an open, broad sound, and that the suffixed particles 
'^an" and "in" prefix an "/)" when joined to such words. Example: 
Magandd, "elegant;" kagandahan, "elegance;" bill, "trade, barter;" 
ang bilhin, "what bought." Words ending in a consonant take "«)(" or 
" in" only, even if bearing the acute accent, which is only written in such 
words when occurring upon the penultima or antepenultima. Example: 
Umutang, "to borrow;" magutang, ''to lend;" magpaiUang, " to lend freely 
(or with goodwill);" kautaiTgan, "debt;" pautang, "credit." In many 
cases the suffixing of " han" or "kin" draws the accent one syllable 
farther toward the end of the word. This also applies to "an" or "in." 
Example: Patau, "idea of killing or death;" kaniatdgan, "death" (ab- 
stract noun); ang kamataijdn, "the place of death." The acute accent is 
not w^ritten with words ending in a vowel, unless the accent is upon the 
final vowel. It may be taken as a rule that words unmarked with an 
accent, if ending with a consonant, take the accent upon the ultima, 
words ending with n and s being excepted. Words ending with an unac- 
cented vowel or "?i" or "s" generally take the accent upon the penultima. 
This is also the rule in Spanish. 

The grave accent in Tagalog merely marks those words ending in a 
vowel, which take "an" or "in," instead of "han" or "hin." The stress 
is not laid upon the syllable marked with the grave accent, but upon the 
one preceding. Example: Bata, "child" (in general), pronounced 
"bahta," the final vowel having an obscure sound; kabataan, "childish- 
ness" (pro. kah-bah-tdh-an). The grave accent is not used with words 
ending in a consonant. 

The circumflex accent is only used upon the final vowel of those words 
ending with an abrupt, obscure vowel sound, upon which the stress of the 
voice is placed. It admits only "an" or "i)i" as a suffix. Example: 
Dumalitd, "to suffer, to endure;" kadalitaan, "suffering, endurance;" 


tunwro, "to signal;" katuronn, "signaling;" ang tinuroan, " person or sta- 
tion signaled to." 

Practice is the essential requirement to become familiar with the accent, 
which is most important in Tagalog, as many words are only distinguished 
by the accent, although differing totally in meaning. Example: As6, 
"smoke;" «.so, "dog;" gdtas, "milk;" galas, "path, trail;" mmilang', 
"to rise" (as the sun); sumilang (ultima), "to pass between;" bumasa, 
"to read;" humu^i, "to moisten." 

As has been already mentioned there are some 17,000 "roots" in the 
Tagalog language, many of which are nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and prep- 
ositions, etc., in themselves. Verbs are generally formed by the use of 
certain particles, of which there are some 17, of which all except one 
{um) have a definite and indefinite form. Together with the noun and 
adjective, forming particles, of which there are several, the possible num- 
ber of intelligible Tagalog words can not be far from 50,000 to 60,000, quite 
sufficient to express any nontechnical ideas of any language whatsoever. 
Yet with all this there are some curious facts about the language and its 
vocabulary. Many general terms can not be expressed in one word, but the 
modifications of a general act have many words to express them, some- 
times far more than exist in English or Spanish. A similar parallel is 
offered by the lack of a verb in early English to express the idea of motion 
in general, although Anglo-Saxon had many words for different kinds of 
motion, which are used daily by all English-speaking people. Upon this 
point Brian H. Hodgson, the noted oriental scholar, says, in his work 
upon the aborigines of India, published at Calcutta in 1847, page iii: 
<<* * * Home-bred words are all very particular, and proportionably 
numerous; while general terms, if more conveniently few, are less charac- 
teristic and very apt to be of exotic (foreign) origin; take the English gen- 
eral term 'to move;' it is Latin and one; but of the numerous sorts of 
special motion (to hop, to skip, to jump, to tumble down, to get up, to 
walk, to fly, to creep, to run, to gallop, to trot), all are 'genuine Saxon, by 
the soul of Hengist.'" This idea will be more fully explained under 
"The verb." In addition to .such particularizing words, there are also 
many synonyms or words n^eaning the same thing in Tagalog, many of 
which are local or provincial and are not heard in the same locality. For 
this reason Crawfurd's remarks upon Tagalog and Visayan, as expressed 
in his "Malay Grammar," London, 1852, page cxix, are still pertinent. 
He saj^s: 

"The languages of the Philippine Islands may be described, not as copi- 
ous, but wordy. In the state of society in which the natives of the Philip- 
pines were formed, ideas are considered more in concrete than in abstract, 
and by an importance being attached to trivial matters a profusion springs 
up which, in a more advanced state of society, are considered unworthy 
of retention, or which, if retained, would only be productive of perplexity 
and distraction. * * * In Tagalog there are 12 names for the cocoa- 
nut, including its different varieties and conditions as to maturity and 
preparation for use. * * * In the same language there are 11 words to 
express the verb 'to boil' (with variations), and 75 (really about 50) for 
the verb ' to go.' " 

It may be added that the verb "to carry" with its variations has some 
eighty words to express all combinations in Tagalog, and there are many 
other verbs which have been particularized in this manner, which will be 
more fully set forth in the appropriate place. 

The main object of this work is to facilitate the acquisition of an ele- 
mentary knowledge of the Tagalog language. It should be borne in mind 
that Tagalog is uot constructed on English or Spanish lines, either in gram- 
mar or syntax. The universal tendency upon using a new language is to 
translate' one's own language word for word, or phrase for phrase, into the 
foreign one. The native may understand, but the result is not elegant. 
No language can be learned entirely from books, and to supplement the 
special needs of each person constant practice in speaking with educated or 


intelligent Tagalogs is necessary. Even with a considerable vocabulary, 
the American will find difficulty in conveying just what he wants to say 
in Tagalog, unless he masters the idioms and peculiarities of the language. 
This will not be a very easy task, but, once mastered, the key is held to 
all the Philippine languages, and it might be said to all the Malayan lan- 
guages of the East Indies. 

To those who have had to depend upon ignorant or untrustworthy inter- 
preters, a knowledge of the local tongue will be felt to be indispensable, 
and this knowledge will also be a protection to the people ignorant of 
Spanish or P^nglish who in many cases have been so unmercifully fleeced 
by unscrupulous interpreters. 

This work has been divided into sections, and the use of technical terms 
has been avoided to as great an extent as possible. Where cases, etc., have 
been used, it has not been because such exist in the Tagalog language, but 
as an aid to the memorj' of those who are more or less familiar with 
Latin, French, Spanish, "German, and other European tongues. 

The essential peculiarities of Tagalog are its "roots," which may be 
made into nouns by the use of the article, into adjectives by other prefixed 
particles, into adverbs in other cases, and finally into verbs l)y the use of 
a large number of particles; and the great use of the definite, which is 
grammatically a "passive," and is so treattd by all grammarians who 
have been consulted, although many times this " jiassive " must be trans- 
lated into English by an "active" verb. For this reason the terms 
" definite" and "indefinite" have been used in the present work. This 
point is more fully explained under the verb. 

Examples have been given wherever possible, and the vocabulary given 
has largely been founded on actual experience. It is impossible to invent 
a series of phrases which will serve for any two people. The questions 
may be given according to the book, but the answer, coming from a speaker 
of the language, will be constructed out of that vastly more extensive 
vocabulary existing in his brain, and the whole scheme be thrown out of 
joint. For this reason a careful study of the examples of the language and 
the manner of building up the sentences will in the end prove of more 
solid benefit than the memorizing of a large number of set phrases, which 
may or may not be appropriate. 

Some phrases suital)le to certain situations have been inserted, such as 
matters relating to the procuring of something to eat, directions to the 
house boys, distances to places, the weather, and other similar matters, 
the careful perusal of which will enable more complex sentences to be 
uttered with success and a mastery of the idiom acquired. 


What do you call that (this) in the And aug parTr/alan niyan (nito) sa 

Tagalog language? vikung Tagalog/ 

That (This) is called in our Iijdn (ltd) ay iinatdwag sa 

language. dming vika. 

How are you? Komustd ( Como esfd) po kayof 

Well; and you, sir? Mahidi; at kayo puf 

Not as well as you seem to be. Hindi luhhung malmii napara ninyd. 

Good morning, sir. Magandang drao, pu. 

Good morning, sir, to you. Magandang draopo namdn. 

Good morning, everyone. Bigydn p6 silang lahat nang magan- 
dang drao. 

Good afternoon (evening), sir (used Magandang hapon pd. (Pu used as 

from noon to dark). Avord of respect to both sexes.) 

Good evening (night) (used either Magandang gall p6. 

on meeting or retiring after dark). 



How is your father? (mother?) 
Well, by the grace of God. 

Not very well. 

Is that so? I regret to hear (lit., 

"feel") it. 
How is the sick one? 

Getting better now. 

Is there anything I can do for you? 

( lit. , Have you any orders for me?) 
No, thank you. 
Sit down, sir. 
Thank you. 
I am in a hurry. I wish only to 

speak to Pedro. 
I will regard it as a great favor if you 

will tell Pedro that I was here 

Don't worry about it, sir; I will tell 

Pedro just left this minute. 
Where did he go? 
1 think (It seems) he went to buy 

some cloth. 
I am going away now. 
Are you going? 
Until later. 
Until to-morrow. 
Until day after to-morrow. 
Until we meet again (lit., "Until we 

see each other" ). 
Well, I'm going (lit., "you there"). 
Where are you going? 
I am going home. 
When are you going back to Manila? 

On iSunday. 

When are you going (down) to 

When are you going up to La 

Come up! Come down! 
Couiein! Get out of here! 
Move on! Clear out! 
Don't move! Come near. 
Move away, all of you. 
Wait a little way ])ack. 
Come here! Accompany me. 
AVait a moment. Go back (return) 

Come back here. Go quickly. 

.1)10 an() Ingay nany ama (ind) mof 

Mahuti, sa and, nang Poong (Dios). 
{Bat-haJa, used by some, is of San- 
skrit origin, derived from avutdra, 
"descent," through M&Vdy batdra, 
"a god." There is no connection 
with the Arabic word Allah, used 
by the Moros for "God," the lat- 
ter being derived from a I., "the," 
and lldh, "God," allied to the He- 
brew Eloah; EloMin.) 

Dt pa luhhang maigi. 

Paldf Kun ganiyan ay dinadamdam 

Maano ang may sakilf or And ang 
lagay vang may sakii? 

(ritiniginlidiia na. 

Maijroun kayong anomang ipuguutos. 
sa dkinf 

Hindi p6, saldmat. 

Umnpo p6 kayo. 


Ako'y nagmamadali. Ibig ko Idmang 
kauHipin si Pedro. 

Malaking utang na loob kikilalanin 
ko sa inyo kun masabi ninyd kay 
Pedro na akoUj naparito ngaydn. 

Magivald p6 kayo bahala' t sasabihin ko 
sa kaniyd. 

Si Pedro'' y kaaalis Idmang. 

Saan pumaroonf 

Tila namili nang kaniyang babaroin. 

Yaydo na akd. 
Yaydo kayo naf 
Hangang mamayd. 
Hangang bukas. 
Hangang makalawd. 
Hangang tayo magkitd. 

Diydn ka na. 

Saan ka paroroonf 

Ako'y papasabdJiay. 

Kailan kayo uimi (magbabalik) sa 

Maynild f 
Sa Lingo (Domingo). 
Kailan kayo luluds sa Maynild? 

Kailan kayo susuba sa La Laguna f 

Piimnnhik ka! Manaog ka! 

Pumdsok kayo! Lumabds ka dito! 

Lumdkad! Sulong. 

Honag kang gagalao! Ltimdpit ka. 

Luniayo kayo. 

Umurong ka nang kaunti sa likurdn. 

Puinariio ka! iSamaJian mo ako. 

Magantay ka sandaii. Muut ka na. 

Bumalik ka dini. Magmadalt ka. 



Get out of there! Don't run! 
They do not wit^h to. 
I did not wish to. He wishes to. 
I don't know. I can not understand 
what you said. 

Umal'is ka diy&n ! Houag tumakbd! 
Namiyao si! a. 
Nayao ako. Siyd ibig. 
Auan ko. Di ako naalaman ang 
sinabi ninyo. 


Driver, take me to the ^^'alled City. 

Go by Palacio street (Calle Palacio). 
Straight ahead. Look out! 
Go to the side. Stop! 
To the right. To the left. 
Slowly. Whoa! 

Let us go by this road. 

Which is the shorter of the two? 

This is shorter than that. 

Are we far away yet? 

We are near now. 

What is the distance from here to 

the river? 
Three hours riding, seven walking. 

What are you doing there? 

I am getting water, sir. 

Is this good water? Yes, sir. 

What is your occupation? 

Housebuilder, sir. 

W^here do you live? 

My house is here, sir. 

W^here are you from? 

I live in the country. 

I am from the mountains, sir. 

Where is the town (pueblo)? 

I can not tell 3-ou. 

Show me the road leading to the 

I want you to go with us to show us 

the road (trail). 
Don't be afraid and don't try to run 

If you guide us well, you will be paid 

for your trouble. 

Ask that person there where there is 
a spring or well. 

What are you looking for? 

I am looking for . 

Go across the river as far as the 

I want a blacksmith (horseshoer). 

I want a saddler (leather worker). 

I need a banca (canoe) with outrig- 

One large enough to hold twenty- 
five people. 

Cochero, ihatid mo ako sa loob yiang 

Tumidoy ka sa daan nang Palacio. 
Matuid \derecho). Tabi! {Quedao!) 
Tumabi ka. Huminto ka (para). 
Sa kanan {mono). Sa kaliv:d (-nlla). 
Hinayhinay {despacio). Luayluay. 

(This latter to horse, etc.) 
Magtuloy tayo sa danng ito. 
Alin any (along maikst sa dalaiva? 
Ito ang lalong maiksi sa roon. 
Malayo pa ba tayo? 
Malapit na tayo. 
And ang tayo inula dito hangang sa 

Tatlong oras hung cabayohin, pito kung 

And ang ginagawd mo diydnf 
Ako' y naigib, pu. 
Mabuti ba itong tubig? Opo. 
Alin kayd ang iyong katungkulanf 
Anloague, p6. 
Saan ka namamayanf 
Ang bdhay ko, p6, dito. 
Taga saan kaf 
Ako'y namamahay sa bukid. 
Taga bundok ako, po. 
Saan naroon ang bayanf 
Hindi ko naalamang sabiJiin sa inyo. 
Ituro mo sa dkiii ang daang patungo 

sa bayan. 
Ibig kong sumama ka sa amin para 

ituro ang daan {gatds). 
Ilouag kang matdkot at houag kang 

Kung ituro mong maigi, ay magka- 

kamiam ka nang kaupahdn sa iyong 

Itanong mo doon sa tduong (maind) 

iydn kun saan mayroon isang bukal 
. 6 balon. 
And ang hinahdnap mo? 

Humahdnap ako nang . 

Tawirin mo ang ilog at lumdkad ka 

hangang sa sai~jd-daan. 
Ibig ko nang isang panday {taga pag- 

lagay nang bdkal sa cabayo). 
Ibig ko nang isang mananahi nang 

balat {talabartero) . 
Kaiknujan ko isang bangkd na may 

I.vxng malaki na makakadald nang 

isang dalaivang poud't limang ka- 




Steer straight for the ship. 

Land there at that point. 

Do not land where it is very muddy. 

Don't make a noise at the landing 

Port! Starboard! Stop! 
Go ahead! Astern! 
See that everything of mine is taken 

down to the boat. 
Put everything into the cart. 
Wrap something aromid that bundle 

so it will not get wet. 
Set that basket down here; I want 

to get something out of it. 
Unfasten this cord. 
From here to Manila, how many 

hours by road (walking)? 

Ituid mo ang sasakyan. 
Isatsat mo doon sa d&kong iydn. 
Houag kang sumatsat sa kaputikan. 
Houag kang magingay sa pagsatsat. 

Sa kaliwd! Sa kanan! Hinto na! 

Sulong na! Urong! 

IiTgatnn mo na hihat ang dking knsan- 

knpan may jnululd sa sasakydn. 
Ilagay mo laliut sa cun-reton. 
Sapinnn mo iydng balutan at bakd 

Ilagay mo dito iydng lampipi; may- 

roon ak6 kukunin. 
Tastax'in mo itong luhid. 
Buhnt dito hangang sa Maynild, Hang 

oras lakar'm nang daanf 


How is the weather? 

The weather is fine. 

The weather is bad. 

We are in the dry season now. 

We are having the wet season now. 

The sun is becoming obscured. 

There is much fog. 

Is it going to rain? 

It looks like it. 

It has been raining fearfully all day. 

The rain is coming down now. 
Give him the umbrella. 
It is thundering and lightening. 
A bolt struck that tree. 

The wind is increasing. 

It is possible that this may turn into 

a typhoon (hurricane). 
Come in under the shelter of this 

The moon is rising now. 
The stars are coming out. 
Look and see if it is raining, because 

I must go now. 
Come back here at sunset (lit., At 

setting of the sun, return here). 
It is growing dark. 
It is growing light. 

Maano ang panahon? 

Mabuti ang panahon. 

Masamd ang p)anah6n. 

Na sa tagdrao tayo ngayim. 

Na sa taguldn tayo ngayon. 

NagdidUim ang drao. {Arao also 

means "day.") 
May mardming uJap. 
JJuldn bagdf 
Tila p6. 
Katakottdkot nauldn sa maghdpong 

Bumubugso na ang uldn. 
Ibigay mo sa kaniyd ang pdyong. 
Kumukidog at kumikidlat. 
Isang lintik ay nahulog sa iyang kdhoy 

Lumalakds ang haiigin. 
Mardhil ito ay mauut sa bagyd. 

Pumdsok kayo sa s'dong nitang bdhay. 

Sumisilang na ang buan. 
Sumisilang na ang mangd bituin. 
Tigndn mo kun umuuldn, at aal'is na 

Paglnbog nang drao, ay magbalik ka 

Dumidilim na. 
Lumiliwdnag na. 


I must say good-by to you now. 
Why must you go? Sit dowiv first. 

I can not sit down, because I am in 

a hurry. 
And where are you going? 
I am going to see a friend who is 

leaving for Manila to-morrow. 
I will come back later. 

Padlam na p6 ako sa inyd. 

Bdkit ka nagpapadlamf Maupo ka 

)n una. 
Hindi ak6 makauupd sapagka't ak6 'y 

At saan ka paroroon? 
Makikipagkitd ako sa im kong kaibigan 

aalis pasasa Maynild bukas. 
Magbabalik ak6 mamayd. 



We will see each other in the after- 

Macjkikita tayo sa hapon. 
Adios (Sp. ). 


May God guard you. 
May God help you. 
God be with you. 

Dlos ang uminyat sa iin/o. 
Dios ang tumuUmg m iiigo. 
Dios ang sumama sa imjo. 


Get me something to eat; I am hun- 
Get me a drink; I am thirsty. 

What do you wish to eat? 

Whatever you have. 

Would you like roast chicken? 

Yes, and a little wine. 

What else would you like? 

Give me some eggs, if there are any. 
Note.— See list for things to eat, pp. 28-29 

The meal is nice. 

Wash (wipe) this plate. 

I have eaten enough. 

Eat some more, sir. 

Just a bit more. 

Only a bite more. 

I am satiated now. 

Don't give me anything more. 

Bring some water to wash the hands. 

Bigydn mo ako nang haunting maka- 

kain; nagugiitum ako. 
Painumin mo ako; nauuJiao ako. 
And ang ibig ninyong kanin? 
Kun and mayroon diydn. 
Ibig ninyd ang inihao na sisiu? 
Oo, at kaunting dlak. 
And pa ang ibig ninydf 
Bigydn mo ako nang itlog kun mayroon. 
and 39-4(). 
Masarap ang pagkain. 
Hugasan (kuskasiii) mo itong mankok 

{pingdn) itd. 
Marami akong kinain. 
Kumain pa kayo pd. 
Kapiraso pa. 
Isa na Idmang subo. 
Busog na ako. 
Houagna pd ninyd akong bigydn nang 

Magdald ka nang tubig paghugas nang 

kamay. ( Idiomatic expr. is: Isang 

tahong (cocoanut shell) tubig.) 


Shall I get the clean clothes now? 

No, bring me a towel and soap first, 
I am going to take a bath. 

Get some water and put it in the 

bath tub. 
The bath is ready, sir. 
Benigno, put some water in the 

wash basin. 
Lay out a shirt, a pair of trousers, 

and a coat. 
Khaki, sir? No, white clothes. 
Bring me my shoes. 
Hand me that cap. 
Get a handkerchief out of the trunk 

Open that door. Shut the window. 

Take care of the house; I am going 
for a walk. 

Ibig ninyong ikuha ko kayo nang damit 

na malinis? 
Honag, dallidn mo muna ako nang 

isang pamdhid at sabdn at akd ay 

KmnuJia ka nang tubig at ilagay mo 

sa paliguan. 
Ang paliguan pd ay handd na. 
Benigno, lagydn mo nang tubig ang 

Ikuha mo akd nang isang bard, isang 

salatral at isang aniericana. 
Kaki )n)f ITonag, damit na maputt. 
Dalhln nio sa akin ang sapln. 
Idbut mo sa akin iyang gorra iydn. 
Maglahds ka nang isang panyo sa 

Buksdn mo iyang pinid iydn. Pinddn 

{Sarhdn) mo angduruiTijauan {bin- 

IiTijatan mo ang bdhay; at akd ay 




If anyone calls, say that I will be 
back soon. 

What time is it? 

It is five o'clock, sir. 

Wake uie up later, at six; don't for- 
get what I tell you (lit., "my or- 
ders " ) . 

Please get up, sir; it is six now. 

Do you know of a good barber? 

There is one, sir, I know well. 
Then call on him and tell him to 
bring a good razor. 

Do you know how to shave well? 

Yes, sir. All right, shave me. 

Does it hurt you, sir? 

No, it is all right. 

Cut my hair. 

Do you wish it very short, sir? 

No, leave it a little long. 

How much do I owe you? 

What you like, sir; what you wish. 

How much a month, shaving me 
every other day? 

Three j)esos, sir. Then come, begin- 
ning with to-morrow. 

There is a man downstairs who 
wishes to work for you as a serv- 

Tell him to come up. 

Have you any recommendations? 

I have, sir. 

Where are you from? 

From Maloios, sir. 

How old are you? 

Are you married? Yes, sir. 

Have you father and uaother yet? 

No, sir. I have not. 

ytay here and I (we) will pay you 
if yi>u care for it five pesos a month, 
and if this does not suit you, look 
for another place. 

You are falling into bad habits. 

Look for a substitute right now. 

Don't be impertinent. 

Keep still! or Shut up! 

Where is your employer? 

He is not here, sir. 

Don't you know where he went to? 

No, sir. 

About what time will he be back? 

Later, after eight o'clock. 

Tell him, when he comes, that I have 

been here. 
Are you the tailor? 
This suit does not fit well. 

Kun may sinomang pumarito, mhihin 

mong va ako'y madaling laUtlik. 
A^nong oras nuf 
A las cinco na p6. 
Gisingin mo ako mamayang d las seis; 

houag mong kalilimutan ang bilin 

Gnmising p6 kayo; d las sets na. 
May nnkikilulM kang mahuting mang- 

aiTjjdhit {hurheru)f 
May isd p6 akong nakikilalang mahiiti. 
Kun gayon ay tauagin mo at sabihin 

mongrmagdald nang mahuting labasa 

Marunong kang umdhit na mahutif 
Opo. Kun gayon, ahitin mo ako. 
Nasasaktdn po kayof 
Hindi, ganiydn nga. ang mabuti. 
Gupitin mo ang buhok ko. 
Ibig po ninyong sagad na sagadf 
Houag, pabayaan mong mahabd-habd. 
Magkano (gaano) ang ibabayad ko sa 

Kayo po ang bahala; ang loobinpo 

Magkanong ibig mo buanav, sa tuing 

iknlauKuig drao ay aaliitav. mo akof 
Tatlong piso, po. Kun gayon ay 

pwnarito ka muld bukas. 
May isang tduo sa ibabd na ibig mag- 

paalila sa inyo. 

Sabihin mong pumanhik. 

May taglay ka katunayan? 

Mayroon ako po. 

Taga saan kaf 

Taga Maloios, po. 

Mayroon ka nang Hang labnf 

May asdita ka? Opo. 

May amd't ind jjaf 

Hindi p6. Walu po. 

Tamird ka at uupahdn kitd kun ibig 

mo nang limang piso isang buan, 

at kun hindi hunidnaj) ka nang (bang 

3Iasuind ang pinagkaratihan mo. 
Humdnap ka nang kahalili mo ngaydn 

Houag kang magpayamot. 
Houag kang maiiTgay! 
Nasaan ang punginoo7i mof 
W(Ud pd rito. 

Di mo naalaman kun saan naparoon? 
Hindi p6. 

Anong oras siyd babalikf- 
Mamayang makd d lasocho. 
Sabihin mo kun dumdting na ako'y 

naparito dito. 
Ikdo ba ang mananahif 
Itong damit na iid ay hindt maigi ang 




That is too dear. 

I must have it this week. 

Totoong napakanmhal iydn. 
KailaiTrjan ho sa loob nang lingong 


Are you teaching EngUsh? 

What did you teach this morning? 

I taught arithmetic. 

When did they write any English? 

They have written some within a few 

I wish to rent a house. 

I shall be here some time — several 

months at least. 
I wish to rent from month to mouth. 
I will pay you in advance. 
A long time. A short time. 

I will go there. 

What do these men want? 

They wish to speak to you. 

What do you (thou) want? 

What is your name? 

Is that work finished yet that I told 

you to do? 
Not yet, sir. Then, when? 
To-morrow, sir. 
How much is this (all)? 
How much for eggs? 
There is no answer. 
Wait, I am going to write a letter to 

your employer. 
I am under great obligations to you. 

Don't mention it (lit., It is nothing). 

You are mistaken. 

It is the truth. 

It is a lie. 

This woman, sir, is asking that her 
husband be released. 

Tell her to state her reason for ask- 

Who, among you, know this woman? 

Tell me what you did to Pedro. 

Tell me the truth, for if you do not I 

shall send you to the guardhouse 

Why did you leave the barracks 

without permission? 
Tell Pedro that he is wanted by the 

Wliat you did was far from the duty 

(orders) of a soldier. 

Ungniaarul {nagtuturo) kayd haga 

nang ingles {Aug wikang nang 

manga americano) 
And kayang inidral (ilinurd) ninyo 

sa ago. f 
Aug inidral (itinuru) ko'y arilmetica. 
Kaildn sungmulat sild'y nang ingles. 
Sungmulat sild'y nang kamakailang 

Ibig ko isang hdhay paupahdn. 

Ako'y matitird dint mardhil mangd 

Hang buun. 
Ibig ko umupd bnang-buan. 
Manguuna ang bay ad. 
Mahabang panahon. Maiksing pana- 

Paroroon ako doon. 
And ang ibig nitong mangd tduof 
Ibig mid makipagusap sa inyd. 
And ang ibig mof 
And ang paiTgalan mof 
Yuri na bagd ang gawang ipinaghilin 

ko sa iyof 
Hindi pa, p6. At kaildn? 
Bukas p6. 
Magkano iio? 
Magkakano ang itlog ? 
Walang sagod. 
MaghinUty ka, susidat ako nang isang 

sulat sa iyong panginoon. 
Akopo ay malaki ang pagpapasaldmat 

sa. inyd. 
Wald p6 anoman. 
Kayo pu malt, 
ltd ang katotoohanan. 
Ito'y kabalaan. 
Itong babaye ito po ay namamanhik 

napawaldn ang kaniyang asdua. 
Ipasaysay mo sa kaniyd ang katuiran 

na hinihingi niyd. 
Sino ba sa inyo ang nakakikilala sa 

babaye ito f 
May .^ay say ka sa dkin nang mangd 

ginatrd mo kay Pedro. 
Sabihin mo ang katotoohanan, at kun 

hindt, ipapadald kitd sa bilangoan. 

Ano't ikao lumabds sa cuartel nang 

walang sabi. 
Sabihin mo kay Pedro "-a siyd'y kai- 

laiTgan nang capitdn. 
lyang ginawd mo iydn ay laban sa 

mawjd utos nang isang sundalo. 


You should always inspect the men's Dadalaoin ninyd tuUuing ang maiTgd 

quarters. kiiudalagi/dn na^g manga sundulo. 

The rifles (carbines) must be cleaned Ddpat linisin urao-drao ang mangd 

daily. baril. 

I especially warn you not to be off PlwighibUing ko sa iy6 mahigpit na 

guard (or relax vigilance) for a houag ka malihang isang mandall. 


The obligation of a soldier on duty Nauukol sa sundalo taga-pagtdnod 

is to know the orders. usisain ang manga utos. 

Those who disobey orders will re- Ang bunahan sa utos ko ay kakamtdn 

ceive severe punishment. )i((iig mahigpit na parusa. 

Tell the people here that what we Sablhin mo sa taga dito na ang dting 

are going to do is for the benefit gagawin ay kagalingan nang lahat. 

of all.' 

Section One. 


Thomas. Tomds. Father. Amd. 

Mai-y. Maria. Mother. Ind. 

John. Juan. Brother. Kapatid na lalaki.<f 

Joseph. Jose. Sister. Kapatid na babaye.^ 


In Tagalog a definite article, *S'(, is generally prefixed to the names of 
persons related to or well known to the speaker or writer, as well as with 
names of relationship and terms of affection. It may also be used with the 
proper name of an animal belonging to the speaker. In some of the prov- 
inces diminutives are much used, especially within the family. There are 
also some terms of this nature largely used in Sangley, or Chinese-Tagalog 
families, which are taken from Chinese and will be discussed later. 

Older brother (first born). Koya; si koya, my elder brother. The pro- 
noun is understood. 
Elder brother. Manung (Manila and southern dialect). 

Elder sister. Kakd; si kakd, my elder sister. 

My father. Si amd. 

My mother. Si ind. 

This article is declined as follows: 

Nom. John. Si Juan. 

Gen. John's; of John. Ni Juan; kay Juan. 

Dat. To, for John. ^ 

Ace. John. y Kay Juan. 

Abl. From, with, John. J 

When a name is to be used in the plural, the article of common nouns, 
ang, is used, as: The Johns, ang ma>r/jd Juan; or better, ang mangd tina- 
tdwag na Juan (those who are called John). 

The article of names has a special plural when coupled with certain 
words, as of the parents, relatives, companions, or the home. 

Nom. John and hia . Sind Juan. 

Gen. The field of John and his family. Ang bukid nind Juan. 
Dat. To, for, Pedro and his 

Ace. The field of Pedro and his family. |- Ang kand Pedrong bukid. 
Abl. From, by, Pedro and his . 

a These two words are derived from " patid " and " ka," meaning " tied with the same 
cord." " Lalaki" is male and '■ babaye " is female. In Tagalog, however, separate words 
are used to express " elder brother," " elder sister," " younger brother or sister, etc. 


Si is not used alone before names of persons unrelated to the speaker 
except in a joking way; in other cases the Spanish word Senor, Mr., is 
inserted as: /S7 Sp)lor Blanco, Mr. Blanco. Ginoo is the Tagalog equiva- 
lent for "Senor" and Gat for "Don." Dayanrj is "Doiia." These terms 
are used by purists. 


The article ang (the) is used with all common nouns, and also those 
proper nouns notapplyingto persons — i. e., the Pasig, ang Fdsig; the PhiHp- 
pines, ang Filijmias. Sometimes this article is prefixed to names of cities. 
It is declined both in the singular and plural, the word maiTgd (sign of 
plurality) being added in the latter case. 


Nom. sing. The. -■ing- 

Gen. sing. Of the. Nang; sa. 

Dat. sing. To, for, the. Sa. 

Ace. sing. The. ^''ng; sa. 

Abl. sing. From, by, the. Nang; sa. 

Nom. plur. The. Ang maiTga. 

Gen. plur. Of the. Nang maiTga; sa maiTga. 

Dat. plur. To, for, the. Sa maiTga. 

Ace. plur. The. Nang manga; sa matTgn. 

Abl. plur. From, with, the. Sa maiTgd; nang maiTgd. 

The forms ni and nind of the article of names and the form nang of the 
article of common nouns are used when a word in the genitive follows a 
nominative in the sentence. Examples: The mother of John, ang ind ni 
Juan; the house of Thomas and his family, ang hdhay nind Tomds; the 
darkness of the night, ang kadilimdn nang gab-i. 

The forms kaij, hand, and sa are used with the genitive when inserted 
between the nominative article and its noun. Examples: The mother of 
John, ang krnj Juan ind; the house of Thomas and his family, ang kand 
Tomds hd'hag; the darkness of the night, ang sa gab-i na kadilimdn. Ancient 
Greek has almost this same construction. 


Nouns in the Tagalog language are of various classes; some are root 
words, whose derivation can not be traced; others are built up from roots, 
and many are foreign words, mainly from Spanish, although some Arabic 
and Sanskrit words are to be found, as well as a few from Chinese and 
other sources. They are indeclinable, and the sign of plurality is generally 
indicated by the word maiTgd placed before the noun pluralized. 


Banana (in general). Sdging. 

Bed. Fdpag. 

Bedquilt. Ki'imot. 

Beer. Serbesa ( from Sp. , cevveza ) . 

Blanket. Mania (Sp. ). 

Bread. Tindpay (from tdpay, idea of knead- 

ing, i. e., kneaded). 

Breadfruit tree. Antipolo; tipolo. Antipolo is also a 

town in Rizal Province. 

Butter- lard (Mantica (Sp., manteca). 

' ' \Ma)itiquilla (Sp., mantequilla). 

Carabao (buffalo). Kdlabao; damulag; anuang. First is 


Cat, domestic. Pu.m. Musang is Malay for the palm- 

cat ( I'aradoxurus). 




Chicken; fowl. 



Cocoanut oil. 



Corn (maize). 



Dog. , 

Drinking vessel. 


Fish, dried salt. 

Fish, fresh. 

Flour (in general). 




Grai)e fruit. 

Hog; swine, domestic. 




Lamp; light. 

Man (person). 



Meat (pulp). 


Native spoon. 





Rice (cooked). 

Rice (hulled). 

Rice (unhuUed). 





Sucking pig. 


Sweet potato; vam. 


Table knife. 





Wine; liquor. 


Qiiiso (Sp., queso). 


Batcl. Also applied to house boy, 

servant (muchacho). 
Siculnte (Mex. Sp., chocolate; from 

Niog. Also applied to cocoa palm. 

Oy/x' (Sp., cafe; from Arabic, qahwa). 
TirdhiiHon (Sp., tirahuzon). 
Mais (Sp., malz). 
Baca (Sp., vaca). 
Tasa (Sp.). 

Aso; ay am (rare), Bicol word. 
Lumbo; inuman (from inum, idea of 



Panduro (Sp., tenedor). 

Cabayo (Sp., caballo). 

Ilaoun (from ilao, light). 

Banig {Sp., petaie.). 
Suha; lukban. 
Lara; paminta. (Possibly from Sp., 


Also applied to the grain, 
'to butt"). 

[from Sp., topar, 
[Sp., jabon). 
Ctichara (Sp. ). 
B'dk ( Manila ) ; Kidig ( Laguna ) ; Biddo 

Amcal (Sp., azucar). Old name 

tnbo, now "sugar-cane." 
Camote (Sp. ). Large yam, ubi. 
Dulang; lamesa. 
Kampit ( Sp. , cuchillo) . 
Sa (Chinese, cha). 
Vaso (Sp.). 

Alak (from Arabic, araq). 



The definite and indefinite idea runs throughout the Tagalog language, 
and the words " to have," " not to have," "there is," "there is not," etc., 
bring this out plainly. 


Have (all persons; indef. 

Have (def.). 

Have you (some, any)? 

Have vou (that, this)? 


Indeed; truly. 





Perhaps; some; any. 

There is not. 



Yes, sir. 

You (thou). 

Mayroon ( lit. , ' 'there is ; " from doon, 

Na sa. 

iMayroonf ^Mayroon ka hagdf ^Mayf 
iNci sa iyo? (lit., Is with you?) 
Ako (form with nominative; indef. ). 

Salapi. Also means half peso. 
Akin; ko (latter postfixed to def- 

Kay a. 

iAno; and bagdf 
Ka ( form with nominative ; indef. ) . 

Akin requires the article and is prefixed or else is preceded by a 

Ex. : 1. Have you any rice? {^Mayroon kang higasf) Have you that rice? 
{iNa sa iyo iyang higasf) 2. Yes, sir, I have some {Opo, mayroon ako). 
Yes, sir, I have it ( Opo, na sa Akin) . 

Mayroon is used when asking in a general way, as in the market or in a 
shop or store; na sa is used when a certain object is meant. Magkano means 
"how much;" ayao is "I do not wish to," and alin is "which." With 
the foregoing vocabulary all ordinary comforts and supplies, except cloth- 
ing, can be asked for throughout the provinces where Tagalog is under- 
stood, and these words are generally understood throughout the island of 
Luzon on account of their general similarity to the corresponding words 
in other dialects. The most conspicuous exception is tuhig (water) , which 
is danum in Pampango, Ilocano, and other northern dialects of Luzon. 




Custom; habit. 
Day; sun. 
Dress; clothes. 
Every day; daily, 
Ganta (3 liters). 

Glass; crvstal. 

Large jar. 



Americano (Sp. ); Taga America. 

(Boten (Sp., hotella). 






Salop (English equivalent, 3 quarts 
If pints— 3.1701). 


Ginto (said to be from dialectical 
Chinese, kin, "gold," and tieh, 
"of," i. e., "golden;" Malay, 
amas; native gold, balitok). 

Tintero (Sp. ). 


Salaniin (Malay, cJuirmin). 




Priest. Fare {Sp., padre). 

Ring. Singmig (Malay, chinchin). 

Sil ver. Pt/«A( Malay, perak, also place name ) . 

Son or daughter (child). Anak. 

Spaniard. Espnnol (Sp.); Taga Castila (from 

Castilla, Castile). 

Stone. Bato. 

Tagalog. Tag&log. 

Town. Bayan. 

Well (noun). Bal-6n. 

Sex is distinguished by the addition of the words lalaki, ' ' male, ' ' or habdye, 
"female," with the appropriate "tie" {g, ng, orno). Ex.: My sister {Ang 
aklng kapatid na babdye — lit.. The my female brother); my son [ang aking 
anak na lalaki). 

A few words indicate sex in themselves, but they are very limited in 
number compared with those in Aryan languages. 


Aunt. AH. 

Father. Ama. 

Girl, unmarried woman. Dalaga. 

Male; man. Lalaki. Itt ^ i i- i.- 

Female; woman. Babdye.^^^^ ^^'^^ ^^ adjectives. 

Miss; young lady. Binibini. 

Mother. Ind. 

I Amain. 
Mama. Principally heard in Ma- 
Young man; bachelor; youth. Binatd (from bata, boy, child). 

Young man, unmarried. Bagongtduo (lit., "new man"). 

THE "ties." 

The Tagalog ear dislikes the sequence of certain sounds, and for this 
reason three ties, "g," "«</," and ''na," are much u.sed, more especially 
when an adjective is prefixed to a noun or a noun in the genitive modifies 
another in the nominative. 

The tie "g" is added to such an adjective or nominative if ending in 
"n," the genitive following the nominative modified. The adjective may 
precede the noun, as in English, or follow it, as is generally the case in 
Spanish. The tie is added to the noun in the latter case, if it ends 
in "n." Ex.: (1) Wisdom {karitnwTgan) ; great (dakild) ; great wisdom 
{karunungang dakild) . (2) Silver (pikA'); imrror {salamin); silver mirror 
(salaming p'dak ) . 

The tie ")*^" is added to w^ords ending in a vowel not preceded by 
another vowel. U, as in tduo, is considered as a consonant, as it sounds 
nearly like the English " w," and is written with this letter by many natives. 
Ex.: A dutiful child [Batang mabail); a bottle of wine (isang boteng dlak); 
a beautiful woman {babdyeng magandd); a Manila man (isang Iduong 

The tie '' na" is used when the first word ends in any consonant (except 
"n") or in a diphthong. Ex.: A dutiful child (Mabatt na batd); a large 
house [bdhay na malaki); clear water [lubig na malinao, or malmao na 


There is no special indefinite article (a or an) in Tagalog, although the 
numeral isd (one) may be used. 


THE VERB "to BE." 

The English verb "to be" maybe sometimes represented in Tagalog by 
the particle at/, changing to '?/ for euphony after a preceding vowel. Ex. : 
Is your horpe white? UAng cahayo vk/ij inaputi:') The bird is singing 
{Ang ibon an Jiungmuhuni). Generally in questions the verb "to be" is 
understood, as: iA)wang sabi mof ( What did you say? — lit.. What the said 
your?). The verb is understood also when a predicate adjective is used; 
as, ^ly father is good (Mafiutl ang dklng ama ) . A // also connects two clauses 
of equal force; as, If John comes, go away {Kiin damating si Juan, ay 
umalis ka). 


The particle ay is invariable as to tense, the idea of past or future being 
expressed by the answer or an adverb of time. Ex. : Beautiful then, she is 
is ugly now {Magandd siyd noon, iTgayon ay paiTgit). You will be sick 
to-morrow {Bukas ikdo ay masnkit). 

Some Tagalog writers use ai in place of ay, especially in newspaper work. 


At, changing to '/, under the same circumstances in which ay changes 
to 'y, represents the conjunction "and." It may also stand for "because" 
in compound sentences when a cause is expressed; as, I can not read, 
because I have no spectacles {Hind! ako makalabasa sa pagka 't ivaM akong 

When ay and at are followed by a monosyllable, as sa, the vowel is not 

Section Two. 

The principal interrogative pronouns and adverbs are as follows: 

What? ^Anof 



Who? iSmof 



Which? iAlin? 

How much (value)? 


Where? iSadn? 

How many? 


And, " what," 

is declined as follows: 



Nom. What? 


No change. 

Gen. Of what? 

iSa and? iNang anof 

No change. 

Dat. To, for what? iSa anof 

No change. 

Ace. What? 

iSa and? ^Xang anof 

No change. 

Abl. (Loc.)In, 

at what? /.S'a andf 

No change. 

Abl. (Ins.) By, 

with what? ^'Xayig andf 

No change. 

This pronoun i 

is used only in speaking of things, never 

of persons. The 

expression lAno 

kaf means "What do you Avant?" 

iSinof, "who,' 

' is declined as follows: 



Nom. Who? 



Gen. Whose, of 

whom. ^Kaninof ^Xinof<^ 

^Kanikaninof ^ 

Other cases. 

^Sa kaninof 

/Sa kanikaninof 

«Used only when the question is not heard or understood. 

6 Not tcanino-kanino, as the first form is a trisyllable, and in Tagalog repetitions stop at 
at the second syllable (or letter, as the case may be). Kaninong mangd and sa kaninontj 
are also used. 


Example: /Kaninoitrj hnk'id hjanf (Whose iield is that?); Sa capitdn 
(Of the mayor or presidente) ; iN'mo^ (Whose?); *S'a capitdn m hayan (Of 
the mayor of the town) . 

From early times the title of the mayor of a town or "pueblo" was 
"gobernadorcillo" (little governor) . This name was changed in 1893 to 
"cai)itan municipal," and in 1898 to "presidente," a name retained under 
American administration. Natives ignorant of Spanish generally speak of 
the "capitan." 

While (tiio is used for things and »ini> for persons, the pronoun al'm 
"which," is used for both. It is declined: 



Nom. Which? 



(xen. (;)f which? 

sSa alinf iNang aim? 

sSa alin-aVmf 

Dat. To', for what? 

iSa al'm? 

sSa alin-alinf 

Ace. What? 

sSa alinf iNayuj aVmf 

sSa alin-alinf 

Loc. In, at which? 

sSa alinf 

iSa alin-alinf 

Ins. By, with, etc.. 


/Nang alinf 

sNang alin-alinf 

Sa with the genitive is preferable in answering a question. ^Aling manga? 
may also be used for the plural. The form ^Mangd alinf is rather inele- 
gant. Thus the English "Which men?" maybe expressed by "^Alhi- 
aling tduof" '^/.Alin manga tduof" or "^' Manga aling tduof" 


These adverbs i)resent no peculiarities and are used as in English. 
fllanf (How many?) obviates the use of the pluralizing particle mam/d; as, 
illang tduof (How many men?) In inquiring the price of an article in the 
market the restrictive form magkakano is generally used; as, '' ^Magka- 
kano ang )nai~gditlogf" (How much for eggs?) But in speaking of purchas- 
ing the entire quantity magkano is right. 


These are four in Tagalog, two being translated by "this," another by 
"that," and the fourth by the poetic form "yon." 

The first is yari, and means "this." Strictly speaking, it should be used 
only to indicate an object nearer to the speaker than to the j)erson 
addressed, but practically this pronoun is dropping out of use. For exam- 
ple, Yaring dking pmo (This heart of mine), while more exact, is little 
heard, tlie following word ilo (this) being used: Hong dking puso. Yeriis 
a dialectii'al form. 

Yari is declined as follows: 






These. Yaring maiTgd. 


Of this. 

Niri; dini sa. 

Of these. Niring maiTgd. 


To, for this. 

Dini sa. 

To, for these. Dini sa maiTi/d. 



Niri; dinisa. 

These. Niring mangd, etc. 


At, in this. 

Ihni sa. 

At, in these. Dini sa manTgd. 


By, with this. 


By, with these. Niring maiTgd. 

The ordinary word meaning "this" is ilo, and strictly denotes objects or 
persons equidistant from both speaker and the person spoken to. It is 
declined as follows: 


Nom. This. ltd. These. Jtong maiajd. 

Gen. Of this. Nilo; ditd sa. Of these. Nilong maiu/d, etc. 

Dat. To, for this. Dito sa. To, for these. Dito sa niangd. 

6855—06 3 




Dito sa. 


Dito sn matTgd. 


At, in this. 

Dito sa. 

At, in these. 

Dito sa matTgd. 


By, with this. 


By, with these. 

Nitong mangd. 

"That" is expressed in Tagalog by the word iydn, especially when 
applied to persons or objects nearer to the person spoken to than to the 
speaker. It is declined as follows: 








Jyang manga. 


Of that. 

Xii/an; diydn sa. 

Of those. 

Niyaiig mangd, etc. 


To, for that. 

Diyc'tn sa. 

To, for tho.«e. 

I>iildn sa rnaiTgd. 



Xiydn; diydn sa. 


Xiyang ma)7?/a,etc. 


At, in that. 

Niydn sa. 

At. in those. 

Xiydn .m maiTgd. 


Bv, with that. 


By, with those. 

Xiyang mat~ga. 

The fonrth demonstrative pronoun, yaon, means "yon," although at 
present generally translated "that." Yooii is a dialectical form. It is 


Nom. Yon (that). Yaoti. Yon (those) Ya6ng,maiTgd. 

Gen. Of yon. Xiyaon; doon sa. Of yon. Xiyaong mangd, etc. 

Dat. To, for yon. Doon .sa. To, for yon. Doon sa mangd. 

Ace. Y'on. Xiyaon; doon .m. Yon. Xiyaong maiTi/d. 

Loc. At, in yon. Doonsa. At, in yon. Doon sa manga. 

Ins. By, withyon. AT*/ooH. By, with yon. Xiyaong niaiTgd. 

The particle sa follows the pronoun in each as given, but it, as well 
as the pluralizing particle maiTgd, belongs to the person or object pointed 
out, and not to the pronoun. 

Tiiese four demonstratives have a peculiar idiomatic use in that they are 
repeated in the nominative after the person or o))ject modified as well as 
preceding the same, in the latter case agreeing in number and case. 
Examples: This man (Itong tauung ito), both nominative singular. That 
boy's clothes (Ang damit niynng batang iydn); first, genitive singular; 
second, nominative singular. That man (has) much money {^faraming 
salapiniyang (niyaong) tduong yaon) \ lit., "much money of that man that." 
(Generally with nominative.) Itong hulaJdak na itci' y diydn sa batang iydn 
(This flower is for that child). In the second clau.«e, the first pronoun is 
in dative and second in nominative. 


From the four demonstrative pronouns the following adverbs of place 
are derived: 

Here (close to the speaker). Dini. 

Here. Dito. 

There ( near addressee ) . Diyd n . 

Y''onder (there). Doon. 

AVith the particle na prefixed to this class of adverbs, the idea of "am," 
"is," "are" is expressed. It will be noted that the initial letter d is soft- 
ened to r where the particle na is used alone. 

Am, is or are here (close). Xarini; nayeri; nandini. 

Am, is or are here (more distant). Xarito; naito; nandilo. 
Am, is or are there. Nariydn; naiydn; iiundiydn. 

Am, is or are yonder. Naroon; nayaon; nandoon. 

The particle dt with the same class of adverbs expresses the past tense. 
For euphony the particle changes to do with do6?2. 


Was or were here (clothe). Dirini. 

Was or were here (more distant). Dirlto. 

Was or were there. Dlii/an. 

Was or were yonder. Dorooti. 

The particle p(i M'ith tlie same adverbs expresses the future. 

AVill be here (close). Par'nii. 

Will be here (more distant). Parito. 

Will be there. Parii/ati. 

Will be yonder. Paroon. 

Ex. Is the man there? {Narii/dn hmja ang tduof) He is not here, he is 
yonder ( ]Vald rito, naroon). Wliere is Captain Tino (Faustino)? {/Sadn 
naroon [or naandoon] SI CapHdn Tinof) In Manila (Ncmi Mmjnild). 
When will he come back? {/Kctilan hahalikf) Possibly within a week 
( Maraliil n(t l.'i(i)u/ lingo) . Who is his agent? {^-Sino ang kaniyang kaliwalaf) 
The Chinaman Ong Laico on Calle Real {Ang insik Ong Laico su'CaUe Real). 
Thank you (Saldmat). 


The personal pronouns in Tagalog should receive careful study, as they 
exhibit several jieculiarities of form and use not found in English. 

All personal pronouns have two genitives, the first form being prefixed 
to the accompanying noun or verb, and the second form suffixed. The 
two forms are not used in the same clause, the second form being preferred 
with the definite form of the verb. However, if the sentence commences 
with an ailverb or negative particle, or is a question, the suffixed forms are 
placed before the verb. 

The first person plural, like nearly all Malayan and Melanesian lan- 
guages, has two forms, the first corresponding to "we" in a general sense, 
and including those spoken to, while the second form, like the editorial 
"we," excludes the person or persons addressed. There are also two 
dual forms, which may be translated "thou and I." These dual forms 
have the same meaning, the first form, kiid, being more general and used 
in INIanila, Kizal, Laguna, Batangas, and Tayabas, while the second form, 
katd, is fcmnd in Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, and the Tagalog-speaking parts of 
Pampanga and Tarlac. Bataan probably follows Bulacan in style, while 
in Cavite the usage is like that of Manila, etc. 

In the use of the personal pronouns together, a very different order is 
observed from P^nglish. The Tagalog order is "I (we), thou (you), and 
he, she (they)," ignoring the European custom of mentioning the listener 
first, the absent or third person next, and the speaker last. The Tagalog 
says "I and you, "I and John," and with the further peculiarity that 
he literally plnralizes the first pronoun and gives the pronoun or noun 
following its genitive form in the correct number. The examples will 
explain the matter more clearly. 

The use of the word "it" is avoided by speakers of Tagalog. It is only 
used when objects are personified, as in stories, etc. See example. 


Nom. I. Ako. 

Gen. Of me; my. ^Hn (prefix) ; Ao (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, with, by me. Sa akin. 


Nom. We (and you). Tayo. 

Gen. Of us; our (and your). Atin (prefix); nalin (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, etc., us (and Saatin. 




Nom. We (not you). 

Gen. Of us; our. 

Other cases. To, for, etc., us. 


Amui (prefix); namin (suffix). 

>Sa arii'in. 



We (thou and I). 

Of us (-we two); our. 

Othercases. To, for, etc., us (we two). Sa kanitd. 

Southern form. Northern form. 

K'lta. Kata. 

Kanitd ( p. ) ; <« ( s. ) . Aid(p.); ta {a.). 

Sa atd. 


Other cases. 

Thou (you). 

Of thee, thy (your). 

To, for, etc., thee. 

Ikdo (prefix); ka (suffix). 
Ii/6 (prefix); mo (suffix). 
>S« iyo. 

The singular forms are still used in Tagalog, and when respect is intended, 
instead of using the plural, as in English, or the third person singular, as 
in Spanish, the particle p6 is suffixed. The plural, also with pa, is used 
in Manila in many cases, but may be said to be an imitation of the Spanish 
vosotros (ye). 

Other cases. 



Of you; your. 

To, for, etc., you. 


Ill 1/6 (prefix); iiiiiyo (suffix). 

Sa inyo. 


Other cases. 

He, she. 

Of him; of her; his; her. 

To, for, etc., him, her. 


Kaniyd (prefix); niya (suffix). 

Sn kaniyd. 

Other cases. 



Of them; their. 

Them (to, for, etc. 


Kanild (prefix) 

Sa kanild. 

n ild ( suffi x ) . 


These are the same as the genitives of the personal pronouns and are 

genei-ally preceded by the article ang. 
the variations: 

My child. 

Thy child. 

His (or her) child. 

Our (of we two) child. 

Our children (all of us). 

Our child (excluding person spoken 


Your child. 
Their child. 

The following examples will show 

{Ang dking anak. 
{Ang aiiak ko. 

{Ang iyong anak. 
Ang anak mo. 
{Ang kaniyang anak. 
Ang anak niyd. 

(Ang kaiiilaiiganak. Ang atang anak. 
\Ang anak ta. 

Aug anak ta. 
ng mangd anak nafin. 

(Ang ating maiTgd anak. 
\Ang maiu/d anak nc 
(Ang anting anak. 
{Ang anak nainin. 
(Ang inyoiig anak. 
\Ang anak ninyo. 
(Aug kanilang anak. 
{Ang anak nild. 


The genitive forms of the personal i)ronouiis used without a following 
noun are expressed with the article prefixed to the first genitive: 

Mine. Ang akin. 

Thine (yours). Ang iyo. 

His; hers. Avg kaniyd. 

Ours. Ang atin {incl.) ; ang amin (excl) . 

Yours. Ang inyo. 

Theirs. Ang kanild. 

The oblique cases with sa and the article also express this idea in Taga- 
log; as, Mine, Ang sa akin. 

Examples of two pronouns, or a pronoun with a noun: 

Heand I (lit. "we of hiiu"). Kaminiyd. 

He and his father (they and his Sild nang kaniyang amd. 

John and I (we of John). Kami ni Juan. 

You and they (you of them). Kayo nild. 

You and we (we of you). Kami ninyo. 

In Manila and large towns these forms are dying out of use, the Spanish 
style being used; as, John and 1 {Si Juan at aku). 

To avoid the use of sii/d, "it," to indicate an inanimate object, the word 
itself is repeated, or in answering a question a particle like m/a (certainly) 
is used. Ex.: ^Malniti hagd ang lakatdn [a species of banana]? (Is the 
lakatan good?) Malmfi iTga (Certainly [it is] good). 

The third person plural is used to indicate great respect for a person, 
coupled with ])6, and for still greater respect the word kamahalan (ex- 
cellency) is used. Your excellency ( Ang inyong kamaJialan). 


This name is applied to several adverbs, and also to some words which 
by themselves have no signification, which, added to pronouns, give them 
an intensive or indefinite meaning. The following are the ones most gen- 
erally used. None begin a sentence except kayd. 

Self; selves. Din. (i?in after preceding vowel.) 

Perhaps. Bagd. (Generally with indef. verb.) 

Perhaps; for that. Kayd. ( May begin sentence. ) 

Also. Man. 

Also. Man din. (Southern Tagalog only.) 

Now. Na. (No meaning alone. ) 

Certainly. Nga. 

Certainly. ^gani. (Southern Tagalog; Bicol, 

gnani. ) 

Yet. Pa. 

Actually! Is that so! Paid. (Idea of wonder inherent. ) 

At; in; to; for, etc. Sa. (Greatly used word.) 

Own. Sarin. 

Enough now; plenty. Siyd na. 

Ex.: Akorin; akoman (I myself). Siyd iTga{h.e, certainly). Ikdo man 
(you also). Ang sarili kong cabayo (my own horse). 06 tTija (yes, cer- 
tainly). Hindi iiga {no, mdeed) . 

The particle man attached to an interrogative pronoun converts the lat- 
ter into an indefinite pronoun. Ex.: Anuman (anything; something). 
Alinman (whichever; whatever). Sinoman (whoever). Sinomang Iduo 
(anyone whomsoever). 

These particles follow the monosyllabic pronouns, but precede the pro- 
nouns of more than one syllable, unless the latter begin the sentence, in 
which case the particle follows, as with a monosyllabic pronoun. 



Besides ano))ian, alinman, and sinoman, there are several words which 
may be used at times as indefinite pronouns, and at other times with 
adverbial force. One of these is hdkun/, which can lie used for "some, any, 
and each." Ex.: Bdlang drao (someday). Ang bdlang tduo (any man). 
Sa hdlavg Im (for each one). 

The numeral im (one), prefixed to words like drao (day), and tduo 
(man) gives the idea of "one day; a certain man," etc. It is also used 
with demonstrative pronouns as follows: Itong iad (this one); diydn sa isd 
(to that other); doon sa isd (to that other yonder). Isd may be said to 
mean "other" among a few persons or objects, and the word ihd to desig- 
nate "other" among many. Ihang tduo (another man completely) ; ibang 
bdgay (another thing entirely). 

Tanan, dilan, and jmiia mean everj'one, "all" (persons). "All" (the 
adjective) is lahat. 


These pronouns, which in English are expressed by "which," "that," 
" who," etc., are expressed very obscurely inTagalogby means of the article 
ang, and the ties g, ng, and 7(0. The Tagalog also has a negative relative 
pronoun di, translated by "who not," "which not," "that not." Ex.: 

He who is well Vjehaved is esteemed by all. Aug inabuting dsal ag minuma- 

lial nang lahnt. 

The book which you are reading is mine. Aug librong binabasa. mo'y dkin. 

I did not receive the letter that you sent Dl ko tinangap ang sulat na ipi- 

to me. nadald mo sa akin. 

The man who does not disobey the laws Ang tduong dl siiniasalansaiig 

will be protected in his rights. ipagtatangol nang katuiran. 

The phrase "each other" is expressed by the particle nagka or magka, 
together with the appropriate noun or pronoun. Ex.: Do they under- 
stand each other? /Naghikaabmi sild (from alam)?. 

The principal difficulty the student of Tagalog will experience here will 
be in the use of the exclusive and inclusive forms of the first person plu- 
ral. The dual forms are little used in the nominative, but are quite fre- 
quently heard in the oblique and accusative cases. As has been remarked, 
these exclusive and inclusive forms are to be found in nearly all the 
Malayan languages, while in some of the allied ]\Ielanesian tongues, such 
as that of Fiji, the second and third persons have not only a dual, but a 
triple form, in addition to the ordinary plural. The Fijian first person has 
also the dual and triple forms, each of which are divided into an inclusive 
and exclusive form. 

Section Three. 

As has been previously explained, Tagalog root words may be used as 
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in many cases, either by the context 
or particles affixed or suffixed. Naturally the noun is generally the sim- 
plest form, especially the concrete noun, but secondary or derivative 
nouns may be quite complicated in their construction. The noun is inva- 
riable in form, number being expressed by the word riuuTjjd, or such words 
as "all," "many," etc., for the plural. Cases are expressed l)y the article 
or prepositions, and no gender is known. A great many connnon nouns 
in Tagalog are derived from the Spanish, a few from Chinese, and some 
from Arabic and Sanskrit sources. All Tagalog nouns may be used with 
the article. 

The words for meals and some articles of food, cooking utensils, etc., 
vegetables, and fruits not previously mentioned are: 




Midday meal. 

Afternoon lunch. 


Meat or fish. 


Salted fish sauce. 

Salty or sour sauce. 

Ang almuftaJ (Sp., almuerzo). 

Angtanghalinn ( tanghalt, midday ) . 

Ang mininrktl {Sp., merienda). 

Ang liapunan {hapon, afternoon). 

Ang via m (Sp., vicmda). 

Ang sahdo. 

Ang paiis. 

Ang Haumuan. {Sum/niKiiK means to 
dip any viand into li(|ni(l. The 
word " chowchow," so often 
heard, is Cantonese or Hongkong 
"pigeon English " for food.) 

Ang acliaru (Sp., achia, from Hin- 
dustani, achar, pickles). 

A)ig inihao. (Umihao means "to 
roast or bake".) 

Ang )))niigd hita nang palakn. 

Lantdii nang biik. 

Lamdti nung usd. 

Laman nang habuy damo; lariidu nang 

Ang Inbuyo. 

Ang itik. 


Aug gansd (Sansk., ha.m.'ia, not from 
Sp. gnnm, a goose). 

Ang paro real (Sp. ). 

Ang para (Sp. ). 

Ang kalajKiti (Sansk. pardpdtl; old 
Tag., palapali). 

Ang hatohato nmnti. 

Ang fialonibalonan (from balon, a 

well; dim. ). 

A)ig (day. 

Ang pa so. 

Ang c/a /or/ (commonest lish in Luzon ; 

The following fish are much eaten in Luzon, and, having no English 
names, the Spanish names are given instead: 

Pickles (bamboo sprouts, etc.). 

Roasted or ))aked meat or fish ( what 

baked or roasted). 
Frogs' legs. 
Sucking pig. 
Wild pork. 

The jungle fowl. 

The duck. 

The tree duck (Dendrocggna). 

The goose. 

The peacock. 
The turkey. 
The ])igeon. 

The dove. 
The gizzard. 

The liver. 

The heart. 

The mudfish; walking fish. 

The pampano {Scatophagus). 
The stiVjalo (Caranx). 
The corvina ((MeochHu.s). 
The liza. 
The boca-dulce. 

The sea products eaten are: 

The oyster. 

The shell of a clam, etc. 

The lobster. 
The crab. 
The small crab. 
The shrimp. 

The mongo. 
The radish. 
The eggplant. 

Ang kilang (best fish in Luzon). 
Ang butTgon (large fish, common). 
Ang apdhap. 
Ang bdnak. 
Ang nunnall. 

Ang tabdjd. 

Ang kabibi. {Macabebe is said to 
mean "Where there are clams," 
Pampangan dialect.) 

Ang n/a)ig. 

Ang alimamjo. 

Ang alimasag. 

A )ig h ipon. ( Bilarang-hipon, village, 
northeast of Manila, "shrimp- 
drying place.") 

Ang gulag. 

Ang baldtong. 

Ang Iqbanos (Sp., rabano). 

Ang (along. 



Aiig (jahl. 

Ang mnn, Arawak ( Indian) 

Ang duhat. 

Ang bayahas. 

Ang dagitp. 

Ang manmnas (Sp., manzana). 

Ang pakudn. 

Aug tagn pamjosina. 

Ang pimighdutoan (from lutu, cook- 


Ang sllid na kahinan. 

Ang Icaldii; ang dapoj. 

Ang palai/ok. 

Ang anglit. 

Ang kating-an. 

Ang kawali. 

Ang ihaoan (from umihao, to roast). 

Ang hdiTgd; ang galong. 

Ang tdhn. 

Ang mankok. 

Ang saro (Sp., jarro). 

{Ang ])alaasinan (from asi», salt). 
Ang .sow//: (without cover). 
Ang tuntong. 
Ang bithay. 
Ang bUdo. 
Ang bdkdl. 
Ang (tpiiy. 
Ang am (accent distinguishes from 

aso, dog). 
Ang kdJtoy iiaiig paiTgatong. 

The names for parts of a house, household furniture and articles, and 
ordinary tools, are given in the following list. Many of these names are 
borrowed from the Spanish language: 

The house. Ang W/m»/ (possibly Sansk., r«/fl.!/f', 

an inciosure, through [Malay, hdlei, 
hall, court; ))ut the Hawaiian is 
hale, and there are similar words 
in other Polj'nesian dialects). 

Ang silid. 

Ang paliguan (lit., "loathing place" ). 

Ang aunon (Sp. word). 


Ang ptntoaii. 

Ang linib; ang durinTt/auau (from 
diau/ao, to appear at the window); 
ang bintana (Sp.) . 

Ang hagddn. 

The gabe root. 
The peanut. 

The lomboy (fruit). 

The guayava. 

The lime. 

The apple. 

The watermelon. 

The cook. 

The kitchen (cooking place). 

Crumbs; scraps. 

The dining room. 

The tireplace. 

Earthen cooking pot (medium size) 

Small earthen pot. 

Large earthen pot. 

The frying pan. 

The gridii'on (})roiler). 

The pitcher. 

Earthen pitcher. 

The bowl. 

The jug. 

The saltcellar. 

The pot cover. 
The sieve. 
The bamboo tray. 
The l)asket. 
The tire. 
The smoke. 

The (irewood. 

The room. 
The bathroom. 
The water-closet. 
The door. 
The doorway. 
The window. 

The ladder (stairway). 

The step (round of ladder). 

The balcony. 

The post or pillar. 

The kitchen platform. 

The roof. 

The gable. 

The gutter pipe. 

The corner. 

The window sill. 

The balustrade. 

Ang hailaiig. 

Ang tanauan (lit., "watchtower" ). 

Ang haligi. 

Ang bataldn. 

Ang biibtmg. 

Ang b'llisbisan. 

Ang alaJitd. 

Ang mink. 

Ang palab(d)ahdn. 

Ang (jnyabndn. 



The prop (against winds). 
The partition (wall). 
The houHehold furniture. 
The chair. 

The table. 

The clothes press (or cupboard). 

The bed. 

The quilt. 

The pillow. 

The head (of a bed). 

The niosijuito net. 

The wash basin. 

The water. 

The soap. 

The towel. 

Tlie tooth brush (foreign). 

The tooth brush (native). 

The clothes brush. 

The pail or bucket. 

The night vessel. 

The trunk. 

The valise. 

The kev. 

The padlock. 

The lock. 


The needle. 

The pin. 

Silk thread. 

The scissors. 

The thimble. 

The eyeglasses or spectacles. 

The picture; image. 

The household shrine. 

Wick for cocoanut-oil lamp. 

Cocoanut-oil lamp. 

The lamp (old name). 



The flint. 

The steel. 

The tinder. 

Rice mill (hand). 

The rice mortar. 

The rice pestle. 
The small mortar. 
The small pestle. 

The broom. 

The mop (cloths) 
The razor. 

The sadiron (flatiron). 

Auf/ sultay. 

Aug dingding. 

Ang kasankapan sa bahaj/. 

Ang uupan (from amitpo, to sit 

Aug Idtnesa ( Sp. , r/ie-sa). 
Aug sitiqxmtm. 
Aug ])('tpag; ang cama (Sp. ). 
Ang komot. 
Ang unan. 

Ang ololidn; ang olondn. 
Ang kulambo. 
Ang hilamusan. 
Ang tuhig. 

Ang sabon (Sp., jabon). 
Ang cepiUo nang m^ipin {cepillo, Sp. 

for "brush"). 
Ang sipan. 

Ang cepillo nang damit. 
Ang tlmbd. 

Ang ihidn; ang orinoht (Sp. ). 
Aug rahdji. 

Ang tainpipt; ang takbd. 
Ang nisi (Chinese, sosi). 
Ang candado (Sp. word). 
Ang cerrad'ura (Sp. word). 
Sinulid, (spun, from sulid, spin). 
Ang kardyum. 
Ang aspiler (Sp., aljiler). 
Sinulid na sutld (Sansk., siitra) . 
Ang guniing. 
Ang dedal (Sp. word). 
Ang mlainin sa rnatd. 
Ang luranun. 
Ang altar sa bdhaij. 
Ang tinsim (from Chinese iientsim). 
Ang tinghoy (from Chinese). 
Ang sombo; ang simbo [I.'aodn now 

Apuyan; posporos {Sp., Josforos). 
Ang puyosan (similar to those of 

North American Indians). 
Ang pingkian; ang panliiTijan (local). 
Aiig binalon. 
Ang lulog. 

Ang gilingan (from gding, to grind). 
Ang lusong (said to be origin of 

"Luzon," but improbable). 
Ang halo. 

Ang lusonghisotTigan. 
Ang kamay (lit., "the hand" or 

Ang walls (verb walls means "to re- 
Ang paiTgoskos. 
Ang pangdhit (from dJui, to shave; 

also called ang labasa, from Sp. 

navaja, razor). 
Ang j)rinsa (Sp., la prensa, the 




The hook. 
The clothesline. 

The tahlecloth. 

The gaff (used in cock fighting). 

The bird whistle. 

The rope. 

The twine. 

Chinese twine. 

The wire. 

The chain (iron or gold, etc.). 

Yard (of house). 


Plant (any sown plant except rice) 

The hoe. " 

The sickle. 

The shovel. 

The spade. 

The pincers 

The vise. 

The wrench 

' small ) . 

( from jiokpok, to 

The tongs. Ang sipit. 

The balance. Ang timbamjan (from timbang, a 

weight); also ang talaro (local 

Ang pangalaml, 
A)ig sanipin/an (from sampcn/, to hang 

out clothes). 
Ang mantel (Sp. word). 
A ng tari. 
Ang pangati (used to lure or decoy 

Ang lubid. 
Ang pid. 

Ang kauad; ang kauar (rare) . 
Ang tanikald (old word, talikala). 
liahayan (lit., "house place "). 
Halamanan (lit., " plant place"). 
A ng asarol. 
Ang kdrit. 

Ang panalok (from salnk, to stir up). 
Ang pala (Sp. word). 
Ang tiani (Chinese word). 
Ang goto (Sp. word). 
Ang painihit nang tormUo{\it., "screw 

Ang lagari. 
Ang pamokpok 

strike) . 
Ang pidhao. 
Ang palakol. 
Ang kalam. 
Ang x>ait. 
Ang panghutas. 
A.iig piisod. 
Ang kikil. 
Ang lalikdn. 
Ang palihan. 
Ang tulos. 
Ang kalo. 
Ang panghiknat. 
Ang dards. 

Ang panukat (from si'ikat, to meas- 
Ang piko (Sp. , picn ) . 
Ang palapakt. 
jAng araro (Sp., arado). 
(Ang sudxud. 
Ang ugit. 
Ang sugud (also means "fine 

comb") . 
Ang punntik{iTom pitik, to snap with 

a line). 
Ang pand. 
Ang pal ay an. 

Practically all names connected with horses are Spanish, as that animal 
was introduced by the Spaniards, and the Spanish terms are understood 
throughout the Tagalog region. The following words, however, are useful 
in connection with feeding animals: 

The saw. 
The hammer. 

The hatchet. 
The ax. 
The i)lane. 
The chisel. 
The auger. 
The gimlet. 
The file. 

The wood turner. 
The anvil. 
The stake. 
The i)ulley. 
The lever. 
The adze. 
The rule. 

The pick. 

The painter's or carpenter's scaffold 

The plow. 

The beam. 
The plowshare. 

The guiding cord. 

The yoke. 
The rice field. 



Forage; grass. 

Rice and rife straw. 

MolasHes (also honey). 

Shed; shelter. 

Stable with ^teaked roof. 

Sacate; ihonu (Sp., zacnle). 


Pulot (much fed to native ponies). 



Nearly all names of edifices are also Spanish, l)ut a few are native, or 
have been invented from other words. Among them are: 

( water or steam 

Ang simhnlian (from hIihIki, to hear 
inass; samba, to adore or worship ) . 
Aug ti'llniiial (Sp. word). 
Aug cscncia (Sp. word). 
Bulla If riang aralan (from aral, to 
teach; to learn). 
Aug kiniia/ig 
Angbigamii (from bigds, hulled rice). 

Ang (ililmin. 

Aug aliikan (from alak, wine). 
Ang apugan (from cipiig, lime). 
Ang dampa; ang kubii; ang saiiong 

(mountain term). 
Ang cam po sanln (Sp. ); ang libitTijan 

(Tagalog word also means 

Ang sahinigan (from sabung, to fight 

with gamecocks.) 
Ang laagsaiTijan. ■ 
Ang ddan. 

Ang ludnas; agtas (narrow trail). 
Bolaos; onog; bagnos. 
Ang pilapil. 

Ang bukirdn; ang hacienda (Sp. ). 
Tubigan (from tilbig, water). 
Ang tuiay. 

Ang inlay na kaicayan. 
Ang tiibdlinn (from tubo, sugar cane). 
Ang bi'ikiil. 
Ang ]>adali(i/an. 
Ang bUaiTijuun. {Bilibidisihe Manila 

prison only. ) 
A7ig baniayan (from iari/a//, guard) . 
Ang tatagudn. 
Ang patTijao. 
Ang sdnog. 
Ang alijmto. 
Ang siga. 
Ang niogan. 
Ang karurukan. 
Ang labangdn. 
Ang saliig. 

Words ])ertaining to tlie office are generally Spanish, although a few 
are used of native origin. The most useful are: 

The church. 

The townhall. 

The schoolhouse. 

The warehouse. 
The rice mill 

The sugar mill. 
The distillerv. 
The limekiln. 
The hut. 

The cemetery. 
The cockpit. 

The street. 

The road. 

The trail or path. 

Trail (of animal). 

The dyke. 

The plantation. 

Irrigated land. 

The briilge. 

The band)oo l)ridge. 

The sugar-cane field. 

The field; the country. 

The ditch. 

The jail or prison. 

The guardhouse or sentry box. 

The asylum. 

The stocks. 

The fire (conflagration). 

The spark. 

The bonfire (signal fire). 

The cocoaimt grove. 

The corral or inclosure. 

The manger. 

The floor. 


Desk (writing). 





Opisina ( Sp. , oficina ) . 

Sulatdn; escritorio (Sp. ). 

Libi-o (Sp. ). 

B'lblioteca (Sp.). 

Si'dat (from Arabic s'ural, a chapter 

of the Koran). 
Panulat; plumn (Sp. ). 



Red Ink. 


Letter carrier. 
Telegrapli office. 

Messenger (orderly). 
Paper (in general). 

Blotting sand (fine). 

Blotting paper. 

The globe (world). 

The earth (ground). 

The mountain. 

IMountain country. 

The precipice. 

The hill. 

The crack; crevice. 

The cave. 

The wilderness. 

The hole. 

The prairie; pasture, meadow. 

The forest; timber. 

The bush; the brush. 

The bamboo thicket. 

The reedy ground. 

The rocky place (quarry). 

The thorn bush. 

The muddy country. 

The spring. 

The stream; l)rook. 

The river. 

Source of river. 

The bank. 

Bank of river or seashore. 

The pool. 

The pond. 

The swamp; slough. 

The ravine or gulch. 

Tidewater creek. 

Deep (unlordable) river. 

The depth. 

The shallowness (of river) 

The ferry. 

The ferryboat or raft. 

The bend (of river). 

Hole (in river). 

The waterlall.w 

The whirlpool. 

The bottom (of river). 

Muddy bottomed. 

Jjipix; lapiz (Sp. ). 
Tmta (Sp. ). 
Tiiilmuj piila. 
j Fudalaltan (from ddln, to carry). 
\C'07-reo (Sp. ). 
Administracion de. correos (Sp. ). 
Magdadidd uangsntat; cartero (Sp. ). 
Eslacion de ii'lrgrafox ( Sp. ) . 
Telegranxi (Sp. ). 
Sugo; Ordenaiiza (Sp. ). 
Maqidna de esrrihir (Sp. ). 
Papel (Spanish heavy paper, papel 

de barba). 
Margaha (Sp., common sand is bu- 

hangin. Tag. ). 
Papel secante (Sp.). 
Ang sansinukuban; sandaigdigan. 
Ang litpa. 
Ang bundok. 
Ang kabundukan. 
Ang bdiTi/oi. 
Ang burul ; gulod. 
Ang bitak. 

Ang Inngd; ang yungib. 
Ang Hang. 
Ang bulas. 
Ang parang. 
Ang guhdt. 
Ang d'Dimhan. 
Ang kairai/andn. 
Ang katdlabahdn. 
Ang batohan. 
Ang kalinikan. 

Ang kaputikan (horn piUik, mud). 
Ang bukal nung tubig. 
Ang batis. 
Ang Hog. 
Ang hold. 
Ang parigpang. 
Ang dulaiiipdsig. 
Ang danao [danum, water in Pam- 

pango, llocano, etc.). 
Ang sdlog {sdlog, river in Bicol) . 
Ang l<dl; ang labon {Malabon, 

swampy place). 
Ang ilat. 

Sapa (Sp., estero). 
Hog na nialdlim. 
Ang kataliman. 

Ang mababao na 'dog ( also ' ' ford" ) . 
Ang taunran. 
Ang tabdo. 

Ang likd (also "curve"). 
Lungd (also " cave " ) . 
Ang talon nang (I'tbig. 
Ang niiuli; ang ifniipu; ang alhnpnijo. 
Ang ddinn nang i/og. 
Ang ildlim nang ilog na pulikan. 

a The most famous Tagalog regioa waterfall is that of Botokan, near Majayjay, La 
Laguiia I'rovmee. 



Gravelly or rocky bottom. 

Sandy liottomed. 

Steep bank. 

Low bank. 

The landing place. 

The current. 

Strong current. 

Weak current. 

Very weak current. 

Place where there i.s a strong ('Ui 

The mouth (of a river). 

Aiig il/Uim nang ihg mt baiolidii. 

Ang i/dlim nang Hog iia buhanginun. 

I'angpang na mntarik. 

J'ang/Ming na mahabd. 

Aug dalampasigan. 

A ng agos. 


MaJnnnng agos. 

Mal'ining agos. 


Aug vava (algo "bar. 
means "mouth" also; 

Tagalog is rich in nautical terms, the j)rincipal ones being as follow 

' Sdbaiig 
Licol "«(- 

Ang Idol (Malay, laid). 

Ang ddgut. 




Karagalan (singular in Tagalog). 
D. to R. 

Malaragal. T>. to R. 

Tuhig na dlat. 

Tubig na tabang. 

Ang baybay. 

Ang baiikota. 

Ang bat 6 sa ddgat. 

Ang doongan (also dalainj)a.<iigan). 

Angivawa (also "mouth of a river" ). 

Ang canal (Sp. word). 

Ang parol (from Sp., /aro). 

Aii(/ Loiajos; ang Tanguay is Cavite 
Point only). 
The island. Ang pulo. 

The gulf. A ng vald. 

The bay. Ang look. 

The wave. Ang alon. 

The tide. Ang alagouak {rare); ang marea {i^ii. 

word) . 
High tide. Ang laki. 

Ebb tide. Ang kati. 

The strait. Ang kitid. 

The principal terms for the heavenly bodies, divi-sions of time, points of 
the compass, and meteorological phenomena are as follows: 

The high sea; ocean. 
The sea (in general). 
Lake (large) . 

Everything in the sea. 
The seas themselves. 

Warm water. 

Salt water. 

Fresh water. 

The coast (sea or lake). 

The reef. 

The sunken rock. 

The port; anchorage; landing place 

The bar. 

The channel. 

The light-house. 

The cape; jioint. 

The sun; the day. 

The moon; the month. 

The year. 

One year. 

Every year. 

Each year. 


New moon. 

Full moon. 
Old moon. 

Ang drao. ( Bayan is a I'are word for 
"day." Ex.: maldlim ang bayan, 
midday or a great day.) 

Ang budn. 

Ang taon. 



Manaon; niamanadn. 


Bagong budn. 
(Kabilngan nang budn. 
\P(dabang budn (rare). 
i Kamatayan nang budn. 
\Bvgtong (rare). 




The s^tar. 

Venus; the evening star. 

The Pleiades; the seven stars. 

The niorninii star. 

The shooting star. 

The comet. 

The sky. 

The break of day. 

The dawn. 

The morning. 


Afternoon (evening). 


The daylight; sunlight. 




Day before yesterday. 

A few days ago. 

After a while. 

(Three) days ago. 

(Ten) days ago. 

One week. 

Every week, weekly (adv.). 

Ang drno. 

Any h'lluin. 

Taufjlao dagal (lit., "light of tlie 

Ang lala. 
Ang bnlnlakao. 
Ang hitidn may hunlol. 
Ang laiTgil. 
Ang liv-ayu'ag. 
Ang madaUng drao. 
Ang umaga; uga. 

Ang tmujliali (Malay, ((UigaJi-ari). 
Ang hapon. 
Ang gahi. 

Ang s'lnag nang drao. 
Ang sinag nang budn. 

"days ago. 
Isang lingo (corruption of Sp. 

mingo, Sunday). 

{Kamaka expresses 

The names of the days are Spanish, Sunday being called Lingo, corrupted 
from Domingo. Lingo is also used for "week." The word "minute" is 
also taken from Spanish, and the word for hour is a corruption of the 
Spanish word Jtora. The names of the months, days, and other divisions 
of time from Spanish are given below for convenience of the student. 



















The month of January. 








The beginning. 

The middle. 

The end. 

The hour. 

Watch; clock. 

Half hour. 








Ang buang enero. 

Lingo (from Sp., domingo). 







Aug rindd. 

Ang pagitan. 

Ang katapnsan; ang hawydn. 

Ang oras (from Sp., hora). 


Kalnhating orax. 

Minuto. (Sp. word). 




The dry season. 
Tlie wet season. 
The daylight. 

The darkness. 

The north. 

The east. 

The south. 

The west." 

The northeast wind. 

Wind or air. 

The weather. 


The heat. 
The cold. 

The earthquake. 

The dew. 

The earth smell. 

The mist or fog. 
The cloud. 

The rain. 
The drizzle. 

A hard shower. 

The inundation (flood). 

The rainbow. 

The lightning flash. 

The thunderbolt. 

The thunder. 

The storm. 

The hurricane; typhoon. 

The cyclone; tornado. 

The tempest. 

The whirlwind. 

The ice. 

The hail. 

Heavy rain cloud. 
The snow. 

Segundo (>Sp. word). 
Ang tagarao (from drao, sun). 
Aug tagiddn (from ulan, rain). 
Ang kaliv'unagan (from lw:miag, 

light; Ilocano, Laoag, capital of 

Ilocos Norte), noun. 
Aug hadilimdn (from dillm, dark), 

Ang karilimdn. (D. to R. ) 
Ang Idlaga (also "the north wind " ). 
Ang silaiTganan (lit., "rising place," 

sun, etc.). 
Ang liahdgat {a.ho "the south wind" ). 
Avg kfdtiiiuran (from lunod, drown). 
Ang ain'ilinn. 
Aug JuiiUjin. 
Aug iHOuthon. 
Kapanahouan ; also musiu. [Kujki- 

nahonan also means "opportu- 
nity," in some cases.) 
Ang iuit. Heat (abstract), Kainitan. 
Ang laviig. Cold (abstract), l-aUuul- 

Aug Hndol. 
Ang huuiog. 
Ang allmoom. 

rain. ) 
Ang ulap. 
Ang alapadp. 

(Smell of earth after 

Ang uldn. 
Ang ambdn. 

Rare words arelawnuja, 
a little rain; lawa- 
/o«a, a drizzle; anuta, 
moderate steady rain ; 
tikati k,gent\ii, contin- 
uous rain, and louruk, 
a rain with great 


Isang hagsd nwug uldu. 

Ang buhd. 

Ang bahaghari (lit., "the king's 

Ang kldlat. 

Ang lintik. 

Ang kidog. 

Aug ouos. 

Aug bagyd. 

Ang bohaui. 

Aug Kigwd. 

Ang ipoipo. 

Ang hielo (Sp. word. Also tidng 
na bat 6 malamig or "cold-stone 

Ang granizo {Sp. word; rare in Philip- 

Ang goot (rare). 

Ang niece (Sp. word; known from 
books only). 

a As the Tagalogs were originally sea rovers, the heavenly bodies sunk in the .«ea to 
them, so they say, the "drowning place" for the west. 



Navigation was considerably developed by the Tagalogs prior to the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and a considerable maritime vocabulary developed. 
The words in ordinary use are: 

The vessel. 

The sail. 

The art of sailing; navigation. 

Anyone aboard. 

Sailor; mariner. 


The rudder. 

The compass. 

The mast. 

The yard. 
The outrigger. 
The bow. 
The stern. 
The boat pole. 
The paddle. 
The paddler. 

The oar. 

The oarsman; rower. 




The cover (of boat or canoe). 

The canoe. 

The prau. 

Political and natural subdivisions are as follows, in so far as they pertain 
to social relations: 

Aug sasaki/un. 

Aug layag. 

Ang paglaldi/ag. 

Ang saka>/ (formerly "oarsman," 

"paddler" ). 
Tagdragat (lit., "sea dweller"). 
Malhn {Arabic); jyrdctico (Sp.). 
Ang ugit. 

Ang brujula (Sp. ). 
Ang palo (Sp. word); (Dig sundong 

Ang hatangan (Batangas Province). 
Ang katig. 
Ang doong. 

Ang liuli nang snf^akydn. 
Ang tikbi. 
Ang sagwdn. 
Ang mananagii'An (S. to N. ); (Fil. 

Sp., bnnquero). 
Ang gdod. 
Aug maiujagdod. 
Ang pagaagicdn. 
Ang pag-gdnd. 

Aug paglndin (Chinese word, Uu). 
Ang karang. 
Ang hangkd. 
Ang parao. 

The Philippine Islands. 
The Visayan Archipelago. 
The Tagalog country. 
The Visayan region. 
The province. 

The jurisdiction (of a municipality. 

The court. 

The town. 

The town proper. 

The fellow-townsman. 

The house. 

The neighbor. 

The settlement; hamlet. 

The barrio (ward). 

The head man of a barrio. 

The mayor; alcalde. 
The secretary. 

The treasurer. 

Ang kapuluan Fillpinas. 

Ang kapuluan Bisagd. 

Ang katagahigan. 

Ang kabisnydan. 

Ang lalau-igan (formerly this word 

meant "anchorage," "port"). 
Ang sdkop. 

Ang hokuman (from hokom, a judge; 
Arabic hakim, doctor, philoso- 
pher, judge). 

Ang bayan (including the rural l)ar- 
rios) . 

Ang kabayanan (excluding rural l)ar- 

An 'J kababayan. 

Ang bahay. 

Ang kapidbdhay. 

Ang nayon (Sp., sitio). 

Ang baraiTijay (old word for vessel). 
Ang jjulo nang baraiTgay. 
Ang cabeza nang baraiTgay (Sp. 
term ) . 

Ang preddente; ang capitdn (Sp.). 

Ang secretario sa bayan; ang kalihini. 
{Liftim means "a secret." ) 

Ang tesorero; ang taga i)ujat yanian 
(lit., the " wealth guarder"). 



Tlie chief of the town. 

The upper part (of town, river, 

Aug saiujuni(tn hnynn (old name for 
the civic head of a town). 

Avg ilaga (lower part of same is ang 

The terms for metals, mineral^*, are mainly native, one or two having a 
foreign origin. They are: 


Si I ver. 




The loadstone (magnet). 


Tin. ' 


Gold and copper (alloy). 



Tortoise shell. 


P'llak {Iyovo. peruk , Malayan). 



Patiilim (from talhn, an edge). 

Aug hatohalani . 

Tingd (from Sanskrit, tUra, tin). 

Tingaputl (lit., "white lead" ). 

Azogue (Sp. ). 

Tiunbaga (from bnga, anything red- 
hot; some say from Sansk. tdmra). 


Gdring (Malay, gad'ing; orig. 

Balong tagisan. 




Sanyaua ( rare ) ; uzufre ( Sp. ) . 

The ordinary terms used bv fishermen are: 

Casual fisher. 

The fisherman (trade). 

The fish ])ole. 

The fish line or line. 

The liook. 

The bait. 

The net (small). 

The seine; large net. 

The fish trap. 

Wicker basket for catching fish. 

The arrow. 

The bow. 

The principal jiarts of the human 
animal bodies, are named as follows: 

The head. 

The body, the person. 

The bone. 

The fiesh. 

The ])lood. 

The pulse. 

The skin. 

The pore. 

The skull. 

The brain. 

The nerve. 

The vein. 

The membrane. 

The hair (of the head). 

Ang mangisdd (from isdu, a fish). 
Ang mamhninuit (from binuit, a 

Ang manghTgisdd. 
Ang balhvdsan. 
Ang pisi. 

Ang tagd (large); ang binuit (small). 
Ang pain. 
Ang dala. 
Aug pukot. 
Ang baklad. 
Ang bobo. 

Ang palasu; ang pand (Sansk, rdna.) 
Ang busog. 

body, together with some terms for 

Ang lUo. 

Aiig katauan (from tauo, human l)e- 

ing, person). 
Ang buto. 
Ang Jamdn. 
Ang dngo. 
Ang sanhi. 
Ang balat. 

Aug kildbot nang balat. 
Ang biuTijo. 
Ang lUak. 
Ang I it id. 
Ang ngat. 
Ang Idmad. 
Am/ bnhok. 





Hair (pubic). 

The crown of tlie head. 
The temple. 
The forehead. 
The evebrow. 
The eyelid. 

The eyelash. 

The eye. 

The pupil of the eye. 

The white of the eye. 

The tear duct. 

The nose. 

The lip. 

The mouth. 
The chin. 
The cheek. 
The mustache. 
The beard. 

The tongue. 
The ear. 
The tooth. 
The molar. 
The gum. 
The hard palate. 
The soft i)alate. 
The throat. 
The larynx. 

The lower jaw. 

The stomach. 

The intestine. 

The anus. 

The neck. 

The nape of the neck. 

The shoulder. 

The shoulder blade. 

The arm. 

The hand. 

The palm. 

The linger. 

The thumb. 

The index finger. 

The middle finger. 

The ring finger. 

The little finger. 
The wrist. 

The elbow. 
The nail. 
The knuckle. 
The armpit. 
The breast. 
The bosom. 
The rib. 

Bulbiil. (Body hair or feathers, 

Aug hiitnhunaii. 
Aug jiiUpimn. 
Aug nod. 
Aug ViJaii. 
Ang hubong nang mati'i (lit., the roof 

of the eye). 
Ang pilikmatd. 
Ang mat&. 
Ang halintatao. 
Ang bilig nang mata. 
Ang dalogan nang luJin. 
Aug Hong. 
Aug I'ibi (probablv from Sp., Jabio, 

Ang bibig (Malay, bihir, lip). 
Ang baba (Sp., barfxi, chin). 
Ang pifi)~gi. 

Ang bigote (Sp. ; old word, ini^ay). 
Ang barbas (Sp. ; old words, guml, 

baaug, ymTijot). 
Ang Wild. 
Ang Idiiu/a. 
Ang iH/ipin. 
Ang bagcing. 
Ang giU'igid. 
Ang iTgalangcda. 
Ang gidil. 
Atig lal((mnna)i. 

Ang grdnng-gidioTgan (dim. of gu- 
lling, a wheel). 
Aug sdutng. 
Ang .'iikmura. 
Ang bituka. 
Aug tmnboug. 
Ang liig. 
Aug bi'itok. 
Aug bdlikdt. 
Ang balagat. 

Aug baraso (from Sp., brazo). 
A)tg kauiag (also "arm"). 
Ang palud nang kamaij. 
Aug dalin. 
Ang liudalaki. 
Ang Idntuturu {Iroin tuturo, Xo point 

Ang data (the chief, dattn; Malay, 

datoh, grandfather). 
Ang .txsuoldng .vngsing (from su.^u(it, 

to put on). 
Ang kaViugkiiTijau. 
Ang gidanggalaiTjja)! (from gakuTljan, 

Ang siko. 
Aug kvko. 

Ang Jinko nang dalin. 
Aug killkili. 
Ang dihdlh. 

A)lfl SllSil. 

Aug ladiang. 



The si<le. 

Any iagUiran. 

Tlie iRart. 

Any puso. 

The lung. 

Any bagd. 

The back. 

Any likod. 

The spine. 

Any yuluyod. 

Tlie thorax. 

Any a an. 

The abdomen. 

Any puson. 

The waist. 

Any bdywany. 

Tiie nnibilicus. 

Any pusod. 

The lap. 

Any kcuidunyan. 

The liver. 

Any (day. 

Tlie trail bladder. 

Any apdo. 

The kidney. 

Any bato. 

The bliidder. 

Any panloy. 

The womb (uterus). 

Any bdhay batd (lit, "child house" ). 

The t)lacenta. 

Any inunan. 

The vulva. 

Any puqui. 

The ))enis. 

Any till. 

The testicle. 

Any bai/ay. 

The frroin. 

Any sliTylt. 

The hip. 

Any balakany. 

The l)uttock. 

Any ply I. 

The thijrh. 

Atiy hild. 

The leir. 

Any blnti. 

The knee. 

Any tdhod. 

The calf. 

Any (dak-alakdn. 

The shin. 

Any lo/od. 

The foot. 

Any pad (Sansk., pada) . 

The heel. 

Any sdkony. 

The ankle. 

Any bukonybukony. 

The sliinbone; the tibia. 

Any bias iiany binll. 

The sole of the foot. 

Any talamixikan. 

Some of the ordinary diseases 

known to the Tagalogs are named as 


The cholera. 

Any colera (Sp. word). 

The bubonic plague. 

Any peste bubonica (Sp. -word). 

The smallpox. 

Any bidiilony. 

Sickness (illness); pain. 

Any sa kit. 

The relapse. 

Any bhiat. 

The fever. 

Any laynat (Sp., calentura) . 

The chills. 

Any pangiki. 

The headache. 

Any sakit nany ulo. 


Any kabulaydn (from hnldy, a ))lind 

person ) . 


Any kabirTyihdn (from bhTi/l, a deaf 



Any kapllaydn (from pdaij, a lame 

person) . 


Any ktiplplhan (from jiipt, a dmub 

person) . 


Any kaololdn (from olol, an insane 



Any Iiilo. 

The cough. 

Any ubo. 

The asthma. 

Any liikd. 

The mum)is. 

Any blkl. 

The nosebleed. 

Any Italingoynyoy. 


Any ballsdosdo. 


Any kdbag. 



The swelling; inflaminatiou. 

The discoloration; lividity. 

The cramp. 

The hiccough. 

The corn. 

The wart. 

The foot-sore (similar to chilljlains 

The wound or sore. 

The inflammation of the lymphat 

The boil. 
The pus. 

The Aleppo button (ulcer). 
The pimple. 
The "dhobeitch." 

Articles of clothing have native 
been taken from other languages. 

The clothing; dress. 
The style of dressing. 

The hat. 

The native helmet. 
The coat; shirt. 
The trousers. 

The shoe. 
The drawers. 
The socks. 
The stockings. 
The slippers. 
The skirt. 
The underskirt. 
The petticoat string. 
The apron; overskirt. 
The ruff; neckerchief. 
The handkerchief. 

The ribbon. 
The mantilla. 
The comb. 
The fine comb. 
The button. 

The ring. 

The earring. 

The rosary (beads). 

The scapular. 

The fan. 
The parasol. 
The cane; staff. 
The staff of office. 

The pipe. 

The native pipe (of leaves). 

The coat of mail. 

The breech-cloth; sash. 

from seluar (.\ral)ic), 

Aug jKiiiiamaga. 

A}ifj latdjj. 

Arig pidlkut. 

Ang xiiiok. 

Aug li/iak. 

Aug knlxgo. 
). Aug alijiHiTga. 

A)ig si'igdt. 
ic Avg k'llani. 

Ang pigsn. 

Ang nand. 

Ang agihap. 

A)ig tagiilah'ij/. 

Ang galls (Sp., S(irna). 

names, as a whole, l)ut many have also 
The leading terms are: 

Aug dcnnit. 

Anq pdnanamit (from damit) . (D. 

t'o N. ) 
Ang aomhalllo {irom Sp., somhrero, a 

Ang salakot. 
Ang baro. 
Ang salavdl i 

Aug sapin (lit 
Aug calzonciUos (Sp. word). 
Ang calcelines (Sp. word). 
Ang medias (Sp. word). 
Ang sinelas (Sp., cinnela). 
Ang saga (Sp., saga). 
Ang naguas (Sp., iniagua). 
Ang pamigk'is. 
Ang t a pi ft. 
Ang ahtmpni/. 
Ang ]>any6 (Mex. Span., pano 

Ang liston (Sp. word). 
Ang Imnhong. 
Ang snkhiji. 

Ang myod (also "plowshare"). 
Ang Intone» (irom Sp., boton, a 

Ang singsing (Malay, chinchin). 
Ang hikao. 
Ang auntas (fromSp., cnenta, a l)ead 

of the rosary). 
Ang cahnen (troni Carmen, "Mt. C'ar- 

Ang pnypay. 
Ang pdj/ong. 
Ang tungkod. 

Ang baras (from Sp., vara, yard- 
Airg knako. 
Ayig patnpid. 
Ang biilii.ti. 
Ang bahag. 





The i)riiKii)al parts ul" treet?, ])lants-, etc., are named as below: 

Ang kdhoy (also "wood"). 

The tree. 

The trunk. 
The root. 
The bud. 

The flower. 

The shoot; sprout. 

The branch. 

Luiul)er; wood; timber. 

The leaf. 

The l)ark. 

The sap. 

The fruit. 

Aiig }>uno. 
Ang uga(. 
Aug liuko (also the young ccx-oanut 

Ang hulaklak. 
Ang Ksbong; ang lahong. 
Ang sufiga. 
Any dahon. 
Ang updk. 
A ng galas. 
Ang bnnga 

{Galas is also "milk".) 
(also used for fruit of 
areca palm). 

The terms for cigar, cigarette, and tobacco are of Spanish origin, but the 
practice of chewing betel nut, rolled with the leaf of the betel and spiced 
with slaked lime, has given some native terms. 

The areca nut. Ang hunga (fruit of Areca catechu). 

The betel leaf. Ang itmo (leaf of Piper betel). 

The lime (mineral). Ang tipog. 

The "))uyo" or chew. Ang hitso. 

The nutcracker (long). Ang kaVikul. 

The lime stick. Ang apugan. (Sainewordfor "lime- 

The following list of dignities, professions, and trades, etc., gives the 
principal terms used b}' the Tagalog race: 

The President. 

The governor-general. 

The provincial governor. 

The judge. 

The Pope. 

The archbishop. 

The bishop. 

The priest. 

The general. 

The colonel. 

The lieutenant-colonel. 

The major. 

The captain. 

The lieutenant. 

The second lieutenant. 

The sergeant. 

Tlie corporal. 

The trumpeter (bugler). 

The soldier. 

The king. 

The noljle. 

The noblewoman. 

The gentleman. 

The lady. 

The lawyer. 

The doctor. 

Ang President e sa America. 

A ng gobernador-general. 

Any gobernador .sa lalaidgan. 

Aug hokom (Arabic word). 

Ang papa (Sp. word). 

Ang arzobispo (Sp. word). 

Ang obispo (Sp. word). 

Ang pare (from Sp., padre, a priest). 

Ang general ( Sp. ) . « 

Ang coronel (Sp. ). 

Ang teniente coronel (Sp. ). 

Ang coinandante (Sp. ) (also com- 
manding officer) . 

Ang capitdn (Sp. ). 

Ang leniente (Sp. ). 

Ang alferez. 

Ang sargento (Sp. ). 

Ang cabo. 

Ang corneta (Sp. ). 

Ang sundalo. 

Ang hari. 

Ang gat (equal to Sp., Don). 

Ang dayang (equal to Sp., Bona). 

Ang maginoo (equal to Sp., Serior). 

Aug ginoo (equal to Sp., Seiiora). 

Ang tagapagtangol (from tangol, to 

Ang mangagamot (from gamot, med- 

«All military terms are t;ikeii from Spaiiisli, except a few like hoktm, army, 
is true of naval terms. 

The same 



The ineicliant. 

The seller. 

The Ijuyer. 

The teacher. 

The pupil. 
The preacher. 

The clerk. 

The interpreter; translator. 

The writer. 

The reader (professional). 

The reader (casual). 

The student. 

The i^rinter. 

The chief; head; boss. 

The partner. 

The companion. 

The carpenter (housebuilder). 

The wood sawyer. 

The tailor; dressmaker. 
The shoemaker. 

The butcher. 

The field hand. 
The sower. 

The reaper (crop gatherer). 

The day-laborer. 
The metal founder. 

The smith (any metal). 

The maker of . 

The potter. 

The inventor. 

The peddler. 

The washerman or washer-woman. 

The cook. 

The salt maker. 
The oil maker. 
The weaver. 
The dyer. 
The house servant. 
The collector. 

Aii(/ niaiTi/aiTgaldkal (from Lulitkid, 

AiKj tdfjapaghill (fr(jm hi(iijhl/i, sell- 
ing) • 

A)ig tagapamili (from jinniniiili, 


Aiig inangaaral (from anil, teach- 
ing, etc. ). 

Avg uralan {iro\\\ arid, learning, etc. ). 

Aug maiTijaiTgdral (from ami, teach- 
ing, etc.). 

Aug manunuiat (from si'ihit, letter). 

Aug dalubasa (from f^isa, reading). 

Aug siivnisulat (from Kulat, letter). 

A)ig tugabusa (from h<isa, reading). 

Ang biunabam (from basa, reading). 

Aug iiagadral (from dral, learning, 
etc. ) . 

Aug vianlilimbug (from Ihiibag, 

Aug pliiiikxipuno (from pinw, trunk). 

^\ng hasa )ud ( from mma, association ) . 

Aug kasauia { from sarua, association ) . 

Ang anloague 

Ang manlalagarl (from lagan, a 
saw ) . 

Aug mananahi (from talit, sewing). 

to make). 

Ang mamamataij )iang buca (from 
patai/, to kill). 

Ang Diags^asala (from xaka, to till). 

Aug rnagtatunhu (from tanim, to 

uing mangagapas (from g<ipa.<, to 
cut, reap). 

Ang npahdn (from vj>i(, pay, salary). 

Ang magbububo (from bubo, to cast 

Ang patidai/ (Sansk., pau<h1, science, 

Ang mangagaun uaug (from 

gawd, to make). 

Ang wagpapalai/ok (from puhujok, a 

Ang mapaglahtng (from lahou/, in- 

Aug mjgkdako ( from lako, to peddle). 

Ang tagapaglaba (from Sp., hiv<ir, to 
Ang tagapaglulu (from bdu to cook) . 
Ang tagapangosina ( from '&\).,cucina, 
kitchen) . 

Ang viagaaKin (from asln, salt). 

Ang rnaglalarTgis (from lanTg'ts, oil). 

Ang nianhahabi (from Jiabi, to weave. 

Aug maninina (from tina, to dye). 

Ang alila. 

Ang tugapaniiujil (from >^hTgil, to 
collect, dun). 



The cashier; paymaster. 

The Iiunter (professional). 
The creditor. 

The debtor. 
The bearer. 
The predecessor. 

The successor. 
The heir. 

The grass cutter. 

The nurse. 

The wet nurse. 
The midwife. 
The pawnbroker. 

The beggar. 
The thief. 

The slave. 

Aug tdtjdpagbujjad (from hayud, to 
pay a debt). 

Aug mdiujaiTijaso (from uho, a dog). 

Ang phiitgkakautangan (from t'ltang, 
a debt). 

Aug iwujatang (from ntdng, a debt). 

Ang iiKti/dald (from d(dd, to carrj-). 

Ang hinulinJuni (from halili, to fol- 

Ang kuhalill (from liaUU, to follow). 

Ang iniigmamana (from mana, heir- 

A)ig nutgdadamo (from damo, grass, 
herb ) . 

Ang tagapagalaga (from alaga, to 
care for). 

Ang sisiwa. 

Ang lulot. 

Ang niapagpatubo (from tubo, a 

Ang pulube. 

Ang magnandkao (from nakdo, to 

Ang alipin. 

Section Fouis. 


The adjective is a word used in a grammatical sense to qualify, limit, or 
define a noun, or a word or phrase which has the value of a noun, and it 
expresses cjuality or condition as belonging to something: Thus, "black- 
ness" is the name of a quality and is a noun; "black" means possessing 
blackness and so is an adjective. The adjective is used (1) attributively, 
(2) appositively, and (3) predicatively. Examples, (1) "A good man," 
(2) "A man good and great, (3) " The man is good." 

Equally in Tagalog as in English, this is the meaning of the adjective, 
and owing to the greater fiexibility of the former the construction of such 
words is much more clearly to be seen. Like English, some root words 
are adjectives by intrinsic signification and may be called "simple adjec- 
tives. ' ' Among the simple adjectives are bago ( new ) , mahal (dear, precious, 
noble), hdmak (vile), hunghan (foolish), tahunik (quiet, tranquil), an(l 
iotuo (true). But the greater number of adjectives in Tagalog, as in Eng- 
lish, are compounds formed from roots, which may be sometimes nouns, 
by means of prefixes, infixes, and suffixes like the English suffixes "ly," 
"like" "able," etc., as in "friendly," "childlike," " remarkable," etc. 
The ordinary particle in Tagalog used in the formation of adjectives is the 
prefix ma, undoubtedly a contraction of mai/, to have or possess, as there 
are nouns with which nun/ is still retained with the noun to form an adjec- 
tive. Among such ma adjectives may be mentioned magandd (beautiful), 
from gandd, the root expressing the idea of beauty or good appearance, 
and marunong (wise), from dunong, the root expressing the idea of wisdom. 
It will be observed that 7na, like some other particles softens d to r when 
d commences a word. 

When prefixed to nouns denoting things which may be had or possessed, 
ma denotes an abundance of whatever may be signified by the noun. 
Examples: Si Juan ag niaghitu (John has much gold); masilid ang bdhay 
(the house has many rooms). 

The particle ma has at least nine other functions, which will be explained 
in the appropriate places. 


May is used really as the verb "to have" in the phrase Ako'y may salit 
(I am sick [ill], literally, "I have sickness or pain" ). In asking if a person 
is ill or in pain the verb is sometimes reduplicated; e. g.. May maymkit ka? 
(Are you ill [or in pain]?). 

Ma, adjectives may be conjugated with the definite infix in to exp-^ess 
opinion; e. g., minamarunong ko ito (I think this is wise). Ma is redupii ^ 
cated to express the present tense; minari'mong ko itd would mean "I 
thought this was wise." 

Conjugated with the indefinite particle may (nag in present tense), the 
adjective assumes a verbal form, with the implied idea of boasting or pre- 
tending what may be signified by the root; as, itagmamuranony si Felipe 
(Philip boasts of being wise); nagtnamaganda si Loleng (Dolores [Lola] 
pretends to be beautiful). The idea may also be conveyed by "believes 
himself" (or "herself"), what may be denoted by the root; e. g., "Lola 
believes herself to be beautiful." 

The particle na also forms some adjectives, in which the first syllable of 
the root is generally repeated. These na adjectives also have an indefi- 
nite verbal meaning. Ex.: Xauuhdo (thirsty, to be thirsty), from iihao; 
napagal (tired, to be tired); pagalin (a tired person): vamatay (dead, to 
be dead, from patay). P is here changed to m for euphony. 

Some adjectives are also formed from roots by the prefix rnapag, as 
mapagtuiTgayao (abusive, insulting [words or acts implied]). 

Others are formed by the j)refix mapa; as, mapamansag (boastful, vain- 
glorious, ostentatious), from bavsag, ostentation. B is softened to m. 

The indefinite particles mag and 7iag, when ])refixed to some roots, gen- 
erally with reduplication of the first syllable of the same, form adjectives 
in some cases. Ex.: Magdarayd (fraudulent, cheating), from dayd, the 
initial d being softened to r; and nagiisa (sole unique, only), from isa, one. 

The particle maka, in its signification of cause, forms adjectives similar in 
meaning to those in English ending in "able," "ing," etc., when prefixed 
to roots capal^le of such significations. The first syllable of the root is gen- 
erally reduplicated, but not always. Ex.: Makatotoua (agreeable, pleasure 
causing), from tnua; makatatdua (laughable, comic), from Idiia, and maka- 
sdua (disgusting), iromsdua, etc. 

A few adjectives are formed by the prefixed particles ynala and pala, as 
malahiniiu/a (lukewarm, applied to water), malakoko (quite warm), and 
palaaiidy (quarrelsome), from audy (quarrel, enmity). 

Some adjectives are formed by the reduplication of a root when the I'oot 
has no more than two syllables. If there are more than two syllables the 
first two only are reduplicated. This rule is general in Tagalog. Ex.: 
Ildlohdlo (mixed), from halo, root of the idea "to mix;" sunodsiniod (con- 
secutive), from sunod, root expressing the idea of following, etc. The 
restrictive particle ka is sometimes prefixed to these reduplicated roots, 
implying a lesser degree than with ma or may; as, kaxakitsakit (painful), 
from sakit, root expressing the idea of illness or pain. An example of how 
far a polysyllable is reduplicated is furnished by the word kaginhagi»hdua 
(wholesome, salubrious), iroiw ginhdua, idea of relief, betterment, rest. 

There are a very few adjectives formed by the union of two words of 
opposite meaning, of which urong-sidong (neutral, indecisive), from urong 
(to go back), and sulong (to go ahead), may be taken as the type. 

The particle in [liin alter an acutely accented vowel) suffixed to many 
adjectives gives the idea of a person or object having the quali'y denoted 
by the root. Ex.: Masintahin (a loving person), from sintd, love; (awohin 
(a useful [or available] article), from tamo, use, utility, and babasagin (a 
broken or frail thing), from basag, idea of breaking, fracturing, etc., any- 
thing like glass, a plate, the head, etc. The first syllable of the root is 
here reduplicated. 

An (ha)i), which is generally a place suffix, is sometimes added to 
adjectives in which the idea of place or location is inherent, and occa- 
sionally with those which do not admit the suffix in for euphonic or other 
reasons. Ex.: Bt madaanan (impas.sable or impenetrable), from dt (not), 


and ddan (road), and malman (patient person), in denotinjr what may be 
suffered when suffixed to inutlix; as, niatiisin (what suffered or endured ). 
This, however, l)eh)ng3 more properly under the particles, where the dif- 
ference in the use of in and an is set forth at length. 

In when inserted after the first consonant of some nouns gives the idea 
of like, and one at least is sometimes used as an adjective. It is bivntd 
(youth), from btdd (child), and is sometimes used to mean "young," 
although b(i(/o (new) is sometimes used with the same idea, as in the words 
hacjoufj tauo (unmarried man or })achelor, literally "new i)erson"). 

The English nouns and phrases which are used as adjectives are ex- 
pressed in Tagalog by means of the ties g, vfj, or rut, the wonl which is 
modified preceding the modiiiei-, the opposite to what is done in English. 
The tie is attached to the modified word and answers somewhat to the 
P^nglish "of." Ex.: Sdhonimj plhtk (a mirror of silver, a silver looking- 
glass) ((/); tinterong huboij {'AW inkstand of glass, a glass inkstand) {ng); 
singsingna ginto (a ring of gold, a gold ring) ; buhay na bato (a stone house, 
a house of stone), the last two examples showing the use of the tie nn. 
Sometimes the tie is omitted if the modified word ends in a consonant 
other than n, but it is not considered elegant to do so. 

Adjectives like the P>nglish "golden," "silvery," "wooden," etc., are 
expressed in different ways in Tagalog, generally by means of the ties 
or by different jjarticles indicating "likeness," which will be explained 

Negative adjectives like those formed in English by the prefixes un. 
(Anglo-Saxon), in (before b and y) softening to m for euphony), im (Latin), 
a, an (Greek), are formed in Tagalog by the particles dl (not), iratd 
(without), and sometimes hi]idt. (no). Ex.: Di malapitan (unajiproach- 
able), from lap'd, idea of approaching; dt mabilavg (innumerable), from 
bllang (to number); di. viadaa»an (impassable or impenetral)le), from 
ddan (road); walang bahala (apathetic, indifferent, careless); iraUnig hangdn 
(withoutend, lasting, eternal, infinite), and hindinamumuiTga (unfruitful), 
from bniTga (fruit), with na and reduplicated first syllable of root (softened 
to m from b) to indicate present tense (literally, "not fruit-bearing"). 
The use of di and wald is illustrated by di makabayad and indang maybayad, 
the first meaning "notable to pay" and the second "without means of 
payment," both being about equal to "insolvent." 

As in English, there is no variation in the adjective for gender and case, but 
the adjective may be pluralized. For the plural (the modified word being 
understood in some cases) the word vunTijd is used with simple adjectives — 
as, ang maiu^d hunghang (the foolish [persons] ) — and the first syllable of the 
root is repeated if it consists of one or two letters for compound adjectives. 
If the first syllable of the root contains more than two letters, the first two 
letters only are reduplicated. MaiTgd is also used by many with the plural 
compound adjective. Ex.: Ang marurunong, or ang maiTgd viarurunovg 
(the wise [people] ). 

The adjective may precede or follow the noun modified, and it would 
seem that the latter form is to be preferred, as it agrees with Malay (as 
with Spanish) construction. However, with the spread of English it is 
not unlikely that the custom of using the adjective before the noun may 
become the usual construction, as it is equally as correct as the other way. 
Ex. : Ang maiTgd babayeng vmgandd; ang maiTgd magandang babaye; ang baba- 
yeng magagandd; ang magagandang babaye; ang mant^d babayeng magagandd, 
and ang maiTgd magagandang babaye. All six of the foregoing phrases mean 
simply "the beautiful women," the first four being preferable. 

The following list of adjectives will give the principal ones in ordinary 
use. The plan has been followed of giving adjectives with certain mean- 
ings, followed by those of opposite significations, or at least in well-defined 
groups. Words having substantially the same meHning are called syno- 
nyms; those of opposite meaning, antonyms. Words with the same sound 
biit different meanings are called homonyms. Some Tagalog adjectives 
require several different words in English to express their varying mean- 



ing, just an occurs in translating English into Tagalog or any other lan- 
guage. Practice alone will fully instruct the student, owing to the localisms 
and provincialisms of the language. As many examples will be given as 
space justilies. 

Dear; noble; precious; esteemed. 

Cheap, ignoble, etc. 
Useful, available (thing). 
Useless; without benelit. 



Harmful; hurtful; slanderous. 



Large, big, grand. 


Bulky; massive. 

Much; plenty. 

Excessive; superfluous; remaining. 

Little; some. 

Spacious; ample; wide (as room, 

road, etc. ). 
Broad; wide; level; fiat. 

Disproportionately wide (or broad). 

Narrow (as street, door, opening). 

Tall; high; noted (metaph.). 

Low; shallow; humble (metaph.) 
Long; aLso gigantic. 
Short; brief. 

Mahal. Aug minumahal, the es- 
teemed, dear, etc., person or thing. 


Tariiuhln. Tamo, use, utility, benefit. 

Walang kabolo/idn. Ex. : WaUna/ 
kabolnhdn ang gavd mo, your work 
is without value; useless. 

Mahuti. Mabuting taiio, a good per- 

Musamd. Kasamaan, evil.' 

Makapapawjanydya. From anydya, 
JM171, and maka, with pa. A good 
example of the building up of 
words in Tagalog. I'a)Ti/anyayang 
tauo, a man who destroys the 
property of another. 

Malakds. Malakds tia tduo, a strong 
Malakds na harTgin, a high 

Kahinaun, weakness. 
Kalak-hdri, grandeur; size. 

Marami (from dami. ) KaramiJiati, 

plenty; abundance. 
3radld. ' 
Lubhd (also means "very" before 
another adjective. ) Lubhang sakd, 
serious illness. 
Kaunti. ^Marunong kang Tagdlogf 
^"Do you understand Tagalog? Opo, 
yes, sir. ^Inglh? Kaunti, pu, a 
little, sir. 
Mainavg. Maluang na silid, a wide 

(or spacious) room. 
Maldpad. Kalaparan, hremlth. Ma- 

Idpad "iia isip, broad minded. 
Maluag. Maiuag na loob, a magnan- 
imous heart (metaph.). 
Mak'ipoi. Makipot aiig ddan, a nar- 
row road. Mahpot na isip, nar- 
row-minded. Kakipotan, narrow- 
^[ak'ttid. Makitiran, narrowness. 
Mataas. Kataasaii, tallness, height. 
Ma/dlim. Kalaliman, depth. Mald- 

lim na gdlit, deep anger. 
Mababd. Kababaav, low ground; 
also humility. Mal)aba)>g loob, a 
submissive (humble) disposition. 
Mahabd. Mahabang tulay, a long 
bridge. Mahabang tauo, a gigan- 
tic man. 
Maikli variation ( inaikai) . Maikliiuj 
buhuy, a short life. 



Close; short (as hair, beard, etc.) 
Square; equal on all sides. 

Round; circular. 

Thick (as a board, book, etc.), 
Thick (as liquor, clothes, etc.) 

Coarse; rough. 

Rare; thin. 
Slenrler; fine. 


Light (not heavy); easy (metai^h. 

Strong; intense; heavy. 


Pressed; compact; packed; solid. 
Hollow (as a tree, etc.). 

Clean; neat. 

Pure; limpid; clear. 

Turbid; muddy (as water); bleared 
(as eyes) ; thick (as the speech). 

Pure (and without mixture). 

Light; fine (like chaff, paper, etc.). 
Dirty; filthy; disgusting; nasty. 

Dirty; disgusting, etc. (Southern). 

Filthy; indecent. 

Innumerable; numberless. 

Full; complete. 

Insuflicient; not enough; less. 

Empty ; sometimes wide. 


Parisukat (from sukat, to measure, 
and parts, equal, as). 
Mabtlog. Kabilogan, or pagkaJi'iUMj, 

MaliiTifm (rare) . 


Mulbnit. Mallmit na dam'd, thick 

Magdspam/. Magdspung rut ku)un, 
coarsefoo<l. (Synonym, mai/dptnig 
hinin. ) 


ManlpU. Kanipisan, slenderness. 
Maiiip'is na katauan, slender 

Mahignf. Mabigat mi looh, heavy 

Mugadu. Kagaanan, lightness. M<t- 
gadi) itong kdhog, this wood is light. 

Matvuli. Matinding gaiiw, strong 
medicine. Katindi, a counter- 
weight or balance. Matinding hob, 
heavy hearted. 

Maigting (this word is provincial and 
not generally used to-day). 


Maguang. (luangan itong Jialigi itd, 
this harigue (house pillar) is hol- 

Mallnis. /ia/misan, cleanliness. Ma- 
llnis na darnit, clean clothes. Ma- 
linis na loob, clean hearted. 

Malindo. Tubig na malindo, or ma- 
Undo nu tubig, pure or limpid 
water. Malindo na loob, pure 




Tahas. Tahas na ginto, pure gold. 

A'aio (a local word is galbok or galbo) . 

Madumi. Karumlian (contr. ), dirti- 
ness, filthiness, nastiness. Madu- 
mihan, dirty, etc., object. 

Madiri. Madirihin, dirty, etc., per- 

Salauold. Kasalauolaan, filtii, inde- 

Di mabUang. (from di, not, and 
bllang, idea of counting, number.) 

Puno. Magpuno ka itd, complete or 
fill this. 

Kulang. Kakidangin, waste, lack. 
Kulang na banta, a lacking idea. 
PakulatTgin mo sa apuy, diminish 
the fire. 

Pouang. Also walang laindn, with- 
out pulp or meat. 



Contracted; cramped (as a room), 

Conse(;utive; in order. 

Entire; whole; unbroken, etc. 
Broken; fractured, etc. 

Cooked (as food). 

Raw; crude (as food, fruit). 

Edible; esculent. 

Poisonous (as toadstools, arsenic, 

Venomous (as the bite of the dahong 

palay, or rice snake). 
Fresh (as meat or tish, etc.). 
Spoiled; putrid. 
Impure; adulterated. 


Sour; acid. 

Salty; saline, 

Peppery; pungent. 


Nauseating; unkempt. 


Old; stable; permanent. 

Stale; musty (asrice, tobacco, wine) 



Thin; watery; fluid. 

Thick; dense; curdy. 

Sticky; adhesive. 


Flesh v; pulpv; meaty. 

Hot. ■ 

Burniuif; ardent. 



Hard; solid; stiff. 
Soft; flexible; bland. 


Hdlo-Itdlo. Kalialo, mixture. Afaij 

kahalo ItoiKj dlak, this wine is 

Sun6d-f<unad (from sunod, idea of 

following, obeying, etc.) 
Basag. Babamgin, broken article, 

from basag, idea of fracturing, 

breaking, etc., as the head, a plate, 

glass, etc. 

Hildo. Jlildo pa, green yet. 
Gabon; makamandag. 


Sari ad. 

Mnbolok. Bolok na, putrid already. 

Hindi jmlos (from Jinidi, not, and 
pulos, alike; of one color. 

Matamis. Kalamisan, sweetness. 
Tinamis, sap of the nipa when 
freshly drawn. Malanus na wikd, 
sweet speech (synonym matamis 
na mangmap). 

Madsiin. Kaasiman, sourness; acid- 

MaiKiit. Kapaitan, bitterness. 

Madldl. Kaalalan, saltiness. Ala- 
iaUilan »10 ang kanin, salt the food 
a little more. 






Malagl. Palagian mo itong gawd, 
make this work permanent. 









Ma'imt. Kainitan, heat. Ma'init ang 
drao, the hot sun (or day). 

MadLah. Houag mong paalabalabin 
ang ningas, do not add fuel to the 

MalaliiniiTga. {Malakoko expresses 
a slightly greater degree of heat.) 


Magindo. Maginauiu, a chilly per- 



Katigam n, haril ness. 



Spongy; porous; soft. 
Diutile; Hexihle. 


Sharpened; ground. 


Hacked; notched. 

Rusty (as iron, etc.). 

Slippery; slimy. 

Anything oily or smeared with oil 

Rockv; stonv. 


Rough; rugged. 


Swampy; lioggy. 
Gradual; little by little. 

Sudden; abrupt; hasty; eager. 

Impassable; imjienetrable. 
Difficult; laborious. 

Ditficult; intricate; slow. 
Inaccessible; not to be reached. 


Unfathomable; abysmal. 

Distant; far. 

Rare; scarce. 
Common; ordinary. 

BuJuH/Iiatj. ITiinU b\i.!t(irih(ig, not 

porous; ini|)orous. 
Makanat. Also a kind of taffy 

Malalim. Katdllinoii, sharpness. 
Matiilis. KKtiilixdi), pointedness. 
MatagiH. Tinayis, what ground, etc. 

Maloiiinl. Mntomul iia siuidcmg, a 
dull sword. This word is often 
applied to business, trade, etc. 

BirTgdo. Also noun with forward 
accent. Mcdaki avg hliTi/ao nilovg 
suvdang, this sword is very dull 
(lit., great is the dullness of this 

Nakabdnunm;un or Kinnk(dnu<iiig 
( from kalunang, rust ) . A Iso name 
of town in La Laguna Province 
with C. Odanang. 

Mudulas ; warwM.s. 

Mcddiu/isan or Nahalamgisan. 

Ma bid i). 

Mai/ pdt'ik ; iiadnsak. 

Fusakal, (rare). MnloJci aiig kapnm- 
kalan nung bundok, the ruggedness 
of the mountain(s) is very great. 

Mahuhangin. Kabuhaiy/in, sandy 
beach, or sandy ground. 

Mnlabon. Also name of town in 
Rizal Province, Luzon. 

Unfi-uidi. Unti, is probably a varia- 
tion olmindi; kaimti, means "lit- 
tle," "small," etc. 

Bigld. Kabiglaan, eagerness. Pdl- 
tik, ayn. Biglung gaird ; paltik na 
gawd, quick work. 

Di laadaavan (from ddan, road, and 
dt, not, with ])lace ending on). 

Mahirnp. MaJiirap gaivln, a difficult 
or laborious task. Aug vxuajd 
maJiirap, the Avorking classes. 

Mal'iuag. Di viaUnag, easy. Walang 
liuag, without difficulty. 

DI mar<di)il)<in (from dating, idea of 
arrival, and di, not, with place 
ending an). 

Di malapifan (formed like the above 
from the root IdpK, idea of near- 

Di matdrok (formed like the fore- 
going from tdrok, "to sound the 
water" ). 


Mal&pil (also b<ibao). Babao bagd 
ang Pasig sa atinf Is the Pasig 
anywhere near us? 


Karaniaan. Karaniuang damtin, 
usual dress. Karaniuang ivikd, an 
ordinary word. 



Crooked; bent. 

Fragrant; odorous. 
Fetid; stinking. 
Delicious; pleasant. 

Noxious; malignant. 

Powdered; pulverized. 

Sonorous (as u bell). 






Wholesome; salubrious. 


Fearful ; dreadful. 



Right ( hand) . 

Left ( hand ) . 

In the middle. 
To one side. 



Maliku. LikoUkong ddun, a road 
with many turns. Minsan pang 
himiko, one turn (or bend) more. 


Mabului. KahaJiodn, fetidity. 

Kuhujod-lugod (from liujod, idea of 
pleasure, etc. ) . 

Ilakasasaiiid (from mmd, idea of evil, 
the particle rnaka and tense redu- 
plication .S(/ for present). 

Dorug (means putrefied in some 

Matunog (from tunog, sound). 


Hindi paris. 


Kogag; koyap (both rare). 

Mulnkoug. Malukung na p'mgan. a 
deep plate, like a soup plate. 

Kagndiagbi.lidnu (from ginhdtia, idea 
of relief, rest). 

KakilakiWiot (from kildbol, idea of 
trembling with fear). 

Kdtakottdkot (from idkot, idea of fear. 
Kalakotan, fear, dread). 

Naknrdan (from ddan, idea of pass- 




^from ddtljig, idea of ar- 

Kancwkanan, a little to the 
Kananknnanin mo, go a lit- 
tle to the right. Ang nakakarian, 
what lies to the right. Pakanan ka, 
go to what lies on the right. 
Kultud (same compounds as the 

Sa gitnd. Gitnang g<dt-t, midnight. 
S(i tab/. 

A few of the foregoing are not strictly adjectives, either in Tagalog or 
English, but are put here for convenience. 

All; entirely; wholly. 


All (kinds or classes). 

Each one. 

Paua (generally used with adjec- 
tives). Pauaiig magidivg, wholly 
good. Paiuivg imigugaling did, 
they are all good. Pauang inaiitini 
sild, they are all black. Houag 
mong pduahig tauagln, do not call 

Lahal (generally applied to persons ). 
Lahafin mo ung pa)17/u)T<jii.vij>, 
speak to all of them.; syn., tandu. 
(provincial). Tatidng tduo, all 

Dllau (provincial). Ddang mging, 
all kinds of bananas. 

Bdlcuig im. Bdlang drao, some day. 

Bdnn t isd. 



The following is a lit^t of what colors are generally used by Tagalogs, 
with some names also not now ordinarily heard. 


Mitputl. Kaputiaii, whiteness. An(/ 
kaputinn nang itlog, the white of 
an egg. 

Mnitlm. Kaitiman, blackness. 

Mapnld. Kapulahnv, redness. Ili- 
mulA, blush; redness of the face. 

Madilao; mnrUao (from dilao, a root 
dyeing yellow ) . Marilao iki damit, 
yellow clothing. Also name of 
town in Bulacan Province, named 
from same plant (ciircuma delagen). 
Also name of 6arr/o of Manila (8an 
Fernando de Dilao). 

Bugliciu ( Bataan Province ) . Bak-huo 

Gmidag (from gulay, vegetables, 

Halongtiang ( rare ) . 

MamiUlu. Kajndhtan, pallor; pale- 
Hiiimdd, pale, discolored. 


Maiiingning. Maningning parang li- 
u'diprag, bright as the dawn. 

Maddiiii. Kaddimav, darkness, etc. 
Houag rnong ipandilim hong cahayo, 
do not take this horse while it is 

Pidun. Maithn na pulus, l)Iack all 
over (as a horse). 

The following list comprises the majority of Tagalog adjectives pertain- 
ing to physical conditions of the body: 






Brown; brunette. 

Pale; discolored. 

Bright; clear; light. 

Bright; shining (as the dawn, the 

stars, gold, etc. ). 
Dark; obscure. 

All of one color; unicolorous. 


Tall (in stature); high. 

Short (in stature). 

Dwarfish; short. 


Elegant; beautiful. 


Ugly; deformed. 
Stuttering; stammering. 

Mute; dumb. 

Matandd. Katandaan, age. 

Bago. Binatd, youth, is sometimes 
used, as ang manga binatd, the 
youths (from hak), child). 

Haguay: mahaguay. Haguay na 
iduo, a tall person. 

Lipoto (rare). 


Matahd. Kalahaan, fatness. 

Magandd. Kagandahan, beauty; 

Marik'd (from dikh, idea of pretti- 
ness). Karikitan, elegance, pret- 
tiness. Kar'iktang u-ikd, a graceful 


Magaril. Garilin, a stvitterer; stam- 
merer. Utdl-utal is another word. 

Pipi. KapipUian, dumbness. 

Pisak, variation Lapimk. Pisak ang 
isang viak'i, blind in one eye. 




Nasal; snuffling (as in the speech). 



Big-eared; long -eared; flap-eared; 

large-eared; jnegalotine. 
Thick-lipped (person). 
Lame in hand; one-handed; unable 

to use hands, etc. 
Bandy-legged ; bow-legged. 
Lame (on account of having legs of 

unequal length). 
Slow; deliberate (in work or 

Hairv; feathered. 

BiiTgl. KabbujUidv, deafness. Bimj- 
htgbing'i, totally deaf, but hhuji- 
b'mgi, somewhat or a little deaf. 
(The higher degree is formed with 
the "tie," the diminutive without 
it. This is a general rule. ) 


Kikirapkirup (from kirap). 

Malaki ang iahTga. 

Ngusoin (from ivjui^o, lip). 


Tipo. Munipo, lacking teeth. 





MudaU; marall. 

Mahinay. Possibly a variation of 
vialiina, weak. 

Mabalahibo. Di pa makitd ang bala- 
hibo nang kamay, the hair of the 
hand can not yet be seen ; an ex- 
pression used to express that it is 
not yet day. 


Ubanin. Adjective, muuban. 





Walang buhok. 

Sungay'm. SthTgai/, horn, also a 
twining plant resembling the con- 
volvulus or bindweed. 

3Iay kaliskif. 

Magutom'm. Kagulonuvi, hunger. 

Nauuliao. Kauhanau, thirst. 


Napagal. K(ipag<ikt)i, fatigue. 


May sakit. Walang sakll, without 
illness, i. e., healthy; well. 

Kasakitsakit (from sakit, idea of pain; 
sickness; iihiess). 

Sugatin (from sugat, wound). 

Mutd. Midain, sore-eyed person, etc. 


Patay. Palayhi, dead person, ani- 
mal, etc. Namatay, to be dead. 

The list of mental or moral attributes given below does not, of course, 
embrace all in the language, but the most usual are given: 

Makapangyarihan (from yari, idea 
of finishing, etc., compounded 
with pan, maka, and suflix han). 


Gray-haired; gray-headed (person) 

Curled; crisp; curly (as hair). 

Curly or waving (hair). 

Bald (person). 

Hairy (on body). 

Hairless (as some animals, etc.). 

Horned (animal). 


Hungry (person). 

Thirsty; to be thirsty. 

Replete; satiated. 

Tired; to be tired. 

Numb or "asleep," as the hands, 

feet, to become. 
Sick; ill; to be ill. 

Painful. ■ 

Wounded (person) ; having sores. 


Living; alive. 


Omnipotent; all powerful. 



Brave; valiant. 

Timid (per.«on). 
Abusive (person or act). 

Bashful; timid; shame-faced. 

Bashful; modest (esiK-cially in char- 

IModest in sjieech; moderate in play. 
Modest; quiet. 

Modest; slow. 

Modest (in carriage); slow; delib- 
Peaceable; quiet. 
Tranquil; quiet. 

Gentle; tame; quiet (as animals). 

Quiet; pacific. 


Odious; rancorous. 

Fierce; savage; wild. 
Quiet (in sleep, or in eating). 
Abstemious; moderate. 
Gluttonous; voracious. 
Bold; gallant; elegant. 
Bold; daring; insolent. 

Vain; proud; haughty; arrogant. 

Boastful; vainglorious. 

Neutral; indecisive; undecided. 


Famous; celebrated; noted; noto- 
Famous; celebrated; illustrious. 
Famed; honored. 

Celebrated; noted. 
Famed; honored (person). 
Dignity; honor; fame. 

Matdpanr/ (applied to wine, 
"strong," matapang na cilak, 
strong wine. Kutapangan, brav- 

Thidg. Kaduagaii, cowardice. 

Miitdlc'itin (from t/'ikol, idea of fear). 

Majxigtamimiao (from iinTi/ai/ao, in- 
sulting words). 

MdiTi/ild. Ang ikaiu/ili'i, the cause or 
reason of timidity, etc. Ang 
pdiH/iiTgilalum, of whom or what 
afraid, etc. 





M(ttl)ii)tg. Also means 
pitched," (as a voice). 

Mahinahati; mahandyad. 

MaraJian (from dahan, idea of delib- 


Mabagd. Mahagnng luoh, a tranquil 

Mu(uiid. Kaamoan, tameness; gen- 
tleness. Ang pagkaamu, the act of 
taming, breaking, etc. Maamong 
h'job, a gentle disposition. 

lahhnik. Katahirnikav, quietness. 
Itah'nnik. mo ang bibig iiiu, keep 
your mouth quiet (shut up!). 

Paladuay. Kaduay, an enemy. Ang 
maiTgd kaduay, the enemy. MmTijd 
kaduay, enenues. 

Mapagtaribn (from taniiii, idea of ran- 
cor, hate, etc., with inapa(i })re- 

MaUap. Kaihipan, fierceness. 






Pahdu. Kapaialoan, pride, vanitv, 

Mapamansag (from banmg, osten- 

Urong-i>ulong (from i'iro)ig, to go 
back, etc.; sulong, to go ahead; to 
move on). 


Mabanlog. Kabantogan, fame; noto- 

Mabiun/i (rare). 

Mar<iiTg<d. (from daiTgul, fame; 


Purlltin. Kapurihan, fame; honor. 


Kapangahahasan, in- 

6855— OC)- 



Fame; noted; talked al)out. 

Mean; vile; worthless; unfortunate. 
Mean; vile; worthless. 

Loving; amorous (person). 

Affectionate; loving. 

Polite (person). 

Polite; courteous; respectful. 

Courteous; respectful. 


Ironical; sarcastic. 

Honest; right; straight. 

True; refined; perfect; pure (in 

Patient; firm; constant (person). 
Impatient (person). 

Changeable; inconstant. 

Treasonable; treacherous; ungrate- 

Two-faced; double-faced; treacher- 
Giddy; thoughtless; careless. 
Blundering; wild. 

Balita. KahaUtnng tdvo, a noted 
person. Maybahalibalitunff tduo, a 
newsmonger. Ano cmg balitcL sa 
baycm? What news in town? 

Hamuk. Ildmak na tduo, a worth- 
less person. 

T'nnaud (originally meant "f reed- 
man;" "liberated slave." An- 
other word is biilisik, variation 
bidiKikslk, literally "slave of a 
slave." Kabulisikan, slavery; 

Masitiiahin (from sintd, love, origin- 
ally Sansk. cJiintd, thought, care, 
through Malay chinta, care, anxi- 
ety, etc.). 

Ma'ibig. Ka'ibigibig, amiaijle. Kai- 
bigdn, affection. Kaibigaii, friend; 
beloved. (Notice the difference in 
accent. ) 

Mapagpalayao (from palayao, affec- 
tion, and iinipag, prefixed). Irog 
means "great love." 

Masagapin. Aug sagapan, person to 
whom polite. 

Mapugpltugan (from pjilagan, honor, 
respect, and mapay). Aug pagpi- 
pilaganan, the person honored 
(from pitagan, prefixed by pag, 
reduplicated first syllable jji for 
present tense and suffix an, here 
indicating person, l)ut generally 
indicating place). 

Maalangdlang. Ang kinaaalanga- 
ImTganan, the person to whom 
courteous (from ulangaluug, idea 
of courtes}', compounded with ka 
and in (kina) prefixed and an re- 
duplicated as a suffix). 

Maya la ng. Kay a la iTgan, respect , rev- 
erence. Magalangin, courteous, 
respectful person. 


Maiuid. Katuiran, honesty. 

Tun ay. 


Mayayamutin (from yamot, idea of 

annoyance, etc.). 
Salauahan. Sakmahang loob, a 

changeable character. 
MaUlo. rinagliUloluui niyd ang ina- 

ampuii, he is ungrateful to his 


Matulig, variation maiuVmg. 

Mahild. Partial synonym diiluTyas, 
which means "restless, unquiet" 
more than "blundering" or 



Restless; turbulent; fidgety. 
Restless; mischievous. 
Restless; uneasj^; mischievous. 

Intolerable; insufferable. 
Unspeakable; unsayable; untellable. 

Joyful; contented (person). 


Happy; lucky. 

Laughter-causing; laughable; comic. 

Waggish; jesting; scoffing (person) 


Just; fair; upright. 

Barbarous; tyrannical; despotic. 

Cruel; rigorous; severe. 

Agreeable; pleasing; joyous. 
Indulgent; generous; liberal. 


Merciful; charitable; liberal. 

Learned; wise; etc. 

Discreet; able. 

(1) Accomplished; (2) excellent. 

Magasldo. Magasldo na tdno, a rest- 
less person. 

Gaso. Ang gasohan, person dis- 

Magalao. Probably variation of ma- 
gadao. Mugaldo ang fcainai/ niyd, 
his hand is restless (said of a thief). 
Kagalauan, mischief. Aiiggakmin, 
the mischief. Ang galanun, person 

Dt inadalitd, {from dalitd, idea of suf- 
fering, and dt, not). 

Dt iiKi^dhi (from sabi, idea of tellings 
and dt not)., 

Dt mimdang (from salang, idea of 
touching, with dt, not). Latin, 
noli me tangere, taiien by Rizal as 
a title to one of his works. He 
signed many articles " Dimas 

Matiiain, (from foud, pleasure; con- 

Kaay(tuya{iromai/a, variation Ugaya. 
Kaligayahun, contentment) . 

Mupdlad. Waking pdlad, unlucky. 

Makahitaud (from taud, laughter, 
with maka, and reduplicated first 
syllable ta to indicate present 

Mapagbiro; pakibiro. Tauong biro, 
an inconsiderate person. 


Mardpat (from ddpat). Karapaiaii, 

Mabagsik. Also "power" in some 
cases. Kabagsikan, power; tyr- 
anny; etc. Ang j^agbagaikan, the 

MabarTgis. Kabaiujisan, cruelty; 


Mapagbigay. Also mapamigay. Both 
words are from bigaii, idea of giv- 
ing. The second is more properly 
the adjective. 

Maaud. Maauuin, a charitable 
person. Kaauaan, charity, com- 

Mapagblyaya (from biyaya, idea of 
mercy, charity. Mablyayang td iio, 
a merciful or liberal person). 

Marunong (from duuong, idea of 
wisdom. Karunoiigan, wisdom). 
Marunong kang Inglesf {C'astilaf). 
Do you understand English? 

Masikap. Kasikapan, discretion; 

( 1 ) Faham na tduo, an accomplished 
man. (2) Mapahan na dUik, ex- 
cellent wine. 



Able; accomplished. 
Fine (in bearing). 

Prudent; judicious. 

Thoughtful ; grave. 

Vigilant; awake; known. 

Incomprehensible; inimitable. 
Simple; silly. 

Stupid; foolish; beast-like; cracked 
(as a plate). 

Foolish; stupid. 

Useless; stupid. 

Stupid; foolish; malicious. 

Foolish; stupid; dull; gaping. 

Childish; foolish. 
Idiotic; simple. 

Crazy; insane. 

Laborious; diligent; industrious. 
Lazy; slow. 

Slow; tardy; lasting. 

J'autda. Pantas na t/iuo, an able 
man. Kapaidai'an, ability. 

Basabns. Bii-'idfrn-'^ahiis va mar/lnoo, 
a very fine gentleman. Kafntsa- 
hiisdu, excellence, etc. 

Mabah. Mahait na tc'nio, a prudent 
person. Dalagang mahait, a j)ru- 
dent girl. 

Tirntim (provincial word). 

Mabigat. Really "heavy" (from 
bigat ) . 

MagiMng (from gishig, idea of 
awaking). Definite is in iia)i, npt 
an. Xngisnaii ko ang lindol lagab-'i, 
I was awakened by the earthquake 
last night. (^inisiuDi ko na kapag- 
f!ii<))ia ang asal na yiioii, I have 
alwavs known of that custoui. 


Maang. Timang, foolish; stupid. 
Mangmang, fool, dunce; al.'^o lack 
of memory, forgetfulness. MauTga, 
variation niai7i;al, silly, foolish. 
MamaiTgal, to act foolishly. Xag- 
■)iiavia)Tgdma)7gahau, to feign stu- 
pidity. This meaning of maiTgd 
must not be confused with the 
homonym indicating plurality, 
which is made up of the particles 
ma and iTljd. 

Bangdo (rare). Bangauin, a stupid 
Taksil. Taks'd na tduo, a stupid 

person. KataksUan, stupidity. 
Bandag. Kabandai/an, foolishness. 
A7ig pagkabandaj/, the error. 
Bangakin, one regarded as a fool 
or dunce. Ilonag mo akongbtmga- 
kan,do not try to fool me (n)ake a 
fool of me). Also kahaiTi/alan, 
foolishness, from JiaiTijal, foolish. 

TuiTijak, variation iuwjag. 


TaiTgd. MagtaiviaUnuiahaii , to feign 
stupidity. A rare word for "fool- 
ish" is lankas. 

TJnga^, variation oiTgd. 

Balifi. KabaViuaii, idiocy. Baliuin, 
a foolish or idiotic person. Caba- 
yong babaliuin, a foolish or runa- 
way horse. 

Ulid, variation olol. Kaidulan, in- 

Masipag. Kasipagan, industry, etc. 

Tamad {Mapagtamad). Katamaran, 

Maloaat. Maloaat na kahoy, durable 
wood. {}raIo>iagi9 "slack, loose." 
and mahigpit is "tight.") 





Fraudulent; cheating. 

Evil-lived; criminal. 



Obedient (person). 

Disobedient; contradictory. 
Bold; shameless. 
Forgetful (person). 

Rich; prosperous. 

Poor; miserable. 
Miserable; stingy. 


Talkative (as a child) . 
Loquacious (as many persons) 

Garrulous (as an old person). 
Silent; reserved; secretive. 

Economical; stingy. 
Economical; saving. 


Totoo. Tmototoo ko ang nila, I am 
keeping my word. Tihidi/ has 
more the sense of real, perfect, rc- 

Bxl'iuu. MahuJmlaannn na ii/ang fii- 
litd mo, you are lying in your ac- 
count. SiniuTgaling is a '"liar" or 
" prevaricator." Pinagninum/dH- 
ngun ko, I told him you lie. 

Magdaraiid (from dago, fraud de- 
ceit, with '.nag and reduplicated 
first syllable of root). Xiidayaan 
itk(') iiang luoh ko, my heart de- 
ceived me. 

Masiual. Mashial na tauo, an evil 

Losing. Another word is derived 
from langd. KalangoJian, drunk- 
enness. A rare word is aslak. 
Nauaslakun ka yata, you act as if 
you were drunk. Drunkenness is 
a rare vice among Tagalogs. 

Mapagiiiisa (from naiia and mapag). 
Another word is derived from^Jito, 
desire, longing. Avao »ja kapita- 
pita, a longed-for day. Magpita 
kat/6 sa akin nang ihig ningo, ask 
me what you desire. 

MnpaghiiTiii (from hingt, to ask po- 
litely, and mapag). 

Maxuitorhi (from sunod. See Con- 

Masouay. Kasouayan, disobedience. 


MaUmotin (from limot, idea of forget- 

Maydman. Kayamanan, wealthi- 

Ditkhd. Kadukhaan, poverty. 

Mardmot (from damot). Ddmot ako 
nang salapf, I am short of money. 

Makingking. Tauong niakingki)ig, a 
miserable person. 

Mau'ika (from wikd, word). 

MatabU, (from tabil, idea of talking 

Max(d'dd (from suliid, a story, news). 

MatJnip. Matinip na loob, a secretive 

Matipid. Kalhipdati, parsimonj'. 

Maarimohanan ( from arimohan) . A ri- 
mohanin mo itong p'dak, save this 
money. Two rare words for the 
same idea are maimpok and maagi- 

Makasidrd (from sird, idea of destruc- 
tion, and maka, with reduplicated 
first syllable of root). 



Traveling; peregrine. 

Unbaptized; infidel; pagan. 

Belonging to; pertaining to. 


Guilty; culpable; sinful. 

Fruitful; to bear fruit. 

Other; different; diverse; distinct. 
Sole; unique; only. 
Lasting; eternal; infinite. 






Reserved; set aside. 

Secret; to be secret. 
Occupied; to be occupied. 

Idle; without work. 
Passionate; quick-tempered 

Hasty; of a bad disposition. 
Thankful; to be thankful. 




Namgibang hAyan (from bdyan, town; 
town, 77x7, other, and the redupli- 
cated ])article mnu, in the present 
tense, hence changed to nam/ and 
ing. Literally, "from another 

Dt binyngan (from binyag, to bap- 
tize, and dt, not). Binyag is said 
to have been a Bornese (Arabic?) 
word Ijrought by Mohammedans 
to the Philippines. Its original 
meaning is said to have been " to 
pour water from above." 

JVauukol (from ukol). Nanukol .sn 
Dios at nauukol sa Cesar, belonging 
to God and belonging to Caesar. 


Nagkakasald (from said). Walang 
sala, innocent, not guilty. 

Navnnmnrga (from brriTga, fruit, with 
ma (?«() and reduplicated first syl- 
lable of rout, which is here soft- 
ened to 111 from h). Hindi namu- 
mum/a, unfruitful. Bungahan, a 
fruitful tree or plant. 


JSagiisd (from isn, one). 

Waking hangdn {lit., "without end," 

Katatapus (from tapus, end, finish. 
Tajjus na, finished now). 

Wabvig kamatayan (lit., "without 


Waking asa. 

Mahayag. Kahayagan, publicity. 

Nagkakabukod (from bukod, idea of 
reservation, setting aside, etc. 
Bnkdan tiio ako nang daknvd, put 
two aside for me. Kabukoran, res- 
ervation, etc.). 

Malik im . Li him na gawd, secret work 
or deed. 

Naaahida (from ahala, idea of occupa- 
tion; the particle »a (present tense 
of ma) and (/, reduplicated first 
syllable of root for present tense). 
Abalahin or Maabalahin, a busy 

Wala)ig gavd. 

Magalitan (from galit, idea of anger). 

GaJiasd. Kagahasuan, hastiness. 
Sinasaldmat (from sakhnat, thanks; 

derived from Arabic, saldinat, 

peace; safety). 
Nakahdugod ( from higod, gratitude, 

naka, and the reduplicated first 

syllable of root). 
Walang lugod; also malilo. 



Licit; legal. 

Immaterial; useless. 

Libidinous; sensual. 
Asleej), to be; sleepy, to be. 

Aged; venerable; mature. 

Tired, to be. 

Alone; unaccompanied. 

Companioned; chaperoned. 








Ready, to be. 

Unready, to be. 




Clean; neat. 

Dirty; unclean (as the clothes). 





Copied (thing, etc.). 

Methodical (person). 




Profitable (thing). 



Plain; clear (as a room). 

Manufactured; made up. 

Raw; crude (as material, etc.). 


Spun (also thread). 

Plaited (as a mat). 

3/a/?(/(/;als() "right," "straight, "etc. 
Hindi mutuid, illicit, illegal, etc. 

Walang gam it. 



Matulog. Mahdulng htigd kagof Are 
you sleepy? ydtutu'log bagd sign? 
Is he asleep? Patidognin mo siyd, 
let him sleep (or tell him, or her, 
to go to sleep). 

Magdkuig. Aug maiTijd magulang, 
the aged; parents; ancestors. 


Nagiim; Wdlung kasanid. 

Mag haKU)nd. 

Hindi tnadlam. 

Mag asdua., 

Walang amua. 

Bumahdyad nang bouts. 

Hindi bumubouis. 


Wald rito. 


Hindi Jtandd. 

Mag pagbihi/i. 

Hindi pagbibili. 

Mahalagd. Walang halagd, worth- 
less. Magkuno ang halagd latof 
What is tile value (price) of this? 
Nagkasisinghalagd, of the same 
value, at tlie same price. 


Masano. Mamuong damii, dirty 



Mapdlad. Walang pdlad, unlucky. 

Nauuna {irom vna, first; notSp. ). 

Sinalin (from sa/in, idea of transfer- 
ring, transplanting, etc.). 

Maparaanin. Walang paraun, with- 
out method. 

iVnoa.vos (from agos); nauukol (from 
ukol ) . 

Hindi ayos. Hindi ddpat, unfit. 

Manyos. Walang gulo, without con- 

Magido. Kagulohan, confusion, dis- 

MapakinabaiTijin (from pakindbang, 
idea of making a profit, etc.). 

Walang pakindbang. 



Ginaivd (from gaicd and in). 

Hindi yari. 

Hinabi (from habi, idea of weaving). 

Sindlid {trovasulid, idea of spinning). 



Cultivated; plowed. Naaararo (from SY>.,ararJo, plow). 

Hindi naaararo, unruhiyaieA; im- 

Open. Buki'is. B^d-mn mo itong pinto, open 

this door. 

Shut; closed (thing). Piminn. Pinrlan mo ang flururTj/a- 

ridi), shut the window. Some na- 
tives say KorJiai) mo, undoubtedly 
a corrujition of the Spanish verl) 
cerrar, to close. 

Spread; extended. Littag. XaLdlcdUit, stretched; taut. 

Folded; doubled, etc. Tiniklop (from iikiop, idea of dou- 



The Tagaloo; adjective, like adjectives of other languages, has the three 
degrees of quality to be indicated — the simple form (which is generally 
called the positive), the comparative, and the superlative. Of course, as 
in English, some adjectives are excluded from comparison ])y their mean- 
ing, such as those for "dead," "alive," "entire," and some others. 

The positive adjective is that form discussed in the preceding pages, and 
the comparative will now he taken up. Of this there may be said to exist 
three varieties, the comparative of equality, that of superiority, and tliat 
of inferiority. In English the first form is expressed l)y "as (adjective) as 
(noun), " the second l)y "er" or "more," and the third by "er" or "less." 

In Tagalog there are three ways by which the comparative of equality 
may be expressed. The first is by using the adverb para (variation paris), 
meaning "as," "so," etc. In some cases "like" expresses the Tagalog 
idea best. With adjectives or common nouns para (paris) takes the tie /7//, 
but with names of persons, etc., and pronouns is followed by what is 
compared, which takes the genitive case. I^x.: Parang rnahuti (how 
good), ma]ivti jKtrang gatas (as white as milk), maitiw parani/ tiling (as 
blai'k as charcoal), parang patan (like a tlead ]ierson), parang hi'niop (like 
a beast); Ako'g paramof (Am I like you'l) i^igiV g paris ko (he [she] is 
like me), maliit paris ko (as small as I am [small like me]), siga muhait 
para ni Juan (he is as prudent as Juan), ang Hog sa Xaga^y malnnang 
para nang Pasig (the river at Naga [Nueva Caceres] is as wide as the 
Pasig). With the particle ka denoting likeness, piara indicates equality, 
the particle being prefixed to the adjective in such cases. Ex.: Para 
niyong mow/a tduo, kabuhnti (equally good as the.'^e people"). This word 
para, which as a root denotes "equality," "close resemblance," etc., 
should not be confused with theSpanish word pani, meaning "to," "for," 
etc., as the resemblance is purely accidental. The Tagalog word is Ma- 
layan, the Javanese word pacVa having su])stantially the same signification. 

The second way of expressing equality with an adjective is by means of 
the particle s/»^, which denotes this idea precisely. Ex.: Iti? y singhahd 
niyan (this is as long as that), siycVy singlaki ko (he is as large as I am), 
singlaki si Pedro ni Juan (Pedro is as large as .luan). It will be seen l)y 
the examples that the object or person compared takes the genitive case 
and the subject the nominative. 

The third way of indicating equality with the adjective is by means of 
the consolidated particles ka and sing, i. e., kasing, the syntax being the 
same as with sing only. Ex.: 7/o'// kasinghaba viyan (this is a.s long as 
that), si Pedro'y kasingtaasni Juan (Pedro is as tall as Juan) . 

When equality is to be indicated for more than two objects it may be 
expressed in two ways. The first is by prefixing sing to the root, of which 
the first syllal)Ie is reduplicated. Ex. : SinghaJmba (equally long [things] ), 
singbubidi (equally good [persons or objects]), singtataas ang magina ni 
Bangoy {Maria) (Maria and her mother are the same in height). The 


second is by prefixing ka.^ing to the root, the particle mag being prefixed 
to knuing, forming magkasing. Ex.: Mcujkanhigdunong (equally wise 
[learned]), magkasingyaman (equally -wealthy [rich]), coig rnngind' ni 
Baiigog (Maria) a>/ magkaxingtaas (Maria and her mother are the same in 
height [equally tall]), ang viuiTgd cabaijoat ang maiTiid kalabao ay vtag- 
kaxingdami sa hai/an itd (there are as many horses as there are carabao in 
this town ), iiiai/roon ka)ig Ixigd higdfi na kanngdaini nang palay? ( Have you 
as much hulled rice as you have of the unhulled?). 

Eqn;dity in cjuantity may also be expressed by magkapara, magkaparin, 
or inagkdpniita/i, the two objects compared taking the nominative, and the 
root denoting quantity having ka prefixed to it. Ex. : Ang bigds ko at ang 
bigds iilyd niagkaj)a)'is karami {he and I have the same quantity of rice). 
Literally "my rice and his rice is the same in quantity." Those influ- 
enceti by Spanish are liable to say "his rice and my rice," but the other 
order is that of the ^lalayan languages generally. 

The com{)arative by decrease is formed by the use of the adverb kulang, 
(less), preferably with the negative particles dt or hindl, as /.-///^(»7 alone 
has many times the force of "not," "without," "un-," etc., but, as in every 
language, the context serves as the best guide. Ex.: Ituug b'tgns na. ito'y 
kulang sa akin binili (this rice is less than the amount I bought), ang kalagd 
ifotig cabar/o if<j'y kulang sa halagd nang ibd (the value of this horse is less 
than the value of the other), ang maiTgd kabibao kulang nang dami sa marTgd 
(■aba go sa bayan ito (there are fewer carabao than horses in this town), ang 
mawjd Tagalog ay kulang nang tads sa nu:u7ijd Americano (Tagalogs are not 
as tall [literally, "less in stature"] than Americans), ang kakulaiTgan (the 
difference in price, the balance, the difference in amount, etc. ). 

AlaiTgan (lacking, insufficient, etc.) is sometimes used in place of kulang. 
Ex.: Ang kayatnanan ni Capitnn Tino''y alanujan sa kayanuiuan ni Capitan 
Luis (the wealth of Captian Faustino is less than the wealth of Captain 
Luis), ala)Tij(tn pa itung batd ito (this child is not old enough yet). 

There are three ways in which the comparative by increase may be 
expressed. The first is by the position of the words only, what exceeds 
taking the nominative and what is exceeded the ablative with kay or sa, 
these two particles expressing "than." The particle ay is sometimes used 
with the nominative word. 

The second method is by prefixing the adverb laid (more) to the 
adjective, with the same construction as the foregoing. 

The third way, which is only used correctly for comparing qualities, is 
formed by suffixing pa (yet, still to the adjective) either alone or in 
conjunction with laid. Ex.: (1) Matads ak6 sa iyo, or akd^ y matads saiyd; 
(2) ako^y laloug niatads sa iyo; (3) nuifads pa akd sa iyo, or lalong matads pa 
ako sa iyo. All the foregoing may be translated by "I am taller than you 
are." (1) Payat ka sa dati (you are thinner than you were before), si 
Pedro'y rnasipag kay Juan (Pedro is more industrious than Juan), alln ang 
lualiksi, kay Pedro ni Juan/ (Which is the more alert, Pedro or Juan?); si 
Juan (Juan); si Juan ay mabait sa kaniyd; (2) si Juan ay lalong mabait sa 
kaniyd; (3) si Juan ay mabait pa sa kaniyd (Juan is more prudent than he 
[or she] is). (1) Ang kabanala'y mahal sa kayamanan; (2) lalong mahal 
ang kabanalan sa kayamanan (worth is more precious than w'ealth), ?Vo'// 
lalong magaling .m diydn (this is better than that), iydn ay lalong maputi sa 
dito (that is whiter than this), lahmg maraud ang maiujd cabayo sa maiTiid 
kidabao sa bayan itd, lu/unit ang maiTgd taga bukid mayroon lalong kalabao 
sa ang maiTijd taga bayan; (3) there are more horses than carabao in this 
town, l)ut the farmers have more caraliao than the town people, si Ciriaca 
ay batd pa sa akin, nTgunVt ang kapatid kong bahai/e'y marikitpa sa kaniyd 
(Ciriaca is younger [literally, "more of a child yet"] than I am, but my 
sister is prettier than she is), siyd'y laid pang kayumangi sa kaniyang 
iiuVtmaliit pa si yd so. akin (she is still darker [more brunette] than her 
mother and is shorter yet than I am). 

A laconic but correct form of comparison is expressed by using pa after 
a pronoun, especially in asking a question. Ex. : Hindi mo nadbut, akd pa? 


(It was not reached by you; shalll?). Jliudt ko naaalamcnt; ikao paf (Ido 
not know it; do you?). 

For the negative form of the comparative, as in such phrases expressed 
in English by "without comparison," "there is nothing Hke it," 
"there is nothing resembhng it," etc., Tagalog has several expressions 
almost alike in meaning, which are formed by prefixing ka to various 
roots; the negative wald, (there is no [t]) with the tie lu/ preceding the 
root and its prefix. An is sometimes found as a suffix with these expres- 
sions. Ex. : 

Walang kahalimbdiia, without comparison; 

Walnngkahulmtulad, without similarity (generally in speaking of objects) ; 
Walang katulad, without similarity; unlike; both the foregoing from tulad; 
Walang kaliambmg, without resemblance; synonym; 
Walang kawangis, without resemblance; 
Walang kaholi lip, without likeness (this phrase is rare); 
Walang kamukhu , without facial resemblance, from muk-hd, face; 
Walang kapaniay, without an equal; referring mainly to height, length, 

Walang katalamilan, without resemblance (a rare expression) ; 
Walang kawangki, without resemblance (also a rare phrase). 

To ask questions as to comparative equality, inferiority, or superiority is 
done in Tagalog with ga (how) prefixed to alin (which), or arto (what), 
in conjunction with ka prefixed to the root of the quality. With many 
adjectival roots ga and ka thus serve to show that the degree of the quality 
is the subject of inquiry. Ex.: Gaalin kalayof (About how far is it?); 
Gaanong kalakif (About how large is it?); Gaanong kahabaf (About how 
long is it?) ; Gaalin kaputif (How white is it?) . The answer may be given 
with the same construction, prefixing ga to a demonstrative pronoun or 
a noun, as the case may be, but if an adjectival root be used, it should be 
prefixed by ka. Ex.: Gaito; gauito (like this); ganq/d)i (like that); 
gagatas kaputi (as white as milk); ganilong kalaki (about as large as this); 
ganoong kahabd (about as long as that). Gaya is a variation. Ganga, 
another form, is generally used to indicate plurality. Ex.: Ganga nito 
kalaki (about as large as these); ganga niydn kaliabd (about as long as 
those). The noun, pronoun, or adjective compared sometimes takes the 
nominative and sometimes the genitive in these answers. Ga and its vari- 
ations may be said to express likenes.'^, and is but an offshoot of ka. In 
many cases na is also inserted in the sentence. Ex.: Gaaling na gaito 
kaonli? (How small is it, like this?). The letter n instead of i7g is used in 
some phrases. Ex.: Gnnnn dkin (that which belongs to or affects me); 
ganan inyo (that which affects you), etc. 


The superlative degree of the adjective may be divided into the simple 
and the absolute forms. The first, usually expressed in English by the 
use of the adverbs "very," "extremely," "excessively," "exceedingly," 
"surpassingly," etc., is expressed in Tagalog by the folloAving adverbs: 

(1) Lnbhd, very, very much, exceedingly. 

(2) Masdkit, extremely, exceedingly, hard (as in the phrase, "to rain 

hard"). Distinguished by difference in accent from ?jia.s«A(7, (ill). 
This adverb is used more with verbs than with adjectives. In some 
places sadyd has the sense of "very;" ex., sadyang linis very clean. 

(3) Di sapala, extremely, exceedingly, from di, not, and sapala, humble, 

unworthy, the idea of the adverb being that of plenty or sufficiency. 

(4) Di hdmak, extremely, from di, not, and hdiiKik, vile, worthless, mean, 

the whole idea being "not paltry," "not mean." 

(5) Dipalak, far, widely. 


(6) Labis, too, too jmich. This adverb has sometimes a sHght idea of 

craft, cunning, or slyness. 

(7) Toloo, truly, exactly, precisely. 

The adverbs formed with dt always follow the adjective in the sentence, 
but the simple adverbs may either follow or precede the adjective. 

dl mpala. 
dt liamak. 

He (she) is very old (extremely, etc. ) : j ( llhht'^' 

(a his. ' 



Lidilid \ 

Labis >siyd matandd: He (she) is very old (too, truly, etc.). 

lotoo J 

The following phrases will illustrate the various idiomatic uses of the 
adverbs with the adjective: (1) Lubhd aiuj pagkapagal ko (I am very tired; 
lit., "very great is my fatigue" ); (^) ngani/lalo}ig masdkit ang kaij Pedro 
(That's so, but Pedro is still more tired; lit., "but more excessive is [that] 
of Pedro " ) ; Iniibig kutang masdkit ( We like you very much ) ; Finagsisisdian 
silang uiasdkit (They are repenting deeply ); (3) Maijamandtsapalasiyd (He 
is exceedingly wealthy [very rich]); (5) Ungiinddn naitg labis (It rained 
too much); (verbalized) N(ip<(k((labls ang kabntihan mo (You are entirely 
too good [honest]); Linabisaa ang idos ko sa inyo (You exceeded your or- 
ders; youdidmore than I told you todo); (6) Tinolot6oniydangwikd(He 
is complying with his word [verbalized form of fuino]). 

The absolute superlative degree of the adjective (in the singular number) 
which is made in English by the suffix "est" and by the adverb "most" 
is generally exjjressed in Tagalog by repeating the entire adjective, whether 
it be simple or compound, by means of tlie jjroper tie, which is deter- 
mined by the ending of the adjective. P^x.: Mabutlrig niabidi (best); via- 
samang niasaiiid (worst); bawd na banal (most virtuous); ntasipag na vta.4- 
pag (most diligent); nailai/, va nialial (dearest, most pi'ecious); ma)niting 
mapuli (whitest, very white); maltitii na viaitim (blackest, very l)Iack). 

The plural of such superlatives as the foregoing is formed by using the 
particle inaiTijd with formed from simple adjectives, and either with 
■iiiaiajd or the reduplication of the first syllable of the root with those com- 
pounded with nia, the superlatives thus formed, either in tiie singular or 
plural, generally being printed as two words in order to avoid unnecessary 
length and also to distinguish more clearly from some diminutives. Ex.: 

The dearest [persons or ol^jects understood] {a)ig manga malud iia malial). 

The best [persons or objects understood] {ang maiTgd mabiding mabuli; 
ang mabubnting mabubtdi). 

The worst ( persons or things understood ) , ang manga masamang masamd; 
ang masasamang masasamd. 

The bravest men {ang niaiTgd matdpang na matdpang na Udaki; ang matatd- 
jjang na matatdpang na laluki). 

The ugliest animals {ang maiTgd pangit na pangii n« lidpop). 

What may be called the relative superlative degree, made in English by 
atlding the expression "of all" or a similar phrase to the superlative, is 
formed in Tagalog by adding the words sa Udiat (of all), sa kanild, 
(among them), etc. Ex.: Sino sa kanild'y ang lalong matdpang.'' (Which 
of those two is the braver?) ; Sino sa kanild'y ang matatdpang na ni((tatdpa)ig/ 
(Which of them is the bravest?); Ang maliit sa laJiat, si yd' y matdpang sa 
lahat (The smallest of all; he is the bravest of all). 

Superlatives are also formed by prefixing ka and suffixing an {han) to 
reduplicated bisyllabic words, and in the same manner with polysyllabic 
words, in the latter case only the fii-st two syllables being reduplicated. 


Ex.: Katamistamisan (sweetest), iroin tdniis; kabunalhanxilan (most virtu- 
ous), from banal; kar/inhagiiiliaaahan (luos^t wholesome), from ginhaua. 
The first two roots have two syllables and the last has three. This form 
may also be applied to abstracts formed with ka and an [han), and inten- 
sities them. Kx. : Kaiamisan (sweetness) ; katamlstainisa a {^\\ guineas itself) ; 
kalianalan (virtue); kabanalbunalan (virtue itself); kulainaran (laziness); 
kataniarta)iiaran (laziness, laziness itself). 

Verbs have a certain superlative form, which may be mentioned here 
for the sake of association. It is made by repeating the verbal root united 
by nang. Ex. : IliiTgl naiig IdiTgl (ask and ask over again) ; lakad nang lakad 
(walk and walk); "j/es" nang "//''■"«" f"':7 "'ikain mo (say yes over and 
over). This form is also found with nouns, etc. 

ShX'Tiox Five. 


The numerals form a small noun-group by themselves, having the three- 
fold character of substantive, adjective, and adverb. While the distinction 
between adjective and noun is not so sharp as with some other words, yet 
it is clear that the cardinals in Tagalog are nouns, as they show by always 
preceding the noun affected that "of" must be understood. Thus limang 
kalabao literally means "five (head) of cattle," and this holds good in all 

In Tagalog there are four classes of numerals^cardinals, ordinals, 
adverbials, and distributives. 

Tlie cardinals are: 

I sail'/ 

As in English, decimal numeration, by tens, is that used in Tagalog and 
throughout the Malayan family of languages. But Tagalog uses a peculiar 
form in the numerals from eleven to nineteen, inclusive, which differs from 
the method followed in every other language of Luzon. Labi, meaning 
"adding," and a variation of labis, is prefixed to the digits by means of 
the euphonic tie iTg; jwuo, ten, being understood. 

Eleven. Labing im. Sixteen. Labing 6nim. 

Twelve. Labing dalawd. Seventeen. Jjabing pito. 

Thirteen. Labing latlo. Eighteen. Labing walo. 

Fourteen. iMhing apat. Nineteen. Labing siijarn. 

Fifteen. Labing lima. 

The multiples of ten below one hundred are formed by prefixing the 
digit used as the hiultiplier to the word pouo, united by the proper tie. 

Twent}'. Dalairang pouo. Sixty. Aninina pouo. 

Thirty. Tatlong pouo. Seventy. Pitong poao. 

Fortv". Apat na pouo. Eighty. ]Valong pouo. 

Fifty. Limang jMUO. Ninety. Siyamnapouo. 

The intermediate digits, when used with the foregoing, are joined by 
means of 't, a contraction of at (and). 

Twenty-one. Dalawang pono't isd. Fifty-five. Limang pouo' I lima. 

Thirty-three. Tallong pono't tatlo. Sixty-six. Animnapouo'tdnim. 

Fortv-four. Apat napouo't apat. 














Apat (accent on first svlla- 


Sangpouo (contr. of 


pouo, "one ten"). 




Anim (accent on first svlla- 



The word for "hundred" is daaii, whicfi has a lioinonyin meaning 
"road." It is always j)receded by the api)roi)riate nmlti})Her, to which il 
is connected by the proper tie, d softeninji; to /• before 7in. 

One hundred. Isang duan; sang- Five hundreth Limang duan. 

daan. Six hundred. Aniin rin man. 

Two hundred. Dalawang ddan. Seven hundred. P'dong daan. 

Three liundred. Tatlong daan. Eight hundred. Walong daan. 

Four hundred. Apatnardan. Nine liundred. Siyam na rdan. 

Numbers below twenty added to hundreds are united with 'I, the n of 
ddan being dropped. 

One hundred and one. Sangddu't isd. 

Two hundred and eighteen. Dalawang dda't labing ivalo. 

The n is retained with multiples of ten. 

Two hundred and fifty-three. Dutaaaug ddan Umang pouo' t tatld. 

Six hundred and sixty-six. Anim na rdan dnim napou<yi dnim. 

Eight hundred and eighty-eight. Walong ddan iv(durig pouu't ualo. 

Nine hundred and ninety-nine. Sigam na rrian siyam na pouo' I siyam. 

The word for "thousand" is libo, which is found as ?-(7joand i-ihu in other 
Philippine languages. 

It is governed, like dda)i, by multipliers and suffixed numbers. The 
purely Malayan numerals end with libo, those for higher numbers being of 
foreign origin. Some higher numbers are said to have Malayan names, but 
it is doubtful as to whether their values are definite or not. They are noted, 

One thousand. Sanglibo. 

One thousand and eight. Sanglibo' t walo. 

Nineteen hundred and five. Sanglibo siya)u na rda't limd. 

Two thousand. Dalawang libo. 

Six thousand. Anim na libo. 

For "ten thousand" the term laksd is used. This is from the Sanskrit 
lakslui (one hundred thousand), through the Malay sa-laksa (ten thou- 
sand), the latter people mistaking its value. LakJi, with the original value 
of "one hundred thousand," is used by Anglo-Indians, as in the phrase 
"a lakh of rupees." 

For "one hundred thousand" another Sanskrit term is used, also with 
altered value. This is yida, from the Sanskrit ayuta (ten thousand). 

"One million" is now expressed by sangpouong yvia, or "ten one hun- 
dred thousands." Gatos and a)rgao-a)~gao are givtni in old dictionaries as 
equivalent to "million," but the former is the word used for "hundred" 
in most Philippine dialects, and the latter seems to have more the idea of 
"uncountable," "infinite," etc. 

In expressing numbers Tagalogs sometimes give a round number, less 
the few taken off, as "three hundred and sixty less two" for "three hun- 
dred and fifty-eight;" e. g., kulang nang dalaivd sa tatlong ddan dnim na 

Cardinals may be preceded by ang (the), when a concrete noun is modi- 
fied, as in the j)hrase Ang dalawang pisos na ibinigay mo sa akin (the two 
dollars which you gave me). 

Mawjd i)receding a numeral indicates the idea of "about," ".some," 
etc., as in the phrase maiTgd pitong tdno (about seven men). When the 
exact number is indicated H/ruI^u is omitted as a sign of plurality. Ex.: 
MaiTgd tdno (men, people); pitong tduo (seven men, persons). 

By reduplicating the first syllable of the cardinal the idea of "only" is 
brought in. Ex.: Jisd (only one, alone, etc.); dadalawd (two only, only 
two), etc. For greater emphasis upon the idea of limitation the number 
may be repeated with the initial syllable reduplicated. li,x.: Jisdisd (one 
only); dadaladalawd (only two). The adverb Idmang (only) may also be 


used for this same idea, the adverl) foUowinj^ the cardinal affected. Ex.: 
Isd lamang (only one) ; dalaivd h'unanrj (only two), etc. It will be observed 
that the rirst two syllables only of polysyllabic numerals like c/aZaw-'ti are 
repeated, followin<j the general rule in Tagalog. 

The question "How many?" is expressed in Tagalog by ildnf 

Tagalog has no abstracts like "a dozen," "a score," etc., these phrases 
requiring roundabout means of expression. "A dozen" may be translated 
by isang kapisanan nang labing dulawd, which literally means "a join- 
ing of twelve." The same is true of English abstracts like "monad," 
"decade," etc. 

"More," with a cardinal following, is expressed by labis or higif, which 
precede the numeral and are united with it by m, which expresses "than." 
Ex.: Labis sa lima, or higit sa lima (more than five). Labis i.s the more 
correct, as higit has an idea of excess in weight rather than in number. 
Kulang (less) is used in the same way. 

The indeterminate numeral "some," "a few," is expressed in Tagalog 
by il'tn. With the first syllable reduplicated or Avith lamang the idea of 
"only" is expressed; as, Ulan or ildn lamang (only a few). 

"Much," "many," and similar words are expressed by marami (from 
dami), and "a great many" may be translated by maramiyig marami. 
By making an abstract of dami and prefixing the definite article of com- 
mon nouns is expressed "the most," "the majority," etc. Ex.: Aug 

For the meaning of the numerals, see the work by T. H. Pardo de 
Tavera, entitled "Consideraciones sobre el Origen del Nombre de los 
Niimeros en Tagalog," published at Manila in 1889. 


The ordinals, which are the numerals designating the place or position 
of the object in some particular series, have more of the character of adjec- 
tives than have the cardinals. They answer the question Ikaddn? (In 
what order?) and are formed in a very simple manner in Tagalog for all 
numbers except "first," which is quite irregular, ika being prefixed to the 
cardinal. It should also be noted that the first syllable of daluwd (two) 
is omitted, as well as the initial letter of tatlo (three) and dpat (four) 
when preceded by ika. "Twentieth," however, is formed with il-« and the 
entire cardinal. 

The ordinals up to "tenth " are: 

The first. Ang naona. 

The second. Ang ikalawd. 

The third. A7ig ikatlo. 

The fourth. Ang ikdpat. 

The fifth. Ang iknlimd. 

The sixth. Ang ikdnim (initial letter dropped). 

The seventh. Ang ikapito. 

The eighth. Ang ikawaU. 

The ninth. Aug ika.nyam. 

The tenth. Ang ikapouo; ang ikasangpouo. 

In the southern provinces ang ikapolo is sometimes heard, due to Bicol 
and Visayan influence. Polo and pol-lo is also to be found in the dialects 
spoken to the north of the Tagalog region, and this form may be found in 
the north, but should be regarded as extraneous to the language. 

The following synopsis of the ordinals above "tenth" will give an 
accurate idea of their formation: 

The eleventh. Ang ikalnbing isd. 

The twenty-fifth. Ang ikadalawang pouo^t limd. 

The thirtieth. Ang ikatlong pouo. 

The fortieth. Ang ikdpat na pouo. 

The forty-fifth. Ang ikdpat napouoH limd.. 


The fiftieth. Ang ikalimang pou6. 

The sixtieth. Ang ikdnim nu puuo. 

The seventieth. Ang ikapitong pouo. 

The eightietli. Ang ikawalong pouo. 

The ninetieth. Ang ikasiyam na pou6. 

The one hundredth. Ang ikasangdaan. 

Tiie one thousandth. Ang ikasmiijliho. 

The one ten-thousandth. Ang ikasatiglaksu. 

Nouns following ordinals are tied to them according to the ending of 
the numeral. Ex. : AngikaUrnang tduo (the fifth person) ; ang ikatlong drao 
(the third day). 

In Tagalog, contrary to what obtains in Spanish, the ordinals are used 
for all days of the month, and thus agreeing with English. Ex.: Ikaildn 
drao ngajion nan g bnayig ilof (Whatdayof the month [is] this?); angikada- 
lawang pom? t jnto ( the twenty-seventh ) . Anong drao kayd iTgayon sa sung- 
lingof (What day of the week is to-day?); Ngai/o'y viernes (to-day is Fri- 
day). Anongiaonf (What year?); sangliho, s iyam na rda' t I'nnd (nineteen 
hundred and iive). Anong buan iTgaydn nang tann f (What month is 
this?); ang buan nang enero, po (the month of January, sir). And ang 
panga,lan mof (What is your name?); GHcerio, po (Glicerio, sir). Angika- 
lauang pamjalan (The second name [surname]?); Manalo, p6 (Manalo, sir). 
Taga sadn ka? (Where are you from?); Batangas, po (Batangas, sir). 
Ildn ka nang taonf (How old are you?) ; Mayroon akong daknvang pouoH 
limd (I am twenty-five years old) . Sadn naroon ang presidenie? (Where is 
the presidente [mayor]?) ; Nariydn sa ikalawang bdhay (There in the second 
house) . 

Fractions are expressed by the use of ang (the) if the numerator is one, 
the denominator being the ordinal desired, and bahagi (a part) following 
the denominator either expressed or understood. Numerals may replace 
ang. Ex.: Aiig ikalawang bahagi (the second part); ang ikdpal (the 
fourth), etc. Also Isang bahagi (one part); iatlong bahagi (three parts). 
Where the numerator is greater than one it is placed in the nominative 
and the denominator in the genitive, the two being connected by nang and 
the phrase followed by bahagi. Ex.: Tatlo nang dpat na bahagi (three- 
quarters); dalaivd. nang iatlong bahagi (two-thirds). 

"Half" is expressed by kalahad, as kalahating tindpay (half a loaf of 
bread). The noun "a half" is expressed by ka'hati, meaning generally a 
a half-salapi or 25 centavos. 

It should be mentioned that unauna means "in the first place," and 
when made an al)stract and preceded by the definite article of common 
nouns, as in the phrase ang kannaunahan, means "the very first." In like 
manner, hull (last), when made an abstract in the same way, as ang kahuli- 
hulihan means ' ' the very last. ' ' 


Adverbial numerals, expressed in English by "once," "twice," etc., and 
answering the question Nakaildn? (past tense) and Makaildn (present 
and future tenses), "How often?", "How many times?" are formed like 
the ordinals except that maka is prefixed instead of ika to the cardinals. 
The word for "once" is wholly irregular. In some districts these adver- 
bial numerals also express the idea of "fold," as "twofold," "threefold." 
As with the cardinals the sense of "onlj'" may be imparted by redupli- 
cating either the first syllable of the prefixed particle or following the 
adverbial numeral with Idmang. 

Once. Minsan, var. ninsan Nine times. Makasiyam. 

(rare). Ten times. Makasangpouo. 

Twice. Makalawd. Fourteen times. Makalabing dpat. 



Thrice. Mahdatlo. 

Four times. Mithiiapal, var. vm- 

bii/Hil (rare). 
Five times. Makalimd. 
Six times. Makaanim. 
Seven times. Makapito. 
Eight times. Makawulo. 

Twenty times. Makadalnvuing 

Twenty-tive times. M n k adalaivaug 

pniiut lima. 
One hundred times. Mukasangdaan. 
A thousand times. Ma k asa n g lib o; 


Naturally, as in all languages, the restrictive form is not used for very 
high numbers. 

Only once. Mitninsan. 
Onlv twice. Maniakalatrd. 

Onlv three times. Mamakdlntlo. 

In this connection it should be rememliered tliat ktiiUnif means " when?" 
used intemjgativelv. 


These numerals, expressed in English with "l:)y" between tiio numerals, 
as "one by one," "two by two," etc., answer the question Ihin llau f (How 
many at a time?) and are formed in Tagalog by tlie simple rei)etition o; 
the cardinal if bisj'Uabie, or the first two syllables thereof if longer, no 
tie being used. 

One by one. 

Two by two. 

Three by three. 

Four by four. 

Five by five. 

Six by six. 

Seven by seven. 

Eight by eight. 

Nine by nine. 

Ten by ten. 

Eleven by eleven. 

Twelve by twelve. 

Twenty by twenty. 

One hundred by one hundred. 

One thousand by one thousand. 

Nouns repeated in this manner acquire the idea of " every." 

Labilabing isd. 
Labilabing dalavxi. 
Da/ado /aircDig pouo. 

Every day; daily. 
Weekly (also every Sunday). 
Yearly; annually. 




0'-<ts-oras (from Sp., hora). 

The Tagalog word for "every" is tiuri, which may also be used. 

Distributives, answering the question Tigiildn/ (How many to each one?) 
are formed by prefixing the particle tig to the cardinals, the first syllable of 
the latter being reduplicated in those greater than "four". The first syl- 
lable is dropped from dalawd and the initial t from tatlo. 

One to each one. TIgisd. Six to each one. Tigaanim. 

Two to each one. Tigalaivd. Seven to each one. Tigpipito. 

Three to each one. Tigullo. Eight to each one. Tigwaurild. 

Four to each one. Tig'ipat. Nine to each one. Tigsislyani. 

Five to each one. Tigidimd. Ten to each one. Tigsasangpond. 

These may be also translated by "one apiece," etc. 

Tig prefixed to cardinals may also express the stamped, coined, or fixed 
value of money, stamps, etc. In this case the initial syllable of those 
numerals above four is not redu})licated. Xa is now more generally ust'd 



than tig for this purpose. Ex.: Seiiong ligulawang centavos (a two-cent 
stamp); salaping tiglimxmg pisox (a tive-peso bill or gold piece); tigdalinntng 
■jiouong pisoa (a twenty-peso bill or gold piece). It must be borne in 
mind that the Philippine peso is ecjual to u half dollar United States cur- 
rency, and that it is the legal currency in the islands. Hence the old de- 
l)atea over "gold" and "mex." should be relegated to the past. 

In the southern dialect tig is sometimes used to express the time at 
which something may l)e done or has been done, as in tigaga (to do some- 
thing in the morning); tighapon (to do something in the afternoon). 

The particle num, prefixed to nouns denoting money, weights, and 
mea.sures, imparts the idea of "each," "apiece," etc. This particle causes 
euphonic changes with some initial letters of roots, as follows: h and p 
change to m, the final n drop))ing from the particle; initial c (k), and q drop 
out, modifying n to iTij; s and t drop out; d drops out in most cases; initial 
m, n, and i~g also dro[) out, and an initial vowel («, i, o, and u) modifies 
the final n of the particle to ?7y. 

The former monetary system was founded upon the salapi, or half peso, 
nominally worth 25 cents at a gold basis, and now restored to that value. 
Sdldpt also means money in general. The peiio of one hundred centavos 
ia worth two salapi. In the old system the salapi was divided into 80 
cuartos, and upon these the people reckoned their market and other minor 
transactions. As these values and terms will linger for some time to come, 
especially in districts where Tagalog only is spoken, the following examples 
will 13 rove of use: 

A peso each or apiece. 
A lia1f peso each or apiece. 
A iialf (salapi) each or apiece. 
A real ( 12j centavos) each, etc. 

A half re\\ (6\ centavos) each, etc. 



MangahatX (from kaJiatl, 25 centavos). 

ManiJcapat (from sikdpat, a contrac- 
tion of sa ikapat, to the fourth of 
a salapi). 

Manik-ol6 (from sikolo, a contraction 
of sa ikaivalo, to the eighth of a 

Mangaliu (from aliu). 

Mawjualta (from ciialta, a corruption 
of cuarto). 

A cuartillo (5 cuartos or §0.03125, or 

P0.0B25) each, etc. 
A cuarto ( e0.00625, or ?=0.0125 ) each, 


The only measure of weight incorporated into Tagalog appears to be the 
t'lhil (from the Chinese tael, which was a very uncertain standard). By 
treaty the lutikwan tael or customs tael of China is now 3| ounces avoir- 
dupois. As a monetary unit the haikii-an tael varies from 55 to 60 cents, 
but is only quoted in banking operations and is not used by Tagalogs. 

The Philippine taliU may lie regarded as slightly heavier than a troy 
ounce, weighing 509.75 grains, the troy and apothecaries' ounce weighing 
480 grains, and the avoirdupois ounce 437i grains. 

One tiihil each. Mandltil. 

One pound Spanish each. Manlihrn (1.014-1 United States 

pounds) . 
One kilogram each. Mamplogramo (2.2046 United States 

One arroba (dry ) each. Mangaroba (25 lil)ras or 25.36 United 

States pounds). 
One "fardo" each. Mamardo (33 Sp. or 33.475 United 

States pounds; used in weighing 

toliacco ) . 
One quintal each. MioTgintal (4arrobas orlOl.44 United 

States pounds). 




Rice and grain is sold bythecaviinand its fractionn, which areas follows: 

One "apatan" each. Mangapatan (0.1981 of a pint, dry). 

One "chupa" each. Mangatang (4 apatan or 0.7925 of a 


One "ganta" each. Manalup (8 chupas or 3.1701 United 

States quarts) (from salop). 

One "cavan" each. MaiTgaban (25 gantas or 19.81 gal- 


There are 8 gallons to the United States bushel. United States dry 
measure is slightly different from British imperial. To reduce United 
States to British divide same named measures by 1.031516, and to reduce 
British to United States multiply by same. For common purposes use 
1.032, which is close enough. Trautu-ine. 

A "cavdn" of rice weighs 133 "libros." 

One "picul" each. J/«m!A-t<Z(137.9United Statespounds. 

Two piculs constitute a "bale" of 
hemp, abakd). 

The metric system is now official in the Philippines, and its use is gradu- 
ally spreading to all sections. 
Among the native measures of length used W'ith man are the folloM'ing: 

One inch each. Mananall (from sangdali, which in 

turn is contracted from sang, 
' ' one, ' ' and daliri, ' ' inch " ) . 

The Spanish inch is 0.91 of an inch. Daliri also means finger or digit, 
and the length of a Tagalog "inch" almost exactly corresponds to the 
"digit" of the early Hebrews, which was 0.912 of an inch. 

One "span" each. Manangcal {irom.dangcal,a.'^pRlm" ). 

The American "span" is 9 inches, while the Tagalog dangcal is one- 
fourth of a vara, hence 8.25 United States inches. 

One "vara" each. Mamara (from vara, a Spanish 

yard, equal to 33 United States 
inches, approximatelv, and actu- 
ally 0.914117 of a yard). 

One "braza" each. Mandipd (from dlpd, a braza, equal 

to 5 feet 5.8 inches United States, 
approximately Si feet). 

To express the idea of "at such a price apiece" the former monetary 
units were used with in {liin) suffixed to the unit, of which the initial syl- 
lable was reduplicated. The article or object of which the price was to be 
denoted ])receded the unit of value, the two words being linked with the 
appropriate tie, according to the ending of the first word. Ex.: Pipi- 
sohiii (at a peso each), librong sasalapiin (books at a half peso each), tind- 
pay na sisicapatin (bread at a real a loaf), iabacong aaliuhin (cigars at a 
"cuartillo" apiece). 

These terms will now onlj' be found used with those people still unfa- 
miliar with the new currency, but as these people speak only Tagalog as a 
rule they will naturally retain the old terms the longest. 

The following dialogue fairly represents what may be said in making a 
purchase in the market: 

A. Magkano bagd ang halaga nitof (What is the price of this?) 

B. Isang pisos, p6 (a peso, sir). 

A. MaJial na iotoo iydn (that is too dear). 

B. Hindi p(jt mnra (no, sir; cheap). 

A. Ariong muraf (How [is it] cheap?) 

B. Kayo na'y tumauad (you set a price, sir). 


A. Tailong pesetas ang ibibiguy ko (I will give 3 pesetas [60 centavos]). 

B. Hindi pong mangyayari; Apat na pesetas, p6 (I can not do it; 4 pesetas, 

A. Mabtiti (very well [offers a peso]). 

B. Wa/d akorig sukll, p6 (I have no change, sir). 

A. Ikdd ino mja sa am'mg baliay, doau babayaran kitd (bring it [them] to 
our house, we will pay [vou] there). 

B. Maluyoyatdf (Is it far?) 

A. Hindi, at doon Idmang sa may niarlel (no, it is there close to the bar- 
racks [quarters]). 

It should be borne in mind that "magkakano" is used when pricing 
objects of which a part only is desired, such as eggs, bananas, etc. 
"Magkano" indicates that the entire quantity is priced. 

The verbalized forms of the numerals will be given under the respective 
particles, as too lengthy explanations would be required in this place. 

Section Six. 
the adverb. 

By the name of adverb is distinguished that class of words used to modify 
the sense of a verb, adjective, participle, or other adverb, and usually placed 
near what is modified, as he writes icell, I readily admit, you speak correctly, 
very cold, naturally brave, very generally acknowledged, much more clearly. 
(All but one of the foregoing are from the Century Dictionary.) 

Adverbs may be classified, according to the same authority, as follows: 
(1) Adverbs of place and motion, as ]iere, there, up, out, etc. (2) Of time 
and succession, as now, then, often, ever, etc. (3) Of manner and quality, 
as so, thus, well, truly , faithfully , etc. (4) Of measure and degree, as much, 
more, very, enough, etc. (5) Of modality, as surely, not, perhaps, therefore, etc. 

According to P^arle, one of the most distinguished authorities on English, 
there are three kinds of adverbs, the flat, fiexional, and phrasal. 

(1) The flat adverb, which is a noun or adjective used in an adverbial 
position, is not considered as correct in books and papers, but is to be 
heard daily in conversation, as in walk fast, walk slow, speak loud, speak low, 
etc. In German, this form of the adverb is also literary, as einganzschones 
Haus ( a wholly beautiful house) ; er schreibt gut (he writes well [lit. , good] ). 
Adjecti\es of certain classes may be used this way in Tagalog, and espe- 
cially those of manner or degree, such as magaling (well); masaind (badly); 
niadalt (quickly, briefly), etc., which are also adjectives. There are also 
flat adjectives by signification, which are explained under the section to 
which they l)elong by meaning. 

(2) The flexional adverb, which is that distinguished by a termination 
in English and allied languages like ward, ling, long, meal, and ///, as in 
backward, darkling, headlong, piecemeal, and the great number in ly, such 
as quickly, quietly, rapidly, etc. Tagalog has no particle which thus marks 
out an adverb from other parts of speech. 

(3) The phrasal adverb, wdiich is also called an adverbial phrase, ia 
greatly used in English, and is to be found in abundance in Tagalog. 
Among English examples may be cited at bed, at length, by all means, for 
good and all, on every side, etc. 

There are also both in English and Tagalog what may be styled the ad- 
verbial pronouns, such as yes and 7io, together with the negatives not, nor, 
and neither. 

Unlike English adverbs nearly every Tagalog abverb may be made into 
a verb if the proper particle is used, and the border between adverbs and 
prepositions is very indefinite in some cases and must be determined by 
the aid of the context. 

As the form and composition of a word is subordinate to its meaning, the 
Tagalog adverbs hereafter considered will be classified according to mean- 
ing, irrespective of form. 


I. Adverbs of place and motion which answer the question manf 
"where?" are usually expressed in Ta^alog bysa followed by a root. This 
root sometimes has the expulsive particle * prefixed. 

Where. Sdan. 

Where? Sdan? 

Where indeed? Sdan nga. 

Anywhere, wherever, somewhere. Saan man. 

Evervwhere. Sdansdan man. Sdan reduplicated. 

Nowiiere. Sdnn ma'y wald. 

From all parts, may also mean to or Sa man man. 

in all parts. 

Where are you from? Taga man knf Sh/d^'he" and .s/7rt 

" they " may be used in placeof ka. 

Sdan may be verbalized with um inserted, forming Kumnan (to be some- 
where permanently), and also with ma (no), in the latter case taking the 
idea of to be somewhere either temporarily or permanently, as the case 
may be. Ex.: Nasdan ung miibahao na Hog? (Where is the ford of the 
river?); Masasdan siyd hagd? (Where will he be?). 

S'lan may be further verbalized by pa, in which case "to go" is inherent 
in the meaning. Ex.: Napaman siydf (Where did he go?); Xapamman 
siyd? (Where is he going?); Pamman siyd? (Where will he go?). 

Sdan has been corrupted to hda)i in some districts, owing to Bicol and 
Visayan influence, the former using haen and the latter liain. 

Sdan has an entirely different meaning with pa following or even alone 
in some cases, expressing a negative idea similar to "not yet," etc. In 
Ilocano sdan is also the negative participle "no." 

S 'tan pa? a\so means "where then?" in rather a sarcastic manner. With 
di added to scian pa an affirmative interrogative meaning is expressed, as 
Sdan pa di totno? (How can it not be true?). 

It must also be noted that in Manila and places where Spanish is largely 
spoken that some particles are used in a different manner than is the 
custom in rural districts. Thus, "Where are you guing?" is expressed in 
the country by sdan ka paroroon, but in 3Ianila l)y sdan ka paparoon. 
Other expressions of like nature are Sdan ang paroroonan mo? in which 
the definite is used, and sdan ka nagmnld? (VVhere did you start from?). 
Another similar question is Sdanka natTgagdling? (Where are you coming 
from?). The answer is generally given with .sa in the sense of from: Sa 
Mnlabon (from Malabon); sa Jmus (from Imus); sa bdhay ko (from my 
house), etc. 

There are four simple adverbs of place, which have heretofore been 
explained at length, and here only .some idiomatic uses will be set forth. 
These adverbs are dini, dito, dlydn, and dooi}. 

Dini, meaning "here" (toward the speaker), is verbalized by um, in 
the sense of taking a place near the speaker, etc. Ex.: Ihonini ka (take 
your place here); dungmidini ako (I am taking mj' place here^; dangmini 
ako (I took my place here); dirini ako (I will take my place here). 

AVith mag (nag) it is verbalized in the transitive sense, requiring an 
object. Ex.: Magrini ka niyang iindpay (put some bread here by me). 

With pa the idea of motion toward the speaker is expressed. Ex.: 
Pariin ka (come here toward me). This last form may be further com- 
pounded with the particle ])a, definite, corresponding to magpa, indefinite, 
to express the idea of commanding, requesting, etc. Ex.: Paparinihin mo 
si Carlos (tell Carlos to come over here). "Over there" is expressed by 
sa rini. 

Dito, meaning "here" (equally close to both sj^eaker and person ad- 
dressed), is verbalized in the same way as dini. Ex.: Dumito ka (take 
your place here) ; parito ka (come here) ; pa))arUohin mo si Carlos ( tell Carlos 
to come here) ; Piu<tparit6 mo siyd? (Did you tell him to come here?). The 
four adverbs under discussion admit thedefinites of / and an. That in / is 
compounded with ka, forming ika, ikina; and //; may be used when united 


with pa, the definite of magpa, as may be seen in the last two examples. 
The future is J'dpariritoldn mo sii/a'! (Will you tell him to come here?) and 
the present Fiuaparirito mo .uijuf [Are you telling him to come here?) . 
Reason or cause is expressed by ika, ikina prefixed to the adverb as a rule, 
although "why?" can also be expressed by anof as in Aauo kn rilu/ (Why 
are you here?). The more idiomatic way, however, is with ikina, as Ano 
anr/ ikinnparito mo? (What was the reason you came here?). Hun is used 
if the idea of place is to be made emphatic, as H'lno huga ang ]>inaritoIian mo? 
(Who did you come hereto see?). "Time" is generally expressed hy pa- 
naJio», which also means "weather," as Ano't di ka iiaparito sa kapanaho- 
nan? ( Why tlidn't you come here in time?) . "What" isexpressed hy and, 
as Xagaaiio ka diio? (What is your business here?); Magua)i6 sii/d dito? 
( What is he going to do here?); AnJun hagdJ (What of that?) or (What is 
there to do?); Ivaan6 ka? (What is being done to you?); Inuno ka? (What, 
was done to you?); Hindtka waaano (nothing can be done to you). Du- 
mito, with the particle magka and its variations, signifies "to come here for 
a particular reason or cause." Ex. : Ay at nagkadumilo ka? (For what par- 
ticular reason did you come here?); Aug ipinagkakadamito ko'y si Cabesang 
Toiiias (the "cabeza" Tom;is is particularly responsible for my being here). 

The fh-st of these two sentences is indefinite, grammatically speaking, and 
the last definite. For their grammatical construction see the particle 
magka, which is used with this signification with all four of the simple 
adverbs of place under discussion. For a tabular conjugation of dito see 
the tables of verbs. To express simply the time or reason for " coming 
here," i with pa may also be used, although ikina is more correct. Ex.: 
And ang ipinarito mo? ( Why did you come here?). The indefinite is more 
usual with kailnn, "when." Ex.: Kailan ka naparitd? (When did you 
come here?); Kahapon (yesterday). 

Digi'tn, "there" (near at hand), has the same construction as the fore- 
going adverbs. Ex. : Magdiydn ka nang tubig (put some water over there). 

Doon, there, yonder, is perhaps more commonly used in its various 
modifications than the other three simple adverbs of place. It may be 
verbalized with um, pa, puma, and magka as they are, with the same effect 
upon the root. Fa and magka modify the d to r. 

Ex.: Dumoon ka (station yourself there). Pardon ka (go there). Papa- 
rooninmo si Carlos (tell Carlos to go there). Pinaparoon. rno siyd? (Did 
you tell him to go there?) Snan ka paroroon? (Where are you going?) 
Some localities, notably Manila, repeat the particle ]>a with the present 
and future of the adverbs of place; but this is irregular and incorrect. It 
is unknown to the early writers. Aling bayan ang paroroonanmo? (What 
town are you going to? Lit. "Which town will be your going place?") 
Ano ang ikinaparoroon mo sa Maynild? (Why are you going to Manila? 
Lit. "What the cause of going there your to Manila?") Ay at magka- 
dumoon ka? (For what particular reason are you going there?) ying iki- 
naparordon ko' y dalauin ang dking kapatid na babaye (I am going there to 
visit my sister). 

Magka prefixed to ddon alone means "to have." 

Ex.: Ktmg magkaroon sand ako nang maraming jrdak, ay hind!, ako mag- 
kakaganito (If I had plenty of money, I would not be in this fix). Ang 
pinagkakaroonan niyd. ang Pulacdn (He has considerable property in Bu'a- 
cdn) . Ang ipinagkakaroon niyd ang pamana sa kaniyd nang ind niyd. ( He 
[she] has plenty on account of the inheritance to him [her] from his [her] 

The foregoing illustrates the indefinite idea of the third singular personal 
pronoun, which may mean either "he" or "she." In English this is con- 
fined to the plural, "they" indicating either sex, as Tagalog sild, while 
Spanish distinguishes by ellos, "ellas." Man gives the idea with dooyi, "to 
be there," "to have there," magka indicating really "to have plenty." 
Ex.: Bigydn mo sild nang mandoon (take one of those over there), isang 
mandoon (sangddon) (one out of many things over there); sa/7rfoo?;r/ lami- 
tang sukd (a small bottle of vinegar); isang madoroon (a person who has 



plenty). The word may prefixed to doou. forms the well-known and much- 
used indefinite viayroon, to have. Ex. : Mai/roon kaiig haga, nurig tind- 
payf (Have you any bread?) Mayroon kang paroroonan? (Do you have 
to go there?) 06 nga, mayrdon akong paroroonan (Yes, indeed, I have to 
to go there?) . Mayroon ka nnng Hang taonf ( How old are you? Lit. Have 
you of how many years?) Mayroon akong dalawang pono (I am twenty; 
lit. Have I twenty.) With some suffixed particles doon is modified as 
follows: Doon din "(in the same place there); doon sa iba; doon dao (in an- 
other place); sa doon (over there); sn doon man (anywhere over there). 

Many phrasal adverbs are made by the particle .sa which means among 
other things at and in when placed before a root. Among the most impor- 
tant phrasal adverbs of place with sa are: 

In front; facing. 

In the presence of; before; opposite; 

to the front. 
Behind; back of. 

Joined to. 

At the edge or side of. 

On the other side of; beyond. 

Inside; within. 

Above; up. 
Below; down. 

Sa iapat; iapat sa. Ex. : Ilong hahay 
ay taput sa sdangan (this house 
faces the east) . Iapat has also the 
idea of setting out in rows, regular 
order, etc., such as trees, plants, 

Sa harap. Sa hdrap nang capitun 
(before the captain). 

Sa likod. Ex.: An g manga bahay sa 
Ukod nang cuartel (the houses back 
of the barracks). Ang likod (the 
back) . 

Sa piUng. 

Sa tabi; synonym sa s'lping. 

Sa kabild. With mag the idea of 
"both" is brought in. Ex.: Sa 
magkabild (on both sides); and by 
the reduplication of the first two 
syllables of the root the idea of 
"all" is expressed. Ex.: Sa mag- 
kabikabild (on all sides). Napa- 
roon Slid sa kabild nang Hog ( they 
Avent over there beyond the river). 
Sa magkabdd nang katauan (on 
both sides of the body). Kabild 
has also the idea of "partly" and 
is used idiomatically when speak- 
ing of rice. Ex.: Itong kanin ay 
kabildn (this rice is but half 
cooked ) . In speaking of anything 
else, with the same idea in mind, 
the usage is quite different. Ex. : 
Itong sisiu avg koltild'y luto't ang 
kabilu'y hindi (this chicken is 
partly cook and partly not). 

Sa labds. 

Sa loob. This phrase is much used 
to express the idea of the heart, 
speaking in a moral sense. Ex.: 
Sa tanang loob (whole-heartedly; 
with all the heart). 

Sa itdas (from tdas and expulsive 
particle ;')• 

Sa ibatid (from babd, idea of low, 
humble, with expulsive particle i). 
This word should not be confused 
with the following. 



Upon; on; above. 

Under; beneath; at the bottom of. 
Halfway (between two points). 

In the middle. 

Around; about; close to. 
As far as; up to. 

Sa ibahao (from babao and i) . Ex.: 
Sd ibabao nang bundok (upon the 
mountain [mountains] ). Babao, 
with accent upon the last syllable, 
means past, as babao .sa hating 
gab-i (past or after midnight). It 
also means "near" in some places. 
Ex. : Babao baga ang bagan na. 
atinf (Are we perchance near the 
town?) Malapit is now the ordinary 
word used for "near." 

Sa ilalim (from Idlim, root of idea of 
depth and expulsive particle i). 

Sa gltiiu. Ex.: Nasagitnd tayo sa 
paglakad (we are halfway in the 
march [trip or journey]). 

Sa pagitan (from gitnd). Sa pagitan 
nang lansangan (in the middle of 
the street). Also means "term." 
Ex.: Walong bnan ang pagitan 
(a term [period] of eight months). 

Sa may. Ex. : Sa may (cartel (close 
to the barracks). 

Hangan. Ex. : Saan ang tungo mo? 
(Where is your trip to?) Hangan 
Maynild. Hangan dito (up to 
here). Also has the meaning of 
"until." Ex.: Hangan biikas 
(until to-morrow). 

Sa kanan. 

Sa kaliwd. 



Sa bdhay. 

Sa bayan. 

Sa bukid. 

Sa bundok. 

To the right. 

To the left. 



At home; in, to, or from the house. 

In, to, or from town. 

In, to, or from the country. 

In, to, or from the mountains. 

These adverbial phrases can be indefinitely increased by the use of sa 
with the proper root. 

Toward. Dako. Ex. : Dako saan ang tungo ni 

Juan? (Toward where is John's 
trip?) Dakong Maynild, (toward 
Manila) . Dako saan ang tungo mo? 
Toward w^here is your trip?) Da- 
kony bayan ko^y ang tmTgo ko (my 
trip is toward my town). Taga 
sdan ka? (Where are you from)? 
Bosoboso, pd (Bosoboso, sir). Da- 
kong kanan (toward the right). 
Dakong kaliivd (toward the left). 

Approaching. Ddpit. Ex.: DdpU Maynild (ap- 

proaching Manila). Ddpit ibabd 
(approaching the lower country). 
Ddpit sa iyo (approaching you). 
Ddpit has also an idea of "be- 
yond," "on the other side of." 

II. Adverbs of time and succession, which generally answer the ques- 
tion kaildnf (when?), are quite numerous in Tagalog, showing that the 
conception of time was well developed for a primitive people, only the 
hour and its subdivisions being unknown to the language, except as de- 


rived from Spanish. However, the day was quite minutely subdivided 
according to the position or absence of the sun, and while now generally 
out of use these terms are also given. 

When? Kalian f Ex.: Ka'ddn sila naparitof 

(When did they come here?) 
KaUan man (always). With neg- 
ative, translated by never. Ex.: 

Ka ilan man Iiindi ( always 

not or never). Kalian man siyd'y 
hlitdi ungmiiniua nang cape (he 
[she] neverdrinks coffee) . Kalian 
pa man (no more), also kalkallan 
ma'yhlndi. Dl mamakalldn (many 

When (used relatively). (1) Kun. Commonly used only with 

present and future tenses, but may 
l)e used with past indefinite if ac- 
tion is represented as custoniary. 
Ex.: Ki(n dardtlng aug capltdn, 
alaniin vio ako (when the captain 
comes, let me know [future]). 
Kun ako'y naroroon sa Maynlld 
napasusaluneta akong malimlt 
(when I was in IManila I often 
went to the Luneta [past time with 
customary action]). Kiin tmcl 
( whenever) . Kung mlnsan (some- 
times) . Kun is also used as a 
preposition, "if". See under "if". 

(2) Xang. Used with both definite 
and indefinite past tenses. Ex.: 
XangalkV !l dlndlao nh/d kagabi, wald 
rltd slid, (when he came to vi.sit 
them last night, they were not 
here) . Xang dnmatlng slyd aaka- 
kaln na ako (when he came I was 
through eating). 

(3) Xoon, niyon, nlydon. These 
words mean really "in those 
days," "at that time," etc. Ex.: 
Noon imng drao ay nangyari ang 
pagbabakd sa Imns (on that day 
the fight at Imus took place). 
Xoon, narltd pa sa Mai/inld ang 
manga Castila (while the Span- 
iards were yet here in Manila). 
Perhaps "then" in some cases 
would be the best translation. 

Then. Doon. Ex.: Kan kamaln ka, ddon 

maaalaman mo, kun and ang kanin 
(when you eat then you will know 
what you are to have) . With jja 
following ddon has an idiomatic 
use. Ex.: Bald pa'' y gumagaicd 
nang ganito, ddon pa kun lunuiki? 
(A boy yet, and doing so, what 
will he be then when grown up?) 

Always; constantly (sometimes Tuwi. Ex.: Tuwlng tuui {tavinang 
' ' whenever " ) . ' luwi ) mayrdon kang ga ud ( you have 

something to do always). Tawing 
sumiUat ka (whenever you 







Ago; since. 

As soon as. 

write ). As adjective tuwi 

means ' ' every. " Ex. : timing cirao 
(every day). In some cases it 
means "as lontjas." Ex.: Timing 
di inajioul aiig pagkaiauo (as long 
as manhood is not extinct). 

Among other expressions may be 
mentioned tixdang liampai/, with- 
out end ; valang lihtt, without fail ; 
iralaiig tuhaii, without stop, inces- 
santly; valang tugot, without rest. 

There are two expressions used for 
"eternally," formed with the pre- 
fix magpa to a root which is fol- 
lowed by man saan. Ex.: Mag- 
patuloy man sdav; and magpardling 
{dating) man saan. Another 
jihrase is magpakailan man, or 
magpasakailan man, both of which 
signify always. 

Kaildn man hindt. 

Knng minsan. Maminsanrninsan, 
( from time to time ; now and then) . 
^fisandouu [rarely). Ex.: Misan- 
doua lamang ang pagparito mo 
(your coming here is rare). 

Bilnra. Ex.: BiJiirang tungmataiTijis 
itong batang ito (this child seldom 

Malim'it. Ex.: Malunit akong siuig- 
musulat ( I write often ) . 

Tamhay. Ex. : Tamhay kang nalis 
(ungmal'is) (since you left). 

Mnla. Ex.: Muld kahapon (since 
yesterday). The particle pagka 
sometimes denotes "since," as in 
the phrase pagkahatd ko (since my 
childhood). "From" would be 
an equally correct translation. 

Kaniakai from ka and waka) . Kama- 
kailang drao ( some days ago ) . Be- 
fore a cardinal followed by drao, 
"day," kamaka indicates the num- 
ber of days which have elapsed. 
Ex. : Kantakala uu {day before yes- 
terday ) , lit. , ' 'two days ago ;' ' kama- 
kalimang «coo (five days ago). Ka 
prefixed with jxi following a root 
also indicates "since." Ex.: Ka- 
hapon pa (since yesterday). Ka 
alone indicates past time, with 
some roots. Ex.: Kahapon (yes- 
terday), from hapon (afternoon). 
Kagatn (last night), from ka and 
gain (night). 

Sa, used adverbially, denotes imme- 
diate action, u.sually beginning a 
su))ordinate clause, which refers to 
a principal clause. Ex. : Sa pag- 
kamdlay niyd nang lindol siyd'y 
tungmakho sa labds (as soon as he 






Before; withal; as it may be. 

Before; a while ago. 


he felt the eartliquake he ran out- 
side. Sapagmhi viya nitong nuingd 
tvika ay na)iiatay (as soon as these 
words were sai(l by him, he died). 
Pag, thedefiniteof «iop', sometimes 
indicates this idea. Ex.: Pagsahi 
ko sa kanlla (as soon as I told them) . 
Pagka may also have the same 
meaning, as pagkapagaaral ko, mag- 
papasial ko (as soon as I have 
^studied, I^will go for a walk). 

Ngayon. Ng<vj6n din (rigiit now). 
This is also expressed by iTi/ayon 
iTgayon. Xag]>a)ujay6n or itagpa- 
kai~gayun{u\) to now ). ^Magpanga- 
yon (for the future). Ngayong drao 
(this day). 

Na. This particle is in constant use, 
and is always placed last. Ex.: 
Naparoon tia siyci ( he has gone 
already). There are many other 
uses of na in Tagalog, which will 
be set forth as they occur in the 

Pa. This particle, as an adverb, is, 
like na, always ])laced after the 
word modified. Ex.: /sa pa (one 
yet); may rian paf (Is there any- 
thing there yet)? It is also used 
speaking ironically. Ex.: Ako pa 
ang paroroonf (Will I have to go 
there yet?). Indi pa (not yet) . 

Pago. Ex. : Bago kang biunasa, 
icali.tan mo ang silid (before you 
read, sweep the room). — L. Bago 
pa (a while ago). Bago, as an ad- 
verb of time, always precedes the 
verb it modifies. 

Kawjina, variation kanina. Kangi- 
nang langhali ( beforenoon) ; kaiigi- 
narig umaga (this morning a while 
ago). Balanain nio yamig sinahi 
kaiTgina ( go back to what you were 
talking about before). [Keturnto 
the thread of your story. ] Kangi- 
kaiTgina pa (a little while ago, a 
short time ago). Ex.: Kangi- 
kamjina naritu did (they were here 
a short time ago). 

Sa una. tSa una pang sa una (very 
anciently). Ex.: Sa unang drao 
(in the days of old). J/H«a, which 
always follows it.s verb, means 
"first" either in time or place. 
Ex.: Mdsok ka inuna (you enter 
first [polite expression]). Bago 
kumain ka, vianhinao ka rniina (be- 
fore you eat, wash first [i. e., your 
hands]). — L. Gavin mo muna (do 
it first [def.]). Uintay ka muna 



Formerly; anciently. 

Later; presently; by and by. 

At once; immediately. 

At once; immediately; suddenly 

Instantly; at once. 

Instantly; like a flash. 

Suddenly; in a moment. 

Offhand; suddenly. (Used with 

verbs of doing and speaking. ) 
After beginning; upon starting, etc. 

(M'ait first [indef.]). Mima, used 
with a pronoun without a verb, 
comes first, and governs the nomi- 
native. Ex.: Mima knyo (you 
first); muna ka na (you ahead). 

Sa dati. 

Sukd. Ex. : Ginamt ang PaiTijinoon 
Dios ang lawjit, sakd ajtg litpa (the 
Lord God made the Heavens, 
afterwards tlie earth). Bib. Na- 
taud siyd (she laughed); at sakdf 
(and afterwards?) L. Sukarrtsakd 
(long afterwards). Manakanakd 
(after a long delay). Nagsasakd- 
sakd (one who is dilatory in his 
work or duties). 

Maniayd. Ex.: 'Svsdlat akd maviayd 
(I shall write by and by). — L. 
Mamaynvg hdpon (later in the af- 
ternoon). Mamayaniayd (onetime 
or another, little by little). Ex.: 
Itu'y minamayamayd ko (I did this 
little by little). Magmayd (to do 
anything little by little). Mugpa 
imparts the idea of waiting to this 
root and its combinations. Ex.: 
Nagjjapamayamayd ako (I am go- 
ing to wait a little while). 

Tambhig. This word is out of use in 
Manila. Ex.: Kumain ka lambing 
[indef.]; tavibiiTgin vio kumain 
[def.] (eat at once). Tambingin 
mong kunin ( take it at once) ; itam- 
hing mong ibigaj/ (give it at once). 

Agad. Ex.: Agarin mong gaivin {do 
it at once). Commonly used in 

Alipala. Ex. : Alipala nagdlit siyd 
(he became angry at once). Also 
means "one by one" in some 
places. Ex.: Alipala. 'taking kunin 
(I will take them one by one). 

Kagiat. Ex.: Kagiat nagtagibulag 
siyd sa aking maid (like a flash 
he disappeared from my view; he 
was out of sight instantly ). Tagi- 
bulag, idea of disappearing or be- 
coming invisible. 

Kaginsaginsa ( from ginsa, repetition 
of root and prefix ka). Varia- 
tion kahinsahivsa. KaaJamalam 
sometimes means suddenly (from 
alam reduplicated, and prefix /;o). 


Kapag . Ex. : Kapagkain ko 

(after I commenced to eat). Ka- 
pagpagdral ko (after I began to 
study). — L. Kapagdaka (from the 
beginning), syn. kapagkoudn. 



After fininishing; upon finishing. 

Until; while. 

While; in tlie meantime. 
Early; soon. 

Late; tardy. 


Last night. 



Midday; noon. 



The ancient Tagalog divisions of 

Cry (crow) of the chicken. 
Commencing to be light. 
Breaking of day. 
Becoming morning now. 

Kupnr/ka . Kapagkapngdral ko 

(after I had fini.^^hed studying). — 
L. Kdpagkardka (from the begin- 
ning; since time eternal). 

Hangan. Ex.: Hangdn hukas {xrntW 
to-morrow) . Hangdn nahuhuhag 
sigd (while he [she] is living). 
Bagknti also means "until". 

Sa iiniiitala. 

Miutgd (from aga, morning). Ex.: 
Magtqion kcmg uuiaga, knng dniiid- 
ting atig drao, houag kang i~gnma- 
patTijapa (get ready early, so when 
day breaks you will not be grop- 
ing around looking for anything). 
Ngapa, root of "to look around 
in haste for something". — T. P., 3. 

Htili. Ex.: Xahidi siijd (he was 
late). Ang huling drao (the last 

Kahapon. Kahapon sa hapon (yes- 
terday afternoon). 


Ngayon drao. 

Bukas. Bukus sa aga (to-morrow 
morning ) . 

TangJiaU (evidently from ]\Ialay, 
tanga ari, with the same meaning) . 
Ex.: Anong lioras ang idindting 
niydf (What time [hour] did he 
[she] come [arrive]?) Ang idi- 
ndting vigd ang tanghuU (he came 
[arrived] at midday [noon]). 
Magpukatangliall (to wait until 
noon). Ang ipinagpokuiangliaR 
(the cause of having been delayed 
until noon ) . MananghaU. ( to work 
or eat at noon) . A ng pananghaiian 
(what done or eaten at noon). 
But nununigludi, with acute accent, 
means to travel at midday. 

Bukas. Ang kabukasan (the follow- 
ing day). Walang buhukasin 
(without care for the morrow). 
Ex. : Bukas kung makalipas, sa lingo 
hung niakala in jias {to-morrow when 
passed, on [Sunday when gone). — 
T. P. , 1 60. Really means ' ' to-mor- 
row and to-morrow and to-mor- 
row," Shak., when there is no 
reason to beheve that it is intended 
to do anything. Bukas is the root 
of the verb "to open," and is only 
distinguished by the accent. 

Haling gahi. 

the day were: 

Tu)igmikim ang manuk. 
Magniamaraling drao. 

Magniamaraitng ai 
Bukang liwagway. 
Magumaga na. 


Morning now. Umaga na. 

Day now. Arao na. 

The sun is rising now. Sisilang na ang arao. 

Risen now. Swupnilang n<i. 

A little up now (the sun). Matluftxt/i'is nn. 

About 9 a. m. IpaiTghTj/illug tnumtk (lit., "egg laying 

of the hen"). 
About 10 a. m. Mnsaxaoli na ang arao (lit., "return 

now of the sun"). 
Midday; noon. Tangha/l. 

About half past 12. Bagomj nakding ang arao (lit., "the 

sun inclines again" ). 
About 1 p. m. Lampds na (lit., "past now"). 

About 5 p. m. Hampasin tikhi ang arao (lit., "to be 

touched by the 'tiquin' or pole 

used by casco men " ). 
About sunset. KauHin palacol (lit., "to be caught 

by an ax " ) . 
Sun is beginning to set. Bagong svsnksuk ang arao. 

Set now. Lungmulmgna. Another expression 

is lungmunod na (lit., "drowned 

Between daylight and dark. 3fasilim na. Also takip silim. 

Night now. Gabi na. 

Midnight. Kahoong gabi. The usual word at 

present is hating gabi. 

The following adverbs of time are also used in Tagalog: 

Hourly. Oras-oras ( from Sp. , Aora, "hour"). 

Daily. Arao-arao. 

"Weekly. Lingo-lingo (from lingo, "week," 

which also means "Sunday," and 
is derived from Sp., Domingo, 

Monthly. Buan-buan (irombuan, "month and 

moon " ) . 

Yearly. Taon-iaon (from toon, "year"). 

Continually. Parati. \'erbalized, this word has 

the idea of "perseverance," and 
in the phrase magparating man 
sa an means "eternally." A syn- 
onym for parati, in the sense of 
"continually," \spalagi. 

Some day. Baking arao. 

The particle maka, in addition to its meanings as a verV)al particle, sig- 
nifying power, ability, cause, etc., indicates completed verbal action with 
verbs of doing, saying, etc., translated by the word "after" with the verb. 
Ex.: Makayari ni'to'y paroon ka (alter you do this, go there). 

III. Adverbs of manner and quality, which generally answer the ques- 
tion maanof "how?" are numerous in Tagalog, many adverbs of manner 
being the corresponding a<ljectives used adverbially, especially those 
compounded with ma. Not all mn adjectives can, however, be so used, 
and neither can adjectives which are roots by themselves be used as 
adverbs. Thus adjectives Wke mnnnnnig (wise), mabait (prudent, etc.), 
ulul (crazy) are not used as adverljs in Tagalog. 

How? Maanof 'E.:s..: Maano kaydf (How 

are you?) Magaling (well). 
Maann ang ama ninydf (How is 
your father?) 

So; thus; in this way. Ganito (ivom diti'>) . 



So; thus; in that way. 

So; thus; in that way. 
Like (requires genitive) 


Like; as; so. 

How large; how much in extent? 

Intentionally; purposely. 

Voluntarily; willingly. 

Ganiy6n (from diyun). Gumaniydn 
(to act in that manner). 

Oanoon (from doon). 

Gay on (from yaon). Gumayon (to 
act in that way). Ex.: Gayon ni 
Pedro si Juan (Juan is like Pedro) . 


Gaal'i.n? Ex.: Gaal'mkalayo? (How 
far? [about]). Isang lioras, j)6 
(one hour, sir.) 

Ga has been quite fully explained under the comparative of adjectives, 
to which the reader is referred. Among some examples may be quoted 
ga huto ang loob mo (your heart is like stone), and gaiioJdn mo (make it 
like this). "Both alike" is expressed by kapoua, as may be seen by the 
examples: sauahi mo kapoua silang dalawa, (prohibit them both alike); 
ang kapoua mo tauo (like you, a person [fig., your "neighbor"]); ako 
wari kapoua mo, walang bait/ (Am I perhaps, like you, without judg- 

Paksd. Ex. : Pinaksd nild (they did 
it intentionally). Syn., sadiyd. 
Another word is tikis. Ex.: 
Tinikisnild (they didit purposely). 

Kusct. Ex.: Kinusd bagd nii/daf 
(Did he [she] do it wilhngly?) 
Kinusd niya (He [she] did it wil- 
lingly). With verbs kusd follows 
the same construction as to the 
particles as do the verbs. Ex.: 
Kusain mong tauagin siyd (call 
him purposely, i. e., do not for 
get to call him). I kusd mong ita- 
pon ito (throw this out purposely, 
i. e., you should have thrown 
this out yourself). Pagkusaan 
mong bigydn si Juan (give it to John 
voluntarily). Kusd is intensified 
by reduplication. Ex.: Waldkang 
kusakusang gumawd nang anoman 
( you do not do anything with the 
least willingness). 

Sa iiilitan ( from pUit ) . Ex. : Pilit na 
akiVyjwroon ( I am going perforce). 

Bukod. Ex. : Bukod siyang natduag 
(he was [has been] summoned 
especially). Bukod ka sa lahat 
(you are the only one among all). 
Marami man ang ginoo'y bukod 
mayaman si Capitan /yM/s (there are 
many "principales," but the only 
rich one is Captain Luis). 
Tawjt is sometimes used in this 

Akbay, var. agbay; agahay; agapay. 

Sabay. Ex. : Ang lalaki kasabay nang 
bayabe (the man as well as the 
woman, or the male as well as the 
female). — L. 

Sinasandopikd (from sandopikd, idea 
of punishing another). 

By force. 
Especially; only. 

As well as, etc. 

As well as; conjointly. 

Hurriedly or more quickly (said to 
be applied only to whipping). 



Quickly; hastily. 

Except; besides. 

Except; excuse me; by permission. 

Hardly; scarcely. 
Scarcely; hardly. 

Nearly; almost. 


Inside out. 

Upside down; reversed. 

Slowly; smoothly; noiselessly. 

BigM. Ex. : Kamatay siyang hiyld 
(he died quickly). — L. Verbal- 
ized . Ex.: lit (/la in mo ang lulol mo 
(hasten [abbreviate] your account 
[or story]). 

Liban. Ex.: Lihan sa iy6, walang 
ibang makaparoroon (except you, 
there is no other person who can 
go there) . Libdn sa iyo ang muha, 
ay dill ko ibibigay (except that you 
are to be the one taking it, I should 
not give it). 

Tabi. Ex. : Tahi p6, ako'y dardan 
(excuse me [for going before you, 
for leaving first, etc. ] . ) This is the 
shout "cocheros" use, 7abi! It 
literally means thus: "Aside." 
Tabi is also used for a polite cor- 
rection or contradiction: Singtabi 
sa iyo, hindi gay on {yon will pardon 
me, but it is not just like that). 
Tabiltan, refuse heap, rubbish 
heap, etc. 

Bahagyd, var. bahagid. Ex. : Ba- 
hagid na makasiya (it is hardly 
sufficient). — L. A synonym is 

Bihird. Syn. ara; dat-ha. Ex.: 
Datlia kong inabutan (I scarcely 
reached it). Bihird also means 
"seldom." Ex., as "hardly:" 
Binibihii-d ko na ang nagsipai'ito (I 
think scarcely anyone has come 
here yet). Bihirang dt iiaparoon 
(scarcely anyone was not there); 
i. e., nearly everyone was there). 
Mahina pa siyd^y bihirang makald- 
kad (she [he] is weak yet, and can 
hardly walk [is hardly able to 
walk] ). Bihird is verbalized with 
mag andmagka. Ex.: Pagbihirain 
mo ang kaiiin (change the food). 
Nagkffkabihird sild nang pagda- 
ramit (they differ in their manner 
of dressing). 

Hdlos. Ex.: Halosnamataysiyd{h.e 
[she] almost died) . 
Ay on. 

Alinsunod (from sunod, to follow, 

Baliktad. Ex. : Baliktad ka niydn 
(indef. ); baliktarin mo iyan (turn 
that inside out). 

Touarik (from tou'ad). Syn. touandik. 
Ex.: Touarik na bantd (light- 
headed; injudicious). 

Marahan (from dahan). Marahan 
dahan or dahan dahan, very slow- 
ly. Dumahan, to go away slowly. 
Magdahan, to go slowly. Magpa- 
karahan, to go very slowly. Ex. : 




Carefully: in an orderly maimer. 


Hard; roughly; yigorously. 

Briefly; quickly. 


Magpakarahan hang lumdkad (go 
very slowly [indef.]). Pakara- 
hanin mo ang pagJiila (throw it 
deliberately [def.]). Mapakara- 
lian, to go yery smoothly; slowly, 
etc. Ex.: X'tpakaraluoi )ia (it 
has slowed up already; it has 
quieted down already, etc.). 
There is also a definite with an. 
Ex.: Dnhanan mo iijcmg gauu mo 
(do that work quietly, etc. ). Met. 
adject. Ex. : Marahan ang looh 
niyc'i (he has a magnanimous 
heart), hmt inot, yery slowly; 
"little by little" is not much in 
use. LouG)/ louag, little by little, 
is about equal to t'-Jioa, etc., and is 
used generally calling to animals. 

Mahiiti. Mahuting mabutl, yery well. 
Syn. Maigi. 

Mahusay. Mahusay na maliusay, 
very carefully; in a yery orderly 
manner. Ex.: Jd? i/ gauinnini/nvg 
vialn'isai/ (do this carefully). 
Bnloiin mong maJii'isay (wrap it up 
carefully). Humnmy, to put in 
order; to arrange; to disentangle. 
3Iagpak(thusa>/, to arrange well; to 
settle things with care. Adj.: 
"well kept," etc. Ex.: Husaynn 
buhok ( well kept hair) . Ang hinii- 
my ( what disentangled or set in 
order). ITumy na usap (a care- 
ful conyersation). 

Ma^iiiiin. Masamang masamd, very 
badly. Ex. : Xatulogakong )/tammd 
kagab't (I slept badly last night). 

Malakas. Ex.: Houag mo akong lak- 
kamn nang panguiTgnsap (do not 
talk to me so much in such a 
rough manner) . Kalalakas kang 
liunakdd (walk ■with vigor). Iti- 
noJnk niya nang malakds ang hangka 
(he pushed the banca [canoe] 

Madali, var. marali. Combined with 
both um and, an anoma- 
lous verb is formed, inngdumaU, 
to make haste, and in turn thi.s 
is used with a noun to indicate 
time. Ex.: M(igdnm<diiig drao (a 
short ^vhile, or time). Examples 
as an adverb of niddtdt are: (unr'tn 
mong madali (do it quickly ) ; sabi- 
hin mong madali (tell it quickly). 

Matihay. Ex.: Talian mong maiibay 
(tie it strongly). Walang nunang 
tibay pagkasira'y Jtalinhan (there 
is no repairing stronger than to 
rejilace what is destroyed). — T. P., 




Frequently; often; closely. 



Judiciously ; prudently. 
Customarily; commonly. 

Openly; publicly. 

Do you understand ? 
6855—05 7 

822. Manibay, to prop up; to sup- 
port; to sustain. Ex.: Ji/a)if/ ha- 
tong ang pinaninibayannnng f/uliai/ 
(that stone is the i)rop of the 

Magaling. Magaling na niaguliug, 
very finely. Ex. : Kiingmain ukong 
magaling (I ate finely). Ang 
nagagaling, person improving (as 
from an illness). Gumaling, to 
grow better (as a sick person). 
Maggnling, to prepare. GuliiTgin, 
what prepared. Mangalmg, to 
improve greatly. Makagaling, to 
do good. Ex.: Ang mawja gamot 
ay siyang ikinagagallng naxg iiiiDTija 
may sakit (medicines are what 
cause the sick to recover) . Mag- 
pagaling, to prosper. Magpakaga- 
ling, to improve; reform, or cor- 
rect one's self. Ex. : Magpakaga- 
ling kayo nang maiTjjd asal ninyo 
(improve yourselves in manners) . 
Kagali)Tgan, goodness. Ang pina- 
gagaling, thing bettered (present 
tense) . 

Malimit. Ex. : Malimit akong naUiigo 
(I bathe often). Also name of a 
close-woven basket made around 
BosoboHO, Rizal Province. 

Not expressed by a single word, but 
by phrases, the adjective inaru- 
nong, wise, being expressed with 
the subject in the nominative, and 
the verb in the infinitive. Ex.: 
Marunong siyang umdral (he 
teaches wisely), not ungmadral si- 
yang marunong, which wouhl be a 
proper construction if marunong 
were an adverb. 

Matulin. Tumulin, to do anything 
swiftly. Magtulin, to go swiftly. 
Ang ipagtulin, the cause of going 
swiftly. Ex.: Papagtulininmoang 
bangkd (make the banca [canoe] 
go swiftly) . Mataling tumakbo to 
run swiftly). Katulinan [abst. )] 

Sa bait. 

Sa ugali, also with abstract, sa kau- 

Sa hayag. 

Sa lihim. Lihim na gawd, a secret 
deed. Ang gawang lihim ay naha- 
hdyag din (secret deeds are the 
very ones found out). — T. P., 515. 
Ang lihim ay siyang hdyag (the hid- 
den is what is discovered). — T. P., 

Hanif var. "hanidf" 




Iba. This word also means "other," 
"different," etc. In .some phrases 
it has the idea of "better." Ex.: 
Iha an;/ jHjgoiig Jtull tut, sa suiTfjai^an 
dadakpin pa ( better a quail already 
caught than a horned animal yet 
to be caught).— T. P., 443; i. e., 
"a bird in the hand is worth two 
in the bush." — Cervantes. The 
earliest form in English says, "bet- 
ter one byrde in hand than ten in 
the wood," Heywood, abt. 1565. — 
T. P., 442, is ibd ang pogong Jiull na, 
sa huhiilihin pa (better the quail 
already caught than the one still 
to be caught). This is found in 
Greek: "He is a fool to let slip a 
bird in the hand for a bird in the 

Sampuii.. When followed by nang, 
nito, naman, etc., the final n is 
dropped. Syn., pail. 

Gagaunti. { from 7(ni(, idea of a little) . 
Ex. : Mnntlng ttWig (alittle water). 
Kaunti, a little, as in speaking a 
language, etc. 

Sa sandali. Ex. : Houag kang ma- 
balam doon, sumandali man lamang 
(do not delay there more than an 
instant). Saisang kisap maid (in 
the twinkling of an eye). 

Saanpa dU var. Sadlf Sdan pa di 
gayonf (Why not that way?) 

At anof Ay and? ( Who doubts it?) 
At or ag joined with certain parti- 
cles means "why?" Ex.: At dif 
(Why not?) 

Mahanga. Si maham/a (better). Ka- 
hniTgahaiTga (admirable). 

Kua daiTgan. PakundanTgan (for the 
sake of). 

Tantd. Verbalized tantd means to 
iindertstand. Ex.: Xatatanto mo f 
(Do you u nderstand it? ) Dili ko pa 
natatanld (I don't understand it 


Totdo mandin. Also totdo din ; totdo 
nga ; totoong totdo ( very truly ) . To- 
tdo manding totdo (very truly, in- 

nga, var. iTganit. Ex. : Siyd nga ang 
nagnakao (he is certainly the 

Din. (Changes to ri)i after some 
words. ) 

IV. Nearly all the adverbs of measure and degree have been fully 
explained under the comparative and superlative of the adjective. It may 
be noted here that the adverb is made superlative by the reduplication of 
the adverb, with the proper tie, in the same manner as the adjec-tive. 
Many examples have l)een given on the foregoing pages. The only adverbs 
noted here will be Mmon^, "only;" sigdna; and sukat na, "enough." 


Forthwith ; instantly. 

Why not? 

It would be better. 
If it were not. 


Certainly; indeed. 
Truly; really. 


V. Adverbs of modality, such an "surely," not, "perhaps," etc., have 
been treated under otlier adverbs or will be included with the adverbial 
pronouns and expressions of affirmation, negation, and doubt. 

Affirmative adverbs are fairly numerous in Tagalog. The principal are: 

Yes. Oo. Opo (yes. sir [or madam]). 

Oo ivja aad 60 iTganit (yes, in- 
deed). Pado (to say yes). Anff 
ipaoo ( what said ) . Jbig pinaoohau 
(person to whom yes has beea 

Indeed; without doubt. Pala. Siyd pala (it is he, indeed). 

This word is used in asserting 
when a thing is certain. Ex.: 
Indi pala si Pedro ang nagnakaof 
(Is Pedro the thief without 
doubt? ) >SV?/(?, p(da ( he is, i ndeed ) . 
Kapala pa (it is clear). Ex.: 
Kapala pa'y paroruon akn (it is 
clear that I am going there). 
Kapala pa^y dt paroroon al:6 (it is 
clear [of course] that I am not 
going there). 

Also; likewise; as well. Namdn. Man (even). 

Should. Disin. Ex.: Kun slyd'y siisulat dl- 

sin, ay paroroon sana ako (if he 
should write, I would go there). 

Would; should; could (idea of com- Sana. Ex.: Ibig ko sana^y sumulat, 
pulsion). wjuni't wald akong kapanahonan 

(I would like to write, but I have 
no time). Ako ang paroon sana, 
bago ikao^y naparitS (I had to go 
there, before you came here). 

The principal negative adverbs are as follows: 

No. Hindu 

Not. Indi. Indi pa {not yet) . Indi man, • 

indi rm (neither; noteither). Indi 
na (not now). Indi Idmang (not 
only, solely ) . Indi iydn f not that) . 

I don't want to. Aaydoako. yl' [pronounced abrupt- 

ly] (I don't like it). Kaayauan 
[abst.] (dislike). Aug inaayauan 
(what disliked or refused). 

Not. Di. Ex. : Di isu man; di vnm naud 

(in no way). Dimaii; di pa {not 
yet). Di anhinf (What matter?) 
Di anhin dao na (for it is said 

that ). i)t nmmio (it is said). 

Di and pa? (How can it be?) Di 
nga salamat (may it be thus). 
Ito'y di maigi (this is not good). 
Di sino ( to who else). Ex. : Disino 
ang daiiTgan mo, kiindi ang capilanf 
(To who else should your com- 
plaint be made except the cap- 

Not. Dili, varia. diri. Mapadiri, to say 

no. Aug pinadiririan, person to 
whom no is said (present ten.«e). 
Magpadiri, to say "no' ' repeatedly. 
Ang pinagdirian, the person to 


whom "no" has been said many 
times (past tense). Padili ka, 
say no. Dili rin, no indeed. At 
the end of a sentence dili some- 
times means " or not. " Ex.: Ba- 
huynd sHa, ddi.^ (Will they pay or 
not? ) 
No (forbidding). Honor/. Ex.: Houag va (do not do 

it now [presupposes previous com- 
mand]). //oufr(;i ///d/t (leave that! 
drop that!) Houagan moii/dn (let 
that alone). Houngan mong kunin 
(do not take it). Houagan mong 
itapoii (do not throw it out). 
Houagan mong tiiTijnan (do not 
look at it). Honag kang par6o7i 
(do not go there). Pahouagin mo 
iyang iauo niynn (tell that man not 
to do that). Pahoungan mo hjan 
d'ti/an sa lata (forbid that to that 

There are a few adverbs of doubt in Tagalog, as well as some phrases 
meaning the same. They are: 

Perhaps. Baga. 

Possibly. Kayn. Kaya iTga (just because, just 

for that reason). Used with af- 
firmative sentences. Kayd iTganit 
(as soon as ) . Kaya iTijgam (since ) . 
Used with negative sentences. 
Makakaya, to be able (in a phys- 
ical sense). Kaya is also any 
hunting or fishing utensil or in- 

Why? For what reason? Wari. Ex.: At ako wari pardon? 

(Why do I have to go there?) 
With neg., At di vari ako pardon? 
(Why don't 1 have to go there?) 

Perhaps. Upan. It is never put last in a 


I don't know. Ara'in. Do not confuse with aayao 

(I don't want to). 

If it could be thus. Naua. Siyu nana. { it may be this 

way) . Used for ' ' amen. ' ' 


The preposition, which serves to connect a noun to the sentence, in the 
same manner that the conjunction introduces or attaches sentences, is not 
as highly developed in Tagalog as in English, and for this reason thesame 
preposition means what it would take several different ones to express in 
English. The principal Tagalog prepositions are: 

In; to; from; against; at; by; on; Sa. Ex.: (in) Sa hayan (in town); 
per; between; with; of; among; sc bdhay (in the house); (to) sa 
for; across. ali ko (to my aunt); sa amain ko 

(to my uncle); sa ama ko (to my 
father); sa ind ko (to my mother), 
these also mean "for" my aunt, 
etc.; sa bdhay (to the house); sa 
iydn bdhay (to that house) ; (from) 
sa bdhay (from the house); 


(ag;ainst ) lahan sa kamiay (against 
the enemy); (at) sa huhuy (at the 
houye); "(per) ialU) sa sungda (8 
per cent); (between) sa magaling 
at iiiaKamd ( between good and bad ) ; 
(with) sama sa kaniydtig unak 
(she is going with her child) ; (of, 
rare); (among, unusual); (for) 
patuMjo ko sa America ( I am leav- 
ing for America); (across, rare). 
Sa is verbalized, the veri)s thus 
formed being explained later. 
Without. Walii. P^x.: Wald akong salapi (I 

am without money). Magvald, to 
runaway; to get rid of. Mawald, 
to lose; to miss. Ex.: Nnwaldn 
ako nang lakus ( I lost the strength ) . 
Makaimld, to be able to_run awav. 
Ex. : Hindi makaimld, vgujion (it is 
not possible to run away now). 
Magpawald, to pardon, forgive. 
Wald with in also means to remit 
or cancel. Ex.: Walinmovaang 
utang ko sa iy6 (cancel the debt I 
owe you) . Magkawald, to go apart, 
to break away. Ex.: Fapagka- 
walin mo kami (let us quit [as 
partners] ) ( excl. ) . Sinong imld f 
(Who is absent?) Wald ka kaha- 
pon (you were absent yesterday). 
May ikinawawald ka nang balang 
naf (Is there anything you lack?) 
Walang wald (absolutely nothing) . 
Narval'd sa kamay ko (it escaped 
from my hand). Mawald man 
isang anuang kalakian, houag ang 
isang snlitaan (better to lose a cara- 
bao bull than a moment of conver- 
sation.— T. P., 869. Ibd ang may 
ay-ay sa wald (it is better to have 
a scarecrow than to be without 
one). — T. P., 866. Nagmamayroo'y 
wald (they pretend to have some- 
thing, but are destitute).— T. P., 
867. Mapipilit ang mardmot, ang 
wakVy hindt (the miser may be 
forced [to give something], but he 
who has nothing, no).— T. P., 868. 
Walang masamang kaniyd, walang 
maigi sa ibd (faultless what is his,_ 
good for nothing what is of 
another).— T. P., 870. Wald also 
means " the open sea, a gulf," etc. 
Magpawald (to put to sea). Ex.: 
Nagpaivald ang Moro nang kani- 
yang samsamin (the Moro put to 
sea with his booty). 

Of (and family or associates). Kand. Ang bnkid kand ali ko (the 

field of my aunt and her family). 
Paka nd sa Juan kand (go to Juan 
and his family). 


Of (genitive of si). ^^i- Ex.: Ang ni off an ni Luis {homs' 

cocoan u t pal m gro ve ) . Ang ha h ay 
ni Toinus (Thomas' house). 

Of (gentitive of a»/;). Nang. Ex.: Ang bdhay nang amd ko 

(my father's house). 

To (dative, etc. of si). Kay. Ex.: Ilong tungkod ay kay 

Juan (this cane is John's [is to 
John] )_. 

Against. Ldban; Idhan na. Ex.: Ikao^yldban 

sa akin (you against me), hang 
hokbo ldban namdn sa ibd (one army 
against another). Magldban (to 
resist or struggle against). 

From. Bdhat. Ex. : Sdan ha nagbuhat? 

( Where did you come from?) 

From. Muld. Ex. : Mvla iTijayon ( from now 

on). 8a muld (from the begin- 
ning). Ex.: Muld so Idnes hangdn 
sa viernes (from Monday until 
Friday). Mnldsa 3fay)uld ha))gdn 
sa Santa Mesa (from Manila as far 
as Santa Mesa). Magmuld (to 
start; to commence). 


Genuine conjunctions are rather scarce in Tagalog, but many other words 
may be used as a conjunction would be in English to join sentences together. 
The principal ones are: 

And. At. This loses the vowel in many 

cases, being pronounced with the 
word preceding as a final /, and in 
such cases is written '<. 

Together with. Kasnmd (from ka and sama) . 

Not only — but. Hindi Idmang — kundi bagkus. 

Unless. Ilouag U'unang. 

Even; as well as. Sabdy. 

Or. Kayd. 

Or not. Dili. Also man. 

Either — or. Magin — magin. 

Or. (Sp.) 

The foregoing are called binding conjunctions as to the first four and 

alterative conjunctions as to the last four. The following are called adver- 
sative conjunctions. They are: 

But. Nguni; ku»di; datapoua; subali; alin- 

tana. Nguni never begins a i)rin- 
cipal clause, but always a sul)ordi- 
nate one, and generally in an an- 
swer. Ex.: Ibig kvsanaiig kit main, 
lujunVl hindi akd mangyayari (I 
would like to eat, but I am not 
able to). — L. '^ from at, is almost 
invariably joined to iTT/jn;?. Kundi 
is used for subordinate clauses, gen- 
erally when the principal one has 
a negative meaning. Ex.: Hindi 
Idlaki, kn)idi babayc ang ibon (the 
bird is not a male, but a female). 
Thitapoua, which generally take '/, 
means "but" still stronger than 



P>nt rather. 
Neither — nor. 

Although; though. 

Although (more formal than above). 

Ever so much, although (giving a 
reason or making an excuse). 


Since; whereas. 

No matter if; even if. 

AVhat; because 
But; vet. 

Some conjunctions may be styled 
Tagalog are: 


Because (giving reason). 

kundi, denoting a sharper contrast, 
as between rich but miserable, etc. 
Subiili means "but for," etc., as 
conditional. . I /<;//«»((, which takes 
V in beginning a clause, means 
"but for all that, "etc. Verbalized 
the two foregoing words mean "to 
except," Bago is sometimes used 
in the sense of "but." Ex,: Tnn- 
ghallna,bago'' ij vnld pa siya (noon 
already, but he is absent yet), 

Kundl hiujkus. These wonis may be 
used alone in this sense, and may 
also be joined together. 

Man — man. Man — manJdiidi rlti. 
Ex. : Wald kami hi gas man, illog 
man (we have nothing, neither 
rice nor eggs. 

Baganidn. Ex.: Bagaman dukhd si 
Juan, sa piiri nama'y maydman slyd 
(though Juan is poor, he is rich in 
a good name ) . 

Bistd't. Bistd't napojjoot siyd sa akin, 
uy bibigydn din ako (although he is 
angry at me, it will be given to me). 

Mataymdn. Ex.: Matayindnakoynaa 
ka'ibig paritd, ay dt ko makayanan, 
(although I wished to come, I was 
not al)le to [I had no strength]). 

Kahl, var. kahimat, kaliinyd, kalii- 
nyd man, kahi'i. Ex.: KahiinaH 
di mdyag sild, paroroon din ako, 
(although they do not consent, I 
shall go there). 

Palibhasa (from Sanskrit, paribhd- 
shd, sentence, reprimand, etc.) . It 
is followed by ' y in sentences. As 
an adverb it is equal to kayd r~ga ; 
kayd pala, as well as to "since" 
and "whereas." As a noun it 
means "irony." Magpalibhasa (to 
speak ironically). 

Sukddn. Ex.: Magpapakahusog mnna 
siyd, sukddn siyd'y magkasakif (he 
will gorge himself first, even if he 
makes himself sick). 

Maijapd, var. mayapd'f, little heard. 

Bago. Ex,: Sild' yang may sala,bago 
ako ang pinarusahan (they are the 
ones at fault, but I am the one who 
has been punished). 

"causative," The principal ones in 

Bakin? \ar. bdkit. Bdkit dif (Why 
not?) Bdkit also means "as," 
"how," etc, in sentences. As a 
noun bdkit means an old monkey 
with developed teeth. Ano'tf also 
means "why?" 

Sa pagka't. 



A fifth group of conjunctions is generally that called "conditional." 
The significations of the members of this group are self-explanatory. 

If; rather. Kun. 

Unless. Ku7i diri Idmang; kun dt lamang; 

liban na. 

As if it were. Kun sana sa. 

Were it not for. Kun danyan; daiTgan. 

Provided. Kun lamaug; houag Idmang. 

Lest. Baka, var. makci. 

The sixth and last group of conjunctions is that of the cla.«s called "con- 
clusives" in some grammars and "illatives" in others. In Tagalog the 
principal ones of this class are: 

That (relative) . 


Consequently; that is to say. 
Therefore (consequently). 

In order that. 
Inasmuch; in so far as. 

Nang. Ex. : Mngpagamot ko, nang 
ikdo ag gumnling (allow yourself 
to be treated, so that vou mav be 
better).— L. 

Na. Ex.: Xagsabi siya na ako'y 
natulog (he said that I was asleep). 

Di yata. 

Sa makatouid ( lit. " in other words ' ' ) 
Ex. : Xakila ko sild kagab-i, sa ma- 
katouid hindi sild sungmakay (I 
saw them last night, therefore 
they did not embark). 

Upan. It is never put last in a 

Yamang, var. yai/amang; yayang; 
hayumang; hamaug. Ex.: Mang- 
yayaring gawln niyd yayaman siyd'y 
goberno dor-general (he is able to 
do it, inasmuch as he is governor- 
general) . 


The exclamation, or interjection, can hardly be regarded as a part of 
speech, compared with verbs, nouns, adjectives, etc., but for want of a 
better classification they may Ije treated here. They are generally self- 
explaining, and many seem to be roots used as imperatives of the verb. 
The most characteristic Tagalog interjections are: 


Aroy! Aray! 

Ayad! (mostly used by women). 

Bapda. May be used together, 

bapda preceding. Bapda is more 

in use by men. 
Buti ruga! 
Kahimanuaril Xaud! Maano! 

Dear me! Alas! 
Ouch! Wow! 

Oh how ! 

Oh how ! 

(Always follows.) 
(Always follows.) 

Good! Fine! 

Poor thing! 

Would that it mav be so! Oh 

that ! 


Be silent (to one)! 
Xo talk! Silence! 
Lightning! (Oh, hell!) 
My mother! 

What a pity! 

Move on! Go ahead! 


Houag kang magiiTgay! 

Houag kayong magiiTgay! 


Nako! Naku! (Contraction 

ind ko.) 



Look out! Aside! Take care! Tabi! Hag! 

Stand hack! Urong! 

Look! Behold! Here it is! Manad! 

Tagalog cursing is rather pecuHar. It has evidently been derived from 
native sources and not from contact with the Spaniards. Among the most 
usual expressions are: 

May a crocodile eat you! Kanin ka nang huaya! 

May the earthquake swallow you up! Lamunin ku -iiang I'mdol! 

May a snake bite you! Tukain ka nang alias! 

May the lightning strike him! Tinamadn siyd nang liniik! 

Section Seven. 


I. ' ' The verb is distinguished from all other words by marked characteris- 
tics and a peculiar organization." — Earle. The eminent philologist speaks 
thus of the English tongue, but his remarks apply equally to Tagalog. He 
further defines a verb as '"the instrument by which the mind expresses 
its judgments," a definition which was first enunciated by the Danish 
philologist Madvig, in his Latin grammar (Copenhagen, 1841, 8th ed., 
1889). Madvig calls a verb udsagusord, literally "out-saying-word." 
Other characteristics of the verb have been noted and have given names 
to the class, such as the German Zeilwort (time- word), and Ewald's 
Thatiiorl (deed- word). But in Tagalog the line between nouns and 
verbs is much less than in English, where it is still less than in Latin, 
Greek, and other languages of southern Europe. 

IL The simplest verbal form is the imperative, which consists of the 
root, followed by ka (thou) or kayo (you; ye). An adverb of time is some- 
times added to the phrase for emphasis. Ex.: Ldkad ka na! (walk 
on, now!) Mp ka! (Think!) Aral ka! (Teach!) Dald mo d6o7) (take it 
there). I)akl mo dllo (bring it here). As in English, many of the roots 
used as imperatives may be used as nouns also. Aral, as a noun, means 
"doctrine" or "teaching." Ex.: Aug ural ni Monroe' y ang dral nang 
America wjatjon (the Monroe doctrine is now the doctrine of America). 

ni. By prefixing ka to the imperative, and reduplicating the first sylla- 
ble of the root at the same time (sign of the present tense) the idea of 
quickness, intensity, care, etc., is imparted to the command. Ex.: 
Kalalnkud ka! (Goquickly! [to one]) . Kaluldkad kayo! (Goquickly! [j'e] ). 
Kai'ixip ka! (Consider it well!) KadadaJd mo doon (take it there care- 
fully). As a general thing the agent takes the indefinite form, as will 
be seen by the examples, but the definite is used when necessary. 7v« 
with the reduplicated first syllable of the root has a very different mean- 
ing with any other person than the second. With the first and third per- 
sons it has the idea of "timejust past," when followed by />o, as will be seen 
by the following examples. Sometimes pa may be omitted. Di7i may 
also take the place of pa, as may also Idmang. In English the time may be 
expressed by " has " or " had," according to the contex. Karardting ko jta (I 
have [had] just arrived). Karardting ni Gat Tomds (Don Tomiis has just 
arrived), ibig mong makakain sa dminf (Do you wish to eat with us?) 
Saldmat, aydoako'tkdkdkain kopa (thanks, Idonotcareto, I have just eaten) . 
Kagagd ling nang kapatid na babaye ko sa bayan (my sister has just come 
from town). Kahihigd ko din (I had just lain down). Kapapanaog ko din 
at hapapanhik Idmang nild (I had just gone down and they had just gone up 
[i.e., the house ladder] ). Kapapdsok Idmang niyd sa bdhay (he had just 
entered the house) . Kapapdsok din ngayon ni Esleban sa basahan ( Esteban 
[Stephen] has just entered the reading place [i. e., the master's place]). 
Kasusdlnt ko (I had just written it). A'o^otopws/.o (I have just finished it). 
Kaialagpi ko ( I had just mended it). Kauutas na ko (I had already finished 


it). Kaaalix Inmancj n'nja (he has just gone away). Knnalis pa nang aking 
amd (my father has just gone away). Kaaalls din iTgayon nang capitan 
(the captain just now left). With roots hke dral, which have several dis- 
tinct meanings according to the verbal particle i^refixed, ka does not 
require the first syllable to be repeated. Ex.: Kapanijangaral din ngayon 
nang pare (the priest has just finished preaching). In this case the prefix 
is reduplicated, maiTijdral meaning " to preach." Kapagal'm din ni Benigno 
nang damit (Benigno just took the clothes away). Magalis means "to 
take away." 

IV. Ka has many other functions, which will be taken up later. It is a 
most important particle and should be carefully studied. It should be 
noted that the pronouns with the imperative are mostly in the nomina- 
tive, while with the first and third persons they are in the genitive. 

V. All such sentences are in the definite or so-called "passive," which 
is by far the most usual form in Tagalog, but which would look very 
strange many times if translated by the English passive. 

VI. The foregoing form is also used to express opposites, the words 
being linked l>y ay. It may be expressed in English by "now, again," 
or " now, then." Ex.: 

Now he sleeps, then he wakes. Kalutulog ay kagigising niya. 

He comes in and goes out. Kapapasok ay kalalabas niya. 

He is coming and going. Karartaing ay kaaalis niya. 

Sometimes he walks, then he rests a Kalalakad ay kahihiniohinto niya. 

Now she laughs and then she cries. Katataua ay kaiiyak. 

VII. When a prefix changes the meaning of a word, it is retained in the 
imperative. Ex.: Aral ka (teach); pagdral ka (study); pangaral ka 

VIII. With the exception of the forms already cited, the verb is always 
accompanied by particles, which sometimes modify the I'oot itself for 
euphonic reasons. Nearly every word in the language can be made a verb 
of some kind or another by the use of these particles, which are the strik- 
ing peculiarity of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, but have been re- 
tained in the primitive tongues of the Philippines much more than in the 
Malay, Javanese, or other cognate dialects. There are some twenty of 
these verbalizing particles, of which seventeen are used as prefixes to 
roots, and three are the definite auxiliary particles in, i, and an. Of these 
particles, which are tabled at the end of the handbook, the most impor- 
tant are in, i, an, um, mag, and ma, the last three being indefinite particles. 
Pag, corresponding as a definite to mag, is also important. The mastery 
of these particles is the mastery not only of Tagalog, lint of every other 
Philippine dialect, as well as a valuable aid in learning Malay or any simi- 
lar tongue of the family. 

IX. The root with any one of the indefinite particles prefixed maj' be 
translated as the infinitive, provided the particle is merely attached to 
give the meaning of the root so modified, but whenever a tense is expressed 
the particle or the root is modified, and sometimes both. Besides the 
imperative and infinitive, Tagalog has really but one other mode, the indic- 
ative, as the subjunctive, including those modifications known in various 
European languages as the optative, conditional, dubitative, potential, etc., 
is expressed by certain words corresponding to the English "could, 
should, would, may," etc. 

X. Strictly speaking, there are l)ut three tenses in Tagalog, the past, 
present, and future; but it is possi))le to render the imperfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect tenses by means of auxiliary particles. The first three, 
however, are those in common use. The participle is also in use, CDrre- 
sponding literally to the English participle in some cases, and in others 
must be rendered by a phrase. The same remark may be made of the 
gerund in English, which is variously rendered in Tagalog. One tense 
is sometimes used for another, when the context clearly indicates the ti)ne 
of the event, as happens in English. 


XI. As in English, Tagalog verbs may be transitive, requiring an object 
to complete the meaning; or intransitive, in which the meaning is com- 
j)lete within the verl). These do not always correspond in the two lan- 
guages, and a Tagalog root may sometimes be intransitive with one ])refix 
and transitive with another, which may reverse or modify the meaning. 

XII. Within the tense the verb does not change for the penson or num- 
ber, and requires a noun or a pronoun to indicate the same. 

XIII. The eminent Indo-Tibetan philologist Bryan H. Hodgson (ISOO- 
1894), in his Monographs upon the Tribes of Northern Ti))et, reprinted in 
Part II, pages 73-76, of " The Languages, Literature, and lieiigion of Nepal 
and TiV)et" (London, 1874), gives it as his opinion that the Gyarung dialect 
of Eastern Tibet has a very similar structure to that of Tagalog, quoting 
Leyden and W. von Humboldt (the latter at secondhand ) in support of his 
views. Rockhill, the Tibetan scholar, now United States minister to 
China, who has a wide acquaintance with Tibetan, says that Gyarung is 
merely a variation of ordinary Tibetan, and this being the case there can 
be no possible atfinitj' between the two languages. As Hodgson's error 
has been given wide publicity by its incorporation as a footnote to the 
article by de Lacouperie upon Tibet in the Encyclopedia Britannica, it 
should be corrected as far as possible 1iy any sttident of Tagalog. 

XIV. As quoted and corrected by Hodgson, the remarks of Leyden, as 
taken from the Researches of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 209, 
upon Tagalog are as follows: "Few languages present a greater appearance 
of originality than the Tagala. Though a multitude of its terms agree pre- 
cisely with those of the languages just enumerated (western Polynesian), 
yet the simple terms are so metamorphosed by a variety of the most sim- 
ple contrivances that it becomes impossil)le (difficult — B. H. H.) for a 
person who understands all the original words in a sentence to recognize 
them individually or to comprehend the meaning of the whole. The arti- 
fices which it employs are chiefly the prefixing or postfixing (or infixing — 
B. H. H.) to the simple vocables (roots) of certain particles (serviles), 
which are again (may be) combined with others, and the complete or par- 
tial repetition of terms in this reduplication may be again combined with 
other particles." 

XV. Hodgson notes upon the foregoing as follows: " I may add, with 
reference to the disputed primitiveness of Ta-gala, owing to its use of the 
'artifices' above cited, that throughout tiie Himalaya and Tibet it is pre- 
cisely the rudest or most primitive tongues that are distinguished by useless 
intricacies, such as the interminable pronouns, and all the perplexity caused 
by conjugation by means of them, with their duals. and plurals, and in- 
clusive and exclusive forms of the first person of both. * * * The 
more advanced tribes, whether of the continent or of the islands, have, 
generally speaking, long since cast away all or most of these 'artifices.' " 
As has already been noted, the Tagalog pronouns do not modify the verbs, 
which have the same form within the tense for all persons and numbers. 
As compared to tongues like Fijian and other Melanesian dialects, Tagalog 
lias made long strides toward becoming a vehicle of a much higher culture 
than it now enjoys. 

XVI. W. von Humboldt says in his Kawi Sprache, Vol. II, page 347: 
"The construction of the ^Malayan verb (to speak of the entire linguistic 
stock) can be fully recognized from the Tagalog verl) alone. The Malagasy 
and true Malay contain but fragments thereof, while the Polynesian lan- 
guages have a more primitive scheme of the verb — fewer in forms. It 
therefore seems appropriate to present: 

First, the Tagalog verb comj^lete without any regard to the other 

Second, the Malagasy (verb), which has in itself very much of the same 
construction ; 

Third, to show what the Malay language in its discarding and grinding 
of grammatical forms has still retained; and 


Fourth, to make a research as to how the simple hut uncultivated Poly- 
nesian verbal construction stands in relation to the partially cultivated 


I. As has been stated before, the definite form of the verb, which is really 
a verbal noun with tense-indicating particles, is more common than the 
indetinite form, which is more of a true verb in construction. One of the 
great ditticulties to be overcome by speakers of non-Malayan tongues is the 
improper use of the definite and indefinite. It is as easy to begin right as 
wrong, and if attention is paid to the conditions existing, an idiomatic 
mastery of Tagalog may readily be required. 

II. The true definite particles, in {liin after the final vowel with acute 
accent, and nin in a few cases for euphony), /, and an {han after a final 
vowel with acute accent), are used either alone or in combination when 
emphasis is to be placed upon the object or there is a special idea implied. 
These three particles are further combined with pug, the definite verbaliz- 
ing particle corresponding to tlie indefinite mag; i, in, and pa^many times 
commencing a definite verb with the combinations ipag and ipinag. The 
root begins after these combinations, subject to tense reduplications, as 
will be seen by the table at the end. The subject takes the genitive with 
the definite, the object taking the nominative case. Ex.: Root gatni (idea 
of making or doing) . Gumawd (to make or do). And ang gawd mof (What 
is your work?; i. e., What are you doing or making?). This is an indefinite 
question, with the verbal idea almost absent, the verb "to be" beingunder- 
stood. With an adverb of time, such as kahapon (yesterday), ngayon 
(now), or bukas (to-morrow) the verb could be "was," "is," or "will 
be." But the more usual form is with the definite particle in and the proper 
tense. And ang ginavu ino? (What did you do? [or make?]). For the 
past tense in is inserted with consonant roots between the initial con- 
sonant and the rest of the root. Ano ang ginagawd mo ditof (What are you 
doing here?) As will be seen, the present tense is formed by the redupli- 
cation of the first syllable of the root, in which in is infixed. A)i6 ang 
gaguida mof (What are you going to do? [or make?]; what will you do?; 
what will you make?) The future of this verb is formed by reduplicating 
the first syllable of the root and suffixing in. Ano ang gagauinnang amain 
mo niyang kahog na iyan? (What is your uncle going to do with that lum- 
ber?) Amain, from amd, father, with in as a suffix, also means "step- 
father," as well as "uncle." Kdhoy also means "tree." Isang bahay 
ang gaganinniyd (He is going to put up a house). The imperative is formed 
by suffixing m to the root. Ex.: Jto'y gan/in ninyong maliusuy (Do this 
carefully [in an orderly manner]). 

III. in is the principal definite particle in Tagalog, corresponding to the 
same i)article in Ilocano and to on in Bicol and Visaya, the two last men- 
tioned also using in in combination with other particles. 


IV. While it is not so very hard to lay down fairly clear rules as to when 
the definite and indefinite should be used [the former laying stress upon 
the object and the latter upon the subject or the action), it is extremely 
difficult in some cases to say which one of the several definite particles 
should be. As ageneral rule, in signifies motion toward the atrent, orsome- 
thing by which the agent obtains control of something; i indicates motion 
away from agent, or an action by which the agent loses control of some- 
thing, and an generally has either the idea of place or of person connected 
with its use. /joined with ka, resulting in ika, and further combined with in 
to produce ikina, denotes cause, etc., with roots when joined to them, either 
alone or with verbalizing particles. For this reason the jirojier definite to 
be used in sentences having a definite object without other modifying cir- 
cumstance is determined by the nature of the action, subject to some 
exceptions, mainly for euphonic reasons. Such words, however, as require 


an, for example, in place of in. are not numerous. F can not be replaced 
by in or an, and an only replaces in as a suffix, never as a prefix or infix. 
The following examples will show the different use of the same verb: 
'Root, paiihik. Panhik Aa.' (Go up! Come up!). Panhikin mo ako sa hag- 
dan (come up [to me] by the ladder). Ipanliik mo sa balmy itong marTgd 
sar/hig (Put these Itauanas up into the house). Panhikan mo ako nitong 
mai~g('t waging (Put these bananas up there for me). Piouanhik (to ascend). 
Magpiirihik (to hoist, or put something upstairs [or up a ladder]). Aug 
panhikin ( the jierson upstairs). Ang ipagj)(iiiliik{whsLthoisted or taken up). 
Ang panlnkan (the ladder [stairs or place] ascended). 

V. With sentences containing but one direct object which is directly 
connected with the action, the prevalence of cause, instrument, or time 
requires i, and place an. Ex.: Ihanap ningo ako isang cabayong mabnfi 
(look out for a good horse for me). Ang bayan ang hahanapan mo nang 
cabayo mo ( You will have to look around town for your horse). With in a 
proper use would be: JIanapin mo a)uj cahayongnawald (Look for the horse 
which has disappeared). Ang pinaglianapan ko ang corral nang cabayo, po 
(Where 1 did look for the horse was at the corral, sir). Hinanap ko ang 
aking cabayo sa bayan ay nahdnap ko (I looked for my horse in town and 
found him ) . Humdnap, ( 1 , to look for) ( 2, to claim ) . Manhdnap ( to scout, 
to reconnoiter). J??gr^xm/(aria;mi (what scouted for). Ang paglidnap (the 
act of seeking) . Ang paghanapan ( the place of seeking) . Ang panhanapan 
(place scouted or reconnoitered over). Ang hinanap (what sought for 
[past tense]). Aug hinahanap (what is being sought for). Ang hanapin 
(w'hat is to be sought or looked for). Ang hanapan (person from whom 
something is claimed or sought). Ang ihanap ( the means for something to 
be looked for). Aug ihindnap (the means with which something was 
sought). The foregoing illustrate the ease with which verbal nouns can be 
formed from verbs and vice versa. 

VI. When a sentence has more than one indirect object, and stress is to 
be laid upon one or the other object, the nature of the action determines 
the particle to be used. The following examples, taken from Lendoyro, 
show this excellently: Sulatin mo ito)ig sulal sa lamesa nang ki'nnay mo 
("Write this letter" yourself at the table [i. e., with your own hand]). 
Isulal mo nitong saint ang iyong kdtnay sa itong lantesa (Write this letter 
"with your own hand " at this table). Sa lamesa ang sulatati mo nitong sdlat 
nang iyong kdniay (write this letter with your own hand, using the table as 
a writing desk). It will be seen from the foregoing that many of the defi- 
nite verbs are verbal nouns with ang (the) left off. Bearing this in mind 
the use of the definite is made much easier. 

VII. Circumstantial members connected with the action should be care- 
fully distinguished when using the definite from adverbs or adverbial 
expressions. Some examples of the definite with adverbs or adverbial 
expressions are: iSadiyang ginnwd niyd ito (He did this willfully). Dina- 
lohong nild siyd nang boong bagsik (They assaulted him [her] with great 
barbarity ) . 

VIII. Jpag, ipinag, and ipinn, the two first being coml)inations with pag 
and the last of i with pa, the definite verbal particle corresponding to magpa, 
confuse the student at first, but are simple when analyzed. Ijnna, ipa, 
when followed by a root commencing with g, should not be confused with 
ipag and ipinag, as the idea of ^xt is "to order to do" what is signified by 
the root. Combinations with other particles, like magka, are also found, 
iorming ipugka (imp.), ipngkaka (fut.), ipinagka (past), and ipinagkaka 
(present). It will be noticed that the last syllable of the particle is redu- 
plicated with pagka for the future and present tenses. Ex.: Ipagabutan 
ninyo iyang maiTijd libra (Pass those l)Ooks from hand to hand). Ang abn- 
tan (the person reached for or overtaken). Si)io ang ipinaglulutb mo? ( Who 
are you cooking it for?) Ano kayd ang ipinagntos nio sa. kaniydf ( What 
were your orders to him?) Ipaghnliugas sana kild nang itong damit iTg^inVt 
%vald akong sabon (I would wash your clothes, but I have no soap). Kitd 
is really "we two," but here means "I." Jpaglagd mo nang sa itong ofi- 


cial ito (Make some tea for this officer). Ait(i inihu/n ( what boiled or made 
[as tea, coffee, etc.]). Aug ipaglujd (the person for wiioin boiled, made, 
etc.). Anrj lagudn (the teapot, coffeepot, etc.). In the foregoing exam- 
ples pag is used because the sentence expresses the person for whom an 
act is performed. Fag is also used with in and an combined in like cases. 
Ex.: Jtong bahuy na ito^ g ang pinagauayan nild (This house is where they 
quarreled). Root, duay. 

IX. Fag must also be used with the definite whenever the sentence 
expresses plurality of acts or agents, or of feigning or reciprocal actions. 
The article being generally used, the idea of a verbal noun is most promi- 
nent. Ex.: Ang ipinagsakitsakitan niyd'y ang hindi dusahin (He was 
malingering so as to escape punishment). Root, sakit (illness). (Diminu- 
tives made by repeating a bisyllabic root or the first two of a polysyllabic 
one, add an to impart a scornful or contemptuous meaning). Ang caartel 
ang pinagmurahan nild (They insulted each other in the barracks). 
Finagsird nang maiTjjd tulisdn iyang rnaiTijd bdhag (The ladrones have 
destroyed many of those houses). Maraining bdhay ang j)inagsird nild 
(Many houses have been destroyed by them). 

X. With verbal roots which have different meanings with um and mag, 
the definite is accompanied by pag when the verb formed by mag is used. 
Ex.: Root, bili (idea of trade, barter, etc.) Bumili, (to buy). Magbill (to 
sell). Itong bdhay ang ipinagbili ko, or Ipinagbil'i ko itong bdhay (I have 
sold this house). Itong bdhay ang binili ko, or Binili ko itong bdhay (I 
have bought this house). Fag { pinag) prefixed to 6(7t with /c^r/* suffixed 
indicates the purchaser; the place or the price (past tense). For the pres- 
ent tense the first syllable of the root is reduplicated. Ex.: Ang pinag- 
bilihan (past); ang pagbibilihan (pr. ). Ang dking kapatid na lalaki ang 
pinagbilihan ko nitong bdhay (Isold [have sold] this house to my brother 
[lit., "my brother was the purchaser from me of this house"]). Root, 
utang {debt). Thnutang (to borrow). Magutang (to lend). Magpautang 
(to lend willingly). Magkautang (to owe). Ex.: Finagutang ko iyang 
salapi sa kaniyd (I lent him that money). 

XI. The use of the particles gives a great freedom in Tagalog for the 
variation of sentences, which, however, have the same idea. Thus the 
English "Didn't I order (or tell) you to do this?" may be rendered by the 
following with equal accuracy: Hindi ko ipinagutos sa iyo iia gairin vio ito? 
(def. ). Hindi ako nagutos sa iyong guinawd nitof (indef., stress on action). 
Hindi ako nagpagawu sa iyo nitof (indef., stress on action). Hindi ko 
pinagaicd nit 6 (def. ). Hindi ko ipinagawd sa iyo itof (def. ). Bi ipinagaivd 
ko saiyo itof (def.). 

XII. Ju and i are combined with each other also. Ex.: And angilinulutd 
mof (What are you cooking?) For euphony the verb with this combina- 
tion is much varied, there being also found the forms inalulutb, inilulutd, 
and even niluluto. 

XIII. The verbs mayroon and may (to have) and vald (not to have) 
require the definite form of a verb following them in a sentence which 
expresses what is had or done, or vice versa. Both subject and object, 
however, take the nominative in such cases. Ex. : Mayroon kang gagaainf 
(Have you anything to do?) Wald p6, wald akong gaga win ( J^o, sir; I have 
nothing). May silang ginaicd? (Have they done anything?) ]\ald p6, 
wald silang ginavu (Xo, sir; they have not clone anything). 

XIV. Tlie definite is also used in sentences having a person for the 
object, or in which the object is modified by an attribute or attributive 
adjunct. Ex.: Tauagin mo si Fedro (Call Pedro). DaUun mo rito iyang 
librong binasa kov.g kagab-i (Bring me that book I was reading last night). 
Houag mong ivikain iyiin (Don't say that). Lutoin mo itong manuk (Cook 
this chicken). Dalian mo iyang tdbig (Bring that water). 

XV. Further discussion of the definite particles is reserved until tlie 
indefinite has been explained. 



I. The indefinite particles most in use are um, mag {nag), and ma (na), 
which will be explained in detail hereafter. These are called active par- 
ticles by the Spanish grammarians, but indefinite seems to be more appro- 
priate and correct. 

II. Sentences in which the subject is emphasized have this in the nomi- 
native, the verb bein^ expressed with the proper indefinite particle which 
is sometimes preceded by the article of common nouns. The imperative 
indefinite does not require tlie article in any case. Ex.: Sigd'y ha'basa 
niloug lihro (He is going to read this book). Ihao iTga nagsahi niychi (You 
said that yourself). The object, it will be noted, takes the genitive. Sigd 
ang magpapasial (He is going for a walk [lit., "He will be the walker]). 
Ikao ang tumduag hay Juan (Call Juan [be you the caller to Juan]). Si 
Juan ay ang vagndkao (Juan was the thief). 

III. The indefinite is generally used in an intransitive sentence, where 
an o!)ject is not required to com{)lete the meaning. Ex. : Sungmumlat ako 
(I am writing). Sungmulal ako (I wrote). Susulat ako (I shall write). 
Nagaaral kayo (You are learning). Magadral kayo (You will learn). 
Kungmakain slyd (He is eating). Kungmain kami (We were eating [but 
not you] ). Kakaia tayo (We will go eat [all of us] ). 

An object may be called indefinite when the idea of "a, an, some, any" 
is inherent, or an undetermined part of the whole is indicated, provided 
that there are no modifying circumstances of time, cause, purpose, instru- 
ment, or place in conjunction with the action. Ex.: (1) Marnnong ka 
nang wikang castilaf (Do you understand any of the Spanish language?) 
Marunong ako Idmang nang wikang tagdlog, hindt marnnong ako mawjusup sa 
tcikang castila, po (I understand the Tagalog language only; I do not know 
how to talk in Spanish). Magsalitd ka i~ga sa wikang tagdlog (Then speak 
in Tagalog). (2) Maglahas kanang maiTga silla (Bring out some chairs). 
Magdald ka dito nang j'oxfoms ( Bring some matches here). Magdald ka dito 
nang tahacos (Bring some cigars here). Magdald ka dilo nang tdbig (Bring 
some water here). Maglutb ka nang isang manuk (Cook a chicken). 

IV. The indefinite is also used with sentences having a definite object if 
a part and not all of the object is meant. In some cases the place-particle 
" an " is used for this purpose, as it does not indicate an object. In or i would 
be used if all the definite object were to be indicated. Ex. : Akd'y knngmain 
na nitong lamangkati (I have already eaten some of this meat) . Uminum kayo 
nitong tuhig na malindo (Drink some of this clear water) . (1) Magbiqay ka 
sa akin niyang tuhig (indef.) (1, Give me some of that water). (2) Bigydn 
mo ako iyang tdbig (def. ) (2, Give me that water). Ihig ninyong magbili 
nitong higdsf (Do you wish to sell some of this rice?) 

V. Actions expressed by intransitive verbs Avhich do not require an 
object take the indefinite unless there are modifying circumstances of 
cause, purpose, means, instrument, or time in conjunction with the action. 
Ex.: Natif^od ako (I stumbled). Ano't Idndi ka lungmaldkad nang matulinf 
(Why don't you walk quicker?) Tnngmataud siyd (He is laughing). 

VI. A sentence commencing with an interrogative pronoun takes the 
indefinite if the subject of the inquiry is an agent, and the definite if a 
determinate object is asked about. Ex.: Sino ang nagdald nitong viangd 
kdltoy/ (Who brought [was tlie bringer] of this lumber [timber]?) Akoang 
nagdald, p6 (I brought it, sir [was the bringer] ). Ani'i't di ka nangungusapf 
(AVhy don't you talk?) Nahihiyd ka bagd/ (Are you ashamed to?) Sino 
ang nagsalitd nang sinabi mosa dkin? { Who related to you what you have told 
me?) [indef.]. Anong ihig mo? (What do you want?) Anong cabayo ang 
hinilinild? (Which horse did they buy?) 'Anong is a contraction for ayjo 
ang ( def. ) . 

VII. The indefinite is also u,«ed with complex sentences in which the 
subject is amplified by an adjectival clause. Ex.: Any tdno gungmagana 
nang kabanala'y magkakamit nang kapalaran (The person who does right 
will obtain happiness [be happy]). 


VIII. It must be noted that maka in the sense of cause, used with 
roots denoting conditions, wrongs (torts) and betternients, has a different 
construction from all other particles, even rnnkn with other meanings. In 
the definite, which only exists with /, combined with in in the past and 
present tenses, the agent takes the nominative and the ol)ject tlie genitive, 
like indefinites of other particles. In the indefinite the agent remains in 
the nominative, but the object takes the accusative, which is always pre- 
ceded by sa (not by nang). Some other verbs have this use of sa also. 
Roots conjugated by mag and man retain the definite forms ^jar/ and jjan 
with maka. 

IX. The Tagalog verb demands that the subject of a sentence shall be 
expressed, the tense being indicated by tlie A'erb or verbal noun. The 
subject may be omitted, liowever, when a number of verbs depend upon 
the same subject, except in the first clause, where tlie verb must have a 
subject. As will be seen by the examples, the syntax of Tagalog is very 
simple, but care must be taken to use the right particles and tenses. If 
not, some annoying errors are liable to be made in conversation. 

V. For any common verb see the vocabulary (English-Tagalog). It 
must be borne in mind that Tagalog has many words expressing variations 
and modiiications of the general verb as well as other languages. These 
will be noted in the proper place. 


I. The plain root, if capable of being verbali-ed, is sometimes used with- 
out a definite particle if an adverb of time or the context makes the tense 
clear. The definite particle may also be used with an adverb of time, but 
as a rule, if the tense is to be emphasized or the context is not clear, tense 
particles, according to the rules of the language, are vised in the verbal 
forms. And ang sahi mo kaJiapon/ (What did you say yesterday?) Ano 
ang sah'i mo ngayoiif (What do you say now?) Ann ang sabi mo hukaa? 
(What will you say to-morrow? [with adverbs of time] ). Ano ang sinabi 
mo? (What did you say?) Ano ang sinasabi mo? (What are you saying?) 
Ayio ang sasabihin mof (What will you say?) Ang sabihin (the person or 
thing mentioned). Ano bagd ang sasabihin ko kay Ignacio? (What shall I 
say to Ignacio?) Sabihin mo sa kaniya na tinduag ko siyd (You say to him 
that I have been calling him). Ang sabilian (the conversation). 

II. In [Jiin after acute final vowel, and nin in some cases) is the true 
definite particle. In is prefixed, infixed, or suffixed, as the case may be; 
Itin and vin, are suffixes only. In is prefixed to a vowel root and infixed 
between the initial letter and the first vowel of a consonant root for the past 
(perfect) and present tenses. It is sufhxed for the imperative and future 
tenses. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated in the present and 
future tenses. The tenses called the pluperfect and future perfect may be 
expressed in Tagalog in two ways. The first pluperfect is formetl 1 )y abiding 
nn to the past tense, and the second pluperfect by prefixing na to the root. 
The first future yierfect is formed by adding na to the future tense, and the 
second future perfect by prefixing vui to the root. These tenses are little 
used in conversation. Na and ma correspond to the indefinite verbalizing 
particles uaka and maka respectively. 

III. The subject of a verb conjugated with a definite particle takes the 
genitive, except in the cases already noted. If the subject is a pronoun, it 
may either precede or follow the verb, the latter usage being much more 
common than the former. If the subject is a noun or phrase it always 
follows the verb. 

IV. For the conjugation of a root with in, whether a vowel verb, or 
a consonant one see the type-scheme folder at the end of this handbook. 

V. Jn prefixed to or infixed with roots of the following classes forms words 
denoting a showing of the properties of the root or a resemblance thereto, 
as the word " like" does as a suffix in English. (1) Roots denoting flow- 
ers, fruits, or other objects imitated in gems or precious metals by jewelers, 


denote ornaments or jewels of the shape or pattern of the o])ject named, 
when in is used as above explained. Ex.: Balingbing, an octagonal l)errv; 
hliKiliiighIng, a jewel with eight sides like the berry. Sanipaga, Arabian 
jasmine; sinampaga, a jewel imitating the sampaga flower. (2) With 
roots of colored objects in. denotes the color. Ex.: Dumero (Sp. romero), 
rosemarj-; iVmnntero, rosemary-colored. Gulag, verdure, vegetables; gi- 
nukig, greenish. (3) With some objects in denotes rice which resembles 
the object in the shape, taste, or smell. Ex.: Kand/i, a lily-like flower; 
kinand'i, rice, with an odor like the kanda. Karayor.i, needle; kinardgom, 
needle-shaped rice. Kamalig, warehouse; Lalauigan KamaUgan, Aiiibos 
Camarines (province) ; kinamdlig, Camarinesrice. Kashdi, musk (fromSan- 
skrit kaMurt, through Malay); kinastidi, rice with musky odor. Ang kafo, 
tlie carabao tick; kinatu, rice of a variegated appearance, resembling the k(d6. 
Kdstiht ( Sp. ), white person: kinastifa, a white class of rice. AkuTgiliu), a tree 
with fragrant flowers (< 'aiunigd, odunda), the ilang-ilang; inalaiTijilan, rice 
with this odor. Bumbang, an herb; binambang, aclass of rice which resem- 
l)les the bambnng when growing. Angdulong, a very small fish; dinnlang, 
rice shaped like the dulong. Batad, a kind of pea-like vegetable; bincdri'd, 
rice so shaped. Bnlaklak, flower; binulaklak, rice which opens like a flower 
when heated, or like pop corn. Porak, the flower of the pungdan or 
sabidnu; jjiuorak, rice resembling this flower. Sankt, the Chinese anise; 
sinangk't, rice resembling anise. SumbUang, a species of sea fish without 
scales; sinnmblhuH/, rice of this shape. Tama, body louse, grayback; 
tinama, rice shaped like a tiunu. Tumbaga, copper; tinvmbaga, rice with a 
metallic luster. T^/^/^ajfa is copper alloyed with a small amount of gold; 
it is from Sanskrit tdmraka (copper), through INIalay tambaga; tembuga 
Tali'tliih, common reed grass; tinalahih, rice which resembles taldhib when 
growing. There are many other names for different classes of rice, but the 
foregoing are the principal terms derived with in following the rule cited. 
(4) With names denoting relationship in expresses the idea of persons 
occupying the place of such relative to vsome degree. As this condition is 
regarded as permanent, the first syllable of the root is reduplicated to ex- 
press present tense. Other nouns also follow this rule, with some excep- 
tions. Ex. : Ali, aunt; inacdi, uncle's wife. Amd, father; inaamd, godfather. 
Amain, uncle; stepfather; inaamain, avmt's husband. Anak, child (son 
or daughter); inaanak, stepson or stepdaughter, also godson or goddaugh- 
ter, ^l.sawo, spouse (husband or wife) ; inaasdxa, \o\er or mistress (con- 
cubine). Bayan, brother-in-law; binabayao, husband of sister-in-law. 
Biandn, father-in-law or mother-in-law; binibiandn, wife or husband of 
father-in-law or mother-in-law (not parent of wife or husband). Manu- 
gang, son-in-law or danghter-in-law; minwnanugang, one regarded as such. 
Kapatid, brother or sister; kinakapatid, half brother or half sister, or foster 
brother or foster sister. Ilipag, sister-in-law; hinihipag, wife of brother-in- 
law. BilAs is the equivalent fijr binabayaoor hinihipag. Xitnd, grandparent; 
tunntnino, one regarded as a grandparent; kanununuan, ancestors. Ajio, 
grandchild; inaapo, descendant. Apo sa tuhod, great-grandchild; ap6 sa 
talampakaii, great-great-grandchild. Paina»gkin, nephew or niece; pina- 
pamani/kin, one regarded as such. Pinsdn, cousin; pinipinmn, one regarded 
as a cousin. Pinmng bo.), first cousin; pinsang makalavd, second cousin, 
etc. (5) With verbal i-oots denoting the preparing of food, etc., in denotes 
the food so prepared, provided the root is conjugated in the infinitive 
indefinite with titn, although there are some exceptions. Ex.: Maglngd, 
to cook with a spit; such as camotes, etc.; Linagd, vegetables so cooked. 
Magsigang, to cook meat or fish with a spit; sinigang, meat or fish so 
cooked. Lumugao, to stew, to boil meal; ang linugao, the mush or stew. 
Maglugao is more usual. Samaing, to boil rice; ang sinaing, the boiled 
rice. Magi^ai)ig is also more usual. Magtambong, to cook fish entire; nng 
tinambong, the fish so cooked. Tnmdpay or magldpay, to knead; ang tind- 
;)f///, what kneaded; bread. (6) With verbal roots conjugated by »;», the 
product of such action is denoted by in, prefixed to a vowel root or infixed 

6855—05 8 



with a consonant root. Ex.: Sumidid, to spin; sinulid, thread, anything 
spun. Some viag roots also have the product denoted by in. Ex.: Mchi- 
pipig, to press, to i-rack rice, etc.; pinipig, roasted and cracked rice. (7) 
With some roots in forms adjectival nouns, the tirst syllable of the root 
being reduplicatd. Ex.: Kuan, known; ang kinuknan, the person known. 
Mdhnl, dear; ang minamahal, the esteemed (person). Sinti'i, love (from 
Sanskrit, rhiiitd, thought, through Malay); ang .^inisintd, the beloved (who 
loves in return). Ang nasintd indicates a person loved without being 
aware of the fact. 

VI. As in has the idea of attraction inherent within it, there are many 
classes of verljs, conjugated in the indefinite infinitive by um, which take 
in to form the direct object. (1) According to this rule verbal roots of 
taking, asking, and appropriating something take in. There are some 
verbs conjugated with mag which also admit in. Ex. : 

To buy (general term ] 

To take (general term ) , bring or take. 
To carry; bear, etc. ( bring or send) . 

To scoop out, or take anything out 
of a hole, or insert the hand into a 

To use. 

To choose (between good and bad). 

To select (from among good things). 

To pillage; to plunder; to loot; to 

despoil the enemy. 
To seize; to snatch. 

To pray for; to plead. 

To complain; to entreat; to implore, 
to pray (as to a judge). 

To request. 

To borrow. 

Bumili. Ang binili, what was bought. 
Gumutang, to buy rice b}^ the ga- 
tang or chupa. Unuhnot, to buy 
one thing out of many. Umangkat, 
to buy on credit. Umaajnn, to 
buy fruits of the country. 

Kuiiiidia. Aug kinidia, what was 
taken or obtained. 

Magdald. Angdinald, what brought. 
Ang ipinadala, what sent (lit., 
" what was ordered brought" ). 

Duinukoi. Ang dini'ikot, what taken 
out, or what liand was inserted in. 

Gumdmit. Ang gindmit, what used. 

Pumili. Ang pinin, what chosen. 
Ang pinilian, what rejected (singu- 
lar). Ang pinagpilian, what re- 
jected (plurality of objects). 

Hum'irang. Ang hinirang, what se- 
lected. Aug hinira)~gan, what left 

SnnKunsam. Ang.nnamsam, thespoil; 
loot; plunder. 

Uniagao. Ang inagao, what seized 
Agao nang tamis, inagao nang asim, 
somewhat of sweetness, and some- 
what of sourness (said of any sub- 
stance which has this taste, like 
some fruits) (idiom). 

DumaldiTf/in. Ang dinaldngin, what 
prayed or asked for. Ang dalang- 
inan, the deity prayed to or person 
pleaded with. 

Dumaying. Ang dinai/ing, what re- 
lief asked. Ang idaging, the com- 
plaint. Ang daiji)~gan, the person 
entreated, implored, or prayed to. 

Humim/i. Ang hiniiup, what re- 
quested. Ang hi)Tgdn, person re- 

Unmtang. Ang inutang, what bor- 
rowed. Ex. : Inutang ko iyang 
salapt ibinigay ko sa kaniyd kahapon 
(I borrowed that money which I 
gave him yesterday ) . Ang iutang, 



To borrow (anything except money). 

To demand a treat (as at a celebra- 

To catch hold of; to catch on the 

To absorb. 

the cause of borrowing. Ang 
utamjnti, the person borrowed from 
the lender. 

Ilnmlram. Avg hiniram, what bor- 
rowed. Ang hibnan, the lender. 

Tinnarahan. Ang tinaruhan, what 
received as a treat. Ex.: Tlnu- 
(uruhan namin itong kakanin (we 
are getting these s weets as a treat ) . 

Dumaklj). Ang dmakip, what seized 

IliunitJiit. Ang hinithit, what was 

VII. Under this section may be considered in prefixed to or infixed with 
the personal jiroimuns, with which it implies the idea of possession. As a 
suffix with these pronouns, in [kin) expresses the sense of regarding, hold- 
ing, reputing, etc., in some cases. Ex. : 

Your. Inyo. Ang iniinyo, your property; 

your. Ini/ohin mo, consider it as 
your own; take it for your own. 

Kaniyd. Ang kinakaniyd, his [her] 
property. Kakaniyahhi ko (I will 
hold it as his [her's]). 

Kanild. Ang kinakanUd, their prop- 
erty. Katiilahin mo, regard it as 
belonging to them. 

Attn. Ang inaatin, our property. 
Inatin niyd, he regarded it as ours. 

Kanitd. Ang kinakanitd, our prop- 
erty. KinakanUd ko, I regard it 
as yours and mine. 

Amin. Ang inaamin, our property, 
but not yours. Aminin ninyo (you 
[plural] regard it as ours, but not 

Akin. Ang inadkin, my property; 
mine. Indkin ko (I held it as 
mine). Inadkin ko (I am holding 
it as mine). Adki7iin ko (I shall 
hold it as mine). 

VIII. Verbs of calling, whether by voice or signs, also follow this mode 
of conjugation. Ex.: 

His; her. 


Our (all of us). 
Our (you and I). 

Our (but not you). 

To call. 

To call; also to bring; to fetch. 
To make signs for; to motion to. 

Tumduag. Ang tinduag, who or what 
called. Ang itduag, the call, in- 
strument, or cause. Ang tauagan, 
the person called in order to be 
given something. Ex.: iSino ang 
tinatduag mo? ( Who are you call- 
ing to?). Tinduag ko si Pedro, p6 
(I was calling to Pedro, sir). 
Tauagan mo siyd nang isdd (Call 
him to come and get some fish) . 

Kumaon. Ang kinaon, what called, 
or brought, etc. 

Kumauay. Ang kauayin, what mo- 
tioned for. Angikauay, what mo- 
tioned with, or the cause. A7ig 
kauaydn the person motioned to. 



IX. Verbs of "searching for " also take in for the direct object. Ex. ; 

Humanap. Ang hindnap, thing 

sought for. 
Simialihao. Ang hinalihno, what 

searched for. 
Sumallksik. Ang sinaUksik, what 

looked for in this manner. 
Sumungdo. Ang sinungdu, person 

sought by another. 
Vmapohap. Ang inapdhnp, what 

groped for. 

X. Verbs of moving, when not due to turning away of what is moved, 
also take in for the direct object. Ex. : 

To look for. 

To search about. 

To look in every corner for. 

To go in search of another. 

To grope for (as in the dark or like 
a blind person). 

Kumiho. Ang kinibo, what moved. 
Synonym: Kumislot; umiho. 

Giunalao. Ang ginaldo, the mis- 
chief done through restlessness. 
A7ig galauan the person disturbed 
thereby. Magalao ang kamay niya, 
his hand ia restless; i. e., he is a 
pickpocket or thief (idiom). Kag- 
alnuan, mischief. 

Umugd. Ang inugd, what moved 

Tumugoy. Ang iinugoy, what moved. 
S3'nonyms: Urnugoy; iimngd (some- 
times). Uniugoy also means to 
stagger, to totter. 

Umugug. Ang mugug, what shaken 
or rocked. 

Lhimlog. Ang inulog, what shaken 

Umiling. Ang iniling, what denied. 

Lumuglug. Ang Imuglug, what sha- 
ken, as a tree. 

Kvmunday. Ang kimmday, the wav- 
ing thus. Ex.: Kinunday nlyd 
(she waved her hands while she 
was dancing) . 

XI. In is also used to express the result of the action of verbs which 
signify carrying, cutting, measuring, or weighing, when the result is con- 
sidered on the side of the agent or ended therein. Urn is generally the 
indefinite, but mag and other verbalizing particles are to be found. When 
the result of a verb necessarily falls upon a person, m is used to signify 
the person. Ex.: 

To move. 

To move restlessly. 

To shake (like objects badly packed) 

or to move (like loose teeth). 
To move anything. 

To shake (as something in a sieve) ; 

also to rock or dandle ( as a child ). 
To shake a basket or measure so it 

will hold more. 
To shake the head in negation. 
To shake anything, as a tree to 

gather the fruit. 
To wave the hands while dancing. 

To carry (general idea). 
To drag along. 

To carry on the shoulder. 

To carry a child on or suspended 
from the shoulder. 

Magdald. See under verbs of bring- 
ing, taking, etc. 

Humild. Ang hinild, what dragged 
along. Means also "to arrest." 
Ang hinild, the person arrested ; the 

Pumasdn. Ang pinasdn, what car- 
ried on the shoulder. Ang pasa- 
nan, the person who carried any- 
thing on the shoulder. 

Magsahi. Ang sinabi or ang sabihin, 
the child carried thus. The cloth 
by which the child was supported 
is denoted by ang isabi. 



To carry on the head. 
To carry in the arms. 

To carry a child in the arms. 

To carry under the arm. 

To carry anything in the lap. 

To carry l)y the mouth (as a dog, 
cat, bird, etc., carry food). 

To carry in or by the hands (as a 
basket, jar, etc.). 

To carry hanging from the hand (as a 
pail, etc., by meansof the handle). 

To carry anything along (by or in 
the hand). 

To carry on a pole (palanca). 

To cut (general term). 

To cut clothes (as a tailor'). 

To tear. 

To chop, to hew, to cut with an ax. 

To cut down; to fell (as a tree). 

To cut into pieces (as sugar cane) 

To cut the tuba ]>alm (to obtain the 

MagKuriuiig. Ang sunotTi/in, what 
carried thus; the burden. 

MagjHuigko. Ang pinwngko, what 
carried in the arms. Pangkohin 
mo ilo (carry this in your arms). 

Kumaloiig. Ang kinalong, the child. 
KaloiTgin mo siyn (carry him in 
your arms). Ang kahmjan, the 
mother, nurse, or bearer. 

Magkilik. Ang kinUik, what carried 
thus. (With accent on last sylla- 
ble), magkilik, to carry much 

Magcandong. Ang kinandong, what 
carried in the lap. Kinakandong 
niyd (she is carrying it in her lap). 

Magtangay. Ang tinangay, what car- 
ried thus. 

Magsapo. Ang sinapo, what carried 
thus. Sapohin moiydn (carry that 
in your hands). 

Maghitbit. Ang bimtbit, what carried 
thus, i. e., the pail. 

Magtaglay. Ang tinaglay, what car- 
ried along. /Ano ang tataglayin 
mof What will you carry along? 

Umusong. Magusong, to carry on a 
palanca between two. Ang inu- 
song, what carried thus, as a pig, 
bundle, etc. Synonym of magu- 
song; rnagluang. Ang tinuang, what 
carried thus. Usorigin {(tiarTgin) 
ninyo i(6 (carry this on a pole be- 
tween you). 

Magpuiol. Mamutol, to cut up (as 
cloth, etc. ) Ang pim'dol, what cut 
or cut up, as the cloth, etc. Ex. : 
Piitlin mo ltd nangpahabd (Cut this 
lengthwise) . 

Tumabc's. Magtabds, to cut much. 
Ang tinabds, what cut out, i. e., 
the cloth or suit, etc. Ang tina- 
basan, what left over, also place. 
Ang pinagtabasan, the cuttings, 
clippings, remnants, or places of 
cutting out. 

Gumisl. Ang ginisi, what torn, i. e., 
the cloth or clothes. 

Tumagi. Ang tinagd, what chopped, 
e. g., the tree, etc. 

Sumapol. Mngsapol, to fell much. 
Ang sinapol, what felled or cut 
down. Ang isapo/, the means of 
cutting down, e. g., the axe. Ang 
pinagsapolan, what remained, e.g., 
the stump. 

Umirid. Ang inirid, the sugarcane 
thus cut up. Kairid, a piece of the 
cut-up cane. 

Umarad. Ang araran, the palm thus 



To cut into pieces. 

To cut into equal pieces. 
To cut up into e(|ual lengths (as sugar 
cane, etc. ). 

To cut poles or bamboo into pieces; 
also to cut at a distance. 

To cut into pieces (as a log). 

To cut water grass in order to catch 
the iish. 

To cut, as with scissors; to snip off, 
applied generally to cutting hair, 
metals, etc. 

To split open (as bamboo); to cut 
against the grain; to peel off, as 
shavings; to go against the cur- 
rent; (flg.) to oppose. 

To cut or break a roj^e, cord, or sim- 
ilar object. 

To cut off the ears or nose. 

To measure (eithergrains or liquids). 

To gauge; to measure liquids by 

means of a rod. 
To measure by palms (8.22 inches). 

Magpalus. Atkj pinalas, what cut up 
thus. Manga palaspalas na taluki, 
pieces of pure silk. Ayig ipalas, 
tool used for cutting up. 

Umalus. Ang iualas, what cut thus. 

Puminlid. Magpinlid, to cut much 
in this way. Ang pininlid . what cut 
into equal lengths thus. Angpinag- 
pinlid, the large amount cut thus. 
Ang ipinlid, the utensil used. 
Ang ipagpAnlid, the utensil used 

Pumidpid. Ang pinidpid (1) what 
cut up thus; (2) who cut thus. 
Aug ipyidpid, the tool or weapon 
used. Ang pidpiran, the place. 

GumUing. Ang giniling, the wood 
thus cut up. Ang igi/ing, the tool 
used. mangigUing, the wood 

Magtalds. Ang iinalas, what cut thus. 
Ang pinagtalds, the large amount 
cut thus. Ang iktlos, the tool by 
which cutting was done. Aug 
ipWftalns, the tool by which much 
cutting was done. Ang pinagtaln- 
sun, the place where much cutting 
was done. 

Gum ipit. Maggupit, to cut one' sown 
hair. Ang ginupit, what cut, i. e., 
the hair ormetaL Angginupitan, 
the person whose hair has been 
cut; or object from which some- 
thing has been cut off. 

SumaJtoTijat. Ang sinaliuTgat, what 
split open or peeled off thus. <SV(- 
/iJiTijatin nw ilong kanayan, split 
this bamboo. 

Magpatid. Ang pinalid, what cut 
thus. Patarin {Patda)i) nw iyang 
lubid, cut that rope. Mapntid, to 
part; to break in two; to cease 
(tig.). Napatid ang kaiiigavg hi- 
niivja, he exhaled his last breath; 
he ceased to breathe. Magkapatid- 
patid, to break up completely (as 
a cord or rope); or into several 

PumoiTgos, variation Pundwjus. Aug 
jnnowjos, what cut off, as the se\ - 
ered ear or nose. Pingas has the 
same idea, but is geneially applied 
to cutting inanimate objects. 

Tumakal. A)tg tinakal, what meas- 
ured. Takalin mo itong bigds, 
measure this rice. Ang takaldn, 
the measure. 

Tunidrol. AngiindroJ, what gauged. 
Ang itdrol, the gauge. 

Dunidngkal. Ang dinangkal, what 
measured thus. 



To compare measures. 

To weigh. 

To balance, to consider (f) 
To verify a weight. 

Sumubok or marjsuhok. Avgshmbok, 
( 1 ) one of the measures^ thus com- 
pared. (2) Also to observe closely; 
to "shadow." Ex.: ISabukun ino 
siyd (watcii him closely). An;/ 
pinagsiibok, the two measures thus 
compared. Kambok, equal to an- 
other thing. Ex.: Kasi'ibok tuao 
fthg ti'ibig (the water is the depth 
of a man). Magkusubok, to have 
an understanding. Ex.: Nugka- 
kasubok sila ang bait (they have an 
understanding with each other). 

Tumimbavg. Ang tininibaiig, what 
weighed thus. Ang timbanijan, 
the scales or counterweight. Ka- 
timbavg, equal in weight. Ako'y 
kalimbang mo (I am of the same 
weight as you are). 

Tvmalard. Ang tinalarb, what bal- 
anced or considered. 

Titmaya. Ang imai/a, what verified 

XII. Verbs which signify destruction, or change or transformation of 
the object as a result of the action, take in to express the result of such 
action, if no modifying circumstances, such as of cause, instrument, etc., 
are implied. 

To destroy. 

To tear down; to raze. 
To kill; extinguish. 

Sumird. Ang sinira, what was de- 

Gumiba. Ang ginibd, what razed. 

Pumaiay. Ang jmiatay ( 1 ) person 
or animal killed; (2) What ex- 
tinguished. Aitg ipatay or }>inag- 
paiay, the weapon or means of 
killing. Ang pinagpatayan, the 
place where a nmrder was com- 
mitted. Siyd pinalay niya, he kill- 
ed him. Ang ipinatay viyd sa 
kaniyd ang baril, the gun was what 
he killed him witli. Pinntny niya 
siyd nang baril, he killed him with 
a gun. Mamatay, to die. Ang 
kamatayan, death (abstr. ). Ang 
kinamaiaydn, the place of death 
(past time). A)ig ikinamatay, the 
cause of death (past time). Ex.: 
Fatay na siyd (he is dead now). 
Namalaydn uko nang amd (I have 
been bereaved of my father by 
death). Aling bdhay ang kinavia- 
taydn niydf (In which house did 
he die?) And ang ikinanmtay niyaf 
( What was the cause of his death?) 
Nahirinan siyd nang tinik (he was 
choked by a fish bone). Magpa- 
iay, to sentence to death; to have 
another put to death. Mamdiay, 
to kill habitually. Tigapagpatay, 
butcher or executioner. Man- 
himatay, to faint away. Magpaka- 



matny (1) to allow one's self to 
be killed; (2) to commit suicide. 

Sumuiwg. A)igsi7iuuoy,what\mrned. 

TumastAs. A ng tinastds, what ripped 
up, undone, etc. 

Pumalit. Aug pinalit, what ex- 
changed or bartered. 

Humii.say. Aug hiniisay, what dis- 
entangled or set in order. M<ig- 
pnhihusay, to arrange well, to set- 
tle things with care; also to be- 
have well. 

Muglthn. Ang initim, what black- 
ened. Aug iitim, the blackener. 
Kaitiman, blackness. Umitim, to 
become black. 

XIII. Verbs of receiving take in for the object of the action; some 
taking in for the thing affected and an for the person affected, as will be 
seen from the examples. 

To set fire to. 

To rip; to unseam; to undo. 

To exchange; to barter. 

To arrange; to disentangle. 

To blacken. 

To accept; to receive. 

To go out to meet anyone; 
come bv meeting. 

Tumangap. Ang tinangap, what re- 
ceived or accepted. Angktngapdn, 
the person from whom accepted 
or received; also the place. Ang 
itangap, the cause of receiving, etc. 
to wel- Sumaluhong. Ang sinali'ibong, the 
person met or welcomed thus. 
Magsisalitbong, to be received by 
many, as a governor, etc. Mag- 
kasalubong, to meet accidentally. 
Ex. : Nagkasalubong ang dalauxing 
rnagkapatid na babaye sa Maynila, 
(the two sisters met accidentally 
[by chance] in JNIanila). 

XIV. In also denotes the object of verbs of "inviting," etc. 

To invite. 

To invite a person to eat. 

Umdkit. Ang indkit, who invited. 

Umanyayd. Ang anyayahnn, the 
person invited. 

Pumiging. Ang jnniging, the person 

Magpdnig. Ang pindnig, the person 

Magtduo. Ang tinduo, the person in- 
vited. Tauohin mo siyd, invite 
him. Tauotanohin mo ang pagka- 
kain, divide the food for each one 
of the guests (i. e., put it on 

Umalok. Ang inalok, the person so 

XV. In generally denotes the person affected by the action of a verb, 
with those verbs which necessarily have a person for the object, on account 
of their nature and meaning. 

To prevail upon; to persuade with 

To wait for. 

Magarogd. Ang inarogd, the person 
so prevailed upon. 

Humintay. Ang hinintay, the per- 
son waited for. Hintin mo sild, 
wait for them. Maghintay (1) to 
wait and guard something for an- 



To carry in the anna, (as a child); 

(2) to aid, to succor, to protect 

(rare in Manila). 
To reprehend; to reprimand; to find 

fault with. 

other; (2) to delay. Ex.: Hovag 
moug ildntay sa In'ik-as ang pug])ii- 
roon mo (do not delay your fj'Mng 
until to-morrow). 

Suviaklidu. Ang .vnaklulu ( 1 ) child, 
etc., carried thus; (2) person aided, 

Sumalu. Ang sinald, the person rep- 
rimanded or found fault with. 
Ex.: Saluhhi. mu sif/d iiaug kmii- 
yang ginagawd ( reprimand him for 
what he is doing) [ginawd, what 
he has done]. Magsald, to find 
much fault, or for many to find 
fault, etc. Magkasald, to err, to 
connnit a fault, to sin. Ex.: 
Ilouag moiig ipagkasald iio (do not 
commit this error [sin]. Ipinag- 
sam/d ko ang pakikipagauay sa inyd, 
(I am doing wrong in quarreling 
with you). Ipinagsald niyd ang 
pakikipagauay sa inyo (he did 
wrong in quarreling with you). 
Ipagkasasald nild angpakikijmgauay 
sa kaniyd (they will err in quarrel- 
ing with him). Magkakasald, ^-'ith 
reduplication of last syllable of 
particle, means ' ' to forbid. ' ' 

Tumanong. Ang tinanong, what 
asked; the question. Magtanong, 
to ask about. Ang ilinanong, what 
has lieen asked, or the reason for 
asking. Ang mapagtanong, per- 
son fond of questioning. Ang 
matanoiTgin, the questioner. Ang 
tinanongan, the person questioned. 

XVI. In generally denotes the catch, result, or quarry with verbs of 
hunting and fishing. A few other verbs also follow this rule. 

To ask; to inquire. 

To hunt (in general). 

To hunt with dogs or hounds. 

To hunt with a "bating" or net 
(generally for deer). 

To hunt with a shotgun; to use a 

To catch birds by means of a bird- 
call, or bv a snare, or with another 

To fish with a hook. 

Umdkad. Ang indkad, what hunted. 

Mungaso (from, dog). Ang inaso, 
the chase, the game caught. Ang 
ipiiiaiTgaso, the dog used thus. 
Ang niangangaso, the hunter with 

Bumuting. Ang binating, the deer 
or game thus caught. Ex.: Ang 
binating ko ang bundok (I was net 
hunting in the mountains). Ang 
binatingan, the place of "net 

Mainaril (from baril, shotgun). Ang 
maniamaril, the hunter with a 
shotgun. Ang pinamaril, what 
shot thus. 

Mamfali; magpangatt (from katt. 
Ang pinangati, what has been 
caught thus. 

Maminuit. Angblninuit, whatcaught. 
Ang ibinuit, the hook. Ang ma- 
miminuit, the fisherman. Ang 



To fish with the seine or net, called 
" lam bat." 

To fish using a light (as also to hunt 
with a Hare). 

To tish (in general). 

To sweep. 

XVII. In is also used to denote the 
swallowing, and analogous acts. 

To eat. 

To drink. 

To swallow (food) greedily. 

To swallow (gulp) liciuids. 

To sip (as soup). 

To suck at (as sugar-cane). 

To bite. 

pivmnimnmiUtu, the canoe or place 
from which such fishing is being 

ManldtJibat (from lamhal.) Aug li- 
nanibat,theratch; the haul. A)ig 
ipdnUnnbat, the means for fishing 
thus, i. e., the seine or net. 

MaiTijilao. Ang p'lnaiUj'dauan, the 
place where such fishing or hunt- 
ing was done. Ang pinamjUao, 
what caught thus. 

Matigisdd (from isdd fish). Ang 
pmangisdd, the fish which have 
been caught. Ang mungbTgisdd, 
the fisherman. 

Magu'cdls. Ang inwalis, the sweep- 
ings; what was or has been swe^it 
up (from walls, broom). 

object with verbs of eating, drinking, 

Kumain. Ang kinain, what was 
eaten. Ex. : Kinain ang kapatid 
na lalaki mo ang tindpay, your 
brother ate the bread. Kanin, 
food (cooked rice). Kakaniii, 
delicacies. Ang kandn, the eating 
place. Aug kakandn, the dining 
room; or platter. Magkain, to eat 
much or by many. 

Uminum. Ang ininum, what was or 
has been drunk. Inumin, drink. 
Ang inuman, the drinking place; 
trough; cup (drinking vessel). 
Maginum, to drink much or by 
many. Magpainum, to give an- 
other something to drink; (2) to 
water animals or fowl. Ex.: (1) 
Paiiinimrn ko siyd. nang tubig/ 
(Shall I give him some water?) 
Houag, painumin mo siyd nang 
alak (No, give him some wine.) 
(2) Pbiainuni ninyo bagd ang 
maiTgd cabayof (Did you water 
[give drink to] the horses?) Opo, 
(Yes, sir). Papaimim ka kay 
Toiuds (Ask Tomas to give you 
something to drink). [indef.] 

Lumamon. Ang linamon, what was 
or has been swallowed thus. Var. 

Lumagok. Ang linugok, what gulped 

Humigop . A ng hinigop , w hat sipped . 

Pumangos. Ang pinangos, what 
sucked at. 

Kumagat. Ang kinagnt, what bitten. 
Magkagatun, to bite mutually (as 
two dogs.) Magkngatkagata», to 
pretend to bite mutually, ^'og- 
kakagalkagat ang dalawang aso ( the 



two (logs are only preUuiding to 

l)ite each other). MatTj/ai/af, to 

run around biting, as an animal in 

a rage. 
Siniiiiiglial. Aug xiiiitigJial, who or 

what snapped at. 
Kurii'ilikab. Aug kinabkub, who or 

jvhat bitten by a pig thus. 
i^gumoyd. Aug i~ginoi/d, wliat 


XVIII. Acts of the senses, either general or modified, admit in to 
express the definite results of such acts, with two exceptions. These are 
tumingin (to look at) and tumimtim (to taste liquor) which take cm as a 
suffix for reasons of euphony. 

To snap at. 

To bite (as a pig at people). 

To chew. 

To see; to look at. 

To look at. 

To watch for; look out for; to sight. 

Kumitd. Ang kinitd, what seen or 
looked at. 

TuiirhTgin. Ang thujn&n; ang tining- 
ndn, what looked at. 

Tnmando. Ang tinanno, what sighted. 
Tanauan, watchtower; lookout- 

Manando, watchman; lookout. 
To look attentively, turning the eyes Ltun'nTijdn. Ang liningdn, what 
or head. looked at thus. Ex.: IH mu ako 

linhTijon. (you did not turn your 
head to look at me). 

Umaninao. Ang inaninuo, what in- 

Sumuliyap. Ang sinuHijap, what 
looked at sideways. 

Panood. Ang pinanood, what be- 

Dumingig. Ang diningig, what 
heard. Ang dingdn, person lis- 
tened to. 

Magklnyig. Ang kiningig, what 

Bnmatgag. Ang binntyag, what lis- 
tened to. Var., kbianiatyag and 

Umamoy. Ang inamoy, what smelled, 
i. e., odor. Amoifin mo Ito (smell 

Sumangliod. Ang f^imtngliod, what 

Lumasap. Anglinusap, what tasted 

Numamnam. Ang ninamnam, what 

Tumikin. Ang tiknu'in, what sam- 

Tumijnng (r. ). Ang tipiiTi/an, what 
tasted thus. 
To taste liquor without swallowing Tumimtim. Ang Ibntinmn, what 

it. tasted. 

To feel; to touch (general). Ilumipb. Ang hinipd, what felt or 

touched. Ex.: W(dangninliilii))uKn 
kaniyang bdhay. [idiom] (there is 
nothing to touch in his house, i. e., 
he is very j)oor). 

To Look much at things, noting and 

considering them; to inspect. 
To look sideways. 

To behold; to view. 

To hear. 

To hear. 

To listen to; to pay attention to. 

To smell. 

To scent; to perceive a strong odor. 

To taste. 

To relish ; to like a taste. 

To sample; to try; etc. 

To taste without swallowing. 



To presss down; also to clo^^e or seal 

a letter. 
To touch lightly. 

To touch any part of the body lightly 

l)ut snddenl}'. 
To touch suddenly. 

To run into; to collide with. 

To touch carelei^sly and affectedly. 

To touch with the lips. 

To feel f(jr in the dark. 

To pinch; to soften. 

To rub: to soften; to annoint. 

To pick (as a guitar) ; to pluck at (as 
a sleeve). 

Magd'dt. Ang diitav, what pressed 
or closed. Pandiit; seal ; wax ; gum. 

Tumamjko (r. ). Ang tinangko, what 
touched Syn. Tumanghil. 

Humipik (rare). 

son touched. 

Dwnantik ( rare ) . 

To play any instrument or ring a bell 
(by strokes). 

XIX. In also expresses acts of the will or nnnd 

To remember. 

Ang lilpikan, per- 
Syn. taghiu (also 

A7ig duntikan, the 
person thus touched. 

Magparoriroii, var. magparorong. Ang 
])lii(tgpayoirro)i, what touched. 
Aug ipinugparonroii, the cause of 
having touched thus. 

Sumagi, var. Suinagoy (latter rare). 

Gumnm'd (rare). Variations of this 
root are gamil, gohil, and gomhU. 

Magdungd (rare). This is not the 
verb "to kiss," which is Jivmalik. 

Hundkap. Ang hinikup, what felt 
for thus. 

PumisU. Aug plnlsil, what rubbed, 
etc. Pisl'in mo i(6 nang kamay mo 
(rub this with your hand). 

Humilot. Ang hhdlot, what rubbed, 
etc. Ang hilotan, the person 
rubbed, etc. Hilot (n.), midwife; 
maidt ill dot, massageur. 

MagkalaJiU, var. rnagkalbit. Ang pi- 
nagka/nhit, what plucked at or 
picked thus, i. e. , the sleeve or the 
strings. Ang Ipinagkalabit, the in- 
strument or means, i. e., the fin- 
gers or plectrum (pick). Ang 
paivjaltbit, the instrument played 
upon thus. 


To calculate; to consider. 
To desire; to like. 

(To caress.) 
To love. 

To think. 

Umalaalo, to remember (^jurposely). 
Maknalaala, to remember (cas- 
ually ) . Ang inaalaalu, what is re- 
membered purposely. 

MagbiUay. Ang pinagbubiday, what 
is being calculated, i. e., the result. 

Umibig. Ang innbig, the person who 
is liked (and reciprocates the lik- 
ing); (2) what is liked; also ang 

Undrog. Ang iniirog, the person be- 
ing caressed. 

Suminta. Ang sinisintd, the person 
who is loved and who loves in re- 
turn. Aug naslsi7iid, the person 
who is loved, but who is unaware 
of the fact or does not return it. 
Magsuituhan, to love mutually. 

Maglsip. Ang inusij), what is t)eing 
thought of. Ang inisip, what was 
thought of. Ang iimpin, what will 
be thought of. 3iagisipisip, to 



To esteem; to love. 

To tliink. 
To explain. 

To inquire; to assure one's self; 

To verify, etc. 

think deeply; profoundly. Ang 
pagkamp,the opi nion ( act) . Kaihi- 
pnn (abst. ), opinion, thought. 

Ln)niiiag (rare). Aug linUiyag, what 
or who esteemed or loved. Sintd 
is more common, but is a Sanskrit 
word derived through Malay. 

Punimdim. Aug pi iKipanimi I iui , what 
is thought. 

Magsdlagsuy, var. magrngsui/. Ang 
sinasalaysag, what is being ex- 
plained. Salaymyin mo ito (ex- 
plain this), 
to Uinnlitsithd (r. ). Ang inimlusithd, 
whatisbeinginquired, etc., var. alo- 
i<il]id, idea of verifying, etc., also. 

Umusisd. Aug 'innunisu, what is be- 
ing verified. Tcnmng walnng iinisd, 
a person without carefulness; a 
careless person. 

XX. The making of something from raw or crude material is expressed 
by using the finished product verbally or as a verbal noun with in, the ma- 
terial used taking the nominative, if there are no limitations of cause, time, 
place, etc., connected with the action. 

Magbdhay (from hdhay, house). This 
word iias been given as derived 
from Malay balei, hall; (;ourt, from 
Sanskrit valaya, an inclosure, but 
it would seem rather^ to be a Ma- 
layan name, as in Ngela ( Florida 
or Anudha) Island of the Solomon 
Group the word is vale and far 
away in Hawaii is hale. There 
may be said to exist intermediate 
words throughout. Ex.: Bafiay'm 
mo itong kdhuy (Put up a house 
with this lumber). Maghdhfiyha- 
hayun (dim. ), (to play at building 
houses [as children do] ). Naghd- 
lutyhdlKiyan ang manga batcl (the 
children were playing at building 

To put up a house. 

To roll one's self up in a cloak or 

To put a shirt on; to wear a shirt 
(occasionally), from hard, a cloth 
used to make shirts, and also mean- 
ing a shirt itself. 

To wear trousers. 

To wear shoes (occasionally 
a pair of shoes on. 

to put 

Maghal&bal BaJabalin mo itong kayo 
ho (make a cloak out of this cloth; 
or wrap yourself in this cloth). 

Magbard, Itong kayong ito' y babaroin 
niyd (lie [she] will make a shirt 
out of this cloth). An indicates a 
person as the object of the action. 
Ex.: Baronn mo iyang batd iydn 
(put a shirt on that child). Ma- 
maro, to wear a shirt habitually. 

Magsalau(d, from salaual, trousers 
(Arabic, Seluwar) . Itong kayong 
ito'y sasalaualin ko, I will make 
trousers out of this cloth. 

Magsapin (from sapin, a shoe or san- 
dal). Itong balat na ito'y sasapinin 
nild (they will make this leather 


into .«hoes). Mauaj/m, to wi-ar 
shoes habitually. 

To put an apron (tapis) on; to wear Magtujiit'. Ljavg hnjottri iijnn a;/ (n- 
a lapis occa^ioualiy. pi'<i»- >"'//'' (let her make an apron 

out of that cloth). Manapis, to 
wear a tapis haltitually. 

To carry a cane, or Imii/kad. Marjlunkod. Ttong knlioj/ na itijiitlnu- 

tiingkod ko (I am making a cane 
out of this wood). 

XXI. In, used with the name of a destructive agent, denotes the present 
or past result of the destructive action. It is prefixed to vowel nouns and 
infixed with those beginning with a consonant {w is counted as a vowel). 

White ant (termite). Anaij. Inanay ang nuuTjfd Uhro (the 

books were destroyed by the white 
ants [were white-anted]). 

Locust. Baking. Binabalang ang pnluy {the 

rice is being destroyed by the lo- 

Rat. Dagd. Diin.idagd ang higus (the v'lve 

[hulled] is being destroyed by the 
rats [lit. is being "ratted"]). 
Mandaragd , rat-catcher. 

Qrow, TJak. Liuuak ang saging (thehiw&wAf^ 

are being destroyed by the crows 
[being "crowed"]). 

XXII. In, prefixed or infixed, used with words denoting parts of the 
body indicates past or present pain or suffering in the part named. The 
first syllable of the root is reduplicated to indicate the present tense. 

Head. Ulo. Inula ako (I had a headache). 

Inuulo niyd (she [he] has a head- 
ache). Masukll ang ulo ko (my 
head aches). 

Chest. Dibdih. D'mibdlh niyd ( he had a jiain 

in the chest). 

Stomach. Sikmuru. Sinisikmura kaf (Does 

your stomach pain you? ) Op6, xin i- 
sikinura ako (yes, sir; I have a pain 
in the stomach). 

.Vbdomen. Tiydn. Tiniydn ako (my abdomen 

pained me). Tinitiydn ako (my 
abdomen pains me) . 

XXIII. In like manner, in, prefixed to or inserted with roots signifying 
diseases mav denote the past or i>res('nt state of the disease. The first 
svUable of the root is reduplicated Ui indicate the present tense. If a 
chronic state of the disease is to be expressed, the patient is denoted t)y 
the suffixing of in. {hin) to the root. (The future tense, it must be remeni- 
beredi reduplicates the first syllable of the root.) The suffix in may also 
denote a physical defect or tiie result of a disease. 

Smallpox. Bulntong. Angbinubulutong, the per- 

son who is having smallpox. Ang 
binulntong, the person who has had 
smallpox. Ang bululoin/in, the 
marks of smallpox. Magbnldlong, 
to become marked by smallpox. 
Magkabnldtong, to have an epi- 
demic of smali]iox. 

Asthma. Hikd. Ifikain, asthmatic person. 

tiout. Piy<'>- I'iyohin, gouty person. 

Abdomen. Tiydn. tiyanin, cqrpulent person. 



Hawk (several «pecies). 

"IN (hin; nin)" suffixed. 

XXIV. la [hin) suffixed to names of birds denotes gamecocks of the 
general color of the bird named. Some words change l!ie accent of the 
root, while others retain the original accent. Ex. : 

Laivin. Lalawinin, game cock of a 
brown color, like a hawk. 
Crow. Uol: f/xaHn, black game cock. It 

will be seen that the first syllable 
of the root is reduplicated. 

XXV. In (hin) denotes the completed action or result of a verb which 
requires an object if suffixed to a verbal root of this nature; provided the 
root admits in for the direct object. Ex. : 

To drink. 
To eat. 

To sew (occasionally). 

Uminum. Inumin, drink. 

Kumain. Kanin, food. Kakanin; 
kakain, refreshments, sweets, nuts. 
These last words formed with ka 
mean "food-resembling." 

Tumaht. Tahiin, anything sewed; 
tailor work. Magtahl, to sew in 
company (many) or to sew much. 
Manahi, to sew for a living. Man- 
anahi, tailor; tailoress; seamstress, 
needlewoman ( dressmaker ) . J/or/- 
pataht, to order to sew. Ex.: Jto 
ang pataht niyd sa akin (this is 
what she told me to sew). 

Sumabsab. Ang sabsab in, what grazed, 
i. e., the grass. Ang sabsaban, the 
grazing place; pasture, etc. 

XXVI. In used with verbal roots capable of expressing qualities which 
may be acquired or extended to persons, animals, etc., indicates the object 
of the action. Ex.: 

To i^raze. 

To look out (as from a window- 

To swim. 

DumuiTijao. Ang d?t*I7;«Hm, whatseen 
by looking out. This and similar 
forms contain no tense idea. Ang 
dinuiTgao, what was or has been 
looked at thus. Ang dinuruugao, 
what is being looked at thus. Ang 
duruwjuiian, the window. Man- 
uiTgao, to look by many thus or 
sometimesto appear at the window 
(also idea of habit thus). Ex.: 
Honag kang manumjao sa diirumj- 
anan (do not look out of [or appear 
at] t h e w i ndo w ) . MarwTgao, to be 
at the window. MiruruiTi/Ko sii/a, 
he is at the window. MakanuTiido, 
to look out of a window casually. 
3Iai/jindinH;ao, to order to look out. 
MakiduiTijao, to join another in thus 
looking out. Magkapadnm/an, to 
look out suddenly, moving quickly 
in order to do so. 

Lnmamjoy. Magi :>~goy, to swim car- 
rying something. Ang laiTgoyin, 
what gained by swimming, or ob- 
ject swam for. Ang iUnigoy, what 
carried while swimming, e. g., the 
clothes; also by what means. 


Laiigoi/ioi, a buoy. Lanr/oyfhi, a 
place for swimming; wiiere swim- 
minginay bedone. P'niuglamjoymi, 
place where swimming was done 
while carrying something. Ex.: 
Murunovg kang lumcnTijogf Hindi 
pu. (Do you know how to swim? 
No, sir. ) Ano ! Tagnlog hi 'f hindl 
marunoiig kcmg luincuH^n;!? ( What! 
You a Tagalog and don't know 
how to swim?) Toga suan kaf 
(Where are >ou from?) Taga 
bundok, pu (I live in the moun- 
tains, sir). Paid (I did not know 

To fly. Lum'ipad. Ang liparm, the object 

of the flight. Aug i/lpad, the 
wings, or instrument of flight. 
Ang lipanin, place of flight. ^I((g- 
lipad, to fly much, or to and fro. 
Magpallpad, to cause or teach to 
fly. Ang pinalipad, what set or 
taught to fly. 

To dive for; to dive (occasionally). Saniiskl. Ang sisirin, what dove 

for. The reason for diving or the 
body submerged, ang ihtisid. Ang 
si-^lran, the diving place. MagsUid, 
to dive much. Ang pinag.^yifJ, 
what dove for much. ManUid, to 
dive professionally (for a living). 
Muninlsld, diver. 

To run. Tumakho. Ang takhohin, what may 

be run for. Takhohin, runaway. 
Magtakhn, to run much. Ang 
itakhu, the cause for running or 
what is carried while running. 
Ang takhohan ( 1) the place of run- 
ning; (2) the person run away 
from; (3) the person for whom 
something may be carried. Tn- 
makhutakho, to rove about; to run 
around; to gad about. Makatakho, 
to be able to run. 

XXVII. In used with ma adjectives which have an attributive sense 
imparts the idea of holding, considering, reputing, etc., according to the 
meaning of the adjective. This has been fully explained under the adjec- 
tive (q. v.). 

XXVIII. /); suffixed also expresses the act of causing emotion or sensa- 
tion in others when used with roots which require no object, and form the 
class of verbs called neuters, which are generally expressed in English by 
" to be " followed by an adjective. It may also be prefixed. 

To be hungry. MagiUvm. Ex.: Nagugutum ang ca- 

bayo ( the horse is hungry) . Ilonag 
mong gnlnmin ang cabayo (don't let 
the horse go hungrj') . Kagutu- 
nian, hunger. 

To be thirsty. Manhao. Houag mong inuuhao ang 

aso (don't let the dog remain 
thirsty, or be suffering from 
ttiirst. ). Ex.: Nagugutum baga 


hay 6^ (Are you hungry?) Hindi'' I 
naui'thao Inmaw/ akn (No, I am 
only thirsty). 
To be afraid. Matakot. Natatahot kaf (Are you 

afraid?) Op6 nga, ako'y natatahot 
( yes, sir, I am afraid ) . Makatdkot, 
to cause fear. Anr/ ikat/ikot, the 
cause of fright. Any katukotau, the 
person feared, also tiling feared. 
Ex.: Anc) any kinatdtakolan mo? 
(What are you afraid of?) Avg 
kinatakotan ko'y amj nuoTyd tulim'in 
(I was afraid of the ladrones 
[bandits]). Tumakot, to iughten 
or scare another. Any takotin, the 
person frightened. Takotin ino 
siyd, frighten (scare) him. 

XXIX. It will be seen from the foregoing that in is not used with 
roots conjugated with )ii<i, except in certain senses, as shown by the above 

XXX. In suffixed to terms for money forms words denoting an object 
or material costing the amount represented by the money quoted. The 
first syllable of the root is duplicated, but the accent does not change. 

Half peso (25 cents U. S. currency). Salapi. Sasalapiin, a half- peso's 

Peso (50 cents U. S. currency). Pisos. Pijnsosin, a peso's worth. 

XXXI. In suffixed to some nouns when paying compliments, etc., 
Indicates that the party addressed resembles or partakes of the qualities 
expres-sed by the word used. 

The Candti (which has a sweet odor). Kandd. Kandahiii, a sweet person. 
Honey. Pulot. Pulotin, honey (term of en- 

dearment ) . 

XXXII. Suffixed to roots capable of being expressed with the idea of 
plurality, in denotes something to have taken place many times. The 
accent of the root changes invariably. Ex. : 

Idea of whipiiing. Hampds. i/awj^asai, whipped many 


To lose; to miss. Matvald. IFaZam, to lose many times. 

To sue another; to litigate. Magusap. Usapin,a suit tried many 

times. Palausap, barrator (one 
who is continually engaging in 
causeless litigation). 

XXXIII. Nin, when prefixed to class names of human beings signifies 
a resemblance to the class named. Ex. : 

Woman; female. Bahaye. Bahaynin, eUeimnaie luan. 

Binabaye, has almost same mean- 

Man; male. Lalaki. Zo7rtA-//(m, masculineorman- 

nish woman or girl. 

XXXIV. The object to obtain possession of which an intransitive action 
is performed sometimes takes in, if not otherwise expressed. Ex.: 

To go or come out; to take out. Lumabds. Any lahasin, who or what 

sought thus; object for which ac- 
tion performed. Maglahas, to take 
out. Any labsdn, what may be 

6855—05 9 



taken c»ut, (an fund from the cook- 
ing iiot ), or what may flow out of 
the body (as blood, etc.). Ex.: 
Labsun mo ak6 nang kauin (take 
some rice out for me). Maghihaa- 
labds, to go out and come in. 

Lumokso. Ant/ /o/.'.*o/(/»,\\ hat jumped 
for. Ang lokmhan, the place of 
jumping. Maglokso, tojumpmuch, 
or by many. Magloksohan, to 
jump by many in competition. 

Ltimut'ong. Ang lusowjin, oV)jecl 
leaped down for or alighted for. 
Ang lusoiTgan, the place of lighting. 
Idiom. Lusong na palad, a leap 
(stroke) of luck. Maglusong, to 
throw down or push down. 

Puinanaog. Angpanaogin, theobject 
for which action may be per- 
formed. Ang panaognn, the place 
or person for whom action may be 
performed. Ex.: Panaognn moako 
nang iubig (bring me some water 
down here). J/ap'^(a;(ao(7, to bring 
something down thus, or to go or 
come down much. 

XXXV. Some transitive (requiring an object) verbs do not, and some 
intransitive verbs do, admit in. 

To jump. 

To leap or jump down; (2) to aUght. 

To go or come down (the stairs or a 
ladder, etc.). 

XXXVI. In prefixed to or infixed with a root to which an is suffixed at 
the same time is used to express the result of an action when the said result 
is a concrete object. Ex: 

To embroider mats (petates). 

To do fine needlework; to do fine 

Magsdbat. Sinabatan,ai\ embroidered 
mat (petate). 

Suniulani. Sinulaman, fine needle- 
work, as a handkerchief or other 
article of fine sewing. 

XXXVII. The same construction is also used to express the following: 
(1) Things prepared for food from the raw material. (2) Acts done with 
the object expressed by the root. (3) The refuse caused by some actions. 
Pluralitv with the last is expressed by the use of the definite prefix pag in 
connection witli in (pinag). Ex.: 


To peel rattans (bejuco). 
To thresh. 

To saw. 

To sort cotton or silk; to cull; to 
pick over. 

Itlog. Initlogdn, anythingmade from 

eggs, as cake or an omelet, etc. 
Pulot. Pinulotdn, anything made 

Avith honey in it. PnloU'in, sweets 

made from honey. Pulot-gatd, 

honey and cocoanut milk. 
Kumayds. Kinayamn, the peeling 

(sing.). Ang pinagkayasan, the 

peelings (plur. ). 
Gumiik. Giniikan, straw. Pina- 

giikan, much straw. Magiik, to 

thresh much. 
Lnmagnri. Plnaglagarian, sawdust. 

Ang manlalagari, the sawyer. 
PinniU. Ang pinilihan, the refuse; 



MA— IN (HIN). 

XXXVIII. Jn (Jiin) suffixed and ma prefixed to roots signifying mental 
emotions, passions, and involuntary actions form adjectival nouns which 
generally require to be expressed in l^^nglish by an adjective and a noun. 

XXXIX. If the root admits of contraction, begins with /, or an intensive 
degree is to l)e expressed, the lirst syllable of the root may be reduplicated. 
These words have the accent on the last syllable as a rule. For examples 
see under ina. 

XL. It may be repeated here that acquisition or assimilation is generally 
denoted ))y in; the instrument, if allowable, and the reason for the carry- 
ing out of the action by i; and the place, or the person from whom, by an. 
Additional examples: 

To reach; to overtake; (2) to con- Umuhul. ylj?5r o6u«/n, what reached, 
dude (as a meeting). etc. .4n9iH((6i(<, whatwasreached, 

etc. Aug ubutan, the person over- 
taken or thing reached for. TJtna- 
Imt, to reach for one's self. Maga- 
hul, to reach for another. Ang 
pagi'ihut, the act of reaching. M<tga- 
butan, to reach for each other rnu- 
tually. Magahiiiabi(t(tn. to reach 
many things or pass things from 
hand to hand in numbers. Maka- 
dbut, to take; to be able to reach. 
Makidbiit, to ask another to reach 
for something. Ex.: Nakiabul ako 
kay Juan navg tubig ( I askf d Juan 
to reach me [get for me] some 
water) . 

To buy. Bumili. Ang bilhin or a )n/ nabiU,\\ha.t 

bought. Aug ibili, the purchasing 
agent ( money or article ) . A ng bil- 
hdn or ang nabilhan, the person 
from whom bought, i. e. , the seller. 
Ang binilhdn, the person from 
whom something was or has been 
bought. Angibinill, (1) the money 
with which something was or has 
been bought; (2) the person for 
whom something was or has been 
bought. Ang pagbili, the buying; 
purchasing (act). Mamili, to buy 
much. Ang pamimili, the buying 
of many things (act). Ang nami- 
mili, the buyer by wholesale, or 
liberal buyer. Ex.: PinamUi ko 
iyang manga kalakal (I bought 
those goods at W'holesale). Maka- 
bili, to be able to buy. Ang naka- 
bili, the person able to buy (past) . 
Ang ipinabili, the time, reason, or 
price in or for which something is 
or has been bought. Ang mai~gd 
pinabilhan, thesellersthus (many). 
Ang kabiU, the person with whom 
a purchase has been agreed upon. 
Ang nagkabUihan, the buyer and 
seller thus agreed (past teUvse). 
Ang pagkabilhan, the cost (past 
tense). Ex.; Pagkabilhan ko man 


nang hidiay, parordon ako (even 
if it should cost me my life, I will 

To sell. Magbili. Ang ipagbiU, what sold. 

Ang ipinagbili, what was or hag 
been sold. Ang pinagbilhan, the 
person to whom sold (past tense) ; 
the place, or the price. Aug nal- 
pagbU'i, what has been sold by error. 
Ang iiapugbilhdn, the money real- 
ized from what has been sold. Aug 
j)agbibi!i, the act of selling. (The 
. act of buying is ang pagbili. ) Mag- 

bibili, to sell by wholesale. 

To snatch; to pull up by the roots; to Kumamkam. Ang ktnamkavt, what 
take by force. snatched, etc., thus (past tense). 

Ang kamkamin, what snatched, 
pulled up, etc. (no tense idea). 
MatTgamkam, to go about pulling 
up things (as a gardener pulls up 

To take. Kumuha. Ang kinuha, what was or 

has been taken. Ang ikuha, the 
means for taking (no tense idea). 
Ang kunin, what taken (no tense 
idea) . Ang iklnulta, the means by 
which something was or has been 
taken. Aug kunun, the place or 
person from whom taken. 

To request; to ask for. HrimiiTgt. Ang liiningi, what asked 

for. Ar)g nuhlngi, what obtained 
by asking. Ang huTgln, what asked 
for (no tense idea). 

To close the hand. Kumimkim. Magkimkim, to grasp; 

to close the hand upon. Ang kitn- 
kimin, what grasped. Ang kinhn- 
kim , what was or has been grasped. 
^iyig ikimkim, the grasping instru- 
ment; e. g., the hand. 


I. The definite particle i, which is almost invariably a prefix and found 
as an infix with a very few words for strictly euphonic reasons, is used 
with sentences or phrases by which the subject is represented as losing con- 
trol of something, expulsion, cause, means, instrument, time (not tense), 
and verbs of adjusting, copying into, transferring, translating, transplant- 
ing, etc., in the latter case indicating the object of the verb. 

II. Sentences or phrases including a verb with i have the agent in the 
genitive, the direct ol)jec't in the accusative (if there is a direct object), 
and the word denoting the instrument, time, or cause in the nominative. 
The nominative word is emphasized by being placed at the l)eginning of 
the sentence or phrase. 

To pinion; to tie the hands. Gnmapos. Ang igapos, the means — 

i. e., the rope. Ex.: Igapos mo sa 
bilangohi itong pnntaU ( Pinion the 
prisoner with this rope). Em- 
phatic: Itong pantali igapos mo sa 
bilangohi (with this rope pinion 
the prisoner) . 


III. /, meaninfi; cause, is generally combined with ka, the definite form of 
maka, forming ika; ami further with in for the past and present tenses, ikina. 

To come here. Pumarito. Ang ipinarito, the reason 

or time of coming here. Aug iki- 
naparitu, the reason or time tluis 
(past tense). Ex.: And ungikluu- 
jjarilo viof (What did you come 
here for?) Si Juan ang ikinaparito 
ko (Juan was the cause of my 
having come here ) . Sino ang pina- 
ritohan mof ( Who did you come 
to see here?) Si Juan (Juan). 

ly. Some verbal roots have the idea of going away, leaving, etc., inherent 
in themselves, and therefore have the definite in either in or i. Ex. : 

To go away; to leave. Utnalis. Ang inalis, the leaving 

(pref. to ang ialis). Kahapon, ang 
inalis ko (yesterday, I left). Ang 
pagalis, the act of leaving. Maga- 
lls, to take something away. Ang 
pagaalis, the action of taking some- 
thing away. Kapag<ialis ko nito 
ngayon (I have just finished tak- 
ing this away). Makaalis, to be 
able to go away. Makapagalis, to 
be able to take away. 

V. An indirect object following a preposition takes the genitive with a 
sentence or phrase using i, but the construction of the rest of the sentence 
or phrase is unchanged. Ex. ; 

To buy. Bumill. Ibili mo ang hatd nang kaka- 

nin (Buv some sweets for the 

To carry; to accompany. Humatid. Ihatid mo ako sa ha hag 

nang amd mo (Accompany me to 
your father's house [to the house 
of your father]). Maghalid, to 
send; to remit. Maghatidhatiran, 
to send to each other mutually. 

To look for. Humanap. Ihdnap mo akd nang isang 

mabiUing cabayo { Look for a good 
horse for me). Ihdnap mo ako 
nang maiTgd itlog (Look for some 
eggs for me). 

VI. The person for whom some act is done and the indirect object of 
an action benefiting or performed for the benefit of another, take the 
nominative; the verb being used with i and the proper tense forms. The 
foregoing sentences are also examples of this, as well as the following 

To cook ; to make by cooking or like Maglutb. Ex. : Ipaglutb mo ang capi- 
process. idn nang sicolate ( Make some choc- 

olate for the captain). Tpagluto 
mo ako nang kanin (Cook me some 

To build a house. Magbdhay. Ipagbdhay mo ako (Build 

me a house). 



VII. / generally replaces in with verl)s which admit both direct ami 
indirect objects, i ))eing used to express the direct object (accusative) 
and an exjiressing the indirect object (dative, etc.)- 


To recommend. 

To make a gift; to present with. 

To advise. 

To give back; to restore. 

To tell; to narrate; to report. 

To talk; to speak. 

Maghilin. Ang ipagbilin, the rec- 
ommendation. Ang ijmiughilin, 
what was or has been recom- 
mended. Ang pai/hUuKtn, the per- 
son recommended (no tense idea) . 
Ang pinagbilinan, the person who 
was or has been recommended. 

Maghiyaya. Ang ipinngbiyayn, what 
was or has been given, i. e., the 
gift. Ang pinagbiyayaan, the per- 
son to whom something was or has 
been gi\-en. Mabiyayang to no, a 
liberal person. 

Maghdtol. This verb also means in 
some cases to procure women. 
Ang ihatol, the advice. Ang ihi- 
natol, what was or has been ad- 
vised. Ang hntolan, the person 
advised. Ang hinatolnn, the per- 
son who was or has been advised. 
Ang rpnghi'ttol, the woman pro- 
cured. Mupnghatol na lalaki, pro- 
curer; panderer. Mnpaghi'itol na 
babaye, procuress. 

Magmoli. This verb also means to 
go back, to return to the place of 
starting. Ang Isinaoll, what was or 
has been restored. Ang ■^indolian, 
the person to whom something 
was or has been restored. Ang 
pagsaoldn, the place returned to. 

MagsaUtd. Ang mlilin, what told or 
reported (no tense idea). Ang 
sinalitd; ang islnalitu, what was or 
has been told, etc. ^Ing sinasalitd; 
ang ifdnasalltd, what is being told, 
etc. Ang samlitnt; ang isasalild, 
what will be told or reported. 
Ang pagsalitaan, the person told 
or reported to (no tense idea). 
Ang plnagsaUlaun, the person told, 
etc. (past tense). Ang pinagmsa- 
litadn, the person being told or 
reported to (present tense). Ang 
pagsamlitadn, the person to be 
told or reported to (future tense). 
Ang ipinagi^nlitd, what was told 
and the reason for telling. Ang 
nagsalitd, the teller (past tense). 
Ang nagmsahid, the narrator 
(present tense). Ang magsasalitd, 
the teller (future tense). Ang 
kasalitaan, the companion in tell- 
ing; the coreporter. Masalitd, 
garrulous, like an aged person. 
iSumabi. Ang tiabilih), what saifl or 
the person or thing mentioned. 
Magsabi, to converse; to say. 


A III/ isahi, the reason or cause of 
the conversation. Anc/ isinabi, 
what was or lias been said. Ang 
iphiaysabi, what was or has been 
said and the reason or cause. A^ig 
nafiilnni, tlie conversation or story. 
A)ig piungsdhiliini, what said to a 
certain person or said at a certain 
To signal. Tumurb. Magturu, to point out; to 

show; ({. ) to teach. Ang itinuro, 
what signaled, pointed out or 
taught. Aug tinurocni, person 
shown (taught) or signaled to. 

Other verbs which have two objects like the foregoing are unidral, "to 
teach;" maghalM, "to report;" magbigay, "to give;" and magbiii, "to 
sell, " which have been or will be explained in otlier places. 

VIII. In tlie majority of cases i expresses the means or instrument by 
which an action is brought about. It is prejired d'lreMy to the root for 
those conjugated with uin in any manner, and to the verbalizing jiarticle 
in the other conjugations. Tliis applies to all tenses. The first syllable 
of the root or the last syllable of the particle, as the case may be, redupli- 
cate in the present and future tenses. In the second pluperfect and second 
future perfect tenses the particle / is inserted between the particle na or 
via and the root, whether the latter be simple or compound. ( See tables. ) 

IX. The root denoting an instrument, if capable of conjugation, may 
denote the indirect object, if there is no nominal direct object in the sen- 
tence. Ex.: Alio ang ipimttin/niydf (AVhat was he killed with?) Ib'mdril 
niyd (he was killed with a gun). With in the sentence would be: pinaiay 
niyd nang bnril (he was killed with a gun). In the last example the nomi- 
nal snl)ject hdril is expressed. (See tables for the conjugation of an instru- 
ment with /, and with means for accomplishment of an action. ) 

X. /is also used, as has been stated, to express the means for the ac- 
complishment of an action. Ex.: Wald siyang ibili nitong bdhay (he is 
without the means to buy this house) . Maijroon ako ibabayad sa iyo ( I have 
the means to pay you). 

XI. / combined with in may express the direct object (accusative) of 
actions performed for the benefit of others, which may also be expressed 
by m alone; an expresses place in general with such verbs; and i com- 
bined with pag and pinag according to the tense, expresses the person who 
is, was, has been, or will be the beneficiary of the action. 

To roast (meat); to bake or fry (fish Magihao. Anginiihao, what is being 
or meat). fried or roasted. Ang ipinagiiJiao, 

the person for whom something is 
being roasted, etc. Ang ihaoan, 
the frying pan or roaster. Ang 
pinagiltaaan, the place of roasting. 

To scald or make, as tea; to boil (as Maglaga. Aug inilagd, what boiled 
potatoes, etc.). or made thus. Ang ipaglagd, the 

person for whom to be made. Ang 
lagadn, the cooking pot, teapot, 
etc. Ex.: Ipaglaga mo ako nang 
na (make me some tea). 

To cook. Maglutd. Ang Infoin, what cooked. 

Ang inihitb, what cooked (see next 
paragraph). Ang lutodn, the cook- 
ing utensil. Ang paglntodn, the 
cooking place. 

XII. When roots beginning with /t, I, or a vowel (including ir) are con- 
jugated with in and instrumental /, etc., the Tagalog reverses the particle 


in to ni or changes it to na, in orderto avoid the har^h f?ound.sof the double 
i, espei'lally with roots commencing with i. Ex.: 

To throw down. Maghulog. Aug ihulog, what dashed 

to ground or thrown down (no 
tense idea). Aug Udnulog or an g 
inahiUog, what was or has been 
thrown down, etc. Aug ihinuhnlog 
or ang imiliuhulog, what is being 
tlirown down, etc. Aug ihuJu'dog, 
what will be thrown down, etc. 
(See tables for these. ) 

To place; to put. Maglagag. yln^ ?7a(7ai/, what placed. 

Ang ilinagay; ang inilagag or airg 
inalagag, what was or has been 

To get rid of; to disappear, Magicald. Ang iniirald, what was or 

has been gotten rid of, etc. 

XIII. With certain classes of verbs such as (1) those requiring two com- 
plements, e. g., magmlitd, "to tell;" magutang, "to lend;" magbigay, "to 
give," etc., and (2) with those expressing expulsive or dispersive action, 
e. ^.,magtapon, "to throw away;" ^nagsabog, "to scatter seed, etc.," i forms 
a true passive, which may be so expressed in English. 

XIV. With verljal roots not included in the foregoing classes i forms an 
expression peculiar to Tagalog and allied languages by denoting either the 
instrument, cause, or time of the action. In these cases the cause, reason, 
instrument, or time becomes the subject of the sentence in the nominative 
case, especially if the sentence should include an indirect complement ex- 
pressive of such instrument, cause, time, etc., in addition to a direct object. 

(1) To give. - Magbigay. Ang ihinigay, what was 

or has been given. Ex. : Ihinigay 
ni Juan iyang salapi (that money 
was the gift of Juan). 

(2) To throw away. Magkipon. Tnmapon, to cast (as a 

net). Ex. with magtapon: Ilina- 
pon ko angsnlut ( I threw the letter 
away). And ang gagawin ko nitong 
isiMf (What shall I do with this 
fish? ) Itapun mo ( throw it away ) . 
Ex. with tnmapon: Minsang itapon 
naliull ko itong isdd (I caught this 
fish with one throw [of the net] ). 
Ang taponan, the fish line; also, 
where anything may be thrown; 
the scrap hole or heap. 
To plant; to sow. Magtanim. (2) Also to bear hate or 

rancor toward another. Aking 
ilinatnnim itong pdlay (I am plant- 
ing this rice). Ang tamnan, the 
place of planting. As will l)e seen, 
besides being contracted, there is 
a transposition w ith m and n with 
this word with suffixed aa. 

(See tables for conjugation of mmdbog, to sow, with ;. ) 

XV. If the instrument is expressed in full with a verb using the expul- 
sive i, the instrument takes the proper preposition in the genitive. Ex.: 
Itinapon niyu ang buhangin nang panln'ikay (he threw the sand away with 
a hoe). 



XVI. (1) Roots whi(;h take viag for the primary idea in the indefinite 
generally have i for the corresponding definite, combined with in for the 
past and present tenses. Um roots generally take in only for the simple 
definite (direct object). (2) Roots which vary in meaning according to the 
verbalizing prefix or infix xiin, mag, etc., generally retain the definite form 
oi ma;;, in<ii/lca, etc., with (, forming rpag, ipimig, Ipa, i/jlwi, etc., as pre- 
fixes to the root. (See tables for conjngation of hinmbtt, to spread, to 
propagate (of its own accord); rnagkuhtt, to spread widely (by outside 
airencv). Ex.: 

(1) To sun ; to put in the sunshine. 

To pour out. 

To scatter. 

To add. 

To heap up; to lay in layers. 

(2) To spread; to propagate (of its 
own accord). 

To spread 
agency) . 

widely (by outside 

To V)orrow (money only). 

Magbilad. Ang ibivilad, what was 
or has been put in the sunlight, 
as clothes to dry. A ng hllaran, the 
place. Ang bilaran, the mpe b}' 
which suspended, etc. Ang ibilad, 
what sunned, dried in the sun, etc. 

Magbuhos. Angibuhos, whati)Oured 
out. Ang ibinuhos, what has been 
poured out. Minnuhon, to spill 
out; (2) fig. to spread out or run 
to, as a road. Ex.: Sdannunuhos 
itong daan ? (Where does this road 
run to?) Nunuhos sa bai/an (it 
goes to town). Magkabuhos, to 
run together (as two roads). JSlag- 
kakabidios ang da/aivang daan, the 
two roads run together. Kabu- 
hos diigu, of the same l>lood, as 
children of the same mother, 

Magbulagsak, var. niagbidaksak. Ang 
ibulagsak, what scattered. Ang 
ib'bmlagsak, what was or has been 
scattered. Ang ibin ubulagsuk, what 
is being scattered. Ang ibubu- 
lagsak, what will be scattered. 

Magdagdag. Ang idagdag, what 
added. Ang idinagdag, what was 
added. Ang dagdagan, what has 
been added to. Ang mandaragdag, 
the adder. 

Magpalong. Ang ipdtong, what 
heaped up or laid in layers. Also 
used for generations. Ex.: Ildn 
ang patong ang nagmida sa Lakan- 
dnlaf (How many generations 
liave there been since Lacandola?) 

Knmdlat. Ang ikdlat, what may 
spread. Ang ikindlat, what has 

Magkdlat. Ang ipagkdlat, what may 
be spread thus. Ang ipinagkdlat, 
what was or has been so spread. 
Ex. (indef. ): Nagkakdlat .si knan 
nnng wikang nakasasamd sa kapoua 
tauo (what's his name has been 
spreading bad reports all over 
about his neighbor). Kdlatkdlat 
ang dild niyd (he has a most tat- 
tling tongue). 

Umntang. Ang uiangin, the loan. 
Ang tUaiu/an, the person from 
whom borrowed. Ang inUtng, the 


To lend (money only). Magutang. (Also to borrow much. ) 

Ang ipinagulaug, the loan. 

To lend willingly. Mugpautang. Ang ipatUaiig, theloan 

made thus. Aug pautaiTgin, the 
person lent to thus. Ex.: Pau- 
tamjin mo ako nang pl.sos (lend me 
a peso). Iftdiig salapt lam f nig 
, ang ipauutang ko sa it/u { I will only 

lend you a half peso). IpinaiUang 
ko sa igo ang salapt ko (I have lent 
my money to you). Bdkithindt 
mo ako pinaui'dang nang salapt? 
(Why won't you lend me some 
money?) Sa pagka't wald, (be- 
cause I have none). Pautang, 
credit. Kautangan, debt. 

XVII. This is also .shown by humili, "to buy;" and maghili, "to sell," 
already explained). 

To buy by retail (on a small scale). Umutag. Ang inutay, what was 

bought thus. 
To sell on a small scale. Magntni/. Ang iplnagutai/, what was 

sold thus. 

XVIII (1) Ika {ikina for past and present tenses) is generally used to 
express cause or reason, and also time (for the latter see under ma). 

To destroy. Sumird,. Magsirci, to destroy much. 

Makasird, to be able to destroy. 
Ex. : Ang ikinasird nang kanigang 
ari ang pagsusugal (gambling was 
the cause by which he lost his 
property ) . 

To be sad. Mahapis. MakaMpb, to cause sad- 

ne.«s. Ang ikaliapis, the cause of 
sadness (no tense idea). Ex.: 
Ikinahdpis ko ang pagkamatay 
niyci (I was saddened by his dying 
[death] ) . Ikinahahapis ko ang pag- 
kamatay niya ( I am saddened by 
his death). Ikaluihapis mo ang 
pagkamatay id Gat Juan (You will 
be saddened by the death of 
Don Juan). K(iha})isan, sadness 
(abstr. ). KaJidpishapis, sad or sor- 
rowful object or spectacle; also 
great sorrow. 

(2) Jka {ikina) also expresses well-perfected acts resulting from a slow 
process or development. 

To become better. Gumaling. Maggaling, to adorn. 

Ang galiiTgin, what adorned. 
Magaling, to be better; also 
"good," "clever." MangaUng, io 
become much better. Makagaling, 
to do good. Ang ikagaling, the 
cause of betterment. Ex.: Ang 
matTgd gamot ay siyang ikinagaga- 
ling nang nuuTgd may sakit (medi- 
cines are what cause the recovery 
of those who are ill). Ang pana- 
hd'y ang ikinagaling niyd (the 


weather caused his improvement). 
Ang pagiyvum nitony r/ainot aiuj 
ikinacjaliiiff nila (the taking of this 
medicine was what caused them to 
recover). Ma<jpariaUng, to pros- 
per. Aug jnvagagnling, person or 
thing prospering. A ng migagaling, 
person improving. Magpakaga- 
ling, to improve one's self; to 
correct one's self. Ex.: Mngpaka- 
gnlitig kago n<(>ig maiTga dxal vinyo 
(Improve yourselves in your cus- 
toms [or manners]). KagaJhTgan, 
goodness; improvement. 

(3) Ikn, as well as i alone, prefixed to intransitive verbs indicate time 
as well as cause or reason. Ex. : 

To repent. Magsisi. Ang ipinagslsi, the time, 

cause, or reason of repentance 
(past tense). Su7nisi, to quarrel 
with openly. Ang isii^i, the cause. 
Magpakasisi, to repent deeply. 

To be asleep or sleepy. Midulog. Natutdlog baga kugof ( Are 

you sleepy?) 06; ihig ko scmu iTga 
matulog {Yes; I would like to go to 
sleep) . Makati'dog, to fall asleep. 
Ang ikatulog, the time or cause of 
falling asleep. 

XIX. / is generally used alone to express cause or reason with verbs 
which do not require an object to complete the meaning (intransitives): 

To obey; to follow. Sumunod. Ang isxinod, the cause of 

obedience or following. Ex.: Ano 
ang ifsbinsunod vang nuuTgd sundalo 
sa kanilang pimof ( Why do sol- 
diers obey [follow] their com- 
manding officer [chief]?). A7ig 
panunumpa 't pifagan ay ang isinii- 
sunod nild (Their obedience is on 
account of their oath and also their 

To weep (purposely). Tumam/is. MagtaiTgi a, to weep much 

or by many. MataiTgh, to weep 
(invol. ) . Ang itaiTijis, the cause or 
reason of w'eeping. MagpataiTijis, 
to weep excessively. MakitaiTgis, 
to join another in weeping. Ex. : 
Bdkit nananangis yaong bahayef 
(Why is that woman weeping 
[crying]?) . Ang itinatanljis niyd^y 
ang kannitayan nang a.nak ( Her cry- 
ing is caused by the death of [her] 
child) . 

To remain behind (letting others go Tmjiird. Magtird, to allow some- 
ahead), thing to remain. Ang itinird, what 

was or has been left behind; also 
the remaining behind. Ex. : Ikao 
ang itinird ko d'lto (I have re- 
mained here on your account) . 
ifatmf, to be left behind. Walang 
naiird, not one remained. 



To embark or travel (also to mount; 

To eat. 

XX. In like manner intransitive verbs also express time (not tens=e). If 
the expression for the time is lietinite, it may either precede or follow the 
verb, but if the time is indefinite it should always precede. Verbs which 
require ika ( ikhiu ) for cause or reason likewise have the same combination 
to express time: 

To arrive. Dumating. Ang idatlng, the time of 

arrival. Ex.: Ano ang oras ang 
idinaiiug 7iiyuf (What time [hour] 
did he [she] come?). Ang idmullng 
niyd ang lanyhull (He [she] came 
at noon). Ano ang urao na idara- 
ting nildf (What day will they 
come?). Ang ikalimang arao nang 
bouan (The fifth [day] of the 
Sumakay. Ang sakaydn, what em- 
barked on or mounted. Ang isina- 
kay, the reason or time ( past tense ) 
of em barking, mounting, etc. Ex. : 
Ang taung isinakay ko sa Fdipinas 
(The year [in which] I embarked 
for the Philippines). 
Kumain. Angikinain, the reason or 
time of eating (past tense) . Ex.: 
Dt ikinakatn ang buiTgang Idlao 
kailan man (green fruit should 
never be eaten). 

To die. Mamatay. Ang oras na ikinamalay 

niyd, the hour at which he died. 

XXI. /is also used with verbs of adjusting, conforming, copying into, 
transferring, translating, transplanting, etc., to indicate what has been 
thus transferred, translated, etc. 

Magbdgay. Ang ibindgay, what was 
or has been made suitable. Ex.: 
Ibagay ito doon (Make [do] this 
like that) . Magbdgay ka nang 
VKuTija bata magsasaydo (Get the 
children ready for the party). 
Mabdgay, to be proper or suitable; 
also to be proportioned. Ex. (1) 
Nababdgay bagd sa uang dalaga 
ang lunidkad na nagiisd sa manga 
lansanuj an f ( Is it proper, then, for 
a young woman to go alone about 
the streets?) Mababagdyan nang 
hirap ang laki nang kasalanan (The 
punishment will be suitable for 
the gravity of the offense). [The 
punishment will fit the crime.] 
(2) Dili nababdgay siyd sa kanilang 
kataasan (He [she] is not propor- 
tioned to his [her] height). The 
act of making suitable, ang pag- 
kabugay. Ex.: And ang pagkabd- 
gay nito doonf (What has this to 
do with that?) As a noun, bdgay 
means "thing, matter, subject, 
size, proportion, appearance." 
Ex. : .4/10 bagd ang bdgayf ( What, 
then, is the matter?) Ayicdn ako 

To conform; to make suitable; to 
get ready. 



To compare. 

To equalize. 

To (1) transfer; (2) translate; (3) 
transplant; (4) copy out, and (5) 
to change from one vessel to an- 
other; to empty. 

(I don't know.) Ano ang bdgay 
niyu, A)iierirano Litng Vustila? 
( What does he look like, an Amer- 
ican or a Spaniard?) Americano 
2JU (an Ameri(;an, sir. ) Bi'igag sa, 
"as for, " " as to. " Ex. : Bdgay sa 
akin ( as for me ) . Bagay xa kaniyd 
(as for him [her]). Biigny sa 
ibang bcigay (as to other matters), 
etc. Bdgaybdgay, different things 
(in class; species, etc. ). Mngkaba- 
g((i/hdg(iy, to differ much. Ex.: 
Ndi/kaknhdgdi/bdgay .svV/r .vc jxigda- 
raniit (Tliey differ much in their 
manner of dress) 

MagJutlltiibaud. Ang ipinaghalim- 
baad, what was or has been com- 
pared. Jlwiinihnbaud, to imitate 
another. Ang liaUmbftuann, the 
person imitated. Kahnlhnbaud, 
like, alike (object). Kahalim- 
bauaan, resemblance. 

Magpard. Ang ipinard, what was or 
has been equalized. 

Magsalin. Ang isinalin, what has 
been or was transferred, trans- 
lated, etc. (2) Isalin mo iio sa 
wikang Tagdlog (translate this into 
Tagalog). (5) iMtUn vio ang la- 
mang nitong buslo (empty out the 
contents of this basket). 


I. An {han after acute final vowel), sometimes nan, is suffixed with all 
tenses of the verb. The particle in, either alone or in combination with 
pag ipinag), etc., is retained in the past and present tenses. For the con- 
jugation of roots with an and Jiaii see the tables at end of book. 

II. An usually represents place, or expresses the case called locative in 
many European languages, replacing an adverb of place or the preposi- 
tion which would l)e employed witii another form of conjugation. Thus, 
if a sentence with a verli other than those which admit a i)erson or place 
as the direct oi)ject, or those requiring an for euphonic reasons, includes an 
indirect com]^lement of place relating to the action, the use of an with the 
verb expresses the relation of case expressed in English by a preposition. 

To gather; to pluck (as flowers); to 
])reak off. 

To die. 

Pumitds. Ex.: And ang pinipitdsmo 
dii/diK^ (What are you gather- 
ing there?) Akd^ y jningvii pitas 
nang bulaklak (I am gathering 
some flowers). Ang Jiahnnnna'y 
ang liigar (Sp.) na pinipitasan ni 
Ambrosia nang mangd bulaklak 
( Ambro.sia is gathering the flowers 
in the garden); lit., "the garden 
is the place where are being gath- 
ered l)y Andjrosia the flowers.)" 

Mamutay. Ang kamatagdn, the place 
of death, distinguished by the 
final accent from kamatdyan, death 
(abstract). Ex.: Jtong bahay na 
ifd ang kinamataydn ni amd (father 



died in this house); lit., "this 
liouse wasthedying placeof (my) 

III. If a verbal action admits of a j^lace for its direct object, the latter is 
generally expressed by av. 

To (1) open; (2) uncover. 

To sprinkle from the mouth (as 
Chinamen do clothes); also to 
bubble up (as water from a foun- 
tain or spring). 

To fill; to make up. 

To line. 

To plant; to sow. 

To cover. 

Maghvkus. si tig Jmkasin, whatopened 
or uncovered. Aug ipaghukm, 
the means by which opened or 
uncovered. Aug hukasan, the 
place opened or uncovered; also 
the person or object uncovered. 
Contracted many times to buksan, 
especially forthe imperative. Ex.: 
Buksfut. mo ang pinto (open the 

Magbugd. Ang hugh/m, the place of 
such sprinkling, or the object so 
treated. Ex. : Hindi huglu'tn mo 
ling mawjd ddimf. (don't sj^rinkle 
the clothes from the mouth). 
There is also an idiom: Bnghan mo 
natin itong bago mong dcunit (treat 
us on account of your new clothes) ; 
"wet down your new stripes." 

Magpuno. Aug pundn., tiie placeof 
lining, or making up. Ex. : Mag- 
puno ka nang labing dalaird (make 
up twelve [a dozen] ). Pundn inu 
ang niangd tasa (fill the cups). 
Pupundnko bagd ang mamjdvasof 
(Shall I fill the glasses?) Magpuno. 
with grave accent, stress on next 
to last syllable means to begin; to 
govern; to head; to lead; to pre- 
side. Mamuno, to go ahead or in 

Magsdpin. Ang sapndn, the place of 
lining, etc., also the imperative. 
Ang impin, the material. iSap'm, 
shoe or sandal. Kasapin, a leaf 
(of a book) or sheet (of paper). 
Sapinsapin, many leaves, sheets, 
or folds of lining. 

Magtanhn (2) also to bear hate or 
rancor toward another. Ang tam- 
ndn, the place or manner of plant- 
ing. P]x. : T'lnumndnnlTomdsang 
kanlyang bdkid nang 7ndkina {md- 
quina) (Thomas planted his field 
by machinery). As has been 
noted before, besides a contrac- 
tion, there is a transposition be- 
tween n and ni with this definite. 

Tuinaklp. Magiakip (1) to cover 
up; (2) to fish from many canoes, 
getting the fish in between. Ang 
takpdj), what covered or the place. 
Takpdn mo ang tapayan (cover the 



IV. An is generally used to indicate the person affected by an action 
with verbs which require a person as the direct object. 

To menace; to threaten. 

To frighten by rushing 
hiding and shouting. 

To diminish (oi itself). 

To give. 

To trade or sell rice. 

McK/hala. Aiir/ jHKjhalaan, the per- 
son menaced or threatened, 
out from Bu}iud(igd. Magbalaga, to frighten 
much. Ang fxilaghbi or ang bal.a- 
gJtan, the person thus frightened. 
KahabalagluDig g(iica,a marvelous 
work. Kahahtbalagd itoug gcnuang 
ito (this [is] a most wonderful 
work ) . 

Bumauas. Magbaiut^, to diminish 
by outside agency. Ang b<ma>^in, 
what diminished. Ang bauasan, 
the place (corresp. to rim). Aug 
pagbauamn, place (corresp. to 
mag) , the person to whom some- 
thing is given thus. Mabauax, to 
diminish (inan. action). Ang na- 
mauas, what taken from. Maka- 
bauas, to cause to diminish. Mag- 
pabauas, to order or request to 
diminish. Ex.: Bmiasanmoiymig 
manga tapayan (take something 
out of those jars). Magbauas ka 
nang halaga, reduce the price. 
Hindi mabuamn ko sa Ibnayig jyixof^, 
I can not let it fall below F5. 
Nabanas na ang hangin (the Mdnd 
has diminished now). 

Magbigay. A ng ibigay, the gift. A ng 
ibinigay, what was or has been 
given, ^ing bigydn, the person re- 
ceiving a gift. Aug binigydn, the 
person to whom something was or 
has been given. Mapagbigay, gen- 
erous; liberal; indulgent. Maud- 
gay, to give much; to lavish. Ex. 
And ang ibinigay mof (What did 
you give?) Bigydn mo ako nang 
kau7iting makakain, gi\e me a little 
refreshment [to eat] . Bigydn mo 
ako nang itlog kan mayroon (give 
me some eggs if there are any). 
Si Juan angbinigyang ko (I gave it 
to Juan). (S'i Tonids ang bibigyang 
ko (I will give it to Tom;is). Ang 
ipamigay, what lavished. Ex.: 
Ipinamigay niyd, itong laliut (he has 
lavished all this). Ipinamiinigay 
nild itong lahat (they are lavishing 
all this). Ipumindgay nim/6 itong 
lahai?^ (You will 'lavish all this?) 

Magbigds. Angpagbignsan,ih^ seller 
or dealer in rice. lyang pUak 
ang pinagbigasan niyd (he made 
that money selling (trading) rice). 
Makibigds, to ask for a little rice 
(see particle maki). 



To guard; watch; look out. 

To charge against (as a debtor). 

To dress one's self. 

To deceive. 

MaghanUiy. Also means to make a 
bird snare from bamljoo. Ma- 
mantaij, to catch birds with a 
"bantay." Ang namantaii, what 
caught. Ang hinabantay or ang 
pinapaghahantaji, the jierson stand- 
ing guard, watching or looking 
out. Ang bantayan, the sentry 
box, post; watch tower; look out 
p^ace. Also Ang ]>agh(tntaynn. 
Ang bantayan (1), thing or person 
guarded or watched; also imjjera- 
tive without art. Ex.: Bantayan 
mo itong baliay itn (watch this 
house). Binaydayan ko ang cnar- 
iel (I was on guard at the bar- 
racks). Binabantayan niyn ang 
cuariel (he is on guard at the bar- 
racks). (2) arms or scales or 
correctness of the balance. (3) 
A bamboo bed for sick persona 
under which a fire may be made. 
Magbantayan, to make such a bed. 
Ang bantay anln, the material; ang 
bantayanan, the place of such a bed. 

Magblntang. (2) To bear false tes- 
timony against another. Ang pag- 
binta)Tt'/an (1), the person charged; 
(2) the person sworn against 
falsely. Aug ipagbinfajig, what so 
sworn, 1. e., the testimony. Ex.: 
(1) PinagbintaiTgan ako nang sam- 
pouong 2)>^os (I was charged up 
with ten pesos). (2) Binagbin- 
taiTgan nlyd ako (he bore false tes- 
timony against me). Ang pagbi- 
bintang, the act of swearing falsely. 
mapagbintang, the person who ha- 
bitually swears falsely; perjurer. 

Duniaynit. Daranit'in, clothes (pres. 
tense). Ang danddn, the person 
dressed or clothed. Magdandt, to 
dress or clothe another. Ang pag- 
daramit, the act of dressing (pres. 
tense). Magparamit, to cause or 
order to be clothed. Ex.: Parain- 
tan mo ang valang daniit (clothe 
those who are without clothes). 
Bdkit hhidl mo jdnadaramian ang 
anak niof (Why don't you clothe 
your child?) Sapagka'tuald akong 
maibili nang damit (because I have 
nothing to buy clothes with). 

Magdayd. Ang pagdayaan, the per- 
son deceived. Angpagdarayd, the 
act of deceiving. Magparayd, to 
permit deception. Magparayd ka, 
permit the deception. Parayd, to 
consent or allow one's self to be 
deceived. Magdarayd, fraudulent; 
cheating (adj.). 



To kiss. 

To l)c sorry. 

To steal. 

To listen to. 

To teach. 

To be charitable. 

llumalik. Aug JiagMn, the person 
kissed. MagJailik, to kiss each 
other (dual). Atig rnar77/d ])iiiag- 
hagkan {the two who have kissed 
each other. ) Pahalik, to request to 
kiss. Ex. : Pahalik pu kayo sa 
kamay (permit me to kiss your 
hand). (Sp. Q. B. S. M.) 

3fahin(iyang (from myang, idea of 
sorrow ) . .1 ng kinalt inayain/an, the 
person for whom sorry, or for what 
reason sorrow is felt. Ex. : Khia- 
hiJi'mayatujan ko siyn (I feel sorry 
for him — lit., he is the person I 
am sorry for. ) Maitliindyung, to 
be very sorry. Ang panlmia- 
yarigan , the person for wh om felt, or 
the cause of much sorrow. Magpa- 
hindyavg, to regret a loss of any 

Magndkao. Ang plnagndkao, what 
was or has been stolen. Ang 
magnandkau, the thief. Aiig pag- 
nakavan, the person robbed. Ex. : 
Sino ang magnandkaof (Who is 
the thief? ) Sino ang pinagnakavan 
mof (Who did you steal from?) 

Pakinig. Ang pakingnn, the person 
listening. Ex. : Pakingdn ninyo 
ang dral (listen [ye] to what is 

Urndral. Ang aralan, the person 
taught. Ang idral, what taught — 
i. e., the lesson. Ang inidral, what 
was or has been taught. Ang 
ungmadral, the teacher. Angpagd- 
ral, the act of teaching. Mngdral, 
to stud y ; to learn. .1 ng pagaraldn, 
the source of learning — i. e., the 
teacher or the book, etc. Ang 
magdral, what learned. Ang pa- 
gadral, the act of studying. (Note 
that the "act of teaching" is ex- 
pressed without reduplication of 
the initial sylable of the root.) 
Aral is said to l)e from 8ansk. 
dchdra, custom; habit; rule; by 
Kern, Isut Pardo de Tavera thinks 
it doubtful. Ajar is Malay, "to 
teach or to learn" from JaA-anese. 
AsaJ, custom; habit; is more likely 
to be from Sansk. dcltdra. For 
further modifications of dral with 
particles, see under nran. 

Maana, also compassionate; charit- 
able (adj.). Maauain; majxtg- 
kaaud, a humane or charitable per- 
son. Ang anaan, the recipient of 
compassion or chanty. Ang pag- 
kaaud, the act of charity or com- 
passion. Kauuaan, (abst. ) charity, 




To hear (casually). 

compassion. Ex.: Kaauan mo siyd 
(have charity [or compassion] for 
him) . Aug kinaauadii, what given 
in charity or extended in compas- 
sion. Ang ikinaaua, the cause of 
giving in charity or extending 
compassion. Makaaucl, to move to 
compassion. Magmalcaaud, to be 
able to move to compassion. {Aud, 
is generally reduplicated. Ex.: 
Naginainakaayaauct ako itong duklnl 
(this poor [person] moves me to 
compassion). Aug ipinagiunma- 
kaaud, the cause of being able to 
move to compassion. Paand, to 
ask for charity; to plead or beg for 
mercy, etc. Ex. : Nupacmd siyd sa 
akin ( he begged me for mercy ) . 
Maringig. Dumingig, to hear pur- 
posely. Ang nar'uTgig, what heard 
casually. A^^g dh~g'm, what heard 
jmrposel}-, as conversation directed 
to person. A)ig ditTgdn, the per- 
son listened to. An indicates per- 
son, in tlie thing, with this verb 
and the following one, also others 
which will be seen in other places. 
Makaringiy, to be able to hear. 
MagkariiTgig, to be deceived by the 
hearing. Magparhupg, to force 
another to listen. Ex. : Widd ukong 
diiTgig (I heard nothing); lit., "I 
(was) without hearing." Nuriwjig 
mo ang shiabi kof (Did you hear 
what I told you? ) Hi)) di ko na ritTijig 
( I did not hear ) ; " I was not able to 
hear. ' ' Xakadi)-ii~gig ka hagdf ( Did 
you hear?) Lit.: "Are you hear- 
ing?" NagkariiTijan ako (myhear- 
. ing deceived me). 

Kumalag. A))g kalgin, what untied 
or loosened. A))g kalgdn, person 
set at liberty or absolved. Ang 
kalagpa)~gao, the jailor's fees in 
former times, when set free. 

V. In actions by which the subject tries to draw something to himself, 
a)i stands for the person from whom that something is drawn. 

To ask for; to reqiiest. FIu)niiTgi. Makahi)Tgt, to obtain by 

requesting. MakihirTiji, to thank 
for. Ang hi)T!ji)), what asked 
for. Ang hini)vjt, what was or has 
been asked for. Ang hi)ujdn, the 
person from whom asked. Ex.: 
Ako' y }t)n))i)T(jt nang n)a)Tgd Innvja 
'y nnkahi)7iji ako (I asked for some 
fruit and got it for the asking). 
MapngJ)iiTg), an importunate per- 
son. See also )))aghHi, to sell; 
kumuha, to take; d)tmning, to en- 
treat; hiundnap, to look for; and 

(1) To untie; to loosen; (fig.) to set 
free; (2) to absolve. 



tumangap, to accept or receive 
which, among others, use these 
same forms. 

VI. Roots which express the ideas of coming or going, when verbal- 
ized, take an iot the person affected by the action, and i or ika {ikina) for 
the reason or time of sucli action. Ex. : 

To come here. Pumarito. Parito, come here. Arig 

ipinarito, the reason or time of 
coming here (past tense) . Also 
ang ibinaparito. Ang pinaritohan, 
the person (or the place) who was 
the object of the action. Ex. : 
And ang ikinaparito mo aa Pa- 
sig? (Why did you come here to 
Pasig?) Aling hahay ang pinari- 
tohan mo? (Which house did you 
come to? ) ( Pumarito has been dis- 
cussed previously. Pumaroon fol- 
lows the same rule as pumarito and 
has also been explained.) 

YI. An is rare as an ending to the direct object of a verb. Some verbs, 
however, which would naturally take in for the direct oVjject substitute an 
therefor on account of euphony, as the words are contracted. 

To salt; (2) to make salt. 

To pay for. 

To note; to experience; to perceive. 

To pierce. 

To grasp; to hold. 

Magasin. Ang asndn, what salted; 
inasndn, what was or has been 
salted. Ang paktasinan, the salt 
pan; also the saltcellar. Ang 
nagaasin, the person who eats salt 
on rice or food. Makiasin, to ask 
for a little salt. 

Maghayad. Ang bayaran, what 
paid for; the obligation. This 
verb also has the idea of covering 
up, and originally meant "to buy 
or sell slaves." Ex.: lyong baya- 
ran ang lUang mo (your obligation 
is to pay your debt [pay what you 

Magmasid. Ang pagmasddn; ang 
masddn (def. ); ang namasid (in- 
def. ) what noted, etc. Magpa- 
masid, to order to note. Ang 
papagmasddn, the person ordered 
to note. Ang papagmasd'm, what 
ordered to be noted. Mapagmasid, 
one who notes, perceives or ex- 
periences a great deal. 

Tumalab. Aug tahlnv, what pierced. 
TumalabiB also "to become dull" 
(as a knife). Magtalab, (1) to 
penetrate deeply; (2) to dye with 
the talab root. Aug pagtalaban, 
what pierced deeply. A ng talabin, 
what dyed. Ang iialab, the instru- 

Magtangan. Ang tangdn or ang tang- 
anan, what grasped or held. Ang 
pagtam/ndn, what held much. Ang 
itamjan, the hand or instrument 



(1) To try; (2) to sample; 
understand a person well. 

To look at; to view. 

used to grasp or hold with. Syn. : 
Maghaudk, which means generally 
to hold or grasp by two. Plx.: 
May hmiak ako wjayon (I am busy 
now [or to-day] ). 
(3) to Tumikim. Any iihnan, what sam- 
pled. (Admits in combined with 
pa.) Ex.: Paiikmin mo iTga ako 
nitong dlak (allow me to try this 
wine). lYbndn wio ( taste it ; sam- 
ple it). 
TumiiTgin, (2) Magting'm, to look at 
much or by many. MagtiiTgina)», 
to look at each other. MagtiiTjiin- 
tbTghtan, to look at each other 
closely. Ai)g tiningm, what was or 
has been looked at. AngtinitiiTipn, 
what is being looked at. Any tiiTy- 
nan, what looked at; alone impera- 
tive. AngpagtbTijnan, whatlooked 
at much or by many. A ng itiiTljin, 
the cause or with what, i. e., the 
eye. A rig ipag-{ipinag)-tiiu)in, the 
cause of much looking or by many; 
also the eyes of many, etc. 
To learn. Magaral. Any pagaralfin, what is 

learned. Aug pagarak'in, the 
source of learning, i. e. , the teacher 
or book, etc. 

VII. Some roots used with in with urn, mag, etc., take an when conju- 
gated with magpa. 

To treat well; to prosper. MagpagaUng. Y,x.: GaUiTganmosiya, 

(treat him [her] well). 

VIII. An sometimes replaces the preposition sa when the latter means 
"to," as an implies that the subject parts with something, in the following 
examples. Acquisition with the same construction ( "for" ) is expressed by /. 
Ex. : Binigydnnildakoniujnybigds [they ga.\e me this rice) . Also expressed: 
ako'y ang binigydn nild nitong bigds. It will be clearly seen that the defi- 
nite is a verbal noun. Sino bagd ang pinagbilhdn niyd nang iyony cabayo 
(to whom has he sold [did he sell] your horse?) Pinagbilhdn niyd ang knni- 
yang kaibigan (his purchaser was a friend of his). Also expressed: ^1»^ 
kaibigan niyd ang pinagbilhdn niyd. 

IX. An with certain noun or verbal roots indicates place. The first syl- 
lable of the root is reduplicated for roots admitting contraction or begin- 
ning with /. 

Buyo-leaf (piper betel] 
Bamboo (bambusa). 

Cocoanut palm 

Itnitj. Itmohiin, buyo-leaf garden. 

Kauayan. Kauayanan, bamUioo 
grove or thicket, yfay kanayanf 
(Have [you, or is there] any bam- 
boo?) Kumauayan, tothrow bam- 
boo weapons at another. Atig 
kanayanin, the object or person. 
Mangauayan, to cut bamboo. Ang 
pangauayan. the instrument, i. e., 
the bolo or hatchet, etc. 

Niog. Ningan, cocoanut grove. 
Kaniugan, place of many cocoanut 
palms. Kajnmong niog, a single 
tree. Kaboong niog, a cocoanut. 



Pasture; grazing place. 

Banana. (Mu?a par. and others, 
both the tree and fruit. ) 

Sugar cane. 

Stone; rock. 


Numiog, to throw a cocoanut at 
another. A)ig niogin, the person 
or object thrown at. A7ig iniog, 
the nut thrown. Magniogcm, to 
throw cocoanuts at each other. 
There are many names for cocoa- 
nut, according to its age and con- 

Sabsaban. Ang sabmbin, the grass 
eaten (no tense idea), or what 
eaten as animals eat (by the 
mouth). Sumabsab, to graze, eat 
(as animals). Magmbsab, to eat 
much. Magxisabsab, to graze in 
herds, flocks, etc. Pasabsab, to 
allow to graze. Ex.: Pumbsabin 
mo itong cabui/o; viay sabsabi7i 
diyan sa Jiarapdn (Let this horse 
graze; there is grass there in the 
yard) . Sungmasabsab ang cabayo, 
p6 (The horse is grazing, sir). 
Parang is a large pasture. Sabsa- 
ban is more a grazing or eating 
place for animals. 

Saging. SagiiTgan, banana grove. 
KasagirTgan, large banana grove 
or place where there are many 
bananas. Magsdging, to eat ba- 

Tubo. Tubohdn, cane field. Tubo- 
hanan, sugar-cane land. Magtubo, 
to plant sugar cane. There is no 
Tagalog name for sugar, asnkal, 
from Sp. azdcar, Ijeing used. The 
Malay uses shakar and gula, the 
latter from Sansk. guda. 

Batu. Batohan, quarry. Kabatohan, 
place of stones; rocky ground. 
Mabatong bukid, a stony field. 
Bato also means rice which does 
not open when toasted; and 
kidney. Magbato, (1) to cut 
stone; (2) to lay stone; (3) to 
build out of stone. Ex.: (3) 
Nagbabato si Juan nang kaniyang 
hahay (Juan is building his house 
out of stone). Maginbato, to turn 
into stone. Ex.: Ang asdua ni 
Loth ay nagivbatong asm (Lot's 
wife became a pillar [rock] of 
salt) . 

Tubig. Tubigan, irrigated land. 
Katvbigan, place where water may 
be had. Magi u big, (1) to put 
water into anything; (2) to water 
an animal, etc. Mandbig, to go for 
water in a canoe or on an animal. 
(To go for water with a pitcher is 
uniigib). Angpaiinbignn, theplace. 
Panubig, to make water. Makitu- 
big, to ask for water. Si Juan ay 







Stern; last part. 

Bow; first part. 

To make port ( as a vessel ) . 

To bathe; to take a bath. 

iKikibiti'tbif/ Ka (ikbi (Juan asked 
me to help him get water). 
Patublgin mo ako (Give me some 
water). Tubig na hihilamosin, 
wash water. 

Siinbahan. Snmunbn, to worship. 

SaboiTgan. Snmabong, to fight (one 
gamecock against another). Mag- 
saboiig, to fight against each other; 
also to play one against the other. 
Avg sdsabongiyi, the game (cock- 
fighting). Ang i-{i]xtg)-S(iboiig, 
the gamecock (s). Pnlasabong, 
cockfighter by occupation. 

JJlo. Vhihan, head of the bed; also 
a large-headed person. Ulundn, 
the head place (pillow). Unan is 
the word for pillow itself. Ex.: 
UmuM ka rixi (Put your head 
here). Uluhln vio ynri (Put your 
head here toward me). Ululicm 
mo ilo (Put your head on this). 

Pad (from Sansk. pada, foot). The 
English is also from the same 
Sansk. word. The English paiv 
does not seem to be from Sansk., 
l)ut to be of Teutonic origin, but 
remotely may be the same. Paa- 
lian, the foot of a bed; place of the 
feet. Magpad, to set the foot 
down; to step in or on. 

Ang hull. Hamuli, (1) to steer; (2) 
to remain behind purposely. 3/«- 
huU, to be left liehind. Ang hu- 
lihdn, the last or hinder part. A'a- 
hulihdn, tardiness. Ang knhulihu- 
lihdn, the very last. Humull is to 
catch, etc. (note the difference in 

Una. Umund, to lead. Houag kang 
mund, do not go ahead. Anguna- 
hdn, the fore part or place. Kau- 
nahdn, priority. Undund, firstly. 
Ayig kaunnunahdn, the very first. 
Sa und, anciently. Sa una pang sa 
und, very anciently. Sa unang 
drao, in the days of old. Maiiij- 
und, to precede; to guide (in per- 
son); to lead, as a guide. 

Dumoong. 'Aiig idoong, the vessel 
put into port. Ang doongan, the 
place. Lalaiiigan is another name 
for port. Magkapadoong, to make 
port suddenly. Madoong, to be in 

Paligo. Ang paliguan, the bathing 
place. Ang ligoin; ang paligoin, 
the water for bathing. MagJigb; 
magpaligb, to bathe another. 
(See the phrases on p. 24 for use 
of these words). Pambo is a rare 



To make a mudhole under the house. 
To wound. 

To scratch or scrape tlie ground with 
the hands, claws, feet, etc. 

Mac/pumli. "The place," anc/ kn- 
pumlian. Pusalian, "mudhole." 

Su)nH(]ut. Ang sugntin , the wounded 
person or animal, etc. Ang ikasd- 
gat, the cause. Ang sugatan, the 
place or what part wounded . Ex. : 
SinuHugotan vii/d sa kamcn/ (he is 
wounded in the arm [hand]). 
There is no separate word for arm 
and/u7.;/'ZinTagalog. Buraw, from 
Sp. brazu, is sometimes used. J'dd, 
foot, is also a foreign word. Rus- 
sian has exactly tlie same peculiar- 
ity, riika meaning both hand and 
arm, and noga both foot and leg. 
Magsugat, to wound much ; makasil- 
gat, to cause to be woun( led . Sugdt 
(note the accent) is another root, 
with the idea of trading at retail. 
Sumugat, to buy at retail, or go to a 
retail market. Magsugat, to sell at 
retail. Ang sugatan, the place, i. 
e., the market. Tiangi, a Spanish- 
Aztec word, is the usual name for 
a market. 

Kamotkot. Magkotkot, to make a 
ditch or trench. Ang kotkotin, the 
earth scratched up, or (2) thrown 
out of a ditch. Ex.: [2) Kinotkot 
nangmangd sundalo ang lupa nang 
A:amcf;(/(thesoldiers threw the earth 
out with their hands) . Ang Ikot- 
kot, the means, i. e., the hands, 
claws, etc. Ex.: Ang kamay ang 
ikinotkot nang maiTijd suvdalo nang 
lupa (with their hands tlie soldiers 
threw out the earth [or dug the 
trench] ). Ang kotkotan, the place. 
'Ex.: ltd ang kinotkotan nangmangd 
sundalo (this was where thesoldiers 
dug the trench). PanTgotkot, the 
instrument used for digging, as a 
spade, shovel, etc. 

SunilUd, from sUid, a room. Aug 
sidldn (c), the room entered (no 
tense idea). Ang sisidldn, the 
room. Magsilid, to put into a room 
or to enter much. Masilid, to be 
in a room. Ang pagsisidldn, the 
room entered much. S_vn., lindoh, 
from Idob, within; inside. 

Hinnigd. Ang hihigdn (c), the place; 
the bed. Mahigd, to be lying down, 
or in bed. Ex. : Sino kayd yaong 
nahihigd/ (who is that lying down 

X. Verbs in which the idea of expulsion is inherent do not admit of in 
as an ending for the direct object, which is replaced by an, han, etc. 

To place. Maglagdy {I root). Ang lalagydn, 

the place. Aug ilagdy, what 
placed. Ang ilinagay; ang in'da- 

To enter a room. 

To lie down; (2) to go to bed. 



To sow ( as rice, corn, etc. ) . 

To use or make soap. 

To tVirow awav. 

To erect; to set up. 

To pay a salary or wages. 

gay; ang inalagay; what was 
placed, or has been placed. Mal- 
agdy, to be placed. Aug kinala- 
lagycin, the place. Magpalag&y, 
to desert, to abandon. { Root gen. 
redup. ) Ex. : Phmlalagaylaga y 
ang mawja snndalo ang bayan (the 
soldiers are leaving tlie town). 

Sumdhog. Aug iscibag, what sown, 
i. e., the grain. Ang sabugan, the 
place, the field, rice paddy. Ex. 
as verbs: Isdbog mo i(6 (sow this). 
Isdbog mo ito fa iyong bnkid (sow 
this in your field). Sabugan mo 
nito ang iyong bdkid, or ang iyong 
bnkid, sabugan mo nito, same trans- 
lation as with /, except in the first 
the empha.'^is is on the act, and rtn 
the place in the second. Magm- 
bog, to sow much. Ang ipagsd- 
bog, what sown thus. (See tables 
for conjugation of sdbog. ) 

Magsabon, from fip.jabon, soap. Ex. : 
And ang sinasabon mof (what are 
you washing with soap?). Sabonan 
mo ang dainit (use soap with the 
clothes). Wald akong sabdn (I 
have no soap). Mili ka nang m- 
bdn (buy some soap). It will be 
seen thata-ssimilated foreign words 
follow the same rules as native 
ones in all respects. 

Magtapon. Ang itapon, what thrown 
away. Ex.: Itapon mo do (throw 
this away). Itapon mo itd sa tubig; 
taponan mo ang tubig nito; or ang 
tubig ang taponan mo nito (throw 
this into the water [in order to get 
rid of it] ). 

Magtayo. Ang i{pag)tay6, what set 
up thus. Angpagtayoau, the place. 
Ex.: ()') Itayo nio itong mdiTgd ha- 
ligi (set these posts [pillars] up- 
right). Itong loobang it<7y siyd 
kong ])agtatayoan nang dking bdhay 
(I am going to put up my house in 
this 3'ard). Tnmayo, to stand erect 
(animate Vjeing). Ex.: Aug suu- 
dalo tnngmalayo sa harap nang 
kaniyang punb (the soldier is 
standing [stands] erect in front of 
[before] his commander) . Matayo, 
to be erect (inanimate object). 
Ang matTgd haligi nang dk ng bdliay 
natatayo (the posts of my house 
stand [are] upright). Matonid 
also means upright, but generally 
in a moral sense. 

Vmvpa. Ang iiipa, the wage or pay. 
Ang itpahan, person paid or what 
paid for, as a rented house, etc. 


Ang pagupahan, the place. Ex.: 
, Magkano ang pagaupahan sn Ma- 

viiilaf (how much is being paid 
in Manila?). 

XI. With some nouns denoting parts of tlie body an personal 
adjectives with an idea of augmentation. 

Shoulder. Balikat. Balikalan, broad-shoul- 

dered. Ex., verbalized: Baiikatm 
mo ilong kauagan (carry this bam- 
boo on your shoulder ) . Isabalikat 
mo itong panjio {spread this hand- 
kerchief over your shouldeis). 
Balikalan mo siya (catch him by 
the shoulders). 

Mouth. Bibig. Bihif/an, large-mouthed, also 

great or reckless talker. Ex. : Pi- 
naghihlgan niyd ako (he talked a lot 
about me). 

Nose. Ilong. Ilongan, large-nosed. 

For places expressed with jxtg — an and ka — an, see underpay and kn. 


XII. With an the direct object takes the accusative and the agent the 
genitive. Ex. : Hinahagkdn nang anak (agt. ) ang kaniyang ina (dir. object) 
(the child is kissing his [her] mother). Lit., "Is being kissed by the child 
the his [her] mother." Takuran mo iyang kdhoy (prop up that tree). Lit., 
"Let be propped up by you that tree." 

XIII. If an indirect object expressing place is included in a sentence, 
however, it takes the accusative case, and the direct object the genitive or 
other oblique case, the agent remaining in the genitive, as explained in the 
preceding paragraph. Ex. : Tinatamnun ni aind nang sarlsaring kdhoi/ ang 
halamanan (Father is planting different kinds of trees in the orchard [gar- 
den]) — lit., "The garden (ace.) is being planted with different kinds 
(abl.) of trees (gen. ) by father (ins.)." Pinaghanapan mo hagd sa cabayo 
ilong daang ito? (iMd you look for the horse on this road?) — lit., " Was- 
looking-place your perhaps (gen.) for horse (dat. ) this road? (nom. as 
trans., same form as ace. )." 

XIV. If an is used modifying a place or person in which to, for, from, 
by, on, in, etc., precedes the place or person when translated into English, 
the place or person should be exjiressed. In these cases the agent, as usual, 
takes the genitive and the direct object the accusative. The indirect object 
may either precede or fallow the verb, except interrogative pronouns or 
adverl)s of place, which always precede. The person or place is empha- 
sized by being placed before the verb in the sentence. Ex.: Mnulat niyd 
ang akin g sdlat (He wrote my letter for me) — lit., "Was written by him 
(her) the my letter." Sinnmlalan ko Hong papel (I am writing on this 
paper) — lit., " Is-the-writing-place my this paper." Pagsusulatan ko ilong 
papel ilo (I will write on this paper). Same construction as foregoing, 
with future tense; Sino ang pinagbilhdn mo nitong cabayo.^ (To whom 
have you sold this horse?)— lit., "Who (was) the purchaser your of this 
horse?" Ang anak nang kapidbahay ko (To the son of my neighbor) "The 
son of the neighbor my." 


I. Um is called the first verbalizing particle by the Spanish writers on 
Tagalog, and is generally used to verbalize roots when the action is primary 
or expressed as the act of the subject without special reference to the object. 
Ihn also has the idea of action toward another person. Some roots differ 


radically in their meaning with inn and mac/, or rather in opposite ways 
from a neutral point. With other roots mag expresses intensity of what is 
expressed jmrnarily with urn. Um, which is found in the so-called indefi- 
nite, changes to wu/tn in the past and present tenses, and drops out in the 
future tense. There are also pluperfect and future-perfect tenses, but they 
are not generally used. For the conjugation of a root with run see the 
tables. There are some irregularities with some roots which are noted in 
the proper ])lace. In the mechanical structure of the language xim is pre- 
fixed to roots beginning with a vowel and infixed between the first letter 
and the following vowel of a consonant root. 

II. The philologist Keane gave G. W. Parker, author of the Grammar 
of the jMalagasy Language (London, 1883), the following information as to 
the use and origin of infixes, which applies to Tagalog as w'ell: 

"The infix syllable om {um, am, om) is a feature which Malagasy has in 
common with Khmer (Cambojan), Javanese, Malay, Tagala (sic) (Philip- 
pine Archipelago), and no doubt other members of the Malayo-Polynesian 

"Khmer: Slap, dead; samlap, to kill. Javanese: Hunih, flame; humu- 
rub, to inflame. Malay: FilUi, to choose; pam'dihan, choice. Tagala: 
Basa, to read (idea of reading); bumam, to make use of reading (to read). 

"Originally a prefix, as it still is in Samoan (Ex.: Moto, unripe; momoto, 
to die young), this particle seems to have worked its way into the body of 
the word by a ])rocess of metiithesis analogous to tlie transposition common 
to most languages (comjiare Anglo-Saxon thridda with third)." 

III. As has been stated, lun is generally used to express tlie simple un- 
reciprocated a(;t of the agent, either toward himself or others, provided the 
action is not modified by conditions of time (not tense), manner, instru- 
ment, number (plurality), or otherwise carried away from its simplest 
sense. IMany roots admit both um and mag with little difference in mean- 
ing, and hence it is often difficult to decide upon a choice between them, 
but it is generally safe to use um. Again, many roots differ widely with 
the two particles. Cm refers more to subject and his action, mag to the 
object and the action of the verb upon it. 


For convenience of reference the roots conjugated by um have been ar- 
raged into numbered paragraphs, those following the regular conjugation 
being given in Par. I-XVII, and those having irregularities coming under 
Par. XVIII-XXI. Diminutives are treated in Par. XXII. 

I. Roots which denote qualities capable of being slowly assimilated by 
the agent form the first class. There are some adverbs which are verbal- 
ized by um in certain cases. 

To grow dark. Dttrndim. MagdRim, to grow very 

dark. Ang dUhnan, what is ob- 
scured by darkness. {Ang dilimdn, 
the osier with which fish corrals 
are tied. DUunan is also the name 
of a village near Manila). Ex. 
with wn: Dungmidilini ang gabl 
(The night is growing dark ) . Ang 
pagdiddim nang arao, the eclipse 
of the sun. Madilun, to be over- 
taken by darkness; also adj. dark, 
obscure. Ex.: Naddiman kami 
(excl.) sa daan (We were over- 
taken by darkness on the road). 
Maddim na (It is dark already). 
Maddim pa ( It is dark yet). Man- 
dilim, to travel in darkness. Ex.: 
Houag ipanddim iyang cabayo (Do 



To grow up; to become large, etc. 

To grow cool 

or cold (as food or 

not travel in the dark with that 
horse). Makndilim, to become 
dark ( not limited to a slow process, 
as with vm. ) TagdUim, time or 
season of darkness. Twilight, 

Liuiiak'i. Ex.: Lungmaki ak6 m 
MairnUa (I grew up in Manila). 
Mag.'aki, to increase ; to make some- 
thing larger. Aiuj lakJu'vn, what 
made larger. Ang naglalaki, the 
agent. Makalaki, to cause or to be 
able to grow larger. Ang ikalaki, 
the cause. Aug pokalakihw, what 
is to be made larger. Kalnkhan, 
(abs. ) size. Ang bdakUnklhan, 
the very largest. Majiakaluki, to 
grow greatly; or too large. Mag- 
jmlaki, to rear (as a cliil(l) ; to edu- 
cate. Ex. : Sino ang nagpapalaki 
saii/uf (Who reared you?) Ang 
aking nnno'y sigang nagpalaki sa 
akin (My grandparent was the one 
who reared me). Malaki (adj.), 
])ig; large. 

Luinarnig. Ex.: Lalamig ang sa 
(The tea will become cold). Ang 
nakakDitig (indef. ), aug ikalamig 
(def.), the cause. Maglamig, to 
cool any th ing. A ng lam igan, what 
cooled. A7ig pakalarnlgiii, what 
put to cool. Magpalavvg, to put 
out to cool. Malamig (adj. ), cold ; 
(fig.) Malamig na banta or na loob, 

Pumuti. Ex. : Pungmuputi ang hu- 
laklak (The flower is growing 
white). Augpudri, whatbleached. 
Magputi, to whiten anything. Ang 
■ipntt, the means or the whitening 
material. Ang jmtian, what whit- 
ened, as the wall, etc. Ang pag- 
kapiUin, what whitened greatly. 
Ang kaputian naiig itlog, the white 
of the egg. Kaputian, whiteness 

Lunmblid, from lubhd, very (adverb). 
Ex.: Ana ang lagay nang ama mof 
(How is your father?) Lung- 
nudnbhd ang kanit/ang sakit (His 
illness is increasing). Nalulubhd 
nasigd ( He is near death's door) — 
lit, "He is exceedingly ill." Mag- 
lubhd, to increase much; (fig.) to 
be impudent. Sagluhdiltd ka sa 
akin (You are too forward with 
me; you are impudent to me). 

II. Um is used to indicate intentional acts of destruction, damage, etc., 
by the agency of an animate being. If caused by an inanimate agency, 
such destruction or damage is expressed by maka' {yiaka). Ex.: Ang lin- 

To grow white; to bleach out. 

To increase, etc. 


dol (1 11 nakaslrd sa bdhni/ (the eartliquake destroyed the house). Examples 
in this class with uin : 

To kill; (2) to extinguish; to put Pumalay. Ex.: Ako bagd ang papa- 
out (as a light). tay ituiig ilaof (Shall I put this 

light out? {Hindi, ako mja ang 
papalay (no, I will put it out my- 

To destroy. Sutnird,. ^Ijig^ strain, what destroyed. 

Ex. : And ang Kimgmird nang mangd 
Imlaman? (What has destroyed 
tlie jilants?) Ang maiujd baking 
ang figaiig lunginipol nang lahat 
(the locusts have wiped out every- 
thing). {Lumipol, to devastate; 
exterminate; wipe out; lay waste; 
destroy). Ang isird, the cause of 
destruction. Magsird, to destroy 
much. Ang pagsirain, what thus 
destroyed. Ex.: Pinagsird nang 
niangd babug itoiig mmTgd, halaman 
(the pigs have destroyed these 
plants greatly). Maraming hala- 
man ang jjinagslsird nild (many 
plants are heing destroyed [by 
them] ; or they are doing much 
damage to the plants) . Masird, 
to be <lestroyed; to spoil. Sird, 
spoiled. Sird nu angmataims (the 
preserves are spoiled already). 
Makasird, to cause to destroy. 
Makasisird, destructive. Ang ika- 
sird, the cause of spoiling {ang 
ikinasisird., present tense). Ma- 
nird, to destroy irreparably; com- 
pletely; or (2) "by many. (Idiom. ) 
Manirang pari, to destroy the 
honor of another; to dishonor. 
Magkasirdsird, to be destroyed 
completely. Ex. : Ang pinagkaka- 
airdsiraan nang niaiTgd baya^ g ang 
pagbabakd (war destroys towns 
[fig., countries] completely). 

To set fire to. Sumunog. Sino bagd ang sungmnnog 

nitong balmy na itof ( Who I)urned 
this house?) Aywaan ako, j>6 (I 
don't know, sir). Ang sini'inog 
(what was or has been set fire to). 
Magsunog, to burn up (intention- 
ally). Ang pinagsdnog, what 
burned up thus. Masunog, to burn 
up; to be burned. Ex.: Nagsunog 
siyd ang dining bdhay (he burned 
our house). N^asdnog ang dming 
baliay (our house burned down). 
Maknsihiog, to cause to set fire to; 
also to be burned, as from another 
house, etc. Mitgkasunog, to suffer 
(many ) from a conflagration. Su- 
nog, conflagration (note accent). 

III. As a general rule, nm verbs have a corresponding definite with in. 
The reverse is not always true, as the acts of causing emotion in others, 


expressed by hi with definite s^entences, take the indefinite with mn {na). 
Certain other routs used witii magiia {n<i<ip(i) in the indefinite take the 
definite in an. These will be noticed in the proper places. 

IV. r*H, with roots denoting weapons, tools, and instruments, expresses 
the use of such objects. 

Dagger. Iwa. Umhvct, to stab. Ang iwaan, 

the person stabbed. Mar/ina, to 
wear a dagger. Mam/iwd, to use 
a dagger on one's self. Magpa- 
jimTgiivd, to wound each other with 
daggers (as in a melee). 

Spear. Sihat (syn., tandos). iSumihat, to 

spear or to throw a spear, jing 
slbativ, the object. Any ii^ihat, the 
spear thrown. Magsihat, to carry 
a spear. A ng pagsibatan, the place. 

Adze. Dams. Dumards, to use an adze. 

Ang pandards, the adze itseli. Ang 
mandarards, the user. Ex. : Dara- 
sin mo ito (plane this off). 

Scissors. Gunting. Gumunting, to cut with 

scissors; to shear. Ang giadiiTgin, 
what cut off. A ng gitntiiTgan, from 
what. Magnnting, to use the scis- 
sors on one's hair, etc. Magupit 
is the better word for this last. 

Plane. Katain. Ku) na tarn, to \i\2ii\e. Maiig- 

atn/atam, planer. 

Drum. Gimbal. Guniinibal, to drum. Man- 

gigimbal., drummer. 

V. Uin is used with roots denoting postures to express such postures or 
positions when taken voluntarily. 

To stand up; to go to the defense of Tumindig. Angtindigan, the Tperf'on 
another; (3) to go to get married. before whom standing; the place 

or (3) the woman to be married. 
Magtindig, to stand up much. 
Ang tindigan, ( 2) is the person gone 
against in the defense of another, 
and ang itindlg the cause. Mag- 
tindigan (dual) two on foot facing 
each other, as warriors, etc. A'a- 
tindigan, one of two opponents 
thus. Ang ipagtiadigan, the cause 
of thus facing each other. Ang 
pagtindiganan, the j)lace. Ang 
tinindigan, the scene of war; field 
of battle. Matindig, to be on one's 
feet; (2) to be risen. Ako'gnati- 
tindig, I am on my feet. Ak(?y 
natindig, 1 had risen. Magpatin- 
dig, to stand another on liis feet, 
or to stand something ujiright. 
Ang pafliidig, the position of l)eing 
on one's feet or being upright. 
Ex.: Patindigin mo Hong tduo (tell 
this man to stand up). Ipatindig 
mo itong tduo (stand this man on 
his feet). Patindigan mo sa itong 
lamesa niyang larauan (stand that 
image [statuette; picture] upright 


on this table). Ang ipatindig, 
what stood up, or who. Manindig, 
to raise, as the hair. 

To place one's self in front; to face Tumapat: (2) Ang tapatin, the word 
the front; (2) to keep one's word. kept, (l) aiig tapxitmi, the person 

fonf rented; also tapatan, a cutoff, 
yard, etc. Maglapat, to travel, 
talk, or do in a direct course or 
manner. (2) Ang ipagtapat, what 
just in. Ang pagtapaian, before 
whom. ( 1 ) Pagtapatin, two things 
placed facing each other. Magta- 
pat nawika, straighttalk. Matapat, 
to be facing; (2) to belong to some 
one. y<datapat siyd sa asaucmg 
ivalang bait, he (she) has a wife 
(husband) without judgment. 
Manapat, a just measure. Ex.: 
Manapat na gawd (a just deed). 
Magputumapat, to feign to be just. 
Ang nagkatatapat, the couple fac- 
ing each other (dual). Ang nag- 
kataputtapat, the persons facing 
each other (plural). Ex., with 
magtapat, in the sense of planting 
in rows, as trees, etc. : Bdkit hindi 
mo piinagtapat ignng manga hala- 
inaiif (Why didn't you set out 
those plants right?) Pagtapatin 
mo namda ang maiTgd kdhoy (put 
the trees in rows, too). 

To kneel. Lumuhod. Aug luluhoran, before 

whom or what place. Luhoran, 
cushion. Magluhod, to kneel 
much; or by many; to cause an- 
other to kneel; to kneel with 
something. . Ang ihihod, the ob- 
ject knelt with. Maluhod, to kneel 
involuntarily or unconsciously; to 
be kneeling; also adj. kneeling; to 
be on the knees. Xaluluhod sild, 
they are on their knees. Mapalu- 
hod, to remain kneeling. Magpa- 
tihihod, to kneel suddenly. Ang 
paluliod, the position of kneeling. 
Ang tnhod, the knee. Tumuhod, 
to tdurh with the knee purposely. 
Mali'iliod, to touch with the knee 
accidentally or casually. {Mali'i- 
hod, to be humble. ) Tumikluhod, 
to kneel (down). Magtikluliod, to 
kneel down much. Ang tikluho- 
ran, the place or the person knelt 
to. Ang ikapntUduhod, the cause 
of many kneeling. Also inanikhi- 
hod, to kneel down. Ang paniklu- 
horaii, the place or pcr.^on knelt 
to. Ang ip'tnikhdtod, the cause. 
Magpanikluhod, to kneel much. 
Angpagpapaniklulioran, the kneel- 
ing people (many). See conjuga- 
tion of nuiniklii]iod. 



To lean upon; to recline. 

To lie down. 

To lie face downward. 

To prostrate one's self. 

To lie on the side (action); to place 
one's self on one's side. 

To lie on the back (action); to place 
one's self on the back. 

To crouch on hands and feet (not 

bending knees). 
To sit down; to take a seat. 

To sit down to rest ('oriefly). 

Hum 'dig. Ang ihilig, what part of 
the body leaned upon. Ang hiii- 
gan, the place; couch, etc. (//«- 
milig is "to weave." Note accent. ) 

Humiga. (Previously explained in 
detail. ) 

Tumaob. Magtaob, to place another 
face downward. 

Dumapd. Marapd, to fall prostrate 

Tamag'did. Magtitgilid, to be lying 
on the side ( state ) . Ang jyalagUid, 
the position of lying on the side. 
GUid is side; also entrance to a 

Tutu ihayd. MatihaycL, to be lying on 
the back (state). Ex.: Bdtit ka 
nalitihagd? (Why are you lying on 
your back?) Mapatlhuyd, to fall 
on the back. Aug patihagd, the 
position of being on the back. 

Tuinuad. Magpatuad, to stand on 
all four feet (as an animal). 

Umupo (one). Magiipo (more). 
Maupu, to be seated (state). Ang 
paiipo, the sitting position. Ex.: 
Ito'y gngau-'in inong nang paupd 
(This will have to be done by you 
while sitting down). 

Maglikmu. Ang likmoan, the resting 

VI. I'm is used to express voluntarily or involuntarily (but consciously) 
performed life-supporting actions and organic functions of the body, except 
some which are used with mag, and a few with man. Some actions of 
inanimate objects also follow this rule. 

To eat. 

Kumaln. (Partly explained before. ) 
Magkain, to eat much ; or by many. 
Magkainkalnan, to nibble (dim.). 
Ex. : Nagkakainkainan siyd, he is 
nibbling (pretending to eat). 
MaiTgain, to eat continually; to de- 
vour. J/rtA'ai/i, edible (adj.). 3/«- 
kakain, able to be eaten. Magpa- 
kain, to give food to another person 
or animal. Ang pakanin, who or 
Avhat fed. Ang ipakain, the food 
given. Ang pakaninun, the place. 
Ex.: Papakain ka kny Juan (ask 
Juan to give you something to eat) . 
Ipapakain mo sa "cociyieru" itong 
batcl ( Tell the cook to give this boy 
(child) something to eat). Bdkit 
hindt mo pinakakain itong manga 
<auo.^( Why aren't you feedingthese 
people.) Pakanin }no iTija .<(*7a, feed 
them. And ang ipinakakain mo sa 
kanild? (What are you giving 
them [to eat]?) Pina'kain ko sUd 
nang kamn,p6. ( I havegiven them 
some rice, sir. ) 



To swallow food. 

To swallow pits or seeds of fruit. 

To drink. 

To swallow liquids. 

To show the teeth; to grin. 

To smile bashfully. 
To laugh (voluntarily). 

To sob. 

To shed tears; to cry quietly, 

To weep. 
To snore. 

Lumamon. (Already explained.) 

Lumunok. Ang lunokin, what swal- 

U}ni7inm. Maginum, to drink much 
or by many. (Partly explained 
before.) Aug piiiainnm, who or 
what given adrink. Ang Ipninum, 
the drink given. Palainum, ha- 
bitual drinker, l^ninum has an 
irregular form of conjugation like 

Lumagok. Kalagok, a swallow. Ka- 
kalagok, only one swallow. 

jS'gumisi. Also magiTgiisl and iTgingi- 
siiTgisi. Ang iiTgisi or ang ip<i- 
iTijisi, the cause of showing the 
teeth, or the mouth and teeth. 
Ang i7ij'nwvjmhan, the person or 
animal the teeth shown to. Syn., 
Ngumisngis. The wild hog is called 
i\'^i!>i' when the tusks begin to show. 

Xgu m it I. A ng iiTljitt, the smile or the 
mouth. AiTg i7gitian, the person 
or object smiled at thus. 

Tuniaua. Magtmia, to laugh much, 
or by a few. MaiTgagtaua, to laugh 
(by many). Tataua nang tataua, 
to laugh and laugh over again. 
Magtauanan, to laugh at each 
other. Angtauanan, what laughed 
at by one or a few. Ang pagtau- 
andn, what laughed at by uianj-. 
Aug ilaud, the cause (one orfew). 
Ang ipagtaua, the cause of many 
laughing. Mataua, to laugh invol- 
untarily; to giggle. Biikit hi na- 
tatauaf [ Why are you giggling so?) 
Makataua or niagpotaua, to cause 
laughter. Ang katand, the com- 
panion in laughter. Matauanin, 
laughing person. 

Humibik. Also hibikhibik. Ang 
ihibik or ang ikahibik, the cause. 
A variation is humvnbik or himhik- 

Lumuha. Ang nagluluha, the eyes 
shedding tears. Ang ilulid, the 
tears. Ang linuluJiaan, the person 
before whom teai"s are shed, etc. 
MagkaluJia, to shed tears uncon- 
sciously. Lnngmalngoslus angluhd, 
the tears are trickling. 

Tumaiujis. (Already explained.) 

HuntiUk. Ang Jiilik, the snorer. 
Also IhunikaJ), var. Juonigab. 
These last words al.>^o mean "to 
yawn." Maghilik, to snore much. 
Ang paghilik, the great snorer. 



To spit; to expectorate. 

To bite. 

To scratch another. 

To blow the nose. 
To "Sneeze. 

To make Avater (voluntarily). 

To stool. 

To drip; to run through a pipe (as 

water and other liquids). 
To trickle; to run in a small stream. 

Also mcu/hikab. Ex.: NaghUdkab 
amj makukatulog (the sleejier is 
snoring a great deal ) . Hihikahh i- 
kah, to breathe with great ditfi- 
culty, as a dying man. 

Lumuru. To i)ertV)rm the same act 
as a sign of disgust at anyone, man- 
hird. Lulunht, spittoon; cuspi- 

Kumagat. (Already explained. ) 

Kum&mot. Magkdmot, to scratch 
one's self. Ang paw/c'tmot, the 
scratcher (instrument). 


Bumahin. Palahahlu or mapug'ua- 
hii), a person who sneezes much. 

VmUii. I'anuhtg is a more polite 

Tumae. Saan ang kumon? (Where 
is the water-closet?) 


Liimagoslos. (Idiom) 

VII. Roots which express objects which may be produced by slow self- 
sustaining processes generally take tun to indicate the process, although 
some important ones take vian (q. v. ), the latter usually commencing with 6. 

To come up, to grow up (as plants); 
to bear (to give birth to), as ani- 
mals. Manganak is "to bear a 

To put forth shoots. 

6855—05 11 

Tiimuhb. Tuhoan, plant already 
sprouted (usually applied to cocoa 
palm). Magtubo, to gam; to win. 
KatiUubo, of the same age; born 
at the same time (no relationship 
idea). Magpatubo, to invest; to 
put out at interest. Ex.: Bdkit 
hindt mo siya pinauutang nang sa- 
laptf (Why don't you lend him 
some money?) Sa pagkaH imM, 
at ang dking salapt a>/ pinatuboan 
ko (Because I have none [to lend], 
and my money has ]>een invested ). 
iS'a limang piso va inntang ko kay 
Juan, ag pinatntnhb ako niyd sa 
isa)ig salajn (for live pesos which 
I have borrowed from Juan he is 
now asking me a half peso as in- 
terest). And f (What?) Isaitg sa- 
lapt ang ipinatutubd ni Juan sa 
dking sa limang piso ita inutang ko 
sa kan iyd ( A half peso is the inter- 
est asked me by Juan on five pesos 
which I borrowed from him). 
Ex. : " To come up. ' ' Tungmutubb 
hagd ang maiTgd silif (Are the 
peppers [chiles] coming up?) 

Sumibol. hungmisibol na ang manga 
halaman sa lialanuxnan, the plants 
in the garden are already putting 
out shoots. (2) Also applied to 
the growth of the beard and other 
actions of like nature. Masibol, to 



To bud. 

well out, as water from a well or 
spring. AiKj sihol^'iu, the inonths 
during which the rice sprouts, etc. 

Umusboiiij, from usbong, bud. Magus- 
bong, to have buds. iiyn.,usb(')sa.nd 
ugbiU. Uinugbiis, to bud, to sprout. 
Ex. with usbung: Unginuusboug na 
ang mumja knliog (the trees are 
budding out now). 

Sinnnlol, irom stUol, a sprout. 

Samupling. Ang suplhTgan, the tree. 

To sprout (especially of tubers, like 

the gabi and the camote). 
To sprout (as suckers from the trunk 

of or at the foot of a tree). 

VIII. Um expresses (1) meteorological phenomena, provided the root 
does not commence with b: and (2) astronomical transitions, if the change 
is represented as occurring and the phenomena are not otherwise expressed. 

Ex. (1): 

To rain; to be raining. 

To blow; to be blowing; to be windy. 

To lighten; to be lightening. 

To be struck by lightning. 

To thunder. 

Ex. (2): 
To dawn. 

To shine (as the sun) 
(2) to grow light. 

to be sunny 

Vtnulan. Unmlunulnn, to drizzle. 
Magulan, to sow seed or to do any- 
thing in the rainy season. Ang 
tagulan, the rainy season. Puna- 
gulan, land which is planted in 
the rainy season. Ang uL'in, the 
rain. Maulan, to have many rains; 
also to be caught in the rain. Ex. : 
Naglalakad kanii'y naulanan (We 
were walking along and were 
caught in the rain). 

IlumaiTgia (from hawjiii, wind). 
M(ighaiT</tn, to blow continuously 
or much. MagpaliaiTijin, to wait 
until the wind changes; also to 
put anything out in the wind. 
MagpaJiaiTi/in, to place one's self 
where the wind is blowing. ( Note 
accent. ) 

KiunidUit (from kidkd, a flash of 
lightning) . Magkidkd, to lighten 
much. ()\<\ioTm,kirl(d. Syn., kdat 
( rare) . 

Liimintlk (from llntik. The "thun- 

Kumulog. Mngkulog, to thunder a 
great deal. 

Umagd (from agd morning). (2) to 
rise early. Magagd, to rise early 
(many ), as a regiment, etc. ; (3) to 
eat early. Ang agaan, what eaten 
thus, i. e., the breakfast. Paagd, 
to come early. Naagd sigd, he 
came early. Aiig Ipaagd, M^hat is 
to be done early. 

Vmdrao (from arao. (1) Sun; (2) 
day; (3) weather.) Mugarao, to hQ 
very sunny. Madrao, to be over- 
heated by the sun. Houag kang 
mal'is i~gaij(V g maaaraudn ka't niaii- 
nUan (Don't go out now, because 
the sun will be out and you will 



To become late. 

To become night; to do anything 
at night; to be overtaken by night. 

To grow dark. 

To grow cloudy; dark. 

To grow dark; to become twilight. 

To eclipse (lit. "to be dragoned"'). 

get overheated ) . Mangdrao, to use 
daily. Ang pamjdraodrao, what is 
used daily or something for daily 
use. Magpadrao, to wait until the 
sun shines; (2) to wait for day; 
(3) to sun one's self; (4) to put an 
object in the sunshine. Ex.: (3) 
Houag kang magpadrao (Do not 
sun yourself). (4) Magpadrao ka 
nang darnil (Sun the clothes). 
Magpakadrao, to continue at a 
thing until daylight. Ex.: Nag- 
pakadrao siydng vuigdral (He 
studied until daylit^ht). 

Humapon (from hapon, the time be- 
tween noon and dark; afternoon 
(Northern United States); even- 
ing (Southern United States). 
(2) To go to roost, as chickens. 
Magliapon, all day. Kahapon, 
yesterday. K. nang umagd, yes- 
terday morning. A', nang hapon, 
yesterday afternoon (evening). 
K. sa gabi, last night. Mamayang 
hapon, later in the afternoon 
(evening). Mahapon, to eat sup- 
per. Ang haponan, the meal. 
Manighapon (from tighapon), to 
do something in the afternoon or 
evening (generally applied to 
looking after plants, etc. ). 

Ginnabi (from gabi), night. P^x.: 
Magmadali ka't gagabihin sa gubal 
(Make haste or you will be over- 
taken by night in the timber). 
Nagahihan siyd sa ddan (Night 
overtook him on the road). Mag- 
pakagabi, to continue at a thing 
until night. Ex.: Nagpakagabi 
silang magdral (They studied until 

Dumilim. (Already explained.) 

Lumimlim (from limlim). Malimlim, 
to be cloudy, etc. Lumimlim also 
means to cluck, as a hen when 
she lays an egg. Ang linilimliman, 
the egg laid. Magpalimlim, to set 

Sumilim. Ex. : Pasilimin ta muna bago 
Jumdkad (I^et us wait for dusk be- 
fore we march ) . Lit. ' ' Walk on " . 
(2) To penetrate (as the cold). 
(2) SinisUim ako nang lamig (I am 
chilled through by the cold). 

Lumahb. Lumamon, "to swallow," 
and kurnain, "to eat," are also 
used. Ex.: Linainon{kinain)nang 
laho ang bouan (The moon has been 
swallowed [eaten] by the eclipse 
[dragon]). Rahu is the dragon 
of Hindu mythology which tries 



To rise; to shine out. 

to eat the sun and moon from 
time to time. 

Suiinlang. Sungmilang i>a ang drao 
(The sun has already risen ) . Susi- 
huig (Dig boiKnig madali [ The moon 
will rise quickly). Snvgminkmg 
ang mai~ja bitnin (the stars are 
shining). Aug silcnTijim, the East. 
Ang fiinilaiTgan, what was lit up 
by the rise of the sun or the 
moon, or the shining. out of the 
stars. MagpaK'dang, to wait until 
one of above-mentioned Ijodies 
rise. Ex.: Batit liind'i mo pinam'i- 
lang muna ang drao? ( Why don't 
you wait until sunrise?) PasilarTgin 
tn muna ang drao (Let us wait until 
the sun rises). 

Sumikat. Ex.: (1) Sisikat no a7ig 
drao {bouan) (the sun [moon] will 
rise soon). (2) Suniisikai (na-nsi- 
katan) ang bdhay vang tduo (The 
house is filling [filled] with peo- 
ple). Magjmg'ikat, to wait until 
rising of sun, moon, etc., takes 
place. Ex. : Pasikatin mo ang drao 
(Wait until the sun rises). 

Lumunod. Ang A'aZiotoi'fm, the West; 
lit. "the drowning place." Ex.: 
Lungmunod ang drao (The sun has 
set). Lungmulunodangtduo (The 
man is drowning himself) . Mab'i- 
nod, to be drowned. With urn. 
volition may be understood, and 
with ma accident. 

Lumubog. Lumubog ang arao (The 
sun basset). Lit. "dived." Mag- 
h'lbog, to jjlunge another or an ob- 
ject under the water. 

IX. Um is used with roots when attraction toward the agent is expressed, 
or when the agent gains control of something. The opposite idea of los- 
ing control, etc., is sometimes expressed with the same root, and in other 
cases with different roots, the particle ?/i«^ being then the verbalizer. 

To buy. Burnil't. Maghili, to sell. (Both of 

these have already been ex- 
plained. ) 
Umutang. Magdiang, to lend. 

To come out; to rise; as the sun, 
moon, or stars. (2) To fill up 
with people; as a church, house, 

To set (as the sun); jirimary mean- 
ing, "to drown." Application as 
to sun from fact that sun sets in 
the sea to Tagalogs. 

To dive; to plunge into; to go to the 
bottom. ( 2 ) To set, lit. ' ' to dive, ' ' 
as the sun. 

To borrow. 

To exchange; to barter. 
To take. 

To redeem; to ransom. 

partly explained before.) Ex.: 
Uutamjan ko d Tomds nang limang 
piso (i will borrow 5 pesos from 
Tomds). Kautangan, (abs. ) debt. 
Pautang, credit. 

Pumalit. Ang jyinalit, what ex- 
changed or bartered. 

Kn)nn}ia. Aiig jiagkuha, the act of 
taking. (Forms with in, i, ika, 
ikina, and an have been explained 
heretofore. ) 

Sumdkop. Magsdkop, to redeem 
mui'h. Masdkop, to be dominated. 



To encounter; to strike. 

To purloin; to filch; to steal. 

To catch; to yeize; etc. 

Ang sdkop, the vasHel or follower. 
Makasdkop, to be able to dominate. 
Nasasakopun niyd any buyan (The 
village [town] is under his rule). 
Lit.: "The town is ruled by 


Umumit. Ang umitin, what pur- 
loined. Maumitin or mapagumit, 

Humidi. Ex.: Iha ang pogong huli 
na, sa huhnlihin pa (Better the 
quail caught already than that 
which has yet to be caught ) . — T. P. 
Manhul'i, to live by robbery. 

Among other words coming under this cla.«s may be mentioned tuman- 
gap, "to accept or receive;" (/fOHoA;*/;, "to seize or catch hold of;" umdbut, 
"to overtake; to reach;" and sumaluhong, "to go out to meet anyone;" 
all of which have been explained before. 

X. Urn exj)resses voluntary acts of agents upon others when mutuality, 
duality, or plurality is not denoted. The latter are expressed by »»"</, an 
being generally suffixed for mutuality. Examples: 

To accompany, 

To leave another. 

To join with; to unite with. 

To talk to; (2) 
bring suit. 

to sue another or 

Sumama. Magsama, to accompany 
each other (two or more). Ang 
kasama, the companion (servant). 
Ang kasaniahan, the person accom- 
panying another. Makimma, to 
thrust one's self into the company 
of another. Magkasama, togather, 
as a crowd. Svmamd is "to go 
into partnership," and Snmamd is 
"to become bad or evil." These 
examples show the great impor- 
tance of accent in Tagalog. 

Hiimiwalai/. Ang hhvalayan, the 
person left. Maghhcalay, to sepa- 
rate mutually. Mahiwnlay, to 
part accidentally or casually, etc. 
Syn. tiwalag, with the same com- 
binations and meanings as above. 
Both probably from iralu, without; 
not to have, etc. Tiwalag is often 
used in the sense of divide, but 
watak is better. Magkawalakwalak, 
to be divided into many parts. 

Punilsan. Magpisanor magkapisan, 
to associate together. Ex.: Ang 
plnagkakapimnan nang maiTgd ka- 
runongan, the uniting place of the 
sciences (knowledge, diinong), 
i. e., scientific society, imiversity, 
etc. Fimn as an adjective means 
"merely; purely." There is a 
noun pisan meaning " sudden 
death." ^fakaplsan, to kill 
another suddenly. 

I'mdmp. Ang iisapin, the person 
sued. Ang kausap, the compan- 
ion in conversation. Magusap, to 
converse (two or more); (2) to sue 


one another; to litigate. Maruju- 
sap, to talk much; to talk to an 
audience. Ex. : Houag mo akong 
lakasan nang paiujiuTgi'isap (don't 
talk to me so much in such a 
rough way). (As the variations 
of the idea " to sue " are derived, 
they will be omitted). Makipagu- 
sap, to converse with another; (2) 
to thrust one's self into a conversa- 
tion. FjX.: Ibig mongmakijmgi'isap 
sa akin? (do you wish to have a 
talk with me?). Opo (yes, sir). 
NgaipVy hbuU mangyayari, it is not 
possible just now). Makipakiusap, 
to rush uninvited into a conversa- 
tion between others. Palausap, a 
barrator or perpetual bringer of 
groundless suits. Maghipakmsap, 
to become a barrator. Ex. : Na- 
ginpidai'tsap siyiVt iiaglnmalalavgo- 
hin (he has become a barrator and 
common drunkard). The first 
vice, barratry, is very prevalent 
with Tagalogs; the second is very 
rare. It would be unusual to find 
the combination set forth above, 
but grammatically it is an excel- 
lent example with inagin. 
To reprove. Umauuy. Magamnj, to quarrel with. 

Kaduay, antagonist; enemy. 
Ang ipaguuay, the cause of quar- 
rel. Ex. : Atig ipinaganay mnig 
manga kapidbdhay namin ay ang 
aso ni Feliciano, pu ( a dog of Fe- 
liciano was the cause for the quar- 
rel of our neighbors ) . Jtong bdhay 
na Ho ang pinaganaynn nUd (this 
house is where they have been 
quarrelling [or where they quar- 
reled]). Makipagduay, to pick a 
. quarrel or to interfere in a quarrel. 

Magkaduay, to quarrel (two or 
more). Nagkaduay a tig dalairang 
magasaua sa tiangi (the husband 
and wife quarrelled in the market 

XI. Uin also expresses movement in itself; movement from an outside 
agency being expressed by mag, except for the root ha)~go, which takes 
um. Ex. : 

To walk; to pass on; to march; to Lumdkad. Ang lakann,vi\\a.\.\\a\^v{\ 
travel (on foot). for, i. e., the object of walking. 

Ex.: AniVt h'lndi ka Inngmaldkad 
nang mahdinf (why don't you 
walk more quickly?). Magldknd, 
to walk much or quickly; to carry 
something while walking. Ang 
ildkad, the means of walking, as 
the foot, or the object carried 



along. .Ing lakaran, the person 
walked to, or the place walked to. 
Ang jxKjlakdri'iu, the route, path, 
or road, etc., walked over. Ang 
maglalakad, the walker; traveler. 
Maglabidldku'l (dim.), to stroll. 
Avg paglakadlakarnn, the ground 
strolled over. Mag/xddkad, to or- 
der or cause to walk uj) or go 
ahead. Makalukad, to be able to 
walk. Ex.: Palakarinmo >Ti/n iycmg 
cabaijo it/an (make that horse walk 
up ) . Hindi viakula kad sign ' tjnUuj, 
p6 (he is not able to travel; he i.s 
lame, sir). Nukahddkadako (I am 
able to walk). Nakalalnkad siyci 
Sana (he may be able to walk). 
Lumakhay is " to go a longways 
on foot;" "to make a hike." It 
has the same changes and varia- 
tions as Idkad. There are several 
other variations of the idea, all 

Tumakbo. Already explained. 

Lumokso. Already explained. 

Tumalon. Ang trdonan, the place. 
Ex.: Tumalon ka sa tubig (jump 
into the water). 

Lnmusong. Already explained. 

LwnaiTgoy. Already explained. 

Lumubog. Already explained; syn., 

Tiiinahdn. Magtalidn, tostopanother; 
Magtahanan, to stop each other 
(two). Nagtalian sXreeixn Manila 
means "stopping place," as it ends 
at the bank of the Pasig River. 

Hnmumpay. Walang humpay, end- 


Tiunakas. Ang magtatakas, mataka- 
sin, or palatakas, the hider (person 

HitmatTgo. This form originally 
meant to redeem another from 
slavery, and um has been retained 
while the meaning has changed. 
MaghaiTijo (now out of use) meant 
to redeem one's self from the same 

Gumapang. Ang bakX ay nakagagd- 
pang (the child is able to crawl). 
XII. Vm is used with voluntary actions vapon or against another. Ac- 
tions affecting the subject are exjjressed with mag. Vm is not used with 
involuntary actions, as matisod, "to stumble." Ex.: 

To run. 

To jump. 

To leap down. 

To leap or jump down; to alight. 
To swim. 
To dive. 

To stop. 

To cease; to end, etc. 

To run away. 

To hide (from fear). 

To pull out; to takeout; to draw out. 

To crawl; to walk on all fours. 

To wash the face of another. 

Ilumilamos, evidently from damos; 
amos, idea of dirtiness of the face. 
Ex.: Amosamosan ang mukhd mo 
(your face is very dirty). Ang 
hilamosan, the person washed. 



To comb the hair of another. 

To shave another. 

To cut hair. 

To cure another. 

To scratch another. 
To whip another. 

lYibig na hihilamosin, wash water. 
Magldlamo», to wash one's face 
(occasionally). Manhilamos, to 
wash one's face (habitually). Ang 
ipanJiikunoSjihemeani^, i. e., hands, 
sponge, wash rag, water used, etc. 
Ang pnnhilamosan, the place, i. e., 
the wash basin, etc. 
Siimuklay. Magi^uklay, to comb one' s 
hair. Ang snklayin, what combed, 
i. e., the hair. Ang jxigsuklnyin, 
what combed much. Ang pagsu- 
klayan, what combed upon. Ang 
isuklay, the means, etc. ^ing su- 
klay, the comb. Magpasuklay, to 
order to comb; also to allow one's 
hair to be combed. 

Umaldt. Magakit, to shave ones- 
self. Ang pagaJut, the act of 
shaving (another). Angpagadhit, 
the act of shaving ones-self. 
Mam/dhit, to shave (as an occupa- 
tion). Ang manadldt, the barber. 
Ang jiandhit, the means, i. e., the 
razor. Magpadhit, to order to 
shave; also to get shaved. Ex.: 
Magpadhit ka kuy Juan (Tell Juan 
to shave you). M.igpadlul kay 
Juan si Pedro (Tell Juan to shave 
Pedro). Aug jti nagaaldtan, the 
place of being shaved, 1. e., the 
barber shop. Ang ahitan, the per- 
son shaved. (See phrases also. ) 

Gmmtpit. Maggvpit, to cut one's 
own hair. Aog guntjjit, what has 
been cut, or the person whose hair 
has l)een cut. Ganmpit also means 
to cut metal. The use of shears is 
implied in all cases. (See the 
phrases for examples. ) 

Gumamot. Maggamot, to cure ones- 
self. Mangamot, to cure profes- 
sionally, i. e., to practice medicine. 
Kagamotan (abs. ), medicine. 
Ang mangagamot, the physician. 
Ang pangamoHn, the person cured. 
Magamot, to have much medicine, 
or to have many kindsof medicine. 
(Idiom:) Wahtug gamol ang limot, 
there is no cure for the forgetful. 
Ex.: Bago dumdthig ang sakit, 
lagydn nang gamot (Before illness 
comes, apply the remedy). — T. P. 
362. This seems to be an adapta- 
tion from the Spanish. 

Kumdmot. (Already explained.) 

Humampds. Maghampds, to whip 
ones-self (as in penance). Ang 
hampasm, the person whipped. 
Ang hampdn sa kalabao'y sa cabayo 


aiKj latay (the lash to the carabao 
and the welt to the horse). — T. P. 
To cane or clul) another. Pumalb. Magpaloan, to cudgel each 

other. Ang pamalo, the garrote. 

XIII. Um is also used to express voluntary acts of the senses, except 
with those roots which commence with b. Ex. : 

To look for; to see by so looking. Kumila. Magk'dd, to look at each 

other (two or more). Magkitd, to 
look at intently, or atmany things. 
Makild,, to be seen. Makakila, to 
see (casually). Ex.: AkiVynaka- 
kikitd (1 am able to see). Ako'y 
nakakitcl nang isang tauo diydn (I 
saw a person there). Nakitd mo 
hagd siydf (Did you see him 
[her] ?) Hindi, tiguvi't makikitcL 
ko Sana, (no but I may be able to 
[see] ) . Magkakitd, to be deceived 
by the sight. Ex.: Nagkakak'mi 
kitd ako? (Do I see visions?) 
Nagkakakinikitaan akd (My sight 
deceives me). Nagkak'mitaan akd 
(My sight deceived me). 

To hear (by listening). Dumiiigig. (Already explained.) 

To feel; to touch. Humipb. Maghipo, to touch much. 

Ang hipoin, what touched. 

To smell of. Umamoy. Ex.: Amoyin mo ltd 

(smeil this). Mnamoy, to smell 
casually. Ex.: Naaamoy mo bagd 
ang haju/ong isinasainbdlal nang 
main/d bidaklakf (Do you smell 
the fragrance shed by the flowers?) 
Makaamoy, to be able to smell 
something. Nakaaamoy kaf (Can 
you smell anything? ) Aso, smoke. 

To taste; to relish (purposely). Lnmasap. Ang lasapin, y,-hat tSLsted. 

Makalasap, to taste (casually ) ; also 
to cause a relish. 

XIV. Some roots denoting passions and emotions of a certain kind are 
conjugated by um, when the idea of voluntary action is expressed. Other 
roots of this nature are conjugated by mag. When casual, ideas of emo- 
tions, etc., are expressed with ma. Ex.: 

To love. Suminid. (Already explained.) Of 

Sansk. origin, through INIalay. Ln- 
miyag is a synonym, now rare. 

To care for; to desire; to wish. Umlbig. Mag 1 1 lig, to long ior. Magi- 

bigan, to like each other (two). 
Ang in'ibig, what liked. Ang ini- 
ibig, the person who is liked and 
reciprocates the liking. Angpagi- 
big, the wish, desire, liking. Ang 
pagkaibii, the act of liking, desire, 
etc. Ang pinagibigan, what mutu- 
ally longed for. Maihig ( adj. ) , lov- 
ing, (2) capricious, (3) to have 
a liking for. Ang naibig, the per- 
son liked, but who is unaware of 


the fact. Maibig'in, an amorous 
man; a iiirt. Maknlh'uj, to care for 
naturally. Kaibif]('in (abst. ), love, 
de.'^ire. Aug kmhkjan (note ac- 
cent) , the friend. Aug kinuibigan, 
■what loved. Kaibigibig (adj.), 
amiable; loving. Absolute, ibig. 
And ang ibig mof { What do you 
wish?) Ibig viong mnnama act akinf 
(Do you wif-h to go with me?) 
MaiTglbig, ( 1 ) to like many ; (2) to 
flirt habitually; (.')) to care first 
for one thing and then another. 
Ex. with Ibig, T. P. : A ng iunay na 
pagibig Itangan sa huli matamis 
(True love is sweet to the end). — 
446. Kung tapat ang pag'ibig, mn- 
pait man ay matamis ( When love is 
real even bitter is sweet). — 447. 

To caress; to fondle. Umirog. Ang irogin, the person ca- 

ressed. Mairugiri, an affectionate 
person. Ang bii/ihja't irog f^igang 
nakalalamug (gifts and caresses 
gain over what can not otherwise 
be gained ).—T. P. 144. 

To like; (2) to desire. Puinita. Mapitahin, a desirous per- 

son. Ay ang pita nang loob ko (It 
is the desire of my heart). Mag- 
pita ka sa kaniya nang anoinang ibig 
mo (Ask him for anything you 
wish). FitJiaya is a rather rare 
synonym. Fumithaya, to like; to 

XV. f'm used with sa, "at," "in," denotes permanency in anyplace. 
Ex.: Ang marTijd Americaiio sungmasa sangkapuluan (The Americans are 
settling permanently in the archipelago). 

XVI. Via is also used in some places to express the idea that what may 
be signified by the root is taking place here, there, and everywhere; the 
idea of confusion being inherent. Ex.: Umduay {or auayan) doun (all is 
quarreling there). Umasdua {asauin) dito (everyone is getting married 

Um is also used for the imperative in Manila, the tenses being distin- 
guished by adverbs of time, but this is probably due to the fact that the 
speakers of Tagalog in Manila generally have some knowledge of Spanish, 
which confuses their grasp of the nice distinction of tense in pure Tagalog. 

XVII. Um, used with some roots indicating certain actions means to be 
occupied in a matter, although perhaps not actually performing the act 
indicated. Ex.: Sumusulat si Juan (Juan is busy with writing). 


XVIII. In some parts of the Tagalog region the present tense of the in- 
definite with the primary idea (besides the regular formation with imgm 
and the reduplications of the first syllable of the root), is sometimes ex- 
pressed by the particle na prefixed to the root. Ex. : 

To read. Biimasa, from Sansk. wdchd "word," 

"discourse." There are three 
forms of the present indef. with 
primary idea. Ex.: Ak(? y nabasa 
(I ain [or was] reading). Aku'y 


nuhumCy nakatulog ak6{\ was read- 
ing and fell asleep). Nanimi aki> 
(I am reading). Bungmaham. uko 
(I am reading). (Stie tables for 
other tenses. ) Aug basahin, what 
read. Ang basaha», the person 
read to. Basuhan, professor, lec- 
turer. Magbcu^a, to read much, 
or by many. Aug pagbam, the act 
of reading. Mababasa, anything 
legible. Ex.: Nabasa mo na avg 
librong ipinahiram ko sa iyn? ( Had 
you [have you already] read the 
book 1 lent you?) Hivdi ko pa tw- 
basa (I have not finished reading 
it yet). Magjxibasa, to order to 
read. Ex. : Nagpapabnsa ang 
vuuTgaaral sa maiTga butd (the 
teacher is ordering the children to 
read). Mabasah'm; viamama.ta or 
palabasa, reader. Tagabasa, reader 
by occupation. Basn is also ap- 
plied to a gravestone. Bumam 
( from bam ) , is "to wet, to moisten. ' ' 
This last is evidently a Malayan 
word; Malay, busahkun, to wet or 
moisten. Basa (from Sansk. 
wcichd) means language, speech, in 
Malay, while bacha has been se- 
lected to represent the idea of read- 
To write. Sumi'ilat (from Arabic s'urat, a chap- 

ter of the Koran, tlirough Malay). 
This root has been softened to si'ibit 
in Visayan and Tagalog, but in 
Bicol and Ilocano it is still surat. 
Ibanag uses the root tt'irak. There 
is also a root iitik in Tagalog, mean- 
ing "to write," "to record." There 
is also a word meaning ' ' to print. ' ' 
It is magpalamau, with a primary 
meaning of being implanted in the 
heart. Ex.: Nasulat siga (he is 
writing) . Sunymusi'dat s'tya (he is 
writing). Aug sulalin, what writ- 
ten. Ex.: And ang susrdatin vang 
amci mo sa iyong kapatid na lalakif 
(What will your father write to 
your brother?) hulat itiyd ilong 
paiu'dat (let him write with this 
pen) (means of writing). Jshii'dat 
na niyd sa kaniyd na parito siyd 
pagdaka (he has written him al- 
ready to come here at once). Ang 
sidaian, the paper written upon, 
or the writing desk, place, etc. 
Ex.: Sidatan mo ilong pujid (write 
on this paper). Anubagd angsinu- 
latun 7110 nang maw/a pain/alan? 
( Which paper did you write the 
names upon?) Jtong papel )iait6'y 



To eat. 

To buy. 

T(.) obey; to follow. 

To resist; disobey; contradict; con- 
tend with. 

To show anger; (2) to tnrn aside 

To stand up; to rise to the feet. 

To sit down. 

To look at. 

s'nfang sasulatan niyd (this paper 
is for him to write upon [fut.]). 
Magsulat, to write much or 1 > y man}'. 
Magsulatsulatan (dim.), to write a 
little; to scribble. Ex.: N<n/.'<n.<m- 
Idti^uhdaii aku (I am writing,' a little; 
I am scribbling) . Mani'dat, to write 
as an occupation. Ang 7niinunulat, 
the clerk; writer. Ang pani'dat, 
the pen, stylus, brush, etc. (See 
also under mata, magpa, and maki). 
Mapagsulnt, a person who writes 

Kvmam. ( Already explained. ) Ex. 
with na: Nakaln siyd (he is eat- 
ing) . Kimgmakam siyd ( he is eat- 
ing [regular form]). 

Bumil'i. (Already explained. ) Ex. : 
Nabili aku nung damil (I am buy- 
ing some clothes). Also bungmi- 
bili ako nang damif. 

Sumnnod. Nasunod siyd, he is obey- 
ing or obeys. Ang sundalong sung- 
nnisunod, simorin sii/d. kun oficial 
(the obedient soldier will be 
obeyed when an officer himself). 
Magsunoran, to follow each other. 
Magsunodsunod, to follow in rapid 
succession (many). Magsiuinmod, 
to follow closely, also two children 
born in succession. Magkasiuini- 
nod, to follow wdierever another 
may go, or to obey implicitly. 
Ex. : Nagkukusumunod ang sundalo 
sa piniongniyd (the soldier follows 
his officer wherever he goes). 
Sino ang plnagkasumunddn inof 
(Who are you obeying so implic- 
itly?) Ang punong ko (my com- 
mander). Ano ang ipinagkakasu- 
munod mo \jtiny6'\ sa kaniyd? 
(Why do you [ye] obey him so 
implicitly?) Ako'y sundalo, pu (I 
am a soldier, sir). 

Sum uay. Nasuay siyd , he is disobey- 
ing. Magsuay, to disobey, etc. 
(much). Masuay, disobedient; 
contradictory. Magsuai/an , to con- 
tradict each other. Magsisuay, to 
disobey (many). Kasuayan, dis- 

Tumdhog. Ex.: Xatdbog siyd (he 
shows anger; he is turning aside). 

Tuniindig. Natindig siyd (he is ris- 
ing to his feet). Verb has already 
been explained. 

Umupo. Naupu sild (the}' are sitting 
down). Verb has already been 

TumiiTgin. NatiiTijin ako (I am look- 
ing). Verb has already been 



XIX. Bisyllabic (two-.syllal)le(l) roots comnienfinjj with }i, k, p, t, or a 
vowel, generally admit of a similar irregularity in the imperative, past, and 
present tenses; n l)eing prefixed to vowel ro<")ts for the past and present 
tenses and m for the imperative, while the initial letter of h, k, p, and t 
roots changes to n for the past and present tenses, and to m for the 

To read. Bumasa. Ex.: [Irreg.) Masa ka; 

(Reg.) Binnasa ka {read). (I.) 
^Y«.sa ako; (R.) Bungmasa uko (I 
read [past tense]). [I.) Xanam 
ako; ( R. ) Bungmaham aku (I am 
reading) . The other tenses are 
regular. Ex.: Nakaham ako (1 
had read). Babasa ako (I shall 
read). Makahasaako (I shall have 
read). Ang pagbasa, the act of 

To capture. Bumihag. Kabihagan, captivity. 

Same as foregoing. 

To take. A'umw/i a (partly explained before). 

Imp., Muha ha; kunwha ka; kulia 
ka (take) . Past, Nuha ako; kung- 
viuha ako (I took). Pr., Nunnha 
ako; kungmukuha ako (I am tak- 
ing). 'PXy»., Nakakuha ako {Ih&iX 
taken). F., Knkuha ako (I shall 
take). F. P., Makakuha ako (1 
shall have taken). MaiTjjuJta, to 
take habitually. Aug pa)Tj/unin, 
what taken habitually. (Note that 
the u is all that remains of kuha.) 
Makakuha, to be able to take. 
Ex. : Nakuha nila iyang maiTga 
bunga (they were able to take that 
^fruit [pi.]). 
Kumaon. Conj. Yxkekunniha. (Al- 
ready explained.) 
^vol- Pumasok. Masok ka; pumdsok ka 
(come in) . N&sok sigd; pungmd- 
sok siyd (he went in). Nandsok 
Slid; pungmapdmk sild (they are 
going in) . Nakapdsok ako (I had 
gone in). Papdsok ako (I will go 
in) . Ang pagpdmk, tlie act of en- 
tering. Magpasok, to enter much. 
Magpdsok, to put something in- 
side. Aug pasukin, the object of 
entrance. Avg ipdsok, w^hat put 
inside. Ang j)asukan, the door 
entered or the house, etc. Nasok 
i<ilang valang badbatl (they came 
in without any ceremony) . J/o- 
kapdsok, to enter or go in casually; 
to be able to enter. Ex.: (1) 
Ako^i/ nagpapasial ay ynakapdsok 
ako sa looban ni Gat Luis (I was 
out for a stroll, and without think- 
ing went into Don Luis'syard). 
Magpapdsok, to order to enter; to 
get into, as clothes. Ex. : Si Juan 
ay nagpapdsok hty Pedro nang da- 

To go for; to bring; to call. 

To enter; to come in; to go in 
untarily) . 



To pluck; to gather, as flowers. 
To tempt; to try. 

mit (Juan told Pedro to get into 
his clothes j . Nufjpapnsok si Pedro 
naiif/ dam it (Pedro put on the 
clot lies), ^[(ikapagpupasiok, to be 
able to order another to go in. 

Pumitus. (Already explained.) 
Conj. like pumasok. 

Turnukso. Imp., Muks6; tumuksd 
(tempt, try). Past, Nukso; tung- 
mukso (tried). Pr., Nunukso; 
tungmutukso (trying). Pip., Naka- 
tukso (had tried). F. , Tutukso 
(shall, will try). F. P., Makatukso 
(shall, will have tried). Angpag- 
jKtgtakso, the trying, teini)ting. 
Magtiikso, to tempt much or many. 
Ang tuksohin, the person tempted. 
Angpagtuksohiii, the person greatly 
or many times tempted. Ang 
ituksa, the cause or means of temp- 
tation. ^1»^ ipagtuksu, the cause 
or means of great or repeated 
temptation. Ang tuksohan, the 
place of temptation. Ang pagtuk- 
solian, the place of much or re- 
peated temptation. Mag t n k>io- 
tuksohan (dim.), to tempt a little, 
or in mockery. Manuksu, to tempt 
haliitually. Ang manuuukso, the 
tempter; temptress. Magpanukso, 
to tempt frequently and a great 
deal. Ang ipanukso, the cause or 
means of the foregoing. Ang pa- 
nuksohan, the place corresping to 
foregoing. Magpakatuksu, to tempt 
strongly. Ex. : Ano ang ipinagpa- 
katuksolian ( ipinakapagtuksohan ) 
nilaf ( Why were they so strongly 

Tumukd. Conj. like turnukso. Ap- 
parently applied to bite of snake. 
Ex.: SiycC y tinukd nang alms (he 
was bitten by the snake). 

Umal'is. Imp., (I.) Mails ka; (R. ) 
umal'is ka. Past, NaJis ako (I.); 
Ungmalis ako (R. ) (I left, went 
away, etc.) Pres., Na7iaris ako 
(I.); ungmaalis ako (R. ) (I am 
going awav, leaving, etc.). Pip., 
Nakalis ak<> (I had left). Fut., 
Aal'is ako (I shall leave). F. P., 
MakaaVis ako (I shall have left). 
Ang pagaJ'is, the leaving. (This 
root has already been partly ex- 
plained. ) 

The following roots are conjugated like alls: 

To ascend. Umaki/at. Ang inakyat, what ascend- 

ed or the person ascending. Aug 
iakyat, the cause. Ang akyatdn, 
the place. 

To peck (as a bird). 
To leave; to go away. 



Not to wish. 

To go for water with a pitcher. 
To drink. 

To turn back; to go back; to fall 

l)ark; to retreat. 
To return; to come back. 
To lead; to go ahead. 

Umayao. Ex. : Paayao kn (say you 
do not wish to). Bdkit nit/d iiap(t- 
ayaof (Why did she say she did 
not wish to?) 


Uminiun. Imp., Muium hi, drink. 
Malay minum means "to drink." 
(This verb has already been ex- 
plained. ) 

Um u rong. 


(Already explained.) 

XX. Some polysyllabic (of more than two syllables) roots beginning 
with h, k, p, t, or a vowel, are conjugated with the particle man {q. v.). 

XXI. Some sixty-six j)olysyllabic verbal roots commencing with j)a 
replace the first syllable with na in the past and present and with ina in 
the imperative and future. In the present and future tenses the second 
syllable of the root is reduplicated and not the first. This conjugation 
resembles but is not identical with man. There are also some euphonic 
vowel modifications. (See tables for synopsis of conjugation. ) 

The verbal roots, which are conjugated in this manner, are the following: 
To verbalize these roots, change initial p to n or m as required for tense 
of indefinite. 

To rise early. 

To profit; to make (in business). 

To listen to ( with attention ) . 

To solicit or urge (for good or evil). 

To bathe one's self; to take a bath. 

To swell. 

To dwell ; to live in a house. 

To swell up (as a sting); also to 

swell badly. 
To supplicate; (2) to ascend into a 

house for important reasons. 
To wag the tail (as a dog] 

To incite; to provoke. 

Paagd, from agd, "morning." 

Pakindbang. Probably from a lost 
root tdbang, which still exists in 
Bicol and Visayan, with the mean- 
ing "to aid; help; succor;" and 
the prefix paki, def. of maki. 

Pakinig. To listen to much, magpa- 

Pakiump, from usaj» and paki, def. 
of maki. 

Paligb. Magligb, to bathe another; 
a\so magpaligo. Syn. pambo (rare). 
Maligbka (take a bath) . Paligoan 
mo ang cabayo ( wash the horse ) . 

Pamagd, from bagd, "a tumor, ab- 
cess," and pan. 

Pamdhay, from bdhay, ' ' house, ' ' and 

Pamanghid, from panghid, "to 
swell" (t:he nerves), and pan. 

Pamanhik, from panhik and pan. 

Pamdijpoy (rare) . Seiple thinks may 
be from lost root paypoy, variation 
oipaypay, "fan." Mamaypay, to 
fan one's self or another. Usual 
word "to wave" is pumaspds. 
Paspasin mo ang bandila (wave the 

Pamongkahi. Ex. : Pinamomongkahtan 
tayo nang presidente municipal sa 
masamang gau-d (The municipal 
president [mayor] is inciting us 
to do wrong). (Present tense, 
reduplication of modified syllable 
mo and suffix an. From pongkahi, 



To offer; to dedicate. 
To envv. 

To 8igh; (2) to whistle. 
To dream. 

To put one's self under the control 
of another. 

To pray. 

To trust; to confide. 

To vanquish; gain; conquer; win. 

T(7 sing funeral songs. 

To descend by stairs or ladder; (2) 
to spend; to use up. 

a variation of pongkd, "to in(;ite 
to a quarrel," and pan. This root 
is said to be of Chinese origin. 

Panagarto. Seiple says from Vis. 
part, pnnag and ano, "what." 

PanughUl. Seijjle also gives this as 
from panag and hili, "envy." 
Ex.: Houag hing vianagh'tli s^a 
kapua mo tduo (Do not envy your 
neighbor). Syn. pangimholo 
( rare ) . 

Pnnnghoi/, from taglioy, "to pant, to 
breathe hard," and p«n. 

Panag'niip, from g'ni'ip and pana, a 
combination found by Seiple in 
but four words of polysyllabic 
structure. Ex.: Nananaginip ka 
bagc'if (Are you dreaming?) Syn. 
BurTganii'ilog, from ti'ilog, ' ' sleep. " 

Panngi.i)ii/d, from lagisin/o and pan. 
The ultimate root is sugd with the 
same general meaning. 

PanalaiTgin, from duUuTijin and pan. 

Pandlig, from sdlig. Ex. : Siyd ang 
sinasaligan ko, kaya ako matdpaitg 
(I trust in him, and am brave for 
that reason). PinapmiaUgan mo 
(panaliganin mo) ang Dios (let 
vour trust be in God [trust in 

Panalo, from talo and pan. Sino ang 
nanalof (Who was the winner?) 
Ttunalo, to dispute ( one ) . Magtalo, 
to argue ( two, etc. ) . Manalo, ind_ef . 
of ])a)iaIo. Magpatalo, to allow 
one's self to be conquered. Patalo, 
to consent to be vanquished. Ma- 
kitalo, to interfere in a dispute. 
Ang mananalo, the winner; con- 
queror. Ayig talonan, the van- 

Panambhan, from i^ambit, "funeral 
song," an suttixed and pan. 

Pandog. Seiple gives a Panay-Vi- 
sayan root naog, but the Stimar- 
Leyte dialect seems to lack this 
word. Ex.: (Tag.) Pnmandng, to 
descend a ladder (also, to go or 
come down stairs). Magpandog, 
to do the above much. Magpapa- 
ndog, to order the above to be 
done; to use up; to spend. Ex.: 
Nagpapandog nang an ang narn- 
rukhd (The property has been used 
up on account of poverty ) . Kapa- 
panaogan ako nang Ihnang pisos (I 
have spent five pesos). Also with 
ma. Ex.: Ang napandog sa dkin 
ay Ihnang pisos (The amount of my 
spending was five pesos). Mag- 
pandog also means to bring some- 



To sit down (with the feet crossed 
and knees apart). 

To 2)ronuse; to resolve. 

To persevere; to persist; to last. 
To penetrate (as water). 

To be able to do. 

To kneel down; to kneel. 
To prop with the hand. 

thing down stairs or oy means of a 
ladder. A luj ipam'uxj, what brought 
down. Magpopuf/paiiaog, to order 
something to be brought down 

Panasilu, from sikl, with same mean- 
ing with mag and pan. Seiple 
thinks pana a root, but it may also 
be from the indef. Ayig ])hiana- 
naHiIaan, the person sat down be- 
fore, or the place. 

Panata. Ang panaiahin, what prom- 
ised. Ang panatahan, the person 
promised. Syns. Paiujaku; Tu- 
mandang. The roots talagd and 
panuan have somewhat similar 

Panatili, from till, idea of propping 
up ; and pana. 

Panimtim (from timtbnf and pan). 
Seiple gives liyim as the root, mean- 
ing "to ooze into; to leak." No- 
ceda gives panayimlim as the word. 
Ex. Mapanayimiim sa loob ang ma- 
samang asal (The evil habit pene- 
trates the heart). 

Pangyari ( from yari and pan). Ma- 
Icapangyarihan, powerful; omni- 
potent. Kapangyarihan, power; 
faculty; authority. Ex. Mayroon 
si yang kapangyarihan ( he has power 
[or authority]). Wald siyang /;. 
(He is Avithout a). Wald akong k. 
(1 am without a). Mangyari, to 
be possible. Ex. Hindi rnangya- 
yari (It can not be). Hindi mang- 
yaring di ako punwroon (I can not 
possibly keep from going there). 
Mangyari bagang di ako pumaroonf 
(Is it not possible for me to keep 
from going there?) AnoH di man- 
gyayarif ( Whyshould itnotbeso.**) 
May nangyari doon sa bdhay niyd 
(Something has happened in his 
house over there). Snkai mangyari 
(Suppose it may happen?) Di 
si'ikat mangyari (It should not hap- 
pen). Mangyayaridin (It will in- 
deed be possible). Yari alone 
means done; finished; completed. 
Ex. : Yari va ang sulat (The letter 
is already finished). 

Panikluhod. (Already explained). 
Syn. Lumuhod. 

Paniin. Angipinaniin, what propped 
thus. Magiiin, to put out the 
hands in order to rise; (2) also to 
stamp or print. Tiinan mo ang 
papel, stamp or print it on the 





To think; also "to regret. ' 
To .«quat. 

To believe; to confide in; to trust. 

To /juide; to lead. 

To accomplish the will. 

To view (as a spectacle); to gaze at; 
to sight; to behold; to look at 
from far off; to view with astonish- 

To make water. 

To lodge. 

To wait upon the pleasure of another; 

to flatter; (2) to serve. 
To promise. 

To dare; to venture. 

paper. Root tiin and pan. Tiin 
means "to prop oneself with hands 
and feet in order to" 

Panimdim (from dhnd'nii and pan). 
This root is domdom in Bicol. 

Paninglcuyad (from tinkayad and 
pan). Also tumiiKjkayad, with 
same meaning. 

Panhrala (from tiwala and pan). 
Aug katiicala, theconfidant; bosom 


Panolos (from a lost root, tolas, sug- 
gests Seiple, who cites the Java- 
nese word " <u/((s, sincere; faith- 
ful; loyal, etc." and adopted in 
Malay). Ex.: Hindi akn manoJos 
kumaiii, at ang nasasakit ako nang 
kignat (I can not force myself to 
eat, because lam sick with fever). 

Panood (from nood and pan). Ma- 
nood, to look at what contents and 
gives pleasure. Ang pnnaw'.od, 
what beheld. 

Pani'diig (from titbig and pan). 

PanuUiyan (from tuloy and jum). 
Ang ])anuluyanan, the lodging 
place; also ang tnloyan. Ang ipa- 
nuluyan, the cause or person for 
whom lodging is looked for. ^lag- 
papanuluyan, to give another lodg- 
ing. Ang p>apaniduynnin, the per- 
son given lodging. Tiunuloy to 
lodge. Magtuloy, to lodge many 
or much. Ang tuluyan, the lodg- 
ing place. Ang pagtuluyan, the 
lodging place of many or much. 
Ang itidoy, the cause. Ang ipag- 
tuloy, the cause of many or much. 
Magpati'doy, to give lodging. Ang 
patuluyin, the person given lodg- 
ing. Ang patiduyan, the place 
where given lodging. Ang papag- 
tuluyin, the person given much 
lodging. A7ig mawjd papagtidnyin, 
the persons given lodging. Ang 
pinagpapatuluyan, the lodging 
houses. Ex. : Sino ang nanunn- 
luyan sa huhay inof (Who is the 
lodger at your house?) hang ma- 
liirap napinatidoy ko so dking hdhatj 
(a poor man whom I have allowed 
to lodge at my house). 

Panuyb (from suyb andp(jn). See 

PaiTgakb (def. ); mawjakb (indef.). 
Syn., panata. From dko, "secu- 
rity," and pan. 

Pangahus; maiTgahas (probably from 
dahas, "idea of bravery," and 
pan). Seiple points out that the 



To become tired from much standing: 
or being in the same i)osition a 
long time. 

To become thin; emaciated. 

To become numb (as tlie arm or leg 
from inaction); to "go to sleep." 
To fold the arms. 

To rest the face upon the hand; to 
burv face in hands. 

To apprehend; to dread. 

To bear a child; to lie in. 

To be witli child for the iirst time. 
To dread. 

To look in mirror or other reflecting 

To hurt; to damage; to malign; to 

make ashamed. 

To talk in sleep; to dream. 
To humble or almse oneself. 
To make love; to woo. 
To be jealous. 

To tremble; to shudder. 

To warn; to guard oneself; to sneak 

regular formation should be pana- 
hds. In Bicol, dahas means vio- 
lence; force. 

Pamjdlay. Ex. : Nangangdlay ha na? 
(Are you tired already?) Hindi 
p6 (no, sir). The roots ngdlay, 
hingdlay, mjalo, and ngimi have 
about the same meaning. 

Pangalirang (greater than yayul). 
Syn. , jxnTgutigang . Root, iTgalirang 
and pan. 

Pawjalo (from mjalo, "idea of pain 
from fatigue"). Syn., ngimi. 

Pangalokipkip (from fudokipkip, to 
cross the arms). Var., panhalo- 
kipkip. Ult. root, kipkip. Ex. : 
Kumipkip, to lay the arm or leg 
upon anything. Bdklt ka nii ngumj- 
aloktpkipf (VVhyare you folding 
your arms?) Seiple shows that 
halo often prefixes roots composed 
of two identical syllables. 

Pamjalumbabd ( from mjalumhabd and 
pan). \a,r., i~gaynmbabd. Tauong 
mapaiTgalumbabd, a melancholy 

Pangamba (less than pangdnib or 
takot). From gambd, "idea of 
dread," and T^an. 

Panganak (from aiiak, "child," and 
pan ) . 


PaiTgdnib (from gdnib, "idea of being 
in danger" ). (Greater degree than 

PaiTganino (from anino, "image, 
shadow," and pa»). 

PaiTganyaya (from any ay a and pan). 
MakaparTijanyaya, to cause dam- 
age. Panganyayang tduo, a person 
who destroys property, maligns, 
etc. Anyayimg tduo, a lazy j)erson. 
MakapapKiTi/aiiijaya (adj.), harm- 
ful; hurtful; slanderous. 

ParHjdrap (from drap, "idea of 
dreaming," and jdoji) . 

Pangayupapd (from ngayupajid and 

Pangibig (from ibig and j)^^''^)- See 

PaiTgigbogho (from boghd, "idea of 
jealousy;" still found in jmni- 
buglid, "jealousy"). 

Pangildbot (from kildbot, "idea of 

Pailg'dag (def. ); mangilag (indef. ); 
both from ilag. Umilag, to flee. 
Magilag, to draw aside; to avoid. 
PaiTgdagan mo ang maiTgd tduoiig 
iralang pinagaralan (avoid men 
without education [breeding]). 



Pamjiktp. Seiple thinks may be 
from silap, "idea of a wordy (juar- 
rel," and^^aji. 

PaiTffilin (from tu/iliitg, "idea of ob- 
serving holidays [tiestas], etc.," 
and p(in). Seiple observes that 
the final g of the root has been 
dropped, but this may Ije acci- 

Pangimi (from ngimi). Syn. paiigalo. 

PmTginig (from kinig, really Jdnyig). 
Kti.minig, to tremble with coid or 
fear. Magkirdg, to tremlile nmch 
thus. Makinig, to be trembling 
thus [state]. Maiujinig, indef. of 
paiTginig. MakapaiTginig, to cause 
to tremble with cold or fear. 

Pai~gii7gil6 (from jj«/u///y, itself from 
irgilo, a tingling pain in the teeth. 

PaiTijiki (from iTijiki). Ak<? y nan- 
giiTgiki (I am shaking). 

Panguna (from una, "first," and 

Pangulugi (from ngtUugi, a loss in 
business, and pan). 

PaiTgusap ( from iisap and pan). Ex. : 
Hindi ka makopaiiigusap^ (Can't 
you talk?) (See I'lsap, already 
partly explained). 


Um verbs are made diminutive by the repetition of the root if bisyllabic, 
or the first two syllables if longer. Ex.: 

To run. Tumakbo. Tumakbo-takho, tDVumhle; 

to run a little. 

To rain. Umuldn. Umulan-uldn, to drizzle. 

In ordinary composition the hy- 
phens are generally omitted. 

To be scornful. 
To keep holidays. 

To become numb (as the arm or leg 

from inaction); to "go to sleep." 

To tremble (much with cold or fear) . 

To feel a tingling pain in the teeth. 

To shake (as from the ague). 

To precede (as in room or street); 

to commence; to start or begin. 
To lose in trade, business, or barter. 

To talk. 


The particle mag is used to verbalize roots, as a general rule, either 
•when a definite object is heM in view or else when the verb does not 
require an object to express intensity (sometimes plurality) with roots 
which are verbalized in the simplest sense with um. Mag has also a recip- 
rocal (mutual) idea, an [lian) being usually suffixed. 

Mag, which is always a prefix, changes to nag in the present and past 
tenses. The Jirst syllable of the root is reduplicated for the present and 
future tenses. Maka. and naka, which are used to indicate the second 
future perfect and pluperfect, respectively, retain pag, the definite of mag, 
with the root, as they are also independent particles when used alone. 
In this respect, and al.«o in the retention of the particle in front of the 
reduplicated initial syllable of the root in the future tense, all particles 
differ from um. (See the table for conjugation of )i)ag roots. ) 

I. Mag, prefixed to roots which admit inn and which do not change the 
meaning with nuig, signifies plurality either (A persons or acts, this being 
the general meaning imparted by this particle. Mag {nag) sometimes 
throws the accent upon the last syllable of a root. Ex. : 



To guard; watch for. 

To sit down. 

Turiianod. Magtanod, to guard much 
or by many. Aug tanorati, what 
guarded. Ang pagtunoran, what 
guarded nmch or by many. Ang 
itanod, the cause of guarding. 
Ang ipagtanod, the cause of guard- 
ing much or by many; also the 
person for whom guarded, if there 
be a person concerned. 

Umupo. Magupo, tositdown ( many). 

Among other verbs may be mentioned magbasd, to read much or by 
many [bumusa); magbiiu, to eat much, etc. {kumain); maggiik, to thresh 
{gura'dk); magbinin, to drink much, etc. [uminum); maglakad, to walk 
much, etc. (Iwudkad); magsulat, to write much or by many (s^um'dat); 
magtakbo, to run much or by many {tumakba) ; magtmTgift, to weep much 
or by many {tuinai~gis), and magtukso, to weep mucli {tumukso); all of 
which verbs have l)een heretofore explained. 

II. Those roots which do not admit inn as a verbalizing particle are not 
pUiralized by viag, but simply verbalized in the primary sense. Besides 
others, all roots beginning with m fall in this class on account of caco- 
phony (harshness) with um. 

To grind (as grain) 
To enhance. 

To think with care. 

To see well (purposely). 

To inherit. 

To note; to experience. 
To start; to commence. 

Magboyo. Ang bay'in, what ground. 
Ang bayohaii, the grinding place. 

Magmahal. Aug minaniahal, the es- 
teemed, etc., person. Ex.: Ang 
banal na tauo ay tidnamahal (the 
just person is esteemed). Mama- 
lial, to rise in value. Ex. : Nama- 
mahal ang lako (the merchandise is 
rising in value). Magpakainuhal, 
to esteem highly. Ex. : Finagpa- 
pakamohal ko sa kanlyd (I do es- 
teem him highly). Also with 
muka alone. Ex. : Pinakamamahal 
ko sa kaniyd. Makimahal, to act 
like a noble person. Mapakimahal, 
to arrive at a state of being es- 
teemed. Kamahakm, dearness; 
nobility, etc. 


Magmalas. To see well, casually, 

Magmana. Ang pagmanahin, what 
inherited. Ang magkantann, to 
leave property. Ang ipatnana, the 
estate. Ang pamana, the inherit- 
ance (verbal noun). Ex.: ltd ang 
pamana. sa akin nang amd ko (This 
was my inheritance from my 
father) . Ang pagmanahan, the 
heir. Makiniana, to ask for an in- 

Magmasid. Ang mapagmasid, the 
person who notes or experiences. 

Magmidd. Muldn mo ito, commence 
this. Used only thus in impera- 
tive and past indicative. As "pro- 
ceed ' ' it is used in past and present. 


Anci pinagrimmuhhi, the point from 
which proceedinj^. Muld as prep, 
means "from; since." 

To recall to niemor)'. Marpnull. Also means to ojjen the 

eyes widely; and to look at well. 

To cheapen; insult; dishonor. Marpnuru. Maiimra, to lower in 

value. Ang m?tra/(y??, what cheap- 
ened, or who insulted, dishonored, 
etc. MagpukamurcDnura, to despise 
intensely. Magmurahan, to insult 
mutually. Angliohomanangphtag- 
murahan nild, they Insulted each 
other in the court room. 

There are comparatively few verbal roots beginning with ?h in the Taga- 
log. The foregoing are nearly all that are in common use. A few others 
are to be found, which will be n(jted later, used with other particles. 

III. Roots which change tlie meaning with »»i and 7nng are pluralized 
in two ways with vwg. If the final syllable of the root is acrented nor- 
mally the _/ir.s< syllable of the ?'oo< is added extra in all tenses, but if the 
accent is not normally upon the last syllable of the root, plurality is 
expressed by changing the accent to the final syllable. It should also be 
noted that the meaning changes back. 

To buy. Bumili. Maghili, to sell. Naghibili 

ako, I am selling. Nugbihibili ako, 
I am buying much. Thi.s form is 
now rare, man (q. v.) being gen- 
erally used. Ex. : Namimili ako 
(I am buying much). 

To teach (as a doctrine). Umaral. Magdral, to learn; to 

study. Magaral, to teach much; 
to preach. Now generally re- 
placed by 77ian. Ex. : MatTgdral, 
to preach. 

The reduplication of a bisyllabic root or the first two syllables of a poly- 
syllabic root intensifies plurality with mag roots. This same construction 
with um roots indicates diminutives. Mag roots add an {ban) to express 
diminutives or reciprocal verbal actions, which have to be distinguished 
by the context, meaning, etc. Ex. : 

To think. Maglsip. 3fagisipisip, to think 

deeply; profoundly. 

To meditate. Magnilay. MagnilaynUaij, to medi- 

tate profoundly. Man'day natauo, 
a considerate person. Monday, 
also means to fish. Paninilayan, 
a fishing canoe. 

To follow; to obey. Sumunod. Magsunodsunod, to ioWow 

in rapid sequence (many) . 

IV (a). Roots which may admit the idea of more or less take an addi- 
tional repetition of the first syllable to signify intent or plurality. If the 
entire root be repeated the plurality is intensified. Roots of three or more 
syllables repeat only the two first, according to the general rule in Taga- 
log. Ex.: Nagsusam])d ako sa kapidbahay ko (I have cursed my neighbor 
many times). Nagsusumpasumpd ako sa kapidbahay ko (I have cursed 
[slandered] my neighbor times without number). 

{b) Mag and the doubled root in certain cases signify the performance 
of an act and its opposite. Verbs expressing an unsteady motion or quick 
change of position are also formed in a similar manner, (c) In the present 



tense nari may be dropped, V)eing replaced by the rechiji Heated initial 
syllable of the primitive root. Some nm verbs have this form also. Ex.(fc) : 

To pass. 

To go or come out. 
To turn over. 

To stagger; to reel. 

To shift about; to change continu- 
ally; to turn over continually. 

To wander about aimlessly, {urn). 
To stagger. 

To tiptoe about; to walk on tiptoes. 
To bend over. 

To move {<:). 

To walk with the head on one side 

Dumaan. Magdnan, to pass many 
times or by many. Mat/daandaan, 
to pass and repass many times. 
Daanan, a made road. Di mfidod- 
ncD), impassible. Makarnan, to be 
able to pass. Magparuan, to allow 
to pass Ex. : Paraanm vio ako 
( let me pass ) . Ilindt ko pararaanin 
hangan dl vio ako bibigydn nang 
kaunting tubig (I will not let you 
pass until you give me a little 
water). Daan also means "hun- 

Lumabds. MaglahuH, to take out. 
Maglabaslabds, to go out or come 
in (many times) . 

Magbaligtad. MagbalibaUgtad, to 
turnover. Ex. (c): Babalibaligtad 
ang may sakit sa hihigdn (the sick 
man is turning over and over in 

Magbalingbuling . Babalingbdling 
yaorig tdiio, that man yonder is 
reeling. Magpapagbalingbdling, to 
be staggering from walking, etc. 
Ex. : Pinapagbabalingbdling mo ako 
nang paghdnap sa iyo (I am ready 
to fall from looking for you. Syn. 
Magpal i) i gpdlhig. 

Magbilinghiling. Ex. : BibdiiigbUing 
maiidhi siyd (he is shifting about). 
Bihilingbilhig ang loob ko (I have 
my doubts) . BibiUngbUmg ang 
may sakit sa hihigdn (the sick man 
is twisting and turning in bed). 

Sumulingsdling. tSnsidingsi'ding siyd 
(he is wandering about aimlessly ). 

Magsiiraysi'nxiy, Susuraysdrai/ slyd? 
( Is he staggering?) O/x"), ang hislng 
ay susuraysuray knng bnndkad (yes 
sir, a drunken man staggers when 
he walks) . 

Tioniad. Magtiadiiad, to tiptoe about 
much. T'diaj^tiad ako ( I am walk- 
ing about on my tiptoes). 
Umnkod. Magukod, to bend over 
much. Maukod, to be bent over. 
Magukodukod, to walk bent over 
or waveringly. IJukodnkod siyd 
( he walks bent over) . Uukodnkod 
yaong matandd. (that old person 
walks haltingly),. 

Kumibo. Magkibokibo, to move 

MagkilingkUing. lyang baid'y kiki- 
ViugkUing kunglumdkad (That child 
holds the head on one side when 



To assemble (purposely.) 

To assemble; to meet (purposely). 

To wabble (c). Kuminda;/. Magkindaykinday, to 

wabble much. Syn. Magkinding- 

V. Mag is also used to express personal actions which may be dual or 
plural in character, reciprocity or mutuality being implied. If the plurality 
is to 1)6 intensified, the root is repeated, subject to the general rule for poly- 
syllabic roots. Ex. : 

To quarrel; to tight. MugbaUtg. Ang pagbabag, the act of 

quarreling. Mapagbabag, quarrel- 
some person. Ang babagin, the 
person quarreled with. 

Magpi'dong. Ex. : Xagpupulong ang 
maiTgd maginoo sa bayan (the 
"principales" of the town are 
assembling). Ann ang phiagpu- 
loiajan kanilaf (Why have they 
met?) Avg ipinagpi'dong nibVy 
nang pagusapan ang jiagdating 
nang gobernador-general (The pur- 
pose of their meeting was to talk 
over the coming of the governor- 

Magtipon. Tumipon, to join (one). 
Magkatipon, to meet orassemble by 
chance (as a street crowd). Ex.: 
Nagkatipon ang maiujci tauo sa ba- 
lmy ko (Some people have happened 
to meet in my house). Ang kati- 
j)unan, the assembly. Also the 
popular name of the well-known 
revolutionary society, the K. K. K. 
Ex. : Ang pinagkakatlpunan nang 
manga marurunong (The meeting- 
place of the learned people — i. e., 
of learned societies, etc). Ilouag 
kang suntama't hindl nababagay sa 
hang dalagang pumaroon sa pinag- 
kakatipnnan nang maraming lalaki 
(Do not accompany [him, her, or 
them] because it is not proper for 
a girl to go where there is a meet- 
ing of many men). 

Other verbs of this nature, all of which have been mentioned befoi-e, are 
maghiwalay, to separate mutually; magpisan, to associate; magkiia, to see 
each other; viagsama, to accompany each other; magialo, to argue; and 
magusap, to converse; to litigate. 

VI. The distinction between plurality, intensity, etc., and mutuality, 
reciprocity, etc., is sometimes made by a change of accent. Ex.: 

To approach (one). Lumapit. Maglapit, to draw near. 

Maglapit, to approach mutually. 
Malapit, near. Malapit siyd sa akin 
(He is a relative of mine). 

To look at. Kinnitd. Magkita, to look at each 

other. Magkita, to look at many 
things; or to look at intently. 

VII. Mag verbalizes reciprocal actions of a nature admitting competition 
or rivalry, provided that no special emphasis is placed upon the conten- 
tion. Ex.: 



To become reconciled (two) 

Tostir, mixingatsametime; toshake. 

Mayhall (also to speak in a friendly 
way ) . Magpabati, to become recon- 
ciled (many). 

ITtnnalo. An;/ Iialoiti, what shaken; 
stirred. Mcujhalb, to mix two (or 
more) things together. Angihnlo, 
what mixed. Ang haloan, the mix- 
ing place, etc. Ang hinalb, what 
shaken (past). Ang Ui'malb, wh&i 
mixed (past). 

VIII. Voluntary reciprocal actions of certain classes are also conjugated 
witli mag prefixed' lo the root and an (Imh) {nan) suthxed. Ex.: 

To mock; jeer at. 

To suffer; to endure. 

To kick. 

To curse. 

To help; to aid (another). 

Magbiro. Magbiroan, to mock each 
other. Makipagbiroan, to mock 
greatly; to jeer atanother viciously. 
Birohiro, mapagbiro, palabirn, all 
stand for degrees of being a jester, 
etc. Magpalabiro, to jest with a 
good deal. Tauong biro, an incon- 
siderate person. 

Dumalitd. Magdalitaan, to suffer for 
each other, or mutually. Magpa- 
Jcadalidalitu, to suffer intensely. 
Mapagdalitd, sufferer. Kadalitaan, 
suffering. 1)1 inadalitd, intoler- 
able; insufferable. 

Sumikad. Mag.vkad, to kick much. 
Magsikaran, to kick each other. 
Manikad, to kick habitually. Also 
magsumlkad, to work with rapidity. 
Synonyms for kicking: Tuma- 
dyak, magtadijak, magiadyakan, 
tumindak, ntagtindak, magtinda- 

Sumumpd. Ang sumpain, who or 
what cursed. A)ig isnmpd, the 
reason or cause of cursing. Mag- 
sumpd, to curse much; also many 
at same time. Ang pagsumpain, 
who or what cursed thus. Ang 
ipagsumpd, the cause or reason for 
cursing thus. Magsumjiaan, to 
curse each other. Mamunpd, to 
curse habitually; also to take an 
oath. Ang palasumpd, the habit- 
ual curser; also the witness. Aug 
panunum2:)d, habitual cursing, or 
the oath taken. Ang paiiumjjaan, 
the person administering the oath; 
also the place. Ang ipanumpd, 
the testimony given; also what 
sworn habitually. 

Tumulong. Magtidong, to help 
another much. MaglidoiTgan, to 
help each other. Manulong, to 
help another often. Manvlongan; 
magpanulongan, to help each other 
much or often. Ang katulong, the 
aid; assistant; helper. 


Touse insulting or indecent language; MagturTgayao. Magtuiuiayauan, to 
to say such words. abuse each other thus. ManmTg- 

ayuo, to abuse or insult thus con- 
tinually or habitually. Mapag- 
tmigayao, abuser; insulter. 

Among other verbs of this description may be cited magkagatan, to bite 
each other; magibigan, to like each other; magpaloan, to cudgel each 
other; mngsinlahan, to love each other; i))ag><unoran, to follow each other; 
and inagtawman, to laugh at each other. All of these have been mentioned 

IX. In the use of mag to verbalize actions admitting reciprocity, care is 
necessary in noting their nature and the intent and purpose for which the 
actions may be executed, as there are local differences in this respect. 
Reciprocal verbs require an oljject which returns the action. (A) Thus, 
luftg prefixed and an sutiixed with a root which, admits competition 
expresses rivalry. (B) If the action requires an object and rivalry is to 
be expressed, the suffix an should be repeated. 

To jump. Lumulso. Magloksu, to jump much 

or by many. MagJoJcsohan, to jump 
in competition. (This verb has 
already been explaiiied. ) 

To look. Turniwjht. MagtuTgiu, to look at 

much or by many. AfagtiiTj/inan, 
to look at each other. (Hereto- 
fore explained. ) 

To push; to shove off (as a boat) . Tumulak. Magti'dak, to push hard 

or by many. Magtulakan, to push 
against each other. Maghdakanan, 
to push in rivalry or competition. 

X. Mag and the reduplicated root form intensive reciprocal verbs which 
can oniy be distinguished from diminutives, verbs of feigning, mockery, 
imitation, etc., by the context. As usual, polysyllabic roots repeat the 
first two syllables only. Ex.: 

To embrace. Yumakap. Magyakap, to embrace 

each other; to tie up to a post. 
Magyakapyakapan, to embrace 
each other warmly; also means 
"to embrace a little, to pretend to 
embrace, to imitate embracing," 

Other verbs already cited are magabutabutan , to reach many things; to 
pass many things from hand to hand, etc. ; niagltaildltatiran, to send to each 
other, etc., and magtii~gintir~ginan, to look at each other closely; to pretend 
to look,^tc. 

XL iVigro may also be infixed with mag, forming maiiijag, the particle thus 
made imparting the idea of great plurality when prefixed to a root. Ex. : 

To converse. Mugusap. Mangagusap, to converse 

(as a great crowd). 

XII. Roots with may be used both with and without an object, the 
meaning varying more or less in such cases. Ex. : 

To divide into equal ])arts. Bumahagi. Magbcdiagi kayo/ Dis- 

perse! Mayb(diagi kayo nitong ga- 
Inpi (divide this money). 

XIII. Movement caused l)y an outside agency is expressed by mag. As 
will be remembered, self-movement is expressed by um (Par. XI, um). 
Ilumango, to pull out, take out, etc., is an exception to the rule. Ex.: 



To fell trees; to blow trees down (as 
the wind) . 

To part from another; to go to a dis- 

To rise (voluntarily, as a l)ird) 

Maghual. Anghualm,ihe tree felled. 
Aug ibual, the person felling, or 
wind, ^-l?;*/ /;Ha/an, the i)lace. -h?^ 
pamual, the instrunu-nt, i. e., ax. 

Luiiutyu. Lni»ai/n, to remain left far 
away (by another). Mai/Iiiyo, to 
part (two); also to remove any- 
thing to a distance. Malai/o, dis- 
tant; far. 

Til muas. Magtaas, to raise ; to lift up. 
Mataa.i, high; tall; noted. Katau- 
san, height. KatanMaasan, ex- 
treme height. 

Among other verbs of like nature, which have already been explained, 
are magal'/s, to take away; maglaph, to draw something near; mag/tayuiog, 
to take or let anything downstairs or a ladder; magpavhik, to take any- 
thing upstairs or up a ladder, etc.; viagsilid, to put anything in or into; 
magtayu, to set up; and mngtiiidig, to stand anything upright. 

XIV. Bodily voluntary actions affecting one's self only, or those per- 
mitted to be done, are expressed with mag. Those actions of like nature 
performed upon another take uin (Par. XII, um). Ex. : 

To whip one's self (as in penance). Maghampa». Humanijx'i.^, to whip 

another. Mngpohdinpas, to allow 
one's self to be whipped, etc. Pa- 
hampas, to consent to he whipped. 
Ex. : Houag kang DaJxmipas sa siiw- 
man (don't let anyone whip you). 

Other verbs following this rule are fulh' explained in Par. XII under 

XV. As has been noted mag expresses for the indefinite the idea of los- 
ing control, as ?uu expresses the idea of acquiring the same. What is lost 
control of is expressed in the definite with /, combined with In for the 
past and other tenses where necessary. For the aid of the memory it 
may be said that verbs of throwing away, throwing at, etc., sowing, scat- 
tering, pouring out, mixing, placing, putting, giving, and selling follow 
this rule. Ex.: 

To throw away. 

To throw or dash down. 

To throw at (as with a rock). 

To throw at; to pelt. 

To throw up (much). 
To scatter rice seed. 

To scatter in the air; to emit. 

To scatter seed. 

To transjilant. 

Magtapou. (Already explained.) 

Maghnlog. (Already explained.) 

Magpukol. Angpuli'in, what thrown 
at, or stoned. Ang ipukol, what 

Maghagis. Ex. : Nagliagis ako nang 
halo (I threw a stone). 

Magnaka. Sumuka, to throw up. 

Maghasik. Manhasik, to sow much 
rice thus or by many working to- 

Magmmhidat. Ang isambi'dat, what 
scattered, as grain, etc. Simiain- 
bulat, to scatter, disperse, as a 
crowd of its own volition. Ma- 
nambulat, to scatter much, either 
by inside or outside agency. 

Magsabog. (Already explained.) 
Syn. , vmgvalat. Magkalat, aXre&dy 
set forth ; means to spread, prop- 

Magpunld. Magtanbn, to plant, to 
set out (already explained). 



To scatter. 

To break up; scatter (as parts of a 

house torn down). 
To pour out. 

To pour out; ^hakeout (not liquids). 

To saturate with water. 
To mix. 

To stew; to boil meal, etc. 
To jiut wood on the fire. 

To place. 

To put in the sun. 

To place in layers, etc. 

To give. 

To present with; to make a gift. 

To grant; to give. 

To give; primarily, to hand to an- 
other bv reaching out the arm. 

To sell. 

To sell goods. 

To trade on a small scale; to sell at 

To sell at cost. 


(Already explained.) 

Maghobo. Ang boban, what poured 
into. Ang ibobo, what poured 
out. Syn., magbuhos (already ex- 

Maghoho. Ang iliohu, what poured 
or shaken out, as grain, etc. 

Maghi»tk, var. mugbaysak. 

Mughalu. (Already explained.) 
Syn.s., vnigsahog; maglahok. Lu- 
mahok, to join. 

Magh'iguo. Ang ihigao, the material. 
Ang liinugao, the mush; stew. 
Ang lugauan, the stewpan, etc. 

Maggatong, also to stir up the fire. 
Magpagntong, to ask that the fire 
be stirred up. Makigalong, to ask 
for a few coals to start a fire. Ang 
igdiung, the poker, etc. Ang 
gatoiTijin, w hat burned. Ang ga- 
toiTgan, the place. 

Maglagay. (Already explained.) 
(Already explained.) 

( Already exi)lained. ) 
(Already explained).) 
(Already explained.) 
Ang ipagkaluob, the 







the arm 

Gumduad, to stretch out 
in order to reach some- 
thing. Ang ganarin, what reached. 
Angigdnad, w'hat given or handed 
over. Ang iginduad, what was or 
has been given, etc. 
Magbili. (Already explained.) 
Maglakb. Mciglako, to peddle from 
town to town. Ang ilaku, what 
sold. Ang ilako, what pieddled 
from place to place. 
Magutay. (Already explained.) 

at cost. 

Ang ipagdmot, what sold 

Verbs of "permitting, sending, restoring," etc., also follow the iiutgand i 
conjugation. Ex.: 

To permit. Magtulot. ^Ing^rfif/o^ what permitted. 

To send; to remit. Maghatid. (Already explained.) 

To restore. Magsaoli. (Already explained.) 

XVI. Being of like nature, verbs of "speaking, relating, telling," etc., 
are conjugated by vuig in the indefinite and / in the definite. A few, how- 
ever, have um with i for the object. Ex.: 

To tell; narrate; report. 

To report; to announce; to tell the 

MagsalHd. (Definites, already ex- 

Magbalitd. Ang ipinagbalild, the 
news announced or reported; also 
the cause or means (past tense). 



To converse (two). 

To converse (two or more). 

To speak ; pronounce. 

To speak in a low tone; also to mut- 
ter; grumble; talk about another 
in al)sence, etc. 

To ask; to inquire. 

Aug pin(u/halitaaii, the person to 
whom told, etc. (past tense). 
Makimalita, to ask for news. 

Magmbi. Totalk (one),SM»ur>'n. To 
talk much, magsab'i. (This verb 
has already been explained.) 

Magi'isap. (Already explained.) 
MaiTjjilsap, to talk. Ex.: Maka- 
paiTijiisa}) ka? (("an you talk?) 
Hindi ka makapaiujiUctp? (Can't 
you talk?) 

Magwlkd. Hindi ko mawikcl (I can 
not pronounce it). 

Magsalaysaii. ( A Iready explained. ) 
Another word is mdf/mi/xag, which 
with vm has als(j the meaning of 
to arrange, as the hair of another, 
and with mag to arrange some- 
thing for one's self, as the hair, 
etc. Ex. with ma.: Hindi ko ma- 
sagsay (I can not explain it). 

Maghulong. Ex.: May ihidndang ak6 
sa iyo (1 have samething for your 
ear only). 

Tumanong. Magtanong, to ask about, 
or concerning. Aug tanongin, the 
person questioned. Ex.: Sinoang 
tinanong mof (Wliom did you ask, 
01' of whom did you inquire?) 
Ang itanong, what asked. And ang 
ithumong mo (what did you in- 

Maganas. Ex.: lands mo (tell it 

Mag.vimhong. Mapagsumbong, tat- 

Magbald. Ang ibald, what said. 
Mabala ka (say something). Ba- 
habalin mo ang mam/n tnno nito 
(notify the people of this). It 
should be noted that the definite 
here takes an extra ba. 

Magbaual. Ang ibaual, what forbid- 
den. Ang baualan, the person to 
whom something may be forbid- 
den. Ang pagbabdual, the act 
of forbidding (present tense). 
BroTijang bdual, forbidden fruit. 

XVII. ilfrt.9 prefixed to roots signifying nations, races, conditions, etc., 
means to behave to some degree as the root signifies, but if a complete 
assimilation is to be implied, the particle maki (paki) is used. Ex.: 

To be somewhat Americanized. Magamericano. Ex. : Nagaamericano 

siyd nang damit (he [she] is quite 
Americanized in dress). 
Mageastila. Nagcacastila sild nang 
dsal (they are quite Spanish in 

XVIII. (a) Mag, with natural objects, signifies to produce them; (b) 
with artificial objects, to make them; (c) with articles of barter, to trade 

To speak gently. 

To tattle. 

To say something; accuse, denounce, 

To forbid. 

To be quite Hispanicized; to be like 
a Spaniard in some ways. 



or sell them; (d) with edible things, etc., to eat them; {e) with property, 
to possesss it; (/) with names of relatives, to know how to aet toward them; 
and (g) with the possessive pronouns, to have: 

Ex. (a): 
To put forth leaves (as a tree, etc.). MagdaJiun. Also means to put the 

food on leaves, as when out of 
doors. Ang tagapagdahon, the 
cook. Arig daJionan, the eating 
place thus. 

Ex. (/>)■ 
To build a house. 
To make soap. 

Ex. (c): 
To sell or trade rice. 
To sell or trade unhulled rice. 

Ex. (rf): 
To sell or eat pickled fish. 
To eat fruit or to sell it. 

To eat or sell tish. 

To eat or sell eggs. 

To eat bananas or to sell them. 
To drink chocolate. 

To use tobacco. 

Ex. (e): 
To have property. 

To have anvthing of one's own. 

Ex. (/):' 
To know how to treat a father. 

To know how to treat a child, i. e., 
how to be a good parent. 

Ex. ((/): 
To have as yours. 
To have as theirs. 
To have as mine. 

XIX. Words signifying articles of wearing apparel may be verbalized 
with 'mag to express the wearing of the same. Ex. : 

Mirror; (2) spectacles; glasses. Salamin. 3fagsalamin, to look in the 

mi r ror ; ( 2 ) to wear glasses or spec- 
tacles. Aug salaminan, what seen 
in the mirror. 

Trousers. Salawal. Magsalawal, to wear trou- 


Magbdhay. (Already explained.) 
Magsahon. (Already explained). 

Magbigns. (Already explained. ) 
Magpalay. Ex. : Magpdlay la nang 
pulot (trade palay for some honey ). 


MagbuiTija. Ex.: Nagbubunga siyd 
(she is selling fruit). 

Maglsdd. Ex.: Nagiisdd sild (they 
are selling fish). Umisdd, to have 
fish once more in a river or creek, 
etc. Ungmii.sdd ngayon sa Hog 
(there are fish now in the river). 

Magitlog. Ex.: Nagiitlog siyd {she is 
selling eggs). 

Magsaging. (Already explained). 

Magsiculale (from Mex.-Sp., cJioco- 
late; from Xahua ( Aztec) , chocolatl, 
choco, cacao; and littl, water). 

Magtabaco (from Sp. and originally 
a West Indian word). 

Magari. Muari, landowner. Arkt- 
rian, small farm; also household 


Magamd. Ex.: Si Juan ay maalam 
magamd (Juan knows how to treat 
a father [i. e., how to be a good 
son] ). Magamd also means father 
and child. 

Maganak. Ex.: Si Juatt. ay marunong 
maganak (Juan knows how to treat 
a child [i. e., how to be a good 
parent] ). Also child and parent. 





Hat. SamhalUo (from Span, sombrero). 

Matjs(uiil)(tlllo, to wear a hat (occa- 
sionally). Manamhalilo, to wear a 
hat habitual!}-. 

Shoe, sandal. Sap'in. Magsajvn, to wear shoes; 

also to line. 

Apron. Tapis. Magiapis, to put on or wear 

an apron. 

XX. Maff generally governs all Spanish, English, and other foreign words 
not incorporated into the language. Ex. : 

To play baseball. Magbesbol. Ex. : Nagbebeshol avg 

marTgd bald (the boys [children] 
are playing baseball.) 

To gamble. Maglnigal (iromf^pan. jiigar). Sugal 

is the usual term. Jjird is the na- 
tive word and means, like the 
Spanish, either to play or togamble. 

XXI. Roots denoting officials may take mag to express the dis(;harge of 
duties pertaining to the office named. Ex. : 

To be governor. Maggoberuador. 

To be mayor (presidente). Magpresidente. 

To be a councilman. Magconsejal. 

To be secretary. Magsecretario. 

To be treasurer. Magtesorero. 

To be prosecuting attorney. Magfiscal. 

XXII. Mag, prefixed to abstracts beginning with ka. and ending in an, 
signifies to do what is expressed by the abstract. Such words are used 
only in the infinitive, and should be clearly distinguished from those root^ 
prefixed by the particle magka, which hick the suffixed an with the in- 
definite infinitive. Ex.: 

To do deeds of virtue or justice. Magbanalan (from kabanalan, virtue, 


To do right. Magkatuiran (from kaiuiran, right, 

justice). Ex.: Hatolanmosildnang 
katuiran (.Vdvise them what is 

To act chastely or in a cleanly man- 3fagkaMnisnn {irom kalinisan , clesin\\- 
ner. ness). 

To behave obscenely. Magkahalayan (from kahalayan, ob- 


XXIII. With adjectives formed by prefixing ma to the root, mag signi- 
fies to assume or boast of what is expressed by the adjective, if the mean- 
ing permits such assumption or boasting. In some cases mag means to 
regard as signified by the adjective. Ex.: 

To boast of good judgment. Magmabait. Ex.: Xagniamabait si. 

Juan (Juan boasts of his good 
judgment [or prudence]). Ma- 
bait, judicious, prudent. 

To boast of knowledge. Magmarunong. Ex. : NagmamanX- 

noyig si Andres (Andres boasts of 
his knowledge). . Marunong, wise, 
learned (from dnnong). Kanino- 
ngan, wisdom, knowledge. 

To boast of beauty. Magmarikit. Ex. : Xagmamarikit si 

Biangoy (Maria boasts of her 
beauty). Marikil, pretty (from 
dikit). Dumikit, to grow pretty. 
Magdikit, to beautify. 



To boast of elegance, beauty. 

To boast of bravery; to swagger. 

MagiiuKjanda. Ex.: Nagnunnaganda 
si Lolevg, Dolores (Lola) boasts 
of her elegance; beauty. Ma- 
gandi'i, elegant, beautiful. Kagan- 
dahan, elegance, l:)eauty. 

MagiiKiU'ipaiuj. Ex. : Nagmatupang 
.si Fuustiiio (Faustino boasted of 
his bravery; or Faustino swag- 
gered). Matapang, brave. Kata- 
pcuTgan, bravery. 

XXIV. If an action does not admit of boasting, mag used with a m« 
adjective denotes becoming, growing, etc., what may be signified by the 
adjective. The definite particle in is generally suffixed to the roots in 
these cases. Ex. : 

To become forgetful. Magmalimotin. Lumimot, to try to 

forget. MakaUmot, to forget. Ma- 
I'lmot, forgetful. Aug naliinolan, 
w hat forgotten. Mnlilimotin, a for- 
getful person. Kallinotmi, forget- 
Magniasakihi. Ex.: Nngmainasakt'm 
siyd{\le isgrowing infirm). May 
sakit, to be ill. Masasakl'm, an in- 
firm, sickly person. Sumakil, to 
feel pain anywhere. Ang sakitan, 
theseatof pain. (SeePar. XXVI). 

XXV. Verbs with mag are made diminutives by repeating a bisyllabic 
root or the first two of a longer one, and suffixing an, han, or nan, as 
required. Ex.: 

To write a little; to scribble. ^fags ula tsi daian {Ivom sulat.). (Al- 

ready used). 

To cry a little; to snivel. Magiyakiyakan (from iyak). Ex.: 

Nagiii/akiydkan iynng batang iydn, 
that child is sniveling. 

To nibble. Magkainkuinan. (Already used.) 

XXVI. The same form as the above also signifies feigning, inntation, 
mockery, playing at, etc. Both these and those mentioned in Par. XXV 
can only be distinguished by the context from intensive reciprocal verb.s 
formed in the same way. (See Par. X). 

To grow infirm. 

To affect virtue, i. e. 

to play the 

To play at building houses (as chil- 
To play at biting (as dogs). 

To malinger; feign illness. 

To tempt a little or to pretend to 

To sham insanity. 

To feign deafness. 

Maghanalhanalan ( from banal). Ex . : 
Nagbahanalbanalan siyd (He is a 

Magbaltaybaliayaii (from bi'iliay). 
(Already used.) 

J\[iigk(igatkagaktii ( from kagat). ( Al- 
ready used.) 

Afagsakitsakilan (from sakit). Ex.: 
Nagsasakitsakita)! ka (you are ma- 

Magtuksotuksohan (from tukso). 
(Used V)efore. ) 

MagabdiduUin (from I'dul). Vmnlul, 
to drive another crazy. Mai'dnl, to 
become insane. Ang ikai'did, the 
cause of insanity. Kaulidan, in- 

MagbingibiyTijihan ( from bingi). Ex. : 
Houag kang ma^jbiiTgibiirgihan 
(Don't try to sham deafness). 



XXVII. Some vm verbs admit prefixed may, the combination denoting 
the action to be executed with earneistnessj endeavor, enterprise, etc. 
(//) Snrne roots with vxikd also take the prefix ma;/, with the same signifi- 
cation. The infinitive form of tlie root with um or ma ku is always retained. 

Ex. («): 

To make haste. 

To force, oblige, compel. 

To exert one's self; to work etfi- 

To follow closely, etc. 

To l)e able to move to compassion. (6) 

To be able to shame greatly. (/;) 

MagduiiiaJi (from dumalt, to do 
quickly). J/ado^t, quickly. Mag- 
madali, to do sometliing quickly. 
(Idiom.) Magdumaling drao, a 
short while. 

Magp'dif. In Manila, putnUit. Mag- 
pumlUt, to endeavor. 

idagsakit. Suinakit, to oblige another 
to work; to use force toward an- 
other. Magsnmdkit, to exert 
greatly for the carrying out of an 
object. Ex. : Ang tauong nagsusu- 
mdkit matutu navg mabiihuting 
kaasalan, ay igagalang navg lahat 
(the man who exerts himself 
greatly to learn good manners will 
be respected by everyone). (-S'»- 
makit regarded as a new root. ) 

Magsumimod. (Already explained. ) 

MagmakaauCi. (Already used. ) See 

Magmakahli/d (from makaliigd, to 
make ashamed). Ex.: Bdkit mo 
ipinagmamakahiyd ang manga ma- 
gulangf (What is the reason you 
cause so much shame to your 
parents?) Wahmg ]iii/d, without 
shame, shameless. (See Par. VI, 
under ma. ) 

Magmakaamoamb (from amb, idea of 
placating). Ex.: Nagmamakaa- 
moambang iauotig ito sa inyo (This 
man is supplicating you). Amb is 
generally reduplicated, and it will 
be seen that mokaanKKunb is re- 
garded as a new root, the ma of 
maka being reduplicated for the 
present tense. 

XXVIII. Mag also forms nouns indicating plurality, totality, and agency, 
which have been used many times heretofore. The article is usually pre- 
fixed to the compound word. Mag is the antithesis (or opposite in inean- 
ing) of ka, which limits the idea to unity. 

XXIX. Mag prefixed to noun roots which are generally used with the 
dual sense denotes such duality without the use of maiTgd or other particles, 
which rather indicate plurality. Ex. : 

To be able to placate another; to 
supplicate. (6) 

The married couple, the husband 

and wife. 
The brothers-in-law (two). 
The two enemies. 

The parents; ancestors. 

Magasdua, to marry, 
XV, under man.) 

Aug magasdua. 

(See also Par, 
Ang magbaydo. 
Ang magdtoay. 

with each other, 
Ang magulang, from gulang. Kagu 

langan, ancestry, descent. Gumu 

lang, to grow old. 

Magdurty, to quarrel 

6855— OS- 



The two pi?terp-in-]aw. Ang maghipag. 

The betrothed couple; the sweet- A^ig magihigan. Mngihigan, to like 
hearts. each other. ( See next paragraph . ) 

XXX. A root capable of expressing plurality is strictly limited to the 
dual sense by the insertion of ka between mag and the root. Ex.: 

The two friends. Ang magkaibigan. 

The two companions. Ang magkasama. 

XXXI. If plurality is to be indicated with words sometimes used in the 
dual sense, ka is reduplicated. Ex. : 

The friends (several). Ang magkakaibigan. 

The companions (several). Ang magkakasama. 

XXXII. Correlative nouns are expressed with mag prefixed to the root 
of the principal word. (See also Par. XVIII.) Ex.: 

Father and child. Magama. 

Mother and child. Magind. 

Father (or mother) -in-law and son Magbiandn. 

(or daughter) -in-law. 

Master and man. Magpanginoon. 

XXXIII. If the second correlative is expressed, especially by a proper 
noun, jointly with the first, the particle is prefixed to the principal, the 
subordinate taking the genitive case. Ex. : 

John and his father. Magama ni Juan. 

Jose and his father-in-law. Magbianan ni Jose. 

Lola and her mother. Magind ni Loleng. 

XXXIY. J/or/ denotes totality with some roots of time. Ex.: 

The whole night; all night. Magdamag. Ex.: Magdamag akong 

natidog ( I slept all night). Gobi is 
the usual word for night. 

The whole day; all day. Maghapon. 7/i"r;>o?i alone means the 

time from noon until dark. 

XXXV. Mag prefixed to roots conjugated with if m and mag forms verbal 
nouns signifying the agent. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated 
and the article generally used. Ex. : 

Tlie thief. Ang magnandkao. (Already used.) 

The laborer. Ang magsasaka. Magsaka, to work 

in the fields. 

XXXVI. Mag retains pa^ with the definite in certain cases, but with 
these exceptions, which have been pointed out from time to time, the 
definite of mag roots follows the same rule as the definite of um. (See Par. 
II, under pag.) 


I. As true auxiliary verbs are not found in Tagalog, the participle as- 
sumes as many forms as there are tenses, the imperative excepted. By 
prefixing the article of common nouns, a7ig, "the," or a demonstrative 
pronoun to the proper tense of a verb a particle is formed which may be 
translated in several ways, even by a clause in P^nglish. 

Pag and pagka are commonly used in Tagalog where the idea would be 
expressed in English by the indefinite particle, but the best way to obtain 
a clear understanding of the variations to which Tagalog verbal nouns may 
be subjected is to make a close study of the examples following or referred 
to. Ex. : 

To die. Mamatay. Ang pagkamatay, the act 

of dying. 


To fall. Mdhulog. Ang pagkahiilog, the act 

of falling. 
To eat. Kumain. Ang pagkain, the act of 


II. Pag (definite) corresponds to mag (definite) in certain cases. As a 
rule verbs with mag have the same definites as urn, except as noted. When 
pag is prefixed, in is inserted for the present and past tenses, forming 
pinag. Pag only is prefixed for the imperative and future tenses, in being 
suffixed at the same time. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated 
for the present and future tenses. (See the tables. ) 

III. Pag sometimes expresses place in combination with suffixed an, 
where an alone is used to express the person who may be the object of the 
action. (See ha napan and paghanapan, Par. V, the definite. ) 

(b) This rule also applies where the object takes an instead of in. 

To collect; to dun. SumirTgil. Ang sim/ilan, the unpaid 

debt. Ang pag sing Han, the place of 
asking for a debt. Maningil, to 
collect or dun as an occupation or 

IV. The particle pag is also used with the definite when place is directly 
expressed in the sentence, but not when implied or metaphorically (fig- 
uratively). This use of ^^a//, however, is only with those verbal roots which 
admit an for the person or object of the action of the verb, and with other 
verbal roots pag is not used in this sense, even if place be expressed. Ex. : 

To bury; inter. Maghaon. Angpagbaonan, the buri- 

al place. Ex.: Ill') ang pinagbaonan 
nang sundalo (This was the burial 
place of the soldier). 

To endure hardships. Maghirap. Angpaghirapan,thehard- 

ships. Ex. : Ang bayang pinaghi- 
rapan nild (The town in which 
they endured the hardships). 

To place. Maglagay. Ex. : Lagydn mo nang 

tubig itong bangd (Put some water 
in this vase). Wald akong pagla- 
lagydn nitong salam'm (There will 
be no place for me to put this mir- 

To embark or travel. Sumakay. Ang sakaydn or sasakydn, 

boat or vessel of any kind. Ex. : 
Ito'y ang baiigkang pinagsasakydn 
nang marami (This is the canoe in 
which many have embarked). 

{b) See also magpulong, " to assemble, " andmagtayS, "toeiect, set up." 

V. Pag is also combined with i definite, forming ipag, ipinag, as a pre- 
fix, when the person for whom an act is performed is mentioned. (See 
Par. VIII, the definite.) 

VI. W henever the sentence expresses plurality of acts or agents, or of 
feigning or reciprocal actions, pag (and ipag when required) must be used 
with the definite. The article ang being generally used, gives the com- 
pound the idea of a verbal noun in the majority of cases. For examples 
see Par. IX under the definite. 

VII. Pag is retained with the definite of the mag form when roots 
which differ in meaning with um and viag are used. See Par. X, the defi- 
nite for examples. 

VIII. The participle is formed from um verbs or roots by prefixing pa^ 
to the root, the compound preceded by the article or its equivalent. The 


lirst syllable of the root in reduplicated for mag vferbs or roots. See also 
under ma, pa, and pan for other forms of the participle. 

To teach. Umdral. Ang pagaral, the teach- 


To study. Magaral. Ang pagadral, the study- 


To descend; to fasten upon. Humitlog. Ang paghnlog, the de- 

scending; fastening upon. 

To throw or das^h down. Maghulog. Ang paghnhulog, the 

dashing down or throwing down. 

IX. Pag sometimes indicates tlie present tense. Ex.: Pagsabi ko sa 
kaniyct (as soon as I told him). 

X. There is occasionally a tone of menace in its use. Ex.: Paghindl 
siyd piimarito' y hindi ko siyd babayaran (if he does not come here, I shall 
not pay him). "If" is generally understood, the idea being a future 

XI. Pag, with verbal roots of some kinds, indicates action as transpiring. 

Light; clearness. Liwdnag. Ang pagliwdnag, the grow- 

ing light (of the day, etc.). Aiig 
Ihrdnag nang drao, the light of day 
or of the sun. 

XII. For verbal changes, see tables: 


I. The indefinite verbalizing particle ?na is used with roots which do 
not require an object when verbalized, or with those verbs expressing 
involuntary action. J/a changes to na for the past and present 
Tlie syllable of the root is reduplicated for the present and future 
tenses. Ma generally expresses a state or condition of being, but there is 
also a possessive idea of "to have," and hence many roots are made 
•adjectives when prefixed by this particle, as is already familiar to the 

II. Such adjectives in ma must express intrinsic states or conditions, 
and states or conditions which may or can be attained by the voluntary 
effort of an agent can not be expressed with ina. 

III. Actions which require an object when conjugated with other parti- 
cles may be conjugated with ma if they take place unconsciously or by 
chance on the part of the agent. 

IV. The conjugation of roots with ma (na) has naka and maka of the 
pluperfect and future perfect respectively replaced by na and ma. Xa is 
also repeated after the verb in both these tenses. Some roots beginning 
with p soften it to m after ma. (See tables for examples.) 

V. Sga added to ma forms the particles naiTgd and manga used to 
express plurality when prefixed to a verbal root. MaiTgd, as has been 
seen, is the usual indication of pluraUty when used as a separate word 
before nouns, etc. Ex. : 

To be liungry. Magutum. Ex.: Marami nga ang 

nangagiUum (many were hungry). 
Marami wja ang nawjagugutum 
(many are hungry). Marami iTga 
ang mayTgagagutum (many will be 
hungry). The root is gutum, the 
idea of ])eing hungry. 

VI. Ma is used to express actions of an involuntary nature or b'-yond the 
control of the subject. A few anomalous words also take ma. Ex. : 

To fall. Mahidog. Ang nahulogan, the per- 

son or object on whom anything 



To fall on the face. 
To stumble. 

Toslip; to slide (invol.); (adj.) slip- 
pery; slimy. 

To stick in the throat; to choke. 

To lose one's way. 
To go astray. 

To loose; to miss; to lack. 

To die. 

To be proper or appropriate. 

falls accidentally. Nahulog siyd, 
ho fell. Aug kaJmlogan, the place 
of falling. Ang kcdndogdn, the 
meaning (range of expression). 
Ang kaiahulogan, the place where 
something fell or has fallen. Ang 
kinahuhulogan, the place where 
something is falling. Angkahuhu- 
logan, the place where something 
will fall. (See index for /(»/0^ with 
other particleH. ) 

Madapd. (Already used.) 

Matisod. Ex.: Natisod siijd'lnadapd 
(he stumbled and fell on his face). 
Saan natisod siyu'f (Where did 
he stumble?) lyang batung iydn 
ang kinatisuran niyd (that stone 
was where he stumbled, or over 
which he stumbled. 

Madulds; maridds. Ex. : Falakarin 
mo siydng marahan makd mandds 
(tell him to go slowly lest he slip). 

Mahirin. Ex. : Nahirinan siyd nang 
tinik, (she [he] was choked by a 
fish bone). 

Maligdo. Aug kaligaoan, the place 
of being lost. 

Malihis. Lumihis, to be away pur- 
posely. PaliJiis daan, to go out of 
the road for any reason. 

Maic<dd. Nmcaldn ako iiang lakdn (I 
lost [or lacked] the strength). 
Nawaldn siyd nang luoh (he lost 
heart [or the spirit]). Magwald, 
to get rid of; to flee; to put out of 
sight; to conceal anything. 

Mamatay. Ang pagkamaiay, the act 
of dying. Ang mamataydn, the 
mourner; the bereaved. (See Par. 
XII, in. ) 

Mahdgay. ( See index for examples. ) 
This verb is rather anomalous. 

VII. (rt) Uncontrollable states are generally conjugated with 7?ia. These 
forms are also adjectives in the majority of cases. (6) Acts which are 
more or less controllable take the particle most suitable to express the 
degree. If uncontrollable, ma is used. Ex. : 

To be angry. 

To be cold; chilly. 

To be terrified. 

To be afraid. 

To be astonished. 
To be hungry. 

Magdlit. (See index.) 

Magindo. Also adj. Maginauin, a 
chilly, cold person. 

Magalangtang. Ang ikagalangtang, 
the cause of being terrified. 

Matdkot. Ex.: JVatatdkot kaf (Are 
you afraid?) MataUikotin, a faint- 
hearted person. (See index. ) 

Magulat. Ex.: Nagulatsiyd? (Was 
he astonished?) 

Magnturn. Magugutumin, a very 
hungry or starved person. (See 



Mahiyu. Mahihiyin, a bashful per- 
son. (See Par. XV, ma.) For 
Jiiyd with other particles, see index. 

Malugod. Lnmngod, to please; to 
recreate. A'a/u^oran, friend; com- 
panion in recreation. 

Malnmbay. Ex.: Tila nalulumbay 
kayo, you seem to be sad. (See 

Matua. Ang katuaan, the person or 
object over whom or which one is 
pleased or amused. (See index.) 

Matnlog. Angtulogun, sleeping place. 
Matulog'm, a great sleeper; also 
mapagti'dog. Ttimidog, to go to 
sleep; to sleep (little used). Mag- 
tulog, to sleep a great deal. (See 

Mauhao. (Already used.) 

Malangis; manangis. (Already used.) 

Mataua. Tnniaua, to laugh, ^fag- 
taua, to laugh (two or three). 
Mangagtaua, to laugh (many). 
Magtaua, to laugh much. Maka- 
taua or niagpataua, to cause to 
laugh. Matauanin, a laughing, 
smiling person. 

VIII. Unconscious or uncontrollable states of the mind are expressed 
with ma. Conscious or controllable states are expressed with um or mag. 

To forget. MaUmot. (Already used.) 

To forget to do. Malisun. Lnmisan, to omit to do (on 


IX. (rt) Ma {na) is used to express accidental or internal acts of a de- 
structive nature, or when reference is made to an actual state of destruc- 
tion. Deliberate acts of destruction take um or mag. 

To be ashamed. 

To be pleased. 

To be sad. 

To be glad; amused. 

To be asleep. 

To be thirsty. 

To cry; to weep (uncontrollably). 

To giggle; to laugh uncontrollably. 

To break up; to split up. 

To break up (from internal causes 
or accidentally). 

To spoil; to become putrid. 

To break (int. or ace). 

To part; to break in two. 

MahaJl. Ex. : Nahali ang tungkod 
(the cane broke). Nabalkin siyd 
nang pad (he dislocated his foot). 
MagbaVi, to break up, to split, as 
wood, cane, etc. Ex. : Baliin mo 
iyang tubu I ako'y baliannang mimti 
(break up that piece of sugar cane 
and break me off a little). 

Mabdsag. Ex. : Nabasag ang vaso 
(the glass was broken). Magba- 
sag, to shatter; break up, as glass, 
crockery, etc. Nagbamg siyd nang 
maraming vaso (he broke many 
glasses [purposely]). 

Mabid'ik. Ex. : Bulok na ang isdd 
(the tish is spoiled now)- (See 
magpa. ) 

Malagot. Ex.: Malalagot itong sinu- 
lid ( this thread will break ) . Nala- 
got ang sinulid (the thread broke). 
Maglagot, to break, as thread; to 
tear up, as vegetables, etc. 

Mapaiid. (Already used.) 



To spoil; to be destroyed. 
To burn up. 
To dry out. 

Masini. (Already used.) 
Masunog. (Already explained.) 
Matuyo. (See index. ) 

(/>) Na following the root with verbs of destruction gives the adjectival 
idea with "already" or "now." Other actual states are also expressed 
with the root and mi if the contex clearly indicates an actual state of being. 
(See under baaag, buluk, sird, patay, tapus, luyu, and yari for examples.) 

X. With verbs expressing situation of posture ma (na) indicates the 
actual state of being in such posture or position, or else the involuntary or 
unconscious taking of such position. Ex. : 

To be lying down; to be in bed. 
To be on the knees; to kneel 

To be lying on the back. 

To be on one's feet. 

To be seated. 

Mall iff d. 




(Already used; see index. ) 
(Already used; see in- 

( Already used; see in- 

(Already used; see in- 

( Already used; see index. ) 

XI. Conditions or states reached by slow transition in most cases or a 
return thereto are expressed by ma (na). 

To be deaf. 

To be stuttering. 

To be insane; crazy. 

Mahingi. Ex. : NahihiiTgi siyd he is 
deaf). (See under magin.) 

Magaril. Ex.: Nagagaril siyd (he ia 
beginning to stutter again ) . Mag- 
garil, to stutter; to stammer. Ga- 
rilin, stuttering; stammering. 

Maulul. Ex.: Naulul siyd (he went 
crazy ) . Nauulid siyd (he is crazy ) . 
Mauulul siyd (he will go crazy). 
Nagidulidulan siyd (he was sham- 
ming insanity). 

Malabo. Also adj. turbid; muddy; 
bleared (eyes); thick (speech). 
Ex. : Nalaboan siyd nang pagiisip 
(his mind became clouded). 

XII. The use of ma is sometimes governed by reason of the rationality 
or irrationality of the agent. Ex.: 

To be upright. Matayu. (Already used; see index. ) 

XIII. Mal-a (naka) is sometimes used in place of ma (na), these parti- 
cles having many analogies. (See maka, Par. XIX.) 

XIV. Other uses of ma have been explained under the adjective, q. v. 

XV. Jl/rt prefixed and in (fiin, nin) suffixed to roots signifying mental 
emotions, passions, and involuntary actions form adjectival nouns, which 
generally require to be exjiressed in English by an adjective and a noun. 

To lose the mind (lit., to become 

A humane person. 
An irascible person. 
A loving person. 
An affectionate person. 

A loving person. 

An obedient person. 

A weeper; a weeping person. 

A smiling person. 

A sleepy person. 

An affectionate person. 

Maaiiain (irom and). (See index.) 
Magalitin (irora. gdlit, wrath; ire). 
Maibigin (from ibig). (See index.) 
Mairogin (from irog, affection; ca- 
Masintahin (from sintd, love). 
Masnnorin (from sunod). 
MataiTgisin (from tam/is). 
Matauanin (from taua). 
MatuJogin (from tdlog). 
Mawilihin (from wili, affection). 



XVI. If the root admits of fontraction, begins with /, or an intensive 
degree is expressed, the first syilaVjle of the root may be reduplicated. 

A bashful i)erson. 
A feverish person. 
A forgetful person. 
A joyful person. 
An infirm, sick person. 
A faint-hearted person. 

Mahild'in (from hiyd). (Root con- 
tracts. ) 

Mdlnlagvnlin (from la(/7iut, fever). 
(L. root.) 

Malilimotin (from Umot, forgetful- 
ness). (L. root.) 

Malulugdin (from lugo<l, joy; pleas- 
ure). (L. root.) 

Mas(isakt'm (from sakit). (Con- 
tracted root. ) 

Malatakotin (from iakol). (Intensive 
degree. ) 


I. From the fact that ma verbs do not generally require an object, there 
is little use for some forms of the definite. Every action, however, may 
have a reason, time, or place, and thus i definite and an definite are to l)e 
found, ma being replaced by ka as a rule, and always with i definite. 

Ka an, as has been seen, forms abstracts and places, as well as standing 

for persons and objects of the action. Ex. : 

To be glad; amused. 

To die. 
To 1)6 afraid. 
To stuml^le. 
To be deaf. 

To be blind. 

To be poor. 

To be ruined (as in Imsiness). 

To be lame. 

To faint away; to swoon. 

To drop off; to drop something ac- 

Matua. Aug kaluaan, the person or 
object over which one is glad, etc. 
A)ig ikutnd, the cause of gladness 
or amusement. Ex. : Katuaan mo 
aiig viamjd hath (amuse yourself 
with the children). Kuiatuaan 
niyd any maiTga butd (she amused 
herself with the children). Kina- 
tuluaan riihi nng mamia hath (they 
are amusing themselves with the 
children). Katutuaan ko ang 
mauga hata (I will amuse myself 
with the children). 

Mamalay. (8ee index.) 

Matakot. (See index.) 

Matisod. (See index.) 

MahliTgi. Aug ikabiiu/i, the cause of 
deafness. KabiiTyihan, deafness. 

Mabulag. Ex.: Nahulagansiydnang 
ydlil (he was blinded by wrath). 
Kahnlagan, blindness. 

Madukhu. Ang ikadiikltd, the cause 
of poverty. KadukJtaan, poverty. 
Dumukhd, to become poor. Ang 
dukhain, the person becoming 
poor thus. (See index.) 

Maliigi. Ang ikaliigi, the cause of 
being ruined. Lumnyi, to decline 
(as from age or natural causes). 

MapUay. Ang ikapihjy, the cause of 
lameness. KapUayun, lameness. 

Mahilo. Ex.: Xahi/u i^i yd {ahe fainted 
away). Nahihilu siyd (she is faint- 
ing away ). Ang kah ilnan, the place. 

Malaglag. Ang kalaglagan, the place 
of dropping. Ang ikalaghig, the 


cause. Maglaglay, to drop some- 
thing purposely. Ang Ua(jl<tg,\\hsit 
dropped. Ang laglagan, the place 
or the person to whom dropped. 
Lumaglag, to drop down pur- 
posely. Ang luglagin, the person 
thus dropping down. 

To be drowned. Mah'mod. .hi^A-o/wnorcni, the drown- 

ing place; hence the we^t, "the 
drowning place of the sun." 

To be tired out. Mapdgod. Ang ikapdgod, the cause. 

Ex.: Ann ang ikinnpapdgod mof 
(Why are you tired out? [Lit., 
" What is the cause of your being 
tired out?"] ). Syn. palcang. The 
word ugod means great weakness, 
and looks as if it were a variation. 

To be included; to be contained. MasalJiio. Aug kasakianan, the \)\&ce 

where contained. Ex. : Aug manga 
utos nang Jiokho' g kinasasaklaiian 
ititong lihrong ito (the orders [reg- 
ulations] of the army are con- 
tained in this book). 

To be finished; also concluded and ^fautds. Var. liitds. Maglutds, to 
extinguished. finish or conclude anything. Mag- 

kaluiaslutds, to finish completely. 
Ang kalutasan, the place. 

II. Ka is omitted with an when the person affected is meant, and not 
the place or deliberate act. See mahirin, mamatay, and mavulA for 

III. Pagka is generally used to form verbal nouns for roots conjugated 
by ma, although jjag may be used with some roots and pagkaka is occasion- 
ally found. Ex.: Ang pagkati'dog or ang pagtidog, the act of sleeping. 
(See tulog.) 


I. This particle, known as the third to Spanish writers on Tagalog, has 
pan for the definite and is one of the most important of the modifying 
verbal particles. It admits //;, /, and an with the definite. 

II. The great attention paid by Tagalog to euphony or smoothness in 
sounds is well illustrated by the changes demanded of the initial letter of 
a root when man (pa))) is prefixed. This grammatical peculiarity is found 
most fully developed in western languages, in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, in 
which it is known as "ellipsis." English has this tendency to a slight 
degree, as shown by a, an, according to a following vowel or consonant 

III. When preceded by man the following changes take place in initial 
latters of roots, the final n of the particle being either dropped or modified. 

B and P to M. 

K (and hard Cor Q) to Ng. 

S, T, and i> ^generally) to K 

M, N, and Xg cause final n to drop out. 

A, I, 0, U inod'iiy n to )Tfj. 

IV. Man has nan for the present and past tenses, the first syllable of the 
root being reduplicated for the present and future tenses. There is a I and 
a II pluperfect tense, the former adding na to the past tense and the 
latter prefixing naka to the root. The future perfect has also two forms, 
the first formed by adding na. to the future tense, and the second by prefix- 
ing maka to the root. The present particijile (verbal infinitive) is formed 



by prefixing pan to the root, the first syllable of which is reduplicated. 
The use of the definite particles in, i, and an follows the general rule. 

To ridicule; mock; scoff; hoax; abuse, 

Manlibak. Aug llbakin, what or 
whom ridiculed, abused, etc. Aug 
libakxm; also ao)g mapagllbak, the 
scoffer, hoaxer, mocker, etc. For 
indef. with man see tables. Ex. : 
Baku ka nanlilibak sa kaibigan mof 
(Why are you ridiculing your 
friend?) Syns. Uroy; uyam,uyao, 
and tlyan. 

Mamigay (from bigay). For definite 
with i see index, also the tables. 

Mamil'i ( from bil'i). For definite with 
in see tables. 

Mandiri. For definite with han see 

V. Man is used to express plurality of acts rather than of persons with 
those roots which denote the simple action with um or mag. With some 
roots of colors man denotes intensity, and with some other roots indicates 
continuousness. It is essential for these ideas that the meaning shall not 
be changed by man from what it is with uvi or mag. 

Ex. (B roots): 

To give much; to lavish. 

To buy much. 

To be nauseated or disgusted. 

To divide up among others. 

To habituate; to accustom. 

To pull up continually or continu- 

Ex. (Droot): 
To pray constantly. 

Ex. (G roots): 
To imitate much or habitually. 

To mix habitually (as a druggist). 

3Iamahagi {from bahagi). Ex.: Ano 
kai/a ang ipinamamahagi mof 
(What are you dividing up?) Ang 
ipinamamahagi ko^y naaalaman 
nang maiTgd piiiamama haginan ko 
(What I am dividing up is known 
to those for whom I am dividing). 

Mamihasa (from bihasa). Ex.: 
Houag kang mamihasang mamintds 
sa ma)7gd kapidbdhay mo (Do not 
accustom yourself to complaining 
about your neighbors). 

Mamunot (from bunot). Bumunot, to 
pull up. Magbunot, to pull up 

Manaldngin (from daldngin). 

See in- 

To clear off (as land). 

Mangagad. Gumagad, to imitate. 
Maggagad, to imitate (many). 

Mangamao. Ang pangamauin, what 
so mixed. Ang ipangamdo, what 
used to mix with thus. Ang pan- 
gamaudn, the place of habitual 
mixing. Gunianido, to mix. Ang 
gamanin, what mixed. Ang ig- 
amdo, what added or the instru- 
ment used to mix with. Ang 
gamauan, the place; the mortar; 
dish, etc. Maggamdo, to mix 
much. Ang paggamauin, what 
mixed much. Aiig ipaggamdo, the 
instrument thus. Ang pagga- 
maudn, the place of much mixing. 

Gumamas. Ang gamasin, what 
cleared off. Ang gamasan, the 



To reap; to cut rice. 

To quarrel with; to reprimand 

To cut down underbrush; to clear 
off land; also to speak freely. 

To thresh (by many). 

Ex. (H roots): 

To scout. 

To sow much rice; or by many. 
To wash one's face (habitually). 
To predict habitually. 

Ex. (I roots): 

To like (many); also to flirt. 
To avoid entirely. 

Ex. (K roots): 

To devour; to eat continually. 
To take habitually. 
To cling to with hands and feet (as 
a monkey does). 

To nibble much; to bite with the 

front teeth . 
To tremble much or frequently with 

cold or fear. 
To break off (as flowers or fruit) as 

an occupation. 

Ex. (P roots): 

To pluck or break off much; or by 

land cleared off. Maggamds, to 
clear off (l)y many). Mangamas, 
to clear off much. Ang panga- 
masan, the land thus cleared. 

Gumapas. A ng gapasin, what reaped. 
Ang gapasan, the field. Aug gin- 
apasan, the stubble left. Magga- 
pds, to cut or reap much. Maii- 
gapas, to cut or reap (many). 
Ang pangapas, the sickle. Ang 
mangagapas, the reaper, harvester 

(rnmasci. Ang gasaan, the person so 
quarreled with or reprimanded. 
Maggasd, to quarrel with nrnch, or 
to reprimand much or many. 
Mangasd, to quarrel with or to 
reprimand habitually. 

Gumasak. Ang gasakin, what clear- 
ed, i. e., the underbrush. Ang 
gasakan, the place. Ang gasakin 
is also the person spoken to freely. 
Mangasak, same actions as fore- 
going by many. 

Mangiik. (See index: giik.) 

Manhdnap. (See index: hdnap.) 
Manhasik. (See index: hasik.) 
Manhilamos. (See index: hilamos.) 
Manhuld. Ang manhuhuld, the 
prophet; soothsayer. Humuld, to 
predict; foretell. Ang hnlain, 
what foretold. Ang hulaan, the 
person to whom told. 


(See ibig.) 
(See Hag.) 

Mangain. (See kain.) 

Ma iTguh a. {i^ee kidut.) 

Mangnydpit (from kuydpit). Ang 
paiTguyap'dan, what clung to, i. e., 
tree, etc. Kumdydpit, to grasp 
thus. Ang ikuydpit, what with, 
i. e., the hands, feet, etc. No old- 
world monkeys have a tail which 
can be used for grasping, the Phil- 
ippine Islands species included. 

MatHjibit (from kibit). Kumibit, to 

Manginyig (from kinyig). See index. 

Mangitil (from kitil). KumiiU, the 
simple action. MagkitU, to break 
off thus much. Syn. : Puti; and 
see also pdtol. 

Mamitds {irom pitds). See index. 



To break off. (by many); to gather 
habitually (as flowers or fruit). 

To whiten intensely. 
To grow very pale. 

To cut up (as cloth). 

Ex. (S roots): 

To disperse; also to scatter much in 

the air. 
To bite much (as a mosquito). 

To destroy completely. 
To curse habitually. 

Ex. (T roots): 

To peck much (as a bird). 

Mamnii (from jnUi). Punntii, to 
break off. Maf/'puli, to break off 
much. ManujiKjinitl, to break off 
(by many). Syn. : Kilil; and see 
putol. Ang pulihin, what broken 
off. Ang pagputihnn, the branch 
from which much is broken off. 

Mainnti {iromputt). See index. 

Mumutld (from puild). See adjec- 
tive. Pnmutld, to grow pale. 
Putlain, a person who is always 
pale; pallid. Maputld, a person 
who may become pale or pallid. 
Kaputlaan, pallor. Makaputld, to 
cause pallor. 

Mamutol (already used. ) See index. 

Manamhulat (from sambidat). See 

Manigid. Ang sigdin, the person, 
etc., bitten. Ang jxtgsigddn, the 
place. Surnigid, to bite (as one 
mosquito). Masigkl, to be bitten. 
Ex.: Naninigid ang maiTj/a hnnok 
(the mosquitoes are biting hard [in 

Manird (from sird). See index. 

Manumpd (iromsumpd). See index. 

Manuhl (from tuM). See index. 
To tempt habitually. Manukm (from tukso). See index. 

VI. With roots which admit of the idea of making a living by exercis- 
ing the acts denoted by the roots, mem expresses the idea of an occupation, 
trade, or profession. Ex. : 

To preach. 

To care for. 

To practice medicine. 
To milk (as occupation). 

Maw/dral (from dral). Ang maiuj- 
angaral, the preacher, but ang 
inamjadral, the master or teacher 
(of a doctrine, etc. ). Ang ipanga- 
ral, what preached. Ang ipi- 
namjadrai, what is being preached ; 
the subject of the sermon. Ang 
pinaiTi/aiujaraldn, the persona being 
preached to (the congregation) or 
the pulpit. (See index for omL) 

Mamahald, (from bahald). This word 
is from Sansk. bhara, the root of 
the English "to bear," Lat. ferre. 
Kayo bahald, p6 (you take care, 
sir [i. e., pay what you like]). 
Siiio ang naniainaJiald sa bdhagf 
(Who is taking care of the house?) 
Si Juan (.luan). 

Mang(niiot{lvo\\\ gamot). See index. 

Mangatas (from gntas). Ang nanga- 
gntai^, the milkman (or maid). 
Gtuiudaa, to milk (occasionally). 



To cook or do anything habitually 

To live by robbery. 

To sew nipa (for a living) . 

To collect bills (as an occupation) 
To dive (as an occupation). 
To write (as an occupation). 
To spin (as an occupation). 

To sew (as a tailor). 
To go first; to guide. 

YII. Some roots with man have 
exjiressed bv the verbalized root 

To advance, clinging to something. 

Macjarni. (See index; grm/.vl) 
Manhnl'i (from ladi). See index. 
Munauid {horn pi'ndd). Ex.: And 

ang (finacjawd nbujo diydnf (What 

are you doing there?) Kaitii'y va- 

mamduid (we are stitching nipa 

Manimjil (from simjil). See index. 
Manisid (from sisid). See index. 
Manidat (from salat). See index. 
Manulid (from siVld). Aug manu- 

nulid, thespinner. iSinuUd, thread; 

anything spun. Sumidid, to spin 

(simple act). 
M(in(dit (from tahi). See index.- 
MuiTgima (from una). See index. 

the idea of running around doing the act 
going about in a certain manner, etc. 

MaiTgapit (from h'lph). This verb 
would be used if bamboo rail, etc., 
was clung to crossing a bridge, etc. 
Kiimdpit, to cling to; to support; 
to hold up from falling. 
To run around biting (as a vicious Mangagat (from kagat). See index. 

To go about sadly and mournfully. Mangulila (from ulUa, an orphan). 

VIII. Man, with roots denoting animals or birds, expresses their chase; 
with roots meaning fish, etc., their seeking, and with other animal or 
vegetable names, the gathering of what is denoted by the root. The idea 
is generally that of an occupation or habitual engagement in such hunting, 
fishing, gathering, etc. Ex. : 

To gather the rattan called "bil- Mamaging. This is a species of ivy. 

To hunt or catch birds. 

To catch fish; to fish for a living. 
To cut or gather wood. 

To gather tortoise shell. 

To gather nacre or "kapis" 
shells used in windows). 

To gather rattans (oejuco). 

To hunt tortoises. 

To gather " pajos" (a kind of 

To hunt frogs. 

To gather the rattan called 

To gather ])alm leaves. 

Mangibon (from ibon). Ebon is 

"egg" in Pampangan. 
MaiTgv^dd. (See index fsdt:?.) 
Mangdhoy (from kdhoy). KakaJio- 

yan, woodland, (ruftai is "forest; 

timber, etc." 
MaiTgala (from kala). Mangangaln, 

tortoise-shell hunter. Magkala, to 

sell tortoise shell, 
(the Ma)7gapis (from kapls). Magkapls, 

to sell nacre. Aug kapisin, the 

nacre. A7ig kapisan, the place 

used, i. e., the window. 
Mangioay (from vxty). 
Mamagong (from pagong). 
Mamaho. Magpaho, to deal in "pa- 
Muiiudakd (from palakd, frog; syn: 

'pala- Mamalasan. Kapalasanan, place 

where the palasan is found. 
Mamalaapds (from palaspas, "palm 

leaf"). Magpalaspas, to adorn 

with palm leaves. 



To fish for eels. 
To hunt sea turtles. 

To gather or hunt for honey. 

To gather oysters. 
To hunt deer. 

Mainuli'js {irova palos, eel). 

Mamawikan (from pawikan, sea tur- 

Mamulot (from pulot, honey). Man- 
pxdot, to buy honey. Magpulot 
(1) to make honey; (2) to deal in 
honey. Ang pulotin, the honey 
made. Pinulotan, what has been 
made from honey (from pulutdn, 
sweets made of honey). Pulotin 
is also a term of endearment. Ex. 
with an: llouag mo akong pulotan 
( Don' t flatter ( honey ) me ) . Pulot- 
guid, honey and cocoanut milk. 

Manalabd (from talaba). Katalaba- 
han, oyster bed. 

Mangusa (from usa, deer). 

IX. Similarly any instrument, weapon, utensil, or animal which can be 
so used is verbalized with the idea of hunting, fishing for, or catching by 
man. Ex. : 

To hunt with dogs or hounds. 
To hunt with or to use a gun. 

To fish with a hook. 

To fish with a small hook. 

To fish or hunt with a light. 

(from a^o, dog). See 

haril, a shotgun). 
Aug mamamaril, 

To use or hunt with a spear called 

To fish with the hook. 

To fish with a seine. 

To fish with anything that may be 

used to catch fish. 
To seine M-ith the large net called 

To seine with the net called "piikot." 
To fish with rod, line, and hook. 


Mamaril (from 
Malay, bad'il. 
the hunter. 

Maminuit (from binidt). See index. 

J/omm'«s ( f rom biwas). This means 
to use a rod and line. Bumiwas, 
to lift the hook by the line. Mag- 
biwas, to do this much. Ako'y 
mamimm-as (I am going fishing 
with a rod and Une). 

IfaiTijdao (from dao, a light). Ex.: 
MniTgiiTjplao ka baga f (Are you 
going fishing with a light?) 06 
(Yes). Al'ing bukid ang pinang- 
ingUauan mof (In wliich field 
are you going to fish with a light?) 
lyang bukid igang malayo sa manga 
hdhag (In that field over there far 
away from the houses). VmHao, 
to light up. Magdao, to carry a 
light. Ayig ilauan, the lamp or 
place of light. 


Manlambang (from lambang, a 

Manlambat. See index: lambal. 
Mumalakaya (from palakaya). Pu- 

malakaya, to fish occasionally. 


Maniit (from s'dt, a thorn or hook). 

Magsiil, to make anything out of 

thorns or liooks; to make abbatis. 

Syn., tiriik. Tinik also means fish 




X. With roots denoting arms, tools, or instruments man indicates the 
habitual use or wearing of the arms and the constant use of tools or instru- 
ments. Ex. : 

Mangiwa (from iwa). See index. 
Mardilik (from lilik, sickle). 
Mamalukol (from palakol, axe). 

Magpalakol, to have an axe. 
Manandata (from sandatn, arm, 

weapon). Magsandala, to bear 

arms. Aug suiidatahan, armed 

forces; levy en masse. 
Manumpit (from siDiipii). 
Manundang (from sundang, knife). 

Magsundang, to carry a knife. 
Mannbak. Magtubak, to wear a war 

bolo. Tumabak, to cut off with a 

war bolo. 

XI. With roots denoting certain places man indicates the living in such 
places, earning the living from the products thereof, or traveling in such 
localitv. Ex. : 

To use a dagger. 
To use a sickle. 
To use an axe. 

To use arms. 

To use a syringe. 
To use a knife. 

To use a "war bolo" (tabak). 

To live (general idea). 

To dwell in a house. 

To live in town. 

To live in the mountains; to wander 
there; to gain a living from the 
products thereof. 

To live in the open country. 
To lead a seafaring life; to 
deep-sea fisher. 

be a 

To live in the timber; to lay the 
timber waste; to wander in the 
woods; to live by wood chopping, 

To travel or live on the bank of a 
river or the seacoast. 

Mamuhay (from buhay). Idea is to 
reside, etc. Magbuhay, to live. 
Bumuhay, to give life to. Buhay, 
alive; living. 

Mamdhay (from bdhay). See in- 
dex. Ex. : Saan kayo nainamayanf 
( Where do you live?) Ang bdhay 
ko, p6, dito sa bayang ito ( My house, 
sir, is here in this town). 

Mamayan ( from bayan). Kababayan, 
fellow-townsman, also country- 
man. Magbayan, (1) to look for 
a town site; (2) to found or build a 
town; (3) to apportion by towns 
and not by inhabitants. Bay an 
also means space between earth 
and sky, day (rare), and weather 
( rare ) . 

Mamundok (from bundok). This 
word may also mean to travel in the 
mountains. Taga bundok, moun- 
taineer; sometimes used insult- 
ingly, as "hayseed," in English. 

Mamukkl (from bukid, "field"). 

Managat (from dagat, "sea"). Man- 
andgat, sailor or deep-sea fisher. 
Also taga ragat; tauong dumdgat. 
Magddgat, to travel by sea. Du- 
mdgat, to flood the land. 

Mangnbat {irom gubat, "tunber; for- 
est"). Ang ipangubat, yvha.t car- 
ried in the timber; or the cause of 
wandering, etc. Ang pangxdjatan, 
the place of working, devastating, 
wandering, etc., in the forest. 
Gumubat, to become a forest. 
Gubatan, timber land or forested 

Manlambay (from lambay). Mag- 
lambay, to carry anything to coast 


or bank. Luniamhay, to go to or 
along the bank or coast (single 

XIJ . With roots denoting certain articles of wearing apparel man indi- 
cates their habitual use or wearing. Ex. : 

To wear a shirt habitually. Mamuro (from baro). See index. 

See also sambalilo, hat; sap'in, 
shoe; and tajyis, apron. 

XIII. With roots denoting vehicles, boats, or other means of artificial 
locomotion, man signifies to travel by what is denoted by the root. Ex.: 

To travel by canoe. Mamangkd. Ex.; Hang arao bang- 

Team mula dito haiigan Mayn'ddf 
( How many days by banka [canoe] 
from here to Manila?) Maghajwn 
kayang bangkain (Perhaps all of 
one day by banka). 

To travel on horseback. Maiigabago (from cabayu, " horse"). 

To travel by ' ' quilez. ' ' MangUes (from kiles, a vehicle named 

from Guillermo Quilez, of Vigan, 
Ilocos Sur, who suggested it to his 
carriage maker, a native of Yigan). 

XIV. Man also denotes self-sui^porting and slowly developing actions 
from within such as the growth of flowers, fruit, etc. Many roots com- 
mencing with b, which would otherwise be conjugated with uin, take man 
for euphonic reasons. (See nm, Par. VII.) Ex.: 

To sprout; to put forth shoots (as Manlabong (from labong). Also 
the bamboo). luriiabong. Maglabong, to have 


To open (as a flower). Mamukadkad (from bukadkad). Vis- 

ayan, bukad. 

To bloom; to blossom (as a flower). Mamuluklak (from bulaklak, flower). 

Visayan, burak; also applied to 
the ilangilang. Ex. : Namumidak- 
lak ang manga halaman (the plants 
are blooming). 

To bear fruit. Mamitmja {horn bunga, irait). Ex.: 

NamumwTga na ang manga kcthoy 
(the trees are already bearing 

To bear fruit; to be full of fruit. Mamumksak {irom busaksak). Ex.: 

Namtunusaksak ifong punonglukban 
(this lukban tree is full of fruit). 

XY. Some roots have differing meanings with um, mag, and man. In 
some cases the variation is great, but in others little or none. Maii, how- 
ever, looks to the effect or result more than to the simple action, which is 
expressed by um or mag. The examples will best show these differences 
and resemblances. Ex. : 

Words differing in each case: 

To teach. Umdral. Magdral, to study. MangA- 

ral, to preach. (See index: dral; 
also talo and sahunin.) 

Words agreeing with um (if used) and man; but differing with mag: 

To intrude or steal in. Dumikit; manikit. Magdikit, to fas- 

ten; to paste together. 

To throw a lasso or rope. Snmild. Manilo, to lasso; to rope; 

to ensnare. Magsilo, to make a 
lasso or snare. 



To drag along; to arrest. 

To shake (as a tree to get the fruit). 

Words agreeing with ton and man, mag being Httle used: 

To a(hnire; to *vonder at. Gumilalas; mang'dalas. Ex.: Ahing 

pinangigilalasan ang kunkUan nang 
mamjd bituin sa latTijit (I admire 
[my admiration is] the beauty of 
the stars in the sky). 
Jlumik't; manhilu. (See index: hila.) 
Lumoglog; mavloglog. (See also in- 
dex for libak, idea of ridicuhng, 

Words differing witli um and man, mag being httle used: 

To afflict. Dumaig (from daig). Manaig, to 

overcome; to surpass; to vanquish. 

To kill. Pumatay. Mamatay, to die. (See 

index: patay.) 

XVI. Some few words which do not admit of frequency have the simple 
idea with man. Others are generally used with the particle in a seemingly 
arl)itrary manner. Ex. : 

To bear a child. MaiTganak 

To die. Mamatay. 

The following are arbitrary: 

To allow light to pass (as glass or 

anything transparent). 
To feel nauseated. 
To have; to possess. 
To originate from; to come from; to 

descend from : to arise. 

To look at wrathfuUv, 

To lind fault with; to complain of. 

Manganinag. Maaninag, transpar- 
ent (from aninog). 

Mandiri (from diri). 

Mandoo)! (iromdoon). (See index). 

Mangdling. Ang pinangalingan, the 
place or source of rising; origin; 
etc. Ang galing na drao, the sun- 
rise. Galing is the idea of doing 
good. (See index.) 

Manlisik. Ex.: Naydilldk ang matd 
nang poot narilat (fixing the eyes 
wide with anger). 

Mamintds {trom pintdf:). Ex.: IJindi 
mo hagd alam na mahdlay ang pam- 
imintds sa ibdf (Don't you know 
the dishonesty of complaining 
about others?) Ang pintasin; ang 
pintasdn; ang mapamintds, the 
critic; thefault-finder; complainer. 
Ang pamintasdn. ^/vh.o or what found 
fault with. Ang pagpintasdn, who 
or what found much fault with. 
(See also index: iilawa, to confide 

XVII. Although pan, the definite corresponding to man, generally has 
a verbal meaning, there are several instances in which pan, prefixed to a 
root, signifies an instrument, utensil, or article. These roots then admit, 
although they do not always require, the euphonic changes, as have 
already been explained in Par. III. Ex. : 

The razor. 
The auger. 
The mop. 

AngpangdMt ( from nunTguhit). ( See 

index: dhit.) 
Ang pamutas (from butas). Magbu- 

tas, to bore; to make a hole in. 
Ang panguskus (from kuskits). Ku- 

mtiskus, to mop up. 





The sickle. 

The 8pa(le. 

The Ijrush, ruler, etc. 

The pocket handkerchief, napkin, 

towel, etc. 
The hammer. 

The pen, pencil, etc. 

The string, cord, rope, etc. 

A)ig pangapas (from gnpns). (See 

index : gapas. ) 
Ang punhukay (fn^in hnkag). (See 

index. ) 
Ang pangi'ilih (from giiliit). Guma- 

Jiit, to line, mark, or paint. 
Ang puinnhiil (iron). pumdhid, to rub; 

to clean). 
Ang paniiikpuk (from piunnkpnk or 

magpnkpuk, to strike). 
Ang piini'ilat (from niani'ilat, to write, 

[fora living] ). (See index: si'ilal. ) 
Ang panull (from tali). Magtall, to 

tie, fasten, bind. 

XVIII. With names of the days and nouns like "arao" (day) pan 
denotes something used daily or on the day named. Ex. : 

Something for daily use. Ang pangaraodrao. (Noun redupli- 

cated. ) 
Something for use on Mondays. Ang panh'ines. 

XIX. In like manner, man, with the reduplicated initial syllable of the 
root, indicates the habitual agent with those roots capable of denoting 
occupation, trade, or profession. It n)ay also be used with some other 
roots. In some cases the particles are repeated with occasional euphonic 
changes. Ex. : 

The following have a simple reduplication: 


Hunter (with gun). 






plumber, etc. 


Manadh'd (from dhit), usually Muwj- 
aiTgdhit in Manila. 

Mamamaril (from baril). 

Manandgat (from ddgat). 

Mangagamot (from r/amot). 

Mangaga]}as (from gapas). 

Manliahabi (from liabi). Iluinabi, to 

ManliUi hiang ( from h inang). Hum'i- 
nang, to solder. 

Manlalagarl (homlugari). (See in- 

Manunulat (from sulut). 

Manundlid (from sulid). 

Mananaht (from talit). 

Mananalo (from talu). 

Mununubus (from tnbdi^). Tumubos^, 
to rescue, to redeeni (simple act). 

Ma)iunusksu (from ^ 

Writer; clerk. 


Tailor; seamstress. 

Winner; conqueror. 

Rescuer; redeemer. 


In the following examples the root as conjugated with man has the ini- 
tial syllable of the new word inserted between the nia and the iTg of the 
particle. Ex. : 

Mam/aiTgdral (from matTlidral, to 
Preacher. preach). 

Hunter with dogs or hounds. MaiTijuiTgaso (from matigaso, to hunt 

with dogs). 
Fisherman. MamjliTijii^dd (from mangisdd, to fish. 

for a living). 

XX. With weights, measures, and similar nouns, man prefixed signifies 
"to each," or "apiece," amounts as may be denoted by the noun. (See 
under the numerals. ) 

XXI. With many roots man signifies a resemblance to what may be 
denoted by the root, which is redui)licated. Ex.: 


Hurricane; typhoon. Bagyu. Ex.: Manbagyobagyo ilong 

hangia (This wind seems Uke a 
typhoon) . NagUilnyag slk'i'y bina- 
gyo sila sa dagat (They were coast- 
ing and were caught at sea by a 

Anger. Gdlit. Ex. : MangalitgdlU yaong 

pangungusap (That way of talk- 
ing resembles anger). 


I. This particle {naka in the past and present) has two distinct mean- 
ings, the first being that of cause and the second that of power, ability, etc. 
For this reason there are two definites, that corresponding to the idea of 
cause being ka, and that to the idea of power being ma (na). 

In both cases the true pluperfect and future ])erfect tenses are formed by 
na following the verb as existing in the past and future tenses, respectively. 

The idea of cause is indicated by )iiaka with roots denoting conditions, 
torts (wrongs), and betterments, which have only one definite; that with 
i, which has in with the past and present tenses, forming ika, ikina. Ika 
and ikina also indicate time (not tense) in certain cases. (See index.) 

II. The difference in syntax between maka verbs in the sense of 
cause and all others must be noted. In the definite these verbs have the 
agent in the nominative and the recipient or o])ject of the action in the 
genitive. In the indefinite the agent is in the usual nominative also, but the 
recipient or object takes the accusative, which is invaria})ly preceded by s« 
(never by nun;/). This use of sa is also found with some other verbs. 

III. Mag and man roots retain the definite forms pag and pan when con- 
jugated with niaka, as will be seen from examples. 

To be able to learn or study. Makapagaral. Ex. : Nakapagdral ako 

(I was able to study). Nukapa- 
gadral siyd (He [she] is able to 
study). Makapagadral sild (They 
will be able to study). Hindi ako 
makapagadral (I shall not be able 
to study). Napagdral ko ung idral 
(I was able to learn the lesson). 
Napagadral niyd ang idral (He 
[she] is able to learn the lesson). 
Mapagadral nild ang idral (They 
will be able to learn the lesson). 

To be able to teach. Makadral. Ex.: Nakadral ako (I 

was able to teach). The other 
tenses, both of the indefinite and 
the definite are formed in the 
same way. 

To be able to preach. Makapa)Tgdral. Nakaparu/dral ako 

(I "was able to preach). Naka- 
paiTgaiTgdral siyd (He is able to 
preach). MakapangaiTgdral siyd 
(He will be able to preach). The 
definite is formed in the same way 
as with jmgdral. . 

IV. Roots verbalized by maka reduplicate the first syllable of the root in 
the present and future tenses. In some districts the second syllable of the 
particle is reduplicated, but this is a provincialism. Ex. : 

To cause damage. MakapaiTganyayd (from unyaycL and 

pan). See index. 
To cause anguish. Makaballsa. 



To cause satiety. 

To beautify or adorn. 

To cause disgust. 

To do good. 

To hinder. 

To adorn; to embellish. 

To cause relief. 

To cause sadness. 

To hinder. 

To cause another to tremble with 

To cause to tremble with cold or 

To cause (jr do evil. 

To cause disgust; weariness; annoy- 

To dazzle (as the sua or lightning). 

To cause anxiety. 

To cause nausea. 

To wound (lit., to cause to be 

To cause to be set afire. 

To cause loathing (as food). 

To cause fear. 

To cause laughter. 

To cause pleasure. 

Makabutiog. Busog is a bow 

MdkabiUi. Burmdi, to grow hand- 
some. (See huti in index.) 

3fakadimarim or makurimdrim. 
Mandbnarim, to disgust. Ex. : 
Nandimdrim aku sa pagkain niyd. 
(His manner of eating disgusted 

Makafjaling. (.See index: galing.) 


Makagandd. Ex.: Ang kahinhina'y 
nakagagandd sa maiTga dalaga 
(Modesty is a beauty in girls). 
(Def. ): Ang kalimhinun aij i^igang 
ikinagagandd nang maiTj/n dalaga. 

Makaginhdua. Ex. : Makaginhdiia sa 
inj/o ang gamot (Let the medicine 
relieve you ) . NakaginJidua sa akin 
ang gamot (I was relieved by the 
medicine). Nakagiginhdua sa ka- 
niyd ang gamot (He is being re- 
lieved by the medicine). Makagi- 
ginhdua sa inyo ang gamot (You 
will l)e relieved by the medicine). 
Ang pagkagbihdua,i\iereVwi (act). 

Makahdpis. (See index: hd/il.^.) 

Makalibang. (See index: libang.) 

Makapangildbot (from kildbot and 
pan). Kakilakildbot, horrible. 

Makapanginijig. (See index: kinyig). 

Makasamd. Makasasamd, noxious; 
malignant. Also future tense. 
Ex.: Houag mong kavjn Hong 
buiTgiV t makasasamd sa iyo (Don't 
eat this fruit, because it will in- 
jure you [be noxious to you, in- 
def. ]). Ang ikinasasamd nang 
dking loob ay ang kaniyang pag- 
mumurang walang ligil ( What puts 
me in bad humor is his everlasting 
slanderinsf [lit., Tlie cause of my 
bad humor is his slandering with- 
out cessation, def. J ). Sumamd, to 
become bad or evil. (See index: 
samd. ) 


Makasilao. ( Syn : pidag. ) 



Makasdgat. (See index: siigat.) 

Makasunog. (See index: sunog.) 
Makasuyd. (Syn. smtok.) 
Makatdkot. (See index: tdkot.) 
Makatana. {See tana: index.) 
Makatuu. (See index: iud.) 



V. The indefinite forms will be clearly seen by the conjugation of 
VKikai/inhnua in the i)rece(ling paragraph, there being no irregularities 
and there is but one definite with Act, forming ilea as a prefix to the root 
for the infinitive and future and ikina for the past and present tenses, in 
being inc()rporated in the latter cases. For the conjugation of this definite 
see liapis in index. 

VI. Prefixed to roots denoting actions maka signifies power or ability to 
perform what may be denoted by the root. Roots which are conjugated 
in the simple idea by mag or man retain pag or pan before the root in all 

VII. Ma is the corresponding definite to maka potential, and when used 
with the idea of attraction toward, etc., suppresses in completely. Ma 
becomes na for the past, pluperfect, and present tenses. Pag and pan are 
retained with those roots requiring it to preserve the meaning, as explained 
in the preceding paragraph. The definites with i and an also exist. The 
particle i is inserted between the particle n/o (na) and the root, contrary to 
its use with ka, where it is prefixed to the latter particle. Ex.: 

To be able to go away. 
To be able to teach. 

To be able to do or make. 
To be able to take. 

To be able to go or come out. 
To be able to walk; march; etc. 

To be able to write. 

Makaal'is. Makapagalis, to be able 
to take away. 

Makadral. Makapagdral, to be able 
to learn or study. Ex. : Napagd- 
ral ko ang idral ( I was able to learn 
the lesson). Napugdral na ko ang 
idral (I had been able to learn the 
lesson). Napagadral ko ang idral 
(I am able to learn the lesson). 
Mapagadral ko ang idral (I shall 
be able to learn the lesson). (See 
dral in index. ) To be able to 
preach, makapangdral. 

Makagawd. (See index: gawd.) 

Makakuha. With idea of attraction 
toward, in is suppressed. Ex. : 
Nakuha ko iijang huiuja (I was able 
to take that fruit) . Nakukuha niyd 
iyang huiTga. (He [she] is able to 
take that fruit). Makukuha ko 
iyang bwTj/a ( I shall be able to take 
thatfruit). (See also index: kiUia.) 

Makalahds. Makapaglabds, to beable 
to take out. (See index: lahds. ) 

Makaldkad. (See index: /('/Ayu/. ) Ex. 
with maka. (indef. ) : Nakaldkad ako 
(I was able to walk). Nakalaldkad 
siyd (He is able to walk). Maka- 
lalakad sild (They will be able to 

Makusidat. With i inserted between 
ma (na) and root with definite. 
Ex.: A\dsulat ko itong panulat (I 
was able to write with this pen). 
Naisusulat ko Hong panulat (I am 
able to write [can write] with this 
pen). Maisusulat ko Hong panulat 
(I will be able to write with this 
pen). Bukas maisusulat ang si'dal 
na ipadadald mo sa iyong anui sa 
Mayndd, (To-morrow I will beable 
to write the letter which you will 



To be able to run away. 

have to send to your father in 
Manila). Aalis ako nang maisnlat 
na viya anr/ inintos ko .sa kanii/d 
(I will go when he writes down the 
orders I have given him). (8ee 
index: sulat. ) 
Makatakho. (See index: takb'i). 

Wl\. With negative particles the imperative is largely used instead of 
the present tense, although the meaning is the same as that of the latter, 
i. e., hiiidt akong tnakasi'dui, I cannot write; 1 am not able to write; instead 
of ]tini:li ukong iiakasusi'dat. The definite is sometimes used in the same 
way with the negative, and even with the afhrmative. Examples: Hhtdi 
akong makapagdral (I can not [am not able to] study [or learn] ). Hindi mo 
madampotf (Can' t you pick it up [grasp it] ?) Hindi ko malpahdjiag ( from 
hayag, ma, i, andj^a) (I cannot reveal it [make it public]). Hindi ako 
makaluds sa 3faynllcVt aku'y may saklt (I can notgo down to Manila, because 
I am ill). With um this may be expressed hlndi ako mangyarlng Inmndssa 
MaynilaH ako may sakit. Hindi kayo makajmiTijusapf (Can't you talk?) 
Hindi ko matclkd, (I can not pronounce it). Hindi ko masaysay (I can not 
explain it). Hindi ko masahi (J can not tell it). 

IX. Maka (lutka) with the indefinite and ma (na) with the definite sig- 
nify to do what is denoted by the root mechanically, casually, involun- 
tarily, or suddenly (occasionally), especially acts of the mind and physical 
senses. Ex. : 

To smell. 

To feel. 

To hear. 

To taste. 
To see. 

Acts of the mind: 
To know (something). 

To think. 

To comprehend somewhat; to feel; 

to untlerstand. 
To understand (naturally). 

Makaamoy. Nakaaamoy kayof (Do 
you smell anything?) Naaamoy 
ninyo bagd ang hamjonglslnusambu- 
lat nang mangd bulnklakf (Do you 
smell the fragrance shed by the 

Ilakaranidani, from damdam. Na- 
ramdamdn nio.^ (Did you feel it?) 
On, nadaramdamdn ko jxi (Yes, 1 
feel it yet). 

MakarliTijlg (from dhigig). See in- 
dex: dliTgig. 

Makalasap. (See index: lasap.) 

Makakltd. Ex.: Ako'ynakakitd nang 
imng tauong diydn (I saw a person 
there). Naklld bagd slldf (Did 
you see them?) Hindi m/unl'trna- 
kiklid ko sana (No, but I may be 
able to see [them]). 

Makadlam. Walang nakaadlam (No 
one knows). Hindi ko naaalaman 
(I do not know it. ) 

Makalslp. Hindi ma'islp, incompre- 
hensible. Ex. : And ang isip mo 
or A^aiislp mo or Nailslpan inof 
(What do you think about it?) 
Kalslpan, opinion. Ang pagkaisip, 
the act of thinking. 


Makatalaslds. Ex.: Natatalasids 
ninyd bagd? (Do you underetand 
it? ) Walang nak at at a la fit da ( No one 
understands). Titmalastds, to un- 
derstand (by an act of volition). 



To remember (casually, etc. )• 
To forget. 


To like (naturally). 

To ascend or go up (cas. ). 

To enter (casually). 
To fall asleep. 

Malualmda. (See index: uluulu.) 
Makolimot. (See index: limot.) 

MakaiJjig. (See index: ibi;/.) 
Makapanltik. Ex.: N(i])an}iikan ko 
cmg baltay nang kaihii/aii -ixithi. (I 
went up by chance into the house 
of our friend). 
Makapu^ok. (See index: pnsok.) 
Makaiulog. Ex.: Jlmujuinxa akny 
riakati'ilog ako (I was reading 
and fell asleep). Ang ikatulog, 
the cause or time of sleeping. 
Ang ipagti'dog, the cause or time 
of sleeping a great deal. 

X. Ma (na) is used in connection with an (sometimes in) to express 
being overtaken by wind, weather, night, etc., and also to express the 
casual advent of a season, date, etc. 

Some phrases of this nature are used with in only. 

The definite onlv is found. 

To be caught out in the sun. 
To be overtaken \)y night. 

Mai'irao. (See index: urao and init 

for exs. ) 
Magah'i. Ex.: Gagabihin ka sa daan 

(You will be overtaken by night 

on the road). 
Mauh'in. (See index: uh'm.) 
Mabulag. (See index: bulag.) 
Mainlt. Ex.: KaUnitan aku (I am 

warm). Unnnit, to become hot. 

Maginit, to heat. Magpainit, to 

allow to become hot. 
Malabo. (See index: labo.) 
Majulio. Ex.: Kam?y najidiohaa sa 

Tarlac (July found us in Tarlac). 

(Any month may be used in this 

Mapascua; mapasko. Ex. : Napas- 

kuhan ako sa MaynUd (Easter 

found me in Manila). 

XL Maka also signifies the possible accomplishment of a purpose with 
the indefinite; 7/»/ being used with the definite. (Naka; na.) The accom- 
plishment of the end sought is always expressed in the past tense. 

To be caught in the rain. 
To be blinded. 
To be hot (warm). 

To be clouded; turbid. 
To be overtaken bv Julv. 

To be found at Easter. 

To be able to lift. 

To be able to overtake by running. 

To be able to find. 

To get by asking. 

To be able to catch fish. 

To be able to i)ass an examination. 

Makahuhat. Makabubuhal, liftable. 
Ex. : Bubuhatin ko itong bayong 
kuvg viabt'that (I will lift this sack 
if it be liftable). 
MakaJiabol. JJtuiidbol, to run alter 
another in order to overtake him 
(her). Ex.: Hinubol ko siyd'y 
hindi, nahdbol{l ran after him [her] 
but could not overtake him [her] ) . 
Makahdnap. {See'hdnap: index.) 
MakahbTgi. (See hl)~gi: index.) _ 
Makapanglsdd. Ex.: Ako'y niang- 
iniijisda kung makapangisdd ( I am 
going to fish if it is possible to 
catch any fish). 
Makasulit. Ex.: Sinulit siyd nang 
siiperintendenle ay {hindi) nakasi'dil 


(He was examined by the superin- 
tendent and ]iassed [did not pass] ) . 
MakasuKulif. kdijnl (Will you be 
able to pas8?) Snmnlit, to examine; 
to give an account of. 
To l)e able to hit with arrows. Mal:apaua. PHmc/nd, to shoot at with 

bow and arrow. Ex. : Pungmand 
siyil sa mawja ihon, in/ioii't hindt 
nakapana siiji't ( I le shot at tlie birds 
with bow and arrow, but was not 
able to hit them). 

XII. Makn, correctly used, expresses physical power or ability as a 
general rule, snkat and iiiangi/ari being used to express moral ]jower or 
ability. By the uneducated, these words are used almost indiscriminately. 
(See sdka and mangi/ari: index.) 

XIII. Maka is also used to verbalize kaya; "perhaps, may be," etc., 
which is conjugated as in the following examples: 

Dili ko makaydnang dalh'in (I do not know if I will be able to carry it). 
Dili ako makakayd ibigay Ho sa kaniyd (I do not know if I will be able to 
give this to him). Wald akong ikakuyd (I have no way to do it). Maka- 
kayd ka bagd bumili nituf (Will you be able then to buy this?) Di ko 
makayanang labanan kayo (I am not al)le to fight against you [plural]). 
linnmin ko, kun makayanan ko (I will drink it, if 1 can). 

Bagd, "perhaps, by chance," etc., has a stronger meaning than kayd. 

XIV. Maka (ma) is sometimes used in reluctantly admitting afact or in 
avoiding too direct an injury to the feelings of another. Ex.: (Indef. ) 
Nakapagnakao siyd (he may have stolen); (Def. ) napagnakao niyd ito (he 
may have stolen this). 

XV. 3faka is also used colloquially in conversation as follows: Makata- 
nong kayd.^ (Is there anything more to be asked about it?) Makakitd 
bagdf (Is there anything more to be seen?) 

A more usual form is made with lalo, "more," and the root with ///, 
viz: Lumalo sa tono)7^iH.^( Is there anything more to ask aboutit?) Luiiuilo 
sa kitain/ (Is there anything more to be seen?) 

XVI. Maka forms certain adjectives in Tagalog, which have the inher- 
ent idea of potentiality. These adjectives, which in English are generally 
formed by the suffixes able and ible or hy ful, have three distinct forms in 

XVII. (a) Roots expressing qualities which maybe felt by the mind 
are made adjectives by prefixing ka, the casual definite of maka, to the 
root, which is reduplicated to the second syllable. Ex.: Kaayaaya {aya) 
"delightful"; kaginliaginhdua (ginhdua), "wholesome; salubrious;" kaibi- 
gibig (ibig), "amiable;" kakilakildbot (kildbvt), "horrible;" katakoUdkot 
(tdkot) "fearful; dreadful." 

(6) Adjectives of similar meaning are also formed by maka with the 
future indefinite. Ex. : 

Makahililyd {hiyd), "bashful;" makamamatay {matay), "mortal" (death- 
causing); makasisird (sird), "destructive;" makatataitd (tana), "laugha- 
ble;" riiakatulud (titd), "pleasant, agreeable." 

(r) When the roots may express aptitude or inaptitude or facility or dif- 
ficulty in doing anything; if affirmative the adjective is formed with the 
future definite of the potential particle nut, and if negative with the impera- 
tive ma (without reduplication of the first syllable of the root), which is 
generally preceded by the negative particle di, "not." Ex. : 
Makakain, "edible;" di mukain, "unedible, uneatable;" magagawd, 
"practicable;" dl magaicd, "impracticable;" inaiinum, "potable, drinka- 
ble;" dimainum, "undrinkable;" makikitd, "visible;" dt makild, "invisi- 
ble;" masasabi, "tellable;" dimasabi, "untellable, unspeakable;" man- 
gyayari, "possible;" dl mang;/ari, '^imponi'ihle;" di mabala, "intolerable;" 
dtmakalag, "indissoluble;" dt magamit, di malapitan, "inaccessible;" dt 
mntiis, "insufferable;" di matingkala, "incomprehensible;" dt masalang, 


(d) Adjectives of the classes above described take the "tie" ng when 
united to a following noun or verb if ending in a vowel, l)ut remain 
unchanged if ending in a consonant. The following verbs take the defi- 
nite imperative, which is best translated into English by the infinitive 
with "to." Ex.: Kagakmygnlanc) ama "respected father;" kadnmaUh'i- 
mal tignan, "disgusting to see;" kangaayang pakingdn, " delightful to listen 
to;" madaling gaiv'm, "easy to do or make;" ma?h«agf saiZ/tm, "difficult to 
say;" mahirap kcimtdn, "hard to accomplish." 

XVIII. Maka may be compounded with mag, resulting in rnagniaka, 
denoting the idea of a great or excessive degree of what may be indicated 
by the root, which is generally reduplicated. (See par. 27, mag.) 

Ex. : Magmakaauaaud (niid) " to be able to move to compassion; " magma- 
kagalitgdllt (gdlit), "to be able to njove to anger;" magniamakngaUtgdlit 
ako iyang tado, "that man will be able to anger me;" makagalit, "to 
cause anger;" mugmakahiyd, "to be able to shame greatly " (see par. 27, 
mag ) ; magmakalurnhaylumbay ( iumbay ) , " to be able to move to grief ; ' ' 7iag- 
viakahimbaylumhay ako ang baliid, "the notice was enough to move me to 
grief;" makalumbay, "to cause sadness; to make melancholy;" bdkit vio 
ikinalulumbay ang mami<amang balituf or Ano't wikalulumbay sa iyo ang 
masasamang baliid!' "Why does the bad news sadden you?" 

XIX. Muka (naka) is sometimes used in the place of ma (na) indefinite, 
the two particles having many analogies. Ex.: Nakabukds ang pinld, 
"the door is open;" nakal'tmot s'lyd, "he forgot;" nakatayu siyd, "he is 
standing up;" nakaiipo siyd, "he is sitting down." 

XX. Mahd and its synonym bakd express fear or apprehension of pos- 
sible danger, hurt, or injury. They are written as separate words and not 
as prefixes. Bakd is more common. These two words may be best 
rendered into English by "lest," "for fear that," etc. Ex.: Ako' y 
nagdalaiig tnkut, bakd marimjig (I was afraid lest I should be heard.) 
Houag mong gawin iydn, makdmapalMinak ka (do not do that, because you 
may lose). Houag kavg magdaan sa bundok, makd hararu/in ka nang 
tulisdn (do not travel in the mountains, because you might be stopped by 
the "ladrones"). Ilumarang, to stop another on the highway. Makd 
may tuuo diydn (lest there be people there). 

(b) Makd also denotes partial resemblance, as in comparing speech, 
fruit, flowers, etc. Ex.: Makd Tagdlog ang capiidn nang paiTguiTgusap 
(the captain is like a Tagalog in his speech). Makd bulaklak sa A») erica 
itong bulaklak nang amoy (this flower is like an American flower in odor). 

XXI. In addition to the meanings of maka as a verl)al particle, it 
indicates completed verl)al action, best translated by the adverb "after" 
and a verb. Ex.: ^^akamisa nang pare (after he had said mass the 

priest ). Makai/ari nito'y paroon ka sa (after you do this go there 

to ). 

It is also used idiomatically. Ex. : Makasakdling may dangmaling, 
bumili ka nang kakanin (in case anyone should arrive, go buy something 
[for him] to eat). 


I. This particle, signifying the ordering to do or make or permitting to be 
done what is denoted by the root, reduplicates the last syllable of the 
particle for the present and future indefinite tenses. The definite, pa, 
being a monosyllable, causes thefrst syllable of the root to be reduplicated 
for the same tenses. The definite has all three forms of in, i, and an. 

Mag and man roots retain this between magpa and the root. Pag 
sometimes precedes magpa in the definite form (pagpa). 

Sa is generally used before the person commanded. Ex. : 

To order to teach. Magpadral. Magpadral ka kay Pe- 

dro, order Pedro to teach. Mag- 
papagdral, to order to study. 
Magpapagdral ka kay Juan, order 
Juan to study. Papagaralin mo 



To order to read. 

To order to do or make. 

To order to come or go out; (2) to 
order to take or bring out. 

To order to ascend. 

To order to go or come down; to 
order to descend. 

To order to get into or enter. 
To order to write. 

ang iyoivj anak (order your child 
to study). PinajKujdral pa ako 
nmuj akinij iiid (my mother or- 
dered me to keep on studying). 

Mag})(i]>aillj(\r(d (1) to order to 
preach; (2) to request to preach 
(if not competent to order). 

Magpabusa. Nngixijiuhasa aiig vuiesi- 
tro sa tnmlgd batd (the teacher is 
ordering the children to read). 

Magpagaml. Nagjxiganu ako (I or- 
dered [something] done or made). 
Nagpajjagavd ^ii/d (he [she] is or- 
dering [something] to be done or 
made). Nakapagpagand ako (I 
was able to order [something] to 
be done or made). Magpapagaicd 
ako (1 will order [something] to be 
done or made). Makapagpagaicd 
ako (I shall have ordered [some- 
thing] to be done or made). The 
definite with / is: Tpagawd mo itosa 
kanigd (order him to do [make] 
this). Jpinagavd ko sa igo iio (I 
ordered you to do [make] this). 
Iphiugagaud niya sa iyo ito (he or- 
ders you to do this). Ipagagau-d 
ko sa iyo ito (I shall order you to 
do [make] this). (See index: 
gau'd. ) 

Maf/jHilabds. Magpalabds ka kay Juan 
(order Juan to get out). Magpal- 
abds ka kay Juan nang darnil (order 
Juan to get the clothes out). Fal- 
abasin mo Hong aso (have this dog 
put out). 

Magpapanhik. PapanJtlkin mo ang 
maiTgd batd (tell the muchachos to 
come up). Makapugpapanliik, to 
be al)le to order to ascend. Xaka- 
pagpapanhik ako (I was able to 
order to ascend). Nakapagpapa- 
panhik ako (I am able to order to 
ascend ) . Makapagjiapapa nh ik ako 
(I will be able to order to ascend). 
Magpapagpanhik, to order some- 
thing brought upstairs, hoisted, 
etc. Papagpanhikin mo ang maiTjjd 
batd nang tubig (tell [order] the 
muchachos to bring up some 
water). (See index: panhik.) 

Magpapandog. A Iso means to spend ; 
to use up. Magpapagpandog, to 
order something to be brought 
down. (See index: pandog.) 

Magpapdsok. (For examples see in- 
dex: pdsok.) 

Magpasdlat. A)ig manajddral ay nag- 
pasi'i/at sa iyo (indef. ) ; pinasdlat ka 
nang maiTgddnd (def. ) (the teacher 
ordered you to write). The definite 


with mis: I'asnhtiin mo 8uid nilong 
sulnt (order him to write tiiis let- 
tei). The dual (two) is used in 
the followinji; exuiii]>ie.s, l)nt they 
are translated as usual into Kn<:lish'. 
P'masi'il<it.titariitm)</si'ihil{l ordered 
you to write this letter). 
sulat lata lutoiKj Hulut (I am order- 
ing you to write this letter). Pa- 
susnlatin. l-ala nilunr/ sulat (I will 
order you to Avrite this letter). 
(See index: sulat.) 

To order to lock. Magpunusi. To \o{:\i; magsusl. Su- 

sifln mo lYo (lock this). Iloimg mo 
susinn itt) (don't lock this). Ito 
hindi nal-asud (this is not locked). 
Alisln mo avg j^fdrisusl nito (un- 
lock this [lit., "release this condi- 
tion of being locked"]). Susian 
mo ang jnnto (lock the door). Ang 
isu-v, the key. Ang siisidn., what 
locked. A ng pagsusl, what locked 
much, or the act of locking. Ang 
ipagsusi; what used to lock much 
with. Sufil, derived from Chinese, 
is distinct from snsl, meaning clear, 
pure, or neat, which comes from 
the Sanskrit, cnchi. 

To order to sew. Magjudnlu. Ito ang paiahi nigd sa 

akin (this is what she told me to 
sew). (See index: iaJti.) 

II. Magpa reverses the meanmg in sentences where an inferior addresses 
a superior, or in which the subject has no power to command, the ])article 
then meaning "to request, ask," etc. Ex.: Magpagavd ka nito sa ingong 
amd " your father to do this," not "order your father to do this." 
Magpadrul kagd pa m. inyong anak sa escvelahan (indef. ) or Papagaralln 
n 1711/ 6 pa ang anak ninyd sa escnelahan (def. ) (let your child study for a 
while yet at school). 

III. The indefinite form will be seen by the conjugation of magpagaud 
"to order to do or make;" there being but one irregularity of note, viz: 
In the pluperfect and future perfect tenses naka and maka, with pagpa pre- 
fixed to the root and na following, express these tenses, respectively. (See 
tables for conjugation.) 

'IV. Pn, the corresponding definite verbal participle to magjia, and 
formed by dropping the first syllable of the latter, forms the three defi- 
nites regularly. The examples given in the tables are magpasuktt (sdlat), 
" to order to write " (in); magpagawd {gawd), " to order to do or make" 
(/); and hiagpalanini {taiiini), " to order to sow " (an). 

V. Magpa may be preceded by maka, forming niakapagpa, the com- 
pound giving the idea " to be able to order to." (See under magpaixxn- 
hik in Far. I, magpa.) 

VI. Magpa also denotes what is suffered willingly or what is done with- 
out restraint by others upon the subject; to allow or permit, with those 
roots which admit such ideas. The context serves generally as a guide to 
distinguish the idea of "to order to " from " to permit to." Ex. : 

To allow deception; cheating. Magparagd {Ivomdayd). (See index: 

dayd. ) 
To allow oneself to be crucified. Magparipd (from dipd). (See index: 

dipd. ) 
To allow oneself to be whipped. 3fagpahampds. (See index :/i(irmp«.s".) 



To allow oneself to be flatly con- 
To allow one's hair to be combed. 

To allow oneself to be slapped. 

To allow to become putrid. 

To order to throw down; raze; (2) 
to allow to fall into ruin. 

To allow to become hot. 

To allow to become cool; to cool any- 


Magpasitklay. Also "to order to 
comb." (See index: siikkuj.) 

MagpaUimpal. Tmnampal, to slap. 
Magtampal, to slap much. 

Vil. Magpa, with a root denoting a state or condition resulting from 
gradual intrinsic action, indicates the purpose of the subject either to accel- 
erate or allow the transition. 

Magpabulok. Houag mong kabulokin 
ang matTgd sdging (don't let the 
bananas rot). 

Magpagibd. Gumibu, to do away 
with; to level; to throw one's self 
down. Angginibd, (1) what thrown 
down or leveled; (2) what done 
away with. Maggibd, to throw 
down many things. 

Magpaiiiit (from init). Magpapaginit, 
to order something to be heated. 
(See index: iuit.) 

Magpalamig. Palamigin natin ang 
drao (let us wait until the day is 
cooler). Magpalamig ka nang tubig 
(let some water cool [i. e., put some 
water out to cool]). Ipa/amig mo 
ang tubig (put the water some- 
where to cool). Baku hind I ka 
nagpapalamig nang tnbig:' (Why 
don't you cool some water?) Saan 
ako magpapalamig nang tubig? 
(Where shall I put the water to 
cool?) Iijang batalang iydn ang 
pagpapalamigdn mo nang tubig (let 
the water cool out there on that 
porch ) . Kahapon ay ang ibang silid 
ang pinagpalamigdn ko nang tubig 
(yesterday I let the water cool in 
the other room )• Magpapaglamig, 
to order something to be cooled). 

Magpatuyo. Houag mong patuyoin 
ang matigd halaman (don't let the 
plants dry up). Tuyo na p6 (they 
are dried up already, sir). Hindi 
ko wja pinatutuyu (indeed, I am not 
letting them dry up). Patuyoin mo 
iydn, dry that or let it dry. 

VIII. Magpa is also used to express acts of the Creator; of nature, and 
of persons beyond the control of the speaker, mainly with the idea of 
cause. Ex.: 

To allow to dry up or out; to put out 
to drv. 

To cause waves. 

To cause the flowers to bloom. 

To cause it to thunder. 

To rear; bring up (as a child). 

Magpadlon. Am'» ang nagpapadlon sa 
ddgatf (What causes the waves 
at sea?) Ang haiTgiti (the wind). 

Magpa bula kla k. 


Magpalaki. (See index: laki.) 



IX. Magpa, used with reference to tlie effect of such actions as the fore- 
going, which are beyond the power of a human agent, signifies "to ex- 
pose to;" "to put in," etc. Ex.: 

To expose to the sun; to sun one- 
To expose to the wind or air. 
To expose to the rain. 

Magpaarao (accent on the last sylla- 
ble). (See index: arao.) 
Magpahangin. (See index: hangin.) 
Magpaulan. (See index: ulun.) 

X. Magpa coupled with meteorological phenomena and astronomical 
occurrences, connected with a human agency, denotes a waiting on the 
part of such agent until the condition has changed or the event taken 
place. The context generally serves to give the correct idea. Ex. : 

To wait until the typlioon ceases. 

To wait for a change of wind. 

To wait for the day to become cooler. 

To wait until the sun (or moon) 

To wait for a change (as in bad 




Magpalamig nang arao. (See Par. 

Magpasilang. (See index: sUang.) 

Magpatila. Patllain mo muna ang 
uldn (wait until the rain ceases). 
The root is iila, which alone means 
"to seem." Tild tauo or anaki 
tduo (it looks [seems] like a per- 
son ) . Tiki naparoon sila ( it seems 
they went there ) . Tilci napaparito 
Slid (it seems they are coming 


Magpaiimaga (from nmaga, "to 
dawn;" root, aga). 

XI. With roots expressing the indefinite idea of what may be given 
viagpa expresses acts which benefit another than the agent. These roots 
are generally those conjugated primarily with um. Ex. : 

Magpakain. (See index: kain.) 

MagiKtdala. ltd ang padald nigd .>-•« 
akin (this is what he ordered me 
to bring [carry] ) . Iti')'}/ padald sa 
akin ni i»(( (this is what my mother 
sent [brought] me). Aug ipina- 
dald (what was ordered brought 
[i. e., what was sent] ). Magdald, 
to carry, bear, bring or take (over). 
Ang dinald, what so brought, etc. 
(See index: dald.) 

Magparamit (from dam it). (See in- 
dex: damit.) 

Magpainum . (See index: init m . ) 

To wait until the rain ceases. 
To wait until davbreak. 

To give food; to feed. 
To send; to forward. 

To clothe; to furnisli clothing. 

To give something to drink; to wa- 
ter (as animal or fowl). 
To put at interest; to invest. Magpatubo. 

To give lodging. Magpatidoy. 

To lend willingly. Magpautang. 

There may be mentioned magpakild, to restore the sight. 

XII. With roots expressing definites with mag in the primary verbal 
sense, magpa expresses the idea of compulsion, exaction, or request, as 
shown by the intrinsic meaning or the context. Definites exist with in, i, 
and ail. Ex. : 

(See index: tubu.) 
(See index: ti'doy.) 
(See index: I'ltang.) 

To collect taxes; to demand (or col- 
lect) tribute. 

Magpabuis (from buiii, "poll tax," 
etc. ) . Pabuis ko si Pedro nang piso 


(I asked Pedro to pay one peso in 
taxes) . Isang piso ang iplnabu'iH ko 
kay Pedro (one peso was what I 
asked Pedro to pay in taxes). 
Itong bnyan ay ang pinagpabuisan 
ko (this town was where I col- 
lected taxes). Magbuis, to pay 

To beg; to ask for alms. Magpalimos (from Span., Ihnosna). 

To ask for a pledge or pawn. Magpumnla. Sangpisos ang sanladn 

ko n itong singmng ( I want to pledge 
this ring for one peso). 

XIII. Actions in which the agent has a passive part are also explained 
by mngpa. Ex. : 

To hear confession. Magpacumpisal (from Sp. confesar). 

Saan naroon ang pare f ( Where is 
the " padre? ' ' ) Nagpapacumpisal 
siyd (He is hearing confessions). 
Magcumpisal, to confess. 
To pardon. Magpatauad. (See index: tawac?.) 

To get shaved. Magpadli'd. (See index: ahit.) 

To have the hair cut. Magpagnpit. (See index: gupit.) 

To have cleaned (as shoes). Magj)almis. (See index: Unix.) 

XIV. Magpa also expresses the idea of repeating something many 
times, or reciting the same much, and sometimes by many. Pagpa is 
treated grammatically in many cases like magpa — i. e., the last syllable of 
the particle is reduplicated for the j^resentand future tenses. Ex.: Magpa 
"we" kaigu (All of you say ''we" many times). Xagj)adiablo ako sakaniyd 
(I called him a devil many times), ^ino o)tg ipiiiagpapadiablo ninyof 
(Why do you say devil so much?) Jloiiug ninyong jiagpapadiablohan ang 
kapoua ti'nio (Don't say devil so much to those around you). 

XV. In some cases magpa signifies to do voluntarily what is denoted b)- 
the root. Ex. : 

To adorn one's self. Magpamuti (from buti). Nagpapa- 

bidi yaong dalaga (That girl is 
adorning herself). 

To praise one's self. Magpamuri (from pnri). At yaong 

isd'y nagpapanmri (and that one 
is [doing the same] for the praise). 
Ang malrinliing dalaga'' y pi'»»joiu'i 
nnng lahat (A sensible girl is 
praised by everyone ) . Kapurihan, 
praise; honor; fame. Syn.-.bunyi. 

XVI. Magpa with some datives and all adverbs of place signifies "to go 
or come intentionally," where denoted by the root, etc. Ex.: 

To come to me. Magpasa akin. 

To go to you. Magpasa inyo. 

To go (come) to the person. Magpasa tduo. 

To go to Pedro. Magpakay Pedro. 

To come here (near by). Magpadini. 

To go there. Magpadoon. 
To go up the river, or up country. Magpa ilaya. 

XVII. Mapa, formed by dropping the g of magpa, signifies " to go in some 
direction naturally or accidentally, and without intention on the part of 
the subject." /generally precedes the root. Ex.: 

To run off or lower (as water). Mapaibabd. Xapapaibabd ang tubig 

(The water is becoming low [or is 
running off] ). (See index: babd.) 


To ascend (as smoke). Mapaitaas. jVapapaitaasanga~s6 {The 

smoke is rising). Di man viakild 
ang nttigas, aso ang magpapalu'tyag 
(Althougli the flame may not be 
seen, tiie smoke will reveal it. — 
T. P., 50). 

To fly u]) in the air (as a bird). Mapailandang. Ang bdnoy ay napai- 

landang sa impapauid (The eagle 
a.scended into the clouds). 

XVIII. It will be observed that the greater part of the roots verbalized 
by inagpa require i in the definite to express "what is ordered done, given," 
etc., and in or an in the same form to express " the person commanded," 
etc. Ex. : 

To give food to another. Magpakain. (See index: Irdn.) 

To allow to be punished; or to cause Magparusa (ironidusa) . Ilonagmong 
or order to be punished. parusahan ang walang kasalanan 

(Do not permit the innocent [not 
guilty] to be punished). 
To permit to pass. Magpadaan (from daan, "road"). 

See index. 
To give another something to drink; Magpainum. (See index: inum.) 

to water animals or fowls. 
To cause to walk up. Magpaldkad. (See index: lukad.) 

To cause or order another to stand Magpatindig. (See index: tindig.) 

XIX. A sense of ordering may be given to roots not having such an 
idea by inserting a second pa, although it is clearer to use mag with a fol- 
lowing infinitive. This second pa ( which remains in all tenses) with roots 
having the idea of ordering signifies to order a person to order another, 
although simpler forms are generally used. Ex. : Ang capilan ay nagpa- 
painurn sa maiTgd cabayo (The captain orders the horses to be watered); or, 
Ang capitan ay naguidos uminum sa manga cabayo [same meaning]. (2) 
Magpapasulat ka kay Juan kay Pedro; or, Magidos ka kay Juan na magpa- 
sulat. siyd kay Pedro (Order Juan to order Pedro to write). 

XX. The tendency of Tagalog, like all languages, to simplify itself, is 
shown by the use of the root with pa prefixed, with the significance of a 
verbal noun. The agent takes the genitive and the object or person acted 
upon the dative. Ex.: Pabaiu/d, "perfume;" pamuti (buti), "holiday 
or parade appearance;" padald, "burden or what carried;" jmhiyds, 
"jewel;" jmmana, "inheritance;" patago, " what hidden." 

ltd ang patago uiyd sa akin (This is what he ordered me to hide). Pan- 
tang, ' ' credit. ' ' 


I. This particle has many affinities with magpa, as will be seen by the 
examples. It reduplicates the first syllable of the root for the present and 
future tenses, except when sa i» attached to and incorporated with it. With 
roots of place, which require, the first syllable of the particle is redu- 
plicated for these tenses. Na is prefixed to pa in the indefinite past and 
present tenses with both pa and pasa. This latter particle should not be 
confounded with roots beginning with sa conjugated withpa. (See tables: 
t along. ) 

II. One of the principal significations of pa is to ask or beg for in refer- 
ence to the subject, while magpa is generally applied under like circum- 
stances to the object. Ex. : 

To ask for protection. Paampon. 

To ask for mercy or compassion. Paaud. (See index: and.) 

To ask for shelter or support. Pakupkup. Kumupkup, to press to 

the breast or shelter under the 



To ask for aid, succor, or a favor. rasianguluiuj. MarjaaiigaUirxj, to aid, 

favor, or succor. 
To ask for defense. Patangol. TumangoJ, to defend. 

To ask for help. Pati'dong. (See tables: ^uZonr/.) 

III. At times pa signifies "to permit" the action indicated by the rcjot 
"upon one's self," and sometimes "to ask," as above explained. It de- 
notes greater willingness by the person affected than magpa does. Ex. : 

To consent to be deceived. Parayd, (from daya). (See index: 

daijd. ) 
To ask to be kissed. Pahalik. (See index: /(a///..) 

To consent to be whipped. Pahampds. (See index: humpus.) 

To consent to be vanquished. Patalo. (See index: talo.) 

To consent to be slapped. Patampal. (See index: tatnjxd.) 

IV. («) With the adverbs of place, and roots expressing place, pa sig- 
nifies movement to or from what is denoted by the root, {b) With roots 
of place sa is added to the particle, forming pum, which bisyllabic parti- 
cle reduplicates the last syllal)le of the particle for the present and future 
tenses. The initial d of the advei'bs changes to r after />«. Ex. {(t): Pa- 
rini, "come here;" ])aritu, "come here;" pariydn, "go there;" jxirooti, 
"go there." (See index: dim, d'do, diyan, doov.) These four adverbs 
admit the definites i and an. That in i is compounded with ka, forming 
ika, ikina. In may be used if compounded with magpa, signifying "to 
order to come or go." (See tables and index: dito. ) 

Some localities are to be found where the last syllal>le of the particle is 
reduplicated with these adverbs of place for the present and future tenses, 
but this is irregular and incorrect. The practice is unknown to the earlier 

The four adverbs which have been considered are also further conjugated 
with um, making infinitives, etc. Ex.: Pumarini, pumarito, "to come 
here;" pumariydn, pumaroon, "to go there." 

(6) P«s((6d/m//, "to go to the house." (See tables: bdhay.) Pasabukid, 
"to go to the country" {^elds) ; pasaddgat, "to go to sea;" pasailog, "to 
go to the river;" jjasabundok, "to go to the mountains;" pasa Anitrica, "to 
go to America;" pasa Kast'da, "to go to Spain." Xapasaan siya^ {Saan 
ang tango niydf) (Where did he go?) Napatumjo sa Mayndd (He went 
to Manila). 

V. Pa also indicates to say what may be denoted by the root, but with- 
out tlie plurality indicated by magpa. Ex. : 

To say "yes." Paoo. Paoo ka! (Say "yes!") Na- 

paoo ka ,sa kaniydf (Did you tell 
him "yes?") 

To say "no." Paddi. Padill ka.' (Say "no") 

Ddl rin (No, indeed); var. dlr). 
Ang piimdiri ian; person to whom 
"no" is being said. Magpadiri; 
to say "no" repeatedly. Aitg 
plnagdirian; person to whom " no " 
has been said often. 

To say "no." Pahlndi. Pahindl ka (kai/d) (Say 


To say not to wish. Paayao. (See index: ayau.) 

To say "devil." Padiablo. (See index: diat/o.) 

To call "<!hicky-chicky." Pakorukid. 

VI. Pa, prefixed to roots denoting bodily positions, forms words ex- 
pressing the position taken. Ex. : 

Lengthwise; lengthways. Pahabd. Putlin mo Ho nang paliabd 

(cut this lengthwise). Mahabd, 


Crosswise; crossways. Pahdlang. 

Lying down; j)rone (position). PaliUja. (See index: lugd.) 

Lying on the side (jjosition). Pahtg'did. 

Lying on the face (position). Putaoh. 

Joying on the back (position). PatUuuin. (See index: tihaya.) 

On foot; afoot. Patindiy. (See index: tindig.) 

Seated (position). Paupu. (See index: upu.) 

VII. Pa, prefixed to roots denoting articles which may be bought, sent, 
carried, sewn, left, lent, etc., forms nouns indicating what affected by the 
action. In composition these nouns take the nominative, the agent the 
genitive and the recipient the dative. Ex. : 

What brought. Padala. (See index: dala.) 

What borrowed or lent (not money) . Pahiram. Ito^y pahiram .sa akin vang 

kaibigan ninyo (this is what your 
friend lent me). 
What left as an inheritance. Pamann. (See index: vuma.) 

What sewn. Pataht. (See index: talii.) 

VIII. Some roots, such as knin, eating; and /jimhi, drinking, are not clear 
when used with pa alone in this sense, and are conjugated with both the 
particle j>a and the definite of magpa (pa) forming papa. Ex.: Papakain 
ka kay Jiuni (ask Juan to give you something to eat). Papainum ka kay 
Tonuts (ask Tomds to give you something to drink). 

IX. Formerly mapa, with roots indicating relatives, signified to call 
others by such names. This custom exists to some degree yet. Ex.: 
Mapaali, to call "aunt." }[ap)animo, to call "grandfather" (or "grand- 


I. This particle, which may be analyzed into paka with mag prefixed, 
generally signifies to do, suffer or voluntarily allow what may be denoted 
by the root, and has two forms for the definite, pagpaka and ]>aka. Mag- 
pakd and pagpaka form the present and future tenses in a peculiar manner. 
The last syllable, ka, adheres to the root in all tenses, and pn is redupli- 
cated for the present and future. The Diag of vragpaka changes to nag 
for the past and present tenses. When7)((Aa is used with a root it is not 
divided, ihe first syllable of the root being reduplicated for the present and 
future tenses. Paka also retains pag with verbs conjugated primarily with 
mag, forming the prefix pakapag. Paka admits in as well as i and an. 

Roots conjugated with magpaka may have either a reflexive or transi- 
tive meaning, or both, according to the context. 

II. For the conjugation of roots with magpaka, see the tables: niatay, huti, 
sisi, and aral. 

JII. Some verbal roots conjugated in the foregoing sense by magpaka are: 

To allow one's self to be insulted; Magpakaapi. 

To humble; humiliate or lower one's Magpakahahd. (See index: hahd.) 

To satiate one's self. Magpakabusog . 

To adorn one's self. Magpakahati. Aug kahinhinan ay 

nagpapakahuti sa dalaga (modesty 
befits a girl). Ang ipinagpupaka- 
buti nang dalagang iydn ay nang 
siyd'y mapuri ( the reason why that 
girl is adorning herself is to be 

To impoverish one's self voluntarily. Magpakadukhd. Mapakadukhd, to 

come to poverty. 

To improve or reform one's self. Magpakagaling. (See index: j/dZ/m/.) 

6855—05 15 



To diminish (voluntarily). 
To esteem one's self highly. 
To allow one's self to be killed; 
(2) to commit suicide. 

To despise one's self. 

To repent (deeply). 

To exert one's self; to make efforts. 

To enrich one's self. 

MagpakaVdt. Mal'dt, small; little. 
Mar/pnkamahal. ( See index : maJtal. ) 
Mcuipakamalny. Ncujpalcamatay aiit/ 
tdno kusa nii/d (the man allowed 
himself to be killed). Nagpaka- 
matui/ ang taga ILtpdn sa kaniyang 
sarin (the Japanese voluntarily 
killed himself [committed sui- 
cide] ). 
Magpakammd. (See index: saind.) 
Magpakasisi. (See index: sisi.) 
Magpakatdpang. TapcoTgan {pakata- 
pang'in) mo ang looh mo (exert 
yourself; "brace up"). (See in- 
dex: tdpang.) 
Magpakaydman. (See index: yd- 

IV. As usual, / stands for cause, reason, or instrument of the action with 
magpaka, and an for the place or the object, according as the verb for the 
direct object admits it or not for the direct object. Ex.: 

To take exact notice. Magpakatandd. Pakatandaan mo ang 

sinasahi ko sa lyd (pay exact atten- 
tion to what I am telling you). 
(This word should not be con- 
founded with its homonym tandd, 
idea of age. ) 

V. The foregoing sense of magpaka generally applies to actions which do 
not go beyond the subject or to verbs which do not require an oljject to 
complete the meaning; but when used with verbs admitting a direct com- 
plement other than the subject or capable of voluntariness, 7nagpaka gives 
greater force or intention to the root. In this signification the particle 
admits in, i, and an, the reduplication being generally from the first 
syllable of the root, as jmka is the usual form of the definite in such cases. 
Roots conjugated thus must be capable of expressing the idea of more or 
less. Pag is retained in this sense with mug roots, forming pakapag or 
pagpaku, as the case may be, and in certain cases pagpakapag may be 
formed. Ex. : 

To teach earnestly. 

To have great prudence. 
To go very slowly. 

Magpakadral. Pakaaralan ninyo ang 
maiTgd batd (try to teach the chil- 
dren earnestly ). Magpakapagdral , 
to study earnestly. Pagpakapa- 
garalan ninyo ang wikang Tagdlog 
(try earnestly to study the Tagalog 
language). MagpakapaiTgdral, to 
preach earnestly. 


Magpakarahan (from dahan). Mag- 
pakaralian kang Inmdkad (walk 
very slowly). Pakarahnnin mo 
ang paghila (throw it very delib- 
erately). Dahanan mo iijang gawd 
mo (do that work of yours slowly 
[carefully]). Mapakarahan, to 
slow down; to become quiet. 
Napakarahan na (it has become 
quiet already; it has slowed down 
now). Dumaftan, to go away 
slowly. Magdahan, to go slowly. 
(See index: dahan.) 


To love greatly. Magpakagillo. Pinakagigilio komj 

Icapalid na babaye (my dearly be- 
loved sister J. 
To guard one's self well. Magpakahujat. 

To think earnestly, deeply. Magpakamp. Magpakauipisip, to 

think very deeply. (See index: 
isip. ) 
To arrange well. Magjmkahusay . (See index: /(((w?/.) 

To rectify well. Mwipabdiud. (See index: tuid.) 

To tenqit greatly. Magpakatnkso. (See index: tukm.) 

VI. By reduplicating the root, roots capable of expressing the idea of 
more or less aotjuire still greater force or intensity with magpaka. They 
are generally used in the delinite with this construction, and the redupli- 
cation does not extend beyond the first two syllables of the root, according 
to the general rule. Ex.: }fagpakadaUdali(d, "to suffer intensely or to 
endure greatly. ' ' Paka tKipisipIn mo, ' ' think intensely. ' ' Pakasipagsipagin, 
"take the greatest of care; care for it sedulously." 

YII. Dropping the ka from jKika, there remains pa, which pronounced 
long and almost as paa, has the same meaning as paka, but should not be 
confounded with pa (the definite of magpa), pa (the particle), nor with 
pa, "yet." It is generally used in the imperative. Ex.: Pabuksan mo 
(open wider [or quicker]). Papalo mo (strike harder). Pataponan mo 
(throw it with more force [or quicker]). (See index: Bukds; paid; and 

Vlli. A further use of magpaka with nouns or verbs expressing time is 
to signify to persevere or remain until such time, doing what may be 
denoted by the root used. This signification admits of in, i, and an. JEx.. 

To until morning. Magpakadrao. (See index: drao.) 

To until evening. 3fagpakahapon. (See index: hapon.) 

To all night awake. Magpakapuyat. Ang ipinagpapaka- 

puyat ko'y itong gawd (This work is 
the cause of my having to remain 
awake all night). Itong silid ifo'y 
ang piaagpakapuyatan ko (This 
room is the place where I remained 
awake [or watched] all night). 

IX. When an accidental or fortuitous action is to be expressed with 
magpaka the g is dropped, making mapaka, an analogous particle to ma. 
Pinaka, formed from paka and in, should not be confounded with pinakd , 
used in a very different sense. (See index: pinakd.) Ex.: 

To multiply. Mapakarayni (from dami). Applied 

to animals, etc. (See index: dami.) 
To come to poverty. Mapakadukhd. (See index: dukhd.) 

To grow greatly. Mapakalaki. (See index: Za^-?.) 

To be delayed more than usual. Mapakaldwig. 


I. This particle, known as the sixth to Spanish grammarians, has 
^«A-iforthe definite, and reduplicates the second syllable {ki) of the par- 
ticle for the present and future tenses. The pluperfect and future perfect 
tenses are wanting, ^faki changes to naki for the past and present tenses, 
and paki takes in for the same, forming pinaki. 

II. The principal signification of maki with roots capable of expressing 
companionship, etc., is joining with, accompanying another, interference 
or intermeddling in what may be denoted by the root. 

III. Maki may be combined with mn, mac, man, magpapa, and ]>a, as well 
as with itself (paki). There are some verbs which resemble maki in form. 



To join with in play or gaming. 

To join in fishing with a casting net 
called " dala." 

such as pakindbang, ixtkm'uj, etc., which are classed as um verbal forms, 
and should be carefully distinguished. Ex.: 

To join with or interfere in writing. MaMsulat (frum numulat). Ijnnaki- 

kisuhit ko ito doon (I am putting 
this in so it may be written there). 
lyang maiTijd sulat in/ pakimilatdii 
mo nito (Put this in to Ije written 
wdth those letters). Muktj>acj]>(i- 
sulut; to join (or interfere with) in 
ordering to write (from magpani'i- 
Makip<iglur6{irova.7naglar6; to play or 
gamble; see tables: laru). Also: 
I'akipaglaroan tiw si Pedro (Play 
with Pedro). (With pa) Papaki- 
laroinmo si Pedro sa kan'njn (Tell 
[make] Pedro play with him). 
Makipandain (from mandcda; to fish 
for a living thus). Ditmala; to fish 
(occasionally) with a "dala." 
Magdala, to use a "dala." Maka- 
dala; to be able to catch anything 
with a "dala." 
To join with in saying "yes." Makipauo {irom ])a6o; to say "yes.") 

To join in a conversation uninvited. Makij^akiitsap (from makiusaj)). 

IV. See tables: nmaral; magdrcd, and siimakai/. 

V. Maki by itself admits only of i and an in the definite, /represents 
the reason, cause, or object of the action, and an the jserson interfered or 
meddled with, or joined, accompanied, etc. For the conjugation with /' 
see the tables: sulat and humatid. For the definite with an see maglaru. 

VI. In is only used with maki in combination with magpa (j>a). Ex.: 
Papakigawhi mo ang alila mo sa vunlgd tduo ii/dn (Tell your servant to join 
those men in their task). See also makipaglaru in Paragraph III, preced- 
ing, and tables. 

VII. Some roots conjugated with the principal signification of maki are: 

Mnkidral. (See tables.) Makipagd- 
ral, to join or meddle Avith study- 
ing. (See tables.) Makipanijdral, 
to join or meddle with preaching. 

Makipagduaij. (See index: duay.) . 

Makirdmay (from ddmay). 

Makihatid. (See tables.) 

To join or meddle with teaching. 

To pick a quarrel. 

To claim a ]iart in; to participate. 

To carry along with; to join; to in- 

To embark with. Makisakay. (See tables.) 

To tlirust oneself into the com- Makisamd. 
pany of another. 

To thrust oneself into a dispute or 

To join with in weeping. Makilatigis 

To join (or meddle) in pleasure. Makitud. 

VIII. An is sometimes suffixed to roots conjugated with maki to express 
intensity of the idea denoted by the root. Pag is generally retained in 
expressions of this class. Ex. : 

To mock greatly; to make fun of, Makipagbiroan. (See index: bird.) 

To join eagerly in play or gambling. Makipaglaroan. 
To thrust oneself into an alterca- Makipngsagutan. 

tion; to answer with vehemence 

Makitalo. (See index: talo.) 

(See index: taiigis.) 
(See index: tud.) 

(See index: laru.) 
And^t nakikipagsa- 

gxdan sa kapidbdhay mof ("Why 


are you getting into an altercation 
with your neighbor?) Sumuyut; 
to answer; to reply. 

To thrust oneself into a conversa- Makipagmlitaan. (See index: saH/tJ.) 
tion ; to interrupt a report. 

To hate intensely; to detest. Makipagtaniman {iromtanim). Not 

to be confounded with its homo- 
nym, tanim, "to sow." Nakikita- 
nhnan si Juan kay Pedro (Juan de- 
tests [hates] Pedro intensely). 
Houag kaiig niakipagtaniiiian sa ka- 
pidhdhay 7no (Do not detest [hate] 
your neighbor so). 

IX. The asking for such articles of food, etc., as are generally exchanged 
among neighbors for cooking and household work is expressed by maki, 
with the root denoting what may be asked for. A small quantity is always 
understood. The cause is expressed with l and the person asked by an, 
should the definite be used. In is used only in combination with magpa 
{pa). Ex.: 

To ask for a little wine. Makidluk (from dlak). This word is 

from the Arabic araq, from araqa, 
"to sweat; perspire." It is found 
in English as arrack. 

T(i ask for a few coals (fire). Maklapuy. 

To ask for a little salt. Makiasin. (See index: asm.) 

To ask for a little rice. Makibigds. Ankikibigds ako sana sa 

inyo, pu (I would ask you for a 
little rice, sir). Sino ang ipinakiki- 
bigds mof (Who are you asking it 
for?) Aking ipinakikibigds ang ina 
koiig may sakit (I am asking for the 
rice for my mother, who is ill). 
Paid/ (Is that so!) 

X. With roots verbalized into actions, maki denotes asking that the 
action expressed by the root be done for the subject. Ex. : 

To ask another to reach something. Makidbut. (See index: abut. 
To thank for. Matihim]t {ironxliumimjt; to request; 

see index: Jringi). 

XI. With nouns denoting partition vtakl signifies to ask for what may 
be denoted by the root; and with ordinal numbers, in using which the 
initial letter i is dropped, maki signifies to ask for the part designated by 
the ordinal used. Ex. : 

To ask for an inheritance. Makimana (see index: mana). 

To ask for a part or piece of any- ^[akipi.'^allg. Magpisavg; to break 
thing (as bread). up and divide a cracker or bread. 

Magjiisdtig kild (let us break it up 
and divide it). 
To ask for a fifth, tenth, etc. Makikalima; viakikapuo. 

XII. With roots denoting work which may be joined in by more than 
one, maki sometimes expresses the idea of asking to join in such work. 
Ex.: Si Juan ayvakikatutig sa dkin (Juan asked me to help him in getting 
some water). The particle ka, expressing companionship, is prefixed to 
the root. 

XIII. Some roots commencing with h, p, s, and t change with maki in a 
similar manner as with man] when used in the signification of "to ask, re- 
quest," etc. Ex.: 



To ask for news. 

To ask for a passage (as on a vessel). 

MdJdmalitd (from halitd; see index: 

Makinakay (from sakay). 

XIV. With roots signifying nationality, race, state, condition, occupa- 
tion, profession, etc., maki is sometimes used to signify that one acts like, 
bears himself like, or resembles what is denoted by the root. This idea, 
however, is generally otherwise expressed, as some roots used thus are not 
clear unless fully explained by the context. 

XV. With ma, maki has a neuter meaning similar to that borne by ma 
alone. Ex. : 

To appear like a noble (casually). 

To act like or resemble an American. 
To act like or resemble a Spaniard. 
To act like or resemble a Tagalog. 

To act like or resemble a person. 

To act like a woman. 

To act like a man; to run after men. 

To act like a beast. 

To conform to in customs. 

Xapakimnhal. XapakikimaJuil ang 
alipin (The slave looks like a noble 
[has become so casually] ). 



Makitagctlog. Nakikitagalog Hong 
tauo sa pa)7gu)Tl/dsap (This man 
resembles a Tagalog in his man- 
ner of speaking). 

Makitauo. Nakikitauo ang amo (lui- 
goy) (The monkey acts like a j^er- 

Makibabaye. Xakibabaye si Juan 
(Juan acted like a woman) . This 
also means to run after women. 

Mukilalaki. Xakihdaki Hong baba- 
ye)ig ito (This woman acted like a 

Makihdyop. Nakihayop itongthio ltd 
(This man acted like a beast). 



I. Magka, the ninth particle of the Spanish writers upon Tagalog, may 
be analyzed into inag and /.r/, one of the definites of via. This particle 
generally expresses the idea of having (or being) what was not had or pos- 
sessed (or existed as a state) before. As a rule, magka refers to condition 
or state, while man refers more to the action by which a state or ccmdi- 
tion is brought about. 

The second syllable of the particle is reduplicated for the present and 
future tenses, while m changes to n for the past and present, following the 
usual rule. There are a few exceptions, the first syllable of the root being 
reduplicated in some words. (See tables: utang.) 

/definite expresses the cause or reason of the action, while an stands for 
either place or person, according to the nature of the action. (See tallies: 
utang. ) 

Some very correct and widely used expressions are made by using an 
with magka. Ex. : 

To look much at things; to inspect 

To amuse one's self. 

(See index: pisan; tipcm.) 

Umaninao. Wald akong mkat pagka- 
kaaninaiian (There will be noplace 
where I will be able to look at it 
[inspect it; study it out]). 

Mtgkalibang. Waht siUtng pinagka- 
libangan (There was no place where 
they could amuse themselves). 
Malilibang, to be anuised ; diverted. 



Some roots conjugated in the foregoing signification with iriaijka are: 

To have children. 

To possess prudence. 

To have crocodiles again (as a river). 

To be laden with fruit. 

To have (there). 
To have reason. 

To be lucky; to have luck. 

To have rice again (also to have much 

To err; to sin. 
To forbid. 

To have monev again. 
To be ill. 

To have enough. 

To have gray hair. 
To owe a debt. 



Magkahuaya. Nagkakabuaya va itorig 
'dog (This river is infested with 
crocodiles again). 

MagkabuiTija. NagkabiuTIja na liong 
kalioy iia itof ( Has this tree borne 
fruit already?) Jlindt ]>a nagka- 
buwja (As vt't it has not borne 

Magkaroon. (See index: doon.) 

Magkaisip. Nagkakamp na Hong 
b(dang itof (Has this child reason 
yet? [i. e., has it yet arrived at the 
age of reason] ). 






Magkamkit. Avg ipagkasakit, the 
cause of illness. Ano ang ipinag- 
kasakit mof ( What made you ill? ) 
Pasaktcui, to be pained. Ang 
papagkasakt'm, one ill from his own 
fault, also a sick person. 

Magkasiyd. Waldpu, hindt nagkaka- 
siyd sa kaniyang pagkabi'thay (No, 
sir; he does not get enough to live 


Magkautang. (See tables: utang.) 

n. The casual, accidental, or chance assemblage of many people or 
things, even though immaterial, is sometimes expressed by viagka. The 
particle denotes a plurality of subjects in such cases, as opposed to a plural- 
ity of acts, as expressed by some other particles. Ex. : 

To quarrel (as two or more). 

To be equal; to coincide; to accord. 

To meet casually; to gather (as a 

To assemble casually (as a crowd). 
To meet casually (as a crowd). 


bong. ) 

MagkasciDia. (See index: ftmiia.) 
Magkatipon. (See index: Upon.) 

(See index: dnay.) 
(See index: skIh- 

III. Magka also indicates universality or plurality of subjects suffering 
from or afiected in some way by what is denoted by the root. Ex. : 

To suffer from a typhoon. Magkabagyo. 

To suffer from an epidemic of small- ikigkabuli'itong. 


To suffer from a famine (also fur Mugkagidum. 

many to be hungry). 

To suffer from a conflagration. Magkasnnog. 

To enjoy a holiday. M<igk(dud. 

To have a riot or tunnilL Magkagido. 

To be squeezed or pressed in a crowd. Magkadagon. 



IV. Another use of viagla is to express an nnintentional or casual error 
in what niaj* be noted by the root. The imperative is made with maid 
or bakd ((j. v.). Ex.: 

To say one thing accidentally for 

To err in counting. 

To equivocate accidentally. 

MdCfkaihA. Nagknihd siyd (He acci- 
dentally said one thing for an- 


Magkumalt. Nagkaimtli ako (I 
equivocated accidentally). 
Houag rnoiig akalaing ako'y nag- 
kakaniali (Don't you think f made 
any mistake). 

V. Magka is also used to express self-deception l)y the sight, hearing, etc., 
the definite past tense with an sufhxed being taken as the root. For the 
present tense the first syllable of the root is reduplicated and not the second 
syllable of the particle. Ex. : 

To be deceived bv the hearing. 

To be deceived by the sight. 

Magkarijigan. XagkarirhTgan ako 
(My hearing deceives me). (See 
index: diwjig.) 

Magkakita. (See index: kitd.) 

YI. A further use of magka is with the urn infinitive of some verbal 
roots and some adverbs of place, with which infinitives magka expresses 
the idea of making the said movement or going to or from the place indi- 
cated by the adverV) for some particular reason or cause. Ex. : 

Magkasumunod (from sunod). Also 
to follow wherever another may 
go. (See index: sunod.) 

Magkaduiiiito. (See index: dito.) 

To follow (or obey) for a particular 
cause or reason. 

To be here for a i>articular cause or 

VII. Doubling the root intensifies the meaning with magka in some 
cases. Ex. : 

To be verv late or tardv. 

To be broken into very small pieces. 

To be finished or concluded com- 

To be completely broken up (as a 
rope or cord). 

To be completely destroyed. 

To be torn into tatters (as clothes, 

VIII. Sometimes ka, the definite of ma, combines with jxxg to denote 
the source of something. (See index: sira. ) 


Magkabdlambdlam. Xagkakahalam- 

halam ka (You are very late 

Magkalansaglansag (from lansag). 

Litmansag, to break anything into 

small pieces. 
Magkalutaslutaa (from IuIuk). 

Magkapatidpaiid (from patid; see 

Magkasirdmra (from )ilrd; see index). 
Magkawindangiclndang (from wind- 


I. Magin, which Minguella thinks a "disguised passive" in conception 
reduplicates the gi of the last syllable of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. It also changes m to n for tlie past and ]>resent indefinite. 
It expre.«ses the conversion or transformation, either gradual or sudden, of 
one thing into another, as a general rule, the root being tbat into which 
the other thing is converted or transformed. Magin is also used to express 



such ideas as "to beget," etc. Being a neuter particle generally there is 
no imiierative in such cases, as there can be no volition in the action ex- 
cejit with personal pronouns. 

II. For slow, self-converting processes udi is generallj' used, but in some 
cases the use of magin is correct. Besides the indefinite the definites with 
i and an exist. (See tables: alak.) 

As magla generally denotes a state or condition, it admits ika with some 
roots, and in combination with jja, the definite of magpa, it also admits i)i 
with others. (See tables: dapat.) 

III. As will be noted, magin is commonly used to express such acts as 
the turning of wine into water by miraculous agency, etc., as well as natural 
processes. Some of the roots usually conjugated with magin are: 

To be converted into wine. 

To be converted into gall or bile. 

To be turned into stone; to become 

To be converted into vinegar. 
To be begotten. 

To be made man. 

Maginalak. (See tables: dlak.) 

Maginapdu. Nagiginapdo avg a king 
bibig (my mouth tastes like gall). 

Maginbato. Ang asana ni. Loth ay 
naginbatong asm (the wife of Lot 
became a rock of salt). 

Maginsukd. (See tables: sukd.) 

Maginanak (from anak, "child"). 
Naginanak ni Abraham si Isaac; at 
naginanak ni Isaac si, Jacob; at na- 
ginanak ni Jacob si Judd at kani- 
yang matTgd kapatid (Abraham be- 
gat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; 
and Jacob begat Judas and his 
brethren)— Matth. U, 2. 

Magintduo. Ang anak nang Dios ay 
nagintduo (the son of God was 
made man). (But if volition is in- 
cluded other jiarticles or exjjres- 
sions must be used. ) Ang anak 
nang Dios ay nagkatauang tduo (the 
son of God assumed the form of 

Magintagdlog. Nagigintdgalog ang 
capita n sa paiujatTgusap (the cap- 
tain resembles (or seems to be) a 
Tagalog by his speech). 

IV. It should be noted that nagin in the past tenses is the only sense 
which can really be said to denote complete conversion, etc., the present 
and future tenses conveying the idea of "seems to Vje," "may be," and 
"might be," respectively. 

V. Magin is also used in a neuter sense to express the assumption of 
office, states, conditions of mind, morals, or body, etc., if intention is not 
meant, in which case other particles are used. 

To become a Tagalog. 

To become "presidente." 

To become just or virtuous. 
To become a miser. 

To become worthy. 

Maginpresidente. Naginpresidenie si 
Gat Simeon at sakd nagingobernador 
(Don Simeon became presidente 
and afterwards governor). 


Maginmardmot (from ruardmot, mi- 
ser; see ddinot). 

Maginddpat (from ddpat; see tables: 
ddpat). Mardpat, fair; just; de- 
serving. Karaptan, merit; deserts. 
Ang ikapagin ddpat, the reason or 
cause of being worthy. 


To be converted into an animal. Magi)ili('n/op. Matjlinyo/), to sell, deal 

in, or raise animals. Ilayopan, cor- 
ral for animals; j)en. Knhnyopan, 
))rntishness. A)ii/ jxigkahtn/aj), 

To become an habitnal litigant (bar- MfKi'nijKdw'isap. Naghipulausup sign 
rator). (he has become an habitual liti- 


To become deaf. Maginhingi. 

To become blind. Maginbulag. 

To become dumb. Maginpipi. 

VI. With some routs magin may express the idea of "to be." Ex.: 

To ])e the motive or cause. Magindahikhi. ltd ang nagindahi- 

Idn (this was the reason). Ito ang 

nagigindaliilnn (this is the cause). 
To befall. Maginpalad. An ) Lagn (tug magighi- 

jialdd kof (What will mv luck be? 

[What will befall me'?])" 
To turn out to be true. Maginlotoo. Xagintotno ang sinabi mo 

sa akin (what you told me turned 

out to ))e true). 
To be a servant. MaginalUa. Jtnng taiio it(j'y magigin- 

cdilci ninyij (this man will be your 


VII. The idea of volition is sometimes admissible with magin when used 
with personal pronouns. Ex.: 

To be thine. Maginiyo. 

To be mine. Magindkin. Ak(V y maglginiyo't iki'io 

ay magigindkin (I will be yours 
and you will be mine). 

VIII. (a) Magin is also used in combination with the interrogative 
adverbs ildnf (how many?) and magkanof (how much?) and with the 
answers thereto, (h) With magin prefixed to a number and na following 
it the completion of the period named is denoted. Magin expresses the 
idea of "about" in these cases. Ex.: (a) MagiginiJdn sUdf (about how 
many will there be?) Magiginildn ang puroroonf (about how many will 
go there?) Magigindalavang puo (about twent}-). ^[agiginmagkano itdf 
(How much will this be worth?) (/>) Rung maginisang budn na (After 
about a month). Nang maginilang drao (after a few days). Kiing magin- 
sangtaon na (after about a year). 

IX. Magin may be used sometimes in the sense of "belt" or 

"either" "or." Ex.: Maginito; maginiydn (be it this or be it 

that). Maginlalaki siyd; maginbabaye (he it man or be it woman). Ma- 
gimTgayon; maginbukas ay paroroon aku (either to-day or to-morrow 1 will 
have to go there). 


I. This particle, which changes initial m to n for the indefinite past and 
present, reduplicates the last syllable of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. It has all three definites, and may be combined with all 
other particles, which are placed between it and the root, except maka and 
ma definite in the sense of power, which precede it. (See tables: alis; 
gawd; tapon, and kidia. ) It has no other signification than to denote a 
plurality or universality of subjects in connection with the verbal action. 
Naturally there is no singular number. Xgd may be inserted after the 
first two letters of the particle to indicate an extreme degree of plurality. 

See iahles: pagdral. Ex.: 

To teach (many). Magsidral. Magsipagdral, to study 

(many). ^1»^ ma)~gd batd dito sa 



To confi'.-s (niiiiiy). 

Togo <uit (many). 

To look; behold, etc. (many). 

To enter; come in (many). 

To laugh (many). 

h(ii/<in ito'j/ magsisipagaral na laliat 
(all the children herein this town 
are studying). Aug mniTi/d hala 
nitong esruelahdnuaiTgagxiaipdgaral 
(all the children in this school 
are learning [or studying]). Mag- 
sipaiu/dral, to preach (many). 
MoigagsipaiTgdral, to preach (by a 
great number). 

Magsipagcumjnsal. To hear confes- 
sions (many priests(; mag.^lpagpa- 
cumpisal. (See index: ciunpl><ul.) 

Magsilabds. MagsUahds haiioiig laliat 
na naririto so looh (all of you who 
are inside go out). 

Magsipanood. Bdkit ipinagsisipandod 
nild (dig ddgat igavg mam/d tdvo 
iydn/ (Why are those men look- 
ing at the sea for?) 

Magsipdmk. Magnpdsok kagong lahat 
na naririyang icalang ga wd : ( Come 
in all of you who are out there 
doing nothing [or without work] ). 



I. This particle is little used, and besides the usual change of m to n for 
the ])ast and present indefinite reduplicates the second syllable {pa) of the 
particle for the present and future tenses. It is used with roots express- 
ing the idea of motion or positions of the body, and signifies to perform 
such motions or take such positions voluntaril}-, and with briskness or 
suddenly. If such sudden motion occur or jiosition be assumed involun- 
tarily, the g is dropped, forming mapaii, equal in meaning to majxt. The 
definites with i (ika) in the sense of cause, and an (Jiun) for place exist. 
(See tables: luhod.) Ex.: 

To prostrate one's self quickly. 
T<i lie down quickly; to throw one- 
self down. 
To fall on one's knees. 

To turn the back abruptly. 
To spring to the feet. 

To sit down suddenly. 

Magpatirapd (from dapd). 
Magpatihigd. Mngpalilugd ku (lie 

down quickly). 
Magpatiluhod. Ang ikapagpatilvhod: 

the cause or reason for falling on 

the knees. Ang pagpatduhordn: 

the place where or person knelt 

to. (See tables.) 
Magpatdalikod. To do the same 

without intention, mapalitalikod. 
Magpatitin d ig. Xagpupa I it in dig s ii/d 

(he is springing to his feet). Xa- 

papafitindig ako (I sprang to my 

feet unconsciously). 
Magpatiupo. To sit down suddenly 

without meaning to: mapatiupu. 


I. This particle beside the change from m to n for the past and present 
indefinite, reduplicates the second syllable (/)/) of the particle for the present 
and future tenses. This particle is used to express verbs of searching for 
minutely, for those expressing the idea of removing dirt, etc., from the 
face or body, and for miscellaneous ideas which will be better seen from 
the examples. Certain letters beginning roots are UKjdified by manlii, the 
same as they are by man. The definites with i and panhi, in the sense of 



cause, with an and either panhl or hi in the sense of place, and with In 
mid either panhi or hi for ordinary definite sentences exist. (See tables: 
matay; rnalay; tiny a.) 

II. A reciprocal form of many of the verbs conjugated with manhi may 
be formed with an suffixed or with maylii in place of manhl, retaining an as 
a suffix, however. Ex. : 

To search for carefulh'; to glean. 

To peck here and there (as a bird in 

search of grain). 
To search for grains of metals or 


To wash one'.s face; to remove stains, 
smudges, etc. 

To comb the mustache. 

To pick the teeth. 

To clean the ears. 
To clean the eyes. 

To treat swelled eyelids or wash 

To clean the nails. 

To cleanse from head lice. 

To follow by trailing; to hold in 
memory (met.). 

To rebel: revolt. 

To avenge or take revenge. 

To peddle; to sell bad goods. 
To act like a child. 

To tell the fortune l)y the palm. 

Manhimalay (from pdlay, " un- 
husked rice " ). Panhimalayin ( hi- 
malayin) mo any iyony kakanin 
(look for [glean] what you have 
to eat). Any gutma ay any ipi- 
nanhihimdlay niyd (hunger is the 
cause of his gleaning). Any biikid 
ni Juan ay any pinanhimalayan niyd 
(he was gleaning [he gleaned] in 
the field of Juan). 

Manhinukd (from tukd). 

Manhimidos {irom pulos, "all of one 
color"). Fiilos also means the 
grains themselves. 

Manhddmos (from Idmos, "stain, 
smudge"). The root hildmos is 
from this combination. 

ManJiiinisai/ (from mviay, " mus- 

Manldnim/a (from tiiTya, "what ad- 
heres to the teeth". See tables). 

Manhi nidi (from tutuli, "earwax"). 

Manhimutd (from mutd, "secretion 
of the eye"). 

Manhimokto (from pokto, "swelling 
or inflammation of the eyelids")^ 
Fanioktohin, a person frequently 
afflicted thus. 

3IanhiiTyok6 (from koko, "nail, 

ManliiiTgiita (from kidu, "head 
louse " ) . ManhiiTgutuhan or may- 
hiiTyiduhan, to cleanse each other 
thus. Manhinoma, to cleanse of 

. body lice. Tomahin, person af- 
flicted thus. 

Manhimakds (from bakds, "footprint, 
sign, trail, etc."). Bakasin mo at 
naito any ydpak (follow it, here is 
the footprint). Mayliimakasan, to 
follow each other on the trail, etc. 

Manhimagsik (from bagsik, "cruel, 

Manhiyanti (from ganti, "reward, 
premium " ) . Pinanhiyanti nild 
siya (they avenged him [her]). 
Sild any panhihiyantihan niyd (he 
will take revenge on them). 

Ma)dti/<iko (from lako). 

Manlilnio.wti'ts (from mosmos, 
"child"), ^fosm6s mo itof (Is 
this your child?) 

Manhimdlad (trom pdlad, "palm"). 



To pretend to work, or to work 
without purpose. 

To be uneasy on account of solitude. 

To meddle; intrude. 

To faint; swoon. 
To suspect evil. 

To beat about the bush. 

To change color or the expression of 

the face. 
To feel badly for lost work. 
To embark in the boat of another. 

To exert one's self. 

Mnnhimamhnj (from panda;/, 
"smith"). PiDKlay wlkci, great 
talker, "wordsniith." 

ManJumanglao (from pawjldo., sad- 
ness, fear, or uneasiness caused by 
being alone) . Mapanfjido na hdhaii 
(a lonely [solitary] house). 

Manliimdsok (from pdsok). Honatj 
mong panhimaKuhtn ang bi'iJiay 
nang ibang inaiTgd tduo (don't med- 
dle with what passes in the life of 
other people). 

Manhimalay (from matay, "idea of 
dying." See tables: ma<«y.) 

Manhimula (from pula, "idea of not 
believing and blaming another ' ' ). 
Puld is the idea of redness. 

Manliimilhig (from pnling, "bank, 
shore"). Houag mo ako)tg pand- 
linggmlluigan (Don't beat about 
the bush with me; don't tr)' any 
red tape on me). 

Manh im uti ( homjmti, ' ' idea of white- 

Manh mdyang ( from sdyang ) . 

Manhinaka I/ (from sakaij, "boat, ves- 

ManJdndpang (from tdpang). 


I. As usual, this particle has the past and present indefinite take n in 
place of VI, while the xecond syllable {m) of the particle is reduplicated for 
the present and future tenses. All three definites exist. See tables; msik. 
The signification of this ijarticle is imitation, adoption or following the 
customs, dress, or language of another people. It is little used, maki being 
more customary. Ex. : 

To follow American customs. Magsaamericano. 

To follow Bicol customs. Magsahikol. 

To follow Visayan customs. Magsabisaya. 

To follow Spanish customs. Magsacastila. 

To follow Ilocano customs. Magsailoko. 

To follow Moro customs. Magsakamorosan. 

To follow Tagalog customs. Magsatagdlog. Ang sinasatagdlog, 

what followed or imitated, etc.; 
Ang ipagsatagdlog, the reason or 
cause of such adoption. Pag is 
dropped with in. 

II. Magsa; isa; as in the expressions magsadrao ka nang damit; put the 
clothes in the sun : isahaiujin mo itong bard; hang this shirt in the wind, etc. , 
are not from this particle but from sa, the preposition "in," conjugated 
with mag and i respectively. 

III. The signification of magsa may be expressed by other particles 
than mo/./, among them being ma gka and via with «?i suffixed. Ex.: Si 
Juan ay nagkakasliladn (Juan is very Spanish in his ways [speech, etc.]). 
Nataiagalogan siyd ( He is very Tagalog in his ways). By doubling the root, 
if a bisyllabic one, or the first two syllables thereof if longer, a diminu- 
tive meaning is imparted. Ex.: Natatagatagalogan «i/d (He is somewhat 
Tagalog in his ways). 




This particle changes initial m to u for the past and present indefinite, 
and reduplicates the last syllable {pa) of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. The sole use of the particle is to express, prefixed to roots 
denoting positions of the body or motions of the parts thereof, the invol- 
untary remaining in such position, etc., as the result of fright, surprise, or 
other violent emotion. The definites with r, toexpref^s the cause, and with 
07I, to express place, exist. (See tables: ?«?(/«/.) Ex.: 

To remain with staring eyes. Magkapadilat. Dumllat, to open the 

eyes. Madilat, to be open (as the 
eyes). Syn., riKigJcapantiUa), to re- 
main with the eyes open. Ang 
ipugkapam /(/o/, the cause of remain- 
ing with staring eyes. Aug jiagka- 
parnulutan, the place of remaining 

To be left with the mouth open; to Magkapanganga, from ngangd. Xgu- 
stand with open mouth. rnaiTga, to open the mouth. 

To stand showing the teeth (as an MagkapaiTgisi (from iTgisi). 
animal, etc. 


I. This particle takes n in the past and present indefinite in place of ui, 
and has the peculiarity of reduplicating the initial syllable of all routs con- 
jugated by it. For the present and future tenses the second syllable {ka) 
of the particle is reduplicated in a similar manner to the reduplication of 
the ^; of ?no(7m. (See tables: luhd.) Magkan signifies primarily the in- 
voluntary flowing out of the secretions of the body, and has the definites 
of i for tile cause and an for the place. In a metaphorical sense magkan is 
also used to express involuntary emotions, actions, etc., as will be seen by 
the examples: 

Magkanpapawis (from jjd"'(s). 
Magkanlalaway (from Idvxtg, "sa- 
Magkanlidithd {troni luhd, "tear"). 

To bleed. 

To sweat from fear or illness. 

To slaver; to drool. 

To weep or shed tears unconsciously 

(as from a wood fire). 
To blush. 

To undress or lose the clothes (in- 

To overflow; to exceed. 

To drop off. 

To burst into laughter. 

To be stunned bv a blow. 

Magkanhihiyd (from hiyd). Kahi- 
ydhiijd, a shameful thing. 

MagkanJiohobb. Nagknkanhohohb si 
Juan nang pagtaxKi (Juan is shak- 
ing his clothes off with laughter). 

Magkaidalahis. Linabisan mo ang 
utos ko sa iyo (You exceeded my 
orders to you). 

Magka n lalaglag. 


Magka ntit'dap. 


The combining of various particles is called "transcendency" by the 
writers upon Tagalog, and may be said to have the following characteris- 
tics: With two exceptions, double or triple combinations of particles 
prefixed to a root demand that the one immediately before the root take 
the definite form. (See tables, dual; dlak.) 

First exception. Some roots conjugated by mag and magka admit um. 
(See tables, p'dit; dull; sunod. ) 



Second exception. The particle maka precedes other particles, a prop- 
erty also possessed by magsi, except when in combination with itifikn, 
which goes before magsi in such cases. (See tables, lard; gmni; linloq; 
dito; alls. It must further be borne in mind that roots which are primarily 
conjugatexl by via;/ retain pag as a prefix invariably, as do also those roots 
differing in meaning with um and mag. 


For convenience of reference to the Spanish works and also to the work 
of Hmnboldt, the numbers given by the early writers to the various 
particles modifying roots are of use. They are: 

Ist. Um. No def. 10th. Magin. Pagin. 

2d. 'Mag. Pag. 11th. Magsi. Pagsi. 

3d. Man. Pan. 12th. Magsa. Pagsa. 

4th. Maka. Ma. . . . Ka. 13th. Manhi. Panhi. 

5th. Magpa. Pagpa. 14th. Magpaka. Pagpaka. 

6th. Maki. Paki. 15th. Magpali. Pagpati. 

7th. Pa. Pa. 16th. Magkapa. Pagkapa. 

8th. Ma. Ka. . . . Ma. 17th. Magkan. Pagkan. 

9th. Magka. Pagka. 

In, i and an are the three particles always accompanying the definite. 


These particles are much used in Tagalog to express the ideas given in 
the following examples. The agent takes the genitive (or possessive) case 
and the object or effect of the action the accusative. Ex.: 

When my father left, I left also. KapagaUs nang dking amd'g ako^y 

uiiginalis din. 
After he finished his work, he came Kapagkatapus niya nang kanvjang 
to where I was. gawd'y pinaritohan niyaako. 


The same expressions as the above may also be rendered by pag and 
pagka. Ex. : 

When my father had gone away, they Pagal'is dito nang dking arnd'y siyang 

arrived. pagddting nild. 

When it strikes twelve, we will rest. Pagtuglug nang a las doce ay magpa- 

pahingd tayo. 

After you pay your respects to him, Pagbati mo sa kaniyd'y parini ka. 

come here. 

After I eat, I shall go for a walk. Pagkakain ko'y ako'y magpapasial. 


This particle, prefixed to roots, signifies to be held or reputed in what 
may be expressed by the roots. It may also mean "number of times 
made" in some cases. Ex.: 

Rice is considered to be the bread of Ang kanin ay siyang pinakalindpay 

the Tagalogs. nang maiTgd tagalog. 

We regard you as a parent. Kayo po^y pinakamagulang namin. 

He is regarded as their leader. Siyd ang pinakapuno nild. 




Nouns are formed in various manners in Tagalog from roots. 
I. Some nouns are formed by prefixing inapag to the root. Ex. 

Mocker; scoffer. Ma-paghiru. 

Generous person. Mapaghij/aija. 

Scoffer; hoaxer. Mapaglibak. 

Proud; arrogant Mapar/palalu. 

II. Paid prefixed to roots forms other nouns. 

Respectful person. 
Destructive person. 



Barrator (litigant to 

Boaster; great talker. 



Quarrelsome person. Palaauay. 

Drunkard. Palainum. 

Glutton. Palaknin. 

Loving (amorous) Palasintd. 
, person. 

Some of the above may l>e verbalized by changing the initial jo to n or rn. 
Ex.: Nalakain shjd (he became a glutton). Naldlainum sii/d (he is be- 
coming a drunkard). Malalairikdsii/d (he will become a l)oaster). This 
is now provincial. 

III. Some nouns of the classes under consideration are formed by pre- 
fixing ma either to the imperative or future of the root, as combined with 
in. Ex.: 

Friendly person. 

Amorous person. 

Disobedient person. 

Obedient person. 

A jolly person. 

An affectionate person. 

A timid, bashful person. 

A forgetful person. 

A pleasant person. 

A sorrowful person. 

A delicate, sickly person. 

A timid person (cowardh^). 


Mairogm; masintah in. 
Masua'm (from suay). 
Masunorn) (from sunod). 
3[atai(aiii» (from iaiia). 

Mahihiy'm (from Jiigd). 
Malilimutin (from livtot). 
Malulugd'm (from lugod). 
Maluluinbayhi (from linnbay). 
Masasakt'm (from sakit). 
Matatakutin (from tdkol). 

IV. Other nouns indicating occupations, professions, trades, etc., are 
formed by man with the future tense of the indefinite. See list of such at 
€nd of section three. 

V. Nouns indicating a person suffering from a chronic disease or fault 
are to be found formed by suffixing in to the root denoting such disease 
or fault. (See Par. XXIII, in.) These nouns may be verbalized by 
in. Ex.: Siyd'y Jiiuihikd (he suffers from asthma). Sild'y tinatamad {they 
are lazy). 

VI. Some nouns with an idea of place inherent are formed with the 
future tense of some roots with an. Ex.: Pagbabaonan, cemetery; burying 
place (from barm). Pagbibinyagdn,haY)istry (irom binyag). Pagpaputaydn, 
abbatoir. Place of execution, Pagbibitaydn (from bitay). 

VII. Some nouns indicating occupation are formed by taga combined 
Vi'iih p)ag {tugapag) heiore a root. Ex.: Tagapagbantaij, sentinel, watch- 
man. Syn. : Tagapaglniiod. Tagajiagming, cook (from ming, "cooked 
rice"). Sometimes /«gra alone indicates this. Ex.: Ta(/a^<'(;ao, wanderer, 


The following words arranged alphabetically by roots in Tagalog will 
show the use of many idiomatic phrases, etc. : 

Occupation ; employment. 
To try; to intend. 

Abala (syn.: garni). 
Magakala (from akala). 




To look after and follow a person. 

To heed; to note. 


To reap or cut rice. 

Unaccounted for; without reason; 
at random. 

Rancid (usual word). 
To growl. 

To sing. 


To arise; to get up. 

Widower or widow. 

To change the clothes. 

To launch or put a vessel into the 

water; also to place a ladder. 
To travel on horseback or by means 

of horses. 

To palpitate. 

To weigh anchor. 

A kind of rice. 

To clear off timber in order to culti- 
vate the land. 

Ala (rare). Ang plnaala, what is 
rancid. Ang pagala, the rancid- 
ity. Umala, to become rancid. 
Makaala, to make rancid. Mag- 
papaala, to let everything become 

Mayaldghni/ (from alaghay). [Rare]. 

Umanii)!, from amin. 

Ang. Sometimes used as "be- 
cause. ' ' Hindi ako makapagharujon, 
ang aka'g may sakit (I am not able 
to get up, because I am ill). 
Plural ang manga. 

Maganl ( from ani, ' ' harvest " ) . 

Ano.^ Ano hagaf ( What then?) .1 no 
pa.^ (What else?) Aii6f I'ugkak- 
asdlaan kHaf (What? Must we 
speak in Spanish?) 

An(kin6. Walang uuoann ang salapt 
ito (this money is unaccounted 
for). Tinapal siyu niyd walang 
anoano (he slapped him without 

Antd (same changes as ala). 

UniaiTj/il, var. umimjil (from aiTijil; 

Magawit (from auit). Silang lahat 
ay nagawit (they all sang). 

Bago. Bagonglauo; bachelor. Ba- 
gong damit, new clothes. Kaha- 
gongtauohan, youthfulness; bache- 
lorhood. Bagong paiVjinoon, ha- 
gong ugali, new lord, new cus- 
toms. Magbugo, to renovate. 
Mamago, to wear for the first time; 
also to renew. (See bago, ad- 
verb. ) 

Magbangon (from bangon, a Java- 
nese word; see tindig). Mag- 
bangon ka (get up). Also means 
to lift. Hnidi ako makabaiTgon 
nang tapayan (I am unable to lift 
the jar). 

Bauo, var. Bala. 


Mabungi<od. Bungsoran mo ako nang 
hagddn (place the ladder for me). 

Mawjabayo (from cubayo, "horse"). 
Derived from Sp. caballo, which in 
turn is from L. Lat. caballus, "nag; 
pack horse." 

A'u»/rt/>o_(7 (from kdbag). Nagkakdbag 
ang di'bdib ko (my heart [lit. chest] 
is palpitating). Kakabagkdbag, to 
palpitate greatly. 

Kuinabag (from kabag). Note the 
difference in accent. 


Magkaiwjhi (from kauujin). 





To pirk (as a guitar); to twang; to 

pluck at. 
To snatch; to take by force; to pull 

up by the roots. 
Iron or other cliain or wire. 

"What's his name. What do you 
call it. 

To catch on the wing. 

Bad or stagnant water along a shore. 

To seal or close a letter. 
To belong to. 

To be restless. 

To order to elect. 

To recline; to lean against. 
To dig a hole. 

To cease; to end. 

To wash the hands or feet. 

To speak nasally. 

To unite or bind together. 

To look blankly (as a blind person). 

To sparkle (as the eyes in excite- 

To roll up (as sleeves or trouser legs) ; 
to lift the skirt. 

To give alms. 

To look first at one thing and then 

To avert the eyes. 
To look here and there on account 

of noise. 

To look here and there hurriedly. 
To glare in a wild manner. 
To act foolishly. 

To relish. 
To wish; to desire. 
Wmg (of bird). 
To pardon; forgive. 

Without respect; limit or considera- 

M(ujk<ilithit (fnjm kdlahit, var kalbit). 
Kumdmkuin (from kainkdiii). 

Kduad. Ma'jkauud, to use a chain 
or wire. 

Si kii/iii. Ang kudu. This word can 
be verbalized bj' um, ma;/, magpa, 
nuiki, etc. 

Dumdkit (from ddk'tl). 

Dikyi't. MadiHyd Idmg ddlampasig ito 
(there is stagnant water along this 

Magdiil. Pandiit, seal, wax, gum. 

Gumnndn {Iroia gavdn). (kiudnsa 
akin ito (This belongs to me). 

Gumaso ( from gaso, rare) . (jasohan, 
person disturbed. Mangaso, to 
disturb another. Gagasohan, rest- 
lessness. Gayasogaso, very rest- 

Magpahalal (from halal). 

Iligpit. Mahigpit, tight. Maghigpit, 
to tighten ; to cinch up (as a girdle, 
strap, etc.). Walang higpithigjiit, 

Hum dig (*'rom hiUg). 

HiDiiukuy (from hnkay). Ang pan- 
hiikay, the spade. 

ITuniuinpay (from Jmmpay). 

Maghugas ( from hugas ) . ( See lamos, 

MaliuhiunaUuimal (from Innnal). 

Magltnigkdj) (from hiugkap). 

Magldiiug (from liking). 

Lumilap {irora lilap) [rare]. 

Maglilis. Bdkit kn naglililis nang sc- 

lawaU (Why are you rolling up 

your trousers?) 
Maglimos (from Sp. litnoi^na). Mag- 

jicdimos, to ask for alms. 
Lumiwjap (from litJgap, var. UiTga- 

LurniiTgcd (from liiTgat). 
LumiiTgingig (from liiTgiiTgig, rare). 

Probably a combination of diiTgig, 

idea of hearing. 
LuuiiiTijos (from li)T(/os). 
Ln)iiii/<tp (from liyap). 
MainaiTijal. Magma mai~jdma)~gahan, 

to feign stupidity. 
Numamnam (from nammnn). 
Magnasa {see pita). 
Pakpak. Lumipad, to fly. 
Magpaiduad (from patduad, syn., 

tduad). Magpatauarau, to forgive 

each other. 
]Valang jmtomangd. 



To choose; to select. 

To pick up. 

To become dull (as a knife or i izor). 

To boil rice. 

Pest; epidemic; to suffer from. 
To pFofess; to vow; to believe in. 

To pass between rocks, hills, etc. 
To peep. 

To care for most diligently. 
To grasp; take hold of; pinch. 

To put vinegar on anything. 

Can be. 

To run away from or hide froi i. 
To betray. 

To cut grass; to mow. 

To patch. 

To be gaping stupidly. 

To look upward. 

To stare at. 


To do anything swiftly. 
To look down. 

To assign to; to turn over to. 

To sprinkle. 

I'umill. Ang pUiin, what chosen or 
selected out. Aug pinilUni (sing.) 
or A>ni pinagpUian {p\ur.), what 
selected or chosen from. 


Ptuiiorol {Irom purol). Ang purolin, 
what dulled. Taniomal (from 
tomal), to be dull (as business). 
Kaluinalun, dullness. Angitomal, 
the cause of such dullness. 

Summng (from sding). Sinding, boil- 
ed rice. 


Su inu mpa lataya. A / ig su nt asa mpa la- 
(aija, the creed, faith or believer. 

Sumilang (from silang). 

Snmilip (from siiip). 

Ifagpakaiiipagsipag (from sipag). 

Snm'tpit {from sipit, "tongs"). iSini- 
l»t, an anchor. 

Magsuka. Aug sukacm, what dipped 
in or flavored with vinegar. 

Sukat. 1)1 siikat, can not be. Stikat 
hagd si gang pagkaliwalaan? (Can 
he be trusted?) Sukat [dt sukat'\ 
siyang paniivalaan (He can [can 
not] be trusted). 

Tumakds (from takas). (from faksil). Taksil na 
tauo, a traitorous or treacherous 
man. Kataksilan, treason, treach- 

Tumagpas (from tagpafi). 


TalangutaiTlid. Magtangatangdhan, to 
feign stupidity. 

Tumimjuld (from tingald). Ang 
tingalain, what seen thus. 

Timiillg (from titig). 

Katoto. Katotohin mo niyd (befriend 

Tud. Ang jMgddting ninyo'y naka- 
tutud Ka dkin (Your arrival causes 
me jileasure). Ikindtulud ko ang 
pagddting ninyu (Your arrival is a 
source of pleasure to me). 

Tumulin (from tulin). MagtnUn, to 
go swiftly. Ang ipagtulin, the 
cause of going swiftly. 

TumuiTiji') {irom tungo). Also to bow 
or incline the head. Ang twujhdn, 
what looked at thus or the person 
bowed to. 

Magukol. Si Pedro nagukol nang 
kaniyang gagaiv'm kay ,hian (Pedro 
turned over the work to be done 
by him to Juan). 

Magwisik. Ang pamvisik, the 



To order. Mar/utos. Snnd'in mo aufj I'ltos ko sa 

ii/d (follow my orders to you). 
The following example?, taken from the Tagalos; edition of the Ilcnari- 
miento, a paper of Manila, will give an idea of ordinary Tagalog composi- 
tion as applied to modern conditions, and the use of foreign words in con- 
nection therewith: 

I. Singapore, U:a 12 (dalawd) ng (nang) Abril {1905). Ang paraan 7ii 
Rodjeslvenjtky ay makardiing siya sa cabo {loiTgos) Padaran na nas^a bagbai/in 
ng Jndo-China, at loO mUla ang agivat sa Saigon. Doon i~ga magpipisan ang 
nagkahiivalay na hukbong-dagat iig riigd (matTgd) ruso, kun sakdling sild'y 
hindi mahdrang kapunu ng mgd japon. 

Ang isang pangkat i~g hukbong-ddgat na pinaiTgunguluhan nl Rodjedvensky 
ay nasa haybayin ng Muntok iTgayon na iilang milla ang agwat sa Sumatra. 

Ang ibang vTga sasakydn ay nasa pagiian pa ng Banka. Ang mgd sasak- 
yang iti?y nasa raang tiv:asay sa pugitan ng Malaca. 

liindi Slid nahdrang, sapagka't ang mgd japon mardhil ay nasa malapit sa 
Formosa na doon nild ibig makilaban. 

Mardhil ang Batavia ang susunod na daraungan ng mgd ruso, sapagka't 
doo'y may cableng dbut hdngang Rusia. 


Singapore, 12th of April. The plan of Rodjestvensky is to try to (arrive 
at) make Cape Padaran, on the coast of Indo-China, and 150 miles distant 
from Saigon. There the separated fleets (sea armies) of the Russians will 
unite, if the two are not encountered by the Japanese. 

One division of the fleet commanded by Rodjestvensky is now off the 
coast of ]Muntok a few miles from Sumatra. 

The other vessels are yet in the region of Banka. The other vessels of 
this (fleet) are remaining in the route (or neighborhood) of Malacca. 

They were not molested, because the Japanese continued to remain near 
Pormosa, where they wish to commence the struggle. 

Russian vessels continue to follow each other into Batavia, because there 
is a cable connecting with Russia there. 

II. Newchwang, ika 7 ng Abril. Ang 300,000 kataong bumubuo ng hukbo 
ni Oyama ay sumasalakay na maigi sa hukbo ni Linevilch na nakapagtibay sa 

Mabull ang paraan iTg pagkakalusob mj m/a japon at ang habd ng kanilang 
lupang naliahanayan ay may dpat na puo a limang puong milla. Inaakala 
ni Oyama na itaboy untiunti ang vTgd ruso hdngang sa kanilang madaig na 

Ang hukbong pinamamahalaan ni general Linevitch ay hindi hihigit sa bilang 
na 200,000, sapagka't bukod sa namatayan siyd ng marami sa labanan, ay 
marami pa ang nabihag ng mgd japon. 


_ Newchwang, 7th of April. The 500,000 men composing the army of 
Oyama are advancing in good order upon the army of Linevitch now in- 
trenched at Kirin. 

The plan of advance of the Japanese is good (excellent) and the length 
of their front (ground) is 40 or 50 miles. Oyama is trying to push the 
Russians gradually until he can vanquisli them all (unitedly). 

The army under the charge of General Linevitch does not number more 
than 200,000, especially because l)esides the many who have been killed in 
battle there are many also M'ho have been captured by the Japanese. 

III. San Petersburgo, ika 6 iTg Abril. Ang mgd japon ay nakasu-^ulong na 
unti-unti sa dakong kinalalagydn ni general Lineritcit at mj kaniyang hukbo. 
Isang drao paH ang Harbin ay }iindi na marahil jnatidalianan )Tg nigd ruso, 
sapagka't pinagiislpang gibain ng kadway. Hindi na pinaiTgangalawanan ng 


mgd rusn avrj pagpapal-atihai/ sa Harbin, sapagka't may naldhinikinila silamj 
malaLiiK/ /miTijiiiiih na t<(i.-<(ij)ilin doon. Aug dakuug nuruiTgun tTijingd rusoay 
ang Vladiivxtok na hi ii Hang inamhang niaj/aglitibai/ang rnaigi hangang sa 
magkarooa i~g kapayapaan. Masamd ang iayo iTg ragd hukbong rum, data- 
puiva't Idndl namdn niapahi'isag, il6 daliil sa gulong nangyagari sa Rusia. 
Marami sa- Rusia ang naniniwald na madadaig ang hukho ni general Llnerilch, 
at hung magkagayon ay magkakaroon iTg kapayapaan. 


St. Petersburf», 6th of April. The Japanese are advancing httle by Hltle 
upon the position of General Linevitch and his army. One day more, and 
Harbin may possibly not be remaining to the Russians, because they think 
it may l)e destroyed by the enemy. The Russians are making no efforts 
to strengthen themselves in Harbin, because they believe themselves to 
1)3 in great danger of capture there. The place of retreat for the Russians 
is Vladivostok, which they hope to fortify so well as to hold it until peace. 
The situation of the Russian armies is bad, but it can not be bettered on 
account of the riots taking place in Russia. Many in Russia believe that 
the army of (General Linevitch will be defeated, and that in that event 
there will be peace. 

IV. Manila ika 14- i~g Ahril. Ibinabalitd iTg Gobemador Dancel {Lalawigang 
Rizal), na noong umagcl mj ika 5 t~g buuung lumaJdkad ay may nadakip sa 
Bagbagin no tatlong tduong labds at siyam na kalabao na ninanakao sa Nova- 
liches, dalawang bard at dalawang revolver. Noong ika 11 ay may nadakip 
na isnng tduong labds na may dalang, isang kalabao, at isang rifleng mauser, 
dalawang puong cartucho't dalairang puong rifleng remington. Noong ika 10 
ay may nasumpungan ang presidente sa Taytay na isang remington na may 
sampuong cartuclio. Ang vTgd kalabao ay dinald sa tosoreria municipal. 
Noong ika 11 ay nakadakip din namdn si Gobemador Dancel iig isang nag- 
ngangalang Pedro Fio, na do umano'y si gang nangbagabag na maigi sa 
Baranka at Mankina noong viernes. Ito'y ibinigay kay mayor Haskell ng 
constabulario. May nadakip pa ring dalawang tduong labds na may isang 
revolver colt at sampuong cartucho. 


It is announced by Governor Dancel (Rizal Province) that on the morn- 
ing of the 5th of the current month tiiere were captured at Bagbagin three 
outlaws and nine of the carabao stolen from Novaliches, two shotguns, and 
two revolvers. On the 11th there were captured one armed outlaw, one 
carabao, and one Mauser rifle, twenty cartridges, and twenty Remington 
rifles. On the 10th the presidente (mayor) of Taytay secured a Reming- 
ton and ten cartridges. The carabao were sent to the municipal treasury. 
On the 11th Governor Dancel was also able to capture one called Pedro 
Pio, said to be the person who made trouble at Baranka and Mariquina 
last Friday. This person was turned over to Major Haskell, of the con- 
stabulary. There were also two outlaws captured who had a Colt revolver 
and ten cartridges. 

T'. Hindi malalaunan at magtatayo ritd sa Maynild, ng bagong hospital. 
Ito'y isang ambagannahiningi ng Rt. Rev. Opispo Brent ng siyd' y nasa Estados 

Ang salaping gugugulin ay kaloob ng limang universidad sa Harvard, Yale, 
Pnnceton, Pennsylvania at Columbia. 

Ang maiigangasiiva nito ay ang Iglesia Episcopal, datapuwa't tantangapin 
ang sinomang naukol sa ibang religion. 


It will not be long until there will be erected here in Manila a new hos- 
pital. This will be from a subscription solicited by the Right Reverend 
Bishop Brent when he was in the United States. 


The money to be offered is from the funds (interior) of five universities: 
Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Pennsylvania, and Columbia. 

The direction of this (hospital) will be under the Episcopal Church, but 
anyone will be received belonging to another faith. 

VI. Ang gohernador sa Bataan si G. Toincis del Rosario aij nag ah.ty sa Ba- 
langa i~g isang lupang may 15 hectarea at T'4,000, ang halagd, xipang mapag- 
tayuan i~g isang " secondary school." Ang yaong lupang yuan ay magagamit 
sa pagadral t~g agricnltura 6 i~g mga dnnong tunglcol sa pamumukid, at magin- 
garalan din namdn iTg vTgd pagsasanay ng pangpalah'ts /Tg katawan. 

Sa akalarin namdn mj Gobernadoray rnabutingmagkaroonng isang maestrong 
arnericano sa bayan bayan upang maitanyag ang nTgd paraan at ugaling ameri- 
cano sa nTgd filipino. 


The governor of Bataan, Hon. Tomas del Rosario, has given a piece of 
land comprising 15 hectares and worth ^"4,000, in Balariga, in order that 
there may be a site for the erection of a "secondary school." That land 
may be used for teaching agriculture or for sciences or occupations per- 
taining to the land, and for instruction in the means of strengthening the 
body (manual training school). 

The endeavor of the governor will be to have one American teacher in 
each town in order to show the customs and habits of the Americans to 
the Filipinos. 

VII. Di umano'y hihilingin ng Compania iTg tranvia eledrico na tulutun na 
ang sasakyang ito'y marapdting jMiratiiigin hangan sa Palani/ag. 

Ipinagbibigay alam din namdn ngayon sa gohernador general mj naiTgawja- 
siwa sa tranvia electrico na sa limes ay 2ifisisimidang patakbulian ang daan sa 
Santa Ana. 


It is said that the electric street-car company will ask that the line be 
permitted to be extended to reach as far as Parafiaque. 

Notice has also been given to-day to the governor-general by the man- 
agement of the electric railway that on Monday it will commence the 
operation of the road to Santa Ana. 

VIII. Paunawa. — Ipinamanhik sa sinomang nakapulot iTg isang dsong 
lalaki na may balalubong kulay cafe at may put i sa dibdib at sa dulo iTg paang 
kanan sa unahdn, may taglay na collar sa liig at isang chapa na may numerong 
{bilang) 196-5, ay mangyaring ibalik 6 isaidi sa, daang Arranque bilang {big.) 
158 at doo'y kakamtan ang isang pahuya at dakilang pasasalamat. 


Notice. — It is requested that anyone w'ho may pick up a male dog with 
coffee-colored hair and with white on the breast and the end of the right 
front foot, bearing a collar on the neck and a tag with the number 1965, 
will be able to return or restore him to No. 158 Arranque street, where a 
reward will be given, together with many thanks. 

IX. Nairald. Sa bdhay na bilang 74 sa daang Rada, Tondo, ay nawald 
ang isang manuk na sasahunging balalubong lasak, maitim ang tahid, maputi 
ang padH baldado ang datu sa kanan. Sinoman ang makapagdald 6 maka- 
pagturo ng kinalalagydn iig naturang manuk ay bibigydn tig pabuyung halagang 
walo 6 sampuong piso. 


Lost. — From the house No. 74 Rada street, Tondo, there has been lost 
a gamecock with white and red (lasak) plumage, black spurs, and white 
feet, with the middle claw of the right frjot crippled. Anyone who may be 
able to bring or point out the whereabouts of the said fowl will be given a 
reward to the amount of eight or ten pesos. 



A careful study of the foregoing examples will enable one to elearly 
understand the general run of the modern language. Keading the native 
press, both for practice and keeping trac-k of what is of interest in native 
circles, is recommended to all who may l)e stationed in the Tagalog region. 

Section Eight. 

The following table of the contractions and variations of the roots of 
Tagalog words will be found of use in quickly finding the form: 


To salute; hail 

To remember 

To be lazv 


Spouse; to marry 

Salt; to salt 

Roof; cover; to roof 

To carry on the shoulders 


To moisten 

To suffer; endure 

To pound rice 

To give 

To ac:custom 

To buy 

To change the clothes 

To open 

To separate 

To spill 

To pass 

To l)ring; carry 

To seize; arrest; detain 

To arrive 

To stick 

To stretch out the arms 

To hear 


To do one's duty 

To work 

To pull down; destroy thus. . . 

To awake 


To kiss 

To substitute 

Ribbon ; band 

To so w ; scatter seed 

To conduct; escort 

To lie down 

To blow 

To complain 

To wait for ' Unilaii 

To ask for ' IlliTl/l , 

To borrow ( except money ) Jlirmn . 

To change . Jbd . . . 

To go for water J</ih . . 

The other side KabUd 




AH saga 


Amu a . .. . 








Byjaij . 






Bull OS 





Dlkit '..... 











I la)) in 




JliJi ip 


Contraction, variation, 










Basin; basdn. 


Bay in. 



Billiin; bilhdn. 

Bisin; bisdn. 




Dandn; danin. 

Dalhin; dalhdn. 


Datnin; datndn. 

Diktin; diktdn. 

Dip-Jdn; dip-hd)i. 

Ding-gin; ding-gdn. 

Dugin; dugdn. 


Gawin; gawdn. 

Gibin; gibdn. 








Higdn; hihigdn. 




Hiwjin; hirTgdn. 

Hirmin; Idrmdn. 

Ibhin; ibln'tn. 

Igbin; igbdn. 

Kabilin; kabildn. 




To bite 

To deny ; cloak 

To eat 

To untie ; loor^en 


To obtain 

To grope for 

To grasp; embrace 

To nibble 

To cut off 

To know; be acquainted with. 

To exceed 

To place 


To grow 

Contents; pulp 

To soften 

Far; distant 


To err; to make a mistake 

To observe; experience 

To begin ; commence 

To settle; appease 

To contain; include, etc 

To listen 

To dream 


To break (as a rope, etc.) 

To squeeze 

To wring 

To cut 

To embark; to mount 

To 1)6 ill 

To err; sin 

To tell; report 


To come back; to give back .. 

To burn rubbish 

To devour ; eat 

To put into 

To follow; obey 

To wonder at 

To cover 

To turn the back 


To grasp ; to hold to 

To stand 

To taste; trv 

To look . . . ". 

To redeem 


To move 

To return; repeat 

To sit down 

To lack 


Contraction, variation, 

Kain . 

Kalg'in; kalgdn. 

Ka/hcd Kaliv/m; kaliwdn. 











Laman . . 







Pnlagay . 


Kap'in; kapdn. 

Kapt'in; kaptdn. 

Kihthi; kibtdn. 

Kitl'm; kitldn. 





Lakhin; lakhdn. 


Latin; latdn. 



Malin; maldn. 



Palagydn. Fr(im lagay. 

Palamndn. From lamdn. 

Pakinig I Pakingdii. 

Pa i~ Id Ian . 
















Takip Takpdn. 

Talikod ; Talikddn 

Taniin | Tamndn. 

Tayo . . . 
Tiicim . . 
Tinght . . 
Tubos . . 
Tuyb . . . 







Pigin; pigdn. 


PuU'm; jnitldn. 


Sdktin; sakldn. 



Samin; samdn. 

Saolin; saoldn. 


Sit in; sildn. 




Tubs'in; tubmn. 
Tuy'm; tuydn. 

Vl'm; Uldn. 
Wald I Wal'm; waldn. 


II. For names of animals, birds, fishes, and invertebrates not given in 
this work the student is referred to Jordana's Boxi/uejo Georjrdjico (• Jfis- 
torifo Natuntl del ArdirpHiago Filipino, INIadrid, 1885; to the work of Friar 
Casto de Elera, Dominican, entitled Vatdlogo iSistematico de Toda la Farina 
de Filijiinas, Manila, 1895; and to the book of Montero y Vidal, El Archi- 
piiiago Filipino y las islas Marianas^, Carolinas y Palaos, Madrid, 1886. For 
the fauna the great work of Friar Blanco, Augustine, will be of great aid, 
as well as the reports of the forestry and agricultural bureaus at Manila. 
The work of Father Delgado, S. J., Manila, 1892, deserves attention as 
revised and annotated. 

In conclusion, it is hoped that a careful study of the language under dis- 
cussion will lead the student to explore for himself, and note the localisms 
and changes in each province. Any suggestions, corrections, or criticisms 
will be welcomed by the author. 





















O ^ ^" O O O 

r- C 

i ^ 

«T' "^ 

^ 2 "2 

c < 

































o ^ 


o , . „ 

« h^ Ph > 

-< W P5 














ISUal T^fJlSL 

J and II future perfei 


aria. ' 
; Maria, 
i Maria. 







1 shall (will) 1 
'You will have 
"He (she) wil 
" We(incl.) w 
"You (ve) w 
"They will ha' 

Same meanin 

IVhat AnJ'ioim?" What will V 
^j, iTio? "What will you 1 

Im 7agawi 

Ist »«gaw 

What 1 Ai 


te this 

or " 1 


IN na niyd. "H 
rdniyd. "He wil J 


nio H«? "What Willi 
"What will have 1 

niny6 na? or Ano 
have taken?" 


o na nito? or An6 a 
have written this with' 

/al)ng palay or MaiaA] 
ave sown this rice." 

/ .J a ito? or Mmpagksda^ 




I'nrt. AuKibtei», •■Ui»lwiD|t"i'U-. 
Virrlnl oil), nAp». "btlOvM." uU-. 

IvIUt! f!^iii'i^n' AllIriiL "We (oxci. ) liudlovod Mario!' 
Istthig ninv6 Ma n Marin. " You (ye) ittd loved Maria/ 
UlU^nit&n'iri Moriv. "Tbey hud loved Mktja." 

Yarbid mo ei MkriK. 

iKitblRiiIydwMiiri.. "HuCHhi^rMaLlf».- 
iKirbignntinw Mario. "Woanel,] MHluu 

iKlfblg nlnvO f i Marin. ■■ Vou (yo) foaiUrio 

/IblgiH naUn «1 Mario. "We (ind.l dinll like Macii 
/iMgis ^h. d MatU. ;■ We (e.cU «ball Ukc Mor 


«hall («ill) hav 







1 and II future perfect] 

Tomds nang liniang p 
j^mang piso. "I will h 

^ laka&ral siya. ' ' He wil 

^'* Jfrt/iYf bill ako. ' ' I will ha> 
-'^ **! I or iMTa/caPAGbili ako. ' ' 






[■utivil-lp; Vf^lwl nilJetUfo; imjwwiivo. InDnilivu \l 


Pn-enl (abo imperiMSt). 


landll tulQlvpertcn. 



"','" ■""""""• 

Iniu. Utai^AmoiiTomAiuuigliinRngiirH), "11om>w 

Iwiailfean ko iii Tomi!* nnng limang plBo. "IlKnTowwl ; Ixataii^n niyd «« ni Tomi» nnns liinang niwJ or 
(or have Imrroned) S pMoa Irom Thomiu." ] JViutangoa niyd si TohiAh nnnglimang pbo. "He bad 

(cxcl!) an; borrowing 6 peeoe from ItadM?^^ 

F.1jbufgaitkoriTouiil(.t>ajieiiinang)nn. "IwlUbomw 

"rai'rSSi^T' •'TSSS^ZZ'STf^ 


Imp. SuUtofl Dio lleng pipe). "Write on Ihi* piper." 

An6 tMKd <uiB Nicolata/. mo mtne aiuiipl ™iIIt.Ia.,T 
" Where (on what) did yoa write- llio naml^" 

lyang papol na lyta ay ely«ng «aulalM uiyd. "Thai 


Bald. GaiuoDUilrootuKllneinvowi-lwUhBcuIe 
«i*nt Jiropb.U.-U. endure. mlBer.-oto. 

Imp. i'UirbataAM mo ltd. " I^doro this." 

J*iui£frbalBAanniyiinangniaraniingliUjnivun. "She ban 
mBemI (endured-) Uiat tor nuuiy years." 

PlwiffftobalaAon ko iia. "I am «idufl^lhi*" 

-r - 

i^.(,^ab.«^■,„mydit^ "He , -he) wiU endure .hi.- 

PMDUl ud 

TmiuiianaipdcuDtnKU. Idutof planting: 
wtliDR onL itfutfluiiin. •■ to pluiL" 

7iiiatunndn ui auid uangmrinring kiiioy ta.balunutan. 

Ini, «Ic, Ang im^HilnJ, ''Ihu tocher." 
Vmit^- tourney 


'":'"! I'll'!"." ■■v.,u(j"ii,^hf^ 

' <'■!... Tli.y UujfliU" 
Tb«i'ton,''"!"""' . .'.', ■■ ■'ll.,v«t«ughl."Blc 

' i 


■ and perwn. " "*" "' """* *' 

"" '— ^P— ■ 

il«p.lOrilU."lta.rilIllt." S,„,.,ll.l."l,.»Tll»" 

HungmiMM ak- " 1 \\r..u.-r " 1 liavi' wrillen." iiiinat»AU,ta\(fiua or XafitiiiA\nl nki: "Iluutivrilten." 

.■*„«illal ako. "I eiinll (will) write." 

»^.., ^,-, „„ „, .,/»1,™,... M,. "I .lull h.,. .«««,.■• 

^*l««d jfoff 

with Ktriir. ''toMlI." BnmWI. "to buy'." 

J)/H(,WIf, "U.«lll." 

;;,: , ,'„'i',^„" ...i,. |,i.^." ,„ 

!S,s;V' "1 iK;'",:., X!"""""- 


A'dbiltakA (irrts-). " I am buyi-^y." 

Wibiiiakfi. •■! «huii buy." 
Miif/bM» iik<; "t >lin1I»<'ll." 

.l/»ubi1(»k.U "l «ill Ti.n. -.M," 

Sjrnopiu* at Ihe IM polyRylliitilc nxit«L 

"n'it.nnT.S^RS.'i'.'S 'J!l'"'-^''" •""'"»• ■■"•• 

ITny nntitryuri dtmn, "i^onicUiliiH Una happened on» 

.V«n«nog(nip kn feigd? ■■Ar-;youdl* bT" | 

Miltiffyayari din. " 1l xill ii«U«i ■«> p>mM<--" 

"U.dK«le." i/rtff.dlm. Mofm- 












,.d .,„„.„,.„. 




Imp, Jr«(fii»!It»."Miid)r." 

.V„^»l«k.. ■■I^iea-.r-h.v^.tudl^l.- 

if«,i»l .k» ,„. „ »-„*»„.»», .k». .■■ b.J «.di,!,- 

HagoinXakt. "I amOTudying." 

Jtf Offoiiml akfiL "]«h«ll(wm)rtudr." 

Paa: jitMff. 


J-IN>iffiiAk>io my& llfi. "HeBtolethiik" 

'is'Kaa'i'"" '"°"""""°"""""""- ■■"* 

PWnnnatoiiinlrfHMitAorUijMffnikaODiTtlltd. "Howill 



'"jJfWltom. "to liZ^'.-'^ '" "'*"*■'■ 

,V««m okfiL ■■ I wiu hunjrry," o 

iTRiiAliimnaakd. "I hwlUwnhongry.- 

iVnir»K<ituni nku. "Inm limiKiy." 

""^ ■■..«b,,,,,,^... 

W«ir«.itom »» mU. "Th.-y «IN hoTO l-n l.unKry." 

"satn^i!""- ■■"■"' 

raUjr. Ocmount not Gliui«iiig tar eophany 

•'■"■"■■"""■ ""••""'■■■ ""° 


.V.mU., nn rip^ ■•Il-l.-aJW." 

.Vamamata)' dyd. "Ilo tf ilyinj;." 

JfanmiiMiriMiriTi. "lUwinhandiad." 

"&-c-'"«'i:i;3 J """ 


«noBlayan ayk oMug Kn&. " Ilia It 


'"-™*»'"""-"™""'- ■•■"■"'"'"'■ 



IV<d- Ooaaonant root radlog la «»■• 
«naoL Jra|rfaod,"tolwilndouL" 


Toi. Oi>iUoraDt root eaAXag in vowel with 

XntiuMinoanemaiikdbtU. "AmunyoaiMlt with the 


flho uniiMKl hciMll 

thcmMtvn witli Ui^ ciiiltfi^D." 


Kjjjjmjjtjro-W m«i» baU. "I n'll amu. i 



Monllbrt/'loriiilmlc," •••«>«.'• "mock." 

A.,«;«...i.l.,.lc, tl.„.K.,.r.d,«. 

J-oi.lll.k ^i, ■•! ri.lln.M" or ' 

'""■' "'"'"'"'■" 

"ml'ri/' ""'"'" """"""'""'"'''■ """'"'"■ 

AfflM/ilibok «k6. "UmrLliculing." 

Jfn.U.TO,kakS. ■•! .1,.U AUcal.." 

JWanjatbak akA im or MAUfmiiUbak ak& "I «halt han 

"srEtx^." "*• "^ '^"' 


BlU. OoDMiunt root fodlnit in vowol with 
•ml* wx»M. MamiU. "to Irar tnoch: to 

"-"o'Sl'"'" """'«"""" 

have 1iouj;lil)t]ii« >t 

N*fH»nill ko iU.. "1 liad Ijousbt lliii at wholoaK-." 

PlKdmimilr niyl ilA. " lie U buylsg lbi« 


»UiMtmilt niy« iiA. "Ho wilt lia» booitbt -bulMalt^" 

bii^aaUD. -'[thajipMnJlhi^IwHil 


S±>"- "" "•-■■ *""'"'■ "'" 

An«|W-.imlpr. "th«»rtol1jrirt.iog.;; 

Imp. (pamigajrmuitongUhBL "l.ive»)! IhU." 

//«isumigBy ko iiong Wiat "I U 


NuiMimigayniy&ihinoUIuil. "HohadKivenalltliu." 

»<. Vrini, ail 

/jMimmigay kn ilong lah«l- "I «ill gin all Uiia'" 

H UfHim^ nlylitong lahaL "II« will hav» gjna all thla" 

MatS^bA. "to pfwth." 



'■■""""'"*"'°""" """""" 



/WiJIH*,» „!,« lyto. ■11, .», h, mu-l. 

J by 

Aw »<>4>fi&ina. ■the pwhcr" 
pr.^i«d?^L «.. th» «ib)«:lof a»* 


■X"""*"- "'"*"" "~"'°°'"- 

reliovi' you." 



i\raftairi|rinhdiu M kMlyi Mil BUnoL • 

Ha i. Llai, 

"aasrsirji-is"» '-'■ ■■'"•"" 




lUniii CooMunl root ending in couonaat. 
U» ot Mdn««. «tatuipi*, "to be md." 
Mofaihtpli^ "to eaun «.dnn." 

by hi« death" 

y». ■■Iwuicricv»] 

X-Mi's""""*—""^ • 


"^sasfSJarass;?'"'* "''°" 




I and II futi 

:aw:l aku. "I sll 






PaaUieftwrt) tonaa 

I anj 11 |,l»,Hirruvt 

Present (alao impertect}. F^tore. 





iVfikuhakoiyaoghaii^ "I WMibletotakeUiattniit" 

A'«X-uku,« ko iyang buKfe. ". «u able to Uk. .bat .W«J,l;«hakciy„.gbu«g. ■• 


•"liSSr"""" "'■"■""- •■■-"•'*"»•«"-'"■ 

JVu/fliflibt ko itong pnnAUt " I «n writo wilh tbia 

.irnniuillat nil« Uanq jmnQlH. "They will be bI.Ic- 


Jfafnxi^wt, "toonlertndooraiBke," 

livgpafpapag».iik, "the art ot onlerinK .lono nr 

Afnff/»ng»wAiiki. "Ion]eTed(fonielhin(t| Jone." 


Ifagpapa^vli «iyS. "Ut i» enlcring tliat «ouiclhins 

"j^.r""»-"' ■'■•■ ■■' -^' ••" °*"^ ""•■"" 


P»»tffpa[.hm.xmougniu!^)«UDUWiabig. "TeU 


.W«flp«rfl«t. "U. ord« k. Write." 

i:rHii'j;Kj£?f •°'"- -"" '■""» ""■"" "- 

J>iiMwuuiliit kJU nitong saint. "I (duid) am onlrriiiB 
youto»ritolhial«U«rT Al«, aakloi." «c- 

'■STJS;-'""""»"'"^ -..^..^^uu...» 


«(Walwim, "to Older to K.W." 

Prttamnan mo lyang bUkliL "Onlertlint Belli plantal," 

PiMnUmiidnkaitonglupiL "I ordered tbatthiagroDnd 
be plwited." 

PuMtamniln ko iysng lupA. " I iiha.1l onler that gruund 
to be planted." 


Patilong. ■■ to Mk lor help/^ 

raWlong ka kay '"edro. "A«k Pedro lo liolp you." 

JVapnldloQK ka bagd ea knniydT " Have yon aaked him 

to belpT' 
I^»«tfifoag niyi xku, " He told me to help." 

aak^ratoholpl^' ^ ^ ' 

XttjtatntAlous ukO aa inyO. " I am aakiQx you to h«lp." 
J*iHnIuUtl«ng niyi kay6. " Hu la aaklng you lo lielp." 

/'Mlutulonf^nc ko myi b&kan. " I will a«k him to help lo- 
BakitUMtutdloDg niyAakA? "Why will he oak me to 

Wto. "H««L" 

PtnapatHotno AyiJ "Di>l you I^ll bim to come hoM" 

Xaparirito »yi " Ho i» wmlng h<at." 

Sino bai* wiK_i»mnriritofan niyi? "Who ia he coniinB 

J'nnritosiU. "Tbcy wUlcon.ebcre." 

An6 nng IkapaHrita nilAT ■■Why will Ihey wm.. heroT" 

PapH^nlomti mo eiydT "Will you l«ll lilm to oomo 


JIOMbiluy. "toKotoahouBt" 

jKxrii"' ■!6;'S;Ki«'""°'"'""'" 

SniHuutXMmy nhi'>. "I went to a lioiwo." 

yapOMtuahihuy eiylL "He ingoing ton lionw." 

i'ViMiMbillwy iA6. "I will go to B bouMs" 


ooe"»!»» to be killed-" 

yoffpaJuitDMlmynyA. "HokillMlhinudL" 

^a^^^kam^Uymyi. -He iaallowing hin«.t tobo 

MaffpapakaaiatAy aiyii. " Ho will kill hinuclL" 


ro^>ri, ""That pri ad^moaXnSir'in orSw t^ UJ xf- 

prIUaUomuighefwH," cu-. 

'^KsaS"£i,r'J"-^"' '""■ "■• '■""" 

.tfaffpntdtoU, "to toch Mrneatt]r.|| 

to hub thecbililiw nmMly." 

TWlog. "Try oanwaUy to aWdy 
the Tagalog tongue. 

aMS-06. (Tol«,pTO;2ail Net 




I and II future 



AND VERBAL NOUN— Continued. 



]-«rtidplB; V.T 

U«l adjective; imfierative. loADJUve if 

— -"- 


Prewnt (alio imperfert). 


■..„„..„ .^ 



SM. Onumiwit root mdios in vowel UkinK 
niH u>a tan. JfaffjM/nwin, " b> repent 


moi». •■" 

«,*,,,«„,.„,.„„.,.„ •.,.e,i„^n.U,i, 


luie'Sf "Ii^'l°$c>3|%r^ 


Stakltnl. •• to loin" (or inlntm «itfa hnrfa- 
ir«). A/nA'(wB*t»l."("forlnt«Tf.n. 
in «tadying). JfoMaby. ''to cmbvlc 

A'flftAxwiral'ikfi. ^°l"ioinrf in rtudyina." 

.VoMiuinil nk6. •'Iami»inini;<n leftching." 
!fiiMtipag6n\ to)6. "You an. interferinn wiUi study." 
yakltS^y kaiuf «a iDy6. "Wo are cmbwkiog with 

M»kltpi^y^^,y& w kaniyi' "She wifl «TaW 



.tfuMhAlid. "to etny ■rong with." 

IjnnfikUibilhi ko ilong Billat. "I am ukio^ ttit letter 

/jKiMMiMid ko Itong «dUL "I will tako Ihli 


*fflaissi»"^ ■■'*"' 


llitttttk-lkis<l\it ko itA doAn. "I am putUnR this in to it 


I.AfA. CouDDaiit not endinji In vo«ol «itfa 
dnumflex «omiL Jirflabrt, "to nUy or 

Kw) in play or g.inLUnB." 


I'lKiiMUpagiiirMttiuyiitongXmlAM. "She i» playing 

'•sfaS'i"" "'•■""-'""■ ■•"■"" 




MaukaAlaag. •■touitcsilebt." 

XaffkaAtMng skA. "I «wol ■ dobL" 
mUlimiiaaha&l»ng ma Ml "Why did you owe thu 

.V«(,frfltadta.,«ri,t "Ho..«e..JebU" 

''^t^tt*?^"*"'*'^^'"""''^ "Why a. you owing 
i^Ka(/fcafciulaiiftonko«iJiwn. "I <,wb Juan." 

JfdffAnioiitang ka>(. " Y.iu will ..«.■ ■ Ji-bL- 




.Vat/hiiiMk wiB ttlbig. "The water tamed into win^." 

-Vaffl^jwokd itonp ilak. "Tlii» wiot-Becnu. to \k tum- 

.ira{rimMuk& itong lUk. "Thu wloo may l(u 



Magln^VK "to tun. tola vli»^." 

lurn into vinr|9trT" 

"^i:^,=«ssJ-""" ■■"'■-- 

lUkUri»i0f],inwblMieiUI:? ■■Whym.yll.e«in,.turn 
into vImvmT" 

MaginiiMk. "lo bin Into «Ine " 

Auk »inn£f(M«li»Vo» nang iiibJB ay ong iMyiin tuuig Omw 
«(tullk*. "ThiT pJuMwborvthif wnbjrWMttumudinlo 


Jfo^wUp^ ■■l<.l«»iiiewurtJ.y,' 

kulan. ^My Mn bwam^ worlEy to have Mlliorify 


.^^.,.... .. 

aasA—OA. (Tniw)«vKsai.i N,.. n 





-PrtW./t/inalayiN mo 
niN. "Glean out 1 

/pnnhinhiga, rao 

teeth with this.' 
Jfin'u^^iihan mo ai 
"Clean your teeth 

Maf/stnuHik ka. ' 
like a Chinaman.' 




Put (peHMt) tcDML 


Pment (alt» imjwrfect) 



11 later. „««. 



hsKwiiiK-'TsrBsrjaBf)?' ' 

S*a*pnff*faHi. liyong lahaL ^' We had oil l<-ll." 

VoffitMBlb Utyono u> W^ ar« all leannK-" 

JVogirfralbrflanglahal. "Thevwillalllnve." 

^Off^UyonolahaL "Aln««." 
JlfOffai^f(l<a™ng lah^l. ■• All n( 


».^,^...".,b.™.. „.„„,„. ,„,.■■ 

PlvnirWgKwA nili iydn. ■' They all ilid that" 

/'iKfif/NbigDwA nnmin it^i. 'We ore nil doing Uiis." 


IpwfltffitWtipoD niuuin itonfmangfi bmay- "■ We are all 

/jMr(r«i)tUpan niU ilonfl mnngd baf^y. "They «ill all 
thro* tba» thing» away." 

my lai^ niunher). 



Piimffirfkunan niU \lSi. "Thui was the place they all 


Aag mangd hatd dito la bayan llo'y 
tkw town an. rtodying in 8»t nam- 


/K y 

•'^Hi» nwpcct (SDMid bim 1« lall ddIiIb knoec |ar to 
kneel) alonc*." _ ^ . 

ODM at the «liar." 

JVof/^ifljufilulioiltilAy 1 .^-yBD-lulhri); on their kiicce" 

.VffjMirniibod nyi. -He («11 oti hb 
kam" (aoddcntalty). 



I'M! (perfect) lenae. 


I and II plu|«Tf«!t, 




,». Cpaundadr»...!- 



^KSStSi?'' •*'""'"""'■■"■■""'■" 

JtroMAfhimaiay aiyi. "She la lainUnj; away." 

3f atiAUimalay aiyi. "lilie will faint away." 

i>n»/ifnui,layiii van 
nm. "lllmnont 


JTanAJioilay. "toelnn.- 

-^Ruth glcucd in thi- AelL^Bow." ' 

Ang gillum ay ang rpiMno/ifhimiilay ninL "Uoiieer ii 

i , 

iffniilgUan mo ai 

wamrfS» ,-,.|.„ 

' ' 1 ' .l.l.l««raohoi»." 

>/.../.-,il.v . ' '" Hn Morrly iu play (or cam- 


JVnffMiinidk. "to ncl (•Irni) (talk) Itko n 

Arn04Htnrikiiiigniu^laeBmil»k nniifc llafH^n m Mnn- 

.Vnr/wiMiiunk aiyiL " He is tnlkii»! Ilk.- 1> CliinuN^." 

,Wrtffwi«iinBifc«iW. "Tt , in<!o]il01iiiiw.>ou»looia." 



Jfairmragilcw. Like above with TBenlopi 

plMe where he «iIopIcdTuBlog ciutonu." 

M)!(0MbiMyaiuiiigiiiui^Bii«tiiii);;>n>^iiJn3np. "Thf 
Uimla rcaoTublf Viaaysiu in tlii-lr inanner of talkine-" 


lOvnpounit ]>artld(> ) 

ey««, from inulat, •'to open Uie 17«. 

liNKKl oj»ii-cy«l.*' 

iDf! with «tBivc cya" (pul U-nw). 

•taring ciyci" {\tA traiae). 

Au); fyiiKriplcfljMpiimiSliit TJiu nme u abovo (prcMnt 

MnohapafomMvX niyl "He «ill stand oi^n-pywl." 



.Vrt(,ftfln/uliihil«jyii. "Blwweptuiuioiuiduittly" or "irir 
Anjf iyH(t(i(»Av(nh,Iiilia, "Uincaniipof nlinliliiiR l««f«iii- 

JViirrbiAvdi/ululiB kiiy6. ■■Yoii an- «hnltltne tcsic" or 
" Yuiir ey» uro lillvxl with Irtir»." 

Mitgh^anhAwXii. kavA. «Yod trill unconxcituwly ibud 


tdue) Irom .JOBn, "lilowJ. 

AijB n™»»fffai/iv(wiliidDgitn. ftwne 1» «bo»»; ■•plo«"— 

An« |«uludi.gdB. *8wj.o a» fonnoinu (fulnro 






Accent, change of, 18. 

Changes meaning, 19. 

General rules of, 18. 
Accents, 18, 19. 

Acute, 18. 

Grave, 18. 

"Circumflex, 18, 19. 
Active (voice), 20. 
Adjectives, 20, 38, (full analysis of) 55, 5fi, 57. 

Prefixed to noun, 31. 
Adjectives, comparison of, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

Equality, 72, 73. 

Inferiority, 73. 

Superiority, 73, 74. 

Superlative, degree of, 74, 75, /6. 
Adjectives (regarded as to meaning) : 

Colors, 63. 

Of condition, 61, 62. 

Of phvsical conditions of bodv, 63, 64. , 

Of quality, 58, 59, 60. 

Of quantity, 62. 

Mental, moral, or personal attributes, 64-71. 

Miscellaneous, 71, 72. 
Adjectives, negative, 57. 
Adjectives, plural of, 57. 
Adjectives, position of, 57. 
Adjective, predicate, 32. 
Adverl)ial numerals, 79, 80. 
Adverbs, 20, 38, (with adjective) 74, 75, (fully discussed) 83-86, (definition 

of) 83, (verbaUzing) 83, 84. 

Aflirmative, 99. 

Negative, 99, 100. 

Of degree, 72, 75, 98. 

Of measure, 72, 75, 98. 

"Flat," 83. 

"Flexional," 83. 

"Phrasal,'/ 83. 

Interrogative, 32, 33. 

Of doubt, 100. 

Of manner, 93, 98. 

Of quality, 93, 98. 

Of motion, 84. 

Of place, 34, 84, (list of many) 86, 87. 

Of time, 87-92. 

Of succession, 87-92. 
Affirmative adverbs, 99. 



Affirmative particles, 37. 

alangan, (adverb), 73. 

an (suffix), 18, 56, 108, I\^ 141, I, II (full discussion), 142-153. 

Antonym, definition of, 57. 

Arabic element in Tagalog, 14, 38. 

Article, indefinite : 

Substitute for, 31. 
Article (of common nouns, places, countries, etc.), 28. 

With possessive jironouns, 37. 
Article (of proper nouns, nouns of relationship, etc.), 27, 28. 

Declined, 27. 

Plural, 27. 

Special plural, 27. 

Syntax, 28. 
Articles, instruments, etc., -vfiih. pan prefixed, 209, XVII. 
ay (particle), 32, (with antonvms), 106, VI. 
Be to, (verb) 32. 

To be there, 85. 
Cardinal numerals, 76, 77, 78. 
Cases, 20, 38. 

Chinese words in Tagalog, 14, 38. 
Clauses of equal force, two, 32. 
Comparative : 

Of adjectives, 72, 73, 74, 

Of equality, 72, 73. 

Of inferiority, 73. 

Of superiority, 73, 74. 
Conjunctions, 102-104. 

"And" 32. 

Adversative, 102, 103. 

Alterative, 102. 

Binding, 102. 

Causative, 103, 104. 

Conclusive (illative), 104. 

Conditional, 104. 
Contractions, 247, 248. 
Definite, the, 20, 30, (discussion) 108, I, II, III. 

Which definite, 108, IV to XV. 
Dialects 35. 

Diminutives, 110, IX, («?») 180, {mag) 192. 
Direct object, 109, V, VI. 

One, 109, V. 
Distributive numerals, 80. 
Do (make) to, 108, I, II, 110, XI, XIII. 

Do not, 100. 
Dual number, 35, 36, 38. 
Endings, 31. 

Consonant, 31. 

In diphthong, 31. 

In "n," 31. 

In vowel, 31. 
Euphonic changes, 32, 34, 81, (with man and pan) 201, 209. 
Exclamations, 104, 105. 
"Exclusive (editorial) we," 35, 36, 38. 
Future perfect tense, 106, X. 
Future tense, 106, X. 
ga (interrogative particle), 74. 

gaalin, 74. 

gaano, 74. 

ganga, 74. 

gaya, 74. 


Gender, lack of, 38. 

General terms, lack of, 19. 

Genitives, douljle, of personal pronouns, 35, 36. 

han (suflix), 18, 56, 141, I, II, (full diHcussion) 142-15.3. 

hin (suffix), 18, 56,. (with weights, measures, etc.) 82. 

Homonym, definition of, 57. 

i [particle], 108, IV, (cause, instrument or time) 109, V, (combined with 
in) 110, XII, (fully discussed) 132-141. 

Idioms, 20. 

ika [compound particle] (wdth adverbs) 84, 85, (meaning cause) 108, 
IV, 138, XVIII, 211, I. 

ikina [compound particle] (with adverbs), 84, 55, (meaning cause) 108, 
IV, 138, XVIII, 211, I. 

ikimqxi [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85. 

Imperative, 105, II. 

^ Intensity, quicknesss, with, 105, III. 

Imperfect tense, 106, X. 

in (suflix) 18, 56, (inserted) 57, (with weights, measures etc.) 82, (with 
pa) 84, 85, (motion toward or control of) 108, IV, (combined with i) 
110, XII, (discussion) 112, I, to 114, VI (idea of attraction toward) 
114-115, (possession) 115, (verbs of calling, 115, (of reaching for) 116, 
(verbs of carrying, cutting, measuring or weighing) 116-119, (verbs of 
destruction) 119, (verbs of receiving) 120, (of inviting) 120, (of eating, 
drinking, etc.) 122, (acts of senses) 123, 124, (acts of will or mind) 124, 
125, (verbs of making) 125, (of w^earing) 125, (various) 126, (suffixed) 

In cm, 130. 

Inclusive "we," 35, 38. 

Indefinite, 20, 30, (discussed) 111, I, to 112, V 
Principal particles of, 111, I. 

Indicative, 106, IX. 

Indirect object, 109, VI. 

Infinitive, 106, IX. 

ini [compound particle], 110, VIII. 

Intransitive verbs, 107, XI. 

ipa [compound particle] (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipag [compound particle], 109, IV (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipagka [compound particle], 109, VIII. 

ipagkaka [compound particle], 109, VIII. 

ipina [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85 (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipinag [compound particle] (explained), 109, VIII (example), 110, IX. 

ipinagka [compound particle], 109, VIII. 

ipinagkaka [compound particle] (with adverb), 85 (explained), 109, VIII. 

ka (particle expressing likeness), 72. 

kasing (compound particle), 72. 

ka (imparting idea of intensity, etc.), 105, III. 
(linking opposite ideas), 106, VI. 

ka [particle], 211. 

ka o?i [compound particle], 200, 201. 

kapag [particle], 239. 

kapagka [particle], 239. 

kiilang (adverb meaning "less"), 73. 

ma (adjective forming particle), 55, (use) 111, I, (fullv discussed), 196- 
201, (def. oimaka) 211. 

ma in {hin), 131, 132. 

mag {nag), 56, (verbahzing adverb) 84, 85, (use) 110, X, 111, I, (fullv dis- 
cussed) 180-194. 

magin [particle], 232-234. 

maqka [particle], 38, 85, (combinations) 109, VIII, (use) 110 X, (fully 
discussed) 230-232. 

magkan [particle], 238. 


vuff/Jxdp'i [particle], 238. 
vtdijka/HUitdi/ (compound particle), 73. 
iiKujkapard (compound particle), 73. 
magkaparis (compound particle), 73. 
ma^^asing' (compound particle), 73. 
laar/ma (compound particle), 56. 

ma'gpa [particle], 109, VIII, (use) 110, X, (fully discussed) 217-223. 
magpaha [particle], 225-227. 
magpatl [particle], 235. 
magsa [particle], 237. 
imgsi [particle], 235, 236. 

maka [particle], 201, IV, (fully discussed) 211-217, (when meaning 
"cause") 56, (peculiar construction with) 112, VIII, (indicating com- 
pleted action) 93. 
tnaki [particle], 227-230. 
mala (forming adjectives), 56. 
man [particle], 37, (with weights, measures, moneys) 81, (with adverbs) 

85, (fully discussed) 201-211. 
manhl [particle], 235-237. 
mapa (as adjective forming particle), 56. 
mapag (as adjective forming particle), 56. 
may (use) 110, XIII. 
mayroon (vise), 110, XIII. 

mina (minama) [particle expressing opinion], 56. 
na (as adjective forming particle), 56, (use) 111, I, (fully discussed) 196- 

201, (def. of maka) 211, (with irregular form of verb) 171-175. 
nag [particle] (with adverb), 85, (use) 111, I, (fully discussed) 180-194. 
nagin [particle], 233. 
nagka [particle] (with adverb), 85. 
nagkaii [particle], 238. 
nagkapa [particle], 238. 
nagpaka [particle], 225, I. 
nagpati [particle], 235. 
nagsa [particle], 237. 
7iagsi [particle], 235. 

naka [particle], 201, IV, (fully discussed), 211-217. 
naki [particle], 227, I. 
nan [particle], 201, IV. 

napa [compound particle], 223, I (with adverbs), 85. 
napasa [particle], 223, I. 
Negative adjectives, 57. 
Negative adverbs, 99, 100. 
Negative verbs, 30. 
Nominative case: 

Preceded by article and followed by genitive, 28. 

With genitive inserted between nominative and article, 28. 
Noun : 

In genitive modifying nominative, 31. 
Nouns, 20, (common) 28, (exp. ), 38. 

Source, 28, (from roots) 240. 
Numerals, 76-80. 

Adverbials, 79, 80. 

Cardinals, 76, 77, 78. 

Distributives, 80. 

Ordinals, 78, 79. 
Occupations (with man prefixed), 205, 210. 
Ordinal numerals, 78, 79. 
pa, the 66 roots beginning with, 175-180. 
pa (with adverbs), 84. 

papa (do.), 84. 
pa (yet, still), 73. 
pa [definite of TO«OT9a], 109, VIII, 217, I, (fully discussed) 223-225. 


2xi(j [particle], 110, VIII, IX, (retention) 110, X, 194. 

jKvjht [particle], 194, 201, III, 230. 

jKigpdkd [particle], 225, I. 

j)aka [jiarticle], 225, I. 

2xiki [particle], 227, I. 

pala (forming adjectives), 56. 

pan [particle], 201, 209, XVII. 

panhi [particle], 235, 236. 

para (particle of comparison), 72. 

Participle, 106, X. 

Particles, combinations of, 238, 239. 

Designation of, 239. 
Particles, verbal, 19, 20, (most important) 106, YIII. 
Particularizing verbs, 19. 
Passive, 20. 
Past tense, 106, X. 
Phrases, ordinary, some, 20-27. 
pinag [compound particle], 110, IX, 195, II. . 

pinag an [compound particle and suffix], 110, VIII. 

pinagbi [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85, (discussed) 230. 

pinakd, 227, IX. 

pinakd [particle], 239. 

jnnaki [particle], 227, I. 

pinapa [compound particle] (with adverbs), 84, 85. 

Place (how expressed), 141, II. 

Pluperfect tense, 106, X. 

Plural (of adjectives), 57. 

Plural (of nouns), 28, 38. 

Special plural of si, 27. 
Prefix, retention of, 106, VII. 
Prepositions (fully discussed), 100-102. 
Present tense, 106, X. 

Pronouns, demonstrative, 33,34, (idiomatic use) 34. 
Pronouns, indefinite, 37, (exp. ) 38. 
Pronouns, interrogative, 32. 
Pronouns, personal, 35, 36. 

dialects, 35. 

idioms, 35. 
Pronouns, possessive, 36, 37. 

"With ((/*'/ and ang sa, 37. 

Syntax and order, 37. 
Pronouns, relative, 38. 
Proper nouns (article of), 27. 
puma [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85. 
Eeduplication of roots, 56. 

With ka an (han), 75, 76. 

(])f first syllable of numerals, 77. 

To form diminutives, 110, IX. 
Respect, great, how indicated, 37. 
Root words in Tagalog, number, 13. 
Roots, reduplication of, 56. 
Roots, differing with ^^rn and mag, 154. 
Roots, the 66 V)eginning with pa, 175-180, 
Sanskrit words in Tagalog, 13, 38. 
Sex, how indicated, 31. 
Sing (particle meaning "as"), 72. 
Spanish element in Tagalog, 14, 38. 

Of adjective, 74, 75, 76. 

Absolute, 75. 

Relative, 75. 

Simple, 74, 75. 


S\-nonym, definition of, 57. 

Synonyms, 19. 

Tagalog language, importance of, 13. 

Dialects of, 13, 35. 

Relationship of, 13. 

Preservation of verbal system of, 13. 

Number of root words in, 13. 

Sanskrit element in, 38. 

Chinese element in, 14, 38. 

Arabic element in, 1-1, 38. 

Spanish element in, 14, 38. 

English element in, 14. 

Lack of Japanese element in, 14. 

Pronunciation of, 15. 

Structure of, compared, 107, XIV, XV. 

Verb, compared, 107, XVI. 
Tenses, 106, X. 

Lack of change within, 107, XII. 
"Ties," euphonic, 31. 
Transitive verbs, 107, XI. 
f, when considered as consonant, 31. 

Uni (particle), (with adverb), 84, (Use shown), 110. X, 111. I, (Fully dis- 
cussed), 153-170, (Diminutives), 180. 
Verb (understood), 32. 
Verbs, 20, 38, (discussion) 105-108. 

Completeness of Tagalog verb, 107, XVI. 

Definite, 108, I, II, III. 

Definition of, 105, I. 

Intransitive, 107, XL 

Modes, 106, IX. 

Particularizing, 19. 

Superlative form, 76. 

Tenses, 106, X. 

Transitive, 107, XL 
Wold (with adjective), 74, (use) 110, XIII. 
Words, number of in Tagalog, 19. 


Able to , to be, 211, III, 213, VII. 

Able to do, to, 177. 
Accept, to, 120. 
Accompany, to, 133, 165. 

Act like a , to, 230. 

Acts of the senses, 123, 124, 214. 

Acts of will or mind, 124, 125. 

Add, to, 137. 

Advise, to, 134. 

Afraid, to be, 129. 

Aid, to, 185. 

Animals, domestic, 28, 29. 

Approach, to, 184. 

Arrange, to, 120. 

Arrive, to, 140. 

Ascend, to, 174. 

Ashamed, to be, 198. 

Ask, to, 121. 

Asleep, to be, 198. 

Assemble, to, 184. 

Attraction toward, idea of, 114. 


Bathe, to, 150. 

Bed; bedding, 28, 29. 

Bed, to be in, 199. 

Bed, to go to, 151. 

Bite, to, 122, 123. 

Blow, to, 162. 

Bodv, parts of, 49, 50, 51. 

Borrow, to, 114, 115, 137, 164. 

Breaking, verbs of, 198. 

Bridges, 43. 

Bring, to, 114, 115. 

Build a house, to, 133. 

Buildings, kinds of, 43. 

Bury, to; inter, to, 195. 

Buy, to, 114, 131, 133, 164, 172, 182, (at retail) 1.38. 

Calculate, to, 124. 

Call, to, 115, 173. 

Calling, verbs of, 115. 

Capture, to, 173. 

Care for, to, 169, 204. 

Carrv, to, 116, 133, (different wavs) 116, 117. 

Cause , to, 211, lY, 212. 

Charitable, to be, 145. 

Choose, to, 114. 

Civic dignities, 53. 

Clothing, articles of, 52. 

Cold, 47. 

Come down, to, 130. 

Come here, to, 147. 

Come in, to, 173. 

Come out, to, 129. 

Coming or going, 20. 

Communication, means of, 43, 44. 

Compare, to, 141. 

Compass, points of, 47. 

Compel, to, 193. 

Complain, to, 114. 

Conform, to, 140 

Conquer, to, 176. 

Consider, to, 124. 

Contend with, to, 172. 

Contradict, to, 172. 

Cook, to, 133. 

Cooking utensils, etc., 40. 

Cooking, verbs of, 135. 

Country, character of, 44. 

Cover, to, 142. 

Curse, to, 185. 

Cursing, Tagalog, 105. 

Cut, to, 117, (different ways) 117, 118. 

Cut hair, to, 168. 

Dark, to become, 163. 

Dawn, to, 162. 

Deceive, to, 144. 

Descend, to, 176. 

Desire to, 169, 170. 

Desire, to, 124. 

Destroy, to, 119, 138, 156. 

Destruction, verbs of, 119, 120. 

Die, to, 119, 141. 

6855—06 17 


Dignities, civil and military, 53. 

Directions (of compass), 47. 

Disappear, to, 136. 

Diseases, names of, 51. 

Disentangle, to 120. 

Disobev, to, 172. 

Dive, to, 128. 

Dream to, 176. 

Drink, to, 122, 127, 159, 175. 

Drinking, 24, (drinkables) 28, 29. 

Drowned, to be, 201. 

Dwell, to, 175. 

Earthquake, 47. 

Eating, 24, (materials) 28, 29, 39, (verbs of) 122, 127, 159, 172. 

Edifices (list of), 43. 

Embark, to, 140, 195. 

Empty out, to, 141. 

Endure, to, 185. 

Enter, to, 173. 

Envy, to, 175. 

Equalize, to, 141. 

Erect, to, 152. 

Evil, to do or cause, 212. 

Exchange, to, 120, 164. 

Explain, to, 125. 

Extinguish, to, 119, 156. 

Faint awav, to, 119. 

Fall, to, 196. 

Fall back, to, 175. 

Feel, to, 123. 

Ferry, ford, 44. 

Fight, to, 184. 

Finished, to be, 201. 

Fire, 40, (conflagration) 43, (signal fire) 43. 

Firewood, 40. 

Fish, edible kinds, 39. 

Fish, to, 121, 122, 206. 

Fishing, terms used in, 49. 

Fly, to, 128. 

Follow, to, 139, 172. 

Foodstuffs, 28, 29, (cooked) 113, V. 

Forage, grass, 43. 

Forbid, to, 189. 

Force, to, 193. 

Ford, ferry, 44. 

Forget, to, 198. 

Fractions, how expressed, 79. 

Fruit (kinds), 29. 

Game, names for, 39. 

'Gather, to, 141. 

Get readv, to, 140. 

Get rid of, to, 136. 

Give, to, 136, 143. 

Give back, to, 134. 

Glad, to be, 198. 

Go, to, 129. 

(Jo away, to, 133, 174. 

(io back, to, 175. 

Go down, to, 130. 

Go far, to, 173. 

Cro in, to, 173. 


Goinj? or coming, 21, 22. 

Good, to do, 212. 

Grasp, to, 147. 

Grass; forage, 43. 

Graze, to, 127. 

Greetings; salutations, 20. 

Grin, to, 160. 

Guard, to, 144, 181. 

Guide, to, 208. 

Have, to, 30, 85, 86, (not to have) 30. 

Hear, to, 123. 

Hearing, verbs of, 145, 146. 

Heap lip, to, 137. 

Heat, '47. 

Heavenly bodies, 45. 

Help, to, 185. 

Horses and horse equipments, 42. 

House, 40 (parts of) 40, 41. 

Household furniture, 28, 29, 41, 42. 

Hungrv, to be, 128, 196, 197. 

Hunt, to, 121, 206. 

Inquire, to, 121. 

Insult, to, 182. 

Inviting, verbs of, 120.. 

Join with, to, 165. 

Join with in , to, 228. 

Jump, to, 186. 

Jump down, to, 130. 

Kick, to, 185. 

Kill, to, 119, 156. 

Kiss, to, 145. 

Kneel, to, 158. 

Knees, to be on, 199. 

Land (features of), 44, 47. 

Laugh, to, 160. 

Lead, to, 175. 

Leave, to, 133, 174. 

Leavetaking, 23. 

Lend, to (monej- onlj'), 1<^8- 

Lend willingly, to, 138. 

Lie down, to 151, (various postuTes of) 159. 

Like, to, 124, 170. 

Listen, to, 123. 

Look, to, 186. 

Look at, to, 123, 148, 172. 

Look for, to, 133, 169. 

Looking for, verbs of, 116. 

Look out of, to, 127. 

Lose, to, 129. 

Love, to, 124, 125. 

Make (do), to, 108, I, II. 

Make haste, to, 193. 

Making, verbs of, 125. 

Malinger, to; plav sick, to, 192. 

March, to, 166. 

Maritime terms, 45, 48. 

Meals; food, 39. 

Measure, to, 118. 

Measures, moneys, weights, 81, 82. 

Meet, to, 184. 

Metals, minerals, 49. 

2<)0 INDEXES. 

Military grades, 53. 

Miss, to, 129. 

Mock, to, 185. 

Moneys, weights, measures, 81, 82. 

Months, names of, 46; days of, 79. 

Moon, 45. 

Motion to, to, 115. 

Moving, verbs of, 116. 

Mutter, to, 189. 

Natural divisions (of islands), 48. 

Nautical terms, 45, 48. 

No, 99. 

Not, 99. 

Numerals, how expressed, 76-80. 

Obey, to, 139, 172. 

Occupations, etc., 54, 55. 

Open, to, 142. 

Order, to , to, 217-219. 

Overtake, to, 131. 

Pass, to, 182. 

Pay for, to, 147. 

Persevere, to, 177. 

Personal possession, 115. 

Physical acts, 160, 161. 

Pierce, to, 147. 

Place, how indicated, 148-151. 

Place, to, 136. 

Plant, to, 136. 

Political divisions, 48, 49. 

Poor, to be, 200. 

Positions, to be in certain, 199, 

Pour out, to, 137. 

Practice medicine, to, 204. 

Preach, to, 204. 

Professions, 53, 54. 

Promise, to, 177. 

Pronounce, to, 189. 

Proper, to be, 184, 197. 

Provoke, to, 175. 

Push, to, 186. 

Put, to, 136. 

Quarrel, to, 184. 

Rain, to, 162. 

Eeach, to, 131. 

Read, to, 170, 171, 173. 

Reap, to, 203. 

Receive, to, 120. 

Receiving, verbs of, 120. 

Recommend, to, 134. 

Relatives, kin, 31, 113, V. 

Remain behind, to, 139. 

Remember, to, 124. 

Remit, to, 133. 

Report, to, 134. 

Reprimand, to, 121. 

Request, to, 114, 132, 146. 

Resist, to, 172. 

Resolve, to, 177. 

Retreat, to, 175. 

Rice, kinds of, 113, V. 

Rice, to trade or sell, 143. 


Rivers, streams, 44. 

Roads, trails, etc, 48. 

Rub, to, 124. 

Run, to, 128. 

Sad, to be, 188, 198. 

Salutations, greetings, 20. 

Scatter, to, 137. 

Scattering, verbs of, 187. 

Sea, 45, (phenomena) 45. 

Searching, verbs of, 116. 

See, to, 123. 

Seize, to, 114. 

Sell, to, 132, (at retail) 138. 

Send, to, 114, 133. 

Servant, hiring, 25. 

Sew, to, 127. 

Shaking, verbs of, 116. 

Shave, to, 168. 

Shellfish, kinds, 39. 

Signal, to, 135. 

Sit down, to, 159, 172, 181. 

Sleepv, -to be, 139. 

Smelf, to, 123. 

Snatch, to, 132. 

Sorrv, to be, 145. 

Sow," to, 136. 

Speak, to, 134. 

Speaking, verbs, of, 188, 189. 

Spend, to, 176. 

Spin, to, 205. 

Split, to, 118. 

Spreading, verbs of, 137. 

Stagger, to, 183. 

Stand up, to, 157, 172. 

Steal, to, 145, 165. 

Stir, to, 185. 

Streams, rivers, 44, 45. 

Stumble, to, 197. 

Suffer, to, 185. 

Suicide, to commit, 1 20. 

Sun, 45, (setting and rising of) 164. 

Sweep, to, 122. 

Swim, to, 127. 

Tableware, 28, 29. 

Talk, to, 134. 

Talk to, to, 165. 

Take, to, 114, 132, 173. 

Take out, to, 129. 

Taste, to, 123. 

Teach, to, 145. 

Tear, to, 117. 

Tear down, to, 119. 

Tell, to, 134. 

Tempt, to 174. 

Think, to, 124, 125. 

Thirsty, to be, 128. 

Threaten, to, 143. 

Throw away, to, 136. 

Throw down, to, 136. 

Throwing, verbs of, 187. 

Time, divisions of, 45, 46, 92, 93. 

2(>2 indp:xe8. 

Toilet, the; (dressing) 24. 

Tools, list of, 42. 

Touch, to, 123, 124. 

Trails, roads, etc., 43. 

Translate, to, 141. 

Translations, 244-246. 

Transfer, to, 141, 

Travel to, 140, 195, 208. 

Traveling, 22. 

Trees, plants, etc., 53. 

Trench, to make a, 151. 

Turn back, to, 175. 

Uncover, to, 142. 

Untie, to, 146. 

Use, to, 114. 

Utensils, cooking, 40. 

Utensils, list of, 42. 

Vegetables, kinds, 39, 40. 

Verifv, to, 125. 

AVait'for, to, 120. 

Walk, to, 166. 

Watch, to, 144. 

Water, 29. 

Water courses, 44, 45. 

Wearing, verbs of, 125.. 

Weather, conditions of, 23, 47. 

Weep, to, 139. 

Weigh, to, 119. 

Weights, measures, moneys, 81, 82. 

Win, to, 176. 

Wish, to, 169, (not to wish), 175. 

Words, miscellaneous, 240-243. 

Wound, to, 151. 

Write, to, 171, 172. 

Writing materials, 43, 44. 

Yes, 99. 


Abut, 131. 

AJiit, 168. 

Alaala, 124. 

Anyaija, 120. 

Arao, 162. 

Asin, 147. 

And, 145. 

Auay, 166. 

Ayao, 175. 

Babd (mababd), 58. 

Bard, 125. 

Binuit, 121. 

Biro, 185. 

Bulag, 200. 

Buti (mabiiti), 58. 

C (only retained in words of Spanish origin). 

Daan, 183. 

Dolian (marahan), 95. 

Bald, 114, 116. 

Dami {marami), 58. 

Damit, 144. 

Daifd (magdaraiid), 69. 

Dli7f/ig, 123, 146. 


Dipd, 82. 

Dito, 34, 138, 147. 

Doon, 34. 

Dnkhd, 200. 

E (begins Spanish words only). 

GaUng, 138, 148, VII. 

Gawd, 108, I, II, 110, XI, XIII. 

GUI; 130. 

Gupit, 118, 168. 

Halik, 145. 

Hainpds, 129, 168, 187. 

Hdnap, 109, V, 116, 133. 

Hangin, 162. 

Hdpis,- 138. 

Hapon, 163. 

iy«S(A-, 187. 

ffi'srd, 151. 

Hilamo-'i, 167. * 

ifo5^i, 114, 132, 146. 

Huli, 165. 

f/, 120. 

Ibig, 124, 169. 

J>ii7 {mainit), 60. 

/nwHi, 122, 160. 

/sfM, 122. 

Jsip, 124, 182. 

/co, 157. 

Juan, 27, 37. 

kay J., 27, 28. 

ni J., 27, 28, 37. 

nina J., 27. 

si J., 27. 

sind J., 27. 
Kagat, 122. 
Kain, 122, 140, 159. 
Klnyig, 123. 
Kith, 123, 169, 184. 
Lahb, 199. 
Ldkad, 166. 
Laki, 155. 
Lambed, 122. 
Limot, 192. 
X??i/s (malinis), 59. 
X«/iod, 158. 
J/orto, 181. 

/^firf/, 25,30, (exp.) 37. 
Fanaog, 176. 
Panhik, 21. 
PdsoA-, 173. 
Patoy, 119, 140, 141. 
Fitds, 141. 
Pidi, 155. 
Pa/o?, 117. 

Q (retained only in Spanish words or foreign names). 
R (only begins a word in Tagalog by reason of euphonic change from "d"). 
rin, 37. 
rito, 25, 35. 
Salitd, 134. 
Salubong, 120. 
Sama, 165. 
Snmd {masamd), 58. 


iSambulat, 187. 

Silang, 164. 

Sir(l, 119, 138, 156. 

Sid, 139. 

Sugat, 151. 

Saklay, 168. 

Sulat, 171. 

Sumpd, 185. 

;Swnod, 139, 172, 182. 

Sunog, 156. 

To/ii, 127. 

TaA-fed, 128. 

Tcikot, 129. 

71u5^(s, 139. 

Tdpang {mat&'pang) , 65. 

Tmta, 160. 

Trn/d, 152. 

TlhiycL, 159. 

T;nrf(>, 157. 

Tipon, 184. 

r«d, 200. 

Tufeo, 161. 

Tidd (matuid), 62. 

T«M, 174. 

Taksu, 174. 

Titfov, 178. 

Ttiyo (matuyd), 60. 

C7/(in, 162. 

Una, 150. 

L^d, 159. 

f'7to?i(/, 114, 138, 164. 

V, Only retained in some Spanish words; generally changed to " B." 

Ydman (maydman), 69. 

'v, 32, 38. 


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