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Full text of "Handbook of the coins of Great Britain and Ireland in the British Museum"

HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



COINS OF GEEAT BEITAIN 

AND 

IEELAND 

IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. 



BY 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER, F.S.A., 

ASSISTANT KEEPER OP COINS. 



W.TH S.XTY FOUR PLATESj CROFORMED BY 

W.TH S.XTY-FOUR PLATES4 p RSERVAT | O N 

SBLVJCES 
Wi 2 5 199! 

DATE.. 



LONDON: 

POINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES OF THE BRITISH MUSEUM : 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly* W. ; 

HENRY FROWDE, Oxford University Press Warehouse, Amen Corner, E.G.; 
C. KOLLIN & FEUARDENT, 6, Bloomsbury Street, W.C., 

and 4, Kue de Louvois, Paris ; 

A. ASHER & Co. ; KEQAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & Co. ; 
LONGMANS, GREEN & Co. 

1899. 
[All rights reserved.] 



LONDON: 
PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 

STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



PREFACE 

BY THE KEEPEK OF COINS. 

THIS Handbook contains descriptions of all the specimens exhibited 
in the window-cases of the Corridor of the Department of Coins and 
Medals ; viz. 974 English, 234 Scottish, and 134 Irish Coins, ranging 
from the earliest Anglo-Saxon issues, circ. A.D. 600, down to the 
present day. Much additional historical and descriptive matter, 
together with lists of the mint-marks chronologically arranged under 
each reign and translations of the mottoes (given in the Appendices), 
will it is hoped make this work a comprehensive guide to the entire 
coinage of Great Britain and Ireland. It has been written by 
Mr. H. A. Grueber, who is also responsible for the historical Intro- 
duction. The sixty-four Collotype Plates, by the Clarendon Press, 
Oxford, give representations of all the more interesting specimens. 
The proof sheets have been read throughout by myself. 

BARCLAY V. HEAD. 

British Museum. 



CONTENTS. 



PEEFACE iii 

INTRODUCTION v ji 

ANGLO-SAXON COINS ...... 1 

ENGLISH COINS ........ 34 

SCOTTISH COINS 162 

IRISH COINS 213 

APPENDIX A. SEQUENCE OP MINT-MARKS ON ENGLISH COINS FROM 

EDWARD IV TO CHARLES II 249 

APPENDIX B. MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS ....... 253 

INDEX 258 

PLATES . . i-lixv 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS Handbook of the Coins of Great Britain and Ireland is mainly ARRANGE- 
inteuded as a guide to the series of coins exhibited in electrotype in HENT- 
the corridor of the Department of Coins and Medals in the British 
Museum. The sections illustrated comprise the Anglo-Saxon, English, 
Scottish, and Irish, and an attempt has been made to present to 
the public such a series as will convey a good general idea of these 
sections of British numismatics. In the case of the Anglo-Saxon 
coins, the types of which are very numerous and varied, a few- 
examples only of each reign or period are given ; but in the English, 
Scottish, and Irish sections nearly every denomination is shown, 
and, so far as possible, those of each separate issue. The classifi- 
cation is chronological : thus the gradual development of the coinage 
is brought before the eye of the spectator. The descriptions in 
this work are limited to the pieces actually exhibited ; but, in order 
to make it a general guide to British numismatics, copious notes are 
added throughout which give a history of the coinage. At the head 
of each period or reign a general summary is given of the denomina- 
tions, issues, weights, standard of metal, &c., of the coinages, the 
descriptions of which immediately follow. 

The aim of this Introduction will be to give in outline a general 
historical view of British numismatics from the Anglo-Saxon period 
onwards. We shall, however, refer briefly to the earlier coinages 
current in Britain, as it is from the later of these that many of the 
Anglo-Saxon types were derived. Specimens of these coinages are 
not shown in this exhibition, as they are included in the series of the 
Coins of the Ancients. 

Previous to the Anglo-Saxon period the coinages current in Britain BRITISH 
were the Ancient British and the purely Roman and Romano-British. 
The unit of the first class was the gold stater, the type of which was 
derived from the stater of Philip II of Macedon. In its transit across 
the Continent but few signs of the original type of the coin of Philip 
remained : and it is only by tracing it back through its successive 
degradations that its source can be ascertained. The early pieces are 
mostly without inscriptions. No certain date can be fixed for the 
introduction of this coinage into Britain ; but it must have been about 
the middle of the second century B.C. The issues were for the most part 



Vlll INTBODUCTION. 

BRITISH in the central and southern districts, as it is in these localities that the 
INAGES. nn( j s occur. Quarter-staters were also struck, and at a later 



period small silver and copper pieces. The advent of the Romans is 
clearly to be traced in the types of the coins, which now more nearly 
follow those of the Roman money. Many of these coins struck during 
the later half of the first century B.C. are remarkable examples of the 
die-engraver's art, and rival in execution some of those purely Roman. 
Inscriptions now often occur, and in them we meet with the names of 
British chiefs who are known to us from history, and of some of whom 
history makes no mention.* There is Commius, the King of the Atrebates, 
who was in Britain at the time of Caesar's second invasion in 54 B.C., 
and his sons Tincommius, Verica, and Eppillus ; also Cunobelinus, King 
of the Trinobantes, the Cymbeline of Shakespeare, whose mint was 
at Colchester, and Cartimandua, Queen of the Brigantes, who is 
mentioned by Tacitus. j" This coinage did not last much after the 
invasion and conquest of Britain by Claudius (A.D. 43), and from 
that time for centuries only Roman money circulated here. Judging 
from the hoards which are constantly unearthed, the importation of 
Roman money must have been very considerable. It consisted almost 
entirely of silver and copper, as gold coins are but rarely found, and 
then generally singly. No Roman mints were established till the end 
of the third century, when we find Carausius and Allectus striking 
coins at London and Colchester. The London mint was continued by 
Constantine the Great, and the last Roman Emperor to strike coins in 
Britain was Magnus Maximus, who died in A.D. 388. 

SAXON There is now an interval of over two centuries during which time we 
COINS, have no numismatic records ; but it may be concluded that the Britons 
continued to use Roman money, chiefly the small copper pieces which 
were extensively imitated. In this interval Britain had passed under 
the sway of other invaders, the Saxons, who after a while instituted 
a new coinage of a very different character from that which had preceded. 
This coinage was in a measure like that which was in currency in 
Gaul ; but it differed from it materially. The Gaulish or Merovingian 
coinage was essentially a gold currency ; though some silver was 
struck. | The money introduced by the Saxons into England was 
mainly of silver. In their own country, since early times, they had 
possessed a silver currency ; and when Rome debased her coinage and 
issued pieces of copper washed with silver, Germany adhered to the 
imperial denarius, and in the 4th and 5th centuries the silver coins of 
Nero and those of Diocletian were current together. |j In establishing 
this money in England the Saxons were but continuing the currency 
they had been accustomed to for centuries. Also in Germany, as in 
England, silver was more easily obtained than gold. Finds of Anglo- 



* Evans, Coins of the Ancient Britons, p. 130 et seqq. 
t Ann. xii. 36. 

| Little silver was found in Gaul, but there was a good deal of gold. Diod. 
Sic. v. 27. 

Keary, Coinages of Western Europe, p. 112. 
Mommsen, ed. Blacas, torn. iii. p. 132. 



INTBODUCTION. ix 

Saxon sceattas mixed with the small denarii of the Rhine show that in ANGLO- 
Northern Germany, and more especially in those parts of the Continent CO?NS! 
opposite our own shores, these coins had a wide and important 
circulation. 

Before proceeding to trace the progress of the Anglo-Saxon coinage DENOMINA- 
it may be well to mention briefly the various denominations of which TIONS - 
it is composed. The actual pieces current were three in number, or at 
most four. These were the sceat in gold and silver, the penny in silver, 
and the styca in base silver and copper. Not more than one of 
these denominations was struck at one time in the same district ; and 
the sceat and the penny could only have been current together for 
a few years. The fourth denomination is the gold solidus, which 
is imitated from the Roman coin of that name ; but as so few 
specimens are known it is quite possible that they may only have 
been intended for ornaments and not for currency. The sceat the 
name of which signifies treasure, value, or payment is a small and thick 
gold or silver coin weighing about 20 grs. The gold sceat is properly a 
triens or tremissis, i.e. a third of the solidus, and by that name it was 
known in the Roman and Merovingian coinages. It may also, when in 
currency, have been known as the thrymsa. The silver sceat was at 
the rate of 5/ or 4^ to the shilling, according to the district in which 
it was current; the Wessex pound being equivalent to 48 shillings 
and that of Mercia to 60 shillings. The penny, which is derived from 
pening, penig or pending, is intimately connected with the old German 
pfand signifying a pledge or value. As compared with the sceat it is a 
much thinner and broader coin. Its full weight was 22^ grs. troy, and 
240 were equivalent to the Saxon pound of silver. This coin is of 
Frankish origin, and dates from the middle of the 8th century. The 
styca, etymologically " piece " (Germ. Stuck), in its form and character 
was very nearly allied to the sceat. At first it was of base silver, 
but it soon degenerated into copper. Its weight varied from about 
19 to 14 grs. ; but there is no record of its current value as compared 
with the sceat or the penny or the moneys of account. The solidus, as 
already mentioned, was similar in type and weight to the Roman coin 
of that name. 

Besides the above denominations there are several others mentioned 
in the Anglo-Saxon laws and literature : but they were not current 
coins, but merely money of account. These are the pound, the mark, the 
mancus, the thrymsa, the shilling, and the ora.* Their respective values 
were as follows :-. the pound was equivalent to 240 pennies or 250 
sceats ; the mark, a unit of weight in use north of the Baltic, was half 
the pound; the mancus, a word of uncertain derivation, was ^ of a 
pound, and therefore equal to 3Qd. ; the thrymsa, which may be the 
same as the tremissis or triens, was equivalent to ^ of the old solidus, 
and perhaps the same as the sceat of gold ; the shilling (der. scilling, = a 
' ' division ") varied in value as has been mentioned according to the 



* Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. I., p. xxxiii. 



X INTRODUCTION. 

DEXOMIXA- district, being in Wessex at 48 to the pound and in Mercia at 60 to 
the pound ; and the 6m (Icel. = e:,rir, - Lat. aurum), also a Danish 
money of account, was y 1 ^ of the pound, or equivalent to 3 or 3f 
shillings according to the locality. 

SOEAT The earliest Saxon coin struck in Britain was the sceat. It is a 

SERIES small and somewhat thick coin, measuring in diameter from * 5 to '45 
in. Those in silver weigh from 20 grs. to 12 grs., but the gold pieces 
keep fairly to the standard weight of 20 grs. It is at this point that 
the descriptions of the coins in this Handbook begin. The date of the 
commencement of this Anglo-Saxon money is somewhat uncertain ; 
but, comparing it with the Frankish and German coinages, it may 
be fixed at about the beginning of the 7th century. The gold 
solidi, if intended for currency, might be placed to a somewhat earlier 
date. 

TYPES. The types of the sceat are very numerous, and fall generally into 
the three following classes * : (i) Those which have Roman coins as 
their prototypes ; (ii) Those which are of Frankish origin ; and (iii) 
Those which appear to represent native art. Of these three classes 
the first is the most common, and the second the least so. In copy- 
ing the Roman coin-types the engraver had before him coins which 
he was accustomed to handle, and it is not at all remarkable that he 
made use of them for his designs. In the case of the gold sceattas we 
have direct copies of Roman types. No. 1, pi. i, with the head on the 
obverse and three busts on the reverse, is a direct copy of the solid us 
of the 4th century. No. 2, pi. i, gives a type of the solidus of the 5th 
century, though frequently found on Merovingian coins. The most 
common type of the silver sceattas is that which shows a bust on the 
obverse and a square compartment enclosing the letters VOTT, etc., on 
the reverse. These types are taken from the bronze coins of Con- 
stantine II, &c. Others have a figure holding one or two crosses, which 
is also a Byzantine type of the 5th and 6th centuries. The more 
common of the Merovingian types are a bird standing on a cross, or a 
plain cross on steps, with the head on the obverse in profile or facing. 
Those designs, which show some native art, are birds, dragons, fan- 
tastic animals, and ornaments of various forms, roses, annulets, wheels, 
arabesques, &c. Most of the early sceattas are uninscribed, but 
some have legends in Roman characters, whilst a few are in Runic. 
The legends in Roman characters are mostly blundered and meaning- 
less, showing that the engraver of the dies did not know what he was 
copying, but on some the name of London is to be read, often however 
crudely written. Coins with Roman legends are chiefly of Roman 
types. The only name in Runic characters on the uncertain sceattas 
which has been recognised is that of Epa, Apa, <kc., who is supposed 
to have been a brother of Peada, King of Mercia (see No. 6). The 
coins of Epa and Peada are so similar in type that this identification 
may be correct. 



* Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. I., p. xviii. 



INTRODUCTION. XI 

The district over which the currency of the sceattas extended has TYPES. 
been clearly marked by finds. It reaches in the north to the Humber, 
and in the south to the borders of Wessex, i.e., about the present site 
of Southampton. This district was known as the littua Saxonicum. The 
subsequent coinages of Mercia, East Anglia, and Northumbria enable 
us also to locate the types to particular districts. Thus the coinage 
with Roman prototypes prevailed mostly in the southern parts, Kent 
and Mercia, the sceattas bearing the mint-name of London being 
exclusively of this class ; whilst those whose types are of more native 
design are met with more frequently in East Anglia and the more 
northern districts. Distinct traces of these types are found in the 
early coinage of Northumbria (see No. 77, p. 14). It must not, however, 
be assumed that the currency of the coins of a particular class was 
confined to one locality, for finds of mixed types are met with in each 
district. Few, however, appear to have passed much north of the 
Humber or further to the west than the borders of the old kingdom 
of Wessex. It is not possible to state with any precision over what 
period of time the sceat was struck. It was introduced, as we have 
already said, about the beginning of the 7th century, and it continued 
till about the middle or end of the 8th century, when it was supplanted 
by an entirely new coin the penny. The issue of the sceat overlapped 
by some years the striking of the penny, which was not introduced 
simultaneously in each district. Thus in East Anglia the sceat may 
not have disappeared till after the reign of Aethelberht, who was 
murdered in 794, and in Northumbria we find no traces of the penny 
till about the year 875. 

The next period of the Anglo-Saxon coinage is of a more definite gJJJJJ" 
character. Hitherto we have had to deal with anonymous coins. We KINGDOMS. 
now enter on a period when the coins bear inscriptions which enable 
us to locate their issues within well-defined districts, and to classify 
them to certain kingdoms which formed part of the so-called Hept- 
archy. These kingdoms are Mercia, Kent, East Anglia, Northumbria, 
and Wessex. This order may not be strictly chronological, but it is 
the most convenient one for our purpose : since the coinages of Mercia 
and Kent are a good deal intermingled, whilst those of East Anglia 
and Northumbria are each of a distinctive character ; and that of 
Wessex which state was the last to adopt a coinage in the end 
absorbs those of all the other four districts. 

The most important change which took place in the currency of 
England at this time was the substitution of the silver penny for the 
sceat. The penny, or as it was called in early times the novus denarius, 
was of Frankish origin, and was first struck by Pepin the Short about 
the year 755. As compared with the sceat it is a larger and flatter 
coin, and at first weighed about 17 grs. ; but it very soon rose to 
22 grs., and remained at that standard for a considerable time. 
Whether or not its issue was in any way influenced by the Arab 
dirhem, which had a considerable currency in northern Europe, is 
uncertain. At all events it differed considerably from that coin both 
in type and size. This new coin quickly spread throughout Europe. 



Xll INTKODUCTION. 

ORIGIN OF It drove out of circulation all the Roman silver money, and soon put 
PENNY an end to all the gold coinages, especially the Merovingian, and then 
became the sole medium of exchange for some centuries. The Anglo- 
Saxon penny, from its initiation, varied in type very materially from the 
Frankish piece. The latter was of a very simple form, consisting 
mainly of a monogram on both sides, sometimes accompanied by the 
king's name and the place of issue. The Anglo-Saxon piece was much 
more ornate in character. The general types were * : 

1. Obv. the king's head ; rev. some form of cross or ornament. 

2. Obv. and rev. some form of cross or religious symbol. 

The name of the king or person under whose authority the coin was 
issued usually occupies the outer circle on the obverse, and on the 
reverse is that of the money er who was responsible for the just weight 
and purity of the coins. At a later date the name of the place of 
minting was added to that of the moneyer. The first Anglo-Saxon 
king to strike pennies was Offa, king of Mercia, who appears to have 
introduced this new coin early in his reign. (See below.) 

MERCIA. Taking the coin-striking kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxons in the order 
we have proposed, that of Mercia first claims our notice. The earliest 
Mercian coins are of the sceat class. They bear the names of Peada, 
who ruled A.D. 655-657 ?, and ^Ethelred, who is probably the Mercian 
king A.D. 675-704. The coins of the former are of purely Roman types, 
but those of the latter show a mixture of Roman and native design, 
thus pointing to a somewhat later date. The legends on Peada's coins 
are in Roman and Runic characters, but those of JEthelred are in 
Runes only. The name of the king in each instance is on the reverse. 
From this time to the reign of Ofia there are no numismatic records 
of Mercia. That king did not strike any sceattas, and, as his coins are 
of the penny class only, it may be presumed that he adopted this new 
piece early in his reign, and that he was therefore the first to introduce 
it into England. The pennies of Offa are of two series : those with the 
bust of the king on the obverse, and those without the bust. The earlier 
of the two was probably the penny without the bust, as these coins 
more nearly approach the sceattas in their types ; whilst those with 
the bust are continued in the following reigns. It is a remarkable 
circumstance that, from an artistic point of view, the coins of Offa 
excel subsequent issues. The types of Offa's coins consist of crosses 
of various forms, floral designs, interlaced patterns, and intertwined 
serpents ; and the busts, though perhaps originally derived from those 
on Roman coins, are not however servile copies, but depict really fine 
examples of Anglo-Saxon art. They are well formed, and the head 
bears a life-life expression, whilst the hair is usually arranged in close 
curls or plaits, or else it is loose and flowing. The king's name is 
placed on the obverse, and on the reverse that of the moneyer ; the 
inscriptions being generally in Roman characters, but here and there 
traces of Runes survive. There are no indications of mint-names, but 



* Cat. Eny. Coins, Vol. I., p. xxii. 



INTRODUCTION. Xlll 

we may conclude that the principal Mercian mint was in London. MERCIA. 
The coins themselves, however, show that after the defeat of the Kentish 
men at Otford in 775, when Kent became a fief of Mercia, Offa made 
use of the Canterbury mint. Not only do we see the Canterbury 
moneyers striking for Offa, but in their coinage the Archbishops 
acknowledge Offa and his successor, Coenwulf, as their overlord (see 
Nos. 55-56, p. 9). We may mention a very curious and interesting 
gold coin bearing the name of Offa, which was found some years ago in 
Rome.* It is an Arab dinar, similar in type and legends to those of 
the Amawi and Abbaside dynasties. It is dated A.H. 157 (= A.D. 774), 
and on one side, in addition to the usual legend, it is inscribed 
OFFA REX.f It is conjectured that this curious piece was made in 
England by a workman ignorant of the Arabic language, and that it 
is a specimen of the coins sent by Offa to the Pope in fulfilment of his 
promise to send him annually 365 gold mancuses as an offering. The 
Arab dirhem in silver was certainly imported by the Vikings into 
England and Scotland on a limited scale, but at a somewhat later 
date. If Offa paid this tribute in gold, it must have been in foreign 
money, and it is only in this manner that such a piece could have 
been included. It is difficult, however, to conceive, if any of these 
coins had to be imitated, why such an exceptional piece should have 
been selected. No doubt has ever been expressed of its authenticity. 
It is unique. 

For a while after the death of Offa the power of Mercia was main- 
tained in Kent. Coenwulf, his successor, deposed Eadberht Praen 
and placed Cuthred on the throne, and the Archbishop of Canterbury 
acknowledged him as his overlord. His coins, too, bear the same 
moneyers' names as are found on the contemporary kings of Kent, which 
shows that, like his predecessor, he made use of the Canterbury mint. 
His other mint was no doubt in London. Like Offa's coins, those of 
Coenwulf are of two series, with and without the king's bust; but 
a great decline is to be noticed in their general fabric. The types 
become more conventional ; they are in lower and flatter relief ; and 
there is an almost entire absence of the artistic skill so manifest in 
Offa's pieces. After the death of Coenwulf Mercia began to decline in 
power, being pressed on one side by East Anglia and on the other by 
Wessex. Ceolwulf I, who had succeeded Coenwulf, continued to issue 
coins similar in character to those of the preceding reign, and on some 
we meet with the mint-name of Canterbury. After a short reign 
Ceolwulf I was deposed by Beornwulf in 824, and he was himself slain 
in the next year by the East Angles. In seeking to avenge his death, 
Ludican, his successor, met with a similar fate. The most decisive 
event for Mercia occurred in 829, when Ecgbeorht of Wessex defeated 
Wiglaf, Ludican's successor at Ellandune, and drove him out of 
his kingdom. So decisive was this victory that Ecgbeorht not only 
for a time assumed the entire control of Mercia, but also styled 



* Num. Chron. 0. S. iv. 232. 

f Kenyon, Gold Coins of England, front, no. 13. 



XIV INTBODUCTION. 

MERCIA. himself " king of the Mercians," and struck coins in London (see 

No. 125, p. 22), even using some of Wiglaf's own moneyers to engrave 

his dies. Wiglaf was restored by Ecgbeorht in the following year, 

but he became only a tributary king, and was not re-granted the right 

of coinage. The numismatic records of these last three reigns are of so 

scanty a character that they do not call for any special notice. When 

Aethelwulf became king of Wessex he restored the right of coinage to 

Berhtwulf, Wiglaf's successor, and the money of Mercia continued 

without interruption till 874, when Burgred was driven out by the 

Danes, who had by this time obtained a strong hold in England, and 

who for a short time set Ceolwulf II on the throne. In 878, by the 

treaty of Wedmore, made between Aelfred and Guthorm the Danish 

leader, the independent kingdom of Mercia came to an end, and was 

divided between Wessex and East Anglia. The restored coinage 

of Berhtwulf is of the same character as that of his predecessor, but 

the types are less varied, whilst that of Burgred is practically of one type 

only. No mint-names occur in either case. The coins of Ceolwulf II 

are of such excessive rarity that it is probable he exercised the right of 

coinage to a very limited degree. They are of two types only, which 

appear to be copied from Aelf red's coins (see No. 46). There is no series 

of coins which illustrates more clearly the rise and downfall of a state 

than that of Mercia. We can trace the rise of Mercian power under 

Offa, the maintenance of its position under his successor, and the decline 

under the following rulers. Then comes its temporary extinction under 

Ecgbeorht, its restoration by Aethelwulf, and its final absorption by 

Wessex. Its whole history is thus reflected in its coinage. 

KENT. The coinage of Kent is of two series, regal and ecclesiastical, the 

latter being issued by the Archbishops of Canterbury. Both series are 

of the penny class. The earliest regal coins which can be associated 

with Kent are those bearing the name of Ecgberht, who however 

appears to be unknown to history except from a few charters. The 

fact of his striking money of similar types to those of Offa, and also that 

the names of his moneyers Udd and Babba are found on Offa's coins, 

lends a countenance to the opinion of some historians that he may 

have been a son of Offa. Ecgberht's reign extended from 765 to 791, 

but it is quite possible that he did not strike any coins bill after 

the conquest of Kent by Offa in 774, and that the right of coinage 

was accorded to him by that king, As Kent remained under the 

control of Mercia till it was incorporated into Wessex by Ecgbeorht, 

its coinage was naturally much influenced by Mercian events. The 

next king after Ecgberht of whom there are coins is Eadberht II 

Praen ; but as his reign only lasted two years, his coins are few and 

only of one type (see No. 48). Neither he nor his predecessor placed 

their busts on their coins. Eadberht II was deposed by the Mercians, 

and his place filled by Cuthred, who styled himself " King of Kent." 

His money is of two series, with and without his bust. Nearly all his 

moneyers are found striking for Coenwulf of Mercia, which shows 

the power of that state in Kent. The main types, besides the bust, 

are some form of cross, or the tribrach, the latter probably representing 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

the archiepiscopal pall. Baldred, the successor of Cuthred, was the KENT. 
last of the Kentish kings. After a reign of twenty years he was driven 
out by Ecgbeorht, and his kingdom was then annexed by Wessex. His 
coinage is similar to that of Cuthred, and some of his types are of the 
same pattern as the archiepiscopal money. The coinage of the Kentish 
kings only lasted for about sixty years. 

There is no record under what conditions or circumstances the right ARCH- 
of coinage was granted to the Archbishops of Canterbury, beyond the 
evidence supplied by the coins themselves. The fact that the earliest 
coins, those of Jaenberht and Aethelheard, bear besides their own names 
that of Offa, shows pretty clearly that it was by that king that this 
privilege was accorded. For these and other rights the Archbishops 
of Canterbury supported the power of the Mercian kings, and on 
several occasions suppressed the rising of the Kentish men against 
their overlords. As the power of Mercia declined, the archbishops no 
longer placed the names of the Mercian kings on their coins, but 
substituted for them those of their moneyers, and occasionally that of 
their see. They also placed their own busts on the obverse. This type 
was first instituted by Abp. Wulfred (805-832). It is also during his 
episcopate that we first find the mint-name in the form of a monogram 
on the reverse, a direct adoption of the type of Charles the Great. 
One of the favourite types of his successor, Ceolnoth, was the Christian 
monogram. The right of coinage was retained by the archbishops for 
nearly a century after the conquest of Kent by Wessex, Plegmund 
being the last prelate under the Anglo-Saxons to exercise it (890-914). 
He was a Mercian by birth, and, being much favoured by Aelfred, was 
eventually raised by him to the archiepiscopate. Most of his coins are 
of one type only, having his name and that of his mint with a small 
cross pattee on the obverse, and on the reverse the moneyer's name 
divided by crosses and other ornaments. This type was copied from 
Aelfred's own coins. A notable exception occurs in his placing the 
name of the king before his own. It is probable that this type was 
struck soon after his accession to the see. With Plegmund the 
archiepiscopal money of Canterbury came to an end ; and henceforth, 
when bishoDs and archbishops received the right of coinage, such money 
was of the royal type only and cannot be distinguished from the 
general series. At a later time, under the English kings, some special 
mint-mark or an initial was occasionally used to distinguish the 
episcopal coins. 

Like that of Kent, the coinage of East Anglia is of two series, 
regal and quasi-ecclesiastical. The regal series consists of sceattas * 
and pennies and halfpennies in silver. Of the history of East 
Anglia during the period to which the coins may be assigned we 
know very little, and of eight kings of whom we have coins only 



* Mr. Keary, Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. I., p. xxiii., considers these also to be 
pennies, and to be of a transition type between the sceat and the penny. 
Their small diameter and thickness and also their types show a closer connexion 
with the sceat than with the penny. 



Xvi INTBODUCTION. 

EAST three are recorded in history. For the classification of the coins we 
ANGLIA. nave therefore to depend mainly on their fabric and style, and on the 
evidence of finds. Thus the earlier pieces of Beonna and ^thelberht 
approach in type more nearly the sceat series. The coins of 
./Ethelstan I are generally found with others of Ecgbeorht of Wessex 
and contemporary kings of Mercia and Kent, and scarcely ever with 
those of Aelfred. Again, the types of u^Bthelweard's coins are repeated 
on those of Aethelwulf of Wessex. It is by such means that we are 
able to arrive at some arrangement. 

Of Beonna, to whom the earliest East Anglian coins are assigned 
we know very little beyond what is related by Florence of Worcester 
and Alured of Beverley. These writers give his date as 758, which 
agrees with the nature of his money. The legends, being partly 
in Runic characters, also point to an early date. If uncertainty 
prevails as to this attribution, still more so is it in the case of 
^Ethelberht, who is supposed to have been a son of ^thelred, the suc- 
cessor of Beonna. The only coin assigned to this king is of purely 
Roman design, having the head on one side and the wolf and twins 
on the other. As on Beonna's coins, the legends are partly in Runes 
and partly in Roman letters. Passing over the coins, pennies, of 
Eadwald, which resemble in type those of Offa, we come to the large 
series bearing the name of Ethelstan or Aethelstan. Of their date 
of issue there can be little doubt, since they are generally found with 
Ecgbeorht's money, and those of contemporary kings of Mercia and 
Kent.* It was probably ^Ethelstan of East Anglia who defeated and 
slew Beornwulf and Ludican, and sought the protection of Ecgbeorht 
against the incursions of the Mercians. By some writers he has been 
supposed to be a blood relation of Ecgbeorht, but there is no evidence 
to support this supposition. His large coinage points to an inde- 
pendent rule, and also to a reign of considerable duration. The types 
of his coins are however of a very simple character. A few are known 
with his bust, but the majority have some form of cross or the letter A 
for "Angliae." ^thelweard, the successor of JEthelstan, is also 
unrecorded in history ; but his money readily finds a place between 
those of Aethelstan and Eadmund. Beorhtric is another uncertain 
monarch whose date is doubtful, and it is difficult to say whether he 
preceded or followed -/Ethel weard. His coins are not sufficiently 
numerous to suggest a definite solution. The last of the native kings 
of East Anglia is Eadmund (St. Eadmund). He appears to have 
ascended the throne about 857, and to have ruled till 870 ; when, being 
attacked by the Danes, he was taken prisoner, and, refusing to abjure 
Christianity, was murdered. Of this king there is a large series of 
coins, none of which bear his bust. The types mainly consist of some 
form of cross with ornaments or of the letter A. For some years after 
Eadmund's death there was no settled form of government in East 



* See more especially the find of Anglo-Saxon coins published in Num. 
Chron., 1894, p. 28. 




INTBODUCTION. XV11 

Anglia, which was held by the Danes ; but in 878, when the Danish EAST 
leader Guthorm was defeated by Aelfred at Ethandune, and was J 
baptised under the name of jEthelstan, he received this district as part 
of his dominions. After a reign of twelve years Guthorm died, and 
a few years later East Anglia was incorporated into the kingdom of 
Wessex. Guthorm 's coins, which are of one type only, were copied from 
Aelfred's (see No. 72). 

It is about this time that we meet with the quasi-ecclesiastical money 8T - EAI) - 
of this district. It is known as the St. Eadmund coinage. It was COINAGE. 
issued as a memorial of King Eadmund, who, as we have seen, was 
murdered by the Danes in 870. The circumstances connected with his 
death procured for him canonization, and the fact that we have this 
large coinage shows that he must have been held in great reverence 
in the country over which he had ruled. The types of the coins 
and the moneyers' names on them prove that they were struck in 
East Anglia, and that for a while they formed the principal currency 
of that district. A few specimens are known with the mint-name of 
York (Ebraice Civ.}, but these may have been Northumbrian imita- 
tions. The large number of these coins which occurred in the Cuer- 
dale hoard, the approximate date of burial of which was about 905, 
shows that at that time they were then in general currency ; and, if 
we assume that their issue did not begin much before the death of 
Guthorm, we have thus a period of about fifteen years to which they 
may be assigned. The fine condition of these coins in the Cuerdale 
hoard, from which the majority of the known pieces came, also proves 
that they could not have been long in circulation. These St. Eadmund 
coins and those of Guthorm-^thelstan are the chief Anglo-Danish 
money issued south of the Huinber. 

Another ecclesiastical coin, which is placed under East Anglia, but 
which more properly belongs to the Mercian series, is that which bears 
the name of St. Martin and the mint-name of Lincoln (see No. 75). It 
is of Danish origin, and in type and fabric somewhat approaches the 
" St. Peter " money struck at York. The date of its issue must have been 
before 943, when Eadmund of Wessex took Lincoln from the Danes, and 
after the burial of the Cuerdale hoard, in which no specimen occurred. 

The coinage of Northumbria is divisible into two separate periods, NORTH- 
absolutely distinct from each other. The earlier period is that which 
includes the rule of the Anglian kings ; the later, that of the Danish 
usurpers. The series of coins of both periods are regal and eccle- 
siastical or quasi-ecclesiastical. The coins of the Anglian rulers are 

own as stycas. The types of the earlier pieces closely resemble those 

the sceattas, consisting mainly of crosses and fantastical animals. 

ery soon, however, these give way to more simple forms, such 
as a small cross, or a circle, or often only a single pellet. The 
inscriptions, consisting only of the king's name on one side and that of 
the moneyer on the other, occupy the greater part of the field of the 
coin. As already stated, the styca was of base silver, but it soon became 
copper, and remained copper to the end of the series. We have no 
information as to the current value of this coin as compared either 

1) 



XV111 INTRODUCTION. 

NORTH- with the sceat or the penny. The earliest stycas are of the second half 
8KIA> of the 7th century, and they extend down to the second half of the 
9th century, when Northumbria came under the rule of the Danish 
invaders. 

The first king to whom stycas can be assigned is Ecgfrith (670-685), 
and the latest, Osberht (849-867). The series is not quite continuous, 
as there are several Northumbrian kings known to history of whom at 
present we have no coins. Of the last three kings also we have no 
money (see p. 16). 

ARCH- The ecclesiastical coins of this class are those which were struck 
O? IS YORK. by the Archbishops of York. These do not begin till some time 
after the regal coinage. The first Archbishop of York, of whom coins 
are known, is Ecgberht (734-766), who was a brother of King 
Eadberht, and from whom he appears to have received the right of 
issuing money. In acknowledgment of this privilege Ecgberht placed 
his brother's name on his coins (see No. 89). It was precisely a 
parallel case to that of the Archbishops of Canterbury, who placed 
the name of their overlord on their coins (see p. xv). The coinage 
of the Archbishops of York ceased with that of the Anglian kings. 
The types are precisely similar to those of the regal series. There is, 
however, one piece of a very exceptional character : the so-called 
solidus of Wigmund (see No. 91). Whether this is a trial-piece, 
which is very improbable, or an ornament, or an offering penny of the 
same nature as Aelfred's large silver coin (see No. 134), it is not easy 
to determine. The facing bust is of most unusual occurrence, and in 
this form is only found on a few Roman coins of the 4th century. Its 
appearance amongst a copper coinage seems so out of place that it 
scarcely could have been intended for currency. It may therefore be 
looked upon as an offering penny (Munus divinum, " divine offering "), 
or it may have been intended to mark Wigmund's accession to the 
archiepiscopate, which he designates as "Munus divinum, a divine office." 

DANISH The conquest of Northumbria by the Danes and the expulsion of 
the line of Anglian kings brought about a complete change in the 
monetary system. In their foraging expeditions south of the Humber 
the Danes had been accustomed to meet with the penny as the coin 
in currency. Its introduction, therefore, into Northumbria followed 
almost as a matter of course. The first Danish ruler in Northumbria 
of whom we have coins is Halfdan (875-877) ; but it is possible 
that these were issued before he obtained his new kingdom. Only 
two specimens are known, and they are both of Aelfred's types (see 
Nos. 9495). A regular coinage was, however, established by his 
successor Guthred-Cnut, who modelled his money on that of the 
Frankish coinage. From Guthred-Cnut the coinage is fairly con- 
secutive, though with breaks occasioned by internal dissensions or by 
the encroachments of Wessex, which now began to extend its power 
north of the Humber. In its general character the coinage is quite 
un-English, and rather Scandinavian or Frankish. The types are 
varied and of interesting designs. Uncultured as these Northmen 
were, they must have had skilful workmen. 



INTEODUCTION. 



XIX 



ST. PETER 
COINAGE. 



The last Danish king to strike coins in Northumbria was Eric, who NORTH- 
was expelled by Eadred of Wessex in 954. Northumbria was now 
incorporated with Wessex, which extended from the southern shores to 
the borders of Scotland, and whose monarchs henceforth styled them- 
selves " Kings of England." 

The ecclesiastical or quasi-ecclesiastical coinage of Northumbria 
under Danish rule is that known as the " St. Peter " coinage. It was 
struck at York, and is very similar in character to the St. Eadmund 
coinage of East Anglia. It is difficult to fix the precise limits of its issue, 
but from the evidence of finds and also from the nature of its types it 
may be assigned to a period extending from about 920 to 940. This 
would be contemporaneous with the accession of the second Scandinavian 
dynasty in Northumbria, whose first king was Regnald (919-921). 
Several of the types of Regnald's coins are met with on the " St. Peter " 
money. The extent of the issue also shows that it must have lasted 
several years. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility that it may 
have been struck by the Archbishops of that time, who continued to 
have their see at York. 

The coinage of Wessex dates from the reign of Ecgbeorht. Previous WESSEX. 
to that time Wessex does not appear to have struck any money ; and 
the absence of finds of coins of an earlier date within the old limits of 
the Wessex kingdom, tend to show that it did not feel the need of a 
currency. Ecgbeorht succeeded to the throne of Wessex in 802 ; but 
there are no coins which can be attributed to him for at least the first 
twenty years of his reign. The beginning of the West Saxon coinage 
was one of the consequences of Ecgbeorht's conquest of Kent in 825 
and the expulsion of its king, Baldred. This conquest placed Canter- 
bury with its mint in the hands of Ecgbeorht, and the coins themselves 
show that he at once availed himself of the opportunity of establishing 
a coinage of his own. His early money not only bears the types of 
Baldred's and his predecessor's coins ; but we find all Baldred's moneyers' 
names on his coins. Ecgbeorht's coinage is therefore in its origin 
entirely Kentish, and is of the penny class only. Having thus assumed 
this right, Ecgbeorht looked upon it as a mark of kingly power ; for 
when, a few years later, in 829, he drove out Wiglaf from Mercia, he 
seized also the London mint and struck coins there (see No. 125), and 
did not allow any Mercian coins to be issued during the rest of his 
reign. The types of Ecgbeorht's coins are numerous, but the large 
majority are only copies either of Kentish, Mercian, or East Anglian 
coins. A few, however, such as the monogram of Canterbury, the 
" Rex Saxoniorum " type, &c., show a certain amount of originality. 

The coinages of Ecgbeorht's more immediate successors present but 
little change. Aethelwulf somewhat increased the number and variety 
of his types, and styled himself " Rex Cantiae," or " Rex Saxoniorum," 
or " Rex axoniorum Occidentalium," thus marking his extended 
jurisdiction ; but from his reign to that of Aelfred the coinage assumes 
a more simple form. During this period the Canterbury mint only 
appears to have been in use, so that the Wessex money preserved its 
Kentish character. 

b 2 



XX 



INTRODUCTION. 



AELFRED. 



AETHEL- 
RED n. 



It was at this period that the Vikings began to renew their raids on 
England, and on his accession Aelfred found himself beset on all sides 
by this foreign foe. We have seen how these invasions affected the 
coinages of East Anglia and Northumbria, and though they left their 
mark in Wessex, yet that state was not affected in this respect to the 
same extent. The greater part of Aelf red's reign was occupied in resist- 
ing the attacks of the Danes ; but he emerged from the conflict with 
success, and saved his kingdom from the threatened annihilation and 
England from becoming entirely Danish. By the treaty with the Danish 
leader Guthorm, made after the battle of Ethandune, the Danes drew off 
to the district north of the Thames, whilst Aelfred added the greater 
part of Mercia to his dominions. This accession of territory is marked 
by a large issue of coins at London and Oxford. Besides minting at 
these places and at Canterbury, he also struck coins at Bath, Exeter, 
Gloucester, Winchester, &c., which show that from this time the 
coinage becomes more general, and is not, as before, limited to Kent. 
Aelfred's coins present a considerable variety of types, and the most 
remarkable are those with the mint-name in monogram. The coinages 
of the following reigns clearly mark the growth of Wessex. Eadweard 
the Elder on his coins perhaps commemorates the building of the 
burgs, which were erected to keep the Danes in check ; Aethelstan, his 
successor, strikes coins as far north as York on his victory over Anlaf 
of Northumbria; and the increasing power of Wessex is witnessed 
by mints at Norwich, Nottingham, Shrewsbury, and Warwick. The 
expulsion of Eric Blothox from Northumbria by Eadred in 954, placed 
that kingdom under the rule of Wessex, which now established its 
power over the whole of England. 

It must not be assumed that after the conquest of Northumbria the 
country remained undisturbed by the Northmen. There was a lull of 
about twenty-five years, during the reigns of Eadwig, Eadgar, and Ead- 
weard II, in which time there was a marked expansion and increase 
of the coinage, and mints were established at no less than thirty-six 
places, which extended from Exeter in the south-west to York in the 
north. The output of coins was very remarkable, not only for their 
number, but also for their excellence of design and workmanship. 
Soon after the accession of Aethelred II the troubles with the North- 
men and Danes recommenced, and England was attacked in the north 
and in the south. Then began the dangerous practice of tribute. 
Large sums of money were paid to the invaders, whose greed could not 
be satisfied, and again and again fresh demands were made. At last 
Aethelred committed a rash act which brought down on him the 
vengeance of his enemies. In the year 1002 he ordered a general 
massacre of Danes, which is known as the Massacre of St. Brice, as it 
occurred on the mass-day of St. Bricius (13th Nov.). This act was 
fraught with serious consequences for Aethelred and for England. 
In revenge, Svend, King of Denmark, invaded England with a large 
force, and the country was for some years at the mercy of the invaders, 
who when worsted in battle took to their ships, but when successful 
exacted large tributes. In 1013 Aethelred fled to Normandy; but, 






INTEODUCTION. XXI 

Svend dying shortly afterwards, he was restored to his kingdom after AETHEL- 
a short struggle with Cnut, the son of Svend. Aethelred died in 1016. 
It is an interesting fact that, in spite of all the trouble and disorder 
into which England was plunged during this reign, there was not only a 
considerable increase in the amount of coinage, but also an increase 
in the number of mints and in the types of the coins. A much greater 
regularity appears also to have been introduced in the striking of the 
coins, since we find the same types used at nearly all the mints, the 
only difference consisting in the names of the moneyer and the mint. 
The uniformity of fabric and style of each separate type is most 
remarkable. With a single exception the types consist of the king's 
head on one side, helmeted or diademed, and on the other side some 
form of ornament, generally a cross. The one exception is the Agnus 
Dei and Dove type (see No. 176), which at one time was thought to be 
Danish ; but, as it only exists of English mints, it should be given to 
the Anglo-Saxon series. 

The discovery of very large hoards of English coins in Scandinavian 
countries, larger than those found in England, suggests that much of 
the tribute was paid in actual money. This wide-spread circulation of 
Aethelred's coins led to their being copied in Denmark and Norway, 
and even in Ireland, where the Danes had already formed settlements. 

After a short contest with Edmund Ironside, son of Aethelred, CNUT - 
which was followed by his early death, Cnut became master of the 
realm, and England was for a time subject to Danish rulers. Passion- 
ate and revengeful at first, Cnut soon showed himself a wise and 
temperate king, and during his reign the land continued to prosper, 
being now freed from the continuous invading hosts. Nearly all the 
Danish troops were sent back to Denmark, only a small force being 
retained for the protection of the king. This quiet state of the 
country is reflected in the coinage, which in general appearance shows 
a continuity with that of the previous reign. The number of mints 
does not decrease, and at first Aethelred's types are copied. A slight 
divergence, however, soon sets in ; but there is no material change. 
There are only two varieties of the obverse type worth noticing ; these 
are those on which the king is represented wearing (a) a high pointed 
helmet such as he wears in the Bayeux Tapestry, or (6) wearing a 
crown, which it is possible Cnut may have copied from German coins.* 

After the death of Harthacnut, whose coinage, as well as that of his EDWARD 
brother Harold I, resembles Cnut's, the restoration of the house of CON SSOR. 
Cerdric in the person of Edward (the Confessor), Aethelred's son, 
brought with it a new element into the history of England the intro- 
duction of Norman influence. The sympathies of the young king lay 
with the home and friends of his youth. He spoke their language, he 
introduced their habits, he adopted a seal of Norman form for his 
charters, and Norman favourites occupied the highest posts of Church 
and State. Thus was laid the foundation of the great events which 




* Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. II., p. Ixxxix. 



XX11 INTEODUCTION. 

EDWARD were soon to follow. As this influence is not to be detected on the 
CONFESSOR, coinage of this reign, it is not necessary to trace its course in the 
history of the country. The coinage of Edward the Confessor is only 
a continuation of what preceded ; and its general character therefore 
was unchanged. There are as usual the same variations in the types, 
some of which had a lasting effect, while others were only ephemeral. 
An attempt at portraiture was also introduced. On his early coins 
Edward the Confessor is represented without a beard : but his later 
pieces show him with a beard, which he wore towards the end of his life, 
" barba canitie insignis lactea." The facing bust too appears for the 
first time : but it is a type destined to survive all the others. The so- 
called sovereign type (see No. 189) was also an innovation, the obverse 
representing the full-length figure of the king seated, facing, holding 
sceptre and orb, being probably adopted from Byzantine coins, whilst the 
reverse, the four martlets in the angles of a cross, is commonly called 
the arms of the Confessor. There is no reduction in the number of 
mints, and we meet with the same uniformity of style and fabric as in 
the money of Aethelred II and Cnut. Edward's last type, that with 
PAX between two lines on the reverse, was the only one used by his 
successor, Harold II, during his short reign. 

With the death of Harold II at the battle of Hastings, and the 
usurpation of the throne of England by William of Normandy, the 
second period of the English coinage since the coming of the Saxons is 
brought to a close. We have already noticed how the general history 
of Mercia is reflected in its coinage, its rise, its fall, and its absorption 
by other powers. This equally applies to all the other Anglo-Saxon 
kingdoms. In following up the history of the coinage which we have 
briefly summarised, we first see how Kent came under the rule of 
Wessex. East Anglia and the greater part of Mercia for a short time 
were a prey to the Danish invaders, who after a while had to yield to 
the advancing power of Wessex. In the meanwhile in the north the 
Anglian kings of Northumbria had also to give way to the Danes, who 
like their fellow-countrymen in the south were unable to stem the 
irresistible force of Wessex. Thus after a struggle which extended 
over a century and a half England was united- under one rule, and 
subsequent invasions did not destroy this unity. This gradual 
progress of the history of England finds an exponent in the coinage. 
We can trace the rise and fall of each state through its coin issues, and 
we can follow throughout the whole period the gradual growth of the 
power of Wessex by the extension northwards of her minting places ; 
so that when England was united under one rule the coinage of Wessex 
extended from the Scottish border to the southern shores, and it 
continued thus without any break down to the Norman Conquest. 

Before proceeding to the next section of the English coinage, that 
under the Norman kings, it may be well to refer briefly to the con- 
stitution of the mints and to the position of the moneyers during the 
Anglo-Saxon period. 

ANGLO- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the other chronicles of the time 
M^re. afford us no information respecting the constitution of the mints and 



INTBODUCTION. XX111 

the rules by which they were governed ; and it is not until the reign ANGLO- 
of Aethelstan that any mention of mints is made in the laws. During MINTS. 
the existence of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, whose coinages have been 
described, each state had at least one central mint, and generally only 
one. The principal Mercian mint was at London ; but for a time, as 
we have shown, the Mercian kings occasionally made use of that at 
Canterbury. The only mint of Kent was at Canterbury, which served 
both for the regal and the archiepiscopal money. The East- Anglian coins, 
we may presume, were struck at Colchester, where a mint had been 
established under the later Roman emperors ; and the mint-place of 
the Anglian and Danish kings of Northumbria was at York. Of this, 
there is abundant proof. Wessex used Canterbury as a mint as soon, 
as Kent was annexed to that state, and with the exception of a few 
coins struck by Ecgbeorht at London, this was its only mint until 
the time of Aelfred. When that king added a part of Mercia to his 
dominions, he extended his mints to Bath, Exeter, Gloucester, 
London, Oxford, and Winchester, those of Castle Rising and Lincoln 
being somewhat doubtful. It is from the laws of Aethelstan that we 
first obtain any information about the mints. By the Synod of 
Greatley (A.D. 928) it was ordered that there should be one kind of 
money throughout the whole realm, and that no one should coin save 
in a town. This would imply that hitherto there had been occasionally 
some irregularities in the issuing of the coins ; but it may also have 
some reference to the Danish imitations of Anglo-Saxon money which 
at that time had an extensive currency. The edict then proceeds to 
declare that each burg was entitled to one moneyer ; but certain places, 
on account of their importance, should have two or more. London was 
to have eight, Canterbury seven four for the king, two for the bishop, 
and one for the abbot Winchester six, Lewes two, &c. The result 
was a large increase in the number of mints, which however somewhat 
decrease during the successive reigns of Eadmund, Eadred, and Eadwig. 
There are however a considerable number of coins of this period without 
a mint-name of precisely the same type as those with mint-names, but 
of such different fabric and style that they cannot belong to the same 
localities. Under Aethelred IT, whose coins all bear the mint-name, 
there is an enormous increase of mints, and with this increase there is 
introduced a much greater uniformity in the general appearance of the 
money ; and were it not for the occurrence of the names of the mints, 
coins of the same type are so much alike that it would not have been 
possible to determine whether they were struck at London, Exeter or 
York, or any other place. There is no contemporary record of this 
apparent re-organization of the coinage, which must have been brought 
about by some system of centralization, under which the dies were issued 
from one common source. Otherwise such uniformity could not have 
been attained. The clue is to be found at a somewhat later date. From 
Domesday * we learn that " in the city of Worcester Edward the Con- 




* Vol. I. Ed. 1783, fol p. 176, s. v. Wirecestre. 



XXIV INTRODUCTION. 

ANGLO- fessor had this custom. When the money was changed each money er 
was to P a J 20 solid! in London on the receipt of the irons (or dies) for 



striking the coins." This custom was not confined to Worcester, as 
several other places are also mentioned. If this practice of issuing dies 
from one centre prevailed under Edward the Confessor, why should it 
not have existed under Aethelred II. If it was so, we have a complete 
explanation of the almost sudden uniformity of type throughout the 
kingdom. The dies would be made from one pattern, and the only 
difference would be in the names of the moneyer and the mint, which 
would be varied to suit the circumstances. The want of a common 
centre for the making of the dies would also account for the variety in 
fabric of coins of the same type issued before this reign. The increase 
of mints inaugurated by Aethelred II was continued to the end of the 
Anglo-Saxon period, during all which time there was a great output of 
coins, and throughout a general uniformity of style and fabric. 
MONEYBRS. If the chronicles are silent about the mints, they are equally so as 
regards the money ers. They give us no information whatsoever as to 
the mode of their appointment, how they were chosen, what were their 
duties and what was their status, whether mere artisans or men of 
position. This has led to some controversy and great diversity of 
opinion. We can only obtain our knowledge by a process of induction, 
which may be gathered either from the coins themselves or from later 
custom or practice. The earliest mention of the moneyer, or myntere, 
is in the laws of Aethelstan, where it was ordered that certain punish- 
ments should be inflicted on those who were guilty of misdemeanour in 
their office. One punishment was that the guilty moneyer should have 
his hand struck off, and that it should be placed in the smithy.* This 
would imply that at this time the moneyer was the actual engraver 
of the dies ; and this last supposition is somewhat confirmed by the 
words ' ' me fecit," which are occasionally found after his name. If 
this was his position under Aethelstan, we may conclude that it had 
existed previously. When the change to the making of the dies at one 
centre was introduced, the moneyer must have ceased to be a mechanic, 
as there was no need of technical skill in his office. He became now an 
overseer, and he was only responsible for the purity of the metal from 
which the coins were struck and for their proper manufacture. From 
the passage in Domesday already referred to we are told that for each 
month that the dies were in use the moneyer had to pay a fine of 
20 solidi, besides the sum he had already disbursed on receiving the 
dies. To be responsible for so large a sum he must have been a 
man of some substance. Madox, in his Hist, of the Exchequer, gives 
a good deal of information about the moneyers during the reigns of 
Henry II and Ill.f Like the other officers of the mint he was 
elected by the burgesses, and it was a stipulated qualification that 
he should be a trusty and prudent man. It was not required that 
he should have any technical knowledge. He was to be a person 



* Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. I., p. xxxiii. 
t Num. Chron., 1899, p. 109 et seqq. 



INTEODUCTION. XXV 

selected for his integrity, to be possessed of means, and one fully MONEYERS. 

responsible for the performance of the duties of his office. He was 

also liable to be summoned to Westminster to take part in the assays 

of the coins and in the trials of the Pix, and if necessary to bring his 

workmen with him. His position, therefore, was a very different one 

from that of the money er, who for a dishonest act ran the risk of losing a 

nlember. As the constitution of the mint under Henry II appears to 

have been the same as under William I and Edward the Confessor, 

may it not be inferred that the same conditions prevailed in the time 

of Aethelred II, who, judging from the nature of his coinage, first 

instituted the custom of having the dies engraved at one central 

place, and then sent for distribution to all the local mints. If this were 

so, then the change in the status of the moneyer dates from his reign, 

and it continued without any material alteration so long as the office 

lasted. 

The Norman Conquest did not produce any immediate change in the 
monetary system of England, and the silver penny continued to be the 
only current coin, and it remained practically so until the end of the 
reign of Henry III. There was no alteration in its general type, and 
it preserved its standard of fineness and weight. This was probably 
an instance of the policy of William of Normandy, who, wishing to be 
looked upon by the people as the rightful heir of Edward the Con- 
fessor, promised that they should be governed according to the old laws 
of the land. 

In the number of types, as compared with those of Edward the WILLIAM I- 
Confessor, there was a slight diminution under William I and II, HENRYlL 
whose respective coinages have not up to the present been definitely 
separated (see p. 34). This diminution of types continued under 
Henry I and Stephen, and when we come to Henry II we find that 
they are reduced to two only during his whole reign. Of the coins 
assigned to Richard I and John, which always bear their father's name, 
there is only one type ; but under Henry III the number is again in- 
creased to two. This fixity of type was an outcome of the deteriorated 
condition of the money under the later Norman kings. As all the 
types are given with the descriptions of the coins or in the notes, it will 
not be necessary to mention them here except when any important 
change occurs. 

It will be seen from the plates that the early coinage of William I in 
type and fabric resembles that of the later Anglo-Saxon kings. The 
most remarkable change occurs in the king's bust being generally 
presented full-face, holding a sword or a sceptre. This soon super- 
des the profile bust. The fabric of the coins too shows that at first 
e dies were engraved by skilled workmen, but before the end of the 
ign of William II a considerable falling off in technical skill is notice- 
le. It becomes more marked under Henry I, and the climax of 
adation is reached under Stephen, whose money artistically is the 
worst that had hitherto been struck in this country. The impress of 
the dies was very imperfect and the inscriptions almost illegible. An 
exception, however, is to be found in some of the semi-regal and 




XXVI INTRODUCTION. 

WILLIAM I- baronial coins issued during the civil war. It was this state of 
' things that induced Henry II to establish a greater fixity of type, and at 
the beginning of his reign to introduce a general type for all his money, 
" which should be continuous." The type was therefore only once 
changed by him, and this occurred in 1180, when the so-called " short- 
cross type " was adopted. This remained in use till the middle of the 
reign of Henry III. Greater care was taken in the actual striking of 
the coins, which were of more uniform roundness and thickness, and 
the inscriptions were clearly legible. This uniformity was adhered to 
in the future, and became still more marked in succeeding coinages. 

The mints under the Norman kings are as numerous as those under 
the later Anglo-Saxon kings ; but towards the reign of Henry III their 
number is so much reduced that they are limited to the chief centres 
only. The same may be said of the moneyers' names, and even to a 
still greater degree ; for with one exception only, that of Robert de 
Hadley (see No. 243, p. 44), they disappear altogether after the time 
of Henry III. This abolition of the office of moneyer as it had 
existed since early Anglo-Saxon times, may have been caused in some 
degree by a centralization of the working of the mints under the 
superintendence of a general overseer. This officer appears to have 
been first appointed by Henry II, when he carried out his reform in 
the coinage in 1180. The change however was not a sudden one, but 
took some time to develop. The rolls of the period of Henry III 
furnish us with a complete list of the officers of the mint at that 
time. The principal of these were : i. the Master, who was the 
general superintendent of the mint ; ii. the Warden, whose principal 
duty was the payment of the salaries of the other officers ; iii. the 
Assayer, who was responsible for the purity of the metal ; iv. the 
Cuneator, who had under his orders the engravers of the dies : 
this office was hereditary ; v. the Keeper of the dies ; and vi. the 
Moneyer, whose duty it was to receive the dies and to deliver them up 
after use, and generally to superintend the striking of the coins and 
to keep a record of the amount struck. Besides these there were a 
number of minor officials. 

In our remarks on the coinage since the Norman Conquest reference 
has been made to the semi-regal and baronial coins issued during the 
reign of Stephen, and to the fact that neither Richard I nor John 
placed their own names on their English coins, but retained that of 
their father, Henry. These points merit some special notice. 

The semi-regal and baronial coins were those which were issued 
during the civil war, when the Empress Matilda, the daughter of 
Henry I, attempted to wrest the crown of England from Stephen on 
behalf of her son Henry, whom she claimed to be the rightful heir. 
This series is of two classes : that struck by the partisans of Stephen 
and his own relations ; and that issued by the adherents and 
supporters of the cause of the Empress. Of the former are the coins 
of Stephen and Matilda, his wife, showing on the obverse their figures 
in full length ; of Stephen's son Eustace, who was governor of York, 
and to whom the right of coinage had been granted ; and of William, 






INTRODUCTION. XXV11 

Earl of Boulogne, who appears to have usurped the right of issuing WILLIAM i- 
money. Of the latter class there are coins of the Empress Matilda HENRY IL 
herself; of Henry, Bishop of Winchester, who at various times 
supported both sides ; and of Robert, Earl of Gloucester, Eustace 
FitzJohn, and Roger, Earl of Warwick, who commanded Matilda's 
armies. Many of these coins are remarkable for the exceptional merit 
of their work, so entirely differing in that respect from the coinage of 
Stephen. They are also interesting as showing the places which from 
time to time were held by Matilda and her generals. Besides these 
there are a number of rude pieces, many of them counterstruck coins 
of Stephen himself, which are said to have been issued by the turbulent 
barons, who seized Stephen's castles and then turned them into mints. 
Many of these pieces are of excessive rarity, and are much prized and 
sought after by collectors. 

The next point, the absence of the names of Richard I and John 
on their English coins, is not easily explained. The pennies which are 
classed to these reigns only vary from those of Henry II in slight 
changes in the form of the bust. The name of Henry is on all of them. 
This circumstance is the more noticeable as Richard struck coins in his 
own name for his French dominions, and John did the same in Ireland, 
when he was lord of Ireland, and after his accession to the throne. 
Moreover there are English halfpennies of John struck at London 
and Winchester, which bear his portrait and name (see p. 42). The 
records also show that during both reigns the mints were in active 
operation. In 1194 Richard ordered that one kind of money should 
be current throughout the realm, and it is further stated that this was 
carried into effect to the great advantage of the people. In 1199 
John granted dies to Canterbury, and confirmed the right of coinage 
to the Archbishops, and in 1208 writs were issued to the moneyers of 
no less than sixteen different cities and towns to appear at Westminster 
to receive dies, and it would seem that these dies were actually 
delivered. It can therefore only be presumed that in Richard's case, 
during his long absence from England, no steps had been taken to 
stamp his name on his coins, and that on his return he did not 
enforce a change. John, however, may have been actuated by other 
motives. He had usurped the crown to the exclusion of his nephew 
Arthur, and therefore, having no rightful claim, he may have thought 
it better to follow the example set by his brother. 

Passing on to the reign of Henry III we find that he made only one HENRY III. 
change in his silver money. He retained for some years the short- 
cross type of Henry II without any material alteration; but in 1248, 
on account of the debased state of the coinage through clipping and 
counterfeiting, he instituted a new one, the long-cross type, which 
consists of a double cross on the reverse extending to the edge of the 
coin. This device was adopted in order to make it more apparent 
whether a coin had been clipped or not. To distinguish this coinage 
further from the money which had preceded it, Henry placed either 
the Roman numerals III or TERCI after his name. No alteration 
was made either in the fineness or weight of the coins. 



XXV111 INTBODUCTION. 

HENRY ill. The most remarkable feature in the coinage of this reign was the 
attempt to introduce a gold currency in the form of a penny, which 
was to be current for twenty pence, but which was soon raised to twenty- 
four pence. It occurred in 1257 (see No. 238). This innovation, which 
had followed closely on the introduction of the fiorino d'oro into Italy, 
was not a success; partly because the coin was rated too high in 
comparison to the silver, and partly because the country was not 
prepared to receive a coin of so high a value in general currency. 
Notwithstanding the circumstance that at the time there was in the 
country a large amount of foreign gold, which passed by weight, the 
citizens of London protested, and the king listening to their protest, 
the new coin was promptly withdrawn. It was not for nearly a 
hundred years that a further attempt was made in this direction. 

EDWARD I. The attempt at uniformity in the coinage begun by Henry II and 
continued by Henry III was more effectually carried out by Edward I. 
For the first few years of his reign he does not appear to have issued 
any money, unless possibly he continued to use the dies of Henry III, 
but in 1279 he ordered a new coinage of a new type. It was to 
consist of the penny, halfpenny, and farthing, which were to have the 
king's bust facing and crowned on the obverse, and a long cross 
pattee with three pellets in each angle on the reverse. 

" Edward did smyte rounde peny, halfpeny, ferthyng 
Ye croice passed ye bounde of all yorghout ye ryng 
Ye kynges side salle be ye hede and his name writen 
Ye croyce side what cite it was incoyned and smyten." * 

With the exception of the small issue by John (see p. xxvii.), the 
halfpenny had not been in use since Anglo-Saxon times, and the farthing 
was a new denomination. Groats of the value of four sterlings were 
also ordered ; but there is considerable doubt whether any were struck 
even as patterns, and whether or not pieces similar to No. 242 may 
not belong to Edward IIL| This large silver coin had also been 
ordered during the reign of Henry II on two separate occasions.! 
The new type is a strong illustration of the stability of the English 
coinage, as it became at once absolutely stereotyped, and was the only 
one used for the silver money till the reign of Henry VII. Another 
important change took place on the introduction of this type. 
With the exception of Robert de Hadeley, who was the moneyer 
at the Abbot's mint at St. Edmundsbury, the name of the moneyer 
was now entirely omitted, and in its place was inscribed VILLA or 
CIVITAS, which thus preceded that of the mint. This further 
innovation was probably carried out under the orders of William de 
Turnemire of Marseilles, who was appointed to the office of master of 
the mint of England in 1279, and who was to have control of all the 
mints, the number of which was now much reduced. 

In consequence of the purity of the metal of this new coinage and 



* Langtoft's Chronicle, see Bud., Vol. I., p. 194. 

t Ib. Vol. I., p. 206. | 16. Vol. I., pp. 182, 186. 



INTBODUCTION. XXIX 

the admirable manner in which it was struck, numerous imitations EDWARD I. 
were soon made in the Low Countries and in Germany. These coins 
were as a rule lighter in weight and of baser metal than the English 
penny, and very strict regulations had to be passed to prevent their 
introduction into this country.* The principal ports were watched, 
and every incomer had to expose under pain of forfeiture all the 
money he possessed. Besides these pennies there was much other foreign 
base money brought in. These were known as pollards, crocards, 
scaldings, brabants, eagles, leonines, sleepings, <fec. They came chiefly 
from France and the Low Countries, and their names were probably 
derived from their types. 

No further change occurred in the coinage until the eighteenth year EDWARD 
of Edward III, except that the weight was slightly reduced from 
22J grs. to 22f grs. to the penny. The moneys therefore of Edward I 
and II and the early coinage of Edward III are difficult to 
distinguish (see p. 43). We have here the same difficulty as with 
the coinages of Henry II III. In his eighteenth year Edward III 
made a more successful attempt than Henry III to establish a gold 
currency ; but this attempt was not at first quite a success. A remedy 
was however soon found, and since that time England has had a 
continuous series of gold money. 

For some time the want of a gold currency had been felt, and the 
use of foreign money had been resorted to ; but such an arrangement 
could not be lasting. In 1343 Edward III ordered a gold currency. 
It consisted of the florin, its half the leopard, and its quarter the helm. 
The florin weighed 108 grs., was 23 cts. 3^ grs. fine, and was current for 
Qs. These pieces were however rated too high in proportion to the silver, 
and in consequence of their being generally refused they were at once 
withdrawn from circulation. In the following year another new 
coinage was struck, consisting of the noble, its half the maille noble, 
and its quarter the ferling noble. They are of the same standard as 
the florin and its parts, and were current at the rate of 6*. 80?. to the 
noble, or half mark, which weighed 138 r 6 F grs. It is somewhat strange 
that we have no reliable information as to the origin of the types 
of the noble and half -noble, or of the derivation of their names. --It 
has however been presumed that the type of the king standing in a 
ship may refer to the victory over the French fleet off Sluys on 
Midsummer Day 1340, and that the name noble may be derived from 
the noble nature of the metal of which the coins were struck, f The 
latter interpretation however seems somewhat far-fetched. The in- 
scription on the reverse of the noble, " Jesus autem transiens," &c., was 
considered to be a charm against thieves, or rather a warning against 
the practice of clipping ; but it may possibly have had some reference 
to the victory commemorated by the type. The purity of the metal 
of these coins and their handsome appearance soon led to their being 






These pieces were known as lussheburgJis (? for Luxemburgs). Bud., Vol. 
p. 225. 

t Bud., Vol. I., p. 219, 220. 



XXX INTBODUCTION. 

EDWAKD exported and to their being imitated in the Low Countries. These 
1 ' imitations were of lighter weight and of not such pure metal. Laws 
were soon passed against the exportation of the one and the importation 
of the other, but to little purpose. In consequence, in 1346, the weight 
of the noble was reduced to 128f- grs., and further, in 1351, to 120 grs. 
The divisions were reduced in proportion. This change in the weight 
of the gold money brought with it a corresponding lowering of the 
standard of the silver money, first in 1344 to the rate of 20 grs. to 
the penny, in 1346 to 20 grs., and again in 1351 to 18 grs. This last 
year saw also the first issue for currency of the groat and half-groat, 
which were similar in type to the other silver coins. The further 
concentration of the working of the coinage at this time resulted in a 
reduction in the number of the mints, and gold was only struck at 
London, and silver at London, Berwick, Canterbury, Durham, Reading, 
and York. Groats and half-groats were minted at London and York 
only. 

ANGLO- We may pause here to notice briefly another class of coinage which 
COINAGE. at this period had assumed considerable proportions. This is the 
Anglo-Gallic money which was struck for the English possessions in 
France. These coins are mostly of French types and denominations. 
Henry II was the first English monarch to strike coins for his French 
dominions. Eleanor, his wife, also issued money, but probably not 
until after her husband's death. These coins are of Aquitaine only. 
Richard I struck for Aquitaine and Poitou, and perhaps for Normandy, 
and Edward I for Aquitaine, Gascony, and Ponthieu. Down to this 
time the Anglo-Gallic coins consisted mostly of the denier class in 
silver and billon. Under Edward III the coinage was much increased, 
gold being added to the silver and billon money. The date at which 
gold was introduced is not quite certain, but it was before 1337, thus 
preceding the English gold money by more than six years. The first 
piece issued was the florin of Aquitaine, the type of which was taken 
from the florin of Florence, which had been imitated by many other 
European states. This gold piece was followed at intervals by the 
mouton, the chaise, the leopard, and the guiennois, most of which have 
their prototypes in the French series. For his silver and billon coins 
also several new denominations were adopted. The mints are numerous 
(see p. 47), and the fineness of the gold coins appears to have followed 
the French standard, but that of the silver was ordered to be after the 
English standard ; this injunction, however, was not adhered to. 

An exception was made in the case of the town of Calais, where an 
English colony had been founded in 1347. A special mint was set up 
there, and the money was ordered to be the same as that coined in 
England. It consisted in gold of the noble and half noble no quarter 
nobles having hitherto been identified and in silver of the gros, 
demi-gros, and denier. Strictly speaking these coins belong to the 
English series. As a distinguishing mark they bear either, the initial 
or name of the town (see p. 51). The Calais coinage in gold and silver 
dates from 1360. 

When Aquitaine was created into a principality in 1362, and was 



LNTBODUCTION. XXxi 

granted by Edward to his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, the ANGLO- 
right of issuing money was granted also. The Black Prince's money COINAGE 
was of gold, silver, and billon, and in denominations and types it 
chiefly followed that of his father ; but he also struck the hardi d'or 
and the royal d'or (see p. 53). This last coin is a remarkable specimen 
of French medal lie art of the time. The Anglo-Gallic money was con- 
tinued by Richard II, Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI, all of whom 
issued a variety of coins in all three metals, gold, silver, and billon. 
During the last two reigns the mint at Calais was revived, and coins 
were struck as before after the English pattern. This mint appears 
to have been in abeyance for a while after Edward III. With the 
decline of the power of England in France the Anglo-Gallic coinage 
also declined ; and before the close of the year 1453, when Calais and 
Guisnes alone remained to the English, it came virtually to an end. 
A few gros were subsequently struck by Henry VIII at Tournay, 
when he held that city from 1513-1519 ; but the scarcity of these 
coins shows that the issue was of little importance. 

We will now resume our account of the English coinage. During RICHARD 
the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV, V, and VI, there was but HENRY" VI 
little change. The same denominations were struck in gold and silver 
as since 1351, but in or about his 13th year (1411) Henry IV reduced 
the noble to 108 grs. and the silver to the rate of 15 grs. to the 
penny; the other pieces in each metal were reduced in proportion. 
This lowering of the standard weight was intended partly as a 
compensation for the scarcity of bullion at the time, and partly as a 
means of providing money for the king, to whom the parliament 
had not recently granted any subsidies. It is at this time that 
we meet with the practice of using mint-marks, which were placed 
on the coins to show the different issues. In the absence of dates 
it is by means of these marks that the sequence of the issues can 
be ascertained. These marks do not appear at any time to have been 
changed at regular intervals, but they were varied according to the 
discretion of the authorities of the mint. At a later period in the 
reign of Elizabeth, when some of the silver coins were dated, one mint- 
mark was in use for several years, whilst' under James I several 
changes were made in the same year. In many cases the same marks 
are found on the gold and silver coinages. These denote contemporary 
issues. The use of mint-marks begins during the reign of Edward I ; 
they become an established practice in that of Henry VI, and they 
continue in an unbroken series to the end of the reign of Charles I. 
A few occur during the Commonwealth and in the early years of 
Charles II.* 

Several important changes were made by Edward IV in his gold EDWARD IV. 
money ; but the silver remained as before. His first coinage was 
issued on the same patterns as those which preceded ; but in 1464, on 
account of the dearth of money, the value of the gold was raised to the 



See Appendix A. 



XXX11 INTRODUCTION. 

EDWARD iv. rate of 8s. 4d. to the noble, and the weight of the silver was reduced to 
12 grs. to the penny. In the following year a new gold coin called 
the ryal or rose noble was introduced. It was similar in type to the 
noble, but to distinguish it from that coin a rose was placed on the 
ship on the obverse and a sun on the reverse. These were the badges 
which Edward had adopted after the battle of Mortimer's Cross. Its 
weight was 120 grs., like that of the noble of 1351 ; but its current 
value was raised to 10s. The half-rose noble was of the same type ; 
but little change was made in that of the quarter-rose noble. To supply 
the place of the old noble another entirely new coin was struck, called 
at first the noble-angel, but soon simply the angel. It weighed 80 grs. 
and was current for 6s. 8d. In order to facilitate the issue of this 
new money several of the local mints, Bristol, Coventry, Norwich, and 
York, were allowed to strike the rose noble and its half ; but no 
quarter-nobles. They are to be distinguished from the London pieces 
in having the initial letter of the mint stamped on the obverse below 
the ship. During the short restoration of Henry VI in 1470-71, he 
struck money of the same kind as was then in use, but in gold he only 
issued the angel and half-angel. After Henry's second deposition, 
when Edward again took possession of the throne, he continued the 
coinage on the same principles as established in 1465 ; except that he 
appears to have discontinued the issue of the rose noble and its parts, 
and to have struck only angels and half-angels. No change was made 
in the types or standard of the silver money. The remaining indentures 
of this reign relating to the coinage chiefly applied to Ireland. 

EDWARD v The short reigns of Edward V and Richard III brought no changes. 
RICHARD These kings issued angels and half-angels in gold, and groats, half- 
Hi, groats, pennies, and halfpennies in silver. The types are the same as 
those of Edward I Vs coins ; but Edward V struck groats only in 
silver, and his money can only be distinguished from his father's by its 
mint -marks. 

HENRY vii. Passing on to the reign of Henry VII we enter upon a new era in 
the coinage of England, and the greatness of the house of Tudor shines 
forth in the variety and, in some cases, the splendour of its money. 
Henry VII not only introduced some important new denominations, 
but in the case of the silver he broke through the stereotyped form of 
type which had existed for over two centuries and a half. At first 
he made no alterations; but in 1489 a first innovation was made by 
the issue of a new coin called the sovereign. Its current value was 
20s., twice that of the ryal, and it weighed 240 grs. On the obverse 
is shown the king enthroned, and on the reverse the Tudor rose is 
charged with the royal shield. It was the finest gold coin that had 
ever been struck in England, and it excelled all other European coins. 
It may be said to mark in some degree the growing wealth of the 
country, for no state unless in a prosperous condition could have 
issued such a coin ; and this in spite of all the trouble that had been 
experienced by a prolonged civil war. 

In silver the shilling was now first struck (1504), and in introducing 
this new denomination an opportunity was taken to change the types 



INTRODUCTION. XXX111 

of some of the coins. The bust of the king was no longer shown full-face HENRY ML 
but in profile, and on the reverse the long cross pattee with pellets was 
replaced by the royal shield on a cross fourchee. In the case of the 
smallest silver pieces, the halfpenny and farthing, the old type was re- 
tained ; but in addition to the pennies of the old type a new one was 
issued, which is now known as the " sovereign penny " from its resem- 
blance to the so-called " sovereign type " of Edward the Confessor. In 
the profile type we meet with the first genuine attempt at portraiture 
since the Conquest. " The portrait of Henry VII is a work of the highest 
art in its own kind. Nothing superior to it has appeared since." * 
This artistic excellence is remarkable, for up to that time England had 
produced no painter-artists. It is clear, however, from the coins and 
from the fine examples of English goldsmiths' work, that the skilful 
Italian and French metal workers were not without rivals in this 
country. Another innovation connected with this coinage was the 
placing of the numerals after the king's name, showing that he was 
the seventh king of the name of Henry who had ascended the throne 
of England. It should be mentioned that, previous to the introduction 
of the profile bust, Henry had slightly changed his portrait by repre- 
senting himself wearing an arched crown instead of an open one. 
This variety of type marks the middle period of his silver coinage, 
from 1489?-1504. 

The innovations made by Henry VII were continued and extended in HEINRY 
the next reign, and in addition several new denominations were added VIIL 
to the list of the gold coins. In one respect, however, there was a serious 
retrogression. This was in the lowering of the standard of fineness of 
both the gold and the silver. Hitherto the standard of the gold 
money had remained unchanged since its institution by Edward III, 
and in the case of the silver there had been no material alteration 
since the Conquest. The change in the gold standard took place in 
1526, when gold called crown gold, i.e., 22 cts. fine, was adopted. 
The reason given was that the high price at which gold was rated 
in Flanders and France, occasioned a wholesale exportation of 
English money. At first the new gold was only used for a few coins, 
but later on it became general, and considerably affected current 
values. The debasement of the silver money did not occur till 1543, 
in which year it stood at 5 parts fine to 1 part alloy ; but during the 
following year it fell to half silver and half alloy, and then to one-third 
silver and two-thirds alloy. The gold at that time was further reduced 
to 20 cts. fine. In the indentures ordering the debasement of the 
money no cause was assigned. It was no doubt due to the necessities 
of the king. The treasure which he had inherited from his father was 
exhausted, he had squandered all the money and valuables derived from 
the dissolution of the religious houses ; and the so-called " benevolences " 
were unwillingly paid. 

The new coins in gold were the double-sovereign, the half-sovereign, 
the crown and half-crown, the quarter-angel and the George noble and 



* Coins and Medals, ed. S. Lane Poole, 3rd ed., p. 118. 



c 



XXXIV INTEODUCTION. 

HENRY its half. The George noble was first struck in 1526, and was current 
IIL for 6s. 8d., the value of the old angel, which had now risen to Is. Qd. The 
George noble took its name from its type. New types or modifications 
of types were also given to some of the other gold pieces. The crown 
and half-crown bear the shield on one side and the Tudor rose on the 
other, and, in the case of the sovereign and its half, supporters to the 
shield were introduced. The silver money also shows three changes in 
the obverse type, the third being very distinct from the other two. 
In his early silver coins Henry followed the type of his father's money, 
even to the portrait, only altering the numerals after his name. On 
his second coinage he preserved the type but changed the portrait, 
whilst the third change shows him full-face or three-quarter-face. 
This last type was introduced in 1543, when the first debasement of 
the silver money took place. It was adopted on all the coins, in 
order to distinguish them from earlier issues. Another reform was in 
the abolishing of the ecclesiastical mints. It is very probable that these 
mints may have continued to exist since Edward Ill's time : but on 
account of the absence of any distinguishing mark the episcopal issues 
cannot be separated from the regal money. In the reign of Henry VI 
the custom of placing the privy mark, a symbol or an initial, of the 
prelate on the coin was revived. From these marks it will be seen that 
the prelates only issued half-groats and pennies, except in the case of 
Wolsey, who struck groats, for which " presumptuous act " he was 
afterwards indicted. As these marks are not found on coins of a later 
date than the second issue of Henry VIII (1525-1543), we gather that 
with the introduction of the three-quarter-face type the right of coinage 
was withdrawn from the prelates. In 1543 the Bristol mint was revived 
and gold as well as silver money was issued there. This was the only 
local mint at which gold was struck during this reign. 

ED WARD VI. Edward VI made no attempt at first to improve the standard of his 
money. He continued to strike gold and silver of the same denomina- 
tions as those of the coins of the last issue of Henry VIII ; and in one 
instance he even retained his father's name, but changed the portrait 
(see No. 441, p. 86). The low standard of metal led to numerous 
forgeries, especially in the case of the silver money, which was also 
much clipped. To remedy this evil a new coinage in gold of a some- 
what higher standard, 22 cts., was ordered in 1549, and at the same 
time a slight improvement was made in the silver money, which was to 
be of equal parts silver and alloy. Some of the base money too was 
withdrawn from circulation. The new gold coinage consisted of the 
triple-sovereign, sovereign, half-sovereign, crown, and half-crown, and to 
distinguish these pieces from those previously issued the types were 
modified. The shilling was the only silver coin struck at this time, and 
being of finer metal it was reduced in weight. In 1550 an attempt 
was made to return to the original standard of fine gold ; but owing 
to the debased state of the silver it failed (see Nos. 459-461). This 
constant change of the gold coins led to considerable confusion in 
their current values, which no number of proclamations or orders could 
rectify. Added to this there was still a large amount of Henry's base 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV 

money in currency, and even this was extensively counterfeited. At EDWARD vi. 
last, in 1551, Edward determined to take some decided step, and he 
ordered an entirely new money in silver, consisting of the crown, half- 
crown, shilling, sixpence, threepence, and penny. The standard of 
fineness was 11 oz. 1 dwt. pure and 19 dwts. alloy; but he still 
struck a penny, halfpenny, and farthing in base metal. This issue 
added four new denominations, the crown, half-crown, sixpence, and 
threepence, and for these as well as for the shillings new types were 
made (see Nos. 466-471). The crown and half-crown are dated, and 
the other pieces bear their current values. The dating and marking 
the coins with their values were two innovations of this reign. The 
earliest dated pieces are the base shillings of 1547. The " sovereign 
type " was revived for the silver penny. This salutary reform of the 
silver money was followed in the next year by the readjustment of the 
gold, consisting of the issue of the sovereign, half-sovereign, crown, and 
half-crown, of a standard of 22 cts., crown gold, and of a uniform type 
(see Nos. 462-465). In this manner the coinage was nearly restored 
to its condition before the debasement introduced by Henry VIII 
in 1543. It was a judicious proceeding and materially affected the 
welfare of the country both at home and in its foreign relations. 

The mints in operation during this reign were at London, South wark, 
Bristol, Canterbury, and York. At the last two silver money only was 
issued. Those of Bristol and Canterbury ceased working before the 
introduction of the silver money of 1551. The closing of the Bristol 
mint may have been partly due to the fraudulent actions of its master, 
Sir William Sharington. With the exception of a few sixpences, 
threepences, and pennies of York, the only mints in operation from 1551 
were those of the Tower and Southwark, whose coins can be easily 
distinguished by their mint-marks, the tun and the letter Y. The local 
mints came to an end with this reign, and henceforth, with two notable 
exceptions (see p. 90), all the coins in gold and silver were struck at 
the Tower. Thus the centralisation of the coinage, which was begun 
by Henry III, was now completed ; and it has proved to be one of the 
best safeguards of the purity of the English currency. 

The standard of the coinage as restored by Edward VI was not MARY. 
altogether preserved by Mary, who, however, in her first proclamation, 
announced that her gold and silver money should in fineness be of the 
standard sterling. In the case of her gold money this promise was 
carried into effect, and sovereigns, ryals, angels, and half-angels of 
former types were struck of standard metal, 23 cts. 3^ grs. fine and 
^ gr. alloy. Her silver coins, which were the groat, half-groat, and 
penny, were only 11 oz. fine, which was one pennyweight worse than 
the last silver money of Edward VI. They were all of one type, 
having the queen's bust on the obverse and a shield on the reverse. A 
base penny of a different type was also issued. 

After her marriage with Philip angels and half-angels only in gold 
were struck, and in silver the groat, half-groat, and penny, and 
subsequently the half-crown, shilling, and sixpence. Except in the case 
of the last three denominations no change occurred in the types, the 

e 2 



XXXVI INTEODUCTION. 

MARY, king's name only being added to that of the queen. On the half-crown, 
however, Philip's bust is on one side and that of Mary on the other ; 
but on the shilling and sixpence the busts are placed facing one another, 
" amorous, and fond, and billing," on the obverse, and on the reverse is 
a shield. These coins are generally dated, and the shilling and sixpence 
usually bear their marks of value. Both gold and silver are of the same 
standard of fineness as the coins of Mary alone. 

ELIZABETH. Immediately on her accession Elizabeth turned her attention to 
the state of the coinage, more especially as regards the base money, 
which was still in currency and the circulation of which continued 
to cause much distress. She ordered that gold money should be 
struck of two standards of fineness, i.e., at 23 cts. 3^ grs. fine, or 
standard gold, and 22 cts. fine, or crown gold, and that the silver coins 
should be 11 oz. fine and 1 oz. alloy, as during the reign of Mary. 
Three years later, in 1561, the standard of silver was raised to 11 oz. 
2 dwts. fine and 18 dwts. alloy, thus restoring it to the fineness before 
the debasement by Henry VIII. This standard of silver has been 
preserved unchanged to the present day. The coins of fine gold were 
the sovereign, the ryal, the angel, and the half and quarter-angel, current 
at 30s., 20s., 10s., 5s., and 2s. Qd. respectively. The types were the 
same as in previous reigns. The coins of crown gold were the 
sovereign (known as the pound sovereign), the half-sovereign, the crown 
and the half-crown, current at 20s. to the sovereign. The types of all 
these pieces are the same, having the queen's bust on the obverse and 
a shield on the reverse. Two new denominations were added to the 
silver money, the three halfpence and the three farthings ; and these, 
as well as the sixpence and threepence, are always dated, and are 
further distinguished by a rose at the back of the queen's head. These 
denominations date from 1561. Between 1558 and 1561 the silver 
money consisted of the shilling, the groat, the half-groat, the penny, 
and the halfpenny. With the exception of the last piece, all are 
of a uniform type, having the crowned bust on the obverse and a 
shield on the reverse. Later on, in 1601 and 1602, crowns and half- 
crowns of similar type were issued. It will thus be seen that in the 
reign of Elizabeth the number of coin denominations reached its 
maximum. 

At an early period in this reign steps were taken to call in the 
debased money of Henry VIII and Edward VI, some of which was 
recoined into shillings and sixpences and sent to Ireland. The whole 
of the debased money was reduced one-quarter its current value ; but 
of the base shillings some were countermarked with a portcullis and 
re-issued at the decreased value of 4^d. ; whilst the very debased 
shillings of Edward VI, those with a lion, a rose, a harp, or a lis for 
mint-marks, were countermarked with a greyhound and re-issued at 
2,^d. In 1561 the circulation of base money was prohibited by 
proclamation. It was in consequence of this proclamation that the 
smaller moneys, the three halfpence and three farthings, were coined 
to provide a small currency, the lack of which was much felt. The 
lowering of the value of the base money caused a considerable rise in 



INTRODUCTION. XXXV11 

the market value of the commodities for daily life. To remedy this ELIZABETH. 
the current values of all the gold and silver coins were reduced one 
quarter, so as to make them of the same value as from the 
6th Edward IV to the 16th Henry VIII. In 1572 they were again 
restored to their values as in 1558. The supply of small silver money 
being insufficient to meet the public demand, the need of a small 
currency was met by the issue of private tokens by tradesmen, towns, 
and corporate bodies. These were made of lead, tin, latten, and even of 
leather.* A proposal was made to the queen in 1574 to issue a debased 
currency in the smaller pieces ; but she was indisposed to entertain any 
project which would entail the debasement of her coins again. At last 
her consent was obtained for the issue of a cupper coinage, and patterns 
were actually made ; but the proposal was never carried into effect. 

It was during this reign that the first essay was made to effect a 
more even striking of the coins. Hitherto they were always struck by 
the hammer, which often caused an imperfect and irregular imprint of 
the type, and also it frequently left the edge ragged, which was an 
encouragement to clipping. In 1560 it was proposed to introduce the 
use of the mill and screw into the mint. This invention, which had 
been used at the Paris mint, was brought to England by a Frenchman, 
Eloye Mestrell. He was encouraged by the queen, and in 1562 began 
coining milled money in the Tower. A few years later Mestrell was 
detected counterfeiting and striking money outside the mint ; and, 
being convicted, he was executed at Tyburn. The coins struck by this 
process are of gold and silver, and are easily to be distinguished from 
the hammered money by being of neater and sharper work, and by 
their perfect roundness due to the flans being placed within a collar. 
This new process was not much employed during this reign after 1572, 
and was not generally resumed till 1662. 

The death of Elizabeth brought to a close one of the most important 
periods in the history of the English coinage, that of the Tudor 
dynasty. The coinage from Henry VII to Elizabeth had been as 
remarkable for its vicissitudes as for its excellence. During no other 
period did the English mints issue such an array of coins so conspicuous 
for their beauty of workmanship, their unusual size, and their great 
variety. The actual output also exceeded that of any previous period. 
The first monarch of the Tudor dynasty found the coinage in a 
sound state, and not only did he use his best exertions to keep it 
so, but he even improved it. His successor, Henry VIII, followed 
quite a different course, being actuated entirely by private motives. 
He debased the coins, not for the benefit of the State, but as a means 
of meeting the debts incurred through his own personal extravagance. 
He did not dare to ask his parliaments for money, and therefore 
took to cheating his people. f This debasement caused wide-spread 



* It would appear that, as early as the reign of Henry VII, private tokens were 
used to supply the dearth of small copper coins. They are referred to by Erasmus 



s plumbei Angliae. 
t Rogers, Hist, of Prices, Vol. IV., p. xiv. 



XXXV111 INTEODUCTION. 

ELIZABETH, distress and resulted in a great enhancement of the prices of every 
kind of commodity, especially of provisions. Though it lasted only for 
a few years, its effects were much more permanent. Neither the efforts 
of Edward VI to reform the money, nor those of Mary, were of any 
material avail ; for so long as the base money was in circulation the evil 
continued. On Elizabeth then devolved the duty of bringing about a 
better state of things, and she met the difficulty in a bold and 
determined spirit. The amelioration of her coinage was one of her first 
acts, and she did not relax her efforts till she saw all the base money 
withdrawn from circulation and replaced by a currency of the highest 
standard. The measures necessary to accomplish this pressed heavily on 
the crown as well as on the nation generally, more especially on the lower 
classes, and at times produced considerable friction ; but Elizabeth 
persevered, and her perseverance culminated in success. This success 
is all the more to her credit as she did not receive from her Council 
the assistance she might have expected ; for some of its members were 
influenced by private ends, and viewed her efforts with great dis- 
like. The numerous proclamations and orders relating to the coinage 
which were promulgated at this period must have been very detri- 
mental to the commercial relations with foreign countries. England 
had been placed for long in a unique position. Her coinage had been 
the envy of her neighbours, who counterfeited it in baser metals, 
and then attempted to pass off their spurious pieces as genuine. 
This resulted in a series of orders forbidding the exportation of any 
English money or the payment in gold to any alien for merchandise. 
These measures may have been a safeguard to the coinage : but they 
were injurious to commercial transactions. Another great evil which 
England had to meet was the importation of foreign base money. The 
want of small change had always borne heavily on the lower classes, 
and amongst them foreign base moneys found a ready circulation. It 
is somewhat strange that the advisers of the Crown, on economic 
grounds, did not meet this difficulty in a statesmanlike manner. 
Scotland had adopted such a coinage at an early period, and it was 
even introduced into Ireland : but England held aloof ; and even 
Elizabeth could not at first be persuaded that a copper coinage formed 
on a true basis would not only rid the country of the tradesmen's 
tokens, but also drive out all the foreign base money. 

We have already referred to the artistic merit of some of the coins 
of Henry VII. What was said about the profile money applies 
generally to all his coinage, and the subsequent issues of the Tudor 
sovereigns, always excepting the base money, came fairly up to the same 
high standard of workmanship. The new silver money of Edward VI, 
though of somewhat different style, was very little inferior in point of 
execution to the profile money of Henry VII, and later on few pieces 
excelled in neatness of design and execution the pound sovereign of 
Elizabeth, which shows the bust of the queen in very low relief. 
JAMES I. After the difficulties which James had experienced with his Scottish 
money, it must have been a relief to him, on his ascending the throne of 
England, to find the currency of his new kingdom in such a satisfactory 



INTRODUCTION. XXxix 

condition. He left his Scottish money in a great state of confusion, JAMES I. 
and he found the English in perfect order : and it is to his credit 
that he did not seek to disturb it. 

His first English gold and silver money was of the same standard of 
fineness and weight as the last coinage of Elizabeth. The denomina- 
tions were also the same, except that some of the smaller silver 
pieces introduced by Elizabeth were discontinued ; as well as the groat, 
of which there had been an almost unbroken issue since the reign of 
Edward III. The alterations made in the types were very slight 
beyond the addition of the arms of Scotland and Ireland to the shield, 
and an entirely new set of reverse legends. If we except the change of 
title to that of "King of Great Britain," which James assumed in 1604, 
the silver coins remained the same to the end of the reign. The 
gold money does not present quite as much uniformity. The first 
issue consisted of the sovereign, and its divisions the half-sovereign, 
crown, and half-crown, at 22 cts. fine. These were similar in type to- 
Elizabeth's pound sovereign. In 1604 James somewhat reduced the 
weight of the gold, so that the sovereign of the previous year was 
raised to 22s. current. This appears to have been due to the increased 
value of silver on account of its scarcity. As this money was to be 
current throughout the United Kingdoms of England and Scotland, 
the chief gold piece, the sovereign, received the name of unite. Again 
no change was made in the general type, only in the legends, but a new 
piece called the thistle crown was struck ; it was to be current for 4s. 
The list of gold coins was further added to in the following year by 
the issue of rose ryals, spur ryals, angels, and half-angels, which were 
of standard metal and were of similar types to those of the coins of 
this standard in previous reigns. To prevent the exportation of gold 
from this country, it was again found necessary in 1611 to raise the 
current values of the coins, so that the new sovereign was rated at 22s. 
It was deemed more convenient to raise the value of the gold than to 
lower the weight of the silver, which had been proposed by the king ; 
as such a step would have considerably disturbed the prices of com- 
modities at home. But this raising of the value of the gold pieces did 
cause some confusion " on account of their unaptness for tale," and it 
was therefore thought expedient in 1619 to have a fresh issue of gold 
money at a somewhat reduced weight. The new coins were the rose 
ryal, spur ryal, and angel of standard gold, and the laurel, half-laurel, 
and quarter-laurel of crown gold. Some alterations were made in the 
types of all the coins in order to distinguish them from the old pieces, 
which were not withdrawn from circulation. The laurel, which was 
equivalent to the pound sovereign, received its name from the obverse 
type, which showed the bust of the king laureate ; a type adopted by 
him with the object of proclaiming his imperial rank of King of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. On all these gold coins the current 
values were given. These marks are also to be found on most of the 
silver coins throughout the reign. This is the first occurrence of value 
marks on gold coins. 

The project of a copper currency was advanced one step during this 



xl INTRODUCTION. 

JAMES I. reign : but it was scarcely a step in the right direction. James had 
realized the advantages of a copper coinage in Scotland, and he was 
also very much averse to the leaden tokens .which continued to be 
issued by tradesmen and others, and which were widely circulated. In 
order to supply " to his subjects the good arising from the use of 
small monies," the king in 1613 granted a patent to John, Lord 
Harrington, for the issue of farthing tokens of copper ; each piece to 
weigh about 6 grs. On account of their small size, extreme thinness, 
and small intrinsic value, these tokens were circulated at first with 
great difficulty, although as an inducement for their acceptance the 
patentee was bound to deliver them at the rate of twenty-one shillings 
of farthings for twenty shillings of sterling money. The leaden trades- 
men's tokens were now declared illegal and their circulation pro- 
hibited. The patent for the copper farthings was twice renewed during 
this reign (see p. 105). 

CHARLES I. The stirring events of the reign of Charles I are in a measure 
reflected in the coinage, which is more varied and more extensive than 
at any previous or subsequent period of English history. One of the 
effects of the contest between the king and the parliament was the 
establishing of local mints throughout the country, which were used 
for the purpose of supplying the king with money to enable him to 
carry on the struggle. The coinage of this reign may be divided into 
three classes : i. That struck at the Tower mint in London ; ii. That 
struck at the local mints, which were mostly established after the 
breaking out of the Civil War ; and iii. That which was issued in 
towns or castles in a state of siege. The first two classes form the 
general currency ; the third is more of the nature of a " money of 
necessity," and was not issued under a royal warrant. 

For all his coins struck at the Tower Charles adopted the types of 
his father's money ; but he discontinued all the legends introduced by 
him. The coins in gold were the unite or 20s., the double-crown or 
10s., the crown, and the angel. The last piece only was of standard 
gold ; all the others being of crown gold, i.e. 22 cts. fine. The silver 
coins were the crown, the half-crown, the shilling, the sixpence, the half- 
groat, the penny, and the halfpenny, of the usual fineness. The various 
issues of both gold and silver are marked by certain small changes in 
the dress of the king (see No. 564, p. 106), and by a variety in the 
form of the shield. With these small exceptions the types of the 
Tower coins remained unchanged throughout the reign. To this series 
belong the milled coins struck under the direction of Nicolas Briot, 
which are of the same types and denominations as the Tower pieces. 
Nicolas Briot, a native of Lorraine, was a very skilful artist and 
engraver, and having received permission to establish at the mint his 
new machinery, for striking coins, he issued a series of gold and silver 
money as remarkable for their neatness of design and execution as for 
their careful striking. The hammer process was still used for the 
other coins. 

LOCAL Most of the local mints were not established till after the breaking 
VIINTS - out of the Civil War, at which time the Parliament seized the Tower 



INTRODUCTION. xli 

mint and continued for a while to strike coins in the king's name. LOCAL 
The local mints were Aberystwith, Bristol, Chester, Combe-Martin (?), MINTS ' 
Exeter, Oxford, Salisbury (?), Shrewsbury, Weymouth, Worcester, and 
York ; but of these, York had been founded about 1629 and Aberystwith 
in 1637. This last mint was established for the purpose of refining 
and coming the silver drawn from the mines in Wales, but there 
appears to be no record of the cause for reviving the mint at York. 
The only local mints to strike gold coins were Oxford and Bristol. The 
denominations were the unite and the half-unite \ but of Oxford there is 
the three pound piece or triple-unite. These somewhat remarkable pieces 
are said to have been coined from gold found in Wales and supplied by 
Thomas Bushell. Some unusually large pieces in silver were also coined 
of the value of 20s. and 10s. These were, however, practically limited 
to Oxford and Shrewsbury. On many of his silver coins and on all his 
gold issued at the local mints, Charles adopted for the reverse type, 
what is known as the " Declaration " type, being an abbreviation of the 
legend, " Religio Protestantium, Leges Angliae, Libertas Parliamenti," 
or in substance his declaration to the Privy Council, 19 Sept. 1642 
(see p. 113). The most remarkable coin of this type is the crown 
struck at Oxford, showing the king on horseback with a view of the 
city in the background (see No. 632, p. 117). This coin was the work 
of Thomas Rawlins, who was for a long time engraver at the Tower 
mint ; and when the king's mint was located at Oxford he removed 
there also and superintended its operations. A large portion of the 
money coined at Oxford was made from silver plate belonging to the 
colleges. Also a number of private persons sent in their plate to be 
used in a similar manner. For the different issues of the local mints 
we must refer the reader to the descriptions in the body of the work. 
We will only add that, owing to the skill of Briot and Rawlins, much of 
the coinage of Charles I is but little inferior in artistic merit to the 
money of the Tudor sovereigns. The revival in medallic art in this 
country was due in a great measure to the encouragement it received 
from the king, who took a keen interest in the affairs of his mint, 
often personally superintending and suggesting the designs for the 
coins, and more especially those for the royal medals. 

The third and last series of money of this reign is the siege pieces. sir.;K 
These were struck at Beeston Castle, Carlisle, Colchester, Newark, 
Pontef ract, and Scarborough. They are mostly of silver, Colchester and 
Pontefract only issuing gold. Some of the coins, such as those issued 
at Newark and Pontefract, are well and regularly struck, mostly on 
lozenge-shaped blanks ; but others are of a very rude character and are 
mere pieces of metal, cut from plate and stamped with the representation 
of a building. Again, still ruder pieces, not unfrequently portions of 
spoons, bear only the mark of their intended current value. 

The only copper coins in circulation during this reign were farthing 
tokens similar to those issued by James I. These belong to the period 
before the Civil War, and were issued under patents granted to the 
Duchess of Richmond and others. The early pieces were of the same 
type as those of James I, but on account of the numerous forgeries 



cype as DJ 



xlii 



INTEODUCTION. 



SIEGE 
PIKCES. 



COMMON- 
WEALTH. 



which were put into circulation, it was found necessary in 1635 to 
change the type (see No. 655, p. 122). 

It has been already mentioned that when Charles departed from 
London, the Parliament seized the mint in the Tower and continued to 
strike money from the king's dies. This was done in order that it 
might circulate equally amongst the friends of the king and of the 
Parliament. It would appear that owing to the dearth of bullion, 
both of gold and silver, the mint was closed in 1646, and was not again 
in operation till after the king's death, when the Commons ordered that 
a coinage of crown gold and silver was to be made having like impres- 
sions and inscriptions, which were to be in the English tongue. Thus 
for the first and last time we have an English coinage with the legends 
on both obverse and reverse in English instead of in Latin. The coins 
issued under this order were the broad or 20s., the half -broad or 10s., 
and the five shillings in gold ; and the crown, half-crown, shilling, six- 
pence, half-groat, penny, and halfpenny in silver. All, with the excep- 
tion of the last piece, have their marks of value. The dies were made 
by the eminent engraver and medallist Thomas Simon ; but the 
simplicity of the design gave him but little scope for any marked 
display of his artistic talent. 

No copper money was issued officially during the Commonwealth ; 
although dies were prepared for striking farthings. The dearth of a 
copper currency was again met by the issue of private tokens, pennies, 
halfpennies, and farthings in copper, which were struck by the principal 
tradesmen of almost all the towns in England. These are now known 
as the seventeenth century tokens, and, historically and genealogically, 
they are of considerable interest to the local historian. 

CROMWELL. Following the coins of the Commonwealth is a series of gold 
and silver pieces bearing on the obverse a portrait of Cromwell as 
Lord Protector, and on the reverse the English shield with an 
inescutcheon having the Protector's private arms. The dies for these 
pieces were made in 1656 and 1658 by order of Cromwell and with the 
consent of his Council. It is very evident from the orders of the 
Council that at first it was intended that these coins should pass into 
currency. At the last moment, however, there must have been some 
hesitation either on the part of the Council in carrying out this 
scheme, or some reticence on the part of Cromwell, who may have had 
some fear lest he should be accused of arrogating to himself kingly, 
power. In producing these fine coins the services of Thomas Simon 
were requisitioned, and we have in them some splendid examples of 
the die-engraver's art. The portrait is boldly executed and the 
general design shows great precision and power of technique. To 
add to their beauty the coins were carefully struck by the mill and 
screw under the direction of Peter Blondeau, who at the request of the 
Council had come recently from Paris to give advice respecting the 
cost of coining money by his new invention. 

CHARLES On his restoration Charles II struck money of the same denomina- 

GEORXJEII. tions and standard of fineness as those of the coins that were issued 

during the Commonwealth ; but he restored the types used by his 



INTRODUCTION. xliii 

father with the exception that on the gold pieces a laureate bust was CHARLKS 
substituted for a crowned one. In silver no crowns were struck GEORGE n. 
although they were ordered. The dies for the other denominations 
were designed and engraved by Thomas Simon, and they were 
struck by the hammer. Between 1660 and 1662 there were several 
small differences of type, the later pieces all being marked with their 
current values. It was at this time that the first Maundy money 
was struck (see Nos. 716-719, p. 130). The year 1662 witnessed the 
final adoption of the mill and screw for the striking of coins, the 
machinery necessary for this purpose having been erected at the 
mint under the superintendence of Peter Blondeau, whom we have 
already mentioned. New dies were prepared for the coins both in gold 
and silver, and Jan Roettier, a Dutch engraver, who is said to have 
accompanied the king on his return from exile, was chosen to carry 
out the work in preference to Thomas Simon, who had incurred the 
displeasure of the authorities of the mint and even of the king. 
It was on this occasion that Simon made his famous Petition Crown 
(see No. 726, p. 132), on which he besought the king to compare 
that piece with those issued by the Dutch engraver, and if found 
to be better executed, to reinstate him in his post at the mint. The 
gold coins issued under the order for this new coinage were of the 
current values of 100s., 40s., 20s., and 10s., called five guineas, two 
guineas, guinea, and half-guinea, from the circumstance that most 
of them were made from gold imported from Guinea by the African 
Company (see p. 131). The silver coins were the crown, half-crown, 
shilling, sixpence, groat, threepence, half-groat, and penny ; but the last 
four denominations were probably only issued as Maundy money. One 
general type was now adopted for all the coins with slight variations, 
but an exception was made in the case of the Maundy money, the 
reverses of which were of a special character. The weight of the 
guinea was at first 13 Iff grs., but in 1670 it was reduced to 129|| grs., 
and it remained so till the reign of George III. No change took 
place in the standard of fineness or weight of the silver money. 

From this time onwards to the middle of the reign of George III 
there was no change in the denominations, except the issue of the 
quarter-guinea in 1718, and the type is only occasionally varied by 
having the arms on one shield or on four separate ones, or by the 
adding of an inescutcheon, as in the case of William and Mary and 
the kings of the house of Hanover. 

It will have been noticed that from the time of Elizabeth there had 
been a further tendency to simplify the character of the coinage, 
which became much more stereotyped both as regards its types and its 
denominations. It must however be admitted that in this simplifica- 
tion the coinage loses all its interest to the numismatist. It made it 
however more adaptable for general use, and from a fiscal point of view 
such stability was of the highest importance to the country. Under 

> James I the type of the silver money was definitely settled, and 
Charles I modelled his whole coinage after that of his father. 
Nothing could have been more simple and uniform than the coinage 






xliv INTEODUCTION. 

CHARLES of the Commonwealth, and the climax was reached when the milled 

GEOKGEII. money of Charles II was introduced, which formed a pattern for 
future reigns. It will therefore not be necessary to give any detailed 
account of the coinage throughout the period from Charles II to 
George III, as it would be only to repeat what has already been 
said in the descriptions of the coins. There are, however, a few points 
which may be specially mentioned. 
SPECIAL In 1663, when the African Company sent some gold to the mint, 

ON Coras, permission was given to have their stamp of an elephant, or an elephant 
with a castle on its back, placed upon the coins struck from this bullion. 
This mark is also found on some of the silver coins of this reign ; 
and ib occurs frequently on the coinages of subsequent reigns to 
George I. This permission was extended, and at various times the 
following stamps or marks are met with: Thus E.I.C. is for metal 
imported by the East India Company; VI GO for bullion obtained 
at the victory in Yigo Bay in 1702 ; LIMA for bullion taken 
by Admiral Anson from the Spaniards in South America during his 
famous voyage round the world (1739-1743) ; SS.C. for silver supplied 
by the South Sea Company, and W.C.C. for the Welsh Copper Com- 
pany. Also roses denote that the silver came from the west of 
England, and the plume is the mark of the Welsh mines. These marks 
do not occur after the reign of George II. 
THE The original current value of the guinea was, as we have seen, 20s., 

ITS U VALUE, and it remained so till the time of William and Mary. In the mean- 
ETC. while the silver money was getting into a very bad state, partly on 
account of the prevalence of clipping, partly through forgery, and 
partly because some of the old hammered money had not been with- 
drawn from circulation. The effect was to send up the value of the 
guinea, which in 1694 rose to 30s. This state of things was found to 
be very injurious to the trade of the country, and it was determined 
to call in all the silver money then in circulation, and to issue an 
entirely new currency. In order to facilitate a speedy issue local 
mints were established at Bristol, Chester, Exeter, Norwich, and York, 
so that within two years the project was completed (see p. 138). The 
issue of this new money brought with it a fall in the current value of 
the guinea, which in 1698 was fixed at 21s. Qd. It was further 
reduced in 1717 to 21s., and henceforth it remained at that value. 
COPPEK It was subsequent to the Restoration that a copper coinage was 
established on a fixed basis. Early in Charles IPs reign the trades- 
men's tokens were still in wide circulation; but as these pieces 
intrinsically were of small value, they were only locally current. The 
dearth therefore of small change caused considerable inconvenience, 
and the matter was frequently brought before the parliament. At 
last, in 1672,* an authorized copper coinage of halfpence and farthings 
was undertaken, and the tradesmen's tokens were at once declared illegal, 
and their circulation forbidden. Except during the reigns of James II 
and William and Mary, when halfpence and farthings in tin were 



* Patterns had been prepared in 1665 (see Bud., Vol. II., p. 12). 



INTEODUCTION. xv 

struck, no change was made till the reign of George III. The weight of COPPER 
these coins varied from time to time according to the price of copper. 

During the latter part of George II's reign the currency had been GEORGE in. 
allowed to drift into a very unsatisfactory state, especially the silver. 
Crown pieces had almost disappeared, and the other silver coins were 
much defaced and worn. The gold money had not suffered to the 
same extent. No steps however were taken to bring about an improve- 
ment. Guineas and half-guineas, and on one occasion the quarter- 
guinea, continued to be struck, but the issue of the silver money was 
practically abandoned, with the exception of small coinages of the 
shilling in 1763, 1787, and 1798, and of the sixpence in 1787. This 
was the only official silver money issued from 1760 to 1816, a period 
of over fifty-six years. In 1797 an attempt was made to improve the 
copper money by the striking of twopences and pennies, but the former 
were found too large and heavy for convenient circulation. In 
consequence of the dearth of a copper currency there had been a 
return to the tradesmen's tokens, pennies, halfpennies, and farthings, 
which were struck in enormous quantities throughout the country. 
These pieces were an improvement on the tokens of the previous 
century, for intrinsically they represented nearly their current values. 
In the same year, 1797, one-third guineas were struck to provide 
smaller change, and the Government also resorted to a curious 
method of providing silver money by issuing Spanish dollars counter- 
marked with the head of the king, In 1804 the Bank of England 
obtained permission to strike dollars in silver, and subsequently pieces 
of three shillings and eighteenpence. At length, in 1816, the Govern- 
ment resolved to meet the expense of an entirely new coinage of gold 
and silver, but no new copper money was ordered, as a fresh issue had 
occurred in 1806. The guinea, half -guinea, and third-guinea were 
superseded by the sovereign and half-sovereign ; but no change was 
made in the denominations of the current silver coins, which consisted 
of the crown, half-crown, shilling, and sixpence. The sovereign was 
struck at 123 T 2 ^ grs., and there was a slight reduction in the weight 
of the silver money, which was at about 87 grs. to the shilling. The 
dies for most of these coins were made by Pistrucci, and it was at 
this time that the type of reverse of St. George slaying the dragon 
was introduced ; the other reverse type was generally a shield. The 
coinages of George IV and William IV were of precisely the same 
character as the last issue of George III. A few variations occurred in 
the reverse types, such as the lion shilling, &c., and the two pound piece 
was instituted by George IV ; but it was discontinued by William IV, 
who, however, in 1836, revived the groat. 

The coinage of Queen Victoria is too well known to need any detailed VICTORIA. 
account. Her early money was based on that of the previous reign. 
In 1845 the threepence was put into general circulation ; hitherto, 
since 1662, it had only been used for Maundy money. In 1848 the 
florin was first issued, and the striking of the groat was discontinued 
in 1856. A bronze coinage, with a fresh portrait of the Queen, was 
substituted for a copper one in 1860, as being more convenient for 



xlvi INTRODUCTION. 

VICTORIA, general use. Since the recoinage of 1817 the silver and copper coins 
had become mere tokens. 

On the occasion of the Queen's jubilee in 1887 a great recoinage of 
gold and silver was determined on to celebrate the occasion, and the 
opportunity was taken to change the royal portrait, which on the gold 
and silver money had remained unaltered since the Queen's accession. 
Some of the reverse types were also modified, the St. George and the 
dragon made by Pistrucci being revived for several denominations, 
and former types of Anne and George IV were also made use of. The 
new denominations were the five pounds and two pounds in gold, and 
the double-florin in silver. No alteration was made in the bronze 
money. Again, in 1893, on account of the unfavourable reception of 
the Jubilee money, a third portrait of the Queen was adopted for the 
gold and silver ; new reverse types were prepared for the half-crown, 
florin, and shilling, and the double-florin was discontinued. The last 
event connected with the coinage was a new issue of the bronze money 
in 1895, when the bust of 1893, was used and a slight alteration made 
in the reverse type by eliminating the representation of the lighthouse 
and the ship, which had been placed on the bronze coinage of 1860. 

COINAGE ^ ne co ^ na S e ^ Scotland is not of very remote antiquity, and there 
are no traces of any Scottish money which would correspond in date 
to the period either of the ancient British coins or of the subsequent 
coinages of the Anglo-Saxons. The statements of the early writers 
that Donald I was the first king of Scotland who struck gold and 
silver coins, and that Donald V set up a royal mint and coined 
money at Stirling, and even that Reutha had a currency, have no 
historical value,* and no such coins are known to exist. The 
attribution by later numismatists of coins to Malcolm III and 
Alexander I has been called in question, and it is now generally 
admitted that it is to the reign of David I (1124-1153) that the first 
issue of purely Scottish money is to be assigned. It must not however 
be assumed that the absence of Scottish money involved the absence 
of a currency in Scotland till a date so comparatively late. Finds 
show that in the first three centuries of the Christian era there 
was a considerable circulation of Roman money in Scotland, which 
was followed by that of the Anglo-Saxons. No sceattas however are 
known to have crossed the border, though hoards of Northumbrian stycas 
of the ninth century have been occasionally unearthed. The importa- 
tion of Anglo-Saxon money does not appear to have been carried on 
to any considerable extent until the tenth century. This date would 
coincide with that of the so-called Commendation to Eadweard the Elder, 
king of Wessex, by the terms of which Constantine II of Scotland 
acknowledged him as " father and lord." It was on this compact that 
the subsequent claims of the English to the overlordship or suzerainty 
of the Scots was based. The homage done to Eadweard was repeated 
and renewed to nearly every subsequent English monarch down to 
Edward I. It was a cause of constant strife between the two nations, 



Cochran-Patrick, Records of Hie Coinage of Scotland, Vol. I., p. civ. 



INTEODUCTION. xlvii 

the English king asserting his right, the Scottish king protesting but SCOTTISH 
finally always submitting. This English domination continued down COINAGK - 
to the peace of Northampton in 1328, which followed the famous 
battle of Bannockburn, as a result of which the original Commendation 
of 924 and all subsequent submissions to England were annulled. 
This period in the history of Scotland is generally known as the 
" English period." We shall see what was the effect of this English 
influence on the coinage of the country. During the early times it is 
possible that, like the Irish, the Scots imitated largely the Anglo-Saxon 
money, especially that of Aethelred II, which is more commonly found 
than any other series. 

The absence of a coinage has been attributed by some writers to a 
scarcity of metal and to a dearth of skilled native workmen ; but the 
chronicles rather negative such suppositions, and the references not 
unfrequently made to gold- and silversmiths' work show that the 
country was not altogether deficient either in native art or in the 
precious metals.* The cause must rather be attributed to the unsettled 
state of the country and the imperfect civilization of the people, and to 
the absence of any form of central government. 

The numismatic history of Scotland, therefore, begins in the reign DAVID I 
of David I (11241153). His coinage consists of pennies only, which BIUKJE. 
in type, as well as in weight and in standard of metal, resemble the 
contemporary currency of England. David's residence in England 
before his accession had imbued him with English ideas, and this was 
no doubt the cause of his introducing a native coinage into Scotland 
after the English pattern. He also encouraged the settlement of 
Norman barons in his country, much to the discontent of his own 
nobles. The coins therefore of David I resemble those of Stephen, 
and the copying of English types is continued for a considerable 
period. The money of Henry, Earl of Northumberland, and of William 
the Lion, follows that of Stephen and of Henry II in type, and the 
short double-cross type is continued by Alexander II. The long 
double-cross type, which was introduced by Henry III in 1247, is 
used by Alexander III, and later on he changes this for the single- 
cross pattee type first adopted by Edward I.^ Still more closely 
imitating the English money, Alexander III strikes halfpennies and 
farthings, and excludes the moneyers' names. No change of type 
occurred during the following reigns of John Baliol and Robert Bruce, 
when the " English period " in Scottish history comes to an end. During 
all this time, from David I to Robert Bruce, the Scottish coinage was 
extensively supplemented by the importation of English money, which 
formed the bulk of the currency, so that during the interregnum from 
1296-1306, when Scottish affairs were under English control, the ratio 
of English and Scottish coins was about thirty to one. 



* Cochran-Patrick, op. cit., p. ciii. 

t The Scottish coins, however, have the difference that on the obverse the 
king's head is in profile, not facing, and on the reverse there are mullets in the 
angles of the cross instead of pellets. 



xlviii INTBODUCTION. 

MINTS At no time were the mints in Scotland so numerous as in England. 
MONEYERS. At first they were few in number, being limited during the reign'of 
David I to Berwick, Carlisle, Edinburgh, and Roxburgh ; and there 
was no increase till the time of Alexander III, when with the 
introduction of the long double-cross type we find about sixteen places 
issuing money. The change of type to the long single-cross brought 
with it an exclusion of mint-names as well as those of the moneyers ; 
and during the reign of John Baliol the only mint-name met with is that 
of St. Andrews ; * but under Robert Bruce even this one disappeared. 
Under David II and his successors they were renewed, but only to a 
limited extent. 

The constitution of the Scottish mint in early times appears to have 
been not unlike that of the English mint, but on a much more limited 
scale. The chief officials were the warden (custos monetse) and the 
master moneyer, who was assisted by printers and strikers (operarii), 
and whom he himself appointed.! The chief duties of the warden 
were those of a general overseer. He received and took charge of the 
bullion, he kept a register showing the amount of money coined, and 
he was also guardian of the dies. In the absence of historical 
evidence the duties and status of the moneyer cannot be so well 
defined. He had charge of the mint-house ; he appointed, as we have 
mentioned, the workmen under him, and he was responsible for the 
weight and purity of the coins, and he had to render to the 
warden an account of the amount struck. His status is not defined ; 
but he evidently was not a mere mechanic, but a man of some position 
and standing. The occurrence of the same moneyer's name on coins of 
different towns rather points to the fact that he was not stationary, 
but that he moved about from place to place coining money as 
required. He may have been in the same position as the moneyers in 
France in early times, who accompanied the king on his journeys and 
struck coins at the various towns that were visited. Sometimes there 
were two or three moneyers working together, as their joint names are 
found on the same coin. After the time of Alexander III, when their 
names no longer occur on the coins, we lose sight of them altogether. 
The office, however, was not abolished. 

DAVID II. When Scotland threw off the English yoke she formed an alliance 
with France, who was henceforth to make common cause with her 
against England. Scotland also pledged herself to invade England 
whenever France should declare war against that country. French 
influence is, however, not at first to be traced on the coinage, which 
continued to follow the English pattern ; and the silver money con- 
tinued English in character clown to the time of James V. Only in 
the later gold can any trace of French influence be found. 

At first David II struck coins similar to those of his predecessors ; 



* A special exception was made in the case of St. Andrews by Alexander III in 
1283, the right of striking money being claimed by the See. See Cochran-Patrick, 
op. cit., p. xlii. 

t Cochran-Patrick, op. cit., p. xvii. 



INTRODUCTION. 



xlix 



but. soon after his return from captivity in England in 1357 he DAVID u. 
instituted a gold coinage, consisting of nobles, and he also struck 
groats and half-groats. All these were of English types. This attempt 
to inaugurate a gold currency does not appear to have been success- 
ful, as from the rarity of the specimens it is evident that but few 
were struck (see No. 24, p. 167). The Scottish coinage was regulated 
on the English standard, and in consequence Edward III allowed 
the money of England and Scotland to be current interchangeably 
on equal terms. By this arrangement a considerable amount of 
English gold crossed the border, and so took the place of a native 
currency in that metal. Subsequently, when the coinage became 
debased, this mutual arrangement could no longer be upheld, and its 
abrogation gave rise to continual complaints on both sides, and on 
several occasions the importation of Scottish gold and silver into 
England was prohibited. 

Robert II, the successor of David, struck only silver coins of the ROBERT n 
same denominations as before and of the same types ; but Robert III 
introduced in 1393 a gold coinage of quite a novel pattern. It 
consisted of the St. Andrew or lion, and its half the demi-lion or demy, 
which were current for 5s. and 2s. Qd. respectively. Both have the 
shield of Scotland on the obverse, and St. Andrew on his cross, or the 
cross only, on the reverse. This issue marked the real beginning 
of the gold coinage of Scotland, which now becomes continuous. 
Robert Ill's silver coins, which are of the same denominations as before, 
are more after the English type, having the bust facing instead of 
being in profile. He also struck billon money, consisting of the penny 
and halfpenny, which are of the same type as similar pieces in silver. 
It was the introduction of this base money which put an end to the 
monetary arrangements between England and Scotland, and which 
produced many remonstrances from the English parliament. 

The mint records of the reign of James I are so meagre that any JAMES I. 
information about the coinage can only be obtained from the coins 
themselves. From these we learn that his gold money consisted of the 
demy and half-demy, and his silver of the groat only ; though later 
records would make it appear that pieces of smaller denominations 
were ordered. He also issued billon money. Only in the case of the 
gold was any variation made in the types. 

With the reign of James II the multiplicity of issues begins. These JAMES li-v. 
increase reign by reign till they arrive at their maximum under 
James VI. These constant fresh issues generally involved some change 
of type, and more often some alteration in the standard of metal, which 
was accompanied by an enhancement of the current values. Other 
causes too tended to this result, viz. the issue of base money, the 
importation of foreign coins of all kinds, and the practice of clipping. 
As a result the current value of the groat, which in David II's 
reign stood at 4d., rose gradually to 8d., and in 1456 to I2d. ; under 
James III it reached 14cZ., and when James VI came to the English 
throne, the ratio between the current values of Scottish and English 
money was at 12 to 1. 

d 



1 INTRODUCTION. 

.TAMESII-V. As the various changes in the types and the different issues are 
noticed at the head of each reign before the descriptions of the coins, 
it will only be needful to refer to some of the more important new 
denominations and their types. From James II to James V, with the 
exception of the introduction of the one-third groat (see No. 89, p. 183), 
the denominations of the silver money remained as before, and English 
types continued in the main to be adopted. The full-face bust is the 
prevailing one ; but this occasionally gives way to the three-quarter 
face bust, to which there is no precise parallel in the English coinage ; 
and finally, under James V, the profile bust resembling Henry VII's 
is met with.* 

Amongst the gold coins of the same period there are several new 
denominations, some of which are of special interest. Jarnes II issued 
the lion and half-lion, somewhat similar to the St. Andrew and the 
demi-lion of Robert III. James III struck the rider, and the unicorn 
and half-unicorn, about the same time that the unicorn became the 
supporter of the Scottish shield. James IV adds the half and quarter- 
rider to the list, and James V the ecu and the bonnet piece with its 
parts. The bonnet piece is one of the finest coins of the Scottish 
series. Its current value was midway between that of the English 
half-sovereign and angel, and it represented on the obverse the king's 
bust wearing a bonnet or cap. The head is seen in profile, and there 
is a decided and successful attempt at portraiture. It is also the 
first dated coin of the Scottish series, in which respect Scotland 
took the lead of England. The ecu was modelled on the pattern of 
the French coin of that name, and this is practically the first instance 
we meet with of the influence of French art on Scottish money. The 
billon coinage, which had been introduced by James I, was continued 
by his successors. At first the only denominations were the penny 
and halfpenny, but to these were added the plack and half-plack, and 
under James V the bawbee and half-bawbee. James III also struck 
copper money ; but it was discontinued, and was not resumed till 
James VI's time. This base money was issued to provide small change 
for the people, of which there was great need. The idea was a good 
one, and if it had been carried out on sound principles it would not 
have affected the gold and silver money in the manner we have 
shown. 

MARY. The accession of Mary witnessed many changes in the coinage. 
New denominations were introduced and the types throughout were 
altered. In these respects there is practically no connexion between 
Mary's coinage and that of her father, James V. All traces too of 
English prototypes disappear, and the coinages of England and Scot- 
land are almost as distinct from each other as the money of England 



* The absence of any numerals after the king's name from Robert II-III 
and James I-III has raised many difficulties in the classification of their coins, 
and there still exists much uncertainty. In our order we have not followed the 
view of any one writer; but have adopted such a classification as the coins 
themselves would appear to warrant. 



INTRODUCTION. li 

and France. This may be in some degree attributed to the fact that MART. 
many of the designs were prepared in France. 

Mary's money may be divided into five periods, which correspond in 
date to the chief epochs of her life (see p. 184). On some of her earlier 
gold and silver coins we meet with an excellent portrait. This occurs 
on the ryal and half-ryal in gold and the testoon in silver. Other 
pieces bear the Scottish arms and her name in monogram or her 
initials. After her marriage with Francis the Dauphin, his portrait is 
found with that of Mary, and the French arms are impaled with the 
Scottish. Their money consisted of the ducat in gold, the testoon and 
half-testoon in silver, and the twelve penny groat and hardhead in 
billon. Mary's last gold piece was the crown struck after the death of 
Francis, and from this time her currency consisted of silver only, and 
chiefly of coins of a larger denomination than had as yet been used in 
Scotland. These were the ryal and its parts. On the reverse is 
shown a tree, formerly supposed to represent the yew tree at Crookston 
Castle, to which a sentimental but legendary story was attached (see 
No. 118, p. 189). Mary's billon coins, which were mostly issued early 
in her reign, are of various denominations and types. 

If Mary's money was distinct from that of her father, equally so JAMES vi. 
was James VI 's from that of his mother. His coinage is of two 
periods, that before his accession to the English throne, and that after 
that event. The coinages of these two periods are quite separate from 
each other, the latter being modelled after the English pattern in 
every respect. His first coinage is the most remarkable of any 
Scottish monarch's, both for its extent and variety. It was a time of 
continual change, of the withdrawing of one issue and of the striking of 
another. During this period, in fact, we count no less than eleven denomi- 
nations in gold, twenty-four in silver, five in billon, and two in copper ; 
and of the issues there were seven in gold, eight in silver, four in 
billon, and one in copper. This frequent change in denomination and 
type and these numerous issues were due in some measure to the 
alterations in the fineness of the metal, and to the rise in the value of 
silver, caused partly by its growing scarcity. This brought with it an 
increased current value of the coins. At the beginning of the reign 
an ounce of silver was coined into 40s. From this it rose to 44s., then 
to 50s., and finally in 1601 to 60s. These changes in value necessitated 
the calling in of the current coins, and either the re-issuing them at an 
enhanced value or the striking of fresh ones of a different type, and 
the only resulting advantage was the profit made by the mint. 

For an account of the various denominations, and their issues, we 
must again refer the reader to the descriptions of the coins. Almost 
every piece presents a new type, and to give particulars would be to 
repeat what has already been said. Amongst the gold coins we may, 
however, specially mention the twenty pound piece (No. 123, p. 191), 
which is the largest gold piece hitherto struck in Scotland, and 
which from its size and rarity was regarded as a medal rather than 
a coin. In the thistle noble of 1588 (No. 126, p. 192), we recognise 
the type of the old English noble. The rider and its parts were 

(I Zt 



Ill INTKODUCTION. 

JAMES vi. adapted from similar coins of James IY. Amongst the silver coins the 
ryal and its parts resemble similar pieces of Mary ; and on some of 
James's later coins, both in gold and silver, there are good attempts at 
portraiture at various periods of his life. The inscriptions are as varied 
as the types. Whether they were suggested by the king himself is 
uncertain ; but, as the types were generally devised and directed by the 
Council, it may be presumed that James had a voice in their selection 
and also in the choice of the legends. Many of these savour of his 
ideas of kingly power and of his notions of the divine right of kings. 
James continued to strike billon coins similar in character to those of 
previous reigns, but of varied types. He also revived the copper money, 
issuing twopences and pennies of a better standard than before. 

On his accession to the English throne James did not at first make 
any change in his Scottish money, but continued the issue of the sword 
and sceptre piece in gold, and the thistle merk in silver, with their 
respective divisions. Steps were also taken to regulate the current 
values between the English and Scottish money. This led to some 
confusion, and in 1604 the Council ordered that henceforth the 
Scottish coinage should conform precisely to that of England. An 
exception was necessarily made in the case of the copper money, as 
there was then no copper currency in England. It continued to 
consist of the twopence and penny, or as they were now called the 
turner and half-turner. From this time the denominations in gold and 
silver were the same for Scotland and England. They were also of 
precisely the same pattern and weight, except that the arms of Scotland 
were placed, after 1610, in the first and fourth quarters. The king 
wears the Scottish crown (see p. 197), and the mint-mark is a thistle. 
The relative current values remained the same, that is, the English 
shilling was equal to twelve shillings Scottish. 

CHARLES I. The early coinage in gold and silver of Charles I was similar in type, 
weight, standard of fineness, and denominations to the last issue of his 
father. So close was the copy that on some pieces the portrait was not 
even changed ; but only the name of the king altered in the dies. It 
continued so till 1637, when Nicolas Briot, the engraver to the English 
mint, was appointed master of the Scottish mint, having as his assistant 
John Falconer, his son-in-law. The gold coins, with the addition of 
the eighth-unit or half-crown, were the same as before ; but some new 
pieces, the half-merk, the forty penny piece, and the twenty penny 
piece, were added to the list of the silver coins. The coins issued 
by Briot and Falconer are some of the best specimens of the die- 
engraver's art of the 17th century. In point of workmanship they quite 
equal Briot's English money. They were struck by the mill and screw, 
which machinery, after much opposition, Briot was allowed to erect at 
the mint. Throughout the reign the standard of gold was at 22 cts. 
fine, and that of the silver 11 pts. fine to 1 pt. alloy. Many enactments 
and orders were issued prohibiting the exportation of the native 
currency and the importation of base foreign money. The circulation 
of the English farthing tokens was forbidden in Scotland, and the 
copper currency was supplied by the turner and half-turner. There 



INTRODUCTION. liii 

were no billon coins, those of James previous to 1603 being the last CHARLES I. 
issued in Scotland. 

During the period of the Commonwealth no money was specially CHARLES II. 
struck for Scotland, and there are no silver coins of Charles II until four 
years after his restoration. His money is of silver and copper only. 
"When Thomas Simon, the English engraver, was ordered in 1662 to 
prepare puncheons for the silver coins, he was also directed to make 
those for a twenty merk piece in gold, but he does not appear to have 
carried out this portion of the order. He prepared models for the silver 
pieces, which comprised the four, two, and one merk pieces, the half- 
merk, and the elevenpence, and for these he was paid .100. He did not 
however make the actual puncheons, but this work was entrusted in 
1663 to Joachim Harder, the engraver to the Scottish mint. Compar- 
ing these Scottish coins with the English pieces also by Simon, we can 
easily see how signally Harder failed to reproduce the exquisite model- 
ling of that famous engraver. A similar failure is noticeable in the 
case of Briot's models, which had been imperfectly copied by the 
Scottish engraver Dickesone (see p. 201). The four merk piece was 
current at 53s. 4^., and the divisions in proportion. Each coin was 
marked with its current value on the reverse. The types differed some- 
what from those of the English silver coins, the bust of the king being 
turned to the right instead of to the left. 

In 1675 a new coinage was ordered, and the making of the dies was 
entrusted to Jan Roettier of the English mint. The denominations 
were the same as those of the previous coinage, but the forty penny piece 
or sixteenth-dollar was added, and a difference was made in the reverse 
die, the marks of value being omitted. The bust of the king was also 
turned the other way, i.e. to the left. The reverse of the forty penny 
piece varied from that of the other silver pieces. The four merk piece 
is better known as the dollar, the two merk piece as the half-dollar, &c. 
The copper coins consisted of the turner and bodle, each current at 
2d., and of the bawbee at Gd, On account of certain irregularities the 
mint was closed in 1682. 

The coinage of this reign was of silver only, and the current pieces JAMES vn. 
were the forty and ten shillings. The sixty shillings was only struck 
as a pattern, and the dies were not prepared for the twenty shillings 
and five shillings which were, however, ordered. The puncheons were 
made by Jan Roettier, and the reverse types were varied from those 
of the previous reign. Each coin also bore its current value. The 
standard of fineness was raised T L but as the weight of the coinage 
was to be at 427 35 grs. to the sixty shillings, this made a further 
difference in the ratio of the current values between the Scottish and 
English coins, which now stood at 13 / s to 1 instead of 12 to 1.* It 
remained thus till the Union in 1707, when the 12 to 1 rate was 
restored. 

All the silver coins ordered by James VII were struck by William WILLIAM 
and Mary, and the types generally assimilated with the exception of MAR Y . 




Burns, Coinage of Scotland, Vol. II., p. 503. 



liv INTKODUCTION. 

WILLIAM the five shillings. No alteration was made in the standard of fineness 
AkS. and current values. The copper money too was revived, the pieces 
struck being the bawbee and bodle, current respectively as under 
Charles II. 

roF^ENQ 1 After *^ e death of Mary, William continued the coinage in silver 
LAND), and copper on the same lines as during their joint reign, but his sixty 
shilling piece appears to have been only struck as a pattern. For a 
short time, from July 1695 to June 1696, the current values of the 
coins were raised ^, i.e. from 40. to 44s., and in consequence it was 
proposed that the new values should be stamped on the coins. But as 
the Privy Council only looked upon this alteration as a temporary one, 
no change was effected in this respect, and in fact within twelve months 
a return was made to the former current values. 

Of William II there are two interesting pieces in gold, the pistole 
and half -pistole, which however from their present scarcity do not 
.appear to have been issued in any considerable number. These pieces 
were struck from gold supplied by the Darien Company, which had 
been established for the purpose of founding a new colony on the 
Isthmus of Darien. A charter was granted to this Company which 
.gave it a monopoly for thirty-one years of the trade with Asia, Africa, 
and America. It was from Africa and the Indies that this gold was 
obtained. This was the only gold money that had been issued for 
Scotland since the reign of Charles I, and it was the last struck 
separately for Scotland. As an encouragement to the Company a 
profit of ten per cent, was allowed upon the metal brought to the mint, 
so that the intrinsic value of the coins was ten per cent, less than the 
current value. A special request was made by the Company that a 
suitable mark should be placed on these coins to distinguish them 
from other coins, and this was allowed. 

ANNE. Anne's Scottish money is of silver only, and of two periods, that 
before and that after the Union. The first consisted of the ten 
and five shillings only, which were of the same standard as before. 
In the Act of Union it was specially stipulated that from and after 
the Union the coinage of the United Kingdom should be of the 
same standard and value, and that a mint should be continued in 
Scotland under the same rules as the English mint. Arrangements 
were at once made to carry out this order. The English money was 
first called in, and then the Scottish and foreign money, and the new 
coinage was substituted. The pieces issued were the crown, half- 
crown, shilling, and sixpence, which varied only from the English 
money in having an E, or an E with a star, under the bust (see 
Nos. 230-233, pp. 211-12). Two years later the Scottish mint, for 
some unascertained reason, ceased operations, and since that time 
English money only has been issued for Great Britain. 

The series of the Scottish coins is brought to a close with the 
description of a crown of "James VIII," more generally known as 
the Elder Pretender, the dies for which were prepared in Paris (1716) 
at the time of his second attempt to regain the throne of England (see 
No. 234, p. 212). A mention is also made of other pieces struck at 



INTRODUCTION. 



Iv 



IRISH 

COINAGE. 



that time and in 1708, but they must be relegated to the class of ANKK 
patterns, as they were never required for currency. 

The coinage of Ireland presents a remarkable contrast to the coinages 
of England and Scotland ; more especially to the former. In England, 
as a general rule, great care was taken to preserve the integrity of the 
coinage and to furnish it in sufficient abundance. Its exportation was 
prohibited and the importation of foreign money forbidden. In Ireland 
the case was very different. Ill supplied at any time, Ireland became 
the refuge for the base moneys of all countries, not even excepting 
those of England ; its own coins were often of so low a standard that 
they were refused as media of exchange, and they suffered heavily when 
placed alongside those of finer metal. The entire absence, too, of a 
native gold coinage added a still further difficulty ; and at no time was 
it even proposed that such a coinage should be issued. No country in 
Europe for its size and importance can show such a poor record as 
regards its money as Ireland. In referring to the temporary debase- 
ment of the English coinage under Henry VIII and Edward VI it has 
been shown how much the nation at large suffered from this unwise 
act ; how the price of every commodity was increased ; how commerce 
was affected generally ; and how, after a time, the necessity to institute 
reforms was acknowledged. England suffered in this manner only for 
a short time, but Ireland had to bear the burden through centuries, 
as the records of the coinage amply prove. 

The nature of the early coinage of Ireland is somewhat doubtful. 
The few hoards of Roman money found there point to a very limited 
circulation of that class of coins, and the rings in gold, silver, and 
copper, of which at times considerable quantities have been unearthed, 
scarcely warrant the presumption that these formed any important 
currency, though from an examination of such hoards it has been 
ascertained that many of these rings graduate according to their weight 
in multiples of the half pennyweight or twelve grains.* 

The earliest money which we know with certainty to have been 
current in Ireland is the Anglo-Saxon penny. This was not imported 
by the Irish themselves, but by the Danish invaders, who already in 
the 8th century had formed settlements in the country. Finds of such 
coins have not been numerous, but they prove that this importation 
of English money began at an early date. A find at Delgany in co. 
Wicklow was a very remarkable one, and comprised some of the oldest 
coins of Mercia and Kent. The burial of the hoard cannot be ascribed 
to a date much later than A.D. 835, and it has been conjectured that 
the money was conveyed there by a party of Danes, who shortly before 
had made a raid on the Isle of Sheppey.f 

Lindsay J has attempted to assign to the Danish invaders who 
founded kingdoms in Dublin and Waterford a series of uncertain coins 
copied from English pennies, but his arguments will not bear the test 
of a critical examination. Dr. Aquilla Smith, on the other hand, has 



EARLY 

COINAGES. 



Lindsay, Coinage of Ireland, p. 3. f Num. Chron., 1882, p. 61. 

J Coinage of Ireland, p. 6. 



Ivi INTRODUCTION. 

EAKLY produced conclusive evidence which shows that the first money issued 
COINAGES. ^ i re i an( } was tnat s t ruc k by the Danish ruler Sihtric III (989-1029), 
who was a contemporary of Aethelred II of Wessex, and the types of 
whose coins he closely followed.* It is some of the degraded forms 
of these coins that Lindsay unsuccessfully ascribed to earlier and 
even to later Danish rulers. From this time until the dominion of 
England was established in Ireland under Henry II (A.D. 1172) there 
are no coins which can be assigned to any ruler, whether native or 
Danish. Ireland was however not wholly without a currency, for 
imitations, not only of Sihtric's coins, but also of those of Aethelred II, 
Cnut, and Edward the Confessor, and even of the early Norman kings, 
were extensively fabricated, and must have provided a considerable 
coinage. Besides these there are some curious pieces called bracteates, 
which could not have been struck before the beginning of the 12th 
century, and which added to the supply. A very large hoard of these 
pieces was found at Fermoy in 1837, the prototypes of many of which 
were coins of Harold I, William I, and Henry I. 

In 1172 Henry II of England crossed over to Ireland, landed at 
Waterford, and took possession of his new dominion. Within a few 
days of his arrival he was proclaimed king at Dublin, and shortly after- 
wards received the homage of most of the native princes. At first 
English rule was limited to the counties of Dublin and Meath, and 
the tract included between the city of Waterford and Dungarvan. 
This district was afterwards known as the Pale. Such was the 
beginning of the English rule in Ireland. 

JOHN. Henry did not strike any money ,for Ireland in his own name ; but 
when, in 1177, he appointed his son John, Lord of Ireland, he granted 
to him the right of coinage. The Irish coins of that prince are of two 
series, those struck during his lordship and those after his accession 
to the English throne. The first series consists of halfpennies and 
farthings issued at Dublin and Waterford ; the second of pennies, 
halfpennies, and farthings struck at the same mints and at Limerick. 
The types of each series vary, and they also differ considerably from 
the English money. This money appears to have been of the same 
standard of fineness as that of England, and it was in order to dis- 
tinguish the two series that the type was varied. Simon f says that 
the arms of Ireland, the harp, were derived from the triangle on the 
obverse enclosing the king's bust ; but he does not offer any suggestion 
about the reverse devices, a flaming star and a crescent, or a cross and 
a crescent. So far as we are aware no explanation of these has ever 
been given. Besides these semi-regal and regal coins there are some 
farthings known as " St. Patricks," which were struck by John de 
Curcy, Earl of Ulster, who was Governor of Ireland from 1185 to 
1189. Some of them bear his own name, but others have only the 
name of St. Patrick. They are of Carrickfergus and Downpatrick, 
both places situated in Ulster. 



* Num. Chron., 1892, p. 308. 
f Essay on Irish Coins, p. 13. 



INTKODUCTION. Ivii 

Of Henry III there are pennies and halfpennies, and of Edward I-III HENRY m- 
the same denominations and also farthings. The coins of all these EDWARDIIL 
reigns follow the English types except that the head of the king on 
the obverse is within a triangle instead of being within a circle. The 
dies were made in London and then sent to Ireland. As yet no 
satisfactory classification of the coins of Edward I-III has been 
proposed (see p. 216). The same difficulty has till lately existed with 
the English coins of these monarchs which were issued before the 
introduction of the groat. It is known from proclamations and orders 
that several issues in Ireland took place under Edward I and III, and 
it may reasonably be presumed that Edward II also qontributed to the 
Irish money. There are no Irish coins of Edward III of a later date 
than 1339 ; but in 1354 the new English gold money was ordered to be 
current in Ireland, and shortly afterwards a similar order was extended 
to the silver money. 

During the reigns of Richard II and Henry IV and V there are RICHARD li- 
no Irish coins, although the first of these monarchs twice visited the HENRT v< 
country in circumstances of great pomp. Groats formerly attributed 
to Henry V have of recent years been transferred to Henry VII. 

Under Henry VI the mint of Dublin was twice revived, in 1425 and HENRY VL 
1460 ; and this king also struck money during his short restoration in 
1470-71. Of the first issue only the penny is known, which is of the 
English type; but as only very few specimens have been met with, 
there may be some uncertainty about this attribution though their 
weight is in favour of it. Of the second issue (1460) we have the 
t and penny in silver, and the half-farthing or Patrick in copper. 

ther silver pieces, called "Irelandes d'Argent," were ordered and 

eir type prescribed ; but no specimens are at present known, and 
they were probably never struck. The type of the groat and penny 
this issue is of a very distinctive character. It consists on the 
ibverse of a large crown, and on the reverse of a cross with pellets and 
the name of the mint. The type was prescribed by the order, and 
in this instance there can be no doubt of the correctness of the 
classification, especially too as it is the same as on the earliest pieces 
of Edward IV. The small copper coins, like the money of John de 
Curcy already mentioned, received their name from their type. The 
groats and pennies which we have given to the period of Henry VI's 
short restoration have been classed by Dr. Aquilla Smith to Henry 
VII.* On this point we have ventured to differ from that able 
numismatist : and for the following reasons. First of all, they are 
similar in type to the then current coins of Edward IV (see No. 31, 
p. 221) ; secondly, as on the English coins of that time, the letter R is 
represented by B ; and thirdly, because the obverse legend reads 
" Dominus Hybernie " instead of " Rex Anglie." This change of title 
was made by Edward IV in 1478, and it is found on all the coins 
classed to Henry VII. Moreover, the fabric of these coins is not 

* Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol. XIX., Pt. II., 1840. 




Iviii INTKODUCTION. 

HENRY vi. that of Henry VII's but of Edward IVs money. There is no 
mention of this coinage in the records, so that this attribution rests 
entirely on internal evidence. 

EDWARD iv. Almost immediately after his accession Edward IV turned his 
attention to the coinage of Ireland, and in 1461 he ordered Germyn 
Lynch, who was master of the mint at Dublin and Trim, to make the 
coinage upon the same terms as in the statute of the 38th year of 
Henry VI.* Like Henry's issue it consisted of the groat and 
penny. From this time onwards Edward continued to regulate 
the Irish money, making such alterations in its standard as the 
necessity of circumstances required. These changes of standard were 
caused by the varying value of silver. In 1467 silver, on account of 
its scarcity, rose to double its usual value. In 1470 it again fell, and 
the groat was restored to nearly its former weight; but in 1475 
another rise took place, and the English groat was ordered to be 
current in Ireland at 5d. It is from this date that the difference in 
the ratio between the current values of the English and Irish money 
begins, and it continued down to the present century. The changes 
in the standard produced frequent alterations in the types : so that in 
this respect there were no less than seven distinct issues in this reign. 
The earlier issues followed, as we have seen, the type of Henry VI's 
coinage. Gradually the type conformed more to the English pattern 
with the full-face bust : but when the standard of metal was varied 
between the two countries, a distinct type, that of the three crowns, 
was adopted for Ireland. In 1467, on account of the rise in the price 
of silver, a new coin called the double was issued. It was only a new 
coin in name, as it was of precisely the same type as the Irish groat ; 
but it was double its weight and current value. It was however of the 
same weight as the English groat. There was a large increase in the 
number of mints, most of which were in active operation for a con- 
siderable time, and at no other period in the history of its coinage was 
Ireland so well provided with currency. The copper money consisted 
of farthings and half-farthings, which belong to the early part of 
Edward's reign. 

RICHARD There are no Irish coins known of Edward V, and if he did issue any 
they were probably, like his English money, of precisely the same type as 
his father's. Under Richard III some attempts were made to improve 
the money, which during the last three years, on account of the 
dishonesty of Germyn Lynch, had became much debased. Lynch was 
removed from his office, and it was ordered that a coinage should be 
issued of the same type as the last one of Edward IV : and that it 
should be of metal of the same standard as the English money. 
Neither of these orders was strictly adhered to. An earlier type of 
Edward's was used, and the standard of fineness was lower than 
prescribed. Simon says that the difference between the English and 
Irish groat of Richard was about sixty per cent.f This however may 



Eliding, Vol. I., p. 281. t Essay on Irish Coins, p. 32. 




INTRODUCTION. Hx 

be a slight exaggeration. Richard's coins are of two denominations RICHAIO 
only, the groat and the penny ; and of two types, the second being that 
which was prescribed for the first issue but not used, viz. the three 
crowns type. 

On account of the dearth of any official records relative to the Irish HENRY vn. 
coinage of this reign, its classification rests almost entirely on the 
internal evidence afforded by the coins themselves. From these it 
appears that Henry's first issue resembles in type the last of Edward IV 
and Richard III, but it is easily distinguished by the king's name. 
His next two issues follow his English coins, which have first the open 
crown and then the arched crown. His last issue is however a 
return to the old type of the open crown, but in a somewhat crude 
form. This last coinage was formerly attributed to Henry V ; but 
the weight of the coins and the legends, in which the king is styled 
* Rex Anglie," do not admit of this classification. The denominations 
struck were the groat, half-groat, and penny. Of the standard of 
fineness there is also no record ; but the difference in current value 
between the English and Irish money appears to have been about one- 
third.* 

The continued scarcity of records during the reign of Henry VIII 
often places us at a disadvantage, and for the classification of his 
earlier money we must once more follow the coins as our guide. The 
lack of official information has caused some diversity of opinion 
respecting the date of the first Irish coinage of this reign. Arguing 
from official documents, Dr. Aquilla Smith considered that none was 
ued before 1537.f Simon, on the other hand, who took the coins 
his guide, assigned the first issue to about 15304 Imperfect 
quaintance with the English series has led both these learned 
umismatists astray, as they have both assigned to Katherine Howard 
.d Anne of Cleves coins which should have been given to Katherine 
Aragon and Anne Boleyn (see p. 227). It may be assumed that, 
as we find the same initials, H. K., H. A., &c., on English coins as on 
the Irish, they refer to the same personages. Such being the case the 
first Irish coinage would be contemporaneous with the second issue of 
Henry VIII's English money, and this would give us the period from 
1526-1543, to which we assign it. This first issue consisted of groats 
and half-groats of a type different from any before used. On the 
obverse is the royal shield, and on the reverse the crowned harp. This 
is the first instance of this badge on Irish coins, and henceforth it is 
the prevailing one. It formed a good distinctive mark between the 
coinages of the two nations. Henry's assumption of the title of " king 
of Ireland" is commemorated by a special issue of groats in 1541, but 
there was no change of type. Both these coinages appear to have 
been about ^ fine to alloy, and as they were below the standard of 
the English money their importation was prohibited. When Henry 
debased his English money in 1544-5, he ordered that a coinage of 




* Simon, Essay on Irish Coins, p. 32. f Num. Chron., 1879, p. 163. 

J Op. tit., p. 33. 



Ix INTEODUCTION. 

HENRY a similar standard should be issued for Ireland, and to distinguish it 
VIIL from that previously struck he introduced entirely new denominations, 
the sixpence, threepence, three halfpence, and three farthings. These 
were struck in London under the direction of Sir Martin Bowes, the 
master of the mint, and then conveyed to Ireland. It does not appear 
that at any time during this reign that Irish coins were struck in 
Ireland itself. A further coinage of sixpences took place in 1546-7, 
though of this there is no official record. They are of a somewhat 
different type to the previous issue, but being dated the 37th and 38th 
year of the king's reign, and bearing the monogram of Sir William 
Sharington, the master of the Bristol mint, there is no uncertainty as 
to their date or place of mintage. Being of a low standard of metal 
this may be the brass money referred to by contemporary writers.* 
EDWARD VI. The question as to the existence or non-existence of an Irish coinage 
during the reign of Edward VI has been discussed ;f but it may here be 
remarked that the fact that the records show that at different times 
a coinage was ordered is strongly in favour of its existence. The 
great difficulty has been to identify any specimens which could be 
attributed specifically to this class. It may be presumed that the 
order of February 10, 1548, to MartynPiri J to coin groats, half -groats, 
pennies, and halfpennies, under certain restrictions and of a certain 
standard, was never carried into effect, as no such pieces have been 
met with. It probably failed for want of bullion, which was to be 
purchased beyond the seas and not in England or in Ireland. If 
therefore there was a currency in Ireland at this time it must be 
sought for amongst the base money issued in England, the coining of 
which appears to have lasted some time after the standard of the 
English money was raised. 

MAKY. Passing on to the reign of Mary before and after her marriage with 
Philip of Spain, it will be seen that no material change took place in the 
coinage, which was based on the last issue of Henry VIII. The types 
were similar, and there was a sligkt improvement in the standard of 
the metal; but from 1554 to 1558 it fell back into a worse condition 
than it had been in at any time previously. The metal was fine 
to f alloy. The coins consisted of shillings, groats, half-groats, and 
pennies. The base money too of Henry VIII and Edward VI, the 
circulation of which had been prohibited during this and the previous 
reign in England, was passed over to Ireland. 

ELIZABETH. When Elizabeth turned her attention to the general state of the 
coinage at home, she did not show the same sympathy for Ireland as 
for England. The base money, which was withdrawn from circulation 
in England, was recoined into shillings and sixpences and sent over to 
Ireland, and these were of so low a standard that the intrinsic value 
of the shilling was not more than 4d., and later on fell to 2d. In 1561, 
when Elizabeth had completed her reform of the English money, she also 
made an improvement in the Irish, which was ordered to be at 1 1 oz. 



* Simon, op. cit., p. 34. f See p. 229. 

i Num. Chron., 1886, p. 152. 









INTEODUCTION. Ixi 

fine to 1 oz. alloy. The shillings and groats of this issue were however ELIZABETH. 
lighter than the English pieces of those denominations, so that the Irish 
shilling was equivalent only to ninepence in English money. In 1598, 
when the country was in a disorganized state caused by the Tyrone 
rebellion, there was such a dearth of money that none could be found to 
pay the troops, who were engaged in quelling the rebellion. A new issue 
of shillings and sixpences was in consequence ordered, but a return was 
made to the former base standard of 3 oz. fine to 9 oz. alloy, and in 
1601 a further debasement appears to have occurred (see p. 232). The 
types of these coins were varied to distinguish them from previous 
issues. This money was coined in London and sent to Ireland. In 
1601 a copper currency of pence and halfpence was instituted for 
Ireland. These were struck at the rate of 190 pence to the pound 
avoirdupois. 

When James succeeded to the English throne the Tyrone rebellion JAMES i. 
was at an end, and the king was able to take steps to improve the 
coinage, which the last issue of Elizabeth had thrown into a great 
state of disorganization. Shillings and sixpences were issued of the 
standard of 9 oz. fine and 3 oz. alloy, and the base money of the 
previous reign was reduced to one-third of its former current value. 
Later on the English shilling passed at sixteenpence. The new money 
was of a uniform type similar to the English, but with the harp on 
the reverse ; and excepting for a change in the king's title, no alteration 
was made throughout this reign. The copper farthing tokens current 
in England were extended to Ireland. 

Charles I issued no special coins for Ireland before the outbreak CHARLES I. 
of the Civil War, and the only currency before that date consisted 
of farthing tokens similar to those which had been struck by 
James. During the rebellion however there are several interesting 
series of " money of necessity " similar in character to the coinages of 
the local mints in England (see p. 234). Some of this money was 
struck by the " rebels," but the greater part was issued by order of the 
Council or under the direct warrant of the king. Their types somewhat 
resemble those of the English siege pieces, and are of the simplest 
description; one important group, the Inchiquin money, bearing for 
the most part only the marks of the weight stamped on an irregularly 
shaped piece of silver.* Others, like the Ormonde money, have the 
royal crown and initials on the obverse, and the marks of value on 
the reverse. The copper pieces too are of the rudest kind. It is to 
this series that the crown and half-crown struck in the name of 
Charles II belong (see Nos. 101-102, p. 239). 

From this time onwards until the middle of the reign of George III COMMON- 
the Irish coinage consisted of copper, pewter, or some mixed metal. 
Only copper, however, was used for the official money. 

Under the Commonwealth the only coins struck in Ireland were the 
tradesmen's penny, halfpenny, and farthing tokens in copper. At the 



* It is in this group that we have the only gold coin in the whole Irish series, 
namely, the pistole, which was current for 20s. (see p. 235). 



Ixii INTEODUCTION. 

COMMON- restoration of Charles II the issue of farthings somewhat similar to those 
V KORGE H fv f James I and Charles I was resumed ; but these gave way at a later 
period to a coinage of halfpence and farthings, which was founded on 
a much sounder basis, and resembled closely the English copper money 
of that time. These continued to be issued without any appreciable 
change till the reign of George III, their weight only varying from 
time to time according to the market price of the metal. 

During this time, however, there were several coinages which have 
a certain amount of interest attached to them. They were not strictly 
official. These are the St. Patrick money of the reign of Charles II 
(see Nos. 104105, p. 240) ; the date of issue of which has now been 
fairly ascertained ; the gun money and pewter money, &c., issued by 
James II during his attempt to recover the throne of England (see 
Nos. 108-115, pp. 241-243), and the " Voce Populi" pieces of the 
reign of George II (see No. 124, p. 246). As full particulars of these 
coinages have been given with their descriptions they need not be 
repeated here. 

In the meanwhile Ireland had been supplied with money in gold and 
silver from various sources. A certain amount had been imported 
from England, but the bulk came from France, Spain, and Portugal. 
As no attempt was made to stop this importation of foreign money, 
its current value was from time to time prescribed by the govern- 
ment. This was necessary on account of changes in standard and 
weight. The importation of English money does not appear at any 
time to have been very general, and no mention is made of its 
relative value during the whole of the reign of Charles II. James II 
however, during the rebellion rated the shilling at its usual current 
value. In 1695 the guinea was rated at 26s., the crown in silver at 
5s. 10cZ., and the other pieces in proportion. Later on in 1701 the 
guinea was reduced to 23s. and the crown to 5s. 5d., and in 1737 the 
guinea was rated at 1 2s. 9d. and the silver money, most of it 
English, was not worth melting, the shilling being hardly worth 
ninepence or tenpence and the sixpence not worth a groat.* From this 
time we have no data except that, in spite of its worn condition, the 
guinea was ordered to pass at its former current value <! 2s. 9d. : and 
the silver coinage was reduced to such a wretched state that twenty-one 
shillings were not intrinsically worth more than nine shillings, and 
worn pieces not more than live shillings. This was the state of the 
coinage when in 1804 the Bank of Ireland received permission to issue 
silver tokens of various denominations to relieve present necessities. 
When the great recoinage of gold and silver in England took place in 
1817, it was ordered that it should be current on equal terms throughout 
Great Britain and Ireland. Thus for the first time in the history 
of Ireland was its coinage placed on a true and equitable basis. 

It should be mentioned that in 1805 a new copper coinage after the 
English pattern, consisting of the penny, halfpenny, and farthing, was 



* Simon, Essay on Irish Coins, p. 76. 



INTBODUCTION. 



Ixiii 



instituted. This was renewed by George IV in 1822, but since 1823 COMMON- 
no separate money has been struck for Ireland. 

The study of the coinages of England, Scotland, and Ireland has 
during the present century been so closely pursued that little of 
importance remains to be discovered. Consequently much and 
frequent use has been made of the standard works in each section, 
and the opportunity is now taken to express the compiler's indebtedness 
for the information which he has obtained from them. The chief 
works consulted have been in the English section, Ruding, Annals 
of the Coinage of Great Britain ; Kenyon, Gold Coinage of England ; 
Hawkins, Silver Coinage of England ; Thorburn, Guide to British Coins ; 
and The Numismatic Chronicle ; in the Scottish section, Cochran- 
Patrick, Records of the Scottish Coinage ; Burns, Coinage of Scotland ; 
and Robertson, Handbook to the Coinage of Scotland; and in the 
Irish section, Simon, Essay on Irish Coins; Lindsay, A View of the 
Coinage of Ireland; and the numerous and valuable articles of Dr. 
Aquilla Smith. 

In the preparation of this Handbook the compiler has been under 
great obligations to Sir John Evans, K.C.B., who has read the proof 
sheets of the Introduction ; to Mr. L. A. Lawrence for reading in 
proof the portion relating to the English coins ; to his colleague, 
Mr. Warwick Wroth, for valuable suggestions ; and especially to 
Mr. Barclay V. Head, Keeper of Coins and Medals, for the patience 
and care he has bestowed on the whole work in proof. 

HERBERT A. GRUEBER. 



ERRATUM. 
P. 29 n., omit the words, " which however may be Danish." 



HANDBOOK 



OF THE 



COINS OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

SCEATTAS. 
CIRC. A.D. 600-750. 

THE earliest coins of the Anglo-Saxon series are small pieces in gold 
and silver known as Sceattas ; the word sceat signifying treasure. 
They are mostly without inscriptions ; a few, however, have legends in 
Roman or Runic characters. Some apparently bear the name of 
London (see No. 5), but the locality of issue of the majority has not 
been determined. The early types are derived from Roman and 
Frankish coins, but the later ones appear to be of native origin. The 
average weight of the gold piece is about 20 grains, being equivalent 
to the Roman triens or tremissis, whilst that of silver varies from 15 
to 20 grains. 

1. Obv. [Blundered legend.] Bust to r., diademed. Rev. Two busts, facing, with Plate i. 

traces of hands supporting an orb between them; above, head and two COLD. 

wings ; on either side of head, three dots. AJ -5.* Wt. 20' 2. 

This type is imitated from the solidus of Valentinian I, which 

shows on the reverse the emperor and his colleague seated, holding an 

orb between them, and behind a Victory with outstretched wings. 

The solidus of Magnus Maximus struck in London is also of this type. 

2. Obv. [Blundered legend formed into a pattern.] Bust to r., diademed. Jicv. 

II^XIT; lltMS. [BEA(R)TIGO?] Cross on three steps. AT -5. Wt. 
20 * o. 

This type is taken from Merovingian gold coins. The Runic legend 
on the reverse has been read feartigo for " forty," = 40 copper stycas ; 
but this reading is very doubtful. 



* Throughout the sizes are given in inches and tenths, and the weights in 
grains troy. 

B 



2 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate i 3. Obv. Wolf to r., and twins. Eev. A bird between two stalks of corn? m '5. 

S.LVKK. Wt. 16-0. 

The obverse type of this coin is copied from the reverse of the 
copper piece of Constantine the Great, representing the wolf and twins 
with the legend VRBS ROMA. The type of the reverse is of native 
design, i.e., Anglo-Saxon. 

4. Obv. Bust to r., holding cross. Eev. Animal (wolf ?) curved round to r., with 

short fore-legs and long hind-legs. M '45. Wt. 16-8. 

The obverse type is Saxon in form, and the reverse is probably a 
degradation of the obverse of the preceding coin. 

5. Obv. VMOONIA+ [LVNDONIA]. Bust to r., head dressed in Saxon form. 

Rev. Figure seated to r. in chair, holding bird and long cross. M '5. 
Wt. 15-3. 

The blundered legend appears to be intended for LVNDONIA ; as on 
some of the coins of this class it is correctly written. The reverse type 
is copied from coins of Gratian, Arc., representing Roma seated. 



6. Obv. Radiate bust to r. ; behind, TTA ; in front, ^3M (=EPA). Eev. Square 
compartment enclosing O ; below, cross ; on either side of compartment, 

TAT. 2R -45. Wt. 17-7. 

This coin is imitated from the small copper coins of Constantine II, 
struck ' in London, with the emperor's bust on the obverse, and a 

standard inscribed xx between two captives on the reverse. 
Epa has been identified with the brother of that name of the Mercian 
king, Peada, who was slain in the battle of Maserfield in 642, or 
with Eba, who is mentioned after the death of Peada as " Dux Mer- 
ciorum " (see No. 7). 

The types of the sceattas are very varied. Besides the above, on 
the dbv. are facing heads, figures of birds, dragons, fantastic animals, 
&c., and on the rev. human figures, animals, crosses, and ornaments of 
varied forms. These are mostly without legends. 



ANGLO-SAXON KINGDOMS.* 
MERCIA. 

The coinage of Mercia consists of two denominations, the Sceat, as 
already described, in gold and silver, and the Penny in silver only. 
The sceat must have extended over a period of about a century, from 
A.D. 665-760; but coins of this class are known only of two kings, 
Peada and possibly of -ZEthelred. The penny was first issued during 
the reign of OfFa, circ. 760, and forms a continuous series in Mercia, 
to about 874, when Ceolwulf II, the then reigning monarch, was 
expelled by the Danes. 

* The coin-striking kingdoms of the so-called Heptarchy were Mercia, Kent, 
East Anglia, Northumbria, and Wessex. 



MEBCIA. 3 

Sceat Series. 

7. PEADA, A.D. 655-657? Obv. OTI OIZNOP Helmeted bust to r. Bee. Plate i. 
Traces of inscription in Roman letters AcoTT around a standard 
inscribed CFMp [ = PA DA]. AI -45. Wt. 20-3. 

Peada, son of Penda of Mercia, governed South Mercia during his 
father's lifetime, and introduced Christianity into Mercia. At his 
father's death in 655 he succeeded to the whole kingdom. 

He also struck sceattas in gold of similar type, but with his . name 
in a circle of dots on the reverse. Others, silver, have a cross on the 
reverse. 



8. ^ETHELRED, A.D. 675-704. Obv. Degraded form of head to r. Bev. 

[>p>ILIR/D] in two lines bomtrophedon ; triple border. JR -5. Wt. 19-2. 
^Ethelred was the brother of Peada and Wulfhere, and succeeded 
the latter in 675. This is the only type known of his coinage. 
Possibly, however, it may be East Saxon. 



Penny Series.* 

9. OFFA, A.D. 757-796. Obv. .-. + OFFA RX + .-. Bust to r., hair 

elaborately arranged. Rev. fiLHTUNO in spaces left by an elaborate 
pattern ; viz., an ornamental and a plain cross formed into a star of eight 
rays. JR '65. Wt. 19-1. 

Offa was the ninth king of Mercia in succession from Wybba, the 
father of Peada (see No. 7). He introduced into England the Penny, 
tiirc. A.D. 760, the form of which, but not the type, was derived from 
the Carlovingiaii denier. Offa's coins are of two series, those with the 
bust and those without. They are remarkable for their artistic- 
excellence both in design and execution, and in this respect far 
surpass succeeding issues. The types are numerous and varied ; the 
following being but a small selection. The bust on the obverse is 
original in character, and shows undoubted attempts at portraiture, 
and the reverse designs are distinctly ornamental, and comprise for 
the most part elaborately formed crosses or floral patterns. Offa is 
said to have employed foreign artists. Though no mint-names occur, it 
is very probable that after the conquest of Kent in 774, the greater 
part, if not all, of Offa's money was struck at Canterbury. 

10. OFFA. Obv. + OFFA REX + Bust to r., draped, hair much curled. 

Bev. + ClOLHRRd. A serpent coiled, dividing legend. jR-7. Wt. 17-7. 

11. OFFA. Obv. + OFFR REX + Bust to r., bare, diademed; in front, branch. 

Bev. + DW.Q in spaces formed by a cruciform pattern, in centre of which 
quatrefoil with trefoils between the leaves. JR '65. Pierced. 



With the exception of the Styca series struck by the Anglian kings of 
Northumbria and the Archbishops of York, that of the penny now extends 
throughout the whole of the Anglo-Saxon period. It is very uniform in weight 
and size, and although of infinite variety the general types are : (1) Obv. A 
profile bust ; rev. some form of cross or ornament ; or obv. and rev. some form of 
ornament or cross or other religious symbol (see Cat. Eng. Coins, Brit. Mus., 
p. xxii.). The exceptions are numerous. The name of the sovereign is on the 
obverse, and on the reverse that of the inoiieyer, accompanied at a later period by 
the place of issue or mint. 

B 2 




4 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate i. 12. OFFA. Obv. + OFFA REX MERCIORUM. Bust to r., draped and 
diademed; in front, cross. Rev. + DUD between leaves of large quatre- 
f oil ; trefoils within and between leaves. Ai'l. Wt. 16-3. 

13. OFFA. Obv. + OFFA REX MERCIOR . Bust to r., draped, hair plaited. 

Rev. + EfiDHVN. Lozenge with incurved sides containing cross sur- 
rounded by dots ; each cusp of lozenge ends in cross and divides legend. 
n -7. Wt. 17-2. 

14. OFFA. Obv. '. OFFA '. Bust to r., draped, hair plaited. Rev. 

+ EAdHVUN. Similar to the preceding, JK -65. Wt. 18'2. 

15. OFFA. Obv. OFFA REX TEREIORU. Bust to r., draped, hair simply 

plaited. Rev. + E/KUTU-NO. Lozenge-shaped compartment dividing 
legend, with floral ornament in centre, JR '7. Wt. 15 -8. 

16. OFFA. Obv. '. GALRAeD. Bust to r., draped, diademed. Rev. -E R T 

( = 0ffa Bex Merciorum) within limbs of cruciform pattern with cross in 
centre and floral ornaments between limbs. JK 65. Wt. 18 0. 
The occurrence of the inoneyer's name on the obverse, and that of 

the king on the reverse, is exceptional (see also next coin and that of 

Cynethryth, No. 28). 

17. OFFA. Obv. I BBS. Bust to r., in armour, diademed; cross behind and 

another above the head. Rev. O JE R T. Lozenge with incurved sides 
containing cross with dot in each angle ; each cusp of lozenge floriated 
and dividing legend. JR -65. Wt. 20-7. 

18. OFFA. Obv. + FFA REX + Bust to r., bare, diademed. Rev. 

+ LULLA divided by four bosses; in centre, quatrefoil with trefoils 
between leaves. j& -65. Wt. 16-5. 

19. OFFA. Obv. OFF/K RX on two bands divided above by a serpent, coiled. 

Bust to r., draped, hair plaited. Rev. + REND RED in two lines, divided 
by oblong compartment, within which two serpents intertwined. At '65. 
Wt. 16-7. 

20. OFFA. Obv. OFFA REX. Bust to r., draped, hair curled. Rev. O _E R T 

within limbs of cruciform pattern with cross in centre and floral ornaments 
between the limbs. JK -65. _Wt. 17 -8. 

21. OFFA. Obv. + OFFA REX T. In centre, circle enclosing rosette of pellets. 

Rev. BABBA between two lines; above, OHTO ; below, scroll and pellet 
ornaments, .at '75. Wt. 19 '5. 

22. OFFA. Obv. + OFFA - REX : T .' in three lines and divided by two 

dotted lines. Rev. + BEAINEARD in two lunettes; traces of a double 
cross between them, zj '75. Wt. 19-7. 

23. OFFA. Obv. / ^^ '.. ." a i . Lozenge-shaped compartment dividing in- 

scription ; in centre, circle enclosing quatrefoil with trefoils between the 
leaves. Rev. EffiD. : BERH T T in three lines and divided by two 
dotted lines. JR -65. Wt. 18-3. 

24. OFFA. Obv. OFFA on standard surmounted by cross between ornaments of 

dots ; below, R T. Rev. g ^ in angles of cross pomm6e voided 

in centre and having cross of dots within ; limbs ending in broken circles. 
JR -7. Wt. 17-8. 

This type of obverse may be compared with the reverse of No. 7 
(Peada). 

25. OFFA. Obv. -f OFFA -.' REX -I T ! in three lines and divided by two 

straight lines. Rev. E[>EL NOJ> in two lines divided by oblong 
compartment with bi-lobed ends. AI -75. Wt. 21-7. 

26. OFFA. Oln\ +:O-F-FAR EX in angles of cross botonnee with quatre- 

foil in centre. Rev. HE ft L R in angles of cruciform ornament with floral 
design on each limb and ornamental cross in centre. AI -7. Wt. 17 -8. 



MERCIA. 

27. OFFA. Obv. + OF FA REX between limbs of cross botonnee, over which is Plate i. 

a small cross of same kind. Rev. SM D between limbs of cross 
botonnee, voided in centre. M '65. Wt. 18 '8. 

28. CYNETHRYTH, widow of Off a, A.D. 796. Obv. '. GOBfi ' Bust to r., draped, 

hair in long curls. Rev. CYNEfcRYfc RE6IN7X. In centre within circle 
of dots, T. js -65. Wt. 15-9. 

The name of Cynethryth, as Queen of Mercia, appears on charters 
with that of her husband from A.D. 780-788. She also signs charters 
with her son Ecgferth in 796. The coins with her name appear to have 
been struck after Offa's death. Not only are the style and work, and 
even the types of her coins similar to those of Offa, but her only 
moneyer " Eoba " also worked for Offa (see No. 24). Of Ecgferth 
no coins are known. He only reigned 141 days ; so it is possible 
that his mother arrogated his sovereign rights. Some of Cynethryth's 
coins have the Mercian T on the obverse instead of her bust. On 
these the queen's name is on the obverse, and that of the moneyer on 
the reverse. 

29. COENWULF, A.D. 796-822. Obv. + COENVVLF REX T. Bust to r. Rev. 

DERLLR MONETfi. Circle from which proceed three crosses dividing 
legend; within circle, cross crosslet, pellet in each angle. & '8. 
Wt. 21-8. 
Coenwulf was of another branch of the descent of Wybba. He 

succeeded Ecgferth. The reverse types of his coins are very varied. 

They are similar to those of Offa's, but much more conventional in 

design, and of much less artistic beauty. Some are without the 

king's bust on the dbv. (see No. 34). 

30. COENWULF. OUtv. + COENVVLF REX T. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

OBR TONETK. Same type as the preceding ; but within circle, eightfoil. 
m -85. Wt. 22-3. 

31. COENWULF. Obv. ^ COENVVLF REX T. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

+ 5VVEFHEPD MOHETA. Cross fourchee with dots in angles. JR -85. 
Wt. 22-3. 

32. COENWULF. Obv. * COENVVLF REX T. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

VERhERRDI TONETR. Cross pomniee over cross pattee. 2R '75. 
Wt. 21-0. 
Werheard was also a moneyer of Cuthred of Kent. 

33. COENWULF. Obv. * COENVVLF REX T. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

>%* f>ERhERRDI TONETR. Cross fleury of peculiar form with dot in 
centre, ja -8. Wt. 21-2. 

34. COENWULF. Obv. * COENVVLF REX. In centre T. Rev. EpELMOD. 

Tribrach moline, voided, dividing legend. M '75. Wt. 21 '0. 

The tribrach is supposed to represent the archiepiscopal pall. This 
strengthens the opinion that not only were the coins of Coenwulf 
struck at Canterbury (see No. 37), but also many of those of Offa. 
The same moneyers' names occur also on the Kentish coins (see 
No. 53). 

35. CEOLWULF I, A.D. 822-824? Obv. * CIOLVVLF REX T. Bust to r., 

diademed. Rev. <fr DVNN TONETfi. In centre v $ -.' 2R '8. 
Wt. 21-5. 

Ceolwulf was the brother of Coenwulf, and appears to have been the 
last of the old royal house of Wybba. His mints were at Canterbury 



() ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate i. (see No. 37), and probably at Rochester, as some bear on the reverse 
SILVEK. the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of the church of that city. 
The above reverse type probably consists of the first and last letters 
of the Greek alphabet. The letter A alone, which also occurs as a 
reverse type, may be the initial of East Anglia, which had been 
conquered by Off a in 793. 

36. CEOLWULF I. Obv. + CEOLVVLF REX T. Bust to r., diademed. Eev. 

HER 
+ 393 divided by two lines, each end of which terminates in a crook. 



JR -8. Wt. 21-0. 

37. CEOLWULF I. Canterbury. Obv. + CIOLVVLF REX MERCI. Long cross, 

at tbe sides CR V (Merciorum). Rev. * $ICE$TEF DOROBERNIfi. 

Cross crosslet. JB, -85. Wt. 21-7. 

This coin was formerly attributed to Ceolwulf II ; it is now however 
given to the earlier king of that name. This attribution has been con- 
firmed by a recent find of coins (see Num. Chron., 1894, p. 29). Sigestef 
was also a moneyer of Coenwulf and Baldred of Kent and struck 
" Sede Vacante " coins as No. 58. The cross-crosslet reverse type does 
not occur on contemporary coins of Ceolwulf II, but is found on coins 
of Coenwulf and the successors of Ceolwulf I. The above is the only 
known type without the king's bust. Others with the bust have on 
the reverse a cross or the moneyer's name divided by cross and 
ornaments. 

38. BEORNWULF, A.D. 824-825. 06?;. + BEORNPVLF RE v Bust to r., 

diademed. Rev. J EADNOf> TO NET. Cross crosslet. JR '85. Wt. 19-2. 

Beornwulf, the successor of Ceolwulf I, was defeated at Ellandune 
by Ecgbeorht, king of Wessex, in 825, and in the same year was 
slain in battle against the East Anglians. This led to the downfall 
of Mercia, which became tributary to "Wessex. His mints were at 
Canterbury and Rochester ? (see No. 35). 

39. BEORNWULF. Obv. * BEORNPVLF REX. Bust to r. Eev. PER BALD 

TONE in three lines. JR -75. Wt. 22-2. 

All Beornwulf's coins have his bust, and except one, with three 
St. Andrew's crosses on the reverse, the above are his only types. 

40. LUDICAN, A.D. 825. Obv. ^ LVDIERR + HE. Bust to r. Eev. 

* EADNOp> TOHET. Cross crosslet. M '8. Wt. 22-7. 
Ludican, the successor of Beornwulf, whose death he sought to 
avenge, was himself slain by the East Anglians after a reign of a few 
months. His coins are of similar types as his predecessor's, and bear 
the same moneyers' names. They are very rare. 

41. WIGLAF, A.D. 825-839. Obv. * VVILLfiF R.E.X : T. Cross with 

. . D 
pellet in each angle. Eev. I REDTA (Redmond). The letters D and 

h . 

h are enclosed in two lunettes of dots, xi -8. Wt. 25- 7. 
Wiglaf was deposed by Ecgbeorht in 829, but was restored the 
next year and held his kingdom as tributary to Wessex. His coins 
belong to the early part of his reign, and he does not appear to have 



MERCIA. 7 

exercised the right of issuilig money after his restoration. His mint Plate i. 
was probably in London as Ecgbeorht had asserted his authority over SH.VKR. 
Kent in 825. Other coins of this reign have the bust of the king on 
the obverse and a cross crosslet on the reverse. 

42. BERHTWULP, A.D. 839-853. Obv. BERfi~VLF REX. Bust to r., diademed. 

Rev. * BRID TOHETA. Cross crosslet. JB, "8. Wt. 17-3. 
Berhtwulf succeeded Wiglaf in 839, and the right of coinage was 
restored to Mercia early in his reign by Aethelwulf of Wessex. His 
coins have for the most part his bust on the obverse and some form of 
cross on the reverse. There are a few exceptions (seeNos. 43 and 44). 
His mint was in London. 

43. BERHTWULF. Obv. BERHTVLF REX. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. Plate ii. 

* BVRHVfiLD. In centre $. M '85. Wt. 19-7. 

This reverse type, like most of -the types of this reign, is of a 
religious character, and is a combination of the Greek letters A and U). 
It also occurs on coins of Ceolwulf I (see No. 35), Ecgbeorht, &c. It 
is in no way connected with his claim to sovereignty over East An.gJia 
as suggested by Hawkins (Silver Coinage, 3rd ed., p. 50). 

44. BERHTWULF. Obv. + BERHTVVLF REX T. Cross potent over plain 

cross. Rev. + TfiTEL MONETA. Cross potent. JR '8. Wt. 22-3. 
A variety without the bust has the Christian monogram on the 
obverse and a Saxon Y on the reverse. 

45. BURGRED, A.D. 853-874. Obv. BVRDRED REX + Bust to r., diademed. 

Rev. BEfiGZTXf '. HMON v ETA . in three lines, the upper and lower 
ones enclosed in lunettes, & -75. Wt. 20*8. 

With the defeat and deposition of Burgred by the Danes in 874, 
the independent kingdom of Mercia came to an end. It was held by 
the Danes for a few years, and at the peace of Wedmore in 878 it was 
divided between Aelfred and Guthorm (^Ethelstan II). 

Burgred's coins are all of the above type but slightly varied. 
They are very numerous and his moneyers' names supply a long list. 
He is generally styled REX M (Merciorum) ; but one specimen reads 
REX A (Angliae?), which may refer to some authority in East 
Anglia. 

46. CEOLWULF II, A.D. 874. Obv. CIOLVVLF REX. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

LIOFVALD MO. Lozenge with cross at each angle, one limh extending 
to edge of coin and dividing legend ; small cross in centre of lozenge. 
M "8. Wt. 21-2. 

On the defeat of Burgred the Danes set up Ceolwulf II on the 
throne of Mercia, but deposed him either in the same year, 874, or 
shortly afterwards. He was the last king of Mercia. 

The above coin is unique. The type is also found on coins of Aelfred 
(see No. 145). Another unique coin of this reign has on the reverse 
two figures seated with a Victory between them : similar to pieces of 
Halfdan (No. 94 olv.) and Aelfred (No. 146, note). These are the 
only known types of this reign. 



8 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

KENT. 

riatc ii. The coinage of Kent consists of silver pennies only and is of two 
SILVEE. classes, regal and ecclesiastical. The regal series extends from about 
A.D. 765 to A.D. 825 (Ecgberht to Baldred), in which last year Kent 
became an appanage of Wessex. The ecclesiastical series, struck by the 
Archbishops of Canterbury, commences about the same date as the 
regal series ; but continues down to the beginning of the 10th cent. 
The coinage of the archbishops appears to have come to an end shortly 
after Aelf red's death in 901. All the Kentish coins were struck at 
Canterbury. 

47. ECGBERHT, A.D. 765-791. Obv. + E6CBERHT. In centre, R. Rev. 

V D D : between two dotted lines ; above and below, cross within floral 
ornament, a -65. Wt. 17-3. 

Ecgberht, king of Kent, is mentioned in charters only. His reign 
appears to have lasted about twenty-six years. He was formerly 
supposed to be the son of Offa, and this idea was strengthened by the 
fact that his only two moneyers' names, Udd (Dud) and JBabba, are 
found on Ofia's coins. The only other type of this reign has the same 
obverse as the above : but on the reverse a lozenge from three angles 
of which issues a plain cross dividing legend. Both are similar to 
Offa's types. 

EflD 

48. EADBERHT II, PRJEN, A.D. 796-798. Obv. BEKRHT divided by two plain 

REX 

lines. Rev, B ER HT ^^ v ^ e ^ by two plain lines ; below, ornaments [+] 

M'75. Wt. 22-3. 

Eadberht was taken prisoner by Coenwulf, king of Mercia, in 798, 
and carried into Mercia. He struck coins of the above type only. 
Jaenberht is the name of the moneyer and not of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury of the same name, who died in 790 (see No. 55). 

49. CUTHRED, A.D. 798-807. Obv. + CV-DRED REX CANT. Bust to r., dia- 

demed. Rev. * SIGEBERH"! MONETA. Cross pommee over cross 

pattee. st. -75. Wt. 18-1. 

On the deposition of Eadberht Cuthred was made king by Coenwulf ; 
but Kent remained under the supremacy of Mercia, and contemporary 
coins of the Archbishops of Canterbury bear the name of the Mercian 
king as overlord (see No. 56). The coins of Cuthred are of two series, 
with and without the bust ; the former are of remarkably good work. 
The reverse types are some form of cross or a tribrach. These are also 
the types of the obverse without a bust. Cuthred styles himself 
" King of Kent." 

50. CUTHRED. Obv. CV-DRED REX. Tribrach voided in centre and dividing 

legend ; in centre, smaller tribrach with wedges in angles. Rev. D V D A 
divided by cross moline with circle in centre containing pellet. M '75. 
Wt. 21-1. 

51. CUTHRED. Obv. CV-DRED REX. Tribrach voided in centre and dividing 

legend, annulet at end of each limb ; in centre, small tribrach with dots 
in angles. Rev. SIGEBERFT. Tribrach moline with wedges in angles, 
.ai -8. Wt. 21-5. 
Sigeberht and Duda also struck coins for the overlord Coenwulf. 






KENT. 9 

52. BALDRED, A.D. 807-825. Canterbury. Obv. * BflLDRED REX CfiNT. Plate iu 

Head _to r., diademed. Rev. ^ DIORTOD TONETfi. In centre, SILVER. 
DR VR 

>7_e (Dorovernia Civitas). 2R '85. Wt. 20 '7. 
i_ITo 

After a reign of nearly twenty years Baldred, who had succeeded 
Cuthred under the supremacy of Mercia, was expelled by Ecgbeorht of 
Wessex in 825. Kent then became an appanage of Wessex and was 
generally ruled by the heir to that throne. Like Cuthred Baldred 
styles himself " King of Kent." 

The above is probably the earliest known coin bearing the name of 
the Canterbury mint, and is also the first occurrence of a mint-name 
on Anglo-Saxon pennies. 

53. BALDRED. Obv. BALDRED REX II v Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

b EDELTOD TOI/ETfi. Star of six rays pattes, issuing from a circle. 
x, '&. Wt. 20-7. 

The coins of Baldred are of three varieties (1) those with the bust 
and mint-name ; (2) those with the bust and no mint-name ; and (3) 
those without the bust or mint-name. The usual type of the reverse 
and of the obverse without a bust is some form of cross. The above is 
the only exception known. 

54. BALDRED. Obv. <%> BELDRED RX CfiKT. Cross patte~e with pellet in each 

angle. Rev. >J O B K divided by four limbs of cross moline with 
voided centre, within which cross pattee with pellet in each angle. JR -8. 
Wt. 22-0. 



Archbishops of Canterbury. 

55. JAENBERHT, A.D. 766-790. Obv. * IffENBERHT fiREP. Star of eight 

points. Rev. FFft within ornamental compartment ; inscription divided 
REX 

by dotted line. M -65. Wt. 18-2. 

Jaenberht is the first Archbishop of Canterbury of whom coins are 
known. During his episcopate Offa, King of Mercia, conquered Kent, 
and as Jaenberht's coins were struck under his supremacy, they always 
bear that ruler's name on the reverse. The obverse types are a star, a 
cross potent or pomrnee, or the name of the archbishop in three lines 
only. The reverse is always the same with one exception, viz., with 
OfFa's name at the end of a cruciform object. 

56. AETHELHEARD, A.D. 793-805. Obv. fiEDILHEARD fi-R. In centre 

EP (Archiepiscopus). Rev. COENVLF REX-!- divided by a tribrach 

V rp 

voided. JR -75. Wt. 21-9. 

Aethelheard was elected archbishop in 791, but did not receive the 
pallium till 793. During this interval he appears to have struck coins 
with the title of Pontifex instead of Archiepiscopus. His early coins 
bear the name of Offa ; but those struck after 796 that of Coenwulf. 
Those with the name of Offa have for obv. and rev. types a star, a cross, 
the Christian monogram, &c. There is only one other variety with 



10 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate ii. Coenwulf's name. It has the Mercian T instead of a tribrach on the 
SILVER, reverse. 

57. WULFRED, A.D. 805-832. Canterbury. Obv. <%* VVLFRED : ARCHIE PL 

Bust facing, head tonsured. Rev. ^ $AEBERHT MONETfi. In centre, 

monogram <^X^? ( = Dorobernia Civi.). & -Q. \Vt. 20-9. 

Wulfred, who was engaged in disputes with Mercia, first espoused 
the cause of Baldred of Kent and then allied himself to Ecgbeorht of 
Wessex. This may account for the omission of the king's name on the 
reverse. On some of the coins his bust is in profile and the reverse 
types consist of the mint-name in letters or in monogram of a more or 
less abbreviated form. 

58. "SEDE VACANTE" COINS, Canterbury, A.D. 832-833? Obv. ^ LVNING 

MONETA. Bust facing, head tonsured. Eev. * DOROBERNIA 
C I VITA 5 in four lines across the field, si '8. Chipped. 
The coins of this type, which do not bear an archbishop's name, 
were probably struck in the interval between the death of Wulfred 
and the consecration of Ceolnoth, his successor. They are of the same 
type as coins of Wulfred (Cat. Eng. Coins, B.M., vol. i., pi. xii. 6) and 
were struck by his moneyers. Similar pieces, but with a bust in profile, 
were coined at the same time by the late king Baldred's moneyers. 

59. CEOLNOTH, A.D. 833-870. Canterbury. Obv. * CEOLNOO ARCHIEPI. 

Bust facing, head tonsured. Rev. + DOROVERNIA-:- In centre, 
C I VITAS arranged in angles of plain cross. M P 8. Wt. 17"'2. 
With one exception, when it is in profile, the bust of this archbishop 
is always facing. The reverse types are varied and are similar to 
those of contemporary kings of Wessex and Mercia (1) mint-name 
in monogram (Ecgbeorht) ; (2) money er's name on limbs and in angles 
of cross (Aethelwulf and Aethelbearht) ; (3) Christian monogram 
(Aethelwulf) ; (4) moneyer's name in three lines (Burgred). 

CO. CEOLNOTH. Obv. ^ EEOLNOO ARCHIEP". Bust facing, head tonsured. 
Rev. >%* HEBE ! CZf MONETZf upon limbs and between angles of outlined 
cross. JR -8. Wt. 19-5. 

61. ^THEKED, A.D. 870-889. Obv. & E>ERED ARCHIEPT. Bust to r., 

diademed. Rev. EOERED MONETfi witbin and without leaves of quatre- 
foil, over which cross patte'e with circle in centre and wedges in angles. 
21 -8. Wt. 31-1. 

Of this archbishop only two coins are known although he occupied 
the see for nearly twenty years. The above type is similar to a coin 
of Aelfred (Cat. Eng. Coins, B.M., vol. ii., pi. vi. 6). The other piece 
is like the ordinary type of Plegmund's coins, and has on the obverse 
a small cross and on the reverse the moneyer's name in two lines (see 
next coin). 

62. PLEGMUND, A.D. 890-914. Canterbury. Obv. * PLEEMVND 7XRCHIEP. 

In centre, ^"^ (Dorobernia). Rev. ^jj^ divided by three crosses 
pattees and two dots, arranged crosswise, m '8. Wt. 27'1. 
Plegmund was the last Archbishop of Canterbury during the Anglo- 
Saxon period to strike coins. The series appears to have come to an 



EAST ANGLTA. 11 

end soon after the death of Aelfrecl, from which time the coins of Plate ii. 
Canterbury are all of the regal class. The above is the usual type SH.VEK. 
of Plegmund's coins. The reverse is only varied in the position of the 
crosses ; but on the obverse instead of the mint-name is a cross, a 
pastoral staff, or x. D. F. (Christus Defensor ?). On some the name of 
Aelfred precedes that of the archbishop. Many of the coins are of 
barbarous work. These are probably Danish imitations. 

EAST ANGLIA. 

Of East Anglia there are also two series of coins, regal and quasi- 
ecclesiastical, similar in character to those of Kent. The regal series, 
which consists of sceattas and pennies and halfpennies in silver, extends 
from the reign of Beonna (circ. 760) to that of the Danish king, 
^Ethelstan II (Guthorm), who by the treaty of Wedmore in 878 
received East Anglia as part of his dominions. ^Ethelstan II dying 
in 890 East Anglia merged into Wessex. So few are the records of 
East Anglia, that of eight kings, of which we have coins, only three 
are known to history. The quasi-ecclesiastical series, pennies and 
halfpennies, is that which bears the name of the martyred " St. 
Eadmund." These belong to the end of the 9th cent., and though 
some appear to have been minted at York, their chief circulation 
was in East Anglia. The types of the coins are not very varied. 
A few only have the bust of the king. The letter A for " Anglia " 
and a cross on the reverse is the most general one. 

Sceat Series. 

63. BEONNA (BEOBN?), circ. A.D. 760. Obv. + EOHF REX [BEONNA 

REX]. Cross in centre. Rev. -f- EFE in angles formed by cross with 
open lozenge in centre, enclosing X ; before and after each letter . JK '6. 
Wt. 16-3. 

Probably the same as Beorna, who is mentioned by Florence of 
Worcester and Alured of Beverley. His date, circ. 760, would suit that 
of the coin. 

The above is the only type of Beonna's coins. His name also occurs 
in Roman characters only. The use of Runic letters on the East 
Anglian coinage survived to a somewhat late date. 

64. JETHELBERHT, d. A.D. 794. Obv. + EfclhBERKT mt> [=LVL]. Bustto 

r., diademed. Rev. REX above dotted compartment within which are the 

wolf and twins; below, cross and pellets, at '65. Wt. 16*8. 
JEthelberht was the son of JEthelred, the successor of Beonna. He 
was murdered by Offa. This is the only known coin of this king. 
The type of the reverse is derived from copper coins of Constantine 
the Great. " Lul " on the obverse is probably the money er. 

Penny Series. 

65. EADWALD, circ. A.D. 819-825. Obv. EADVZfTD REX in three lines divided 

by two dotted lines. Rev. EfiD MOO within compartments of quatrefoil. 
. -7. Wt. 21-0. 

Eadwald and the following kings, ^Ethelstan I and JEthelweard, are 
unknown to history and their dates therefore are only conjectural. 



12 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate ii. Only one other type of Eadwald's coins is known. It has on the 
SILVER, reverse the moneyer's name arranged between the limbs of an ornamental 
cross. The obverse is the same as the above coin. 

66. ^ETHELSTAN I, circ. A.D. 825-837. Obv. <% E>ELZAH REX. Bust to r. 

Eev. *fr COOH OOOHETA in three lines. M -75. Wt. 18-8. 
From the evidence of a recent find ^Ethelstan was probably a 
contemporary of Ecgbeorht of Wessex, and he may be the East Anglian 
king who sought the protection of Wessex against the Mercians. The 
coinage of ^Ethelstan I is the most extensive of any East Anglian ruler. 
The types, however, are few and are almost limited to those here 
described. They occur with and without the bust. On the earlier 
pieces traces of Runic letters are found. 

67. JETHELSTAN I. Obv. ^ Ef>ELc0TANI. Cross pattee. Rev. * EKDHOp 

NNOH. Cross pattee. AI -8. Wt. 21-5. 

68. ^ETHELSTAN I. Obv. * EpELcoTAN. In centre, ft. Eev. & REX 

A A I C (Rex Anglise). In centre, X- & '8. Wt. 21-0. 
"the reverse type is the Greek CO, making a sacred symbol in con- 
nection with the s (for Anglia) on the obverse. It is not the letter 
HP, the symbol of Mercia, as has been conjectured. 

Plate iii. 69. ^THELWEARD, circ. A.D. 837-850. Obv. >%* ED-EL f> . RRD REX. In 
centre, ZK. Eev. 4* DVDDR OOOflE. In centre, cross pattee with pellet in 
each angle. at -8. Wt. 20-3. 

Varieties of JEthelweard's coins have on the obverse (1) a cross 
with a crescent in each angle ; (2) a cross springing from CO ; and 
(3) a cross crosslet. None have the bust. The reverses only vary in 
having wedges or pellets in the angles of the cross. 

70. BEOBHTBIC, circ. A.D. 852. Obv. + BEORHTRIC REX. In centre, Zf. 

Eev. ! . ErCHRRD. In centre, cross pattee, with pellet in each angle. 

JR -75. Wt. 18-1. 

The name of Beorhtric as filius regis occurs as a witness on charters 
from 840 to 845 of Berhtwulf , king of Mercia. A variety of the above 
coin has three pellets in each angle of the cross on the reverse : and 
another has the Greek CO on the reverse. These are the only known 
types of Beorhtric's coins. 

71. EADMUND (ST. EADMUND), A.D. 857?-870. Obv. * EfiDMVN D REX 

fiN. In centre, ^ (A transformed). Eev. B6ORNFE v R> - WO. 

Cross pattee with pellet in each angle. JR -8. Wt. 21-0. 
Eadmund succeeded about 857, and was slain by the Danes 
when in East Anglia in 870. His martyrdom is commemorated by 
the St. Eadmund coinage (see Nos. 73-74). His coins show very 
little variety of type. They all have on the reverse the cross with 
pellets or wedges in the angles, and on the obverse the letter A 
variously formed, a cross with crescents in angles, or a cross issuing 
from two united annulets. 

72. JETHELSTAN II (GuTHORM), A.D. 878-890. Obv. ^ ED EL I7X RE. Small 

cross pattee. Eev. ^p^ (me fecit) across the field; in centre, pellet. 
jR-8. Wt.21-0. 
Guthorm, the Danish leader, having been defeated by Aelfred at 



EAST ANGLIA. 



13 



Ethandune, made peace in 878 and received East Anglia and a part of 
Mercia for his dominions. He was at the same time baptised under 
the name of JEthelstan. His coins are therefore subsequent to this 
event. They are of the above type only, which is copied from coins of 
Aelfred (see No. 146) ; and of his eleven known moneyers, seven 
worked also for Aelfred. The coins of Guthorm, twenty-four in 
number, were all found at Cuerdale. 

73. ST. EADMUND. Memorial Coinage. Obv. %* SC EfiDMVND R. In centre, 

IK. Rev. SC E7XDMVND RE. Cross pattee. zt -75. Wt. 23-6. 
These coins were issued as a memorial of Eadmund, king of East 
Anglia, who was murdered by the Danes in 870 (see No. 71). 
Though some bear the name of York (Ebriace Civ.) it is probable that 
they were mostly struck in East Anglia. Their issue appears to have 
begun before the death of Guthorm and to have ceased before 905, the 
probable date of the burial of the Cuerdale hoard, in which such a large 
number of specimens occurred. Varieties have the name of the 
money er on the reverse (see No. 74), and, as stated above, the name of 
York ; but the types on all are the same. 



74. ST. EADMUND. Memorial Coinage. 
Zf. Eev. & GILENART MONE. 
Halfpenny. 



Obv. * SC. EADMVNDE. In centre, 
Small cross pattee. 211 -55. Wt. 9-0. 



75. ST. MARTIN OF LINCOLN, circ. A.D. 925-940. 



SCIM 
Obo. ART I divided by sword to c, 



Rev. + LIUCOIA CIVIT. Small cross within limbs of large cross voided. 

M -75. Wt. 17-5. 

This coin is of Danish origin, and from its type is closely connected 
with those pieces which bear the name of St. Peter (see Nos. 120122). 
As Lincoln was taken from the Danes by Eadmund, king of Wessex, 
in 943, it must have been struck before that date, but probably 
subsequent to the burial of the Cuerdale hoard in which no specimen 
occurred. The name of St. Martin also occurs on the reverse of the 
St. Eadmund coins. 



Plate in. 
SILVER. 



NORTHUMBRIA. 

The coinage of Northumbria may be divided into two classes, that 
struck by the Anglian kings and archbishops of York (A.D. 670-867), 
and that issued during the Danish occupation (A.D. 875-954). The 
coins of the first class are of base silver or copper, and are known as 
stycas (i.e. piece, Germ, stiick.) Those of the second class are of silver, 
pennies and halfpennies. The Danish coins, like the Anglian, are of 
two series, regal and ecclesiastical or quasi-ecclesiastical. The latter, 
struck at York, bear the name of St. Peter, and are analogous to 
the archiepiscopal coinage of the styca series. They are similar in 
character to the East Anglian coins of St. Eadmund. 

The types of the early coins of the Anglian series are at first some- 
what of the character of the early sceattas ; but those of the later pieces 



14 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

are very conventional, being simply a cross, an annulet, fcc. The 
types of the Dano-Norse coins are varied, and many are of considerable 
interest. Besides the Carlovingian monogram we meet with repre- 
sentations of the raven, the Danish flag, the Divine Hand, the bow and 
arrow, the hammer of Thor, and the sword. (See Cat. Eng. Coins, 
vol. i., p. Ixxx.) 



Anglian Kings. 

Styca Series. 

LV 
COPPBK. 76. ECGFRITH, A.D. G70-685. Obv. + ECGFRID REX. Cross. Rev. ^^. Cross 

with rays. JE '5. Wt. 19-0. 

Ecgfrith is the first Anglian king of Northumbria of whom coins are 
known. He was sixth in succession to Ida, the founder of the Bernician 
House. He is styled by Symeon of Durham " rex piissimus et Deo 
dilectissimus," which may in some way account for the reverse legend 
of the above coin. This is the only type known. 

SIMM 77. ALDFRITH, A.D. 685-705. Obv. + MLOERIdU.3 (Aldefridus). Circle of dots 

enclosing pellet. Rev. Fantastic animal walking to 1. & ' 45. Wt. 19 3. 

Aldfrith was the elder, but illegitimate brother of Ecgfrith. He 

married Cyneburg, dau. of Penda, king of Mercia. This is the 

only known type of his coins. Of his successors, Eadwulf, Osred I, 

Coenred, Osric and Coelwulf, no coins up to the present have been 

identified. 

78. EADBERHT, A.D. 737-758. Obv. EDTBEREhTVr. Cross within circle of 

dots. Rev. ECGBERhT A. Mitred figure to r., holding two long crosses. 

* -5. Wt. 17-7. 

Eadberht succeeded his cousin Coelwulf. He took the tonsure in 
758 and died two years later. His brother, Ecgberht, who strikes 
coins with him, was Archbishop of York, 734-766 (see No. 89). 

79. EADBERHT. Obv. EdTBEREhTVr. Cross pattee. Rev. Animal to r., 

horned and with barbed tail ; in field, four circles, each enclosing a pellet. 
20. '5. Wt. 19-2. 

These are the only known types of Eadberht's coins. The animal on 
the reverse shows some variety of form. 

Of Eadberht's successor Oswulf (758-760) no coins are known ; but 
of JEthelwald (called Moll) who reigned from 760-766 two pieces 
ln-ar his name, but struck by Ecgberht, Abp. of York. They have on 
both sides a small cross and read ATHBALDIV, &c.,on the obverse and 
EGBERhT AR on the reverse. 

80. ALCHRED, A.D. 76G-774. Obv. + ALCHRED. Cross. Rev. Animal walking 

to r., horned and with barbed tail; below, cross. M '5. Wt. 17 '0. 
Alchred, who succeeded Moll JEthelwald, was of direct descent from 
Ida. No other type of Alchred's coins has been met with ; nor are 
there any which can !>< attributed with certainty to his successor 
^Ethelred I (774-778 and 790-796). 



NORTHUMBBIA. 15 

81. ^ELFWALD I, circ. A.D. 778-788 ? Obv. EbVAhQVS. Cross. Eev. Fantastic Plate Hi. 

animal as on the previous coin ; above, circle enclosing pellet ; below, SILVER 

cross, zi -5. Wt. 15-0. 

JElfwald succeeded on the expulsion of ^Ethelred I in 778 and was 
slain by one Sicga or Sicgan (a quodam viro Sigan) in 788 or 789. 
On the few coins which are attributed to JElfwald, all of the above 
type, his name is misspelt. Of Osred II, son of Alchred (789-790), and 
Oswald (796), who succeeded ^Ethelred I, no coins are known. 

82. EARDWULF, A.D. 796-808? Obv. HEARDALF. Cross pattee. Eev. COPPER. 

XHERRE-D. Cross pattee. ^-5. Wt. 16-0. 

Eardwulf was expelled in 806, but was restored two years later 
through the intervention of Charlemagne and Pope Leo III. He died 
in 808 or 810. Other specimens of his coins have for obverse type a 
circle of pellets, and for reverse a cross pommee, a single pellet, &c. 
His name is frequently written retrograde. Coins are known of 
^Ifwald II, who reigned during Eardwulf's expulsion. They are 
similar to Eardwulf's. 

83. EANRED, A.D. 808?-841. Obv. + ESN RED REX. Circle enclosing pellet, 

Eev. CYI/IVVLF. Pellet in centre. *: -5. Wt. 19'0. 
Of Eanred's reign of over thirty years there is a large series of 
stycas, some of which are of base silver. Varieties have a cross, a 
cross of pellets, an annulet or a circle of pellets on the obv. and rev. 
Some of the earlier pieces have Runic letters in the legends. In the 
hoard of stycas found at Hexham in 1833 over 2000 coins of Eanred 
were present. His money ers are numerous. 



II, A.D. 841-849? Obv. REDILRED R. Cross in centre. Eev. 
ALSHERE. Cross as on obverse. M -5. Wt. 18' 7. 



II, son of Eanred, was expelled in 844 ; but restored the 
le year after the death of Redwulf (see No. 87). Ordinary varieties. 
of his stycas have a cross of pellets, or a circle sometimes of dots enclosing 
pellet on obv. or rev. Like Eanred's his moneyers are numerous. 

JETHELRED II. Obv. + EDILRED REX. Cross pattee within circle of 
pellets. Eev. LEOFDESN in three lines divided by an animal prancing 
to r., head turned to 1. ^E -5. Wt. 18-7. 

This money er struck a large series of coins, and, unlike other 
meyers, introduced a variety of designs for his types. These 

consisted mainly of various forms of ornamental crosses (see also next 

coin). 

86. ^ETHELRED II. Obv. + EDELRED REX. Within circle, four annulets 

arranged in form of cross. Eev. LEOFDESh TO MET. Cross voided,. 
pellet in centre and on each limb. M '5. Wt. 18 '7. 

87. REDWULF, A.D. 844. Obv. + REDVVLF REX. Cross in centre. Eev. 

+ HVAETNOD (retrograde). Cross in centre, m -5. Wt. 18-5. 

Redwulf succeeded on the expulsion of ^Ethelred II in 844, but was 
slain in the same year by the Danes. There are numerous small 
varieties of types 011 his coins, consisting of crosses with one or more 



1(3 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate Hi. pellets in the angles, pellet within circle of dots on obv. and rev., and 
0'iTKK. sometimes on the rev. one to five pellets only. 

88. OSBERHT, A.D. 849 ?-867. Obv. * OcoBERII . . (retrograde). Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. Rev. ^ EAAVVLF. Cross in centre. ^-5. Wt. 14-7. 

This is the general design of Osberht's coins. Sometimes the obv. 
and rev. types are interchanged, whilst others have an annulet 
enclosing a cross, a cross with pellets in angles, a cross of five 
pellets, &c. 

With the death of Osberht, who was slain by the Danes, the 
Anglian dynasty of Northumbria virtually ended. Of his successors, 
Ecgberht I (867-872), Ricsig (872-875), and Ecgberht II (875-876), 
who were set up by the Danes and who were only kings in name, no 
coins are known. 

Archbishops of York. 

SILVEF. 89. ECGBERHT, A.D. 734-766. Obv. ECGBERhT3. Mitred figure to r., holding 
two crosses. Rev. DTBEREVhTEf (Eadberhtus Rex). Cross within 
circle of dots, ja '5. Wt. 16-8. 

Ecgberht was the brother of Eadberht (see No. 78), in conjunction 
with whom, as already noticed, he struck coins. He also issued coins 
with the name of ^Ethelwald (see No. 79). These are the only types 
known. Of his successors Ethelbert (766-780) and Eanbald I (780- 
796) no coins have been discovered. 

COIM-KR. 90. EANBALD II, A.D. 796-808. Obv. + EANBALD AREP. Circle of dots 
enclosing pellet. Rev. + EADVVLF. Same type as obverse. M -5. 
Wt. 16-3. 

On account of their similarity of fabric all the coins bearing the 
name of Eanbald are attributed to this archbishop. The types 
and moneyers are the same as on Eanred's coins. Varieties have a 
cross sometimes in a circle on obv. and rev. Some sixty specimens 
were found at Hexham (see No. 83). Of Wulfsig, who succeeded 
Eanbald II, no coins have been met with. 

GOLD. 91. WIGMUND, A.D. 837-854. Gold Solidus. Obv. VISMVND AREP. Tonsured 
bust facing. Rec. MVNVS DIVINVM. Cross pattee within wreath. 
AT -8. Wt. 68-2. 

This remarkable coin has the same reverse type as the solidus of 
Louis le Debonnaire, Emperor (A.D. 814-840), on which, however, the 
bust on the obverse is in profile. The facing bust is only found at 
this period on a few Prankish coins struck in Italy. It may however 
have been suggested by the Byzantine solidus. The issue of this piece 
is difficult to account for as it could scarcely have been intended for 
circulation. 

COPPER. 92. WIGMUND. Obv. + VISMVND IRE P. Cross in centre. Rev. + EDIL- 

VEARD. Same type as obverse, xz -45. Wt. 16-6. 

Others have crosses of pellets, crosses with pellets in angles, and 
pellet in circle on obv. and rev. About 800 specimens were in the 
Hexham hoard. 



NORTHUMBBIA. 17 

93. WULFHEEE, A.D. 854-900. Obv. VVLFHERE-PEP (retrograde). Circle Plate iii. 

enclosing cross. Rev. VVLFR + ED (retrograde). Four crescents outwards, COPPFR 
pellet in centre. JB -5. Wt. 14-6. 

Wu If here abandoned his see on the invasion of Nor thumb ria by the 
Danes in 867, was expelled with king Ecgberht I in 872, but returned 
in 873. His coins were struck before 867. Varieties have a cross on 
both sides. 

With this archbishop the Styca series of York ceases, Northumbria 
being now under the rule of the Danes, by whom the'following coins 
(pennies and halfpennies) were issued. 

Danish or Norse Kings. 
Penny Series.* 

94. HALFDAN, A.D. 875 ?-877. London. Obv. VLF DEN xRx+ (transposed and SILVER, 

in part retrograde). Within a compartment of three sides, two seated figures 

holding a globe ; above, Victory. Rev. Monogram of London 
(LONDONI); above, cross; below and on 1., pellets, zi -8. Wt. 21-4. 
Halfdan, the Viking leader and first Danish king of Northumbria, 
attacked Mercia about 874, deposed Burgred and took possession of 
London. The following year he settled with his army in Northumbria, 
but was expelled in 877 and went to Ireland. The above coin, which 
is unique, was probably struck by Halfdan during his occupation of 
London. The obverse type is similar to the reverses of two coins (also 
unique) of Coenwulf II of Mercia and Aelfred, struck about the same 
time. It is copied from the Roman solidus (see No. 1). The reverse 
rpe is similar to that of the London coins of Aelfred, of which it 
have been a copy (see No. 140). 

HALFDAN. Obv. + ALFDEUE RX. Cross in centre. Rev. RAINOAfD 
HPO in two lines, divided by pellets. AI '6. Wt. 9*1. Halfpenny. 

This coin is copied from coins of Aelfred, and was probably issued 
)ut the same time as the preceding piece. Like the penny it is 
unique. Both coins came from the Cuerdale hoard. 

90. CNUT (GUTHBED), circ. A.D. 877-894. York. Obv. C N V T arranged at 
extremities of limbs of cross pattee; between limbs, REX (dots). Rev. 
* EB\- lAK-CECv IVIv (Ebraice Civitas). Cross pattee, pellet in 
two angles. 21 -75. Wt. 21'2. 

Guthred, who succeeded Halfdan, is said to have been rescued from 
slavery by Abbot Eadred, and at his baptism to have taken the name 
of Cnut, in which name all his coins were struck. A similar instance 
occurred in the case of Guthorm (see JEthelstan II, No. 72). Being 
brought by Eadred to the Danish army, he was acknowledged as their 
king. The types of this and the next coin are of Carlovingian origin. 
They were minted at York, at which place most of the Northumbrian 
coins were struck (see Nos. 102, 104 and 120-122). This and the 
following are the chief types of Cnut's coins, but of each one there 
are slight varieties. 

* All the coins of this series are pennies unless otherwise stated. 

C 



18 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

puteiii 97 CNUT (GUTHRED). York. Obv. Similar to the preceding, but cross patriarchal, 
SIIVKR ' inverted, with pellet in each angle. Eev. * EBRAICE C I VITA. In 

D 

centre, monogram of KO-S. 2R -75. Wt. 22-5. 

98. CNUT (GUTHRED). Obv. Similar to No. 96. Eev. % : CVN '. NET v Tl : 

Cross pattee, pellet in two angles. JR -8. Wt. 21-1. 

One of Cnut's principal acts was the restoration at Cuncacaestra or 
Cuneta-ceastre {Chester le Street) of the Order founded by St. Cuthbert. 
Mr. Rashleigh (Num. Chron., N.S., vol. ix. p. 71) connects these coins 
with that place. Others have suggested Cuneet (Salop), Cunetio 
(Marlborough) and Condseum (Conde), or that it may be another form 
for the town of Quentovic (see No. 100). This last suggestion seems 
highly improbable. 

99. CNUT (GUTHRED). Obv. Similar to No. 97. Eev. & CVN -.' NET : Tl '. 

Cross pattee surrounded by dots. JR -6. Wt. 8 - 9. Halfpenny. 

100. CNUT (GUTHRED). Quentovic. Obv. C^IR-LENA (CNVT REX?). Cross 

pattee, pellet in each angle. Eev. ^ QVENTOVICI. Cross pattee. JR -8. 

Wt. 21-5. 

On account of similarity of type these coins have also been attributed 
to Cnut (Guthred). The legend on the obverse is always blundered. 
Quentovic was the well-known sea-port at the mouth of the Canche, 
where these coins may have been struck ; perhaps when Cnut was on 
some marauding expedition. 

101. CNUT AND SIEFRED, circ. A.D. 894. Obv. C N V T at extremities of limbs of 

patriarchal) cross, inverted, with pellet in each angle ; between limbs, 
REX (dots). Eev. ^ SIEFRED VS. Cross pattee, pellet in two angles. 
& -75. Wt. 20-8. 

Siefred (Siegfred, SiegferS, or Sievert) was the Viking leader, who 
assisted Hasting at Exeter in 892. Compelled by Aelfred to retreat 
he went to Northumbria and succeeded Cnut. As Siefred does not 
add the title of king to his name, it may be that this coin was struck 
before the death of Cnut. 

102. SIEFRED, A.D. 894-898? York. Obv. * SIEFREDVS REX. Cross crosslet. 

Eev. >% EBIAICE CM. Small cross pattee, triangle of dots at each angle. 

The letter C, which sometimes precedes Sief red's name on coins 
of this class, may stand for " Comes," i.e. Earl Siefred, king. This 
and the following pieces to No. 106 give all the types of Sief red's 
coins. Of each type there are also halfpennies. 

103. SIEFRED. Obv. %* SIEFREDVS. Cross pattee, pellet in two angles. Eev. 

k REX at ends of large cross pattee. JR -8. Wt. 20-3. 

104. SIEFRED. York. Obv. RSI EVERT between limbs of cross crosslet, dots ( ) 

in each angle. Eev. * EB->IAI ; CEC v IVI v Small cross patt6e 

in centre. x, -7. Wt. 19-8. 

The form Sievert for Siefredus does not occur in any of the 
Chronicles. There can however be no doubt that Sievert and Siefredus 
are one person. 



NOETHUMBBIA. 



19 



105. SIEFRED. Obv. ^ SIEUERT REX. Patriarchal cross, dots in angles and 

at ends. Eev. *%* MIRABILA FECIT. Cross pattee, pellet in two angles. 
* -7. Wt. 21-6. 

Struck at York (see No. 107). The inscription on the reverse is 
from the Cantate, " Cantate Domino canticum novum, quia mirabilia 
fecit." It is also found on coins of Cnut (Guthred). 

106. SIEFRED. Obv. %* SIEUERT REX. Patriarchal cross, dot in each angle. 

Rev. ^D-NS-DS-REX. (Dominus Deus Bex). Cross pattee, pellet 
in two angles, si -75. Wt. 22-3. 

Also struck at York. The inscription on the reverse may be com- 
pared with the passage in the Gloria in excelsis, " Domine Deus, rex 
coelestis." It is also found on coins of Cnut (Guthred). 

107-108. CNUT OR SIEFRED. York. Obv. p EBRA 1C EC. Patriarchal 
cross as on No. 106, but sideways to 1. Eev. J< MIRABILIA FE : Cross 
pattee as on No. 106. m '8. Wt. 21-2. 108. Same type but legend on 
reverse * D NS DS REX. JR -75. Wt. 21-2. 

The issue of these coins from the York mint may have extended 
over both reigns, viz. of Cnut and Siefred. 

109. CNUT OR SIEFRED. Obv. *k MIRABILA FECIT. Cross pattee, pellet in two 
angles. Eev. DNS DS *t* R E X in two lines divided by a cross between 
two dots. M -7. Wt. 20-5. 

This coin may also be attributed to York. The type is copied from 
coins of Aelfred. 



Plate iii. 
SILVKI;. 



110. EARL SIHTRIC, circ. A.D. 895. Shelford ? Obv. 



GOMEZ' In field *** Plate iv. 



Rev. 
below 



between QVIIDI BERTV5 in three lines; above 
Wt. 19-2. 



and 



The Earl Sihtric who struck this coin has not been identified. The 
statement that he was a son of Ivar seems to be without sufficient 
evidence, nor can he be either of the Sihtrics who fell at Ashdown in 
871, as the type of the coin is the same as those of Aelfred struck 
at Oxford some twenty years later. Nor can it be of Sihtric Gale 
(see No. 114) as the only two extant specimens of these coins were in 
the Cuerdale hoard, the burial of which could not have been later than 
905. " Sceldfor " may possibly be Shelford in Nottinghamshire, called 
Sceldford in Domesday. 

111. ALWALD, circ. A.D. 901-9_05._0fcw. * AL-VVALDV. Cross pattee, pellet 

in two angles. Eev. DNS DS REX in two lines. JR '8. Wt. 23-2. 
This coin has been ascribed to Aethelwald, tlie Aetheling, son of 
Aethelrecl I and cousin of Eadweard the Elder, who laid claim to the 
throne of Wessex on the death of Aelfred. He was afterwards 
received by the Northumbrians as king, and later 011 by the Danes in 
Essex and East Anglia. Killed 905. The type of reverse connects 
this coin with the preceding ones of Cnut and Siefred. It is there- 
fore Danish or Norse. Only two specimens are known, and both were 
in the Cuerdale hoard. 

c 2 



20 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plait- iv. 112. BEQNALD I?, A.D. 919-921. York. Obv. * RAIEMALT. Head to r. Rev. 
SII ,,,,. *k EARICE CT (Ebraice Civit.). In centre, blundered monogram of 

Charles the Bald, COS. ja -75. Wt. 17-3. 

L 

The attribution of this and the next coin to Regnald I is somewhat 
uncertain. They resemble in type some of the St. Peter coins (see note 
No. 122), the issue of which may have begun as early as Regnald's time. 
He was grandson of Ivar, took York in 919, did homage to Eadweard I 
in 921, and died in the same year. A variety with the same reverse 
has for obverse type a hand. 

113. REGNALD I ? York. Obv. R v fiCIIOIAT. Hammer. Rev. & RABIOCIT 

(Ebraice Civit?). Bow stretched, with arrow in it. ^'75. Wt. 19-8. 

This obverse type is also found on the St. Peter coins (see No. 121). 
The obverse legends on all the coins are blundered. The types here 
mentioned are the only ones known. 

114. SIHTRIC GALE, A.D. 921-926? Obv. * 8ITRIC - DUNVNC - A. Trefoil 

ornament of three bucklers? Rev. I-A-SCOLV MONETR-A. 
Triangular pennon, fringed, and bearing cross. M -75. Wt. 15 '9. 
Sihtric Gale, grandson of Ivar, driven from Ireland, succeeded 
Regnald I, and married in 926 the sister of Aethelstan. Varieties of 
his coins have for obverse type a sword, and for reverse, a cross, a 
hammer, fec. 

115. REGNALD II (GODFRESSON), A.D. 943-944? Obv. & REGN A-LD 

CtfNVC. Cross moline. Rev. * - AVRA MONIT RET (Aura 
Moneta Regis or Regnaldi?). Small cross pattee in centre, jii -8. 
Wt. 20-5. 

Regnald II appears to have reigned jointly with Anlaf in 
Northumbria, as both were expelled by Eadmund of Wessex in 944. 
The word " Aura " is probably the old Norse Aura (Ore) signifying 
a thing of value, hence a coin (Cat. Eng. Coins, vol. i., p. 232). 
Another type of Regnald's coins is similar to Nos. 114 and 116. 

116. ANLAF (QUARAN), A.D. 940-944 and 948-952? Obv. fiNL A F 

CVNVNC i Trefoil ornament of three bucklers? Rev. ^ FA R M 
ft N -JVIONET A. Triangular pennon, fringed, and bearing cross, jn -8. 
Wt. 17*3. 

Anlaf, son of Sihtric Gale, driven from Northumbria by Aethelstan 
of Wessex in 927, received at York as king in 940, expelled with 
Regnald II in 944, restored in 948, but again expelled in 952 ? 
Died 981. 

117. ANLAF (QUARAN). * ANL7\F CVNVNC v Raven, wings displayed head 

tol. Her. * AOELFERD MINETREP pIineter=Monetarius?). Small 
cross pattee in centre. JK '8. Wt. 19-8. 

The obverse type appears to represent the Viking war standard, the 
raven, probably derived from the Roman aquila. 

118. ANLAK (QUARAN). Obv. * ANLAF REX -TOD. Small cross pattee. 

her. RADVLF. Above legend a straight line, from which springs rose- 
branch; below, flower. JR -85. Wt. 20-5. 
Tliis type is copied from coins of Eadweard the Elder (see No. 152). 



NORTHUMBEIA. 21 

TOD is possibly a corruption of TOT. B. (Totius Britanniae), which Plate iv. 
occurs on coins of Aethelstan. Varieties have a cross on obv. and rev., 
or the money er's name, <Src., in two lines on the rev., as on coins of 
Eadmund and Eadred of Wessex (see Nos. 163 and 166). The king's 
name often reads ONLRF. 



119. EKIC (BLOTHOX), A.D. 948 and 952-954. Obv. QR^X divided by sword to r. ; 

above and below, pellet ornament. Rev. !-A-C-V-L-F-MO-N. Small 
cross patt6e in centre. JR -8. Wt. 18 '0. 

Eric Blothox, son and successor of Harold Haarfagr of Norway, 
appears to have first come to England in 948, and to have been 
received as king of Northumbria. Expelled the same year, he 
returned in 952, and drove out Aiilaf, but was himself driven out by 
Eadred of Wessex in 954. With the expulsion of Eric, the last 
Scandinavian kingdom of England came to an end, and the successors 
of Eadred assumed the title of "king of all England." The above- 
described coin is copied from the St. Peter money, and was probably 
issued in 948. The only other known type of Eric's coins has for obv. a 
cross, and rev. the moneyer's name in two lines, as on coins of Eadred 
of Wessex. 

* 

120. ST. PETER (A.D. 919-940?). York. Obv. SCI PE Sword to r., between lines 

TR MO 

of legend. Itev. J EB$R-fi-CEI . Cross pattee, dot in each angle. 
jj-8. Wt. 20-5. 

It is not possible to fix the precise date of the issue of the quasi- 
^lesiastical St. Peter coins struck at York. As no specimens 
)urred in. the Cuerdale find, they were in all probability not struck 

till after the burial of the hoard (circ. 905). Their latest date would 
about 940. The issue must have extended over several years, and 
lay have commenced about the time of the accession of the House of 

[var in Northumbria (A.D. 919). 



Jl. ST. PETER. York? Obv. JQ Sword to 1., between lines of legend, 

* 

crook at point. Eev. >J LBIOEVITR. Hammer, ja -75. Wt. 19-7. 

The legends on these coins are often blundered. That on the 
averse of the above may be intended for " Eborace Civ." (see next 
)iece). A variety with this obverse type has a mitre or pall. 

O O I D CT 

ST. PETER. York. Obv. -rDiiui divided by three crosses in pale, pellet on 



each side of centre one. Eev. < EBORACE CIV. Cross pattee in centre. 
2R -75. Wt. 20-0. 

This is the most common type of the St. Peter coins ; the 
naments on the obverse are very varied. Others with the same 
>verse type have the Carlovingian monogram on the reverse as 
on No. 112. 




] latf iv. 
SILVER. 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 



WESSEX. 

The coinage of Wessex, which is of silver, and of the penny class, 
is purely regal in character ; for though the Archbishops of Canterbury 
continued to strike coins for nearly a century after Kent became 
subject to Wessex, their money is Kentish, and has already been 
described with the coins of that State. The first king of Wessex to issue 
money was Ecgbeorht, but it is possible that his earliest coins were 
not struck before A.D. 825, when he drove Baldred from his kingdom, 
and Kent became an appanage of Wessex. From this time the money 
of Wessex is continuous to the Norman Conquest ; for as that 
State gradually absorbed the other kingdoms, so the area of its 
coinage extended until it merged into that of the kings of All 
England. At first the mint-names are few ; but the increasing 
domination of Wessex was accompanied by a corresponding growth 
of mint- towns. The last king to strike coins without a mint-name was 
Eadgar, the first king of All England, and even his mint-towns extend 
from York in the north to Totnes in the south-west. The types are very 
varied. The majority however present on the obverse a bust and on 
the reverse some religious symbol. It will only be possible in most 
cases to give but a few examples of each reign. 

123. ECGBEORHT, A.D. 802-838? Canterbury. Obv. * EEZGBEfiRHT REX. 

Bust to r., diademed. Eev. *k BOSEL mOHETfi. Monogram 
for DOROB. C? (Dorobernia Civitas). xt &. Wt. 22-0. 
Ecgbeorht, son of Ealhmund, an under-king of Kent, succeeded 
Beorhtric as king of Wessex. He overcame Kent in 825, and Mercia 
in 829. These dates are important in connection with his coinage, and 
it is very probable that he did not issue any money till after the first 
event. The types of many of his coins are copied from those of the 
kings of Mercia and Kent. The reverse type of the above piece 
consists of the monogram of the city of Canterbury, and is without 
doubt adapted from the Karolus-monogram of Charles the Great, at 
whose court Ecgbeorht had resided many years. Canterbury and 
London (see No. 125) are the only mint-names which occur during 
this reign. 

124. ECGBEOEHT. Obv. jf EEGBEORHT RE. Head to r., diademed. Rev. 

i DYNYN OOOISET. Four crescents, points outwards; in centre, 
lozenge. JR -8. Wt. 21-0. 

This coin has a prototype in the coins of Coenwulf, king of Mercia 
A.D. 796-822. 

125. ECGBEORHT. London. Obv. ^ ECLBERHT REX CO. Cross potent 

within dotted circle. Rev. * LVN DONIA CIVIT in three lines, divided 
by two beaded straight lines. 211 &. Wt. 21-3. 

This remarkable and unique coin, on which Ecgbeorht styles himself 
king of the Mercians, and which bears the mint-name of London, was 



WESSEX. 23 

struck between 829 and 830, during which time he had banished Plate iv. 
Wiglaf and held Mercia (see No. 41). It is the earliest Anglo-Saxon SILVER. 
coin bearing the mint-name of London, and it also commemorates one 
of the principal events of Ecgbeorht's reign. 

126. ECGBEOBHT. Rochester? Obo. ECGBEORIT RE. Bust to r., diademed. 

Bev. %* ILl SNDRE7U- In centre $ (A and U)). M -8. Wt. 20-0. 

As St. Andrew was the patron saint of Rochester, this coin may 
have been struck in that city. The reverse type is derived from coins 
of Ceolwulf I of Mercia (see No. 35). Ecgbeorht also styles himself 
on the coins " Rex Saxoniorum." Other types of his coins are (1) cross 
potent on both sides ; (2) V and A in monogram and cross potent ; (3) 
cross and star ; (4) " Saxon " (mon.) or " Saxoniorum " and cross, &c. 

127. AETHELWULF, A.D. 838 ?-858. Canterbury. Olv. & E-DELVVLF REX. In 

centre DORIBI irregularly written. Bev. ^ WEAL WEAR D. Incentre, 
JR -8. Wt. 19-0. 



Aethelwulf, son of Ecgbeorht, succeeded to the West Saxon 
dominions ; but gave Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surrey to his eldest son 
Aethelstan, at whose death, in 852, they reverted to Aethelwulf. Of 
Aethelstan no coins are known. In 856 the kingdom was again 
divided between Aethelwulf and his son Aethelbald, the former 
retaining Kent only. The above coin may have been struck after 
856 if we read it " Aethelwulf Rex Cantiae." Canterbury is the only 
mint-name which occurs on the coins of this reign. 

L28. AETHELWULF. Obv. ^ E-DELVVLF REX. Bust to r., diademed. Bev. 
fr nANNA nONETA. Cross crosslet. JR -8. Wt. 20-5. 

AETHELWULF. Obo. >k fi E-DELVVLF REX. Busttor. Bev. & E-DELNOO 
MONETft upon limbs and in the angles of cross formed of beaded lines. 
M -8. Wt. 19-3. 

This is probably the last type struck by Aethelwulf, as it occurs 
coins of Aethelbald and Aethelbearht. On other coins Aethelwulf 
styled "Rex Saxoniorum" or "Rex Saxoniorum Occidentalium." 
ler types of his coins are without bust (1) " Doribi " and letter ft ; 
2) CANT (mon.) and cross pattee, with CANT in the angles; (3) 

Saxonu " (mon.) and cross pattee ; (4) cross pattee and " Saxoniorum " ; 
with bust, rev. cross of various forms, the letter R, Christian 

mogram, &c. 

Of Aethelbald, second son of Aethelwulf, who reigned in Wessex 

>m 856 to 861, only four coins of doubtful authenticity are known. 
3y are all of the same type as No. 129. 



AETHELBEABHT, A.D. 858-866. Obv. fiE-DELBEfiRR" REX. Bust to r. 
Bev. <% DEC-L X RF MONETfi upon limbs and in angles of cross 
formed of beaded lines. M -8. Wt. 22 -2. 

Aethelbearht succeeded his father, Aethelwulf, in Kent, Essex, Surrey 
and Sussex in 858, and his brother Aethelbald in Wessex in 861. He 
only strikes coins of two types, as this and the next. The first is like 
Aethelwulf 's and is the more general one, They are without mint-name, 






24 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate iv 131. AETHELBEABHT. Obv. p AE-DELBEARF REX. Bust to r., diademed. 
Rev. & CENVEALD MONETA. Floriated cross, leaf in each angle. 
*-8. Wt.19'0. 

132. AETHELBED I, A.D. 863-871. Obv. AE-DELRED REX. Bust to r., 

diademed. Rev. MANN MONETA in three lines, upper and lower in 

lunettes, JR -8. Wt. 19-7. 

Though Aethelbearht left children, he was succeeded by his brother 
Aethelred who had held Wessex since 863. This and the next coin are 
similar in type to those of Burgred, the contemporary king of Mercia. The 
only other type of this reign has on the obverse the fagade of a Christian 
temple, and on the reverse a cross crosslet, or pattee. It is copied from 
the "Xristiana Religio" coins of Charlemagne. None have mint-names. 

133. AETHELBED I. Obv. % AE-DELRED REX. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

CVOHELM MONETA : A ! in four lines divided by three straight lines, 
upper and lower ones with curved ends. JR '8. \Vt. 20 '0. 

134. AELFBED, A.D. 871-901. Offering Penny. Obv. * AELFRED REX $AXO- 

NVM in four lines and within two circles; inner one of dots. Rev. ELI 
MO in two lines, divided by three dots; all within two circles as on obv. 
jRl-S. Wt. 162-4. 

Aelfred (the Great) was the youngest son of Aethelwulf and 
succeeded to the kingdom of all Wessex on the death of his brother 
Aethelred. 

The above coin is considered to be an " offering penny," denarius 
oblatorius, which the king was wont to offer at mass on certain 
festivals. It weighs a little more than seven pennies. It was 
struck in the latter part of Aelfred's reign, and from its type and 
moneyer's name appears to be not unconnected with the coins issued 
at Bath during this and the next reign. 

135. AELFBED. Canterbury. Obr. <fr AELFRED REX D O (Doroberniae). 

Cross pattee. Rev. jj^lj, 5 in field JR '75. Wt. 18-5. 
This type also occurs on coins of Plegmund, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and of Eadweard the Elder, Aelfred's successor. Aelfred's mints 
were Bath, Canterbury, Exeter, Gloucester, Lincoln, London, 
Oxford, Roiseng (Castle Rising ?) and Winchester. Specimens of all 
are described here except that of Bath, which has a small cross on the 
obv. and has the rev. as No. 134 but reading ELI BAD. 

I'lau-v. 136. AELFBED. Canterbury. Obv. Similar to the last. Rev. & SC EADMVN RE. 

In centred. JR -8. Wt. 19-4. 
Copied from the St. Eadmund coinage of East Anglia (see No. 73). 

137. AELFBED. Exeter. ( bi: * AELFRED REX $AXONVM in four lines 

across the field. Rev. EX A reading downwards ; three pellets on each side, 
at -8. Wt. 24-3. 

This type belongs to the later issues of Aelfred. It is similar to 
that of Winchester (No. 144). 

138. AELFBED. Gloucester. Obv. >LFR-.-ED X. Bust to r., diademed. 

Rev. GLEAPA/ET (Gleawacaestre). A T shaped ornament with limbs 
extended by beaded lines to the edge of the coin and dividing legend. 

The obverse type is similar to that of coins of London (see No. 140), 



WESSEX. 25 

but that of the reverse is unlike any other known. This coin was in Plate v. 
the Cuerdale hoard and is unique. SILVER. 



139. AELFBED. Lincoln. Obv. HER I BERT. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 

(LINCOLLA or LINCOLIA). ^ -8. Wt. 21-0. 
This type is similar to that of London (see No. 140). On account 
of the absence of the king's name and the rude work of the coin, it 
may be a Viking imitation. Another coin of Lincoln has the king's 
name on the obv., and on the rev. that of the same moneyer, but in 
monogram and dividing name of mint. 

140. AELFBED. London. (>1>v. /ELFRED REX. Bust to r., diademed. 

Rev. ^Jj) (LONDONIA); above ^ ; below v at -75. Wt. 25-0. 

The reverse type of this coin is like the obverse type of the penny of 
Half dan the Viking leader (see No. 94). Some of the London coins of 
Aelfred are of very rude work ; they may be Viking imitations. 

141. AELFBED. London. Obv. /ELFR '. ^ ED RE. Bust to r., diademed. 

Rev. AELF ! ZTAN in two lines, divided by monogram of London as on 
the preceding ; small cross to 1. M '75. Wt. 22'0. 

Probably of later issue than No. 140. 

142. AELFBED. Oxford. Obv. ELFRED ^ ORSHAFORDA in three lines, 

name of king in centre ; above and below, '. Rev. BERNVALR NO intwo 
lines divided by three crosses. M - 8. Wt. 20-9. 

Probably struck towards the end of Aelfred's reign. The obverse 
type is similar to the coins of Exeter (No. 137) and Winchester 
(No. 144). Bernvald is the only moneyer who strikes coins at Oxford 
uring this reign. 

143. AELFBED. Roiseiig (Castle Rising?). Obi: /ELFRED REX. Bust to r. 



Rev. XEOELVF MO in two lines divided by PtySC (ROIXENCP). a$ '8. 
Wt. 22-9. 

The attribution of this coin to Castle Rising is somewhat uncertain, 
bhers have read the monogram as CROINDEN, and suppose the coin to 
lave been struck at Croydon. Its issue was probably contemporary 
with No. 141. 

L44. AELFBED. Winchester. Obv. ^ KELFRED REX XfiXOMVM in four lines 
across the field. Rev. PI N (Winceastre) reading downwards ; ornament of 
four pellets on each side. AI &. Wt. 24*6. 

The obverse is like the " Offering Penny " (No. 134), and the 
sverse is like that of the penny of Exeter (No. 137). 
Halfpennies of the above types are known of Bath, Canterbury, 
)ndon and Oxford. 

145. AELFRED. Obv. ft... ELFRED REX. Bust to r., diademed. Rev. 
*J DIARMVND. Lozenge with cross at each angle, one limb extending to 
edge of coin and dividing legend; small cross in centre of lozenge. JR '8. 

Similar to coins of Ceolwulf II of Mercia (see No. 46), of which it is 
)bably a copy. This and the next coin are without a mint-name. 



ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 



Plate v. HO. AELFRED. Obv. <k ELFRED RE. Cross pattee. Eev. Q divided by 

pellet between two crosses. JR -8. Wt. 24-2. 

This is the commonest of Aelfred's types. The ornaments between, 
above, and below the moneyers' names are varied ; but they always 
consist of pellets or crosses. This type was copied by Aethelstan TI 
(Guthorm), king of East Anglia (see No. 72). 

The above give the principal types of Aelfred's coins. Others with 
the bust have for rev. the moneyer's name in three lines, &c. (see 
No. 132) ; or the moneyer's name within and without leaves of quatre- 
foil, ifcc. (see No. 61) ; or two seated figures with angel between them (see 
obv. No. 94) ; without the bust, the king's name on limbs of cross with 
ornaments in angles and name of moneyer within leaves of quatrefoil, 
or small cross and CNVT at extremities of cross, &c. (as obv. No. 96). 

147. EADWEARD THE ELDER, A.D. 901-925. Obv. <k EfiDVVEfiRD REX. Bust to 

HERE 

1., diademed. Eev. M nr\*A divided by three crosses; above ..: below v 
mUUiTl 

JR -8. Wt. 24-3. 

Eadweard was the son of Aelfred, whom he succeeded, The types of 
his earlier coins resemble the late ones of his father. The above is the 
most common type. The ornaments on the reverse are varied ; they 
are however always pellets and crosses. The only mint is that of 
Bath, the type of which coin is similar to Aelfred's of that place (see 
No. 135). Eadweard's later coins show a marked improvement in 
style ; the bust being carefully modelled and the reverse types 
depicting elaborate designs (see Nos. 148-157). 

148. EADWEABD THE ELDER. (Jbv. ^ EADWEARD REX. Small cross pattee. 

Eev. BRE ! HE %, above and below, star of eight rays pommes. 
JR'8. Wt. 24-5. 

149-157. These have the same obverse type as the preceding, but the reverses are 
varied as follows : 149. ADVLEMO. Above, line, on which floral ornament ; 
below, cross, JR -8. Wt. 27 -0. 150. BO 1C, A dividing double floriate 
design, each rising from base on two steps. M -85. Wt. 25 '0. 151. BV LA 
divided by floriate stem with two branches. M &. Wt. 24'0. 152. 
HEREMOD. Above, line terminating in two flowers; from it springs rose 
between two branches ; below, flower, ju -85. Wt. 24-0. 153. HVNLAF. 

Above and below, floral ornament. JR '9. Wt. 23-0. 154. E ^ ^ 
divided by building. JR -85. Wt. 25-6. 155. VVLFCAR. Above, line 

AL H 
on which is a church; below, cross, JR -85. Wt. 24-6. 156. TA N 

divided by Hand of Providence with cruciform nimbus. M 55. Wt. 21 8. 

157. DE OP divided by Hand of Providence, giving Latin benediction, i.e. 

MO DM 

third aud fourth fingers closed; below, cross. JR -9. Wt. 24-0. 
This series of ornaments and designs is the most remarkable in the 
whole coinage of Wessex, and in fact finds no parallel in the Anglo- 
Saxon coinage except on that of Offa. It is not improbable that the 
building on the reverse of No. 154 may refer to the erection of the 
burgs, which began in Eadweard's reign. 



WESSEX. 27 

Other types (without bust) not given above are, obv. small cross Plate v. 
pattee; rev. moneyer's name in two lines, or rose on two saltires, SIJ.VKK. 
or moneyer's name in one line, or bird with branch, &c. 

158. AETHELSTAN, A.D. 925-941. London. Obv. <%> /E-DELTAN REX. Bust 

to r., crowned. Rev. % BIORNERRD MO LOND El. Small cross 
pattee. zt -85. Wt. 23-0. 

Aethelstan was the son of Eadweard, and his power is evidenced by 
the titles which he assumed on his coins as well as in his charters, as 
" Rex Saxonum," " Rex Totius Britanniae," or " Rex Britanniae." The 
early types of his coins are like those of his father, and there is a 
great increase in the number of mints.* Many coins however are 
without mint-names. 

159. AETHELSTAN. Gloucester. Obv. ^ /E>EL*TfiN REX BR\E (Britanniae). 

Small cross pattee. Rev. *? 3P-DEL PO l/MO . GLEfiqRZ (Gleawa- 
ceastre). Small cross pattee. .at -9. Wt. 28-8. 

This is one of the more common types of this reign. Varieties 
have a rosette instead of a cross on both sides, or on one side only. 

160. AETHELSTAN. York. Obv. ^ REDEL$TRN REX .-. Cross pattee. liev. 

' MON * below a straight line, on which is a church dividing the legend 

7XC 7XC- * ' 85 ' Wt> 22 '- 

The reverse gives a view of the minster of York. This coin is 
of some historical importance as it shows how completely Aethelstan 
took possession of Northumbria, when he drove out Anlaf, son of 
Sihtric Gale, in 927. Coins of this reign also occur of Exeter, from 
rhich place Aethelstan drove out the Welshmen in 935. They are 
lilar to No. 158. 

31. AETHELSTAN. Obv. X /E)EL$TAN REX. Small cross pattee. liev. 
FRE-BMO ^ v ^ e ^ by three crosses; above and below triangle of dots. 
AI -9. Wt. 24-6. 

This is probably the earliest of Aethelstan types. It occurs also on 
father's coinage. 

, AETHELSTAN. Obv. /E>EL$TAN REX. Small cross pattee. Eev. 
MDN 
DELN Divided by three pellets ; above and below, floral ornament. JK -9. 

Wt. 24-2. 

This is also a survival of a type of Eadweard the Elder's coinage, 
ler types are with the bust diademed, crowned or helmeted, and 
rev. moneyer's name in two lines, or cross crosslet. 



* This increase in the mints is mainly due to an enactment of the Council of 

rreatley, A.D. 928, which ordered that there should be one kind of money 

throughout the realm ; and that each burg was entitled to one moneyer, but certain 

places on account of their importance should have more. The money struck by 

the bishops and abbots is of the same types as the regal coins. 



_>S ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

HaU . > 103. EADMUSD, A.D. 941-946. dbv. & EfiDMVND REX. Small cross pattee. 
SH.NKI ^ ev ' ^?Pr(X divided by a cross between two lis, points inwards; above 

A KUm 

and below co. zi -9. Wt. 24*6. 

Eadmund was the half-brother of Aethelstan. Varieties of the 
;il)Dve type have crosses or rosettes dividing the legend on the rev. As 
compared with the last reign the mints are few ; but coins of this 
type show such variety of style and work that they must have been 
issued at a great number of places. 

164. EADMUND. Obv. *k EADMVND REX. Small cross pattee. Rev. 

>E-DELMOD. Above, line from which springs a floral ornament ; below, a 

flower. JK -85. Wt. 24-6. 

Copied from a type of Eadweard the Elder (see No. 149). Other- 
types are : without the bust, rosette and moneyer's name in two 
lines, or small cross and rosette : with the bust, rev. small cross, or 
cross crosslet. 

165. EADBED, A.D. 946-955. Norwich, (.br. EADRED REX. Bust to r., 

crowned. Rev. * HflMHE HO l/!ORD> .-. X. Small cross pattee. 

JR -8. Wt. 22-3. 

Eadred was the third son of Eadweard the Elder. The types of 
his coins are like those of the previous reign, and the mint-names 
are still fewer. 



160. EADRED. Obv. ^ EADRED REX. Small cross pattee. Rev. 

divided by three crosses; above and below, rosette. M 8. Wt. 22-2. 
Varieties of this type have rosettes or pellets between the 
moneyer's name. Other types without the bust are : small cross 
pattee and rosette ; or rosette and moneyer's name in two lines with 
ornaments ; or small cross pattee and floriate stem enclosing moneyer's 
name as No. 151. 

167. EADWIG, A.D. 955-959. York. Cbv. * EADVVIG RE. Small cross 
pattee. Rev. V |_pj^j divided by mint-name O3 *k NO (Eoferwic) ; above 



and below, rosette. JR -85. Wt. 22-3. 

Eadwig was the son of Eadmund. This coin is historically 
interesting as it marks the supremacy of Wessex over Northumbria, 
Eric Blothox, the Northumbrian king, having been driven out by 
Eadred in A.D. 954 (see No. 119). York from this time was a mint 
of the kings of Wessex. A variety of this type has the moneyer's 
name only on the reverse, divided by crosses. 

168. EADWIG. York? Obv. EADPIC REX. Small cross pattee. Rev. O$P7XLD 
divided by mitre-shaped ornament ; below which J. M -8. Wt. 15-0. 

This coin is unique ; it may be of York. Other types, without the 
bust, have small cross pattee and moneyer's name in one line across 
the field ; or small cross pattee on both sides. There is only one type 
with the bust, which is crowned ; it has on the rev. a small cross pattee. 






KINGDOM OF ENGLAND. 29 



KINGDOM OF ENGLAND. 

169. EADGAR, A.D. 957-975. Derby, dlv. * EADLAR REX ANLLOX. Bust Plate vi. 

to 1., diademed. Itev. ^ OSVLF MO DEORBY. Small cross pattee. SII.VKK. 

M -8. Wt. 20-0. 

Eadgar, younger son of Eadrnund, became king of all Britain on 
Eadwig's death, having already been king of Mercia since 957. In 
him were united all the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. His coinage 
shows a considerable increase in the number of mint places, and the 
coins themselves are of excellent design and work. Their number 
too carries out the impression of magnificence and prosperity attributed 
by the chroniclers to this reign. 

FWR F 

170. EADGAK. Obv. 3? EADCAR R . Small cross pattee. Rev. ERJ^MQ 

divided by three circles ; above and below, rosette. JJ '9. Wt. 18 '8. 
Varieties of this type have crosses, rosettes or pellets, symmetrically 
arranged on the rev., and another has the mint-name dividing that of 
the moneyer. Other types are : without the bust, cross pattee on both 
sides, rosettes on both sides, or cross and mitre-shaped ornament as 
No. 168 ; and with the bust to r., rev. small cross pattee or four 
crosses. There is a unique halfpenny, similar to No. 164, with 
money er's name " Hildulf." Eadgar was the last king to strike coins 
without a mint-name ; and from this time they have almost 
invariably * for the obverse type, the bust or head of the king, which 
is either bare, diademed, crowned or helmeted. 

171. EADWEABD II (The Martyr), A.D. 975-979. Stamford. Obv. 4* EADPARD 

REX ANIL. Bust to 1., diademed. Rev. >fr E$CMAN M"O $TANF. 

Small cross pattee. JR -8. Wt. 21-3. 

Eadweard II was the eldest son of Eadgar. He was murdered at 
Corfe in Dorsetshire. He struck coins of two types only. The second 
type has the king's bust on the obverse and on the reverse the Hand 
of Providence between A. U). This coin is unique. 

172. AETHELRED II, A.D. 979-1016. Lewes. Obo. * /E-DELR/ED REX TXfSGL. <;ou>. 

Bust to 1., in armour and radiate helmet. Rev. >%* LEOFPINE MO 
L/EPE v Long cross voided, dividing legend, above quadrilateral 
ornament with three pellets at eacb corner. A7 -75. Wt. 51-5. 

Aethelred II, son of Eadgar, succeeded to the throne on the death of 
his half-brother Eadweard II. He was deposed by Svend of Norway in 
1013, but restored the next year. Svend did not strike any coins in his 
own name for England. This gold piece is probably a proof of a penny or 
a trial -piece. As there was no gold currency at this time, it cannot 
be considered as an attempt to introduce it. During this reign the 
number of mints was greatly increased and the output of the coinage 
was much larger than at any previous time. The heavy tribute paid 
to the Yiking invaders was probably the chief cause of this large 



* The chief exceptions are the coins of Aethelred II with the " Agnus Dei " (see 
No. 176), which however maybe Danish, and the " sovereign " pennies of Edward 
the Confessor (No. 189). 



3Q ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate vi. coinage. It was nevertheless a sign of the increased wealth of 
SII.VKI;. England. 

173. AETHELBED II. Bath. Obv. * /EBELR/ED REX ANCLOX. Bust tor., 

diademed ; in front, sceptre. Rev. ^/EOELRIC M O BADAN. Handof 
Providence downwards, between A Cx). 2R '8. Wt. 21-1. 
This type is copied from coins of Eadweard II (see note No. 171). 

174. AETHELBED II. Cambridge. Obv. * /E-DELR/ED REX AIVCLOX. Bust 

to 1. ; in front, sceptre. Rev. ^ EDRIC M O CRANT. (Grantebrycge). 

Short cross voided ; in the angles, CRVX. A\ -8. Wt. 23-4. 
This type, so general in later reigns, occurs for the first time under 
Aethelred II. It was adopted early in his reign and is one of the most 
common. 

175. AETHELRED II. London. Obv. & /E-DELR/ED REX ANIL. Bust to 1., 

of rude form. Ren. ^ LEOFNO-D MO LVND. Long cross voided, 
each limb terminating in three crescents. JR '75. Wt. 20'6. 
This is a late type and the most common of all Aethelred's coins. 
It was copied by the Scandinavian rulers, more especially by the 
Norsemen in Ireland, where Aethelred's money constituted a regular 
currency. 

176. AETHELBED II. Thetford. (ibn. * E-DELRED REX ANC. Bust to 1., 

diademed. Rev. % /ELFPOLD M"O -DEO. Small cross pattee. JR -75. 

Wt. 20-0. 

Identical with Eadweard's II's type and therefore probably an early 
one. The above constitute the chief types of Aethelred II's coinage ; 
but of each one there are several small varieties, consisting chiefly in the 
bust, whether to r. or 1., or wearing a radiate helmet, or with or without 
a sceptre. A very scarce type has the " Agnus Dei " on the obverse 
and the Holy Dove on the reverse (see Cat. Eng. Coins, Vol. II, 
p. 207). 

177. CNUT, A.D. 1016-1035. Bath. Obv. * ENVT REX 7XNDLORVM. Bust to 

1., crowned, within a quatref oil. Rev. >fr /E-DESTAN ON BfiOAN. On 
quatrefoil, long cross voided, each limb terminating in three crescents. 
JB -75. Wt. 22-7. 

Cnut was the son of Svend, king of Denmark, who had obtained 
part of England and forced Aethelred II to take refuge in Normandy 
(see No. 172). He succeeded his father in 1013, but to maintain 
his authority in England he was involved in an arduous struggle with 
Aethelred and subsequently with the latter's son, Edmund Ironside. 
Ultimately in 1016 Cnut obtained possession of the whole kingdom, 
which he held till his death in 1035. He does not appear to have struck 
:uiy coins before 1016. Of Edmund Ironside no coins are known. 

The coinage of Cnut is very similar to that of Aethelred II. The 
chief type of reverse is that of a double or voided cross. It was 
already common in the previous reign. This type facilitated the 
cutting up of the coin into halves and quarters to pass current 
tor halfpence and farthings (see No. 195). Cnut's mints are still 
more numerous than those of Aethelred II. His coins are in general 
fry li.nht, rarely reaching 24 grs. and often descending to 12 grs. 



KINGDOM OF ENGLAND. 31 

178. CNUT. Bristol. Obv. <% ENV-T RE-E. Bust to 1., diademed, holding Plate vl. 

sceptre. Rev, ^ /EDEL PINE ON BRIE. Short cross voided; in SILVER. 
centre, circle enclosing pellet. JK -1 . Wt. 17 '7. 

This is one of the later issues of Cnut. The type occurs on coins 
of Harold I and Harthacnut. 

179. CNUT. Chichester. Obv. >fr CNVT REX ANCL. Bust to 1., wearing 

pointed helmet; in front, sceptre. Rev. <%* /ECELM ON EIEESTR. 
Short cross voided, limbs united in centre by two circles ; in each angle, 
annulet enclosing pellet. M '75. Wt. 16-0. 

It is in a helmet of this form that Cnut is represented on the 
Bayeux tapestry. 

180. CNUT. Cambridge. Obv. <fr ENVT : RE EX v Bust to 1., diademed, 

holding sceptre. Rev. <fr LODPINE ON GR-AT (Grantebrycge). Quadri- 
lateral ornament over short cross voided. JR -7. Wt. 17*7. 

This type also occurs on coins of Harold I and Harthacnut ; it is 
therefore somewhat late. There are several varieties of each of the 
above types. Others have for reverse a small cross pat tee, or a long 
cross voided (as No. 175), or a long or a short voided cross with annulet 
in each angle, or a long cross voided with PA EX in the angles. The 
latest type is as the next piece of Harold I. That with the legend 
PA EX is supposed to commemorate the peace of 1016 between Cnut and 
Edmund Ironside. 

181. HAROLD I, A.D. 1035-1040. Chester. Obv. * HAROLD REX. Bust to 1., 

diademed. Rev. * ELEPINE ON LEICE . (Leigeceastre). Cross 
composed of four ovals, bases united by two circles. M '1. Wt. 17*1. 
Cnut had three sons, Harthacnut, who ruled over Denmark during 
his father's life ; Svend, who succeeded to the kingdom of Norway, 
and Harold, who took England. 

The above type is copied from the last issue of Cnut's coinage. 

182. HAROLD I. Thetford. Obv. * HAROLD REEX A. Bust to 1., diademed, 

in armour; in front, shield and sceptre. Rev. >f /ELFPINE ON -DEOD. 

Long cross voided, limbs united by circle enclosing pellet ; in each angle, 

lis. JR -75. Wt. 18-2. 

This type is the Jatest of this reign. It was copied by Harthacnut. 
Varieties have the bust to 1. and in the angles of the cross on the rev. 
three pellets. Other types have on the rev. PA EX in the angles of a 
long cross voided, or a short cross voided with a circle in centre, 
or a quadrilateral ornament over a short cross voided ; the bust on the 
o/>r. is with or without sceptre. 

HARTHACNUT, A.D. 1040-1042. Oxford. Obv. ^ HAR-DCNVT. Bust to 1., 
diademed; sceptre in 1. hand. Rev. ^ /EGELPINE ON OXA. Quadri- 
lateral ornament over short cross voided. M '15. Wt. 15*3. 
Harold I was succeeded by his younger brother Harthacnut, king 
of Denmark, whose reign only lasted two years. His coins are more 
Dmmon in Scandinavian countries than in England, which circum- 
mce shows how extensive was their export and how heavily England 
ras drained to support the Danish army and fleet. Though Hartha- 
lut struck coins of nine types more or less varied, only two are repre- 
mted in the National Collection (see Cat. Eng. Coins, Brit. Mus., 
Vol. II, pp. 321-324). 



'.^2 ANGLO-SAXON COINS. 

Plate vi. 184, HARTHACNUT. Winchester. fibv. HAR-DALNVT RE. Bust to r., 
SIIVKI , diademed. Rev. ^ /ELFPINE ON PICE. Cross composed of four ovals ; 

bases united by two circles. M "1. Wt. 16-0. 

Both these types occur on the coinage of Harthacnut's predecessor. 
Other reverse types are small cross pattee ; ERVX or PAEX in angles 
of short cross voided ; annulet in each angle of short cross voided ; 
short cross voided with angles plain, or a long cross voided with lis 
in each angle. The bust of the king is varied, being to r. or 1., 
with or without sceptre, and crowned or wearing a high peaked 
or crested helmet. 

185. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR, A.D. 1042-1066. Ipswich. Obv. >k EDPE RD 

REX : Bust to 1., diademed; in front, sceptre. Rev. 4 LIFIE ONO 
GIPESPIIE. Short cross voided, the limbs gradually expanding and 
united at bases by two circles. JR -75. Wt. 27 -0. 

Son of Aethelred II, an exile at the court of Richard the Fearless, 
Duke of Normandy, during the reign of Cnut and his sons ; was raised 
to the throne chiefly through the influence of Earl Godwine. His mints 
are very numerous, and the types of his coins very varied ; those 
described below being however the chief ones. On his later coins 
Edward is represented with a beard. There is great diversity in the 
weight of the penny ; sometimes it reaches 28 grs., at others it falls to 
15 grs. 

186. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Hastings, (tbv. EADPARD REX. Bust facing, 

crowned and bearded. Rev. & DVNNINE ON H/E. Small cross pattee. 
X. -65. Wt. 17-4. 

The facing bust appears now for the first time on English silver 
coins. This type may have been derived from the German coinage. It 
ultimately for a time survived all the others. 

187. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Hereford, dbv. ^ EDPERD RE. Bust to 1., 

diademed. Rev. %* ERNDII ON HERE. Short cross voided. M -6 
Wt. 17-4. 

'I'h is is one of the earliest types of this reign. The king's name is 
spelt in various ways on his coins, "Edwerd, Edward, Eadward, Ead- 
weard, or Eadweardus." The first two occur mostly on his early coins, 
the others on the later pieces. 

188. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Hereford, CJbv. ^ EDPRD--D REX. Bust 

to r., bearded, wearing pointed helmet; in r. hand, sceptre. Itev. 
% PVLFPINEON HER. Cross voided, each limb terminating in three 
crescents; in centre, circle with pellet. At -75. Wt. 21*4. 
This is the most common type of this reign. 

189. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Horndon. Obv. EADVVRD RAX ANSORV. 

Full-length figure of the king seated front on throne ; long sceptre in r 
hand; orb in 1. Rev. * DVDINC ON HORNIDVNE. Short cross 
voided, martlet in each angle, ju -75. Wt. 19-9. 

Known as the "Sovereign type." The obverse is derived from 
Byzantine coins : and the reverse is commonly called the arms of the 
Confessor. This type of reverse also occurs with the bust of the king 
to r., wearing ;i pointed helmet as on the preceding. 



KINGDOM OF ENGLAND. 33 

190. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Taunton. Obv. >p EDPER--D RE:X : Bust Plate vi. 

to L, diademed ; sceptre in front. Eev. >%> BOIA ON TANTVNE. Quad- SILVER. 
rilateral ornament over short cross voided. AI "7. Wt. 17 '6. 

This type occurs on coins of Harthacnut. 

191. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Wallingford. Obv. EADPARD R EX. Bust 

to r., bearded and crowned; sceptre in front. Rev. % BRAND ON 
PALLI. Short cross voided, each limb terminating in an incurved 
segment of a circle. M -8. Wt. 20-5. 

A new type of this reign ; and one which does not recur. This 
reverse is also found with the obverse of No. 189. 

192. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Wallingford. Obv. EADPARD REX A. Bust 

to r., bearded and wearing arched crown. Eev. *P BRIHTM/ER ON PA : 
Short cross voided ; at end of each limb, segment of circle outwards ; in 
each angle, pyramid springing from inner circle. M "75. Wt. 20-5. 

This obverse type was copied by Harold II. 

193. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Wilton. Obv. 3* EDPERD REX -A. Bust 

tor., wearing radiate crown. Rev. 3? LI FIN EC ON PILTVN. Small cross 
pattee. JR '65. Wt. 16 -8. 

194. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Winchester. Obv. EDPERD REX AUG. 

Bust to L, diademed; sceptre in front. Eev. ELPINE : ON PINC : 
Long cross voided ; each limb terminating in crescent ; in centre, annulet ; 
in angles, PACX. JR -75. Wt. 16-4. 

This type was first introduced by Cnut and survived to William I 
and II. 

195. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR. Obv. % EDPAR . . . Similar to the last coin. 

Eev. * BRVRNR . . . . Similar to the last coin. M '7. Wt. 8 '7. 
Halfpenny. 

To supply a smaller currency than the penny, that coin was often 
ivided into halves and quarters to pass for halfpence and farthings, 
.e coins usually selected for this purpose were those with a voided 
on the reverse, as facilitating the division into equal parts. This 
tice began in the reign of Aethelred II. 
The only other type of this reign which need be mentioned is that 
similar to the next coin of Harold II. 

HAROLD II, A.D. 1066. Chichester. Obv. * HAROLD REX ANG. 
Head to 1., crowned and bearded; sceptre in front. Eev. %* /ELEPINE 
ON CICEI. Across the field and between two lines, PAX. & -75. 
Wt. 20-3. 

Harold, son of Earl Godwine, was chosen king on the death of 
Iward the Confessor : but was killed at the battle of Hastings after 
short reign of nine months. This is the only reverse type of 
irold's coins. Of the obverse there are three varieties (see next 
coin). 

197. HAROLD II. Southampton. Obv. * HAROLD REX ANGLO. Same as 
the last, but no sceptre. Eev. ^ LEOFSTAN ON HA (Hamtume). 
Same as the last. M '75. Wt. 21-2. 
A variety has the bust of the king to r., without a sceptre. 




( 34 ) 

Plati- vi. 

toTBL ENGLISH COINS. 

William I.* 1066-1087. 

COINAGE. The Conquest of England by the Normans brought about 
no change in the monetary system of England, and a coinage, consisting 
of silver pennies only, continued to be issued of precisely the same 
character as under the later Anglo-Saxon kings. Not only were the 
weight and the fineness of the metal retained, but even some of the 
types were adopted. The mints too were increased in number. The 
average weight of the penny during the reigns of William I and II 
is 21 grs. ; and the standard of metal 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine and 18 dwts. 
alloy. 

A difficulty has always existed in determining the respective coinages 
of William I and his son Rufus ; no distinctive marks distinguishing 
each issue. Taking the obverse type as a criterion, the coins of the 
two kings may, however, be divided as follows : 

I. William I. (a) Profile bust to 1. with sceptre ; (b) bust facing 
with crown having fillets, Bonnet type ; (c) bust facing under a canopy, 
Canopy type ; (d) small bust facing between two sceptres ; (e) similar 
bust with star on each side of neck. 

II. William I or IT. (a) Bust to r. with sceptre ; rev. cross with 
trefoils in angles and also the PfiXS type ; (b) bust facing with sceptre, 
PftXS type ; (c) bust facing with sword ; rev. cross with trefoils in angles. 

III. William II. (a) Bust to r. with sword ; (b) bust facing with 
sword ; (c) bust facing with sceptre, star on r. of crown ; (d) bust 
facing without sceptre, sword, or star ; (e) bust facing, a star on each 
side. 

This third series is marked by a general coarseness of work as 
compared with the earlier ones, and the coins are slightly lighter in 
weight. The type of reverse throughout consists of a cross, usually 
with ornaments or letters in the angles. 

198. Obv. }< PILLEMVS REX I. Bust to 1., crowned ; in front, sceptre. Rev. 

^ ORDRIC ON LLEPEC (Gloucester). Cross fleury; in centre, circle. 
JR -7. Wt. 20-0. 

This is considered to be William's first coinage. 

199. Obv. >k PILLEMVS REX. Bust facing, wearing large crown, from which 

depend fillets on either side. Eev. * 6ODRIC ON LVNDEI (London). 
Cross voided, each limb terminating in two crescents; in each angle, 
pyramid outwards; in centre, annulet. M -75. Wt. 16 '5. 
From the shape of the crown this is known as the " bonnet type." 
A variety has the obverse as No. 198. 

200. Obv. * PILLEMVS REX. Bust facing, crowned, beneath canopy. Eev. 

* /ESELPI ON OXENEFO (Oxford). Lozenge-shaped ornament, each 
angle terminating in a trefoil ; in centre, circle, st, -75. Wt. 20-0. 
Known as the " canopy type." 

* Son of Robert le Diable, Duke of Normandy, claimed the throne as heir 
designate of Edward the Confessor, defeated and slew Harold II at Hastings, 
A.D. 1066. Succeeded by his sons, William Rufus and Henry I. 



WILLIAM I. 35 

201. Obv. * PILLEM REX AN6LOR. Bust facing, crowned, between two Plate vi. 

sceptres. Eev. ^ MAN ON CANTVLBI (Canterbury). Cross botonnee SILVKK. 
over cross floury, annulet in centre. Si. -75. Wt. 20 '0. 

202. Obv. ^ PILLEM REX AN3L. Bust facing, crowned, between two stars. 

Rev. >fr PVLFPINE ON IEXE (Exeter). Quadrilateral ornament with 
pellet at each angle on cross botonnee; in centre, circle. 2R '75. 
Wt. 20-4. 

The above are the types usually classed to William I. It will be 
noticed that on these the name of the king is spelt " Willemus " or 
" Willem " ; whilst on all subsequent types it reads " Willelm." 



William I or William IT. 

203. Obv. i PILLELM REX. Bust to r., crowned; in r. hand, sceptre. Eev. 

% CINSTAN ON DOFI (Dover). Cross pattee, circle in centre ; trefoil in 
each angle, inwards. & -75. Wt. 21 -0. 

204. Obv. i PILLELM REX. Bust facing, crowned ; sceptre on r., held by r. 

hand. Eev. 3? PESELMIE ON BA-DN (Bath). Cross pattee; in angles, 

PfiXS, each letter within circle. M -75. Wt. 20-0. 

A variety has this reverse with the obverse of the preceding. The 
reverse type is copied from coins of Cnut, &c. It may be the last 
issue of William I, and would mark the generally quiet state of the 
country, or else it may be the first of William Rufus and points to his 
peaceful succession. 

205. Obv. >%* PILLELM REX I. Bust facing, crowned; in r. hand, sword. 

Eev. ^ PICHXSCI ON SIFLI (Ilchester). Quadrilateral ornament on 
cross pattee, each point of ornament terminating in trefoil. JR '15. 
Wt. 21-6. 



William II (Rufus). 1087-1100. 
COINAGE, see under William I. 

Obv. <fc PILLELM REX. Bust to r., crowned; r. hand holding sword. 
Eev. ^ LIFSVNE ON M/ELI (Maldon). Cross pattee over cross fleury; 
in centre, circle. JR -8. Wt. 21 '6. 

Obv. *J PILLELM REX. Bust facing, crowned ; in r. hand, sword. Eev. 
3? COLBERN ON PALI (Wallingford). Cross pattee within quatrefoil ; 
in centre, circle. JR '8. Wt. 21-4. 

This reverse also occurs with the obverse of the preceding. Another 
iriety has the reverse similar to No. 205. 

Obv. *fc PILLELM Rl. Bust facing, crowned; in r. hand, sceptre; on r., 
star. Eev. J< IELFPINE ON LVN (London). Cross fleury ; in centre, 
circle; in each angle, pyramid outwards. M "75. Wt. 21-3. 
209. Obv. %< PILLELM REX. Bust facing, crowned; 011 either side, star. 
Eev. ^ LIFPIN ON LESTE (Leicester). Cross annuletty over cross 
pattee voided; in centre, circle. M -8. Wt. 21-3. 

This appears to be the last type of William II. A variety is with- 
out the stars at the sides of the head. The above give all the known 
types of William I and II. 

D 2 




36 ENGLISH COINS. 

PI;lU vi Henry I. 1100-1135. 

Sn.VKi:. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

The types of this reign are numerous and varied, and their sequence 
is difficult to determine. The different forms and positions of the bust 
on the obverse are : (1) Bust facing or to 1., often with sceptre or 
sword ; resembling coins of William I and II. (2) Bust three-quarters 
to 1. or r., with sceptre ; this appears to form a middle type, but 
it may have lasted to the end of the reign. (3) Profile bust to r. or 1., 
with or without sceptre ; similar to coins of Stephen. The reverse 
types of the coins generally consist of some form of cross with orna- 
ments, several of the earlier ones imitating those of William I and II. 
The weight and fineness of the coins should be as of William I and II ; 
but they are often lighter, and the metal appears to be debased. 

210. Obv. ^ HNRI REX NL. Bust facing, crowned; annulet on either side. 

Rev. 4- AL6AR ON LVNDN (London). Cross fleury, annulet in centre; 
pyramid inwards in each angle and terminating in three pellets, jj 75. 
Wt. 22-0. 
This obverse type resembles very closely the later issues of William II. 

211. Obv. * HENRI REX. Bust facing, crowned. Eev. ^ ARCIL ON 

STNFR (Stamford). Across field and between two lines, PA + ; above and 
below, two annulets. JR '1. Wt. 19-2. 
The reverse is copied from coins of Harold II. 

Plate vii. 212. Obv. ^ hEMRIC REX. Bust facing, crowned ; in r. hand, sceptre ; on r., 
star. Eev. * PVLFGfiR . ON LVNDE : (London). Cross pattee, 
voided; in each angle, lis inwards. JR *8. Wt. 18*2. 

Adopted from a type of William II. 

213. Obv. 3+ hENRICVS RE : Bust facing, crowned ; in r. hand, sceptre ; on r., 

star. Eev. * BLfiChEMfiN : ON LVN (London). Cross composed of 
four ovals, within which another cross of pellets ; in each angle lis 
inwards. JR -8. Wt. 17-0. 

This appears to be an intermediate type between the preceding and 
No. 215. 

214. Obv. * hENRICVS : Bust to 1., crowned; in r. hand, sceptre. Eev. 

^ PINTERLEDE : ON BM)fl (Bath). Quadrilateral ornament, ends 
terminating in lis; in centre, star; in each angle, ornament of three 
annulets. At -75. Wt. 20-6. 

215. Obv. ^ hENRICVS. Bust, crowned, three-quarters to 1., holding sceptre. 

Eev. ^ CLERIC : ON PINCE : (Winchester). Quadrilateral ornament, 
angles fleured, over cross fleury ; pellet in each angle. M -8. Wt. 21'2. 
This is the most common of Henry's types, and appears to be of the 
middle period. 

216. Obi-. ^ hENRI REX. Bust three quarters to r., crowned ; sceptre in r. 

hand, and in front, three globes on which stars. Eev. ^ DERLINC : ON : 
PRRR (Wareham). Cross potent over cross annuletty ; in each angle, star. 
At '8. Wt. 20*4. 

This is one of the rarest types of the reign. 



HENRY I. 37 

217. Obv. % hENRICVS R. Bust to 1., crowned; before, rosette of pellets. Plate vii. 

Rev. %* OSVLF : ON : PALL : (Wallingford). Cross pattee, circle in SILVER. 

centre; in each angle, pellet within annulet. JR -65. Wt. 19-4. 
Other types of this reign are : bust to 1., with sceptre, rev. cross 
fleury ; bust facing, with sceptre, rev. cross within quatrefoil, lis in 
angles ; bust facing, with sceptre, rev. quatrefoil ornament enclosing 
live annulets crosswise (all early types) ; bust in profile, with sceptre, 
rev. legend in two concentric circles ; and bust in profile, rev. cross 
moline, the tressures fleury (a common type of Stephen). 



Stephen. 1135-1154. 
COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

The types are mostly copies or adaptations from Henry I's coins ; 
in consequence it is difficult to determine their sequence. On the 
obverse the king's buso is either in profile or three-quarters facing 
or actually facing. The reverse types as before consist of various 
forms of crosses with ornaments, a notable exception being one with 
martlets in the angles of the cross, as the " sovereign" pennies of 
Edward the Confessor (see No. 189). Though carelessly struck and 
seldom in good condition, Stephen's coins are of silver but little 
debased, and they are as a rule but slightly under the standard weight 
of 22^ grs. The pieces of rude work with legends almost illegible are 
said to have been issued by the barons during the civil war. Some of 
these coins have the king's bust defaced by a cross or by some other 
symbol. During this and the previous reign there is a falling off in 
the number of mints. 

218. Obv. *fc STEIFNE REX : Bust to r., crowned; in front, sceptre in r. 

hand. Eev. ^ PILLEM : ON : CKRDI : (Carlisle). Cross moline, 
pierced at ends; the tressures fleury. JR -8. Wt. 21-6. 
This is precisely as the last issue of Henry I. On some coins of this 

type Stephen is represented holding a standard or a mace, a possible 

allusion to the Battle of the Standard (A.D. 1138). 

219. Obv. %* STIEFNE. Bust facing; sceptre in r. hand. Rev. 3+ ~KD1\M : 

ON : DOVRE (Dover). Short cross voided within circle, fleured internally. 
JR -8. Wt. 20-6. 
This is also an early type. 

220. Obv. 3? STIFENE RE. Bust to 1., crowned; in front, sceptre in r. 

hand. Rev. <%* VRLEO : N : C(CX1T (Exeter). Long cross voided on 
tressure, the arches fleured. JR "75. Wt. 19' 7. 
This is the usual type of the so-called baronial coins. 

221. Obv. * SIEFNE. Bust facing, crowned. Rev. %* PILLEM I : ON : 

NOR (Norwich). Cross potent within circle, fleured internally. JR '8. 

Wt. 18-6. 

Though a copy of an earlier coin, it is probable that this issue is a 
late one. Other types are : bust facing, with sceptre, rev. cross 
voided with mullet in each angle ; bust in profile to r., with sceptre, 



38 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate vii. rev. quadrilateral ornament on short voided cross, or cross potent with 
SILVER, annulets in angles, or cross pattee over cross fleury (see No. 226) ; and 

head to r., with sceptre, rev. short cross voided, martlet in each angle. 
The coins, which follow, were struck during the civil war either by 

the adherents of the king or by those who supported the cause of 

Matilda, the Empress and mother of Henry II. 

222. STEPHEN AND MATILDA, his wife, A.D. 1141. 

The following coin was formerly attributed to Stephen and Henry 
(afterwards Henry II), and was supposed to have been struck on the 
occasion of the treaty made between them at Wallingford in 1153. 
As however one of the figures appears to be that of a woman, it more 
probably represents Stephen and his wife, Matilda, being issued in 
1141, when the queen commanded the army, which, by the capture of 
Robert of Gloucester, secured the liberation of the king. 

Obo. ! STIEFNE R. Two figures standing opposite to each other, and holding 
between them a standard or a long sceptre, terminating in a lis. Rev. An 
escarbuncle of four plain limbs, each terminating in an annulet, and four 
engrailed limbs, each terminating in a lis ; around, border of ornaments in 
place of legend. M '85. Cracked. 
The coins are of this type only and are very rare. 

223. MATILDA, Empress, A.D. 1141 ? 

Daughter of Henry I, married, first Henry V, the Emperor, and 
secondly Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, by whom she was the 
mother of Henry II, and appointed by her father his successor. She 
came to England in 1139, defeated Stephen and was acknowledged 
queen in 1141. Being herself defeated in 1142 she afterwards 
returned to Normandy. Her coins, pennies, bear the title of IMP. 
(Imperatrix), and were probably issued in 1141, in which year she 
was crowned at Oxford. They were struck at Bristol, London, 
Oxford and Warwick. 

Olv. [* MA]TILDI : IMP. Bust to r., crowned; in front, sceptre. Rev. 
* SVETIN : ON : OX : (Oxford). Cross moline, pierced at ends; the 
treasures fleury. M -7. Wt. 15-8. 

The coins struck at Bristol, Matilda's stronghold, bear the moneyer's 
name, Turchil, who also worked for Henry I, and Roger, Earl of 
Warwick. Matilda confirmed the privilege of a mint to Glastonbury ; 
but no coins can be identified with that place. Her coins are of the 
above type only. 

224. HENRY OF BLOIS, Bishop of Winchester, d. A.D. 1171. 

Younger brother of Stephen, whose accession he supported. In 
L he espoused the cause of Matilda ; but soon restored his allegiance 
to Stephen. The following coin was probably struck before 1141. 
Obv. * heH[RI]CV3 6PC. Bust to r., crowned; in front, crozier and star. 
Rev. 8[TjPhKMV8 RX. Cross raguled on cross fleury. JR "8. 
Broken. 

The king's name on the reverse shows that this coin was struck at a 
time when Henry was supporting his brother. 






STEPHEN. 39 

225. EUSTACE, elder son of Stephen, d. A.D. 1153. Plate vi ; . 
He was appointed governor of York, and appears to have struck SILVER. 

coins there by virtue of a licence from his father. Some bear the 
name of that city. 

(fbc. EVSTRCIV3 Full length figure tor., in pointed helmet; sword in r. 

hand; behind, ornaments. Rev. <%< EBORRCI E DOTS (York). Cross 

raguled within quatrefoil, with annulet at each cusp and in each spandril. 

M -75. Wt. 18-5. 

The letters after the name of the mint may be that of the moneyer. 

Other pieces of the same type have on the reverse the legend 

"Thomas Filius Ulf " (i.e. Thomas FitzUlviet, who in 1131 was 

alderman and hereditary lagaman of York). 

226. EGBERT, Earl of Gloucester, A.D. 1109-1149. 

Illegitimate son of Henry I, created Earl circ. 1131, did homage to 
Stephen in 1136, but espoused the cause of Matilda, the Empress, and 
had the chief command of her forces from 1139-1147. 

Obr. RODB6RTUS D . . 3* Horseman to r., wearing pointed helmet; in r. 
hand, sword. Rev. Cross pattee over cross fleury ; around, various 
ornaments with the letter D in place of legend. IR *8. Fragment. 
The similarity of this coin in type and style to No. 225 leaves no 
doubt that both were struck about the same time. The full inscription 
on the obverse is somewhat doubtful, as the only few genuine pieces 
are so broken as to render it in each case incomplete. A perfect 
specimen, not above suspicion, reads J< RODBGRT (XS ST D 
(Comes Gloucestriae Dux?). Robert's eoins are of this type only. 

11. EUSTACE FITZ-JOHN, d. A.D. 1157. 

Son of John Monoculus and Magdalen, aunt of Stephen, was Lord 
Knaresborough, commanded in the North against Stephen in 1138, 

id assisted David I of Scotland. 

)v. eiSTROhIVS : Lion passant to r. ; beneath, two shackle-bolts ; infield, 
cross, annulets, etc. Rev. Cross fleury with fleur-de-lis ornaments and 
annulets in the angles ; other ornaments, crosses, crescents, etc., in place 
of legend. M &. Wt. 18 '7. 

Coins of this type were formerly attributed to Eustace, son of 
Stephen (see Num. Cliron. 1890, p. 42). 

J. ROGER, Earl of Warwick, d. A.D. 1153. 

Son of Henry, Earl of Warwick, who died in 1123, joined the 
Impress Matilda after the capture of Stephen at Lincoln in 1140. He 
struck coins at Bristol, Canterbury, Lincoln, London, and Warwick, 
probably by authority of the Empress. 

Obv. >%* PERERIC. Bust to r., crowned; in front, sceptre in r. hand. Rev. 

*fc (3ODRICVS : ON LV (London). Cross moline, pierced at ends; the 

tressures fleury. M '15. Wt. 22-0. 

This type is copied from coins of Henry I and Stephen (see No. 218). 
All Warwick's coins are of this type. The bust may be intended 
either for that of Stephen or Matilda, but more probably for the 
latter. 




40 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate vii. The only other coins of the above class struck during the reign of 
SH.VKI;. Stephen are those which have on the obverse a full face and the legend 
LVILLEM DVO or WILLELMVS, and on the reverse a quadrilateral 
ornament over a short double cross. These have been attributed to 
William, son of Stephen. The mints are Chichester 1 (CRST), Warwick 
(WAR), and Wisbeach (WIS). This attribution is however somewhat 
doubtful. 

Henry II. 1154-1189. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

ISSUES, tfec. Two. The first issue, which consisted of coins of an uniform 
type (see Nos. 229-230), took place in 1156. Owing, however, to their 
being imperfectly struck and the legends often partly illegible, a new 
coinage, known from its reverse type as " the short-cross coinage " (see 
No. 231) was ordered in 1180. This second issue continued with but 
very slight variations in type till the middle of the reign of Henry III 
(A.D. 1248). The pennies therefore struck by Richard I and John do 
not bear their names, but that of their father. The coins of Richard 
and John are, however, to be distinguished from those of Henry II by 
slight changes in the portrait of the king, especially in the arrangement 
of the hair, and in their being somewhat smaller and neater in design. 
(For a full explanation of this classification, see Num. Ckron. 1865, 
p. 255.) 

The weight and fineness are as the coinage of William I. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Silver. Denier d' Argent and Half-Denier. 

Henry II was the first English monarch to strike money for the 
French domains. The issue was apparently limited to the Duchy of 
Aquitaine. This coinage must have taken place before 1168, in which 
year that province was ceded by Henry to his son, Richard Cceur-de- 
Lion. The weight of the denier is about 17 grs., and the standard 
of fineness about 3 parts silver to 9 parts alloy. 

229. 1st issue. Obv. [^ h]ENR REX fiN(o. Bust nearly full face, crowned; 

in r. hand, sceptre. Eev. >%* RENCSRD : ON : BRIS (Bristol). Cross 
pattee with small cross pattee in each angle. ^ -8. Wt. 22-0. 
This is the only type of Henry's first money. The mints are more 
numerous than in the previous reigns. 

230. Obv. * hENRI REX 7\N6L. Bust, nearly full face, crowned, as on the 

preceding. Rev. * WILLEM : ON : NIVCfi (Newcastle). Crosspattee, 
etc., as on the preceding, ji -8. Wt. 22-4. 

231. 2nd issue. Obv. hQNRICXVS RQX. Bust facing, crowned; in r. hand, 

sceptre. Eev. * IS7\a . ON QV3RWI (York). Short cross voided; 
cross botonnee in each angle. A\. -75. Wt. 22-0. 



. . . . . 

This also is the only type of the second issue. The name of Isaac 
of York has been immortalised by Sir Walter Scott in Ivanhoe. 

232. ANGLO-GALLIC. Denier of Aquitaine. Obv. *% hENRICVS REX. Cross 
pattee. Rev. 0*0 flQVITfiNI 060 arranged in four lines across the 
field. jt -7. Wt. 10-6. 

Henry succeeded to the dukedom of Aquitaiue by right of his 






HENEY II. 41 

marriage with Eleanor, daughter of William, 9th Duke of Aquitaine 
and Earl of Poitou. The half-denier of Henry II, which is unique, 
has on the obv. a cross pattee and around <%* ENRICVS, and on the rev. 
REX across the field with ftl above and a cross pattee below. 
Eleanor, his wife, also struck deniers for Aquitaine. They are, obv. 
3* DVCISIT and two crosses dividing letters M and l\ (Moneta 
Alienora?); rev. ^ A6VITANIE, cross pattee. These coins were 
probably not struck till after the death of Henry, when Eleanor 
assumed the title and exercised the authority of Duchess of Aquitaine. 

Richard I. 1189-1199. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

As noted above (see coinage of Henry II) the types of the coins 
attributed to Richard I are very similar to those of his father, even 
to the name on the obverse. The slight difference consists in the 
shape of the bust ; the crown having more than five pearls or being 
frequently in the form of a beaded line, and the head quite full face 
with the number of curls varying from five to one on each side. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Silver. Denier and Half-Denier or Obole 
d' Argent. These were struck for Aquitaine, Rouen (Normandy), 
Issoudun (Berri), and Poitou. Richard is also said to have coined 
money for Anjou, Le Mans, and Tours. The denier weighed from 
17 to 13 grs. and varied in fineness from 8 parts silver and 4 of alloy 
to 3 parts silver and 9 of alloy. 

233. Obv. hQNRIQVS R9X. Bust facing, wearing crown with pearls in a beaded 
line, four curls each side of head ; in r. hand, sceptre. Eev. *k STIVQNS 
ON LVN (London). Short cross voided ; cross botonnee in each angle. 
M -75. Wt. 21-6. 

. ANGLO-GALLIC. Denier of Aquitaine. Obv. RICRRDVS in two lines; 
above, *fr ; below, U). Eev. ^ TC6VIT7XNIE. Cross pattee. M "75. 
Wt. 16-5. 

As the title of Rex is omitted on the Aquitaine coins it is probable 
hat they were issued before Richard's accession to the English throne. 
Aquitaine was granted to him in 1168. The half -denier of Aquitaine 
is of the same type as the denier, and only differs from it in size and 
weight. 

(5. DENIER OF BERRI. Obv. RICARD' RGX. Cross pattee. Jlev. 
<%< 6XOLDVNI (Issoudun). In centre 5U ; above, straight line; below, 
annulet. JR '7. Wt. 12 : 1. 
Issoudun, in the province of Berri, was ceded to Richard by Philip II 
France, and he held it from 1188 to 1195. The reverse type is 
opposed to be a degraded form of the Greek omega inverted. 

236. DENIER OF POITOU. Obv. %* RICTXRDVS REX. Cross pattee. Eev. 

PICT7WIENSIS in three lines across the field, jj '75. Wt. 15-6. 
In 1196 Richard ceded the revenues of Aquitaine and Poitou to 
Otho, the Emperor. The Poitou coins were therefore struck between 
1189 and that date. The half -denier or obole is of the same type as 
the denier. . The coins (deniers) struck at Rouen have the same 061;. 
us the preceding, and on the rev. { RODCSDVCO ; in centre DVX. 




42 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate iii. 

sn.vKi; John. 1199-1216. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny and Halfpenny. 

Like Richard's coins those of John are the same as his father's (see 
coinage of Henry II) and only differ in the bust, which has a long face, 
and beard formed by straight lines ; two curls generally on each side 
enclosing pellets, and five or seven pearls in the crown. The halfpennies 
vary in type from the pennies and have John's own name (see below). 

No Anglo-Gallic coins are known of this reign. 

237. Penny. Obv. hQNRICVS RQX. Bust facing, crowned, with beard, two 
curls on each side of head; in r. hand, sceptre. Rev. hVQ ON QfiNTQ 
(Canterbury) ; m. m. cross botonn6e. Short cross voided, cross botonnee in 
each angle, jj -75. Wt, 23-0. 

The halfpennies have on the obc. the head of the king in profile, and 
around, his name lOhANNES; and on the rev. a cross pattee with 
Us and pellet in each angle, and around, the moneyer's name and mint 
(London or Winchester). Only a few specimens are known. 

Henry III. 1216-1272. 

COINAGE. Gold. Penny. Silver. Penny. 

ISSUES, &c. The gold penny, the first gold coin of ^he English series 
since the Conquest, was struck in pursuance of a writ dated at Chester, 
16 Aug. 1257. It was of pure gold and was to be current for 20 pence 
sterling. The silver coins of this reign, pennies, are of two issues. 
The first issue (12161248) was of the short-cross type as Henry II's, 
but the coins varied from those of the previous reigns in being smaller 
in size, of neater workmanship, and in having the bust placed low down 
showing hardly any neck and usually three curls on each side of the head. 
The second issue (1248-1272) is known as the long-cross type, having 
on the reverse a long double cross extending to the edge of the coin, 
dividing the legend, and with three pellets in each angle. These coins 
have for the most part the numerals III or TQRCU after the king's 
name, showing that they were struck by the third king of that name. 
They present three small varieties of type (see descriptions). The 
weight and fineness are as the coinage of William I. The number of 
mints was much reduced during this reign. 

No Anglo-Gallic coins were issued by Henry III. 

GOLD. 238. Penny. Obv. hGNRICC RQX l-l-l. Full-length figure of the king, crowned, 
seated facing on throne ; in r. hand, sceptre ; in 1., orb. Rer. WILL0M : 
ON LVNDQ : (London). Long cross voided, rose with three pellets in 
each angle. AT -85. Wt. 45-2. 

In 1265 the current value of this coin was raised to 24 pence 
sterling ; but on account of its meeting with little public favour it was 
withdrawn from circulation circ. 1270. No further issue of gold took 
place till 1344. Only a few specimens are known of the gold penny. 
Varieties read LVND or LVNDSN. 



HENRY III. 43 

239. Short-cross Penny. Obv. hSftRlflVS R6(X. Bust facing, crowned; three Plate viL 

curls on each side, the lowest one small ; in r. hand, sceptre. Rev. SILVKK. 
J< PIQR6(S ON DVR (Durham). Short cross voided ; cross botonnee in 
each angle, xt -65. Wt. 23-0. 

240. Long-cross Penny. 1st type. Obv. hQNRIQVS R8X III. Bust facing, Plate viii. 

crowned; r. hand holding sceptre. Rev. RRNDVLF ON S'QD (St. 

Edmundshury). Long cross voided, dividing legend ; in each angle, three 

pellets. M -7. Wt. 23-4. 

This reverse type of a cross with three pellets in each angle 
continued on all the silver coins almost without variation till the 
middle of the reign of Henry VII, and was not abandoned on the 
smaller ones till that of James I. 

241. Long-cross Penny. 2nd type. Obv. fc hQNRICCVS RQX TSROCI. Bust 

facing, crowned ; no sceptre. Rev. NICOLS ON LVND (London). Long 
cross voided, &c., as on the preceding piece. M '75. Wt. 23-0. 
Pennies of the second type differ from those of the first in reading 
III or TflROCI, in having a mullet before the king's name as mint- 
mark, and in there being no sceptre. The third type varies from the 
second in reading hQNRIQVS RQX RNG, in omitting the numerals or 
TQRCU after the king's name, and in having a crescent under the 
mullet. On some of the last type, however, the reverse legend 
continues that on the obverse, as LI6( TQRCU QftN., LVN., &c. 



Edward I. 1272-1307. 

COINAGE. Silver. Groat ?, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

The attribution of the groat (No. 242) to Edward I is somewhat 
doubtful. Some look upon this coin as a pattern, whilst others would 
assign it to Edward III. The penny, halfpenny and farthing are of 
uniform type having on the obv. the crowned head facing, and on the 
rev. a long cross pattee with three pellets in each angle. This type 
remains unchanged till after the first coinage of Henry VII. With 
one exception, " Robert de Hadley " (see No. 243 note), the money ers' 
names no longer occur, and that of the mint is usually preceded 
by CIVITAS or VILLA. The earlier pennies weigh 22^- grs., but in 
Edward's 28th year the standard was reduced to 22 grs. and remained 
so till the end of the reign, of Edward II. No change took place 
in the fineness of the coins. 

Considerable difficulty has hitherto existed in separating the pence, 
halfpence and farthings of Edward I, II, and III. The general 
principle of assigning the pennies with the clothed bust to Edward I 
and II, and those with the so-called unclothed bust to Edward III, 
and again those reading " Edw " to Edward I and " Edwardus " to 
Edward III, and the intermediate forms to Edward II, is now hardly 
altogether tenable in the light of recent discoveries. The clues are to 
be found in the shape of the bust, the style of lettering, which in the 
earlier pieces is larger, and also in the spelling of the king's name. 
The pennies reading ' ' Edw " and without stops after the words may be 
assigned to Edward I ; those reading " Edwa, Ed war and Edward," 



44 ENGLISH COINS. 

i. also without stops after the words, to Edward II, and those with 

MI.VKI:. Edw, Edwa, Edward and Edwardus" usually with stops, annulets or 

saltires, to Edward III. These general rules do not apply to halfpence 

and farthings. (For a full discussion of this question see Num. Citron., 

1898, pp. 8-72.) 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Base Silver or Billon. Gros, Denier d' Argent, 
Lion, and Demi-Lion. These were struck for Gascony, Aquitaine 
(Bordeaux, Guessin, i.e. Guiche, and Limoges), and Ponthieu. The 
lion and demi-lion, attributed to Gascony, were struck before Edward's 
accession to the English throne. The fineness varies from 7 parts 
silver to 5 of alloy, and 4 parts silver to 8 of alloy. 

242. Groat. Obv. * 6DWKRDVS : D'l : SRE' : R6X : HR6L'. Bust facing, 

crowned and clothed, within quatrefoil ; mullet on breast and at each side of 
head; trefoil in each spandril of quatrefoil. Rev. : DN'S hIBITG DVX 
7XQVT LORDOrilft Gl VI (in two concentric circles). Long cross fleury, 
three pellets in each angle. 2R 1-15. Wt. 87 '4. 

These groats vary in weight from 138 grs. to 80 grs. ; which is a 
strong argument in favour of their being patterns. The mullet on the 
king's breast would indicate a late issue, if this piece is of Edward I 
(see No. 244). 

243. Penny. Obv. DW R AN6L DNS hYB. Bust facing, crowned and 

clothed. Rev. * CIVITftS DVR6M6 (Durham). Long cross pattee 
with three pellets in each angle. M &. Wt. 21-4. 

The cross moline is the badge of Anthony Beck, Bishop of Durham 
(12831311), by whom this coin was struck. The number of mints 
during this reign was much reduced, and pennies were only struck at 
Berwick, Bristol, Canterbury, Chester, Durham, Exeter, Kingston 
(Hull), Lincoln, London, Newcastle, St. Edmundsbury, and York, 
and by Robert de Hadley who resided at St. Edmundsbury. Those 
of Berwick have a bear's head in one of the angles of the cross on 
the reverse. 

244. Penny. Obc. 3? DW R ANGL DNS hYB. Bust facing, as on the last. 

Rev. CIVITRS LONDON. Long cross pattee with pellets in angles. 
JR -75. Wt. 22-0. 

The pennies may be divided into three classes from their obverse 
type ; (i) with large letters and large m. m. a cross ; (ii) with smaller 
letters, smaller m. in., and the coin itself smaller ; (iii) similar to the last, 
but mullet or star on king's breast. The last were probably not struck 
till after 1300. (Hawkins, 3rd ed., p. 200.) 

245. Penny. Obv. DW R - 7XN6L - DNS - hYB. Bust facing, crowned and 

clothed, within a triangle; below, pellet. Rev. CUVITAS CANTOR 
(Canterbury). Long cross pattee with pellets in angles. JR -75. Wt. 21-2. 

This is the usual obverse type of the Irish coins ; similar pieces 
also occur of London. Irish pennies also have the English obverse type. 
As the dies for the Irish coins were made in London, these pieces are 
probably only so-called " mules." This coin may be of Edward II. 



EDWARD I. 45 

24G. Halfpenny. Obv. * DW R ANGL DNS hYB. Bust facing, &c., as on Plate viii. 
No. 243. Rev. C I VITAS LONDON. Long cross pattee with pellets in SILVER 
angles. 2B -6. Wt. 11 -0. 

Others read eDWARDVS RX, 6DWARDVS R6X A_AN ANGL or 

ANSLI. Halfpennies were also struck at Berwick (with a bear's head 
in two or one angle of the cross on the rev.), Bristol, Lincoln, New- 
castle, and York. 

247. Farthing. Obv. * 6DWHRDVS : R6X. Bust facing, &c., as on No. 243. 

Eev. LONDONI6NSIS. Long cross pattee with pellets in angles. ^-5 
Wt. 5-5. 

The general reverse legend of the London farthing is Cl VITAS 
LONDON. Others read on obverse DWARDVS RGX A. or AN. Those 
reading 6. R. AN6LI, or . R. ANGL. D. H. and without inner circle 
are doubtful Edward I or II. The other mints are Berwick (with a 
bear's head in two angles of the cross), Bristol, Lincoln, and York. 

248. ANGLO-GALLIC. Lion of Gascony. Obv. ^ GDVVARD' : FILI'. Lion BILLON 

passant, guardant, to 1. Eev. J h : R66IS ; ANSLI6. Cross pattee. 
Bil. -75. Wt. 13-0. 

Lions and demi-lions of this type are classed to Gascony, as Henry 
III resigned that province to Edward in 1252, and in 1254 on 
Edward's marriage to Eleanor of Castile his rights were confirmed by 
Alphonso XII. This coin was struck in Henry Ill's lifetime. 

249. Gros of Aquitaine. Obv. EDOVARDVS REX_J< BftDICTTV : SIT : 

n,OM : DR I : riRI : DGI : (in two concentric circles). Cross patt6e, 
dividing inner legend only. Rev. *% DVX AQITAftlE. Lion rampant, 
guardant, to 1. ; around, ornamental border of arches enclosing trefoils 
Bil. 1-05. Wt. 47-6. 

It is somewhat uncertain by which Edward this coin and No. 251 
were struck. If by Edward I, the issue probably did not take place 
till after 1302, when his possessions in France were confirmed by 
Philip IY. The gros is very similar in type to the coins of that 
denomination of Philip IY (1285-1314). 



:. Lion of Aquitaine. Obv. J DVVARDVS RX. Lion passant, guardant 
tol. Eev. * DVX A^VlTANie. Cross pattee. Bil. --7. Wt. 13-6. 
Che demi-lion is of similar type. 



] 

251. Gros of Bordeaux. Similar to No. 249, but the legend on the rev. reads 

i* MOnETA & BVRD (Bordeaux). Bil. 1-0. Wt. 40-0. 

252. Lion of Guessin. Obv. ^ GDVARDVS RGX. Lion passant, guardant, to 1. ; 

above, 6 (Guessin) ; below . Eev. 3? DVX AQITAniG. Cross pattee. 

Bil. -7. Wt. 16-0. 

Guessin or Guiche was a castle near Bayonne. The lions of 
Bordeaux are of similar type, but have AQT. under the lion on the obv. 
and the name of the mint, BVRD. in the rev. legend. The deniers of 
Ponthieu have a cross with the king's name on the obv. and MONETA 
PONTI, in two lines, with ornaments on the rev. 



46 ENGLISH COINS. 

Platevil1 Edward II. 1307-1327. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

These are of the same weight, fineness and type as the later coinage 
of Edward I ; but the letters of the legends are generally smaller and 
the workmanship neater. No star occurs on the king's breast and his 
name reads " Edwa, Edwar, or Edward " (see under Edward I). There 
are no Anglo-Gallic coins which can be attributed to Edward II. 

SILVER 253. Penny. Obv. %> SDWARD R AN6L DNS hYB. Bust facing, crowned 
and clothed. Rev. tflVITAS DVRSMQ (Durham). Long cross pattee 
with three pellets in each angle. & "1. Wt. 21-3. 

This coin was struck by the king's moneyer. Those issued by the 
bishops of Durham have for mint-mark a cross moline (Bp. Beck), one 
limb of cross in form of crozier (Bp. Kellow), and a lion rampant (Bp. 
Beaumont). The mint name of Durham also reads DVR9MIQ, DVNQLM, 
or DVNQLMI. Pennies were also struck at Berwick, Bristol, Canter- 
bury, London, Newcastle, St. Edmundsbury, and York. 

254. Penny. Obv. * 8DWAR R AftSL DftS hYB. Bust as on the 

last. Rev. CUVITAS etBORACIl (York). Long cross pattee with quatre- 
foil in centre and three pellets in each angle ; three dots outside the pellets 
in the second quarter. M -7. Wt. 20-6. 
On some of the coins of this mint there is no quatrefoil in the centre 

of the cross on the reverse. This coin may be of the early issue of 

Edward Til. 

255. Halfpenny. Obv. ^ QDWAR R AN6L DNS hYB. Bust facing, 

&c., as on No. 253. Rev. CO VITAS LONDON. Long cross pattee, &c., as 
on No. 253. JK -6. Wt. 10-5. 

The only other mint, to which halfpennies of this reign have been 
attributed, is Berwick. They read QDWA R ANGL DNS hi and 
VILLA BQRQWia. 

The farthings of this reign cannot be distinguished from those of 
Edward I or III. 

Edward III. 1327-1377. 

COINAGE. Gold. Florin, Half-Florin, Quarter-Florin, Noble, Half- 
Noble, and Quarter-Noble. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES.* Gold. Four: 1st issue (1343), Florin, Half-Florin, and 
Quarter-Florin. 2nd issue (1 344), Noble and Quarter-Noble. 3rd issue 
(1346), Noble, Half-Noble, and Quarter-Noble. 4th issue (1351-1377), 
Noble, Half-Noble, and Quarter-Noble. (For sub-divisions of this last 
issue see note No. 260). Silver. Two : 1st issue (1327-1351), Penny, 
Halfpenny, and Farthing. 2nd issue (1351-1377), Groat, Half-Groat, 



* For particulars relating to the changes in the types, &c., see the descriptions 
of the coins. When numerous changes occur in the issues this order will, 

\vlinrf> pnn v^rnnnf. V\n orlrvrtf.ci/1 i*- +V*r> fn+n..,. 



wi. MM WUAVi rVUOJU UlUUOJtVUD Ullitlit'tiS 

where convenient, he adopted in the future. 






EDWARD III. ' 47 



Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. (For sub-divisions of this issue see 
note No. 263.) 

WEIGHT. Gold. Florin 108 grs. ; Noble (1344) 138^ grs.; (1346) 
128} grs. ; (1351-1377) 120 grs. Silver. Penny (1327-1344) 22| grs. ; 
(1344-1346) 20grs. ; (1346-1351) 20 grs. ; (1351-1377) 18 grs. The 
weights of the other denominations in gold and silver are in proportion. 

FINENESS. Gold.* 23 carats 3 grs. pure gold to J gr. alloy. This 
is known as the " old standard." Silver. 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine silver to 
1 8 dwts. alloy ; as William I's coinage. 

The current value of the Florin was 6s. and that of the Noble 6s. 8d. ; 
the other denominations in proportion. The gold coins are all of the 
Tower mint ; the mints of the silver are noted with the descriptions. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Gold. Noble, Half -Noble, Guiennois, Leopard, 
Ecu or Chaise, Mouton, and Florin. Silver. Double-Hardi, Hardi, 
Double, Gros, Demi-Gros, Denier, and Demi-Denier. Billon. Gros, Demi- 
Gros, Double Tournois, and Denier Tournois. MINTS. Abbeville (?), 
Aquitaine (Acquen, Agen (Dax), Bergerac, Bordeaux, Guessin or 
Guiche, La Rochelle, Lectoure, Limoges, and Poitiers), Bayonne and 
Calais. The types were for the most part copied from contemporary 
French coins, but those struck at Calais are similar to the 
English coins. The gold coins are 23^ carats pure to ^ alloy ; and the 
silver coins were ordered to be of the same fineness as the English money. 

256. Florin. Obv. 9DWR' D' 6R7V RSX AH6L' 5 FRAflCC DUS MB' 
(stops, annulets). King crowned and robed, seated facing, under a canopy ; 
in r. hand, sceptre ; in I., orb ; on either side of throne, leopard ; field sem6 
with lis. Eev. * IhCX : TRAaSlQRS : PQR : ttlSDIVm : ILLORVM : 
I BAT : (stops, saltires). Floriated cross with crown at end of each limb, 
within quatrefoil foliated at angles ; outside each angle, a lion or leopard. 
A71-3. Wt. 106-3. 

This new money marks the introduction of a permanent currency in 
gold in this country. It was ordered to be current by proclamation, 
27th January, 1343 (o.s.), but on account of the high value at which it 
was rated in proportion to the silver it was not generally accepted, 
and was withdrawn from currency in the following August. Only two 
specimens each are known of the florin and the half-florin. 



257. Half-Florin. Obv. *fr SDWAR' D' (3R7V R6(X AR6L' 5 

JDFIS hIB (stops, annulets). Leopard to 1., crowned and guardant, 
with banner of arms of France and England fastened to his neck and 
flowing back on his shoulder. Rev. $* : DOtfliriS : US : 1ft : FVRORS : 
TVO : ARGVAS : SRQ. : (stops, annulets). Quatrefoiled cross with three 
trefoils at end of each limb, within quatrefoil with lis at each angle : outside 
each angle, a lion. AT -95. Wt. 53-4. 
. Quarter-Florin. Obv. 9DWR' : R' : AftGL' : 5 : FRAftC(' : D' : hIB' : 
(stops, annulets). Lion, crowned and guardant, standing to 1. on a cap of 
maintenance on helmet ; field seme with lis. Rev. >^ : SXALTABITVR : 
IP. : GLORIA : (stops, annulets). Floriated cross with quatrefoil in 
centre. A7 '7. Wt. 27-0. 
Several specimens are known of this piece. 



* The fineness of gold is computed upon an ideal pound, the " carat pound," 
which is divided into 24 parts, called carats, and the carat into quarters, caDed 
grains. Thus pure gold is gold of 24 carats. 




|^ ENGLISH COINS. 

i-iatt- viii 259. Noble, 2nd i*ue (1344). Obv. QDWER' : D' : 6Rff' : RQX 
s 5 : FRftftCC : DftS : hYB' (stops, saltires). King crowned, standing, 

facing in ship, holding sword and shield ; three ropes from stern and two 
from prow of vessel. Rev. * lhC( : TRffftSIQftS : PQR : mQDIVM : 
ILLORVJTl : IBZTT : (stops, saltires). Within a tressure of eight arches 
having a trefoil in each spandril, a floriated cross with lis at end of each 
limb, and L (London) within an ornamented compartment in the centre ; 
in each angle of cross, a lion passant, guardant, with crown above. 
A^l-35. Wt. 135-0. 

After the withdrawal of the florin a new coinage consisting of the 
noble, its half and quarter, was ordered to be struck. The noble was 
to be coined at 39 to the Tower pound, and to be current for 6s. 8d. 
Its type is supposed to refer to the victory over the French fleet off 
Sluys in 1340. Of the origin of its name no satisfactory explanation 
has been suggested. Ruding thought that it was derived " from the 
noble nature of the metal of which the coins were composed." 

No half-noble of the second issue is known. For the quarter-noble 
see No. 262. The noble of the third issue is precisely the same as that 
of the second except that it has the letter Q for Edwardus instead 
of L in the centre of the cross on the reverse. This is also one of the 
distinguishing marks of the later coins. The weight also is a criterion. 



Plate ix. 260. Noble, 4tfi issue (1360-1369). Obv. o QDWfiRD : DQI : 6Rfi 

fill<3L : DHS : hYB : 5 7\QT (stops, saltires). King crowned, 
standing in ship, &c., as on the preceding. Rev. +jp lhC( ? 7WTQSTI : 
TRfiftSIQftS : PSR : JTIQDIV : ILLORVm : IBfiT (stops, saltires). 
Floriated cross within eight arched tressure as oil the preceding; but 
in centre of cross, the letter Q for " Edwardus." K 1'35. Wt. 118 '5. 

The gold coins of the fourth issue may be separated into three 
periods according to the titles of the king on the obverse, namely 
(1) from 1351-1360, when he is styled King of France, but not Lord 
of Aquitaine ; (2) from 1360-1369, when the title of France is omitted 
in accordance with the treaty of Bretigny and that of Aquitaine 
substituted ; and (3) from 1369-1377, when, the treaty of Bretigny 
having been broken, both titles are assumed. This rule does not apply 
in all cases to the half and quarter-nobles. There are also many other 
small differences in the type and in the forms of letters and stops. On 
the earlier pieces the letter N is generally Roman, and the stops are 
MI mulcts, but on the later ones we get the English ft and saltires 
eta stops. The above coin bearing the Aquitaine title belongs therefore 
to the second period. A flag at the stern of the vessel occurs on the 
nnl.lcs and half-nobles of the last issue, but the more common type is 
without the flag. (For gold coins of Calais see No. 272.) 

261. Half-Noble, '4M issue (1360-1369). Obv. QDW7XRD : DQI : 6 : RQX : 
fift<3L : D : hYB 5 AQT (stops, saltires). King crowned, standing 
in ship, &c., as on No. 259. Rev. DOJftlftQ - ftQ Ift FVRORQ 
TVO fiRGVTXS 5UQ (stops, saltires). Floriated cross within eight- 
arched tressure, etc., as on the preceding. A r l-05. Wt. 60-4. 

The half-noble of the third issue is similar in style and work to the 
noble of the same period. That struck between 1369-1377 omits 
tin- Aquitaine title, and may be distinguished from the 1351-1360 
I ii -cos by the flag at the stern. 



EDWAED III. 49 



262. Quarter-Noble, 2nd issue (1344). Obv. * QDW7XR' R6(X : fiftGL' : 5 : P i a te ix. 

FRfiftCC D' hYB'. Royal shield within six arched treasure, having a 
trefoil in each spandril. Rev. ^ : etXTXLTfiBITVR : in. : SLORIfi : 
(stops, saltires). Within eight arched tressure floriated cross with lis at 
end of each limb, and L (London) in centre ; in each angle, lion passant, 
guardant. A7 -8. Wt. 33-5. 

The quarter-nobles of the third issue, like the nobles, have an 6( in 
the centre of the cross on the reverse ; but those of the fourth issue have 
always an ornament annulet, pellet, quatrefoil, lis, &c. On quarter- 
nobles struck between 13511360 the name of France always appears 
in the legend : but on those issued subsequently (1360-1369 and 1369- 
1377) both the titles of France and Aquitaine are omitted. 

263. Groat, London (1360-1369). Obv. * QDWfiRD : D6(l : 6 : R6(X : SILVER. 

firi6L : DftS : hYB 5 fiQT (stops, annulets). Bust facing, crowned, 
within tressure of arches with trefoil at each angle. Rev. !< POSVI : DCXV5TI : 
fiDIVTORGUTl : m6V_C(IVITfiS LOI/1DOH (in two concentric circles; 
stops, saltires). Long cross patt6e dividing legends ; in each angle, three 
pellets. JBl-05. Wt. 70-5. 

The groats and half -groats, first issued in 1351, may also be divided 
into three periods on the same principles as the gold coins of the 
fourth issue (see No. 260). They show similar differences in the 
king's titles. They also correspond in the forms of the letters and 
the stops between the words, as well as in the workmanship. On the 
half -groats struck after 1369 the title of Aquitaine does not appear, and 
generally the groats of that date have only that of France. The type 
of these coins remained unchanged till the reign of Henry VII. 
During the present reign they were struck only at London and York. 
(For a full account of the classification of the silver coins of Edward 
III, see Num. Chron. 1898, pp. 8-72.) 



264. Half-Groat, London (1351-1360). Obv. ^ 6DW7XRDVS R6X 

5 FRfil/lC(l (stops, annulets). Bust facing, crowned, &c., as on the last. 
Eev. * POSVI DV fiDIVTORlv1_CIVITfiS LO M DO H (in two circles). 
Long cross pattee, &c., as on the last. JR '95. Wt. 34-3. 

This half -groat with open G'S and Roman M'S belongs to the earliest 
issue of 1351-1360. There are corresponding nobles, groats, and pennies. 

265. Penny, London (1360-1369). Obv. * QDWTXRD : ARSL : R : DttS : hYB 

(stops, annulets). Bust facing, crowned. Rev. CXI VITAS LO ft DO ft (stop, 
saltire). Long cross patte, dividing legend ; in each angle, three pellets. 
M -7. Wt. 15-5. 

Struck also at Canterbury, Durham, Reading, and York. The 
pennies issued before 1351 can only be distinguished from those of 
previous reigns by slight differences in the bust, in the shape of the crown, 
which in most cases has a large lis in the centre, in the lettering, which 
is small, and in having stops generally between the words on the obv. 
The king's name is usually spelt "Edw"or " Edwa." The later pieces 
from 1351 have "Edward " or " Edwardus." (See p. 43.) 

266. Halfpenny, London (1351-1360). Similar to the Penny, but reading on obv. 

SDWfiRDVS RSX fift (stops, annulets). M -6. Wt. 10-3. 
Struck also at Berwick, Canterbury, Reading, and York. The 
penny and halfpenny of Reading have an escallop in one angle of the 

E 



50 ENGLISH COINS. 

plate i.\. cross instead of pellets. Others read " Edwardus Rex " or " Rex 
SII.VKH. A," and " Londoniensis " for " Civitas London." The halfpence and 
farthings, on account of their small size and few varieties, do not 
admit of such minute classification as the larger pieces. 

267. Farthing. London. Obv. J SDWARDVS R6(X. Bust facing as on the 
Penny. Rev. ai VITAS LONDON. Long cross pattee and pellets as on the 
Penny. JR -5. Wt. 4-6. 
Struck also at York. The farthings show the same varieties of 

legends as the halfpence. 



<;<>u.. 268. ANGLO-GALLIC. Guiennois. Obv. 9D DSI : 6RA : RSX 

DftS : AQVITAftia F (stops, annulets). King in armour standing to r., 

beneath portico; in r. hand, sword; in 1., shield; at his feet, two leopards 

couchant, guardant. Ren. ^ 6LIA : in : QXa0LC(IS : DSO : ST : 

in,:T6(RRA : PAX : hO I BV (stops, annulets). Within tressure of arches, 

floriated cross ; in alternate angles, lis and leopard, tj !!. Wt. 59*2. 

Edward III was the first English king to strike gold coins for France. 

The letter F in the obverse legend may be for " Francie." As Edward 

did not assume the title of ''Lord of Aquitaine" till 1360, these 

coins were probably struck after that date. Some have in the field on 

the obverse the mint-letter ; as B (Bordeaux), L (Limoges), P (Poitiers) 

and R (Rochelle). This is the only gold coin with the mint-letters. 



269. Leopard. Obv. * QDWARDVS : DQI : 6RA : ANSLia 

R6(X : (stops, quatrefoils). Within tressure of arches a leopard to 
1., passant, guardant and crowned; quatrefoil in each spandril. Rev. 
* XPa : VinaiT : XPa : RaSNAT : XPa : IMPaRAT (stops, quatre- 
foils). Within ornamented quatrefoil floriated cross with leopard passant, 
guardant in each angle ; small quatrefoil in each spandril of large quatrefoil. 
jjl-15. Wt. 36-6. 
Struck about 1344. 



270. Ecu or Chaise. Obv. ^ aDVVARDVS : D6(l 6RA A6L : 

R6(X (single stops, quatrefoils). Within tressure of arches, king seated facing 
on throne ; in r. hand, sword ; in 1., shield with arms of France. Rev. 

^f xpa : yinaiT : xpa = RSSNTXT : xpa . IMPSRAT. within 

quatrefoil foliated at each angle, trefoiled cross with quatrefoil in centre and 
at end of each limb ; in each spandril, trefoil. M 1*2. Wt. 69-4. 
This coin was probably struck soon after 1337, as the king is styled King 
of France. The type was first used by Philip VI on his coins in 1336. 

271. Mouton. Obv. * A6fl : D9I : QVI : TOLL' KWA : MVDI : MISQRS : 

NOB (stops, annulets). Within tressure of arches, the Agnus Dei to 1. ; 
below, QD YARD. Rev. * XPC( : VINCUT : XPa : R6K3NAT : XPa : 
I M P9RAT (stops, trefoils). Within ornamented quatrefoil with lis in each 
spandril, floriated cross with rose in centre and lis in each angle. AT 1-2. 
Wt. 71-0. 

This type first occurs on coins of Philip III of France (1270-1285). 

272. Florin of Aquitaine. Obv. & S lOHANNSS B (crown before and after 

legend). St. John the Baptist standing, facing, r. hand raised ; staff in 1. 
Rev. * DVX : AQITARie(. Large fleur de lis. AT '85. Wt. 53-0. 
This is a direct copy of the fiorino d'oro first coined at Florence in 
1252. This and the mouton were probably struck before 1337 as they 
do not bear the French title. 



EDWAED III. 51 

The noble and half -noble were struck at Calais and are of the Plate ix. 
same type and legends as the English coins of those denominations, but 
they have the letter C( for Calais instead of 9 in the centre of the 
cross on the reverse. They are of the fourth issue, 1360-1369 and 
1369-1377. Quarter-nobles, if any were struck, cannot be distinguished 
from the English pieces. 

273. Denier of Aquitaine. Obv. * QDWARD' R9X AftSL'. Bust three- SILVER. 

quarters to 1., crowned ; below and in line of inscription, leopard passant to 1. 
Rev. ^ DVX AQVITAftieC. Cross pattee with quatrefoil at end of each 
limb, dividing legend ; in each angle, open crown, s. -75. Wt. 21-4. 

On account of their weight this and the next coin were probably 
the earliest Anglo-Gallic pieces of this reign. As such they would 
correspond to the English pennies of the first issue. 

274. Demi-Denier of Aquitaine. Obv. ^ SOWAR D' x R9X AftSLI. Bust 

three-quarters to 1., as on the last. Rev. DVX AQVITARieC. Cross pattee, 
as on the last. JB -6. Wt. 8'7. 

275. Double-Hardi of Bordeaux. Obv. ^ SDWARD DQI SRA R6(X 

A n,6 L I . Within tressure of arches, half-length figure of king to r. ; sword in 
r. hand; thel. raised. Rev. SLA Ifl flXSL DO - 6(T IN - T : RA 

PAX DftS AQVITAfliet (in two concentric circles). Long cross pattee 

dividing legends; in each angle, three pellets. M 1-05. Wt. 34 -4. 

Sometimes called a gros (see similar piece of Edward the Black 
Prince, No. 290). A variety has the bust on the obv. facing. 

276. Hardi of Bordeaux. Obv. * QDWAR DGC SRA - R6(X AftSLIfl 

(stops, annulets). Half-length figure of king to r., as on the preceding, but no 
tressure. Rev. DftS AQITAftlS B (Bordeaux). Cross pattee dividing 
legend ; in each angle, three pellets. & -1. Wt. 15 '6. 

277. Double of Bordeaux. Obv. * ai VITAS BVRD6(SALG(. Bust to L, 

crowned ; on either side, crown. Rev. SD' [R6X AITJSLI0;. Cross pattee 
dividing legend; crown and three pellets in alternate angles, st -85. 
Wt. 37-5. 

Supposed to be unique. The denier or sterling of Bordeaux has a 
crowned head facing, and on the rev. a cross cantoned with pellets (in 
two quarters), a lis and a crown ; legends as on the double. 

278. Gros of Calais. Obv. * QDWARD : DQI : S : R9X : AHSL : DttS : 

hYB 5 AQT (stops, annulets). Bust facing, crowned, within tressure 
of arches, each terminating in a trefoil, except the lowest one which has an 
annulet. Rev. * POSVI DQVm : ADIVTORQm : 5Tie(V_VILLA - 
QALe(SlS (in two concentric circles; stops, saltires). Long cross pattae 
dividing legends ; in each angle, three pellets, s.1'05. Wt. 72-3. 

The silver coins and also the gold of Calais (see note No. 272), have 
always the same types as the English money. Those of silver were 
struck during 13601369, as they are similar to the English pieces with 
the Aquitaine title. 

279. Demi-Gros of Calais. Obv. %* 9DWARDVS : RQX : ARXoL : DflS : 

hYB (stops, annulets). Bust facing, &c., as on the last. Rev. Similar to 
the Gros, but reading A D I VTO R6(. x. 85. Wt. 33-2. 

E 2 



52 ENGLISH COINS. 

i-iiuix 280 Denier of Calais. Obv. ^ 8DW7XRD : AftGL : R : DRS : hYB (stops, 
annulets). Bust facing, crowned. Rev. VILLA cmLSSIQ. Long cross 
patt6e with three pellets in each angle. JR 7. Wt. 17 2. 
The demi-denier and the quart d'argent, i.e., halfpenny and farthing, 
do not appear to have been struck at Calais during this reign. 



281. Gros Tournois of Aquitaine. Obv. * BnDICTTV : SIT : ftOma : DRI : 

n,R| : D _ J QD : R9X : A # n,6LI6( (in two concentric circles). Cross 
pattee in centre. Eev. DVX : AQITfi * ftlQ. Representation of a 
building, a triangular figure between two towers, &c. ; outside, ornamented 
border. jBl'l. Wt. 62-0. 
The gros and the demi-gros of this type occur in very base metal. 

282. Demi-Gros Tournois of Aquitaine. Similar to the Gros in type and legends, 

but in two angles of the cross pattee on the obverse is a lis. M '9. 
Wt. 38-7. 

BILLON. 283. Double Tournois of Aquitaine. Obv. * EDVVAR[DVS REX]. A large 
crown in centre. Rev. [i JTlOftETjft DVPLEX. A cross calvary fleured. 
Bil. -8. Wt. 22-7. 

Of this coin there are several types. For these and other Anglo- 
Gallic silver and billon coins of this reign, see Lt.-Gen. Ainslie, Anglo- 
French Coinage, pis. iii-iv, nos. 20-37, and pi. vii, nos. 9295, and 
Poey d'Avant, Monnaies Feodales de France, vol. ii, pp. 87-103. 



Henry Duke of Lancaster, d. 1361. 

Henry Earl of Lancaster was the great-grandson of Henry III, and 
grandfather of Henry IV; created Earl of Derby 1338, and Duke of 
Lancaster 1352. For his successes in Guienne, Edward III granted 
to him and his heirs in 1345 the town of Bergerac, with the privilege 
of striking coins. These are in silver, the Denier, and in billon, the Gros, 
Demi-Gros and Denier. They all bear the mint-name of Bergerac. 



284. Gros of Bergerac. Obv. * BftD. [SIT.] Rpmet. DRI. [BSRQDI]C(I_ 

^* 9n : DftS : B Rfi6 1 1 9 (in two concentric circles). Cross calvary, limbs 

pattes. Rev. Leopard couchant to 1., guardant; above, LftRQfilieC : DVX 

in two lines ; outside, border of arches and trefoils. Bil. 1 0. Wt. 27 0. 

All the coins bear the mint-name of Bergerac and the early pieces give 

the title of " Comes." The types are copied from coins of Edward III. 

Others are similar to the denier of Bordeaux (No. 277 note), and to 

the gros and demi-gros tournois of Aquitaine (Nos. 281-2). 



Edward the Black Prince. 1330-1376. 

COINAGE. ANGLO-GALLIC. Gold. Noble, Guiennois, Leopard, Chaise, 
Demi-Chaise, Hardi d'Or, and Royal d'Or. Silver. Gros, Demi-Gros, 
Hardi d' Argent, and Denier. Billon. Double and Denier. 

Edward the Black Prince was granted by his father, Edward III, 
the Duchy of Aquitaine in 1362, which was erected into a principality. 
His coins are all subsequent to that date. His mints are Agen, 
Bordeaux, Fontenoy or Figeac, La Rochelle or La Reole, Limoges or 



EDWAED THE BLACK PRINCE. 53 

Lectoure, Poitiers, and Tarbes ; the initials of which places generally 
occur on the coins. The gold is 23J carats fine to carat alloy, and 
the silver 9 parts fine to 3 parts alloy. 

285. Guiennois of Bordeaux. Obv. QD' P' 6ftS' RG((3IS RftGLIS P'in,C(PS Plate x. 
RQITAftlQ. Full length figure of the Prince in armour, standing to r., GOLD. 
under a Gothic canopy ; in r. hand, sword ; in 1., shield ; beneath, two leopards, 
couchant. Rev. * QUA : 111 SXOetLSIS : DSO : 6(T !ft : TRA : PAX : 
hO5UI ni BVS (stops, quatrefoils). Within tressure of arches, floriated cross ; 
in centre, B (Bordeaux) ; lis and leopard in alternate angles. A; 1 '2. Wt. 56 '3. 
The Guiennois appears to have been struck only at Bordeaux. 

The types of the Black Prince's coins are copied either from those of 

his father or from French contemporary money. 

The noble, of which only one specimen is known, is of the same type 

as the English coin of that denomination, but it has on the obv. the 

legend as on the Guiennois above. 



286. Leopard. Obv. ^ SD' : PmO' : SflS : RQSIS : 

RQITKftlS (stops, quatrefoils). Leopard passant to 1., guardant, crowned, 
within tressure of arches ; quatrefoil at each point and in each spandril. 
Rev. * XPa : VinaiT :: XPC( : RS6NAT : XPC( : IMPSRST (stops, 
quatrefoils). Floriated cross within ornamented quatrefoil, with small 
quatrefoil in each spandril ; in centre of cross, compartment with six 
roundels; in each angle, leopard passant, guardant. & 1'15. Wt. 53-6. 

Like Edward Ill's type. It is uncertain at which mint this coin 
was struck. 



287. Chaise of Bordeaux. Obv. * 3D' - 6flS R6K3IS filKoLIQ PrtS - 
fiQITRftiet . (stops, roses). The Prince in armour, robed and crowned 
with roses ; seated facing on throne ; in r. hand, sceptre. Rev. %* DSVS 
IVpe(X IVSTVS FORTIS 5 PfiCXianS B (Bordeaux; stops, roses). 
Within ornamented quatrefoil with cinquefoil in each spandril, cross 
collarino, floriated, centre voided and containing cinquefoil ; lis and leopard 
in alternate angles. AI 1-05. Wt. 51-3. 

Struck at Bordeaux and Tarbes. The demi-chaise is of similar type 
but smaller. 



288. Hardi d'Or of Limoges. Obv. * 3D' PO' SRS - R6CSIS 

P IT, S flQ V I ' (stop s, rosettes) . Half-length figure of the Prince facing, robed 
and wearing bonnet, within tressure of arches ; in r. hand, sword ; 1. raised. 
Rev. * : ffVXILIVm mam IK DOminO L : (Limoges; single 
stops, roses). Within tressure of arches, cross collarino, quernee, with 
quatrefoil in centre ; lis and leopard in alternate angles. A7 1*1. Wt. 61 '8. 
Struck also at Bordeaux and La Rochelle or La Reole. A variety 
shows the prince wearing a wreath of roses. 

289. Royal d'Or of Bordeaux. Obv. SD : PO : SflS : RQG fiftSL : PftC(PS : "A 

(stops, roses). The Prince, robed, standing facing, under a Gothic portico ; 
in r. hand, sword ; 1. raised ; beneath his feet, two leopards couchant, and 
at each side ostrich plume ; on either side of portico, tressure of arches. 
, Rev. * DHS : 7XIVTO : 5 : PTSaTO : JTIQ : 5 : IIPO : SP7WI : 
QOR : JTIGWSR : B : (Bordeaux ; stops, roses). Within ornamented quatre- 
foil with trefoil in each spandril, cross collarino, querne'e, centre voided 
and containing cinquefoil; lis and leopard in alternate angles. AT' 1*25. 
Wt. 83-0. 

Struck also at La Rochelle (or La Reole), Limoges, Poitiers, and 
Tarbes. This beautiful coin was only issued by Edward the Black 



54 ENGLISH COINS. 

1'iati- \. Prince. It does not occur before or after in the Anglo-Gallic series. 
It is commonly called the pavilion or pavilion ; but the coin of that 
denomination in the French series shows the king seated in a tent. 
The type is taken from coins of Philip VI of France. The plumes on 
the obv. were the badge of the Prince. 

SILVER. 290. Gros of Agen. Obv. * GDWfiRDVS : PRI5TIO : 6RS : R6(GIS ft (Agen ; 
stops, annulets). Half-length figure of the Prince to r., within tressure of 
arches; in r. hand, sword ; 1. raised. Rev. 6LITC : IP, QXQQLSIS DSO : 
0CT in TRA : PfiX_PRinae(PS TXQITTmifl (in two concentric circles; 
stops, annulets). Long cross pattee dividing legends ; in each angle, three 
pellets. JRI'1. Wt. 67-5. 

The silver coins were struck at all the mints ; but the billon only 
at Bordeaux, Fontenoy or Figeac, and Poitiers. The types are all 
taken from Edward Ill's coins. 



291. Demi-Gros of Agen. Obv. * : 3D : PO : 6H.S : RS6IS : finSLia : A 

(Agen; stops, annulets). Half-length figure of the Prince as on the last. 
Rev. 6Llfi : 111 Xaed-CClS DQO : Q in TRfi : Pfi_PRnC(PS fiQITfin : 
(in two concentric circles ; stops, annulets). Long cross patt6e as on the 
last, ji -95. Wt. 31-6. 

292. Denier of Tarbes. Obv. ^ : Q.D : PO : SnS : R6(SIS : T (Tarbes; stops, 

annulets). Half-length figure of the Prince, as No. 290, but no tressure of 
arches. Rev. PRnQPS AQITRn (stops, annulets). Same as No. 290. 
& -75. Wt. 18-4. 

293. Hardi d'Argent of Poitiers. Obv. SD PO SSnT RSCI fiSlfl . 

Half-length figure of the Prince, facing, beneath canopy, robed and wearing 
chaplet; in r. hand, sword; 1. raised. Rev. PRnCXPS AQPITTW. Long 
cross patte; leopard and lis in alternate angles, zj -8. Wt. 16-8. 
The small p after 7XQ on the reverse is the initial letter of Poitiers. 

BILLON. 294. Denier of Bordeaux. Obv. ^ ED 1 PRIJUO : GEniTVS (stops, annulets). 

Leopard to 1., couchant, guardant; below B (Bordeaux). Rev. % PRin- 

aEPS : AQITfiniE (stops, annulets). Cross pattee. Bil. '75. Wt. 12-4. 

A variety of the denier has on the obverse a cross with a lis and a 

leopard in the alternate angles (see No. 307). The double has a crown 

above TCQITfilQ on the obverse, and a cross calvary fleury on the reverse. 

These and the above give all the types of Edward the Black Prince's coins. 

Richard II. 1377-1399. 

COINAGE. Gold. Noble, Half-Noble, and Quarter-Noble. Silver. 
Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

The coinage, gold and silver, of Richard II is of precisely the same 
denominations, types, weights, and standard of fineness as the last issue 
of Edward III ; the only difference being in the name of the monarch. 
The gold coins are of the Tower mint only, but the silver were struck 
at Durham, London, and York. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Gold. Hardi d'Or and Demi-Hardi d'Or. 
Stiver. Double-Hardi d'Argent and Hardi d'Argent. Billon. Denier. 
The only ascertained mint is that of Bordeaux, and there are no coins, 
either of gold or silver, struck at Calais of the English type. The gold 
is 23J carats fine to j carat alloy, and the silver 9 parts fine to 3 
parts alloy, as the coinage of Edward the Black Prince. 



RICHAED II. 



55 



295. Noble. Obv. RIC(ARD' D6U : 6RA' - RSX : AnSL' DnS' hIB' Plate x. 

X AQT (stops, saltires). King standing in ship as on No. 259 ; but three COLD. 
ropes from stern and one from prow; and at stern, flag. Rev. <^* lhC( : 

Avreun : TRAnsisns : PQR : mecoiv : iLLORvm : IBAT (stops, 

saltires). Floriated cross within tressure of arches, &c., as on No. 259 ; 
but in central compartment of cross, R for RIC(ARDVS. AT 1'35. 
Wt. 118-6. 

Varieties of the noble as well as of the half -noble (see No. 296), are 
without the flag at the stern. Others, struck from old dies of Edward 
III, have the letter e( in the centre of the cross on the reverse instead 
of R. The only mint-mark on all the coins, gold and silver, of this 
reign is the cross pattee. 

296. Half-Noble. Obv. RIC(ARD' D : 6 : R(X : 7XR6L' X F : D : hIB' 

X AO (stops, saltires). Same as the Noble, but no flag at the stern of the 
vessel. Rev. * DOminS : R6( : in : FVRORS : TVO : AR6VAS : 
JUS (stops, saltires). Same as the Noble, u 1'05. Wt. 60-1. 

297. Quarter-Noble. Obv. * RIC(ARD' D6U : 6RA : R3X : AnSL' (stops, 

saltires). Royal shield within arched tressure with trefoils at angles. 
Rev. * (JXALTABITVR : in : GLORIA (stops, saltires). Floriated 
cross within arched tressure, lis at end of each limb and in centre ; in each 
angle, lion passant, guardant. AT '8. Wt. 29-2. 

This is the type of the quarter-noble of the third and fourth issues 
of Edward III (see No. 262). Of each denomination of the gold coins 
there are numerous varieties of readings in the legends. 

298. Groat. London. Obv. ^ RIC(ARD' Dl : <3RA : RSX : ~M16L' X SILVKR. 

FRANQ' (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, crowned, within arched 
tressure. Rev. * POSVI D6[Vm : ADIVTOR6(m : me(V. 01 VITAS 
LOW DOM (in two concentric circles; stops, saltires). Long cross pattee 
with pellets. * 1-0. Wt. GO-: 4 . 

Groats and half-groats were struck in London only. The legends 
on the silver coins, like those on the gold, vary. 

299. Half-Groat. London. Same as the preceding ; but the legend on the obv. 

reads * RICXARD' Dl : 6RA : RSX : AnSLI6(. JR '9. Wt. 35'7. 

300. Penny. York. Obv. >k RICXARDVS : RSX : AnGLiet (stops, saltires). 

Bust facing, crowned. Rev. CUVITAS SBORACd. Long cross pattee 
with quatrefoil in centre and three pellets in each angle. 2R -1. 
Wt. 16-3. 

Struck also at Durham and London ; but on these there is no 
quatrefoil in the centre of the cross on the reverse. 

301. Halfpenny. London. Similar to the Penny ; but no quatrefoil in centre of 

cross and reading on the obv. RIC(ARD' RQX l\fl<3 ; and on the 
rev. aiVITAS LOnDOn. M -55. Wt. 9'6. 

Halfpence and farthings are of London only. On the pence and 
halfpence there are many private marks such as a lis, a saltire, a cross, 
or a quatrefoil on the breast ; and additional pellets in the angles of the 
cross on the reverse. These show various issues and take the place of 
the changing mint-marks, which occur in later reigns. 

302. Farthing. London. Same as the Halfpenny, but reading on the obv. 

f RiaARD' - RQX AnSL. a* -45. Wt. 3'5. 
A variety has roses instead of pellets on the reverse. 



5(> ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate x 303. ANGLO-GALLIC. Hardi d'Or of Bordeaux. Obv. 3* RIC(flRD' : D : SRZf : 

GOLD ^ SL ' Q : FRACOQ : D : flQITffft. Within tressure of arches, each 

terminating in a roundel, half-length figure of the king facing, robed and 

crowned; in r. hand, sword; 1. raised. Rev, ^ ZWXILIVJTl mQVJTl 

A DOftiinO B (Bordeaux; stops, roses). Within arched tressure, 

each arch terminating in a roundel, a cross collarino, quern6e, with quatrefoil 

in centre; lis and leopard in alternate angles. AT I'l. Wt. 57 '7. 

The gold coins, of which there are only two denominations, appear to 

have been struck at Bordeaux only. The types of Richard's coins are 

similar to those of his father, Edward the Black Prince. 

304. Demi-Hardi d'Or. Obv. RICXfiRD : RX : 7m6LI6( : FR7YC(I. Similar 
to the Hardi d'Or, but bust only showing, no sword or hands. Rev. 
* TWXILIVm : me(Vm : A : DOmin. Cross collarino, &c. } as on the 
preceding, but no arched tressure. A; 75. Wt. 29 0. 

A variety has the letter B at the end of the rev. legend, which 
shows that these coins also were struck at Bordeaux. 

SILVKR. 305. Double-Hardi d' Argent. Obv. RICXfiRDVS : RQX : TmSLIS. Half-length 
figure of the king facing, robed and crowned, beneath canopy ; in r. hand, 
sword; 1. raised. Rev. FR7\n,C(ia . DftS TXQVITfimS. Cross pattee 
dividing legend, lis and leopard in alternate angles, zi '95. Wt. 30 '0. 
This and the next coin are frequently called billon money ; but the 
analysis shows that they are to be classed amongst the silver. No 
mint-letter or name occurs on them ; but from their type they are pro- 
bably of Bordeaux. 

306. Hardi d' Argent. Same as the preceding, but reading on obv. RIQfiR R 

fiRGLia; and on rev. FRTXaiS DflS 7XQI. JR -75. Wt. 11-7. 

BILLON. 307. Denier. Obv. ^ RICXfiRD RX TXnGLIS FR7\ai6(. Cross with lis and 
leopard in alternate angles. Rev. J DOJUIRVS fiOITfirUS. Crosspattee. 
Bil. '7. Wt. 14-3. 

A variety has a cross on the obv. and a leopard passant on the rev. ; 
and the legends RICARDVS RX 7m<3L and DVX 



Henry IV. 1399-1413. 

COINAGE. Gold. Noble, Half-Noble, and Quarter-Noble. Silver. 
Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There were two issues of gold and silver money during 
this reign. They are known as the heavy and light coinages, and 
each consists of all the denominations in both metals. Of the first issue 
the noble weighed 120 grs., and the penny 18 grs., as in the previous 
reign ; and of the second issue they weighed 108 grs. and 15 grs. 
respectively. The fineness in both metals is as Edward Ill's money ; 
and the mints as in the previous reign. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Gold. Hardi d'Or. Silver. Double-Hardi 
d'Argent, Hardi d'Argent, and Gros Tournois. Billon. Denier. As 
in the reign of Richard II, the only mint which can be identified is 
Bordeaux, and there are still no coins which can be classed to 
Calais. The gold is of the same standard of fineness as in the last 
reign, but the silver is 7 parts fine to 5 parts alloy. 



HENEY IV. 57 

308. Noble. Heavy coinage. Obv. hQnRICC Dl' - 6R7V RSX : fiNGU - Plate x. 

X FRfinCC DftS' , hIB S 7\Q (stops, saltires). King standing in GoLD- 
ship as on No. 259 ; but the French arms on the shield are represented by 
three lis only ; four ropes from, stern of vessel and one from prow. Rev. 

k ma 1 . Twreun : TRTxnsisns : PSR : msoiv : ILLORVJU : IBTXT 

(stops, saltires). Floriated cross within tressure of arches, &c., as on 
No. 259; but in central compartment of cross h for h(HRIC(VS. A7 1'35. 
Wt. 118-8grs. 

On other nobles of the heavy coinage there are three ropes and a flag 
at the stern of the vessel. The only half-noble of this issue known has 
a crown, for mint-mark. This sign also occurs on a noble of the same 
period, but not as a mint-mark. Nobles, half -nobles, and quarter-nobles 
of the light coinage, besides being distinguishable by their weight, have 
generally a trefoil slipped, or an annulet in the field on the obv. or rev., 
i.e., on the ship, or in one angle of the cross. In both series the number 
of lis in the French arms varies ; being either three, or more than three, 
i.e. seme de lis. On nobles and half-nobles of the light money, 
however, only three lis are found. 

309. Quarter-Noble. Light coinage. Obv. * hHRiaVS : D : 6RA : R6(X : 

7\n,(3L (stops, saltires). Royal shield within arched tressure as on 
No. 297; but arms of France sewd de lis. Eev. >%* QXfiLTfiBITVR : 
in : GLORIA : (stops, saltires). Floriated cross, &c., as on No. 297. 
AI '75. Wt. 18-8. 

The quarter-noble of the first issue is of the usual type, but it 
has a crescent above the shield which is seme de lis and a pellet 
in the centre of the reverse. A variety without crescent and with 
three lis has a crown for mint-mark (see the preceding and No. 340, 
note). Only a few specimens are known. Others of the light coinage 
have three lis in the arms and vary in the legends. 

310. Groat. London. Light coinage. Obv. >fr hetRRICC D9I : GR7V - *ILVER. 

R6(X : 7Xn,SLie( (stops, saltires). Bust facing, crowned, within arched 

tressure ; pellet to 1., and annulet to r. of head. Rev. * POSVI DSVni : 

ADIVTORetm : me(V __ ai VITAS LOU DOM (in two circles; stops, 

saltires). Long cross pattee with pellets. M 1-05. Wt. 59 -0. 

Groats and half-groats of both coinages are of London only. On 

those of the second the old English n is sometimes found in the 

mint-name. They are also to be distinguished from the earlier pieces 

by pellets, annulets, trefoils, *fec., in the field on the obverse. The bust 

on the early coinage bears a very strong resemblance to that of 

Richard II. Only one specimen of the groat, and two of the half-groat 

of the first issue are known. 



311. Penny. Durham. Light coinage. Obv. * hSflRiaVS : RSX 

(stops, saltires). Bust facing, crowned ; on breast, cross. Rev. QIVITfiS 

DVnVia. Cross pattee with pellets in angles. JR -7. Wt. 10'3. 

The usual reading of this mint is " Dunolm." The mints of the 

smaller coins are : pennies, heavy coinage, London and York ; light 

coinage, Durham, London, and York; halfpence and farthings of 

both issues, London only. Like the groats, the smaller pieces of the 

second issue can be distinguished by the presence of pellets, annulets 

or mullets in the obv. field, as well as by their weight. On the 

farthings of both issues the king's head only is shown, without 



58 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate x. shoulders. One specimen only of each is known. The only mint- 
SILVKI: marks during this reign are the cross pattoe and the crown for gold, and 
the cross pattee for sih r er. 

312. ANGLO-GALLIC. Double-Hardi d'Argent. Obv. QRRIQVS RQX 

7\n,SLI6( (stops, roses). Half-length figure facing, crowned, under canopy; 

sword in r. hand; 1. raised. Bev. FRTXOdQ DRS fiQITfiRIQ. Long 

cross pattee ; leopard and lis in alternate angles. M '95. Wt. 26*5. 

The hardi d'or, of which there is no specimen in the National 

Collection, is of two types or varieties of types : (1) crowned half-length 

figure of king facing, holding sword, between a leopard and a lis ; rev. 

floriated cross with lis and leopard in alternate angles, XPC( VI ROUT, &c. ; 

(2) similar, but leopard and wild boar on shoulders of figure ; and on the 

reverse the legend reads TWXILIVJTl m9Vm A DOttllRO, B (Bordeaux). 
The types of the silver coins are similar to those of the preceding 

reign. 

Plate xi 313. Hardi d'Argent. Same as the preceding, but reading on obv. QRRICX R 

7\6LIS; and on ret'. FRfiCUQ DRS 7\QI. JR -75. Chipped. 
The gros tournois is of three types or varieties : (1) bust facing 
crowned ; rev. castle, within tressure, name and titles of king on both 
sides ; (2) cross and legend in two circles, aiT ROmQR, &c., and 
SRI R6(X fiR6Lie( ; rev. crowned leopard, DVX AQVITfiRIS; (3) same, 
but with rev. leopard on castle. They are generally called " gros 
Bordelais." 

r.ii.i.i.v 314. Denier. Obv. >%* hQRRIQ RQX AR6LIQ (stops, roses). Cross with 
leopard and lis in alternate angles. Bev. ^ FR7\RC(ie( D TXQITfiRIQ 
(stops, roses). Cross pattee. Bil. -7. Wt. 18-8. 

Varieties have leopard and cross, or cross and leopard, or branch 
and cross with leopard and lis in alternate angles, for obv. and rev. 
types. 

Henry V. 1413-1422. 

COINAGE. Gold. Noble, Half-Noble, and Quarter-Noble. Silver. 
Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. No change took place either in the denominations, 
types, weights or fineness of the coins of this reign as compared 
with those of the second issue of the previous one. The gold pieces 
may however be distinguished by the occurrence of certain marks 
or signs, which are generally found in the field of the coin either 
on the obverse or reverse, or on both sides. Thus on the noble there 
is a mullet, an annulet, or a lis, above or below the sword-arm of 
the king, and a quatrefoil in one angle of the cross on the reverse. 
The mullet and lis occur above the shield on the half-noble, and 
at the side or above the shield on the quarter-noble. Other marks 
are the annulet or broken annulet, which is placed on the ship on the 
nobles and half-nobles, and at the sides of the shield on the quarter- 
nobles. The mint-mark is a plain or pierced cross, and the French 
arms are represented by three lis only, never seme de lis. The silver 



HENRY V. 59 

coins are of three classes, distinguished as follows : (1) those with egg- Plate xi. 
shaped swelling on neck ; (2) those with egg-shaped swelling on neck 
and mullet on breast or shoulder ; and (3) those without the mullet on 
breast, and with annulets between the pellets on the reverse, 
and in the legends. Other marks are the broken annulet, cross, 
mullet, star, or pellet. These occur on the half-groats and smaller 
coins and are placed at the sides of the crown. On the earlier pieces 
the mint-mark is a cross pattee, but on the later ones a plain or 
pierced cross. 

Gold coins still continued to be struck at the Tower mint only ; and 
those of silver are of Durham, London and York. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Gold. Mouton d'Or or Aignel, and Salute. 
Silver. Gros, Demi-Gros, Denier, Demi-Denier, and Quart d'Argent. 
Billon. Double Tournois and Denier Tournois. The Aquitaine coinage 
appears to have ceased with the last reign. The attributed mints of 
Henry "V, with their marks, are Rouen (leopard), and St. L6 (lis). 
The Calais coins are, as before, after the English pattern. The line- 
ness of the gold appears to have been 22 parts fine and 2 parts alloy, 
and that of the silver, exclusive of the Calais coins, 7 parts fine and 
5 parts alloy. 



315. Noble. Obv. haftRICC Dl' 6R7V RSX fiRSL' 5 FRfiRCC GOLD. 
DnS : hYB (stops, saltires). King standing in ship as on No. 308; but 
the ship has one rope from prow and two from stern, and in front a 
broken annulet; mullet near king's sword-band. Eev. # lhC( 7XVT6WTI : 
TRfiRSIQllS : P3R : mQDIV ILLORV IB7TT (stops, saltires). 
Floriated cross witbin tressure of arcbes as on No. 308, with hi in centre of 
cross, and pellet behind lion in first quarter and quatrefoil before lion in 
the second one. AT 1-25. Wt. 107-2. 

The nobles only vary in the position and nature of the marks 
in the field, in the mint-mark, and in the number of ropes at the 
stern and prow of the vessel. None are known with the flag at the 
stern. 



31G. Half-Noble. Obv. hSftRiq' Dl GRfi - R6(X fiftGL' 5 FR' D' 
hYB (stops, saltires). King standing in sbip as on the preceding, but 
two ropes from prow and tbree from stern ; mullet over sbield. Rev. 

^ poming na in, FVRORS TVO ARCV^S ma (stops, 

saltires). Floriated cross as on the preceding ; but broken annulet above 
lion in second quarter; no other marks. A7 1*0. Wt. 51'0. 
The marks are varied as on the nobles : also the number of ropes at 
the stern and prow of the vessel. 



317. Quarter-Noble. Obv. fc hSriRia' RQX - AH6L' 5 FR7WCX (stops, 
saltires). Eoyal shield within arched tressure similar to No. 309, but 
annulets at angles, three lis in French arms ; above, lis ; on r., mullet ; on 
1., trefoil. Eev. fc QXC(VLTABITVR : IP, : GLORIA (stops, saltires). 
Floriated cross with lis in centre, &c., similar to No. 309. Af '75. 
Wt. 27-0. 
" Excultabitur " is a blunder for " exaltabitur." The marks vary 

as on the nobles, but they occur on the obverse only. All the quarter- 

nobles of Henry IV-VI have a lis in the centre of the cross on the 

reverse. 



60 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xi. 318. Groat. London. Early issue. Obv. * hgnRIGC DP <3RA' - RSX : 

.SILVEB AflCLIGC 5 : FRAflC( (stops, saltires). Bust facing, crowned, within 

arched tressure ; egg-shaped swelling on neck. Ecv. *i* POSVI D6CVITI : 

ADIVTOR6C - me(Vm __ a I VITAS LOnDOn : (in two circles; stops, 

saltires). Long cross pattee with pellets in angles, si I' 05. Wt. 59*4. 

Struck only in London. Pieces of the second issue, as stated above, 
have a mullet on the shoulder. Those without a mullet, but with 
annulets between the pellets on the reverse, are often classed to 
Henry VI, but their issue was begun by Henry V. The York groats, 
half-groats, &c., of this class are usually assigned to Henry VI. 



319. Half-Groat. London. Second issue. Obv. hQftRia' Dl' 6R7V 

RQX AftGLIQ 5 FR (stops, saltires). Bust of king, similar to the last, 

but mullet on breast and broken annulet to 1. of crown. Eev. POSVI 

DQVm ADIVTORa' CTieC __ C(l VITAS - LOnDOn (in two circles; 

stops, saltires). Long cross patt6e as on the last. 2& -85. Wt. 28*0. 

Struck only in London. The earlier pieces are like the groats with 

the egg-shaped swelling on the neck ; the latest are of the annulet series. 

320. Penny. London. Annulet issue. Obv. hQftRIC(VS ": RSX : AR6LIS 

(stops, saltires). Bust facing, crowned ; mullet to 1. of crown. Eev. Q I VITAS 
LOriDOn. Long cross pattee with pellets in angles ; in two of which they 
are joined by an annulet. JR '1. Wt. 14 '8. 

Struck also at Durham and York. On the earlier pennies and 
halfpence the egg-shaped swelling on the neck is scarcely perceptible ; 
but they can easily be distinguished by the broken annulet, mullet or 
pellet at the sides of the crown. 

321. Halfpenny. London. Annulet issue. Similar to the Penny, but reading on 

obv. <& hEnRIGC : RQX : AF16L ; annulet on each side of crown; 
and none in pellets on the reverse. & '55. Wt. 7 '6. 

Varieties of this issue have the annulets on the reverse or a trefoil 
and an annulet at the sides of the crown. The early pieces have 
broken annulets at the sides of the crown or head. Halfpence and 
farthings are of London only. 

322. Farthing. London. Obv. * hSriRICC : RSX - Afl6L (stops, saltires). 

Bust facing, crowned. Ecv. (XI VITAS LOnDOFl. Long cross pattee with 
pellets. & -35. Wt. 3-3. 

The absence of any special marks and their rarity render it 
impossible to separate the issues of the farthings. 

GOLD. 323. ANGLO-GALLIC. Mouton d'Or. Obv. ^ ASft : DSI : OVI TOLL : PQGA : 
mVDI MISS noeiS (stops, annulets). Within tressure of arches, 
the Agnus Dei to 1. ; below, h F RX. Rev. ^ XPCX VINCUT XPO - 
RS6NAT XPCX IMPSRAT (stops, cinquefoils). Within ornamented 
quatrefoil with lis in each spandril, floriated cross with lis and leopard in 
alternate angles; in centre, cinquefoil. A; -95. Wt. 39-2. 

Only three specimens of this coin are known. There is a variety 
which has the staff of the banner ending in a lozenge and three Q's, 
and on the reverse a lis in each angle of the cross. The legends are 
the same. The salute of Henry V is similar to No. 343, but varies 
in having on the obverse one shield instead of two before the Virgin and 



61 

the Angel. Only three specimens are known, one of which has lately Plate XL 
been acquired for the National Collection. On account of the absence 
of mint-marks on most of the coins their locality of issue cannot be 
identified. 



324. Gros of Calais. Obv. $ hQflRia' - Dl' GR7V . R6(X - 7WGLie( . 5 SILVER. 

FRAflCC (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, crowned, within arched 
tressure ; annulet at each side of neck. Rev. & POSVI D6(VJTi : 
ADIVTOR6C . mSVm __ VILLA : cmiJSia : (in two circles; stops, 
annulet and saltires) . Long cross pattee with pellets ; annulet between 
pellets in two quarters. jRl-I. Wt. 59 '6. 

As in the reign of Edward III the Calais silver coins are of the same 
types, denominations, &c., as the English money. This series corre- 
sponds in date to the annulet coinage of the English money. It was 
therefore issued somewhat late in the reign. The pieces of the various 
denominations only vary in the legends and stops. No gold was struck 
at Calais in this reign. 

325. Demi-Gros of Calais. Similar to the Gros ; but the legends read, obv. 

* hQftRICT Dl' 6R7V RQX firiSLieC 5 F (stops, saltires); 
and rev. POSVI DSVIU : ADIVTORS' m -_VILLfi : CXfiLIS' : 
(stops, annulet and saltires). M -9. Wt. 25 '5. 

326. Denier of Calais. Obv. fc hSflRiaVS : R6(X : 7m6LI6( (stops, saltires). 

Bust facing, crowned, annulet at each side of neck. Rev. VILLA : 
C(ALIS : (stops, saltires). Long cross pattee with pellets and annulets, 
as on No. 324. M "1. Wt. 15-0. 

327. Demi-Denier of Calais. Same as the Denier, but the obv. legend reads 

hSiiRicr . Recx : TSHSL' M -6. wt. 7-1. 

328. Quart d' Argent of Calais. Same as the Demi-Denier; but no annulets 

between the pellets on the reverse. 2R "45. Wt. 3'8. 

329. Gros d'Argent. Obv. * h j RSX : Kl/IGLIS : 5 j hSRlECS : FRKH- 

GI(J. Leopard passant to 1., guardant, crowned ; above, two lis surmounted 

by crown; below, lis. Rev. * SIT : n,OSTie(n : DOMim : BQU9- 

DiaTVm. Cross fleury ; h in centre. M 1-05. Wt. 42-2. 

By an ordinance dated at Gisors 25 Sept. 1419, Henry directed that 

all his coins should be distinguished by the letter h in the centre of 

the cross on the reverse : and the title of Heres was inserted in con- 

formity of the treaty of Troyes in 1420. A variety has on the obv. 

three lis surmounted by a crown and with supporters, two leopards r 

and on the rev. a cross fleury with crown and leopard in two angles : 

legends same. Another variety of the gros with this reverse has for the 

obv. three lis surmounted by a crown. These last having no letter 

on the cross were struck before 1419. 

330. Double Tournois. Obv. * h j R6(X | KI/I6L : hQRQS | FRSHCX. BILLON. 

Leopard passant to 1., guardant, and crowned; above, lis. Rev. *fr SIT 
flOJTlQ Dni j B9l/I6(DICn~V. Cross pattee; in centre, quatrefoil with 
open trefoil at each angle and enclosing h. Bil. '9. Wt. 33'0. 
The denier tournois has a leopard passant on obv. and a cross 
pattee with TVROFIVS CXI VIS on rev. 



62 ENGLISH COINS. 

Henry VI. 1422-1461 ; restored 1470-1471. 

pi.-it i- xi. COINAGE. Gold. Noble, Half-Noble, Quarter-Noble, Angel, and Half- 
Angel. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. The coinage of Henry VI is of two periods, namely, 
that struck before his deposition in 1461, and that during his short 
restoration in 1470-71. The former is known as the " heavy money " : 
the latter as the " light money." 

Period I. (1422-1461). The gold coins are of four series or issues, 
distinguished by certain marks or series of marks which are usually 
found between the words of the legends. Their order is : annulet (noble, 
half, and quarter-noble) ; rosette or rosette and mascle (noble, half, and 
quarter-noble) ; pine-cone or pine-cone and mascle (noble) ; and trefoil 
(noble, half, and quarter-noble). The silver coins may be similarly 
arranged into six series, alike distinguished by similar marks in the 
legends, &c. Their order is : annulet, rosette and mascle, pine-cone and 
mascle, pine-cone and trefoil, pine-cone and pellet, and cross and 
pellet. These marks appear on all the denominations except the 
farthing. The weight, fineness, and mints of both gold and silver are 
as during the last reign. 

Period II. (1470-1471). The denominations of this period are in 
Gold, the angel and half-angel; and in Silver, the groat, half-groat, 
penny, and halfpenny. The weight of the angel was 80 grs., and 
that of the penny 12 grs. as Edward IV's money (see descriptions). 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. Gold. Noble, Half-Noble, Salute, Angelot, 
and Franc a Cheval. Silver. Gros, Demi-Gros, Denier, Demi-Denier, 
and Quart d'Argent (Calais) ; Grand-Blanc, and Petit or Demi-Blanc. 
Billon. Denier Parisis, Denier Tournois, Obole, Double, and Triple. The 
attributed mints of Henry VI, with their marks are : Amiens (Agnus 
Dei), Auxerre (mill-rind or/er demoulin), Chalons-sur-Marne (crescent), 
Dijon (St. Veronica), Le Mans (root), Nevers (star), Paris (crown), 
Rouen (leopard), St. Lo (lis), St. Quentin (mullet), and Troyes (rose). 
The Calais coins in gold and silver remained of the same type, 
weight, &c., as the English money. The fineness of the gold was 23J 
pure to ^ alloy, and that of the silver 7 parts pure to 5 parts alloy. 
The Anglo-Gallic series belongs to the first period. 

Heavy Money (1422-1461). 

GOLD. 331. Noble. Trefoil coinage. Obv. heCRRICT Dl' <3RA' R8X - 7m6L' 
5 FRARCC DftS' hYB' (stops, lis and trefoils). King standing in 
ship as on No. 308 ; but the ship has one rope from prow and two from 
stern ; annulet at king's wrist ; lis above stern of vessel. Rev. I hCX 

TWT TRTmsians PGR metpivm ILLORV IBKT (stops, 

mullet and annulets) ; m. m. lis. Floriated cross within tressure of arches, 
as on No. 308 ; but in spandril of one arch, annulet. A7 1*35. Wt. 107 -4. 

The nobles and the half and quarter-nobles of the various series or 
issues only differ in the marks as given above, annulets, rosettes, &c. 
Varieties of the noble have a flag at the stern of the vessel. The gold 
coins correspond to the first four series of the silver coins. The mint- 
marks are on the 1st issue a pierced cross, on the 2nd a plain cross or 
lis, and on the 3rd and 4th, a lis only. 



HENRY VI. 63 

332. Half-Noble. Trefoil coinage. Same as the Noble but the legend on the obv. pj a te xi. 

ends at FRAHCf; and that on the rev, reads DOflllftet net Ift - 
FVROR6C - TVO - AR6VAS MS (stops, mullet and annulets) ; w.m.lis. 
Afl-05. Wt. 53-3. 

The flag also occurs on the half -nobles. 

333. Quarter-Noble. Trefoil coinage. Obv. hSnRICC Dl' 6RA' R9X - 

AftGL' (stops, lis and trefoils); m. m. lis. Royal shield within arched 
tressure similar to No. 317, but trefoils at angles, lis above shield, and no 
marks at sides. Rev. 8XALTABITVR in 6 LOR I A (stops, mullet and 
annulet) ; w. m. lis. Floriated cross with lis in centre, &c., similar to 
No. 317. AT -75. Wt. 26-7. 

334. Groat. London. Bosette-mascle coinage. Obv. $ h6(HRIC( Dl 6RA R6(X SILVER. 

AlKoU 5 FRAftd (stops, mascle and rosettes). Bust of king facing, 
crowned, within arched tressure. Rev. + POSVI DSViTl : ADIVTOR6C 
JneCVJTC QIVITAS LORDOn (in two circles; stops, rosettes, mascles 
and saltires). Long cross pattee with pellets. JR 1'05. Wt. 57-0. 

Groats and half-groats were struck at London and York only ; those 
of the latter place are of the annulet or first issue only and have a 
lis on each side of the king's neck on the obverse. For the succession 
of the marks on the silver coins, see above. The mint-marks are on the 
earlier issues the cross pierced or plain cross, and on the later ones the 
cross patonce. 




335. Half-Groat. London. Pine-cone and mascle coinage. Obv. 

Dl - (3RA R9X Aft6L 5 F (stops, pine-cones, mascles and 
saltires) ; m. m. cross patonce. Bust facing as on the Groat. Rev. 

+ POSVI Dsvm : ADiVTORet : mecvm_c(i VITAS . Lonoori 

(in two circles ; stops, mascle and pine-cones). Long cross pattee as on the 
Groat. JR -85. Wt. 27 -5. 

336. Penny. London. Cross and pellet coinage. Obv. hSnxRICC R9X 

A US LI (stops, trefoil and mascles); m. m. cross patonce. Bust of king 
facing, crowned ; cross on breast and pellet at each side of crown. Rev. 
C(l VITAS LOftDOn, : (stops, saltires). Long cross pattee with [pellets ; 
a fourth pellet occurs in two angles. M '15. Wt. 13 -5. 

Struck also at Durham and York. Pennies exist of all the issues 
at each mint. The Durham coins bear the special marks of the 
bishops : thus, mullet for Langley, interlaced rings for Neville, and B 
for Booth. Those of York with a quatrefoil in the centre of the cross 

the reverse probably belong to the mint of the archbishops. 

. Halfpenny. London. Rosette-mascle coinage. Similar to the Penny, but 
reading AftSL, and stops between legends on both sides, rosettes and 
mascles; no extra pellets on reverse. M '55. Wt. 8'0. 

Halfpence and farthings are of London and York only. Half- 
pence of York are only known of the annulet and the pine-cone and 
pellet coinages. Those of London are of all six series. 

338. Farthing. London. Obv. + hQRRId RQX AftSL. Bust of king, facing, 
crowned. Rev. Q I VITAS LO ft DO ft. Long cross pattee with pellets. 
m -45. Wt. 6-4. 

As this coin has no peculiar marks it belongs to one of the earlier 
issues. Others of London are of the pine-cone mascle, pine-cone pellet, 
and cross and pellet coinages. 



64 ENGLISH COINS. 

Light Money (1470-1471). 

Plate xi. 339. Angel. Obv. hQHRiaVS Dl GRfi . RQX 7W6L X 

(stops, trefoils). The Archangel, St. Michael, standing, facing, on the dragon, 
which he pierces with his spear. Rev. * P6(R . aRVS6( TVfi SfiLVfi 
flOS XPCX RQDQT (stops, trefoils). Ship to r., with mast in form 
of cross surmounted by top-castle ; in front of mast, shield with arms ; at 
sides of mast, h and lis. A? 1-15. Wt. 79*3. 

During his short restoration, 1470-1471, Henry struck gold and 
silver coins of the same denominations and standard, as were then 
current. The angel, which appears to have been first issued by 
Edward IV about 1470 (see No. 357) was current for 6s. and Sd. and 
weighed 80 grs. Those of Henry VI were struck at London and 
Bristol, the latter being distinguished by having the letter B on the ship. 

340. Half-Angel. Obv. h^RICC DQI GRfi RSX AnSL X FR 
(stops, trefoils). The Archangel, St. Michael, &c., as on the Angel. Rev. 
O CRVX 7WQ SP6(S V .-. RlCm : (stops, trefoils); m. m. lis. Ship 
to r., similar to the Angel. tJ '85. Wt. 36-1. 

Struck at London only. The only gold coins of this period are the 
angel and half-angel. 

The quarter-noble with the mint-mark, a crown, which is given to 
this period of Henry's reign, is a very doubtful attribution (see Kenyon, 
Gold Coins of England, p. 54). If Henry had struck any other gold coins 
than the angel and half-angel, he would have adopted the types and 
standard then in use. It probably belongs to the first issue of Henry IV. 



SILVKK. 341. Groat. London. Obv. $ hSnBiqV Dl GBfi BQX TyftGL' . X 
FBTXftG (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, crowned, within arched 
tressure. Rev. * POSVI DSVfll 7\DIVTOBe(' JTie(Vm_aiVIT7XS 
LOnDOn (in two circles ; lis after DSVJTl). Long cross pattee with pellets. 
jKl-0. Wt. 42-5. 

A peculiarity very marked of the silver coins of the restoration is 
that the letter R is often written as B. This is found occasionally on 
the gold pieces. Groats were struck at London, Bristol, and York ; 
half-groats and pennies at London and York ; and halfpence at London 
only. The groats of Bristol and York have a B or an Q on the king's 
breast. 

342. Half-Groat. London. Same as the Groat, hut reading FR for FBAHC( : the 
letter R is correctly written throughout. , j* -75. Wt. 23 -7. 

The York half-groat has a lis for mint-mark and the letter Q on the 
king's breast. The York penny has the letter 6 (for Abp. George 
Neville) and a key at the sides of the neck. Both the penny 
and halfpenny have generally B's for R's in the legends. 

Plate xii. 343. ANGLO-GALLIC. Salute of St. L6. Obv. h6(l/1RIC(VS : DQI : 6RE : 

<;UM.. FRSaORV : 5 : K6LIS : RQX ; m. m. lis. An angel saluting the 

Virgin, type of the Annunciation ; between them on scroll KVQ ; in front, 

two shields, one with arms of France, the other with those of England Rev 

xpcr-vinaiT xpa RQSMST XPCC . impaRKT (stops, muiiets) ; 

m. m. lis. Cross calvary within arched tressure ; at sides, leopard and lis ; 
below, h. vl-l. Wt. 53-0. 

The names of the salute and angelot are derived from their types. 
It is said that Henry V adopted this type so that his coinage should 



HENRY VI. G5 

have a distinct difference from that of the French monarch. The 
mint-marks as given above are all found on the salute, except those of GOLD - 
Chalons, Nevers, and St. Quentin. These however occur on silver coins. 

314. Angelot of Paris. Obv. hQNRiaVS : FRKNCCORy : 6(T : KNSLIQ : 
RQX ; m. m. crown. Angel facing, holding shields of France and 
England. Rev. XPC( : VINaiT : XPC( : RQ6NST : XPC( : IHlPe(RKT ; 
m. m. crown. Cross calvary between lis and leopard. *J '9. Wt. 35 '8. 
The aiigelot appears to have been first struck in 1427. The mint- 
marks are varied as 011 the salute, but the series is not so complete. 

The " Franc a cheval " has on the obv. the king on horseback holding 
sword ; around, his name ; and on the rev. a floriated cross within a 
ijuatrefoil ; around, XPCX : VlftCUT, &c. This coin is only known from 
illustrations ; no specimen having been met with in recent years. It is 
aid to have been issued in 1423. 

345. Gros of Calais. Rosette-mascle coinage. Obv. hGCRRICC Dl' (3RA SILVER. 
R6(X AH6L' X FR7\riC( (stops, mascle and rosettes); m. m. cross 
patonce. Bust of king facing, crowned, within arched tressure. Rev. 

+ POSVI - Dewn : ADIVTORGC . mavm VIL-LA : a^Lisis 

(in two circles; stops, mascles, rosettes and saltires). Long cross patt6e 
with pellets, zil'05. Wt. 58-5. 

The Calais money in gold and silver is, as before, of the same types, 
denominations and standard as the English money. The nobles and 
half-nobles are distinguished by having the letter (X instead of h in 
the centre of the cross on the reverse. They are with and without the 
flag at the stern of the ship. There are no quarter-nobles. The silver 
coins bear the same distinguishing marks as the English ones; but 
they belong only to the annulet (or annulet-trefoil and annulet- 
rosette), rosette-mascle, and pine-cone-mascle series. The marks of the 
Later issues do not occur, so that the Calais silver coinage must have 
)me to an end about the middle of Henry's reign. The nobles and 

lalf-nobles are of the trefoil coinage only. Their issue therefore did 

lot commence till after that of the silver had ceased. 

16. Demi-Gros of Calais. Rosette-mascle coinage. Same as the Gros, but 

reading F for FRAftC(; stops, same. M '85. Wt. 27-6. 

17. Denier of Calais. Rosette-mascle coinage. Obv. h9n,RIC(VS RQX 

AflSLIfl (stops, rosette and mascle); m. m. cross patonce. Bust of king 
facing, crowned. Rev. VILLA : QALIS' (stops, saltires and rosette). Long 
cross pattee with pellets. JR -7. Wt. 14-4. 

M8. Demi-Denier of Calais. Rosette-mascle coinage. Similar to the Penny ; but 
the obv. legend reads + h6(n,RIC(' R9X AftGL (stops, rosette and 
mascle). 2R -55. Wt. 8-0. 
319. Quart d' Argent of Calais. Rosette-mascle coinage. Same type and legends as 

the Demi-Denier, .at -4. Wt. 3-6. 
The quart d'argent appears to be only known of this issue. 

350. Grand Blanc of Bouen. Obv. FREMCXORVm : GO" j l/IGLie( : RQX ; 
m. m. leopard. Above shields of France and England, h&RIQVS. Rev. 
SIT ; HOme(H ; Dill : Bed/lSDiarV; m. m. leopard. Cross calvary 
between lis and leopard, and above h6(RIC(VS. JR !!. Wt. 48-3. 
The grand blanc and petit blanc were current for ten and five 
deniers respectively. The grand blanc was first ordered to be struck 

F 



66 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xii. at Paris in 1422, and they are sometimes of such base metal that they 
SILVER, are classed with the billon series. 

351. Petit Blanc of Paris. Obv. hQNRICCVS RSX ; m. m. crown. Shields of 

France and England, side by side. Rev. SIT : FlOCTiet : DHI : 

BQNQDIQTV; m. m. crown. Cross calvary between h R. M '9. 

Wt. 23-1. 

The petit blanc was not issued till 1423. These and the gros blanc.s 

appear to have been struck at all the mints. 

BILLON. 352. Denier Parisis. Obv. FRECXORV -Z K6L' RQX. Crown above 
hfiRI. Rev. PKRISIVS CdVIS (stop, rosette); m. m. crown. Cross 
pattee, ends fleured. Bil. -85. Wt. 14-0. 

A variety has a lis and a lion under the king's name. 

353. Denier Tournois of Auxerre. Obv. hQNRICXVS o RQX ; m. m. millrind. 
Fleur de lis before leopard passant. Rev. TVRONVS o FRKNGIg; m. in. 
millrind. Cross pattee. Bil. -75. Wt. 14-7. 

The mint-mark shows that this piece was struck at Auxerre. 

The obole or denier has on the obv. a cross pattee above a leopard, 
and on the rev. a cross pattee above a lis, and the legend OBOLVS CUVIS- 
The triple has for type two shields surmounted by a crown and on 
the rev. a cross between a lis and a leopard, TVRONVS TRIPLEX FRKNQ : 
and the double, a lis, and on the rev. a cross fleury, TVRONVS DVPLQX. 

With the exception of a few groats struck by Henry VIII (see 
Nos. 439-440), the Anglo-Gallic series virtually came to an end during 
this reign. 

Edward IV. 1461-1483. 

COINAGE. Gold. Noble, Hose Noble or Ryal, Half-Rose Noble, 
Quarter-Rose Noble, Angel, and Half-Angel. Silver. Groat, Half- 
Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Gold. Three: 1st issue (1464?), Noble. 2nd issue 
(1465-1470), Rose Noble or Ryal, Half-Rose Noble, Quarter-Rose 
Noble, and Angel. 3rd issue (1471-1483), Angel and Half-Angel. 
Silver. Two: 1st issue (1461-1464), Groat, Half -Groat, Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing; heavy coinage. 2nd issue (1464-1483), same 
denominations ; light coinage. 

The weight of the noble was 108 grs. as during the previous 
reign ; that of the rose noble 120 grs. ; and that of the angel 
80 grs. In the silver coinage the penny of the first issue was 15 grs. 
and that of the second issue 12 grs. The other denominations in gold 
and silver were in proportion. No change took place in the fineness of 
the metals ; the gold being at 23 carats 3^ grs. fine to \ gr. alloy, and 
the silver 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine to 18 dwts. alloy. For the mints see the 
descriptions. 

'I'-i-i-. 354. Rose Noble. Obv. EDWARD' Dl . (3R7V RQX 7\n6L' X 
FRfirta' DRS' -IB' - (stops, lis and trefoils); m. m. lis. King standing, 
facing in ship, holding sword and shield, as on the Noble ; one rope from prow 
and three from stern ; full-blown rose on side of ship, and at stern flag with 
letter Q. licv. IhCT - 7WT - TRTWSISnS : P6(R mSDIVm : 
ILLORVHl . I BAT (stops, trefoils) ; m. m. sun. Within arched tressure 



EDWABD IV. 67 

with trefoil in each spandril, floriated cross with rose on sun in centre and Plate xii. 
lion surmounted by crown in each angle. A7 1'4. Wt. 119-4. GOLD. 

The -rose noble, first struck in 1465, is so-called on account of the 
rose, which is stamped on both sides. There is a considerable variation 
in the mint-marks, which show the different issues (see note, No. 359 
and Appendix A), and from which it would appear that no rose nobles, 
half-rose nobles, or quarter-rose nobles were struck after 1470. The 
rose and sun were the badges of Edward IV. 

Hitherto gold coins had been struck at the Tower only. Edward 
extended their issue to several of the local mints. These coins are 
distinguished by the initial letters of the towns which are placed 
under the ship; thus, B (Bristol), (X (Coventry), Q (York = Eboracum), 
and n. (Norwich). These letters are found on rose nobles and half -rose 
nobles, but not on quarter-rose nobles. The weight of the rose noble 
being 120 grs., its current value, in accordance with the reduced standard 
of the silver money of 1 464, was 1 Os. This coin was much imitated in the 
Low Countries. These copies can be easily distinguished by their coarse 
style of work. 

The noble of the first issue was of precisely the same type as that 
previously struck ; but as its current value was fixed at 8s. 4d., instead 
of 6s. $d. as formerly, it was probably not issued before 1464, when the 
change occurred in the weight of the silver money. No half-nobles or 
quarter-nobles of this issue are known, and of the nobles only two 
specimens have been identified. These have a lis mint-mark and on the 
reverse the letter 9 in the centre of the cross is struck over h showing 
that an old die of Henry VI had been used. 

355. Half -Rose Noble* Obv. eCDWARD' . Dl 6RK RQX . 7\n,SL' X 

FRfiftQ (stops, trefoils). King in ship, &c., as on the Rose Noble. Rev. 

oomiria : us in. FVRORQ TVO : KRGVAS met (stops, trefoils); 

m. m. crown. Floriated cross within arched tressure, &c., as on the Rose 
Noble. A? 1-1. Wt. 59-0. 

356. Quarter-Rose Noble. Obv. QDWfiRD . Dl SRft : R6(X 7WGLOR - 

(stops, lis and trefoils) ; m. m. rose. Within quatrefoil shield between 
sun and rose ; above, Q ; below, lis ; trefoil in each spandril. Rev. 
aXTXLTTXBITVR : Ift : 6LORIA 0(11 (stops, trefoils) ; m. m. sun. Within 
arched tressure floriated cross with rose on sun in centre ; lion in each 
angle. AT -85. Wt. 29 -3. 

The earliest issue of this coin varies slightly in having on the obverse 
a tressure of eight arches instead of a quatrefoil. The meaning of the 
letters an, in the reverse legend of the above piece is uncertain. 
They can scarcely refer to Coventry. Similar pieces with the lis 
mint-mark on both sides are supposed to have been struck at York, 
of which mint this is a common mark. As the gold coinage was a very 
large one, there are numerous small varieties of each denomination. 

357. Angel. Obv. 6(DW7\RD' . D6(l : 6R7V : RQX ARSL X FRTmCX (stops, 

saltires) ; m. m. cinquefoil pierced. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing the 

dragon as on No. 339. Rev. PSR (XRVCXemi TV A' -SfiLVfi ftOS - 

XPOC ReCDQmPT (stops, saltires); m. m. cinquefoil pierced. Ship to 

r. as on No. 339 ; but 6( and rose at sides of mast. A/ I'l. Wt. 79 '7. 

The angel, though ordered to be struck in 1465, when the change 

took place in the other gold coins, was probably, from its mint-marks, 

F 2 



68 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xii. not actually issued much before 1470. It weighed 80 grs. and was 
GOLD. current for 6s. 8d., the original value of the noble. The above type is 
that used from 1471. Those issued before that date vary in having 
sun-rays above the mast, which has no top-castle, and at the sides sun 
and rose, or rose and sun. On the earlier angels of 1471 a sun instead 
of a rose is found at the side of the mast. It is an intermediate type. 
The only provincial mint which struck angels was Bristol. Those have 
a B under the ship, and are subsequent to 1471. 

358. Half-Angel. Obv. O CCRVX . AV3 SPSS Vn.lC(A (stops, trefoils). 

The Archangel, St. Michael, &c., as on the preceding. Rev. QDWARD' 

Dl 6RA' R8X An,<3L' X FRA Ship to r., as on the preceding. 

v -85. Wt. 39-7. 

The transposition of the obv. and rev. legends is an unusual variety. 

The half-angels all belong to the period from 1471, and none were struck 

at the provincial mints. 

SILVER. 359. Groat. London. Heavy coiiiage. Obv. QDWARD' Dl 6RA RSX 
AM6L' X FRAn,C(' (stops, saltires) ; m. ?n. rose pierced. Bust of king, 
facing, crowned, within arched tressure ; crescent on breast ; quatrefoil 
on each side of neck. Rev. POSVI D6(Vm : ADIVTORe(' me(Vm_. 
QIVITAS LOnDOn (in two circles; stops, saltires); m. m. rose pierced. 
Long crosspattee with pellets. JBl'15. Wt. 58 -5. 

The types of the silver coins of the heavy and light issues are the 
same. They vary chiefly in the weight and mint-marks. Groats of 
the first coinage were struck in London only, and those of the second 
at Bristol, Coventry, London, Norwich and York. The local issues 
have the initial of the mint on the king's breast. The use of the 
changing mint-mark, to note the various issues, was first generally 
adopted during this reign, and continued down to the time of Charles I. 
From these it is possible to ascertain the sequence of the issues both 
in gold and silver. This sequence on the groats of Edward IV 
appears to have been : heavy coinage, cross (patonce or plain) and rose 
pierced ; light coinage, rose pierced, sun, crown, cross fitchee, annulet, 
cross pierced, cross and pellets, annulet enclosing pellet, cross pierced 
or plain with one pellet, plain cross, and cinquefoil. On the later pieces 
a sun or a rose, or both, occur in the legends. Besides these there are 
numerous marks in the field of the coins which also connect the issues. 

3GO. Half-Groat. London. Heavy coinage. Obv. QDWARD' Dl' <3RA' 
R0X AfKoL' X FRA (stops, saltires) ; m. m. plain cross. Bust of king 
as on the preceding ; but lis on breast and pellet at each side of crown. 
Rev. Similar type and legends as on the Groat ; m. m. plain cross. JR -9. 
Wt. 29-0. 

Struck at the same mints as the groats and also at Canterbury. The 
heavy pieces are of London only. Some struck at Canterbury and York 
bear the private marks of the archbishops as on the pennies (see next coin). 



361. Penny. London. Light coinage. Obv. 3DWARD' DQI 6RA' 

Aft6; in. in. cinquefoil. Bust facing, .crowned. Rev. QIVITAS 
LOnDOn. Cross pattee with pellets. at -65. Wt. 12-4. 
Pennies of the heavy coinage have been attributed to Durham and 

York ; those of the light are of Bristol, Canterbury, Durham, London and 



> 



EDWARD IV. 69 

York. The coins of the ecclesiastical mints often bear the private mark Plate xii. 
or initial of the prelate by whom they were struck ; thus, the knot for SILVER. 
Abp. Bourchier (Canterbury), B for Booth, and D for Dudley (Durham), 
and G for George Neville, B for Booth and T or R for Rotherham 
(York). 

3G2. Halfpenny. London. Liylt coinage. Same as the Penny, but legend on 
obv. QDWARD' - Dl 6R7V R(X ft; quatrefoil at each side of neck, 
and m. m. cinquefoil on obv. M '6. Wt. 8'0. 

Heavy halfpence were struck in London only, and the light ones at 
Bristol, Canterbury, Durham, London and York. The light halfpence 
often exceed their legal weight. 

363. Farthing. London. Heavy coinage. Same as the Penny, but legend on 
obv. SDWfiRD' : RflX : 7Xn6L; m. m. plain cross on obv. zi -4. 
Wt. 3-3. 

Farthings are of both coinages, but of London only. 



Edward V. 1483. 

COINAGE. Gold. Angel and Half -Angel. Silver. Groat. 

ISSUES, etc. The coins of Edward V, which are limited to three 
denominations, two in gold and one in silver, are precisely similar to 
those of his father, and can only be identified by their mint-marks, a 
rose and a sun united or a boar's head. The former was the well- 
known cognisance of Edward IV (see the rose noble), and the boar's 
head the badge of the Protector, Richard III. The weight and fine- 
were the same as Edward IVs coinage. 

Angel. Obv. SDWfiRD' Dl - 6R7V R6(X 7\n.6L' - X FRTmCX :: GOLD 
(stops, saltires) ; m. m. boar's head. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing 
the dragon as on No. 357. Rev. P8R (XRVaeUTl TVA SfiLVfi ROS 
XPO(' RetDQHlP' : (stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose and sun united. Ship to 
r., &c., as on No. 357. AT 1-1. Wt. 78-2. 

A variety has the mint-mark, rose and sun united on both sides. 

lese coins are very rare. 

Half-Angel. Obv. etDWfiRD 1 Dl' 6RA R3X fiflS (stops, saltires); 
m. m. rose and sun united. The Archangel, St. Michael, &c., as on the 
preceding. Rev. : O : C(RVX : 7W9 : SPSS : VPUC^ : (stops, saltires) ; 
TO. m. as on obv. Ship to r. &c., as on the preceding. A? -75. Wt. 38'1. 

No half-angels of Edward V are known with the boar's head mint- 
mark. All the gold coins were struck at the Tower. 

. Groat. London. Obv. 6CDW7XRD' - Dl' <3R7V RSX 7SRSL X SILVER. 
FRfiRCC (stops, saltires) ; m. TO. boar's head. Bust of king, facing, crowned, 
within arched tressure ; pellet below bust. Rev. POSVI DSVJft : 
fiDIVTORet meCVm_aiVITES LOnDOn (in two circles; stops, 
saltires) ; m. TO. rose and sun united. Long cross pattee with pellets. 
jRl-05. Wt. 42-8. 

Struck in London only. Varieties have for mint-marks the rose 
and sun united, or the boar's head only on both sides ; and a further 
variety of each of these issues has a pellet under the king's bust. 



70 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xii. 

Richard III. 1483-1485. 

COINAGE. Gold. Angel and Half- Angel. Silver. Groat, Half -Groat, 
Penny, and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. No change took place in the coinage of this short 
reign. The types are the same as those of the two preceding ones, 
and the coins are of the same weight and fineness. The denomina- 
tions in gold were limited to the angel and half -angel, and in the silver 
no farthings have hitherto been recognised. Richard used the same 
mint-marks, a rose and a sun united and a boar's head, as his nephew. 
They are found on all his coins except the pennies struck at Durham. 
The gold coins are of the Tower mint only, but those of silver are of 
Durham, London and York. 

OOLI)> 367. Angel. Obv. RlflARD Dl <3Rfi R9X TWSL . X - FRTXRd : 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose and sun united. The Archangel, St. Michael, 

piercing the dragon, &c., as on No. 357. Rev. PflR QRVCCQ TVfi 

SALVfi ROS XPC( RSDeUUPT (stops, saltires); m.m. as on obv. Ship to 

r., &c., as on No. 357 ; but R and rose at sides of mast. A T 1-1. Wt. 78 '5. 

Richard's early angels were struck from altered dies of Edward V. 

On some, Edward's name is left, and only the letter 6( changed into R 

in the field on the reverse. On others the first three letters "Ric" 

have been substituted for " Edw." Varieties have for mint-marks 

the united rose and sun and boar's head on opposite sides, or the boar's 

head on both sides. 

368. Half-Angel. Obv. RIC(fiRD Dl - GR7\ RQX APXoL (stops, saltires); 
m. m. boar's head. Same type as the Angel. Rev. O QRVX 7W8 
SPSS VniC(fi (stops, sa-ltires);m. m. asonofev. Same type as the Angel. 
A: -8. Wt. 38-8. 

The half-angel also has the mint-mark, rose and sun united, on both 
sides. The two mint-marks, however, are not found on the same piece. 



Plate xiii. 369. Groat. London. Obv. RltfARD' Dl' 6R7T - R6[X 
SILVER. FR7\n,C( (stops, saltires) ; m. m. boar's head. Bust facing, crowned, within 

arched tressure. Rev. POSVI DaV5U : fiDIVTORS' mavm __ (XIVITffS 
LOnDOn, (in two circles; stops, saltires); m. m. rose and sun united. 
Long cross pattee with pellets. JR 1*05. Wt. 46 '5. 

Struck also at York, but with mint-mark rose and sun only. The 
mint-marks vary on the London pieces as on the angels. A unique 
variety in the National Collection has an arched crown, as in Henry 
VII's second issue, and a rose on the king's breast. It is of coarse 
work, and not above suspicion. 

370. Half-Groat. London. Same as the Groat, but reading FR for FRfiRCX; 

no stops after words on either side, and m. m. rose and sun united on 

obv. and rev. JR -75. Wt. 16 -5. 

Half-groats are only known of London, with the exception of one of 
Canterbury, which having blundered legends may be a contemporary 
forgery. Some have the mint-mark a boar's head on the obv. only and 
none on the rev. 



EICHAED III. 71 

371. Penny. York. Obv. RIC(fiRD Dl 6RA R9X fiRS; m. m. boar's head. Plate xiii 

Bust facing, crowned; T (Thomas Rotherham) and key at sides of neck, siivrr 
Rev. QIVITfiS QBORfiCU. Long cross pattee with pellets in angles and 
quatrefoil in centre. 2B -65. Wt. 11-5. 

Struck also at London and Durham ; that of London being unique. 
It has for mint-mark the boar's head. Varieties of the York pennies 
have the mint-marks, a rose and sun united or a rose with T and key 
at sides of king's neck. The Durham pieces have for mint-mark a lis, S 
for Bishop Sherwood on breast, and D in centre of cross on reverse. 

372. Halfpenny. London. Obv. RIC(fiRD Dl GRfi ; m. m. rose and sun 

united. Bust facing, crowned. Rev. C(IVIT7\S LOMDOn. Long cross 
pattee with pellets. JR -5. Wt. 6 -3. 

These coins are only known of London and of the above mint-mark. 



Henry VII. 1485-1509. 

COINAGE. Gold. Ryal or Noble, Sovereign, Angel, and Half -Angel. 
Silver. Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Gold. Two : 1st issue (1485), Ryal, Angel, and Half- 
Angel. 2nd issue (1489), Sovereign or Double Ryal, Angel, and Half- 
Angel. Silver. Three : 1st issue (1485), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, 
and Halfpenny with front face and open crown. 2nd issue (1489 ?), 
Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing with front face 
and arched crown. 3rd issue (1504), Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, with 
profile crowned bust, and Penny, sovereign type. 

The gold coins were of the same weight, fineness and current values 
as those of the second issue of Edward IV ; but the sovereign, which 
weighed 240 grs., was current at 20s. The silver money remained 
throughout at 12 grs. to the penny, as fixed in 1464 (see under 
Edward IV), and no change occurred in the fineness. 

Two new denominations were struck by Henry VII, viz., the 
sovereign in gold and the shilling in silver. The gold coins still 
continued to be issued from the Tower mint only, and the silver from 
Canterbury, Durham, London, and York. 

373. Ryal. Obv. hG(n,Ria Dl - 6R2C R6(X JKriSL X FRffnGC GOLD. 
DftS IBZfR (stops, trefoils). King wearing arched crown and holding 
sword and shield, standing, facing in ship with two ropes from prow and 
three from stern ; flag with h at prow and another with dragon at stern t 

Rev. mcx avTecm TRansians . PSR msoiv - ILLORV - 

I BZTT (stops, trefoils) ; m. m. cross fitchee. Small shield with arms of 
France only on double rose and within arched tressure with trefoil at each 
arch and in each spandril. AT 1-45. Wt. 118 '4. 

Of this coin only three specimens are known. The ryal was 
equivalent to half the sovereign so may have been known by that 
name, as half-sovereigns are mentioned in late charters of this reign. 
All the known specimens bear the mint-mark a cross fitchee, which 



72 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xiii. only occurs on silver coins of the first issue, i.e. with the king wearing 
GOLD, an open crown. It is therefore probable that none were struck 
after 1489. 

374. Sovereign. 4th type. Obv. K6NRICVS : DGI : SRACIA RGX - 

AN6LI6 : T : FrtANCI : DNS : IBAR (stops, cinquefoils) ; in. m. 
dragon. King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb ; the throne 
has a high canopy on each side of the king's head, and on arms a greyhound 
and a dragon ; the field of the coin is scmt dc Us. Rev. I K6SVS AVT6M - 
TRANSI6NS : PR : M6DIVM ILLORVM : IBAT :: (stops, cinque- 
foils) ; in. m. dragon. Shield with arms of France and England quarterly 
on large double rose within arched treasure ; a lion and a lis alternately 
in the arches, v 1 6. Wt. 239-1. 

This handsome gold coin was first struck in 1489. It weighed 240 
grs., or double that of the ryal or noble, and was current for 20s. 
There are four series or distinct varieties of this coin, which can be 
identified by changes chiefly in the obv. type as follows : (1) king 
seated on throne with concave back ; on rev. large crowned shield on 
rose, no tressure ; (2) similar, but back of throne straight and not so> 
high, and field chequered and covered with lis ; on rev. small shield, not 
crowned, on rose within tressure ; (3) similar to type 2, but canopy of 
three arches above throne and field on obv. not chequered ; and 
(4) similar, but the throne has no arch over the king's head, the back 
is high, and on the arms at the sides are a greyhound and a dragon. 
This seems to have been the order of issue. 

375. Angel. 1st issue. Obv. x hQRRICX Dl 6RA RSX 7W6L . Z - 

FRAftCX DFIS x (stops, trefoils). The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing 
the dragon as on No. 339, his left foot only on the beast. Rev. Ihd - 

TWTec TRAnsians . PSR mecoiv ILORV . (stops, trefoils), ship 

to r., as on No. 339 ; but h and rose at sides of mast, jj I'l. Wt. 79 '9. 
The angels and half -angels of the first and second issues differ in the 
position of the Archangel ; in the former he has only only one foot on 
the dragon, but in the latter both feet. This change probably took 
place in 1489. The more common reverse legend is as that on the 
next coin, but both legends occur in each series. 

376. Angel. 2nd issue. Obv. hERRIcr Dl' 6R7V - RX l\n<3L Z - 

FRT^n (stops, rosettes) ; m. m. escallop. Same as the preceding, but the 
Archangel has both feet on the dragon and his body is slightly turned away 
from it. Rev. PR - (XRVaGM TVfi . SfiLVfi - ROS XP - 
RGD6M (stops, rosettes); m. m. as on obv. Same type as the preceding. 
A71-05. Wt. 77-7. 

The mint-marks on these coins are numerous and appear to fall into 
the same order as those on the silver coins (see Appendix A). 



377. Half-Angel. 2nd issue. Obv. hetnRICC : Dl' : 6R7T : RSX 

Z (stops, saltires) ; m. m. pheon. The Archangel as on the preceding. 
Rev. O : CXRVX : TWfl : SPSS : VniC(fi . (stops, saltires); m. in. as on 
obv. Same type as the Angel (No. 375). jv -85. Wt. 38 '7. 

Only one specimen of the half-angel of the first issue is known. It 
is of the same type as the angel, and it has for mint-mark the rose and 
sun united on both sides as on coins of Edward V and Richard III. 






HENEY VII. 73 

378. Groat. London. 1st issue. Obv. hSRRiaVS - Dfll 6RZf RQX - Plate xiii 

ftFNoL S FR : (stops, saltires) ; m. m. cross fitchee. Bust facing, SILVER. 
wearing open crown, within arched tressure ; cross at each side of neck. 
Rev. +POSVI DQVm EDIVTORS me(Vm_aiVITBS LOftDOn (in two 
circles). Long cross pattee with pellets. M 1*0. Wt. 38'3. 

Groats of this issue are only known of London. Each of the three 
issues of the silver money is marked by a change of type. On the first 
issue the king's bust is facing and he wears an open crown ; on the 
second issue the bust is also facing but the crown is arched ; and on 
the third issue the king's bust is in profile, and on the reverse, instead of 
the usual cross pattee and pellets, there is a shield on a cross fourchee. 
This change of reverse type was gradual, as in the second issue the cross 
fourchee was substituted for the cross pattee. An exception occurs in 
the obverse type of the pennies, which is known as the "sovereign 
type" (see No. 391). For reasons stated below (see No. 385) it is very 
probable that this new type had already been partly introduced during 
the period of the second issue. The groats and half-groats of the first 
and second issues bear many small marks showing differing series, and 
throughout the whole coinage the mint-marks are very numerous. For ' 
their probable sequence see Appendix A. 

379. Half-Groat. Canterbury. 1st issue. Obv. hSnRIC( Dl 6Rfi - R6(X 

7\nSL X FR7X (stops, trefoils) ; m. m. ton. Same type as the Groat and 
with cross at each side of the king's neck. Eev. POSVI D6CVJTI 
fiDIVTORS mavm CUVITAS CmnTOR (stop, Eye of Providence). 
Same type as the Groat ; but with fll (Abp. Morton) in centre of cross. A\ ' 8. 
Wt. 23-8. 
Struck also at London and York. Archbishop Morton, who struck 

this coin, held the see of Canterbury from 1487-1500. The m. m. ton 

is a rebus on the name of Morton. 

Penny. Canterbury. 1st issue. Obv. hSRRia [Dl <3R7\] R8X 
ATK3L ; m. m. ton. Bust facing, crowned, with cross at each side of neck. 
.Bey. CU VITAS GAP-TOR. Long cross pattee with pellets; JTl (Morton) 
in centre. JR 6. Broken. 

Struck also at Durham, London, and York. The Durham pieces 
have an S (for Bp. Sherwood) on the king's breast. Those of London can 
be identified by the mint-mark, a rose and lis united ; whilst those of 
York have the letter T (for Thomas Rotherham, 1480-1 500) and a key, or 
two T's, or T and a lis, or T and a trefoil at each side of neck. Some have 
also the letter h or a quatrefoil in the centre of the cross on the reverse. 

1. Halfpenny. London. 1st issue. Obv. hQRRICC [Dl <3RA] RQX ; m. m. 
lis on rose. Bust facing, with open crown. Rev. GIVITAS LOftDOft. 
Long cross pattee with pellets. M '45. Wt. 4 -4. 

Struck also at Canterbury with mint-mark ton. Pennies and halfpence of 
this issue are very scarce, and no farthings have hitherto been identified. 

382. Groat. London. 2nd issue. Obv. heCRRIC(' Dl' - GR7V j RQX : 
A6L' Z FR' (stops, saltires) ; m. in. heraldic cinquefoil. Bust facing, 
wearing arched crown ; around, tressure of arches ; annulet at each side of 
neck. Rev. POSVI DflV ADIVTO6C me(V_ai VITAS LOftDOn. (in 
two circles). Long cross fourch6e with pellets in angles. 2R 1*1. 
Wt. 46-3. 
Only struck in London. On the earlier pieces of this issue the 






ai 

: 



74 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xiii. arches of the crown are plain ; but on the later ones they are 
SILVER, ornamented. The cross fourchee on the reverse is the first attempt at 
a departure from the stereotyped form of the cross pattee which had 
been in continuous use since the reign of Edward I. 



383. Portcullis Groat. London. 2nd issue. Obv. hQRRICX Dl 

R0X ZfftSL X FRftnCC (stops, trefoils); m. m. cross. Bust with 
arched crown, similar to the preceding. Rev. POSVI D8VJTI TSDIVTORS 
iTieCVfll _ CdVITZtS LOnDOn (in two circles; stops, trefoils) ; m. m. lis. 
Long cross fourchee with portcullis in centre. JR I'O. Pierced. 

As only one other specimen of this variety is known, it may be a 
pattern. It belongs to the early period of this issue as the arches of the 
crown are plain. The portcullis was the badge of the Beaufort family. 

384. Half-Groat. Canterbury. 2nd issue. Similar to the Groat No. 382 ; but 

F for FR and mint, QIVIT7XS CtAFlTOR : in. m. ton, and no stops between 

words. JR -75. Wt.20-3. 

Struck by Abp. Morton ; some having the letter jn in the centre of 
the reverse as on No. 379. Half -groats were also struck at London and 
York ; those of York have generally a key on each side of the neck. 
Some early half-groats of this issue have the crown breaking the tressure 
and not arched. They are sometimes classed to the previous issue. 

385. Penny. Canterbury. 2nd issue. Obv. hSftRICC Dl' 6R7V RQX 7\n.6 , 

m. m. ton. Bust facing, with arched crown. Rev. CUVITAS CXT^RTOR; 
m. m. as on obv. Long cross fourchee with pellets. M '65. Wt. 10 -0. 

Pennies of this type are only known of Canterbury, and they all 
have the mint-mark ton (for Morton). From this circumstance and the 
occurrence of early mint-marks it is conjectured that the "sovereign type " 
(see No. 391) was introduced at this period : otherwise there are no 
pennies of the second issue which can be classed to London and York. 

386. Halfpenny. London. 2nd issue. Same as the Penny, but legend on rev. 

CUVITAS LOftDOn. : in. m. cinquefoil on obv. xt -55. Wt. 6-0. 

Struck also at Canterbury and York ; on some of the latter there 
is a key under the king's bust. 

387. Farthing. 2nd issue. Similar to the Halfpenny, but the cross on the 

reverse is pattee ; legends obliterated, zi -45. Wt. 3-0. 

This attribution is doubtful. Farthings are only known of London. 
They are very rare. 

388. Shilling. London. 3rd issue. Obv. h^RRICC SQPTim 1 Dl' (3R7V - 

RSX 7\a<3L' Z FR' (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Bust of king in 
profile to r., draped and wearing arched crown ; around, double circle, inner- 
one plain. Rev. POSVI DQVm 7XDIVTOR9' mavm (stops, saltires) ; 
m. m. lis. The royal shield within double circle as on obv. upon a cross 
fourchee with lis or trefoil in each fork. M I' 15. Wt. 141-3. 

This is the first issue of the shilling in the English coinage, and also 
the first instance, except in the reign of Henry III, in which the 
numeral or number occurs after the king's name. The reverse type 
is ,-dso new for the larger coins (see Nos. 389 and 390); the shield 
occupying the place of the pellets and the name of the mint being dis- 
continued. For the first time also we have a genuine portrait, and one 
which is executed with considerable skill. Varieties have the numerals 



HENRY VII. 75 

VII after the king's name, or are without these or SQPTim. The Plate xiii 
shilling was current for twelve pence, and its full weight was 144 grs. SILVER. 



389. Groat. London. 3rd issue. Obv. hSriRia' : VII' DP 6R7V RSX - 

1\<3L' Z FR' (stops, saltires) ; m. m. cross crosslet. Bust of king, 
similar to the preceding, but only one circle. Rev. POSVI D6CV : 
fiDIVTORGC : JYl&V (stops, saltires); m. m. as on obv. The royal shield 011 
cross fourchee. ^1-05. Wt. 45-0. 

The groat like the shilling occurs also without the numerals after 
the king's name. They also read SQPTIJTI. Both the shillings and 
groats of this issue appear to have been struck in London only. None 
bear any mint-name or special local mint-mark. 

390. Half-Groat. London. 3rd issue. Similar to the Groat, but FR in obv. 

legend omitted, and m. m. lis on both sides. JR "8. Wt. 22 '3. 
Struck also at York ; these may be distinguished by having two keys 
below the shield on the reverse, and the mint-mark a martlet or a rose. 



391. Penny. Durham. 3rd issue. Obv. hSRRia D <3RA R8X A. Full 
length figure of the king seated facing on throne and holding sceptre and orb. 
Rev. CUVITfiS DIRhAJTl. Royal shield on cross fourchee ; at sides, D S 
(Dunolmeiisis Senhouse). JR -65. Wt. 11-2. 

Struck also at London and York. This type is known as the 
" sovereign type." It only occurred once previously in the English 
coinage, viz., in the reign of Edward the Confessor (see No. 189), 
and only survived to the reign of Edward VI. 

William Senhouse was Bp. of Durham, 1502-1507. Other pennies 
of Durham bear the initials B D or D B probably of Christopher 
Bainbridge, . 1507-1509, the successor of Senhouse. The York 
pennies have two keys under the shield, whilst those of London can 
only be distinguished by small varieties from the earliest of Henry VIII. 
Those with the mint-mark cinquefoil, lis, and pheon are probably of 
Henry VII. 

There appear to be no halfpence and farthings of this issue ; at 
least none have been identified as such. 

Henry VIII. 1509-1547. 

COINAGE. Gold. Double-Sovereign, Sovereign, Half -Sovereign, 
Crown, Half-Crown, Eyal or Rose Noble, Angel, Half- Angel, Quarter- 
Angel, George Noble, and Half-George Noble. Silver. Shilling or 
Testoon, Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

Hitherto the standard of the gold coins had been 23 carats 3^ grains 
fine and ^ grain alloy, and of the silver 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine and 18 
dwts. alloy ; both known as "standard gold and silver." During this 
reign a new gold standard of 22 carats fine and 2 carats alloy was 
introduced. It was known as " crown gold." The change in the 
standard brought with it variations in the current values of the coins, 
especially as in each case a debasement occurred. The standard of 
the silver coinage was also much debased, so that at the end of the 
reign it stood at i fine to f alloy. 

ISSUES, &c. There were five issues both of the gold and silver which 
approximated to the dates 1509 (1st year), 1526 (18th year), 1543 



76 ENGLISH COINS. 

(35th year), 1544 (36th year), and 1545 (37th year). The denomi- 
nations, weights, and current values of the different issues were : Gold : 
1st issue (1509), Double-Sovereign (480 grs.), Sovereign (240 grs.), 
Ryal (120 grs.), Angel (80 grs.), and Half -Angel (40 grs.), current 
for 2, 1, 10s., 6s. Sd. and 3s. 4d. respectively ; all 23 cts. 3 grs. 
fine and ^ gr. alloy. 2nd issue (1526), Double-Sovereign (480 grs), 
Sovereign (240 grs.), Angel (80 grs.), George Noble (71^ grs.), Half- 
George Noble (30 | grs.), Crown (57f|grs.),and Half-Crown(28j grs.), 
current for 2 4s. or 5s., 1 2s. or 2~s. Qd., 7s. 4d. or 6(7., 6s. 8d., 3s. 4d., 
5s. and 2s. Qd. respectively ; fineness as 1st issue, but Crown and Half- 
Crown 22 cts. (crown gold). 3rd issue (1543), Sovereign (200 grs.), 
Angel (80 grs.), Half- Angel (40 grs.), and Quarter-Angel (20 grs.), 
current for 20s., 8s., 4s. and 2s. respectively ; fineness 23 cts. 4th and 
5th issues (1544 and 1545), Sovereign (192 grs.), Half-Sovereign 
(96 grs.), Crown (48 grs.), and Half-Crown (24 grs.), current for 20s., 
10s., 5s. and 2s. Gd. respectively ; fineness 22 cts. for 1544 and 20 cts. 
for 1545. Silver : 1st and 2nd issues (1509 and 1526), Groat, Half- 
Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing at 12 grs. and 10} grs. to the 
Penny respectively ; fineness, standard silver 1 1 oz. 2 dwts. fine and 
18 dwts. alloy. 3rd issue (1543), Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, 
and Halfpenny, at 10 grs. to the Penny ; fineness, two series, (a) fine 
silver, (b) base silver, 5 parts fine to 1 part alloy. 4th issue (1544), 
Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny, at 10 grs. to the Penny; fineness 
half silver and half alloy. 5th issue (1545), Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, 
and Penny, at 10 grs. to the Penny ; fineness ^ silver to alloy. 

The new denominations in gold of this reign were the double- 
sovereign, the half-sovereign, the quarter-angel, the George noble, the 
half -George noble, the crown and the half-crown. No additions were 
made to the silver coins. The mints were, for gold, London (the Tower 
and Southwark) and Bristol ; and for silver, Bristol, Canterbury, 
London (Tower and Southwark), and York. 

ANGLO-GALLIC SERIES. The only coins of this class consist of Groats 
struck at Tournay. They are of two types. Henry VIII was the last 
English monarch to strike money for the English possessions in France. 

First Issue (1509-1526). 

GOLD. 392. Double- Sovereign (?). Obv. hQRRiaVS : DQI : 6RACUA : RQX l\n<5Ll&. : 
e(T FRARCC OnS' hIB' (stops, saltires); m. in. lis. King 
enthroned, holding sceptre and orb ; at his feet, portcullis. Rev. 
IhQSVS : 7WTQM : TRAFlSIGnS : PQR : MQDIVM : ILLORVM : 
I BAT : (stops, saltires) ; m. m. cross crosslet. Royal shield on double rose, 
all within ornamented tressure. AJ 1-7. Wt. 788 '6. 

As the double-sovereigns differ only in weight from the sover- 
eigns, it is possible that they may be patterns or trial pieces. The 
above specimen is abnormally heavy ; the true weight would be about 
480 grs. Only one other specimen, weighing 474 grs., is known. The 
mint-marks which occur on the gold coins of the first issue are the lis, 
cross crosslet, portcullis and castle. For the mint-marks on all the 
coins of this reign see Appendix A. 



I 



, HENRY VIII. 77 

393. Sovereign. Same as the preceding, but reading on the reverse TRAftCUSriS ; pi a t e *iv. 

lion and lis alternately in the arches of the tressure and two crosses in each GoL1) 
spandril ; m. in. portcullis crowned on obv. and rev. AT 1*6. Wt. 236*1. 

The portcullis and cross crosslet mint-marks were also used by 
Henry VII ; but these coins are attributed to Henry VIII on account 
of the portcullis under the king's feet, which is a special mark of that 
king's coinage. A variety like the double-sovereign has no lions or lis 
in the tressure on the reverse. 

394. Byal. Obv. hedlRKT VIII' - Dl' 6R7V RQX AUGL' Z 

FRAFICC DflS' I B' (stops, saltires). King, crowned, holding 
sword and shield, standing facing in ship, similar to No. 354, but 
flag at stern inscribed with the letter h. Rev. IhCX' AVT' 
TRAftSI6(nS : PQR : mSDIVm : ILLORVm : IBAT (stops, saltires); 
m. m. portcullis crowned. Floriated cross with rose on sun in centre, &c., 
similar to No. 354. AT 1-4. Wt. 117-9. 

This coin is excessively rare. Kenyon, Gold Coins of England, 
p. 84, only mentions the above specimen. 

395. Angel. Obv. hSnRICC VIII' . Dl' <3RA' R3X - A6L' Z FR' - 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. portcullis crowned. The Archangel, St. Michael, 
piercing the dragon as on No. 376. Rev. P8R C(RVC(e(' TV A' 
SALVA ftOS XP6C Re(De(T' (stops, saltires); m. m. as on obv. 
Ship to r., &c., as on No. 376. AT 1-1. Wt. 78-8. 

The angels and half -angels of this reign are of the same type as 
those of the second issue of Henry VII. 

396. Half-Angel. Similar to the Angel, but with legends, obv. hgnRIGC VIII' 

Dl' <3RA' - R0X 1\L' Z ; and rev. O : CXRVX : AVS : SPSS : 
VftlQA (stops, saltires); m. m. portcullis crowned on obv. and rev. A? 'S. 
Wt. 38-6. 
Though there are many small varieties of the angel and half-angel 

of this issue, only two mint-marks occur. These are the crowned 

portcullis and the castle. 

397. Groat. London. Obv. h^nRICX' VIII' Dl' <3RA' RQX A6L' SILVER. 

Z FR' (stops, saltires); m. m. portcullis crowned. Bust of king to r., 
in profile, draped, and wearing arched crown. Rev. POSVI D6CV : 
ADIVTORGC : JTIQV (stops, saltires); m. m. portcullis crowned. Royal 
shield on cross fourch^e. 2R I'O. Wt. 45 -2. 

Groats of this issue were struck in London only. There are three 
distinct portraits on the silver coins of Henry VIII. On the first issue 
of the groats and half -groats he used his father's last portrait which is 
in profile ; on the second issue he placed his own portrait also in 
profile ; and on subsequent issues his bust, which is either three- 
quarters or full-face, occurs on all the denominations. 

398. Half-Groat. London. Same as the preceding, but FR omitted on obv. 

legend, and that on the rev. reads ADIVTOS ; in. m. portcullis crowned on 

both sides. ^'8. Wt. 24 -5. 

Half-groats of this issue were also struck at Canterbury and York. 
These have on the reverse the mint-name instead of the POSVI, &c., 
legend. An exception however occurs in the York piece, bearing the 
initials X B (see below). Those of Canterbury have on the reverse the 
initials W A for Abp. Wareham, and those of York X B for Christopher 
Bainbridge, and T W for Thomas Wolsey. Others also of York, and 



78 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xiv. struck by Wolsey, have a cardinal's hat and keys under the shield (see 
SILVER, next coin). ; 

399. Half-Groat. York. Obv. hQURlCT - VIII' - Dl' 6R7V - RQX . fi(3L' 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. cross. Bust of king in profile as on No. 397. Rev. 
QIVIT7XS : QBORfiQI (stops, saltires) ; m.m. cross. Royal shield on cross 
fourchee ; at sides T W (Thomas Wolsey) ; below, two keys and cardinal's 
hat. &'S. Wt. 22-5. 

The placing of the cardinal's hat under the royal arms was the subject 
of one of the articles of the impeachment of Wolsey a few years later. 

400. Penny. Durham. Obv. hQflRIQ' Dl' 6R7V RQX 7\<3L' Z - 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. King enthroned, holding sceptre and orb. Rev. 



IVIT7XS : DVRRfiJTl (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Royal shield on cross 
fourchee ; above shield, T D (Thomas Ruthall). M -6. Wt. 10-8. 
Struck also at Canterbury, London and York, all with the mint- 
name. Those of Canterbury have W 1\ for Wareham ; those of York 
two keys ; and others of Durham D W (Dunolmensis Wolsey). 

401. Halfpenny. London. Obv. hQftRKX' Dl' 6R7V RQX 7X6U - 

(stops, saltires) ; m.m. portcullis. Bust facing, wearing arched crown. Rev. 

CUVITfiS LOriDOn. Cross fourchee with pellets. JR '5. Wt. 7-1. 
Struck also at Canterbury and York. Those of Canterbury have 
W R (Wareham) at the sides of the king's head, and those of York a 
key under the bust. Halfpence of this and the next issue can be distin- 
guished for the most part by the change in the obverse legend ; though 
that of the first for a time survived into the second. These coins 
preserved their reverse type. 

402. Farthing. London. Obv. hQURICC Dl' (3R7V RQX (stops, 

saltires); m. m. portcullis. In centre, portcullis. Rev. CUVITfiS LOftDOn,. 
Cross fourchee, rose in centre. M '45. Wt. 3*3. 

This is the only known legible specimen of the farthings of this 
issue. They were struck at London only. 



Second Issue (1526-1543). 

GOLD. 403. Double-Sovereign. Same as No. 392, but four crosses after I BAT and 

m. m. lis on 061;., pheon on rev. AT I' 65. Wt. 470-0. 

The pheon mint-mark also occurs on silver coins of the second issue. 
This coin is struck from the dies of the sovereign. 

404. Sovereign. Same as No. 393, but the legend on the reverse reads 

TRfiflSIQriS, and there are no crosses in the spandrils of the tressure ; 

m. m. on obv. lis ; on rev. arrow. AT 1-65. W T t. 238'5. 

These coins can only be distinguished from those of the first issue 
by their mint-marks (see No. 392). A variety, as No. 393, has 
crosses in the spandrils of the tressure on the reverse. 

405. Angel. Obv. hQnRICT VIII' Dl' <3R7V - RQX fi6L' Z F' - 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. pheon. The Archangel, &c., as on No. 395. Rev. 

PQR - aRVQQ' TV7V STXLVfi ClOS XPQ' RQD - (stops, 

saltires) ; m. m. pheon. Ship to r., &c., as on No. 395. A/-1-15. W T t. 80'0. 

The angels of the 1st and 2nd issues are also attributed by their 

mint-marks. From these it would appear that there are no half-angels 

of the second issue. 



HENRY VIII. 79 



406. George Noble. Obv. hariRICC' - Dl' 6' R' A6L Z FRAHCC piatexiv. 

DftS' h I B(R I (stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose. Ship to r., as on the reverse GoLD 
of the Angel (see No. 339), but a double rose instead of a shield on the 
cross, and at sides h and K (Henry and Katherine of Aragon). Rev. 
TALI : DIC(A' : SI6O : MSS' : FLVaTVARI : nQQVIT - (stops, 
saltires) ; m. m. rose. St. George in armour riding on horse to r. and 
piercing the dragon. AT 1'05. Wt. 70 '4. 

The George noble and half-George noble were ordered to be struck 
in 1526, and to be current at 6s. 8d. and 3s. 4d. respectively. 
They are all of the above type, and if the letter K on the reverse is 
the initial of Katherine of Aragon, they must have been struck 
between 1526 and 1533, in which last year that queen was divorced. 
The half-George noble, of which only one example is known and which is 
of the same type as the George noble, appears to be of a somewhat 
later date, as the legends, also similar, are in Roman and not in old 
English characters. The letter K in the lield on the reverse would 
in that case be the initial of Katherine Howard, who was married 
from 1541-1543. The inscription on the reverse in. full is " tali 
dicata signo mens fluctuare nescit." It is from a hymn by Prudentius 
written in the 4th cent., entitled " Hymnus ante Somnum." 

407. Crown. Obv. h^RRICC . VIII' RVTILARS - ROSA : SIS' . SPIA' - 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose. Double rose crowned between h K (Henry and 
Katherine of Aragon), both crowned. Rev. D6U : 6' R' A6LI6C Z 
FRAftCC DHS' hlBQRftl (stops, saltires); m. m. rose. Royal shield 
crowned, jj 1-0. Wt. 57 '0. 

Other crowns of this period have at the sides of the rose on the 
obverse the letters h A (Henry and Anne Boleyn), h I (Henry 
and Jane Seymour), and h R (Henricus Rex), always crowned. 
"These were the first gold coins issued of the new standard, consisting 
" 22 carats fine and 2 carats alloy. 

Half-Crown. Obv. hQRRICT : Dl' : 6' : R' : A6L' : Z : FRA' . (stops, 
saltires) ; m. m. rose. Royal shield, crowned. Rev. RVTI LAPIS : ROSA : 
SIRS : SPIFIA (stops, saltires); m. in. rose. Double rose crowned; 
between h K (Henry and Katherine of Aragon). AT '75. Wt. 27 '9. 
Others have the letters h I and h R not crowned on the 
averse (see the preceding coin). Most of the half-crowns of this issue 
have the numeral 8 after the king's name. This is the earliest coin of 
this reign, on which the Arabic numeral occurs. It was almost exclusively 
lopted on the later issues. The absence of any numeral or numerals 
on the above specimen is the exception. 

Groat. London. Obv. hENRIC' VIII' Dl' 6RK' REX : S6L' SILVER. 

Z FRS' (stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose. Bust to r., in profile, crowned and 

clothed. Rev. POSVI DQV : ADIVTOR6C : JTIQV' (stops, saltires); 

m. m. as on obv. Royal shield on cross fourchee with saltire in each fork. 

,Rl-0. Wt. 41-3. 

The groats and half-groats of this issue bear the king's own portrait 
instead of that of his father. In the legend the letters are partly 
Roman and partly old English. This change is also found on the 
gold coins ; but it does not become general till the next reign. A very 
rare variety of the groat has 8 for VIII. The London groats and half- 
groats have always the POSVI &c. legend on the reverse ; those of York 
and Canterbury always the mint-name. 



80 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xiv. 410. Groat. York. Obv. hQnRKX' VIM' D' G' R' A<3L' - Z - 
FRAflCC (stops, saltires) ; m. m. cross. Bust of king, &c., as on the 
preceding. Rev. CdVITAS : 9BORAC(I : (stops, saltires); m. m. cross. 
Royal shield on cross fourchee ; at sides T W (Thomas Wolsey) ; below, 
cardinal's hat. * 1-0. Wt. 39-3. 

London and York appear to have been the only mints which struck 
groats of this issue. Others of York have for mint-mark a voided 
cross or an acorn : both struck by Wolsey. 

411. Half-Groat. Canterbury. Obv. h6(HRIC(' VIII' - D' <3' R' A(3L' - 

Z FR (stops, saltires) ; in. m. wheel. Bust of king as on No. 409. Rev. 
CUVITAS : CCAflTOR : (stops, saltires) ; m. m. as on obv. Royal shield on 
cross fourchee ; at sides T G (Thomas Cranmer). JR '75. Wt. 21'3. 
Struck also at London and York. Others of Canterbury have the 
initials W A (Wareham), and of York T W (Thomas Wolsey) and E L 
or L E (Edward Lee). The mint-mark, a wheel, is no doubt an allu- 
sion to Katherine of Aragon, whose cause Cranmer espoused. 

412. Penny. Durham. Obv. h' D' 6' ROSA SIS SPIA (stops, 

saltires) ; m. m. trefoil. King enthroned as on No. 400. Rev. Ql VITA'S . . 

DVRRAJTl (stops, saltires) ; m. m. as on obv. Royal shield as on No. 400, 

with T W (Thomas Wolsey) at sides, and cardinal's hat below. M '6. 

Wt. 9-2. 

Struck also at London and Canterbury. Those of Canterbury have 
W A at sides of shield and others of Durham have C( D (Cuthbert 
Tonstall). The pennies and halfpennies of this issue may be dis- 
tinguished from those of the first by the change in the obverse legend 
(see Nos. 400 and 401). They all have the mint-name. 

413. Halfpenny. Canterbury. Obv. h D 6 ROSA SIRS . SPIA (stops, 

saltires) ; m. m. wheel. Bust of king facing, crowned ; at sides T C( 
(Thomas Cranmer). Rev. 0. 1 VITAS :: QAFITOR (stops, saltires). Cross 
fourchee with pellets, jj -5. Wt. 7-6. 

Struck also at London and York. Others of Canterbury have the 
letters W A (Wareham) ; and those of York E L (Edward Lee). The 
farthing of this issue is of the same type as that of the first one ; but 
the legend on the obverse is RVTILAflS ROSA, and the king's name is 
on the reverse. 

The episcopal mints end with this issue, Archbishops Cranmer and 
Lee and Bishop Tonstall being the last to exercise this right. As also 
no more coins were struck at Durham from this time onwards, it may 
be concluded that this mint had been latterly a purely ecclesiastical 
one. 

Tliird Issue (1543). 

Plate xv. 414. Sovereign. Obv. hQRRia . 8 - Dl' . 6RA' AflGLIS FRARaiQ : 
GOLD ^T ' hlBQ : R0X (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. King with beard, enthroned, 

holding sceptre and orb ; at his feet, rose ; inner circle ornamented with 
lis. Rev. lh6(SVS : AVT0M : TRAnqiQRS : P6(R : MQDIVM : 
ILLORV : I BAT (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Royal shield crowned, and 
with supporters, lion and dragon ; below, tablet inscribed H R (in mon.). 
A71-C5. Wt. 196-4. 

Besides the change in the king's 'portrait, a distinguishing mark of 
this issue is the use of the title of "King of Ireland" which Henry 
assumed in 1543. The Arabic numeral 8 instead of the Roman numerals 



HENRY VIII. 



81 



VIII too generally follows the king's name. The sovereigns with mint- Plate xv. 
mark W S (mon.), the initials of Sir William Sharington, were struck GOLD. 
at Bristol, of which mint he was the master. The only other mint- 
mark on the gold coins of this issue is the lis (see Nos. 415-417). 
Half-sovereigns of the above type appear from their mint-marks to 
belong to the later issues ; nor are there any crowns or half-crowns of 
this issue. 

415. Angel. Obv. hG(RRIC(' 8 D' 6' A6U FRA' - Z hIB : R3X 

(stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. The Archangel piercing the dragon, &c., as on 
No. 395; to 1. of head, annulet. Rev. P6(R : C(RVae(' TVA : SALVA - 
ROS : XPGC R6(D' (stops, saltires) ; m. m. as on obv. Ship to r., &c., 
as on No. 395 ; annulet on ship. AT 1-1. Wt. 78-8. 

410. Half-Angel. Similar to the Angel ; but the legend on the rev. reads, O : 
C(RVX AV6( SP6CS VRIC(A (stops, annulets); m. m. lis on obv. and 
rev. A7 -85. Wt. 39-6. 

417. Quarter-Angel. Same type as the Angel ; but the legends are, obv. 

hQRRICWS VIII D6U <3RA' A6Lie(; rev. FRARCIieC : 6(T : 
hIBSRnm RGCX (stops, saltires), and m. m. lis on both sides. A: -7. 
Wt. 19-8. 

These angels with their divisions are classed to this issue on account 
of the mint-mark, a lis, and because they bear the title of " King of 
Ireland." There are none of the later coinages of this reign. 

418. Shilling or Testoon, fine. London. Obv. hemRICT VIII' Dl' - 6RA' SILVKK. 

A6U FRA' Z hIB' R3X (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Bust of king 
facing, crowned, bearded and wearing mantle with fur collar. Rev. 
POSVI : D(VM : AIVTOR6WM : MQVM (stops, saltires) ; m. m. as on 
obv. Double rose crowned between h R, both crowned. Ml' 25. Wt. 121-3. 

The silver coins of this and the subsequent issues of this reign have 
bust of the king full face or nearly full face instead of in profile a.s 
before. The third issue consists of two series, one in fine silver, the 
other in debased silver. Those of fine silver have for mint-mark a lis 
only. The mint-marks of the baser coins are the lis, annulet, arrow, 
picklock, martlet, &c. The testoons of fine silver have Roman 
numerals after the king's name, and those of base metal the Arabic 
numeral. Both series appear to be of London only. The use of Roman 
letters in the legends becomes more general. 

419. Groat, fine. London. Obv. hemRICX' 8 . D' - & A6L' - FRA' - Z - 

hIB' R(X (stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Bust of king as on the preced- 
ing. Rev. POSVI DSV - ADIVTORGC . mSV - (stops, saltires); m.m, 
lis. Royal shield on cross f ourchee ; annulet in each fork, & 1 0. 
Wt. 49-0. 

The groats and half -groats of fine silver are of London only : but 
the debased ones were struck at London, Bristol, Canterbury and York. 
The groats of London bear sometimes the legend CXI VITAS LOR DOR, 
and those of Bristol have the mint-mark W S (mon.) for William 
Sharington. 

420. Half-Groat, fine. London. Same as the Groat, but reading FR. Z. hB. and 

ADIVTOS., and same m. m. M '7. Wt. 19'0. 

The debased Bristol half -groat has also W S (mon.) for mint- 
mark. 



82 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xv 421. Peony, fine. London. Obv. h' D' <3' ROSA : SIRS : SPA (stops, 
saltires) ; m. m. lis. Bust of king facing, as on the Shilling, No. 418. 
Rev. a I VITAS LO ft DO ft (stops, saltires). Royal shield on cross 
fourchee. JR '6. Wt. 9-4. 

Pennies of fine silver appear to have been struck also at Canterbury 
and York, and debased ones at those mints and at Bristol. 

422. Halfpenny, debased. Canterbury. Obv. h D 6 [ROSA SlftS 
SPI ] (stops, saltires). Bust facing, as on the Shilling, No. 418. Rev. 
aiVITAS aANTOR. Cross fourchee with pellets. JR -45. Wt. 4-7. 
No halfpennies of fine silver of this issue appear to be known. De- 
based ones were also struck at London and York. 

Fourth Issue (1544). 

GOLD 423. Sovereign. Southwark? Obv. hEftRICC 8 : DP 6RA' A6L' : 
FRAft(XIE : Z : hIBERft' REX (stops, saltires); m. m. S. King 
enthroned as on No. 414, but inner circle plain. Rev. IKS' AVTEM : 
TRAftSIEftS : PER MEDIVM : ILLOR' : IBAT (stops, saltires); 
m. m. S. Royal shield with supporters as on No. 414. A; I 1 5. Wt. 193-7. 

The mint-mark S may be the initial of Southwark, where a mint 
was established during the reign of Henry VIII. The letter 8, which 
also occurs as a mint-mark during this and the next issue, is probably 
the initial of Hugh Eglonby or Egleby, assayer and comptroller of the 
Tower mint. Sovereigns struck at Bristol have W S in monogram as 
mint-mark. It is somewhat difficult to distinguish the gold coins of the 
fourth and fifth issues as they are identical in type. It may however 
be presumed that those on which Roman letters predominate in the 
legends are of the later date, as they correspond more in that respect 
to the early coinage of Edward VI. 

424. Half-Sovereign. Obv. H ERR 10' 8 : D' S' A6U : FRAftCU' Z 

HIB' REX : (stops, saltires); m. m. annulet enclosing pellet. Km.^ 
enthroned as on the preceding. Rev. IMS' AVTE' TRANSI' PER 
JTIEDI' ILLOR' : IBAT (stops, saltires); m. m. as on obv. Royal shield 
with supporters as on the preceding. A; 1-35. Wt. 97 -0. 

There are numerous varieties of this coin. Those with 9 or E under 
the shield on the reverse may belong to the first issue of Edward VI 
(see note No. 441). 

425. Crown. Bristol. Obv. hQftRICiyS 8 : ROSE - SlftS - SPIftGt (stops, 

annulet and saltires); m. m. cinquefoil. Double rose crowned betwfvn 
h R, both crowned. Rev. D' S' EftSLIS FRE' Z hIB' R6(X 
(stops, saltires and trefoils) ; m. m. W S (mon.). Royal shield crowned 
between h R, both crowned. AT 1-0. Wt. 48 '1. 

Varieties have on the obverse the legend RVTILAftS ROSA SlftQ 
SPiriA after the king's name. The half-sovereigns as well as the 
crowns and half-crowns are all of London and Bristol. 

426. Half-Crown. Bristol. Obv. hQftRIC(' - 8 D' 6' SftG' FR' 

Z hIB' RflX (stops, plain); no m. m. Royal shield crowned 
between h R. Rev. RUTILKftS : ROSS : SlftS : SPI' (stops, 
saltires); m. m. W S (rnon.). Double rose crowned between h R. 
A; -75. Wt. 22-2. 

Occasionally the obv. and rev. legends are in part transposed as on the 
preceding. 



HENRY VIII. 8H 

427. Shilling. Bristol. Obv. hQRRICC : 8 : D' 6' - K6L' : FREIT : Z Plate xv. 

MB' RSX : (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, as on No. 418. Rev. Sn vn , 
(3IVITSS . . . BRISTOLLI6C (stops, lis) ; m. m. W S (mon.). Double 
rose crowned, &c., as on No. 418. ^tl'4. Wt. 120-4. 

Struck also in London ; on the coins of which place the rev. legend is 
either POSVI DEVm, <fcc., or CUVITKS LOflDOn. The silver coins of 
this issue are mainly to be distinguished from those of the previous 
one by being of more debased metal, viz. half silver and half alloy. 

428. Groat. London (Southwark?). Obv. HENRICT 8 D 6' ASL' FRA' - 

Z : HIB' REX (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, as on No. 418. 
Rev. : CUVITSS : : LOHDOU : (stops, saltires). Royal shield on cross 
fourchee with S (Southwark ?) in each fork. JR 1-0. Wt. 38 '2. 
Struck also at Bristol, Canterbury, and York. Those of Bristol 
have usually the mint-mark W S (mon.), and sometimes what appears 
to be T C, also in monogram, which may be for Thomas Chamber- 
lain, who was also an officer of that mint under Edward VI. 

There are no half-groats, which can with any certainty be attributed 
to this issue, unless it be the less debased pieces with Roman letters. 

429. Penny. Canterbury. Obv. H D G ROSA : SINE : SP (stops, 

lozenges). Bust of king facing, as on No. 418. Rev. CIVITAS CANTOR. 
Royal shield on cross fourchee. JJ '6. Wt. 7*0. 

This is the only mint to which pennies of this issue have been 
attributed. 

430. Halfpenny. Canterbury. Similar to the Penny, but on the rev. & cross 

fourchee with three pellets in each angle. M -5. Wt. 4'5. 
Though no halfpence are usually attributed to this and the next 
issue, yet it is very probable that those with Roman letters in the 
3gends and of base metal were struck during this period. 

Fifth Issue (1545). 

$1.. Sovereign. Bristol. Obv. HENRIC' 8 - DEI GRA' AGL' FRAN' GOLD. 
Z HIB' REX (stops, roses); m. m. W S (mon.). The king enthroned 
as on No. 423. Rev. - IHS AVTEM TRANSIENS - PER 
MEDIVM ILLOR' IBAT (stops, roses); in. m. W S (mon.). Royal 
shield crowned, with supporters as on No. 414. A; 1*5. Wt. 199 '5. 

As the legends on this and the following gold pieces are entirely 
I oman in character, they belong to the last issue of this reign. They 
ippear to have been struck at London and Bristol only. 

132. Half-Sovereign. London. Obv. HENRIC' : 8 : Dl' : GRA' : AGLI : 
FRANCIE : Z : HIBERN' : REX (stops, lozenges); m. m. annulet 
enclosing pellet. The king enthroned, &c., as on the last. Rev. IHS : 
AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER : MEDIVM : ILLORVM : IBAT : 
(stops, lozenges) ; m. m. as on obv. Royal shield crowned, &c., as on tho 
last, ja 1-3. Wt. 94-6. 

The half-sovereigns, which have the name of Henry and which art 1 
of similar character to the above, but bear a young portrait of the 
king, belong to the first issue of Edward VI (see No. 441). 

433. Crown. London. Obv. HENRIC' 8 : RVTILANS' ROSA' SIN' 
SP' (stops, lozenges); m. m. martlet. Double rose crowned as on 
No. 425. Rev. DEI' - GRA' - AGL' FRA' Z - HIB' - REX (stops, 

G 2 



84 ENGLISH COINS. 

n-itr \v lozenges) ; m. m. as on obv. Crowned shield, &c., as on No. 425. ,v I'O. 

Wt.47-2. 

j:-5l. Half-Crown. London. Obv. HENRIC : 8 : D : G : 7XGL : FR : Z 
HIB : RX : (stops, lozenges) ; m. m. annulet enclosing pellet. Crowned 
shield between h R. Rev. RVTILANS : ROSA : SINE : SPI : (stops, 
lozenges); in. in. as on obv. Double rose crowned between h R. AI '8. 
Wt. 22-1. 

The legends on the half-crowns are somewhat varied. Others have 
them as on No. 425; whilst a third variety has the RVTILANS ROSA 
legend on both sides, but with the king's initials preceding that on the 
obverse. The crowns and half-crowns of Bristol have the usual mint- 
mark, W S (mon.). 

SII.VKU. 435. Shilling. London. Obv. hQnRICC 8 : D' 6' E6U : FRK' Z hIB' 

R9X (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, &c., as on No. 418. Rev. 

POSVI : DQVm : KDIVTORIVm : 5Tie(Vm (stops, lozenges); m. m. 

annulet enclosing pellet. Double rose crowned, &c., as on No. 418. 

ja, 1-25. Wt. 97-5. 

Probably struck at London only (Tower and Southwark). On the 
reverse the inscription C(IVITA~S LOftDOIT, also occurs and with in. m. 
S or Q. This and the next piece are of such very base metal that 
they can only be classed to the last issue. They show that the forms 
of the letters, Roman or English, are not always a criterion of date. 
The metal of this issue is 3- line to alloy. 

flat. xvi. 436. Groat. Bristol. Obv. hSflRia 1 : 8 . D' 6' 116' . FRK' Z - MB' - 
RQX. Bust facing, as on No. 418. Rev. CUVITKS . . BRISTOLIS (stops, 
rosette and lis) ; m. m. W S (mon.). Royal shield on cross fourchee with 
lis in each fork. JR 1 0. Wt. 34 6. 

These debased groats are also known of Canterbury and London. 
The latter have for reverse inscription the usual POSVI DEVM, Arc., 
legend or REDDE CVIQVE QVOD SVVM EST, and m. m. a bow, for 
Sir Martin Bowes (see No. 442). The letters are Roman. 

437. Half-Groat. London. Obv. HENRIC 8 - D G EGL FR Z HI - 

REX (stops, saltires); m. m. uncertain. Bust of king facing, as on 
No. 418. Rev. CIVITAS LONDON (stops, saltires); m. m. Q (Hugh 
Eglonby?). Shield on cross fourchee. JR -5. Wt. 19'0. 

Struck also at Canterbury and York. Those of London have the 
reverse legends as on the groat (see the preceding coin). For 
particulars of Hugh Eglonby, see note No. 423. 

438. Penny. London. Obv. H 8 D G ROSA SINE SPI (stops, 

lozenges). Bust of king as before. Rev. RED CVIQ - Q SV - [EST] 
(stops, lozenges) ; m. m. bow (Sir Martin Bowes). Royal shield on cross 
fourchee. JR -5. Chipped. 

These base pennies are also known of Canterbury and York. Others 
of London, like those of Canterbury and York, have the mint-name 
instead of the above rev. legend. No halfpence or farthings can be 
attributed to this issue. 



439. ANGLO-GALLIC. Groat of Tournay. Obv. h^nRICC Dl'- 6R7V RSX 
FRfiftQ' Z fi(5LI6( (stops, saltires); m. m. <T crowned. Bust of king 
to r. in profile, crowned and draped. Rev. GIVITfiS : : TORn,7\Qe(n, y 
(stops, saltires) ; m. m. as on obv. Royal shield on cross fourchee. i 1'05. 
Wt. 43-7. 
Henry held Tournay from Sept. 1513 to Feb. 1519. The above coin 



HENRY VIII. 85 

is of precisely the same type as the English groat of the first issue of Plate xvi. 
Henry VIII, which bears the portrait of his father. SILVER. 

440. Groat of Tournay. 1513. Obv. HENRIC' 8 31 GRK FRKNCIE : 
ET : SNGLIE : REX (stops, plain). Royal shield, crowned, between lis 
and leopard passant. Rev. CIVITAS TORNRCENSIS : 1 : 5 :1 : 3. 
JLong cross, voided, each limb crossed with three bars and fourch6e ; in 
centre, h, within quatrefoil, and in alternate angles, lis and leopard. 
jBl-1. .Wt. 44-3. 

A variety also dated 1513 has no lis and leopard at the sides of the 
shield : and on the rev. a star in the centre of the cross, nothing in the 
.angles, and an inner border of arches. These coins, though possessing 
some of the characteristics of the later ones of Henry VIII struck in 
England, may from their date have been issued on the taking of 
Tournay. The date however may only refer to the capture of the city. 
With these pieces the Anglo-Gallic series comes to an end. It had 
practically ceased with the reign of Henry VI. 

Edward VI. 1547-1553. 

COINAGE. Gold. Triple-Sovereign, Double-Sovereign, Sovereign, 
Half-Sovereign, Crown, Half- Crown, Angel, and Half -Angel. Silver. 
Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, 
Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

Several changes took place in the fineness of both gold and silver 
coins, which considerably affected, as in the previous reign, their 
current values. 

ISSUES, &c.Gold. Four : 1st issue (1547), Half-Sovereign (96 grs.), 
Crown (48 grs.), and Half-Crown (24 grs.), current for 10s., 5s, and 2s. Qd. 
respectively ; fineness, 20 cts. gold and 4 cts. alloy. 2nd issue (1549), 
Triple-Sovereign (508^ T grs.), Sovereign (169 T 7 T grs.), Half-Sovereign 
(84ff- grs.), Crown (42/y grs.), and Half-Crown (21-^ grs.), current 
values as 1st issue ; fineness, 22 cts. gold and 2 cts. alloy. 3rd issue 
(1550), Double-Sovereign (480 grs.), Sovereign (240 grs.), Angel (80 grs.), 
and Half -Angel (40 grs.), current for 2 8s., 1 4s., 8s. and 4s. 
respectively ; fineness, 23 cts. 3^ grs. gold and ^ gr. alloy (standard gold). 

K' bh issue (1552), Sovereign (174 T R T grs.), Half-Sovereign (87 T 3 T grs.), 
rown (43 T 7 r grs.), and Half-Crown (21 T 9 T grs.), current at 20s. to the 
>vereigii ; fineness, 22 cts. gold and 2 cts. alloy. Silver. Three : 1st 
sue (1547), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny, at 10 grs. to 
le penny ; fineness, 4 oz. silver to 8 oz. alloy. 2nd issue (1547), 
ailling (80 grs.) ; fineness, two series, (a) 3 oz. silver to 9 oz. alloy, 
^D) 6 oz. silver to 6 oz. alloy. 3rd issue (1551), Crown, Half-Crown, 
.Shilling, Sixpence, Threepence, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing, at 
8 grs. to the penny ; fineness 11 oz. 1 d wt. silver to 1 9 dwts. alloy, 
except the halfpenny and farthing which were much debased. The 
penny was of two standards, fine and base. 

The new denominations were, in gold, the triple-sovereign, and in 
silver the crown, half-crown, sixpence, and threepence. The mints 
were, for gold, London, Southwark and Bristol ; and for silver, 
London, Southwark, Bristol, and Canterbury. 







86 ENGLISH COINS. 

First Issue (Gold and Silver 1547). 

Plateivu 441. Half-Sovereign. Obv. EDWARD' : 6 : D' - G' AG' FRAN' Z HIB' - 

GOLD. REX .- (stops, mascles) ; m.m. E (Hugh Eglonby?). The king enthroned, 

holding sceptre and orb ; at his feet, rose ; on each arm of throne, angel. 

Eev. IMS' - AVTEM TRANSIE' - PER MEDI' ILUDR' - IBAT - 

(stops, mascles) ; m. m. as on obv. Royal shield crowned with supporters, 

lion and dragon ; below, 6( and H R (mon.) on tablet. A? 1-2. Wt. 93-0. 

For explanation of the m. m. see No. 423. The earliest half-sovereigns 

of Edward VI, as has already been mentioned (see No. 432), bear his own 

portrait but his father's name. The letters H R on the label below the 

shield on the above coin show that it is struck from an altered die of 

Henry VIII's coinage. The mint-marks on these coins trefoil and W S, 

cinquefoil and W S, and W S only, show that the Bristol mint continued 

to strike gold early in this reign, but it ceased to do so before 1549. 

442. Crown. Obv. RVTILANS - ROSA SINE SPINE V.V (stops, 

mascles) ; m. m. arrow. Rose crowned between E R, each crowned. Eev. 

DQI GR7V . 7\6L' FR7V Z MB' . R6(X (steps, trefoils); m. m. 

annulet enclosing pellet. Royal shield crowned between h R, each 

crowned. A^l'O. Wt. 45-7. 

The reverse is also from an old die of Henry VIII's coinage. The 
arrow is the mark of Sir Martin Bowes, master of the mint under 
Henry VIII and Edward VI. Other marks of his, which occur on 
coins of this reign, are the swan, rose, and bow. A variety of the 
crown has the king's name preceding his titles on the reverse and E R 
crowned at the sides of the shield. Both these coins are unique specimens 
(see next coin). 

443. Half-Crown. Obv. RVTILANS : ROSA : SINE : SPINE : (stops, 

mascles); m. m. arrow. Rose crowned between E R, not crowned. 
Rev. EDWARD' 6 - D' G' AG' - FR' - Z HI' REX (stops, 
mascles) ; m. m. arrow. Royal shield crowned between E R, not crowned. 
AT -8. Wt. 22-0. 

The few specimens known of this coin show no varieties. 

SILVER. 444. Groat. London. Obv. EDWARD' 6 : D' G' AG' FR' Z HIB' - 
REX (stops, mascles) ; m. m. E. Bust of king in profile to r., crowned 
and draped. Rev. : CIVI :: TAS :: LON :: DON : (stops, mascles); 
m. m. as on obv. Royal shield on cross fourchee. M I'O. Wt. 35 -7. 
Struck also at Canterbury. Some of the London groats have the 
POSVI DEVM, &c., legend on the reverse. 

445. Half-Groat. Canterbury. Obv. EDOARD' 6' D' G' AGU FR' - 

Z HI' REX (stops, mascles). Bust of king as on the preceding. 
Rev. CIVITAS CANTOR. Royal shield as on the preceding; no in. m. 
on either side. M -7. Wt. 15-6. 

Struck also at London with the POSVI and CIVITAS legends. The 
legend " Edoard " is only a blunder, though it frequently occurs. 

446. Penny. Bristol. Obv. BCD' 6 D' 6' ROSE SIRS - SPIRE (stops, 

cross after ROSS, trefoil after SIRQ ; others, plain) ; m. m. trefoil. Bust of 

king as on the Groat, No. 444. Rev. : CUVITES BR I STOLIQ (stops, cross 

andsaltires). Shield on cross fourchee, lis in each fork, zt '65. Wt. 10*6. 

Issued also in London with legend as on No. 444 : these have for 

m. m. an arrow and the letter E. 



EDWARD VI. 87 

447. Halfpenny. Bristol. Obv. 0! 6 D' 6' ROSS : SINS SPIR, Plate xvi. 

(stops, plain or saltires). Bust of king as on No. 444. Rev. QIVITKS SILVER. 
BRISTOLI. Cross fourchee, three pellets in each angle, lis in each 
fork, zj -5. Wt. 4-3. 

Issued also in London with CIVITAS LONDON ; but of which mint 
only two specimens appear to be known. 

Second Issue (Gold 1549, and Silver 1547). 

448. Triple-Sovereign. Southward Obv. EDWARD' . VI : DEI : GRA' GOLD. 

AGU FRAN' ET : HIBER' REX (stops, mascles) ; m. m. Y (Sir 
John Yorke). The king enthroned holding sword and orb ; on each arm of 
throne stands an angel. Eev. IMS' AVTEM : TRANSIENS : PER 
MEDT ILLOR' I BAT (stops, mascles); m. m. as on obv. Royal 
shield crowned with supporters ; below on tablet, E R. AI 1-5. Wt. 505*0. 

It is probable that this coin is a pattern as it only differs from the 
sovereign in weight. Sir John Yorke was master of the mint at 
Southwark, which had already been established during the previous 
reign (see No. 423). The gold coins of this issue are of the London 
and Southwark mints only (see No. 441). 

449. Sovereign. Southwark. Same as the preceding ; the obv. is from the same 

die. A7 1-5. Wt. 171-3. 

Those struck in London have for mint-mark an arrow, one of the 
marks of Sir Martin Bowes (see No. 442). 

450. Half-Sovereign. London. Obv. SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET EVM - 

(stops, roses) ; m. m. arrow. Bust of king to r., in profile, head bare, 
wearing armour. Rev. EDWARD' VI : D' G' AGU FRA' Z 
HIB' REX (stops, lozenges) ; m. m. arrow. Oval shield, garnished and 
crowned, between E R. a 1'15. Wt. 83-2. 

451. Half-Sovereign. London. Obv. EDWARD' VI : D' G' AGU FRA' 

Z : HIB' REX (stops, mascles); m. m. arrow. Bust of king to r., as- 
on the preceding, but crowned. Rev. SCVTVM FIDEI PROTEGET 
EVM (stops, roses) ; m. m. arrow. Oval shield, &c., as on the preceding. 
AT 1-2. Wt. 76-7. 

Both the above types were also struck at Southwark and have the 
m. m. Y. 

452. Crown. Southwark. Same as the Half-Sovereign, No. 450, but stops, 

lozenges on obv., roses on rev. ; and m. m. Y. A; '95. Wt. 41' 5. 

453. Crown. London. Same as the Half-Sovereign, No. 451, but stops on both 

sides, lozenges, and m. m. arrow. AT '95. Wt. 41'5. 
Both types exist of London and Southwark. 

454. Half-Crown. London. Same as the Half-Sovereign, No. 450, but the legend 

on the rev. is EDWAR' VI D' G' AGU FR' Z H' R ; the 
letters E R omitted at the sides of the shield, the stops are lozenges, and 
m. m. arrow. AT -75. Wt. 20-3. 

455. Half-Crown. London. Same as the Half-Sovereign, No. 451 ; but the 

legend on the obv. is EDWARD VI D G FR Z HI REX, and 
other variations as on the preceding ; m. m. arrow. A/ *7. Wt. 20'7. 
Both types exist also of the Southwark mint and bear the m. m. Y. 
The mint-marks on the London gold coins of this issue are the arrow, 
swan, grappling-iron, martlet and 6. 




88 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xvi. 450. Shilling. London. Obv. INIMICOS - EIVS - INDVAM CONFVSIONE 

SII vn , (stops, lozenges) ; m. m. bow. Bust of king to r., in profile, crowned and 

wearing embroidered doublet. Rev. EDWARD' - VI - D G ANGL - 

FRA Z HIB REX (stops, lozenges); m. m. bow. Oval shield, 

garnished, between E R. Jitl'25. Chipped. 

Shillings with these legends were struck at the Tower only, or 
perhaps at Durham House in the Strand where Sir Martin Bowes is 
said to have had a mint. They have a bow only for mint-mark. For 
the first time since the Conquest the cross on the reverse of the silver 
coins is omitted. The legend on the obv. is from Psalm cxxxii. 18. 
Sometimes those on the obv. and rev. are transposed. 

457. Shilling, 1549. Bristol. Obv. EDWARD' VI : D' G' AGL' FRA' - 

Z : HIB' REX (stops, lozenges) ; m. m. t (Thomas Chamberlain). Bust 
of king to r., &c., as on the preceding. Rev. TIMOR : DOMINI : FONS : 
VIT/E : M : D : XLIX (stops, lozenges) ; m. m. as on obv. Oval shield 
&c., as on the preceding. JR 1'15. Wt. 75 '0. 

These shillings also have the legends transposed. Besides at Bristol 
they were struck at the Tower and Southwark mints. Those of the 
Tower are dated 1547-1551 ; those of Southwark 1549, 1550 and 1552 ; 
but those of Bristol are of 1549 only. The dates are in Roman letters. 
These are the first dated coins in the English series. The Southwark 
coins have the mint-mark Y ; those of Bristol t or t C (mon.), and all 
the others are of the Tower. The Southwark pieces dated 1552 may 
have been struck for currency in Ireland. As the coinage of fine silver 
had been established in England in the previous year, it is not probable 
that base coins were still issued for currency here. See Irish coins 
under Edward VI. 

458. Shilling, 1551. London. Same as the preceding, but dated M D L I ; 

m. m. lis on both sides, and counter-marked on the obv. with a greyhound. 
jRl-2. Wt. 68-6. 

These base shillings were decried early in the reign of Elizabeth, 
and those counter-marked with a portcullis were ordered to be current 
for 4^<7. each, and those with a greyhound for 2^d. The portcullis and 
greyhound were both Tudor badges. 

Third Issue, Gold (1550). 

Plate xvii. 459. Double-Sovereign. Obv. SDWARD' VI' - D : 6 : ARGUa FRAHCUS : 
<;'>i,i>. Z : hlBQRR : R9X (stops, saltires) ; m. m. ostrich's head. The king 

enthroned holding sceptre and orb ; at his feet, portcullis ; around, arched 
tressure. Rev. IhQSV 7WTQM : TRAIlSIQnS : PSR : MEDIVM : 
ILLORVM : I BAT (stops, saltires); m. m. as on obv. Royal shield on 
double rose within arched tressure; two saltires in each spandril. M 1'7. 
Wt. 475-0. 

The mint-mark, an ostrich's head, is probably the crest of Sir 
Edmund Peckham, high treasurer of the mint from the reign of 
Henry VIII to that of Elizabeth. This is the only mint-mark of this 
issue, and all the coins were struck at the Tower, though the commission 
which ordered their issue was directed to Sir Edmund Peckham, Sir 
John Yorke of the Southwark mint and others. From the differences 
in the weight of the double-sovereigns, they may only have been pied- 
t'orts or patterns of the sovereign. The coins are of standard gold, 



EDWAED VI. 89 

23 cts. 3| grs. fine and ?, gr. alloy, and from their rarity it would appear Plate xvii. 
that this restoration of the old standard metal was not successful in GOLD. 
the then debased condition of the silver money. 

460. Sovereign. Same as the preceding, but reading h!B6(Rriie(. AT 1-7. 

Wt. 237-3. 
Half-sovereigns of this issue are not known. 

461. Angel. Obv. EDWARD' -VI : D : S : ASL : FRA : Z - hIB : R6(X - 

(stops, saltires) ; TO. TO. ostrich's head. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing 
the dragon as on No. 376. Rev. PSR : aRVOQ' TVAM : SALVA : 
ROS : XP3' R8D : (stops, saltires) ; TO. m. as onobv. Ship to r., &c., as 
on No. 339, but 8 and rose at sides of mast. AT 1-2. Wt. 81 -0. 
The half-angel is similar to the angel. It is exceedingly rare. The 

so-called six-angel piece in the British Museum is probably a pattern. 

It has the usual type of obverse, but on the reverse a ship with three 

masts rigged and with colours flying, 

Fourth Issue, Gold (1552) ; and Third Issue, Silver (1551). 

462. Sovereign. Southwark. Obv. : 6CDWARD' VI : D' : (2' : ASL' : 

FRAft' : Z : hIB' : RflX : (stops, lozenges) ; TO. TO. Y. Half-length figure 
of the king to r., in profile, crowned and in armour, and holding sword 
and orb. Rev. IhS' AVT6Utt : TRAnCU' P6(R ttlQDI' : ILLOR' : 
I BAT (stops, lozenges) ; TO. TO. as on obv. Royal shield, crowned and 
with supporters ; below on tablet, E R. A7 1'45. Wt. 172-8. 

All the gold coins of this issue were struck at the Tower and 
Southwark mints. Those of the Tower have for mint-mark a ton, 
being a rebus on the last syllable of the name of Nicholas Throgmorton, 
5ter of the mint, and those of Southwark the letter Y, the initial of 
>ir John Yorke. 

33. Half-Sovereign. Southwark. Obv. : 8DVVARD' VI : D' - S' ASL' : 
FRA' - Z HIB' R6(X : (stops, lozenges); m. TO. Y. Half-length 
figure of the king, as on the preceding. Rev. IhS' AVT6C TRAftC(l' 
P3R mSD' ILLO' IBA' (stops, lozenges) ; m. TO. Y. Square shield 
crowned between E R. A7 1'25. Wt. 86-2. 

Both the sovereign and the half-sovereign vary slightly in the 
legends, but there are 110 varieties of the crown and half-crown. 

464. Crown. London. Obv. Same as the Half-Sovereign, but m. TO. ton. 

Rev. SaVTVJTl : FID6U : PROTSSQT : SVm : (stops, lozenges); TO. m. 
ton. Square shield as on the Half-Sovereign. A7 1-0. Wt. 43-0. 

465. Half-Crown. London. Same as the Crown but the legends are, obv. 

6CDWARD' VI D' S : A' FR' Z hIB' R6(X : (stops, 
lozenges) ; rev. SCXVTVm FID6U PROTSS SVfll - (stops, lozenges ); 
TO. TO. ton on both sides. A/ -75. Chipped. 

466. Crown, 1551. Southwark. Obv. 3D WARD' : VI : D' : S' : ASL' : SIIVEK. 

FRAIICC : Z : hIBSR' : R0X (stops, lozenges); TO. m. Y. King 
holding sword on horse richly caparisoned and cantering to r. ; below, 
1551. Rev. : POSVI : DeWU : ADIVTOR6C : 5T16(V' : (stops, lozenges) ; 
m. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fourchee. M 1'7. Wt. 479'0. 

This is the first silver crown in the English series. Those struck at 
the Tower with m. m. ton are dated 1551, 1552 and 1553 ; but those 
of Southwark with m. in. Y are of 1551 only. These are the only 



90 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xvii. mints of the crown, half-crown and shilling. With the exception of 
SILVER, the smaller denominations the silver coins of this issue are 1 1 oz. 1 dwt. 
fine to 19 dwts. of alloy ; very nearly the standard at the time of the 
Conquest. 

467. Half-Crown, 1551. Southwark. Same as the Crown, but the horse is 

walking and has a plume on its head, and the legends vary FR7V Z : 
hIB' and D3V - ; in. m. Y. M 1-4. Wt. 238'0. 

The half-crowns are of the same dates and mints as the crowns. On 
those of the Tower of 1551 and 1552 the horse is cantering, but 011 
those of 1553 it is walking. On all the London pieces the horse is 
without a plume on its head. 

468. Shilling. Tower. Obv. SDWARD' VI : D' 6' A6U FR7V Z' 

hIB' R6(X (stops, lozenges); m. m. ton. Bust of king facing, crowned, 

wearing ermine robe and collar of the Garter; a rose to 1., and XII ( = 12d.) 

to r. Rev. Same as the Half-Crown ; m. m. ton. JR 1-3. Wt. 90-5. 

Those struck at Southwark have the usual mint-mark Y . This is 

the first instance of the mark of value occurring in the English coinage. 

469. Sixpence. York. Same as the Shilling; but mark of value VI ( 6d.) on 

obverse and inscription on reverse, COVITAS 6(BORAC(I ; m. m. mullet 
pierced, on both sides. JR 1-05. Wt. 47 -3. 

Struck also at the Tower and Southwark, but with the usual POSVI 
D6(V5Tl, &c., legend on the reverse and mint-marks ton and Y. 

470. Threepence. London. Same as the Shilling, No. 468, but with mark 

of value III (= 3d.) on the obverse; in. m. ton on both sides. JR '8. 

Wt. 23-3. 

A variety has a rose for m. m. on the rev. None are known of 
Southwark, but those struck at York have the same rev. legend and 
mint-mark as on the preceding coin. 

471. Penny. London. Obv. 8 D 6 ROSA SlftS SP (stops, lozenges) ; 

m. m. ton. King enthroned, holding sceptre and orb. Ecv. (XI VITAS 
LONDON ; in. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fourchee. st '6. 
Wt. 8-3. 

The penny of fine silver is of the Tower mint only. 

472. Penny, base. London. Obv. : E : D : G : ROSA : SINE : SPINA : 

(stops, lozenges) ; m. m. scallop. Full-blown double rose. Ecv. C I VITAS 
LONDON. Same as the preceding; no m. m. M -65. Wt. 12'5. 
Struck also at York with m. m. mullet pierced and CIVITAS EBOR ACI. 

473. Halfpenny, base. London. Same as the preceding, but the rose is single 

and the obv. legend reads SPI for SPINA. M -45. Wt. 6'8. 
Halfpence and farthings of base metal were struck at the Tower only. 

474. Farthing, base. London. Obv. E D G [ROSA ] SINE SPI (stops, 

lozenges). Portcullis. Rev. CIVITAS [LONDON]. Cross pattee, three 

pellets in each angle. M -3. Wt. 3 -2. 

With the reign of Edward VI the local mints came to an end, and 
henceforth, with two notable exceptions, all the coins both in gold and 
silver were struck at the Tower mint. The exceptions occurred during 
the reign of Charles I and the period of the Civil War, and in 1696 on 
the occasion of the great re-coinage of silver money (see p. 137). 



MAEY. 91 

Mary (alone). 1553-1554. PlatexviL 

COINAGE. Gold. Sovereign, Ryal, Angel, and Half-Angel. Silver. 
Groat, Half -Groat, and Penny. 

Mary's coinage is of two periods, that struck before her marriage 
(1553-1554), and that after her marriage (1554-1558). The above are 

the denominations of the first period. 
ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue of gold and silver ; but the 
standard of both metals was varied from that of the last coinage of 
Edward VI. In the gold the old standard at 23 cts. 3^ grs. fine and 
4- gr. alloy was restored ; but the silver was reduced to 11 oz. fine and 
1 oz. alloy, an exception being made in the case of the base penny, 
which was 3 oz. fine and 9 oz. alloy. 

The weights and current values of the gold were : sovereign 240 grs., 
ryal 120 grs., angel 80 grs., and half-angel 40 grs. ; current for 30s., 
15s., 10s., and 5s. respectively. The silver coins were at 8 grs. to the 
penny ; but the base penny weighed 12 grs. 

All the coins are of the Tower mint. 

475. Sovereign. 1553. Obv. mi\R\l\ : : D' : 6' : AflSU FRfi' Z : hIB' : GOLD. 
RQSIIT.A : m : D : LIU (stops, annulets; pomegranate after JTlfiRlfi). 
Queen enthroned, holding sceptre and orb ; at her feet, portcullis ; around, 
arched tressure. Rev. K : DflO' F7XC(TV' - 9ST : ISTV Z : 8ST : 
JftlRTV IH : OQVL' : flRIS' : (stops, annulets; pomegranate after 
DUO). Eoyal shield on double rose within arched tressure, lis and leaf at 
alternate angles. A7 1-7. Wt. 235 -9. 

This type is copied from sovereigns of the third coinage of 
Edward VI. This coin is also dated MDLIIII. They are the first 
dated gold coins of the English series. The pomegranate was the badge 

tof Katherine of Aragon, mother of Mary. 
176. Ryal. 1553. Obv. STlfiRlfi - D' 6' 7KR.G' FR7T - X hIB' Plate xviii. 
RQ6IR7X fll D Llll (stops, annulets; pomegranate after 5YlfiRIA). 
Queen holding sword and shield standing in ship, similar to No. 354 ; but 
the mast has a top-castle and at stern the flag is marked with the letter M. 
Rev. ft : DnO' FfiaTV 9ST : ISTVD . X 6(ST miRfiBI' IR, : 
OC(VL' RRI' (stops, annulets). Floriated cross with rose on sun in 
centre and lions and crowns in angles, &c., similar to No. 354. A; 1-4. 
Wt. 118-8. 

With but slight variations this coin is of the same type as the rose- 
noble of Edward IV ; but it has a different legend on the reverse. It 
is exceedingly rare and is only known of the above date. 

477. Angel. Obv. 5TlfiRlfi : : D' S' ftHS' FR7V X : hIB' R9SIIT 
(stops, annulets ; pomegranate after JT17X R I ft). The Archangel, St. Michael, 
piercing the dragon as on No. 376. Rev. A DftO' F7\C(TV' 6(ST : 
ISTVD Z 9ST : JTURfiBI' ~& (stops, annulets; pomegranate after 
ISTVD). Ship to r., &c., as on No. 339; at sides of mast M and rose. 
AT 1-15. Wt. 80-5. 
The type of the angel and half-angel remained the same as previously ; 

but as in the case of the ryal the legends on the reverses were changed. 

The sign after JTllRfiBI is for etcetera. On some the obverse legend 

is in Roman letters. 






92 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xviii. 478. Half-Angel. Obv. MARIA D' <3' ft' FR' Z hIB' RQSI' (stops, 
GOLD annulets; pomegranate after SYIARIA). Same as the Angel. Rev. A 

DRO' FACrrV 6(ST ISTVD : S : ~& (stops, annulets; pome- 
granate after QST). Same as the Angel, jv -85. Wt. 38-3. 

The half-angels are exceedingly rare and show but very slight 
varieties. 



SILVER. 479. Groat. Obv. MARIA . . D' 6' AftS' FRA' - X hIB' RSSr - (stops, 
annulets; pomegranate after HIARIA). Bust of queen to 1., in profile, 
crowned and wearing necklace with pendant cross. Rev. V6CRITAS 
T6UUPORIS FILIA (pomegranate after VSRITAS). Square shield on cross 
fourchee. JR 1-0. Wt. 29-6. 

The groats only differ in reading FR or FRA, and ET for X. During 
the reign of Elizabeth they were counter-marked with a portcullis and 
made current for 2\d. The motto on the reverse was adopted by 
Mary with the device of " Time drawing Truth out of a pit " ; an 
allusion to her attempts at a reconciliation with Rome. 

480. Half-Groat. Same as the Groat, but TV for APIS and FR for FRA in the 

obverse legend, and T6UTIPO for T6URPORIS in that .of the reverse. 
K -75. Wt. 16-2. 

There are no varieties of the half-groat. 

481. Penny. Obv. M' D' G' ROSA : SINE : SPINA (stops, lozenges; 

pomegranate after ROSA). Bust of queen as on No. 479. Eev. VERITAS 
TEMP FILIA (pomegranate after VERITAS). Square shield on cross 
fourchee. ja -6. Wt. 10-9. 

The penny with this reverse legend is exceedingly rare. A variety 

has the mint-name CIVITAS LONDON, and sometimes the date [15]53. 

The base penny is similar but has a full-blown rose on the obverse 

instead of the bust of the queen. The reverse is the same as No. 481, 

but with the mint-name as on the variety of that piece. 



Philip and Mary. 1554-1558. 

COINAGE. Gold. Angel and Half-Angel. Silver. Half-Crown, Shil- 
ling, Sixpence, Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny. 

ISSUES, tfcc. Gold. One : Angel and Half-Angel. Silver. Two : 
1st issue (1554), Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny ; 2nd issue (1554- 
1557), Half-Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence. 

The gold and silver coins are of the same weight and fineness as 
those of Mary, the silver being at 8 grs. to the penny, except the 
base piece of that denomination which weighed 12 grs. 

They were struck only at the Tower. 

OOLD. 482. Angel. Obv. PHILIP' . Z : MARIA : D' . G' REX Z : REGINA : 
AN' ; m. m. lis. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing the dragon as on 
No. 477. Ecv. A' DNO' FACTVM : EST : ISTVD : Z EST - 
MIRABILE; m. in. lis. Ship to r., &c., as on No. 477; but at sides of 
mast P M. jvl'15. Wt. 79'3. 

The angels vary only slightly in the inscriptions. On the gold and 
early silver coins Philip uses the title of King of England only, but on 



PHILIP AND MARY. 03 

the later silver pieces his Neapolitan and Spanish titles are generally Plate 
yiven (see Nos. 488, 489). The lis is the only mint-mark found on (; '" 
the gold coins and on those of fine silver. 

483. Half-Angel. Same as the Angel, but the obv. legend ends REG I', and that 
on the rev. MIR'. ; m. in. lis. AT -85. Wt. 38 '7. 

There appear to be no varieties of this coin, which is very rare. 

. Groat. 1st issue. Obv. PHILIP ET MARIA - D G REX ET su.v 
REGINA; m. in. lis. Bust of queen to 1., as on No. 479. Rev. 
POSVIMVS DEVM ADIVTO NOS ; m. m. lis. Square shield on cross 
fourchee, as on No. 479. JR -95. Wt. 30-0. 

Groats only differ in reading Z for ET in the obverse legend. 

485. Half-Groat. 1st issiie. Same as the Groat, but a pearl instead of a cross is 

suspended from the necklace, and the legend on the reverse reads 
POSVIM for POSVIMVS. JR -75. Wt. 16-3. 

There are no varieties of the half-groat. 

486. Penny. 1st issue. London. Obv. P Z M D G ROSA SINE 

SPINE; m. m. lis. Bust of queen to 1., as on No. 479; but pearl instead 
of cross attached to necklace. Rev. Cl VITAS LONDON; m.m. lis. Square 
shield on CBOSS fourchee. M -6. Wt. 9'0. 

A variety reads SPIN- This is the only variety known. 

487. Penny, base. 1st issue. London. Same as the preceding, but reading SPI 

for SPINE and double rose instead of the queen's bust on the obverse; 
m. m. rose on obverse only. M '65. Wt. 12-0. 

These two types of the penny resemble those of Mary before her 
marriage (see No. 481 and note). The full weight of the base penny 

fs 12 grs. Varieties only differ in reading SPI, SPIN, or SPINfi. 
. Half-Crown. 1554. 2nd issue. Obv. PHILIPPVS D G R ANG 
FR NEAP PR HISP. Bust of Philip to r., in armour; above, 
crown; below, date, 1554. Rev. MARIA - D G R ANG FR 
NEAP PR HISP. Bust of Mary to 1., in high embroidered dress, cap 
and veil ; above, crown dividing date, 1 554. jsl'25. Wt. 229*0. 

This coin may have been a pattern, as only three specimens are 
known, and in the order for striking shillings and sixpences no 
mention is made of the half-crown. 

489. Shilling. 2nd issue. Obv. PHILIP ET MARIA D G R ANG 
FR - NEAP PR HISP. Busts of Philip and Mary face to face ; above 
their heads, a crown. Rev. POSVIMVS - DEVM ADIVTOREM 
NOSTRVM. Oval garnished shield, arms of Spain and England quarterly ; 
above, crown dividing mark of value XII. M 1'25. Wt. 96*0. 
There were several varieties of the shilling as follows : (a) without 
date or mark of value ; (b) with mark of value on the reverse, but no 
date ; (c) with dates, 1554 or 1555, above the heads and mark of value 
on the reverse ; (d) as last with date 1555 under busts. Some omit 
the Neapolitan and Spanish titles, and give the English ones only ; 
and also read ADIVTO R I VM. 



94 ENGLISH COINS. 

iii. 490 Sixpence. 1554. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but date 1554 above 
SIIVK1 , the heads, and mark of value VI on the reverse. JR 1'05. Wt. 46' 1. 

Struck in 1554, 1555, and 1557, with dates above the busts. 
Varieties of 1554 and 1557 have the dates under the busts. Those 
dated 1557 have the lis mint-mark. The Neapolitan and Spanish 
titles only occur on those dated 1554. Quarter-shillings or three- 
pences were also ordered, but none are known, and if any groats or 
smaller coins were struck between 1554 and 1558 they must have been 
of the same types as those of the first issue. 

Elizabeth. 1558-1603. 

COINAGE. Gold. Sovereign, Ryal, Half -Sovereign, Crown, Half- 
Crown, Angel, Half- Angel, and Quarter-Angel. Silver. Crown, Half- 
Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, Three 
Halfpence, Penny, Three Farthings, and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. The gold coins hammered and milled are of the two 
standards, known as " standard gold " and " crown gold," the former 
being 23 cts. 3 grs. fine and ^ gr. alloy, and the latter 22 cts. fine and 
2 cts. alloy. The issues and current values of the two standards w< Te- 
as follows: Standard Gold Coinage: Sovereign (15581561; 1584 
1601), 240 grs., current for 30s. (20s. from 1561-1572); Eyal (1560- 
1572; 1584-1601), 120 grs., current for 15s. (10s. from 1561-1572); 
Angel (1558-1578 ; 1578-1582 ;* 1582-1601), 80 grs., current for 10*. 
(6s. Sd. from 1561-1572); Half-Angel (issues as the Angel), 40 grs., 
current for 5s. (3s. 4d. from 1561-1572) ; Quarter- Angel (issues as the 
Angel), 20 grs., current for 2s. 6d. (Is. Sd. from 1561-1572). Crown 
Gold Coinage: Sovereign (1561-1572 ; 1592-1601 ; 1601-2 f), 174/' r grs., 
current for 20s. (13s. 4d. from 1561-1572) ; Half-Sovereign (1558-1572 ; 
1592-1601 ; 1601-2), 87^ grs., current for 10s. (6s. Sd. from 1561- 
1572) ; Crown (issues as the Half-Sovereign), 43 T 7 T grs., current for 
fix. (3s. 4d. from 1561-1572) ; and Half-Crown (issues as the Half- 
Sovereign), 21 r r grs., current for 2*. Qd (1*. Sd. from 1561-1572). 
The milled gold coins (see below) struck from 1561-1572, consisted of 
the Half-Sovereign, Crown, and Half-Crown. They were of crown gold, 
and were of the same weights and current values as the hammered 
money. Silver. The silver coins are also of two kinds, those struck by 
the old process of the hammer ; and those struck by the mill and screw, 
and known as milled money. The latter comprised the Half-Crow n, 
Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, Penny, and Three 
Farthings only. The weight of the silver money was at 8 grs. to the 
Penny till 1601, when it was reduced to 7H , ! grs., and its fineness 
11 oz. pure to 1 oz. alloy to 1561, when it was restored to 11 oz. 
'2 dwts. pure and 18 dwts. alloy, at which standard it has remained 
till the present time. 

* The weights of the Angel and its divisions were slightly reduced during the 
period 1578-1582. 

t In 1601-2 the weight of the sovereign was reduced to 171^ grs., and its 
divisions in like proportions. 



ELIZABETH. 95 

By the proclamation of 30th June, 1561, which regulated the relative Plate xviii. 
values of the standard gold and crown gold coins, that of the shilling 
was reduced to 8d., the sixpence to 4<L, the threepence to 2d., and 
the three halfpence to Id. As the groats, half-groats, and pennies 
could not be reduced in value one by one, it was ordered that three 
groats should be current for 8d., and the others in proportion. 

Patterns for a copper coinage consisting of the twopence, penny, 
halfpenny and farthing were made in 1601, but none were struck for 
circulation (see Montagu, Copper Coinage, 2nd ed., pp. 1-6). 

All the gold and silver coins are of the Tower mint. 

491. Sovereign (1584-1601). Obv. ELIZABETH : D' - G' ANG' - FRA' - ET : STANDARD 
HIB' REGINA :; m. m. scallop. The queen enthroned holding sceptre GOLD. 
and orb ; at her feet portcullis with chain on each side ; all within arched 
tressure. Bev. A DNO' FACTV EST ISTVD ET EST 
MIRAB' IN OCVLIS MRS; m. m. scallop. Square shield on 
double rose within arched tressure, lis and leaf alternately at angles. 
AT 1-7. Wt. 235-4. 

The sovereigns of 1558-1561 vary in having the tressure around the 
field divided by the back of the throne, and usually no chains attached 
to the portcullis. The more precise dates of the issues of the gold 
coins and those of the undated silver can be ascertained by reference to 
the mint-marks on the sixpences and other dated coins of this reign (see 
lists of mint-marks in Appendix A). 



492. Eyal (1584-1601). Obv. QLIZ7XB' . D' 6' fiRS' - FR' QT MB' Plate xix. 
R 6(6 1 ft ft ; m. m. trefoil. The queen nearly facing, standing in ship and 
holding sceptre and orb ; ship witb high quarterdeck and rose on its side ; at 
prow, flag with 6(. Rev. IhS' 7WT' TR7WSie(HS P9R ttWDIV' - 
ILLORVJft IB7\T ; m. m. crescent. Floriated cross, as on No. 476, but 
a trefoil in each spandril of the tressure. AT 1 35. Wt. 118 0. 
There are no ryals known which can be classed to the issue of 
[560-1572. The earliest extant specimens are of about 1582. 
arieties have the obv. legend reading "Elizabet. Angl. Ma. D. G. P. 
\ A. L. Regina," &c., or " Elizab. D. G. Ang. Fr. Z. M. Pr. C. A. L. 
egina," the meaning of which has not been satisfactorily explained. 
"icy are of rather coarse work, and were not unlikely struck in the Low 
miitries. 

Angel (1558-1578). Obv. ELIZABETH : D' - G' - ANG' FR' - ET : 
HI' REGINA; m. m. cinquefoil. The Archangel piercing the dragon, 
as on Angels of Henry VII (see No. 376). Ecv. A : DNO' - FACTVM : 
EST : ISTVD : ET : EST : MIRABI'; m. m. cinquefoil. Ship as on 
Angels of Henry VI (see No. 339) ; but sailing to 1. with two ropes from 
prow and three from stern; at sides of mast E and rose. A/ I'l. 
Wt. 79-4. 

A variety has the ship sailing to r. The angels, half and quarter- 
of the various issues are very similar in type and legends. 
ley can only be distinguished by their mint-marks. 

I. Half- Angel (1578-1582) . Same as the Angel, but reading M I R A f or M I R A B I , 
and ship sailing to r., with two ropes from stern and one from prow ; m. m. 
cross on both sides. AT '8. Wt. 39-0. 

Half-angels and quarter-angels are all of the above type, and the 
ship is always to r. 



96 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xix. 495. Quarter-Angel (1558-1578). Obv. ELIZABETH : D G ANG : FRANCIE ; 

STANDARD w. m. acorn. The Archangel, &c., as on No. 493. Rev. ET HIBERNIE 

GOLD. REGINA FIDEIj; m. m. acorn. Ship to r., &c., as on the preceding. 

A/ -6. Wt. 19-8. 
The angel and its divisions were not struck after 1601. 

ritllWN 49C. Sovereign (1592-1601). Obv. ELIZABETH : D' G' - ANG' FRA' - 
ET : HIB' - REGINA; m.m. ton. Bust of queen to 1., in profile, crowned, 
wearing ruff and dress richly decorated ; hair long and much spread ; the 
crown pierces the inner circle. Rev. SCVTVM : FIDEI : PROTEGET : 
EAM ; m. m. ton. Square shield crowned between E R. & 1-5. 
Wt. 171-5. 

The sovereigns of 1561-1572 have the queen's bust in an ermine 
mantle, somewhat smaller, and with less profusion of hair. They are 
very rare, and the legend on the rev. reads IHS AVTEM TRANS, &c. 
Those of 1601-2 are similar to the above. 

497. Half-Sovereign (1558-1572). Similar to the preceding; but reading HI. 

for HIB. and the bust of the queen is in dress less decorated, and 
the crown does not pierce the inner circle ; hair less spread ; m. m. rose on 
both sides. A/ 1-2. Pierced. 

The half-sovereigns of 1592 and later issues are similar to No. 496 (see 
No. 499). 

498. Half-Sovereign, milled (1561-1572). Similar to the preceding ; but reading 

HIB. for HI., and the bust of the queen larger and in dress more richly 
decorated; no inner circle on either side; m.m. lis on both sides. A7 1-15. 
Wt. 92-6. 

The new process of coining by means of the mill and screw, as distin- 
guished from the simple one of striking with the hammer was intro- 
duced in 1561 into England from France by Eloye Mestrell. It met 
with little favour from the authorities of the mint, and but few coins 
were struck by this process after 1572, and it was not generally 
adopted till the reign of Charles II. The milled coins of this reign are 
easily distinguished from the hammered ones in being of neater and 
sharper work, and in having 110 inner circle on either side. 

499. Half-Sovereign (1592-1601). Similar to the Sovereign, No. 496, but the 

crown only touches the inner circle, and the obv. legend reads HI. for 
HIB.; m. m. ton. AT 1-25. Wt. 86-0. 

This is rather an exceptional variety of this issue, as the crown 
generally pierces the inner circle. 

500. Crown (1558-1572). Same as the Half-Sovereign (No. 497), but reading FR. 

for FRA., and m. m. lion on both sides. A7 -85. Wt. 40-4. 

The crowns and half-crowns of the later issues show the same variety 
of bust as the half-sovereigns. 

501. Crown, milled (1561-1572). Same as the milled Half-Sovereign, No. 498 ; 

and m. m. lis on both sides. A/ '9. Wt. 43 -1. 

502. Crown (1592-1601). Same as the Half-Sovereign, No. 499, but reading 

HIB REG I' ; the crown divides the inner circle, and m. m. ton on both 
sides. A/ -9. Wt. 43-4. 

503. Half-Crown (1558-1572). Obv. ELIZABETH : D' - G' AN' FR' 

ET HI' REGINA; m. m. cross crosslet. Bust of queen as on No. 497. 
Rev. Same as rev. of No. 496; m. m. cross crosslet. AI -65. Wt. 19 -3. 



ELIZABETH. 



97 



504. Half-Crown, milled (1561-1572). Same as tho Half-Sovereign, No. 498; 

but m. m. star on both sides. AT '6. Wt. 20-1. 

505. Half-Crown (1592-1601). Same as the Sovereign, No. 496, but the obv. 

legend reads ELIZAS' D' G' ANG' - FR' ET HI' REGI' ; 
m. m. annulet on both sides. 

The mint-mark annulet or O may refer to the date 1600, as the numerals 
1 and 2 do to 1601 and 1602 on the silver coins (see next coin). Nearly 
each denomination of the gold coins shows some slight variations in 
the legend. 

506. Crown. 1601. Obv. ELIZABETH : D' G' ANG' . FRA' . ET : 

HIBER' REGINA; m. m. I ( = 1601). Bust of queen to 1., in profile, 
crowned, in rich dress and ruff, and holding sceptre and orb. Rev. 
: POSVI : DEVM : ADIVTOREM : MEVM; in. m. as on obv. Square 
garnished shield on cross fourchee. & 1*7. Wt. 455 -8. 

Crowns and half-crowns of the hammered series were only struck 
in 1601 and 1602 ; the latter have the mint-mark 2. 

507. Half-Crown. 1601. Same as the preceding in all respects except in size 

and weight. JR 1 ' 4. Wt. 232 0. 

The milled half-crown, which is of the same type as the shilling 
No. 512, was only struck as a pattern. It has the lis mint-mark, which 
would place its issue between 156770. Two specimens only are known. 

508. Shilling. Obv. ELIZABETH . D G - ANG - FRA - ET HIB 

REGINA ; m. m. martlet. Bust of queen to 1., in profile, crowned, in ruff 
and embroidered dress. Rev. POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM MEVM; 
in. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fourchee. JR 1-2. Wt. 95 '5. 

This shilling has no inner circle on either side. It is an exception. 
It appears to be the earliest variety, as it was struck in the first year 
of the queen's reign. Shillings are never dated, but their order of issue 
can be ascertained from the dated coins, sixpences, &c., which bear the 

le mint-marks (see list of mint-marks, Appendix A). 

). Shilling. Same as the preceding; but the obv. legend reads ELIZAS' 
D' G' - ANG' FR' ET : HIB' - REGI', and on rev. MEV. for 
MEVM ; inner circle on both sides ; m. m.K. & 1-3. Wt. 91'4. 

The mint-mark shows that this shilling was struck in 1582. The 
lillings of the first three years read ELIZABETH or E LIZ BETH ; all 
le later ones have ELIZAB. No hammered shillings appear to have 
been struck between 1561 and 1582. 

510. Shilling. Same as the preceding, but the queen's dress is more richly 

decorated and her hair more spread; m. m. key on both sides. M -25. 
Wt. 95-0. 

Struck in 1595. The bust corresponds with that on the gold coins 
the same time. 

511. Shilling. Same as the preceding, but the obv. legend reads REGINA, and 

the shield on the rev. is garnished; m. in. key on both sides. t 1'25. 
Wt, 94-3. 

Struck in 1595. This coin is of particularly fine work, and is so 
evenly struck, that it may have been executed by the mill. It is the 
only issue with a garnished shield, and may therefore have been intended 
as a pattern. 

II 



Plate xix. 

CROWN 
GOLD. 



SILVER. 



98 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xx. 512. Shilling, milled. Same as No. 508, no inner circle on either side ; m. m. 
star on both sides. JR 1-15. Wt. 96 '5. 

Struck in 1561, the first year of issue of milled silver coins. They 
are known of only two other mint-marks, the lis and mullet (1567 
and 1574). 

513. Sixpence. 1566. Obv. ELIZABETH : D' G' - ANG' FR' ET : HI' 

REGINA; m. m. portcullis. Bust of queen as on No. 508; behind, rose. 
Rev. POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV ; m. m. as on obv. Square 
shield on cross fourchee ; above, 1566. M 1-0. Wt. 48 -5. 

The sixpence, both hammered and milled, was first struck in 1561, 
and of the former there is a continuous series, dated to 1602. These 
bear often several mint-marks in the same year. The other dated coins 
are the threepence, the three halfpence, and the three farthings. 
The dated coins are also distinguished from the undated ones by 
having a rose behind the queen's bust. 

514. Sixpence, milled. 1561. Same as the preceding, but reading FRA., HIB., 

DEVM and MEVM ; the queen's dress is more decorated; no inner circle 
on either side ; and m. m. star ; date, 1 561 . JR 1 0. Wt. 49 3. 

The milled sixpences extend from 1561 to 1575;a few of the inter- 
mediate dates are however missing. They show slight varieties of obv. 
and rev. types (see Nos. 515, 516). 

515. Sixpence, milled. 1562. Same as the preceding, but bust smaller and dress 

less decorated; date, 1562 ; same m. m. M 1*0. Wt. 44-0. 

516. Sixpence, milled. 1566. Same as No. 514, but bust larger and dress more 

decorated; cross on rev. pattee ; date, 1566; same m. m. M 1*0. 
Wt. 47-0. 

This variety of cross on the reverse is also found on milled sixpences 
dated 1562, 1563, and 1564. 

517. Groat. Same as the Sixpence, No. 513, but reading HIB., no rose behind 

the bust of the queen ; and no date ; m. m. cross crosslet on both sides. 
JR -95. Wt. 31-0. 

All the hammered groats were struck before 1561. They have for 
mint-marks, mullet, cross crosslet, and lis. Some are without the inner 
circle on either side. 

518. Groat, milled. Same as the Sixpence, No. 514, but no rose behind the 

bust, and no date ; m. m. star on both sides. M '9. Wt. 30-8. 

This is the only type and mint-mark of the milled groat. It is pro- 
bably of the year 1561. 

519. Threepence. 1561. Same as the Sixpence, No. 513, but reading HIB. for 

HI., and date, 1561 ; m. m. pheon on both sides, x, '15. Wt. 23 -5. 

Like the sixpence, the threepence is always dated. It was first 
struck in 1561, and, together with the three halfpence and three 
farthings, was discontinued after 1582. 

520. Threepence, milled. 1562. Same as the Sixpence, No. 514, but date 1562 ; 

m. m. star, zi '8. Wt. 23-8. 

These appear to be only of 1561, 1562, 1563, 1564, 1574 and 1575. 



ELIZABETH. 99 

521. Half-Groat. 1st type. Same as the Groat, No. 517 ; but m. m. martlet. Plate xx. 

K'l. Wt. 14-2. SILVKK. 

The issue of the half -groat ceased for a while in 1577, and when it 
was revived in 1582, the type and legends were somewhat changed (see 
the next coin), and this change was preserved till the end of the reign. 

522. Half-Groat. 2nd type. Obv. E' D' G' ROSA SINE SPINA; 

m. m. scallop. Bust of queen to 1., in profile, crowned, in ruff and 
embroidered dress ; behind, two dots to indicate the value. Rev. C I VITAS 
LONDON; m. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fourchee. 2R - 7. 
Wt. 15-7. 
See note to No. 521. 

523. Half-Groat, milled. Same as the Groat, No. 518; same m. m. M '7. 

Wt. 14-0. 
This is the only type and mint-mark of the milled half -groat. 

524. Three Halfpence. 1561. Same as the Half-Groat, No. 522 ; but behind bust 

of queen is a rose ; and on rev. 1 561 above the shield ; m. m. pheon on both 
JR -6. Wt. 13-3. 



None were struck after 1582. No specimen of the milled three 
halfpence has been met with. 

525. Penny. Same as the Half-Groat, No. 522 ; but m. m. cross crosslet. .ai 55. 

Wt. 9-0. 

The pennies are undated, except those struck in 1558, which have 
the date in the obv. legend. The milled penny of 1567 with the mint- 
mark lis is mentioned by Ruding and Snelling ; but no specimen is now 
known. 

526. Three Farthings. 1573. Same as the Three Halfpence, No. 524 ; but date, 

1573 ; m. m. acorn. M -55. Wt. 6'0. 

None struck after 1582. 

527. Three Farthings, milled. 1563. Same as the Three Halfpence, No. 524 ; but 

dress of queen more decorated ; cross pattee instead of cross fourchee on 
the rev. ; no inner circles ; and date, 1563 ; m. m. star. M *5. Wt. 6 '8. 

Struck in 1563 only. 

528. Halfpenny. Obv. Portcullis; above, m. m. A. Rev. Cross moline, three 

pellets in each angle. M -35. Wt. 3-9. 

Though there exist halfpennies with mint-mark a cross crosslet, 
struck before 1561, they do not appear to be mentioned in any 
indentures before 1582 ; after that date they were frequently struck. 
The above piece belongs to the period 1582-84. Some are without 
any mint-marks. These were probably struck before 1582. 

James I. 1603-1625. 

COINAGE. Gold. Sovereign or Unite, Half-Sovereign or Double- 
Crown, Crown or Britain Crown, Half-Crown, Thistle Crown, AngeJ, 
Half- Angel, Rose Ryal or Thirty Shilling Piece, Spur Ryal or Fifteen 
Shilling Piece, Laurel, Half-Laurel, and Quarter-Laurel. Silver. 
Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Half-Groat, Penny, and Half- 
penny. Copper. Farthing. 

H 2 



100 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xx. As in the previous reign the gold coins were of two standards, 
i.e. standard gold and crown gold. 

ISSUES, &c.Gold. Four. 1st issue (1603-1604), Sovereign, Half- 
Sovereign, Crown or Quarter-Sovereign, and Half-Crown or Eighth Sove- 
reign, Crown gold, weight 171^ grs. to the Sovereign, current for 20s. ; 
the others in proportion. 2nd issue (1604-1619), Unite, Double-Crown, 
Britain Crown, Half-Crown and Thistle Crown, Crown gold, weight 
154|f grs. to the Unite, current for 20s., the others in proportion, but 
the Thistle Crown, 30!} grs. and current for 4*. 3rd issue (1 605-1619), 
Rose Ryal,* 213^ grs., current for 30s. ; Spur Ryal, 106f grs., current 
for 15s. ; Angel, 71^ grs., current for lO.s-., and Half-Angel,f 36 grs. r 
current for 5s. Qd., Standard gold. 4th issue (1619-1625), Rose Ryal 
or Thirty Shilling Piece, 196j* T grs., current for 30s. ; Spur Ryal or 
Fifteen Shilling Piece, 98 T 2 T grs., current for 15s., and Angel, 65, ; \- grs. r 
current for 10s., Standard gold; Laurel, 14:0^ grs., current for 20s. ; 
Half -Laurel, 70^- grs., current for 10s., and Quarter-Laurel, 35/' r grs., 
current for 5s., Crown gold. Silver. Two (1603 and 1604), both com- 
prising the Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Half-Groat, Penny, 
and Halfpenny, at 7y grs. to the Penny, and fineness 11 oz. 2 dwts. 
silver and 18 dwts. alloy. The two issues vary chiefly in the king's 
titles and on most of the coins there is a change of legend on the 
reverse. Copper. One (1613), Farthing token, weight 6 grs. 

All the coins are of the Tower mint. 



First Issue (1603-1604). 

GOLD. 529. Sovereign. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' ANG' . SCO' FRAN' ET - 
HIB' - REX; m. m. thistle. Half-length figure of king to r. in armour, 
holding sceptre and orb. Rev. EXVRGAT DEVS - DISSIPENTVR - 
IN I MIC I ; m.m. as on obv. Square shield garnished and crowned between 
I R. AT 1-5. Wt. 172-0. 

On all the coins of the first issue the king is styled " King of 
England, Scotland," &c. (ANG SCO &c., REX). In the second year of 
his reign James assumed the title of " King of Great Britain" (MAG 
BRIT &c., REX). The " Exurgat " legend on the reverse is limited to 
coins of this issue only, in gold and silver. It is from Psalm Ixviii. l r 
and was chosen by James himself. The arms on the shield are 1 
and 4, France and England quarterly ; 2, Scotland, and 3, Ireland. This 
order continued throughout the reign on the English coins ; but varied 
on the Scottish. The mint-marks thistle and lis are the only ones 
which occur on the first issues of gold and silver. The lis, however, 
is only known as occurring on the sovereign. The gold coins are of 
crown gold. 

* In 1612 the nominal value of the gold coins was raised 2s. in the ; so that 
the Unite passed for 22s., the Rose Ryal for 33s., the Angel for 11s., and the 
other denominations in proportion. At the same time a slight increase was made 
in the weights of the coins. 

t The Half-Angel was not issued before 1610 or 1611. 



JAMES I. 



101 



530. Half-Sovereign. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' ANGL' . SCO' FRAN' Plate xx. 

ET HIBER' REX; m. m. thistle. Bust of king to r., crowned, in GOLI>. 
armour. Rev. Same as the Sovereign, but the shield is not garnished. 
AA 1-2. Wt. 84-2. 

The gold coins of this issue show no varieties of type or legend. 

531. Crown. Obv. IACOBVS - D' G' . ANG' - SCO' FRA' - ET HIB' 

REX ; m. m. thistle. Bust of king as on the preceding. Rev. 
TVEATVR -VNITA DEVS; m. m. as on obv. Square shield dividing 
legend above and below ; above, crown between I R. AI '95. Wt. 43-4. 

The legend 011 the reverse refers to the union of the two kingdoms. 

532. Half-Crown. Same as the Crown, but the legend on the obv. reads IACOBVS - 

D' - G' AN' SC' FR' ET HI' REX ; same ni. in. u '1. 
Pierced. 

Second Issue (1604-1619). 

533. Unite. Obv. IACOBVS D' . G' MAG' BRIT FRAN' ET HIB' 

REX ; m. m. lis. Half-length figure of the king as on No. 529, but armour 
more decorated. Rev. FACIAM . EOS - IN - GENTEM - VNAM ; 
m. m. lis. Square garnished shield, &c., as on No. 529. AT 1'45. 
Wt. 154-0. 

The obverse legend shows the change in the king's titles to " King of 
Great Britain." That on the reverse is from Ezekiel xxxvii. 22. The 
reference to the union is continued in the whole verse : "I will make 
them one nation in the land upon the mountains of Israel ; and one 
king shall be king to them all : and they shall be no more two 
nations, neither shall they be divided into two kingdoms any more 
it all." 

Each denomination of the gold coins of this issue only varies in the 
lint-mark. Like those of the previous issue, they are all of crown gold. 

Double-Crown. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' MAG' BRIT FRAN' 
ET HIB' REX; m. m. lis. Bust of king to r., crowned, in decorated 
armour and lace collar. Rev. HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA 
IACOBVS ; m. m. as on obv. Square shield crowned as on No. 530. .v 1 15. 
Wt. 76-6. 

The reverse legend refers to the union of the white and red roses of 
mcaster and York in the person of Henry VII, and to that of the 
two kingdoms in the person of James I. 

55. Britain Crown. Same as the preceding, but reading FRA. for FRAN, on 
obv., and I R at sides of crown on rev. ; m. m. rose 011 both sides. 
A- -85. Wt. 38-8. 

Half-Crown. Obv. I' D' G' ROSA SINE SPINA; m. m. rose. 
Bust of king as on No. 534. Rev. Same as No. 531 ; m. m. as on obv. AT '1. 
Wt. 19-6. 

537. Thistle Crown. Obv. - IA' D' - G' MAG' BR' F' ET H' - 
REX' ; m. m. lis. Rose on stalk with two leaves, crowned, between I R. 
Rev. TVEATVR VNITA DEVS. Thistle on stalk with two leaves, 
crowned, between I R. A7 '75. Wt. 31-0. 

The issue of the thistle crown hitherto was supposed to have ceased 
in 1611, but the recent discovery of pieces with later mint-marks 
shows that it was struck till 1618 at least. 




102 ENGLISH COINS. 



Third Issue (1605-1619). 

Plate xxi. 538. Rose Ryal. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' MAG' . BRIT' FRAN' ET - 
HOLD. HIBER'- REX; m. m. rose. King enthroned holding sceptre and 

orb; at his feet, portcullis; tressure of arches. Ecv. A DNO' 
FACTVM EST . ISTVD . ET EST MIRAB' - IN OCVLIS 
NRIS ; m. m. as on obv. Square shield on large double rose within tressure, 
with trefoil and leaf alternately at the angles. AT 1*7. Wt. 212-4. 

All the coins of this issue are of standard gold. Though their 
current values were raised 10 per cent, in 1612 no change was made 
in the types ; but a slight increase took place in the weights. The 
ryal is similar in type to the sovereigns of Mary and Elizabeth. 

539. Spur Ryal. Obv. IACOBVS D' - G' MAG' BRIT' FRAN' ET 

HIB' REX; m. m. rose. King standing in two-masted ship to 1., 
crowned and holding sword and shield ; three ropes from stern and prow ; 
flag with I at prow; rose on side. Rev. A : DNO' FACTVM 
EST - ISTVD ET - EST MIRABILE; m. m. as on obv. Within 
arched tressure floriated cross, the centre concealed by a rose upon a 
sun ; in each angle, crown above lion, and trefoil in each spandril of 
tressure. AT 1-35. Wt. 105-7. 

The spur ryal was just half the current value of the rose ryal. It 
received its name from the pointed form of the rays of the sun on the 
reverse, which looks like a spur. The type of the spur ryal is similar 
to that of the ryals of Mary and Elizabeth. 

540. Angel. Obv. IACOBVS - D' - G' - MAG' BRIT' FRA' ET - HI' . 

REX ; m. m. mullet. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing the dragon, 
usual type, as No. 376. Rev. A DNO' FACTVM EST ISTVD ; 
in. m. as on obv. Ship as on previous Angels, but no cross above the 
shield in front of the mast, on which is a top-castle ; I and rose at sides 
of mast. AT 1-1. Wt. 70-4. 

The angels only vary in the mint-marks and in having sometimes 
a bowsprit. 

541. Half- Angel. Same as the Angel, but reading MA' BRI' for MAG' - 

BRIT' , and m. m. cinquefoil on both sides. A7 -8. Wt. 34 -7. 

Half-angels do not appear to have been struck before 1610 or 1611. 
They are not mentioned in any of the indentures or proclamations 
of the time. 



Fourth Issue (1619-1625). 

542. Rose Ryal. Obv. IACOBVS D' : G' : MA : BRI : FR : ET HIB : 
REX; m. m. spur rowel. King enthroned, wearing robes of the Garter 
and holding sceptre and orb ; at his feet, portcullis ; the back of the 
throne, which is high, is flowered and the field is chequered with roses 
and lis. Rev. A DNO : FACTVM EST ISTVD ET EST MIRAB : 
IN OC : NRIS ; m. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fleury within two 
beaded circles ; between which and in each angle of the cross is a lion 
between a lis and a rose ; above shield, XXX ( = 30s.). A; 1-55. Wt. 193-2. 

Much inconvenience having been experienced through the raising 
of the current values of the gold coins in 1612 (see note, p. 100), a 



JAMES I, 103 

new issue was ordered in 1619, consisting of the rose ryal, spur ryal Plate xxi. 
and angel in standard gold, and the laurel or unite, and half and GOLD. 
quarter-laurel in crown gold. In order to distinguish these new 
coins from the old ones, which so nearly approached them in weight 
and value, and which were still in circulation, new types were adopted 
or the former ones much altered, and on each piece was placed its 
current value. This is the first instance of the values being placed on 
gold coins. Edward VI and Mary had already adopted the plan for 
some of their silver coins. 

543. Spur Ryal. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRA : ET HI : 

REX; m.m. spur rowel. Lion facing, crowned, holding sceptre and support- 
ing shield; at sides of which, X V (= 15s.). Eev. A DNO : FACTVM 
EST ISTVD ET EST M I R A B I ; m. m. as on obv. Within arched tressure 
a spur rowel with rose in centre and four lis and four lions, all crowned 
alternately at points of rays. AT 1'25. Wt. 96 '6. 

The rose ryals and spur ryals only vary in their mint-marks and in 
the abbreviations of the legends. 

544. Angel. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FRA : ET HIB : REX; 

m. m. trefoil slipped. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing the dragon, 
usual type, but with mark of value, X (= 10s.) on r. of Saint. Rev. A 
DOMINO FACTVM EST ISTVD; m.m. as on obv. Ship with three 
masts to 1. ; from the centre one depends a large sail, embroidered with the 
royal arms ; side ornamented with lis and lions and port-holes ; lion at 
stern and prow. AT 1-05. Wt. 65 -1. 

The difference in the reverse type easily distinguishes these angels 
from those of previous issues. No half-angels are known of this 
coinage, and none are mentioned in the indenture ordering it. 

Laurel. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRAH : ET 
HIBERU : REX; m. m. spur rowel. Bust of king in profile to 1., 
laureate, in armour and mantle; behind, XX ( = 20s.). Eev. FACIAM EOS 
IN GENTEM VNAM ; m.m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fleury ; 
above, crown. A? 1-4. Wt. 134-4. 

This is the first instance of the laureate bust on the English 
)inage. James delighted to be represented as the " Caesar Augustus " 
" Britain, and he assumed this title on his coronation medal, on which 
he is also figured in Roman dress. The name first given to this coin 
was the Unite, but it soon received that of the Laurel from its type of 
)bverse. 

16. Half-Laurel. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FRA : ET HI : 
REX; m. m. spur rowel. Laureate bust as on the preceding; behind, 
X (=10s.). Bev. HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS; m. m. as on 
obv. Shield on cross fleury as on the preceding. A? 1'15. Wt. 69 '0. 

Besides the mint-mark there are several minor varieties of the laurel, 
half and quarter-laurel, more especially in the abbreviations of the 
words of the legends. 

547. Quarter-Laurel. Same as the preceding, but reading FR : for FRA : and 
mark of value, V (= 5s.) behind bust on obv., and on rev. HEN RIG' 
ROSAS REGNA IACOB'; m. m. trefoil slipped on both sides, but after 
REGNA on rev. A: -75. Wt. 34-1. 



104 ENGLISH COINS. 



First Issue ( 1603-1 604). 

Plate xxi. 548. Crown. Obv. IACOBVS - D' . G' - ANG' SCO' FRAN' ET - HIB' - 

SILVER. REX; m. m. thistle. King on horseback to r., crowned and holding 

sword in r. hand ; crowned rose on housings of horse. Rev. EXVRGAT 

DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI; m. m. as on obv. Square shield, 

garnished, zi 1-7. Wt. 462-0. 

On the silver coins of the first issue the king's titles and the legend 
on the reverse are the same as on his early gold pieces. The only 
dated silver coin is the sixpence : the mint-marks of which serve to 
fix the sequence of issue of the other coins. 

549. Half-Crown. Same as the Crown in all respects except in size and weight. 

jRl-45. Wt. 227-0. 

There appear to be no varieties of types or legends of the silver 
coins of this issue : and the only mint-marks are the thistle and the 
lis. They occur in each denomination. 

550. Shilling. Obv. IACOBVS D' - G' ANG' - SCO' FRA' - ET HIB'. 

REX; m. m. thistle. Bust of king to r., crowned, in armour; hehind, 
XII ( = 12d.). Rev. Same as the Crown, hut shield not garnished ; m. m. 
asono&u. jxl'3. Wt. 89-0. 

551. Sixpence. 1603. Same as the Shilling, but mark of value VI (= 6d.) behind 

the bust, and date, 1603, above the shield, jtl-05. Wt. 45'5. 
Dated also 1604. 

Plate xxii. 552. Half-Groat. Obv. \' - D' G' ROSA SINE - SPINA; m. m. thistle. 
Bust of king as on the Shilling, No. 550; behind, II (= 2d.). Rev. 
Square shield ; above, m. m. thistle; no legend, st. -7. Wt. 16 -8. 
No groats were struck during this reign. 

553. Penny. Same as the Half-Groat; but behind bust, I (= Id.), and m. m. lis 

on both sides. M -5. Wt. 8-5. 

554. Halfpenny. Obv. Portcullis ; above, m. m. thistle. Rev. Cross moline with 

three pellets in each angle ; no legends on either side. JR -4. Wt. 3-0. 
These coins cannot be distinguished from similar pieces of Elizabeth 
except by their mint-marks. This is the last coin struck with the 
reverse type of a cross and pellets. The type had been used since the 
time of Henry III. 

Second Issue (1604-1625). 

555. Crown. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET HI : 

REX; m. m. trefoil slipped. King on horseback, &c., as on No. 548. 

Rev. QVXE DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET; m.m. as on obv. 

Square garnished shield as on No. 548. jRl'7. Wt. 457 -3. 
The king's titles MAG. BRIT., c., are as on the gold coins (see Nos. 
529 and 533). The legend on the reverse, referring to the union of the 
two kingdoms, is from Matthew xix. 6. The prince's plume, which some- 
times occurs above the shield on the reverse of the crowns, half-crowns 
and shillings, denotes that they were struck from silver derived from 
the Welsh mines in the neighbourhood of Aberystwith. Besides the 
mint-marks there are several small varieties of the crown. Some have 
a thistle and rose united on the housings of the horse instead of a rose ; 
whilst others have a large shield, which cuts the inner circle on the reverse. 



: 



JAMES I. 105 

556. Half-Crown. Same as the Crown, but the obv. legend reads I AGO BVS D : piatexxii 

G : MAG : BRI : FRAN : ET HIB : REX; and m. m. thistle on both HlIVKV 
sides. jRl-45. Wt. 239-6. 

Also with plume above shield. 

557. Shilling. Obv. IACOBVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FR : ET HI : REX; 

m. m. trefoil slipped. Bust of king to r., as on No. 550. Rev. Same type 
and legend as No. 555, but shield plain, not garnished ; m. m. as on obv. 
Ml- 25. Wt. 92-0. 

Also with plume above shield. Those struck before 1607 vary 
slightly in the abbreviations of the king's titles ; reading MAG BRIT 
FRA - ET HIB - REX. 

558. Sixpence. 1624. Same as the Shilling; but VI (= 6d.) behind king's head, 

and date, 1624, above shield; m. m. lis on both sides. JR 1-0. Wt. 44-6. 
Sixpences are known of 1604 to 1624, except 1614. Some years 
have more than one mint-mark. 

559. Half-Groat. Obv. I : D : G : ROSA . SINE SPINA; m. m. star. 

Rose, crowned. Rev. TVEATVR VNITA DEVS ; m. m. star. 
Thistle, crowned. JR '7. Wt. 16 -0. 

This type is similar to that of the thistle crown. It differs consider- 
ably from the half -groat of the first issue (see No. 552). The earlier and 
later pieces, each with the mint-marks rose, thistle, lis and trefoil, cannot 
be distinguished from each other in the absence of any special marks. 

560. Penny. Same as the Half-Groat ; but no crown over rose or thistle and no 

m. m. JR -55. Wt. 7*0. 

The absence of the mint-mark is unusual. Some half-groats and 
pennies are without the king's name and titles, and have the TVEATVR, 
<fec., legend on both sides. Others are without the inner circle on 
ither side. 

1. Halfpenny. Obv. A rose. Rev. A thistle ; above, m. m. trefoil slipped. 
JR -4. Wt. 3-0. 

Like the pennies some ha] f pennies have no mint-mark. All are 
without legends. 

562. Farthing. Obv. I AGO D -G MAG BRIT; m. m. trefoil slipped. COPPER. 

Two sceptres in saltire through a crown. Rev. FRA : ET HIB : 
REX ; m. m. trefoil slipped. Harp, crowned. M '6. Wt. 10 -0. 

563. Same, but with ?.w. fret on rev. only (the Harrington badge). M '5. Wt.7'0. 
These farthing tokens were issued in pursuance of a patent granted in 

1613 to John Lord Harrington, of Exton. They are in consequence 
commonly known as " Harringtons." Their prescribed weight was to 
be 6 grs., but they are usually nearly double that weight. The patent 
was confirmed to his widow in 1614. This was followed in 1622 by 
another grant to Ludovic, Duke of Lennox, and James, Marquis 
of Hamilton. On account of the enormous difference between the 
Intrinsic and current values of these tokens numerous forgeries 
were made, and the circulation of the genuine pieces became very 
unpopular. Smaller pieces, about half the size of the ordinary token, 
have been thought to be half-farthings, but this was probably only a 
further attempt to impose on the public. This is the first copper 
currency in the English series. 



106 ENGLISH COINS. 

Charles I. 1625-1649. 

Plate xxii. COINAGE. Gold. Triple-Unite or Three-Pound Piece, Unite or 
Twenty Shillings, Double-Crown or Ten Shillings, Crown or Five 
Shillings, and Angel. Silver. Pound or Twenty Shillings, Half-Pound 
or Ten Shillings, Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, Half- 
Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. Copper. Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. The coins of this reign are of three series or classes, 
viz. those struck at the Tower mint, those issued at provincial mints 
before and after the outbreak of the Civil War, and those struck by 
the besieged towns or castles during the war. The coins struck at the 
Tower mint are : Gold. Unite, Double-Crown, Crown, and Angel. 
Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, Half-Groat, Penny, and 
Halfpenny. The Angel was of standard gold : the others of crown 
gold, and the silver 11 oz. 2 dwts. pure to 18 dwts. alloy. The gold 
and silver coins of the Tower mint show three marked varieties of 
obverse type (see below, No. 564). The coins struck by Briot belong to 
the Tower series. 

The provincial mints, to which coins have been attributed, are 
Aberystwith, Bristol, Chester, Combe-Martin (?), Exeter, Oxford, 
Salisbury (?), Shrewsbury, Weymouth, Worcester, and York. Of 
these Aberystwith and York were established before the war. Gold 
coins are only known of Bristol and Oxford ; all the other mints 
appear to have struck silver only. The denominations struck at the 
local mints and not issued at the Tower are the Triple-Unite in gold, 
and the Pound, Half-Pound, Groat, and Threepence in silver. The 
gold coins were of crown gold and the silver of the same standard as 
those of the Tower. The current values remained the same as in 
the previous reign : but the weights of the gold coins were somewhat 
reduced, being at the rate of 140ff grs. to the unite, and 64ff grs. 
to the angel. The silver was at 7|y g rs - to the penny. The copper 
farthings were of two issues which varied in the types. The dates of 
the issues were 1626 and 1635 (see descriptions pp. 1212). 

The siege pieces are described at the end of the local coinages. 

TOWER MINT. 

GOLD. 564. Unite. 1st type. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' MACS' BR' - FR' ET HI' - 

REX ; m. in. lis. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in ruff, robes and collar of 
the Garter; behind, XX (= 20s.). Rev. FLORENT : CONCORDIA : 
REGNA; ra. ra. as on obv. Square garnished shield, crowned. A! 1-35. 
Wt. 139-8. 

There are three principal types of gold and silver coins struck at the 
Tower, which may be distinguished by certain variations in the dress of 
the king. On the first type the king is dressed in ruff and robes and 
collar of the Garter, as on the above coin ; on the second type he 
wears a ruff and is in armour, with mantle fastened at the shoulder (see 
No. 565) ; and on the third he has a falling lace collar and armour, 
but no mantle (see No. 566). These changes correspond approxi- 
mately to the dates 1625, 1626, and 1631. The shield on the reverse 
is at n'rst square, then oval, and again, later on, in the case of the silver 






CHARLES I. 107 

square. Though Charles for his coins struck at the Tower continued Plate xxii. 
to use his father's types, yet with the exception of the " Exurgat " GOLD. 
legend, which occurs on coins of the local mints only, he introduced 
new ones throughout both the gold and silver series. The sequence 
of the mint-marks is given in the list at the end of the work (see 
Appendix A). 

565. Unite. 2nd type. Same as the preceding, but reading MA. for MAG., bust 

of king crowned, in ruff, armour and mantle fastened on the shoulder ; 
in. m. heart on both sides. AT 1'3. Wt. 139-3. 

On the later pieces with this obv. type the shield is oval and has 
the letters C R at the sides. 

566. Unite. 3rd type. Same as No. 564, but reading MA. for MAG. and bust 

of king, crowned, in falling lace collar and armour ; and on the rev. oval 
garnished shield, crowned, between C R also crowned ; in. m. crown on 
both sides. A/l-25. Wt. 138-3. 

The unites of each type vary considerably in minor details, in 
addition to the changes of mint-marks. 

567. Double-Crown. 1st type. Similar to the Unite, No. 564, but reading on obv. 

HIB. for HI. and behind bust X ( = 10s.) ; and legend on rev. CVLTORES - 
SVI DEVS PROTEGIT; m. m. lis on both sides, AT 1-05. Wt. 69-5. 
The garniture of the shield varies slightly from that on the unites. 

568. Double-Crown. 2nd type. Similar to the preceding, but bust of king as on 

No. 565, and no inner circle on obv. ; m. m. anchor on both sides. A T I'O. 
Wt. 68-2. 

Same varieties of shield as on the unite of this type. 

569. Double-Crown. 3rd type. Similar to No. 567, but bust of king and shield 

as on No. 566 ; m. m. harp on both sides. AT 1-05. Wt. 69-5. 
The double-crowns also show many small varieties in the portrait of 
the king and in the abbreviations of the words of the legends. 

0. Crown. 1st type. Similar to the Double-Crown, No. 567; but reading HI. 

for HIB., and behind bust V (=5s.); m. m. lis on both sides. AT -9. 
Wt. 35-7. 

1. Crown. 2nd type. Similar to the preceding, but bust as on No. 565 ; m. in. 

negro's head on both sides. AT -8. Wt. 35 '0. 
Varieties like the unite and double-crown have the oval shield on 



: 



. Crown. 3rd type. Similar to No. 570 ; but bust and shield as on No. 566 ; 

i. m. anchor on both sides. AT "8. Wt. 35 -0. 
There are also many small varieties of the crown. 



( ; 
3. Angel. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FR : ET - HI : 
REX ; m. m. castle. The Archangel, S. Michael, piercing the dragon, usual 
type, as No. 376, but the spear passes through the dragon's mouth and 
comes out on the other side; in field on r., X (= 10s.). Bev. AMOR - 
POPVLI PRXESIDIVM REGIS; m. m. as on obv. Ship with three 
masts, &c., as on No. 544. A; 1-05. Wt. 64-5. 

The mint-marks show that the issue of the angels extended over the 
periods of the three types of the unite. None however are known of 
a date later than 1634. This is the last issue of this coin for currency. 
After the Commonwealth the type was copied for the Touch-piece. 
The later issues of this reign have the mark of value on the left of the 



108 ENGLISH COINS. 

1'iutcxxii. Archangel, and a few early pieces are without this mark. There are 
no half-angels. 

SILVER. 574. Crown. Obv. : CAROLVS : D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRA : ET : HIB : 
REX ; m. m. lis. King on horseback to 1., crowned and wearing ruff 
and armour, and holding sword over shoulder ; horse richly caparisoned, 
the housings ornamented with floral pattern ; plume on head and 
crupper. Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. as on obv. 
Square shield garnished on cross fleury. JR 1*7. Wt. 459*0. 

There are numerous varieties of the crowns of the Tower issue. The 
dress of the king shows three distinct changes, similar to those on the 
unites, &c. (see No. 564), i.e. 011 later issues he wears a ruff and scarf 
or a laced collar (see next coin). The plume is found on the horse's 
head and crupper in the first class ; on the horse's head only in the 
second class, and it is omitted altogether on crowns of the third. 
A plume, indicating that the coin was of Welsh silver, was placed 
above the shield on the reverse. On later issues the shield is oval and 
garnished. 

Plate xxiii. 575. Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FRA' ET HI' 

REX; m. m. bell. King on horseback to 1., crowned and wearing lace 

collar, armour and long scarf ; the horse has no trappings and the sword 

is held upright. Rev. Similar to the preceding but shield oval and 

garnished ; m. m. bell between two quatref oils. JR 1 75. Wt. 457 5. 

The dress of the king shows that this coin belongs to the third 

period, i.e. after 1631. Varieties of this class have a plume above the 

shield ; and on the second the shield is placed on a cross fleury and 

surmounted by the initials of the king, or the shield has a plume over 

it between C R and no cross. The absence of trappings on the horse 

is one of the distinguishing marks between the crowns and half-crowns 

of the second and third periods (see also No. 577). 

576. Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS - D G . MAG BRI - FR ET HI 

REX ; m. m. lis. King on horseback as on No. 574, but crowned rose 
on housings and ground under horse. Rev. Similar to No. 574 ; m. m. as on 
obv. jil-4. Wt. 231-0. 

The half-crowns present similar varieties to the crowns ; but those 
with the oval shield on the rev. never have the cross fleury, and the 
initials of the king are sometimes placed at the sides instead of above 
the shield (see next coin). 

577. Half-Crown. Similar to No. 575, but the king wears ruff and scarf, and 

the horse is caparisoned, the housings being marked with a plain cross, and 
it has a plume on its head, and on the rev. C R at sides of the shield ; m. m. 
harp on both sides. JR 1*4. Wt. 231-0. 

The dress of the king places this coin in the middle period. On all 
the crowns and half-crowns of this period the housings of the horse are 
marked with a plain cross and not a floral pattern or rose as in the first 
one. 

578. Shilling. 1st type. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRI' FR' ET 

HI' REX; m. m. lis. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in ruff, robes and 

collar of the Garter; behind, XII ( = 12d.). Rev. Similar to No. 574; but 

shield not garnished ; m. m. as on obv. JR 1-25. Wt. 91-5. 

The obverse types of the shillings show the same varieties of bust as 

he unites (sec No. 564), and the shape of the shield on the reverse is 



CHAELES I. 109 

like thai on the crowns (see No. 574), except that during the third Plate xxiii. 
period (circ. 1638) there is a return to the square shield, which is SILVER. 
placed on a cross fleury. The plume above the shield and C R also 
above and at sides occur. This and the following shillings give the 
principal varieties. 

579. Shilling. 2nd type. Similar to the preceding ; but obv. legend slightly \ 

varied, and bust of king wearing ruff, armour, and mantle tied on the 
shoulder ; and on rev. square shield surmounted by plume ; m. m. heart \ 
on both sides. .3*1-25. Wt. 93 -5. \ 

580. Shilling. 2nd type var. Similar to the last ; but obv. legend slightly varied, 1 

and on rev. oval garnished shield with C R above ; m. m. plume on both 
sides, Ml-25. Wt. 93 -0. 

581. Shilling. 3rd type. Similar, but bust of king in falling lace collar and 

armour, and on rev. oval garnished shield surmounted by plume ; no inner 
circle on either side ; m. m. bell on both sides, zi 1'25. Wt. 93 -0. 
5S2. Shilling. 3rd type var. Similar, but on rev. square shield on cross fleury ; 
m. m. P in circle on both sides. M 1-3. Wt. 95 '0. 

Besides the above there are numerous slight varieties in the abbrevia- 
tions of the king's titles. 

583. Sixpence. 1625. Is* type. Obv. CAROLVS D : MAG : BR : FR : ET 

HI : REX ; m. m. lis. Bust of king to 1., in ruff, robes and collar of the 
Garter, similar to No. 578; behind, VI ( = 6d.). Rev. Same as No. 578; 
but date, 1625, above shield ; m. m. lis. zi 1-0. Wt. 45'5. 

The omission of G for "gratia" is only an accident. The sixpence 
shows precisely the same varieties as the shillings. Dates do not 
occur after 1630. 

584. Sixpence. 1626. 2nd type. Similar to the preceding, but with D : G : 

&c., bust of king in ruff, armour and mantle as on No. 579 ; and 
date, 1626, above the shield which is square, not garnished and on cross 
fleury ; m. in. negro's head on both sides. M I- 05. Wt. 45 '5. 

585. Sixpence. 3rd type. Similar to No. 583, legend slightly varied, bust of 

king in falling lace collar and armour as on No. 581 ; and on rev. oval 
garnished shield between C R ; m. m. harp on both sides. 

586. Half-Groat. Obv. C : D : G : ROSA SINE SPINA; m. m. plume. Rose, 

crowned. Rev. IVS : THRONVM FIRMAT; m. m. as on obv. Rose, 

crowned. M -65. Wt. 15 -6. 

The half-groats are of two types, with and without the bust, &c. (see 
next coin). The change appears to have taken place in 1630; the 
mint-mark of that year, the plume, being found on both types. 

587. Half-Groat. Obv. CAROLVS . D' . G' MAG' BR' FR' ET H' - 

REX; m. m. plume. Bust of king to 1., in ruff, armour and mantle 
(as on No. 579); behind, II ( = 2d.). Rev. IVSTITIA THRONVM - 
FIRMAT. Oval garnished shield ; above, plume. M '1. Wt. 15 -6. 

The issue with this obverse type lasted only about one year (1630- 
1631) ; see next coin. A very rare variety has 011 the reverse a 
crowned rose instead of a shield. 

588. Half-Groat. Similar to the preceding, but bust of king in falling lace collar 

and armour, as on No. 581, and C R at sides of oval shield on rev . ; 
in. m. harp on both sides. JR -7. Wt. 14-0. 

On these coins the shield did not change in shape during this last 
period ; but remained oval in form. 



110 ENGLISH COINS. 

Piate*xiii 589. Penny. Obv. C D G ROSA SINE SPINA; m. m. lis. Rose in 
centre. Rev. IVS THRONVM - FIRMAT; m. m. as on obv. Rose in 
centre. JR "55. Wt. 9-6. 

There are two types of the penny as of the half -groat (see next coin). 
The change in both denominations occurred simultaneously. 

590. Penny. Obv. CAROLVS . D : G : MA : B : F : ET H : REX; 

m. m. plume. Bust of king in ruff, armour, and mantle as on No. 579 ; 
behind, I ( = ld.). Rev. IVSTITIA THRONVM - FIRMAT; m. m. as 
on obv. Oval garnished shield. JR '55. Wt. 8*8. 

There are also pennies with the king's bust wearing falling lace 
collar, &c. (as No. 581). One variety with mint-mark rose (1631) has 
C R at sides of shield. 

591. Halfpenny. Obv. Rose. Rev. Rose; no legends or mint-mark. JR -4. 

Wt. 4-5. 

This is the only type of the Tower halfpenny. This denomination 
was only struck at this mint and at Aberystwith (see No. 609). 

The king's authority came to an end at the Tower mint in 1642, 
but the Parliament continued to strike money of the royal types 
and bearing the king's name and titles till 1646. In that year the 
working of the mint ceased, and no further issue took place till 1649, 
and then in the name of the Commonwealth. 

BRIOT'S COINAGE. 

GOLD. 592. Unite. Obv. CAROLVS - D G MAGN BRITANN FRAN ET 
HIB REX ; m. m. flower and B. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling 
lacecollar, armour and mantle; behind, -XX- ( = 20s.). Rev. FLORENT 
CONCORDIA REGNA; m. m. B. Square garnished shield crowned 
between C R both crowned. A? 1-3. Wt. 141-2. 

Nicolas Briot, a native of Lorraine, was first engaged at the Tower 
mint in 1628, and was appointed chief engraver in 1633. He was 
also for a time master and chief engraver to the Scottish mint. His 
coins, which were struck by machinery, and not by the hammer 
process, are remarkable for their neatness of execution and skilfulness 
of engraving. Their issue ranges from 1632 to 1638, and consequently 
they have the bust of the king of the third type, i.e. with a falling 
lace collar, &c. (see No. 564). The reverse type and legends are the 
same as on the Tower coins. His mint-marks are his initial with the 
addition sometimes of a flower, a lozenge, or an anchor. The flower 
occurs on his earlier coins ; the anchor on the later ones. The stops 
between the words of the legends, &c., are generally lozenge-shaped. 

593. Double-Crown. Similar to the Unite, but with mark of value X ( = 10s.),and 

reading MAG : BRITAN : , and on the re v. the legend is, CVLTORES 
SVI DEVS PROTEGIT; m. m. B on both sides. AT 1-05. Wt. 69 -7. 

594. Crown. Similar to the Double-Crown, but with mark of value -V- ( = 5s.), 

and reading on obv. BRIT. FR. ; m. m. B on both sides. A; -75. Wt. 35-0. 
Only two specimens of this coin are known. There are slight 
variations in the legends of the unite and double-crown, but not of the 
crown. 



CHAKLES I. Ill 

595. Angel. Obv. CAROLVS - D G MAG BRITANN FRAN ET Plate xxiv. 

HIB REX. The Archangel, St. Michael, piercing the dragon as on GoLn 
No. 573, but the figure of the Saint is more erect ; in field on r., X ( = 10s.) 
Rev. Same as No. 573, but ship varied, more rigging visible, flag at stern ; 
no lion at prow or stern, and two rows of port-holes ; m. m. B on 1. A/ 1*0. 
Wt. 64-9. 

No varieties are known of this coin, which, like the crown, is 
excessively rare. Like the Tower angel, Briot's is of standard gold. 

596. Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D G MAGN - BRITANN FRAN ET SILVER. 

HIBER REX; m. m. B and flower. King on horseback to 1., similar 
to No. 575; but ground under horse. Rev. CHRISTO - AVSPICE 
REGNO; m. m. B. Oval garnished shield crowned and between C R, 
both crowned. ,B 1 55. Wt. 461 0. 

The crowns all belong to Briot's early coinage. They have the above 
mint-marks only, and there are no varieties. 

597. Half-Crown. Similar to the Crown, but reading FR ET HIB and 

m. m. B and anchor on both sides, ml' 35. Wt. 232-7. 
A variety with mint-mark anchor has a shield with square top and 
no letters at the sides. This is of the last issue. Others have the 
earlier mint-mark. 

598. Shilling. Obv. CAROLVS D - G MAGN BRITANN FRAN ET - 

HIB REX; m. m. B and flower. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling 
lace collar, armour andmantle; behind, XII ( = 12d.). Rev. CHRISTO 
AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. B. Square shield on cross fleury. .jil-25. 
Wt. 92-5. 

The later shillings have a smaller cross within the circle on the 
reverse and mint-mark an anchor. These were struck about 1638. 

599. Sixpence. Same as the Shilling, but reading BRITAN FR -, and VI (=6d.) 

for value behind the bust ; m. m. B and flower on.'o&v. only. M 1 ' 0. Wt. 46 0. 
The sixpences present the same varieties as the shillings. 

600. Half-Groat. Obv. CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT - FR ET - HIB - 

R ; m. m. lozenge. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling lace collar and 
armour; behind, II ( = 2d.) and below, B. Rev. IVSTITIA THRONVM 
FIRMAT. Square shield on cross fleury. JR '65. Wt. 14-4. 
This appears to be the only mint-mark on the half -groat. 

601. Penny. Obv. CAR D G MAG BRIT FR ET HI R ; m.m.-R. 

Bust of king as on the Half-Groat, but dividing legend below; behind, 
I - ( = ld.). Rev. Same as the Half-Groat. JR '55. Wt. 8-4. 
Though Briot executed patterns for the groat, threepence, three 
halfpence, and halfpenny, the above were the only denominations 
issued for circulation. His patterns for gold and silver coins form a 
very extensive and remarkable series. 

ABERYSTWITH MINT. 

602. Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D' - G' MAG' BRIT FRA' - ET SILVER. 

HI' REX ; m. m. open book. King on horseback to 1., with lace collar, 
armour and long scarf, &c., as on No. 575; behind, plume. Rev. 
CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. as on obv. Oval garnished 
shield surmounted by a plume. JR 1'B. Wt. 230-5. 

The Aberystwith mint was established in 1637 by virtue of an 
indenture granted to Thomas Bushell for the express purpose of 



112 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxiv. striking money from silver,* the produce of the Welsh mines, which 
SII.VKR. hitherto had been sent up to the Tower mint. By this indenture it 
was agreed that the Aberystwith coins should have a plume on both 
sides. This mint does not appear to have been in operation after 1642, 
when the moneyers together with all their implements were removed 
to Shrewsbury. The mint-marks are an open book or crown, and 
on the smaller pieces a lis, cross, or mullet also occur. Half-crowns are 
the coins of the highest value of Aberystwith, though Bushell received 
authority to strike crowns also. A rare variety with mint-mark open 
book has the ' : Declaration " type on the! reverse and date 1642 (see 
No. 610). This coin may have been struck after the removal of the mint 
to Shrewsbury from an old Aberystwith die. 

603. Shilling. Obv. CAROLVS . D' G' - MAG' - BR' FR' ET HI' - 

REX ; in. in. open book. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in lace collar and 
armour; behind, XII ( = 12d.); before, plume, no inner circle. Rev. Same 
as the preceding ; m. m. as on obv. Ml' 25. Wt. 90-0. 
The omission of the inner circle on the obverse is an exception. 
Some shillings are without this circle on either side. A variety of the 
shilling, like the half-crown, has the " Declaration " type on the reverse 
and date 1642. This also may have been struck at Shrewsbury. 

604. Sixpence. Same as the Shilling, but mark of value VI (=6d.) behind the 

bust, and no inner circle on either side ; m. m. open book on both sides. 

jRl'l. Wt. 45-0. 

The sixpence shows the same varieties as the shilling. Some with 
mint-mark crown are known without the mark of value. Those with 
mint-mark open book and the " Declaration " type on the reverse, and 
dated 1643, were evidently struck at Oxford ; the obverse only being 
from an Aberystwith die. 

605. Groat. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' M' . B' F' ET H' REX; 

m. m. open book. Bust of king to 1., as on the Shilling; behind, (III 
( = 4d.) ; before, plume ; inner circle. Hev. Same as No. 602; m. m. open 
book, jal-1. Wt. 30-5. 

The groats are all of this type with inner circle on both sides. They 
only vary slightly in the obv. legend and mint-mark, a crown. 

606. Threepence. Same as the Groat; but reading FR' ET HI' and III 

( = 3d.) behind bust; m. m. open book on both sides. JR -75. Wt. 22-5. 
Same varieties as the groat. 

607. Half-Groat. Obv. Same type and legend as the Groat ; but mark of value 

II ( = 2d.) and no plume before bust. Eev. IVSTITIA THRONVM - 
FIR MAT; m. m. open book. Large plume with coronet. M '15. 
Wt. 14-5. 

Others are without inner circle 011 either side. A variety with m. m. 
crown has the legend ICH DIEN on a scroll under the crown on the rev., 
and another, the date 1646 at the sides of the plume. This last piece 
has for mint-mark a pellet, and, though usually classed to Aberystwith, 
must from its date have been struck at some other place, probably Oxford. 



* A Unite in gold of the Tower type, with m. m. plume, has been given to 
Aberystwith, but this attribution is very doubtful. 



CHARLES I. 113 

608. Penny. Same as the Half-Groat, but reading CARO. for CAROLVS and Plate xxiv. 

FIR. for FIRM AT; markoC value I ( = ld.) behind bust, and no inner circle SILVER 
on either side ; m. m. open book on obv. and rev. at '55. W T t. 7'6. 
The usual type is with the inner circles. The plumes on the reverse 
vary much in size, and a lion's head occurs sometimes on the king's 
shoulder. The other mint-marks on the penny are the lis, mullet, or 
crown. 

609. Halfpenny. Obv. Bose. Rev. Plume with coronet ; no legends or m m 

2R -4. Wt. 4-4. 

This is the only type, and Aberystwith is the only provincial mint 
which struck halfpennies. 

The above include all the types of the current coins issued at 
Aberystwith. 

BRISTOL MINT. 

CIO. Unite. 1645. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BR : FR : ET : H : iPjatexxv. 

REX ; m. m. BR (mon.). Bust of king to 1., crowned, wearing lace collar GOLD 
and armour; in r. hand, sword; in 1., olive-branch; behind, XX ( = 20s.). 
Rev. EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI. Across the field in 
three lines and on a continuous scroll is the legend, REL : PRO : LEG : 
AN : LIB : PA : above, three plumes; below, 1645; tn. m. at beginning 
of scroll, BR (mon.). AT 1-35. Wt. 135-8. 

The mint was established at Bristol from 1643-1646 ; and, from the 
similarity of its coins to those of Oxford, it is not improbable that 
workmen were transferred from that place to Bristol. The reverse 
type of the above coin is known as the " Declaration" type. Though 
found on coins partly struck from Aberystwith dies, it probably was first 
used at the Shrewsbury mint, and only occurs on those issued at the 
provincial mints. The inscription in full would be " Religio Protes- 
tantium, Leges Angliae, Libertas Parliamenti," and is a reference to 
the king's declaration to the Privy Council at Wellington, 19 Sept., 
1642. Bristol unites are of the above date only. The mint-marks of 
that place are the initials BR (Bristol) in monogram and a plume. 

LI. Double-Crown. 1645. Obv. CAROLVS D - G MAG : B : F : ET 
HIB : REX ; m. m. BR (mon.) between two plumes. Bust of king as on 
the preceding; behind, X ( = 10s.). Rev. Same as the preceding, but 
reading ANG : for AN : and PAR : for PA :; m.m. BR (mon.). AI 1*05. 
Wt. 67-8. 

The double-crown also is only of this year. l No denominations of the 

>ld coins other than the above are known of I Bristol. 

312. Half-Crown. 1643. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BR : FR : ET : 
HIBER : REX; m. m. plume. King on horseback to 1., usual type as 
No. 575; sword, in r. hand; behind, plume. Rev. EXVRGAT DEVS 
DISSIPENTVR INIMICI; m.m. BR (mon.). Across the field and in 
two lines, RELIG : PROT : LE : AN : LI : PA : above, three plumes ; 
below, 1 643. AI I 45. Wt. 234 5. 

Struck also in 1644, 1645 and 1646. Those of 1646 have A or plumo 
under the horse and B on rev., and a scroll ornament above the 
" Declaration." The silver coins of Bristol are the half-crown, shilling, 
sixpence, groat and half-groat. They are all of the " Declaration " typ;. 

i 




114 ENGLISH COINS. 

Hat, xxv. G13. Shilling. 1644. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BR : FR : ET H : 

sn.vi.-i; REX ; m. m. five pellets. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in lace collar and 

armour; behind, XII ( 12d.) ; before, plume. Rev. Same as the preceding ; 

hut the "Declaration" is in three lines, REL : PROT : LEG : ANG : LIB : 

PAR : below, 1644 and BR (mon.). JK 1-3. Wt. 91'0. 

Struck also in 1643 and 1645. Some have no plume before the 
bust. Of the half-crown and shilling there are many small varieties of 
legends, <fec. 

G14. Sixpence. 1643. Obv. CAROLVS : D : G : MAG : B : F : ET : H : 
REX. Bust of king to 1., as on the preceding, but no plume in front: 
behind, VI (=6d.). Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. BR 
(mon.) The "Declaration" as on the preceding, but reading RELIG : 
PRO; below, 1643. JR 1-05. Wt. 50-4. 

Struck also in 1644, which has the " Exurgat '' legend in the circum- 
ference on the reverse. These and others of 1643 have the plume before 
the bust. 

615. Groat. 1644. Obv. CAROLVS .D:G:MAG:B:F:ET-HIB: 

REX. Bust of king as on No. 613; behind, INI (=4d.); before, plume. 
Rev. Same as No. 613, but m. m. BR (mon.) before legend, not under date. 
JR -55. Wt. 27-0. 

Of this date only. Some have no plume before the bust, and BR 
(mon.) under the date. 

616. Half-Groat. Obv. CAROLVS -D:G:M:B:F:ET.H:REX. 

Bust of king to 1., as on No. 613; behind, II (= 2d.). Rev. EXVRG : 
DEVS DISSIP : INIMICI. Across the field and in three lines, RE : PR 
LE : AN : LI : PA : below, BR (mon.). A\ -6. Wt. 14-0. 

The half-groat is never dated, and is of this type only. 

CHESTER MINT. 

SII.VKI;. 617. Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FR - ET : HIB : 
REX; m. m. three gerbs. King on horseback to 1., similar to No. 575; 
behind, plume; below, CHST. Rev. CHRISTO : AVSPICE : REGNO ; 
m. m. as on obv. Oval garnished shield. JR 1'45. Wt. 223-0. 

Three gerbs or wheatsheaves are the arms of Chester, where a mint 
was established during the years 1643 and 1644. A variety of the 
half-crown has one gerb only for mint-mark and no initials under the 
horse. A second type, dated 1644, with mint-mark three gerbs, has the 
" Exurgat " legend on the reverse and the " Declaration " in two lines. 
It is generally supposed that half-crowns only were struck at Chester : 
but there are threepences of rude work with mint-mark one gerb and 
rev. shield and CHRISTO, etc., which may have been issued from this 
mint. 

The half-crowns assigned to Combe-Martin in Devonshire have the 
usual obverse type of the king on horseback ; but on the reverse the 
royal shield within the Garter, crowned, with supporters, lion and 
unicorn ; above, C R; and below, date 1644; around, CHRISTO 
AVSPICE REGNO. This is the only denomination attributed to this 
place. 



CHARLES I. 115 

EXETER MINT. 

618. Crown. Obv. CAROLVS' D' G' MAG' BRIT FRA' ET HI' Plate xxv. 

REX; m. m. rose. King on horseback to 1., similar to No. 575. Her. SILVER. 
CHRISTO' AVSPICE' REGNO; m. m. as on obv. Oval garnished 
shield, ail -7. Wt. 464-5. 

The Exeter mint appears to have been in active operation from 
1642 to 1645. Its coins, especially the crowns, are well struck and 
of neat execution ; and on this account they can be easily distinguished 
from the Tower pieces having the same mint-mark, a rose. Others have 
for mint-marks a castle or the letters EX, and in the circumference of 
the reverse legend the dates 1644 or 1645. There is in the National 
Collection a half-pound piece, but struck from dies of the crown. The 
following comprise all the other denominations issued by this mint. 

619. Half-crown. 1642. Obv. CAROLVS D G MAG BR - FR - ET 

HI REX; m. m. rose. Three-quarter facing figure of the king on 

horseback to 1., and holding baton in r. hand ; horse prancing amidst arms. 

Ecv. Similar to the preceding ; but single stops between words ; and below, 

on garniture of shield, 1642. M 1-5. Wt. 226 '5. 

This obverse type is an exceptional one ; and on account of its fine 
work, the coin has been considered by some to be a pattern. The 
usual type has the king in profile and no arms, but sometimes ground, 
under the horse, which is either walking or cantering. There are 
several varieties of the reverse type, the shield being oval or oblong, 
i.e. square with the corners rounded and with C R above or at the 
sides. The other dates are 1644 and 1645 and the mint-marks a rose, 
castle, or EX. Another type has the " Exurgat " legend on the 
averse with the " Declaration " and date 1644. 

). Shilling. Obv. CAROLVS D G MA BR FR ET HI REX; 
in. m. rose. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling lace collar and armour; 
behind, XII (= 12d.). Eev. Same as the preceding but no date, M 1'25. 
Wt. 92-0. 

Some are dated 1644 and 1645 at the end of the reverse legend and 
have the oblong shield but without C R, as on the half-crowns. The 
mint-mark is always a rose. Like the half-crown there is a variety 
with the " Declaration" type for reverse. It is dated 1645. 

1. Sixpence. 1644. Same as the last; but VI (= 6d.) for value and date 1644 

in the rev. legend, xt -95. Wt. 45 -0. 

Sixpences are of this type and date only and have always the rose 
for mint-mark. 

Groat. 1644. Same as the Shilling, No. 620; but with obv. legend, 
1644 CAROLVS D G M B F ET H REX, and mark of 
value Illl (= 4d.) ; m. m. rose on both sides, zi '85. Wt. 25'0. 
Groats are of this type, date and mint-mark only. 

623. Threepence. 1644. Same as the Shilling, No. 620, but reading on obv. 
CAROLVS D G MA BR F - E H - RE ; mark of value III 
(= 3d.), and on rev. square shield on cross floury, with date 1644 above; 
m. m. rose on both sides. 2R '75. Wt. 19 '5. 

Of this type and date only. 



- 



IK) KMKLISH COINS. 

IMau-xNv. c>-2-\. Half-Groat. 1644. Obv. CAROLVS D G M B F ET HI - 
REX; in. m. rose. Smut! us the Groat, No. 622, but mark of value II 
(=2d.). Rev. THRO IVSTI FIRMAT 1644; m. m. rose. Large 
rose. A -65. Wt. 18 -0. 

A variety has on the reverse an oval shield garnished, instead of a 
rose, and the same date, 1644. 

G >"> Penny. 1644. Same as the Half-Groat, but reading H for HI, and on 
rev. THRO IVS - FIRMAT 1644; behind bust I (= Id.), and m. in. 
rose on both sides, zi '6. Wt. 7 - 0. 
This is the only type and date of the penny. 

. 

OXFORD MINT. 

Plate xxvi. 020. Three Pound Piece. 1643. Obv. CAROLVS - D : G : MAG : BRIT: 
CJOLK FRAN : ET : HI : REX; m. m. plume. Half-length figure of king to 

1 holding sword and olive-branch, and wearing plain falling collar, and 
armour; behind, plume. Rev. EXVRGAT : DEVS : DISSIPENTVR : 
INIMICI. Across the field, in three lines and on a continuous scroll, 
RELIG : PROT : LEG : ANG : LIBER : PAR; above,- III ( = 3) and 
three plumes ; below, 1 643. M 1 8. Wt. 416 7. 

The mint originally established at Aberystwith was transferred to 
Shrewsbury, and from thence to Oxford, where it was set up in New Inn 
Hall, 3 Jan. 1642 (o.s.) under the direction of Sir William Parkhurst 
and Thomas Bushell. It was in operation till 1646. 

There are several varieties of the three pound piece which was 
struck at Oxford only. On the obverse the bust varies a good deal in 
size, and on the reverse the "Declaration" is in wavy lines, not on a 
scroll, and the initials of the mint, OX or OXON, occur below the date. 
Others are dated 1642 and 1644. The usual mint-mark of Oxford 
is a plume. Much of the gold from which these coins were struck 
is said to have come from the Welsh mines. 

627. Unite. 1642. Similar to the preceding, but mark of value XX (= 20s.) 

behind the bust, no plume ; and the " Declaration " in two wavy lines 
across the field on the reverse ; above, three plumes only ; and below, 1 642. 
A; 1-4. Wt. 137-7. 

There are also several varieties of the unite similar to those of the 
three pound piece. The bust is small or large and reaching to the 
lower edge of the coin, the " Declaration " is on a continuous scroll as 
011 the preceding, or in three straight lines across the field ; and the 
dates are 1642 to 1646, sometimes with the initials OX. 

628. Double-Crown. 1643. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : M : BR : FR : ET 

HI : REX. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling lace collar and 
armour; the bust dividing legend; behind, X (= 10s.). Rev. Similar to 
No. 626, but reading ANGL for ANG : and single pellet after each word 
of legend; above "Declaration," three plumes; below, 1643. AT 1-1. 
Wt.69-5. 
Also dated 1642 and 1644, but of the latter date only one specimen 

is known. Like the unite the double-crown varies slightly in the obv. 

and rev. types ; and the " Declaration " occurs in three straight lines. 

The above are the only denominations in gold struck at Oxford. 

SIUVR. 620. Pound Piece. 1643. Obv. CAROLVS : D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRA : ET : 
HIBER : REX; in. m. plume. King on horseback to 1., as on No. 575; 






CHARLES I. 117 

behind, plume ; below, arms. Eev. : EXVRGAT : DEVS : DISSIPEN- Plate 
TVR ; INIMICI : Across the field and in two lines, RELIG : PROT : suv 
LEG : ANG : LIBER : PAR ; above, XX (= 20s.) and three plumes; 
below, 1 643. .at 2 05. Wt. 1854 0. 

Struck at Oxford and Shrewsbury only. Those of Oxford are dated 
16421644, and vary slightly in the obverse type, more especially in 
the arms under the horse. The " Declaration" on the reverse of the 
pound piece of 1644 is within a compartment, with one plume only above. 
It happened, not infrequently, that old Aberystwith and Shrewsbury 
dies were re-used at Oxford (see below). 

630. Half-Pound Piece. 1642. Similar to the preceding, but the obv. legend reads, 

CAROLVS : D : G : MAGN : BRIT : FRAN : ET : HIB : REX; 

arms below the horse varied ; and on rev. mark of value X (= 10s.) above 

the "Declaration," and 1642 below. M 1*8. Wt. 922-0. 

Struck also at Exeter and Shrewsbury ; but those of Exeter have a 

different reverse (see note No. 618). The Oxford pieces are also dated 

1643 and vary slightly in the details. 

G31. Crown. 1642. Similar to No. 629; but the obv. legend reads, CAROLVS : 

D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET HIBER REX ; plain ground 

under horse ; and on rev. mark of value V and date 1 642 ; no in. m. on 

either side. M 1-7. Wt. 462-0. 

Dated also 1643. The obverses of some of the early crowns of 

Oxford were struck from old Shrewsbury dies. They present slight 

varieties of type. 

632. Pattern Crown, 1644, by Thomas Eawlins. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : 
MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET HIBER REX (stops, lozenges); m. in. 
cross fleury. King on horseback to 1., as on No. 575 ; below, view of the 
city of Oxford with OXON and R (Rawlins). Eev. Same as the pre- 
ceding, but sprig of flowers between each word of outer legend ; the " Declara- 



tion " between two scrolls, and below N . JJ 1 6. Wt. 453 0. 

Thomas Rawlins, who made the dies for this coin, was chief 
engraver to the king ; and when the Tower mint was seized by tho 
Parliament in 1642, he removed to Oxford, where he superintended 
the coinage. The above piece is of extremely fine work, and was 
executed with much care and attention to details. As only eleven 
specimens of this coin are known, and as all are in fine condition, 
it was most probably never put into circulation, and is therefore a 
pattern. It is generally known to collectors as the " Oxford Crown." 

633. Half-Crown. 1643. Similar to No. 629; but obv. legend, CAROLVS : D : 
G : MAG : BRIT : FR : ET : HI : REX; no arms, but plain ground 
under horse and no m. m. ; and on rev. no mark of value, and in. m. four 
pellets, jjl-4. Wt. 231-0. 

Dated also 1642, 1644, 1645 and 1646. There are numerous 
varieties of the half-crown. Some have no ground under the horse, 
and no plume behind the king ; and on the ree. OX beneath the date, 
the " Declaration " more or less abbreviated, &c. (see next coin). 

(134. Half-Crown. 1644. Similar to the preceding; but obv. legend varied, BR. 
and HIB. ; rough ground under horse, and in. m. plume; and on rev. lar^v 
plume between two smaller ones above the " Declaration," and below, 
1644 OX ; no m. m. JK 1-4. Wt. 227'0. 



118 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxvi. C35. Shilling. 1644. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRI : FR : ET HIB : 
SILVER REX : (stops, lozenges); m. m. plume. Bust of king to 1., crowned, 

wearing falling lace collar and armour; behind, XII (= 12d.). Rev. 
EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI; m. m. rosette. Across 
the field and in three lines, RELIG : PROT LEG : ANG : LIBER : PAR 
(stops, lozenges throughout) ; above, three plumes between two rosettes ; 

below, '^Qx 4 .' ail'3. Wt. 92-0. 

Struck from 1642 to 1646 inclusive. Of the shilling there are 
numerous varieties. One of 1644 has the "Declaration" in a com- 
partment, as the pound piece of that year (see note No. 629). Another, 
also of 1644, has a scroll above and below the "Declaration" as on 
No. 632. Whilst the third has the initial R (Rawlins) on the trun- 
cation of the shoulder. The mint-marks are generally a plume, or one 
or more lozenges or pellets (see also next coin). 

636. Shilling. 1644. Similar to the last, but the bust of king to r., in plain collar ; 

behind, MX (sic), and on rev. the "Declaration" varied; lozenge each side 
of plumes, and m. m. lozenge within four pellets. AI 1'35. Wt. 90'6. 
This shilling, and another variety of the same year with a single 
plume over the " Declaration," are the only coins of this reign which 
have the bust of the king turned to the right. They can scarcely be 
considered patterns ; but are more probably forgeries of the time. 

637. Sixpence. 1643. Similar to No. 635, but obv. legend varied BRIT : and HI :, 

plume before bust and mark of value VI (= 6d.) behind ; m. m. open book ; 

and on rev. two pellets after words of legends ; and below the " Declaration," 

1 643 only ; no m. m. M 1 05. Wt. 57 0. 

Dated from 1642 to 1644. The mint-mark open book shows that 
the obverse was struck from an old Aberystwith die. The usual mint- 
mark of the sixpence is a plume. There are several small varieties of 
the sixpence ; those of 1644 have OX below the date. 

638. Groat. 1644. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' M' B' F' ET H' - 

REX; m. m. rose. Bust to 1., crowned, in lace collar and armour, and 
lion's head on shoulder; before, plume; behind, mi (= 4d.). Rev. 
EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI; in. in. lozenge 
within four pellets. Across the field the "Declaration" in three lines, 
RELIG PRO LEG ANG LIBER PA; above, plume between two 

. 1644 
lis; below, . M '^ 



639. Groat. 1645. Similar to the preceding, but the legend commences below, 

and the bust reaches to the edge of the coin ; 110 plume before ; and on 
rev. single plume and scroll ornament above the " Declaration ; " and wavy 
line and 1645 below, xt -95. Wt. 30-5. 

Groats were struck from 1644 to 1646. Others have the "Declara- 
tion" within a compartment, with three plumes above and OX with 
date below, mint-mark lis or book, and R for Rawlins under the bust. 

640. Threepence. 1644. Similar to No. 635, but obv. legend varied, B : F : ET - 

H : REX ; plume before bust, and behind, mark of value III (= 3d.) ; m. m. 
open book ; and on rev. the " Declaration " REL : PRO LEG : AN LIB 
PA ; above, three plumes ; below, 1644. Zi '7. Wt. 24-4. 

Dated also 1646. Varieties have no plume before the bust, and 
lion-headed armour and R (Rawlins) below ; and on the reverse, plume 
and two lis, or three lis above the " Declaration," and mint-mark lis. 
The obverse of the above coin is from an Aberystwith dio. 



CHARLES I. 



119 



641. Half-Groat. 1G44. Similar to the preceding, but no plume before bust, and Plat.- \\\i. 
mark of value II (= 2d.) behind; in. ni. lis; and on rev. three lis above the SU.VKH. 
"Declaration," and ""644 below. M -65. Wt. 15'0. 

Struck in 1644 only. Varieties are without OX on the reverse 
and have for mint-mark a book, and a plume before the bust. 

042. Penny. 1644. Similar to the last, but I (= Id.) behind bust; and on rev. 
the "Declaration" reading RELIG PRO LEG ANG LIBER PAR 
and date 1644 only below. At -5. Wt. 7'0. 

The penny of the " Declaration " type is of this date only and is 
extremely rare. A variety has for reverse type a large plume and around 
IVSTITIA THRON. FIRMAT. It is similar to the Aberystwith penny. 

The above are all the denominations in gold and silver struck at 
Oxford. 

Certain half-crowns of the Tower type, i.e., with oval garnished 
shield, and reading CHRISTO, &c., but with SA under the horse and 
mint-mark a helmet, have been attributed to Salisbury. In general 
fabric they resemble the half-crowns of Weymouth (see No. 648). 






SHREWSBURY MINT. 

643. Pound Piece. 1642. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRA : SIIAKH. 

ET HIB : REX; m. in. five pellets. King on horseback to 1., similar 
to No. 575 ; sword in r. hand ; behind, plume without lower band. Rev . 
EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR - INIMICI; m. m. five pellets. 
Across the field and in two lines the "Declaration," RELIG : PROT : LEG 
ANGL : LIBER : PAR; above, XX (= 20s.) and three plumes, each 
without lower band; below, 1642. A* 2-0. Wt. 1835-0. 
In 1642 Thomas Bushell removed the mint from Aberystwith to 
Shrewsbury ; but on account of scarcity of workmen and engraving 
implements, it was only in operation there for a few months, all the 
coins being dated 1642. It was then transferred to Oxford. The types 
of the coins are very similar to those of Oxford ; but the two series 
are easily identifiable by the form of the plume, that on the Shrews- 
bury pieces having no lower band under the coronet. It was at 
Shrewsbury that the " Declaration " type was first used. Varieties of 
the pound piece have either plain ground or arms under the horse. A 
rare variety has the plume immediately behind the king's head on the 
obverse, and only one above the " Declaration " on the reverse. 

644. Half-Pound Piece. 1642. Similar to the preceding, but reading in obr. 

legend FRAN : and HI :; m. m. plume on obv. only; no plume behind 
king ; arms under horse ; and on rev. mark of value X (= 10s.). M 1-8. 
Wt. 923-0. 

Varieties have no arms or a plain line under the horse, a plume 
behind the king and mint-marks three to nine pellets. 

645. Crown. 1642. Same as No. 643; but obv. legend reading FRAN and Plate xxvi 

HIBER , no 'in. m., and plain line under horse; and on rev. m. m. seven 
pellets and V (= 5s.) for value, and two pellets after each word of 
legend, jjl-7. Wt. 453-0. 
The crown is very rare and there are no important varieties. 



120 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxvii. G4G. Half-Crown. 1642. Similar to No. 643, but m. in. six pellets on obv. ; and 
SIIVFR on rev - the " Declaration" reading ANG : for ANGL : , no m. m. and no 

mark of value. JR 1 4. Wt. 230 0. 

A rare variety has only one plume above the "Declaration " on the 
reverse and dividing the value *2 : : 6' ; other varieties have plain 
ground under the horse, and no plume behind the king. 

647. Shilling. 1642. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRA : ET - 
HI : REX ; m. m. open book. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling lace 
collar and armour ; before, plume without lower band ; behind, X 1 1 ( 12d.). 
Rev. EXVRGAT DEVS DISSIPENTVR INIMICI. Across the field and 
in three lines the "Declaration," RELIG PROT LEG ANG LIBER - 
PAR; above, three plumes without bands ; below, 1642. at 1-3. Wt.86-0. 
A variety is without the plume before the king's bust. No coins of 

smaller denomination than the shilling appear to have been struck at 

Shrewsbury. <It would seem from the above coin that Aberystwith 

dies slightly modified were used at Shrewsbury. 

WEYMOUTH MINT. 

SIIAKK. G48. Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS - D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET - 
HIB : REX; m.m. castle. King on horseback to 1., similar to No. 575 ; 
sword in r. hand; below, grass and W (Weymouth). Rev. CHRISTO : 
AVSPICE : REGNO; m.m. helmet. Square garnished shield crowned. 
jBl-4. Wt. 215-0. 

Weymouth was garrisoned by the king from Sept. 1643 to June 
following, during which time the coins attributed to that place were 
struck. The mint-marks of Weymouth are a castle, a lion passant, 
and a helmet, the two first forming part of the arms of that place. 
Varieties of the half-crown have no grass under the horse and are 
without the mint-letter, and on the reverse the shield is oval, sometimes 
garnished with a lion's skin and placed between 'C R. Another rare 
variety has for reverse type the "Declaration" and dates 1643 and 
1644. Hitherto only half-crowns have been attributed to Weymouth, 
but as there are shillings and sixpences with similar mint-marks and 
reverse type, and of the same fabric as the above, it is probable that 
pieces of those denominations were also struck there. 

WORCESTER MINT. 

SILVER. 649. Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D : G : MAG : BRIT : FRAN : ET - 
HIB : REX ; m. m. a pear. King on horseback to 1., similar to No. 575; 
sword in r. hand. Rev. CHRISTO : AVSPICE : REGNO; tn. m. three 
pears. Oval shield garnished with lis, &c. ; below the garniture, the letters 
H C. zil-4. Wt. 224-5. 

Coins were probably struck at Worcester during its defence in 
1646. Three pears are the arms of the city; but the letters H C 
below the shield have not been explained. They are no doubt the initials 
of some one responsible for the issue of the coinage. No varieties of 
the half-crown are known. Shillings with mint-mark, a pear, and of 
the usual Tower type, appear also to have been struck at Worcester. 
These are the only denominations which can be attributed to this mint. 



CHAELES I. 121 

YORK MINT. 

050. Half-Crown. Obv. ' CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT FRA ET Plate xxvii 
HIBA REX; m. m, lion passant guardant. King on horseback to 1., 
similar to No. 575; sword in r. hand; below, EBOR. Rev. CHRISTO 
AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. as onobv. Oval shield, garnished with lion's 
skin and crowned. M 1 4. Wt. 208 0. 

The York mint appears to have been established about 1629, and 
probably remained in operation till the city surrendered to the 
Parliament in 1644. The dies for the early coins were executed from 
models made by Nicolas Briot. They are therefore not of the nature 
of money of necessity such as was struck at Chester, Wey mouth, &c. 
Varieties of the half-crown are without the mint name, and with and 
without ground under the horse on the obverse ; and on the reverse the 
shield is square, and between the initials C R, crowned or uncrowned, 
or oval and garnished, and sometimes with C R crowned at sides. 
Some have floral ornaments between the words of the legend on the 
reverse. The mint-mark is always a lion passant guardant. 

G51. Shilling. Obv. CAROLVS D G . MAG - BRI - FRA ET HI - 
REX ; in. m. lion passant guardant. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in lace 
collar and armour; behind, XII ( = 12d.). Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE 
REGNO ; m. m. as on obv. Square shield on cross fleury ; above, EBOR. 
jRl-2. Wt. 81-5. 
Varieties have on the reverse an oval shield, garnished sometimes 

with the lion's skin, and with and without crown, and EBOR below. 

G52. Sixpence. Similar to the preceding, but reading BRIT FRAN ET HIB -, 

and VI ( = 6d.) behind bust; and on rev. oval garnished shield, crowned, 

between C R, both crowned; m. m. on both sides, lion passant guardant; 

stops throughout, lozenges. AI '9. Wt. 44 - G. 

There is only one variety of the sixpence. It is without the initials 

at the sides of the shield. 



. 







3. Threepence. Similar to the Shilling, No. 651; but reading MA BR 
FR , and behind bust, III ( = 3d.) ; same m. in. ai-75. Wt. 21-0. 

This is the only type of the threepence. The above are the only 
denominations struck at York. 

Besides the preceding coins of the local mints there are a large 
number of silver coins, half-crowns, shillings, &c., mostly of coarse fabric, 
which cannot be assigned to any one in particular ; but similarity of 
type and work, however, often indicates the locality of their issue. 



54. Farthing. Obv. CARO' D' G' MAG' BRI; m. m. rose. Two Plate xxviii. 
sceptres in saltire through a crown. Rev. FRA' ET HIB' REX. COPPEK. 
Crowned harp. JB ?. Wt. 8'5. 
At the accession of Charles I, the currency of farthing tokens was 
again declared lawful, and on July 11, 1626, a patent to strike these 
pieces was granted for seventeen years to the Duchess of Richmond 
and Sir Francis Crane. The first pieces resembled those of James I, 
but in 1635, on account of the numerous forgeries in circulation, the 
type was changed to the following one. These are called rose or royal 
farthings, and were issued under a patent granted to Henry, Lord 



122 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxviii. Maltravers and Sir Francis Crane. The mint-marks in both series are 
COPPER, numerous. 

G55. Farthing. Obv. CAROLV D G MA BRI; m. m. rose. Sceptres 
and crown as on the preceding. Rev. FRA' ET HI' REX; m. m. 
mullet. Crowned rose. JE -55. Wt. 14 -5. 
These are sometimes composed of two metals, copper with a plug of 

brass, to prevent counterfeits. Both issues were ordered to be current 

in Ireland. 

Siege Pieces. 

The coins struck during the Civil War by the adherents of the king, 
which are known as Siege Pieces, having been issued in towns and 
castles in a state of siege, are of Beeston Castle, Carlisle, Colchester, 
Newark, Pontefract and Scarborough. Some are well struck on 
lozenge-shaped or octagonal flans, but many are mere pieces of metal 
of irregular forms cut from plate and stamped or engraved with a 
device. They are chiefly in silver, only a few specimens being known 
in gold and none in copper. The gold are of Colchester and 
Pontefract. 

BEESTON CASTLE. 

SILVER. 656. Two Shillings. A piece of plate nearly square, having a representation on 
one side of a castle gateway stamped twice ; below, ?. . Rev. Incuse of 
obverse, a. 1-55. Wt. 208-0. 

The gateway represented on this and the following pieces is supposed 
to be that of Beeston Castle in Cheshire ; though some have thought 
it to be that of Lathom House, in Derbyshire. The former place 
surrendered after a protracted siege in 1645 ; the latter in 1647, 
after a defence of two years by the Countess of Derby against 
Generals Fairfax and Egerton. 

657. Sixteen-Pence. An oblong irregularly shaped piece with a gateway stamped 

once only upon it; below, Rev. Incuse of obverse. 2R 1*8. 

Wt. 131-0. 
There is a similar piece stamped with ? ** ; i.e. eighteen-pence. 

658. Fourteen-Pence. Same as the preceding, but oblong; below, ?. Ml- 3. 

Wt. 99-0. 

659. Thirteen-Pence. Similar to No. 657, but square; below, ? ". Jtl'15. 

Wt. 104-0. 
The weights of many of the pieces are very irregular. 

660. Shilling. Similar to No. 657, but oblong ; below, ?. x, 1-25. Wt. 93-0. 
Some have the letter S only under the gateway. 

661. Eleven-Pence. Similar to No. 657, but pyramid-shaped ; below, D . . Ml '15. 

Wt.80-0. 



CHARLES I. 123 

662. Ten-Pence. Similar to No. 657, but oblong ; below, . M 1-4. Wt. 79 '0. Plate xxviii 

663. Seven-Pence. Similar to No. 657, but oblong ; below, D ... JK '95. Wt. 53-0. 
There is also a sixpence of same type and shape as the sevenpence ; 

but marked ^. The sixpence (Ruding, Suppl. PC. ii., pi. xvi. 23) 
and the fourpence with the castle belong to Scarborough (see No. 679)- 



CARLISLE. 
664. Three Shillings, 1645, circular. Obv. Large crown above C j ( ' R g ; anemone SILVER. 

on each side of C R. Rev. Across the field OBS ' CARL - above and 

1645 
below, anemone, m 1-3. Wt. 240-0. 

The siege of Carlisle lasted from Oct. 1644 to June 1645 ; but all 
the coins are of the latter date. They consist of the three shillings, 
half-crown, and shilling. 

A variety has the inscription on the reverse in three lines as 
on the next coin. Both the three shillings and shillings are also 
octagonal in shape. 

The half-crown is similar to the three shillings, but it has II . VI 
for mark of value on the obverse. 

665. Shilling, 1645, circular. Obv. Large crown above *' C V ',, R '" Rev. : OBS : 

/\ 1 1 

'. CARL .' 1645 in three lines; above and below, anemone. & 1*2. 
Wt. 80-0. 

A variety has the reverse type as the preceding, i.e. the legend in 
two lines. 



COLCHESTER. 



Ten Shillings. 1648. A circular piece stamped on one side with the view of GOLI>. 
the gateway of Colchester Castle with flag in centre; at the sides, C R, 

both crowned; below, OBS COL 16 S 48 in two lines; the reverse 



. 

shows the obverse type in incuse. A/ 1*3. Wt. 65 '9. 

Colchester was besieged by Fairfax, and surrendered after a siege of 
eleven weeks in Aug. 1648. The above piece is unique. 

667. Shilling. A circular piece of metal stamped on one side with tbe represen- SILVEK. 
tation of a castle witb five towers of different beigbts in incuse; around, 
also in incuse, is inscribed, Carolj Fortuna resurgam ; the reverse 
shows traces of the obverse type, zt 1 5. Wt. 123 5. 

Varieties of this coin are oblong or octagonal. There exist recent 
restrikes of these pieces, some round, others octagonal, from the 
original dies, which came into the possession of Dr. Gifford, by whom 
they were subsequently deposited in the public library at Bristol. 
These restrikes have the reverses quite plain. 

A similar piece to the above, but octagonal in form and weighing 
only 66 grs., has been thought to be a ninepeiice. 



124 



ENGLISH COINS. 



NEWARK. 

Plate xxviii. GG8-671. Half-Crown, 1645, lozcngc-sliapcd. Obr. Largo crown between C R ; 
sinn; below, XXX; pearl border. Rev. OBS : NEWARK 1645 in three lines; 

pearl border. JR 1 4. Wt. 220 5. 

The Shilling, Ninepence, and Sixpence (Nos. 669-671) are of pre- 
cisely the same type and date; but have the marks of value, XII, IX 
and VI respectively. With the exception of the sixpence, which is 
dated 1646 only, all the other pieces are of 1645 and 1646. 
Varieties of the shilling and ninepeiice of 1645 read NEWARKE. 

During the Civil War, Newark sustained several sieges. It was 
finally surrendered to the Scottish army by order of Charles, 8 May, 
1646. 

PONTEFRACT. 

SILVKK. G72. Shilling, 1648, lozenge-shaped. Obv. Large crown above C R ; around, 
DVM SPIRO SPERO. Rev. View of castle; on 1., OBS; on r., XII 
between P C ; below, 1648. JK 1-4. Wt. 75-4. 

Pontefract Castle was besieged several times during the Civil War 
from 1644 to 1648 ; but no coins were struck till 1648, when it was 
attacked by Cromwell himself and defended by Col. Morrice. As 
the castle did not surrender until after the death of Charles I, the 
later pieces bear the name of Charles II (see below Nos. 674 and 675). 

The weights of these shillings vary considerably. This particular 
type is always struck on a lozenge-shaped piece of metal. 

673. Shilling. 1648. Similar to the preceding, but circular in form and having 
on the rev., on 1. of castle, OBS ; above, P C ; and on r., hand holding 
sword ; below, 1 648. jjl-1. Wt. 86-0. 

This type also occurs on lozenze-shaped and octagonal flans. One piece 
lozenge-shaped weighing 152 grs. is supposed to be for two shillings. 



After Death of Charles I. 

<!<>M>. 674. Twenty Shilling Piece, 1648, octagonal. Obv. Large crown above HANG : 
DEVS : DEDIT '648 in three lines; around, CAROL : II : D : G : 
MAG : B : F : ET : H : REX. Rev. View of castle with flag on central 
tower; on 1., OBS; above, P C ; 011 r., mouth of cannon; around, 
POST : MORTEM : PATRIS : PRO : FILIO. v 1-2. Wt. 94-1. 
As there is a shilling of precisely the same type, this piece may be 
only a proof. On the other hand, it is equally probable that it was 
intended to pass current for twenty shillings. It is unique. 

SII.VKI:. 675. Shilling, 1648, octagonal. Obv. Same as No. 672. Rev. View of castle as 
on the preceding ; but around, C A ROLVS : SECVNDVS : 1648. a: 1-ii. 
Wt. 84-0. 

The shillings of this later issue are always octagonal inform. There 
is also a gold piece, twenty shillings, of precisely the same type as 
this shilling. It weighs 138^ grs., and is unique like that of the 
other type. 



CHARLES I. 125 

SCARBOROUGH. 

G7G. Half-Crown. 1G45. An oblong thin piece of metal doubled, the corners Plate xxviii. 
turned over; on the obv. is stamped a castle with five towers, and below SILVER. 
the mark of value ^ yj ; and 011 the rev. is engraved in three lines, OBS 
Scarborough 1645. Ail-G. Wt. 217-7. 
After a siege of over twelve months, Scarborough surrendered in 

1645. It was again besieged in 1648, but no coins appear to have 
been issued during the second siege. A five shilling piece with similar 
obverse type, but mark of value y , and struck on a square piece of 

plate, is figured in Rudiny, PL xxix. 3. It was in the Montagu 
Collection. 

G77. Eighteen-Pence. A thin square-shaped piece of metal, the corners clipped, 
stamped on one side only with view of castle; below, s . ??.. JR 1'55. 
Wt. 142-0. 

G78. Shilling. Same as the preceding, but the corners are not clipped ; and 
below castle, *. *i 1-35. Wt. 86-0. 

679. Fourpence. Similar to No. 677, but below castle, .^. js 85. Pierced. 

Besides the above there were issued the two shillings marked f. 
the one shilling-and-ninepence marked ^ ( ^ ; the fifteen-pence marked 
? ,?l ; and the sixpence marked y^. They are of various shapes, oblong, 
square, hexagonal, &c. There is in the National Collection an uncer- 
tain piece, shilling, stamped on one side with C R in a circle of dots 

and x (= 12d.). 

> Commonwealth. 1649-1660. 

COINAGE. Gold. Twenty Shillings or Broad, Ten Shillings or Half- 
Broad, and Five Shillings. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Six- 
pence, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. In 1642 the Parliament seized the Tower mint, but 
continued to strike coins in the king's name and of the royal types till 

1646. When the monarchy and the House of Peers were abolished 
in 1649, the Parliament ordered that money in gold and silver 
should be coined with their own style and authority, that like im- 
presses and inscriptions should be made on all the coins of both 
metals, and that the latter should be in the English tongue. This 
order was, however, not quite strictly adhered to, as the half-groats, 
penny, and halfpenny bear 110 legend, and the last piece has for type 
a single shield only on each side. All the coins, with the exception of 
the halfpenny, bear their marks of value. The types as adopted in. 
1649 underwent no change during the period of the Commonwealth. 

The weights and standard of metal in gold and silver were the same 
as those of the coins of Charles I struck at the Tower mint. The 
copper currency of the period of the Commonwealth consisted of 
tradesmen's halfpenny and farthing tokens (see No. 690). 



126 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxix. G80. Twenty Shillings. 1649. Obv. THE - COMMONWEALTH OF - 
ENGLAND; m. m. sun. Shield, bearing the cross of St. George, within 
wreath of palm and laurel. Rev. GOD - WITH VS - 1649. Two 
conjoined shields ; one bearing the cross of St. George, the other the Irish 
harp; above XX (= 20s.). AT 1-4. Wt. 139-1. 

Dates 16491657, and 1660. The mint-mark, which occurs on the 
obverse only, is always a sun till 1657, after which date it was changed 
to an anchor (see No. 682). No gold coins are known of 1659. 

G81. Ten Shillings. 1651. Same as the preceding, but date 1651, and mark of 

value X (=10s.). J* I'l. Wt. 69'3. 
Dates 1649-1654, and 1660. 

682. Five Shillings. 1660. Same as the Twenty Shillings, No. 680, but m. m. 

anchor, date 1660, and mark of value - V (= 5s.). AT -7. Wt. 35-9. 
Dates 1649-1654, 1657, 1658, and 1660. 

SILVER. 683 Crown. 1652. Same as the Twenty Shillings, No. 680, but date 1652, and 

mark of value V (= 5s.). JR 1-8. Wt. 460-7. 

Dates 1649, 1651-1654, and 1656. There are no silver coins known 
of 1650, those of 1659 are doubtful, and those of 1657, 1658 and 1660 
are very rare. 

684. Half-Crown. 1651. Same, but date 1651, and mark of value II VI - 

(=2s. 6d.). jRl-4. Wt. 235-0. 
Dates 1649,1651-1656, 1658, 1659 (?), and 1660. 

685. Shilling. 1651. Same as the preceding, but mark of value XII (= 12d.), 

jRl-25. Wt. 92-5. 
Dates 1649, 1651-1658, and 1660. 

686. Sixpence. 1651. Same, but mark of value VI (= 6d.). ju 1-05. Wt. 44-0. 
Dates 1649 and 1651-1660. That of 1659 is doubtful. 

687. Half-Groat. Similar to No. 680, but no legends on either side ; no mint- 

mark; and mark of value II (= 2d.) above shields on rev. M -7. 
Wt. 15-0. 
The half-groat, penny, and halfpenny are undated. 

688. Penny. Similar to the Half-Groat, but mark of value I (= Id.), zi -6. 

Wt. 6-0. 

689. Halfpenny. Obv. Shield with cross of St. George. Rev. Shield with Irish 

harp. 2R -4. Wt. 3-5. 

CMIM-KK. 690. Farthing Token of Rochester. 1651. Obr. & ALICE COBHAM. Shield 
with the arms of the Cobham family; on a chevron three crescents. Rev. 
ts IN ROCHESTER 1651. Crest of the Cobham family a hind's 
head issuing from a mural crown. JE 6. 

During the Commonwealth there was no official copper currency, 
though patterns for farthings were prepared. Its place was supplied 
by a large issue throughout the country of halfpenny and farthing 
tradesmen's tokens, which bear the name of the persons by whom they 
were issued, and their place of residence. The issue of these tokens 
extended from 1648 to 1679. 



OLIVEB CROMWELL. 127 

Oliver Cromwell. 1653-1658. 

COINAGE. Gold. Fifty Shillings, Broad or Twenty Shillings, and Plate xxix. 
Half-Broad or Ten Shillings. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, and 
Sixpence. Copper. Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Two : 1st issue (1656). Gold. Fifty Shillings, Broad 
or Twenty Shillings, and Half-Broad or Ten Shillings. Silver. Half- 
Crown. 2nd issue (1658). Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, and. 
Sixpence. The Copper coins are not dated, but belong to the later 
period. 

The gold coins were of crown gold, i.e. 22 carats fine, and the 
silver of 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine to 18 dwts. alloy, as the Commonwealth 
coinage. Their weights were at 140^ grs. to the broad and 464^ grs. 
to the crown. 

These coins were struck by order of Cromwell, and with the 
consent of the Council. The dies were made by Thomas Simon, the 
distinguished engraver, and the striking of the coins was entrusted to 
Peter Blondeau, who made use of his new invention of the mill and 
screw. In consequence they are very sharply and well struck, though 
occasionally found in a worn state. These coins do not appear to have 
been in circulation, as no mention is made of them in the trial of the 
pix in 1657, nor in the proclamation of 1661, which called in the coins 
of the Commonwealth. Also the Commonwealth coins continued to be 
struck during the years 1656 and 1658, the dates which occur on 
Cromwell's coins. This money must therefore be considered to be 
patterns. 

691. Broad. 1656. Obv. OLIVAR D G RP ANG SCO - ET HIB GOLD. 

&c PRO. Head of Cromwell to r., laureate. Rev. PAX QV/ERITVR - 
BELLO 1656. Crowned shield with arms, viz.: 1 and 4, cross of St. 
George ; 2, cross of St. Andrew ; 3, Irish harp ; with an inescutcheon of 
pretence bearing the Protector's paternal arms, a lion rampant ; edge 
milled. AT! "15. Wt. 140-1. 

Struck in 1656 only. The fifty shilling piece (Wt. 351J grs.) was 
struck from the same dies as the broad ; but it has the edge 
inscribed, * PROTECTOR L1TERIS LITERXE . NVMMIS . CORONA - 
IT . SALVS. 

692. Half-Broad. 1656. Same as the preceding ; but the obv. legend reads, 

OLIVAR D G RP ANG SCO - HIB &c PRO. AT -9. 

Wt. 70-6. 

The reverse die for this coin, which is now at the Mint, is dated 
1658, but no struck specimens of that date are known. There are 
imitations of the half -broad, dated 1656 and 1658, made by John 
Sigismund Tanner, engraver to the mint 17411775, which may be 
easily distinguished by the omission of the &c. in the obverse legend. 

693. Crown. 1658. Same type and legends as the Half-Broad ; but on the obverse SILVKK. 

the bust of Cromwell is laureate and draped after the Roman style, date 
1658: and the edge inscribed, ts HAS NISI PERITVRVS MIHI 
A DIM AT NEMO. JRl'55. Wt.-464'2. 

Of this date only. Most of the crowns have a flaw on the bust, the 
obverse die having cracked after a few specimens were struck. It 



128 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxix. was also struck in gold, but only two examples are known. There are 

SILVER, two varieties or imitations of this piece, one made by Tanner (see 

No. 692), the other in Holland and commonly called " the Dutch Crown." 

They vary from Simon's crown in the modelling of the bust and in the 

shape of the letters. 

Date xxx. 694. Half-Crown. 1658. Same as the Broad No. 691, but bust and edge as on 

the preceding ; date 1 658. JR 1 3. Wt. 229-1. 

Struck also in 1656. These differ from the 1658 pieces in reading 
H I for H I B. There are no imitations of this coin. 

695. Shilling. 1658. Same as the Crown, No. 693, but edge milled. JR 1-1. 

Wt. 86-6. 

Of this date only. There is an imitation by Tanner which can be 
easily distinguished by the &c after HIB. being omitted. A similar 
coin to the shilling, but differing slightly in the obv. legend, somewhat 
larger in size, and weighing from 92 to 160 grs., has been attributed to 
Simon, and supposed to have been intended for a two shilling piece. 
There are imitations of this coin by Tanner, which vary only slightly 
in the shape of the letters. 

696. Sixpence. 1658. Same as the preceding. JR -85. Wt. 44-0. 

Of this date only. Tanner made copies of this piece also, and 
being somewhat larger in size they have wrongly been considered as 
niiiepences. 

TOPPER. 697. Farthing. Obv. OLIVAR PRO ENG SC IRL. Bust of Cromwell 
to 1., laureate and draped. Rev. CHARITIE AND - CHANGE. 
Crowned shield as on No. 691. JE "85. 

There are three types of the farthing. The others have for reverse 
types, three columns united by a cord or a ship. 

Charles II. 1660-1685. 

COINAGE. Hammered. Gold. Broad or Twenty Shillings, Half-Broad 
or Ten Shillings, and Crown or Five Shillings. Silver. Half-Crown, 
Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Milled. 
Gild. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and Half-Guinea. Silcer. 
Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy Groat, Threepence, 
Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. Halfpenny and Farthing. Tin. 
Farthing, 

ISSUES. The gold and silver coins of this reign are of two kinds or 
classes, viz., the hammered money struck after the old fashion by the 
hammer, and the milled money struck by the new process of the mill 
and screw. Their issues and denominations were : HAMMERED. 
Gold. Two: 1st issue (1660), Broad, Half-Broad, and Five Shillings, 
without marks of value ; 2nd issue (1661), same denominations, but with 
marks of value. Silver. Three : 1st issue (1660), Half-Crown, Shilling, 
Sixpence, Half-Groat, and Penny, without marks of value or inner 
circle; 2nd issue (1661), same denominations, with marks of value and 
no inner circle; 3rd issue (1661-1662), same denominations and also 



CO 

Si 

mi 



CHAELES II. 129 

Groat and Threepence, with marks of value and inner circle. MILLED. Plate xxx. 
Gold. One : (1662-1684), Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and 
Half-Guinea. Silver. One : (1662-1684), Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, 
Sixpence, and Maundy Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. 
The Copper coins, Halfpenny and Farthing, were first issued in 1672, 
and the Tin coins, Farthings only, in 1684. 

WEIGHT. The weight of the hammered gold coins was at the rate of 
140f grs. to the broad and of the milled money at 13 Iff grs. to the 
guinea till 1670, when it was reduced to 129ff grs. The current 
value of the guinea was 20s. The silver coins throughout the reign 
were at 7|f grs. to the penny, as since the reign of James I. The 
copper coins were struck at the rate of 2Qd. to the pound avoirdupois, 
and those of tin were ordered to be made of the same weight. 

FINENESS. The gold money was 22 cts. fine to 2 cts. of alloy, known 
as crown gold, and that of silver 11 oz. 2 dwts. fine to 18 dwts. of 
alloy. This standard in both metals has remained unchanged to the 
present day. The copper money was struck from pure Swedish metal. 



Hammered Money (1660-1662). 

698. Broad. 1st issue. Obv. CAROLVS II D G MAG BRIT FRAN . GOLD. 
ET H1B REX ; m. m. crown. Bust of king to 1., laureate, hair long 
in armour and mantle. Eev. FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA.' 
Oval shield crowned and garnished ; at sides, C R. A7 1-35. Wt. 140-7. 
On his restoration Charles II adopted his father's types for his 
coins. All the dies for the hammered money were made by Thomas 
~ .mon, who had been chief engraver to the mint during the Common- 
wealth. The mint-mark on the gold and silver coins is a crown. They 
are the last pieces upon which any mint-mark occurs. 



699 



. Broad. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but mark of value XX (= 20s.) 

behind bust. AT 1-25. Wt. 139-7. 
The order for stamping the values on the gold and silver coins was 
dated 28 Nov., 1661. 

700. Half-Broad. 1st issite. Same as the Broad, No. 698, but of smaller size. 

r AT 1-1. Wt. 69-9. 
01. Half-Broad. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but behind bust X (= 10s.). 
A/l-0. Wt. 70-7. 

702. Crown. 1st issue. Same as the Broad, No. 698; but reading FR. for 

FRAN., and smaller in size. AT -75. Wt. 35-0. 

703. Crown. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding; but behind bust V (= 5s.). 

A7 -75. Wt. 35-0. 

These crowns only differ from each other in the abbreviations of the 
words of the obverse legend. 

704. Half-Crown. Is* issue. Obv. CAROLVS II D G MAG BRIT SILVER. 

FRAN ET HIB REX; m. m. crown. Bust of king to 1., crowned, 
hair long, in lace collar and armour. Eev. CHRISTO AVSPICE 
REGNO. Square shield on cross fleury. ail-4. Wt. 231-5. 
For varieties of the three issues of silver coins see under coinage abovo. 

K 



130 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxx. 705. Half-Crown. 3rd issue. Same as the preceding, but obv. legend reading 
SILVER BR : FR :, mark of value XXX (= 30d.) behind bust, inner circle on both 

sides, and in. m. crown on rev. as well as on obv. JR 1'4. Wt. 231*0. 

This third coinage extended from January 1661-2 to November 
1662, when a warrant was issued for coining by the mill. 

706. Shilling. 1st issue. Same as the Half-Crown, No. 704, but reading FR. 

for FRAN. JR 1-25. Wt. 92-0. 

707. Shilling. 3rd issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 705 ; but legend on 

obv. as the last, and mark of value XII (= 12d.). JR 1-25. Wt. 87-5. 

708. Sixpence. 1st issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 704. JR 1-05. 

Wt. 46-5. 

709. Sixpence. 3rd issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 705, but obv. legend 

reading BRI FRA -, and mark of value VI (= 6d.). JR 1-05. Wt. 47'0. 

710. Groat. 3rd issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 705, but mark of 

value III I (=4d.). JR -95. Wt. 30'5. 

Groats and threepences of the first and second issues are not known. 

711. Threepence. 3rd issue. Same as the preceding, but obv. legend reading, 

CAROLVS II D G M BR FR - ET HI REX, and mark of 
value III (= 3d.), JR '75. Wt. 23-5. 

712. Half-Groat. 1st issue. Similar to the Shilling, No. 706. M -1. Wt. 16 -0. 

713. Half-Groat. 3rd issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 705; but obv. 

legend reading, CAROLVS II D : G : MAG : BRI : FRA : ET : HIB : 
REX, and mark of value II (= 2d.). JR -1. Wt. 15-0. 

714. Penny. 1st issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 704, but obv. legend 

reading, CAROLVS II D G - M BR F ET HI REX, and no 
mint-mark. JR '55. Wt. 8'0. 

715. Penny. 3rd issue. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 705, but obv. legend 

reading, CAROLVS II D : G : M : B : F : ET : HIB : REX, and 
mark of value I (= Id.). JR -6. Wt. 7'2. 

The marks of value on the current coins in gold and silver cease 
fit? with this series, and have only been revived on a few denominations 
* * struck since 1831. 

^ 'J 

^ 716-719. Maundy Money. Groat. Obv. CAROLVS .II-D-G-M-B-F- 

Jf c & H - REX. Bust of king to 1., crowned, &c., as on No. 704; but it 

descends to the edge of the coin, and divides the legend, which conmienpes 
below on the 1. ; behind bust, III! (= 4d.). Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE 
REGNO; m. m. crown. Square shield on cross fleury. JR '75. Wt. 30'7. 

The Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny (Nos. 717-719) are all of 
the same type as the groat, but vary in size and marks of value, 
III, II, and I. 

This is the first issue of the Maundy money. The coins are of 
much neater work than the previous ones of the same denominations 
and are the last specimens of the hammered money. They were 
struck to supply the means of conforming to an ancient custom 
of distributing the royal bounty on Maundy, or Holy Thursday, a 
custom which exists to the present clay. They were not issued for 
currency. 



CHAELES II. 131 

Milled Money (1662-1684). 

720. Five Guineas. 1668. Obv. CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust of Plate xxxi. 
king to r., laureate, hair long, no drapery; below, elephant. Rev. MAG GOLD 
BR FRA ET HIB REX 1668. Pour shields, England, Scotland, 
France and Ireland, each crowned, arranged in form of cross ; in centre, four 
C's interlinked, from which issue four sceptres; on edge, <%* DECVS 
ET TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI VICESIMO. a 1-45. 
Wt. 644-0. 

The dates of the five guineas are 1668-1673 and 1675-1684. The 
elephant, or the elephant with a castle on its back, on the obverse is 
the symbol of the African Company, whose charter gave them the 
privilege of having coins struck in gold and silver at the mint from 
metal imported by them. The gold came from Guinea, hence the 
name given to the 20s. piece. Before 1675 the elephant is without 
the castle. The regnal year of Charles II dates from the death of 
Charles I, and not being concurrent with the Christian era, different 
regnal years sometimes occur on coins of the same date. The in- 
scription on the edge was suggested by Evelyn, he having seen it on a 
vignette in Card. Richelieu's Greek Testament. It was placed on the 
coins to prevent clipping. The dies for the milled money in all metals 
were made by Jan Roettier, a native of Antwerp, who succeeded 
Thomas Simon as chief engraver to the mint (see No. 726), and the 
striking of the coins was entrusted to Peter Blondeau, who used the 
mill and screw for this purpose. 

721-723. Two Guineas. 1683. Similar to the preceding, but no elephant under 
the bust, and date 1 683 ; edge milled. A/ 1 25. Wt. 257 8. 

Dates 1664, 1675-1679, and 1681-1684. 

The Guinea,* 1663, wt. 130-1 (No. 722), and the Half-Guinea, 1669, 

. 64 '9 (No. 723), are of precisely the same type as the two guineas. 
'ates, guinea, 1663-1668, and 1670-1684; half-guinea, 1669, 1670, 
672, and 1675-1684. The bust of the king on the gold coins is 

ried nearly throughout the reign, in having the truncation or lower 

rt either pointed or rounded. The hair is also varied. 

724. Crown. 1662. Obv. CAROLVS II DEI GRA. Bust of king to r., SILVER. 
laureate, draped, hair long; below, rose. Eev. MAG BR FRA ET 
HIB REX 1662. Four shields, each crowned, arranged in form of 
cross, viz. : 1 and 3, England and France quarterly ; 2, Scotland ; and 3, 
Ireland; in each angle two C's interlinked; in centre, Star of the Garter; 
on edge, ^ DECVS ET TVTAMEN. JR 1-6. Wt. 463-0. 

Dates 1662-1684. The rose under the bust denotes that the coin 
was struck from silver supplied from the mines in the West of Eng- 
land. It only occurs on the crowns of 1662. Other crowns of 1662 
are without the rose under the bust, read GRATIA for GRA, and have the 
date also on the edge. Crowns were the only silver coins struck in 1 662. 




* As noted above (p. 129), the weight of the guinea till 1670 was 131ff grs. ; but 
from that date 129jj$ grs. In the case of the 'milled silver the proportion was at 
7|f grs. to the penny or 92f grs. to the shilling throughout the reign. As no 
change took place in the weights of the coins in either metal till the great 
re-coinage of 1816-1817, they will not be repeated ; any variation would solely 
depend 011 the state of preservation of the individual specimen. 

K 2 



132 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxi. 725. Crown. 1663. Same as the preceding, but reading on the obv. GRATIA, 
SILVER. an( i no rose under the bust ; and on the rev. the shields are arranged ; 1, 

England; 2, Scotland; 3, France; and 4, Ireland ; date 1663; on edge, 
^ DECVS ET TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI XV >f. jKl'55. 

After the 18th year the date on the edge is given in full (ANNO 
REGNI DECIMO NONO) and not in Roman numerals. The elephant 
or elephant and castle also occurs under the bust ; the former being only 
found on crowns, half-crowns and shillings of 1666, the latter on similar 
pieces of 1681. This new arrangement of the arms on the shields was 
adopted from this date on all the silver coins of this reign. 

726. The Petition Crown. 1663. By Thomas Simon. Obv. Similar to No. 724, but 

the hair more flowing ; the bust longer and more carefully modelled ; and 
below the signature SIMON. Rev. Similar to the preceding, but in the 
centre, St. George and the Dragon within the Garter; on edge, THOMAS 
SIMON MOST HVMBLY PRAYS YOVR MAJESTY TO 
COMPARE - THIS . HIS - TRYALL - PIECE - WITH THE - 
DVTCH AND IF MORE TRVLY . DRAWN & EMBOSSED 
MORE GRACE FVLLY . ORDER'D AND MORE ACCV- 
RATELY ENGRAVEN - TO RELIEVE HIM; two C's interlinked, 
crowned, and within two palm-branches at beginning of inscription. 
Ml -55. Wt. 529-2. 

At the Restoration Thomas Simon, who had held the post of 
sole engraver to the Mint during the Commonwealth, was con- 
tinued in office; but in 1662 his appointment was limited to that 
of engraver of seals, and Jan Roettier, a native of Antwerp, 
was made sole engraver of dies. Enraged at being supplanted 
in this manner, Simon endeavoured to vindicate his cause by an 
appeal to the king, in the form of the above coin, which was modelled 
after Roettier's own coin, but which it far surpasses in general 
execution and beauty of engraving. The appeal was unsuccessful. 
The portrait of the king, both on Roettier's and Simon's coins, was 
copied from a drawing made by Samuel Cooper, the king's limner. 

727. Half-Crown. 1663. Same type as the Crown, No. 725, and same legends. 

a 1-3. Wt. 231-5. 

Dates 1663-1684, except 1665 and 1667. Varieties have the elephant 
or elephant and castle under the bust (see No. 728), or the plume 
(see No. 730). The same rule as to the legend on the edge of the 
crown applies also to the half-crown (see No. 728). 

728. Half-Crown. 1666. Same, but elephant under the bust and date on edge, 

ANNO REGNI XVIII 2B1-25. 

729. Shilling. Same as the Crown, No. 725; but the edge is milled, a I'O. 

Wt. 91-0. 

Dates 1663-1684, except 1664, 1665, 1667 and 1682. Some have 
the elephant or elephant and castle under the bust, or the plume on 
obv. or rev. or on both sides (see next piece). 

730. Shilling. 1673. Same, but plume under bust and in centre of reverse. 

at 1-0. 

The plume indicates that the silver of which the coin was struck 
came from the Welsh mines. 



CHAELES II. 133 

731. Sixpence. 1677. Same as the Crown, No. 725 ; but edge milled. 2R -85. Plate xxxi. 

Wt. 45-4. SILVER . 

Dates 1674-1684. There are no varieties of the sixpence except in 
the date ; the elephant and plume do not occur on any of them. 

732. Maundy Money. Groat. 1670. Same obv. type and legends as 011 the 

Crown, No. 725 ; but on the rev. four C's interlinked in form of cross 
and surmounted by crown ; in the angles, rose, thistle, lis, and harp ; date 
1670; edge plain. 2R -7. Wt. 32-4. 
The milled Maundy money was first struck in 1670, and occurs of 

each year to 1684 (see note No. 716). The half -groat however occurs 

of 1668. 

733. Threepence. 1670. Same as the Groat, but reverse type, three C's inter- 

linked and surmounted by crown, m '1. Wt. 22-0. 

734. Half-Groat. 1670. Same as the Groat, but reverse type, two C's inter- 

linked and surmounted by crown, .at 55. Wt. 15 5. 

735. Penny. 1670. Same, but reverse type, one C crowned, s. *5. Wt. 8 '6. 

736. Halfpenny. 1672. Obv. CAROLVS A CAROLO. Bust of king to 1., COPPER. 

in armour. Eev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 1., holding olive- 
branch and spear ; her 1. arm on shield, with the combined crosses of St. 
George and St. Andrew; in the exergue, 1672. M 1-2. 
Copper halfpence and farthings were first issued for circulation in 
1672. They were made of pure Swedish copper, and were coined at 
the rate of 175 grs. to the halfpenny and 87^ grs. to the farthing; 
thus making a pound of metal avoirdupois equal to 20d. The copper 
currency of this reign previous to 1672 consisted of tradesmen's half- 
penny and farthing tokens, similar to those struck during the later 
years of the Commonwealth. The figure of Britannia on the reverse 
of the new coinage is said to be a portrait of Frances Stewart, 
ichess of Richmond. The dates of the halfpenny are 1672, 1673, 
id 1675. 

J. Farthing. 1671. Same as the Halfpenny, but the r. leg of Britannia is bare 

and date 1671. M -9. 
Dates 1671-1675 and 1679. 

J. Farthing. 1684. Same as the preceding ; but no date on the reverse ; edge TIN. 

inscribed, NVMMORVM FAMVLVS . 1684. St. -9. 

In 1684 it was decided to strike coins, halfpence and farthings, in 
i, a step which had already been proposed in 1679. The farthing 
only however was issued. It is of the same weight as the copper piece 
of that value, and in order to render counterfeiting more difficult a 
square plug of copper was inserted in the centre. The inscription on 
the edge, " the servant of the coinage," implies that these coins were 
not to be considered a part of the regular coinage, but as representing 
something of greater value than itself. There was a profit to the 
mint of 40 per cent, on this issue, which during this reign was of 
1684 only. 




134 EN.GLISH COINS. 

James II. 1685-1688. 

Plate xxxi. COINAGE. Gold. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and Half- 
Guinea. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy 
Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Tin. Halfpenny and 
Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. The gold and silver money of James II is of the same 
denominations, weight and fineness as that issued by Charles II from 
1670, when the guinea was reduced to 129^{j grs. That coin was still 
current for 20s. No copper coins were issued, and the only base metal 
money consisted of halfpence and farthings in tin, which continued to 
be coined at the rate of 20c7. to the pound avoirdupois. The halfpenny 
was of one type only ; but of the farthing there are two varieties. 
The types generally of the coins of James II vary but slightly from 
those of Charles II. 

GOLD. 739. Five Guineas. 1687. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust of 
king to L, laureate, hair long ; no drapery ; below, elephant and castle (see 
No. 720). Bev. MAG BR FRA - ET HIB REX 1687. Four 
shields, each crowned, arranged in form of cross, with sceptre in each 
angle, as on No. 720 ; but no initials of the king in the centre ; on edge, 

* DECVS ET TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI TERTIO K A/ 1-5. 

Dates 16861688. The elephant and castle only occurs on the five 
guineas of 1687 and 1688, but those without are of each year. On the 
five guineas of 1686 the sceptres are wrongly arranged, those terminating 
in the harp and lis being transposed. 

740. Two Guineas. 1687. Same as the Five Guineas, but no elephant and castle 

under the bust, and the edge is milled. A; 1*2. 

Dates 1686-1688. That only of 1686 has the elephant and castle 
under the bust. 

Plate xxxii. 741. Guinea. 1688. Same as the Two Guineas, but date 1688. A? 1-0. 

Dates 1685-1688. The guinea was the only gold piece struck in 1685. 
Specimens with and without the elephant and castle occur of each year. 

742. Half-Guinea. 1686. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 739, with elephant and 
castle under the bust, but date 1686 ; edge milled. A; -55. 

Dates 1686-1688. The elephant and castle occurs only on the 
half -guinea of 1686. 

SILVER. 743. Crown. 1688. Obv. IACOBVS II - DEI GRATIA. Bust of king to L, 
laureate and draped. Bev. Same as tho Five Guineas, No. 739, but date 
1688; no sceptres; and in centre, Star of the Garter; on edge, J< DECVS 
&c., ANNO REGNI QVARTO. M 1-55. 

Dates 1686-1688. There are no special signs on the silver coins, 
such as the elephant and castle, rose or plume, denoting the sources of 
the metal. 

744. Half-Crown. 1687. Same as the Crown, but date 1687; and on edge, 

* DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI TERTIO. at 1-3. 
Dates 1685-1688. 

745. Shilling. 1686. Same as the preceding, but date, 1 686 ; edge milled. M 1 0. 
Dates 1685-1688. 



JAMES II. 135 

746. Sixpence. 1687. Same, but date 1687. &, '85. Plate xxxIL 

Dates 1686-1688. SILVER. 

747-750. Maundy Money. Groat. 1687. Obv. IACOBVS - II DEI GRATIA. 
Head to 1., laureate. Eev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX 
1687. In centre, 111! (= 4d.), surmounted by a crown, st '75. 

The Threepence (No. 748), Half-Groat (No. 749), and Penny (No. 
750) are all of the same type ; but the marks of value on the 
reverses are III II and I respectively. Sets are dated 1686-1688. 

751. Halfpenny. 1685. Obv. IACOBVS SECVNDVS. Bust of king to r., TIN. 

laureate and draped. Eev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 1., with her 
attributes as on No. 736; on edge, NVMMORVM FAMVLVS 1685. 
St. 1-2. 

Dates 1685-1687. The halfpenny and farthing always have a plug of 
copper in the centre (see No. 738). 

752. Farthing. 1685. Same as the Halfpenny ; but the bust of the king is in 

armour. St. '95. 

Dates 16851687. A variety of 1685 has the king's bust draped, 
as on the halfpenny. 



William and Mary. 1688-1694. 

COINAGE. Gold. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and Half- 
Guinea. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy 
Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper and Tin. Half- 
penny and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There was practically only one issue or type of each 
denomination and metal with the exception of the half-crown, the 
reverse of which is of two types, the change taking place in 1691 (see 
Nos. 758 and 759). The reverse types of the coins differ generally 
somewhat from those of the previous reigns, and a change took place, 
not only in the arrangement of the arms on the shield, France and 
England being quarterly, but also in the addition of those of Nassau, 
generally on an inescutcheon (see No. 753). This alteration in the 
position of the French and English arms did not occur till the latter 
part of 1689, as the first half-crowns of that year have the English 
arms in the 1st quarter and the French in the 4th (see No. 758). The 
weight and fineness of the gold and silver money were the same as of 
the last coinage (1670) of Charles II ; but on account of the deteriora- 
tion of the silver coins through clipping and rough usage, the guinea, 
nominally worth 20s., was received at 21s. 6c?., and in 1694 its value 
rose to 30s. The base-metal coins, halfpennies and farthings, were 
struck in copper as well as in tin, at the rate of 2ld. to the pound of 
metal, instead of 20o?. to the pound as formerly. 

753. Five Guineas. 1691. Obv. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GOLD. 
GRATIA. Conjoined busts of the king and queen to r. ; no drapery: 
he is laureate. Eev. MAG BR FR ET - HIB - REX - ET 
REGINA 1691. Square shield, garnished and crowned: the arms 
are 1 and 4, France and England quarterly ; 2, Scotland ; 3, Ireland ; and 




136 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxii. those of Nassau on an inescutcheon of pretence; on edge, J DECVS 

GOLD. ET TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI - TERTIO. AT 1-4. 

Dates 16911694. The elephant and castle, the mark of the 
African Company (see No. 720), occurs under the busts on each 
denomination of the gold coins. 

754. Two Guineas. 1694. Same as the Five Guineas, but date 1694, and edge 

milled. &r 1-2. 
Dates 1691, 1693, and 1694. 

755. Guinea. 1689. Same, but shield not garnished, and date 1689. AI 1-0. 
Dates 1689-1694. 

756. Half-Guinea. 1692. Same as the Guinea, but elephant and castle under 

the busts, and date 1692. AT -8. 
Dates 1689-1692, and 1694. 

SILVER. 757. Crown. 1691. Obv. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 753, but busts draped. 
Rev. MAG BR FR - ET HI REX ET REGINA. Four 
shields crowned and arranged in form of cross, viz. : 1, England ; 2, Scot- 
land ; 3, France ; and 4, Ireland ; in centre, shield of Nassau surrounded 
by the date 1691 ; in each angle formed by the shields W M in monogram ; 
on edge, * DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI TERTIO. 2Rl'5. 
Dates 1691 and 1692. The above is the reverse type for all the silver- 
coins except the Maundy money from 1691 (see next coin). 

Plate xxxiii. 758. Half-Crown. 1689. 1st type. Same as the Crown, but on the rev., square 

shield crowned ; arms quarterly, viz. : 1, England ; 2, Scotland ; 3, Ireland ; 

and 4, France; and on an inescutcheon, arms of Nassau ; date 1689; on 

edge, ^ DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI PRIMO. JB 1-3. 

Dates 1689-1691. The half-crown was the only current silver coin 

struck during 1689-1690. This may have been caused by the great 

scarcity of silver. Later half-crowns of 1689 and all of 1690 vary in 

the arms, England and France being quarterly on the 1st and 4th 

shields. Varieties have the caul and interior of the crown above the 

shield frosted. These are of 1689 and 1690 only. 

759. Half-Crown. 1691. 2nd type. Same as the Crown, No. 757, and same 

inscription on edge, .a* 1-3. 

Dates 1691-1693. This type remained unchanged till 1693; no 
half-crowns of 1694 are known. 

760. Shilling. 1692. Same as the Crown, No. 757; but date 1692, and edge 

milled. 2R TO. 

Dates 1692 and 1693. 

761. Sixpence. 1693. Same as the Shilling, but date 1693. JR -85. 
Dates 1693 and 1694. 

762-765. Maundy Money. Groat. 1691. Obv. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA 

D G. Conjoined busts of the king and queen to r. ; he is laureate ; no 

drapery. Rev. MAG BR FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA 

1691. In the centre the numeral 4, crowned. JR -75. 

The Threepence (No. 763), Half-Groat (No. 764), and Penny (No. 

765) are of the same type and date, but with marks of value 3, 2, and 1, 

respectively. Sets are dated 1689-1694 






1 



WILLIAM AND MAEY. 137 

766. Halfpenny. 1690. Obv. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA. Conjoined busts Plate xxxiii. 

of the king and queen-to r. ; he is laureate and wears armour ; she is draped. XIN. 

Rev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 1., with her attributes as on 

No. 736; in centre, plug of copper ; on edge, NVMMORVM - FAMVLVS 

1690. St. 1-15. 

Dates 1690-1692. Varieties have the date on the reverse as well 
as on the edge. 

7G7. Farthing. 1690. Same as the Halfpenny ; but the r. leg of Britannia is 
bare, and the date is in the exergue on the reverse as well as on the edge. 
St. -9. 

Dates 1690-1692, which is the last year in which this tin money 
was issued by authority. From March 1684 to January 1692 the 
amount of tin coins struck was 344 tons in weight, of the current 
value of 65,929 15s. 9(Z. In 1693, on account of the tin money not 
being of intrinsic value and being easy to counterfeit, a patent was 
granted to Andrew Corbet to strike copper halfpence and farthings of 
English metal. But the patent was annulled in 1694, and it was 
ordered that this money should be coined in the mint only. 

768. Halfpenny. 1694. Same as the Halfpenny, No. 766, but the king has short COPPER. 

hair, and the date, 1 694, is in the exergue on the reverse ; edge plain. 

^1-15. 

Date 1694. Andrew Corbet appears to have struck farthings only 
in 1693, as no halfpence are known of that date. The copper money 
was at the rate of 21 d. to the pound weight, and was of the best English 
copper. 

769. Farthing. 1694. Same as the preceding, but the r. leg of Britannia is bare. 

& -85. 

Dates 1693 and 1694. The copper farthing dated 1692, having the 
king's hair long, may only be a proof from the dies of the tin farthing. 



William III. 1694-1702. 

COINAGE. On the death of Mary no change occurred in the denomi 
nations of the gold, silver, and base metal coins, the latter being, how- 
ever, of copper only. The weight and fineness too of the gold and 
silver money remained unaltered, but greater uniformity was intro- 
duced in the reverse types, thus assimilating them to the coinages of 
Charles II and James II. For example, on the gold coins the arms 
are placed on four shields, which are arranged in the form of a cross 
instead of on one shield. 

Owing to the wretched condition of the silver currency through the 
clipping and defacement of the hammered money, which still remained 
in circulation, it was decided in 1696 to withdraw it altogether, and to 
issue a great recoinage of silver. One of the results of this re-coinage 
was that the current value of the guinea, which in 1694 had stood at 
30s., was gradually reduced by Act of Parliament to 28s., then to 26s., 
22s., and finally in 1698 to 21s. 6d., at which value it remained till 
1717, when it was further reduced to 21s. (For further particulars 
of this new silver coinage see No. 774.) 



138 



ENGLISH COINS. 



GOLD. 



Plate xxxiii. 770. Five Guineas. 1699. Obv. GVLIELMVS III - DEI GRA. Bust of 
king to r., laureate, lovelock on shoulder ; no drapery; below, elephant and 
castle. Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX . 1699. The four- 
shields of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, each crowned, arranged in 
form of cross (as No. 757) ; in the centre, that of Nassau, and in each angle, 
sceptre; on edge, DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI . UNDECIMO A; 1-45. 

Dates 1699-1701. Others are without the elephant and castle, 
the mark of the African Company (see No. 720). The bust of the 
king on the gold coins shows several varieties. It is with or without 
a lovelock on the shoulder ; berries are sometimes introduced into the 
wreath, and on some pieces the head is larger than on others. 

771. Two Guineas. 1701. Same as the preceding, hut without elephant and 
castle under the bust, and no lovelock on the shoulder; date 1701 ; and 
edge milled. AT 1-25. 
Dates 1699 and 1701. This denomination, and also the guinea and 

half-guinea, show the same varieties as the five guineas. 



772. Guinea. 1701. Same as the Two Guineas. 
Dates 1695-1701. 



A; 1-0. 



773. Half-Guinea. 1695. Same as the Guinea, but date, 1695. 
Dates 1695-1698 and 1700-1701. 



A7 "8. 



SILVER. 774. Crown. 1700. Obv. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 770 ; but bust wearing 
armour and mantle; no elephant and castle below. Rev. Same as No. 
770, but no sceptres between the shields ; date 1700; on edge, >^ DECVS 
&c., ANNO REGNI DVODECIMO. JR 1-6. 

Dates 1695-1697 and 1700. The bust of the king on the silver 
coins is also varied. On the crowns of 1695 and early issue of 1696 
the breast-plate is curved, afterwards it is straight. The half-crowns 
are of the second type only. On the shillings the nose is more or less 
aquiline and the hair more or less fine. The special marks on the 
silver coins struck at the Tower mint of this reign are the elephant 
and castle (see No. 775), which occurs on the half-crown of 1701 only, 
roses for metal derived from the West of England, and plumes for 
the Welsh metal (see Nos. 776 and 778). These marks do not occur 
on the crowns. They are found usually on the reverse in the angles 
of the shields. For exceptions see No. 779. 

In order to facilitate the striking and ready circulation of the new 
silver coinage of 1696, local mints were established at Bristol, Chester, 
Exeter, Norwich, and York, these mints being distinguished by the 
letters B, C, E, N, and Y or y, respectively, which are placed below the 
bust (see No. 777). The denominations issued at these mints are half- 
crowns, shillings and sixpences, and are dated 1696 and 1697 only. 

775. Half-Crown. 1701. Same as the Crown ; but elephant and castle under the 

bust; date 1701; and edge inscribed,^ DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI 
DECIMO TERTIO. * 1'3. 

Dates 1696-1701. 

776. Half-Crown. 1701. Same as the preceding, bat no elephant and castle 

under the bust, and plume in each angle of the shields on the reverse, 
zi 1-3. (See No. 774.) 



t 



WILLIAM III. 139 

777. Shilling. 1696. Bristol. Similar to the Crown, No. 774 ; but B (Bristol) Plateixxxiii. 

under the bust, date 1696, and edge milled. M 1-0. - SILVER^ 

Dates with mint-letters, 1696 and 1697. 

778. Shilling. 1699. Same as the preceding, but no letter under the bust, date 

1699, and rose in each angle of the shields on the reverse. M I'O. 

Dates without mint-letters, 1695-1701. 

779. Sixpence. 1697. Same as the Shilling, No. 778; but no roses on the 

reverse, and date 1697. M '8. 

Dates without mint-letters, 1695-1701 ; with mint-letters 1696 and 
1697. The shilling and sixpence of 1700 are the only silver coins 
which have the plume under the king's bust. They are excessively 
rare, only a few specimens being known of each. 

780-783. Maundy Money. Groat. 1701. Same as the Sixpence, No. 779 ; but Plate xxxiv. 
type of reverse, the numeral 4 crowned ; date 1701. & -75. 

The Threepence (No. 781), Half-Groat (No. 782), and Penny (No. 
783) are of the same type arid date, but have marks of value, 3, 2, 
and 1 respectively. Sets are dated 1698-1701. There is however a 
groat of 1702, which is the only coin known of that year of 
William III. 

784. Halfpenny. 1697. Obv. GVLIELMVS TERTIVS. Bust of king to r., COPPER. 

laureate and wearing armour. Rev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 
1., with her attributes, as on No. 736 ; below, 1697. JE 1-15. 

Dates 1695-1701. In 1699 the reverse type was slightly changed, 
and Britannia, instead of holding up the olive-branch in her r. hand, 
rests it on her knee. On some pieces struck between 1695 and 
1699 the date follows the legend on the reverse. The copper money 
was of the same weight and metal as that ordered in 1693 (see 
No. 768). 

785. Farthing. 1696. Same as the Halfpenny, No. 784 ; but the leg of Britannia 

is bare; date 1696. M '9. 

Dates 1695-1701. The farthing is of this type only, but as in the 
case of the halfpenny, the date sometimes follows the legend. 



Anne. 1702-1714. 

COINAGE. Gold. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and Half- 
Guinea. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy 
Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. Halfpenny and 
Farthing (patterns only). 

ISSUES, &c. There were two issues of gold and silver money, viz., that 
struck before the Union with Scotland, 1702-1707, and that struck 
after the Union, 1707-1714. The denominations, c., of both issues 
were the same, and the principal difference consisted in the alteration 
of the arms, those of England and Scotland being impaled on one 



140 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxiv. shield after the Union. The shield of Nassau was obviously omitted.* 
Of the copper coins there were several types (see Nos. 802-808), but 
they are all patterns. 

The weight and fineness of the gold and silver are the same as 
ordered in 1670 (see p. 131 note), and the current value of the guinea 
remained, as prescribed in 1698, at 21s. Gd. 

GOLD. 786. Five Guineas. 1703. 1st issue. Obv. ANNA DEI GRATIA. Bust of 
queen to 1., diademed and draped; lovelock on r. shoulder; below, VI GO. 
Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB - REG 1703. The four shields of 
England, Scotland, France and Ireland, each crowned, arranged in form of 
cross ; in the centre, a rose from which issue four sceptres ; on edge, 
fr DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI SECVNDO. A^l-15. 

Dates (before the Union) 1703, 1705, and 1706 ; (after the Union) 
1706, 1709, 1711, 1713, and 1714. The gold and silver coins of 1702 and 
1703, with the word VIGO under the bust, were struck from bullion 
taken from the Spanish galleons captured in Vigo Bay, 12th Oct. 
1702. On all the gold coins struck after the Union the Star of the 
Garter takes the place of the rose in the centre of the reverse, and the 
order of the shields is shown on the next coin. No gold coins are known 
of 1704. 

787. Two Guineas. 1711. 2nd issue. Same as the Five Guineas, but without 

VIGO under the bust; and on the rev. the legend reads BRI FR , and 
the arms on the shields are : 1 and 3, England and Scotland impaled ; 
2, France ; and 4, Ireland ; in the centre, the Star of the Garter ; date 
1711 ; edge milled. AT 1-25. 

Dates 1709, 1711, 1713, and 1714. Two guineas do not appear to 
have been struck before the Union. 

788. Guinea. 1714. 2nd issue. Same as the Two Guineas; but date 1714. 

A7 I'l. 

Dates (before the Union) 1702, 1703, and 1705-1707 ; (after the 
Union) 1707-1714. The guinea is the only gold coin on which the 
elephant and castle occurs. They are of 1707-1709. 

789. Half-Guinea. 1702. 1st issue. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 786 ; but 

without VIGO under the bust ; date 1702 ; edge milled. AT- -85. 

Dates (before the Union) 1702, 1703, and 1705 ; (after the Union) 
1707-1714. 

SILVER. 790-791. Crown. 1703. 1st issue. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 786 ; but bust 
without lovelock on the shoulder ; and in the centre on the rev., Star of 
the Garter and no sceptres; date 1703; on edge, %< DECVS &c., ANNO 
REGNI TERTIO. JR 1-55. 

Dates 1703 and 1705-1707. This coin and Nos. 791-793 have the 
legend VIGO under the bust (see No. 786). Varieties of each denomi- 



* By the Act of Union with Scotland in 1707, it was ordered that the coinage 
in gold and silver should be of the same standard and value throughout the 
United Kingdom : and that the mint should be continued in Scotland (Edin- 
burgh) under the same rules as the mint in England. No gold coins, however, 
appear to have been struck at Edinburgh after this date, and the silver ones can be 
distinguished by having the letter E, or E and a star, under the bust (see p. 211). 






ANNE. 141 

nation, crown to sixpence, of this and the next issue have plumes or Plate xxxiv. 
roses and plumes on the reverse. The latter were struck from English SILVER. 
and Welsh silver combined. The bust on the silver coins of both issues 
shows several minor varieties. 

The Half-Crown (No. 791) is of the same type, date, &c., as the crown. 
Dates 1703-1707. 

792-793. Shilling. 1703. 1st issue. Same as the preceding, but edge milled. 

Ml-0. 

Dates 1702-1707. The Sixpence (No. 793) is of precisely the same 
type as the shilling. Dates 1703 and 1705-1707. 

794-795. Crown. 1708. 2nd issue. Same as No. 790; but bust somewhat 

larger; no inscription below; and on rev., legend reading BRI FR and 

shields with arms as on No. 787 ; in each angle, plume; date 1708 ; and 

on edge, & DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI SEPTIMO. M 1'55. 

Dates 1707, 1708, and 1713. The Half-Crown, 1708 (No. 795), is of 

the same type, &c., as the crown. Dates 1707-1710, and 1712-1714. 

The crowns, half-crowns, shillings, and sixpences of 17071709, 

with the E or E* under the bust, were struck at Edinburgh, and belong 

to the Scottish series. 

796-797. Shilling. 1708. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but edge milled. 

M 1-0. 

Dates 1707-1714. The Sixpence, 1708 (No. 797), is of the same 
type. Dates 1707, 1708, 1710, and 1711. 

798-801. Maundy Money. Groat. 1703. Obv. ANNA DEI GRATIA. Bust 
of queen to 1., diademed and draped. Rev. MAG BR FR ET 
HIB REG 1703 In the centre the numeral 4, crowned. M -75. 

The Threepence (No. 799), Half -Groat (No. 800), and Penny (No. 801) 
are of the same date and type, but with marks of value, 3, 2, and i 
respectively. The legend on the reverse varies slightly at different 
dates. They always read BRI FR after the Union. This is the only 
change on the Maundy money. Sets are dated 1703, 1705, 1706, 1708, 
1709, 1710, and 1713. 

802. Halfpenny. 1713. Obv. ANNA DEI GRATIA. Bust of queen to 1., COPPER, 
draped ; head bound with pearls. Rev. Same type, &c. as obverse ; on 
edge, * DECVS ET - TVTAME - ANNO REGNI - DVODE. 

M 1-1. 

The abundance of copper money struck during the previous reign 
rendered it unnecessary to issue any at the accession of Anne ; and no 
further attempts appear to have been made in this direction till 1713, 
during which year and the following one several dies were prepared at 
the mint for striking halfpence and farthings, but none seem to have 
been issued for circulation. The farthing however of 1714, being often 
found in a worn state, is supposed to have been in circulation 
for a short time before the queen's death, but there are no mint docu- 
ments to support this suggestion. A variety of the above halfpenny 
has the legend ANNA AVGVSTA on both sides. All the dies for the 
copper coins were made by John Croker, the chief engraver at the mint. 



142 



ENGLISH COINS. 



Plate xxxiv. 803. Halfpenny. Obv. ANNA - D : G - MAG : BR : FR : ET HIB : REG : 
COPPER Bust of queen to L, draped, hair tied with fillet. Rev. Rose and thistle- 

branches united on one stem and surmounted by a crown. JE 1-1. 
A variety is without the crown on the reverse. 

804. Halfpenny. Obv. Same as the preceding. Rev. Britannia seated to 1., 

holding branch in r. hand and sceptre in 1. ; her r. leg is bare, and her 
1. arm rests on shield ; above, crown. JE 1 1. 

A variety has for obverse type that of the reverse of the preceding. 
Most of the above halfpence were also struck in silver. 

805. Farthing. 1713. Obv. Same as No. 802. Rev. BRITANNIA 1713. Bri- 

tannia seated to 1., as on the preceding, but her 1. hand is raised ; no crown 
above. M -85. 

806. Farthing. 1713. Same as the preceding, but on the reverse Britannia is 

seated within a portico, and the date is in the exergue. JE -9. 

Plate xxxv. 807. Farthing. 1713. Obv. ANNA AVGVSTA. Bust of queen as before. 
Rev. PAX . MISS A PER ORBEM. Britannia holding branch and 
sceptre in a biga to r. ; in the exergue, 1713. JE 1-0. 

This type refers to the Peace of Utrecht. 

808. Farthing. 1714. Same as No. 805 ; but the r. hand of Britannia is not 
raised, her lower limbs are completely draped, and the date is in the 
exergue. M -95. 

This is the commonest of all the types, and this farthing is the one 
which is supposed to have been in circulation for a short time. 

Another piece, usually considered a farthing, has a similar ob v. to 
No. 802, but the hair is bound with a fillet and there is a scroll ornament 
below; and on the rev. Britannia stands, facing, holding branch and 
long sceptre ; around, BELLO ET PACE ; in the exergue 1713 ; 
legends incuse on both sides. This may, however, be only a medalet 
commemorating the Peace of Utrecht. 

The above descriptions give all the varieties of the halfpence and 
farthings of Anne. Most of the farthings occur in gold and silver. 



George I. 1714-1727. 

COINAGE. Gold. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, Half-Guinea, 
and Quarter-Guinea. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, 
and Maundy Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. 
Halfpenny and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue of the gold and silver coinages, 
and as in the reigns of Anne and William III, &c., the reverse types 
of both coinages were assimilated. The quarter-guinea, however, was 
added to the list of gold pieces. The accession of the House of 
Brunswick was accompanied by a change in the royal arms, those of the 
Electorate being added. Their order was : 1, England and Scot- 
laud impaled ; 2, France ; 3, Ireland ; and 4, the Electorate ; and in 
the legends the king's German titles were added to his English ones 
(see No. 809). The weight and fineness remained unchanged, being 
as established in 1670 (see p. 131, note) ; but the current value of the 
guinea was in 1717 reduced to 21s., at which it remained till its last 



GEOEGE I. 143 

year of issue in 1813. The copper coins were also of the same type Plate xxxv 
as those issued by William III, &c., but their weight was much 
reduced, being at 56 halfpence to the pound avoirdupois instead of 42 
as previously. 

809. Five Guineas. 1717. Obv. GEORGIVS D G M BR FR ET GOLD. 
HIB REX F D. Bust of king to r., laureate, no drapery. Rev. 
B'RVN ET - L DVX S R I A TH ET EL 1717. Four 
shields, each crowned, arranged in form of cross, viz. : 1, England and Scot- 
land impaled ; 2, Fraue-5 ; 3, Ireland ; and 4, the Electorate ; in the centre, 
the Star of the Garter, from which spring four sceptres ; on edge, % DECVS 
&c., ANNO REGNI TERTIO. AT 1-45. 

Dates 1716, 1717, 1720, and 1726. The title "Fidei Defensor" now 
occurs for the first time on the coinage, though it had been used on the 
Great Seal since the reign of Henry VIII. The legend in full on the 
reverse would be " Brunsvicensis et Lunenburgensis Dux, Sacri Romani 
Imperii Archi-Thesaurarius et Elector." 

810-813. Two Guineas. 1720. Same as the preceding; but date 1720, and edge 

milled. A; 1-25. 

Dates 1717, 1720, and 1726. The Guinea, 1717 (No. 811), Half- 
Guinea, 1726 (No. 812), and Quarter-Guinea, 1718 (No. 813) are 
also of the same type, legends, &c., as the two guineas. Their dates 
are guinea, 1714-1727 ; half-guinea, 1717-1720, 1722, and 1725- 
1727; and quarter-guinea, 1718 only. The guineas of 1721 and 1726 
have the elephant and castle, the symbol of the African Company, 
under the bust. It does not occur on any of the other gold coins, 
or on any of the silver pieces. On the guinea of 1714 the words of the 
legends are differently abbreviated, and that on the reverse ends 
PR ET EL (Princeps et Elector). Hence it is known as the Prince 
Elector guinea. The bust of the king shows several small varieties in 
the hair, with and without lock on shoulder, in the tie of the wreath 
having one or two ends, &c. 

814-815. Crown. 1723. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 809 ; but the bust of the SILVER. 
king is draped and in armour, and on the reverse, in the alternate angles 
of the cross formed by the four shields, are the letters SS and C, instead of 
the sceptres; on edge, >%* DECVS &o., ANNO REGNI DECIMO. 
jRl-55. 

Dates 1716, 1718, 1720, 1723, and 1726. The letters SS. C. are 
the initials of the South Sea Company. They denote that the silver 
of which the coins were struck was supplied by that company. They 
are found on the silver coins from the crown to the sixpence of 1723 
only. The roses and the plumes also occur on the coins of each 
denomination from 1715 to 1727 (see No. 774). 

The Half-Crown, 1723 (No. 815), is of the same type, legends, &c., 
as the crown. Dates 1715, 1717, 1720, 1723, and 1726. 

816-817. Shilling. 1723. Same as the Crown, but edge milled. JR 1-0. 

Dates 1715-1727. Besides the letters and marks alluded to above, 
some shillings (17231726) have on the reverse, in the angles between 
the shields, two C's interlinked and the plume alternately, and on 
the obverse under the bust W. C. C. These letters are the initials of 



144 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxv. the Welsh Copper Company, which was established during the reign 
SILVER, of William and Mary. These letters do not occur on any of the other 
silver coins. On some shillings of 1720 and 1721 the reverses are 
plain, i.e., no letters or roses, &c., between the shields. 

The Sixpence, 1723 (No. 817), is of the same type and variety as 
the shilling. Dates 1717, 1720, 1723, and 1726 ; all except 1723 have 
roses and plumes. 

818-821. Maundy Money. Groat. 1723. Obv. GEORGIVS DEI GRA. 

Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour. Bev. MAG BRI 

FR ET HIB - REX 1723 . In the centre the numeral 4, crowned. 

JR -15. 

The Threepence (No. 819), Half-Groat (No. 820), and Penny (No. 821) 

are also of the same type and date, but have 011 the reverse the marks 

of value 3, 2, and 1, respectively. Sets are only known of 1717, 1723, 

and 1727. 

COPPER.* 822. Halfpenny. 1718. Obv. GEORGIVS REX. Bust of king to r., laureate, 
in armour. Bev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 1., with her attributes, 
similar to No. 736, but the olive-branch rests on her knee (see No. 784 note) ; 
in the exergue, 1718. Ml'l. 
Dates 1717-1724. 

823. Farthing. 1719. Same as the preceding, but date 1719. as 9. 

Dates 1717-1724. There are no varieties of the halfpence and 
farthings. 

George II. 1727-1760. 

COINAGE. Gold. Five Guineas, Two Guineas, Guinea, and Half- 
Guinea. Silver. Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy 
Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. Halfpenny and 
Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There were two issues in each metal, gold, silver, 
and copper, differing only in the portrait of the king : the first 
issue having a young portrait ; the second an older one. There was no 
alteration in the types of the silver and copper coins, which remained 
the same as those of the previous reign ; but on those of gold the arms 
are on a single shield instead of being on separate ones arranged in the 
form of a cross. The change in the portrait of the king did not occur 
simultaneously on the coins of the three metals. On the gold it took 
place in 1739 ; on the silver in 1743 ; and on the copper in 1740. The 
young portrait was the work of John Croker, who had also engraved 
the dies for the coins of Anne and George I, but the old one was by 
John Sigismund Tanner. There are no quarter -guineas of this reign. 

The weight and fineness of the gold and silver were the same as the 
milled coinage (1670) of Charles II, and the current value of the 
guinea remained at 21s. as in the previous reign. The copper money 
was coined at the rate of 46 halfpence to the pound avoirdupois, instead 
of 56 as under George I. 

GOLD. 824. Five Guineas. 1729. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS II - DEI GRATIA. 
Bust of king to 1., laureate, no drapery ; below. E I C (East India 
Company). Bev. M B F ET H REX F D B ET L 






GEOEGE II. 145 

D-S-R-I-A-T-ET-E- 1729 (see No. 809). Shield, crowned Plate xxxv. 

and garnished, with the royal arms quarterly, viz. : 1, England and Scot- <;,,, 

land impaled; 2, Prance; 3, Ireland; and 4, the Electorate; on edge, 

* DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI TERTIO. AT 1-45. 
Dates, young head, 1729, 1731, 1738, and 1741 ; old head, 1746, 
1748, and 1753. Though the old head was adopted on the gold in 1739, 
the five guineas of 1 74 1 has the young head. The above coin was struck 
from gold furnished to the mint by the East India Company. Other gold 
and silver coins of 1745 and 1746, with the old portrait of the king, and 
with LIMA under the bust, were struck from bullion taken by Admiral 
Anson from the Spaniards in South America during his famous voyage 
round the world (1739-1743). These are the only marks on the gold coins. 

825. Two Guineas. 1738. 1st issue. Same as the preceding; but date 1738, and 
edge milled. AT l - 25. 

Dates, young head, 1727, 1729, 1735, 1738, and 1739 ; old head, 

1739, 1740, 1746-1748, and 1753. 

826-827. Guinea. 1747. 2nd issue. Same as the Five Guineas, No. 824, but 

with the old portrait ; date 1747 ; edge milled. AT -95. 
Dates, young head, 1727-1729 and 1731-1738; old head, 1739, 

1740, 1743, 1745-1753, 1755, 1756, and 1758-1760. 

The Half-Guinea, 1760 (No. 827), is of precisely the same type. 
Dates, young head, 1728-1732, 1734, and 1736-1739; old head, 1740, 
1745-1747, 1750, 1753, 1755, 1756, and 1758-1760. 

828. Crown. 1732. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust SILVER. 

of king to 1., laureate, draped and in armour, with lion's head on shoulder. 
Rev. M B F - ET H REX -F-D-B-ET-L-D-S-R- 
I A T ET E 1732. Four shields, crowned and arranged inform 
of cross, viz. : 1, England and Scotland impaled ; 2, France ; 3, Ireland ; 
and 4, the Electorate ; in the centre, the Star of the Garter ; and in alter- 
nate angles, roses and plumes ; on edge, DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI 
SEXTO. 2B1-6. 

Dates 1732, 1734-1736, 1739, and 1741. The roses and plumes on 
the reverse show that this coin was struck from Welsh and English 
silver combined. Crowns, half-crowns, shillings and sixpences of 1739 
and 1741 have roses only. 

829. Half-Crown. 1732. 1st issue. Same as the preceding. M 1-3. Plate xxxvi. 
Dates 1731, 1732, 1734-1736, 1739, and 1741. 

830-831. Shilling. 1732. 1st issue. Same as the Crown, No. 828, but edge 
milled. M 1-0. 

Dates 1727-1729, 1731, 1732, 1734-1737, 1739, and 1741. 

The Sixpence, 1732 (No. 831), is of the same type, &c., as the shilling. 
Dates 1728, 1731, 1732, 1734-1736, 1739, and 1741. The shillings 
and sixpences have also roses and plumes on the reverse, but on 
some of 1728 the angles are plain, i.e., without either. Also some 
shillings of 1727 and 1731 and sixpences of 1728 have plumes only. 

832-833. Crown. 1746. 2nd issue. Same as No. 828, but with older bust, and 
below it, LIMA (see No. 824), and on the rev. the angles between the 
shields are plain; on edge, DECVS &c., ANNO REGNI DECIMO 
NONO. jjl-55. 
Dates 1743, 1746, 1750, and 1751. 

L 



146 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxvi. The Half-Crown, 1746 (No. 833), is of precisely the same type. Dates 
SILVEK. 1743, 1745, 1746, 1750, and 1751. 

834-835. Shilling. 1746. 2nd issue. Same as the Crown, No. 832, but edge 
milled. M 1-0. 

Dates 1743, 1745-1747, 1750, 1751, and 1758. 

The Sixpence, 1746 (No. 835), is of the same type. Dates 1743, 1745, 
1746, 1750, 1751, 1757, and 1758. The silver coins, crown to sixpence 
of 1743, 1745, and 1747, with the exception of the " Lima" pieces, have 
roses on the reverse ; the other dates are plain. Plumes do not occur 
in this issue. 

836-839. Maundy Money. Groat. 1729. Obv. Same as the Crown, No. 828; 
Rev. MAG BRI FR ET HIB REX 1729. In the centre the 
numeral 4, crowned. 5J * 75. 

The Threepence (No. 837), Half-Groat (No. 838), and Penny (No. 839) 
are of the same date and type, but with marks of value, 3, 2, and 1 
respectively. Sets are known of 1729, 1731, 1732, 1735, 1737, 1739, 
1740, 1743, 1746, and 1760. No change took place in the portrait of 
the king, the young head being preserved throughout the series. His 
English titles, too, are only given. 

COPPER 840. Halfpenny. 1730. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS II REX. Bust of 
king to 1., laureate, in armour. Rev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to 
1., with her attributes, similar to No. 736, but right hand, holding branch, 
extended ; in the exergue, 1730. JE 1-15. 

Dates 1729-1739. The copper coins throughout this reign were 
struck at the rate of 46 halfpence, or 92 farthings, to the pound 
avoirdupois. They were first issued in 1729 under the sign-manual of 
Queen Caroline, when guardian of the realm in the absence of the king. 

841. Halfpenny. 1746. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but with old head; 

date 1746. JEl-15. 
Dates 1740-1754. 

842. Farthing. 1730. 1st issue. Same as the Halfpenny, No. 840. JE -9. 
Dates 1730-1739, except 1738. 

843. Farthing. 1746. 2nd issue. Same as the Halfpenny, No. 841. ^-9. 
Dates 1741, 1744, 1746, 1749, 1750, and 1754. 



George III. 1760-1820. 

COINAGE. Gold. Guinea, Half -Guinea, Quarter-Guinea, Third- 
Guinea or Seven Shillings, Sovereign, and Half-Sovereign. Silver. 
Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy Groat, Three- 
pence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. Twopence, Penny, Halfpenny, 
and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Gold. Four : 1st issue (1761-1786), Guinea, Half- 
Guinea, and Quarter-Guinea. 2nd issue (1787-1800), Spade Guinea, 
Spade Half-Guinea, and Third-Guinea. 3rd issue (1800-1813 after the 
Union with Ireland), Guinea, Half -Guinea, and Third-Guinea, 4th issue 



GEORGE III. 147 

(1817-1820), Sovereign and Half-Sovereign. Silver. Four: 1st issue Plate xxx 
(1763), Shilling. 2nd issue (1787), Shilling and Sixpence. 3rd issue 
(1798), Shilling. 4th issue (1816-1820), Crown, Half-Crown, Shilling, 
and Sixpence. Copper. Four : 1st issue (1770-1775), Halfpenny and 
Farthing. 2nd issue (1797), Twopence and Penny. 3rd issue (1799), 
Halfpenny and Farthing. 4th issue (1806-1807), Penny, Halfpenny, 
and Farthing. 

The Maundy money presents four varieties of obverse or reverse 
types, which correspond to the dates 1763, 1792, 1795, and 1816 (see 
Nos. 871-878). 

The weights of the gold and silver coins down to 1813 were the 
same as established in the last issue (1670) of Charles II : that of the 
third-guinea being in the proportion of 43 146 grs. In the fourth issue, 
however, the sovereign was struck at 123 T ^ 7 ^ grs., and the weight of 
the shilling was reduced to about 87^ grs. The standard of fineness 
remained as in previous reigns, viz. the gold at 22 cts. fine and 2 cts. 
alloy ; and the silver 11 oz. '2 clwts. fine and 18 dwts. alloy. 

The dearth of an official coinage in silver and copper during this 
reign was in a certain degree met by the issue of counter-stamped 
Spanish dollars and Bank tokens in silver, and by tradesmen's and 
other tokens in copper as well as in silver. The former are mentioned 
under Nos. 864870 : but the latter, of which there is an enormous 
series, do not come within the scope of this work. 

844. Guinea. 1761. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS III - DEI GRATIA . GOLD. 
Bust of king to r., laureate. Rev. M-B-F-ET-H-REX-F-D- 
B ET L D . S - R - I A - T - ET E 1761. Shield crowned 
and garnished, and with arms as on No. 824. A7 '95. 

Dates 1761-1786, except 1762 and 1780. The dies for the earlier 
gold coins to 1774 were made by Richard Yeo. They present a 
youthful bust of the king. Those in use after that date to 1786 are 
by Thomas Pingo, and they give an older bust of the king, which 
divides the legend above. No change however took place in the 
general type. The current value of the guinea remained at 21s. 

845-846. Half-Guinea. 1st issue. Same as the preceding, but date 1764. AT *8. 

Dates 1762-1766, 1769, 1772-1779, 1781, and 1784-1786. 

The Quarter-Guinea, 1762 (No. 846), is of precisely the same type. 
It was struck in that year only, and is the last issue of this denomina- 
tion. Dies were also made by John Sigismund Tanner and Richard Yeo 
for five and two guineas of this issue, but none were struck for circulation. 

847-848. Spade Guinea. 1787. 2nd issue. Same as No. 844, but with larger 
and older bust of king, and tbe shield on the reverse is pointed at the base, 
i.e. spade-shaped; date 1787. A7 '95. 

Dates 1787-1799 inclusive with the exception of 1796. 
The Spade Half-Guinea, 1737 (No. 848), is of the same type. Dates 
1787-1800 with the exception of 1792 and 1799. 

The dies for these coins were engraved by Lewis Pingo. On them 
the bust is smaller and does not divide the legend above as in the issue 
of 1775-1786. 

L 2 



148 ENGLISH COINS. 

, 849- Third-Guinea. 1797. 2nd issiie. Obv. GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA . 
Bust of king to r., laureate. Rev. MAG BRI FR . ET HIB - 
REX 1797. Crown. AT -7. 

Dates 1797-1800. Patterns for the third-guinea or seven-shilling 
piece had been made in 1775 and 1776, but none were issued for 
circulation till 1797. This coin was instituted to supply to a certain 
degree the great lack of silver money. The dies were made by Lewis 
Pingo. 

850. Guinea. 1813. 3rd issue. Obv. GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA. Bust of 

king to r., laureate. Rev. BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR. 
Small shield within the Garter with motto, crowned ; the arms are : 1 and 4, 
England ; 2, Scotland ; 3, Ireland ; with inescutcheon, arms of the Elec- 
torate, surmounted by the Electoral cap; below shield, 1813. A? I'O. 
Struck in 1813 only. This was the last guinea coined. They are 
said to have been specially issued for the troops, when embarking in 
1813 for France. The earliest coins of this issue, half and third-guineas, 
were struck in 1801, on the 1st of January of which year it was 
ordered, as one of the consequences of the Act of Union between 
England and Ireland of the previous year, that the title of the king 
should henceforth be " Georgius Tertius, Dei Gratia, Britanniarum 
Rex, Fidei Defensor." The order of the arms on the shield was changed, 
and those of France together with the French title were abandoned. 
The king's German titles were also no longer used. The dies for all the 
gold coins of this issue were made by Lewis Pingo, who from 1804 
took for the bust of the king a model by Marchant. 

851. Half-Guinea. 1804. 3rd issue. Same as the preceding, but date 1804. 

AT '&. 

Dates 1801-1804, 1806, 1808-1811, and 1813. The bust of the 
king as on the 2nd issue was used on the half -guineas and third-guineas 
till 1804, when the above one was adopted. 

852. Third-Guinea. 1804. 3rd issue. Same as No. 849, but bust of king and 

titles as on No. 850; and date 1804 under crown, AT '65. 
Dates as the half-guinea. 

Platjxxsvii. 853. Sovereign. 1817. 4th issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III D : G : BRITANNIAR : 
REX F : D : 1817. Head of king to r., laureate. Rev. St. George and 
the Dragon within the Garter with motto; on ground B p (Benedetto 
Pistrucci). AT -85. Wt. 123-0. 

Dates 1817-1820. On account of the wretched state of the gold 
and silver money, one of the consequences of the long series of wars in 
which England had been involved for so many years, it was decided in 
1816 to strike an entirely new coinage consisting of the sovereign and 
half-sovereign in gold ; and the crown, half-crown, shilling and sixpence 
in silver. The standard weight of the sovereign was to be at 
l^TVoir grs. to be current for 20s., and that of the silver at about 
87^ grs. to the shilling. At the same time gold was made the sole 
standard measure of value and the only legal tender for sums over 
two pounds. The coining of the silver which was most needed was put 
in hand at once, and though some of the pieces are dated 1816 they 
were not ready for issue till Jan. 1817. The earliest gold pieces are 



GEOBGE III. 149 

dated 1817 and were not struck till that year. No change has taken piatexxxvii. 
1 1 lace in the weights of the coins down to the present time, and the GOLD. 
fineness remained the same in both metals as in previous issues of this 
reign. The dies for the gold coins and for some of the silver ones were 
made by the Italian gem-engraver Benedetto Pistrucci, and it is said 
that the reverse type of St. George and the Dragon was originally 
intended for a gem, which that artist was engraving for Lord Spencer. 

854. Half-Sovereign. 1817. Uh issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA 1817. 

Head of king as on the preceding. Rev. BRITANNIARUM REX FID : 
DEF : Angular shield surmounted by crown; arms as on No. 850, but the 
inescutcheon of the Electorate is surmounted by an Electoral crown. 

A7 '7. 

Dates 1817-1820. The change of the Electoral cap into a crown 
was in consequence of the Congress of Vienna of 1815, by which 
Hanover was erected into a kingdom. 

855. Shilling. 1763. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS - III DEI GRATIA. SILVER. 

Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour. Rev. M B F 

ET H REX -F-D-B-ET-L-D-S. R I-A-T-ET- 

E 1763. Four shields crowned and with arms as on No. 809, arranged 
in form of cross; in the centre, the Star of the Garter. M 1-0. 

Date 1763. The silver coins, shillings only, of the 1st and 3rd issues 
are of a special nature. The above is known as the Northumberland 
shilling, from the circumstance of its having been specially struck for 
distribution among the populace, when Hugh, Earl of Northumberland, 
made his first public appearance in Dublin as Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland in 1763. Only 100 worth were coined. The dies were made 
by Richard Yeo (see also No. 858). 

856. Shilling. 1787. 2nd issue. Similar to the preceding, but the bust of the 

king is larger and older, as on No. 847 ; and on the reverse the crown is 
placed between each shield instead of over it ; and the inscription begins 
from the bottom ; date 1 787. M 1 0. 

Of this date only. A rare variety of this type has no dot over the 
king's head; i.e. between the numerals Ml and DEI. This and the 
sixpence of the same year are the only silver coins issued by authority 
during this reign down to the year 1816 (see No. 853), and of these 
only about seventy or eighty thousand pounds worth were struck. 



. 



7. Sixpence. 1787. Ind issue. Same as the preceding, .si '85. 
Of this date and type only. 



. 



Shilling. 1798. 3rd issue. Same as the preceding, but no dot over the 

king's head, and date on reverse, 1798. & 1*0. 

Of this date only. This issue is also of a special kind. On account 
of the extreme scarcity of silver money (see note to No. 856) the 
firm of Dorrien and Magens in 1798 sent some bullion to the mint 
to be coined into shillings according to the law. The whole was 
actually coined, but on the day that the bankers were to receive the 
coins an Order in Council forbad their issue, and at the same time 
directed that they should be melted down. A few specimens however 
escaped the crucible. 



150 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxvii. 859. Crown. 1818. Uh issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III D : G : BRITANNIARUM 
SILVFK REX F : D : 1818. Head of king to r., laureate ; below, PISTRUCCI. Rev. 

St. George and the Dragon within the Garter with motto ; below, PISTBUCCI ; 
on edge, DECUS &c., ANNO REGNI LVIII 2Rl'5. Wt. 434-8. 
Dates 1818-1820. For particulars of this issue see note No. 853. 
Both obverse and reverse dies of the above were by Pistrucci. 

860. Half-Crown. 1816. Uhissue. Obv. GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA. Bust of 

king to r., laureate, undraped and turned from the spectator; below, 1816. 

Rev. BRITANNIARUM REX FID : DEF : Garnished shield with arms 

as on No. 854, within the Garter and Collar of the Order ; above, crown ; 

the garniture of the shield is inscribed on 1., w w p (William Wellesley 

Pole), and on r., w (Thomas Wy on), jjl-25. Wt. 218-0. 

Dates 1816-1817. There are two varieties of the half-crown of this 

issue (see next coin). The bust of the king with its broad bare 

shoulder and the ferocious expression of the king's countenance was 

not considered satisfactory ; and in making some change in the obverse 

type, an opportunity was taken to modify, but not to improve, the 

reverse also. It was generally assimilated to the type of the shilling. 

The edge of the half-crown is milled and not inscribed. William 

Wellesley Pole was master of the mint, and Thomas Wyon, who died 

in 1818, was chief engraver. 

861. Half-Crown. 1819. Similar to the preceding ; legends same, but head of 

king to r., laureate ; date 1819 ; and on reverse, shield, not garnished, within 
the Garter with motto ; above, crown ; on the buckle of the Garter 
is inscribed, w w p (William Wellesley Pole), s. 1*25. 
Dates 1817-1820. 

862-863. Shilling. 1816. Obv. GEOR : III D : G : BRITT : REX F : D : Head 

to r., laureate ; below, 1816. Rev. Garnished shield with arms, as on No. 854, 

crowned ; and within the Garter with motto ; on the garniture to 1., w w p 

(William Wellesley Pole) ; and to r., w (Thomas Wyon). M -9. Wt. 86-6. 

Dates 1816-1820. The Sixpence (No. 863) is of precisely the same type 

and dates. These two coins are considered amongst the neatest and best 

executed of the present century, and having the edge slightly raised, 

they were peculiarly fitted for the ordinary wear and tear of circulation. 

864-865. Counterstruck Dollars of Charles IV of Spain dated 1793 and 1794. 

In 1797 an attempt was made by the Treasury to supplement the 
deficiency of silver coinage by the issue of Spanish dollars, and half, 
quarter and eighth dollars, countermarked on the obverse with the bust 
of George III, the stamp, a small oval one, being that used by the 
Goldsmiths' Company for stamping the plate of this country. These 
counterstamped dollars, <fec., have on one side the bust of Charles III 
(or IV) of Spain, and on the other the Spanish arms. The dollar was to 
be current at 4s. 9^., which gave rise to the saying " two kings' heads 
not worth a crown." On account of the numerous forgeries of this 
counterstamp, another one was adopted in 1804. It was somewhat 
larger, octagonal in shape, and with the head of the king as on the 
Maundy penny of the time. This stamp also was soon counterfeited. 
In the same year the Bank of England received permission to issue a 
dollar of the current value of 5s., and this permission was extended in 
1811 to pieces of the value of three shillings and eighteen-pence. A 
description of these tokens is given below. Dies were also prepared for 
pieces of the value of 5s. 6d. and 9e?., but none were issued for circulation. 



GEOEGE III. 151 

866. Bank Dollar. 1804. Obv. GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Bust of Plate xxxvii. 

king to r., laureate, draped and in armour ; on shoulder, c. H. K. (C. H. SILVER 
Kiichler). Rev. BANK OF ENGLAND. Within a band inscribed FIVE 
SHILLINGS DOLLAR, and surmounted by mural crown, Britannia seated 
to 1., with her attributes ; before her, bee-hive ; at her side, cornucopiae ; 
below, 1804. si 1-65. 

Of this date only. There are several other types of the dollar ; but 
the above was the only one issued for circulation. This and the follow- 
ing tokens remained in currency till 1818, when, on account of the 
recent re-issue of gold and silver coins from the mint, their circulation 
was prohibited. They were struck by Boulton at the Soho Mint, 
Birmingham (see No. 881). 

867. Three-Shilling Token. 1812. Obv. Similar to the preceding, but bust 

slightly draped. Rev. Within oak- wreath, BANK TOKEN 3 SHILL. 
1 81 2 in four lines ; radiate border on both sides. x, 1'35. 

Dated also 1811. In 1812 the type was changed to the following one : 

868. Three-Shilling Token. 1812. Similar ; but head laureate and no drapery, 

and 011 the reverse the inscription is within a wreath composed of oak and 
olive leaves ; no radiate borders. & 1 35. 
Dates 1812-1816. 

869. Eighteen-Pence Token. 1812. Same as the Three-Shillings, No. 867, but 

value on rev. 1 s. QD. si 1 '05. 

The dates of both series of the eighteen-pences are the same as those 
of the three shillings. 

870. Eighteen-Pence Token. 1814. Same as the Three-Shillings, No. 868 ; but 

value on rev. Is. GD. and date 1814. M 1-05. 

871-878. Maundy Money. Groat. 1763. Obv. GEORGIVS III DEI 
GRATIA. Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour. Rev. 
MAG - BRI FR ET HIB REX 1763 - In the centre the numeral 4, 
crowned. M '75. 

The Threepence (No. 872), Half-Groat (No. 873), and Penny 
(No. 874) are of the same date and type, but with marks of value 3, 2, 
and 1 respectively. In 1792 the older bust of the king as on the 
shilling of 1787 was adopted for the Maundy coins; but in that year 
the numerals on the reverses are of the written form, and on account 
of their thinness this issue is commonly known, as ' ' wire money " 
(Nos. 875-878). In 1795 the older bust was retained, but a return 
was made to the ordinary Arabic numerals before in use. In 1816 a 
fourth change took place ; the bust of the king is as on the shilling 
of that year, and the legends are " Georgius III Dei Gratia " and 
" Britanniarum Rex Fid. Def." Sets are known of, 1st type, 1763, 
1766, 1772, 1780, 1784, and 1786 ; 2nd type, 1792 ; 3rd type, 1795 and 
1800; 4th type, 1816-1820. 

879-880. Halfpenny. 1771. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS III REX. Bust Plate xxxviii. 

of king to r., laureate, in armour. Rev. BRITANNIA. Britannia seated to COPPER. 

1., with her attributes as on No. 840; below, 1771. ^1-15. 
Dates 1770-1775. The Farthing, 1771 (No. 880), is of the same 
type as the halfpenny. Dates as on the halfpenny. 

881-882. Twopence. 1797. 2nd issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III - D : G : REX. 
Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour; on shoulder K 



152 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxviii. (Kiichler). Rev. BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia holding olive-branch 

CoiTKi; and trident, seated to 1., on rock in sea, her shield at her side; in the 

distance, ship ; below shield, SOHO. Ml- 6. 

Of this date only. This is the only issue of the twopence in copper. 

The Penny (No. 882) is of the same type and date, 1797 only. This 
is also the first issue of the penny in copper. The inscriptions on both 
sides of these coins are incuse and on a broad band, which has procured 
for them the name of " cart-wheel " money. They were not struck 
in London, but at the Soho mint near Birmingham, where Matthew 
Boulton carried on his business as a medallist. This course was taken 
because Boulton was able to obtain the copper at a cheaper rate than 
the Government. This firm continued to strike the copper coins for 
the Government till quite recent times. Dies of the same type were 
also executed for the halfpenny and farthing, but only a few pieces 
were struck as patterns ; they were never current. The dies for these 
coins were engraved by C. H. Kiichler, a native of Flanders. 

883. Halfpenny. 1799. 3rd issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. 

Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour. Rev. BRITANNIA. 
Britannia seated to 1., &c., as on No. 881, but the waves of the sea are cut 
off in a semicircle; below, 1799. M 1*2. 

Of this date only. On account of the high price of copper, Boulton 
was allowed to coin these pieces at the rate of thirty-six halfpennies to 
the pound. The halfpennies were therefore slightly less than half the 
weight of the pennies of 1797. 

884. Farthing. 1799. 3rd isstie. Similar to the preceding, but date under bust 

of king on obv., and on rev. below Britannia, I FARTHING. ^'9. 

Also of 1799 only. These are the only denominations of this issue. 
In the proclamation of the 4th December, 1797, twopences and pennies 
were also ordered ; but dies do not appear to have been executed for 
these. 

885-887. Penny. 1806. Uh issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III D : G REX. Bust 
of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour ; on shoulder K (Kiichler) ; 
below, 1806. Rev. Same as No. 881 ; but no date and on 1. of shield, K 
(Kiichler). as 1-35. 

The Halfpenny (No. 886) and Farthing (No. 887) are of the same 
type as the penny. All three denominations bear the dates 1806 and 
1807. 

These pieces were struck at the rate of twenty-four pence to the 
pound avoirdupois. 



George IV. 1820-1830. 

COINAGE. Gold. Double-Sovereign, Sovereign, and Half -Sovereign. 
Silver. Crown, Half -Crown, Shilling, Sixpence, and Maundy Groat, 
Threepence, Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper. Penny, Halfpenny, and 
Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c.Gold. Two: 1st issue (1821-1825), Double-Sovereign, 
Sovereign, and Half-Sovereign. 2nd issue (1825-1830), Sovereign and 



GEOEGE IV. 153 

Half-Sovereign. Silver. Three : 1st issue (1820-1823), Crown, Half- Plate xxx 
Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence. 2nd issue (1823-1825) and 3rd issue 
(1825-1830), Half-Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence. Copper. Two: 
1st issue (1821-1826), Farthing. 2nd issue (1825-1830), Penny, 
Halfpenny, and Farthing (see descriptions). 

The weights and fineness of the coins in all three metals were the 
same as in the last issue in each metal of George III. 

888. Double-Sovereign. 1823. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III! D : G : GOLD 

BRITANNIAR : REX F : D : Head of king to 1. ; below, i. B. M. 

(J. B. Merlen). Rev. St. George and the Dragon; below, w. w. p. 

(William Wellesley Pole) and B. p. (Benedetto Pistrucci) ; in the 

exergue, 1823; edge, DECUS ETTUTAMEN ANNO REGNI IV. vl-1. 

Of this date only. The dies for the gold coins of the first issue were 

made by Merlen and Pistrucci, the former executing those of the 

obverse of the double-sovereign, and the reverses of the half-sovereigns 

(both types). Pistrucci made all the others. 

889. Sovereign. 1821. 1st issue. Similar to the preceding, but head of king 

larger in proportion and laureate, and from a different model ; below, B. p. 
(Benedetto Pistrucci) ; edge milled. AT -85. 

Dates 18211825. Both obverse and reverse were by Pistrucci. 

890. Half-Sovereign. 1821. 1st issue, 1st type. Obv. As the Sovereign. Rev. 

Garnished shield with arms as on No. 854, crowned and surrounded by roses, 
thistles and shamrocks, the letters w. w. p. (W. W. Pole) in the centre of 
three of the shamrock leaves ; around, ANNO 1821. M -75. 

On account of its resemblance to the sixpence, which was often 
gilt (see No. 897), the half-sovereign of the above type was soon with- 
drawn from circulation, and the following one issued in its stead. 

891. Half-Sovereign. 1823. 1st issue, 2nd type. Same as the preceding ; but on 

the rev., square shield, crowned ; arms as on No. 854; below, thistle and 
shamrock issuing from rose ; around, ANNO 1823. AI '75. 

Dates 1823-1825.* 




Sovereign. 1826. 2nd issue. Obv. GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA. 
Head of king to 1. ; below, 1826. Rev. BRITANNIARUM REX FID : 
DEF : Garnished shield, crowned ; arms as on No. 854. A7 '85. 

Dates 1825-1827 and 1829-1830. The obverse was designed and 
executed by William Wyon, after a medallion by Sir Francis Chantry, 
and the reverse by Merlen. 

The Half-Sovereign (No. 893) is of the same type as the sovereign. 
Dates 1826-1828. Five sovereign and two sovereign pieces of this type, 
but with a mantled shield, were struck, but not issued for circulation. 

894. Crown. 1821. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III! D : G : BRITANNIAR : SILVER. 
REX F : D : Large head of king to 1., laureate; below, B. p. 
(B Pistrucci). Rev. St. George and the Dragon, &c., as on No. 888 ; date 
1821; edge, DECUS &c., ANNO REGNI SECUNDO. Ml'5. 

Dates 1821 and 1822. There is a pattern of 1820. 



* The half-sovereign and double-sovereign of 1823 might be considered as a 
separate issue ; but as the types of the sovereign did not change and were in part 
used for these coins they are included in the first issue. 



154 ENGLISH COINS. 

Plate xxxviii. 895-897. Half-Crown. 1820. 1st issue. Obv. Same as the Crown. Ecu. Garnished 
SILVER. shield, crowned ; below, rose ; at sides, thistle and shamrock ; on the leaves 

of the shamrock are the letters w. w. p. (William Wellesley Pole) ; around, 
ANNO 1820; edge milled, a* 1-25. 

Dates 1820, 1821, and 1823. The Shilling (No. 896) and Sixpence 
(No. 897), both dated 1821, are of the same type. They are of 1820 
and 1821, but those of 1820 may be patterns only. The obverses of 
all these pieces were by Pistrucci, and the reverses by Merlen. 

898. Half-Crown. 1823. 2nd issue. Obv. Same as the Half-Crown of the first 
issue, No. 895. Rev. Square shield, crowned and encircled by the Garter 
with motto and Collar of the Order; below, ANNO 1823. M 1-25. 

Dates 1823-1825. The dies of the silver coins of this issue 
were by Pistrucci, who did the obverses, and by Merlen, who did 
the reverses. 

899-900. Shilling. 1823. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but omitting the 
Collar of the Garter on the reverse. 2R 9. 

Dates 1823-1825. The Sixpence, 1824 (No. 900), is of the same type. 
Dates 1824-1826. There are no crowns of this issue. 

Plate xxxix. 901. Half-Crown. 1826. 3rd issue. Obv. Same as the Sovereign, No. 892. Rev. 
BRITANNIARUM REX FID : DEF : Square shield slightly garnished, 
surmounted by helmet crowned and with lambrequins ; below on scroll, 
the motto of the Garter, .si -25. 

Dates 1825, 1826, 1828, and 1829. There is a pattern dated 1824. 
The obverses of all the coins of this issue were by William Wyon, and 
the reverses by J. B. Merlen. Crowns of this type were also struck in 
1825 and 1826, but not issued for circulation. 

902-903. Shilling. 1826. 3rd issue. Obv. Same as the Sovereign, No. 892. Rev. 
BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR. The royal crest, the lion 
standing on the crown ; below, rose, thistle and shamrock united. Si ' 9. 

Dates 1825-1829. The Sixpence (No. 903) is of the same type, date 
and legends. Dates 18261829. These pieces are known as " Lion 
Shillings and Sixpences." The reverses were by Merlen. 

904-907. Maundy Money. Groat. 1823. Obv. GEORGIUS III! D. G. 
BRITANNIAR. REX F. D. Head of king to 1., laureate, as on the 
Crown, No. 894. Rev. Within oak- wreath the numeral 4, crowned and 
dividing the date 1823. JR - 1. 

The Threepence (No. 905), Half-Groat (No. 906), and Penny (No. 907) 
are all of the same type and date, but with marks of value, 3, 2 and 
1 respectively. This head by Pistrucci was preserved on the Maundy 
money throughout the reign. The dies for the reverses were by 
Merlen. Sets are known of 1821-1830 inclusive. 

COPPER. 908. Farthing. 1821. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III! DEI GRATIA. Bustof 
king to 1., laureate and draped. Rev. BRITANNIAR : REX FID : 
DEF : Britannia, helmeted, seated to r. ; her r. hand holding branch rests 
on her shield; in 1., trident ; at her side, lion; in exergue, 1821. JE '9. 

Dates 1821-1826, except 1824. The dies for this coin were 
engraved by Pistrucci. As no dies were made for the farthing of the 
second issue till 1826, that date is found with the type of the first issue. 



GEOBGE IV. 155 

909-911. Penny. 1825. 2nd issue. Obv. GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA. Head Plate xxxix. 

of king to 1., laureate; below, 1825. Rev. Same as the preceding, but COPPER. 
Britannia without branch, and no lion ; below, rose, thistle and shamrock 
united. Ml- 35. 

Dates 1825-1827. The Halfpenny (No. 910) and Farthing (No. 911) 
are of the same type. Dates, halfpenny 1825-1827, farthing 
1826-1830. The dies were engraved by William Wyon. Half- 
farthings and one-third farthings of the same type were struck for 
colonial currency : the former for Ceylon ; the latter for Malta. 

William IV. 1830-1837. 

COINAGE. Gold. Sovereign and Half-Sovereign. Silver. Half-Crown, 
Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, and Maundy Groat, Threepence, Half-Groat, 
and Penny. Copper. Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUE, tkc. One in each metal (see descriptions). The weights 
and fineness of all the coins were the same as of the coinage of 
George IV. 

912-913. Sovereign! 1831. Obv. GULIELMUS III! : D : G : BRITANNIAR : GOLD. 
REX F : D : Head of king to r. ; on neck w. w. (William Wyon). Eev. 
Garnished shield, crowned; arms as on No. 854; below, ANNO 1831. 

AT '85. 

Dates 1831-1837. The Half-Sovereign, 1834 (No. 913,, is of the 
same type. Dates 1834-1837. Two pound pieces of similar type to 
the sovereign were struck but not issued for currency. They have 
the shield on a mantle and are dated 1831. The obverses of all the 

r~~ins were by Wyon, the bust of the king being done after a model by 
hantry, and the reverses were by Merlen. 



4. Half-Crown. 1834. Obv. Similar to the Sovereign. Eev. Plain square shield SILVER 
on mantle, crowned ; at base, the Collar of the Garter ; below, ANNO 1 834. 
al-26. 

Dates 1831 and 1834-1837. That of 1831 was not issued for 
circulation. Crowns of similar type were struck in 1831 and 1834, 
but not for circulation. 






5-916. Shilling. 1834. Obv. Same as the Sovereign. Eev. Within wreath of 
laurel and oak, ONE SHILLING; above, crown; below wreath, 1834, 



Dates 1831 and 1834-1837. That of 1831 was not issued for 
circulation. The Sixpence (No. 916) is of similar type and date, but sub- 
stituting the words SIX PENCE on the rev. Dates 1831 and 1834-1837. 

17. Groat. 1836. Obv. Same as the Sovereign. Eev. FOUR PENCE. 
Britannia seated to r., with r. hand on shield and trident in 1. ; in the 
exergue, 1836. M '65. 

Dates 1836 and 1837. The issue of the groat is said to have been 
revived in 1836 at the instance of Mr. Joseph Hume; hence they 
were nicknamed " Joeys." It was discontinued in 1856 (see next reign). 
Its weight was about 29 grs. The silver three-halfpence with the 
reverse 1 and the date within an oak-wreath was struck during this 
and the next reign for currency in Jamaica and Ceylon. 



156 ENGLISH COINS. 

into xxxix. 918-921. Maundy Money. Groat. 1831. Obv. Same as the Sovereign. Rev. 
SUM) Within oak -wreath the numeral 4, crowned, and dividing the date 1831. 

JR -7. 

The Threepence (No. 919), Half-Groat (No. 920), and Penny 
(No. 921) are of the same type and date ; but have the marks of 
value 3, 2 and 1 respectively. They all occur of 1831-1837. 

Coi-i'EK. 922-924. Penny. 1831. Obv. GULIELMUS III! DEI GRATIA. Headofking 

as on the Sovereign ; below, 1831. Rev. BRITANNIAR : REX FID : 

DEF : Britannia seated to r., &c., as on No. 917; in the exergue, rose, 
thistle and shamrock united. M 1-35. 

Dates 1831, 1834, 1836, and 1837. The Halfpenny (No. 923) and 
Farthing (No. 924) are of the same type and date. The dates of 
the halfpenny are the same as those of the penny, but those of 
the farthing are 1831 and 1834-1837. Half and one-third farthings 
were struck for colonial currency as in the previous reign (see note 
Nos. 909-911). The copper coins are of precisely the same weights 
as those of George Ill's last issue and of George IV, viz., 24 pence, 
48 halfpence, and 96 farthings to the pound avoirdupois. 



Victoria. 1837. 

COINAGE. Gold. Five Pounds, Two Pounds, Sovereign, and Half- 
Sovereign. Silver. Crown, Double-Florin, Half-Crown, Florin, Shil 
ling, Sixpence, Groat, Threepence, and Maundy Groat, Threepence, 
Half-Groat, and Penny. Copper and Bronze. Penny, Halfpenny, and 
Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There were three issues in each metal, gold, silver, and 
copper or bronze. Those of the gold and silver correspond in dates, but 
the changes in the copper or bronze occurred at other periods. Gold and 
Silver : 1st issue (1838-1887). Gold : Sovereign and Half -Sovereign. 
Silver: Crown, Half-Crown, Florin, Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, and 
Threepence. 2nd issue (1887-1892, Jubilee Coinage). Gold: Five 
Pounds, Two Pounds, Sovereign, and Half-Sovereign. Silver : Crown, 
Double-Florin, Half-Crown, Florin, Shilling, Sixpence, and Threepence. 
3rd issue (1893-), same as the 2nd issue, but the Double-Florin 
excepted, its issue being discontinued. Copper and Bronze : three 
issues, viz. (1) 1837-1860, (2) 1860-1894, (3) 1895- : Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing in each issue. The first is of copper, but the 
second and third are of bronze (see descriptions). 

The weights and fineness of the gold and silver coins remained the 
same as during the previous reigns, or as the last coinage of George III ; 
but in the base metal money the change from copper to bronze brought 
with it a considerable diminution in weight ; the copper money being 
struck at 24dL and the bronze at 48d. to the pound avoirdupois. In. 
each metal the coins underwent some modifications in their types of 
more or less importance. 

925. Sovereign. 1838. 1st issue, 1st type. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1838. 
Head of the Queen to 1., diademed ; on neck, w. w. (\V. \Vyon). Rev. 









VICTORIA. 157 

BRITANNIARUM REGINA FID : DEF : Shield crowned within laurel- Plate xxxix. 

branches ; below, rose, thistle and shamrock united. AT -85. GOLU. 

Dates 1838-1874, except 1840 and 1867. As the succession to the 
throne of Hanover was limited to the male line, and devolved after the 
death of William IV on his brother, the Duke of Cumberland, the 
arms of that state are omitted on the royal shield. 

926. Sovereign. 1871. 1st issue, 2nd type. Obv. VICTORIA D : G : 

BRITANNIAR : REG : F : D : Head of the Queen as on the preceding. 
Rev. St. George and the Dragon ; below, 1871. AT -85. 

This reverse type, which was made by Pistrucci for the coinage of 
1816, was adopted by Order in Council 14 Jan. 1871, and has remained 
in use till the present day. Dates 1871-1887, except 1875, 1877, 
1881, and 1882. This and the preceding type were struck concurrently 
from 1871 to 1874. 

927. Half-Sovereign. 1838. 1st issue. Same as the Sovereign, No. 925, but without 

w. w. on neck of Queen, and on the reverse the shield is garnished and the 
laurel-branches are omitted. AT 75. 

Dates 1838-1887, except 1840, 1862, 1868, 1881, and 1882. The 
live pounds of this issue with the reverse type Una and the lion was 
only struck as a pattern. 

C28. Crown. 1845. 1st issue. Similar to the Sovereign, No. 925 ; but date 1845, SILVKR. 
and on neck w WYON R A : on edge, DECUS ET TUTAMEN 
ANNO REGNI VIII. jRl'5. 

Dates 1844-1847 and 1851. A crown similar in type to the florin 
(No. 930), called " The Gothic Crown," was struck in 1846, 1847, and 
1853, but though specimens are often met with, it was not issued for 
circulation. There are several varieties, with and without roses, &c., 
on dress, and with the edge plain or inscribed. The dies were made by 
William Wyon. 






929. Half-Crown. 1845. 1st issue. Same as the Crown, but no artist's name 

on neck and edge milled. JR 1'25. 

Dates 1839-1851, 1862, 1864, and 1874-1887. That of 1839 was 
not issued for circulation. Those of 1839, 1840, 1862, and 1864 have 
w. w. on the neck. 

930. Florin. 1849. 1st issue, 1st type. Obv. VICTORIA REGINA 1849. Bust 

of the Queen to 1., crowned, dress decorated with roses, thistles and 
shamrocks; behind, w. w. (William Wyon). Rev. ONE FLORIN ONE 
TENTH OF A POUND. Four shields ; 1 and 3, England ; 2, Scotland ; 
and 4, Ireland, crowned and arranged in form of cross ; in the centre, a 
rose ; in the angles, two roses, a thistle and a shamrock, each under an 
arched canopy. . 1*1. 

On account of the absence of the words " Dei Gratia " in the legends 
this coin is known as the " Godless or Graceless Florin." It occurs 
only of 1848 and 1849, but the latter date was the first year in which 
this denomination was struck for currency. Its type was then changed 
to the following. 

931. Florin. 1852. 1st issue, 2nd type. Same as the preceding, but the legends 

on both sides are in Gothic letters, and that on the obv. reads i[trtaru tl : 
S : font : rcg : f : 5 : mtlcrcltt. ; outside, border of arches and trefoils; on 
the rev. there is a floriated cross instead of a rose in the centre. Si 1-15. 
Dates 1851-1881 and 1883-1887. This coin is slightly larger in 



158 



ENGLISH COINS. 



Plate xxxix. diameter than the florin of 1849. In 1868 the inscription was changed 
SILVER, from brtt. to fcrttt. 

932-933. Shilling. 1845. 1st issue. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRI- 
TANNIAR:REG:F:D: Head of the Queen as on the Sovereign, 
No. 925. Rev. Within wreath of laurel and oak, ONE SHILLING; above, 
crown ; below, 1845. JR '9. 

Dates 1838-1887. The Sixpence (No. 933) is of the same type and 
date, but on rev. the value SIX PENCE. Dates as the shilling, but that 
of 1848 was not issued for circulation. 

934. Groat. 1845. 1st issue. Obv. VICTORIA D : G : BRITANNIAR : 
REGINA F : D : Head of the Queen as on the Shilling. Rev. FOUR 
PENCE. Britannia with her attributes seated to r. ; in the exergue, 
1845. JR -65. 

Dates 1838-1851 and 1853-1856. The issue of this coin was dis- 
continued in 1856, but it remained in currency till 1887. The three- 
pence is of the same type as the Maundy threepence. It was first 
issued for general circulation in 1845. 

Plate xl. 935-938. Maundy Money. Groat. 1838. Obv. Same as the preceding. Rev. 
Within oak-wreath the numeral 4, crowned and dividing the date 1838. 
a -7. 

The Threepence (No. 936), Half-Groat (No. 937), and Penny (No. 
938) are of the same type and date, but with marks of value, 3, 2 
and 1 respectively. Sets are dated 1838-1887. The Jubilee bust was 
not adopted on the Maundy money till 1888, as the new coinage did 
not come into circulation till June, 1887. 

COPPER. 939-941. Penny. 1841. 1st issue. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA. Head of 
the Queen to 1., diademed; on neck, w. w. (W. Wyon) incuse. Rev. 
BRITANNIAR : REG FID : DEF : Britannia seated to r. with her 
attributes as on the Penny of William IV, No. 922 ; in the exergue, rose, 
thistle and shamrock united. JE 1-35. 

The Halfpenny (No. 940) and Farthing (No. 941) are of the same 
type, &c. The dates are: penny 1841, 1843-1849, and 1851-1859; 
halfpenny 1838, 1841, 1843-1849, 1851, and 1859 ; farthing 1838-1860. 
These coins were struck at the rate of 24e. to the pound avoirdupois. 

BRONZE. 942-944. Penny. 1860. 2?wZ issue. Obv. VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : REG : 
F : D : Bust of the Queen to 1., laureate and draped ; on shoulder, rose, 
thistle and shamrock united, the motto of the Garter, and L. c. WYON. 
Rev. ONE PENNY. Britannia seated to r. with her attributes; behind, 
lighthouse; before, ship; in exergue, 1860. ^1-2. 

The Halfpenny (No. 943) and Farthing (No. 944) are of the 
same type, but have their values on the reverse, HALFPENNY and 
FARTHING. This new coinage was instituted in 1860 and the type 
was continued till 1894 ; no change taking place in 1887 when the 
Jubilee gold and silver were issued. The metal is composed of 95 parts 
copper, 4 parts tin, and 1 part zinc, and the coins were struck at 48oL to 
the pound avoirdupois. Dates 1860-1894 for each denomination. 

GOLD. 945-947. Five Pounds. 1887. 2nd issue. Obv. VICTORIA D : G : BRITT : 
REG : F : D : Bust of the Queen to 1., crowned with the imperial crown 
and draped, wearing long veil falling down behind her head, Ribbon and Star 
of the Garter and badge of the Imperial Order of the Crown of India ; on 
shoulder, j. E. B. (Joseph Edgar Boehm). Rev. St. George and the Dragon, 



VICTOKIA. 159 

as on the Sovereign of George III, No. 853, but no Garter; below, 1887 Plate xl. 
and B. P. (Benedetto Pistrucci). A/ 1-45. GOLD. 

In 1887 it was decided to commemorate the Jubilee of Her Majesty the 
Queen by the issue of a new coinage in gold and silver. The bust of the 
Queen on the obverse was adopted from Boehm's medal commemorating 
the Jubilee, and the reverse types are from various coins of this and 
earlier reigns. The St. George and the Dragon is from Pistrucci's 
original design made for the coinage of 1816. 

The Two Pounds (No. 946) and Sovereign (No. 947) are of precisely 
the same type as the five pounds. The edges of all are milled. The 
five pounds and two pounds were struck in 1887 only. 

948. Half-Sovereign. 1887. 2nd issue. Same as the Half-Sovereign of the 1st 

issue, No. 927, but with bust of the Queen as on the preceding ; and on the 
rev. the date 1887 below the shield, which is surmounted by the Imperial 
crown. AT -75. 

The dates of the sovereign and half-sovereign are 1887-1892. 

949. Crown. 1887. 2nd issue. Same as the Five Pounds, No. 945 ; edge, milled. SILVER. 

Ml- 5. 
Dates 1887-1892. 

950. Double-Florin. 1887. 2nd issue. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA. Bust 

of the Queen as on No. 945. Rev. FID : DEF : BRITT : REG : 1887. 
Four shields, 1 and 3, England ; 2, Scotland ; and 4, Ireland ; each 
crowned and arranged in form of cross ; in centre, Star of the Garter, from 
which spring four sceptres. M 1'4. 

Dates 1887-1890. The reverse type is adapted from the five guineas 
of Anne. 

951. Half-Crown. 1887. 2nd issue. Obv. Same as the preceding. Rev. BRI- 

TANNIARUM REGINA FID : DEF : 1887. Square shield, crowned and 
encircled by the Garter with motto and Collar of the Order. JR I' 25. 

Dates 1887-1892. The reverse type is adapted from the half-crown 
of George IV (No. 898). 

952. Florin. 1887. 2nd issue. Same as the Double-Florin, No. 950. & 1-15. 
Dates 1887-1892. 

953-954. Shilling. 1887. 2nd issue. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITT: 
REGINA F : D : Bust of the Queen, as on No. 945. Rev. Square 
shield, crowned, within the Garter with motto; below, 1887. M '9. 

Dates 1887-1892. The reverse type is adapted from that of the 
shilling of George IV (see No. 899). The Sixpence (No. 954) is of the 
same type; but as its reverse was so similar to that of the half- 
sovereign (see No. 948), which led to frauds being perpetrated by 
gilding, it was changed in the same year (1887) to the old type as 
No. 933, i.e. SIX PENCE within a wreath, c. Dates 1887-1892. 

955-958. Maundy Money. 2nd issue. Groat. 1888. Obv. VICTORIA D : G : 

BRITANNIAR : REGINA F : D : Bust of the Queen as on No. 945. 

Rev. Within oak-wreath the numeral 4, crowned and dividing the date 

1888. M -7. 

The Threepence (No. 956), Half-Groat (No. 957), and Penny (No. 958) 
are of the same type and date, but with marks of value 3, 2 and 1 
respectively. 

The Maundy money of 1887 being struck before June of that year 
has the bust of the Queen of the old type. Sets are dated 1888-1892. 



160 ENGLISH COINS. 

ri.-itrxi. 959_962. Five Pounds. 1893. 3rd issue. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRA 
GOLI-. BRITT REGINA FID DEF IND IMP Bust of the Queen 

to 1., draped, and wearing veil over large crown, Ribbon and Star of the 

Garter and necklet with pendant; below, T. B. (Thomas Brock). Rev. 

St. George and the Dragon; below, B. p. (Benedetto Pistrucci), and date, 

1893; edge milled. A7 1-4. 

On account of the somewhat unfavourable reception by the public of 
the Jubilee coinage of 1887, chiefly with reference to the portrait of 
the Queen and its general execution, it was decided to issue in 1893 a 
new one. With the exception of the discontinuation of the double- 
florin the denominations remained the same : but considerable modifi- 
cations took place in the types. Those of all the gold coins were 
assimilated. A new model for the bust of the Queen was made by the 
sculptor, Mr. Thomas Brock, and in the case of the half-crown, florin and 
shilling new reverse types were adopted. No change took place in the 
copper or bronze coinage at this time. This was not effected till 1895 ; 
when the same bust and titles of the Queen were used as on the gold 
and silver coins, and on the reverse the lighthouse and the ship were 
omitted. 

The Two Pounds (No. 960), Sovereign (No. 961), and Half- 
Sovereign (No. 962) are all of the same type and date as the five 
pounds. The reverses of all these coins are from the original model by 
Pistrucci. The five and two pound pieces are of 1893 only ; but the 
other pieces are of each succeeding year. Except that no sovereigns 
are dated 1897. 

SILVER. 963. Crown. 1893. 3rd issue. Same as the Five Pounds; but edge inscribed, 

DECUS ET TUTAMEN ANNO REGNI LVII. * 1-5. 
All the silver coins are dated with each successive year from 1893. 

964. Half-Crown. 1893. Srdisstie. Obv. VICTORIA DEI GRA BRITT 

REG Bust of the Queen, as on No. 959. Rev. FID DEF IND 
IMP.-HALF CROWN ; below, 1893. Spade-shaped shield, crowned and 
surrounded by the collar of the Garter, m 1'25. 

The reverse was designed by Mr. T. Brock. 

965. Florin. 1893. 3rd issue. Obv. Same as the Five Pounds. Rev. The three 

shields of England, Scotland and Ireland, arranged in the form of a triangle, 
and within the Garter with motto ; behind, two sceptres ; above, crown ; and 
in the angles formed by the shields, a rose, a thistle, and a shamrock ; around 
is inscribed, TWO SHILLINGS-ONE FLORIN-1893. jil-l. 
The reverses of this coin and the next, the shilling, are by Sir E. J. 
Poynter, P.R.A. 

966. Shilling. 1893. 3rd issue. Similar to the preceding, but on the rev. each 

shield is crowned ; there are no sceptres, and the inscription reads, ONE 
SHILLING 1893. JR -9. 

967. Sixpence. 1893. 3rd issue. Obv. Same as the Five Pounds. Rev. SIX 

PENCE within a wreath of laurel and oak; above, a crown; below, 
1893. M -75. 

968-971. Maundy Money. 3rd issue. Groat. 1893. Obv. Same as the Five 
Pounds. Rev. Within oak-wreath the numeral 4, crowned and dividing 
the date 1893. a -7. 



VICTOBIA. 



161 



The Threepence (No. 969), Half-Groat (No. 970), and Penny 
(No. 971) are of the same type and date; but with marks of value 
3, 2 and 1 respectively. Sets from 1893. 

972-974. Penny. 1895. 3rd issue. Obv. Samej as the Five Pounds of 1893, 
No. 959. Rev. ONE PENNY. Britannia seated to r., holding shield 
and trident; in the exergue, 1895. M 1-2. 

The Halfpenny (No. 973) and Farthing (No. 974) are of the same 
tvpe and date; but vary in the legend on the reverse, HALFPENNY 
or FARTHING. All are dated from 1895. 

In this new issue it will be seen that on the reverse the representa- 
tions of the lighthouse and the ship, which occur on the previous one, 
are omitted. 



Plate xl. 



( 162 ) 



SCOTTISH COINS. 

THE early currency in Scotland before the beginning of the 1 2th century 
consisted mainly of Anglo-Saxon and English pennies and North- 
umbrian stycas. Finds of such coins occur occasionally not only on the 
mainland but also in the western and north-western islands. The 
earliest coins which can be assigned to any Scottish ruler are pennies 
of David I. Lindsay, in his Coinage of Scotland, has attributed imita- 
tions of the " Crux " type pennies of Aethelred II to certain early 
kings of the Hebrides, and he also assigns a coin to Malcolm III, 
which has been clearly shown to be of Malcolm IV. Even after the 
accession of David I there was a considerable preponderance of 
English over Scottish coins in currency in Scotland, and this continued 
until the reigns of Edward I, II, and III, at which time the ratio of 
English to Scottish was about thirty to one. The types of the early 
Scottish coins are similar to those of the contemporary coinage 
of England ; those of David being almost identical with Stephen's. 
Their weight too was about the same, ranging from about 24 to 22 
grs. to the penny ; the normal weight being 22^ grs. 



David I. 1124-1153. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

The weight of the penny was 224- grs., and its fineness Hy\j silver 
and y 9 ^ alloy. 

Plate xli. 1. Penny. Roxburgh. Obv. DAVIT RX (retrograde). Bust of king to r., 
SILVER crowned ; before, sceptre. Eev. ^h [hVSJO ON ROC h (Roxburgh). Cross 

fleury with pellet in each angle. JR -95. Wt. 21-3. 

The other mints of this reign are Berwick, Carlisle, and Edinburgh : 
but on account of the blundered state of the legends the mint-names 
are often illegible. This and the next coin appear to belong to the 
early part of David's reign. 

2. Penny. Uncertain mint. Similar to the preceding, but the legends are only 
partly legible on the rev. 2R '9. Wt. 18 '7. 

This is one of the class of coins which have been attributed to 
Alexander I. There is only one other type of the coinage of this 
reign. It has on the obverse the usual bust of the king in profile with 
sceptre, and on the reverse a cross moline with lis in each angle. This is 
one of the commonest types of the coins of Stephen. The mints of 
this type are Edinburgh, Carlisle, and Roxburgh. 






HENRY, EARL OF NORTHUMBERLAND. 163 

Henry, Earl of Northumberland.* 1139-1152. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny. Plate xii. 

The weight and fineness are as David I's coinage. 

3. Penny. Uncertain mint. Obv. 3* HEI/IR COM. Bust to r., crowned; SILVER. 
before, sceptre. Ecv. >$ : WILEL : M : O . . . Cross crosslet with 
cross pattee in each angle, connected by a loop with the inner circle. 
M '8. Pierced.- 

The mint-name on this coin is effaced ; but coins of Earl Henry 
are known of Bamborough and Corbridge. The type is copied from 
coins of Stephen, whose bust is probably intended to be represented on 
the obverse. Others of the Scottish type, similar to coins of David I 
(Nos. 1 and 2), have been attributed to Henry, Earl of Northumber- 



Malcolm IV. 1153-1165. 

This king, who was the eldest son of Henry, Earl of Northumber- 
land, struck pennies at Roxburgh and Jedburgh ?. They have on the 
obverse the full-face bust with sceptre as on the contemporary coins of 
Henry II of England, and on the reverse a cross fleury with a pellet 
and a rosette in the alternate angles, or a lozenge fleury over a cross 
fleury. A unique coin (Jedburgh 1) has the bust to r. with sceptre, and 
on the reverse a cross pattee with a crescent and pellet in each angle, 
and the legend FO . . . ALT O Nl CVT. The weight and fineness 
are as the money of David I. The coins of Malcolm IV are very rare. 



William the Lion. 1165-1214. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. Four. These are distinguished by the varieties of the 
obverse and reverse types mentioned below (see descriptions). 
The weight and fineness are as David I's coinage. 

Penny. Roxburgh. 1st issue. Obv. ^ W I L ELM VS. Bust of king to r., 
crowned; before, sceptre. Eev. *%* FOL : FOLD ON ROC. Cross 
potent with lis in each angle, xt "8. Wt. 22 '0. 

This type is similar to that of the later coins of David I. There are 
two varieties of this coin : on one the ends of the cross on the reverse 
are larger and crutch-shaped : on the other the lis are attached to the 
ler circle by two stalks. Each variety is unique and of Roxburgh. 

Halfpenny. Roxburgh. 1st issue. Obv AM ... Head of king tor., 

crowned; no sceptre. Eev ROG. Cross potent with lis and pellet 

in each angle. JR -6. Wt. 8 -3. 

This coin, which appears to be unpublished, no mention being made 
of it by Burns, Cochran-Patrick or other writers on Scottish coins, 



* Son of David I ; was created by Stephen of England Earl of Northumberland 
in 1139. He died before his father, but Malcolm and William, his sons, became 
kings of Scotland. 

M 2 



164 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xii. belongs to the same issue as No. 4, though slightly differing in both 
SILVER, obverse and reverse types. It is the earliest halfpenny of the Scottish 
series and is unique. 

6. Penny. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. ^ L Rl WILfiJTC. Head of king to 
1., crowned; before, sceptre. Bev. ^ RDRJTi ON 6D6N6BV. Cross 
potent with pellet and crescent in each angle, m '8. Wt. 22-9. 

Struck also at Berwick, Perth, Roxburgh, and Stirling. The last 
is unique. Some of this type are without the mint-name. 

T.Penny. Perth. 3rd issue. Obv. * WILLLMVS R6X. Head of king to 1., 
crowned; before, sceptre. Eev. <% WSLT6R : ON : PR. Short double 
cross with star in each angle. M '8. Wt. 22*9. 

Struck also at Edinburgh and Roxburgh ; also without mint-name 
(see next piece). Double names, such as " Peris Adam " and " Aimer 
Adam," occur on coins of this type. 

S.Penny. 3rd issue. Obv. * WILL6LMVS R. Same as the last. Rev. hV6 
WALTER ON. Same as the last, m -8. Wt. 21'3. 

There is a large series of coins of this moneyer without mint-name. 
Others also without mint-name have the names " Raul Derlig " and 
" Walter Adam " both of Roxburgh and " Henri le Rus," a Perth 
moneyer. The coins with "Hue Walter " were probably struck at 
Edinburgh and Roxburgh. There are numerous small varieties of this 
series. 

9. Penny. Eoxburgh. 4th issue. Obv. %< WILL6LMVS R6X : Same as 
No. 7, but head to r. Bev. * PRIS RD7UTI ON RO. Same as No. 7. 
2B -7. Wt. 22-5. 
This type occurs of Roxburgh only. 

Alexander II. 1214-1249. 
COINAGE. Silver. Penny. 

ISSUES, &c. All the coins of this reign have the same reverse type, 
viz., the short double cross with star in each angle, similar to William 
the Lion's 3rd issue ; but the obverses show the following varieties : (1) 
bare head to 1., without sceptre ; (2) same, with sceptre ; (3) bare head 
to r., with sceptre ; (4) crowned head to r., with sceptre ; (5) crowned 
head to 1., with sceptre. (See also coinage of Alexander III.) 

The weight and fineness are as David I's coinage. 

10. Penny. Roxburgh. 2nd type. Obv. ALQSfiNDSR R9X. Head of king 

to 1., bare; before, sceptre. Bev. J< PI6(R(S ON ROQ. Short double 
cross with star in each angle, xt 7. Wt. 21 5. 

11. Penny. Roxburgh. <lth type. Obv. Same as the last, but head of king to r., 

crowned ; before, sceptre. Bev. * fiNDRV : RIQftR : RDfiM ON RO. 

Same as the last. JR -7. Wt. 21-5. 

There are evidently three moneyers' names on this coin. Others 
have the names of " Alain Andreu." The only other ascertained mint 
of this reign is Berwick, of which only three specimens are known. 
They are all of the 4th type and bear the joint names " Walter 
Robert." 






ALEXANDER III. 165 

Alexander III. 1249-1285. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. Plate xii. 

ISSUES, &c. Two. The first issue consisted of Pennies only of the 
so-called "long double cross" type.* The second issue (A.D. 1279) 
comprised Pennies, Halfpennies, and Farthings of the " long single 
cross pattee " type. 

The weight of the early pennies varies from 24 to 20 grs. ; but 
those of the second issue show an average weight of 22^ grs. The 
fineness of all is as the coinage of David I. 

12. Penny. Aberdeen. 1st issue. Obv. RLSXRNDQR RG(X. Head of king to SILVER. 

1., crowned; before, sceptre. Rev. TO5TIRS ON AN. Long double cross 
pommee with star in each angle. JR 1. Wt. 19 3. 

There are three varieties of obverse type of this issue, viz. (1) crowned 
head to 1., with sceptre ; (2) crowned head to r., with sceptre ; (3) bare 
head to r., with sceptre. 

13. Penny. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Same as the preceding, but reading on the 

rev. fil_e(X ON eCDQN. JR -7. Wt. 20-2. 

14. Penny. Perth. 1st issue. Similar to No. 12; but with head of king 

crowned to r. ; before, sceptre; and reading on the rev. ION QO ON 
PSR. JR -1. Wt. 21-3. 

The third variety has on the obverse the king's head to r., not 
crowned and with the usual sceptre. 

The mint-names on coins of this issue are Aberdeen, Berwick, Dun- 
bar, Edinburgh, Forres, Glasgow, Inchaffray (?), Inverness, Kinghorn, 
Lanark, Marchmont, Montrose, Perth, Renfrew (?), Ptoxburgh, St. 
Andrews, and Stirling. This large number of mints and the variations in 
the types show that the issue of this coinage must have extended over 
a considerable period. This is another strong reason for not attributing 
this type to Alexander II only. 

15. Penny. 2nd issue. Obv. % ALEXANDER Dl SRft. Head of king to 1., 

crowned ; before, sceptre. Rev. XSSCtOSSIS : RSX. Long cross pattee 
with mullet in each angle. JR -8. Wt. 21 '6. 

16. Penny. 2nd issue. Same as the last, but reading on the rev. RX 

SCOTORVM *. JR -8. Wt. 22-5. 

The coins of this issue are without names of moneyers or mints 
Stars instead of mulletsj occur sometimes on the reverse. These vary 



* These coins are classed to Alexander III on the recent authority of Burns (see 
Coinage of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 118-162). They were attributed by Cochran- 
Patrick to Alexander II, and were supposed to have been issued between A.D. 1247 
and 1249. This type was however not introduced into the English coinage till 
1248, and as the types of the Scottish coins were generally adopted from the 
English ones, it is not probable that this one made its first appearance in Scotland. 
On the same principle, if only " the long single cross pattee " coins are given to 
Alexander III, it would follow, that no coinage could have taken place in that 
reign before 1279, the date at which this type was adopted for the English coins. 
It is however not impossible that the " long double cross " type may have been 
introduced by Alexander II during the last two years of his reign, and continued 
without any alteration by his successor Alexander III. 

f A mullet only differs from a star in being pierced in the centre. 



166 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xii. in the number of points which they each have, from five to seven, and 

SILVER, show an aggregate from twenty to twenty-eight. Farthings were now 

issued for the first time, and these with the halfpennies became general. 

17. Halfpenny. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding coin, but with mullet in 

alternate angles only of the cross on the reverse ; the other two plain. 
2R -55. Wt. 9-0. 
This is the only type of the halfpenny. 

18. Farthing. 2nd issue. Same as the Penny, No. 16, but reading on the obv. 

& TXLGXTXNDeR R6X; and on the rev. SCOTORVM. jj -5. Wt. 6-8. 
Farthings have always mullets of six points, not stars, on the reverse. 



John Baliql. 1292-1296. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUE, &c. One : but of two varieties : i.e. without and with mint- 
name. The weight and fineness are as the second coinage of 
Alexander III. 

19. Penny. 1st var. Obv. * lOhANNQS DQI 6RR. Head of king to 1., 

crowned; before, sceptre. Rev. R6(X StfOTORVM >%<. Long cross pattee 
with mullet in each angle. JR -75. Wt. 22-8. 

As on the coins of Alexander III stars instead of mullets sometimes 
occur on the reverse. 

20. Penny. St. Andrews. 2nd var. Similar to the last, but reading on the rev. 

OIVITfiS SfiNDRQQ. JR &. Wt. 19-2. 

This is the only mint- name which is found on coins of this reign. 
The legends on both obverse and reverse of this and the preceding 
coin are slightly varied. 

21. Halfpenny. Same as the Penny, No. 19, but with a mullet in alternate 

angles only of tbe cross on the reverse. 2R *6. Wt. 12 -5. 
A variety has a mullet in each quarter of the cross on the reverse. 
No mint-name is found on the halfpennies and no farthings are known 
of this reign. 

Robert Bruce. 1306-1329. 
COINAGE. Silver. Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

ISSUE. One : in each denomination. The weight was at 21 grs. to 
the penny, but the fineness remained as in the reign of David I. 

22. Penny. Obv. & : ROB0RTVS : D6U : SRfi : Head of king to 1., crowned ; 

before, sceptre. Rev. SCOTORVM R(X K Long cross pattee with 
mullet in each angle, ai -8. Wt. 22-3. 

No mint-names occur on any of the coins of Robert Bruce. The 
penny is of the above type only. A slight reduction took place in the 
weight of the coins; the penny being at 21* grs. instead of 22 grs. 
Twenty-six shillings and three pence were struck to the pound instead 
of twenty shillings as in the reign of David I. 






EOBEET BRUCE. 167 

23. Halfpenny. Same type, &c., as the Penny, but mullet in two angles only of piate xli. 
the cross on the reverse. JR '55. Wt. lO'O. SILVER. 

This is the only type of the halfpenny. 

The farthing, of which there is no specimen in the National Collection, 
is of the same type as the penny. It is extremely rare. 



David II. 1329-1371. 

COINAGE. Gold. Noble. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c.Gold. One : Noble (circ. 1358). Silver. Three : 
1st issue (1329-1358), Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 2nd issue 
(1358-1366), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. 3rd issue 
(1366-1371), Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny. 

The weight of the noble was 120 grs., and of the silver, the 1st and 
2nd issues were at 18 grs. to the penny, and the 3rd issue at 17 grs. to 
the penny. The gold was 23 1 cts. fine and ^ ct. alloy, and the 
fineness of the silver as the money of David I. 

24. Noble. Obv. >k D7XVID : D6(l : (oRfi : RQX : SCXOTORVm (stops, GOLD. 

crosses) ; m. m. lis. The king crowned, standing facing in a ship, holding 
sword and shield with arms of Scotland. Rev. *% lhC( AVT6UTI 
TRfillCdeUIS P - meCDIVm ILLORVm - IB7XT. Cross fleury within 
a tressure of eight arches, trefoil in each spandril ; lion and crown in each 
angle of cross and cinquefoil in central compartment with lis at each 
angle. M 1-35. Wt. 119 -6 grs. 

This coin is an imitation of the noble of Edward III of England, 
first struck in 1344. There are no records connected with the issue 
of these first Scottish gold coins, but it must have occurred soon after 
David's return from captivity in 1357. It was probably connected 
with the first issue of the groat in 1358. The weight and fineness 
correspond with the nobles of the 4th issue (1351) of Edward III. 
Only five specimens are known and of two slight varieties in the 
obverse and reverse legends and in the stops between the words ; one 
having crosses and pellets ; the others saltires, annulets, and crosses. 

25. Penny. 1st Issue. Obv. * D7WID DQ! SRACdfi. Head of king to 1., SILVER. 

crowned ; before, sceptre. Rev. RSX SCCOTTORVHl. Cross pattee with 
mullet in each angle, jj -7. Wt. 15 '6. 

These are of the same type as the coins of Robert Bruce, with the 
exception of the introduction, in most cases, of the Old English STL and 
n for the Roman M and N. No mint-names occur on this issue. 
A variety reads R6(X saOTORVM. 

The halfpenny is similar to the penny ; but has mullets in two 
angles only of the cross on the reverse. A variety has a mullet and 
three pellets in alternate angles. 

26. Farthing. 1st issue. Same as the Penny, but the legend on the rev. reads 

RQX SaOTORVM. JR -5. Wt. 4-7. 

A curious variety of the farthing is of the same type, but has on the 
obverse the legend MONSTS RQSIS D and on the reverse AVID 
SaOTTOR. 



168 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xlii. 27. Groat. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. ^ D7WID : D6U SRfi : RSX 

SILVER. QOTORVfll : (sic) (stops, crosses). Bust of king to 1., crowned and dividing, 

below, the tressure which consists of six arches ; before, sceptre. Rev. 

I ons : pracxTOR ms . z LIBATOR ms__vii_Lfi e(DiriBVR6h 

(in two concentric circles ; stops, crosses). Long cross pattee dividing 
legends with mullet in each angle. JB 1-1. Wt. 72*6. 

The groat and half -groat were first struck in Scotland in 1358, 
the year following David's return from captivity at Durham. The 
type of the reverse was no doubt copied from the English groat, 
which first circulated in 1351. On some the letter D occurs in one 
of the quarters of the reverse ; it may be the initial of Donatus 
Mulekyn, an employe at the mint. 

28. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Same as the Groat, but the legend on 

the obv. ends SC(OTORV ; and on the rev. the outer one reads DftS 

pROTQcrroR mecvs. * -9. wt. 31-5. 

29. Penny. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. * D7WID RQX - SCCOTORVJTl 

(stops, crosses). Bust of king to 1., crowned; before, sceptre. Rev. 
VILLA 6(DinBVR6h. Long cross pattee with mullet in each angle. 
^ -75. Wt. 17-5. 

Groats, half-groats, and pennies of this issue were also minted at 
Aberdeen. This and Edinburgh are the only mints of this reign. 

The halfpenny of this issue is similar in type to the penny, but has 
a mullet in two angles only of the cross. It is of Edinburgh only, and 
appears to be unique. It is figured by Snelling, Silver Coins of Scot- 
land, PI. I., No. 32. 

30. Groat. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Same as No. 27, but the bust is larger, the 

handle of the sceptre is ornamented with a star ; there is a trefoil in each 
spandril of the tressure; and the obv. legend ends SQOTORVttl. m I' 15. 
Wt. 63-5. 

The coins of this issue differ but slightly from those of the previous 
one, but they are of coarser workmanship ; and the portrait of the 
king is similar to that of Kobert II. The groat was also minted at 
Aberdeen. 

31. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Same as No. 28, but with same varieties 

as on the last coin ; the obv. legend ends StfOTORVJTl. st. -9. Wt. 33-0. 

Struck only at Edinburgh. 

The penny is the same as that of the second issue, but has a similar 
bust to No. 30, and there is generally a star at the handle of the 
sceptre. It is of Edinburgh only. 



Robert II. 1371-1390. 

COINAGE.* Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. One in each denomination. The weight and fineness 
are as the third coinage of David II. 






* The gold coins, viz., the so-called St. Andrews of 39 grs. and lions of 38 grs. 
to 18 grs., formerly attributed to Robert II, are here all classed to Robert III (see 
note No. 38). 



EOBEET II. 169 

32. Groat. Edinburgh. Obv. * ROBQRTVS : DQI . <3RA : RQX : SaOTTORV Plate xlii. 

(stops, crosses). Bust of king to 1., crowned and dividing, below, the tressure SILVER. 
of six arches ; before, sceptre with saltire at handle ; behind B (Bonagio) ; * 
a trefoil in each spandril of tressure. Rev. J DR'S : PT9C(TOR JTl'S 

Z LIBATOR ttl'S VILLA QDIRBVRSh (in two concentric circles; 

stops, crosses). Long cross pattee dividing legends, mullet in each angle. 
JR1-1. Wt. 55-0. 

33. Groat. Perth. Same as the last, but star at handle of sceptre ; no letter 

behind king's head, and reading SCtOTORVM, and mint VILLA D6( 
PQRTh #. jjl-15. Wt. 59-8. 

Groats were also struck at Dundee. On most of the coins of this 
reign the handle of the sceptre ends in a saltire or a star. The bust 
of the king is very similar to that on the last coinage of David II. 
All the Dundee coins are very rare. 

34. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. Obv. <% ROB6(RTVS : DSI : 6RA : R9X : SCXO 

(stops, saltires). Bust of king to 1., crowned, &c., as on No. 32 ; but 
behind crown, a saltire. Eev. * DRS PROTeWTOR JTie(VS_VILLA 
QDIRBVRSh (in two concentric circles). Long cross pattee. &c., as on 
No. 32. JR -9. Wt. 32-6. 

35. Half-Groat. Perth. Same as the last, but star at handle of sceptre ; no 

saltire behind the crown, and reading on obv. SGOTORV5TI for SCXO, and 
on rev. the mint is VILLA DQ PQRTh *. 2B -85. Wt. 31-5. 
Struck also at Dundee. The half-groats and pennies, like the 

groats, of all three mints have sometimes the letter B behind the head 

of the king. (See No. 32.) 

36. Penny. Edinburgh. Obv. * ROBQRTVS - RSX SCXOTTOR' (stops, 

crosses). Bust of king to 1., crowned; before, sceptre. Rev. VILLA 
QDIRBVRSh. Long cross pattee with mullet in each angle, m -75. 
Wt.17-0. 

Struck also at Dundee and Perth. 

37. Halfpenny. Edinburgh. Similar type to the Penny, but the legends read ; 

obv. * ROB9RTVS R3X ; rev. VILLA SDIRBVG. M -6. Wt. 7'0. 
Struck also at Dundee, but none are known of Perth. The supposed 
Roxburgh halfpenny in the British Museum is a double-struck coin of 
Edinburgh. 

Robert III. 1390-1406. 

COINAGE. Gold. St. Andrew or Lion, and Demi-Lion or Demy. 
Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny. Billon.^ Penny 
and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. Gold. Two : 1st issue, St. Andrew or Lion (61-59^ 
grs.) and Demi-Lion or Demy (30 grs.). 2nd issue, St. Andrew or Lion 
(38 grs.) and Demi-Lion or Demy (19 grs.). Silver. Two: 1st issue, 
Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny, at 48 grs. to the Groat. 2nd 
issue, Groat only, at 30 grs. 

The standard of the gold was 22 cts. fine and 2 cts. alloy, and 
that of the groats and half -groats 11 T V fine silver and T 9 alloy (as 

* Bonagio, or Bonachius, was a Florentine engraver, who was employed at the 
Scottish mint during the reigns of David II and Robert II and III. 

t As no mention is made in the records of the coinage of a billon money, these 
pieces may be only very base silver coins. 

J These two issues in gold and silver are known as the heavy and the light 
coinages. 



170 



SCOTTISH COINS. 



Plate xiii. David I's money), but the other denominations were 2 pts. fine and 
1 pt. alloy. 

GOLD. 38. St. Andrew or Lion. Istissue. Obv. * ROBQRTVS | DQI : <3RA | R9X : 
SGOTORVJTl : (stops, partly pellets and partly lis and crescents). Shield, 
arms of Scotland, crowned. Rev. XPC( RQGIlftT XPC( VlftCUT XPa 
I5TCP7X. St. Andrew extended on the cross, which reaches to the edge 
of the coin ; on either side, lis. A; 1*05. Wt. 59 '6. 

A variety has the cross on the reverse, reaching only to the inner 
circle. The St. Andrew or lion was current for 5s., and the demi-lion 
for 2s. Gd. 

The gold coins till recently assigned to Robert II were the light 
St. Andrews of 38 grs. with the reverse legend " Dominus Protector," &c. 
(see next coin), and all the demi-lions, wrongly called lions, of from 
38 to 19 grs. There are, however, no records of any gold money 
having been coined by Robert II, and this wrong attribution 
appears to have arisen out of a mistaken nomenclature ; the St. 
Andrews being known when in circulation as lions, and their halves, 
now called lions, being denominated as demi-lions or demies.* The 
differences in the weight of the St. Andrew and of its half were caused 
by a change in the standard, which occurred about the middle of the 
reign of Robert III. The precise date is not known, but it must have 
been simultaneous with the change in the standard of the silver coins 
(see No. 41). Thus the heavy demi-lion is the half of the heavy 
St. Andrew, and the light demi-lion the half of the light St. Andrew. 



39. St. Andrew or Lion. 2nd issue. Obv. ^ ROB9RTVS : DQI 

RQX SQOT : (stops, crosses). Shield crowned, &c., as on the preceding. 

Eev. * DRS : PTQCTTO : MS : Z : LIBQR : M : (stops, crosses). St. 

Andrew extended without the cross; his hands and feet reaching beyond the 

inner circle ; on either side, lis. AT - 9. Wt. 37'0. 

A variety of the light St. Andrew has the reverse legend as on 
No. 38. 



40. Demi-Lion or Demy. 1st issue. Obv. >fr ROBQRTVS 
SQOTO (stops, partly pellets and partly lis and crescents 
Scotland, not crowned. Rev. XPQ : RQ6R7XT : XPC( 



DQI : 6 ; RQX 

Shield, arms of 



SILVER. 



. VIRC(T (stops as 

on obv.). A St. Andrew's cross extending to the edge; lis and trefoils in 
alternate angles, u -75. Wt. 30 -0. 

The light demi-lions (19 grs.) are of the same type, but on some the 
legend " Dominus Protector," &c., occurs as on the light St. Andrews. 
The latter are excessively rare. 

41. Groat. Perth. 1st issue. Obv. & ROBQRTVS DQI <3RA RQX 
SQOTTORV5U. Bust of king, facing, crowned, dividing tressure of seven 

arches. Rev. * DRS : PTSC(TOR MQ Z LIBfiTOR JUS VILLA : 

DQ : PQRTh *%* (in two concentric circles; stops, pellets and saltires). 
Long cross pattee dividing legends, three pellets in each angle. & 1*05. 
Wt. 42-0. 

This is a precise copy of the contemporary English groat, Those of 
the 1st issue, heavy money, were struck at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and 
Perth. And those of the 2nd issue, light money, are of Aberdeen, 
Dumbarton, and Edinburgh. The light groats are of the same type as 



Burns, Coinage of Scotland, vol. i., p. 283. 



EGBERT III. 171 

the heavy ones, but the portrait of the king is similar to James I's. Plate xlii 
The date of the change in the silver standard is uncertain. SILVER. 

42. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. p ROBQRTVS | D6U | (3 \ 

R6(X SC(OTOR. Bust of king, facing, &c., as on the Groat, but surrounded 
entirely by the tressure, which has seven arches. Rev. %< DdS 

PJSCXTOR : MS : LIBATO VILLA : QDIRBVR6 (in two concentric 

circles ; stops, pellets and saltires). Long cross pattee, &c., with pellets in 
angles as on the Groat. 2R -85. Wt. 21-5. 

Struck also at Perth. No half-groats, pennies or halfpennies of the 
2nd issue, light money, are known. 

43. Penny. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. * ROBQRTVS R3X SCXOTOR. 

Bust of king, facing, crowned. Rev. VILLA SDIftBVRSh. Long cross 
pattee with three pellets in each angle. JR '7. Wt. 12 -5. 

Struck also at Aberdeen and Perth. A variety is without the mint- 
name, and reads obv. ROBSRTVS D6U 6RACXIA; re0.~R6(X SC(OTORVm. 
The pennies and halfpennies of very base silver, and by some considered 
as billon money, are of the same type as the above. These pennies are 
of Aberdeen and Edinburgh, but the halfpennies are of Edinburgh 
only. 

44. Halfpenny. Edinburgh. 1st issiie. Same type, &c., as the Penny, but the 

obv. legend reads *% ROB3RTVS RSX SO(O JR -5. Chipped. 

Struck also at Perth. Like the penny, a variety is without the 
mint-name and reads RSX SQOTORVm. An example of this coin is 
figured in Cardonnel, Num. Scot., PI. IV., No. 2 ; but no specimen 
appears now to be known. 

James I. 1406-1437. 

COINAGE. Gold. Demy and Half-Demy. Silver. Groat. Billon. 
Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. One only in each metal. 

The weight of the demy was from 53 to 50 grs., that of the groat 
from 36 to 30 grs.,. and that of the billon penny 16 grs. The gold was 
22 cts. fine, but the fineness of the silver and billon is not recorded. 

. Demy. Obv. IACXOBVS DQI 6RACUA RQX S (stops, lis) ; m. m. Plate xliii. 
crown. Arms of Scotland on a lozenge-shaped shield. Rev. %< SA LVV5TI : GOLD. 
FAC( POPVLVm TVVm Dft - (stops, saltires and lis). A smaU St. 
Andrew's cross with the letter I (Jacobus) in centre, between two lis and 
within a floriated compartment of six curves, termed an orle ; in each 
curve, a quatrefoil. A/ '85. Wt. 51 '0. 
The demy and half-demy are sometimes known as the lion and half- 
lion. The current value of the demy at first appears to have been 9s. 
The derivation of its name is somewhat uncertain. It is supposed 
to have received it from having been of the same current value in Scot- 
land as the contemporary English half-noble. 

The St. Andrews and half-St. Andrews, formerly attributed to 
James I, are now classed to James II. (See No. 50.) 

4G. Half-Demy. Obv. IAC(OBVS D6U : SRAC(IA R : (stops, saltires and 
lis) ; m. m. crown. Arms of Scotland, &c., as on the preceding. Rev. 



172 



SCOTTISH COINS. 



Plat xliii. ^ SfiLVVm : FfiC( POPVLVm TV : A small St. Andrew's cross within 

G01D an orle, &c., as on the preceding, but above, the letter I (Jacobus), and 

below, a saltire. A7 -65. Wt. 26'0. 

The demy, of which there are many small varieties, is very common, 
but the half-demy is very rare. 

SILVER. 47. Groat. Edinburgh. Obv. * iTXtfOBVS . D9I . 6R7XC(m R6(X SC(OTOR . 
(stops, lis). Bust of king, facing, crowned, undraped ; sceptre and saltire to 
1., and I (Jacobus) to r. ; two saltires on breast ; all within tressure of seven 
arches, fleured. Rev. * DRS PT6(C(TOR - mS Z LIBfiTOR IU : 
VILL7\ QDIRBVRSh (in two concentric circles; stops, lis and saltires). 
Long cross pattee with lis and three pellets in alternate angles ; but in the 
third angle, a saltire on each side of the lis. jRl'O. Wt. 33-8. 

Struck also at Linlithgow, Perth, and Stirling. A variety which is 
rare, has the sceptre on the king's 1., i.e. to r. From their type these 
groats are known as " fleur-de-lis groats." The issue was a very large 

one, and the coins are remarkable for the variety of small ornaments on 
both sides, consisting of lis, trefoils, saltires, crescents, &c. This is the 
only denomination in silver known of this reign, although it would 
seem, from certain regulations regarding a new coinage in 1451, that half- 
groats of this type had been issued, and also that in 1435 silver coins of 
small denominations, pennies and halfpennies, were ordered to be struck. 

BILLON. 48. Halfpenny. Edinburgh. Obv. * I7\C(OBVS D6U SRft RSX. Bust 
of king, facing, crowned. Rev. %* VILLfi SDIftBV. Long cross pattee 
with three pellets in each angle. Bil. '6. Chipped. 

Struck at Edinburgh only. The penny, which is of the same type, 
was issued at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, and Inverness. These coins are, 
as a rule, of fine billon, being about half silver and half alloy. 



James II. 1437-1460. 

COINAGE. Gold. Demy, Lion, and Half -Lion. Silver. Groat, Half- 
Groat, and Penny. Billon. Penny. 

ISSUES, <fec. Gold. Two : 1st issue (1437-1451), Demy. 2nd issue 
(1451-1460), Lion and Half-Lion. Silver. Three : 1st issue (1437- 
1451), Groat (fleur-de-lis type). 2nd issue (after 1451), Groat, Half- 
Groat, and Penny (crown and pellet type). 3rd issue, Groat (same, but 
bust draped). Billon. One: Penny (after 1451). 

The weight of the demy was from 53 to 50 grs., as during the pre- 
vious reign, and that of the lion 54 grs. The silver coinage was at 36 to 
30 grs. to the groat for the first issue, and 59 grs. for the second and 
third. The gold coins were 22 cts. fine, but of the silver the fineness 
of the first issue is not recorded, whilst that of the second and third 
was 11 T V fine silver to f^ alloy, as David I's coinage. 

GOLD. 49. Demy. Obv. IfiCtBVS : D6(l : SRfiCUA : R0X : SC( (stops, annulets); 
m. m. crown. Arms of Scotland on a lozenge-shaped shield as on No. 45. 
Rev. * S7\LWm FfiC( POPVLVHl : TVVJTl : DRS : (stops, annulets). 
A St. Andrew's cross between two lis and within a floriated compartment 
similar to No. 45. AT -95. Wt. 50 -8. 

The demies of James II are very similar in type to those of the 
previous reign; but they may be distinguished by certain small 
varieties. The stops between the words are generally annulets ; the 



JAMES II. 173 

letter I in the centre of the cross on the reverse is usually omitted, piate xiiii. 
and the workmanship is somewhat neater in style. The demy was GOLD. 
current for 9s. at first, but in 1451 it was reduced to 6s. 8^., and in 
1456 again raised to 10s. 

50. Lion. Obv. IfiCOBVS D6U SR7\ : RQX : SCOTTORVHl (stops, saltires) ; 

m. m. crown. Shield of arms, crowned, and between two lis. Rev. XPC : 

RQSriTVT : XPC : VinCIT : XP (stops, saltires); m. m. crown. St. 

Andrew nimbate and extended on cross reaching to the edge of the coin ; 

crowned lis on either side, fj I'O. Wt. 51*5. 

A variety with open C's in the legends as above has a crown instead 
of a lis at each side of the shield on the obverse. The early pieces 
have the closed (X. The lion and half-lion, commonly called the St. 
Andrew and half-St. Andrew from their type, were ordered to be struck 
on the 25th October, 1451. The lion was at first current for 6s. 8d., 
but in 1456 it was raised to 10s. 

51. Half-Lion. Obv. I7XCOBVS D' SRA RQX SCOTOR; m.m. crown. Shield 

of arms, not crowned. Rev. Similar to the Lion, but the Saint is between 
two crowns ; m. m. crown. AT '75. Wt. 26'0. 

The half-lion is very rare ; only a few specimens being known. 

52. Groat. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS DQI SRfi RQX SILVER. 

SCOTORVJTl; m. m. crown. Bust of king, facing, crowned, no drapery, 
within tressure of nine arches. Rev. DHS PTQCTOR JUS Z 

LIBERATOR MS VILLA SDIRBVR6 (in two concentric circles; 

crown before each legend). Long cross pattee with three pellets enclosing 
an annulet and a crown in alternate angles. M 1*0. Wt. 57 '0. 

This type is known as the crown, and pellet type. Groats were 
issued at Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Perth, Roxburgh, and Stirling. 

The first issue of silver coins of this reign, previous to 1451, con- 
sisted of groats only of the fleur-de-lis type, and similar to the coinage 
of James I, from which they may be distinguished by having the bust of 
the king usually draped, and by the words of the legends being generally 
divided by two annulets or crescents. They were struck at Edinburgh, 
Liiilithgow, and Stirling. During this reign the groat was at first 
current at 8c, but it was raised in 1456 to I2d. 

53. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Similar to the preceding, but the 

obverse legend reads ^ I7\C(OB' 06(1' SRAC(IA : RQX : SC(OTOR' 
(stops, saltires). M -9. Wt. 25-8. 

This coin is known only of Edinburgh. Very few specimens exist. 

The penny of the second issue has the crowned bust on the obverse 
between two crosses, and on the reverse the usual long cross pattee 
with three pellets in each angle and an additional small cross in one. 
The mint-mark is a crown on both sides. It is of Edinburgh only and 
extremely rare if not unique. 

The third issue of silver consisted of groats only, which are similar 
in type to those of the second, but the king's bust is draped. The 
only mint is Edinburgh. By some numismatists these groats were 
considered as intermediate between the first and second issues. 

54. Penny. Edinburgh. Obv. ^ IfiQOBVS Dl 6Rfi RQX. Bust of king, BILLOX. 

facing, crowned. Rev. <fc VILLA QDIftBVRS. Long cross pattee with 
three pellets in each angle. Bil. '55. Wt. 6-5. 
Minted also at Aberdeen. A variety has pellets in two angles of 



]74 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiiii. the cross only. The fineness varies considerably, some being f silver 
BILLON, to $ alloy. Halfpennies appear to have been ordered, but none are 
known. 

James III. 1460-1488. 

COINAGE. Gold. Lion, Half-Lion, Rider, Unicorn, and Half- 
Unicorn. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny. Billon. Penny, 
Plack, and Half-Plack. Copper. Farthing. 

ISSUES. Gold. Three : 1st issue (1460), Lion and Half-Lion.* 2nd 
issue (1473), Rider. 3rd issue (1486), Unicorn and Half-Unicorn. 
Silver. Five : 1st issue, Groat and Half -Groat (obv. large bust and 
crown of three lis ; rev. mullets of six points and pellets). 2nd issue, 
Groat, Half -Groat, and Penny (as 1st issue, but bust smaller und crown 
with five lis). 3rd issue (1475), Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny (rev. 
mullets with five points). 4th issue (1483), Groat f (obv. crown of nine 
points ; rev. crown and pellets in alternate angles of cross). 5th issue 
(1485), Groat (crown with three lis, and on rev. crown, lis and pellets 
in angles of cross). :f Billon. The issues of the Penny appear to 
correspond with those of the silver coins. The Placks and Half-Placks, 
first issued about 1468, are of two varieties (see descriptions). Copper. 
Farthing, first struck in 1466, two varieties (see descriptions). 

WEIGHT. Gold. Lion, 54 grs. ; Rider, 80 grs. ; Unicorn, 59 grs. 
Silver. Groat, early issues, 39 '4 grs. ; later issues (after 1483), 47} grs 
Billon and Copper. Not recorded. 

FINENESS. Gold. Lion, 22 cts. ; Unicorn, 21 cts. ; Rider not recorded. 
Silver. 11 T V fine silver to T 9 ff alloy, as David I's coinage. 

GOLD. 55. Lion. Obv. IACOBVS : D' GRTCCIA : RQX : SCOTOR' : (stops, 
crosses) ; m. m. crown. Crowned shield between two crowns. Rev 
^ SfiLVVm : FAa POPVLVm, : TVVm (stops, saltires). St. Andrew 
on his cross, which extends to the edge of the coin ; lis on each side. tJ 1 0. 
Wt. 52 -5 grs. 

A variety has the obverse and reverse legends transposed. Another 
variety, by some attributed to the next reign, shows on the obverse the 
Saint standing to 1., and bearing his cross, and on the reverse a 
crowned shield between two lis. The legends are the same as on the 
above; but the stops are stars as on the next coin. The lion was 
current for 12s. and the half -lion for 6s. 

56. Half-Lion. Obv. I7U*OBVS : D6U : 6RfiC(lrt : R6(X : SCXO : (stops, 
stars) ; m. m. crown. Crowned shield between two crowned lis. Eev. 
S7XLVVM : FACT PPLV TV DH (stops, saltires). St. Andrew on his 






* Called by Cochran-Patrick, the St. Andrew and half-St. Andrew. Burns 
classes the former to James II and the latter to James IV. 

f This is Cochran-Patrick's arrangement, but Burns gives these groats to 
James IV. 

J Burns also classes to James III the " thistle-head and mullet " groats and 
half-groats (see No. 86), and also the early issues of the three-quarter face coins 
(see James IV). 



JAMES III. 175 

cross, which extends to the edge of the coin ; a crowned lis on either side. Plate xliii 
A7 -85. Wt. 25-8. GOLD> * 

If correctly attributed this and the preceding coin were struck early 
in the reign. Frequent issues of gold coins are recorded between 
1460 and 1473, about which time the rider was first struck. They are 
called Scuta from their type, and must therefore be lions or half-lions. 
It is quite possible also that the dies for the lions made during the 
reign of James II were continued in use during that of James III. 

57. Rider. Obv. IACXOBVS : D6(l : SRA : R6(X SaOTOR : (stops, saltires) ; 

m. m. lis. King on horseback, galloping to r. ; sword in r. hand. Rev. 

STXLVVm FACX POPVLVJYl TVVm DRS. Crowned shield on long cross 

pattee. *r '9. Wt. 76*0. 

Though the precise date is not known when the rider was first issued, 
it must have been shortly before 1476, as in the records of that year 
mention is made of the new money commonly called riders. Its 
current value in 1491 was 23s. There are no half or quarter-riders 
of this type, i.e. with horseman to r. Those, as well as the riders 
with horseman to 1., are given to James IV (see Nos. 7072). 






58. Unicorn. Obv. lfiC(OBVS : D6(l : SRTUXIfi : RSX : SC(OTR (stops, stars) ; 
m. m. lis. Unicorn to 1. with crown on its neck, supporting a shield ; a 
chain with ring under the feet. Rev. SXVRSAT : DQ' 9T : DISIPSNT : 
N IJftlQIQ (stops, stars); m. m. lis. A floriated cross, on which is a large 
waved star. AT -95. Wt. 57 '5. 

The unicorn and half -unicorn were first struck in 1486. The 
standard weight of the unicorn was 58 '89 grs., it was 21 cts. fine, 
and was current for 18s. A variety has the reverse legend on both 
sides. Others have saltires, V shaped ornaments, lis or plain stops 
itween the words. Some of these may have been struck in the early 
rears of the reign of James IV, though the records do not mention the 
me of unicorns in that reign till 1496. Other mint-marks are a 
:oss fleury, a cross pattee, a coronet, &c. 

Half-Unicorn. Similar type to the Unicorn, but legends; obv. I7XCCOBVS : 
D6U : SRfiCUfi : RQX : SCOT : rev. SXVR67\T : DS : 6[T : 
DISIPGdlT : I nil I : (stops, stars); m. m. lis on both sides. A: -75. 
Wt. 29-5. 
On the half-unicorn the stops are varied as on the unicorn. 

60. Groat. Berwick. 1st issue. Obv. ^ IfiCtOBVS : D : (oRfi : RflX : SILVER. 
SflOTOR (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, and wearing crown of 
three lis, within tressure of eight arches ; on 1. of neck T (Tod) ; on r. L 
(Livingstoun). Rev. & DftS PTQOTOR MS : Z : LB7TTOR :_ 
V VILLA : BQRWIQhl (stops, saltires). Long cross fourchee with three 
pellets, enclosing annulet, and mullet of six points in alternate angles. 
JBl-0. Wt. 36-7. 

Struck also at Edinburgh (see next coin). Thomas Tod and 
Alexander Livingstoun were the king's coiners. Their initials also occur 
on groats of Edinburgh. The early groats of this reign were current 
for 12d., but they subsequently rose to 14d. The half -groat of this 
issue, which is of Berwick and unique, has a cross at each side of the 
king's neck, no annulets between the pellets on the reverse, and 
apparently the numeral 3 after the king's name. These are the only 
denominations of this issue. 



176 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiiii. Some numismatists have attributed to this reign groats, half -groats 
SILVER, and pennies of the same type as the second issue of James II, and 
consider them to be the first coinage. This attribution is however very 
doubtful. 

61. Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue?. Obv. ^ IACXOBVS : D6U : SRA : RQX : 
SQOTORVm (stops, saltires). Bust of king as on the preceding, but smaller 
and within tressure of nine arches ; cross saltire on each side of neck. Rev. 

k ons : PTSCTTOR : ms = z : LIBRATO * VILLA : efoiaBVRSh 

(stops, saltires). Long cross pattee with pellets and mullets in the angles 

as on the preceding, but no annulets within the pellets. , -9. Wt. 37*0. 

This appears to be an intermediate type between the 1st and 

2nd issues. The king's crown is the same as on the preceding coin, 

but the style and fabric are as the next one. 

62. Groat. Berwick. 2nd issue. Obv. * IAC(OBVS : D6(l : 6RA : RQX : 
SCXOTORm (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, and wearing crown of 
five lis, within tressure of ten arches. Rev. <%* DftS : PT(JC(TOR mS Z 
LIBSRAT :_ !< VILLA : BQRWIQ hi (stops, saltires). Long cross pattee, 
&c., as on the preceding. M -9. Wt. 37 '3. 

Struck also at Edinburgh. The half -groat and penny of this issue 
are described below. Burns (Coin, of Scot., vol. ii., p. 112) places 
between the 1st and 2nd issues the three-quarter face groats and half- 
groats with thistle-heads and mullets on the reverse (see No. 86). 
This attribution seems somewhat out of place. 

Plate xliv. 63. Groat. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Obv. * IAC(OBVS DQI 6RA R6(X 
SCtOTORm; m. m. cross fleury. Bust of king, facing, and wearing crown 
of five lis, within tressure of seven arches, divided below by the bust. Rev. 

ons PTQCTTOR mss z LIBSATVR m VILLA aoediBaovRsa; 

m. m. cross fleury. Long cross pattee with mullet of five points and three 

pellets in alternate angles. M '95. Wt. 37 -9. 

All the coins, groats, half-groats and pennies, of this issue are of 
Edinburgh only. The pennies vary from the other pieces in having 
three lis only in the king's crown. The halfpenny was ordered, but 
does not appear to have been issued. 

64. Half-Groat. Berwick. 2nd issue. Obv. ^ IAC(OBVS : DSI : 6RA : RQX : 

SQOT (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, and wearing crown of three 
lis, within tressure of eight arches. Rev. DftS P6(RT6(C(TOR ms Z 
LI I BSR ATVILLA BSRVViaCChll. Long cross pattee with mullet of 
six points and three pellets in alternate angles, x. -7. Wt. 18-3. 
Struck also at Edinburgh. There are no half-groats of the other 
issues in the National Collection. As Berwick was made over to 
Scotland in 1461, but recaptured by the English in 1483, all the coins 
of that mint belong to the earlier issues of this reign. 

65. Penny. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. * IAC(OBVS : D6( : 6RA : RQX : 

SO (stops, saltires). Bust of king, facing, wearing crown of three lis 
or five points. Rev. { VILLA : SDQINBOVR (stops, saltires). Long cross 
pattee, &c., as on the last. M -6. Wt. 10-0. 

The penny was struck only at this mint. 

66. Penny. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Similar to the preceding, but reading S 

for SO, and with mullets of five points on the reverse, as on No. 63. 
* -55. Wt. 8-7. 

Struck only at Edinburgh. 



f" 

'" 



JAMES III. 177 

There are no coins, groats, in the National Collection which have been f lft te xiiv. 
classed to the fourth and fifth issues of this reign. The former have &UVKR. 
a bust, facing, in surcoat and armour and a crown of nine points, 
and on the reverse three pellets and a crown in alternate angles 
of the cross. On the latter the king wears a crown with three 
fleurs de lis, and on the reverse a crown and a lis are in opposite angles 
of the cross, and in the other two, three pellets joined by an annulet. 
Both issues are of Edinburgh only, and the groat weighs 47^ grs. 

67. Plack. Edinburgh. Obv. ITXaOBVS : D6U : 6R7UXIA : R6(X : SCXOTORV; BILLOX 
m. m. crown. Shield within quatrefoil ; above and at sides, a crown. 
Bev. VILLA : D6( : 3DIHBVR6; m. m. crown. Floriated cross with 
open compartment in centre enclosing a saltire ; a crown in each angle. 
Bil. 1-0. Wt. 25-6. 

Placks and half-placks of this type are by some attributed to the 
next reign. Another issue, probably of earlier date, has on the obverse 
the shield within a tressure of three arcs, a crown above and a cross 
fourchee at each side, and a trefoil in each of the upper angles of the 
tressure. The reverse is the same as the plack of the later issue. The 
half-placks are of the same types as the placks. They are all of the 
Edinburgh mint only. The weight of the plack varies from 44 to 
28 grs., and it was current for 3d. The name is derived from plaque, a 
thin piece of metal. 

The billon pennies are similar in type to the silver coins of that 
denomination, except that on the reverse the cross is cantonned with 
three pellets only. Like the silver pieces they show several varieties in 
the king's crown, which has three or five lis. They are of Aberdeen 
and Edinburgh, and vary in weight from 15 to 5 grs. The lighter 
ieces may have been intended for halfpence. 

The copper farthings, called " Black Farthings," are of two types : COPPER. 
(i) obv. crown ; rev. St. Andrew's cross with saltire on each side ; 
(ii) obv. I. R. crowned ; rev. St. Andrew's cross with crown on upper 
portion, a small saltire at each side and one below. On both the king's 
name is on the obverse and the name of the mint, Edinburgh, on the 
reverse. They weigh from 9 to 7 grs. The Act authorizing this 
money, which is the first copper coinage of the Scottish series, was 
passed 9 Oct. 1466. These pieces appear to have been current originally 
T halfpennies, but circulated subsequently as farthings, quadrantes. 

James IV. 1488-1514. 

COINAGE.* Gold. Lion, Half-Lion, Rider, Half-Rider, f Quarter- 
Rider, Unicorn, and Half-Unicorn. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, and 
Penny. Billon. Plack and Penny. 

* The occurrence of numerals or letters after the king's name or titles, showing 
that he was the 4th king of Scotland of the name of James, identifies some of the 
coins of this reign; but on account of the scarcity of records relating to the 
coinage, the classification of such pieces as are without these numerals or letters 
is difficult, and has led to much diversity of opinion. 

t Cochran-Patrick and other Scottish numismatists give the divisions of the 
Rider as Two-Thirds and One-Third Riders; but Burns, who appears to be 
correct from the evidence afforded by their weights, divides them into Half and 
Quarter-Riders. The same may be said of the Lion and Half-Lion. 

N 



178 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiiv. ISSUES. Gold. Two : 1st issue (1488), Unicorn, Half-Unicorn, 
Lion, Half-Lion, Rider, Half-Rider, and Quarter-Rider. 2nd issue 
(1496-1512), Unicorn and Half-Unicorn. Silver. Five : 1st issue 
(1488), Groat arid Half-Groat (obv. three-quarter face bust ; rev. crown 
and pellets). 2nd issue (1489), Groat and Half-Groat (same rev. type ; 
but obv. bust facing). 3rd issue, Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny (obv. 
bust facing; rev. mullet and pellets and legend SfiLVVJTl FfiC( &c.). 
4th issue (1512), Groat and Half-Groat (as 3rd issue, but , QT, QRA 
or MM in obv. legend). 5th issue, Groat (similar to last, but 4 after 
king's name; rev. legend EXVRGAT DEVS, &c., and Roman letters). 
, Billon. Plack, two issues (1504-6 and 1512-14), see descriptions. 
Penny, two types, see also descriptions. 

WEIGHT. Gold. Unicorn, 59 grs. ; Lion, 52 ^ grs. ; Rider, 81 grs. 
Silver. Groat, 47^ grs., but 4th and 5th issues 40 to 35 grs. Billon. 
Not recorded. 

FINENESS. Unicorn, 21 cts. ; Lion and Rider, 23 cts. Silver. As 
James Ill's coinage. Billon. Not recorded. 

The only mint-names of this reign are Edinburgh and Aberdeen. 
They are not found on any of the gold coins. 

GOLD. 68. Lion. Obv. I7\C(OBVS - D6(l 6R7V RQX - SaOTTORVm I 111 (stops, 
stars); m. m. crown. Shield crowned between two lis. Rev. SfiLVVJft 
F7\a PPLVV TVV DR6C (stops, stars); m. m. crown. St. 
Andrew on cross extending to edge of coin; lis on either side. AT 1-05. 
Wt. 51-0. 

There seems little doubt that this is the coin which was ordered 
to be struck in Jan. 1488-9, and to be of the weight of the French 
crown. It was to be current at 14s., and to have the word quartus 
added to the king's name, and so to be distinguished from similar 
pieces of the previous reign. The gold coinage ordered in the 
previous October, which was to consist of fine gold of the same weight 
and fineness as the rose noble, with its divisions the two-thirds and 
one-third, was never issued. 

69. Half-Lion. Similar to the preceding, but there is no m. m. on the rev.", and 
the legends read SaOTTORV for SaOTTORVJTl and S7YLVV for 

AT -8. Wt. 22-8. 



The previous coin and this one are often denominated as two- 
thirds and one-third St. Andrews. It is much more probable from 
their weights that they are lions and half-lions, more commonly called 
St. Andrews and half-St. Andrews. 

70. Rider. Obv. I7\C(OBVS OS I SRfi RQX SCCOTTORVJTl. Crowned shield 
on long cross pattee. Eev. SfiLVVM : F7XC( : POPVLVM : TVVm : 
DOJTilRQ ; m. m. cross floury. King on horseback galloping to 1. ; sword 
in 1. hand. At 1-05. Wt. 79 -5. 

As no mention is made in the records of this issue of the rider and 
its divisions, the half and quarter-rider, under James IV, they have 
been assigned by some to the previous reign and considered to be 
only a variety of the rider to r. (see No. 57). The current value of 
the rider was in 1491 fixed at 23s. 



f 



JAMES IV. 179 

71. Half-Eider. Same as the Rider ; but with stops between the words of Plate xliv. 

the legends on both sides. AT '75. Wt. 38-5. GOIJ) 

The weights of this and the next coin show that they are the half 
and quarter of the rider, and not the two-thirds and one-third as 
generally supposed. 

72. Quarter-Rider. Same as the Rider, No. 70; but reading SCCOTORV and 

DOfllin,, and in. m. on rev. a cross pattee. AT '6. Wt. 18' 5. 
This coin is extremely rare. 

73. Unicorn. Zndissue. Obv. IACOBVS 4 : DEI GRfi REX SCOTORVM - 

(stops, mostly stars) ; in. in. crown. Unicorn to 1., with crown on its 
neck, supporting shield. Rev. EXVRSfiT DEVS Z Dl SI PENT 
INI MIC I EIV- (stops, stars). A floriated cross on which is a waved star. 
Arl-0. Wt. 59-0. 

The numeral 4 after the king's name and the Roman letters in the 
legends show that this coin belongs to the latter part of the reign of 
James IV. For the unicorns and half-unicorns which may be assigned 
to the early period, see No. 58. Half-unicorns similar to the above 
with Roman letters are without the numeral after the king's name, and 
have the ring and chain under the unicorn. 

There is in the British Museum a pattern known as the six-angel 
piece. It is of the same type but slightly larger than the English 
angel, and weighs 49 1 grs. The legends are in Roman characters ; 
that on the obverse being as 011 No. 73 with the numeral 4 after the 
king's name, and that on the reverse SALVfiTOR : IN : HOC : SIGNO : 
VICISTI. It was struck at the end of the reign of James IV, at 
which time the English angels were current in large numbers in 
Scotland. It is evidently a pattern for a coinage which was never 
carried out. The coin is unique. 

Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. + IfiCXOBVS DGC 6RfiC(lfi : R6(X : SILVER. 
SCCOTORV (stops, saltires). Bust of king, within a dotted circle, 
three-quarters to 1., draped and wearing arched crown ; before, saltire 
and L (Livingstoun) ; behind, lis. Rev. DftS PROTQTOR fll 6(T 
LIB9R7XTO JTi __ . VI LLft QDIftBVR (stops, annulets; m. m. cross 
fleury before each legend). Long cross pattee with crown and three 
pellets, enclosing an annulet, in alternate angles. ^ 1'05. Wt. 46-5. 
Struck also at Aberdeen. This coinage, formerly given to James II, 
and subsequently to James IV, was however supposed by Burns (Coinage, 
of Scotland, vol. ii., p. 133) to have commenced in the reign of James III 
but continued by his successor. Alexander Livingstoun and Thomas 
Tod are mentioned in the records as the king's coiners (see No. 60). 
The half-groat is the only other denomination of this issue (see No. 76). 
In 1488 the current value of the groat was declared to be 14d. For 
groats of 2nd and 3rd issues see Nos. 77 and 78. 

75. Groat. Edinburgh. tth issue. Obv. lfiC(OBVS DQI SRrt R6(X 
StfOTTORVm MM; m.m. crown. Bust of king facing, not draped, 
crowned, within tressure of nine arches ; mullet on each side of neck. Rev. 

SALwm F7\a ppLwm - jvvm - one(_. VILLTX aoediBOVRsec 

(stops, stars). Long cross fourchee with mullet of five points and three 
pellets in alternate angles, .si 1-05. Wt. 35 -7. 

Coins of this issue, groats and half-groats, are of Edinburgh only. 
On other groats the king's titles are followed by R ( = 4), or QT, QR or 

N 2 



180 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiiv. QRA (= Quartus). The half -groats have only the numerals Mil. The 
SILVER, change in the reverse legend on the silver coins took place in the 
previous issue (see No. 78). 

76. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. + lACOBVS D6U 6RACUA 

R6(X (stops, annulets). Bust of king, three-quarters to 1., &c., as on No. 74. 

Rev. + Dins PBorerroB m err C(BA_+ VILLA aoiriBvi. Long 

cross pattee with crowns and pellets in the angles, &c., as on No. 74. 
M -75. Wt. 23-7. 

Struck only at Edinburgh. As on the English coins of the same 
period the letter R is often represented by a B. 

77. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. * IACCOBVS : DG(I : 6RA : 

R6(X : SQOTORVJft : Q : Bust facing, not draped, crowned, within 
tressure of ten arches. Rev. 3* BUS LBfiTGC 6(T B me(Vm_J< VILLA 
flDinBVS. Long cross pattee with lis in centre, and crown and three 
pellets, enclosing an annulet, in alternate angles. M 8. Wt. 21 5. 

The second issue, which consisted of groats and half-groats only, is of 
two varieties : the first (1489) has no lis in the centre of the cross on 
the reverse ; the second (1490) has the lis. The half-groat only of the 
second variety has the letter Q (Quartus) after the king's titles. The 
groats have the bust bare, five lis to the crown, and twelve or 
thirteen arches to the tressure. These coins are of Edinburgh only. 

78. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. Srdissue. Obv. IACCOBVS D6U <3RA - RG(X 

SQOTTOR ; m. m. crown. Bust of king, facing, crowned, within tressure 
of seven arches; mullet on each side of neck. Rev. SALVV FAC( 
POPVLVV TV DRef' -VILLA emnBVRSa. Long cross fourchee 
with mullet of five points and three pellets in alternate angles. M *8. 
Wt. 18-0. 

The groat and half-groat of this issue are of Edinburgh only. The 
penny (see next coin) has no mint-name. With this issue a change 
takes place in the legend on the reverse. Hitherto it has without 
exception been " Domiiius Protector et Liberator meus," more or less 
abbreviated. It is now replaced, for a short period only, with " Salvum 
fac populum tuum Domine." The cross pattee is also changed for a cross 
fourchee on the groats and half-groats. The third issue only differs 
from the fourth in not having Q, QRA, Mil, &c., after the king's titles. 

79. Penny. 3rd issue. Obv. IAC(OBVS D6(l - 6RA RSX SCXOTTO ; 

m. m. crown. Bust of king, facing, crowned. Rev. SALVV FACT 
PPLVV TVV Dn.8 (stop, star). Long cross pattee with mullet of five 
points and three pellets in alternate angles. M -65. Wt. 11 -0. 

This is the only penny issue of this reign. It is extremely rare. 

The coins of the fifth issue are groats only. They are similar in 
type to those of the fourth issue (see No. 75), but the numeral 4 
follows the king's name, the legend on the reverse reads " Exurgat 
Deus et dissipentur inimici," and the letters are Roman. The bust 
of the king also is clothed and bearded. They are of Edinburgh only. 

BILLON. 80. Plack. Edinburgh. 2nd issue. Obv. I7XCOBVS DEI' SRK REX 
SCOTTORVM (stops, trefoils); m. m. crown. Shield within a trefoil; 
above and at each side, a crown. Rev. VILLA DE : EDINBVRG (stops, 






JAMES IV. 181 

trefoils). Cross fleury with voided centre containing a mullet ; in the Plate xliv. 

angles, a crown and a St. Andrew's cross alternately. Bil. 1-0. Wt. 28 '7. BILLON. 
The placks of this reign are of Edinburgh only. There were two 
issues. The first issue can be easily distinguished from similar coins of 
James III in having the legends often in Roman letters, and with QRfi 
or 4 after the king's name. Those of the second issue, as described 
above, vary in the reverse type, and being without the numeral after 
the king's name, are by some considered to have been struck by Queen 
Margaret, widow of James IV, during the regency (15141515), i.e. 
during the reign of James V. The two issues appear to correspond to 
the dates 1504 and 1512. 

81. Penny. Edinburgh. Obv. IfiCXOBVS D6U <3R* RQX SCXOT; m.m. crown. 

Bust of king, facing, crowned. Rev. + VILLA D9 6(DinBVR. Long 
cross pattee with lis and crown in alternate angles. Bil. '7. Wt. 11-2. 
These pennies are sometimes given to James III, but they were 
more probably struck by his successor. Another type has the usual 
three pellets in each angle of the cross on the reverse. They are all of 
Edinburgh only. 

James V. 1514-1542. 

COINAGE.* Gold. Unicorn, Half -Unicorn, Ecu or Crown, Bonnet 
Piece, Two-Thirds Bonnet Piece, and One-Third Bonnet Piece. Silver. 
Groat, Half-Groat, and One-Third Groat. Billon. Bawbee, Half- 
Bawbee, and Penny. 

ISSUES. Gold. Three : 1st issue (1517), Unicorn and Half-Uni- 
corn. 2nd issue (1525), Ecu. 3rd issue (1539-1540), Bonnet Piece, 
Two-Thirds and One-Third Bonnet Piece. Silver. Three : 1st issue 
(1514), Groat and Half-Groat (06?;. three-quarter face ; rev. thistle-heads 
and mullets). 2nd issue (1525), Groat (obv. profile bust with double- 
arched crown; rev. shield, VILLA, &c.). 3rd issue (1527), Groat and 
One-Third Groat (similar to 2nd issue, but with single arched crown, 
and rev. OPPIDVM, &c.). Billon. There appears to have been only one 
issue each of the Bawbee, the Half-Bawbee, and the Penny ; the dates 
are uncertain. 

WEIGHT. Gold. Unicorn, 59 grs. ; Ecu, 52^ grs. ; Bonnet Piece, 
grs. Silver. Groat, 1st issue, 33 grs. ; 2nd and 3rd issues, 43 grs. 
Billon. Bawbee, 29^ grs. ; Penny, about 9 grs. 

FINENESS. Gold. Unicorn, 21 cts. ; Ecu, 21^ cts. ; Bonnet Piece, 
23 cts. Silver. 1st issue, 11 pts. fine to 1 pt. alloy; 2nd and 3rd 
issues, 5 pts. fine to 1 pt. alloy. Billon. 3 pts. fine to 9 pts. alloy. 

Edinburgh is the only mint-name of this reign, and it is found only 
on the silver and billon coins. 

82. Ecu or Crown. Obv. IfiCOBVS .-. 5 .-. DEI .-. GRfi .-. REX .-. Plate xlv 

SCOTORV; m. m. star. Crowned shield between two St. Andrew's GOLD. 



* Most of the coins of this reign in gold, silver and billon have the numeral 5 
after the king's name, showing that be was tbe fifth king of Scotland of tbe name of 
James. Tbose without tbe numeral, on account of their similarity of type to 
issues of previous reigns, present difficulties in their classification, as was tbe case 
witb tbe coinage of James IV (see note p. 177). 



182 



SCOTTISH COINS. 



Plate xlv. crosses. Rev. .-. CRVCIS .-. 7\RMfi .-. SEQyfiMVR; m. m. crown. 

GOLD Cross fleury with quatrefoil in centre and thistle in each angle. A? 1'05. 

Wt. 52-5. 

The ecu was current for 20s. A variety has on the reverse the legend 
" Per lignum crucis salvi sumus." Others have the shield with 
pointed instead of rounded base as on the above, and annulets instead 
of pellets between the words of the legends. They are sometimes called 
"Abbey Crowns." 

The only unicorns and half-unicorns which can be attributed to 
James V are of the same type as those of the preceding reign, but 
there is no numeral after the king's name ; the legends are in Roman 
characters, and the reverse has a pellet or mullet on the star in the 
centre, and a heraldic cinquefoil countermarked in one angle of the 
cross. The mint-mark is generally a crown. Others have X or 
XC (XPICTOC P) under the unicorn on the obverse. Unicorns are 
mentioned in several Acts from 15171519. 

83. Bonnet Piece. 1539. Obv. IACOBVS 5 DEI - G R SCOTORV 

1-5-3-9 ; m. m. St. Andrew's cross. Bust of king in profile to r., wearing 
bonnet and open coat; behind, pellet. Eev. + HONOR REGIS 
IVDICIVM DILIGIT. Shield, crowned, upon a cross with foliated ends. 
AT -9. Wt. 88-3. 

Current for 40s. and dated also 1540. Issues of the bonnet pieces 
took place during 1541 and 1542, but neither of these dates appears 
on the coins. These are the first dated coins of the Scottish series. 
No dates were put on English coins (silver) before 1547. 

84. Two-Thirds Bonnet Piece. 1540. Obv. IfiCOBVS D G R SCOTORVM 

1-5-4-0; m.m. lis. Bust of king similar to the preceding; but behind, 
annulet. Eev. + HONOR REGIS IVDICIVM - DILIGIT. Crowned 
shield, dividing I 5. AT -8. Wt. 59-4. 

This coin and the one-third bonnet piece are of this date only. 
They are extremely rare. 

85. One-Third Bonnet Piece. 1540. Similar to the preceding coin ; but pellet 

behind head of king; open crown above shield on rev., and the legends 
read, obv. IRCOBVS D G R SCOTOR 1540; m. m. lis.; rev. 
+ HON REGIS IVDICIV DILIGIT. A7 -6. Wt. 28-2. 

There exists in the Antiquaries' Museum at Edinburgh a pattern for 
a, ducat dated 153?. It has on the obverse the Scottish shield crowned, 
surrounded by the ,ollar of thistle-heads and the letters SS. and the 
legend + lACOBVfe 5 DEI G R SCOTORV 1 539 ; and on the 
reverse a St. Andrevv 's cross encircled by a crown, and between I and R ; 
above the crown is a thistle-head and below, a lis ; around, the legend 
HONOR - REGIS IVDICIVM DILIGIT; m. m. crown. Wt. 88 grs. 
There is no record of the order for the striking of this coin. Its 
resemblance to the bawbee may have been the cause of its non-issue. 
It is unique. 

SILVER. 86. Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. + lfiC(OBVS : DG(I : 6RA : RQX : 
SQOTORVni (stops, saltires). Bust of king, three-quarter turned to r., 
crowned and draped, within tressure of eight arches. Rev. + VILLA : 






JAMES V. 183 

tJDIUBVRGh (stops, saltires). A long cross with foliated ends, a mullet of Plate xlv. 

six points and a thistle-head in the alternate angles. M '95. Wt. 32-4. SILVER. 

The date of this issue is uncertain. Cochran-Patrick calls it " an 
uncertain coinage, but probably issued during Albany's regency, and 
known as the Duke's Testoons." Burns, however, attributed it to 
James III, and supposes these to be the so-called " alloyed groats." 
The omission of the outer legend on the reverse is against an early 
attribution. Only groats and half -groats (No. 88) are known of this type. 

87. Groat. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Obv. + IfiCOBVS .-. 5 .-. DEI .-. GRfi .-. 

REX .-. SCOTORV. Bust of king to r., in profile, wearing crown with 
single arch and open coat. Rev. .-. OPPIDV .-. EDINBVRSI. Shield on 
long cross fourchee. M I'O. Wt. 41-5. 

These are known as " Douglas Groats," because they were struck 
while Sir Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie was Lord High Treasurer 
of Scotland. A variety of this issue shows the bust wearing a closed 
coat. The words of the legends on both sides are divided by two 
annulets. Only groats of this variety are known (see also No. 89). 

Groats of the second issue vary from the above in showing the king 
wearing a double-arched crown and a closed coat, and in reading on the 
reverse VILLA for OPPIDVM. The words of the legends on both sides 
are divided by two annulets. 

During this reign the groat was current for I8d. 

88. Half-Groat. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Similar to the Groat, No. 86, but 

reading SCCOTOR on obv., and 0DIHBVR6 on rev. JR -75. Wt. 16 -0. 

89. One-Third Groat. Edinburgh. 3rd issue. Same as No. 87, but reading 

R : SCOTOR (stops, two pellets after each word on both sides). M '7. 
Wt. 12-5. 

The groats and one-third groats of this issue and type were struck 
under a contract dated 6 Oct., 1527, with Joachim Hochstetter and 
his brothers. Permission was also granted to them to strike two-thirds 
groats, but none appear to have been issued. 

90. Bawbee or Plack. Edinburgh. Obv. + IACOBVS - D G REX 

SCOTORVM. A crowned thistle dividing I 5. Rev. OPPIDVM .-. 

EDINBVRGI ; m. m. lis. A St. Andrew's cross with crown in centre, and 

lis on either side. Bil. -95. Wt. 28-0. 

Cochran-Patrick places the issue of the bawbees and half-bawbees as 
late as 1542. Varieties have an annulet over the letter I in the field 
on the obverse or at the side of the crown. The current value of the 
bawbee was Ud. The name is derived from bas billon. 

91. Half-Bawbee or Half-Plack. Edinburgh. Same type, &c., as the Bawbee, 

but the legend on the obv. reads R for REX : there is an annulet over the 
letter I in the field, and no lis at the sides of the cross on the rev. Bil. '7. 
Wt. 12-5. 

Varieties are without the annulet over I or with it over the numeral. 

The billon pennies, sometimes attributed to this reign, have the 

usual full-faced bust crowned on the obverse with IACOBVS DEI GRfi - 

REX S, and on the reverse a floriated cross fourchee with a quatrefoil in 

each angle. They read VILLA EDINBVRG. 



184 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Mary. 1542-1567. 

Plate xiv COINAGE. Gold. Ecu, Twenty Shillings, Lion, Half-Lion, Ryal, 
Half-Ryal, Ducat, and Crown. Silver. Testoon, Half-Testoon, Ryal, 
Two-Thirds Ryal, and One- Third Ryal. Billon. Bawbee, Half-Bawbee, 
Penny, Plack, Twelve Penny Groat or " Non Sunt," and Lion or 
Hardhead. 

ISSUES. The coinage of this reign may be divided into five periods, 
which in date correspond with the principal epochs of Mary's life. 
These with their issues and denominations are as follows : i. (1542- 
1558, before her marriage with Francis). Gold. Ecu, Twenty Shil- 
lings, Lion, Half -Lion, Ryal, and Half-Ryal. Silver. Testoon and 
Half-Testoon (three issues). Billon. Bawbee and Half -Bawbee (1544- 
1553), Penny (1554 and 1556-7), Hardhead and Plack (1555-1558). 
ii. (1558-1561, after her marriage with Francis). Gold. Ducat. 
Silver. Testoon and Half-Testoon (two issues). Billon. Twelve Penny 
Groat or " Non Sunt," and Hardhead, iii. (1561-1565, during her 
first widowhood). Gold. Crown. Silver. Testoon and Half-Testoon. 
iv. (1565-1567, after her marriage with Darnley). Silver. Ryal, 
Two-Thirds Ryal, and One-Third Ryal. iv. (1567, after Darnley's 
death). Silver. As period iv. (see descriptions). 

WEIGHT. Gold. Ecu, 52^ grs. ; Twenty Shillings, 43 grs. ; Lion, 
78 j grs. ; Ryal and Ducat, 11 7f grs. Silver. Testoon, period i, 1st issue, 
78^ grs. ; 2nd issue, 1 17|^ grs. ; 3rd issue and subsequent periods, 94^ grs. ; 
and Ryal, 472^ grs. Billon. Bawbee, 29^ grs. ; Penny, 11^ grs. ; Hard- 
head or Lion, 16 T 9 ^ grs. (1555), 26 grs. (1556-1558), 14 j grs. (1558- 
1560) ; Plack, 29^ grs. ; and Twelve Penny Groat. 26^ grs. 

FINENESS. Gold. Ecu, 21 cts. ; Twenty Shillings, 23 cts., and all the 
rest 22 cts. Silver. All 1 1 pts. fine to 1 pt. alloy except Testoon and 
Half -Testoon of 2nd issue, period i., which were 3 pts. fine to 1 pt. 
alloy. Billon. Bawbee and Half-Bawbee, 3 pts. fine to 9 pts. alloy ; 
Penny, 1 pt. fine to 11 pts. alloy (1554); 1 pt. fine to 15 pts. alloy 
(1555-1558) ; Hardhead or Lion, 1 pt. fine to 11 pts. alloy (1555-1558) ; 
1 pt. fine to 23 pts. alloy (1558-1560) ; Plack, 1 pt. fine to 11 pts. 
alloy ; and Twelve Penny Groat, equal pts. of silver and alloy. 

The only mint-names of this reign are Edinburgh and Stirling, and 
these are only found on some of the billon coins. That of Stirling 
occurs only on the bawbee of the first issue (No. 103). 



PERIOD I. 1542-1558. 
(Before Mary's marriage with Francis.") 

GOLD. 92. Ecu. Obv. MARIA DEI - GRA - REGINA - SCOTORVM ; m. m. 
star. Shield, crowned, between two cinquefoils. Rev. CRVCIS ARMA 
SEQVAMVR; m. m. crown. Cross fleury with quatrefoil in centre and 
thistle in each angle. AT -95. Wt. 53-0. 

The ecu was struck in 1543. It is the only undated gold coin of 
UKS rei^n. It was originally cur: cut for 20*., but its value must have 






MARY. 



185 











been increased on the issue of the twenty shilling piece, which Plate xiv. 
weighed 9^ grs. less. It is generally known as the "Abbey Crown," GOLD. 
as it was struck at Holy rood. 

93. Twenty Shillings. 1543. Obv. MARIA D G R SCOTORVM . 

1 -5-4-3; m. m. cross. Crowned shield. Ecv. ECCE ANCILLA - 
DOMINI ; m. m. star. Monogram of M R ; above, crown; below, cinque- 
foil. A; -8. Wt. 43-5. 

Struck in 1543 only. 

94. Lion. 1553. Obv. ^ MARIA DEI GRA - R SCOTORVM. Crowned 

shield between I G. Rev. DILIGITE IVSTICIAM 1553. Mono- 
gram of " Maria Regina " ; above, crown ; on either side, cinquefoil. 
jtfl-05. Wt. 79-2. 

Others differ in the abbreviation of the obverse legend, and a rare 
variety has a cinquefoil on each side of the shield. The letters I G 
(Jacobus Gubernator) on the obverse are the initials of James, Earl of 
Arran, the Regent or Governor. The lion is also dated 1557, but this 
piece varies in having the initials M R (Maria Regina) instead of I G 
on the obverse, and a cross potent crowned at each side of the mono- 
gram "Maria" on the reverse. The date 1557 occurs at the end of 
the legend on both sides. This coin is unique, the only specimen being 
in the British Museum. The lion was current for 44s. ; and in fact this 
coin and its half were originally designated according to their current 
values. 

95. Half-Lion. 1553. Similar to the Lion, but reading D. G. on the obverse 

and no cross before the legend, and on the reverse the monogram is 

composed of the letters M R only. A7 -85. Wt. 38 '3. 

The half-lion is of this year only. It was current for 22-s. A very 
rare variety has the crown with two arches on both sides, and an open 
cinquefoil on either side of the monogram. 

Byal. 1557. Obv. MARIA D G SCOTOR REGINA Bust of queen 
to 1., not crowned, wearing necklace and low bodice, her hair bound with 
jewels. Rev. IVSTVS FIDE VIVIT-1557. Crowned shield. A/1-05. 
Wt. 117-5. 

Dated also 1555 and 1558. Current for 60s., and therefore formerly 
called the " three pound piece." In the treasurer's accounts these 
coins are designated as nobles. 



. Half-Byal. 1558. Obv. MARIA DEI - G SCOTOR REGINA. Bust of 
queen to 1., as on the preceding. Rev. Same as the preceding, but date 
1558. AT -95. Wt. 57-5. 

Dated also 1555. 



98. Testoon. 1553. 1st issue. Obv. MARIA DEI GRA - R SCOTORVM; SILVER, 
m. m. cinquefoil. Bust of queen to r., in profile, crowned and draped. 
Rev. * DA PACEM DOMINE - 1553. Shield between two cinque- 
foils; above, crown. M 1-2. Wt. 73-7. 

There were three issues of the testoon during the 1st period corre- 
sponding to the dates 1553, 1555 and 1556-8 (see the following). It 
was current for 4s. The dies for the testoon of 1553 were made by 
John Achesoun, engraver to the Scottish mint. He also made a half 
testoon for this year. It has on the obverse the bust of the queen and 



186 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiv. the legend similar to the ryal, and on the reverse a crowned shield between 

SILVER. M R and around, IN - IVSTICIA - TVA LIBER A - NOS - ONE . 1553. 

A unique example of this coin is in the British Museum. It is probably 

a pattern, as no mention of this piece is made in the records of that time. 

99. Testoon. 1555. 2nd issue. Obv. %* MARIA DEI G SCOTOR REGINA 

1555. Crown above the letter M ; on either side, crowned thistle. Rev. 
DILICIE DNI COR HVMILE. Shield on cross potent, xt 1-1. 
Wt. 113-5. 

Current for os. The dies were made by an Englishman named John 
Misserwy or Misharwy. A variety reads DILICI. Many of these and 
other silver coins of Mary were countermarked with a crowned thistle 
during the next reign, and re-issued at an enhanced current value (see 
No. 134). 

Plate xlvi. 100. Half-Testoon. 1555. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding. st '95. 

Wt. 58-7. 
The testoon and half-testoon of this type are of this date only. 

101. Testoon. 1556. 3rd issue. Obv. * MARIA DEI G SCOTOR REGINA 

1556. Shield, crowned, between M R. Rev. fc IN VIRTVTE TVA 
LIBERA ME 1556. Cross potent with plain cross in each angle, zil'05. 
Wt. 94-1. 

Current for 5s. as the testoon of 1555, but it is of finer silver. 

102. Half-Testoon. 1557. 3rd isstie. Same as the preceding, but dated 1557. 

M -95. Wt. 44-6. 

The testoons and half-testoons of this issue occur of the years 
1556, 1557, and 1558. There are several small varieties. 

BILLON 103. Bawbee. Stirling. Obv. + MARIA D G REGINA SCOTORV. 
Thistle-head, crowned, between M R. Rev. OPPIDVM STIRLINGI; 
m. m. crown. Cross potent with plain cross in each angle. Bil. '85. 
Wt. 27-3. 

Struck also at Edinburgh, but it differs from the Stirling piece in 
having on the reverse a plain or fluted St. Andrew's cross encircled 
in the centre by a crown between two cinquefoils ; around, OPPIDVM 
EDINBVRGI. There are several small varieties of the bawbee, which 
was at first current for l^r?., but soon rose to Qd. 

During this period (15421558) there were three separate issues of 
billon coins consisting of i. (1544-1553), the bawbee and half -bawbee ; 
ii. (1554), the penny; and iii. (1555-1558), the hardhead, penny, and 
plack. 

104. Half-Bawbee. Edinburgh. Obv. + MARIA D - G R - SCOTORVM. 

Thistle-head, crowned, between M R. Rev. OPPIDVM EDINBVRGI; 
m. m. lis. St. Andrew's cross encircled in centre by crown ; below, mullet. 
Bil. -7. Wt. 14-5. 

Struck only at Edinburgh. This is the only type of the half- 
bawbee. 

105. Penny. Edinburgh. 1st issue. Obv. MARIA D G R SCOTORVM; 

m.m.lis. Youthful head of the queen, facing, crowned. Rev. OPPIDVM 
EDINBVRG Cross fourchee with crown and lis in alternate angles. 
Bil. -6. Wt. 13-3. 

Struck only at Edinburgh and of the year 1554 (see No. 103). A 
variety has cinquefoils instead of lis in the angles of the cross. 



MARY. 



187 



106. Hardhead or Lion. 1558. Obv. >fr MARIA D G SCOTOR REGINA. Plate xlvi. 

The letter M crowned. Rev. VICIT VERITAS 1558. Lion crowned, IULLON 
rampant, to 1. Bil. -65. Wt. 13 -0. 

Struck also in 1555 and 1556. The issue of 1558 was continued 
after Mary's marriage with Francis. The hardheads are sometimes 
counterstruck with a heart and star, the badge of James, Earl of 
Morton, who was Regent on the accession of James VI. They were 
current for 1-g-c?., and in consequence were commonly called " three- 
half pences." 

107. Penny. 1556. 2nd issue. Obv. * MARIA D G - SCOTOR REGINA. 

Cross potent with plain cross in each angle. Rev. VICIT VERITAS 1556 
in three lines; above, crown. Bil. '55. Wt. 8*8. 

Struck only in this year and between the months of March, 15567 
and June, 1557. None, however, are dated 1557. 

108. Plack. 1557. Obv. * MARIA DEI . G SCOTOR - REGINA 1557. 

Crowned shield between M R. Rev. SERVIO ET VSV TEROR 
1557; m. m. lis. Cross with centre voided lozenge-shaped and enclosing 
small cross; crown in each angle. Bil. '9. Wt. 30-3. 
Struck in this year only. Current for 4d. Like the lion (No. 106) 

the plack is sometimes countermarked on the obverse with the heart and 

star, the badge of the Earl of Morton. 



PERIOD II. 1558-1561. 
(After Mary's marriage ivith Francis.} 

109. Ducat. 1558. Obv. FRAN ET MA D G R R SCOTOR GOLD. 

DELPHIN VIEN. Busts of Francis and Mary, face to face; above, 
crown. Rev. * HORVM TVTA FIDES 1558. Cross, each 
limb consisting of two dolphins intertwined and crowned ; centre voided and 
enclosing St. Andrew's cross ; in each angle, double-barred cross, ki 1 2. 
Wt. 113-5. 

Of this date only. Current for 60s. Only two specimens of the 
ducat are known ; the above and one in the collection of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland. Half -ducats were ordered of the same type, 
but none have been met with. 

110. Testoon. 1559. 1st issue. Obv. FRAN - ET MA DEI - G R - R SlLVEB - 

SCOTOR D D VIEN; m. m. crown. Shield, arms of the Dauphin 
and Scotland impaled, on cross potent. Rev. %< FECIT VTRAQVE 
VNVM 1559. Monogram of F M between two double-barred crosses; 
above, crown, m 1-15. Wt. 93-0. 

Dated also 1558, and current for 5s. There were two issues of the 
testoon and half-testoon during this period, viz., during 1558-59 and 
1560-61. Those of the second issue were struck after Francis's accession 
to the French throne. (See No. 112.) 

111. Half-Testoon. 1558. 1st issiie. Same as the preceding, but reading D for 

DEI, and date 1558. M 1-0. Wt. 46-7. 
Same dates as the testoon. 

112. Testoon. 1560. 2nd issue. Obv. * FRAN - ET MA D G R R 

FRANCO SCOTOR B. Crowned shield, arms of France and 
Scotland impaled, between a plain cross and a St. Andrew's cross. Rev. 



188 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xlvi. VICIT LEO - DE TRIBV . IVDA 1560; m. m. St. Andrew's cross. 

SILVEK Monogram of F M crowned, and between a lis and a thistle, both crowned. 

281-15. Wt. 92-4. 

Dated also 1561. The half-testoon, which is of the same type, 
appears to be dated 1560 only. The contraction B on the obverse legend 
is for Cj (= QVE), which also occurs. 

BILLON. 113. Twelve Penny Groat or " Non Sunt." 1559. Obv. ^ FRAN ET MA - 
D G - R R SCOTOR D D VI EN. Monogram of F M crowned, 
between dolphin and thistle both crowned. Rev. A rectangular compart- 
ment enclosing legend, 1AM NON SVNT DVO - SED VNA - 
CARO ; above, cross potent; on either side, cross with double bar; below, 
1559. Bil. '85. Wt. 24-0. 

Dated also 1558. The inscription on the obverse in full would be 
" Francis et Maria, Rex et Regina Scotorum, Delphinus (et) Delphina 
Viennenses." 

114. Lion or Hardhead. 1558. Obv. ET- MA- D G R R SCOT - 
D D VI EN ; m. m. cross potent. Monogram of F M crowned, between 
two dolphins. Bev. VICIT VERITAS 58; m.m. as on obv. Lion to 1., 
rampant, crowned. Bil. -6. Wt. 13 -8. 

Dated also 1559 and 1560. Current for l^d. The omission of the 
name of Francis in the obverse legend is only a blunder of the die- 
engraver. No billon coins were struck during this reign after 1560. 



PERIOD III. 1561-1565. 
(During Mary's first widowhood.) 

GOLD. 115. Crown. 1561. Obv. + MARIA DEI GRA SCOTORVM REGINA - 
1561. Crowned shield, arms of France dimidiated by those of Scotland. 
Bev. EXVRGAT DEVS ET DISCIPENTVR INIMICI 1561; 
m. m. star. Four crowned M's, crosswise, with star in centre ; in each angle, 
thistle. M 1-05. Wt. 50-3. 

Of this date only, and to be current for 23s. It is the last gold 
coinage issued during this reign : but no mention is made of it in the 
records. As this specimen is unique, it may therefore be a pattern. 

Plate xlvii. H6. Testoon. 1561. Obv. MARIA DEI GRA SCOTORVM REGINA. 
Bust of queen to 1., draped and wearing close-fitting cap ; below, on tablet, 
1561. Bev. SALVVM - FAC - POPVLVM TVVM - DOMINE. 
Crowned shield with arms as on the preceding coin between two M's, 
both crowned. 2B 1-2. Wt. 92-5. 

Dated also 1562, and current for 5s. The portrait of the queen is 
supposed to have been taken from a miniature by the French artist, 
Janet. 

117. Half-Testoon. 1561. Same as the preceding, but reading MARI. si 1-0. 

Wt. 47-8. 

Like the testoon dated also 1562. The dies for all the coins of this 
period were by John Achesoun, who was with Mary in France during 
1560-61. No coins were issued between 1562 and 1565. 






MARY. 



189 



PERIOD IV. 1565-1567. 
(After Mary's marriage with Darnley.} 

118. Ryal. 1566. Obv. MARIA & HENRIC' DEI GRA R - & R Plate xlvii. 

SCOTORV. Shield with Scottish arms only, crowned, and between two SILVER. 
thistles. Rev. EXVRGAT - DEVS & DISSIPENT R INIMICI . El' 
in. m. thistle. A palni-tree, up the stem of which a tortoise is creeping 
above, crown; across the tree is a scroll inscribed, DAT GLORIA VIRES 
below the scroll, 1 566, divided by the tree. 2B 1-65. Wt. 468-0. 
Dated also 1565 and 1567. Current for 30s. This coin is commonly 
known as the Crookston dollar ; the tree on the reverse being supposed 
to represent the famous yew-tree at Crookston Castle, under which 
Mary and Darnley are said to have courted. The story, however, is a 
myth, since neither Mary nor Darnley ever resided at Crookston, and 
in the indenture for the striking of this coin the tree is specially called 
a palm-tree. 

The extremely rare ryals dated 1565, with the uncrowned busts of 
Henry and Mary face to face on the obverse, and a crowned shield 
between two thistles on the re verse, and with legends, obv. HENRICVS- 
<& MARIA D : GRA R & R SCOTORVM ; rev. QVOS DEVS 
COIVNXIT HOMO NON SEPARET, have been generally con- 
sidered to be patterns, but from certain State Papers recently dis- 
covered it appears that they were struck and issued for circulation but 
almost immediately recalled. 

No gold or billon coins were struck during this and the next period. 

119. Two-Thirds Ryal. 1565. Same as the preceding, but dated 1565. .Bl-5. 

Wt. 317-0. 
Same dates as the ryal. Current for 20s. 

120. One-Third Ryal. 1566. Same type as the Ryal, No. 118, but legends, obv. 

MARIA - ET HENRICVS DEI 



ET 



GRA - R ET - R - SCOTORVM ; 
DISSIPENTVR - INIMICI . El'. 



rev. EXVRGAT DEVS 
JB, 1-25. Wt. 156-4. 

Dated also 1565. Current for 10s. The above are the only 
enominations issued between 1565 and 1567. 



PERIOD V. 1567. 
(After Darnley's death.} 

121. Ryal. 1567. Obv. MARIA DEI GRA SCOTORVM REGINA. 

Crowned shield between two thistles, as on No. 118. Rev. EXVRGAT 
DEVS & DISSIPENTR - INIMICI - El'. Palm-tree with scroll, &c., 
as on No. 118 ; but date, 1 567. M 1 7. Wt. 461 4. 

Of this date only. This coinage is only a continuation of that of 
Mary and Darnley ; but with the latter's name omitted. For the 
countermark, a crowned thistle, on this coin, see No. 99. 

122. Two-Thirds Ryal. 1567. Same as the preceding. M 1-55. Wt. 316-0. 
The one-third ryal is dated 1566 as well as 1567. That of 1566 

has the reverse struck from a die of Mary and Darnley's coinage. 



SILVER. 



190 SCOTTISH COINS. 



James VI. 1567-1625. 

Plate xivii. COINAGE. The Scottish coinage of this reign, which is very 
remarkable, not only for its numerous issues and denominations, but 
also for the extraordinary variety of types introduced, is of two 
periods : (i.) that struck previous to James's accession to the 
English throne (1567-1603), and (ii.) that struck after that event 
(1603-1625). 

PERIOD I. 1567-1603. 
(Before James's accession to the English Throne.) 

Gold. Twenty Pound Piece, Ducat or Four Pound Piece, Lion 
Noble, Two-Thirds Lion Noble, One-Third Lion Noble, Thistle Noble, 
Hat Piece, Rider, Half-Rider, Sword and Sceptre Piece, and Half- 
Sword and Sceptre Piece. Silver. Ryal or Thirty Shilling Piece, 
Two-Thirds Ryal or Twenty Shilling Piece, One-Third Ryal or Ten 
Shilling Piece, Noble or Half Merk, Half-Noble or Quarter-Merk, 
Double-Merk or Thistle Dollar, Merk or Half-Thistle Dollar, Sixteen 
Shilling, Eight Shilling, Four Shilling, and Two Shilling Pieces, 
Forty Shilling, Thirty Shilling, Twenty Shilling, and Ten Shilling 
Pieces, Balance Half-Merk, Balance Quarter-Merk, Ten Shilling Piece, 
Five Shilling Piece, Thirty Penny Piece, and Twelve Penny Piece 
(with bare head), Thistle Merk, "Half-Thistle Merk, Quarter-Thistle 
Merk, and Eighth-Thistle Merk. Billon. Plack, Half-Plack, Hardhead 
or Lion, Half -Hardhead, and Saltire Plack. Copper. Twopence and 
Penny. 

ISSUES. Gold. Seven : 1st issue (1575-6), Twenty Pound Piece. 
2nd issue (1580), Ducat or Four Pound Piece. 3rd issue (1584-8), Lion 
Noble, Two-Thirds Lion Noble, and One-Third Lion Noble. 4th issue 
(1588), Thistle Noble. 5th issue (1591-3), Hat Piece. 6th issue (1593- 
1601), Rider and Half-Rider. 7th issue (1601-3), Sword and Sceptre 
Piece and Half-Sword and Sceptre Piece. Silver. Eight : 1st issue 
(1567-71), Ryal or Thirty Shilling Piece, Two-Thirds Ryal or Twenty 
Shilling Piece, and One-Third Ryal or Ten Shilling Piece. 2nd issue 
(1572-80), Noble or Half-Merk, and Half-Noble or Quarter-Merk. 3rd 
issue (1578-80), Double-Merk or Thistle Dollar, and Merk or Half- 
Thistle Dollar. 4th issue (1581), Sixteen Shilling, Eight Shilling, Four 
Shilling, and Two Shilling Pieces. 5th issue (1582-5), Forty Shilling, 
Thirty Shilling, Twenty Shilling, and Ten Shilling Pieces (with crowned 
head). 6th issue (1591-4), Balance Half-Merk and Balance Quarter- 
Merk. 7th issue (1593-1601), Ten Shilling Piece, Five Shilling Piece, 
Thirty Penny Piece, and Twelve Penny Piece (with bare head). 8th 
issue (1601-4), Thistle Merk, Half -Thistle Merk, Quarter-Thistle Merk, 
and Eighth-Thistle Merk. Billon. Four : 1st issue (1583-8), Plack and 
Half-Plack. 2nd issue (1588-9), Hardhead. 3rd issue (1588), Hard- 
head and Half -Hardhead. 4th issue (1593), Saltire Plack. Copper. 
One : (1597), Twopence and Penny. (See descriptions.) 



JAMES VI. 191 

WEIGHT. Gold. Twenty Pound Piece, 472J grs. ; Ducat, 94^ grs. ; Plate xlvii. 
Lion Noble, 78 grs. ; Two-Thirds Lion Noble, 52^ grs. ; One-Third Lion 
Noble, 26^ grs. ; Thistle Noble, 117| grs. ; Hat Piece, 70 grs. ; Rider, 78 
grs. ; and Sword and Sceptre Piece, 78| grs. Silver. Ryal, 472^ 
grs. ; Two-Thirds Ryal, 315 grs. ; One-Third Ryal, 157 grs. ; Noble, 
105 grs. ; Double-Merk, 343^ grs. ; Sixteen Shilling Piece (4th issue), 
166 grs. ; Forty Shilling Piece (5th issue), 47 2 grs. ; Balance Half- 
Merk, 7 If grs. ; Ten Shilling Piece (7th issue), 94^ grs. ; Thirty Penny 
Piece, 23 grs. ; Twelve Penny Piece, 11| grs. ; and Thistle Merk, 105 
grs. Billon. Plack, 28 grs. ; Hardhead or Lion, 23 grs. ; and Saltire 
Plack, 23^ grs. Copper. Twopence, 59 grs. ; and Penny, 29 grs. All 
the divisions in proportion. 

FINENESS. Gold. Twenty Pound Piece, 22 cts. ; Ducat, 21 cts. ; Lion 
Noble and its divisions, 21 J cts. ; Thistle Noble, 23 T V cts. ; and Hat 
Piece, and subsequent issues, 22 cts. Silver. All 11 pts. fine to 1 pt. 
alloy except Noble and Half Noble (2nd issue), 1 pt. fine to 1 pt. 
alloy to 1576, and 2 pts. fine to 1 pt. alloy from that date ; and Balance 
Half and Quarter Merk (1591-4), 10J pts. fine to 1J pts. alloy. Billon. 
1st issue, 1 pt. fine to 3 pts. alloy ; 2nd and 3rd issues, 1 pt. fine to 
23 pts. alloy ; 4th issue, 1 pt. fine to 11 pts. alloy. 

Edinburgh is the only mint-name of this reign. It occurs on billon 
and copper coins only. 

123. Twenty Pound Piece. 1576. 1st issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 DEI GRA GOLU. 

REX SCOTOR Half-length figure of king to r., in armour and 
crowned ; sword in r. hand ; branch in 1. ; below on tablet, I N 
VTRVNQVE PARATVS 1576. Eev. PARCERE SVBIECTIS <& 
DEBELLARE SVPERBOS. Shield of Scotland, crowned. AT 1-6. 
Wt. 468-0. 

Dated also 1575. This fine coin weighed one ounce Scottish. This 
is the earliest gold issue of James VI, and from their size and rarity 
these coins were regarded as medals. Half and quarter-pieces of the 
twenty pounds are mentioned in the contract for the coinage with 
Achesoun, the master coiner, but none are known. 

124. Ducat or Four Pound Piece. 1580. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 DEI 

GRA REX SCOTORVM ; m. m. crown. Youthful bust of king to 1., 
in armour, mantle and ruff, bead bare. Rev. EXVRGAT DE' ET 
DISSIP INIMICI EIVS. Shield of Scotland, crowned, dividing 
date 1580. N 1-1. Wt. 93-1. 

This coin is usually called the noble. It was issued of the above 
date only, and five were struck to the Scottish ounce. 

125. Lion Noble. 1586. 3rd issue. Obv. POST 5 <& 100 PROA' 

INVICTA MANENT HEC; m. m. quatrefoil. Lion sejant, crowned, 
holding sword and sceptre (tbe crest of Scotland). Rev. DEVS 
1VDICIVM TVVM REGI DA 1586; ?H. ra. as on oZw. Four crowned 
cipbers of I R, arranged in form of cross; in centre, S. AT 1-05. 
Wt. 80-2. 

Dated also 1584, 1585 and 1588 ; none are known of 1587. Current 
for 3 15s. The two-thirds lion noble and one-third lion noble are of the 
same type and legends. The dates of the former are 1584, 1585, and 
1587 ; but of the latter that of 1584 only is known. The lion noble was 



192 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xivii. also sometimes called the Scottish angel, on account of its corresponding 
GOLD. in size and weight to the English coin of that name : and its divisions, 
the crown and half-crown. Only two specimens of the one-third 
lion noble are known. 

Plate xlviii. 126. Thistle Noble (1588). Uh issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 DEI - GRATIA 
REX SCOTORVM ; m. m. quatrefoil. Ship on sea; in centre, crowned 
shield with arms of Scotland ; below, thistle ; flags at prow and stern 
inscribed I 6. Rev. FLORENT SCEPTRA PUS REGNA HIIS IOVA 
DAT NVMERATQ; m. m. as on obv. Within an ornamented quatre- 
foil two sceptres in saltire, with crown at each end ; thistle in centre ; 
outside the quatrefoil, thistle-head in each spandril, and inside in each 
arch, crowned lion. A7 1'4. Wt. 116-5. 

This coin was also known as the Scottish rose noble and its 
original current value was fixed at 7 6s. Sd. It is not dated and was 
only issued in 1588. The dies were engraved by Thomas Foulis. 
Half-thistle nobles were ordered, but do not appear to have been 
struck. 

127. Hat Piece. 1591. 5th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM ; 

m. m. cinquefoil. Bust of king to r., wearing high-crowned hat ; behind, 
thistle. Rev. TE SOLVM - VEREOR 1591; m. m. as on obv. Lion 
sejant to 1., crowned, holding sceptre which points to clouds with 
" Jehovah " in Hebrew letters. AT 1-1. Wt. 76 -6. 

Dated also 1592 and 1593. Current for 4. The half -hat piece 
was not issued though ordered. In 1591, with the exception of the 
thistle noble, all the gold money in circulation was called in. 

128. Rider. 1594. 6th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM ; 

m. m. quatrefoil. King in armour riding to r., sword in r. hand ; below, 
1594. Rev. SPERO ME LI OR A; m. m. as on obv. The shield of Scotland 
crowned, v 1'05. Wt. 78-4. 

Dated also 1593, 1595, 1598, 1599, and 1601. Current for 5. 
The Act which ordered the striking of the riders and half-riders, 
again directed the calling in at current prices of all the gold money 
both " propir and foreigne." 

129. Half-Eider. 1593. 6th issue. Same type and legends as the Rider ; but 

dated 1593. A? '85. Wt. 39-0. 
Same dates as the rider. Current for 50s. 

130. Sword and Sceptre Piece. 1601. 1th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G 

R SCOTORVM ; m. m. quatrefoil. Shield of Scotland crowned. Rev. 

SALVS POPVLI SVPREMA - LEX ; m. m. as on obv. A sword and 

a sceptre in saltire between two thistles ; above, crown ; below, date 1 601 . 

Afl-15. Wt. 75-6. 

Dated also 1602-1604. Current for 6. There are' silver gilt 
forgeries of this coin dated 1611. By some they are considered to be 
patterns ; but the fact of their being always gilt is against this view. 

131. Half-Sword and Sceptre Piece. 1601. 7th issue. Same type and legends as 

the Sword and Sceptre Piece. A; -85. Wt. 37 -6. 
Same dates as the preceding. Current for 3. 

-IIVEB 132. Ryal or Thirty Shilling Piece. 1570. 1st issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 
DEI GRATIA REX SCOTORVM. Shield of Scotland crowned 
between I R, both crowned. Rev. PRO ME SI MEREOR IN 



JAMES VI. 193 

ME. Sword erect with a crown above, dividing hand and mark of value Plate xlvlil 
X X X and date 1570. 2R 1 7. Wt. 471 0. SILVBB. 

The ryal and its divisions, the two-thirds and one-third ryal, are all 

dated 1567-1571. The ryal is more commonly known as the sword 

dollar ; but this appellation appears to be of recent origin. 

133. Two-Thirds Ryal or Twenty Shilling Piece. 1567. 1st issue. Same type and 

legends as the Ryal, but mark of value XX and date 1567. Ml'7. 
Wt. 315-0. 

134. One-Third Ryal or Ten Shilling Piece. 1567. 1st issue. Same type and 

legends as the Ryal, but mark of value X and date 1567. M 1-25. 
Wt. 157-4. 

On account of the rise in the price of silver the ryal and its parts in 
1578 were received at the mint at the rate of 32. Qd. to the ryal, and 
being countermarked with a crowned thistle they were re-issued at 
36s. 9d. to the ryal. The testoons of Mary were countermarked in a 
similar way and re-issued at an advanced value of lOd. each (see No. 99). 

135. Noble or Half-Merk. 1572. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 - DEI 

GRATIA REX SCOTORVM. Shield of Scotland, crowned, between mark 

of value 68 (= 6s. 8d.). Bev. SALVVM FAC POPVLVM TVVM 

ONE 1572. An ornamented and foliated cross with voided centre 

enclosing star ; in alternate angles, thistle and crown, a 1-2. Wt. 103-8. 

Dates 1572-1577 and 1580. This was a debased coinage struck " for 

payment of the charges of the present civil and intestine war." 

From 1572 to 1576 it was only half silver and half alloy; but from 

that date its standard was raised to f fine silver and ^ alloy. 

136. Quarter-Merk or Forty Penny Piece. 1572. 2nd issue. Same type and 

legends as the Half-Merk, but shield on obv. between mark of value 3 4 
(=3s. 4d.). JRl'O. Wt. 53-7. 

Dates 1572-1574, 1576, 1577, and 1580. This piece was commonly 
called the half -noble. 

137. Double-Merk. 1579. 3rd issue. Obv. IACOBVS -6-DEI-G-REX. 

SCOTORVM. Shield of Scotland, crowned. Rev. NEMO ME - 
IMPVNE LACESSET 1579; m. m. crown. Thistle with leaves 
between I R. JR 1-55. Wt. 342-3. 

Dates 1578-1580. Current for 26s. 8d. This coin is commonly 
known as the thistle dollar. Its half, the merk or half-thistle 
dollar, is of precisely the same type and has the same legends. It 
bears the dates 1579 and 1580. The famous motto on the reverse, 
now used for the first time, is said to have been suggested by George 
Buchanan, the statesman and poet. 

138. Sixteen Shilling Piece. 1581. tth issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 DEI 

GRATIA REX SCOTORVM. Shield of Scotland, crowned. Rev. 
NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET 1581. Crowned thistle with 
leaves between I R. 2R 1-3. Wt. 162-2. 

139. Four Shilling Piece. 1581. 4th issue. Same type and legends as the Six- 

teen Shilling Piece, but reading SCOTOR for SCOTORVM. JR -95. 
Wt. 41-5. 

The eight shilling and two shilling pieces of this issue are 
of the same type ; the inscriptions only varying slightly. This 
coinage was struck in 1581 only, and on account of its similarity to 





194 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate xiviii. the double-merk it was considered a part of that series. The records 

SILVER, however show that it was a separate coinage. Though its issue was 

only ordered in July 1581, it was withdrawn from circulation in the 

following October, being rated at too high a current value, and a new 

issue consisting of forty, thirty, &c., shilling pieces took place. 

140. Forty Shilling Piece. 1582. 5th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 . DEI 
GRATIA REX SCOTORVM ; ra.ra. cross. Half-length figure of king 
to 1., in armour and crowned; sword in r. hand. Rev. HONOR REGIS 
IVDICIVM DILIGIT 1582. Shield of Scotland, crowned, between 
I R and mark of value XL S. x, I' 65. Wt. 466-0. 
Though this issue lasted till 1585 the forty shilling piece is dated 

1582 only, and of these but few specimens are known. The dies were 

made by Thomas Foulis, and the portrait of the king was drawn by 

Lord Seyton's painter. 

Plate xlix. 141. Thirty Shilling Piece. 1585. 5th issue. Same type, &c., as the Forty 
Shilling Piece, but reading on rev. IVDITIVM for IVDICIVM, and mark of 

value X X X S. Jil-45. Wt. 275-0. 
Dates 1582-1585. 

142. Twenty Shilling Piece. 1582. 5th issue. Same type, &c., as the Forty 

Shilling Piece, but mark of value XX S. s. 1'35. Wt. 231-0. 
Dates 1582-1584. 

143. Ten Shilling Piece. 1582. 5th issue. Same as the last, but mark of value 

X S. JBl-25. Wt. 116-5. 

Dates 1582-1584. Coinages of these pieces are said to have 
taken place in 1586 and 1587, but the amounts must have been small 
as no specimens are known. 

144. Balance Half-Merk. 1591. 6th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R 

SCOTORVM 1591; m. m. cinquefoil. Shield of Scotland, crowned, 

between two thistle-heads. Rev. HIS DIFFERT REGE TYRANNVS ; 

ra. m. as on obv. A balance, behind which is a sword. M 1 15. Wt. 67 7. 

Dates 1591-1594. Current for 6s. 8d. The balance quarter-merk 

is of the same type and legends ; but the only dates are 1591 and 1592. 

No silver money was issued between 1585 and 1591. The coinages of 

that period consisted of gold and billon money only. 

145. Ten Shilling Piece. 1593. 7th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R 

SCOTORVM ; m. m. quatrefoil. Bust of king to r., in armour, head bare. 

Rev. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSIT 1593; m. m. as on obv. 

A triple-headed thistle with leaves ; above, crown. M 1 25. Wt. 87 5. 
Dates 1593-1595 and 1598-1601. The Act of 17 Jan. 1593-4, 
which ordered this coinage, directed the calling in of all the gold, silver 
and alloyed money, except the pence, twopences and placks. This was 
done in order to raise the coinage above its real value, and for the 
profit derived therefrom. The new gold coins issued were the rider 
and half-rider (see Nos. 128 and 129). 

146. Five Shilling P;ece. 1598. 1th issue. Same type, &c., as the Ten Shilling 

Piece, but date 1 598. JR 1 0. Wt. 45 2. 
Dates 1593-1595 and 1598-1599. 



JAMES VI. 



195 



147. Thirty Penny Piece. 1601. 7th issue. Same type, &c., as the Ten Shilling Plate xllx. 

Piece, but date 1601. .R -8. Wt. 22-6. SILVER 

Dates 1593-1595, 1598, 1599, and 1601. 

148. Twelve Penny Piece. 1595. 7th issue. Same type, &c., as the Ten Shilling 

Piece, but date 1 595. M -6. Wt. 9 -3. 

Dates 1593-1596 and 1598. It will be seen from the above dates 
that no issue of this coinage took place in 1597. Dies altered from 
1596 to 1598 are known, which would make it appear that there was no 
coinage between those dates. 

149. Thistle Merk. 1602. 8th issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R 

SCOTORVM. Shield of Scotland, crowned. Rev. REGEM IOVA 
PROTEGIT 1602. A leaved thistle, crowned. *l-3. Wt. 103-9. 

Dates 1601-1604. Current for 13*. 4=d. In 1601 another general 
recoinage of gold and silver money was ordered, and all the currency 
in those metals was again called in. The gold coins of this new issue 
consisted of the sword and sceptre piece and its half, and the silver 
of the thistle merk and its divisions. The current values of all the 
coins were again raised. This was the last coinage before James's 
accession to the English throne ; when the thistle merk was ordered to 
be received in England at the rate of thirteen pence halfpenny, its 
exact proportion to the English shilling. 

150. Half-Thistle Merk. 1602. 8th issue. Same type, &c., as the Thistle Merk. 

-sil-05. Wt. 51-5. 
Dates 1601-1604. Current for 6s. 3d. 

151. Quarter-Thistle Merk. 1602. 8th issue. Same type, &c., as the Thistle 

Merk. JR -85. Wt. 25-2. 
Dates 1601-1604. Current for 3s. 4d. 

152. Eighth-Thistle Merk. 1602. 8th issue. Same type, &c., as the Thistle Merk. 

JR -65. Wt. 12-3. 
Dates 1601-1603. Current for Is. Sd. 



153. Plack (1583-1588). 1st issue. Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTOR. 

Shield of Scotland, crowned. Rev. OPPIDVM-EDINBVRGI. A leaved 

thistle, crowned. Bil. -8. Wt. 26-4. 

Current for Sd. On account of the plague in 1585 the mint at 
Edinburgh was moved to Dundee and later on to Perth ; but, though 
ordered, no placks with those mint-names are known. They are some- 
times called "Atkinsons," after Thomas Achesoun the engraver. 
Some specimens have the mint-name abbreviated. The half-plack is of 
the same type ; but the legends are more abbreviated. 



BILLON. 



154. Hardhead (1588). 2nd issue. Obv. IACOB - 6 - D G - R SCOTO ; 
m. m. quatrefoil. The letters I R crowned. Rev. VINCIT VERITAS. 
Shield of Scotland, crowned. Bil. -8. Wt. 24-5. 

Current for 2d. This coin was issued under an order of the Privy 
Council, dated 30 Aug. 1588, professedly for the benefit of the poor; 
but nevertheless it produced a profit of about one hundred per cent. 

2 



196 



SCOTTISH COINS. 



Plate xlix. 155. Hardhead (1588). 
BILLON. 



3rd issue. Obv. IACOB 6 D 



G R SCO ; m. w. 

cross. Same type as the preceding. Eev. VINCIT VERITAS ; m. m. as 
on obv. Lion rampant to 1., crowned; behind, two pellets, for mark of 
value (= 2d.). Bil. -7. Wt. 24-3. 

This coin is sometimes called the Lion. On account of the confusion 
of the hardhead of the 1st type with the plack of 1583-1588 through 
similarity of weight, &c., the type was changed in Nov. 1588 to the 
above. 

156. Half-Hardhead (1588). 3rd issue. Same type, &c., as the Hardhead, 

2nd type, but no pellets behind the lion on the rev. Bil. '55. Wt. 12-4. 
Current for Id. These coins were, in the Act ordering their issue, 
called twopences and pennies from their current values. 

157. Saltire Plack (1593). Uh issue. Obv. IACOB 6 D G R - SCO'; 

m. m. quatrefoil. A leaved thistle over two sceptres in saltire. Rev. 
OPPID' EDINB' ; m. m. as on obv. A lozenge with a thistle-head at 
each point. Bil. -85. Wt. 21-0. 

Current for 4d. This was the last billon money issued in Scotland. 
Its place was subsequently supplied by a copper currency (see 
No. 158). 

COPPER. 158. Twopence (1597). Obv. IACOBVS 6 D G R SCOTORVM. Bust 
of king to r., in armour, head bare. Rev. OPPIDVM EDINBVRGI. 
Three thistle-heads. M '85. Wt. 55 '8. 

The penny of this issue is of the same type ; but it has a pellet for 
mark of value behind the king's head. These are the only copper 
coins of this reign. They were struck in pursuance of an order dated 
13 May 1597. They were to be made of copper unmixed with any 
other kind of metal ; and the twopence was to weigh three deniers = 
58 '06 grs.j and the penny one denier twelve grains = 29 '53 grs. By 
means of a new process invented by Achesoun, the engraver, for rolling 
the metal to an even thickness, these coins were struck of more 
uniform module and of smoother surface than other coins of the same 
period. 

PERIOD II. 1603-1625. 
(After James's accession to the English Throne.) 

COINAGE. Gold. Unit or Sceptre, Double-Crown, Britain Crown, 
Half-Crown, and Thistle Crown. Silver. Sixty Shillings, Thirty 
Shillings, Twelve Shillings, Six Shillings, Two Shillings, Shilling, and 
Half-Shilling. Copper. Turner or Twopence and Half-Turner or 
Penny. 

ISSUES. Gold. Two: 1st issue* (1605), Unit, Double-Crown, 
Britain Crown, Half-Crown, and Thistle Crown. 2nd issue (1610), 
same denominations as 1st issue, but type slightly varied (see below). 



* By an Order of Council, 15th November, 1604, it was enacted that the Scottish 
coinage was to conform precisely to that of England, in type, quality and weight, 
and to consist of the same denominations. It was, however, to have one special 
mark, the thistle mint-mark, which was to be placed before the inscription on all 
the coins except the sixpence on which there were no inscriptions. 



JAMES VI. 197 

Silver. Two: 1st issue (1605), Sixty Shillings, Thirty Shillings, 
Twelve Shillings, Six Shillings, Two Shillings, Shilling, and Half- 
Shilling. 2nd issue (1610), same denominations, but, as in the gold, 
the type slightly varied (see below). Copper. Two : 1st issue (1614), 
Turner or Twopence and Half-Turner or Penny. 2nd issue (1623), 
same denominations, but varied in legends, &c. (see descriptions). 

WEIGHT. Gold. Unit (both issues), 154ff grs., and its divisions in 
proportion; Thistle Crown, 30f grs. Silver. Sixty Shillings (both 
issues), 464 ^f grs., and its divisions in proportion. Copper. Turner (1st 
issue), 37f grs. ; (2nd issue), 29|- grs. 

FINENESS. Gold. All denominations 22 cts. fine. Silver. All deno- 
minations 11 pts. silver to 1 pt. alloy (both issues). 

The first issue of the gold and silver coins (16051610) is of precisely 
the same types and legends as the English coins of the same period * 
(see Nos. 533-537 and 555-561, pp. 101 and 104-5), except that the king 
wears the Scottish crown, which differs from the English one in having 
in the centre a lis between wo crosses instead of a cross between two 
lis. The arms on the shield are as on the English coins. In the 
second issue (1610-1625) the king wears the same crown, but the 
arms on the shield are arranged : 1 and 4, Scotland ; 2, France and 
England quarterly ; and 3, Ireland. The types, otherwise, and legends 
are the same as those of the first issue. On account of similarity of 
type the following descriptions are limited to the coins of the second 
issue. With two exceptions the mint-mark is always a thistle. The 
exceptions are the thistle crown and the half -shilling, on some of which 
there is a lis mint-mark. 

159. Unit. 2>uZ issue. Obv. IACOBVS D G - MAG BRIT - FRAN 

& HIB REX; in. m. thistle. Half-length figure of king to r. in GOLD. 

armour, and wearing the Scottish crown ; holding sceptre and orb. Rev. 

FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM VNAM; m. m. thistle. Square 

garnished shield (Scottish arms), crowned between I R. AI 1'5. 

Wt. 152-6. 

Current for <12 Scottish or 20s. English. The proportionate 
current value of the Scottish and English coins at this time was at 
12 to 1. Thus the unite or twenty shillings English was equivalent 
to 12 Scottish, and the English shilling to the twelve shillings 
Scottish. In both issues the unit is common, but the other denomina- 
tions are very rare. 

160. Double-Crown. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT 

FRAN ET HIB REX; m. m. thistle. Bust of king to r., in armour, 
crowned. Rev. HENRICVS - ROSAS REGNA - IACOBVS; m. m. as 
on obv. Square shield, crowned, between I R. AT 1*15. Wt. 77 '5. 

Current for 6 Scottish or 10s. English. For explanation of the 
reverse legend see No. 534, p. 101. The double-crowns of the first 
issue vary in reading I A for IACOBVS. A specimen, however, is 
known of the second issue with a similar abbreviation of the king's name. 



* An exception however occurs in the Thistle Crown, which is without the 
initials of the king in the field on either side (see No. 163). 



198 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate 1. 161. Britain Crown. 2nd issue. Same as the Double-Crown, but the obv. legend 
GOLD . reads, I A - D G - MAG - BRIT - FRAN ET HIB REX. AT -85. 

Wt. 38 '5. 

Current for 3 Scottish or 5s. English. 

162. Half-Crown. 2nd issue. Obv. I D G ROSA SINE SPIN A; m. m. 

thistle. Bust of king to r., in armour, crowned. Rev. TVEATVR VNITA 
DEVS ; m. m. thistle. Square shield, crowned. AJ '7. Wt. 19*0. 

Current for 30s. Scottish or 2s. 6d. English. 

163. Thistle Crown. Obv. IA' D' G' . MAG' BR' F' & H' REX; 

m.m. thistle. Double rose, crowned. Eev. TVEATVR VNITA DEVS ; 
m. m. thistle. A leaved thistle, crowned, jj -85. Wt. 30-4. 

Current for 2 8s. Scottish or 4s. English. There appears to have 
been no change in the types of the thistle crowns of the 1st and 
2nd issues, so that they cannot be distinguished. They differ from 
the English coins of the same denomination in having the Scottish 
crown, in being without the king's initials in the field on either side, 
and in reading & for ET in the obverse legend. The mint-mark is 
sometimes a lis. 

SILVKR. 164. Sixty Shillings or Crown. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' MAG' 
BRIT' FRAN' & HIB' REX ; m.m. thistle. King on horseback to r., 
sword in r. hand ; on the caparisons of the horse is a crowned thistle. Rev. 
}V/E DEyS CpNIVNXIT NEMO SEPARET; m. m. thistle. 
juare garnished shield. 2R 1'7. Wt. 459*0. 

Current for 5s. English. The Scottish sixty and thirty shilling 
pieces vary from the English crown and half-crown in having a crowned 
thistle instead of a crowned rose on the caparisons of the horse and 
in reading & for ET. 

165. Thirty Shillings. 2nd issue. Same type, &c., as the Sixty Shillings. 

jil-4. Wt. 229-8. 
Current for 2s. Gd. English. 

166. Twelve Shillings. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS D G MAG BRIT - 

FRAN & HIB REX; m.m. thistle. Bust of king to r., in armour, 
crowned; behind, mark of value, XII. Rev. QV/E DEVS CONIVNXIT 
NEMO SEPARET; m. m. thistle. Plain square shield. JR 1-2. 
Wt. 90-7. 

Current for Is. English. The twelve shillings of the first issue has 
ET for & in the obverse legend. The six shillings is of the same type 
and legends, but always reads ET and has for mark of value VI. It is 
the only dated coin of this reign. The dates of the two issues are 
1605, 1612, 1613, 1615, 1616, and 1622. 

The two shillings, shilling and half-shilling are of the same types as 
the English half-groat, penny and halfpenny of the same period (see 
Nos. 559-561, p. 105). They can only be distinguished from each 
other by very slight varieties except in the case of the two shillings, 
which has the Scottish crown on either side. The lettering on the 
Scottish pieces is somewhat larger and the rose less neatly formed. 

COPPER. 167. Turner or Twopence. 1st issue (1614). Obv. IACOBVS DEI GRA - 
MAG BRIT. A triple-headed leaved thistle. Rev. FRANC1E ET 



JAMES VI. 199 

HIBERNIE REX. The Scottish lion to 1. ; behind, two pellets for Piatel 
value ( = 2d.). M -75. Wt. 39'5. COPPBB. 

The half-turner or penny of this issue is of the same type and has 
the same legends as the turner : but it has only one pellet for value 
behind the lion. The turner is said to have received its name from 
Tournois, a small French copper coin. 

This copper coinage, which was first issued in 1614, was ordered out 
of the king's pity and commiseration for the poor without any kind of 
consideration of profit for himself. Yet its current value per stone 
was at 26 13s. 4d. as against its metal value 17 Is. 4d. 

168. Turner or Twopence. 2nd issue (1623). Same type as the preceding coin ; 
but the legends read, obv. IACOBVS D G - MAG BRIT; and rev. 
FRAN ET HIB - REX. *j -75. Wt. 27'7. 

The half-turner only varies from the turner in having one pellet 
behind the lion. 

Turners of the first issue were struck at 12 to the oz., and those of 
the second at 16 to the oz. This raised the current value to 34 2*. Sd. 
per stone. 

Charles I. 1625-1649. 

COINAGE. Gold. Unit or Sceptre, Half -Unit or Double-Crown, 
Quarter-Unit or Britain Crown, and Eighth-Unit or Half-Crown. 
Silver. Three Pound Piece or Crown, Sixty Shillings, Thirty Shillings, 
Twelve Shillings, Six Shillings, Three Shillings, Two Shillings, Shilling, 
Half -Shilling, Half-Merk, Forty Penny Piece, and Twenty Penny Piece. 
Copper. Turner or Twopence and Half-Turner or Penny. 

ISSUES. Gold. Two : 1st issue (1625), Unit or Sceptre, Half-Unit 
or Double-Crown, and Quarter-Unit or Britain Crown. 2nd issue 
(1637), Unit or Sceptre, Half-Unit or Double Crown, Quarter-Unit 
or Britain Crown, and Eighth-Unit. Silver. Five : 1st issue (1625), 
Three Pound Piece or Crown, Thirty Shillings, Twelve Shillings, Six 
Shillings, Two Shillings, Shilling, and Half-Shilling. 2nd issue (1636), 
Half-Merk, Forty Penny Piece, and Twenty Penny Piece. 3rd issue 
(Jan. 1637), Twelve Shillings and Six Shillings. 4th issue (Oct. 1637), 
Sixty Shillings, Thirty Shillings, Twelve Shillings, Six Shillings, Half- 
Merk, Forty Penny Piece, and Twenty Penny Piece. 5th issue (1642), 
Three Shillings and Two Shillings. Copper. Three : 1st issue (1629), 
Turner or Twopence and Half -Turner or Penny. 2nd issue (1632), and 
3rd issue (1642), Turner. 

WEIGHT. Gold. Unit, 154 grs., and its divisions in proportion. 
Silver. Three Pound Piece and Sixty Shillings, 464f grs., and its 
divisions in proportion (as James VI's last coinage) ; Half-Merk, 51 grs. ; 
Forty Penny Piece, 25 J grs., and Twenty Penny Piece, 12f| grs. 
Copper. Turner, 1st issue, 29^ grs. ; 2nd issue, about 13 T \j- grs. ; and 3rd 
issue, about 44 T \ grs. 

FINENESS. Gold. All denominations 22 cts. fine. Silver. All 
denominations 1 1 pts. silver to 1 pt. alloy. 



200 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Platel 169. Unit or Sceptre. 1st isstie. Obv. CAROLVS D' G' MAG' BRIT' 

GOLD. FRAN' & HIB' REX; m. m. thistle. Half-length figure of king 

to r., in armour, crowned, and holding sceptre and orb. Rev. FACIAM 

EOS IN GENTEM VNAM ; m. m. as on obv. Square garnished 

shield, crowned, between C R. A; 1-5. Wt. 153-5. 

This coin was also called the double-angel. It was current for 12 
Scottish or 20s. English. The early coinage in gold and silver of 
Charles differs but slightly from that of his father. Not only are the 
denominations the same, but Charles even adopted his father's portrait 
with but a slight alteration in the beard, which is a little more pointed 
in shape. The king always wears the Scottish crown (see p. 197). The 
dies for this coinage and also for that in silver were made by Charles 
Dickesone, engraver to the mint. 

170. Half-Unit or Double-Crown. 1st issue. Obv. Same as the Unit, but bust to 

r., in armour, crowned. Eev. HENRICVS - ROSAS REGNA 
IACOBVS ; m. m. thistle. Square shield, crowned, not garnished, between 
C R. vl-15. Wt. 75-8. 
Current for 6 Scottish or 10s. English. Also called the angel. 

171. Quarter-Unit or Britain Crown. 1st issue. Same as the preceding in all 

respects, but of smaller size ; same m. m. AT -8. Wt. 38 '0. 

Current for 3 Scottish or 5s. English. Also called the five merk 
piece. 

The thistle crown and half-crown were also ordered, but none 
appear to have been struck as no specimens of either are known. 

Plate li 172. Unit or Sceptre. Itidissue. Obv. CAROLVS D : G MAG BRITAN 
FRAN ET HIB REX; m. m. thistle and B (Briot). Half-length 
figure of king to r., in much decorated armour, crowned, and holding 
sceptre and orb. Rev. HIS - PRXESVM . VT PROSIM. Square 
shield, crowned, between C R, both crowned. A? 1'5. Wt. 154 '0. 

The current values of the gold coins of the second issue were the 
same as those of the first. The dies for this coinage were made by 
Nicolas Briot, the engraver to the London mint, who in 1635 was 
appointed master of the Scottish mint. He was assisted by his son- 
in-law, John Falconer. The gold used was supplied by the African 
Company from bullion obtained on the coast of New Guinea. The 
portrait of the king on this coinage is similar to that on the English 
coins of the same period, and the inscription on the unit is a 
complimentary reference to the active part which Charles had taken 
in putting the Scottish coinage on a proper footing. This issue, which 
corresponds in date to the fourth issue of the silver money (see Nos. 186- 
192), was struck by the mill and screw and not as before by the hammer. 

173. Half-Unit or Double-Crown. 2nd issue. Obv. CAR D : G MAG 
BRIT FRAN ET HIB REX. Bust of king to 1., crowned, wearing 
mantle and armour, hair long ; the bust extends to the edge of the coin ; 
below, B (Briot). Rev. VNITA - TVEMVR. Square shield, crowned, &o. f 
as on the Unit. A7 1-0. Wt. 75-7. 
With the exception of the unit all the gold coins of this issue have 

the bust of the king to 1. as on the English money. Varieties read 

F. or FR. for FRAN, and have the English crown. 



CHAELES I. 201 

174. Quarter-Unit or Britain Crown. 2nd issue. Same as the preceding, but Plate li. 

reading FR. for FRAN. AT -85. Wt. 37-4. GOLD. 

A variety reads FRAN. 

175. Eighth-Unit or Half-Crown. 2nd issue. Same as the Half-Unit, but read- 

ing R. for REX, and the letters C R on the reverse not crowned, ti -65. 
Wt. 18-6. 

Varieties read REX and omit the C R on the reverse. 

176. Three Pound Piece or Crown. 1st issue. Obv. CAROLVS D G SILVER. 

MAG BRIT FRAN - & HIB REX; m.m. thistle. King on horse- 
back to r., sword in r. hand; crowned thistle on caparisons of horse ; plain 
line below. Rev. QWE DEVS - CONIVNXIT - NEMO SEPARET; 
m. m. as on obv. Square garnished shield. JR 1-75. Wt. 461-0. 
Current for 5s. English or 60s. Scottish. The types of the silver 

coins of the first issue of Charles are precisely the same as those of 

James VI. They only vary in the king's name. 

177. Thirty Shillings. 1st issue. Same as the preceding. JR 1-4. 

Wt. 226-4. 
Current for 2s. Qd. English and the following in proportion. 

178. Twelve Shillings. 1st issue. Same legends as No. 176, but type : 

061;. Bust of king to r. in armour, crowned; behind, mark of value XII.; 
rev. Square shield not garnished and not crowned ; m. m. thistle on both 
sides, ail -2. Wt. 91-1. 

179. Six Shillings. 1627. 1st issue. Same as the last, [but mark of value 

VI and date 1627 above the shield. M 1-0. Wt. 43-8. 

Dates 1625, 1627, 1630, 1632, and 1633. This is the only dated 
coin of this reign. The dates cease on the English sixpence in 1630. 

180. Two Shillings. 1st issue. Obv. C D G ROSA SINE SPINA; 

I m. m. thistle. Eose, crowned. Rev. TVEATVR VNITA DEVS; m.m. 

&aonobv. Thistle-head, crowned. M -7. Wt. 14*6. 

The crown on the obverse and reverse is of the Scottish form (see 
p. 197). The shilling is of the same types as the two shillings except 
that the rose and the thistle are not crowned. The half-shilling is not 
to be distinguished from that of James VI. (see No. 166). 

181. Half-Merk. 2nd issue. Obv. CAROLVS D G SCOT ANG FR 

& H I B R. Bust of king to 1., extending to the edge of the coin, crowned ; 

behind, mark of value V g. Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO. 

Plain shield, crowned, st I'O. Wt. 47'0. 

Current for 6s. Sd. Scottish or 6e7. English. The designs for this 
coinage were made by Nicolas Briot and the sinking of the dies was 
entrusted to Charles Dickesone, who, it is said, maliciously spoilt the 
portrait of the king in order to bring discredit on Briot. On this and 
all subsequent issues the bust of the king is to 1. 

182. Forty Penny Piece. 2nd issue. Obv. CAR D G SCOT AN FR 

& HIB R. Bust of king crowned as on the preceding; behind, XL 
for value. Rev. SALVS REIPVB SVPREMA LEX. A leaved 
thistle, crowned. M -8. Wt. 28-0. 

The legend on the reverse is variously abbreviated. 



202 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate II. 188. Twenty Penny Piece. 2nd issue. Same as the Forty Penny Piece, but mark 
STIVER of value XX behind the bust, which is encircled by the legend ; and reading 

onthereu., IVST THRONVM FIRMAT. JR -6. Wt. 11-4. 
The coins of this issue may be distinguished from similar pieces of 
the fourth issue by being struck with the hammer and not by the mill 
and screw. 

184. Twelve Shillings. 3rd issue. Obv. CAROLVS D : G MAGN 

BRITAN FRANC ET HIB REX; m. m. leaved thistle and F 

(Falconer). Bust of king to 1., crowned, in falling lace collar and mantle; 

behind, XII. Ecv. QV/E DEVS CONIVNXIT NEMO . SEPARET. 

Plain square shield, crowned, between C R both crowned, .at 1-25. 

Wt. 88-4. 

This coinage was issued in January 1637 in accordance with the 
order of the Privy Council, 29 Nov. 1636. The designs for the coins 
of this issue were made by Nicolas Briot, and his initial and also 
that of his son-in-law, John Falconer,* appear on most of the coins 
(see note No. 172). The types are similar to those of the English 
coins. They were struck by the mill and screw. 

185. Six Shillings. 3rd issue. Obv. CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT 

FR ET HIB REX; m. m. leaved thistle. Bust of king to 1., crowned, 
wearing plain collar, armour and mantle; behind, VI. Rev. Same as the 
preceding, but the shield is within the border of dots ; and m. m. thistle. 
jRl-05. Wt. 45-3. 

This piece is evidently the work of Briot. The coins of this issue 
may be distinguished from those of the same denominations of the 
next one by the king's bust being entirely within the legend. He also 
wears the English crown : but the Scottish one surmounts the shield. 
This was evidently a blunder. 

Plate lii. 186. Sixty Shillings. th issue.' Obv. CAROLVS D : G MAGN 

BRITANN FRANC ET HIBERN REX; m. m. thistle and B 

(Briot). King on horseback to 1., sword in r. hand ; ground under horse. 

Rev. QV/E DEVS - CONIVNXIT NEMO - SEPARET; m. m. as on 

obv. Square garnished shield, crowned, sil'7. Wt. 461 'O.| 

Though Briot had been appointed master of the Scottish mint in 

1635 he was not installed in his office till August 1637, shortly after 

which date he was ordered to prepare the dies for a new gold and 

silver coinage. To this series belong the unit and its divisions 

described under Nos. 172-175. The coins bear the initials of Briot 

and Falconer : some are however without any initial. These are 

generally ascribed to Falconer, whose pieces show less neatness of work 

and finish than those by Briot.f All the coins were struck by the mill 

and screw, so that they can be easily distinguished from previous 

issues. The current values remained as before, being at the ratio of 

12 to 1 in comparison with English money. 



* Whether Falconer actually engraved the dies has been questioned. He may 
have placed his initial on the die merely to show that the coins were issued under 
his authority. In any case all the designs appear to have been done by Briot. 

t Briot alone appears to have made the dies for the Sixty Shillings and Half- 
Merk. 



CHABLES I. 203 

187. Thirty Shillings. th issue. Same as the preceding, but the obv. legend Plate Hi 

reads, CAROLVS D : G . MAG BRIT . FRAN & . HIB - REX; 
m. m. leaved thistle only on both sides. Ml'l. Wt. 229-4. 

This is by Falconer : varieties having the letter p under the horse's 
off hind-foot. Others bear Briot's initial. 

188. Twelve Shillings. 1th issue. Obv. CAR D G MAG BRITAN 

FR ET HIB REX. Bust of king to 1., extending to the edge of the 
coin, crowned and wearing plain collar, mantle and armour; behind, XII. 
Bev. Same as the Sixty Shillings, No. 186 ; but shield not garnished, 
and between C R both crowned; above, F (Falconer). M 1-2. Wt. 90'3. 
On the silver coins of this issue the bust extends to the lower edge 

of the coin and the legend commences in front of the face. Varieties 

have Briot's initial or are without any letter. 

189. Six Shillings. 1th issue. Same as the preceding, but mark of value VI, 

and on the obv. the legend reads, CAR D : G MAG BRIT FRAN 
ET HIB REX ; m. m. below bust, lis and B (Briot) ; no m. m. on rev. 
JR '95. Wt. 44-9. 

Also by Falconer and without initial. 

190. Half-Merk. 1th issue. Obv. CAR . D : G SCOT ANG FR . ET 

HIB R. Bust of king to 1., dividing legend, crowned and in armour; 

behind, mark of value g 1 ; below, B (Briot). Bev. CHRISTO AVS- 

PICE REGNO. Square shield, crowned, between C R, both crowned. 
Si -95. Wt. 51-3. 

Current for 6s. 8d. Scottish or 6f d. English. Briot, only, engraved 
the dies for this denomination. None bear Falconer's initial. 

191. Forty Penny Piece. 1th issue. Obv. Same as the Half-Merk, but mark of 

value XL. Bev. SALVS REIPVBLICE SVPREMA LEX. A 
leaved thistle crowned; above, B (Briot). M -8. Wt. 23-4. 

Also by Falconer and without initial . Varieties read REIP, REIPVB, 
SVPR, SVPREM, &c. 

192. Twenty Penny Piece. 1th issue. Same as the Forty Penny Piece, but mark 

of value XX and legend on rev., IVSTITIA THRONVM - FIRMAT. 
JR -65. Wt. 14-0. 

Also by Falconer and without initial. There are varieties differing 
slightly in the legends on both sides. 

193. Three Shillings. 5th issue. Obv. CAR - D G SCOT ANG - 

FRAN & HIB R. Bust of king to 1., crowned, in armour and 
mantle; behind, thistle-head; all within circle. Rev. SALVS REIP 
SVPR LEX. Plain square shield, crowned. JR -75. Wt. 25-0. 

In March 1642 it was ordered that there should be no further 
coinages of the half-merk, forty penny and twenty -penny pieces : but 
in place of them three and two shilling pieces should be issued. The 
dies for the coinage appear to have been made by Dickesone. They 
are much inferior in workmanship to those by Briot or even by 
Falconer. Briot is thought to have made the design for the two 
shillings. 



204 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate Hi. 194. Two Shillings. 5th issue. Obv. Same as the preceding, but behind head, 
SILVER mark of value II. Rev. IVST THRONVM FIRMAT. Shield, arms of 

Scotland only, crowned. M -65. Wt. 17 -4. 

A variety has no marks of value on the obverse, and has B (Briot) 
under the bust, which extends to the edge of the coin. 

COPPER. 195. Turner. 1st issue. Obv. CAROLVS D G MAG BRIT. A triple- 
headed leaved thistle. Rev. FRAN & HIB REX. Lion rampant to 
1. ^behind, two pellets (= 2<Z.). M '75. Wt. 24-3. 

The types are similar to the last turner of James VI (see No. 168). 
It was ordered to be of the same manner of working, impressions, cir- 
cumscriptions and weight as that coin. The Order in Council is dated 
15 April, 1629. The half -turner or penny, which is of this issue only, 
varies from the turner in having one pellet for value behind the lion. 

196. Turner. 2nd issue. Obv. CAR D G SCOT AN FR ET HIB 

R; m. m. saltire. The numeral II (= 2d.) under a crown, and between 
C R; below, three lozenges. Rev. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACES- 
SET; m. m. as on obv. A leaved thistle. m '65. Wt. 11-3. 
This new coin was instituted by order of the Privy Council, 1632. 
It was struck at the rate of 36 to the ounce or about 13 ! grs., and 
at the value of 76 16s. to the stone. The dies were made by Briot. 
The half -turner, at 72 to the ounce, was also ordered, but does not 
appear to have been issued. The mint-marks on these coins are 
numerous. 

197. Turner. 3rd issue. Obv. CAR D G SCOT ANG FRA - ET 

HIB R; m. m. lozenge. Crown above C R. Rev. Same legend and 
type as on the preceding coin; m. m. lozenge. M '75. Wt. 43*0. 

This coin is sometimes called the Bodle. It was struck under an 
order of the Privy Council, 24 Feb. 1642 : and was to be at the rate 
of 10 to the ounce or about 44*3 grs. and at the value of 22 15s. l^eZ. 
to the stone. The intrinsic value of this coin compares very 
favourably with that of 1632. The dies appear to have been again 
used in 1650, when a small issue of turners was ordered by the 
Estates. 

No coins were specially struck for Scotland during the Common- 
wealth : and it was not till after the restoration of Charles II that 
the mint was revived. 



Charles II. 1660-1684. 

COINAGE.* Silver. Four Merk Piece, Two Merk Piece, Merk, 
Half-Merk, Dollar, Half-Dollar, Quarter-Dollar, Eighth-Dollar, and 
Sixteenth-Dollar. Copper. Turner, Bawbee or Sixpence, and Bodle 
or Twopence. 

* No gold coins were issued in Scotland during the reigns of Charles II and 
James VII, nor during the joint reigns of William and Mary. The coinage of a 
Twenty Merk Piece in gold was ordered in 16G2, and Thomas Simon was com- 
manded to make the puncheons : but the order does not appear to have been 
carried out. Simon made the stamps for the silver coins that were ordered at the 
time, but he did not prepare the actual dies. 



CHARLES II. 205 

ISSUES. Silver. Two: 1st issue (1664-1675), Four Merk Piece, Plate Hi. 
Two Merk Piece, One Merk, and Half -Merk. 2nd issue (1675-1682), 
Dollar, Half-Dollar, Quarter-Dollar, Eighth-Dollar, and Sixteenth- 
Dollar. Copper. Two : 1st issue (1661), Turner. 2nd issue (1677), 
Bawbee and Bodle. 

WEIGHT. Silver. Four Merk Piece and Dollar, each about 41 5| grs., 
and their divisions in proportion. Copper. Turner, 40 to 36 grs. ; 
Bawbee, 141-3 grs. ; and Bodle, 47 '1 grs. 

FINENESS. Silver. All 11 pts. silver to 1 pt. alloy. 

198. Four Merk Piece. 1674. 1st issue. Obv. CAROLVS II DEI GRA. ISILVKR. 

Bust of king to r., laureate, in armour and mantle ; below, F (Falconer). 
Rev. MAG BRI FRA ET HIB REX 1674. Four shields 
arranged in form of cross; 1 and 3, Scotland; 2, France and England 
quarterly; and 4, Ireland ; in each angle, two C's interlinked and crowned ; 

and in centre, mark of value L j" (= 53s. 4d.). Ml- 55. Wt. 408 -3. 

Some specimens have a thistle above or below the bust of the king. The 
dates are 1664, 1665, 1670, 1673, 1674, and 1675. This coinage was 
issued in accordance with the order of the Privy Council, 20 Oct. 1663, 
by which it was commanded that Joachim Harder, the graver of the mint 
at Edinburgh, should prepare the dies. The stamps were made by 
Thomas Simon. The four merk piece was, however, not ordered till 

24 March 1664. John Falconer, now Sir John Falconer, who as it has 
been seen above was engaged at the Scottish mint during the reign of 
Charles I, was under Charles II appointed principal warden of the 
mint. No coins are dated earlier than 1664. 

199. Two Merk Piece. 1674. 1st issue. Same as the Four Merk Piece ; but 

mark of value on rev. X g VI ( = 26s. 8d.). JR 1-35. Wt. 204-0. 

Dates as on the four merk piece except 1665, and also with thistle 
above or below the bust. 

200. Merk. 1669. 1st issue. Same as the Four Merk Piece, but with a thistle 

XIII 
under the king's bust and mark of value on rev. . (13s. 4d.). m 1-05. 

Wt. 96-5. 

Dates 1664-1675 inclusive. A slight change took place in the bust 
of the king on the merk after 1672, and on some the letter F (Falconer) 
occurs below it. The thistle below the bust is found on all dates to 
1673 of the merk and half -merk. 

201. Half-Merk. 1669. 1st issue. Same as the Merk, but mark of value on rev. 

Q' ( = 6. 8d.). M '9. Wt. 50-4. 
Dates 1664-1675 inclusive, except 1667 and 1674. 

202. Dollar. 1682. 2nd issue. Obv. CAROLVS II DEI GRA. Bust of Plate Hit 

king to 1., laureate and draped ; in front of bust, F (Falconer). Rev. 
SCO ANG FR ET HIB REX 1682. The shields of Scotland, 
England, France, and Ireland, each crowned, arranged in form of cross ; in 
the centre, two C's interlinked ; in each angle, thistle. M 1'55. Wt. 409-1. 
Dates 1676 and 1679-1682. In the Act authorising this coinage, 

25 Feb. 1675, this coin is called the four merk piece and its half the 



206 



SCOTTISH COINS. 



Plate liii. two merk piece, &c. They are now better known as the dollar, half- 
SILVER. dollar, <fec. The dollar was of the same current value as the four merks, 
viz., 53s. 4:d., and the smaller denominations in proportion. The dies for 
this coinage were made by Jan Roettier. The style and workmanship 
are the same as his English money. On account of certain irregularities 
in the mint no coins were issued during this reign after 1682. 

203. Half-Dollar. 1681. 2nd issue. Same as the Dollar, but date 1681. ^1-4. 

Wt. 203-5. 
Dates 1675, 1676, and 1681. 



COPPER. 



204. Quarter-Dollar. 1681. 
jRl-05. Wt. 102-0. 

Dates 1675-1682. 



issue. Same as the Dollar, but date 1681. 



205. Eighth-Dollar. 1676. 2nd issue. Same as the Dollar, but date 1676. 

JB, -9. Wt. 50-2. 
Dates 1676, 1677, and 1679-1682. 

206. Sixteenth-Dollar. 1681. 2nd issue. Obv. Similar to the Dollar. Rev. 

SCO ANG FRA ET HIB REX 1681. A St. Andrew's cross, 
with crown in centre; in angles, thistle, rose, lis and harp. M '7. 
Wt. 25-0. 

Dates 1677-1681. 

207. Turner. 1st issue. Obv. CAR D G - SCOT ANG FRA ET 

HIB R ; m. m. cross of five pellets. Crown above C R ; on r., mark of 
value II ( = 2d.). Rev. NEMO- ME IMPVNE . LACESSET. Thistle 
with leaves, not crowned. M '8. Wt. 40*8. 

These coins are sometimes attributed to Charles I, but as a copper 
coinage was ordered in 1661, and as the following pieces were not 
issued till 1677, it seems more reasonable to ascribe the above to 
Charles IT. They are of the same standard weight as the last turners 
attributed to Charles I ; but they differ slightly in the obverse type. 
The numerals may be for the current value of the coin or they may 
stand for " secundus." 

208. Bawbee or Sixpenny Piece. 1679. 2nd issue. Obv. CAR II D G 

SCO AN FR ET - HIB R. Bust of king to 1., laureate and draped; 

below on 1., F (Falconer). Rev. NEMO ME - IMPVNE LACESSET . 

1679. A leaved thistle, crowned. M 1-0. Wt. 127-7. 
Dates 1677-1679. This issue was ordered in Feb. 1677. It was 
to consist of pieces of the current values of sixpence and twopence, 
or at the rate of 141*3 grs. and 47*1 grs. respectively. Like the 
previous coinages they were to be struck by the mill and screw. The 
bawbee is supposed to have derived its name from the French bus 
billon. 

209. Bodle or Turner. 1677. 2nd issue. Obv. CAR II D G SCO ANG . 

FRA ET HIB REX. Crown above sword and sceptre crossed. Rev. 
Same as the Bawbee, but thistle not crowned; date 1677. M -75. 
Wt. 43-0. 

Dates 1677-1678. Current for 2d. The name bodle is said to 
have been derived from one Bothwell, a mint-master of the time ; but 
Cochran-Patrick does not give this name amongst those connected 
with the Scottish mint. 



JAMES VII. 207 



James VII. 1684-1688. 

COINAGE. Silver. Sixty Shilling Piece, Forty Shilling Piece, and Kate liit 
Ten Shilling Piece. 

ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue of silver coins and none of 
either gold or copper. The weights of the coins were : Sixty Shilling 
Piece, 427^ grs.; Forty Shilling Piece, 284^ grs.; and Ten Shilling 
Piece, 71 T 2 ^ grs.; and the standard of the silver lly^-pts. fine to 
ft pt. alloy. 

210. Sixty Shilling Piece. 1688. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust SILVKR. 

of king to r., laureate and draped; below, mark of value, 60. Rev. MAG 
BR - FRA ET HIB - REX 1688. Crowned shield \\ith arms; 
1 and 4, Scotland; 2, France and England quarterly; and 3, Ireland, 
within the collar of the Order of the Thistle; edge plain. M 1-6. 
Wt. 428-0. 

By the Act of the Scottish Parliament, 14 June, 1686, it was ordered 
that silver money of the current values of five, ten, twenty, forty 
and sixty shilling pieces should be struck, but only the ten and forty 
shilling pieces were issued for circulation. No dies at all appear 
to have been prepared for the twenty and five shilling pieces ; and 
although those for the sixty shillings were completed no specimens 
were struck from them till 1828, when they came into the hands of 
Matthew Young, a dealer in coins, who caused 60 impressions to be made. 
The dies were then defaced and deposited in the British Museum. The 
above piece is therefore a pattern. It has been included here on 
account of its interest to collectors. With this issue a considerable 
reduction took place in the weights of the coins ; the sixty shilling piece 
weighing 427| grs. as against 464^ grs., the weight of the same coin 
under James VI and Charles I. The standard of fineness was however 
raised from eleven deniers to eleven deniers two grs. On his Scottish 
coins James adopted his English titles as well as the English crown. 
The dies were executed by Jan Roettier, the engraver to the English 
mint, 

211. Forty Shilling Piece. 1687. Similar to the Sixty Shilling Piece, but mark 

of value 40 under the bust, and on the rev. the legend reads BRIT, for 

BR., and there is no collar of the Thistle around the shield; date 1687; 

edge inscribed, NEMO - ME - IMPUNE LACESSET ANNO - 

REGNI TERTIO. ^tl-45. Wt. 284-2. 

Dated also 1688. The Act stipulated that the sixty and forty 
shillings should have the edges lettered ; the other denominations were 
to be engrailed. This is the first occurrence of this manner of protecting 
the coins at the Scottish mint. 

212. Ten Shilling Piece. 1687. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust 

of king to r., laureate and draped; below, mark of value, 10. Rev. MAG 
BR FRA ET HIB REX 1687. Four crowned shields with arms, 
arranged in form of cross, viz. 1, Scotland ; 2, England ; 3, France ; and 
4, Ireland; from the centre projects a St. Andrew's j cross with a thistle, 
rose, lis and harp at the extremities. M 1-0. Wt. 71 '2. 

Dated also 1688. 



208 SCOTTISH COINS. 



William and Mary. 1689-1694. 

COINAGE. Silver. Sixty Shilling Piece, Forty Shilling Piece, Twenty 
Shilling Piece, Ten Shilling Piece, and Five Shilling Piece. Copper. 
Bawbee and Bodle. 

ISSUES, <fec. One only in each metal. No gold coins were struck 
during this joint reign. The weights of the coins were : Silver. Sixty 
Shilling Piece, 427 '35 grs., and its divisions in proportion. Copper. 
Bawbee, 125-64 grs.; Bodle, 41 '83 grs. The standard of silver was 
as James VII's coinage. 

Plate liv. 213. Sixty Shilling Piece. 1692. Obv. GVLIELMVS . ET MARIA DEI 
SILVER. GRA. Busts jugate of William and Mary to 1., both draped ; he is laureate ; 

below, mark of value, 60. Rev. MAG BR FR ET HIB REX 
ET REGINA - 1692. Crowned "shield, arms as on No. 210, but with 
inescutcheon of Nassau; edge inscribed, PROTEGIT ET ORNAT 
ANNO REGNI TERTIO. JR. 1'55. Wt. 426-5. 

Dated also 1691. This coinage was issued in accordance with the order 
of the Privy Council, 26 Sept. 1690, which commanded the Scottish 
mint to be opened. It would appear however that all the denominations 
ordered were not at once issued. Dies for the forty shillings had 
already been prepared in the previous year (see next coin) : those for 
the ten shillings were made in 1690, but those for the sixty, twenty 
and five shillings were not ready till 1691. They were made by James 
Clark, engraver to the Scottish mint. The inscription on the edge is 
equivalent to that of " Decus et Tutamen," &c., on English coins. 

214. Forty Shilling Piece. 1693. Same as the Sixty Shilling Piece, but reading 

GRATIA for GRA; mark of value 40 under the bust, and on rev., date 
1693; edge inscribed, PROTEGIT ET ORNAT ANNO REGNI 
SIXTO. JR 1-35. Wt. 284-9. 

Dates 1689-1694. The date 1689 can only be accounted for by 
the circumstance, that steps had been taken to prepare the dies for the 
coins before any order had been made by the Privy Council. 

215. Twenty Shilling Piece. 1693. Same as the preceding, but mark of value 20 

under the busts ; edge engrailed, a* 1-2. Wt. 142-0. 

Dates 1691, 1693, and 1694. The edges of this and the following 
pieces are engrailed. Of 1694 only one specimen of the twenty 
shillings appears to be known though 5369 were struck. 

216. Ten Shilling Piece. 1691. Same as the Sixty Shilling Piece ; but mark of 

value 10 under busts, and date 1691. & -95. Wt. 72-0. 

Dates 1690-1692 and 1694. The obverse legend also reads GRATIA 
for GRA, as on the forty shilling piece. 

217. Five Shilling Piece. 1691. Obv. Same as preceding coin, but no mark of 

value. Rev. MAG BR FR ET - HIB REX ET REG 1691. 
Crown above cipher of \VTMj. ; below, mark of value, V. 2R 8. Wt. 35 5. 
Dated also 1694; on which the mark of value V is under the busts. 



WILLIAM AND MARY. 209 

218. Bawbee. 1692. 06??. GVL ET - MAR D G MAG BR FR - Plate liv. 

ET HIB REX ET REGINA ; m.m. star. Busts jugate of William COPPER. 
and Mary to 1., both draped; he is laureate. Rev. NEMO ME 
IMPVNE LACESSET - 1692. A leaved thistle, crowned. M 1-05. 
Wt. 125-0. 

Dates 1691-1694. Current for sixpence Scottish. The bawbee 
was struck at 60 to the pound and the bodle at 180. The mint-mark 
varies, being three crosses, rose, five pellets, wreath, <fec. The copper 
coinage was ordered in July 1690, but its issue was not authorised till 
18 Aug. 1691. In the contract it was stipulated that 3000 stones of 
copper should be coined into money, and not more than 500 stones in 
one year. On the copper coins the crown is always the Scottish one ; 
but on most of the silver the English crown is represented. 

219. Bodle. 1692. Obv. The letters \VT,M m monogram under a crown; 

around, D G MAG - BR FR ' ET HIB REX ET REGINA. 
Rev. Same as the Bawbee. IE, -8. Wt. 39-3. 

Dates 1691-1694. Current for~2d. Scottish. 



William II. (III. of England). 1694-1702. 

COINAGE. Gold. Pistole and Half-Pistole. Silver. Sixty Shilling 
Piece, Forty Shilling Piece, Twenty Shilling Piece, Ten Shilling Piece, 
and Five Shilling Piece. Copper. Bawbee and Bodle. 

ISSUES, &c. One only in each metal. The weights of the gold coins 
were : Pistole 106 grs. and Half -Pistole 53 grs. Those of the silver and 
copper were as in the previous reign. The gold coins were 22 cts. fine, 
and no change took place in the standard of silver, which remained as 
in the reign of James VII. 

220. Pistole. 1701. Obv. GVLIELMVS DEI GRATIA. Bust of king to 1., GOLD. 

laureate; no drapery; below, sun rising from sea. Rev. MAG BRIT 
FRA ET HIB REX 1701. Royal shield with arms, as on the coinage 
of William and Mary (see No. 213), crowned, between W R, both crowned. 
AT -95. Wt. 105-3. 

Dated 1701 only and current for <12 Scottish. These coins, the 
pistole and half -pistole, were struck from gold supplied by the Darien 
Company and imported from the coast of Africa. The quality of 
metal was to be standard gold of 22 cts. fine, and the pistole, which 
weighed 106 grs. troy, was to be current for 20s. sterling English. The 
English guinea of that time, which weighed 129^ grs., was current 
for 21s. Qd. The crest of the Darien Company was "the sun rising 
above the sea." It is also said that the ship, which brought the gold 
was called the " Rising Sun." This is the last gold money of the 
Scottish series. William placed no numerals after his name on his 
coinage. He was William III of England, William II of Scotland ; 
but William I of Great Britain, which title he adopted for his Scottish 
money. 

221. Half-Pistole. 1701. Same as the Pistole. AT '15. Wt. 52-7. 

Dated 1701 only and current for 6 Scottish. The dies for the coins 
of William were made by James Clark, graver to the Edinburgh mint. 

p 



210 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate liv. 222. Forty Shilling Piece. 1696. Obv. GVLIELMVS DEI GRATIA. Bust 
STIVER f king to 1., laureate and draped ; below, mark of value 40. Rev. MAG 

BRIT . FRA ET HIB REX - 1696. Shield crowned, as on No. 213 ; 

edge inscribed, PROTEGIT ET ORNAT ANNO REGNI OCTAVO. 

ztl-35. Wt. 281-0. 

Dates 16951699. The new silver coinage was ordered on the 
llth July 1695, and on the following day the current value of the coins 
was raised 10 per cent., so that the forty shillings was current for forty- 
four shillings. In June of the next year they were reduced to their 
former values. The sixty shilling piece, of which no specimen is now 
known, but which has been figured by Anderson, Snelling, Ruding, and 
others, is of the same type, &c., as the forty shilling piece. It is 
however dated 1699 only. 

Plate Iv. 223. Twenty Shilling Piece. 1695. Same as the Forty Shilling Piece, but mark 
of value 20, and date on reverse 1695 ; edge engrailed. il'2. Wt. 141'8. 
Dates 1695-1699. 

224. Ten Shilling Piece. 1695. Same as the Twenty Shilling Piece, but mark of 

value 10. ;R -9. Wt. 70-5. 
Dates 1695-1699. 

225. Five Shilling Piece. 1697. Obv. GVL D G MAG BR-FR-&- 

HIB REX. Bust of king to 1., laureate and draped; below, mark of 
value 5. Rev. NEMO ME IMPVNE LACESSET 1697. A 
triple-headed thistle with leaves, crowned. M '75. Wt. 37 -5. 
Dates 1695-1702, inclusive, with the exception of 1698. The five 
shilling piece appears to be the only silver coin struck after 1699. The 
records of the mint do not go down later than 1698, so the absence 
of the larger coins from 1699 is not accounted for. 

COPPBR. 226. Bawbee. 1696. Obv. GVL - D - G MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB 
REX. Bust of king to 1., laureate and draped. Rev. NEMO ME 
IMPVNE LACESSET - 1696. A leaved thistle, crowned, sa 1-0. 
Wt. 125-0. 

Dates 1695-1697. 

227. Bodle. 1695. Obv. GVLIELMVS D - G MAG BRIT FRA ET 
HIB R. Crown above sword and sceptre crossed. Rev. Same as the 
Bawbee; date 1695. m -8. Wt. 42-4. 

Dates 1695-1697. A more common variety reads GVL. on the 
obverse. No copper coins were struck during this reign after 1697, 
in which year was completed the contract of 1691 (see No. 218). The 
contract was further extended in 1696, but it does not appear to have 
been acted upon. 

Anne. 1702-1714. 

COINAGE. Silver. Ten Shilling Piece, Five Shilling Piece, Crown, 
Half-Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence. 

The coinage of this reign is of two periods ; that before the Act of 
Union (1705-1707), and that after the Union (1707-1709). No gold 
or copper coins were struck. 



ANNE. 211 

ISSUES, &c. Silver. Two : -1st issue (1705), Ten Shilling Piece and Plate iv. 
Five Shilling Piece. 2nd issue (after the Union 1707), Crown, Half- 
Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence. 

The weights of the coins of the 1st issue were as those of William 
and Mary's money ; but in the case of the 2nd issue the crown 
weighed 464^ grs. as the English crown of that time, and the divisions 
were in proportion. No change took place in the fineness of the 
metal in the 1st issue; but in the 2nd issue it was assimilated to 
English money, viz. lly^pts. fine to -^ pt. of alloy. 

Period I. ; before the Union (1705-1707). 

228. Ten Shilling Piece. 1705. Obv. ANNA DEI GRATIA. Bust of queen SILVER. 

to 1., diademed and draped ; a thistle on her breast ; below, mark of value 
10. Rev. MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB REG 1705. Shield sur- 
mounted by the Scottish crown and with arms, 1 and 4 Scotland, 2 France 
and England quarterly, and 3 Ireland. M '9. Wt. 70-0. 
Dates 1705 and 1706. No coinage appears to have taken place at 
the Scottish mint during this reign till 1705, and even then it con- 
sisted only of ten and five shilling pieces. The dies were made by 
James Clark, the engraver to the mint. 

229. Five Shilling Piece. 1705. Obv. Same as the Ten Shilling Piece ; but mark 

of value5. Rev. NEMO ME IMPVNE LAC ESS ET 1705. A triple- 
headed thistle witb leaves, crowned. ^ -75. Wt. 43-9. 

Dates 1705-1707. The obverse legend varies considerably in the 
abbreviation of the words. 






Period II. ; after the Union (1707-1709). 

230. Crown. 1707. Obv. ANNA DEI GRATIA. Bust of queen to 1., 

diademed and draped; below, E (Edinburgh). Rev. MAG BRI FR 

ET HIB REG 1707. Four shields crowned and arranged in form of 

cross, viz. : 1 and 3, England and Scotland impaled ; 2, France ; and 4, 

Ireland; in the centre, Star of the Garter; edge inscribed, DECVS ET 

TVTAMEN ANNO REGNI SEXTO ^1-55. Wt. 464-0. 

Dates 1707 and 1708. By the Act of Union it was ordered that 

" from and after the Union the Coin shall be of the same standard and 

value throughout the United Kingdom, as now in England, and a mint 

shall be continued in Scotland under the same rules as the mint in 

England." The types and denominations of the English coins then 

current were adopted with the difference that an E (Edinburgh) or an 

E followed by a star was placed under the bust. The dies and 

puncheons were prepared in London and sent to Scotland. The 

coins consisted only of the crown, half-crown, shilling, and sixpence. 

No gold or copper was issued. 

231. Half-Crown. 1708. Same as the Crown, but date 1708, and o 

SEPTIMO for SEXTO. * 1-3. Wt. 232-4. 
Dates 1707-1709. 

232. Shilling. 1707. Same as the Crown, but the edge is engrailed. JR 1-0. 

Wt. 91-3. 

Dates 1707-1709 and 1707*-! 709*. There are three varieties of the 
head on the shillings, consisting of slight differences in the arrange- 

p 2 



212 SCOTTISH COINS. 

Plate iv. ment of the hair. The meaning of the star which follows the mint 
SILVER, letter is somewhat uncertain. Some suppose it to indicate supplemen- 
tary issues ; others that such pieces which bear it were struck from 
silver which had been called in. 

233. Sixpence. 1707. Same as the Shilling. JR -85. Wt. 45-5. 

Dates 1707 and 1708 ; and 1708* and 1709*. 

This is the last coinage struck in Scotland. The mint at Edinburgh 
appears to have entirely ceased operations in 1709. The office of 
governor of the mint of Scotland was not however formally abolished 
till 1817, in which year it was ordered that the buildings appropriated 
to the mint in Scotland should be sold. 



James VIII. 1716. 

234. Crown. 1716. Obv. IACOBVS VIII DEI GRATIA. Bust of 
James VIII to r., laureate, hair long, wearing armour and mantle. Bev. 
SCOT ANGL FRAN ET HIB REX 1716. Square shield with 
arms, 1 and 4 Scotland, 2 France and England quarterly, and 3 Ireland ; 
above, the English crown. M I' 65. Wt. 424-4. 

The dies for this coin were made in 1716, when Prince James, 
commonly called the Elder Pretender, made his second attempt to 
recover the English throne. The dies were made at Paris by Norbert 
Roettier ; but no contemporary specimens appear to have been struck 
from them. The above piece was struck in 1828, when the dies came 
into the possession of Matthew Young, the dealer. They are now in 
the British Museum. A similar coin with the same bust, but with the 
title " IACOBVS III ", and with the shield of England on the reverse, 
had been previously struck in 1709 on the occasion of James's first 
attempt. Dies were also made in 1716 for a guinea and a shilling (?), 
one reading IACOBVS VIII, the other IACOBVS TERTIVS. They are 
similar in type to the contemporary English coins of those denomina- 
tions. All the puncheons were engraved by Norbert Roettier. 



( 213 ) 






IRISH COINS. 

Hiberno-Danish Series. 

THE earliest coins struck in Ireland are of the second half of the 
10th century or of the beginning of the 1 1th century. They are pennies 
and bear the name of Aethelred II of Wessex, and were struck at Dublin. 
They are also of the same types as his coins. As Aethelred could not 
himself have struck these Irish coins, they must be considered as 
imitations, issued by native rulers. Previous to that time the coins 
current in Ireland were Anglo-Saxon pennies, chiefly of Edward the 
Elder and his successors, imported by the Vikings. The attribution of 
certain coins with blundered legends to the early kings of Dublin, 
Ifars I and Anlaf IV, or to kings of Waterford, Regnald II, &c , cannot 
in the light of recent researches be substantiated. These also come 
under the class of imitations of Anglo-Saxon and Danish pieces. The 
earliest coins, which can be assigned to the Dano-Irish kings, are those 
of Sihtric III, a contemporary of Aethelred II, whose types he 
imitated. Imperfect imitations of Sihtric's coins, which have been 
attributed to his successors, must still remain doubtful. The first 
English coins struck in Ireland were issued by John, son of Henry II, 
as Lord of Ireland, A.D. 1177-1199 (see Nos. 7 and 8) 



Aethelred II. 979-1016. 

1. Penny. Dublin. Obv. ^ /E-DLIMACDEL ^ AS. Bust of king to 1. ; Plate Ivt 

before, sceptre. Bev. ^ FAVRT6L DIFLIMF. Short cross voided with SILVER. 
CRVX in the angles, M '85. Wt. 22-0. 

As this type belongs to the earlier coinage of Aethelred II the issue 
of this coin in Ireland probably preceded the following one. The 
weight of the penny varies from 24 to 17 grs., but sometimes it even 
exceeds 24 grs. 

2. Penny. Dublin. Obv. * /E-DELR/ED REX A ICO. Rude bust to 1., 

draped. Rev. <%* F/EREMIN MO DYFLI. Long cross voided, dividing 
legend, three crescents at end of each limb ; in each of the centre ones is a 
pellet. JR -75. Wt. 24-4. 
This is the commonest type of Aethelred's coins : and was the one most 
imitated in Ireland. There are also later imitations of coins of Cnut. 
They are chiefly of the quatrefoil type, having on the obverse the bust of 
the king within a quatrefoil, and on the reverse a quatrefoil on a long 
cross voided. These types are also found on the Danish coins of Olaf 
Skotkonung and Olaf II Haraldsson. 



214 IRISH COINS. 



Sihtric III. 989 1029. 

Platelvi. S.Penny. Dublin. Obv. %< ZITIRDIXLCHMOX. Bust of king to 1., draped ; 
SILVER before, sceptre. Rev. %* REOLFLE O DLFME. Short cross voided 

with CRVX in the angles. M -85. Wt. 28'0. 

Sihtric III was contemporary with Aethelred II, and all his coins 
are imitations of that king's types (see No. 1). 

4. Penny. Dublin. Obv. * SIHTRC REX DIFL. Rude bust of king to 1., 

draped; behind, cross. Rev. ^ F/EREMIN MO DVFLI. Long cross 
voided, dividing legend ; three crescents at end of each limb, and pellet in 
each angle. M '8. Wt. 21-0. 

This coin is of importance as it serves to fix the date of No 2 ; both 
bearing the same moneyer's name and being of the same type of reverse. 

5. Penny. Dublin. Obv. % IMRFNR ^ MONN. Bust to 1., as on the previous 

coin; before it, two pellets. Rev. t" FI/1RINN MO DIFI. Long cross 
voided, as on the previous coin ; but in alternate angles an ornament in 
the shape of a human hand or branch. M '75. Wt. 17 '3. 
This is one of the many Hiberno-Danish coins struck in imitation of 
Sihtric Ill's money. From their large number it is probable that 
their issue extended over a considerable period. The legends are 
blundered and often illegible, and the type is occasionally slightly 
varied in having ornaments other than the open hand or branch in 
the angles of the cross on the reverse. 



6. Penny, temp. Edward the Confessor. Obv. Blundered legend. Head facing, 
bearded, wearing high peaked helmet. Rev. Blundered legend. Long 
double cross, as on coins of Sihtric III, with hand or branch, cross, and 
two pellets in the angles. AI ?. Wt. 9 -7. 

This coin has been attributed to Ifars I, king of Dublin circ. A.D. 
870-872 ; but the reverse type shows that it was struck after the 
reign of Sihtric III. The obverse type also shows that it was copied from 
the full-face pennies of Edward the Confessor. It is therefore probable 
that it was issued during or shortly after that king's reign. 

The various pieces usually assigned to Anlaf V and VI, Ifars III 
and Regnalcl, king of Waterford, and figured by Lindsay, Irish Coins, 
Plates I and II, are of doubtful attribution. They are mostly imitations 
of the Danish coins of Magnus I and Harold III. They may however 
have been made in Ireland. 

In addition there are other coins of a somewhat later date found in 
Ireland, which are called bracteates ; i.e., they have a device struck on 
one side only, and are without legends. Their types are a head, a 
cross with lis in each angle, a cross with quatrefoils and trefoils in 
alternate angles, an imitation of the Paxs type of William I, a four- 
sided ornament, or a cross with annulets in a circle, &c. These may 
be imitations of coins of Harold I, William I, and Henry I of 
England. A remarkable hoard of these pieces was found at Fermoy 
in 1837. 



JOHN, AS LORD OF IRELAND. 215 



HIBERNO-ENGLISH SERIES. 
John, as Lord of Ireland. 1177-1199. 

COINAGE. The coinage of John, son of Henry II, may be divided Plate w. 
into two series; that issued as Lord of Ireland, 1177-1199, and that SILVER. 
issued after his accession to the English throne, 1199-1216. The first 
coinage consisted of Halfpennies and Farthings ; the second, of Pennies, 
Halfpennies, and Farthings. 

The weight of the halfpenny of the first issue was 11^ grs. ; and that 
of the penny of the second issue 22 grs. ; i.e., the same standard as 
the English coins. 

John's mints were, during his regency, at Dublin and Waterford, and, 
during his kingship, at Dublin, Limerick and Waterford. Other pieces 
of the first series, but not issued by him, are of Carrickfergus and 
Dowiipatrick (see No. 9). 

7. Halfpenny. Dublin. Obv. J< IOHSNN6S DOO. Head facing. Rev. 

4 NICOLAS ON DW6. Short double cross pattee, with annulet in each 

angle, JK -55. Wt. 11-3. 

Struck also at Waterford, and reading Wfi, WKT, WKT6, and 
WKT6R. Varieties read DOM IN YB6R. The head on the obverse is 
supposed not to be that of John himself, but of St. John the Baptist. 

8. Farthing. Obv. A lozenge or masclo with three pellets in each angle and one 

in the centre, llcv. Cross patt6e, N I CO in the angles, at -45. Wt. 6'0. 

These are commonly known as " mascle farthings;" a name given 
to them on account of the obverse type. They were struck at Dublin 
and Waterford. The name on the reverse is that of the moneyer. 
Others have ALGX, TOM A, Arc. 

<J. Patrick Farthing. Downpatrick. Obv. <%< PftTR 10(11. Cross pattee within 
circle. Rev. ^ DS DVNO (Downpatrick). Cross pattee with crescent in 
each angle. AI '5. Wt. G'O. 

This coin was struck by John de Curcy, Earl of Ulster, who was 
constituted sole governor of Ireland in 1185. He was removed from 
that office in 1189, when he returned to his earldom, and finally quitted 
Ireland in 1204. Other coins of the same type have the reverse legend 
GRAF or CRA6F6VF (Carrickfergus) and some the name of the issuer 
GOSN or IOAN D CVRCI. As Downpatrick and Carrickfergus are 
both situate in Ulster, these farthings were probably struck between 
1189 and 1204. 

John, as King. 1199-1216. 

10. Penny. Dublin. Obv. IOhRNN6(S R3X. Arranged outside a triangle, 
within which is the bust of the king facing, crowned ; in r. hand, sceptre ; 
onr., quatrefoil. Rev. ROBQRD ON DIVQ. Arranged outside a triangle ; 
within the triangle is a flaming star above a crescent, and in each angle a 
small star ; a cross at each point of the triangle and outside the legend on 
each side of the triangle. JK '75. Wt. 23 -0. 
Struck also at Limerick (see next coin) and at Waterford. 



216 IEISH COINS. 

Plate Ivi 11. Penny. Limerick. Same as the last coin; but reading on the rev. WILLQM 
SILVER. ON LIM3. JR -75. Wt. 21-7. 

12. Halfpenny. Dublin. Obv. IOhRNN6(S RQX. Bust of king facing, crowned, 

within a triangle ; star on either side and above. Rev. ROB6CRD ON D. 
Within a triangle, a crescent surmounted by a cross ; a star in each angle of 
triangle. JR -5. Wt. 11 '7. 
Struck also at Limerick. 

13. Farthing. Dublin? Obv. Blundered legend. Traces of the king's bust 

within a triangle. Rev. Blundered legend. Star within a triangle. m'k. 

Wt. 5-3. 

The legends on these farthings are much blundered. On the obverse 
should be the king's name and on the reverse that of the moneyer. 
No specimens appear to have the mint-name. 

Henry III. 1216-1272. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. Two: 1st issue (1248), Penny and Halfpenny. 2nd 
issue (1251), same denominations. 

The weight was at 22^ grs. to the penny. The only known mint is 
that of Dublin. 

14. Penny. Dublin. Obv. hQRIQVS RQX III. Arranged around a triangle, 

within which is the bust of the king, facing, crowned, and holding sceptre ; 

on r., cinquefoil. Rev. RIQ7XRD ON DIV6(. Long cross pommee, voided, 

pellet in centre and three in each angle. M '1. Wt. 21-0. 

No issue of Irish money appears to have occurred in the reign of 

Henry III before 1248, in which year dies were ordered to be engraved 

in London and sent to Canterbury, Dublin, and other places. They 

were to be of the same type as the London coins in having on the 

reverse a long double cross, but on the obverse the king's head was to 

be within a triangle instead of a circle. Three years later, in 1251, a 

further issue of pennies and halfpennies was ordered ; it is said to 

provide for subsidies exacted by Pope Innocent IV. These coins are 

of the same type as the first issue. 

The halfpenny of this reign is figured by Simon, Irish Coins, PI. II. 
49 ; but at present no specimen is known. It is of the same type and 
mint as the penny and bears the same money er's name, Richard. 

Edward I, II, and III. 1272-1377. 

COINAGE. Silver. Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

The weight was at 22^ grs. to the penny. 

It is evident from the proclamations and orders issued during the 
reigns of Edward I and III that a considerable quantity of money was 
coined in Ireland at that time ; but as yet no satisfactory classification 
has been proposed. Simon * suggests that the number of the dots, one, 
two or three, which occur under the bust, marks the different reigns ; but 
a difficulty arises in the fact that there are pieces with four dots and 
others with none. Lindsay f proposed to allot to Edward I and II 

* Essay on Irish Coins, p. 16. f Coinage of Ireland, p. 28. 






EDWARD I, II, AND III. 217 

those coins which have Roman N's in the legends and to Edward III Plate ivi. 
such as have English (Vs. Both these suggestions are unsatisfactory SILVKR. 
and leave the question unsolved. The true solution, as in the case of the 
English coinage of these kings, will have to be sought for in the shape 
of the bust, in the form of the king's crown, and in the general style 
of the lettering.* The English coins reading SOW. and now assigned 
to Edward III before 1351 f have a crown with a large lis in the 
centre and stops, saltires, between the words of the legends. This 
same shaped crown is also found on the Irish coins. As it is probable 
that the dies for the Irish coins were made in London (see note No. 14) 
it is only reasonable to suppose that similar varieties will be found on 
both series especially as the obverse dies were sometimes interchanged 
(see No. 15). The question can only be settled by the careful 
examination of future finds of coins. 

15. Penny. Dublin. Obv. 6CDWR' fiNGL' DNS hYB. Arranged around a 

triangle, within which is the bust of the king facing, crowned and clothed ; 
below, two dots. Bev. C(IVIT7\S DVBLINIQ. Long cross pattee with three 
pellets in each angle. M '75. Wt. 19 '8. 

Struck also at Cork (C(ORC(fiC(ie() and at Waterford. A variety has 
the bust of the king within a circle, as on the English penny, which 
is also found with the Irish type. This last type would probably 
belong to Edward III. 

16. Halfpenny. Waterford. Same as the Penny, No. 15, but no dots under the 

king's bust, and legend on the rev. (XIVITfiS V7^T6RFOR'. JR-65. Wt.9'3. 
Struck also at Cork and Dublin, as the penny. 

17. Farthing. Dublin. Same as the Penny, No. 15, but reading, obv. Q. R 

fiN6LI6(; rev. (XIVITfiS DVBLINI6(. M -55. Wt. 5-7. 

Struck at Dublin and Waterford only, 






Richard II and Henry IV and V. 1377-1422. 

There are no coins which can be attributed to Richard II and 
Henry IV and V, and the absence of any mint records during these 
reigns strengthens the conclusions that none were struck. The groats 
which Simon (Irish Coins, PI. 3, Nos. 56-60) attributes to Henry V 
are now assigned to the last issue of Henry VII (see No. 49). 



Henry VI. 1422-1461 and 1470-1471. 

COINAGE. Silver. Groat and Penny. Copper. Half-Farthing or 
Patrick. 

Like his English coinage that of Henry VI struck in Ireland appears 
to be of two periods : that issued between 1422 and 1461 ; and that 
struck during his short restoration, 1470-1471. The issues are : 



* See ante, p. 43. 

t There is no record of any issue in Ireland during this reign after 1339. 



218 



IRISH COINS. 



Plate Ivi. 
SILVER. 



COl'PER. 



SILVER. 










PERIOD I. Silver. Two : 1st issue (1425), Penny. 2nd issue (1460), 
Groat and Penny. Copper. One : (1460), Half-Farthing or Patrick. 
^ PERIOD II. Silver. One : (1170-1471), Groat and Penny. 

The weight of the penny of the 1st issue was ordered to be at 15 grs., 
but of the 2nd issue at 11^ grs., and that of the second period 
(1470-1471) 10J grs. : but in each case the actual coins were under 
the standard. 



18. Penny. Dublin. 1st issue (1425). Obv. * h6(HRIC(VS DflS o 

Bust of king facing, crowned; star on r. of neck. Rev. C(IVI o T7\S 
DVBLINI(. Long cross pattee with three pellets in each angle. & '6. 
Wt. 11-3. 

This is the only coin which can be classed to the early issue of this 
reign, and of it only two specimens are known. It is of the same 
weight as the English penny of Henry VI, and considerably heavier 
than the fourth part of the Irish groat of Henry VII. By the Act in 
virtue of which this coinage took place it was ordered that the Irish 
money should be of the same standard as the English money. 

The groat of the second issue (1460) has for obverse type an open 
crown within a double tressure of twelve arches, and on the reverse 
a long cross with three pellets in each angle with an annulet between 
the pellets in two quarters. Around is the legend, C(IVITfiS : DVBLinia 
(stops, saltires). It is similar to the groat of the first issue of 
Edward IV (see No. 20). It was to be of the weight of threepence 
English (45 grs.) and to pass for fourpence sterling. The penny of 
this issue is of the same type.* Like the penny of the first issue, 
these coins are of the Dublin mint only. 

Other coins ordered to be struck in 1460 were the Irelandes 
d' Argent in silver and the Half -Farthing or Patrick in copper. The 
Irelandes d' Argent were to be imprinted on one side with a lion and on 
the other with a crown ; and to pass current for the value of one penny. 
No specimen of this coinage is known, and it is therefore probable 
that none were struck. The Half-Farthing or Patrick has on the 
obverse a small crown in a circle surrounded by the legend P7XTRIK, 
followed by an annulet and a small branch, and on the reverse a plain 
cross with the letter P in one angle. A variety is without the letter 
P on the reverse. It weighs about 7^ grs., and eight of these were 
to pass for a penny. These coins are sometimes classed to the first 
issue of Edward IV. It is very possible that their issue began under 
Henry VI and was continued by Edward IV. 

19. Groat. Dublin. 3rd issue (1470-1471). Obv. <b hQUBiaVS : DSI : 6Rfi : 

DRS : hlBQB (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, crowned, within 

a tressure. Eev. + POSVI DSV : 7\DIVTOB6(' JTISV __ (XIVITfiS 

DVBLIfllQ (in two concentric circles : stops, saltires). Long cross pattee 

dividing legends with three pellets in each angle. jul'O. Wt. 27 '2. 

There appears to be no record of this coinage, which is of the Dublin 

mint only. The type resembles that of the 6th issue of Edward IV 

(see Nos. 33-36), and further is like the English coins of the same 



Snelling, Coin, of England, Suppl. PI. i. 16. 






HENEY VI. 219 

period of Henry VI in having the letter B in the legend for R. It is Plate ivl 
also distinguished from similar coins of Henry VII by the title of the 
king being " Dominus Hybernie " instead of " Rex Anglie " on the 
obverse. 

The penny is of similar type but it has the bust in a dotted circle, 
and around hQRBIQVS DftS HIB, and on the reverse, a long plain 
cross with a rose in the centre and no pellets, and around CdVITfiS 
DVBLiniS. Dr. Aquilla Smith (Trans. Boy. Irish Acad., vol. xix.) 
attributes the penny to Henry VI, but he gives the groats to Henry VII. 

Edward IV. 1461-1483. 

COINAGE.* Silver. Double-Groat, Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing. Copper. Farthing and Half-Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Silver. Seven : 1st issue (1461-1463), Groat and 
Penny (crown type). 2nd issue (1463-1464), Groat and Penny (crown 
type with king's name, &c.). 3rd issue (1465-1466), Groat and Penny 
(rose and sun type). 4th issue (1467-1468), Double-Groat, Groat, 
Half-Groat, and Penny (bust of king and sun and rose type). 5th issue 
(1470), Groat, Penny, and Halfpenny (bust and cross and rose type). 
6th issue (1470), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing 
(English type). 7th issue (1478), Groat, Half-Groat, Penny, Half- 
penny, and Farthing (three crowns type). Copper. Farthing, two 
issues of the dates 1463 and 1467. Half-Farthings, two issues of the 
dates 1463 and 1470 (see descriptions). 

The legal weight of the groat varied as follows during this reign ; 
but the actual weight was often somewhat belowf : 



1461-65 . .45 

1465-67 ... 36 
1467-70 . . . 22 



1470-73 . . . 437 T grs. 
1473-79 . . .32^ 
1479-83 ... 31 



20. Groat. Dublin, 1st issue (1461-1463). Obv. Large crown within double SILVER. 

tressure of nine arches, fleured. Eev. C(IVIT7iS : DVBLIfllS : (stops, 
saltires). Long cross pattee with three pellets in each angle; those in 
alternate angles are connected by an annulet. M I'O. Wt. 43*1. 
Varieties have eight or ten arches to the tressure on the obverse 
and are to be distinguished from similar coins of Henry VI, which 
have twelve arches (see p. 218). Others have small crosses, suns or 
roses in the outer angles of the tressure. Groats of this issue were 
also ordered to be struck at Galway and Trim, but none are known. 

21. Penny. Dublin. 1st issue (1461-1463). Same type, &c., as the Groat; but on 

the obv. the tressure has ten arches, and there is a trefoil slipped under 

the crown. JR -6. Pierced. 

The pennies correspond to the groats in the number of the arches of 
the tressure. Varieties have, a beaded circle instead of a tressure on 
the obverse, whilst others are without either. They are of Dublin only. 



* The coins of Edward IV are classified according to the arrangement proposed 
by Dr. Aquilla Smith, and published in the Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy, vol. xix., 1840. 

f This list is taken from Simon, Irish Coins, p. 31 sqq. 



220 IEISH COINS. 

Plate Ivi. Half -groats, halfpennies or mailles, and farthings or quadrantes in 
SILVER, silver were also ordered to be struck, but none are now known. 

22. Groat. Waterford. 2nd issue (1463-1464). Obv. aDWfiRDVS : [DGU : 
6Rft] : DflS : hYB6(Rn,ie( (stops, saltires). A crown within a double 
tressure of nine arches, with trefoil at each angle and annulet in each 
spandril: on either side of crown, a saltire. Rev. [POSVI D&Vttl 
TXDIVTOReUTl me(V] aiVIT7^S : WATSRFORD (in two concentric 
circles; stops, saltires). Long cross pattee with three pellets in each angle. 
M -85. Clipped. 

Struck also at Dublin. A variety has an annulet within the pellets 
in two angles. No half -groat of this type is known ; but the penny 
was issued at Dublin and Waterford. It varies as usual from the 
groat in having the mint-name only on the reverse. That of Water- 
ford is unique and has no legend on the obverse. Halfpence and 
farthings were ordered to be made at Waterford, but none are known. 
Though the patent granted to Germyn Lynch for this coinage extended 
to Limerick and Trim, no coins have been met with of these cities. 



Plate Ivii. 23. Groat. Dublin. 3rd issue (1465-1466). Obv. ^ QDWfiRDVS : DGU 

DflS : hYBSRniQ (stops, saltires). Cross fourchee on large rose; all 
within tressure of five arches, with pellet in each spandril. Rev. POSVI 
DetViTl K - DIVTOR 6( maV aiVI . T7XS DVB Lin (in two con- 
centric circles; stops, roses and crosses). Sun of sixteen rays with 
annulet in centre. jitl-0. Wt. 30-2. 

There appears to be no record of this coinage, of which only the 
groat and penny are known. The type indicates for the coins a place 
between the issues of 1463 and 1467. They are of the Dublin mint only. 

24. Penny. Dublin. 3rd issue (1465-1466). Obv. ^ SOW D (3 DftS . 

[hYBQRn,]. Cross fourchee on rose; circle of dots. Rev. C(IVI TfiS 
[DVB Lin, 19] (stops, crosses). Sun of sixteen rays with annulet in centre. 
x, '55. Clipped. 

The few pennies known of this issue are all imperfectly struck or 
clipped. 

25. Double-Groat or Double. Dublin, tth issue (1467-1468). Obv. QDWARDVS : 

D6CI : 6Rfi : DRS : h YB6(R ft (stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose. Bust of king 
facing, crowned, within a tressure. Rev. (XI VI TfiS DVBL Iftl6( 
(stops, suns and roses) ; m. m. rose. Large sun of twenty-four rays with 
rose in centre, AI 1-05. Wt. 43-5. 

In 1467 the Parliament held in Dublin ordered that besides the 
double, groats, half-groats, pennies, halfpennies and farthings should 
be issued. These coins were to be made in the castles of Dublin 
and Trim, the cities of Waterford and Limerick, and the towns of 
Drogheda, Galway, and Carlingford. Doubles are only known of 
Dublin, Drogheda, and Trim, and no silver coins whatever of Galway 
and Carlingford. On account of the scarcity of silver in Ireland at 
this time the coinage in 1467 was raised to double its former value. 
The double, which was of the same weight as the groat of the last 
year of Henry VI, was therefore current for eightpence. 

26. Groat. Dublin. 4th issiie (1467-1468). Same type, &c., as the Double ; but 

the legend on the obv. reads 9DWARD : Dl : <3Rfi : DftS : hYBQRft : 
(stops, saltires) ; m. m. rose on both sides. JK - ( J. Wt. 22-0. 
Struck also at Drogheda and Trim. 






EDWAKD IV. 221 

27. Half-Groat. Dublin. Uh issue (1467-1468). Same type, &c., as the Double; Plate ivii. 

but the legends are : obv, QDWfiR : [Dl : 6R]fi : DHS : hYBSR (stops, SILVER. 
saltires); rev. C(IVI TRS DVB LI ft (stops, roses and suns) ; m. m. rose 
on both sides. St. -65. Wt. 11-8. 

Struck also at Trim ; but of this place only one specimen is known. 
This is the first occurrence of the half-groat in the Irish series. Pennies 
of this type are known of Dublin and Drogheda ; but no halfpennies 
and farthings have been met with. 

28. Groat. Drogheda. 5th issue (U7Q). Obv. GCDWTXRDVS : D6(l : GRfi : R6(X : 

hYB6( (stops, saltires) : m. m. rose. Bust of king facing, crowned, within 
a tressure ; sun and rose alternately at sides of head and neck. Rev. 
POSVI DSviTl : fiDIVTORS : MSV VILLrt : DROShSDfi (in two 
concentric circles ; stops, roses and saltires) ; m. m. sun. Long cross 
pattee with rose in centre. M '95. Wt. 32-0. 

Coins of this issue were struck at Dublin and Drogheda, consisting 
of groats, pennies and halfpennies. Groats are only known of Drog- 
heda. Though there is no mention of this issue in the existing records 
of this reign ; yet it is referred to in a later statute of Richard III, 
which ordered coins to be made " in such manner and in such places 
as was ordained by statute of the 10th year of Edward the fourth." 
The type was also adopted for coins of Richard III (see No. 44). 

29. Penny. Dublin. 5th issue (1470). Legend clipped. Bust of king facing, 

crowned ; suns and roses alternately at sides of head and neck. Rev. 
[C(IVI]T7\S DVBLin. Long cross pattee with rose in centre; two roses 
and a sun and two suns and a rose alternately in the angles. M 55 Clipped. 

This variety must belong to this period. The penny of the same 
type as the groat (No. 28) is also known. They appear to be of Dublin 
only. 

130. Halfpenny. 5th issue (1470). Obv. Bust of king facing, crowned ; suns and 
roses alternately at sides of head and neck. Rev. Cross patt6e, with rose in 
centre ; no legends. M '45. Wt. 5'7. 

The halfpenny also exists with the usual legends, king's name on 
obverse and mint-name of Dublin on reverse. Halfpennies appear also 
to be of Dublin only. 

31. Groat. Dublin. 6th issue (1470-1478). Obv. $ QDWfiRDVS : D6U : <3Rfi : 
DFIS : hYB(JRftl6t (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, crowned, within 
a tressure. Rev. POSVI - D6(Vm : fiDIVTORfl' mQVm._aiVIT7\S : 
DVBLime( : (in two concentric circles; stops, saltires). Long cross 
pattee with three pellets in each angle. M I" 05. Wt. 42-8. 

The coins of this issue are known as the " English type." In 1470 
it was ordered that five sorts of silver coins, groats, half-groats, 
pennies, halfpennies and farthings, should be struck of the fineness of 
the money issued at the Tower of London. They were to be of the 
same type as the Calais money, and eleven groats should make the 
ounce. This would give a groat of 45 grs. ; but the actual coins rarely 
exceed 35 grs., and in 1473 they were reduced by law to 32 grs. 
Groats of this issue are known of Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Limerick, 
Trim, Waterford, and Wexford. A variety has two pellets and a star 
instead of three pellets in alternate angles of the cross. The double of 



222 IEISH COINS. 

Plate ivii. the 4th issue (No. 25) was ordered to pass for four deniers and the 
SILVER. English groat for fivepence. 

32. Groat. Cork. 6th issue (1470-1478). Similar to the preceding, but with 
cross on each side of neck, and reading on the rev. POSVI DSV ADIVTOR 

mgvm_aiviTAs aoRaAeia. ^i-o. wt. 36-4. 



Varieties have a rose, a sun, or an annulet at each side of neck. See 
also next coin. 

33. Groat. Waterford. 6th issue (1470-1478). Similar to No. 81, but with 6 on 

breast of king (the initial of Germyn Lynch, the master of the mint), and on 
the rev. C(l VITAS : WATQRFOR (stops, saltires), and two saltires between 
the pellets in two angles of the cross ; m. m. heraldic cinquefoil on both 
Bides. jRl-0. Wt. 32-4. 

The letter 6 is also found on coins of Drogheda and Dublin. Others 
have on the king's breast L for Limerick and V or W for Waterford. 

34. Half-Groat. Dublin. 6th issue (1470-1478). Same type as the Groat, 

No. 31 ; but the obv. legend reads QD WARD : Dl 6RA : DftS : hYBQR 
(stops, saltires), and on the rev. the mint-name C(l VITAS DVBLin, ; m. m. 
cross pierced on both sides. 2R '8. Wt. 20-0. 

Struck also at Drogheda, Gal way, Limerick, Trim, and Waterford. 
That of Limerick has roses at the sides of the king's neck and sometimes 
L on the breast. The Galway and Trim half-groats are unique. 

35. Half -Groat. Waterford. 6th issue (1470-1478). Same type and legends as 

the preceding coin, but with mint-name COVITAS WATQRFOR. M '1. 
Clipped. 

36. Penny. Waterford. 6th issue (1470-1478). Obv. >%* 8DWARDVS : Dl 

(3RA : DftS : hYB (stops, saltires). Bust of king facing, crowned; cross 
at each side of head and neck. Rev. QIVITAS WATG(R. Long cross 
pattee with three pellets in each angle, m '65. Wt. 10-0. 

Struck also at Cork, Drogheda, Dublin, Limerick, and Trim. 
Varieties have annulets, pellets, suns, a rose and star, a rose and sun, 
or quatrefoils at the sides of the bust ; and in the centre of the 
cross on the reverse a rose or a quatrefoil, and sometimes a rose in two 
of the quarters. Halfpence of this issue are only known of Dublin. 
They are of the same type, &c., as the penny, and have a rose in the 
centre of the cross on the reverse. No farthings of any mint have been 
met with. 

37. Groat. 1th issue (1478). Obv. QDWAR RQX AR6LIQ : FRAftC(. Shield, 

arms of England, on a cross botonn6e, limbs dividing legend. Rev. 

DOJTliriVS : hlB(Rn,l6(. Three crowns in pale on a cross botonnee. 

jRl-0. Wt. 30-7. 

These coins are commonly known as the " three crowns money ; " 
the three crowns probably representing the arms of Ireland at that 
time. The issue consisted of the groat, half-groat, penny, halfpenny, 
and farthing ; but it is only on the half-groat and penny of Dublin that 
a mint-name occurs. It is, however, very probable that this was the 
only mint in operation at this time in Ireland. There are several 
varieties of the legends on the obverse and reverse. Besides the above 
they read : 1 . obv. " Edwardus Rex Anglie Franc " ; rev. " Et Rex 
Hybernie." 2. obi: " Rex Anglie Francie " ; rev. " Et Rex Hy- 



EDWABD IV. 223 

bernie." 3. obv. "Rex Anglie Francie"; rev. " Dominus Hybernie." Plate Mi. 
4. " Dominus Hybernie," on both sides (see next coin). The cross on SILVER. 
the reverse varies : it is also plain or annulettee (see No. 39). The 
Act enjoining this coinage also ordered the striking of threepences ; 
but no pieces of this denomination are known. 

38. Groat. 1th issue (1478). Same type as the preceding, but the legends on 

obv. and rev. read DOttllftVS hYB6(Rn,ie(. jR-l-0. Wt. 26-7. 

39. Groat. 7th issue (1478). Obv. RSX AHSLIS FRfi (lis after TYR). Shield, 

arms of England, on a cross annulettee, i.e. each limb ending in three 
annulets, and dividing legend ; on either side, a small shield bearing a 
saltire (the arms of Fitzgerald). Rev. DOminOS VB6( - RRI6( (lis after 
VB6(). Three crowns in pale on a cross annulettee : inner tressure of 
arches. M -9. Wt. 26 -4. 

Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare, who was appointed Lord Justice 
of Ireland, was given, in consideration of his many services, unlimited 
control of the mints and their officers. He received also all the profits 
arising from the coinage. None of the Kildare coins have the king's 
name. 






40. Half-Groat. Dublin. 1th issue (1478). Obv. RQX T^riSL Z 

Shield, arms of England, on a cross botonnee ; limbs dividing legend. Rev. 
CUVITfiS DVBLin. Three crowns in pale on a cross annulettee; limbs 
dividing legend. ^'7. Wt. 13-6. 

The legends show similar varieties as on the groat (see No. 37). The 
occurrence of the mint-name is an exception. 

41. Half-Groat. 1th issue (1478). Same type as the preceding coin, but a 

small shield with the Fitzgerald arms on either side of the large 
shield; the legends are, obv. R6CX 7\n,SLI6(; rev. DOflllftOS VR3. JR -75. 
Wt. 14-0. 
A variety has the legend DOMIftOS VRS on both sides. 

42. Penny. Dublin. 1th issue (1478). Same type as the Groat (No. 37); the 

obv. legend is uncertain; but that on the rev. reads QIVIfTftS] DV[BL.II1]. 
JR '6. Clipped. 

This is the only mint-name on the penny. It usually has the 
king's titles on both sides. The halfpennies and farthings are of the 
same type as the penny. They have the king's titles only on both 
sides, R6(X fiftGL FRfina and DOJttinVS hYBSRft, more or less 
abbreviated. 

43. Farthing. 1st issue (1463). Obv. PfiTRICUVS (rose before and sun after Plate IviiL 

legend). Bust of St. Patrick mitred, facing. Rev. S AL Vfi TOR COPPER 
(stops, suns and roses). Long cross pattee, a rose and a sun in alternate 
angles. M '15. Wt. 10-4. 
A variety has a rose and a quatrefoil in alternate angles of the cross. 
These are commonly known as " Salvator " farthings. The master of 
the mint was to have them for his sole use in return for the sustentation 
and finding of labourers and for his other charges. The farthing of the 
second issue (1467) has on the obverse a shield bearing three crowns, 
and in the circumference the king's name, and on the reverse a long 



224 



IRISH COINS. 



Plate iviii. cross with rose and sun in centre, and the mint-name QIVITfiS 
COPPER. DVBLimeC. The weight is about 9 grs. A few specimens only are 
known of this piece. 

The half -farthings appear to have been of two issues only, 1463 and 
1470. That of the first issue has on the obverse a crown surrounded by 
roses and crowns in the place of the legend, and on the reverse a long 
cross with pellets in each angle : there is no legend. The half-farthing 
of the second issue, which corresponds to the silver penny of the sixth 
coinage has on the obverse a full-faced bust, crowned, within a circle ; 
and on the reverse a long cross with pellets in the angles and small 
strokes around in imitation of a legend. Both these pieces are, how- 
ever, of doubtful attribution. 

BILLON. By an Act of the second year of Edward IV (1461) it was enacted 
that a coin of copper mixed with silver be made in the castle of Dublin 
having on one side the print of a crown with suns and roses in the 
circumference of the crown ; and on the other side a cross with the 
name of the place of mintage. These pieces were to pass current at 
four to a penny (see Simon, Irish Coins, App. p. 82). No specimen of 
this coinage is known to exist. 



Edward V. 1483. 

There are no coins which can be attributed with any degree of 
certainty to Edward V, whose reign only lasted from April to June 
1483. It has been suggested * that the three crown groats bearing 
the name of Edward and having the letter Q under the lowest crown 
may have been struck by Edward V, but there are no records whatever 
to support this suggestion. 



Richard III. 1483-1485. 
COINAGE. Silver. Groat and Penny. 

ISSUES, &c. Three : 1st issue (1483), Groat and Penny. 2nd issue 
(1483), Penny. 3rd issue (1484), Groat. 

The weight of the groat throughout this reign was about 30 grs., 
and the fineness of metal was to be as the standard of the English 
money of the 12th year of Edward IV. This standard, however, does 
not appear to have been adhered to. 

SILVER. 44. Groat. Drogheda. 1st issue. Obv. R!C(7\RDVS : 06(1 : 6R7X DRS hYB 
(stops, saltires) ; m. in. rose. Bust of king, facing, crowned, within a 
tressure ; sun and rose alternately at sides of head and neck. Rev. POSVI 
DQVm fiDIVTORg : me(V VILLfi . DROShSDfi (in two concentric 
circles ; stops, saltires) ; m. m. lis. Long cross patt6e with rose in centre. 
x, -9. Clipped. 

By a proclamation of the 18th July, 1483, Richard charged his 
Council to provide in all possible haste money for Ireland, which 



Sainthill, Olla Podrida, vol. ii., p. viii. 



RICHAED III. 225 

should differ in type from that current in England. The new coins Plate iviii. 
were to have on one side the arms of England, and on the other side SILVER. 
the three crowns, as the last issue of Edward IV. The only mints at 
which they were to be struck were to be Dublin and Waterford. 
Those instructions were, however, not obeyed ; and in their haste, 
or perhaps by order of the Earl of Kildare, the authorities issued coins, 
groats and pennies, of the above type. These are similar to the fifth 
coinage of Edward IV. They were also not minted at Dublin and 
Wnterford, but at Drogheda only. Use was also made of old dies of 
Edward IV, the king's name RICXfi being punched over QDWft. 

The penny of this issue is of the same type, and, like the groat, is of 
Drogheda only. It has, however, the usual varieties from the groat. 

The only coin known of the second issue is a penny struck at Waterford. 
]jb is of the type of Edward IV's sixth coinage (see No. 36), having on 
the obverse the king's head, and on the reverse a cross with open 
quatrefoil in centre and pellets in the angles. There is no record of 
thi-^ coinage ; but it is classed to a separate issue on account of its 
difference in type. 

/45. Groat. 3rd issue. Obv. RICXfiR : RQX : 7YRSLI FR7\H(X (stops, saltires). 
Shield, arms of England, on a long cross botonnee. Bcv. DOJTliriVS : 
hYB6(Rn,ie( (stops, saltires). Three crowns in pale on a cross botonnee. 
JB, '95. Wt. 29-0. 

This coinage was struck in conformity to an Act of the Parliament 
held in Dublin on the 17th March 1483 (o.s.). The Act prescribed the 
type, which in this instance was adopted. It is similar to Edward IV's 
last coinage. The only mint-name is that of Waterford. It occurs on 
a groat the type of which varies a little from the above in having on 
the reverse a tressure instead of a plain circle. The legend is a IV IT. 
WfiTOORFOORD. The groats without a mint-name were probably 
struck at Dublin. Half-groats, pennies and halfpennies were also 
ordered, but none have been met with. 



Henry VII. 1485-1509. 

COINAGE. /Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny. 

ISSUES, &c.* Four : 1st issue, Groat, Half -Groat, and Penny (three 
crowns type). 2nd issue, Groat (bust with open crown and cross type). 
3rd issue, Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny (bust with arched crown 
and cross type). 4th issue, Groat (bust with shallow open crown and 
cross type). 

The standard weight of the groat was 32 grs. ; but it generally 
varied from 30 to 26 grs. ; some, however, of the second issue are of 
full weight. The fineness is not recorded. 



* The almost total absence of records relating to the coinage of Henry VII 
renders it difficult to fix the dates of the various issues. The first and second 
issues would correspond to the English coins with the open crown ; the third to 
those with the arched crown ; and the fourth to the profile coinage. 

Q 



226 IEISH COINS. 

Plate Iviii. 46. Groat. Waterford. 1st issue. Obv. hQRRiaVS Dl 6RA RSX. Within a 

SILVKR quatrefoil shield, arms of England, on a long cross annulettee. Rev. 

CUVITAS WATQRFORD. Within a tressure of arches three jsrowns in 

pale on a long cross annulettee; below the lowest crown, the letter h. 

JR '95. Clipped. 

Struck also at Dublin, of which place there are groats, half-greats, 
and pennies. Of Waterford only groats are known. The legends on 
the groats vary as on the last issue of Edward IV (see No. 37). They 
read: 1. obv. "Rex Anglie Francie"; rev. " Dominus Hibernie." 
2. " Dorninus or Dominos Hybernie " on both sides. 3. obv. " Henri cus 
di Gracia " ; rev. " Dominus Hybernie." 4, as the above, with the mint- 
name of " Dublinie " or " Waterford." Those reading as No. 1 have 
sometimes the Fitzgerald arms at the sides of the shield (see No. 39), 
which show that most probably they are the earliest pieces of this issue. 
A distinguishing mark of this issue from similar pieces of Edward IV 
and Richard III is the occurrence of the king's initial under the lowest 
crown on the reverse. 

The half-groat and penny are of similar type, but the latter hat: no 
cross on the reverse. Both denominations are sometimes without 
the letter h under the crowns. They are of Dublin only, and havA 
the legends as No. 46, or they read : obv. " Rex Anglie Francie " ; rev\ 
" Dominus Hybernie." 

The second issue consists of groats only, struck at Dublin and > 
Waterford. They are similar to the groats of the next issue, but the I 
king wears an open crown as on those of the sixth issue of Edward IV. 
They are also like the " restoration" coins of Henry VI (see No. 19), 
but the king is styled " Rex Anglie Francie," instead of " Dominus 
Hybernie." * 

47. Groat. Dublin. Brdissue. Obv. >k hQHRICX D6(l [6RA A]IT,SL FR 
(stops, mullets). Bust of king facing, within a tressure, and wearing a 
double-arched crown. Rev. [POSVI] DSVfll AIVTORS me(Vm_CO VITAS 
DVBLiril6( (in two concentric circles). Long cross patt6e with three 
pellets in each angle. Ml'O. Wt. 30-5. 

This issue, consisting of groats, half -groats and pennies, is of Dublin 
only. Varieties of the groat have the letter h in the centre of the 
cross on the reverse, and a cross fourchee instead of a cross pattee. 
The general type is like that of the English coins, second issue, of 
Henry VII (see p. 73). The introduction of this type may have 
been due to Nicholas Flint, who, after holding several offices in con- 
nection with the English mint, was appointed master of the mints at 
Dublin and Waterford. 



48. Half-Groat. Dublin. 3rd issue. Obv. * hSRRia Dl SRACUS RQX ARLIQ. 
Bust of king, facing, as on the preceding, but wearing a single-arched 
crown. Rev. POSVI DQVm ADIVTO_C(IVITAS DV LIIT, (intwocon- 
centric circles ; stops, saltires). Long cross fourchee with three pellets in 
each angle. JR -75. Wt. 18-5. 

The cross fourchee also occurs on the English half -groats of this time. 



* Dr. Aquilla Smith attributes all the coins of this type with the name of Henry 
to Henry VII (Trans. Roy. Irish Acad., vol. xix., 18iO). 



HENEY VII. 227 

The groats of this issue appear to have always the double-arched Plate iviii. 
crown and the half-groats the single-arched one. SILVER. 

The penny of this issue, of which only one specimen is known, has 
on the obverse the letter h under a double-arched crown and around, the 
king's name ; and on the reverse the cross and pellets with the mint- 
name of Dublin. 

49. Groat. Dublin. th issue. Obv. x h6(HRIC(VS Dl SRAC(lfi R3X ASfll. 

Bust of king facing, wearing shallow open crown and within a circle. Rev. 
POSVI DSVm 7XDIVTORIV5Tl_qiVIT7\S DVBLin (in two concentric 
circles). Long cross fourch6e with three pellets in each angle. M I'O. 
Wt. 26-8. 

Groats only of this issue are known, and of the Dublin mint. 
Varieties have the bust of the king within a tressure, and there are 
roses, cinquefoils, annulets and crosses at the sides of the head. 
Simon, Irish Coins, p. 19, classed these pieces to Henry V. 

Henry VIII. 1509-1547. 

COINAGE. Silver. Groat, Half-Groat, Sixpence^ Threepence, Three 
Halfpence, and Three Farthings.*1 ^,/^<i*v*'iy ,/ //*-/?*./- //i /**- - 

ISSUES, &c. Four: 1st issue (1526?-1541), Groat and Half-Groat. 
2nd issue (1541), Groat. 3rd issue (1544 1546), Sixpence, Threepence, 
Three Halfpence, and Three Farthings. 4th issue (15461547), Sixpence. 

Their weight was at 35 to 40 grs. to the groat, and 35 to 44 grs. to 
the sixpence ; and their fineness varied as follows : First and second 
issues, | silver to \ alloy ; third issue, f silver to ^ alloy ; and fourth 
issue, % silver to f alloy. 

Several denominations new to the Irish series were introduced 
during this reign. These were the sixpence, threepence, three half- 
pence, and three farthings. These alone bear the mint-name of Dublin. 

50. Groat. Istissue. Obv. hedlRICC : VIII' : D' : 6' : R' A6LI6C : Z (stops, 

saltires) ; m. tn. crown. Shield, arms of England, crowned, on a long cross 

fourchee. Rev. FR^nCCS : DOttlinVS : hlBSRmeC : (stops, saltires) ; 

m. m. crown. Harp crowned between h and I (Henry and Jane Seymour), 

both crowned, a -95. Wt. 38 '7. 

Dr. Aquilla Smith * was of opinion that no coins were struck for 
Ireland during this reign before 1537. He bases his argument on the 
fact, that in that year Lord Deputy Gray urged the necessity of a 
mint in Ireland but he shows that between the years 1520 and 1543 
various sums of money were from time to time transmitted to Ireland. 
If we take the English gold coins as our guide, on which the same 
initials h I, &c., occur as on the Irish silver, it may be concluded that 
the first issue for Ireland took place soon after 1526. According 
to this classification these initials are h K = Henry and Katherine 
of Aragon ; h ft = Henry and Anne Boleyn ; h I = Henry and 
Jane Seymour ; and h R = Henricus Rex. Dr. Smith attributes 
the initials K, A, and I to Katherine Howard, Anne of Cleves, and 
Jane Seymour respectively. Though some of the coins (see Nos. 54- 
56) bear the mint-name of Dublin, there is no evidence to show 

* Numismatic Chronicle, 1879, p. 165. 

Q 2 



228 IEISH COINS. 

Plate iviii. that there was a regal mint in Ireland during the reign of Henry VIII. 
SILVER. On the other hand, it is recorded that Irish coins were struck in 
London and Bristol, and then exported (see Nos. 54 and 57). 

51. Groat. 1st issue. Same as the preceding; but on the rev. at the sides of the 

shield are the letters h 7\ (Henry and Anne Boleyn), both crowned, .si *95. 

Wt. 38-0. 

Varieties of the above have h K (Henry and Katherine of 
Aragon), and h R (Henricus Rex). Some have the Arabic numeral 
8 after the king's name, and on others the numeral or numerals are 
omitted. 

52. Half-Groat. 1st issue. Obv. hQHRIC(' : 8 : D' : <3' : R fiSU : Z (stops, 

saltires) ; m. m. crown. Shield, crowned, &c., as on No. 50. Rev. 
FRfiftQeC : DRS' : hlBSRIQ (stops, saltires); m. m. crown. Harp, 
crowned, between h K (Henry and Katherine of Aragon), both crowned. 
jR-7. Wt. 21-0. 

Varieties have the same initials on the roverse as the groats, with 
the exception of those of h R, which do not occur. They all have 
8 or VIII after the king's name. 



53. Groat. 2nd issue. Obv. he(n,RIC(VS' Ylll Dl GRfiCXIfi ARSUS; m. m. 

lis. Shield, crowned, &c., as on No. 50. Bev. FR7\nO(ie( : 9T : 
hlBSRftlGC : R6(X : (stops, saltires); m. m. lis. Harp, crowned, as on 
No. 50, but letters at sides h R (Henricus Rex), both crowned. M I'O. 
Wt. 39-0. 
There is no difficulty in fixing the date of this issue, as 

Henry was not styled "Hiberniae Rex" till 8th September, 1541. 

Previous to that date, he was styled " Dominus Hiberniae." These 

coins have only the initials of the king on the reverse. This issue 

consists of groats only. 

54. Sixpence. Dublin. 3rd issue. Obv. HENRIC' 8' - D' G' AGL' - 

FRA' Z' HIB' REX. Bust of king, three-quarters to r., crowned 
and 'clothed. Bev. CIVITAS DVBLINIE; m. m. P.* Shield, arms of 
England, on cross fourchee with half-rose in each fork, jj 1-0. Wt. 39 '7. 
Others have for mint-mark a harp, a boar's head, a sun, &c. 
This coinage was issued under an indenture granted in 1544-5 to 
Sir Martin Bowes. It was struck in London and exported to Dublin. 
The indenture ordered that the money should be composed of eight 
ounces fine silver and four ounces alloy. The sixpence and three- 
pence were to answer to the weights of the English groat and two- 
pence. All the coins of this issue have the mint-name of Dublin. It 
is the only instance of a mint-name during this reign. 

55. Threepence. Dublin. 3rd issue. Same as the Sixpence, but the legend on 

theobv. more abbreviated, HENRIC : 8 : D : G : AG : FR : Z : HIB : 
REX ; m. m. harp on rev. M -75. Wt. 21 '7. 
Varieties differ in the obverse legend, which is more or less abbre- 
viated. The mint-marks are the same as those on the sixpence. 

* The mint-mark p may be the initial of Martyn Piri, who in 1550 was 
appointed master of the Dublin mint (Ending, vol. i., p. 318). Piri, however, 
appears to have been connected with the Dublin mint for some time previous to 
that date. 



HENEY VIII. 229 

56. Three Halfpence. Dublin. 3rd issue. Same type as the Sixpence, No. 54, Plate Iviii. 
hut the bust is nearly full- face and the legends read, obv. H D G SITVPR 
ROSA SINE SPINE; rev. CIVITAS DVBINIE. x. -6. Wt. 8-0. 
Neither these nor the three farthings have mint-marks. The three 

farthings have the obverse as the three halfpence, but on the reverse is 

a cross fourchee with three pellets in each angle instead of a shield. 

They also read SP. for SPINE. 



57. Sixpence. 4th issue. Obv. hSriRIQ 8 D : <o : finSL' FRKftCC (stops, 

annulets). Shield, arms of England, crowned, on a cross fourchee. Rev. 

6(T hlBSRniS RSX 38 (stops, roses and crosses); m. m. W. S. 

(mon.). Harp crowned between h R, both crowned. JR 1'05. Wt. 38*8. 

This type is similar to that of the groat of the first issue. Sixpences 

only are known of this coinage. The numerals on the reverse mark 

the 38th year (1546-7) of the king's reign. The monogram W. S. on 

the reverse are the initials of Sir William Sharington, master of 

the mint at Bristol, by whom this coinage was struck. A variety 

dated 37, i.e., 1545-6, reads hSn.RIO( VIII, and has a lis mint-mark. 

These may not have been struck by Sharington. The Irish money 

continued to be one-third less in current value than the English, the 

sixpence being equivalent to the groat. 

Edward VI. 1547-1553. 

Considerable difficulty has been experienced in identifying what 
coins, if any, were struck in Ireland during the reign of Edward VI. 
It would appear from indentures that money was struck for Ireland 
if not in Dublin itself. An indenture of 1548 to Sir Edward 
Bellingham, Lord Justice of Ireland, orders the erection of a mint 
in the castle of Dublin. Another, also of 1548, to Marty n Piri and 
others, directs the issue of groats, half-groats, pence and halfpence. 
These indentures were followed by others of 1551 and 1552, giving 
further directions relating to the striking of coins for Ireland. No Irish 
coins, however, of the above denominations, and bearing the name of 
Edward, have been met with, which can be assigned to this period. 
The only pieces which might be truly Irish are the base shillings of 
1549 and 1552, which have for mint-mark a harp and bear on the obverse, 
the bust of Edward VI, and on the reverse an oval garnished shield 
surrounded by the legend TIMOR DOIUIRI FOftS VITS mDXLIX or 
JftDLII. Of this last coin Hawkins, Silver Coins of England, 3rd ed., 
p. 292, remarks : " It is not easy to account for this date (JYIDLII) upon 
a base shilling, as the money of fine silver was certainly in circulation 
in the preceding year." It may therefore be concluded that the money 
is Irish. Archdeacon Pownall * would also class to Ireland those base 
shillings struck between 1550 and 1552, bearing the mint-marks a lion, 
a lis, and a rose. Further, Sir John Evans f proposes to increase the 
series of Edward's Irish coins by adding to it the smaller base-metal 
pieces, sixpences, threepences, &c. (see Nos. 54-56) with mint-mark harp, 



* Num. Chron., 1881, p. 48 et seqq. 
t Ib., 1886, p. 152, et seq. 



230 



IRISH COINS. 



Plate iviii. 
SILVER, 



and bearing the bust and name of Henry VIII, and which are generally 
supposed to have been issued in the 36th year of his reign under an 
indenture with Sir Martin Bowes of the London mint. It is true 
that in the case of his first English gold coins Edward used his own 
portrait but his father's name, yet it is difficult to conceive that 
he should have extended this practice so far into his reign, and at 
the same time to have issued shillings of one type, and the lesser 
denominations of another one. The question of the Irish coinage 
during this reign still remains undecided. 

Mary (alone). 1553-1554. 
COINAGE. Silver. Shilling, Groat, Half-Groat, and Penny. 

ISSUES, &c. Mary's coinage for Ireland, like that for England, is of 
two periods, viz. that struck before her marriage (1553-1554), and that 
struck after her marriage with Philip of Spain (1554-1558). The 
former consisted of the above-mentioned denominations, the types 
being the same throughout. In the proclamation of 20 Aug. 1553 
regulating the standard of the English coinage, that for Ireland was 
specially excepted as " being of a special standard." The order for 
the Irish coinage was therefore of a somewhat later date. 

The weight of the coins was at 96 grs. to the shilling or 32 grs. to 
the groat, the same as the English money : and from analysis their 
fineness was about | fine silver to - alloy. 



Plate lix. 58. Shilling. 1553. Obv. flirt Rlfi D' 6' fiRG' FR7T Z : hIB' 
RQ6in.fi (stops, annulets; lis after 5TlfiRI7X). Bust of queen to l. r 
crowned and draped, and wearing necklace with pendant. Rev. V6(R ITfiS : 
TeUUPORIS : FILIfi : m:D:LIII (stops, annulets ; lis after V6( RITAS). 
A harp crowned between M R, both crowned, m 1'25. Wt. 87 '6. 

Dated also 1554. The shilling is the only dated coin of this reign ; 
and if we except the uncertain pieces of Edward VI (see above) it is 
the first issue of that denomination for Ireland. The inscriptions are 
the same as on Mary's English coins ; that on the reverse being the 
queen's motto, which was placed on both sides of her great seal. That 
on the obverse varies slightly in the last two words. 

59. Groat. Same as the Shilling, but reading RSSI for R6(6IR7Y, and there is no 

date on the reverse. At 95. Wt. 31 6. 

There are no varieties of this coin. The half-groat is of precisely 
the same type as the groat, but the obverse legend is more abbreviated. 

60. Penny. Same type as the Groat; but the legends read, obv. M : D G 

ROSfi - SINE SPIN (lis after ROS7X) ; rev. VERITfiS TEMPORIS 
FILI7X . JR -65. Wt. 8-4. 

There are also no varieties of the penny except that one reads 
VERTfiS for VERITfiS. 

There is no evidence that at any time during this reign a mint was 
established in Ireland. The coins were probably struck in London and 
exported to Ireland as in the reign of Henry VIII. 



PHILIP AND MARY. 231 

Philip and Mary. 1554-1558. 

COINAGE. Silver. Shilling and Groat. Plate lix 

ISSUES, &c. One issue only of each denomination. 

The weight of the shilling was 144 grs., and that of the groat 48 grs., 
being at the rate of 40 shillings or 120 groats to the pound troy; 
and their fineness was 3 oz. fine to 9 oz. alloy. 

61. Shilling. 1555. Obv. PHILIP : ET : MARIA : D : G : REX : ET : 

REGINA : ANG. Busts of Philip and Mary face to face; he is in armour; 

she is draped; above, crown; below, 1555. Rev. POSVIMVS : DEVM : 

ADIVTOREM : NOSTRVM ; m. m. portcullis. A crowned harp between 

P M, both crowned, jul-4. Wt. 187-0. 

This is the only date on the shilling ; it occurs also at the sides of 
the crown above the heads. The only other mint-mark is the rose ; it 
is found both on the obverse and the reverse, but the portcullis is always 
on the reverse only. This coinage was struck in accordance with an 
indenture dated 6th December, 1554, to Sir Edmund Peckham, Treasurer 
of the English mint, and others. It was made from base money brought 
into England by Philip ; and was struck in London and exported. 
There appears still to have been no mint in operation in Ireland. 

62. Groat. 1556. Same as the Shilling, but reading A for ANG and the date 

1556, which is placed above the heads and at the sides of the crown; 
m. m. rose, jal-l. Wt. 47-5. 

Others are dated 1555, 1557, and 1558, and have for mint-mark a 
portcullis as on the shillings. The date is always at the sides of the 
crown. Varieties read Z for ET and AN, ANG or ANGL. 

On the 19th September, 1556, the circulation of the English rose- 
pennies, which were much debased, was forbidden in any part of the 
king and queen's dominions except Ireland. 



Elizabeth. 1558-1603. 

COINAGE. Silver. Shilling, Sixpence, Groat, and Threepence. Copper. 
Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. Silver. Three : 1st issue (1558), Shilling and Groat 
(bust and harp type). 2nd issue (1561), Shilling and Groat (bust and 
shield type). 3rd issue (1598), Shilling, Sixpence, and Threepence 
(shield and harp type). Copper. One (1598), Penny and Halfpenny. 

The weight of the silver coins varied as follows : The shilling, 1st 
issue, 144 grs. ; 2nd issue, 72 grs. ; and third issue, about 88 grs. The 
copper coins were at 30 grs. to the penny. 

The fineness of the silver was for the 1st and 3rd issues 3 oz. fine 
and 9 oz. alloy, and for the 2nd issue 1 1 oz. fine and 1 oz. alloy. 

63. Shilling. 1st issue. Obv. ELIZABETH : D : G : ANG : FRA : Z : HIB : 

REGINA ; m. m. rose. Bust of queen to 1., crowned, draped and wearing 

ruff. Rev. POSVI : DEVM : ADIVTOREM : MEVM; m. m. rose. A 

harp crowned between E R, both crowned. ^ 1'25. Wt. 143-3. 

A harp also occurs as mint-mark. As in the previous reign this 



232 IKISH COINS. 

Plate HX. money was issued under an indenture dated 1558 to Sir Edmund 
SILVER. Peckham of the English mint and others ; and was therefore minted in 
London. It was struck from the base money current in England at 
the rate of 40 shillings or 120 groats to the pound troy. Simon (Irish 
Coins, p. 37) says that, when the base money was decried in England, 
it was sent to Ireland, where the current value of the shilling soon fell 
to fourpence and later on to twopence. 

64. Groat. 1st issue. Same type and legends as the Shilling. 2R I'O. 

Wt. 43-8. 

65. Shilling. 1561. 2nd issue. Obv. ELIZABETH : D' G' A' F' ET 

HIBERNIE' REG'; m. m. harp. Bust of queen to 1., crowned, draped 

and wearing ruff. Rev. POSVI : DEVM : ADIVTOREM : MEVM ; 

m. in. harp. A shield, crowned and bearing three harps, dividing date, 

1561. jRl-3. Wt. 66-0. 

The coinage of this issue is of nearly the same fineness as the English 
money, but was considerably lighter, eighty -two shillings being struck to 
the pound, whereas the English shillings were at the rate of sixty-two. 
The Irish shilling was therefore valued at ninepence English and the 
groat at threepence. The coins of the second issue are dated 1561 
only, and the only mint-mark is the harp. 

66. Groat. 1561. 2nd issue. Same as the Shilling, but the legends are slightly 

more abbreviated, reading Z for ET, RE for REG and MEV for MEVM. 
JR -9. Wt. 21-0. 

67. Shilling. 3rd issue. Obv. ELIZABETH' D' G' ANG' FR' ET 

HIBER' -RE'; m. m. martlet. Square shield, arms of England. Rev. 
POSVI DEVM ADIVTOREM - MEV; m. m. martlet. A harp 
crowned. Ml" 2. Wt. 89 -7. 

This coinage was struck under an indenture dated 1598 to Sir John 
Martin and Richard Martin of the London mint. It is of the same 
baseness as the first issue, i.e. 3 oz. fine and 9 oz. alloy. The moneys 
to be coined were the shilling, sixpence, threepence, penny and half- 
penny ; but none of the last two denominations are known in silver. ' 
They are said to have been specially used for the payment of the army in 
Ireland. None of the coins are dated, but the mint-mark is varied, 
being a star, a trefoil, or a mullet. Another issue appears to have 
been ordered in 1601 of a still baser standard, viz. 2 oz. 8 dwts. 
fine and 9 oz. 2 dwts. alloy. 

68. Sixpence. 3rd issue. Same type as the Shilling, and same legends and m. m. 

Ml'O. Wt. 35-4. 

The threepence is of the same type. 

COPPER. 69. Penny. 1601. Obv. ELIZABETH - D' G' AN' - FR' ET HIBER' 
RE; m. m. star. Square shield, arms of England, between E R . Rev. 
POSVI - DEV ADIVTOREM MEV; m. m. star. A harp crowned, 
dividing date, 1601. ^-8. Wt. 30-5. 

Dated also 1602. The mint-marks are a star, a cross, a mullet, alis, 
a martlet or a crescent. This copper coinage was issued under an 
indenture of 1601, by which it was prescribed that 190J, pennies were 
to go to the pound. Farthings as well as halfpence were also ordered, 



ELIZABETH. 233 

but none of the former are known. It is very probable that none plale lix - 
were struck, as no mention is made of them in a proclamation of the 
next reign relating to this coinage. 

70. Halfpenny. 1601. Same as the Penny, but reading HIB for HIBER. M -6. 
Wt. 13-3. 

Dated also 1602, and with same mint-marks as the penny. 



James I. 1603-1625. 

COINAGE. Silver. Shilling and Sixpence. Copper. Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Silver. Two : 1st issue (1603), Shilling and Sixpence. 
2nd issue (1605), same, but king's titles varied (see descriptions). 
Copper. One (1613), Farthing. 

The weight of the silver coins throughout this reign was at 70^- grs. 
to the shilling ; and the copper was ordered to be at 6 grs. to the 
farthing. The silver coins were 9 oz. fine and 3 oz. alloy. 

71. Shilling. 1st issue. Obv. IACOBVS - D' G' ANG' SCO' FRA' . Plate lx. 

ET HIB' REX; m. m. bell. Bust of king to r., crowned, in armour. SILVER. 

Rev. EXVRGAT DEVS - DISSIPENTVR - INIMICI; m. m. bell. A 

harp crowned. M 1-1. Wt. 70- 0. 

The only variety of the shilling is in the mint-mark, which is also a 
bird. When the new coinage, consisting of shillings and sixpences, 
was issued in 1603, the base money of the previous reign was ordered 
to pass for one-third of its former current value, and in 1605 it was 
still further reduced to one-fourth. No change, however, was made in 
the current values of the copper penny and halfpenny. 

72. Sixpence. 1st issue. Same as the Shilling ; but the legend on the rev. 

reads, TVEATVR VNITA DEVS; same m. m. M -9. Wt. 34-8. 
Also with the mint-mark a bird. 

73. Shilling. 2nd issue. Obv. IACOBVS D' G' MAG' - BRIT' FRA' . 

ET HIB' REX; m. m. martlet. Bust of king to r., as on No. 71. 
Rev. HENRICVS ROSAS REGNA IACOBVS; m. m. martlet. A 
harp crowned. M 1-1. Wt. 69-0. 

The difference between the shillings and sixpences of the 1st and 
2nd issues consists mainly in the change of the king's titles. On the 
former he is styled "Angliae, Scotiae, &c., Rex;" but on the latter, 
" Magnae Britanniae, &c., Rex." A like difference occurred in the 
case of the English coins. On the shilling the reverse legend was also 
changed. The mint-marks are a martlet, a rose, an escallop and a 
cinquefoil. 

The sixpence of this issue is the same as that of the first, except for 
the change in the king's title. The mint-marks are the same as on the 
shilling. Though not dated these coins appear to have been struck 
till the year 1613. In 1607 the English shilling was ordered to pass 
for sixteen pence. 



234 IBISH COINS. 

Plato ix. 74. Farthing Token. (1613.) Obv. IACO D G MAG BRI ; m. m. sword. 

(/oi-i'KK. Two sceptres in saltire through a crown. Rev. FRA ET HIB REX. 

A harp crowned. M '65. Wt. 8 '6. 

These farthing tokens are the same as those issued for currency in 
England at the same period (see p. 105, No. 562). In the proclamation 
relating to them it was ordered that a " competent quantity " should be 
struck for the king's subjects within the realms of England and Ireland 
and the dominion of Wales. The mint-marks are of great variety. It 
would appear that all the Irish coins of this reign were struck in 
London. 

Charles I. 1625-1649. 

COINAGE. The only purely regal money coined for Ireland during 
this reign is the Farthing Token in copper. It is similar to that of 
James I already described. They are of two issues, 1626 and 1635: 
and are of the same types as those current in England, and in fact 
they are of the same series, being also struck in London. During the 
period of the Civil War the dearth of an official currency was to some 
extent supplemented by special local issues, commonly known as 
" money of necessity." These coins are of gold, silver, and copper, and 
form several well-defined groups (see below). 

75. Farthing Token. (1626.) Obv. CARO D G MAG BRI; m. m. rose. 
Two sceptres in saltire through a crown. Rev. FRA ET HIB REX. 
A harp crowned. M '7. Wt. 7 -6. 

The nominal weight of these farthings was 6 grs. ; but almost 
without exception they are much heavier. The second issue (1635) 
varies in having a crowned rose on the reverse instead of a harp (see 
p. 122, No. 655). The mint-marks are numerous. These tokens were 
sent to Ireland in such large numbers that in 1634 it was ordered by 
proclamation that no person should be forced to take them, and that 
none should pay above twopence in farthings in any one payment. 

Several attempts were made to revive the mint in Dublin ; but 
without success, and in 1637 it was commanded by proclamation that 
the title or name of Irish money or harps should be abolished, and all 
accounts should be reduced into sterling and made in English money. 

MONEY OF NECESSITY.* 

The issue of this " Money of Necessity " in Ireland extended from 
1642 to 1647, the period of the so-called " Irish Rebellion." It is very 
similar in character to the English siege money of the same period ; 
much of it being of mere pieces of metal of irregular shape, stamped 
with a value or other mark. They are of gold, silver, and copper; 
the gold is however the exception (see note No. 76). The primary 
object in issuing this money was for the relief of the Government and 



* See Dr. A. Smith, " Money of Necessity issued in Ireland in the Eeign of 
Charles the First," published in the Proceedings of the Kilkenny Archaeological 
Society, Vol. iii., New series, 1860. 



CHARLES I. 235 

the payment of the army, which was sent to suppress the rebels. The Plate ix. 
example set by the Crown was soon followed by the rebels, who also 
struck money for their own use. 

The various series or groups of this money with their probable dates 
are : 1. The Inchiquin money (1642) ; 2. The Dublin money (1642) ; 
3. The Kilkenny money (1642); 4. The " Blacksmith's" money (1642) ; 
5. The Ormonde money (1643) ; 6. The Rebel money (1643); 7. The 
Cork money (1647). 

Besides these there are certain copper pieces, pennies, &c., of the 
towns of Bandon, Kinsale, and Youghal of somewhat uncertain date. 

76. INCHIQUIN MONEY. (1642.) Crown. An irregular polygon, having ^'. g g' SlLVER > 

stamped on both sides within a double circle, the outer one beaded. JR 1-9. 
Wt. 423-0. 

Though undated the Inchiquin money is supposed to be the earliest 
of the series, and to have been struck from plate, which at the 
instigation of the Lords Justices and Council the " loyal subjects " of 
the king were induced to bring in for that purpose. The Act or order 
is dated 5 January, 1642. Though this money is called after Lord 
Inchiquin, who was Vice-President of Munster, he does not appear to 
have been in any way concerned with its issue, for at the time he was 
engaged in suppressing the rebellion in the south of Ireland. 

The gold coin of this issue is known as the pistole. It is of irregular 

tt 
shape as the silver coins, but is stamped on both sides with 4 : dw. 

7 :gr 

Of this coin only two specimens are known, and both are of recent 
discovery. It is the only gold piece of money in the whole Irish series. 

77. Half-Crown. Same as the Crown, but stamped on both sides with w> f 

Ml- 25. Wt. 233-6. 

t 

78. Shilling. Same as the Crown, No. 76, but stamped on both sides with dw gr 

2B1-1. Wt. 90-0. 3:21. 

79. Ninepence. Same as the Crown, No. 76, but stamped on both sides with 

dw gr. JR. 1-05. Wt. 68-0. 
2 : 20. 

80. Ninepence. A variety of the last coin : it is octagonal in shape ; and has on 

the rev. nine annulets arranged in three lines. JR -9. Wt. 64 '5. 
This coin and similar varieties of the sixpence, groat, and threepence 
were struck in order to enable the most illiterate persons to recognise 
their values. There are no crowns, half-crowns, or shillings of this 
type. 

There are sixpences of both types ; the one is stamped on both sides 

t. 
with dw gr. ; the other on one side only with these marks, and on 

1 22 
the reverse six annulets arranged irregularly. 

t. 

81. Groat. Similar to the Crown, No. 76, but stamped on both sides with dw gr. 

M -75. Wt. 33-3. 1 - 6 - 



236 IEISH COINS. 

Plate L\. 82. Groat. A variety of the preceding with four annulets arranged in two linos on 

SILVER. the rev. M '1. Wt. 34-5. 

A threepence of similar type has f stamped on the obverse, and 
three annulets on the reverse. Only two specimens are known of this 
last coin. No specimen with |g stamped on both sides has been met 
with ; but in all probability it was issued. 

83. DUBLIN MONEY. ' (1642.) Crown. An irregular polygon, stamped on both sides 

with 8-V (or V-S) within two circles, the outer one beaded. M 1-35. 

Wt. 389-0. 

The date of the issue of this money is very uncertain, but it pro- 
bably occurred between Jan. 1642 and May 1643, the dates assigned 
to the Inchiquin and Ormonde pieces, to which they bear some 
resemblance in shape and type. These coins are now called " Dublin 
Money," because they were probably struck in that city. 

84. Half-Crown. Same as the last, but stamped on both sides with ,,' V1 ' 

2R1-2. Wt. 234-5. 
These are the only known denominations of this money. 

COPPER. 85. KILKENNY MONEY. (1642.) Halfpenny. Obv. FRA [ET HIBER 
R]EX. Two sceptres in saltire through a crown; below, m. m. harp. 
Rev. [CAROLVS D G ] MAG [BRI]. A harp crowned between C R. 
M 1-05. Wt. 100-4. 

There are also farthings of similar type. The halfpenny weighs 
about 100 grs., and the farthing about 40 grs. 

This money was issued under a proclamation of the Confederate 
Catholics dated at Kilkenny, 15 November, 1642, which ordered "that 
there shall be 4000Z. of red copper coyned to farthings and ^ pence, 
with the harp and the crown on one side and two septers on the other." 
This description is sufficiently accurate to identify the above coin with 
this order. They are frequently ill-struck, and the obverse and reverse 
legends are occasionally transposed as on the above. Some are counter- 
marked with a castle, the arms of Kilkenny, and the letter K, in order 
to distinguish the genuine pieces from forgeries of which a considerable 
quantity was in circulation. 

Plate ixi. 86. " BLACKSMITH'S " MONEY. (1642.) Half-Crown. Obv. CAROLVS D G 
SILVER. MAG BRIT FRA ET HIB REX; m.m. cross. King (Charles I.) 

on horseback to 1. ; sword in r. hand and directed over his shoulder : plume 
on horse's head and trappings ornamented with a broad cross : no ground 
under its feet. Rev. CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO; m. m. harp. 
Oval shield garnished between C R. ^jl-45. Wt. 222-6. 
Varieties are without any trappings, and have ground under the 
horse's feet. The obverse legend is also differently abbreviated. 

The date of the issue of these half-crowns is somewhat un- 
certain ; but it is possible that they were struck in conformity to the 
order of the Confederate Catholics of the 15th November, 1642, which 
directed that " the plate of this kingdom be coined with the ordinarie 
stamp used in the moneyes now currant." They have of late times 
received the appellation of "Blacksmith" half-crowns on account of their 






CHAELES I. 237 

very rude workmanship. No other denominations are known of this Plate ixi. 
coinage. SILVER. 

87. ORMONDE MONEY. (1643.) Crown. Obv. C R surmounted by a crown; 

around, a double circle, the outer one beaded. Eev. y within a double 

circle as on the obv. JRl'7. Wt. 419-0. 

This money has received the name of "Ormonde Money," as it is 
supposed to have been issued during the viceroy alty of James, 
Marquis, and subsequently Duke of Ormonde, who received his 
appointment in November 1643. It was ordered by a letter of 
Charles I of the 25th May, 1643, addressed to the Lords Justices, 
and was made current by proclamation at Dublin on the 8th July 
following. The letter of the king directs that " the plate should be 
melted down and coined into five shillings, half-crowns, twelvepences 
and sixpences or any less values, and to be stamped on one side with 
the letters C R with a crown above, and on the other side the value 
of the said several pieces respectively." 

88. Half-Crown. Same as the last, but on the reverse, the mark of value ,^ ?, * 

^1-4. Wt. 233-0. 

89. Shilling. Same as the Crown, No. 87, but on the reverse, the mark of 

value ^^ jul'15. Wt. 95-6. 

90. Sixpence. Same as the Crown, No. 87, but on the reverse, the mark of value 

^' JR '85. Wt. 44-6. 

91. Fourpence. Same as the Crown, No. 87, but on the reverse, the mark of 

value u^- JR -7. Wt. 25-6. 

92. Threepence. Same as tbe Crown, No. 87, but on the reverse, the mark of 

value ,y,- M -6. Wt. 23-8. 

93. Twopence. Same as the Crown, No. 87, but on the reverse, the mark of 

value ^ JR -55. Wt. 14-0. 

The penny with the mark of value ^ is figured by Euding, PI. xxvii., 
No. 15, but at present no genuine specimen is known. 

94. REBEL MONEY. (1643.) Crown. Obv. A large cross pattee within a plain 

circle. Eev. y within a double circle, the outer one beaded. M 1-6. 

Wt. 355-7. 

From its type it is evident that this money, which consists only of 
crowns and half-crowns, is imitated from the Ormonde money. On 
account of the substitution on the obverse of a cross for the royal 
initials and a crown, it is supposed to have emanated from the rebels. 

95. Half-Crown. Same as tbe Crown, but with mark of value on the reverse 

* y { - jBl-25. Wt. 197-0. 

96. CORK MONEY. 1647. Shilling (octagonal). 1647. O&u. CORK 1647 in two- 

lines and within a beaded border. Rev. XII within a beaded border. 
M -9. Wt. 67-4. 
It is not improbable that the Cork money, shillings and sixpences in 



238 



IRISH COINS. 



Plate ixi. silver and pennies in copper, was struck by order of Lord Inchiquin. 
SILVER, during his short sojourn in that city in May 1647. This attribution 

somewhat supports the tradition that money was coined there by 

his order. 

97. Sixpence. 1647. Same as the Shilling, but on the reverse, the mark of 

value VI. jR-7. Wt. 31-7. 

COPPER The small copper coins, pennies ?, which were struck in Cork about 
this time, are of two types : 1. obv. CORK in a circle ; rev. a castle ; 
2. obv. CORKE under a crown ; rev. no legend or device. 

The other copper coins struck at this period are of Bandon, Kinsale, 
and Youghal. They were probably intended to pass as pennies, and 
may have been issued by the rebels in 1646, as all those places were 
in their hands at that time. The types are as follows : 

BANDON. Obv. B B (Bandon Bridge, the old name of Bandon), within a 

circle of small lozenges. Rev. Three castles, the arms of the town. 

M -75. Wt. 31grs. 
KINSALE. Obv. K S within a circle of dots. Rev. A chequered shield, the 

arms of Kinsale, surrounded by pellets. M -75. Wt. 44 grs. 
YOUGHAL. Obv. A ship within a circle or on a shield. Rev. Y T ; above, a 

bird; below, 1646; or Y T; below, 1646; or Y T only in a circle: or 

obv. a fish; rev. Y T in a circle. M '75 to '5 (square or circular). 

Wt. 55 to 9. 
These last pieces are important, as they show about what date the copper 

money of necessity was issued. 



Commonwealth. 1649-1660. 

During the Commonwealth no official money was issued for special 
currency in Ireland ; but the scarcity of small change was to a certain 
degree supplemented by penny, halfpenny, and farthing tokens in 
copper, which were chiefly struck by town corporations and tradesmen. 
They are of precisely the same nature as the tokens struck in England 
during the same period. Many of these tokens are of good work and 
well struck. Three specimens are described below. 

Plate Ixii 98. Cork Farthing. Obv. A v CORKE v FARTHING v Shield with cross 
COPPER. of St. George. Rev. A v CORKE v FARTHING v A harp. M -75. 

Wt. 34-5. 

As this coin has the shield of the Commonwealth, it may have been 
issued under some official order. This particular one is struck on a 
double-tournois of Louis XIII of France. 

99. Belfast Farthing. 1657. Obv. WILLIAM v SMITH; m.m. mullet. In 

centre W S ; above and below, mullet between two roses. Rev. OF 
BELFAST (stops, roses) ; m. m. mullet. In centre, 1657 ; above and below, 
mullet between two roses. M -65. Wt. 21-0. 

100. Cork Penny. 1659. Obv. A - CORK PENNY 1659. In centre C C 

(Cork City), divided by scroll pattern. Rev. THE ARMES OF CORK. 
Ship and castle. M -85. Wt. 63-5. 

This piece is of good work. The issue of these tokens appears to 
have continued till 1673. 



CHARLES II. 239 



Charles II. 1649-1685. 

COINAGE. Silver. Crown and Half-Crown. Copper. Halfpenny and Plat e ML 
Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. Silver. One (1649?), Crown and Half -Crown. Copper. 
Three : 1st issue (1660), Farthing. 2nd issue (1673-1680), St. 
Patrick's Halfpenny and Farthing. 3rd issue (1680-1684), Half- 
penny. 

The weight of the silver coins was at the rate of about 430 grs. to 
the crown ; and those of the copper varied as follows : 1st issue, 
farthing, 28 to 22 grs. ; 2nd issue, St. Patrick's halfpenny, 148 to 
130 grs., and farthing, 102 to 77 grs. ; and 3rd issue, halfpenny, 119 
to 105 grs. 

101. Crown. (1649?) Obv. CAR II - D : G MAG BRIT (single stops, SILVKII. 

roses) ; m. m. lis. Large crown within a plain circle. Rev. FRA ET 

HYB REX F D (stops, roses); m. m. lis. f. within a plain circle. 
M 1-8. Wt. 429-3. 

There is no record relating to the issue of this and the next coin. 
They are however supposed to have been struck by the Marquis of 
Ormonde, who proclaimed Charles II in all the places where he had 
authority within about a fortnight of his father's death. The type of 
reverse was taken from the Ormonde money. 

102. Half-Crown. (1649 ?) Same as the Crown, but mark of value on the reverse 

II y| and quatrefoil or cross after each word of legend on both sides. 
jal-55. Wt. 233-6. 

As both these coins are very scarce, it may be presumed that the 
issue was a very limited one. In 1662 groats, threepences, twopences, 
pennies and halfpennies in silver were ordered, and the types prescribed, 
but as none are known it is probable that the order was never carried 
out.* 

103. Farthing. (1660.) Obv. CAROLVS II D G M - B. Two sceptres in C-IM-KK. 

saltire through a crown. Rev. FRA ET HIB REX; m. m. plume. 
A harp crowned. M -65. Wt. 25 '0. 

At the restoration Charles II granted a patent to Sir Thomas 
Armstrong for the term of twenty-one years for coining these farthings. 
At the same time the circulation of any others was prohibited. Sir 
Thomas Armstrong had permission to strike them in such place as he 
should find convenient. They were to be made of copper by engines, 
and to weigh each twenty grains or more. On account of the 
opposition of the Chief Governor of Ireland, Sir Thomas Armstrong 
was prevented proceeding with his grant, and consequently but few of 
these farthings were coined and sent to Ireland. Their type is similar 
to the farthings of Charles I (see No. 75). 



See Simon, Irish Coins, p. 52. 



240 IKISH COINS. 

Plate Ixii. 104. St. Patrick's Halfpenny. Obv. FLOREAT REX. David kneeling to 1., 

COPPER Paying n a harp, above which is a crown. Rev. ECCE GREX. St. 

Patrick standing, facing, with a crozier in his 1. hand and a shamrock in 

his r., which he holds extended over a group of figures standing about him ; 

on his 1. a shield with the arms of Dublin, three castles. IE 1*1. Wt.104'3. 

It is somewhat strange that in spite of its large issue there appears 
to be no records relating to the St. Patrick money. Simon and 
Lindsay, the two principal authorities on Irish coins, both assign it to 
the reign of Charles I, circ. 1643. The style of work however shows 
that it is of a much later period, and it seems much more probable, 
according to Dr. Aquilla Smith, that the issue took place sometime 
between 1673 and 1680 ; that is, between the cessation of the copper 
tokens and the striking of a regal copper currency. This opinion is 
confirmed by the circumstance that these coins formed a part of the 
currency in the Isle of Man in 1678 and 1679, being specially referred 
to in an Act of the Tynwald of the 24th June, 1679. Also in 1682 
they were the authorized currency of the State of New Jersey.* Their 
issue must therefore have occurred about that time. 

105. St. Patrick's Farthing. Obv. Same as the Halfpenny. Eev. QVIESCAT 

PLEBS. St. Patrick turned to 1., holding a double cross in his 1. hand 
and extending his r. over reptiles, which he is driving away; on his 1., 
a church. M '95. Wt. 89-0. 

The legend on the reverse seems to convey a promise of peace to 
Ireland after the many vicissitudes through which it had passed. The 
rebels or malignant party are typified by the reptiles. 

106. Halfpenny. 1682. Obv. CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA Bust of king 

to r., laureate and draped. Eev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX. 
A harp crowned and dividing the date 1682. Ml- 05. Wt. 115-0. 

Dates 16801684 inclusive. This coinage was issued under a patent 
granted on the 18th May, 1680, to Sir Thomas Armstrong and Colonel 
Legg for the making of copper halfpence for the use of Ireland during 
the term of twenty-one years. Their prescribed weight was 110 grs. 
The patent was confirmed by a proclamation of the Lord Lieutenant, 
the Duke of Ormonde, but the patentees were required to redeem at 
twenty shillings in current gold or silver every twenty-one shillings of 
the halfpence that should be brought to them, and no one was enforced 
to receive more than five shillings worth in any one payment of one 
hundred pounds. 

James II. 1685-1688. 

COINAGE. Copper. Halfpenny. Gun Metal. Crown, Half-Crown, 
Shilling, and Sixpence. White Metal. Groat. Pewter. Crown, Penny, 
and Halfpenny. Brass. Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, <fec. The Irish coins of James II are of two series that struck 
before his abdication in 1688, and that struck between 1689-1691 
during the struggle in Ireland for the recovery of the throne. First 
Series. Copper. Halfpenny (1685-1688). Second Series, i. Gun Metal 



Num. Chron. 1899, p. 45. 



JAMES II. 241 

(1689-1690), Crown, Half -Crown, Shilling, and Sixpence; ii. White Place ixii 
Metal (1689), Groat; iii. Pewter (1689-1690), Crown, Penny, and 
Halfpenny; iv. Brass (1691), Halfpenny. 

SERIES I. REGAL MONEY, 1685-1688. 

107. Halfpenny. 1686. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. Bust of king COPPEB. 

to 1., laureate and draped. Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX. 

A harp crowned and dividing date 1686. m 1*05. Wt. 125-5. 
Dates 1685-1688. This coinage of halfpennies took place under 
letters patent granted to John Knox, Lord Mayor of Dublin, as 
assignee of Sir Thomas Armstrong and Colonel Legg, now Lord 
Dartmouth (see No. 106). It was a renewal of the patent of 1680, the 
conditions being precisely the same. This is the only money specially 
issued for Ireland during the time that James II occupied the throne.' 

SERIES II. MONEY OP NECESSITY, 1689-1691. 

108. GUN MONEY. Crown. 1690. Obv. IAC II DEI GRA MAG BRI - 

FRA ET HIB REX. King on horseback to 1., sword in r. hand. Rev. 
CHRISTO VICTORE . TRIVMPHO. The four shields of England, Scot- 
land, Prance and Ireland, each crowned, arranged in form of cross ; crown 






in centre : in the angles of the cross and across the field ( ; edge 

ornamented with triple row of leaves. Ml'3. Wt. 208 '5. 
The whole coinage struck in Ireland for James II from 1689 to 1691 is 
of the nature of "money of necessity." Its current value was merely 
nominal, and when ordered it was specially stated that it was only 
intended to meet present necessity, and was not to continue for any 
length of time. The earliest pieces issued are of copper and brass, 
usually known as " gun money " in England, as occasionally the metal 
of old brass guns was used in their manufacture, whilst in Ireland 
the popular name was " brass money." In the first proclamation, 
18th June, 1689, the striking of sixpenny pieces only was provided 
for; half-crowns and shillings were ordered by another proclama- 
tion of the 27th June, but crowns were not issued till the 15th June 
of the following year. Many of the crowns were re-struck on the large 
half-crowns (see next coin). They are of 1690 only. The crown 
varies in weight from 245 to 150 grs. 

109. Half-crown. Sep. 1689. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI - GRATIA. Bust of 
king to 1., laureate and draped. Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB 
REX 1689. Two sceptres in saltire behind a crown, which divides the 
letters, 5 1 R. ; above crown, XXX for mark of value ; and below, the month, 

Sea ' edge ornamented wit k triple row of leaves. JE 1-3. Wt. 213-0. 
All except the crowns bear, besides the year of issue, the month 
and also their current values. Half-crowns were first struck in July, 
1689, and they occur of each subsequent month to October, 1690. 
In April of that year the sizes of the half-crowns and shillings were 
reduced, and from that date the edge of the half-crown is generally 
milled. A few specimens of the heavy weight, however, are found 
dated May, 1690. These were probably issued in error. The heavy 
half-crowns vary in weight from about 295 grs. to 150 grs., and the 

R 



242 



IEISH COINS. 



Plate ixii. light ones from about 150 grs. to 100 grs. The light half-crowns differ 
COPPER, from the heavy ones in having on the obverse the head and neck only 

of the king ; instead of the bust with drapery. 

The gun money issued during the four months from July to October, 

1690, was coined at Limerick by James's adherents. 

110. Shilling. Aug. 1689. Similar to the Half-Crown, but the head of the king, 
not the bust, on the obverse, and on the reverse the sceptres pass through 
the crown, above which is the mark of value XII, and below, the month, 
Aug.', edge milled. 33 1-0. Wt. 100-0. 

The shilling also was first struck in July, 1689, and is found of 
each subsequent month to September, 1690. The edge is always 
milled. The weight of the heavy shilling varies from 122 to 72 grs., 
and that of the light one from 100 to 66 grs. The change in the 
weight, like that of the half-crown, occurred in April, 1690. The light 
pieces can be easily identified by the smallness of the king's head. 

Plate Ixiii. 111. Sixpence. July, 1689. Similar to the Half-Crown, No. 109, with draped 
bust of king ; but on the reverse the sceptres, as on the shilling, pass through 
the crown, above which is the mark of value VI, and below, the month, 
July ; edge milled. JE -85. Wt. 50-0. 

The sixpence is the earliest of all the denominations of this coinage, 
and was first struck in June, 1689. It was coined in each consecu- 
tive month to June, 1690. Its weight varies from 65 to 44 grs. ; but 
there was no great reduction as in the case of the half-crowns and shillings. 
Proofs in gold, silver, and pewter occur of each denomination. 

Of the white metal money there is only one denomination, the 
groat. It has on the obverse the bust of the king, as on the gun money 
sixpence, and on the reverse a crowned harp dividing the value II II. 
It is dated 1689, and the legends are the same as on the gun money 
half-crown. It is '8 inch in diameter, and weighs about 51 grs. This 
coin was issued a short time previous to the pewter coins, which first 
appeared in March, 1689-90. The type favours this attribution, the 
obverse being like the gun money, and the reverse like the pewter half- 
penny (see No. 115). From its scarcity it is probable that only a limited 
amount was put into circulation. 

PEWTER. 112. PEWTER MONEY. Crown. 1689. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. 
King on horseback to 1., sword in r. hand. Eev. MAG BR FRA 
ET HIB REX . 1689. Crown in centre. ST. 1-55. Wt. 344-5. 
Small pieces of prince's metal are inserted in the fore and hind- 
quarters of the horse on the obverse, and a larger piece, over which 
the crown is struck, on the reverse. 

In spite of the large issues of brass and copper half-crowns, 
shillings, and sixpences, there was not sufficient coinage to meet the 
necessities of the king. The supplies, too, of these metals were 
becoming exhausted. It was resolved, therefore, to coin money of less 
intrinsic value to be made of white mixed metal.* The warrant is 






WHITE 
METAL. 



* The soft mixed metal was known amongst the Irish as uim bog, = soft copper, 
i.e. worthless money. The English word humbug is said to be derived from uim 
bog, and hence it came to be applied to anything that had a specious appearance, 
but which was in reality spurious. 






JAMES II. 243 

dated 1st March, 168990, and specifies only pennies and halfpennies Plate ixiii. 
(see Nos. 114-115), which were to be of the sizes of the shilling and PEWTER. 
sixpence, no mention being made of crowns. It is very probable that 
though this coin was struck at this time, it may only have been a 
pattern. This would account for its extreme rarity. 

113. Crown. 1690. Same type and legends as the gun money Crown (No. 108), 

but the edge is inscribed, MELIORIS - TESSERA - FATI - ANNO . 

REGNI SEXTO. ST. 1-35. Wt. 259-5. 

Pieces of prince's metal are inserted in the obverse and reverse, as 
on the preceding coin. This pewter crown was ordered by proclamation 
dated 21st April, 1690. Its type, which is the same as the gun money 
crown, and which it actually preceded, is most minutely described in 
the proclamation. It was to pass current for five shillings, and very 
stringent regulations were laid down respecting the refusal of such 
coins and also the imitating of them. 

114. Penny. 1690. Obv. IACOBVS - II DEI - GRATIA. Head of king to 1., 

laureate ; behind, mark of value j 5 . Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB - 
REX. A harp crowned, and dividing the date 1690. ST. 1-05. Wt. 98'0. 
Pieces of prince's metal are inserted on both sides. This and the 
next are the coins ordered in the warrant of 1st March, 1689-90 (see 
No. 112). The pennies are dated 1689 and 1690. That of 1689 
differs somewhat in type from the above in having the king's head 
larger, no mark of value behind ; and on the reverse the date is above 
the crown instead of at the sides of the harp. This variety also occurs 
of 1690. 

115. Halfpenny. 1690. Similar to the Penny ; but there is no mark of value on 

the obverse ; and under the king's neck is a flower or branch (a privy mark 
of the mint), and on tbe reverse the date is divided by the crown. 
ST. -9. Wt. 62 '5. 

Small pieces of prince's metal as on the penny. Others dated 1689 
and 1690 are of the same type, but have the head larger. 

116. LIMERICK MONEY. Halfpenny. 1691. Obv. IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA. BRASS. 

Bust of king to 1., laureate and draped. Eev. H I BERNIA 1691. Hibernia 
seated to 1., holding branch in r. hand and resting 1. on harp. M 1-1. 
Wt. 97-0. 

These halfpence were struck at Limerick after James's flight and 
during the siege of that place. It has been already mentioned that 
the later gun money pieces were struck at Limerick (see No. 109). On 
account of their type of reverse, these halfpence were commonly called 
" Hibernias." They were generally re-struck on gun money shillings of 
both sizes. 

William and Mary. 1689-1694. 

COINAGE. Copper. Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. The prescribed weight of the halfpenny, of which there 
was only one issue and type, was from four pennyweights ten grains to 
four pennyweights twenty grains, i.e., 106 to 116 grs. 

K 2 



244 IEISH COINS. 

Plate ixiii. 117. Halfpenny. 1693. Obv. GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA. Busts 
COPPER conjoined of William and Mary to r. ; he is laureate. Rev. MAG BR 

FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA. A harp crowned and dividing 
date 1693. JE 1-0. Wt. 100-6. 

Dates 1690 to 1694. These are the only coins of this reign issued 
specially for currency in Ireland. Simon, Irish Coins, p. 65, men- 
tions pewter halfpence and farthings as having also been struck ; but 
it is probable that the coins alluded to are the English pieces. 

Immediately after the battle of the Boyne, William ordered that the 
extravagant value of the late copper and brass money issued by 
James should be reduced, and that the so-called crowns and large half- 
crowns should be current at one penny each, the small half-crowns at 
three farthings, and the shillings and sixpences at one farthing each. 

William III. 1694-1702. 

COINAGE. Copper. Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue of the halfpenny. Its 
weight was the same as during the joint reign of William and Mary. 

118. Halfpenny. 1696. Obv. GVLIELMVS III DEI GRATIA. Bust of 
king to r., laureate and draped. Rev. MAG BR FRA ET HIB 
REX. A harp crowned and dividing the date 1696. M 1-05. Wt. 113-0. 

Dated also 1695. As during the joint reign of William and Mary, 
halfpence only were struck by William for special currency in Ireland. 
On some the bust is bare. Simon, op. cit., mentions also farthings, 
but none are known. 

Anne. 1702-1714. 

No money was struck for Ireland in this reign. As in the previous 
one there were many proclamations relating to the currency, but these 
only refer to the current values of English and foreign money. 



George I. 1714-1727. 

COINAGE. Copper. Halfpenny and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue but of two varieties, consist- 
ing of a slight change in the reverse type. They are dated 1722 and 
1722-1724 respectively. The prescribed weight was at 128 grs. to the 
halfpenny. 

119. Halfpenny. 1722. 1st var. Obv. GEORGIUS DEI GRATIA REX. 
Bust of king to r., laureate and bare. Rev. HIBERNIA 1722. Hibernia 
seated towards 1., and holding her harp with both hands. 2& I'l. Wt. 121-0. 

No copper money having been issued since 1696, the dearth of small 
change in Ireland pressed heavily on the people, and caused much distress 
and inconvenience. In consequence in 1722 a patent was granted to 
William Wood for the coining and uttering of copper halfpence and 
farthings for use in Ireland. Wood is described as an ironmonger 
or dealer in hardware. The patent was for fourteen years, and 
the quantity to be issued during that period was to be limited to 






GEORGE I. 245 

360 tons of metal, 100 tons to be issued in the first year and 20 tons Plate ixiii. 
in each year for the thirteen remaining. A pound of copper was COPPER. 
to be coined into two shillings and sixpence. They are commonly 
known as "Wood's Halfpence" and appear to have been coined 
at Bristol. The issue only lasted three years, as the coins having 
been found to be of lighter weight than prescribed by the patent, 
a loud outcry was made at this attempt to defraud the State, 
and this feeling was increased by the publication of the celebrated 
" Draper Letters " by Dean Swift. Wood was therefore compelled to 
surrender his patent in 1724. The workmanship of these coins is 
far superior to the English copper money, and they were made of the 
best metal that had as yet been used for Ireland. The halfpence and 
farthings of the 1st variety are of 1722 only. 

120. Halfpenny. 1723. 2nd var. Same as the preceding, but on the reverse 

Hibernia, seated to 1., holds up a palm-branch in her r. hand, and her 1. arm 
rests on the harp : date 1723. M 1-05. Wt. 123-0. 
Dates 1722-1724. 

121. Farthing. 1723. 2nd var. Same type, date, &c., as the last coin. ^3-85. 

Wt. 63-6. 

Others are dated 1724. The farthing of the 2nd variety with date 
1722 appears not to be known. 

George II. 1727-1760. 

COINAGE. Copper. Halfpenny and Farthing. 

ISSUES, &c. There were two issues, each consisting of the Halfpenny 
and Farthing. The 1st issue, 17361755, presents a youthful portrait 
of the king; the 2nd issue, 1760, shows an older portrait. The 
weight throughout was about 134 grs. to the halfpenny. 

122. Halfpenny. 1736. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIUS II REX. Youthful Plate Ixiv. 

head of king to 1., laureate. Eev. HIBERNIA. A harp crowned; below, 

1736. Ml-l. Wt. 126-0. 

Dates 1736-1755 except 1739, 1740, 1745, and 1754. Previous to 
1736 the scarcity of small change had been met to a certain extent by 
a supply of private tokens in silver and copper. On the issue of this 
new copper money the circulation of these tokens was prohibited. 
This coinage was struck in London, and any profit accruing from it 
went to the public revenue of Ireland. The amount ordered to be 
coined was fifty tons in 1737, one hundred tons in 1741, and fifty 
tons in 1750. The omission of the " Dei Gratia " on the halfpence and 
farthings occasioned much comment at this time. 

123. Farthing. 1737. 1st issue. Same as the Halfpenny; but dated 1737. 

M -9. Wt. 60-5. 

The only dates of the farthing are 1737, 1738, and 1744. 

In 1760 a further coinage of fifty tons of copper was ordered to be 
made in halfpence and farthings. This is the second issue and it only 
differs from the first in having an older portrait of the king. This 
change of portrait had taken place on the English copper coins in 1740. 



246 IRISH COINS. 

Plate ixiv. The striking of these coins was not completed till 1762, but no change 
COPPER, was made in the dies, all bearing the portrait of George II and the 
date 1760. 

124. "Voce Populi" Halfpenny. 1760. Obv. VOCE POPULI. Bust to r., 

bare, head laureate; before, P. Bev. HI BERN I A. Hibernia seated to 1., 
holding branch and sceptre ; her harp at her side; in the exergue, 1760. 
jEl-1. Wt. 144-0. 

The sudden cessation of the issue of regal coins in 1755 supplied 
another occasion for the striking of private tokens. These comprised 
chiefly twopences, which were struck in the North of Ireland. A few, 
however, were issued in Dublin, amongst which were the so-called 
"Yoce Populi " halfpence and farthings. A specimen of the former, 
on account of the interest associated with them, is described above. 
They were struck by a man named Roche, or Roach, of South King 
Street, Dublin, who was a manufacturer of metal buttons for the 
army. It has been suggested that the bust on the obverse is of 
Prince Charles Edward and the letter P to be the initial of Princeps. 
Varieties .have the letter P under the bust or on the reverse : but the 
majority are without this letter. The farthings, which are much 
rarer, are of the same type as the halfpennies. The weights vary from 
145 to 102 grs. to the halfpenny and 65 to 62 grs. to the farthing. 
It is said that the first sort of these tokens which Roach sent out was 
badly finished, had the head looking to the 1., and had for inscription 
VOX POPULI. None, however, appear to be known. 

George III. 1760-1820. 

COINAGE.* Silver. Six Shillings, Thirty Pence, Ten Pence, and 
Five Pence (Bank of Ireland Tokens). Copper. Penny, Halfpenny, 
and Farthing. 

ISSUES. Copper. Two: 1st issue (1766), Halfpenny. 2nd issue 
(1805), Penny, Halfpenny, and Farthing. 

The issues of the Bank tokens were Six Shillings, 1804 ; Thirty 
Pence, 1808 ; Ten Pence, 1805 and 1813 ; and Five Pence, 1805. 

125. Halfpenny. 1766. 1st issue. Obv. GEORGIVS III REX. Head of 

king to r., laureate. Eev. HIBERNIA. A harp crowned; below, 1766. 
Ml-1. Wt. 126-0. 

Dates, 1766, 1769, 1775, 1776, and 1781-1783. The contract for 
this coinage was similar to those of George II. The amount ordered 
to be coined in 1766 was fifty tons. Only halfpence of this issue are 
known. 

126. Penny. 1805. 2nd issue. Obv. GEORGIUS III D : G REX. Bust of 

king to r., laureate and draped; on shoulder K (C. H. Kiichler). Rev. 
HIBERNIA. A harp crowned; below, 1805. ja 1-35. Wt. 271-5. 

This coinage, consisting of the penny, halfpenny and farthing, is 
precisely of the same pattern as the new English coinage of 1806. It 

* The coins issued for Ireland during this reign are of two classes, official and 
semi-official. The former comprise only copper pieces, pennies, halfpennies, and 
farthings : the latter are Bank tokens of various values in silver. 



GEORGE III. 247 

was at the rate of twenty-six pennies to the pound avoirdupois. It Plate ixiv. 
is somewhat singular that its issue should have preceded that of the COPPER. 
English coinage by one year. The dies of all were made by Kuchler, 
and the coins were struck at the Soho mint, Birmingham, by Matthew 
Boulton. Pence and halfpence are of 1805 only; but farthings are 
of 1805 and 1806. There is a pattern for a penny dated 1813 by 
Thomas Wyon, but it was not issued for circulation. 

127. Halfpenny. 1805. Same as the Penny. JE 1-1. Wt. 136 '5. 
Of this date only. 

128. Farthing. 1806. Same as the Penny, but dated 1806. M '8. Wt. 67 -0. 
Dated also 1805. 

129. Six Shilling Token. 1804. Obv. GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. SILVER. 

Bust of king to r., laureate and draped ; on shoulder, c. H. K. (C. H. 
Kiichler). Rev. BANK OF IRELAND TOKEN; in the exergue, 1804 
SIX SHILLINGS. Hibernia seated to 1., holding palm-branch ; her 1. arm 
resting on her harp ; below on r., K (C. H. Kiichler). M 1*65. Wt. 414-0. 
Owing to the almost entire suppression of the silver currency in 
Ireland, and to the miserable condition of what did exist, much incon- 
venience resulted. To remedy this evil the Bank of Ireland in 1804, fol- 
lowing the example of the Bank of England, obtained leave of the Privy 
Council to issue a silver token to pass current for 6s. These tokens 
were struck by Boulton at the Soho mint, and were made out of old 
Spanish pillar-dollars. In 1805, to meet the need of a smaller silver 
currency, tokens for tenpence and fivepence were also issued by the 
Bank of Ireland, and these were followed in 1808 by others of the 
value of thirty pence. 

130. Thirty Pence Token. 1808. Obv. GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA REX. 

Bust of king to r., laureate, draped and in armour; below, 1808. Rev. 
BANK TOKEN; in the exergue, XXX PENCE IRISH. Britannia seated 
to 1., &c., as on the preceding. 2R 1'25. Wt. 191-0. 
Struck in 1808 only. 

131. Ten Pence Token. 1805. Obv. Same as the Thirty Pence ; but no date. 

Rev. Inscription in six lines, BANK TOKEN TEN PENCE IRISH 

1805. JR -9. Wt. 63-4. 

The second issue of this piece took place in 1813. The type was 
somewhat varied. On the obverse is the laureate head of the king as 
on the new English gold coins, and on the reverse the legend is in 
five lines and is placed within a wreath of shamrock. The dies for this 
last piece were made by Thomas Wyon. 

132. Five Pence Token. 1805. Obv. Similar to the Ten Pence. Rev. Inscrip- 

tion in six lines, BANK TOKEN FIVE PENCE IRISH 1805. M '1. 

Wt. 32-0. 

Struck in 1805 only. These tokens appear to have been withdrawn 
from circulation in 1817 ; when the new English coinage in gold and 
silver was made current on equal terms in Ireland. 



248 



IEISH COINS. 



George IV. 1820-1830. 

Plate ixiv. COINAGE. Copper. Penny and Halfpenny. 

ISSUES, &c. There was only one issue and the coins were ordered to 
be struck at the rate of twenty-six pennies to the pound avoirdupois. 

COPPER. 133. Penny. 1822. Obv. GEORGIUS IV D : G : REX. Bust of king to 1., 
laureate and draped. Eev. HIBERNIA. A harp crowned; below, 1822. 
^sl-35. Wt. 267-0. 

Struck also in 1823. The bust was modelled by Pistrucci, and 
engraved by William Wyon, who modelled and engraved the reverse. 
The coins were struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho mint. 



134. Halfpenny. 
137-0. 



1822. Same as the Penny and same date. M 1-05. Wt. 



Struck also in 1823. 

The farthing dated 1822, which is of the same type as the penny, 
was only issued as a pattern. 

With this money the Irish series came to an end, and since 1823 
the coinage of Ireland has been entirely assimilated to that of Great 
Britain. 



APPENDIX A. 

SEQUENCE OF MINT-MARKS ON ENGLISH COINS FROM 
EDWARD IV TO CHARLES II. 



EDWABD IV. 

Cross patonce .... 
,, plain 

LIS (A7) * 

Rose pierced .... 

Rose 

Rose pierced 

Rose 

Sun 

Grown 

Cross fitchee 

Annulet 

Annulet and cross . 
Annulet and trefoil. 
Cross pierced .... 
Cross and four pellets . 
Annulet with pellet 
Cross pierced with pellet . 
Cross plain with pellet . 

Cross plain 

Star 

Heraldic cinquefoil . 

Lis (jj) 

Rose (Bristol). . . . 
Sun .... 

Crown ,, .... 
Annulet ,, .... 
Rose (Canterbury) 

Sun 

Crown 

Cross fitchee andj 
heraldic cinquefoil/" 
Pall . 

Millrind 

Rose (Coventry) . 
Sun 

Cross (Durham) . 
Rose . . 
Crown 



1461-64 



1465-83 



EDWARD IV. continued. 
Rose (Norwich) . 
Sun 

Rose (York) 

Sun 
Lis 
Crown 
Cross 

Cross pattee fitchee 
Cinquefoil 

EDWARD V. 
Rose and sun united 
Boar's head . 



1465-83 



RICHARD III. 

Rose and sun united 

Boar's head 

Lis (Durham) .... 
Rose and sun united (York) 
Boar's head ,, 

Rose ,, 

Lis 



1483 



1483-85 



HENRY VII. 
Rose and sun 

Rose 

Cross fitchee . . . . 
Rose and cross pierced . 
Lis and cross 

Lis 

Lis on rose . 
Cross and lis on rose . 
Lis on sun and rose . 
Ton (Canterbury) . 
Rose . . 

Rose (York) . . . . 
Lis . . 



/1st coinage\ 
1 1485-1489 ?( 



* When a mint-mark occurs only on the gold coins it is specially noted. On 
both gold and silver coins there are many combinations of mint-marks on obv. 
and rev., i.e. crown on obv., sun on rev., or crown on obv. and rose and sun on 
rev. &c. In most cases the later mint-mark is put on the obv. and the earlier 
one on the rev. 



250 



SEQUENCE OF MINT-MAKKS. 



HEKRY VII. continued. 
Trefoil .... ( 2nd coinage) 
Cross fitchee (AT) . \1489 7-1504 / 
Heraldic cinquefoil ... ,, 
Escallop , 
Cinquefoil (regular) . . , 
(irregular) . . , 
Leopard's head .... , 
Lis issuing from half-rose . , 
Anchor , 


HENRY VIII. continued. 
T (Canterbury) 
Escallop , 
Rose , 
Rose and cross fleury , 
Key , . 
Catherine wheel , 
Portcullis , 
Crescent (Durham) . . 
Trefoil ,, ... 
Star ... 
Cross voided (York) . . 
Cross ,, . 
Cross and pellet ,, . 
Acorn ,, . . 
Key . . 
Lis 


1526-43 


ii 

j> 
>> 







1543 

5} 
J> 
5> 

|| 




1544 
ii 
ii 




5> 
J> 





1545 
> 
> 



> 
> 

1547-49 

> 

> 


V 






Greyhound's head ... , 
Boss . ... , 


Cross crosslet .... , 
Cross and lis ,, 


Dragon (AT) 


Lis , 


Ton (Canterbury) , 
Ton and cinquefoil ,, , 
Ton and lis ,, , 
Lis 
Martlet (York) .... 
T iq (3rd coinage) 


Annulet 


Annulet and pellet . 
Arrow . 


Picklock . ... 


Martlet 


\ 1504-1509 J 
Rose 


W S (Bristol) . 
Lis and WS 
Lis and pellets ,, 
Cross voided (York) . . . 
Annulet with pellet. 
Arrow 


Martlet 


Anchor (A/) . ,, 


Cross crosslet .... ,, 
Portcullis (A;) .... 
Pheon 


Martlet 


Greyhound's head ... ,, 
Cinquefoil . . ,, 


Bow . 


K. . . .... 


Crozier (Durham) . 
Martlet (York) 
Cinquefoil and martlet ,, 

HENRY VIII. 
Lis and cross crosslet (AT) . 1509-26 
Portcullis crowned ... 
Portcullis ,, 
Pheon ,, 


Boar's head 
E or 6( 


S 


Lis 


W S (Bristol) 
Cinquefoil or rose \ 
and W S / 
Cross ,, 
TC 
Annulet with pellet 
Martlet 


Castle 
Pomegranate (Canterbury) , , 
Cross fitchee and lis ,, . , 
Lis . 
Martlet ,, . 
Mullet (Durham) ... , 
Lis ,, . . . 
Cinquefoil (York) ... 

Escallop ... , 
Star ... 
Lis . . . 
Martlet ... , 
Cross voided ... , 
Cross ... , 
Hose . . .... 1526-43 


Bow 


Bow and picklock . 
E or 6( 


s 


Arrow . . . 


W S (Bristol) .... 
T C ,, 

Cross pierced (Canterbury) 

EDWARD VI. 


Grapple (A/) 


Martlet (AT) ... 


Lis (AT) . 




Pheon ,, 
Lis 
Arrow 


E or 6( . . 


s . . 


Trefoil (Bristol) 
Trefoil and W S 
Cinquefoil and W S , , 


Sun and cloud .... ,, 
Cross fleury (Canterbury) ,, 



SEQUENCE OF MINT-MAKES. 



251 



EDWABD VI. continued. 
W S (Bristol) . . . 
Cross ,,.... 

Bow 

Cinquefoil .... 

Hose ...... 

Bow 
Bow 
Eose 
Arrow ..... 



1547-49 



1547 



1548 
1549 



Swan ...... 

Grapple ..... 

Martlet (AT) .... 

T (Bristol) . 

t or to (mon.) ,, 

Y (Southwark) 

Y and rose (A/) ,, 

Swan 

Ostrich's head (A;) . . 

Lis and Y (Southwark) 

Lis ...... 

Harp ...... 

Bose ...... 

Lion? ...... 

Y and rose (Southwark) 
Ton ...... 

Escallop ..... 

Trefoil 



1550 
1551 



1552 
1551-53 






Y (Southwark) . . 
Mullet pierced (York) 

MABY. 

Pomegranate . . 
Lis 

Eose . 



PHILIP AND MABY. 
Lis . . . . 
Eose . 



ELIZABETH. 

Hammered money. 

Martlet 

Cross crosslet . 

Lis 

Pheon 

Eose 

Portcullis 

Lion 

Coronet 

Castle 

Ermine . 

Acorn 

Cinquefoil 

Cross 

Sword 

Bell 

A 

Bell and A 

Escallop 



1553-54 



1554-58 



1558-61 



1561-65 

1565 

1566 

1566-67 

1567-70 

1569-71 

1571-73 

1573-74 

1573-77 

1577-81 

1582 

1582-84 

1582-84 

1584 

1584-87 



ELIZABETH. continued. 

Crescent 1587-89 

Hand 1590-92 

Ton 1592-95 

Woolpack 1594-96 

Key 1595-98 

Anchor 1597-1600 

O 1600 

1 1601-2 

2 1602 

Milkd money. 

Star 1561-66 

Lis 1567-70 

Mullet pierced .... 1570 

Castle 1571 

Mullet 1574-75 

JAMES I. 

Thistle 1603-4 

Lis 1604-5 

Eose 1605-6 

Escallop 1606-7 

Grapes 1607 

Coronet 1607-8 

Key 1609 

Bell 1610 

Mullet 1611 

Tower 1612 

Trefoil 1613 

Cinquefoil ,, 

Ton 1615 

Book 1616 

Crescent 1617 

Plain cross 1618 

Saltire cross 1619 

Spur rowel ,, 

Eose 1620-21 

Thistle 1621-23 

Lis 1623-24 

Trefoil 1624 

CHABLES I. 

Lis 1625 

Cross on step .... 1625-26 

Negro's head .... 1626-27 

Castle 1627 

Anchor 1628 

Heart 1629-30 

Lis 1630 

St. George ,, 

Plume 

Eose 1631 

Harp 1632 

Portcullis 1633 

Bell 1634 

Crown 1635 

Ton 1636-38 

Anchor 1638 

Triangle 1639 

Star . . .... 1640 

Triangle in circle . . . 1641 



252 



SEQUENCE OF MINT-MARKS. 



CHARLES I. continued. 
(P) 


1643 


CHARLES I. continued. 
Castle (Exeter) 


1645 


(R) 


1644 


Castle and EX 




Eve , 


1645 


Plume (Oxford) . 


1642 46 


Sun 




Pellets 




Sceptre 


1646 


OX or OXON 


1643-46 


Flower and B (Briot) . 
B (Briot) 
Anchor 
Anchor and B 
Anchor and star 
Anchor and mullet 
Rose 
Open book (Aberystwith) . 
Crown ,, 
Lis 
Mullet 
Cross ,, 
BR (Bristol) 


1632 
1638 

1637-42 
1643-46 


Lis ,, . . 
Plume and OX \ 
or OXON / * 
Helmet and S A (Salisbury ?) 
Open book (Shrewsbury) 
Plume without 1 
lower band / " 
Pellets ,, 
Castle and W (Weymouth) 
Helmet ,, 
Two lions and W ,, 
Pellets ,, 
Pear (Worcester) 


ii 

1643 
1642 

1643-44 


j> 

1646 


Plume ,, 
Pellets 

^oO """" 

One gerb ,, 


1643-44 

> 


Three pears ,, 
Lion passant (York) 

COMMONWEALTH . 

Sun . . . 


1629-44 
1649-57 


Lis (Combe-Martin) . . 


1644 


Anchor 


1658-60 


Rose (Exeter) . 
Rose and EX 
Rose and castle ,, 
Castle and rose ,, 


1642-45 
1644-45 
1645 
ii 


CHARLES II. 
"Crown 


1660-62 






APPENDIX B. 

MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS. 

Anglo-Saxon Coins. 

DOMINE DEUS REX (0 Lord God, (heavenly) King: Gloria). 
MIRABILIA FECIT (He hath done marvellous things : Cantate). 
MUNUS DIVINUM (A divine offering). 

English Coins. 

A DOMINO FACTUM EST ISTUD ET EST MIRABILE IN OCULIS 
NOSTRIS (This is the Lord's doing and it is marvellous in our eyes : 
Psalm cxviii. 23). 

AMOR POPULI PRAESIDIUM REGIS (The love of the people is the king's 
protection). 

BELLO ET PACE (In war and peace). 

BRUN. ET L. DUX. S. R. I. A. TH. ET EL. = Brunsvicensis et Lunen- 
burgensis Dux, Sacri Romani Imperil Archi-Thesaurarius et Elector (Duke 
of Brunswick and Luneburg, Arch-Treasurer of the Holy Roman Empire, 
and Elector). 

CAROLI FORTUNA RESURGAM (I, the Fortune of Charles, shall rise again). 
CHARITIE AND CHANGE. 

CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO (I reign under the auspices of Christ). 
CULTORES SUI DEUS PROTEGIT (God protects His worshippers). 
DECUS ET TUTAMEN (An ornament and a safeguard : Virg. Aen. v. 262). 

DOMINE NE IN FURORE TUO ARGUAS ME (0 Lord, rebuke me not in 
Thine indignation : Psalm vi. 1). 

DUM SPIRO SPERO (Whilst I live, I hope). 

EXALTABITUR IN GLORIA (He shaU be exalted in glory : comp. Psalm 
cxii. 9). 

EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI (Let God arise (and) let His 
enemies be scattered : Psalm Ixviii. 1). 

FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM UNAM (I will make them one nation: Eeek. 
xxxvii. 22). 

FLORENT CONCORDIA REGNA (United kingdoms nourish). 
GOD WITH US. 



254 MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS. 

HANG DEUS DEBIT (God has given this, i.c, crown). 

HAS NISI PERITURUS MIHI ADIMAT NEMO (Let no one remove these 
(letters) from me under penalty of death). 

HENRICUS ROSAS REGNA JACOBUS (Henry (united) the roses, James the 
kingdoms). 

ICH DIEN (I serve). 

INIMICOS EJUS INDUAM CONFUSIONE (As for his enemies I shall clothe 
them with shame : Psalm cxxxii. 19). 

JESUS AUTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IB AT (But Jesus, 
passing through the midst of them, went His way : Luke iv. 30). 

JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT (Justice strengthens the throne). 

LUCERNA PEDIBUS MEIS VERBUM EST (Thy word is a lantern unto my 
feet : Psalm cxix. 105). 

NUMMORUM FAMULUS (The servant of the coinage). 
CRUX AVE SPES UNICA (Hail! Cross, our only hope). 
PAX MISS A PER ORBEM (Peace sent throughout the world). 
PAX QUJERITUR BELLO (Peace is sought by war). 

PER CRUCEM TUAM SALVA NOS CHRISTE REDEMPTOR (By Thy 
cross, save us, Christ, our Redeemer). 

POST MORTEM PATRIS PRO FILIO (After the death of the father for 
the son). 

POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM (I have made God my Helper: comp. 
Psalm liv. 4). 

PROTECTOR LITERIS LITERS NUMMIS CORONA ET SALUS (A 
protection to the letters (on the face of the coin), the letters (on the edge) a 
garland and a safeguard to the coinage). 

QUvE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET (What God hath joined 
together, let no man put asunder : Matt. xix. 6). 

REDDE CUIQUE QUOD SUUM EST (Render to each that which is his own). 

RELIGIO PROTESTANTIUM LEGES ANGLIC LIBERTAS PARLIA- 
MENTI (The religion of the Protestants, the laws of England, the liberty 
of the Parliament : see p. 113). 

ROSA SINE SPINA (A rose without a thorn). 

RUTILANS ROSA (A dazzling rose). 

RUTILANS ROSA SINE SPINA (A dazzling rose without a thorn). 

SCUTUM FIDEI PROTEGET EUM or EAM (The shield of faith shall protect 
him or her). 

TALI DICATA SIGNO MENS FLUCTUARI NEQUIT (Consecrated by such 
a sign the mind cannot waver : see p. 79). 

TIMOR DOMINI FONS VIT.E (The fear of the Lord is a fountain of life : 
Prov. xiv. 27). 



MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS. 255 

TUEATUR UNITA DEUS (May God guard these united, i.e. kingdoms). 
VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA (Truth, the daughter of Time : see p. 92). 

Anglo-Gallic Coins. 

AGNUS DEI QUI TOLLIS PECCATA MUNDI MISERERE NOBIS (0 
Lamb of God ; that takest away the sins of the world ; have mercy upon us : 
comp. John i. 29). 

AUXILIUM MEUM A DOMINO (My help (cometh) from the Lord: 
Psalm cxxi. 2). 

DEUS IUDEX IUSTUS FORTIS ET PATIENS (God is a righteous judge, 
strong and patient : Psalm vii. 12). 

DOMINUS ADJUTOR ET PROTECTOR MEUS ET IN IPSO SPERAVIT 
COR MEUM (The Lord is my strength and my shield, my heart hath 
trusted in Him : Psalm xxviii. 8). 

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO ET IN TERRA PAX HOMINIBUS (Glory 
be to God in the highest, and in earth peace towards men : Gloria) . 

POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM (I have made God my Helper : comp. 
Psalm liv. 4). 

SIT NOMEN DOMINI BENEDICTUM (Blessed be the name of the Lord : 
Psalm cxiii. 2). 

XPC. VINCIT XPO. REGNAT XPC. IMPERAT (Christ conquers, Christ 
reigns, Christ commands). 



Scottish Coins. 

CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO (I reign under the auspices of Christ). 

CRUCIS ARMA SEQUAMUR (Let us follow the arms of the Cross). 

DA PACEM DOMINE (Give peace, Lord). 

DAT GLORIA VIRES (Glory gives strength). 

DECUS ET TUTAMEN (An ornament and a safeguard : Virg. Aen. v. 262). 

DEUS JUDICIUM TUUM REGI DA (Give the king Thy judgments, God : 
Psalm Ixxii. 1). 

DILICI^E POMINI COR HUMILE (An humble heart is the delight of the 
Lord). 

DILIGITE JUSTICIAM (Observe justice). 

DOMINUS PROTECTOR MEUS ET LIBERATOR MEUS (God is my Defender 
and my Redeemer : comp. Psalm Ixx. 6). 

ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI (Behold the handmaid of the Lord : Luke i. 38). 

EXURGAT DEUS ET DISSIPENTUR INIMICI EJUS (Let God arise and 
let His enemies be scattered : Psalm Ixviii. 1). 

FACIAM EOS IN GENTEM UNAM (I will make them one nation: Ezek. 
xxxvii. 22). 



256 MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS. 

FECIT UTRAQUE UNUM (He has made both one). 

FLORENT SCEPTRA PIIS REGNA HIS JOVA DAT NUMERATQUE 
(Sceptres flourish with the pious, Jehovah gives them kingdoms and numbers 
them). 

HENRICUS ROSAS REGNA JACOBUS (Henry (united) the roses, James 
the kingdoms). 

HIS DIFFERT REGE TYRANNUS (In these a tyrant differs from a king). 

HIS PR^ESUM UT PROSIM (I am set over them, that I may be profitable to 
them). 

HONOR REGIS JUDICIUM DILIGIT (The King's power loveth judgment : 
Psalm xcix. 4). 

HORUM TUTA FIDES (The faith of these is whole). 

IN JUSTITIA TUA LIBERA NOS DOMINE (Deliver us, Lord, in Thy 
righteousness : comp. Psalm xxxi. 1). 

IN UTRUMQUE PARATUS (Prepared for either, i.e. peace or war). 
IN VIRTUTE TUA LIBERA ME (In Thy strength deliver me). 

JAM NON SUNT DUO SED UNA CARO (They are no more twain, but one 
flesh : Matt. xix. 6). 

JESUS AUTEM TRANSIENS PER MEDIUM ILLORUM IBAT (But Jesus, 
passing through the midst of them, went His way : Luke iv. 30). 

JUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT (Justice strengthens the throne). 
JUSTUS FIDE VrVTT (The just man lives by faith : comp. Rom. i. 17). 
NEMO ME IMPUNE LACESSET (No one shall hurt me with impunity). 

PARCERE SQBJECTIS ET DEBELLARE SUPERBOS (To spare the 
humbled and to subdue the proud : Virg. Aen. vi. 854). 

PER LIGNUM CRUCIS SAL VI SUMUS (By the wood of the Cross are we 
saved). 

POST 5 & 100 PROAVOS INVICTA MANENT HJEC (After one hundred 
and five ancestors these remain unconquered). 

PRO ME SI MEREOR IN ME (For me ; but against me, if I deserve). 
PROTEGIT ET ORNAT (It protects and adorns). 

QUJE DEUS CONJUNXIT NEMO SEPARET (What God hath joined 
together, let no man put asunder : Matt. xix. 6). 

QUOS DEUS CONJUNXIT HOMO NON SEPARET (Those whom God hath 
joined together, let not man put asunder). 

REGEM JOVA PROTEGIT (Jehovah protects the king). 

SALUS POPULI SUPREMA LEX (The safety of the People is the supreme 
law). 

SALUS REIPUBLIC^E SUPREMA LEX (The safety of the State is the 
supreme law). 

SALVATOR IN HOC SIGNO VICISTI (0 Saviour, in this sign hast Thou 
conquered). 



MOTTOES, ETC., ON COINS. 257 

SALVUM FAG POPULUM TUUM DOMINE (0 Lord, save Thy people : 
Psalm xxviii. 10). 

SERVIO ET USU TEROR (I serve and am worn by use). 

SPERO MELIORA (I hope for better things). 

TE SOLUM VEREOR (Thee alone do I fear). 

TUEATUR UNITA DEUS (May God guard these united, i.e. kingdoms). 

UNIT A TUEMUR (These united we guard). 

VICIT LEO DE TRIBU IUDA (The Lion of the tribe of Judah hath prevailed : 
Rev. v. 5). 

VICIT VERITAS (Truth has conquered). 
VINCIT VERITAS (Truth conquers). 

XPC. REGNAT XPC. VINCIT XPC. IMPERAT (Christ reigns, Christ conquers, 
Christ commands). 

Irish Coins. 

CHRISTO AUSPICE REGNO (I reign under the auspices of Christ). 
CHRISTO VICTORE TRIUMPHO (I triumph in Christ, the Conqueror). 
ECCE GREX (Behold the flock). 

EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI (Let God arise (and) let His 
enemies be scattered : Psalm Ixviii. 1). 

FLORE AT REX (May the king flourish). 

HENRICUS ROSAS REGNA JACOBUS (Henry (united) the roses, James the 
kingdoms) . 

MELIORIS TESSARA FATI (A token of better fortune). 

POSUI DEUM ADJUTOREM MEUM (I have made God my Helper : camp. 

Psalm liv. 4). 

QUIESCAT PLEBS (May the people remain in quietude). 
SALVATOR (The Saviour). 

TUEATUR UNITA DEUS (May God guard these united, i.e. kingdoms). 
VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA (Truth, the daughter of Time: see p. 92). 
VOCE POPULI (By the voice of the people). 



INDEX. 



A. 

Abbey Crown or Ecu, Scottish, issue of, 

185. 
Aberystwith mint, coins of (Charles I), 

111 ; its mint-marks, 112. 
Account, moneys of, under the Anglo- 
Saxons, ix. 
Achesoun, John, Scottish engraver, 185, 

188, 191, 195, 196. 
Aelfred, k. of Wessex, types of coins 

of, copied by Ceolwulf II, 7 ; by Abp. 

Pleguiund, 11; by Guthorm, 13; his 

coins, 24. 

^llfwald I, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 15. 
JElfwald II, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 15. 
Aethelbald, k. of Wessex, coins of, 23. 
Aethelbearht, k. of Wessex, coins of, 23. 
^thelberht, k. of East Anglia, coins 

of, 11. 
^thelheard, Abp. of Canterbury, coins 

of, 9. 

^Ethelred, k. of Mercia, coins of, 3. 
^thelred I, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of, 14. 
Jthelred II, k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 15. 

Aethelred I, k. of Wessex, coins of, 24. 
Aethelred II, k. of Wessex, coins of, 29 ; 

his gold penny, ib. ; his coins imitated 

in Scotland, 162 ; and in Ireland, 213. 
^thelstan I, k. of East Anglia, coins 

of, 12. 
JEthelstan II (Guthorm), k. of East 

Anglia, coins of, 12. 
Aothelstan, k. of Wessex, coins of, 27; 

his mints, ib. 
^thelwald (Moll), k. of Northumbria, 

coins of, 14. 
JLthelweard, k. of East Anglia, coins 

of, 12. 



Aethelwulf, k. of Wessex, restores coinage 
to Mercia, 7 ; his coins, 23. 

JEthered, Abp. of Canterbury, coins 
of, 10. 

African Company, the, supplies bullion 
to the English mint, 131 ; to the 
Scottish mint, 200 ; its badge, the 
Elephant and Castle, 131; see also 
Elephant and Castle. 

Agnus Dei type of Aethelred II, 30. 

Alchred, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 14. 

Aldfrith, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 14. 

Alexander I, k. of Scotland, no coins 
of, 162. 

Alexander II, k. of Scotland, coins of, 164. 

Alexander II and III of Scotland, classi- 
fication of their coins, 165 note. 

Alexander III, k. of Scotland, coins 
of, 165. 

Alwald, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 19. 

Angel, first issue of, 64, 67 ; its weight 
and current values, 68, 76, 85, 91, 94, 
100 ; last issue of, 107. 

Aiigelot, gold, Anglo-Gallic, struck by 
Henry VI, 62, 65. 

Anglian kings of Northumbria, coins 
of, 14. 

Anglo-Gallic coins, of Henry II, 40 ; of 
Eleanor, wife of Henry II, 41 ; of 
Richard I, 41 ; of Edward I, 44, 45 ; of 
Edward III, 46, 50 ; of Henry, D. of 
Lancaster, 52 ; of Edward the Black 
Prince, 52 ; of Richard II, 54, 56 ; of 
Henry IV, 56, 58 ; of Henry V, 59, 60 ; 
of Henry VI, 62, 64 ; of Henry VIII, 
76, 84 ; cessation of, 85. 

Anglo-Gallic money, its history, xxx. 

Anglo-Saxon coins, history of, viii ; de- 
scriptions of, 1 ; current in Scotland, 
162 ; in Ireland, 213. 



INDEX. 



259 



Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, coinage of, his- 
tory of, xi ; coins of, 2. 

Anglo-Saxon money, denominations of, ix. 

Anlaf (Quaran), k. of Northumbria coins 
of, 20. 

Anne, English coins of, 139 ; pattern half- 
pence and farthings, 141, 142 ; Scottish 
coins of, 210 ; no Irish coins of, 244. 

Anson, Admiral, takes bullion from the 
Spaniards, 145. 

Arabic numerals, first occurrence of, on 
English coins, 79. 

Archiepiscopal coins, Anglo-Saxon, Can- 
terbury, 9 ; York, 16 ; see also Ecclesi- 
astical mints. 

Armstrong, Sir Thomas, strikes copper 
money for Ireland, 239, 240. 

Arran, James, Earl of, Regent of Scot- 
land, his initials on coins, 185. 

" Atkinsons," billon coins, why so-called, 
195. 

B. 

B, initial of Bp. Booth on coins of 

Henry VI, 63 ; and Edward IV, 69. 
Bainbridge, Bp. of Durham, &c., his 

initials on coins of Henry VII, 75 ; and 

Henry VIII, 77. 
Balance Half-Merk, Scottish, issue of, 

190, 194. 
Balance Quarter-Merk, Scottish, issue of, 

190, 194. 

Baldred, k. of Kent, coins of, 9. 
Bandon, copper coins, struck at, 238. 
Bank Dollar, issue of, English, 151. 
Bank Tokens, issue of, English, 150, 151 ; 

Irish, 246, 247. 
Base money, English, made current in 

Ireland, 231, 232. 
Bawbee, billon, first issue of, 181, 183 ; 

derivation of its name, 183 ; copper, 

204, 206. 
B. D., initials of Bp. Bainbridge on coins 

of Henry VII, 75. 

Bear's head, mint-mark of Berwick, 44, 45. 
Beaumont, Bp. of Durham, his mint- 
mark, a lion rampant, 46. 
Beck, Bp. of Durham, his mint-mark, a 

cross moline, 44, 46. 
Beeston Castle, siege pieces of (Charles 

I), 122. 



Bellingham, Sir Edward, indentures to, 
for Irish coins, temp. Edward VI, 229. 

Beonna, k. of East Anglia, coins of, 11. 

Beorhtric, k. of East Anglia, coins of, 12. 

Beornwulf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 6. 

Berhtwulf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 7. 

Billon coins, Scottish, first issue of, 172. 

Black Farthings, Scottish, 177. 

Blacksmith's money, Irish, 235, 236. 

Blondeau, Peter, his machinery for 
striking coins, 127, 131. 

Boar's head, badge of Richard III, 69, 70. 

Bodle, copper, first issue of, 204, 206; 
derivation of its name, 206. 

Boehm, Sir John Edgar, sculptor and 
medallist, 159. 

Bonagio, Scottish engraver, 169. 

Bonnet Piece, issue of, 181, 182. 

Bonnet type of William I, 34. 

Book, open, mint-mark of Aberystwith, 
112. 

Booth, Bp. of Durham, &c., his mint- 
mark, B, on coins of Henry VI, 63 ; 
and Edward IV, 69. 

Boulton, Matthew, strikes Bank tokens 
for England, 151, 152; for Ireland, 
247, 248. 

Bourchier, Abp. of Canterbury, his mint- 
mark, a knot, on coins of Edward IV, 69. 

Bowes, Sir Martin, master of the English 
mint, his mint-marks, 84, 86, 88 ; 
strikes coins for Ireland, 228, 229, 230. 

B R (mon.), mint-mark of Bristol, 113. 

Bracteates struck for Ireland, 214. 

Briot, Nicolas, engraver to the English 
mint, 110; his coinage of Charles I, 
110 ; his new machinery introduced, 
ib. ; makes dies for York mint, 121 ; 
appointed master of Scottish mint, 
200 ; makes dies for Scottish coins, 
200, 201, 203, 204. 

Bristol mint, gold coins of Henry VIII, 
81-84; and of Edward VI, 86; gold 
and silver coins of Charles I, 113 ; Irish 
silver coins struck at, 228, 229. 

Britain Crown, issue of, English, 99, 
101 ; Scottish, 196, 198. 

Broad, issues of, 125-129. 

Brock, Thomas, sculptor, his portrait of 
the Queen, 160. 

Bronze money, English, instituted, 158. 
S 2 



260 



INDEX. 



Buchanan, George, poet, suggests legend 
for Scottish coin, 193. 

Buildings, representations of, on Anglo- 
Saxon coins, 26, 27 ; on English siege 
pieces, 122-125. 

Burgred, k. of Mercia, coins of, 7. 

Burgs, building of the, commemorated 
on coins of Eadweard I, 26. 

Bushell, Thomas, establishes mints at 
Aberystwith, 111, 112 ; at Oxford, 116 ; 
at Shrewsbury, 119. 

C. 

G, mark of Calais on gold coins, 51. 
Calais money, gold and silver, as English 

types, 51, 59, 61, 62, 65. 
Canopy type of William I, 34. 
Canterbury, archiepiscopal coinage of, 

Anglo-Saxon, history, xv; description 

of coins, 9. 

Canterbury, coins struck by Offa at, 3. 
Carlisle, siege pieces of (Charles I), 123. 
Cart-wheel pence, why so-called, 152. 
Castle-Rising ?, monogram of, on coins of 

Aelfred, 25. 
C. D., initials of Bp. Tonstall on coins 

of Henry VIII, 80. 

Ceolnoth, Abp. of Canterbury, coins of, 10. 
Ceolwulf I, k. of Mercia, coins of, 5 ; his 

mints, ib. ; types of coins, 6. 
Ceolwulf II, k. of Mercia, coins of, 7. 
Ceylon, half-farthings issued for, 155, 

156 ; three halfpence, silver, issued 

for, 155. 
Chaise, Anglo-Gallic, struck by Edward 

III, 50 ; by Edward the Black Prince, 53. 
Chamberlain, Thomas, officer of the 

Bristol mint, 83, 88. 
Charles I, coins of, English, 106 ; Scottish, 

199 ; Irish, 234. 
Charles II, coins of, English, 128 ; 

Scottish, 204 ; Irish, 239. 
Charles Edward, Prince, his supposed 

head on Irish coins, 246. 
Chester mint, coins of (Charles I), 114. 
CHST, mint-mark of Chester, 114. 
Civil War, provincial mints, English, 

established during, 106, 111-121 ; Irish, 

235, 236. 
Clark, James, Scottish engraver, 208, 

209, 211. 



Cnut, coins of, 30; imitated in Ireland, 

213. 
Cnut (Guthred),k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 17-19. 
Coenwulf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 5 ; his 

name on archiepiscopal coins, 9. 
Colchester, siege pieces of (Charles I), 123. 
Combe-Martin, coins of (Charles I), 114. 
Commonwealth, coins of, 125 ; trades- 
men's tokens struck during the, English, 

126; Irish, 238. 
Confederate Catholics issue money for 

Ireland, 236. 
Copper coinage, English patterns for, 

under Elizabeth, 95 ; first issue of, 

105 ; established under Charles II, 183 ; 

Scottish, first issue of, 174, 177; 

instituted in Ireland, 232. 
Corbet, Andrew, receives patent to strike 

copper coins, 137. 
Cork, money of, temp. Charles I, 235, 

237 ; temp. Commonwealth, 238. 
Crane, Sir Francis, strikes farthing 

tokens, 121, 122. 
Cranmer, Thomas, Abp. of Canterbury, 

his initials on coins of Henry VIII, 80. 
Croker, John, engraver to the mint, 144. 
Cromwell, Oliver, coins of, 127. 
Crookston Dollar, the, 189. 
Cross moline, mint-mark of Anthony 

Beck, Bp. of Durham, 44, 46. 
Crown gold, standard of, 75 ; introduced, 

ib. ; permanently adopted, 129. 
Crown, gold, first issue of, 75, 76, 79. 
Crown or Ecu, gold, Scottish, first issue 

of, 181. 
Crown, royal, of Scotland, its difference 

from the English crown, 197. 
Crown, silver, first issue of, English, 85, 

89; Scottish, 210, 211. 
Crowned thistle, countermark on Scottish 

coins of Mary, 186, 193. 
Crozier, mint-mark of Bp. Kellow of 

Durham, 46. 

Crux type, first occurrence of, 30. 
Cuerdale hoard, date of, etc., 13, 19, 21. 
Cunetti coins, 18. 
Curcy, John de, Earl of Ulster, strikes 

Patrick farthings, 215. 
Current values, first instance of marks of, 
on English coins, silver, 90 ; gold, 103 ; 



INDEX. 



261 



ratio of Scottish and English coins 
under James VI, 197 ; of Irish and 
English coins under Edward IV, 222 ; 
of Elizabeth, 232 ; of James I, 233. 

Cuthred, k. of Kent, coins of, 8. 

Cynethryth, widow of Offa, coins of, 5. 



D. 

D, initial of Bp. Dudley on coins of 

Edward IV, 69. 
D, initial of Donatus Mulekyn on Scottish 

coins, 168. 
Danish coins of East Anglia, 12; of 

Northumbria, 13, 17. 
Danish coins imitated in Ireland, 214. 
Danish or Norse kings of Northumbria, 

coins of, 17. 

Darien Company imports gold to Scot- 
land, 209. 

Darnley and Mary, coins of, 189. 
Dates, first use of, on English coins, 

silver, 88 ; gold, 91 ; on Scottish coins, 

gold, 182 ; on Irish coins, silver, 229. 
David I of Scotland, coins of, 162. 
David II of Scotland, coins of, 167. 
D. B., initials of Bp. Bainbridge on coins 

of Henry VII, 75. 
Declaration type of Charles I, its origin, 

113. 
De Curcy, John, Earl of Ulster, strikes 

Patrick farthings, 215. 
Demi-Chaise, gold, struck by Edward the 

Black Prince, 53. 
Demi-Hardi d'Or, struck by Eichard II, 

56. 
Demi-Lion or Demy, Scottish, first issue 

of, 169, 170, 171 ; origin of its name, 171. 
Demy, see Demi-Lion. 
Denominations of Anglo-Saxon money, ix. 
Dickesone, Charles, Scottish engraver, 

201, 203. 

Dollar, Scottish, issue of, 204, 205. 
Dorrien and Magens, their shillings, 149. 
Double, Irish, see Double-Groat. 
Double-Crown, gold, Scottish, first issue 

of, 196, 197. 
Double-Florin, silver, issue of, 156, 159 ; 

discontinued, 160. 
Double-Groat or Double, Irish, issue of, 

219, 220. 



Double-Merk or Thistle Dollar, silver, 

Scottish, issue of, 190, 193. 
Double-Sovereign, first issue of, 76 ; re- 
issue of, under George IV, 152, 153. 
Douglas Groats, Scottish, 183. 
D. S., initials of Senhouse, Bp. of 

Durham, on coins of Henry VIII, 75. 
Dublin, kings of, coins attributed to, 213. 
Dublin Money (Charles I), 235, 236. 
Ducat, gold, Scottish, pattern for, dated 

1539, 182 ; first issue of, for currency, 

184, 187. 
Dudley, Bp. of Durham, his mint-mark, 

D, on coins of Edward IV, 69. 
Duke's Testoons, Scottish, 183. 
Durham House, mint at, 88. 
Dutch crown of Oliver Cromwell, 128. 
D. W., initials of Thomas Wolsey, Bp. 

of Durham, on coins of Henry VIII, 78. 



E. 

E, for Edinburgh on Scottish coins of 

Anne, 211. 
Eadberht, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 

14, 16. 
Eadberht II, Praen, k. of Kent, coins 

of, 8. 

Eadgar, first sole monarch, coins of, 29. 
Eadmund (St. Eadmund), k. of East 

Anglia, coins of, 12 ; memorial coinage 

of, 13. 

Eadmund, k. of Wessex, coins of, 28. 
Eadred, k. of Wessex, coins of, 28. 
Eadwald, k. of East Anglia, coins of, 11. 
Eadweard the Elder, k. of Wessex, coins 

of, 26. 

Eadweard II (the Martyr), coins of, 29. 
Eadwig, k. of Wessex, coins of, 28. 
Eanbald I, Abp. of York, no coins of, 16. 
Eanbald II, Abp. of York, coins of, 16. 
Eanred, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 15. 
Eardwulf, k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 15. 

Earl Sihtric, Northumbrian coins of, 19. 
East Anglia, history of coinage, xv ; con- 
quered by Wessex, 11; coins of, 11; 

regal series, ib. ; quasi-ecclesiastical 

series, 11, 13. 
East India Company, initials of, on coins, 

144, 145. 



262 



INDEX. 



Ecclesiastical mints, English, marks and 

initials of prelates on coins of, 44, 46, 

63, 64, 69, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80; 

cessation of, 80. 
Ecgbeorht, k. of Wessex, conquers Mercia, 

6; conquers Kent, 9; coins of, 22; 

strikes money at London, ib. 
Ecgberht, Abp. of York, coins of, 14, 16. 
Ecgberht, k. of Kent, coins of, 8. 
Ecgberht, k. of Northurnbria, no coins 

of, 16. 
Ecgberht II, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of, 16. 

Ecgferth, son of Offa, no coins of, 5. 
Ecgfrith, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 14. 
Ecu or Chaise, gold, Anglo-Gallic, struck 

by Edward III, 50; by Edward the 

Black Prince, 53. 
Ecu or Crown, gold, Scottish, first issue 

of, 181. 
Edge of coin when first inscribed, 

English, 127 ; Scottish, 207. 
Edinburgh, mint of, closed, 212. 
Edmund Ironside, no coins of, 30. 
Edward I, coins of, English, 43 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 44, 45 ; Irish, 216. 
Edward I-III, classification of their 

coins, English, 43 ; Irish, 216. 
Edward II, coins of, English, 46 ; Irish, 

216. 

Edward III, coins of, English, 46 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 47, 50 ; introduces permanent 

currency in gold, 47 ; also groats and 

half-groats, 49 ; Irish coins, 216. 
Edward IV, coins of, English, 66 ; Irish, 

219. 
Edward V, coins of, English, 69; his 

badges as mint-marks, 69 ; no Irish 

coins, 224. 
Edward VI, coins of, English, 85 ; Irish ?, 

229. 
Edward the Black Prince, Anglo-Gallic 

coins of, 52. 
Edward the Confessor, coins of, 32 ; 

imitated in Ireland, 214. 
Egleby or Eglonby, Hugh, assay er of 

English mint, 82, 84, 85, 86. 
E. I. C. (East India Company), mark 

of, on coins, 144, 145. 
Eighteen Pence Bank Token, English, 

issue of, 151. 



Eighth-Dollar, Scottish, issue of, 204,206. 

Eighth-Thistle Merk, Scottish, issue of, 
190, 195. 

Eighth-Unit, Scottish, see Half-Crown, 
gold, etc. 

Eight Shillings, silver, Scottish, first 
issue of, 190, 193. 

E. L., initials of Abp. Lee, on coins of 
Henry VIII, 80. 

Eleanor, wife of Henry II, Anglo-Gallic 
coins of, 41. 

Elephant and Castle, badge of the African 
Company, on coins of Charles II, 131, 
132 ; of James II, 134 ; of William and 
Mary, 136; of William III, 138; of 
Anne, 140 ; of George I, 143. 

Elizabeth, coins of, English, 94; Irish, 
231. 

England and Scotland, Union of, conse- 
quent changes in the coinage, 196 note, 
211. 

England, kingdom of, under Eadgar and 
his successors, coins of, 29. 

English coins, 34 ; currency of, in Scot- 
land, 162. 

Epa, coins of, 2. 

Eric (Blothox), k. of Northumbria, coins 
of, 21. 

Ethandune, battle of, 13. 

Ethelberht, Abp. of York, no coins 
of, 16. 

Eustace Fitz-John, coins of, 39. 

Eustace, son of Stephen, coins of, 39. 

Evans, Sir John, K.C.B., on Irish coins 
of Edward VI, 229. 

EX, mint-mark of Exeter, 115. 

Exeter mint, coins of (Charles I), 115. 

F. 

Falconer, (Sir) John, engraver to the 
Scottish mint, 200; makes dies for 
Scottish coins, 202, 203; warden of 
the Scottish mint, 205. 

Farthing, copper, first issue of, in Eng- 
land, 105; in Scotland, 174, 177; for 
Ireland, 233. 

Farthing, silver, first struck by Edward I, 
43 ; first issue of, in Scotland, 165, 
166 ; in Ireland, 215. 

Fermoy, hoard of bracteates found at, 214. 



INDEX. 



263 



Fifteen Shilling Piece or Spur Ryal, 

issue of, 99, 102, 103. 
Fifty Shilling Piece, struck by Cromwell, 

127. 

Fitzgerald, arms of, on Irish coins, 223, 226. 
Fitzgerald, Gerald, Earl of Kildare, see 

Kildare. 

Five Guineas, first issue of, 128, 131. 
Five Pence, Bank token, Irish, issue of, 

246, 247. 

Five Pounds, gold, issue of, 156, 158. 
Five Shillings, silver, English, first issue 

of, 85, 89 ; Scottish, 190, 194. 
Fleur-de-lis Groats, Scottish, of James II, 

173. 
Flint, 'Nicholas, master of the Dublin 

and Waterford mints, 226. 
Florin, gold, and its divisions, of Edward 

III, 47; Anglo-Gallic, struck by Ed- 
ward III, 50. 

Florin, silver, first issue of, 156, 157. 
Forty Penny Piece, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 199, 201. 
Forty Shilling Piece, silver, first issue of, 

190, 194. 
Foulis, Thomas, Scottish engraver, 192, 

194. 
Four Merk Piece, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 204, 205. 

Four Pound Piece or Ducat, gold, Scot- 
tish, issue of, 190, 191. 
Four Shilling Piece, silver, English, issue 

of, 156, 159 ; discontinued, 197 ; Scot- 
tish, first issue of, 190, 193. 
Franc k Cheval, Anglo-Gallic, struck by 

Henry VI., 62, 65. 
Francis, the Dauphin, and Mary, Queen 

of Scots, coins of, 184, 187. 
French title and arms on English coins, 

abandoned, 148. 

G. 

G, initial of Abp. Neville, on coins of 

Henry VI, 64 ; of Edward IV, 69. 
George I, coins of, English, 142 ; Irish, 244. 
George II, coins of, English, 144 ; Irish, 

245. 
George III, coins of, English, 146 ; Irish, 

246. 
George IV, coins of, English, 152 ; Irish, 

248. 



George Noble, issue of, 79. 
Gerb, mint-mark of Chester, 114. 
German titles abandoned on English 

coinage, 148. 
Gifford, Dr., restrikes siege pieces of 

Colchester, 123. 

Godless Florin, why so-called, 157. 
Gold coinage, English, first struck by 

Henry III, 42 ; introduced by Edward 

III, 47 ; Scottish, first issue of, 167 ; 

Irish, the only specimen, 235. 
Gold coins, English, first marks of value 

on, 103. 
Gold coins, English, struck at local 

mints, 67, 81-89, 106, 112 note, 113, 

116, 123, 124 

Gold, crown standard, introduced, 75. 
Gold made sole standard measure of 

value, 148. 
Gold Penny of Aethelred II, 29 ; of Henry 

III, 42 

Gothic Crown, issue of, 157. 
Graceless Florin, why so-called, 157. 
Greyhound, countermark on coins of 

Edward VI, 88. 
Groat, English, first struck by Edward I, 

43 ; first issue of, for currency, 46, 49 ; 

first change of type, 73; re-issued by 

William IV, 155; discontinued, 158; 

Scottish, first issue of, 167, 168 ; Irish, 

first issue of, 217, 218. 
Guiennois, Anglo-Gallic, struck by Ed- 
ward III, 50; by Edward the Black 

Prince, 53. 
Guinea, first issue of, 128, 131 ; its weight, 

129, 131 ; its current values, xliv, 129, 

135, 137 ; derivation of its name, 131 ; 

last issue of, 148. 

Guinea of George I, inscription on re- 
verse explained, 143. 
Gun Money, Irish, struck by James II, 

240, 241. 
Guthorm (JEthelstan II), k. of East 

Anglia, divides Mercia with Aelfred, 7 ; 

coins of, 12. 
Guthred (Cnut), k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 17. 

H. 

Half-Angel, first issue of, 64, 68. 
Half-Bawbee, first issue of, 181, 183. 
Half-Broad, issue of, 125-129. 



264 



INDEX. 



Half-Crown, gold, first issue of, English, 

76, 79 ; Scottish, 196, 198. 
Half-Crown, silver, first issue of, Eng- 
lish, 85, 90 ; Scottish, 210, 211. 
Halfdan, k. of Northumbria, type of 

coins copied by Ceolwulf II, 7 ; coins 

of, 17. 
Half-Demy, gold, Scottish, first issue of, 

171. 

Half-Dollar, Scottish, issue of, 204, 206. 
Half-Farthing, copper, struck for Ceylon, 

155, 156 ; first issued in Ireland, 224. 
Half-Florin, gold, of Edward III, 47. 
Half-George Noble, issue of, 75, 79. 
Half-Groat, first issue of, English, 46, 

49 ; Scottish, 167, 168 ; Irish, 219, 221. 
Half-Guinea, first issue of, 128, 131. 
Half-Hardhead, billon, issue of, 190, 196. 
Half-Laurel, issue of, 99, 103. 
Half-Lion, gold, Scottish, first issue of, 

172, 173. 
Half-Merk or Noble, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 190, 193. 
Half-Noble, gold, English, first issue of, 

46, 48. 
Half -Noble, gold, struck for Calais, 51, 

65. 
Half-Noble or Quarter-Merk, silver, 

Scottish, issue of, 190, 193. 
Halfpenny, copper, first issue of, English, 

129, 133 ; Irish, 231, 233. 
Halfpenny, silver, Anglo-Saxon, 13, 25 ; 

English, introduced by John, 42 ; first 

struck in Scotland, 163 ; and in Ire- 
land, 215. 

Half-Pistole, Scottish, issue of, 209. 
Half-Plack, first issue of, 174, 177. 
Half-Pound Piece or Ten Shillings, silver, 

English, issues of, 106, 117, 119. 
Half-Rider, first issue of, 177, 179. 
Half-Rose Noble, issue of, 67. 
Half-Ryal, gold, Scottish, issue of, 184, 

185. 
Half-Shilling, silver, Scottish, first issue 

of, 196, 198. 

Half-Sword and Sceptre Piece, gold, Scot- 
tish, issue of, 190, 192. 
Half-Testoon, silver, Scottish, first issue 

of, 184, 186. 
Half-Thistle Dollar or Merk, silver, issue 

of, 190, 193. 



Half-Thistle Merk, silver, issue of, 190, 
195. 

Half -Turner, copper, Scottish, first issue 
of, 196, 199. 

Half-Unicorn, first issue of, 174, 175. 

Half-Unit, Scottish, see Double-Crown. 

Hamilton, James, Marquis of, strikes 
farthing tokens, 105. 

Hammered money, how struck, 94, 96. 

Hand of Providence type on Anglo-Saxon 
coins, 20, 26. 

Hand, sign of, on Irish coins, 214. 

Harder, Joachim, Scottish engraver, 
205. 

Hardhead or Lion, billon, Scottish, first 
issue of, 184, 187. 

Hardi d'Or struck by Edward the Black 
Prince, 53 ; by Richard II, 56. 

Harold I, coins of, 31. 

Harold II, coins of, 33. 

Harrington Farthings struck in England, 
105. 

Harthacnut, coins of, 31. 

Hat Piece, gold, issue of, 190, 192. 

Heart and star, countermark of James, 
Earl of Morton, 187. 

Hebrides, kings of, coins attributed to, 162. 

Henry I, coins of, 36. 

Henry II, coins of, English, 40 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, ib. 

Henry III, coins of, English, 42 ; strikes 
gold pennies, ib. ; introduces long-cross 
type, ib. ; Irish coins, 216. 

Henry IV, coins of, English, 56 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 56, 58 ; no Irish coins, 217. 

Henry V, coins of, English, 58 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 59, 60 ; no Irish coins, 217. 

Henry VI, coins of, English, 62 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 62, 64; his light money, 64; 
Irish coins, 217. 

Henry VII, coins of, English, 71 ; Irish, 
225. 

Henry VIII, coins of, English, 75 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 76, 84 ; Irish, 227. 

Henry, Duke of Lancaster, Anglo-Gallic 
coins of, 52. 

Henry, Earl of Northumberland, coins 
of, 163. 

Henry of Blois, Bp. of Winchester, coins 
of, 38. 

Hexham, stycas found at, 15, 16. 



INDEX. 



265 



Hibernias, brass coins struck at Limerick, 

243. 

Hiberno-Danish coins, 213. 
Hiberno-English coins, 215. 
Hochstetter, Joachim, coins struck by, 183. 
Holy Dove on coins of Aethelred II, 30. 
Humbug, supposed derivation of, 242. 
Hume, Joseph, proposes re-issue of the 

groat, 155. 

I. 

I. G., initials of James, Earl of Arran, on 

coins, 185. 
Inchiquin, Lord, Irish money called after 

him, 235 ; strikes money at Cork, 238. 
Inchiquin Money, 235. 
Ireland, Act of Union with, change of 

king's title after, 148. 
Ireland, Bank of, strikes silver tokens, 

247. 

Irelandes d'Argent, ordered, 218. 
Irish coinage, history of, Iv ; early coinage, 

ib. 
Irish coins, 213; their early types, ib. ; 

last issue of, 248 ; struck in England, 

216, 218, 230-232. 
Irish copies of coins of Aethelred II, 30, 

213. 

Irish Money of Necessity, 234, 241. 
Isaac of York, his name on coins of 

Henry II, 40. 

J. 

Jaenberht, Abp. of Canterbury, coins of, 9. 
Jamaica, three-halfpences issued for, 155. 
James I of England (VI of Scotland), 

(coins of, English, 99; Scottish, 190; 
Irish, 233. 
James II of England (VII of Scotland), 

coins of, English, 134 ; Scottish, 207 ; 

Irish, 240. 

James I of Scotland, coins of, 171. 
James II of Scotland, coins of, 172. 
James III of Scotland, coins of, 174. 
James IV of Scotland, coins of, 177. 
James V of Scotland, coins of, 181. 
James VI of Scotland; see James I of 

England. 
James VII of Scotland ; see James II of 

England. 
James VIII of Scotland, patterns for 

coins, 212. 



Janet, French artist, his portrait of 

Mary Q. of Scots on her coins, 188. 
; " Joeys " or Groats, why so-called, 155. 

John and Eichard I, classification of 
their coins, xxvii, 40. 

John Baliol, coins of, 166. 

John, coins of, English, 40, 42 ; Irish, 215. 

Jubilee coinage of Victoria, 159. 

K. 

Kellow, Bp. of Durham, his mint-mark, 

a crozier, 46. 
Kent, coins of, with the names of 

Mercian kings, 8. 

Kent, conquest of, by Wessex, 9, 22. 
Kent, history of coinage, xiv; coinage of, 

regal, 8 ; archiepiscopal, 8, 9. 
Kent, king of, title assumed by Cuthred, 

8 ; by Baldred, 9. 
Kildare, Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of, his 

arms on Irish coins, 223, 226; issues 

coins for Richard III ?, 225. 
Kilkenny Money, 235, 236. 
Kinsale, copper coins struck at, 238. 
Knot, mint-mark of Abp. Bourchier on 

coins of Edward IV, 69. 
Knox, John, Ld. Mayor of Dublin, re- 
ceives patent to strike copper coins, 241. 
Kuchler, C. H., engraver, 152, 247. 



L, initial of Alexander Livingstoun on 

Scottish coins, 175, 179. 
Lancaster, Henry, Duke of, Anglo-Gallic 

coins of, 52. 
Langley, Bp. of Durham, his mint-mark, 

a mullet, 63. 

Lathorn House, siege pieces of ?, 122. 
Laureate head on English coins, first 

instance of, 103. 
Laurel, issue of, 99, 103. 
L. E., initials of Abp. Lee of York, on 

coins of Henry VIII, 80. 
Lee, Abp. of York, his initials on coins of 

Henry VIII, 80. 
Legg, Col. (Lord Dartmouth), strikes 

copper coins for Ireland, 240, 241. 
Lennox, Ludovic, Duke of, strikes farthing 

tokens, 105. 
Leopard, Anglo-Gallic, struck by Edward 

III, 50 ; by Edward the Black Prince, 53. 



266 



INDEX. 



" Lima " on coins of George II, 145. 
Limerick Money, temp. James II, 241, 243. 
Lincoln, coin of St. Martin struck at, 13 ; 

monogram of, on coins of Aelfred, 25. 
Lion, gold, Scottish, first issue of, 169, 170. 
Lion Noble, gold, Scottish, issue of, 190, 

191. 
Lion or Hardhead, billon, first issue of, 

184, 187. 
Lion passant guardant, mint-mark of 

York, 121. 
Lion rampant, mint-mark of Bp. 

Beaumont, of Durham, 46. 
Lion Shilling and Sixpence of George IV, 

154. 
Livingstoun, Alexander, Scottish coiner, 

175, 179. 
Local mints, English, issues of, under 

Charles I, xl, 106, 111-121; under 

William III, 138. 
Local mints, English, termination of, 

under Edward VI, 90. 
London, coins struck in, by Ecgbeorht of 

Wessex, 22. 
London, dies for Irish coins made in, 

216, 217. 
London, Irish coins struck in, 228, 230- 

232. 
London, monogram of, on coins of 

Halfdan, 17 ; of Aelfred, 25. 
London, sceattas of, 2. 
Long-cross patt6e type introduced by 

Edward I, 43 ; first use of, on Scottish 

coins, 165 note. 
Long double-cross type introduced by 

Henry III, 42 ; first use of, on Scottish 

coins, 165 note. 

Ludican, k. of Mercia, coins of, 6. 
Lynch, Germyn, master of Irish mints, 

220. 

M. 

M, initial of Abp. Morton on coins of 

Henry VII, 73, 74. 

Malcolm III of Scotland, no coins of, 162. 
Malcolm IV of Scotland, coins of, 163. 
Malta, one-third farthings issued for, 

155, 156. 
Maltravers, Henry, Lord, strikes farthing 

tokens, 121. 
Mancus, a money of account, its value, ix. 



Margaret, widow of James IV of Scot- 
land, billon coins of, 181. 
Mark, a money of account, its value, ix. 
Marks of value on English coins, first 

used, silver, 90 ; gold, 103. 
Marks, special, on later English coins, 

xliv. 
Martin, Richard, strikes coins for Ireland, 

232. 
Martin, Sir John, strikes coins for Ireland, 

232. 
Mary and Philip, coins of, English, 92 ; 

Irish, 231. 
Mary and William, coins of, English, 

135 ; Scottish, 208 ; Irish, 243. 
Mary, coins of, English, 91 ; Irish, 230. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, and Darnley, coins 

of, 189. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, and Francis, the 

Dauphin, coins of, 187. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, coins of, 184. 
Matilda, Empress, coins of, 38. 
Matilda, wife of Stephen, coins of, 38. 
Maundy Money instituted, 130. 
Mercia, history of coinage, xii ; coins of, 2. 
Mercian kings, their names on archi- 

episcopal coins of Canterbury, 9. 
Merk or Half-Thistle Dollar, silver, 

Scottish, issue of, 190, 193. 
Merlen, J. B., engraver to the mint, 153, 

154, 155. 

Merovingian types on sceattas, 1, 2. 
Mestrell, Eloye, inventor of mill and 

screw for striking coins, 96. 
Milled money, when first struck, 96 ; 

generally instituted, 131. 
Mint-marks, early use of, 58 ; their 

sequence under Edward IV, 68 ; see 

also Appendix A, 249. 
Mints, Anglo-Saxon, constitution of, xxii ; 

Scottish, xlviii. 
Mints, ecclesiastical, English, marks and 

initials of prelates, 44, 46, 63, 64, 69, 

71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 78, 80 ; cessation of, 

80 ; see also Archiepiscopal coins. 
Mints, increase of, under Anglo-Saxons, 

27, 29, 32. 
Mints, local, English, gold coins first 

struck at, 67 ; established during the 

Civil War, 106, 111-121 ; under William 

III, 128. 



INDEX. 



267 



Misserwy or Misharwy, John, engraver, 

186. 

Moll J^thelwald, coins of, 14. 
Moneyers, Anglo-Saxon, their status, xxiv ; 

Scottish, xlviii. 
Money of Necessity struck for Ireland, 

234, 241. 
Morton, Abp. of Canterbury, coins of, 

73, 74. 
Morton, James, Earl of Arran, Regent, 

his badge, 187. 
Mouton, gold, struck by Edward III, 50 ; 

by Henry V, 60. 
Mulekyn, Donatus, his initial on Scottish 

coins, 168. 
Mullet, mint-mark of Langley, Bp. of 

Durham, 63. 



Necessity, Money of, Irish, 234, 241. 
Neville, George, Abp. of York, his mint- 
mark, G, on coins of Henry VI, 64 ; of 

Edward IV, 69. 
Neville, Robert, Bp. of Durham, his 

mint-mark, interlaced rings, 63. 
Newark, siege pieces of, 124. 
Noble, English, introduction of, xxix ; 

first issue of, 46, 48 ; its type, &c., 48 ; 

current values of, 47, 48, 67 ; its weight, 

47, 56, 66. 

Noble, Scottish, first issue of, 167. 
Noble, struck for Calais, 51, 65. 
Noble or Half-Merk, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 190, 193. 
"Non Sunt" or Twelve Penny Groat, 

billon, issue of, 184, 188. 
Norman Conquest, English coinage after, 

xxv, 34. 
Norse or Danish kings of Northumbria, 

coins of, 17. 
Northumberland, Henry, Earl of, coins 

of, 163. 

Northumberland Shilling, the, 149. 
Northumbria, coinage of, history, xvii ; 

Anglian kings, coins of, 14 ; archi- 

episcopal coins, 16 ; Danish and Norse 

kings, coins of, 17. 
Northumbria conquered by the Danes, 

16, 17 ; by Wessex, 21, 28. 



O. 

Offa, k. of Mercia, coins of, 3 ; his name 

on coins of Jaenberht, Abp. of Canter- 
bury, 9. 

Offering Penny of Aelfred, 24. 
One-Third Bonnet Piece, issue of, 181, 

182. 
One-Third Farthings struck for Malta, 

155, 156. 
One-Third Lion Noble, gold, Scottish, 

issue of, 190, 191. 

One-Third Ryal, silver, Scottish, first 
^ issue of, 184, 189. 
6ra, a money of account, its value, x. 
Ormonde, Marquis of, money called 

after him, 237 ; strikes money in name 

of Charles II, 239. 
Ormonde money, 235, 237. 
Osberht, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 16. 
Osred II, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of, 15. 
Oswald, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of, 15. 
Oswulf, k. of Northumbria, no coins 

of, 14. 

OX or OXON, mint-mark of Oxford, 116. 
Oxford Crown, the, 117. 
Oxford mint, coins of (Charles I), 116. 

P. 

"Pacx" type, introduction of, 31. 
Parkhurst, Sir William, superintends 

Oxford mint, 116. 
Patrick Farthing, silver, struck by John 

de Curcy, Earl of Ulster, 215. 
Patrick or Half -Farthing, copper, Irish, 

issue of, 217, 218. 
Peada, k. of Mercia, coins of, 3. 
Pear, mint-mark of Worcester, 120. 
Peckham, Sir Edward, his crest on coins, 

88 ; strikes coins for Ireland, 231, 232. 
Penny, copper, first issue of, English, 

146, 152; Scottish, 190, 196; Irish, 

231, 232. 
j Penny, silver, Anglo-Saxon, its weight, 

ix ; origin and early types, xi, 2, 3 ; 

divided into halves and quarters for 

halfpence and farthings, 30. 
Penny, silver, English, its weight, 34, 

37, 47, 56, 62, 66. 
Penny, Sovereign type, of Edward the 



268 



INDEX. 



Confessor, 32; of Stephen, 37; of 

Henry VII, 74, 75 ; of Henry VIII, 78, 

80; of Edward VI, 90. 
' ' Petition Crown ," by Thomas Simon, 132 . 
Pewter Money, Irish, of James II, 241, 

242. 
Philip and Mary, coins of, English, 92 ; 

Irish, 231. 
Pingo, Lewis, engraver to the mint, 147, 

148. 

Pingo, Thomas, engraver to the mint, 147. 
Piri, Martyn, master of the Dublin mint, 

228, 229. 
Pistole, gold, Scottish, of William III, 

209 ; Irish, of Inchiquin money, 235. 
Pistrucci, Benedetto, engraver to the 

English mint, 149, 150, 153, 154, 159 ; 

makes dies for Irish coins, 248. 
Plack, billon, first issue of, 174, 177; 

derivation of its name, 177. 
Plegmund, Abp. of Canterbury, coins 

of, 10. 
Plume, mark of Welsh silver, 104, 108, 

132, 138, 139, 141, 143, 145. 
Plume without band, mint-mark of 

Shrewsbury, 119. 
Pole, William Wellesley, master of the 

mint, 150, 153. 
Pontefract, siege pieces of (Charles I 

and II), 124. 
" Pontifex," title assumed by Aethel- 

heard, Abp. of Canterbury, 9. 
Portcullis, countermark of, on coins of 

Edward VI, 88 ; of Mary, 92. 
Portcullis Groat of Henry VII, 74. 
Portraiture on coins, Anglo-Saxon, xxii, 

32 ; English, xxxiii, 74. 
Pound, Anglo-Saxon, a money of account, 

ix. 
Pound Piece or Twenty Shillings, silver, 

English, issues of, 106, 116, 119. 
Pownall, Archdeacon, on Irish coins of 

Edward VI, 229. 
Poynter, Sir E. J., P.R.A., his designs for 

coins, 160. 
Prince Elector Guinea of George I, 143. 

Q. 

Quarter-Angel, first issue of, 76, 81. 
Quarter-Dollar, Scottish, issue of, 204, 
206. 



Quarter-Florin, gold, English, 47. 
Quarter-Laurel, issue of, 99, 103. 
Quarter-Merk or Half -Noble, silver, 

Scottish, issue of, 190, 193. 
Quarter-Noble, gold, English, first issue 

of, 46, 49. 

Quarter-Rider, issue of, 177, 179. 
Quarter-Rose Noble, issue of, 66, 67. 
Quarter-Thistle Merk, silver, Scottish, 

issue of, 190, 195. 

Quarter-Unit, Scottish, see Britain Crown. 
Quentovic, coins struck at, 18. 

R. 

R, initial of Abp. Rotherham on coins of 

Edward IV, 69. 
Rawlins, Thomas, chief engraver of the 

mint, 117. 

Rebel Money struck for Ireland, 235, 237. 
Redwulf, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 15. 
Regnald I?, k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 20. 
Regnald II, k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 20. 
Richard I, coins of, English, 40, 41 ; 

Anglo-Gallic, 41. 
Richard I and John, classification of 

their coins, xxvii, 40. 
Richard II, coins of, English, 54 ; Anglo- 
Gallic, 54, 56 ; no Irish coins, 217. 
Richard III, coins of, English, 70 ; Irish, 

224. 
Richmond, Duchess of, strikes farthing 

tokens, 121. 
Richmond, Frances Stewart, Duchess of, 

her portrait on copper coins, 133. 
Ricsig, k. of Northumbria, no coins of, 16. 
Rider, gold, Scottish, first issue of, 174, 

175; its parts, classification of, 175, 

177 note. 
Rings, interlaced, mint -mark of Bp. 

Neville of Durham, 63. 
Roach, see Roche. 
Robert Bruce, coins of, 166. 
Robert II, coins of, 168. 
Robert III, coins of, 169. 
Robert de Hadley, his name on coins of 

Edward I, 43, 44. 

Robert, Earl of Gloucester, coins of, 30. 
Roche, or Roach, strikes " Voce Populi" 

money, 246. 



INDEX. 



269 



Boettier, Jan, engraver to the English 

mint, 131 ; makes dies for Scottish 

coins, 206, 207. 
Boettier, Norbert, engraves dies for coins 

of James VIII, 212. 
Boger, Earl of Warwick, coins of, 30. 
Bomaii coins, types of, on sceattas, 1, 2 ; 

on Anglo-Saxon pennies, 17. 
Bose and sun, badges of Edward IV, 

67, 69. 
Bose, mark of West of England silver, 

131, 138, 141, 143, 145. 
Bose Noble, first issue of, 66 ; its current 

value, 67 ; imitations of, ib. 
Bose Byal or Thirty Shilling Piece, issue 

of, 99, 102. 
Botherham, Abp. of York, his initials on 

coins of Edward IV, 69, 71 ; of Henry 

VII, 73. 

Boyal Crown, Scottish, form of, 197. 
Boyal d'Or, struck by Edward the Black 

Prince, 53. 
Bunic letters on Anglo-Saxon coins, 1, 2, 

11, 12. 
Buthall, Bp. of Durham, his initials on 

coins of Henry VIII, 78. 
Byal, gold, Scottish, issue of, 184, 185. 
Byal or Bose Noble, English, first issue 

of, 66. 
Byal, silver, Scottish, first issue of, 184, 






189. 



S. 



S, initial of Bp. Sherwood on coins of 

Bichard III, 71 ; of Henry VII, 73. 
St. Andrew, cross of, on coins of 

Bochester ?, 6 ; on Scottish coins, 170 

et pas. 
St. Andrew, gold, Scottish, first issue of, 

169, 170. 
St. Eadmund, memorial coinage of, xvii, 

11, 13. 
St. George and the Dragon, type of, 

149 ; revived, 157, 159. 
St. Martin of Lincoln, coin of, 13. 
St. Patrick money, Irish, 240. 
St. Peter money of York, xix, 21. 
Salisbury mint ?, coins of (Charles I), 

119. 

Saltire Plack, billon, issue of, 190, 196. 
Salute, struck by Henry V, 60 ; by Henry 

VI, 64. 



Salvator Farthings, copper, Irish, issue 

of, 223. 

Scarborough, siege pieces of, 125. 
Sceattas, their weight and types, x; 

currency of, xi ; described, 1, 3, 11. 
Sceptre or Unit, Scottish, first issue of, 

196, 197. 
Scotland, Act of Union with, consequent 

changes in coinage, 139, 140 twte ; 

coinage, Scottish, subsequent to, 210, 

211. 
Scotland and England united, consequent 

changes in coinage, 100, 196. 
Scotland, royal crown of, its form and 

difference from the English crown, 197. 
Scottish coinage, history of, xlvi ; descrip- 
tion, 162. 

Scottish mint closed, 212. 
" Sede Vacante " coins of Canterbury, 10. 
Senhouse, Bp. of Durham, his initials, 

D. S., on coins of Henry VII, 75. 
Septim Groat, the, 74. 
Septim Shilling, the, 75. 
Seven Shilling Piece or Third-Guinea, 

issue of, 148. 
Sharington, Sir William, master of the 

Bristol mint, 81-85; strikes coins for 

Ireland, 229. 
Shelf ord, coin of Earl Sihtric, struck at, 

19. 

Sherwood, Bp. of Durham, his initial, S, 
on coins of Bichard III, 71 ; and 
Henry VII, 73. 

Shilling, Anglo-Saxon, a money of ac- 
count, ix; English, first issue of, 71, 
74; Scottish, first issue of, 196, 198; 
Irish, first issue of, 230. 
Short-cross type, introduced by Henry 

II, 40. 

Shrewsbury mint, coins of (Charles I), 

119. 
Siefred, k. of Northumbria, coins of, 18, 

19. 
Siege pieces, issues of, temp. Charles I, 

xli, 122. 

Sihtric III, coins of, 213, 214. 
Sihtric, Earl, Northumbrian coins of, 19. 
Sihtric Gale, k. of Northumbria, coins 

of, 20. 
Silver money, recoinage of, under William 

III, 138. 



270 



INDEX. 



Simon, Thomas, engraves dies for Crom- 
well, 127, 128; for Charles II, 129; 

replaced by Eoettier, 131 ; makes the 

Petition Crown, 132; makes models 

for Scottish coins, 204 note. 
Sivert, see Siefred. 
Six Angel Piece, English, a pattern, 89 ; 

Scottish, a pattern, 179. 
Sixpence, first issue of, English, 85, 90 ; 

Scottish, 210, 212 ; Irish, 227, 228. 
Six Shilling Piece, silver, Scottish, first 

issue of, 196, 198. 
Six Shillings, Bank token, Irish, issue of, 

246, 247. 
Sixteen Shilling Piece, silver, Scottish, 

first issue of, 190, 193. 
Sixteenth Dollar, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 204, 206. 
Sixty Shilling Piece, Scottish, first issue 

of, 196, 198. 
Soho mint, Birmingham, 151, 152, 247, 

248. 
Solidus, Anglo-Saxon, its prototype, ix ; 

issue of, 1 ; struck by Wigmund, xviii, 

16. 
South Sea Company, its initials on coins, 

143. 

Southwark mint, its mint-marks, 82, 87. 
Sovereign, first issue of, 71, 72 ; its weight 

and current value, 71 ; reissue of by 

George III, 148. 
Sovereign type of penny of Edward the 

Confessor, 32; of Stephen, 37; of 

Henry VII, 74, 75 ; of Henry VIII, 78, 

80 ; of Edward VI, 90. 
Spade Guinea, issue of, 147. 
Spade Half-Guinea, issue of, 147. 
Spanish Dollars countermarked for Eng- 
lish currency, 150 ; used for striking 

Irish Bank tokens, 247. 
Spur Ryal or Fifteen Shilling Piece, gold, 

issue of, 99, 102, 103. 
S. S. C. (South Sea Company), mark of, 

on coins, 143. 
Standard, battle of the, commemorated 

on coins of Stephen, 37. 
Standard gold and silver, their fineness, 

75. 
Star and heart, countermark of James, 

Earl of Morton, 187. 
Stephen and Matilda, coins of, 38. 



Stephen, coins of, 37 ; imitated in Scot- 
land, 162. 

Styca, Anglo-Saxon, its weight, ix ; early 
types, xvii ; descriptions of, 14. 

Svend, k. of Norway, invades England, 29. 

Swift, Dean, decries Wood's halfpence, 
245. 

Sword and Sceptre Piece, gold, Scottish, 
issue of, 190, 192. 

T. 

T, initial of Abp. Rotherham on coins of 

Edward IV, 69, 71 ; of Henry VII, 73. 
T, initial of Thomas Tod, on Scottish 

coins, 175. 

T. or T. C., initials of Thomas Chamber- 
lain of the Bristol mint, 83, 88. 
Tanner, John Sigismund, imitates coins 

of Cromwell, 127, 128 ; engraver to the 

English mint, 144, 147. 
T. C., initials of Abp. Cranmer on coins 

of Henry VIII, 80. 
T. D., initials of Bp. Ruthall on coins of 

Henry VIII, 78. 
Ten Pence, Bank token, Irish, issue of, 

246, 247. 
Ten Shilling Piece, silver, Scottish, first 

issue of, 190, 194. 
Ten Shillings or Half-Pound Piece, silver, 

English, issues of, 106, 117, 119. 
Testoon, silver, Scottish, first issue of, 

184, 185. 

Third-Guinea, issue of, 146, 148. 
Thirty Pence, Bank token, Irish, issue of, 

246, 247. 
Thirty Penny Piece, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 190, 195. 
Thirty Shilling Piece or Rose Ryal, gold, 

English, issue of, 99, 102. 
Thirty Shilling Piece, silver, Scottish, 

first issue of, 190, 194. 
Thistle Crown, issue of, English, 90, 101 ; 

Scottish, 196, 198. 
Thistle crowned, countermark on Scottish 

coins of Mary, 186, 193. 
Thistle Dollar or Double-Merk, silver, 

Scottish, issue of, 190, 193. 
Thistle Merk, silver, Scottish, issue of, 

190, 195. 
Thistle Noble, gold, Scottish, issue of, 

190, 192. 



INDEX. 



271 



Three Crowns money, Irish, first issue 

of, 222. 
Three Earthings, silver, issue of, English, 

94, 99 ; Irish, 227, 229. 
Three Halfpence, silver, issue of, English, 
94, 99 ; for Jamaica and Ceylon, 155 ; 
Irish, 227, 229. 
Threepence, first issue of, English, 85, 

90; Irish, 227, 228; re-issued in 

England, 158. 
Three Pound Piece or Triple-Unite, gold, 

English, issue of, 106, 116. 
Three Pound Piece, silver, Scottish, issue 

of, 199, 201. 
Three Shillings, Bank token, English,issue 

of, 151. 
Three Shillings, silver, Scottish, first issue 

of, 199, 203. 
Throgmorton, Nicholas, his mint-mark, 

a ton, 89. 
Thrymsa, a money of account, its 

value, ix. 
Tin money, English, when first struck, 

133. 

Tod, Thomas, Scottish coiner, 175, 179. 
Ton, the mint-mark of Abp. Morton, 74 ; 

also of Nicholas Throgmorton, 89. 
Tonstall, Cuthbert, Bp. of Durham, his 

initials, C. D., on coins of Henry VIII, 80. 
Touch Pieces, when first struck, 107. 
Tradesmen's tokens, issue of, English, 

126, 133, 147 ; Irish, 238, 245, 246. 
Tribrach, symbolical of the archiepiscopal 

pall, 5. 

Triple-Sovereign, first issue of, 85, 87. 
Triple-Unite or Three Pound Piece, gold, 

English, issue of, 106, 116. 
Turner, copper, Scottish, first issue of, 

196, 198 ; derivation of its name, 199. 
T. W., initials of Abp. Wolsey on coins of 

Henry VIII, 77, 78, 80. 
Twelve Penny Groat or " Non Sunt," 

billon, Scottish, issue of, 184, 188. 
Twelve Penny Piece, silver, Scottish, 

issue of, 190, 195. 
Twelve Shilling Piece, silver, Scottish,' 

first issue of, 196, 198. 
Twenty Penny Piece, silver, Scottish, 

issue of, 199, 202. 
Twenty Pound Piece, gold, Scottish, issue 

of, 190, 191. 



Twenty Shillings, gold, Scottish, issue of, 

184, 185. 
Twenty Shillings or Pound Piece, silver, 

English, issues of, 106, 116, 119. 
Twenty Shillings, silver, Scottish, first 

issue of, 190, 194. 

Two Guineas, first issue of, 128, 131. 
Two Merk Piece, silver, Scottish, issue of, 

204, 205. 
Twopence, copper, issue of, English, 146, 

151 ; Scottish, first issue of, 190, 196. 
Two Shilling Piece, silver, first issue of, 

English, 157 ; Scottish, 190, 193. 
Two-Thirds Bonnet Piece, gold, Scottish, 

issue of, 181, 182. 
Two-Thirds Lion Noble, gold, Scottish, 

issue of, 190, 191. 
Two-Thirds Ryal, silver, Scottish, first 

issue of, 184, 189. 

TJ. 

Ulster, John de Curcy, Earl of ; sec De 

Curcy, &c. 
Una and the Lion, type of, on pattern 

Five Pound Piece of Victoria, 157. 
Unicorn, Scottish, first issue of, 174, 175. 
Union, Act of, with Ireland, change of 

king's title after, 148. 
Union, Act of, with Scotland, consequent 

changes in coinage on, 139, 140 note, 

210, 211. 
Unit or Sceptre, Scottish, first issue of, 

196, 197. 
Unite, English, first issue of, 99, 101. 

V, 

Value, marks of, when first used on 
English coins, silver, 90 ; gold, 103. 

Values, current, see Current values. 

Victoria, coins of, 156 ; her Jubilee 
coinage, 159. 

" Vigo " on coins of Anne, its meaning,. 
140. 

Vikings, tribute paid to, xx, 29. 

" Voce Populi" halfpence, 246. 

W. 

W, mint-mark of Weymouth, 120. 
W. A., initials of Abp. Wareham, on coins 
of Henry VIII, 77, 78, 80. 



272 



INDEX. 



Wareham, Abp. of Canterbury, his 

initials on coins of Henry VIII, 77, 

78, 80. 
Waterford, kings of, coins attributed to, 

213. 
W. C. C. (Welsh Copper Company), mark 

of, on coins, 143. 
Welsh Copper Company, its initials on 

coins, 143. 
Welsh mines, silver from, used for coinage, 

104, 108, 116, 132, 138, 139, 141, 143, 145. 
Wessex, history of coinage, xix ; its coins, 

22. 
West of England, silver from, used for 

coinage, 131, 138, 141, 143, 145. 
Weymouth mint, coins of (Charles I), 120. 
White Metal Money, Irish, struck by 

James II, 241, 242. 
Wiglaf, k. of Mercia, coins of, 6. 
Wigmund, Abp. of York, coins of, 16; 

his solidus, xviii, 16. 
William I, coins of, 34. 
William I and II, coins of, 34, 35. 
William II, coins of, 35. 
William III (II of Scotland), coins of, 

English, 137; Scottish, 209; Irish, 

224 ; his great re-coinage of English 

silver money, 138. 
William IV, coins of, 155. 
William and Mary, coins of, English, 

135 ; Scottish, 208 ; Irish, 243. 
William, son of Stephen, coins of, 40. 
William the Lion, coins of, 163. 
Wolsey, Thomas, Bp. of Durham and Abp. 

of York, his initials, &c., on coins of 

Henry VIII, 77, 78, 80 ; his groat, 78, 80. 
Wood's Halfpence for Ireland, 244. 



Wood, William, strikes coins for Ireland, 

244 ; surrenders his patent, 245. 
Worcester mint, coins of (Charles I), 120. 
W. S. (mon.) initials of Sir William 

Sharington, on English coins, 81, 82, 

83, 86 ; on Irish coins, 229. 
Wulfhere, Abp. of York, coins of, 17. 
Wulfred, Abp. of Canterbury, coins of, 10. 
Wulfsig, Abp. of York, no coins of, 16. 
Wyon, Thomas, engraver to the mint, 

150 ; engraves coins and tokens for 

Ireland, 247. 
Wyon, William, engraver to the mint, 

153, 154, 155, 157 ; makes dies for Irish 

coins, 248. 

X. 

X. B., initials of Abp. Bainbridge on 
coins of Henry VIII, 77. 

Y. 

Y, initial of Sir John Yorke, master of 

the Southwark mint, 87-90. 
Yeo, Richard, engraver to the mint, 

147, 149. 

York, archiepiscopal coins of, Anglo- 
Saxon, their history, xviii ; description 

of, 16. 
York, minster of, represented on coins of 

Aethelstan, 27. 

York mint, coins of (Charles I), 121. 
York, St. Peter money of, xix, 21. 
Yorke, Sir John, master of the Southwark 

mint, 87, 88, 89. 

Youghal, copper coins struck at, 238. 
Young, Matthew, restrikes Scottish coins 

from old dies, 207, 212. 



LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED. STAMFOKD STIIKET 
AND CHAItINQ CKOSS. 



PLATE I 




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Sceattas Mercia 



PLATE II 




ANGLO-SAXON COINS 
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Charles I Charles II 



PLATE LIII 



Jgfc 

'3 j ) v\ ^Stes 

1 - i I 

/^ ^SRftig 



^ 



$r \ /& 

; 



204 

^.5 r -. : J ./ 

^' <7 "' !;: /' -\ 
^^ 



-/ 

i 

^\ 



*Quu2&' 
209 





fcX f 

j A <?' f >, 

} J A / >. s* \ 




4J ^u 



y 



212 



SCOTTISH COINS 
II James VII 



PLATE LIV 










216 




SCOTTISH COINS 
William and Mary -William II 



PLATE LV 








233 



ff7 

* ( < I \ ^ :n r 




SCOTTISH COINS 
William II-James Vlll 



PLATE LVI 




VY% : 



IRISH COINS 
Aethelred Il-Edward IV 



PLATE LVII 




IRISH COINS 
Edward IV 



PLATE LVIII 













53 





57 



54 



IRISH COINS 

-Henry VI11 




IRISH COINS 

Mary Elisabeth 



PLATE LX 




IRISH COINS 
James I Charles 1 



PLATE LXI 




IRISH COINS 

Money of Necessity, Charles I 



> 




IRISH COINS 
Commonwealth James II 



PLATE LXIH 




112 












120 



IRISH COINS 
James II George I 



PLATE LXIV 



V * 




I2 9 



IRISH COINS 
George II George IV 







British Museum. Dept. of 
Coins and Medals 

Handbook of the coins of 
Great Britain and Ireland 



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