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BERLIN .... 



asher.— mitscher & rostell. 

messrs. kiessling. 

a. bielbfeld. 

greven. — dumont.— eisen. 

burdach. — pierson. 







Belgium, HolluTid, arid Germany. 










PRAGUE .... 
VIENNA .... 

















SOLEURE . . . 
ZURICH . . . 























ANGERS . . . 
AVIGNON . . . 


















NANTES . . . 








ORLEANS . . , 



RHEIMS .... 


ST. MALO .... 
T07L0N .... 


TROYES .... 











Spain and Forticgal. 



Eussiay Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. 





cxjT/£:y: — watson. — calleja. 





Ionian Islands. Constaiitinoplc, 


Aleocaiidria aivd Cairo, 


^^ovtta. rr- India, 

"•' TBA CKER, SJ'JXK, & CO, | BOMBAY THACKER & CO. , l.m\'^TA>, 

C:i: -loosjo T)-; 


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G.C.B., G.C.S.L, 





IjONDOK, Junty 1879. 


The First Edition of this Handbook was published in 
January, 1859. Eailways were introduced into India in 
February, 1855 (when, however, only the experimental line of 
121 miles from Calcutta to Rdmganj was opened by Lord 
Dalhousie), but their rapid extension of late years has 
changed all the circumstances of Indian travelling, and 
rendered it easy now to visit many interesting places, which 
were before almost inaccessible. Other great changes have 
taken place, so that it has been necessary almost entirely to 
re-write, instead of revising the former Handbook, and the 
reader has now before him a new work rather than a new 
edition. It must be added that the author has himself, 
within the last year, visited almost all the places described in 
these pages, so that the very latest particulars regarding 
their condition will be found here, as well as the actually 
existing means for visiting them. Many important places 
which were not mentioned in the former edition are fully 
described in this, such as the vast ruined city of Bij&Qagar 
and the celebrated Temple of Tirupati. Again a comparison 
between the present and the former de6CTY^tva\i'8» cA ^sq^&l 
places as HaidardMd and Bengalur "wifl. shoN^i \iO^ ScvSfcte^ ^ 
thing it is to compile descriptions from \>ook&, aiA ^»^ ^^ 


them on the spot. On the other hand, a great amount of 
obsolete and unnecessary matter has been excluded from the 
present volume, and, in particular, the historical sketches 
have been wholly expunged, and in thek stead numerous 
references are given to books, which will supply those who 
desire to study the history of the country with the means of 
acquiring full information regarding it. 

It is a satisfaction to the author that the spelling of Indian 
names which he introduced in 1859 (see Preface to the First 
Edition) has now been not only adopted, but rigorously en- 
forced by the Indian Government, except in ^uch stereotyped 
words as Arcot and Pondicherry. It is a still greater satisfac- 
tion to him, to have to record his grateful thanks for the kind 
assistance he has received from the Government itself, and 
from very many officers during his travels, without which, 
indeed, it would have been impossible for him to have 
obtained the information he required. It would occupy too 
much spacje to enumerate all who have aided him, but, in 
particular, he desires to thank His Grace the Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos, Governor of Madras, who is always 
forward to promote every undertaking which promises to be 
of value to the public ; the Hon. D. Carmichael, Member of 
the Madras Council ; Major Hobart, E.A., Military Secretary 
to the Governor ; Dr. Burnell, Judge of Tanjur, the first 
orientalist of the day, who supplied the author with plans of 
the chief temples in the south of India, and with much 
valuable information; Mr. T. H. Master, Collector of Ball^ri; 
Mr. Glennie, C.S., in charge of Gutti ; Mr. 0. Irvine, Judge 
of Gudalur (Cuddalore) ; Mr. E. Webster, Judge of Trichin^- 
joalli ; Dr. J. B. Thomas, of the Madras Med. Service, who 
possesses a rare knowledge of Tamil ; Mr. A. K. Hutchins, 
^^ or the Madras C.8., an excellent Tamil schoVaT, Ni\io 


corrected the Tamil dialogues ; Mr. Cross, Asst. Judge at 
Kumbhakonam ; Mr. P. P. Hutchins, Judge of Madura, 
who also furnished plans of Temples ; Mr. Price, C.S. ; 
Mr. Arthur Cox, C.S., in charge of Arkdt (Arcot) ; Mr. 
Austin, C.S., in charge of Velur (Vellore), and Captain Claude 
Vincent, K.E., Executive Engineer at that place ; Mr. C. 
Minakshaya, Barrister of Bengaltir ; Mr. Gordon, Eesident at 
Maisur ; Mr. A. M. Webster, Collector of Koimbatur ; Mr. 
Johnstone, C.S., in charge of the Nilgiris ; Major Fairclough, 
Commandant at Wellington Barracks, and Mr. Buick, C.S., 
Collector of Malabar. 

In addition, the author has to make special mention 
of Mr. James Burgess, the Government Archaeologist for 
Bombay, who accompanied him to the caves of Eliira and 
Ajanta, and revised his descriptions of those wonderful 
excavations on the spot, at the same time addi-essing to him 
the following letter : 

** Caves op Elura, 10th 3f arch, 1S77. 
" My DEAR Mr. Eastwick, 

" I am glad to hear you are soon to bring out a new 
Edition of your * Handbook of India,' and this time extended 
to the remaining Provinces. The first edition was a most useful 
work, and remarkably accurate, considering the little information 
regarding the majority of the localities described in it that was 
available to the public twenty years ago. I have had your book 
with me in nearly all my journeys since it was issued, and have 
always found it useful, and in most cases perfectly correct. Of 
course the Railways have opened up new routes and altered others, 
so that for the yearly increasing number of European tourists 
in India a new edition has for some time been mudoL x^c^m^^, «:cl^ 
I am glad jou are to bring it out, for the extent and ^.^cvrc^c^ ^^ 
jrour information and the judicioixa use you liad made ol \)ti^ ^^'^'^ 


amount of reading you must have gone through to prepare the first 
edition, pointed you out as the fittest person alive to extend the 
book to Bengal and Upper India, and to revise the former volumes. 
You will find but little to erase in them : you have only to add. 
I wish you all success in your most laborious and toilsome under- 
taking. Only those who have travelled much in India know how 
toilsome such work as yours is. 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 

"(Signed) J AS. BURGESS, 

" Archaeological Surveyor, &c. , to 
Government of Western India. 

**E. B. Eastwick, Esq., C.B., &c.,&c." 

This expression of thanks would not be complete without 
an acknowledgment of facilities granted to the author by the 
Directors of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and of the 
Indian Railway Companies, and here he must especially 
mention the names of Messrs. T. Sutherland and Bayley, 
Mr. Juland Danvers, Government Director of Railways, Mr. 
Church, Trafl&c Manager of the Madras Railway Company, 
Mr. Betts, Agent for the South India Railway, and Mr. Lea 
Hair, C.E. 


amount of reading you must have gone through to prepare the first 
edition, pointed you out as the fittest person alive to extend the 
book to Bengal and Upper India, and to revise the former volumes. 
You will find but little to erase in them : you have only to add. 
I wish you all success in your most laborious and toilsome under- 
taking. Only those who have travelled much in India know how 
toilsome such work as yours is. 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 

** (Signed) J AS. BURGESS, 

" Archaeological Surveyor, &c, , to 
Government of Western India. 

**E. B. Eastwick, Esq., C.B., &c.,&c." 

This expression of thanks would not be complete without 
an acknowledgment of facilities granted to the author by the 
Directors of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and of the 
Indian Eailway Companies, and here he must especially 
mention the names of Messrs. T. Sutherland and Bayley, 
Mr. Juland Danvers, Government Director of Eailways, Mr. 
Church, Trafl&c Manager of the Madras Eailway Company, 
Mr. Betts, Agent for the South India Eailw^ay, and Mr. Lea 
Hair, C.E. 


At the present moment, when India has been drawn so much 
closer to England by almost contmuous steam communication, by 
the Electric Telegraph, and, above all, by the sympathy which even 
the recent abortive eflFort to dissever the two countries has itself 
most remarkably tended to evoke, a Handbook of India has be- 
come an especial want. 

The vast extent of that region, however, which precludes the 
possibility of its being thoroughly travelled over and explored by 
any one man ; the dimness of its history and imcertainty of in- 
formation respecting its antiquities, and the difficulty of obtaining 
satisfactory accounts of the things most worthy of inspection, render 
a Handbook of India a much more arduous undertaking than the 
Handbooks of most other countries. When it is considered that 
the two minor Presidencies, which supply the routes for this present 
volume, comprehend an extent of country equalling Spain and 
Portugal, France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Prussia, and 
Bavaria, the magnitude of the task will be better appreciated, and 
allowances will, it is hoped, be made for the numberless deficiencies 
in its execution. 

India aboimds with objects of interest. It presents every 
imaginable variety of scenery, from the loftiest and most sublime 
mountain ranges, to the gentle undulations and velvet swards of an 
English park. Its natural products are equal, if not superior, to 
those of any region in the world, and would furnish endles& \asii«i- 
rials for the pen of the describer. It is rich iiiT[iistoTVQ»^ ««&o^\ia^vso&, 
and there is scarce a bill which is not crowned m\\i ^^'a Y^<i\,\3Ct«eio;vva 
ruiDS of some old foHresa, little known or altogetYiejt \3ltlVy^v\.^^^s^ 


amount of reading you must have gone through to prepare the first 
edition, pointed you out as the fittest person alive to extend the 
book to Bengal and Upper India, and to revise the former volumes. 
You will find but little to erase in them : you have only to add. 
I wish you all success in your most laborious and toilsome under- 
taking. Only those who have travelled much in India know how 
toilsome such work as yours is. 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 

"(Signed) J AS. BURGESS, 

" ArchsBoloffical Surveyor, &c. , to 
Government of Western India. 

**E. B. Eastwick, Esq., C.B., &c.,&c." 

This expression of thanks would not be complete without 
an acknowledgment of facilities granted to the author by the 
Directors of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and of the 
Indian Eailway Companies, and here he must especially 
mention the names of Messrs. T. Sutherland and Bayley, 
Mr. Juland Danvers, Government Director of Eailways, Mr. 
Church, Trafl&c Manager of the Madras Eailway Company, 
Mr. Betts, Agent for the South India Eailway, and Mr. Lea 
Hair, C.E. 


At the present moment, when India has been drawn so much 
closer to England by almost continuous steam communication, by 
the Electric Telegraph, and, above all, by the sympathy which even 
the recent abortive eflFort to dissever the two countries has itself 
most remarkably tended to evoke, a Handbook of India has be- 
come an especial want. 

The vast extent of that region, however, which precludes the 
possibility of its being thoroughly travelled over and explored by 
any one man ; the dimness of its history and uncertainty of in- 
formation respecting its antiquities, and the difficulty of obtaining 
satisfactory accounts of the things most worthy of inspection, render 
a Handbook of India a much more arduous undertaking than the 
Handbooks of most other countries. When it is considered that 
the two minor Presidencies, which supply the routes for this present 
volume, comprehend an extent of country equallino^ Spain and 
Portugal, France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Prussia, and 
Bavaria, the magnitude of the task will be better appreciated, and 
allowances will, it is hoped, be made for the numberless deficiencies 
in its execution. 

India aboimds with objects of interest. It presents every 
imaginable variety of scenery, from the loftiest and most subUme 
mountain ranges, to the gentle undulations and velvet swards of an 
English park. Its natural products are equal, if not superior, to 
those of any region in the world, and would furnish endlesa ijaai^- 
rials for the pen of the describer. It is rich iiiT[iiatoTO^«ia^Q«i\^\ao&«i 
and there Is soiree a bill which is not crowned Vifti t\ia Y^Q.\,>Mi«e.Q;vvft 
raiDS of some old fortress, little known or altogetYiex wtlVy^^^^^^I 


amount of reading you must have gone through to prepare the first 
edition, pointed you out as the fittest person alive to extend the 
book to Bengal and Upper India, and to revise the former volumes. 
You will find but little to erase in them : you have only to add. 
I wish you all success in your most laborious and toilsome under- 
taking. Only those who have travelled much in India know how 
toilsome such work as yours is. 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 

*' (Signed) J AS. BURGESS, 

" Archaeological Surveyor, &c. , to 
Government of Western India. 

**E. B. Eastwick, Esq., C.B., &c.,&c." 

This expression of thanks would not be complete without 
an acknowledgment of facilities granted to the author by the 
Directors of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and of the 
Indian Kailway Companies, and here he must especially 
mention the names of Messrs. T. Sutherland and Bayley, 
Mr. Juland Danvers, Government Director of Kailways, Mr. 
Church, Trafl&c Manager of the Madras Kailway Company, 
Mr. Betts, Agent for the South India Kailway, and Mr. Lea 
Hair, C.E. 


At the present moment, when India has been drawn so much 
closer to England by almost continuous steam communication, by 
the Electric Telegraph, and, above all, by the sympathy which even 
the recent abortive eflFort to dissever the two countries has itself 
most remarkably tended to evoke, a Handbook of India has be- 
come an especial want. 

The vast extent of that region, however, which precludes the 
possibility of its being thoroughly travelled over and explored by 
any one man ; the dimness of its history and uncertainty of in- 
formation respecting its antiquities, and the difficulty of obtaining 
satisfactory accounts of the things most worthy of inspection, render 
a Handbook of India a much more arduous undertaking than the 
Handbooks of most other coimtries. When it is considered that 
the two minor Presidencies, which supply the routes for this present 
volume, comprehend an extent of coimtry equallino^ Spain and 
Portugal, France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Prussia, and 
Bavaria, the magnitude of the task will be better appreciated, and 
allowances will, it is hoped, be made for the numberless deficiencies 
in its execution. 

India aboimds with objects of interest. It presents every 
imaginable variety of scenery, from the loftiest and most sublime 
mountain ranges, to the gentle undulations and velvet swards of an 
English park. Its natural products are equal, if not superior, to 
those of any region in the world, and would famish endless ma.t^ 
rials for the pen of the describer. It is rich iIl^[iiatoI\Q.^«^a^Q<^\^^a'o& 
and there is scarce a hill which is not crowned m\\i t\ia Y^Q.\,\3X«ao;vvft 
rains of some old fortress, little known or altog^tYiet wtlVy^^^.^^"^! 


amount of reading you must have gone through to prepare the first 
edition, pointed you out as the fittest person alive to extend the 
book to Bengal and Upper India, and to revise the former volumes. 
You will find but little to erase in them : you have only to add. 
I wish you all success in your most laborious and toilsome under- 
taking. Only those who have travelled much in India know how 
toilsome such work as yours is. 

" Believe me, yours very sincerely, 

"(Signed) J AS. BURGESS, 

" Archaioloffical Surveyor, &c, , to 
Government of Western India. 

**E. B. Eastwick, Esq., C.B., &c.,&c." 

This expression of thanks would not be complete without 
an acknowledgment of facilities granted to the author by the 
Directors of the Peninsular and Oriental Company, and of the 
Indian Railway Companies, and here he must especially 
mention the names of Messrs. T. Sutherland and Bayley, 
Mr. Juland Danvers, Government Director of Railways, Mr. 
Church, Trafl&c Manager of the Madras Railway Company, 
Mr. Betts, Agent for the South India Railway, and Mr. Lea 
Hair, C.E. 


At the present moment, when India has been drawn so much 
closer to England by almost continuous steam communication, by 
the Electric Telegraph, and, above all, by the sympathy which even 
the recent abortive eflFort to dissever the two countries has itself 
most remarkably tended to evoke, a Handbook of India has be- 
come an especial want. 

The vast extent of that region, however, which precludes the 
possibility of its being thoroughly travelled over and explored by 
any one man ; the dimness of its history and uncertainty of in- 
formation respecting its antiquities, and the difficulty of obtaining 
satisfiictory accounts of the things most worthy of inspection, render 
a Handbook of India a much more arduous undertaking than the 
Handbooks of most other countries. When it is considered that 
the two minor Presidencies, which supply the routes for this present 
volume, comprehend an extent of country equallino^ Spain and 
Portugal, France, Belgium, Switzerland, England, Prussia, and 
Bavaria, the magnitude of the task will be better appreciated, and 
allowances will, it is hoped, be made for the numberless deficiencies 
in its execution. 

India aboimds with objects of interest. It presents every 
imaginable variety of scenery, from the loftiest and most sublime 
mountain ranges, to the gentle undulations and velvet swards of an 
English park. Its natural products are equal, if not superior, to 
those of any region in the world, and would furnish endless master 
rials for the pen of the describer. It is rich iIl^[iiatoI^(i«\«&^Q«iv^^^a^^'» 
and there is scarce a hill which is not crowned witti t\i^ ^V^iVxrteaojJxft 
ruiDS of some old foHreaa, little known or altogetYi^T wtl-^vk^^^^^I 


Europeans, but bound up in the native mind with many a strange 
tale and legend. In Europe the small remains of some ruined 
cloister, or the mouldering walls of a solitary castle, are sought out 
with eager interest; but India is a land of ruined cities, and in one 
of these the antiquities of a whole European province might be 
collected. The ruins of Br^man^bad, the Pompeii of Sindh, ex- 
tend for twenty miles, and wherever the mattock of the excavator 
falls, curious relics come to light. The deserted city of Bfjapur 
prqsents from a distance the appearance of a populous capital, and 
it is not until the desolate streets are entered, that the illusion is 
entirely dispelled. But Indian architecture can boast not only of 
what is curious and surprising; but also of what is eminently 
beautiful. The Taj excels all buildings in the world in symmetry 
and rich decoration. The temples of Abu are not to be surpassed 
in ornamenture. The palace of Amber is a structure before which 
the Alhambra shrinks into insignificance. It would be an error, 
then, to suppose that the task of composing a Handbook for India 
cotdd be quickly or easily accomplished. 

But, in addition to the vastness of the subjiect, there is another 
formidable difi&culty with which the compiler of a Handbook for 
India has to struggle. Intense heat and malaria are great opponents 
to the most zealous explorer of antiquities or of the picturesque. 
It happens that many of the most interesting Indian localities arc 
situated among thick jungles, loaded with noxious vapours, and 
abounding with dangerous reptiles and wild beasts. Thus the caves 
of Salsette can never be securely examined by the traveller ; and 
no one should explore the ruins of M^ndu, unless fully equipped 
for a tiger hunt. It is partly for these reasons, perhaps, that the 
accounts of places furnished by Indian travellers are in general so 
vague and inaccurate. Were it not for the elaborate notices of 
Tod, Fergusson, and Newbold, the mere compiler would find it im- 
possible to give an exact description of the scenery and remarkable 
architectural remains of Western and Southern India. 

But although it is not pretended that the Handbook for India 

in its present shape approaches the accuracy of the guidebooks to 

countries which have been longer and more minutely scrutinized, 

^Ae author hopes a beginning at least has been made, and that by 

^ ^contributions and corrections of those acqua.m\.e^ mVXx \X:v^ 


subjects treated, and especially by the aid of persons actually resi- 
dent in India, the work now given to the public may prove a trust- 
worthy, though not altogether complete guide for travellers in Hin- 
dustan. Indeed it is only fair to state that whatever there is of 
value in the present pages is due to the suggestion, or research, of 
distinguished Orientalists, or those who, from their practical ac- 
quaintance with Indian subjects, are eminently qualified to aid and 
advise. The compiler of this volume, though he has himself tra- 
velled through many parts of both Presidencies, has profited largely 
by the labours of others, and tenders his most grateful thanks to 
Professor H. H. Wilson ; Colonel Faber, Chief Engineer at Madras; 
General Dickinson, late Chief Engineer at Bombay; Mr. Fergusson, 
author of the Handbook of Architecture; Major Wingate, late 
Superintendent of Survey in the S. Mar^tha country ; Mr. C. P. 
Brown, of the Madras Civil Service, author of the Telugu Die- 
ticmary and other valuable works ; Mr. Edward Thornton, and Mr. 
Homidge, of the Statistical Department at the East India House ; 
Colonel Cotton, of the Madras Engineers ; the Rev. John Wilson, 
D.D., President of the Asiatic Society of Bombay ; and Mr. A. F. 
Bellasis, late Collector of Haidarabad in Sindh. Mr. Walter Elliot, 
Mr. Sim, and Mr. Chamier, of the Madras Civil Service, and Mr. 
Lestock Beid, of the Civil Service of Bombay, lent their kind aid 
in the preparation of the Vociabularies and Dialogues, and several 
other gentlemen supplied information as to localities with which 
they were specially acquainted. 

It now remains to notice briefly the plan of the work, and to 
explain some things which might, at first sight, appear objection- 
able. In order to make the work as useful as possible to the 
servants of Government, and persons resident in India, as well as 
to the mere traveller, a greater amount of statistics, and prelimi- 
ijary information of all kinds, has been given than is usual in 
Handbooks. Many of the statistics are new, and have never 
before been given to the public. Such are the names and direc- 
tions of the Sub-Divisions in the different Collectorates, and their 
Chief Towns, and some of the Routes. To the etymology and 
correct spelling of names, much attention baa \ie^Ti ^^^^'si, ^xA 
owing to the almost inextricable confusion in \f\i\c\i na^'^^X. ^ixA 
mdifference have involved this part of Oriental rese^T(i\\,>;)tva\'^^^'^ 


required here has been very considerable. This task has been 
rendered the more irksome from the conviction that, however 
necessary and useful the endeavour to restore Indian names to 
their original correctness may be, the attempt will be viewed with 
aversion by those who, having no knowledge of Oriental languages, 
are careless of the confusion and even serious mistakes arising from 
the want of system in the common method of spelling. In order to 
give an idea of the almost incredible absurdity, and ludicrous in- 
consistency of the popular mode of spelling adopted for Indian 
names, a few examples will suffice. It must be premised, however, 
that the following instances are neither the most striking, nor the 
most important, but simply those that come first to hand. Take, 
then, as a specimen, the towns whose names are compounded with 
the words Farrul% " happy," and Fathj " victory," in Thornton's 
Gazetteer. Farrukhnagar is the name of a district, and of a town, 
which are the subjects of consecutive notices in that work. The 
word is the same for both district and town ; but it is spelled 
Furruckmiggur for the district, and Fnruhrmgur for the town, both 
modes being wrong. In the next two notices, for Fatliganj we find 
Fvtehgunge (Western), Futeligunje (Eastern), the same word spelled 
in two difibrent ways, in notices immediately following each other, 
and both utterly at variance with the true Oriental name. In the 
next 25 notices, the word Fath is spelled in eleven dififerent ways 
— FiUehy Futh, Ftvthe, Fvtick, FtUi, Futte, FuUeh, Futtih, Futtoo, 
Futtun, Futtg, — all modes being absolutely wrong. The words, too, 
with which Fath is compoimded are spelled difierently in consecu- 
tive notices. Thus Garh is spelled Ghur in one line, and Gurh in 
the next. And Fiir, a town, is spelled alternately Poor and Fore. 
Now, let this method be applied in Indian schools for the spelling 
of English names. We should then have Lancaster, or rather some 
corruption of the word, for the town, and Zongcoster for the county. 
West Hiding and Fast Hoding, York, Yark, Yirk, Yorick, and so on, 
for eleven varieties. The absurdity and inconvenience of such a 
system is palpable. A map of France prepared for English schools 
on the plan of acconmiodating French sounds to the English ear, 
TTouJd abound with such barbarisms as would be intolerable to 
^voiy person of education and refinement. Must not then an edu- 
^ted native of India be disgusted with the mis-proii\xiiCiYa.\i\oia& ^\A 


mis-spellings of English writers 1 In the popular mode of spelling 
Indian proper names the aspirates are continually omitted, or in- 
serted where they ought not to occur ; and in innumerable cases, 
letters are changed in a way that deprives the representative word 
of all resemblance to the original. Surely the Ilutnee of English 
maps for Athnt, Hungut for Ildngal, and Broach for BJuiruchy must 
be very imcouth and ridiculous to Indians, and simply imintelligiblo 
to the lower class. Even the general English reader now smiles 
at the ridiculous substitutes for Oriental names, which appear in 
the writings of the first servants of the East India Company ; at 
Sir Koger Dowler (Siraju'd-daulah) imprisoning the helpless English, 
who revenged themselves by treating his name with a barbarity 
equal to his own towards themselves ; or at the ravages of the Sow 
Roger (S^hu R^j^), and the exploits of the valorous Bouncello 
(Bhonsle). But the popular mode of spelling at present, if not 
quite so ridiculous, is much less consistent than that of the old 
jargon, leads to the gravest errors, and can amuse no one. 

But these inconsistencies assume a more serious aspect, when 
we find them leading to important historical and topographical 
errors. It will be necessary to instance a few of these, in order to 
convince the English reader that, owing to the incorrect spelling 
of Indian names, the grossest mistakes are gradually creeping into 

The first instance may be taken from an Indian city, which has 
of late acquired an unhappy celebrity in this country, from Cavm- 
pore. Of this city, Thornton says " the importance of this place 
is indeed altogether of recent date, and resulting from its selection 
in A.D. 1777, as a military cantonment by the British authorities. 
It does not appear to be mentioned by Baber in his narrative of 
military operations in the Doab ; and it is passed over in the 
Ayeen Akbery. The first notice of it is perhaps that by RenneL" 
This idea of the modem foundation of Cawnpore springs partly, if 
not entirely, from its incorrect spelling. Cavm is the barbarism 
adopted by the historian Orme for the Persian word Khdn, " a 
lord," and was contemporaneous with the equally barbarous clian, 
which was the corruption that foimd favour with Don?. Cw?^\i^x^ 
was, therefore^ supposed to have been built by aomo MAii^^TMft.^'^^XL 
nobleman, and therefore to be a comparatively moieni ^^Mi^- 


But the correct spelling of the word K^uhpur, shows that it is a 
Hindu word, meaning* " the city of K^iih," or Krishnah. It is, in 
fact, a place of primaeval antiquity, and from it the K^uhptiriyah 
Rajputs have their title, a tribe that entered Awadh (Oudh) many 
centuries ago. 

By those who have not examined and compared maps of India 
and the books of routes through that country, the blunders and 
confusion created by incorrect spelling can hardly be imagined. 
In some cases quarter-masters of regiments have been unable to 
identify the name of a single place in routes furnished to them 
from the Government offices, and have sent in new drafts of the 
routes with the names spelled in an entirely different manner, 
though the places intended were in each case the same.* The 
compiler of this Handbook, on comparing the Madras Government 
Route-book with the map of the Trigonometrical Survey, was 
scarcely able to trace- any similarity in the names. Thus the 
Tamraparni river is called in the Route-book Tamberpemy ; in 
Thornton's Gazetteer, Tambaravari ; in Walker's map, Pambouri ; 
and in the Trigonometrical map, Chindinthura. Thus, too, di% in 
Tamil, signifies " river " ; but the compilers of the Route-book, 
ignoring that simple fact, continually add " river " to dr, which 
they frequently write aur, making it a proper name. Not content 
even with this, they sometimes prefix the word middy, a corrup- 
tion of the Sanskrit nodi, which also means " river," to dr. Thus 
the phrase occurs, "cross the Nuddy-ar river,'* equivalent to 
" cross the river, river, river," though all that is meant is, cross a 
stream. Giri is " a mountain," and Gadi, in Telugu, or Garhi, in 
Hindustani, is " a fort ; " but Maps and Route-books write Gherry, 
Ghurry, or some similar corruption, for both " fort " and " moun- 
tain." Thus the Neilglierries is written for Nilgiris, " blue moun- 
tains," and Giveriah for Vijayadurg, simply a fort. Indifference to 
the meaning of names is the prolific parent of another series, of 
mistakes, for nearly all Indian names of places are significant, and 
the etymology is obscured and the meaning lost by their perver- 
sion. Thus KdnhazpUr, which signifies " paper-town," and is so 
called on accoimt of a paper manufactory there, is made into 

,^_^ ^ee a remarkable instance in the Journal of tkt Bengal Asiatic vSocic^j/ for 
-^^H rol ni., p. 285. 


Raguzpoor, which is utterly meaningless. Kdkamdrt, "crow-killer,** 
a village so called from a plant thought by the natives to be 
poisonous to crows, is perverted into Caughmaliri/* EranaUr is 
pronounced and written Ennore, according to the popular English 
mode ; but this means, " What town 1 " If an Indian peasant 
were asked the way to What Town, how is it possible that he 
could reply satisfactorily 1 This case, and the others that have 
been quoted, will, perhaps, be a key to the difficulty experienced 
by Englishmen when travelling in India in getting information as ^ 
to places. They ask an unintelligible question, and if they do not 
succeed in extracting the information they want, too often wreak 
their anger on the imfortimate and bewildered Indian. In 
military expeditions these mistakes have sometimes had most 
serious consequences. And it was the consideration of the neces- 
sity of furnishing the traveller with names which would be under- 
stood by the natives that led to the adoption of the correct mode 
of spelling in the present work. 

In fact, notwithstanding the difficulty occasioned by the incon- 
sistencies of the popular spelling, it was originally intended to 
adopt it, and a considerable portion of the work had already been 
written according to it, but then the insuperable obstacle that has 
been already noticed arose. It was found that the natives them- 
selves could not recognize a single word, if spelled and pronounced 
according to the common method. It was obviously a matter of 
imperative necessity that the traveller should be able to make the 
names of places intelligible to the natives. This could only be 
effected by spelling and pronouncing the words according to the 
native system. Otherwise, to a native of the Madras Presidency, 
Masulipatam, Vkagapatam, Tripliccune, Pondicherry, Conjeveramy 
Seringapatam, and Travancore would be utterly unintelligible. 
The mention of these words would merely elicit from a native a 
shake of the head, or an intimation that he did not understand 
English. Whereas Machklipainam, VisJidkhpatnam, Tiru vali kedi, 
Fuducheri, Kdnchipuram, Shrirangapatnam, Tiruvankodu, would be 
understood at once, and the direction would be pointed out, or 
the traveller guided to the place. The first tlms tlaa.\* ^-^Oki ^ot.^ 

♦ For manjr similar perversions, see an article "by Troi. H. H. "^'^^o^ ^■a'VaS^^as^ 
Geography, Oriental Maffozine, Dec. 1824, p. 186. 


occurs, however, both the popular and the correct form are given, 
and this, it is hoped, will render the new mode less distasteful. 

In order, moreover, to save the general reader any trouble, the 
popular forms of all places likely to be known to him are inserted 
in the Index, as well as the correct forms. Those who desire to 
go more deeply into the subject of the spelling of Oriental words, 
may consult the Preface to Wilson's Glossary of Indian Terms, 
where the whole question is fully and ably discussed. In some 
parts of the work the reader will observe mention of the East 
India Company as still in existence, a circumstance which, when 
the length of time required to print the number of pages of which 
the volumes here given to the public consist, is taken into con- 
sideration, will need no further explanation. Part of the work 
was already in type when the recent change in the administration 
of India took place. 

In conclusion, the compiler desires to invite corrections for the 
numerous mistakes into which he is conscious of having fallen ; 
and notices derived from personal observation of the many in- 
teresting localities, the description of which has been omitted, are 
solicited from all travellers who may use these volumes. It will 
be seen that the work has been constructed on such a plan as to 
admit of the insertion of a number of Koutes, so that expansion 
will be easy. The work thus completed might not, indeed, contain 
all, or even the greater part of the objects of interest to be found 
in India, but it would, at least, furnish as much as any traveller 
would have time to inspect. 


January the 20^^, 1859. 


Section L 



§ a^ Season foe visiting 

MADBuiS ... 2 

§ &. Outfit . . . . 3 

For Gentlemen . . 3 

For Ladies . . * . . 4 

AltematiYe List by an 

Experienced Lady . 5 

§ c, (JsuAL Routes to India 6 

1. Voyage from South- 

ampton to Port Said, 
and through the Suez 
Canal to Aden, Galle, 
and Madras . . 
Gibraltar ... 8 
Malta . . . . 10 
Egypt, Port Said, and 

the Suez Canal . 14 
The Red Sea . . . 17 
Aden . . . .18 
Galle . . . . 22 

2. Route by the Vessels of 

the Messageries Ma- 
ritimes from Mar- 
seilles . . .22 

3. Route Overland from 

London to Brindisi, 
and by the P. and 
O. Steamers to Alex- 
andria, Aden, Galle, 
and Madras . . 23 
Paris . . . .24 
Brindisi . . . 25 

Alexandria. . . 26 
Rail, from Alexandria 
to Suez— Time Table 27 

4. Route Overland to 

Venice or Ancona, 
and by P. and O. 
Steamers to Brindisi 
and Alexandria, and 
by Rail to Suez and 
thence hy P. and 0, 
Steamer to Aden, 
Galle, and Madras . 28 


§ d. Hints begabdino Dress, 
Diet, Health, and 
Comfort . . .28 
The Prevention of Disease 28 
Dress . . . .29 
Exposure . . . . 29 
Food . . . 29,34 

Drink 30 

Exercise . . . .31 
Bathing . . .31, 34 
Sleep . . . .32 
Moral conduct . . . 32 
Cholera . . . .32 
Medicine chest . . . 33 
Snake bites . . .33 
Marching . . . . 33 
Stimulants . . .35 
Chronological Tables . . 36 

Eras, &c 36 

Table of the Seasons and 
Months in Sky., Hindi, 
and Tamil . . .37 
Names of the Governors of 
Madras and dates of 
their accession . . 38 
Principal events in Indian 

History ... 39 
Mul^nmmadan Dynasties . 39 
Kings of the Dakhan . 43 
Nif^dms of the Dakhan . 55 
Rdjds of Vijayanagar . 55 
Niiwdbs of the Kamdtik . 68 
Pandyan Kings . . 59 
Chera and Chela Kings . 64 
Tables op Money . . . 67 
Tables op Weights and 

Measures . . . .68 
Castes in the Madras Pre- 
sidency 68 

Skeleton Routes . . .72 
Languages ot ^.Ijsiyvk . . '^^ 

VOCABULABlIia & \3\k\Si^X^^ 'V^ 

Indian Teums \x^ei> t^ '^^^'a* ^^ . 
Book . .' . • -^^^ 



Section II. 


Landing Place . 

New Harbour 

The Pier . 

The Lighthouse . 

The Club . 

Hotels . 

Conveyances . 

The Fort 

The Grand Arsenal 

St. Mary's Church 

Old Tomb on Esplanade 

Pacheappah's School . 

The Jail . . . 

The Hospital 

The Government House 

Governor's Country-house 

Statue of Sir T. Munro 




Niiwdb of the Kamdtik's Palace 148 

Promenade by the sea-shore 

Statue of Col. Neill 

The Cathedral . 

Other Churches . 

The Little Mount 

The Model Farm . 

Race Course 

The Great Mount . 

Museum . 

The Public Gardens, 

Park . 
Principal Shops 
Observatory . 
Charities of Madras 
Hallway Stations 

or People's 






Madras to the Seven Pagodas 153 

Madras to Porto Novo . .158 
Madras to Kdnchiveram . 170 
Arkonam to Yirod . . 174 
Trichindpalli to Tanjilr . 197 
Trichindpalli to Madura . . 214 
Madura to Tinnevelli . . 222 
TinneveUi to Tutikorin . . 224 
Madura to E4mndd and Bd- 
meshwaram . . . 225 

10 Madras to Bengaliir . . 233 

11 Bengaliir to Shivasamudram 255 

12 Bengaliir to Shrirangpat- 

nam and Maisiir . . 258 

13 Maisiir to ShravanaBelagola 264 

14 Maisiir to Halebld . * . ' . 265 

15 Maisiir to the Nllgiris . 268 

16 Bengaliir to G^rusappe . . 269 

17 Bengaliir to Kiirg . . 269 

18 Maisiir to WynM . . . 274 

19 Madras to Koimbatiir . . 276 

Route PAGE 

20 Koimbatiir to the NOgiris . 282 

21 Utakamand to Kdllkot . 293 

22 Kdlikot to Hondwar and the 

Falls of G^rusappe . . 297 

23 Pothaniir to B^piir . . 311 

24 Shoraniir to Trivandaram . 313 

25 Sea Routes . . . . 324 

26 Madras to Baizwdda . . 326 

27 Baizwdda to Ganj4m . . 332 

28 Madras 'to Gutti . . .342 

29 Gundakal Junction to Bijd- 

nagar . . . . 346 

30 Balldri to Rdmandurg . 355 

31 Gundakal to RAlchiir . . 356 

32 Rdlchiir to Kalbargah . . 358 

33 Kalbargah to HaidardbAd . 361 

34 Haidardbdd to Bldar . . 374 

35 Bidar to AurangdbM . . 379 

36 Aurangdbdd to DaulatdbAd. 

The Eliira Caves . . 385 

37 Aurangdbdd to Ajanta . 401 









CONTEXTS. pj^^g 

§ a. Season fob Visiting Madras 2 

§ h. Outfit 3 

§ c. Usual Routes to India : 

1. Sea-voyage from Southampton to Gibraltar, 

Malta, and Port Said, and through the 
Suez Canal to Suez, Aden, Galle, and 
Madras 6 

2. Route by the Vessels of the Messageries 

Mabitimes from London to Marseilles and 
through the Suez Canal to Madras . . 22 

3. Route Overland from London to Brindisi, and 

by the p. and o. steamers to alexandria, 
Aden, Galle, and Madras . . . . 23 

4. Route Overland from London to Venice or 

Ancona, and on by Route 3 to Alexandria, 
Aden, Galle, and Madras . . . . 28 
§ rf. Hints regarding Health, Diet, and Comfort . . 28 

Chronological Tables "i^ 

Weights and Measures ^% 


Vocabulary and Dialogues . . . . . . "^^ 



Those who travel for pleasure >vill, if they are wise, select but one 

Eeriod of the year for visiting the Madras Presidency, and that is 
'om the 1st of November to the 1st of March. By carefully arrang- 
ing their tour so as to end the journey by passing up the W. coast 
northward to Bombay this period may be prolonged, perhaps without 
risk, to the end of March, but after that time no one who values his 
health or his comfoit should remain in the S. of India. By the 
middle of March the heat becomes excessive, and as the S. of India 
Rly. is constructed on the narrow gauge, the inconvenience and 
danger thus occasioned are much increased, for the carnages are so low 
and narrow that the sun strikes through them with fiu* greater power 
than through the carriages on the broad gauge lines. It must also 
be observed that the arrangements on the S. of India line are made 
with reference to the convenience of the Indian passengers, and con- 
sequently night trains are few or none, so that Europeans are obliged, 
if they travel at all, to do so at the slow rate of 10 or 12 m. an hour 
under a blazing sun, with the chance in case of a break down (no un- 
common occurrence) of remaining stationary for hours without any 
shelter but the roof of the carriage, which soon becomes heated through 
and through. Arriving at Madras, then, in the fii-st week in November 
the traveller will have about four months to visit the most interest- 
ing localities in the Southern Presidency, and these will occupy 
every moment of liis time. Supposing that he is imwUling to stop 
at Galle for a week or 10 days in order to visit from that place 
Rameshwaram on the extreme Southern coast of India, his wisest 
plan will be at once to start from Madras by the Madras Rly., and 
turn off at Yirod, on to the S. of India line, halting for 3 days to see 
Trichindpalli, and then go on to Madura, Tinnivelli and Tutikorin. 
Thence he mav take boat to Rdmeshwaram, or may return to Madura, 
and go by bullock cart over an, at present, execrable road about 50 m. 
to that place. He must then return to Madura, and after visiting 
the Palnai Hills, and perhaps the Animaleis,go back to Trichindpalli 
and visit Tanjurand tlie places which will be indicated in Rte. 3, and 
return to Madras by the S. of India Rly. from Gudalur. From 
Madras he will next visit Masulipatam in order to see the Great 
Irrigation Works on the Kyishiia and Goddvari, and the famous 
Tope near Baizwada, and retmn to Madras by the canal. After that 
he will proceed by the Madras Rly. to Conjeveram, Tinipati, Gutti, 
Ballari and Bijanagar, and there make his election — either returning 
to Gundakal, to go to Rdichur, Kalbargah, ^aidardbad, Golkonda, 
Bidar, Aurangdbad, Daulatabad, Rozah, and the caves of Eliira and 
Ajanta, ending his tour by a visit to Bombay,— or to return to Madras, 
and go by Arkdt to Bengaliir and Maisiir, and then pass througli 
Kurg to the W. coast, whence he may visit the Nllgiris, and then 
descend to Cocinn and Trivandaram, and return to Galle, and thence 
^ -England, The time taken in making these tours will l>e found 
under the head of Skeleton Rtes. 

Sect. I. ' 6. OUTFIT. 

§ h. OUTFIT. 

It has l>een well observed hy Dr. Ranald I^Iartin, in his work 
"The Influence of Tropical Climates on European Constitutions," 
"that the excessive discharj^e from the skin in India renders the 
venous blood unnaturally <lense, and causes the European to l)e 
more liable to congestive forms of disease." ChUls in Inoia are most 
dangerous, and the traveller must, therefore, provide himself with 
warm underclothing, as well as that of a lighter description, to guard 
against atmospheric changes, esjiecitdly when ascending into the 
cooler climate of the hills. A list of useful things sufficient for an 
outfit is appendeil, but attention must be particularly drawn to some 
very necessary articles which tu-e peculiarly liable to be omitted. 
Thus, marine soap is very apt to be forcotteu, and without it a salt- 
water bath is but little purifying. AVhite shoes to weai* in the 
scorching glare of the sun are another reiiuisite, and sim. sjwctacles 
with glasses of a neutral tint, as also a veil to protect the eyes against 
the intolerable dust of the roads, a pair of stout leather gauntlets 
coming up above the ^vrist half way to the elbow, and a light wii-e- 
mask, witli a back piecje to protect the back of the head and neck, 
win be found most valuable when visiting the Caves of Eliim ami 
Ajanta and other localities, as a protection against bees, by which 
ii-ascible little insects many persons have Ijeen dangerously stung, to 
such an extent, indeed, that in some cases death has ensued ; cotton, 
silk, or Swedish gloves will also be found very useful, and thoso 
who wish to shoot on the Western coast, particularly in Travankor, 
will do well to provide themselves with gaitei-s steeped in tobacco 
juice, as a defence against the leeches that lurk under every stone, 
and will even ascend a walking-stick unless it be so steei)ed. Sleep- 
ing drawers should be so made as to cover the feet, and articles cf 
dress that come to be dealt with by the washerman should have 
studs in lieu of buttons. It will be well to remember that any 
clothing or wearing apparel sent on in advance to India, or which 
under any circumstances arrives there without the o\*nier, pays duty 
at the Custom-house. Fire-ai-ms that have not l)een in India befoi-e 
are rather heavily taxed, and if they have l>een there before, a certifi- 
cate must be signed by their owner to that ett'ect l>efore he will be 
allowed to take them away from the Custom house. 

Ouffit as Siipplied fm' Gentlemen, 

£ 8» d, 
1 Flannel Morning Suit 2 16 

1 Tweed do 3 15 

2 White Twill Coats (g 12/G 1 5 

2 „ Drill Waistcoats @ 0/6 13 

2 Pairs White Drill Trousers . . . . ® 12/- 1 4 

6 Indian Cotton Shirts with Collais . . . (^ %(- ^ '^ V^ 

9 White long-cloth murtB, linen fronts, &c. . ^. e>|V> 1 \^ <^ 

^ ¥me fancx-colonred Flanuel ShirtH . . . ^WilV\ "i \^ ^ 

jU „ Linen Collars , . (^ \\- \ ^ ^ 

« India Gauze Vests . . ^ * * ' ' (tf^, ^IV^ \ "^^ ^ 

4 h. OUTFIT. Sect. I. 

£ 8, d. 

6 Pairs Elastic Cotton Drawers . . . . @ 5/0 113 

3 Indian Cotton Sleeping Jackets . . . . @ 5/6 KJ (J 

3 Pairs Indian Cotton Sleeping Pyjamas . . % h/^ Ifi (J 

12 „ Cotton half Hose (ff; 1/- 12 

r> ;; Woollen do ^1/6 1) 

12 White Pocket Handkerchiefs @ 1/- 12 

Neckties and Scarfs 10 

2 Pairs Braces ^. 2/G 5 

2 Flannel Cholera Belts @. 3/- G 

2 Pairs Walking or Dress Boots 2 10 

2 „ CaJf Shoes I o o r 

1 „ Canvas do j J ^ i> 

1 Airchamber Helmet 110 

1 Muslin Pagrl or Turban 2 fi 

2 Bullock Trunks ' . ® 35/- 3 10 

1 Railway or Hand- Portmanteau 1 16 

6 Huckaback Towels @ 1/- 6 

Clothes, Hat, Hair, Nail and Tooth Brushes, and Combs . 15 

1 Sponge and Bag . . .056 

1 Clothes Bag with lock 7 6 

1 Best Town-made Hunting Saddle, complete . . . 4 15 

1 „ Double Bridle with Bits, complete . . . . 1 15 

£45 17 6 

N.B. — It will be well to take a dozen or a dozen and a half Indian 
cotton shirts. Linen shirts are not desirable, as they are likely to cause 
a chill when perspiration is excessive. 

Ouffiffor Ladies, 

£ 8. d. 

1 White Muslin Costume 1 I'J 6 

1 Pink do. do 1 !) 6 

1 Blue do. do 2 2 

1 Box containing assortment of Flowers 12 1> 

2 Skirts 1 @ D/H 5 1 ® 13/^ 1 '^ « 

6 Chemises, (^ 3/9 ; 3 Chemises trimmed . . . d) 5/- 117(5 

.3 Do. (^ 7/- ; 12 Cambric do. . . . @ 7/9 5 14 

12 Night-dresses, @ 7/6 ; 9 Night-dresses . . . (^ 9/6 8 15 6 

3 Do. fully-trimmed @ 14/- 2 2 

12 Pairs Drawers, @ 6/- ; 12 Pairs Drawers . . @ 6/- 6 12 

14 Fine Long-cloth Camasols . . . 8 (a, 2/3 ; 6 @ .H/- 1 1(» 

^6 Do. do. do. trimmed . . . . ^) 5/6 1 13 

12 Tucked Petticoats . . 3 @ 3/9 ; 8 ® 6/6 ; 1 @ 12/- 3 15 3 

3 Trimmed do 2 ^ 15/- ; 1 @ 17/- 2 7 

4 Embroidered Saxony Flannel Petticoats . . @ 8/6 114 

4 Saxony Vests, @ 2/- ; 6 Gauze Merino Vests . . @ 7/- 2 10 
2 Muslin Skirts ....... @6/6 013 

5 Yards of Dress Material @ 2/44 1111 

7i Do. do. do @2/6i 19 1 

-s^ Wool Shawls, 1 @ 11/9 ; 1 @ 12/6 ; 12 Paiis Gloves, 2/11 2 19 3 

O' Pairs Silk Hose . . . . 3 (5^ 12/6 ; 3 @ 15/6 4 4 

(1 IJo. Stripe Cotton Hose . Q \v\ i; 

6 X^. Wlu'te Thread Hose \ V^ V\ 

Sect. I, h. OUTFIT. 5 

£ #. d. 

2 Do. Fancy do. ^ .3/3 6 « 

2 Do. Corsets 1 fe G/11 ; 1 ® 9/6 16 6 

2 Dressing-gowns, 21/- ; G Cotton . . . ^2/3 2 iri 6 

25 Yards White Silk for Dress (fc 5/6 6 17 6 

Making, Trimming, and Lining, do 2 16 

Making, Trimming, and Lining Body of Muislin llobe . 15 

1 Costume, @ 49/6 ; 1 Costume . . . . fe 47/-. 4 16 ii 

1 Do. @ 69/- ; 1 do C^. 99/- 8 8 

1 Do. @82/-;l do @ 29/6 6 11 6 

6 Pairs Gloves, 3 @ 4/3 ; 3 @ 4/9 ; Haberdasheiy . 8/2 1 15 2 

1 Flannel Dressing-gown 16 9 

1 Doz. Collars, @ 6/9 ; J doz. Collars . . . @ 3/9 8 8 

14 Doz. Linen Cuffs, } doz. 15/6 ; i doz. 14/6 ; J doz. 10/9 .10 5 

1 Lace Collarette 18 6 

7 Silk Scarfs, @ 12/6 per doz. ; 1 Scarf, 2/6 ; 1 do. 1/6^ . 114 
6 Pocket-handkerchiefs, @ 2/3 ; 3 doz. Buttons, \{)\d, . . 16 2 
1 Doz. do. (&i9/-: 1 doz. handkerchiefs . . @l6/9 15 9 
1 Shawl 16 9 

16 Yards Tussore Silk for Dress . . . . @ 4/9 3 16 

16 Do. White Dress, ^ 9<f . ; 1 Kecc of MusUn . . @ 30/- 2 2 

1 Umbrella 18 9 

1 Pair Button Boots, 26/- ; 1 Pair French do., 19/6 . . . 2 4 6 

1 Do. Kid Lace do., 15/6 ; 1 do. Oxford do.. 17/6 . . 1 13 

1 Do. Spanish Shoes, 9/6, and Bows for do.. 2/6 . . . 12 

1 Do. French Kid Boots, 14/-. and Bows for do., 3/6 . . 17 6 

1 Do. Bronze Embroidered Shoes 10 

1 Do. White Kid Boots, 14/-, and Satin bows, 3/6 . .0176 
1 3-ft. 6-in. Airtight Dress Box in Deal, Lock, box and 

name painted . . 440 

1 2-ft. 3-in. Bullock Trunk 1 15 

Painting name on do 2 

Alternative LtJtt by an Expet'ienced Lady. 

2 Dozen Chemises, not Irish linen, but thin Calico or embroidery 

18 Night Dresses of thin Long Cloth. 
18 Pairs of Drawers of do. 

1 Dozen Silk Gauze Drawers. 
18 Vests of Silk Gauze. 

4 Flannel Petticoats. 

8 Pairs Flannel Drawers. 

1 Dozen Lille Thread Stockings. 

1 Dozen Balbriggan do., unbleached preferable as they easily bleach 

in Indian sun. 

3 Pairs White Silk, 3 Black Silk, Stockings. 

4 Pairs of Corsets. 

6 Evening Lace and Worked Pocket-handkerchiefs. 

2 Dozen Morning Cambric do. 

1} Dozen Linen Collars ; Ditto, Linen Cuffs. 
8 Petticoat Bodices. 
6 MThite Morning Petticoats ; 6 Evening do. 

2 Warm Winter Petticoats or SkiHs. 

3 Pairs of white evening Boots or Shoes 
3 Ih. of blacic do. 


1 Cloth Habit. 

1 Serge do. 

1 Tall riding Hat. 

1 Round do. (Terai felt, a good kind). 

1 Helmet or Sun Topi. 

2 Bonnets. 

2 Hats for driving or walking. 
1 Waterproof; 1 Ulster. 

1 Umbrella ; 1 Parasol. 

2 Pairs Goloshes. 

i Dozen Pairs of Calf-skin or Dog-skin riding gloves. 
1 Warm Shawl. 
1 Evening Wrap. 
1 Flannel Dressing-gown. 
4 White Doria or Muslin do. 
4 Dressing Jackets or Peignoirs. 
Morning Dresses : — 
1 Good Black Silk. 
6 Cambrics. 

4 Light and dressy toilettes of Muslin or Gauze. 
1 Serge or Stuff Dress. 
Evening Dresses : — 

1 Black Brussels Net, and 5 others suitable for balls. 
6 For dinner of Satin or Silk or thinner materials. The colour 
Blue to be avoided as it spots yellow. 
6 Indoor Boots or Shoes. 
6 Outdoor do. do. 
18 Pairs Morning Kid-gloves. 
18 Evening do. 

It is a mistake taking much of anything to India now that by Parcels 
Post dresses, bonnets, boots, shoes, and everything can come out easily 
and cheaply as one requires them, instead of having a quantity of old- 
fashioned things in store. 

It is a good plan to take a supply of tapes, cottons, pins, hairpins, 
needles, buttons, etc. 

§ c. usual roptes to india. 

1. Voyage prom Southampton to Port Said, and through the 
Suez Canal to Aden, Galle and Madras. 

The comfoil; of the voyage depends luucli on the choice of the 

ship, and somewhat on that of the cabin. As a rule, those who suttV»r 

from heat should choose the largest ships ; as in the smaller vessels, 

from the " Boklmm," of 2933 tons, downward, the poits are closed, 

even when there is but little sea on. The " Austmlia," the " Hiu- 

dostan," the "Indus," the "Khedive,'' the "Mirzapore," the "Nepaul," 

the " Pekin " and the " Peshawur," are favourite ships, but the best 

of all is the " Deccan," which is not only a lai"ge ship, but has a 

l)oop, and the ports of the cabins in that part of the ship are never 

closed, except in heavy gales. In going through the Ked Sea to 

IndJa the cabins on the sttirboard side are the best, as they do not 

Mice the morning sun, and from the Red Sea to Aden they have the 

fr/nd on their side. On the return voyage tlie caVivaa on m^ \s\x\io?LYd 

sjc/e nre better. The cabins on the starboard aide ov\jo%\\^ Wvi 


Doctor's should be avoided, as the dirty linen is pileil up every day 
at their doors. To keep food, fruit or sweets in one's cabin is the 
sure way to attract rats and cock-roaches. It will be well to carry 
one's o>vn tea and tea-pot, and to make tea for oneself, as the ship 
tea is boiled with the milk in one large cauklron, and is seldom well 
tasted. On going on board the first thing to be done is to secure a 
seat at table, as near as possible to the Captain, as there the rolling is 
less felt. The 5 or 6 seats next the Captain are generally reserved 
for his friends, but the other seats are allotted to the first occupants^ 
or to those who first place their cards there. 

The fare by this rte. is £68, exclusive of charges for all drink- 
ables, except tea, cofl^ee, lime Juice and water, and water. It is usual 
to give £i as a fee to the cabm steward, 10«. to the one who waits on 
you at table. The doctor also is paid by those who put themselves 
under his care. The saving in point of money, as compared with the 
exj^ense of the overland rte., is about £15, there is much less trouble, 
and little or no risk of losing baggage, or of liaving it opened, and 
articles stolen from it. To those, too, who have not before seen 
Gibraltar, Malta, and the Suez Canal, the voyage is not without objects 
of interest. Between the Channel and these places thei-e is seldom 
much to be seen. The first place sighted is genendly Cape La Hague, 
or Hogue, on the E. coast of Cotentin in Fi-ance, off which, on the 
19th of May, 1692, Admiral Kussell, aftem'artls Earl of Oi-ford, 
defeated De Tourville, and sunk or burned 16 French men-of-war. 
On the thiitl day Cape Finisterre (finis teiTae), a promontory on the 
W. coast of Galicia m Spain, and in N. lat. 42° 54', and W. long. 
9° 20', will probably be seen, off which Anson defeated the French 
fieet in 1747. The next land sighted will be, perhaps. Cape Koca, 
near Lisbon, and then Cape St. Vincent in N. lat. 37* 3', W. long. 
8° 59' at the S.W. comer of the Poiluguese province Algarye, off 
which Sir G. Kodney, on January the 16th, 1780, defeated the 
Spanish fleet, and Sir J. Jems won his earldom on the 14th of 
February, 1797, and Nelson the Bath, after taking the "S. Josef" and 
the " S. Nicholas " of 112 guns each. This cape has a fort upon it, 
and the white cliffs, 150 feet high, are honeycombed by the waves, 
which break with great violence upon them. Just before entering the 
Straits of Gibraltar, Cape Trafalgar will also probably be seen in N. 
lat. 36° 9', W. long. 6° 1', immortalized bjr Nelson's victory of the 
21st of October, 1805. Gibraltar comes next in sight, and the distances 
between England and it and the remaining halting-places will be seen 
in the following table :— 

Names of Flacen. I Miles. 

Southampton to Gibraltar 
Gibraltar to Malta . 
Malta to Port Said . . . 
Port Said to Suez, as the crow flies 
Suez to Aden • . . , 
Aden to Galle • . . , 
/ OaUe to Madras ., . , 

Totals. 1 General Total. 



Gibraltar, — In order to see thoroughly this most remarkable place, 
it would be requisite to spend a week at it. The mail steamers, how- 
ever, stay only 6 hours, and sometimes even less, and this is too short 
a time to view the fortifications, or ascend the heights. Those who 
would exhaust the sights of the place must proceed thither by one 
mail steamer, land, and await the coming of the next ; or tliey may 
travel overland from London to Bayonne, Madrid, Cordova, Seville, 
and Cadiz, and see something of those interesting places in a week, 
come by coach to Algesiras, and reach Gibraltar by a steamer, which 
runs thence to it and back three times daily. Otherwise they may 
come from Cadiz, whence steamers run to Gibraltar twice a week, 
makingthe voyage in about 8 or 9 hours. Gibraltar was called Calpe 
by the Phoenicians, and was reckoned as one of the Pillars of Hercules, 
the other being Abyla, now Apes* Hill. Gibraltar was taken from the 
Spaniards in 711 a.d. by Tarik ibn Zdv^d, an Arab general under 
Valid, 6th Khalifah of the Ommiades (D'^Herbelot, Tharek ben Giad), 
from whom it was called Jabal al Tarik = Gibraltar. In 1161 the 
fortifications were greatly strengthened, and it was not till 1309 that 
it was captured by Ferdinand IV. of Spain. In 1334 the Moors 
retook it, but the Spaniards under the Duke of Medina Sidonia 
finally wrested it from them in 1462. In 1704, during the war of the 
Spanish succession, the English, aided by the Austrians and Dutch, 
and commanded by Sir George Rooke, stormed the place on the 24th 
of July, there being a garrison of only 150 men in it. The French 
and Spaniards then besieged it under Marshal Tesse, but were beaten 
off with the loss of 10,000 men. In 1727 the Spaniards attacked it 
again and failed, after losing 5,000 men. On the 11th of July, 1779, 
the Spaniards commenced the memorable siege, which was not com- 
pletely terminated till March 12th, 1783, when General Elliott, after- 
wards Lord Heathfield, and the Due de Crillou arranged terms on the 
neutral ground. Since that time it has remained an uncontested 
possession of the English. 

The Rock of Gibraltar first comes in sight at the distance of 
about 10 miles. Rounding Point Camero, and breasting Europa 
Point, you find yourself within a sheltered and spacious bay six 
miles wide and ten deep. The soundings have decreased from 24 
to 16 fathoms, and the deep blue of the sea has changed instan- 
taneously to green. The defensive strength of the place is not at 
once perceptible. The most formidable batteries are concealed in 
s^allenes hewn out of the rock half way up, or lie so near to the sea 
Ene that they are hidden by the vessels moored around. Gibraltar is 
a vast rocky promontory, which on the N. side rises in a perpendicular 
precipice 1,200 ft. high, and ascends on the S. side to 1,408 ft. It is 
3 m. m length, and mum i m. to | in breadth. It is joined to the 
main land by a low sandy isthmus, 1^ m. in length. On all sides 
but the W. it is steep and rugged, but on that side there is a general 
slope from 200 to 300 feet from the rock down to the sea. On this 
side the eye catches 3 high points. Towards the N. is seen the Rock 
Oun, or Wolfs Crag, J, 250 ft. above sealeVel ; in the centre rises the 
^fferSI^rnal Station, or El Hacho, 1,255 ft. "high, an»I outke S. is 
CfMnm'a Tower, which reaches ft height of l,40Qit» "a^Tc^^V x^^Y 

Sect. I. GIBRALTAll, 9 

descends to Windmill Hill Flats, a level plateau ^ ni. long, which 
ends in a still lower pkteau from 100 to 50 ft. above the sea, calleil 
Eu2X)pa Flats. The new mole, landing-place, and dockyard, are 
almost parallel on the W. side to O^Hara's Tower on the E. On 
landing, one may w^alk or drive to the left up Main Street as far as 
the Alameda, where the band plays. It was the parade-gromid imtil 
1814, when Sir George Don made a garden of it, and it is now readly 
lovely with scarlet geraniums and heliotropes growing in rich pro- 
fusion, and many pretty shrubs. There is a colunm here brought fium 
the ruins of Lepiaa by the captain of H.M.S. " Wevmouth," and sur- 
mounted by a bust of the Duke of Wellington. There is also a bust 
of General Elliott, the hero of the great sieee. In passing throiigh 
the main street one may purchase excellent gloves and silk neck-ties, 
as well as lace, at a cheap rate. Half way is the Exchange, with the 
Club House to the W., and the King's Arms to the E., these being 
the two principal hotels. There is a table dTiote at the Club House. 
The Chamber of Commerce presides over the Exchange, which was 
founded in 1818, when Sir G. Don was governor, and there is a bust 
of him in front of the building. There is a commercial library at the 
Exchange, supported by annual subscriptions. The garrison library' 
was established in 1793 by Captain Drinkwater, who wrote an account 
of the siege. In one of the upper rooms is a model of the Kock, which 
shows every house in Gibraltar. The town lies a mile N. of the 
landing-place, and the cathedral, which has some handsome ornamen- 
tation, stands near the centre of the E. side of it. Returning south- 
ward through the South Port Gate after visiting the Catheihiil, one 
may look at the dockyard, and passing by the south barracks by 
taking the lower of two roads, reach Europa Pass, beyond which is a 
plateau with another range of barracks. Beyond these is the summer 
residence of the governors, called " The Cottage," built by General 
Fox, beyond which is^Monkey's Case, where the ground becomes too 
precipitous to pass farther. The governor's othcial residence in 
South Port Street, which is still called " The Convent," once be- 
longed to Franciscan friars. It is a good residence, with a small, but 
pretty garden. 

The short stay of the mail steamer, 6 hours, will not permit a 
passenger to see, perhaps, even as much of the Rock as is covered with 
the town and the Alameda G^dens, and it will certainly be impossible 
for him to visit the Heights, but they are worth inspection. From 
the " Rock Gun " there is a fine view of the Ronda Mountains and 
the Sierra Nevada, and before reaching it the Moorish Castle is first 
come to, which is said to date from 746 a.d. There is a massive 
tower, called the Torre de Omenaga, under which are some well con- 
structed tanks. Passing through the castle, the visitor, if he has pro- 
vided himself with a permit, can see the wonderful galleries exca- 
vated beyond it by convict labour. At the Signal House, bread and 
cheese and beer can be obtained. There is li-om it a noble vi«v , 
which includes the Atlas Mountains, Ceuta, and ^a.\\iti.T^, evi^MiJ^ 
with the Bay of Tangiers. From the central "heiglvt \\\e TOVxi\a Tvy^%^ 
to the southern and highest point, called O^Haxa'a Tawe,T,^Ti^«>SX.«c 
r&^ijpg tbh 2t h requisite to turn back, and go do>f?u iXi'i ^^*^^'^- 


ranean Stairs to a Lattery, whence a good road leads to Wiiidinill Hill 
and on to the town. Between Rock Gun and O'Hara's Tower live a 
few monkeys, which are jealously protected. S. of the Signal Station, 
and 1,100 ft. above the sea, is a remarkable cave called St. Nichaito. 
After passing an entrance only 6 ft. wide, a hall 200 ft. long and 60 
ft. high is entered by the ^asitor. It is supported by stiilactite pillars 
like gothic arches. Beyond are smaller caves, which have been 
traversed to a distance of 288 ft. In Windmill Hill are the 4 Genista 
caves, where many bones of men and animals have been discovered. 

The morning gun at Gibraltar is fired at from 3 '45 to 6*20 a.m. 
according to the season, and the first evening gun at from 5*20 to 
8*20 p.m. The second evening gun is fired at 9 and 9*30 p.m. At 
the first evening gun the drawbridge at the Land Port is drawn up, 
and the Water Port, which is for caiTiages, is closed. Beyond these 
gates is a causeway leading into Spain, with the sea on the 1., and the 
" Inundation," a sheet of water so called, on the rt. Beyond these 
is a piece of ground belonging to the Rock, called the North Front, 
and on it are the cemetery, the cricket-ground, and the race-course. 
Fui'ther to the rt. is a drive called " Riimsgate and Margate." Across 
the isthmus is a line of English sentries, then the Neutml Ground, 
and then the Spanish sentries. A shoi-t distiince beyond this is the 
ground called the Western Beach, and at 6 m. from Gibraltar is a 
small hill, on the top of which is the towTi of S. Roque, and before 
reaching it the ruins of the ancient city Caiteia are passed. Four m. 
from S. Roque is an inn called the 2nd Ventii, and then a ride through 
the cork woods of about 4 m. brings the visitor to the Convent of 
Ahnoi-ainia and the Long Stables. Ten m. from Gibraltar, and beyond 
the Rivers Guadarauque and Palmones, is the town of Algesiras, 
where there is good anchorage, and steiuners 4. times a week to Malaga, 
Almeria, Alicante, Valencia, and Barcelona. There are steamers from 
Gibraltar 2 or 3 times a week to Tangiers, but those who desire to 
visit Ceuta, the convict station for Spain, must go in a sailing vessel. 

Malta, — Fix>m Gibraltar to Malta is 4 days' steaming. On the way 
Algiers may possibly be seen, its white buildings stretching like a 
triangle with its base on the sea, and the apex on higher ground. 
Cape Fez, and the promoutoiy of the Seven Capes, jagged, irregular 
lieadlands, ^vill probably also be seen, as also Cape Bon, the most 
northern point of Africa, and the Island of Pantellaria, the ancient 
Cossyra, between Cape Bon and Sicily. It is 8 m. long, volcanic, 
and rises to a height of more than 2,000 ft. There is a town of the 
same name near the s^a-shore, on the western slope, where there is 
much cultivation. It is used by the Italians as a penal settlement, 
and is rather smaller than Gozo. The Maltese group of Islands con- 
sists of Gozo, Comino, and Malta, and stretches from N.W. to S.E., 
the total distance from S. Dimitri, the most W. point of Gozo, to Rds 
Benhisa, the most E. part of Malta, being about 35 m. From the 
nearest point of Gozo to Sicily is 55 m., and Africa is 187 m. distant 
A'oi/2 Malta, Steamers i-un from Malta to Syi*acuse every Tuesday, 
/itaa Malta to Tunis 3 times a month in 22 hours, the fare being 

Malta lies in N. lat, 35° 53' 49% E. long. 14'' SO' %^\ U \s \n \si. 

Sect. I. MALTA. 11 

long and 8 bi'oad. Its area, together with tliat of Guzo, w 1 16 m|. hi., 
and the pop. of the thi-ee islandH is about 150,000. It is a cak*areous 
TOck, the highest i>oint being 590 ft. al>ove the sea level. Towanls 
the S. it ends in precipitous cliffs. It has a ban-en ap^Miarunce, but 
thei*e are niany fertile gardens and fields, enclosed m high walls, 
whei*e line oi-anges, grapes, and figs, and crops, retuniing fi-oni 'M) to 60 
fold, are growni. The Maltese language is a niixtui-e of Ambic and 
Italian, but most of the townspeople have sufficient knowledge of 
Italian to transact business in that tongue. The ]X)rt of Malta is 
situated somewhat to the E. of the centi-e of the northern shore of the 
island. It consists of 2 fine harbours, sejximted by the naiTow pio- 
montory called Mount Xiberras, or ScibeiTas. The western or 
quarantine harbour, protected by Fort Tigna on the AV., is called 
Mai-samuscatta ; the other is Valetta, or the great harlH)ur, and it is 
there that the men-of-war are moored, while the mail steamers enter 
the qimitintine harbour. The enti-ance to the great harboiu* is pro- 
tected on the W. by Fort St. Elmo at the end of Scilieniis, and on 
the E. by Fort Ricasoli, both veiy formidable. At Fort St. Elmo is 
one of the finest light-houses in the Meditentmean. The great 
hai'bour rims away into numei-ous ci-eeks and inlets, in which are the 
dockyard, victualling-yard, and iu-senal, all of which could be swept 
by the guns of St. Angelo, which is a fort Ijehind St. Elmo. The 
mail steamer moors close to the shore, and the chai^ge for landing is 
one shilling for a boat, which will carry 4 jHiople. The lH>atinen, 
who are sufficiently extortionate and vitupei-ative, will of course 
demand more, but the above is the legal fare. On landing, a long 
flight of steps is ascended to the Strada San Marco, which leads to 
the principal street, Strada S. Reale, -J mile long, in the to>ni of 
Valetta, so called from Jean de la Valette, Grand Master of the 
Knights of St. Jolin of Jerusalem, who built it after the Turkish 
armament sent against Malta by Sultan Sulaiman II. had Ijeen i-e- 
pulsed. The foundation stone was laid on the 28th of March, 1566, 
and the building was completed 13th of May, 1571. The architect 
was Girohimo Cassai*. On the E. side of the great hai'bour is the 
town called Citta Vittoriosa. 

On reaching the Strada Reale the visitor will tiuii to the 1. and 
soon find himself at Dunisford's (in Badeker, Daiisfield)Hotel, opposite 
ixart of St. John\s Cathedral. Other hotels are the Imperial, Cam- 
bridge, Croce di Malta and Angleten'e ; and a very good meal can be 
got for 2s, (id. Excellent fish, and among them red midlet, are 
generally to be had. Having secured a point (Vapimi, the visitor 
may walk to the house of the P. and O. Conirum/s agent in Stnvda 
Mercanti, if he wishes to make enquiries, or he may set out at once 
to see the sights. Close to the Hotel is the statue of Aiitone Vilhena, 
a Portuguese Gmnd Master of the Knights of St. John. St. John's 
Cathedral is close by, and deserves more time for inspection than can 
be given to it in a nying visit. The floor is paved with slabs beoxm^ 
the arms of scores of knights, who liave been intexieOL m \\m ^xsccslS., 
In the &i8t chapel on the it,, the altar-piece Tepre8ftii\.& >i\v'fc "^^^iSjAr 
iDgofJohn the Baptist, and is by M. Angelo Caiava^^o. \vi.^^ 
next chapel, which Belonged to the Portwniette, ax^ \\i^ movL\xxxv«oX»» 


of Mp,noel Pinto and Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena, wliicli latter 
is of bronze. The third, or Spanish Chapel, has the monuments of 
Grand Masters Roocafenile and N. Caloner and two others. The 
fourth chapel belonged to the Proven9als. The fifth chapel is sacred 
to the Virgin, and here are kept the town keys taken from the 
Turks. On the 1. of the entrance is a bronze monument of Grand 
Master Marc Antonio Sondadario. The first chapel on the 1. is the 
sacristy. The second chapel belonged to the Austrians, tlie third to 
Italians, and here are pictures, ascribed to Caravaggio, of St. Jerome 
and Mary Magdalene. In the fourth, or French Chapel, are monu- 
ments of a Grand Master and of a son of Louis Philippe, who died in 
1808. The fifth chapel on the 1. belonged to the Bavarians, and 
hence a staircase descends to the crypt, where aitj the sarcopliagi of 
the first Grand Master who ruled in Malta, L'Isle Adam, and of La 
Valette and others. 

The Chiesa Agostino may also be looked at, and the Governor's 
Palace should be next visited. It is close to the Strada Reale, and 
contains pictures of, 1. Queen Victoria, after Winterhalter (copy by 
Kopervein) ; 2. George III. ; 3. George IV. , after La\iTence by 
Carmana ; 4. Louis XIV., by Letrec ; 5. Louis XV., after Ledu ; 
6. Duke of Bavaria, by Ponto Battoria; 7. L'Isle Adam; 8. La Valette 
and 2 others ; and an armoury full of intei-esting relics. For each 
Governor there is the figure of a man in aimour carrying his 
escutcheon. Here is preserved the original deed granted to the 
Knights of St. John of Jerusalem by Po|ie Pascal the Second in 1126, 
and the deed when they left Rhodes in 1522. There are also the 
sword and axe of Dragart, the Tui-kish general killed in the siege of 
1565, the three silver trumpets which sounded the retreat from 
Rhodes, nnd the armour of a gigantic Spanish knight, who is said to 
have measured 7 ft. 4 in., and many curious trophies. The Library 
close to the Palace contains 40,000 volumes, and some Phceniciau 
and Roman antiquities. After this it will be well to ascend to the 
highest battery, which commands a fine view of both harboius and 
of the fortifications. Here among geraniums and orange blossoms 
is buried Sir F. Maitland, King Maitland, as he was called. There 
are several statues of Grand Masters and Governors in the walk on 
the ramparts. The Opera House, the Bourse, the Courts of Justice, 
once the Auberge d'Auvergne, and the Clubs (the Union Club was 
the Auberge de Provence), and the statues of LTsle Adam and La 
Valette, all in the Strada Reale, and the House of the Spanish 
knights, may also be looked at ; and then a carriage with two horses 
should be hired at 6«., and a visit paid to the Monastery of St. 
Francis d'Assise, where are the bodies of many monks, dried long 
years ago, and more or less decayed, but all hideous and revolting. 
This place is about 2 m. from the landing-stairs, and 24 m. beyond 
it is the Governor's country Palace of S. Antonio, where is a lovely 
garden mth creepers of astonishing beauty, and cypresses 40 ft. high, 
liif ire)} iis many luxuriant orange trees. About j mile further to the 
aS Wl Is Citta Vecebia, which stands on a ridge from 200 to 300 ft. higli, 
nIfozxUng a view over nearly the whole island. TYifexe \a a ivw^ CVwwvilv 
yj^J-e, the dome of wliich in not much inferior to tliaX oi ^\.^«vx)es^\\\ 

Sect. I. MALTA. 13 

diameter. This is all that it is possible to see during the short stay 
of the mail steamers, but those who have more leisure can visit St. 
Paul's Bay at the N.W. extremity of the island, ijvith the statue of 
bronze erected on an islet at the mouth of the bay, and the Cartha- 
ginian or Phoenician ruins at Hagiar Chem, properly Hajar Kaim, 
"upright stone," near the village of Casal Crendi, which were excavated 
in 1839 by order of Sir H. Bouverie. These ruins consist of walls of 
large stones fixed upright in the ground, forming small enclosures, 
connected with one another by passages, and all contained within 
one large enclosure. The main entrance is on the S.S.E., and a 
passage leads from it into a Court, on the left of which is an altar, 
with the semblance of a plant rudely sculptured on it. There is a 
slab near the altar, and on it a block, on which are sculptured two 
volutes, like the ornament at the foot of Astarte. This may have 
been added by the Phoenician colonists to the rude temple of still 
earlier inhabitants. Similar remains are found in other spots, and 
among them the "Torre dei Giganti," "Giants* Tower," in Gozo, 
on the S.E. shore. Malta is said to have been occupied by the 
Phoenicians in 1500 B.c.,and by the Greeks in 750 B.C. The Cartha- 
ginians got possession of it in 500 B.O., and the Romans took it after 
the sea-fight of Putatia in B.c. 215. The Goths and Vandals invaded 
it in 420 a.d. In 520 a.d. Belisarius made it a province of the 
Byzantine Empire, and the Muslims conquered it in 730 a.d., and 
Count Roger, tne Norman, captured it in 1100 a.d. It then passed 
to Louis IX., to the Count of Anjou, and to the Kings of Castile, 
and then to Charles V., who gave it, in 1530, to the Knights 
Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem. On May the 18th, 1565, the 
Turks attacked St. Elmo, St. Angelo, and Sanglea, but the siege was 
raised on the 8th of September (see Major Whitworth Porter's 
" History of the Knights of Malta," Liongmans, 1858). When Grand 
Master La Valette fortified Mount Sciberras he called it Citta 
liumilissima, but the town came to be called by his own name. Tlie 
Knights had then their own Mint, fleet and army, and acci-edited 
Ambassadors to foreign Courts. In the Archives are letters from 
Henry VIII., Charles II. and Anne, addressed to them as princes. 
They sent a loan of 500,000 li\Tes to Louis XVI. On the 7th of 
September, 1792, the French Directory commanded the Order to be 
annulled, and seized all its French possessions. Provence had then 
2 Grand Priories, 84 commanderies, with a rental of 597,612 scudi. 
On the 7th of June, 1798, Buonaparte arrived with a fleet of 18 
ships of the line, 18 frigates, and 600 transports, and Malta was 
surrendered. A tree of liberty was planted before the Palace, the 
decorations of the Knights were burned, 'and the churches, palaces 
and charitable houses at Valetta and Citta Vecchia were pillaged. 
On the 2nd of September, 1795, when the French tried to pull down 
the decorations in the Cathedral a general revolt took place. A 
French officer and 65 men were killed, and Nelson sent Captain. 
Alexander John Ball with a frigate to aid the Maltese, ^\M[\fc^^'W5v 
himself blockaded Valetta. In December, 1799, t\ie ^aOl\v oaOi ^^"Oa. 
Foot arrived, and in June, 1800, the 35th and 48t\i, TLnAct OiCSvgwN. 
/%»^ Hie French were reduced to such exlTemitW^ Ai\v»X ?^ ^^ 


sold for Is, Id.y and on the Bth of September, 1800, their commander, 
General Vaiibois, surrendered. Over the main guard-room in St. 
George's Square is written : 

" Magnae ct invictjB Britannia) 
Melitensium amor et Europse vox 
Has insulas confirmat A.D. 1814." 

It must be added that the Aiiberge d'ltiilie is now the Engineers' 
Office ; the Auberge de Castille has become the head-quartei-s of 
the Artillery ; the Auberge de France, in tlie Strada Mezzodi, is 
now the house of the Comptroller of Military Stores ; and the 
Auberge d'Aragon is where the General of the Ganison resides. 
The Aiiberge cVAllemagiie was removed in order to erect St. Paul's 
Chiirch on its site. The Anglo-Bavarian Auberge is tlie head- 
quarters of the regiment stationed at St. Elmo. The Military 
Hospital has the largest room in Europe, 480 ft. long, erected in 
1628 by Grand Master Vasconcelos. The patients used to l)e served 
on silver, but Howaitl, who visited tlie building in April, 1786, says, 
" the patients are served by the most dirty, ragged and inhuman 
persons." Below the Military Hospital is the Civil Hospital for 
Incm-ables, founded by Caterina Scappi in 1646. Where the Stmda 
Mercanti joins the Strada S. Giovanni a large hook may be observed, 
which fonnerly ser^^ed as the Pillory. The house where Napoleon 
stopped in 1798 is now a livery stable. For further information 
consult the Guide to Malta, included in Murray's Handbook to the 
MediteiTanean. The island on which the Quai-antine House stands 
was captured by the Turks in 1565. The Parlettiirio there is a 
long, narrow room near the anchorage, divided by a banker, wheie 
the gold and silver filigree work, the cameos, bracelets and brooches 
in mosaic, and the bijouterie for which Malta is famous are sold. 
Maltese lace and silk embroidery should be bought under the advice 
of an expert, for the vendors in geneiul demand extravagant prices. 
It only remains to be mentioned that in spite of the legend that 
since St. Paul's visit all noxious reptiles have left the island, snakes 
and scorpions exist in Malta. Dr. Buist mentions having seen a 
snake killed by a sentry on duty. In the wall of a house in Strada 
Strella and Strada Brittmnica is a stone with an Arabic inscription, 
dated Thursday, 16th Shabdn, 569 a.h. — 21st March, 1174 a.d., for 
which see Journal Koy. As. Soc, vol. vi., p. 173. 

Egypt, Port Said, and the Suez Canal. — The land alK)ut Port Said is 
so low that the approach to the hai'bour would be difficult were it not 
for a light-house 160 ft. high, built of wooden moulds filled with 
concrete, which stands on the seashore to the rt. of the harbour 
close to the W. mole, and shows an electric light flashing every 
3 seconds, and visible 20 m. off. The harbour is formed by 2 break- 
waters, of wluch the western is 1 m. and f , or, more j)recisely, 2726 
yaixls long. The eastern is 1962 yards long, and is distant from the 
o^?jer 2500 y&Yds. A red light is shown at the end of the W. Mole, 
a/ir/ a green one at the end of the E. These jetties are made of huge 
hlocks of concrete, and, mice the works were \wv^\iv, \\\fe *^^ W^ 
^f^cofiefl ^ mile. A hank has formed to the li^.W. ol t\v^ e\\\>\m^^. 


having only 4 to 5 fathoms water on it, and it inci-wwen, U'inj^ caused 
by a current which sets along the shore, and meeting tlie sea rolling 
in from the N., is forced back, and deposits its silt. Inside the W, 
jetty another bank is forming, and extends 1(K) ft. ever>' year. In 
1874 the channel was dredgeil out in December to 29 ft., and by 
February 1875 it had filled again to 25 ft. A prulxible remedy would 
be to b. a jetty at the Ist Boghaz, or Nile Mouth, to the W., which 
is 6 m. off, and another at Damietta, 30 m. to the W. The E. jettv 
has not accumulated any silt, as it is protected by that to the W. 
Port Said town consists of wooden houses, which would bum like 
tinder. Opposite the anchorage on the Marina is the French office, 
where pilots are got, and where they take a note of tlie ship's draught, 
breadth, length, and tonnage. In this office there is a wooden plan of 
the canal, along which wooden pegs, with flags, are placed, showing 
the exact position of every vessel passing through the canal. Steamers 
generally coal here, so there is time to walk about and see the place. 
The Arab quarter lies to the W., and contains over 6,600 soiUs an<l a 
mosque. In the European quarter there are, besides the French 
office, the Russian office, and a few hundred yards to the S. the Dutch 
office, which is the largest building in the to>vn. The Place de 
Lesseps in the centre of this quarter has a nice garden, and some 
houses of a better sort, and among them the Hotel du Louvre to the 
S., opposite the P. and 0. office, and the Hotel de France to the W. 
The streets swarm with flies, and mosquitoes also are numerous. At 
the Custom House a collection of photographs may be seen of all the 
criminals, male and female, expelled from Egypt, so that they may be 
recognised if they attempt to return. 

The canal* is in round numbers 100 m. in length, and as far as 
Ismallia, that is for about 42 m., it runs due N. and S. It then bends 
to the E. for about 35 m., and is again almost straight for the last 20 m. 
On the W. of the canal, as far as Al Kantarah (tlie Bridge), that is 
for about Jth of the way, there is a broad expanse of water, called Lake 
Manzalah, and for the rest of the distance to the W., and tlnj whole 
distance to the E., a sandy desert, on which foxes, jackals, hyenas, 
and, it is said, occasionally even lions, wander at night. A few miles 
S. of the Ras al Aish, 18 m., or 34 kil. from Kantarah, and 10 m. from 
Port Said, the old Pelusiac branch of the Nile is crossed, and 8 m. to 
the N.E. are the ruins of the ancient city of Pelusium. Kantarah 
(the Bridge) was a principal station for caravans on the great highway 
l)etween Egypt and Syria. Ten m. to the W. is Tel al Daphne, the 
site of Daphne, the Tahpannes of Judith, i. 9. At 2 m. S. of Kan- 
tarah the canal enters tne Lake Ballali, full in winter, shallow in 
summer, and after 12 m. reaches the promontory Al Fardanah, which 
it cuts through. Thence, after 4^ m., it reaches the higher ground of 
Al Girsh, to the W. of which a small canal joins the maritime canal 
to the fresh water canal. This is the highest groiuid in the isthmus, 
being 65 ft. above sea level. From this to the town of Ismallia 
is 8 m. A broad road lined with trees leads from l\\e \«rv^\Mv^-^"sxR.^ 
across the fresh water canal to the Quad Mehemet. tW To^ia cv\Vs» 

* For a history of the ainal, see "Hflmlbook of Egypt," JoA>^'Nl\\tTTvy,\%r;^. 


the town into 2 quarters, E. and W. In the W. quarter are tlie Hotel 
des Voyageurs, the stat., the hinding quays of the fresh water canal, 
and laj^e blocks of warehouses, and beyond them the Arab village. 
In the E. part are the houses of the employes, the residence of the 
Khediv, and the works by which water is conveyed from the iresh 
water canal to Port Said. These are worth visiting. There is good 
water-fowl shooting here, and some antelopes are to be found. The 
lish of Lake Timsah are better flavoured than those of the Mediter- 
ranean. The town has 3000 to 4000 souls. After 4^ m. the canal 
enters Lake Timsah or Bahr al Timsah, " the Lake of the Crocodile," 
to which the Red Sea is said to have formerly extended. The course 
is marked here by buoys. After 6 m., the canal reaches the higher 
ground of Tussum, where is the tomb of Shaikh Hanadik. The 
level here is 20 ft. above the sea, and liere the first working encamp- 
ment in the S. half of the isthmus was formed in 1869. Three m. 
to the S. is Serapeum, where the level is from 15 to 25 ft. above the 
sea. About the centre of this ground are some remains which are 
thought to mark the site of a temple of Serapis. Here, too, are traces 
of a cutting, thought to mark the course of Pharaoh Necho's canal. 
A mile and a half from this the canal enters the Bitter Lakes, where 
the course is buoyed. These lakes are the ancient Gulf of Herseopolis. 
At the N. and S. end of the principal lake is an iron lighthouse 65 ft. 
high, on a solid masonry base. The light is of the 4th order. After 
28 m. the deep cutting of Shaliif is reached, in which is a band of 
rock, sandstone, with layers of limestone and conglomerate, in which 
fossil remains of the shark, hippopotamus, tortoise, and whale have 
been found. From this to Siiez is 124 m. Some think that the passage 
of the Israelites was through the Gulf of Herreopolis. The following 
are the dimensions of the canal (see " Handbook of Egypt ") : ' 

Width at water-line, where banks arc low . . . 328 ft. 
Ditto, in deep cuttings . . . 190 „ 

Ditto, at base 72 ., 

Depth 2G „ 

Slope of bank at water-line 1 in 5 ; near base 1 in 2. 

At Kantarah the road from Syria to Cairo passes over a flying bridge. 
At every 6 m. there is a gavt^ or station and a siding with signal posts, 
by which the traffic is regulated according to the block system by 
hoisting black balls. Vessels must not move faster than 6 m. an hour, 
but the Duke of Edinburgh's ship is said to have gone through at nearly 
double that speed. Some of the stations are prettily adorned with 
flowers and creepers, and at one there is a statue of Lt. Waghom, the 
first man to organize the overland rte. in 1837. At IsmaiUa, named 
froniithe actual ruler of Egypt, there is much vegetation, and some 
good houses. One belongs to M. de Lessep, and another was b. for 
the reception of the Empress Eugenie at the opening of the canal in 
November, 1870. At Ismallia the rly. from Alexandria to Suez 
approaches the canal, and is still closer at Serapeum, a little to the S. 
of which it enters the Bitter Lakes, and here there is an expanse of 
water 10 m, wide. All the way from IsmaiUa t\\fc \>aiTiks ?ct^ ifvw^«i^ 
nith vegetation, and the plain on either »\de \» 6lo\Xc(W\\\\\\\Av^^%» 


Seot. I. THE RED SEA. 17 

There is a little fishing iu the canal for those who like the amusement, 
and at Suez there is a great variety of fish. The mail steamers fre- 
quently lie out about 3 m. from Suez, calculating the distance by land, 
and 5 by water. They can go into dock, but the captains prefer to be 
where tney can get oft* at once as soon as tlie Brindisi mail and the 
mssengers from Alexandria arrive. The office of the P. and 0. 
Company is situated not far from the anchorage, and has a bust of 
Lt. Waghom in front of it. The Alexandria and Suez rly. runs 
down to the water's edge at Suez, but to reach the hotel it makes a 
considerable bend to the E. and S. The hotel is under fresh manage- 
ment, and one peculiarity of the present rSgime is that unless stopping 
in the house you must pay for wnatever you intend to drink before it 
is brought to you. Beer, for instance, is U, Qd, a bottle, and you 
must hand over that sum before the waiter will bring the bottle. 
Should you not have change, you must give a larger coin, and trust 
to the waiter to bring you the difference. The 8er\'ant8 at Suez are 
not civil, the Arab servants very much the contrary. Suez is a 
decayed-looking ruinous town of about 15,000 soids. The rainfall is 
only IJ in., and perhaps from its extreme aridity the place is verj^ 
healthy, the clouds being all stopped by the AlUlki Hills on the W., 
and the hills beyond the Well of Moses on the E. 

The Bed Sea. — A fi'esh breeze from the N. generally prevails for | 
of the voyage doAni the Red Sea, and is succeeded by an ec^ually 
strong wind from the S. for the rest of the way. The Sinaitic range 
is the first remarkable land viewed to the E., but Sinai itself, 37 
geographical m. distant, is hid by intervening mountains of nearly 
equal height. After this the island of ShMw^ is seen, which lies a 
little S. of the jutting land intervening between the Gulfs of Suez 
and Akabali. N.W. of this island 9^ m. is the SJiaub ummi issh coral 
reef on which, in 1866, the steamer " K^anaatik " was lost. The captain, 
named Jones, the doctor, Mr. Gardener the purser, the chief engineer 
Mr. Boyne, the 4th officer, 2 stewards, and sbc passengers were 
drowned. The next danger is " The Brothei-s," 2 circidar rocks rising 
about 30 ft. from the sea. On one of these a light ought to be 
placed, as they are not easily seen on a dark night. Towaids the S. 
end of the Red Sea the islands are very numerous, and great vigilance 
is required to avoid accidents. Among the most notable of these 
islets is the group which the sailors call the Twelve Apostles. On 
Perim, at the Straits of Bdb al Mandab, " The Gate of Tears," there is a 
light which stands high, and also shelter for a detachment of SipAhls 
(1 officer and 80 men) stationed here. On the opposite African 
shore, 11 m. to the W., there is no light, but a large square house 
built by the French, and now deserted. From Perim to Arabia the 
strait is only a mile broad. The Red Sea has long been infamous 
for heat, and many an invalid returning from India has died from its 
effects. But rain does fall occasionally, and sometimes in torrents. 
Thus on the 4th of December, 1875, about 500 m. S. of Swai^WiEit^'^^^ 
one of llie most violent thunder-storms ever witneaaed, »/c,cjOTK«MKife^ 
idth torrents of lain. The " Yenetia " lay-to for two Yvo\via a\sMi% 
&i8 Btoim, and at its conclmion a ball of foe pasaed ^owcl ^^ 
eaadnctor into the sea with a terrific explosion. 

18 ADEN. Sect L 

Aden, — From B4b ul Mandab to Aden is about 90 in. Aden may 
be truly called the Indian Gibmltai'. Any force sent to attack it 
would have to bring its own supplies and water, for neither of these 
requisites is obtainable on tlie inhospitable coast around. The 
harbour is swept by heavy batteries of 12-ton guns, which only iron- 
clad vessels could approach, and even if a landing were eflfected the 
attacking force would find it difficult, or impossible, to make their 
way to the camp. Aden was taken from the Arabs by the British on 
the 16th of January, 1839 (see the " Aden Handbook," by Captain F. 
M. Hunter, Assistant Resident). It was attacked by the Abddlis 
and Fadthelis on the 11th of November in that year, but they were 
repulsed with the loss of 200 killed and woimded. The united Arab 
tribes made a second attack on the 22nd of May, 1840, but failed 
after losing many men. On the 5th of July, 1840, a thiixl attack 
took place, but the assailants, Abdalis and Fadthelis, were driven 
back and lost 300 men. In January, 1846, Saiyid Ismail, after 
preaching a jihdd, or religious war, in Makkah, attacked this place, 
and was easily repulsed. A series of murders then commenced. On 
the 29th of May, 1850, a seaman and a boy of H. E. I. C. steam- 
frigate " Auckland " were killed while picking up shells on the N. 
shore of the harbour. On the 28th of February, 1851, Captain 
JVIilne, Qommissariat officer, and a party of officers went to Wahat, in 
the Lahej territory. At midnight a fanatic mortally wounded 
Captain Milne, who died next day, severely wounded Lieutenant 
McPherson, of the 78th Highlanders, slightly wounded Mr. Saulez, 
and got clear away. On the 27th March following, another ^natic 
attacked and wounded severely Lieutenant Delisser of the 78th High- 
landers, but was killed by that officer with his own weapon. On the 
12th of July in the same year, the mate and one sailor of the ship 
" Sons of Commerce/' wrecked near Ghubet Saildn, were murdered. 
In 1858, 'Ali bin Muhsin, Sultdn of the Abdalis, gave so much 
trouble that Brigadier Coghlan, Commandant at Aden, was compelled 
to march against him, wnen the Arabs were routed with a loss of 
from 30 to 40 men, and with no casualties on our side. In December 
1865, the Sialtdn of the Fadthell tribe, which has a seaboard of 100 
m., extending from the boundan" of the Abddlis, attempted to 
blpck^de Aden on the land side ; out was utterly routed by Lieut. - 
Qpl. WoplQombe, C.B., at Bir Said, 15 m. from the Barrier Crate. A 
ii^xce under Brigadier-General Raines, C.B.^ then marched through 
the Abgar districts, which are the lowlands of this tribe, and 
destrpyed i^veral fortified villages. Subsequently, in January, 1866, 
an expedition went from Aden by sea to Shugrah, the chief port of 
th^ F^titl^^s, 65 m. from Aden, and destroyed the foils there. Since 
1^07 1j|i9 txipe, which numbers 6,700 fighting men, have adhered to 
tb^ur jeumgements. The Sultdn of the Abddlis, who inhabit a 
district ^m. long and 8 broad to the N.N. W. of Aden, and number 
about 8,000 souls, was present in Bombay during the Duke of 
Edinburgh's visit in February 1870, and is friendly. His territory is 
called Lahej, and the capital is Al-Hautah, 21 m. from the Barrier 
Gate, It will he Been Irom what has \>eeii aavV ^i^^X Wv«i <Lountry 
^ound Aden is not safe for Europeans, aud no ona 6\io>a\!i^\X'sax'^\. Vi 

Sect I. 



f^o 'beyond the Banier Gate without penuiiwioii of the authorities. 
The hniite of the Port of Aden are to the N. and W. from the Khor 
Afakaar along the low sandy shore to Salid, an island off Little Aden ; 
to the S. a line drawn from Salfd to Danajali, or Round Island ; tc» 
the K a line &om the Round Island past Ras Tarsliain, Ras Morbat 
and Hajaf to Khor Maksar. No boat can ply for hire in Aden 
Harbour without a licence from the Con8er\'ator of the Port, and the 
number of the licence must be painted on the bow and stem in 
figures 6 in. long. Each of the crew must wear the number of his 
boat on his left breast in figures 2^ in. long. When asking payment 
the crew must exhibit the tables of fares and rules, and any one of 
the crew asking prepayment of the iam is liable to fine or imprison- 
ment. In case of dispute recourse must be had to the nearest 
European police oflicer. Any hirer by s)>eciid agreement may 
engage a fii'st class boat for himself only, or for himself and 5 friends 
by paying 4 fares, and a second class boat for himself, or himself and 
3 friends by paying 3 fares. Every boat must have a lantern at 
night. A boat Inspector attends at the Gun Wliarf from 6 A.if. to 
11 P.M. to call boats, suppress irregularities, and give information to 
passengers. After sunset iKissengers can be landed only at the Guu 

Boat Fare* at Aden, 

For going to and returning from any vessel ))etwccn 
the light vessel and most E. buoy off the Hajaf, 
including 15 minutes detention, each passenger . 

For detention, exclusive of the 15 minutes allowed, 
per half hour ........ 

For going one way only, each passenger . 

If hired by the day 

Per hour 

For going off to any ship anchored between outer 
mark buoy and light ship, each passenger . . 

Do. beyond the outer mark buoy, each passenger . 

To Malla Bandar, one passenger 

To pier of obstruction, do 

Two or more passengers, each ..... 

1st C'lAHtt. 

R. A. P. 

2na C1as8. 

R. A. p. 







2 12 










1 8 




t Land Conveyances. 

Every 'conveyance must have the number of its licence and the 
number of persons it can carry painted on it. A table of fores must 
be fixed on some conspicuous part of the convejrance, and the driver 
must wear a badge with the number of his licence, and must not 
demand prepayment of his fare. 

The town includes all within and to the E. and "S. oi Wifel&s:\\\ 
FkwB 88 fiar as the & Pass. 

TteMaala mclnd^ aU between the Main Pass and Ham lot \A\K\fc 
Bm. Tke Point mcludes aU beyond and to the E. oi t\ielAU\^ Y«ea, 

c 1 


Jlatet of Ibyet nf Public Zand C'aueryaiWfi < 

From the Town or lathmufi lo 

From the Towu to MHrahnft, tho 

IsthmuB. Barrier Gstc at Mnnln 

Same and bnult, inrinding 1 hour's 

rrom the Joint to MaftlB. Biuricr 

date, And Ixtlimug . 
Saaie nud bade, including 1 hour'a 

V.J the day, not eiceeding 1 2 hotiiit 

Bevoiid the Barrier Gate, per mile 

K ougnBcd within the Cratftt or 

Townsliip of Mnalft, or Steamer 

Toiiil. tor every honr or frufiliou 

uf on hour . . . . 

-■ P«i™>i« uiily. 

1 i"L 






1 8 

2 4 



1 (1 
1) il 

U C 

B. A. 

2 {\ 
5 1} 
1 S 
1 11 


1) i 


1 i) 

1 M 
I) 4 

2 8 

a 12 

1 i 

1 H 

1 4 

1 U 
(i 11 
U 5 

1} 1(1 

3 (J 

i (1 

1 8 

2 -1 

1 8 

2 1 
1) U 

A cliarne of 8 ^iii'is per hour will be rnoile in addition if detained 
l*yonil tlie hour allowed, provided that the total fare, iuuludiu;,' 
detention cliniges, does not exceed the tare payable by the day. 

Itatrt of Uirefor KvlU, D«Hlryi 


, «ml a>meU. 

Kull«. DoulieyB. CBiuiJa. 


B. A. 

R. A 

From the Town to the I'oint . 

(1 » 


U « 

1 U 

Bame nnil bnok, including hull an hour's 



11 10 

1 R 

The day, not exceeding 12 honia . 

u c 



n u 

From Towu to IslluauB, Margbng, Or 




() 8 

Same aiid back, includiue half an hour's 




From town to MalU Bandar , . . 


(1 3 

U 3 



Fniui Isthmus tu tlie Point thf fare if the same as from Town to 
J'ouit. JVif Piunt flifi'nifiesniiyinlmliik'dyart ot&teamet ?omt, A 
ebarge ofS^daper how: for camels and boTae»,aT«!L\ ink lot itniiKs* 

Sect. I. ADEN. 21 

will be paid in addition il detained beyond the i hour alloweil, and the 
same flares are applicable within Main Pass when the hire is per hour. 
Inside the Light Ship the water shallows to 4 fathoms, and a large 
steamer stirs up the mud with the keel. As soon as the vessel stops, 
scores of little boats with one or two SomAli Ijoys in each paddle off 
and surround the steamer, shouting " Overboartl, overboanl," all 
toother, with a very strong accent on the first syllable. The noise 
is like the barking of a pack of hounds. If a small coin is flung to 
them they all spring into the water, and nothing is seen but scores of 
heels disappeanng under the surface as they dive for the money. It 
is astonishing that no accident happens, for sharks are numerous, and 
other fish are almost as ravenous. In 1877 a rock cod between 6 and 
6 ft. long seized a man who was diving and tore off the flesh of his . 
thigh. Tlie man's brother went down with a knife and killed the 
cod, which was brought ashore and photographed at Aden, as was the 
wounded man. As soon as the captain has fixed the hour at which 
he will leave the port, a notice is posted on the staircase leading to 
the saloon, and then passengers genendly start for tlie shore to escaiw 
the dust and heat during coaling. All the ports are closed, and the 
heat and closeness of the cabins will be found quite insupportable. 
It takes from 12 to 20 minutes to land at the Post Office Pier, which 
is broad and sheltered. The band occasionally plays there. To the 
1., after a walk or drive of a mile, one arrives at the Hotel de 
TEurope, and the Hotel de FUnivers, the latter l)eing rather the 
better of the two. There is also a large shop for wares of all kinds 
kept by a Parsi, At a short distance N, of tlie hotels is a condenser 
belonging to a private proprietor. There are 3 such condensei*s 
belonging to Government, and several the property of private com- 
panies, and by these and an aqueduct from Shekli Uthmiin, 7 ni. 
beyond the Barrier Gate, Aden is supplied with water. Condensed 
water costs from 3 to 3^ i-s. per KK) gallons. Besides these there are 
tanks, which are worth "a visit. The distance to them from the pier 
is about 5 m. Altogether there are about 50 tanks in Aden, whicn, if 
entirely cleared out, would have an aggregate capacity of nearly 
30 million imperial gallons. It is sui)posed that they were com- 
menced about the second Persian invasion of Yaman in 600 a.d. Mr. 
Salt, who saw them in 1809, says, " The most remarkable of these 
reservoirs consists of a line of cisterns situated on the N.W. side of 
the town, 3 of which are fully 80 ft wide and pro^wrtionably deep, 
all excavated out of the solid rock, and lined with a thick coat of fine 
stucco. A broad aqueduct may still be traced, which formerly con- 
ducted the water to these cisterns from a deep ravine in the mountain 
above ; higher up is another still entire, wliich at the time we visited 
it was partly filled with water." Within the livst 17 years the restora- 
tion oi these magnificent works has been undei-tiiken. (See the 
Aden Handbook, uy Captain F. M, Hunter.) And 13 have been 
completed, capable of holding 8 million gallons of water. The ransji 
of lulls which was the crater of Aden is nearly ciTcuW. Ou \\\^ >N • 
side the bil)^ are precipitous, and the rain that de»ceTv*\^ ixow. XXvcwv 
m^es speedily to the aea. On the E. side the descent ia \)ToVewM ^ 
Mlehncl mnfbng between the summit and the aea, ^^\i\c\y occwv^Si^ 


i of the entire superficies of Aden. The ravines which intersect 
this plateau converge into one valley, and a very moderate fall of rain 
suffices to send a stupendous toiTent down it. This water is partly 
retained in the tanks, which were made to re/jeive it, and which are so 
constructed, that the overflow of the upper tank falls into a lower, 
and so in succession. As the annual rainfall at Aden did not exceed 
G or 7 in., Malik al Mansiir, King of Yaman at the close of the 15th 
century, built an aqueduct to bring the water of the Blr Hamid into 
Aden. (See Playfair's " History of Yaman.") Since, however, the con- 
struction of the Suez Canal, there has been a perceptible increase of rain 
at Aden. Aden is hot, but healthy. Snakes and scorpions are rather 
numerous. In 1876 a European artillery man died of the bite of a 
ticpolonga (Duboia elegans). Cobras also and whip snakes are not rare. . 

Ofalle. — This port is 2134 m. from Aden, and is reached in 9 days. 
The stormy weather of the monsoon commences from a fortnight to 
3 weeks earlier at the latter part of this voyage than in the higher 
latitude of Bombay. Galle is one of the largest towns in Ceylon, and 
has a pop. of 47,059 souls. The harbour is dangerous and small, and 
the entrance narrow and difficult. It is also somewhat remote from 
the productive districts, and the Colonial Government have decided 
on making a breakwater at Colombo in preference to improving 
GaUe. A rly. leads to Colomlx), and thence a small steamer runs 
once a week to the Gulf of Manar, where a sailing boat can be procured 
to visit the famous temple of Eameshwaram, which is not easily 
approached from Madum or any other place in India. 

2. Route by the Vessels of the Messageries Maritimes 

FROM Marseilles. 

The offices of these steamers are at 97, Cannon Street, E.C., and 
52, Pall Mall, S.W. ; in Paris at 28, Rue Notre Djmie des Victoires ; 
in Marseilles at 16, Rue Cannabi^re. The fleet of vessels for India 
consists of 10 large steamers, 9 of which are above 3000 tons, and one 
of 2788. There are also 7 smaller vessels of from 1735 to 1096 tons. 
The fare Ist class to Galle, Colombo, Pondicherry, and Madras is 
^660. From October to March passengei-s are carried direct to 
Colombo, and at other times by steamer to Galle, and thence by 
coach to Colombo. All Ist class passengers are entitled to one bertli 
in a two-berth cabin, and to reserved accommodation by paying ^ a 
fare more. Table wines or beer are supplied free to 1st or 2nd class 
passengei's. For passage by steamer from London to Marseilles £5 
additional is charged for each 1st or 2nd class passenger. The com- 
pany's agent at 97, Cannon Street issues 1st class through tickets by 
the South Eastern Rly. from London to Marseilles, available for 15 
days, with the option of breaking the journey at Folkestone and 
Boulogne, or Dover and Calais, Amiens, Paris, Dijon, and Lyons, 
price £7 bs. by Dover and Calais, and £7 Is, M. by Folkestone and 
Boulogne ; also from London to Naples viai Calais or Boulogne, Paris 
And Florence, £12 28, 6d, Bv Newhaven, Dieppe, and Rouen by the 
London, Brighton, and Soutli Coast Rly. from Iioiy^otv ^yvA?,^ ^scvvd 
Vjctorm state., the tlwough tickets to MaxaeiWea ate £5\^».\^. K 


reduction of 20 per cent, on the return jxissage jr made to passengers 
from ports E. of Aden if they return bock within 6 monthB, and 
10 per cent, if within 12 months. Stewards* fees are include<l in the. 
price of the ticket Servants soliciting fees will be dismissed. The 
floctor attends free of charge. Half the passage money, when the 
amount exceeds £20, is to be paid on securing a passage, and the 
balance a fortnight before embarkation. Ptissengers not embarking 
forfeit the deposit of J fare. But in case of imavoidable detention, a 
transfer to a subsequent steamer can be eifectetl, on sufficient notice 
being given. Cheques remitted by post are to Ije drawn in favour of 
M. M. Company's London agent, or order, and crossefl London Joint 
Stock Bank (the Company's bankers). Cheques on England cannot 
be accepted at foreign ports. In case of detention, passengers will 
have to defray their notel expenses, and when place<l in quarantine, 
1st class passengers will be charged 12*., 2nd class passengers 9«. Sd., 
3rd class passengers 5s. a day for their maintenance. Baggage regu- 
lations are the same as those made by the P. and O. Company, fiut 
1st and 2nd class passengers may take from Marseilles 150 kilogrammes 
of personal luggage free of freight, and a passenger who jwys for 
reserved accomm^ation is allowed 250 kilogrammes free. All 
bt^age must be shipped not later than noon on the day previous to 
sailing, except one portmanteau not exceeding 3 ft. long, 1^ ft. wiile, 
and 1^ ft. deep. The M. M. steamers leave Marseilles every alternate 
Sunday at 10 A.M. They reach Port Said in 6 days, inclusive of a 
stop at Naples of 2 hours. From Port Said to Suez occupies 24 hours, 
from Suez to Aden 4^ to 5 days, from Aden to Point de Galle 8 to 10 
days. The stay at Isaples is too short to admit of sight-seeing — ^the 
other halting-places have been already described. Tickets bv the 
steamers of the Messageries from Marseilles to Alexandria, and thence 
by the P. and 0. steamers from Suez to Bombay, can be obtained at 
the P. and O. offices, price, 1st class £62, 2iid class ;£31, exclusive of 
transit through Egypt. The M. steamers leave ^Marseilles every 
Thursday at noon« i^either company is responsible for failure of 
steamers to connect. 

3. Route Overland from London to Brindisi, and by the 
P. AND O. Steamers to Alexandria, Aden, Galle and 

Through tickets from London to Brindisi are issued at the P. and 0. 
offices, 122, Leadenhall Street, and 25, Cockspur Street, at Ist class 
jgll 17«. Sd., and 2nd class £8 12«. 6d. ; but there is no economy in 
taking them, as they cost just the same as tickets from station to 
station — e.g., from London to Dover or Folkestone, and thence to 
Calais or Boulogne, thence to Paris, thence to Dijon, Macon, Aix les 
Bains, Turin, Bologna and Brindisi. There is also a danger of losing 
a through ticket, or a part of it, when a fresh payment must be 
made. With through tickets the journey may be broken at Dover, 
Calais, Folkestone, Boulogne, Amiens, Paris, and at auy iVvTeft. Y^^tv- 
cipal stations between Paris and Bologna, and at An.coiva aiA "^o^JB^ 
between Bologna and Brindisi. 60 lbs. of bagc^e fee^ at^ ^cfW^ 
between London and Paris, vid 2»J'ewhaYen and "Dk^v^,^^ ^yi%.'^«' 


Dover and Folkestone, and 66 lbs. between Paris and Modane. But 
on the Italian rlys. no free luggage is allowed ; the charge between 
Modane and Bologna being Ifr. 7^c., and from Bologna to Brindisi 
2frs. 61c. for eveiy 22 lbs. Trains leave Charing Cross by South 
Eastern Rly., for Dover and Calais, Ist and 2nd class at 7*40 a.m. ; 
1st class only at 8*25 p.m. ; for Folkestone and Boulogne according 
to the tides. By London, Chatham and Dover Rly. trains leave 
Victoria, 1st and 2nd class, at 7*40 a.m., and 1st class only at 
8 •20 P.M. ; by Brighton Rly. for Newhaven, Dieppe, Rouen and 
Paris, at vanring hours day and night, according to tide. Passengers 
cannot go through by the Mail train leaving London on Friday 
evening, and must start, therefore, not later than 7*40 a.m. on 
Thursday. Leaving Charing Cross Station at 7*40 a.m. by the 
London and South Eastern, the traveller reaches the Admiralty Pier 
at Dover at 9*30 a.m., or leaving Charing Cross at 8*25 p.m. he 
reaches the Admiralty Pier, Dover, at 10*20 p.m. 

Should he be inclmed to stop the night at Dover, he will find 
the Castle Hotel very comfortable. At the Lord Warden there is, 
or was, a most inconvenient rule that all the passengers' luggage must 
start together* It is, therefore, of no use being early, imless the 
passenger goes out himself and gets a porter to carry Ids things to the 
steamer. Pockets are often picked on board the steamers. It will 
be well, therefore, to be vigilant during the passage, and in the dis- 
agreeable hustling that takes place on leaving the vessel. It would 
be much more convenient to the passengers if the tickets were paid 
for on coming on board, and not demanded on leaving the vessel, 
when every one's hands are occupied with carrying bimcQes and bags. 
In order to avoid trouble on landing luggage should be booked through 
to Paris, where, of course, it will be examined by the Ciistom-house 

Paris is reached by this Rte. at 6*5 p.m. From the hotels near the 
Rue de Rivoli it takes^ an hour if the streets are clear, | of an hour if 
crowded, to reach the Gare de Lyons, whence the train for Turin and 
Brindisi starts. The train that leaves Paris at 8*40 p.m. arrives at 
Macon at 5*38 A.M., Culoz at 8*45 A.M., and at Modane at 1*23 p.m. 
At Modane luggage is examined by the Custom House officers, and 
passengers change carriages. The train leaves Modane at 2*50 p.m. 
There is time allowed, about 25 minutes, for luncheon, and the French, 
who here seem regardless of the comfort of passengers, keep them 
penned in until tne trains are formed, which leads to annoyances 
that would not be tolerated in England for a moment. It takes 22 
minutes to pass through the Mont Cenis Tunnel, which is 16 m. long, 
but there are also a number of shorter tunnels. Turin is reached at 
6*40 P.M. The 9*40 a.m. train from Turin reaches Bologna at 5 p.m. 
The Italian railwav officials are particularly polite to passengers. The 
carriages are excellent, and there is no drawback, except insufficient 
room for luggage carried in the hands. Nothing can be jiut imder 
the seats, and the shelves at the top of the compartments are too 
narrow. Crossed ribands to hold hats, which are found in English 
carriages, would be a great convenience in t\ie lon^ ^owmey from 
-™rw to Brindisi, but neither French nor Italian c8a:m^e^\i^N^ ^^m. 

S^ct. L BRINDISL 25 

At Bologna the Hotel Brun is excellent, but it is a very long ilrive 
from the Rly. station. The drive from Bimiiii along the sea is 
charming, but the difficulty is to get refreshments. 

Brindlfd is reached at 10*37 p.m., and the l)est and most con- 
venient hotel there is the Grand Hotel des Indes Orien tales, h. l)y the 
South Italian Rly., and facing the Quay where the P. and O. steamew 
lie to land the passengers. The hotel is managed by Giuseppe*. 
Bruschetti, who was formerly proprietor of the Gnmd Hotel Royal 
at Milan. There are 100 beds, good reception rooms, and niartde 
baths with every comfort. Excellent fish is almost always to be liml, 
and game frequently. Table d'hote liidthout wine costs 5 frs. The 
Hotel de FEurope is also good, but not so conveniently sitimtinl, 
being about 300 yds. from the Quay. A day may be juissed very 
pleasantly at Brindisi in seeing sights. The to\\Ti is stiid to have its 
name from a word signifying " stag's head." This has reference to 
the shape of the harbour, which resembled two horns Wfore the 
N. Branch was closed, as it now is, by a barrier of stone. Between 
these horns is an island on which stands the Qimrontine House and 
a small fort, which can be visited by boat in i an hour at the cost of 
^ a franc There are 2 lighthouses, one to the N. of the entrance, 
30 metres high, and one to the S., smaller. A little to the S. of the 
hotel is Virgil's Pillar, as it is called, though it clearly has nothing 
to do with VirgiL That poet died at Brindisi on the 22nd of 
September, 19 B.C., on his return from Samos. Brindisi was des- 
troyed by Louis of Hungaiy in 1348, and by an earthquake in 1458. 
The pillar is of white marble, of the Corinthian order, and about 
50 ft. high. On the base is an inscrii^tion which ascribes the 
erection of the pillar to Spathalupus. This Spathalupus was a 
Byzantine governor, who built the to^vn in the 10th century, after 
it had been destroyed by the Saracens. A few yards N. of this 
column is the base of a similar one. It is said that the Via Appia 
ended here. Others maintain that that road ended outside the 
town, and that these pillars were brought from the spot. N. of 
these pillars about i of a mile is the Cathedral, whei-e the Emi)eTOr 
Frederick II. married Yolantha in 1225 a.d. It is a perfectly plain 
building of white stone. On the rt. of the entrance is a school, 
once a convent, on the fagaile of which ai*e 8 ancient stone figures, 
which were dug up at a Temple of the Sun not far off. One is a 
figure crowned with laurels. All the figures are much mutilated. 
In front of the Cathedral, on the opposite side of the road, is the 
English Consul's office. After this the Cluesa de los Angelos might 
})e visited, as it is not fiir off. There are some good fi-escoes in the 
ceiling of this church, of the 16th century. Brindisi has two gates, 
the Porta di Mesagne to the W., where are the arms of Spain and 
some inscriptions, and the Porta di Lecce to the S., so called from 
Lecce, a town 17^ m. to the S. In the centre of Brindisi are some 
frescoes put up by the Jesuits in 1830. Outside the town to the 
N.E. is the Castello, an old castle, now a prison, mtli lowmV \.Q>\?^T?i 
and a fosse 80 feet wide and 40 deep. It was b, by \\\& "EiTo^i^itot 
Fredenck II., and strengthened hy Chailes V. In. \\\e ceviX,!^ \a» «b 
qaadrangle several hundred ft. square, and the rooms in ^v\i\K\l^^ 


prisoners are confined look upon it. About 800 men are imprifloned 
nere, but no women nor boys. They have oidy one meal a day, 
and drink rain water. At night theii* chains are fastened to a strong 
ring, a fixture. There is one vast room where the prisoners are 
employed at all sorts of work, such as making shoes and slippers, 
baskets, and carving of various kinds. Eighty-six steps lead to the 
roof, whence there is a good view of Brindisi and the harbour. 
There is an English Consul at Brindisi, and an agent of the P. and O. 
Company, whose office is on the Quay, near to the Hotel des Indes 
Orientales. The Post Office and Telegraph Office are a short distance 
S. of the hoteL Brindisi, the ancient Brundusium, was first colonised 
from Tarentum, and then by Rome in 245 B.C. In 37 b.c. Horace 
travelled along the Via Appia with Maecenas, Virgil, Plotius, and 
Varius, when the envoys of Augustus and Antony met to adjust 
certain differences at Brundusiiun. The journey is described by 
Horace in liis 1st Book of the Sermonum, 5th Satire, the last line 
of which is " Brundusium longa; finis chartaeque via?que." M. 
Pacuvius, one of the greatest of the Latin tragedians, was born at 
Brundusium about 220 B.C., and his kinsman Ennius was lx)m at 
Rudia in the neighbouring hills. In B.C. 49 Pompey was besieged in 
Brundusium by Csesar, who speaks of the sie^^e in the 1st Book of his 
Civil War. Brindisi has now about 15,000 inhabitants. The Austrian 
Lloyds steamers touch at Brindisi en route to Corfu and Syra, and 
the Geneva and Ancona steamers every Monday on their way to 
Taranto. As the port is completely sheltered it is qiiite easy to 
embark at Brindisi at all seasons and in all weathers. The voyage 
to Alexandria is made in 82 hours. 

Alexandria. — This poi-t cannot be entered at night, and vessels 
aiTiving after sunset lie oiff till daylight. The land is low, and is not 
seen fiutlier than about 12 m., but Fompey^s Pillar, the light-house, 
the Pasha's palace, and the masts of snips come to sight earliei'. 
There are 2 haibours at Alexandria, an eastern called the E. Harbour, 
or New Port, and a western called Euriostus Harbour, or Old Port. 
The E. or New Port has long been disused, except by small vessels, 
being exposed to the winds from the N., and dangerous from its 
numerous rocks and shoals. This, however, was the harbour which 
for 11 centuries was assigned by the Mulyammadans to tlie vessels of 
Christian states, until the English, when they occupied Alexandria, 
extorted the privilege for all Europeans of riding on horseback, and 
using the western and only safe anchorage. In this harbour is a 
floating dock that can support a weight of 10,(K)0 tons. A break- 
water a mile long now projects from the S. side of the harbour, and 
between its crab-like arms is the entrance for steamers. Having 
entered, the Khedive's Palace Harim, a vast whit^e building, is seen 
from the dock to the left, and more en face the Arsenal, and the 
Custom House. A walk of 10 or 12 minutes brings one to the Frank, 
or European quarter, and here in the Great Square, or Place 
Mubammad ^ All, so called from a statue of that worthy, is the Hotel 
cVEuTope, and dose by, in the Place de rEgli8e,is H6telAbbat, which 
J.9 the cheaper of the two. At the right-hand comet oi l\v^ ^io^ate in 
lAe street leading out of it is the office oi the P. aw^O. w!^^\i\,^«sA 

Sect. L 



also a bank, and close by are good sbops, such as that of D. Robertson, 
bookseller, and a general store, the Maison K Ordier, both in the 
Place M. *A11. For the sights of Alexandria see Murray's " Hand- 
book of Egypt." A vehicle costs 28. an hour in the day, and 3«. in the 
night. As the train for Suez starts at 6 p.m., there is often time to 
drive to the V. Consul's Office, in the Rue de I'Obelisque, and then to 
the Mahmiidiah Canal ; returning from which one may visit Pompey's 
Pillar, set up by the Eparch Publius in honour of Diocletian, in red 
granite, 98 ft. 9 in. high, and 29 ft. 8 in. circumference. 

Railway pbom Alexandria to Suez.— Time Table.* 





of Sta- 























• • • 










Kafr Dawar 
Abii Hummcis 
Damanhi^r . 
Teh el Bar^id 
Kafr Laydt . 
Birkat al Sdb 

Minet al Ganeh . 

Abii Hamcd . . 
Teh al Kabir . 
Maksama . 
Nefishe . . . 
Serapeum . 
Faid . . . 

Shalliif . . . 
Suez . 

Total . . 



Time in 




h. m. 




















h. m. I 

1 I 

1 i 

10 i 

1 ! 

15 ' 













8 20 

1 41 





30 miles 

per hour. 




25 miles 

per hour. 

Total time, including stoppages, lOh. Im. 

'^ This Time Table is in force by order of the Director-General of the Eg>'ptian 
Government, for the special trains conveying; P. nnd O. passengers, Ist and 2nd Class, 
between Alexandria and Suez. These special trains, jik a rule, travel by night. 

Signed, T. C. Chapman, Agent. 

The seats in the carriages on this line are too narrow. There ought 
to be in winter tins of hot water for the feet. Passengers will do 
well to so place their parcels that they cannot be snatched out c.f the 
window by Arabs, who have a taste for appropriatin*^ W\«u\ m >i)Kv^ 

iTie other places, Aden and GaJle, have been aVve^vAiy ivo^ivce^, wv^ 
j'e onljr remains to my a few vronh as to 


4. Route Overland to Venice or Ancona, and by P. and 0. 
Steamers to Brindisi and Alexandria, and by Rail to 
Suez and thence by. P. and 0. Steamer to Aden, Galle, 
AND Madras. 

The rte. by Venice is less fatiguing and far more interesting than 
that by Ancona or Brindisi, including as it does Milan, the Lago di 
Garda, Verona, Padua, and Venice, places which can be revisited again 
and again without ennui. Those who are not pressed for time, and 
have not seen these interesting localities, should certainly take the 
rte. by Venice. Descriptions of places will be found in Mr. Murray's 
*' Handbook of Italy." Here all that need be said is that at Turin 
the Grand Hotel de Turin, kept by Kraft, is the most convenient, 
being close to the rly. One cannot, however, have a bath at that 
hotel except in one's own room. The HOtel de I'Eui-ope is the best, 
rather dear, and some way from the ntk\t. The rte. by Milan to 
Venice is 55 kils. shorter than that by Bologna to Venice. The 
trains from Milan to Venice start at convenient hours. The 9*40 a.m. 
train anives at 4-14 p.m., and the 3*50 p.m. train arrives at 10*15 p.m. 
Tliere is no train in correspondence with the train fi*om Paris to 
Turin that connects, which is a mistake admitted by the officials, but 
not remedied. The chief railway authority is M. le Commandeiir 
Amelhan, Directeur General des Chemins de Fer de la Haute Italie 
hors de la St. Nuova, Milan. The best hotel at Milan is the Hotel 
Cavour. The cathedral is the great sight. After Rome, Florence and 
Naples, the city most worth seeing in Ittdy is Verona. The best hotel 
is La Torre di Londra. It must be particularly remembered that here, 
and in other towns, a card, if asked for, is given to visitors with the 
names of the principal sights printed in the order for seeing them. As 
a specimen, the following card of the sights at Verona may be taken — 

Piazza Signori. — Tombs of the Scaligcrs. — Santa Anastasia, Ch. — 
Cattedralc. — San Giorgio. — Giardino Giusti. — Pontc Navi. — Musco. — 
Arena Roman Amphitheatre. — San Zanonc, Ch. — San Bernardino, Ch. — 
Ponte Castel Vecchio. — Palazzo Canossa. — Poi-toni Borsari.— Piazza Erbc. 

At Padua, the best hotel is La Stella d'Oro, but it is 1 J m. from the 
Stat. At Venice, the Hdtel de TEurope will be found the most con- 
venient. After the 15th of April, and till the 15th of October, 
j^leasant weather may be looked for in the Adriatic, and the voyage 
Irom Venice to Alexandria is delightful. In the other months strong 
breezes are frequent, and, perhaps, a gale may be encountered between 
Brindisi and Alexandria. 


The following remarks on Tropical Hygiene ai*e condensed from 
Dr. Martin's book, " The Influence of Tropical Climates ": — 

The Prevention, of Disease, — The proper selection of localities for 
residence ; the avoidance of exposure to heat by day, and to dews and 
chills at night ; care in diet, clothing, and exercise arc isit thotc c§s»q\\\\».1 
for the preservation of health in India, as el8ew\icTc, l\iwiL tq.^\q.«3l 


treatment. Self -quackery with calomel and other mercurial prqiaratious 
is sure to destroy the most robust constitution, and many lives nave been 
lost by the use of saline purgatives during seasons of cholera. The real 
way to escape disease is to observe strict tempera nee ^ and to moderate 
heat by all ]K)ssible means, habituating the Ixxly from the beginning to 
the impressions of cold, for from heat arises the predispoHition to receive 
and develop the seeds of disease, and after lieat has thus morbifically 
predisposed the body, the sudden influence of cold has the most baneful 
effect upon the frame. 

JOress, — ^\^en Europeans enter the tropics they must bid adieu to the 
luxury of linen — ^if what is uncomfortable, and, indeed, misafc in those 
climates, can be styled a luxury. The natives, from the lowest to the 
highest, wear nothing but cotton. The cotton dress, from its slowness in 
conducting heat, is admirably adapted for the tropics. It must be 
recollected that the temperature of the atmosphere, ttuh dio, in the hot 
seasons exceeds that of the blood by many degrees, and even in the 
shade it too often equals, or rises above the heat of the body's surface^ 
which is always, during health, some degrees below 97**. Cotton, then, 
is cooler than linen, as a slower conductor of the excess of external heat 
to our bodies. Moi-eover, when the atmospheric temperature suddenly 
sinks far below that of the body, cotton causes the heat to be abstracted 
more slowly, and thus presei-ves to the wearer a greater equilibrium of 
wai'mth. Further, cotton absorbs perspiration with greater facility than 
linen, and will maintain on equable waimth luider a breeze where a 
dangerous shiver would be induced by wearing linen. 

Woollen and cotton dresses arc actually cooler in high temi)cratiut;H 
than linen, as may be readily proved by placing two beds in the same 
room when the thermometer stands at iK)°, and covering one with a pair 
of blankets, the other with a pair of linen sheets. On removing both 
coverings in the evening, the bed on which the blankets were placed 
will be found cool, the other warm ; this arises from the woollen covering 
being a non-conductor, while the linen transmits the heat. 

In particular places, where the mercury takes a wide range in a very 
short time, flannel is a safer coveiing than cotton, but, in general, it is a 
less desirable covering. It is, in the firat place, too Iwacy ; secondly, 
where the temperature ranges steadily a little below that of the skin, 
the flannel is too slow a conductor of heat from the body ; thirdly, the 
spiculse of the flannel prove too imtating, and increase the action of the 
perspiratory vessels, while the great object is to moderate the process. 
A too frequent change of body linen is injurious, especially to newly 
arrived Europeans, as it stimulates the cuticular discharge too much. 
To change morning and evening is enough, even in the hot and rainy 
seasons ; and to change oftener is simply injurious. 

Exposure, — No European should voluntarily expose himself at any 
season to the direct rays of the sun. If forced to be out of doors, the 
chliMd or large umbrella should never be neglected, if he wish to avoid 
coiip de soleil or other dangerous consequences. The ample turbans of 
the natives are a great defence agamst the sun ; and where an umbrella 
cannot be conveniently used, muslin twisted many times round an 
English jockey cap, with a white covering stuffed with cotton, such as 
worn by Sir C. Napier in a well-known print, is the best protection. 
Similarly, the thick kamarbands or waist-cloths of the natWe,* \>tQ>\ftRX» 
the important viscera of the abdomen from the injurious eftec\a ol ^icAs^. 

Fpod.— There are no points of hygiene to which the attenlvoii ol axve^ 
»?mer ahould be more particularly directed thaa to modcratloKi «»^^ 


»ufiplwity iu his diet. A congestive, and sometimes inflammatory 
diathesis, with a tendency to general or local plethora, characterises the 
European and his diseases, for some yeara at least, after his arrival 
between the tropics ; and hence nature endeavours to guard against the 
evil by diminishing the relish for food. The new comer, therefore, 
should avoid the dangerous stimulants of wine and liquors, as well as 
condiments and spices, which should be reserved for that general relaxa* 
tion and debility which are sure to supervene during a protracted 
residence in tropical climates. A vegetable diet is, generajly speaking, 
better adapted for a tropical climate than animal food, especially in the 
case of the unseasoned European ; not that it is quicker or easier of 
digestion, for it is slower, but it excites less commotion in the* system 
during the digestive process, and is not apt to induce plethora afterwards. 
The febrile stiicture, which obtains on the surface of our bodies, and in 
the secerning vessels of the liver, during the ffoitric digestion of the food, 
as evinced by diminution of the cutaneous and hepatic secretions, is pro- 
portioned to the duration and difficulty of that process in the stomach, 
and to the quantity of ingesta ; and as a corresponding increase of the two 
secretions succeeds, when the chime passes into the intestines, the neces- 
sity of moderating them by abstemiousness is easily perceived, since they 
are already in excess from the heat of the climate alone, and this excess 
is one of the first links in the chain of causes and effects that ultimately 
leads to various derangements of important oi'gans, as exemplified in the 
fevers and dysenteries, in the hepatitis and cholera of tropical regions. 
The newly-anived European should content himself with a plain hreah' 
fast of bread and butter, with tea or coffee, and avoid indulging in meat, 
fish, or eggs, or buttered toast. The butter alone often disagrees, and 
occasions rancidity, with nausea, while it increases the secretion of bile, 
already in excess. The dirty habits of the native cooks, who may be 
often seen buttering the toast with the greasy wing of a fowl or an old 
dirty piece of rag, will perhaps be of more avail than any medical 
caution in inducing Europeans to give up this injurious article of food. 

He who wishes for health in the East must beware of late and heavy 
dinners, particularly on his first arrival, and must be satisfied -vsdth a 
light and early repast as the principal meal, when tea or coffee at six or 
seven o'clock will be found a grateful refreshment. After this his rest 
will be as natural and refreshing as can be expected in such a climate, 
and he will rise next morning infinitely more refreshed than if he had 
partaken of a heavy repast at a late hour. 

Druits. — A limited indulgence in fruits, during the first year, is 
prudent ; and there is little reason to believe that when ripe and eaten 
in the forenoon fruit has the effect of irritating the bowels. Particular 
kinds of fruit have peculiar effects on certain constitutions ; thus Ttmn- 
goes have sometimes a stimulating and heating effect, which often brings 
out pustules or even boils, on the unseasoned European. The piiw apple, 
though very delicious, is not a safe fruit at any time. The orange is 
always grateful and wholesome, as is the sJiaddoek, owing to its cooling 
subacid qualities. The banana is wholesome and nutritious, whether 
undressed or cooked. 

Brink, — The great physiological rule for preserving health in hot 

climates is to keep the body cool. Common sense points out the propriety 

of avoiding heating drinks, for the same reason that leads us instinctively 

to guarA against a high external temperature. During the first two 

j-ears, at least, of Tesidence, the nearer tbe apptoafih mvAe to «^ i^rfectly 

^ueous regimen in driok, the better the ouoiQe ol Si'^ovS^^ ^Okix<(«9>« 

3ect* L DRESS, DIET, ETC. 31 

NothiBg is more salutary during the hot winds than iced beverages ; 
they revive the spirits, strengthen the body, and assist the digestion. 
Ice is invaluable, as well in sickness as in health. Moderately acid drinks, 
such as sharhat, are wholesome. Nature seems to point out the vegetable 
acids in hot climates, as grateful in allaying thirst and diffusing a 
coolness from the stomach ^ over the body. "Hie prophylactic influence 
of spirits and tobacco against night exposure, malaria and contagion, 
appears to be a delusive doctrine. 

ExercUe. — The perspiration, biliary, and other secretions, being already 
in excess in equatorial regions, a perseverance in the customary European 
exercises would prove highly injurious, by promoting and aggravating the 
ill effects of an unnatural climate. Such excess very soon leads to de- 
bility and to diminUhing action in the functions alluded to, and to a 
corresponding inequilibrium of the blood. It is only at particular 
periods of the day or year that such active or passive exercise as the 
climate admits should be taken. When the sun is near the meridian all 
nature is torpid, and seems to suggest inactivity to man. The natives, 
though fitted by nature to bear the climate, take more care to moderate 
the effects of heat than Europeans, especially in light clothing, abste- 
mions food, and tranquil habits. Gestation of every kind, whether in 
pdlkis or spring carriages, is a species of passive exercise exceedingly 
well adapted to a tropical climate. The languid state of the circulation 
of the blood in old Indians is pointedly shewn in the disposition to 
raise the lower extremities on a line with the body when at rest ; and 
this object is completely attained in the pdlki, which, indeed, renders it 
a peculiarly agreeable vehicle. On the same principle may be explained 
the pleasurable feeliug and utility of shampooing^ where the gentle pres- 
sure and friction of the soft Asiatic hand over the surface of the body, 
but particularly over the limbs, invigorate the circulation after fatigue, 
as well as after long inaction, and excite the inert cuticular secretion. 
The kisa or luiir-glove of India is an admirable means of giving addi- 
tional effect to {jfiampooing, a practice which to the indolent wealthy 
natives is a real and effective substitute for exercise. The twing is much 
used by the natives, and in the hot and rainy seasons might be practised 
in the early mornings and evenings within doors when the weather did 
not admit of gestation in the open air. In chronic disorders of the 
viscera, it could hardly fail to be grateful and salutary by its tendency 
to determine to the surface and relax the sub-cutaneous vessels, which 
are generally torpid in these diseases. 

JBathing, — The cold hath is death, not during intemperance, but in the 
collapse which follows a debauch, or indeed any other great fatigue of 
body or mind. It is also dangerous under every form of visceral disease ; 
but the healthy and temperate may safely partake of it. The truth is the 
cold bath is a prize due to, and gained by, the temperate ; to all else it is 
eminently unsafe. The healthy and temperate should regularly and daily 
persevere in the use of the cold bath from the moment they enter within 
the tropics ; and when, from long residence there, the functions begin to 
be irregular, or defective, they may prudently change by degrees to the 
tepid bath, which then becomes a most valuable part of tropical hygiene. 
The cold bath may be used at any hour of the day, though the morning 
and evening are generally selected by Europeans in the East, imme- 
diately after leaving their couch and before dinner. At boWi Wi^^ Xjmi^ 
the bath is very refreshing, and powerfully obviates that tiaixi ol Xkenowa 
symptoms so generally felt hy Europeans in hot climateB. 'Bd.ox^ ^mscbrx 
U seems to exert its salutary influence on the sxuciace ot liXi^ \icA^>«aa.> 


by STrnpathj) on the stomach, removing the sensation of thirst, which 
might otherwise induce too free potations at dinner. It is always im- 
prudent to bathe while the process of digestion in the stomach is going 
on, as it disturbs that important operation. To persons of ordinary 
health, but who are not robust, the cold bath vnll be found tonic and 
agreeable in India, from the beginning of March to the end of Sep- 
tember. The temperature ranges high in these months, and the deter- 
mination to the surface is such as to ensure a sufficient reaction. It is a 
common error to think that it is requisite to be cool before using the cold 
bath, whereas the reverse is the case. To the delicate, indeed, immersion in 
a warm bath for a few minutes is an excellent preliminary, followed at once 
by the affusion of some three or four vessels of cold water. A glow over 
the whole surface of the body will immediately follow. This is a safe 
and excellent mode of bathing to all who shrink from the use of cold 
water, or feel doubtful of salutary reaction after it. The following is the 
scale of temperature of the several baths in ordinary use : — Cold bath, 
from 60** to 75° ; tepid, 85° to 92° ; warm, 92° to 98° ; hot, 98° to 112°. 

Sleep. — ^Whatiever we detract from the requisite period of our natural 
sleep will be surely deducted, in the end, from the natural range of our 
existence. Notwithstanding the silence of authors on the subject, the 
disturbed repose experienced in trepical climates has a great and preju- 
dicial effect on the European constitution. The great object of the 
European is to sleep cool, and obtain complete protection from mos- 
quitoes. Both these objects may be secured by the large mosquito frame 
and curtain, with the pankhd suspended from the ridge, as generally 
used throughout Bengal. Early hours are here indispensable. The order 
of nature is never inverted with impimity, even in the most temperate 
climates : beneath the torrid zone it is certain destruction. The hour of 
retirement should never be protracted beyond ten o'clock ; and at day- 
light we should start from our couch to enjoy the cool and salubrious 
breath of mom. In Bengal Proper, in the plains of Upper India, and on 
the Coromandel ceast, except during the hot land winds, or at the change 
of the monsoons, Eui'opeans may generally sleep during the hot and dry 
season in the open verandah, not only with safety but with advantage. 
Scruple doses of carbonate of soda in aromatic water at bedtime, or night 
and morning, will remove nightmare and promote digestion. 

Moral Conduct. — In the tropics, licentious indulgence is far more dan- 
gerous and destructive than in Europe. 

Cholera, — The attacks of this terrible disease may in general be traced 
to some imprudence, as eating unripe fruit, oysters, or other indigestible 
food; intemperance, drinking cold liquid, or anything that suddenly 
ohills the bcxiy when overheated ; exposure to cold night air. Among 
the natives the most common causes are drinking unwholesome water, 
sleeping on the damp ground, or in the open air during unhealthy 
seasons. The safest remedies appear to be the application of mustard 
plasters, particularly to the abdomen, or the warm bath, draughts of warm 
water, after which 80 drops of laudanum, 6 drops of oil of peppermint, or 20 
drops of essence of peppermint, and 20 grains of calomel, should be taken. 
To allay the bummg thirst, warm kdnji or rice water, with plenty of 
table sit, may be given, or pieces of ice may be allowed gradually to 
melt in the mouth. After the first attack is over, if there be much irri- 
tability remaining, the dose of 20 grains of calomel must be repeated. 
A^erwards the bowels must be kept open with calomel and jalap. For 
^ cliiJd of from H to 2 years old 12 grains ot calomel, % CiiQi]^% at Ibm- 
aannm, 2 drops of oil of peppermint, may Iw gWea ou l\ift \xwifc«EA. ol 

Seot I. DBESSj DIET, ETC 33 

attack. The handfl and feet mnfit be put into water as hot as the child can 
bear until the disease is subdued. After a lapse of eight hours from 
complete relief, a dose of castor oil must be administered. Great atten- 
tion must be paid to the size of the drops of laudanum. They must 
be dropped from a 2-oz. phial. To natives who are not of a plethoric 
habit, the following pills may be given : — ^Astringent pills on the first 
attack : calomel, 5 grains ; asafoetida, 2 grains ; black pepper, 2 grains ; 
opium, 2 grains ; camphor, 3 grains ; to be mixed and divided into three 
pills, which, if rejected, must be re-administered. Three hours after 
these pills, if the symptoms have stopped, mix the following into three 
pills : — Calomel, 5 grains ; extract of colocynth, 12 grains ; extract of 
tartar emetic, ^ grain. The cholera pills are an excellent purgative in 
general for bowel complaints. 

Medicine Cliest, — The following medicines and articles may be taken on 
a journey into places where medical aid is not attainable : — Cholera pills, 
csdomel, eau de luce, ipecacuanha, laudanum, magnesia, oil of pepper- 
mint, quinine, rhubarb, adhesive plaster, blistering plaster, goldbeater's 
skin, lint, sponge, scales and weights, cautery, lancet, teasix)on, scissors. 

Snake Bites, — The following appears to be the best treatment for 
snake-bites. A ligature should be instantaneously fixed round the limb 
affected, some distance from the wound to prevent absorption. If the wound 
be in a fleshy part, the ragged edges must be cut out, making the incision 
elliptical. The wound must then be sucked with a cupping glass, 
or with the mouth. If stupor, fainting, or sinking of the pulse supervene, 
administer brandy one oz., laudanum one drachm, in warm water, with 
sugar and peppermint water. The patient must be kept walking about, 
or the tlm)at, chest and extremities may be rubbed with laudanum, 
ammonia, and ether. Dram doses of ammonia, or eau de luce^ mixed 
with water, and repeated every ten or twenty minutes, according to the 
urgency of the symptoms, have also been tried with success. But scarifi- 
cation or excision and cauterisation are the only sure means of escaping 
death in the case of being bitten by the most poisonous snakes, as the 
cobra and black kerite. 

The following suggestions,* which were approved by Sir Colin 
Campbell, for the use of officers who have had no Indian experience, 
will be found instructive for all travellers in India : — 


When practicable, the best time for marching is undoubtedly in the 
early morning. The march should be finished by two hours after sunrise. 
The pernicious custom of serving out a dram on the line of march sows 
the seeds of disease, and should be avoided ; but, as it is injurious to 
undergo fatigue after a night's rest upon an empty stomach, food of some 
kind should be given to the soldiers either before starting or at the first 
halt — tea, coffee, chocolate, or milk, with bread, biscuits, or chapdtis. 

In warm weather every precaution should be adopted to enable the 
European to stand fatigue, and to prevent heating of the blood. The 
neck should be bare, to allow of the free return of blood from the 
head. A flannel roller round the belly and loins is all the woollen 
material required. 

In cold weaiher a flannel shirt, cloth coat, etc., should be worn, in 
accordance with the temperature. 

Every soldier should he strongly impressed with. t\i'B ^x^^et c{t 
estpoHnf f/ie Aead, i/?wovercd, to the direct rays of tlie sniv. A X\ght, cool, 

* ^y J9mc3 Harrison, M.B., Sui^eon, Hon. Company's ServVee. 


and comfortable eap^ which at the same time allows of evaporation from 
the surface of the head and shades the eyes, temples, and back of the 
neck, should be provided. 

The men should be instructed never to throw this off, under any cir- 
cumstances ; and they should be told, on the first symptoms of giddiness, 
flushing of the face, fulness of blood in the head, or dimness of vision, 
to pour cold water over the head, and to keep it wet (with the cap on) 
for some hours. Strict adJiei'ence to tlwse instructions would prevent 
the large majority of cases of coup de soldi. 

No soldier should be allowed to remain in wiet clothes longer than can 
be avoided. WhUe in exercise no danger results ; but from lying down 
in damp clothes, fever, dysentery, or disease of the liver inevitably ensue. 

When in tents, the kandts * on the shady side should be thrown down, 
and the air be allowed to circulate freely. At night, unless the weather 
is very cold, the Itandts on two sides of every tent should be removed. 
Protection from dew and rain is all that is required. More harm is 
caused by the respiration of contaminated, close, and impure air than is 
ever brought about by exposure to the night wind. 

Dry straw, grass, hirhi (the stalk otjodr, a kind of Indian com), or any 

.of the stalks used in thatching, make excellent bedding, when covered 

with blankets. 


The urgent necessity of keeping the pores of the skin open in a hot 
climate is only recognised by officers in reference to themselves ; its para- 
mount importance is not impressed upon the men. Soldiers should be 
made to bathe at least three times a week in cold water. This operation 
should always be performed upon an empty stomach, and the morning, 
before breakfast, is the best time. 

It is not safe to bathe when the body is much heated, if, at the same 
time, it is fatigued. Hence, on the march, the evening, about four hours 
after dinner, would be an appropriate time. 

The skin should be thoroughly dried and rubbed. 

Water can generally be pi'ocured from some stream or tank ; if these 
are not convenient, the wells will always furnish abundance. 


Experience proves that the same amount of animal food is not required 
in a hot climate to preserve health and strength as in a cold one. A 
large amount of animal food, instead of giving strength, heats the blood, 
renders the system feverish, and consequently weakens the whole body. 

The RAjpiits of Rdjpiitdna, and the Sikhs of the Panjdb, are physically 
as strong as Europeans, and they are capable of enduring more fatigue, 
and withstanding better the vicissitudes of the climate of India. This is 
due, partly to race, but chiefly to the nature of their food, of which the 
staple is wheaten flour, made into cliapdtis. They eat but twice a day ; 
and, although they partake of animal food, they do so in very much less 
proportion than is the habit in Europe. 

Hermetically sealed, preserved, or salted provisions are noxious, if 
partaken of for a prolonged period, or to the exclusion of fresh food. 

Bread, when tolerably well made, is of course one of the best articles 

of diet. Biscuits are not so digestible, but they have the advantage of 

being easily carried, and of being always ready. In the absence of 

these, flour {dta) can always be procured, and chapdtis (a thin un- 

Jcarened cake) are easily made, arc highly nutritious, and are perfectly 

dj^'-cstible when eaten fresh and hot. Wlieu coVd aM io\x^ Wo;^ ^xe 

^ Kandts^ walla Qf a tent. 


tmwholesome. CJuip&tis can be baked in any quantity on iron plates 
made for the purpose, and every European should learn (which he can 
do from any native) how to knead and prepare them. Flour can be 
got from every village, and with it no European detatchment need ever 
be without " the staff of life." 

Rice and ddl (pulse or vetches, especially when split) can also be had 
anywhere. These, boiled separately, and afterwards mixed together, 
make, with the addition of salt and pepper, a wholesome and nutritious 
food, well suited for breakfast. 

Beef is the meat usually furnished to regiments. The lean commis- 
sariat kine do not promise much, but it is difficult to j^rocure other meat 
in sufficient quantity. Slow boiliug for two hours will make any meat 
tender, and the water in which it is boiled makes excellent soup. The 
addition of whatever vegetables are to be had, of a few slices of salted 
pork or bacon, two or tlj^ee handfuls of flour, some onions and salt, and 
pepper, makes a savoury mess. Rice, boiled in a separate vessel, and 
afterwards mixed up with the soup, meat, etc., adds to the quantity and 
quality of the meal, which is wholesome, nutritious and palatable. 

Mutton and fowls may occasionally be had as a change ; and in the 
neighbourhood of large rivers, fish makes a useful variety, and can usually 
be had in abundance. 

Milk is an invaluable article of diet, and should be largely supplied 
to soldiers. 

Vegetables are essential to the preservation of health. Opportunities 
for procuring them in quantity present themselves much oftencr on the 
line of march than is generally supposed. 

In cold weather inquiry will prove that in the neighbourhood of nearly 
every halting place there are fields of carrots, turnips, onions, and of many 
native vegetables, such as haigan {Solarium tnelogena^ sdg (greens), &c. 

Fruit, when sound and ripe, is beneficial instead of hurShil. Unripe 
or over-ripe fruit will produce disease. The water-melon and guava 
are, however, indigestible. The oranges, strawberries, custard-ap'plcs, 
loqudt, musk-melons, pineapples, grapes, and lichls can be partaken of 
with advantage. 


The same amount of spirit undiluted is much more injurious than 
when mixed with water. 

Great attention should be paid to the time of serving out the drams. 
They should never be given on an empty stomach, when the system is 
heated, or when exposed to the sun. To give men raw spirit early in the 
morning, before any food is taken, is the surest way to lay the foundation 
of disease. After a meal, with some hours of rest in the shade in pros- 
pect, is the best period. 

Officers on coming to India for the first time find themselves sur- 
rounded by entirely new influences. The diseases of the country are 
formidable and rapid in their progress, and inspire in many cases a vague 
tenor, which prevents the due exercise of the reasoning powers. The 
climate is found to be exhausting and debilitating ; exposure to the sun is 
understood to be dangerous; and there are many other circumstances 
which combine to depress the mind and body, and to pre-dispose to the 
belief that some extraordinary course must be pursued to ward ofL ^si-^ 
evil consequence. 

Recourse Js had in too many cases to stimulants ; bToadj \s tsCfc^ea m 
Jai^e quantities to prevent the approach of sickness ; exexcVac asv^ \JQft 
(mImMy methods adopted in other countries to keep \iie ixaioa ^oxxa^L 


and vigorous are neglected. Many become the victims of their own 
imprudence and rashness, and their premature death is erroneously 
ascribed to the effect of the Indian climate. 

With ordinary precaution and attention to the common laws of hygiene 
Europeans may live as long and preserve their health as well in In(Ua as 
in Britain. 

The neglect of these precautions rapidly produces fatal results. The mor- 
tality from disease far exceeds that caused by the enemy, and it behoves 
every officer to study carefully the means of preventing sickness. 


As the Muhammadan era of the Hijrah (prop. Hijrat), " Departure," 
is used to some extent in the S. of India, it is necessary to give a brief 
account of it here. It takes its name from the "departure" of 
Muhammad from Makkali to Madinah on Friday the 16th of July, 
622 A.D. This date was ordered by the Khalifali Umar to be used 
as their era by Muhammadans. Their year consists of 12 lunar 

Rajab 30 days 

Sh'aban . . . . 29 „ 
Ramazdn . . . . 30 „ 

months, as follows : — 


. 30 days. 

Safar .... 

. 29 „ 

Rabiu'l awal . 

. 30 „ 

Rabiu 's-sdnl or '1 ilkhir 

. Zv „ 

Jumdda '1-avval 

. 30 „ 

Shawwal . . . .29 
Zl'l k'adah or Zik'adah . 30 



Jumdda 's-sanl or '1 dkhir 29 „ Zl'l hijjah or Zl hijjah . 29 „ 

= 354 days. 

Their year, therefore, is 11 days short of the solar year, and their 
New Year's Day is every year 11 days earlier than in the preceding 
year. In every 30 years the month Zi hijj is made to consist 11 times 
of 30 days instead of 29, which accounts for the 9 hours in the lunar 
year, which =354 days, 9 hours. To bring the Hijrah year into 
accordance with the Christian year, express the former in years and 
decimals of a year, and multiply by -970225, add 621*54, and the 
total will correspond exactly to the Christian year. Or to effect the 
same correspondence roughly, deduct 3 per cent, from the Hijrah year, 
add 621*54, and the result will be the period of the Christian year 
when the Muhammadan year begins. AH trouble, however, of com- 
parison is saved by Dr. Ferdinand Wustenfeld's Comparative Tables, 
Leipzig, 1854. 

Tlie TdrUch HUM, or Era of AJcbar, 

This era begins from the commencement of Akbar's reign on Friday 
the 5th of Rabiu's-sdnl, a.h. 963= 19th of February, 1556. To make 
this era correspond with the Christian, 963 must be added to the latter. 

The Fasli Era, or Harvest Era. 

According to Grant Duff (vol. i., p. 126, not p. 32, as wrongly 

given in the index of that book), this era was first introduced into the 

Mardtha country, and thence into the S. of India by Shdh Jahan for 

revenue purposes in 1637-1638. This era, like the preceding, dates 

from the 1st year of Akbar's reign, 963 a.h., the concurrent Fasli 

beginninfr on the Ist of the lunar month Ashwin (September, October), 

or 10th of September, 1556. To convert t\\e A^ciles \ivAi\Y\9> ct\\.lQ tlici 

Christian, add 592 if Jess thaji 4 months liaYe ex^vt^^, ^^'i *\l mortis 

Sect. I. 



Tlie Kdli-Yug, or HindA Era. 
According to the Hindus, the workl is now in its 4th Yuj,', or A;;(', 
the Kali-Yug, which commenced from the equinox in March, 3102 B.C., 
and will last 432,000 years. The 3 precetling ages wen^ the Satya, 
the Tretd, and the Dwapara. The Satya, or Age of Truth, histe<l 
1,728,000 years ; the Tretd (from tra, " to preserve ") laste<l 1,296,000 ; 
and the Dwdpara (from dvm, " two," and par, " after ") 8G4,CKX) years. 

Tlie Era of Vikramdditya, or SamxcaU 
This era commenced from the 1st vear of King Vikramdditra, who 
began to reign at Ujjain 57 B.C. To conveil Samwat years into 
Christian, deduct 57. But if the Samwat year be. less than 58, deduct 
its number from 58, and the remainder "will be the year b.c. 

The Shdka Era, or Era of Shdlivdhaiia, 
ShdHvdhana, " Borne on a tree," from Shdli, the SJwrea robusta, and 
vdhana, " vehicle," was a king who reigned in the S. of India, and 
whose capital was Pratishthdnah. He is said to have been the enemy 
of Vikramdditya, and is identified by Wilfonl with Christ. The 
Shaka dates fix>m the birth of Shdlivdhana on the 1st of Vaisjikli, 
3,179 of the Kdll-Yug= Monday, 14th of March, 78 a.d. To make 
the dates of this era correspond Avith the Christian, add 78. 

Era of Parashurdma, 

This is the era which, according to Colonel "Warren's Avork, the 
" Kdla Sankalita," " Arrangement of Time," is used in Malaydla, that 
is, in the provinces of Malabdr and Travankor down to Cape Kumiiri 
(Comorin). It is named from a king who reigned 1176 yeai-s B.C., 
or in 1925 of the Kdli-Yug. The year is sidereal, and conmiences 
when the sun enters Virgo in the solar month Asliwin. The era is 
reckoned in cycles of 1,01)0 years, and the 977th yeiir of the 3rd cycle 
began 14th of September, 1800 a.d. 

The Hindu year has 6 seasons or ritus : VasantUy " spring," f7rw/i?>Jrt, 
" the hot season," varsha, " the rains," sharada, " the autumn," (from 
sJiri,) " to injure," lienuuitaf " the winter," shishlray " the cool season." 

Table of the Seasons and, Months in Shr.y Hindi and Tamil. 

1. Vasanta. 

2. GbIshma . 

3. Vabsha . 


4. Shabada. 


5. Hemanta 


Names of Montus. 



\ C'haitra. 
\ Vaishdkha. 
) lyeshtha. 
\ A'shddha. 
\ Sravana. 
) Bhdch-a. 
) AJshwina. 
\ Kdrtika. 
i Mdrgaslrsha. 
/ Faasha. 















C'hditram. ] 
A'yassie. ) 
Auiii. } 
Audi. J 
Auvani. j 
Paratasi \ 
Arpesi. ) 

•rye. \ 



Kam<}8 of tlie Governors of Madras and dates of tlieir accession, 


Sir William Langhome 1672 

Mr. Streynsham Master 6th February, 1678 

„ William Gifford 13th July, 1681 

„ ElihuYale 4th August, 1687 

„ Nathaniel Higginson 13th October, 1692 

8ir J. Gtoldsborough, Kt oth December, 1692 

Mr. Nathaniel HiggiDson 10th August, 1693 

„ Thomas Pitt 12th July, 1698 

„ Gulstone Addison 3rd September, 1709 

„ Edmond Montague (Provisional) . . 28th October, 1709 

„ William Fraser 14th November, 1709 

„ Edward Harrison 22nd July, 1711 

„ Joseph Collett 19th January, . 1717 

„ Francis Hastings 29th January, 1720 

„ Nathaniel Elwick 26th October, 1721 

„ James Macrae 28th January, 1725 

„ George Morton Pitt 25th May, 1730 

„ Richard. Benyon 3rd February, 1736 

„ Nicholas Morse 28th January, 1744 

Major Stringer Lawrence .... 24th November, 1749 

Mr. R. Prince, Dep.-Gov. Pres. Fort St. David . 12th December, 1749 

„ Richard Starke, Dep.-Gov 6th March, 1752 

„ Thomas Saunders, Governor .... 17th April, 1752 

„ Greorge Pigot 14th January, 1755 

„ Robert Palke 14th November, 1763 

„ Charles Bouchier 25th January, 1767 

„ Josias Du Pr6 8th February, 1770 

„ Alexander Wynch 2nd February, 1773 

Lord Pigot . . . . . . . 10th December, 1775 

Mr. George Stratton 24th August, 1776 

„ John Whitehill 31st August, 1777 

„ Thomas Rumbold 8th February, 1778 

„ John Whitehill 6th April, 1780 

„ Charles Smith 8th November, 1780 

Lord Macartney 22nd June, 1781 

Mr. Alexander Davidson 18th June, 1786 

Sir Archibald Campbell 6th April, 1786 

Mr. John Holland 7th February, 1789 

„ Edward John Holland 12th February, 1789 

Major-Greneral William Meadows . . . 19th February, 1790 

Sir Charles Oakley, Bart 1st August, 1792 

Lord Hobart 7th September, 1794 

Lieut.-General George Hanis . . . .21st February, 1798 

Lord Clive 21st August, 1798 

Lord William Cavendish Bentinck . . . 3()th August, 1803 

Mr. William Petrie 11th September, 1807 

Sir G. H. Barlow, Bart 24th December, 1807 

Lieut.-General the Hon. J. Abercromby . . . 21st May, 1813 

Hon. Hugh Elliot 16th September, 1814 

MaJoT'GeneTBl Sir Thomas Munro, Bart. . . . 10th June, 1820 

Mr, If, 8, Graeme 7th July, 1827 

lit Hon. S. B, Lusbington 1^^^ Oc\o\ses, \%^2.T 

-^Jeat-Geaeral Sit Frederick Ad&m . . • ^^\Jdl Oc.\o\s«n \^^% 



Mr. G. E. Russell 4th Miircli, ls:j7 

Lord Elphinstone r»th March, 1837 

Marquis of Tweeddale 24th September, 1842 

Mr. H. Dickinson 23rd Febnmir, 1848 

BirHenry Pottinger, Bart., G.C.C 7th April, 1848 

Mr. D. Eliott 23nl April, 18.'>4 

The Rt. Hon. George Francis Robert Lord Harris . 28th April, 1854 

Sir Charles B. Trevelyan, K.C.B. . . ... 28th March, 18:>0 

Sir Henry George Ward, G.C.M.G 18r>0 

W. Ambrose Morehead, Esq 4th August, 18(K) 

Sir William Denison, K.C.B 18th Februair, 1861 

Lord Napier of Ettrick, K.T 27th Mardi, 1866 

LoidHobart ir>th May, 1872 

The Most Noble the Duke of Buckingham and Cliandos, 23rd Nov. 1875 

The following tables supply the dates of the principal events in 
Indian History : — 

•^ B.C. 

Arrangement of the first nine Books of the Rig Veda . (about) 14(K) 
Composition of parts of the tenth Book . . . (about) 1100 

^nml ^^* (about) 1000— 800 

Siitras Yaidik, comprising laws 1000 

Siitxas of Philosophical system .... (about) 12(K) — 800 

AthanraVeda 800 

Sakya Muni, birth 638 

Death and ^ra 543 

First Buddhist Convocatiou at Kdjagri"«'i 543 

Voyage of Skylax down the Indus by order of Dareius Hystaspes . 490 

Second Buddhist Convocation at Vesali 443 

Alexander crossed the Indus, April 327 

Chandragupta or Sandrakottus 315 

Mission of Megasthenes to the Court of fcJandrakottus . . . 302 

Rimayana 300 

Asoka 270 

Third Buddhist Convocation 249 

Mah&bh4rata • 240 

Laws of Manu 200 

Menander 126 

Ceylon Buddhistical Books 104 — 76 

Mea of Vikram^ditya and of the iShakuutald 67 


Cave Temples at Salsctte 50 — 100 

JEra, of Sh^vdhan 78 

84h dynasty of Gujardt . 100 

Travels of Fa-Hian 399 

Mahawanso 459—477 

Travels of Hiuan Tsaug (129—645 

Purdnas 800—1400 

Early Muhanimadati Conqueron- of India and ilieir Successors, 
Muhammad Edsim conquers Sindh for the Khalifah Walid . . 1\\ 
Sabuktigln (Sahnctagi), sumamed Ndsira *d-dln, King oi G]ciM.m 

sndKA uT^, defeats Jayp&l, the Brdhman King oi IJ^ ."W . In'^ ^11 
Ian aa (IsmaieJ), second son of iSabuktigln, Bucceods \na faWvfit * ^^1 



Mal;mM I. (Mamood), eldest son of Sabuktigln, wrests the crown 

from his brother 997 

Eleventh invasion of India by this Prince, in which he plunders 

and destroys SomnAth 1022 

Muhammad I. (Mahommed), son of Mahmiid, succeeds . . . 1028 

Mas'aiid I. (Masaood), second son of Mahmiid, dethrones his brother 1028 
Muhammad I. restored on the murder of Mas'aiid by Ahmad, the 

son of Muhammad 1041 

Modiid (Modood), son of Mas'aiid 1041 

Mas'aiid II., son of Modiid (6 days) 1049 

Interregnum of one year till 1050 

Abu'l ^asan 'All, son of Mas'aiid I . 1051 

'Abdu 'r-rashid, son of Maljmiid I., succeeds, and is shortly after 

murdered by one of his chiefs named Tughral .... 1052 

Tughral (40 days), and is murdered 1052 

Farrukh ZAd, son of Mas'aiid 1052 

Ibrahim I., brother of Farrukh Zad 1058 

Mas'aiid III., son of Ibrahim 1 1098 

Arsilla, brother of Mas'aiid III 1115 

BahrAm, son of Mas'aiid III 1117 

Death of Bahrdm and extinction of the kingdom of Ghazni by the 

Princes of Ghor 1152 

Tlie House of Ohazni at Ldliur. 

Khusrau I., son of Bahrdm 1152 

Khusrau II., son of Khusrau 1 1159 

Muhammad Ghori takes Ldhiir and dethrones Khusrau II. . . 1184 
Mnl;iammad defeats the Kdjds of N. India on the banks of the 

Saraswati, 80 m. from Dihll, with dreadful slaughter . . 1193 
Muhammad Ghori assassinated in his tent on the banks of the 

Nlldb by a band of Gikkars 1205 

The Slave I>ynasty. 

Kutb, an imperial slave, succeeds to the sovereignty of Lahiir, and 

soon after conquers Dihll 1205 

Ardm, son of Kufb, King of Dihll 1210 

Altamsh, a slave, but originally of a noble family . . . . 1210 

Firiiz Shdh, son of Altamsh 1235 

Sult.dnah Rizla, eldest daughter of Altamsh 1235 

Bahrdm, son of Altamsh 1239 

Mas'aiid rV., son of Firiiz 1242 

Mahmiid II., younger son of Altamsh 1245 

Balin, Vazir of Mahmiid 1265 

Kai Kubdcl, grandson of Balin 1286 

Finiz IL, Khiljy . . . 1289 

Alldhu 'd-din I., having murdered Firiiz II., ascends the throne . 1295 
*Umar, youngest son of Alldh (but seven years old) . . .1316 

Mubdrak, third son of Alldh 1316 

Mubdrak murdered by his slave, Khusrau 1321 

Tughlak I., a slave 1321 

J^Q|}ammad III., son of Tughlak 1325 

in[nizIIL, cousin of Mal^ammad III 1351 

p^JiJak JZ, grandson of Fiiiiz 111 \^'«^ 



Mnl^ammad IV., son of Abii Bakr 1381) 

Hnm^yiin or Sikandar, son of Mnl^ammad IV. (45 days) . . . 1302 

Ma^mild III., son of Muhammad rV 1393 

Timiir Lang (Tamerlane) conquers Hindiistdn, takes Dihli, and 
massacres the inhabitants. He returns by way of Kibul to 
8amar]^and, leaving Khizr Viceroy of Multdn, Ldhiir, and 
Dlbalpur. Mahmiid takes refuge in Gujarat, but on Timiir's 

departure returns and re-ascends the throne for a short time . 1397 

I>yna%t\i of Lodl, 

DaulatLodi 1413 

Khizr. (This Prince claimed to be a Saiyid, and he and the three 

following Emperors do not belong to the Lodi dynasty) . . 1414 

Mubarak II., son of Oizr . 1421 

Mul^ammad V., grandson of Khizr (Mubdrak being assassinated 

by the Vazir) . . . ' 1433 

Alldhu 'd-dln II., son of Mul>ammad V. 1447 

Beloli (an Afghan of the tribe of Lodi) 1450 

Niz4m or Sikandar I., son of Beloli 1488 

Ibrahim II., son of Sikandar 1 1516 

Home of Timiii'y or Mughnh. 

Bdbar, son of Amir, son of Abii Said, son of Muhammad, son of 

Mlrdn Shdh, son of Timtir *....'... 1525 

HumAyiin, son of Bdbar 1530 

Shir or Farld, an Af shdn of the Sur tribe, expels Humdyiiu, who 

takes refuge with Sh^ Tahmdsp, king of Persia . . . 1542 

Salim (Selim) or Jaldl, younger son of Shir 1545 

Flniz, son of Salim (three days, murdered by Mubarak) . . 1552 

Mubdrak or Muhammad ' Adil, nephew of Shir, styled Mul^ammad VI. 1 552 

Ibrahim III., cousin of Mul^ammad 1552 

Humayiin restored 1554 

Akbar the Great 1555 

Salim or Jahdngir, son of Akbar 1605 

Khurram, third son of Jahdngir, and known as Shdh Jahau . . 1627 

Aorangzib or 'A'lamgir, third son of Shdh Jahdn .... 1658 
Muhammad Mu'azzam, second son of Aurangzib, and known as 

'BahddurShdh 1707 

Mu'izza'd-din or Jahdnddr Shah, eldest son of Bahddur Shdh . 1712 

Farrukhsiyar, son of 'A'?jim, second son of Bahddur Shdh . . 1713 

Rafi'au'd-darjdt, son of Rafi'au-sh-shdn, third son of Bahddur Shdh 

(a few days) 1717 

Muhammad Shdh, son of Jahdn, son of Bahddur Shdh . . . 1718 

Nddir Shdh takes and sacks Dihli 1739 

Al^mad Shdh, son of Muhammad Shdh 1747 

'lydzu'd-din, son of Jahdnddr Shdh, and known as 'A'lamgtr II. . 1753 


'A'li Gauhar, known as Shdh 'Alam 1701 

Akbar, son of Shdh 'Alarn 1806 

Muhammad Bahddur 1837 

Bahmani I>7/nasty of Kalhargak^ 

J, Bulfdn 'AJda 'd-din If asm Gdngo Bdhman Shdh, began 

to reign AM. 746 =^ A.D. lSi7 . . ... 15^ \i^'; 


DIED — A.H. A.D. 

2. Muhammad Shdh Sultdn 776 1374 

3. Sultdn MujAhid ShAh ' 779 1377 

4. Sultdn Daiid Shdh 780 1378 

5. Sultdn Mahmiid Shdh 799 1396 

6. Sultdn Shamsu 'd-dln Shdh 799 1396 

7. SulidnGhiydsu'd-dlnShdh 811 1408 

8. Sultdn Flniz Shdh 836 1432 

9. Sultdn Al^mad Shdh . 848 1444 

10. Sultdn 'Aldu 'd-din Shdli 871 1466 

11. Sultdn Humdydn Shdh 875 1470 

12. Sultdn Nizdmu 'd-dln Shdh . . . . . .877 1472 

13. Sultdn Muhammad Shdh 897 1491 

14. Sultdn Mahmiid Shdh 924 1518 

15. Sultdn WaHu'Udh Shdh 927 1520 

16. Sultdn 'Aldu 'd-dln Shdh 929 1522 

17. Sultdn Aljmad Shdh . . 929 1522 

18. Sultdn Kalima'Udh Shdh 934 1527 

These dates were obtained at Kalbargali itself from a local history. 
It will be seen that they do not correspond with the list given in 
Prineep's " Indian Antiquities/' vol. ii., p. 314, which is here sub- 
joined, or with that in the " Maisiir Gazetteer," vol. i. p. 225, which 
appears to have been copied from the latter. 

Table LXXVIIL — Bdhmani DynaHy of Kalhargah or Ahsan&bdd, 

1. 'Aldu 'd-dln Hasan Shdh gango Bdhmani, servant of a Brdh- A.D. 

man in M. Taghlak's court 1347 

2. Muhammad Shdh I. . 1368 

3. Mujdhid Shdh 1375 

4. Ddiid Shdh 1878 

5. Mahmiid Shdh I. . . 1378 

6. Ghiydsu 'd-dln 1397 

7. Shamsu 'd-dln Shah 1397 

8. Flroz Shdh 1397 

9. Abmad Shdh Wall (Khan Khandn) 1422 

10. 'Aldu 'd-dln Shdh II. " 1435 

11. Humdyiin the Cruel 1457 

12. Ni?5dm Shdh 1461 

13. Muhammad Shdh II • . . 1463 

14. Mahmiid II. 1482 

15. Ahmad Shdh II 1518 

16. 'Aldu 'd-dln Shdh III 1520 

17. Wallu'lldh 1522 

18. Kaldm Ullah 1525 

It is added that with the last named king, " the Bdhmani dynasty 
of Bldar (Ahmadabdd)" terminates, and is succeeded by that of Amir 
Barld at Alimaddbdd, and the following names are given : — 

1. Kdsim Barld, a Turkl or Georgian slave 1492 

2. Amir Barld 1504 

3. 'Aid Barld Shdh, first who assumed royalty .... 1549 

4. Jhrahim Barld Shdh 1562 

^, Kdsim Barid Shdh 1569 

6', MIrz4 'Ali Barld Shdh, deposed by his icla^ivc . . » . \xa% 
^' Amir Barid Sh6h II T , ^'^^^ 


Here it must be observed that only the first ei«;ht kinj;s in thi' first 
lists reigned at Kalbargah. The tombs of all the others are at Bidar, 
and this latter place is called Mnhammaddbad, not AhmadilUul. 
The " Maisiir Gazetteer," voL i. p. 228, also agrees that Abmad, the 
8th king, retired to Bidau*. 

Abstract of the hvtfory of the Mvhammadan KinffJt tvho ruled in the 
Dakhan, after the Bdhmani dynasty of Kalbargah, 

Abiil-Muj^affar Yusuf 'A'dil Shah, the foimder of the A'dil Shdhi 
dynasty of Vijayapiir, or Bijdpiir, was the son of A'gha Miinid or 
Amurath II., Emperor of Rum, i.e, Asia Minor. His eldest brother, 
on his accession, ordered him, then an infant, to be strangled ; but 
his mother substituted a slave, and sent him out of the country. He 
was educated at Sava, and of his own accord passed through Persia 
to India, and was there sold as a Georgian slave at the age of 17 to 
Ma^miid Gawdn, minister of Mul^ammad Sh^ Bahmani II. He 
soon distinguished himself ; and when Nisjamu 1-Mulk was slain at 
Kehrla, in 1467, Yiisuf took command of the army of the Dakhan. 
After the death of Muhammad Shdh, in 1489, he retired from Bidar 
to Vijayapiir, and declared himself independent. In 1493 he de- 
feated the Rdid of Vijayanagar, and took 200 elephants, and, it is 
said, two millions of pounds sterling, and this accession of wealth 
confirmed his power. One of his first steps was to surround his 
capital, Vijayapiir, with a stone rampart. In 1497, he betrothed his 
inmnt daughter to Ahmad, the son of Maljimud Shah Bahmani ; and 
in 1504 defeated and slew in battle Dastiir Dlndr, the Governor of 
Kalbargah and Sdgar, whose province he annexed to his own dominions. 
At the same time, 'Ainu ^-Mulk Gildni, who held the Konkan and 
all the sea-board, did homage to him as his vassal, so that he now 
assumed the title of Shah, and caused the Khutbah to be read in liis 
own name, this being the mark of royalty. In 1510 he re-took Goa 
from the Portuguese, who had captured it that year ; shortly after 
which success he died. 

The first event of importance in the reign of Ism'ail Shah, who, 
when he succeeded his father, Yiisuf, was yet a child, was the final 
surrender of Goa (which had been retaken by Albuquerque on the 
25th of November, 1510) to the Portuguese, on condition of their 
attempting no further encroachments. This cession was made by 
the advice of the Regent, Kamal Khan, who shortly after began to 
aspire to the throne. He imprisoned Ism'ail and his mother, and 
had resolved on putting them to dejith, when he was hiiusclf a^siissi- 
nated by one of their friends. A struggle ensued, in which Ism'ail 
was saved by his mother and Ids foster-aunt, who, clad in armour, 
rallied a few troops, and fought round the young sovereign with the 
skill and intrepidity of men. In 1514 the young monarch had to 
defend his capital against Mahmiid Shah Bdhmani, or i-ather Amir 
Band, the minister and virtual king, who advanced with 25,000 men 
against him. These he defeated at Alldhpiir, 1^ m. from Vijaya^iir^ 
and took Majimud and his hon Ajmad prisonextt. .He \.i^\i^^^^ 
captives with respect, released theiUy and gave to M^maCi \v\s ^\a\Kt^ 
who had been betrothed to him 17 years be!oi;e, A. v^a£>5toW^ ovxX. 

44 KINGS OP THE dakhan, Sect. I. 

with Vijayanagar in 1519, and here Isma'il, impmdently crossing the 
Krishna with a small force when heated with wine, was defeated, and 
242 elephants and many of his soldiers were drowned. The same 
year he received an embassy with the j)resent of a sword from Shdh 
Ism'ail Safavl of Persia. In 1524 he gave his sister Maryam to 
Bnrhdn Shdh of Al^madnagar, but neglecting to make over the 
districts of Sholapiir, which he had aUotted as her dowry, a war 
ensued, and in 1525 Ism'all defeated his brother-in-law with great 
slaughter, and took his royal standard. In 1528 he again defeated 
Burhan Shah, and next year took Bidar, where, however, he still 
suffered the pageant king, Allahu 'd-din II., to reside. In 1531 he 
again defeated the King of Ahmadnagar, and three years after closed 
a glorioiLs reign of 25 years with a peaceful death. 

The reigns of his sons, Malii and Ibrahim, present no events that 
require to be noticed. Ibrahim was succeeded by his son 'All, who 
formed an alliance with Kam Raja of Vijayanagar, and with him 
ravaged the territories of Al?madnagar. Subsequently he joined a 
coalition of Muslim princes against the Rdjd, and with Husain 
Ni?5dm Shdh of Alimadnagar, Ibrahim Kutb Shdh of Golkonda, and 
All Band of Bidar, fought the great battle of Talikot on the S. bank 
of the Krishna on the 25th of January, 1565. In this battle the 
army of Vijayanagar was completely destroyed, and it is said 100,000 
Hindi\s fell by the sword. Rdm Rajd was taken prisoner during the 
conflict, and his head struck off and exhibited on a pole by command 
of Ilusain Ni?jdm Shah. A sculptured representation of it to this day 
forms the opening of one of the sewers of the citadel of Vijayapiir, 
and the real head itself was long annually exhibited on the anniver- 
sary of the battle, covered with oil and red pigment, to the pious 
Muhammadans of Alimadnagar, by the descendants of the execu- 
tioner, in whose hands it remained. After their victory, the Kings 
marched on Vijayanagar, which they sacked and razed, so that it never 
afterwards recovered. 

In 1568, according to Firishtah, but two years later according to 
the Portuguese writers, 'All Shah attacked Goa, but was repulsed 
with great loss. In the same year he took Adhwani, a fortress wliich 
had hitherto been deemed impregnable. He subsequently took 
Dhdrwad and Bdnkapiir, and in 1577 compelled the brother of Kdni 
Raja of Vijayanagar to retire with his treasures and effects to the 
fortress of Chandragiri in the Kamdtik. Two years after, he was 
assassinated — by a eunuch who had been the favourite of 'All Barid 
Shdh, King of Bidar, and who was surrendered to him as the price of 
his aid in a war with the king of Ahmadnagar — after a fortimate 
reign, leaving the gi*and cathedral, mosque, and many other build- 
ings, to attest his magniticence, which they do to this day. 

'All Shall was succeeded by his nephew Ibrahim 'A'dil Shdh II., 

son of Talmidsp, the younger brother of the late king. In 1586, 

Ibrahim married the sister of Kuli Kutb Shdh of Golkonda. In 

J5S9, his minister and general, Dildwar Klidn, was defeated by 

Janidl ^dn of Alimadnagar, In this battle, the historian, Mu|?ani- 

-ojad Kdsim Firishtah Astarabddl, who was witjoi 'D\Uv?wc"?>?v^,Nq^ 

f^oimded and taken prisoner, 


Ibrahim was a prince of ^reat justice, as well as firmness and 
i^esolution, which he showed in a successful war with Ahmadnagar, 
and in escaping from the thraldom of his minister, Dildwar Khdn. 
He was also humane, for the time and coimtry in which he lived ; 
yet, after quelling a dangerous insurrection raised by his only brother, 
Ism'ail, and one of his nobles, 'Ainul-Mulk, he found it rei^uisite to 
put them both to death. This happened in 1593. Two yeai-s after 
Ibrahim's general, Hamid Khan, defeated and slew in action Ibraliini 
Ni;;dm Shdh, King of Ahmadnagar, and with this event Fiiishtah's 
history of the 'A'dil Shahi kings closes abruptly. 

Ibrahim 'A'dil Shah II. died in 1626, and his mausoleum " is the 
most perfect (see Grant Duff, vol. i. p. 96, where for " latter " read 
" former") and beautiful of the many buildings which remain among 
the ruins of Vijayapiir to attest its former grandeur." He left his 
son, Muhammad 'Adil Shah, who succeeded him in the sixteenth 
year of his age, a full treasury, and an army which is stated at 8(),(XK) 
horse and 200,000 foot. In 1635, Vijayapur was besieged by Khan 
Daurdn, the general of the Emperor Shiih Jahan ; but the following 
year Muhammad 'A'dil Shdh was so fortunate as to conclude an 
advantageous peace, by which he gained the province of Kalydni and 
the whole of the country between the Bhima and Nim rivers, as far 
north as Chdkan. For these districts, however, he was to pay a 
tribute of 20 Idkhs of pagodas. Soon after this peace Shdhji, the iather 
of the famous Sivaji, took service with Muhammad 'A'dil Shdh, and 
the Mardthas began to make a prominent figure in the wars of the 
Dakhan. Muhammad died at Vijayapur on the 4th of November, 
1656, and his son, 'Ali 'A'dil Shdh, then in his nineteenth year, suc- 
ceeded him. In March, 1657, Aurangzib and Mir Jumlah laid siege 
to Bijdpiir, and would have taken it but for the civil war breaking 
out between Aurangzib and his brothers. In October, 1659, Sivaji 
murdered the Bfjapiir general, Afzal Khdn, at Pratdpgarh, and 
destroyed his army, taking 4000 horses, several elephants, camels, a 
considerable treasure, and all the camp equipage. From this tune 
may be dated the rise of the Mardtha power, which was soon to 
eclipse, and fmally to extinguish, that of tne Muhanunadans in India. 
At the close of 1662 Sivaji had wrested from Bijdpiir, notwithstand- 
ing the vigour and personal bravery of Muhammad 'A'dil Shdh, the 
whole of the Konkan from Kalydn to Goa, while his territory 
extended inland about 100 m. He occupied this province with 
50,000 foot and 7000 horse. On the 5th of January, 1664, he, with 
4000 horse, sacked the city of Siirat, and on his return heard of the 
death of his father, Shdhji, by which he acqidred a claim to the Forts 
of A'rni and Porto Novo, and the province of Tanjiir, these having 
been conquered and held by Shdhjf. On this Sivaji assumed the 
title of Rdjd, and caused coins to be struck in his own name. Next 
year his inroads into the imperial territories brought upon him the 
Mu^nl Army, under AurangziVs general, the Rdjd Jay Singh, who 
laid siege to Purandhar. The garrison were soon i^duc^^ \» ex.- 
tremities, but before they capitulated Sivaji coticVviOl^^ a. \x^si.\*"^, 
caJJed the Convention of Piirandhar, by which lie swrTeu^eT^iV V^iVXvvi 
Mus^uJb 20 fort8 he had taken from them, retaiumg ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ 



as a fief from the Emperor. A revenue also of five likhs of pagodas 
was assigned to him, to be levied on Bijdpiir, and his son SMnbhuji 
received a command of 5000 horse in the Imperial army. Sivaji 
then joined Jay Singh's army with 2000 horse and 8000 foot, and 
co-operated with him against Bijapiir, and for his services received 
a letter of thanks, and an invitation to Court fcom Aurangzib. 
Accordingly he set out for Dihli in March, 1666, and effected his 
memorable escajje from thence in November of the same year. 
From this time till the day of his death, on the 5th of April, 1680,* 
his history is one of continued successes over the forces of Bijapiir 
and Dihli. 

Muhammad 'A'dil Shah died in December, 1672, and left a son. 
Sultan Sikandar, five years old, and a daughter, Padshah Bibi. 
Kliawas Khdn was appointed Kegent, but three years after, on con- 
senting to give Padshah Bibl to one of the sons of Aurangzib, and to 
hold Bijapur as a province of the Mughul empire, he was assassi- 
nated by a faction headed by 'Abdul Karim, who then assumed the 
office of Regent. He held office till January, 1678, when he died, 
and was succeeded by Mas'aiid Khan. The Mughul army, under 
Dilir Khdn, now advanced against Bijdpiir, and in spite of the 
generous devotion of Pddshdh Bigam, who surrendered to the enemy 
in order to remove that ground of contention, they laid. siege to the 
city ; partly, however, owing to the vigorous resistance of the de- 
fenders, partly through the harassing attacks of the Mardthas, Dilir 
Khdn was compelled to retire, and was soon after attacked by a 
Mardtha army and completely defeated. 

The extinction of the 'A'dil Shdhl dynasty was thus deferred till 
1686, when Aurangzib in person besieged Bljdpiir with a vast army, 
and took it on the 15th of October of that year. The young prince 
Sikandar was kept a close prisoner for three years in the Mughul 
camp, when he died suddenly, not without suspicion of having been 
poisoned by Aurangzib. 

Sulfdn Kuli Kuth Shah, the founder of the Kutb Shdhi dynasty, 
was a Turkumdn chief of the Baharlii tribe, and of the 'All Shakar 
persuasion. He was bom at S'addbdd, a village in the province of 
Hamaddn, and came to seek his fortune in the Dakhan towards the 
close of Muhammad Shdh Bdhmanl's reign. He was soon ennobled 
by the title of Kutbu'l Mulk, or " Pillar of the State," and made 
governor of Telingdna ; and when Yiisuf 'A'dil Shdh and others threw 
off their allegiance to the Bdhmani family, he, being then general in 
chief, caused the public prayers to be read in the name of the 12 
Imdms ; or, in other words, changed the public confession of faith 
to that of the Shfahs. In 1512 A.D., under the weak government 
of Mahmiid Shdh, he declared his independence, and assumed the 
title of King of Golkonda, the name of a village where he built 
his capital, and called it Mu^ammadnagar, after Muhammad Shdh 
Bdhmani, but the original name prevailed. In the commence- 
ment of his reign he was incessantlv occupied in reducing the Hindii 
J^i/ds of Telingdna tDl the year 1533, when Ism'ail TA'dil Shdh 

„ "i ^,9p^^^^"S to Wilks and Grant Duff (vol. i. p. 295); In \^%"i, \x<i(io^\iv^ \ft Qrcaa 
3^(1 J^JlI (vol. a p. 410). 


entered Ms country and laid siege to the fort of KalydnL A peace, 
however, was concluded through the mediation of Burhdn Wi^dm 
ShdL In 1543, in the ninetieth year of his age, Sultiin Kuli Kutb 
Shdh was assassinated by a slave, or, according to another account, 
y Mir Mal^miid Hamadiini, Governor of Golkondii, at tlie instigation 
of his second son, Jamshid. He left thi-ee other sons, Kuthu'd-dln, 
Haidar, from whom the present city of Haidaiiibiid taked its name, and 

The jiarricide Jamshid Kutb Sh4h now ascended the tlironc, and 
caused his elder brother, Kutbu'd-dln, to be blinded. Some time 
after a war broke out between the kings of Bijilpiir and Ahmadnagar, 
and Jamshid supported the latter, but was defeated iii several engage- 
ments by Asad Khan, the Bijdpiir general, from whom he received a 
sabre wound wliich cut off the tip of liis nose and his upper li]», 
disfiguring him for life ; though, accordinj? to another account, it was 
his father. Sultan Kuli, who was so wounded, and not JauLslud. 
Towards the close of his reign his temper became so morose that his 
younger brothers fled to Bidar, where Haidar died. Ibrahim then 
lied to Vijayanagar, but hearing of Jamshid^s death, wliich took place 
in 1550 A.D.,he returned to Golkonda and was proclaimed king, thus 
putting aside Subhdn Kuli, the infant son of Jamshid, who had been 
lor a few months on the throne. 

Ibrahim Kutb Shdh was a prince of great personal valour. ^Vhen 
at Vijayanagar, he killed in a duel with swords Ambar Khan, an 
officer in the pay of that court, and on the slaughtered man\s brotlier 
taking up the quarrel, Ibrahim slew him also. In his public wiu^, 
however, Ibramm showed more craft than courage. In 1558 he 
joined Husain Nijjdm Shdh, King of Ahmadnagar, in a war with 
Bijdpdr, but deserted his ally before any encoimter took place, and 
soon after joined 'Ali 'A'dil Shdh and Rdm Rdjd of Vijayanagar in 
besieging Ahmadnagar. After the fall of that city, with characteristic 
inconsistency, Ibrahim again united his forces to those of Husain 
Ni^dm Shdh, and in 1564 laid sie^e to Kalydnl, a fort belonging to 
Bljapiir, and, in consideration of this aid, obtained the hand of Bibi 
Jano^di, the daughter of Husain Shah. Next year he marched with 
the other Muhammadan kings of the Dakhan against Vijayanagar, 
and was present at the capture of the place, and defeat and death 
of the Rdjd. Afterwards, while in alliance mth Murtazd Nijjdm Shdh, 
of Ahmadnagar, in a war with 'AK 'A'dil Shdh of Bijdpiir, he made 
overtures to the latter, who forwarded his letter direct to Murtaza. 
Incensed at this treachery, Murtaza sent a body of horse to attack 
Ibrahim's camp, which tney surprised, and took from him 150 ele- 
phants, at the same time putting the flower of his army to the sword. 
In order to check the pursuing enemy, his son, 'Abdul K^dir, asked 
leave to head an ambuscade and make a counter-surprise ; but 
Ibrahim, jealous of the young prince, onlered him to be confined and 
then poisoned. He himself died suddenly, a.d. 1581, after a reign of 
32 years, leaving six sons and thirteen daughters. He Yva.^ ^^a)iX^ 
adorned his capital, Qolkonda, and fortified it anew. Arcvow^ \\\^ 
pnhlic works the Husain Sdgar Tank and the K6\a CliabvxUmV^ «t 
Mack Terrace, at Qolkonda, may he i)ai'ticularly menUoiieOL. 


The ^Imdd SJidhi dynasty of Blrdr was founded by Fafhulldhf 
originally a Hindu boy of Vijayanagar. Having been taken prisoner 
by the Muhanunadans, he was enrolled in the body-guard of Khda 
Jahdn^^ovemor of Birdr, who raised him to offices of distinction. 
After Wain Jahdn's death, he repaired to the camp of Muhammad 
Shah Bdhmani, and, through the influence of Malimiid Gawdn, 
received the title of 'Imadu-1 Mulk, " Pillar of the State," whence his 
subsequent title of 'Imtid Shah. He declared himself independent in 
1484 A.D., and shortlv afterwai'ds died, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Alldhu'd-dm. 

This prince fixed his royal residence at Gaval. When Mahmiid 
Shah Bdhmani fled from the persecutions of Amir Barid, Allahu'd- 
dln marched to his aid, but Mahmiid deserted his ally in the heat of 
. the action which ensued. Some time after, Alldhu'd-din having got 
possession of the forts of Mahiir and R^garh by treachery, was 
involved in a war with Burhdn Nizdm Shah of Ahmadnagar, who 
utterly defeated him, and wrested from him the two forts. Allahu'd- 
din had married the daughter of Ism'ail 'A'dil Shah, but that 
monarch being at war with Vijayanagar was unable to assist him. 
In 1527, however, Allahu'd-din, with Miran Muhammad, governor 
of Khandesh, marched against Burhan Nizdm Shah to revenge his 
defeat, but was again routed with the loss of all his elephants and 
guns. Mirdn Muhammad then called in the aid of Bahadm' Shdh, 
king of Gujardt, and swore fealty to him, as did AUdhu'd-din. 
Bahddur Shdh advanced upon Ahmadnagar, and compelled the king 
to acknowledge him as paramount, and had coins struck there in his 
own name. Shortly after this, Alldhu'd-din died, and was succeeded 
by his eldest son, Daryd 'Imdd Shdh, who gave his daughter, Bibi 
Daulat, in marriage to Husain Nizdm Shdh of Ahmadnagar. His 
reign appears to have been one of great tranquillity. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Burhan 'Imdd Shdh, then a child. The regent, 
Tufdl Khin, soon usurped the throne, and confined the young prince 
in irons in the fort of Narnala. He was, however, himself made 
prisoner by Murtaza Shdh of Ahmadnagar, who is said to liave 
destroyed him and Burhdn 'Imdd Shdh, together with their whole 
families, amounting to 40 persons, by confining them in a close 
dimgeon on a hot night. Birdr thenceforward became an appanage 
of Ahmadnagar. 

The founder of the Nizdm SJidhi dynasty of Ahmadnagar was 
Malik Ahmad Nizdm Bhdh, the son of Malik Ndib Nizdmul Mulk 
Bahri. This Nizdmul Mulk was originally a Brdhman of Vijaya- 
nagar, cpd his real name was Timappa ; but having been captured 
in his infancy by the army of Ahmad Shdh Bdhmani, he was 
brought up among the royal slaves as a Muhammadan, and named 
Hasan. The King was so struck with his abilities that he gave 
him to his son Muhammad Shdh as companion ; and when that 
Prince succeeded to the throne, Hasan rose to the first offices of the 
state, with the titles of Ashraf Humdyiin and Nizdmul Mulk. 
After the assassination of Khwdjah Mahmiid Gawdn, he succeeded 
^/m as prime minister ; but was liimseli a?sassma.\,<iv\. aX. TivOlw, by 
Pnsand Khdn, in the year 1486. Malik AA>iaad, txX. \\i^ \\m^ qI \i\a. 

Sect. I. KINGS OF THE DaKUAN'. 49 

fatlier's death, was in charge of Jimlr, Bir, and other distnctsi near 
Daulatabdd ; he had already displayed uncommon vigour in his 
operations, and had reduced a niunber of hill forts, and the whole of 
tne Konkan, and was besieging the seaport of Danda Rajpur, when 
the tidings of Nizdmul Mulk^s murder reached him. Returning 
forthwith to Junir, he assiuned the titles of the deceased, and began 
to act as an independent prince. Mahmiid Shah Balmiani despatched 
an army against him, under Shekh Muwallid, and 2iainu'd-din, tlio. 
governor of Chdkan, a neighbouring fortress, when Abinad suddenly 
escaladed the walls, having made a rapid counter-march at night. 
He himseK was the first to ascend, and 17 of his comrades in full 
armour secured their footing before the garrison were alarmed. The 
assailants continued to swarm up, and in spite of a desperate resist- 
ance, Chdkan was taken, and Zainu'd-din and 7(.)0 of his men cut to 
pieces. Ahmad next made a night attack on Shekh Muwallid's 
camp, and slew him and the flower of his army, taking all the ele- 
phants, tents, and baggage. 

Ma^miid Shdh now sent forwanl another army of 18,0(K) men, 
under 'Azamatul Mulk, but Ahmad Shah passed him with 3000 
horse, and arriving suddenly at Bldar, gained over the guard, was 
admitted, and carried off, not only the females of his father's family, 
but also those of the principal officers now in arms against bim. 'Aza- 
matul Mulk was then disgraced, and Jahdngir Khdn appointed to 
succeed him ; but on the 28th of May, 1490 a.d., Ahmad made a 
night attack upon his camp, and put to the sword, or made prisoners, 
the greater part of his army. Jahangir himself, and many of his 
chief officers, were among the slain. Ahmad Shah, in commemora- 
tion of this victory, which was called the ** Victory of the Garden," 
built a palace, the ruins of wliich still exist at Ahmudnagar. He 
laid out there an elegant garden, which was- beautified by his suc- 
cessors, surrounded with a fortification, and called BdgL Nisjam. 
Moreover, being now placed by his successes Ijeyond all risk of re- 
duction, he assumed the white canopy, and directed his own name 
to be substituted for the B^hmani king in the public prayers. In 
1439, Alimad, at the solicitation of Kdsim Barld, compelled Yusuf 
^A'dil Shdh to raise the siege of Bidar. He then liimself imsuccess- 
fully besieged Daulatdb^d for two months. Next year, a.d. 1494, 
he laid the foundation of a new capital for his dominions, which he 
called A^madnagar, or " the city of Ahmad." It was built on the 
banks of the Sena river, and near the palace of the Bdgh Nizdm, 
In the meantime, Malik Ashraf, the governor of Daulatabad, had 
called in the aid of Mahmiid Shah Begarha, king of Gujarat. This 
led to more than one campaign between Ahmad Nizam Shdh and 
Mahmud in 1499 and the following years ; but at length the ganison 
of Daulatdbdd deposed their commander, and surrendered to Ahmad 
Shdh. In 1508 a.d. Ahmad Shah died. He was an able general 
and politician, and renowned for his justice. Among other accom- 
plismnents he was an expert swordsman, and used to permit yowxi^ 
men to exhibit their prowess before him in single coxabal, \m \\\a 
jaactice grew to such a height that one or two pexiBbLed.eveir5 ^a"^% 
tie iing then diecountenanced thesQ fights j but dueYiing^a^^^^^^ 



such finn root that it spread all over the Dakhan, insomuch that 
Firishtah tells us he himself saw two brothers, respectable grey- 
beaixled men, and the son of one of them, engage three other grave 
and elderly gentlemen, who were also brothers, with such fury that 
all six combatants were slain. 

Burhdn Nizam Shah, the son of Ahmad, ascended the throne in 
his seventh year. At ten he was an accomplished scholar for those 
days, and Firishtah mentions having seen in the Royal Library, at 
Ahmadnagar, a work on the duties of kings, copied by him at that 
early age. In 1510, he was present, mounted on the same horse 
with his tutor, at the battle of Ranuri, when his troops entirely 
defeated the army of Imadu'l Mulk, king of Birar. A peace fol- 
lowed this victory, but hostilities were soon recommenced, in conse- 
quence of a claim to the district of Patri, in the Birdr dominions, 
preferred by Burhdn Shah, whose ancestors had been the Brahman 
accountants of the place, before they moved to Vijayanagar, where 
Nizdmul Mulk, the grandfather of Burhan, had been taken prisoner, 
and converted to Isldm. It is a strikiug proof of the importance 
attached to such hereditary offices in Hindustan, that, after a change 
of faith, and after rising from a private station to a throne, the family 
of Burhdn Shah should have perseveringly made war to recover this 
district. In 1523, Burhdn married Bibi Maryam, the sister of 
Isni'ail *A'dil Shdh ; in 1524, he attacked his brother-in-law, in con- 
junction with the kings of Bidar and Biriir, but suffered a sanguinaiy 
defeat. In 1527 he took the fort of Pdtri and razed it to the ground, 
givmg over the district in charity to liis relatives, the Brahmans, in 
whose hands it continued for several generations. 'Imdd Shah then 
called in the aid of Bahadur Shah, king of Gujardt, who occupied 
Ahmadnagar, taking up his quarters in Burhdn's palace, and com- 
pelled him to submit to a disadvantageous peace. Burhdn Shdh, in 
short, acknowledged himself the vassal of the king of Gujardt, and 
even submitted to stand in his presence. In 1531 he invaded the 
dominions of Ism'ail 'A'dil Shdh, but was totally defeated by him, with 
the loss of 4000 men. In 1537 he was more successful, and took 1(X) 
elephants and some guns from the king of Bijdpiir. In 1542 he 
made another successful campaign in the same territory ; but, in 
. 1546, he was defeated by Ibrahim Wdil Shdh, with the loss of 250 
elephants and 170 guns. In subsequent campaigns against Bijdpvir 
he was very successful ; but in 1553, while besieging the capital of 
that name, he was seized with a mortal disease and returned to 
Alimadnagar to die. His body was sent to the holy Karlmld in 
Turkish Arabia, and entombed near the burial-place of Ilusain, the 
grandson of the prophet. 

IJusain Ni?jdm Shdh, the eldest son of Burhdn, succeeded his 
father at the age of 13 years. The beginning of his reign was dis- 
turbed by the pretensions of his half-brother, Shdh Haidar, whose 
rebellion he quelled in spite of the support given to the pretender by 
Ibrahim 'A'dil Shdh. In 1557 he gave his daughter in marriage to 
the king of Birdr. In the same year his capital was besieged by the 
united forces of B^dpi^Tf Golkonda, and \\\ayaTia.^«s, \mcA ^\v3aiu 
fFa^ compelled to accept 9> very ignomimoTsia "g^w, \iv.\^^'l\xa ^w^ 


hid eldest daughter to Ihrahiiii Kutb Shall, and with him laid mi^l;** 
to Kalyanf, which the kinj^ of Bijapiir had wrested from him. 'Ali 
'A'dil Shah, however, called to his aid Ramr.ij of Vijayana;j;ar and 
the kings of Bidar and Binii', and inflicted a signal defeat on Husiiin, 
taking from him 660 pieces of cannon, and among them the celehmted 
gun of Bijdpur, the llirgest piece of brass cast ordnance in the world 
(see Bijdpur in Bombay Presidency), which hiul been cast by Chahbi 
Kiiml Khan at Ahmadnagar. Three days afterwards he was again 
put to the rout, and lost his few remaining guns. The enemy jnirsuitl 
idm to Ahmadnagar, which they entered, and the Hindu soidiei-s of 
Rdmraj committed every species of atrocity there. They were un- 
able, however, to take the lort ; and, after beleaguering it for some 
time, the siege was raised by an extmordinary tlood of the Sena, 
which is said to have swe]>t away 25,000 of lliunnij's troops. lu 
1564 9usain Nizam joined the Muhammadan league against Itaniriij, 
who encountered them with an immense host, said by Firishttih to 
have consisted of 2(K)0 elephant**, 70,(X)0 horse, and 9(HMHH) hitantry ! 
hut was defeated and slain. Husain Nizam Shiih died at Ahmad- 
nagar in 1565, soon after this A^ictory, of a disonler brought on by 

The son of Husain, Murta?a Nizam Shah, was yet a minor, when 

by his father's death he became king. His mother, Khunza Sultanah, 

acted as Regent, and conducted in person an invasion of the Bijapiir 

dominions, and afterwards of Birar. In 1569 he ciuised his mother 

to be seized and began to act for himself. Shortly after, he began to 

display that blind violence which obtained for him the name of 

Diwanah, " the madman." Being enraged with Kishwar Khan, the 

governor of the fort of Dhanir and General of the Bijiljnir foix'es, he 

charged up to the gates at full gallop, amid a shower of rockets and 

cannon balls. Suddenly the fire ceased, and the enemy evacuated 

the fort, a lucky arrow having killed Kisliwar Khan, and the garrison 

beins terrified by the madness of the attiick. Soon after this, Miutiza 

concluded an alliance with 'All 'A'dil Shdh, acconling to which he 

was at liberty to reduce the kingdoms of Bin'ir and Bidar, while the 

Bijdpur king prosecuted his comj[uests in the Karmitik. Birar was 

soon subdued, and Burhdn 'Imddu'l-Mulk, the king, with his iisuip- 

ing minister, Tufdl ^dn, were made prisoners, and died suddenly 

in confinement. Murtaza then marched against Bidar, but was 

recalled by the invasion of Birar by Mirdn Muhammad Shah, king 

of Khandesh. This invasion he soon repelled, and obliged the ruler 

of Khandesh to buy peace with a large sum of money. He would 

soon have reduced the kingdom of Bidar also, but Mirzd Klu'in 

Isfahdni, the crafty agent of Ibrahim Kutb Shah, mauiiged to fill his 

mind with suspicions of his minister, Changlz Khan. Murtaza, in 

consequence of these doubts, compelled the faithfid Changiz to drink 

poison, but afterwards, discovering his error, he called his nobles 

together, and, committing the government to Mir Kjizi Beg, shut 

hiniself up in an apartment of his palace, and refused tio mvidvWfc m 

public aftairs, as bein^ unworthy to reign. In 1584 \vfe oViXaiTv^^^L 

KhadJJah^ the sister of Ihrahini 'A'cUl Shah, in marriage iox \i\«» v^w, 

4£&6i husain, but, being jealom of the yoiing pxince, eTiOLW^o>xs^i)\ 



to destroy liini. A sanguinfuy struggle followed between the 
king^s faction and that of the prince, and the historian Firishtah was 
engaged on the side of the king. Mirdn Husain, however, proved 
victorious, and put his father to death by suffocating him in a bath- 
ing room, the doors and windows of which were closed, while a great 
fire was kindled beneath. 

The reign of the parricide Mlrdn IJusain was short and bloody. It 
lasted but ten months and three days, when he was beheaded ty his 
minister, Mirza ^dn, whom he had intended to destroy. The 
minister, in turn, was seized by a chief named Jamdl Khan, newn in 
pieces, and his limbs affixed to different buildings. The bodies of 
his friends were rammed into cannon and blown to fragments. 

Jamal Khan, who was now the most powerful noble in the State, 
raised Ism'ail Nisjam Shdh, the son ot Burhdn Nizam Shdh, and 
nephew of Murta?a, to the throne. Being himself of the schismatic 
sect of Mahdi, who believe that Saiyad Muhammad, a.d. 1550, was 
the promised Imam Mahdi, he persuaded the king to embrace that 
heresy. It is a sect still existing in the Dakhan, the Niiwdbs of 
Kamiil, Elichpiir, and Tuljepur having been followers of it. Jamdl 
Khdn was opposed by Saldbat Khdn, who had been formerly prime 
minister of Murtaza, but totally defeated him at Paitan on the 
Godavdri. Saldbat Khdn soon after died at Talagdon, near Piinah, 
and his mausoleum at Ahmadnagar is one of the most picturesque 
objects of that interesting capital. Meantime Bufhdn Shdh, the 
father of Ism'ail, who was a refugee with the Emperor Akbar, 
thought the opportimity favourable for advancing his own claims to 
the tlirone. He was supported by Bijdpur^nd after a short but 
fierce struggle defeated and killed Jamdl Khan, and having im- 
prisoned his son Ism'ail, was proclaimed king by the title of Burhdn 
Nijjdm Shdh II. His reign was short and inglorious, lasting but 4 
months and 16 days. The 'principal event of it was a terrible 
slaughter inflicted on his forces by the Portuguese. He died in 1594, 
and was succeeded by his son Ibrahim Nizdm Shdh, who, after a short 
reign of four months, was killed leading his troops in an attack on 
the forces of Bijdpiir. 

The son of Ibrahim being an infant, it was proposed by Miydn 
Manju, the noble of the greatest authority, to put him aside and 
elevate some older prince of the Nizdm Shdhf family to the throne. 
For this purpose Ahmad, the son of Tdhir, was elected, and he was 
crowned August 6th, 1594. It was soon discovered, however, that 
he was of spurious birth, and this led to a sanguinary struggle vnih 
a faction headed by Ikhlds Khdn, who was at first so successfid that 
Miydn Manjii invited the prince Murdd Mirzd, son of the Emperor 
Akbar, to occupy Ahmadnagar. Murdd Mirzd accordingly advanced 
with 30,000 Mugliul and RdJ2)iit horse, but before he could enter the 
fort of Ahmadnagar, Manjii liad completely defeated the other jmrty, 
and had begun to regret his overtures to the Mughuls. He, there- 
fore, made preparations for the defence of the fort ; and, leaving 
Chiincl BM, the aunt of the late king, and some of his own con- 
fidential adherents therey he departed vrit\v A.\>Tivad. \.o ^^^k tlie aid of 
tlie Kings of Golkonda and Bijapvir. l^o soouex -w^ \i^ ^qh^ S^mwx. 


CMnd Bibi caused the chief officer he had left to superintend his 
interests to be assassinated, took upon herself the conduct of the 
defence, and proclaimed Bahddur Smili, the infmt son of the late 
monarch, kin^. The Mua^uls invested Al^madnagar on all sides, 
and cut off Smlh 'Ali, a cmef who endeavoured to throw reinforce- 
ments into the place, witli all his men. Ibraliim 'A'dil Shdh of 
Bijdpur, alarmed at this jirogress of the Dihli army, desjiatchetl 
25,000 horse to Shiihdurg on the frontier, where they wen* joined by 
]!kliydn Manju, Ahmad Shah, and Ikhliis Khun, who liud aside hi* 
factious feelings on this emergency. Murdd Mirza, hearing of tliis 
assemblage, determined to storm, and five mines wei-e laid, which 
were to explode on the morning* of Feb. 21, 159(). One of tlie 
Mu^ul nobles, however, betrayed the secret during the night to the 

firriaon, who were thus enabled to render two of the mines useless, 
hey were in the act of removing the powder from the thiixl when it 
exploded, killing numbers of the counter-miners, and throwing down 
several yards of the wall. A panic seized the garrison, but Cliand 
Bibi, with a veil over her face, and a naked swonl in her hand, 
rushed into the breach, and her example brought Ixick the fugitives. 
Animated by her heroism, the besieged fought ^^ith such desperation 
that, though attack succeeded attack from four i).m. till nightfall, 
they were all repulsed. During the night, the ureach, under the 
superintendence of Chand Bibi, was built up seven or eight feet, and 
the Mughuls were so daunted by the defence that they made terais 
and retired, on the province of Birdr being ceded to them. From 
that time the Lady Chdnd was called Sultdnah Clidnd, "the Empress 
Chdnd." Bahddur Shdh was proclaimed king ; but the fall ol the 
kingdom was at hand. After three troublous yeai's, Akbar himseK 
inarched towards the Dakhan in the beginning of the year 1599 A.D. 
He laid siege to the fort of Asirgarh, wliile Prince Ddniyjil Mirzd and 
Khdn Khdndn operated against Ahmadnagar. Chdnd Sultdnah was 
baselv murdered by the garrison, and the Mughuls, having stormed 
the lort, gave no quarter. Asirgarh fell at the same time, and 
Bahddur Shdh was imprisoned in the fortress of Gwdlidr, where he 
was at the time Firishteh wrote his history. 

From this time, then, the kingdom of "Ahmadnagar may be said 
to have become a province of the Mughul empii'e ; but the Nissdm 
Shdhl officers having made the son of Shdh 'AH king, by the title of 
Murtaza Nizdm Shdh II., this puppet monarch held liis com-t for 
some time at Parainda. Meantime, an Abyssinian cliief, named 
Malik Ambar, rose to great power, and eventually reduced under his 
control nearly the whole of the Ahmadnagar territories. He, in 
1610 A.D., founded the city of Khirkl, to which Aurangzib after- 
wards gave the name of Aurangdbdd (see Grant Duff, voL i., p. 95), 
and was renowned for his justice and wnsdom. He abolished revenue 
farming, and collected the sums due from the land to government by 
Brdhman agents under Muhammadan superintendence. He restored 
the village system where it had fallen into decay, and levivfe^ a. TasA^ 
oi ttaseasment by collecting a moderate proportion oi t\\e ^^ ^^"^^^ "^"^ 
Jdnti and commuting this for a money iDayment a^tex W\g e^ervewc^ 
pfs f0w smsons. Ws territories thus became tbrivuv^ auOL^o^v^XowJ^. 

54 DYNASTY OP bIdAR. Scct. L 

and though he occasionally met with reverses, the ancient Nizdm 
Shdhi flaj?, which he hoisted on the impregnable rock of Daiilatdbdd, 
was never lowered ; and he even for a time regained Birdr and 
Ahmadnagar itself. But in 1626 he died, and his death was 
followed by the final annexation of Ahmadnagar to the Mughul 

Kdsim Barld was the founder of the Barid SJidhi dynasty of 
Bidar, He was a Tuik, and was sold as a Georgian slave to Sultdn 
Muhammad Shdh Lashkari Bahmani. He distinguished himself in 
reducing the rebel Mardthas of Paitan and Chdkan; and ha^dng 
slain the chief Sahajl, was rewarded by the daughter of liis deceased 
foe being bestowed on his son, Amir Barid, by Muhammad Shdh. 
The tribe of the Mardtha chief now joined him as retainers, and it 
was by their aid he rose to gieatness, and usuiped the forts of 
Kandahdr, Udgarh, and Ansa. He died in 1504, having for 12 years 
acted as an independent prince. 

His son, Amir Barid, reigned 45 years. In his time, Kalimulldh 
Shdh Bdhmani, the last of his race, fled from Bidar to Ahmadnagar. 
At the same period, IsmM 'A'dil Shdh took Bidar, but made it over 
again to Amir Barid, whom he invited to Bijdpiir, and entrusted 
4000 foreign horse to his conmiand, deputing him to aid Burhdn 
Nizdm Shdh. In the campaign which followed Amir Barid greatly 
distinguished liimseK. Some years after, when proceeding again to 
assist Burhdn Shdh, he died at Daulatdbdd. He was succeeded by 
'Ali Barid, who first took the title of Shdh. Having offended Shdh 
Tdhir, the envoy of Burhdn Shdh, who was sent to congratulate liim 
on his accession, he incurred the resentment of that monarch, and in 
the war which followed he was divested of almost all his territories. 
Some years after, Murtaza Nizdm Shdh besieged Bidar itself, and 
would have taken it but for the diversion effected by 'All 'A'dil Shdh. 
'All (according to Prinsep, 'Aid) Barid reigned 45 years, according to 
Firishtah. The dates of the reigns of this dynasty are, as seen in 
Brigg's translation, involved in inextricable confusion. According to 
Grant Duff (vol. i., p. 77) Bidar was annexed to Bijdpur before the 
year 1573. The names of the other sovereignswho are said to liave 
reigned at Bidar are as follows : 


4. Ibrahim Barid Shdh 15G2 

5. Kdsim Barid Shdh 1569 

6. Mlrzd 'All Barid Shdh, deposed by 1572 

7. Amir Barid Shdh II 1G09 

^A'dil Skald Dynasty of Bijapur, 

1. Abii '1 MuzaflPar Yiisuf 'A'dil Shdh, son of 'Aghd Murdd or 

Amurath II., of Anatolia 1489 

2. Isma'il *Adil Shdh 1511 

3. Malii 'Adil Shdh 1534 

4. Ibrahim 'A'dil Shdh 1 1535 

/>. 'AlI'AdilSUh 1557 

^. Ibraliim 'A'dil Shdh II ^^'^^ 

/. Muhawmad 'Adil Shiih ^^J^^ 

A 6'uJtdu Sikandar (or 'AH ^Adil Sbdh U.) . . ^ « ^^'^^ 

Sect, L kizAms of the dakhak. « 65 

NiSi&m Shdlii Dynasty of Ahmadnagar, ... 

1. A^mad Kizdm Shdh 1-19() 

2. Bnrh^ NijE&m 8h4h 1508 

3. Hnsam Nij;&m Sh4h 1553 

4. Marta?4 Ni3;&m Shdh 15(i5 

5. Mirdn Husain Nis^dm Shdh 1588 

6. Isma'il Ki^&m Sh4h 1589 

7. Burhto Ni^.Am Sh4h II 1590 

8. Ibrahim Niz&m Shiih 1594 

9. Ahmad ibn ShAh TAhir 1594 

10. Bah^ur Ni^&m Shdh n .1595 

11. Mnrtazd Ni^dm Shdh II 1598 

12. Malik Ambar 1607 

Kufb Shdhi Dynasty of Golhonda, 

1. Sultdn KuH Kufb Shdh . . 1512 

2. Jamshid Kuli' Kutb Shdh 1543 

3. Ibrahim Ku|;b Shdh 1550 

4. Muliammad Kuli Kutb Shdh 1581 

5. 'Abdu'lldh Kutb Shdh Kill 

6. Abii Hasan 1672 

^Imdd SMhi Dynasty of Birdr, reigning at Elichjmr, 

1. Fatl^u 'lldh 'Imdd Shdh Bdhmani 1484 

2. 'Aldu *d-din 'Imdd Shdh 1504 

3. Daiyd *Imdd Shdh 1528 

4. Burhdn 'Imdd Shdh 1560 

5. TufaQKhdn 1568 

Xi^dms of the Dakhan, 

1. MlrKamru'd-dinNisjdmu'lmulk'Asaf-jdh . . .1712—1748 

2. Mir Ahmad Khdn Ndsir-jang (killed by the Ni!iwdb of Kadapa) 

1748— Dec. 5th, 1750 

3. Hiddyat Mahiu 'd-din Khdn Mu?;affar-jang . . . . 

Dec. 5th, 1750, to Jan. 30th, 1751 

4. Saldbat-jang (see Hadikah, p. 440, 1. 10), Nov. 1751, died, 

2Gth Jan. 1763 

5. Nizdm 'Ali Asaf-jdh i Sdni, died at Haidardbad . Aug. 1803 

6. Sik5ndar-jdh, died May, 1829 (21st May, 1828, in " Princes of 

India," p. 87) 1829 

7. Talmait 'All KMn Bahddur Mir Farkhundah * AH Khdn Bahddur 

Ndsira 'd-daulah, died May, 1857 

8. Afzalu 'd-daulah, died 1869 

9. Mir Mahbiib 'Ali Khdn Bahddur Fath Jang Nizdmu 'd-daulah, 

Nigdmu'l mulk Now reigning. 

Rdjds of Vijayanagar, 

Xt jd aiu ............ 

2. Nanda 

3. Bhutanandi 

4. Teshanandi .... 

5. Nanda, who founded Nandapjir and Warankal . . . \^?^^E. 
A Cbal4k . , . Wl^ 

r, yija^a fowi4ed ViJRjanagav , , , W\^ 

58 * BijAs OP viJAYANAGAR. Sect. I. 


8. Vimala rdo 1158 

9. Narasinha Deva 1182 

10. Rdma Deva 1249 

11. Bhiipa raya 1274 

12. Bukka 13.S4 

13. Harihara rdo 1367 

14. Deva rAo 1391 

15. Vijayardo 1414 

16. Pandara deva r4o, deposed by Shrl Ranga of Kalidndurg . . 1424 

17. Rdmachandra rao, sou of Shri Ranga 1450 

18. Narasinha rdo . - 1473 

19. Vira Narasinha Rdjah 1490 

20. Achyuta rdo 

21. Krishna deva 1524 

22. Rdmah Rdjah, killed by Husain Nizdm Shdh of Ahmadnagdr, 

and Daryd 'Imdd Shdh of Birdr 

23. Shrl Ranga Rdjah 1565 

Trimala Rdjah 

Virayangat pati 

Shri Ranga pati 

Shrl Ranga II 

Rdmadeva rdo 

Venkatapati rdo 

Trimala rdo 

Rdmadeva rdo 

Shri Ranga rdo . . . 

Venkatapati, iled from the Mughuls to Chandraglri . . . 
Rdma rdo, recovered part of the territory .... 

Haridds 1693 

Chak dds, brother of Hari dds 1704 

Chimmadds 1721 

Rdma rdya 1734 

Gopdla rdo, son of Chak dds 

Yankatapatl 1741 

Trimala rdo, country taken by Haidar 'Ali 1756 

Vlra Venkatapati Rdma • 1829 

(According to Prinsep's " Antiquities," vol. ii., p. 281, the dynasty 
became extinct with this Rdjd in 1829 a.d., but a Rdja of Vijayana- 
gar still exists, and has a palace at Anagundi, of which district also 
he is Rdjd, though the Niisam's government delay liis recognition 
until a family disagreement is settled. In Mr. Lewis Rice's " Gazet- 
teer of Maisdr," vol. i., p. 222, note, it is said that Anagundi is a 
Kannada name meaning " elephant pit," and that it was the capital 
of the Yavanas, who are supposed by some to have been Greeks.) 

Rule}'S of Maisur, 

In the 1st Vol. of Mr. L. Rice's ** Gazetteer of Maisdr," published 

at Bengalur in 1877, will be found the history of several ancient 

dynasties who ruled over Maisiir, but of whom little more than the 

names is known. The following list oi "Rijaa ia taken, from the 

said work, as it is (?3tat>Iislied by iuscriptiona o^nd a^^^Q^oNi^^ \a?\.Q\\^ 


I- Sala Hoysala 

2. Vindyaditya 

3. Yereyanga, Pereyanga, Vlra Ganga 

4. Bitti Deva, Vishnu Varddhana, Tribhuvana ^fallu 

5. Vijaya Narasimha, Yira Nnr;isiin!i:i 

6. Vlra Ball41a 

7. Vira Narasimha . . . . . 

^. Soma, Vira Soraeshwar 

•'• Vira Narasimha 

114r>— 1188 
11S8— 1233 
1233— 124l> 
1249— 12(W 
12t>8— 1308 


RoLJ&g of Vijayan^ffar according to Mahtir Gazetteer (y;. 224). 

(^Compare lint loxt but one.) 

1. Harihara, Hakka, Hariyappa 133G— 1350 

2. Bukka, Vira Bukkanna 1350—1379 

8. Harihara 1379—1401 

^. Deva Baya, Vijaya Raya, Vijaya Bukka . . . . 1401 — 1451 

"• Mallikdrjuna, Vira Mallanna, Praudha Devn . . . 1451 — 14(55 

^- Virupaksha . . . 1405-1479 

7- Narasa, Narasimha . . . . . . . 1479—1487 

8- Vira Narsimha, Immadi Narsincra 1487—1508 

'•E^a^^i • -^ IS"^-^^*^ 

Jy« Sada Shiva Raya (Rdma Riljah, usurper till 1505) . . 1542—1573 

11. Shri Ranga Rdya 1574—1587 

12. Vlra Venkatapati 1587 

On the 25th of January, 1565 according to the Maisiir Gaz. voL i. 

232 (Grant Duff, vol. i., p. 76, says the battle was fought in 1564, 
IpMnstone, p. 413, says 1565), the power of the Vijayanagar king- 
^ODi, which tnen comprehended all the South of IndLia, was finally 
^roken by the Muhammadan Icings of the Dakhan in the decisive 
^ttle of Talikota, 10 m. S. of the Krishiia river, and near Rdichur. 
^ma Rtljah was slain after the battle and Vijayanagar was plun- 
dered for 6 months. Tirumala Rdjah, brother of Rdma, movetl to 
^nkonda, and Venkatddii, another brother, established himself at 
^andragiri. Grants in the name of Sada Siva were continued till 
j^573, and Shrl Ranga his son succeeded him. The 9th in descent 
^om him fled from the Muhammadans to Chandragiri, and from one 
of his descendants, Shri Ranga Raya, the English obtained the grant 
?J Madras in 1640. In 1646 Chandragiri and Chengalpatt were taken 
from him by the army of the King of Golkonda, and he fled to Bedniir, 
tne Rdja oi which place gave Mm Sakraypatna. A member of tlie 
lamily^ however, settled at Anagundi and continued the line till 1776, 
(when Tipii annexed the country,) and even down to this time. 

Present Dynasty of Maisiir, 

!• Vijaya, a Kshatriya of the Yddava tribe, native of A.D. 

Dwdrka in Kdthiawdd 1399—1422 

2. Hire Bettada Chdma Rdjah 1423—1457 

3. Tunma Rdjah \^^%— VVll 

4. Chdma Bdjah, 'A'r-beml or C-fingered .... l^l^i^— VoVI 

^' Bettada Chdma Rdjah .... . . \^\^— \^v>\ 

p^ HirQ Chdma lidjah, BOl, or the I5ald \^1\— \vA^ 

58 xiJwABs OP THE kabnAtik. • Sect. I. 

7. Bettada Wodeyar or Odeyar (pi. of Odeya, Kannadafor A.I>. 

« lord ") ■ . . ' 1576—1677 

. 1578—1617 

. 1617—1636 

. 1637—1638 

. 1638—1658 

. 1659—1672 

. 1672—1704 

. 1704—1714 

. 1714—1731 

8. Rdjah Wodeyar . 

9. Chdma Kdjali 

10. Immadl RAjah or Second Rdjah 

11. Kanthirava Narasa Rdjah .... 

12. Dodda Deva Rdjah 

13. Chikka Deva Rdjah 

14. Kanthirava Rdjah, Miik-arasu or " Dumb King " 

15. Dodda Kyishna Rdjah 

16. ChdmaRdjah,'deposedbytheDalavdyi(General)DevaRajahl731— 1734 
" - - - . 1734—1766 

. 1761—1782 
. 1782—1799 

17. Chikka, or Immadi Krishna Rdjah 

Usurpers. {^,;^txlZ^^'! 

18. Krishna Rdjah Wodevar, made Rdjah by the English . 1799—1868 

19. Chdma Rdjendra Wodeyar 1868- 

Nmvdhs of the Karn&tih. 
The Niiwdbs of the Kamdtik were properly only Lieutenant- 
Governors of the province under the Nizams of the Dakhan, until 
French and English influence made them, for a time, nominally in- 
dependent and then pensioners. . _. 

1. Ddiid Khdn Panl, made Niiwdb of Arkdt by Zil'lfakdr Khdn . 1698 

2. S'a'adatu'Udh, a Nawdit of Arab extraction (on his tomb is 

inscribed A.H. 1148) first took the title of Niiwdb of the 
Kamdtik 1708—1733 

3. Dost *Ali, nephew of S'a'adatu'Udh, killed by the Mardthas at 

the Ddmalcheri Pass 20th May, 1740 

4. Saffdar 'AH, son of Dost 'All, murdered . . . 2nd Oct. 1742 

5. Murtazd 'All, nephew of Dost 'All, and his son-in-law, expelled 

by the soldiers after a few days .... Oct. 1742 

6. Khwdjah'Abdu'Udh Khdn, appointed by the Nizdm, died, March 1744 

7. Anwaru 'd-dln Khdn, appointed by the Nizdm, see Hadlkatu 

'l-'Alam, p. 460, line 7, where the words are ba sUbahdari i 
Anjd sarfardz farmiid (according to Orme to act as Regent 
for Saiyid Muhammad, son of Saffdar 'Ali), and killed by 
the French, Chandd Sdhib and Mu^affar-jang, at Ambiir, 
30 m. S. of Ddmalcheri * 23rd July, 1744 

8. Saiyid Muhammad Khdn, son of Saffdar 'All, murdered by 

Pathdns ....*.... June, 1749 

9. Husain 'Ali (Hadlkatu '1 'Alam, p. 392, 1. 2) Khdn, known as 

Chandd §dhib, appointed by Muzaffar-jang in July, 1749, 
and beheaded by order of Manikji, General of the Tanjilrine 
army June, 1752 

10. Muhammad 'All, styled Wdld-jdh, second son of Anvaru 'd-dln 

(MiU, vol. vi., p. 56), dies aged 78 on . . . 13th Oct. 1795 

11. 'Umdatu '1-umard (Pillar of Nobles), son of Muhammad 'All 

(Mill, vol. vi., p. 332), died .... 15th July, 1801 

12. 'All Qusain, eldest son of 'Umdatu '1-umard, deposed by the 

E. I. Company (see Mill, vol. vi., p. 341) . . 19th July, 1801 

13. 'A'zlmu 'd-daulah, son of Amiru'l-umard, delivers over the 

groremment of the Kamdtik to the English by treaty, 
{MjII vol. vi., p. 343) 19th July, 1819 

//' ^^i^ Jdb, son of 'A'zimu 'd-daulah 

J^, GhuJ4m Muhammad Ghaus Khdn , , , . > ^ \'^^^ 


1. Veukajl, 

2. Ekojl, 1676. 
8. Sh4hjl, 1684. 
4. Sharfoji, 1711. 
6. Tukoji, 1729. 

Mard^ha Dynasty of TanjUr, 

6. Bdbii Sdhib, 1736. 10. Aman Singh, 1765 

7. Sijdi Bdi, widow of -1788, deposed by 
BdbA Sdhib, 1737. the British. 

8. Pratdp Singh, 1741. 11. Sharfojt 1798. 

9. Tuljafi, 1705. 12. Sivaji, 1833-1863. 

13. The present Rdiil. 

The extreme S. of India, that is, the pail; southward of lat. 12**, was 
anciently divided into 4 provinces, of which Kerala was that below 
the Ghdts, with which we are not at present concenied. Above the 
Ghdts ascending from Cape Kumdri (Comorin) there was first the 
kingdom of Pdndya, which was bounded to the N. by the r. 
Vdyur or Vaygar, according to Professor Dowson (Joum. R. As. Soc, 
vol. viii.,.p. 14), or according to Wilks (vol. i., p. 8) by a line 60 
the E., passing through Kan'ir, which is 50 m. W. of Tricliinu|>alli. 
The most ancient capital of this country was Kurhhi (said by Wilson 
to be the Kolkhi of the Periplus), of uncertain site. After Kurkhi, 
Madura became the chief city, having been founded somewhere about 
the end of the 4th century B.c. (see Nelson's " Gazetteer of Madura," 
Pt. III., p. 45). The city of Madura is without doubt of great 
antiquity, as it is spoken of by Ptolemy, and is mentioned in the 
Periplus, w^here Cape Kumdri and other localities are said to be 
under King Pandion, xmb top ^a-iX^a UavBiova, This cames us back / 
to 139 — 161 A.D., the time of Ptolemy's writings, and to 600 B.C., that 51 
of the Periplus. Mr. Nelson (Pt. lit., p. 46, " Gazetteer of Madura ") j^ 
thinks it safe to place the foundation of Madura at the beginning oi /u 
the 1st century B.C., but Wilson (Joum. R. As. Soc, vol. iii., p. 202) ft^ 
says, " We may conjecture the appearance of the Pdndya principality 
as an organised state, and the foundation of Madmu to have happened 
about 5 or 6 centuries anterior to the Christian era." The site of the 
capital has probably been shifted more than once — thus Old Madura 
is on the N. bank of the Vaygdi* or Vaigai, and about a m. from the 
present city, which is on the S. bank. A few m. to the E. are the 
ruins of another ancient city, Manaliir, which may once have been 
the capital. Boimding Pdndya to the N.W. was the kingdom of 
Chera, and to the N.E. that of Chola, which latter extended north- 
ward to the Penndr or S. Pinakini r., and had for its capital fii'st 
Uriur, perhaps the Orthoura of Ptolemy, then Kumbhakonam, and 
lastly Tanjiir. Chera touched the Chola country and the Pdndyan at 
Kdriir, and extended N. to the present frontier of Maisiir, and reached 
Trichengod on the E. Its capitals were, first Skandapura, of un- 
certain site, and then Dalavanpura, or Tdlakad, on the N. bank of 
the Kdv^ri, 30 m. E. of Seringapatam, more properly Shrlrangpatnam. 
According to the Madhura Sthala Purdnd, the 1st Chera king was 
contemporary with the 4th of the Pdndyan dynasty, Ugra P£idya, 
who is said to have married the daughter of Soma Shekhara, a Cholan 
king, who is said to have been of the Surya or Solar Race, so that the 
3 dynasties seem to have been founded Avit\vm aViOvxX. ^ ^i^TtoxTj ^1 ^-wi. 
another. The local Parana, or cliTomeVe ol "^sAxjcc^, ^m^^ "^^ 

following list of the 1st Pdndyan d\n^?ty ^e^\7C^^V^i\ \t<^\sv l^^ss.^s^'?^ 

{jrH^etteeTj i—= 


1. Kula Shekhara (Ornament of the race) Pdndya. 

2. Malaya Dhwaja (Flag of the Malaya country), 
8. Sundara (Beautiful). 

4. Ugra (Terrible), also called Hdradh^ri (Wearer of the Hdxa or breast- 
6. Vlra (Hero). 

6. Abhisheka (Anointed). 

7. Vikrama (Valiant). 

8. Rdjah Shekhara (Ornament of kings). 

9. Kulottanga (Greatest of the race). 

10. Anantaguna (Of countless virtues). 

11. Kulabhushana (Race-adorning). 

12. Rdjendra (Lord of Lords). 

13. Ildj6sha (Lord of Lords). 

14. Kdjagambhira (Majestic king). 

15. Pdndya Vanisha Pradlpa (Lamp of the Pdndya family). 
10. Punihuta (Much- worshipped). 

17. Pdndya Vanisha Patdka (Banner of the Pandya family or clan). 

18. Sundaresha Pdnda Shekhara (Whose head ornament is the feet of 


19. Varaguna (Of excellent virtues). 

20. Bdjah Rdjah (King of kings). 
'21. Suguna (Virtuous). 

22. Chitra Vrata (Of wondrous vows). 

23. Chitra Bhushana (Wondrously decked). 

24. Chitra Dhwaja (Of the wondrous banner). 

25. Chitra Varma (Of wondrous armour). 
2(5. Chitra Sena (Of wondrous hosts). 

27. Chitra Vikrama (Of wondrous courage). 

28. Rdjah MdrtAnda (Sun of kings). 

29. Rdjah Chiiddmani (Chief gem of kings). 

30. Rdjah Shdrdilla (Tiger among kings). 

31. Dwlja Rajah Kulottanga (Exalter of the Soma race). 

32. Ayudha Pravlna (Skilled in the use of arms). 

33. Rdjah Kunjara (Excellent king). 

34. Para Rdjah Bhyankara (Alarmer of foreign kings). 

35. Ugrasena (Whose army is terrible). 

36. Mahdsena (Whose army is great). 

37. Shatrunjaya (Conqueror of foes). 

38. Bhlmaratha (Of terrible chariot). 

39. Bhlmaparakkrama (Of terrible prowess). 

40. Pratdpa Mdrttdnda (Of sunlike majesty). 

41. Vikrama Kanchuka (Mailed with valour). 

42. Yuddha Koldhala (Din of war). 

43. Atula Vikrama (Of peerless valour). 

44. Atula Viirti (Of matchless fame). 

45. Klrtl Vibhushana (Decked with renown). 

46. Vanishd Shekhara (Ornament of the clan). 

47. Vanishd Childdmani, or Champaka (Chief gem of the race, or 


48. Prdtdpa Surasena (Heroic Sursen). 
49. Vanisha Dhwaja (Banner of the clan). 

^O. Bjpu Mardajia (Grinder of enemies). 
^J. Chola Vanishdntaka, (Destroyer ot the CYiola. xace^), 
^^f Cbora Vanishf^ntaka (Destroyer otthe CU^xax^eT), 


o3. Pindya Vanishesha (Lord of the Pandya race). 

54. Vanidia Shiromani (Chief gem of the race). 

55. P4ndy^8hwara (Lord of the PAndyas). 

56. Kula Dhwaja (Banner of the clan). 

57. Vanisha Vibhiishana (Ornament of the race). 

58. Soma Chi^dimani (Crested with the moon). 

59. Kula Chiid4manl (Diadem of the clan). 
fiO. Hajah Chiidamani (Chief gem of kings). 

61. Bhiipa ChMdmani (Chief gem of moiiarchs). 

62. Kul^sha (Lord of the clan). 

63. Arlmardana (Crusher of foes). 

64. Jaganndtha (Lord of the world). 

65. Vlrabahu (Hero-armed). 

66. Viirama (Valiant). 

67. Surabhi (Cow of plenty). 

68. Kunkuma (Red powdered). 

69. Karpura (Camphorated). 

70. Kirunya (Merciful). 
J J* I^urushottama (Best of men). 
Jj* ShatrushAsama (Punisher of foes). 
'3. Kubja (Hunchback). 

The 73rd king was a hunchback, as the name implies, but he was 
^^.^e straight and beautiful by Gnyanasambandha Miirti, a form of 
^wva, and was then called Sundara (beautiful), but he is usually 
%led in Tamil, Kun or Kiina Pdndya=" The Hunchback Pandya.^' 
, The 64 miracles of Shiva told in the local Purdna do not deserve to 
^ recounted. Suffice it to say that in the 3rd story, Madura, prop. 
|jladluira,is said to have had its name from the ambrosial drops (Madhu, 
sweet "), which Shiva shook from his hair over the buildmgs. The 
^wi story relates to the marriage of Shiva, of which there is a carving in 
^6 temple, and to his being crowned King of Madhura as Sundara 
^dndya. The 6th relates how Shiva, who used to dance at Chedam- 
Jara, vouchsafed to exhibit in the Silver Hall at Madhura, keeping 
Jis left leg straight up above hi s head. The 1 2th relates the marriage of 
JJgra Pandya with the daughter of the Chola king. Soma Shekliara. 
The 22nd recounts how the Chola king of Kanchi (Conjeveram) 
endeavoured to introduce the Shapana heresy into Madhura, and 
foiled. The 24th relates how the pious King Vikrama, compassiona- 
ting Shiva for dancing so long on his right leg, got him to change to 
his left. The 26th explains how a Brahman of Avantipura was for- 
given for killing his father, and committing incest with his mother, 
hy adoring the Linga, and performing certain penances. Tlie 45th 
story relates the transformation of 12 brothers into pigs for mocking 
a samtly man, and how Rajah Rajah Pdndya slew the parents of the 
hrood, and how Shiva changed himself into a sow, and suckled them, 
and then restored them to human form with pigs* faces. This story \ 
is carved over one gate of the Great Pagoda. This may suffice as a 
specimen of the contents of the book, which is only interesting as 
affording a key to many of the paintings and carvings in the Temple* 

Kubja, the hunchbacked Pindya, afterwards csAie.^ ^\3LW<\axa..^ 

oongaered the 34th Chola king, biuiit Uriur and Taiv^\\T,3Ctv^\xv«m^^ 

fhe daughter of Karikah Chola, ^yho persecuted the ce\e\)Tvx\-^^lSSxA^ 


reformer Riimaniija Acliarya. As this teacher flourished in the 12th 
century (see Census of 1871, p. 122), it is difficult to reconcile with 
that fact the chronology of the 1st dynasty of P^ndyas, which is thus 
arrived at. The 2nd dynasty of 40 kings ended with Parakrama in 
1324 A.D., and reigned 628 yeai-s. Consequently the last king of the 
1st dynasty, Kuhja or Sundara, must have closed his rei^ in 699 A.D., 
which is 400 years before the appearance of Ram^nuja. It would 
occupy too much space to go into tliis question here, and it must 
suffice to give the names of the 2nd dynasty, which are as follows : — 

1. Soma Sundara Pdndya (Beautiful as the moon), A.D. 699. 

2. Karpiira Sundara Pdndya (Beautiful as camphor). 

3. Kumdra Shekhara Pdndya (Crested with Subrahmanya). 

4. Kumdra Sundara Pdndya (Beautiful as Subrahmanya). 
6. Sundara Rdjah Pdndya (Fair king). 

6. Shanmukha Edjah Pdndya (The six-faced king ; epithet of Shiva). 

7. Meru Sundara Pdndya (Beautiful as Meru). 

8. Indra Varma Pdndya (Armoured like Indra). 

9. Chandra Kula Dlpa Pdndya (Lamp of the lunar race). 

10. Mina Eetana Pdndya (Pdndya of the fish banner). 

11. Mina Dhwaja Pdndya (Same as preceding). 

12. Makara Dhwaja Pdndya (Pdndya of the alligator flag). 

13. Mdrtdnda Pdndya (Pdndya like the sun). 

14. Kuralagdnanda Pdndya (Pdndya of the abode of water lilies). 

15. Eundala Pdndya (Earring-wearing Pdndya). 

10. Shatru Bhlkara Pdndya (Pdndya, terrifier of foes). 

17. Shatru Samhdra Pdndya (Pdndya, destroyer of foes). 

18. Vira Varma Pdndya (Pdndya, of the hero's armour). 

19. Vlra Bahu Pdndya (Pdndya, of the heroic arm). 

20. Makuta Varddhana Pdndya (Enlarger of the diadem). 

21. Vajra Simha Pdndya (Lion resembling the thunderbolt). 

22. Varuna Kulottanga Pdndya (Exalter of the Varuna clan). 

23. Adi-Vira-Rdma Pdndya (First of heroes, Edma Pdndya). 

24. Kula Vardhana Pdndya (Exalter of the clan). 

25. Soma Shekhara Pdndya (Moon-crested Pdndya). 

20. Soma Sundara Pdndya (Pdndya, lovely as the moon). 

27. Rajah Rajah Pdndya (Pdndya, king of kings). 

28. Rdjah Kunjara Pdndya (Pdndya, elephant amongst kings). 

29. Rdjah Shekhara Pdndya (Royal-crested Pdndya). 

30. Rdjah Varma Pdndya (Royally armoured Pdndya). 

31. Rdma Varuna Pdndya (Pdndya armoured like Rama). 

32. Varada Rdjah Pdndya (Boon-giving king). 

33. Kumdra Slmha Pdndya (Pdndya the young lion). 

34. Vlra Sena Pdndya (Pdndya with the heroic army). 

35. Prdtdpa Rdjah Pdndya (Pdndya the majestic king). 
86. Viraguna Pdndya (Possessed of heroic virtues). 

37. Kumdra Chandra Pdndya (Pdndya like the young moon). 
88. Varatimga Pdndya (Pdndya nobly gifted). 

39. Chandra Shekhara Pdndya (Moon-crested Pdndya). 

40. Soma Shekhara Pdndya (Moon-crested Pdndya). 
42. Pardkrama Pdndya (Puissant Pdndya). 

il&; Nelson (Gaz., Pt III., p. 76) leans to Wi^ o^Sxacsw tW. the 
Fandyan kin<rdoia >va3 subjected by t\\e lslu\a.iaxas\.vi^\i^ «XiQ>;>J^ >(k'^ 


year lioo A.D., but that the conquest was only transient, for he thinks 
that the 10th King Mina KetiUia was con([uered hy tlie Kinj^ of 
Ceylon, and that he went to Banaras, and died there 1173 a.d., and 
that the 24th King Kula Vawlhana reigned iii 1249, when the 
Muhanunadans came and destroyed the temples, leaving, perhaps, 
only the adytum. In 1324 a.d. these invaclers came again under 
Malik Naib.Kafiir, expelled the King Pardkrama, and left nothing of 
the- temples but the shrines of Sundareshwar and Minakshr. The 
MusUnis were expelled by a Maisiirean general, Kampana Udaiyiir, 
who, and his successors of the sjime stock, ruled tUl 1451, as follows : 

1- Kampana Udaiydr A.D. 1372 

2. Kmbaaa Udaiydr (his son). 

3- Parkasa Udaiydr (brother-in-law of Embana). 

^' Lekkina Ndyakkan and Mathanan Ndyakkan, lx)th of 

Madura 1404 to H51 

Th^n succeeded 4 persons of the old Pdndya stock : 

1- Sundara Tol Mahd Vilivdndthi Rdydr. 
2* Kdleiydr Somandr. 

3. Anjdtha Perumal. 

4. Muttarosa Tlrumalei Mahd Vilindndthi Rdvdr. 

These were followed by — 

Narasa Ndgakka A.D. 1500 

Tenna 1515 

Narasa Pillei 1515 to 1519 


1- Kara Kura Timmappa Ndyakka 1519 to 1524 

2. Katteyama Kdmeiya 1624 to 1526 

3. Chinnappa 1626 to 1630 

4. Tyakarei Veygappa 1530 to 1535 

5. Vishwandtha Ndyakkan Ayyar 1536 to 1544 

6. Verathappa Ndyakkan . .... 1544 to 1646 

7. Dumbicchi Ndyakkan 1645 

8. Vittala Rdjah, perhaps the same as Rdma Rdjah of 

Bijdnagar, whose name occurs in an inscription round 

the garbJui grihu of the Perumal Pagoda at Madura . 1546 

Anarchy from 1557 to 1559. 

The Ndyalihan- Dynasty, 

1. Vishwandtha builds the Fort of Madura, with 72 bastions. 

and appoints one chief, or Pdlaiyakdren to be custos of 

each, and descendants of these chiefs still remain . . a.d. 1557 

2. Knmdra Kpshnappa, or Periya Kri.shnama, conquers 

Kandi in Ceylon ........ Dec. 1563 

3. Periya Virappa and Vishwandth II \^'\*?» 

4. Lingaja and Visrappa, or Yifihwandth III. . . . \^^v> 
4; Jfattu Kfijbnappa, in whose reiga Robert de lis o\5\\\\i\x% 

preached at Madura, Dec, 1606 \^% 



Sect. I. 

6. Muttu Virappa crowned A.D. 1609 

7. Mahd Rdjah Manya Rdjah Shrl Tiriimala Sevari Ndyani 

Ayyalu Gdru. Allies himself with Golkonda, is driven 
from Chenjl, becomes a dependent of Bljdpiir, rebuilds 
and beautifies the pagodas at Madura. Crowned . Jan. 1623 

8. Muttu Alakddri, bastard son of Tirumal ; death of Robert 

de Nobilibus 1659 

9. Choka Natha or Chokappa. 

10. Ranga Krishna Muttu Virappa 1682 

11. The Queen Manganmal regent 1082 to 1705 

12. Vijaya Ranga Choka Ndtha 1705 

13. The Queen Mindkshi 1731 

14. Chandd Sdhib 1736 

The following, is a list of Cliera Kings from the Vamsavali (see 
Wilson's M*Kenzie Catalogue, vol. ii., p. 128). It follows a list of 30 
Rdjahs who are said to have ruled in the fabulous ages : 

1. Anstaya Panttora Cheran. 

2. Yananthe Panttora Cheran. 

3. Vamsa Paripanlika Panttora 


4. Mangalakdma Panttora Cheran. 

5. Sivadharma Mottark. 

6. Sllana. 

7. Sivapava. 

8. Sindhu Lanranega. 

9. Yalavajana Samrastaka. 
10. Tlrka Ydttdra. 

11. Tirtha Chatta Cheran. 

12. Achyuta Pratdpa. 

13. Akondita Krlti Pratdpa. 

14. Vira Rdjendra. 

15. Bhiimeshwara. 

16. Nirumala Sakdra. 

17. Panjdstara. 

18. Jlva Patdka. 

19. Tirumanja. 

20. Kaildsatta Adanga. 

In the same authority 48 Cholas are said to have ruled in tlie 
fabulous ages, and the following 18 afterwards : — 

1. Pundarik Cholan. 

2. Nllama Chamala vama. 

3. Ddnavardri. 

4. Bhiiparam Titta. 

5. Puvel Vanda. 

6. Panna Sabhiya Kara. 

7. Paura Kuramma. 

8. Manumili Yetta. 

9. Chantra Kulddi. 

10. Sansdra Chiiddmani Cholan. 

11. Ndgalogam Konda. 

12. Adakeshwara. 

13. Kankdpdtarumen. 

14. Kankudamaiii. 

15. Wutturokd. 

16. Satturu Staya. 

17. Krlmlkatta. 

18. Kdnpraya. 

Complete lists of these kings, with the proper dates, are still a 
desideratum, and can be prepai-ed only when many more inscriptions 
have been deciphered and translated. 

The following list of Kadamba Kings, who reigned over N. and S. 

Kanara andW. Maisiir, is given by Mr. Lewis Rice in his "Gazetteer 

of Mnisur " (vol. i., p. 195). Their cajntal was Banavasl, on the 

2'jver Varadiif on the W, boundary of the Sordb district in lat. 14° 40', 

Jon<r, 75° 10'^ about 25 m. N,W. of tlie celtibiaUOi G^x^e^^vy.'^^^.* It 

Js mentioned by Ptohmy, 


1* Xrinetra Eadamba, 150 A.D. 

2. Madhukeshvara. 

3. Mallindlha. 

4. Chandra Yarmma. 
fi* Ghanda Yarmma. 

6. Maji!d^ Yarmma. 

7. Kri^^a Yarmma, 400 A.D. 
S* K^ga Yarmma. 

?* Vishnu Yarmma» 
10. Mriga Yannma, 
n. Satya Yarmma. 

12. Vijaya Yarmma^ 

13. Jaya Yarmma. 

14. Niga Yarmma. 

15. S4nta Yarmma, 



10. Klrtti Yarmma. 

17. Aditya Yarmma. 

18. Bhattaya Yannma» 

10. Jaya Yarmma. [A.D, 

20. Mayiira Yarmma, 1034—1044 

Tailapa, 1064 A.D. 

Tailapa II., 1077—1108. 

Nami» BMpa Permadu 

Sdnti Yarmma. 

Kirtti Y., 1068 A.D. ? 

Purandhara Raya, 1121 A«P. ? 

Taila, 1157. 


Sovi or Somesbwara. 

Ylra Malli, 1241—1251. 

Of uncei-tain date are Kdkustlia Vamima, Santi V., Mfigesha, 
Bfivi Yarmma, Bhdnu Yamima, Shiva-ratha and Hari Yarmma. 

According to Wilson, the last of 74 kings was Shankara Deva — 
1336 A.D, In tliat year the kingdom of Bijdnagar was founded, and 
the Kadamba grants of land ceased. The capital of the Kadambas 
^&8 transferred from Banavasi to Goa, Their insignia was the 
monkey flag, and lion signet. 

Kings of the Kongudesha, supposed to be Cheras, ruling over the 
extreme S. of Malabfi, with Waindd, the Nllgiris, S. Koimbatiir and 
pMl; of Tinnevelli. This region being the Carura Regia Cerebothri of 
Ptolemy. Their capital was Skandapurd, in about lat. 11^ 40*, long, 
77", Their seal had the device of an elephant. For the list see 
Gaz. of Lewis Rice, 198. 

1. Vlra Baya ChakravaTtti, A.D, 

2. Govinda Raya. 
. 3> Krishna Raya. 

4. Kali Yallabha Raya 

6. GoTinda Raya . . . ... . . , 83 

6. Chaturbhuja Kanara Deva Chakravartti. 

7. Shri Yikrama Deva Chakravartti 178—188 

5. Kongani Yarmma Dharmma Mah^ldhiraja . . . . 188 — ^239 
9' M&dhava Mahidhirdja « 239 

10. Hari Yarmma 247—288 

11. Vishnu Gopa 

12. MAdhava 425 

13. Kongani . . 425—478 

H. Avmita Durvinita or Kongani Yriddlia 478—513. 

15. Mushkara Raya ,.'...,,., 

16. Shri Yikrama 539 

17. Bhu Yikrama Raya ....... 

18. Vilanda, RAjah Shrf YallabhAkya 

19. Kava K^ma, R4jah Gk>vinda Raya ..... 

20. Sivaga Kongani Mahdrdjah • 668 

21. Bhlma Kopa . , , , . . 

5. B^ah Keshari , 

^' ^^'^'^on^am Mabddbir^ja 'IlO-ail 

U Bdjab MAUg Deva Bartk . , 



25. Ganda Deva Mahdrdya . . . . . ; ; 

26. Satya Vdkya Kongani Yarmma Dhanntna Mahddhirdja . 857 

27. Gunalottam Deva Raya , . , . . . . 

28. Malla Deva Raya ; . 878—894 

Qo/ngamsu Kongull Varnuna JUharnwia MaJidrdjadhiraja Chdlukyas, 

The boar was the emblem on their signet, &nd their insignia 
included the peacock fan, the ankusha or elephaht goad, a golden 
sceptre, etc. 

1. Jaya Simha 

2. Buddha Yarmma, Rdjah Simha or Rdna Rdjah . . . 

3. Yijaya Rdjah or Yijydditya . . . . . . 472 

4. Pulakesi 489 

5. Klrtti Yarmma 

6. Mangalisa 566—578 

At the beginning of the 7th century a.d., the Chdlukyas separated 
into two branches, the W. remaining at Kalydna as their capital, 
and E. making Vengi, taken from the Balldras, their chief city. 

Western Ch&luhyas, 

7. Satydsraya Pulakesi 585 

, 8. Amara 

9. Aditya Yarmma 

10. Yikramaditya 592 

11. Yinaydditya, Satydsraya or Yuddha Malla ... 680—695 

12. Yijaydditya 695— 7?3 

13. Yikramdditya 733 

14. Eirtti Yarmma 

15. Kirtti Yarmma II 799 

16. Tailapa 

17. Bhlma Rdjah . . 

18. Aj[ya Klrtti Yarmma • . . 

19. Yijaydditya ...... ... 

Cliola Kings reigning in the ^. ofMaisur, 

1. Aditya Yarma Rdjendra Chola . . . . . . 867—927 

2. Ylra Chola, Ndrdyana Raya . . , . . , . 927—977 

3. Dasoditya Raya ....,.;. 

4. Parandaka Raya Hari Mdli 

5. pivya Raya or Deva Rdjah Chola ...".. 

6. Harivari Deva or Tribhuvana Ylra Deva Chola . . • 986—1023 

Hoy mid BaUdlas, with tJie tiger as their crest, 

1, Sftia Hoysala ....;.... 984—1043 

^, tiaayMitya . . . .' .' / ; . . 1043—1073 

, A Yereyanga, PereyaDgAf Ylra Qanga . , ; , • 1073—1114 

/. B/fpi J^ra, Fishnu Varddhana, TribhuwauaU«\\tti * . WW— \\V5 

^' ^V«r« NaraeimbA, Tiro Narasimhaf • ; ^ % \\VV«\\^ 



6. Ylia BaU'dla 1188—1233 

7. Vira Narasimha 1233—1249 

8. Soma Vira Someshvora 1249— 12<»8 

9. Vira Narasimha 1 208— 1308 

Yddavas, witJi tlie fierier of a gohlen gan'dii, 

.1; Ballam BhiUama 1188—1193 

2. Jaytnga, Jajtugi, Jaitpala 1 193 — 1210 

3. Simhana or Singhana •. ; 1210—1248 

4. Eandaia, Kanhara, Krishna 1248—1260 

6. Mahadeva 1260—1271 

6. RAmachandra, Shri Rdma 1271—1310 

7, Shankara 1310—1312 


In 1818 the silver rupee (properly Rtipiyali) wa.s made the standard 
coin, it being fixed to contain 165 ^^ins of pure silver and 15 of alloy. 
Before that date accounts ih Modi-as Were' kept in star pagodas (calleiL 
in S. India Mn), which = 42 fanams » 3360 cash = 3^ of the 
common rupees. Or 20 kdsu (corruptly cash, a siuall copper coin) or 
20 cowries, a small shell, the Cypraa rtwnetn = 1 gundha, 4 gundhas 
= 1 panama (corruptly fanarn), 42 panamas = 1 h^n or vardhc^ 
The Mn was 19^ carats fine, and intrinsically worth *ts, 5^d, 

Coins now in Use. 

8 Pie « 1 Paisd =^ J of a farthing. 
4 False = 1 6,n& = 1 ^d. 

16 dne = 1 Kupee =2«. before the depreciation of silver, 

now equal about 1*. 7^^. 
15 Bupccs B 1 gold muhr of Company's coinage. 

The gold wii^r contains 165 grains of pure gold and 15 of alloy, or 
}} of pure metal and ^ of alloy. Tlie vaisd, a copper coin, weighs 
100 grains Troy. The uiameters of the silver coins are fixed at 1^ in. 
for the rupee, ^ of an in. for the J rupee, j of an in. for the 4 dnd 
piece or J rupee. 

Paper-money in 1 -rupee, 5-rupee, lO-rupee, up to ICXXI-rupee notes 
ue current, but Bombay notes are not accepted without a slight 
discount in Bengal, and vice versd. The Indians are expert. at 
manufacturing base money, and go so far as to extract all the mterior 
of a rupee, filling up the vacuity with lead. It is necessary, there- 
fore, to be very careful in changing money or notes. Specmiens of 
hue coin have been collected at the Mints. Accoimts were formerly 
kept in Sikka rupees (Sikka simply means " coin*'^, "wYos^ '««» 
more YaHnahle than common rupees. 100,000 rs. are C8i\l<^ a^ IAtkel 
"^atrapdy lac), and 10,000,000 m are called a fcror oi toot CitQm«»* 
mf9p'earruptly crare), ' 



Madras Commercial Weights, 

1 star pagoda = 52.4 grains. 

10 gold star pagodas = 1 pdlam (corruptly j[;<?//m7«) = IJ oz. Troy. 

8 pdlam = 1 s6r = 10 oz, 

5 s6r =s 1 vis » 3 lbs. 2 oz. 

8 vis =r 1 man = 25 lbs. 
20 man = 1 khandi = 500 lbs. 

Malahar Weights, 

162i grains = 1 pAlam. 

24 pdlam = 1 s^r* 

5 ser = 1 vis. 

8 vis «s 1 tolam. 

Madras Measures of Capacity. 

I>ry Measnrc» Depth and diameter inside in 

inches and tenths. 
1 olak (corruptly ollock) • , . , . 2.5154 

8 olak = 1 measure 5.0308 

8 measures = 1 markdl in Tamil, tiimd in Telugu 10.0616 
5 markdl « 1 phard (corruptly ^«rm/t) , , 17.2050 
400 phard = garishah (corruptly garoe) = 17^ Winchester quarters. 
The garishahs of rice or com = 320 lbs. 
The garishah of salt = 9,256 lbs. av., or 4 tons, 2 cwt. 72 lbs. 

I/iqnid Measure. Depth and Diameter. 

8 olaks = 1 padi . . . . . . 5.0308 

8 padi ^ 1 markdl 10.0616 

20 m'arkdls = 1 khandi . . . . . 17.2050 » 64 gallons. 

Land Measure, 

60 ft. long and 40 ft, broad = 1 ground or mdni = 2,400 sq. ft. 

24 grounds = 1 kAni = 57,600 sq. ft. 
The KAni is to the English acre as 1 to 1.3223, - 

Cloth Measure, 

1!)iQ'hyM for cloth measure is 18 in., but the English yaid is 
generally used. 


" The most plausible theory in regard to caste, is that the three 

' twice-born ' castes (in the table given below) are the representatives 

of the Aryans of the Rig Veda, while the Shudras, who form the 

mass of the people, represent the aborigines, or Turanian settlers of 

the pre-Aryan era" (Madras Census, p. 119). Below them are the 

outcastes, who partij represent tlie abonginesjportly have arisen from 

a mixture of tne castes. Thus loweet oi 8SL\&)i)cACS^«CL^i^^ho 

2> ^e ojg&pnng of a Shndza man and Br^lbrnttul 'y^oTOAXi^ \o ^"W:^ 



food may be given in potsherds, but not by the hand of the giver," 
who must dress in the clothing of the dead, and whose sole wealth 
must be dogs and asses. As caste arose from the aversion of the 
Aryans to mix with the aborigines, so "out-ca*»te" arose from the 
desire of the Brdhmans, Kshatriyas, and Traders to keep their 
women to themselves. Caste in Sky. is varruiy " colour," and the 
J3r,ihmans are said to be white, the Kshatriyas red, the A'^aisyas 
yellow or brown, and the Shudnis black. 

1. Brdhmans j 

2. Kshatriyas > Twice-born or Aryans. 

3. Vaisyas, Vnnikas, or Traders ) 

4. Shudras. 

Suh'Dic'mons of Sliudras, 

1. Agriculturists or cultivators of an inferior kind. 

2. Shepherds. 

3. Artisans. 

4. Writers and accountants. 
6, Weavers. 

6. Servile cultivators. 

7. Potters. 

8. Mixed castes employed in temple worsliip. 

9. Fishermen and hunters. 

10. Tddi drawers, who extract the juice of palms. 

11. Barbers. 

12. Washermen. 

13. Representatives of aborigines not regarded as out-castcs. 

In S. India there is a further division of Hindd castes into Va- 
im^dy "right-hand,'' and Idangeiy "left-hand." The Vadangei claim 
to ride on horseback in processions, with banners bearing certain 
tlevices, to sustain their marriage-booths with 12 pillars ; while the 
Idan<,'ei may have only 11 pillars. The origin of this curious caste 
f (limon is lost in obscurity. 

The worshippers of Vishnu are divided into Tengalas or Southerners, 
and Vadagalas or Northerners. The Tengalas follow the teaching of 
Mahavdla Maniimi or Rilmyaja Matri, and the Vadagalas that of 
Vedantdchdri or Vedanta Da^ika, both of whom were pupils of 
Ramdnujdcharj'a. These sects eat together and intermarry', but 
JtMurel fiercely. The Vadagalas draw the religious marks on the i 
forehead, which in their case represent a trident, from the hair to 
the nose between the eyes ; and the Tengalas prolong the middle 
line to the middle of the nose. 

S. India gave birth to the two greatest Hindd reformers, to 
Shankar Acharya, a Shivite teacher, who was born at Kranganiir in 
Malabdr, or, according to some, at Chedambram in S. Arkdt. He 
lived in the 9th cent., and died in the Himalayas, aged 32. The 
other reformer was Ramdnuja, bom at Stripermatiir near Madras^ 
in the 11th cent He wrested the great temple of Tm\^a\i^avw ^\vi. 
mniuppers of Shiva, and established 700 niatluiy ox Te\i^av^\\ow»fe^ 
A (be mb cent arose also in S.W. India, Basava, the ioww^^^ ^l>^^^ 


sect of tlie Lingdyats, wlio worsliip Shiva in the shape of the lingam, 
which must always be carried about by its disciples, and is, there- 
fore, called Jangam, or " moveable." Basava became rrime Minister 
of the State of which Kalydnpur was the capital ; and Dr. Bumell is 
of opinion that there was a Cliristian bishop there in the 6th cent. 
Chaitanya, a native of Bengal, who died in 1527, introduced the 
worship of Krishna into S. India, and his disciples there are called 
Satani or Sanatanas. The followers of the Tantras are also to be found 
in S. India, and are diWded into Dakshinachdrls, or right-hand 
worshippers, and Vdmdehtlris, or left-hand worshippei-s. The former 
practise magical rites, and the latter indulge in orgies of the worst 
description. They seem to be also called Kanchuliyas, Snake- worsliip 
is practised at Vaisarpadi, near Madras. Demon-worship is common 
on the W. coast, particularly among the Shdndrs of Tinnevelli. The 
Vaisyas or Chettis (from Seth) are distributed as follows : — 

1 . KonuitU, who worship the goddess Edmdkshi, and are divided into 

100 gotrams or clans. 

2. VdniyarSf oil-pressers and dealers, called in Urdu, Telis, in Eanarese, 

Ganna, in Telugese, Gdndla Vdndl^, 

3^ Velldlai's, or cultivators of a superior rank, like English yeomen. 
They call themselves *• Pillai," '• sons of the gods,*' used also by 

4. KavarCf also cultivators, a Telugu tribe. A subdivision of this 
caste is the Tottiyars, whose wives cohabit with their near rela- 
tives and their gurus. 

6. The Velamift, ia the Telugu country, are the same as the Velldlars in 
the Tamil. 

The number of the Velldlar or agricultural castes is 7,826,127. 

C. Idaiyars, shepherd and pastoral castes, number 1,730,081 individuals. 
8 i^rincipal subdivisions— 

1. Uridaiyar. 

2. MAttidaiyar* 
8. Attidaiyar. 
4. Tambidaiyar. 

5. Earithdtidaiyar. 
G. Tolia. 

7. EAtu. ^* 

8. Vadugii. i^ 

and each subdivision has 18 inferior subdivisions. Tlie members of 
this caste are generally addressed as Pillei. 

7. Artisans or Kamm^lan^ called in Telugese, Pdnchdla, " the five," viz., 

goldsmiths, blacksmiths, coppersmiths, braziers, carpenters, stone- 
cutters. These wear the sacred thread and call themselves Vishva 
Brdhmans ; they number 785,085 individuals. They arc almost all 
Shivitcs, and bury their dead. 

8. Writers and accountants, Kanahltansi in Tamil, Kai^imms in Telugu, 

number only 107,652 persons, llie village accountants in Eanara 
arc called Shamhoy*^ nnd in MalayAlam, Adigdri. 'Xhey are 
usually addressed as Pillei. 

9. Weavers, Xaikalar, number 1,071,781. The sub-divisions are — 

Serin^ar, JSndrar, Saliyar, Seduiiy Silupaw. Itl T^Vvv^ \\\<e.y are 
Sa^y, Jeiidrar, Padmay Salay, T/io/cata, I)eaiu{)alu. \\v'^Vot{>.V>ks.>Obl^^ 

Sect I, 



are called Jawai, The ^reat bulk worship village deities and demons, 
and are professed Shivites. They bury, and the Vaishnavites bum 
their dead. 

10. Agricultural labourers, VaAAiartf^ These include the Jfaratan and 

Kallars (called Collcries by Orme). They were turbulent and 
thievish, but hare now settled down to pcaccnblc occupations. 
Those of Madura are polyandrists, and a woman is the wife of 10, 
8, 6, or 2 husbands. 

The Oddars are a Teluga tribe, and are tank-diggers, well-sinkers, 
and road-makers, building their huts in bee-hive shape. They are 
almost all Vaishnavites, and wear the mark of the tndent on fore- 
kead, arms and breast. They eat animal food, especially pork and 
field-rats, and drink spirits. A man marries as many wives as he 
can ffet They pray to Vishnu, but worship a destroying spirit 
called Yellamma. 

The Vannias oTPcdlies are the great agricultural labourers of the S. 
Before British rule they were slaves to the Vellalar and Brdhman 
cultivators, but may now cultivate on their own account The word 
Niik is added to their names. They nimiber 3,944,463' persons. 
They are practically demon- worshippers. 

11. Potters, Knsatem; Pottery exhumed from tombs of Skythians, in 

India, is better than that of the present day. They number 250,343 
persons. They are mostly Shivites. 

12. FiMiermen and hunters, Sembaduven, number 971,837. They are 

most numerous in BalUri and Kamul. In Eanarese they are 
called Mnkhata, in Telugn, Bei^ta. The fishermen are divided 
into Blioi^ JBesta, Chdpalenlam-, PatnAtar^ Magialn, Parava, and 
Valaiydn, They marry many wives, eat flesh and fish, and bury 
their dead. The Para rat on the Madura and Tinnevelli coasts 
are chiefiy Roman Catholics, converted by the Portuguese. 

13. Palm cultivators, Shdn^r, number 1,664>862. 

l|« Barbers, Amhalton in Tamil, Mangalu in Telugu, number 340,450. 
15. Washermen, Vannan, number 524,660, and arc mostly Shivites. 

Other Hindu caistes of a low order are : — 

2.' ^^^^^'^^^^ } mendicants. 

3. Badagarif a cultivating clan 

in the Nilgiris. 

4. Chd'ttla, 

5. IrttJarg^ a hill tribe of the 


6. Jettii(, boxers and wrestlers. 

7. KorAtar9y wandering thieves. 

8. KdtdrSy artizans in the ^Jllgiris. 
•. Kumariy jungle cultivator^, 

JO, ZttM^dt't gipsies carrying salt 
and gmin» 

11. MnJay&lU, hill-men . 

12. Mvtursy tribesof the W. jungles. 

13. Paldavar^ jugglers, 

14. Pdmhattar^ snake-charmers. 

15. Villi t a jungle tribe. 

16. Yenddi, a wild tribe on the W. 


17. Bommara, ju^lers. 

18. BrinjdHSf grain-carriers* 

19. Chenata^ hunters. 

20. l>r«i>a?a,huivtwa* 



Sect. I. 


Are divided into : 

1. Lahhmjff, 

2. Mdpilalis* 

3. Arabs, 

4. Shaikhs, 

5. Saiyids, 

6. JPaihdns, 

7. Mughnh. 

8. Other Mubammadans. 

The Lahhays are the oflfspring of Arabs and Persians and the 
women of the country. They number 312,085, and are found mostly 
in Madura, Tinnevelli, Trichinapalli and Tanji\r, and ai*e fishermen, 
boatmen, sailors and traders. 83.8 per cent, are Sunnis. 

The Mdpilalis number ^ a million in Malabar alone. Elsewhere 
they are few. They are originally of Arab extraction. In all there 
are 612,789 of this sect ; 95 per cent, are Sunnis. They speak 
Malayalam, but write it in the Arabic character. The Arabs number 
2,121, the Shaikhs 511,112, the Saivids 89,219, the Pathans 70,943, 
the Mughuls 12,407. 

Route 1. — To Visit tlw principal Pagodas, 


Railway or 





Madras . . 
Yirod . . . 

Yirod . . « Madras Ry. « 

Tricldndpalli . . South I. Ry. . 

Here see Shri Rangam and Jam- 

bukeshwar P., lor which arc 

required . « . . . 


• • 

h. m. 
12 40 
16 23 


Rs. an. 


3 12 

Trichiiulpalli . 

TaiyAr . . . South I. Ry. . 
Here visit the Great Pagoda and 


• • 

1 45 
. 24 

1 4 

Tai\ji\r • . . 

Kumbhakonam . South I. Ry. . 
Here stop 24 hours to see the 


• 24 


Kumbhakonam . 

Anaikarai Chat* 

Anaikarai Chat* South I. Ry. . 

Cliedambaram . . Cart 

Here stop 24 hours to see i>agoda 


• • 


. 24 

1 6 


Chedambaram . . 

Anaikarai Cliat- 

TUi^Jtir . 
Trichinapalli . . 

Anaikarai Chat< Cart . . . 

TaHjfir : ... South I. Ry. . . 

TrichinApalli . . South I. Ry. . 

Madura. . . South I. Ry. . 

Stop 24 hours to sec temple here 




5 8 

1 45 

6 55 
. 24 


2 10 

1 6 
4 0- 

Madura . 

Maniachi . . . 
Madura . . 

Maniachi , . . Soutli I. Ry. . 
Tutikorin . . Soutlr I. Ryi . 
Hameshwarara, or Boat 
llauinM and RA- Cart . . . 

Stop hero ad liours to see pagoda. 


Return to Madras . • . 

Grand Tottvl . 




61 + 12 

5 67 

1 18 



4 6 






D. 9 4 51 

66 -7 
41 6 



VTi \i 

Sect. L 



KouTB 2.— To Tislt tlw Ckvesand RocJt-nit Jcmjfl^s and Iluined Cajf'ttals 

of the Da khan. 

Railway or 
From To othkr Miles. 

Ifadras . . Mahamalaipuram . Bout ... 20 

Stop 24 hours to see en ves and caniugs 
Mahamalaipnraiu Madras . . . Boat ... 2() 
Madras . . . Btf{ehur . . . Madras By. . . :{50 

Stop at BdichAr 24 hours to s«« ruins 

and fort 

RaichAr « . Kalbargah . . Madras By. and 89 

G.I. P. By. 
Stop at Kalhargah 24 hours to see 
fort nnd shrine . . . . . 

Kalborgah . . Ilaiilanlb^ . . G.I. P. and Ni- 1J8 

zam's State By. 
Stop 3 days to see city and tuuilM of 


. Bidar . . . Palki . 

Time. ExrcysE. 
h. ni. Rs. an. 


Bi<1ar . 
Jalnah . 


Stop at Bidar 2 days to see ruins 
Jalnah . . Palki . . . 

Aurangibdd , . 
Rozah ... — — 

Stop at Bozah 3 days to see caves 


Ajauta . . . Carriage called 

Stop at Ajanta 3 days to see caves 








4 57 

8 14 





11 20 

3 8 




080 D. 22 13 39 



8 7 







251 7 

Should the traveller be aLle to spare another week to see the 
ruined city of Vijayapur, which covers nine 8<|. m., he will stoj) at 
Gundakal, the 7th station from Riiichur. 

Bailway or 



To other 



h. m. 

Bs. an. 

Gandakal . 

. Balldri . . . Madras By. 


1 30 


Ball^ri . 

. Hampi . . . Shigram . . 
Stay 3 days to 
see the ruins . . . . . 



. 72 


i Balhiri . . . Shigram . 


107 D. 

G G 

4 1 30 


Add fo 

r Guide, 10 rs., T. B. 3 rs., Food, ts. 


• • 




Bs. 41 


In the whole Madras Presidency there are 11,610,000 persons who 
speak Telugu ; Tamil, 14,715,000 ; Kanarese, 1,699,000 ; Malayd- 
lana, 2^24,000 ; Tulu, 29,400 ; Uriya and hill langiUH^es, 640,000 = 
31,017,400, but the Census Report for 1871 makes the population 

Most of the languages of S. India belong to what has l>een termed 
the Dravidian family ; affinities have been .sought out of India," but 
not with much success. Ethnologically, the primitive D\:t\.\\v!i\^w^ 
seem nearest to the aborigines of Australia. In luiVvBi, \\vvi /&a>^ 
Santah Uraon and Brabui hingwiges have bseu coi\TV^ic\.^\\ V\\\\ VJtva 
ViavidJan languages of the S. 


The comparative philology of these languages was first studied by 
F. W. Ellis, of the Madras C. S., 1819. It was then taken up and 
completed by Dr. Stevenson, Bishop Caldwell, Dr. G. N, Pope and 
Mons. L. Vinson.. 

1. Caldwell (R. C), "A Comparative Grammar of the 8, Indian Dra- 

vidian Languages," 2nd ed. 8vo, London. 1875. 

2. Vinson (L.), " Le Verbe dans les Langues Draridiennes^" 8vo^ Paris, 


The systems of writing used in S. India are unusually numerous and 

3. Burnell (A. C), " Elements of S. Indian Palaeography," 2nd ed. 4 to, 

London, 1878. 

The chief Dravidian languages are : 

1, Ihmll, — Literary culture began about the eighth century A.D., and 

numerous poetical and grammatical treatises exist, written in the 
SSn-damil, which is, to a great extent, an artificial, poetical dialect. 
Early Tamilculture was begun by the Jains, and the chief periods 
in which Tamil literature flourished were the 9th, llth, and 16th 
centuries, A.D. For an account of the existing Tamil literature, 
see Murdoch (J.) 
a, Scu'damU : — 

1. Beschi (C. J.), Jesuit, 1744. "Shen Tamil Grammar, trans- 
lated by B. G. Babington," 4to, Madras, 18 — . 

2. " Clavis sublimioris Tamulici idiomatis," 4to, Tranquebdr, 1876. 
h, £Mvn (or current) Tamil : — 

1. **Grammaire Fran^aise-Tamoule," 12mo, Pondicherry, 1863. (This 
is by a French priest, the Abb6 Dupuis.) 

2. Graul (C), " Outline of Tamil Grammar " (from Bibliotheca 

Tamulica), vol. ii. 8vo. . . 

3. Winslow (M.), "Tamil Dictionary,'* 4to, Madras, 1862. 

4. ** Dictionnaire FranQais-Tamoul, par deux Missionaircs Aposto- 

liques," Pondicherry, 2 vols. 8vo. ... 

There is nothing like a useful English-Tamil Dictionary ; the Rev. 
P. PercivaPs Vocabulary is the best, but is very small. 

Dr. G. N.r Pope's different Manuals are of great value. The best 
reading book is Beschi's " Story of Guru Paramarttan," wliich has 
appeared in numerous eilitions at Pondicherry. 

The Tamil graphic system is incomplete, and presents many 

2. Telugn, — It is difficult to trace the beginnings of existing Tclngu 

literature farther back than the 13th cent* A.D. The only uscfid 
account of it is to be found in Mr. C. P. Brown's papers in the 
** Madras Journal." 
1, Brown (C. P.), " A Grammar of the Telugu Language," 2nd cd» 

8vo, Madras, 1857. 

Z , « Telugu-English Dictionary." 

•9. , "English-Telugu Dictionary." 

'' , *• Telugu Reader," S parts, *\o* 


The Telugu alphabet ia very complete, but is complicated and 

^> Kanare9e, — The literature of this language appears to hare begun 
about the 10th cent. A.D. It has Ixien, of late, critically studied 
by the Kev. F. Kittel, and all existing information is to be found 
in the prefaces to his editions of the " Shabdamnnidarpana," and 
*' Nagavarma's Chandas," both ])ubli8hod at Mangalur. 

1. Hodson (T.)» "An Elementary Grammar of the Eannada or 

Canarese Language," 2nd ed. 8vo, Bengal iir, 1804. 

2. Reeve (W.), " Kamatica-Engli8h,"1832, and " English-Kamatica " 

Dictionaries, 1824. These huge quartos were printed at Madras. 

3. Wilrth (G.), " Sketch of old Kanaresc Grammar jn Kanareae,** 186G. 

A new and sufficient Kanarese-English Dietionar}^ is in preparation 
by Mr. Kittel. 

The Kanarese alphabet is merely a variety of Telugu. 

4. MalayAlam. — ^This language has little (if any) literature older than 
the arrival of the Portuguese. It is very near Tamil, but is re- 
markable by reason of having lost the complicated verbal inflec- 
tions found in the last. The Malay dlam alphabet is a variety. of 
the Gratitha used in S. India to write Sanskrit. 

1. Keet (J.), ** Grammar of the Malay dlam Language,^* Cottagam* 

8vo, 1841. (This is very unscientific, like Sil the Malay ilam 
Grammars in English.) 

2. Gundert (H.), ** Grammar in Malay dlam," 1868. It is unfortunate 

that this, the only adequate Malaydlam Grammar, should be 
written in a language understood by so few. 

3. , ** Malaydlam English Dictionary," 8vo, Mangali!ir, 

1872. (This is a most admirable work.) 
. 5. ThIh. — This language can hardly be said to possess any literature 
beyond a translation of the Bible, etc. It has very complicated 
inflections. The Basle missionaries use the* Kanarese character to 
print Tulu, but a variety of the Malaydlam alphabet was originally 
used for this purpose. 

1. Brigel (J.), ** A Grammar of the Tulu Language," 8vo, Mangaliir, 


2. A Dictionary (by Rev. J. F. A. Mannar) is nearly ready. 

C» Kodngv or Coorg, — No literature ; will probably soon be supplanted 
by Kanarese. The natives use the Kanarese alphabet. 
1. Cola (R. A.), ** An Elementary Grammar of the Coorg Language," 

8vo, Bengaliir, 1867. 
2* Graeter (Rev. A.). " Outline of Coorg Grammar, with Coorg Songs," 
Mangali!ir, 1870. 

The tribes on the Nilgiri moimtaina speak dialects which have 
(very undesirably) attracted much attention ; these are 

!• Toda or Thida. — Which is an old dialect of Tamil. There is a voca* 
bulary by Mr. Mets, in the Madras Journal, and a full grammar 
(by Dr. G. N. Pope) in Marshall's ** Phrenologist amon^lKe T^wj," 
8vo, London, 187S, 

2. Ab^a.—Very near the Tuda, dialect. There 18 a xoc«tov3\«rs \s^ ^^' 
Metz in the Madras Journal, 

76 LANGUAGES OF S. IXDIA. Sect. !•' 

3. Badaga or Burglier, — An old dialect of Kanarese. The Gospel of 
Luke has been translated into this, and lithographed at Mangaliir 
(1862). The people ha?e been studied most carefully by Dr. F, 

The number and difficulty of the Dravidian languages have prevented 
the study of them by foreigners, and English is more generally known 
and spoken by the natives of the S. than of the N. To obtain an 
adequate knowledge of any of the Dravidian languages a foreigner 
must study hard for years, and accuracy of j)ronunciation (which is 
most essential) can hardly be acquired except when the learner is 
very young. A well known S. Indian missionary, e.//., who had 
studied Tamil for years, asked some people (as he thought) " Have 
you souls ? " He mispronounced a few letters, and they understood 
him to say, "Have you any goat's hair?" Another, who believed 
himself preachinjj in the same language, was told by an old womain 
that she thought he had been speaking his own. 


1. Hind&iftdnX. — A peculiar dialect called Bakhni is spoken in the 

south. It possesses a considerable poetical literature, none of 
which has been as yet printed. Parts of the Bible in this dialect 
are to be had. 

2. MardfJU. — Is much spoken at Tanj\ir. The silk weavers speak a 

very corrupt Mar. jargon, and so do many wandering tribes. 

3. Xonkani. — Is a dialect of Mardthl, but very distinct in many ways. 

In this language is a considerable Christian literature, due to the 
QoB. Jesuits of the 16th and 17th cents. A.D. Several grammars 
exist, a good one (in Portuguese) by Father Estevas (Stephens, an 
Englishman) was first printed at Goa in 1640, and has been re- 
printed at the same place (1857) by Senhor da Cunha Rivara, 
whose introduction gives a full and interesting account of the 
literature and its history. The Jesuits used the Roman characters 
(16th cent.) in writing and printing in this language, and the 
practice has continued ever since. 

It must be remarked that besides local varieties of grammar and 
vocabulary, each considerable caste has terms peculiar to itself. In 
S. India it is, thus, almost impossible for a person of one caste to 
pass himself off as belonging to another ; detection at once follows 
such attempts, which sometimes occur. The Mdpilahs of Malabiir, 
and Labbais of the Tamil country, write Malaydlam and Tamil by 
means of a singular adaptation of the Arabic alphabet. 


The Languages of India may philologically be divided into tvo 

groups, — the Northern and Southern. In the fojiner there is a vast 

admixture oi Sansk^t, on a slender aboriginal basis ; in the latter, 

and especially in the Tamil, the Sanskrit is simply an infusion, and 

^e aboriginal dialect is independent, iwW, am\ eop\o\\^. \tv VVvr. 

JSorthern group, the principal languages ate Paw^aU, ^\w^\\\, ^w 

d£Cb« jL% 



the localities of the Routes : 


Two . 































































































Iruvai dru 










Mupphai dru 








Onru (oijiiu, com. 

Iraiidu (rendu) 
Miindru (munu) 
Ndngu (ndlu) 
Kindu (anii) 

Onpadu (ombadu) 

Padinonpi (-onnu) 

Padiudngu (-ndlu) 
Padinaiudu (-nanji) 


Irnpattondm (-onnu) 

Impattindngu (-ndlu) 
Irupattaindu (-anji) 




Sect !• 




































Seventy -eight 
























































Eighty-nine Embattombattu 

Ninety- two 




















• * 


























Eimpadu (ambadi) 









































Tonniittonru (-onnu) 

,Sect. I. 










TonntittAinda (-anji) 











Tombhaiycnimidi Tonni!ittettu 



Tombh aitonunidi 


A hundred 




Two hundred 




Three hundred 




Four hundred 




Five hundred 




Six hundred 




Seven hundred 




Eight hundred 




Nine hundred 




A thousand 




Ten thousand 




A hundred 

Nilirus&vira or 





A million 








A quarter 





































. Eradilimukkdlu 






























- Ndlkiimukkdlu 





A third 



Mdnril ora bdgam 



. Miidintlorendu- 

Mdnril irandabdgam 



Ein^ OTu\>^^^xGL 

• - 





a. ^T\\ dm.'biArexGL 



Sect. L 

A seventh 

An eighth 

A tenth 

































Dinagapi or 
















Evening I Dec. 

Dew I Jan. 
Morning j Feb., 

dew { Mai*. 
Mild- I April, 

heat I May. 
Hot i June 

season \ July. 

^^-^^ y^pt 

CoJd jOct., 


Miida or Piirva 
Padava or 

Badaga or 

Tenka or 




« • 






















Tczhil om bdgam 

Yettil oru bdgam 

Pattil oru bdgam 






















»ect. 1. 






























A'gdyav^li, A'gdyam 









Bank of river 

Hol^ada or 
























8im6 suima 




Sanna kAluvc 




















































Aleya yi ita 


Biimi yadirc'ai 





Hole ddtuva 

Yei-u diitc tsufu 





















Mudu pani 


I'jadc ddta ba- 


Tannin 1 nadakkun- 










Yuj-ainda pani 














Ushna or Shake V^dimi or yenda 











(/w word) 


Pani kattl 










Madam . 










occt. 1, 








Seduppu nilam 







Mahdsamudramu Samuttiram 






































Male S6nc 








Ono word) 
















Pravdha or 










Kmnui^ (Idi| com.) 


































Sddaratte or 

Pinatalli or Me- 

. Siriyatdydj (mother's 















Ealiydna Mdppillai. 






Maduve illa- 


Biramasdri (onrikka- 


ran, onn ydl) 




Euzhandai laruvam 












































P6.iiv (sudandiran) 









Sect I. 





Old Age 
Old Man 
Old Woman 

















Annanamaga or 

or S6darasose 





Tandetdyi ilia- 
da mogu 






Doddappa ) 

Childcappa ( 



or menalludu 
Annakiituru or 


Talidandri leni 





Pinatandri or 
m^na mdma 

Young Man 

Parfg of tlic 


Vitantu Vitaniurdlu 

Hendati PendlAmu 

Strl or Hengusu A'dudi 
Hareyadavanu Chinnavddu 
Hareya Yauvanamu 


Suttattdn (inattdn) 


Vudan piranda ka 

Vudan piranda ku* 


Mudumaip paruvam 
Tdy Tagappanatta 

Vamisa paramparal 
Mdttdn tdy 
Irattaip piUai 
Sittappan (father's 

side), Ammdn (mo- 

ther's side) 

Atayataga\H, Avayavamulu, ArayavanyaJ, 


• » 






• • 








Kivi ■ 























Kanuk kdl 

l^ijam (puyam, com.) 













M6vdyk ka^^al 


€\ *£- 











Reppaventrukalu Kanmayir 
















Musti (mutti) 































Tala . 










Kudik kdl 










Kilu ' 














Virar kanu 












I'ral * 






Sw^^ k6sh 


Nurai I'ral 




Yelumbu mu]ai 
















































Mandai Yodu 




T61* * 
































Kai peru viral 
















Sect. I. 

jsect. 1. 













Ncttuti naramu 

Iratta narambu 




1 bjadigal. 


Chali jwara 

Chali jwaramu 

Kulirk kdychal 




Mo^^ talai 








Vurdytal (ncuYU^ 




Vdndi bedi 

















































Vedippu (odivu) 


VAta hidita 

















, Kdmerlu 




















Kandla kalaka 













Vdyvu (vddam) 





















Meralugannulla Mellakannugala 

O'rak kannulla 




Tettuvdy ' 




















Ti!ikam pidiydmai 




Turp palam 








Tiraiwx C>.Vm^ 
































Kunnu kapiti 


Turinjil (Vauwdl, 

















Mpgamu, goddu 













liishabam (yemdu 




Kanruk kutti 




Ot^ gam 













Adu mddukal 


Oandu kudnre- 

. Gun*apu pilla 

Kudiraik kutitl 
























Kida mdn 


{n4) word) 

Teliani adavi pilli (^no word) 






Kudur^mari oi 

• Gurrapu pUla 







Chendike nari 













Chevula potu 







B6te ndyi 


V^ttai nAy 




Kazhudaip puli 


Kappalu nari 






Meka jnlla 

Velldttuk kutti 



Gorre pilla 

Attuk kutti 



Chiruta puli 











Henim kudure 







Mouse (musk 







Kantsara g&^i^e 'K.^^^px kazhudal 


KastiiA mru&ra 

(no word^ 


Sect I. 






















Jungle Fowl 

. Partridge 












Shime mola 



Kha(lga mruga 





(no word) 


(jno word) 


Konde hakki 
(jno word) 
(no word) 



Hennu navilu 
(jHo word) 



Kumbdra gubbi 

(no ?rord) 

Chinita puli 
Paiidi pilli 
Mundlapandi ^ 
Shima kuud^lu 

Khadga mfigamu 

Begguru pakshi 











Veta mjigamu 



Pet^ai Kozhi 




* • 

(;no word) 
(no word) 
Pedda n61a ne- 

(no word) 






Muljam pan|i 

Simai musal 

Attuk kadd 


Kdndd mirugam 

Ailii ' 

Anir pillai 


Tonddn (ondi, row.) 


K6zhik (kunju) 





KuUa vdttu 



Varagu k6zhi 


Vc'ttaip paravai 

Periya vdttu 

Dukai (parundu) 



Kuk kupivdni patch! 

Kdttuk kcSzhi 


Sag6ra patchi 



Kilip piHai 




Kdittu ch^val 


Viirk kuruvi 
Mullang k6zhi 
Ydlattuk kuruvi 



beet. J 







Pdmu ch6pa 



{iio word) 

yen*a mdga che 

- {fw word) 



GuUa ch^pa 

Matti (sippi) 


{no word) 


\ Vavvdl min 


Kai miuu 

(no word) 

Kadar pau]:i 


(/k» word) 

Sora ch^pa 







(no word) 

T6ki ch^pa 

(fio word) 


(no word) 

Ndluka chdpa 

Yenimai ndkku 




























Miittup piichi 


Sitd prdtti hula Sitdk6kamu 

Vanndttip piichi 


Kambali hula 


Kam'balip piichi 





Cochineal worm (jno word) 


Tambalap piichi 




Min minip piichi 










Midite ' 



Pachaik kill 









Vettuk kill 















PataAgada hula Chima^a 






Pattu hula 


Pattup piichi 


Basavana hula 











Makshika sa- 










Pandangalai nzhik 
kum genduk kul 





White ant 



Sel (Karaiydn,co///.) 

Stones, etc. 









{no word) 





Padik kdram 



{no wo7'd) 





Nildnjanak kal 


HitWe ' 






Y^Tveck^L V»x^ ^"ivV 





-beet. 1. 
















Holeva kallu 


(no vrard) 








Sittam (kittam) 

Emerald - 







Sakki mukkiknl 











{fM word) 






Lapis lazuli 















Salavaik kal 











Ganiloni vastuvu 

































Abarekku (appira- 










Ore kallu 




Nllada kallu 


NiU rattinak kal 








Bi^t» jodu 






Sarige ' bu^td 



Bittirap pattddai 
















P6rvai chattai 




















Mattik kdy (kddani) 












Araik kattu 




Eaim^r ^^ 








Ka\\L VVL^S^iM. 







Sect. !• 















































Siiji ' 






Childca Boge 












{no word) 


• • 

Belaggina uta 
Badan6 kdyi 

Mdthsa sdra 





• • 







• • • 

Chinna tsokkd 




Tsokkd cheyyi 








{no word) 

Pedda mdmsamu 

'. K6sukiira 
Pedda kosukiira 

Ruchigala paddr- 


Tdg6 vastuvu 






Vuljurait tuni 
Kanni (noose of loop) 
Kandasarum (ani) 
Mun tdnai 
Sattaik kai 
Kdl mejodu 

Talaip pdgai 
Muk ^ddu 
Mugamal pattu 


Vdr k6dumai 

Kattarik kdy 




KcWis kirai 

Kdli pillavar 

Sunnuk katti (par 

Rusiydna vasiu 


' Pdnam 
Y«l\y[\?^ \^iA.tiram, 

Sect. T. 








Mamsa rasn 

Mdmsa rasamu 

Mamisa rasam 


K^yi palyagaju 








AvutanA idu- 






Jdm tittippu 


(»o word) 
























Kuri mdihsa 

Veta mdmsamu 



Kai gudde 








Uppina kdyi 













Sega d7.u])iua 

Anal kattinadu 




















Sunda vaitta (San- 


dina dhdram) 




Saruk karai 


RAtri lita 


Irdp posanam 







M^jd duppati 

Mesai dupimtti 







Diida mamsamu 














Dirdksha sdrdy.^.m 

Home, Furnl' 

Mane in v tin- 

• Jllu xtunaniiht 

17 du 8a m a », m nda 

ture, <Jv, 

ffalu vmutdddn, 

, liiodulaylnavi. 





















B6yi " 



J Sndnamu 

Sndna totti 


Malaguva kone 


Padukai aral 






Kdlu maiic 

Balla pita 













• • 




^lm?v\ V«ni>cfi^Iv 



Pettc or dabVi 




Sect. I. 





































M^nada b&tti 



• • 

Hoge giidii 


Dodda pettige 




Daftara khdni 





















{no word) 



Tblugu. Tamil. 

Palaka Palagai 

Gadiya Tdzhappdl 

Itikerdyi Bengal 

NiUutod^pdtra Kaittotti (Kai chal) 

Kattadamu Kattadam 

Vatti Mezliuku vartti 

Band! Vandi 




Bitika ■ 








Kothi ' 


Gavisena or 

Palangu pdshu 


T^siv^yadamu, i^;• 






Gurra puvddu 



Adde or killi 



Nlllu kdche pdtra 

Tdlapu chefi 



Pani ch^sukoni 
jivinch6 vddu 
Pustaka sHla 






Pugai kudu 


Periya petti 


Samaiyaf kdran 







(Metol) Kinnam pdt- 

tiram, kuva|ei 
Sti!ibi mandapam 
Tirai chilai 
N{kki vidudal 






y^laik kdran 

Asti vdram 

M^sai ndrkdligal 

Totta kdran 

Kudirai kdran 



Kai pidi 






Madappalll (kusini) 



Sect. L 



















Mugak kannadi 






Kotti olc 

Rottelu kalche 













Talai yanai 


Tala bdgalu 






Sumai yedukiravan 















Kattera kola 

Katteri kol 




V61ai kdran 







U'digapttvddu or 




Dlpapu kattera 

Vilakku kattari 












( Stone) karpadi(padi ) 




M61 mettai 




Perukku giraval 








Taiyar kdran 



Tdrusu * 








Midde or kona 



























Nlru horuvavu 


Tannlr k kdran 






Kdttigcormarsi Mdnu 





Kadivdlattunirnm bu 








Kurappam . 
















podiche muUu 





Mnkku k kannddi 









A ffarde^; 










k^vCL* Aa 

" English, 
Stone or seed 



Betel nut 


























Kotte or Bija 

iflw word) 
(no word) 

Tengina kdyi 
Hiral6 kayi 



(no word) 


Tenka or vittu 
Shlma r^gu 

(no word) 
(jw word) 

Kobbari kdya 
Dabba kdya 
Kharjiira pandu 
Shlma m6di 


Angiiru pandlu 

Jdma pandu 
Nimma pandu 

Nimma pandu 
Mdmidi pandu 
{no wm'd) 
Karabiijd pandu 

Hippalc haiinu Kambali pandu 



{no wo7'd) 
(no word) 

(no word) 
Drdkshi haiinu 




Bdndu bija 


(no word) 
Kichchili pandu 
(jio word) 
{fw word) 
Andsa pandu 
Ariti pandu 
Drdk^ha pandu 
Dddima pandu 
(no word) 
Yendina drdkftha 

Chinta pandu 
(no word) 

Nalla mdnu 
(no word) 
Kdfi vittulu 
Chikati mdnu 
Shlma m^di 

Bella pdkuchettu 
(no word) 




Yddumai k kottai 
Simai ilandai \y j^az* 

Apricot pazham 
Cherry pazham 

T6ngdy [ham 

Kodi mddulam paz- 
Sittdp pazham 
P^richam pazham 
Attip pazham 

Tirdtcha p pazham 

Koyydp pazham 

Pcrelumicham paz- 

Yelumicham pazham 

Mdm pazham 

Mangostein pazham 

Molam pazham, sum- 
ai vellari 

Musuk kattaip piaz- 

Olive pazham 

KichiU p pazham 

Peach pazham 

Pear pazham 

Anndsip pazham 

Ydzhaip pazham 

Plum pazham 

Mddulam pazham 

Quince pazham 

Kdynda mundirikai 


Pujiyam pazham 

Walnut kottai 


Karnppu marnm 
Punnai maram 

Myttle maram 

Sect 1. 









Teku mdim 

Tekka maram 


Dr^kshi gida 

Drdki^ha tlga 

Tirdtcha kodi 




Sombtt chedi 




K6vlk klrai 


Menashina kdy 

i Mirapakdya 

Simai milakdy 


(;no word) 

(no word) 





Yelak kdy 







(no word) 







Turuku sasive 






Jddimalli kai 

Lily (water) 













Guldbi * 





{fio word) 



{no word) 

(no word) 

Violet pii 












Kdya or panda 





Pdngottu (cluster of 







Ndra or lida 

Ndr (malar) 




PA (pushpein) 










Gida or sosi 


Nattu (pundu) 




(rsculcnt) Kizhangu 
(v6r, malam) 






8aut6 kdyi 

Dosa kaya 

Vejlarik kdy 



Podda jilakara 









Vejlaip piindu (kom- 
matti, kommntti 


S6r6 kAyi or 

• Pottigummadi 

Suraik kdy 


L kdya 



Dzanapa ndra 





{jfla fit ) A vuri (nilam) 



{no word) 

Nila venkdyam 



{no word) 


Linseed . 


(no word) 

Siru sanal virai 




Tulasi ' 






(no word) 
rruUi • 

(no word) 







(no word) 








Sadapa chettu 

• • • 

( 110 word^ 



Kuiikutna puvYw Man\ri\ 



Sect. J 





Sorrel ' 



Sukkan Niirai (suk- 


kan kirai) 


(tw word) 


Kirai (pasajei) 


(no word) 

Adavi, tellagadda (tio word) 



Kusuma chettu 



Nlrina hdyike 

(no word) 

Nirt tdrai 




Vdyk kdl 

Arable Zand, 


Setyapu bhumi. 

Sey Ml nilam. 


Jave godi 

Bdrli biyyamu 




Dhdnyapu ko^t^ 









Sumai vandi 










G^ni bhiimi 






Payir seygifaATin 



Polamu or chenu 



Garike hullu 













Yendu kasuva 

Vularttina pul 















N61a khdvandn 

Nilak karan 







Ndgali or araka 




Kotagddu or 

Afup paruk kiravan 











Vitt^vddu or 

Viraik kiravan 








Vaik kii 



Kdda or todime 




Kdpu or kdpur- 














Yoke of oxen 

(no word) 

Woica araka yed- 

O'rdr kundai 

0/ BanMng SavnJtarafana SdhnMrn vyapcL' tSdvffMr, thjaptiram 
£rji//yietf0//nt^, ta Lckhati* ramu, lehkalH, kanaJtkvgalli 

^Iiaj/a,. 'ci\in\ /jfttHiic7i(. Ttufittu, 

Account Lekka Lekka TLcirnVVNiL 

Acquittance Bidngade Chellu chi\\ ««\\w cVi\\^ja 









Arji or vildsa 


M(l*l vilasam 



Santsa kdramu 

Mim panam 












Yudan padik kai 




Padil uttaravu 



Pani n(^rtsukon6 

Vclai kattuk koUu 









Vol am u 




Niluva or bdki 





Kasuk kadaik kdran 



Divdlcttina vadu 













Taragan, dubdslii 



Pani or varta- 





Kojlu kiravnn 
















Viydpdri idattil pa- 
nam vaittavan 



Gutta or idzdrd 




Dzama or para- 





Appu ichchina- 

Kadan koduttavan 

Cti atom-house 

Sunkada mane 

Sdyaru kachch^ri A'yat turai 








Kurip pedu 



Chellu or khar- 







yala gdra 

Appu tisukonna- 

Kadan fattavan 













• • 


Kcpa or vydja 












K^hdma ^r bara Kdtakamu 

Kashdmam, pan jam, 



Sdmdnu or ji- 

. Samku 




















Kaulu or kar&ru 








»ect. J 





















Seyarkaip porul 
















Varttaga charakku 




Solli Anuppudal 

















Vubari (bakki) 






Bhdgastanu or 

• Pdlikdpu 

Panguk kdran 




Rdddri slttu 








Tirindu virkiravan 














Tapdlu or anche Tapdlu 



Daridra or ba- 

• Ddridriya,mu 






■ Vela 





Mudar panam 
















Pattu chlttu 







Mddiri or mos- 















Oppa or das- 

Ch?vrdlu or san- 

Kai yezhuttu 



Sum -total 





















Ugrdna or 








^'madu raftina 


Y^ttij-akkumadi pan 



SSeot JU 







Of Shipping. 

Jakajige sdmd- 

Vddalanu gur- 


nu y^rtJtuca 















Amaru k.ayini 


Jahajina sarakn Vadnsaruku 

Kappar snrakku 

Commander of 

: St^naclhipati or 







Kaiitapu Eiidi 

Tisai arikanivi san- 








Kodl or nishAni 




NdYcya kamba 




{no word) 










Pirayanak kt'iran 


Jahajina mukha Vada mundari- 

Kap])alin munpak- 
















Kappar pay 




• • 



Vadayokka mun- 

• Kappal irupurat tc- 

dari bhdgamu 

yum scrk kuDg 


Saiiabina hurl 


Sanar kayiru 


Samudra yiina 


Kappal yattirai 
PAy virikkumaram 


Adda mara 



Of Law and Ju^ XdnHnu ra vt/a" I^^ydya^ sathbaii' 
dicial Mattcrtu validravifhaya' diuimaina vi^h- 

gala htrita, ayamnlu. 

Abuse Baigala Ti^tu 









Civil Court 

HAdara or viya- 



Addlutu kotu 




Vy avah Arasabha 


Ktyaya. vhhaiyanga- 
Icik kurit'tu, 

Adikkira mittal 


Anga scdanam 


PunjAyattuk kArau 





Civil corttu 
Vilangvi ^eaYi^\\V^ 



Sect, t 








or kabiilu 

Karada or 

Tappu or tap- 

Telugu. Tamil. 

Woppu k6va- Ottuk kolludal 


N^rasthudu Kuttavali 
N6ramu sthdpint- Kuttavdli yenjni tir- 

sadamu ma nittal 

Naksilu Nakal 



Criminal Court Faujuddri 

Danda sabha- 

Criminal Corttu 












Patramu or kdry- 

. Sddanapattiram 






Vivdha bandha 

Parity agamu 







Galligehd kuva- 

■ Uridls6 bantr6tu 

Tukkil p6du kiravan 



Amalu nadisu- 






Yeka pak§hapu 

Oru talai ydna 




Kattanam (dasturi) 


Aparddha or 





Tappu dastdv^zu Poyydy vundu pan- 







Sirai chdlai 




Tiikku maram 



Ddrikotti d6chd- 

Vazhi katti pafippa- 

kalla ' 






Tiikkir p6du dal 




Niydyddi padi 


Sdyuvdga itta 

Marana shdsana 

Marana sddana porul 


ichchina sottu 


Moktydrl pra- 

Marana shdsana Marana sddana porul 

kdra dstiya 

prakdramu ds- 


tegadu kollu- 

tini ponddvddu 








Khiini chdsina- 

Kolai ydli 





Vydjyamunu rad- 
du cheyadamu 

Vazhakkut tallunkai 



Prakatana or 





















Poy sdtchi 








Kaidu (kdval) 


Bandivdna or 




















Ta^edu idona 


• Konja kdlattukku 


daiidnnai yai 
nipiib yaittal 










Shik§hdtlrpu or 

' Tlrpu 




Vyavahdra or 


Viyd chiyam 



Talabu chlti 




Marana shdsan- 

Marana sddanam 


amu yrdsi 

ezhudi vaippayan 











Nydya s^halamu 

Niydya stalam 












Satchlk kdran 




', Dureittanaffalcik 








Aikkiyamdna rdjd 




Stdnddi padi 
















Mer katti 




Rdja ddni 




















Rdja yamisam 




Iituiddn durai, piradi 


Kelasa or terige 










Bak kravarti 


Sdrva bhaumini Chakravarti- 


yokka bh&rya 











Sect I. 






















Kanabese. Telugu. 

Parad^shada- Parad^shasthudu 


• « 









Dikku or miile 




Gullu or kalaha 
Mudre-yu or 

Sthitiyu or sam- 


Eulavu or 

Kbajdnjiyn or 












{no word) 
Goppa mani^hi 
Niitana kalpand- 


Lekka or lekka 

pett6 vddu 
Prajaia dorata- 














Anniya d^sattdn 






Teru chandu 

Pirabu tarisanam 


Taaga sdlai 





Pirasai (kudigal) 

R6vu (turai) 



Tisai [gam 

Kudigaludaiya kala- 

Padivu pustagam(per 

vazhik kanakku) 
Kudi Arasu nddu 

Kalddi (sandai) 
Kdriya darisi 

V6vu kdran 








• • • 


Samdddna pattirikai 
^Qk^iBhak kdran 

Sect L 







Umbrella of 


Kappavu or 



Prqfesnons and VruWuj/afu va 

Trades, Vy&paragaln, 

Armourer Ayudhagdranu 



















Pu6tnk4 mdra- 

O'janu or ba- 

Mithdyi garanu 

Adige yavanu 



L4U kattuva- 

vanu or ash- 

wa vaidyanu 

Kdyi palyagala 

angaidi yavanu 

T^yele sakkare 

munt4da an- 









Vrittulu vffdpd* 

Ayudhamulu ch^- 

Bhilpi ' 


_ • 









Mithayichdsi am- 





T^du, s&iiistri 



Chillara sarukulu 






Pdttai sAri 



Pii chakrak kudai 


Arasanukku yadil 
A|u kirayan 

JbzJtll viydp&ranga], 

Ayudan jeykirayan 


Sittira y61aik k&ran 


Pustagam yirkirayan 


Kollattuk kAran 
KasApk kAran 

MittAy kadaik kdran 

Samaiyal sey gipiyan 
NAttiyap pen (dAsi, 

Marundu sarakku yi- 

SAyak kdran 

L^ang kattu gira- 

Kdy kizhangu yir 

Palasarakku kadaik 



Kudirai pazhakku- 

Ydttail^ kdran 
Yudaimal pannu gl- 
rayan, irattina 



P^radividdeg&^u ^i^p«^V\\iu8Sii;. 



Sect. 1. 






Eatt6 varta- 

Battalavartakudu Javulik kadaik kdran 





Vdttiyak kdran 




Varnak kdmu 













Miittaik kdran, sum- 
aiydl, samai yedu 



. Tdlluv^siamm^- 

Kayiru tirik kiravan 






JIni taik kiyavan 




Padumai sedukku ki- 
rivan, sittiraii kot- 









KaVlaik kdran 




Vdl v61aik kdran 





■ Sodu taik kiravan 






Shastra vaidy- 


Vrana vaidyudu 

Raiia vaittiyan 



Chippiganu or 

' Dai-jivddu 

Taiyar kdran 




Kadai chap kdran 





Oyin sdrdya 

Woyinu sardyi 

Tirdtcha sdrdyam 



vir kiravan 




Tannirk kdran 






Seniyan, neygiravan 




TozMr sdlai 










Seruppu taik kij-a- 
viisi (seruppiisi) 















Kundali yan- 




(no word) 











Tiindil mul 




Valaik kdlam, siilai 




Pon muldm 






p^' suitigeyn 



Sect. I. 




Inlay (to) 











Sdlu, pankti 

Aclichu yeraka- 

vu or mannu 


Mole, uguru 
Baniiavu, var- 

Hatri, bosalu 
Kiilu kattige 





Ayudha or ha- 


GiUa or bene 

Teluqu. Tamil. 

Chinna tiragali Kai ^ndiram 
Chekkadapu pani Padippu vdlai 
Pai*rgkti, glta Kayipu 

Maggamu Nejryal taji 

T61u Padanitta t61 

Koyya sutte 















Sclwol and 

tiali va vidya- 

• Hadif or shastra^ 












Atal6 chcndu 

tatte karra 

















Nakalu, karadd 















Kattu kathe 













(of a tree), dku ; 
(of a book), 




Kottdppuli (kottan) 





Alai (sugar-press) 

Vurulaik kat^ai (maj- 



Kdttdl iyakkappa- 


Palli kildam. 

Kiranda karttan 
Pandadikkung kol 












Kattukkadai / 







Sect. I. 








































Kdgadada atte 


Shlsada kaddi 











Vidydrthi or 


SAleya v^legal 





Shl6ka or pada 



Kari varna 
Nila varna 
Shydmala varna 

Biida varna 
Hasaru varna 
Nila varna 
Kdgu varna 

Nimbe hannina 


U'dd varna 
Keiicha varna 
Sindhi!ira varna 




Puta, porata 















Ddsdnipuwu var 

Ts6tdkichchili- Ponnii*am 








Yiiaiydttu t6zhan 
Yilai yddugij^ idam 

Nidimozhi (pazha- 
Tandippuk k61 
Pallik kiidattup pillai 

Pallik kiidam 
Pallik kiidattu v61ai 

• • • • 

Mdudk kan 
Karpik kiravan 

Nila nifam 
Pazhuppu ni]*am 

Mangal nipim 
Yen sivappu 

Indira nllam 





oecc 1. 








Bill vania 




Haladi vania 


Manjal niram 








O'sai ; (sound) Kelvi 




Oji ; (light) Pdrvai 



Ydsana tsiida- 

■ Ndttam 














Biipa, pratime 













(thought) yo- 

• Yochana ; (image) 

1 Piradi vimbam 

chane ; 


(image) pra- 















































Payang karam 
















Vin6dam (rarity) ; 

nan6 ichchha 

desire to know, 
ariya v6ndum yeu- 
gi]ra ichai 












Vellu muyaychi iga- 









Anubhavam, inbam 
































Perumai, kanam 










sect. 1. 








Kur6dam, yerion 




Sand6sliam, pora- 



Gydna or vidde 




Sn^ha or m6ha 

M6hamu, dsha 












Gnyapti, g^'dpa- 













V6dikkai, (spectacle) 

































Viv6gam, gndnam 




Sirattai ; (religious 
zeal, vairakkiyam) 

There are six well-defined linguistic boundaries. In N. Ganjam a 
portion of the people speak Uriya. Telugu is spoken generally in the 
N. Sarkilrs, in part of the Nizam's dominions, Kamul, Kadapa, part 
of N. Arkdt, Kelliir, and part of Balldri. Tamil is spoken from a 
few m. N. of Madras to the extreme S. Malayalam is the language 
of Travankor, Kochin, and Malabdr. Kanarese in parts of Balldri, 
Koimbatur, Salem and S. Kanara. 












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[A. signiftes Arabic ; H. Hind&sUni or Hindi ; K. Kanarese ; Mat MalayiUam ; ^L 
HariStbi ; My. Malay ; P. Persian ; S. Sanskrit ; Tel. Teliigu ; Tur. Turkish ; T. Tamil.] 

AhkXm, a. pi. of Awiwi, " orders." 

AMfB (Ameer), A. " commander," a title of princes and nobles, as the 

Amirs of Sindh. 
AnI (Anna), H. the 16th part of a rupee, or about three half -pence, 

valuing the rupee at 2s, 
Andora, Mai. the 10th class of Nairs, who are potmakers by profession. 
Anaka^t (Anient), Tel. adda, " between," katfVf " to bind, a dam or 

Ayat, Terse of the Kurdn, 
Babul, A. a tree of the tamarisk kind. 
Bahadub, p. "brave," "chivalric," a title of honour among Mu^am- 

BajrA (Budgerow), H. a large, round-bottomed boat, without a keel. 
Baman, S. the 5th incarnation of Vishnu, in the shape of a dwarf. 
BanglA (Bungalow), H. a thatched house, the name usually applied to 

the houses of the English in India, and to the houses for travellers 

built by Government on the public roads. 
BiGAM (Begum), Tur. a lady of rank, a queen or princess. 
Bhata (Batta), H. additional allowance to public servants or soldiers 

employed on special duty. 
Bbahmak, S. a Hindii of the fist, or priestly caste. 
Buddhist, S. a worshipper of Buddh, or Sakya Muni, who died B.C. 643. 
Bazab, p. a market, or market-place. 
Caste, class, sect, corruption of the Portuguese casta or race. 
Catamaran, T. leaftVf "to bind," vutrantj " a tree," a log-raft on which 

the natives of Madras paddle through the surf. 
Chakra, S. a discus, the quoit of Vishnu. 
Chausar, S. Hindii, dice. 

Charnadu, Mai. the 3rd class of Nairs, who are accountants. 
Chawadi, Tel. a native rest-house for travellers. 
Choultry, an English corruption of ChAwadi, q,v, 
Chunam, S. an English corruption of H. chiina, from S. cMrnahf lime, 

a plaster or mortar made of shells of a remarkable whiteness and 

Compound, My. an enclosure. A corruption of the Malay word, 

Daghopa or Dahgop, S. fJeh, "the body," gup^ "to hide," a circular 
structure inside Buddhistic cave temples, supposed to contain the 
ashes or relics of Buddha, and occupying the place of our altars. 

Darbab (Durbar), P. a royal court, an audience or levee. 

Dhabam SlLA, S. dlMt-ma, "justice," "piety," mv^l «li6Xii,^^^V"8».*C^ ^ 
place of accommodation for traveUCTB VQid ipW^iiv^ 


DiwAn, p. " a royal court," " a minister ; " especially the chief financial 

Dboog or Dbug, S. an English corruption of durga, " a fort." 
DUBASH, do J "two," IMsh&f " language ; " one who speaks two languages, 

an interpreter. 
Fakib, a. <'poor ; " a religious man, who has taken the vow of poverty, 
GanA, S. an attendant of Shiva. 
Gabisha, Tel. a measure of grain = 400 markhdls, or 185*2 cubic ft., or 

9860 lb. avoirdupois. 
Ghat (Ghaut), S. ghatta^ "a landing-place," " steps on a river side ; " a 

mountain leading up, like a step, to a tableland. 
GOPUBA, S. from gnp^ " to preserve ; " the gate of a Pagoda. 
GuMASHTAH, P. an agent. 
GUHBAZ, a building with a cupola. 
liAHMAL, A. a bearer of a pdlkl. 
^AVALDAB, H. an officer in native regiments corresponding to our 

H6m, S. sacrifice. 
HUKKAH (Hookah), A. a pipe. 
liuzuB, A. the royal presence, a respectful term applied to collectors, 

judges, or o&er high officials. 
Ilavas, T. a tribe in Tinnevelli and S. Tiruvankodu (Travankor). 
Jagib, p. a tenure by which the public revenues of an estate or district 

were granted to an individual, with powers to collect them, and 

administer the general affairs of the place. 
Jam'adab, a. a native officer next to a Siibahddr, and corresponding to 

our lieutenant, 
KachebI or Kachhabi, H.M. a court or office for public business. 
Kalam, T. a disease affecting the tobacco plant. 
» Kalamah, the creed of Isldm. 

KATOpi, M. a wild tribe inhabiting the Sahyddri range. 

Khan*, A. a title of nobility answering to our " lord." 

KHAi^Di (Candy), M. a measure of weight and capacity : in Madras = 

500 lb. ; in Bombay, 560 lb. 
Khii^, M. a narrow pass between mountains. 
KiL'Ai>AB, A. the commander of a fort. 

Kimkhwab (Kimcob), P. silk stuff interwoven with gold and silver. 
KiBt^M, Mai. the highest class of Nairs. 

KoLis, M. a caste in the Koilkan and Guj^&t, who are fishermen, water- 
men, and robbers. 
KOTABAM, T. a palace. 
EUBBAH, A. a dome. 

KULf (Cooly), T. and Tur. a day labourer. 
EUMBi, M, a farmer, a farm labourer. 
Lakh (Lac), S. the number 100,000. 
Lat or LAth, " a pillar ; " ancient Hindii pillars on which inscriptions 

were set up in an old and obsolete character. 
MalA, S. a garland. 
Man (Maund), H. a weight, varying in different parts of Lidia. In 

Bombay it is 25 lb. ; in Bengal, since 1833, 87f lb. 
Mandapam, S. an open pavilion or porch in front of a temple. 
Massulah, T. a boat sewed together, used for crossing the surf at 
Monsoon, A, a corruption of the A. maiism^ " o^ Be^aou '^'^ «^\>\iftdL now to 
iAe periodical raina in India, 


MoBTT, T. a Toda or Tuda village. 

MahAbs, M. a low caste in the Bombay Presidency. 

MUKWAB, T. a low caste in Malabar. 

MTTNBHt (Moonshee), A. a writer, a secretary, a teacher of languages. 

MuNgiF, A. a native judge of the 3rd class. 

NACHf 8. a dance, an exhibition of dancing-girls. 

Nao, S. the cobra snake. 

Naik, S. an officer in native armies corresponding to a corporal. 

I9A1JBAT KHANAH, A. the guard-room, the chamber over a gateway, 

where a band is stationed. 
NIADIS, Mah. an outcast tribe of Malabdr. 
KcsiJf , A. an arranger ; a title of the prince whose capital is I^aidar^bdd 

in the Dakhan. 
NuwAb, a. this word means lit. *^ deputies," being the plural of nd*ibf 

** a deputy." It is now a title of governors, 
Paooda, p. an Anglican corruption of the P. word hut-Jtadah, ^* an idol 

temple ; " aSo a coin =34 rupees, called by the natives hUn, but 

deriving its appellation of pagoda from its showing a temple on 

one face. 
PAl-AL, T. the priests of the Toda tribe, lit. " milkmen." 
Palegab (Polygar), T. Tel. a shareholder, a landed proprietor. A title 

of native chiefs in the Madras Presidency. 
Palanqueen, H. an Anglican corruption of the word pdUd^ a sedan in 

which persons of rank are carried on men's shoulders. 
Pan, 8. the leaf of the betel tree. 

PABSfs, P. a caste who worship the Deity under the emblem, fire. 
PABwAfiis, H. people of low caste. 
Pb-KOVIL, T. " devU-temple," a hut dedicated to the worship of the spirits 

of dead men. 
Peons, H, an Anglican corruption of the word piyddah, " footman." 
PTSSHyARS, p. an agent. In Bengal, the native officer under a judge, 

next to the Sarishtaddr in rank. 
PSSHKASH, P. tribute, an offering from an inferior to a superior. 
Pkshwa, p. the prime ministers of the R4j4s of S4t&r4, who afterwards 

b^me the supreme chiefs of the Mard^ha nation. 
Pb'ta, Tel. native town or suburb. 
PhatemAb, M. litf " a letter carrier," a sailing vessel common on the W. 

coast of India. 
Phins, T. the Tuda name for the stone circles on the Nilgiris. 
PlCEj H. a corruption of the wordpaUd, a copper coin, of which 64 go to 

a rupee. 
PfB, P. old, a Mul^ammadan saint. 
, BajA, S. a Hindii king or prince. 
RAifOSts, 8. a tribe in the Dakhan who are watchmen and thieves. 
Ban!, S. the wife of a Rdjd, a queen or princess. 
Bath, 6. a chariot. 
Begimbntdabs, E. and P. a commissioned native officer in the Maisdr 

BiSALAHDAB, A. a native captain of a troop of horse. 
Byot, a. an Anglican corruption of the A. word r'aiyaty a subject, a 

ISadb Amin, a. a native judge of the highest class. 
$ADB 'Adalat, a. the Supreme Court of Justice Vxv IxkiSciSu \a\ X-Tyca^ 

Sahib, A. lord, a title applied to English gentlemea m "ixi!S^» 


SAKTf , S. a goddess, the personified power of a deity. 

SabpeshkAbs, p. a non-commissioned officer in the Maisiir Horse. 

Sabzafabdabs, p. a commissioned officer in the Maisiir Horse. 

Sati (Suttee), S. the burning of a widow with her deceased husband. 

Shah, P. a kmg, the title usually applied to the King of Persia. 

ShAnabs, T. a tribe in Tinnevelli and the extreme S. of India, who are 
palm-tree climbers by profession. 

Shankh, S. a shell, the large shells which are blown as horns by the 

Shola, T. a patch of jungle, a wooded dell. 

Shudba, S. ihe 4th or lowest caste of Hindiis. 

SlPAHf (Sepoy), P. a native soldier, one of a sipdh or army. 

ShibandI (Sieeljandy), M, an auxiliary, a soldier of a native auxiliary 

§uBAH, A. a province. 

Subahdab, a. a governor of a province, a native military officer corre- 
sponding to a captain. 

TAH8f LDAB, A. a native collector of revenue. 

Taj, p. a crown, the name of a magnificent mausoleum at Agra. 

T'ALUK, or more properly td'allukahj a district, a division of a province. 

TappAl, H. the post, delivery of letters. 

Tatti, M. matting, especially of bambii. 

Tbbi BIS, T. the temples of the Tuda or Toda ti-ibe. 

TuDAS, T. a remarkable tribe on the Nllgiri Hills. 

TUGULTIS, T. dangerous quagmires on the Nilgiris. 

TuBBAT, A. a tomb. 

Vazib, a. a prime minister. 

ViHABA, S. a cell, an apartment in a monastery, 

ViLLiAM, T, the 4th class of Nairs, who are farmers. 

ViMANA, 8. a sacred vehicle or shrine. 

WuTZ, K. Indian steel. 

ZafabdAbs, a. a non-commissioned officer in the Maisiir Horse. 

ZamIndab, p. a landed proprietor. 

ZiAB, T. a low caste in Malabar. 

Zil'a (Zillah), A. a province or tract, constituting the jurisdiction of a 
circuit judge. 

The following abbreviations are used in the Routes given in this 
book : — 

b. Bungalow Properly Bangld. 

h J * n S BangU and Tappdl or 
o.dsuo. ... I ^g^^.^^ post-office. 

div Division of the army. 

( Dharam Sdld, a native 
dh < house of accommo- 

( dation for travellers. 

E. I, C. East India Company. 

E, East. 

f. Furlong. 

ft Feet. 

iu, Inch. 

^. MHq. 

Q 5 Cross two n&las (nul- 

"^ ^^'- ••• ) lahs). 

N. North. 

p Page. 

•p.o Post-office. 

rd Road. 

r River. 

r,l.h River left bank. 

r.h Right bank. 

rs Rupees. 

Roy. As. Soc. Royal Asiatic Society. 
S. South. 

jr. West. 

n. Nallah i ^^Pcr^jN^laorn&labjlyds Xwv\s» 

' / " water-course." \ 

— f— 


Landing Plaoe—K&inf Ilarhour—Tlie Pier— The LiglithouMe—The Club-^ 
HoteU-^Conreyanceit — The Fort — The Grand Arsenal—St, Manfs Church — 
Old Tomh on the Esplanade — Paclieappah Schmtl—The Jail — TJie Hospital — 
The Chvemment House— Tlie Governor's Country House — The Statue of Sir T, 
Jfunro—The NawAh of the Xarndtlh's Palace — The Promenade by the Sea^ 
shore— The Statue of Colofwl NeiU—The Cathedrals Other Churches— TIte 
JAttle Mount— Tlie Model ihrm—Tlie Pace- Course— Tite Great Mount— The 
Mtuekm — The Public Gardens — TJie Principal Shops — The Observatory — 
The Charities of Madras— The College— The Italhray Stations, 

Os the first appearance of the build- 
ings of Madras City from the sea, the 
stranger most feel sar})riscd how so 
great a capital, with a pop. of 397,552 
(see Madras Census Rci)ort for 1871, 
p. 9) should have grown up on such an 
exposed coast, with apparently so little 
canyenience for trade. But the whole 
line of coast, from Ceylon to Orissa, 
has not one convenient harbour. It is 
also the &ct that though Madras has 
onlj an open roadstead, where the 
surf breaks in thunder during rough 
weather, and has no great river near it 
to bring down products from inland 
regions, yet it has a substitute in a 
long series of canals, the line of which 
passes through the town southward to 
Sadras,and northward to the Goddvari. 
By means of these canals and good 
n^ds into the interior, a vast amount 
of goods of all kinds is brought to this 
seemingly unpromising spot; and it 
was long since seen that, could a safe 
harbour be made by artificial means, 
there was nothing to prevent Madras 
becoming a place of great commercial 

JLanding Place, — From time imme- 
morial'the system of landing and cm- 
barking paBsoBgers and cargo at 
Madras nsed to he by means of what 
juv called Masiila boats, which are 
canstracted of mango wood, caulked 

with straw, and sewn together with 
cocoa-nut fibre. Ships anchor in the 
roads at half a mile to a mile from the 
shore ; the Masiila boat pulled off 
alongside, received cargo at the gang- 
way, and was beached through the surf. 
Sometimes it happened that the boat 
was split up when it struck the beach, 
and when the sea is high the rise and fall 
of the boat alongside a ship is as much as 
25 ft., making it difficult and danger- 
ous to disembark. Ladies used to be 
tied in chairs, and lowered into the 
boat from the ship's yard-arm. In 1860 
landing was rendered less difficult by 
the construction of an iron pier, which 
projects 300 yds. into the sea, opposite 
the Custom House, The pier is 20 ft. 
above the sea, has stairs down to the 
water, cranes for landing or embark- 
ing cargo, and rails leading to the 
Custom House to convey goods to and 
from the landing-place. But even this 
improvement left very much indeed to 
be desired. Much time was lost and 
much property sacrificed in the effort 
to maintmn communication between 
ship and shore. But, in addition to 
this normal loss and inconvenience, 
there was always the doa^Y c>S. <s^- 
clones, for 'w\v\c\v'^«»!aLKk&V'w^\*iK^ ':sv^i 
too notoTvovia. TVlw-a g^ ^^ ^"^ ^"^ 
October, n^^,*!^ ^«5^«S}L«t ^iX^a^^^' 


Madras City, 

Sect. II. 

nais, there was a dreadful cyclone, in 
which the Ihicd*OrleanSf Phcenix. and 
Ia/8 foundered with upwards of 1 ,200 
men. The Mermaid and Advice^ prizes, 
also went down; and the flagship 
Aohille was dismasted, and saved with 
difficulty after the lower guns had been 
thrown overboard. There were 20 
other vessels in the Madras roads 
during the storm, and not one escaped. 
At Pondicherry this hurricane was not 
felt. On the 20th of October, 1782, 
there was another cyclone at Madras, 
attended with dreadful loss of life. 
Again, on the 10th of December, 1807; 
and again, on the 2nd of May, 1811, 
frightful hurricanes occurred. On the 
latter occasion the Dover frigate and 
CJiiohester storeship foundered, and 90 
country vessels went down at their 
anchors. Only 2 vessels that were in 
Madras roads when the storm began 
were saved, and these put out to sea. 
During this hurricane the surf broke 
at 4 m. distance from the shore. On 
the 2nd of May, 1872, there was an- 
other great storm, in which 9 European 
vessels of large size and 20 native 
vessels of altogether 4,133 tons were 
lost. There are many other dreadful 
storms on record, but enough has been 
said to show how necessary it was to 
attempt the construction of an artificial 
harbour. The difficulty of this, how- 
ever, was great. Madras lies low, from 
about mean sea level to 24 ft. above 
it. The ^ore is sandy, stretching in 
nearly a straight line from N. by E. 
to S. by W. for many miles. Thus 
ther^ is no creek or bay or other 
natural facility for forming a harbour. 
The sand along the coast is unusually 
flat seawards, reaching a depth of 10 
fathoms only at a distance of a mile 
from the shore, and to this may be 
partly attributed the peculiarity of the 
Madras surf. The winds on this coast 
are called monsoons (from the Ai'abic 
maitsinif "a season.") That from the 
S.W. blows from April to October, and 
that from the N.E. from October to 
ApriJ, There are, of course, excep- 
tjonal winds. The S.W, monsoon 
bjieezes are for the most part light. 

b^f^'^^^^r, ^^^^ 2 and 3 p.m. the 
^. ^^ the plains draws in a S.E. 

breeze from the sea, which tempers 
the Madras summer, continuing till 8 
or 9 P.M., and then veering to W. Tlie 
N.E. monsoon brings the rainy season, 
which is from November to January. . 
The average rainfall at Madras is 50 
in., nearly half of which falls in 
November. November, December, and 
January are comparatively cool, but 
there is no cold weatlier in Madras. 
Occasional heavy showers fall from 
July till October. The rise of tide 
does not exceed 3 to 4 ft., even at equi- 
noctial springs. A current, averaging 
two knots, runs from S. by W. to N. by 
E. parallel to the shore during the S.W. 
monsoon, and in the contrary direction 
during the N.E. monsoon. It will be 
seen from what has been said that no 
place of such importance as Madras 
is so much in want of a harbour, and 
nowhere would it be more difficult to 
make one. However, on the occasion 
of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales' visit, . 
a memorial stone was laid, December 
15th, 1875, commemorating that visit, 
and the commencement of the harbour 
works, which were designed by Mr. W. 
Parkes, M.I.C.E. The estimate was 
£565,000, but up to the end of July, 
1878, only Rs. 2,089,548 had been ex- 
pended, and the works had been at 
that date advanced to 889 ft. of block 
work in the N. pier, and 499J ft. in 
the S. pier. These works consist of 
two breakwaters to the N. and S. of 
the Custom House, and each in round 
numbers will extend 2,000 ft. beyond 
the pier, which runs out from the 
Custom House, and which will not be 
removed. The principal houses of 
business extend along the shore 
facing the harbour ; there is to the 
farthest south the house of Messrs. 
Parry & Co., then the Church of Scot- 
land Indian Mission, and in regular 
succession to the north, the Govern- 
ment Granary, the Stamp Office, the 
office of Messrs. Shand & Co., the 
Oriental Bank, the offices of Messrs. 
Bainbridge & Co. and Messrs. Arbuth- 
not & Co., the High Court, the Master 
Attendant's Office, the Custom House, 
the Messagenfes lJL«!c\\AX£ie& wvd the 
P. & 0. Company's offiica. N^ .cii\>ftRSfc\%\N. 
thickly \Txha\)\t^ c53L«dQ?c ^iX^xv^vcv^^^ 

Sect. II. 

Tlie Pier — The LightltouBe. 


Popham's Broadway, a long thorough- 
fare, and bordered on the extreme 
nortli by the railway terminns and 
railway. The breakwaters are to ex- 
tend from the shore seaward, 3,500 ft., 
and are to terminate in branches, 
which will approach one another, so 
as to leave in the centre an entrance 
160 yds. wide. Thus, when finished, 
they will enclose a rectangular space a 
little more than 1,000 yds. long from 
W, to E., and somewhat less wide 
from N. to S., the area being 170 acres, 
with a depth at low water of 3 to 7 
fathoms, available for vessels of all 
sizes, and a further space of a quarter 
of that area with less than 3 fathoms 
of water, available for boats, lighters, 
and native craft. The breakwaters are 
formed of blocks of concrete 12 ft. 
long, 10 ft. broad, and 8 ft. thick on a 
foundation of rubble, and 3 such blocks 
are dropped daily. The S. breakwater, 
it will be seen, has not advanced as 
far as the N., but it has been carried 
into the sea some hundred yai'ds ; and 
as it advanced, a bank of sand followed 
it on the S. side, which caused the 
engineers much anxiety, lest it should 
render the entrance too shallow for 
large vessels. It is thought, however, 
that the silting up has stopped. Of 
course until the E. branches are finished 
there will be a considerable wash at 
the steps of the N. breakwater, but 
when they are completed it will be 
easy to land or embark there. It is 
calculated that there is room for about 
13 large vessels. 

Ttve Pier. — The iron pier in the 
centre of the harbour was built by 
Frederick Johnson, C.E., under a con- 
tract dated 9th of November, 1858. 
The length from high water-mark is 
1,000 ft., and with the cross-piece 
1,040, the cross-piece being 160 ft. 
long from N. to S., and 40 ft. broad 
from E. to W. The pier itself is 40 ft. 
broad. It is made of Mitchell's patent 
screw piles of solid wrought iron, 6 in. 
and 8 in. in diameter, in rows 4 abreast, 
with 10 ft. between the centre of each 
row. The first 25 rows are sunk 11 ft. 
deep in the sand, the second 25 rows, 
13 ft., the rest 15 ft. Four lines of 
railwajrare laid along the floonng of 

the pier, and bring goods into the 
Custom House. There are 6 cranes, 
lifting from 3 to 10 tons each, and 8 
movable cranes. The cost was £103,616, 
and £4,332 more for extending the 
rails to the Custom House. In 1868, 
during a storm, a French vessel drove 
through the pier from the 8., about 
200 ^. from the sea end, and in May, 
1872, two vessels drove through from 
the N. A joining, which was made 
by an addition to the S. side, though 
no longer used and not now planked 
over, is left in case of any similar acci- 
dent. Passengers pay 2 dnas if they 
embark from the pier, nothing if they 
simply walk on it ; but there is very 
little room to pass on account of the 
goods trafiic. Boats pay 2^ to 3^ rs. 
The pier-master has an oflice on the 
S. side, at the shore end. 

The Lightlioutc. — The lighthouse 
stands on the esplanade, close to the 
N. face of the Fort, and the light is 
128 ft. above the level of the sea ; but 
the height of the building, to the 
feather at the top, is 142 ft. Its light, 
one of the most brilliant in the world, 
is a flashing one ; the duration of the 
flash being to that of the dark inter- 
val, as 2 to 3, and it was first shown 
on the Ist of January, 1841. It is ex- 
hibited from the top of a Doric column 
of granite, standing on a cubic pedestal 
21 ft. high, also of granite, with massive 
steps, the shjrft being 111 ft. high. The 
lantern consists of a 12-8ided polygon 
framed in gun-metal, with 9 glass and 
3 blank faces. The interior diameter 
of the lantern is 9 ft ; and its height 
4^ ft. The entrance is on the W. side. 
On the pedestal is incribed 1838 — 44, 
There are 210 steps to the light, in- 
cluding 3 on a short wooden ladder. 
There are 15 burners and 6 light- 
keepers. The superintendent gets 100 
rs. a month, and 28 rs. for house-rent, 
and visits the building twice a day 
and 3 or 4 times a night. The deputy 
gets 26 rs. a month. There is a fine 
view over Madras city from the top of 
this building. 

The Club. — Visitors who caxv ^VA»ss!l 
admissioti to >ih^ "^w^iwek CN»^ ^a^ 
honoTary mcmb^i^ V'^ ^a.^ 'Odrssi- 
selves tar moi^ ^soxoiQiiX.viWV^ ^^Bsa^. '^ca. 


Madras City. 

Sect. 11. 

hotels, particularly if they are so for- 
tunate as to secure a bedroom on the 
premises. The subscription for hono- 
rary members is only 6 rs. a month, 
and a room costs 1 r. a day, so that 
one may live in the greatest comfort 
at from 7 to 10 rs. a day =12*. to 18«. 
At a ball given to the Prince of Wales 
in December, 1875, the rooms held 600 
persons. The Club is centrally situated, 
being distant from the Fort 2 miles, in 
a south-westerly direction. Leaving 
the Fort for the Club cross over the 
small bridge, which joins it to the 
island, and going close by Munro's 
statue, cross a second small bridge, 
called Government Bridge, into Mount 
Koad, which is the principal artery of 
communication from the Fort to St. 
Thomas' Mount, a distance of over 5 
miles. On reaching Neill's statue, 
which is nearly 2 miles from the Fort, 
turn to the left, and go a fifth of a mile 
to the Club, if that is to be made the 
traveller's head-quarters. 

Hotels, — The hotels in Madras are 
very nimierous. Immediately on land- 
ing, the traveller will see Lippert's 
Hotel close to the High Court, Pier, 
and Custom House in the First Line 
Beach, which is a good hotel, entirely 
under European management. The 
landlady is Swiss, and is active and 
attentive. There is almost always a 
sea breeze here. The charge is 6 rs. a 
day, exclusive of drinkables. At a 
distance of 4 miles due S. from Lip- 
pert's Hotel, close to the sea, and not 
qaite half a mile S. of the Ice House, 
is Capper House Hotel, which can be 
strongly recommended. Close to the 
Club is the Imperial Hotel, and along 
the Mount Road are several hotels, the 
Victoria, the Branch Elphinstone, and 
others. The charges are the same at all 
the principal hotels, i.c., about 6 rs. for 
board and lodging, exclusive of wines. 
There is also the Madras Cosmopoli- 
tan Club, which was founded by Mr. 
Cunningham, now Judge of the High 
Court at Calcutta, and is situated about 
-^/ miles almost due W. of the Fort 
near the College Hall. This is a mixed 
cJab of European and Indian gentle- 
■foezz The honorary secretary is (1878) 
-^^eut- Colonel F. H. Tyrrell, who is 

the political officer with the Niiwab 
of the Kamdtik. 

Conveyances, — It will be absolutely 
necessary for travellers who wish to 
see the sights of Madras in a short 
time to engage a cai*riage. Even 
should they be living with friends, and 
have the occasional use of their car- 
riages, they will require to supplement 
this with a hired vehicle. The best 
place to hire a carriage is at Taylor &: 
Co.'s, in the Mount Koad, not far from 
Neill's statue ; a shigram (called from 
a Tamil word which signifies quick) 
with one horse can be hired for 4 rs. 
a day, and with two horses for 6 rs. 
A small trifle of a quarter of a rupee a 
day is given to the coachmai). Palan- 
quins are scarcely at all used now. 

Tlw Fort. — The first day may be 
spent in visiting the Fort, where ai'e 
the Government Offices, and the Arse- 
nal, and St. Mary's Church. The Fort 
was designed by a Mr. Robins, who 
was mathematical professor at Wool- 
wich, and was made commander-in- 
chief at Madras. He died in India, 
and is thought to have been buried at 
Sadras. The eastern face of the Foit 
is close to the sea, with only the broad 
road between it, which forms the 
public promenade. The E. face is 
straight, but the western face land- 
wai*d is in the form of a crescent, well 
protected by cross-fire from different 
bastions, and surrounded by a deep 
fosse, in which is water several feet 
deep crossed by a draw-bridge. The 
road into the Fort is so narrow, and 
turns at such sharp angles, that the 
footmen must run on a considerable 
distance in front of the carriage to see 
that no vehicle is coming out, as it is 
impossible to pass except at one or 
two places. The fortifications on the 
land side consist of 3 full and 2 demi- 
bastions, which latter rest on the line 
wall, which nms en creniaillere along 
the beach. The curtains are covered 
by cavaliers and lunettes. The curtain 
and ravelin of the N. face are connected 
by a strong cajtonnierey and the curtain 
is covered by a tenaille. The counter- 
scarp is iaced mth a revetment, and 
defended \>y a. ^«\\s«j^fi,^ ^a^^\V ^'aly 

Sect. II. 

Tlie Fort 


the Fort, at the N. by W. extremity, is 
a terraced two-storied barrack running 
N. and S., which holds a battalion of 
infantry and two companies of artillery. 
The Fort also contains the Chief- Secre- 
tary to Government's Office, the offices 
of the adjutant-general and the quar- 
termaster-general, the comptroller's 
office facing St. Mary's Church, in 
Charles and James Street, and the ac- 
countant-general's office. The Fort is 
not without its historic recollections. 
Here on the lOth of September, 1746, 
M. De la Bourdonnais received in the 
name of the French king the surren- 
dered keys, which were restored to the 
English by the treaty of Aix-la- 
Chapelle. Here on the 14th of De- 
cember, 1758, the French arrived under 
the command of M. LaUy, but retreated 
on the 16th of February, 1759, leaving 
behind them 52 cannons and many of 
their wounded. The French made 
their approach on the N. side, and 
their principal battery, called Lally's, 
must have been near where the house 
of Parry & Co. now stands, as it was 
close to the beach and about 580 yds. 
N. of the Fort. Another battery was 
at the native cemetery in Black Town, 
and a third about 400 yds. to the S.W. 
In April, 1769, while the English forces 
were far away, Gaidar 'All made his 
appearance with his cavalry, and dic- 
tated to the Governor the terms on 
which he would spare the defenceless 
territory. Again, on the 10th of 
August, 1780, and once more in Jan- 
uary, 1792, the garrison were alaimed 
by the appearance of the Maisiir 
cavalry. Here in Writer's Buildings, 
Bob Clive, an idle and discontented 
clerk, twice snapped a pistol at his 
own head. From this Fort he marched 
to his first victories, and from it went 
the army which on the 4th of May, 
1799, killed Tlpii and captured Seriii- 
g^atam. The accountant-general's 
office in the Fort was formerly the 
Government House. It stands close 
to St. Mary's Church, with one row of 
houses between it and the sea. On the 
ground-floor is a veiy curious machine 
for weighin^r rupees, which, if they do 
not pass below a certain line are re- 
jected into a locker and put aside as 

light coin. If they descend below the 
mark they are proved to be good coin, 
and dropped into another receptacle. 
This machine weighs 20,000 rs. a day. 
It was invented by Major Smith, for- 
merly Superintendent of the Mint, and 
it gained one of the great prizes, at 
the Exhibition of 1851. On the same 
floor are the records, which are im- 
mensely voluminous, and are arranged 
according to coUectorates. The largest 
room is called the General Hall, and 
was probably the reception-room of 
the governor. It is 60 ft. long, 24 ft. 
broiS, and ^ ft. high. The account- 
ant-general's office is at the top storey. 
Opposite to this office is that of the 
comptroller of military accounts, so 
that all the account department is 
close together, and more conveniently 
located than in Bombay and Calcutta. 
In the comptroller's office is a door 
which opens into the Grand Arsenal. 
This forms a long parallelogram on 
the first floor. The galleries, which 
form the two longer sides, measure 
337 ft. each. That part which con- 
tains the museum is the most interest- 
ing to visitors. Remark first 4 comets, // 
or flags, belonging to the 1st and 2ud 
Regiments of Madras Cavalry. The 
oldest flags taken &om the Dutch and 
French are sewn up in red covers, to 
protect them from the crows and squir- 
rels, which have destroyed many, using 
them to make their nests ^ith. The 
flags thus sewn up look like sand-bags 
to keep off draughts at doors, only that 
they are so much longer, measuring 
about 15 ft., and are festooned on the 
walls. Remark next a model of the 
Fort, and two iron helmets taken at 
Manilha {sic) in 1762, one weighing 10 
lbs., the other 1 4. The Prince of Wales 
tried these on. A number of trophies 
are ranged in a semicircle with this 
inscription : 

" Britannia victrix 
The emperial (sic) Trophies of the 
Success of the British arms at 
Manilha are erected by an Order 
Of Council in Honour of the Bravery 
Of the Land and Sea Forces on that 
Expedition under the cQtnm«xvlQt 
Brigr.-GeuciaXIDta^x «Q!\^>»x I^^^ssNsaS. 

Man\\Y\atakcu.\irj «.\oTva, O^Woct ^\.% 


Madras City, 

Sect. 11. 

There is also a very curious brass 
mortar from Kamiil. It is shaped like 
a tiger sitting with legs planted almost 
straight out. In the fight where this 
trophy was taken, a Madras civilian 
named Wilson, ordered a troop of H.A. 
to . blow open the gate. Thackeray, 
uncle of the novelist, who commanded, 
was killed, as were others. Wilson, 
then, himself gallantly led the attack, 
and was likewise killed, and the attack 
was repulsed. Observe also a hand- 
some gun taken from Jeswant RAo 
Holkar, with his name and the date, 
A.H. 1218 = 1803 A.D. Observe too, 
the cage in which Captain P. Anstru- 
ther, RA., was kept prisoner in China 
for seven months. This officer dreamt 
the night before he was captured, that 
he had been taken, and raised such an 
outcry in his sleep, that the sentinels 
rushed in to see what was the matter. 
This cage seems hardly big enough for 
a turkey, and Anstruther was over 6 
ft. high. He used to chalk up on the 
bars the number of bottles of beer his 
comrades sent him. Mrs. Noble was 
kept in a similar cage. There is also 
a very fine bronze bell taken by Major 
Mclntyre at Ching Kang Foo. There 
arc also the colours taken at the cap- 
ture of Sadras in 1780, and those taken 
from the French at Pulikat in 1781, 
and the Dutch colours taken at Am- 
jboyna in 1810; and, also, tiger-headed 
jguns taken at Seringapatam in 1792, 
' and a wall-piece, which belonged to 
the NiiwAb of the Eamdtik, the barrel 
of which is 12 ft. long, and only 3 in. 
round. Also observe the 6 keys of 
Pondicherry, taken in 1778 ; also a 
bifurcate projectile, which, after issu- 
ing from the cannon, opens out like a 
double-bladed sword to the length of 
5 ft.. 10 in. ; also another wall-piece 
brought from Balldri, the barrel of 
which is 15 ft. long, though the bore 
is only 1^ in. ; also an anemograph, 
also leather petards with straps to 
fasten them to a gate. The duty of 
keeping clean the arms in the Grand 
Arsenal is a heavy one, although they 
Are cleaned only once in 4 months. 
Haugoon oil is used for cleaning the 
^f^ff aflc? formerly it had to be sent 
-^n^land to undergo a cleansing 


process ; but it is now so well made in 
India, that further cleansing is not 

St, Mary's Civurch. — A peculiarity 
of this church is, that it stands N. and 
S., with the communion table to the 
N. There are two side entrances to 
the E. and W. Many distinguished 
persons are buried here, and among 
them. Sir John Burgoyne, Bt., Col. of 
H. M.'s 23rd Regiment of Light Dra- 
goons, who died ^ptember 23rd, 1785 ; 
also Major-General Sir Barry Close, 
Bt., who died April 18th, 1813 ; also 
Lieut.-General Sir F. W. Whitting- 
ham, K.C.B., K.C.H., Col. of H.M.'s 
71st Light Infantiy, Commander-in- 
Chief of the Madras army, who died 
19th January, 1841 ; also Vice-Admiral 
Sir Samuel Hood, K.C.B., Commander- 
in-Chief of H.M.'s Naval forces in the 
East Indies ; also Sir Alexander Camp- 
bell, Bt., K.C.B., Commander-in-Chief 
of the Madras army, and Olympia his 
wife, who died on the 24th December, 
1794. Under the arch at the W. end 
of the church is inscribed, " M.S. Fran. 
Hastings." At the comer of the wall 
N. of this, is the epitaph in Latin of 
Hemy Greenhill ; who appears to have 
been at the head of the Civil Service, 
and who died, 5th of August, 1662. 
In this direction are several other 
tombs from 150 to 200 years old. 
Within the church, on the left side, 
looking towards the communion table, 
is a tablet to Margaretta^ Baroness 
Hobart, and her infant son, John 
Hobart. She died 7th of August, 
1796. But the most remarkable tomb 
of all, is the white marble one of the 
famous missionary Schwartz, a name 
which is here spelt Swartz. He is 
represented dymg on his bed sur- 
rounded by a group of friends, ^ith 
an angel appearing in the clouds, and 
holding up a cross to his view. On 
the northern side of the square in the 
Fort, is the statue of Lord Comwallis 
under a stone canopy. It stands on a 
circular pedestal, on which is sculp- 
tured in alto-relievo the surrender of 
Tipii's children. This statue is by 
Chantrey, «D.d"s^a& Elected at the joint 
expense oi \\ve '^xmcv^^l *\\^«\i\\»»J«i 

Sect. IL 

Tlie Jail — Tlu Hospital. 


Irandied yards to the W., is an old 
tomb of stone with a square base and 
a pyramidal tower above it. It con- 
[ tains two inscriptions, one to the son 
of Eliha Yale, a president or governor, 
dated the 28th January, 1682. The 
other inscription is to Joseph Hyn- 
mers, who was second in council in 
Fort St George, and died the 28th 
May, 1680. Both these names are 
mentioned in the register of St. Mary's 
Church, the first entry in which is 
<' Consecration of St. Mary's Church, 
being upon St. Simon and St. Jude's 
day, the 28th of October, A.D. 1680, 
the Bt. Worshipful Streinsham Master, 
Esqre., Agent and Governor of Fort 
St. Gteorge." From this dat« begin 
the marriages, baptisms, deaths, and 
burials, and the first of the marriages 
is : " Elihu Yale and Catherine Hin- 
mers (He)^ relict of Joseph Hinmers, 
were married by the Rev. Kichard Port- 
man, given in marriage by the Rt. Wor- 
shipful Streinsham Master, Esqre., 
Governor, Henry Oxe"den («mj), and 
John Willcox, bridemen ; Catherine 
Barker and Tryphena Ord, bridemaids, 
November 4th, 1680 ; " so that Mrs. 
Hinmers, the Member of Council's 
wife, was married a second time, 5 
months after her husband's death, to 
Ghovemor Yale. There is an old silver 
cup for mixing the sacramental vdne, 
inscribed, " Ex dono Honoratiss" Do- 
minse Dom. Mariae Goldsborough quae 
excessit ex hac vita 30 die Novembris, 
1698." There are two silver basins 
for alms : the smaller cup was given 
by Elihu Yale in 1687, when he was 
governor ; the larger basin is inscribed, 
" Ex dono Marise Goldsborough," with 
the date of her death, 1698. Across 
the esplanade W. of the Fort, is Pache- 
appaVi School for girls, which con- 
tains a great number of pupils, and 
has been mainly supported by the 
B4j4 of Yijayanagaram. It is worth a 
visit to those who take an interest in 
the education of Indian females. 

The Jail. — The Jail or Penitentiary 
is three-fifths of a mile W. of the Fort, 
and 200 yds. S. and by W. of the 
General IRospital. Although situated 
so low it is remarkably healthy , and 
/ram 1868 to 1875 there was not a 

single case of cholera in it. There are 
between 400 and 500 prisoners, and 
each wears a ticket with his number 
and date of committal, and the date 
on which he will be released on the 
obverse, and the number of previous 
convictions on the reverse. Work lasts 
74 hours a day. The treadmill works 
circular saws and the printing presses. 
The men are 10 minutes on the wheel 
and 10 minutes off. In 1872, one 
third of the prisoners had dengue 
fever. The focd is principally bread, 
made of r&gi (Eleusine coracana). 
Instead of this, one day in the week 
the men have rice. The supreme 
government does not allow caste to 
be ignored. Burmese criminals sen- 
tenced to long imprisonment are sent 
here, so that Madras has to pay for 
the crime of a distant province. There 
is now in the prison a boy who was 
sent here for life, when he was only 
about 9 or 10 years of age, for being 
concerned in a murder, for which 7 
men were hanged. Europeans are in 
a separate block. They and the 
Eurasians are employed in breaking 
cocoa-nut husk for fibre. The average 
number of women is only 30 to 400 

The Hospital, — The European Gene- 
ral Hospital is not far from the jail, 
and between it and the Fort, on the 
western skirt of Black Town. The 
records go back to 1829. Dr. Mortimer 
published an account of it in 1838, 
and says, ^' it is situated on the side 
of the esplanade, 1600 ft. from the 
nearest angle of Fort St. Gteorge, from 
which it bears nearly W. The Medical 
College intervenes between it and the 
Fort. It has 2 wings with 4 wards 
each, and a centre piece also with 4 
wards. The wards on the ground floor 
are 15 ft. 7 in. high. Half the building 
is for European soldiers, and the other 
half is a general hospitaL" In 1860 
an upper storey was added, and the 
building so completed faces nearly N. 
and S., and consists of one long range 
of double wards, running E. and W., 
with 3 double Yim^ ^, ^sA %, ^iic 
the N. Side xvmA ^ijS^ tmmdl ^soaft*. ^am^ 
Punamali to t\ift Yot\., «sA ^».\ftje«^ 
road the Uosi^ital^a.V.^^Qf^'^. ^^tv^xxv^ 


Madras City. 

Sect. II. 

W. and S. run the canal and its con- 
tinuation — ^the river Kuam. On the 
E. side is the military part of the 
hospital. To the S. and W. of the 
main building of the General Hospital 
are the officers' quarters. There are 
280 beds equally divided between 
Europeans and Natives, the former 
being on the upper floor, the Indians 
on the lower. This hospital is for 
men, that for women and children is 
at Vepery. On the 8th of September, 
1874, two lady-superintendents, Miss 
Catherine Martyr and Miss S. A. C. 
Pierrepont, came out to the hospital 
under a contract to remain for 5 years. 
The nurses have been trained under 
these ladies, and those who are inte- 
rested in such establishments will be 
gratified by a visit to this hospital. 

The Government Hbtue, — To the S. 
and by W. of the Fort, and close to it, 
is what is called the Island, surrounded 
by the canal and the Kuam river. 
The latter runs to the S. and W. of the 
Island, and is crossed by what is called 
Government Bridge, which passes di- 
rectly into the Mount road, and on 
the left as you go from the Fort south- 
ward is the Government House with a 
banqueting hall detached, and a few 
y^Birds to the N. of the main building. 
The reception-rooms in Government 
House are good, but the sleeping ac- 
commodation is very scanty, and is 
often supplemented by tents pitched 
in the grounds, which are intolerably 
hot. The entrance hall is spacious and 
contains a full-length picture of 'A'j^im 
J4h, the NtiwAb of ArkAt (Arcot), and 
opposite to it one of his son N. ' A's;imu*d 
daulaib. and his eldest son *As;im J&h. 
To Tt. and 1. are rooms occupied by 
officers on the Governor's staff. A 
broad and handsome staircase leads 
to the reception-rooms, which are on 
the first floor. There is first a draw- 
ing-room, about 38 ft. square and very 
lofty, over the entrance hall, and then 
the dining-room, the same breadth as 
the drawing-room, but 50 ft. long. To 
rt. and. \. of the drawing-rooms are 
smaller mtting-roomB, that on the 1. 
being' generally used as a breakf ast- 
Toom, with, to the 1. of it, a very small 
sittinff-Toom and bed-room, which are 

the only rooms the Governor can offer 
to a guest. On the second storey are 
the l^d-rooms for the ladies of the 
Governor's family. In the breakfast- 
room is a picture of the installation of 
NiiwAb Ghulam Muhammad Ghaus 
KhAn under the governorship of Lord 
Elphinstone, with the date 1842. In 
the dining-room is a picture of Clive, 
and one of Niiwab Shuj'au'd daulah 
of Oudh, and also one of the NiiwAb 
'Umdatu '1 UmarA. In the drawing- 
room is a full-length portrait of Lady 
Munro standing, by Sir Thomas Law- 
rence, and one of his finest pictures. 
There is also a portrait of the Mar- 
chioness of Tweeddale in a sitting 
posture. The banqueting hall is a 
noble room 80 ft. long and 60 ft. 
broad. There is a recess 20 ft. deep. 
The room is about 30 ft. high. Over 
the entrance door is a large picture 
of Queen Victoria seated. On her 1. 
looking down the hall is a portrait of 
George III. standing, taken at the 
beginning of his reign. It is perhaps 
the most pleasing picture of him that 
exists. On Queen Victoria's rt. are the 
following pictures : 1st. Queen Char- 
lotte ; 2nd. A full-length of Sir Thomas 
Munro, standing at a table in a gene- 
ral's uniform, probably by Sir T. Law- 
rence. Sir Thomas wears the old- 
fashioned single epaulet. 3rd. A 
three-quarter-length of Robert, Lord 
Hobart, 1790 to 1798, who wears a 
black coat and white neck-cloth ; 4th. 
Lord Harris in a blue uniform with 
silver epaulets, seated; 5th. General 
Meadows in imiform, with white trou- 
sers ; 6th. Lord Momington, after- 
wards Marquis Wellesley, seated on 
the terrace of the old Government 
House in the Fort, with 2 fiags on his 
left, the British surmounting that of 
Tlpii, which bore a sun shining in its 
strength. The steeple of old St. Mary's 
Church is also shown. 7th. General 
Wellesley (Duke of Wellington) in a 
scarlet uniform with a star, standing. 
An Indian in white holds the General's 
charger, a roan in a prancing attitude. 
At the bottom of the room on the rt., 
facing t\ie dcAft, \a %, tVift Hon. W. A. 

Conncil, dteeafed m>B\MiV,^>iXi ^ ^^ 

Sect II. 



in his hand firmly planted. Next 
comes the recess, and the first picture 
on the rt. is 9, Niiwdb Mul^ammad 
'AU WdUj^. 10. In the centre is the 
same Ntiw^b taking a walk with Major 
Itawrence, who is bai-e-headed, so that 
the time must have been very early in 
the morning or at sunset ; 11. On the 
}eft is Amiru '1 Umar^, second son of 
Niliw&b Muhammad 'All Wdl^j^ ; 12. 
Facing the dais on the left of the 
recess is Sir C. Trevelyan in an orato- 
rical attitude, with a very large volume 
on the ground to his 1., on which is 
written, " The Settlement of the Mala- 
bdr In^m lands, 1859 ; " 13. Continu- 
ing on the 1. towards the dais is 
General Sir S. Auchmuty in scarlet 
uniform with a star ; 14. General Sir 
Eyre Coote, a tall slim figure standing, 
with an Indian in white, who bows so 
low that he appears to be touching the 
General's boots. On the General's rt. 
is an orderly carrying the General's 
hat. 15. Lord Comwallis in the uni- 
form of a general, standing in the act 
of giving a command. It is the por- 
trait of a handsome man of middle 
age. 16. Sir Thomas Strange in the 
robes of a judge and bareheaded. 17. 
Lord Napier of Ettrick, K.T., in the 
robes of a peer and bareheaded. 18. 
The Marquis of Tweeddale standing, 
in the uniform of a general, with a 
broad dark riband across his chest. 
The hall is hung with banners, and 
there are 7 chandeliers. 

Tlie Govemar's Country Iloiise at 
Gmndy, — This residence is 6^ m. from 
the Fort. There is no lodge to the 
park, which is extensive, and contains 
500 deer, besides hares and partridges, 
and teal and snipe in the season. 
The house has a very handsome ap- 
pearance, being faced with the beauti- 
ful white chunam, for which Madras 
is so famous. The facade is adorned 
with lofty pillars, and the buUding 
consists of three pieces, which, though 
built at different times, seem all to 
have been erected from the same de- 
sign. A verandah 14 ft. 3 in. surrounds 
the house, which faces N. by E. The 
centre room, which is used as a ball- 
room, and with the recess is 50 ft. long 
aad 23jj[ broad, conttdna a good yel- 

lowish-white marble bust of Welling- 
ton, inscribed, *P. Tumerelli fecit, 
1814, London.' The duke is repre- 
sented in uniform and wearing his 
medals. There are two side rooms, 
that on the rt. as you enter is the 
dining-room, and is 39} ft. long and 
29 broad. On the 1. is the drawing- 
room of the same size as the dining- 
room, and behind it is the billiard- 
room. On the first floor is the 
Governor's bed-room, 40 ft. 9 in. long 
and 29 ft. broad. In the centre is a 
sitting-room, and on the other side is 
an oiiice-room. In the 2nd block are 
the private secretary's apartments, 
and in the 3rtl, added by Sir W. Deni- 
son, spare rooms. Cobras 6 ft. long 
have been shot in the grounds, and 
whip snakes of the same length and 
as thick as a man's wrist. The flower 
garden lies to the S., and is 8} acres 
in extent. There are 23 gardeners, 
who get from 5 to 6 rs. a month. There 
is a pretty bangld on a mound in the 
garden, which is occupied by the 
French cook. At the end of the 
avenue W. of the kitchen, which forms 
a detached block, are bangUs for the 
apothecary and the manager of the 
private secretary's office. There are 
two other banglds, one for the doctor 
and one for an A. D. C, and a detached 
banglA on the W. for the military 
secretary. There are also 40 rooms 
for servants, forming 3 sides of a 
square. The guard-room is on the N., 
and when the Governor is resident, 
there are an officer and 50 men there ; 
at other times only six men. There 
are also 10 stables for the body guard, 
and a second row that can be used if 
required. The Governor's stable has 
34 stalls, and three houses for state 
carriages. The garden is remarkable 
for carious and beautiful flowering 
trees and shrubs. Bemark the Big- 
nonia suberosa or Indian cork, with 
pods 2J ft. long and curious flat, thin, 
paper-like seeds. It flowers in January. 
The flower is white and odorous. Re- 
mark, too, the Ravenala madagascari- 
ensis or traveUer'8trea,«kiftXirV&s,^'«ilafik., 
On piexcing tYia \o\xi\» q1^^V».n«^^ 
pure yralet exadsa. \\. Ss ^ ^-'^«ft' '^'^ '^^^ 
plantain specvea, T\xfcxfc\&^^»ai8.^irts» 


Madras City, 

Sect. 11. 

the Victoria regia, the leaves of which 
are 4 ft. 4 in. in diameter, and 13 ft. 
in circumference. There are some 
rare Australian ferns, as the Lomaria 
gibba, so called from gibbous pro- 
tuberances at the bottom of the 
leaves. Kemark also the Eucharis 
amazonica, native of the Amazon 
valley, with a white flower that has a 
delicate perfume. There is also a 
small tank with the Nelumbium lily, 
which is red. Here are many of the 
g^rnan fish from Mauritius. Some of 
them are 4 lbs. in weight, of the colour 
of a salmon, with a tail like that of 
the lamprey. They are very voracious, 
and some teal that were put in were 
so bitten, that they died. The Com- 
bretum densiflorum from Sierra Leone 
grows well here, with fine red clusters ; 
and so does the Sideroxylon inerme. 

Tlie Statue of Sir T, Munro,— This 
statue stands in the centre of the 
island, on the road from the Fort to 
Mount Road. It is a bronze equestrian 
statue, and is by Chantrey, erected by 
public subscription at a cost of £9000. 
This able statesman died Governor of 
Madras at Pattikonda, in the Ceded 
districts, on the 6th of July, 1827, of 
an attack of cholera. His body was 
interred at Giiti, where the Madras 
Government erected a stone monu- 
ment to his memory ; and the people 
of the Ceded districts built a choultry 
in honour of him, to which govern- 
ment added a tank, and provided an 
establishment of servants to keep it in 
repair. The pedestal of the statue is 
15 ft. high, and is placed on a base 
which has seven indentations. The 
pedestal itself has two plinths, one 
below and one above the shaft. On 
the lower plinth is inscribed, " Os- 
thelder, sc. 1839," and above this is 
" F. Chantrey, sc. 1834." This cannot 
be seen unless the spectator stands at 
one particular spot, and hence the 
mistake of a Calcutta writer, who 
criticised the statue as the work of 
an unknown nobody, one Ostheider I 
Monro ib seated and baie-headed, and 
Joo/rsr to the 8, Wl, away from the city 
of Madras. The horse looks the other 
j^^: u ^^^o'b Bword 18 held in his 
^^^ -6afl4 and the point of it rests 

on his boot, an awkward position for 
the rider of a spirited horse. The 
general effect is fine. 

The Nuwiib of the Karn&tWs Palace, 
— The NiiwAb's old palace has now 
been converted into an Engineering 
College. It is situated close to the 
beach, and to the E. of the park of 
Government House. There is a hand- 
some tower 100 ft. high, in which the 
surveys are kept. It is worth while 
to ascend for the view, which extends 
over the whole of Madras. Adjoining 
is the Engineers* College. This was 
the old palace. All the other build- 
ings are new, and were built by Mr. 
Chisholm in the Saracenic style. After 
mounting to the first floor, 122 steps 
lead to the top of the tower. To the 
S. is the workshop, and be^'^ond it the 
Presidency College. There is a large 
hall on the first floor with lecture- 
rooms for drawing, surveying, and 
mathematics. There is also a model- 
room, and next to it is a room for the 
principal. It is said that the chief 
fault of native students is want of ex- 
actness. The gate at the entrance of 
these grounds was built by the Niiwdb 
'A'^im Jdh, and has been partly pulled 
down. It is called the Makkah Gate. 
To the N. is seen the Senate House, a 
very handsome building ; to the W. at 
I of am. distance is the palace, where 
the Niiwdb now resides. The district 
to the S. of this, and around the palace, 
is called Triplicane (prop. Tiru-valli- 
kedi), and joins Chepdk, the govern- 
ment offices in which have just been 

The Promenade hy the Sea-sJwre. — 
The fashionable drive and promenade 
at Madras is by the sea-shore, from the 
southern extremity of the Fort south- 
ward over the Napier Bridge, which is 
2000 ft. from the Fort, and past the 
Senate House, the Revenue Board 
Office, the Civil Engineering College, 
the D.P.W. workshop, the Presidency 
College, the Ice House, and as far as 
the Capper House Hotel, which is about 
1 J m.from the Napier Bridge. Thence 
what is called Edward Elliott's Road, 
runs nearly Amg"^. «^\jl\. *i \el. to St. 
George's Cat\ieAi«X mvOl ^^ ^<3sx\s5t 
Road. This \% de^V^^e^:^ XJaa Wi^ 

Sect. II. 

The Catltedral. 


pleasant drire in Madras, as there is 
always a sea breeze as far as Elliott^s 

Tke Statue of Colonel NeiU. — In 
driytng along the Mount Road to the 
Cathedral, which is just 3 m. from 
the Fort, the statue of Colonel Neill 
is passed a little before reaching the 
second mile. It is close to the Club, 
and looks away from it. The hero is 
represented staiiding with his sheathed 
sword in his left hand, and his right 
pointing, as if giving a command. At 
the base is a fine alto rilievo of a battle, 
with Highlanders and guns, and at the 
back is, ** Erected by public subscrip- 
tion, 1860." On the other two sides are 
the names of the non-commissioned 
officers and men who fell in the actions 
in which Neill was engaged. On the 
pedestal is an inscription, which says 
that he was " universally acknowledged 
as the first who stemmed the torrent 
of rebellion in Bengal. He fell glori- 
ously at the relief of Lucknow, 26th 
of September, 1857, aged 47." As 
this statue stands in one of the chief 
thoroughfares, it is always disfigured 
with layers of dust. 

The Cathedral stands in an exten- 
sive enclosure on the le^-hand going 
from KeiU's statue along the Momit 
Road. The exterior is not handsome, 
but the dazzling white chunam and 
the very numerous and remarkably 
handsome tablets and tombs, and the 
lofty and massive pillars in the interior 
produce a very pleasing impression. 
In the porch at the W. end are three 
extremely handsome brasses to Colonel 
Drury, Dr. James Anderson, who held 
for many years the post of physician- 
general, and Henry Linton, C.S., under- 
secretary to government. Remark also 
the monument to Henry Valentine 
Conolly, who was murdered by the 
M&pilidis, 11th of September, 1855. 
He was Collector of Malabar, and his 
death led to a sanguinary struggle, 
in which the native troops were de- 
feated, and English soldiers had to 
take the field to crush the insurrec- 
tion. There is too, a handsome monu- 
ment to John Mousley, fif.T.P., Arch- 
deacon of Madras, and formerly fellow 
of BaUiol, who died on the 31st of 

August, 1819. At the E. end of the 
N. aisle is a fine monument to the 
Right Rev. Daniel Corrie, LL.D., first 
bishop of Madras, who died 5th of 
February, 1837. It was erected by 
the inhabitants of Madras, and repre- 
sents the bishop the size of life, 
standing on a cylindrical pedestal and 
preaching to an Indian, on whose 
shoulder his left hand is placed, while 
his right holds a bible. Notice also a 
tablet to the memory of Sir John David 
Norton, Puisne Judge of Madras, who 
died at sea on the 20th of September, 
1843 ; also a monument to Bishop 
Reginald Heber, who died on the 3rd 
of April, 1826. It is on the N. wall 
of the N. aisle, and represents the 
bishop the size of life confirming two 
kneeling Indians. On the same wall 
is a monument to Amelia, ifVTfe of 
Captain C. B. Boileau of the Rifle 
Brigade, and only child of Lieut.-Gen. 
the Right Hon. Sir Fred. Adam, K.C.B., 
Governor of Madras. She died at 
Bengaliir on the 2nd November, 1833, 
aged 21. Remark also a white marble 
tablet to 4 officers of the 25th Regi- 
ment N.L, lost at sea with the he&- 
quarters of the regiment on board the 
Lady Nvgent transport, on the 18th 
of May, 1854, while on their voyage 
to Rangoon ; also the monument to 
Major George Broadfoot, C.B., of the 
34th Madras Light Infantry, and of 
Kirkwall in the Orkneys, who was 
one of the illustrious garrison of Jald- 
labdd, and of whom Lord Hardinge 
said, ** He was as brave as he was able, 
and second to none in all the great 
qualities of an accomplished officer." 
He fell at the battle of Finizshahar 
on the 21st of December, 1845, the last 
of three brothers, who died for their 
country on the battle fields of Asia. 
This monument is in the vestibule at 
the W. end of the N. aisle, and shows 
in white marble the hero recumbent 
in military full dress, supported by 
two Sipahis resting on their arms 
reversed. Observe also the monument 
of Major-Gen. Sir Robert Henry Dick, 
K.C.B., and K.G.H., owe ^1 \}QSi.\sRx.^5R.'s» 
of the Peiimsvx\»i \^w, vqVok ^<i^ ^ts. 
the battle ^e\^ ol ^^st^^, ^'^ ^\ 
February , 1%\^. ^t)ti\s \^ ^^ >^x^^ * ^'^^ 


Madras City, 

Sect. II. 

of the nave, and orer the inscription 
is a 42nd Highlander in full dress rest- 
ing on a pedestal, on which is inscribed 
the battle roll of the regiment. On 
the N. side of the W. entrance is the 
monument of Thomas Dealtry, D.D., 
Bishop of Madras, who died on the 
5th of March, 1861, and on the N. 
wall of the N. aisle is that of William 
Griffiths, F.L.S., a most distinguished 
botanist, who died 9th of February, 

The general hour for church service 
is 11 A.M. and 6.30 P.M. on Sunday, 
and the Communion is celebrated in 
the hot weather at 7 A.M. 

Other Chnrches, — St. Andrew's, the 
Scotch Church, is nearly IJ m. due 
W. of the fort, a little to the S. of 
Punamali Road, betwesn Vepery and 
Chintddripet, near the Kuam river. 
The first stone of this fine church was 
laid on the 6th of April, 1818. The 
edifice was completed in about two 
years, and cost £20,000, the architect 
being Major Fiott de Havilland. The 
Madras stucco, or chunam, in the in- 
terior gives to the pillars all the white- 
ness and polish of the finest Parian 
marble. The steeple rises to the height 
of 166 J ft., and the building is remark- 
able for the complete substitution of 
masoniy for timber, which would be 
destroyed by white ants. Bishop Heber 
complains tiiat the form of the church 
is singular, and ill-adapted for hearing, 
but he praises the stateliness of the 
structure. The foundations are raised 
on wells of masonry, which are sunk 
9 ft. deep, and the basement of the 
foundation measures 4 ft., the founda- 
tions themselves 13^ ft., making the 
whole depth below the pavement 26^ ft. 
In spite of the nature of the soil, which 
is first vegetable mould for 10 in., then 
a foot or two of alluvial earth, then 8 
or 10 ft. of black soapy salt mud, then 
sand, which after a few feet becomes 
a quicksand, — these brick wells filled 
with rubble form a solid support to the 
vast superincumbent weight. These 
wells, like all others in the country, are 
biu7t up to a convenient height above 
S^ound and then made to subside by 
scooping out the earth from under the 
Joasourjr, As the water rushes in the 

men are obliged to work with their 
bodies completely immersed. This 
labour, however, is so exhausting that 
they are obliged to relieve one another 
unceasingly. The well -diggers are a 
distinct caste, and will not intermarry 
even with the tank-diggers. The bridge 
over the Kuam river near the church 
is called St. Andrew's after the church, 
and was erected by the same architect 
in 1817, at a cost of £8,000. 

St. Thome, — In the quarter called 
St. Thom6, rather more than 2 m. due 
S. of the Fort, there is a small but 
pretty church where service is fre- 
quently attended by the Governor and 
the elite of Madras. There are only 
two tablets, both to officers who were 
drowned at sea. Here is an old Iloman 
Catholic church. The other churches 
at Madras have nothing remarkable, 
except those at the Little and Great 
Mount, which will now be described. 

The Little Mount. — This curious spot 
is about 5 m. S. and by W. of the Fort. 
It is a little to the 1. after crossing 
Marmalong Bridge (said to be Mdmill- 
amma. Our Lady of the Mangoes) 
which spans the Adydr river and is 
410 yds. long .but very narrow. It has 
29 arches. On the hither side is a 
square building 14 ft. high, with pillars 
at each comer and an inscription in 
English, Latin, and Persian, which says 
that the expenses of the bridge were 
defrayed from a legacy left for the 
purpose by Adrian Fourbeck, a mer- 
chant of Madras, from the plan and 
under the direction of Lieut.-CoI. 
Patrick Ross, chief engineer, in 178G. 
On reaching the Little Mount you 
ascend 37 steps and enter the church. 
On the 1. is a litter in which they 
carry the effigy of the Virgin. In front 
are several epitaphs. One is that of 
Samuel Admand, a native of London, 
who died July 2, 1765, and-^e other 
two have the dates 1807,"^ 1809. On 
the 1. of the entrance is a portrait of 
St. Thomas, with an old Portuguese 
inscription. You now descend 3 stei)s 
on the 1., and go down a slope leading 
to a cavern hewn out of the solid rock. 
It is necessaxy to ^\.oo^ -^rery low to 
enter t\ie cave, acv^ ^i^i'etfe \s ivc?Oti\i\^\.Q 
see "but a nasiQW a^Tt\)ie ^\iiOsi \^\& 

Sect. II. 

Model Fann — jRace^Course. 


in the daylight, and through this fissure 
they tell you St. Thomas escaped the 
IiK^ans, who wished to slay him. You 
now leave the church and ascend 11 
steps to the vestry-room, in which is 
a Missal with the date 1793. Next 
ascend 28 steps outside the building to 
the terraced roof, whence there is a 
good view of the surrounding flat 
country, Guindy is seen to the E., 
and the Model Farm about i m. to the 
N.B. of it. The Greater Mount is dis- 
tinctly seen about 3 m. to the S.W. 
Close by to the W. are seen Marmaloug 
Bridge and the AdyAr with hundreds 
of washermen plying their vocation. 
Ascend 11 more steps to the priest's 
room, which is the highest point, 
whence appear 260 yds. to the E. the 
white walls of the Penitentiary, at 2 J 
m. to the S. the race-course, and 3 m. 
to the N. the Boman Catholic Cathedral. 
Descend again, and see a dark cell fuU 
of bats, which is said to be the oldest 
part of the church, and where St. 
Thomas himself worshipped. To the 
W. is a hole in the rock in which is a 
little water said to have been miracu- 
lously produced by the Saint. This is 
called the Fountain I Outside are some 
rocks, two of which are cased with 
thick masonry, marked with the feet, 
knee, and hands of St. Thomas, as it 
is said, but strong faith is required to 
see anything in the impressions but 
ordinary scratches. 

The Mod-el Farm may next be visited. 
The superintendent's house is on the 
far side of Marmalong Bridge, and to 
the rt., but to reach the farm you go 
to the 1. The sheep are poor scraggy 
things, the wethers weighing only 35 
lbs. There are about 300 of them, and 
30 cattle. The farm is 300 acres in 
extent. Poultry can hardly be kept 
owing to the havoc made by rats, 
bandycoots, and mungooses. There 
are 60 students, of whom 20 are normal. 
The New Orleans cotton grows well. 
There is a water-lift where a single 
bullock draws up 23,000 gallons a day. 
The cost is 9 4nds a day, 6 for the bul- 
lock and 3 foi* the driver. The soil 
here is not good, and has only J per 
cent of limef whereas good soil has 5 
per cent For dry crops they have to 

put on lime and bum kankar to get 
it, and this is expensive. The wood 
of the casuarina is used to bum the 
kankar, and 4 loads of this wood are 
equal to 1 load of coaL Indigo is cut 
in February, and brings 30 rs. an acre. 
Tobacco also is grown. 

The Bace- Vonrse is beyond Marma- 
long Bridge to the rt. going from 
Mount Boad. The Course is 14 m. 
long. To the N. you see the Great 
Mount and Palaveram, a double hill 
about 600 ft. high, with a long, low 
range extending from it. The races 
take place, of course, in the cold 
weather ; and here, on the 16th of 
December, 1876, the Prince of Wales 
was present, and H.B.H. also hunted 
twice in the vicinity with the fox- 
hounds, of which Mr. Lodwick, C.S., 
was Master ; once on the 18th of De- 
cember, four days after the races, when 
the jackal, which is here hunted instead 
of a fox, ran 10 m., and several horses 
were killed or injured. In the Course 
is an obelisk to Major Donald Mackey, 
who died Sept. 27, 1783. The Great 
Mount is quite 7 m. from the Fort, and 
about 3 m. from Marmalong Bridge to 
the S.W. The head-quarters of the 
Madras Artillery used to be here, and 
the Mess Boom is still a considerable 
building, the dining-room being 80 ft. 
long, and the ball-room of the same 
length. There are also good read- 
ing-rooms and a valuable library. 
In the dining-room are portraits of 
Colonel Noble and General Mont- 
gomery. The former is a J length, 
representing Colonel Noble in the 
uniform of the Madras H. A., which 
corps he formed and commanded. The 
latter wears the uniform of the Foot 
Artillery. The church (St. Thomas's) 
is a few hundred yards from the Mess 
House. It is a handsome building, 
with a well-proportioned steeple. The 
register of the church goes back to 
Dec. 22nd, 1804. There are monuments 
here to several distinguished officers, 
and among them to Colonel Noble, who 
died 16th July, 1827 ; Major Augustus 
Fred. Oakes, who was killed b^ cou'^j 
de soleiL in Wi^ ».\X»«^ ^^ ^Skas^^assa.^ 
April l*i,\%5'Z\ Mi^L Q^T^ax^^"^^«sfi.^ 


Madras City. 

Sect. II. 

at the court of Travankor, and died 
Ist October, 1862, aged 77. 

From the church to the Mount is f 
of a m. in a N.W. direction. You 
ascend 9 steps to enter the archway, 
which stands at the foot of a succession 
of terraces and steps leading up to a 
church at the top of the Mount. Over 
this archway is the date, 1726, and 
within are several slabs with epitaphs. 
One is inscribed Adeodata, wife of 
Major Koach, died 26th July, 1719. 
After ascending the 121 steps which 
lead to the church, you observe the 
remains of a fortification, with embra- 
sures for guns and 3 cannon used for 
signals. The Mount is an isolated cliff 
of greenstone and syenite, about 300 ft. 
high. The church is called "the 
Expectation of the Blessed Virgin." 
It is 109 ft. by 78 ft., and was built by 
the Portuguese in 1647, and is the pro- 
perty of the K. C. Armenians. The 
view from the top is a fine one. To 
the N.W. are the Hills of Palaveram, 
and between them and the Mount are 
the New Barracks, with a fine parade 
ground. To the E. are seen the Yali- 
chari and Namgambikam tanks. 

At this church, behind the altar and 
above it, is a remarkable cross with a 
Nestorian inscription in Sassanian 
Pahlavi of about 800 A.D. As you look 
at the inscription, begin to read a little 
to your rt. of the centre, that is, to your 
rt. of the top of the arch. Dr. Bumell 
has read the inscription, and translates 
it, " Ever pure * * is in favour with 
Him who bore the cross." The general 
belief is that St. Thomas was martyred 
at Mailapiir, which H. H.Wilson (Trans- 
actions of Roy. As. Soc., vol. i., p. 161) 
identifies with MihilAropye or Mihila- 
piir, now St. Thom6. The Rev. C. 
Egbert Kennet, of Bishop's Coll., Cal- 
cutta, has brought together the notices 
of St. Thomas's visit to India in a 
valuable little pamphlet, printed at the 
Christian Knowledge Society's Press, 
18, Church Road, Vepery. The mar- 
tyrdom of St. Thomas is said to have 
taken place at Maildpi!ir on the 21st 
of IfeCf 68 A.D, ; and Heber says 
(Journal, vol, iu\, p. 212, 4th Ed.), " I 
aee no good reason for doubting that it 
^ ^^y the place.'' In the Anglo- 

Saxon Chron. (p. 357, Bohn's Ed.) it 
is said, " This year (883), Sighelm and 
Athelstan carried to Rome the alms 
which Alfred had vowed to send 
thither, and also to India to St. Thomas 
and to St. Bartholomew." Gibbon 
refers to it, c. 48. Bishop Dorotheus, 
bom A.D. 254, in a fragment in the 
Paschal Chron. says that the Apostle 
Thomas suffered martyrdom at Cala- 
mina, a town of India (see Cave's 
" Historia Literaria," p. 107). At the 
Council of Nice, A.D. 325, John, Bishop 
of India, was present. St. Jerome, 
A.D. 390, mentions Calamina as the 
town in India where St. Thomas died. 
In Col. Yule's « Marco Polo," vol. ii., 
pp. 290, 293, 294, will be found refer- 
ences to other ancient notices of St. 
Thomas's visit to India. Abdias, who 
lived at the end of the 1st century, 
and whose work was published by 
Lazius at Basle in 1552, says he re- 
membered a book in which the voyage 
of St. Thomas to India was describ^. 

The Central Mmeiim is situated about 
2 m. to the W. by S.of the Fort, in the 
quarter called Egmore, between Hall's- 
road and the Pantheon-road. There is 
here a skeleton of a whale 50 ft. long ; 
also a very fine tiger killed near Tiru- 
pati, and a good collection of stuffed 

TJie Public Gardens or People's Park 
is due N. of the Jail, and W. of the 
Central Rly. Stat. There is a fine col- 
lection of animals here. Among them 
is a large rhinoceros, which got loose 
some years ago and caused great terror 
and confusion. It charged a wall with 
such force that it broke off its horn 
quite short, and was then captured. 
There is also a lion whose tail was 
bitten off by the tiger, a very large 
one, that is kept in the next cage. It 
is well not to approach this lion within 
10 yards. 

The Principal Shops. — The shops of 
Madras are pre-eminently good. That 
of Mr. Orr, not far from Neill's statue, 
and between it and Government House, 
will supply all that can be desired in 
the way of jewellery • and gold and 
silver omameofcB. H^re Trichinapalli 
chains can \)e got m '^erle.o.Xitfsti. ^Vi^a 
by is th.e tuimtvxt^ ^o^ ^"^ ^« ^^^- 

Sect. IL JRotUe 1. — Madras to tite Seven Pagodas, 


champs, who is an artist eqnal to an j 
that can be found in Europe, and who 
has sent many beautiful articles to the 
European exhibitions. Here also are 
excellent booksellers, Higginbotham k, 
Co., and seyeral photographic studios 
well deserving to be visited. In Black 
Town the shop of Oakes & Co. is un- 
riralled as a general store. A good 
hairdresser and perfumer's shop is, 
however, much wanted, and one must 
depend on itinerant barbers for the 
luxmy of being shaved and shampooed. 

The Observatory is about 1 m. W. of 
the Central Museum, and has been in 
charge of very eminent men. It is 
worth a visit. It was erected in 1793 
by Michael Tapping, under orders from 
the directors of the E. L C. 

The Charities of Madras, — The 
recent dreadful famine has given rise 
to several important charities in Madras. 
Hundreds of orphan children have been 
left to the care of charitable ladies, 
among whom Mrs. Carmichaelhas been 
distinguished for the zeal with which 
she has devoted herself to every good 
work. It is a most interesting sight to 
see whole camps of these poor chUdren 
led^ and to hear their chorus of salu- 
tations to the European visitors. The 
Gordon Orphanage, at St. Thom6, for 
orphan European or Eurasian girls, is 
a most useful charity. The playground 
is close to the sea, and the girls perform 
their gymnastics with a vigour which 
speaks much for the healthiness of the 
place. Visitors may be sure that, in 
contributing to this establishment, they 
are* rescuing the young from a life of 
misery and degradation. 

The College^ where civilians are still 
examined, is between the Observatory 
and Anderson's Bridge, a little to the 
rt. after crossing that bridge, when 
going to the Observatory, and close to 
Sie S. side of the Kuam river. The 
very extensive library of the Literary 
Society, a branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society, is here. The Mackenzie MSS., 
in upwards of 60 gigantic volumes, may 
be noticed, containing a mass of his- 
torical and legendary lore respecting 
the S. of India. There is also a por- 
iiTu't of the well-known French mis- 
tioaary, the AbbS Dubois, dressed as a 

native of India. He spent 25 years in 

The Railway Stations. — ^The central 
station of the Madras Rly. is 700 yds. 
N. by W. of the Fort. It is a magnifi- 
cent building, and certainly one of the 
iinest stations in India, but excessively 
hot, as the breeze is completely shut 
out. The S. of India Central Station 
is comparatively insignificant. It 
takes about 10 minutes to drive there 
from Government House, from which 
it is 1 m. distant to the N.W. 



The first expedition the traveller 
must make, after having seen the 
sights at Madras itself, is to Mahd- 
malai-puram, "great hill-town," or 
M^valivaram, or the Seven Pagodas, 
one of the most remarkable places in 
India, and within a very moderate 
distance from the capital. It will be 
well to select if possible a moonlight 
night for the journey. The distance 
from Madras Fort is about 30 m., 6 
of which can be done in a carriage to 
Guindy Bridge, where the canal is 
reached. A boat must be engaged a 
day or two beforehand, at a cost of 
about 17 rs. If more than one person 
is going, another boat must be engaged 
for the servants. As there is seldom 
any wind, the boatmen drag the boat 
or scull it with a large stern-oar, and 
the whole distance is done in from 12 
to 14 hours. There is no cabin or 
other accommodation on board these 
boats, so that it is nsttft^garj \a \sii.^ 
one's bed and "mowpaXa ^^fl^aa5!a «b^ 
also pTOViBians ttcA.^'caR^^'st TSRJCcMis^ 
can be got at t\i<&Ni^\^^^^^«s^^^^'^" 


EotUe 1. — Madras to tlie Seven Pagodas. Sect. II. 

livaram. The canal runs due N. and 
S., and is called the East Coast Canal. 
It goes as far as Sadras, which is be- 
tween 2 and 3 m. S. of Mdvalivaram. 
On the 1. bank of the canal, to the 
K. of it, and between it and the sea, 
are the excavations and carvings in 
the rock, which have rendered the 
place so famous. The boat should 
stop opposite fialipitham, a small vil- 
lage, having the village of Saluvan 
Kuppan, or " toddy-gatherers' village,'* 
about 1^ m. to the N., where is the 
curious Tiger Cave, figured by Mr. 
Fergusson at p. 333 of Ms " History of 
Indian Architecture," and the large 
village of MAvalivaram to the S. and 
E. The distance between the canal 
and the sea is 1^ m., and from 1 m. S. 
of SAluvan Kuppan to 4 m, S. of it 
there are a great number of curious 
excavations and carvings. After land- 
ing opposite Balipitham, follow the 
rd, straight for about \ m., when you 
come to a hamlet, called Pillaiyan 
Kovil, where is a remarkable group of 
monkeys. They are admirably carved, 
and are the size of the large baboon. 
The male is sitting behind the female, 
and is busy removing vermin from her 
hair. She sits with her back to him, 
and is suckling a young one. At 200 
yds. further on, a Chdwadi (choultry) is 
passed, being a rest-house for Indians. 
It is on the 1. going towards the sea, 
as are also 8 stone figures, at about 30 
yds. from it. The centre figure repre- 
sents the goddess Durgd, with her right 
leg on her left knee, and 4 female atten- 
dants on her left hand, and 3 on her 
right hand. 10 yds. in front of this 
group is a highly polished black pillar, 
4 ft. 6 in. high, a Lingam with the 
curious curved mark, and 6 yds. in 
front of it is a Nandi or Shiva's bull, 
fallen on its side. After this you 
enter deep sand, and pass a good many 
huts on the r., and a fishing village 
on the 1. ; and so after a walk of in 
all about 1^ m., the shore temple is 
reached. It is on the edge of the sea. 
And is dedicated, first to Maha Bali 
Cbakravartti, and, secondly, to Shiva. 
-Ti^ stands in an enclosure, which was 
«^ one time surrounded by a granite 
w^«//, but now only ddbris remain and 

two uprights where the gate was. The 
porch or outer room on the N. side 
has a large slab in the centre of the 
wall opposite the door, with Shiva and 
Pdrvatl in alto rilievo upon it. This 
room is 74 ft. from E. to W., and 6 ft. 
4 in. from N. to S. The stone of the 
large inner room of the Temple, the 
door of which faces the sea, is very 
much decayed. The mortar has been 
picked out, and there are great holes 
in the walls. In the centre of the E. 
wall is a figure with 8 arms, which 
the guides say is an attendant on Bali. 
The wall is 33 ft. long from E. to W., 
and 18 ft. from N. to S., outside 
measure. In the inner part is a fallen 
Lingam. On the slab facing the door 
Shiva and PArvati are represented in 
alto rilievo. This room is 17 ft. high, 
and 9 ft. square. The E. portal of the 
temple is on the brink of the surf, 
and about 10 ft. above the sea, and 
right in front, on a rock 74 ft. 10 in. 
off, is the JDhwaja-iftavihlia, ."flag- 
pillar," or ZHpa-gtarnhJia, "lamp 
pillar" of granite, and now only 18 ft. 
high, but which, before it was broken, 
was probably 35 ft. high. It is diffi- 
cult to reach this pillar even in calm 
weather, but in rough weather it would 
be quite impossible — so fiercely do the 
waves roll in. In a vestibule at the 
W. side of the temple, is a recumbent 
figure of Vishnu, 10 ft. 10 in. long. 
The guides say it is Bali. They also 
affirm that 5 m. to the E., in the sea, 
are ruined temples.* The fact is, there 

* Mr. Fergusson, in his " Picturesque Illus- 
trations of Ancient Architecture in Hindu- 
stan/' p. 67, quotes from Southey's '* Curse of 
Kehama " tJie lines : 

" The sepulchres 
Of ancient kings, which Bali in his power 
Made in primeval times, and built above 

A city like the cities of the gods— - 
Being like a god himself. For many an age 
Hath Ocean warred against his palaces, 
Till overwhelmed beneath the waves — 
Not overthrown— so well the awful chief 
Had laid their deep foundations. 

Their golden summits in the noonday light 
Shone o'er tVie daxk gceen deep that rolled 

between ; 
Her dome* an^ TpVanw^ea «n^ «^Vk» ^ck. wwa. 
Peering above i\ift aea, «.mwvttS>a\.«i^\., 

Sect. II. 

Moute 1. — Tlie Seven Pagodas, 


are heavy breakers about 1 m. or so 
out, where there is a reef of rocks, and 
the shore all along is so rocky that it 
is not likely that the sea has encroached 
much within the historic period, so 
that the legends of a city being sub- 
merged here are probably quite un- 
founded. Indeed a gentleman, who 
has written on the Seven Pagodas, 
sounded the sea along the coast and 
found nothing to indicate submerged 
buildings. At about 30() yds. N. of 
the temple is a fishing village called 
Karmiguriamman Kovil, where are the 
ruins of a brick building, said to have 
been a French church. S. of the temple, 
at the distance of 200 yds., is a ruined 
building, called Chetti's Temple, which 
is 23 ft. 9 in. long from N. to S., and 
18 ft. from E. to W. It is of granite. 
Leaving the shore temple the traveller 
will next walk 600 yds. through deep 
sand due W. to a plain Mandapam 
of Vishnu. 12 yds. S. of it is a fine 
tank, with steps down to the water 
all round. The water is said to be 
drinkable, but the villagers prefer 
the water of the wells. The N. side 
of the tank'is 252 ft. long, the E. and 
W. sides, 2o7 ft. There is a small Man- 
dapam in the centre of the tank, called 
Kiralji Mandapam (water pavilion). 
N.E. of the tank are many trees, and 
quite a village of Brdhman houses. 
Passing these you come to the great 
sculptured rock called Arjuna's 
Penance, and as the morning sun 
will now be getting very hot, it will 
be well to turn to the S.W., where a 
nicely sheltered monolithic temple 
will be found, open to the front, called 
Varahaswdmi Mandapam, or " My 
Lord Boar's Temple," from the re- 
presentation of A^ishnu in the Boar 
Incarnation with the head of a boar. 

And on the sandy shore, beside the verge 
Of Ocean, here and there a rook-cut fane 
Resisted, in its strength, the surf and 

That on their deep foundations beat in vain." 

The same authority makes this temple about 
30ft. sq. in the base, and about twice that in 
height, and adds " notwithstanding its small 
dimensions it is, with the single exception of 
the temple at Tanjiir, tlie finest and most im- 
portant vimdna I have seen, or know of in 

Here it will be well to breakfast, 
sheltered from the sun, and repose 
till towards evening. There are retiring 
places among the rocks where one can 
bathe without being seen, but it will 
be well to take a few pardahs or tent- 
screens with one for greater privacy and 
comfort. The absence of insects, espe- 
cially flies, is very remarkable here in 
the cold weather. The Yarihasw^mi 
Mandapam is f m. S. of Balipitham, 
where the traveller leaves the canal. 
The facade of the Mandapam is sup- ^ 
ported by 2 pillars and 2 pilasters, tne 
bases of which are carved to represent 
the Simha or Southern Lion, a mythi- 
cal animal, not at all like a real lion. 
They are sedent, and their tails are 
twisted in a peculiar manner, like the 
loop of &. In the centre of the wall, 
opiwsite to the f agade, is a small alcove, 
which is the sanctum, but there is no 
idol in it. It is 6 ft. 3 in. high, 4 ft. 
deep from E. to W., and 4 ft. 7 in. 
broad from N. to S. On either side is 
a DwArpdl in alto rilievo. In the 
side wall to the N. is a representation 
of the Vardha incarnation, fairly well 
done, but unfinished. The central 
figure is Vishim with a huge boar's 
head. He has his right leg bent up, 
and resting on a figure issuing ap- 
parently from waves. The Shesh N4g, 
or six-headed serpent, over-canopies 
the figure, which has the face of a 
handsome youth, whose hands are 
joined in prayer. This figure is pro- 
bably intended for Ananta, ** the end- 
less serpent." In front of him are 2 
male figures, the nearest of which is 
praying with joined hands to Vishnu. 
Vishnu supports on his right thigh a 
well-shaped female, his wife, Lakh^mi, 
whose figure is however dispropor- 
tionately, short, being not so long as 
the boar's head. Vishnu presses her 
hips with his right hand, and with his 
left grasps her right leg at the ankle. 
His huge snout touches her breast. 
Her feet are broken off. To his N. is 
a worshipping figure in the sky, and 
2 tall figures, one of whom holds a 
water-pot fox ablMtvow^. Tbr. \iasife S& 
supposed to \>fc ^;)Q»^. ^>BKCL^S.^wKn^ ^'s^ ^ 
the g^aat B\sm■^^'a^^'' ^<^^^^^ ^^^V 
who \iaA caitv^ o^^iJcia ^^'Cq.\»5^ "«= 


Houte 1. — Madras to the Seven Pagodas. Sect. II, 

infinite abyss. Vishnu, with the head 
of a boar, pursued and slew him, and 
brought back the earth. On the oppo- 
site side wall, to the S., is a very spirited 
representation of the Vdmana Avatdra, 
or Dwarf Incarnation, in alto rilievo. 
Vishnu, dilated to an immense size, 
places one foot on the earth, and lifts 
another to the sky. The 3rd foot with 
which he is said to have thrust down 
Bali to Naraka, or the Infernal regions, 
is not visible. The god has 8 arms, 
with which he holds a sword, a 
quoit, a shield, a bow, and a lotus, 
and with a 6th he points. The other 
2 are indistinct. Worshippers or at- 
tendants are at his feet, and other 
figures appear in the skies. One to the 
S. has the head of a dog, and seems to 
be addressing a grave worthy of di- 
minutive size in a squatting posture. 
There is a strange thing like a starfish 
in his lap, or it may be meant for one 
of Vishnu's hands. The legend is that 
when Bali was tyrannising over the 
earth, Vishnu approached him in the 
shape of a dwarf, and asked for so 
much earth as he could plant his feet 
upon. Bali granted this modest re- 
quest, whereupon Vishnu dilated to 
immense proportions and planted one 
foot on earth, one on the sky, and 
with a third thrust Bali down to 
hell. The capitals of the pillars in 
the facade are very elegant. In the 
wall in which is the alcove are two 
compartments ; in the one to the 
spec^tor's rt. as he looks in from the 
fa9ade, is a tall slim womUn, probably 
intended for Lakhshmi, with a tiger 
to her rt., and an antelope to her 1. 
and some squat Ganas or heavenly at- 
tendants about her. In the compart- 
ment to the spectator's 1. is Lakhshmi 
seated, with elephants pouring water 
over her from their trunks, and fe- 
male attendants on either side. These 
figures are indelicate. In the ceiling 
is a large lotus ornament. About 30 
yds. to the N. of the Vardhaswdmi Man- 
dapam is a monolithic temple carved 
out of a huge boulder. In the facade 
^^ 2 pillara and 2 pilasters. This 
fempJe is dedicated to Ganesh. It is 
i^ /^' ^ ^"' ^^^S from N. to S., 4 ft. 1 
^. from E. to W., and 25 ft. 3 in. high. 

Turning to the W. you pass 5 fallen 
pillars 29 ft. long, and other debris ; 
and further on come to the great 
carving called *'Arjima's Penance." 
Before you reach it there is a flat, 
rock on the rt, about 5 ft. high, with 
steps carved in the rock up to it. 
There is also a slope in the rock down 
which the villagers slide to amuse 
visitors. The great carving has been 
enclosed by the English Government 
with a fence of masonry supports, 
and thwart pieces of timber. This 
enclosure is 84 ft. long from N. to S., 
and there is a pit 8 ft. deep in front of 
the carving, which is thus rendered 
difficult of access. The sculptured 
rock is 37 ft. high. In the compart- 
ment on the rt. of the spectator, as he 
looks towards it, are 57 figures of men, 
women, monkeys, and a cock. The 
monkeys are 3 in number, and all 
these figures are above an elephant 
13 ft. 10 in. high, and a smaller one 
6 ft. 7 in. in height, below which are 
3 cub elephants. In the 1. compart- 
ment of the sculpture are 61 figures, 
the most remarkable of all being that 
which is said to represent Arjuna, 
standing on one toe of his left foot 
with his hands above his head, his lips 
being drawn away so as to show his 
teeth, and his body being horribly 
emaciated. Below him is a devilish 
figure in a similar attitude, with long 
ears, which seems to ridicule his per- 
formance. To his rt. is a tall deity, 
probably Shiva, pointing to him ap- 
provingly. Adjoining this great piece 
of sculpture, to the 1. of the spectator 
as he looks at it, is a temple with 6 
pillars and 2 pilasters, the bases beinfi: 
carved into the shape of the Simha, or 
Southern Lion, spoken of above in the 
mention of the Vardha temple. The 
facade is 49^ ft. long, and the interior 
is 40 ft. deep, the rock having been 
hewn out to that depth. The pillars 
have curious capitals formed of 3 lions 
each, the side lions having riders and 
the centre ones not. The pillars are 
10 ft. 11 in. high. In the same direc- 
tion, 7 ft. further on, is another temple 
with ioviT piWota aiA Vwo pilasters, 
48 ft. loTxg iiomTS.Vo ^., m^ ^v> 1\.. 
deep, indudins l\v^ igi\W»i». 0\\. \>aa 

Sect. IL 

£oiUe 1. — TIte Seven Pagodas, 


back wall is a relief representing Go- 
pis or milk-maids, and herdsmen, and 
cows. To the rt. stands Krishna sup- 
porting with his left hand the hill of 
Govardhan. About the centre is a 
man milking a cow, which is excel- 
lently carved, and is represented as 
licking her calf. The pillars have the 
same capitals as those of Bijiinagar, 
that is, with a bracket representing 
the shoot and flower of the plantain. 
About 15 yds. N.E. of this is^ a large 
temple to Vishnu, which is kept locked, 
as the Br^hmans of the locality worship 
there. The central block is 88 ft. long. 
The Gopnra of stone and masonry is 
about 44 ft. high. This temple ex- 
tends 165^ ft. from back to front. As 
the spectator looks towards its door, 
he has on his rt. and close to it 
another small ruined temple on which 
is an inscription, and opposite to it is 
a figure resembling BudcUia with marks 
which show it has been adopted as 
Vishnu. There has been an extensive 
w^ed inclosure, or court, in front of 
this great temple, and there is a very 
solid gateway partly preserved. In 
front of this again is a lofty slim 
pavilion on four pillars, 25^ ft. high. 
This will probably soon fall unless 
cared for. Pass now to the E, up a 
slight ascent, and you come to the. 
R^nanajl temple. The fagade has 
two pillars based on Simhas and two 
pilasters, and is 22 ft. 3 in. long from 
W. to B. and 18 ft. 9 in. deep. The 
pillars from the floor to the ceiling 
are 9 ft. 3 in. high. There is an in- 
scription here in old Sanskrit charac- 
ters. Proceed now 1 J m. towards the 
sea in a S.E. direction until a group of 
monolithic temples, called by the 
ignorant, Raths^ is reached. The road 
is over very deep sand, and is most 
fatiguing. Here ladies or weak tra- 
vellers can be carried in chairs by the 
villagers, who walk with them a great 
deal faster than they could walk 
themselves. The first objects come 
to are a lion and an elephant carved 
in stone and partly sunk in the sand. 
The head of the elephant is particu- 
larly well done. The lion is furthest 
to the N. A little to the S.E. is 
Draupadi'8 Rath, and 8, of it Arjuna's, 

and S. of this again Bhima^s, and 
S. of all Dharma R&jd's. To the 
W. is Nakula and Saiiadeva's and 
the elephant. Draupadi's Rath has 
2 dwdrpals and a plain roof. It 
is 11 ft. square and 16 ft. high. 
Bhima's is 10 ft. from E. to W. and 
16 ft. 5 in. from N. to S., and 20 ft. 5 
in. high. Nakula's is 10 ft. from N. 
to S., 14 ft 9 in. from E. to W., and 
19 ft. 8 in. high. Arjuna's is 48 ft, 
from E. to W., and 26 ft. from N. to 
S. and 25 ft. high, and has 4 pillars 
and 2 pilasters. Dharma R&j4's is 26 
ft. 10 in. from N. to S., and 29 ft. from 
E. to W., and 36 ft. high. Proceed 
now } m. to the N.W. and reach a 
small temple perched on a rock over 
the temple of Durg^. On your rt. as you 
enter Durgd's temple is a most spirited 
relief representing Durg^ mounted on 
a lion destroying Mahish&sur, the buf- 
falo-headed demon. This temple is 29 
ft. 4 in. from E. to W., and 23 ft. from 
N. to S. On your 1. as you enter is 
a relief representing Vishnu recum- 
bent. The platform of the upper tem- 
ple is 56 ft. above that of Durg^'s, and 
very difficult of access, but the guides 
spring up the slippery rock with won- 
derful agility. If the traveller is able 
to give only one day to these ex- 
cavations it will now be dark and 
time to embark in his boat to return. 
If he has longer time he can examine 
the sculptures more minutely, and 
might possibly find some which have 
not been here mentioned. At present 
the best guide is a young man named 
Murga, who holds certificates, and it 
will be well to ask for him. His fee 
will be from 2 to 4 rs., and if others 
accompany him 1 r. will suffice for 
them. A most complete and valuable 
account of these excavations will be 
found in the work entitled " Descrip- 
tive and Historical Papers relating to 
the Seven Pagodas on the Coromandel 
Coast, by W. Chambers, J. Golding- 
ham, B. G. Babington, F.A.S., the Rev. 
G. W. Mahon, Lieut. J. Braddock, 
the Rev. W. Taylor, Sir Walter Elliot, 
and C. Gubbins, edited by Capt, M. 
W. Cart *, TptiTAfc^lot\3wi^Q"^«rKss^^^ 
of MadTOR, «ifc ^i)fta ^o'eXet "^^'e!^^ "la*-, 



Boute 2. — Madras to Porto Novo, 

Sect. II. 

age of these sculptures has never been 
definitely ascertained. No date has 
been found in anj of the inscriptions. 
Mr. Fergusson, " History of Architec- 
ture," voL ii. p. 502, says the Rathas 
were " carved by the Hindiis, probably 
about 1300 A.D." Sir W. Elliot fixes 
the era of the oldest Tamil inscrip- 
tion on the rocks of M^valivaram at 
the latter part of the 11th cent., and 
that of the rock inscription at Sdluvan 
Kuppan at the beginning of the 12th. 
The Sanskrit inscriptions are of earlier 
date. Sir W. EUiot thinks that they 
could not have been later than the 6th 
cent. Mr. Fergusson says, ^' Although 
these Baths are comparatively modem 
and belong to a different faith, they 
certainly constitute the best represen- 
tations now known of the forms of the 
Buddhist buildings." A copy and 
translation of the Sanskrit inscrip- 
tions by Dr. Arthur Bumell will be 
found in the Appendix of the work 
referred to above. Sadras, an old 
Dutch settlement, is 3 m. further to 
the S. by the canal, but is hardly worth 
a visit. 



The South of India Company cannot 
guarantee the times printed in its time- 
tiskbles being kept under all circum- 
stances, nor do they hold themselves 
responsible for delay. Passengers can 
be booked at intermediate stations only 
on condition that there shall be room in 
the train. To insure being booked, pas- 
sengera should he at ihe station at least 
SO minutes before the time mentioned 
Jn the tubles. Tickets torn or muti- 
^ted win not be recognized. The 

maximum penalty for travelling or at- 
tempting to travel without payment 
is 50 rs. After passengers have left 
the booking office mistakes in tickets 
or money cannot be recognized. 
Children under 3 travel free ; from 3 
to 12, pay J fare. A Ist-class double 
saloon carriage will be reserved for 
a party paying 6 Ist-class tickets, half 
ditto on paying 3 ; a 2nd-class carriage 
on paying 20 2nd-class tickets ; a 
compartment on paying 5 2nd-class 
tickets. All servants without refer- 
ence to race can accompany their 
employers in the 1st or 2nd class 
carriages on paying the next lowest 
class fares. 1st class passengers are 
allowed free of charge 120 lbs. of 
luggage ; 2nd class 60 lbs. ; 3rd class 
20 lbs. All in excess will be chareed 
2 pies per man per m. All luggage 
must be prepaid, and must be at the 
station 20 minutes before the train 
starts. No luggage is allowed in the 
carriages but what can be placed 
under the seat. Live animals are 
separately charged for. Lost luggage 
is placed in the lost luggage office at 
Triehindpalli Junction and Madras. 
A fee of 2 dnds is charged on each lost 
article, but after the first month a 
storage charge of 4 dnds is made ; if 
not claimed within 6 months the lug- 
gage will be sold to pay expenses. 
The company will not be responsible 
for valuable articles, such as gold and 
silver, unless an increased charge has 
been paid for them. On 24 hours' 
notice to the Traffic Manager or Dis- 
trict Traffic Superintendent at Triehi- 
ndpalli and Madura special or re- 
served accommodation may be had. 
Any person attempting to enter a 
train in motion is liable to a penalty 
of 20 rs. Parcels must be delivered at 
stations 30 minutes before the depar- 
ture of the trains. When horse-boxes 
or carriage-truohs are required notice 
should be given one day before. Dogs 
must be each provided with a mvzzle, 
collar, and chain, and on no account 
will be allowed to accompany passen- 
gers inside the carriages. The Com- 
pany^ B aervaofcB «t^ "^toMbited from 
xeceivvng %i«A,\xi\Aft» xxxvdkfct ^^tvi ^1 

! 2. — Uadrat to Porto Novo. 

Uasbas to Fobto Novo. 


Names of Htnttons 









UldRUI . . . 


Names ot »t>t>an« an written In 



Saldapet . . . 



The station here ii a snull, open, red- 



St Tboma.' Mount . 



A VKtly Btdtion-taouH on rL, with 
cWortabla WMiling-raom. 


PalBVamni . 

«. S 



GudumnoUnii . " * 

8. r 



hlUa dotted with liwa. 



A liouaa ia being built DU L 


ChengalpM . 

A large town and fnpital at s col- 


K.l»tWr , . . 


leetoist». Between it and Kiilat- 



tilr tha Pulir r ii emaasd bf > 


bridge or 1$ apana at 130 IL aoob. 

Thla bridga ia4am. Sllcb. 8. of 


OlttktOr . . , 

11 2 



Tlndaviuiain . 







Paiiiatl . ' . ' ; 


r. i8fln«»8dbral)rid8BO(l7»p«i« 

A. 3 

oruiort. ewh. Tlilamise ia luTn. 


aeluaorMadM. ^ 


Bafoie reaohlng Qudalilr (New Town) 



(Old Town) 


crosa the Peaia i. . here nallud tlia 
OadidaDi. by .brtlgB with w span. 
oflWrtoach. ThlabridgelBl24n., 




At 63 ch. to the B. of AtamWAun 
cross the Paiavanir r. by a bi Idge 


Porto Novo . (-UTlve) 

At 39 ch. S. or Porto Nova the Penit 

each of 150 ft. Thia hriilge is 145 in. 

Ihe^KoUdin (CoiB^B) t, I°"™»ed 
by a bridge of 4 apina, aaoh ar ISO 
K. ThlilildgeiriMin. B2ch.S. 

The tTftTelleis' b. at Ovdalur is a 
little more than | m. B. of the S. eod 
ij£ lie bridge over the Penir r. on the 
Puducheri i^., and that end of the 
bridge Is 1^ m. N. of the Collector's 
Jiaeheid or office. Fort St. David \i 
on the sea-Bhore on the N. side of the 
Oadaldr or Geddalam r. The old town 
of OudalUr lies on the S, side of the r., 
and about a m. to the 8. of ita S. bank. 
KewTami(arthe Civil Lines) lies about 
£m. If. of the old town, and like Fort 
Bt. David on the N.side of the Ctedda- 

The Clril Lines are studded 
i, and 08 the » 

close there is generally a hreeie. The 
Club, where a bed-room can almoit 
alwa^ be got, stands centrally 1 j m. 
E. of the t. b. As soon as the traveller 
comfortably located, be should 
borrow from the church a book en- 
tiUed " The Cuddalore Obituary," 
being copies dt ■*% iii'«Tvtfi!!t« tS. 
t&b\et8 ani iiKfmnoeoSa ^a. ■&)» ^tsasjSa 
and cemeteTiw tA C^^**^*^^'/^^ 
Mather. TUa wifticff '«'>» »»■«*. V^ 


Houte 2. — Gudalur — Fort St, David. 

Sect II. 

sioner,! and died a few days after he 
had finished the book, which is a 
marvel of calligraphy, and ought to be 
photographed, for there is nothing so 
beautiful of its kind to be seen any- 
where. Not only are the epitaphs ex- 
quisitely copied, but the escutcheons, 
and in some cases the tombs, are most 
artistically drawn, and are very inter- 
esting in themselves. There are in all 
39 epitaphs, beginning with that to 
Mrs. Mary and Catherine Davis, of the 
3l8t of December, 1683, and the 29th 
of November, 1684, wife and child of 
Mr. John Davis, " Cheife of Coodalore." 
Among the epitaphs most) deserving 
notice is that to Henry Eden, Esq., 
^^ an amiable young gentleman of an 
ancient family residing in Durham," 
who died on the 5th of June, 1768, 
aged 20. He is buried in a vault in 
the nave of Christ Church. There is 
also the epitaph to " Vicessimus {sic) 
Grifl&th, Merchant, youngest son of 
Sir John Griffith, Kt., and lately third 
in Council," who died 5th of October, 
1705. He is buried in the old ceme- 
tery in Komity-street. Bemark also 
the epitaph to C. E. Macdonald, Esq., 
C.S., "who, whilst in the discharge of 
his duty, was brutally murdered at 
Kadapah by an infuriated mob of 
Muslims, on the 15th of June, 1832, in 
the 24th year of his age, and of Agnes 
his wife, who died on the 7th of July, 
1832, of a broken heart, aged 20." 
This is a white marble tomb in the 
aisle of Christ Church. Observe also 
the epitaph to " John Hallyburton, an 
honest, brave man, and a sincere lover 
of his country, who was basely mur- 
dered on the 27th day of August, 1748, 
by a mutinous Sip&hi, at the siege of 
Pondicheri, where he served in quality 
of voluntier (*ic)." This monument 
is in the old cemetery in Komity-street. 
There is also a monument in the com- 
pound of Christ Church erected by the 
Officers of the 74th Regt. to " Hamil- 
ton Maxwell, Esq., son of Sir William 
Maxwell, of Monreath, Bart., aide-de- 
iiaxap to the king, and Lieut-Colonel of 
ICM. '8 74th Highland Begt. of Foot, 
Trho died on the 8th of June, 1794." 
-4 Jfew^ hours may be pleasantly occu- 
pjed in visiting the Chnrch (Christ 

Church), the old Cemetery in Komity- 
street, and the Ja%l^ which are all close 
together in the old town, close to the 
backwater and the sea, and 2\ m. from 
the t. b. to the S.E. The Jail is an 
old cotton factory, and was built for 
357 prisoners, but of late has been 
over-crowded. The ventilation is bad, 
but the upper rooms are large, and 
might perhaps be made airy. One of 
them lately fell in, the beams having 
been eaten by white ants, but luckily 
there were no prisoners in it at the 
time. The C^wrc/i is a shabby building, 
but interesting on account of the old 
tombs in and about it. It belongs to 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. Government paid the society 
20 rs. a month for 20 years for one 
service on each Sunday. The society 
did nothing to the building, which was 
falling to decay, but Mr. O. Irvine, 
the Judge of Gudaliir, has at last pre- 
vailed on the society to expend 4000 rs. 
in repairs. There are 30 tombs in the 
compound, which is kept clean. The 

2 cemeteries in Komity-street and 
Sloper or Wellington-street are fairly 
well kept. Mr. Mather has overlooked 

3 of the epitaphs in his Obituary, but 
not important ones. 

Fort St, David must, of course, be 
visited on account of the historical 
interest attaching to it. Orme, 4th 
ed. vol. i. p. 78, says, "the E. I. C. 
was here in possession of a territory 
larger than that of Madras. It had 
been purchased about 100 years before 
(1746),* from the Indian prince of the 

* This is not quite correct. It was pur- 
chased in 1691, but seems first to have come 
into our possession about 1682, for on the 11th 
of May in that year orders were given by the 
E. I. C. to establish a factory there, and 
on the 9th of October, 1682, as it had failed, 
it was directed tiiat one should be established 
at Kangameda. John Davis re-established 
the factory at Gudaliir on the 5th of May, 
1683, and in September, 1690, soldiers and 
stores were sent to Fort St. David or Tegna- 
patam. In October, 171S, Robert Baworth 
rebelled at Fort St. David, and fired on Gover- 
nor Harrison's men. For this the Directors of 
the £. I. C. were about to punish him, but in 
December, 1713, he went to Paris, where he 
died. In 1725 the Directors santitioned the 
conatrucUon ot &\»s>t\on. on the E. face of St 
David, and \ii Via% a va^^« \ft»^»s!A "wtsia 
built beivreeu Gu^altcc wtieL Wvft Ycp^, "V^'^!}^^^ 
the Fort Ycaa m\)LC\i \m\>ws%»i>, «a^ ^ ^v« 

Sect. II. 

Route 2. — Fort St David. 


country, and their title to it was con- 
firmed by the Mughul's Viceroy, when 
the Moors conquered the KarnAtik . . . 
the Fort was small but better forti- 
fied than any of its size in India, and 
served as a citadel to the Company's 
territory . . . The government of Fort 
St. David depended on that of Madras, 
to which it was immediately the next 
in rank ; but on the breach of the 
treaty of ransom the Company's agents 
at Fort St. David, regarding those at 
Madras as prisoners to the French, 
took upon themselves the general ad- 
ministration on the coast of Coroman- 
del." On the night of the 8th of 
December, 1746, the French, 1700 
strong, with 50 European cavalry, 6 
guns, and 6 mortars, marched to attack 
the Fort. They were commanded by 
M. Bury, the oldest officer of the 
French troops in India. At IJ m. to 
the N.W. of Fort St. David was a 
country house appointed for the resi- 
dence of the Governor, and behind 
which to the N. was a large garden 
enclosed with a brick wall. The 
French passed the Pen4r r. , about \ m. 
from the garden, of which they took 
possession, and then dispersed to cook 
food and sleep. While at this disad- 
vantage, they were attacked by the 
army of the NiiwAb of the KarnAtik, 
consisting of 6000 horse and 3000 
foot. The French retreated over the 
river in great disorder, with the loss of 
120 Europeans wounded and 12 killed, 
and a great part of their baggage. By 
the command of M. Dupleix, other 
attempts were made by the French 
against Gudaliir and Fort St. David, 
but were repulsed. In 1749 the E. I. C. 
ordered the Presidency of their settle- 
ments on the coast of Coromandel to 
continue fixed at Fort St. David, the 

extensive works were constructed. The river 
was diverted on the W. in order to widen the 
ditch to 100 feet, and bomb proofs were built, 
which still exist At the same time the horn- 
work on the N. and lunettes on the E. and W. 
were begun, but the horn-work was not 
finished till 1749. The village of Devapat^ 
nam, and all the houses in that direction, 
within 800 yards of the Fort, were removed 
A battery was erected near the burial ground. 
The Dutch factory stood till 1758, shortly 
before the siege of the Fort. In 1747 a mint 
was established at Gudaldr. 

fortifications of which had been much 
improved. In 1756 Lieut.-Col. Clive, 
afterwards Lord Clive, was appointed 
governor of Fort St. David. In April, 
1758, M. Lally sent the Count 
D'Estaign with 1000 Europeans and 
1000 Sipdhis against Gudaliir and 
Fort St. David, which latter had been 
much strengthened, but was defective 
on account of the want of space, being 
only 140 ft. broad from W. to E., and 
390 long from N. to S. The 4 bastions 
at the angles mounted each 12 guns. 
The curtains, as well as the bastions, 
were surroui^ded by a faussebray with 
a brick parapet. The out-works were, 
a horn- work to the N. mounting 34 guns ; 
two large ravelins, one on the E. the 
other on the W., a ditch round all, which 
had a cuvette cut along the middle, and 
was supplied with water from the r. of 
Tripapoliir; the scarp and counter- 
scarp of the ditch faced with brick ; 
a broad covered way excellently pali- 
saded, with arrows at the salient 
angles commanding the glacis, and the 
glacis itself was provided with well- 
constructed mines. All these works, 
excepting the horn -work, were planned 
by Mr. Robins, but the horn-work was 
raised with much ignorance and ex- 
pense before his arrival in India, the 
whole being of solid masonry, and the 
rampart t<x> narrow to admit the free 
recoil of the guns. The ground to the 
N. of the fort, included by the sea, the 
rs. of Pen4r and Tripapoliir, and the 
canal which joins them, is a plot of 
sand, rising in several parts ii^ large 
hillocks, wliich afford good shelter 
against the fort. On the edge of the 
canal, 1300 yds. to the N. of the fort, 
stood an obsolete redoubt called 
Chuckly Point. It was of masonry, 
square, mounted 8 guns, and in the 
area were lodgments for the guard ; 
the entrance was a palisaded gate 
under an arch, but the redoubt was 
not enclosed by a ditch. About 200 
yds. to the rt. of this stood another 
such redoubt, on a sand-hiU called 
Patcharee ; 400 yds. in the rear of 
these redoubts was another sand-hill^ 
much laigiet ^ik<asi >i)aa.\. cil ^«^J2Gaa?^^ 
on. -which. )i)[i€i Tiu^jcJci \isA ^ l^^Riwscv 
house ca\Xe^ Tci<e^erMc^^^y«ss^^^'^ *^^ 


Boute 2. — Madras to Porta Novo, 

Sect. II. 

recovery and release. Many years 
after, when the French army, under 
Bemadotte, entered Hanover, Wangen- 
heim, among others, attended the vic- 
tor's lev6e. Bemadotte asked him if 
he had not served in India and at 
Gudaliir ? and on his replying in the 
affirmative, inquired if he remembered 
a wounded sergeant to whom he had 
been kind ? The Hanoverian said he 
recollected him well, that he was a 
fine gallant fellow, and he should like 
much to know what had become of 
him. " Behold him in me ! " exclaimed 
Bemadotte, and added that nothing 
should be wanting on his part to testify 
his gratitude. 

On the 27th of June, 1783, two days 
after the garrison had made their 
desperate sally, the Meditsa frigate 
arrived from Madras, bringing news 
of the peace between England and 
France, and Gudaliir and Fort St. 
David came again into the hands of 
the English. Gudaliir is now a city of 
40,290 inhab., and the capital of a 
t'alukah or district, with a pop. of 
284,849, and of the coUectorate of S. 
Arkat, which has an area of 4873 sq. 
m., besides the territory of Puducheri 
belonging to the French. The Chris- 
tians here number 30,817. The Mu- 
hammadans, chiefly Sunnis, number 
44,567, and the Jams 3861 . There are 
2 mimicipalities in S. ArkAt, Gudaliir, 
and Chedambaram. The ditch of Fort 
St. David is almost filled up, and all 
that remains of the once strong ram- 
part is the foundation, with here and 
there lumps of the fallen wall. A 
bridge over the canal is crossed before 
entering the Fort, and 30 yds. or so 
further on is a small monument in- 
scribed — 

house had lately been demolished ; 
and a fascine battery of 5 guns was 
raised on the hill. In a line on the 
1. of this hill, and on the brink of 
the canal was a gateway, with a nar- 
row rampart and battlements, which 
commanded a bridge immediately 
under it leading to the canal. The 
garrison consisted of 619 Europeans 
and 1600 Natives, but of the Europeans 
only 286 were effective. The siege 
began on the 16th of May, 1758, and 
the French soon carried the outworks, 
while the garrison wasted their ammu- 
nition in a fruitless and incessant 
cannonade. On the 1st of June, M. 
D'Ache made his appearance with 8 
large French men-of-war manned with 
33S) men ; and on the 2nd, Major 
Poller, who commanded the English 
garrison, and Mr. Wynch, the tem- 
porary governor, surrendered, and M. 
Lially o:^ered the fortifications to be 
razed to the ground. In April, 1760, 
Colonel Coote recovered Gudaliir, and 
on the 3rd of April, 1782, it surren- 
dered to the combined French and 
Malsiirean army. The French then 
greatly strengthened the works, and 
threw in a powerful garrison under 
the command of the Marquis de Bussy ; 
and on the 13th of June, 1783, General 

Stuart, who took 40 days to march 
from Madras, though the distance Is 

only 110 m., attacked the place, and 

was repulsed with a loss of 62 officers 

and 920 men, <^ almost all Europeans, 

either dead or mortally wounded 

on the field." (See Mill, vol. iv., 

p. 272!) On the 20th the EngHsh 

fleet under Sir Edward Hughes, and 

the French under Suffrein, fought a 

battle off Gudaliir with a dubious re- 
sult. On the 25th the garrison having 

been reinforced with 2400 men from 

the French fleet made a sally, but 

were repulsed with a loss of 600 men. 

Among the wounded French prisoners 

was a young sergeant, who, by his 

noble appearance, attracted the atten- 
tion of Colonel Wangenheim, the 

officer commanding the Hanoverian 
troops in the EngUsb service, to such 
a degree, that he ordered the young 
man to be conveyed to hia own tent, \ Close to t\us \b «»i \»\\. ^ i^. 5vftR,^, ^\. 
rrhere he was kindly treated until his 1 the "bottom oi N»\iie\im«3 \3fe ^ftsa^Ocv^ 

In Memoriam 

Labomm, dolonim ac ludorum 

Comitis fidelis 

* Nettle' 

Eheul tenebrosft nocte, 

Anguis latentis victimse. 

Hoc monumentum erexit 


John Law, sc. 
Obiit ^*^'*- 

Sect. ir. 

Eoute 2. — GudalUr — Pondicherry, 


brickwork of the entrance to a subter- 
raneous gallery now choked up, but 
which went to a distance under the 
Fort. With the warning inscribed on 
the monument of the dog, confronting 
visitors, it is not likely that this gallery 
will be explored. From the ruined 
bastion here there is a view over the 
Backwater, and a spit of land covered 
with trees which intervenes. After 
entering the Fort, there is a good house 
on the 1. which is inhabited by an 
English family. Half a mile to the 
N., after passing through an avenue of 
tall trees, a mound is reached with 
seats round it, and on the top the 
band-stand. This is the scandal-point 
of the fashionables of Gudaliir. The 
greater part of the Fort is now covered 
with a grove of casuarina trees. 
Gudaliir (said to be from Kudal^ * con- 
fluence * andwr, * a town,' as where the 
Tendr and Gadilam rs. meet) suf- 
fered to a certain extent from the 
famine of 1877, and there is a relief 
camp there, where at one time 2500 
persons were collected. It is the best 
place on the coast for visiting Pondi- 
cherry (prop. Puducheri, " new vil- 
lage "), which is about 10 m. distant 
from Gudaliir, but only 7 m. from the 
bridge over the Pendr r. on the out- 
skirts of the civil lines. The usual 
plan is to send on one's luggage and 
servant in a jatka, or one-horse cart, 
for which 2 rs. are paid. If it is im- 
possible to borrow a carriage of any 
friend, it will be necessary to adopt 
the same means of conveyance for one- 
self, but it is very cramped and un- 
comfortable. On leaving Gudaliir, the 
117th milestone from Madras is passed, 
and the 110th some time before enter- 
ing Puducheri. It is usual to change 
horses at a small hamlet called 
Xatinkij about 4 m. from Gudaliir. 
You then pass at intervals three 
bridges, the two first being very long 
and narrow, then turn to the rt., 
then to the 1., and again to the rt., 
all the way under fine trees ; when 
you reach the French cemetery on the 
rt-hand of the road, and a supple- 
mentaTT- one on the 1. The Gemetm'y^ 
in all its three dirisiona is admirably 
kept, and the moumneDts are singularly 

handsome. Many of the tombs are 
surmounted by domes, and have fold- 
ing doors with glass panea Among 
the noticeable ones may be mentioned 
those of the Amalrie, Frion, and Victor 
families. There is also one to " Comet 
Ellis John Fatio, of the 1st Regiment 
of Native Cavalry, who lost his life at 
this place by a melancholy accident 
on the 19th May, 1812, aged 21." 
Also remark that of " Henry Francois 
Smith, Colonel, compagnon du Bain, 
qui a et6 40 ans au service de I'Honora- 
ble Compagnie des Indes, dte6d^ 
le 21 F^vrier 1837." The traveller's 
b. is a large building on the 1. of 
tlie road about i m. before reaching 
the town. On entering the capital of 
the French possessions in India, one 
cannot but be struck at the extreme 
neatness of the streets and the elegance 
of the buildings, and the whole place 
has tlie appearance of an infinitesimally 
small Pai'is. The Government House, a 
handsome building of stone, is situated 
at the end of the Rue de Pavilion 
at the N. end of the town, within 30 
or 40 yds. of the sea. The means of 
locomotion here is a jwvjtse-jjoyisef 
which is a sedan or little car on 
wheels pushed by one or two men, 
which glides along at a great rate 
over the level streets. After paying 
a visit to Government House, which 
at Puducheri is simply called "Le 
Gouvernement,'' and has very fine re- 
ception rooms, some of them paved 
with marble, it will be well to go 
first to the Hospital, which is on the 
W. side of the Place in which Govern- 
ment House is. It was founded in 
1858, and has room for 90 patients. 
Oil the ground floor are two rooms 
with 14 beds each on either side the 
entrance. That on the 1. is for the 
SipAhls, whose curious costume differs 
much from that of Indian troops in 
the English service, and that on the 
rt. for other natives. On the same 
floor is a small wing to the rt. with 
a room for patients with contagious 
diseases, and two rooms for oi^eca- 
tious. CVvoVerak -^a^S&T^Xi^ «tfe \»i&s3w \.v> 
a separate ^BXa^AV^xafioX. *! ts^.. ^cS., 
I There axe aepata\A \i^>^ "^SS^ ^ 
\ Europeaaa aa^ xkaX-Vse;^. ^^^ ^"^^ 


Route 2. — Madras to Porto Novo, 

Sect. II. 

for Europeans has a douche and cold 
and hot-water baths. A staircase with 
35 steps leads to the upper rooms, 
where are separate rooms for officers, 
non-commissioned officers, and sea- 
men. The women's ward is separated 
by an interval, and a wall. There are 
only 2 beds for European women, and 
12 for natives. There is a Salle d'au- 
topsie with 2 marble tables. The 
bodies of murderers are given to the 
surgeon. There are also 3 separate 
rooms for lunatics. At the entrance 
into the hospital there is a very neat 
chapel on the 1., and a library for stu- 
dents on the rt. There are 6 pupils 
in pharmacy, and 6 in surgery. S. 
of the Hospital, about 50 yds. off, is 
the College with 160 pupils, to whom 
the classical languages, mathematics, 
French and English, are taught. . This 
year (1878) the natives have demanded 
to be admitted, and 10 have entered. 
About 100 yds. to the W. is the Cathe- 
dral, which is called Notre Dame des 
Anges, Ascending 8 steps you enter, 
and find on the rt. an inscription 
which says that the building was com- 
menced in May 1851, and finished in 
March 1855, after the plans and under 
the direction of M. Louis Guerre, colo- 
nial engineer. The church is paved 
with white and black marble in al- 
ternate lozenges brought from Paris, 
as was that at Government House. 
Before the altar is buried " Hyacinthe 
Marie de Lalande de Calan, Capitaine 
de frigate, chevalier de la Legion 
d*Honneur, d6c6d6 14 Janvier 1850." 
Next, the Fountain in the centre of 
the Place may be inspected, and the 
curious Latin inscription, which re- 
cords the destruction in ancient times 
of a bayadbre's (dancing-girl) Jiouse at 
this spot. After this the Pier may be 
visited, which is a little to the S. of 
Government House, and is 150 metres 
long. At the commencement of the 
pier, ranged in a semicircle, are 8 
pillars, 38 ft. high, of a greyish blue 
stone, brought from Chenjl, or Gingee, 
which 18 40 m. distant as the crow 
A'es. The French assert that these, 
and others to he presentlr mentioned, 
nrere given to M. Dupleix by the 
Governor of Cbenji, but some authori- 

ties affirm that they were put up 
within the last 20 years. On the 3rd 
pillar on the 1. side, looking towards 
the sea, is an astronomical plan by 
some astronomers, who were directed 
to fix the exact site of Puducheri. 
On the next pillar is inscribed " Place 
Napoleon III., 1866. Ce pont d^barca- 
d6re a M execute en 1864, '65 et '66. 
M. Bontemps, Gouverneur, M. Lama- 
rasse, Ing^nieur en chef." 50 yds. W. 
of the W. end of the pier is the statne 
of Dupleix on a pedestal formed of 
old fragments of temples brought from 
Chenjl. At a distance this pedestal 
has anything but a graceful appear- 
ance, and seems formed of logs of * 
wood. On the ledge is " Statue of 
Dupleix, 1742—1754." The name of 
the sculptor is on the N. side of the 
pedestal, the inscription being " Th. 
Gruy^re, Sc." Four more pillars grace 
this end of the Place. The band plays 
once a week, and there are seats and 
a promenade. The fragments of tem- 
ples, which form the pedestal, repre- 
sent the Narsingh Avatdr, Durgi riding 
on a lion, etc. At the S. end of the 
promenade is the Hdtel de Vilhi, a 
neat building, and S. of this on the 
beach is a battery of 8 small guns. 
There is also a lighthouse which 
shows a light 89 ft. above the sea. 
On the opposite side of the way 
are some houses which are to be re- 
moved, so as to open out the Cathe- 
dral, and make a Place, which will 
be called Place de Desbasseyns de 
Richemont, in honour of the count of 
that name, who was deputy for the 
French possessions in India, and is now 
senator. S. of this is the fflgJi Court 
or La Covr d'Appel, a handsome square 
building. A canal, which is now being 
cleared out, separates the European 
from the Black town. Crossing this 
canal and turning to the N., you pass 
a large hospital, which is being built 
at the expense of the Comte de Riche- 
mont. N. of this is the great Jesuit 
Church, which is called La ('athMralc 
de la Ville Noire. N. of this again is 
a school with 450 pupils, on the facade 
of which. \B m^TvViftd, College Calvi 
Soupraya CVisAAiv^a. 1.^ \s «w %aa ^\:\\.^ 
building. T\ie Pr\«ou OtuiTole, Sa. 

Sect. II. 

Route 2. — PondiA:herry, 


which are generally about 330 pri- 
BonerS) is opposite to the clock-tower, 
built at the expense of a native resi- 
dent. Here is another pillar from 
Chenji, making 13 in all. A boulevard 
begins here, which goes round the 
town. C!ontinuing the drive and turn- 
ing to the S.E., one may visit the cot- 
ton-spinning factory or Filature, be- 
longing to MM. Comet et Almaric. 
The manager is M. Pouliex, a native 
of Puducheri, who has studied in 
France. The factory is called Savanat, 
and was founded in 1826 ; it employs 
1400 persons. Here is an artesian 
well, which gives 200 litres a minute 
of beautifully clear and potable water. 
This supply is increasing, and may, 
perhaps, meett the requirements of the 
factory, which is 600 litres a minute. 
During the famine from 8000 to 9000 
persons perished at Puducheri, 
chiefly fugitives from other places. 
The public gardens are also worth a 
visit. On the second bridge will be 
observed an inscription, which shows 
that it marks the boundary between 
French and English territory, and that 
it was begun in February, 1856, and 
finished in 1858. It has 34 arches, 
each of 9 yds. span, making in all 918 
ft. The places under the authority of 
Puducheri are Kdrikal on the Coro- 
mandel coast ; Ydnam, and the lodge 
of Machhllpatnam, on the Orissa coast ; 
Mahe and the lodge of KAlikot (Cali- 
cut) on the Malabdr coast ; and Chan- 
dranagar in Bengal on the Hugli. Of 
these, the first is 47 m. distant from 
Tanjiir to the E., and contains an area 
of 63 sq. m., with a pop. of 49,307 
persons, of whom 43 are Europeans ; 
Ydndm is in the province of Eaja- 
mah^ndri, 9 m. from the embouchure 
of the Goddvari, and has an area of 
8147 acres, with 6881 inhab. ; Mahe, 
7 m. S.E. of Tellicheri, has an area of 
2 sq. m., with 2616 inhab. ; and 
Chandranagar, with 2330 acres, has 
32,670 inhab., of whom upwards of 
200 are Europeans. Puducheri itself 
has an area of 107 sq. m., with a pop. 
of 130,000 persons, of whom 790 are 
white. The town contains about 30,000 
mhab. The establishment is divided 
into : 1, Executive and legislative, in- 

cluding the governor, council of admin- 
istration, and council general. 2. 
Judicial, including the royal court, the 
tribunal of first instance, and the tri- 
bunal of peace and of police. 3. Pub- 
lic instruction. 4. Marine. 5. Mili- 
tary. The governor-general receives 
1333 rs. a month ; the attorney-general 
400, and the four senior judges 200. 

In 1672, Puducheri, then a small 
village, was purchased by the French 
from the King of Vijayapiir, 71 years 
after the first arrival of French ships 
in India. In 1693, the Dutch took 
Puducheri, but restored it, with the 
fortifications greatly improved, in 
1697 at the peace of Ryswick. On 
the 26th of August, 1748, Admiral 
Boscawen laid siege to it with an army 
of 6000 men, but was compelled to 
raise the siege on the 6th of October, 
with the loss of 1065 Europeans. M. 
Dupleix was the Governor, and had 
under him a garrison of 1800 Euro- 
peans and 2000 Sip4hls. On the 29th 
of April, 1758, M. Lally landed at 
Puducheri, and commenced a vigorous 
war, which ended ruinously for the 

In the beginning of July, 1760, Col. 
Coote, with 2000 Europeans, and 6000 
Natives, began to blockade Puducheri. 
On the 17th, a detachment of his army 
imder Major Moore, attacked a French 
convoy, which had with it 4000 
Maisiirean horse, 1000 Sip&his, and 
230 Europeans, and was entirely routed, 
losing 105 Europeans, killed or 
wounded , and a great number of natives. 
Nevertheless, the English army hav- 
ing received reinforcements on the 9th 
of September, 1760, carried the bound*- • 
hedge, and two of the 4 redoubts 
which defended it, with the loss of 
115 Europeans, and about the same 
number of Sipdhls. On the 27th of 
November, M. Lally, finding the 
garrison hard pressed by famine, 
expelled all the native inhabitants from 
the town, 1400 in number. These being 
driven back by the English, attempted 
to re-enter the fort, but were fitred on 
by the French, «wOl^ ^jcrcaa ^^ ^^sss. 
killed, ¥oT % ^^^>i)aRSfc xss&.ae^3asffi^^ 
1 YFandeied \>&tsv^ea KJoa \saRa» ^"^ *^ 
\ two \iOstWa «nme», «cJ>o«v&>C\xv% ovi. ^-xw* 


JUoiUe 2. — Madras to Porto Novo, 

Sect. II. 

food which they had about them, and 
the roots of grass. At last, finding 
Lally inexorable, the English suffered 
them to pass. 

On the night of the 30th of Decem- 
ber, while an English fleet of 8 sail of 
the line, 2 frigates, a fire ship, and a 
transport were at anchor in the roads, 
a terrific storm arose. The Newcastle, 
the Qneenboroiigh frigate, and Protec- 
tion fire-ship, were driven ashore 2 m. 
to the S. of Puducheri, but only 7 
men of their crews were lost. More 
dreadful was the fate of the Duke of 
Aqmtainef the Simderland, and the 
Dido transport, which foundered with 
1100 Europeans on board. Only 14 
men were saved, being picked up next 
day as they were fioating on pieces of 
the wreck. All the other ships, with 
the exception of the Admiral's, were 
dismasted. The disasters on shore 
were likewise great. The sea over- 
flowed the country as far as the 
bound-hedge ; all the batteries and re- 
doubts which the English army had 
raised were utterly ruined ; the tents 
and huts of the soldiers were blown to 
atoms; all the ammunition was des- 
troyed, and the men were compelled 
to throw away their muskets and seek 
shelter where they could, whilst many 
of the camp-followers perished. The 
hopes of deliverance which this storm 
had raised in the minds of the French 
were, however, soon dispelled by the 
arrival of fresh men-of-war from Cey- 
lon and Madras, so that the blockading 
fleet was again raised to 11 sail of the 
line. On the 5th of January, 1761, 
the French obtained a trifling success 
over a detachment of 170 men who 
were in the St. Thomas redoubt, at the 
mouth of the Aryakuppam r. These 
were all killed or taken ; but Lally, 
having no means of feeding his 
prisoners, sent them to Coote, with a 
demand that they should not be allowed 
to serve against him during the siege. 
On the 16th the town surrendered, as 
the garrison was reduced to 1100 men 
of the line fit for duty, and these en- 
feebled by famine and fatigue, with 
bu^ ivro days' provisions left, Alto- 
S^Gther 2463 EuropeanB, including 
civuians, were made prisoners, and 

500 guns, with 100 mortars and howit- 
zers, were taken, with a proportionate 
supply of stores. 

In 1763 Puducheri was restored to the 
French. On the 9th of August, 1778, 
Sir Hector ^Munro, with an army of 
10,500 men, of whom 1500 were Euro- 
peans, again laid siege to it. On the 
10th Sir E. Vernon, with 4 ships, 
fought an indecisive battle in the 
roads, with 5 French ships under M. 
Trongolloy, who, some days after, 
sailed off at night, and left the town 
to its fate. Puducheri, after an obsti- 
nate defence, was surrendered in the 
middle of October by M. Bellecombe, 
the governor, and shortly after the 
fortifications were destroyed. In 1783 
it was re- transferred to the French, 
and on the 23rd of August, 1793, re- 
taken by the British. The treaty of 
Amiens, 1802, restored it to its original 
masters, whereupon Bonaparte sent 
thither General de Caen, with 7 other 
generals, 1400 regulars, a body-guard 
of 80 horse, and £100,000 in specie, 
with a view, doubtless, to extensive 
operations in India. His intentions, 
however, whatever they may have 
been, were defeated by the re-occupa- 
tion of Puducheri in 1803. Puducheri 
was then attached to S. Arkat, and 
yielded a yearly revenue of 45,000 rs. 
In 1817 it was restored to the French, 
and has remained ever since under 
their rule. 

Porto Novo. — From Gudaliir to Porto 
Novo is only 17^ m. by rail. The 
town stands on the N. bank of the r. 
VelAr close to the sea, and is called by 
the Indians, Mahmiid Bandar and Fi- 
ringipet. The Portuguese settled here 
during the latter part of the 16th cent., 
being the first Europeans who landed 
on the Coromandel coast, (see " Manual 
of S. Arcot," by J. A. Garstin, C.S.). 
In 1674 Muhammad Kh4n, governor 
of Chenji for Bijdpiir, suggested to the 
President of Fort St. George to set up 
factories and build forts at Porto Novo, 
but no steps were taken for some years. 
In 1678 the Dutch abandoned their 
factory at Porto Novo and Devapat- 
nam, and "went \» Y>i\ikat. An 
Indian Iron Co. ^^i\<^ Q\3\»\\ifc^ W.-s. 
chaitei in 1^o4l, \iJwQi \Va yiQ\\& \\Rrt^ 

Sect. IL 

Halite 2. — PoHo Novo — Chenji, 


and at Bepiir. In 1835 Mr. Heath of 
the Madras C.S. tried to make wrought 
iron with charcoal fires, but failed. 
Puddling was then tried, i,e,, subject- 
ing the cast iron to an intense heat in 
a reverberatory furnace, until it sticks 
together in lumps. For this billets of 
wood dried and half-charred were 
used instead of coal, but the wood 
being impregnated with nitre and 
salt, acted as a powerful flux on the 
bricks. In 1846-7 coals were tried 
unsuccessfully. The ore-ground is also 
too far off, being at 80 m. distance, 
30 of which must be traversed by a 
bad road, and the remainder by canals, 
navigable during only 4 months in the 
year. The works, too, are on ground 
only 18 in. above the level of the river, 
so that deep castings cannot be 
attempted for fear of explosions. 

The governorship of Porto Novo 
with a sum of money was the bribe 
for which, in 1C93, Dr. Blackwell, 
garrison-surgeon of Fort St. David, 
covenanted to surrender the Fort to 
Zii'lfe^dr Khdn, then besieging RAm 
Rdj4 in Chenji. 

iSut the chief historical recollection 
which attaches to Porto Novo is that 
vnthin 3 m. of it to the N. close to the 
sea-shore, was fought one of the most 
important Indian battles of the last 
cent. Sir Eyre Coote had arrived at 
Porto Novo on the 19th of June, 1781, 
after having been repulsed the day 
before in an attack on the fortified 
Pagoda of Chilambram, which he con- 
ducted in person. Ilaidar 'AH was 
encouraged by the success of his 
troops on that occasion to hazard a 
battle, and he took up an advantage- 
ous position on the only road by which 
the English could advance to Gudaliir, 
and fortified it. An account of the 
battle which ensued will be found in 
Mill, vol. iv. pp. 209—212. It is suffi- 
cient here to say that, " for 6 hours, 
during which the contest lasted, every 
part of the British army was engaged 
to the utmost limit of exertion." A 
victory was obtained of which Sir J. 
Malcolm speaks in the following 
a moment was 

native troops, we should fix upon the 
battle of Porto Novo. Driven to the 
sea-shore, attacked by an enemy ex- 
ulting in recent success, confident in 
his numbers, and strong in the terror 
of his name, every circumstance com- 
bined that could dishearten the small 
body of men on whom the fate of the 
war depended, not a heart shrunk from 
the trial. Of the European battalions 
it is, of course, superfluous to speak, 
but all the native battalions appear 
from every account of the action to 
have been entitled to equal praise on 
this memorable occasion, and it is 
difficult to say whether they were 
most distinguished when suffering 
with a patient courage under a heavy 
cannonade, when receiving and re- 
pulsing the shock of the flower of 
Ilaidar's cavalry, or when attacking 
in their turn the troops of that mon- 
arch, who, baffled in all his efforts, re- 
treated from this field of anticipated 
conquest with the loss of his most 
celebrated commander, and thousands 
of his bravest soldiers." (See Record 
of Services of the Madras Army, p. 3, 
Mem. C.) 

Chenji (Gingee). — On the return 
journey from Puducheri, if it be de- 
sired to see the remarkable and cele- 
brated fort of Chenji, the traveller 
will stop at the station of Tindevinam, 
which is 28i m. from Gudali!ir, and 
thence he will have to travel 17 m. 
over a bad road to a ruinous mosque 
at the foot of the hill on which the 
fort is situated. He will sleep at the 
mosque and commence the ascent next 
morning at 5 A.M. The mosque has 
an upper storey, but is altogether in so 
ruinous a state that it would be very 
desirable to take a few pardahSj or 
tent-screens, in order to be properly 
sheltered ; and communication must 
be made two days previously to the 
Assistant Collector at Tindev4nam, in 
order that provisions may be got ready. 
Even when commencing the ascent at 
the earliest hour possible the traveller 
will suffer from the sun, as the moun- 

tain is over 1000 ft, hi^h., wad t^issft. \^ 
terms: "If a moment was to be ) no shelter "wVi-etoJet. fe^0QPQ^>Q»5&.^«S^^^^ 
named when the existence of the 1 thexo«A,y7\i\c^\&m?iJ^^^*k3M»^ 
British power dcpendod upon its \ aad dia.c\x\^ coxaaa \» ^ ^"^^^^^ "^"^ 


Houte 2. — Madras to Porto Novo. 

Sect. 11. 

which must be crossed by planks or 
ladders, and the whole ascent will 
certainly occupy from 1^ to 2 hours. 
In order to have a good idea of what 
the fortification was in the old day, it 
would be necessary to consult that 
volume of Orme which contains the 
plans of forts, or Book ii. p. 155 of 
edition 1763, where the plan of Chenji 
will be found. From the top a fine 
"view is obtained over the two other 
peaks and their fortifications, and 
over the neighbouring hills. The 
N.W. peak which Orme calls "the 
Great Mountain of Gingee," is about 
1200 ft. high, and is the highest of the 
tiiree hills. A strong wall flanked 
with towers and extending 3 m. in- 
closes this as well as the other two 
hills. On the top of this one is a 
small fort built on the solid rock, and 
Orme declares that " It is tenable with 
10 men against any open force which 
can be brought against it." He adds, 
" There is very fine water in a cleft of 
the rock." At the foot of this hill on 
its E. side was a rampart with a wet 
ditch, and on the W. a tank called 
" the Devil's tank," and a gate called 
"the Devil's gate." There were 2 
gates to this fortification, after passing 
which a second rampart was reached, 
with a third gate, and high above this 
stands the fort which Orme asserted 
to be impregnable. It, like the rest 
of the fortifications, is now ruined. 
Bouth of " the Great Mountain " is 
the second pes^, called " St. Greorge's 
Mountain" by Orme. This is not 
so completely fortified as the " Great 
Mountain." On its N. side were 
the barracks and houses of the 
French garrison, and to its E. the 
P^ta, or native town. On the 
N.E. comer of the fortified inclosure 
in which were the barracks, was a 
gate called the Puducheri Gate, and 
N. of it a height with what was called 
the Royal Battery on its summit. 
K.E, of this battery, at the distance of 
800 yds., rose "the English Mountain," 
as a third peak was called, on which 
vras a fort 200 yds. long from W. to 
M, and 150 yds, broad from N, to S. 
^^us third peak was 1200 yds. distant 
•««» ilie BngliBh Mountain, and 880 

yds. from the Great Mountain. There 
is a grant existing in TamU letters, but 
in the Sanskrit language, dated 1305 
of the Sh41iv^an era, = to 1382 
A.D., which says that Tunira, Chora, 
Pdndi, and Simhala (Ceylon) were 
conquered by Virupaksha, grandson 
of Bukka RdjA, and son-in-law of ' 
Bdmadeva of the Lunar race. This 
grant bestows Alampandi, a village 
near Chenji, rent-free, on the Brdh- 
mans. This grant is signed by Sri 
Hari Hara of the Vijayanagar dynasty. 
The forts were first built by one of the 
Chola kings, who reigned from 700 to 
1420 A.D., and rebuilt by Vijya Rdmah 
Ndik, Governor of Tanjiir, in 1442. 
About 1630 the Ndik of Chenji joined 
the Ndiks of Tanjiir and Madura in 
revolting from the BdjA of Vijaya- 
nagar, and in 1638 Tirumal Naik of 
Madura called to his aid the Mubam- 
madan king of Bijdpiir, who, however, 
turned against him and took Chenji. 
Shdhjl, the father of the celebrated 
Sivaji, commanded the troops that 
captured Chenji, and his son Ekojl, 
by a second wife, became Rdjd of 
Tanjiir. In 1646 Bijapiir annexed 
Chenji and Veliir, and Grolkonda an- 
nexed Chengalpet and Madras. In 
1659 Tanjiir was annexed by Bijdpiir. 
In 1674 Sivaji became king, and in 
1677 descended the Ddmalcheri pass, 
and took Chenji by treachery. Madras 
records say he " peeled the country to 
the bone." In 1689 Bdm RdjA es- 
caped to Chenji, which, however, in 
January 1698 was captured by ^li'l- 
fal^dr Eh4n, the Mughul General. In 
1711 Sunip Singh, Governor of 
Chenji, sent a force against Fort 
St. David, in repulsing which Capt. 
Coventry, Ensign Somerville, and some 
men were killed, and the E. I. C. had 
to pay 12,000 pagodas to obtain peace. 
Orme, vol. i. p. 138, says that the 
army of Nd§ir jang, Ni^dm of the 
Dakhan, assembled at Chenji in the 
beginning of 1750, and that historian 
thus describes the fort as it was in that 
year : " A strong wall, flanked with 
towers and extending nearly 3 m., en- 
closes S mo\mtaaii"a,'wl[:^Q,la.tQrm nearly 
an equilatexal tnaii^^ *, >i)aai «s» ^^^^ 
and cxaggy ) wxd on \5afe \.ov ^^ ^».Ocl «» 

Sect. II. 

Route 2. — Clienji, 


built large and strong forts ; besides, 
there are many other fortifications 
npon its declivities." On the plain 
between the 3 mountains is a large 
town. The Indians, who esteem no 
fortification very strong unless placed 
npon high and difficult eminences, 
have always regarded Chenji as the 
strongest fortress in the Eamdtik. It 
was taken in August, 1750, by the 
French force of 1800 Europeans, 2500 
Sip4hls, and 1000 horse with 12 field- 
pieces, under M. d'Auteuil and M. 
Bussy. Hence it was that the force 
under M. De la Touche marched on 
the 4th of December, 1750, which, on 
the following day, dispersed one half of 
the army of Nd§ir jang, who was him- 
self killed by the Niiwdb of Kadapa. 
In describing this, Orme (p. 155) says 
that the Ni^Am rode up to the Niiwdb 
and called him " a dastardly coward 
for not daring to defend the Mughul 
standard against the most contemp- 
tible of enemies. On this the traitor 
replied that he knew no enemy but 
Nd^ir jang, and ordered the fusileer 
who sat with him on his elephant to 
fixe at the Ni^&m, which he did, and 
missed. The Niiwab then himself 
fired and killed the Nizdm." It is 
very unlikely that the Nigjim, who had 
shown such blind confidence in the 
Afghan chiefs, should have called the 
NiiwAb " a dastardly coward," and the 
account given in the Hadi^ah i 'Alam 
(p. 385) is no doubt correct. It is 
there stated that NA§ir jang, in the 
heat of the French attack, rode up to 
the Niiwdb of Kadapa and saluted him, 
and on his not returning the salute 
said, standing up in the haudah, 
" Brother, this is the time to exert 
ourselves to repel the enemy." The 
Niiwdb made no answer, but he and 
the Afgiian, who sat with him, fired 
both together and killed the NigAm. 
On the 23rd of July, 1752, Major 
Kineer with 2300 men, advanced to 
Chenji with the intention of capturing 
it, but despairing of success retired. 
** For " (says Orme) " the country 10 
m. round Chenji is enclosed by a cir- 
cular chain of mountains f and the 
roads leading through them are strong 
passes, of which it is ueceBsary that 

an army attacking the place should 
be in possession, in onler to keep the 
communication open." The same his- 
torian (vol. L, p. 275) says, " Dupleix's 
authority was confined to the districts 
between Pondicherry and Chenji, and 
these did not yield more than £50,000 
a year." The same writer says (vol. ii., 
p. 695), that WishwAs Pant ofEered 
in 1760 to assist M. Lally for "a sum 
of ready money in hand, and the 
cession of the fortress of Chenji, which, 
besides the infiuence it would give 
Bdlajl RAo in the province of Arkdt, 
was the wish of a national point of 
honour, since Chenji had until the 
beginning of the present century been 
the capital of a race of Mard^ha kings, 
whose dominion extended from the 
Kolenin to the Pdlidr." " On the 5th 
of April, 1761, Captain Stephen Smith 
received a proposal from Captain Mac- 
Gregor, who commanded in the Great 
Mountain of Chenji, to surrender if 
his garrison were allowed the honours 
of war. 300 of the English Sip^ls 
had already died in the town and in 
the mountain of St. George from the 
peculiar inclemency of the air, which 
has always been deemed the most un- 
healthy in the Kamdtik, insomuch 
that the French, who never tmtil lately 
kept more than 100 Europeans here, had 
lost 1200 in the 10 years during which 
it had been in their possession. 
Captain Smith accepted the terms, and 
in the afternoon the garrisons marched 
out of the two mountains. This day 
terminated the long hostilities between 
the two rival European powers *ln 
Coromandel, and left not a single en- 
sign of the French nation avowed by 
the authority of its government in any 
part of India." After what is here 
said of the unhealthiness of Chenji, 
the traveller need hardly be further 
warned to make his stay as short as 
possible, and on no account to sleep in 
the ruined fort. 


Houte 3. — Madras to Kdnchiveram, 

Sect. II. 



kAnchiveram, 19 M. 

It will be convenient hero to give 
the whole of the Madras Rly. from 
Madras to Bepiir, and reference can be 
made to the opposite page in esti- 
mating the distances and expenses 
incurred in making the several tours 
which follow partly along this line 
and partly branching off from it. 

Madras Railway Refrtihnvtnt Rooms. 
Scale of Charges. 

Rs. As. 

Dinner 2 

Children, half-price . . ..10 
Breakfast, or tiffin, hot or cold . .10 
Ditto, ditto, for children . ..08 
Plate of curry and rice . . .08 
DittOi bread and cheese . ..08 

Ditto, soup 6 

Bottle of milk 4 

Cup of tea or coffee, and toast . .04 
Cup of tea or coffee, only . ..02 
Champagne, quart . . . .38 

Ditto, pint 2 4 

Brandy, per glass . . 6 as. to 4 
Soda-water, with bottles . ..06 

From Arkonam the traveller will 
proceed to Ednchiveram (Conjeveram) 
by the S. I. Rly. as follows: price 8 pies, 
1st class ; 3 pies, 2nd class ; 2 pies, 3rd 
class, per mile : — 

in Miles. 

Name of Station. 


I Arkonam . . dep. 
Puliir . ... 
Clieiigal Ra( Ndik's 

Cliaultri . 
Kdnchiveram . arr. 

Time of 





The narrow-gauge line from Arkonam 

to KAnchiveram was made by Mr. 

Lea Hair, and it appears from his 

statement that the sickness along the 

line where he was first employed, that 

j^, at Salem, was indeed terrible. He 

himself bad had the cholavB, twice, 

tjrpboid fever and nervous fever twice, 

^d intermittent fever for years. He 

had been several times given over by 
the doctors. Many fine strong young 
men came out, who looked as if they 
would have lived 60 years, but died. 
Most of them drank, and drinking in 
India means death. Salem used to be 
so fearfully unhealthy, that even to 
sleep the night there was most danger- 
ous. Those who went to the Travellers 
b., generally had fever or cholera. The 
embankment from Kdnchiveram to 
Chengalpat is made, and the line is to 
be constructed. Very few Europeans 
go to Kdnchiveram, and when they go 
they generally take a special train. 
The line curves much, and leads 
through a forest of palm trees, with a 
good deal of rice cultivation. Two 
miles before reaching the station of 
KAnchiveram the gopuras of the tem- 
ple are passed, the great Gopura beiug 
nearest the line. Mr. Lea Hair mea- 
sured the Great Gopura and found it 
181 ft. high, and he considers it the 
highest gopura in South India. On 
alighting at the station it will be well 
to obtain a bullock-carriage in order 
to go to the traveller's b., which is, in 
fact, the collector's office, but any 
traveller of respectability may obtain 
permission to stop there by wanting to 
the collector. One drives for J m. 
almost in a direct line to the W., and 
then turns to the rt. to reach the halt- 
ing place. The b. is situated amongst 
fine trees, and has 3 upper rooms, very 
clean and comfortable, and a broad 
gallery or verandah running round 
them. From the b. to the great tem- 
ple is about 2 m. The temple is dedi- 
cated to Ekambara Swdmi, which may 
mean the Deity with the single gar- 
ment, but is sometimes explained as 
" He, whose birth was under a mango 
tree." The first interpretation, how- 
ever, appears decidedly to be the right 
one. Just before reaching the great 
temple there is a mosque, which was 
formerly a mandapam or Hindii temple, 
but was converted into a mosque by 
Ddiid KhAn Pan6. The Great Gopura 
is on the S. side of the outer enclosure, 
and has 10 storeys, and an enormous 
I top wit\iout Mvy >Nmdow or means of 
I ascent, Tb\s to\> \a ^% I't. "iXVTv.^Di^. 
I The topmost 5 s\«it«^^ Vw^ \««a. -sa- 








r CI 


Penmbur . 

Tl™niuiii . ■ 



1 ' 

rbcra in ,lsn ji 3ra Plui train th.t 
lMV«> M«ini. .t B.1S8.IB. hat 
^topD at Jolnrpet, when tt uiItm 

at 7.40 tm..Bndlier<!ii lilt. 


lit "■" 

Snd, Mid ard cliei train whicli 
laves ModiM .t I.M r->n- ■"* 


Atkonum {,1^ 

«* tTm 


stops Bt Vcliir, BirivtiiE there »t 
7.10, but no Eurapesn nimld go 
ti otUiBr of thoK trains. 


itoi.™.-ThD 7s.m.fraln "t"P» 
20 miu, iBTB tor biwilit»t ; t&e 


6 p.m. Iraiu 8toi« ai mlu. Cor 

80i|v.h-.r - [^ 

jj-;*: J-^ 



Va' 1 ~ 

iilff l(l.l!0 

MeIpbUI . 

ArabOr . 



Jolfavit {J^ 


Is 20 


olrir^Wf.— Tbs r n.ln. train itnpn 


TripatAr . 

Monpiir . . 









tm/™,— UttMi inlendrf (or Oio 

<tatinu-iaBBt«- lit Salem tliould 


dmultri . 

7 IS 




SLonkBri Dp^ 


rirmi.-TbB B p.m. train atops 

yirod . J 


Ifimin.harororeiirljrtBB. 8)m|.- 



24 1) 




loBBtir at 1 r. tor a singlB per- 


aon. lrB.S«. tor mail and wlTt, 

andSn Ibralkmllr. 

BoioBUilr . 



Hiiliir . 



p-ithnnur J on 




n 1) 

Pollanfir Tbe « p.m. train atopn 

JtadlkEri . 


SOmln IbtbrealtrQat. 



30 D 






The,,r,.,^,.,d .....K^^tral^^ 


P«rle. ! 

33 D 


KulipilAm' . . 


H i 

r'l ,.„'„;!./m,.":'i.; 

Timr . . 

ia.*3 ia« 


Teniir . 


87 11 


1.30 1 1.30 


15 D 


paired Ibis j-ear (ISTS), and white- 1 peaked top \H\o'\ia«&.ieii. 'Qit«rQ»' 
Knsbod; and there is an ornamental I merit ia n«neial.\3 moie <A igC*.ws?^ 
Jig-ht iron-rniliDg at top, and a gliikr or I and ia itom. !& to ^ 1^- 1a.«>^- " 


JRoute L — Arhcmam to Yirod. 

Sect. II. 

and they are still at law about it.* 
When the Brdhmans of the Ekambara 
temple were asked if they made any 
use of the gopuras as sleeping 
chambers, inasmuch as they would be 
cool from their great height, they 
said they dared not sleep there for 
fear of being attacked by Rdkshasas, 
evil spirits, ghosts of Brdhmans turned 
into devils, and they used both the 
Sanskrit and the English word, ex- 
plaining the former as "high caste 
devils." On the way back from the 
temple, one may visit the Mahharahy 
\ or tomb of Hamid Auliya, who was 
the minister of a King of Bijdpilr, 
and subsequently canonised. The 
building has a small gumbaz, or dome, 
and stands 100 yds. back from the 
road in a garden. It is quite plain, 
and they will not allow visitors to 
approach the door without taking off 
their shoes. 


preceding Monte), AND TRICHINA- 
PALLI {see p. 187). 

For Madras to Arltonam, see Route 3. 

From Arkonam to Arkdt is an hour's 
journey by rail. Leaving at 9.30 A.M. 
the traveller reaches Arkdt Station at 

* These sects are called Tengalas and Vada- 

gcUaSf from Ten, " lower" or *' southern," and 

Vada "upper" or "northern," and an account 

of them will be found at p. 97 of the Madras 

Census of 1871. The chief point in dispute is as 

^ whether the aeetarial marks on the forehead 

^^^i^ ^^^h A* the VadagalM say, to the 

£f%SC^f"^^ ^tween the eyebrows, or; as 

^or thla^^h^T' 5^?^ "^^y ^«^ «»e nose. 
^^^* ^«^A blood baa been shed. 

10*30 A.M.,but he will then have 4 m. to 
drive to the N., to lidnlpet, "which is the 
town now inhabited by Europeans and 
a small civil station. Some years ago 
there used to be 1 European and 2 Indian 
regiments at RAnipet, but the lines 
are now deserted, and are fast going 
to decay. The house, which was that 
of the General of the Brigade, is now 
occupied by the assistant collector. 
A little to the S. E. of it is the CJiurch 
{St, Mary's), which can hold 100 per- 
sons comfortably, but when troops were 
at Rdnlpet it was made to hold loO. 
There are only 2 tablets, one to a late 
chaplain, and one to Captain John 
Stedman Cotton, brother of Sir Arthur 
Cotton, who died of cholera at Chittiir, 
on the 17th Oct., 1843. To the S., 
about J of a m., is the Cemeteiy, which 
is painfully neglected. Many of the 
tablets have been stolen, and some of 
the tombs are defaced. One of the 
best kept is that of W. G. Bevan, who 
was riding with his daughter, when 
he took his foot out of the stirrup 
to remove a thorn, and in doing so 
spurred his horse, which started off at 
full speed across country, and falling 
into a gravel pit, killed his rider. 
There are also many tombs of officers 
of the 13th and 22nd Dragoons and 
their wives, and of officers of the 
Madras Lt. Cavalry. Two officers of the 
4th Lt. Cavalry died here of cholera 
in 1837. The oldest tomb is that of 
Lieut. John Grant, of the 2nd Reet. 
of Lt. Cavalry, who died Dec. 10, 1791. 
After visiting the church and the 
cemetery at RAuip6t, the traveller 
may go on to the town of ArMt. 
After 2 m., the sandy bed of the 
Pdldr r. is reached, which is here 
3,1 63 ft. wide, but very shallow, and 
the sand so deep that vehicles cannot 
be dragged through without the aid of 
men, or the horses may be taken out 
and 12 labourers will pull a light cart 
through. However, the road is being 
re-made, and then there will be no 
longer such difficulty, unless it should 
be again swept away by the floods iu 
the rainy season. On reaching the 
I bank, next tYie Wwn, >[)ae, xo^cd tvvrns 
I to the \. a\0T\^ ^i)cv& \>ai^ icst ^Q>i\\, 
\ 200 yds., YrtieiL «. «emX\. ^i^^cA-a. \% 

Sect. II. 

Route 4. — Arkdt CUy. 


reached and huge fragments of the 
town-wall, which was a massive struc- 
ture of red brick, which extended 6 m., 
and quite encircled the city. It was 
thrown down by exploding powder, 
but the foundations remain, and huge 
fragments of the wall, solid as rocks, 
the mortar having hardened with time. 
Continuing the same course along the 
bank of the PAlAr, one comes, after J 
m. to the Dihll Gate of the old city 
rampart, which is the only one that 
remains so far uninjured that it is 
possible to form an idea of what the 
fortification originally was. Ascend 
12 + 8 steps to what is called Clivers 
room, a ruined red brick chamber, 
8 ft. high, and about 18 ft. sq. The 
floor of this chamber is 24 ft. 7 in. 
above the road, and 7 ft. 10 in. above 
the top of the inner circle of the gate- 
way, which is therefore (the arch) 
16 ft. 9 in. high. This gateway faces 
N., and has 2 arches. The arch where 
the door was is not pointed, and has a 
very low curve, while the inner arch 
is the usual pointed one. There are 2 
vaults below the ground, one on either 
side. Continuing the same road, which 
curves to the S. E., 6 ruined bastions 
are passed, and at the 6th begins a 
moat, which has a sunken brick wall 
on either side, 11 ft. high, including 
the 3 ft. of water which is found there 
in the dry season. The moat extends 
to the S., j of a m. The 7th bastion 
is a double one, and a road runs a little 
to the N. of it. Much of the moat is 
now used for growing rice. Having 
seen the character of the fortification 
and the moat and 7th bastion, it will 
be best to return to the Dihli Gate, 
and take a road which leads S. from 
it into the heart of the old city. After 
\ m. the Kachhari of the Arkdt T'alukah 
or district is reached, a pretty building 
erected in 1874. After passing this 
building turn to the E., and cross a 
very broad moat, which surrounded 
the citadel, and is now dry, with trees 
growing in it. Here are 2 small tanks, 
which once had fountains in the centre. 
The water was raised into them by 
wheels turned bj eJephants. In the 
inner tank, or wellf there is a deep 
JioJe with water still in it, which the 

people say comes from a spring. There 
is a mosque here, a little to the W. of 
the inner tank, which once had an in- 
scription, for over the arch there is a 
place for a tablet, but the tablet itself 
has been removed. The water for the 
tanks was brought from a large tank 
near the Niiwdla's palace, and if the 
conduit were cleaned out, the tanks 
would be once more filled. Turning 
now to the N.W., one comes, after 
100 yds. or so, to the Ma^barah, or 
tomb of Sa'adatu'lldh Khdn. At the 
N.E. cover of the enclosure is an up- 
right stone, to the memory of KA?1 
Shekh Muhammad Tilismdni, who 
died 1201 A.H.= 1786 A.D. In the 
same enclosure with the tomb of the 
Niiwdb Sa'adatu'lldh Khdn, which is 
in the S. E. comer, is the JdmH Maitjid, 
The tomb has a stone inserted over the 
door with an inscription, which says 
that the NiiwAb died 1146 A.H. = 1733 
A.D. This Ehdn for 25 years main- 
tained a contest with the Mardthas 
under EAjA Desingh, and not imsuc- 
cessfuUy. He began to rule about 
1708 A.D. 

W. of the Jdm'i Masjid is the ruined 
palace of the Niiwdbs of the Kamdtik, 
on a mount overlooking the large lake 
called the NiiwAb's Tank. The walls 
of the Darbdr room are still standing, 
and the dimensions of the room are 
78 ft. from N. to S., and 86 ft. from 
E. to W. Opposite the palace, at 
some distance, is a mosque, popularly 
called the Kdli Masjid, or Black 
Mosque, and a few yards to the S.E. 
of the palace is the tomb of a Mul^am- 
madan ascetic, ShAh Khizr Laiigot- 
band, with a rather handsome dome. 
In the enclosure on the rt. is a small 
headstone, inscribed Muhammad Ldl 
Beg Badakhshl, 22nd Mu^arram, 1109 
A.H. = 9th August, 1697. Near it is, 
another headstone, inscribed Mul^am- 
mad Ghaus Saiyid, 1110 A-H.=1698. 
The tomb of ShAh K^izr is probably 
older than these, and would therefore 
date back more than 2 centuries. 
There are a number of Fa^rs here, 
the oldest of whom is 86 years of aj^e^ 
, and IB "noYi ^^1%"^ ^^^%«3i^\i&^«siSj^ 
1 has bTig)afc e^^^. Tixtroi^^^^ ^^«^ 


Route 4. — Arhonam to Yirod, 

Sect. II. 

the mosque of Fa|:ir Muhammad, and 
a few yards to the W. of it is a stone 
half sunk in the ground, with an in- 
scription, which says that Murta.zd 
S41>ib bought a house from Kamiu 
•Mu^ammad,andwas buried there, with 
the date 1168 A.H. = 1754 A.D. About 
100 yds. to the W. of this is a tomb, 
apparently unfinished, in which the 
body of the Nizdm N4§ir jang, mur- 
dered by the Niiwdb of Kadapa, on 
Dec. 5, 1750, was laid, but was shortly 
afterwards removed to Haidardb^. It 
is of fine granite, and 12 ft. 3 in. from 
N. to S., 12 ft. 4 in. from E. to W., and 
6 ft. 3 in. high. To the N., just across 
the road, is the tomb of Tlpii Auliya, 
or Saint Tlpii, of brick, whitewashed. 
In the W. wall is a stone with an 
inscription, which says that Sa'a- 
datu'Udh Eh&n erected this tomb for 
Tlpii, who was a man of God. The 
chronogram of his death is found 
in the words, Kuth i zamin^ Pole of 
the Earth «1 146 A.H. = 1733 A.D. The 
NiiwAb Sa'adatu'UAh Khdn here men- 
tioned is the NiiwAb whose tomb has 
been mentioned above. Whether Tipii 
6ult4n got his name from this Saint, 
or, as Wilks says, from a word signify- 
ing " tiger," is doubtful. 

According to one of the Mackenzie 
MSS. summarized in the Madras Lite- 
rary Journal of January 1838, Arkdt 
has its name from ArukAdu — "six 
forests," where six Rishis, or holy men, 
dwelt. Adondai, who conquered Ton- 
damandalam in 1100 A.D., drove out 
the aborigines from these forests, and 
built various temples there. These 
went to ruin, and the place again 
became desolate, till Nala Bomma- 
ndyadu and Timma-ndyadu came from 
Pennakonda, and built a fort there. 
Zu'lfa^dr Khdn, Aurangzib's general, 
took Chenji in 1698 A.D., and made 
Ddiid Khdn Governor of ArkAt, under 
which district Chenji was included. 
This officer colonized the country with 
Muliammadans. Until 1712 the Mu- 
Ibiammadan governors resided at Chenji, 
when Sa'adatu'Mh Khdn, who first 
^ook the title ofNiiwdh at the BLamA- 
^'Ir, made Arkdt his capital. His 
J^p^b has been mentioned above as 
^J^sr In the same enclosure with the 

principal mosque, Arkdt, however, 
is chiefly famous for the glorious cap- 
ture and defence of it by Capt. Clive, 
who here laid the foundation of his 
great celebrity. When the French 
and Chandd Sdhib besieged Trichina- 
palli in 1751, Clive led an expedition 
against Arkdt in order to divert a 
part of the enemy from the siege. 
Clive had with him only 200 English, 
with 8 officers, 6 of whom had never 
before been in action ; he had also 300 
Sipdhis, and 3 field-pieces. With this 
small force he left Madras on the 26th 
of August, and arrived at Kdnchiveram 
on the 29th. Here he learned that the 
garrison of Arkdt amounted to 1100 
men. On the 31st he arrived within 
10 m. of Arkdt, and marched on through 
a tremendous storm of thunder, light- 
ning, and rain. The enemies' spies 
reported the sang froid with which 
the English advanced under such 
circumstances, and this made such 
an impression on the garrison that 
they abandoned the fort. On the 
4th of September Clive marched out 
against the garrison, who had taken 
up a position at Timeri, a fort 
6 m. S.W. of Arkdt. The enemy re- 
treated to the hills, and the English 
returned to the fort, but marched out 
again a second time on the 6th, and 
drove the enemy from a tank near 
Timeri, in which they had ensconced 
themselves. After 10 days, the enemy, 
who by reinforcements had grown to 
3,000 men, encamped within 3 m. of 
Arkdt, where they were attacked at 
2 A.M. on the 14th of September by Clive 
and utterly routed. Two eighteen - 
pounders from Madras now reached 
Clive, who sent out all the men he 
had, except 30 Europeans and 60 
Sipdhis, to bring them in. On this 
the enemy attacked Arkdt, but wen-, 
signally repulsed. Chandd Sdhiburw 
sent 4,000 men from Trichindpalli 
under his son Rdjd Sdhib, who entered 
the town of Arkdt on the 23rd of Sept. 
On the 24th, Clive sallied from the 
citadel, and fought a desperate battle 
with Rdjd §dhib's force. Lieut.\i \ieie sa^ed Clive by pulling 
\\\rcy on one. svdfc ^\iaTV «*. ^v^ticA. ^^y& 
about to B\ioot \^ni ttom ;>. ^tAq^» 

Sect. II. 

Houte 4. — Arkdt. 


The Sipahi then killed Lieut. Tren- 
with ; and 15 English soldiers were 
here killed, and Lieut. Read of the 
Artillery, and 16 of his men were 
disabled. The fiercest part of the 
struggle took place close to the Nii- 
wdb's palace. On the 25th of Sept. 
Murtaza 'All brought 2,000 men from 
Veliir'to join Rdjd Sdhib. Olive's 
situation now appeared desperate : " the 
fort was more than a mile in circum- 
ference'* (Orme, Book IIL, p. 198); 
" the walls were in many places ruin- 
ous ; the rampart too narrow to admit 
the firing of artillery ; the parapet low 
and slightly built ; several of the towers 
were decayed, and none of them capa- 
ble of receiving more than one piece 
of cannon ; the ditch was in most 
places fordable, in others dry, and in 
some choked up : there was between 
the foot of the walls and the ditch a 
space about 10 ft. broad, intended for 
a faussebray, but this had no parapet 
at the scarp of the ditch. The fort 
had 2 gates, one to the N.W., the other 
to the E., both of which were large 
piles of masonry projecting 40 ft. be- 
yond the walls, and the passage from 
these gates was, instead of a draw- 
bridge, a large causeway crossing the 
ditch. The garrison had from their 
arrival employed themselves indefa- 
tigably to remove and repair as many 
of these inconveniences and defects 
as the smallness of their numbers could 
attend to. They had endeavoured to 
burn down several of the nearest houses, 
but without success ; for these having 
no wood-work in their construction, 
excepting the beams which supported 
the ceiling, resisted the blaze. Of 
these houses, the enemy's infantry took 
possession, and began to fire upon the 
ramparts, and' wounded several of the 
garrison before night, when they re- 
tired. At midnight Ensign Glass was 
sent with 10 men, and some barrels of 
gunpowder, to blow up two of the 
houses which most annoyed the fort. 
This -party were let down by ropes 
over the walls, and, entering the houses 
without being discovered, made the 
explosion, but with so little skill 
that it did not produce the intended 
Qffect ; at their return the rope by 

which Ensign Glass was getting 
into the fort broke, and he was 
by the fall rendered incapable of 
further duty ; so that, at the beginning 
of the siege, the garrison was deprived 
of the services of 4 of the 8 officers whd 
set out on the expedition; for 1 was 
killed, 2 womided, and another returned 
to Madras ; and the troops fit for duty 
were diminished to 120 Europeans, 
and 200 Sipahis : these were besieged 
by 150 Europeans, 2,000 Sipdhis, 3,000 
cavalry and 500 peons." 

Macaulay says, " During 50 days the 
siege went on. During this period the 
young captain maintained the defence 
with a finnness, vigilance, and ability, 
which would have done honour to the 
oldest marshal in Europe, 

" The breach, however, increased day 
by day. The garrison began to feel 
the pressure of hunger. Under such 
circumstances any troops, so scantily 
provided with officers, might have been 
expected to show signs of insubordina- 
tion ; and the danger was peculiarly 
great in a force composed of men 
differing widely from each other in 
extraction, colour, language, manners, 
and religion. But the devotion of the 
little band to its chief surpassed any- 
thing that is related of the Tenth 
Legion of Oassar, or the Old Guard 
of Napoleon. 

" The Sipihls came to Olive, not to 
complain of their scanty fare, but to 
propose that all the grain should be 
given to the Europeans, who required 
more nourishment than the natives of 
Asia. The thin gruel, they said, which 
was strained away from the rice, would 
suffice for themselves. History con- 
tains no more touching instance of 
military fidelity, or of the iufliience of 
a commanding mind." 

It was now that the gallantry of 
Olive's defence so impressed the Ma- 
rdtha leader Murdri Rdo, who was at 
the head of 6000 men, that he declared 
that he had till then never believed 
that Englishmen would fight, but see- 
ing their spirit he was determined to 
help them, and he put his troo\)8 in 
movion. T\i\a «\«rcafc^ ^^.fes^^ ^\jics5s>^ 
and. \ie d'&^eromve!^ \i(i ^Xwrox k:^«s» 


JRotite i.'^Arkonam to Yirod. 

Sect. II. 

the great day of the Muharram, and 
Clive, who was exhausted with fatigue, 
and had thrown himself on his bed, 
was roused by the shouts of the enemy 
rushing to the attack, and was instantly 
at his post. The struggle lasted about 
an hour; 400 of the assailants were 
killed, while the garrison lost 4 Euro- 
peans killed, and 2 Sipdihls wounded. 
At 2 A.M. next morning the enemy 
abandoned their camp, into which 
the garrison marched and brought 
off 4 guns, 4 mortars, and a large 
quantity of ammunition. Thus ended 
on the 16th Nov. this famous siege, 
and Clive being reinforced by Captain 
Kilpatrick marched out on the 19th, 
and took the fort of Timeri, and a few 
days after defeated a force of 300 
French, 2000 horse, and 2500 Sipdhls 
with 4 guns, and took Ami with RdjA 
Sdhib's treasure chest, and much 

In 1758 M. Lally got possession 
of the fort of ArkAt by bribing the 
Indian governor ; but in 1760 it was 
recaptured from the French by Colonel 
Coote. In 1780 Gaidar 'Ali, after his 
victory at KAnchiveram over Colonel 
Baillie, made himself master of Arkdt, 
and strengthened the fortifications, but 
Tlpii abandoned it in 1783, and ordered 
the wall on 2 sides to be thrown down ; 
subsequently (1803) it passed into the 
hands of the British along with the 
other possessions of the Niiwdbs of the 
Kam^tik. The pop. of ArkAt town is 
now only 10,988 ; N. Arkdt CoUecto- 
rate contains 2,015,278 persons in 
7,139 sq. m., and is divided into 9 
t'aluJ^as or districts, and 13 Zaminddri 
estates, of which latter KArvetinagar 
with 289,189 persons, and Kdlastrl 
with 135,104, are the largest. The Mu- 
];^ammadans are 86,741, the Christians 
7,436, and the Jains about the same. 
Veliir and WAldjAh are the municipal 

From ArkAt or Rdnlp^t, the civil 

station of ArkAt, it is a drive of 24 m. 

to ChittUr, the head-quarters of the 

Judicial and Revenue Authorities for 

tJie CoUectorate of N, Ark&t The 

^nrn and fort of Chittiir stand on the 

>:? f % ?^ ^^^ ^' ^^^^ ^'° ft valley said 
^o be 1100 ft. above the sea, sfiut in 

on all sides but the E. by hills com- 
posed of coarse granite, gneiss, and 
grauwacke, and veined occasionally 
with iron ore. The native town is ill- 
drained, and the exhalations make it 
very unhealthy. Elevated a little 
above it is the lower fort, containing 
the old palace of the f onner PAlegAdas 
(Polygars) or chiefs of the place, and 
a reservoir supplied from a tank above 
with a perpetual stream of fine water. 
From this is the ascent of the Durg 
or upper fort, under 6 successive gate- 
ways, at different heights, and travers- 
ing a labyrinth of fortifications, all of 
solid masonry, and winding irregularly 
up to the sununit. The ascent is partly 
by steps, and partly by almost super- 
ficial notches, cut in the steep and 
smooth surface of the rock, and to be 
scaled only with great difficulty. The 
fort contains 2 beautiful tanks, various 
temples, and a deep magazine, well 
sunk in the rock. There is not much 
historical interest about Chittiir : the 
English suffered a reverse here, when 
the fort was taken from them on the 
11th of November, 1781, by Haidar 
'All, and the garrison consisting of 1 
battalion was destroyed. The gaols, 
which can contain 800 prisoners, and 
are well managed, may be inspected by 
those to whom such matters are of 
interest. The pop. of Chittiir is 5,572. 
About 3^ m. to the E.N.E. of Chittiir 
are the ancient sepulchres of PAndu- 
varam D6wal, which are well and 
minutely described by Capt. Newbold 
in his paper. Art. IV., Vol. XIII. of the 
Roy. As. Soc. Journal. These tombs 
cover an area of more than a square 
mile. The majority of them have been 
thrown down, chiefiy by the Wadras, 
the Indian stonemasons. Some few, 
however, are still standing, and present 
a striking similarity to the cromlechs 
of Wales, such, for instance, as those 
at Plas Newydd, in Anglesea, and to 
the ancient tombs in Circassia. There 
is, first, a Druidical circle of upright 
stones, within this is the tomb, like a 
huge box, composed of 4 slabs, and of 
these, that which forms the roof pro- 
iects aboxxt \% m. \i^^QTLd the sides. 
The Toot-8\a\i ol ow^ \/5ra:c>\s.\^lV.\s^ 
1 12 it., and a^eis^^a V\ *m» \>d:\0«.. 

Sect. 11. 

Houte 4. — ChittUr — A'rni. 


Through one of the side slabs is cut a 
hole about 18 in. in diameter. The 
terra cotta sarcophagi containing the 
bodies are placed on the floor-slab, 
and are covered to the depth of 3 or 4 
ft. with earth. They are filled with 
bones and hard earth ; and elegantly- 
shaped earthen vases are found near 
them. Iron spear-heads and swords 
are sometimes met with. Similar tombs 
are found at the Nilgiris and other 
places, but nowhere in such numbers 
as at this spot. All account of their 
origin is lost in the dimness of anti- 

26 m. W. by N. of Chittiir, is the 
pleasant station of Palmaner, the head- 
quarters of a district which has 60,211 
souls. It is 1200 ft. above Chittiir, and 
2312 ft. above sea level. The tempera- 
ture is 8 degrees less than thatof Chittiir, 
and the nights are pleasantly cool. 

Koldr. — 53 m. W. of Psdmaner is 
Kolar, in N. latitude 13** 8', E. long. 
78" 10'. It is a large town, once 
strong as a native fort. According 
to Mr. Lewis Rice, " Gazetteer of 
Maisiir," vol. i. p. 201, it fell into the 
hands of the Konganl dynasty before 
their fall in 894 A.D. It is said (ibid, 
p. 130) that KArtaviryArjun was slain at 
Kolar, and the temple of KoUharam- 
ma was erected in honour of Renuka, 
the wife of Jamadagni. In this place, 
¥Bi\ Muhammad, the father of IJaidar 
'All, is buried, and here is also the 
mausoleum where Haidar himself lay, 
till his son removed his bones to the 
L41-ba^, near Shrlrangpatnam. Lord 
Valentia and others incorrectly call 
Koldr the birthplace of IJaidar. He 
and his brother ShdhbAz were both 
bom at Budikota, "Ashesfort." For 
an account of most remarkable mounds 
of scorious ashes, supposed to be the 
remains of immense sacrificial holo- 
causts at a town 17 m. to the S. of 
Koldr, see Journal of Roy. As. Soc. 
vol. iii. p. 129. From Koldr to Beu- 
galiir is only 42 m., so that if it be 
desired to visit that place, it will be 
better to do so from Koldr than to 
return to Arkdt and undertake the long 
railway journey thence. 

Ami, 118 m. S. of Arkdt. The Jdglr- 
ddr of this place is rich and hospitable, 
and himself fond of sport, and he often 
entertains English gentlemen. Bears, 
tigers, and panthers may be got in the 
neighbourhood. Ami was in the days 
of Gaidar a strong place, but its 
defences are now dilapielated. Clive 
gained a victory here in November, 
1751, over Rdjd i;j>dl>ib, an account of 
which will be found in Orme, Book III. 
p. 197, ed. 1861. In June, 1783, Sir 
Eyre Coote made an unsuccessful at- 
tempt to invest Ami, where Gaidar 
had deposited his treasure. Attacked 
by the Maisiireans, the English general 
retired in the direction of Madras, and 
in his retreat lost a regiment of Eu- 
ropean cavalry, which he csdled his 
grand guard, and which, being drawn . 
into an ambuscade, was entirely cut 
to pieces or made prisoners. There is 
now a cantonment for Eoropean troops 
within the fort, which is only occasion- 
ally occupied, and which serves as a 
temporary dep6t for corps proceeding 
up country, or previous to embarka- 
tion from the Presidency. The officers' 
quarters are in two bomb-proof ranges 
of buildings, and about 300 yds. in 
rear of them are the barracks, which 
can accommodate one regiment, but 
which are now garrisoned by a detach- 
ment of invalid Sipdhls. The barracks 
are also bomb-proof, and are spacious 
and commodious, forming a square, of 
which one side is a wall with a gate- 
way. The fort is elevated 400 ft. above 
the sea. 

The distance from Arkdt to Veliir 
being only 16^ m., is easily accom- 
plished by rail in 46 minutes. Veliir 
lies due W. of Arkdt and between 3 
and 4 m. S. of the rly., and 3,600 ft S. 
of the Pdldr r., which is spanned here 
by a brick bridge with 42 arches, 
which is 2067 ft in length. The fort 
and town of Veliir are nearly 4 m. 
distant from the stat of that name, 
and it will be necessary to write 
beforehand to some friend at Veliii-, 
to the station master, to secure «. 


vehicle in otdiet lo \.T«^^"t«fc >Oc«it 5!c>&- 
^ ^ ^ tance to tW totV.. TV^^ \<i«J^N& «i^^»^- 

^^m^.— Another place which may I lent. TbLetoTV.otN^^T\&«>KrtoTsaSL^^ 
be visited for shooting purposes is \ by a dee^ dilOa., Vxi. ^\):\0q. ^«s» ^=^ 


Eoute 4. — Arkonam to Yirod, 

Sect. II. 

several feet of water and a good deal 
of mud, but the alligators which existed 
there in the old time have all disap- 
peared. The N. side of the moat is 
1,700 ft. long, and the N. wall of the 
fort 1,300, so that the ditch is 200 ft. 
broad. The fort itself is a parallelo- 
gram, of which the E. and W, sides 
are the longest and the S. side is not 
straight, but its W. half forms an angle 
of about 70** with the W. wall. There 
are 4 bastions in the N. wall, 2 in the 
W., 5 in the E., and 6 in the S. The 
entrance is in the centre of the E. side, 
and turning to the 1., after having 
passed the wall about 50 yds., one 
comes to the Assistant Collector's 
house. On the N. side of the entrance 
is the Mun^if 's court, and a little to the 
N. of it are the library arid reading- 
room, and ag^n a little to the N. of 
that is the Kacquet court. W. of these 
and close to them is the office of the 
Station Staff Officer, and a little to the 
W. of these is the Great Pagoda, an 
account of which will follow presently. 
W. of the pagoda are the civil dis- 
pensary, telegraph office, pension pay 
office, and Assistant Engineer's office, 
and S. of these are the Garrison 
Church and a number of buildings, 
called MahAl, for state prisoners. S. of 
these and close to the wall of the Fort 
is the magazine, and to the E. of it 
are a tank, the garrison female scliool, 
the flagstaff, the sub- jail, and t)ie p. o. 
The first thing to be noticed is a well 
about 30 yds. to the N. by W. of the 
Assistant Collector's house. Into this 
well the bodies of the Europeans killed 
in the mutiny of 1806 were thrown. 
Up to 1874 there were cannon placed 
round this well, but they have now 
been removed. A few yards S.W. of 
the well is a dial with this inscription — 

" H. Walpole, Brigadier, fecit 1848, 
Veliir, lat. 12" 55'." 

The next thing to be seen is the 
Pagoda, which is one of the most re- 
markable in India. It is sacred to 
Jalagandar Tshwara, "the god that 
dwells in water,*^' i.e., Shiva. There 
are two dwdrpdJs^at the entrance of the 
Qopura, of blue granite, which when. 
^track emit a singularly metallic 
sound. The Sgurea are seated, and 

are 7 ft. 10 in. high, on pedestals 
measuring 2 ft. 4 in. The door is very 
handsome, of wood, studded with 
bosses of iron like lotus flowers. The 
entrance is under the Gopura, and its 
sides ai'e lined with pilasters orna- 
mented with circular medallions con- 
taining groups of figures. This Go- 
pura has 7 storeys, and is 100 ft. 
high. It is quite easy to ascend to the 
very top. After passing through the 
Gopura you have on your 1. at the 
distance of a few yards a stone pavilion 
called the Kalydn Mandapam, exqui- 
sitely carved. On either side of the 
steps, 5 in number, by which you 
ascend into the Mandapam, are 3 i^illars 
which are monoliths carved to repre- 
sent various figures one above another 
in a way which shows prodigious 
labour and great skill. One represents 
a mounted horse rearing up, with a 
group of men beneath his hoofs, and 
below them a leopard. On the rt. 
of this is the Simh, or Lion of the S., 
rearing up, with a round stone in his 
mouth, which is loose, but so large that 
it cannot be taken out. This stone 
has been carved out of the solid block 
with Chinese dexterity. Rt. of this is 
a monster with an elephant's proboscis. 
To the 1. is a cavalier whose horse is 
rearing, and below is a group of figures 
issuing from an alligator's mouth. 
Another pillar represents the Lion of the 
South with what appears to be the pro- 
boscis of an elephant. In the portico 
or ante-chamber is a wonderfully 
carved ceiling, with a centre-piece 
representing a fniit, round which 
parrots are clustered in a circle, hang- 
ing by their claws with their heads 
down towards the fruit. In this 
chamber there are 3 richly carved 
pillars to the rt., and to the 1. 3 
pilasters, all entirely different from 
each other. Beyond this is a chamber 
to the S. in which is a Nandi dis- 
lodged from his sit'us, and a Vimanah 
or support for the idol, resting on a 
huge tortoise. Passing from the quad- 
rangle or parallelogrammic space in 
which this pavilion is, you go through 
and "ondex a second Gopura of 4 
storeys, 'w\"i\cVi\a»!3L'a \<i «sv ^T^s^a-s^rt^, 
where on U\e xl. \!& «k. ^'^ ^t "Cwi 

Sect. II. 

Emite 4, — VeMr, 


finest water . in the neighbourhood, 
which is locked up after the European 
residents have been supplied. In the 
Gopura itself is a slab with 17 lines 
in the old Granthl Tamil, which has 
not yet been deciphered. Opposite the 
Gopura is a long low building of 
granite, the blocks being adjusted 
with the greatest care. In this, no 
doubt, formerly was the adytum, but 
it is now so dark that nothing can be 
seen without torches, and it has been 
so long disused that there are prob- 
ably many serpents in it. The Indians 
object to enter. Mr. Fergusson says 
('• History of Architecture," p. 370 ♦) 
that " the great cornice here with its 
double flexures and its little trellis 
work of supports is not only very 
elegant in form, but one of those 
marvels of patient industry such as 
are to be found hardly anywhere 
else." He says also, " the traditions of 
the place assign the erection of the 
Veliir porch to the year 1350, and 
though this is perhaps being too pre- 
cise, it is not far from the truth."t 
The next thing to be visited is St. 
John's, the garrison church, in the 
outer wall of which over the entrance 
is inscribed A.D. 1846. It is quite 
plain and can seat 250 persons. Around 
this church are the Mahdls, which 
have been the residence of the family 
and descendants of Tlpii since 1802. 
They are houses within very high en- 
closures, and must be frightfully hot 
as there is no ventilation. After seeing 
the Fort, the next thing will be to 
drive round the Lines, which are to 
the S. of the Fort. There is a fine 
tank here, in deepening which the 
relief funds in the last famine were 
expended to the extent of G0,000 rs. 

■" I may be permitted here to notice a strange 
error in the index of Mr. Fergusson's hook ; at 
p. 370 he says, "Although the temples at 
Velur, and PeHir, near Koimbatiir ; " and in 
the index it says, ** Veliir near Koimbatiir, "hut 
Velur is 200 m. E. of Koimbatiir, and the** near 
Koimbatiir," applies only to Penir, which the 
compiler of the index has not observed. 

t I tliink the word ** porch " hardly suitable 

to this building. It is a separate temple within 

the great wall of the enclosure, but separated 

from the inner temple by the second Oopura 

and the wall attached to it The Indians call 

Jt the Kalyan Mandapam. 

It is now 9 ft deep. A Sipihl is 
placed on guard to prevent people 
from washing their dirty clothes in it, 
and otherwise polluting the water. 
Beyond it, at 1 m. distance, is the New 
Cemetery, surrounded by a high wall, 
on the right hand of the rd. as you go 
towards it. There is a well in the en- 
closure, with some fine trees. Here is 
a monument to "Alfred Octavius 
Lewis." This gentleman was killed 
in the railway accident which hap- 
pened at Ambilir on Christmas Day, 
1872, when two trains collided. The 
Old Cemetery is a little to the S.E. of 
the Fort. In the centre of the enclo- 
sure is a magnificent pipal tree, and 
in the right-hand comer of the ceme- 
tery is a railed-in enclosure with a low 
sarcophagus on a pedestal, inscribed, 
" Sacred to the memory of Lieutenants 
Popham and Ely, 5 sergeants, 4 cor- 
porals, 1 drummer, and 70 privates, of 
His Majesty's 69th Regt., who fell 
while bravely resisting the mutineers 
at Veliir on the 10th of July, 1866. 
This monument was erected by the 
regiment in 1863 — 64, to mark the spot 
where their comrades rest.'* Besides 
the 69th Regt. there were 6 companies 
of the 1st battalion of the 1st Regt. 
N. I., and the 2nd battalion of the 
23rd N. I. in the Fort, at the time of 
the Mutiny, and the Sip^is mustered 
1,500 to the 370 English soldiers. The 
native officers led the SipAhis to the 
attack, and maintained a murderous 
discharge of musketry on the Euro- 
pean barracks. Detachments were 
also told ofiE to shoot the officers as 
they came out of their houses. Thus 
Col. Fancourt of the 69th, who com- 
manded the whole garrison, was killed, 
as was Lieut.-Col. M*Keera, conmiand- 
ing the 23rd N. I. 13 officers were 
killed, and several English conductors 
of ordnance at their houses. In the 
barracks 82 privates were killed, and 
91 wounded. A few officers, who had 
successfully defended themselves in a 
house, forced their way to the barracks, 
and put themselves at the head of the 
surviviivg soVdiet^. Tc^a 10^ss^««^ 'cS. 
the 8ta\e pT\aoivet^\voSa}i^^'^^"^^^^^^ 
. which BhoY^e^ a svm.m^Ctv& ^^^^^^^ 
tiger stTipes on «u ^"^^^ ^^^^* 


Roide 4. — Arkonam to Yirod, 

Sect. 11. 

men of the 69th, however, fought their | 
way to the flag-staff and pulled down 
the flag, and then made their way to 
the 3rd gateway, which they opened 
to Col. Gillespie, when he came up 
from Arkdt with a squadron of the 19th 
Dragoons and a troop of the 7th N. C. 
He arrived at 8 A.M., and at 10 A.M. some 
guns came up, and the 4th gateway 
was blown open, when from 300 to 400 
of the mutineers were killed and many 
taken prisoners, of whom 3 native 
officers, and 14 non-commissioned 
officers and privates, were executed, 
and the numbers of the regiments 
were erased from the Army Lists (see 
Mill, vol. vii. pp. 121, 122). After this 
it will be weU to visit the Hazrat 
Makdm, the tomb of a Muhammadan 
saint in a street of the same name 
about 260 yds. W. of the Fort. The 
name of the saint was Saiyid Shah 
Mul^ylu'd din K4diri. They expect 
you to take off your shoes if you enter 
the verandah of the ma^barah, or 
tomb, round which are inscribed 16 
couplets. To the epitaph on Muhyiu'd 
din Zuwdkl is assigned the date 
1193 A.H. = 1779 A.D., and to that of 
Shdh Biial Hasan the date 1182=1768 
A.I>. It is also said that Biial Hasan 
b. the place in 1245 a.h.=1829 a.d. 
The tombs of Tipii's family are f in. to 
the W. of the Fort in a well kept en- 
closure. On the rt. of the entrance 
is the tomb of Pddshdh Bigam, the wife 
of Tlpii, with the date 1250 A'.H. = 1834 
A.D. ; she was the sister of Gbuldm Imdm 
liusain Khdn, and daughter of Imdm 
SAhib Bakhshl. 100 rs. a year were 
assigned to keep up this tomb, but 
half of this sum has lately been given 
to another tomb. The second tomb 
on the right is that of Aftdb Khdn, 
who was 2nd instructor to the 
ladies, and died 50 years ago. Next 
comes a handsome tank, which has a 
stone embankment and stone steps 
descending 25 ft. down to the watcr's- 
edge. Next are two plain tombs of 
female attendants, and then a hand- 
some ^rranite pavilion with a massive 
jvof supported by 4 pillaxs ; inside is 
« IfJacJc marble tomb to Mirz& Ri?A, 
who married one of Tipt'a daughters. 
^^ the end of these is the largest 

building of all, a domed mausoleum 
20 ft. sq. It is to the memory of the 
widow of Haidar 'All, who was called 
Bakhshl Bigam, and has the date 
1219 A.H. = 1806 A.D. L. of this is a 
mosque without any inscription, and 
beyond it scores of plain gravestones. 
Then comes the tomb of a daughter of 
Tipii, with an inscription on the W. 
face. Her name was Fatimah Bigam, 
and the date of her death is 1250 A.H. 
= 1834 A.D. Next is the tomb of the 
3rd instructor of the ladies, Ambar 
Bhdl, who died 40 years ago. Next is 
a handsome stone pavilion like a Man- 
dapam, which is the tomb of a wife of 
Tipii, the daughter of a Rdja, but 
converted to Islam. Nearest the en- 
trance on the 1. side is the tomb of the 
principal instructor, Muhammad M'u- 
tabar KhAn, an African, who is said to 
have been a man of gigantic strength 
and to have usually eaten 5 lbs. of 
meat at a meal. 

In the 3rd volume of Orme, at p. 603, 
will be found a picture of 3 hill- 
forts to the S. of Veliir, and called by 
him Sazarow, Guzarow, and Mortaz 
Agur. It must be confessed that they 
do not give a very exact idea of the 
shape of the mountains which they 
are intended to represent, and still 
less of their respective distances from 
Veliir. Mortaz Agur, which ought to 
be written Murtazagarh, or, * the Fort 
of MurtazA' (a name of 'AH), is prob- 
ably the hill which is now called 
KailAsgarh ('fort of Kailds/ Shiva's 
paradise). The summit of this hill is 
2743 ft. above sea level, Veliir itself 
being 791 ft. It is about 4 m. to the 
S.E. of Veliir, and there is a ruined for- 
tification upon it, and a bangld which is 
used as a sanatorium by the Europeans 
residing in Veliir, the difference of 
temperature being 10". W. of this hill 
is another closer to Veliir, called locally 
Sullivan's Hill. It consists of a long 
ridge and 3 summits, which are forti- 
fied. It is 1550 ft. high. Still closer 
to Veliir, in fact overlooking it, is 
what is called Sayer's Hill, but which 
the Hindiis call Singal Durg ; it is 900 
ft. big\i abovft t\vft \e^e\ ol Veliir. The 
sides are coveted '^\t\i \»avMet^ «x\Sl 
1 loose Btoues, au^ \\i<i a^<i^^\» ^-^ ^'^^l 

Sect. II. 

BmUe 4. — VeMr — Salem. 


fatiguing, but may be accomplished 
in 45 minutes. There is a masonry 
wall round the top 25 ft. high, with 
bastions and two gateways. After 
passing the gateway, there is a further 
slight ascent to some ruined buildings 
and a few tall trees shading a spot 
which is a good place for breakfasting 
at. Walking round to the S. W., one 
comes to a tank 50 or 60 ft. below the 
ridge on which is the wall. The tank 
is deep and there is always good water 
in it. Passing this tank one comes to 
a bastion, whence there is a good view 
over the neighbouring hill, which also 
has been fortified. Kaildsgarh is also 
well seen from this spot, and the white 
b, at the top is distinctly visible. 
Just below the hill is the Fort, and to 
the S. two fine tanks, while 2^ m. to 
the N. are the police Unes and the 

Velur in N. Arkdt was built by 
Narsingh, Rdjd of Vijayanagar (Bee- 
januggur) about the year 1500 A,D., 
for an occasional residence, and has 
been considered one of the strongest 
places in India, though commanded 
by the neighbouring hills. In 1677, 
Sivaji took Veliir from the king of 
Bijdpiir, in whose possession it had 
been 31 years. The siege was con- 
ducted by a Brdhman named Nirhari 
Bal41. He erected his principal bat- 
teries on two adjacent hills, which he 
named Saiijra and Gojura (Grant 
Duif, vol. i. p. 280). These are the 
Sazarow and Guzarow of Orme. After 
a siege of some duration, the detail of 
which is imperfectly given in the 
Mardtha MSS., the fort surrendered 
about the end of September. Abil 
Husain Edzi asserts that 'Abdulldh 
Khdn, the governor, gave up the fort 
ior a bribe of 50,000 pagodas. In 
1704, Manajl Mor6 surrendered Veliir 
to DdM Khdn, and a firmdn from 
Aurangzlb to Mor6 exists granting 
him a mansab for this service. Veliir 
was formerly the head -quarters of a 
brigade, but it is now garrisoned by a 
angle regiment of N. I. The pop. of 
Veliir town is 38,022, of the whole 
district 179,156. 

From Madras to Salem is 206} m., 
fiMd consequently ipom Veliir to Salem 

is 126J 3Q., which is done by rail in 
7 hrs. and 7 min. Salenij according to 
Graul=" rocks," Shelham or Chelam, 
in N. lat. 11° 39', E. long. 78" 12', is the 
capital of the coUectorate of the same 
name, which, with an area of 7483 sq. 
m., has a pop. of 1,966,995. The pop. 
of Salem itself is 50,012. The climate 
is not considered a healthy one, being 
liable to violent alternations of from 
20** to 30°. Intermittent fever is en- 
demic, and few, if any, strangers es- 
cape during a twelve months' residence. 
Often they are attacked within a few 
weeks of their arrival. January and 
February, during which a dry E. wind 
prevails, are specially unhealthy. The 
Salem district is 120 ms. long, and 
60 ms. broad. The general aspect of 
the district is mountainous : it is tra- 
versed by the K4v6ri, the Pdldr and 
the Pendr rivers. The principal 
mountains are the Shivardi range. 
They are colonized by coffee plant^, 
and also much frequented by visitors 
on account of the salubrious climate. 
Besides coffee, fruits such as pears, 
peaches, loquats are grown. The high- 
est peak rises 5260 ft. above the level 
of the sea. Though the town is 1070 
ft, above that level, it lies in the lowest 
part of a valley, about 7 ms. in width, 
formed by the Shivardi Hills (called 
also Shewarry and Shwarry) — ». name 
derived from Shiva, a Hindii god, and 
Rdi "a king") — to the N. and a 
smaller ^d nameless range to the S. 

" The greater part of the district 
was ceded to the British in 1792 by 
Tlpii in accordance with treaty. The 
remainder was acquired after the fall 
of Seringapatam, From 1802 to 1805 
large portions of the district were par- 
celled out into permanently settled 
estates, which were sold by auction to 
the highest bidder, who became the 
middleman between the government 
and the ryot or cultivator. The re- 
venue of the estates thus created, was 
a little more than £165,000. Many of 
the proprietors became impoverished, 
and their estates were put up to auc- 
tion and bought in by the^o^^YMtti!sc&.* 
Theie novr xems^'a \^^ o'LXJa^ vs-wesis^ 


Route 4. — Arlconam to Yirod, 

Sect. 11. 

to soYenmient by the ryots or culti- 
vators. The highest tax for irrigated 
land is £1 8*. per acre, and the 
lowest 3*. l^d. The tax on unirri- 
gated land varies from 10*. to Qd. 
the acre. The revenue from land 
amounts to £226,300." ^ 

Salem is well built, with many hand- 
some chAwadis or houses for travellers, 
and is altogether one of the best speci- 
mens of a native town in this part of 
India. The streets are wide, and 
planted with cocoa-nut trees in regular 
lines: and there are two very broad 
principal streets, running E. and W., 
having handsome two-storeyed houses 
with bastard Italian facades. The 
Tyromani r., which has its main 
source in the Shivardl hills, forms the 
boundary of the town on the N. and 
W. sides, and there is a good substan- 
tial bridge, with 3 arches thrown 
across it on the W. side, over which 
the rd. into the town from that quarter 
passes. This stream, elsewhere incon- 
siderable, is made to bear the appear- 
ance of a r. near Salem, by 3 dams, 
one at the entrance of the town, and 
a second, 9 f . off "\^here the r. ceases 
to form the W. boundary, and seems 
to have been diverted fi*om its natural 
course for the defence of the fort, now 
old and dismantled, two sides of which 
axe washed by it. The third dam is 9 
or 10 f. lower down the stream. 

The face of the surrounding country 
is studded with tanks, and during the 
rains not less than 200 can be seen 
from the brow of the Shivardi hills, 
Within a circumference of 5 m. there 
are 18 of these tanks, from 1 f. to 1^ 
m. in diameter. Besides the Tyromani 
r., which is never entirely dry, there 
are 2400 wells, and 30 large ones, with 
steps and arches to descend to the 
water. In spite of these being in gene- 
ral brackish, the natives drink of them, 
and think the water not unwholesome 
to themselves, though they admit that 
it is to strangers. As there is abundant 
means of irrigation, the land round 
Salem is highly cultivated. Of the 
arable land, the proportion of wet 
caltiration to dry is estimated at IJ 
^ ^/ 77i0 pop, of the town, exclu- 
^^re of agncultiiral labomers, consists 

chiefly of silk and cotton weavers, and 
cotton more than sufficient for their 
employment is grown in the vicinity. 
Upam cotton, a perennial plant, is indi- 
genous in the country. The Bourbon 
cotton has also been introduced, and 
is greatly on the increase from the 
congeniality of the calcareous soil to 
its growth. The American sea-island 
vine-leaf and Nankin cotton have also 
been successfully introduced. Indigo 
and the common tobacco of the country 
are cultivated ; the former being 
manufactured to some extent — and all 
the ordinary grains are produced. 
In average seasons, even from dry 
cultivation, 2 and even 3 crops are 
reaped, and grain is therefore cheap. 
The soil of the country round Salem 
varies much. A thin layer of calcare- 
ous and red loam prevails, through 
which quartz rocks appear on the sur- 
face in many places. Native carbonate 
of magnesia or magnesite is found in 
a stony, barren plain, 5 m. to the N.W., 
in veins running in a vertical direction 
through hornblende rock, of which all 
the hills about Salem are formed. 
With this magnesite, chromate of iron 
is found, and also thick veins of quartz. 
The chief value of this carbonate of 
magnesia is to form an excellent 
cement, but it has also been used in 
the preparation of sulphate of mag- 
nesia and pure magnesia. In the S. 
of the CoUectorate, iron ore exists in 
considerable quantity, and yields, on 
fusion, 60 per cent, of metal. 

The district of Salem is the princi- 
pal seat of the Indian steel manufac- 
ture (or wutz). The ore occurs gene- 
rally in the low hills, and the quantity 
exposed above the surface is so great, 
that it is not probable that mining 
operations will ever be necessary. 
The ore is prepared for smelting by 
stamping and separating the quartz 
from it, by washing it in a current of 
water, or winnowing it like rice. In 
most deposits, parts are found where 
the quartz is in a state of disintegra- 
tion, and these, from the facility with 
which they are broken, are selected 
by the natives ioi lYvevi tvimaces. The 
smelting tativwie \a tioxa. ^ \o ^ ^» 
high, and \>ie ^o\\Tid ^a V^\^^^^^ 

Sect. II. 

Boute i, — Salem, 


beneath from 8 to 12 in. From 2 ft. 
diameter at the gromid, it tapers to 
1 ft. at top, and is built entirely of 
clay. Two men can finish one in a 
few hours, and it is ready for use next 
day. The blast is supplied by two 
bellows, each made of a single goat- 
skin with a bambii nozzle. The two 
nozzles meet in a clay pipe which 
passes half-way through the furnace at 
the level of the ground, and by work- 
ing the bellows ^ternately, an uniform 
blast is maintained. A semicircular 
opening, 1 ft. in height and in dia- 
meter at bottom, is left in the furnace, 
and before each smelting built up with 
clay. The furnace is then filled with 
charcoal, and a lighted coal being 
placed before the bellows the fuel is 
soon kindled ; whereupon a little ore, 
moistened with water to prevent its 
running through the charcoal, but 
without any kind of flux, is laid on the 
fuel, and the furnace is filled up with 
charcoal. In this manner ore and fuel 
aje added, and the bellows plied for 4 
hours. The temporary wall in front 
is then broken down, and the bloom 
removed with tongs from the bottom 
of the furnace, and beaten with a 
mallet to separate as much of the 
vitrified oxide of iron as possible, and, 
while red-hot, it is cut through with 
a hatchet to show the quality. It is 
then sold to the blacksmiths, who 
forge it into bars, and make it into 

The iron is forged into bars by sink- 
ing the blooms in a small charcoal 
furnace, and by repeated beatings and 
hammerings to free it from the vitri- 
fied and unreduced oxide of iron. It 
is then formed into bars 12 in. long, 
14 broad, and IJ thick. In this state 
it is full of cracks, and exceedingly 
red and short ; and were an Engliii 
manufacturer of steel to be told that 
excellent cast steel could be made 
from such iron, he would treat the 
assertion with contempt. 

It is from this unpromising material, 

however, that Indian steel is always 

made. The bars are cut small to pack 

close in the cruciblef into which 

Jrom ^ a pound to 2 poundSf according 

fo the required weight of t|ie mass of 

steel, is put, with one-tenth of the 
weight of dried wood, chopped small, 
and the whole is covered with one, or 
two green leaves. The crucible month 
is then stopped with tempered clay, 
rammed close so as to exclude all air. 

The wood which is always selected " 
to furnish carbon to the iron, is the 
Cassia auricvlatOj and the covering 
leaves are those of the Asclepias 
gigantea^ or of the Convolvuha lawi- 
foling, "VMien the day. is dry, 20 to 24 
crucibles are built up in the form of 
an arch, with their bottom inwards, in 
a small furnace urged by two goatskin 
bellows. Charcoal is heaped over them , 
and the blast kept up for 2^ hours, 
when the process is complete. The 
crucibles are then removed and al- 
lowed to cool, then broken, and the 
steel taken out in a cake. The cruci- 
bles are made of red loam mixed with 
charred husk of rice ; a rotary motion 
is given to this clay in one hand, while 
it is hollowed out by the other. The 
steel cakes are prepared for being 
drawn into bars by annealing them 
for some hours in a charcoal fire. This 
operation removes the excess of carbon, 
and without it no cake would stand 
drawing into bars without breaking. 
The antiquity of the Indian process of 
making steel id no less astonishing 
than its ingenuity, for its theory is 
extremely recondite, and in its dis- 
covery there seems but little room for 
the agency of chance. We can hardly 
doubt that the tools with which the 
Egyptians covered their obelisks and 
temples of porphyiy and syenite with 
hieroglyphics, were made of Indian 
steel ; for there is no evidence that 
any nation of antiquity, save the 
Hindiis, were acquainted with the art 
of manufacturing steel. 

Salem is likewise remarkable as be- 
ing the first district in the Madras 
Presidency where a European Zamin- 
ddr ^possessed Ismd. The holder was 
the late Mr. Fischer, who claimed the 
privilege by the charter of 1833, and 
purchased in 1836 a considetohVo^ 
zamlnd^ ox e,^«Xfe, ^ xo.. '^ssck.^ «si.^ ^ 
broad. Hep«ii^TLO\.\ee»^Xl"KQ.^ft§**i^«^ 

to Go^emmeaX,. ^^ ^^^^ ^"*^?^^^^ 
his successtttV ^x^rflSiaiA«»^»^ ««S^^ 


Route 4, — Arhonam to Yirod, 

Sect. II. 

lure, planting and manufactures, he 
did very much to benefit the part of 
India in which he resided. The ryots 
under his daughter, who has succeeded 
him, cultivate the usual Indian grains, 
and each is assessed in a fixed propor- 
tion of the crop. With this system 
the natives appear perfectly satisfied, 
and from the air of comfort about them, 
and the rapid multiplication of their 
numbers, its excellence cannot be 

TJie Shivardi Hills, — Those who 
desire to visit these interesting hills, 
must write beforehand to the station- 
master at Salem, or to some friend 
there to make arrangements to have a 
cart or carriage to take them from 
Salem to the foot of the hills — a dis- 
tance of about 7 m. There is a travel- 
lers* b. at the foot of the hills, but 
nothing to be got there in the shape 
of food or attendance, so the traveller 
must take his own provisions and ser- 
vant with him. The principal station 
on the hills, where the English reside, 
is YerkAd. There is no travellers' b. 
there, but a hotel. Yerkdd is a very 
small place, with not more than 20 
houses. It is about 4300 ft. above the 
sea, and not safe from fever. The high- 
est part of the hills is 5371 ft., called 
Sholar Karadu, near the centre. The 
ghdt or ascent to Yerkdd is 5 m. long, 
and is not fitted for wheel traffic. The 
traveller therefore must make, or get 
made, arrangements with a stable- 
keeper at Salem for ponies, a palan- 
quin or tonjon, to take him from the b. 
at the foot of the hills to YerkAd. 6 m. 
from YerkM on the N. or Madras side 
is NAgaliir, at about 4000 ft. elevation, 
where Mr. John Bruce Norton, the 
well-known former leader of the 
Madras bar, had a house. A traveller 
desirous of reaching NAgaliir from 
Madras, would leave the latter place 
at 6 P.M., and arrive at the Shivardi 
Hill Stat, at 3 A.M. Arrangements, 
as before said, must be made previously 
with a stable-keeper at Salem for 
ponieB so as to have them ready in 
tAe morning. The ride up the ghdt 
JoJV}^aJiir, a very lovely one, is about 
J^JB, Jong, but on account of the steep- 
-oe«y of the road f as also to give time to 

enjoy the scenery, the traveller who 
starts at 5 A.M., will not probably 
arrive till 7 a.m. Only a few small 
streams are found on the hiUs, some 
of which dry up between the N.E. 
monsoon and the I'etum of the S.W., 
and at their summits the hills are 
scantily clothed with vegetation. Od 
their sides for ^ of the ascent the 
common trees and shrubs of the plain 
are met with ; the next ^ is overgrown 
with bambii, and above it grow short, 
coarse herbage, long rank grass with 
ferns, and a thick, stubborn shrub 
peculiar to the hills. The streams, 
however, are bordered with large, 
wide-spreading trees, among which 
the bastard cedar predominates. There 
is a pass on the N. side as well as that 
on the S. from Salem. In June, 1824, 
a temittent fever broke out which 
caused these hills, which had till then 
been much frequented by invalids, to 
be deserted for a time. In fact, the 
elevation is not above fever range, and 
though, as a general rule, healthy 
during the dry months, they cannot 
be pronounced safe after a fall of rain. 
The same remark applies to the other 
ranges in this Collectorate. 

The coffee tree grows on these hills 
luxuriantly, and yields a ton an acre ; 
whereas in Ceylon it yields only fi*om 
8 to 10 cwt. The plants begin to bear 
in 3 years, are in full bearing at G 
years, and last 30 years. The forests 
abound with deer, elk, hogs, leopards, 
tigers, and there are a few elephants, 
which are prohibited game, and are 
killed only when they become mis- 
chievous. The bison, too (Bos cavi- 
frons), are preserved by government. 
During the hot weather they frequent 
the woods and valleys, congregating in 
large herds, but after the first showers 
they roam at large. In July and 
August they regularly descend to the 
plains to lick the earth impregnated 
with natron or soda, which seems as 
essential to them as common salt to 
the domestic cattle when kept in hilly 
tracts. Many attemps have Ijeenmade 
to domesticate the bison, but in vain. 
Some "have \ieen VJlY'&d 20 hands high 
at the 8\iO\ild^T, «lti^ ^ l"t. m ^^"Oa.. 

Sect. 11. 

Rovie 4. — Trichindpallu 


in the Salem collectorate would interest 
the geologist. The following minerals 
were sent from this locality to the 
Exhibition of 1851 : white, white com- 
posite (of felspar and soapstone), fawn- 
coloured, green and red kaolin ; soap- 
stone ; corundum (allied to the sap- 
phire), and red and green do. ; cul]^- 
spar ; talc and mica ; grey salt ; 
glaze-clay ; grey, black, and yellow 
clay ; light-red marl ; variety of ice- 
spar ; Venetian talc ; magnesia or 
magnesite ; saltpetre ; tourmalin ; 
blood-stone ; chromate of iron ; iron 
(highly magnetic) ; compact black 
iron-stone ; vesicular iron ore ; octo- 
hedral crystals of peroxide of iron ; 
cream-coloured, stone-coloured, and 
salmon-coloured ochre ; raw and burnt 
sienna. On the same occasion speci- 
mens of coffee, cotton, tobacco, and 
cheroots from Salem were exhibited. 

From Salem to Yirod is 36^ m., 
which distance is done in 1 hr. and 
25 min. Lofty hills are seen from this 
station. The town is small, but has 
some historical interest attaching to 
it. It was taken by Dud Deo Ildj, 
Rdj4 of Maisiir in 1667 A.D., from 
the Ndiks of Madura, to whom it pre- 
viously belonged. In 1768, though 
garrisoned by 200 Europeans and 
1200 Sipdhls, and provided with 8 
heavy guns and 2 mortars, it was 
surrendered to Haidar 'All without a 
blow. Haidar had just destroyed a 
body of 50 European soldiers, and 200 
Sipdhis with 2 guns, and hurrying on 
to Yirod he demanded a surgeon to 
dress the wounds of his prisoners, and 
requested Captain Orton, commanding 
the garrison of Yirod, to come out and 
confer with him. Captain Orton com- 
plied, and was forthwith made prisoner, 
and desired to write an order to Captain 
llobinson, his second in command, to 
cajntulate, which that officer did. 

On leaving Yirod for Trichindpalli, 
the traveller enters upon the narrow 
gauge of the South Indian iUy., where 
the company do not guarantee the 
times being kept, nor hold themselves 
responsible for delay. The distance 
from Yirod to Trichinipalli is 90 m., 
over quite level ground, the stats. 
being as follows : 

Names of 

in Miles. 


Yirod to 

Train leaves at 6.5 

1. Passur . 


P.M. and arrives 

2. Ai^jalur . . 


at Trichitiipalli 

3. Kudumudi 


Junction at 10.28 

4. Pugaliir . . 



5. KAnir . 

9ilf going to the Civil 

6. Katate . . 

lU: or Military Tiines, 

7. Lalapeta 


and not expressly 

8. Kalital^ . . 


to some house in 

9. Ellamsamiir . 


the town, the tra- 

10. Trichin4palU 

veller must be 

Fort . 


careful to ali^t 
at the JunOtoH 

,, Junction 


stat. and not at 



the Fort stat 

TrichindpaUi is situated on the rt, 
bank of the KAv6ri in N. lat. lO'* 67', 
E. long. 70° 44', and within J m. of 
the river's bank. In Pharoah's " Ga- 
zetteer " (p. 340) the name is said to 
be derived from Tri-sira-pili, "three- 
headed place," from a three-headed 
giant supposed to have resided there. 
The Muhammadans call it Natamagar, 
from one of their holy men named 
Natar, whose shrine still exists there. 

TrichindpaUi is a place of historical 
interest. In 1736 the RAjd, who was 
tributary to the NiiwAb of the Kar- 
ndtik, died, and of his 3 queens 2 
underwent cremation. The 3rd re- 
fused to became a sati and assumed the 
government. Dost 'All, who had suc- 
ceeded his father, Sa'adat 'All, in the 
Niiwdbship of the Kamdtik, sent an 
army under his eldest son, Saffdar 'AH, 
and his son-in-law, liusain Dost Khto, 
better known to Europeans as Chandd 
SA^ib, on pretext of collecting tribute, 
but really to seize the fort. Chandd 
Sdl^ib induced the queen to admit a 
body of troops into the town, and then 
made her prisoner and seized the 
place. On the 20th of May, 1740, the 
Mardthas under Raghuji Bhonsl^ de- 
feated and killed Dost 'All at the pass 
of DAmalcheri, and then spread them- 
selves over the Eamdtik ; and on the 
26th of May, 1741, captured TrichinA- 
palli, and sent ChaM.^ ^^V^\!o %s^ ^^^- 
Bonex to ^atkt^, v«>aftT:^ V^ ^^oiSMiR^ 
till 174:^. ^affi^sa ' ^V, ^\ic> ^»^ ^ 


Rovie 4. — Yirod to Trichindpalli, 

Sect. II. 

dered by his brother-in-law, Murta?a 
'AH, in 1742, and the latter was obliged 
to fly to Veliir. In 1743 the great 
NigAmu'l mulk invaded the Kamdtik. 
Mar4ri RAo Ghorpor6 then held Tri- 
chindpalli with a considerable Mardtha 
force ; but the Nijsdm having acknow- 
ledged him as Chief of Gutti, he left 
Trichindpalli and evacuated the Kar- 
ndtik with all his troops. The Nizdm 
appointed Anvaru'd-din to be the 
Niiwdb of the Kamdtik, or, according 
to Orme (vol. i., p. 54) made him 
regent for Saiyid Muhammad, the son 
of the murdered Saffdar *A11. But in 
June 1744 Saiyid Muhammad was him- 
self assassinated, and Anvaru'd-din 
became settled in the government. 
In 1748 M, Dupleix (Orme, vol. i.. 
Book II., p. 120) having guaranteed 
the payment of 700,000 rs. by Chandd 
Sd^^ib to the Mardthas, obtained that 
person's release from confinement at 
Satdrd, and got the Mardthas to sup- 
port him with .3000 men. Chandd 
Sdhib, on arriving in the Kamdtik, 
allied himself with MusjafEar jang, and 
was with him when he defeated and 
killed Anvaru'd-din at the battle of 
Ambiir, on the 22nd of July, 1749, 
after which victory Mugaffar jang 
occupied Arkdt, and made Chandd 
Sdhib Niiwdb of the Kamdtik. On 
the 4th of December, 1760, Ndsir jang, 
the Nigdm of the Dakhan, was mur- 
dered by the Niiwdb of Kadapa ; and 
shortly afterwards, on the 31st of 
Januar}', 1751, his successor and 
nephew, Muzaffar jang, was killed in 
action by the Niiwdb of Blarmil, on 
which the Nizdm's army left the Kar- 
ndtik, and Chandd Sdhib, who had in 
the meantime been gaining strength, 
in July, 1751, besieged the fort of 
Trichindpalli, which was held by the 
English and their ally, Muhammad 
'AH. Chandd Sdl^ib's camp lay along 
the Kdv6ri, and the French battalion 
that served under his orders fixed their 
quarters at Chakli-pdlam, a village on 
the 1. b. of the r., and 2^ m. from the 
M side oi the town. They placed 
their principal battery to the S. of the 
-^.M angle of the town-wall, and 1200 

^^' ^ ^'^' ^^^ ^^^7 ^Iso mounted 2 
^-pounders on a rock situated 2000 yds. 

due E. of the S.E. angle of the town, 
and this spot has ever since borne 
the name of French Rocks. Here, on 
the 28th of March, 1752, Major Law- 
rence with 400 European soldiers, 
1100 Sipdhls, and 8 iield guns, de- 
feated the French and Chandd Sdhib, 
killing 40 of the French and 300 of 
Chandd's men, 285 horses and an 
elephant. Murari Rdo, who had 6000 
Mardthas under him, and was on the 
side of the English, took no part in 
this action, as he was intriguing to 
join Chandd. On the 29th Major 
Lawrence marched into Trichindpalli, 
and on the 30th sent Captain Dal ton, 
with 400 English soldiers, to attack 
Chandd's camp on the E., while he 
assailed it from the town. Dalton 
was led out of his way by his guides, 
and consequently the attack did not 
take place ; but M. Law, who com- 
manded the French, was so impressed 
with his danger that he retreated to 
the island of Shrirangam, where he 
took up his quarters in the temple of 
Jambukeshwar, while Chandd Sdhib's 
troops occupied that of Shrirangam. 
Clive, who held a captain's commission 
under Lawrence, persuaded the latter 
to divide his force, which he did, anc^ 
gave Clive the command of 400 Eng- 
lish soldiers, 700 Sipdhls, 3000 Ma- 
rdthas, 1000 Tanjiirine cavalry, and 8 
guns. With these Clive marched to 
the 2 pagodas of Samiavaram, and 
there it was that the career of the 
Hero of Plessy was more nearly being 
cut short by death in battle than per- 
haps on any other occasion. M. Law 
had detached 80 Europeans, 40 of 
whom were English deserters, and 700 
Sipdhls, to occupy Samiavaram, under 
the idea that Clive had withdrawn 
almost its entire garrison to cut off a 
convoy under M. d'Auteuil marching 
from Utatiir. The French, preceded 
by an Irish deserter, captured the 
lesser pagoda and put every man in it 
to death, at the same time firing a 
volley into a traveller's rest-house, 
where CHve lay asleep, which killed his 
servant and shattered a box at his feet. 
Clive, staitixi^ \xp tcom ^Vi^^, VstoM^ht 
200 English. 8o\!9L\eift \.o l\i^ svo't \ \svi\., 
mistaking th^ oXX^ck iox m ^\wcm ot 

Sect. IL 

Route 4. — Tnclundpalli. 


his own men, went among the French 
SipAhis, upbraiding them for their 
panic, and even striking them (Orme, 
Tol. i., p. 223). At length one of 
them, finding Clive to be an English- 
man, attacked and wounded him in 
two places, and then fled into the 
little pagoda. Clive followed him, 
and was met by 6 Frenchmen, when, 
with admirable presence of mind, 
he told them to surrender, as the 
pagoda was surrounded by his whole 
army. On this 3 of them gave up 
their arms and followed Clive, who 
went to tell his Englishmen to attack 
the French Sipdhis ; but these had 
meanwhile discovered their mistake, 
and had marched off, the English per- 
mitting them to do so in the belief 
that they were obeying Clive's orders. 
A few minutes afterwards, however, 
Clive's men captured 8 Frenchmen 
sent to reconnoitre, and these,. with the 
3 Clive had taken, were sent with a 
sergeant's party to be put in confine- 
ment ; but the sergeant took them to 
the little pagoda, which was still oc- 
cupied by the French, who released 
their comrades, but, strangely enough, 
allowed the sergeant and his party to 
escape. Clive then attempted to storm 
the little pagoda, but the deserters 
fought desperately, and killed one of 
Clive's officers and 15 of his men, and 
then with the French made a sally, 
but were driven back with the loss of 
the French commanding officer and 12 
others. Clive then advanced to parley 
with the enemy, and, being weak from 
loss of blood, stood with his back against 
the wall, and leaning on the shoulders 
of 2 sergeants. While thus parleying, 
an English deserter called out to Clive 
that he would shoot him, and fired, 
killing both the sergeants, but happily 
leaving Clive unhurt. The French 
men, indignant at this outrage, then 
surrendered. In the meantime the 
Mardtha cavalry had pursued the 700 
Sipdhls, and, coming up with them, 
cut them all to pieces. After this 
reverse the French under M. Law, 
and the army of Chandd SA^jib, shut 
themselves up, the latter in the Shri- 
rangam pagoda, and the French in. 
Jambakeshwaf, 3f. d'Auteuil, with all 

his force, was made prisoner by Clive, 
and this surrender was followed by 
that of M. Law, who, with 35 officers, 
785 French soldiers, 2000 Sipdhls and 
54 guns, fell into the hands of the 
English. Chanda Sdljiib gave himself 
up to Manikji, who commanded the 
Tanjiir force in alliance with the 
English, and who, after swearing so- 
lemnly to send him safely to the 
French settlement of Ednkal, had 
him murdered, and sent his head to 
Muhammad 'All, 2nd son of Anvam'd- 
din, who escaped from the battle of 
Ambiir, and was supported by the 
English as Niiwdb of the Kamdtik. 
Trichindpalli was then given over to 
Mull^ammad 'All, who hsid promised it 
to the Maisiireans, as the price of 
their aid against the French. The 
Maisiireans claimed the fulfilment of 
this promise, which was ratified by a 
treaty signed and sealed ; and the 
Mardtha chief, Murdri Rdo, likewise 
endeavoured to secure the place for 
himself, and both parties abandoned 
the English cause and joined the 
French. The Mard^has greatly as- 
sisted the forces of M. Dupleix, and 
the Maisiireans blockaded Trichind- 
palli, which must have been starved 
into surrender but for suppUes re- 
ceived from what was then called 
Tondiman's country, and which is now 
governed by the Rdjd of Pudukotai. 
On the 6th of May, 1763, Major Law- 
rence returned to Trichindpalli with 
500 European soldiers, 2000 Sipdhis, 
and 3000 horse in the service of Mu- 
tiammad 'All. On the 10th he attacked 
the Maisiireans and Mardthas in the 
island of Shrlrangam, who were sup- 
ported by M. Astruc, who had under 
him 200 Europeans and 500 Sipdhis, 
with 4 guns. The battle was inde- 
cisive, and the English returned to* 
Trichindpalli, after losing 2 officers^ 
and a few men killed and 3 officers- 
wounded. On the 26th of June, how- 
ever, a much more desperate action 
was fought, in which Major Lawrence,, 
with only 380 European soldiers and 
500 Sip&is, gained a com^^le.tft nvj.- 
toiy over ^i\i'ft c.oTc^\sifti^. ^^^wSsv^'^&a*- 


Route L-^Yirod to Trichindpalli. 

Sect. II. 

of 15 to 1. The battle began by the 
French, under M. Astrue, capturing an 
advanced post on a rock, 4 m. N. of 
Fakir's T6p, and killing 200 Sipihls 
Lawrence had posted there. A hand- 
ful of English grenadiers retook this 
rock, while Lawrence, with the 
scanty remainder of his troops, 
charged the main body of the French 
at the point of the bayonet, and dis- 
persed them, capturing 3 guns, and 
then, after repulsing repeated charges 
of the Mardfha cavalry, in one of 
which Balapah, the brother-in-law of 
Murdri R4o, a most gallant officer, 
was killed, and routing 10,000 Maisiir 
horse, who with the Mardthas made a 
final charge, the English returned in 
triumph to their camps. " Thus was 
Trichindpalli saved by a success which 
astonished even those who had gained 
it." Affairs were, however, again com- 
plicated by the desertion of Muhammad 
All's troops, who went over in a body 
to the enemy, having previously asked 
Capt. Dalton, in charge of the garrison 
on Lawrence's departure to Tanjiir, 
not to fire on them. This strange re- 
quest was still more strangely granted, 
and the result was, that though the 
garrison had sufficient food, the scarcity 
in the city, owing to all supplies being 
stopped by the enemy's cavalry, was 
80 great that a quart of rice sold 
for 25. 6d, (Orme, vol. i. p. 297.) On 
the 9th of August, 1753, Major Law- 
rence, who had been reinforced at 
Tanjiir by 170 English soldiers and 
300 Sipdhls from Fort St. David's, 
and by 3000 horse and 2000 Tanjiir 
troops, arrived within sight of the 
French, Mard^ha, and Maisiir camp. 
Their cavalry extended from French 
Bock, which is rather more than a m. 
due S. from the S.E. corner of Trichi- 
ndpalli, to Sugar-loaf Bock, a distance 
of 2^ m.. Sugar-loaf Bock being that 
distance S. by E. of the S.E. angle of 
Trichindpalli. Thence it stretched to 
Golden Bock, IJ m. due W. of Sugar- 
loaf Bock. Lawrence resolved to turn 
the enemy's left flank, and his Grena- 
di'eivaoon captured the Golden Bock 
And planted the English colours there. 
r^ t?^^ XaifTCzzce ordered an attack 
on the enemy's gum, and when Capt. 

Kirk was killed at the head of the 
Grenadiers, Lawrence himself led them 
on, and routed the enemy, taking 3 of 
their guns. In the night the enemy 
moved to Waikondah, 2^ m. W. of 
Trichindpalli, where there was a small 
fort defended by 2 guns and garri- 
soned by the Maisiireans. Thence, 
however, they retreated in a day or 
two to Mutacheliniir, a strong post 
opposite the W. extremity of Shriran- 
gam Island, where, on the 24th of 
August, they were joined by Murari 
Bdo, bringing a reinforcement of 10,000 
men, of whom 400 were Europeans, 
with 6 guns. The combined army 
then moved to the Five Bocks, which 
are 44 m. S.W. of the S.W. angle of 
Trichindpaflli, and Major Lawrence 
pitched his camp between them and 
the city, a little to the N. of Fakir's 
Top. Thence he again moved to 
French Bock. Here on the 16th of 
September he was joined by a rein- 
forcement of 237 Europeans and 300 
Sipdhis under Captains Bidge and 
CalUaud. In the meantime the 
enemy had moved to Golden Bock 
and Sugar-loaf Bock, taking up their 
old position, from which they had 
been driven a month before. Here on 
the 2l8t of September Major Lawrence 
attacked them, and put them to a 
complete roufc, capturing M. Astrue, 
the French commanding officer, 10 
other officers and 165 French soldiers, 
11 guns, and all the tents, baggage, 
and ammunition of the French camp. 
The French also lost 100 in killed and 
wounded, and they and their allies 
the Mard^has and Maisiireans retreated 
into the island of Shiirangam, while 
Lawrence quartered his troops, partly 
in Trichindpalli, and partly in Koeladi. 
In the beginning of November 1753 
the French were reinforced by 300 
Europeans and 1000 Sipdhis with 
some guns, and on the 28th they made 
a night attack on the Fort of Trichi- 
ndpalli and succeeded in entering the 
outer fortifications at Dalton's Battery 
at the N.W. angle. Here there was a 
pit 30 ft. deep, into which many of 
the assailants ieYL, wdd their screams 
alarmed t"\ie ^arnaorv., ^\io^ \^^ Xyj 
Lieutenant B.asxYBK«i,xe^\i^^ ^iJas. ^\.- 

Sect IL 

jRoiUe 4. — -Trichindpallu 


tack and made 360 of the French 
prisoners, and killed or wounded the 
rest of the attacking column, which 
at the conmiencement numbered 600 
men. This, however, was signally 
avenged in the middle of February 
1754, when Muriri R&o attacked a large 
convoy coming to the English camp, es- 
corted by the famous company of Grena- 
diers 100 strong, 80 other Europeans, 
800 Sipdhis, and 4 guns, with 8 officers. 
Of the officers 5 were killed and 3 
wounded and made prisoners, with 
138 of the soldiers, of whom 100 
were wounded. The remaining 50 
were killed, and all -the convoy and 
guns were taken. On the 12th of 
May a second attempt of the French 
against an English convoy disastrously 
failed, and the French, though greatly 
superior in number, lost 200 of their 
battalion, and had 300 Sipdhis killed 
and wounded, Soon after this Mur^ 
lUo, after cutting to pieces a column 
of 1500 Tanjdrines, accepted a sum 
of money from the Rdj4 of Tanjiir, 
and marched off to his own princi- 
pality. On the 2nd of August, 1754, 
M. Dupleix was superseded in the 
government of the French p6sses8ions 
in India by M. Godeheu, who was 
deputed to arrange matters with the 
English. On the 16th Major Law- 
rence marched from Tanjiir with an 
English battalion of 1200 men, 3000 
Sipdhis, and 14 guns, and a Tanjiirine 
force of 2500 cavalry and 3000 in- 
fantry, with several guns. On the 
17th he fought an indecisive action 
with the French and Maisiireans. 
blockading Trichindpalli, in which 100 
of the French battalion were killed 
and wounded, and the English lost 8 of 
their number, one of whom was the 
gallant Captain Pigou. The French 
then retreated to Mutachellam, and 
their post at Elimiviram was captured 
by the Tanjiirines, under MAnikjl. 
On the 11th of October, after an 
English squadron had arrived with 
the 49th Regt. 700 strong, and 40 
ai*tillerymen, a suspension of arms 
was proclaimed. On the 11th of 
January, 1755, a treaty was published 
patting an end to the war, and leaving 
the French in possession of far greater 

territories than the English. On the 
14th of April the Maisiir general, who 
had persisted in his attempt to get 
possession of Trichindpalli even when 
abandoned by the French, finally 
broke up his camp at Shrirangam, and 
marched back to his own country. 
On the 9th of July the Niiwdb of the 
Eamdtik, Mul^ammad 'All, being at 
last securely established by the aid of 
the English, left Trichindpalli, and 
went to take up his residence at Arkdt. 
In May, 1757, M. d'Auteuil with 1000 
Europeans, 150 hussars, 3000 Sipdhis 
and 19 guns, besieged Trichindpalli, 
which was garrisoned by only 104 
Europeans, 70 Sipdhis, and some 
almost useless irregulars. Captain 
Calliaud, however, by a forced march 
from Madura, with 120 Europeans, 
and 1200 Sipdhis, relieved the place, 
advancing through swampy rice-fields 
so deep that he could not move at a 
greater rate than 1 m. an hour. On 
the 15th of June, 1790, General 
Meadows marched against Tipii from 
the plain of Trichindpalli with the 
army of the Karndtik which had 
assembled there. In 1801 Trichind- 
palli passed with the other territories 
of the Niiwdbs of the Eamdtik to the 
English. Trichindpalli contains 76,530 
inhab., and is the capital of a coUecto- 
rate comprehending 3515 sq. m., with 
1,200,408 inhab., of whom only 25,511 
are Sunni Mu];iaminadans, 3193 
Shi'ahs, 89 Wahdbis, and 3231 Mus- 
lims of other sects. The Christians 
number 52,222. Of the Hindiis 34,709 
are Satanis or followers of Chaitanya, 
a Hindil reformer who was bom at 
Nandya in Bengal in 1485 A.D. They u 
do not wear the long lock of hair as.. 
other Hindiis do. 

During the whole of the si^e of 
Madras by M. Lally, and the opera-' 
tions which preceded it, Trichindpalli 
formed a valuable point d'appui to 
Madras, and Orme admits (vol. ii. 
p. 458) that its retention was second 
in importance only to that of Madras. 
Large reinforcements were drawn 
from it, one of which.^ und<ai: t\aA 
famous \)atl\a:.«a. oSSl^^t: ^^^xsJc^-KssssaaSs^ 

\ was aAao t\v^ ^^\j^'<. ^'^sti ^S^ssscl^ ^-^^ 


MoiUe 4. — Yirod to Trichindjyalli 

Sect. II. 

soners, who at one time were more 
numerous than the invalid Europeans 
of the garrison, in the proportion of 
6 to 1. On the 20th of Jan., 1769, the 
NiiwAb of ArkAt left Madras to return 
to Trichindpalli, as his own capital, 
Arkdt, had been taken by the enemy. 
He reached Trichindpalli on the 10th, 
escorted by Major Calliaud, and on 
the 18th of March, 1760, ArkAt having 
been retaken by the English, he again 
leftTrichindpalli at the head of several 
thousand men, of whom only about 1200 
were troops that could be relied on. 
With this force he took part with the 
English in the reduction of several 
forts, and in July returned to ArkAt. 
On the 16th of January, 1761, Pondi- 
cherry surrendered, and on the oth of 
April, 1761, the war of Coromandel, 
in which Trichindpalli had played so 
important a part, ended. 

The principal sights at Trichindpalli 
are the Fort and Tank at the foot 
of it, where the house in which Olive 
lived, is still shown ; the Great Temples 
of Shrlrangam and Jambukeshwar ; 
the Anakatts, and the Jail. The gold- 
smiths of Trichindpalli are famous for 
their work in the precious metals, and 
their chains, ornaments, and images 
are worth examination, though articles 
made by them are procui*able at 
Messrs. Orr's shop in Madras, of the 
best quality and quite as cheap. 

I7ie Fort, — From any of the houses 
near St. John's church in the canton- 
ment, a drive of about 2 m. — at the 
commencement of which are passed on 
the 1. a plain obelisk to the memory 
of Mr. McDonnell, formerly Collector 
and afterwards Judge of Trichindpalli, 
and further on a large Roman Oatholic 
church — will take the traveller to the 
Fort or Rock, which was the citadel, 
and which until 1845 was surrounded 
by walls, " occupying " (Pharaoh's 
" Gazetteer," p. 340) a " rectangle of 
nearly 1 m. in length, and J ra. in 
breadth." Orme, in greater detail, 
says (vol. i. p. 180), " Trichinapalli is a 
pai-allelogram, of which the E. and 
TV, sides extend, near 2000 yds., 
and the N. and S, about 1200. It has 
^double mclosurc of walls, each of 
friuch is dnnked by round towers, 

built at equal distances fi*om one 
another. The outer wall is 18 ft. 
high, and about 6 ft. thick, without 
rampart or parapet. The inward is 
much stronger, being 30 ft. high, with 
a rampai't of stone, decreasing by large 
steps from the ground to the top, 
where it is 10 ft. broad, and has a thin 
parapet of stone about 7 ft. high, in 
which are loop-holes to fire through. 
There is an interval between the 2 
walls of 25 ft., and before the outward 
a ditch 30 ft. wide and 12 ft. deep, 
unequally supplied with water at dif- 
ferent seasons, but never quite dry. 
In the N. part of the city stands a 
rock 150 ft. high, from which the 
adjacent country is discovered for 
many miles round." In 1845 an order 
was issued to demolish these rampai-ts, 
and in 1855 the " Gazetteer of S. 
India " reported that " the work has 
been gradually progressing, though 
their complete demolition cannot be. 
effected for several years to come." 
Now, however, the demolition is com- 
plete, and but for history it would not 
be easily known that any fortification 
beyond the Rock itself ever existed. 
However, a yellow streak of open 
space at the distance of from 200 to 
300 yds. from the Rock shows where 
the Fort ditch once was, and there is 
also on the N. a ruined bastion called 
French Bastion. This is all that re- 
mains of the once strong fortification. 
The entrance to the covered passage, 
which leads to the ascent of the Rock, 
is on the W. side, and on either side 
of the passage are pillars about 18 ft. 
high, which bear the stamp of Jain 
architecture. The stone has been 
whitewashed and the pillars have 
carved capitals representing the Lion 
of the S. , and various figures of men 
and women, some of them not very deli- 
cate. The frieze above is ornamented 
with carvings of animals. The covered 
passage leads to the ante-room of a 
Shivite temple, whence on certain days 
the images of the gods — viz., of Shiva, 
Pdrvati, Ganesh, and Subrahmanya, or 
Skanda — are carried in procession. 
There is ahugeNandi Bull covered with 
silver pVatea Y;\i\c^ im3ks\,\)«i Ner^ n^Vxs.- 
able. The sl^v* oi V)[v^ wsc^tlX, \?^x^ >C^^ 

Sect. II. 

RoiUe 4. — TrichindpcdU, 


scene of a frightful disaster in 1849. A 1 
vast crowd had assembled to worship 
Ganesh, who is here called Pilliar, or 
" the son." A panic arose, and in 
the crush which ensued 500 people 
were killed. Passing the antechamber 

^ you begin to ascend flights of very- 
steep steps, 290 in number, coloured 
white with red stripes, and all under 
cover. You then reach the upper 
entrance into the temple and pass 
into the open air, and by mounting 57 
more steps a rocky platform is reached 
from which there is a magnificent 
panoramic view. You then pass to the 
N. portion of the Rock, and ascend 
109 more very narrow low steps cut 
in the rock, some of them only 2 in. 
high. After this a very steep stair- 
case in the rock is reached of 26 steps 
with a low wall on either side, at the 
top of which is a Mandapam, or 
pavilion, whence there is one of the 
finest panoramic views to be seen in 
India. On all sides the eye traverses 
the plain for 20 or 30 m. The height 
of the Rock (according to the district 
map) is 236 ft. , and the Mandapam is 
10 ft. higher, but the plain is so flat 
that this height is suflicient to domi- 
nate a vast expanse of country. On 
the S. the most conspicuous object is 
the Golden Rock, popularly so called, 
about 100 ft. high. At the foot of it, 
to the W., is the Central Jail. Carry- 
ing the eye to the S.E. of this rock is 
seen a patch of low hills, the highest 
not being above 40 ft. This is French 
Rocks, about 2 m. from the Fort. To 
the N. of the Fort Rock is the broad 
shallow bed of the Kdv^ri, in which, 
except in the rains, there is but a 
narrow streak of water. Beyond is 
the island of Shrirangam, which the 
French occupied for several years, 
taking up their quarters in the 2 great 
temples, that of Shrirangam to the W., 
and that of Jambukeshwar to the E. 
The island is 17 m. long from the 
Upper Anakatt at the W. extremity to 
a point a little to the E. of Kilikuddi 
on the E. Its greatest breadth is IJ 
m., and Shrirangam temple is 5 m. 
from the W. extremity. As the whole 
island is covered with densd groves, 

the temples are not distinctly Been, 

Beyond to the N. in the far distance 
rises a long line of hills. To the N.W. 
is the Tale Malai range, the greatest 
height of which is 1800 ft., while due 
N. of the Fort Rock are the Kale 
Malai HiUs, which attain 4000 ft.', 
and E. of these are the Pache hills, 
which in some parts rise to 2300 ft. 
Turning to the W. the old town of 
Wdriiir is seen, where there was once 
a cantonment. At the foot of the Fort 
Rock in this direction, that is to the 
W., is a handsome Tappe Xulam, that 
is, a tank with stone steps descending 
on each side to the water's edge, and a 
Mandapam or temple in the centre. 
At the S.E. comer of this tank are 
seen a square comer-house, and a 
house with a porch adjoining the 
other. In one of these Clive lived, 
but it is not certain in which. There 
is strong reason, however, to think 
that it was not the comer house, which 
appears to have been formerly a Hindi!! 
temple. There are 2 kneeling ele- 
phants at the door, each about 5 ft. 
long and 3 ft. high. The other house 
has been the dwelling of a Muljamma- 
dan. The lower storey has 5 arches 
9 ft. high and 6 ft. 10 wide, 2 pillars 
and 6 pilasters. The shafts of thQ 
pillars are only 5 ft. high. 

As Trichindpalli is one of the hottest 
places in India, and the rock becomes 
much heated after the sun has risen a 
few hours, it is desirable to visit the 
Fort Rock as early in the morning as 
possible. To see the sun rise from the 
top of the rock is a glorious spectacle. 

I7ie Temples. — It will be well to 
leave the cantonment not later than 
6 o'clock for the purpose of visiting 
the 2 temples in Shrirangam Island, 
as a proper examination of them will 
occupy several hours, and the heat soon 
becomes disagreeable. After passing 
the Catholic church on the 1. and 
driving through the great bdz4r for 
2 m., during which drive a hospital, a 
clock-tower, and 2 fine Teppa-Kulam 
tanks will be passed, and then the Fort 
Rock, the traveller arrives at the bridge 
over the KAv^ri,Y^hvt!.\lYi^S!kA^^^s&^^^^ 

is ca\\ed\,\i^^ty.'^ferv,ot ^^^^^^^^K 
to dia\ixL^vaa\i SX. tt^-o^ "^i^^ ^^^^^ 


Rovte 4. — Yirod to Trichindpalli, 

Sect. II. 

1852 on the north of the island, which 
is of brick with stone facings to the 
piers, and has 32 elliptic arches of 60 
ft. span and 12 ft. rise. The piers are 
8 ft. high and thick. The road over it 
is 26 ft. wide, and its length is 2685 ft. 
The southern bridge, which the tra- 
veller will cross to visit the temples, 
was opened in 1849. It also is of brick, 
and has 32 ielliptic arches of 49 ft. span 
and 12J ft. rise. Its piers are 84 ft. 
high, and it is 1936 ft. long. The 
roadway is 25 ft. wide. After passing 
the bridge, the traveller passes under 
the shade of thick trees with which 
the island is densely covered. The 
Great Temple of Shiirangam is just a 
mile N.W. as the crow &s from the 
N. end of the bridge, but a little more 
by the road. A scientific description 
of the temple will be found in James 
Fergus8on*s, D.C.L., " History of Indian 
and Eastern Architecture," ed. of 1876, 
at p. 347, and at p. 349 is a view from 
a photograph of the eastern half. The 
description that follows here is the re- 
sult of a personal visit in March, 1878. 
The entrance from Trichindpalli is on 
the S. side of the temple (Fergusson 
says N. side), by a grand gateway, 
which appears to have been built as the 
base of a great Gopura. This gate- 
way is 48 ft. high from the ground to its 
terraced roof. The sides of the passage 
are lined with pilasters, the surface of 
each of which is ornamented with 11 
rows, one above another, of 4 small 
pillars. A similar design will be found 
in No. 16 of PI. XVI. of Ram Rdz's 
" Architecture." The passage is about 
100 ft. long, and the inner height, ex- 
clusive of the roof, is 43 ft. The ascent 
to the top of this gateway is on the 
1. There are 57 tall steps, and from 
them are seen the vast monoliths used 
as uprights in the construction, some 
of them over 40 ft. high. The stones 
on the roof laid horizontally are also 
vast. The stone on the inside of the 
arch from which the measurement of 
the height was taken by dropping a 
measuring tape to the ground, is 29 ft. 
^j'n. long, 4 ft 5 in. broad, and about 
^ ft, thick. There are two plain 
pilasters in the gateway, which bear 
^ inscription in Tamil characters. 

From the terrace at the top of the 
gateway is seen the vast outer wall 
(2475 ft. by 2880 ft., according to Fer- 
gusson), which encloses gardens as 
well as the buildings. Within this is 
a second wall 20 ft. high. Within this 
are 2 great Gopuras on the E. side, 2 
smaller on the W., and 3 of a medium 
height on the S. Advancing from the 
Trichindpalli side the traveller passes 
under a small mandapam, and then 
through a gopura 5 storeys or about 
60 ft. high. The ceilings of the gopu- 
ras are all painted, and the ceiling of 
this one represents the Vardhah or 
Boar Incarnation of Vishnu, as well as 
other Avatdras with multitudes of hu- 
man beings adoring them. The colours 
are well preserved. After this a second 
mandapam is passed imder and a second 
gopura of 5 storeys, after which you 
pass under the third gopura, which has 
only 4 storeys, and these not well de- 
fined. You now enter another enclosing 
wall, which surrounds the more sacred 
part, or real temple, beyond which is the 
Vimdnah or Adytum, which none but 
Hindiis are allowed to enter. The S. 
and N. sides of this enclosure are 830 
ft. 10 in. long, and the E. and W. longer. 
A third mandapam is now passed, 
where the jewels of the temple may be 
examined. Observe 3 ornaments called 
Venkalathd Padukam, of which 2 are of 
diamonds and emeralds, and the third 
of diamonds and rubies. One of these 
is valued at 35,000 rs. There are also 
several coverings for the hands and 
feet of idols of gold studded with 
jewels, as well as large rings for the 
toes. Observe, too, chains of gold of 
local manufacture, which are as flexible 
as string, and a golden bowl said to be 
worth 11,500 rs. There are also chains 
of gold, 5-franc pieces, and others of 
gold 5-rupee pieces. The latter have 
the inscription — Pdnch rupiyali Kiim- 
jfani Angrez Bahadur. " Five rupees 
of the Hon. English Company." After 
this you pass through the Hall of 1000 
Pillars so-called, but there are now 
only 288. The front row looking 
N. rest on pediments, representing 
men on TCOim^ horses spearing 
tigera, w\Aci\i ot^ »X. >i)aa ^^caa Xxma 
stabbed by mca ow 1oq\. ^i^-stf^a "Ca?. 

Sect. 11. 

RotUe 4. — Jamhukeshwar, 


horses. The tigers are depicted rear- 
ing up and clawing the horses and 
men. The curator of the pagoda as- 
serts that the founder of this building 
was a Diwin of the NiiwAb of the 
Kamdtik, but the books of the pagoda 
would probably give the true account. 
After this the great Gopura which is 
on the N. may be visited. Ascend 33 
steps to the 1st platform, 14 to the 2nd, 
20 to the 3rd, 14 to the 4th, 15 to the 
5th, 14 to the 6th, 12 to the 7th, 13 to 
the 8lh, and 11 to the 9th, or 146 in all. 
Thence to the top of 'the gopura is 
29 ft. 10 in. This part can be climbed 
only by an agile person mounting on 
the outside. The total height of the 
gopura is 152 ft, detailed as follows : 
lowest storey, 28 ft. 8 in.; 2nd, 11 ft. 
11 in. ; 3rd, 11 ft. 8 in. ; 4th, 12 ft. 10 
in. ; 5th, 12 ft. 8 in. ; 6th, 12 ft. 9 in. ; 
7th, 10 ft. 8 in. ; 8th, 10 ft. ; 9th, 11 ft. ; 
thence to top outside, 29 ft. 10 in. In 
the floor of the passage under this go- 
pura is a stone with a Kanarese in- 
scription. The Prince of Wales visited 
this pagoda, and a gold salver is exhi- 
bited by the priests, said to be made 
with the gold purchased with the 
Prince's donation of 500 rs. On the 
salver is inscribed : " In remembrance 
of the visit of H.R.H. Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales, to the Shrl Ranga 
Pagoda, 11th December, 1875." This 
pagoda is vast, but the general opinion 
of Europeans is that it is quite devoid 
of taste. With the exception of the 
pillars with supporters carved in the 
shape of horsemen, there is nothing 
that can be called interesting. The 
gopuras are clumsily built, and, not- 
withstanding their enormous bulk, 
shake with the steps of a few men. 
The ornaments have an offensive smell. 
In the ceiling of the third gopura are 

Asome grossly indelicate figures. The 

'style is said to be the Chilukyan of 
tx/jlthe 16th cent., and the bracket or 

1 1 plantain capital so common at Bijd- 
nagar, is also general here. The 
figures on the gopuras are made of 
cement, not carved in solid stone^ and 
have no artistic merit. It was for a 
long time the quarters of Chandd 
J^dJjib, as mentioned above, and Mr. 

FerguBSon is of opinion that the build- 

ing probably commenced about 50 years 
before that, or 1700 A.D., and that its 
unfinished state is due to that occupa- 
tion and the regime that followed. In 
Ram R4z's "Architecture," there are 
2 views (PI. XXIII. and XXIV.) of 
the VimAnah with the figure of Vishnu 
over the entrance. According to RAm 
R^ (p. 45), temples to Vishnu should 
face towards the E., but owing to its 
unfinished state it is difficult to say 
to which quarter this temple faces. In 
the word Shrlrangam S?iri may signify 
Lakshmi, the wife of Vishnu, or it may 
mean " celestial," and rangam means 
" dancing," " voluptuous pleasure." 

Javibukeshwar, — In the S. of India 
temples are often found in pairs. If 
there is one dedicated to Vishnu, there 
wiU be one dedicated to Shiva. Bo 
here, at about 1^ m. from the great 
temple, is a smaller one sacred to Jam- 
hukeshwar or Shiva, from jambvlta^ 
" rose-apple," and Uhwar "lord," or 
Lord of India, Jambu being a division of 
the world, ' India ;' and T^war, * deity.' 
The traveller will retrace his steps to- 
wards the K4v^ri for f m., and then 
turn to the E. for \ m. more, and he will 
reach the Jamhukeshwar temple, which 
has 3 courts and is very much smaller 
than that of Shrirangam, and has now 
a neglected, deserted look. The jplan, 
however, of the building is more artistic, 
and the main corridor and positions 
are fine. On the rt. of the entrance is 
an upright stone 4 ft. high, with a 
long Tamil inscription, which begias 
with the words Shri Jambuheshwa/r^ 
The 1st gopura, which is also the 
gateway of entrance, has 6 storeys, not 
well defined. The oeiling is painted, 
but with flowers of the lotus only, not 
with figures. Passing this you arrive 
at the Hall of 1000 Pillars, so-called ; 
in point of fact, there are on either 
side the main avenue 16 rows of 9 pillars 
each= 144x2=288 in all. They are 
monoliths 18 ft. high, with pediments 
slightly carved to the height of 3 ft., 
and they all have the plantain 
bracket at top. As you enter tbia 
hall yoM \va.\^ ^ t^xel-k^^sJ^J^^ terp^o. 
fewZam, OT tauV ^>i\i «. \!5fi^^^ "«v 

tliecentve. ^^^^^^"^^ ^•^'^^c^^ 
, the 1J5 , Bidea xvm^ ^ ootnfiLox cS-^^wo^ 


Route 4. — Yirod to TrichindpaHi. 

Sect. n. 

Mtiported bj pillari. There are 22 j 
btllsni In each storey on the E. Bide, 44 
fit oil ; Mill 34 in ecich storey on the 
other 2 iddce, malitng in all 3 sides 
IHOpillarS' Beyond this is ft second 
ffnpnra with T storeys, and a 3rd 
fCi^ra, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridm' leadi to the Vimdjifth, There 
are 1 7 pillars on cither side, of which 
13 have hiehly ornamented entabla- 
tnreH, and Are are plain. To 1. ore '> 

Krilions, that nearest the Vinidnnh 
Ting been built by altdj^ of Mnisur 
IGOyearaago. There are EereralEhort 
hiKrlptfons on the pavement. The 
Hai«ilr pavilion has an inner room 
with i pillan and an outer room with 
e nillmv on each side. On the whole 
tUa pagoda is a very Hne one, and 
well worth a visit. It ia, no doubt, 
older than the Yaishuava temple. 

Ihe ^^ioff^.— The K&v^ri, about 
m. to the W. of Trichin^palli, and a 
little to tlic W. of the W. extremity of 
ghrlranitam ialaad, Beparates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
le, branch being called the Kolen^ or 
Kolidii''i'""itheB.thcK4T6ri. Ithad 
long been observed that the N. channel 

in prevcnling an excess ot water enter- 
iiigthe Kolcriln. The anakatt^ consiBts 
of 3 parts, being brolcen bv 2 ielands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the ti. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, ia 874 yds. It 
ia a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rowa of wells aunt 9 ft, below 
Ihe river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broad, the ontcr edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and baa an outer apron 
(! to 10 y<la. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A siniUar apron 
extends on the upper side of the ajia- 
kat^ There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and G ft. 

was deepening and 

QjQfQ and more shallow, and lest the 

Taniiir Collcctorate should thi 

denri*^ °^ "'^'^^ sufficient for irnga- 

(j ' (Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 

thp 'nanotio" °f tt^s government to 

c^ J!^Ct a dam or analatt, across the , 

i^^^.OD'i finished it in 1836. The 

viP^ is fed by the Bhawinl, the 

V , a,^^ ^^'^ AmrSvaH streams, 

L^ ' ^lescsnd from the Nllgiris and 

wtuch <* j„ the middle of June the 

awsdr- ^on ,.nuBes the KAv^ri to 

».W. lT>*^j ill Jnlj and August it be- 

•w'pJI J*** - -v-.-.j jj_s_jt..... 

<Wefl »■**,, 

, _ J in 

The piers are ^ ft. high and 5 
thick. Theroadway iseft. 9in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the Kdveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Kolenip. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 
day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Aijakatf, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Aijakntt, Imilt in 1R36, under 
iga- 1 the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
■ ■■ >tton. It supplies the Viranam tank 
S.Arkit,aud waters the t'alukahsot 
Chedambram and Ma,nirgudi in that 
CoUectorato. The task of inspecting 

"•■pJI, »**i2jffYityiiverBnddwindlea 
^""Befl^'^^jiio in September and 
aaJI eif*-^g again in November with 
iber, r-i^'lj^oiisoon. After parting with 
'6 N.B- *i t> 1 i' acids off a number of 
'S -K'olC'^^'I'ich innate Tanjiir, the 
sicfie^ toeing called the Venndr, 

ref o^^^iJaintofhesea20m. S. of _,....__ „„ ^ _ „„ „,uuu„. 

'tbet* ^S^^^ere the Kolcnln diBem-lBndaFBilr'aliut,whercBs this Golden 
spot^ JJX,^ anakatt constructed hy\^witlamBci*»Bfti\e. 'nitT£.4ts&Malai 
■^ S'^^^^ called the Upper AnalLatt,,\\m is \\ m. ■^. ol ftw, Vsi. Kn. 
— — completely Buccessiui utdci tnrai. Vtc ^oienuii Sa toj^scmV 

these anakatts would occupy four o. 
five daya, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

racjii (7.— Trichindpalli CentralJail 
is one of Ihe largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands vrell on rising 
ground abuut 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme'a Golden Bock is 
not the aame as this, hut is probably 
the KAsC Jtfllai hill, which has a 
square white building o 

Sect. IL 

Eovte 5. — Trichindpalli to TanjUr. 


to visit the jail. It is built on the 
radiating principle, with a high build- 
ing in the centre where the guard is 
posted, and which overlooks the whole 
precincts. This jail was built to hold 
1100 prisoners, but on Friday, March 
the 16th, 1878,there were 1138 within 
the walls, and 437 in huts without the 
walls, total 1575. It was finished in 
1868, and is very clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 57 women, 10 boys, 2 girls, 
and only 14 prisoners on the sick list, 
lu 1878, a boy of 13 was sent here 
under a sentence of imprisonment for 
life for throwing a child into a well 
after robbing it of a ring. He was 
transported to the Andamans. In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners effected their 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the muskets of the police, 
and set off with the intention of hang- 
iaig the judge at Tinnevelli, but the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which is to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
l)rovement is impossible. Marks are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a distinctive dress. 
They can also obtain a remission of \ 
of the time they are sentenced to be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by solitary confinement and whipping. 
Refractory women are put on reduced 
diet, or are confined in solitary cells. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It is very clear and 
good. The hai'dest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
coir, the fibre of the cocoa-nut. 



Ti'icli indpaUi to TanjUr by the S. I, Rly, 
31 milei. 

Names of 







(Junction) to 

dep. 6.55 


1. Tiniverauibur 



1.32 S. on L 

2. Budaliir . . 14 


2.19 S. on r. 

3. Taiyur f June.) 103 

arr. 8.40 


Pass the 

whole way 

Total . . . 


through a 
level well- 

Tanjur in N. lat. lO** 47', B. long. 
79** 12' 4", which became the capital 
of the Qhola Kings after Uriiir and 
Kumbhakonam (see Journal of the 
R. A. S.. vol. viii., p. 14, last line), is a 
town with 52,175 iiihab., and the capi- 
tal of a Collectorate which comprises 
the larger portion of the Delta of the 
Kdv^ri, and is the most densely popu- 
lated and richest in the S. of India. 
This province covers 3654 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'alukahs and 13 mettahs or sub- 
divisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and 5 municipal towns, of which 
Tanjiir is one, and Mannargudi with 
17,703 Inhab., Mayaveram with 21,165, 
Ndgapatnam with 48,525, Kumbha- 
konam with 44,444, are the others. 
The total pop. of the province is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 are Mu- 
hanmiadans, 66,409 Christians, and 
239 Jains. Kice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 
18 per cent, can read, but only 1 per 
cent, of the females have received any 

That \.\ie 'Rk^k^ q1 ^«sv-\^ -^^^ 
powerfaV eeNet«\ <ie«v\:aTvea» ^^^ ^^ 
proved \>^ t\ie m^w\3^vi^ ovv 'Ooa v^-^"? 


JtotUe 4. — Yirod to TrichindpalU, 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. JBeyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopura, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the Viminah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are 5 
pavilions, that nearest the Vimdnah 
having been built by a RAjA of Maisiir 
150 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisiir pavilion has an inner room 
with 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Vaishnava temple. 
• Ihe Anaka(f8. — The Kdv^ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Koleriin or 
Kolidiin , and the S. the KAv6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir CoUectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for irriga- 
tion. Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anakatt, across the 
Kolenin, and finished it iii 1836. The 
K4v6ri is fed by the Bhawdni, the 
Noyel, and the AmrAvati streams, 
which descend from the Nilgiris and 
Maisi!ir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the Kdv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the VennAr, 
and then falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
tAe spot where the Xoienin disem- 
boffues. The anakatt constructed by 
^J'^^i^^ Jf^caZ/ecf ^e Upper Anakatt, 
ma It baa been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of waler enter- 
ing the Kolenin. The anakatt consists 
of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broad, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
6 to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar apron 
extends on the upper side of the ana- 
katt. There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 64 ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the KAveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Koleriin. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 
day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, under 
the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
Cotton. It supplies the Vlranam tank 
in S. Arkdt, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Manargudi in that 
CoUectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

jHw Jail. — Trichindpalli Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden Rock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kds6 JIalai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a Fakir's hut, whereas this Golden 
■Rock is mafcceBS&Aft. TV\^ K484 Malai 
'WU is \\ m. ^. ol IV'Si \"K^. Kxv 
! oidex itom Wie ^o^OTasst \s ^Ko;avt^\ 


RoiUe 5. — TrkUnApalli fo Tan^. 

to visit the jail. It is built on the 
mdiating principle, with a higli build- 
iug in the centre where the gnard is 
posted, and which overlooks the whole 
precincts. This jail was built to hold i 
1100 prisoners, but on Friday, March 
the 15th, 1878,there were 1138 within , 
the walls, and 437 in huts without the 
walls, total 1575. It was firdshed in ' 
1868, and is very clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 57 women. It) boys, 2 girls, 
and only 14 prisoners on the Bick list. 
In 1878, a boy of 13 was sent here 
under a sentence of imprisonment for 
life for throwing a child Into a well 
after robbing it of a ring. He was 
transported to the Aiidamans. In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners effected their 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selvcs with the muskets of the police, 1 
and sec off with the intention of hang- 
ing the judge at TinncTelli, hut the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which is to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
provement is impoBsibie. Marks are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a distinctive drees. 
They can also obtain a remission of i 
of the time they are sentenced to be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by solitary confinement and whipping. 
Beftac(«ry women are put on reduced 
diet, or are confined in solitary celli^ 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It is very clear and 
good. The hai'dest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
eoir, the fibre of the cocoa-nut. 



bAdi (thanquebab), kumbua- 
konau, akd chilavbram, b£- 
tubnino to tbichinipauj. 

total, 33g miles. 

I, Tiruverjuuln5r B\ 
J. Bmlaliir 


Ta»jiir in N. lat. 10° 47', B. long. 
79° 12' 4", which became the capital 
iif the Qhola Kings after Uriiir and 
Kumbhakonara (see Journal of the 
a. A. 8.. vol, viii., p. 14, last line), is a 
lown with 52,175 inhab., and the capi- 
tal of a Collcctorate which comprises 
the larger portion of the Delta of the 
SAviii, and is (he most densely popn- 
hited and richest in the B. of India. 
This province covers 3654 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'alukahs and 13 matlaht or sub- 
divisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and 5 municipal towns, of which 
TanjAr is one, and Hannargudi with 
17,703 inhab., Mayaveram with 21,165, 
^dgapa^am with 4S,52G, Euinbha- 
konam with 44,444, are the others. 
The total pop. of tic province is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 are Mn- 
Ijammadans, 66,409 Christians, and 
J39 Jains. Rice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 
18 per cent, can read, but only 1 per 
cent, of the females have received any 

That Vhft 'B.fc.'ite (ft t«iv\*it -«^ 
powerta\ B^ftwA cfcftaiivw!. wej. 


Jtovte 4. — Yirod to TricldndpalU, 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. JBeyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopura, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the Vimdnah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are *> 
pavilions, that nearest the Vimdnah 
having been built by a Rdjd of Maisiir 
150 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisifr pavilion has an inner room 
with 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Vaishnava temple. 
■ Jhe Analeatfs. — The K4v6ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Kolerilbi or 
Kolidiin, and the S. the KAv6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir CoUectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for irriga- 
tion, Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anakatt, across the 
Kolenin, and finished it in 1836. The 
KAv6ri is fed by the Bhawdnl, the 
Noyel, and the Amrdvatl streams, 
which descend from the Nilgiris and 
Maisrir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the Kdv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the Venndr, 
and ^en falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
t/fe spot where the Kolenhi disem- 
bogues. The anakatt constructed by 
^J'^^u^^ ^(^^Gdtke Upper Anakatt, 
«oflf It haa been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of waler enter- 
ing the Kolenin. The anakatt consists 
of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broat^l, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
6 to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar apron 
extends on the upper side of the ana- 
katt. There arc 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 64 ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the Kdveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Kolerun. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 

• • • 

day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, under 
I the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
; Cotton. It supplies the Vlranam tank 
in S. Arkat, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Mandrgudi in that 
CoUectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

Tlie Jail. — Trichindpalli Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden Hock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kds6 Jlalai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a Fakir's hut, whereas this Golden 
■Rock is mafcc^eKiVAft. TV^^ K484 Malai 
'hill is \\ m. ^. ol ^L^iei \"8CA. kxv 
1 oxdex ixom Wi<^ ^osOTftsst \s T^vt^\ 

Sect. IL 

Eottte 5. — Trichindpalli to TanjUr. 


to visit the jail. It is built on the 
radiating principle, with a high build- 
ing in the centre where the guard is 
posted, and which overlooks the whole 
precincts. This jail was buUt to hold 
1100 prisoners, but on Friday, March 
the 15th, 1878,there were 1138 within 
the walls, and 437 in huts without the 
walls, total 1575. It was finished in 
1868, and is very clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 57 women, 10 boys, 2 girls, 
and only 14 prisoners on the sick list. 
In 1878, a boy of 13 was sent here 
under a sentence of imprisonment for 
life for throwing a child into a well 
after robbing it of a ring. He was 
transported to the Andamans. In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners effected their 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the muskets of the police, 
and set off with the intention of hang- 
iaig the judge at Tinnevelli, but the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which is to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
provement is impossible. Marks are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a distinctive dress. 
They can also obtain a remission of \ 
of the time they are sentenced to be 
imprisoned. Itefractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by solitary confinement and whipping. 
Itefractory women are put on reduced 
diet, or are confined in solitary ceUs. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It is very clear and 
good. The hai-dest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
coir, the fibre of the cocoa-nut. 



Trichindpalli to TanjUr by the S, L Rly. 
31 milei. 

Names of 







(Junction) to 

dep. 6.65 


1. Tiraverambiir 



l.32'a on L 

2. Budaliir . . 



2.19 8. on r. 

3. Tanjiir f June.) 


arr. 8.40 


Pass the 
whole way 

Total . . . 


through a 
level well- 

Tanjur in N. lat. 10** 47', B. long. 
79* 12' 4", which became the capital 
of the Qhola Kings after Uriiir and 
Kumbhakonam (see Journal of the 
R. A. S.. vol. viii., p. 14, last line), is a 
town with 52,175 inhab., and the capi- 
tal of a CoUectorate which comprises 
the larger portion of the Delta of the 
KAv6ri, and is the most densely popu- 
lated and richest in the S. of tndia. 
This province covers 3654 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'alukahs and 13 mottahs or sub- 
divisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and 5 municipal towns, of which 
Tanjiir is one, and Mannargudi with 
17,703 inhab., Mayaveram with 21,165, 
Ndgapatnam with 48,525, Kumbha- 
konam with 44,444, are the others. 
The total pop. of the province is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 are Mu- 
hanmiadans, 66,409 Christians, and 
239 Jains. Bice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 
18 per cent, can read, but only 1 per 
cent, of the females have received any 

proved \>^ t\ic Vx^^w^X-vs^ ^^^^ ^^ 


JtotUe 4. — Yirod to Tricldndpalli 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. JBeyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopura, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the Vimdnah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are 5 
pavilions, that nearest the VimAnah 
having been built by a RdjA of Maisiir 
150 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisiir pavilion has an inner room 
with 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Vaishnava temple. 
■ ^he Anakaffs. — The KAv^ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Kolerilbi or 
Kolidiin, and the S. the K4v6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir Collectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for iniga- 
tion. Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anakatt, across the 
Kolerdn, and finished it iii 1836. The 
KAv6ri is fed by the Bhawdni, the 
Noyel, and the AmrAvatl streams, 
which descend from the Nilgiris and 
Maisi!ir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the Kdv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the Venndr, 
und then falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
tAe spot where the Kolerim disem- 
bogues. The anakatp constructed by 
^J'^^i^^ ^caZ/ecf ^e Upper Anakatt, 
ooa It baa been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of water enter- 
ing the Kolevi^n. The anakatt consists 

^ • • • 

of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broad, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
6 to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar apron 
extends on the upper side of the ana- 
katt. There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 64 ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the Kdveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Koleriin. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 

• • • 

day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
I Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, under 
the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
I Cotton. It supplies the Viranam tank 
in S. Arkdt, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Mandrgudi in that 
Collectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

I7ie Jail. — Trichindpalli Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden Kock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kdsd JIalai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a Fair's hut, whereas this Golden 
"Rock is mafccessiVAa. TV^^ K^b^ Malai 
'hill 18 \\ m. '^. ol IV^ >^. Kxv 
' oidex ixom Wi'^ ^o^cnvot \s T^vt^\ 

Sect IL 

Route 5. — TridnndpalU to Tang^. 

to riait tie jail. It U built on the 
radiating principle, with a high build- 
ing in the centre where tbe gaard is 
IXJSted, and which orerlCMDks the whole 
precincts. Tbie jail was built to hold 
1100 priBoners, but on friday, March 
the 15th, 1878,there were 1138 within 
the walls, and 437 in huta without the 
walls, total 1575. It was fiiiiehed h, 
1M68, and ia verj clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 67 women, lU boys, 2 girls, 
and only 14 prisoners on the sick list. 
In lg7H, a boj of 13 was sent here 
under a sentence of imprisonment for 
life for throwing a child into ft well 
after robbing it of a ring. He was 
transported to the AndamanH. In 
1870, 21) of the prisoners effected their 
escape under the leadership ot a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the muskets of tlie police, 
and set ofi with the intention of hang- 
ing the judge at TinaeTelli, but the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitazy cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which is to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
provement is impossible. Uarku are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
ivardera, and wear a distinctive dresa. 
They can also obtain a remission of J 
of me time they are sentenced to be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by Bolit^y confinement and whipping. 
Kefractory women are put on reduced 
diet, or are confined in solitary cells. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There ia a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It ia very clear and 
good. The hardest work done in this 
prison Is grinding com and picking 
aoir, the fibre of the ' 

'kichinapalli to tahjub, kIoa- 

patsam (negapatam), 


level waU- 

Ihtijiir in N. lat. 10° 47', E. long. 
79° 12" 4", which became the capital 
of the phoia Kings after Uridr and 
Knmbhakonam {see Journal of the 
K. A. S.. vol. viii,, p. 14, last line), ia a 
town with I>2,l7a iiihab,, and the capi- 
tal of a Collectorate which comprises 
the laj^er portion of the Delta of the 
K4v6ri, and is the most densely popn- 
lated and richest in the S. of India. 
This province covers 3664 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'alukaha aud 13 mattahi or sob- 
liivisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and G municipal towns, of which 
Tanj^r is one, and Mannargudi with 
17,703 inhab., Mayaveramwith 21,16fi, 
Siigapa{nam with 18,625, Kumbha- 
konom with 44,444, are the others. 
The total pop. of the province is 
1,873,731, of whom 102,703 are Mn- 
Ijammadans, 6<i,409 Cluistians, and 
239 Jains. Rice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 
18 ner cent, can read, but only 1 per 
of the females haTe received any 

\ That ttie Bi.=iiia cS. Tttsi^ "^^s 


JtotUe 4. — Yi7vd to Trichindpalli, 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. Beyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopnra, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the VimAnah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are 5 
pavilions, that nearest the Vim An ah 
having been built by a Rdjd of Maisiir 
150 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisiir pavilion has an inner room 
w^ith 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Vaishnava temple. 

Ihe Anaha^s. — The KAv^ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Kolerilbi or 
Kolidiin , and the S. the Kdv6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir CoUectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for iri-iga- 
tion, Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anakatt, across the 
Kolenin, and finished it in 1836. The 
Kdv6ri is fed by the Bhawdni, the 
Noyel, and the AmrAvatl streams, 
which descend from the Nilgiris and 
Maisi!ir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the KAv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the Venndr, 
and then falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
tAe spot where the Kolertm. disem- 
bqpies. The anakatp constructed by 
JlT-?^^^^ i'-scaZ/ecf ihe Upper Anakatt, 
«oflf Jt has been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of waler enter- 
ing the Koleri'in. The anakatt consists 
of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broatl, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
(y to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar ajiron 
extends on the upj^er side of the ana- 
katt. There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 6^ ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the KAveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Kolerun. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 
day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, mider 
the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
Cotton. It supplies the Vlranam tank 
in S. Arkdt, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Mandrgudi in that 
CoUectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

TJieJail. — Trichindpalli Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden Rock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kds6 Malai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a Fakir's hut, whereas this Golden 
Rock, is iiiafccie«BiVi\e. TV^^ K^b^ Malai 
hill is H m. "^. ol ^iJCl^ \"k^. kxv 
' oidex ixom Wi^ ^o^OTasst \s ^Ko^vt^ 

Sect IL JioiUe S.—Trkhindpalli tn Taty^r. 

to 711111 the jail. It ie built on the 
radiating principle, with a high build- 
iug in the centre where the gnard ie 
posted, and which overloolts the whole 

frednctB. This jail was built to hold 
!00 priBonera, but on Friday, March 
(he ISth, 1878, there were 1138 within 
the walls, and 437 in hats without the 
walls, total I5;a. It was finished in 
1868, and is very clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were ou the said day 
of March, 57 women, 10 boys, 2 girla, 
end only Ij prisoners on the siclc list. 
In 1878, a boy of 13 was sent here 
nnder a sentence of imprisonment for 
life for throwing a child into a well 
after robbiog it of a ring. He was 
transported to the Andamans. In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners efiected their 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the muskets of the police, 
and set off with the intention of hang- 
ing the judge at Tinnevelli, but the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 30 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which ifl to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
provement is impossible. Harks sre 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a diatinctire dress. 
They can also obtain a remission of J 
of ue time tliey arc sentenced fo be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food,in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by solit^y confinement and whipping. 
Itefractory women are put on lednciS 
diet, or arc confined in solitary cells. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward, 
Tliere is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It is very clear and 
good. The hai'dest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
coir, the fibre of * 


tbichinapalli to 1 
fatnau (seqapatam), kague 


BADI (t&anquebab), KUKBHA- 







(JmwUon) to 


3. TanjDi' (JUDC. '.«! 

Tanjir in N, ]»t. 10° 47', E. long. 
79° 12' 1", which became the capital 
of the (^ola Kings after Uriilr and 
Kurabhakonam (see Jonmal of the 
R, A. ^.. vol. riii., p. 14, last line), ia a 
town with 52,175 iiihab., and the capi- 
tal of a Collectorate wUch comprises 
the larger portion of the Delta of the 
K&v^ri, and is the most densely popu- 
lated and richest in the 8. of India. 
This province covers 3664 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'sluVahs and 13 mottaht or eab- 
ilivisions held nnder permanent settle- 
ment, and 6 municipal towns, of which 
Taiijilr is uuc. and Mannargudi with 
17,703 iuhah., Msvaveram with 21,165, 
NAgapatnam with 48,625, Kumbho- 
konam with. 44,414, are the others. 
The total pop. of the province is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 arc Mn- 
l^ammadana, 66,409 Christians, and 
239 Jains. Kice cultivation is so 
getieial, that 27 per cent, of the males 

, are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 

I 18 per cent, can read, hut only 1 per 

I cent, of the females have received any 

I Inatmction. 

I That V\ift "B-t^ta lA "^^k^ '^'^ 

\ proved bj ^■be Vo«it\-e'tv«^ ^^ "^ ^^"^ 


JtotUe 4. — Yirod to Tricldndpallu 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 1 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. JBeyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopnra, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the Yimdnah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are 5 
pavilions, that nearest the Vimdnah 
having been built by a Rdj4 of Maisiir 
160 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisih: pavilion has an inner room 
with 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Vaishnava temple. 

^he Analeaffs. — The Kdv^ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Kolenin or 
Kolidiin , and the S. the K4v6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir CoUectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for irriga- 
tion, Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anakatt, across the 
Kolenin, and finished it iii 1836. The 
Kdv6ri is fed by the Bhawdnl, the 
Noyel, and the Amrdvati streams, 
which descend from the Nilgiris and 
Maisrir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the Kdv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in. September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the VennAr, 
and then falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
tAe spot where the Xoienin disem- 
bogues. The anakatt constructed by 
JlT'?^u^^ ^^^^Gdthe Upper Anakatt, 
«oflf Jt has been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of waler enter- 
inff the Kolenin. The anakatt consists 
of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broad, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
(> to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar apron 
extends on the ui)per side of the ana- 
katt. There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 64 ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the KAveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Kolenin. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 
day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
TrichinApalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, under 
the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
Cotton. It supplies the Vlranam tank 
in S. Arkdt, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Mandrgudi in that 
CoUectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hardly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

Tlie Jail. — Trichindpalli Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden liock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kdse JIalai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a Fair's hut, whereas this Golden 
■Rock \B maccessiVAa. T\\ft K^b^ Malai 
hill is \\ m. ^. oi iVe^ \"8CA. Kxv 
' order ixom Wie ^o^envQi Ss ^o^P^vt^^ 

Xovte 6. — TriddndpeUli to Tatyltr. 

3 visit the jail. It ii 

built c 


e where the gnard 
posted, and which overlooks the whole 
]>reciiicts. This jail was bnilt to hold 
1 100 prisonerB, but on Fridaj, March 
the lStJi,1878,there werelI3H wiihin 
the walla, and 43T in huts witboat (he 
walls, total 1576. It was finished in 
1868, and is very clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 57 women, 10 boys, 2 girls, 
and only 11 prisoners on the sick list. 
In 1S7H, a boy of 13 was sent here 
under a sentence of imprison meut for 
life for throwing a child into a well 
after robbing it of a ring. He was 
transported to the Audamana. In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners effected their 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the miakets of the police, 
und set oS with the intention of hang- 
ing the judge at Tinnevelli, but the 
ringleader was shot by a policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read ajid write, but not women, 
which is to be regretted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
prorement is impotable. Harks are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
who behave well are thus raised to be 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a distinctive dress. 
They can also obtain a remission of J 
of the time they are sentenced to be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by solitiy coutinemeat and whipping. 
Kefractory women are put on redncS 
diet, or are confined in solitary cells. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells within the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft. It is very clear and 
good. The haidest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
eair, the fibre of the cocoa-nut. 


tbichikapalli to tanjIjb, kiIoa- 

PATNAM (negapatam), nagur 


bXdi (t&amquebab), eumbha- 
konam, and chilambbah, sb- 
TO tbicuihXpalu. 


Names oC 





3. Taojlir (Jiuc.) 10] 
Totil . . . sT 




T/iHJiir in N. lat. 10° 47', B. long. 
79° 12' 4", which became the capital 
of the Ohola Kings after Uiiiir and 
Kambhakonnm (see Jonrnal ol the 
K. A. S.. vol. viii., p. 14, last line), Is a 
town with 52,175 iuhab., and the capi- 
tal of a DoUcctorate wUch comprises 
the la:^r portion of the Delta of the 
lUv^ri, and is the moat densehr popn- 
lated and richest in the S. of India. 
This province covers 3GG4 sq. m., and 
has 9 t'alulfahs and 13 mottaht or enb- 
divisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and S municipal towns, of which 
TanjAr is one. and Mannargudi with 
17,703 inhab.,Mayaveram with 21,106, 
Miigapatnnm with 4S,G25, Kumbha> 
konam with 44,444, are the otheis. 
The total pop. of the proTince is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 are Mn- 
hsmmadans, (lli,409 Christians, and 
239 Jaiiia. Rice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
are engaged in it. Of the male pop. 
18 per cent, can read, hut only 1 per 
cent, of the females have received any 

powerful Be\ft'ni. cra,\'ca.Tr«». ^.*«ii^ 


Kovte 4. — Yi7vd to TrichindpalU. 

Sect. II. 

supported by pillars. There are 22 
pillars in each storey on the E. side, 44 
in all ; and 34 in each storey on the 
other 2 sides, making in all 3 sides 
180 pillars. Beyond this is a second 
gopura with 7 storeys, and a 3rd 
gopura, which forms part of the wall 
enclosing the Adytum. Thence a fine 
corridor leads to the Vimdnah. There 
are 17 pillars on either side, of which 
12 have highly ornamented entabla- 
tures, and five are plain. To 1. are 5 
pavilions, that nearest the Vimdnah 
having been built by aHdjd of Maisur 
150 years ago. There are several short 
inscriptions on the pavement. The 
Maisi^ pavilion has an inner room 
with 4 pillars and an outer room with 
6 pillars on each side. On the whole 
this pagoda is a very fine one, and 
well worth a visit. It is, no doubt, 
older than the Yaishnava temple. 
• Ihe Anakaffg. — The Kdv^ri, about 
9 m. to the W. of Trichindpalli, and a 
little to the W. of the W. extremity of 
Shrirangam island, separates into 2 
branches, which enclose the island, the 
N. branch being called the Koleriin or 
Kolidiin, and the S. the Kdv6ri. It had 
long been observed that the N. channel 
was deepening and the S. becoming 
more and more shallow, and lest the 
Tanjiir Collectorate should thus be 
deprived of water sufficient for irriga- j 
tion, Colonel Arthur Cotton obtained | 
the sanction of the government to 
construct a dam or anaJkatt, across the 
Kolenin, and finished it in 1836. The 
Kdv6ri is fed by the Bhawdni, the 
Noyel, and the Amrdvatl streams, 
which descend from the Nllgiris and 
Maisilir. In the middle of June the 
S.W. monsoon causes the Kdv^ri to 
swell, and in July and August it be- 
comes a mighty river and dwindles to a 
small stream in September and Oc- 
tober, rising again in November with 
the N.E. monsoon. After parting with 
the Kolenin, it sends off a number of 
branches which irrigate Tanjiir, the 
chief one being called the Venndr, 
and then falls into the sea 20 m. S. of 
^e spot where the XoJenin disem- 
boffuea. The anakatt constructed by 
J^'-?^/^^ -wcaZ/ed the Upper Anakatt, 
^oa It baa been completely successful 

in preventing an excess of water enter- 
ing the Koleriin. The anakatt consists 

o • • • 

of 3 parts, being broken by 2 islands 
70 yds. and 50 yds. wide. The N. part 
is 122 yds. long, the centre 350, and 
the S. 282. The total length, therefore, 
including the islands, is 874 yds. It 
is a brick wall 7 ft. high and 6 ft. 
thick, capped with stone, and is based 
on 2 rows of wells sunk 9 ft. below 
the river's bed. It is defended by an 
apron of cut stone from 40 to 21 ft. 
broad, the outer edge of which rests on 
a row of wells, and has an outer apron 
6 to 10 yds. wide, formed of large rough 
stones without cement. A similar apron 
extends on the upper side of the ana- 
katt. There are 24 sluices, the largest 
being 7 ft. 2 in., which help to scour 
the bed. A bridge connects the sluices, 
having 62 arches of 33 ft. span and 6 ft. 
rise. The piers are 64 ft. high and 5 ft. 
thick. The roadway is 6 ft. 9 in. broad. 
To prevent the bed of the Kdveri 
deepening too much, a flooring was 
made in its bed just where the anakatt 
commences, to bridge the Koleriin. 
To visit this anakatt will take a whole 

• • • 

day. It influences the irrigation of 
about 600,000 acres. About 9 m. E. of 
Trichindpalli is the Grand Anakatt, an 
ancient work, and below that is the 
Lower Anakatt, built in 1836, under 
the advice of Colonel, now Sir Arthur, 
Cotton. It supplies the Vlranam tank 
in S. Arkdt, and waters the t'alukahs of 
Chedambram and Mandrgudi in that 
Collectorate. The task of inspecting 
these anakatts would occupy four or 
five days, and would hai'dly repay any 
one but an engineer. 

Hie Jail. — TrichindpalU Central Jail 
is one of the largest, and certainly one 
of the best managed in the Madras 
Presidency. It stands well on rising 
ground about 2 m. S. of St. John's 
Church, with a hill popularly called the 
Golden Rock, about 400 yds. from its 
N.E. comer. Orme's Golden Rock is 
not the same as this, but is probably 
the Kds6 Malai hill, which has a 
square white building on its summit, 
and a FaJ^ir's hut, whereas this Golden 
Rock is majccemHe, The Kds6 Malai 
hill is \\ m. ^. ol ^iJciei \a:-^. Ktv 
' order liom Wie ^aNemcst Ss Tfiw^vivt^^ 

Sect II. 

Route 5. — TrkkindpalH to TatyHr. 

to TMt the jail. It is built on the 
radiatiDg principle, with & high build- 
ing in the centre where the guard is 
posted, and which overloolta the whole 
precincts. This jail was built to bold 
1100 prisoners, but on Fridaj. March 
the 15th, 1878, there were 1138 withm 
tlie walls, and *37 in huts without (he 
walls, total 1S7&. It was Unishcd in 
1868, and is veiy clean and well ar- 
ranged. There were on the said day 
of March, 67 women, 10 boys, 2 girls, 
and only 11 prisoneis on the sick list. 
In 1878, a boy of 13 was sent here 
under a, sentence of imprieonmeut for 
life for throwing a child into a well 
after robbing it of a ring. Ho was 
transported to the Andamans, In 
1870, 20 of the prisoners effected Iheir 
escape under the leadership of a noto- 
rious desperado. They armed them- 
selves with the muskets of the ])olice, ', 
aiid set off with the intention of hang- ( 
iiig the judge at TinnevelU, but the 
ringleader was shot by a, policeman, 
and the others were all retaken. There 
are 20 solitary cells. Men are taught 
to read and write, but not women, 
which is to be ret^tted, as their whole 
life is a dismal blank, in which im- 
provement is impORSibie. Marks are 
given for good conduct, and prisoners 
wbo behave well are thus raised (o he 
superintendents of work and convict 
warders, and wear a distinctive dress. 
Thej can also obtain a remission of i 
of me time they arc scntenceil to be 
imprisoned. Refractory males are 
punished by diminished food, in which 
case they are not compelled to work, 
by aoht^y confinement and whipping. 
Kefraotory women are put on lednced 
diet, or are conHned in solitary cells. 
Boys are kept in a separate ward. 
There is a workshop in each ward. 
There are 7 wells witbin the walls, one 
of which has 20 ft. of water, but dur- 
ing the late year of drought the water 
decreased to 2 ft It ia very clear and 
good. The haidest work done in this 
prison is grinding com and picking 
coir, the fibre of the cocoa-nut. 


jeichinapalu to TANJUE, ViQA- 



bAdi (tranquebab), KiniBUA- 


JhHjwr in N. lat. 10= 47', B. toig. 
79° 12' 4", which became the capital 
of the Qhola Kings after Uriilr and 
Kumbhakonam (see Journal of the 
K. A. S.. vol. viii., p. H, last line). Is a 
rown with 1)2,175 inhab., and the capi' 
tal of a CoUectoratc which comprises 
the lai^r portion of the Delta of the 
KAviri, and is the most densely popu- 
lated and richest in the S. of India. 
This province covers 3654 sq. m., and 
kas 9 t'alii^ahs and 13 mottaht or Bob- 
divisions held under permanent settle- 
ment, and S municipal towns, of which 
Tanjflr is one. and Mannar^dl with 
17.703 inhab., Mayavcram with 21,165, 
^fiigapatnam with 48,G25, Kumbhn- 
konom with 44,444, are the otheis. 
The total pop. of the province is 
1,973,731, of whom 102,703 are Mn- 
l^ammadans, 66,409 Christians, and 
i39 Jains. Bice cultivation is so 
general, that 27 per cent, of the males 
lire engaged in it. Of the male pop, 
18 per cent, can read, but only 1 per 
of the females have received any 

That V\ie ^^\(i6 lA ■\.«k^ ^«» 


fioiUe 5. — Trichind'palli to TanjUr, 

Sect. II. 

Pagoda ; but the history of the place 
becomes more interesting after its 
conquest by ShAhjl, the celebrated 
Mardtha leader, and the father of the 
still more famous Sivaji. Grant Duff 
(vol. i., p. 199) states that all the 
Mardtha MSS. agree, that besides the 
Fort of Ami and Porto Novo, Shahji 
conquered Tanjiir, and that 'All 'Adil 
Shdh, in whose service he was, did not 
interfere with his acquisitions. 

That famous Mardtha chieftain had 


three sons, of whom the eldest, Sam- 
bhajl, was killed on service in the 
S. of India. The second, Sivaji, in 
1664, laid the foundation of the 
Mard^ha empire. The third, Ekoji or 
Venkajl, is said by Wilks and otiiers 
to have conquered Tanjiir ; but, ac- 
cording to the Mardtha accounts, as 
stated by Grant Duff, he merely suc- 
ceeded his father, Shdhji, in that pro- 
vince. As Shdhjl is known to have 
taken Porto Novo in 1661 , it is probable 
that Tanjiir fell into his power about 
the same time. We know, indeed, that 
he went as second in command of the 
forces of the Muliammadan king of 
Bijdpur when Ran Dulha Khdn, the 
general of that monarch, invaded the 
Kamdtik in 1638, and that he was left 
as governor of the conquered provinces, 
residing for some time at Bengaliir, 
and afterwards at Eoldr and Bdlapiir. 
We may suppose that he did but exact 
tribute of the Ndik of Tanjiir, and that 
his son Ekojl, the Ankoji of Scott, and 
the Venkajl of Grant Duff, completed 
what his father had begun. This he is 
said to have done on the occasion of a 
war between the chiefs of Tanjiir and 
Madura, when he was sent by Shdhjl 
to aid the former. After repulsing the 
Madura forces, Ekoji fixed a quarrel 
upon the Tanjiir chief with reference 
to his remuneration, and, entering the 
fort with 100 horsemen as if for a con- 
ference, slew the Rdjd and usurped 
the government. Ekpjl left three sons, 
Shahji, Sharfoji, and Tukojl, who suc- 
ceeded to the i^jdship in succession. 
These brothers all left children, and, 
aifter several irregular successions, one 
of tbezn, Sabuji, being dethrone! in 
favour of bis cousin, Prntdp Sing, came 
Jn 7/ 7/? to Fort St. mvid md besought 

the English to assist him. There can 
be no doubt that the British govern- 
ment had no right to interfere ; but, 
lured by the promise of a large sum 
of money and the cession of Devikota, 
a fort at the mouth of the Kolenin 
r^ they undertook to reinstate the 
Tanjiirine. Accordingly a force of 430 
Europeans and 1000 Sipdhls, with 4 
field pieces and 4 mortars, marched 
fi'om Fort St. David, and on the 13th 
of April encamped on the bank of the 
r. Valar. Here they were overtaken 
by the terrible hurricane which has 
already been described (under Giidaliir). 
After an ineffectual bombardment of 
Devikota and the loss of 400 of their 
camp followers, the force made a pre- 
cipitate retreat to Fort St. David, 

In spite of this failure another ex- 
pedition was inmiediately undertaken, 
under Major Lawrence, who was sent 
by sea with all the Company's available 
troops, amounting to 800 Europeans 
and 1500 Sipdhis,to besiege Devikota. 
The fort was 1 m. in circumference, 
with 6 imequal sides, the walls being 
18 ft. high, built of brick, and flanked 
by projecting towers, some circular 
and some square. The English, with 
four 24-pounders, made a practicable 
breach across the river, which they 
crossed on a raft, not without loss. 
The storming party of 34 Europeans 
and 700 Sipdhis was led by Clive, then 
a lieutenant, who advanced briskly 
with the Europeans, but the Sipdhis 
failed to supi)ort him. Their rear 
being thus left unguarded, the little 
company of English were charged by 
a body of Tanjiirine horse, and 26 out 
of the 34 were killed. Clive narrowly 
escaped being cut down, and ran back 
to the Sipdhis. Lawrence then ad- 
vanced with his whole force, and 
effected an entrance into the fort, 
which was evacuated by the enemy. 
After some further unimportant opera- 
tions, the Governor of Fort St. David 
concluded a treaty with Pratdp Sing, 
the Rdjd of Tanjiir. by which the 
English acquired Devik6ta, with terri- 
tory enough to produce a yearly revenue 
ot 31,000 T8., ».t tVkft aaxnft time that the 
expenses oi l\ve 's^twc 'sfjct^ leVcftW^^vi^i 
* to them, awd a YC\mo\\ qI ^v^Vs \^, '5>. 

Sect. II. 

MmUe 5. — Tanjiir, 


year was settled on their prot^g^, 

At the end of the same year Tanjiir 
was besieged by the French and their 
aUy, ChandA SAhib, Niiwdb of the 
KamAtik. The RAjA got rid of his 
assailants by agreeing to pay 7,000,000 
rs. to the Niiwdb, and 200,000 rs. to 
the French, besides ceding to them the 
port of Kdrikal and 81 villages. The 
latter of these sums, and some portion 
of the former, were actually delivered 
over, when a rumour of the approach 
of NAsir jang's army from Golkonda 
induced the besiegers to retreat. On 
the 18th of July, 1758, Tanjiir was 
again besieged by the French, under 
Lally, who raised the siege on the 10th 
of August, and was much harassed by 
the Tanjiirines in his retreat. In 1771 
the RAjA of Tanjiir incurred the dis- 
pleasure of the British, in consequence 
of an attack made by him on the chief 
of RdmnM, or, as he is generally called, 
the Marawar PolygAr, and who was 
maintained by the English to be a 
feudatory of their ally, the NiiwAb of 
the KarnAtik. On the 23rd of Sep- 
tember of that year the English ap- 
peared before Tanjiir, and on the 27th 
of October a practicable breach was 
reported. Before the assault, however, 
the NiiwAb concluded a peace with the 
RAjd, on condition of his paying 30^ 
lakhs of rs., and restoring all the terri- 
tory he had taken from the Marawar 
chief. But, notwithstanding this 
treaty, the Niiwdb was secretly desirous 
of procuring the complete subjugation 
of Tanjiir to himself by means of his 
English allies. In 1773 he again in- 
stigated them to advance against the 
unfortunate RAjA, and on the ICth of 
September, after nearly a month's 
siege, the English troops carried the 
fort and made prisoners of the 
R4jA and his family, who, together 
with the whole province, were handed 
over to the NiiwAb. 

But the Court of Directors disap- 
proved of this unjust war, and directed 
the RAjA to be reinstated, on condi- 
tion of his receiving a garrison of the 
Company's troops into the fort, pro- 
viding lands for their support, paying 
tribute to the Nilw^h, and f.u-uishing 

him with such troops as, backed by 
the Company's authority, he might 
demand. It was added that he shoold 
contract no alliances with foreign 
powers, without the approbation of 
the English. These terms were acted 
upon, but such disputes arose in the 
council at Fort St. David, pending 
their execution, that the Governor, Lord 
Pigot, was arrested by command of 
his own council, and dSed in confine- 
ment. In 1786 died the RdjA Tulsajl, 
son and successor of Pratdp Sing above- 
mentioned, after adopting a boy nam^ 
Sharfojl, to the exclusion of his own 
half-brother, Amar Sing. The adop- 
tion, however, was declared by the 
English illegal, and Amar Sing was 
sufEered to reign till 1798, when Sharfojl 
was pronounced legally adopted ; and 
on the 25th of October, 1798, a treaty 
was concluded with him by the Com- 
pany, according to which he resigned 
all powers of government to the 
English, retaining the 2 forts of Tanjiir 
(where alone he could exercise sove- 
reign power), and sundry palaces, 
together with an annual revenue of 
350,000 rs., and ^ of the remainder of 
the whole net revenue of the country, 
amounting to 700,000 rs. more, asw^ 
as the Danish tribute from Tranquebdr, 
about 5,000 rs. Sharfojl was educated 
at Madras, and afterwards by the mis- 
sionary Schwarz, to whom he was 
sincerely attached. Indeed, the funeral 
of Schwarz was delayed in order that 
the RAjA might gaze on his face once 
more ere the coffin was closed. At 
the sight of ,the lifeless form of his 
guardian, the Prince was painfully 
agitated. He bedewed the corpse witii 
tears, covered it with a cloth of gold, 
and, in spite of the defilement (accord- 
ing to Hindii belief), accompanied it 
to the grave. He was brought up 
among Christians, yet he ever re- 
mained a Hindii in religion, and a 
munificent patron of BrAhmans. He 
was an accomplished musician and 
linguist, reading daily the English 
newspapers and light literature, and 
in the management of his revenue ha 
displayed «\\ >i)afc \^^QL^'i\^R.^^\^««s«»i&iG^^ 
and exactaieBft oi XJc^a T£i.«^ ^jwijvss^os- 


Eoute 5. — Trichindpalli to TanjUr. 

Sect. II 

Lord Valentia speaks with so mach 
praise in 1804, and Heber in 1826. 
He died in 1832, and was succeeded 
by his son Sivaji, who died in 1853, 
when the country having been ab-eady 
appropriated by the E. I. C. , all the 
property also of this once powerful 
family was so completely confiscated 
that Sivaji's daughter, the present Prin- 
cess of Tanjiir, was left in extreme 
penury. She still inhabits the palace 
of her ancestors, but lives the life of 
' a recluse without any of the luxuries 
or even comforts befitting her rank, 
though in all respects deserving of 

. The travellers' h, at Tanjiir is con- 
veniently situated a little to the S. of 
the Little Fort, in which is the Great 
Pagoda, which with the palace of the 
B&J4 in the Great Fort, and Schwartz's 
Church, are the sights of Tanjiir. The 
two Forts of Tanjiir are so connected 
that they may be almost regarded as 
one. The smaller one lies to the S. 
of the other, and near its S. wall is 
the Great Pagoda. On this side the 
French made their attack in August, 
1768, under M. Lally, as did the Eng- 
lish in 1771. On the W. is a tank 
about 400 yds. square. On the N. the 
smaller fort joins the larger, being 
itself 660 yds. in length from the outer 
bank of the ditch at the S. angle to 
the point of junction of the forts. 
From this point to the N. bank of its 
ditch the larger fort is 1240 yds. long, 
and about the same broad, from E. to 
W., being circular ; whereas the smaller 
fort is a parallelogram. The walls of 
both forts are built of large stones ; 
on the comers of the ramparts are 
cavaliers ; the ditch varies from 40 to 
20 yds. in breadth, and is from 20 to 
30 ft. deep. It is cut out of the solid 

The Great Pagoda.-^kt p. 343 of 
Mr. Fergusson's '* History of Architec- 
ture" will be found a plan of this tem- 
ple, and a valuable account of it. The 
following account is from notes made 
on personally visiting the building 
with Dr, Bumell, the celebrated 
Orientalist, and from a plan given to 
tlie author by him. The temple is 
caUed J>^^a jSxml, which signifies 

" Great Temple." The buildmg stands 
in the lesser fort at the W., nearly due 
E. and W., the entrance being on the 
eastern side. To enter you pass under 
a gopura, the base of which, on the 
eastern side, which is the larger of the 
two, is 58 ft. fi'om E. to W., and 42 ft. 
from N. to S., with a passage between 
the two bases 21 ft. broad and 58 ft. 
long. Then follow a passage 170 ft. 
long, and a second gopura of smaller 
dimensions. It is very difficult to 
count the storeys of the gopuras, as 
they are not well defined ; but there 
appears to be 6 in the outer gopura 
and 4 in the inner, and their height 
may be reckoned at about 90 ond 60 ft. 
There is a long inscription in .Tamil 
characters of the 4th cent, on either 
side of the passage through the 2nd 
Gopura, After this the outer en- 
closure of the Pagoda is entered, which 
is 415 ft. from N. to S., and 800 ft. 
from E. to W. Immediately inside 
this enclosure after passing the 2nd 
Gopura are 2 slabs let into the pave- 
ment with Mardtha inscriptions, re- 
cording repairs to the temple, with the 
dates Shaka 1723 = 1801 A.D., on the 
rt. hand slab, and Shaka 1797 on the 
1. hand slab, ^with an English date, 
December, 1875. On the 1. hand is a 
well, and along the whole length of 
the S. wall is a strip of garden about 
51 ft. broad with 3 wells in it, and at 
the W. end 108 lingams. On the rt. 
is the YajasdZa, a place where sacri- 
fices are offered, and the Sabhdpati 
Kovil or shrine of Shiva, as the pre- 
siding god of an assembly. This 
building is 56 ft. long from N. to S., 
and 36 ft. from E. to W. Almost 
exactly in a line with the W. wall of 
this shrine, but 60 ft. to the S. of it is 
the E. wall of the inner enclosure, and 
the entrance into it by steps. The 
breadth of this at the steps from N. 
to S. is 113 ft., and its depth about 
90 ft. from E. to W. There are 2 
Balipirams or altars close to the E. 
wall, one inside and one outside, and 
at about 40 ft. to the W. of this E. 
wall is a Mandapam or pavilion 102 ft. 
from E. to W., and about 48 ft. from 

N. to S., Mi^ ^^ iX..\i\^, C«\^T«i% ^ 

Sect II, Route 5. — Tanjllr : Tlie Great Pagoda, 


monolith 12 ft. 10 in. high (see Dr. 
Bumell's Great Temple of Tanjiir, p. 4, 
note), and 16 ft. long. This vdhana 
or vehicle of Shiva is supposed to re- 
present the roaring thunder-cloud. 
W. of this pavilion is the Xqdi 
Maram in the front row of a series of 
pillars, of which the first 3 rows are 
of 6 pillars each, and the next 6 of 6 
each. You then ascend 17 steps and 
enter a portico supported by 3 rows of 
4 pillars each, which leads to a hall 
75 ft. from N. to S., and 70 ft. from 
E. to W., inside measurement, which 
again leads to a second hall, also 75 
ft. from N. to S., and 65 ft. from 
E. to W., or reckoniug the partition 
wall the 2 halls are about 1145 ft. from 
E. to W. A passage is then crossed 
90 ft. long from N. to S., and 20 ft. 
broad from E. to W., approached on 
the N. and S. by flights of steps. In 
the centre of the W. wall of this pas- 
sage is the entrance to the square 
adytum, which is 96 ft. 3 in. from N. 
to S., and about 90 ft. from E. to W. 
Within this is a second enclosure 56 ft. 
from N. to S., and 54 ft. from E. to 
W., and over the whole is superim- 
posed the vast tower of the Vimdnah, 
200 ft. high including the Shikr or 
spiked ornament, which is very short, 
and not more than 10 ft. high. In the 
centre of the inner enclosure is a huge 
black stone on which is placed the 
Lingam. A little to the W. of the 
centre of the S. wall of the outer en- 
closure is an image of Shiva facing 
to the S. On the N.E. of the Great 
Tower and close to it is the Chandi- 
kasan Kovil, or shrine of the god, who 
reports to the chief god the arrival of 
worshippers. Beyond this at the N.W. 
comer of the outer enclosure is the 
Subrahmanya Kovil, Shrine of K^ti- 
keya, the son of Shiva and deity of 
wax, who is called Subrahmanya (from 
8u good, brahman a Brdhman) because 
he is so good to Brdhmans and their 
especial protector. 

There is a picture of this wonderful 

shrine at p. 345 of Mr. Fergusson's 

" History of Indian Architecture," and 

he says of it, that it "is as exquisite a 

piece of decorative architecture as is to 

jbe foundin the S. of India, and though 

small, almost divides our admiration 
with the temple itself." This shrine is 
sometimes called the Skanda temple, 
from Skanda, another name of Edrtti- 
keya. It consists of a tower 55 ft. 
high, raised on a base 45 ft. sq., 
adorned with pillars and pilasters, 
which ornament is continued along a 
corridor 50 ft. long, which communi- 
cates with a second building 50 ft. sq. 
to the E. The tower of the shrine has 
above the base 5 rows of figures. 
Towards the E. end of the corridor 
there is a flight of steps on the N. side 
leading into the corridor, and one on 
the S. side descending from it. The 
dwdiyAU at the doors here are pariicu- • 
larly to be remarked, for whereas the 
grand temple and the shrines anterior 
to it are all built of granite, these 
dwdrp&ls are of syenite, which takes a 
finer polish than granite, and these 
statues are wonderfully bright. The* 
base of the grand temple, «>., the 
Yimdnah and halls leading to it, is 
covered with inscriptions in the old 
Tamil of the 11th century, which Dr. 
Bumell with wonderful learning and 
labour has deciphered. This writing 
enumerates grants made to the temple 
by Vira Chola, who reigned from 1064 
to 1114 ik.D., and was one of the great> 
est Hindi!i monarchs that ever lived. 
To the left of the S. flight of steps by 
which access is gained to the passage 
immediately adjoining the Yimdnah 
the inscription in the recess mentions 
the conquest of Bengdl and N. India. 
The pyramidal tower over the Yi- 
mdnah has evidently often been re- 
paired in its upper part, where the 
images of gods and demons with which 
it is covered are now only of cement. 
At the place where the figures begin 
are some curious fan-shaped orna- 
ments, which are perhaps, intended to 
represent peacocks' tails. This tower 
from its vast height and bulk cannot 
but make a great impression on the 
spectator. It is only 48 ft. lower than 
the Kutb Mindr at Dihli and vastly 
more bulky. It is exceedingly diffi- 
cult to count tlift «,\Qte^^^^& *<iciK^ «sft. 
not weW de&iife^. ULt.^^x^gassRK^^w^^ 
thexe are \^, auei o\>aet^ Vk^^ ;^?^ 
16, y?\iich. >NOu\^ cOTc^«^^^ "^ 


ItotUe 5. — Trichindpalli to Tanj'dr. 

Sect. II. 

height if it be 200 ft. The N. Gopura 
of the great Shiva temple at Bijdnagar 
is 133 ft. 5 in. to the top of the 11th 
storey, above which it is impossible to 
ascend, which would give an average 
of 12 ft. to a storey, and this would 
make a IG-storeyed temple 192 ft. 
high exclusive of the Shikr. 

At the S.W. end of the outer en- 
closure, opposite to the Subrahmanya 
shrine, is one to Ganesh, the other son 
of Shiva, which is probably -very 
modem. It is called, in Tamil, Pillaiy ar 
Kovil, and is 60 ft. long from -E. to 
W., and 35 ft. broad from N. to S. 
where broadest, that is at the E. ex- 
tremity. There is a Mardtha inscrip- 
tion on the pediment on its W. face, 
with the date 1720 Shaka=:1798 A.D. 
Dr. Bumell considers the Subrahmanya 
temple to be not ol4er than 350 
years at most. Its beautiful carving 
seems to be in imitation of wood. 
Before leaving that shrine descend the 
steps facing the N. side of the Vi- 
.m^ah, and carry your eye to the left- 
hand peacock's tail, and you will ob- 
serve in the centre of the line of figures 
that follows the unmistakable bust of 
a European with a around hat.. The 
face is that of a chubby, self-satisfied 
John Bull, and the Indians say it was 
put there by the builder of the temple, 
as a practical prophecy that the Eng- 
lish would come and take the coun- 
try. It has, however, no doubt been 
added at some time when the temple 
has been repaired, and is no proof 
that the great tower itself is modem. 
On the contrary, the inscriptions show 
that that dates from the 11th century. 
Not far from the steps by which you 
descend from the Subrahmanya shrine 
is a sxpall temple to Durgd, Shiva's wife, 
and on the wall of the great temple 
opposite this, the gigantic inscription 
begins which Dr. Bumell was the first 
to read, and there it is easy to make 
out the word Tanjiir, which occurs 
not far from the commencement. On 
this N. side of the great temple, is a 
garden, and another small temple to 
^m^ia, another form of Shiva's wife. 
Those who care to know more about 
^ Indian mythology, may consult 
^le^enbalg's ''Geuealogie der Malabar- 

ischen Gi)tter," printed at Madras, 

Dr. Bumell says in his pamphlet, 
" The Great Temple of Tanjore," '* This 
temple is really the most remarkable 
of all the temples in the extreme S. of 
India ; is one of the oldest, and as it 
has been preserved with little altera- 
tion, if not, perhaps, the largest, it 
is the best specimen of the style of 
architecture peculiar to India S. of 

" This style arose under the Cola (or 
Tanjore) kings in the 11th cent. A.D., 
when nearly all the great temples 
to Siva in S. India were built, and it 
continued in use in the 12th and 13th 
centuries, during which the great 
temples to Vishnu were erected. Up 
to the beginning of the 16th cent., 
these temples remained almost un- 
changed, but at that time all S. India 
became subject to the kings of Vijay- 
anagara, and one of these named 
Kri§hnardya (1509-1530) rebuilt or 
added to most of the great temples of 
the S. The chief feature of the archi- 
tecture of this later period is the con- 
struction of the enormous gopuras 
which are so conspicuous at Conjeve- 
ram, Chedambram and Shrirangam. 
All these were built by Kpshnardya ; 
they do not form part of the original 
S. E. style, but were intended as forti- 
fications to protect the shrines from 
foreign invaders, and certain plunder 
and desecration, as the Hindiis of 
S.E. first discovered on the Muliam- 
madan invasion of 1310 A.D. 

" The ceremonies and 

processions at the great Tanjore temjile 
are now carried out in an economical 
way ; it has lost its once immense 
property, and depends almost entirely 
on the husband of H. H. the Princess. 

. . . . , . To the archaeologist 
the temple and its ritual are of little 
interest compared with the inscrip- 
tions which cover the walls. A part 
of these was photographed in 1859, by 
order of Sir C. Trevelyan, and pub- 
lished by the government, but without 
result. In 1871, 1 made out the cha- 
ractei, on^ t\ie N^^hole has been copied 
nndcT my d\i<icV\OTi, \iy ^ \^'5cc\v?y^ 
I Tamil achoVai, ^aAxxx^ ^\x^\^^\ YiiiXscv^ 

Sect. II. Houte 5, — Tlie Princess of Tanj'dr's Palace, 


whose transcript will shortly be pub- 
lished. Nearly all these ihscriptions 
— there are only 2 or 3 of a later date 
— belong to the reign of Vira Cola, or 
from 1064 to 1114 A.D. During the 
reign of his father, Rdjdrdja, the Cola 
power recovered from the defeats it 
had suffered from the kings of the 
Dakhan, and beginning with a conquest 
of the Telugu sea-coast, it soon be- 
came an object of alarm to the kings 
of the N. Five of these formed a 
confederacy, and were defeated. The 
Colas then conquered, not only the 
whole of the Dakhan, but invaded 
Bengal and Oudh, and reduced the 
kingdom of Ceylon to a miserable 
state. The whole of India which in 
the 11th cent, remained subject to 
Hindii kings then became subject to 
Vira Cola, and he was, beyond doubt, 
the greatest Hindu king known to 
history. As these inscriptions state, he 
did not spare the kings he conquered, 
and the enormous plunder which 
he gained became the chief means 
of building and endowing the great 
temples of the S. But his conquests 
cost the Hindiis a heavy price in the 
end ; his kingdom soon fell to pieces, 
and by the middle of the next cent., it 
had become so insignificant that the 
Singhalese, who had already shaken off 
the Cola yoke, invaded the Tamil coun- 
try. They vanquished and plundered 
the Hind^ kingdoms of the Dakhan, 
and the N. fell an easy prey to the 
advancing Muhammadans, and in 1310 
they conquered the whole Tamil coun- 
try, and established a Muhammadan 
dynasty at Madura, which lasted for 
about 60 years. Thus all the spoils 
of India came into the hands of the 
Mul^ammadans almost in a day, and 
were taken to Dihli. The full im- 
portance of Vira Cola's reign is only 
to be gathered from this inscription, 
but it contains other information also 
of great value. It proves, e.g., that in 
the 11th cent, gold was the most com- 
mon precious metal in India, and stu- 
pendous quantities of it are mentioned 
here; silver, on the other hand, is 
little mentioned, and it thus appears 
that the present state of things, which 
J8 exactly the reverse, was only brought 

about by the Portuguese in the 16th 
cent. These inscriptions will also 
throw much light on the history and 
geography of India in the 11th cent, 
of which we at present know so little, 
and also on the constitution of the 
village communities, a subject that is 
now of deep interest to the students 
of customs and comparative juris- 
prudence. Thus from any point of 
view, it is difficult to overrate the 
value of these documents ; when edited 
and fully explained — ^no easy task — 
they will clear up much that is now 
obscure, and will completely refute 
the idle, though perhaps plausible 
guesses that, at present, take the 
place of history in S. India.'* 

The Palace of the Princess of Tan- 
jkr. — This biulding is in the Great 
Fort, a little to the E. of the centre. 
The entrance is in the £. wall of the 
fort, it is j of a m. from the Rly. St^t., 
and the travellers' b. is on the rt. hand 
about half way, so that it is a short 
drive or walk. There is a masonry, 
bridge over the first ditch, which is 
there about 100 ft. broad. In one of 
the rooms of the travellers' b.. Lord 
Hastings died of fever, which he 
caught in the Segtir Pass going to the 
Nilgiri hills. The palace is a vast 
building of masonry, and stands on 
the 1. of the street, which runs north- 
ward through the fort ; it was built 
about 1550 A. D. After passing through 
2 quadrangles, you enter a 3rd, on the 
N. side of which is a building like a 
gopura, 90 ft. high, with 8 storeys. 
It was once an armoury. Application 
to view this building must be made a 
week before. At p. 384 of his " History 
of Architecture," Mr. Fergusson says 
of this tower : ^^ As you approach 
Tanjiir, you see 2 great Vimdnahs not 
unlike each other in dimensions or 
outline, and at a distance can hardly 
distinguish which belongs to the great 
temple. On close inspection, how- 
ever, that of the palace turns out to 
be made up of dumpy pilasters and fat 
balusters, and ill-designed mouldings 
of Italian architecture^ isi\xft.^\i;:^"«Ss5o^ 
a few detaV\& ol \w^"K£v «x^\ ^ \asst^ 
curious auei \aa\.^\<i«» \\sss:Mva «3^^ 
I hardly \)e toxxud 'm C»\rtx\X». 'st ^^>« 


Rovte 5, — Trichindpalli io Tanjiir. 

Sect. II. 

nan." On the E. side of the quad- 
rangle is the Telugu Darbdr room, of 
which Mr. Fergusson gives a view at 
p. 383. It has on the outside pillars, 
and within 3 arches supported in the 
centre by 2 pillars. Ascending some 
steps between these, you come to a plat- 
form of black granite 18 ft. 8 in. long, 
and 16 ft. 10 in. broad, by 11 ft. 10 in. 
deep. On the sides are sculptured in 
alto relievo, Surs and Asurs fighting. 
On this platform stands a white marble 
statue of Sharfojl, the pupil of Schwarz, 
and the last Rdjd but one. He is 
standing with the palms of his hands 
joined as if in prayer, and he wears the 
curious triangular pointed cap used by 
the Tanjiir princes in the last 4 cent, of 
their rule. The statue is by Flaxman, 
and is a good specimen of that great 
artist's performances. On the wall to 
the rt. of the spectator is a strange 
picture of Lord Pigot. Fame, repre- 
sented as a fiaOuKSKirts female, is blow- 
ing a trumpet, which she holds with 
one hand, while she supports a picture 
of Lord Pigot with the other. Below 
her is a mourning female ; on the pe- 
destal which supports the oval frame 
of the portrait is inscribed : 


of Madras raised 

Feb. 17th, 1759. 

May 11th, 1777. 

There are also numerous pictures of 
the Rdjds, and one of the present 
Princess as a child. In the same quad- 
rangle is the library, in which is a most 
remarkable collection of 18,000 Skr. 
MSS., of which 8000 are written on 
palm leaves. This library is unique, 
and in India, at least, nothing at all 
equal to it isi^o be found as regards 
Sanskfit. Dr. Bumell has made a 
careful descriptive catalogue of 12,000 
of the "MSS., which has occupied all 
his spare time for 7 years, and is a 
work which will be of the greatest 
value and assistance to oriental 
scholars. The commencement of this 
library was made at the end of the 
Jffili or beginning ot the 17th cent. 
(see note by Dr. Bumell^ printed by 
^ygginbotham & Co,, Madras). At 
tAut time, Tanjiii waa ruled by Telngu 

Ndiks, who came from Vi jay ana- 
gar, and deposed the Chola princes. 
The MSS. they collected were written 
on palm leaves in the Telugu cha- 
racter, but Sanskrit language. In 
1675 or 1677, the Mardtha^ conquered 
Tanjiir, and the last Ndik burned 
himself and his wives in the S. quad- 
rangle of the palace where the li- 
brary is. Sharfojl Rdja, the pupil 
of Schwarz, during a visit to Baiiaras 
in 1820-30, collected far the larger 
number of MSS., and his successor 
Sivaji added many, but of inferior 
value. At Sivajl's death many pre- 
cious MSS. were stolen. The MSS. 
are written in Devandgarl, Nandi- 
nagarl, Telugu, Kannada, Granthl, 
Malay dlam, Bengdll, Panjdbi or Kash- 
miri, and Uriya. Hundreds of volumes 
here treat of the doctrines of Mddha- 
vdcharya, a Kannada Brdhman of the 
12th cent., and founder of the Dwaita 
sect of the Vedantists, whose doctrines 
have as yet been almost a secret. 
He Ibelieved, however, that the human 
soul was distinct from the Divine 
Spirit. Here also is a collection of 
the Tantras and Agamas of the S. of 
India ; and Shilpashdstras, or works 
on architecture and the constructive 
arts. The native librarian here, named 
Kiiwdchattu, is a most learned and 
intelligent gentleman, and Dr. Bumell 
has recently succeeded in getting his 
miserable pittance of rs. 6 or 10*. a 
month, raised to rs. 16, about 25*. a 
month ! After this the visitor will go 
to the Mardtha Darbdr, which is ni 
another quadrangle. Here is a large 
picture of Sivaji, the last Rdjd, witli 
his chief secretary on his rt., and his 
Diwdn on his 1. Remark also a fine 
bust of Nelson, said by competent 
judges to be extremely like him. It 
has the following inscription : 

His Highness Chattrapati Maharajah Rajah 

Shri Sirfoji (sic) 

Rajah of Tanjiir 

is presented by the Hon. Anne Seymour Darner 

with this bust of 


executed by herself 

as a mark of her respect and esteem. 

TVieie is also the model of a skeleton, 
and vaTiowa Y^WMQieotsi^ ^ee^fc^ ^\<i. 
shown worn \i7 V\i<i \^V^ ^t\:\is., \h.\\\ 

Sect. II. 

Route 5. — Tanjur : Schwai-^s Church. 

also a. siirer haadaj or elephant saddle, 
and some frontlets for borseB, and a 
double-baiTclled gim by Maoton, inlaid 
with gold. AfWrwards the Tisitor 
may see the hoDting leopards in cages 
larKO enough for tigers. 

Hchmari'* CbVTch ia in tie Little 
Fort, close to the Sbivaganga Tank, 
whii^ is much used by the inhab. of 
Tanjiir for drinking purposes. Over 
the Fort CJ^te ia the date 1777, and 
over the facade of its church is 

The church ia 85 ft. long, and 59 broad. 
In the centre opposile the communion 
table is s, very fine group of figures in 
white marble, by Flasnwn, represent- 
ing the death of Schwara. The aged 
missionary is extended on hie bed, and 
on his left stands the R&jA Sarfoji, 
hia pupil, with 2 attendants, while on 
his right is the missionaty Koblner. 
and near Ihe bottom of the bed are 4 
boys. The inscription is : — 
To the Memotj of the 
Revei«nd Chtjatinu FroQeriF awartz (lic), 

BndaiedatTw]iirtbcl3thor'Febraar7, 1798, 

Devoted ftoni hia earlj msiihooil to tiie office ot 

ULssionuT JD the East, 

Uie gimllsrtty of liig sttuatlon to UiBt of 

Oie simple sanctity ot the 

ApMtolIc Chuifrh. 

Hia nntutBl lii-acity noo the sR^ctlon 

ta liis unapotted pioMly and purltv of lift 

aUke commanded iLe 

oedium of polUli 
the Biitfah Gc 

ilUlcal negociatioii n 

SchwBTz's habitation. Ncit to the 
Shiraganga Tank is Ihe People's Park, 
taken from grounds which belonged 
to the Princeas of Tanjilr. Close l^ 
is the district jail, an old building 
notintendedfora jail. On March 1 1th, 
1878,lhere were 309 prisoners, of whom 
10 were civil debtors, 21 women, and 
ii boys. There are no solitary cells. 
In 1867 it WHS the central jail. After 
this the Jesuit Church may be visited, 
called the Church of the Sacred Heart, 
tinisked in August 1862. There are 
on either side 7 pillars, and 2 pilasters, 
and above, some of the names of the 
following benefactors : De Tardy de 
Montiavel with the motto " Sangaine 
nobilis virtulibns nobilior ; " De la Ro- 
chetl«, " Xllssa Uuctiboa ;" De Uocette 
de Morigni, " Diou et Lou Hi," and 
Ferrat de Pont Martin, without a 
motto. There are also the Arms of 
one Indian Amtuw&mi Modeliar, with 
the Virgin's name in Tamil. In tie 
Station chnrch there is a handsome 
tablet to Schwars:, and in the cemetery 
adjoining is a vaat square of common 
masoniT without inscription, where 
Lord Hastings was buried. The Col- 
lector ot Tanjiir has a chaimiog resi- 
dence at Vallam abont 6 m from Taojilr 
to the W It IS worth driving out there 

Tdnjarto Aijapafnam (Jiegapatam) 

There are also tablets to Miss Sophia 
Maitland, died 1750, Mra. Strange, . 
1791, and Mia. Burrows, died 1789. ■ 

The small house N.W, of the chnrch, 1 uuhj^il viv.>. ~ & — -„ _--iss 

and dose to it, is said to have been \ between. Se-I aioBii^oiaai. raA s.»^ 

timjati tree a ^to-ie 


jRoiUe 5. — Trtchindpalli to Tanjur, 

Sect. II. 

is the town and village of an Indian 
gentleman named Vira, which he oc- 
casionally lends to Europeans. For a 
few miles before reaching Nagapatnam 
the country loses its fertile aspect, and 
changes to a salt marsh with a very 
strong saline smell. Ndgapatnam is 
a municipal town with 48,625 inhab., 
and the capital of a district which 
numbers 200,733 persons. There is no 
travellers' b. here, but there is a Hdtel 
de V Europe near the old Dutch ceme- 
tery, kept by M. Sabatier, late Judge 
at KArikal, where, at all events, lodg- 
ing, such as it is, is procurable. The 
Superintendent of the Rly. has the best 
house in the place. He lives 2m. to 
the N. of the Stat, near the seashore, 
and his house has an upper storey, 
which is comparatively cool. In the 
direction of this house at } m. from 
the Stat, is a massive round brick 
building which was the powder maga- 
zine of the Dutch. The walls are 5 ft. 
thick, and it is now used as a pound 
for strayed cattle. Close to this is a 
road which turns to the W., and at 
200 yds. a imlah in which the water 
is full of a. stinging jelly-fish called 
in Tamil Taniya. After crossing the 
bridge over this, and going 100 yds., 
one comes to the Akra Tank, 400 ft. 
square, and supplied with good water, 
which is used for drinking, and in 
which half the people of the town 
bathe and wash their clothes. In the 
centre of the N. side is a flight of 11 
steps leading down to the water, and 
at 32 ft^ from the top of those steps is 
^ fine pippal tree (^IHcvs religiosa). 
Here a few years ago a famous Sanydsi 
or Hindii riligieux was buried, per- 
mission having been obtained by his 
friends from an Indian municipal com- 
missioner. The civilian in charge of 
the district ordered the body to be 
removed for fear of its polluting the 
water. This caused considerable ex- 
citement. However, the body was 
removed, and buried in a rice field 
200 yds. to the N.W., and the people 
have erected a brick building over it. 
SacA are the occurrences which some- 

times lead to serious disturbances in 

-^^ Oiai?titck church of St Peter's, 

— This church is due N. from the Rly. 
Stat., and about \ m. from it on the 
N. side of the road. It is 120 ft. long 
from N. to S., and 37 ft. broad from E. 
to W. The communion table andTai lin g 
are of teak, and are in the centre of the 
E. wall. On the walls are the escut- 
cheons of several noble Dutch families. 
One specimen of the inscriptions will 
suffice. Under a female figure stand- 
ing in a nautilus in the sea, a coronet 
surmounting the coat of arms : 

•• Nata, 21 September, K" 1687, 
Obiit, 13 November, 1709." 

There is a very large tomb in the 
cemetery with dome to this lady, 
whose name was Van Steel. At ^ m. 
S.E. of this church is all that is left 
of the fort,- a low wall with a flag-staff. 
Turning from this, back to the Stat, 
and close to it is the Old Dutch Ceme- 
tery. Here are tombs of English officers, 
Americans, Indian Christians and many 
Dutchmen of rank. 

Tlie Cliinese Pagoda. — The most re- 
markable building at Nagapatnam, 
one of the most remarkable in S. India, 
was the Chinese Pagoda, which has 
unfortunately been removed, but men- 
tion of it cannot be omitted. It stood 
about 1 m. to the N.W. of Ndgapat- 
nam, and is thus referred to in Col. 
Yule's book, S. Marco Polo, p. 273 : 
" Some corroboration of the supposition 
that the Tanjiir ports were those fre- 
quented by Chinese trade may be found 
in the fact that a remarkable pagoda 
of uncemented brickwork about a m. 
to the N.W. of Ndgapatnam popularly 
bears, or bore, the name of the Chinese 
Pagoda. I do not mean to imply that 
the building was Chinese, but that the 
application of that name to a ruin of 
strange character pointed to some tra- 
dition of Chinese visitors. Sir W. 
Elliott, to whom I am indebted for the 
sketch of it, given on the next page, 
states that this building differed es- 
sentially from any type of Hindii 
architecture with which he was ac- 
quainted, but being without inscrip- 
tion or sculpture it was impossible 
to assign to it any authentic origin. 
N^apa^iaTQ. "was, \io^^N«t, Q&\'cfet^ted 
as a seat ot"B\id'9iD\a\.^ot^\v,^'^<i^iN^^^ 
may 'have \>ee\i »i "£emw«i»JL ^1 ^€\x 

Sect. 11. JRotUe 5. — Ndgapatnam : St Joseph's College. 


work. In 1846 it consisted of 3 storeys 
divided by cornices of stepped brick- 
work. The interior was ©pen to the 
top, and showed the marks of a floor 
about 20 ft. from the ground. Its 
general appearance is shown by the 
cut. This interesting building was 
reported in 1869 to be in too dilapi- 
dated a state for repair, and I believe 
it now exists no longer. Sir W. 
Elliott also tells me that collectors 
employed by him picked up in the 
sand at several stations on this line 
numerous Byzantine and Chinese, as 
well as Hindii coins. The brickwork 
of the pagoda described by him as 
very fine and closely fitted, but with- 
out cement, corresponds to that of the 
Burmese and Ceylonese mediaeval Bud- 
dhist buildings. The architecture has 
a slight resemblance to that of Polla- 
nania in Ceylon." 

This most interesting building was 
demolished by order of the Madras 
Governor in 1869, and on the spot 
where it stood now stands a b. in 
which the day scholars of St. Joseph's 
College assemble. 

St. Jogepk'ji College. — This college 
stands a m. N.W. of the Rly. Stat. It 
was founded in 1840 by the Jesuits in 
charge of the Madura mission. After 
the establishment of the Madras Uni- 
versity, this college was afl&liated to 
it. Although St. Joseph's was estab- 
lished primarily for the sake of Catholic 
children it is also open to all creeds 
and classes of society, and the educa- 
tion therefore embraces all grades of 
instruction, from the elementary to the 
standard of Bachelor of Arts. More than 
200 students, almost all Catholics, are 
boarded in the College, and there are 
about as many day scholars. In the 10 
years that have elapsed since the college 
was affiliated to the University, 100 
students have passed the matriculation 
examination, and 15 have taken the 
bachelor's degree. One of the parti- 
cularities of the institution is that the 
Christians take up Latin as an optional 
language. The chief sources of support 
to the College are endowments made 
by charitable persons from Europe, 
and from the Catholic mission, a small 
gmnt from government, and the school 

fees. Eighteen professors, of whom 3 
are Europeans, are employed at the 
College, and live in a fine building 
erected in 1 850 on the site once occupied 
by the house of the Dutch Grovemor a 
century ago. 

About 3i m. N. of Ndgapatnam is 
Ndgiir, a small town remarkable for 
what are called the 5 Pagodas. This 
name is very inappropriate, for pagoda 
is only a corrupt form of the word 
butkadah, "idol temple,'* and the 
building here to which it is applied is 
a mosque with 5 miners, which can 
be seen at sea 20 m. off. It is, there- 
fore, a favourite landmark for sailors. 
A saint, called K^ir l^d]|]iib, descended 
from 'Abdu'l Kddir Gil^i, and conse- 
quently from the Imjto l^usain, is 
said to have come here from M&nik- 
piir, and to have died in 1560 A.D., 
and to have been buried here about 
300 years ago, and this building was 
erected by one of the Mard^ha R&jds 
of Tanjiir, some say by Sharfoji in 
1711, others by PratAp in 1741. It 
is a curious fact that both Hindiis and 
Muslims worship here. In front of • 
the entrance stands the tallest min&r, 
which has 10 storeys, and is said to be 
200 ft. high, but in reality is about 
140 ft. It is very solidly built of. 
masonry. Still nearer the entrance 
are 2 other miners, of 6 storeys each, 
and at the back of the mosque are 2 
more also of 6 storeys. There is also a 
handsome tank at the back of the 

On the 10th of Jamddu's sdnl, the 
anniversary of the Saint's death, a fes- 
tival is observed, which lasts from the 
1st to the 9th of the month. This was 
first celebrated in 1700 A.D. but the 
present buildings were erected after 
the endowment of the shrine by Pratdp 
Sing, the MarAtha BdjA of Tanjiir, 
with some small villages in 1761, and 
by his son Tuljajl. In all the endow- 
ment consists of 15 villages. Kddir 
Sal^ib had a foster son, Yiisuf, and his 
descendants hold the shrine and its 
endowment in 640 shares. They pos- 
sess a book of wild legends about the. 
Saint, wTillewVn.'^erj i-ai^ kt^^^,«siSi. 
it has \)eeii lTW\^\a.\a^ \»^a ^^t-ssssv^ 
iHindVxst&iilm^laxDiV T^^^^^^^^*^ 


jRoute 5, — Trichindpalli to Tanjur» 

Sect. IL 

the coasting trade pay dues to this 
shrine. One of the legends is to the 
effect that the Saint knew he would 
,die, and told Shaikh Yiisuf, who 
grieved much. The Saint told him 
not to sorrow, but to wash his corpse 
with rain-water and give him the 
salutation, to which he would reply 
by telling him what to do. If he did 
not reply, then Yiisuf was to return to 
his own country. Yiisuf did as he was 
directed, and the salutation was re- 
turned by the corpse, who told Yiisuf 
to remain and the gifts to the shrine 
would support him and his children. 
Yiisuf had 6 sons and 2 daughters. 

Karikal. — As far as Nagiir the road 
from Ndgapatnam to Kdrikal and 
Tranquebdr is a very fair one. After 
that it is full of holes. Turning to the 
rt. after passing Ndgiir, you cross a 
stream, 50 yds. broad, by a bridge, and 
at the 6th m. pass through Tlrumal- 
rAyan, a town of 5000 inhab., with a 
few good houses, 3 m. beyond which 
is KArikal, a town of 7000 people, 
where the French have a Deputy- 
Governor, or Chef de service, who has 
a large and comfortable house. Tran- 
quebar is about 5 m. N. of this, and at 
IJ m. before reaching it you pass a 
bridge over a fine stream, the Nandildr. 
In the centre of the bridge is a finger- 
post, with Fran^ais on the S.' and 
Anglais on the N. The trayellers' 
b. is close to the Fort, and has an 
upstairs room and tolerable quarters. 
The ascent to the upper room is by an 
almost perpendicular staircase, more 
like a ladder. 

Tranquehdr orTaraiigamhadi^ proba- 
blv has its name from the Tamil word 
Tarangam " wave," and }>dd\^ " vil- 
lage." It stands in 11** 1', E.long. 
79" 65'. A Danish E. I. Co. was esta- 
blished at Copenhagen in 1G12, and the 
first Danish merchantman arrived on 
the Coromandcl coast in 1616, when 
the Co. bought the village of Tranque- 
bdr with land around it, 5 m. long 
and 3 broad, from the Rdjd of Tanjiir. 
Here they erected the fort of Danne- 
borg; and the settlement increased 
rapidly. In 1624 the Co. made over 
tAe/r terntory with their charter 
to Christian IV., in iiqnidation of theii 

debt to him. In 1807 the British took 
possession of this and all the other 
Danish settlements in India, but re- 
stored them in 1814. Finally, in 1845, 
the king of Denmark ceded the terri- 
tory to the English for £20,000. In 
1780 Haidar 'All exacted a fine of 
£14,000 from the Danish Government 
for supplying the Niiwdb of the Kar- 
ndtik with arms. For some years 
after it had been acquired, an assistant- 
judge visited Tranquebdr and held Ses- 
sions there, but that was discontinued 
in 1875 until 1878, and in consequence 
the place rapidly decayed. It is now 
hardly accessible, steamers do not stop 
at it, and the road to it (in 1878) was 
execrable. A few years ago it was 
one of the most delightful places in S. 
India, and was visited for health's 
sake. It is now (1878) utterly mined. 
There used to be a considerable trade 
with the Straits, the seaports of India, 
and the Mauritius, to which large 
quantities of soap were exported. 
This has entirely ceased. The towTi 
consists of a handsome square or place 
facing the sea, with 2 very good streets 
running off from either corner on the 
W. That on the S. side is Queen St., 
and that on the N., King St., which is 
the better of the two. On the S. side 
of the place is the former citadel, the 
Danneborg, now used as a jail. On 
the N. side of the place are the official 
buildings of the former Government, 
the Danish, the largest of which wag 
used till lately as a District and Sessions 
Court. The houses, which are remark- 
ably good and well built, are not like the 
usual Indian banglds, with compounds, 
but adjoin one another in a street. On 
the S. side of King St. is the Lutheran 
Mission Church, called the Jerusalem, 
and on the opposite side is the English 
Church or Zion, formerly the church 
of the Danish community, now the 
English Protestant church. The tower 
has a short spire in the Danish style. 
The Lutheran is a large cruciform 
building. Carl Graul, the well-known 
traveller and Oriental scholar, was 
head of the Lutheran Mission for some 
time. On. either side of the altar in 
tlie Jerviftalem. CWtOcl ^le, \.^\'et^, one 
to t\ie memoxy ot 7Asi^cvOD?\^, «cA ow^ 

Sect. IL 

EotUe 5. — Ghedamharam, 


to that of Griindler. TranquebAr is 
the head-quarters of the Gennan 
Lutheran Mission, with churches in 
several places in the Tanjiir and S. 
Arkdt CoUectorates. The Mission was 
founded by Ziegenbalg in 1707, and 
is now conducted by Germans from 
Leipzig. There is a good history of 
the Mission by Fenger down to recent 
times, translated into English, and 
published at Tranquebdr. The town 
is surrounded by a Fort-wall, in good 
order. Cholera is almost unknown at 
Tranquebdr. When it was sold to the 
English, many Danish families emi- 
p^rated, and now scarce one is left. 
The Danes lived at this place to a 
great age. And it used to be a plea- 
sant sight some years ago to see, 
as the sun was about to set, the very 
old ladies coming out in their best 
attire to call on their neighbours. 
Tite Dannehorg consists of a most 
soUdly built wall from 15 to 18 ft. 
high, with rooms round it, and 2 soli- 
tary cells at the S. side, perched on 
the wall. Over the door is C' Chris- 
tian 7th. On the 9th March, 1878, 
there were 138 adult male prisoners, 
10 females, 2 boys, and 12 civil debtors 
= 162. The wall on the E. side is 9 ft. 
thick, and there is no ventilation at 
top. In the vestry-room of the Eng- 
lish Protestant Church there is a 
curious old picture of the Lord's 
Sapper, with the line "Tu vis esse 
mens per coenam Christi sacratam." 
Observe also a very handsome baptis- 
mal font of black marble, and a bell 
with the date 1752. 

If the traveller desire a day's 
antelope shooting he may, on his 
return to Ndgapatnam, pay a visit 
to Point Calimere, which is 31 m. S., 
and which can be reached by the 
Canal, or by land in a pdlkl. The 
word is an Anglo-Indian corruption 
of the Tamil Kallinietu, " Hill of the 
Euphorbia." The Collector of Tanjiir 
has a comfortable b. at this delight- 
ful place, where the sea breeze has a 
restorative effect on those jaded by 
the heat of S. India. In the maps 
there is marked " Salt, fetid swamp to 
the W. of Point Calimere ; " but those 
wojds need not convey alarm to the 

visitor, as the place is most salubrious. 
The b., to which the Collector would 
probably grant access, is but 5 minutes' 
walk from the sea, but there is also 
good encamping ground near it. The 
soil is sandy, but passable for wheeled 
vehicles. Herds of antelope frequent 
the neighbouring jungles and the 
vicinity of Kodekad or Kodekdmi, a 
village on the edge of the jungle. As 
deer are so plentiful, it is probable 
that panthers might be heard of in 
the locality. 

From Point Kalimetu the Column 
at Salvanaikenpafnain may be visited. 
It is a voyage of 35 m. in a boat, to 
the S.W. The column stands on the 
beach near Chetabaram Chattram in 
the Puttukotta T'aluk. It was once 
used as a lighthouse, and is still in good 
order, but the doors and windows are 
almost all gone. The drawbridge, too, 
no longer exists. The column is about 
90 ft. high, and is surrounded by a 
miniature fort. On the S.W. face is 
the following remarkable inscription : 

His Hiffbness 

Mah&r^jah Sarfoji, MahdnUah of Tadjik, 

The Friend and Ally of the British 


Erected this Column 

to commemorate the triumph 

of the British Arms, 

and the downfall of 



Above this is an inscription in the 
Ndgari character, and below it one in 
Tamil. On the r. is one in Persian 
and on the 1. one in Telugu. The in- 
scriptions are on black marble. The 
Persian has the date 1230 A.H. 

Chilambram. — The Municipality of 
this place, and many officials, have 
adopted for it the name of Cliedam,' 
baram, and so it appears in the 
Census Report for 1871. It has only 
lately been constituted a Municipality 
since the date of the Census. It con- 
tains 15,519 inhab., and is the chief 
town of a district in S. Arkdt CoUecto- 
rate, which has a pop. of 239,133. The 
Great Temple is dedicated to Shiva, and 
in this district the worshipi^ra ol tJasa^ 
deity {oim ^^'5 -^pet fietA.. oS. >QaR.'S5fflL^*M^, 
Although CVieaiaEDiXiBL'nwQ. Sa av\^:s J^ ^* 
from PoTto Islo^o A'^*^^^^^^^ \&\^»ssvx^ 


Eoute 5. — Taiijiir lo Aitaitarai, 

Sect. II. 

practicable. No hoTses are procurable, i 
tbe road is a bad one, not Bulled for | 
wheeled traffic, ftiid it is aometimes 
difficult to pass the Vell&r r., as there 
is no bridge. Carta, hoivever, are 
always procurable at the rate of 1 r. 
iistM. for the trip, and those who enjoy 
roughing it, ma; make the experiment. 
For those who prefer to trayel com- 
fortably, it will be best to go from 
Tanjiir by the South Indian rly., as 
follows : — 
Iht^6r to Anaiiarai Chattram. 61 jm. 





^'P; ^'X^MtSm- 

1. ThKtti . . 

i Jigs ^ 

10 3S 






0. TimTBdu- ■ 



SlBat Kumblui- 


I. !,„. 

,. &^ 



fi.B . 



Kovll . 

11. auijwi 







called the Am- 

iianpit banglil. Then 

UQt lUlnwcl lu be buflt with nnpM storey«. 
It \K\ng thought Injurious to the a^fat o( 

The FagodaaatChedambaramareth« 
oldest in the 8. of India, and porlione 
them are gems of art. They are sii 
ated 3 m. S. of the Vellir r., and 29 
N. ot Tranqucb6r, in N. lat. IT J 
E. long. 79' 45'. Here is placed bj 
some the N. frontier of lie ancient 
Chola Kingdom, the successiye capi- 
tals of which were Uriyiir on the 
Kivfiri, Kumbhakonam ajid Tanjilr, 
Others carry the frontier as high as 
the 8. Pennir r., which falls into the 
»3s a few m. ff. of QudaJiir. The 
pnncipal temple is sacred to Shiya, 
aod IS affirmed to have been erected. 

or at least embellished by Hiranya 
Varna Chakravartti, "the golden- 
coloured Emperor," who is said to 
have been a leper, and to have oiigi- 
lally borne the name of Swethavarmah, 
■ the white-coloured," on account of 
bis leprosy, and lo have corae S. on a 
pilgrimage. He recOTCrod at Chedam- 
baram miraculously, aflcr taking ft 
bath in the Tank in fhe centre of the 
temple, and rebuilt or enlarged the 
temples thereupon. As Ibis name 
occurs in Iho R6jil Taraugini, or 
Chronicles of Kashmir, as that of a 
king whose father conquered Ceylon, 
it has been thought that a Kashmir 
king erected these buildings, but Mr. 
Ferffusaon says ("Hist, of Archil.." 
p. 350) that he is afraid the traditions 
that connect the foundation of this 
temple with Hiranya Varna of Kash- 
mir are of too impalpable a nature 
to be depended on. He cannot see 
iinything in this temple of so early an 
age, nor any feature of Kashmir archi- 
tecture. H it were leally true that 
the Kashmir prince erected any build- 
ings here or their prototypes we should 
liare to ascribe to them the date 471 
i.D. He is said to have brought 3000 
Briibraana from the N., and the legend 
is that Sw^lhavarmah, who became 
Hiranyavannah, at the instance of 
Viyigrapalhttr and Pathanjiili, two 
Sages who were then doing penaiico at 
Cliedamharam, enlarged the temple, 
and sent for SUOOBrihmans, who were 
living along the banks of the Ganges, 
for oflering Pdjah {prayora) to 
NAteshwara. When they came, one 
among them was missing, and, a lai'mcd 
at this, they were very relucUinl to 
settle at Cbedambaram. Shiva, how- 
■, appeared lo them, and declareil 

that h 

e of tl 


they were satisfied. Their descendants 
are curators of the temple, and are 
Qow about 250 in number, and are 
called Ditcltadbart. It is added in 
one of the Mackenzie MSa. that Vlra 
Chola Hiji (A,D. 927-977) saw the 
Sabh&pati, i.e., Shica, dance on the 
aeashore with his wife, PArvati, and 
erected the Kanak SabhA, or golden 
I abrine in Tuemnrs cit ttvfc ^o4,-wUo is 
, I heie CBltel NoiUew w HMwIhcot, ®»i 

Sect. IT. 

R(nUe 5. — Cliedamharam. 


of dancing. The whole area is sur- 
rounded by 2 high walls, which con- 
tain 32 acres. 

The outer wall of all is 1800 ft. long 
from N. to S., and 1480 ft. from E. to 
W. Nearly in the centre of this vast 
space is a fine tank, 315 ft. long from 
N. to S., and 180 ft. broad from B. to 
W. At the 4 points of the compass are 
4 vast gopuras, those on the N. and 
S. being about 160 ft. high, and of 8 
storeys besides the top. The others are 

On the E. of the tank is the Hall of 
1000 Pillars, which is 340 ft. long from 
N. to S., and 190 ft. broad from E. to 
W. Mr. Fergusson (p. 352, "Hist, of 
Arch.") makes the number of pillars 
in this hall 984, but I believe them to 
be in rows of 24 from E. to W., and 44 
deep from N. to S., the total number 
of pillars being 938, viz. — 

N. toS. 


. toS. 



20 Pillars. 



= 20 Pillars. 

2nd „ 





= 22 

3rd „ 





= 22 

4th „ 





= 24 

5th „ 






= 24 

6th „ 





= 22 

7th „ 






= .22 

8th „ 





= 21 

9th „ 





= 22 






= 22 






= 20 

12th „ 





= 20 

13th „ 





= 22 

14th „ 





= 22 

15th „ 





= 22 






= 22 

17th „ 





= 22 

18th „ 





= 22 

19th „ 





= 20 

20th „ 





= 18 

21at „ 





= 22 

22nd „ 





= 22 

There are, therefore, 938 pillars 15 ft. 
high, and adding those in the S. porch, 
974, and this is one of the very rare 
instances in India where the so-called 
Hall of 1000 Pillars is almost furnished 
with that number. In this calculation 
the pillars in the S. porch are included. 
Of these there are 3 rows of 6 pillars 
each, from N. to S., minus 2 in the 1st 
row, and 4 rows of 5 each from E. to 
W.; total =36. 

On the W. of the tank is the Temple 
of Pdrvatl, known as Shivagamiam- 
man^ the wife ofSbiva, of the porch of 
which atp, 163ofhia History, Mr. Fer- 

gusson has given a view, and of which 
he says, that it " is principally remark- 
able for its porch, which is of singular 
elegance." The outer aisles of this 
porch are 5 ft. 6 in. wide, the next 7 ft. 
9 in., and the centre 23 ft. The roof 
is supported by bracketing shafts tied 
with transverse purlins till only 9 ft. 
is left to be spanned. The outer en- 
closure in which this temple stands 
has two storeys of pillars, and is 170 ft. 
from N. to S., and 301 ft. from E. to 
W. The pillars are 7 ft. high. There 
are 16 pillars in the front of this en- 
closure, that is, in its E. face, and in its 
N. corner a place for offering sacri- 
fices, which is a sort of small temple, 
called Yajasdlah, 35 ft. by 26. On the 
S. side of the enclosure there are 2 
rows of 53 pillars each, on the W. side 
2 of 27 each, and on the N. side 2 of 
35 each. Within this enclosure is the 
temple of the goddess, which has a 
front mandapam 40 ft. from E. to W., 
and 38 from N. to S. On either side 
are 6 rows of 3 pillars each. Then 
follows the temple, the enclosure of 
which is 97 ft. from N. to S., and 145 ft. 
from E. to W. It has 10 pillars in 
front, that is on the E. face, and 6 on 
the W. side, 6 on the N., and 10 on the 
S. side. The temple is 68 ft. high to 
the top of the Shikr. 

Adjoining this temple of P^lrvatl 
and to the N. of it is one to Subrah- 
manya, the enclosure of which is 250 ft. 
from N. to S., and 305 ft. from E. to 
W. There is thq image of a swan in 
front of it, then a portico with 4 
pillars in front. The inner enclosure 
is 65 ft. from N. to S., and 130 ft. 
from E. to W. There are 6 rows of 6 
pillars each from N. to S., then 3 rows 
of 8 pillars each from N. to S., and 2 
rows of 4 pillars each from E. to W. 
The enclosure is surrounded by 1 storey 
of 2 rows of 40 piUars each, both on 
the N. and W. side. Mr* Fergusson 
assigns the end of the 17th or begin- 
ning of the 18th cent, as the date of 
this temple. There is another smaU 
one to Subrahmanya on the E. side 
of the S. Gopura, and one to Ganesh 
to the IB. ot \.\iaX. m "Caa ^^Sk. ^'srosst ^S. 
the great eiiG\o«srcfe. Tt^^"^ N& '^^^ "«^ 


HotUe 5, — Tanjur to Anaikarai. 

Sect. IL 

Pdrvatl's temple, and several smaller 
mandapams in other parts of the great 

The principal temple to Shiva is due 
S. of the tank and about 30 yds. from 
it. The outer enclosure is 320 ft. long 
from N. to S., and 285 ft. from E. to 
W. In the S.E. comer of this enclo- 
sure is the kitchen, in the S.W. a 
temple to Pdrvatl, and in the centre 
of the S. side what is called the Danc- 
ing Court with an idol of Ndteshwar. 
In the N.W. comer is a ruined enclo- 
sure and in the centre of the N. side a 
temple to the Chedambara Lingam with 
a vacant space to perform the Parikra- 
mah or devotional circumambulation. 
This vacant space is generally left round 
shrines. The inner enclosure, which 
contains the sanctuary, is 114 ft. from 
N. to S., and 132 ft. from E. to W., 
and these are the dimensions of the 
space or court left for the Pariltramah. 
There are 2 entrances to it, 1 on the 
E., and 1 on the S. side. Each has a 
mandapam. In the centre of all is 
the sanctuary, which consists of 2 parts. 
In the S. part, which is 39 ft. high, 
are 3 bells, and on its E. is a wooden 
shed, and N. of this is a well covered 
with a small temple. The N. portion 
is 70 ft. high, and 84 ft. wide from E. 
to W. In this is the most sacred 
image of the dancing Shiva, which is 
that of a naked giant "with 4 arms, 
with only a band round his loins, his 
right leg planted on the ground and 
his left lifted sideways, something in 
the attitude of a man dancing a reel. 
The roof of this building is covered 
with plates of gilt copper. It will be 
seen that the sanctuary in this temple 
is no exception to the general rule 
that this part is insignificant in com< 
parison with the gigantic Gopuras. 
It consists of a low wall surmounted 
by an ugly and prodigiously heavy 
curviUnear roof covered with copper 
gilt, from which it is called the Kanaka 
szbhdf or golden hall. Adjoining the 
enclosure of the sanctuary on the S. 
side is another enclosure of the same 
length fronr E. to W., but only 33 ft. 
broad from N, to S, In the E. comer 
js a mandapam^ and in the W. a small 
tempJa to the Shila Govindah. There 

is also a tiny shrine opposite the 
Kanaka sabMy of which Mr. Fer^sson 
says, " The oldest thing now existing 
here is a little shrine in the small en- 
closure with a little porch of 2 pillars 
about 6 ft. high, but resting on a stylo- 
bate ornamented with dancing figures, 
more graceful and more elegantly exe- 
cuted than any other of their class, so 
far as I know, in S. India. At the sides 
are wheels and horses, the whole being 
intended to represent a car, as is fre- 
quently the case in these temples. 
Whitewash and modern alterations 
have sadly disfigured this gem, but 
enough remains to show how exquisite, 
and consequently how ancient, it w^. 
It was dedicated to Verma, the god of 
dancing, in allusion, probably, to the 
circumstance above mentioned as lead- 
ing to the foundation of the temple." 
To the W. of this temple stands a 
small one dedicated to the goddess of 
Tillai Govinden, known as Pundari' 
kavalU TJiayar, This Pagoda was 
surrendered to the British in 1760 
without a shot, but in 1781 EEaldar 
garrisoned it with 3000 men, and Sir 
Eyre Coote was repulsed from it with 
the loss of 1 gun. 

Returning from Chedambaram, the 
traveller may stop at Mayaveranij 
where the Pagoda is worth seeing. 
The morning train from Anaikari 
leaves at 4 A.M., and reaches Mayave- 
ram at 5.28 A.M., and the 9.20 A.M. 
train arrives at Mayaveram at 10.48, 
between which hours there is time to 
see the Pagoda. There is no travellers' 
b. (1878). 

Mayaveram is a town of 21,165 
inhab., and the capital of a district in 
the Tanjiir collectorate containing 
219,358 souls. The Shiva Pagoda has 
1 large Gopura and 1 small one. The 
great Gopura stands at the entrance 
on the S. side of the outer enclosure, 
and has 10 storeys, including the base- 
ment but not the top. It is 162 ft. 
high. To the W. of this Gopura is a 
Teppa Jtnlam 140 ft. from E. to W., 
and 190 ft. Erom N. to S. N. of this is 
the small Gopura with 6 storeys and 
about 55 ft. high. This leads into a 
2nd eiicVoBvxift, ?i^\A» ^^^ ^. ixooi Yk. to 
W., and ^^0 it. tcom ^. \o ^. Tt^^ 

Sect. II. 

Route 5. — Chedamharam. 


temple has a Mandapam adjoining it 
on the S., 60 ft. long &om N. to S., and 
19 ft. broad from E. to W. The temple 
itself is 50 ft. long from N. to S. 
There is a 2nd temple in the N.E. 
corner of the great enclosure to 

More important are the temples of 
Konibahanam or Xnmhiuilionam, The 
train that leaves Anaikarai at 4 A.M. 
reaches this town at 7.14, and the 
9.20 A.M. train arrives at 12.30, which 
hardly gives time to examine the 
temples properly. Kumbhakonam is a 
town of 44,444 inhab. in the Tanjiir 
coUectorate, and the capital of a district 
containiDg 341,034 souls. The Pagodas 
stand near the centre of the town, and 
about 1 m. from the Stat. Mr. Fergus- 
son, at p. 368 of his " History," has 
given a view of one of the Gopuras, 
which he says is only 84 ft. across and 
1 30 ft. high. The largest Pagoda is dedi- 
cated to Vishnu, and the great Gopura 
here has 11 storeys besides the base, or 
12 storeys in all. Torches are required 
in ascending it, as the stone steps ai-e 
veiy old, broken and slippery, and 
there is no rail to take hold of. The 
walls slope inward, and the floors are 
of stone, and shake alarmingly with the 
tread of visitors. The total height is not 
less than 147 ft. There are windows on 
the E. and W., up to which you can 
climb to see the view. The interior 
of the temple has nothing remarkable. 
The inner court is 88 ft. 6 in. by 55 ft. 6 in. 
A street arched over and 330 ft. long 
and 15 ft. broad, with shops on either 
side, leads to the Shiva Pagoda or 
Temple of Kumbheshwara, the Gopura 
of which has only 8 storeys, and is 
128 ft. 9 in. high, inclusive of the 
small kalasaim or rails at top. The 
court here is 83 ft. long and 55 ft. 3 in. 

The MahAmolian Tank, — At \ m. to 
the S.E. of the Pagodas is a fine tank, 
into which it is said the Ganges flows 
once a year. On that occasion so vast 
a concourse of people enter the water 
to bathe, that the surface rises some 
inches, which confirms their belief in 
the miracle. Accidents happen every 
year, and persona are cruised under 
the huge cars, which are dragged like 

that of Jagann&th by thousands of 
people. The tank has 16 small but 
picturesque pagodas studding its banks, 
and has many flights of steps leading 
down to the water. The principal 
small pagoda is on the N. side of the 
tank, and in its ceiling is represented 
in alto rilievo the balance in which a 
certain Govind I>ichit was weighed 
against gold, which was then given to 
the Brdhmans. This worthy is repre- 
sented sitting in one scale, while a huge 
sack of money fills the other. There 
is a Tamil inscription in this Pagoda, 
but time has made it illegible. In 
every other small Pagoda there is a 
Lingam, and small Nandls stud the 
intermediate walls. On the whole the 
tank is certainly one of the hand- 
somest in India. Across the road is a 
large old red-brick Pagoda, and on the 
E. of the tank a Pagoda to Arimukh- 
teshwar. At this on March 11th, 1878, 
was exhibited a collection of wax- 
work figures quite equal to anything 
of the kind in Europe. There are 
artists at Kumbhakonam who produce 
such figures with astonishing skill, the 
principal one being Sadimile Pillayar. 
At the same exhibition a boy of low 
caste, carved in dark wood with inimit- 
able skill, was shown. 

The Bcavchamp College at Kumbha- 
konam is one of the best educational 
institutions in India, and deserves a 
visit. There is also a female school 
attended by 115 girls, founded by 
Govinda RAo, Vice-President of the 
Municipal Commission. There are but 
few Europeans here. The Assistant- 
Judge lives at about 2 m. from the 
Stat., and before reaching his house 
the church (Christ Church) is reached, 
which is only 46 ft. 9 in. long from W. 
to E. and cost 6500 rs. There are 2 
tablets, 1 of which has an inscription 
giving 1855 as the date when the 
church was opened. In the church- 
yard among other tombs are 4 of 
children of the same parents, 3 of 
whom died of cholera, and one of the 
bite of a cobra. 


jRoiUe 6. — Trichindpalli to Madura, 

Sect. 11. 



168 M. 


I4ames of 








dep. at 

PAT.LI to 



1. KolattT!ir . 



2. Manaiparai 



Stat, on L Here 
low - wooded 
hills approach 
line on r. 

3. Vaiyampatti 



umbrella tree 

4. Aiyaliir . . 



Stat, on 1. 

5. Vadamadura 




6. DincUfi^ . 



High mountains 
in front and on 

7. Ammayani- 





at which the tra- 
veller desirous 

8. Sholavan- 

of visiting the 
Palnai hilft, for 

dan . . 



9. Samianellur 



which see below, 

10. Madura 



must alight The 


distance there 

Total. . 


and back is 72m. 

It cannot be too often repeated that 
the traveller should not attempt this 
journey after the 15th of March, as 
the heat is excessive. Should he, 
however, resolve on going later than 
the 15th of that month, he will do 
well to provide himself with 5 lbs. of 
ice and a bottle or two of eau-de- 
Cologne, with which he should soak 
his head constantly. 

Dindigal is a town of 12,865 inhabi- 
tants, and the capital of a district of 
1091 sq. m., with 324,366 souls. It is 
a municipal town in the large collecto- 
rate of Madura. It is the head quar- 
ters of a sub-collector, and the climate 
is cooler and more healthy than that 
of Madura. The great rock on which 
the fort is built forms a conspicuous 
object from the rly,, and is worth a 
visit It is about 400 ft. long, 300 ft. 
^i^ad, and 280 ft. high. It rises from 

the midst of a low-lying plain, and 
stands quite isolated, with a site which 
bears N.E. and S.W. Its lofty preci- 
pitous and inaccessible sides were 
strongly fortified under the first Ndy- 
akkan kings, if not before ; and for a 
long time it was the key of the pro- 
vince of Madura on the W. (see " Man- 
ual of the Madura Country,'' by J. H. 
Nelson). In the history of Madura 
Collectorate, given by Mr. Nelson, the 
first mention of Dindigal is at p. 119 
of Part III. During Mutta Virappu's 
reign at Madura, 1609—1623, a Mu- 
bammadan led a body of horsemen to 
invade Madura, and penetrated to 
Dindigal, whence he was driven back. 
About the same time one Mukilan came 
from Maisiir and besieged the fort of 
Dindigal, and was defeated and driven 
away by the 18 Paligars of Dindigal 
under Nadukattalai Chiniia Katthira 
NAy akkan , who was for this made keeper 
of the fort. Mutta Virappu was suc- 
ceeded, in January, 1623, by Tirumala 
Sevari Nayani, the greatest ruler of 
Madura in modern times. In his reign 
Chdm Rdj Udaiydr, of Maisiir, sent his 
general, Harasura Nandi Rdj, to take 
Dindigal. But Rdmappaya, the Dala- 
wai or Commander-in-Chief of Madura, 
defeated the Maisiirean and invaded 
Maisiir. In 1658-59 the Prince Ku- 
mAra Mutta, younger brother of the 
King of Madura, marched through 
Dindigal into Maisiir, and defeated 
and took prisoner the Rajd and cut 
off his nose and the noses of all his 
prisoners. Hence this war was called 
" the hunt for noses." In 1736 Chaiidd 
§dbib, after his conquest of Trichina- 
palli, placed his brother, 8Mi^ Sdhib, 
in Dindigal, and in 1741 this Khaii 
was killed by the Mardthas when he 
was marching to join his brother with 
3000 foot and 1500 horse. In 1752 
Dindigal was in the hands of the 
Rdjd of Maisiir, and in October, 1757, 
IJaidar 'All was there with a consider- 
able force (Orme, vol. ii., p. 246), from 
which, in November, he invaded the 
Madura district and returned with 
much booty. In June, 1760, ^aidar 
'All's troops at Dmdigal commenced 
Yiostiiitiea a^aMisX. \)ae. Tv<i\^c\iwviYvw^ 

Sect. II. 

HoiUe 6. — Palard Hilts. 


force of 4800 men sent against them by 
Mul^ammad Yiisuf. A sharp engage- 
ment took place in October, in which 
the Maisiireans were victorious, but 
they soon after retired into the fort of 
Dindigal, which was taken by the 
British from Tipii, in 1781, and re- 
stored to him in 1784, but finally 
ceded, along with the district of which 
it is the capital, to the British in 1792. 
The Palnai or (according to Nel- 
son's Manual) Palani Hills, — The tra- 
veller who desires to see these hills will 
alight at Ammayandyakkanur, having 
previously made arrangements with 
the proprietor of the Kodikdnal and 
Pirmedu Bullock Transit Company at 
Periakulam, Madura District, to take 
him up to the Palani Hills. The 
charges will be as follows : — 

Cash. Credit, 

rs. a. p. rs. a. p. 
For a bullock carriage, with 

springs, to Feriakmain ..600 780 
Ditto, to Kri§hnama Niyak- 

kan T6p 7 8 12 

Ditto, to Gudaliir QM\ . 20 7 25 9 

Parcel Charge at Reduced Rates, 
(82 BengpEil lbs. = 1 man. 

From Ammayan&yakkanur to Feriakulam. 

rs. a. p. 
From 1 to 3 vians . . . .080 

„ 3to5 „ 7 

Each man above 5 . . . .060 
From ditto tp foot of Gudaliir Ghit, 

per matt. 
From 1 to 3 mxins 10 

„ 3 to 5 „ . . . . U 

Each m/in above 5 . . . . 12 
2 Ponies for each adult from foot of 

Ghdt to Kodikanal . . .200 
Each kuli from Periakulam to Eodi- 

kdnal carrying 50 lbs. . . .080 
Each kuli taking 50 lbs. from Guda- 
liir Ghat to Pirmedu . . per m. 6 
1 common cart on the low lands .023 
Ditto, on the hills . . ..020 

From Ammayanayakkaniir to Peria- 
kulam is 26 m. in a W. direction. A 
Tahsilddr has his head-quarters at 
Periakulam, and there is a t. b. 
From Periakulam to KTi§hnamaNdyak- 
kan T6p, at the foot of the Gudaliir 
GhAt, is 5 m. The Transit Agent will 
have kulls and ponies posted there 
for ascending the Ghdt, but notice 
should be given to him 2 days before. 
The traveller will sit on one pony and 
drive the other before him, or he can 
bare it led by a kuli. The Gh6.t, or 

ascent of the mountain, is 12 m. long. 
Near the 9th milestone is a plateau, on 
which a former collector has erected 
a b. Except from April to June it is 
easy to rent a house from the American 
Mission, who possess several. 

Intending visitors must particularly 
remember that there are no markets 
on the Palanis. Stores and provisions 
of all kinds must be brought up from 
the plains. 

The PaZnai or Palanit, so-called 
by the English, are known to the 
natives of the Tamil country as the 
Vardha or Hog Mountains. They 
spring from and are connected with 
the main body of the Travankor 
Hills at their N. extremity, and run 
E.N.E. for 54 m., with a mean 
breadth of 15 m. The W. or higher 
portion forms a plateau of 105 sq. m. 
of an average height of 7500 ft., with 
peaks rising to 8000 and 8500 ft. 
The E. or lower range is nowhere 
more than 5000 ft. alwve sea level, 
and gradually drops to 1500 ft. to- 
wards Dindigal. They consist gene- 
rally of enormous masses of gneiss 
interstratified with quartz and veins 
of felspar. In some places they are 
firm, but in most places decayed here 
and there to gritty clay. The tops 
are of syenite with granulitic por- 
phyrite and micaceous granite. Sili- 
ceous clay and hornblende slate, 
argillaceous slate, ferruginous quartz, 
the striped opal, black mica, iron 
mica, sulphuret of iron, ferrotan- 
talite, hydrous and anhydrous" oxide 
of iron, also occur. At the N.E. end 
gold is found in the alluvium and sand 
of the plain. Water is abundant, and 
11 streams rise from the 2 plateaus. 
The area they cover is 798^ sq. m., 
of which 427 belong to Government. 
The most unhealthy season is from the 
1st of January to the middle of March, 
when the thermometer at noon ranges 
from 55'* to 68*, with frost at night. 
May is the hottest month, when the 
heat at noon generally shows 64^'. 
In the latter part of April there is 
much thunder, and on the 24th of April, 
1862, " t\iEt^ ^«i& «.\.'tfeTCL<5i\s.^<5^i.^\iR."N^ 

size, \>y ^\i\GV mm-^ ^\sss»ia^ ^^^s 


JRoiUe 6. — Trichindpalli to Madura, 

Sect. 11. 

killed." (See Nelson's Manual, Part V. 
p. 91). Eodikdnal, which is the Eu- 
ropean settlement, consists of 10 or 15 
small, ugly houses and a few huts for 
servants. It is not well chosen as 
regards scenery. But there are places 
where the views of the low country 
and the Animalei Hills to the W. are 
past description beautiful. The sports- 
man will find bison, tigers, panthers, 
bears, the wild dog which hunts in 
packs and is most dangerous, sdmbar, 
and towards the Travankor Hills, a 
few elephants. There are also florican 
and woodcocks. About 12 m. S.W. of 
Kodikdnal and 9 m. from the Travan- 
kor boundary line is the site of a 
large lake, which was probably an 
artificial reservoir, and might easily be 
converted into a piece of water 12 or 15 
m. in circumference. It is at a height 
of 7000 ft. above sea-level. The pop. 
of the 2 ranges does not exceed 950O, 
consisting of Eunnuvans, cultivating 
holdings of their own, Poleiyans, here- 
dita^ slaves of the above, Maravars, 
and V adakans, who are of a superior 
caste, Chettis, Pariahs, and Palliyans. 
The nutmeg, cinnamon, and pepper 
vine grow wild. Jack-fruit, orange- 
trees, lime-trees, citron and sago plants 
are common, and thousands of acres 
have been disforested to grow the 
plantain-tree, which here produces 
fruit of a very rich and aromatic fla- 
vour, of which the Indians are very 

Madura, — ^The t. b. is close to the 
rly. Stat, at this city, which has 61,987 
inhabitants, and is the capital of a 
district with 231,418 souls, and of a 
collectorate which has an area of 9,502 
sq. m., and 2,266,615 inhabitants, of 
whom 132,833 are Muslims and 70,941 
Christians. This is also the capital of 
the old Pandyan Kingdom, for which, 
and also for the history of Madura 
generally, see Chronological Tables. 

Palace of Tirumul. — ^W. of the rly. 

Stat, and t. b. 14 m., is the Palace of 

Mahd Rdj4 Mdnya Rdjd Shri Tirumala 

Sevarl NAyani Ayyalu Gdru, "the 

.greatest of all the mlers of Madura in 

modem times ** (Nelson* B Manual, 

pt ui.,p. 131). He succeeded Muttu 

y^appa in January, 1623, and reigned 

gloriously 36 years. In Mr. Fergus- 
son's " History of Architecture," p. 381, 
will be found an account of this build- 
ing. The measurements here given 
were taken very carefully, March 16, 
1878, on the spot. Passing through 
the town, which has broad streets, 
thanks to a former Collector, to 
whom there is a monument, you 
arrive in front of the Palace, which 
looks modem, and has pillars of rough 
granite cased with cement 2 in. thids, 
supporting scalloped arches. The rest 
of the building is of masonry. On the 
rt. of the entrance is a modem and 
not very sightly building where the 2 
inferior courts of justice hold their 
sittings, one in each store}'. The en- 
trance to the palace is on the E. 
side, and a granite portico is in 
course of construction, to be paid for 
out of a fund raised by subscription in 
honour of Lord Napier of Ettrick, who 
first ordered the restoration of the 
Palace. On the rt. of this portico is 
the office of the municipality, which 
was probably Timmal's Kachhari or 
office. At each comer of the E. face 
of the palace is a low tower, and the 
N. comer is being raised and strength- 
ened for a clock tower. The clock 
has been lying for the last 7 years 
in the store-room of the Municipality. 
Passing through the Napier Gateway 
you enter a quadrangle 2524 ft. long 
from E. to W., and 151 ft. broad from 
N. to S. 30 ft. of this space on the 
E., N., and S. sides is occupied by a 
roofed aisle or corridor, the roof being 
supported by arches resting on granite 
pillars covered with cement as men- 
tioned above. On the W. side the 
corridor is a double one, and is 67 ft. 
broad. The front part of this corridor 
is called the Waggon loft, and is the 
first part of the Palace that has been 
restored. On the E. and S. sides of 
the quadrangle is a row of 12 plain 
pillars 38 ft. 2 in. high to the top of the 
capital whence the arch springs. To 
the centre of the arch from the ground 
is 47 ft. On the E., N., and S. sides of 
the quadrangle, the fioor of the cor- 
ridor is raised 7 ft., and is ascended 
by flights ot 14t «i\«^a ^«jc^. Oh ^MV^at 

Sect. 11. 

Rovie C. — Madura, 


One of these elephants much mutilated 
stands in the quadrangle. On the 3 
sides just mentioned, there are 3 rows 
of pillars. The space between the 
outer row and the middle row has 
been left open as a corridor, but that 
between the middle row and the wall 
of the palace is enclosed by dwarf 
walls, and the rooms so formed are 
used as offices. On entering through the 
Napier Gateway you face the front of 
the Waggon loft on the W. side. Here 
the massiveness of the supporting pil- 
lars is relieved by a slender pillar 
running up in front of them. The 
Waggon loft is 46 ft. broad from E. 
to W. In the centre of its W. side 
ascends the chief staircase, and in one 
of its stones there is a Tamil inscrip- 
tion. Passing from the staircase to 
a corridor 25 ft. broad from E. to 
W., you come to a court under the 
Grand Dome which was the throne- 
room, and is at present used as a 
district law court, but is intended to 
be reserved hereafter for public meet- 
ings. It is 61 ft. in diameter, and 
73 ft. high to the internal apex of 
the dome. Outside round the dome 
are galleries where the ladies in 
Tirumal's time sate and watched the 
state receptions. To the W. of the 
grand dome is another domed chamber, 
now being restored for the reception 
of the Collector's records and treasure. 
It is 36 ft. broad from E. to W., by 
62 ft. long from N. to S., and 47 ft. 
high to the apex of the dome. N. 
and S. of the grand dome are smaller 
domes. That on the S. has been com- 
pletely restored, while that on the N. 
is untouched, and affords a good means 
for comparing the old colouring with 
the restored. A portion of the Palace 
to the W. of the N. small dome is at 
present temporarily built up to form 
the judge's record room. Passing 
northward to the W. of this you come 
to what is called Tirumal's bedroom, 
which is intended to form the Judge's 
Court. It is 70 ft. broad from N. to 
a, and 126 ft. long from E. to W. 
The W. end has in part f^en in. 
When that side is restored it will 
form the main entrance to the Court. 
The height of this chamber ia 53 ft. 9 in. 

At present there are 4 holes in the 
middle of the roof, 2 on either side, 
and between the 2 on the S. side itf 
a large open hole. There is a legend 
that Tirumal's cot was suspended from 
hooks fixed in the 4 holes, and that 
the large hole between the 2 S. holes 
was made by a thief who descended 
from it by the chain supporting that 
comer of the cot, and stole the crown 
jewels. Tirumal is said to have offered 
an hereditary estate to the thief, if he 
would restore the jewels, adding that 
no questions would be asked. On re- 
covering the jewels he kept his word, 
but ordered the man to be decapitated. 
To the E. of the bedroom is an octa- 
gonal domed room at present used as a 
Mulj^ammadan school, but intended to 
be the Judge's private room. A domed 
room near it in the centre of the N. 
side is to be the Mun^if 's Court, and 
opposite to it will be the District 
Engineer's Office. All these domes 
have been already strengthened with 
iron ties, and are to be still further 
strengthened. At the S.W. comer of 
the building is a staircase leading to 
the roof, whence a view over Madura 
may be had. Close to the foot of this 
staircase is a door leading into the 
Magistrate's Court, which is perhaps 
the most elegant part of the Palace, 
and has been completely restored. On 
the S. side of it are 2 black basaltic 
pillars, monoliths 18 ft. high, and 8 ft. 
8 in. round. The wall and verandah 
to the W. of these pillars are of recent 
construction, and it is surprising how 
the building stood while they were 
wanting, as there was nothing but 
cohesion to support the arches. The 
ends of the arches are left projecting 
from the new wall, and show the 
state of the building in this part 
before that wall was built. There are 
some unsightly houses near the Palace 
which are to be removed, and when 
that is done and the repairs are finished 
this will be one of the finest public 
buildings in India. 

The Engliifji Church. — In coming 
from the t. b. to the Palace "5<5«. ^-wisk 
the Eiig\i&\i CVwa^, ^\s!L^ S& ^^-^ 
, being \>. \>t 'iltt. C>Da^o\Tc^> ^:s.,.,';^o&.iv 
\ money bec^ie^ietL^ V^ ^^- ^v^f2aR:t^ ^ 


Route 6. — Trichindpalli to Madura, 

Sect. 11. 

. "ft building 

former well-known resident at Madura. 
It stands in an open space in the 
middle of the town, S.W. of the Great 

The Tamkam,— To the N. of the 

River Vaigai, which flows due N. of 

the city, and about 1 m. from the 

, 'causeway which crosses the river, is 

^J>uilding called the Tamkani^ b. by 

" " for exhibiting fights between 

}ts and gladiators. It is a 

building, interesting only on 

account of the purpose for which it 

was used. v /^ 

The Cheat Pagoda,'-*Vfe shall, per- 
haps, be justified in supl^sing that a 
pagoda was b. at Madura contempora- 
neously with, if it did not precede 
the founding a city there. If so, (see 
Chronological Tables) we must assign 
a date of about 3 centuries B.C. to 
the original temple, for Madura was 
b. by the Pandyan King* Kula Shekh- 
ara. But it cannot be doubted that 
the oldest part of the present pagoda 
is long subsequent to that date. For, 
not to speak of what natural decay 

. mu.^t have effected in the lapse of 18 
centuries, we know that in 1324 Malik 
NAib Kdfiir invaded the province of 
Madura, and pulled down all the 
building except the Vim^nah, and the 
parts immediately adjacent. But if 
the Hindiis admit that all but the 
inner sanctuary was destroyed, it may 
be reasonably doubted whether that 
part, the most obnoxious of all to the 
Muslims, was allowed to remain. How- 
ever, be that as it may, we are certain 
that all the most beautiful portions of 
the pagoda as it now stands were b. 
by Ttnimala N4ik in the first half of 
the ITthjoentuiy. This vast building, 
said to be the largest pagoda in the 
world, is situated about a m. W. of 
the t. b. and the Rly. Stat. It con- 
sists of 2 parts, a pagoda to Mindhshi, 
"the fish-eyed goddess," from mind 
a fish, and akshi eye, said in Wilson's 
Skr. Diet, to be the daughter of Kuvera, 
the Hindii Plutus, but here recognized 
as the consort of Shiva, on the E. side, 

and one to Shiva, here called Sun- 
dareshwoTf on the W, siAe, You enter 
l^ the gate of Jtfin^shi's Temple, 
through a. corridor recently painted!, 

about 30 ft. long, which is called the 
Hall of the 8 Lakshmis, from 8 statues 
of that goddess, which form the sup- 
ports of the roof on either side, where 
various dealers ply their trade. On 
the rt. of the gateway is an image of 
Subrahmanya, one of Shiva's sons, 
otherwise called Skanda or Kdrtti- 
keya, the Hindii Mars. On the 1. is 
an image of Ganesh, and both are 
carved out of black or blackened 
stone. Passing the gateway you pro- 
ceed W. by S., and enter a stone 
corridor with 3 rows of pillars, 3 deep 
on either side. The corridor before 
passing the gateway is called in Skr. 
the Ashfa Lakshml Mandapani, and 
this 2nd corridor the Mind kshi Ndya lika 
Mandajpam, having been b. by MIn4k- 
shi Ndyakka, Diwan of a ruler of 
Madura, who preceded Tirumala. The 
pillars have for capitals the curved 
plantain-flower bracket so general at 
BljAnagar. This is said by some to 
be the Hindii Cornucopia. To the rt. 
of the corridor is what is called Muda 
or Muttu Panyshi's Mandapam, after 
a Hindii of rank who resided at Shiva- 
ganga. The length of this 2nd cor- 
ridor is 166 ft. At the end of it is a 
large door of brass, which has places to 
hold many lamps that are lighted at 
night. You continue walking round due 
W., and next pass through a dark corri- 
dor under a small Gopura. This ends 
in one broader with more light, which 
has 3 figures on either side carved 
with great spirit. The 1st is a chief's 
attendant dancing, with a face won- 
derfully expressive of glee, like that 
of a Highlander dancing a reel. The 
2nd figure has 4 arms, and holds with 
one hand a weapon, with another a 
cup, with a 3rd a club, and with the 
4th caresses a dog, though this animal 
is so badly executed that some main- 
tain it is a pig. The 3rd is the figure 
of a chief's attendant. Similar figures 
are on the 1. You now enter a quad- 
rangle with a Tejypa- Knlam, said by 
Nelson (Manual, Pt. 3, p. 167) to be a 
stone tank b. for the purpose of draw- 
ing a teppantf that is a raft lighted 
up witVi blue and red fires, round it. 
There \a & Mai>dapam Sxv \>aa Qs:afctQ. of 
its Is^e. . IBiete ^OTasa \i^>i}ftR. ^Wi^ 

Sect. 11. 

Houte 6, — Madura, 


much abandon. This tank is called 
Swama-pHshpa-Mrini or Patramarai, 
" Tank of the golden lilies " (see Nelson, 
Manual, Pt. 3, p. 1 4. ) The water is dark 
green. Observe here, a little chapel 
(Nelson's Gazetteer, Part 3, p. 237) b. by 
Queen Mangammdl, who was seized and 
starved to death by her subjects about 
1706 A.D., food being placed so near 
that she could see and smell, but not 
touch it. A statue of a young man, 
her lover, the Brdhman Achchaya, may 
be seen in the chapel on the W. side 
of the golden-lily-tank, and in a pic- 
ture on the ceiling of the chapel there 
is a portrait of the same person oppo- 
site to one of the Queen. Round it 
runs a corridor, the roof of which is 
supported by pillars on the side next 
the water. On the S. and E. sides 
the walls of the corridor are painted 
with the representations of the most 
famous pagodas in India. Thus on 
the E. side is depicted the Pagoda of 
Trinomali, with a number of votaries 
ascending the high and steep hill on 
which it is b. They are shown in 
fantastic attitudes, skipping, dancing 
with their legs high in the air. On 
the top of the moimtain blazes a huge 
cauldron of clarified butter set on fire. 
The whole might do well for a scene 
in Dante's Inferno. At the S.E. comer 
is shown the Pagoda of. Shrirangam, 
and next to it is that of RAmeshwaram, 
with a circumambient sea on which 
ships are sailing. On the N. side arc 
paintings of a gross character repre- 
senting the 64 Miracles of Sundaresh- 
war, for which see Nelson's Manual, 
Pt. 3. Sundareshwar is represented 
with a golden Lin gam of prodigious 
size, and his 64 miracles are partly 
ridiculous absurdities, partly disgust- 
ing on worse grounds. From the S. 
side of the corridor a very good view 
is obtained of the different towers of 
the gopuras. One sees on the S. 
side, and arising from it a very fine 
gopura over 100 ft. high, but not so 
lofty as the double gopura which is 
seen a long way off on the W. side. 
Close in front to the W. is seen the 
golden-plated shrine of MinAkshi, 
which rises about 10 ft, above the 
corridor. On the }^.W, side are the 

I belfrey, with an American bell of fine 
' tone, and the VimAnah of Sundaresh- 
war, higher than that of bis consort, 
and likewise plated with gold, or 
copper gilt, the similarly plated flag- 
st^, and the Mutta Gopura, which, 
perhaps on account of its yatst biilk,< 
does not seem so lofty as the doable 
gopura, though in fact it is higher. 
There is also on the N. side about 100 
yds. off from the corridor of the gf^ldpn- 
lily tank, a gopura called "the Bald," 
because it Ims no top like the others, 
the summits of which are shaped thus 
rt. It is truncated. At the S.W. . 
comer of the corridor is the office of 
the pagofla where the acxx>unts aro 
kept. On the 16th of March 1878, 
they were busy repairing the corridor, 
and the sides and the steps of the 
tank had all been handsomely relined 
with granite. The visitor now passes 
down the "W. side of the corridor, at 
the N. end of which is the Vimdnah 
of Mln^shi. The E. and W. sides of " 
the outer inclosure of this adytum are 
190 ft. long, and the N. and S. sides 
220 ft. The temple itself, in which is 
the adytum, is about 80 ft. broad N. 
and S., and 140 ft. long E. and W. 
This W. part of the corridor is called 
the XiUj)puttu Mandapa/niy or Saneli 
, Mandapam, and it is adorned with 12 
: very spirited figures, which form pillars 
on either side, 6 of them being the 
I Yali, a strange monster which is the 
' conventional lion of the South. Some- 
times he is represented with a long 
snout or proboscis. These are so ar- 
j ranged that between every 2 of them 
I is a figure of one of the 5 Pdndu 
brothers. First on the rt. is Yud- 
hishthir, and opposite to. him on the 
1. is Arjuna with his famous bow. 
Then come Sahadeva on the rt., and 
Nakula on the 1. Then follows Bhima 
on the rt. with his club, and opposite 
to him, on the 1. is the shrine of the 
goddess, and the figure of a Dw&rp^. 
The ceiling of this Mandapam is painted , 
but the colours have faded so much that 
one cannot make out what is the scene 
depicted. JOn the back wall ot tba. 
Sange\i 'NLvcix^tt^^xi^. \Jsyesfe S& «»>. OA. 
Tamil mecdT^XkraL ^^tj ^xi«3a. ^^'^^* 


HotUe 6. — Trichindpalli to Madura, Sect. II. 

the Miniksbi temple into that of Sun- 
dareshwar, by the Sangeli Mandapam 
which leads into the corridor of the 
other temple. At the end of this 
corridor 8 steps are ascended into the 
Aruvatti Mnrar, the Temple of the 
Bishis, a small chamber on the S. side 
of Sundareshwar*s Temple, in which 
are : Ist. The Lingam in the Yoni, called 
in TamU Iraiyandr; 2. Akraperiya- 
vandi, the Dumb Saint ; 3. Agastya ; 

4. Nakkiran, chief of 48 sages ; 5. 
Kapila ; 6. Faranar ; 7. Mamulavar ; 
8. VallAdar ; 9. Titalai Malanar ; 10. 
Samutura; 11. N&gatavan ; 12. Arisi- 
kir&r ; 13. Kamudiyar ; 14. Kitama- 
nar; 15. Nallatanar; 16. Muyaigahdr; 
17. Arisiyanallatuyan&r ; 18. Eirutaydr. 
The Sambdnh&r, or chief of the tem- 
ple, possesses a book in which these 
and other names of Rishis worshipped 
at this temple will be found. Outside 
this are many idols with their heads 
knocked off, and otherwise disfigured, 
but still too sacred to be ejected from 
the holy precincts. The visitor now 
turns E. along another corridor till he 
comes to a small temple on the 1., 
where are the figures of the Mahd- 
satras. They are placed in 3 rows 
one above the other, and are all in a 
sitting posture, except the 9th, which 
is represented as a serpent with a 
man's head. The name of the 1st on 
the 1. hand of the uppermost row is 
Budh ; 2. Sukkiran or Brihu ; 3. Chan- 
dran or Soma, the moon ; 4. Guru ; 

5. Siirion or Manu, the sun ; 6. Angd- 
rakan or Gujan ; 7. Ketu ; 8. Sani or 
Mandha ; 9. Bdgu. Along the S. cor- 
ridor is an inscription in Tamil. On 
the rt. is Sundareshwar's shrine, in front 
of which are some spirited figures. On 
the 1. is a group which is often re- 
peated, and is founded on, a well- 
known legend : a woman is embracing 
and fondling a Lingam, and Death, 
who was intending to make iher his 
victim, is trampled under foot by 
Shiva, who with one foot has rup- 
tured Tama's (Death's) neck. At the 
end is the marriage of Shiva Sunda- 

jvsli war to Fdrrati, She stands between 

jSIijra and Kfif^bna, who is giving 

tAe bride away, ThiB ia very weU 

^^ecuted. On the pedestal on which 

this group stands is the Ifom, or sacri- 
ficial fire. There are 4 other fine 
pieces of sculpture. On the r. of the 
spectator is Ist, KAl, or DurgA slaughter- 
ing down victims, and to the 1. of her 
is Shiva dancing the Tdndev or Dance 
of the Destroyer. L. of this again is 
Vira Bhadra, (Vira "hero," hliadra 
"auspicious") an inferior manifesta- 
tion of Shiva, or according to some 
his son Skanda, slaying his enemies, 
and Ugra, or " the terrible one," also 
slaughtering foes. The Vimdnah is 
dark. The belfrey is to the B. of it. 
The bells' sound is like that of the 
finest church bells. The Dhwaja 
Stambha is close to the belfrey. S.E. 
of the groups just described are the 
chambers where the Vdhanas or vehi- 
cles of Minakshi and Sundareshwar 
are kept. They are plated with gold. 
There are 2 golden pdlkis or litters, 
worth Bs. lOjCKK) each, and 2 with rods 
to support canopies worth Rs. 12,000 
each. There are also vehicles plated 
with silver, such as a Ilansa or" Swan," 
a Nandi or " bull." Those who desire 
to see the jewels must give notice a day 
or two previously. The visitor will 
now pass en the N. side the Saliasra- 
stami Jul- Mandapam f or " Hall of 1000 
Pillars." There are in fact 997, but 
many are hid from view, as the in- 
tervals between them have been bricked 
up to form granaries for the Pagoda. 
This hall was b. by Ariandyakkam Mu- 
daH, Minister of the Founder of the 
dynasty of the NAyaks. His figure 
stands on the 1. of the entrance. He 
is represented sitting gracefully on a 
rearing horse. In the row behind him 
are some spirited figures of men and 
women, or male and female deities 
dancing. The females have dispro- 
portionately small waists, and large 
breasts, and the faces of males and 
females alike are very ugly, with thin 
and pointed features. The men have 
very thin, pointed moustaches. The 
next thing is to ascend the Great 
Gopura, which is on the E. side about 
50 yds. to the S. of the 1000 pillared 
Hall, and is kept clean, and has no 
bad BmeVla. T\i^ st&icceuse is in the wall. 
There aie 1 flig\A.a ol 'i^ -v \V^*i^ ^x.'ev^ 
\ to thelBt p\fttioTm,A-\^^o>i?wi'iTA'»'V\^ 

Sect. IT. 

Rouie 6. — Madura, 


to the 3rd, +22 to the 4th, +21 to the 
6th, +22 to the 6th, + 22 to the 7th, + 
21 to the 8th, + 20 to the 9th, + 10 
wooden steps to the top =215 steps. 
The height is to Ist platform 86 ft. 

9 in. + 52 ft. 3 in. to 5th platform + 
34 ft. 9 in. to 8th platfonn,+ 10 ft. 
6 in. to 9th platform, + 18 ft. 4 in. to 
summit =152 ft. 7 in. This gopura, 
therefore, is not nearly so high as that 
at Hamp^. The steps are very steep, 
and at the end of them there is an 
interval of 5 ft., where the visitor 
must raise himself by his hands to 
the sill of the orifice at the top, where 
he can sit and look out, but the view 
hardly repays one for the trouble. 
After this the visitor will cross the 
street in front of the gateway of the 
Great Gopura on the B. side of the 
Pagoda, to see what is called the Pndu 
Mandapam or New Gallery, which, 
had it been finished, would have sur- 
passed in magnificence all the other 
buildings of this vast pagoda. At p. 361 
of Mr. Fergusson's "Architecture *' there 
is a plan of this gallery or choultry, as 
it is there called, and at p. 363 a view 
of it. According to the plan it is 333 
ft. long by 105 ft. broad, measured on 
the stylobate. Measuring with a tape 
I found it to be 270 ft. long, but the 
breadth given by Mr. Fergusson I 
believe to be correct. There are 4 
rows of pillars, and on either side of 
the centre corridor 5 pillars represent 

10 of the Ndyakkan dynasty, viz. Vis- 
wandth, Kumara Kp^hnappa, Peria 
Vidappa, VishwanAth, Lingama, Vis- 
nappa, Kasthuii Kangappa, Muttu 
Kiri§hnappa, Mutta Vidappa, Tirumal. 
Tirumal is distinguished by having a 
canopy over him, and 2 figures at his 
back, the figure on the 1. being his 
wife, the Princess of Tanjiir. On the 
1. of the doorway is a siagular group 
representing one of the Ndyakkas (see 
Cbron. Tables) shooting a wild boar 
and sows, according to the legend, 
which says that Shiva commiserated 
the litter of little pigs, took them up 
in his arms, and assuming the shape 
of the sow suckled them. A portly 
figure, either that of Shiva or the 
NAjaklra, is seen holding up the dozen 

Jj'ttJe pigs. This Hall was erected 

1623-1645, and is said to have cost a 
million sterling. 

The Madura Pagoda, the interior of 
which has been &us described, is a 
parallelogram of which the E. and W. 
sides are 744 ft. long, and the N. and 
S. sides 847 ft. There are 9 towers or 
Gopuras, viz., 1 on the E. side which 
may be called the Great Gopura; 2 
on the N. side, an inner and an outer, 
the outer being the Motta Gopura ; 
2 on the W. side, of which the inner is 
named the Palagri; 1 on the S. side ; 1 
small one, inside this last, about 80 ft. 
to the E. of the Teppa Eulam ; 1 in 
the centre of the whole enclosure E. 
of the N. wall of the outer enclosure 
of Mindkshi's temple, and 1 in the 
E. wall of the outer enclosure of 
Sundareshwar's temple =9. The en- 
trance to the temple is by the gopura 
on the E. side, and having entered 
you have the Hall of 1000 Pillars on 
your rt. in the N.E. comer of the 
enclosure, and beyond it to the W. i^ 
Sundareshwar's temple. On the 1. 
you have the Ashta Lakhshmi Manda- 
pam leading into Min^kshi N&yakka's 
Mandapam with Mutta Bdmalinga's 
Mandapam to the rt. or N., and still 
further to the N. Madurappa Servai- 
gdru's Mandapam, and to the S. a 
garden. W. of these is Tirurach6's 
Mandapam with the Bdzdr for sweet- 
meats on the rt. or N., and further to 
the N. Kalydna SundaraMudali's Man- 
dapam. W. again of these is Irudhala's 
Mandapam, and that opens into the 
corridors round the Golden Lily Lake, 
which is the same shape as the grand 
enclosure of the temple, the N. and S. 
sides being 180 ft. long, and the E. 
and W. 160 ft. W. of the Tank is 
the temple of Mindkshi, which is 
much smaller than that of Sundaresh- 
war. The space round the outer 
enclosure of the temple is called Chitra 
Yidhi or April Street, and that inside 
the enclosure Adi Vidhi or July Street, 

Teppa Knlam Tank, — N. of the Vai- 
gai r., and close to the collector's house, 
which is built on a bank formed by 
the eaith excavated from the tank^ is 
a fine Teppa KuXam. 'Y>Ckfc^. 'ksA.'^* 
sides are 9^5\ i^, Ica^, «x^^ >;iG&^. «»^^ 
W. sides ^4^, T^^^^^'t^^ o^^C^^vi^^^ 


Bovte 7. — Madura to Tinnevelli, 

Sect. IL 

of March, 1878, was 7 ft. deep, but in 
1877 the tank was quite dry. The 
fashionable drive of Madura is round 
this tank, which is fenced with stone, 
and has a temple in the centre. 

Cheat Banyan Tree, — In the com- 
pound of the judge's house is a fine 
specimen of the F'lmis indica. The 
main stem has been much mutilated, 
but is still 70 ft. in circumference. 
The ground shaded by this tree has a 
diameter of 180 ft. in whatever direc- 
tion you measure it. 












A. v. 


Maiiuka to 

6.15 The heat is in-| 

1. Tiruparangun- 

tense after the 

djam . . 



beginning of 

2. Tirumangalam 

ei; 7.8 

March, and 

3. Kallikudi 



the journey 

4. Virdupatti . . 



should not be 

6. Tulukupatti . 



attempted be- 

6. Sattiir . . 



tween Ist of 

7. Kovilpatti . 
& Kumurapuram 



March and 



15th of Nov. 

9. Kadarabiir . . 



10. ManiachiJimc- 


tlou . .'10 


Railway turns 


off to the left, 


or in other 


words, to the 

11. TinneveUi . . 



S. to Tutiko- 

Toial . .'90 J 

The temple at Tinnevelli, though as 

Mr,FerguB8on sajs (pp.366-7)," neither 

BZDongthelargestnoT the most splendid 

^S, India, baa the advantage of having 

eeen bailt on one plan, and at one 

time, without subsequent alteration or 
change." It is, therefore, deserving a 
visit, and it is besides only 10 m. out 
of the way of a traveller going to visit 
Tutikorin either to see a place where 
the pearl fishery is still at certain 
seasons carried on, or to take boat from 
thence to RAmeshwaram on the one 
side, or to cross to Ceylon on the 
other. Tinnevelli is also the seat of 
an interesting mission which has done 
much for the education of the Indians 
of the locality. 

TinneveUi is situated in 8° 48' N. 
lat., 78° 1' E. long, on the 1. b. of the 
Tambrapumi R. and IJ m. from it. 
It is 2 J m. from the stat. of Palam- 
kottei, which is on the r. b. of the 
r. and 1 m. from it. A bridge of 1 1 
arches of 60 ft. span each, erected by 
Sulochenam Mudelidr, crosses the 
stream. Tinnevelli is the capital of a 
coUectorate of the same name, con- 
taining 5176 sq. m., and extending to 
Cape Kum4rl (Comorin), with a pop. 
of 1,693,959, of whom 102,576 aie 
Christians. It is a remarkable fact 
that in the last 20 years, while the 
Hindiis have increased by 33 per cent., 
and the Muslims by 10*5 per cent., the 
Christians have increased by 74 per 
cent. Of the Christians 52,780 are 
Catholics, and 49,796 Protestants. The 
1st Protestant convert was baptized 
in this province by Schwarz in 1785. 
In 1820 the Church Miss. Soc. estab- 
lished here a mission stat. The culti- 
vators are by far the most numerous 
caste in this coUectorate, the Vell&lars 
numbering 341,331 and the Vannians 
367,889. The ShdndrsnumhcT 291,053, 
and many of them have become con- 
verts to Christianity. 

Tinnevelli is a municipal town, 
with a pop. of 21,044. The Pagoda is 
580 ft.* broad from E. to W., and 756 
ft. long from N. to S. It is like the 
temple at Madura, divided into 2 parts, 
of which the S. half is dedicated to 
Pdrvatl the Consort of Shiva, and the 
N. to Shiva himself. There are 3 gate- 
ways or gopuras to either half, those 
on the E. being the principal, and 
having porchea outside them. After 

Sect. IL 

Rowte 7. — Fdlamhottai — Kutallam. 


entering, you have in front an internal 
porch of large dimensions, on the rt. 
of which is a Teppa Xulanif and on 
the 1. a 1000-pillared hall, which runs 
nearly the whole breadth of the 
enclosure, and is 63 ft, broad. There 
are 100 rows of pillars 10 deep. The 
inner enclosure, where the adytum is, 
is 200 ft. long from E. to W., and 160 
ft. broad from N. to S. The sole 
entrance is on the E. face. 

PalamJtottai is a municipal town, 
with a pop. of 17,945, and is within 
an easy drive or walk from Tinnevelli. 
The fort stands about 120 ft. above 
the plain, is built on a naked rock, 
but abundantly supplied with well- 
water. Between the bridge over the 
TAmbrapumi and the fort stands the 
church of the Church Missionary So- 
ciety, the tower and spire of which 
is 110 ft. high. A road to the beau- 
tiful waterfalls of Kutallam and 
Pdpandsham passes through Palam- 
kottai and Tinnevelli, and the follow- 
ing are the stages : 

M. p. From 

From Madura Gate at Falamkottai. 

Palamkottai to Tdm- 
brapumi r. bank ..13 
Ditto, L bank . . 1^ 
TinnevelU . . . 1 sj 
+ Boad to Papandsham 2^ 

Tinnevelli ends 

Allankolam . 

+ Chitrawati 

Tenkdslii . 

5 2 

r. to 

15 2 

•m. F. ( Small 
9 21 village. 

1" *1 village. 

18 2 

Total . . . 38 Milts. 

Kutallam is a delightful summer 
residence. It is a large place, and 
much resorted to by the European 
residents at Tinnevelli. It is not 
elevated, but the S.W. winds pass 
over it through a chasm in the W. 
Ghdts, and bring with them coolness 
and moisture, so that the temperature 
of this favoured spot is from 10° to 
15** lower than that of the arid plains 
beyond. The place is particularly 
enjoyable in June, July, and August, 
In February, March, April, and May, 
U JB not BO pleasant. The proper name 


of the place is Trilnitah, "three- 
peaked," from the Sanskrit tri "three," 
kiitah " peak." There are 3 falls, the 
highest being 1000 ft. above the sea. 
The well-known cataracts are close 
to the bangles. The lowest cataract 
falls from a height of 200 ft., but is 
broken midway. The water descends 
from a projecting rock in the channel 
of the Syldr r., which rises in the 
hills immediately N. of Pulierri. The 
average temperature of the water is 
from 72° to 75° Fahr., and invalids 
derive great benefit from bathiDg in 
it. The bathing place is under a fine 
shelving rock, which affords the most 
delightful shower-bath possible. The 
water of these hill streams is singularly 
clear and pure, and, falling rapidly 
over boulders and rocks, acquires so 
much oxygen, that bathiDg beneath 
the waterfalls is wonderfully refresh^ 
ing and invigorating. Hence no doubt 
the simple folk of the locality have 
been induced to attribute to the waters 
a spiritually cleansing as well as phy- 
sically refreshing efEect. The scenery ^ 
is strikingly picturesque, being a happy 
mixture of bold rocks and umbrageous 

The road from Palamkottai to PA- 
pandsham {Pdpa ' sin,' ndttharti * effac- 
ing '), is shorter than that to Kutallam, j 
being as follows : — 

M. F. 

X the Tdmbrapiimi and Tambami r., 
the latter 220 yards wide, to Vydini- 
denKovil 14 4 

X the Kur6 A'r r., 220 yards wide, to 
F&pandsham Kovil and Cataract . 15 

Total . . 29 4 

The height of this Cataract is only 
80 ft., but the body of water is greater 
than at Kiitallam. The Timbrapumi 
r. here takes its last fall near a pagoda 
from. the hills to the level country. 
The climate is inferior to that of 
Kiitallam. Fish are fed here by the 1/ 
Brdhmans, and are quite tame. The ^ 
TAmbrapumi rises 22 m. to the W. at 
the Angastir Mallai Peak, which is 
6200 ft. high, and is one of the highest 
in the W. Ghdts. P4pandsham lies 
due W. ot Tvim^N^\!^\^*5A'SE»ia^'^^«s^ 


Route 8. — Tinnevelli to Tutikonn, 

Sect II. 



The visitor will now return from 
Tinnevelli to Mani&chi Junction by 
rail, 10 m. He will then travel, also 
by S. India Rly. to Tutikonn as 
follows : — 

p. M. 

Hanidchi Junction to Shattapumifdep. 12 12 

arr. 1 

Tatlkorin arr. 1 40 

Distance, 23 m. 

Tutikorin is a municipal town with 
a pop. of 10,565. It was famous for 
its pearl fishery, which extended from 
Cape Kumdri to the lowlands of 
Shiaal. CaBsar Frederick, who visited 
India 1563—1581, tells us that the 
fishing begins in March or April, and 
lasts 60 days. It is seldom or never 
in the same exact spot during two con- 
secutive years ; but when the season 
approaches good divers are sent to 
examine where the greatest number 
of oysters are to be foimd, and when 
they have settled that point, a village 
is built of stone opposite to it, should 
there have been no village there pre- 
viously, and an influx of people and of 
the necessaries of life follows. The 
fishers and divers are all Christians of 
the country. He adds : — 

" During the continuance of the 
fishery there are always 3 or 4 armed 
foists or galliots stationed to defend 
the fishermen from pirates. Usually 

^ the fishing boats unite in companies of 
3 or 4. These boats resemble our 
pilot boats at Venice, but are some- 
what smaller, having 7 or 8 men each. 
I have seen of a morning a great 
number of these boats go out to fish, 
anchoring in 16 or 18 fathoms water, 
which is the ordinary depth along this 
coast. When at anchor they cast a 
rope into the sea, having a great stone 
at one end. Then a man, having his 
ears well stopped, and his body 

anointed with oil, and a basket hang- 

jw^ to bis neck or under his 1. arm, 

^oes down to the bottom of the sea 

along the rope, and fills the basket 
with oysters as fast as he can. When 
it is full he shakes the rope, and his 
companions draw him up with the 
basket. The divers follow each other 
in succession in this manner, till the 
boat is loaded with oysters, and they 
return at evening to the fishing village. 
Then each boat or company makes 
their heap of oysters at some distance 
from each other, so that a long row of 
great heaps of oysters is seen piled 
along the shore. These are not touched 
till the fishing is over, when each 
company sits down beside its own 
heap, and falls to opening the oysters, 
which is now easy, as the fish within 
are all dead and dry. If every oyster 
had pearls in it, it would be a profita- 
ble occupation, but there are many 
which have none. There are certain 
persons called Chitiniwho are learned 
in pearls, and are employed to sort 
and value them according to their 
weight, beauty, and goodness, dividing 
them into 4 sorts. The 1st, which 
are round, are named aia of Po7'tugalf 
as they are bought by the Portuguese. 
The 2nd, which are not round, are 
named aia of Bengal. The 3rd, 
which are inferior to the 2nd, are 
called aia of Kanara, which is the 
name of the Kingdom of Bijdnagar, 
or Narsinga, into which they are sold. 
And the 4th, or lowest kind, are called 
aia of Cambaia, being sold into that 
country. Thus sorted and a price 
affixed to each, there are merchants 
from all countries ready with their 
money, so that in a few days all the 
pearls are bought up, according to 
their goodness and weight." (Kerr's 
Voyages and Travels, vol. 8.) 

Owing, it is said, to the deepening 
of the Paumban Channel, these banks 
no longer produce the pearl oysters, 
but shank snells are still found and ex- 
ported to Bengal. Small schooners sail 
twice or thrice a week from Tutikorin 
to Ceylon, whence a passage may be 
had in a small steamer to the coast 
opposite B^meshwaram, and the temple 
at the latter place may thence be 
visited in. a boat, or a boat may be 
hired at TxitVk^OTva \jq ^"c^ X-o ^kcaauV 
woram. direct, lt» ia, ^lOi^^Net^ ^I^ksl 

Sect. II. 

liovie 9. — Rdmndd, 


impossible to land near Rdmcshwaram 
on account of the surf. Although, 
therefore, the land journey from 
Madura is very slow and wearisome, 
it is, perhaps, the better rte. to 
Rdmeshwaram, and is as follows : — 


WARAM, 105 M. 4 P. 

Names of 



Madura to m. f. 

1. Tinipuwauam, 6. 

12 4 

Vaigai r. close on 

and p. s. 

1. all the way, 
small village. 

2. Mutanandal, c/mt- 

10 7 

Small village, 


Vaigai close as 

3. xVaigair. 200 yd. 

wide to Mauna 

Madurai,c7j.««raTO 6 5 

Do., do. 

4. Pudukottai . . 

9 2 

Do., do. 

5. X Vaigair. 2Jfur. 


wide, to Pemia-! 

gudi . 

6 2 Large village, r. 

1 as before. 

6. Pokalur . . . 

12 6 Small liandct. 

7. Rdninad W. Gate, 

6. and p, s. 

10 2 Tiarge town. 

8. Ndgacbi . . . 

13 7 Small hamlet. 

9. Maiidapani . .10 4jOnly 1 shop. 

10. Pdraham ?;, . .| 6 Small village. 

11. Kdmeshwaram . 


Total . . 

105 4 

Ramudd, in lat. 9" 24', long. 78° 49', 
is the capital of a Zaminddri contain- 
ing 1900 sq. m., and a pop. of 504,131 
persons, and bounded on the N. by 
Tanjiir and the Zaminddrl of Sheva- 
ganga, on the S. and E. by the sea, 
and on the W. by part of Shevaganga 
and Tinnevelli. The pop. of the town 
and fort of BdmnM is about 14,000. 
The Fort is a sc^uare, each side of whicli 

is 1 m. long. The wall is 27 ft. high 
and 5 ft. thick, and single, but has 
32 bastions at equal di^nces from 
each other, and 1 gateway on the E. 
On the N.W. is a large tank, con- 
structed, as was the wall, about the 
year 1686, by the S6tupati Raghunith, 
whose sobriquet was KUavan, *the 
old man.' The palace of this worthy 
stands about 200 yds. from the gate of 
the Fort. On the N.E. bank of the 
tank is a small Protestant church, with 
a cemetery. On the W. bank of the 
tank are the tombs which contain the 
ashes of the S6tupatis, close to the 
spot where their bodies underwent 
cremation. E. of the tank is a lai^e 
house which belonged to Colonel 
Martinez, who commanded the garri- 
son before 1804. On the N. between 
the Tank and the Fort is a high 
earthen mound bordered with a para- 
pet and furnished with embra^res, 
whence there is a wide view over the 
plains. Colonel Martinez built a 
Catholic chapel in 1799, near the S.E. 
angle of the Fort, in the centre of 
wMch stands a Hindii temple. The 
Fort contains 5000 inhab., and a largo 
part of the pop. of the town resides 
near the principal entrance of the 
Fort and on the E. side of the walls. 
The bdzdr is built in 2 rows of shops 
with tiled roofs. The town is E. of 
the Fort, and including the suburb of 
Lakshmipuram, where there is a hand- 
some temple, is 2J m. in circumfer- 

The inhab. of the Zamlnddris of 
Rdmndd and Shevaganga are called 
Maravas, and are the oldest caste in the 
country, and by some thought to be 
Aborigines. Their customs are very 
peculiar. At p. 354 of the 4th vol. of 
the " Madras Journal," will be found 
an elaborate description of these people 
translated by the Rev. Mr. Taylor from 
the Marava-Tdthi Varnanam, There 
are 7 sub-divisions of the caste : 
1. Sembii-ndttu ; 2. Kondagan-Kattu ; 
3. Apaniir-vdtten ; 4. Agatd ; 5. Onir- 
ndttu ; 6. Upu-Kottei ; 7. Kurichi- 
Kattu.' The 1st is the chief divisLocL. 
The 'NLs;xa'^«j& csiXV ^Csi<5iTD«^^^'^K^:'^'i^^^ 
but lYiey 7tot^\^v ^^1 ^^"^^"^"t^ 


226 BotUe %,-^Madurci to Udinndd and Rdmeslmaram, Sdct. 11. 

and other demons whom they pro- 
pitiate with spirits, flesh and fruit. 
They allow cousins, the children of 2 
brothers, to marry. Widows remarry, 
and even wives who cannot agree with 
their husbands, get divorced and marry 
again. Sati was practised in the fami- 
lies of the Sdtupati, and generally in 
the Sembii-ndttu sub-division, but not 
in the others. After the chiefs of 2 
families agree that a marriage shall 
take place between 2 members of the 
family, some relations of the bride- 
groom go to the girl's home and tie on 
her neck the t&li or symbol of marriage, 
with or without his and her consent. 
Then follow certain ceremonies, and 
if the bridegroom be too poor to carry 
them out, he has " to cure the defect," 
as they call it, at some future time. 
Should he die, his friends borrow money 
and complete the marriage on behalf 
of the corpse, which is seated with the 
bride till the ceremony is over. 

The dress of the Maravans is pecu- 
liar. Handkerchiefs are worn round 
the head, and should a turban be put 
on, it is never tied. The men wear 
their hair very long. Both men and 
women stretch the lobes of their ears 
several inches by attaching and insert- 
ing heavy weights. Properly, every 
Maravan male should be a soldier, and 
hold his lands by military tenure. A 
swordsman or spearsman used to have 
a piece of land that would yield 5 
halams of rice a year ; a musketeer as 
much as would bring 7 kalavus; a 
larboji what brought 9 ; and a captain 
of 100 men, land that yielded 50. For 
each Italani, 5 fanams were paid the 
chief as tribute. 

The S6tu-pati, * Lord of the Bridge,' 

was the chief or king of the 

Maravans. The 1st S^tupati is said 

to have been appointed by Rdmah. 

His office was to guard the bridge of 

rocks which crosses the Gulf of Mandr 

to Ceylon. His rank was so high 

(Nelson's Manual, Pt. II., p. 41), that 

the Tondiman Rdjd or Rajd of Pudu- 

kottei, the Rdjd of Shevaganga, and 

ihe 28 chiefs of Tanjiir were bound to 

stand before him with the palms of 

their hands joined in an attitude of rc- 

^/^ect. The TumeroHi chiefs, such as 

the Katab6ma Ndyakkan, were to pros- 
trate themselves at full length before 
the S^tupati, and after rising could 
not seat themselves in his presence. 
But the Sillava chiefs and those of 
Ettiyapiiram, and the Marava chiefs 
of Vadagarai, Shokanpatti, Uttamalei 
Setturu, Sarandai, and other places 
made no obeisance to the Ruler of 

Of the ancient history of the S^tu- 
patis of Ramndd but little is known. 
Muttu Kpshnappa, the Kin g of Madura, 
who began to reign in 1602, re-esta- 
blished the Maravan dynasty in the 
person of Sadeika Tdvan Udaiydn, who 
was a wise and vigorous ruler. He died 
in 1G21, and his son Kuttan succeeded 
him. The " Gazetteer "of Madura says, 
" There is a considerable amount of 
evidence, which appears to support the 
claim to high antiquity put forward 
by the royal princes of Ramnad." 
According to a MS. in the Mac- 
kenzie collection, the Maravas came 
originally from Ceyloq, and some of 
them were made S6tupatis or cus- 
todians of the Isthmus of Ramesh- 
waram by Rdma. They were long 
subject to the Pdndyas, but at last 
became their masters, and remained so 
for 1 1 generations, and during 3 reigns 
ruled over all the S. of India. At last 
they were driven to the S. of the Kaveri 
by the Kuramba prince of Alakdpilri, 
and the Rdjd of Vijayanagar took 
from them Tanjiir and Madura. In 
those ancient times Virava Nalliir near 
the sea, and not far from Ramndd, was 
the capital of the S6tupatis. Mr. 
Nelson, however, has taken up their 
history from the time of Sadeika T^van 
above-mentioned. The Sctupati Kuttan 
died in 1635, and was succeeded 
by Sadeika T6van II., called the 
Dalavai Setupati, who 3 years after 
appointed his adopted son Raghunatha 
Tevan to be his successor. He was 
opposed by a bastard son of Kuttan 
called Tambi, ' the younger brother,' 
who got himself appointed Setupati 
by the great Tirumal. Tirumal sent 
Rdmappaya and Ranghana Ndyakkam 
to eivthTone Tambi, and they stormed 

Sect. II. 

Soute 9. — Bdmndd, 


island, where, however, he was at 
length captured and thrown into prison 
at Madura. This conduct on the part 
of Tirumal made him so unpopular, 
that he was obliged to restore the 
Dalavai Sdtupati, who reigned till 
1645, when he was murdered by Tambi. 
Tirumal then divided the RdmnAd 
territory, giving the Edmndd district 
to Raghundtha Tevan, Sevaganga to 
Tambi, and Tiruvadanei to Raghu- 
natha's younger brothers. Before long 
the other chiefs died, and Raghundtha 
became sole ruler. In 1653, a great 
excitement took place regarding the 
advent of a' pretended divine emperor. 
This was allayed by the Muslim 
Governor of Bengaliir, who cut off the 
heads of the (fivine child and his 
mother. But even so late as 1866, 
masses of the people expected that the 
infant would be restored to life, and 
reign as Vira Bhoga Vasanta Rdyar. 
Some years after this the Maisiir army 
invaded Tirumal's dominions, who 
called the S^tupati to his aid, and the 
latter defeated the Maisiireans with 
the loss of 12,000 killed, and drove the 
rest out of the Madura territory. For 
this the S^tupati obtained the privilege 
1 of using the lion-faced palki peculiar 
■ to the House of Madura, and was 
/ granted the protectorate of the pearl 
fishery, with a large increase of terri- 
tory. In 1665, Choka Ndtha, King of 
Maidura, entered the Marava country, 
and took and garrisoned several of 
the strong places. Raghundtha S6tu- 
pati died about 1685. He was suc- 
ceeded by his bastard son, also called 
Raghundtha, but known as Kilavan, 
* the old man. ' This Setupati on the 
4th of Februaiy, 1693, put to death 
the celebrated missionary John de 
Britto, a nobleman of the Court of 
Pedro IV. of Portugal. The Kilavan 
was also the Setupati who pulled down 
the mud walls of Rdmndd and rebuilt 
them of stone. In 1702, the Kilavan 
defeated and killed Narasappaya, the 
great Dalavai of the Madura Court, 
and defeated the combined armies of 
Tanjiir and Madura. A Jesuit letter 
shows how formidable the Rdmndd 
armj then was. It says : — 
^'Fresque toutes lea JBourgades et les 

terres du Marava (Rdmndd) sont pos- 
s^d^es par les plus riches du pays, 
moyennant un certain nombre de soldats 
qu'ils sont obliges de foumir au prince 
toutes les fois qu'il en a besom. Ges 
seigneurs sont revocables au gr6 du 
prince ; leurs soldats sont lenrs parents, 
leurs amis, ou leurs esclaves, qui culti- 
vcnt les terres d^pendantes de la 
peuplade, et qui prennent les armes 
des qu'ils sont requis. De cette 
mani^re le prince du Marava pen* 
mettre sur pied, en moins de huit 
jours, jusqu'd trente et quarante mille 
hommes, et par Id il se fait redouter 
des princes ses voisins : il a m^me 
secou6 le joug du roi de Madur6 dont 
il 6tait tributaire." 

Having made himself independent 
in 1702, the Setupati Kilavan defeated 
the King of Tanjur in 1709, though 
his country had been reduced to great 
distress by a frightful famine. This 
dearth was not owing to neglect of 
works of irrigation, but solely to want 
of rain. Nowhere had more important 
reservoirs been constructed tlian in 
the province of Madura. One only 
need be mentioned, and it is well 
worthy of a visit by those who are 
interested in these matters. It is 
the vast tank of Rdjasiiigamanga- 
1am, N. of Rdmndd, which is no less 
than 20 m. in circuroference. In spite 
of these extraordinary works, Madura 
and Rdmndd have been desolated by 
the most terrible famines on record. 
Thus, the price of rice being in or- 
dinary seasons 2^d. for 96 lbs. of 
husked rice, in 1713 the price, accor- 
ding to Father Martin, had at times 
risen to dd. for 12 lbs. In other 
words, the price in less than a year 
had risen 3200 per cent. On the 18th 
of Dec, 1709, the famine was supple- 
mented by a cyclone, with such tre- 
mendous rain, that all the embank- 
ments in the country burst, and in the 
dead of night, when it was pitch dark 
(Gaz. ©f Madura, Pt. 3, p. 243), a 
mighty wave came surging and foam- 
ing, bearing along with it the wreck 
of houses and churches, trees^ strvw^- 

men, ^omen «a!\ OaSX.^^xvO£v^a5&--T>c<$^^ 
\ CTops ot aW ^ox\,^ \ m tw^'3^^-^'<^^^ 

228 i&m^e 9. — Madura to Rdmndd and Rdmesliwaram, Sect. 11- 

was most valuable and useful in the 
country over which it had careered. 
Thousands perished miserably in vain 
attempts to flee, and the sun rose next 
morning upon a sight to move the 
hardest to compassion. In every direc- 
tion, as far as the eye could reach, the 
whole country was submerged, with 
the exception of a few high trees, 
which rose like islands out of the sur- 
rounding waste of waters. Property 
of all kinds was being tossed hither 
and thither by eddies and currents ; 
and innumerable carcases of animals 
were being carried along, mingled 
with thousands of corpses. But it 
was not until the waters had subsided 
that the full extent of the damage 
could be ascertained. It was then per- 
ceived that not only had the rice crops 
utterly perished in almost every part of 
the KdmnAd kingdom, but many of 
the fields in which they grew had 
been covered with sand and salt and 
rendered useless until cleaned, and a 
2nd time prepared for cultivation at a 
great expense, and most of the wells 
and tanks had been fouled and poi- 
soned." In consequence the famine 
raged in the Marava country more 
furiously than ever in 1710, about 
which time the Kilavan died, aged 
upwards of 80. His wives, 47 in 
number, burned themselves, the first 2 
or 3 meeting their fate with resolu- 
tion, but the rest made frantic efforts 
to escape, filling the air with their 
screams. The execrable bystanders 
threw heavy faggots on their heads, 
and a European soldier, to whom one 
of them rushed for protection, cast her 

■ off with such force, that she fell head- 
long into the midst of the flames. 
A righteous vengeance immediately 
seized on the wretch, and he died a 
few hours after in a burning fever. 
The Kilavan was succeeded by his 
adopted son, Vijdya Raghu Ndtha, an 
unrelenting persecutor of Christians, 
while his brother, Vadaya Natha, be- 
came a convert. Vijdya died in 1720 
of an epidemic which swept away 8 
of his children, several of his wives, 
and himself. He had 360 wives and 

J 00 children; but all of them who 
were legitimate perished of disease, 

His successor, Thonda T^van, was put 
to death by the Tanjiirines, who 
stormed Rdmndd and put Bhawdnl 
Shankar on the throne. He in his 
turn was deposed by the Baja of 
Tanjilr, who took all the territory N. 
of the Pdmbdr, and gave 3-5ths of the 
rest to Kattaya T6van, who was made 
S^tupati, with the title of Kumdra 
Muttu Vijaya Raghu Natha. The 
other 2-5 ths were given to Seshawama 
T6van, a famous champion who took 
the name of Rdjd Muttu Vijaya Raghu 
Ndtha Periya Udeiyd T6van. His sub- 
sequent title was Rdjd of Shevaganga, 
or Sivagangen. A copper-plate exists, 
giving his date as founder of the 
Sivagangen monarchy, and thus the 
dismemberment of the RamnM king- 
dom and the establishment of the 
great Shevaganga Zamindari is fixed 
to 1733. In 1734 Saffdar 'Ali and 
Chandd Sdhib took Tanjiir by storm, 
and gave the principality to Bada 
Sdhib, brother of Chandd. Soon after 
this Chandd Sdhib took Trichinapalli, 
and conquered Madura, and in 1739 
Raghuji Bhonsl^ invaded Madura with 
a force, which,Orme states at 100,000 
cavalry, and Grant Duff at 50,000. 
On the 20th of May, 1740, these 
Marathas killed Dost 'All, the governor 
of the Karndtik, and then over-ran 
Tanjiir and Madura, and, as Mr. 
Nelson thinks, occupied Shevaganga, 
and probably Rdmndd. The Mardthas 
were induced to retire by the Great 
Nizdm, and Muhammadan Nuwdbs 
governed Madura for a time, until 
'Alam Khan sold Madura to Maisiij* ; 
but the S^tupati's general expelled 
these intruders, and had Vangdru 
Tirumald's son proclaimed king of 
Madura. In 1755 Muhammad 'Ali, 
Niiwdb of the Karndtik, sent 500 
English, 2000 Sipdhis, and 1000 horse, 
under Colonel Heron, and Madura 
was surrendered to them. On the 
28th of May Heron marched back by 
the Nattam Pass, and there suffered 
severe loss, as is recorded by Orme. 
He had given over Madm-a to Bara- 
kata'Udh, and this man is said to have 
established a small mosque on the top 
oi t\ie \mfi3i\^^^ "^^vi^od^*. ^ M.^ura, 

Sect. IL 

R<mte 9. — Rdmndd. 


Bhadra K411, which stands at the S.E. 
comer of the Royal Mandapam in the 
Great Pagoda, is said to have opened 
one eye, which remained open for two 
days. The E. I. C. now sent their 
celebrated partizan officer, Muhammad 
Yiisuf Khdn, to command at Madura. 
He arrived on the 6th of April, 1756, 
but a cabal was formed against him, 
and he was compelled to apply to 
Captain Calliaud, commanding at 
Trichindpalli, for instructions. On 
this Calliaud came to Madura, and, 
supported by Yiisuf, attempted to 
storm the place, but was repulsed ; 
but Barakata'lldh, who commanded 
within the walls, subsequently surren- 
dered the fort to him. In July, 1758, 
the Madras government sent for Yiisuf, 
but allowed him to return to Madura 
in 1759 ; and in 1760 he repelled an 
attack of Haidar 'All's troops. In 

1762, after he had overrun the Sheva- 
ganga and Rdmndd territories, he was 
besieged in Madura by a force sent 
by the Niiwdb of the Kamdtik, which 
was aided by the S^tupati, and the 
Rdjd of Shevaganga. Yiisuf gal- 
lantly defended himself until May, 

1763, when he was betrayed by a con- 
fidential servant to his enemies, and 
executed. Thus perished this able 
officer, of whom Col. Fullarton says, 
"His whole administration denoted 
vigour. His justice was unquestioned, 
his word unalterable ; his measures 
were happily combined and firmly 
executed ; the guilty had no refuge 
from punishment." Madura was then 
put under a servant of the Niiwdb of 
the Kamdtik, Abirdl Khdn, who go- 
verned for 6 years. 

In 1772 the Zaminddrs of Rdmndd 
and Nalguti were attacked by the 
English, at the instigation of the 
Niiwdb of the Kamdtik, on grounds 
which are thus pithily explained by the 
British Government. " The Niiwdb has 
made them his enemies. It is, there- 
fore, necessary they should be re- 
duced. We do not say it is altogether 
just, for justice and good policy are 
not often related 1 " General Joseph 
Smith marched against Rdmndd with 
400 European infantryf 5 regiments of 
J^jpdbls^ 6 hQ^yy f^unB md » body of 

cavalry. The batteries opened on the 
morning of the 2nd of April, and the 
breach was practicable before evening, 
when the fort was stormed with the 
loss of only 1 European and 2 Sipdhls 
killed. The Zaminddr and his mother 
were then handed over to the tender 
mercies of the Niiwdb, who did not 
fail to treat them so that their enemies 
pitied them. The fate of the other 
Marava chief was still more disastrous. 
Having concluded a treaty with the 
Niiwdb, he was reposing in fancied 
security when, owing to some mistake, 
the English advanced against him, and 
put him and his followers to the sword. 
In 1790 Mr. McCleod was appointed 
Collector on the part of the E. I. C, 
and the barony now pays a tribute of 
331,565^ rs. to the Madras government. 

Rdnmdd is a curious and interesting 
place, but it is infamous for outbreaks 
of cholera, caused by the filthy habits 
of the pilgrims who pass through to 
Rdmeshwaram. The traveller will do 
well to see whatever there is of interest 
and pass on to Rdmeshwaram. Among 
the noticeable things is the Zamlnddr's 
Palace, which consists of 4 square 
buildings of several storeys, standing 
in the centre of the town. It is an an- 
cient structure, ornamented with carv- 
ings of gods and statuettes in niches 
at every comer. The Darbdr, or 
audience hall, in the centre of a small 
court, is of massive stone, with pillaxs 
of the same. It is a gloomy building, 
now going to decay. There is also in 
the centre of the town a very sacred 
pagoda which deserves a visit. 

The best way of going from Madura . 
to Rdmndd is by pdlkl. The road is 
bad, and in some places heavy with 
sand, and the tedium of going by bul- 
lock-cart is almost intolerable. At 
Rdmndd the Asst. Coll. has a house, 
where he always keeps servants, 
whether he himself be there or not. 
From Rdmndd the traveller can go in 
one night to Mandapam, which is on the 
coast facing Pdmbam, and at Pdmbam 
he will find an empty b. with 1 chair 
and a table. Tha TOL'&&\jet ^s^XssxjSyaxsi^. 

can obtam «cl '^"ctcieiK^^^Q^ J^^^^^ 

230 Soute 9, — Madura to Rdmndd and Rdmeshwaram, Sect. II. 

he can get ponies to take him the 6 m. 
to RAmeshwaram, where there is an 
empty stone mandapam, which is used 
by European officers. From Pdmbam 
the best course, in Jan. or Feb., 
would be to take a boat to Tutikorin, 
which, with a favourable wind, would 
be only one night's run. A bi- 
monthly steamer touches at Pdmbam 
and goes to Colombo. 

There are several places of miner 
importance near Rdmndd. Killa- 
kar^iaif or XillaJiareiy is a seaport 9 m. 
to the S.W. of it, with 11,303 inhabit- 
ants, many of them Muslims employed 
in manufactures. It [is supposed by 
Prof. H. H. Wilson to be the site of 
Kurkhi, the ancient residence of the 
Pdndyan kings of Madura. This is 
denied by Mr. Taylor, the epitomizer 
of the Mackenzie MSS. There are 
11 Makbarahs of Muhammadan saints 
who have died here. One that stands 
in the centre is very elegant, and has a 
gilt cupola. A small Catholic church 
stands on the E. skirts of the town, 
and near it are the ruins of the Dutch 

Another seaport, Bevipatnam, is 

known by the name of the "nine 

stones," from the circumstance of a 

natural bath formed by 9 rocks, which 

has been held sacred from the most 

remote antiquity. This bath must be 

visited by all pilgrims on their way to 

Rdmeshwaram. At a handsome cJid- 

wadi built there for travellers, alms 

are bestowed daily. DeviJtuta, on the 

N. b. of the Verashelagdr r., is a 

populous village and one of the most 

important places in the district, on 

account of its trade and the wealthy 

merchants who reside there. These 

- . live meanly, but distribute large sums 

/ in charity. They salute their superiors 

/ by rubbing their hands upon their 

j stomachs. Mutajf^t is a fishing-vil- 

^ lage 10 m. S.E. of Rdmndd, inhabited 

by Catholics. Here are 2 b. erected 

on the sea-shore for Europeans who 

desire to inhale the sea breeze. At 

Atankarai, a small seaport 11 m. E. of 

Bdmndd, at the mouth of the Vaigiir, 

js a spacious chdwadi^ b. by the late 

^amlnddr, where alma are daily dis- 

tnb^ted to pilgrims. Here grows the 

best tobacco in the S. provinces. 
VerashvleUj a village on the S. bank 
of the Ki'^damdnadi r., N.W. of 
Rdmndd, is said to have been the 
residence of the Chola Rdjds, from 
whom it derived its name. On its N. 
stands a small Hindil temple of great 
antiquity, and there are ruins of many 
other edifices in the vicinity. 

Tirnm2)allairh is a populous village 
6 m. S. of Rdmndd, and one of the 
very sacred places in Hindii worship. 
The temple is on the E. of the village, 
and a rectangular tank is in front of it. 
There is a Mandapam on stone pillars 
close to the gate of the temple, and 
one on the E. of the tank. A high 
stone wall surrounds the temple. The 
main street of Tirumpallam is 2 f . long 
and 40 ft. wide. The S. and E. streets 
are inhabited by Brdhmans, the N. and 
W. by the servants of the temple and 
other Hindiis. The deity of this pagoda 
is Jaganndth, whose festivals are in 
April and July. Pilgrims who visit 
the temple at Rdmeshwaram must, 
after bathing in the sea, first come to 
worship at Tirumpallam, 

Rdmeshwaram, — But the place of 
most interest in the eyes of the Hindii, 
and that which confers sanctity not 
only on Rdmndd, but on all the ad- 
jacent country, is Rdmeshwaram. The 
town stands on an island of the same 
name, 14 m. in length from W. to E., 
and 5 m. in breadth from N. to S., 
divided from the main land by the 
Pdmbam or Snake Channel, which is 
now 1 m. broad, with a passage for 
ships clear of rocks, 90 ft. wide and 
10^ ft. deep, so that keeled vessels of a 
small size can pass through in either 
direction without delay and without 
discharging cargo. The island is said 
to have been joined to the mainland, 
and to have been separated from it in 
1484 A.D., during the reign of Achu- 
dappa Ndyakkam, Rdjd of Madura, 
by a violent storm. A small breach 
was then made, but the water was 
so shallow that it could be passed on 
foot till the time of the next Rdjd 
Vishvaxada Ndyakkam, when another 
humcaTHi etAai^e,d the passage, which 
"went ou rn'Ot'emxi^ VsJCb. ^^.^^iftsjsv??^ 

Sect. II. 

Houte 9. — Rdmeshwaram, 


larged by the Dutch, when they pos- 
sessed the island. But the greatest im- 
provements have been made since 1830 
by the British Government. Previously 
to this the passage was excessively 
crooked, hence its name Pdmbam, 
" snake-like," and the depth at high- 
water and neap-tides was only about 
5 ft., so that boats without keels, even 
after discharging most of their cargo, 
would be often days in getting through 
when the current was strong. Since 
1837 the passage has been dredged, 
and more than £15,000 has been ex- 
pended upon it. The result of this 
expenditure has been an increase in 
the traffic, and whereas the tonnage 
of vessels that passed through in 1822 
was 17,000 tons, in 1853 it rose to 
160,000 tons, and has since then further 
increased. Vessels of 200 tons have 
passed, and even the war steamers 
I^lnto and Nemesis, and freight be- 
tween Colombo and Nagapatnam 
has been proportionately reduced. At 
the W. extremity of the island of 
Edmeshwaram is the small town of 
P^imbam in lat. 9** 37', long. 79° 17', 
inhabited chiefly by Labbays, who are 
pilots and boatmen, and about 60 of 
them divert. 

The Payoda, the great object of 
interest, stands at the E. end of the 
town of Edmeshwaram, which is at 
the E. extremity of the island. This 
pagoda of Edmeshwaram (from Skr. 
Rdmah and Tshwar, God) completes 
the Hindil's circle of pilgrimage, which, 
commencing with the Temple of 
Devi at Hingldj, a little to the W. of 
Sonmidni in Sindh, proceeds to Jwdla 
Mukhl (Flame-mouth), near Ldhiir, 
and thence to Haridwdr and down 
the Ganges to Orissa, and finishes at 
Edmeshwaram at the S. extremity of 
India. At p. 365 of Mr. Fergusson's 
" History of Architecture," will be 
found an account of this celebrated 
temple, with a plan at p. 356 taken 
fi'om the Journal of the Geo. Society 
of Bombay, vol. vii. The dimen- 
sions of the temple, according to 
that plan, are 672 ft. from N. to S., 
and 868 ft. from E. to W., from the 
outer wal2, which is 20 it. high. The 
^4 W&l} 18 3ijft, trojxx ^, to g, ^not 

447 as stated on the plan), and 560 ft. 
from E. to W. This 2nd wall is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade 690 ft. long 
from E. to W. and CO ft. broad. The 
entrance is on the W., under the only 
finished gopura, which is 100 ft. high, 
and the visitor will see in the garden 
on his rt. after entering, what is 
said to be "a small vimdnah of very 
elegant proportions." This is called 
Krishnapuram in the more recent plan 
in possession of the author of this 
Handbook, and appears to be rather a 
Mandapam than a Vimdnah. In the 
author's plan the dimensions differ 
somewhat from those in Mr. Fergus- 
son's. According to the former the 
length of the outer wall from E. to W, 
is 876 ft. instead of 868 ft., and 615 ft. 
from N. to S. instead of 672 ft. In 
Pharoah's Gazetteer the dimensions 
of the external wall are stated at 667 ft. 
from N. to S., and nearly 1000 ft. from 
E. to W. The 3rd temple yard, that 
is the one next to the outer enclosure, 
is 702 ft. from E. to W., and 405 ft. 
from N. to S. After passing the 
Kyi^hnapuram, you pass on the rt. a 
tank called the Mddhava Pushpa Kdrini 
or Mddhava's Flower Tank, Mddhava 
being a name of Kyishna. On the 1. 
you have a small chapel called Setu 
Mddhava Swdmi Koil. The entrance 
to the actual lower temple is on the 
S. and E. sides. Going now round by 
the street in which the cars of the 
deities go in procession, until you 
arrive at the outer E. entrance, you 
find 2 entrances, a central one which 
is called Swdmi Samati or proscenium 
of the deity's temple, and one on the 
1. which is called Amma Samati or 
proscenium of the goddess his consort's 
temple. Between is the porch of the 
8 Lakhshmls, and on the rt. is Hanu- 
mdn's chapel. By the centre en- 
trance you emerge into the Anuppa 
Mandapam or hall, where different 
deities meet, with a granary on the 
rt. and Lakshmi's temple on the 
1., and between the god and his 
consort's room, what is called Mahd 
Lakshmi Tirtham, a small tank, the 
sacred Y^afces ol \i!)J&.^KKi\., "^^et ^sJvfc- 
chamber \s e^\&vi >Owi ^^^sasw^^'s^ 

232 Route 9. — Madura to Rdmndd and Rdineshwaram, Sect. II. 

W. end to Vigneshwara, while W. of 
the Anuppa Mandapam are 2 chapels 
to Subrahmanya. Passing then an 
inner enclosure you arrive at a central 
tower or gopura, which is called the 
Motta Gopura, and is unfinished, while 
one on the 1. is called the Mangala 
Gopura, also unfinished. You are now 
in the colonnade of pillars which is in 
the plan now imder notice, 702 ft. from 
E. to W. and 405 ft. from N. to S., 
without counting the corridor at the 
entrance and an inner rectangle. It 
is one of the most remarkable struc- 
tures of the kind in India. It extends 
from the W. entrance to the 2nd wall, 
which it quite surrounds, and thus 
altogether attains the length of nearly 
4000 ft. The doorways are 19ft. high, 
and composed of single stones fixed 
perpendicularly and crossed by other 
single stones. According to the " Ga- 
zetteer of S. India," p. 391, the length 
of the colonnade from E. to W. is 
671 ft. and from N. to S. 383 ft., and 
the breadth 17 ft. The ceiling is of 
vast slabs of granite, with pillars of 
the same material 12 ft. high, raised 
on a platform 5 ft. high, so that the 
height of the colonnade is about 17 ft. 
llie pillars are all of single blocks of 
the hardest granite, and are in the 
principal conidors richly carved. In 
the central corridor leading from the 
sanctuary are effigies of the Rdjds of 
Bdmndd of the 17th century, to which 
date Mr, Fergusson assigns the temple, 
which he thinks may have been com- 
menced a little earlier, in 1650. There 
are. altogether 5 gopuras, of which 
that on the W. is the only one finished. 
It is about 100 ft. high. On the E. 
are 2 gopuras, and all 6 are built of 
stone, a unique case in Pagoda archi- 
tectui'e. Mr. Fergusson says ("His- 
tory of Architecture," p. 355), " If it 
were proposed to select one temple 
which should exhibit all the beauties 
of the Dravidean style in their greatest 
perfection, and at the same time ex- 
emplify all its characteristic defects 
of design, the choice would almost 
inevitably fall on that of Rdmesh- 
The legend to which the sanctity of 
H^mcjsUwaram ia due \a f^ fojlov^s ; 

Vishnu became incarnate for the 7th 
time as the son of Dasaratha, the King 
of Ayodhya, for the purpose of des- 
troying the giant demon Rdvana, who 
was King of Lanka or Ceylon. Wan- 
dering ill the forest of Dandaka (so 
says the S. Indian tradition), in the S. 
of India, Rdma lost his wife Sitd, who 
was carried off to Lanka by Rdvana. 
Rdma pursued the ravisher, attended 
by the devotees, who assumed the shape 
of monkeys. Their general, Hanuman , 
made a bridge of rocks from India to 
Ceylon at Rdmeshwaram, by which 
Rdma crossed, slew Rdvana and re- 
covered his bride. But when he 
returned he was observed to have 2 
shadows, a sign of sin of the deepest 
dye. This was because Ravana was 
of the race of Brdhma, and Rama took 
counsel with the divine sages to dis- 
cover some means of expiating his 
crime. They advised him to build a 
temple and confine Shiva there in a 
lingam or phallus, which is the em- 
blem of that deity. Rama built the 
temple, and sent Hanuman to Kailas, 
the heaven of Shiva, to get a lingam. 
As he was a long time in returning, 
and the hour for dedicating the temple 
was approaching, Rdma induced his 
wife, Sitd, to model a phallus of the 
white sand on the sea coast. This she 
did, and Rdma set up the phallus so 
moulded in the temple, which was 
forthwith dedicated to Shiva. Mean- 
time Hanumdn returned with another 
phallus, and was so angry at being 
forestalled, that he endeavoured to 
pull up the other lingam, and broke 
his tail in the effort to twist it out. 
Hereupon Shiva and his consort ap- 
peared from the lingam and said to 
Rdma, "Who ever visits this lingam 
dedicated by thee, and bathes in the 
24 sacred bathing-places, shall be freed 
from sin and inherit heaven." Then, 
to console Hanuman, Rdma placed 
the lingam he had brought on the N. 
side of the one which had been al- 
ready fixed, and ordained that pilgrims 
should visit it first and then Rdma's 
lingam. Such are the monstrous and 
impure fables of this locality. 



Houle 10. — Mais&r Provinee. 


ROUTE 10. 

1st CL., 17 BB.) 

•jUi u a 3 


Af tec leaving JoUrp t the Ime mas 
m a N.W. direction, auil at 14J m. 
from Kupam entera the territory of 
the Biijd of MaJBiir, and at aboat 10 
m. further on turns dnc W. to Ben- 
galiir. Maisilr, from Hahish-ZUiira 
the buffalo-headed demon slain by the 
{ Consort of Shiva, vi'orehipped by the 
\ royal family of Maieiir as their tate- 
I lary divinity, under the name of 
Chimundi or Mahishilsura Mardini. 
I It is a table land of triangular shapo, 
between 11° 38' and 15° 3' N. lat., and 
74° 43" and 78° 3G' E. long. Ita area 
is 27,078 sq. m., bo that it is about ,tth 
emaller than Bavaria. From E. to W. 
its greatest length is 290 m., and from 
N. to B. 330 m. It is surrounded on 
all sides by the British dominions of 
the Madras Presidency, except for 
some distance on the W^ where a part 
of the Bombay Presidency and Kurg 
form its boundaiy. Its eleTa,tioii 
ranges from 2000 to 3000 ft. above 
the sea, but its surface is broken by- 
deep ravines, and by hills which reach 
from 4000 to 6000 ft., most of whieh 
have been fortified, and in general are 
supplied at the summit with unfailing 
springs of water. It is divided into 
2 parts, of wbicb that to the W. is ' 
paUcd Maliidd, "bill countrj," from 

Kan. JUah " hiU," nd^a "coimtry." 
The K. frontier from Bhikftrpiir to 
Periyapatamis called jl/iiiif(ii( oiSail- 
«7i!iii^, open country. The main rivers 
within the provinces are (see Lewis 
Kice's Gaietteer, vol. i.) : — 









lliere arc o natural lakes m Maisiir, 
i i8i tanks The largest is the 
S Inkere 40 m n circumference. The 
h ghest mountam s Doddabett, 8600 
ft and Mulama gin fi3I7 and Nandi 
durgn 4810 come next 

For the dynast es and Itdj4s who 
have ruled over Maisdr sec (.hionologi- 
cal Tables. It la only necessary to add 

embassy to the Court of Aurangilb, 
wuich set out that year, and found 
the Emperor at Ahmadnagar, and re- 
turned in 1700, hringii^ a new signet 
from him with the title Jag Deo Edj, 
"sovereign of the worid," with- per- 
mission to sit on an ivoiy throne. 
Ibe Bilj& reformed bis administration 
on that of the Imperial Court, and 
every day put aside out of his revenue 
3 bags of 1000 pagodas each, as a 
reserve fund. He thus acquired the 
title of Navokoto NirAyana, " Lord 
of nine millions." He died m 1704, 
after a reign of 31 years. He was 
succeeded by his son Kanthirava R&}&, 
called Miik arasu, "deaf and dumb." 
To him succeeded Dod^a Krishna 
K&jii, who was obliged to buy ofi with 
a million, an attack made on him by 
Sa'aditii'llAb Khdu. the Niiw^bs of 
Kadapa, Kamul and SavanUr and the 
Mai'iitha chief of Gutti. His successors 
were Ch4ma RAji, and ttien Venkat 
Aiadu, but all power was in the hands 
of the minister T>«^a.'^.ife.\*i-«i*-^™i*' 


EoiUe 10. — Madras to BengaMr, 

Sect. II. 

of ArkAt. The latter in 1746 made a 
Buccessful expedition into Koimbatiir, 
and on his return his daughter 
was married to the nominal Rdjd of 
Maisiir. In 1749, the forces of Maisili* 
besieged Devanhalli, and were joined 
by a volunteer, who was destined to 
rise to the throne. This was Haidar 
'AH, who came with a small body of 
horse and foot under his elder brother 
ShAhbdz. ^laldar was the great-grand- 
son of Muhammad Bahlol, who came 
from the Panjdb to Kalbarga. His 
son Muhammad 'All and Muhammad 
Wall came to Sird, and were employed 
as customs officers. They removed to 
Koldr, where the elder died, and the 
younger turned the widow and her 
son out of doors. A Ndyak of peons 
took them in at Koldr and got the 
son, Fath Muhammad, made a 
peon. He distinguished himself at 
the siege of Ganjikota, and was made 
a NAyak, but migrated to Arkdt, 
taking with him 50 horse and 1400 
foot. He next entered the service of 
the FaujdAr of Chittiir, and on his 
recall returned to Maisiir, and was 
made Faujddr of Koldr, and the estate 
of Budikot was bestowed on him. At 
Budikot, Sh4hb4z was born to him, 
and in 1722, Haidar by a 3rd wife, 
the daughter of a NawAit, that is, an 
Arab recently arrived from Arabia. 
At Koldr, Fath Muhammad built a 
mausoleum and interred there his 1st 
wife, and in 1729 having been killed 
with his eldest son by his 1st wife, in 
a battle between the Siibahddr of Sird 
and the Faujddr of Chittilr, he was 
himself interred there. Here, Haidar 
when only 7 years old, and his brother 
Shdhbdz aged 9, were tortured by 
*Abbds Kull the son of the Siibahddr. 
At the siege of Devanhalli, Haidar 
behaved so well, that the charge 
of one of the gates was entrusted 
to him, with the command of 80 horse 
and 200 foot. He was next sent to 
attend on Nd§ir jang ^libahddr of 
the Dakhan, and when Nd§ir was 
killed, Gaidar secured 2 camel-loads 
of gold coins, 300 horses, and 500 
muskets. In 1751 , Muhammad *AU 
asked aid of Maisiir, and Nanja R6.36. 
nmrcbed to assist Mm with 6000 Uoxse 

and 10,000 foot, lent a million of 
pagodas to Muhammad 'Ali, who had 
promised him Trichindpalli, and re- 
turned empty handed. Before he 
could reach Shrirangpatnam, Saldbat- 
jang, the Nizdm, had extorted from 
Deva Rdjd all the money that could 
be collected in the city. Haidar was 
now made Faujddr of Dindigal, and 
had raised the troops under his com- 
mand to 1500 horse, 3000 regular in- 
fantry, 2000 peons, and 4 guns. In 
1757, the Mardthas invaded Maisiir, 
and extorted all the money that could 
be collected, and the Maisiir army 
mutinied and demanded their arrears. 
Haidar was appointed liquidator, and 
he distributed all the Rdjd's property, 
and as soon as he had got rid of the 
main body of the mutineers, he seized 
their ringleaders and confiscated their 
effects. Soon afterwards he murdered 
his rival Hari Singh, and obtained the 
fort and district of Bengaliir as his 
personal jdgir. In 1759, Haidar staved 
off a Mardtha invasion in great force 
under Gopdl Hari, and received the 
title of Fath Haidar Bahddur. Mean- 
time, Deva Rdj had died, and in 1759, 
Haidar expelled Nanja Rdjd from the 
capital, and became sole minister. On 
the 4th of June, 1760, Haidar con- 
cluded a treaty at Puducheri with the 
French, with the object of expel- 
ling the English from Arkdt, and his 
forces under Makbdiim 'AH gained a 
victory at Trivadi on the 17th of July. 
But a plot was now formed against 
Haidar by the Rdjd of Maisiir 's mother 
and Khand6 Rdo, Haidar's secretary, 
which nearly resulted in his destruc- 
tion. He was encamped with a small 
force under the guns of the fort, when 
they suddenly opened upon him on 
the 12th of August, 1760, on which 
day Visaji Pant, a Mardtha leader, had 
engaged to attack him with 6000 horse. 
Visaji, however, failed to arrive, and 
Gaidar escaped from the Mahdnavam 
Mandapam, now the Daryd Daulat, 
across the river with a few men, leav- 
ing behind his wife and his eldest son 
Tlpii, then 9 years old. Haidar rode 
75 m. on. one horse, and arrived at 

Sect. IL 

Soute 10. — MauHr Province, 


gency Qaidar saved himself by baying 
off the Mardthas, by the cession of the 
B^amahal and a payment of Rs. 
300,000. They went off at once, the 
real secret of their sudden retreat being, 
that the news of the terrible slaughter 
of the great Mardtha army at Panipat 
had arrived. Haidar on learning what 
had happened, retained Bdramahal, 
and marched against Khand^ Bdo, but 
was heavily defeated at Nanjangod. 
He then with 200 horse went off to 
Nanja Bdjd at Konaniir and made his 
submission with such well-feigned 
penitence that Nanja pardoned him, 
and put out all his strength in sup- 
porting him. His danger was, how- 
ever, still extreme, for Khand6 Rdo 
was marching to attack him with a 
far superior force, when Haidar by an 
astonishing stratagem retrieved his 
fortunes. He fabricated letters with 
the seal of Nanja, calling on the 
chief officers of Khand^'s army to 
deliver him up as agreed upon. He 
contrived that these letters should fall 
into Khand^'s hands, and they so 
alarmed him, that he mounted his horse 
and fled to Shrirangpatnam. Haidar 
then attacked his bewildered troops 
and put them to flight, taking all the 
guns and baggage. Haidar now pre- 
vailed on the Rdjd, to whom Khand6 
had fled, to deliver him up, promising 
to do him no harm. The expression 
he used was, that he would treat him 
like a parrot, which in the idiom of 
the country, meant that he would be 
very kind to him. Haidar, however, 
performed his promise literally and 
put the traitor in a cage, in which he 
died, as Cardinal Balue in the cage in 
which Louis XI. confined him. Thus 
in June, 1761, he became the virtual 
ruler of Maisiir, and in that year he 
made a treaty with Basdlat jang, the 
younger brother of Ndsir jang and 
Saldbat jang, who invested him with 
the office of Niiwdb of Sird, with the 
title of Gaidar 'All Khdn BahAdur, 
and Bah^ur was the name by which 
amongst the people of India he was 
afterwards generally known. Uniting 
his troops to those of Basdlat jang, 
^aidar then took Hoskot, Dod Baldp^r 
find then SIrd, PursuiDg his career 

of conquest he captured Ohik Baldpiir, 
defeated MurAri R6o, and took from 
him Eodikonda, Penkonda, and Ma- 
daksira, and received the submission 
of the PAlegdrs of Raidurg, Harpanalli, 
and Chitaldurg. At the end of Janu- 
ary, 1763, he entered the province of 
Bedniir, and took the capital^f the same 
name, where he is said to have secured 
12,000,000 rs. By this victory IJaidar 
established his power. He resolved to 
make Bedni!Lr his capital, and changed 
its name to Haidar-nagar. He com- 
menced a splendid palace, which was 
never finished, established a mint and 
coined Haidari and Bah&duri pagodas 
in his own name. He also constructed 
on the W. coast a dockyard and naval 
arsenal. A conspiracy was formed 
against him by the former officials of 
Bedniir, but he discovered it, and exe- 
cuted 300 of the conspirators. In 
December Haidar annexed the hill 
country of Sunda, and was joined by 
Rdjd 'All, son of Chandd Sdhib. He 
now tried to appease the Nizdm and 
the Peshwd, but failed with the latter, 
who advancing with an Immense army 
defeated Haidar at Rattihalli, and 
again at Anavatti, and finally shut 
him up in Bedniir, where he was 
obliged to cede all the places he had 
taken from Murdri R4o of Gutti and 
'Abdu'l Hakim of Savamir, and to pay 
3,200,000 rs. In 1766 he conquered 
Malabdr, and defeated 15,000 Narrs, of 
whom all but 200 perished. Chikka 
Krishna, the nominal Rdj4 of Maisi!ir, 
was now dead, and Haidar ordered his 
son Nanja to be installed but after- 
wards dethroned him. The Mardthas 
and Niijam 'All now prepared a joint 
invasion of Maisiir, but Haidar suc- 
ceeded in getting rid of the former by 
paying 35 Idkhs, and persuaded the 
latter to join him in a campaign 
against the English. Their imited 
armies descended the Ghdts on the 
25th of August, 1767, and surprised 
Col. Smith, who, however, defeated 
them at Trinomali on the 26th of Sep- 
tember. Tipii, who was only 17, had 
penetrated to the very environs of 
Madiaa,\rai\. oTL\kSKM>L'^'2Jt\iv^^si^^ 
deiea\. lexoVftfe^ \^aD. ^^^ ^^ ^'^^.^ 


Route \0,^^Madra8 to Bengalur. 

Sect. IL 

anbMi, but was repulsed from Ambiir, 
and in an attack on an English detach- 
ment, where his horse was shot under 
him and a bullet passed through his 
turban. The Nijidm now made peace 
with the English, and returned to 
Haidardbdd, while Haidar retook from 
the English Mangaliir, HonAwar, and 
Basavardjadurg, which had fallen to 
their arms. The English on the other 
hand took Salem, Yirod, Koimbatiir, 
and Dindigal, and Mulbagal, Koldr, 
and Hosiir, above the Ghdts, and were 
joined by Murdri RAo. Haidar making 
a circuit reached Guramkonda and 
persuaded its chief, Mir Sdhib, to 
return to his allegiance. He then 
descended to Koimbatiir and treacher- 
ously captured the garrisons of Yirod 
and Kav^ripiiram, and sent them to 
Shrirangpatnam, Finally, hearing that 
the Mardthas were preparing to invade 
Maisiir, he sent back his main army, 
and with 6000 chosen horse galloped 
140 m. in 3i days, and appeared before 
Madras, where, on the 29th of March, 
1769, he made peace with the English 
on condition of an interchange of pri- 
soners, mutual restitution of conquered 
districts, and assistance in defensive 
war. In 1770 Mddhava R6o again in- 
vaded Gaidar's dominions, and made 
great progress, when the Peshwd fell 
ill, and was obliged to return to Puna, 
leaving the command to Trimbak 
MAm4, who totally defeated Haidar at 
Chinkurali on the 5th of March, 1771. 
^aidar fled to Shrirangpatnam, which 
was besieged, and he was obliged in 
June, 1772, to bind himself to pay 30 
Idkhs of rs., J at once, and to leave 
Koldr, Hoskot, Dod Bdlapiir, Slrd, 
Madgirl, Chanraidurg and Guram- 
kon(&,in the hands of the Marathas, as 
a pledge for the rest. Between Septem- 
ber, 1773, and November, 1774, Haidar 
recovered all the territory he had lost. 
The nominal Rdji of Maisiir now died, 
and Haidar is said to have put all the 
male children of the Rdjd's family into 
a hall filled with sweetmeats and toys, 
and to have selected, as successor to 
ihc throne, a hoy who picked up a 
dagg-erand a lime. '' TMs is the Rdid," 
said Haidar; ^^bis&rst thought is of 
/i/^s, and his second of the prodxiQe of 

the country." Haidar, at this time, 
was joined by a body of 1000 Persians 
from Shirdz, and sent for more, but 
the climate did not suit them, and his 
letter miscarried. Haidar's next ex- 
ploit was the defeat of Basdlat jang's 
army, which was besieging Balldri, 
and the capture of the place for him- 
self. He then attacked Gutti, which 
he captured with all its dependencies, 
and took Murdri Rdo prisoner, whom he 
sent first to Shrirangpatnam and then 
to Kabbal-durg, where he died. In 
1775 Raghundth Rdo, who had been 
acting as Peshwd, was obliged to fly to 
Surat, where, on the 6th of March, he 
made a treaty with the English, who 
supported him, and with Haidar, in- 
viting the latter to overrun the dis- 
tricts of Savaniir, which was immedi- 
ately done. In 1777 the Marathas 
and the army of Nizdm 'All under 
Ibrahim Bey Dhousa invaded Haidar's 
territory, but he bribed ofE the latter 
and induced Mdnajl Phdkre, a distin- 
guished general of the Mardtha army , to 
engage to desert to him. Hari Pant the 
Mardtha general in chief, discovering 
this treachery, attacked Mdnaji's divi- 
sion, 10,000 strong, and swept them off 
the field, but he was so weakened by 
this encounter that he was obliged to 
retreat. Mdndji had cut his way 
through to Haidar, but with only 30 
men, the rest being destroyed, and 
Haidar now reduced all the country 
between the Krishna and Tunga- 
bhadra. In 1779 he captured Chital- 
durg after a siege of 2 years, and 
deported 20,000 of the inhabitants to 
Shrirangpatnam. He then captured 
Kadapa, and escaped a night attack of 
80 Afghdns by slitting a hole in the 
curtain of the tent, leaving a bolster in 
his bed, which the assailants hacked to 
pieces. In the morning the Afghdns, 
who had been over})owered, were 
crushed under the feet of elephants or 
had their hands and feet cut off, and 
so perished miserably. On the 27th of 
May, 1779, he took Sidhdwat or Sid- 
hout, and married the daughter of 
'Abii'l Hallm Khan, the Niiwdb, who 
"became \,\i<& \ie.'a.d of his seraglio 
as Ba\Mai "Bi^asQ.. Ixi >i)DSs. ^^"ox ^vi 

Sect. IL 

SoiUe 10. — Mais'dr Province. 


which offended 9aidar, who received 
supplies from Mauritius by that port, 
and had declared it to be under his 
protection. He was also angry because 
the English had marched through the 
territory of Kadapa without his per- 
mission. He, therefore, resolved on 
war, treated Mr. Gray, the English 
envoy, with studied disrespect, and in 
July, 1780, descended the Ghdts to 
invade the Karndtik, with 90,000 men. 
The operations were guided by French 
officers, and the commissariat was 
managed by Pilmaiya, Minister of 
Finance. Karlm Khdn, Haidar's second 
son, plimdered Porto Novo, while the 
main army advanced on Madras, deso- 
lating the country from Pulikat to 
Puducheri, over a tract from 30 to 50 
m. wide. The smoke of burning 
villages was seen from St. Thomas's 
Mount, and crowds of mutilated pea- 
sants poured into the capital. At this 
time Col. Baillie's's column, consisting 
of the flank companies of the 73rd 
Regt., 2 companies of European grena- 
diers, 1 company of Sipdhl marksmen, 
10 companies of Sipahi grenadiers 
under Col. Fletcher, and 2000 Slpdhis 
and 1.50 Europeans, which formed Bail- 
lie's original force, in all about 3800 men 
was cut to pieces, excepting 200 Euro- 
peans who were made prisoners. A 
painting of the battle still remains on 
the walls of the Palace of Shrlrangpat- 
nam to this day. Arcot was taken by 
Haidar, who ravaged Tanjiii* and 
swept away crowds of the inhabitants, 
and immense herds of cattle. Sir Eyre 
Coote had taken the command of the 
English forces in January, 1781, and 
in June met with a repulse at ChUam- 
bram and retired to Porto Novo. 
Haidar then marched 100 m. in 2^ 
days, and placed himself between the 
English army and Gudaliir. But here 
Haidar's triumph ended. On the 1st 
of July he was defeated in a pitched 
battle near Porto Novo, and a second 
time on the 27th of August, after a 
combat which raged for 8 hours, at 
Pallilur. These reverses were fol- 
lowed, on the 27th of September, by 
the English victory of Sholingarh. 
Some indecisire engagements followed 
in operations conducted by Tlpii, but 

on the 7th of December, 1782, IJaidar 
died, aged 60 ; Tipii, who was then 
at Panidni on the W. coast, joined his 
main army between Ami and VeMr on 
the 2nd of January, 1783. On the 16th 
of February General Matthews had 
captured Bedniir, having previously 
taken Hondwar and Mangaliir, with 
booty to the value of nearly 3,000,000, 
but was invested in Bedniir bv Tlpii 
on the 9th of April. On the 30th he 
capitulated, and the garrison, officers 
and men, were sent off in irons to 
Shrirangpatnam. Tlpii now advanced 
on MangalAr, and invested it on the 
4th of May, 1783. The siege lasted 
till the 30th of January, 1784, when 
Tipii allowed the gamson to i*etire to 
Telicheri. On the 11th of March, 1785, 
peace was concluded between Tipii 
and the English, on the condition of 
the release of prisoners and the resti- 
tution of conquests. In 1786 Tlpii put 
down a revolt in Kurg and assumed 
the title of Bddshdh. In October, 
1785 Tipii captured Nirgund and soon 
afterwards Kittiir. This led to his 
being attacked by the Mardthas under 
Hari Pant and the Ni^jam's troops 
under Tahauwur jang in 1786, who 
captured Baddmi. Peace was made 
in 1787, by which Tipii bound himself 
to pay 45 Idkhs of rs., and surrender 
Baddmi, Adonl, Kittiir, and Nirgund. 
On returning to his capital he ordered 
the town and fort of Maisiir to be de- 
stroyed, and the city of Nazarabdd to 
be buUt in their place. In January, 
1788, Tipii descended to Kdllkot and 
thence moved to Koimbatiir and Din- 
digal, returned to Shrirangpatnam, 
where he reorganized his troops, and 
then descending to Malabdr imposed 
forcible conversion on the Nairs, the 
alternative being death. At this time 
Nizdm 'AH proposed an alliance with 
Tlpii, but the latter required that it 
should be preceded by an intermar- 
riage of the families, and this the Nizdm 
rejected. It is only right to add that 
the " History of the Nizdms," by Mir 
'Alam, does not record these circum- 
stances. Meantime, Tipi^ sent 2 em- 
bassies to Coiis\Xa\\\xva\\<5i wx^ X \55> 
Paris, He pio^o^a^ X^q ^^ '^xi^X^aacv \Rk 
give lam "J&.oEvsa^.tLi m e?LR)a«ja%^ Vss. 


Rovie 10. — Madras to Bengaliir, 

Sect. II. 

Ba^ra, and asked permission to dig a 
canal which would convey the waters 
of the Euphrates to Najaf. On the 
29th of December, 1789, Tipii's troops 
were repulsed with great loss from the 
lines which the Rdjd of Travankor 
had erected for the defence of his N. 
boundary. Tlpii himself, carried away 
by the rush of fugitives, fell in the 
ditch and was saved with difficulty, 
after losing his seals, rings, and orna- 
ments. In March, 1790, he carried the 
lines, and took the town of Travankor. 
On the 24:th of May General Meadows 
took command of a force which had 
assembled at Trichindpalli to act 
against Tlpii. In July an alliance was 
formed against him by the English, 
the Mardthas, and Nizam 'All, on the 
condition of an equal division of con- 
quests. The main army of the English 
was to capture the forts in Koimbatiir 
and Pdlghdt, and ascend to the table 
land of Maisiir, by the Gajalhatti 
Pass, while another division entered 
BAramahal. In September Tipii 
attacked General Floyd's detachment 
at Satyamangal, but after a severe 
struggle retired. While the English 
army was uniting, Tlpii retook Yirod 
and Dhdrapiiram. Tipii then carried 
the war into British territory, ad- 
vanced on Trichindpalli and plundered 
Shrlrangam. He then moved north- 
ward, and took Trinomali and Permak- 
oil, but was repulsed from Tyagarh. 
He applied to Louis XVI. for 6000 
men, and offered to pay their expenses, 
but Louis declined. On the 10th of 
December his army was totally de- 
feated in Malabdr, and the whole pro- 
vince fell into the hands of the English. 
On the 21st of March Lord Comwallis 
stormed Bengalilr. Tipii now put to 
death a number of English boys, and 
strangled or crushed under the feet of 
elephants Kp^hna RAo, one of his 
ministers, and all his brothers, besides 
other officers. Lord Comwallis moved 
N. to join the Niz4m's cavalry, and 
Tlpii placed himself on the Channapa- 
tam I'd. On the 13th of May Lord 
ComwnlMs moving unexpectedly by 
KanJkanbnllif arrived at Arikere, 9 m. 
^. of Sbrlrangpapmm. As the r. 
coaJd'not be passed at this point Lord 

Comwallis moved higher up to Kan- 
nambddi, where he was joined by 
General Abercromby, who had taken 
Periyapatam on the W., and was 
advancing from that direction. On 
the 15th of May a battle was fought 
in which the English drove Tlpii's 
army from their position between 
Karigatta and the r., and forced them 
into the island, but owing to the great 
mortality among the cattle, and sick- 
ness among the troops, Comwallis was 
obliged to retire to Bengaliir till the 
rains were over. Meantime the Mara- 
thas having taken Dharwdd and all 
the places N. of the Tungabhadra, 
made their appearance, and relieved 
the English troops by the supplies 
they brought. The Nizam's forces had 
taken Kopdl, BahMur Bandar, and 
Ganjikota. It was now settled that 
the English should operate to the E., 
the Nizam's troops to the N., and the 
Mardthas to the N.W. Between July, 
1791, and January, 1792, the English 
captured Hosiir, Rayakota, Nandidurg, 
and Savandurg, supposed till then im- 
pregnable, and Hatridurg, Ramgiri, 
Sivangiri, and Hulyiirdurg. The 
Mdrdthas took Hole Honmir, and de- 
feated the Maisiireans at Shimagu, but 
the division they left at Madgiri was 
routed by Kamru 'd din, and their 
garrison at Dod Bdlapiir retreated to 
Bengaliir. The English at Koimbjitiir 
were also forced to surrender, and 
were sent as prisoners to Shrlrang- 
patnam. On the 25th of January, 1792, 
Lord Comwallis marched with Sikan- 
dar jdh and a body of Mardthas under 
Hari Pant from Hulyiirdurg to besiege 
Shrirangpatnam, and General Aber- 
cromby, who had returned to Malabar 
in November, also moved to join Lord 
Comwallis on the- 22nd of January. 
On the 5th of February Lord Com- 
wallis took up a position 6 m. N. of 
the capital, and on the night of the 
6th he drove the Maisiir army from its 
position, and captured the suburb of 
Shahr Ganjdm. In the confusion 
10,000 men of Kurg deserted Tlpii. 
On the 16th General Abercromby 
pined the Governor-General, and on 
tVve i^nd ewNo^^ ^•c^^^^JtOcvc^Xs^ '^tl^u 
to svxe tor i^SkjCfc>yco\x^\.\i«*i)^^^xJ^iCv 

Sect. IL 

Eoute IQ.-^Mais'dr Province. 


matum. He was to cede half his domi- 
nions, pay 33,000,000 rs., release all 
his prisoners, and deliver up 2 of his 
sons as hostages. Thus the English 
obtaiued Malabdr, Kurg, Dindigal, and 
Baramahal, the Mardthas all the terri- 
tory adjoiniDg then* frontier up to the 
Tungabhadra, Kizam 'All all he for- 
merly possessed N. of that r., and 
Kadapa to the S. of it. In 1796 Chdma 
Rdjd, the nominal ruler, died, and 
Tlpii abolished the pageant of a Hindu 
King and appointed no successor to 
him. He despatched embassies to the 
Porte and to Kabul, and applied for 
aid to Arabia, Persia, Dihli, and, above 
all, to the French. In 1797 a French 
privateer was driven by a gale to the 
coast of MangaMr, and an adventm*er 
named Ripaud, who was on board, was 
sent up to Shrlrangpatnam, and in- 
duced Tlpii to send an embassy to the 
Isle of France to form a coalition 
against the English. The French 
government sent a copy of Tipii's 
letter to the Directory, and by procla- 
mation invited people to join him. In 
consequence, 94 Frenchmen arrived at 
Shrlrangpatnam and established there a 
Jacobin Club, in which the Sultan was 
enrolled as Citizen Tlpii. These pro- 
ceedings led to the final Maisiir war, 
which commenced on the 6th of March, 
1799, when Tipii attacked the Bombay 
column under General Stuart and was 
defeated. On the 27th of March 
General Harris with the main army 
defeated Tlpii at Malvalli, 24 m. E. of 
Shrlrangpatnam. On the 5th of April 
General Harris arrived on the spot 
occupied by Abercromby in 1792, and 
commenced the siege. On the 4th of 
May General Baird led the storming 
party of 4381 men against the W. 
angle of the Fort, ajid Tipii was shot 
by a grenadier at the gateway leading 
to the inner Fort. He was in his 47th 
year, and had reigned 17 years. A 
commission consisting of General 
Harris, Col. Ai'thur Wellesley, the 
Hon. H. Wellesley, Lieut.-Col. W. 
Kirkpatrick, and Lieut.-Col. Barry 
Close decided that a part of the 
Maisiir dominions should be made 
over to a descendant of the old 
jRdJds, while io the ^v/f'^m were 

assigned Gutti and Gnrramkonda, and 
all the country N. from Chitaldurg and 
Sird. To the Mardthas were tendered 
Harpanhalli, Simda, and Anagundi, 
and parts of Chitaldurg and Bedniir 
above the Ghdts on certain conditions, 
which not being accepted, the Eng- 
lish and the Nijjdm divided the terri- 
tory. The English also took all the 
districts below the Ghdts, between 
their territory and the E. and W. 
coasts and the island of Shrlrangpat- 
nam. The Nij^dm, however, had in 
1800 to cede to the British all the 
territory he had acquired in 1792 and 
1799, and in return a British force was 
quartered at Sikandardbdd, within 2 m. 
of his capital. In 1803 the British 
Government gave to Maisiir the dis- 
tricts of Holalkere, Mayakonda, and 
Harihar, and took Punganiir, Wyndd, 
Yelusairrasime and other places in 
exchange. The Rdjd of Maisiir was 
now a child, named Krishna Rdjd 
Wodey dr. His Minister was Pumaiya, 
who had been Finance Minister to 
Tlpii, Colonel Barry Close was the 
Resident, and Arthur Wellesley the 
General of Division. No wonder dis- 
turbances were soon quelled, that 20 
millions of rupees were amassed in the 
Treasury, and that in 1804 the Gover- 
nor-General recorded his opinion that 
" the affairs of the Government of 
Maisiir had been conducted with a 
degree of regularity, wisdom, discre- 
tion and justice unparalleled in any 
Native State in India." In 1811 the 
Rdjd, being about 16 years old, told 
the Resident he wished to govern for 
himself, on which Pumaiya resigned, 
and soon after died. In 1814 the 
Rdjd had dissipated the vast treasure 
accumulated by Pumaiya. He listened 
to worthless favourites, such as Venkat 
Subbaiya, a lute-player, and in 1817 
he engaged in some intrigues which 
offended the British. Offices were 
sold to the highest bidder, and the 
revenue was collected on the Shar(i 
system, that is by officers who engaged 
to reaUze a certain amount or make 
good the balance. In 1825 Sir T. 
Munro wamed lVv& ^^-^ \sv^vwa.. ^s^. 
1831 (\i8afi.Gc\.\oTi\ni?jv»- ^^ ^^"^ NXsj^. 


JRovte 10. — Madras to Bengalur, 

Sect. II. 

had commanded a body of cavalry 
under Haidar and Tlpii, was made 
Faujdar of Nagar and then Bakhshl or 
chief of the Cavalry Department. He 
filled up all vacant posts with his 
relatives. The Rdjd becoming suspi- 
cious, replaced him with a relative of his 
own, one Vlra RAj Arasu, who, finding 
that the revenue had been embezzled, 
reimposed it, and so excited discon- 
tent. The friends of Rama Rdo be- 
coming alarmed, espoused the cause 
of a pretender, one Budi Basavappa 
Nagur Khdvind, who claimed to be 
king of Bedmir. In 1830 and 1831 a 
revolt broke out, which compelled the 
British forces to be called out, and 
on the 12th of June they captured 
Bedmir, and so gave a death-blow to 
the insurrection ; but Lord "W. Bentinck, 
the Governor-General, resolved to put 
the province under the control of British 
officers, and appointed two Commis- 
sioners, and in April, 1834, one Com- 
missioner for the whole province, — 
Colonel, afterwards Sir Mark Cubbon. 
After June, 1832, the Commissioner 
became subordinate to the Supreme 
Government. Sir Mark Cubbon re- 
tained office till 1861, in April of which 
year he died at Suez, on his way to 
England. He was succeeded by Mr. 
Sanders, and then Mr. Bowring fol- 
lowed in Feb., 1862, and resigned in 
1870. His successor was Sir 'Richard 
Meade, who assumed charge in Feb., 
1870, and was called away in Oct., 
1873, for the trial of the GaekwM. 
The RAjd resided at Maisiir till his 
death, which took place in 1868. He 
had adopted in June, 1865, a child 
connected with his house, named 
ChAma Rdjendra, who was enthroned 
on the 23rd Sept. 1868. 

In Maisiir there are 3 grand divi- 
sions or provinces, which, taking them 
from N.W. to S.E., are Nagar D., 
Ashtagrdm D., Nandidurg D. Nagar 
Division contains 3 districts : Shim6ga, 
or Shivam6ga, Kadiir, Chitaldurg, or 
Chitradurg. In Ashtagram D. there 
are 2 districts, Maisiir and Hdsan. In 
Nandidurg Division there are 3 Dis- 
tncts: Bengaliir, Koldr, TumkiJiT. 
Taking them in tbeir order from N.W. 
to S.M, we begin with Sliim6ga. This 

district lies between 13° 35' and 14*' 14 
N. lat., and 73° 40^ and 75° 55' E. long. 
From E. to W. its greatest length is 
153 m. From N. to S. it measures 
74 m. Its area is 3,797 sq. m., with a 
pop. of 498,976 persons, or 131 '4 to 
the sq. m. The Hindiis are 93*86 of 
the pop., the Muslims 5*13, the Jains 
•82, the Cliristians '19, and there is 
one Pdrsl. There are 8 T'aluks : Chen- 
nagiri, Honndli, Kaval^durga, Nagar, 
Sdgar, Shikdrpiir, Shivam6ga, S6rab. 
It is bounded on the N. by Dhdrwdd, 
and on the W. by N. Kanara, both be- 
longing to the Bombay Presidency. To 
the E. it has Chitradurg district, and 
to the S. Kadiir district. The princi- 
pal rivers are the Shardvatl on the W., 
which rises near Kavaledurga, and 
after a'course of 40 m. due N. turns to 
the W., and after 3 more m. hurls 
itself down nearly 1000 ft. over the 
far-famed Falls of Gerscppa, or more 
correctly G^rusappe, c^led locally 
Joga. Next on the E. is the Vai'ada, 
which after flowing for about 55 m. 
along the N.W. and N. boundary of the 
Province, passes into Dhdrwdd on its 
way to join the Tungabhadra. The Tun- 
ga rises near A'gunb6, and after flowing 
55 m. is joined by the Bhadra, which 
has come 80 m. to unite with it at 
Kudale. The joint stream, thencefor- 
ward called the Tungabhadra, after 
33 m. more passes into the Chitradurg 
district, and flows N.E. along the 
frontier, beyond Harihara, receiving 
on its 1. bank the Choradi, and on its 
r. the Haridra. Thence leavuig Maisiir, 
it runs N., dividing Madras Presidency 
from Bombay, till joined on the 1. by 
the Varada, when turning N.E. it 
forms the demarcation between Madras 
and the Nizdm's dominions, and joined 
on the r. by the Hagari or Veddvatl, 
it flows past Hampe, the site of the 
ancient cities of Kishkindha, Ane- 
gundi, and Vijayanagar, and falls into 
the Krishna beyond Kamul. The 
general elevation of this district is 
2,100 ft. above the sea. On the W., 
touching the Ghdts, it is covered with 
magnificent forests. "Trees of the 
laigest size stand thickly together 

Sect. IL 

R(mte 10. — Maisfdr Province, 


massive arms decked with a thousand 
bright-blossoming orchids. Birds of 
rare plumage flit from bough to bough. 
From the thick woods, which abruptly 
terminate on verdant swards, bison 
issue forth in the" early mom and after- 
noon to browse on the rich herbage, 
while large herds of elk pass rapidly 
across the hillsides. Packs of wild 
dogs cross the path, hunting in com- 
pany, and the tiger is not & off, for 
the warning boom of the great langur 
monkey is heard from the lofty trees. 
The view from the head of the descent 
to the Falls of G6rusappe is one of 
the finest pieces of scenery in the 
world " ( Rice's Gazetteer, vol. ii., p. 
341). The Sulekere Lake, 6^ m. N. of 
Chennagiri, is also very beautiful. 
It is 6 J m. from E. to W., and 2^ from 
N. to S. In May, the hottest month, 
the thermometer touches 92° at 3 P.M.; 
and in January, the coldest, 79* at 
that hour. The sportsman will here 
be in Elysium. Under the shade of 
lofty forest trees he need not dread 
the sun. Near the magnificent cataract 
of G^rusappe he will encounter the 
tiger, the panther, the bear, and the 
bison, with abundance of less formid- 
able game. Along the whole course 
of the Shardvatl he may ply the rifle 
and the smooth bore to his heart's 
content, and crossing a little to the 
E. in the Sdgar t'aluk, he will pro- 
bably meet the elephant as well as 
abundance of bears, bisons, panthers, 
and tigers, and also wild hog, sAmbar, 
spotted deer, and jungle sheep. The 
woods are full of pea-fowl and jungle- 
fowl, and the taiis are covered with 
wild geese, ducks, and teal. In the 
Tunga, and the tanks communicating 
with it, the crocodile is to be met 
with. And tiger cats, civet cats, and 
other curious creatures are found. 
The archaeologist will find much to 
interest him in ancient grants, 3 of 
which date froin Janmejay, son of 
Parlkshit, whose date is given by Wil- 
son as 1300 B.C. (Prinsep's Ind. Ant., 
ii., 237). A Chdlukya inscription 
lately discovered is of Saka 366=444 
A.D. In the t'alu^ of Sdraba, about 
15 m. N, of Sdgar, is Xubatiir, an- 
ciently Kuntalanagara, said to be the 

capital of Chandrah&sa, whose story 
is told in the Mah4 BhAmta. Close to 
the N.W. frontier of S6raba is Bana« 
vasi, to which a Buddhist Missionary 
was sent about 245 B.C., and which is 
mentioned by Ptolemy. It was the 
capital of the Kadamba kings, a 
dynasty founded about 168 A.D., as 
inscriptions of that date exist referring 
to the founder. Banavasi is said to 
have been founded by Mayiira V armma, 
who brought Brahman colonists from 
N. Panchdla, or Rohil Khand. The 
present Haiga Brdhmans claim to be 
descended from them. In the 6th 
cent, the ChAlukya king, Klrttl Varm- 
ma, subdued the Kadambas. Bala- 
gdmi, about 20 m. E. of Banavasi, 
subsequently became the capital about 
the 10th cent. , and remarkable ruins 
exist there. Shivam6ga was, about 
the 5th cent., a portion of the dominions 
of the Chdlukya kings, who first 
crossed the Nirbaddha, coming from 
Oudh in the 4th cent. A.D., and 
founded one kingdom at Kaly4n in 
the Nigdm's territory, and another in 
the E, at Vengi in the Delta of the 
Goddvarl. The Jains under Jinadatta 
of the Solar race. Prince of N. Mathura, 
founded a principality in 159 B.C., at 
Huncha, 14 m. E. of Nagar Bedmir. 
He also made K&rkala, in S. Kanara, 
the capital of his kingdom below the 
Ghdts. His descendants became subor- 
dinate to the Chdlukyas, the Hoysalas, 
and the Rdjds of Yijayanagar, and 
were finally conquered by the Keladi 
chiefs. The Kalachuryas subdued the 
Chdlukyas, and ruled for 3 generations 
at Kaly^a do^vn to 1182. Bijjala 
Deva, the first of this family, de- 
throned the Chdlukya king in 1155. 
Bijjala*s Prime Minister was Basava, 
who founded the sect of the LingAyats. 
In the 12th cent, the Hoysala Balldlas 
had subdued the whole of Maisiir, 
their capital being Dorasamudra, or 
Halebid in the Hdsan district. They 
advanced N. of the Tungabhadra, 
and came into collision with the YA- 
davas of Devagiri, cfr Daulatdb&d. 
Their capital Dorasamudra was sacked 
by the MLn\iam3naA.«£v& xmi^at '^^A^ Nsk- 
1310, and'totaUy de^\?co^^^ \:cl V^^^^^ 
after wbicla. ^e^ ei^^^^^i^^- 


SoiUe lO.-^Madras to BengalUr* 

Sect. 11. 

The Vijayanagax kingdom arose in 
1836. The Keladi princes began their 
career as vassals of Vijayanagar. 
Bhadraiya of Keladi found a treasure, 
and obtained from Sada Shiva Bdyd 
of Vijayanagar in 1560, the govern- 
ment of Barki!ir, Mangalilr, and Chan- 
dragutti. His successor moved the 
capital to Ikk^ri, and in 1639 it was 
transferred to Bedniir under the 
Eegency of Sivappa Ndyak. He died 
in 1670, and his descendants continued 
to rule till 1763, when ^aidar 'All 
captured Bedmir. 

The CJiitradurg dMiict of the Nagar 
Province marches with the Shim6ga 
on the N.E. It Hes between 13° 35' 
and 16° 2' N. lat., and 75° 43 and 77° 3' 
E. long. Its length from E. to W. 
is 120 m., and from N. to S. 88. Its 
area is 4471 sq. m., with a pop. of 
531,360 persons, or 118*8 to the sq. m. 
Of these 96'3 per cent, are Hindiis, 
3*4 Muslims, *15 Jains, *05 Christians, 
and there are 4 P6ts1s. It is bounded 
on the N. and N.E. by BalUri ; on 
the N.W. by Dhdrwdd, the Tunga- 
bhadra r. f oiiiing the liie of demarSa- 
tion ; on the W. by the Shim6ga and 
Kadiir district?. There are 8 t'aluks : 
Biidih^, Chitradurg, DAvangere, Dod- 
deri, Hiriyiir, Hosdurga, K^nkuppa, 
P^vagada. The general elevation is 
2000 ft. above the sea. The climate 
is drier and hotter than that of the 
other parts of Maisiir. The Vedavati 
enters the district at the S.W. comer, 
and after running 32 m. reaches 
Hiriyiir, after which it takes the name 
of Hagari, and after running N. for 
48 m. enters BallAri Collectorate. 
This district is crossed from S.S.E. to 
N.W. by a belt of low hills about 20 
m. broad. In the E. part of this 
range is the peak of Jogl Maradi 
3803 ft. high, and Nidugal 3780 ft., 
and Pdvugada 3026 ft. In the W. 
part of the range Hosdurga, where it 
begins, is 3280 ft. high, and Kdydurga 
2797 ft. The hills are infested with 
tigers, panthers, bears, hyaenas, and 
wSd hogs. Deer are found chiefly in 
Jiinyti, Chitradurg and Pdvagada. 
Wild fowl are very abundant in the 
t/irilcs of the S, parts of the district. 
At Nirgunda, 7 m. to the W. by S, 

of Hosdurga, and 34 m. B. of Bdgiir, 
are ruins of an ancient date. The 
place is referred to in an inscription 
of the 5th cent. A.D., which shows 
that Nirgunda, then called Nild- 
vati-patna, was a dependency of the 
Kongu or Chera empire, the capital of 
which was Talkad. It successively 
passed under the rule of the Chdlukyas, 
the Hoysala Balldlas, and the Edjds 
of Vijayanagar. The Ndyaks of 
Chitradurg were chiefs of some im- 
portance. They were of the Bedar or 
Boya castes, caUed in Sanskrit Kiratas, 
that is, hunters and mountaineers. 
The family of the Ndyaks came origi- 
nally from Jddikaldurga near the 
shrine of Tripati, to Nirutadi near 
Bharmasdgar in 1475. The grandson 
of one of their leaders named Timmana 
Ndyak, went to reside at Matti in the 
Ddvangere t'aluk. In 1508 the Rdja 
of Vijayanagar made him Ndyak of 
Holalkere, then of Hiriyiir, and then 
of Chitradurg, which he fortified, and 
at last brought down upon himself an 
attacking force under Saluva Nara- 
singa Baya, whose horse he attempted 
to steal. In attempting this he roused 
the groom, who not seeing him, drove 
a peg through his hand for the horse's 
heel ropes. Timmana bore the torture 
without moving, and when all was 
still cut ofE his own hand and carried 
off the horse. This brave act led to a 
peace, and the successful robber-chief 
was invited to Vijayanagar. He aided 
the Bdjd in an expedition against 
Kalbarga, but afterwards incurred the 
Bdjd's displeasure and died a prisoner. 
His son Obana was made Ndyak of 
Chitradurg, and took the name of • 
Madakeri. When Vijayanagar fell in 
1564, he assumed independence. His 
son, Kasturi Eangappa, succeeded him 
in 1602, and got possession of Maya- 
konda and other places. His son 
Madakeri succeeded at his death in 
1652, and reigned tUl 1674. His 
adopted son Obana succeeded, and was 
slain a few months after by his chief 
officers. His son Surakdnta Rangappa 
was slain by the troops. Chikkanna, a 
younger brother of Madakeri,succeeded, 
and died m \^'$>^. K 'i^d M^adakeri, 
aad l\ien. ^Mi^'K^^«»i^Q'^Qi^^d,«vA \sv 

Sect. II. 

Eonte 10»^Harihar. 


1689, Kuindra Bannappa, who reigned 
till 1721. Chitradurg then became tribu- 
tary to the Nilwdbs of Slra. His son, 
Madakeri, allied himself with Ohanda 
Sdhib in 1748, and was killed at the 
battle of Mayakonda in single combat, 
by the Harpanhalli chief. His son, 
Kasturi Kangappa, succeeded and died 
in 1754, when Madakeri, son of Bar- 
mappa, succeeded, and was made pri- 
soner by Haidar 'All in 1779, who 
removed 20,000 of the Bedars to 
Shrirangpatnam. The fort at Chitra- 
durg is very extensive, and there are 
many inscriptions on the hill of the 
Chdlukyas, Ballalas and Vijayanagar 
Kings. The palace in the inner fort, 
b. by Tipil, has a fine fruit garden, and 
is used as the office of the civil 
employes. The upper hill fort is very 
interesting, and in it are 14 temples. 
The Murgi Math, where the chief 
guru of the Lingdyats resides, is 3 m. 
to the N.W. The more modern Ankll 
Math is situate on wild picturesque 
hills. This fort was once garrisoned 
by British troops, but was given up on 
account of its unhealthiness. 

JBaHhar, in lat. 14** 31', long. 75° 61', 
on the r. b. of the Tungabhadra, was 
alfio till 1865 a cantonment, where 
one regiment was stationed. In 1868, 
a very fine bridge was constructed 
here over the Tungabhadra, and over 
it passes the trunk road from Ben- 
galiir to Dhdrwdd. The bridge is of 
stone and brick, has 14 elliptical 
arches of 60 ft. span, and cost nearly 
£35,000. Harihar is a very ancient 
place, and interesting to the archaeo- 
logist. It is said to have been in 
primaeval ages the capital of a giant 
named Guhdsiir, and to have been so 
extensive that the E. gate was 17 m. 
off at Huchangi Durga, the W. at 
Mudamir, the N. at Airani, the S. at 
Govinahdlu. Brahma had granted to 
GuhAsiir that he should not be killed 
by Vishnu or Shiva, whereupon he 
became such a pest to gods and men, 
that the two deities united in the form 
of Harihar and slew him at Kudaliir, 
the place where the Tungabhadra and 
Haridra unite. An inscription on 
copper has been found here of the 
7th cent, and there are iseyeral of the 

12th. The temple was erected in 1223 
by PolAloa, Minister of the Hoysala 
Balldla King, Vira- Narasinha. In 
1268, additions were made by Soma, 
genei-al of a subsequent king, and the 
founder of Somndthpiir in the Maisiir 
district, where there is a splendid 
temple. In 1277, Saluva Tikkama, 
general of Rdmachandra, King of 
Devagiri, b. a temple to MahMeva. 
The Kings of Vijayanagar bestowed 
many benefactions on these temples 
down to the 16th cent., and one of 
them, Hakka, took the name of Hari- 
hara Sdya. After the fall of Vijaya- 
nagar, the Tarlkere chiefs seized the 
place and b. the fort. The Niiwdb of 
Savamir took it from them and gave 
it in jdglr to Shir Khdn. It was then 
sold to the Bedniir chief for a Idkh, 
then captured by Mardthas, and in 
1763 by Haidar. After that it waa 
thrice taken by the Mardthas. 

The 3rd district of the Nagar Divi- 
sion, Kadilr, lies to the S. of the other 
2, between lat. 13° 12' and 13° 68', and 
long. 76° 8' and 76° 25'. Its length from 
E. to W. is 83 m., and from N. to S. 
45 m. Its area is 2294 sq. m., with a 
pop. of 332,381 persons, or 145'6 to the 
sq. m., of whom 12,017 are Muslims, 
568 Christians, Jains 1316, outcasts 
59,382, and wandering tribes 12,985. 
Kadiir is bounded on the N. by 
Shim6ga, on the E. by Chitradurg, on 
the S. by the Hdsan district of the 
Ashtagrdm Division, and on the W. by 
the W. Ghdts, which separate it from 
S. Kanara. There are 5 t'aluks : Bdn4- 
var, Chikmagaliir, Koppa, Lakvalli, 
Tailkere. Kadilr is pre-eminently the 
Malndd or hill region of Maisiir. The 
mountains are divided into 3 chains, 
the Central, the Eastern, and the 
Western. The Central begins in the 
S. at Ball41 Rdydndurga, 4940 ft. high, 
and runs N. dividing the basin of the 
Bhadra r. on the E., from that of the 
Tunga on the W. The B. range 
is the Bdb4 Budan, which surrounds 
the Jdgar valley. The highest peak 
in this range and in all Maisiir is the 
Mulainagiri, in about 13° 20', which is 
6317 ft. aboNCi ^«A<k^^. ^. «:JL\^.^-«s.. 


Route 10. — Madras to BengaMr, 

Sect. II. 

W. range, which is part of the 
W. Ghdts, has for its loftiest peak 
Kudure Mukh, ' Horse-face,' which is a 
land-mark to sailors, and is 6215 ft. 
high. It is 8 m. due W. of Ballal 
Rdydn durga, which has been already- 
mentioned. Meruti gudda, 'Frag- 
ment of Mem,' the sacred mountain 
or Olympus of the Hindii, is 13 m. 
to the W., and its height is 5451 ft. 
above the sea. The general level of 
the country ranges from 4015 ft. at 
Nirvdni Mdtha to 2379 ft. at Harihar- 
pur above the sea. The Tunga and the 
Bhadra both have their sources in this 
district at Gangamiila in the Tardha 
parvata or *Boar mountain,' in the 
W. Ghdts, 6i m. S. of Hoskere. The 
Bhadra reaches the frontier after a 
meandering course of upwards of 80 
m., while the Tunga passes into the 
Shim6ga district after 28 m. The 
H6mdvati rises in the extreme S. of 
the district, but immediately passes S. 
into the Hdsan district. ThQ Berinji 
HaJha rises near Amir, and after a 
course of about 20 m. falls into the 
Tagachl, which rises in the Bdbd 
Budan range, and after a very short 
course passes into the Hdsan district. 
The V6dd rises near the great peak of 
Mulainagiri, and flowing N.E. for 10 
m., for which short distance it is called 
the Gaunhalla, forms the beautiful 
lake of Ayyankere or Dodda Madaga- 
kere, 7 m. in circumference and dotted 
with islands, the embankment being 
1700 ft. long, and 300 ft,, high at the 
rear slope. It then flows N.E. 38 m. 
into the Chitradurg district. The Avati 
rises near the same spot, and flowing 
N. of the V^dd joins it 1 m. E. of 
Kadiir, and the united stream is then 
called the V6dAvati, which, as just 
mentioned, passes into the Chitradurg 
District. There is another large lake 
near BAnAvar. The scenery of this 
district is very lovely, and the sports- 
man will find an over-abundance of 
game. The elephant is found at Kuj 
and Karra in the W. Ghdts, and bison 
throughout the hills. Tigers, panthers, 
and leopards are common, and the 
bunting leopard or felis jvhata^ here 
called tbesAivanga, is sometimes found. 
^gerc^,t8 and ciretcats are met with, 

and wild hog, porcupines, elk, spotted 
deer, antelope, mungooses, squirrels, 
and monkeys of various kinds abound. 
Bustard, wild geese, ducks, teal, snipe, 
jungle fowl, spur fowl, partridges, red 
and black quail, peacocks, pigeons 
blue and green, doves, hombills, wood- 
peckers, and many other birds are to 
be seen eveiy where. The rs. and tanks 
are full of fish, and alligators are 
numerous, as are also snakes, scorpions, 
and spiders of an immense size, and 

The most celebrated place in this 
district, which has been so little visited 
by Europeans, is Sringiri, 5J m. S. of 
Hariharpur. The name is properly 
Sringa-girl or mountain of the Eishi 
or Saint Sringa, so called because he 
was adorned with horns. The history 
of this worthy is to be foimd in the 
Ramayana. His father was Vibhdndika, 
who begot him without a mother, and 
he grew up in this vast solitude with- 
out ever having heard of a woman. 
At that time the country of Anga was 
suffering from dearth, and the King 
Lomapdda was told by his Gurus that 
the only remedy was to send for 
Sringa. A band of damsels was there- 
fore sent, who lured the sage away to 
Anga, where rain fell on his arrival. 
He then married the Princess Santa, 
and became the priest of Dasaratha, 
King of Oudh, and by performing 
the ashvamedha or horse sacrifice pro- 
cured him a son, who was no other 
than Rdma, the 7th incarnation of 
Vishnu. The Matha, a monastery in 
the Tunga river at Sringari, was 
founded by Shankardchdrya, the Saiva 
reformer of the 8th cent. Sakardya- 
patna on the Veddvati is another most 
ancient city, and one of its kings, 
Rukmdngada, is mentioned in the 
Mahd Bhdrata. Hire-magal-iim (elder 
daughter's town) or Harihar, and 
Chikka-magal-iiru (younger daugh- 
ter's town), which is 12 m. to the 
S.W., were estates given by him as 
the dowry of his daughters. On the 
N. frontier of the District Halasiir, a 
ruined village, marks where Ratanpiiri 
stood, a city founded by Vajra Makuta 
B.&ya, "wViosfe boiqs, ^oisi«*. ^J^sJcvk^^ ^s\)i 

Sect. II. 

EoiUe 10. — TumMr, 


afterwards called Nirgunda in Chitra- 
durga, and penetrating into the bed- 
chamber of Vikrama Rdya, the king, 
attached a paper to his ann demand- 
ing the hand of his daughter, Rupavatl, 
for the younger brother. The king 
proclaimed that his daughter would 
be given to the man who should slay 
a lion that had taken refuge in a 
garden in the town. The brothers 
slew the lion and obtained the lady. 
The Nirgunda spoken of was founded 
by Nila Sekhara, a king who came 
from the N. in B.C. 160. The fortified 
height of Balldla Rdydn-durga bears 
witness to the rule of the Hoysala 
Balldla dynasty, of whom many in- 
scriptions remain. 

Tumli'&r^ adjoining Kadiir to the E., 
is in the Province ofNandldiirg^ with 3 
districts, of which Tumkiir is conter- 
minous with Kadiir. Tumkiir has an 
area of 3,604 sq. m., with a pop. of 
632,239 persons, or 176'3 to the sq. m., 
the Hindus being 96*4:0 per cent., the 
Muslims 3*35, the Jains '24, and the 
Christians '11. In this district there 
are 8 T'aluks : Chikndyakanhalli, Hon- 
navalli, Kadaba, Koratagere, Kimigal, 
Maddugiri, Shird, Tumkiir. Hills run 
N. and S. through the E. part of the 
district, from Midag6shidurga 3376 ft. 
high, 13 m. S. of which is Madhagiri- 
durga, 3935 ft., and 4 m. S. of that 
again Chan-ndrdyan-durga, Koratu- 
giri, Devarayadurga, 3940 ft., and in the 
extreme S. of the district Huliyiir- 
durga, 3086 ft. The Jayamangala r. 
rises near Devarayadurga, and runs 
40 m. through the district in a N. 
direction till it enters Balldri. The 
Shimsha rises at the same place, and 
flows S. 65 m. towards the Kdveri. 
At Turuvekere on this r., in the S.W. 
of the district, is a celebrated quarry 
of amorphous hornblende, a black 
stone of which the pillars of Haidar's 
Mausoleum at Shrlrangpatnam are 
made. At Turuvekere itself is a great 
hasava or bull made of this stone, and 
exquisitely polished. This is the finest 
specimen of the stone extant. There 
are 2081 tanks in the district, of which 
that at Kimigal in lat. 13** is the 
largest, being 14 m, round. Large 
^ame is scarce except at Devaraya- 

durga, where tigers, panthers, bears, 
and wild hogs may be found. 

Near Turuvekere, at Hale Tanduga, 
Sh^ivdhana is said to have been bom. 
A few m. to the E., at Sampige, in the 
Kadaba T'aluk, was Champaka-nagar, 
the capital of Sudhava, son of King 
Hamsa Dhwaja (the swan flag). Kai- 
dala, near Tumkiir, was the birth-place 
of Jakandchdri, the most famous Hindi! 
sculptor and architect that ever lived. 
At the Chief Conmiissioner's Office at 
Tumkiir is an inscription of the 8th 
cent., which shows that the district 
was then under the W. Chalukyas. 
Inscriptions at Turuvekere show that 
in the 11th cent, it was part of the 
dominions of the Hoysala Balldlas, 
and the temples at Naglapiir and 
Kaidala are of that period. In 1638 
the Bljdpiir army conquered all the N 
of the district and Shlrd, with Dod Bal- 
Idpur, Hoskot and KolAr, which formed 
the Kamdtik. Bijapiir was placed 
under Shdhjl. In 1687 Aurangzlb 
made Shird the capital, and placed it 
under Kdsim Khdn, who was killed at 
Doderi'in 1695. and Zii'Lfa^dr Khdn 
succeeded. Rustam jang built the fort. 
In 1757 Shlrd was taken by the Ma- 
rdthas, and restored after 2 years. In 
1761 IJaidar took it with the title 
of Niiwdb of Shlrd. In 1766 it came 
under the Mardthas, and in 1774 was 
reconquered by Tlpii. Devardyadurga, 
a fortified hill 9 m. E. of Tumkiir, is 
a cool retreat for Europeans. The 
scenery is wild and picturesque, and 
sport may be had there. Huliyiir- 
durga, "Tiger-town-hill," so ciled 
from the tigers which infested the 
jungle round it, is a place near which 
gold used to be found. In the ex- 
treme "W. of the district, in the same 
parallel with Tumkiir, but 47 m. to the 
W., is Honnavalli, which, till a few 
years since, was the head-quarters of 
the district, which Tiptiir, 8 m. to the 
S.E., now is. The place is called from 
Ifonnu-amma, "Golden Mother," the 
goddess who, in a vision, directed 
Someshvara, one of the Balldla Kings, 
to found the town, M»sx^ "SiT^jKSfiaisss^ 
live at t\^a i^\ace, «ci^\\.\%\«5s^«CL^'t^ 
a rare Vm^ ol ^^^^"^"^X "^^^^v" j^^ 


Eoute 10. — Madras to Bengal'Ar, 

Sect. 11. 

whence it is called GangA panU or 
"Ganges water." At Xaidala, "re- 
stored hand," the famous architect and 
sculptor, the greatest of Hindu artists, 
Jakandchdri,wa8 bom. The town was 
formerly called Krlda-puray and when 
Nripa Rdya was ruling there, Jakana- 
chdri began his career. He then went 
into the service of various sovereigns, 
and produced the astonishing temples 
of Halebld and B^liir. After he had 
left his birth-place a son was bom to 
him, named Dankandchdri, who de- 
tected a flaw in one of his statues, 
which Jakandchdri had guaranteed to 
be faultless on pain of losing his right 
hand. When the flaw was shown, he 
cut off his right hand, but in dedicating 
a temple to Keshava, his hand was re- 
stored to him. At the N.E. extremity 
of the district is Mad^giriy prop. Madhu- 
giri, " Honey-hill," where are 2 large 
temples to Venkat Rdmana-swdmi and 
Malleshwara, which stand side by side. 
These are worth a visit. Round the 
eaves of the 'roof of the Malleshwar 
temple runs a very graceful ornament, 
representing doves or pigeons of life- 
size in various natural attitudes. The 
fort was founded 3 or 4 cent, back by 
Rdjd HIra Gauda. In 1678 his de- 
scendants, Rdma and Timma, brought 
on themselves an attack from the Rdja 
of Maisiir, who took the fort after a 
year's siege, and carried the Gaudas 
and their families to Shrtrangpatnam. 
In 1763 IJaidar 'Ali sent the Rdnl of 
Bedmir and her paramour as prisoners 
to this place, where they remained till 
the place was taken by the Mardthas in 
1767. In 1774 they were driven out by 
Tlpii, but plundered the place of eveiy 
thing valuable. There is an extensive 
trade here in brass, copper, and silver 
vessels, and fabrics of iron, steel, and 
coarse cloths. The fort called Mad- 
giridurga is on a hill 3935 ft. above 
sea-level, accessible only on the N. 
side, and there so steep that when the 
garrison poured oil on the rock it 
could not be climbed. Buchanan says, 
" The view on approaching it from the 
M is much £ner than that of any hill 
fort; I have seen, " 
S/i^ra, generally v^nti&a. Sira, in 
m 13" 44', long. 76^ 58\ 33 m. N.N.W. 

of Tumki'ir, has now only a pop. of 
4231 persons, but was once the capital 
of a province with 7 2^o^ff^nn7is, viz. : 
Basavapatna, Biidihal, Shlra, Penna- 
konda, Dodballdpur, Hoskot and 
Koldr, with Harpanhalli, Kondarpi, 
Anegundi, Bedmir, Chiti-adurg, and 
Maisur as tributary states. Under 
Dildvar Khdn Shird is said to have 
had 50,000 houses. His palace, now 
in ruins, is said to have been the 
model on which the palaces of Ben- 
galiir and Shrlrangpatnam were built. 
Tumkiir, in lat. 13' 20', long. 77" 9', 
and 43 m. N.W. of Bengaliir, is the 
capital of the district, and has a pop. 
of 11,170 persons. The name is from 
tumuhi, "a small drum," as it was 
granted to the drummer of the Kai- 
dala Rdji as his flef. 

Koldr District, 

This District of the Nandidurg Divi- 
sion is situated between 12° 48' and 
13° 57' N. lat., and 77° 26' and 78° 39' 
E. long. From N. to S. it is 85 m. 
long, and about the same from E. to W. 
Its area is 2577 sq. m., with a pop. of 
618,954 persons, or 240*2 to a sq. m. 
Of these 651 are Jains and 613 Chris- 

There lOT'aluks : BetmangaJa, Chik- 
ballapur, Goribidniir, Gudibanda, Gum- 
nayakanpalya, Kolai', Maliir, Mulbdgal, 
Shidlaghatta. The chief watershed is 
around Nandidurga, 3 m. to the S. of 
Chikballdpur. The N. Pindkinl rises 
here, and flowing N. for 27 m., passes 
into Balldri CoUectorate. The S. Pind- 
kinl flows for 15 m. to the S.E. and S., 
and enters the Bengaliir District. The 
Paldr also rising near the same locality, 
runs 50 m. to the S.E., and enters N. 
Arkdt. The Arkdvati also flows S., 
and after a few m. enters the Bengaliir 
District. The Pdpaghni flows N.E. for 
30 m., and enters Kadapa CoUectorate. 
The Chitdvati, after a course of about 
the same length as the Pdpaghni, but 
N. by W., enters Balldri C/ollectorate. 
.The principal range of mountains runs 
N. from Nandidurga, the highest peak, 
to 0\idi\iasid»i ShTid 'D\v«rcaa.^a.ram in 
Bail&ii. "Fiom "^Q Vi V^ mAo 'O^-e;^, 

Soct. IT. 

MoiUe lO. — JSengalUr District, 


tary peaks of Ambajldurga, 4397 ft., 
and Rahimdndui'ga, 4277 ft.' There are 
5497 tanks, covering 120,000 acres. 
Gold is found in the low hills which 
cross the Pdldr and run S. through 
the Betmangala T'alu]^, and are com- 
posed of soft ferruginous clay. There 
is not much to allure the sportsman in 
this district besides a few bears in the 
Budikota jungles, in the S. part of the 
district, about 10 m. from the gold 
mines, which lie to the E. In the 
hills near Nandidurg panthers and 
wild boars are found. 

At Avani, 13 m. E. of K61dr,Valmlki, 
the author of the Rdm^yana, is said to 
have lived, and Rdma to have stopped 
on his way back to Ayodhya after the 
conquest of Lanka. Here Sltd retired 
after being repulsed by her husband, 
and gave birth to Kusa and Lava, the 
twins of whom Valmlki was preceptor. 
The hills on the W. of K61dr, called 
the Sata sringa^ or " hundred-peaked," 
are the scene of Parasa Rdma's slaugh- 
ter of Kartavirydrjuna, for murdermg 
his father, Jamadagni. It is said that 
K61dr has its name from the Koldhala^ 
or "shouting" at that feat. Nandi- 
durg^ 31 m. N. of Bengaliir, was thought 
impregnable by Tlpil, being inaccessi- 
ble except from the W., and there 
strongly fortified. It was taken how- 
ever by General Meadows, on the 19th 
October, 1791, with the loss of only 30 
killed and wounded, chiefly by the 
tremendous masses of granite rolled 
down the rock on the heads of the 
assailants. It was as the storming 
party formed that Meadows overheard 
a soldier whisper that there was a 
mine. " To be sure I " said the Gene- 
ral, " there is a mine, a mine of gold 1 " 
The large house on the summit was a 
favourite retreat of Sir Mark Cubbon 
in the hot weather. Koldvy the capital 
of the district, in lat. U^ 6', long. 78^ T 
and 43 m. E.N.E. of Bengaliir by road, 
but connected v«dth it by rail which 
joins that to Bengaliir at the Bowring- 
p6t (so called from Mr. Bowring, Chief 
Commissioner in 1864) or K61dr Road 
Stat., 10 m. to the S., has a pop. of 9924 
persons. The most interesting build- 
ing is the tomb of Fat!} Muhammad 
S^dn, father of Gaidar 'ALL, oi whom 

mention has been already inade. The 
place is notorious for its peculiarly 
venomous scorpions, whose sting is 
often fatal. 

JSengaMr District, 

This district, which forms the S. por- 
tion of the Nandidurg Division, lies 
between 12** 13' and 13' 23' N. lat., 
and 77° 7' and 78** 4' E. long. From 
N. to S. it measures 85 m., and E« to 
W. 50. Its area is 2914 sq. m., and 
its pop. 828,534, of whom 17,613 are 
Christians, and of these 4115 are 
Europeans, 2444 Eurasians, and 11,054 
Indians. The district is bounded on 
the N.E. by the K614r District, and on 
the N.W. by that of Tumkiir ; on the 
S.W. by the Malsiir District, and on 
the S.E. by Salem. For 10 m. on the 
S. the Kdv6ri separates it from Koim- 
batiir. There are 9 T'alu|:8 : Anekal, 
Bengaliir, Closep6t, Devanhalli, Dod- 
bdllapur, Hoskot^ Kankanhalli, m4- 
gadi,Nelamangala. The ArkAvati, vari- 
ously named in its branches as the 
Kumndvati and the Vrishabhayati, 
flows completely through this District 
fi'om N. to S., and then falls into the 
Kdv6ri. The Pin4kini passes into 
Salem after a similar K. to S. course 
of 35 m. The Rly. Stat, at Bengaltir 
is 3034 ft. above sea-level, and other 
parts of the district do not sink 200 ft. 
below that height. The temperature 
ranges from 63** in February to 96' in 
May, and the average rainfall is 36 in. 
In ancient times this District is said to 
have formed part of the great Danda- 
kdranya forest, in which the sinilia or 
" lion," the sardula or " tiger," the 
kunjara or "elephant," the mahis?ut 
or "buffalo," and the chamdra or 
" bison," are said to have existed. In 
the S. of the Kankanhalli T'alul: the 
elephant still sometimes appears, the 
others are extinct, but pantiiers, wild 
hogs and porcupines, and deer are to 
be found. In the woods jungle fowl, 
pea fowl, and spur fowl may be met 
with ; and in the open countiy bus- 
tard, florican, partrid^e.^, o^^V ^kjA^ 
pigeons*, aa^ \xl ^Jti^ \»sJ&& «cciJ^>\J5sfi^% 
1 and wild ducAss. ^ , -^x»v-x^ 


R(ncte 10. — Madras to Bengaltir. 

Sect. IL 

are described in the Routes to Maisiir, 
but one or two which lie out of the 
way may here be mentioned, should 
any adventurous traveller, disregarding 
extreme discomfort and risk of fever, 
resolve to visit them. 

Sdvanadurga is a remarkable hill fort 
15 m. N. of Closep6t, and 7 m. S.E. of 
the town of Mdgadi, which is a muni- 
cipal town of 3712 inhabitants and 
the head-quarters of a T'aluk. The 
hill of Sdvanadurga is a mass of granite 
rising to 4024 ft. above sea-leveL Two 
peaks form the summit, parted by a 
chasm, and each abundantly supplied 
with water. They are called the Kdrl 
or " Black Peak," and Bill or " White 
Peak." These were fortified in 1543 
by Samanta Rdya, who governed the 
Mdgadi T'aluk for the Achyuta Rdya, 
King of Vijayanagar. He fixed his 
residence there with a garrison of 
8000 men and declared himself inde- 
pendent. He died in 1571, and was 
succeeded by his son, Chikka Rdya, 
who drowned himself in 1581. One 
Ganga then seized the place, but was 
put to death by Inunadi Kempe 
Gauda of Bengaliir, and he and his 
descendants held it till 1728, when 
Deva RdjA, General of Maisiir, cap- 
tured it and carried off Mummadi 
Kempe Gauda, the last chief of his 
line, a prisoner to Shrlrangpatmam, 
where he died. It then came under 
the power of IJaidar and Tlpii, and 
was taken by Lord Comwallis on the 
10th of December, 1791, as described 
by Wilks, vol. iii. p. 200 :— " Lord 
Comwallis determined to employ the 
intermediate time in attempting the 
reduction of those places, of which the 
most formidable, and reputed to be 
the strongest in Maisiir, was Sdvan- 
durg, a place which at one time he 
had determined not to attack, from 
the great improbability of success. 
This enormous mass of granite is con- 
siderably more elevated than Nandi- 
durg, and stands upon a base at the 
least 8 m. in circumference, every- 
where apparently inaccessible from 
helow, and at the height of about two- 
^Mrds of its total eJevation, separated 
fy^ a cbaBm into tvro citadels, each 
iudependeat of the other, and both 


abundantly supplied with water. 
Exclusively of the convenient posi- 
tion of this fortress, as the head- 
quarters of a corps, to interrupt the 
communications, its extraordinary 
height commanded a view of every 
convoy that could move on either of 
the 2 principal roads. On the return 
of the army from Kaniambidi, the 
place had been carefully reconnoitred ; 
it was then deemed to be unassailable, 
and the discouragement was increased 
by the reputed insalubrity of the woods 
and impenetrable thickets by which it 
is surrounded. The capture since that 
period of a considerable nmnber of 
hill forts hitherto deemed impregnable, 
and particularly of Nandidurg, en- 
couraged the English general in the 
attempt, which if successful, he ex- 
pected to be followed by the early 
surrender of all the others that he 
desired to possess. 

" Colonel Stuart, with 2 European 
and 3 Native Corps and a powerful 
artillery, was detached for the imme- 
diate couduct of the siege, and Lord 
Comwallis made a disposition of the 
remainder of the army to watch every 
avenue from Seringapatam, by which 
the operations of Sie siege might be 
disturbed. Colonel Stuart encamped 
within 3 m. of the place on the 10th 
of December, and immediately com- 
menced the arduous labour of cutting a 
gun road through the rugged forest to 
the foot of the rock, a work which, 
added to the difficulties of dragging 
iron 24-pounders over precipices nearly 
perpendicular, called for a degree of 
incessant exertion and fatigue which 
could scarcely have been exceeded. 

" The batteries opened on the 17th, 
and the breach in what was named 
the lower wall of the rock, although 
at least 1500 ft. higher than its base, 
was deemed practicable on the 20th. 
Immediately overlooking it, at a pre- 
cipitous height, and perfectly well 
situated for destroying, by the usual 
artillery of rocks and stones, everything 
that should attempt to ascend beyond 
the breach, was a range of ancient 
wall. Lord Comwallis had come 
from t\i^ caxQ-V^ ^'^'eX^^oX. 1 Ta.., \.ci ^\t« 

Sect. II. Soute 10. — Savanadurga — Shivaganga. 


ordered to their stations, and the garri- 
son was seen to be collecting behind 
this wall. This observation fortunately- 
prevented the assault on that day ; the 
experiment was made of pointing with 
sufficient elevation by receiving the 
trail of the gun carriage into an exca- 
vation behind the platform. The exe- 
cution was not only perfect, but the 
wall was found to be so frail that a few 
discharges must dislodge its defenders. 
The arrangements for the ensuing day 
were founded on the fact thus oppor- 
tunely ascertained, the batteries were 
prepared for the purpose, and in the 
morning the requisite number of guns 
were directed against this wall with 
the most perfect success ; every person 
behind it was dislodged, and the 
storming party, having been placed 
without observation within 20 yds. 
of the breach, the assault commenced 
by signal at 11 o'clock in the fore- 

" The defenders had been so unex- 
pectedly dislodged from their appointed 
positions, that no new disposition had 
been made. The assailants accordingly 
ascended the rock without the slight- 
est opposition, clambering up a preci- 
pice, which, after the service was 
over, they were afraid to descend. 
The eastern citadel was completely 
carried ; and the assailants, on reach- 
ing the summit of the rock, had the 
satisfaction'^io descry a heavy column 
of infantry, destined to reinforce the 
garrison, in full march to enter the 
place, which would have been effected 
if the assault had been postponed, 
even for half-an-hour. A division of 
the assailants, after ascending consi- 
derably above the breach, had been 
directed to turn to the right along a 
path which had been observed to be 
practised by the garrison, leading 
along the side of the rock to the 
western citadel. The ^laddr of that 
citadel, observing the defenders of the 
eastern rock to be driven from their 
post above the breach, and the as- 
sailants to have begun climbing up, 
sallied with the view of taking them 
in flank, but was unexpectedly met 
amoDi,' the rocks by the division de- 
/Bcn'bed; and at the same instant a 

few well-directed shots from the bat- 
teries fell with great execution among 
his troops. He retreated in surprise 
and dismay, followed with great energy 
by the English troops. At this instant 
the assailants, who had gained the 
highest eminence of the eastern rock, 
obtained a distinct view of the pursuit ; 
they observed the kilad^ to fall, just 
as he approached the gate of his citadel, 
and the pursuers to enter with the fu- 
gitives. Everything was carried within 
one hour from the commencement of 
the assault, and an enterprise which 
had been contemplated by Lord Com- 
wallis as the most doubtful operation 
of the war was thus effected in 12 days 
from the first arrival of the troops and 
6 of open batteries, including the day of 
the assault, with a moderate amount of 
casualties in the previous operations, 
and in the assault itself his Lordship 
had not to regret the loss of a single 

After this captiu-e the fort was de- 
serted, as we learn from Buchanan, 
vol. i., p. 170, and the difficulty of 
visiting it is considerable. Buchanan, 
who was provided with all the appli- 
ances for travelling, spent several days 
in examining the forests in the hollow 
ground near the r., which tire some of 
the best in the country, the trees 
growing to a considerable size. Wild 
beasts are numerous. 

Sliivaganga is a sacred lull in the 
N.W. of the Nelamangala T'aluk, which 
rises in an acute conical peak to the 
height of 4559 ft. Its outline on the 
E. is said to resemble a bull, on the 
W. Ganesh, on the N. a serpent, and 
on the S. a Lingam. The number of 
steps to the top is said to equal the - 
yojanas or leagues to Bandms, and 
hence the ascent is as meritorious as a 
pilgrimage to that city, and the place 
is called the W. KAshl. On the N. 
face are many buildings, erected by 
Kempe Gauda, "the Red Chief" of 
Mdgadi. The 2 principal temples to 
Gangdidhareshwar, " Shiva bearing the 
Ganges," and Honna Devamma, 
" Golden mother goddess," are made 
out of nditvxisii ca.NetTL^. Twi^^^^^t'<teRw 
hill are covet^^ V\VXiV>r« \x5sv^^>*-^ 


Eoute 10. — Madras to Bengaliir, 

Sect. 11. 

The place is only 18 m. N. of Magadi, 
bnt means of transport are scarce. 

The history of the Bcngaliir District 
will be dealt with under Bengaliir. 

Ashtagrdm Division, 

Matsiir District, -^Thia is the most 
8. part of the province, and lies be- 
tween lat. 11° 36' and 12" 45/, and long. 
75° 56' and 77° 24', and has an area of 
4128 sq. m., and a pop; of 943,187 
persons, or 228*5 to a sq. m. There 
are 2250 Jains and 2249 Christians. 
The Hindils are 95*3 of the pop., and 
the Muslims 4*3. There are 1 1 T'aluks : 


Ashtagrdm, ChdmarAjanagar, Gund- 
lup^t, Heggadadevankot, Malvalli, 
Mandya, Maisiir, Nanjangud, Periya- 
patna, TalkM, Edatur, besides the Jdgir 
of El^ndiir. The District is bounded 
on the ij*. by tjie HAsan and Tumkiir 
districts, on the E. by thf^t of Ben- 
galiir and the Koimbatiir Collectorates, 
on the S. by the Nllgiris and Malabdr, 
and on the W. by Kurg. The Kavdri 
r. separates Maisiir from the Hdsan 
District, but after reaching Shrlrang- 
patnam, traverses Maisiir for 50 m. in a 
S.E. direction, and then, turning to 
the N., forms the beautiful catal'act of 
Shivasamudram. The Lakshmantlrtha, 
after a meandering course of more 
than 30 miles in a N.E. direction 
through the district, falls into the 
Kdv6ri, as does the Kabbani, Kapinl, 
or Kapila r., after a similar course of 
65 m. The Shimsha r., running from 
N. to S., falls into the Kdv^ri, 
after a course of more than 40 m. a 
little to the E. of Shivasamudram. 
Lofty mountain ranges covered with 
vast forests, the home of the elephant 
and tiger, shut in the W., S., and 
some part of the E. frontier. The 
principal range within the District is 
the BUigirirangam in the Yelandiir 
jdglr at the S.E. extremity of the 
District. These hills rise 5000 ft. 
above the sea. In the centre of the 
S. part of the District, near Gundlupet. 
the hill of Gopdlswdmi is 4500 ft! 
Iiigh, and that of Chdmundi a little S. 
of Maisiir city, is 3489. French Rocks, 
J^> of SbrirangpatnaiDf are 2882 it. 
^Jg-Ii* The conniij falls giaduaHy 

from W. to E. fi'om 2826 ft. to 2337 ft. 
There are 9 Anakatts or masonry dams 
across the Kdv^ri, 7 on the Lakshman- 
tlrtha, 1 on the Shimsha, 1 on the 
Naga, and 2 on the Suvamavati. 
Gotd dust is found in the streams of 
the Heggadadevankot T'alu^. The 
average i-ain-fall is 28*9 in. The 
climate is hotter than that of the 
Bengaliir District, and during the cold 
months intermittent fevers prevail 
The sportsman will find any number of 
tigers in the Heggadadevankot T'aluk, 
and they are still numerous in that of 
Periyapatna, though greatly decreased 
since Buchanan^s time. He says, 
vol. i., p. '96, " In the inner fort there . 
are no inhabitants, and tigers have 
taken entire possession of its ruins. 
A horse, that strayed in a few nighta 
ago, was destroyed ; and even at mid- 
day it is considered dangerous for a 
solitary person to enter. It was 
deemed imprudent for me, who was 
followed by a multitude, to enter into 
any of the temples, which serve the 
tigers as shelter from the heat of the 
day, by which these animals are much 
oppressed." It is now not permitted 
to kill elephants unless they are doing 
mischief. Their number has de- 
creased, but that there are many still 
may be inferred from the fact that on 
the 17th of June, 1874, Mr. Sanderson 
captured 55, of which 13 were tuskers. 
This was at Hardanhalli* about 5 m. 
from Chdmrajnagar, in the extreme S. 
of the District. 

There is an ancient legend that 3 m. 
S.E. of Chdmrdjnagdr, a city existed 
called Manipur in Ski*., and Haralukot 
in Kanarese, which is mentioned in 
the MahAbhdrata. Chitrangada, the 
"Princess of this city," married Ar- 
juna, and had by him a son called 
Babhruvdhana. This would give the 
place an antiquity of some 2200 years 
at least. The inscriptions are of the 
Balldla kings, and 800 years old. 
Mention is made of Mahishiir, or 
Maisiir, in the Mahawanso, when, 
after the 3rd Buddhist convocation, 
245 B.C., a missionary was sent thither. 
OeneisA. Owwwin^tLam^ however, thinks 


Sect. II. 

Soute 10. — Hdsaii District. 


Among places lying out of the 
common routes, and not likely to be 
visited by trayellers, but interesting to 
the archaeologist, is Talkad, in 
lat. 12" ir, 77" 5', on the 1. b. of the 
Kaveri, and 28 m. S.E. of Maisiir city. 
It is first mentioned (J. R. A. S. viii., 
35) under the name of the great city 
of Davalanapur in the Kamata coun- 
try. Hari Varmma, ruling in A.D. 280, 
was installed at Skandapur in Koim- 
batiir, but resided at Talkdd. which 
thenceforth became the capital of the 
Konga or Chera kings. Prom the 10th 
to the middle of the 14th century 
Talked was a possession of the Hoy- 
sala Balldla kings, who at first made 
it their capital, but then moved their 
head-quarters under Vinaydditya to 
Tuluva, and later on to Halebid. In 
1634 it was conquered by the RdjA of 

Hasan DistHd, — This District lies 
between lat. 12' 30' and 13" 32', and 
long. 75' 32' and 76° 58'. It extends 
95 m. from E. to W., and 80 fi-om N. to 
S. The area is 3291 sq. m., with a 
pop. of 669,961 persons, or 20,316 to 
the sq. m. In Arkalgiid T'aluk there 
are 529 persons to a sq. m. There are 
1954 Jains and 2670 Christians. The 
District is bounded on the N. by Kadiir 
District, on the E. by Tumkiir, on the 
S. by Maisiir District and by Kurg, and 
on the "W. by S. Kanara. There are 9 
T'aluks : Arkalgiid, Attikuppe, B61iir, 
Chanrdypatna, Hdranahalli, Hdsan, 
Manjarabdd, Ndgamangala, Nara- 
eipnr. The general level of the 
country slopes away towards the 
S.E. from B41iir, which is 3150 ft. 
above the sea, to Kannambddi, on the 
extreme S., which is 2589 ft. The 
main part of the District consists of 
the basin of the Hemdvati, which flows 
for 70 m. through the centre from N. 
to S., and falls in the Kdv(^ri 10 m. 
N.W. of Kannambddi. The Shimsha 
skirts the E. frontier of the District for 
30 m.. The Egachi, or Yegachi is an 
affluent of the Hemdvati, which joins 
it near Gonir in the A'rkalgiid T'aluk. 
The mountains on the "W., which se- 
parate this District from S. Kanara, 
and which ran from the JBundh Ghdt 
oa the N., 30 m, to the Bisale Ghdt on 

; the S., display, among other peaks, 
that of Subrahmanya, 5583 ft. high, 
close to the S.W. frontier and Mum- 
Jtannv-ff Jidda, "the hill of the three- 
eyed," i. e., Shiva, and also Jenu-kallu- 
betta, " honey- rock hill." At Shravana 
beigola is Indrabetta, 3309 ft. high, 
7 m. E. by S. of Chanraypatna,' and 
on its summit is a colossal Jain statue. 
The Malnad, or highlands^ which in* 
eludes all ManjardbM T'aluk and the * 
"W. half of B61iir, is thus described 
(Rice's Gaz., vol. ii., p. 287 : — 
" Perhaps there is no scenery in India 
more beautiful than the S. part of this 
tract adjoining the N.W. of Kurg. It 
for the most part resembles the richest 
park scenery in England. Hills 
covered with the finest grass, or as 
equally verdant crops of grain, adorned 
and crowned with clumps of noble 
forest trees', appear to have been planted 
with care and perfect taste. The 
highest and most lovely knolls have 
been selected whereon to .build the " 
monasteries and, places of worship 
with which the country abounds. The 
groves around are carefully tended, 
arid the trees replaced as they die off 
or are blown doWn. The S. differs 
from the N. and W. parts of the Man- 
jardbad T'aluk in the absence of a suc- 
cession of dense jungles which obscure 
the view, and in the soft .character of 
the hills, which, in most instances,. are 
as smooth as the lawn of a villa on the 
Thames." The average rainfall is 
36 in., but in approaching the W. ghdts 
this rises to 100. There is a state 
forest at KabbinAle, 14 sq. m. in extent, 
one at Kagineri, 9 sq. m., and one at 
Bdjimalle, 6 sq. m. Near Mahdrd- 
jandurga there is a plantation of the 
sandalwood tree. In the forests of 
the Malndd, and rocky hills of the 
Hdsan, A'rkalgiid, and Hdranahalli 
T'aluk, tigers, chltds, bears, elks, 
spotted deer, jungle sheep, and wild 
hogs are quite common. The black 
panther is occasionally shot in Man- 
jardbad, and herds of elephants and 
bison frequent the hilly tracts on the 
verge of the ghdts. Wolves, hyaenajs^ 
monkeys, YaXi^ cai^, ^«ci^2sv^,^^-^<so?gass^ 
hares, sqy»iTe\B, «xi^ oXXet^ ^ssfc xssssafc- 


SotUe 10. — Madras to BengalHr. 


and partridges are plentiful, and in 
the cold season wild geese, ducks, teal, 
and widgeon, and many other birds 
abound. The peregrine falcon is met 
with on the ghdts in the Manjarabdd 

The Kadambas, whose capital was 
at Banavasi, ruled the W. half of this 
district as part of their dominions 
during the first 5 cen. A.D., while the 
Cheras or Kongas governed the E. from 
Talkdd. The Kadambas were suc- 
ceeded by the Chalukyas in the 6th 
cen., who from the 10th to the middle 
of the 14th cen. were in power. Under 
Vira BallAla and Vlra Narasimha, the 
whole of the Karndta to the Krishna, 
with Tnluva on the W., Drdvida on the 
S. and E., and part of Telingdna on 
the N.E., was embraced in the empire 
founded by this dynasty, and under 
them the temples of Halebid, B61iir, 
and SomnAthpiir were erected. In 
1311 KAfiir, the general of Aldu'ddln, 
sacked Dorasamudra, or Halebid ; and 
in 1326 Mul^ammad III. totally de- 
stroyed the city. Vijayanagar was 
founded in 1336, and i£e Rdjds ex- 
tended their sway over this district, 
and bestowed all the W. part of it on 
a lute-player, and, after he had given 
it up, on Singappa Ndyak, whose 
grandson, Kri^hnappa, was ruling 
there 135 years afterwards. In 1633 
the Maisiir army took Chanrdypatna ; 
anfi. in 1762 Qaidar conquered the 
whole region. In 1771 the Mardthas 
signally defeated Gaidar and Tlpi at 
Chinkurali, 13 m. S.E. of Attikuppa, 
plundered the temples at MeliJtot, 
and burned the cars of the deities for 
the sake of the iron. Kri?hnappa, 
who was ruling the W. part of the 
district, joined the Mardthas, who 
were advancing to assist Lord Com- 
wallis in 1792. His son, Venkatddri, 
was governor in 1799, and tried to 
make himself independent, for which 
he was hanged, contrary to the wish 
of Arthur Wellesley. 

To return now to Bengaliir city, 

which, as one of the most favourite 

stations in India, calls for a lengthened 

notice. The city stands in 12** 5T 

iV: lat, and 77"* 35' E. long. It is the 

ffeat of govemment for the state oi 

Maisiir, a state nearly as large at 
Bavaria, and is the head-quarters of 
the Maisur division of the Madias 
army. The pop. is 142,513, and the 
Peta, or native town, and cantonment 
together cover 13 sq. m. and 373J 
acres, or } of the area of Londoo. 
The name comes from Sengak^ 
" beans," as a legend says that Vlra 
Balldla , who reigned 1191-1207 AJ), 
having lost his way hunting, was 
lodged in a solitary hut by an old 
woman, and regaled with beans, which 
was the only food she had, and which 
he shared with his horse. The canton- 
ment and city of Bengaliir stretch from 
the Mahdrdjah's palace on the N., 
6500 yds. to the S. extremity of the 
Koramangala Tank on the S., and an 
equal distance from the W. end of the 
P6ta on the W., to the Sappers' Practice 
Ground on the E. This vast space 
may be conveniently divided into Ben- 
galiir Proper, which lies S. of the 
Dharmambudhi and Sampangi Tanks, 
both of which may be said to bound 
the P6ta to the N., the former to the 
"W., and the latter to the E. Begin- 
ning with the cantonment, and talong 
the noticeable things in order from 
N.W. to S.E., the first building is the 
Mahdrdjah's Palace, which is hand- 
some, but not open to the pubhc 
S.E. of this 850 yds. is the Rly. Stat, 
and 300 yds. S. of that again is Miller's 
Tank, which communicates by a small 
stream with the much larger Halsiir 
Tank, 1800 yds. to the E. Between 
these 2 tanks is the Cantonment 
Bdzdr, and N. of it the pleasant 
suburb of Cleveland Town, in which 
are some neat residences, and the R. 
Catholic and St. John's Church. The 
latter is 94 ft. from E. to W., includ- 
ing the porch, and 40 ft. from N. to S. 
There is nothing remarkable about it, 
and only one tablet to a Captain Mon- 
tague Foord, who was accidentally 
shot, near Salem, on Nov. 8, 1868. 
The Sappers' quarters are at the N.B. 
comer of the Bdzar, and the Sipdhis' 
lines at the S.W., and a little to the 
E. of the latter the Bowring Civil 
Hospital, thft London Mission Chapel, 
and ^^, Mi"^e^'ft 15JctV,\svai\. \sl V^^^ 

Sect II. 

Houte 10. — BengcUHr, 


56 ft. 8 in. from N. to S. In this is 
an extremely handsome piece of sculp- 
ture in white marble in the wall 
at the E, end, representing a fe- 
male recumbent form, in memory 
of Mary Elizabeth, wife of Colonel 
MacGoun. She died in 1867. The 
Main Guard adjoins this church on 
the E. ; and a few yds. further to the 
E. are the Infantry Barracks, and still 
. further to the E. the village of Halsiir, 
and a pleasant drive round the large 
tank of the same name, with the 
Sappers' Parade Ground to the E. 
Directly S. of Halsiir are the Artillery 
Barracks, and S, again of them the 
Cavalry Barracks, the old Cemetery, 
the Mounted Parade, and the Artillery 
Practice Ground. 

At the N.W. comer of the Artillery 
Barracks is Trinity Church, which is 
also i m. S. of the Halsiir tank. It is 
the handsomest church in Bengaliir, 
and measures 134 ft. from E. to W., 
and 56 from N. to S. There are many 
fine tablets, particularly one under a 
fine i length statue in white marble, 
by MacDowell, R.A., to General Cle- 
ment Hill, who served through the 
Peninsular campaigns under his brother 
Lord Hill, and when commanding the 
Maisiir Division died on the 20th of 
January, 1845, while on a pleasure 
trip to the Falls of Gerusappe. There 
is also a tablet to Captain Newbery, 
who was killed while leading the 
Maisiir horse in a charge against the 
rebels at Shorapiir, 8th February, 1858. 
Another records the death of George 
S. Dobbie of the Eevenue Survey, who 
was killed by a tiger at Shim6ga, 
May 6th, 1875. A few hundred yds. 
W. of Trmity Church are the "Wesleyan 
Chapel, the Public Rooms, and the 
Gymnasium, which stands in the 
General Parade Ground, which is more 
than a m. long from E. to W. A little 
S. of its centre is the Telegraph Office, 
and S.E. of that again the Roman 
Catholic Cathedral, 100 yds. S. of 
which is the Museum. Close to the 
S. of these are the Traveller's b., 
and All Saints' Church. It must be 
owned that the t. b. is inconveniently 
far off from the rly. stat, being 2^ m. 
distant. Perhaps at so large a place 

a second house for the accommodation 
of travellers ought to be supplied, and 
unquestionably St. John's Hill or 
Cleveland Town would be the proper 

Near the W. end of the G. Parade 
Ground, and adjoining it on the S. 
are the General's House, the Band 
Stand, and St. Mark's Church. All 
Saints' Church is small, being only 
63 ft. from E. to W., and 48 ft. 2 in. 
from N. to S., with one brass tablet. 
St. Mark's is also small, but has many 
tablets, one of them being to Lieut.- 
Col. Sir Walter Scott of Abbotsford 
House, and of the 16th King's Hussars, 
who died at sea on the 8th February, 
1847, aged 46. W. of the General's 
house, and close to it, is the Cubbon 
Park. In this the neat building to 
the W. is the Museum, which is well 
worth a lengthened visit. In the 
ante-room of the lower storey, remark 
a slab with 12 Persian distiches brought 
from Tlpii's Palace in the fort ; a figure 
of a Jain deity with very superb carv- 
ing round it, brought from a temple 
in the Shikdrpur T'alukah in the Shi- 
m6ga District of the Nagar Division ; 
also some wonderful carvings from 
Halebid. In the large room adjoining 
there is a valuable collection of geologi- 
cal specimens, of which, and of which 
alone (1878), there is a catalogue. Up- 
stairs are stuffed animals, and among 
them a black panther, and a most 
remarkable collection of fishes. W. 
of the Museum 450 yds., is a fine 
building 525 ft. long from N.E. to 
S.W., which contains the public offices. 
In February, 1878, a lunatic ascended 
the cupola and hauled down the 
British flag, which he replaced with 
his handkerchief. On being interro- 
gated, he said he had been informed 
the British rule was over. The Conunis- 
sioner's House or Government House, 
as it is called, is about 400 yds. to 
the W. of the Public Offices, and in 
front of it is a good statue of General 
Mark Cubbon, the first Conunissioner. 
The house is handsome and commo- 

We come no^ \iCi "acft^^XSa ^-t^-s^Rs^.^ 
which Yvaa aa «sftab ^1 ^'^ ^ 
sq. m, oxA. ot >l\v& \^. '^^^ ^^'^^ ^ 


Ecmte 10. — Madras to Bengalur. 

Sect. II. 

60,703, of whom 199 are Jains, and 
668 Christians. The P6ta or town 
was a few years ago surrounded by a 
deep ditch and thorn hedge, as a 
defence against the Marathas and 
other marauders. There are 10 gates, 
of which the chief are the Yelahaiika 
on the N., the Halsiir on the E., the 
Fort and Maisiir gates on the S., 
and the Agrah^ra and Sondekoppa 
on the W. The Dodda-P6ta or High 
Street runs from the Yelahanka to the 
Fort gate, and separates the Ddshada 
quarter on the W. from the Nagarta 
on the E. A street crosses this at 
right angles, and the point of inter- 
section is the CJiavh or square, near 
which is the Civil Office of the T'aluk. 
There is an excellent market between 
the fort and Maisiir gates. The Brah- 
man officials live in the quarter called 
Siddi Katte. The streets are some- 
what narrow and irregular, but scat- 
tered about there are well built and 
imposing mansions belonging to 
wealthy inhabs. The grain-market, 
Taragiir-pite^ and cotton market, Arale- 
pStej afford busy scenes of traffic. 
~ The drainage is carried off from the 
S. side 2i m. to the Sunnakal tank, 
where the sewerage is applied for 
agricultural purposes. 

The FoH is due S. of the P^ta. It 
is 2400 ft. from N. to S., and 1800 ft. 
from B. to W. It could never have 
been a strong place against European 
troops. It is of an oval shape, with 2 
gateways, one the Dihli gate on the 
N. face of the Fort opposite the P^ta, 
the other, the Maisiir on the S. face. 
The Dihli gate is handsomely b. of cut 
granite, and when Lord Comwallis on 
the 21st of March, 1791, determined 
to storm the place, there were 5 power- 
ful cavaliers (Wilks, Hist. Sketches of 
the S. of India, vol. iii. p. 123), a 
faussebray, ditch, and covered way, 
but in no part was there a perfect 
flanking defence. The garrison, how- 
ever, consisted of 8000 men under 
Bahddur Khdn, and there were besides 
2000 regular infantry in the P6ta, and 
SOOO irregular. In addition to all, Tipii 
himself y with an army very far snpc- 
n'or in numbers to that of ComwalUs, 
^aa prepared to take advantage oi 

any error on the part of the besiegers. 
The P6ta had been taken by the 
English on the 7th of March, with a 
loss on their part of 131 killed and 
wounded, and among the killed Lieut.- 
Col. Morehouse, an officer of great 
merit. The Maisiir garrison lost up- 
wards of 2000 men. The assault took 
l)lace at 11 at night, and until the 
Kiladar fell, a determined resistance 
was made. Tipii's camp that night 
was at Jignl, 6 m. to the S.W., but at 
nightfall he moved up within 1^ m. of 
the Fort, but the spirit of the assailants 
overcame all difficulties, and the fort 
was captured after a severe struggle 
that same night. In the centre of the 
fort is the arsenal, and there are some 
remains of Tipii's Palace, but the 
wheel has long since disappeared, in 
which Sir D. Baird used to amuse Tlpii 
and his ladies. There is a small temple 
near the Maisiir gate. In vol. iii., p. 
45, Buchanan gives an account of the 
palace as it remained in his day. The 
details are now of little interest. 
About ^ m. to the E. of the fort is an 
obelisk 30 ft. high, to the memory of 
Col. Moorhouse (so it is written on 
the obelisk), and 2 other officers 
killed at the storm, and to 70 other 
officers who died during the siege, as 
also to all the men " who gallantly fell 
at the siege, and died in the war of 
1791-1792," the grand total of killed, 
wounded, and missing, being 431, 
with 271 horses killed or disabled. 
The next place worth visiting is the 
Ldl Bdgh, which is 1050 yds. to the 
S. j:. of the fort, and is 2600 ft. long 
from N. to S., and 1300 ft. broad from 
E. to W. The band plays here at 
stated times, and there axe some wild 
beasts in cages. 

Sect. 11. JBoute 11. — Chsepet — Maddiir — MdlvaUL 


ROUTE 11. 


Names of 

1. Kiunl>aIgod. 

2. Bidadi . . 

3. Closep6t . 

4. Chennapat- 

nam . * . 

5. Maddi'ir 

6. Malvalli . . 

7. Shivasamu- 

dram . . 

Total . 



5 3 
9 4 


11 6 

14 5 

78 2 

There is a Ist class t. b. 
here and the road is 
good all the way. 

The h, here is 2nd class. 
The village is small 
but lias good water. 

Tliis is a large town on 
the 1. b. of the Arkdva- 
ti r. There is a 1st 
class b. From this, 
MdgcKli and Sdvana- 
durga may be visited, 
distence 15+7 m. 

2nd class b. 

1st class b. 

2nd class b. A town of 
5114 inhab. 

Ist class b. near the road 
couuectuig 2 bridges. 

ClosepSt, pronounced by Indians 
KvZu'pi^e, is named after Sir Barry 
Close, Resident at the Court of Maisiir. 
In Kanarese it is called Hoaapite^ 
and in Urdii, Navapit, both meaniiig 
" New Town." It is also sometimes 
called R4mgiri, from the hill close Ijy, 
at the foot of which the town originally 
stood. It was founded in 1800 by the 
Minister Pumaiya to secui'e the road, 
which there passed through a jungle 
tract. There was a horse-breeding 
establishment for the Maisiir cavalry, 
since removed to Kunigal in the Tum- 
kiir District. It is a municipal town, 
with 5460 inhab. Rdmgiri was forti- 
fied and garrisoned by Tlpii, but it 
surrendered with little or no resistance 
to d^ptain Welch in December, 1791. 
Maddiir has 2288 inhab., and was 
formerly an important place, but 
suffered heavily during the wars with 
Tipii. There are 2 large Vaishnavite 
temples here, sacred to Narasimh 
Swdmi, and Varada Rdjd, "the Man- 
Ition/' and '^ the boon-giving King." 
A £ne brick bridge with 7 arches, b. 

in 1850, spans the Shimsha, on the r. 
b. on which the town is b. Tradition 
says that the ancient name of Maddtir 
was Arjunapura, and that it was b, 
by Arjuna the Pdndu Prince. Vishnu 
Vardhana of the Balldl line, who 
reigned 1117-1138, is said to have b. 
the tank and the temple to Varada 
Rdjd, and to have given the town to 
the Brdhmans. The fort was taken 
by the Maisiir General in 1617, and 
Haidar rebuilt it, and it was disman- 
tled by Lord Comwallis in 1791. 

Malvalli is the head-quarters of the 
T'aluk of the same name, and a muni- 
cipal town. The Maisiir-Kankanhalli 
and Maddur-Shivasamudram roads 
intersect here. There are 5114 inhab. 
Haidar gave it to his son Tlpii, and 
the rice fields near the tank are the 
site of a garden which Tlpii formed. 
On the 27th of March, 1799, Tipii 
drew up his army 2 m. to the W. of the 
fort and village of Malvalli. General 
Harris advanced with the right or prin- 
cipal division of his army under his im- 
mediate command, and the left column 
under General Wellesley. The un- 
evenness of the ground causing an 
interval between the brigades, Tipii 
directed a charge of cavalry against 
them, " which was prepared wifii de- 
liberate coolness, and executed with • 
great spirit." Many horsemen fell on 
the bayonets of the Europeans, but no 
disorder was caused in their ranks. 
Col. Wellesley then moved to turn the 
enemy's right, when Tlpii's infantry 
advanced in front of their guns, and 
received the fire of the .S3rd regiment 
and the English artillery, until at 60 
yds. from the Europeans they gave 
way, and were immediately charged 
by Col. Floyd with the brigade of 
cavalry, which drove them off the 
field with the loss of more than 1000 
men, while the English lost but 69. 
After the action Tipii destroyed Mal- 
valli, to prevent its giving shelter to 
the English. 

The Falls of the Kdv^ri at Shiva- 
samudram are certainly among the 
most remarkable in the world. The 
r. has in M.aisiLVi «v\. ^^^'tas^'i \iT^aSiSoL 
of ironi SO^ lo \^ -^^'^.^Xsvs^^ "ttweL NisA 


BotUe 11. — Bengal'&r to Shivasamudram. Sect. 11. 

samndram it swells into a much broader 
stream. The maximom flood discharge 
roughly gauged at Banmir is 239,000 
cubic ft. per second. The bottom of 
the channel is mostly composed of 
rocks, which increase the eddies and 
foaming of the waters. A few miles 
after the stream has passed Talkdd it 
turns northward and forms an island 
3 m. long, and about 2 m. broad, 
round which it sweeps in 2 broad 
streams, that on the r. or E. passing 
within the frontier of Koimbatilr, while 
that on the 1. or W. separates the 
territory of Maisiir from Koimbatiir. 
The island is called in Kanarese Heg- 
gura, but is more generally known by 
its Skr. name Shivasamudram, ^'the 
sea of Shiva." The total descent of 
the river from its point of separation 
at the S. point of the island to its 
reunion at the N. point is nearly 300 
ft. The N., or more properly speak- 
ing the W. branch of the r. is the 
more considerable of the two, and 
forms a smaller island called Ettlkur, 
but Buchanan gives it the name (vol. ii. 
p. 166) of Nellaganatitu, on either 
side of which a vast stream thunders 
down. The banks of the r. and the 
island are thickly clothed with beau- 
tiful forest trees, which cast a dense 
gloom over the abyss into which the 
waters are precipitated. As one stands 
on the island deafened with the roar 
of the cataract, and dizzied by the 
lightning rush of the waters, it adds 
something to the awe of the scene to 
know that the place is full of tigers, 
and that many a luckless pilgrim has 
been carried away from the very spot 
where one is standing to be devoured 
, in those impenetrable thickets. Bu- 
' chanan tells us that this island is 
■ believed to be inhabited by a devil, 
i and adds " the only persons who defy 
j this devil, and the tigers, who are 
i said to be very numerous, are 2 Mus- 
lim hermits that dwell at Gagana 
., chukki. The hermitage is a hut open 
. • all round, placed opposite to the tomb 
; of Pir Wafi, an ancient saint, and sur- 
rounded hy some neat smooth areas, 
and a number of flowering and axo- 
matic trees introduced from the neigh 
bouring forests. One of these heimitB 

was absent on business ; the other had 
no defence from the tigers, but his 
confidence in the holiness of the place, 
and his own sanctity." The main 
island of Shivasamudram is the site 
of a city which was built in the 
beginning of the 16th cent, by Ganga 
Rdjd (Gaz. vol. ii. p. 271) a kinsman 
of the Rdjd of Vijayanagar. He is 
said to have begun building before 
the prescribed auspicious moment, and 
consequently his city was doomed to 
last for only 3 generations. His son 
and successor Nandi Rdjd committed 
some breach of ceremonial, which he 
expiated by leaping into the cataract 
at Gangana Cnukki on horseback, 
with his wife seated behind him. The 
ruin foretold fell on his son Ganga 
Rdjd II., one of whose daughters mar- 
ried the RdjA of Kilimale, a place 
12 m. from Satyagala, and the other 
the Rdj^ of Nagarakere, 3 m. E. of 
Maddiir. These ladies enraged their 
husbands by contrasting their mean 
style of living with the magnificence 
of their father. The 2 Rdjas resolved 
to humble the pride of their wives by 
attacking their father's city, which 
they besieged ineffectually' for 12 
years until his Dalavdy, or Com.-in- 
chief betrayed him, and engaged him 
in a game of chess while the enemy's 
soldiers were passing the only ford. 
Roused at last to his danger the R&jd 
slew his women and children, and 
then rushing into the battle was slain, 
on which his sons-in-law and their 
wives plunged into the cataract. Jagat 
Deva, Rdjd of Channapatnam, and 
Shrl Ranga, Rdja of Talked, then 
sacked the city, and removed its inhab. 
In 1791 Tlpii, on the advance of Lord 
Comwallis, swept the adjoining coun- 
try of people and flocks, and drove 
them into Shivasamudram. After this 
the island was deserted, and became 
overgrown with dense jungle infested 
with wild beasts. The bridges which 
had led to the town, formed of huge 
blocks of black stone, some placed 
upright as pillars, and others laid 
across in the manner of Egyptian 
"buildSivg.^, -wet^ "Vstck'ea. wid dilapi- 
dated. ^o^eN«, vcv \%1^ ^ ^^^5^^^ 

named "Rt»jcaa ^^^jmi ■^\5As^\^^, ^\vsi 

Sect. II. 

Horde 11. — Talkdd — Somndthpur. 


was a confidential servant of the then 
Besident of Maisiir, carried a fine 
double bridge across the stream, re- 
paired the temples, and b. a traveller's 
b. laying out several thousand pounds 
on tiie works, which it took him 3 
years to finish. For this good service 
the British Government conferred on 
him the title of Jan6pak4ra Edmkarta 
or " public benefactor." At the same 
time he was invested with a jdglr or 
grant of land of 5 villages by the 
British Government, yielding an in- 
come of Rs. 8000 a year, and of 7 
villages by the Maisiir Government, 
yielding Bs. 9000 a year. The bridge, 
or bridges are b. of hewn stone pillars, 
connected by stone girders built on 
the rocky bed of the r., and though 
rude are good specimens of Indian 
construction. The Jdgird^r at the 
same time erected a b. for travellers 
close to the rd. connecting the 2 
bridges, for the accommodation of 
European visitors, who are hospitably 
entertained at his expense. Gigantic 
skins are shown in the b. of tigers 
killed by the JdglrdAr in the vicinity. 
The bridge on the Maisiir side is 1000 
ft. long, and 13 ft. broad. The granite 
pillars are 400 in number, and 20 ft. 
nigh. At the end are 2 stone ele- 
phants on pedestals. During the dry 
season, when the island is feverish and 
unhealthy, this great bridge seems one 
of unnecessary labour and costliness. 
But even when lowest the current is 
strong, and brawls among the rocks, 
and there are so many deep holes that 
it is highly dangerous to attempt to 
ford. In the rains it is a furious tor- 
rent, impassable except by the bridge. 
That is the best season for visiting tiie 
place, both on account of salubrity, and 
also for the spectacle. About 1 m. 
distant from Gagana Chukki on the 
E. bank of the r. is the cataract formed 
by the S. branch of the K4v6ri, which 
is called Bar-Chukki. These falls are 
more easily viewed and, therefore, 
more enjoyable. The height from 
which the water descends is about 
200 ft., and in the rainy season an 
unbroken sheet of water J m. broad falls 
aver the precipice to that depth with 
stmming roar. In the dry season the 

stream separates into sometimes as 
many as 14 distinct falls. In the 
centre is a deep recess shaped like a 
horse-shoe, down which the main stream 
plunges, and then being confined in a 
narrow channel of rock, springs for- 
ward with inconceivable velocity, and 
falls a second time about 30 ft. into 
a capacious basin at the foot of the 
precipice. Both the N. and the S, 
streams after forming these cataracts 
rush on through wild and narrow 
gorges, and reuniting on the N.E. of 
the island fiow forwMd to the E. The 
visitor will do well to choose the rainy 
season for his visit, as well on account 
of the greater beauty of the scenery, 
as because the island in the cold months 
is excessively feverish, so much so in- 
deed that the colony planted by the 
Jdglrddr has more than once required 

Talkdd. — ^While at Shivasamudram 
the traveller may spend a day in visit- 
ing Talkdd, which is 12 m. to the S.W. 
The ancient city is buried in the sand, 
and with it 30 temples, the tops of 
some of which still project. The fine 
temple of Vedeshwar is still uncovered 
by the sand. 

Somndthpur. — From Talked to Na- 
rasipur, now the head-quarters of the 
T'alu^, and possessing 2 venerable 
temples, is only 10 m., and just across 
the r. is the large village of Sosile which 
contains the math or monastery of the 
VyAsa K4ya SwAmi, the Onru or saint 
of the Mddhva Brdhmans. N. of this 
again 5 m. is the village of Somndth- 
pur, famous for the temple of Pra- 
sanna Channa E^sava. This is an 
elaborately carved building attributed 
to Jakandchdri, the famous sculptor 
and architect of the Ballila kings. 
Smaller than the temple at Halebid 
this temple is more pleasing, as the 3 
pyramidal towers or vimdnahs over the 
triple shrine are completely finished. 
The central shrine is that of Prasanna 
Channa E^sava, that on the S. is sacred 
to Gopdla, and that on the N. to Jandr- 
dhana. Bound the outer base are 
carved with much spirit the. ^TmciXj^'siJL 
incidents in tYi'&'SLteak^^i.^^,^^^^^^^ 
Bh6.Tata and t\\fe^^i«^«^^ ^'^^^^.'^^ 
end of eac\i c\wk.^\«t =va meiice.Xfto^ \?3 ^ 


Moute 12. — Bengalur to Shnrangpatnam, Sect. II. 

closed door, of each gection by a half 
closed door. Around lie 74 mutilated 
statues, which once stood on or around 
the basement. There is a fine inscrip- 
tion at the entrance which declares 
that the bnilding was completed in 
A.D. 1270 by Soma, a high officer of 
the Balldla State, and a member of 
the royal family. The vestibule is in 
ruins, and the images are more or less 
damaged. There are also the ruins of 
a large Shivite temple with inscrip- 

BOUTE 12. 


Names of 

Bengaliii to 
Maddik . 

6. Mandiam . 

7. SettihaUi . . 

8. Shrirangpatnam 

9. Maisiir 

Total . . 



M. F. 

48 5 

11 1 

12 3 
3 6 
9 1 


1st class b. 

2nd do. , capital of a 

3rd class b. 

b. and t. s. 

t. b. and p. s., city 
of 67,816 inhab., 
capital of a pro- 

Shrirangpatnam^ vulgarly called 
Seringapatamj is situated in lat. 12"* 25', 
long. 76' 46' at the W. end of an 
island in the K4v6ri 3 m. long from 
E. to W., and 1 m. broad from N. to S. 
It is a municipal town, the head- 
quarters of the Ashtagrdm T'aluk. It 
has now a pop. of 10,594 inhab. Buch- 
anan (vol. i., p. 77) says that when 
lie was there " the principal merchant 

safely admit the former pop. of the 
island to have amounted to 150,000." 
He himself calculates the pop. at the 
time of his visit. May 20, 1800, at 
31,895 persons. The suburb of Ganjdm, 
which occupies the E. end of the 
island, was in Buchanan's time in a 
ruinous state, and he says, " nothing 
can have a look more dismal and 
desolate," but it is now prosperous, 
and carries on an extensive trade. 
The town has its name from a temple 
of Vishnu Shri-ranga. This temple 
is of great celebrity, and of much 
higher antiquity than the city, which 
did not rise to be of importance 
until the time of the princes of 
the Maisiir dynasty. As a proof of 
the great antiquity of this temple, the 
fact may be cited that it is called the 
Adi Ranga, or original Ranga, while 
the islands of Shivasamudram and 
Shrlrangam at TrichinApalli, are called 
respectively, Madhya Ranga and Antya 
Ranga, 'medieval Ranga' and 'modem 
Ranga.' It is said that Gautama 
Rishi worshipped at this temple, which 
is in the fort. A Tamil memoir in the 
McKenzie collection called Kojiga 
desa Charitra commented on by Prof. 
Dowson (J.R.A.S., vol. viii.), says, "On 
the 7th Vaishdkha sudh, A.s. 816 = 
A.D. 894, a person named Tirumalayan 
b. a temple, and to the W. of it erected 
an image of Vishnu, which he called 
Tirumala Deva, upon some land 'in 
the midst of the K4v6ri, where in 
former times the Western RanganM 
Swdmi had been worshipped by 
Gautama Rishi,' but which was then 
entirely overrun with jungle. This 
place he called Shri Ranga Pattana." 
In 1133, Rdmdnujdchdri, the Vaish- 
navite reformer, took refuge in Maisiir 
fi'om the persecution of the Chola 
RAjA, and converted fi'om the Jain 
faith Vishnu Vardhana, a famous RdjA 
of the Hoysala Balldla dynasty. The 
royal convert gave him the province 
of Ashtagrdma including Shrirangpat- 
nam, over which he appointed officers 
called Prabhurs and Hebbars. In 
1454, the Hebbar Timmana obtained 

jn the place says that in the reign. oi\irom t\ift lBL^\k oi yi^a.-^a.uagar, the 
^^P^, the island contained 500,000 \ govCTi\me;Ti\. oi ^\iTVxwi^^^\.^^^ 
^^tf'/'and adds, "Perhaps we ixiay\ leave to \)\niaL «. ioiX. t\vst^, T^\^\vfe 

Sect. II. E(yiite 12. — Shrirangpatnam : The Fort, 


did with a treasure he had found, and 
he also enlarged Shrl Ranga's temple 
with the materials obtained by de- 
molishing 101 Jain temples at Kalas- 
vddi, a to\wi 5 m. S. His descendants 
governed till the RAjA of Vijaj'^anagar 
appointed a Viceroy with the title of 
Shri-Ranga-Rdyal. The last of these 
Viceroys was Tlrumala RdjA, who in 
1610 surrendered his power to Rdj4 
Wodayar, the rising ruler of Maisiir ; 
after which Shrlrangapatnam became 
the capital of the Maisilr Rdj4s, and 
of Haidar and Tlpii till the fort was 
stormed by the British on the 4th of 
May, 1799, when Maisiir became the 
capital, though Bengalilr is now in 
effect the chief city. 

The Fort— The plan of the Fort is 
an irregular pentagon about 1 J m. in 
diameter fi'om S.E. to N.W., and f m. 
in breadth. To the E. and S. the de- 
fences were very strong, and the place 
was, theref^e, stormed in 1799 by an ad- 
vance across the r. against the W. side, 
where, owing, perhaps, to a vain belief 
in the security afforded by the stream, 
the fortifications had not been made 
so formidable. Buchanan says (vol. i. 
p. 62) : The Fort occupies the upper 
(Western) end of the island, and is an 
immense, unfinished, unsightly, and 
injudicious mass of building. Tipil 
seems to have had too high an opinion 
of his own skill to have consulted the 
French who were about him ; and 
adhered to the old Indian style of 
fortification, labouring to make the 
place strong by heaping walls and 
cavaliers one above another. He was 
also very diligent in cutting ditches 
through the granite. He retained the 
long straight walls and square bastions 
of 3ie Hindiis ; and his glacis was in 
many parts so high and steep, as to 
shelter an assailant from the fire of 
the ramparts. In the island also, in 
order to water a garden, he had dug 
a deep canal parallel to the works of 
the fort, and not above 800 yds. distant 
from them. He was so unskilled as 
to look upon this as an additional 
security ; but had it been necessaiy to 
besiege the town legulaTly, the as- 
sailant would have found it of the 
utmost use. Had Tipd'a troops been 

capable of defending the place properly, 
this mode of attack would have been 
necessary ; but confidence in their men, 
and the difficulty of bringing up the 
stores required to batter down many 
heavy works, made our officers prefer 
to attack across the r., where the 
works were not so strong, and where 
they ventured on storming a breach 
that nothing but a very great difference 
between the intrepidity of the as- 
sailants and defendants could have 
enabled them to carry. The depth of 
the river was of little importance ; 
but the assailants, in passing over its 
rocky bed, were exposed to a heavy 
fire of artillery, and suffered considera- 
ble loss. 

On ascending the breach, our men 
found an inner rampart lined with 
troops, separated from them by a wide 
and deep diteh, and defended at its 
angle by a high cavalier. After the 
first surprise thus occasioned, the 
troops soon recovered their spirits and 
pushed on, along the outer rampart 
towards both the rt. and 1. of the 
breach. Those who went to the 1, 
found great opposition. At every 20 
or 30 yds. the rampart was crossed by 
traverses, and these were defended 
by the SultAn in person. The loss of 
men here was considerable ; but the 
English troops gradually advanced, 
and the Sultan retired slowly, defend- 
ing his ground with obstinacy. The 
enfilading fire from the Bombay army, 
on the N. side of the river, had been 
so strong, that the defendants had 
been entirely driven from the ramparts 
on the rt. of the breach, and prevented 
from raising traverses. Our people 
who went in that direction did not 
meet with the smallest opposition ; 
and the flank companies of the 12th 
Regiment having found a passage 
across the inner ditoh, passed through 
the town to attack the rear of the 
enemy, who were opposing the Euro- 
peans on the left. The Sul^dn had 
now been driven back to the E. of the 
palace, and is said to have had his 
horse shot under him. H«^TQi^D&.\jaM^ 
gone out at a ^a\fc \ea^cai^ \r> 'Ocka ^. 
branch ot t\ie t., wai^L TLo\Jc&!w^/y3^ 
have pIe>^eILled\iimtcom\o^s3MSi^xs^a 


Boute 12. — Bengalur to Shrirangpatnam, Sect. 11. 

cavalry, which under the command of 
his son Fatl^ IjEaidar and Pumea, were 
hovering round the Bombay army. 
Fortunately he decided on going into 
the inner fort by a narrow sally-port, 
and as he was attempting to do so, he 
was met by the crowd flying from the 
flank companies of the 12th Kegiment ; 
while the troops coming up behind 
cut off all means of retreat. Both par- 
ties seem to have fired into the gateway, 
and some of the Europeans must have 
passed through with the bayonet ; as 
a wound evidently Inflicted by that 
weapon was discovered in the arm of 
the Sultdn. No individual claimed 
the honour of having slain him, nor 
did any of either party know that he 
had fallen in the gateway. The as^ 
sailants were too much enraged to 
think of anything but the destruction 
of the enemy. Each division passed 
on towards the E. end of the town, 
and as they advanced the carnage 
increased. The garrison threw them- 
selves from the works, attempting to 
escape into the island, and from thence 
to their cavalry. The greater part 
were killed by the fall, or broke their 
limbs in the most shocking manner. 
Mir $ddi^, the favourite, fell in at- 
tempting to get through the gates. 
He is supposed to have been killed by 
Tlpii's soldiery, and his corpse lay for 
some time exposed to the insults of the 
populace, none of whom passed with- 
out spitting on it or loading it with a 
slipper ; for to him they attributed 
most of their sufferings in the tyranni- 
cal reign of the Sult4n. 

The 2 divisions of the storming 
army now met at an open place 
surrounding a very fine mosque, into 
which the remains of the garrison 
withdrew, and with their destruction 
the fighting nearly ceased. The num- 
ber of burials amounted to somewhat 
above 7000 ; several of these were 
townspeople of both sexes, and all 
ages ; but this was accidental, for our 
soldiers killed none intentionally but 
fighting men. When our two parties 
bad met and no longer saw the enemy 

ranks, and the camp followers poured 
into the town, and an entire night was 
employed in plunder. In this I believe 
very little murder was committed ; 
although many persons were beaten 
and threatened with death, in order 
to make them discover their property. 
Next day the wounded of the enemy 
were collected, and the mosque which 
had been the great scene of bloodshed, 
became now a place of refuge in which 
these poor creatures had every atten- 
tion paid to them by the British 

A good view of the city and sur- 
rouncBng country may be obtained by 
ascending one of the mindrs of the J Am'i 
Masjid, b. by Tlpii not long before his 
death. To the N. about 6 m. off, is the 
stat. called French Rocks, from its 
having been occupied by a French regi- 
ment in Tlpil's time. The highest point 
is 2882 ft. above the sea. The real name 
of the place is Hirod. The houses in 
the fort have been for the most part 
demolished, and those that remain are 
greatly dilapidated. The place is no- 
toriously unhealthy, and to sleep in it 
generally entails an attack of fever. 
The spot where the breaching battery 
was placed is marked by 2 cannons, 
fixed perpendicularly in the ground 
opposite the W. angle, and close to 
the river's edge, and the breach itself 
is visible a short distance to the rt. of 
the rd. to Maisilr. All along this part 
where the stormers rushed to the 
slaughter, there are now trees with 
luxuriant foliage, and the grass grows 
freshly under them. One would call 
it the most quiet peaceful spot even 
in this silent deserted city. Time has 
added little to the injuries inflicted on 
the walls by the English guns, and 
Mr. Lewis Rice teU us (Gaz. vol. ii. 
p. 268), that a great military authority 
who lately visited the place, pro- 
nounced it to be the 2nd strongest 
fort in India. TipiSb's Palace is within 
the walls. The greater part of it has 
been converted into a warehouse for 
sandalwood, and the rest has been 
demolished. It was a very large 

tbej- soon cooled, and were disposed in \ "bxnldm^ %\3cno\m.^^^\y3 ^.Tcuofisive wall 

the manner moBtpromr to secure their \ oi B^xine w\A. toxjA, «a.^^^ ^1 ^\fi«asv 

conquest. Many, however, left theii \ apv^aiaiicfe. "l^^a Y^^re.^ v^^ssNsaKox.'a. 

Sect. II. 

HoiUe 12. — Maimr City, 


of Tipii formed a square, and the en- 
trance was by a strong and narrow 
passage, in which 4 tigers were chained. 
Withm was the hall in which Tipil 
wrote, and to it few except Mir SAdi^ 
were ever admitted. Behind the hall 
was the bed-chamber. The door was 
strongly secured on the inside, and a 
close iron grating defended the win- 
dows. Buchanan says that Tipii, lest 
any person should fire upon him while 
in bed, slept in a hammock suspended 
from the roof by chains, in such a 
situation as to be invisible from the 
windows. " In the hammock were found 
a sword and a pair of loaded pistols. " 
The only other passage led into the 
women's apartments, which contained 
600 women, of whom 80 were wives 
of the Sult^, and the rest attendants. 

The Baryd Baulat Bdgh, a summer 
palace of Tipil, is just outside the fort. 
Its graceful proportions and the arab- 
esque work in rich colours which 
covers it, make it very attractive. The 
walls are painted with representations 
of the victories of Haidar, as that over 
Colonel Baillie near Conjeveram in 
1780. These had been defaced prior 
to the siege, but Colonel Arthur Wel- 
lesley, who made this garden. his resi- 
dence, had them restored. They were 
afterwards whitewashed and almost 
obliterated, but Lord Dalhousie, having 
visited the spot during his tour in 
Maisiir, ordered them to be repainted 
by a native artist who remembered 
the originals. The perspective is very 
bad and the general effect grotesque, 
but the painter has succeeded in cari- 
caturing the expression and attitude 
of the British soldiers, and the French- 
men are very life-like. 

The Ldl Bdgh is a garden on the 
other side of Ganj6m, which suburb 
intervenes between it and the Daryd 
Daulat. It contains the mausoleum 
of Qaidar and Tlpii, a square building 
surmounted by a dome, with minarets 
at the angles, and surrounded by a 
corridor which is supported by pillars 
of black hornblende, a stone that is 
remarkable for its beautiful polish. 
The double doors inlaid with ivory 
were given by Lord Dalhousie. Each 
of the tombs is covered with a crimson 

pall. The whole is kept up at Govern- 
ment expense. The tablet on Tipiii's 
tomb is in verse to this effect : The 
light of Isl^m and the faith left the 
world. Tlpii became a martyr for the 
faith of Muhammad. The sword was 
lost and the son of Gaidar fell a noble 
martyr. The inscription gives the 
date 1213 A.H. = 1799 A.D. 

MaUuVf the capital of the State so 
called, and the city where the MahA- 
rdjah resides, is situated in lat. 12° 18', 
long. 76° 42' at the N.W. base of the 
Chdmimdi Hill, which is an isolated 
peak rising to 3489 ft. above the sea. 
Maisiir with its 3 suburbs covers an 
area of 3 sq. m., and has 57,815 inhab., 
of whom 43,905 axe Hindiis, 990 Chris- 
tians, 37 Pdrsis, and the rest Mus- 
lims. The town is b. in a valley 
formed by 2 ridges running N. and 
S. There is a slight ascent on the N. 
side. The streets are broad and regular, 
and there are many substantial houses 
2 or 3 storeys high, with terraced 
roofs. Most of the houses, however, 
are tUed. The town has a neat and 
thriving look, and the sanitation has 
been much attended to by the muni- 
cipality. In the Fort, which occupies 
the S. quarter, the appearance of the 
houses is less promising, and the 
streets are narrow and irregular. The 
t. b. stands at the extreme N. verge of 
the town. The jail is nearly opposite 
it to the W., at 462 yds. distance. The* 
cemetery is 700 yds. to the S. by E. of 
the t. b., and the Residency is 900 
yds. due S. of the cemetery. W. of 
the Residency at 600 yds. distance is 
the District Civil Office, and S. of that 
again about 400 yds. is the High 
School, and a little further to the S. 
are St. Bartholomew's Church and the 
Wesleyan Church. The Summer Palace 
is about 600 yds. E. of the Fort, while 
another palace is in the Fort itself, and 
a 3rd somewhat to the W. 

The Ibrt is quadrangular, 3 of the 
sides being 450 yds. long, and the 4th 
or S. side somewhat longer. There 
are gates on the N. S. &W. Those 
on the N, and S, ate ^totattft^ \s^ 
outwotka. YVas\J&m'^\jo^^'t%^<3n5aa»s^ 
the curtain a.t \si\.er?«!Ns. ^^ '^^ '^^^ 
I angle t\ieTe is ©i ea«fcm».V^, «\v^^ V«»* 


JRotUe 12. — Bengalur to Shrh^angpatnam. Sect. II. 

petted cavalier at the N.E., but the 
defences are mean and ill-planned. 
A ditch surrounds the fort, and a 
sloping glacis covered with houses 
abuts it on all sides but the E., where 
the ditch is separated from the De- 
varAj tank only by the high rd. to Nan- 
jangud. The interior of the fort is 
crowded with houses, chiefly occupied 
by retainers of the palace. The 
Mahdrdjah's Palace within the fort 
faces due E., and is b. in the ultra- 
Hindii style. There are a few paintings 
by a European. The front is tawdry 
and supported by 4 fantastically carved 
wooden pillars. The Sejj6 or Dasara 
hall is an open gallery where the R4jA 
showed himself to the people seated 
on his throne, on great occasions. The 
throne is very remarkable. According 
to one account it was presented to the 
Ambassadors of Chikka Deva R4jd in 
1699 (Wilks, voL i. p. 106) for their 
prince. The palace legend at Maisiir 
is that it was found buried at Penkonda 
by the founders of the Vijayanagar 
empire, Hakka or Harihara and Bukka, 
who were told where it was by one 
Vidydranya, an ascetic. The legend 
goes on to say that it was the throne 
of the Pdndus, when they reigned at 
Hastindpura, whence Kampula Edjd 
brought it, and buried it at Penkonda. 
It is at all events certain that it was 
used by Chikka Deva and his suc- 
cessors up to the time erf Tlpil Sultan ; 
that it was found in a lumber room 
when Shrlrangpatnam was taken by 
the British, and that it was employed 
at the coronation of the Rdjd to whom 
they conceded the government. It 
was originally of figwood overlaid 
with ivory, but after the restoration of 
the Rdjd, the ivory waa plated with 
gold and silver carved with Hindii 
mythological figures, especially with 
representations of the Simlui or lion, 
whence the Skj*. word for a throne, 
Simhdsan, is derived. The Rdjd affects 
as his peculiar title Simhdsan'odhipati 
"enthroned king." Another repre- 
sentation is that of the Itamsa " swan," 
a mjrtbical biid, of which it is said 
^^at any bead on which its shadow 
^alls^ will wear a crown. For minor 
ceremoniea the iUjA uses a second 

throne called Bhadrdsana, "the aus- 
picious seat." The principal gate of 
the palace opens into a passage under 
the Sejj6 leading into an open court. 
At the further or W. side of this court 
is the door leading to the women's 
apartments, which occupy the W. part 
of the palace. In the N. side are the 
armouiy, library, and various offices. 
On the S. side are the rooms occupied 
by the late Mahdrdjah. Here is the 
Amhk Vildsa, an upper room 65 ft. sq. 
and 10 ft. high, with a raised ceiling 
in the centre. Here H. M. received 
his European visitors, and transacted 
the business of the day. A wooden 
railing separates the place where 
H. M. sate from the rest of the room. 
The hall is hung with portraits of 
officers connected with Maisiir. The 
floor is of dazzling white chunam, and 
the doors are overlaid with ivory or 
silver richly carved. The sleeping 
apartments, which are small, open 
upon the Ambd VilAsa, and just out- 
side is the stall in which was kept the 
cow H. M. worshipped ! The palace 
has been almost all b. since 1800, but 
is already in bad repair. Tipii de- 
molished the old palace of the Rdjds, 
but left one inner room with mud 
walls of great thickness. This is 
called the " Painted Hall," from the 
coloured decoration of the ceiling, and 
is said to have been the State reception 
room. In front of the palace there is 
an open space, but on all other sides 
it is pressed upon by the huts of poor 

Opposite to the W. gate of the fort 
is a handsome building called the 
Mohan Mahal or " pleasure palace," b. 
by the late Rajd as a place of amuse- 
ment for European officers. The upper 
storey is adorned with pictures in the 
Indian style. E. of the town are the 
houses of European residents. Here 
is the Residency, b. by Colonel Wilks 
at the beginning of this cent, in the 
Doric style. Sir John Malcolm added 
the back part, in which is one of the 
largest rooms in S. India. As the 
post of Resident has been abolished, 
tlusWiiXiQim^Sa OQC.\v\i\ad by the Com- 
Toiasionfit oi \3aa k^^Xai^T^TSLTyvvvskSs^. 

Sect. It. 

Moute 12. — Mauur CUy. 


for some time occupied by the late 
Duke of Wellingtx)n, then Colonel 

The founders of the present Maisilr 
dynasty were 2 youths of the YAdava 
tribe, named Vijaya and £q*i$hna, who 
while in search of adventures halted 
at Hadandru or Hada-n&du, 5 m. N.E. 
of Nanjangiid. The Wodeyar or chief 
of the place was of unsound mind, and 
had wandered into the jungle, and 
the PdlegAr of the adjoining village 
of KarugaUi, a man of the Toregar 
caste, demanded a daughter of the 
Hadan^ru family, and the family in 
their distress had given a reluctant 
consent. The young Yddavas slew 
the P^egdr, and the bride was given 
to Vijaya, who thus became the chief 
of Hadandru and KarugaUi, and these 
2 villages formed the nucleus of the 
Maisiir kingdom. This event took 
place in the 14th or 15th cent. At the 
beginning of the 16th cent, the site 
of Maisilr was occupied by a village 
called Puragere. The HadanAru chiefs 
had gradually extended their rule so 
as to acquire this place also, and when 
Bettada Chdma Rdjd, who was one of 
them, died, he gave Puragere to one of 
his 3 sons, named Bol6 or " the bald." 
Here in 1524 a fort was b. or repaired 
and named Mahishiir (buffalo town) 
from MahishAsur, the demon slain by 
Kdll or Chdmundi. Until the begin- 
ning of the 17th cent, the Maisiir 
chiefs paid tribute to the Viceroy of 
Shrirangpatnam, who was an officer 
of the RAjd of Vijaya, but in 1610 they 
conquered that city, and thencefor- 
ward became poweiful. Tlpii tried 
to obliterate all traces of the Hindii 
rule, and razed the fort of Maisiir to 
the ground, using the materials to 
build another fort on an eminence 1 
m. to the E., which he called Nazara- 
bdd, some remains of which are still 
to be seen. When Tipii fell, the stones 
were brought back and the fort rebuilt 
on its original site. Owing to the 
presence of the Court, Maisiir grew as 
Shrirangpatnam decreased. The RAjd 
was divested of power in 1831, owing 
to the disturbances occasioned by his 
misrule, but he continued to reside in 
the palace at Maisiir, and ith of the 

revenue was assigned to him. He 
died at Maisiir, aged 75, on the 27th 
of March 1868, and his adopted son 
Chdma R^jendra Wodeyar, t^en 4 
years old, was proclaimed Mah&rdjah. 
Ndnjangud.—While at Maisiir the 
traveller may visit Nanjangiid, which 
is only 12 m. to the S. It is the head- 
quarters of the T'aluk of the same 
name, and is a municipal town with 
4754 inhab. It is said to have been 
founded at the end of the 8th cent, by 
Nayara Shekhara Hdyah, a king from 
the N., who also b. Ratanpuri, now 
Hedatale, 54 m. to the S. But that 
which makes a visit to Nanjangiid de- 
sirable is, that it possesses a temple 385 
ft. long by 160 ft. broad, supported by 
147 columns. It is one of the most 
sacred in the Maisiir district, and en- 
joys a Government grant of rs. 20,197. 
There is a celebrated car-festival here 
in March, which lasts 3 days, and is 
resorted to by thousands from all parts 
of S. India. Buchanan (vol. li. p. 
147) mentions the bridge over the 
Eabbani at this place, which he says 
is looked upon by the natives as a 
prodigy of grandeur, but in Europe 
would be considered a disgrace to the 
meanest architect, the arches being 
only 5 ft. span, and the piers being 5 ft 
tMck, and not presenting an angle to 
the stream. The sides of the arches 
have scarcely any curvature, and are 
simply 2 planes meeting at an acute 
angle. The bridge is, however, long 
and wide, and a great convenience. 
The same authority tells us that the 
place is named from Shiva, and liie 
name signifies " swallowing poison." 
In fact, Na^jimdesh/mar is a Kanarese 
name ^ of Shiva from nanju^ "poison," 
and Iskrvarj "god," alluding to the 
story that Shiva swallowed the poison 
produced from the churning of the 


kovie 13. — Maimr to Shravana Belagold, Sect. II. 

ROUTE 13. 


Names of Stations. 


M. P. 

9 1 

8 5 
10 8 


57 1 


1. Shrirangpatnam 

2. Chinkuraji*. . . 
8. Attikuppe 

4. Kikeri . . . 

5. Channardyapatnam. 

6. Shravaqa Belagola . 


3rd cl. b. 
2nd cl. b. , 
3rd cl. b. ' 
1st cl. b. 

At Chinkurali in 1771, the Mardthas 
gained a great victory over Haidar 
'All. This is perhaps referred to by 
Grant Duff, vol. ii. p. 2 1 5. The Mar Athas 
then plundered the temples at M6luk6t. 
Chinkurali is the headquarters of a 
hohli or subdivision of the Attikuppe 
T*alu^, containing 66 villages and 9353 

AttiJmppe(jgroyQ of Metis glomerata) 
is the headquarters of a T'sJul^ of the 
same name, and has 1616 inhkb. At 
Mkkeri good cloth is manufactured, 

Cha/ima-rdya-patffam is the head- 
quarters of a T'^uk of the same name, 
and has 2676 inhab. It is in the Hdsan 
District. It was originally called 
Kolati!ir. Machala D^vi and Santala 
D6vl, dancing girls, b. the large tank 
on the N.E. In 1600 Lakshmappa 
NAyak, chief of Narsipiir, took the 
place from the Hebbar Puttagirija, 
and ga'^e it to his son Channa Kdya, 
called after Channa Edya swdmi, a 
name of Vishnu. A temple was b. to 
this deity, and the town was called 
by its present name. A chief named 
Dodda Basasaiya b. the fort, and it 
was taken in 1633 by Chdma R&jd, 
Wodeyar of Maisiiir. It suffered much 
from the Mar^t^as, and Qaidar 'All 
rebuilt it, and added a wet moat and 
gateways with traverses. 
Shravai^Belago\a» These words are 
said by Buchanan (vol, iii. p. 410) to 
mean ''Here is the white Solanum," and 
-fle adds, " a species of that plant gro^a 

in the neighbourhood very copiously." 
Shravana, however, in Kanarese is a 
word derived from Skp., that primarily 
means "hearing," but is a term for a 
Jain, and gola means '' a globe." It 
is goli, not gola, that means the plant 
Nyctanthes trwtis. Buchanan's ety- 
mology is, therefore, evidently incor- 
rect. More probably Belagola was 
the name of the place, and Shravana 
relates to the hearing the instructions 
of Bhadra Bdhu, the Jain sage, who 
died here in the 4th cent. B.C., and 
was a Shnita kevala or immediate 
" hearer " of the 6 disciples of Mah4- 
vlra, founder of the Jain sect. The 
chief attendant of this worthy is said 
to have been the famous Emperor 
Chandragupta, or Sandracottus, who 
abdicated to live the life of a recluse 
with Bhadra BAhu. These events are 
confirmed by inscriptions on the rock 
of very great antiquity. The grand- 
son of Chandragupta is said to have 
visited the spot with an army, and 
from his camp arose the town of Shra- 
vana Belgola or Belgola of the Shra- 
vans= Jains. Near the town, which 
has 1697 inhab., are 2 rocky hills : 
Indra-heffa and Cliandragiri. On 
Indra-betta is a colossal statue of 
Gromata Edya, of which Buchanan has 
given a drawing. The same authority 
makes the height of the statue 70 ft. 
3 in. It is nude and faces the N. 
The face has the calm look usual in 
Buddhist statues. The hair is curled 
in short spiral ringlets all over the 
head. The ears are long and large, 
the shoulders very broad, the arms 
hanging straight down with the thumbs 
outwards, the waist small. From the 
knees downwards the legs are unnatu- 
rally short— the feet rest on a lotus. 
Ant-hills are represented rising on 
either side, with a creeping plant 
springing from them wMch twines 
round the thighs and arms, ending in 
a tendril with bunches of fruit. If 
we read the name of the place Bela 
goli, it may be derived from this " white 
creeper." These are intended to sym- 
bolise the deep abstraction of the sage, 
60 a\)aoi\)edYTLXciedita.tlQn^ that the ants 
\)\ii\.d, and ^i)aa -^^.Tt^ c)Cvdb^ ^s^owsia^ 
bioi \nmo\.\c^d. 

Sect II. 

HoiUe IL-^Hdsafi — £ilur. 


Though certainly 1000 years old, 
and probably 2000, the stone looks as 
fresh as if newly quarried. Within 
the enclosure are 72 small statues, 
of like appearance, in compartments. 
An inscription on the front of the 
colossus states that it was erected by 
Chdmunda Riya, who is said to have 
lived 60 B.C. The same inscription 
states that the surrounding enclosures 
were put up by GangA RAya. A priest 
of Shravana Belagola was summoned in 
788 AJ>. to a Court of Hemasihala at 
Kdnclii. His name was Akalanka, and 
he confuted the Buddhists in a public 
disputation, and got them banished to 
Ceylon. The place abounds with in- 
scriptions, the most interesting of 
which are cut in the face of the rock 
at Indra-betta in ancient characters 
1 ft. long. On Chandra-giri there are 
15 Jain temples. 

ROUTE 14. 


Names of Stations. 

00 -: 
M. F. 


1. Shrirangpatnam . 

9 1 

2. Chinkiiraji '. 

12 Srd cl. b. 

3, Attikuppe. . . 

11 2nd do. 

4. Kikeri . 

8 5 '3rd do. 

5. Channar&yapatijam 

6. DindiganhaUi * . . 

10 3 1st do. 

10 2 2nd do. 

r. Hisan . 

12 2 Ist do. 

8. MadihaUi . 

13 8 

9. B^liir . 

12 3 

2nd do. 

10. HaJeWd . . . 

10 1 

Total . 

109 4 

The route as far as Channar^yapat- 
:pam has been already noticed, 
MUan, the capital of the district of 

the same name, is in lat. 13**, long. 76** 
9'. It has a pop. of 6305 persons, of 
whom 274 are tfains, and 237 Christians. 
The town was originally built at the 
adjacent village of Chennapatna, 
founded in the 10th cent, by Bukkana 
or Bukka N4yak, an officer of the 
Chola king. He ruled for 43 years, 
and his son Bdchi Ndyak 6 years. 
Chennappa Ndyak, son of Biichi, suc- 
ceeded him and ruled 45 years, and 
his son Bilcha N4yak lived 60 years 
and died without male issue. The 
BallAla king then gave Chenna- * 
patna to Sanj^va Kp^hnappa N^yak, 
who on one occasion stalled a hare, 
which ran into the town. This he 
regarded as a bad omen, but HdaiU" 
amma, "the smiling mother," appeared 
to him and told him to build a fort on 
the spot where the hare started. He 
did so, and called it after the goddess 
Hdsana, The present town dates 
from the end of the 12th cent. It 
was annexed to Maisi!ir in 1690 in the 
reign of Chikka Deva RAjA Wadegar. 

Bilur is in lat. 13*^ 10', long. 76** 55' 
on the r. b. of the Yagache, 23 m. 
N.W. of H&san. It is a municipal 
town, and the head-quarters of the 
T'aluk of the same name. There is a 
pop. of 2989 persons. In the Purdnas 
and old inscriptions it is called VelA 
pura, and is styled the S. Ban^ras. 
Here is the famous temple of Chenna 
Eesava, erected and endowed by the 
Hoysala king, Vishnu Vardhana, on 
exchanging the Jain faith for that 
of Vishnu in the beginning of the 
12th cent. The carving (Mr. Lewis 
Rice's Gaz. vol. ii. p. 315) with which 
it is decorated rivals in design and 
finish that of Halebid, and is the 
work of the same artist, Jakan4- 
chdri. The annual festival held for 6 
days' in April is attended by 6000 
people. The image of Chenna Eesava 
is said to have been brought from the 
Bdbd Budan hills, but that of his 
goddess was left behind, which obliges 
him to pay her a visit there at stated 
intervals. At p. 395 of Fergusson's 
" History of Architecture " willbe-fexiSB^ 
a plan oi t'iie \em.i^\^ \i«K., ^\M2a. V^ 
calls the Great Temi^^a «X. ^«SS\Sa. "Vs» 

stands withia ^ \a^\i^«2!:V^\s2^^ ««t' 


Boute 14, — Maimr to Halebid, 

Sect II. 

rounds a court, 440 ft by 360 ft. In 
this court are, besides the Great 
Temple, 4 or 5 smaller ones. On the 
K. front are 2 fine Gopuras. The 
Great Temple is 115 ft. long from E. 
to W. It stands on a terrace 3 ft. 
high, so that there is a raised mai'gin 
all round it. " It consists," says Mr. 
Fergusson, " of a very solid vimdnah, 
with an anterala or porch ; and in front 
of this a porch of the usual star-like form, 
measuring 90 ft. across. The arrange- 
ments of the pillars have much of that 
• pleasing subordination and variety of 
spacing which is found in those of the 
Jains, but we miss here the octagonal 
dome, which gives such poetry and 
meaning to the aiTangements they 
adopted. Instead of these we have 
only an exaggerated compai*tment in 
the centre, which fits nothing, and, 
though it does give dignity to the 
centre, it does it so clumsily as to be 
almost oflEensive in an architectural 
sense." The windows to the porch 
are 28, and all different. Some are 
pierced with star-shaped, conventional 
patterns, and with foliaged patterns 
between. Others are interspersed with 
mythological figures, as the Vardha 
avatdr. The base is very richly carved, 
and is supported on carved elephants. 
Mr. Fergusson says : " The amount of 
labour which each facet of this porch 
displays is such as never was bestowed 
on any surface of equal extent in any 
building in the world ; and though the 
design is not of the highest order of 
art, it is elegant and appropriate, and 
never offends against good taste. The 
sculptures of the base of the vimdnah 
are as elaborate as those of the porch, 
in some places more so ; and the mode 
in which the under sides of the cor- 
nices have been elaborated is such as 
is only to be found in temples of this 

From a plan furnished by the pre- 
sent Resident at Maisiir, Mr. Gordon, 
the following details may be added. 
The terrace is 4 ft. high. The breadth 
of the base of the cupola is 61 ft., and 
height to top of cupola is 91 ft. 3 in. 
Height of base is 20 ft. The inner 
walls are of brick in chunam with a 
facing of carved atone. 

Halehid, from the Kanarese words, 
1ui\e^ " old," bidu, " ruins," is a village 
ia the B^liir T'aluk, 10 m. E. of B^ltir, 
with 1207 inhab. It marks the site of 
Dorasamudra or DvArasamudra, the 
old capital of the Hoysala BallAla 
kings. It was founded early in the 
12th cent., but was rebuilt in the 
middle of the 13th by Vira Somesh- 
wara, and some inscriptions represent 
him to be the founder, though it is 
known that some of his predecessors 
reigned there. Attacked by leprosy, 
he withdrew to the neighbouring hill 
of Pushpagiri (Mountain of Flowers), 
where he was instructed to erect 
temples to Shiva to obtain a cure. It 
is probable that thus the splendid 
monuments which exist to this day at 
Halebid were undertaken. The Muslim 
general, KAfiir, took the city in 1310 
and plundered it of immense wealth. 
In 1326 another army of Muslims 
carried off what remained, and totally 
destroyed the city. The R4j4 then 
removed to Tondaniir or Tonn\i*. The 
most remarkable temples remaining 
are the Hoysaleshwara and XaitahJiesh- 
waj'a. The latter is the smaller but a 
miracle of art. Unfortunately, a tree of 
the Ficus indica species took root in 
the vimdnaJt or tower over the sanctu- 
ary, and dislodged the stones. Many of 
the figures, thrust out of their places 
in this manner, have been removed to 
the Museum at Bengaliir. Mr. Fer- 
gusson, p. 307, writes the name JKdit 
Iswai'a, and says it is inexplicable. 
There can, however, be no difficulty 
about it. Kaitabha was a demon, 
who, with his confederate, MMhu, 
was about to demolish Brahma, when 
Durga roused Vishnu from his slum- 
bers, and he killed Kaitabha. Hence 
Durga is called Kaitabha, and Vishnu 
Kai^abheshivara, and so the name 
should be written. At p. 398, Mr. 
Fergusson has given a woodcut of this 
temple as it was 20 years ago. It is 
now fast going to ruin. It is star- 
shaped, with 16 points, and had a 
porch, now ruined and covered with 
vegetation. It has a conical roof, and 
iiom \>asfc \jo \«^ "is covered with 

and ^i)a&SG «>Q ^Tt«iCi^'i^^%^<=>\.^as»^Tv^6^ 

Sect. II. 

Route 14. — Hatebid^ 


to interfere with the outlines of the 
building." It was, when intact, the 
finest specimen of Indian art in exist- 
ence. The Hoysaleshwara^ "Lord of 
the Hoysalas," temple is much larger 
than the Kaitabheshwara. At p. 400 
of Mr. Fergusson's *' History of Archi- 
tecture " vail be found a restored view 
of it, and in the previous page a plan 
and account of it. It stands (according 
to this authority) on a terrace, 5 ft. 6 in. 
in height, paved with large slabs. The 
temple itself is 160 ft. from N. to S. by 
122 ft. from E. to W., and beyond its 
walls there is a clear margin of platform 
all round of about 20 ft. The height 
from the terrace to the cornice is 25 ft. 
It is a double temple, one half being 
sacred to Shiva, and the other to his 
wife. Each half has a pavilion in front 
containing the JBaswa or Nandi, a bull. 
The larger of the two is 16 ft. long by 
7 ft. broad and 10 ft. high, the animal 
being represented lying down. It is 
made of bala2)am or potstone impreg- 
nated with hornblende, which is not 
susceptible of polish. The smaller 
one is of the hornblende used in Haidar 
'Ali*s monuments, and contains small 
irregular green shining veins and is 
highly polished. 

Some of the pillars in the inner 
part of the temple are of black horn- 
blende, and have a dazzling polish, 
which, as Buchanan tells us (vol. iii. 
p. 392), " reflect objects double, which 
by the natives is looked upon as 
miraculous." The same authority says, 
" Its walls contain a very ample de- 
lineation of Hindii mythology, which 
in the representation of human or 
animal forms, is as destitute of ele- 
gance as usual ; but some of the foliage 
possess great neatness, as may be seen 
by a drawing made of pai't of one and 
given in plate xxviii. fig. 83." It is to 
be regretted that this writer gave so 
little time and attention to the miracles 
of art these temples have since, on 
the best authority, been presumed to 
be, for in his time they were in a far 
more perfect state than they are now. 
Including the detached pavilions the 
dimensions of this temple are about 
200 sq. ft. over all. They are built on 
a fiieze of elephants which follows all 

the windings of the place, to a length 
of 710 ft. In aU there are about 2000 
of these animals represented, and many , 
of them have riders. Next above these | 
is a frieze of Shdrdulas* or * royal 
tigers,' the emblems of the Hoysala 
BallAlas who built the temple. " Then 
comes a scroll of infinite beauty and 
variety of design," then a frieze of 
horsemen and then another scroll, and 
then a relief of scenes from the RAmA- 
yana representing the conquest of 
Ceylon. This is 700 ft. long, and 
therefore 160 ft. longer than the frieze 
of the Parthenon. Then come a frieze 
of beasts and one of birds, and a 
cornice with a rail divided into panels, 
each containing 2 figures. Above are 
windows of pierced slabs, except in the 
centre bow, which has instead a frieze 
of gods and apsaras, 5 ft. 6 in. in 
height. " Some of these," says Mr. 
Fergusson, " are carved with a minute 
elaboration of detail, which can only 
be reproduced by photography, and 
may probably be considered as one of 
the most marvellous exhibitions of 
human labour to be found even in the 
patient East." He adds, "Here the 
artistic combination of horizontal with 
vertical lines, and the play of outline 
and of light and shade, far surpass 
anything in Gothic art. The efEects 
are just what the mediaeval architects 
were often aiming at, but which they 
never attained so perfectly as was done 
at Halebid." In speaking of the 
friezes, Mr. Fergusson invites attention 
to the fact that Sbe succession is always 
the same, the elephants being the 
lowest, next above them the SJidr- 
dulas, then the horses, then the oxen 
or sometimes conventional animals, 
then birds. He says, " When we know 
the cause of it (this succession), it 
seems as if this curious selection and 
succession might lead to some very 
suggestive conclusion." He concludes 
by placing the Halebid temple and 
the Parthenon as the two extremes 

* Not, I venture to think," the conventional ; 
lion " as given by Mr. Fergusson. The lion j 
is Simha, and the legend of the Hoysalas, in ^ 
explaiwing t\ie ^\.yavQ\o^ ^1 "Caa ^NscsMi., «%?- N 

slew a W^t «Q.ei V^^ic^ ^^^^\R.^ "^5^^ f^^i^?. 


Route 15. — Maisur to the Nllgiris, 

Sect. II. 

of architectural art, and says, "It 
would be possible to arrange all 
the buildings of the world between 
these two extremes, as' they tended 
toward the severe intellectual purity 
of the one, or the playful exuberant 
fancy of the other ; but perfection, if 
it existed, would be somewhere near 
the mean." 

From a plan furnished to the author 
by Mr. Gordon, Resident of Maisiir, it 
appears that the Temple of Halebid is 
from N. to S. 151 ft., and from B. to'W. 
106 ft. The large bull is 50 ft. broad 
and 66 ft. long, and the small bull is 
27 ft. broad and 33 ft. long. 

It only remains to add that Buchanan 
(vol. iii. p. 389) mentions a temple 
at Jamagullu, 10 m. from Halebid, 
dedicated to Narasingha, and built 
entirely of balapam or potstone. He 
says, "It is highly ornamented after 
the Hindii fashion, and on the outside 
every part of its walls is covered with 
small images in full rilievo. This 
temple is said to have been built by 
Sholun Hdya, and the architect that 
he employed was Jakan^chdri." Now 
Jakanachiri was the architect and 
sculptor of the B^lilr and Hajebid tem- 

Eles, and the greatest artist that S. India 
as ever produced. It seems strange, 
therefore, that there is no account of 
this temple at Jamagullu besides the 
brief notice in Buchanan, and even 
Mr. L. Rice*s " Gazetteer of Maisiir " 
makes no mention of the place. 

ROUTE 15. 

BY pAlKI. 

77m. 7f. 

Names of Stations. 




M. P. 

1. SindhaUi . . . 

18 3 3rd cl. b. 

2. Qundaip^t . 

17 6 2nd do. 

3. Bandipar . . . 

4. TippukA«Ju . 

11 3 2nd do. 

7 3 Do. 

5. Kalhatti . . . 

15 IDo. 

6. Utakainand . 

Total . . . 

7 7 Do. 


77 7 

The usual route to the Nilgiris is now 
from Koimbatiir, but this route is 
given for travellers who may desire to 
ascend direct from Maisiir. It must 
be, however, observed that the Slgiir 
Ghat and the jungle from Bandipiir 
are exceedingly malarious, and that if 
by any accident the traveller should 
be obliged by the break down of his i 
bearers or other cause to pass the night 
there, he will almost certainly contract 
a fever of the most malignant descrip- 
tion. The death of Lord Hastings 
from fever contracted on this journey, 
which has been already referred to 
under Tanjiir, may serve as a warning. 
At Sindhalli water is scarce. The 
long first stage may be broken at 
Nanjangild, a large town 1 m. 6 f. 
from the Kabbani r., which is reached 
at 12 m. 3 f . from Maisiir S. Gate. 
Gundalp^t is the head-quarters of a 
T'aiuk, and a municipal town with 
1000 inhabitants. It was anciently 
called Vijayapura, and received its 
present name from Chikka Deva RAj4 
in 1674, who built and richly endowed 
a handsome pagoda over his father's 
tomb, then dedicating it to Aparamita 
Paravdsa Decay " the god of perpetual 
exile." This temple flourished till the 
time of Tlpii, who withdrew the allow- 
ance. The town was depopulated by 
fever. It stands on the 1. b. of the 
GtxmAa^ x. "Soxm.^ Bwadii^iir is a state 
ioxes^. \^ w\. "ni. m ^-il^kdX.^ ^sv^ ^\i!ks3QL 

Sect. 11. 

Routes 16, 17. — Hunmr. 


forest which begins at Fraserp^t 
bridge 10 m. N.W. of Periyapatna, 
and extends continuously for 80 m. to 
a point a few m. S.E. of Bandipilr. A 
furlong beyond TippukMu you cross 
by a bridge the Maydr r., and just 
before reaching Kafiiatti the Sigiir 
Ghdt commences. Wild elephants are 
apt to be troublesome hereabouts, and 
mounted officers have escaped with 
difficulty at times. Persons have been 
killed, but not Europeans. The Gh4t 
itself is free from jungle, and is prac- 
ticable for wheeled carriages. 

ROUTE 16. 

FALLS. 237 M. 4 K. 

Karnes of 


1. Nellamanga- 
1am . 

2. Sompur . . 

3. Tunikiir 

4. Nittiir . . 

5. KibhenhaUi 

6. Tiptiir . 

7. Arsikere . . 

8. B&ndwar 

9. Kadiir . . 

10. Siddanahalli 
or Lodekatta 

11. Torikere . 

12. Benkipur 

13. Shimoga . 

14. Eumsi. 

15. Anantapur 

16. Sdgar . 

17. Talgiippa 

18. O^msappe 



M. F. 

17 2 

13 6 
12 3 
18 1 
15 5 




14 5 


13 1 
10 2 


17 3 


1st cl. h. and t s. At 
11 m. 7 fs. X r. Ar- 
k^batu by 5-arched 

2nd cl. b. and t s. 

1st cl. do. 

2nd cl. do. 

2nd cL do., also one 
for natives. 

Ist cl. do. 

2nd cl. do. 

1st cL do. and t. s. 

2nd cL do. and t. s. 

3rd cl. do. 

2nd cl. do. and t s. 

X Kushi r. 
2nd cl. do. X Bhadra 

r. in baskets. 
1st cl. do. and t. s. X 

Tunga r., 300 yds. 

broad, in baskets. 
2nd cl. do. 
2nd cl. do. and t s. 

Thick jungle here 

and there. 
1st cl. do. and t. s. 

Thick jungle. 
2nd cL do. 
2nd cl. do. on each 

side of the Falls. 


For the sportsman^ who has abun- 
dant leisure and can afford to take his 
2 horses and an experienced Shikdri 
with him, and a sufficient supply of 
eatables and drinkables to render him 
tolerably independent, as also a cook, 
a journey along this route might be 
most delightful. Tigers and bison are 
to be met with in many parts, particu- 
larly at and after Sdgar. To the ordi- 
nary traveller seeking comfort it will 
be better to visit the Falls from 
Hondwar, arriving there by sea. 

ROUTE 17. 


For this Route as far as Haisiir, 85 m., see 

Route 12. 

Names of 




M. F. 

MaisiIu to 

10. Yelwal 


2nd cl. b. and t. s. A 
small town of 400 
houses with a large 

11. Belikere. . 


3rd cl. do. A town <^ 
550 houses. 

12. Hunsiir 

11 6 

1st cl. do. 

13. Periyapat- 

13 5 

2nd cl. do. and t s. 

14. l^iraserp^t . 

13 3 

2nd cL do. 

15. Somatikapal 

10 2 

2nd c . do. 

16. Merkird 

8 4 
73 1 

1st cl. do. 



Grand Total 

158 1 

Ifunsur in lat. 12' 19', long. 76' 2(y 
on the r. b. of the Lakshmantirtha r. 
a tributary of the K4v6ri, which rises 
in the Ghd^s which form the S. fron- 
tier of Kiirg, is the lie-adlojo^Nde^ ^ 
the Penyapft^i>AT«2L\J5L«cA ^wtcssk^s^- 
pal tOYm,^tYi. 4,^^^ \a!MJfe.,^^-«^^ 
2 are 3auia an^ ^^ <3Kn3BiawBa* ^^^ 


Route 17. — Beiigalur to Kurg, 

Sect. II. 

trunk road fr»m Shrirangpatnam 
branches off 2 m. W. of Hunsiir to 
Merkdrd and Kananiir. It is the place 
where the finest oxen in S. India, or, 
perhaps, in the world, called the Am- 
pt Mahal, or "Ambrosial Palace" 
breed are kept and bred by Govern- 
ment. These cattle were most care- 
fully preserved by Tlpii, and after the 
storm of Shrirangpatnam, fell into the 
hands of the British, who placed them 
under the care of the Government of 
Maisiir ; but in 1813 the Commissariat 
Department at Madras took charge of 
them. In 1860 Sir C. Trevelyan 
ordered all the herds to be sold, but 
on reconsideration the Madras Govern- 
ment reversed this step ; and in 1865 
ordered that 100 bulls and 4,000 cows 
should be re-purchased, which was 
done with much difficulty, though 
13,000 had been sold Iq 1860. The 
Kdvals or grazing grounds for these 
magnificent oxen are scattered over 
the Province of Maisiir, but the largest 
are at Siile-kere tank, in the Shimoga 
District, and at Hanagod near Hunsilr. 
The cattle are driven from one to 
another as occasion requires. The 
great speed of these cattle is equalled by 
4 their endurance. " With them Haidar 
^ marched 100 m. in 2J days to the 
' relief of Chillambram, and with them 
' both Haidar and Tlpii were generally 
enabled to draw off their guns in the 
face of an enemy. That the breed 
had not deteriorated was shown in the 
Afghdn war, when they proved their 
superiority to all the other cattle em- 
ployed, often remaining for upwards 
of 16 hours in the yoke." One of their 
chief characteristics is the soundness 
and strength of their feet. They are 
always kept in the open air, and are 
not housed at night like other breeds. 
During the wet weather they are all 
driven to the Hunsiir jungles, on the 
borders of Kiirg. They are not worked 
till 6 years old. The breed is not pro- 
lific. The bulls of an iron-grey or 
slate colour are preferred for breed- 
ing. The cows are generally white or 
iron-grey (see Eice's Gaz. vol. ii. p. 
^04J. Up to 1864 the Madras Govem- 
ment maintained here a manufactory 
of blanketB, a tannery, and a timbeT 

yard. An Indian gentleman who 
bought up the Government stock at 
that time is allowed to use the tannery 
and adjoining premises free of rent, 
and he continues to manufacture boots, 
knapsacks, and pouches. Country 
carts also are made here in such num- 
bers that the place has been nick- 
named Gddipdlya, " Cart-town.'* 

Perlyapatnam, in lat. 12° 21' and 
long. 76° 9', was formerly the head- 
quarters of the T'aluk of the same 
name. It now contains 1821 inhab. 
of whom 203 are Muhammadans, and 
the rest Hindiis. Buchanan (vol. ii. 
p. 93) calls the to^m Pnya-pattana 
" chosen city," but in Mr. Rice's Gazet- 
teer the word is written Periyapatna, 
which means " large town." It is said 
to have been visited in the mytho- 
logical ages by Agastya the first 
Br Ahman teacher who crossed the Vin- 
dhya mountains. Its ancient name 
was Singapatna, " lion-town," and 
Karikala Chola BAjd is said to have 
b. a temple here to Mallikdrjuneshwara, 
and to have constructed a tank. At 
the end of the 16th cent, it belonged 
to Jagat Deva Edyal of Channapatna. 
In 1659 Nanjanda Arasu of NanjarKj- 
patna, now called Fraserp6t, passing 
that way to a marriage at Hanagod, , 
erected .a mud fort at the place, owing, j 
it is said, to a hare biting his horse's 
heels, which made him think it was 
a soil for brave men. His son, Vlra i 
Rajarasa, was besieged in the fort for * 
a year by the army of Maisiir under 
Kanthirava Narasa Rdj Wodeydr. On 
the storming of the fort Vira put all 
his family^ to death, and died sword 
in hand fighting gallantly. Periya 
Wodeyarwas appointed by the Maisiir 
RAjd to govern the place, and he re- 
built the fort of stone and called 
it after his own name Periyapatna. 
Under Tipii the Rdjd of Kiirg, Vlra 
Rdja was imprisoned in the fort for 
4 years. On the approach of General 
Abercromby's army the houses were 
destroyed and the fort ruined, and 
Buchanan says : "In the inner fort 
there are no inhab., and tigers have 
takeiL eoiVift "^oseessiaQ. of its ruins. 
BaivdcA 'wood., Sttutttl'um aXb\im,^t«^^a» 

Sect. II. 

BoiUe 17. — Fraserpk — MerhdrcL 


to be infested with elephants, that did 
much misehief . 

Fraserpet. — Just before reaching this 
Stat, the Kdv6ri a furlong wide is 
crossed by a bridge. Kiirg then com- 
mences. After Fraserp^t the road lies 
through a thick bambii jungle in which 
are tigers and elephants, and the large 
serpent called Python. Buchanan, 
however, walked in the forest for 3 
days without seeing a wild beast or 
snake. Haidar 'AU called Fraserp6t 
Khvshh&l vulgar y " glad town." He 
was then invading Kiirg, and the news 
of the birth of his son Tlpii there 
reached him, and he so named it in 
honour of the event. It has its present 
name from Lt.-Gen. Fraser, who 
was the first Commissioner appointed 
after the conquest of Kiirg by the 
British, The very fine bridge of 7 
arches was constructed under the 
superintendence and from the design 
of Major Green of the Engineers. Less 
rain falls here than at Merkdrd, and 
during the monsoon the European 
officers with their families reside at 

MerkdrcLy prop. Maddikei'ey is the 
capital of Kiirg, and a military can- 
tonment. The fort was b. by Haidar 
in a disadvantageous position, being 
commanded by hills on all sides. • In 
the Kdji's time it contained his palace, 
arsenal, and a pagoda. It is now used 
as public quarters for the officers of 
the corps that garrison Mercara. The 
views around are lovely. The elevation 
is 4600 ft., and it is, therefore, 1300 ft. 
above Fraserp^t. Kiirg is bounded 
on the N. and E. by Maisiir, on the 
S. by Wyndd, on the W. by S. Kanara. 
The country is a succession of moun- 
tains divided by narrow valleys. The 
hills are clothed with forest trees, with 
here and there expanses of grass ; the 
valleys are richly cultivated with rice, 
areca trees, plantains, orange, lime, 
and citron trees, and Indian vegetables. 
Wild beasts are common, but the tiger 
is not so dangerous as in the plains, 
as he obtains ample supplies of food 
in the deer and elk, wMch are very 
numerous. Bears are rare but very 
Gerce and destructive. The wild dog 
hunts jn packs, and is rery formidable. 

A curious feature of the country is 
that it is everywhere intersected with 
breastworks, with ditches 10 or 12 ft. 
deep, and from 10 to 15 ft. wide. The 
climate is pleasant and beautiful, the 
temperature varying from 60** to 74°. 
The people are a handsome, athletic 
race ; fond of hunting, and generally 
armed with the dad or Kiirg knife, which 
resembles that used in Nlp&l, and has 
a curved, very broad and heavy blade, 
with which they have occasionally 
killed even tigers. The Kdv6ri, one 
of the greatest of Indian rivers, rises in 
the S. of Kurg. The area of Kiirg is 
1420 sq. m. The pop. is about 90,000. 
Of the ancient history of the country 
little is known. It was invaded both 
by Haidar and Tlpii, and to a certain 
extent subjugated by the latter. Haidar 
entered Kiirg in Nov. 1773 (WUks, 
vol. ii. p. 158), and surrounded a great 
body of the inhab. on a wooded hill. 
He then proclaimed a reward of rs.5 
for every head brought to him. It 
does not appear that the unfortunate 
people, who were taken by surprise, 
made any resistance, and 700 heads 
were in a very short time deposited 
at Haidar's feet. Then a soldier 
brought 2 heads with remarkably 
handsome features, and Haidar for 
the first and only time in his life 
showed something like pity, and asking 
the soldier whether he felt no com- 
punction at cutting off such beautiful 
heads, ordered the butchery to cease. 
The conquest seemed easily effected. 
The Rdj^, whose name Wilks writes 
Divara, fled, but was taken and 
carried to Shrlrangpatnam, whence he 
was sent to the Fort of Kadiir, where 
he died a prisoner. In 1782, a rebellion 
broke out in Kiirg, and Gaidar sent 
one of his Chelds or favourite slaves 
named Wafaddr to suppress it. Im- 
mediately after Haidar's death, which 
took place on the 7th of December, 
1782, Tlpii, after he had joined his 
main army, detached Lutf *Ali Beg 
with a light corps of cavalry by the 
shortest route, to supersede Wafaddr 
at Kiirg. Wafaddr had been so fax 
successful aa to ca^\\vx^ 'Cafcl'KCKiL:^ <:Jt 
the Eib^6. xeceuW-j ^•^i^^-asfc^, «ssvcfB% 
whom T^as ayovxt^i «J£Qi^ \^:. ?&^fcT^«s^^ 


Rovie 17. — Bengalur to Kurg, 

Sect. II. 

Rdj4, who wrote a history of Kiirg, 
as noticed by Wilks in his Preface, 
p. 19 ; but he had failed to pacify the 
country. But Tlpii in 1784, invaded 
Kiirg with his whole army, and the 
people submitted to him. Ut6 NAyak, 
the head of the rebels, escaped and 
died at Telicherri, and Tlpii then 
assembled the inhab. and harangued 
them as follows : " If 6 brothers dwell 
together in one house (Wilks, vol. ii., 
p. 532), and the eldest marries, his 
wife becomes equally the wife of the 
other 5, and the intercourse is con- 
sidered as a national rite. Not a man 
in the country knows his father, and 
the ascendency of women and bastardy 
of children is your common attribute. 
From the period of my father's conquest 
you have rebelled 7 times, and caused 
the death of thousands of our troops. 
I forgive you once more, but if rebel- 
lion be ever repeated, I have made a 
vow to honor every man in the coun- 
try with I&14m. I will make them 
aliens to their home, and establish 
them in a distant land, and thus at 
once extinguish rebellion and plurality 
of husbands, and initiate them in the 
more honourable practices of Isl4m." 
ZainuTdbldln M^davl was left as 
Faujddr of Kiirg, and excited a revolt 
by carrying off the sister of one 
Mammdti. Tipii hereupon sent a 
brigade under a person of the same 
name as the Faujddr, but called 
Shushtarl, from his place of birth, 
who made no progress in reducing the 
rebels. On this Tipii in October, 1785, 
entered Kiirg vrith his army in 2 
columns, and burned up the cultiva- 
tion. He then formed a circle of 
troops round the inhab., and captured 
70,000 of them, male and female. He 
then sent them to Shrirangpatnam, 
where they were all made Muhamma- 
dans. The slaves among them were 
then selected and sent with new settlers 
to cultivate the country. Meantime, 
Tlpii had removed the family of the 
Rdji of Kiirg from Kadiir to Periya- 
pa^nam. Li 1788, the youth who has 
been already nlentioned as afterwards 
becoming Rdjd, escaped. He found 
a few natives of Kiirg remaining in 
tbe country living in the woods, aad 

hunted by the new settlers. He put 
himself at their head, " and with the 
pretensions of a hero led the life of a 
chief of banditti." Wilks gives a 
romantic story of the way in which he 
obtained Wyndd from the EAji of 
Kot Ang4rl, who having by friendly 
messages enticed him to his castle at 
Pdll, extorted from him a grant of 
some districts on the ground that his 
grandfather had slain one of the R^j4 
of AngAri's ancestors. The Kiirg Bd]4 
signed the grant, but shortly after- 
wards surrounded PAll with 600 men, 
and demanded satisfaction for the 
death of 2 Kiirg princes slain in Wynid. 
The Angdrl KAj4 had to cancel the 
grant he had obtained of the Kiirg 
districts, and also to give up Wyndd. 
The RAjd of Kiirg was now joined by 
so many adherents, that he was able 
to drive out the new settlers, but he 
made a distinction between Tlpii's own 
men, whom he slew without mercy, 
and the settlers brought by force from 
Adoni. The latter he assisted to re- 
turn to their own country. He then 
defeated a detachment of Tlpii's army 
which was marching into Malabdr, 
with the loss of 1200 men. In 1789, 
Tipii, who was going to Malabdr, sent 
a division of his army into Kiirg under 
Burhdnu*d din torevictual 4 posts there 
still maintained by Tlpii. The Kiirg 
Edj4 stormed 2 of these posts, and 
inflicted great loss upon Burh4nu'd 
din, before that officer could repro- 
vision the other 2. Soon after the 
RAj4 stormed 1 of these 2, though 
it mounted 7 guns. Thus Merk^ 
alone was left to Tlpii. The Angdrf 
Rdjd now took advantage of the 
struggle in which the Kiirg RAj4 was 
engaged to attack his family in the 
woods, and killed 2 of his wives, a 
nephew, and others, plundering the 
camp of all its valuables. But just 
then, the Hdjd sent a confidebtial 
person to Telicherri to make some 
purchases, and this officer concluded 
an agreement there with the chief of 
the English establishment. The result 
was mutual co-operation in the struggle 
'm\k"5slL%afi»tct. " "ENreiY promise of this 

Sect. II. 

Houte n.^^Merkdrd. 


To an application for aid in gun bul- 
lets, he correctly replied, that those 
of Kilrg were unfit for military pur- 
l^oses, but he immediately made a 
most hazardous irruption into Maisiir, 
and carried off and sent to the English 
a supply of the best of the Sultdn's 
stock, and repeated the enterprise on 
every favourable opportunity. In 
provisions, intelligence, and aid of 
every kind he anticipated the wishes 
of his friends, and riveted their ad- 
miration by his frank and romantic 
gallantry. The word " romantic " is well 
selected, for Indian history can show 
no more extraordinaiy act of romantic 
generosity thaa the one with which 
the Rdjd of Kiirg completed the de- 
liverance of his country. When Gen. 
Abercromby commenced his march 
from the coast towards Seringapatam 
in February, 1791, Merkard had long 
been invested by the Kiirg troops, and 
the RdjA had reported that in a few 
days more it must surrender. However 
a division of Tipii's army attempted 
to relieve the place, and to escort to it 
a convoy of provisions. The RAjd 
engaged this division, and after a 
severe action in which it suffered great 
loss, surrounded it in such a way that 
it could not escape. " While General 
Abercromby was in hourly expectation 
of hearing that it had surrendered, the 
Eajd announced that though it was 
completely at his mercy, he had allowed 
the convoy to enter Merkdrd, and the 
escort to return in safety. Such a fact 
would in ordin|iry cases be considered 
direct treachery. The Bdjd's state- 
ment, however, and his singular cha- 
racter, now understood, removed every 
shadow of suspicion from the mind of 

The Rdjd explained that during 
his confinement at Periyapa^nam, the 
officer commanding had been induced 
to allow of his wallang out occasionally 
on parole to take the diversion of hunt- 
ing in the forests. In one of these 
excursions he was benighted near a 
Maisilrean post within the frontiers of 
Kilrg, and the commandant Kddir 
Khan Kheshjl, invited him to his house, 
and entertained him with hospitality 
and kindness until the morning. This 

was the officer who now commanded 
the escort, and this was all the obliga- 
tion which the RAjd acknowledged in 
his letter, but there was another matter 
of far greater importance to which 
oriental delicacy forbade reference. 
When Tipii selected 2 of the RAjA's 
sisters for introduction into his l>arim, 
Kddir Khdn, who was a favourite with 
the Sultdn, obtained leave to receive 
the 3rd sister, whom Tlpd cared not to 
appropriate. When she was sent to 
Kddir's house, that generous man pro- 
vided a woman of her own caste to 
attend her, lodged her in a separate 
apartment, where he never approached 
her, and availed himself of the first 
opportunity to send her to the Rdjd 
her brother. After the battle which 
has been mentioned, in which Kddir 
lost more than 700 men, the Ktig 
warriors prepared to fall upon him at 
dawn of day with the national weapon, 
the heavy knife, which resembles that 
of the Nlpdlese. The Rdjd, however, 
caused it to be proclaimed that he 
desired to spare Kddir's life in con- 
sideration of the obligation he owed 
him. A confer^ice then took place, in 
which Kddir pleaded that if he ac- 
cepted safety for himself, his family 
would be put to death by Tlpii, and 
that if he went back to Shrirangpatnam 
without effecting the service for which 
he had been detached, he would in- 
fallibly be executed by the tyrant. 
The Rdjd, with a prodigality of 
romance, exceeding anything related 
of Western chivalry, not only allowed 
the convoy to enter the place, and the 
escort to return, but at the instance of 
Kddir, extended his courtesv to the 
commandant of the foit of Merkdrd, 
who must have surrendered in a few 
days. It was agreed that he should 
eat his provisions as fast as he could 
without exciting suspicion, and then 
be allowed to capitulate on condition 
of a safe conduct to Shrlrangpa^i^iam. 
The Rdjd not only declined General 
Abercromby's assistance to reduce the 
fort, but suppHed the garrison with 
carriage, and presented them ow t\Na.vE. 
departvxT^ m^;)a. ^^ X^^^x-aii. ^<3«»iasssv. 
Tbe vraWa ^et^ ^«Q^ ^«l^^ ^a *^^ 


Houte 18. — Maisur to Wyndd, 

Sect 11 

himself and his people to the safe- 
guard of their woods and their courage. 
After the capture of Shrirangpatnam 
in 1799, the RdjA, whose independence 
had been secured by the Treaty of 
1792, invited his friend KAdir Khan to 
Kiirg, and received him as a brother. 
The RAj4 presented him with a 
large estate stocked with cattle and 
provided with labourers, and all things 
necessary for cultivating the land. 
On this estate Kddir Khdn resided in 
great affluence until his death in 1806. 
Should the traveller desire to see 
the gold mines of Wyndd and the 
scenery of that beautiful T'aluk, he 
may go from Maisiir by Rte. 18 which 
follows. Wyndd is a T'aluk of the 
Malabdr CoUectorate, containing 1188 
sq. m., and a pop. of 125,738 persons, 
of whom 2149 are Christians, It is the 
only district of Malabdr where themales 
are greatly in excess of the females, 
there being 76,228 men, to 49,710 
women. Excluding Wyndd from the 
reckoning, there are in Malabdr 101*7 
women to 100 men. The remarkable 
thing is that the pop. of Wyndd in- 
creased between 1866-67 and 1871, no 
less than 122*5 per cent., and that is, 
no doubt, owing to the mining opera- 
tions, which have brought to the T'aluk 
a great number of labourers. Wyndd 
h^ Kiirg to the N.,- Malabdr to the 
W. and S., and Maisiir and the Nil- 
giris to the E. and S.E. It is a lovely 
country of hill and forest and rushing 
streams, with rich coffee plantations. 
The latest report says, " Many of the 
planters now enjoy perfect health 
with their families, and immunity 
from fever." The capital town is 
Matumtawddi, or according to the 
vulgar pronunciation Manantoddy, 
and it is the stat. for a small detach- 
ment of troops. 

ROUTE 18. 

WYNAD. 67 M. 3 P. BY PALO. 

Names of 

1. Chatten- 


• • 

2. Eargolah. 

3. Antar- 


4. Kakan- 


5. Bawalli 

6. Mananta- 

Total . 

CO • 


10 7 

11 2 

13 4 

13 2 

8 2 

10 2 

67 3 


2nd cl. b. Very small vil- 
lage. Rough stony road, 
and water not good. 

At 6 m. 3 f. traveller may 
halt at Hampapur, where 
there is a 2nd cl. b. Ear- 
golah is on the L b. of 
the Kabbani r. the water 
of which is plentiful and 

2nd cl. b. A mere hamlet, 
and water bad. Thick 
jungle. X Kabbani ^way. 

2nd cL b. 1 house and shop. 
Road very bad, and jun- 
gly country. 

3rd cl. b. This is a feverish 
spot, aiid a night should ; 
Twt be passed here. A mere | 
hamlet. Road bad, witli j 
continual ascents and ' 
descents through thick' 
bambii jungle where wild 
beasts harbour. 

Ist cl. b. and t. s. Country 
hilly and covered with 
thick bambti jungle. 

The gold mines are situated at 
Devdla, a town 27§ m. S. of Mananta- 
wddi, and .S§ m. S. by E. of Nellialem, 
to which the traveller may ride on 
horseback, having his Juggage carried 
on bullocks. Should he decide to go 
on to the sea-coast, the rd. through 
Dindumalei 5 m. 1 f.; Periya 9 m. 3 f.; 
Neduburdnel416 7 m. ; Kanot 8 m. 
4 f . ; Kotrangddi 9 m. ; Kananiir 
(Cannanore) 14 m. will take him 
there from Manantawddi, through a 
thick jungle. The total distance is 
53 m. At or near Devdla are the 
following mines : 1. The Alpha Skull 
Reef, where there are both open and 
underground workings J m. S. 2. The 
WynM Prospecting Company's Reef 
J m. to the B. 3. The Monarch Keef, 
"wkeie \Xiet^ «c^ «i.iacient workings by 

Sect. 11. 

Eoute 18. — Gold Mines at Devoid, 


workings by the natives. 5. Hamlin's 
Reef, where are underground work- 
ings by natives. 6. The Bear Reef, 
where there are extensive ancient 
underground workings. 7. The Ku- 
rambar Reef. 8. The Etakal and 
Cavern Reefs. 9. The Hamsluck Reef. 
10. The Nandhatti on the outcrop of 
vein. On the rd. to DevAla from Guda- 
liir, which is 7^ m. to the E. and the 
E. boundary of the Ochterlony estate, 
several reefs may be noticed on hills 
beside the rd. 11. The Richmond es- 
tate, 2\ m. N.W. of Devdla, where are 
2 strong reefs with old workings and 
washings on an enormous scale by 
sluices. 12. At 3 m. from Richmond 
there is a reef with the remains of old 
workings, and many shafts from 70 to 
100 ft. deep, made by the natives. 
13. The reefs between Devdla and 
Needle Rock. 14. The Needle Rock 
Reefs, 2i m. N. of Devdla. 15. The 
Sipalli Rock Reef, where there is an 
old cement bed. 

The hills of this auriferous country 
are a continuation of the Nllgiri moun- 
tains, of which the highest peak Dodda- 
bett is 8600 ft. high. Nllgiri peak is 
9 m. to the S.E. The hills belong to 
the Palaeozoic period and Silurian 
formation. The peaks at Utakamand, 
a central point of the Nllgiris, are 
hard, dense, dark, crystalline rocks of 
the metamorphic series of granite. 
Syenite also is present, and is of a 
lighter colour, red or brown, and 
softer, impregnated with black mag- 
netic oxide of iron, which looks like 
black sand. As the crystalline rocks 
descend they change to gneiss of a 
light grey or pinkish, and to hard 
fissile greenstone, chlorite, and diorite, 
with talcose schists, and slaty decom- 
posed argillaceous rocks. Dark horn- 
blendic granite is also present. 

The whole country is ramified with 
bold quartz veins, being true reefs, 
the general run of which is N. by W. 
to S. by E. The reef is invariably to 
the E., and is horizontal when out- 
cropping, and then from 20° to 30*. 
The reefs are from 15 ft. to 20 and 30 
ft. thick, and are white, crystalline, 
compact quartz, identical with reef 
quartz in Hussda, AnstraJisb, California, 

and Nevada. The quartz is highly 
ferruginous with sesquioxide of iron, 
and pyrites and pyrolurite changing 
to decomposed granitic and talcose or 
micaceous schists. The highest and 
boldest reefs have not been touched by 
Indian miners, probably on account 
of their hardness. The ancient miners 
made 3 shafts in a triangular form, 
and lighted fires in 2 of ttiem to cal- 
cine ajid break up the rocks, and by 
the 3rd, which also gave the draught 
of air necessary for the fires, they 
ascended until the shafts in which the 
fires were had cooled. There can be no 
doubt that immense masses of gold have 
been taken up in preceding centuries 
by these miners, and with the exception 
of the Venetian sequins, and a small 
quantity of gold received from Aus- 
tralia, all the gold in India has been 
got from these mines. The learned Dr. 
Bumell in his printed note on the 
great temple at Tanjiir says : " The 
full importance in Indian history of 
Vira Chela's reign is only to be 
gathered from this inscription, but it 
contains other information also of 
great value. It proves, e.g.y that in 
the 11th cent, gold was tiie most 
common precious metal in India, and 
stupendous quantities of it are men- 
tioned here ; silver, on the other hand, 
is little mentioned, and it thus appears 
that the present state of things, which 
is exactly the reverse, was only brought 
about by the Portuguese in the 16th 

'^ ^ 

£ouie 19. — Madras to Koimhaf&r. 


, Koimhatiir. Letters (or 

A branch rly. leaws Pothaniir for 
the NUgiris. Koiiitbat&T in lat. 10° 59' 
41", long. 76° 69" 46",atandB in a plain 
HeO ft, above the level of the sea. 
It is the capital of a collectj>rate with 
an area of 7432 sq, m., and a pop. of 
1,763,274 perHona, of whom 97-3 per 
cent, are Hindile, 12,067 Christians, 
Jaina 66, other sects 44, and the rest 
Mufllims. Females are 1'5 per cent. 
in excess of males. There are 10 
T'alnfes in tlie collectorate, viz., Koim- 
batilr, Satjamangalam, Kclligal, Po- 
Idchi, Perajidur^, Bhaw^ni, FeJladam, 
DArapuram, Karilr, and Udamalpe^. 
Eoimbatilr ia a mmiicipol town with 
B pop. of 35,310. TamU is the chief 
language spoken, but Kanareac pve- 
»ai6 over the whole of the Kolligal\iiioiA\iB, ^^-^^^ 
T'alak, and in some villages of tlie\'«\:ien\iecan 

Bhaw^nl and Sat^amangalam T'alnVe. 
Education is in e, deplorably low state 
among.s-t the Hindila, of whom only 
3'6 are able to read and write, and d 
the 888,299 females only 227 I 

The sights of Koimbatiir will not 
occupy more than a day. There is 
first tYiS central jail, wMch is 1 m. 
N.W. of the rly. stat. It is extremely 
well managed by the present snperin- 
tendent, Mr. Grimes, of the Uncove- 
nanted Service. On the 2nd of April, 
1878, there were 1297 prisoners, of 
whom 36 were females, cmefly of the 
lowest castes, and 1 boys. The females 
are not taught, and are punished by 
solitary confinement. There were 3o 
Burmese prisoners on April 2nd, and 
all of these, hut 1, were under seatence 
of imprisonment for life, and the 35th 
was for 10 years. There were also 
6 Chinese, one of whom was imprisoned 
for shootii^ a catechist at Singapore, 
There are only 20 solitaiy cells of 
masonry, and several made of bars 
like cages, but very lofty, and closed 
with a single bar which is let down 
and acts like a parallel ruler. In the 
wards generally the men sleep 4 in a 
cell. The boys are tanght Tamil, and 
ate punished by Qogglng, aa are the 
men. The superintendent carries a 
weighty stick, as he has been several 
times ulfacked, and was once nearly 
stabbed by n Chinese, whose arm he 
disabled in parrying the blow. The 
prison is on the radiating principle 
with a central tower, whence thete is 
of the Nllgiris to Hie K., 
and of the Antmalei hills and town 
of Koimbatiir to the S. There is a 
^admill with 6 divisions, in each of 
which S men can work, and 15 mea 
crank which helps 
the "tieadmill. Every prisoner most 
work jth of his time witfiout remission, 
when he can begin to earn marks. If 
his conduct be good, he gets into the 
3rd class, where he can earn { mark 
day, and Obtain the remis- 
snth's imprisonment. He 
II in this class 6 months, 
when he can get into the 2nd class, in 
w\ndn. \ie ciai ^a.m the remission of 4 



Sect. 11. 

Eoute 19. — Koimbatur, 


he stops a year and can get 4 months 
remitted. He may then become a 
maestri or head of a gang, and may 
get 4 more months remitted. He may 
then become a warder, but it is rare 
for that grade to be obtained. The 
New Cliurch at Koimbatiir, All Souls, 
is f m. N.E. of the rly. stat. It 
is plain but well b. and has stained 
glass windows. The place for the 
communion table is extremely hand- 
some, and there is a fine brass there to 
Edith Grimes, d. of the superintendent 
of the jail. This church holds 80 per- 
sons. The Missianat'y CImreh is some 
hundred yds. S. of the jail. It is very 
plain. The cemetei'y is J m. S.E. of 
this church. It is within 20 yds. of 
the Racquet Court. There are 16 
tombs of officers, 2 of whom died of 
cholera. The town of Koimbatiir 
was much improved by a late col- 
lector, Mr. Wedderbum. The bazaar 
is generally crowded, and some incon- 
venience is occasioned by the circum- 
stance that a Mu^ammadan Pir, or 
holy man, is buried in the middle of 
the thoroughfare. His tomb cannot 
be removed without so shocking the 
prejudices of the Muslims, as to cause 
a serious disturbance. The Beading 
Jtoams are not far from the rly. stat. 
But the great sight of Koimbatiir is 
Ihe Pagoda of Periir, about 3 m. dis- 
tant. A view of a pillar at Penlr will 
be found at p. 372 of Mr. Fergusson's 
" History of Architecture,'* and also a 
brief mention of it. He says, " the 
date of the porch at Periir is ascer- 
tained within narrow limits by the 
figure of a SipAhl loading a musket 
being carved on the base of one of its 
pillars, and his costume and the shape 
of his arm are exactly those we find in 
contemporary pictures of the wars of 
Aurangzib, or the early Mardthas in 
the beginning of the 18th cent. As 
shown in woodcut No. 209, the bracket 
shafts are then attached to the piers, 
as in Tirumallu Ndyak's buildings, 
and though the general character of 
the architecture is the same, there is a 
coarseness in the details, and a marked 
inferiority in the Ggure sculpture, that 
betray the distance of date between 
these 2 examples," We have, how- 

ever, seen that at the Great Temple at 
Tanjiir, which dates from the 11th or 
12th century, the figure of a European 
with a round hat has been introduced, 
and there is no reason to doubt that 
new figures were from time to time 
introduced into the decorations of the 
pagodas in the S. of India. 

The drive to Penir passes through 
the bazar and then turns S. On the 
outskirts of the town and on the 1. of 
the rd., a relief hospital was established, 
where on the 3rd of April, 1878, there 
were 276 sick, and others in a state of 
semi-starvation, entreating to be ad- 
mitted. The temple is about 3 m. 
from Koimbatiir on the rt. of the rd. 
In fi'ont of the Pagoda, which is a 
very small one, there is a Dwaja 
StanMa 35 ft. high. The temple is 
sacred to Sabhdpati, a name of Shiva, 
and there is a smaller one to Pattesh- 
war. They were both b. in Tlrumal's 
time. There is only 1 gopura with 
5 storeys, about 55 ft. high. In the 
corridor leading to the Vimdnah, there 
are 8 very richly carved pillars on 
either side in the front row, and be- 
hind them 8 smaller and plainer. 
From the ceiling hang several chains, 
perhaps in imitation of the chains 
with bells which hang from the Dwaja 
Stambha in front of the building. 
The pillars represent Shiva dancing 
the Tdndev, Shiva killing Gajdsur the 
elephant-headed demon, appropriate 
enough in a locality where wild ele- 
phants used to do such mischief ; Vlra 
Bhadra slaying his foes, and the 
Simha or lion of the S. Shiva is re- 
presented with a huge shell of a tor- 
toise at his back, which forms his 
canopy. There is a hall of 72 pillars, 
but the Brdhmans persist in reckoning 
only 60. There is a small chapel here 
with the appearance of Jain worship. 

Tile Animalei Hills. — The best pomt 
from which to visit these hills is 
Koimbatiir, from which they are dis- 
tant about 18 m. The name is a 
compound of Ani "elephant," and 
malei "hill." The range gives its 
name to the* village oi Ardxs!L^\<5\^"^\5w:^ 
is near t\ie iwA. ol SX* crft.*Cft&"§<.^aRs.^ 
the appToac\i ol \.-t«N^^^'^'a» ^a *???**^, 
bills \>eVas xx-sa-aSy^ >2afc-fvS^»%^*« ^^^ 


HotUe .19, — Madras to Koinibatur. 

Sect II. 

convenient basis of further movements, 
being in the centre of the N. face of 
the range, and most of the passes into 
the mountains diverge from this point. 
The Animalei range stretches from a 
little N. of W. to the E. a Httle S., 
with an abrupt face of about 50 m. to 
the N., the view of which on a clear 
day from the village of Animalei is 
magnificent ; the slope is more gradual 
on the S. and W. face towards Kuchl 
and the coast, the depth being about 
30 m. in this direction. This block of 
lull may be divided into two distinct 
portions — ^the poiat of division being 
about the village of Animalei ; to the 
W. of this towards PAlghdt, the hills 
are not much above 3000 ft. high, and 
are covered with a primeval forest of 
gigantic teak and other trees, which 
supply the Bombay dockyai'ds with 
timber. The westerly portion ranges 
from 3000 to 6000 ft. in elevation, and 
has much the peculiar character and 
features of the Nilgiri hills ; the whole 
is a continuation of the great range of 
the Western Ghdts, which, as they 
approach the southern part of the 
peninsula, expand into plateau with 
intervals of plain. 

Animalei itself is a considerable 
village, where the office of the super- 
intendent of the forests is held ; there 
is a good b. 

The lower portion of the Animalei 
range is much varied in level, and in- 
tersected with mountain streams, some 
of considerable size, which force their 
way through rocks, and form cascades 
of no small beauty ; the sound of the 
falling water is most refreshing to the 
traveller through the forest. The trees 
consist of the teak {Tectona grandis), 
several kinds of Dalbergia (/&?*), and 
the iron- wood, with its aspen-like foli- 
age, contrasting with the immense 
leaves of the young teak trees. There 
is not much underwood, and it is easy 
to walk in any direction, the stems of 
the forest-trees rising often to the 
height of 60 ft. without a branch, 
whSe the spreading foliage of their 
Aeadg completely keeps off the sun, 
tliese huge stems being interlaced with 
climbing plants with stems little in- 
fen'or to those of their supports. At 

the sides of the streams broad patches 
of bambi^s are found, which hang 
over the water from side to side wav- 
ing in the wind, and forming a means 
of communication for the monkeys, 
who seem to delight in passing over 
them ; no undei'wood grows under the 
bambis, but there is a deep bed of 
the fallen leaves, which have collected 
for years, where the herds of wild 
cattle {Bos gaums) are fond of re- 
treating during the day. These are 
said to be exactly similar to those 
formerly found in Britain, and still 
preserved in Chillingham Park. Some- 
times the forest opens out into clear 
park-like glades covered with grass, 
with pools of water and wild fruit 
trees, where in the evening the wild 
cattle and deer are usually to be found 
grazing ; these cattle ai'e so numerous 
that one may see several considerable 
herds in a walk of a few m. 

At TunakMu is the residence of the 
superintendent of the forests, with an 
establishment for the cutting of timber, 
including elephants, who are most 
useful assistants in dragging and piling 
the timber. The logs are usually 
dragged by bullocks to the N. face of 
the range, when they pass down an 
inclined plane, and thence into the r. 
Pundr, which runs through the Pdl- 
ghdt opening in the range, and into 
the sea on the Malabdr coast. From 
the mouth of the Pundr the timber is 
shipped for Bombay. Much teak and 
other timber is also cut on the S.W. 
face of the hills within the province 
of the KdjA of Kuchl.(Cochin), who has 
an agent for the management of this 
portion of his revenue at the port of 
Kuchi. The teak of this forest is far 
superior to that of Burmah in respect 
of hardness and durability. 

The forest also abounds with ginger,, 
cardamoms, turmeric, honey, and wax ; 
the pepper- vine covers the huge stems 
of the trees like ivy, and the sarsa- 
parilla appears in all the newly-cut 
paths, while the purple Torenia and a 
variety of sweet-smelling orchidaceous 
plants, contribute to the beauty of the 

TYiere atei \mt t'e^ Ns!^MiJc>\\»Ks.\.^ \\sQi^ 

Sect. 11. 

Houte 19. — Animalei Hills, 


themselves KAdirs ; they live entirely 
in the forest, and their habits are 
singular. The number of wild animals 
who divide with them the fastnesses 
of the hills has rendered them as 
familiar with the habits of beasts as 
with their own : the facility with 
which they will track a deer or a wild 
bull over ground where, to an ordinary 
eye, there is no visible mark, is quite 
wonderful ; they seem to follow it 
without the least hesitation, like a dog 
on a strong scent. This renders them 
invaluable adds to a sportsman. They 
collect and sell the produce of the 
forest, but do little in the way of 
cultivation ; but they are an honest 
plain-spoken race, and easily managed ; 
their whole number is not above 200. 

To a sportsman the Animalei Hills 
ofEer an inexhaustible source of amuse- 
ment ; herds of wild elephants abound, 
and are of some value, lliey do not 
domesticate them here, but shoot them 
for the value of their ivory. The sport 
requires a good shot, for unless the 
bullet be lodged in the brain it has no 
effect ; the oiily vulnerable spot being 
at the root of the trunk, and a space 
as large as the hand on each temple. 
They are usually fired at from a dis- 
tance of 10 or 15 paces, and if the aim 
be good the huge animal falls perfectly 
dead at one shot ; but the sport re- 
quires nerve, as a miss may have 
serious consequences. The Kddirs 
regard them with much respect, as 
they have no means of killing them. 
The wild cattle are noble animals, 
larger than an English ox, with short 
much curved horns ; the bulls of a 
sloe black, the cows of a deep tawny, 
but all with white legs as far as half- 
way up the fore arm and stifle joint. 
The activity with which these immense 
beasts leap over obstacles and pass 
through broken ground is astonishing. 
When wounded they are very danger- 
ous antagonists ; or even without, 
when a sulky old bull is found alone, 
having been driven from the hei-d by 
his younger brethren. There are also 
bears and tigers, as well as the spotted 
deer ; and in the bluffs and precipitous 
parts of the rocks, the ibex is often to 
be met with, There is no pait of t^e 

world where stalking can be carried 
on with so much success, but it is only 
during the rainy months. The forest 
is perfectly healthy at that season. 
In November, when the wind changes 
to the W., and the leaves, under a 
bright blue sky, become brown and 
dry, fever will attack the workmen by 
the dozen in a day ; and they are 
obliged to return to the plains. At 
that season stalking is out of the ques- 
tion, as there is no concealment, and 
the rustling of the dry leaves betrays 
the movements of the sportsman. 

There are some very fine eagles ; 
and the rhinoceros-birds (hombills) — 
birds resembling toucans — with their 
immense beaks, are continually seen, 
or the harsh metallic sound of their 
note is heard echoing through .the 
woods. There are some good warblers. 
One bird has a singul^ note. The 
tone is like a full clear whistle, but 
the intervals of the scale are singularly 
marked ; and it gives the idea of some 
one learning to whistle. Some flying 
squirrels and black monkeys occupy 
the upper storey of this leafy dwell- 
ing place. The butterflies and other 
insects are of great beauty ; and there 
is a spider of an enormous size ; its 
body is about 2 in. long, striped with 
black and yellow, and its legs cover a 
space as big as the hand. The web is 
often met with in the brushwood, 6 ft. 
sq., and strong enough to pull off a 
man's hat in passing. In the larger 
and deeper parts of the rs. are some 
fine fish of the Mahdsir kind, which 
rise well to a fly. 

From Animalei to Tunakddn is about 
16 m. ; 10 through the jungle at the 
foot of the hills, which swarms with 
peafowl and deer, and 5 m. up the 
pass, through magnificent scenery ; a 
mountain stream passes close to Tuna- 
kddu, and forms a very beautiful cas- 
cade. About 10 m. further to the S. 
is a consideiable r., abounding with 
fish : there is a pass through the forest 
direct to Kuchi from this place ; the 
distance is about 35 m., but it is a 
rough passage. There are many leeches 
in this past, ^\i\Oq. ^qt&w^^ Xk^ ^^xs<$ 
I one's leca an^ to ^sXV^Soam^^^^^^J^'^ 
Uliey ore ^eTCwre^v >Oaa ^^^> ^^ 


Rovie 19. — Madras to Koimhaiur, 

Sect. 11. 

their legs with tobacco to keep them 
off ; linen gaiters, pulled over the feet, 
are useful for this purpose. The eastern 
portion of the Animalei is above the 
level of the teak-tree, which is not 
usually found higher than 3000 ft.; 
there are some to be found near Pu- 
ndchi, but they are scattered and 
small, — in fact there is no teak forest. 
It is much intersected with hills and 
valleys; the hills are covered with 
coarse grass, and the valleys and 
vicinity of the streams are wooded. 
At Pundchi there are 2 or 3 huts, 
containing a few families ; but, after 
passing this place, the interior is un- 
inhabited, except by wUd animals, 
which are much the same as about 
Tunakddu, The scenery is more open, 
and, from the greater height, perhaps 
grander ; and in the highest valleys, 
where the rhododendron and willow 
hang over the streams, and the ferns 
grow on the sides of the slopes, and 
the hoar frost in the winter covers 
everything with glistening white, the 
scenery much resembles that of Eng- 
land, though there are few parts of 
England which equal it. The peculiar 
feature is that the forest fills all the 
intersections of the hills, and does not 
graduate with brushwood into the 
open ground, but ceases suddenly, the 
largest forest trees being completely at 
the edge, while beyond it is a clear 
meadow. As in the Nllgiris, the 
trees are rounded at the top, and the 
branches gnarled and coverM with 
long white moss. There are some 
orchids, but they differ from those of 
the lower part of the range ; and the 
open sides of the hills are covered 
with anemones, balsams, pedicularis, 
ejacum, and lilies. The Salep Misri 
is also found ; indeed, except in Eng- 
land, the path is nowhere so throng^ 
with a profusion of flowers as in these 
high lands of the tropics. The only 
paths are those made by the deer or 
elephants, and by the wild cattle. It 
is singular how precisely the wild 
animals follow these paths, and with 
what precision they are carried to the 
point in view, boweveT distant— not 
jn a course up and down the hills, "but 
jvan^ them, observing a regular pis^ 

of level, as if they had been planned 
by an engineer. The following is 
taken from a note made at the time 
of an excursion into these hills by 3 
Englishmen, with Kddir guides : — 

''20th October, 1851.— Left Ani- 
malei (height above the sea, 765 ft.) 
at 2 A.M., and reached the foot of the 
hills, above 5 m., at daybreak — having 
lost our way in the dark. A number 
of large squirrels, purple and black, 
were playing about the trees. Ascended 
the Ghdt on horseback, but not with- 
out much difficulty ; it would have 
been considered impassable for horses 
elsewhere, but the Arabs are as good 
as mules in the hills. We went on 
over a good path, about 10 m., to 
Pundchi (3000 ft. elevation). There 
is a fine cascade just before reaching 
Pundchi,< and an old coffee plantation, 
which had been deserted, was near 
the foot of the fall ; the coffee trees 
were looking healthy, and were covered 
with berries of a bright red and yellow 
colour. After a rest, went on foot 
through open ground with scattered 
trees, fording the r. Turakadwdr, and 
afterwards along the valley of that 
stream, gradually ascending the whole 
time as far as a waterfall, where an 
old Anakatt bore witness to former 
cultivation. It had rained the whole 
way, and we had left the people be- 
hind us ; the guide said he was tired, 
and would go no further : bivouacked 
on the rock, having made a little shelter 
from the wind with a few boughs. 
An old otter and its young one were 
playing in the waterfall in a very 
amusing way; one of us shot the 
mother, and the Kddirs ate her. Ana- 
katt 3650 ft. by the barometer. 

"21st. — This cascade was at the 
head of the valley of the Turakadwdr, 
and on leaving it the ascent was 
severe. . The 2 mountain peaks, Tan- 
gdchi Mall6 and Ekka MaUe (the 
younger and elder sisters), were on 
our rt., and the scenery was magnifi- 
cent ; the grass at the Anakatt was 
10 ft. highT and being very Wet, it 
was like walking through a pond. 
On. tYie \i\i\ "w^ ^o\. vaio wa. elephant 

Sect. ir. 

Route 19. — Animalei Hills, 


and fired 2 shots at him from about 
15 yds. distance, without eflEect. The 
beast turned and strode through the 
forest down hill at his best pace, 
crashing through the thickest part of 
the wood with a terrific noise. We 
followed, but could not come on him 
again. We had come about 7 m., and 
then crossed the r. again up to the 
middle, and went up a grassy hill to a 
small hut, which had been made by 
the Kddirs beforehand, near a swamp. 
Camped for the day ; height, 5600 ft. 

"22nd.— Went to the top of the 
Ekka Malld ; height 7000 fU nearly ; 
found the top grassy, but scantily 
covered. This is nearly the highest 
point of the whole range. Got a 
general view all around. Several 
cascades visible in the forest. Saw a 
fine open valley clear of trees, about 
5 m. long, leading up to a conical hill, 
which appeared Hke the water shed of 
the range. Returned to hut. 

" 23rd.— From hut to the bottom of 
the valley, which we called Michael's 
valley ; height 6000 ft. Yery fatigu- 
ing walk of about 5 m. on the steep 
side of the hill, covered with long 
grass, concealing pointed and loose 
rocks ; then through a sJiola or patch 
of dense jungle, where we found the 
carcase of a deer just killed by a tiger. 
Found the track of the elephant of 
yesterday, but did not follow it up. 
Camped in a hut at the meeting of 2 
small streams ; plenty of fern, rhodo- 
dendrons, etc. 

" 24th. — Rainy. Went up Michael's 
valley ; found numerous tracks of 
elephants, cattle, and deer. The KA- 
dirs pointed out the number of the 
herd of elephants, distinguished the 
males from the females, and the young 
ones which had strayed and returned 
to their mothers' heels ; in fact, the 
whole history of them was told us 
from the tracks. Found a large bull, 
and fired 2 balls into him, but he got 
off, though he must have died. Tracked 
an elephant down to the S. of the 
conical hill, but without finding him. 
Rain all day. Returned to Michael's 
valley, and bathed in the stream ; 
bitter cold. 
**^5tb,—Went again up the valley, 

and beat several sholas ; found wild 
hogs and monkeys. The ground near 
the marsh was much cut up by the 
hogs. The KAdirs said this valley 
must swarm with game in February 
and March, when the jungle is burned 
in the low grounds; very little at 
this season. 

"26th.— Left Michael's valley and 
returned to the Anakatt ; found a fine 
buck elk, which sprung up close to us, 
also a number of toucans, and some 
eagles. The path lay through the 
forest the whole way, but was good 
enough, having been made by the 
elephants ; distance 10 m. 

" 27th.— Walked from the Anakatt 
to PunAchi, and in the evening went 
on to Animalei ; distance 25 m. ; the 
latter part of the way through wet 
rice-fields in the dark." 

There is a rd. from TunakMu to 
PAlghdt, through Chamampadi and 
Kolangod; distance 45 m. It skirts 
the hills through the bambii jungle, 
after descending the Ghdt, and then 
stretches over the cultivated plain, with 
a rd. such as is usually found in the in- 
terior of India ; that is, of earth cut up 
by carts and the feet of bullocks. 

The Animalei hills require more 
examination ; many parts of them 
have not been visited. The eastern 
portion of them joins, or nearly joins, 
another range of hills, which is said 
to be still more stocked with game, 
among which the woodcock ought not 
to be forgotten. The high lands of 
the Animalei are quite capable of cul- 
tivation, and are as habitable as the 
Nllgiris, though less cool, being a de- 
gree nearer the equator, and 2000 ft, 
lower in elevation. 



SotUe iO.^-'Koimbatur to tlie Mlgiris, 

Sect. II. 

BOUTE 20. 

OP WHICH 21} BY BAIL, 5 M. 4 P. 

Nameg of 


5 2 

4 4 

21 6 



1. Tudialiir . 

2. Gudaliir . . 

3. Kdrandi 

4. Metapalliam 





S. on 1. 
S. on r. 
S. on r. 
S. on r. 

At Metapdlliam the stat. is exposed 
to the pitiless heat of the sun, without 
the shelter of a single tree. It is, 
however, provided with a panhliah, as 
are most of the stats, in S. India. At 
850 yds. ofE on the r. hand is a hotel 
fairly shaded with trees, but much in- 
fested with flies. Soda water and other 
drinks can be obtained, but they are 
generally so hot that even thirst will 
hardly induce any one to drink them. 
Indifferent food is also obtainable. At 
this place it is usual to pack one's 
liiggage on a car with 2 small horses, 
and start for the foot of the ghdt. At 
the 6th f. the Bhawdni r. is crossed 
by a bridge, and at IJ m. further a 
small village is reached called Kanien 
Kuder6. At 3 J m. further the Kalldr r. 
is crossed by a bridge, and at about 
6 f . further the foot of the Kumir 
Ghdt is reached. The traveller may 
then mount a pony or get into a tdnjdfij 
a sort of sedan, which is very badly 
protected from the sun by a piece of 
semi-transparent canvas. It takes 
about an hour to reach the foot of the 
ghdt from the hotel, so by that time 
the sun is very hot and the ascent very 
trying. In about an hour the Govern- 
ment gardens at Barlidr are reached ; 
and here the traveller will do well to 
rest and regale himself with fruit, es- 
pecially the delicious mangosteens, 

horse-chestnut or quince, with a hard 
rind, which contains 6 milk- 
white and delicious kernels. It 
is one of the few fruits the eating of 
which causes no satiety. The gardens 
are worth seeing, as there are some 
rare trees, and the shade is very grate- 
ful in the middle of the day