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book I 








Second Revised Edition 

Frank S. Mead 

Abingdon Press 



Copyright 1961 by Abingdon Press 
Copyright 1951 by Pierce & Smith 
Copyright 1956 by Pierce & Washabaugh 

All rights in this book are reserved. 
NFo part of the book may be reproduced in any 
manner whatsoever without written permission of 
the publishers except brief quotations embodied in 
critical articles or reviews. For information address 
Abingdon Press, Nashville 2, Xennessee. 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-8412 



THOSE IN THE CHURCH who see that the great truths we 
hold in common are of more importance to God and 
man than the little fences and barriers whieh divide us 

This book is dedicated 


Many people, many books and sources contribute to the building of such a book 
as this; to them we would immediately admit our debt. The account of each religious 
body represented in these pages has been prepared from the latest and most authentic 
data available from historical records, statistical reports, conference minutes and the 
official statements of innumerable boards, commissions, and committees supplied 
promptly and gratis by innumerable and most co-operative denominational officials 
and spokesmen. Without them the book would have been impossible. Most sections 
have been read, corrected, and often amended by authorities within the churches. 
The critics, both friendly and furious, have had their say and often their way 
except in those cases where propaganda seemed to outweigh accurate and objective 
information. Out of it has corne, we trust, a book both accurate and fair. To these 
critics our unspeakable gratitude. 

Hundreds of books have been consulted; it would be impossible to list a complete 
bibliography. A dozen encyclopedias have been a very present help in time of 
need. In the field of American cults, minor religious movements, and the smaller 
sects, The Small Sects in America, by Elmer T. Clark (Abingdon Press, 1949), and 
These Also Believe, by Charles S. Braden (The Macmillan Company, 1949), have 
been invaluable. We are also indebted to How We Got Our Denominations (re- 
vised edition), by Stanley I. Stuber (Association Press, 1959); Yearbook of American 
Churches, edited by Benson Y. Landis (National Council of the Churches of Christ 
in the U.S.A.); The Story of Religions in America, by William Warren Sweet 
(Harper & Brothers, 1930); Religion in America, by Willard L. Sperry (Macmillan, 
1946); Protestantism, a Symposium, edited by William K. Anderson (Commission 
on Courses of Study, The Methodist Church, 1944); The March of Faith, by 
Winfred Ernest Garrison (Harper & Brothers, 1933); Primer for Protestants, by 
James Hastings Nichols (Association Press, 1947); The American Churches, by 
William Warren Sweet (Abingdon Press, 1948); What Americans Believe and How 
They Worship, by J. Paul Williams (Harper & Brothers, 1952); Churches and Sects 
of Christendom, by J. L. Neve (Lutheran Publishing House, 1952); and The 
Religious Bodies of America, by F. E. Mayer (Concordia Publishing House, 1954). 

Perhaps the reader should be warned: we have endeavored to produce not a 
popular "digest," nor a book of opinion, criticism, or value judgments, but a 
reference volume concerned only with factual truth as it is involved in the develop- 
ment of the religious bodies of the United States. In this second revised edition, we 
have checked and rechecked information which has appeared in earlier editions and 
added such other information as was deemed important and necessary by the various 
denominational authorities with whom we worked. Every effort has been made to 
include every body of importance; some which appeared iij earlier editions have 
been dropped, thanks to mergers, the ravages of time, or our failure to secure replies 



to repeated requests for information. If any have been slighted or omitted for any 
other reason, we offer our apologies. The book will continue to be revised; in future 
editions we hope to write with yet greater objectivity and in continued "malice 
toward none; with charity for all." 




Seventh-day Adventists 20 

Advent Christian Church 22 

Primitive Advent Christian Church 23 

Church of God (Abrahamic Faith) 23 

Life and Advent Union 23 










BAHA'I 30 


American Baptist Convention 35 

Southern Baptist Convention . * 36 

Negro Baptists 38 

American Baptist Association 39 

Baptist General Conference of America 40 

Bethel Baptist Assembly 41 


Christian Unity Baptist Association 41 

Conservative Baptist Association of America 41 

Duck River (and Kindred) Associations of Baptists 

(Baptist Church of Christ) 42 

Free Will Baptists 43 

General Baptists 43 

The General Association of Regular Baptist Churches 44 

General Conference of the Evangelical Baptist Church, Inc 45 

General Six-Principle Baptists 45 

Independent Baptist Church of America 45 

Landmark Baptists 46 

National Baptist Evangelical Life and Soul Saving Assembly of the U.S.A. . 46 

National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A 46 

North American Baptist Association , 47 

North American Baptist General Conference 47 

Primitive Baptists 48 

Regular Baptists 49 

Separate Baptists in Christ 50 

Seventh Day Baptists 50 

Seventh Day Baptists (German, 1728) 51 

Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists . . , 51 

United Baptists 52 

The United Free Will Baptist Church 52 




Church of the Brethren 54 

Brethren Church (Progressive Dunkers) 56 

Church of God (New Dunkards) ... 56 

Old German Baptist Brethren (Old Order Dunkers) . . , 57 





Brethren in Christ 60 

Old Order, or Yorker, Brethren 60 

United Zion Church 60 
















The (Original) Church of God, Inc. 74 

Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) 74 

The Church of God (Seventh Day), Denver, Colorado ........ 75 

Church of God and Saints of Christ 76 

The Church of God in Christ 76 
















Albanian Orthodox Diocese in America 89 

The American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church ... 91 

Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church 91 

Greek Archdiocese of North and South America 91 

The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America 92 

Russian Orthodox Church 92 

Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church 94 

Syrian Antiochian Orthodox Church 95 

Ukrainian Orthodox Churches 95 

Holy Orthodox Church in America (Eastern Catholic and Apostolic) . . 95 

The American Catholic Church (Syro-Antiochean) 96 

Assyrian Orthodox Church 96 

Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East (Nestorian) 97 

Eastern Rite (Catholic) Churches 97 

Uniat Churches 97 

The American Orthodox Church 98 

The American Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church 

(in Association with The Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate of America) . . 98 








Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean) 103 

Apostolic Christian Churches of America 103 

Church of Daniel's Band 104 

Church of God (Apostolic) . 104 

Church of God as Organized by Christ 104 

Hepzibah Faith Missionary Association 104 

Metropolitan Church Association 105 

Missionary Church Association 105 

Pillar of Fire 105 






Religious Society of Friends (General Conference) 113 

Society of Friends (Five Years Meeting) 113 

Religious Society of Friends (Conservative) 114 







Orthodox Judaism 123 

Reform Judaism 124 

Conservative Judaism 125 



Reconstructionism 125 

Commandment Keepers, or Black Jews 125 



Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 129 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 129 

Church of Christ, Temple Lot 130 

Church of Jesus Christ 131 

Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerites) 131 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints (Strangites) 131 





The American Lutheran Church 136 

American Lutheran Church (Original) 137 

Evangelical Lutheran Church 137 

United Evangelical Lutheran Church 137 

Lutheran Church in America 139 

United Lutheran Church in America 139 

American Evangelical Lutheran Church 140 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (Suomi Synod) 140 

Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church 140 

Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America 141 

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Eielsen Synod) 141 

Evangelical Lutheran Synod (Formerly The Norwegian Synod of the 
American Evangelical Lutheran Church) 142 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference 142 

Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of America 143 

The Lutheran Church Missouri Synod 143 

Lutheran Free Church 144 

National Evangelical Lutheran Church 145 



Orthodox Lutheran Conference 145 

The Protestant Conference (Lutheran) 145 

Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (Formerly the 
Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church) 145 

Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 145 



Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches 148 

Church of God in Christ (Mennonite) 148 

Conference of the Evangelical Mennonite Church 148 

Conservative Mennonite Conference 148 

Evangelical Mennonite Brethren 148 

Evangelical Mennonite Church 148 

The General Conference Mennonite Church 149 

Hutterian Brethren 149 

Krimmer Mennonite Brethren Conference 149 

Mennonite Brethren Church of North America 149 

Mennonite Church 150 

Old Order Amish Mennonite Church 150 

Old Order (Wisler) Mennonite Church 150 

Reformed Mennonite Church 150 

Stauffer Mennonite Church 151 

Unaffiliated Mennonites 151 


The Methodist Church 155 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 156 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 157 

African Union First Colored Methodist Protestant Church, Inc 157 

Apostolic Methodist Church 158 

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 158 

Colored Methodist Protestant Church 158 

Congregational Methodist Church 158 



Congregational Methodist Church of the U.S. A 158 

Cumberland Methodist Church 159 

Evangelical Methodist Church 159 

Free Methodist Church of North America 159 

Fundamental Methodist Church, Inc 160 

Holiness Methodist Church (North Carolina and North Dakota) .... 160 

Independent African Methodist Episcopal Church 160 

New Congregational Methodist Church 161 

People's Methodist Church 161 

Primitive Methodist Church, U.S. A 161 

Reformed Methodist Church 161 

Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church 162 

Reformed New Congregational Methodist Church 162 

Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church 162 

Southern Methodist Church 162 

Union American Methodist Episcopal Church 162 

Wesleyan Methodist Church of America 163 


Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) 164 

Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 165 

Evangelical Unity of the Czech-Moravian Brethren in North America . ,165 




American Catholic Church 168 

The American Catholic Church, Archdiocese of New York 168 

North American Catholic Church 168 

The Old Catholic Church in America 168 

The Reformed Catholic Church (Utrecht Confession) 

Province of North America 169 





Calvary Pentecostal Church, Inc 170 

Emmanuel Holiness Church 170 

Pentecostal Holiness Church 171 

Pentecostal Fire-Baptized Holiness Church 171 

Church of God in Christ (Pentecostal) 172 

International Pentecostal Assemblies 172 

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc 172 

Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc 172 

Pentecostal Church of Christ 173 

United Pentecostal Church, Inc 173 




The United Presbyterian Church in the U.S. A 177 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A 177 

United Presbyterian Church of North America 179 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S 181 

Associate Presbyterian Church of North America 182 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (General Synod) 183 

Bible Presbyterian Church 183 

Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church 183 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 184 

The Orthodox Presbyterian Church 184 

Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, General Synod .... 185 
Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America (Old School) . . . .185 



Reformed Church in America 190 

Christian Reformed Church 193 

Hungarian Reformed Church in America 193 

Netherlands Reformed Congregations 194 

Protestant Reformed Churches of America 194 










International General Assembly of Spiritualists 208 

The National Spiritual Alliance of the U.S.A 208 

National Spiritualist Association of Churches 208 

Progressive Spiritual Church 208 




Church of the United Brethren in Christ (Old Constitution) 214 

United Christian Church 214 


Congregational Church 215 

Christian Church 218 

Evangelical and Reformed Church 219 










INDEX 259 



Adventism in general Is a Christian 
faith based upon the conviction that the 
second advent of Christ is the sole hope 
of the world. It holds that the world is 
evil and will be destroyed by divine in- 
tervention, and that the wicked are to 
perish in this cataclysm while the right- 
eous are to be saved. After this cataclysm 
Jesus Christ will reign in triumph 
through the 1,000-year period, or 
millennium, of Rev, 20:1-6. The whole 
Adventist thesis rests heavily upon the 
prophetic and apocalyptic texts of Daniel 
and Revelation. 

As a religious movement it began with 
a widespread "awakening" on the ques- 
tion of the advent, which developed 
spontaneously in the Old World and in 
the New in the early decades of the 
nineteenth century. It became strongest 
and most clearly defined in the United 
States, at first under the leadership of 
William Miller (1782-1849), of Low 
Hampton, New York, a veteran of the 
war of 1812 and a man respected as a 
diligent student even though he did not 
have college or seminary training. 

The movement under Miller was at 
first an interchurch (or, more accurately, 
intrachuTch) development, with many 
Methodists, Christians, Baptists, Presby- 
terians, and Congregationalists among its 
adherents. It was thus a movement with- 
in the existing churches, and in the days 
of its beginnings there was no intention 
or attempt to organize a separate de- 

So influential was William Miller that 
for years his followers were known as 
Millerites. Miller himself became a 
Baptist in 1816. He began at once a care- 
ful study of the Scriptures, concentrating 

on the prophecies of Daniel and Revela* 
tion. Using only the Bible, its marginal 
references, and Cruden's Concordance as 
his sources, he came to the conclusion 
that many Old and New World biblical 
scholars had already reached namely, 
that the symbolic "day" of Bible proph- 
ecy really represents a year. He also 
concluded that the 2,300 "days" of Dan. 
8:14 started concurrently with the 
70 weeks of years of Dan. 9, or 
from 457 B.C., the year of the command 
to rebuild and restore Jerusalem; and he 
believed that the longer of the two 
periods would end in or about the Jewish 
sacred year "1843." Miller thought that 
the "sanctuary" mentioned in Dan. 8:14 
was actually the earth, which would be 
cleansed by fire at the time of the Second 
Advent. He believed that this cleansing 
would occur sometime between March 
21, 1843, and March 21, 1844. 

When the great expectation failed to 
materialize by the spring of 1844, many 
left the movement. Miller's associates 
then set a second date, October 22, 1844, 
which they calculated would be the great 
antitypical Day of Atonement, confident 
that the "day of the Lord is near, even 
at the door." By 1844 there were between 
fifty thousand and one hundred thousand 
Adventists in this country. Hundreds of 
them, perhaps even thousands, disposed 
of their property as the day of expecta- 
tion approached, gave away their goods, 
settled all their accounts, and waited 
prayerfully for the fateful day to come. 
October 22 came and passed with no 
Second Coming. Now vast numbers lost 
all interest in Adventism and went back 
to their former churches. 

There were enough left, however, of 



the main group to form several smaller 
bodies. At first a loose Adventist orga- 
nization came into being at a conference 
in Albany, New York, in 1845. This 
group held generally to Miller's positions 
and theology, emphasizing the personal 
and premillennial character of the second 
advent of Christ, the resurrection of the 
dead the faithful to be raised at Christ's 
coming, the rest 1,000 years later 
and the renewal of the earth as the 
eternal abode of the redeemed. Known at 
first as the American Millennial Associa- 
tion, a portion of them later came to be 
called Evangelical Adventists, a church 
which has dwindled with the passing of 
the years to the point of obscurity. An- 
other and larger group in 1861 became 
known as the Advent Christian Church. 

Considering the nature of their doc- 
trine and the opportunity for such wide 
divergence in the interpretation of the 
apocalyptic passages of the Bible upon 
which their conclusions are based, it was 
inevitable that the Adventists should be- 
come divided into different groups, 
maintaining different positions. Basically, 
nearly all Adventists were, and still are, 
agreed that the second advent of Christ 
will be premillennial that is, that his 
return will precede the 1,000 year 
period foretold in Rev. 20. Only the 
Life and Advent Union among present- 
day Adventist bodies is postmillennial. 

Beyond this their congregations were 
soon plagued with speculation and dis- 
sension over other questions. Just what 
is the state of the dead conscious or 
unconscious as they await the resurrec- 
tion? Who are to arise the righteous 
and the wicked, or only the righteous? 
Is there to be eternal punishment for the 
wicked, or ultimate annihilation? What 
is the nature of immortality? Does the 
cleansing of the sanctuary of Dan. 8 refer 
to a sanctuary in heaven or on earth? 
When should the Sabbath be celebrated 
on the first day or on the seventh, on 
Sunday or on Saturday? Over these ques- 
tions the Adventists, as organizations, be- 

came divided into 5 separate groups, in 
which we find them today. 

Seventh-day Adventists 

By far the largest single Adventist 
body in point of numbers, both in the 
United States and particularly through- 
out the world, is the Seventh-day Ad- 
ventist Church, which traces its begin- 
ning back to the 1840's. They trace their 
convictions on the Sabbath back to the 
earlier Seventh Day Baptists of New 
England and the Old World. 

Their first major point of disagreement 
with other Adventist bodies was not, 
however, over the seventh day but over 
the question of the "sanctuary" in Dan. 
8:14 and over the true interpretation of 
that passage. A small group of Adventists 
were convinced that this sanctuary was 
in heaven and not on earth and that 
there would be a work of "investigative 
judgment" in this heavenly sanctuary 
prior to the Second Advent. Other Ad- 
ventist bodies of the period still held that 
the sanctuary was on earth. 

Coupled with the divergence came 
another, concerning the time of the Sec- 
ond Advent. The Seventh-day group 
claimed that the historical and prophetic 
evidence pointing to October 22, 1844, 
was correct, but that the error lay in a 
mistaken interpretation of Dan. 8: 13-14 
that Christ was not at that time to come 
out of, but was to enter into, the Most 
Holy Place in heaven to complete the 
second phase of his high priestly min- 
istry before coming to this earth. The 
group holding these dissenting views also 
carne to advocate the observance of the 
seventh day. 

As early as 1844 a small group 
of these Adventists near Washington, 
New Hampshire, had begun observing 
the Sabbath on the seventh day. A 
pamphlet written by Joseph Bates in 
1846 gave the question wide publicity 
and created great interest. Shortly after 
this. Bates, together with James White, 



Ellen Harmon (later Mrs. James White), 
Hiram Edson, Frederick Wheeler, and 
S. W. Rhodes, set out definitely with 
the aid of regular publications to 
champion the seventh-day Sabbath, along 
with the imminence of the Advent 
Hence their name Seventh-day Ad- 

The growth of the group around these 
leaders was slow at first owing to the 
general derision in which Adventists 
were held and to their economic and 
social handicaps. By 1855, however, they 
were sufficiently prosperous and nu- 
merically strong enough to set up head- 
quarters at Battle Creek, Michigan, /with 
a publishing house called the Review 
and Herald Publishing Association. In 
1860 they officially adopted the name 
Seventh-day Adventists, and in 1903 
they moved their headquarters to its 
present location in Washington, D. C. 

Doctrinally the Seventh-day Advent- 
ists are evangelical conservatives. Their 
standard statement of belief, appearing 
annually in their Year Book, reveals that 
they take the Bible as their sole rule of 
faith and practice; that they believe in 
God as revealed in the Father, the Son, 
and the Holy Spirit, each equally and 
uniquely divine, personal, and eternal. 
They believe in creation by divine fiat, 
and in the fall of man. Man is by nature 
not immortal, they hold, but only 
mortal; he is saved solely by grace and 
redeemed only through the atoning, sub- 
stitutionary death of Jesus Christ. 

They hold the Ten Commandments 
to be the standard of righteousness for 
men of all ages; and they base their ob- 
servance of the seventh day as the Sab- 
bath on the Fourth Commandment 
"Six days shalt thou labour, . . . But the 
seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord 
thy God." They tithe their incomes; 
the support of the ministry in this church 
is entirely by the tithing system. Be- 
yond the tithe they give toward mis- 
sions, local church expenses, and other 
church enterprises in unusually generous 

freewill offerings their annual per 
capita giving being f 2 16.09. 

They believe in the gift of prophecy 
in the church; that the dead are await- 
ing the resurrection in an unconscious 
state; that the body will be resurrected 
in the last day, with immortality for the 
righteous and utter destruction by fire 
for the wicked. They stand stanchly for 
religious liberty for all men and for the 
complete separation of church and state. 
They consider the body of man to be 
the temple of the Holy Spirit and, in 
consequence, rigidly abstain from the 
use of alcoholic beverages and tobacco. 
They believe in the premillennial, per- 
sonal, visible return of Christ "at a time 
unknown but close at hand," and in a 
new earth to be created out of the ruins 
of the old as the final abode of the re- 
deemed. They practice immersion as 
the only true form of baptism, and they 
also practice foot washing as a prepara- 
tory service for Communion. 

The over-all administrative body of 
the church is the executive committee of 
their general conference, which is chosen 
by delegates from the various church 
groups in the quadrennial sessions of the 
general conference of Seventh-day Ad- 
ventists. Working under this general 
conference are 3 lesser governmental 
units: (1) the 13 division organizations, 
administering affairs in different con- 
tinents; (2) 72 union conferences and 
missions, making up the divisional or- 
ganizations; and (3) 127 local confer- 
ences and missions, the smallest admin- 
istrative units. 

Each unit has a large amount of 
autonomy. Local congregations elect lay 
elders, deacons, and other officers; the 
local conference office supervises all 
local pastoral and evangelistic work and 
relations and pays all pastors and other 
workers in its territory from a central 
fund. Theirs is a highly representative 
form of government. 

Evangelism, publishing, educational, 
health, and welfare work are outstand- 



ing and highly successful among Seventh- 
day Adventists. Regarding themselves 
not as just another church but as a 
movement established in fulfillment of 
Bible prophecy to prepare man for the 
Second Advent and to revive and re- 
store the neglected truths of the Refor- 
mation and of the apostolic church, they 
carry forward their work in 791 lan- 
guages and dialects 218 with publica- 
tions and 573 orally. 

They have 44 publishing houses dis- 
tributed over the world, with 6 in the 
United States. Literature is printed in 
218 languages and dialects, and in Braille 
for the blind. Their colporteurs sold 
over $24,000,000 worth of literature in 
1958. They publish 305 periodicals. In 
North America they have 3 junior col- 
leges; 11 liberal arts colleges; a university 
with a theological seminary; and med- 
ical, dental, and physical therapy schools. 
In the United States and abroad they 
support 221 medical units with 34 ac- 
credited nurses' training schools. They 
operate 324 colleges and secondary 
schools and 4,568 elementary schools. 
Their welfare work operates from 400 
metropolitan centers. 

They now have 1,172 radio broad- 
casts weekly in 25 languages 637 in 
North America and 535 abroad; and 
3,793,000 students have enrolled in their 
Bible correspondence schools, offered 
in 66 languages. An international broad- 
cast, "The Voice of Prophecy," goes out 
over 823 stations in 25 languages and 
52 countries. A television program, 
"Faith for Today," is released weekly 
over 150 outlets. 

As they practice only adult immersion, 
no infants or children are included in 
the Seventh-day Adventist membership. 
Their world membership in 1958 was 
1,149,256, representing 12,241 churches, 
and is limited to those who are faithful 
in upholding their church standards, in- 
cluding abstention from liquor and 
tobacco. There are 318,939 Seventh-day 
Adventists in the United States and 
Canada organized into 3,139 churches. 

Advent Christian Church 
William Miller was never active in 
the Advent Christian Association, which 
later became the Advent Christian 
Church. While his teachings of the im- 
minent return of Christ were strongly 
influential in its founding, another doc- 
trine was equally prominent; this re- 
lated to the doctrine of the nature and 
mortality of man. Dissatisfied with the 
Platonic doctrine of the immortality of 
the human soul, early Adventist leaders 
such as Professor Charles F. Hudson and 
George Storrs rejected it completely 
and sought a more biblical emphasis. 
They preached a new doctrine of "con- 
ditional immortality," which declared 
the unconscious state of all the dead 
until the resurrection at Christ's return, 
the setting up of a divine tribunal for 
the determination of rewards and punish- 
ments, the ultimate extinction of all 
evil, and the establishment of the ever- 
lasting kingdom of God upon this earth 
as a restored paradise. 

The first Advent Christian Associa- 
tion was established at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1860, and its members 
those who in their allegiance to Ad- 
ventism had been cut off from their own 
churches publicly disclaimed any in- 
tent to form a separate denominational 
group. By 1900 2 colleges Aurora Col- 
lege at Aurora, Illinois, and the New 
England School of Theology at Boston 
had been established, and foreign mis- 
sionary work was under way in Africa, 
India, China, and Mexico. The church 
now has additional mission stations in 
Japan and the Philippines. It maintains 
2 publishing houses, 3 homes for the 
aged, and 1 orphanage. 

Congregational in polity, local Advent 
Christian churches are organized into 
state conferences in 5 regional districts 
of the United States and Canada. These 
conferences, together with denomina- 
tional institutions and co-operating so- 
cieties, are associated under the Advent 
Christian General Conference of Amer- 
ica, which holds biennial sessions. 



The only creedal statement is a 
declaration of principles adopted by the 
General Conference of 1900. Two sacra- 
ments are observed baptism by im- 
mersion and the Lord's Supper. Worship 
is held on the first day of the week. 

There are 421 churches and 30,000 

Primitive Advent Christian Church 

This is a recent development from the 
Advent Christian Church, with 553 mem- 
bers in 12 churches, all of them in West 
Virginia, As the name implies, it is an 
effort to recapture the principles and 
thought of primitive Adventism. No 
statements on doctrine, history, work, or 
organization are available. 

Church of God (Abrahamic Faith) 

This church is the outgrowth of sev- 
eral independent local groups of similar 
faith; some of them were in existence as 
early as 1800, and others date their be- 
ginnings with the arrival of British im- 
migrants in this country around 1847. 
Many of them organized originally un- 
der the name of Church of God in 
Christ Jesus. 

State and district conferences of these 
scattered groups were formed as an ex- 
pression of mutual co-operation. A na- 
tional organization was instituted at 
Philadelphia in 1888, and this met again 
in 1889; however, because of very strong 
convictions on questions of congrega- 
tional rights and authority, the national 
organization ceased to function until 
1921, when the present general confer- 
ence was formed at Waterloo, Iowa. 

The Bible is accepted here as the 
supreme standard of faith. Adventist in 
viewpoint, the second (premillennial) 
coming of Christ is strongly emphasized. 
The church teaches that the kingdom of 
God will be literal, beginning at Jeru- 
salem at the time of the return of Christ 
and extending to all nations. It believes 
in the restoration of Israel, the times of 

restitution, the mortality of man (a 
sleep in death until the resurrection), the 
literal resurrection of the dead, the re- 
ward of the righteous on earth, and the 
complete destruction of the wicked in 
second death. Membership is dependent 
upon acceptance of doctrinal faith, re- 
pentance, and baptism (for the remission 
of sins) by immersion. 

Delegates from each church meet each 
year to determine church plans and 
policies and to elect officers, who serve 
as a board of directors. A general con- 
ference operates Oregon Bible College 
for the training of ministers; the print- 
ing and publishing of church literature; 
the Berean Youth Fellowship; the De- 
partment of Evangelism and Missions; 
and the Sunday-School Department, The 
work of the general conference is carried 
on under the direction of the board of 
directors, which meets as necessary 
throughout the year. The executive of- 
ficer is a general manager who admin- 
isters the work as a whole. The officers 
of the general conference are in- 
corporated as the National Bible Institu- 
tion, which is the operating agency of 
the general conference. Because of the 
congregational nature of the church's 
government the general conference exists 
primarily as a means of mutual co- 
operation and for the development of 
yearly projects and enterprises. There 
are 5,215 members in 102 churches, 
divided into 17 state and district con- 
ferences. The church periodical, The 
Restitution Herald, is published bi- 

Life and Advent Union 

In 1848 John T. Walsh, an Adventist 
preacher and editor, advanced the doc- 
trine that only the righteous dead will 
have a resurrection; all others will re- 
main in their graves forever. Other Ad- 
ventists who accepted his views organ- 
ized the Life and Advent Union at 
Wilbraham, Massachusetts, in 18<53. 

With Adventists generally, they look 



for the literal, personal return of Christ 
to this earth. They believe that the dead 
are unconscious and that eternal life will 
be bestowed upon the righteous when 
Christ returns, immortality being given 
by a resurrection of the dead and trans- 
lation of the living who have been faith- 
ful to Christ. Life will begin again upon 
a purified earth. 

Omens of Christ's return are seen in 
the loss of religious faith and the unrest 
and confusion of the modern world, but 
even an approximate date for the Sec- 

ond Advent cannot be set. The doctrine 
of a millennium in the future is rejected; 
the thousand years of Rev. 20 refer to a 
period already past. 

Foreign missionary work in China has 
necessarily been discontinued; the de- 
nomination co-operates with the Advent 
Christian Church in missionary work in 
Japan. There are 2 annual camp meet- 
ings, in Connecticut and Maine; a bi- 
weekly periodical, The Herald of Life, 
is issued; there are 3 local churches with 
about 300 members. 


Believing that Negro Episcopalians 
should have churches of their own, a 
Protestant Episcopal rector, the Rev. 
George Alexander McGuire, withdrew 
from that church in 1919 to establish in- 
dependent Negro churches in the United 
States, Cuba, and Canada. He called 
them Independent Episcopal churches, 
but in 1921 the first general synod of the 
new body changed the name to The 
African Orthodox Church and elected 
McGuire as its first bishop. He was con- 
secrated by Archbishop Vilatte, who 
took his episcopal orders from the West 
Syrian Church of Antioch; this put 
McGuire in the traditional apostolic 
succession, which he valued highly. 

The church still lays strong emphasis 
upon the apostolic succession and upon 
the historic sacraments and rituals. It 
has the original 7 sacraments of the 
Roman Catholic Church; its worship 
is a blending of Western and Eastern 
liturgy, creeds, and symbols. The lit- 
urgy is usually Western, a mingling of 

Anglican, Greek, and Roman patterns. 
Three creeds Apostles', Nicene, and 
Athanasian are used. 

The denomination maintains the ada- 
mant position of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church on marriage: no priest may re- 
marry the guilty party to a divorce, and 
innocent parties are remarried only after 
special permission by a bishop. The gov- 
ernment is of course episcopal; bishops 
are in charge of dioceses or jurisdictions, 
and groups of dioceses form a province, 
each led by an archbishop and a primate, 
who in turn presides over the provincial 
synod. At the head stands the patriarch, 
McGuire, who is general overseer of all 
the work of the church, which now ex- 
tends over the United States, Canada, 
Latin America, and the Union of South 
Africa. Membership, as in the Roman 
Catholic Church, is counted not by com- 
municants but by the number of persons 
baptized; in the United States there were 
24 churches and 6,000 members in 1957. 


Officially named the Amana (Faith- group stems from the Pietistic move- 
fulness) Church Society but more popu- ment in eighteenth-century Germany, 
larly known as the Amana Society, this In 1714 a small company under the 



leadership of Johann Rock and Ludwig 
Gruber stirred the Germans with their 
preaching that the days of true and 
direct inspiration from God had not 
ended. Both these leaders were said to 
have the "gift of inspiration." Under 
persecution from the German govern- 
ment the group came to America in 
1842, settling near Buffalo, New York. 
There were 800 of them, organized as 
the Ebenezer Society. 

Life was completely communistic in 
these first American settlements; all 
property was held and shared collec- 
tively; each person did the work for 
which he was fitted and shared equally 
in the reward; each village had a com- 
mon school, meetinghouse, and store. Lo- 
cal government was in the hands of a 
group of elected elders. The society 
moved in 1855 to Iowa, where the vil- 
lages of Amana, East, South, Middle, 
High, and West Amana, and Homestead 
were established. Here they became in- 
corporated under their present name. 

These Iowa villages still constitute an 
outstanding experiment in communal 
living. The society was reorganized in 
1932, many of the communistic prac- 
tices were abandoned, and it was or- 
ganized as a corporation for profit and 
is managed as such. Members might 
now be called co-operative rather than 
communistic. They conduct 50 different 
businesses and farm 25,000 acres of land; 
they are stockholders in a $4,000,000 cor- 

Once pacifistic, they will now bear 
arms in military service; but they still 
refuse to take oaths. Stated wages are 
paid to all. The traditional garb of the 
old German peasant has been largely 
discarded, but women in church still 
dress as the women dressed a century 
ago. Amusements, formerly frowned 
upon, are now more generally tolerated. 

The purpose of the society is purely 
religious; it is based upon the "salva- 
tion of souls, the service of God." They 
believe that "God can now as well as 
of old inspire men," but none seems to 
have been inspired in the old historic 
sense since the deaths of 2 early Amer- 
ican leaders, Christian Metz and Bar- 
bara Landmann. They accept the 
teachings of a holy universal church, 
the remission of sins and the communion 
of the saints, the resurrection of the 
body, the punishment of the wicked, 
and Hfe everlasting. They acknowledge 
no baptism with water but only "bap- 
tism by fire and the Spirit." Members 
are confirmed and admitted to the 
church at 15; all children are required to 
attend public schools. There is no or- 
dained ministry; services consist of 
prayer, testimony, and readings from 
the writings of Metz and Landmann. 
The church as it exists at present is 
known as the Amana Church Society; 
it is separated from the temporal affairs 
of the community but still a dominant 
influence. Membership is put at 1,050, 
with 400 minors not yet admitted; and 
there are 7 congregations. 




The Ethical Movement in the United traditions of the great religions of man- 
States builds its thought and program kind. It has no formal creed but in a 
upon moral philosophy and the ethical statement of principles declares that 



the search for ethical values and their pro- 
gressive realization are inherently a reli- 
gious enterprize. , . . All human beings, 
however different their abilities or back- 
grounds, have an equal right to such ful- 
fillment as encourages the fulfillment of 
their fellow-men. Such a goal requires di- 
versity in beliefs and practices, and there- 
fore freedom of conscience, thought and 
expression. . . . Our attitude toward that 
which is beyond present knowledge, in- 
cluding questions about cosmic matters, is 
one of free and cooperative exploration, 
and respect for individual experience. 

Stress is laid upon the development of 
conscience and a sense of responsibility 
as great creative forces among men. 

There are 28 active ethical culture 
societies in the Ethical Union, the first 
of which was founded by Felix Adler 
in 1876. Abroad there are active societies 
in England and Vienna. 

Meetings of the societies feature in- 
spirational music, readings, and addresses. 
There are no ministers in the usual 
sense, but there are salaried Leaders who 
serve as counselors, officiate at weddings 
and funerals, name children, and per- 

form in general the functions of min- 
isters. There are Sunday schools, young 
people's groups, and study groups; per- 
haps the most effective work is found 
in educational, philanthropic, and social 
efforts and projects. The New York 
society must be given credit for the 
start of settlement work in this coun- 
try; at the present time societies in New 
York, Chicago, and Philadelphia sponsor 
very effective settlement-house programs. 
Free kindergartens, visiting nurses, the 
Child Study Movement, the abolition 
of child labor, model tenements, and 
the inauguration of free public legal 
aid societies constitute ethical culture 

Within the movement outstanding 
schools have been developed at Central 
Park and Riverdale in New York City 
and in Brooklyn; these schools are mod- 
els in their field, setting high standards 
in progressive education, and are very 
popular with many not identified with 
the movement. 

There are approximately 5,000 mem- 


Launched in 1944 and incorporated 
in Illinois, this is a fellowship or con- 
ference of clergymen described as being 
"of an associational character for busi- 
ness, educational, and benevolent pur- 
poses," It engages in home and foreign 
missionary work; licenses and ordains 
teachers, ministers, missionaries, and 
evangelists; publishes religious literature; 
and conducts religious schools, conven- 
tions, and institutes. Churches estab- 
lished under its charter are known as 
American Bible churches and are quite 
independent of one another and of super- 
vision from headquarters, except that 
any church may be dropped for devia- 

tion from the doctrinal standards of the 
national body. 

Applicants for membership must sub- 
scribe to the following articles of faith: 
(1) the Bible as the written word of 
God; (2) the Virgin Birth; (3) the deity 
of Jesus Christ; (4) salvation through 
the Atonement; (5) the guidance of life 
through prayer; (6) the return of the 
Saviour; and (7) the establishment of 
the kingdom of God on earth. Licenses 
are issued to qualifying members, en- 
abling them to perform all church func- 
tions and rites with the exception of 
that of officiating at marriages. Ministers 
are ordained on approval of national 



headquarters by 2 previously ordained 
A.E.C.C. ministers. 

Chief officer of the group is the 
moderator; there are 5 trustees who act 
as an executive committee and who elect 
their own successors. 

The organization operates the Ameri- 
can Bible College at Pineland, Florida, 
for the training of its ministers and mis- 
sionaries. It also supervises the work of 
the American Bible School in Chicago, 

which specializes in home-study courses, 
Five regionals in the United States and 
one in Canada supervise the American 
churches in their respective areas and 
plan the annual conferences and conven- 
tions. All ordinations are performed by 
regional officers upon approval of na- 
tional headquarters. 

The present membership now stands 
at approximately 500, about 5 per cent 
of which are women. 


An alliance or union of churches and 
ministers, this body originated in the 
efforts of Grant T. Billett, who with- 
drew from his ecclesiastical connections 
in 1929 to become an independent evan- 
gelist. In September of 1929 the initial 
plans were laid to organize a group of 
independent ministers and churches, and 
the alliance was first known as the Amer- 
ican Conference of Undenominational 
Ministers. It was formally organized in 
1944 and the name changed to the 
American Ministerial Association. 

The association is incorporated in a 
number of states, which enables it to give 
churches and ministers standing equiva- 
lent to that of a denomination. Men and 
women are admitted to the ministry and 
are ordained on the approval of national 
headquarters. The membership repre- 
sents all parts of the United States and 
Canada and some foreign fields, showing 
a continual increase. 

The association is unique in the fact 
that it is not a branch of, or a split from, 
any denomination, but rather a coming 
together of members from many de- 
nominations. It is described as 

not a "come out" movement, but a "coming 
together" movement, recognizing all mem- 
bers of the One True Church, the Body of 
Christ; the membership is embracive, not 
exclusive; its ministry is not restricted by 

tradition, knowing that dogmas and creeds 
have held sway for centuries, but that truth 
is a divine revelation. 

The association prefers to be known 
not as a denomination but rather as an 
evangelistic and missionary movement; 
yet it has a familiar denominational 
organization with home and foreign 
mission boards, a department of educa- 
tion, and a publishing commission. 

Dr. Billett heads the group as presi- 
dent, and a limited ecclesiastical author- 
ity is vested in the national headquarters 
office, which guides the associational 
work in business, education, and benevo- 
lence. Its main work lies in the establish- 
ing of independent, nonsectarian local 
churches and missions. Regional offices 
are maintained throughout the United 
States and Canada, and the ministers 
meet for mutual consultations and in- 
spiration in conferences. A college and 
seminary are maintained at Springfield, 

Doctrine and teaching here might be 
described as middle-of-the-road, embrac- 
ing the customary Christian position, 
"yet allowing its ministers to live the 
religious life unhampered by creedal ob- 
ligations." The cosmopolitan complexion 
of its ministers and membership, includ- 
ing as it does representatives of many 
different schools of religious thought, 



would naturally produce such an em- 
phasis. Approximately 222 ministers are 
in affiliation with this body. Statistical 

records on membership of the associated 
churches are unavailable because of the 
autonomous nature of the local churches. 


Incorporated in 1896 and with a name 
amended to the organizational charter in 
1913, the American Rescue Workers 
engage in a typical rescue mission work 
in offering emergency aid (lodgings, 
clothing, food) and evangelism, yet have 
the status of a full-fledged nonsectarian 
church. The rites of baptism and Com- 
munion are administered by the officers 
and ministers in charge of local corps, 
and regular church and Sunday-school 
services are held in their chapels and 
mission halls. Ministers are ordained at 
annual councils. 

Their articles of religion include sub- 
scription to the Trinity, the inspiration 
of the Scriptures and their use as the 

divine rule of faith and practice, the fall 
of man, redemption through the atoning 
sacrifice of Christ, restoration through 
repentance and belief in Christ, regene- 
ration through the work of the Holy 
Spirit, and the immortality of the soul. 
Government is by a board of managers 
elected by the members of the corpora- 
tion. Organization is on a military pattern 
with General Richard H. Ives as com- 
mander in chief and with territorial com- 
manders in charge of some 23 stations 
across the country. A periodical, The 
Rescue Herald, is published in Philadel- 
phia. There are 3,500 members in twenty- 
eight churches. 


Bishop W. T. Phillips, founder and 
senior officer of this church, is a former 
member of the Methodist Church who 
became deeply concerned with the 
teaching of the doctrine of holiness and 
in 1916, after four years of study and 
preaching on the doctrine, organized the 
Ethiopian Overcoming Holy Church 
of God. The word "Ethiopian" was later 
changed to "Apostolic." 

Active in 14 states and with missions 
in the West Indies and Africa, the min- 
isters of the body are supported by tithe 
payments of the membership; the clergy 
are also required to tithe. Worship in- 

cludes foot washing and divine healing. 
Services generally are free, emotional 
affairs bordering on the bizarre, with the 
participants speaking in tongues and en- 
gaging in ecstatic dances. 

It is claimed that this church existed 
"even from the days of Enos," when 
Christianity was known to be in exist- 
ence in Abyssinia. Marriage to unsaved 
men and women, the use of snuff, foolish 
talking, jesting, and the use of slang are 
forbidden. Bishop Phillips put the mem- 
bership at 75,000 in three hundred 
churches in 1956. 



Armenia claims to be the first Chris- 
tian nation. The apostles Thaddeus and 
Bartholomew (sometimes held to be the 
same person) were there during the time 
of Paul, and Christianity was adopted as 
the state faith in A.D. 301. Gregory the 
Enlightener, preaching in Armenia at 
that time, became the first bishop of this 
national church, with the title of Cath- 
olicos, or supreme patriarch. 

The story of the Christian church in 
Armenia has been written in blood; it 
suffered both in the inevitable conflict 
between the Byzantine Empire and 
Persia and in numerous persecutions by 
the Turks. Thousands fled to America 
just before and after World War I to 
escape the bloodshed; previously, as 
early as 1889, they had already become 
known as the Armenian Apostolic 
Church in America. Headquarters for 
this church are in a monastery at the 
foot of Mount Ararat; but an American 
hierarchy of archbishops, priests, and 
deacons directs the work in the United 
States. Diocesan organization is under the 
spiritual jurisdiction of the Holy See of 
Etchmiadzin, Armenia, U.S.S.R. 

Doctrine is based on the historic writ- 
ings and declarations of the early church 
fathers. The saints and the Virgin Mary 
are venerated, and the Immaculate Con- 

ception is not denied. On the other hand, 
the feast of the assumption of the Virgin 
is celebrated, but is not accepted as a 
dogma. A translation of the Scriptures by 
Sahak and Mesrob and other fathers of 
the American Church is accepted as the 
only authoritative version of the Bible. 
There are 7 sacraments: baptism by im- 
mersion eight days after birth, confirma- 
tion immediately following baptism, 
Holy Communion even for infants, 
penance, marriage, ordination, and visi- 
tation of the sick. 

Government of the church is demo- 
cratic in that all candidates for holy 
orders are elected by the people and 
hierarchal in that they must be ordained 
by bishops in the apostolic succession. 
Every province and diocese throughout 
the world has a constitution adapted to 
its peculiar needs, but which must be 
approved by the Catholics. The prin- 
cipal services are the Holy Sacrifice, or 
liturgy, on Sunday, and various feast 
days are held during the week. The Bible 
is read in public in Armenian at these 
services. Language schools, Sunday 
schools and a number of libraries help to 
keep the classic native tongue alive. In 
1959 there were 130,000 members in 
fifty- three churches in the United States. 


The largest of the Pentecostal bodies, 
with 505,552 members and 8,094 
churches, the Assemblies of God, Gen- 
eral Council, is actually an aggregation 
of Pentecostal churches and assemblies 
accomplished at Hot Springs, Arkansas, 
in 1914. The founders were former min- 
isters and pastors of evangelical persua- 
sion who wished to unite into one body 

in the interests of a more effective 
preaching and an enlarged missionary 

Ardently fundamentalist, its theology 
is Arminian; there is strong belief in the 
infallibility and inspiration of the Bible, 
the fall and redemption of man, baptism 
in the Holy Ghost, entire sanctification, 
a life of holiness and separation from the 



world, divine healing, the second advent 
of Jesus and his millennial reign, eternal 
punishment for the wicked and eternal 
bliss for believers. Two ordinances, bap- 
tism and the Lord's Supper, are practiced. 
Members stand officially opposed to war, 
but large numbers of their youth ac- 
cepted noncombatant and even combat- 
ant service in World War II. They are 
especially insistent that baptism in the 
Holy Spirit is evidenced by speaking in 
tongues. The Assemblies of God believe 
that all the gifts of the Spirit should be 
in operation in the normal New Testa- 
ment church. 

The government of the assemblies is 
an unusual mixture of Presbyterian and 
Congregational systems. Local churches 
are left quite independent in polity and 
in the conduct of local affairs. District 
officers have a pastoral ministry to all the 
churches and are responsible for the pro- 
motion of home missions. Work is di- 
vided into 44 districts in the United 
States, most of which follow state lines, 
each with a distinct presbytery which 
examines, licenses and ordains pastors. In 

addition to these three are 9 foreign 
language branches. The General Council 
consists of all ordained (not licensed) 
ministers, and local churches are repre- 
sented by one lay delegate each. This 
council elects all general officers, sets the 
doctrinal standards, and provides for 
church expansion and development. Mis- 
sionary work is conducted under the 
guidance of a central missionary commit- 
tee; there are 758 foreign missionaries at 
work on a total missionary budget of 
about $3,500,000 unusually high among 
Protestant churches. The Sunday schools 
of the group have an enrollment of 
922,663. A weekly periodical, The Pente- 
costal Evangel, has a circulation of ap- 
proximately 167,500; and a prosperous 
church press produces books, tracts, and 
other religious literature. There are 12 
Bible institutes, or schools, maintained. 
The latest school to be established is 
Evangel College, a Liberal Arts School, 
now in its fifth year, with an enrollment 
for 1959-60 exceeding 500, located in 
Springfield, Missouri. 


The faith called Baha'i aims at the 
universal brotherhood of man, the unity 
of all religions, and peace for the whole 
world. Its leader BahaVllah said, "The 
'religion of God is for the sake of love 
and union; make it not the cause of 
enmity and conflict." To him the one 
universal spirit which is God spoke alike 
in Zoroaster, Mohammed, Buddha, 
Moses, and Jesus; their messages fulfilled 
and revealed themselves in BahaVllah. 

Originating in Persia in 1844, Baha'i 
still bears something of an exotic flavor, 
although recent translations of its writ- 
ings in English equivalents of the original 
thought make that element less conspic- 
uous than it was. The founder was Mirza 
'AH Muhammad, called the Bab (Arabic 
for "gate" or "door"). The Bab suffered 

fierce persecution at the hands of the 
Mohammedans and was executed in 1850. 
In the decade following his death over 
10,000 of his followers were slain. His 
successor was Mirza Husayn 'AH, later 
called BahaVllah (Splendor of ^God). 
Imprisoned for 40 years, BahaVllah 
announced himself as the Promised One; 
he also announced a new day of God 
had come and that the age of brother- 
hood had arrived. The separate streams 
of Christian, Jewish, and Mohammedan 
faiths were to merge. He died in the 
Turkish penal colony of Akka in 1892; 
and his mantle fell upon his eldest son, 
Abbas EfFendi, later known as 'Abdu'l- 

Like his father, the son spent 40 years 
in captivity. Released in 1908, he toured 



Egypt, Europe, and the United States. 
At Wiimette, a suburb of Chicago, he 
broke ground for the first Baha'i temple 
in the Occident; this is today the seat 
of all Baha'i offices in the United States. 
He was knighted by the British for his 
services in Palestine during World War 
I and died there in 1921. 

The Wiimette temple is one of our 
most unique religious structures a com- 
bination of mosque, cathedral, and syna- 
gogue. In its structure the numeral 9, the 
number of perfection in Baha'i, is repeat- 
edly emphasized. There are 9 concrete 
piers, 9 pillars or pylons symbolizing the 
9 living religions of the world, and 9 
arches; it is set in a park with 9 sides, 
9 avenues, 9 gateways, and 9 fountains. 
The building was dedicated in 1953 to 
the "unity of God, the unity of his 
prophets, the unity of mankind." Services 
of public worship are conducted weekly 
with vocal music and readings from the 
different scriptures. A Baha'i Home for 
the Aged, accommodating twenty guests, 
was constructed in Wiimette in 1958. 

Local groups are officially recognized 
only when they have 9 members or more. 
Supervision of these groups is vested in 
the National Spiritual Assembly, which 
consists of 9 members. Shoghi Rabbani, 
who succeeded 'Abdu'1-Baha, was leader, 
spiritual head, and sole interpreter of 
Baha'i writings until his passing on 
November 4, 1957, in London. The co- 
ordination and direction of international 
Baha'i activities have been vested in the 
World Center. 

American Baha'is have summer schools 
at Eliot, Maine; Geyserville, California; 
Davison, Michigan. There are centers in 
more than 200 different countries and 
territorial divisions. In the United States, 
Baha'is are found in more than 1,500 
cities and towns. They use a calendar 
given by the Bab, consisting of 19 months 
of 19 days each, with New Year's Day 

falling on March 21. For the future they 
plan an International Spiritual Assembly 
to sit at Haifa; they also plan enlarge- 
ment of their work at Wiimette, includ- 
ing schools, hospitals, and homes for the 

The Baha'is have no ecclesiastical 
organization; there are only teachers in- 
structing and discussing with local 
groups. It is considered in error to sell 
religious instruction. Their doctrine may 
be summed up in the following state- 

Unfettered search after truth and the 
abandonment of all superstition and prej- 
udice; the oneness of mankind all are 
"leaves of one tree, flowers in one garden"; 
religion must be a cause of love and 
harmony, else it is no religion; all religions 
are one in their fundamental principles; re- 
ligion must conform with science, bringing 
faith and reason into full accord; and recog- 
nition of the unity of God and obedience 
to His commands as revealed through His 
Divine Manifestations. 

There should be no idle rich and no idle 
poor; every one should have an occupation, 
for "work in the spirit of service is wor- 
ship." Compulsory education is advocated, 
especially for girls who will be the mothers 
and the first educators of the next genera- 
tion. In all walks of life, both sexes should 
have equal opportunities for development 
and equal rights and privileges. 

An auxiliary international language should 
be adopted and taught in all the schools in 
order to bring men into closer fellowship 
and better understanding. In the interest of 
universal peace, there should be established 
a universal league of nations, in which all 
nations and peoples should be included, and 
an International Parliament to arbitrate all 
international disputes. 

A 10-year world crusade was launched 
in 1953, calling for the formation of ad- 
ditional United States assemblies and for 
the construction of houses of worship on 
all continents. 


The Baptists constitute one of the 
major Protestant forces in the United 
States. Twenty-seven Baptist denomina- 
tions reported an approximate member- 
ship of 20,493,371 in 1958; there are 
91,786 local Baptist churches, each one 
independent of the others, with members 
also completely independent of one an- 
other yet bound together by an amazing- 
ly strong "rope of sand" in a great com- 
mon allegiance to certain principles and 
doctrines based generally upon the com- 
petency of each individual in matters of 

It is often heard among them that they 
have no founder but Christ and that 
Baptists have been preaching and prac- 
ticing from the days of John the Baptist. 
That is true in a limited sense; there were 
certainly men and women holding what 
have come to be considered distinctly 
Baptist principles all across the years. But 
as a church, or as organized churches, 
they began in Holland and England. 

When the Reformation set the Bible 
and men free early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, scattered groups appeared advocat- 
ing the convictions of faith which are to- 
day the warp and woof of Baptist the- 
ology and ideology. We find the name 
Baptist in various forms in Germany and 
Switzerland: Pedobaptists, among whom, 
however, there were no "Baptists in the 
modern sense," inasmuch as they bap- 
tized infants and children; Anti-Pedo- 
baptists, who opposed infant baptism; 
and Anabaptists, who rebaptized adults 
once baptized as children. The Ana- 
baptists were the left wing of the Refor- 
mation and held to a literal application 
of the word of God in social matters; 
they were communistic and pacifistic, 
opposing capital punishment, oaths in 
court, the holding of public office, and 
the payment of taxes and interest. They 
rejected infant baptism as unscriptural, 
insisted upon the separation of church 
and state, and defended this belief heroic- 
ally and to the point of fanaticism and 
martyrdom. Under persecution they 

spread all over Europe. Some fled to 
Norway, others to Italy, Poland, Hol- 
land and England. 

In Holland a group of Mennonites, or 
followers of the former Anabaptist 
leader Menno Simons (see Mennonites, 
p. 146), taught Anabaptist principles: 
that the Scriptures were the sole author- 
ity for man's faith and practice, that 
baptism was a believer's privilege, that 
church and state should be completely 
and forever separated, and that church 
discipline should be rigidly enforced in 
business, family, and personal affairs. 
These Mennonites met and perhaps 
deeply influenced a little group of British 
Separatists who had taken refuge in 
Amsterdam from the religious persecu- 
tions under James I; many of them lived 
in Mennonite homes, and one of their 
leaders, John Smythe, was completely 
captured by the Mennonite argument. 
He rebaptized himself and his followers 
in the Anabaptist, or Baptist, faith and 
with them organized the first English 
Baptist Church in 1609. When he tried 
to make Mennonites of them, however, 
he went too far; Baptist they would be, 
but not Mennonite, for that meant a 
threat to their British heritage, and they 
were still good Englishmen and proposed 
to remain so. Smythe was excommuni- 
cated, and he died in 1612, leaving be- 
hind him, in a "confession," his convic- 
tion that 

The magistrate, by virtue of his office, is 
not to meddle with religion, or matters of 
conscience, nor to compel men to this or 
that form of religion or doctrine, but to 
leave the Christian religion to the free con- 
science of every one, and to meddle only 
with political matters. 

So died John Smythe, Baptist to the 
last. His people drifted back across the 
Channel and, with persecution waning, 
established yet another Baptist church in 

These first 2 churches were General 
Baptist churches, believing in a general 



atonement for all men. In the course of 
time there arose a Particular Baptist 
Church, holding to the predestinarian 
teachings of John Calvin and preaching 
a limited atonement. The first Particular 
(British) Church dates back to 1638. 
Three years after their founding, a third 
body, known as Immersion Baptists, 
broke away and in 1644 wrote a confes- 
sion of faith which is still held by many 
modern Baptists. It was this confession 
that stamped these people popularly for 
the first time as Baptists. 

These early British Baptists wielded a 
tremendous influence in their times and 
upon the future; it is claimed for them 
that "more than any king or Parliament, 
they set the heart and mind of England 
free." John Smythe's teaching that the 
"Magistrate ... is not to meddle with 
religion, or in matters of conscience" has 
become one of mankind's great spiritual 
bulwarks. They sent William Carey to 
India in 1793, and Carey became the 
pioneer of modern missions: More than 
a century earlier, in 1631, they had sent 
Roger Williams to America; Williams 
was to be the first great champion of 
freedom for faith and conscience on this 
side of the Atlantic. 

Williams was not a Baptist but a Sepa- 
ratist minister when he arrived. His story 
is well known: preaching "new and 
dangerous opinions against the authority 
of magistrates," he fled their courtly 
wrath and organized a Baptist church at 
Providence, Rhode Island. John Clarke 
established another Baptist church at 
Newport, Rhode Island, at about the 
same time. The Baptists are still arguing 
as to which church came first; many 
scholars put the Providence church in 
1639, the Newport church in 1641. 

These were Particular, or Calvmistic, 
Baptist churches. Their strength was 
challenged by the rise of interest in 
Arminian theology during the preaching 
of George Whitefield, but their Calvin- 
ism prevailed; it is the theological stand- 
ard of many, if not most, Baptists in this 

country today. Their progress was slow; 
a bitter persecution of their church en- 
nobled them and left one of the darkest 
blots on colonial history. 

Following the tour of Whitefield 
through the colonies a dispute arose 
among the Baptists, dividing them into 
Old Lights, or Regulars, who distrusted 
revivals and emotionalism, and New 
Lights, or Separates, who demanded a 
reborn membership in their churches. 
Separate Baptists were outstanding in the 
fight for religious freedom in the new 
land. The friction died down with the 
signing of the Constitution, however, 
and a new unity was found in a foreign 
missions crusade. The first Protestant 
missionary board in America was the 
American Board made up of Baptists, 
Reformed, Congregational, and Presby- 
terian churchmen. In 1814 the Baptists 
organized their own separate General 
Missionary Convention of the Baptist 
Denomination in the United States of 

This convention, representing a na- 
tional Baptist fellowship, marked the first 
real denominational consciousness of 
American Baptists. It was followed even- 
tually by other organizations which 
welded them firmly together; a general 
Baptist convention; a general tract so- 
cietylater called the American Baptist 
Publication Society, various missionary 
societies for work at home and abroad; 
an education society; and the famous 
Baptist Young People's Union. 

These organizations were on a national 
scale. Their unity was disrupted first by 
a feeling that home missions agencies 
within the body had failed to evangelize 
southern territory, and later by the 
question of slavery and the Civil War. 
The great division over slavery came in 
1845, when the Southerners "seceded" to 
form their own Southern Baptist Con- 
vention in order to carry on more effec- 
tively the work of the Southern Baptist 
churches. From this point forward there 
was to be a Northern (now the Amer- 



lean) and a Southern Baptist Convention. 
The split is still in effect. 

Various other Baptist groups, follow- 
ing to the logical end their love of 
independence, established themselves 
from East to West. While they differ in 
certain minor details, they are generally 
agreed upon the following principles of 
faith: the inspiration and trustworthi- 
ness of the Bible as the sole rule of life; 
the lordship of Jesus Christ; the inherent 
freedom of the individual to approach 
God for himself; the granting of salva- 
tion through faith by way of grace and 
contact with the Holy Spirit; 2 ordi- 
nances the Lord's Supper and baptism 
of believers by immersion; the independ- 
ence of the local church; the church as 
a group of regenerated believers baptized 
upon confession of faith; infant baptism 
as unscriptural and not to be practiced; 
complete separation of church and state; 
the immortality of the soul; the brother- 
hood of man; the royal law of God; the 
need of redemption from sin; and the 
ultimate triumph of God's kingdom. 

These over-all doctrines have never 
been written by the Baptists into any 
official Baptist creed for all their 
churches, but they have been incorpo- 
rated in 2 very important confessions of 
faith for the denomination. The Baptist 
churches of London wrote a Philadelphia 
Confession in the year 1689, and this 
confession was enlarged by the Phila- 
delphia Association in 1742. The New 
Hampshire State Baptist Convention 
drew up another famous confession in 
1832. The older Philadelphia Confession 
is strongly Calvinistic in statement; the 
New Hampshire Confession, only 
moderately so. 

Baptists have insisted upon freedom of 
thought and expression in pulpit and 
pew. This has made them one of the 
most democratic religious bodies in 
America and one in which liberal and 
conservative doctrine is preached freely. 
They have insisted, too, upon the abso- 
lute autonomy of the local congregation; 

each church arranges its own worship, 
examines and baptizes its own members. 
There is no age limit set on membership, 
but the candidate is usually of such an 
age that he can understand and accept 
the teachings of Christ. Candidates for 
the ministry are licensed by local 
churches and ordained upon recommen- 
dation of a group of sister churches. 

Baptist churches are commonly found 
grouped into associations, local and state, 
for purposes of fellowship. National con- 
ventions are established among many of 
them to carry on educational and mis- 
sionary work and to make pension plans. 
Most state conventions meet annually, 
with delegates representing all Baptist 
churches in the given area. They receive 
reports and make recommendations, but 
they have no authority to enforce their 

While Baptists in general have a repu- 
tation for exclusiveness, there have been 
in recent years several moves in the 
direction of interdenominational union. 
The American and Southern conventions 
have been discussing reunion for some 
time; in 1948 definite steps were taken 
toward the formation of a Baptist Alli- 
ance of North America. It was to be a 
nonlegislative alliance, providing an op- 
portunity for all recognized Baptist 
bodies to give a united expression to 
their faith. In Washington, D.C., there 
is a Baptist Joint Committee on Public 
Affairs for both American and Southern 
conventions and other Baptist groups; 
which committee serves mainly to spread 
the Baptist conviction on public morals 
and to safeguard their principle of sepa- 
ration of church and state. Finally, there 
is the growing Baptist World Alliance, 
organized in 1905 and now including 
over 22,000,000 Baptists all over the 
globe. The alliance meets every 5 years 
and is a purely advisory body, discussing 
the great themes and problems common 
to all Baptists. Headquarters of the alli- 
ance are now located in Washington, 
D. C 



American Baptist Convention 

Up to the time of the Revolutionary 
War, Baptist work in the northern states 
was in the hands of the local churches, 
some few of which formed themselves 
into associations such as the Philadelphia 
Association or the Warren Association 
of Rhode Island. Beyond these associa- 
tions, which were limited to Virginia, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Rhode 
Island, there was no central administra- 
tive body to bind the churches together. 
The association did well, building 
churches, colleges, schools, and libraries; 
by the time of the split with the Southern 
Baptists about 1844, plans for a national 
co-ordinating body were under way. 

In the early years of the nineteenth 
century there were 3 Baptist organiza- 
tions in the North mutually maintained: 
the American Baptist Home Mission 
Society; the American Baptist Missionary 
Union, later known as the American 
Baptist Foreign Mission Society; and the 
American Baptist Publication Society. 
The deflection of the Southern Baptists 
served to intensify the efforts of these 3 
bodies; they were separate corporations, 
but they often called annual meetings at 
the same time and place. 

The women of the northern churches 
formed their own home and foreign 
missionary societies in the 1860's and 
1870's. Separate appeals for funds to 
support all these competing societies 
created confusion and dissatisfaction, and 
led eventually to the incorporation of 
the Northern Baptist Convention in 1907. 
This convention, actually a corporation 
with restricted powers in conducting re- 
ligious work, receiving and expending 
money and affiliating itself with other 
bodies, changed its name in 1950 to the 
American Baptist Convention. The two 
women's missionary societies eventually 
joined the general societies already estab- 
lished in what are known as co-operating 
organizations within the convention, al- 
though they continue to work under 
their own charters and management. To 

these were added a board of education 
and a ministers' and missionaries' benefit 
board, the latter to give relief to needy 
clergymen and missionaries and pensions 
to retiring ministers and missionaries. 

State conventions and city mission so- 
cieties were drawn into closer unity by 
grouping them into affiliated organiza- 
tions through which they raise and dis- 
tribute funds under a co-operative plan 
with a unified budget. The Council on 
Missionary Co-operation supervises the 
collection of money for this unified 
budget. Numerous other councils and 
committees carry on the work of the 
convention under the supervision of the 
General Council, which functions be- 
tween the annual gatherings of the con- 
vention. At the 1950 meeting, for the 
first time, a general secretary was 

The local church is still the basic and 
independent unit of American Baptist 
government and administration. There 
are 6,362 churches and 1,555,360 mem- 
bers, 37 state conventions and 15 Baptist 
city societies. The convention owns and 
controls 14 children's homes, 37 homes 
for the aging, 7 hospitals, 10 theological 
seminaries, 6 academies, 24 senior colleges 
and universities, 5 junior colleges, and 1 
school for nursing education. The 
American Baptist Home Mission Society 
and the Woman's American Baptist 
Home Mission Society have workers in 
40 states and 6 Latin-American coun- 
tries; they support schools in those coun- 
tries, and Bacone College for Indians in 
Oklahoma; do a widespread work among 
Negroes, Indians, and Orientals resident 
in the United States. The American 
Baptist Foreign Mission Society and the 
Woman's American Baptist Foreign 
Mission Society support 391 missionaries 
in Burma, Assam, India, Bengal, Thai- 
land, Japan, Okinawa, Hong Kong, the 
Congo, and the Philippines, and main- 
tain a co-operative relationship in 7 
European countries. 

In matters of faith every Baptist 
church of the convention speaks for it- 


self, but there are certain Baptist doc- 
trines held in common. The Bible is the 
foundation of their belief; the individual 
conscience, the interpreter of the Bible. 
There is the usual Baptist insistence upon 
the inspiration and validity of the Scrip- 
tures, the lordship of Christ, immortality 
and the future life, the brotherhood of 
man, and the need of man's redemption 
from sin. The ordinances of baptism and 
the Lord's Supper are considered more 
as aids than as necessities to the living 
of the Christian life. 

By and large the Northern Baptists 
represented in the American Baptist Con- 
vention are more liberal in thought and 
theology than those in the Southern 
Baptist Convention. This gulf of theo- 
logical difference, coupled with southern 
suspicion of northern social and eco- 
nomic liberalism, keeps the two larger 
Baptist conventions in the nation apart. 
Gestures at reunion are still frequent and 
still unsuccessful. 

Independently Baptist as they are, 
there is still a clear trend among the 
Northerners toward co-operation if not 
organic union with other churches, both 
Baptist and non-Baptist. The American 
Baptist Convention is a constituent body 
of the National Council of the Churches 
of Christ in the U.S.A., with several 
members on the council's executive com- 
mittee. Its leaders were prominent at the 
world gatherings at Edinburgh, Utrecht, 
and Oxford, and they are well repre- 
sented in the World Council of 
Churches. Moves have been made toward 
union with the General Baptists, the Dis- 
ciples of Christ, the Southern Baptist 
Convention, and the National Baptist 
Convention. The Free Baptists have been 
received into full fellowship. 

Southern Baptist Convention 

It was inevitable that Northern and 
Southern Baptists should split over the 
slavery question, even before the out- 
break of the Civil War. The friction be- 
tween the two sections began a quarter 

of a century before Bull Run. The act- 
ing board of foreign missions of the 
Baptists in the country had its head- 
quarters in Boston. Being located there, 
it was naturally strongly influenced by 
the abolition movement. There was bitter 
debate among the board members, and in 
the early 1840's it became evident that 
this board would not accept slaveholders 
as missionaries. This question of mission- 
aries and of missionary money was the 
immediate cause of the split. The "breth- 
ren of the North" first suggested separa- 
tion; a month later, in May of 1845, the 
Southern Baptist Convention was organ- 
ized, establishing at once its own boards 
for foreign and home missions. 

Southern historians now recognize that 
In addition to the slavery issue there was 
a long-standing disagreement between 
Baptists in the North and Baptists in the 
South over the nature of denominational 
organization. Certainly the slave issue 
precipitated the break, but there was a 
very significant consequence to it. Bap- 
tists in the United States under northern 
leadership heretofore had no central de- 
nominational organization. Instead there 
were separate and independent organi- 
zations (usually designated as "societies") 
for various phases of co-operative effort, 
such as foreign and home missions and 
publication. Southerners had desired in- 
stead to have one organization control- 
ling these varied activities. From the 
beginning the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion was such an organization. Northern 
Baptists, on the other hand, waited until 
1907 to form a convention uniting their 
societies. This cohesion of centralized 
organization and co-operative societies 
has had much to do, Southern Baptists 
believe, with their growth. 

In Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Louisiana, 
Kentucky, and Alabama 300 churches 
entered the new organization. Up to the 
outbreak of the Civil War this conven- 
tion met biennially; since 1869 it has met 

A hard struggle for existence lay im- 


mediately ahead. The new convention 
suffered badly in point of churches, 
membership, and finances during the 
war. Homes, schools, churches, the live- 
lihood of citizens, and the very pattern 
of southern society were destroyed, with 
devastating effects among all the 
churches. An antimissionary movement 
decimated their ranks, and membership 
not finances and leadership was 
affected when the Negro Baptists with- 
drew to form their own convention. The 
recovery of the Southern Baptist Con- 
vention was amazing, however. In 1845 
there were 351,951 members in the con- 
vention, of whom 130,000 were Negroes; 
by 1890 there were 1,235,908 members, 
all of them white; in 1959 there were 
.9,485,276 members in 31,906 churches. 

There was not at the start, and there 
is not now, any serious difference in 
doctrine between the American and 
Southern Baptist conventions. As a rule 
Southern Baptists are more conservative 
and more Calvinistic, and it is one of 
the ironies of Baptist history that the 
Southern Baptist Convention adheres 
more firmly to the New Hampshire 
Confession of Faith than the American. 
Church polity and government are the 
same in both conventions; membership 
and ministry are exchanged in perfect 
harmony and understanding. 

Five denominational agencies have 
charge of the work in home and foreign 
missions, Sunday schools, educational in- 
stitutions, and ministerial retirement. The 
Home Mission Board, with 46 members, 
works throughout the South and in 
Cuba, Panama and the Panama Canal 
Zone, with more than 1,600 missionaries 
active in the field. It co-operates with 
Negro Baptists; works among migrants 
in the South and Indians in the West and 
Southwest and among several language 
groups and the deaf; operates several 
highly efficient mission schools in the 
Appalachians and the Ozarks; and pro- 
vides loans for the erection of new 
church buildings. 

Foreign missionary work is in 42 
countries and on 4 continents. Their 
record is a proud one; yet in compari- 
son with their huge membership South- 
ern Baptists rank second among Protes- 
tant denominations in the number of 
missionaries sent overseas with over 
9,000,000 members they have more than 
1,300 active missionaries in the field. 
There are 887 schools supported by the 
foreign missions program, 3,229 churches 
and 17 hospitals. 

The Sunday School Board is one of 
the ablest in America; it provides the 
literature for and supervises the work of 
7,276,502 students in 31,412 Sunday 
schools. The first chair of Sunday-school 
pedagogy was established in 1915 at the 
Southwestern Seminary in Fort Worth, 
Texas. There are 7 theological seminaries 
in the Southern Baptist Convention with 
6,000 students, 30 senior colleges and 
universities, 21 junior colleges (several 
additional junior colleges are being estab- 
lished but are not yet operating), 8 aca- 
demies and 4 Bible schools, 39 hospitals, 
35 orphanages, and 13 homes for the 

The publishing work of this conven- 
tion is one of the most prolific in Protes- 
tantism circulation of its publications 
reached a figure of nearly 79,000,000 in 
1959. A chain of 52 bookstores distri- 
butes this material across the nation. 

Southern Baptists are said to be the 
fastest-growing large denominational 
group in the United States; new churches 
are being established not only in the 
South but in northern, eastern, and west- 
ern states as well. Their annual conven- 
tion is being held more and more in 
northern and western cities, and two 
reasons are given for this: one is that 
there are few southern cities with hotel 
accommodations adequate to care for the 
ever-increasing numbers of delegates at- 
tending conventions; and the other is 
that there are so many Southern Baptist 
churches in northern territory that 
northern cities from sheer force of num- 



bers are entitled to national conventions 
within their own states. State and terri- 
torial lines are being crossed, and it is 
increasingly evident that the word 
"southern" is a misnomer. This is fast 
becoming a national Baptist body in 
every meaning of the word. 

Negro Baptists 

The first Negro Baptist church in 
America was organized at Silver Bluff 
across the Savannah River from Augusta, 
Georgia, in 1773; other churches followed 
in Petersburg, Virginia, in 1776; Rich- 
mond, Virginia, in 1780; Williamsburg, 
Virginia, in 1785; Savannah, Georgia, in 
1785; and Lexington, Kentucky, in 1790. 
It is interesting that Andrew Bryan, a 
slave, was the first pastor of the First 
African Baptist Church of Savannah, 
Georgia, and that its organization came 
about through the efforts of the Rev. 
Abraham Marshall (white) and the Rev. 
Jesse Peter (Negro). 

As early as 1700, white slaveholders in 
the South were providing religious teach- 
ing and places of worship for their 
slaves; at least most of them did little to 
prevent it. Usually, however, the Negro 
slave sat in the gallery of the white 
church, identified with the faith of his 
owner. White ministers, sometimes as- 
sisted by Negro helpers, moved from 
one plantation to another holding 
services more or less regularly; occasion- 
ally a Negro minister was liberated to 
give full time to religious work among 
his people. These ministers had great in- 
fluence; they were consulted by the 
whites as the respected leaders of their 
people and where a real power up to the 
time of the slave rebellion of 1831 led 
by Nat Turner. For a period following 
this disturbance it was illegal in some 
sections of the South for Negroes to 
become Christians or to build meeting- 

The great majority of Negroes in pre- 
Civil War days were either Baptists or 
Methodists. When Bull Run was fought 

in 1861, there were 200,000 Negro mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, and 150,000 Negro Baptists. In 
1793 there were 73,471 Baptists in th 
United States, and one fourth of them 
were Negroes; in 1806 one third of the 
Baptists of North Carolina were 
Negroes. The lack of formality in the 
Baptist churches, together with the 
absence of ritual and the freedom and 
democracy of the local congregation, 
appealed to the Negro more than the 
episcopal structure of the Methodists. 
This was accented at the end of the 
Civil War; a revival spirit swept the 
Negroes, creating thousands of new 
churches. Aided by the Freedman's Aid 
Society and various Baptist organiza- 
tions, nearly 1,000,000 Negro Baptists 
worshipped in their own churches with- 
in 15 years. 

The first Negro Baptist association, the 
Providence Baptist Association of Ohio, 
was formed in 1836; the first attempt at 
national organization came in 1880 with 
the creation of the Foreign Mission Bap- 
tist Convention at Montgomery, Alaba- 
ma. In 1886 the American National 
Baptist Convention was organized at 
St. Louis, and in 1893 the Baptist Na- 
tional Educational Convention was 
organized in the District of Columbia. 
All three conventions were merged 
into the National Baptist Convention 
of the U.S.A. at Atlanta in 1895. 
In 1915 a division arose in this conven- 
tion over the adoption of a charter and 
the ownership of a publishing house. The 
group rejecting the charter continued to 
function as The National Baptist Con- 
vention of America, while the group 
accepting the charter became known as 
The National Baptist Convention of the 
U.S.A., Incorporated (incorporated, that 
is, under the laws of the District of 
Columbia). The former is frequently re- 
ferred to as the "unincorporated" and 
the latter as the "incorporated" conven- 
tion, but both trace their beginning to 
the Foreign Mission Baptist Convention 
of 1880. 



Today, out of approximately 15,000,- 
000 Negroes in the United States, better 
than 10,000,000 are in the South, and 
44 per cent of the total Negro popula- 
tion are church members as compared 
with 42.4 per cent of the whites. They 
are grouped into a bewildering number 
of churches and denominations. There 
are more than 30 recognized and entirely 
different Negro denominations, some 
with less than 20 members, but seven 
eights of our total Negro population is 
either Methodist or Baptist. Nearly 
8,000,000 Negro Baptists are found in 
the two major conventions: 5,000,000 in 
The National Baptist Convention of the 
U.S.A., Incorporated, and 2,668,799 in 
The National Baptist Convention of 

Negro Baptist doctrine runs quite 
parallel to that of white Baptist 
churches; however, it is slightly more 
Calvinistic. The polity of the two larger 
white conventions prevails; local 
churches unite in associations, usually 
along state lines, for the purposes of 
fellowship and consultation. There are 
also state conventions concerned with 
missionary work and often extending 
beyond state boundaries. 

Foreign missionary work is especially 
strong in Africa, and home missionary 
efforts are generally those expended in 
the direction of helping needy churches 
and schools, and in family support and 
relief. The National Baptist Convention, 
Inc., has several missionary stations in 
the Bahamas, has 5 colleges, 1 theological 
seminary, and 1 training school for 
women and girls. The National Baptist 
Convention of America has stations in 
Jamaica, Panama, and Africa, and gives 
support to 10 colleges. 

The old enmities between the two con- 
ventions are disappearing, but no re- 
union is expected for some time to come. 
Moves have been made, however, to- 
ward the union of the National Baptist 
Convention of the U.S.A., Inc., with the 
American Baptist Convention. 

American Baptist Association 

Sometimes called Landmarkers be- 
cause of their historic adherence to the 
old apostolic order of church polity, 
the American Baptist Association mem- 
bers deny that those Baptists organized 
in conventions are faithful to Bible 
precedent. Maintaining that their own 
is the only true New Testament form, 
they hold themselves separate from all 
other religious groups. 

Starting in 1905 as the Baptist Gen- 
eral Association, they organized under 
their present name in 1924 at Texarkana, 
Arkansas-Texas. Denying all denomina- 
tionalism, they seem to be quite de- 
nominational in their attitude in refusing 
to affiliate with any other group. Teach- 
ing that the great commission of Christ 
(Matt. 28:18-20) was given to a local 
congregation, they believe that the local 
congregation or church is the only unit 
authorized to administer the ordinances 
and that it is an independent and 
autonomous body responsible only to 
Christ. Thus, every church is equal "with 
every other like church"; they are often 
called Church-Equality Baptists. 

Their doctrine is strictly fundamental- 
ist. Condemning "so-called modern 
science," they stand for the verbal in- 
spiration of the Bible, the Triune God, 
the virgin birth and deity of Christ, the 
suffering and death of Christ as sub- 
stitutionary, the bodily resurrection of 
Christ and all his saints. The second com- 
ing of Jesus, "physical and personal," is 
to be the crowning event of the "gospel 
age"; this second advent will be pre- 
millennial. There is eternal punishment 
for the wicked; salvation is solely by 
grace through faith and not by law or 
works. There must be absolute separa- 
tion of church and state, and absolute 
religious freedom. 

Government of both the local con- 
gregations and the annual messenger 
meetings of the association is congrega- 
tional in nature. Missionary work is con- 
ducted on county, state, interstate* and 



foreign levels, with the program originat- 
ing in the local church and the mis- 
sionaries being supported by the co- 
operating churches. Educational work 
is pursued through the Sunday schools 
and several seminaries which are also 
established on the local church level. 
These seminaries are: Missionary Baptist 
Seminary, Little Rock, Arkansas; The 
Texas Baptist Seminary, Henderson, 
Texas; Oklahoma Missionary Baptist In- 
stitute, Marlow, Oklahoma; Eastern Bap- 
tist Institute, Somerset, Kentucky; 
Florida Baptist Institute, Lakeland, 
Florida; California Missionary Baptist 
Institute, Bellflower, California; Carolina 
Missionary Baptist Institute, Greenville, 
South Carolina; Louisiana Missionary 
Baptist Institute, Minden, Louisiana, 

The greater strength of this group is 
found in the South, Southwest, and 
Southeast, but much new work has been 
started in recent years in the East, North, 
and West. Their 1959 statistics show 
3,045 churches with a total combined 
membership of 630,000; 3,000 Sunday 
schools with an enrollment of 234,205; 
and 2,200 ordained clergy with charges. 
Their membership continues to shift 
from rural to urban. 

Ten monthly and semimonthly period- 
icals are published as well as Sunday 
school and Young People's literature. 

Baptist General Conference 
of America 

The history of what is now known as 
the Baptist General Conference of 
America began at Rock Island, Illinois, 
in the summer of 1852. Gustaf Palrn- 
quist, a schoolteacher and lay preacher, 
had come from Sweden to Illinois the 
previous year to become the spiritual 
leader of a group of Swedish immigrants 
who had been influenced by the pietistic 
movement within the State Church 
(Lutheran) of Sweden. At Galesburg, 
Illinois, he came in contact with the 
Baptists and early in 1852 was baptized 
and ordained a Baptist minister. Visiting 

his countrymen at Rock Island, he won 
his first converts to the Baptist faith and 
baptized 3 in the Mississippi River on 
August 8, 1852. From this humble be- 
ginning has come a denomination of 
65,000 members, 516 churches, and 18 
state or district conferences. In 1879 a 
national conference the Swedish Bap- 
tist General Conference of America 
was organized. 

For several decades the American 
Baptist Home Mission Society and the 
American Baptist Publication Society of 
the American (then the Northern) Bap- 
tist Convention aided the new work 
among the immigrant Swedes, but grad- 
ually the church became self-supporting. 
A theological seminary was founded in 
Chicago in 1871, and the first denomina- 
tional paper was launched in the same 
year. From 1888 to 1944 foreign mis- 
sionary activities were channeled through 
the American Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society; a separation came in 1944, caused 
largely by a desire on the part of the 
Swedes to become completely inde- 
pendent and also in protest against the 
foreign society's "inclusive policy" un- 
der which missionaries of both liberal 
and conservative theologies were sent 
out to the foreign field. The Swedish 
conference set up its own foreign board 
and today has more than 125 mission- 
aries in India, Japan, the Philippine Is- 
lands, Ethiopia, Mexico, Argentina, and 

Following the First World War, with 
its intensified nationalistic conflicts, the 
transition from Swedish to English in 
church services was greatly accelerated 
and practically completed in three 
decades. In 1945 the word "Swedish" 
was dropped from the name of the con- 
ference; it had already been dropped 
largely by the local churches. With the 
language barrier removed, the growth 
of the conference has been rapid and 
far-reaching. Home missionaries are at 
work in all northern states, in some of 
the southern states, and Canada; one 
of their most effective organizations is 



God's Invasion Army, made up of young 
lay volunteers who spend a year in 
concentrated home missions work. 

The conference owns and controls 
Bethel College at St. Paul, Minnesota 
(a 4-year college and a 3-year theo- 
logical seminary with 700 students). Af- 
filiated are 2 children's homes, 7 homes 
for the aged, and a Hebrew mission. 
Six periodicals, including The Standard, 
official denominational organ, are issued 
by the Board of Publication, The Baptist 
Conference Press offers Bibles, books, 
and Sunday-school materials. 

Basically their doctrine is that of "the- 
ological conservatives, with unqualified 
acceptance of the Word of God," hold- 
ing the usual Baptist tenets. They are a 
strong fellowship of churches, insistent 
upon the major beliefs of conservative 
Christianity but with respect and room 
for individual differences on minor 

The conference tends to become more 
and more inclusive and to appeal to 
people of all nationalities. Actually about 
20 per cent of their pastors are not even 
of Swedish descent, and a large number 
of their churches contain very few 
Swedes. The transition has been fast 
because of the lack of Swedish im- 
migrants and also because of the Swedes' 
quick assimilation into the American 
way of life. 

Bethel Baptist Assembly 

The Bethel Baptist Assembly is a small 
association of Baptist ministers in In- 
diana and Illinois, organized in the in- 
terests of fellowship and the mutual 
proclamation of the Baptist message and 
theology. The name was recently 
changed from The Bethel Ministerial 
Council. The Bethel Publishing House 
issues an official periodical, Words With 
Power. A summer camp for youth is an 
important feature of their work. No 
statements on membership or churches 
are available. 

Christian Unity Baptist Association 

The Christian Unity Baptist Associa- 
tion originated in a dispute over the 
question of open and close Communion 
in the Mount Union Baptist Association 
of Regular Baptists in North Carolina. 
The dissenters believed that all Chris- 
tians in all denominations should be ad- 
mitted to participation in the Lord's 
Supper. They are one of the smaller 
groups, numbering 620 members and 11 

They believe in one God and the 
Trinity and in the Bible as the inspired 
word of God; that all mankind is fallen 
and helpless to save itself; in the re- 
demption of the "bodies of the saints," 
infants, and idiots; that sinners reach 
God by way of repentance and faith; 
that the only 2 authorized ordinances 
are baptism of believers and the Lord's 
Supper; in foot washing; in the resur- 
rection of the bodies of both the just 
and the unjust; in the everlasting reward 
of the righteous and the punishment of 
the wicked. 

Government is strictly congregational; 
there is one association for advisory 
purposes only. Work centers largely in 
home missions, evangelism, revivals, 
prayer meetings, and Sunday schools. 

Conservative Baptist Association 
of America 

The Conservative Baptist Association 
of America is officially described as a 

voluntary fellowship of sovereign, autono- 
mous, independent and Bible-believing Bap- 
tist churches working together to extend 
the Baptist testimony. . . . The Association 
is wholly separated from all other organiza- 
tions, Baptist as well as non-Baptist. The 
several churches are held together, not by 
elaborate machinery, but by a common abid- 
ing love for the work and person of Jesus 
Christ, and the World of God, as well as 
love for the confidence in one another. 

The founders of the association were 
active in an earlier organization known 



as the Fundamentalist Fellowship which 
was founded in 1920 within the Amer- 
ican (then the Northern) Baptist Con- 
vention. This was a group of conserva- 
tive churchmen who opposed what they 
considered to be the infiltration of liberal 
and modernistic tendencies and teach- 
ings within that convention. The basic 
disagreement was doctrinal and had to 
do with fundamentally different views 
and interpretations of the Scriptures and 
of Baptistic theology. The dispute was 
aggravated by the "inclusive" policy of 
the American Baptist Foreign Mission 
Society under which missionaries of both 
conservative and liberal theologies were 
sent out to both home and foreign fields. 
In September, 1943, the executive com- 
mittee of the Fundamentalist Fellowship 
presented a directive to the board of 
managers of the American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society stating that they 
could no longer give funds to this so- 
ciety unless it appointed as missionaries 
only those of conservative belief and 
theology. The gulf widened; the Con- 
servative Baptist Foreign Mission So- 
ciety was legally incorporated on De- 
cember 15, 1943, and the Conservative 
Baptist Home Mission Society in 1950. 
The name of the Fundamentalist Fel- 
lowship was changed to the Conservative 
Baptist Fellowship in 1946, a constitu- 
tion for a Conservative Baptist Associa- 
tion was adopted in 1947, and the as- 
sociation was formally organized a year 
later. It ceased to function within the 
framework of the American Baptist 
Convention in 1951. 

The Conservative Baptists were at this 
time definitely not a separate Baptist 
denomination and had no desire to be 
known as such. They are still not a de- 
nomination in the usual sense of the 
word, but a fellowship of independent 
churches. Their work and organization, 
however, have expanded to such a point 
that they are in reality a denomination 
with approximately 300,000 members in 
1,321 churches affiliated with state and 

national C.B.A.; there are C.B.A. organ- 
izations in 29 states. There are 378 
foreign missionaries at work in 88 mis- 
sion stations in Argentina, Brazil, the 
Congo, French West Africa, the Arab 
Near East, Portugal, Italy, Ceylon, 
India, Pakistan, Borneo, Japan, Taiwan, 
and the Philippines. A total of more 
than $2,000,000 was contributed for 
foreign missionary work in 1959. 

Beyond this, 93 home missionaries are 
now in 18 fields in the U. S. and the 
West Indies. The Conservative Baptist 
Association (formerly the Fundamental- 
ist Fellowship) is engaged in publication 
work; and a monthly periodical, C.B.A. 
Builders, is published by the association 
in Chicago. They have 4 seminaries, 3 
colleges, and 4 Bible institutes; Bible 
colleges are located in Calcutta, India, 
and Leiria, Portugal, Bible schools in 
Brazil, Taiwan, and the Congo. Financial 
aid is offered to build or support new 
or struggling Conservative Baptist 
churches, local and foreign radio pro- 
grams are on the air, 52 summer camps 
for youth have been established, and 
chaplains are sent into the armed forces. 

A series of regional fellowship meet- 
ings are held in the fall of each year, at 
which regional officials are elected. 
Representatives of the association meet 
with local boards to "counsel, advise, 
and recommend," and to help local pul- 
pit committees find suitable pastors. Na- 
tional headquarters have been established 
at Chicago. 

Duck River (and Kindred) Associations 
of Baptists (Baptist Church of Christ) 

Confined to 4 southern states, the 
Duck River Baptists originated in a 
protest movement within the old Elk 
River Association, which was strongly 
Calvinistic. This came in 1825; in 1843 
the ranks of the dissenters were broken 
by a dispute over the legitimacy of mis- 
sions and the support of a publication 
society and of a denominational school 



Those who withdrew became known as 
Missionary Baptists and in a few in- 
stances as Separate Baptists or the Bap- 
tist Churches of Christ. The division 
persists; there are today 2 Duck River 

Doctrinally they are liberally Calvin- 
istic; they hold that "Christ tasted death 
for every man"; that God will save 
those who come to him on gospel terms; 
that sinners are justified by faith; that 
the saints will "persevere in grace." They 
stand for believer's baptism by im- 
mersion and celebrate the Lord's Supper 
and foot washing as scriptural ordi- 
nances. As they admit their close gospel 
ties with Regular, United, and Separate 
Baptists, there are growing sentiments 
in favor of union. 

They are congregational in govern- 
ment, with 5 associations for fellowship 
only: Duck River, Mount Zion, Union, 
and East Union in Tennessee; and 
Mount Pleasant in Alabama, Tennessee, 
and Georgia. There is a "correspond- 
ence" relation with other associations in 
Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi, and 
Georgia. Membersip is by vote of local 
congregations; ministers are ordained 
by 2 or more ministers. There are 9,488 
members and 96 churches. 

Free Will Baptists 

Free Will Baptists in this country have 
a Welsh background; they migrated 
from Wales in 1701, settling on a grant 
of land in Pennsylvania known as the 
Welsh Tract. They were organized in 
the South in 1727 by Paul Palmer and 
in the North in 1787 by Benjamin 
Randall. Their churches today number 
4,200, and are found in 42 states and in 
Cuba, Africa, Japan, Mexico, India, and 
Spain. They list 425,000 members. The 
organization in the United States is 
known officially as the National Associa- 
tion of Free Will Baptists with national 
headquarters in Nashville, Tennessee, 
where the Executive Department, Home 

and Foreign Mission Departments, Sun- 
day School Department, League (Youth) 
Department, Master's Men (laymen's or- 
ganization), and Woman's Auxiliary are 
located. The official publication is Con- 
tact, edited and published monthly in 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

Distinguished by their adherence to 
Arminian (freewill) doctrine rather than 
to the usual Calvinistic (predestinarian) 
tenets, they suffered badly during the 
early growth of Calvinism in this coun- 
try. At one time in the United States 
they had only four churches left; how- 
ever, their growth since that time has 
been phenomenal. 

They hold that Christ gave himself 
as a ransom for the many, not for the 
few; that God calls all to repentance; 
and that all may be saved who believe 
in Jesus Christ and trust him as personal 
Saviour. Baptism is by immersion. This 
is one of the Baptist churches practicing 
open Communion; they also practice 
foot washing. Their government is 
strictly congregational; there are quar- 
terly conferences, which are grouped 
into state associations, and an annual 
Convention representing the entire de- 
nomination. The Woman's Auxiliary 
Convention and a laymen's organiza- 
tion meet with the annual convention, 
and in alternate years there are also 
meetings of the Free Will Baptist League 
Conference for the youth and the Free 
Will Baptist Sunday School Convention. 
A Bible college, owned and operated by 
the National Association, is located in 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

General Baptists 

The General Baptists claim their name 
and origin in John Smythe and Thomas 
Helwys and the group of Baptists or- 
ganized in England and Holland in 
1611 (see general article on the Baptists, 
pp. 32 ff.) They hold Roger Williams 
to be their first minister in the American 



The General Baptists in the colonies 
along the Atlantic coast were at first 
overwhelmed by the influence of 
Calvinism (General Baptists have al- 
ways been Arminian), but their work 
was reopened by Benoni Stinson with 
the establishment of the Liberty Baptist 
Church in what is now Evansville, In- 
diana, in 1823. They spread into Illinois 
and Kentucky, and a general association 
of General Baptists was organized in 
1870. Since that time they have grown 
steadily; today they are strong in Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Michigan, 
Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas, and 
have located churches in Oklahoma, 
Nebraska, Kansas, Iowa, Ohio, Arizona, 
and California. 

Their confession of faith is similar to 
that of the Free Will Baptists; it is their 
belief that Christ died for all men; that 
failure to achieve salvation lies com- 
pletely with the individual; that man is 
depraved and fallen and unable to save 
himself; that regeneration is necessary 
for salvation except in the case of in- 
fants and idiots, who are not responsible 
for sin; that salvation comes by re- 
pentance and faith in Christ; that the 
Christian who perseveres to the end is 
saved; that the wicked are punished 
eternally. The dead, just and unjust, will 
be raised at the judgment; the Lord's 
Supper and believer's baptism by im- 
mersion only are the only authorized 
Christian ordinances and should be open 
to all believers. Some of the General 
Baptist churches practice foot washing. 

Church polity is about the same as that 
found in all Baptist churches. The de- 
nomination is congregational in church 
government. Churches of a common 
area are organized into local associa- 
tions, which are in turn organized into 
a general association. Both local and 
general associations are representative 
bodies and advisory in power. A peculiar 
feature of the General Baptists lies in 
their use of a presbytery, into which the 
ordained members of local associations 
are grouped; they examine candidates 


for the ministry and for deacons. Min- 
isters and deacons are responsible to this 
presbytery, which exists only on the 
local level. 

Current statistics show 737 churches 
with a total membership of 54,596. They 
maintain at Oakland City, Indiana, a 
liberal arts college with a theological 
department. A publishing house is 
operated at Poplar Bluff, Missouri, where 
their weekly paper, the General Baptist 
Messenger, is issued together with Sun- 
day-school literature. 

Foreign missionary work is supported 
in Guam, Saipan, Chichi Jima, and the 
Philippines. They have an active home 
missionary work in various states. 

The General Association 
of Regular Baptist Churches 

Twenty-two Baptist churches of the 
American Baptist Convention left that 
convention in May of 1932 to found 
The General Association of Regular 
Baptist Churches. The protest was 
against what they considered to be mod- 
ernist tendencies and teachings in the 
American Convention, the denial of the 
historic Baptist principle of the inde- 
pendence and autonomy of the local 
congregation, the inequality of repre- 
sentation in the assemblies of the con- 
vention, the control of missionary work 
by convention assessment and budget, 
and the whole convention principle in 

Any Baptist church coming into this 
association is required to "withdraw all 
fellowship and cooperation from any 
convention or group which permits mod- 
ernists or modernism within its ranks." 
Dual fellowship or membership is not 
permitted, nor is participation in union 
evangelical campaigns, union Thanks- 
giving services or membership in local 
ministerial associations where modernists 
are involved or present. 

Missionary work is conducted through 
5 approved Baptist agencies completely 
independent of any convention and com- 


pletely orthodox; a close watch is main- 
tained upon these agencies before an- 
nual approval is granted. Likewise, only 
6 schools are approved; these, too, are 
"guarded" against any deflection from 
approved practice or doctrine. 

The association subscribes to the New 
Hampshire Confession of Faith with a 
premillennial interpretation of the final 
article of that confession. They hold to 
the infallibility of the Bible, the Trinity, 
the personality of Satan as the author 
of all evil, man as the creation of God 
and man born in sin. There are doctrines 
dealing with the virgin birth and the 
deity of Jesus and faith in Christ as the 
way of salvation through grace. The 
saved are in everlasting felicity, and the 
lost are lost forever. There is a bodily 
resurrection; Christ rose and ascended 
and will return premillennially to reign 
in the millennium. Civil government is 
by divine appointment. There are only 
2 approved ordinances: baptism by im- 
mersion and the Lord's Supper. 

Church government is strictly congre- 
gational. Member churches have the 
privilege of sending 6 voting messengers 
to an annual convention; thus a church 
with 50 members has the same power as 
a church with 2,500 members. A Coun- 
cil of Fourteen is elected 7 each year 
to serve for 2 years. It makes recom- 
mendations to the association for the 
furtherance of its work and implements 
and puts into operation all actions and 
policies of the association, and its au- 
thority depends completely upon the will 
and direction of the association. 

In 1959, there were 690 fellowshiping 
churches with 130,612 members. The six 
approved schools had a total student 
body of over 1,200, and 1,100 mission- 
aries were at work in the 5 missionary 
agencies. State and regional associations 
have been established across the country; 
these are supplied with literature pub- 
lished by the Regular Baptist Press, in- 
cluding The Baptist Bulletin, a 32-page 
monthly magazine. 

General Conference of the 
Evangelical Baptist Church, Inc. 

The Evangelical Baptists were organ- 
ized among the members of several Free 
Will Baptist Churches in 1935; they were 
formerly known as The Church of the 
Full Gospel, Incorporated. 

Their doctrine and organization are 
naturally similar to that of the Free Will 
Baptists, with whom they are still in 
close fellowship. They exchange pastors 
regularly with the Wilmington Con- 
ference of the Free Will Baptist Church. 
As of 1952, there were about 2,200 mem- 
bers in 31 churches. 

General Six-Principle Baptists 

There are 2 Six-Principle Baptist As- 
sociations in the United States, one in 
Rhode Island and the other in Penn- 
sylvania. The former claims to have been 
founded by Roger Williams in 1638; the 
latter was founded in 1813. Both claim 
as their charter the 6 foundation prin- 
ciples laid down in Heb. 6: 1-2 namely, 
repentance, faith, baptism, the laying on 
of hands (a custom evidently disappear- 
ing, at least in Rhode Island), the resur- 
rection of the dead, and eternal judg- 

Broadly speaking, they are Arminian 
in doctrine and congregational in polity. 
The conferences they hold are primarily 
for fellowship, but there is an increas- 
ing interest in foreign missions and in 
the support of students in Christian col- 
leges. Rhode Island lists 96 members in 
3 churches; Pennsylvania has 7 churches, 
with membership not reported. 

Independent Baptist Church of America 

This is a church of Swedish origin, 
founded in 1893 at Dassel, Minnesota, 
by a group of Swedish Free Baptist im- 
migrants. A series of disagreements with- 
in the body brought about several 
changes in name and a split into two 
churches, which were united under the 
present name in 1927. 



The Independent Baptist Church of 
America teaches faith in the Resurrec- 
tion, that repentance and baptism by 
immersion are prerequisite to member- 
ship and participation in the Lord's Sup- 
per. They practice the laying on of 
hands at the time of admission into 
church membership. They are generally 
pacifists, but in all other matters they 
pledge obedience to the civil govern- 

No record of the work or organiza- 
tion of this church is available; there 
were 106 members and 2 churches in 

Landmark Baptists 

"Landmarkism," among Baptists, is not 
a denomination; it is a position (called 
by many Baptists a heretical position) 
concerning the nature of the church and 
certain matters of church practice. The 
name is borrowed from a tract written 
by James Madison Pendleton entitled 
"An Old Landmark Re-set." Pendleton 
and James Robinson Graves are gen- 
erally credited with inauguration of the 
Landmark movement; they were the 
leaders of the "Cotton Grove Conven- 
tion" organized among Southern Bap- 
tists in 1851. (Southern Baptists are 
vigorously opposed to Landmarkism.) 

There are four main tenets to Land- 

1. The church is only local and visible; 
there is no such thing as "the 
Church," but only churches in the 
local sense. The kingdom of 
God is equal to the sum of all 
true (Landmark-thinking Baptist) 

2. Valid baptism calls for a proper ad- 
ministrator (a properly ordained 
Baptist clergyman). Any baptism 
performed by any other person is 

3. Members of other denominations or 
churches are not recognized as 
Christians; they are not "saved" in 
"the true Gospel sense." Other 

churches are called "societies," and 
their ministers are not to be recog- 
nized as such. 

4. There is a direct, historic "suc- 
cession" of Baptist churches back 
to New Testament times; true Bap- 
tist churches have existed in every 

This "succession" has been called 
"Apostolic succession" and "succession 
of believers Baptistism." As one of the 
main principles of Landmarkism, it is an 
idea held by few Baptists today outside 
the American Baptist Association (which 
see), as part of that groups' extreme 

National Baptist Evangelical Life 

Soul Saving Assembly of the U.S.A. 

This assembly was founded in 1920 at 
Kansas City, Missouri, not as another 
denomination, but as an evangelical 
group working within the National Bap- 
tist Convention (Unincorporated). It 
had the endorsement of the parent body 
for 17 years but became an independent 
group in 1937. 

No new doctrine is set forth by this 
group; it has no doctrine except the 
"Bible doctrine as announced by the 
Founder of the Church, Jesus Christ." 
Concentration is mainly upon evangelical 
and relief efforts. The assembly main- 
tains an automatic correspondence 
school, offering courses in evangelology, 
deaconology, missionology, pastorology, 
and laymanology; degrees are granted in 
60, 90, and 120 days. 

In 1951, 57,674 members and 264 
churches were reported. 

National Primitive Baptist Convention 

of the U.S.A. 
(Formerly Colored Primitive Baptists) 

The Negro population of the South 
all through the years of slavery and the 
Civil War worshiped with the white 
population in their various churches. 



This was true of Colored Primitive Bap- 
tists, who attended white Primitive Bap- 
tist churches until the time of the 
emancipation, when their white brethren 
helped them to establish their own 
churches, granting them letters of fel- 
lowship and character, ordaining their 
deacons and ministers, and helping in 
other ways. 

Their doctrine and polity are quite the 
same as in the white Primitive Baptist 
organization, except that they are "op- 
posed to all forms of church organiza- 
tion"; yet there are local associations 
and a national convention, organized in 
1907. Each church is independent, re- 
ceiving and controlling its own mem- 
bership; there is no appeal from a de- 
cision of the officers of the local church. 

In 1957 they had a membership of 
80,983 in 1,100 churches. Unlike the 
white Primitive Baptists, they have since 
1900 been establishing aid societies, con- 
ventions, and Sunday schools over the 
opposition of the older and more ortho- 
dox members. 

North American Baptist Association 

Organized at Little Rock, Arkansas, 
on May 25, 1950, for the purpose of en- 
couraging and fostering missionary 
co-operation, this body has had a phe- 
nomenal growth, enrolling nearly 2,000 
churches and 300,000 members in 23 
states. They have 7 workers in the home 
missions field and missionary work 
abroad in Mexico, Japan, Brazil, Formosa, 
Portugal, and Cape Verde Islands. A 
strong publications department publishes 
literature for Sunday-school and train- 
ing classes, pamphlets, books, tracts, and 
magazines. They also own and operate a 
printing business in Brazil, where litera- 
ture is printed in Portuguese for use 
in Africa and Europe. 

They are militant fundamentalists, 
claiming to hold the historic Baptist 
faith and placing strong emphasis upon 
the verbal inspiration and accuracy of 
the Scriptures, direct creation, the virgin 

birth and deity of Jesus, his blood atone- 
ment, justification by faith, salvation by 
grace alone, and the imminent, personal 
return of Christ to the earth. They brand 
as unscriptural open Communion, alien 
baptism, pulpit affiliation with heretical 
ministers, unionism, modernism, mod- 
ern conventionism, one-church dictator- 
ship, and "all the kindred evils arising 
from these practices." The Lord's Sup- 
per and baptism are accepted as ordi- 
nances; baptism is considered "alien" 
unless administered to believers only 
and by "divine authority as given to the 
Missionary Baptist churches." 

Churches are completely autonomous 
in the Baptist tradition and have an 
equal voice in the co-operative mis- 
sionary, publication, evangelical, and 
educational efforts of the association re- 
gardless of size or membership. Mem- 
ber churches must, however, con- 
form to the doctrinal standards of the 
association and deny alien baptism and 
modernism in all its forms. 

There are one college Jacksonville 
and several junior colleges, maintained 
on a state level, and several orphan's 
homes. Two theological seminaries are 
located at Jacksonville, Texas, and 
Campinas, Brazil. 

North American Baptist 
General Conference 

The churches in this conference began 
in German Baptist churches established 
on our soil by German Baptist im- 
migrants of more than a century ago. 
The first of them settled in New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania where Penn's Quak- 
ers offered them the perfect chance at 
the religious freedom they sought in 
flight from the mother country. Some of 
these Germans became members of the 
United Brethren group (established here 
in 1800), or of the Church of God 
(Winebrennarians, established in 1830), 
or of the scattered German Baptist 
churches which later became the North 
American Baptist General Conference 



and which organized their first local 
churches during 1840-51. 

The prosperity of these German Bap- 
tist churches followed the rise and fall 
of German immigration. By 1851 they 
had 8 churches and 405 members, and 
in that year they organized their 
churches into an eastern conference for 
fellowship and mutual consideration of 
common problems. 

The local conference idea was en- 
larged as their churches increased. As 
their membership moved across the na- 
tion they organized a total of 9 such 
conferences, following geographical lines. 
In 1865 they held a joint meeting of 
eastern and western conferences and 
called it a general conference. The Gen- 
eral Conference is now their chief ad- 
ministrative unit. 

Local conferences meet annually, elect 
their own officers and missionary com- 
mittees, and guide their own work. The 
General Conference meets triennially 
and is made up of all churches in the 
9 local conferences and has clerical and 
lay representation from all of them. It 
superintends the work in publication, 
education, missions, and homes for chil- 
dren and the aged. A general council 
acts for the General Conference between 
its sessions. 

German Baptists have been active in 
the development of what is now Colgate- 
Rochester Divinity School and they have 
a seminary of their own, the North 
American Baptist Seminary, at Sioux 
Falls, South Dakota. A Christian Train- 
ing Institute is located at Edmonton, 
Alberta, Canada. There are 6 homes for 
the aged, a children's home at St. Joseph, 
Michigan, and a publishing house, the 
Roger Williams Press, at Cleveland, 
Ohio. Home missions are conducted 
among the Indians of Canada and among 
Spanish- Americans in the United States; 
foreign missionaries are located in 
Cameroons, West Africa, Austria, and 

Theologically there is little variance 
here from the usual Baptist position; 

German Baptists in general follow the 
New Hampshire Confession, stressing 
the authority of the Scriptures, the 
revelation of God in Christ, regenera- 
tion, immersion, separation of church 
and state, the congregational form of 
government, and with very strong 
emphasis on missions. There are 50,455 
members and 292 churches. 

Primitive Baptists 

The Primitive Baptists have the repu- 
tation of being the most strictly ortho- 
dox and exclusive of all Baptists. Unique 
in that they have never been organized 
as a denomination and have no admin- 
istrative bodies of any kind (they be- 
lieve that each church should "govern 
itself according to the laws of Christ as 
found in the New Testament, and that 
no minister, association, or convention 
has any authority"), they represent a 
protest against "money-based" missions 
and benevolent societies and against "as- 
sessing" the churches to support mis- 
sions, missionaries, and Sunday schools. 
The position taken was that there were 
no missionary societies in the days of the 
apostles, and therefore there should be 
none now. Apart from this, there was 
objection to the centralization of au- 
thority in these societies. Sunday schools 
also were unauthorized by Scripture; 
they believed in the religious training of 
children but not in Sunday schools. They 
stood for evangelism as a missionary 
effort, but on individual responsibility 
and at individual expense, and not under 
the sponsorship of a money-based so- 
ciety. Spearheading the protest, the 
Kehukee Association in North Carolina 
in 1827 condemned all such money-based 
and authoritarian societies as contrary 
to Christ's teachings. Within a decade, 
several other Baptist associations across 
the country made similar statements and 
withdrew from other Baptist churches. 

The various associations adopted the 
custom of printing in their annual min- 
utes a statement of their articles of faith, 



their constitution, and their rules of or- 
der. These statements were examined by 
every other association and if they were 
approved, there were fellowship and 
exchange of messengers and correspond- 
ence between them; any association not 
so approved was dropped from the fel- 
lowship. Added to this was the difficulty 
of communication in many parts of the 
South. The result was confusion; there 
was no chance under such conditions for 
growth as a denomination and little 
chance even for fellowship or quasi 
unity. This is apparent in the variety of 
names, some friendly and some derisive, 
which have been applied to them, such 
as "Primitive," "Old School," "Regular," 
"Antimission" and "Hard Shell." In gen- 
eral, the term "Primitive" has been 
widely accepted and used. 

A strong Calvinism runs through their 
doctrine. In general they believe that by 
Adam's fall all his posterity became sin- 
ners; that human nature is completely 
corrupt; and that man cannot by his own 
efforts regain favor with God. God 
elected his own people in Christ before 
the world began, and none of these saints 
will be finally lost. The 2 biblically 
authorized ordinances are the Lord's 
Supper and baptism of believers by im- 
mersion. All church societies are the 
invention of men and are to be denied 
fellowship; Christ will come a second 
time to raise the dead, judge all men, 
punish forever the wicked and reward 
forever the righteous; the Old and New 
Testaments are verbally and infallibly 

Ministers must be called of God, come 
under the laying on of hands, and be 
in fellowship with the local church of 
which they are members before they can 
administer the 2 ordinances; they are to 
deny to any other clergyman lacking 
these qualifications the right to admin- 
ister such ordinances. No theological 
training is demanded of ministers among 
Primitive Baptists; while there is no op- 
position to such education, the position 
is that the Lord will call an educated 

man if he wants one, but that lack of 
education should not bar a man from 
the ministry. Some Primitive Baptists 
still practice foot washing, but not all do. 
In spite of their opposition to money- 
based missionary societies they are in- 
tensely evangelistic, and their preachers 
travel widely and serve without charge, 
except when their hearers wish to con- 
tribute to their support. 

Membership is granted only after care- 
ful examination and vote of the congre- 
gation. Membership is estimated at about 
72,000 in 1,000 churches, but probably 
the figure is larger. Factionalism, di- 
visiveness, and politics prevent an ac- 
curate report on membership. 

Regular Baptists 

The term "Regular" as applied to Bap- 
tists has been the cause of some 
confusion. Originally it was applied to 
the Baptists of the Northern, Southern, 
and National conventions. That usage 
ended about 1890, and the expression is 
now applied only to the denomination 
bearing that name, centering in North 
Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, and 
Kentucky. These Regular Baptists claim 
to be the modern representatives of the 
original English Baptists before the di- 
visions into Particular (Calvinistic) and 
General (Arminian) Baptists were es- 
tablished. They are in close sympathy 
with the United Baptists and the Duck 
River (and Kindred) Associations of 

Regular Baptists believe that men are 
responsible to all the commands of God, 
compliance always being by enabling 
grace; that with such grace all men may 
meet the conditions of salvation; that 
man through sin is completely depraved 
with neither the power nor the will to 
save himself; that salvation is by grace 
alone as a result of God's mercy and 
love; that on the basis of the sacrifice of 
Christ for all sin the gospel of God's 
grace must be preached to all men; that 
the lost are lost because of their un- 



belief. In general they hold a middle-of- 
the-road position on the Atonement, but 
a few of their churches are sympathetic 
with the views of the Primitive Baptists. 
Each association has its own confession 
of faith; there is no over-all confession 
for all. Most of them are Arminian; a 
few lean toward Calvinism. They prac- 
tice close Communion and foot washing. 
The governmental policy is strictly con- 
gregational with associations meeting for 
fellowship only. Regular Baptists in 1936 
numbered 17,186; there were 266 
churches. A noticeable decline in both 
churches and membership is evident. 

Separate Baptists in Christ 

The first Separate Baptists arrived in 
the United States in 1695 as one refugee 
section of the separatist movement in 
England. They were especially active 
during the days of the blazing preaching 
of Whitefield in the early eighteenth 
century and in the conflict between the 
Old Light and New Light sects. Separate 
Baptist churches of this period were 
marked by their milder Calvinism and 
by an occasional use of infant baptism. 

In 1787 Separate and Regular Baptist 
churches merged in Virginia in the 
United Baptist Churches of Christ in 
Virginia. There were other mergers and 
gestures toward union in New England 
and other states, but a few Separate 
Baptist churches maintained their inde- 
pendence. In 1959 they had 90 churches 
and 7,215 members. 

All creeds and confessions of faith are 
rejected by Separate Baptists; however, 
there is an annual statement of articles 
of belief by the several associations. 
These include statements of faith in the 
infallibility of the Scriptures and in the 
Trinity; 3 ordinances baptism of be- 
lievers by immersion only, the Lord's 
Supper, and foot washing; regeneration, 
justification, and sanctification through 
faith in Christ; the appearance of Christ 
on Judgment Day to deal with the just 
and the unjust, The election, reprobation, 

and fatality of Calvinism are rejected. 
Separate Baptists are congregational in 
government with associations for ad- 
visory purposes only. The associations 
carry on a limited home missions work; 
there are no foreign missions and no 
colleges, but there are good Sunday 
schools throughout the denomination. A 
magazine called The Messenger is pub- 
lished at Kokomo, Indiana. 

Seventh Day Baptists 

Differing from other Baptists in their 
adherence to the seventh day as the 
Sabbath, Seventh Day Baptists (or Sab- 
batarian Baptists, as they were called 
in England) first organized themselves 
as a separate body on this side of the 
Atlantic in 1672 at Newport, Rhode 
Island. Stephen Mumford, a member of 
the Bell Lane Seventh Day Baptist 
Church in London, had come there 
knowing well the perils of religious non- 
conformity and had entered into 
covenant relation with those who with- 
drew from "Doctor John Clarke's (Bap- 
tist) Church" under the Sabbath per- 
suasion. Other churches were organized 
in Philadelphia and in New Jersey. From 
these 3 centers Seventh Day Baptists 
went west with the ' frontier; they now 
have 6,200 members in 66 churches and 

Belief in salvation through faith in 
Christ, believer's baptism by immersion, 
insistence upon intellectual and civil 
liberty and in the right of every man 
to interpret the Bible for himself have 
characterized this people. They hold 
baptism and the Lord's Supper only as 
ordinances, practice open Communion, 
and have fostered one university and two 
colleges. The Alfred University School 
of Theology is located at Alfred, New 

Local churches enjoy complete inde- 
pendence, although all of them support 
the united benevolence of the denomina- 
tion known as Our World Mission. For 
fellowship and service the churches are 



organized into 9 regional associations 
and these often assist local church coun- 
cils in the ordination of deacons and min- 
isterial candidates. The highest adminis- 
trative body is the General Conference, 
which meets annually and delegates in- 
terim responsibilities to its president, ex- 
ecutive secretary, and commission. The 
conference promotes World Mission 
giving and channels it through mission, 
publishing, and educational agencies. It 
also accredits ministers certified to it by 
ordaining councils and local churches. 
The denomination participates in the 
ecumenical movement at local, regional, 
national, and world levels. Foreign mis- 
sions are carried on in China, Germany, 
the Netherlands, Nyasaland, British 
Guiana, and Jamaica, British West Indies. 

Seventh Day Baptists (German, 1728) 

The Seventh Day Baptists (German, 
1728) are not to be confused with the 
original Seventh Day Baptist Church or- 
ganized earlier in Rhode Island; this 
group was established by John Conrad 
Beissel, a Palatinate German, in 1728. 
Beissel worked for a while with Peter 
Becker, the Germantown mystic who 
founded the German Baptist Brethren, 
or Dunkards. He left Becker in 1732 to 
set up a monastic, communistic re- 
ligious community at Ephrata, Pennsyl- 
vania. Goods were held in common, and 
men and women lived in separate houses 
under a regulation requiring celibacy. 

The community declined late in the 
nineteenth century; the church last re- 
ported only 150 members in 3 churches 
in 1951. Generally they hold the usual 
Dunker doctrines: the inspiration of the 
Bible; one God, the Father, and Jesus 
Christ, his Son, the mediator; the Ten 
Commandments as the sole rule of 
righteousness for all men; baptism by 
trine forward immersion the candidate 
is immersed 3 times, for Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. They practice foot 
washing, anointing of the sick, and the 

blessing of infants; observe Saturday as 
the Sabbath; and induct ministers by 
personal request rather than by congre- 
gational election. 

A general conference meets annually; 
there is a small home missions program 
but no educational or philanthropic 

Predestinarian Baptists 

Tracing their thought back to the 
Waldenses, the Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit 
Predestinarian Baptists in this country 
began in the late eighteenth century with 
the protests of Elder Daniel Parker 
against missions and Sunday schools. 
Parker opposed the Arminian doctrine 
of the Methodists and based his dislike 
of the missionary effort and church 
schools on what he called his Two-Seed 
Doctrine. This, briefly, is the conviction 
that two seeds entered the life stream of 
humanity in the Garden of Eden. One 
seed was good, planted by God; the 
other was evil, from the devil. The two 
seeds have been in conflict in humanity 
ever since. Every baby is predestined, 
born with one seed or the other. Nothing 
can be done for him one way or another. 
Inasmuch as nothing can be done, mis- 
sions are useless; they are, moreover, an 
institution which "usurps the privileges 
of God." 

The seed is in the spirit, not the flesh; 
this is the cardinal point in the theology 
of the group. Other points include be- 
lief in the resurrection of the body of 
Christ, which is the Church, and salva- 
tion by grace alone. The church observes 
the Lord's Supper and practices foot 
washing. There is no paid ministry "in- 
asmuch as Christ came to save sinners, 
and He finished his work." Government 
is congregational; there are associations 
for fellowship only. There are no home 
missions or benevolences. The member- 
ship is decreasing; there were 201 mem- 
bers and 16 churches in 1945. 



United Baptists 

The United Baptists represent a 
merging of several groups of Separate 
and Regular Baptists mainly in the states 
of Virginia, Kentucky, and the Caro- 
linas. While these groups were bodies 
holding both Arminian and Calvinistic 
theologies, they maintained a perfect 
freedom in preaching and polity after 
their union. As the years passed many of 
their members found their way into 
either the Northern or Southern Bap- 
tist conventions; but they are still recog- 
nized as a separate denomination with 
63,641 members in 568 churches. Their 
first organization was in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, in 1787; a second group organized 
in Kentucky in 1801. Two associations 
Salem and Elkhorn (Regular Bap- 
tists) and South Kentucky (Separate 
Baptists) joined to form the United 

Doctrinally there are still traces of 
both Arminianism and Calvinism, Gen- 
erally they hold that salvation is by 
grace rather than by works and condi- 
tional upon gospel requirements. All 
men are in a state of general depravity 
and are commanded to repent; they are 
led either to repentance through the 
goodness of God or to rebellion by the 
devil. It is a matter of individual choice. 

There are 26 associations for fellow- 
ship and counsel quite independent of 
one another, yet working together 

closely. A general association is probable 
in the near future. They practice close 
Communion in some associations and 
churches, open Communion in others. 
There are three ordinances baptism, the 
Lord's Supper, and (in most churches) 
foot washing. 

The United Free Will Baptist Church 

While they trace their history back 
to the same original sources of the white 
Free Will Baptist Church, the United 
Free Will Baptists (Colored) have been 
independent since their official organi- 
zation in 1901. Their members are found 
largely in North Carolina, Georgia, 
Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and 

Although in general agreement with 
the congregational polity of other Bap- 
tist bodies, this church grants a rather 
limited autonomy to the local church. 
There is a system of quarterly, annual, 
and general conferences, with graded 
authority. Doctrinal disputes may be 
carried up to the general conferences; 
district conferences may exclude mem- 
bers from fellowship. 

Doctrinally they are in agreement with 
white churches of the same faith. There 
is one institution of higher learning 
Kinston College at Kinston, North Caro- 
lina. There were 100,000 members in 
836 churches in 1952. 


The churches in this body represent 
a break in the Eastern Conference of 
the Methodist Protestant Church in 
1939, when about 50 delegates (approxi- 
mately one third of the conference) 
withdrew in protest against the union 
of the Methodist Protestant Church with 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and 
what the withdrawing group considered 

to be the modernistic tendencies of the 
leaders of those churches. They operated 
for about a year under the original 
charter of the Eastern Conference and 
subsequently were incorporated under 
the name of the Bible Protestant 
Church (the Continuing Eastern Con- 
ference of the Methodist Protestant 
Doctrine here is conservative; this 



church is a member of the fundamen- 
talist American and International Coun- 
cils of Christian Churches. Cardinal 
points in their belief emphasize the 
verbal inspiration of the Bible; the Trin- 
ity; the deity, virgin birth, resurrection, 
and ascension of Jesus; salvation by 
faith in his blood and sacrifice, death 
and resurrection. There is a strong faith 
in premillennialism with eternal punish- 
ment for the wicked and eternal joy 
for the righteous believer. Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper are practiced as di- 
vine institutions. 

Their churches are confined to New 
Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Con- 
necticut, Virginia, and Michigan. Ac- 
tually they are a fellowship of self- 
governing churches, organized in a 
conference which meets annually with 
lay and clerical representation. The chief 
officer is the president, who holds office 

for not more than 3 years. All local 
churches own and control their own 
property, all contributions to the con- 
ference are voluntary and not by assess- 
ment, and call their own ministers from 
the conference roll of ministers or from 
other churches approved by the Com- 
mittee on Ministerial Qualifications; 
formal assignment of the pastor is by a 
pastoral relations committee of the con- 
ference. Candidates for ordination must 
be graduates of high school and an ap- 
proved seminary or Bible school. Mis- 
sionary work is conducted in the Philip- 
pines, Japan, and South America; and 
Bible Protestant missionaries are serving 
in Mexico and Africa under the mis- 
sion boards of other churches. The 
church publishing house issues a monthly 
periodical, The Bible Protestant Mes- 
senger. There are 41 churches, 2,498 


Franklin Williams, former director of 
the National Association for the Ad- 
vancement of the Colored People, says 
that this movement "combines the emo- 
tional religious drive of Father Divine 
and Daddy Grace with the legal and 
political protest of the N.A.A.C.P., and 
on top of that it offers the hope of a 
black Utopia on this earth." More of a 
protest against social and economic dis- 
crimination than a religious faith, it 
nevertheless claims to be an authentic 
offshoot of Islam a claim denied by 
Middle East Moslems in the United 
States. They reject the term "Negro"; 
consider the white man as their natural 
enemy; require that their adherents sever 
all ties with other churches; abstain from 
the use of alcohol, tobacco, cosmetics, 
and fancy clothing; and customarily de- 
mand that male members shave their 
heads. They eat but one meal a day, and 
face the East when they pray. Their 

leader is known as Messenger Elijah 
Muhammad; he claims to have made the 
Moslem pilgrimage to Mecca. Temples 
are located in 7 American cities Chi- 
cago, Detroit, Boston, Pittsburgh, 
Newark (N. J.), Los Angeles, and New 
York. There are no membership sta- 
tistics, but it is estimated that there are 
approximately 1,000 in each of the 
temples. Considerable literature is pub- 
lished; and there is widespread picketing 
activity in protest against white dis- 
crimination, and much calling upon 
Negroes to spend their money only in 
Negro stores. A school for children (the 
University of Islam), grocery stores, 
restaurants, garment manufacturing 
plants, and a department store are main- 
tained in Chicago. The ultimate aim of 
the group is "to build our own society in 
the U. S.," and "to have our own Black 



The terms Brethren and Dunkers 
have been the cause of much confusion; 
they call for careful definition. Dunker 
is a direct derivation of the German 
word tunken, "to dip or immerse." It 
is a word to be identified with the 
peculiar method of immersion employed 
by this group of churches: trine immer- 
sion, in which the believer on his knees 
in the water is immersed not once but 
3 times, in the name of the Father, Son, 
and Holy Ghost. Variously through 
their long history the Dunkers have 
been called Tunkers, Taufers, or 
Dompelaars. They were first called 
Brethren when their first church or- 
ganization was established at Schwar- 
zenau, Germany, in 1708. 

It might be said generally that these 
Dunker or Brethren bodies are former 
German Baptists who took their theol- 
ogy and much of their practice from 
the Pietists of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries in Germany. The 
Pietists, who were mostly Lutherans, 
became unhappy with the formalism of 
worship and ritual in their state church 
and with the general "barrenness" of 
German Protestantism. They took the 
New Testament literally and endeavored 
to put its teachings into practice in the 
least detail of their living. They spurned 
the idea of apostolic succession, and at 
the heart of their practice they had a 
love feast or agape, which was the 
serving of the Lord's Supper preceded 
by a ceremony of foot washing. They 
saluted one another with a "kiss of 
peace," dressed in the plainest clothing, 
covered the heads of women at serv- 
ices, anointed their sick with oil for 
healing and consecration, refrained from 
worldly amusements, refused to take 
oaths, go to war, or engage in lawsuits. 
These doctrines and practices are held 
today by many Brethren with certain 

From these German Pietists came the 
Church of the Brethren (Conservative 
Dunkers), the Brethren Church (Pro- 


gressive Dunkers), the Old German Bap- 
tist Brethren (Old Order Dunkers), 
and the Church of God (New Dunkers). 
Another Brethren group, unrelated his- 
torically to these and known as the 
River Brethren, also took its ideology 
from the German Pietists. This group 
includes the Brethren in Christ, the Old 
Order, or Yorker, Brethren, and United 
Zion Church (formerly United Zion's 
Children). A third Brethren body, 
known as the Plymouth Brethren, has 
a British rather than a German back- 

The Brethren bodies beginning in 
Germany were known for years simply 
as German Baptist Brethren; that title 
has largely disappeared except in the 
case of the Old German Baptist Breth- 
ren (Old Order Dunkers). 

Church of the Brethren 

The Church of the Brethren began in 
1708 with a church of 8 persons in 
Schwarzenau, Germany. Persecuted and 
driven from Germany into Holland and 
Switzerland, one group of the church in 
Crefeld, Germany, under the leader- 
ship of Peter Becker came to America 
in 1719 to take up free lands offered 
them by William Penn. They settled 
in Germantown, near Philadelphia, 
where they were joined in 1729 by 59 
families brought across the Atlantic by 
Alexander Mack. From Pennsylvania 
they spread across the country. 

Their German speech, their opposi- 
tion to war, and their insistence upon 
the inner Christian life as more impor- 
tant than church organization made them 
a suspected group from the start. 
Morally they opposed the Revolution; 
in the Civil War they opposed slavery. 
The suspicion and misunderstanding 
waned as time went on; today historians 
are generous in their praise of the con- 
tributions of the Brethren to American 
democracy. In our own day the work 
of their pacifists in World War II and 


their outstanding efforts in relief to Eu- 
rope following that war have made 
them one of the most honored bodies in 
American Protestantism. In their early 
days at Germantown they printed the 
first German Bible in America and cir- 
culated the first American religious 

In 1728 a group under Conrad Beissel 
left the Church of the Brethren to 
found the famous Ephrata Community 
and the Seventh Day Baptists (Ger- 
man); and in 1848 another break resulted 
in the establishment of the Church of 
God (New Dunkers). In 1881 a third 
group withdrew to organize the Old 
German Baptist Brethren (Old Order 
Dunkers); and in 1882 carne the worst 
split of all in the organizing of the Breth- 
ren Church (Progressive Dunkers). The 
original body is known today as the 
Church of the Brethren and has 214,316 
members in 1,116 churches in the United 
States, Canada, India, Nigeria, and 

Generally in doctrine this church fol- 
lows the mainstream of Protestant the- 
ology with considerable freedom of 
thought for its members and the clergy 
and great emphasis to practical biblical 
piety. Its teaching is summarized in the 
following 5 divisions: (1) the doctrine 
of peace, including refusal to go to war 
and a positive peacemaking program 
which makes them more than mere war 
resisters; (2) the doctrine of temper- 
ance, under which total abstinence is 
practiced; (3) the doctrine of the simple 
life, under which worldly amusements 
and luxuries are shunned, and a prac- 
tical, wholesome, temperate, clean way 
of personal and family life is stressed; 
they seek to develop a "concerned 
stewardship of life rather than prohibi- 
tion of amusements and overindulgence 
in luxuries"; (4) the doctrine of brother- 
hood, under which all class distinctions 
are opposed as unchristian; and (5) that 
religion means obedience to Christ 
rather than obedience to creeds and 
cults. Christian living rather than forms 

is stressed. Baptism is by trine immersion; 
the love feast is observed, following the 
pattern of John 13:1-7. There is a wan- 
ing adherence to the Brethren traditions 
of plainness in dress and the veiling of 
women in worship, as "commanded" in 
I Corinthians. They take no oaths and 
do not generally participate in lawsuits. 

Moderators (lay or clerical, men or 
women, either resident or nonresident) 
are in charge of local congregations, 
which enjoy a great deal of autonomy. 
Ministers are chosen by the ballot of 
the local congregation. Above the local 
group stands the annual conference, a 
legislative body composed of delegates 
from the churches and an "upper house" 
known as the Standing Committee, made 
up of delegates elected from the 51 dis- 
tricts into which the churches are 
grouped. The annual conference is an 
over-all, unifying body. 

A general brotherhood board, com- 
posed of 25 members elected by the an- 
nual conference, supervises the general 
church program. The board administers 
missions in India, Africa, and South 
America. It represents the church in the 
field of social education, social action, 
relief and rehabilitation, and carries on 
a world-wide program of peace and 
human welfare. The program includes a 
volunteer service in America and abroad 
for hundreds of young Brethren men 
and women, including conscientious ob- 
jectors to war. Through Christian edu- 
cation it supervises church schools, week- 
day religious education, higher education 
in 6 colleges, and 40 summer camps. The 
board provides leadership and educa- 
tion in the ministry, in locating and sup- 
porting new churches, and in evangelism, 
and carries responsibility and the print- 
ing and merchandizing interests of the 

The Church of the Brethren co-oper- 
ates fully with the World Council of 
Churches, the National Council of the 
Churches of Christ in the U.S.A., and 
with local church councils; it is thor- 
oughly ecumenical in outlook 



Brethren Church 
(Progressive Bunkers) 

The first Brethren in Pennsylvania 
were largely farmers with little educa- 
tion. While there were a few men of 
real learning among them, they were for 
the most part earnest Christians who had 
been denied the benefit of schools. They 
experienced a growing dissatisfaction 
with this situation and with the failure 
of the church to provide schools of 
higher learning for clergy and laity. Dis- 
satisfaction arose also over the strict 
enforcement of the traditions of plain 
dress, worship, and especially over the 
transfer of authority from the local con- 
gregations to the several conferences. 
The dissent swelled into a rebellion, the 
progressive leaders were at last ex- 
pelled, and a considerable number fol- 
lowed them out to establish the Brethren 
Church (Progressive Dunkers) in 1882. 

This body is quite specific in its doc- 
trine, which is set forth in a Message 
of the Brethren Ministry, written about 
1917. The message includes statements 
of belief in the infallibility of the Scrip- 
tures; the pre-exist ence, deity, and incar- 
nation by virgin birth of Jesus Christ; the 
vicarious atonement of Jesus Christ and 
his resurrection; the fall of man and the 
necessity of salvation; justification by 
personal faith in Christ; the resurrec- 
tion of the dead; the judgment of the 
world and the life everlasting; the sec- 
ond coming of Christ; nonconformity 
with the world; believer's baptism by 
trine immersion; the ordinances of bap- 
tism, confirmation, the Lord's Supper, 
foot washing, and anointing the sick 
with oil. 

In 1939 a split occurred in the Breth- 
ren Church which divided it into what 
came to be known as the Ashland Group 
and the Grace Group. There is no for- 
mal division here; both groups still carry 
the name of the Brethren Church, but 
each group has its own annual confer- 
ence the Ashland body at Ashland, 
Ohio, and the Grace body at Winona 
Lake, Indiana. Each conference has its 

own executives; and since the govern- 
ment of the Brethren Church is con- 
gregational, it is possible for a congre- 
gation to support either one group or 
the other and still remain in good stand- 
ing in the Brethren Church. Each group 
has its own seminary and missions boards. 
There has been no change in general 
doctrinal statement, but it is generally 
true that the Grace Group represents 
the Calvinistic viewpoint and the Ash- 
land Group the Arminian viewpoint. A 
dispute over the necessity of baptism 
to salvation is still unsettled. 

Polity in the Brethren Church is more 
congregational than in the Church of 
the Brethren (Conservative Dunkers). 
Each church is completely autonomous; 
there are ministers, elders, deacons, evan- 
gelists, and deaconesses. Deaconesses may 
become ministers. Churches are grouped 
geographically into 9 district confer- 
ences. The Grace Group has 24,660 mem- 
bers and the Ashland Group 18,697. 

Church of God (New Dunkards) 

Disagreement concerning the practice 
of trine immersion, the love feast, the 
veiling of women, and nonconformity 
in taking oaths brought about a schism 
among the first Dunkers in this country. 
A group led by George Patton and Peter 
Eyman withdrew to organize the Church 
of God (New Dunkards) in 1848. They 
held that "Bible things should be called 
by Bible names," and that the only 
name for a church authorized by Scrip- 
ture was the Church of God. 

This church accepts no human creed 
of confession of faith; it holds the Bible 
as the only infallible guide to Christian 
living. Members lay strong emphasis 
upon the second coming of Christ, fu- 
ture rewards and punishments, on holi- 
ness of heart and life not as a second 
work of grace but as one definite work 
of cleansing and filling, and on being 
born again in order to become a true 
child of God. They practice anointing 
of the sick with oil and foot washing at 



Communion. They do not believe in 
wars of aggression but will take part in 
wars for defense. Baptism is in the name 
of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost; but 
there is only one immersion. 

The 8 churches of this body are 
grouped in an annual conference, which 
is the governing authority. Each church 
is equally represented in the conference. 
There are 622 members. 

Old German Baptist Brethren 
(Old Order Bunkers) 

While the Brethren Church (Pro- 
gressive Dunkers) left the Church of 
the Brethren (Conservative Dunkers) 
because the latter body seemed too con- 
servative, the Old German Baptist 
Brethren (Old Order Dunkers) left it 
because they considered it not conserva- 
tive enough. The dissenters stood lit- 
erally for the old order and traditions. 
The salient point in their opposition lay 
in their suspicion of Sunday schools, 
missions, higher education, and church 
societies. They withdrew in 1881. 

Their basic objections still hold, but 
with certain modifications. Children are 
not enrolled in Sunday schools, but they 
are encouraged to attend the regular 
services of the church and to join the 
church at a very early age anywhere 

from 10 to 20. Many congregations list 
a majority of members between 15 and 
40 years of age. The church today is not 
completely opposed even to higher edu- 
cation; many of their youth enter high 
school and college; many teach in col- 
leges or are training in college or pro- 
fessional schools for various professions. 
They stand for a literal interpretation 
of the Scriptures in regard to the Lord's 
Supper and practice close Communion, 
which excludes all but their own mem- 
bership. They favor non-co-operation in 
war, but at the same time they advocate 
compliance with the ordinary demands 
of government; they leave conscientious 
objection to military service to the in- 
dividual conscience. Non-co-operation 
in political and secret societies is 
stressed; their dress is the severely plain 
garb of the Quakers, and they frown 
on all worldly amusements. They follow 
other Brethren bodies in refusing to 
take oaths or to engage in lawsuits, have 
no salaried ministry, enforce complete 
abstinence from alcoholic liquors, anoint 
the sick with oil, veil the heads of their 
women at worship, and refuse to per- 
form a wedding ceremony for any di- 
vorced person. They have no Sunday 
schools, missions, or educational work, 
and report 4,092 members in 57 


Restless under the close connection of 
church and state in nineteenth-century 
England and Ireland, and opposing the 
stereotyped forms of worship in the 
Established Church, groups of Breth- 
ren began to meet for quiet fellowship 
and prayer. They had no connection 
whatever with the sects of Brethren in 
Germany but took their name from the 
Scriptures; at one time or another they 
were also called Christians, Believers, 
or Saints. The largest and most impor- 

tant meeting was held at Plymouth, Eng- 
land hence the name Plymouth Breth- 
ren, which has never been officially 
accepted by any of the group. 

These Plymouth Brethren set up their 
meetings on strictly New Testament 
lines. They had no ordained ministers, 
inasmuch as they held to the "priest- 
hood of all believers." They put strong 
emphasis upon the second coming of 
Jesus to be expected momentarily 
and upon his deity; and they denied fel- 



lowship with all who were "not funda- 
mentally sound as to doctrine and godly 
in walk." Differences arose over diver- 
gent views on the effects of unsound 
teaching in the Plymouth Assembly, and 
in 1848 there came a division into Ex- 
clusive and Open Brethren. The Open 
Brethren held that they should receive 
all persons personally sound in faith, 
even though they came from an assem- 
bly where error was taught, if they 
personally rejected the error. The Ex- 
clusive Brethren held that such recep- 
tion disqualified the assemblies from 
participation in the Circle of Fellow- 
ship, which was, and is, a joint body of 
approved assemblies holding a corporate 
unity and responsibility made up of 
leaders who make decisions for all con- 
stituent assemblies. 

The tendencies toward division fol- 
lowed the Plymouth Brethren to Amer- 
ica when they came here in the late 
nineteenth century. Today there are 8 
bodies of Plymouth Brethren in this 
country, distinguished only by the Ro- 
man numerals I to VIII. Plymouth Breth- 
ren I and II, the two largest bodies, have 
practically dropped their differences and 
are in practice one body. 

In doctrine the various bodies are in 
substantial agreement; the separation of 
these groups is caused mainly by conflicts 
in church discipline. Generally they ac- 
knowledge no creeds; they take the Bible 
as their only original guide, believing it 
verbally inspired of God and inerrant. 
They are Trinitarians; they hold that 
Christ was begotten of the Holy Spirit 
and born of the Virgin Mary, and is 
true God and true man; that man is 
created in God's image; that by sin he 
has incurred physical and spiritual death, 
which is separation from God; that all 
men are sinners; that salvation and justi- 
fication come through faith in Christ's 
shed blood, apart from works; that 
Christ was resurrected and ascended into 
heaven to abide there as high priest and 
advocate for the redeemed. Christ's re- 
turn will be premillennial; it is imminent 

and personal, and he will return in 
glory with all his saints to rule and 
judge the world. All who receive him 
by faith are born again and thereby 
become the children of God. There is 
a bodily resurrection for the just and the 
unjust, eternal reward for the righteous 
and everlasting punishment for the 

Plymouth Brethren hold that the true 
church includes all regenerated be- 
lievers. There are not specific require- 
ments for membership, but all candi- 
dates are expected to give "satisfactory 
evidence of the new birth." They are 
received as "members of Christ" and 
do not join any organization. There 
are no ordained or salaried ministers 
in the usual sense; "personal gift and 
spiritual power" from the Holy Spirit 
are sufficient evidence of a call to min- 
istry (I Cor. 12:4-11). Hence they do 
recognize in certain men certain gifts of 
preaching and teaching, and those who 
devote their time to such work are sup- 
ported by voluntary contributions. 
Gifted and godly men are acknowledged 
as elders and overseers who hold no 
official position but who care for the 
spiritual needs of the saints. 

Government among Brethren I and 
II is by individual assembly or congre- 
gation; these bodies hold that each as- 
sembly is responsible to the Lord alone 
as head of the church. Brethren III to 
VIII, on the other hand, are joined in 
Circles of Fellowship, as already de- 

The idea of the "priesthood of all 
believers" is practiced in their meeting, 
service, and ministry. There is no ritual. 
The larger assemblies own church build- 
ings, or gospel halls; smaller assemblies 
meet in rented halls or rooms, or in 
private residences. Baptism and the 
Lord's Supper are observed as ordi- 
nances; the Supper is celebrated each 
Sunday, usually in the morning, and the 
gospel preached at night. There are 
other meetings for prayer and Bible 
study, young people's meetings, mission- 



ary activities supported by voluntary 
subscription, tent meetings, evangelistic 
services, and the like. 

Plymouth Brethren I follows closely 
the teachings of the English leader John 
Darby of the original Plymouth con- 
gregation. It puts special emphasis upon 
the teaching that "eternal life in Christ 
is the common blessing of all believers 
of every age," in distinction to other 
Plymouth Brethren, who restrict that 
blessing. There are about 5,000 mem- 

Plymouth Brethren 11 is "open," hav- 
ing some fellowship with Christians be- 
yond its own membership. Uniquely its 
members hold that ecclesiastical position 
in itself does not disqualify anyone. 
There is actually a variety of teaching 
here, some holding that an open min- 
istry is obligatory, others that it is op- 
tional, and some others not tolerating 
it at all. This is the largest Plymouth 
body, claiming some 15,000 members. 

Plymouth Brethren 111 had 1,000 
members and 22 assemblies as of 1936. 
This might be called the high church 
group inasmuch as they believe that 
"absolute power of a judicial kind" has 
been assigned by Christ to the Christian 
assembly. They refuse fellowship with 
all of differing doctrine. 

Plymouth Brethren IV refuses to be 

designated by any name, for this would 
make it a sect, and the Bible (I Cor. 
1:10-15) forbids all sects. Its differences 
with other Plymouth bodies are largely 
concerning government and discipline. 
There were 1,909 members and 56 assem- 
blies as of 1936. 

Plymouth Brethren V clings closely 
to the doctrinal position of the original 
British (Plymouth) body. They do a 
widespread work in jails, hospitals, and 
so on, and distribute a large number of 
tracts and pamphlets. There were 1,776 
members and 67 assemblies as of 1936. 

Plymouth Brethren VI is the smallest 
of all with only 2 assemblies and 34 
members in 1936. Their existence as a 
separate body goes back to the failure 
of an attempt to join all Plymouth Breth- 
ren bodies in England. 

Plymouth Brethren VII and VIII are 
comparatively new organizations. Both 
were part of Plymouth Brethren I up to 
1936. They have about 2,000 members 
and 100 assemblies. 

Thus together all 8 groups had an 
approximate membership in this country 
of over 25,000 in 664 churches in 1936. 
They are also found in Canada, Great 
Britain, and in various other countries. 
There is no unifying international bond 
or body. 


A considerable number of post-Refor- 
mation Anabaptist and Pietists, fleeing 
Europe, settled in Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, near the middle of the 
seventeenth century. They were grouped 
in a chain of brotherhoods, one of which 
became known as the Brotherhood by 
the River (the Susquehanna River) and 
later as the Brethren in Christ Church. 

Various disputes, many of which 
would seern quite unimportant today, 
brought about the establishment of 2 

smaller bodies the Old Order, or 
Yorker, Brethren in 1843, and the 
Brinsers or United Zion's Children in 
1855. The others remained in the orig- 
inal Brethren in Christ group. They are 
today the largest of the 3 churches, 
which altogether number about 20,000 
communicant members. This church at 
present ministers to about 150,000 in 
United States of America and other 



Brethren in Christ 

With the outbreak of the Civil War 
the draft reached into the ranks of the 
Brethren, and it became necessary for 
them to obtain legal recognition as an 
established religious organization in order 
to protect their objectors. Nonresistance 
has always been one of their principles. 
A council meeting in Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania, in 1863 officially adopted 
the name Brethren in Christ Church. 
The church was not incorporated until 

The Brethren in Christ Church pledges 
loyalty to the following doctrines: the 
inspiration of the Holy Scriptures; the 
self-existent, triune God Father, Son, 
and Holy Spirit; the deity and virgin 
birth of Christ; Christ's death as atone- 
ment for our sins, and his resurrection 
from the dead; the Holy Spirit who 
convicts the sinner, regenerates the 
penitent, and empowers the believer; 
justification as forgiveness for committed 
sins, and sanctification as heart cleansing 
and empowerment by the Holy Spirit; 
observance of the ordinances of God's 
house; temperance, and modesty of ap- 
parel as taught in the Scriptures; the per- 
sonal, visible, and imminent return of 
Christ; the resurrection of the dead, with 
punishment for the unbeliever and re- 
ward for the believer; the supreme duty 
of the church as world-wide evangelism. 

The government is in the hands of 
the local churches, 6 regional confer- 
ences, and a general conference. There 
is a board of directors consisting of the 
regional conference bishops, the General 
Conference Secretary, and the treasurer 
of the Board of Administration. Church 
boards include those on benevolence, ad- 
ministration, Christian education, mis- 
sions, the ministry, publications, and 
schools and colleges; there are commis- 
sions on home, Sunday school, and youth. 

The church has three institutions of 
learning: Messiah College, Grantham, 
Pennsylvania; Upland College, Upland, 
California; and Niagara Christian Col- 
lege, Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada. Mis- 

sionaries are at work in Africa, India, 
Japan, and Cuba. 

Old Order, or Yorker, Brethren 

The Old Order, or Yorker, Brethren 
is the smallest of all Brethren in Christ 
Church groups in the United States; they 
reported only 291 members and 7 
churches in 1936. The primary reason 
for their existence as a separate body 
lay in their feeling that the Brethren in 
Christ had became lax in their enforce- 
ment of nonresistance and nonconform- 
ity to the world. They left the original 
body in 1843. Old Order in their name 
refers to their desire to keep the old 
traditions alive; Yorker resulted from 
the fact that most of them at the time 
of withdrawal lived in York County, 

Their doctrine is no longer identical 
with that of Brethren in Christ Church. 
They refuse to build or meet in church 
edifices; lacking these, they meet usually 
in the homes of the members. 

United Zion Church 

Bishop Matthias Brinser was expelled 
from the Brethren of Christ Church in 
1855, together with about 50 others, for 
building and holding services in a meet- 
inghouse. They organized under the 
name United Zion's Children; this was 
changed in 1954 when the body in- 
corporated under the name United Zion 

They are essentially the same in doc- 
trine as the Brethren in Christ. They 
baptize by trine immersion, observe foot 
washing as an ordinance along with the 
Lord's Supper. They encourage the veil- 
ing of women and are opposed to divorce 
and immodest attire. 

Located almost exclusively in Dauphin, 
Lebanon, and Lancaster counties in 
Pennsylvania, they list a few less than 
1,000 members and 23 churches. Church 
officers are bishops, ministers, and 
deacons; the top administrative body is 



a general conference composed of a 
representation of the various district 
conferences; the basic unit of govern- 
ment is the district conference. 

No foreign missionary work of their 
own is reported, but they support 3 

missionaries working under the Brethren 
in Christ Church. There is some interest 
in reunion with the Brethren in Christ 
Church with whom ministers are inter- 
changed. One home for the aged is main- 


Buddhism is found in real strength in 
this country in Utah, Arizona, Wash- 
ington, Oregon, and California; and it 
represents the transplanting of the 
Buddhism of the East. Most of the 
Buddhists in the United States are Japa- 
nese or Japanese-Americans; however, 
there are "English" departments in San 
Francisco, Los Angeles, and Tacoma. 

The faith is built upon the teachings 
of the founder, Buddha Siddartha 
Gautama, the Enlightened One (566 
B.C.) who attained his enlightenment 
in India and whose teachings have spread 
all over the Far East. Often challenged 
as a system of religious faith, it re- 
mains a most complex and involved pat- 
tern of thought and action. It is divided 
into 2 schools Hinayana, or Theravada, 
Buddhism, or the Lesser Vehicle; and 
Mahayana Buddhism, or the Greater Ve- 
hicle. These offer, on the one hand, a 
path of escape from suffering and, on 
the other, a thorough preparation for 
entry upon that path. Hinayana seems 
devised for those among its disciples who 
are satisfied with a comparatively mod- 
est attainment of Buddhist virtue, while 
Mahayana is for those who would prac- 
tice a more exacting discipleship. 
Buddha himself put the essence of his 
system in these words: "One thing only 
I teach. Sorrow [or pain], the cause of 
sorrow, the cessation of sorrow, and the 
path which leads to the cessation of sor- 
row." These are the Four Truths of 
Buddhism, the latter of which includes 
the actual means of arriving at these 
truths by way of the "noble eightfold 
path" "right views, right intention, 

right speech, right action, right liveli- 
hood, right effort, right mindfulness, 
right concentration." This description of 
the 8 paths covers the whole training 
of the disciple who seeks nirvana, which 
means literally "blown out" or "extin- 
guished." He strives to extinguish in 
his living all desire, hatred, and igno- 
rance, and thus attain a nobler life. 

There are no theories of creation, no 
miracles, and no divine being in Bud- 
dhism. Supreme reality is neither af- 
firmed nor denied; it is only said to be 
beyond the comprehension of the hu- 
man mind. It is actually a system of self- 
education in the conquering, or forget- 
ting, of pain, sorrow, and suffering. 
Recognizing that this is a long process, 
the Buddha taught that man has an 
indefinite number of lives, or reincar- 
nations, in which to accomplish it. 

The titular head of American 
Buddhism bears the title of bishop; he 
is in charge of all religious activities, and 
he is authorized to transfer or dismiss the 
clergy under his jurisdiction. The first 
Buddhist church or temple in the United 
States was consecrated in San Fran- 
cisco in 1905; the Buddhist Mission of 
North America was started in San Fran- 
cisco in 1898 and incorporated in 1942 as 
the Buddhist Churches of America. 
There are 80 ministers and 2 deans and 
about 20,000 members. They represent 
the Jodo Shinshu Sect of Buddhism in 
this country, a faith based on "the 
anatman doctrine, supplemented by the 
idea of karma, and nirvana, the holy 
ease or a blissful mental state of ab- 
solute freedom from eviL" Each church, 



of which there are 52, is autonomous, 
holding complete control of its own 
property. Weekly services are held, and 
Japanese language schools are maintained 
by many of the churches. Because of 
Buddhism's introspective nature and its 
lack of social outlook or endeavor, there 
are no hospitals or other philanthropic 

institutions; but a very active National 
Young Buddhist Co-ordinating Council 
has established district leagues in San 
Francisco, Seattle, Salt Lake City, Den- 
ver, and New York. A home for the 
aged was established at Fresno, Cali- 
fornia, in 1952. 


The founders of the Catholic Apostolic 
Church never intended to establish a 
separate denomination. They were Brit- 
ish millenarians who believed in the 
bestowal of the gifts of the Holy Spirit, 
their meetings characterized by speaking 
in tongues and prophetic revelations. 

They also believed that a twelvefold 
apostleship was the only form of church 
government or supreme ecclesiastical au- 
thority authorized by Scripture and that 
church officials should follow the order 
laid down in Eph. 4:11. Accordingly 
they "set aside" 12 apostles who, being 
divinely called and not elected by the 
church, were "superior ... to all other 
ministry." The movement began in 
England in 1830; their first church in 
America was established in 1851. 

Their doctrine, based upon the Nicene, 
Apostolic, and Athanasian creeds, affirms 
belief in the authority and inspiration of 
the Bible, baptism, the Lord's Supper, 
the indissolubility of marriage short of 
death, the ordination of ministers 
(priests), the laying on of hands, the 

gift of tongues, the tithe by which all 
their ministers are supported and a 
strong insistence upon the premillennial 
appearance of Christ, who will raise the 
dead, translate the living, and establish 
peace on earth. 

Church government, following the pat- 
tern of Ephesians, is in the hands of 
apostles, prophets, bishops (commonly 
called angels), evangelists, priests, and 
deacons. Only deacons are elected by 
the church; all others are chosen of God 
but under the authority of the apostles. 
There are approximately 2,500 members 
in 7 churches in the United States. In- 
asmuch as the last divinely chosen apos- 
tle died in 1901, there have been no 
ordinations of any sort since that year. 
There are no home or foreign missions, 
educational or institutional efforts; but 
there are a few Sunday schools. Wor- 
ship and ritual are highly liturgical, lay- 
ing great emphasis upon symbolism; 
their forms are borrowed from the great 
historic churches. 


John Thomas came to the United 
States from England in 1844. He joined 
the Disciples of Christ but later became 
convinced that their doctrine made them 
the apostate church predicted by Scrip- 
ture and that many other more im- 
portant Bible doctrines were being ne- 

glected. He left the Disciples to organ- 
ize a number of societies which under 
his leadership began preaching the need 
of a return to primitive Christianity. 
Loosely organized, these societies bore 
no name until the outbreak of the Civil 
War, when their doctrine of non- 


resistance forced them to adopt a name, 
and Christadelphians (or Brethren of 
Christ) was the name chosen. 

Christadelphians are both Unitarian 
and Adventist in theology. They reject 
the Trinity and belief in a personal devil, 
maintaining the Scriptures teach that 
Christ is not God the Son, but the Son 
of God; not pre-existent, but born of 
Mary by the Holy Spirit. Man is mortal 
by nature with Christ as his only means 
of salvation. Eternal life comes only to 
the righteous. Strong millenarians, they 
believe that Christ will come shortly to 
reward the saints with immortality and 
to destroy the wicked; that he will take 
David's throne in Jerusalem, the faith- 
ful will be gathered, and the world will 
be ruled from the land of Canaan for 
a thousand years. 

The church is congregational in polity; 
local organizations are known not as 
churches but as ecclesias. Membership is 
by profession of faith and immersion. 
There are no paid or ordained ministers 
in the usual sense; each ecclesia elects 

serving brethren, among whom are in- 
cluded managing brethren, presiding 
brethren, and lecturing brethren. Women 
take no part in public speech or prayer, 
though all vote equally. Christadelphians 
do not vote in civil elections or par- 
ticipate in war, and they refuse to ac- 
cept public office. There are no as- 
sociations or conventions, but there are 
fraternal gatherings for spiritual inspira- 
tion. Meetings are generally held in 
rented halls, schoolhouses, or private 
homes; there are few church edifices. 

Home missions work is local, usually 
in the form of lectures and instruction 
in Christadelphian doctrine and righteous 
living. There are no foreign missions, 
but ecclesias are found in several coun- 
tries. There is no educational work with 
the exception of summer Bible schools 
in several states. Found in 26 states from 
coast to coast, they reported 3,755 mem- 
bers in 115 ecclesias in 1950. Larger num- 
bers are located in Great Britain, New 
Zealand, and Australia, 


The Christian and Missionary Alliance, 
which prefers to be known not as a de- 
nomination but as an evangelistic and 
missionary movement, originated in 1881 
under the leadership of the Rev. A. B. 
Simpson, a Presbyterian minister in New 
York City who left that church to carry 
on independent evangelistic work among 
the unchurched. It was at first divided 
into 2 societies, the Christian Alliance 
for home missions work and the Inter- 
national Missionary Alliance for work 
abroad. The two bodies were merged 
in 1897 in the present Christian and 
Missionary Alliance. 

Strongly evangelical and fundamental- 
ist, the alliance stands for the literal in- 
spiration of the Bible, the atonement 

wrought by Christ, the reality of super- 
natural religious experience, separation 
from the world, the premillennial re- 
turn of Jesus Christ, Spirit baptism, and 
practical holiness. While there is no 
creed as such, there is a formula of be- 
lief built upon a fourfold gospel of 
Christ as Saviour, Sanctifier, Healer, 
and coming Lord. 

Work is carried on in 14 organized 
districts in the United States and Can- 
ada, with 1,142 churches fully or partially 
organized. Each of these churches or 
groups is a self-maintaining and self- 
governing unit engaged in missionary 
and evangelical activities. There is an 
over-all conference, called the General 
Council, which meets annually in various 



parts of the United States and Canada. 

Foreign missionary work is carried 
on in South America, Africa, the Near 
East, India, Viet-Nam, Thailand, Japan, 
New Guinea, among overseas Chinese, 
the Philippines, and Indonesia. In 22 dif- 
ferent mission fields are found 832 mis- 
sionaries from the United States and 
2,702 indigenous workers and there are 
1,213 organized churches with 114,904 

In addition to the organized church 
work in North America missionary work 

is carried on among Indians and Negroes, 
as well as in Mexico and the West Indies, 
and in certain other areas where there 
has not yet been full development. Bible 
training colleges are maintained at 
Nyack, New York; St. Paul, Minnesota; 
San Francisco, California; and Regina, 
Saskatchewan, Canada. In 1958 there 
were 64,153 members in North America 
in 1,142 churches. Thus the alliance has 
a larger constituency abroad than at 


John Alexander Dowie, a Congrega- 
tional preacher educated in Scotland 
and ordained in Australia, founded this 
movement in Chicago in 1896. In 1901 he 
established his organization at Zion City, 
forty miles north of Chicago. Here it 
became a sect and a colony with com- 
munal businesses and industries, gov- 
erned by a theocracy of which Dowie 
was general overseer. Dowie had ex- 
tensive plans for educational and cultural 
projects; he criticized both the injustices 
of capitalism and the excesses of labor 
leaders, alcoholic beverages, tobacco, 
medicine and the medical profession, 
secret lodges, and the press. 

Theologically, Dowie was firmly 
rooted in orthodoxy, but he refused to 
be bound by what he felt was a cut-and- 
dried orthodox scholasticism; he ob- 
jected strenuously to the doctrine of 
eternal punishment, contending that a 
God of love must provide an ultimate 
universal redemption for all men. He 
emphasized the healing of disease through 
prayer, and his success in healing led 
to the establishment of a tabernacle and 
"divine healing rooms" first in Chicago 
and later in Zion City. Several years 
after the organization of the Christian 
Catholic Church at Zion, he claimed to 
be Elijah the Restorer and maintained 
his leadership of the group until 1906, 

when he was deposed and Wilbur Glenn 
Voliva became his successor. At first an 
exclusively religious community with 
one church, Zion has changed consider- 
ably since Dowie's day; the Christian 
Catholic Church is still strong, but in- 
dependent businesses have been wel- 
comed, and several other churches are 
at work in the city. 

The Scriptures are accepted as the rule 
of faith and practice by the group; other 
doctrines call for belief in the necessity 
of repentance for sin and trust in Christ 
for salvation, trine immersion, and tith- 
ing as a Christian obligation. The bases 
of belief and teaching have been broad- 
ened in recent years. The Presbyterian 
(Westminster) Curriculum is used in 
the junior-and senior-high departments 
of the church school; the ministers are 
trained in Bethany, Gordon, and Fuller 
theological seminaries, Moody Bible In- 
stitute, Biblical Seminary (New York), 
and Garrett Biblical Institute. The Zion 
Conservatory of Music attracts many 
students unaffiliated with the church, 
and a Passion Play, started in 1935, an- 
nually attracts thousands of visitors. 
There are branches of the church in 
Chicago, Michigan City (Indiana), and 
Phoenix (Arizona). Missionary work is 
conducted in Japan, Australia, the Philip- 
pines, British Guiana, Jamaica, Palestine, 



India, Nigeria, and the British Isles. An 
official monthly publication, Leaves of 

Healing, has a world-wide circulation. 
No report on membership is available. 


This church represents a merger of 2 
former Italian denominations: the Italian 
Christian Churches of North America 
and the General Council of the Italian 
Pentecostal Assemblies of God. The 
former group and the largest was 
founded in 1907 by Louis Francescon in 
Chicago as a nondenominational and 
nonsectarian union of independent Italian 
congregations. Its work spread across 
this country and into Italy, Brazil, and 
Argentina. The Pentecostal Assemblies 
Group was founded also in Chicago? 
in 1904 by Rocco Santarnaria and his 
father, John Santarnaria, gathering 
together some 200 Italian missions and 
congregations. First named "The Un- 
organized Italian Christian Churches of 
North America," it dropped the word 
"Unorganized" in 1939 and the word 

"Italian" in 1942, as the use of the Eng- 
lish language was gradually being 
adopted in the member churches. The 
church was incorporated under its 
present name in Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1948. 

There are today 20,000 members listed 
in 217 churches, and 233 ordained clergy- 
men. Individual churches exist as separate 
religious corporations under various 
state laws. The first general council was 
held in Niagara Falls, New York, in 1927; 
since that time each church has sent 
delegates to an annual conference of 
the entire society. A board of general 
overseers, a general superintendent, and 
a missionary board constitute an execu- 
tive board. Mission stations are found 
in Canada, Italy, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, 
and Argentina. 


The revival movements of the early 
nineteenth century in the United States 
had both positive and negative results 
and influence: while inspiring new con- 
secration and zeal in the established 
churches, they also resulted indirectly in 
the creation of new communions, sepa- 
rating from the larger bodies. One of 
these was the Disciples of Christ. 

Thomas Campbell, a clergyman of 
the Seceder branch of the Presbyterian 
Church in Ireland, settled in western 
Pennsylvania in 1807 and started preach- 
ing on a Presbyterian circuit. Almost im- 
mediately he was in trouble. Finding 

many Presbyterians and others with no 
pastoral oversight, he invited them to 
attend his service, opposed all exclusive- 
ness in the church and Presbyterian 
exclusiveness, so evident in the restric- 
tions placed on the Communion service, 
in particular. He advocated closer rela- 
tions with Christians in other churches 
than the Seceders permitted; he preached 
that acceptance of the creed, or of any 
creed, should not be a condition of 
church communion or fellowship, and 
he appealed from the creed to the Bible. 
He was restive under the domination of 
the church by the clergy, and he taught 



that all men who believed were saved by 
Christ. All this challenged ecclesiastical 
authority and the Calvinistic doctrine of 
the Presbyterian Church, and Campbell 
was censured for his departure from the 
paths of orthodoxy. Appealing from his 
presbytery to the higher Associate Synod 
of North America, he succeeded in 1808 
in having the censure removed; but so 
severe was his criticism of the whole 
idea of sectarianism and denominational- 
ism that further service with the Pres- 
byterians was impossible. With his son, 
Alexander Campbell, he withdrew in 
1809 to establish the Christian Associa- 
tion of Washington, Pennsylvania. His 
"declaration and address" on this occa- 
sion has become an ecclesiastical docu- 
ment of historic importance. 

Campbell made it plain that what was 
sought in this move was not so much 
reformation as restoration restoration 
of New Testament polity and ideal 
There ought to be, Campbell declared, 
"no schisms, or uncharitable divisions" 
among the churches; such divisions were 
"anti-Christian, anti-Scriptural, anti-nat- 
ural," and "productive of confusion and 
every evil work"; they were a "horrid 
evil, fraught with many evils." The 
church and membership in the church 
should be based solely upon the beliefs 
and practices of primitive New Testa- 
ment Christianity. The articles of faith 
and holiness "expressly revealed and en- 
joined in the Word of God" were quite 
enough without the addition of human 
opinions or the creedal inventions of 

As the Campbells insisted thus upon 
the unity of believers, the last thing in 
their minds was the founding of still 
another Protestant church. To avoid it, 
overtures were made to the Presby- 
terian Synod of Pittsburgh in the hope 
that the 2 groups could work together. 
This gesture failed, and the Brush Run 
Church was organized in May, 1810, in 
Washington County, Pennsylvania. A 
working unity with the Redstone Baptist 
Association was established and lasted 


nearly 10 years, but eventually points of 
disagreement arose and the 2 groups 
drifted apart. The separation was grad- 
ual, becoming complete about 1830, after 
which time the followers of the Camp- 
bells were known as Christians, or Disci- 
ples of Christ. 

The name Christian was used by Bar- 
ton W. Stone, a Presbyterian minister in 
Kentucky (see Christian Churches, 
p. 218). Stone's followers entered into a 
union with the Campbells in 1832. Stone 
felt that the whole church should be 
called simply "Christians," and Camp- 
bell favored the name "Disciples." No 
final decision was reached; both names 
were used intermittently; a church was 
generally called a "Christian Church" or 
a "Church of Christ." 

The first national convention of the 
Disciples and the first missionary society, 
the American Christian Missionary So- 
ciety, were organized in 1849; state 
conventions and societies also began 
meeting in that year. The church de- 
veloped rapidly through and after the 
Civil War period; unlike Methodists, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians, the Disciples 
did not divide on the issue of slavery. 
Especially in the Midwest, in Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Tennessee, and Missouri, 
the church gathered impressive strength 
in membership in spite of the persistent 
inherent objection toward any emphasis 
on denominationalism or ecclesiastical or- 
ganization. This objection became acute 
in differences between Conservatives and 
Progressives over the development of 
missionary societies and the use of in- 
strumental music in the churches. Out 
of this long debate came the Churches 
of Christ. 

The Disciples believe that the Bible 
is divinely inspired, and they accept it as 
their only rule of faith and life; neither 
Trinitarian nor Unitarian, they urge a 
simple usage of New Testament phrase- 
ology as to the Godhead. They believe 
that Christ is the Son of God, that the 
Holy Spirit is at work in the present 
world, that sin has alienated every soul 


from its maker. They feel that baptism 
and the Lord's Supper are divine ordi- 
nances and that it is a sacred duty to 
observe the Lord's Day. They believe 
that holiness is a necessity for every be- 
liever and that there is a final judgment 
with reward for the righteous and pun- 
ishment for the wicked. 

In detail their characteristic beliefs are 
set forth as follows: 

1. Feeling that "to believe and to do 
none other things than those enjoined by 
our Lord and His Apostles must be infal- 
libly safe," they aim "to restore in faith 
and spirit and practice the Christianity of 
Christ and His Apostles as found on the 
pages of the New Testament." 

2. Affirming that "the sacred Scriptures 
as given by God answer all purposes of a 
rule of faith and practice, and a law for the 
government of the church, and that human 
creeds and confessions of faith spring out of 
controversy and, instead of being bonds of 
union, tend to division and strife," they re- 
ject all such creeds and confessions. 

3. They place special emphasis upon "the 
Divine Sonship of Jesus, as the fundamental 
fact of the Holy Scripture, the essential 
creed of Christianity, and the one article 
of faith in order to receive baptism and 
church membership." 

4. Believing that in the Scriptures "a 
clear distinction is made between the law 
and the gospel," they "do not regard the 
Old and New Testaments as of equally bind- 
ing authority upon Christians," but that "the 
New Testament is as perfect a constitution 
for the worship, government, and discipline 
of the New Testament church as the Old 
was for the Old Testament church." 

5. While claiming for themselves the New 
Testament names of "Christians," or "Dis- 
ciples," "they do not deny that others are 
Christians or that other churches are 
Churches of Christ." 

6. Accepting the divine personality of the 
Holy Spirit, through whose agency re- 
generation is begun, they hold that men 
"must hear, believe, repent, and obey the 
gospel to be saved." 

7. Repudiating any doctrine of "baptismal 
regeneration," and insisting that there is no 
other prerequisite to regeneration than con- 
fession of faith with the whole heart in the 
personal living Christ, they regard baptism 

by immersion as "one of the items of the 
original divine system," and as "commanded 
in order to the remission of sins." 

^ 8. Following the apostolic model, the Dis- 
ciples celebrate the Lord's Supper on each 
Lord's ^day, "not as a sacrament, but as a 
memorial feast," from which no sincere fol- 
lower of Christ of whatever creed or church 
connection is excluded. 

9. The Lord's day with the Disciples is 
not a Sabbath, but a New Testament insti- 
tution, commemorating our Lord's resur- 
rection, and consecrated by apostolic ex- 

10. The Church of Christ is a divine in- 
stitution; sects are unscriptural and unapos- 
tolic. The sect name, spirit, and life should 
give place to the union and co-operation 
that distinguished the church of the New 

Strictly congregational in polity, each 
church of the Disciples of Christ elects 
its own officers pastors, elders, and dea- 
cons and acknowledges no outside ec- 
clesiastical authority. Baptism by immer- 
sion follows the reception of candidates 
for church membership who are received 
on profession of faith in Christ. Ministers 
are ordained usually by the local church 
and sometimes by a committee from 
neighboring churches. The minister is a 
member of the church in which he serves 
as pastor or evangelist. Ministerial associ- 
ations are organized for fellowship and 
mutual help on a country-wide and also 
a state level, but they have no authority. 

Churches are grouped into district 
and state conventions, which, like all 
others, have no final authority. There 
is no national ecclesiastical organization 
of the churches, but there is an Inter- 
national Convention of Disciples of 
Christ, meeting annually with advisory 
powers only and composed of individual 
members of the churches. 

The supervision of denominational 
activities is placed with the usual boards, 
which, however, are more unified than 
in most Protestant bodies. The Amer- 
ican Christian Missionary Society was 
formed at Cincinnati in 1849 to "pro- 
mote the preaching of the Gospel in 


this and other lands." The Christian 
Woman's Board of Missions was organ- 
ized in 1874. Other boards, organized 
to supervise ministerial relief, social ac- 
tion, benevolences, higher education, and 
church extension, were grouped to- 
gether with the missionary societies in a 
new United Christian Missionary So- 
ciety at the international convention at 
Cincinnati in 1919. A small percentage 
of the churches of the Disciples of 
Christ, generally called Independents, 
conduct an independent foreign missions 
work and do not report to denomina- 
tional boards or societies. 

The Board of Higher Education has 
under its supervision about 34 colleges, 
universities, Bible schools, and founda- 
tions. There are 6 homes for children, 
6 homes for the aged, and Valparaiso 
Christian Hospital at Valparaiso, Indiana. 

In 1959 there were 8,060 congrega- 
tions and 1,801,414 church members in 
the United States. In Canada in 1959 
there were 80 congregations and 7,533 
church members. The total for these two 

countries, which for the most part are 
affiliated with the International Conven- 
tion of Disciples of Christ, is therefore 
8,140 congregations and 1,808,947 church 
members. In these two countries there 
are 8,142 Sunday schools with an enroll- 
ment of 1,193,676 as of 1959. 

The global work of the Disciples was 
further co-ordinated in the organization 
of their World Convention of Churches 
(Disciples) in October of 1930 at Wash- 
ington, D.C. The second convention was 
held in Leicester, England, in 1935; the 
third in Buffalo, New York, in 1947; and 
the fourth in Melbourne, Australia, in 
1952. The fifth convention was held at 
Toronto, Canada, in August, 1954. There 
are 30 countries represented in the world 
convention with churches having a total 
membership of 2,005,003. World con- 
vention headquarters are located at 475 
Riverside Drive, New York City. 

Moves toward union have been made 
by the Disciples with the American 
Baptist Convention and with the United 
Church of Christ. 


The philosophy and work of the 
Christian Congregation, formed in 
Indiana in 1887, revolve about the "new 
commandment" of John 13:34-45. It is 
a fellowship of ministers, laymen, and 
congregations seeking a noncreedal, non- 
denominational basis for union. It op- 
poses all sectarian strife, insisting that 
according to the new commandment 
"the household of faith is not founded 
upon doctrinal agreement, creeds, church 
claims, names or rites," but solely upon 
the relationship of the individual to God. 
The basis of Christian fellowship is love 
toward one another, the actual relations 
of Christians to one another transcending 
in importance all individual belief or 
personal opinions. Free Bible study is 
encouraged, and the Bible Colportage 
Service of the Congregation circulates 

the Christian Indicator quarterly publi- 
cation series, Bibles, and Bible helps and 
literature for field workers. 

Churches and pastorates are now 
located in every state in the union; they 
still remain strongest, however, in the 
areas in which Barton Stone preached 
and in which the original Christian 
Congregation groups were located 
Kentucky, the Carolinas, Virginia, Pen- 
sylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Texas; for 
the greater part, the work is done in 
rural, mountain, and neglected areas. In 
many respects the work of the Christian 
Congregation is identical with that of 
the Stone movement and with his orig- 
inal Christian Church, although Christian 
Congregations were established and at 
work when the Christian Church was 



Polity is that of "a centralized con- 
gregational assembly"; congregational 
assemblies and a general assembly are 
held annually. Ministerial titles and 
forms of worship common to Presby- 
terian and Episcopal churches are em- 

ployed. All political and sectarian con- 
troversies are avoided, and members re- 
fuse to contract debts of any kind. 

Membership, as last reported from 
local areas of pastoral service, now ex- 
ceeds 26,000. 


Originating in a band of independent 
evangelists called "equality evangelists," 
the Christian Nation Church was in- 
corporated at Marion, Ohio, in 1895. 
Membership today stands at 450, and 
there are 25 churches. 

The church teaches a fourfold 
gospel: justification, entire sanctification, 
divine healing, and the second coming 
of Christ. Two ordinances, baptism and 
the Lord's Supper, are celebrated. Need- 
less ornaments on clothing, worldly 
organizations and amusements, tobacco 
and liquor, Sabbath breaking, the re- 
marriage of the divorced, jesting, foolish 

talking, and the singing of worldly songs 
are forbidden; and marriage to the un- 
saved is discouraged. Each family is en- 
couraged to "raise just so large a family 
of children as God will be pleased to 
give them," tithing is practiced, and love 
for friend and enemy is emphasized. 
Days of fasting and prayer are observed, 
the sick and needy are assisted, and camp 
meetings are strongly supported. 

Government is by local churches, 
which are grouped into districts and 
which meet in annual conferences. The 
licenses of all pastors expire at the end 
of each conference year. 


Christian Union represents an attempt 
to unite all Christians on a scriptural 
basis and to offer a larger unity in 
thought and worship. Organized in 1864 
at Columbus, Ohio, its announced pur- 
pose is "to promote fellowship among 
God's people, to put forth every effort 
to proclaim God's saving grace to the 
lost . . . and to declare the whole counsel 
of God for the edification of believers." 

There is no one creed binding upon 
members of the Union, but 7 principles 
are stressed: the oneness of the Church 
of Christ, Christ as the only head of the 
church, the Bible as the only rule of 
faith and practice, good fruits as the one 
condition of fellowship, Christian union 
without controversy, complete auton- 
omy for the local church, and avoidance 
of all partisan political preaching. Men 

and women are ordained ministers; 
ordinances include baptism by any 
method, at the choice of the individual 
and the Lord's Supper, 

While church government is con- 
gregational, a series of councils meet for 
fellowship and to conduct such business 
as concerns the entire church. State 
councils meet once a year and a general 
council meets every 3 years with both 
lay and ministerial delegates. 

Local missionary work is largely evan- 
gelistic and is carried on by state mission- 
ary boards; a general mission board ad- 
ministers home and foreign missionary 
work; twelve missionaries are located in 
Africa, Japan, the Dominican Republic, 
and Ethiopia. There are no colleges, but 
a Christian Union Extension School is 
established at Excelsior Springs, Missouri. 



One periodical, The Christian Union 
Witness, is published monthly in Indian- 
ola, Iowa. There are 119 churches in 

Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, 
Indiana, and Ohio; 124 ministers; and 
something over 8,000 members. 


This church began with the preaching 
of holiness and sanctifi cation in the Col- 
ored Methodist Church in Louisiana by 
a small body of white evangelists; it was 
organized in 1904 as the Colored Church 
South. Its central theme is sanctification 
by faith "as a distinct experience from 
justification by faith in Christ, which is 
not brought about by a growth in grace 
but is wrought instantaneously." There 
is emphasis on "one Lord, one faith, one 
baptism"; unequal persons, holy and un- 
holy, should not marry; both men and 
women are ordained to the ministry; the 
strict observance of all church rules is 
required; no member using or selling to- 
bacco or alcoholic liquors is acceptable; 

and members pledge that they will "ex- 
pose all evil" to church officials. 

The governing body is a 5-member 
Board No. 1, which ordains all deacons, 
deaconesses, and ministers and which 
supervises boards of extension, investi- 
gation, managers, ministers, and others. 
An annual conference meets in Septem- 
ber, a district conference in June, a 
Sunday-school convention in March. 
The church, listing 600 members in 30 
churches in 1957, is too small to main- 
tain any sizable missionary, philan- 
thropic, or educational work. A summer 
Bible school, organized in 1940, meets 
at headquarters during the month of 


C. P. Jones, a Baptist preacher in 
Selma, Alabama, and Jackson, Missis- 
sippi, left that denomination in 1894 to 
seek a faith which would make him "one 
of wisdom's true sons and, like Abraham, 
a friend of God.' " He called a con- 
vention at Jackson, enlisting the aid of 
men who like himself were interested 
in holiness, and founded there a holiness 
movement, which was at first completely 
interdenominational. By 1898, however, 
it had become a full-fledged denomina- 
tion; it now reports 9,018 members in 
151 churches. 

Doctrine in this church emphasizes 
original sin, Christ's atonement, and his 
second coming; sacraments include the 
gift of the Holy Ghost, baptism by im- 

mersion, the Lord's Supper, foot wash- 
ing, and divine healing. Episcopal in 
government, the church is led by bish- 
ops, one of whom is named senior bish- 
op. The final authority in doctrine and 
church law is vested in the biennial an- 
nual convention. 

The church is divided into 7 dio- 
ceses, each under the charge of a bishop. 
A district convention made up of elders, 
ministers, and local church representa- 
tives, meets semi-annually. A small 
missionary work is supported at home 
and abroad; there is a college, Christ 
Missionary and Industrial College, at 
Jackson, Mississippi; Boydton Institute at 
Boydton, Virginia; and a publishing 
house at Los Angeles, California. 



At Lynn, Massachusetts, in 1866 Mary 
Baker Eddy recovered almost instantly 
from a severe injury after reading in 
Matt. 9:1-8 the account of Christ's heal- 
ing of the man sick of the palsy. Pro- 
foundly religious and a lifelong student 
of mental and spiritual causation, she 
came to attribtute causation to God and 
to regard him as divine Mind. From 
these roots came Christian Science and 
the Church of Christ, Scientist. 

Generally described as "a religious 
teaching and practice based on the words 
and works of Christ Jesus," Christian 
Science was regarded by Mrs. Eddy as 
"divine metaphysics," as "the scientific 
system of divine healing," and as the "law 
of God, the law of good, interpreting 
and demonstrating the divine Principle 
and rule of universal harmony." She be- 
lieved "the Principle of all harmonious 
Mind-action to be God"; she wrote most 
of these definitions and descriptions of 
her faith in Science and Health with 
Key to the Scriptures, a famous volume 
which together with the Bible has be- 
come the twofold textbook of Christian 

Like many other religious leaders and 
pioneers, Mrs. Eddy hoped to work 
through existing churches. She did not 
plan another denomination; but organi- 
zation became necessary as interest in 
the movement spread, and under her 
direction the Church of Christ, Scien- 
tist, a local church, was established at 
Boston in 1879. In 1892 she established 
the present world-wide organization, the 
First Church of Christ, Scientist, in 
Boston, Massachusetts, and its branch 
churches and societies. This church in 
Boston is frequently referred to as the 
Mother Church. 

Applied not only to the healing of 
sickness but to the problems of life 
generally, the tenets and doctrines of 
Christian Science are often confusing to 
the non-Scientist, and call for careful 
explanation. They start with the con- 
viction that God is the only might or 

Mind; he is "All-in-all," the "divine 
Principle of all that really is," "the all- 
knowing, all-seeing, all-acting, all-wise, 
all-loving, and eternal; Principle; Mind; 
Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love; all sub- 
stance; intelligence." The inspired word 
of the Bible is accepted as "sufficient 
guide to eternal Life." The tenets state: 
"We acknowledge and adore one su- 
preme and infinite God. We acknowl- 
edge His Son, one Christ; the Holy 
Ghost or divine Comforter; and man in 
God's image and likeness." Jesus is 
known to Christian Scientists as Master 
or Way-shower. His chief work lies in 
the atonement, "the evidence of divine, 
efficacious Love, unfolding man's unity 
with God through Christ Jesus the Way- 
shower." Man, made in the image of 
God, "is saved through Christ, through 
Truth, Life, and Love as demonstrated 
by the Galilean Prophet in healing the 
sick and overcoming sin and death." 
The crucifixion and resurrection of Je- 
sus are held as serving "to uplift faith 
to understand eternal Life, even the all- 
ness of Soul, Spirit, and the nothingness 
of matter." 

This "nothingness of matter" involves 
the basic teaching of Christian Science 
concerning what is real and unreal. Says 
Mrs. Eddy. 

All reality is in God and His creation, 
harmonious and eternal. That which He 
creates is good, and He makes all that is 
made. Therefore the only reality of sin, 
sickness, or death is the awful fact that 
unrealities seem real to human, erring be- 
lief, until God strips off their disguise. They 
are not true, because they are not of God. 

God forgives sin in destroying sin with 
"the spiritual understanding that casts 
out evil as unreal" The punishment for 
sin, however, lasts as long as the belief 
in sin endures. 

It is a mistake to believe that the 
followers of Christian Science ignore 
that which they consider unreal; rather, 
they seek to forsake and overcome 



error and evil by demonstrating the 
true idea of reality with the help of 
spiritual law and spiritual power. Error 
is simply "a supposition that pleasure 
and pain, that intelligence, substance, life, 
are existent in matter. ... It is that 
which seemeth to be and is not." 

Certain terms are important in the 
exposition of Christian Science. Animal 
magnetism is the mesmeric action of er- 
roneous belief; Christian Science is its 
antithesis. Healing is not miraculous but 
divinely natural; disease is a mental con- 
cept dispelled by the introduction of 
spiritual truth. Heaven is not a locality 
but "harmony; the reign of Spirit; 
government by divine Principle; spirit- 
uality; bliss; the atmosphere of Soul." 
Hell is "mortal belief; error; lust; re- 
morse; hatred; revenge; sin; sickness; 
death; suffering and self-destruction; self- 
imposed agony; effects of sin; that which 
'worketh abomination or rnaketh a lie.' " 
Mortal mind is "the flesh opposed to 
Spirit, the human mind and evil in con- 
tradistinction to the divine Mind." 
Prayer is "an absolute faith that all 
things are possible to God a spiritual 
understanding of Him, an unselfed love." 
Baptism is not a ceremony in this church 
but an individual spiritual experience, 
a "purification from all error." 

All local Churches of Christ, Scientist, 
of which there are more than 3,200, as 
branches of the Mother Church are or- 
ganized under the laws of the states or 
countries in which they exist. They 
enjoy their own forms of democratic 
government, but they are still subject 
to the bylaws laid down in the Manual 
of the Mother Church by Mrs. Eddy. 
Reading rooms open to the general pub- 
lic are maintained by all churches. The 
affairs of the Mother Church are ad- 
ministered by the Christian Science 
Board of Directors, which elects a 
president, the first and second readers, 
a clerk, and a treasurer. The board of 
directors is a self-perpetuating body 
electing all other officers of the church 
annually with the exception of the 


readers, who are elected by the board 
for a term of 3 years. 

Important in the Christian Science 
movement are the reader, teacher, and 
practitioner. There are 2 readers in each 
church, usually a man and a woman; 
in all Christian Science services on Sun- 
day and Thanksgiving Day they read 
alternately from the Bible and from 
Science and Health; the lesson-sermon 
of the Sunday service is prepared by a 
committee of Scientists and issued quar- 
terly by the Christian Science Publish- 
ing Society. This system is followed by 
all Christian Science churches through- 
out the world. A midweek meeting, 
which is conducted by the first reader 
alone, features testimonies of healing 
from sin and sickness. 

Practitioners devote their full time to 
healing and are authorized to practice by 
the board of directors. There is a 
board of education consisting of 3 
members a president, a vice-president, 
and a teacher of Christian Science. 
Under the supervision of this board a 
normal class is held once in 3 years. 
Teachers are duly authorized by certifi- 
cates granted by the Board of Education 
to form classes of pupils in Christian 
Science. One class of not more than 30 
pupils is instructed by each teacher an- 

There is a board of lectureship con- 
sisting of nearly 30 members. These 
members are appointed annually by the 
Board of Directors. At the invitation 
of branch churches free lectures are 
given by these members all over the 
world. A committee on publication 
works to correct impositions or mis- 
statements concerning Christian Science 
in the public press. The Christian 
Science Publishing Society is one of 
the most effective units within the 
church; it publishes very much and very 
well-written literature, including the 
Christian Science Sentinel, the Christian 
Science Journal, the Christian Science 
Quarterly, the Herald of Christian 
Science in 9 languages and in Braille, 


and the Christian Science Monitor. The 
Monitor is acknowledged in all journal- 
ism to be one of the finest newspapers 
in the world. There are 2 Christian 
Science Benevolent Association sanatoria 
and a home for elderly Christian Scien- 
tists, which are maintained by the Chris- 
tian Science Church. 

The bylaws written by Mrs. Eddy 
prohibit the publishing of membership 
statistics; no comprehensive, accurate, or 
up-to-date figures are available. The gov- 
ernment census of 1936 reported 268,915 
members, but this figure has since been 

held inaccurate and not at all indica- 
tive of the total membership strength 
of the Mother Church and its branches. 
Actually today the figure would be 
much larger than this; in deference to 
the wishes of the officials of the church 
no estimate will be given here. It is 
enough to remark upon a strange situa- 
tion, found here and probably in no 
other church in America: the number 
of people studying Christian Science and 
attending its services but not yet ad- 
mitted to full membership exceeds the 
number who have been so admitted. 


At least 200 independent religious 
bodies in the United States bear the 
name Church of God in one form or 
another. Of these, 3 have then: head- 
quarters in Cleveland, Tennessee, where 
the name was first applied in the later 
years of the last century, and where 
important developments have taken 

The Cleveland bodies began on 
August 19, 1886, in Monroe County, 
Tennessee, as a Christian fellowship, first 
known as The Christian Union, with 8 
members led by Richard G. Spur ling. 
The Union was reorganized under the 
name of "The Holiness Church" in May 
of 1902, and a simple form of govern- 
ment was introduced. A. J. Tomlinson, 
an American Bible Society colporteur, 
joined them in 1903 and was elected 
general overseer in 1909; he was im- 
peached in 1923, and withdrew to form 
a rival group known as the Tomlinson 
Church of God; this name was changed 
to The Church of God of Prophecy in 
1953. When Tomlinson died in 1943 his 
group was divided between his two sons, 
Milton A. Tomlinson, who remained 
in Cleveland as head of the Church of 
God of Prophecy, and Homer A. Tom- 
linson, who organized his followers 
under the name Church of God and 

established headquarters in Queens 
Village, New York. A small splinter 
group left the Church of God of 
Prophecy in February of 1957 under the 
leadership of Grandy R. Kent to form 
the Church of God of All Nations in 

Still another body, known as The 
(Original) Church of God (see p. 74), 
was organized in 1917 following a 
split among the followers of Richard G. 
Spurling; it claims to be the first church 
to use the name Church of God and has 
headquarters in Chattanooga. 

Today, the Church of God (Cleve- 
land, Tenn.) claims 162,589 members 
and 6,071 ministers in 3,156 churches in 
the United States and Canada; the 
Church of God of Prophecy claims 
32,526 members and 1,150 ministers in 
1,214 churches in the U. S.; the Church 
of God (Queens Village, New York) 
claims 71,777 members and 1,555 minis- 
ters in 1,829 United States churches; the 
Kent group makes no report on member- 

The Tomlinson groups are not recog- 
nized as a part of the Church of God 
by the Church of God (Cleveland). The 
Cleveland Church is the only one of the 
four thus far admitted to the National 
Association of Evangelicals, the National 



Sunday School Association, the Pente- 
costal Fellowship of North America, 
and the World Pentecostal Fellowship. 

In spite of the differences between 
these bodies, they hold in common doc- 
trines of justification by faith, sanctifi- 
cation, baptism of the Holy Spirit, speak- 
ing in tongues, being born again, fruit- 
fulness in Christian living, and a strong 
interest in the premillennial second com- 
ing of Christ. The Cleveland Church 
of God, especially, while "relying upon 
the Bible as a whole rightly divided 
rather than upon any written creed," is 
thoroughly Arminian, stressing Pente- 
costal and holiness tenets; practicing 
divine healing and condemning the use 
of alcohol, tobacco, and jewelry; oppos- 
ing membership in secret societies; and 
accepting baptism, the Lord's Supper, 
and foot washing as ordinances. The 
Queens Village group puts strong em- 
phasis upon the fulfillment of scripture 
"for the last days" and upon preparation 
now for the return of Christ. 

The Cleveland churches elect their 
officers; the Queens Village church ap- 
points them. There are differences in 
licensing and ordaining ministers. The 
ministry includes 3 orders: minister of 
the gospel, evangelist, and exhorter,. 

The Cleveland Church of God holds 
state assemblies and an annual general 
assembly; operates Lee College at Cleve- 
land; maintains 3 Bible schools and 1 
preparatory school plus a number of 
schools abroad, 2 orphanages, and a 
publishing house. Foreign missions are 
directed by a missions board, but home 
missions are in charge of a state superin- 
tendent and his council, 

The (Original) Church of God, Inc. 

This church was organized in Tennes- 
see in 1886 under the name The Church 
of God after a difference of opinion in 
regard to doctrine and teaching brought 
about a split among the followers of the 
Rev. Richard G. Spurling. The faction 
adhering to the original doctrines added 

the word Original to the name and in- 
corporated in 1922. 

The church believes in the "whole 
Bible, rightly divided"; in repentance, 
justification, and regeneration as defined 
by Martin Luther; in sanctification as 
defined by John Wesley; in divine heal- 
ing; in the second coming of Christ; in 
eternal life for the righteous and eternal 
punishment for the wicked. Christian 
fruits alone stand as evidence of faithful 
Christian living; creeds that bind the 
conscience are considered unscriptural. 
Pentecostal experience and speaking with 
tongues are accepted; ordinances include 
baptism by immersion, the Lord's tithing, 
freewill offerings, the Lord's Supper, and 
foot washing. 

Local churches, following the apos- 
tolic pattern, take local names such as 
the Church of God at Corinth. Each 
local church is self-governing. The 
church recognizes the New Testament 
orders of ministers, apostles, deacons, 
exhorters, evangelists, bishops, and 
teachers, as given in Eph. 4:11-14. A 
general convention meets annually; there 
are a general office and publishing house, 
and denominational headquarters are at 
Chattanooga, Tenn-essee; a correspon- 
dence Bible school offers courses leading 
to a Doctor of Divinity degree. There 
were 6,000 members and 75 churches in 

Church of God (Anderson, Indiana) 

The Church of God with head- 
quarters at Anderson, Indiana, started 
about 1880 as a movement within exist- 
ing churches. It prefers to have its name 
accepted in an inclusive rather than in 
a denominational sense and is actually a 
movement in the direction of Christian 
unity and the re-establishment of the 
New Testament standard of faith and 
life by realizing the identity of the 
visible and invisible church in the free 
fellowship of believers. The founders 
believed that the church at large was 
too much restricted and overburdened 



with organization and ecclesiasticism; 
it should be "more directly under the 
rule of God." 

Doctrine in this church includes belief 
in the divine inspiration of the Scrip- 
tures; the forgiveness of sin through the 
atonement of Christ and repentance of 
the believer; the experience of holiness; 
the personal return of Christ, which is 
not connected with any millennial reign; 
the kingdom of God as established here 
and now; the final judgment; the resur- 
rection of the dead; the reward of the 
righteous and the punishment of the 

Baptism is by immersion. Members of 
this church also practice foot washing 
and observe the Lord's Supper, but not 
as conditions of fellowship. They be- 
lieve the church to be the body of Christ, 
made up of all Christians, and that all 
Christians are one in Christ. The con- 
fusion of sects and denominations, how- 
ever, is an obstacle to this unity; being 
unscriptural it should be removed. God 
desires this restoration of the New Tes- 
tament ideal in his church; it is a restora- 
tion based upon spiritual experience and 
not on creedal agreement. 

There were 136,254 members reported 
in this church at the end of 1958, along 
with 52,265 adherents in home and 
foreign mission stations. They are gov- 
erned by a congregational system; while 
they preach the idea of God governing 
his church, they agree that the aid of 
human personalities is quite necessary. 
Membership is not on a formal basis, and 
hence no formal membership is kept. 
Ministers meet in voluntary state and 
regional conventions, which are chiefly 
advisory. The General Ministerial As- 
sembly meets annually in connection 
with the annual convention and camp 
meeting held at Anderson, Indiana. With 
an unusually large Sunday-school enroll- 
ment of 239,077, this is said to be one 
of the few Protestant groups in which 
Sunday-school attendance exceeds 
church membership. 

The Church of God (Seventh Day), 

Denver, Colorado 

At the time of the Puritan migration 
to Massachusetts there were 7 churches 
in London bearing the name Church of 
God; members of these congregations 
settled in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, 
Rhode Island, and New Jersey between 
1664 and 1800. Many drifted West and 
South after the Revolution. The Church 
of God at Shrewsbury, New Jersey, 
moved to Salem, West Virginia, in 1789; 
another group became strong in Mis- 
souri. Formal organization of these scat- 
tered churches was effected in Michigan 
in 1865; the first general conference was 
held in 1883, and the body was in- 
corporated in Gentry County, Missouri, 
in 1899. Headquarters were established 
at Stanberry, Missouri. 

These people constituted a Church of 
God that was Sabbatarian, observing the 
seventh day as the true Sabbath. A large 
number of their membership joined the 
Adventist movement led by Ellen Har- 
mon White and changed the names of 
their churches accordingly; those who 
could not become Adventists reorgan- 
ized under the old name, Church of 
God. A second withdrawal from their 
membership resulted in the organiza- 
tion, in 1933, of the Church of God 
(Seventh Day) with headquarters at 
Salem, West Virginia. These 2 bodies 
were reunited in August, 1949, under 
the present name, The Church of God 
(Seventh Day). A small group, how- 
ever, refused to accept the merger and 
still operates under the same name, 
Church of God (Seventh Day), with 
headquarters at Salern. This body 
(2,000 members) since 1949 is reported 
to have split into at least 3 groups. 

Fundamentalist doctrine and theology 
prevail here. The church believes in the 
infallibility of the Scriptures; the natural 
sinfulness of man; the blood atonement 
of Christ on the cross for all men; the 
remission of sin by baptism; premillen- 
nialism; annihilation of the wicked and 


the reward of the righteous at the final 
judgment; the observation of the seventh 
day as the Sabbath; holiness in living; 
abstinence from tobacco, alcohol, and 
narcotics; and the use of only such foods 
as are classified as clean by the Scrip- 

A general conference meets every 2 
years; an executive board of 12 minis- 
ters accredited by the general confer- 
ence is the direct administrative body, 
and state conferences with executive 
boards of 7 members each have been or- 

This church is one of the few in this 
country with more members abroad than 
at home. In the continental United States 
they have 4,300 members in 130 churches; 
abroad the total is estimated as high as 
45,000, They have 80 foreign workers in 
6 foreign countries, not including Can- 
ada and Mexico; 2 grade schools have 
been established in Nigeria. Their foreign 
work is so heavy that it is supported 
with real difficulty by the church at 

Church of God and Saints of Christ 

The Church of God and Saints of 
Christ was founded in Lawrence, Kan- 
sas, in 1896 by William S. Crowdy, a 
Negro cook on the Santa Fe Railroad 
who claimed visions from God, a divine 
commission to lead his people, and a 
prophetic endowment. He became the 
first bishop of the church and is still 
known as the Prophet. 

The members of the church, 36,041 in 
216 churches, believe that the Negro 
people are descendants of the lost tribes 
of Israel. Sometimes called Black Jews, 
they observe the Old Testament Sab- 
bath and feast days, and use Hebrew 
names for the months of the year. Fol- 
lowing the teachings of the Prophet, 
they call for literal interpretation and 
practice of the Ten Commandments. A 
pamphlet entitled The Seven Keys is 
published, explaining to the faithful just 
which commandments are to be thus 

followed and why. Members are ad- 
mitted by confessing belief in Christ, 
repenting of sin, being baptized by im- 
mersion, taking Communion, having their 
feet washed and head breathed on by an 
elder, being saluted with a holy kiss, 
being instructed in prayer, and promising 
to obey the Ten Commandments. 

An executive board or council of 12 
ordained elders or evangelists, usually 
called a presbytery, administers the gen- 
eral business of the church. A prophet, 
or successor to Crowdy, still stands at 
the head of the organization; he holds 
his position not by election but by 
divine call, and he is said to be in 
direct communication with God to utter 
inspired prophecies and to perform 
miracles. Upon his death, his office re- 
mains vacant until another vision is given. 

Other officers include ministers not 
fully ordained, elders fully ordained, 
evangelists, and bishops. Deacons super- 
vise the temporal affairs of the church 
under the direction of annual district 
and general assemblies. Tithes are col- 
lected for the support of the ministry 
and the Prophet; storehouses are estab- 
lished by the district assemblies to re- 
ceive the tithes and to distribute 
groceries and other necessities to the 
members. There is strong emphasis on 
temperance; marriage is permissible only 
between members of the church. The 
Belleville Industrial School and Widows 
and Orphans Home is located at Belle- 
ville, Virginia. 

The Church of God in Christ 

C. H. Mason and C. P. Jones, rejected 
by Baptist groups in Arkansas for what 
the Baptists considered overemphasis on 
holiness, founded the Church of God in 
Christ in 1897. The name was divinely 
revealed to Mason, who now heads the 
church. He put strong emphasis upon 
entire sanctification and in a revival re- 
ceived the baptism of the Holy Spirit 
together with "signs of speaking with 
tongues"; his ardent preaching on these 



gifts and subjects aroused resentment 
and subsequent division among his fol- 

Doctrine is Trinitarian, stressing re- 
pentance, regeneration, justification, 
sanctification, speaking in tongues, and 
the gift of healing as evidence of the 
baptism of the Spirit. Holiness is con- 
sidered a prerequisite to salvation; ordi- 
nances include baptism by immersion, 
the Lord's Supper, and foot washing. 

Church organization is held to have 
its authority in Scripture; there are 8 
bishops, or commissioners, apostles, 
prophets, evangelists, pastors, elders, 
overseers, teachers, deacons, deaconesses, 

and missionaries. Each local church has 
an overseer; a state overseer supervises 
the churches within the various states 
and holds state and district conferences 
annually. A national convocation meets 
each year. 

Missionaries are found in South Africa, 
Thailand, Jamaica, Haiti, Liberia, and 
West Coast, Africa. Saints Junior Col- 
lege is maintained at Lexington, Missis- 
sippi; there is a department of publica- 
tions and a Sunday-school publishing 
house furnishing the denomination with 
literature. There are 380,428 members in 
3,800 churches. 


Described as a "church at large rather 
than a church of congregations," this 
body was organized in 1908 under the 
inspiration of the Rev. R. Swinburne 
Clymer. Its stated purpose is to har- 
monize the teachings of philosophy with 
the truths of religion, thus offering a 
spiritual, esoteric, and philosophical in- 
terpretation of basic Bible teachings to 
those in search of spiritual truth. Mem- 
bership is by written request and does 
not require severance of membership in 
any other church. 

Much is made of the "priesthood of 
Melchizedek," which dates from "be- 
yond the year 4255 B.C. and includes all 
that small body of chosen seekers ini- 
tiated into the mysteries of the divine 
law"; this priesthood has come down 
from the days of Genesis through Jesus, 
the Gnostics, the early Egyptians, 
Greeks, Indians, and Persians to the 
present time, where it is to be found in 
the Church of Illumination. 

The essence of religion here is found 
in the simple biblical statement that 
"whatsoever a man soweth, that shall 
he also reap." This is interpreted as be- 
ing a matter of inevitable compensation 

rather than of rewards and punishments 
at the hands of God. Furthermore: 

Religion teaches the Law the way of 
Life a way which makes man aware of 
the all-important truth that he is, in fact, a 
child of God, and that within him, buried 
by much debris, is a spark of the Divine. 
This Divine Spark is the Christosihe un- 
conscious Soul which may be awakened 
and brought into consciousness a second or 
Rebirth. This is the "talent" entrusted to 
man and for which he is responsible to his 
Creator. Neglected, it remains just as it is 
a tiny spark. Recognized, aroused, awakened 
and brought into consciousness, it becomes 
an inexhaustible source of wisdom and 
power, Lifting man to the heights of Illumina- 
tion and achievement. The process that 
makes all this possible is, in reality, the 
Second Birth. It is the process of Regenera- 
tionmortality taking on immortality the 
means whereby the son of man actually and 
literally becomes the Son of God. 

Enlarging upon this, four great funda- 
mentals are taught: (1) the law of action 
and reaction (sowing and reaping), (2) 
the indebtedness of man to God for his 
talents and his obligation to use them 
well, (3) the practice of the Golden 
Rule, and (4) the practice of the law 



of honesty. All this is the means to the 
fulfillment of man's destiny. It is also 
taught that we are now in a "manistic" 
age (manisis, the recognition of the 
equality of man and woman), which 
will last 2,000 years and in which Reve- 
lation will become the "unsealed book 
of the Bible," and that the world right 
now is the scene of the final battle of 
Armageddon. There is also some em- 

phasis upon reincarnation, although be- 
lief in this is not required of adherents. 
Yearly conferences of ministers and 
leaders are held in various parts of the 
country. Officially there were 7 estab- 
lished churches with 5,000 members in 
1945, but the bulk of the membership 
is made up of those who are members 
only in correspondence and not mem- 
bers of any specific church. 


Confident that it is a "continuation of 
the great revival begun at Jerusalem on 
the day of Pentecost in A.D. 33," this 
church was organized in Columbus, 
Ohio, in 1919 by its present bishop, 
R. C. Lawson. Doctrine is stated to be 
that of the apostles and prophets with 
Christ as the cornerstone. Creed, 
discipline, and rules of order are found 
in the Bible only. Perhaps the basic 
emphases are those laid upon Christ's 
resurrection and premillennial second 
coming, the resurrection and translation 
of the saints, the priesthood of all be- 
lievers, and the final judgment of man- 
kind. Baptism is by immersion, and the 

baptism of the Holy Spirit is held neces- 
sary to the second birth. The Lord's 
Supper and foot washing are practiced 
as ordinances. 

Found in 27 states, the British West 
Indies, West Africa, and the Philip- 
pines, the group reported 155 churches 
and a membership of 45,000 in 1954. 
Two elementary schools, a Bible insti- 
tute, and 1 hospital are maintained. A 
national convocation meets annually at 
the headquarters church, Refuge Temple, 
in New York City. Officers of the de- 
nomination consist of 1 bishop (Lawson), 
3 secretaries, and a treasurer. 


The theological and doctrinal founda- 
tions of the Church of the Nazarene 
lie in the preaching of the doctrines of 
holiness and sanctification as taught by 
John Wesley in the eighteenth-century 
revival in England. Its physical struc- 
ture is the result not so much of schism 
as of the merging of 3 independent holi- 
ness groups already in existence in the 
United States. An eastern holiness body, 
located principally in New York and 
New England and known as the As- 
sociation of Pentecostal Churches in 

America, joined at Chicago in 1907 with 
a western (California) body called the 
Church of the Nazarene; the 2 merging 
churches agreed on the name "Pente- 
costal Church of the Nazarene." The 
southern group, known as the Holiness 
Church of Christ, united with this Pente- 
costal Church of the Nazarene at Pilot 
Point, Texas, in 1908. In 1919 the word 
Pentecostal was dropped from the name, 
leaving it as we know it today, the 
Church of the Nazarene. This was 
primarily a move to disassociate in the 



public mind any connection with the 
other more radical Pentecostal groups 
which taught or practiced speaking in 
tongues, a teaching and practice always 
opposed by the Church of the Nazarene. 

The background of the Nazarenes is 
definitely Methodist; they adhere closely 
to the original Wesleyan ideology. Most 
of the early holiness groups in this coun- 
try came out of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church; 2 of the original 7 general 
superintendents of the Church of the 
Nazarene were ex-Methodist ministers, 
and the Nazarene Manual has been called 
a "rewritten and modified Methodist 

The doctrine of the church is built 
around sanctification as a second definite 
work of grace subsequent to regenera- 
tion; all ministers and local church of- 
ficials must have undergone this ex- 
perience. Other doctrines include belief 
in the plenary inspiration of the Scrip- 
tures as containing all truth necessary 
to Christian faith and living; in the 
atonement of Christ for the whole human 
race; in the justification, regeneration, 
and adoption of all penitent believers in 
Christ; in the second coming of Christ, 
the resurrection of the dead, and the 
final judgment. Members of this church 
believe in divine healing but never to the 
exclusion of medical agencies. The use 
of tobacco and alcoholic beverages is 
denounced. Two ordinances baptism by 
sprinkling, pouring, or most often im- 
mersion and the Lord's Supper are ac- 
cepted as "instituted by Christ." Mem- 
bers are admitted on confession of faith 
and on agreement "to observe the rules 
and regulations ... of the Church." It 
is a middle-of-the-road church, neither 
extremely ritualistic on the one hand 
nor extremely informal on the other; 
one church historian calls it the "right 
wing of the holiness movement." 

There are 4,696 local congregations 
grouped into 74 districts. Local pastors 

are elected by local churches; each dis- 
trict is supervised by a district superin- 
tendent elected annually by the members 
of the district assembly. Quadrennially 
the various districts elect delegates to a 
general assembly, at which general 
superintendents are elected for a term 
of 4 years to supervise the work of the 
entire denomination. All this closely re- 
sembles the Methodist system of admin- 
istration; in general it may be said that 
the Nazarenes have the more democratic 
form and procedure. 

The general assembly also elects a 
general board, consisting of an equal 
number of lay and ministerial members, 
which is in turn divided into 7 adminis- 
trative departments: foreign missions, 
home missions, evangelism, publication, 
ministerial benevolence, education, and 
church schools. Foreign missionary work 
is conducted in 33 fields with 411 mis- 
sionaries and 1,466 native members at 
work. Home mission activities are car- 
ried on in all 74 districts and in 7 areas 
outside the continental United States; 
strong emphasis is laid upon evangelism. 
Six liberal arts colleges are maintained; 
there are a theological seminary in 
Kansas City, a Bible institute (Negro) at 
Institute, West Virginia, and Bible col- 
leges in Canada and the British Isles. 

The books and periodicals of the 
church are produced at the Nazarene 
Publishing House in Kansas City, Mis- 
souri; 40 periodicals are published, and 
the annual volume of business exceeds 

Membership in the United States is 
reported at 311,300, in Canada and the 
British Isles 9,385, in overseas home mis- 
sion areas 1,612, with an additional 
50,350 abroad. There are 6,208 churches 
at home and overseas, 6,101 ordained 
ministers, 4,631 Sunday schools, and 
3,614 young people's societies with a 
membership of 97,080. 



Twenty thousand independent con- 
gregations with a total membership of 
about 2,000,000 constitute the Churches 
of Christ. They are located in 50 states 
with greatest concentrations in the South 
and West, have congregations in 65 
foreign countries, and in the past 20 
years have emerged as one of the top 
ten non-Catholic bodies in North Amer- 

There is a distinctive plea for unity at 
the heart of the Churches of Christ a 
unity that is Bible-based. It is believed 
here that the Bible is "the beginning 
place" in and through which God-fear- 
ing people can achieve spiritual oneness; 
it is an appeal to "speak where the Bible 
speaks and to be silent where the Bible 
is silent" in all matters pertaining to 
faith and morals; consequently members 
recognize no other written creed or con- 
fession of faith than the Scriptures. In 
all religious matters, there must be a 
"thus saith the Lord." 

Historically, the churches have their 
roots in the movements which inspired 
the founding of the Christian Church 
and the Disciples of Christ in the work 
and ideology of James O'Kelley in Vir- 
ginia, Abner Jones and Elias Smith in 
New England, Barton Stone in Ken- 
tucky, and Thomas and Alexander Camp- 
bell in West Virginia. (For a detailed 
discussion of these men and their con- 
tributions, see Christian Church (p. 
218) and Disciples of Christ (p. 65.) 
These 4 movements, all contending that 
"nothing should be bound upon Chris- 
tians as a matter of doctrine which is 
not as old as the New Testament," and 
all completely independent at the start, 
eventually became one strong religious 
stream because of their common purpose 
and plea. 

Those who founded the Church of 
Christ were originally members of the 
Disciples of Christ; they were a con- 
servative group who came into conflict 
with the more progressive Disciples over 
questions of pastoral power developing 

among the preachers, the use of the title 
"Reverend" instead of "Elder," the gov- 
ernment of the local church by the 
pastor instead of the elders, the intro- 
duction of instrumental music in the 
services of the church and the establish- 
ment of missionary societies supported 
by annual membership dues all of which 
seemed to the conservatives to be in 
violation of New Testament patterns 
and procedure. It is impossible to set 
a date of actual division, for no formal 
division has ever been declared, but such 
division was apparent early in the 
twentieth century. In the 1906 Census 
of Religious Bodies, the Churches of 
Christ were for the first time listed as 
separate from the Disciples, yet neither 
Disciples nor Churches of Christ wish 
to be considered as a denomination, and 
hence there can be said to have been no 
denominational division between them. 
The Disciples remain true to their polity; 
the Churches of Christ are more a group 
of unattached, completely autonomous 
local congregations, practicing a more 
extreme form of congregationalist gov- 
ernment than is the case among the 

Today, one of the outstanding features 
of the Churches of Christ lies in their 
acceptance of the Bible as a true and 
completely adequate revelation. This 
basic concept has resulted in such char- 
acteristic practices as weekly observance 
of the Lord's Supper, baptism by im- 
mersion, a cappella singing without in- 
strumental aids, a vigorous prayer life, 
support of church needs through vol- 
untary giving, and a program of preach- 
ing and teaching the Bible. This concept 
also explains the autonomy of local 
churches, governed by elders and 
deacons appointed under New Testa- 
ment qualifications, dignified worship 
services, enthusiastic mission campaigns, 
and far-flung benevolent programs all 
financed by the local churches. 

The great scriptural doctrines usually 
classified as "conservative" are received 



in the Churches of Christ, including the 
concept of the Father, the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost as members of one God- 
head; the incarnation, virgin birth, and 
bodily resurrection of Christ; and the 
universality of sin after the age of ac- 
countability and its only remedy in the 
vicarious atonement of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. Strong emphasis is also laid on 
the church as the body and bride of 
Christ. A figurative rather than a literal 
view is prevalent with reference to the 
book of Revelation. Membership is 
contingent upon the faith of the indi- 
vidual in Jesus Christ as the only be- 
gotten Son of God, repentance, con- 
fession of faith and baptism by im- 
mersion into Christ for the remission of 
sins. Church attendance is stressed. 

While professing identity with the 
original church established by Christ 
and the apostles at Pentecost, the 
Churches of Christ maintain that the 
final judgment of all religious groups is 
reserved unto the Lord himself. Mem- 
bers believe they are "Christians only, 
but not the only Christians." They see 
themselves as "Christ's Church, but not 
all of Christ's Church." This view, how- 
ever, still allows for a vigorous evan- 
gelism which finds unacceptable the 
doctrines, practices, names, titles, and 
creeds which have been grafted onto the 
original Christianity in the long post- 
apostolic period. 

Ministers are ordained rather than 
licensed, and they hold tenure in their 
pulpits under mutual agreement with the 
elders of churches where they preach. 
Their authority is moral rather than 
arbitrary, the actual government of the 
church being vested in its eldership. 

A vigorous missionary program is 
carried on in 65 nations outside the 
United States, and in recent years a 
strong movement to extend the influence 
of the group in the northeastern United 
States has developed. Counting native 

workers in the foreign field and mission 
activities within the United States, there 
are over 500 missionaries, or evangelists, 
supported by others than the groups 
where they preach. A full quota of 
chaplains is maintained in the Air Force 
and the Army. 

Properties owned by the group prob- 
ably exceed $75,000,000 in value. There 
are 16 colleges, including one in Japan; 
41 secondary and elementary schools; 
20 homes for orphans or the aged; and 
65 periodicals, newspapers, and maga- 
zines published throughout the country. 
The strongest periodicals, however, are 
issued from Nashville, Tennessee (The 
Gospel Advocate), Austin, Texas (The 
Firm Foundation), and Abilene, Texas 
(The Christian Chronicle). All of these 
are church-related, privately owned and 
controlled institutions. Since all official 
status in these institutions is lacking, 
none of them being authorized to speak 
for the entire church, their conformity 
in ideas and teachings is all the more re- 

Another medium of evangelism has 
been put to use in the publication of 
articles in a number of big national mag- 
azines (Coronet, Harpers, Atlantic 
Monthly, American Weekly). This is 
the work of the Gospel Press of Dallas, 
Texas, and is supported entirely by 
voluntary contributions from individual 
members throughout the country, just 
as the missionary program is supported. 
Many churches offer correspondence 
courses in connection with this ad- 
vertising. (The advertising program is 
similar in purpose and method to that 
of the Knights of Columbus for the 
Roman Catholic Church.) A "Herald of 
Truth" radio and television program 
had nationwide coverage; it is sponsored 
by the Highland Church of Christ in 
Abilene, Texas, and support is found in 
hundreds of other churches and indi- 
viduals throughout the country. 



A difference of opinion in the council 
of the Christian Union Churches con- 
cerning holiness as a second definite work 
of grace subsequent to regeneration 
brought about the organization of the 
Churches of Christ in Christian Union 
of Ohio at Washington Court House, 
Ohio, in 1909. When the majority of 
the council decided against those hold- 
ing the second-blessing view, the mi- 
nority withdrew. The words "of Ohio" 
have since been dropped from the name. 
The Reformed Methodist Church in 
New York united in 1952 with this 

Aside from the second-blessing doc- 
trine, these churches have the usual fun- 
damentalist theology; there is strong 
emphasis on divine healing and the sec- 
ond coming of Christ. Church adminis- 
tration is congregational; pastors with 
the aid of first, second, and third elders 
guide the spiritual affairs of the churches, 
while trustees administer all business 

matters. Each local church is a mem- 
ber of a district council and is subject 
to the council's rulings; each district 
council is a member of a general coun- 
cil. All ministers are ordained by the 
district council examining committee. 
Members are admitted on evidence of 
good fruits and a "personal experience 
of the new birth." 

Foreign missionary work is conducted 
in India, Africa, South and Central 
America, Mexico, and Dominica; there 
is a widespread work in home missions, 
welfare, and publishing. The church 
publishing plant and a Bible college are 
located at Circle ville, Ohio; the college 
offers a 4-year course, majoring in re- 
ligious education and liberal arts, and 
a shorter 2 -year missionary and gospel 
workers' course is offered. Headquarters 
are located at the Mount of Praise 
Bible School in Circleville. There are 
11,500 members and 205 churches. 


The Churches of God, Holiness, began 
in 1914 with a group of 8 people in 
Atlanta, Georgia, under the preaching 
of K. H. Burruss. Large churches were 
founded in Atlanta and in Norfolk, Vir- 
ginia, in 1916; and by 1922 there were 22 
churches in 11 states, Cuba, the Canal 
Zone, and the British West Indies. In 
1922 these churches were incorporated 
into what is currently known as the 
National Convention of the Churches 
of God, Holiness. 

All doctrine within this group is tested 
strictly by New Testament standards; 
the Scriptures are accepted as inspired, 
and the New Testament "gives safe and 
clearly applied instructions on all meth- 
ods of labor, sacred and secular," and 
on the conduct of the whole of life. 

The churches believe in the Trinity, in 
justification, entire sanctification, and 
regeneration, and hold that the gift of 
the Holy Spirit is an act subsequent to 
conversion. Perfection is both present 
and ultimate. One must believe in divine 
healing to be acceptable as a member, 
but medicines and doctors are approved 
for those who desire them, not being 
expressly denounced by Scripture. Two 
ordinances, baptism and the Lord's Sup- 
per, are observed. The washing of feet 
is approved but not regularly practiced. 
Pastors of all churches are assigned by 
the one bishop of the denomination; they 
are assisted in the local congregation by 
deacons. In direct supervision over the 
pastors is the state overseer, also ap- 



pointed by the bishop. State conventions 
are held annually. The highest adminis- 
trative body is the national convention, 
a delegated body that elects the national 

president, or bishop, who from the start 
has been the founder, K. H. Burruss. 
The church reports 25,600 members and 
42 churches. 




The Methodist, Presbyterian, Baptist, 
and German Reformed churches among 
the Germans of Pennsylvania were ac- 
tive in the religious revival which swept 
this country in the early years of the 
nineteenth century. John Winebrenner, 
a German Reformed pastor in Harris- 
burg, aroused criticism and finally de- 
termined opposition by his ardent evan- 
gelical preaching during this period; and 
he severed his connections with his Re- 
formed brethren about 1823. As early 
as 1825 he had organized an independent 
congregation, which he called the 
Church of God. Six other preachers 
joined with him in 1830 to organize 
the General Eldership of the Church 
of God, using the word "General" to 
distinguish it from local church elder- 
ship. The words "in North America" 
were added in 1845, and "Church" be- 
came "Churches" in 1903. 

Arminian in theology, these churches 
have no written creed; the Bible is con- 
sidered the sole rule of faith and prac- 
tice. "Bible things, as church offices and 
customs, should be known by Bible 
names, and a Bible name should not be 
applied to anything not mentioned in 
the Bible." Sectarianism is held to be 
antiscriptural; "each local church is a 
church of God and should be so called," 
and this church in a denominational sense 
is the only true church. Three ordi- 
nances are "perpetually obligatory" 
baptism by immersion only, the Lord's 
Supper, and feet washing; the last 2 

are companion ordinances, observed to- 
gether and in the evening. There is a 
strong insistence upon the Trinity, hu- 
man depravity, the sacrificial atonement 
of Christ, the office and work of the 
Holy Spirit, man's moral agency, justifi- 
cation by faith, repentance and regen- 
eration, practical piety, Sabbath observ- 
ance, the resurrection of the dead, the 
eternal nature of the soul, and final 

The church is organized into 17 elder- 
ships, or conferences, in as many states; 
there is also an India-Pakistan Eldership. 
Over these is a General Eldership, com- 
posed of an equal number of lay and 
ministerial delegates and a proportionate 
number of youth delegates from the 
lower elderships, which meets triennially 
and has charge of the general interest 
of the church. In local affairs the 
churches are presbyterian in government, 
but the ministers are appointed to 
their churches by the annual elderships. 

Home and foreign missionary work is 
under the supervision of the Board of 
Missions. Home missions are confined 
principally to the West and Southwest; 
foreign mission stations are found in 
India and other fields. 

There is 1 college and a theological 
seminary (Winebrenner) at Findlay, 
Ohio, and a publishing house at Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, where headquarters 
are located. There were 401 churches 
and 37,647 members in this group in 



Two churches of common origin, 
similar in type but differing in details, 
bear the title Church of the Living God. 
Both came out of an organization formed 
at Wrightsville, Arkansas, in 1889 by 
William Christian, who "by virtue of a 
divine call, created the office of chief." 
Christian held that "Freemason religion" 
is the true expression of religion and 
insisted that his "organism" be known 
as "operative Masonry and [that] its 
first three corporal degrees shall be bap- 
tism, Holy Supper and foot washing." 
Both groups are organized along fraternal 
lines; members tithe their incomes in 
support of the church and call their 
churches temples. 

The first body, the larger, is known 
as The Church of the Living God 

(Motto: Christian Workers for Fellow- 
ship). It claims 25,000 members in 236 
churches, stresses believer's baptism by 
immersion, foot washing, and the use 
of water and unleavened bread in the 
celebration of the Lord's Supper. A chief 
bishop is the presiding officer; an an- 
nual assembly meets every 4 years to 
elect other officers and to determine the 
laws for the Church. Membership is bi- 

The second body, called The House 
of God, Which is the Church of the 
Living God, the Pillar and Ground of 
the Truth, Inc., is also episcopal in 
polity and generally follows the form 
and thought of the Workers-for-Fel- 
lowship group. They have 2,350 mem- 
bers in 107 churches. 


Commonly called Swedenborgian, the 
Churches of the New Jerusalem are 
based on the teachings of Emmanuel 
Swedenborg and exist in 3 main bodies: 
the General Convention of the New 
Jerusalem in the U.S.A. (the older 
United States body); the General 
Church of the New Jerusalem, which 
broke from the parent group in 1890; 
and the General Conference in England. 

Swedenborg, who was born in Stock- 
holm in 1688 and died in London in 
1772, was a Swedish scientist distin- 
guished in the fields of mathematics, 
geology, cosmology, and anatomy before 
he turned seriously to theology. In- 
terested in the relation of these sciences 
to the spiritual life of man, he ex- 
perienced a series of dreams and visions 
which resulted in an illumination of the 
things and ways of the spiritual world. 
He claimed to have had communica- 
tion with the other world and to have 
witnessed certain stages of the last judg- 
ment there. He taught that with this 
judgment a first dispensation of the 

Christian church had come to an end 
and a new dispensation, which he called 
the "New Jerusalem" or the "Descent 
of the Holy City," was beginning. While 
he said that he was "dead on this side 
of the world," he still continued his 
usual activities in the world, including 
participation in the Swedish Parliament 
of which he was a member. 

Certain that he was divinely commis- 
sioned to teach the doctrines of the New 
Church, Swedenborg taught that God is 
man, meaning that the origin of all that 
is truly human is in God. The divine 
humanity is, however, Christ's glorified 
and risen humanity in which God is 
manifested and which is God's. These 
doctrines were accepted and preached 
by his followers, who considered him 
to be a divinely illuminated seer and 
revelator. Against the background of his 
concept of "correspondence" of the 
natural world with the spiritual world 
he expounded a deeper and additional 
sense of the Scriptures than was offered 
by most interpreters of his time. Swed- 



enborg himself never preached, and he 
preferred to leave his followers in the 
churches of which they were already 
members; he never intended to found a 
new sect or church. 

The New Church as an organization 
started in London in 1783 when Robert 
Hindmarsh, a printer, gathered a few 
friends together to discuss and read the 
writings of Swedenborg; they formed a 
general conference of their societies in 
1815. The first Swedenborg Society in 
America was organized at Baltimore in 
1792; in 1817 the General Convention 
of the New Jerusalem in the U.S.A. was 

The doctrines of the General Con- 
vention as given in the Liturgy are as 

1. That there is one God, in whom there 
is a Divine Trinity; and that He is the Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

2. That saving faith is to believe on Him. 

3. That evils are to be shunned, because 
they are of the devil and from the devil. 

4. That good actions are to be done, be- 
cause they are of God and from God. 

5. That these are to be done by a man 
as from himself; but that it ought to be 
believed that they are done from the Lord 
with him and by him. 

The societies are grouped into a gen- 
eral convention meeting annually; there 

are also state associations. Each society 
is self-regulating. They have ministers 
and general pastors (in charge of state 
associations); the ministers, except for 
those retired or otherwise inactive, serve 
the local societies. Services are liturgical, 
using chants extensively but with wide 
latitude, and based on the Book of Wor- 
ship issued by the General Convention. 

The General Convention now has 
5,709 members active in 74 societies; it 
carries on a home mission program in 
the United States and a foreign mission 
program in 14 countries abroad. A the- 
ological school is located at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts; and the Swedenborg 
Foundation in New York City distributes 
Swedenborg's writings. The church pub- 
lishes a biweekly. 

The General Church of the New Jeru- 
salem holds the same doctrine, emphasiz- 
ing the "original" teachings of Sweden- 
borg. There is no fixed constitution in 
this church; polity is based on "prac- 
tical unanimity" in council and assembly. 
There are ministers, pastors, and bishops, 
the latter being chosen by a general as- 
sembly; there are 1,832 members in 8 
societies. There are a theological school, 
a college, an academy for boys, and a 
seminary for girls. Headquarters are at 
Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania, where a 
cathedral church has been built. 


Founded in 1921 by a group of min- 
isters withdrawing from the Pentecostal 
Holiness Church in an effort to retain 
holiness doctrines and to establish a 
more democratic church polity, this 
church is Trinitarian, emphasizing the 
inspiration of the Scriptures, justifica- 
tion, sanctification, divine healing (with- 
out objection to medicine), the second 
coming of Christ, eternal punishment 
and rewards, the merits of the Atone- 
ment, and the salvation of the entire 

The Bible is held as the sole rule of 
conduct; slang, tobacco, membership in 
oath-bound secret societies, and other 
forms of worldliness are condemned. 
Ordinances include baptism, foot wash- 
ing, and the Lord's Supper. The crown- 
ing blessing of religious experience is 
held to be the baptism of the Holy Ghost 
and speaking with other tongues "as the 
Spirit (gives) utterance." 

Church government is, as the name 
suggests, congregational. Local churches 
are grouped in annual associations from 



which delegates are elected to a general 
association. Local church officers, elected 
annually, consist of deacons, trustees, 
a secretary, and a treasurer. Pastors are 
called by a majority vote of the con- 
gregation; women are licensed to preach 

but are not ordained. There are 148 
churches and 4,617 members in the 
United States; newer churches and con- 
ferences have recently been established 
in Cuba and Nigeria. 


Three sisters Althea Brooks Small, 
Fannie Brooks James, and Nona Lovell 
Brooks of Denver, Colorado, and Mrs. 
Malinda E. Cramer of San Francisco 
in the late years of the last century 
worked out independently of one an- 
other the principles and practice of 
Divine Science. They met and joined 
forces in 1898, incorporating the Divine 
Science College; their first church 
the First Divine Science Church of Den- 
ver was organized by the college in 

The core of its teaching is the prin- 
ciple of the all-inclusive God-mind: 

God [is] the Omnipresence, the Universal 
Presence, Substance, Life, and Intelligence; 
man, a child of God, is of God, is like God; 
knowledge of this truth used in our living 
frees us from sin, sickness, and death; the 
practice of right thinking, or thought train- 
ing, results in the elimination of fear, doubt, 
anxiety, and other wrong mental habits, and 
the establishment of love, faith, joy, and 
power in the consciousness; evolution is 
God's method of accomplishing, and love, 
conscious unity, is the fulfilling of the law. 

The founders had all had the ex- 
perience of divine healing, and the 
emphasis upon healing naturally per- 
sists. Healing through thought training 
is described as the "cleansing of the 
inner man from all that is unlike God." 
Sickness, sin, and death persist because 

of man's ignorance of the truth; they 
vanish when man knows God and lives 
by that knowledge. Divine Science does 
not deny the existence of visible matter 
but interprets both form and substance 
as manifestations of God. 

Divine Science further stands for: (1) 
the fatherhood of God as Omnipresent 
Life, Substance, Intelligence, and Power; 
(2) the brotherhood of man; (3) the 
unity of all life; (4) the highest thought 
in science, philosophy, and religion; (5) 
the power of right thinking to release 
into expression in each individual life 
man's divine inheritance health, abun- 
dance, peace, and power; (6) the 
transcendence and immanence of God 
manifest in all created things. 

For many years local churches and 
colleges of Divine Science were inde- 
pendent of one another. In 1957 some 
of the ministers and key workers of ex- 
isting Divine Science Churches and Col- 
leges met and organized the Divine 
Science Federation International. This 
new movement serves as the meeting 
ground and clearing house for determin- 
ing standards of teaching and conduct 
for the workers and churches of the 
Divine Science Movement. The head- 
quarters of the movement are in Denver, 
Colorado, where publications are printed 
and a monthly periodical called Aspire 
to Better Living is issued. 



When, in A.D. 330, Constantine moved 
his capital from Rome to Byzantium and 
began to rule his vast empire from the 
new Constantinople, the most important 
split in the history of Christianity was 
under way. Up to this time the church 
in the West, centered in Rome, and the 
church in the East, with its headquarters 
in Byzantium, were one church. Both 
accepted the Nicene Creed; both were 
sacramental and apostolic. There were, 
however, certain basic differences which 
made for confusion; racially, socially, 
linguistically, mentally, morally, and 
philosophically there were deep gulfs be- 
tween the two. The East was Greek in 
blood and speech; the West was Latin. 
The transference of the capital from 
West to East meant a shifting of the 
center of political, social, and intellectual 
influence. When the Goths swept down 
upon Rome that city turned for help, 
not to Constantinople, but to the Franks; 
in gratitude for his aid the pope crowned 
Charles the Great as emperor on Christ- 
mas Day in 800, and the die was cast. 

Conflict deepened between the pope 
at Rome and the patriarch at Con- 
stantinople. In 857 Ignatius in Con- 
stantinople refused to administer the 
sacrament to Caesar Bardas on the 
ground that he was immoral. Tried and 
imprisoned, Ignatius was succeeded by 
Photius, an intellectual giant for whom 
the weaker pope was no match. Their 
increasing friction broke into flame at 
the Council of St. Sophia, where Photius 
bitterly condemned the Latin Church 
for adding the word "fllioque" to the 
Nicene Creed. The Eastern Church held 
that the Holy Spirit proceeded directly 
from the Father; the Western Church 
had adopted the view that the Spirit 
proceeded from the Father and the Son 
filioque. Political and ecclesiastical 
jealousies fanned the flame until, in 
1054, the pope excommunicated the 
patriarch and the patriarch excom- 
municated the pope, the result being 
that there were finally two churches, 

Eastern and Western, instead of one. 
The pope remained head of the Western 
Church; at the moment, in the East, there 
were 4 patriarchs, or heads, guiding the 
destinies of Eastern Orthodoxy. This is 
important to an understanding of the 
Eastern Orthodox Church. It is not a 
monarchy with one all-powerful ruler 
at the top; it is "an oligarchy of 
patriarchs." It is based on the body of 
bishops, holding power variously as 
metropolitans, primates, and exarchs, and 
is conducted finally through the sov- 
ereignty of the 4 patriarchal thrones. No 
one patriarch is responsible to any other 
patriarch, yet all are within the jurisdic- 
tion of an ecumenical council of all the 
churches in communion with the 
patriarch of Constantinople, who holds 
the title of Ecumenical Patriarch. 

Today, Christendom remains divided 
into 3 principal sections: Roman Cath- 
olic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. 
Eastern Orthodox churches consist of 
those churches which accept the de- 
cisions and decrees of the first 7 general 
church councils 2 at Nicaea, 3 at Con- 
stantinople, 1 at Ephesus, and 1 at 
Chalcedon and of such other churches 
as have originated in the missionary ac- 
tivities of these parent churches and 
have grown to self-government but still 
maintain communion with them. 

Claiming to be "the direct heir and 
true conservator" of the original, primi- 
tive Church, Eastern Orthodoxy has 
tended historically to divide into inde- 
pendent national and social groups 
Russian, Serbian, Bulgarian, Romanian, 
Albanian, Greek, Georgian. These groups 
have had a bitter struggle for existence, 
caught as they have been between 
Arabian, Turkish, and Western armies 
in endless wars. Generally it may be 
said that Greek Christianity became the 
faith of the people of the Middle East 
and the Slavs in Europe, while Latin 
Christianity became the religion of 
Western Europe and the New World. 

There are at present 5 large Eastern 



patriarchates: Constantinople, Alexan- 
dria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Moscow, 
while the lesser patriarchates of the 
Serbs, the Romanians and the Bulgarians, 
the Georgians, Mount Sinai, Cyprus, 
Athens, Japan, and Albania constitute 
autonomous archbishoprics, or national 
churches. The Turkish conquest of Con- 
stantinople greatly depleted the power 
of the mother church in that city; and 
the First World War and the Russian 
Revolution of 1917, with the attendant 
disruption of the Russian Empire, led 
the Eastern Orthodox churches in Po- 
land, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and 
Lithuania to assert their independence. 
After World War II, they were re- 
integrated into the Russian Orthodox 
Church; widely separated, they are all 
still in essential agreement in doctrine 
and worship, and together they make up 
what we know as The Holy Eastern 
Orthodox Churches. Nearly all of the 
European and Asiatic bodies of the East- 
ern Orthodox Church have branches in 
America; some of them are governed by 
one or another of the 5 major 
patriarchates, but others have become 
independent or self-governing. 

In the United States today Albanian, 
Bulgarian, Greek, Romanian, Russian, 
Serbian, Ukranian, Carpatho-Russian, 
and Syrian churches are under the super- 
vision of bishops of their respective na- 
tionalities. The Albanian, Greek, 
Serbian, and Syrian (Antioch) bishops 
serve under their respective patriarchs. 
The patriarch of Alexandria has juris- 
diction over a few churches in the 
United States. 

Doctrine in Eastern Orthodoxy is 
based on the Bible, on the holy tradition, 
and on the decrees of the 7 ecumenical 
councils. The Nicene Creed is recited 
in all liturgies and at vespers and matins, 
the Eastern churches holding that a 
"creed is an adoring confession of the 
church engaged in worship"; its faith 
is expressed more fully in its liturgy 
than in doctrinal statements. Actually 
the basis lies in the decisions and state- 

ments of the 7 councils which defined 
the ecumenical faith of the early un- 
divided church, and in the later state- 
ments defining the position of the Ortho- 
dox Church of the East with regard to 
the doctrine and faith of the Roman 
Catholic and Protestant churches. The 
Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed is still 
held in its original form without the 
"filioque" clause. The dogma of the 
pope as the sole "Vicar of Christ on 
earth" is rejected, together with the 
dogma of papal infallibility. Members of 
Orthodox churches accept the virgin 
birth but do not dogmatize on the Im- 
maculate Conception, and they honor 
the saints and 9 orders of angels. They 
reject the teaching of the surplus merits 
of the saints and the doctrine of in- 
dulgences but reverence the saints, pic- 
tures (icons) of holy persons, and the 
cross. The use of carved images is for- 
bidden. Bas-relief is permitted in some 
Orthodox groups. 

They have 7 sacraments: baptism, 
anointing (confirmation or chrismation), 
Communion, penance, holy orders, mar- 
riage, and holy unction. Both infants and 
adults are baptized by threefold im- 
mersion. The sacrament of anointing 
with chrism, or holy oil (confirmation), 
is administered immediately after bap- 
tism. Holy unction is administered to 
the sick but not always as a last rite. The 
Holy Eucharist is the chief service on 
all Sundays and holy days, and all Ortho- 
dox churches believe and teach that the 
consecrated bread and wine are the body 
and blood of Christ. Purgatory is denied, 
but the dead are prayed for; and it is 
believed that the dead pray for those on 
earth. For justification both faith and 
works are considered necessary. 

Government is episcopal. There is 
usually a council and a synod of bishops, 
over which a bishop presides. In a na- 
tional church this synod is composed of 
bishops, and the presiding bishop is 
called archbishop or metropolitan. In 
certain instances he is called patriarch. 
There are 3 orders in the ministry: 



deacons (who assist in parish work and 
in administering the sacraments), priests, 
and bishops. Deacons and priests may 
be either secular or monastic; candidates 
for the diaconate and the priesthood 
may marry before ordination, but they 
are forbidden to marry thereafter. 
Bishops are chosen from members of the 
monastic communities. All belong to the 
same monastic rule, that of St. Basil the 
Great, and are under lifelong vows of 
poverty, chastity, and obedience. 

Church services are elaborately ritual- 
istic. Of their worship Frank Gavin has 

In the details of Eastern worship is a 
rough epitome of the history of Eastern 
Christendom: the ikons, about which a bit- 
ter controversy once raged; the service in 
the vernacular as against Latin; the existence 
of both a married and a celibate priesthood; 
the strong and passionate loyalty to the 
national allegiance evidenced by the pro- 
vision of special prayers for the rulers by 
name all these mark the characteristics, 
peculiarities, and contrasts with the customs 
of the West. 

In the United States they pray for 
the president, Congress, the armed forces, 
and for all in places of lawful civil au- 

Membership statistics are confusing 
and often unreliable, inasmuch as mem- 
bership seems to have different meanings 
in different Eastern churches. Infants are 
confirmed immediately after baptism and 
are given their first Communion, and 
are from that moment considered as 
communicant members of the church. 
Parish membership, however, is more 
frequently determined by the number 
of males over 21 than by communicants 
(the male head of each family is the vot- 
ing member in the parish organization). 
There are probably well over 3,000,000 
Orthodox church members in the United 

It must be kept clear, however, that 
there are other members of other Eastern 
churches in the United States, who are 

not acknowledged as "Orthodox" at all. 
These are members and churches having 
no historic connection with valid, recog- 
nized, ancient Orthodoxy. To be Ortho- 
dox, a church must be under the juris- 
diction of a historic patriarch or 
autocephalous synod. These irregular 
Eastern churches might be called auto- 
genie, or self -starting, but they can never 
be called "Orthodox." There is fre- 
quently confusion m dealing with these 
irregular groups among the Eastern 
churches; almost any classification might 
be in error, at one point or another, but 
they can generally be classified in the 
following categories: 

I. The Eastern Orthodox Churches 
which are in communion with the Patri- 
archate of Constantinople and with each 

II. The ancient Eastern churches 
which are separated as a result of defini- 
tions reached during the first seven 
ecumenical councils. 

III. The Uniat and the so-called By- 
zantine Catholic, or other churches in 
communion with Rome. 

IV. The self-styled American Ortho- 
dox groups, which have no official con- 
nection, and which are not in com- 
munication, with either Roman or 
Eastern church authorities. 

Albanian Orthodox Diocese 
in America 

The modern Albanian is the direct 
descendant of the ancient Illyrian who 
lived in the regions north of Greece 
bordering the Adriatic; the Albanian 
Orthodox Church in America is the 
spiritual descendant of the ancient ec- 
clesiastical Western Illyricum or "sanc- 
tum Illyricum" (the Holy Illyria) of 
early Christianity and the early church, 
and it has suffered a bewildering series 
of persecutions and changes in the 
religio-political struggles of the area. 

With the Peace of Constantine and the 
division of the Roman Empire, the West- 



ern lilyricum (the Western Balkans and 
the Adriatic Coast) were included in the 
Western Empire and the Western 
Church and patriarchate; it was ec- 
clesiastically a part of the church of 
North Italy under the supervision of 
Ambrose, then bishop of Milan. Later 
the popes established exarchs (or pri- 
mates) in Durazzo, the civil capital of 
Western lilyricum, and made them papal 
legates or "vicars" for the entire area. 
Then the East Roman, Byzantine 
(Greek) emperors, in A.D. 732, con- 
quered the Illyrian provinces and placed 
their churches forcibly under the Patri- 
arch of Constantinople. Much of the 
history of the Balkan region since then 
has been the history of their struggle to 
obtain religious independence and dig- 

Christianized by both Latin and Greek 
missionaries, Albania, as part of 
lilyricum, had both Latin and Greek 
Rite Christians and still has, today. 
There were close ties with both Rome 
and Constantinople until the Moslem 
Arabs and Turks swept over the Eastern 
Empire; in 1478-79, the Turks became 
masters of Albania. Half of its people 
became Moslems, and a small minority 
remained divided between Latin Rite 
Christians in the North and Greek Rite 
Christians, subordinated to Constanti- 
nople, in the South. There followed 
four centuries of oppression, broken at 
last by the political and religious revolts 
of the nineteenth and twentieth cen- 
turies when Albania became independent 
and its people demanded a national 
church independent of Constantinople. 

Meanwhile thousands of Albanians had 
emigrated to America. The Turkish 
rulers had long refused to allow the 
maintenance of Albanian language 
churches by the church authorities in 
Constantinople, and accordingly the 
Russian Greek Orthodox Catholic 
Church in America set up Albanian 
dioceses here under an Albanian 
archimandrite-administrator, the Right 
Rev. Theophan S. Noli, with a liturgy 

translated into Albanian in 1908. With 
the outbreak of the Russian revolution 
these ties with the Russian church were 
severed, and Theophan Noli became the 
first bishop of a completely independ- 
ent Albanian-Rite Church a "mother 
church" which, strangely enough, spread 
its influence back into the motherland 
of Albania. Noli was consecrated in the 
Korche Cathedral in Albania as the 
Archbishop and Metropolitan of 
Durazzo, and Albanian candidates for 
the priesthood in America were ordained 
in Albania. He returned to America to 
establish a metropolitan throne, with its 
see in Boston. All Albanian Orthodox 
in the New World are under this see; 
it includes 13 organized territorial 
parishes and some thousands of unor- 
ganized, scattered communicants visited 
by priests on mission circuits. There are 
45,000 to 50,000 Albanians in this coun- 
try; perhaps half are Moslems, and most 
of the rest from 12,000 to 15,000 are 
members of the Albanian Orthodox 

They have made outstanding con- 
tributions in liturgy, the most notable of 
which is the production of a liturgical 
literature in a language which has de- 
veloped as a composite of ancient 
Pelasgo-Illyrian dialects, Latin, Greek, 
and Turkish. Their "Albanian Rite" 
liturgy actually preceded the liturgy of 
the Albanian Rite Church in Albania. 
Uniquely, this church has never de- 
pended upon the church of its native 
land. Thanks to Communism and the 
dropping of the Iron Curtain, communi- 
cation between the two churches is no 
longer possible, but the influence of the 
American church remains. 

A further liturgical contribution is 
found in the publication of liturgical 
books in English, including prayer books, 
Bible readings, and hymnals. Through 
this literature the traditional devotion to 
Christ and the Virgin, to prayer and the 
sacraments (especially the Eucharist and 
penance) has strengthened the faith and 



broadened the influence of this fiercely 
independent and deeply spiritual people. 

The American Carpatho-Russian 
Orthodox Greek Catholic Church 

The Carpatho-Russians are Carpatho 
in that their homeland is in the Car- 
pathian Mountain regions of eastern 
Czechoslovakia; they are Russian be- 
cause historically they and their home- 
land have been a part of the Russian 
nation, and their religious allegiances 
have been bound to the Russian and 
Orthodox churches. Their mother 
church endured for long years a strife 
between Eastern Orthodoxy and Roman 
Catholicism; under political pressure in 
the seventeenth century it became a 
Uniat church, with Eastern rites and 
customs but under the Uniat or "Union" 
plan, recognizing the supremacy of the 
Roman pope. The desperate struggle to 
separate from Rome and to become com- 
pletely Eastern was transferred to the 
United States with the immigration of 
large numbers of their people, especially 
to our coal-mining and industrial areas. 
In 1891 the Rev. Dr. Alexis Toth, a 
Carpatho-Russian Uniat priest, led his 
church in Minneapolis back to the 
Orthodox Church, and with several other 
pastors and parishes was absorbed in the 
Russian Orthodox Church in America. 
In 1938 the new Carpatho-Russian Ortho- 
dox Greek Catholic Diocese was formed 
and the Rev. Orestes P. Chornock was 
elected bishop. The diocese was canon- 
ized by his Holiness Patriarch Benjamin 
I in Constantinople. 

They now have 60 churches and an 
inclusive membership of approximately 
80,000. Headquarters, a seminary, and a 
new cathedral have been established at 
Johnstown, Pennsylvania. 

Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church 

Before the outbreak of the Macedonian 
revolution in 1903 there was very little 
Bulgarian immigration to the United 

States; in 1940 there were only 9,000 
Bulgarians resident here. Coming out of 
the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, which 
is the state church of the country, they 
brought with them memories of the long 
struggle for independence of that church 
from the domination of Constantinople. 
It was in 1872 that the Bulgarian Church 
won its freedom and self-government. 

The church started in this country as 
the Bulgarian Orthodox Mission in 1909 
and established a bishopric in 1938. It is 
attached directly to the Holy Synod of 
Bulgaria, with a membership made up 
of immigrants from Bulgaria, Macedonia, 
Thrace, Dobruja, and other parts of the 
Balkan peninsula. Services are in the 
Bulgarian language, and doctrine is in 
accord with that of other Eastern Ortho- 
dox churches. 

Membership is reported at 75,389 
members in 22 churches. 

Greek Archdiocese 
of North and South America 

Greeks arrived in the United States in 
increasing numbers between 1890 and 
1914, coming from the Greek mainland, 
the Greek islands of the Aegean Sea, 
Dodecanese, Cyprus, Constantinople, 
Smyrna, and other sections of Asia 
Minor. They asked for and secured the 
services of Orthodox priests sent to them 
by the Holy Synod of Greece or the 
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constanti- 
nople. Each priest maintained his rela- 
tion with the synod or patriarchate from 
which he came; there was at first no 
central organization to unite them. 

Following a period of confusion (1908- 
1922), during which jurisdiction of the 
American churches was shifted from the 
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constanti- 
nople to the Holy Synod of Greece and 
then back again, an act known as The 
Founding Tome of 1922 established the 
Greek (Orthodox) Archdiocese of 
North and South America, consisting of 
4 bishoprics under the supervision of 
the Archbishop Alexander and the 



Patriarchate of Constantinople. Alex- 
ander's successor, Archbishop Athena- 
goras, was elected patriarch of Con- 
stantinople in 1948, and was succeeded 
in turn by Archbishop Michael and 
Archbishop lakovos, the present in- 

Doctrine, polity, and worship are of 
the usual Eastern Orthodox patterns. 
There are 1,200,000 members in 325 
churches, 250 parochial schools, 350 Sun- 
day schools, a theological seminary at 
Brookline, Massachusetts, and a teacher's 
college for girls, known as St. Basil's 
Academy, at Garrison, New York. 

The Romanian Orthodox Episcopate 
of America 

There are about 150,000 Romanians 
in the United States, spread over 13 
states and coming principally from the 
provinces of Transylvania, Banat, and 
Bucovina. Since April of 1929 the Ro- 
manian Orthodox parish churches of the 
United States and Canada have been 
united under the jurisdiction of the 
bishop of the Romanian Orthodox 
Episcopate (Diocese) of America, with 
headquarters in Jackson, Michigan. It 
has severed all relations with the Ortho- 
dox Church of Romania because of pres- 
ent political (Communist) conditions, 
but in matters of faith and doctrine this 
church recognizes the spiritual and 
canonical authority of the Holy Synod 
(House of Bishops) of the Orthodox 
Church of Romania, of which the titular 
bishop of the American diocese is a de 
jure member. In administrative matters 
the episcopate is an autonomous organi- 
zation having the Church Congress, a 
yearly convention, as its supreme ad- 
ministrative body and a Council of the 
Episcopate as the executive body of the 
congress. The episcopate adheres to the 
same doctrine as all other Eastern Ortho- 
dox churches and respects the canon laws 
governing them all. There are 51 
churches and 50,000 members. 

Russian Orthodox Church 
Eastern Orthodoxy came to what is 
now the Soviet Union with the baptism 
of Vladimir in A.D. 988. Government of 
the church at first was in the hands of 
metropolitans appointed or approved by 
the patriarch of Constantinople. About 
500 years ago Job became the First 
Patriarch of All-Russia. This patriarchate 
was suppressed, and a Holy Synod was 
instituted during the reign of Peter the 
Great; the other Orthodox churches 
recognized this synod as being patri- 
archal in effect. From 1721 to 1917 the 
Holy Synod was made up of 3 metro- 
politans and other bishops from various 
parts of Russia, who sat in rotation at 
its sessions. A civil officer of the czar, 
known as the Chief Procurator of the 
Holy Synod, attended its sessions as the 
czar's representative, sitting at a small 
side desk. This pre-1917 church, like 
every public organization in Russia, was 
dominated by the czarist regime. 

In 1917 dramatic changes were insti- 
tuted by the Great Sobor, or church 
council. Administration was changed, 
the office of chief procurator was 
abolished, and plans were made to re- 
turn to the old patriarchal form of gov- 
ernment. The reforms were put into 
effect. As the Great Sobor held its 
sessions, however, the gunfire of the 
revolution was heard in the streets, and 
once the followers of Lenin had taken 
over the state, they immediately applied 
their Communist principles: separation 
of church from state, school from 
church; and restriction of church ac- 
tivity to worship alone. The patriarch 
and the synod resisted, but the govern- 
ment found some priests and a few 
bishops who were ready to support the 
new regime. These held a rigged as- 
sembly which deposed the patriarch, 
endorsed communism, and declared it- 
self the governing body of the Russian 
church. Calling themselves the Renovated 
or Living Church, they changed the 
ancient disciplinary rules of the church 
and instituted liturgical reforms. With 



the support of the Soviet authorities who 
hoped thus to divide and weaken the 
church, they held control for several 
years. Although they misled some of 
the Russian people, they were never 
recognized by the great body of clergy 
or people. The government considered 
opposition to the Living Church a civil 
offense, and on this basis banished thou- 
sands of bishops, clergy, and laymen to 
hard-labor camps. 

When the Germans invaded Russia, it 
was the aged metropolitan, later Patri- 
arch Sergius who, in spite of the years 
of cruel persecution, called on his peo- 
ple to support the Soviet government 
in the defense of their country. This 
marked a turning point in the Soviet 
government's policy toward the church. 
Persecution gradually ceased; the patri- 
arch's authority was recognized by the 
state. Many surviving clergy and bishops 
who had been banished to Siberia were 
permitted to return, and gradually the 
patriarchal administration became again 
the sole authority in the Orthodox 
Church of Russia. 

The main missionary efforts of Russian 
Orthodoxy were directed toward the 
Moslem, Buddhist, animistic populations 
of Central Asia and Siberia. Tn the late 
nineteenth century an Orthodox mission 
was begun in Japan. Eight Russian 
Orthodox monks entered Alaska in 1792; 
they established headquarters at Kodiak 
and built there the first Eastern Ortho- 
dox Church in America. Twelve thou- 
sand natives were baptized within two 
years' time. Orthodox monks and bishops 
created an alphabet and printed a gram- 
mar in the Aleutian language, translated 
portions of the Bible, and built a 
cathedral at Sitka. 

A chapel was built in the early years 
of the century at a Russian trading post 
near present-day San Francisco, in Cali- 
fornia. An episcopal see was established 
in San Francisco in 1872 and moved in 
1905 to New York City, as Russian im- 
migration brought thousands of Ortho- 

dox to the eastern states. Immigrants 
from other countries with Orthodox 
churches Serbia, Syria, Greece were 
for many years cared for by the 
Russian hierarchy in America. Many 
Orthodox from the old Austro- 
Hungarian empire, where a Uniat church 
had grown to impressive numbers, came 
to this country and found themselves in 
an embarrassing situation, being placed 
under the direction of Irish and German 
Roman Catholic bishops. (Uniat 
churches are described on pp. 97-98.) 
Torn between conflicting demands and 
loyalties, many of these Uniat parishes 
returned to the jurisdiction of the Russian 
Orthodox Church. 

Hard days were ahead, however. The 
Russian revolution of 1917 cut off the 
financial support that had come from 
the mother church, which was now fight- 
ing for its life. The Living Church fac- 
tion in Russia, supported by the Com- 
munist government, sent an emissary 
to secure control of the church property 
in the United States, and he succeeded 
by action in the civil courts in securing 
possession of the Russian cathedral in 
New York City. Further seizures were 
prevented by the declaration of the 
Russian Orthodox in America at a Sobor 
(church assembly) at Detroit in 1924 
asserting its administrative, legislative, 
and judicial independence of Moscow. 
Since then this church has been an 
autonomous Orthodox church and has 
made great progress in the support and 
loyalty of its people. It now has 9 arch- 
bishops and bishops, and reports 755,000 
members in 352 churches. Its official 
title is The Russian Orthodox Greek 
Catholic Church of America. 

In addition to this Russian Orthodox 
jurisdiction (or administrative units), 
with its continuous history in this coun- 
try since 1792, there are now 2 other 
Orthodox jurisdictions that have come 
to America within recent years. No 
doctrinal differences separate these 3 
groups; their disagreement is exclusively 



on the question of recognizing the au- 
thority of the patriarch of Moscow. The 
Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic 
Church of America has declared itself 
ready to affirm its spiritual loyalty to 
the patriarch provided he will recog- 
nize its administrative and legislative 
autonomy, which he has refused thus far 
to do. The Russian Orthodox Church 
Outside Russia holds that the Moscow 
patriarchate has forfeited its right to be 
considered a true Orthodox Church be- 
cause it accepts the authority of the 
atheist Soviet government. The Russian 
Orthodox Catholic Church, Archdiocese 
of the Aleutian Islands and North Amer- 
ica, accepts the full authority of the 
patriarchate and is its representative in 

This last church is comparatively small 
(no statistics are available) though it 
holds de -facto occupancy of the old 
Russian cathedral in New York City, 
which passed into its hands when the 
former emissary of the Living Church 
faction made his submission to the patri- 
arch's representative. It is governed by 
an exarch appointed by the patriarch; 
but its 2 latest appointees, coming from 
the Soviet Union, have been denied 
permanent residence by the United 
States government. 

The third body, known as the Russian 
Orthodox Church Outside Russia, has 
a membership of Russian exiles. When 
armed resistance to the Soviet revolu- 
tion was finally put down, many sought 
refuge abroad. A number of bishops 
and clergy gathered at Sremski Karlovici 
in Yugoslavia and there set up a synod 
to give spiritual leadership to these 
refugees. After World War II the im- 
mense increase in the numbers of Russian 
refugees (including the bishops of this 
synod) gathered in displaced persons 
camps led this synod to move its head- 
quarters to Munich. Relief programs of 
the churches brought great numbers of 
these displaced persons to America, and 
the headquarters of the synod (now 

called the Russian Orthodox Church 
Outside Russia) was moved to New 
York City in 1952. Its complete rejection 
of the Moscow patriarchate conformed 
to the attitude of many of these new 
arrivals and kept them from uniting with 
the Russian church already established 
there. It is still growing as more dis- 
placed persons arrive, and it claims (as 
of 1951) some 55,000 members and (as 
of 1955) 81 churches. In addition, this 
church maintains bishops and clergy 
wherever Russian refugees are resettled 
in Canada, South America, Australia, 
Africa, as well as in Europe. The synod 
president is Metropolitan Anastassy 
Gribanovski, who has his headquarters 
in New York City. 

Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church 

The church in Serbia from the seventh 
century to the thirteenth was under the 
jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarchate of 
Constantinople and became the inde- 
pendent National Serbian Church in 
1219. It made notable contributions to 
art and architecture and played an im- 
portant part in the Serbian struggle for 
independence all through the long period 
of Turkish invasion and domination 
(1389-1876), during which it suffered 
an unbelievable persecution. 

Serbian immigrants to the United 
States, coming here more for political 
than economic reasons, began to arrive in 
large numbers about 1890. They wor- 
shiped at first in Russian churches, ac- 
cepting the ministrations of Russian 
priests and the supervision of Russian 
bishops. The Serbian Patriarchate of 
Yugoslavia approved the organization of 
the Diocese of the United States and 
Canada in 1921, and sent its first bishop 
in 1926. Headquarters were established 
and still remain at St. Sava's Serbian 
Monastery at Libertyville, Illinois. There 
are today 61 parishes and 150,000 mem- 
bers. Doctrine and polity are in harmony 
with other branches of the Orthodox 



Syrian Antiochlan Orthodox Church 
Under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch 
of Antioch, this church is made up of 
former residents of Syria, Lebanon, 
Palestine, Egypt, and Iraq now living in 
the United States. At first they were 
under the supervision of a Syrian bishop 
appointed by the Russian archbishop in 
America. In September of 1934 the 
Patriarch of Antioch appointed the Very 
Rev. Archimandrite Antony Bashir as 
patriarchal vicar for all Syrian Orthodox 
people in North America, with authority 
to unite all parishes in America in one 
organization, to be known as the Syrian 
Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of 
New York and All North America. In 
February of 1936, at the request of both 
people and clergy, he was elected; and 
on April 19, 1936, he was consecrated 
at the Cathedral of St. Nicholas in 
Brooklyn as the Metropolitan-Arch- 
bishop of the Archdiocese. 

Work is maintained in the United 
States, Canada, Mexico, and Central 
America; and there are 110,000 members 
enrolled in 80 churches in this country. 
Doctrine and polity are typically Eastern 

Ukrainian Orthodox Churches 
Eastern Orthodoxy was established as 
the state religion in the Ukraine by a 
unique procedure. In the tenth century 
Vladimir the Great, ruler of Kiev, sent 
investigators abroad to study the doc- 
trines and rituals of Islam and Judaism 
as well as those of Christianity. They 
came back to report that the Eastern 
Orthodox faith seemed best suited to 
the needs of their people. Vladimir was 
immediately baptized in that faith, and 
by 988 the entire Ukraine population had 
become Orthodox Christian. 

For more than 600 years the Ukrainian 
Church was under the jurisdiction of the 
Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constanti- 
nople. In 1686 it was placed under the 
supervision of the Russian Patriarch of 
Moscow. Rejecting the authority of 

Moscow after the 1917 revolution* 
Ukrainians in the United States are still 
engaged in a bitter dispute among them- 
selves; attempts at union have been made, 
but to date have been unsuccessful. Three 
groups are in competition. The first, 
known as the Ukrainian Orthodox 
Church of the U.S.A., was formally or- 
ganized in this country in 1919; Arch- 
bishop John Theodorovich arrived from 
the Ukraine in 1924. This group has 90 
churches and 84,000 members. The sec- 
ond body is known as the Ukrainian 
Orthodox Church of America (Ecumeni- 
cal Patriarchate), was organized in 
1928, and had 36 churches and 44,350 
members in 1951. The Rev. Joseph Zuk 
was consecrated as first bishop in 1932. 
His successor was the Most Rev. Arch- 
bishop Bohdan, who was consecrated by 
the order of the Ecumenical Patriarchate 
of Constantinople in 1937 in New York 
City. The third body is known as the 
Holy Ukrainian Autocephalic Orthodox 
Church in Exile. It broke from the 
Ukrainian Church in the U.S. A. in 1951 
in a dispute over administrative matters 
and is made up largely of Ukrainian lay- 
men and clergy who came to America 
after World War II. Two bishops came 
from Europe in 1954 to organize and 
administer the work of the church, which 
reports 4,500 members in 10 local 

Holy Orthodox Church in America 
(Eastern Catholic and Apostolic) 

An interchurch movement rather than 
a denomination, this body was instituted 
in 1927-28 to present the Eastern liturgies 
in the English language, to offset the 
disadvantages of the use of foreign lan- 
guages in America, and to establish an 
autocephalous Orthodox church in 
America for English-speaking people 
with American customs and traditions. 

The movement sterns from the au- 
thorization of the late Patriarch Tikhon 
of the Russian Orthodox Church and 
the acts of his successors to propagate 



Orthodoxy among English-speaking peo- 
ple around the world. For its first 15 
years in this country it was a program 
of translating, lectures, classes, and writ- 

Services are based on the original 
liturgy composed by James, first bishop 
of Jerusalem, as abbreviated and ar- 
ranged in the fourth century by John 
Chrysostom into the local usage it has 
today in all Orthodox bodies, varying 
only in local custom and language. This 
liturgy is used throughout the year with 
the exception of the weekdays of the 
Great Feast (Lent). The liturgy of Basil 
the Great is used 10 days of the year. 

The faith and order of the Holy 
Orthodox Church in America rest on the 
Holy Scripture, holy tradition, the 
canons of the 7 councils, and the teach- 
ings of the anti-Nicene Fathers. Con- 
cessions have been made to Western 
custom in the installation of seats in its 
churches, in the use of organs and mixed 
choirs, and in conformity to the Western 
calendar with the single exception of 
Easter, which is celebrated according to 
the Julian calendar. It wishes to be 
known as an independent unit of the 
Holy Eastern Orthodox Greek Catholic 
Church, following strictly, however, the 
ancient traditional doctrines and dogmas 
of that church. In 1944 there were 211 
members in 3 churches. 


The American Catholic Church 

Deriving its orders from the Syrian 
Patriarch of Antioch, this church is bet- 
ter known as the Jacobite Apostolic 
Church. It was organized in the United 
States in 1915 and is a Monophysitic 
body. Armenian Coptic and Jacobite 
Syrian churches are all Monophysitic. 
The word "Jacobite" was borrowed 
from the name of Jacobus Baradeus 
(died in 578), the Syrian monk who 
founded the movement. Historically, a 
bitter quarrel has raged between the 

Jacobites and the Orthodox Christians. 
Syrian Jacobites are found in Meso- 
potamia, Iran, Syria, India, and Kur- 
distan, where they claim something over 
80,000 members. It is from this section 
of the Middle East that they have 
migrated to America, where today they 
are found in 1 of 2 churches the As- 
syrian Jacobite Apostolic Church with 
about 1,400 members and 4 churches, 
and the American Catholic Church 
(Syro-Antiochean), with 4,471 members 
in 39 churches. They use Eastern rites. 


Assyrian Orthodox Church 

Fleeing the persecutions of the Moslem 
Turks, large numbers of Syrians came 
to the United States in 1893 and during 
the years immediately following. They 
were Christians belonging to the As- 
syrian Uniat Church, the Assyrian 
Protestant Church, the Assyrian Nes- 
torian or Chaldean Church, and the As- 
syrian Jacobite Apostolic Church. 

In 1907 one of the Assyrian groups 
raised the necessary funds to send 
Deacon Hanna Koorie of Paterson, New 
Jersey, to Jerusalem for ordination as 
priest and bishop. He returned to super- 
vise the establishment of the Assyrian 
Jacobite Apostolic Church in Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, New Jersey, and 
Michigan. This body is now known as 
the Assyrian Orthodox Church. It dif- 
fers in liturgy from the Eastern Ortho- 
dox churches, but doctrine is based upon 
the Nicene Creed; it accepts the findings 
of only the first 3 ecumenical councils. 
It has 7 sacraments: baptism, confirma- 
tion, the Eucharist, penance, extreme 
unction, orders, and matrimony. Baptism 
is administered by pouring or immersion, 
and in the course of the baptismal cere- 
mony, which comes several days after 
the birth of the child, the priest breathes 
upon the water and the child. The bread 
and wine at Holy Communion are con- 
sidered to be the actual body and blood 



of Christ. The Virgin Mary is venerated, 
as are the saints of the church. 

The membership totaled 3,300 as of 
1951, concentrated in 4 local churches. 
The Assyrian Jacobite Patriarch of 
Antioch stands at the head of the church 
government; he resides at Horns, Syria, 
and his word is final on all church mat- 
ters. Under him serve the metropolitan, 
or mifrian; numerous iskirfs and mitrans; 
bishops, rhahibs, priests, and deacons. 
Every officer is elected to his office by 
vote of the people, which gives the body 
a democratic flavor. 

Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church 
of the East (Nestorian) 

The Holy Apostolic and Catholic 
Church of the East is the ancient Church 
of Persia, usually known in the West as 
the Nestorian Church. Its patriarch orig- 
inally resided in Chaldea, near the 
Persian Gulf. From the fourth to the 
twelfth centuries it spread throughout 
most of Asia, and was confined to Asia 
until the days of its recent spread to the 
New World. It is estimated that at its 
peak this church had 10,000,000 mem- 
bers, but except for the church that still 
exists in India, this membership was al- 
most completely exterminated by 
Genghis Khan and later by Tamerlane. 
Only a small remnant escaped to the 
mountains of Anatolia, to be driven from 
there by the Turks in 1916 and scat- 
tered in Iraq, Syria, and Persia. 

This church claims as founders 
Thomas, Thaddeus, and Simon Peter 
from the Apostles, and Mari and Addai 
from the Seventy. Its theology stresses 
the two natures (or the duality) of 
Christ, holding that he was "man and 
God, two natures and two substances 
united in one person and will," and in- 
sists that Mary should not be granted 
the status or name of "Mother of God." 
("Mary did not give birth to the di- 
vinity, but to the humanity, the temple 
of divinity.") Accordingly, she is not 
the mother of God, but the mother of 

Christ. They hold that it was the man in 
Christ that died, not the God in Christ. 
It was for these beliefs that Nestorius 
was condemned by the Council of 
Ephesus in A.D. 431; however, he is still 
revered ,as a saint by his followers. 

The American branch of this church 
began during the immigration wave of 
1911, and nearly all its adherents have 
come to America during the last half 
century. In 1940 the head of the church, 
exiled in Iraq, also came to this country; 
he is Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, 
Catholicos Patriarch of the Church of 
the East and of the Assyrians CXIX. In 
1952 3,200 members were reported in 10 

Eastern Rite (Catholic) Churches 

Known both as Eastern Rite and East- 
ern Catholic churches, these churches 
recognize the pope as the supreme head 
of the church, but they differ from the 
Roman Catholic Church in their liturgies, 
rites, laws, and customs. They follow 
any one of 5 principle Eastern rites: 
Byzantine, Alexandrian, Antiochan, Ar- 
menian, or Chaldean and are usually 
specified by the Eastern jurisdiction to 
which they are subject (Alexandria, 
Antioch, Jerusalem, or Constantinople). 
There are 3 Eastern Rite jurisdictions in 
the United States: Philadelphia, Stam- 
ford, and Pittsburgh, with a startling 
total of 685,746 members subject to one 
or another of the Eastern patriarchs ap- 
pointed by Rome in Eastern homelands. 
There are an estimated 11,698,035 East- 
ern Rite Catholics throughout the world. 

Uniat Churches 

Uniat is a Russian-Polish word mean- 
ing "union"; the background and struc- 
ture of the Uniat churches fulfill the 
intent of the word inasmuch as they are 
a union of Eastern and Western, Latin 
and Greek. Eastern in both thought and 
rite, they accept the authority of the 
Roman pope. Abroad, these churches 



are found in Russia, Romania, Armenia, 
Syria, and Abyssinia under the leader- 
ship of 9 Uniat patriarchs, A group of 
Carpatho-Russians in 1938 severed all 
connections with Rome, and the Uniat 
churches of Russia left Rome in 1946 to 
go over completely to the Russian Ortho- 
dox church. The Communist regime in 
the Balkan states has almost destroyed 
the influence and control of Rome in 
that area. 

In the United States, Uniat churches 
are largely Ukrainian in membership; 
known as the Ukrainian (Roman) Cath- 
olic Church, they are separated from and 
independent of the churches abroad and 
seem increasingly restless of any Roman 
control. A dictate of the pope, forbid- 
ding the appointment of married priests, 
has not found acceptance here among 
either clergy or laity. The Roman Cath- 
olic Directory of 1948 reported 2 Uniat 
dioceses with 335 parishes. 

The American Orthodox Church 

In 1927 the Orthodox mother church 
in Russia, which at that time held 
precedence in the Americas, sought a 
federation of the various racial groups 
in the church here and the extension of 
the Orthodox faith among non-Orthodox 
Americans. The federation has still to 
be realized, but the second objective has 
been, at least in part, committed to the 
Society of St. Basil, organized in 1932 
as the Orthodox Mission to the Amer- 
icas. The archbishop-president, Aftimios 
Ofiesh, consecrated the late Ignatius 
Nichols as Titular Bishop of Washing- 
ton and placed him in charge of the 
American work. For reasons of clarity 
the Basilian Fathers adopted the denom- 
inational title of the American Orthodox 
Church in 1940 and incorporated that 
year by act of the New York State 

The Western rite is used in the 
vernacular according to the authoriza- 
tion of the Moscow Synod of 1870. It 

is claimed by this church that "Ameri- 
can Orthodoxy is ... not a derivative or 
imitative Orthodoxy, but is the latest 
local aspect of that eternal dispensation 
which began at Pentecost," and that 
while they are the smallest and youngest 
of American Orthodox organizations, 
they are nevertheless the "right-believ- 
ing, right-teaching, and right-worshiping 
church as Christ left it in A.D. 33 ... 
unchanged in faith and practice though 
considerably developed in its cultural 
and intellectual dimensions." 

No statistics on work or membership 
are available. 

The American Holy Orthodox 
Catholic Apostolic 

Eastern Church 

(in Association with The Orthodox 
Catholic Patriarchate of America) 

Instituted in 1932 and incorporated in 
1933, this church is self-governing, 
"maintaining the Eastern Orthodox faith 
and rite for all men indiscriminately." 
Spiritually it "owns no head but the 
head of the Christian faith, Jesus Christ 
our Lord," but considers itself "in- 
separably joined in faith with the great 
church of Constantinople and with every 
other orthodox eastern church of the 
same profession." The Greek rite is used 
in all worship services, but it receives 
into Communion and affiliates with other 
churches of Eastern Orthodox persuasion 
and belief which desire to retain their 
national and individual characteristics. 

Government is autocephalous; the 
archbishop does not acknowledge the 
authority or jurisdiction of any other 
church or bishop. He is responsible to 
the National Council, the supreme leg- 
islative, administrative, and judicial au- 
thority, which is made up of bishops, 
clergy, and laity. It meets every third 
year. Two lower ecclesiastical bodies, 
the Holy Synod and the Supreme Ec- 
clesiastical Council, manage the affairs 
of the church between councils. 

The work of the church is not only 



religious but social and educational. It 
represents an effort, fairly successful, to 
draw together those of Eastern Ortho- 
dox faith into one group regardless of 
race, nationality, or language. A pro- 
visional synod was set up in 1935 to 
encourage co-ordination between the na- 
tional groups in the various Eastern 

Orthodox churches, and the Patriarchal 
Holy Synod was fully established in 
March, 1951, in the state of New York. 
The church and patriarchate has 10 
bishops, 25 clergy, 30 churches, and an 
inclusive membership of approximately 
9,000 members. 



Objecting to the "usurpation of powers 
in violation of the discipline" by bishops 
and district superintendents, 7 annual 
conferences and from 60- to 70,000 mem- 
bers of the Evangelical Association 
later known as the Evangelical Church 
withdrew from that body in 1894 to or- 
ganize the United Evangelical Church. 
The two churches were reunited in 
1922, but again a minority objected and 
remained aloof from the merger. The 
East Pennsylvania Conference, together 
with several churches in the Central, 
Pittsburgh, Ohio, and Illinois Confer- 
ences, continued their separate existence 
under the old name. This was later 
changed to the Evangelical Congrega- 
tional Church. 

Today the boundaries of the East 
Pennsylvania Conference are somewhat 
larger than at the time of the merger; 
the Midwest churches are joined in a 
Western Conference. They are, like their 
parent Evangelical Church, "Methodists 
in polity, Arminian in doctrine." There 
is emphasis upon the inspiration and in- 

tegrity of the Bible and the "fellowship 
of all followers of Christ." There are 
annual and general conferences with 
equal lay and clerical representation, 
bishops and district superintendents, and 
an itinerant ministry. Pastors are ap- 
pointed yearly by the annual confer- 
ences. Local congregations, as the name 
implies, have more freedom especially 
in temporal matters than congregations 
in either Evangelical or Methodist 
churches. The Board of Missions with 
two women's auxiliaries and two con- 
ference missionary societies supervise the 
home and foreign missionary programs. 
There are 34 missionaries abroad and 45 
at home, and 156 nationals at work in 
various lands. 

Large summer assemblies are held in 5 
parks strategically located in the con- 
ferences. Church headquarters, the pub- 
lishing house, the infirmary, the home 
for the aging, and the school of theology 
are located at Myerstown, Pennsylvania. 
There are nearly 30,000 members and 
approximately 170 churches. 


Known until 1957 as The Evangelical struction of the Lutheran State Church 
Mission Covenant Church of America, of Sweden, and to the great spiritual 
this church traces its roots to the Prot- awakenings of the nineteenth century, 
estant Reformation, to the biblical in- These three influences have in large 



measure shaped its development and are 
to be borne in mind in seeking to un- 
derstand its distinctive spirit. 

The Covenant Church adheres to the 
affirmations of the Protestant Reforma- 
tion regarding the Holy Scriptures as 
the word of God and the only perfect 
rule for faith, doctrine, and conduct. It 
has traditionally valued the historic con- 
fessions of the Christian church, par- 
ticularly the Apostles' Creed, while at 
the same time it has emphasized the 
sovereignty of the Word over all creedal 
interpretations. It has especially cherished 
the pietistic restatement of the doctrine 
of justification by faith as basic to its 
dual task of evangelism and Christian 
nurture, the New Testament emphasis 
upon personal faith in Jesus Christ as 
Saviour and Lord, the reality of a fel- 
lowship of believers which recognizes 
but transcends theological differences, 
and the belief in baptism and the Lord's 
Supper as divinely ordained sacraments 
of the church. While the denomination 
has traditionally practiced the baptism 
of infants, in conformity with its prin- 
ciple of freedom it has given room to 
divergent views. The principle of per- 
sonal freedom, so highly esteemed by 
the Covenant, is to be distinguished from 
the individualism that disregards the 

centrality of the word of God and the 
mutual responsibilities and disciplines of 
the spiritual community. 

The local church is administered by a 
board of laymen elected by the member- 
ship; it calls its ministers (ordained by 
the denomination) with the aid and 
guidance of the denomination's pastoral 
relations commission and the conference 
superintendent. There are 12 geographi- 
cal districts known as regional confer- 
ences, each of which elects its own 
superintendent. The highest authority is 
vested in an annual meeting, which is 
composed of ministers and laymen 
elected by the constituent churches. An 
executive board, elected by the annual 
meeting, implements its decisions. 

Missionaries are found in Africa 
(Belgian Congo), China (Formosa), 
Ecuador, Indonesia, and Japan. There are 
a number of educational institutions: the 
Canadian Bible Institute at Prince Al- 
bert, Saskatchewan, Canada; Minnehaha 
Academy at Minneapolis, Minnesota; 
Swedish Covenant Hospital School of 
Nursing and North Park College and 
Theological Seminary at Chicago, Il- 
linois. There are also 2 homes for 
orphaned children, 2 sailors' homes, 2 
hospitals, 10 homes for the aged. There 
are 58,371 adult members in 536 churches. 


This church is composed of two bodies 
of Scandinavian background which 
united in 1950: the Free Church of Amer- 
ica and the Evangelical Free Church 
Association. The Evangelical Free 
Church of America began with a num- 
ber of small congregations which re- 
fused to join the merger in 1885 of the 
old Swedish Ansgarii Synod and the 
Mission Synod into the Swedish Evan- 
gelical Mission Covenant of America. It 
was a body of self-governing congrega- 


tions, each free to establish its own doc- 
trine; the several churches elected dele- 
gates to an annual conference, purely 
advisory in character. A society of min- 
isters and missionaries was organized in 
1894 to guide the denomination gen- 
erally in doctrine and practice. This 
church brought 12,000 members and 
200 churches into the 1950 merger. 

The Evangelical Free Church Associa- 
tion was but slightly smaller at the time 
of the union, with 10,033 members and 


51 churches. It was a Norwegian and 
Danish body which had grown out of the 
free-church movement in Norway in 
the nineteenth century. The increase of 
immigration from Scandinavia resulted 
in the organization of a number of 
Norwegian and Danish Free churches 
that were eventually brought together in 
eastern and western districts that were 
united in Chicago in 1910, still main- 
taining their identity in their work. The 
churches in these 2 districts elected dele- 
gates to an annual conference, which was 
the chief administrative body. No notice- 

able changes in either polity or doctrine 
still left to the individual congrega- 
tions have been brought about by the 
union, which gives the new Evangelical 
Free Church of America a total strength 
of 32,480 members and 452 churches. 
There are today 13 district organizations 
(11 in the United States, 2 in Canada). 
Mission stations are established in Japan, 
the Philippines, Hong Kong, Belgian 
Congo, Singapore, Germany, and Ven- 
ezuela. The denomination's Trinity Bible 
College and Seminary is located in Chi- 



The Evangelical United Brethren 
Church was born in a union at Johns- 
town, Pennsylvania, in 1946, merging 
bodies previously known as the Church 
of the United Brethren in Christ and 
the Evangelical Church. Both churches 
originated in Pennsylvania and were 
much alike in doctrine and polity. 

Jacob Albright (1759-1808), founder 
of the Evangelical Church, was reared 
and confirmed a Lutheran and later be- 
came a Methodist exhorter. He began to 
preach in 1796 among the German peo- 
ple of Pennsylvania; while he had no 
intention of forming a new church, his 
work was so successful that an ec- 
clesiastical organization was effected in 
1803, and he was ordained as an elder. 
He brought his Methodist ideas and 
ideals to this organization the circuit 
system was adopted and an itinerant min- 
istry instituted. At the first annual con- 
ference held in 1807 Albright was elected 
bishop, and articles of faith and a book 
of discipline were adopted. The name 
Evangelical Association was approved by 
the first general conference in 1816. 

Gradually, as the church spread, the 
German language was displaced by Eng- 
lish. Missionary work under a society 


organized in 1839 was developed in the 
United States and Canada, Germany, 
Switzerland, Russia, Poland, Latvia, 
Africa, China, Japan, and Brazil. A di- 
vision rent the church in 1891, resulting 
in the organization of the United Evan- 
gelical Church. It was not healed until 
1922, when the 2 churches were re- 
united under the name of the Evangelical 

The body was Arminian in doctrine, 
closely resembling that of the Method- 
ists. The deity of Jesus and his perfect 
humanity and the divinity of the Holy 
Ghost were stressed. There was strong 
emphasis laid upon the personal experi- 
ence of salvation and Christian perfec- 
tion; entire sanctification was based upon 
this perfection. 

The polity of the church was con- 
nectional, democratic, and Methodistic. 
The quadrennial general conference 
elected the bishops of the church, who, 
however, were not ordained or con- 
secrated as such; they presided at the 
general conference, which was a dele- 
gated body. 

The Church of the United Brethren in 
Christ had a similar development. It be- 
gan in the work of Philip William Ot- 


terbein, a German Reformed pastor who 
reached Pennsylvania in 1752 at the in- 
vitation of Michael Schlatter, a minister 
of the Reformed Church of Holland. 
Otterbein, already an ardent evangelist, 
joined with Martin Boehm, a Mennonite 
preacher, in an evangelistic work among 
the German settlers of Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and Virginia. They held 2- 
day "great meetings" which produced 
thousands of converts but which seemed 
so irregular to Otterbein's fellow min- 
isters that he left their fellowship to 
organize an independent congregation 
in Baltimore in 1774. 

Neither Otterbein nor Boehm had any 
intention or desire to create a new de- 
nomination, but such a move became 
imperative. Other evangelistic preachers 
working with them held a conference in 
1800 which resulted in the establishment 
of the United Brethren in Christ; Boehm 
and Otterbein were elected bishops. It 
was not so much a schism as a fellow- 
ship of evangelists; they held their first 
general conference in 1817 and in the 
conference ordered a confession of faith 
and a book of discipline printed in both 
German and English. 

As had been the case in the Evan- 
gelical Church, doctrine followed Meth- 
odist and Arminian patterns, with stress 
upon the Trinity, the authority of the 
Scriptures, justification, regeneration, the 
Sabbath, and the future state. Modes in 
baptism and the Lord's Supper, accepted 
as sacraments, were left to local prefer- 
ence. There were the same Methodist 
quarterly, annual, and general confer- 
ences; but the ministry had only one 
order that of elder. The defection of 
the Church of the United Brethren in 
Christ (Old Constitution) in 1889 con- 
stituted the only serious break in the 
ranks of this church up to the time of 
its union with the Evangelical Church. 
The Evangelical United Brethren 
Church in 1959 had 763,380 members 
in 4,438 churches in the United States 
and Canada plus 39,584 members in 

European and Sierra Leone Conferences. 
The total membership is 802,964. They 
work and worship as one body and with 
no changes in basic doctrines or polities 
of either of the two merged churches. 
They believe in the sinful state of man 
and the saving grace of God which 
gives them a firm basic doctrine long 
common to both groups. The sacrament 
of baptism is obligatory for membership, 
and the Lord's Supper is conceived "in 
a Calvinistic sense to provide the 
spiritual, yet nevertheless real, presence 
of Christ for the believer." It is usually 
celebrated quarterly. Liturgically, the 
church belongs to the free tradition; 
orders of worship are optional, but the 
Book of Ritual suggests forms, aids to 
worship, and liturgical material. The 
new hymnal also provides a wide selec- 
tion of worship materials. 

The church is divided into 34 annual 
conferences in North America, under 
which are local conferences supervised 
by conference superintendents. There 
are 7 bishops, who serve as general over- 
seers in their respective areas and in the 
general church. The General Confer- 
ence meets every 4 years and is the final 
authority in all matters pertaining to 
the work of the church. Laymen have 
equal representation in the annual and 
general conferences, and there is parity 
among the clergy no ecclesiastical 
power is granted to anyone beyond the 
authority of ordination. All general 
church officers are elected quadrennially 
by the General Conference. 

The General Council of Administra- 
tion acts as a co-ordinating body, recom- 
mends benevolence budgets and ap- 
propriations, assembles and prints the 
reports and memorials of the General 
Conference. Various boards publica- 
tion, missions, pensions, education, and 
evangelism function under the General 

There are also commissions on church 
federation and union and Christian social 
action. The 2 denominational publishing 



plants are the Otterbein Press at Dayton, 
Ohio, and the Evangelical Press at Har- 
risburg, Pennsylvania; there are also pub- 
lishing establishments in Stuttgart, Ger- 
many, and Bern, Switzerland. Special 
home missions work is carried on in the 
Cumberland mountains of Kentucky; and 
Spanish-speaking missions are maintained 
in Florida and New Mexico. Foreign 
missionaries are stationed in Sierra Leone, 
West Africa, Nigeria, the Sudan, the 
Philippines, Brazil, Japan, Puerto Rico, 
Santo Domingo, and Ecuador. There are 
18 Bethesda Deaconess hospitals in Ger- 
many, France, and Switzerland, with 
1,000 deaconesses in residence. 
The church supports 7 colleges and 2 

theological seminaries, 3 children's 
homes, and 9 homes for the aged in the 
United States. There is also a seminary 
in Germany. The church maintains hos- 
pitals, clinics, schools, and agricultural 
work on the mission fields. The women 
of the church are organized in the 
Women's Society of World Service, 
composed of 3,220 societies and 110,000 
members, who contribute over $1,000,000 
a year to missionary work; the laymen 
are banded in a brotherhood, which sup- 
ports the denomination's program; and 
the Youth Fellowship is unusually active. 
Overseas there are 4 conferences in Eu- 
rope, and one each in Puerto Rico and 
West Africa. 


Many religious bodies in the United 
States are of such a nature as almost to 
defy classification. Some are called 
churches which are not churches at all 
in the accepted sense of the word. Some 
known as associations or bands or so- 
cieties should be called churches, yet 
for all practical purposes they are de- 
nominations. Nine of these have been 
grouped in this section as evangelical 
associations, inasmuch as they are, while 
separate and distinct from the churches, 
to be recognized by their common evan- 
gelistic nature and effort rather than 
by any ecclesiastical or doctrinal dis- 
tinction. They are small groups, various- 
ly organized and supported, engaged 
primarily in evangelistic or missionary 

Apostolic Christian Church 

The Apostolic Christian Church 
(Nazarean) began in this country with 
the arrival of a Swiss, S. H. Froehlich, 
about the year 1850. Froehlich went to 
work immediately among Swiss and 
German immigrants, founding a num- 


ber of small churches among those na- 
tionalities in the Midwest. Many of the 
early members were former Mennonites. 
Distinguished in doctrine chiefly by 
their insistence upon entire sanctifica- 
tion, the local churches are independent 
in polity but united in a loose organi- 
zation. Nearly half the membership is 
found in Illinois; small bodies are found 
in nearly all the northern states from 
New England to the West Coast. They 
report 43 churches and 2,259 members. 

Apostolic Christian Churches of 

The Apostolic Christian Church of 
America began with the labors of Bene- 
dict Weyeneth, a Swiss who came to 
America about 1847 and organized a 
number of Swiss-German churches. Its 
doctrine is based largely on the teach- 
ing of entire sanctifi cation, aiming "sole- 
ly at the saving of souls, a change of 
heart through regeneration, and a life 
of godliness guided and directed by the 
Holy Spirit." Members are noted for 
their pacifism; they will not bear arms 
but will engage in any service in sup- 


port of the government "which is com- 
patible with the teachings of Christ and 
the Apostles." 

There are 8,345 members and 64 con- 
gregations, each of which is directed by 
an unpaid minister. There is currently a 
widespread interest in a closer unity and 
a more definite organization. 

Church of Daniel's Band 

One of the smaller sects of American 
Protestantism, the Church of Daniel's 
Band had 200 members in 4 churches 
in 1951. Incorporated at Marine City, 
Michigan, in 1893, it stresses evangelism, 
Christian fellowship, abstinence from all 
worldly excess, and religious liberty. It 
is quite similar to The Methodist Church 
in form and organization, and is general- 
ly believed to have grown out of the 
Methodist class meeting. It strives to 
revive primitive Wesleyanism, and the 
preaching of the church is strongly per- 
fectionist. Sunday-school work is car- 
ried on in union schools with other 
churches. There is a small missionary 
work in Canada. 

Church of God (Apostolic) 

Organized in 1896 at Danville, Ken- 
tucky, by Elder Thomas J. Cox, this 
body was first known as the Christian 
Faith Band and was incorporated under 
its present name in 1919. Its members 
believe that admission to the church 
must be only after repentance for sin, 
confession, and baptism; they teach holi- 
ness and sanctification, practice foot 
washing, and observe the Lord's Supper 
with unfermented grape juice and un- 
leavened bread. 

The general assembly is the govern- 
ing body; under it serve officers known 
as the apostle or general overseer, the 
assistant overseer, district elders, pastors, 
evangelists, and local preachers. The 
church is divided into districts, each with 
an annual ministerial conference. There 
are 600 members in 22 churches. 

Church of God as Organized by Christ 

A Mennonite preacher, P. J. Kaufman, 
withdrew from the Mennonite body in 
1886 to protest against the ecclesiasticism 
of Protestantism and the lack of scrip- 
tural authority in Protestant organiza- 
tions, and to found the Church of God 
as Organized by Christ. Kaufman and his 
followers held that membership in the 
church is not dependent on human 
choice but that all true Christians "have 
equal rights with all in the services and 
are members of His church." A spirit 
birth constitutes church membership; 
there is no formal joining of the church 
as other denominations know it. Ordina- 
tion for church service is by Christ 
alone; but the ministry may, if it de- 
sires, be licensed and ordained for the 
purposes of public recognition. 

Positively, members of this church 
teach repentance and "restitution so far 
as restitution is possible," nonresistance 
and complete obedience to Christ; they 
practice the sacraments of baptism, the 
Lord's Supper, and foot washing. Nega- 
tively, they stand opposed to "denomina- 
tionalism, churchianity, or sectism," 
union meetings and interdenominational 
co-operation, tobacco, secret societies, 
going to courts of law, church schools 
and Sunday schools, revivals, emotional- 
ism, theaters, amusements, fine clothing, 
jewelry, human traditions and creeds, 
and a "hireling ministry." There were 
14 congregations and 2,192 members in 

Hepzibah Faith Missionary 

This is a loosely bound group of 
churches founded at Glenwood, Iowa, 
in 1892 for the purpose of preaching 
holiness and developing missionary and 
philanthropic work at home and abroad, 
and advocating the "establishing of inde- 
pendent, nonsectarian, full-salvation local 
churches and missions." It was reorgan- 
ized in 1935 and again in 1948. 

While there is a central executive 


Committee with headquarters at Tabor, 
Iowa, to supervise general activities, each 
church, called an assembly, maintains its 
own work, establishes its own polity, and 
keeps its own records. There is no formal 
statement of creed or belief; but the 
group as a whole is strongly conserva- 
tive and evangelical, emphasizing the 
emotional aspects of the influence and 
power of the Holy Ghost. Members, 
known as communicants, are required to 
give evidence of a new birth and of 
acceptance of the teachings of Scripture, 
and must be amenable to group disci- 
pline. Many of them retain their affilia- 
tions with other churches. Ministers re- 
ceive no salaries; they engage in other 
occupations and are in part supported 
by freewill offerings. Approximately 100 
ministers, evangelists, and deaconesses 
are at work. Foreign missionary work, 
begun in 1894, is maintained in Japan, 
China, Africa, and India. There were 
700 members and 20 assemblies in 1946. 

Metropolitan Church Association 

Springing from a revival in the Metro- 
politan Methodist Church of Chicago 
in 1894, this association was originated 
primarily to carry on a local evangelistic 
work in the poorer and more densely 
populated sections of the city. It has since 
grown into a widespread work in this 
country and abroad. 

Foreign missionaries are now stationed 
in the central provinces of India, South 
India, the Union of South Africa, and 
Swaziland. Home missions efforts are 
found in Mexico and the Virgin Islands. 
A Bible school for the training of both 
home and foreign missionaries is located 
at Dundee, Illinois. 

The founders of the association sought 
a return to the teaching of primitive 
Wesleyan holiness, and that emphasis is 
still strong. There is no creed "except 
such as may be found in the Scriptures 
themselves." Inasmuch as this is an off- 
shoot of Methodism, its government 
closely resembles the Methodist pattern. 


The association was chartered under the 
laws of Wisconsin in 1918 and has head- 
quarters at Dundee, Illinois. There are 
443 members in 15 churches. 

Missionary Church Association 

Evangelical and conservative, giving 
strong emphasis to foreign missions, this 
association was founded at Berne, 
Indiana, in 1898. Stressing the Person of 
Jesus Christ as the center of all Chris- 
tian experience and life, its members be- 
lieve that they have in the Acts and in 
the New Testament epistles the ideal 
patterns of Christian faith, evangelism; 
and church organization. 

Prominent in their beliefs are the doc- 
trines of the plenary inspiration of the 
Bible, the virgin birth and the deity of 
Jesus, the Atonement, the bodily resur- 
rection of Christ, divine healing, pre- 
millenarianism, the eternal life of the just, 
and the everlasting punishment of the 
wicked. Baptism by immersion and open 
communion are practiced. 

Local churches are quite independent 
in managing their own affairs, but they 
recognize the authority of a general con- 
ference made up of ministers, mission- 
aries, and appointed lay delegates, which 
is held biennially. Administrative author- 
ity is vested in 4 department boards: 
home, foreign, publications, and Bible 
college. A general board of 15 supervises 
the work of the whole church. The 
association operates the Fort Wayne 
Bible College which offers degree courses 
in preparation for the ministry and the 
mission field. The majority of its mis- 
sionaries abroad serve in the Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Hawaii, 
Jamaica, and Sierra Leone, under its own 
board; the remainder serve under various 
boards, chiefly that of the Christian and 
Missionary Alliance. There are 7,577 
members and 118 churches. 

Pillar of Fire 

The Pillar of Fire originated from the 
evangelistic efforts of its founder, Mrs. 


Alma White. The wife of a Methodist 
minister in Colorado, Mrs. White often 
preached from her husband's pulpit. Her 
fervent exhortations on regeneration and 
holiness and especially her habit of or- 
ganizing missions and camp meetings on 
her own authority brought her into 
sharp conflict with the bishops and other 
leaders of Methodism, and she withdrew 
to become an evangelistic free lance. She 
established the Pentecostal Union in 1901 
and changed the name to Pillar of Fire 
in 1917. 

Mrs. White's first headquarters were 
located at Denver; they were later moved 
to Zarephath, near Bound Brook, New 
Jersey. In both Denver and Zarephath 
the body has a college, preparatory 
school, Bible seminary, radio station, and 
publishing plant. Other schools are lo- 
cated in Cincinnati, Los Angeles, Jack- 
sonville, and London. 

Modernism in theology is condemned 
by Pillar of Fire; its teaching is based 
upon primitive Wesleyanism, with doc- 

trines on the inspiration and inerrancy 
of the Scriptures, repentance, justifica- 
tion, second blessing holiness, premillen- 
nialism, and future judgment. Sacraments 
include baptism and the Lord's Supper; 
marriage is a "divine institution." 

Mrs. White was the first bishop of 
Pillar of Fire; on her death authority 
passed to her 2 sons. The membership 
is divided into 4 classes: probationary, 
associate, regular, and full, with only 
regular and full members being allowed 
to vote on administrative matters. There 
are deacons and deaconesses, and both 
men and women are ordained as min- 
isters; there are also consecrated dea- 
conesses, licensed preachers, and mission- 
aries, and as in Methodism, presiding 
elders (district superintendents) and 
bishops. Considerable literature is printed 
and distributed in the United States, and 
there are regular broadcasts from 
WAWZ, Zarephath, and KPOF, Denver. 
There were approximately 5,000 mem- 
bers and 61 branches as of 1948. 


Federated churches in the United 
States are largely a rural or village phe- 
nomenon, strongest in New England and 
the West. They are churches, 2 or more 
in number and representing different de- 
nominations, which unite for mutual con- 
duct of their work while continuing their 
connections with the denominations in- 
volved. The first federated church of 
which we have any record was formed 
in Massachusetts in 1887; another was 
founded in Vermont in 1899. By 1936 
there were 508 federated churches in 42 
states, with 88,411 members. There may 
be double that number now; further sta- 
tistics are unavailable because of the lack 
of any national organization or office. 
Dr. Ralph Williamson, conducting a 
survey for Cornell University, listed over 
800 federated churches in 1952. 
Economic pressure, conviction that 


the community is overchurched, flow of 
population, the inspiring example of the 
consolidated school, and the increased 
cost of church maintenance have been 
influential in forcing such federations. 
Ralph A. Felton in Local Church Co- 
operation in Rural Communities (Home 
Missions Council, 1944) describes the 
usual circumstances under which the 
average federated church is created: 

Two churches in the same locality be- 
gin to have financial difficulties. Their 
memberships are too small to carry on 
thriving individual churches. They feel that 
if they could unite into one local congrega- 
tion they could provide a more efficient re- 
ligious program. Neither church wants to 
give up its affiliation with its denomination. 
For years they have been saying. <c We 
should unite, but who's going to give up?" 
Finally they unite locally, hire one minister 


instead of two, but continue their separate 
"overhead" or denominational affiliations. 
The two or more separate churches thus 
become a federated church. 

Usually there are joint religious serv- 
ices and a common Sunday school, and 
policy is determined by a joint official 
board. In some cases one minister is 
chosen to serve continuously; in others 
the minister is chosen alternately from 
the denominations represented. In ap- 
proximately half the federated churches 
in this country all the Protestant 
churches in the community have entered 
the federation. Presbyterians seem to 
have the highest percentage of co-opera- 
tion, with Congregationalists and Chris- 
tians, Methodists, and Baptists following 

in that order. There is still a real conflict 
of loyalties in the federated churches; its 
conclusion depends upon a slow educa- 
tional process. There is a noticeable 
trend toward eventual denominationali- 
zation. Majority groups have a way of 
absorbing minorities; and usually when 
denominationalization comes, people go 
to the denomination that continues to 
provide a minister. It is also clear that 
if a federated church lasts 5 years, it is 
seldom abandoned. 

Doctrine, polity, and membership re- 
quirements correspond in some cases to 
the standards of the denominations in- 
cluded; in other instances they are com- 
pletely independent. No blanket state- 
ment is possible in these matters. 


A Negro Pentecostal sect, this church 
was for the first 10 years of its existence 
a part of the white Fire Baptized Holi- 
ness Association of America; the Negro 
membership separated in 1908. In 1922 
it became the Fire Baptized Holiness 
Church of God. 

This church teaches the standard Pen- 
tecostal and holiness doctrines of 
repentance, regeneration, justification, 
sanctification, Pentecostal baptism, speak- 
ing with other tongues, divine healing, 
and the premillennial Second Coming. 
It stands opposed to the "so-called Chris- 
tian Scientists, Spiritualists, Unitarians, 

Universalists and Mormons." Adventism, 
immorality, antinomianism, the annihi- 
lation of the wicked, the glorification of 
the body, and "many other modern 
teachings of the day" are denounced as 
false, wicked, and unscriptural. Govern- 
ment is by a bishop, 2 overseers, a 
general secretary, treasurer, and a board 
of trustees. Ruling elders, ordained 
ministers, and pastors are in charge of 
local churches; and a general conven- 
tion is held yearly. In 1940 6,000 mem- 
bers were reported in 300 churches. 
Headquarters are in Atlanta, Georgia. 



Preaching on the doctrine of holiness 
inspired the organization of this church 
about the year 1890; its first members 
were dissenters within the Methodist 
churches of southeastern Kansas, They 

called themselves at first the Southeast 
Kansas Fire Baptized Holiness Associa- 
tion; the present name was adopted in 
Doctrine is primitive Wesleyan, em- 



phasizing sanctification and complete 
holiness. The church government and 
organization follow the Methodist epis- 

copal pattern, and there is strong em- 
phasis upon evangelism. There are 968 
members in 53 churches. 


Led by E. D. Brown, a local Methodist 
missionary, a small group of Methodist 
and Baptist Negro ministers formed this 
church in 1905 at Redemption, Arkansas. 
They objected to the taxing of any 
church membership to provide support 
for any ecclesiastical organization, feel- 
ing that the care and relief of the needy 
and the poor were the first responsibility 
of the church. Such relief activities 
characterize their local churches today. 

Doctrine is completely Methodist, and 
so is government except for minor titles 

and details. Chiefs or superintendents 
perform the functions of bishops; a 
chief pastor is chosen as top administra- 
tive officer, malting all assignments to 
pastorates and appointing all church of- 
ficers. Pastors and deacons head local 
churches and are responsible for the aid 
of the poor in their congregations. Lay- 
men share in the conduct of the churches 
and in the annual General Assembly. 
The latest membership report (1957) 
listed 18,989 members in 728 churches. 


With a membership in the United 
States and Canada of only 120,492 and 
with 193,481 around the world, the 
Religious Society of Friends, better 
known as Quakers, has had a deep and 
lasting influence upon Western society. 
Contributions in both religious and 
humanitarian spheres have won the 
Quakers universal respect and admira- 
tion, and their amazing history and 
loyalty to their quiet faith offer a chal- 
lenge and inspiration seldom paralleled 
among the churches. 

Their vicissitudes and victories began 
with George Fox (1624-91), a British 
"seeker" after spiritual truth and peace. 
Failing to find such in the churches of 
his time, Fox found them in a new, 
intimate, personal relationship with 
Christ. He said: "When all my hopes in 
[churches and churchmen] were gone 
. . . then I heard a voice which said, 
'There is one, even Christ Jesus, that 


can speak to thy condition.'" This is 
the Inner Voice or Inner Light of 
Quakerism, based upon the description 
of John 1:9 "the true Light, which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world" & voice available to all men, 
having nothing to do with outward 
forms or ceremonies, rituals or creeds. 
Every man to the Quaker is a walking 
church; every heart is God's altar and 

Quakerism was revolutionary, and it 
was treated as revolution by the state 
Church of England. To tell this united 
state and church that they were both 
wrong, that their theology and dogma 
meant nothing, that men need not attend 
the "steeple houses" to find God, and 
that it was equally wrong to pay taxes 
in support of state church clergymen 
this was rebellion. 

Fox and his early followers went even 
further. They not only refused to go to 


church but insisted upon freedom of 
speech, assembly, and worship; they 
would not take oaths in court; they re- 
fused to go to war; they doffed their 
hats to no man, king or commoner; they 
made no distinction among people in 
sexes or social classes; they condemned 
slavery and England's treatment of the 
prisoner and the insane. The very names 
they took Children of Truth, Children 
of Light, Friends of Truth, and finally 
the Religious Society of Friends roused 
ridicule and fierce opposition. Fox, haled 
into court, advised one judge to "tremble 
at the Word of the Lord," and heard 
the judge call him "Quaker." It was 
derision, but it was not enough to stop 
them. Persecution unsheathed its sword. 
The Quakers were whipped, jailed, 
tortured, mutilated, murdered. Fox 
spent 6 years in jail; others spent decades, 
dying there. From 1650 to 1689 more 
than 3,000 suffered for conscience' sake, 
and 300 to 400 died in prison. Thanks to 
that persecution they prospered, found- 
ing the society in 1666. When Fox died, 
there were 50,000 Quakers. 

Some were already in America. Ann 
Austin and Mary Fisher arrived in 
Massachusetts from Barbados in 1656, 
were promptly accused of being witches 
and deported. Two days later 8 more 
came from England. Laws were passed 
hastily to keep them out; the whipping 
post worked overtime and failed. Four 
were hanged in Boston. Quakers kept 
coming into New England, New York, 
New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, and 
Pennsylvania. Rhode Island and Penn- 
sylvania welcomed them from the start. 
The long horror in the communities that 
did not welcome them ended with the 
passage of the Toleration Act of 1689. 

With Fox's death and the Act a new 
phase began; persecution waned and 
died and so did a great deal of Quaker 
zeal. They settled down, looked within 
rather than without, and began enforcing 
discipline on their membership so strictly 
that they became in fact a "peculiar 
people." Members were disowned or dis- 


missed for even minor infractions of the 
discipline; thousands were cut off for 
"marrying out of Meeting." Pleasure, 
music, and art were taboo; sobriety, 
punctuality, and honesty were demanded 
in all directions; dress was painfully 
plain, and speech was biblical. They 
were different and dour; they gained few 
new converts and lost many old mem- 

Yet there were lights in this period of 
quiet. The meeting organization and 
community life became well organized. 
Closely knit family life was emphasized. 
It was a time of cultural creativeness and 
mystical inwardness. The period of with- 
drawal was one in which Quaker 
philanthropy became widely respected 
and even admired; their ideas on prison 
reform began to take effect. Quaker 
schools increased; as early as 1691 there 
were 15 Quaker boarding schools in 

In 1682 William Penn came to Phila- 
delphia. He sat under an elm at Shacka- 
maxon and made a treaty with the In- 
dians the "only treaty never sworn to 
and never broken." Treated like human 
beings, the Indians reacted in kind. If all 
our cities had been Philadelphias and all 
our states Pennsylvanias, our national 
history would have been vastly different. 

But even here the holy experiment had 
to end. Quakers controlled the Pennsyl- 
vania legislature until 1756, when they 
refused to vote a tax to pay for a war 
against the Shawnees and the Delawares 
and consequently stepped down and out 
of power. 

Some few "fighting Quakers" went to 
battle in the American Revolution, but 
they were few; most of them remained 
pacifists. They worked quietly for peace, 
popular education, temperance, democ- 
racy, and against slavery. In 1688 the 
Friends of Germantown, Pennsylvania, 
said that Negro slavery violated the 
Golden Rule and encouraged adultery; 
they protested against the "traffic in the 
bodies of men" and called it unlawful. 
Their first attitude of toleration changed 


slowly to one of outright opposition; 
it took nearly a century for the Quakers 
to rid their society of slavery, but they 
did it years in advance of any other re- 
ligious body in America. Sellers or pur- 
chasers of slaves were forbidden mem- 
bership in the society by the close of the 
eighteenth century. Persistently all across 
the years the Quakers dropped their 
seeds of antislavery agitation into the 
body politic. First John Woolman and 
then the poet Whittier wielded tre- 
mendous influence in the fight; and once 
the Civil War was over, they threw 
their strength into such organizations as 
the Freedman's Aid Society. Ever since, 
they have been active in education and 
legislative protection for the free Negro. 

Divisions arose within their ranks dur- 
ing these years: the Hicksites separated 
in 1827, the Wilburites in 1845, and the 
Primitives (a small group now extinct) 
in 1861. Other Wilburite separations 
came many years later, among them 
Iowa in 1887 and North Carolina in 

The twentieth century thus far has 
been a century of Quaker unity and out- 
reach. A Five Years Meeting was or- 
ganized in 1902, merging a large portion 
of the pastoral yearly meetings. The 2 
Philadelphia meetings, separated since 
1827, were united in 1955. In the same 
year the two New York Yearly Meetings 
were merged, and the three Canada 
Yearly Meetings came together to form 
one body. Nine Quaker colleges have 
been built and strengthened; all but 2 
of them are coeducational. On all levels 
Quaker schools have drawn students 
from other communions; their ideal of 
education for character is becoming in- 
creasingly popular. 

In 1917, before the guns of World War 
I had stopped firing, Friends from all 
branches of the society were at work in 
the American Friends Service Commit- 
tee in relief and reconstruction efforts 
abroad. The A.F.S.C. remains today one 
of the most eff ective of such agencies in 

the world. Its volunteers erected de- 
mountable houses, staffed hospitals, 
plowed fields, reared domestic animals, 
and drove ambulances. Famine relief and 
child-feeding programs were instituted 
in Serbia, Poland, Austria, Russia, and 
Germany; at one time the Friends were 
feeding more than 1,000,000 German 
children every day; Greek refugees, 
earthquake victims in Japan, needy 
miners' families in Pennsylvania, West 
Virginia, and Kentucky were helped. 
Thousands would have perished but for 
the A.F.S.C. 

Quakers drove ambulances and served 
in the medical corps of both world wars, 
and some were in combat; probably 
more young Quakers volunteered or ac- 
cepted military service in these conflicts 
than resisted on grounds of religious 
principle. They also worked to relieve 
our displaced Japanese-Americans, and 
they co-operated with the Brethren and 
Mennonites in locating our conscientious 
objectors in work of real importance on 
farms, in reformatories, hospitals, and 
insane asylums. They were in Spain soon 
after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil 
War and later fed the child victims in 
Spain, southern France, Italy, Austria, 
Holland, North Africa, and Finland. In 
one year, 1945, they sent 282 tons of 
clothes, shoes, bedding, and soap to Eu- 
rope and still more to China and India. 
Counting gifts, both of cash and ma- 
terials, the income of the A.F.S.C. is 
apt to exceed $4,000,000 annually. At 
home and abroad summer carnps of 
young volunteers have inspired an in- 
calculable good will among nations and 
minority groups within nations. 

Nor have they been satisfied with 
work merely in relief. Peace conferences 
have been a prominent part of their 
work, conferences ranging from local to 
international and covering all age groups. 
Lake Mohonk in New York was founded 
by a Friend. Scores of youth confer- 
ences and camps at home and in foreign 
fields testify to their devotion to the 



way of Christ; it is little wonder that 
they are known as a "peace church." 

Worship and business in the society 
are conducted in monthly, quarterly, and 
yearly meetings. The monthly meeting 
is the basic unit, made up of one or 
more meetings in a neighborhood. It 
convenes each week for worship and 
once a month for business. It keeps rec- 
ords of membership, births, deaths, and 
marriages; appoints committees; con- 
siders queries on spiritual welfare; and 
transacts all business of the group. 
Monthly meetings in a district join 4 
times a year in the quarterly meeting 
to stimulate spiritual life and to pass on 
whatever business they feel should be 
brought to the attention of the yearly 
meeting. The yearly meeting corresponds 
to a diocese in an episcopal system; there 
are 25 of them in the United States and 
Canada. They are in touch with Friends 
all over the world and have standing 
committees on such subjects as publica- 
tions, education, the social order, mis- 
sions, peace, charities, and national leg- 
islation; they allocate trust-fund incomes 
and generally supervise the work of the 

Group decisions await the "sense of 
the meeting." Lacking any unity of 
opinion, the meeting may have a "quiet 
time" for a few minutes until unity is 
found, or it may postpone consideration 
of the matter or refer it to a committee 
for study. Minorities are not outvoted 
but convinced. Every man, woman, and 
child is free to speak in any meeting; 
delegates are appointed at quarterly and 
yearly meetings to ensure adequate repre- 
sentation, but they enjoy no unusual 
position or prerogatives. Women have 
as much power as men and hold a posi- 
tion of absolute equality in Quaker 

There are, contrary to popular mis- 
understanding, church officers elders 
and ministers among the Quakers; they 
are chosen for recognized ability in 
spiritual leadership, and they, too, stand 


on equal footing with the rest of the 
membership. All members are ministers 
to the Quaker. A few full-time workers 
are paid a modest salary, and "recorded" 
ministers serving as pastors in those 
meetings having programed worship also 
receive salaries. 

Quaker worship is of two kinds: pro- 
gramed and unprogramed. The two, 
however, are not always distinct. The 
former more nearly resembles a simple 
Protestant service, but there are no rites 
or outward sacraments. While believing 
in spiritual communion, partaking of the 
elements is thought unnecessary. In the 
unprogramed meetings there is no choir, 
collection, singing, or pulpit; the service 
is devoted to quiet mediation, prayer, 
and communion. Any vocal contribu- 
tions are spontaneous. There is no uni- 
form practice; some of the so-called 
"churches" greatly prefer to be called 

In business sessions there is often frank 
inquiry into the conduct of business, 
treatment of others, use of narcotics or 
intoxicants, reading habits, and recrea- 
tion. No true Quaker gambles, plays 
the stock market, bets, owns race horses, 
or engages in raffles, lotteries, or the 
liquor business. All controversy is 
avoided. Some follow conservative re- 
ligious or theological patterns and others 
are liberal; all are guided by the Inner 

The Inner Light is highly important 
in Quaker belief. Grace, power from 
God to help man resist evil, is to Quak- 
ers universal among all men. They seek 
not holiness but perfection a higher, 
more spiritual standard of life for both 
society and the individual and they 
believe that the truth is unfolding and 
continuing. They place high evaluation 
on the Bible but try to rely on indi- 
vidual fresh guidance from the Spirit of 
God which produced the Bible, rather 
than to follow only what has been re- 
vealed to others. Some modern groups 
accept the Bible as the final authority in 
all religious matters. 


Rufus Jones says: 

They believe supremely in the nearness of 
God to the human soul, in direct inter- 
course and immediate communion, in 
mystical experience in a firsthand discovery 
of God. ... It means and involves a sensi- 
tiveness to the wider spiritual Life above us, 
around us, and within us, a dedication to 
duty, a passion for truth, and an apprecia- 
tion of goodness, an eagerness to let love 
and the grace of God come freely through 
one's own life, a reverence for the will of 
God wherever it is revealed in past or 
present, and a high faith that Christ is a 
living presence and a life-giving energy 
always within reach of the receptive soul. 

Quakers are pacifist-minded, and many 
oppose all forms of war; many still re- 
fuse to take oaths. (The Quaker passion 
for peace persists, though the pacifist 
sentiment seems to be declining; there 
were 9,000 Quakers in uniform in World 
War II, many of them assigned, however, 
to alternative or noncombatant service.) 

Marriage is not necessarily a cere- 
mony to be performed by a minister; in 
cases where the traditional Quaker mar- 
riage is observed, the bride and groom 
simply stand before a meeting and make 
mutual vows of love and faithfulness 
and are thereby married. In certain sec- 
tions of the country the pastor of the 
meeting officiates. 

The Friends have never been great 
proselytizers; they depend almost en- 
tirely upon birthright membership and 
membership by "convincement." In 
many of their bodies, though not in all 
of them, every child born of Quaker 
parents is declared a member of the 
society. This has resulted in a large num- 
ber of nominal or paper members who 
contribute little; efforts are being made 
to correct this custom by establishing a 
junior or associate membership for chil- 
dren. This reliance upon birthright mem- 
bership, plus the "purges" of member- 
ship which expelled hundreds for of- 
fenses against their discipline, has 
seriously depleted their numbers. In the 
United States and Canada they now 

have 120,492 members; abroad, scattered 
from Great Britain to the Far East, 
there are 72,989 Quakers. There are 25 
yearly meetings in America, including 
one in Canada, one in Cuba, one in 
Jamaica, and a small group in Mexico. 
There are also 25 yearly meetings over- 

If the Friends were ever "exclusive" 
they are not now; a world outreach has 
been evident and growing in recent 
years. The Five Years Meeting and the 
Friends' General Conference are mem- 
bers of the World Council of Churches. 
The Five Years Meeting and Philadelphia 
Yearly Meeting belong to the National 
Council of Churches. The General Con- 
ference has membership in this body un- 
der advisement. A Friends World Com- 
mittee for Consultation, organized at 
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, following the 
Second World Conference of Friends 
in 1937, functions as an agent or clear- 
inghouse for the interchange of Quaker 
aspirations and experiences by way of 
regional, national, and international in- 
tervisitation, person-to-person consulta- 
tions, conferences, correspondence, and 
a variety of publications. The commit- 
tee has headquarters in Birmingham, 
England, and offices in Oslo, Norway, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Wil- 
mington, Ohio. The American section 
has helped some 50 small Friends groups 
in the United States to monthly meeting 
status. The F.W.C.C. is a nongovern- 
mental agency under the Economic and 
Social Council of the United Nations 
and through co-operation with the 
A.F.S.C. helps to operate a program at 
the U.N. Headquarters to forward world 
peace and human brotherhood. Some- 
thing of a world brotherhood, or "Fran- 
ciscan Third Order," has been set up in 
the organization of the Wider Quaker 
Fellowship, in which non-Quakers in 
sympathy with the Quaker spirit and 
program may participate in the work 
of the Friends without leaving their own 
churches or coming into full Quaker 



membership. This is not so much an 
organization as it is a "fellowship of 
kindred minds a way of life, a contagion 
of spirit"; it has 4,200 members, 360 
of whom live abroad. 

Religious Society of Friends 
(General Conference) 

This is a national organization of 7 
yearly meetings (Baltimore, Canada, 
New England, Illinois, Indiana, New 
York, and Philadelphia). It was estab- 
lished in 1868 as a Sunday-school con- 
ference and matured in 1900 as a gen- 
eral conference for fellowship across 
yearly meeting boundaries and as an 
instrument for implementing the social 
testimonies of the society. One of its 
main features is a biennial conference; 
in 1958 there was a registration of 2,800 
at this conference, about one third of 
whom were children and young people. 
There are currently over 29,000 mem- 
bers in the General Conference, a frac- 
tion of whom also belong to the Five 
Years Meeting described below; this is 
explained by the fact that Canada, New 
York, and New England carry dual 
membership in the General Conference 
and the Five Years Meeting. 

Known in the early days as Hicksites, 
these people had Elias Hicks as their 
leader; Hicks was a rural Long Island 
Quaker whose liberal and rational the- 
ological views brought him into con- 
flict with those of more orthodox and 
evangelical persuasion. The division came 
in 1827; basically, while it had personal 
emphases, the split was due to the wide- 
spread nineteenth-century conflict be- 
tween liberalism and rationalism on the 
one hand and an orthodoxy based on 
Methodist ideas of evangelism and sal- 
vation on the other. Two thirds of the 
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting withdrew 
with the Hicksites (a nickname never 
officially adopted by any Quaker group) 
and similar divisions followed in New 
York, Ohio, Indiana, and Baltimore 

yearly meetings. A second series of 
separations resulted from the Wesleyan- 
Methodist influence, led by Joseph John 
Gurney and John Wilbur (see Religious 
Society of Friends [Conservative], be- 

Important steps are being taken to- 
ward reunion among these groups, and 
there are indications that they may be 
successful. Yet, as the old differences 
heal in one direction, another division 
seems imminent: an Association of Evan- 
gelical Friends now claims about 20,000 
members, or about one sixth of Amer- 
ican Quaker membership, advocating 
fundamentalism and an emphasis on 
primitive Christianity which is not 
shared by all Quakers. How serious this 
movement is remains to be seen, but the 
Quaker witness and action remains as 
vital as ever. There are currently in the 
General Conference, 28,617 members in 
229 churches. 

Society of Friends 
(Five Years Meeting) 

With 66,914 members in 1959, this is 
the largest single Quaker body in the 
United States. (The largest yearly meet- 
ings in the world are East Africa, with 
over 29,022 members, and London, with 
21,643.) Of the 25 yearly meetings 13 
were united in the Five Years Meeting 
in 1902; two of them Kansas and 
Oregon later withdrew, and Ohio and 
Philadelphia never joined. Constituent 
member meetings are Baltimore, Cali- 
fornia, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, New 
England, New York, North Carolina, 
Western (Indiana), Wilmington, Ohio, 
and Canada and 3 yearly meetings abroad 
East Africa, Cuba, and Jamaica with 
a somewhat different status. They work 
together in many departments such as 
missionary service and in the production 
of Sunday-school materials and while 
each yearly meeting in the body is 
autonomous, they come together for 
spiritual stimulation and conference 
every 5 years. 



Religious Society of Friends 
( Conservative) 

Known also as Wilburites, this group 
represents a second serious division. It 
resulted from the preaching of Joseph 
John Gurney, a British evangelical 
Quaker who came to America preaching 
doctrine which conservative John Wil- 
bur of Rhode Island considered a menace 
to Quakerism, advocating the final au- 
thority of the Bible and acceptance of 
the doctrine of the Atonement, justifica- 
tion, and sanctification. Wilbur felt that 
this meant the substitution of a creed for 

the inner experience of the heart; with 
his followers he broke ranks to establish 
new yearly meetings in Kansas, Iowa, 
Canada, New England, Ohio, and North 
Carolina between 1845 and 1904. 

Their doctrinal pattern was that "set 
forth by the Society in the beginning"; 
it was a movement back to the earliest 
and most conservative Quakerism. In 
New England in 1945 and in Canada 
in 1955, the Wilburite controversy was 
resolved at last in the reunion of all 
Friends in those areas, but elsewhere the 
division persists. There are 1,894 Wilbur- 
ites in the United States. 


Benjamin Purnell, who founded the 
House of David at Benton Harbor, 
Michigan, in 1903, claimed to be the 
seventh messenger prophesied by the 
book of Revelation; the other six, of 
whom Johanna Southcott (1792) was 
the first, had all been British. Purnell 
set up his Benton Harbor colony as a 
"commonwealth, according to apostolic 
plan" and was accepted there as the 
supreme ruler over all the community's 
spiritual and temporal matters. All who 
joined the colony put their earthly funds 
and possessions into the commonwealth 
treasury and contributed their work and 
services thenceforth to the cause. They 
lived in anticipation of the ultimate es- 
tablishing of the kingdom of God on 
this earth; Purnell therefore called them 
"Israelites" and his movement an in- 
gathering, because they were the direct 
lineal descendants of the 12 lost tribes 
of Israel, to be restored at the last days 
to their rightful places as judges and 
rulers in the kingdom of God. 

Charges of dishonesty and immorality 
were brought against "King Benjamin" 
Purnell, and he\ died at ^the height of 
the scandal just before the supreme court 
of Michigan brought in a verdict in his 
favor; the movement, however, survived 

and continues on the original location. 
There are about 350 members at the im- 
mediate headquarters and other mem- 
bers in Australia, New Zealand, England, 
Ireland, Scotland, and in all states in 
the union. The colony is financed by the 
sale of produce from the farms, dairies, 
vineyards, greenhouses, cold-storage and 
fruit-preserving factories, and other in- 
dustries and shops of the members. They 
are strict vegetarians, and they never 
shave their heads or faces. Their travel- 
ing baseball teams and band have brought 
them national publicity. 

Immortality of the natural body is the 
bulwark of their belief, with certain 
interpretation of the Scriptures as proof. 
They find that automobiles, telephones, 
radios, and motion pictures are 
prophesied in the Bible as signs of the 
end of the evil powers and of Satan's 
kingdom, yet an elaborate picnic ground 
and entertainment area is maintained at 
Colony Park, east of Benton Harbor, 
offering everything from rodeos and 
dancing to billiards and midget auto 
rides. The custom of letting the hair 
grow long is based upon "what Jesus 
did" and also is done because in the 
Bible man is the head of the woman 
and the heads of women must never be 



"uncovered" according to the Nazarene 

The present church is controlled and 
directed by a board of directors with 
full authority. The community shows no 

signs of dwindling and disappearing as 
other such communities have and seems 
to enjoy a peaceful and prosperous ex- 


A holiness and Pentecostal group, this 
is more an unorganized association or 
fellowship of Pentecostal ministers than 
a denomination. Sometimes called "Phila- 
delphia" churches, they have a Swedish 
background and work closely with the 
Swedish Pentecostal Movement, with 
which they conduct an extensive mis- 
sionary program. No statistics have been 
available on their membership or work 

in the United States, but it is claimed 
that their missionary church in Brazil 
is the largest Protestant movement in 
that country, having "close to half a 
million followers [and] really converted 

Doctrine is, of course, Pentecostalist, 
and government follows the loosely local 
autonomy of other Pentecostal churches 
and assemblies. 


The churches and members of the In- 
dependent Christian Churches make up 
not a denomination but a brotherhood; 
there is no formal organization other 
than that in the local congregations, and 
there are no denominational societies, of- 
ficials, or boards. This is a group of 
churches allied usually with the Disciples 
of Christ, with a few congregations of 
the Churches of Christ, who preach and 
teach a conservative, fundamentalist the- 
ology which they feel is being neglected, 
especially among the Disciples. Their 
doctrine in general agrees with that of 
the Disciples and the Churches of Christ, 
stressing the divinity of Christ, the 
agency of the Holy Spirit in conversion, 
the Bible as the inspired word of God, 
future rewards and punishments and 
God as a prayer-answering deity. They 
maintain that "all ordinances should be 
observed as they were in the days of 

the apostles" and observe the Lord's Sup- 
per in open Communion every Sunday. 

No official membership survey has 
ever been made, due to the un- 
usual nature of the brotherhood, but 
various approximations have been made. 
These approximations are questionable 
in accuracy. There are said to be be- 
tween 750,000 and 1,250,000 members 
in something over 3,000 independent con- 
gregations. (These congregations are still 
generally regarded as either Disciples 
of Christ or Churches of Christ.) T^te 
group supports at least 32 small Christian 
Bible colleges in different sections of 
the country; has over 450 missionaries 
at work operating dispensaries, hospitals, 
and Bible colleges; and circulates huge 
quantities of evangelical literature. Their 
publishing house The Standard Pub- 
lishing Foundation is located at Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio* 



It is difficult, if not impossible, to 
classify properly all those churches in 
the United States calling themselves in- 
dependent. Generally they may be iden- 
tified as churches not controlled by any 
denominational or ecclesiastical organi- 
zation, but even this does not hold in 
all cases. The following groupings are 

1. Churches called union, community, 
nondenominational, undenominational, or 
interdenominational. Community and 
nondenominational churches together 
constitute nearly one half of the number 
of so-called independent churches. 

2. Churches using a denominational 
name but working without denomina- 
tional supervision. 

3. Churches organized by individuals: 
holiness, evangelistic churches or move- 
ments, gospel churches or halls, "store- 
front'* churches, and so forth. 

4. United churches of all types; Mark 
Dawber estimated a possible total of 
2,500 such churches in 1940. 

5. Federated churches (already dis- 
cussed; see pp. 106-7). 

Many of these churches shift from one 
classification to another; one listed as 
United one year may be listed as Com- 

munity (Methodist) the next. Free as 
they are of denominational control, they 
are as widely different in doctrine and 
polity as the preferences of the individ- 
uals and groups involved are different. 

While there are as yet no accurate or 
official reports or statistics on it, the 
community church movement is defi- 
nitely growing; churches bearing this 
name, often adding the word "inde- 
pendent," are rapidly developing toward 
a United Church of the United States 
if that name is appropriate. A National 
Council of Community Churches with 
200 congregations was organized in 1946 
under the leadership of Dr. Roy Burk- 
hart of the Community Church of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio. A Biennial Council of 
Community Churches, made up of more 
than 100 Negro congregations, merged 
in August, 1950, at Lake Forest, Illinois, 
with the national council in a new body 
known as the International Council of 
Community Churches. The international 
council thus claims 300 out of a possible 
3,000 autonomous, nondenominational 
community churches in the United 
States, with a potential membership of 
more than 1,000,000. It is a movement 
of real proportions and importance. 


Organized in 1930 at Cicero, Illinois, 
by representatives of various independent 
churches anxious to safeguard funda- 
mentalist doctrine, this body has two 
types of membership one for organi- 
zations, the other for ministers, mis- 
sionaries, and evangelists. The organiza- 
tion membership accounts for 400 
churches directly affiliated, with 357 
other independent churches whose pas- 
tors are affiliated, 1 Bible camp, 3 Bible 
institutes, 1 Christian school, and 15 
missionary agencies. More than 1,200 

ministers, missionaries, and evangelists 
are members. 

The president of the body presides 
over an annual conference in which the 
members have voting power. An ex- 
ecutive committee of 12 serves for 3 
years, acting between meetings of the 
annual convention, the ruling body. The 
constituent churches are completely in- 
dependent but are required to subscribe 
to the statement of faith of the organiza- 
tion. Approximately 85,000 lay members 
are represented in this organization. 



Rising out of the evangelistic work 
of "Sister" Aimee Semple McPherson, 
this church is a tribute to the organiz- 
ing genius and striking methods of its 
founder. Born in Ontario in 1890, Mrs. 
McPherson was converted under the 
preaching of her first husband, Robert 
Semple, an evangelist. He died in China, 
and she returned to the United States 
in 1911 to tour the country in a series 
of gospel meetings which were spectacu- 
lar even in war years. She settled in 
Los Angeles in 1918, building the famous 
Angelus Temple which was opened Jan- 
uary 1, 1923, and founding the Echo 
Park Evangelistic Association, the 
L.I.F.E. Bible College, and International 
Church of the Foursquare Gospel, re- 
ligious corporations. The headquarters 
are still located at Angelus Temple in 
Los Angeles. 

With her great speaking ability and 
her faith in praying for the healing of the 
sick, Mrs. McPherson attracted thou- 
sands to her meetings. Her more ir- 
reverent critics felt that her meetings 
were too spectacular but others ap- 
preciated her type of presentation. There 
was great interest in the sick and the 
poor; "more than a million" are said 
to have been fed by the Los Angeles or- 

The teaching of the sect is set forth in 
a 21 -paragraph Declaration of Faith writ- 
ten by Mrs. McPherson. Strongly funda- 
mentalistic, it is Adventist, perfectionist, 
and Trinitarian, advocating that the Bible 
is as "true, immutable, steadfast, un- 
changeable, as its author, the Lord 
Jehovah." The Holy Spirit baptism with 
the initial evidence of speaking in other 
tongues follows conversion, and there 
is the power to heal in answer to be- 
lieving prayer. There are the usual doc- 
trines on the Atonement, the second 

coming of Christ "in clouds of glory," 
reward for the righteous at the judg- 
ment, and eternal punishment for the 
wicked. Baptism and the Lord's Supper 
are observed. 

Mrs. McPherson was president of the 
church during her lifetime and was the 
ruling power and voice of the organi- 
zation; the office was conferred upon her 
son at her death. A general assembly is 
held annually, in which the officers of 
the corporation, the board of directors, 
ministers, evangelists, and lay delegates 
are entitled to vote. The board of di- 
rectors, 5 in number, manages the busi- 
ness of the organization and appoints 
field supervisors in charge of the 9 dis- 
tricts into which the 723 branch churches 
in the United States and Canada are 
divided. There is a total net property 
and equipment valuation of $23,396,170. 
Each church is governed by a church 
council and contributes one offering a 
month to home and foreign missionary 
work. Eight hundred and six foreign 
missionary stations and meeting places 
are established in 28 different countries. 
There are 961 missionaries including 
children and nationalist pastors, 14 day 
schools, 24 Bible schools, and 3 orphan- 
ages on the foreign field. An ordination 
and missionary board examines, admits, 
and licenses all ministers, missionaries, 
evangelists, and other workers. 

There are 122,907 members, and all 
are required to subscribe to the Declara- 
tion of Faith. The young people are or- 
ganized into bands of Foursquare 
Crusaders. A church flag red, yellow, 
blue, and purple with a red cross on a 
Bible background bearing a superim- 
posed "4" is prominently displayed in 
the churches and at rallies and assemblies; 
a radio station, KFSG, broadcasts from 
Los Angeles. 



The people called Jehovah's Witnesses 
believe that they have in their move- 
ment the true realization of the "one 
faith" mentioned by the apostle Paul 
in Eph. 4:5. Their certainty of this and 
their zeal in proclaiming it have made 
them at least in point of public interest 
an outstanding religious phenomenon in 
modern America. 

They were not known as Jehovah's 
Witnesses until 1931. Up to this time 
they had been called Millennial Dawn- 
ists, International Bible Students, and 
earlier Russellites, after the man who 
brought about their first incorporation 
in 1884. Pastor Charles Taze Russell, 
their first president, is acknowledged not 
as founder (there is no "human" 
founder) but as general organizer; 
Judge Rutherford, Russell's successor, 
claimed that the Witnesses had been on 
earth as an organization for more than 
5,000 years and cited Isa. 43:10-12; Heb. 
11; and John 18:37 to prove it. 

Russell was deeply influenced by be- 
lief in Christ's second coming; he studied 
the Bible avidly and attracted huge 
crowds to hear him expound it. The first 
formal organization of his followers came 
in Pittsburgh in 1872; his books, of 
which 13,000,000 are said to have been 
circulated, laid the foundations of the 
movement. Russell was president; to as- 
sist him, a board of directors was elected 
by vote of all members subscribing ten 
dollars or more to the support of the 
work (a practice discontinued in 1944), 

Under Russell's direction headquarters 
were moved to Brooklyn, New York, 
in 1909 and another corporation formed 
under the laws of the state of New 
York. In 1939 the name was changed 
to the Watchtower Bible and Tract 
Society, Inc. When Pastor Russell died 
in 1916, Joseph F. Rutherford was made 
president. Known widely as Judge 
Rutherford, he had been a Missouri 
lawyer who occasionally sat as a circuit 
court judge. He wrote tirelessly; his 
books, pamphlets, and tracts supplanted 


those of Russell; and his neglect of some 
aspects of the teaching of Russell brought 

Government of the group became 
more theocratic in the days of Ruther- 
ford's presidency; the governing body 
of the Witnesses today is in the hands 
of older and more "spiritually quali- 
fied" men who base their judgments 
upon the authority of the Scriptures. 
This is considered not a governing hier- 
archy by the Witnesses but a true imi- 
tation of early apostolic Christian or- 
ganization. Under this governmental 
system, 3 corporations eventually came 
to control the society: the Watchtower 
Bible and Tract Society of New York, 
Inc.; the Watchtower Bible and Tract 
Society of Pennsylvania; and the Inter- 
national Bible Students Association of 
England. Judge Rutherford as president 
was a moving power in all of them. 

Under the direction of these leaders 
at headquarters local congregations of 
Witnesses (they are always called con- 
gregations and never churches) are ar- 
ranged into circuits with a traveling 
minister visiting the congregations, 
spending a week with each. Approxi- 
mately 20 congregations are included in 
each circuit. Circuits are grouped into 
districts, of which there are 16 in the 
United States. District and circuit or- 
ganizations are now found in 175 coun- 
tries and islands across the world. 

Meeting in kingdom halls and not 
in churches, they witness and "publish" 
their faith not only in testimony in their 
halls, but in a remarkably comprehen- 
sive missionary effort. All of them are 
ministers; they do not believe in any 
separation into clergy or laity for the 
simple reason that "Christ Jesus did not 
make such a separation." They never use 
titles such as "Reverend" or "Rabbi" or 
"Father"; this, they feel, is not in accord- 
ance with the words of Jesus in Matt. 
23:6-10. Every member is a minister, 
and all of them give generously of their 
time in proclaiming their faith and teach- 


ing in private homes. Called "Publish- 
ers of the Kingdom," most of them 
devote an average of 15 hours a month 
in kingdom preaching work, preaching 
only from the Bible. Pioneers are re- 
quired to give at least 100 hours per 
month; special pioneers and mission- 
aries devote a minimum of 140 hours 
per month and are sent out to isolated 
areas and foreign lands where new con- 
gregations can be formed. All pioneers 
provide for their own support, but the 
society gives a small allowance to the 
special pioneers in view of their special 
needs. The headquarters staff, including 
the president of the society, are housed 
at the Bethel Home in Brooklyn, en- 
gage primarily in editorial and printing 
work, and receive an allowance of 14 
dollars a month in addition to room and 
board. The literature they write, print, 
and distribute is of almost astronomical 
proportions. The official journal, The 
Watchtower, has a circulation of 
3,700,000; more than 700,000,000 Bibles, 
books and booklets have been distributed 
since 1920; Bibles, books, booklets, and 
leaflets are available in more than 125 
languages. In 1959 more than 870,000 
Witnesses were active in this work 
throughout the world. 

In this literature (all of which is cir- 
culated without an author's by-line or 
signature) is contained the teaching of 
the society. It all rests firmly upon the 
idea of the theocracy, or rule of God. 
The world in the beginning, according 
to the Witnesses, was under the theo- 
cratic rule of the Almighty; all then 
was "happiness, peace, and blessedness." 
But Satan rebelled and became the ruler 
of the world, and from that moment on 
mankind has followed his evil leading. 
Then came Jesus, "the beginning of the 
creation by God," as the prophets had 
predicted, to end Satan's rule; Jesus* rule 
began in 1914. In 1918 Christ "came to 
the temple of Jehovah"; and in 1919 
when Rutherford reorganized the move- 
ment shattered by the war, Jesus, en- 
throned in the temple, began illuminat- 


ing the prophecies and sending out his 
followers to preach. 

God, in Witness thinking, will take 
vengeance upon wicked man in our 
times; at the same time he is now show- 
ing his great love by "gathering out" 
multitudes of people of good will whom 
he will give life in his new world which 
is to come after the imminent battle of 
Armageddon is fought. This is to be a 
universal battle; Christ will lead the 
army of the righteous, composed of the 
"host of heaven, the holy angels," and 
will completely annihilate the army of 
Satan. The righteous of the earth will 
watch this battle but will not participate. 
After the battle a great crowd of people 
will remain on the earth; these will be 
believers in God and will be his servants. 
Those who have proved their integrity 
under test in this old world will multiply 
and populate the new earth with right- 
eous people. A resurrection will also 
take place and will be an additional 
means of filling the cleansed earth with 
better inhabitants. After the holocaust, 
"righteous princes" are to rule the earth 
under Christ as "King of the Great 
Theocracy." The willfully wicked, being 
incorrigible, shall not be resurrected at 
all; once dead, they never awake. One 
special group the 144,000 Christians 
mentioned in Rev. 7 and ^ : t*dll make 
up the "bride of Christ" ^<r*-ule with 
him in heaven. 

Judge Rutherford said that 

"millions now living will never die" 
which meant that Armageddon was close 
and that the Kingdom was at hand. He 
died in 1942, leaving guidance of the 
movement in the hands of the present 
president, Nathan H. Knorr; and Arma- 
geddon had not yet been fought. But 
the certainty of its imminence persists. 

All this is based upon the Bible; Wit- 
nesses quote elaborately from the Scrip- 
tures, using the proof -text method in 
verifying their beliefs. All other teach- 
ings and interpretations are to them 
suspect and unreliable. They oppose and 
attack the teachings of the various 


churches as false and unscriptural, insist- 
ing as they do so that they are attack- 
ing or denouncing not churches or 
church members as such but only doc- 
trines and interpretations of scripture 
which they consider false. They have 
been especially active in opposing what 
they consider to be 3 allies of Satan: the 
false teachings of the churches, the 
tyranny of human governments, and the 
oppressions of business. This "triple al- 
liance" of ecclesiastical, political, and 
commercial powers has misled and all 
but destroyed humanity, the Witnesses 
claim, and must be destroyed at Arma- 
geddon before the new world can be 
born. They refuse, for instance, to salute 
the flag or to bear arms in war or to 
participate in the affairs of government 
not because of any pacifist convictions 
but because they consider these to be 
expressions of Satan's power over men. 
This attitude has brought them into 

conflict with law-enforcing agencies; and 
they have endured jailing, whippings, 
assault by mobs, even stonings and tar- 
and-f eatherings and the burning of their 
homes. This they have accepted in a 
very submissive spirit; their position is 
that they will obey the laws of men 
when those laws are not in conflict with 
the laws of God, and they base their be- 
havior on Acts 5:29. 

The ranks of active "publishers" across 
the world has grown to 871,737, of which 
approximately 230,000 are in the United 
States. There are 4,020 congregations in 
the United States and 19,982 throughout 
the world. Branch offices are maintained 
in 85 countries, and work is reported in 
175 lands. There are 261 established 
missions (including boats) and 3,395 spe- 
cially trained foreign missionaries. The 
Bible School of Gilead was established 
at South Lansing, New York, in 1943 to 
train their missionaries. 


Jews arrived early in the American 
colonies; some were here before 1650. A 
small group of Portuguese Jews found 
safety if not complete understanding in 
Peter Stuyvesant's New Amsterdam, 
where they established the first official 
congregation in North America, Shearth 
Israel (Remnant of Israel) in 1654. Three 
years later there was a small group of 
Jews at Newport, Rhode Island. Jews 
came to Georgia with Oglethorpe and 
in 1733 organized a synagogue at Savan- 
nah. By 1850 there were 77 Jewish con- 
gregations in 21 states and at the end of 
the century more than 600 congrega- 
tions of over 1,000,000 Jews. Today 
5,367,000 American Jews have a widely 
varying synagogue membership estimated 
at anywhere from a minimum of 
2,000,000 upward in 3,990 congregations. 

The historic sense of unity among the 
Jewish people soon demonstrated itself 
here as it had abroad. That unity had 


defied centuries of dispersion and perse- 
cution, and it now welded the followers 
of Judaism into one of the best-organ- 
ized religious groups in America. This 
is especially impressive when we con- 
sider the fact that Judaism has no dog- 
matic creed and no articles of faith. In 
The Truth About the Pharisees it has 
been described by R. T. Herford as a 
"detailed system of ethical practices by 
which its adherents consecrated their 
daily lives to the service of God. The 
cornerstone of Judaism was the deed, not 
the dogma." 

There are, however, 2 pillars upon 
which Judaism rests. One is the teaching 
of the Old Testament, particularly of 
the Pentateuch, the 5 books of Moses. 
This is known in Judaism as the Torah. 
It is the revelation of God, divine in 
origin and containing the earliest writ- 
ten laws and traditions of the Jewish 
people. The other is the Talmud, which 


is a rabbinical commentary and enlarge- 
ment of the Torah, an elaborate, dis- 
cursive compendium containing the 
written and the oral law which guides 
the Jew in every phase of his living. 

In Torah and Talmud are the Judaistic 
foundation principles of justice, purity, 
hope, thanksgiving, righteousness, love, 
freedom of the will, divine providence 
and human responsibility, repentance, 
prayer, and the resurrection of the dead. 
At the heart of it all lies the Hebrew 
concept of the oneness of God. Every 
day of his life the good Jew repeats the 
ancient biblical verse, "Hear, oh Israel, 
the Lord is our God, the Lord is one." 
All other gods are to be shunned; there 
is but one Creator of man and the world, 
holding the destiny of both in his al- 
mighty hands. 

Man, created by this one God, is in- 
herently good. There is no original sin, 
no instinctive evil or fundamental im- 
purity, in him; he is made in God's image 
and endowed with an intelligence which 
enables him to choose for himself be- 
tween good and evil. He has and needs 
no mediator such as the Christians have 
in Christ; he approaches God directly. 
Men Jews and Gentiles alike attain 
immortality as the reward for righteous 

Judaism looks forward to the perfec- 
tion of man and to the establishment of 
a perfect divine kingdom of truth and 
righteousness upon this earth, the mes- 
sianic era, in which all will be peace and 
bliss. To work toward this kingdom, the 
Jews have been established of God as a 
deathless, unique people, a "kingdom 
of priests and a holy nation," and as the 
"Servant of the Lord." 

Some of their laws provide for the 
great festivals of the Jewish year: Pesach, 
or Passover, in late March or early 
April, a memorial of the Jewish libera- 
tion from Egypt; Shabuoth, the Feast of 
Weeks, or Pentecost, in late May or 
early June, commemorating the giving 
of the Ten Commandments to Moses; 
Sukkoth, or the Feast of Tabernacles, 

or Booths, in October, marking the years 
of Jewish wandering in the wilderness; 
the Feast of Lights, or Hanukkah, in 
late November or December, celebrating 
the purification of the Temple by the 
Maccabees after its defilement by An- 
tiochus Epiphanes; the Feast of Lots, or 
Purim, in February or March, honoring 
the heroine Esther. Three principal 
minor fasts are observed: the Fast of 
Tebeth in January, commemorating the 
siege of Jerusalem; the Fast of Tammuz 
in July, observing the breach of Jeru- 
salem's walls; and the Fast of Ab also in 
July, memorializing the fall of the city 
and the destruction of the Temple. The 
most important days in the Jewish re- 
ligious calendar are the great fast of 
Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in 
September or early October, closing the 
Ten Days of Penitence, which begin 
with Rosh Hashana, or New Year's Day. 

Other laws are kept as reminders of 
God's covenant with Israel; these in- 
clude the laws of circumcision and Sab- 
bath observance. Still others are held 
as marks of divine distinction and are 
kept to preserve the ideal of Israel as a 
chosen, separate people. 

Within the local congregation there is 
full independence. There are no synods, 
assemblies, or hierarchies of leaders to 
cojitrol anything whatsoever in the 
synagogue. The Jews are loosely bound 
by the "rope of sand" of Jewish unity, 
with wide variation in custom and pro- 
cedure. They have been influenced 
deeply by the many peoples and cultures 
with which they have come in contact 
and have made adjustments accordingly. 
Because of differences in historical back- 
ground over the centuries some congre- 
gations use a German-version Hebrew 
prayer book; others use a Spanish ver- 
sion. Some use English at various points 
in their services, such as the sermon; but 
all use Hebrew in their prayers. Sermons 
may be heard in English or Yiddish, a 
German dialect influenced by Hebrew. 
Traditional Orthodox synagogues have 
no instrumental music in their services; 



the congregation worships with covered 
head; and the men and women sit 
separately. In Reform temples these tra- 
ditions are not observed. 

At the head of the congregation stands 
the rabbi, trained in college and seminary 
and fully ordained. He is preacher and 
pastor. He officiates at marriages and 
grants divorce decrees in accordance 
with Jewish law after civil divorce has 
been granted by the state. He conducts 
funerals and generally supervises the 
burial of Jews as Jewish law requires. 
Congregations usually own their own 
cemeteries or organize cemetery so- 
cieties; there are also many private 
cemetery or burial associations owned 
and controlled by Jewish benevolent 
groups. Orthodox rabbis are also charged 
with the supervision of slaughtering an- 
imals for food and with the distribution 
of kosher meat products in accordance 
with the Levitical dietary laws. Many 
congregations engage readers or cantors, 
but it is the rabbi who is the leader and 
authority on Jewish law and ritual. 

There is no examination for synagogue 
membership, all Jews being readily ac- 
cepted as congregants. However, mar- 
ried women and unmarried children are 
not usually recognized as voting mem- 
bers. Men are almost always the 
corporate members. There are some- 
times also pewholders, who contribute to 
and engage in the work of the synagogue 
but without the authority of corporate 
members. A third class of synagogue 
membership consists of those who merely 
pay for the use of a synagogue seat dur- 
ing the high holidays. Corporate mem- 
bers are supposed to control all syna- 
gogue property and to guide congrega- 
tional policy and activity, but the other 
members often participate on almost 
equal footing. 

There are 4 divisions in American 
Judaism: Orthodox Judaism, represented 
nationally by the Union of Orthodox 
Jewish Congregations of America, the 
Rabbinical Council of America, and the 
Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the United 

States and Canada, numerically by far 
the largest Jewish body in the United 
States; Reform Judaism, with the Cen- 
tral Conference of American Rabbis and 
the Union of American Hebrew Con- 
gregations the first national organiza- 
tion of synagogues in America, es- 
tablished in 1873 as spokesmen; 
Conservative Judaism, organized in the 
United Synagogue of America and the 
Rabbinical Assembly of America; and 
Reconstruction Judaism, sponsored by 
the Jewish Reconstructionist Founda- 
tion, organized in 1940. The first 3 of 
these national Jewish organizations are 
constituent members of the Synagogue 
Council of America. 

No accurate survey of membership in 
these American Jewish congregations 
has ever been taken, and one probably 
cannot be taken. Estimates differ widely 
depending upon the methods and classi- 
fications employed. Those who hold that 
all members of the race are by nature and 
spiritual necessity also members of the 
synagogue identify the number of Amer- 
ican Jews, 5,260,000, with American 
synagogue membership. Others estimate 
total synagogue membership as low as 
2,000,000. It is impossible to estimate the 
number of either members or synagogues 
with any accuracy at all inasmuch as 
many of them never report to any na- 
tional Jewish organization. 

The multiplicity of Jewish national or- 
ganizations is bewildering. The Ameri- 
can Jewish Yearbook for 1960 lists them 
in the following categories: community 
relations and political, 14; overseas aid, 
11; religious and educational, 116; social 
and mutual benefit, 26; cultural, 27; 
social welfare, 32; Zionist and pro-Israel, 
66. American Jews live in more than 
700 communities. In over 225 of the 
larger cities and towns, the Jewish popu- 
lation maintains at least one central local 
organization: a federation, welfare fund, 
or community council. There are more 
than 200 Jewish periodicals and news- 
papers in 28 states and the District of 
Columbia, and three Jewish news syndi- 



cates. American Judaism is the quarterly 
Reform organ, the bimonthly Jewish 
Life speaks for the Orthodox Branch, 
Conservative Judaism, is a quarterly for 
the Conservatives, and fortnightly Re- 
construe tionist speaks for Reconstruc- 
tionism. Among the magazines of gen- 
eral interest are Commentary, Midstream, 
Menorah Journal, Jewish Frontier, Jew- 
ish Spectator, and National Jewish Post 
and Opinion. 

Education on all levels is a major 
Jewish concern. Children are enrolled 
in Sunday schools, weekday schools, all- 
day schools, Yiddish schools, and re- 
leased-time schools. In 1958 there was a 
total of 553,600 children in all weekday 
and Sunday schools, but it was still 
estimated that not more than 75 per cent 
of available Jewish children were en- 
rolled in Jewish schools. 

Institutions of higher learning are 
limited to schools for the training of 
rabbis. The most important of these 
schools are the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan 
Theological Seminary of Yeshiva Uni- 
versity in New York City (Orthodox); 
the Hebrew Union College in Cincin- 
nati and the Jewish Institute of Religion 
in New York City (Reform institutions 
that were merged in 1948 into what is 
now called H.U.C.-J.LR.); and the Jew- 
ish Theological Seminary in New York 
City (Conservative). The Jewish The- 
ological Seminary has a branch in Los 
Angeles called the University of Judaism. 
Dropsie College, "a postgraduate, non- 
sectarian institution of Semitic learning," 
in Philadelphia and the Yivo Institute 
for Jewish Research in New York City 
are the only two institutions of higher 
learning working independently of Jew- 
ish seminaries; Yeshiva University in 
New York City and Brandeis Univer- 
sity in Waltham, Massachusetts, are the 
only Jewish colleges awarding a B.A. 

Jewish charity is amazingly efficient. 
Jewish federations and welfare boards 
raised $123,000,000 in 1958; this money 
was divided among local agencies 

(health, welfare, education, and recrea- 
tion), national agencies (civic defense, 
cultural, religious, and service), and 
overseas (mainly to help settle refugees 
in Israel and other countries). 

The American Jewish Committee is 
organized to protect the civil and re- 
ligious rights of all Jews around the 
world. It offers legal assistance; seeks 
equality for Jews in economic, social, 
and educational opportunities; and gives 
protection from persecution and in- 
tolerance through the Joint Defense Ap- 
peal, in which it co-operates with the 
Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith. 

Among the Zionist societies the Zion- 
ist Organization of America is one of 
the largest and most powerful; it is in 
the United States the acknowledged 
spokesman in politics and public rela- 
tions for the whole movement. Zionism 
is limited to no one of the 4 major re- 
ligious groups; it has crossed the line 
everywhere. The only organized opposi- 
tion to Zionism within American Jewry 
is found in the comparatively small 
Council for Judaism. 

Two trends are noticeable in Ameri- 
can Judaism. One is the trend toward 
a relaxation of strict or letter observance 
of the time-honored Jewish law; the 
other, in seeming opposition, is the 
tendency to consider the inner spiritual 
strength of Judaism as its only hope for 
the future. Under this latter drive Amer- 
ican Jews know fewer and fewer di- 
visions, more and more co-operation and 

Orthodox Judaism 

Orthodox Judaism has been called 
"Torah-True" Judaism; it is the branch 
which preserves the theology and tradi- 
tions of Old World Jewry in the New 
World. It assigns equal authority to the 
written and oral law and to the ancient 
Jewish codes embodied in the Torah 
and the Talmud and their commentaries. 
The Torah is all-important and basic 
to all the rest: the Torah is of God, given 



to Moses, and there is no way to God 
except through obedience to the laws of 
the Torah; Torah is a revelation of the 
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood 
of man, and it explains the place of the 
Jews as the chosen people of God. Every- 
thing a Jew needs to know is in the 
Torah; it governs every moment of his 
life. Moses is believed to have trans- 
mitted orally this great body of teach- 
ing to his successors, who in turn trans- 
mitted it down to the time when it was 
first committed to writing. There are, 
however, two slightly variant emphases 
in Orthodoxy; the Orthodoxy stemming 
from Hungary opposes resolutely all 
change or innovation in speech, dress, 
and education; that coming from Ger- 
many and western Europe is a bit less 
severe, attempting to preserve the more 
important elements of traditional Jew- 
ish life, but accepting modern changes 
and ideas in these three areas. 

Orthodox Jews believe in the political 
rebirth of their nation, in the return of 
the Jew to Palestine to rebuild his 
Temple on Mount Zion and to re-estab- 
lish his ancient sacrificial ritual. They 
look forward to the coming of the Mes- 
siah, who is to be a descendant of David. 
The biblical dietary laws are strictly ob- 
served, and the traditional holy days 
and festivals are faithfully kept. The He- 
brew language is used in their synagogue 
prayers; English, in their sermons. They 
are the fundamentalists of Judaism, 

Reform Judaism 

Reform Judaism is liberal Judaism. It 
began in Germany just after the 
Napoleonic emancipation, when "re- 
formers" within Judaism shortened the 
synagogue services, made use of the 
vernacular and of organs in those serv- 
ices, and established group in place of 
individual confirmation. Some reformers 
at that time advocated a complete break 
with Judaistic traditional forms, but that 
did not come. 

Isaac Mayer Wise, one of their out- 

standing leaders in the United States, 
founded here the Union of American 
Congregations (1873), the Hebrew 
Union College (1875), and the Central 
Conference of American Rabbis (1889); 
these important groups sum up the aim 
of Reform Judaism in their conviction 
that Judaism should "alter its externals 
to strengthen its eternals." 

Reform holds that there is divine au- 
thority only in the written law of the 
Old Testament; this is its main dis- 
tinction from Orthodox Judaism. But 
revelation in Reform is not confined to 
the Old Testament; it is progressive. The 
Reform Jew limits himself to the prac- 
tice of the ceremonial laws of the 
Pentateuch, with the exception of those 
laws which, like the law of sacrifice, he 
regards as having no application or pur- 
pose in the present day. The sacrifices of 
the Mosaic era, he insists, were merely 
concessions to the customs of the times. 
Claiming that the mission of Judaism is 
the spiritualization of mankind, he sees 
such practices as covering the head at 
worship, dietary laws, the wearing of 
phylacteries as anachronisms which iso- 
late the Jew from the rest of mankind 
and make such spiritualizing impossible, 
and hence should be abolished. In other 
words, the Orthodox Jew accepts the 
entire body of oral and written law as 
sanctified by tradition; the Reform Jew 
has simplified the ritual and adapted it 
to modern needs. 

Unlike his Orthodox brothers, he does 
not believe in the Messianic restoration 
of the Jewish state and return to Jeru- 
salem; he is abandoning belief in a per- 
sonal Messiah, but he still holds to his 
faith in the coming of a Messianic age. 
He does, however, support the return 
to Palestine under the Zionist movement, 
not so much on spiritual or Talmudic 
grounds as on the ground that Palestine 
offers a place of refuge for persecuted 
Jews of the world. He advocates the 
preservation in the new state of Israel 
of such Jewish values, customs, and tra- 
ditions as have inspirational value. 



Reform Judaism has doubled its mem- 
bership in the last 10 years; it now claims 
1,000,000 adherents (there are approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 in Orthodox and 
2,000,000 in Conservative Judaism). 

Conservative Judaism 

Conservative Judaism holds middle 
ground between Orthodox and Reform, 
and seeks preservation of the values and 
ideals of both. From Orthodoxy it takes 
its belief in the Torah, observance of 
dietary laws, and use of the Hebrew 
language; from Reform comes its 
tendency to reconcile the old beliefs and 
practices with the cultures in which it 
finds itself at work. To the Conservative, 
Judaism is not static but the deepening, 
growing, widening faith of a people who 
take into their culture many different in- 
fluences from other cultures, and yet 
retain their own racial and religious 
aspects. Extreme changes in Jewish tradi- 
tion are opposed, but some notable in- 
novations are evident: the English lan- 
guage is often used in synagogue prayers, 
men and women sit together in family 
pews, and modern methods of education 
are applied in their development schools 
for children and youth. Adult education 
is a primary interest here; there has been 
a marked increase in adult schools and 
studies across the last two decades. 


Reconstructionism, under the sponsor- 
ship of the Jewish Reconstructionist 
Foundation, Inc., is a new Jewish group, 
originated in 1934, whose aggressive 
leader is Mordecai M. Kaplan, a mem- 
ber of the faculty of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary. It calls for a reorgani- 
zation of all Jewish life. It is active in 
the struggle to establish a Jewish na- 
tional home in Palestine; in the broad- 
ening of Jewish education beyond in- 
struction in language, ritual, and 
catechism; in the reinterpretation of 

Judaism to bring it into harmony with 
modern thought; and in the establish- 
ment of a world-wide co-operative Jew- 
ish society. There is respect here for 
the ceremonies and traditions of historic 
Judaism, but there is also a call for 
divergence and expansion to include 
ethical culture, ritual enrichment, and 
esthetic creativity. 

Judaism, to these Jews, is a civiliza- 
tion more than a faith; it has religion 
as a central element, but only as one of 
many elements. Dr. Kaplan rejects be- 
lief in miracles, the personal Messiah, 
the resurrection; and he denies the divine 
origin of the Torah. He accepts Jewish 
ceremonial law as "folkways," valuable, 
but not necessarily binding. He also 
denies the concept of Israel as a "chosen" 

Reconstructionists are found in Ortho- 
dox, Conservative, and Reform groups, 
but as yet they have no organization 
similar to that found in these three major 

Commandment Keepers, or Black Jews 

This is a Negro Jewish sect in New 
York's Harlem founded in 1919 by Rabbi 
Wentworth David Matthew, who claims 
more than 3,000 members in Harlem and 
an equal number in other congregations 
beyond that section. They teach that 
the Negroes are actually Hebrews orig- 
inating in Ethiopia. They maintain a 
home for the aged and co-operate in 
various business enterprises with the 
white Jews of Harlem. Two other Jew- 
ish Negro groups, the House of Israel 
and the Moorish Science Temple, also 
operate in and around Harlem. They 
wear full beards and teach that Adam 
was a Negro and that Negroes are the 
real Hebrews. 

There are other Negro synagogues in 
Brooklyn and Cleveland, some claiming 
the Ethiopian (or "Falasha") origin, but 
most of whom are descendants of slaves 
who lived on Jewish-owned plantations 
in the American South. While their wor- 



other American Jewish communities or 

ship forms generally follow the Ortho- 
dox, they have little if any contact with 


Formed in 1929 and incorporated in 
April, 1930, by the Rev. Frank Russell 
Killingsworth and 120 laymen, some of 
whom were former members of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
Church, this is an interracial body of 
1,500 members, most of whom are Ne- 
groes, The 7 churches of the denomina- 
tion are located in Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, and the District of Columbia; 
a missionary station has recently been 
established in Liberia, West Africa. 
Teachings are Wesleyan and Arminian, 
stressing entire sanctifi cation, or the bap- 
tism of the Holy Spirit, and premillen- 
nialism. Divine healing is practiced, but 
not to the exclusion of medicine. 

As the church was founded for the 
purpose of "conserving and propagating 
Bible holiness," the use of alcoholic 

liquors and tobacco is forbidden; pride 
in dress and behavior, Sabbath desecra- 
tion, secret societies, dissolute dancing, 
and attendance at inferior and obscene 
theaters are denounced. Divorce is rec- 
ognized only on the biblical ground of 
adultery. Water baptism is by the op- 
tional modes of sprinkling, pouring, or 

The churches are under the charge 
of ministers and oversight of supervis- 
ing elders. Ministers are elected and or- 
dained by annual assemblies, to which 
they report. Supervising elders are elect- 
ed and consecrated by general assem- 
blies, which meet quadrennially to enact 
all the laws of the church. The work 
of the entire church, including the sup- 
port of foreign missionaries, is main- 
tained by freewill offerings and tithes. 


Better known as Mormons, the Latter- 
Day Saints have had one of the most 
tempestuous histories of any church body 
in the United States. Attacked by mobs 
and once invaded by United States Army 
troops, they built a religious community 
in what was once a desert and established 
themselves as one of the outstanding 
religious groups of the nation. 

Essentially a laymen's movement in 
its origin, their church is rooted in the 
visions of Joseph Smith, who organized 
the movement in 1830 at Fayette, New 
York. Smith claimed to have experienced 
a series of heavenly visitations in which 
he was informed that all existing 
churches were in error, that the true 
gospel was yet to be restored, that it 
would be revealed to him, and that he 

was to re-establish the true church on 
earth. He was led by an angel to dis- 
cover, buried in a hill called Cumorah 
near Manchester Village, New York, cer- 
tain golden plates or tablets left there by 
an ancient prophet and containing the 
sacred records of the ancient inhabitants 
of America and the true word of God. 
According to the Mormons America was 
originally settled by the Jaredites, one 
of the groups dispersed during the con- 
fusion of tongues at the Tower of Babel; 
the American Indians were direct 
descendants of the Hebrews who came 
from Jerusalem in 600 B.C. Jesus himself 
visited this country after his resurrection. 
Smith translated the hieroglyphics on 
the golden tablets into the Book of 
Mormon, from which the name "Mor- 



mon" comes. Oliver Cowdery acted as 
his scribe. This Book of Mormon is con- 
sidered by the saints as being equal with 
and "supporting but not supplanting" 
the Bible, and as being equal with 2 other 
writings of Joseph Smith, the Book of 
Doctrines and Covenants and the Pearl 
of Great Price, which contain the 
foundation teachings of the church. The 
golden plates were said to have been 
returned to the angel by Joseph Smith; 
their authenticity has been challenged 
by non-Mormon scholars and as ardently 
defended by the Mormons, who offer the 
names of 11 other persons beside Smith 
who saw them. Smith and Cowdery had 
the "priesthood of Aaron" conferred 
upon them by a heavenly messenger, 
John the Baptist, who instructed them to 
baptize each other. Later 3 other divine 
visitants, Peter, James, and John, be- 
stowed upon them the "priesthood of 
Melchizedek" and gave them the keys 
of apostleship. This was in 1829, a year 
before the founding of the church with 
6 charter members. 

'Opposition arose as the church gained 
strength, and the Mormons left New 
York in 1831 for Ohio, where head- 
quarters were established at Kirdand. 
Another large Mormon center developed 
at Independence, Missouri, where they 
planned to build the ideal community 
with a temple at its heart. Friction with 
other settlers became so acute that the 
Mormons were expelled from Missouri; 
they settled at Nauvoo, Illinois. Violence 
followed them there and reached its 
peak with the murder of Joseph Smith 
and Hyrum Smith, the prophet and the 
patriarch of the church, in jail at 

With Smith's death Brigham Young, 
who was the president of the Quorum of 
the Twelve Apostles, was sustained presi- 
dent. A group of the defeated minority 
refused to accept his election or leader- 
ship and withdrew to form other Mor- 
mon churches. They objected on the 
ground that Young was not the legal 
successor to Smith, that control of the 


church belonged properly to the 12 
apostles appointed by Smith, and that 
Young approved of the practice of 
polygamy, which had been responsible 
for much of their persecution. But 
Young held his office; he had the vote of 
the majority, and he also had the courage 
and the administrative ability necessary 
at that crucial period to save the church 
from extinction. 

The saints were driven from Nauvoo 
in February, 1846, and began their epic 
march to what is now Utah. In the val- 
ley of the -Great Salt Lake they finally 
found safety, building there the famous 
tabernacle and temple at the heart of 
what was to become a world-wide Mor- 
monism, and creating a self-existent com- 
munity. Their community became the 
state of Utah in 1896. 

Based upon the Book of Mormon and 
the Bible, which is accepted "as far as 
it is translated correctly," the faith of 
the Mormons is in some respects the 
faith to be found in any number of 
conservative, fundamentalist Protestant 
churches, plus the revelations of Joseph 
Smith. They believe that the three per- 
sons comprising the Godhead are the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; 
that the Father and the Son have bodies 
of flesh and bones as tangible as man's, 
and that the Holy Ghost is a personage 
of Spirit; that men will be punished for 
their own individual sins and not for 
Adam's transgression. All mankind may 
be saved through the atonement of Christ 
and by obedience to the laws and ordi- 
nances of the gospel; these laws and 
ordinances include faith in Christ, re- 
pentance, baptism by immersion for the 
remission of sins, and the laying on of 
hands for the gift of the Holy Ghost, 
and also in observing the Lord's Supper- 
each Sunday. The believe in the gift of 
tongues and interpretation of tongues, 
visions, revelation, prophecy, and heal- 
ing. There is a strong Adventism in this 
church. Christ will return to rule the 
earth from his capitals in Zion and Jem- 


salem, following the restoration of the 10 
tribes of Israel, 

Revelation is not regarded as confined 
to either the Bible or the Book of Mor- 
mon; it continues today in the living 
apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, and 
evangelists of the modern Mormon 
Church. Baptism is necessary to salva- 
tion; and obedience to the priesthood is 
of first importance. Subjection to civil 
laws and rules is advocated, together 
with an insistence upon the right of the 
individual to worship according to the 
dictates of his conscience. 

Two Mormon practices, baptism for 
the dead and sealing in marriage for 
eternity, are exclusive with this church. 
Baptism and salvation for the dead are 
based upon the conviction that those 
who died without a chance to hear or 
accept the gospel cannot possibly be 
condemned by a just and merciful God. 
The gospel must be preached to them 
after death; authority for this is found 
in I Pet. 4:6: "For this cause was the 
gospel preached also to them that are 
dead, that they might be judged accord- 
ing to men in the flesh, but live accord- 
ing to God in the spirit." Baptism is 
considered as essential to the dead as to 
the living, though the rite will not 
finally save them; there must be faith 
and repentance for salvation. The cere- 
mony is performed with a living person 
standing proxy for the dead. 

Marriage in Mormonism has 2 forms: 
marriage for time and marriage for 
eternity (or celestial marriage). Marriage 
for time is for those who prefer it. 
Mormon men and women are sure that 
there is no exaltation to be had unless 
they are married for time and eternity. 
Mormon women believed that there 
could be no salvation for them unless 
they were married. Thus plural mar- 
riages were accepted and encouraged. 
Some plural marriages were for both time 
and eternity, and they had been prac- 
ticed for some time before Joseph Smith's 
revelation on the practice was announced 
publicly by Brigham Young in 1852. 


Polygamy was abolished to comply with 
the constitutional law in 1890, but some 
of the plural marriages contracted before 
that date were allowed to continue. Some 
of the dissenting Mormon churches held 
that it was never widely practiced or ac- 
cepted and that Joseph Smith never ap- 
proved or practiced it himself. As late 
as 1941, 20 excommunicated Mormons, 
breaking the law of both church and 
state, were convicted of polygamy and 
sentenced to prison; but generally the 
practice of polygamy has been aban- 

Organization and government of the 
church differ in detail among 6 Mormon 
denominations but agree in essentials. 
They are based upon the 2 priesthoods: 
the higher priesthood of Melchizedek, 
which holds power of presidency and 
authority over the offices of the church 
and whose officers include apostles, patri- 
archs, high priests, seventies, and elders; 
and the lesser priesthood of Aaron, 
which guides the temporal affairs of the 
church through its bishops, priests, 
teachers, and deacons. The presiding 
council of the church is the First Presi- 
dency, made up of 3 high priests the 
president and 2 counselors. Its authority 
is final and universal in both spiritual 
and temporal affairs. The president of 
the church is the "mouthpiece of God"; 
through him come the laws of the church 
by direct revelation. 

Next to the presidency stands the 
Council of the Twelve Apostles, chosen 
by revelation to supervise under the 
direction of the First Presidency the 
whole work of the church and to ordain 
all ministers. 

The church is divided into stakes (geo- 
graphical divisions) which are composed 
of a number of wards corresponding to 
local churches or parishes. High priests, 
assisted by elders, are in charge of the 
stakes. Members of the Melchizedek 
priesthood hold authority under the di- 
rection of the presidency to officiate in 
all ordinances of the gospel. Seventies 
work under the direction of the twelve 


apostles; they are organized into quorums 
of 70 each, with 7 presidents of equal 
rank presiding over each quorum. The 
duties of the twelve apostles and the 
seventies carry them into all the stakes, 
wards, and missions throughout the en- 
tire church. The duties of the stake 
presidents, the ward bishops, the patri- 
archs, high priests, and elders are to 
supervise the work within the stakes and 
wards of the church. 

The Aaronic Priesthood is presided 
over by the Presiding Bishopric who also 
supervises all work done in the stakes and 
wards by the members of the Aaronic 

The church influences every phase of 
the living of every member; it supplies 
relief in illness or poverty, provides edu- 
cation, recreation, and employment. 
Such a program has inevitably resulted 
in deep loyalty in its membership. More 
than 4,000 young Mormons go out 2 by 
2 each year as missionaries without com- 
pensation, giving a year or more to the 
work of spreading the teaching of thek 
church at home and abroad. In fact less 
than 35 persons in leadership positions 
in the church receive salaries. They do 
not win converts in any great numbers, 
but their missionary experience strength- 
ens both them and their church and of- 
fers a model of church service and zeal 
equaled in very few of the other larger 
churches in America. 

Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-Day Saints 

With headquarters at Salt Lake City 
this church is by far the largest Mormon 
body numerically with 1,555,799 mem- 
bers and 2,513 congregations. It follows 
the governmental pattern already de- 
scribed. A general conference is held 
twice a year. The church is supported by 
the tithes of the membership; each mem- 
ber who earns money is expected to give 
one tenth of his income. 

The missionary effort of this church 
is one of the most consistent and vigor- 


ous to be found anywhere in America; 
at its centennial celebration in 1947 it 
was reported that in the preceding 100 
years 51,622 missionaries had been sent 
out, each at his own expense and most of 
them serving a full 2 years. About 67,615 
missionaries have been at work in the 
years 1930-53. There were 12,823 mis- 
sionaries at work in home and foreign 
fields in 1958. Active missionary service 
is also had among the American Indians 
and also serving abroad in 38 countries. 
There were 27 mission stations in North 
and South America, 11 in Europe, and 
9 in the islands of the sea. 

In education the Mormons have lifted 
Utah high among the states. They have 
4 senior colleges and 3 junior colleges in 
Utah, which has the highest percentage 
of males and females in school among 
all the states. It stands fourth among the 
states in the percentage of income de- 
voted to education. Utah's educational 
achievement is second to none in Amer- 
ica and probably in the world. 

The death rate among Mormons is 
lower -than that of any group of people 
of the same size anywhere else in the 
world; it is the direct result of Mormon 
abstinence from liquor and tobacco and 
of their welfare efforts. This church 
has 105 storehouses for community food 
and clothing, with an asset value of about 
$2,289,408; members maintain vegetable, 
seed, and wheat farms; orchards; a cot- 
ton plantation; dairies; sewing centers; 
fish canneries; soap factories; cattle, 
sheep, and hog farms; food processing 
plants; a vitamin pill factory; and sev- 
eral grain elevators. Most of the products 
of these industries are consumed at home, 
but hundreds of thousands of relief pack- 
ages have been forwarded under a plan 
of European relief. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter Day Saints 

This church claims to be the continua- 
tion of the original church which was 
organized by Joseph Smith, Jr., on April 


6, 1830. It has 174,000 members and 
1,100 branches. It bases its claim to be 
the legal continuation of the original 
church on obedience to the rule of suc- 
cession in its presidency as found in the 
Book of Doctrine and Covenants. Court 
action on two occasions, in Ohio in 1880 
and in Missouri in 1894, named this 
church the legal continuation of the 
original church. The son of Joseph 
Smith, Jr., was designated by his father 
to succeed him when 12 years old, and 
he became president in 1860. 

The Reorganized Church rejected the 
claims of the Mormons led by Brigham 
Young because of this rule, and also be- 
cause of their adoption of the doctrine 
of polygamy in 1852, which, it is claimed, 
is contrary to the teachings of the Book 
of Mormon and the Book of Doctrine 
and Covenants endorsed by the original 
organization in 1835. It also differs from 
the Utah church on the doctrine of the 

At the death of Joseph Smith, Jr. in 
1844, the church entered a period of con- 
fusion due to several claims to leadership. 
Those holding to the principle of "suc- 
cession" eventually "reorganized," the 
first collective expression of this move- 
ment being at a conference in Bcloit, 
Wisconsin, in 1852. Joseph Smith, the 
son of the founder, was chosen presi- 
dent in 1860 at Amboy, Illinois. His suc- 
cessors have all been descendants of the 

Basic principles of the Reorganized 
Church include: (1) The continuity of 
divine revelation, and the open canon of 
Scripture; (2) The restoration of Christ's 
church on the New Testament pattern; 
(3) The principles of doctrine as listed 
in Heb. 6:1, 2; (4) The doctrine of 
stewardship in personal and economic 
Hfe; (5) The gathering together at In- 
dependence, Missouri, as a place of 
preparation and demonstration of the 
Christian way of life. This place was 
designated "Zion" by the prophet Joseph 
Smith in 1831; (6) The return of Christ 
and the millennial reign. 


The work of the church is supported 
by "tithes" and u free-will offerings." 
This is regarded as a divine principle, 
and the tithe is calculated upon a tenth 
of each member's annual increase over 
and above just needs and wants, 

The church has adherents in Canada, 
Australia, England, Europe, Hawaii, New 
Zealand, French Oceania, Japan, Korea, 
India, and Pakistan. It maintains a 4-year 
accredited college at Lamoni, Iowa 
(Graceland College) and a leadership 
and ministerial seminary at Inde- 
pendence, Missouri (School of the 
Restoration). It operates a 182-bed hos- 
pital and a home for the aged at Inde- 
pendence, Missouri. 

The administration of the church is by 
a First Presidency of 3 high priests, a 
Quorum of Twelve Apostles who repre- 
sent the presidency in the field, and a 
pastoral arm under the high priests and 
elders. Missionary activity is directed by 
the apostles who have the assistance of 
Quorums of the seventy. These are 
traveling elders and with the apostles 
they are traveling representatives of the 
general church. Bishops care for the 
financial needs of the church and a pre- 
siding bishopric of three, at headquarters 
in Independence, Missouri, is closely as- 
sociated with the first presidency. 

Doctrines, policies, and all matters of 
legislation must have the approval and 
action of a delegate conference which 
is usually held biennially at Inde- 
pendence, Missouri, headquarters of the 

Church of Christ, Temple Lot 

This church had 3,000 members in 12 
churches in 1956; it was founded at 
Bloomington, Illinois, at the time of 
Joseph Smith's death. This dissenting 
body rejected the teachings of baptism 
for the dead, the elevation of men to 
the estate of gods following death, the 
doctrine of lineal right to office in the 
church, and the practice of polygamy. 
The group returned to Independence, 


Missouri, in 1867 and began raising funds 
for the purchase of a temple lot upon 
which was to be erected the temple of 
the Lord for the day of his return and 
the gathering of the 10 lost tribes of 
Israel The temple lot will be the center 
of the New Jerusalem, which will be a 
"movement of brotherhood and the turn- 
ing point when the fullness of the gospel 
goes from the Gentiles to the Jews." The 
lot was lost to the Reorganized Church 
in a lawsuit in 1891-95, but the Temple 
Lot Church still believes that it is com- 
missioned to build the temple there, and 
in this generation. 

A general bishopric under the guidance 
of a general conference administers the 
work of the church; the highest officers 
are found in the Quorum of the Twelve, 
and local bishops direct the temporal af- 
fairs of the local church "under super- 
vision of the congregation." 

Church of Jesus Christ 

This group was organized under the 
leadership of Sidney Rigdon, one of the 
pioneers of Mormonism. His followers 
refused to join the march to Utah under 
Brigham Young, denounced him and the 
twelve apostles for general wickedness 
(polygamy) and condemned the teach- 
ings of plurality of gods and baptism for 
the dead. They organized in 1862 at 
Green Oak, Pennsylvania, under the 
guidance of William Bickerton (they 
have been called "Bickertonites"), who 
claimed clear and divine succession of 
priesthood and authority. The president 
of the group today is W. H. Cadman. 

Foot washing is practiced, and they 
salute one another with the holy kiss. 
Monogamy is required, "except in case 
of death.'* Members are required to obey 
all state and civil laws, but there is strong 
opposition to participation in war. They 
have their own edition of the Book of 
Mormon, and a monthly periodical, The 
Gospel News, is published at head- 
quarters in Monongahela, Pennsylvania, 
where a general conference meets an- 

nually. A missionary work is conducted 
in Italy, Nigeria, and among the Indians 
in the United States and Canada. There 
are approximately 2,000 members in 45 

Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerites) 

This has always been the smallest 
Mormon group; today it is down to 8 
members in 1 church. It was organized in 
1853 by Alpheus Cutler, who was seventh 
in line of the original 7 elders of the 
church under Joseph Smith. Cutler or- 
dained new elders "to act in the lesser 
offices of the church." Community of 
property is practiced in this church, 
which consists of the one congregation 
at Clitherall, Minnesota. 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day 
Saints (Strangites) 

This group claims that it is "the one 
and original Church of Jesus Christ of 
Latter-day Saints" and that its founder, 
James J. Strang, is the only legal succes- 
sor to church leadership with written 
credentials from Joseph Smith. Strang 
translated portions of the Plates of 
Laban; they, together with certain other 
revelations, are found in "The Book of 
the Law of the Lord." Strang also trans- 
lated what is called "The Voree Record" 
a record found under an oak tree near 
Voree, Wisconsin, dealing in hierogly- 
phic-like characters with "an ancient 
people . . . who no longer exist." He was 
crowned "king" of this church in 1850 
and was murdered in 1856 during a wave 
of anti-Mormonism in the Great Lakes 

Organized at Burlington, Wisconsin, in 
1844, the church denies the virgin-birth 
theory, holds that Adam fell by a law of 
natural consequences rather than in the 
breaking of a divine law, and that the 
corruption thus caused could be removed 
only by the resurrection of Christ. They 
deny the Trinity and the plurality of 
gods, celebrate Saturday as the Sabbath 



Day, and believe that baptism is essential 
for salvation. Due to "lack of prophetic 
leadership at the present time" they do 
not practice baptism for the dead. 
Chief officer of the church is a high 

priest in the Melchizedek Priesthood, 
chosen by the General Church Confer- 
ence. Membership is given at about 250 
in 6 churches or branches. 


Tracing its beginnings back to the Old 
Catholic Church movement in Great 
Britain, which began in Holland, and its 
orders to an apostolic succession running 
back to the Roman Catholic Church 
under the reign of Pope Urban VIII, and 
even to the 12 apostles, the Liberal 
Catholic Church is still liberal in the 
extreme. It aims at a combination of 
traditional Catholic forms of worship 
with the utmost freedom of individual 
conscience and thought. It claims to be 
neither Roman Catholic nor Protestant, 
but still "catholic" in the broadest sense 
of the word. It was established during 
the reorganization of the British Old 
Catholic movement in 1915-16. 

Members of the Liberal Catholic 
Church in the United States number 
about 4,000 in 8 churches. They use the 
Nicene Creed in most of their churches 
but do not require subscription to any 
interpretation of creeds, scriptures, or 
tradition; they aim not at profession of 
a common belief but at corporate wor- 
ship in a common ritual. They draw their 
central inspiration from faith in the liv- 
ing Christ, based on the promises of Matt. 

28:20 and 18:20. These promises are re- 
garded as "validating all Christian wor- 
ship," but special channels of Christ's 
power are found in the sacraments of 
the church, of which there are 7: bap- 
tism, confirmation, the Holy Eucharist, 
absolution, holy unction, holy matri- 
mony, and holy orders. 

The liturgy for the Holy Eucharist in 
this church is a free translation of the 
Latin rite of the Roman Catholic Missal 
and Church, with modifications which 
have been drawn from other liturgies; 
other services have been similarly trans- 
lated and modified. No images of the 
dead Christ are permitted in Liberal 
Catholic churches. Priests and bishops 
may or may not marry, and they exact 
no fee for the administration of the 
sacraments. Divine healing is stressed 
through the "revivifying power of the 
Holy Spirit, the grace of Absolution, the 
Sacred Oil for the Sick and the Sacra- 
ment of Holy Unction," but not to the 
exclusion of physicians and medicine. 

Bishops are in charge of regional areas, 
and the General Episcopal Synod is the 
chief administrative and legislative body. 


Life Messengers can hardly be called 
a denomination; they describe themselves 
as "an Evangelical Interdenominational 
Witness." Their purpose seems to be to 
refute the teachings of Jehovah's Wit- 
nesses (pp. 118-20), and to that end they 
circulate a flood of pamphlets and the 


book, Thirty Years a Watchtoiver Slave, 
by W. J. Schnell, among the preachers 
and laymen of all denominations. No 
statement on membership is available, due 
to the peculiar nature of the organization. 
Headquarters are located at 3530 Bagley 
Avenue, Seattle 11, Washington. 


Organized at Scranton, Pennsylvania, 
in 1914 with the assistance of Bishop 
Francis Hodur, head of the Polish Na- 
tional Catholic Church of America, this 
is a small group of 3,940 members in 
Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and Illinois. 
The Illinois (Chicago) churches were 
established under the jurisdiction of 
Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora of 
the North American Old Roman Catho- 

lic Church, but have since become inde- 

Doctrine in this church is based upon 
the first 4 general councils of the church, 
and the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed 
is used. Liturgy is in the Lithuanian 
tongue; a synod exercises ecclesiastical 
authority over the local churches, of 
which there were 4 in 1957. 


"Lutheran" was a nickname fastened 
upon the followers of Martin Luther by 
their enemies in the days of the Prot- 
estant Reformation; today it stands for 
something far more comprehensive. "It 
is clear," says Abdel R. Wentz, "that 
'Lutheran' is a very inadequate name to 
give to a movement that is not limited 
to a person or an era but is as ecumenical 
and abiding as Christianity itself." 
Luther's teachings of justification by 
faith and of the universal priesthood of 
believers might be called the cornerstone 
of Protestantism. 

The story of Luther's rebellion against 
the Roman Catholic Church is well- 
known history. His position was, briefly, 
that the Roman Catholic Church and 
papacy had no divine right in things 
spiritual; that the Scriptures, and not the 
Roman Catholic priest or church, had 
final authority over conscience. "What- 
ever is not against Scripture is for Scrip- 
ture," said Luther, "and Scripture is for 
it." Men were forgiven and absolved of 
their sins, he believed, not by good works 
or by imposition of church rite and 
especially not through the purchase of 
indulgences offered for sale by the Ro- 
man Catholic Church but by man's 
Holy-Spirit-empowered action in turn- 
ing from sin directly to God. Justifica- 
tion came through faith and not through 


ceremony, and faith was not subscription 
to the dictates of the church but "by 
the heart's utter trust in Christ." "The 
just shall live by faith" was the beginning 
and the end of his thought. He held the 
individual conscience to be responsible 
to God alone; he also held that the Bible 
was the clear, perfect, inspired, and 
authoritative word of God and guide of 
man. God, conscience, and the Book on 
these were Lutheranism founded. 

In 1529 Luther wrote his Longer and 
Shorter Catechisms. A year later a state- 
ment of faith known as the Augsburg 
Confession was authored by his scholar- 
ly associate Philip Melanchthon; 1537 
brought the Smalcald Articles of Faith 
written by Luther, Melanchthon, and 
other German reformers. In 1577 the 
Formula of Concord was drawn up. 
These documents in explanation of 
Luther's ideology and theology from the 
doctrinal basis of Lutheranism. 

The Reformation resulted, not in a 
united Protestantism, but in a Protestant- 
ism with 2 branches: Evangelical Luther- 
anism with Luther and Melanchthon as 
leaders; and the Reformed Church, or 
branch, led by Calvin, Zwingli, and John 
Knox. Evangelical Lutheranism spread 
from its birthplace in Germany to Po- 
land, Russia, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, 
Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, France, 


and Holland; it became in time the state 
church of Denmark, Norway, Sweden, 
Finland, Iceland, Estonia, and Latvia. It 
was mainly from Germany and Scandi- 
navia that Lutheranism came to the 
United States. 

A Lutheran Christmas service was held 
on Hudson Bay in 1619; the first 
European Lutherans to come here and 
stay permanently arrived on Manhattan 
Island from Holland in 1623. They had 
a congregation worshiping in New Am- 
sterdam in 1649, but they did not enjoy 
full freedom in their worship until the 
English took over control of "New 
York" in 1664. The first independent 
colony of Lutherans was established by 
Swedes along the Delaware at Fort Chris- 
tiana in the colony of New Sweden in 

The New York Lutherans were largely 
Germans. German exiles from Salzburg 
also settled in Georgia, where in 1736 
they built the first orphanage in America. 
Lutherans from Wiirttemberg settled in 
South Carolina. The great influx, how- 
ever, came to Pennsylvania, where by 
the middle of the eighteenth century 
there were 30,000 Lutherans, four fifths 
of them being German and one fifth 
Swedes. From Philadelphia they swept 
over into New Jersey, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, and North Carolina. 

Their first churches were small, often 
without pastors; and because only a 
minority of the immigrants Joined the 
church, they were poor churches. The 
situation was relieved with the coming 
of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg from 
the University of Halle to effect the first 
real organization of American Lutherans; 
in 1 748 he organized pastors and congre- 
gations in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
New York, and Maryland into what 
came to be called the Ministerium of 
Pennsylvania; it was the first of many 
Lutheran synods in America. Other 
synods followed slowly: New York in 
1786; North Carolina in 1803; Maryland 
in 1820; and Ohio in 1836. Each synod 
adjusted itself to its peculiar conditions 


of language, national background, previ- 
ous ecclesiastical relationship with Luth- 
eran authorities abroad, and geographical 
location. The need for even further 
organization, aggravated by the ever- 
increasing immigration of Lutherans 
from Europe, resulted in the formation 
of the General Synod in 1820; with that 
the last real bonds with European 
Lutheranism began to break, and Ameri- 
can Lutheranism was increasingly on its 

The General Synod was obliged to 
extend its efforts farther and farther west 
as German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, 
Icelandic, and Finnish Lutherans came 
pouring into the new country. The 
Missouri Synod was formed in 1847. 
From 1850 to 1860 1,000,000 Germans 
arrived, and the majority of them were 
Lutherans; the German Iowa Synod was 
organized in 1854, and in the same year 
the Norwegian Lutheran Church was 
established. The Augustana Synod was 
created in 1860 to care for the Swedes 
in the new West. By 1870 the Lutherans 
had the fourth largest Protestant group 
in the country, with approximately 400,- 
000 members. 

The Civil War brought the first serious 
break in the Lutheran ranks with the 
organization of the United Synod of the 
South in 1863; three years later a number 
of other synods led by the Ministerium 
of Pennsylvania withdrew from the 
General Synod to form the General 
Council. To increase the complexity, 
Lutheran immigrants arrived in larger 
and larger numbers; from 1870 to 1910 
approximately 1,750,000 came from 
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark; and in 
those years the Lutheran church mem- 
bership leaped from less than 500,000 
to nearly 2,250,000 New Lutheran 
churches, colleges, seminaries, and publi- 
cations were established from coast to 

Since 1910 there has been an almost 
constant effort toward the unification of 
Lutheran churches and agencies. Three 
of the large Norwegian bodies united in 


1917 in the Norwegian Lutheran Church 
of America; some of the Midwest Ger- 
man synods merged in the Joint Synod 
of Wisconsin in 1918; the synods of 
Iowa, Ohio, and Buffalo merged in the 
American Lutheran Church in 1930. The 
General Synod, the General Council, 
and the United Synod of the South 
merged into the United Lutheran Church 
in 1918, and no less than seven Lutheran 
churches were included in mergers in 
1960-61. In addition to these, 2 group- 
ings were created for the sake of closer 
co-operation in the work of the 
churches: the Synodical Conference 
(1872), and the National Lutheran Coun- 
cil (1918). These are purely co-operative 
bodies with no legislative or administra- 
tive authority over the synods or congre- 
gations involved. The National Lutheran 
Council is especially effective in co-ordi- 
nating the work in welfare service to 
refugees, American missions, student 
service, public relations, and ministry to 
the armed forces of 6 participating 
church bodies: The United Lutheran 
Church in America; the American Lu- 
theran Church; the Augustana Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran church; the Lutheran Free 
Church; the American Evangelical Lu- 
theran Church; and the Suomi Synod. 
Perhaps the most co-operative effort in 
the history of American Lutheranism is 
found in Lutheran World Action, 
through which over $165,000,000 in 
goods and cash (inclusive of $59,000,000 
worth of U.S. government-donated com- 
modities) have been distributed across 
the world. 

In spite of their organizational division 
there is real unity among American Lu- 
therans; it is a unity based more upon 
faith than upon organization. All Lu- 
theran churches represent a single type 
of Protestant Christianity. Their faith is 
built upon Luther's principle of justifica- 
tion by faith alone in Jesus Christ; it 
centers in the gospel for fallen men. The 
Bible is the inspired word of God and 
the infallible rule and standard of faith 
and practice. Lutherans confess their 


faith through the 3 general creeds of 
Christendom, the Apostles', the Nicene, 
and the Athanasian, which they believe 
to be in accordance with the Scriptures. 
They also believe that the Unaltered 
Augsburg Confession is a correct exposi- 
tion of the faith and doctrine of Evangeli- 
cal Lutheranism. The Apology of the 
Augsburg Confession, the 2 catechisms 
of Luther, the Smalcald Articles, and the 
Formula of Concord are held to be a 
faithful interpretation of Evangelical 
Lutheranism and of the Bible. 

The 2 sacraments of baptism and the 
Lord's Supper are not merely signs or 
memorials to the Lutheran but channels 
through which God bestows his for- 
giving and empowering grace upon men. 
The body and blood of Christ are be- 
lieved to be present "in, with, and under" 
the bread and wine of the Lord's Supper, 
and are received sacramentally and super- 
naturally. Consubstantiation, transub- 
stantiation, and impanation are rejected. 
Infants are baptized, and baptized persons 
are believed to receive the gift of re- 
generation from Holy Ghost. 

The congregation is the basic unit of 
Lutheran government, which is usually 
administered by a church council con- 
sisting of the pastor and a number of 
elected lay officers, some of whom are 
called elders, some deacons, and some 
trustees. There is a growing tendency to 
call all lay officials deacons. Pastors are 
elected, called, or recalled by the voting 
members of the congregation, but a 
congregation itself may never depose a 
pastor from the ministry. As a rule min- 
isters are ordained at the annual meetings 
of the synods; they are practically all 
trained in college and seminary. 

Congregations are united in synods; 
these are composed of the pastors and 
lay representatives elected by the con- 
gregations and have only such authority 
as is granted by the synod constitution. 
In some other instances there are terri- 
torial districts or conferences instead of 
a synod, operating in the same manner 
and under the same restrictions; some of 


these may legislate, while others are for 
advisory or consultative purposes only. 

Synods (conferences or districts) are 
united in a general body which may be 
national or even international and which 
is called variously "church," "synod," or 
"conference." Some of these general 
bodies are legislative in nature, some 
consultative; they supervise the work in 
worship, education, publications, charity, 
and missions. Congregations have busi- 
ness meetings at least annually; constit- 
uent synods, districts, and conferences 
hold yearly conventions, and the general 
bodies meet annually, biennially, or trien- 

Worship is liturgical, centering on the 
altar. "No sect in Western Christendom 
outside the Church of Rome," said the 
late Lutheran Archbishop Nathan Soder- 
blom of Sweden, "has accentuated in its 
doctrine the Real Presence and the 
mysterious communion of the sacrament 
as has our Evangelic Lutheran sect, al- 
though our faith repudiates any quasi- 
rational magical explanation of the virtue 
of the sacrament." 

Non-Lutherans are often critical of 
the divisions among American Lutherans, 
but actually they are not so divided as 
they seem. At one time there were 150 
Lutheran bodies in this country; but con- 
solidation, unification, and federation 
have now reduced the number to 17. Six 
of the bodies in the United States account 
for about 96.6 per cent of all Lutherans 
of North America. With the old 
barriers of speech and nationality dis- 
appearing, the tendency toward union 
becomes constantly stronger. Even on the 
international front united efforts are 
noticeable; groups of lay and ministerial 
delegates from major Lutheran churches 
in 22 countries in 1923 formed a Luther- 
an World Convention, which became 
the Lutheran World Federation in 1947, 
for the purposes of relief and rehabilita- 
tion among Lutherans on a global scale. 
That agency now serves 61 church 
bodies in 32 countries, having 50,000,000 

Historically the Lutherans have shown 
a tendency to remain apart from the 
rest of Protestantism. In the United States 
they have consisted of churches founded 
by immigrant groups deeply conscious 
of their national and linguistic origins, 
conservative, confessional, nonrevivalis- 
tic, and suspicious of anything that might 
tend to modify their Old World faith 
and traditions. These traits seem to be 
vanishing, however, as the older member- 
ship passes and an English-speaking 
generation takes over. The mother 
tongues of Lutheranism are still used oc- 
casionally, but English is predominant. 
One Lutheran body, the United Lu- 
theran Church, was a consultative mem- 
ber of the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America; and 3 
bodies The United Lutheran Church 
in America, the Augustana Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, and the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Church are char- 
ter members of the National Council of 
the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A. 
Four bodies the United Lutheran 
Church, the American Lutheran Church, 
the Augustana Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, and the American Evangelical 
Lutheran Church participated in the 
organization of the World Council of 
Churches. A fifth body, The Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, united with the World 
Council in 1957. Lutheran groups partici- 
pating in interdenominational organiza- 
tions have always insisted upon the 
operation of two principles within those 
organizations: the evangelical principle 
that the churches in the association should 
be those confessing the deity and savior- 
hood of Jesus Christ, and the representa- 
tive principle that the organizations shall 
be made up of officially chosen repre- 
sentatives of the churches. 

The American Lutheran Church 

On April 22, 1960> 3 American Lu- 
theran bodies merged into a new 
American Lutheran Church; they were 
The American Lutheran Church, the 



Evangelical Lutheran Churchy and the 
United Evangelical Lutheran Church. 
Active operation of The American 
Lutheran Church starts on January 1, 
1961. In the following account, we trace 
first their history and doctrine as separate 
bodies, then as a unit in the new church. 


The original American Lutheran 
Church was, at the momentt of merger, 
the fourth largest Lutheran body in this 
country, with 1,034,377 baptized and 
652,278 confirmed members in 2,086 
churches. It is of German background 
and heritage; its American history begins 
in the formation of the Ohio Synod in 
1818. Germans fleeing persecution in the 
homeland organized the Buffalo Synod 
in 1845, and missionary effort produced 
the Texas Synod in 1851 and the Iowa 
Synod in 1854. An affiliation between 
Texas and Iowa came in 1896, under 
which the Texas group became a "dis- 
trict synod" of the Iowa body. The 3 
bodies merged into the American Lu- 
theran Church at Toledo, Ohio, in 1930. 

Faith was based upon the Bible as the 
inspired and infallible word of God; in 
addition to this the church accepted the 
3 ecumenical creeds (Apostles', Nicene, 
and Athanasian), the Unaltered Augs- 
burg Confession, the Smalcald Articles, 
Luther's Large and Small catechisms, the 
Formula of Concord, and all the sym- 
bolical books of the Evangelical Lutheran 

To the merger this church brought 2 
theological seminaries, 3 colleges, 1 uni- 
versity, 1 junior college, 90 parochial 
schools with 4,963 pupils, 2 homes for 
children, 2 homes for the aged, and 2 
hospitals. Missionaries working in South 
India, New Guinea and Ethiopia will 
now work under the united board. 


The Evangelical Lutheran Church was 
the result of a merger in 1917 of 3 Lu- 


theran bodies: the United Norwegian 
Church, the Norwegian Synod, and the 
Hague Synod. It adopted the name 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in 1946. At 
the time of the merger with the Ameri- 
can Lutheran Church and the United 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, this was 
the third largest Lutheran body in 
America, with 1,153,566 baptized and 
754,431 confirmed members, and more 
than 2,000 churches. 

Theologically, the Bible was accepted 
as the only true source of faith, doctrine, 
and life, and the 3 ecumenical creeds, 
the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and 
Luther's Small Catechism. The body is 
noted for its emphasis upon evangelism 
at the local church level. 

To the new American Lutheran 
Church, the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church brought 5 colleges, 1 junior col- 
lege, a Bible institute and theological 
seminary in Canada, 3 academies and one 
theological seminary in the U.S., I 
family-service agency, 4 rescue homes, 
2 deaconess homes and hospitals, 8 chil- 
dren's homes or placing agencies, and 22 
homes for the aged. Missionaries served 
in South Africa, Japan, Madagascar, 
Latin America, Formosa and Hong 


The United Evangelical Lutheran 
Church was founded in 1896 by immi- 
grants from Denmark. Actually it was 
a union of 2 former Danish synods the 
Danish Evangelical Lutheran Association 
(organized in 1884 by a small group of 
pastors and congregations that had 
seceded from the Norwegian-Danish 
Conference of 1870) and the Danish 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in North 
America (created in 1894 by pastors and 
congregations separated from the Danish 
Evangelical Lutheran Church of America 
in 1872). At the time of its organization 
this merged church had 63 ordained 
pastors, 75 member congregations, and 


52 associated congregations. By 1960 the 
number had increased to nearly 200 ac- 
tive pastors and 185 member congrega- 
tions with 70,149 baptized and 42,000 
confirmed members. The Danish lan- 
guage was generally used in the churches 
until World War I; all services were in 
English after 1930 and the "Danish" was 
deleted from the name in 1946. 

Liturgy was based on the Akarbook 
of the Church of Denmark until the new 
joint Service Book and Hymnal for Lu- 
theran Churches in America was adopted 
generally by the larger Lutheran bodies 
in 1958. The Confession of Faith of the 
church was based on the Augsburg Con- 
fession and on Luther's Small Catechism. 
As an evangelical and conservative 
church, the Bible was and is regarded 
as the inspired word of God. 

Home missionaries worked in 22 con- 
gregations; foreign missionaries were 
stationed in Japan, South America, India, 
and the Sudan (Africa). There was 1 
theological seminary (Trinity), at Du- 
buque, Iowa, 1 college (Dana) at Blair, 
Nebraska. There was also a publishing 
house, founded in 1893, located at Blair. 

The new American Lutheran Church, 
the first in this century to merge 
across ethnic lines (Norwegian, German, 
Danish), will have a membership strength 
of about 2,200,000 and more than 5,000 
congregations. Headquarters have been 
established at Minneapolis, 

In government, the highest constitu- 
tional authority is the General Conven- 
tion, which meets every two years in 
October; it is made up of approximately 
1,000 delegates (500 lay, 500 clergy) 
elected from the 19 districts into which 
the church is (geographically) divided. 
There are 3 national officers a president, 
vice-president, and secretary. A church 
council composed of the president of the 
church (as chairman), the vice president, 
the presidents of the 19 districts, 1 lay- 
man elected from each district, and 3 
pastors and 3 lay representatives at large, 
meets once a year to generally direct and 

supervise the church in spiritual matters, 
to appoint the members and determine 
the policies of the two commissions of 
the church (Evangelism, and Research 
and Social Action) and of the Standing 
Committee on Worship and Music. It 
also makes recommendations to the 
General Convention in all matters of 
extrachurch and intersynodical relation- 
ships. The members of the church Coun- 
cil, together with the secretary of the 
church and the board of trustees, are also 
members of the Joint Council, which 
meets once a year to function as the 
legislative agency of the church in the 
interim between general conventions, to 
deal with emergency situations and to 
interpret the constitution and bylaws of 
the denomination. The Board of Trustees 
(6 laymen, 3 clergymen) controls the 
business affairs of the church; twelve 
other boards work in 6 divisions: Ameri- 
can Missions, World Missions, Educa- 
tion, Publication, Charities, and Pensions. 
All boards have 9 members except the 
Theological and College boards with 12 
each and Research and Social Action 
with 10. 

Few, if any, compromises are evident 
in the statement of faith of the new 
body: the Confession of Faith accepts the 
Bible as divinely inspired, revealed, and 
inerrant; the 3 ancient ecumenical creeds 
(Apostles', Nicene, and Athanasian) ; the 
unaltered Augsburg Confession; Luther's 
Large and Small Catechisms; the Book of 
Concord of 1580; the Apology; the Smal- 
cald Articles; and the Formula of Con- 

In the field of education, there will be 
a single theological seminary with 4 units, 
10 senior colleges, 2 junior colleges, and 
4 academies. There will be 8 children's 
homes, 37 homes for the aged, 6 homes 
for both children and the aged, 4 
specialized institutions (sanitarium, in- 
firmary, etc.), and 3 hospitals. Foreign 
missionaries will be supported in 13 
countries overseas, and home missionaries 
in all 50 states and in Canada and Mexico. 



Lutheran Church in America 

As we go to press, 4 other Lutheran 
bodies in the United States are looking 
toward a merger. They are the United 
Lutheran Church in America, The 
American Evangelical Lutheran Church, 
the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church 
(Suomi Synod), and the Augustana 
Evangelical Lutheran Church. Combined 
under the proposed name of the Lutheran 
Church in America, they would have a 
total membership of 3,000,000. The con- 
stituent churches are to vote finally by 
June, 1961, and it is hoped that the 
merger may be accomplished by June, 
1962. Inamiuch as there still remain some 
points of difference in the discussions be- 
tween the churches, we hesitate to list 
them as one church, under their new 
name, so each is considered separately. 
If and when the merger is consummated, 
fourteen of the twenty-two boards in- 
volved will establish headquarters in 
New York City. 


As of 1960 the United Lutheran 
Church in America was the largest of all 
Lutheran bodies, with 2,439,792 members 
in 4,552 churches. Their church dates 
back to colonial times and the Minis- 
terium of Pennsylvania. It was officially 
created in the 1918 merging of the 
General Synod, the General Council, and 
the United Synod of the South; actually, 
it has been in existence since the first 
Lutheran colonists arrived on these 
shores. While strongly devoted to the 
historic creeds and confessions of 
Lutheranism, it might be distinguished 
from other groups such as the Missouri 
Synod by its application of a more liberal 
and progressive interpretation and polity. 

The Common Service Book of the 
Lutheran Church, arranged between 1877 
and 1902, was adopted in 1918. This book 
was used throughout the United Lu- 
theran Church until 1958, when it was 
succeeded by the Service Book and 

Hymnal, produced jointly by National 
Lutheran Council bodies. A president, 
secretary, and treasurer are elected for 
terms of six years; and the body was 
incorporated in 1918 under the laws of 
the state of New York. Conventions have 
met biennially since that year, and the 
45 constituent synods merged in 1918 
have been reduced to 32. The United 
Lutheran Church is a participating body 
of the National Lutheran Council. 

Polity is less firm than might be ex- 
pected; forms of government and wor- 
ship are of secondary importance, and 
each church and synod is, for the most 
part, independent in these matters. Hence 
synodical and congregational polity 
varies slightly. 

The 15 boards of the 3 merging bodies 
were in time reduced to 8: social mis- 
sions, publications, pensions, parish edu- 
cation, foreign missions, education, 
deaconess work, and American missions. 
These agencies previous to 1954 were 
practically self-governing, but in that 
year the nineteenth biennial convention 
gave the 21-member executive board 
authority to review the actions and to 
exercise veto power over the 8 boards, 
and oversight of the work of (ULCA) 
officers, boards, agencies, auxiliaries, and 

There are also national supervisory 
boards or committees for the United 
Lutheran Church Women, the Luther 
League of America (the young people's 
work of the denomination), the United 
Lutheran Church Men, and the Lutheran 
Laymen's Movement for Stewardship. 
Other special work is conducted through 
commissions and committees or through 
participation in the National Lutheran 
Council and the Lutheran World Federa- 
tion. The delegated national convention 
of the whole church, including 1 pastor 
and I layman for every 11 pastoral 
charges, meets biennially; and the Coun- 
cil of Synodical Presidents meets annual- 
ly as an advisory body on questions of 
policy and procedure. The top judicial 



body is known as the Court of Adjudica- 
tion and Interpretation. 

The United Lutheran Church has 13 
colleges, 13 theological seminaries, 1 
junior college, 2 deaconess training 
schools, 944 home mission congregations, 
and 2,415 congregations on foreign mis- 
sionary fields in Liberia, Argentina, 
British Guiana, Uruguay, India, Japan, 
Hong Kong, Formosa, and Malaya. 
There are 36 family service agencies, 38 
homes for the aged and infirm, 30 child 
care and child-placing agencies and in- 
stitutions, 13 hospitals in the United 
States, and 1 in the Virgin Islands. The 
church uses 17 languages in carrying on 
its work and worship. 


Ministers sent from Denmark in 1872 
founded this church under the name 
Kirkelig Missionsforening. In 1894, 22 
pastors and 3,000 members left the organ- 
ization to form what is now the United 
Evangelical Lutheran Church; but 35 
pastors, 53 congregations and about 5,000 
members remained to organize what is 
now the American Evangelical Lutheran 
Church. The dispute was concerned with 
the place and meaning of the Bible as the 
word of God in Lutheran theology. 

Worship is in accordance with the 
Common Service Book and Hymnal, sub- 
ject to the decisions of the annual con- 
ventions of this church. Congregations 
meet in these conventions to discuss mat- 
ters brought before it by a board of 
directors of 9 members 4 officers and 5 
trustees; officers are elected for a term 
of 4 years, the trustees for 3, This board 
is authorized to carry out the resolutions 
of the convention. The church is a par- 
ticipating body in the National Lutheran 
Council. There are 3 homes for the aged, 

1 hospital, 1 orphan's home. A seaman's 
mission in Brooklyn, New York, is con- 
ducted as a branch of the Seamen's 
Church in Foreign Ports, in co-operation 
with the Church of Denmark. There are 

2 missionaries in India; a junior college 


(Grand View) is maintained at Des 
Moines, and a theological seminary is 
being established at Maywood, Illinois. 
There are 23,591 baptized members and 
80 churches. 


Organized at Calumet, Michigan, in 
1890, this is strictly a confessional church. 
It uses the 3 ecumenical creeds, and the 
unaltered Confession of Augsburg. In 
liturgy it uses the Service Book and 
Hymnal In its Finnish services, the 
liturgy of the Church of Finland is used. 

An annual synodical convention, com- 
posed of lay delegates, administers the 
work of the church, with each congrega- 
tion maintaining residual sovereignty. 
The church constitution confers certain 
judicial and executive authority upon a 
permanent board of trustees called the 
Consistory, which is composed of the 
president, vice-president, secretary, and 
notary; its members are elected quad- 
rennially. At the present time, the synod 
is composed of 155 congregations scat- 
tered throughout the United States; it 
supports a college in Hancock, Michigan, 
and affiliates with the Chicago Lutheran 
Seminary in Maywood, Illinois. The 
synod has among its agencies a board 
of home missions which has established 
new congregations in Florida, Ohio, and 
California in recent years, a board of 
foreign missions which maintains two 
separate mission fields in Japan, and a 
publishing house at Hancock, Michigan. 
The baptized membership (as of 1959) 
is 35,963. 


The Swedes who settled along the 
Delaware, beginning in 1638, remained 
as a part of the mother church in Sweden 
throughout the colonial period* After the 
Revolution they passed under the control 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Two 
of their old historic churches Holy 


Trinity (Old Swedes) Church in Wil- 
mington, Delaware, built in 1699, and 
Gloria Dei Church in Philadelphia, built 
in 1700 still remain. 

The great tide of Swedish immigration 
in the 1840's, however, produced a large 
number of Swedish Lutherans who re- 
mained "within the fold." The first con- 
gregation of these immigrants, which 
later became part of the Augustana 
Synod, was formed at New Sweden, 
Iowa, in 1848; the second was in An- 
dover, Illinois, in 1850. The original syn- 
odical organization was called the Synod 
of Northern Illinois, organized in 1851; 
the Swedes and Norwegians left this 
synod to form the Scandinavian Augus- 
tana Synod of North America in 1860. 
The word "Scandinavian" was dropped 
in 1894. This Augustana Synod withdrew 
from the General Council, declining to 
enter the merger of the General Synod, 
the General Council, and the United 
Synod of the South in the United Lu- 
theran Church in America in 1918; but 
later it joined the National Lutheran 

Coming as it does out of the eight- 
teenth-century pietism of Sweden, the 
church is solidly confessional, accepting 
the 3 ecumenical creeds and the Augs- 
burg Confession. 

The synod meets annually as a general 
body and is presided over by a president 
chosen quadrennially. An executive 
council functions between synods. There 
are 13 conferences within the synod, 
one of which is in Canada; and each of 
them meets annually. The Service Book 
and Hymnal sponsored by the National 
Lutheran Council is used in all services. 

Foreign missionary stations are found 
in Formosa, Hong Kong, North Borneo, 
Japan, Africa, India, and Latin America. 
The synod lists 4 colleges, 1 junior col- 
lege, 1 theological seminary, 2 family 
service agencies, 24 homes for the aged, 
10 child care and child-placing agencies 
and institutions, 11 hospitals and sana- 
toria. There was a baptized membership 
of 605,380 in 1960, and 1,248 churches, 


from coast to coast, but with the greatest 
membership concentrations in Minnesota, 
Iowa, and Illinois. 

Church of the Lutheran Brethren 

of America 

This is an independent church body, 
with churches located in Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, North and South Dakota, 
Iowa, Illinois, and on both East and West 
coasts. Organized in Milwaukee in 1900, 
they differ from other Lutheran churches 
in accepting as members only those who 
profess a personal experience of salvation, 
and in stressing nonliturgical worship and 
lay participation. Brethren congregations 
do not have confirmation; they instruct 
their children and wait until there is an 
individual experience and conversion be- 
fore receiving them as communicant 
members. Communion is received in the 
pew; there are no altars in church build- 
ings. Free prayer and personal testimony 
are stressed. 

The church as a body is the supreme 
administrative unit, with a president, two 
vice-presidents, secretary, and treasurer. 
Foreign missions are supervised by a 
board of 9 members, and home missions 
by a board of 10. With a total member- 
ship of some 5,000 in 50 congregations, 
the church conducts foreign missionary 
work in Africa, Japan, and Formosa. 
There are 53 adult missionaries abroad. 
On an annual budget of about $225,000 
(high among Lutherans in proportion 
to the membership), the church supports 
a 4-year high school, a 2 -year Bible 
course, a 3 -year seminary course all 
operated by the Synod at Fergus Falls, 
Minnesota. Sarepta Home for the Aged 
and the Broen Memorial Home are also 
controlled by the church. Synodical 
headquarters are located at Fergus Falls. 

Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
America (Eielsen Synod) 

The first Norwegian synod in the 
United States was organized in 1846 un- 


der this name. Elling Eielsen was a 
preacher who had been active in the 
revival movement inspired by Hans Niel- 
sen Hauge in Norway earlier in the 
century. A difference of opinion over 
questions of doctrine and admission of 
members in the Eielsen Synod in 1875 
resulted in a revised constitution and a 
change of name to Hauge's Norwegian 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod. A small 
group with Eielsen clung to the old con- 
stitution and the old name and reorgan- 
ized, electing him as president. The 
synod still insists upon proof of conver- 
sion as a prerequisite for admission to 
membership in the church. 

It is one of the smaller existent Lu- 
theran churches, with only an inclusive 
membership of 4,220 in 44 churches. All 
male members vote in the annual meet- 
ing of the synod, which acts through a 
board of trustees and a church council 
of 7 members each. The trustees have 
charge of all church property, while the 
council rules on doctrine and discipline. 
A home missions board under the guid- 
ance of the council supervises a work 
among the Indians of Wisconsin. There 
are no foreign missionaries, but members 
contribute to the foreign missionary pro- 
grams of other Lutheran churches. 

Evangelical Lutheran Synod 
(Formerly The Norwegian Synod 

of the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Church) 

This synod was formed in 1918 by a 
minority group which declined to join 
the union of other Norwegian bodies in 
1917; the merging groups are now 
known as the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church and the dissenters as the Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Synod, a name adopted 
in 1958. The cause of the separation was 
chiefly doctrinal a dispute over the 
tenets of election and grace. 

The jurisdiction of the synod is en- 
tirely advisory; all synod resolutions are 
accepted or rejected by the local con- 


gregations. The officers and boards of 
the synod, however, direct the work of 
common interest insofar as they do not 
interfere with congregational rights or 
prerogatives. It is a constituent part of 
the Synodical Conference. 

The synod uses the facilities of the 
colleges and seminaries of the Missouri 
and Wisconsin synods; it co-operates in 
the foreign missions work of the Mis- 
souri Synod in India. It has 31 home 
mission stations in the United States, I 
preparatory school, and 14,004 baptized 
members in 80 churches. 

The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical 

This is one of the more conservative 
Lutheran groups. It was organized in 
1872 by a group of synods adhering 
firmly to the conservative doctrine of 
sixteenth-century Lutheranism, "to en- 
courage and strengthen one another in 
faith and confession; to further unity in 
doctrine and practice and to remove 
whatever might threaten to disturb this 
unity; to co-operate in matters of mu- 
tual interest." The second largest Lu- 
theran conference in the United States 
(the National Lutheran Council has 
5,362,008 baptized members, and the 
Synodical Conference has 2,703,275), it 
is strongly opposed to co-operation with 
other churches wherever doctrinal com- 
promise is involved. The conference in- 
cludes the Lutheran Church Missouri 
Synod, the Wisconsin Evangelical Lu- 
theran Synod, the Synod of Evangelical 
Lutheran Churches (formerly the Slovak 
Evangelical Lutheran Church) and the 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod (formerly 
the Norwegian Synod of the Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran Church). Each of these 
churches is completely independent in 
its programs of education, missions, and 
publications, but they do unite in the 
promotion of Negro missions and the 
building of Negro churches. The synod- 
ical conference now has charge of 51 
Negro churches with 7,443 members. 


Delegate meetings, or conventions, are 
held biennially, 

The conference also supervises the 
work of 96 home mission stations, a mis- 
sion in Nigeria (186 stations), and an- 
other in Ghana, begun in 1958. Within 
the conference there are now 24 high 
schools, 6 colleges, 9 junior colleges, 4 
theological seminaries, 1 university, 20 
homes for the aged, 33 hospitals and 
sanitoria, and 24 child care and child- 
placing agencies. 

Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church 
of America 

Sometimes called the "Church of 
Laestadius," after Lars Levi Laestadius, 
a minister of the State Church of Swe- 
den, this church originated with Finnish 
immigrants in and around Calumet, 
Michigan, in the middle years of the 
nineteenth century. They worshiped at 
first in the Lutheran Church of Calumet 
under a Norwegian minister; however, 
differences between the 2 national 
groups led to the forming, in 1872, of a 
separate Finnish congregation led by 
Solomon Korteniemi and called the Sol- 
omon Korteniemi Lutheran Society. The 
first incorporated church in Michigan 
was incorporated under the name of The 
Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of 
Calumet, in 1879. The national church 
was formed and incorporated under the 
name of The Finnish Apostolic Lutheran 
Church of America in 1929; this body 
was actually a merger of independent 
Apostolic Lutheran congregations into 
the one national body. Spreading over 
Michigan, Minnesota, the Dakotas, Mas- 
sachusetts, Oregon, Washington, and 
California, the new church was divided 
into 2 districts eastern and western. 

A scriptural Christian experience is re- 
quired as a condition for voting mem- 
bership in spiritual matters; supporting 
members may vote on temporal matters 
only. The church accepts the 3 ecu- 
menical creeds and puts strong emphasis 

upon the confession of sins, absolution, 
and regeneration; confession may be 
made to a Christian brother, but if some- 
one has fallen into sin which is known 
to other people private confession is not 
sufficient, and "he should confess them 
publicly before the congregation and 
receive absolution." 

The 60 local congregations of this 
church are quite free to govern them- 
selves; at the annual church convention, 
where every congregation has 1 vote, 
3 members are elected to an executive 
board for 3 -year terms; the board elects 
a president, vice-president, secretary, 
and treasurer. Three members are also 
elected to the Eastern and Western mis- 
sion boards and to the Elder's Home 
Board. There were 6,567 members in 

The Lutheran Church Missouri Synod 

With 2,442,933 members and 5,948 
churches (as of 1958) this is the second 
largest Lutheran church in the United 
States and the largest within the Synodi- 
cal Conference. The "Missouri" in the 
name comes from the founding of the 
denomination in that state by Saxon im- 
migrants; these were later joined by 
Hanoverians in Indiana and Franconians 
in Michigan. From the start all 3 of these 
groups were devoted to the maintenance 
of orthodox Lutheranism. They were 
Germans who had fought the trend 
toward rationalism in the old country 
and who came here for the sake of reli- 
gious freedom and to establish a synod 
in which the sovereignty of the local 
congregation would be recognized. 

This synod was organized in 1847 with 
12 congregations and 22 ministers under 
the name German Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Missouri, Ohio, and Other 
States. Under the constitution adopted at 
the time all the symbolical books of 
the Lutheran Church were considered 
to be the "pure and uncorrupted ex- 
planation of the Divine Word," and 



doctrinal agreement was required for 
exchange of pulpits and altars with 
other churches. 

The doctrinal standard of the Mis- 
souri Synod is strictly observed and 
enforced. That standard is found in the 
Bible "as it was interpreted by the Book 
of Concord," plus the 3 ecumenical 
creeds the Apostles', the Nicene, and 
the Athanasian and the 6 Lutheran con- 
fessions: the Augsburg Confession, the 
Apology of the Augsburg Confession, 
the Smalcald Articles, the Formula of 
Concord, and the 2 catechisms of Martin 
Luther. All across the years the synod 
has been unswerving in its allegiance to 
this conservative Lutheranism. 

There are the usual Lutheran districts 
and district conventions, and the general 
convention meets triennially. 

A startling work is done in educa- 
tion; the Missouri Synod has 1,430 pa- 
rochial schools and 17 high schools, and 
5,321 Sunday schools. It has 1,135 con- 
gregations in home mission fields and a 
total of 729 foreign mission stations in 
India, Japan, Formosa, New Guinea, 
Korea, Hong Kong, and the Philippines. 
The synod serves a total of 1,274 col- 
leges and universities through its Stu- 
dent Service Commission, with 31 full- 
time pastors. It has 23 hospitals, 16 
homes for the aged and 13 homes for 
children, 1 tuberculosis sanitarium and 
3 convalescent homes, 9 junior colleges, 
2 teachers' colleges, and 1 senior college. 
Concordia Seminary in St. Louis and 
Concordia Seminary in Springfield, Il- 
linois, are the 2 largest Lutheran semi- 
naries in America; and Valparaiso Uni- 
versity at Valparaiso, Indiana, is the 
second largest Lutheran college in this 

Affiliated with the Missouri Synod are 
the Walther League (a youth organi- 
zation), the Lutheran Women's Mis- 
sionary League, and the Lutheran Lay- 
men's League. This synod carries on the 
most extensive work among the deaf in 
American Protestantism, with 37 full- 


time pastors serving 37 congregations 
for the deaf. 

Lutheran Free Church 

Organized in 1897 by seceders from 
the United Norwegian Lutheran Church 
of America, the Lutheran Free Church 
is remarkable for its emphasis upon the 
independence and autonomy of the local 
congregation, and it generally distrusts 
any higher governing body. While al- 
lowing wide freedom in doctrine, it has 
from the start adhered to the 3 ecumeni- 
cal creeds and to the Lutheran confes- 
sions, with special emphasis on the un- 
altered Augsburg Confession and 
Luther's Small Catechism. Religious ex- 
perience is regarded as more important 
than unity in doctrine, and there is 
constant effort to awaken and cultivate 
a deeper spiritual life within the con- 

Each congregation is autonomous and 
"governs its own affairs subject to the 
authority of the Word of God and the 
Spirit." In harmony with this principle, 
the church body is not incorporated but 
the Board of Administration, its major 
executive board, is incorporated. De- 
cisions of the annual conference are 
advisory only; this annual conference 
makes recommendations to the congre- 
gations of amounts necessary to carry on 
the several church activities. The activi- 
ties connected with schools and missions 
are conducted by independently incor- 
porated boards. The church operates 
two schools Augsburg College and 
Theological Seminary in Minneapolis, 
and Oak Grove Lutheran High School 
in Fargo, North Dakota; it has 39 mis- 
sionaries serving in Hong Kong, For- 
mosa, Japan, and Madagascar. There are 
3 homes for the aged, 1 deaconess home, 
and one hospital and nurses' training 

The Lutheran Free Church is a mem- 
ber of the National Lutheran Council 
and an active participant in the Lutheran 


World Federation. There are 80,248 
members and 343 congregations. 

National Evangelical Lutheran Church 

Created by a dissenting group which 
withdrew from union with the Suomi 
Synod for fear that the synod was losing 
its congregational freedom and auton- 
omy, this church was organized at Rock 
Springs, Wyoming, in 1898. It func- 
tioned for some years as the Finnish 
Evangelical Lutheran National Church 
of America. It resembles in polity and 
doctrine to the Missouri Synod. 

Local churches send delegates to an 
annual meeting. A board of directors is 
elected, one member each year, for a 
4-year term of office. The president is 
the executive officer of the church and 
acts as general representative of the de- 
nomination. Ordination of candidates 
is performed by the annual convention 
with the president as authorized officiant. 

The work of the church is carried 
out by the Board for Missions and Evan- 
gelism, the Extension Board, the Board 
for Parish Education, the Pension and 
Disability Board, the Committee for 
Christian Stewardship, and the Commit- 
tee on Doctrine and Practice. 

The local congregations are autono- 
mous and are aided by the synodical 
body which acts in an advisory and 
cohesive capacity. Geographically the 
church is divided into districts, each 
with its own executive and administra- 
tive boards and committees. 

The church co-operates with The 
Lutheran Church Missouri Synod in 
mission work in New Zealand and Fin- 
land, and with the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of Australia in mission work 
among the Finnish immigrants in North 
Queensland, Australia. There are 9,195 
members in 57 congregations in the 

fresh allegiance to the old doctrinal posi- 
tions of orthodox Lutheranism. The ob- 
jection here was to the "deviations" of 
the Missouri Synod from established 
beliefwhich would seem to make the 
Orthodox Lutheran Conference ultra- 
conservative. Organized in 1951 by 
former members of the Missouri Synod, 
there are as yet no statistics available 
on program, churches, or membership. 

The Protestant Conference (Lutheran) 

Dissatisfaction with alleged deviations 
from the original doctrinal positions of 
the Joint Synod of Wisconsin in 1928 
led to the creation of the Protestant 
Conference (Lutheran). Members ob- 
jected to "mistaken dogmas current in 
the church" and sought to correct the 
"spirit of self-righteousness and self- 
sufficiency" through a re-emphasis upon 
the "Gospel of Forgiveness of Sins 
through Our Blessed Saviour." The con- 
ference is reticent to release any statis- 
tical or organizational information; an 
inclusive membership of 3,000 in 11 
churches was reported in 1959. A gen- 
eral conference meets semiannually; and 
one publication, Faith-Life, is issued 
from Manitowoc, Wisconsin. 

Synod of Evangelical Lutheran 

Churches (Formerly the Slovak 

Evangelical Lutheran Church) 

Established at Connellsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1902, this church works in 
close co-operation with the Missouri 
Synod. The membership, 18,003, and the 
churches, 59, are grouped into 3 districts 
eastern, central, and western. Synodi- 
cal meetings are held every 2 years. 
Contributions are made by the mem- 
bership to the home and foreign mis- 
sionary programs of the Missouri Synod 
and the Synodical Conference, although 
the synod has its own board of missions. 

Orthodox Lutheran Conference Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 

This body, like the Protestant Con- Organized in 1850 under the name 
ference, is a small splinter body seeking First German Lutheran Synod of Wis- 



cousin, 3 synods Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
and Michigan united in an organic 
union in 1918 as The Evangelical Lu- 
theran Joint Synod of Wisconsin and 
Other States. This name was changed 
in August of 1959 to The Wisconsin 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Very close 
to the theological pattern of the Mis- 
souri Synod, they stand for orthodox, 
confessional Lutheranism and are op- 
posed to tendencies toward union 'with- 
out doctrinal unity among Lutheran 

The synod is divided into 9 districts, 
from Michigan, Ohio, and Florida to 
Arizona, California, and the Pacific 
Northwest. The districts meet in con- 
vention every even year, in joint synodi- 
cal conference in odd years, with pas- 

tors, teachers, and laymen as delegates. 
With 346,790 baptized members and 
233,357 communicant members in 853 
congregations, it is a constituent member 
of the Synodical Conference, carrying 
on within the conference work among 
Negroes in America and among the na- 
tives of Nigeria and Ghana, in Africa. 
The synod conducts its own missions, 
from 195 mission stations, among the 
Apache Indians and Spanish-speaking 
people in Arizona (since 1893), Ger- 
many, Rhodesia, and Japan. There are 
2 senior colleges, 5 junior colleges and 
academies, 1 theological seminary, 1 
teachers 5 seminary, 8 area Lutheran high 
schools, some 22,616 children in 215 
parochial schools, 3 homes for the aged, 
and 4 children's homes. 


Incorporated in 1928 and reporting 
3,312 members in 13 churches or groups 
in 1947, the Mayan Temple is a "restora- 
tion of the pristine faith catholic, prac- 
ticed by the Mayas in prehistoric Amer- 
ica and common to all North and South 
America, prior to the coming of the 
white man." Followers seek to preserve 
the ceremonials of various Indian tribes, 
to keep a record of all Americans with 
Indian blood, and to restore to religion 
certain values lost across the ages 
music, the dance, healing, education, cul- 

ture, interest in material as well as spir- 
itual welfare, and so forth. They have 
as their aim the practice of scientific 
religion and the logical understanding 
of life and its purpose. They believe in 
one God and that reincarnation and the 
continuity of life are both reasonable 
and in accord with science and scientific 
discovery. The Ancient and Mystical 
Order of Po-ahtun, composed of both 
clergy and laity, is reported as the chief 
administrative body of the temple; a 
pontiff, abbot, and dean are also listed. 


The first Mennonite congregation of 
historical record was organized at 
Zurich, Switzerland, in 1525; it consisted 
of Swiss Brethren, or Taujer, who dis- 
agreed with Ulrich Zwingli in his readi- 
ness to consent to a union of church 
and state. They also denied the scrip- 
tural validity of infant baptism and 
hence were labeled Anabaptists, or Re- 

Baptizers. Anabaptists congregations 
were organized in Holland by Obbe 
Philips as early as 1534; Philips baptized 
Menno Simons (ca. 1496-1561) in 1536. 
Menno was a converted Roman Cath- 
olic priest; he organized more Anabap- 
tist congregations in Holland, and his 
followers gave his name to the move- 
ment. Many of his Flemish adherents 



crossed the channel on the invitation of 
Henry Vlil. In England as well as in 
Germany, Holland, and Switzerland 
they met opposition largely because of 
their determined distrust of any union 
of church and state. An impressive mar- 
tyr roll was created; it might have been 
much larger had it not been for the 
sudden haven offered in the American 
colony of William Penn. Thirteen fami- 
lies settled in Germantown, near Phila- 
delphia, in 1683. Eventually they estab- 
lished a Mennonite congregation there, 
although many of them had left the 
Mennonite fold and united with the 
Quakers before they left Crefeld, Ger- 
many. Mennonite immigrants from Ger- 
many and Switzerland spread over 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Virginia, Indiana, 
Illinois, farther west, and into Canada; 
these were later joined by others com- 
ing from Russia, Prussia, and Poland. 
Thanks to their historic insistence upon 
nonresistance their colonial settlements 
were comparatively peaceful and pros- 

The faith of these Mennonites was 
based upon a confession of faith signed 
at Dordrecht, Holland, in 1632. In 18 
articles the following doctrines were 
laid down: faith in God as creator; 
man's fall and restoration at the coming 
of Christ; Christ as the Son of God, 
redeeming men on the cross; obedience 
to Christ's law in the gospel; the neces- 
sity of repentance and conversion for 
salvation; baptism as a public testimony 
of faith; the Lord's Supper as an ex- 
pression of common union and fellow- 
ship; matrimony as permissible only 
among those "spiritually kindred"; obe- 
dience to and respect for civil govern- 
ment except in the use of armed force; 
exclusion from the church of those who 
sin willfully and their social ostracism 
for the protection of the faith of others 
in the church; and future rewards and 
punishments for the faithful and the 

The Lord's Supper is served twice a 
year in almost all Mennonite congrega- 


tions, and in most of them baptism is 
by pouring. Most of them observe the 
foot-washing ordinance in connection 
with the Supper, after which they sa- 
lute each other with the "kiss of peace." 
The sexes are separated in the last 2 
ceremonies. All Mennonites baptize only 
on confession of faith, refuse to take 
oaths before magistrates, oppose secret 
societies, and follow strictly the teach- 
ings of the New Testament. They have 
a strong intrachurch program of mutual 
aid and a world-wide relief and 
eleemosynary service through ^an all- 
Mennonite relief organization called the 
Mennonite Central Committee. 

The local congregation is more or less 
autonomous and authoritative, although 
in some instances appeals are taken to 
district or state conferences. The officers 
of the church are bishops (often called 
elders), ministers, and deacons (al- 
moners). Many ministers are self-sup- 
porting, working in secular employments 
when not occupied with the work of 
the church. There are other appointed 
officers for Sunday school, young peo- 
ple's work, and so forth. 

The Amish movement within the 
ranks of the Mennonites takes its name 
from Jacob Amman, a Swiss (Bernese) 
Mennonite bishop of the late seventeenth 
century who insisted upon strict con- 
formation to the confession of faith, 
especially in the matter of the ban, or 
expulsion of members. This literalism 
brought about a separation in Switzer- 
land in 1693; about 200 years later the 
divided bodies, with the exception of 3 
Amish groups, were reunited. 

Amish immigrants to the United 
States concentrated early in Pennsyl- 
vania and moved from there into Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Nebraska, and other 
western states; some went into Canada. 
They have today a common literature. 
Many of the Amish, distinguished by 
their severely plain clothing, are found 
in the Conservative Amish Mennonite 
Church and the larger Old Order Amish 
Mennonite Church. They are still the 


"literalists" of the movement, clinging 
tenaciously to the "Pennsylvania Dutch" 
language and to the seventeenth -century 
culture of their Swiss-German forebears. 
They oppose automobiles, telephones, 
higher education, and so forth, but are 
recognized as very efficient farmers. 

Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches 

These churches are made up of Amish 
Mennonites who separated from the 
more conservative Old Order Men- 
nonites over a period of years, begin- 
ning in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, 
in 1927. They were led by Bishop Moses 
M. Beachy, who died in 1946. There 
are today about 12 congregations and 
over 2,000 members. 

They resemble the Old Order Amish 
in garb and general attitudes, but their 
discipline is more mild and relaxed, 
especially in the matter of shunning; 
they do not "shun" (refuse to recog- 
nize) those members of their group who 
leave to join other churches. 

Church of God in Christ (Mennonite) 

This church grew out of the preach- 
ing and labors of John Holdeman, a 
member of the Mennonite Church who 
became dissatisfied with what he thought 
was a lack of allegiance in that church 
to the principles laid down by Menno 
Simons, especially in its failure to en- 
force the ban. Holdeman completed his 
organization in Ohio in 1859. Since his 
death his followers have considerably 
relaxed the discipline based on his views. 
The Church of God in Christ is unique 
in refusing to take interest on money 
loaned; this is prohibited in its member- 
ship. There are 6,200 members in 33 

Conference of the Evangelical 
Mennonite Church 

Formerly the Defenseless Mennonite 
Church of North America, this is a 

branch of the Amish Mennonite Church 
which left that body in I860 under the 
leadership of Henry Egli, seeking a more 
positive emphasis upon conversion. 
Members work closely with the Evan- 
gelical Mennonite Brethren, supporting 
missionary work in Tennessee, an or- 
phanage at Flanagan, Illinois, and the 
foreign missionary stations of the Bel- 
gian Congo mission. There are 2,301 
members in 21 churches. 

Conservative Mennonite 

With 5,484 members in 40 churches 
this is a small body subscribing to the 
Dordrecht Confession of Faith. Its first 
general conference was held at Pigeon, 
Michigan, in 1910. It separated gradually 
from the Old Order Amish, installing 
such innovations as meetinghouses, Sun- 
day schools, evening and "continued" 
meetings, and the use of English rather 
than German in worship. 

Evangelical Mennonite Brethren 

Formerly called the Conference of 
Defenseless Mennonites of North Amer- 
ica, this group lists 2,580 members in 14 
churches. It was established by Russian 
Mennonite immigrants 1873-74 and sup- 
ports missionaries in China and Africa 
in co-operation with the Evangelical 
Mennonite Church and has identical pol- 
ity and doctrine. 

Evangelical Mennonite Church 

Formerly known as (Mennonite') 
Kleine Gememde (Little Congregation), 
this body was organized as the result of 
a split among the Mennonites in Russia 
in 1812; the "little congregations" stood 
for a strict enforcement of discipline. 
They established several churches in the 
United States in the 1870's, where their 
membership has now declined to 25. 
Most of them are resident in Canada, 
where they report 2,000 members. 



The General Conference Mennonite 

This conference was organized at the 
instigation of several Iowa congregations 
who sought the uniting of all Mennonite 
bodies into one; the actual outcome was 
the formation of an additional body, 
ship, nor does it uniformly consider foot 
They created the General Conference in 
1860, drawing into it many Russian and 
German congregations and the Central 
Mennonite Conference, a former Amish 

This conference accepts most estab- 
lished Mennonite doctrine and practice, 
but it does not require its women to 
cover their heads during prayer or wor- 
ship, nor does it uniformly consider foot 
washing as a "command of Christ." 
Musical instruments are employed in 
many of the churches. Governmental or- 
ganization parallels that of the Men- 
nonite Church, with local and district 
conferences, and a general conference 
meeting every 3 years. The general con- 
ference elects a board of 9 trustees 
and appoints boards for home missions, 
foreign missions, and publications. This 
body of Mennonites stresses the au- 
tonomy of the local congregation even 
more than the Mennonite Church. 

Home missionary effort consists chief- 
ly of evangelistic work and supplying 
needy congregations with ministers. 
Foreign mission stations are located 
among the American Indians and in 
India and Japan. There are 2 colleges 
and 1 junior college, 5 homes for the 
aged, 7 hospitals, 3 girls' homes, and a 
nurses' training school It is the second 
largest American Mennonite group, with 
51,378 members and 250 churches. 

Hutterlan Brethren 

These are the modern disciples of 
Jacob Hutter, a sixteenth-century Tyro- 
lean Anabaptist who advocated com- 
munal ownership of property. He was 
burned as a heretic in Austria hi 1536. 
Many of the Hutterites came from Rus- 


sia to Canada and the United States 
about 1874; they have moved back and 
forth across the border ever since. Most 
of them today are of German ancestry 
and use the German tongue in their 
homes and churches. Aside from the 
"common-property" idea, they are quite 
similar to the Old Order Amish: they 
have a Bible-centered faith which they 
seek, to express in brotherly love; they 
aim at the recovery of the New Testa- 
ment spirit and fellowship; they feel 
that this requires nonconformity to the 
world, and accordingly they practice 
nonresistance; refuse to participate in 
local politics, dress differently, make no 
contributions to community projects, 
and have their own schools, in which 
the Bible is paramount. Their exclusive- 
ness has made them unwelcome in cer- 
tain sections of the country, and their 
status is uncertain at the moment. There 
are 31 colonies of Hutterites in South 
Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana, with 
a population of 3,204. 

Krimmer Mennonite Brethren 

Made up largely of descendants of 
Russian immigrants, this group was 
founded in the Crimea by Jacob A. 
Wiebe in 1869. It has an unusual method 
of baptism, immersing candidates for 
membership backward, like the Baptists, 
instead of forward, as in other immer- 
sionist Mennonite churches. Continued 
efforts have been made to unite this 
branch with the Mennonite Brethren 
Church. The conference has a home 
missionary work among the Negroes of 
North Carolina and foreign missions 
in Mongolia and China. There were 2 
colleges, 1 academy, 1 hospital, 1 home 
for the aged, and there were 1,792 mem- 
bers in 11 churches in 1958. 

Mennonite Brethren Church of 
North America 

Russian in background, this church 
stems from a Mennonite Brethren 


church organized on the Molotschna 
River in Russia by a Mennonite group 
seeking a rigid enforcement of the ban 
and closer attention to prayer and Bible 
study. Small bodies of these Russians 
reached America in 1874, spreading 
through the Midwest to the Pacific coast 
and into Canada. 

A general conference meets triennial- 
ly as the chief administrative body, gath- 
ering delegates from 5 district confer- 
ences. District conferences supervise a 
large work in evangelism; home missions 
are found among the Indians and Mex- 
icans of Oklahoma; and foreign missions 
are maintained in India, Central and 
South America, Europe, Japan, and 
Africa. There are 24,711 members and 
146 churches which represents a phe- 
nomenal growth from 11,930 members 
in 65 churches in 1954. 

Mennonite Church 

This is the largest single group of 
Mennonites in this country, with 83,204 
members and 612 churches; it is the 
church founded by the Germantown 
immigrants in 1683. It holds firmly to the 
Dordrecht Confession of Faith though 
with a mild interpretation of "shunning" 
expelled members and is progressive in 
practice. A general conference meets 
every 2 years as an advisory body; dea- 
cons and ministers who are not elected 
delegates from the district or state con- 
ference may debate but not vote; the 
bishops and other delegates from the 
district conferences render decisions by 
a majority vote. The district conferences 
set the disciplinary standards for their 
respective congregations. Bishops, min- 
isters, and deacons serve as delegates; 
some districts also have lay delegates. 
Three conferences of the former Amish 
Mennonite Church have been merged 
with the district and state conferences 
of this church. 

Church-wide autonomous boards and 
committees are in charge of missionary, 
educational, publishing, and philan- 


thropic work; they are not under the 
supervision of the general conference. 
Home missions stress evangelism; and 
foreign missions are found in Africa, In- 
dia, Japan, Puerto Rico, and South 
America. There are 2 colleges, several 
academies, 1 hospital, 2 nurses' training 
schools, 3 orphans' homes, and 4 homes 
for the aged. 

Old Order Amish Mennonite Church 

Organized about 1865, this church ad- 
heres strictly to the older forms of wor- 
ship and attire, using hooks and eyes 
instead of buttons on coats and vests, 
worshiping as a group in private homes 
and having no conferences. Members 
do not believe in conferences, missions, 
or benevolent institutions, and have 
aroused attention by their adamant op- 
position to centralized schools. Some 
of them, however, contribute to the mis- 
sions and charities of the Mennonite 
Church. There are 17,785 members and 
250 churches. 

Old Order (Wisler) Mennonite 

This church was named for the first 
Mennonite bishop in Indiana, Jacob 
Wisler, who led a separation from the 
Mennonite Church in 1870. Those who 
separated did so in protest against the 
use of English in the services and the 
introduction of Sunday schools. Joined 
in 1886, 1893, and 1901 by groups with 
similar ideas from Canada, Pennsylvania, 
and Virginia, they still maintain their 
church on the basis of these protests. 
Each section of the church has its own 
district conference; there are no be- 
nevolent or missionary enterprises, but 
some members contribute to the work 
of the Mennonite Church in those fields. 
There are 6,116 members and 44 

Reformed Mennonite Church 

This church represents a protest 
against the established Menaonite 


churches as "corrupt and dead bodies," 
and the stricter enforcement of Men- 
nonite discipline, led by Francis Herr 
and his son John Herr in Lancaster 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1812. The Re- 
formed Church has no written discipline 
but is rigid in enforcing the ban on 
members who violate or neglect what 
might be called their unwritten disci- 
pline. It adheres vigorously to the prin- 
ciple of nonresistance, has no missionary 
or educational work, and reports 616 
members in 19 churches. This is the 
group described in the novel Tillie, a 
Mennonite Maid by H. R. Martin. 

Stauffer Mennonite Church 

This body has only 2 churches and 375 
members; it was organized in 1845 by 
Jacob Stauffer at Lancaster, Pennsyl- 
vania, following a disciplinary dispute in 
the Groffdale, Pennsylvania, congrega- 
tion. It is an extremely conservative 

church, using the German language and 
having no educational, missionary, or 
benevolent work. A group known as 
the Weaver Mennonites left the church 
soon after its organization and now has 
60 members. 

Unaffiliated Mennonites 

There are a number of what might be 
called "splinter" Mennonite churches 
which hold unafHliated status with all 
the other groups. One of the largest of 
these bodies is known as the Unaffiliated 
Conservative Amish Mennonite 
Churches; it claims 2,034 members en- 
rolled in 20 churches. According to 
the Mennonite Yearbook and Directory 
there are 4 other Mennonite congrega- 
tions, with 950 members, who are in- 
cluded in the statistics reported for the 
Mennonite Church but who have no 
other relationship with that church. 


England's famed old Oxford Uni- 
versity has been called the "cradle of 
lost causes," but at least one cause was 
born there which was not lost. This was 
Methodism. Known and ridiculed at 
Oxford in 1729, it claims today 13,611, 
336 adherents in the United States, 
14,548,000 in North America, and 19, 
100,000 around the world. The influence 
of Methodism is even more impressive 
than its numbers. 

In 1729 the Oxford Methodists (also 
dubbed "Bible Bigots," "Bible Moths," 
and the "Holy Club") were a tiny 
group of students who gave stated time 
to prayer and Bible reading; prominent 
among them were John and Charles 
Wesley and George Whitefield. They 
were methodically religious, talking of 
the necessity of being justified before 
they could be sanctified and of the need 
of holiness in human living, reading and 


discussing William Law's A Serious Call 
to a Devout and Holy Life and A Trea- 
tise on Christian Perfection, The two 
Wesleys were sons of a clergyman of 
the Church of England; with the other 
members of the Holy Club they stood 
their ground against jeering students and 
went out to preach and pray with the 
poor and desperate commoners of Eng- 
land prisoners in jail, paupers in hovels, 
bitter and nearly hopeless "underdogs of 
a British society that was perilously close 
to moral and spiritual collapse." Meth- 
odism started on a campus and reached 
for the masses. 

The Wesleys came to Georgia in 
1736. Charles came as secretary to Gen- 
eral Oglethorpe, and John was sent by 
the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel as a missionary to the Indians. It 
was an unsuccessful and unhappy 2 
years for John Wesley with but one 


bright spot; on shipboard en route to 
the colonies he met a group of Mora- 
vians and became deeply impressed by 
their piety and humble Christian living. 
Later when he returned to London, he 
went one night to meet with a religious 
society in Aldersgate Street, heard the 
preacher read Luther's preface to the 
Epistle to the Romans and felt his heart 
"strangely warmed" as the meaning of 
the reformer's doctrine of "justification 
by faith" sank into his soul. It was the 
evangelistic spark that energized his life 
and started the flame of the Wesleyan 
revival in England. From the pious Mo- 
ravians via Wesley came the warm- 
hearted emphases upon conversion and 
holiness which are still the central 
themes of Methodism. 

Whitefield and the Wesleys were too 
much afire to remain within the staid 
Church of England. When its doors 
were closed to them, they took to the 
open air, John preaching and Charles 
writing the hymns of the revival in 
streets, barns, and private homes and in 
the mining pits of Cornwall, preaching 
repentance, regeneration, turning from 
sin and the wrath to come, justification, 
holiness, and sanctification. The upper 
classes laughed, and the lower classes 
listened to the first words of hope they 
had heard in many a year. Converts 
came thick and fast; it became necessary 
to organize them into societies. The first 
Methodist society was attached to a 
Moravian congregation in Fetter Lane, 
London, in 1739 and later moved to its 
own quarters in an old, abandoned gov- 
ernment building known as the Foundry, 
where the first self-sustaining Methodist 
society in London was organized in 

Between 1739 and 1744 the organiza- 
tional elements of Methodism were in- 
stituted; we read of a "circuit system" 
and of an "itinerant ministry," of class 
meetings and class leaders, of lay preach- 
ers and annual conferences. There was 
a phenomenal growth in membership; 
more than 26,000 Methodists were wor- 

shiping in England, Ireland, Scotland, 
and Wales in 1767. Their impact upon 
British society was startling; the crudities 
and barbarisms of the times were al- 
leviated and a "French revolution" 
averted. It was primarily a lay move- 

Wesley did his best to keep the move- 
ment within the Church of England; an 
Evangelical Party grew within the 
church, but the greater numbers re- 
cruited from among the unchurched 
made a separate organization imperative. 
In 1739 Wesley drew up a set of gen- 
eral rules which are still held by modern 
Methodists and an ideal delineation of 
Bible rules and conduct. A Deed of 
Declaration in 1784 gave legal status 
to the yearly Methodist conference. But 
John Wesley was dead in 1791 before 
Methodism in England had the name 
of a recognized church, the Wesleyan 
Methodist Connection. 

Meanwhile the movement had invaded 
the American colonies. Wesley had be- 
gun to send out leaders; the first of them 
were Joseph Pilmoor and Richard Board- 
man. Philip Embury, an Irish lay leader, 
encouraged by his cousin Barbara Heck, 
preached in New York and inspired the 
organization about 1766 of the first 
Methodist society overseas. By 1769 the 
New York Methodists had built Wesley 
Chapel, now known as John Street 
Methodist Church. To the south Captain 
Thomas Webb, a veteran of Braddock's 
ill-fated army, established societies in 
Philadelphia, and Robert Strawbridge 
started a revival in Maryland and built 
a log-cabin church at Sam's Creek. 
Devereux Jarratt, a transplanted evan- 
gelical Anglican minister, led a revival 
in Virginia which won thousands. The 
true center of Methodism in those days 
did indeed lie in the South; out of 3,148 
Methodists in the colonies in 1735 about 
2,384 lived south of Mason and Dixon's 
Line. Wesley, aware of the rapid spread 
of the movement in America, sent emis- 
saries to take charge, among them Fran- 
cis Asbury and his successor, Thomas 



Rankin, the latter as the first full-fledged 
"superintendent of the entire work of 
Methodism in America." Rankin pre- 
sided over the first conference in Amer- 
ica, called at Philadelphia in 1773 and 
attended by 10 ministers. 

There were about 1,160 Methodists 
represented in the conference of 1773; 
when the Liberty Bell rang in 1776, there 
were less than 7,000 in all the colonies, 
and they seemed doomed to disappear as 
quickly as they had been gathered. The 
majority of their preachers had come 
from England and were incurable Brit- 
ish; they were so roughly handled by 
the patriots that by 1779 nearly every 
one of them had fled either to Canada 
or home to England, Wesley's pro- 
British attitude also roused resentment, 
and Francis Asbury working almost 
singlehanded had a difficult time keep- 
ing some of the churches alive. But a 
miracle happened; of all the religious 
groups in the colonies the Methodists 
alone actually seemed to prosper during 
the revolution. When the surrender 
came at Yorktown, their membership 
had grown to 14,000 and there were 
nearly 80 preachers. They were, after 
Yorktown, an American church, free of 
both England and the Church of Eng- 
land. Wesley accepted the inevitable; he 
ordained ministers for the colonies and 
appointed Asbury and Thomas Coke 
as superintendents, or bishops. 

Coke brought with him from England 
certain instructions from Wesley, a serv- 
ice book and hymnal, and authority to 
proceed with the organization. A Christ- 
mas Conference held at Baltimore in 
December of 1784 organized the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, elected Coke 
and Asbury as superintendents (later 
called bishops), and adopted the Sunday 
Service (an abridgment of the Book of 
Common Prayer), and Articles of Re- 
ligion as written by John Wesley, add- 
ing another article that as good patriots 
Methodists should vow allegiance to the 
United States government. The first gen- 
eral conference of the new church was 


held in 1792, made up solely of min- 
isters. It was not until 1872 that laymen 
were admitted to what had become by 
that time a quadrennial general confer- 
ence. Membership soared: from 37 cir- 
cuits and 14,000 members at the close of 
the revolution there came a membership 
of 1,324,000 by the middle of the fol- 
lowing century. 

Methodism not only swept through 
the cities; it developed an amazing 
strength in small towns and rural areas. 
Everywhere there were circuit riders 
ministers on horseback riding the ex- 
panding frontier and preaching in 
mountain cabins, prairie churches, 
schoolhouses, and camp meetings of free 
grace and individual responsibility and 
the need of conversion and regeneration. 
Their itinerant ministry was perfectly 
adapted to the democratic society of the 
frontier, The Methodist Book Concern 
was established in 1789, putting into the 
saddlebags of the circuit riders a reli- 
gious literature which followed the 
march of American empire south and 
west. The camp meeting, born among 
the Presbyterians though not always car- 
ried on by them, was adopted by the 
Methodists and exploited to the limit 
Its revivalistic flavor and method were 
made to order for the followers of 
Wesley and Whitefield. There are still 
camp meetings in Methodism. 

All was not peaceful, however, among 
all the Methodists; divisions came. Ob- 
jecting, like good democrats, to what 
they considered abuses of the episcopal 
system, several bodies broke away: the 
Republican Methodists, later called the 
Christian Church, withdrew in Virginia; 
Methodist Protestants seceded in 1830. 
Between 1813 and 1817 large Negro 
groups formed independent churches: 
the African Methodist Church; the 
Union Church of Africans, now the 
Union American Methodist Episcopal 
Church; and the African Methodist 
Episcopal Zion Church. In 1844 came 
the most devastating split of aU, the 
bisecting of the Methodist Episcopal 


Church into 2 churches, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, the northern body; 
and the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

The cause of this major split was, of 
course, slavery. Bishop Andrew, a Geor- 
gian, owned slaves through inheritance; 
and his wife was also a slaveholder. It 
was not possible for him or his wife to 
free their slaves under the laws of Geor- 
gia. The general conference of 1844, held 
in New York City, requested him to de- 
sist from the exercise of his office so long 
as he remained a slaveholder. Incensed, 
the southern delegates rebelled, a provi- 
sional plan of separation was formulated, 
and the Southerners went home to or- 
ganize their own church in 1845. Basic 
to the separation was the constitutional 
question of the power of the General 
Conference, which, the Southerners 
maintained, assumed supreme power in 
virtually deposing a bishop against 
whom no charges had been brought, 
who had violated no law of the church, 
and who had been given no trial. It was 
a split that concerned neither doctrine 
nor polity; it was purely political and 
social, and it was a wound that waited 
until 1939 for healing. In that year the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South, and the 
Methodist Protestant Church were re- 
united at Kansas City, Missouri. 

The uniting conference of 1939 
adopted a new constitution in 3 sec- 
tions: the Articles of Religion, drawn up 
by John Wesley and based on the 39 
Articles of Religion of the Church of 
England; the General Rules, covering 
the conduct of church members and 
the duties of church officials; and the 
Articles of Organization and Govern- 
ment, outlining the organization and 
conduct of conferences and local 
churches. This constitution cannot be 
changed by any general conference un- 
less and until every annual conference 
has acted on the changes proposed. 

In matters of faith there has been very 
little occasion for confusion or differ- 

ence among Methodists; heresy trials 
and doctrinal quarrels have been notice- 
ably absent. Historically they have never 
built theological fences or walls to keep 
anyone out; they have stressed the great 
foundation beliefs of Protestantism and 
offered common ground acceptable to 
those uninterested in theological triviali- 
ties. Some of the churches repeat the 
Apostles' Creed in their worship, but not 
all of them, though the discipline of the 
church provides for its use in formal 
worship. Their theology is Arminian, as 
interpreted by Wesley in his sermons, 
his notes on the New Testament, and his 
Articles of Religion. 

They preach and teach doctrines of 
the Trinity, the natural sinfulness of man- 
kind, man's fall and need of conversion 
and repentance, freedom of the will, 
justification by faith, sanctification and 
holiness, future rewards and punish- 
ments, the sufficiency of the Scriptures 
for salvation, perfection and the enabling 
grace of God. Two sacraments, baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, are observed; 
baptism is administered to both infants 
and adults, usually by sprinkling. Mem- 
bership full, preparatory, or "affiliate" 
(the latter arranged for people away 
from their home church who wish to 
affiliate where they live) is based upon 
confession of faith or by letter of trans- 
fer from other evangelical churches; ad- 
mission of children to membership is 
usually limited to those 13 years of age 
or over, though in the South the age 
may be 2 or 3 years younger. There is 
wide freedom in the interpretation and 
practice of all doctrine; liberals and 
conservatives work in close harmony. 

The local churches in Methodism 
probably enjoy less freedom than most 
Protestant churches; they are called 
charges, to which pastors are appointed 
by the bishop at the annual conference. 
Official boards are made up of stewards 
and trustees and other church officers. 
Trustees manage the property interests 
of the church; stewards handle finances 
and generally guide the spiritual work. 



Quarterly, annual, and general con- 
ferences prevail in most Methodist 
bodies; while Methodist government is 
popularly called episcopal, it is largely 
governmental by this series of confer- 
ences. The quarterly conference meets 
in the local charge or on the circuit 
with the district superintendent presid- 
ing. It fixes the salary of the pastor, sets 
the budget, elects the church officers, and 
sends delegates to the annual conference 
where it seems advisable, as it usually 
does in large or "station" charges. The 
quarterly conference may delegate to 
the official board of the local church 
responsibility for many of these duties. 
Some areas have district conferences be- 
tween the quarterly and the annual con- 
ferences, but it is not a universal ar- 
rangement in the church. Annual 
conferences cover defined geographical 
areas, ordain and admit ministers to the 
ministry, vote on constitutional ques- 
tions, supervise pensions and relief, 
through act of the bishop exchange pas- 
tors with other annual conferences, and 
every fourth year elect lay and minis- 
terial delegates to the general conference. 
The general conference is the lawmaking 
body of the church, meeting quadren- 
nially; the bishops preside, and the work 
of the conference is done largely in com- 
mittees, whose reports when adopted by 
the general conference become Meth- 
odist law. 

Worship and liturgy are based upon 
the English prayer book with widespread 
modifications. The language of the 
Prayer Book is much in evidence in the 
sacraments of the Methodist churches. 
In many forms of worship, however, 
each congregation is free to use or 
change the accepted pattern as it sees fit. 

There are 26 separate Methodist bodies 
in the U.S. of which The Meth- 
odist Church is numerically the strong- 

The Methodist Church 

This group includes the 3 branches 
united at Kansas City in the general 


conference of 1939: the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, the northern body; the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South; and 
the Methodist Protestant Church. The 
history of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church has already been outlined. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
was organized at Louisville, Kentucky, 
in 1845 and held its first general 
conference a year later in Peters- 
burg, Virginia, under the presidency of 
Bishops James O. Andrew and Joshua 
Soule. The southern church brought to 
the 1939 merger 3 universities, 26 col- 
leges, 22 junior colleges, 20 secondary 
schools, and a membership of more than 
3,000,000. The Methodist Protestant 
Church was organized in revolt against 
the rule of the clergy in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church and the exclusion of 
laymen from its councils; it was formally 
organized in 1830 at Baltimore with 
about 5,000 members. There were over 
50,000 members in the Methodist Prot- 
estant Church in 1939, 5 educational in- 
stitutions, and foreign missions in China, 
India, and Japan. 

The polity of The Methodist Church 
follows the general polity of all Meth- 
odism. There are 100 annual conferences 
in the United States with a total of 
39,236 pastoral charges, 27,750 ministers, 
9,910,741 members, and 1,536,419 pre- 
paratory members. With the union of 
3 bodies at Kansas City in 1939 a system 
of 6 jurisdictional conferences was 
added; these meet every 4 years after 
the general conference has adjourned 
to elect the bishops of the denomination 
and the representatives of the larger 
boards and commissions. In lands outside 
the continental United States central con- 
ferences correspond somewhat to the 
jurisdictional conferences. They meet 
quadrennially, and when authorized to 
do so may elect their own bishops. The 
bishops of each jurisdictional or central 
conference collectively are called its 
College of Bishops. 

The general conference is the lawmak- 
ing body of The Methodist Church; it 


consists of 835 delegates, half laymen 
and half ministers, elected on a propor- 
tional basis by the annual conferences. 
A judicial council has been created to 
determine the constitutionality of any 
act of the general conference which may 
be appealed, and to hear and determine 
any appeal from a bishop's decision on 
a question of law in any district, annual, 
central, or jurisdictional conference. It 
is made up of 5 ministerial and 4 lay 
members, and has become so important 
that it is often called the "Supreme Court 
of The Methodist Church." Its decisions 
are final. 

Bishops are elected for life, with re- 
tirement set at 72; there are 60 of them in 
the United States and abroad in charge 
of the areas of the church, such as the 
New York Area, the Denver Area, and 
so forth. Together they constitute the 
Council of Bishops, which meets at least 
once a year and usually twice a year "for 
the general oversight and promotion of 
the temporal and spiritual aifairs of the 
entire Church." 

The work of The Methodist Church 
is "big business." It holds property in 
the United States valued at $2,555,- 
838,779. This figure does not include ed- 
ucational plants, valued at $592,073,020, 
nor hospitals and homes for the aged. 
It has spread over 50 countries; 16 of its 
bishops administer work overseas. Over 
200,000 students are enrolled in 135 edu- 
cational institutions, from secondary 
schools to graduate schools and sem- 
inaries; these include 12 schools of the- 
ology, I school of medicine, 8 univer- 
sities, 76 colleges, 21 junior colleges, 14 
secondary schools and 3 others. There 
are 76 hospitals, 104 homes for the aged, 
49 homes for children, and 7 homes for 
businesswomen, serving a total of 1,520,- 
913 persons (in 1959). There are 60 
foreign conferences or missions. In these, 
in 1958, there were 4,600 native preach- 
ers, 2,320 "supplies," 886,552 full and 
583,242 preparatory members. 

The Methodist Publishing House is 
the oldest and largest religious publish- 


ing concern in the world. Together, the 
denomination's most widely circulated 
magazine, has nearly a million subscrib- 
ers, and there are 37 other periodicals 
sponsored by the church, exclusive of its 
Sunday-school materials. 

The World Methodist Council, or- 
ganized in 1881 and designed to draw 
the numerous branches of the whole 
Wesleyan Movement closer together in 
fellowship and devotion to their mutual 
heritage, has become increasingly active 
in recent years. Nine Ecumenical Meth- 
odist Conferences have been held by this 
Council since 1881; the next one will 
be held in Oslo in 1961. Headquarters 
have been established at Lake Junaluska, 
North Carolina. 

The bishops, boards, and committees 
of this church administer a fast-growing, 
global work, but its influence can hardly 
be measured by its size and spread. The 
May 10, 1949 issue of Newsweek said 

Methodist strength lies not so much in 
figures as in the vitality of the Church it- 
self. ... [Its members] emphasize brother- 
hood and friendliness in their religion. Un- 
hampered by a strict theology, they lead 
with their hearts instead of their heads. 

With an evangelistic passion for con- 
version and righteous living in the in- 
dividual, on one hand, and a social pas- 
sion matched by few other Protestant 
bodies, on the other, The Methodist 
Church has had an effect upon the in- 
dividual and upon society which cannot 
be read in its statistics. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 

With 1,166,301 members and 5,878 
churches (as of 1951) this is the second 
largest Methodist group in the United 
States. Its genesis lies in the withdrawal 
in 1787 of a group of Negro Methodists 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Philadelphia; their objection was directed 
largely against practices of discrimina- 
tion. They built a chapel and ordained a 


Negro preacher through the assistance 
of Bishop William White of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church. In 1793 Bishop 
Francis Asbury dedicated Bethel Church 
in Philadelphia, a church whose mem- 
bers prohibited any white brother from 
"electing or being elected into any of- 
fice among [them], save that of a 
preacher or public speaker." In 1799 
Bishop Asbury also ordained Richard 
Allen to preach. Other similar Method- 
ist Negro bodies were formed; the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church was 
formally organized in 1816. In the same 
year Richard Allen was consecrated as 
its first bishop, again by Bishop Asbury. 
It was a church confined in the years 
preceding the Civil War to the northern 
states; following the war its membership 
increased rapidly in the South, and today 
it is represented in nearly every state in 
the union. 

Both doctrine and polity follow that 
of other Methodist bodies. General 
boards are constituted by nomination 
of the bishops, of which there are 17 
appointed at the general conference. The 
general conference also examines all 
judicial power and prerogatives. Each 
department of church work is super- 
vised by a board of 18 members, one for 
each episcopal district. The church has 
a widespread home missionary program, 
foreign missionary work in Africa and 
the West Indies, 17 educational institu- 
tions, and 5 periodicals. 

African Methodist Episcopal 
Zion Church 

This church dates from 1796, when 
its first organization was instituted by 
a group of Negro members protesting 
discrimination in the John Street Church 
in New York City. Their first church, 
built in 1800, was called Zion; the word 
was later made part of the denomina- 
tional name. The first annual conference 
of the body was held in this church in 
1821 with 6 Negro Methodist churches in 


New Haven, Philadelphia, and Newark, 
New Jersey, represented by 19 preachers 
and presided over by the Rev. William 
Phoebus of the white Methodist Epis- 
copal Church. James Varrick, one of 
the John Street dissenters, was elected 
their first bishop at this conference. The 
name African Methodist Episcopal Zion 
Church was approved in 1848. 

This church spread quickly over the 
northern states; by the time of the gen- 
eral conference of 1880 there were 15 
annual conferences in the South. Liv- 
ingstone College at Salisbury, North 
Carolina, the largest educational institu- 
tion of the church, was established by 
that conference. Departments of mis- 
sions, education, and publications were 
established in 1892; later came adminis- 
trative boards to direct work in church 
extension, evangelism, finance, ministerial 
relief, and so on. Home missions are 
supported in Louisiana, Mississippi, and 
in several states beyond the Mississippi, 
principally in Oklahoma. Foreign mis- 
sionaries are found in Liberia, the Gold 
Coast colony, West Africa, South Amer- 
ica, and the West Indies. There are 6 
educational institutions, several foreign 
mission stations, and there are 780,000 
members in 3,090 churches. 

African Union First Colored 
Methodist Protestant Church, Inc. 

A Negro body organized in 1866, this 
is a union of 2 former churches known 
as the African Union Church and the 
First Colored Methodist Protestant 
Church. Doctrine is in accord with most 
of Methodism, but there are differences 
in polity; there are no bishops, and min- 
isters and laymen have equal power in 
annual and general conferences. There 
is no foreign missionary program; home 
missions are maintained by a group of 
women known as the Grand Body. A 
general board, with a president, secre- 
tary, and treasurer, directs the denomina- 
tional effort; the board meets annually 
and the general conference quadren- 


nially. There are 5,000 members and 33 

There are 2 periodicals, and 5 colleges 
are maintained. 

Apostolic Methodist Church 

This is the smallest of the Methodist 
churches. Organized in Florida in 1932, 
it is ultrafundamentalist in doctrine, and 
lists less than 100 members in 3 churches. 

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 

Known until 1954 as the Colored 
Methodist Episcopal Church, this church 
was established in 1870 in the South in 
an amicable agreement between white 
and Negro members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. There were at 
the time at least 225,000 Negro slave 
members in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, but with the Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation all but 80,000 of these 
joined the 2 independent bodies which 
had left the southern white church to 
join the northern church. When the 
general conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, met at New 
Orleans in 1866, a commission from the 
Negro membership asked for a separa- 
tion into a church of their own. The re- 
quest was granted, and in 1870 the or- 
ganization of the Colored Methodist 
Episcopal Church was realized. They 
held this name until the meeting of their 
general conference at Memphis in May 
of 1954, when it was decided to change 
it to the Christian Methodist Episcopal 

Their doctrine is the doctrine of the 
parent church; this denomination adds a 
local church conference to the quarterly, 
district, annual, and general conferences 
usual in Methodism. Seven boards super- 
vise the national work, each presided 
over by a bishop assigned as chairman 
by the College of Bishops. The general 
secretaries of the various departments 
are elected every 4 years by the gen- 
eral conference. There were 392,167 
members and 2,469 churches in 1951. 

Colored Methodist Protestant Church 

Organized in Maryland in 1840, this is 
a remnant group of Methodist Prot- 
estant background; there is but one 
congregation today, with about 200 mem- 

Congregational Methodist Church 

This church was constituted in 
Georgia in 1852 by a group withdraw- 
ing from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, in objection to certain 
features of the episcopacy and the 
itinerancy. Two thirds of its member- 
ship in turn withdrew to join the Con- 
gregational Church in 1887-88. 

Local pastors are called by the local 
churches; district conferences grant 
licenses, ordain ministers, and review 
local reports. District, annual, and gen- 
eral conferences are all recognized as 
church courts, ruling on violations of 
church law, citing offending laymen or 
ministers, and holding the power of ex- 
pulsion over unworthy members. There 
is a restricted home and foreign mis- 
sionary program. A junior college, 
known as Westminster College and Bible 
Institute, is maintained at Tehuacana, 
Texas. As of 1960, approximately 15,000 
members were reported in 253 churches. 

Congregational Methodist Church 
of the U.S.A. 

Organized at Forsythe, Georgia, in 
1852, this group claims to be the parent 
body from which the Congregational 
Methodist Church dissented to form its 
own organization. Originally under the 
jurisdiction of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, they withdrew from that 
church in disagreement over the epis- 
copal and itinerant systems, claiming 
that this system lacked biblical authority 
and democratic principles, to set up a 



church that would be congregational in 
government. There are local and district 
conferences, and about 7,000 members in 
65 churches. The church was in- 
corporated at Armiston, Alabama, in 

Cumberland Methodist Church 
This is one of the smaller Methodist 
bodies, listing currently 4 churches and 
an inclusive membership of 65. Its lead- 
ers withdrew from the Congregational 
Methodist Church in protest against cer- 
tain elements of polity and doctrine. It 
was organized at Laager, Grundy 
County, Tennessee, on May 5, 1950. A 
general board is the chief administrative 
body, and a president is elected instead 
of the usual bishop. The membership is 
limited to the state of Tennessee. 

Evangelical Methodist Church 

Organized at Memphis, Tennessee, in 
1946, this church is "fundamental in 
doctrine, evangelistic in program, and 
congregational in government." It repre- 
sents a double protest against what were 
considered autocratic and undemocratic 
government on the one hand and a 
tendency toward modernism on the 
other in The Methodist Church, from 
which the body withdrew. There is great 
emphasis placed upon the protest against 

The church is Arminian in theology 
and Wesleyan in doctrine. Members seek 
a return to the original revivalistic 
thought and program of Wesleyanism; 
they adhere more rigidly than most 
Methodists to the original standards of 
Wesley; extremely fundamentalist, they 
oppose the "substituting of social, edu- 
cational, or any other variety of cultural 

Local churches control and own their 
own property and select their own pas- 
tors. There are 5 districts, 5 district 
superintendents, and 1 general superin- 
tendent within the Western Conference; 

6 districts, 6 district superintendents, and 
1 general superintendent within the 
Eastern Conference. In addition, the ter- 
ritory of Mexico constitutes the only 
mission conference, called the Mexican 
Evangelistic Conference, with 1 general 
superintendent. The General Confer- 
ence meets quadrennially. International 
headquarters are located at 301 Palm, 
Abilene, Texas. There are 102 churches, 
221 ministers, and a total membership 
of 8,000. 

Free Methodist Church 
of North America 

This is one of the more conservative 
among the larger bodies of American 
Methodism, both in doctrine and in 
standards of Christian practice. Its 
founder was the Rev. B. T. Roberts, 
who with his associates objected to what 
was called "new school" Methodism, 
which they considered destructive to 
the Wesleyan standards of the church. 
They were "read out" of their churches 
and organized the Free Methodist 
Church at Pekin, New York, in 1860. 
The Genesee Conference, of which 
Roberts had been a member, restored 
his credentials to his son in 1910, but no 
reunion of the group with The Meth- 
odist Church has yet been effected. A 
merger with the Holiness Movement 
Church in Canada was approved in 

Doctrinally, the Free Methodists call 
for a return to primitive Wesleyan 
teaching; they stress the virgin birth 
and deity of Jesus and his vicarious 
atonement and resurrection. No one may 
be received into membership without an 
experience of confession and forgiveness 
of sin, and the experience of entire 
sanctificarion is sought in all members. 
Strict adherence to the general rules of 
Methodism is demanded, and member- 
ship in secret societies is forbidden. 
There are 55,000 members in the U. S., 
and a world membership of 97,000 or 
2 members abroad for every 3 in the 



U. S. and Canada. Foreign missions are 
maintained in Africa, India, Japan, the 
Dominican Republic, Formosa, Hong 
Kong, the Philippines, Egypt, Brazil, 
Paraguay, and Mexico. There are 3 
senior colleges, 5 junior colleges, and a 
seminary foundation in co-operation with 
Asbury Theological Seminary. The 
church has a general conference and 4 

Fundamental Methodist Church, Inc. 

Known until August, 1956, as the 
Independent Fundamental Methodist 
Church, this church was instituted on 
August 27, 1942, at Ash Grove, Mis- 
souri, organized under its original title 
in 1944, and chartered under its present 
title in 1948. Its origin is traced back 
to the Methodist Protestant Church, of 
which it was a part until the merging 
of the 3 major Methodist churches in 
1939. Dissatisfaction with the merger 
and the conviction that the primitive 
Wesleyan principles and theology would 
suff er thereby led to the withdrawal and 
the establishment of the new church. 
As the name suggests, there is an in- 
sistence here upon fundamental teach- 

There are no bishops in this church; 
nationally, they have a chairman, and a 
secretary. Government is more congre- 
gational than in most Methodist groups; 
there is a district superintendent in 
charge of each district of the church, and 
an annual conference for each district. 
There are 13 ministers, 14 churches, 639 

Holiness Methodist Church 
(North Carolina and North Dakota) 

Two Methodist bodies bear this name. 
The first was organized in 1900 in North 
Carolina and was formerly known as the 
Lumber River Mission Conference of the 
Holiness Methodist Church and later 
as the Lumber River Annual Confer- 
ence of the Holiness Methodist Church. 


(A small group of 7 churches and 570 
members is still active in North Carolina 
under the name Lumber River Annual 
Conference of the Holiness Methodist 
Church, but information concerning its 
faith and work is unavailable.) Estab- 
lished to bring new emphasis to home 
missions and scriptural holiness, it stresses 
the doctrines of the Atonement, the 
witness of the Spirit, and "holiness in 
heart and life." Attendance at class meet- 
ings is required. There is no itinerant 
ministry as in most Methodist bodies, 
and pastorates are not limited. The whole 
church meets each year in an annual 
conference presided over by a bishop. 
There are about 1,000 members in 6 

The second Holiness Methodist 
Church is a western group, and an out- 
growth of the Northwestern Holiness 
Association, which was an auxiliary of 
the National Holiness Association. The 
original organization was made up of a 
group of evangelists and evangelistic 
bands working between Minneapolis and 
the Pacific coast; the organization was 
effected in 1911, and the name, Holiness 
Methodist Church, was adopted in 1920. 
While similar in polity and teaching to 
the Methodist Holiness Church in North 
Carolina, it has no connection with that 
body. The Holiness Methodist School of 
Theology is located in Minneapolis, and 
the official periodical, Holiness Method- 
ist Advocate, is published from head- 
quarters, also in Minneapolis. A general 
superintendent supervises the work of 
27 clergymen. The work is largely evan- 
gelistic, at home and in one missionary 
station in Bolivia. Three camp fleeting 
grounds are maintained in Minnesota, 
North Dakota, and Washington. There 
are 900 members in 27 churches. 

Independent African 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

This group was formed in 1907 at 
Jacksonville, Florida, by 12 ministers 
who left the African Methodist Epis- 


copal Church following disputes with 
the district superintendents of that 
church. A new book of discipline, doc- 
trines, and laws was written; the Book of 
Discipline is revised from time to time 
by the quadrennial general conference, 
but the 25 articles of religion it contains 
remain unchanged. 

There are quarterly, annual, and gen- 
eral conferences. The annual conference 
ordains ministers as deacons, and the 
general conference ordains elders and 
bishops. In 1940 there were 1,000 mem- 
bers and 12 churches. 

New Congregational Methodist Church 

This church originated in an admin- 
istrative quarrel in the Georgia confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, over the consolidation of certain 
rural properties in the southern section 
of the state. Protesting, the New Con- 
gregational Methodist Church was or- 
ganized in 1881 on the general plan of 
the Congregational Methodist Church. 
(There has recently been a division in 
this church, with a number of congrega- 
tions uniting with the Congregational 
Methodist Church.) There are at pres- 
ent about 700 members in 11 churches 
7 of which are in north Florida and 4 in 
south Georgia. There are two smaller 
groups in central Georgia and Indiana. 

Government is a combination of 
Methodist and Congregational systems; 
the episcopacy is rejected, and congrega- 
tions call and elect their own pastors; 
there are the usual (Methodist) local, 
district, and general conferences. An 
unusual feature of this church lies in 
their practice of foot washing. 

a Bible school in Greensboro, North 
Carolina. No information on doctrine 
or polity is available. 

Primitive Methodist Church, U.SA. 

This church had its initial organiza- 
tion in England. Lorenzo Dow, an Amer- 
ican camp-meeting revivalist, went to 
England early in the nineteenth century 
to hold a series of camp meetings which 
resulted in the formation of a number of 
societies among his converts. Refused ad- 
mission to the Wesleyan Connection, 
they formed the Primitive Methodist 
Church in 1812. The early Primitive 
bodies in this country were grouped in 
1925-29 into eastern and western con- 
ferences. The early Wesleyan doctrines 
of redemption, repentance, justification, 
sanctification, and so forth, are held in 
this church. There are no bishops or 
district superintendents; denominational 
officers are the president, vice-president, 
secretary, and treasurer. There are an- 
nual conferences and a quadrennial gen- 
eral conference. Ministers, who have no 
time limit set upon their pastorates, are 
invited by the local churches, who desig- 
nate their first, second, and third choices 
and extend their invitations in that or- 
der. All invited pastors are assigned to 
charges by the annual conference, and 
no ministerial candidates are received 
unless there are churches open for them. 
Work in education and missions is di- 
rected by the general conference; foreign 
missionaries are stationed in Guatemala, 
Kenya, and Brazil. There are 12,729 
members and 92 churches. An official 
organ, The Primitive Methodist Journal, 
is published monthly. 

People's Methodist Church 

Conservative and "holiness," the 
founders of this church left The Meth- 
odist Church in North Carolina at the 
time of the merger of the 3 major Meth- 
odist churches. There are approximately 
25 congregations and 1,000 members, and 

Reformed Methodist Church 

This is a church of New England 
origin, founded in Vermont in 1814 as 
the result of a bitter controversy over 
the episcopal system and Methodist 
Episcopal Church theology and prac- 
tice. The Reformed Methodist Church 



rid itself of bishops and became 
thoroughly identified with the holiness 
movement. There are about 500 mem- 
bers in a dozen churches, and their mem- 
bership and influence seem to be 
dwindling from year to year. 

Reformed Methodist Union 
Episcopal Church 

This church was started in 1885 at 
Charleston, South Carolina, in a with- 
drawal from the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church, the immediate cause 
of the division being a dispute over the 
election of ministerial delegates to the 
general conference. Intended at first as 
a nonepiscopal church, the body adopted 
the complete polity of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in general conferences 
of 1896 and 1916. Its first bishop was 
consecrated in 1899 by a bishop of the 
Reformed Episcopal Church. Class meet- 
ings and love feasts are featured in the 
local congregation; there are 11,000 mem- 
bers and 30 churches. 

Reformed New Congregational 
Methodist Church 

This church was organized in 1916 by 
J. A, Sander of the Independence Mis- 
sion and Earl Wilcoxen of the Congrega- 
tional Methodist Church, with an inde- 
pendent polity. It opposes divorce, secret 
societies, and personal adornment. It 
reported 329 members in 8 churches in 

Reformed Zion Union Apostolic 

This church was organized at Boydton, 
Virginia, in 1869 by Elder James R. 
Howell, a minister of the African Meth- 
odist Episcopal Zion Church in New 
York, in protest against white discrimina- 
tion and against the ecclesiasticism of 
other Negro Methodist churches. This 
was originally known as the Zion Union 
Apostolic Church; internal friction com- 


pletely disrupted the body by 1874, and 
in 1881-82 it was reorganized under the 
present name. There are no basic de- 
partures from standard Methodist doc- 
trine or polity except that only one 
ordination, that of elder, is required of 
its ministers. There are 12,000 members, 
52 churches. 

Southern Methodist Church 

Doctrinally and spiritually, the South- 
ern Methodist Church remains the same 
as the body from which it came the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
They opposed the merger of that church 
with the northern Methodist Episcopal 
Church, in 1939, on the grounds of 
"alarming infidelity and apostasy found 
therein." They regard the Southern 
Methodist Church not as a separatist 
group, but as a church "brought into ex- 
istence to perpetuate the faith of John 
Wesley. 5 ' 

There are no bishops here, but there 
are the orthodox annual and general 
Methodist conferences; a president, usu- 
ally a clergyman, is elected every 4 years. 
The church is a constituent member of 
the conservative American and Inter- 
national Councils of Churches. Some- 
what unique among Methodist churches, 
this one has a strong statement on racial 
segregation, teaching that "holy writ 
teaches the separation of peoples at least 
to the extent of three basic races, namely, 
Caucasian, Mongoloid, and Negroid." 

Union American 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

This was one of the first Negro bodies 
to establish an independent Methodist 
church. Members left the Asbury Meth- 
odist Church in Wilmington, Delaware, 
in 1805. They worshiped out of doors 
and in private homes until 1813, when 
they built their first church and in- 
corporated under the title Union Church 
of Africans; the change to the present 
name was made in 1852. Deflections of 


membership in 1850 were responsible for 
the formation of still another body, the 
African Union Church, which forced 
the change to the present name of the 
Union American Methodist Episcopal 

General, annual, district, and quarterly 
conferences are held; general conferences 
are called only to consider proposed 
changes in name, law, or polity. There 
are 2 educational institutions, and the 
church claims 27,000 members in 250 

Wesleyan Methodist Church 
of America 

This church represented at the time of 
its founding in 1843 a protest against 
slavery and the episcopacy which pre- 
dated by one year the historic division 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
With the slavery issue settled by the 
Civil War other differences of a spiritual 
or reform character entire sanctifica- 
tion and opposition to the liquor traffic 
seemed important enough to continue 

the separate existence of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Church. 

^ The original Wesleyan doctrines, espe- 
cially those dealing with sanctiii cation, 
are ail-important in this church; other- 
wise it is in accord with accepted Meth- 
odist belief and procedure. Candidates 
for membership are required to disavow 
the use, sale, or manufacture of tobacco 
and alcoholic beverages, and to refrain 
from membership in secret societies. 

An enlarging evangelistic and mission- 
ary activity is directed from world head- 
quarters in Marion, Indiana. In 1959, 30 
conferences were listed, and missionaries 
were at work in Australia, South and 
Central America, the West Indies, Japan, 
West Africa, India, and Taiwan. There 
are 5 colleges, and a total of 50,449 
members in 1,220 churches at home and 

In 1955 the Wesleyan Methodist 
Church rejected union with the Free 
Methodist Church, and in 1959 union 
with the Pilgrim Holiness Church was 
narrowly defeated. Wide-ranging re- 
organization of the church was approved 
in the General Conference of 1959. 


In a sense the Moravian Church had its 
first apostles in Cyril and Methodius, 
who were missionaries among the Slavs 
in the ninth century. As early as this 
Moravians and Bohemians in old Czecho- 
slovakia were struggling for political and 
religious freedom. Later they followed 
John Huss, martyred in 1415, and Jerome 
of Prague, martyred in 1416. Their first 
association was formed in Bohemia in 
1457. At the beginning of the Reforma- 
tion there were more than 500 Breth- 
ren, or Moravian, churches with about 
175,000 members. 

As a church they opposed the cor- 
ruption of the Roman Catholic Church 
and stressed purity of morals, apostolic 
discipline, and true scriptural teaching. 

For a time they inclined toward a. very 
literal interpretation of the Sermon on 
the Mount and denounced war, the tak- 
ing of oaths, and all unions of church 
and state. They called themselves Jed- 
nota ^ Bratraska, the Church (or Com- 
munion) of Brethren; this is the correct 
translation of their later term Unitas 
Fratrum. They accepted the Apostles* 
Creed, rejected the purgatory and wor- 
ship of the saints of the Roman Catholic 
Church as well as its authority, prac- 
ticed infant baptism and confirmation, 
and put conduct above doctrine. 

The Thirty Years' War all but an- 
nihilated their first societies; persecution 
drove them into Hungary, Holland, Po- 
land, and Saxony. A small band found 



refuge on the estate of Nicholas Louis, 
Count of Zinzendorf, in Saxony, where 
they built the town of Herrnhut (1722- 
27). Zinzendorf was a Lutheran who had 
close contact with the Pietist movement, 
and he became so influential among the 
Moravians that they used for a tune the 
Augsburg Confession of Faith of Lu- 
theran Saxony. They adopted the name 
Unitas Fratrum from their ancient 
church and in 1735 again established the 
episcopacy which had been preserved 
through John Amos Comenius and his 
son-in-law Jablonsky. The Unitas Fra- 
trum came to be popularly known as the 
Moravian Church because the leaders of 
the renewal had come from Moravia. 

Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) 

The Moravian Church arrived in 
America in 1734 when a group of the 
Brethren from Germany came to 
Georgia to carry on missionary work 
among the Indians. John Wesley was 
a passenger on the same ship with them, 
and this was the beginning of his im- 
portant relations with the Moravians. 
Political disturbances in Georgia soon 
disrupted their colony; and a group ac- 
companied George Whitefield to Penn- 
sylvania, where they settled in 1740. 
Three uniquely and exclusively Mora- 
vian towns grew swiftly in Pennsylvania 
at Bethlehem, Nazareth, and Lititz, based 
on the communities in Germany, Hol- 
land, and England. They remained ex- 
clusively Moravian until the middle years 
of the nineteenth century. 

Zinzendorf came to America in 1741, 
attempted to merge all the colonial Ger- 
mans into one body, and failed. He 
stayed on, however, to help with the es- 
tablishment of Bethlehem and Nazareth 
and to lay the foundations of the Mora- 
vian missionary work among the Indians. 
By 1775 there were 2,500 Moravians in 
Pennsylvania alone. 

The Moravians have no doctrine pe- 
culiar to them; they are broadly evan- 
gelical, insisting upon a principle of "in 


essentials unity, in nonessentials liberty, 
and in all things charity." Their scrip- 
tural interpretations agree substantially 
with the Apostles' Creed, the Westmin- 
ster and Augsburg confessions, and the 
Articles of Religion of the Church of 
England. They hold the Scriptures to be 
the inspired word of God and an ade- 
quate rule of faith and practice; and they 
have doctrines dealing with the total 
depravity of man, the real Godhead and 
the real humanity of Christ, justification 
and redemption through the sacrifice of 
Christ, the work of the Holy Spirit, good 
works as the fruits of the Spirit, the 
fellowship of all believers, the second 
coming of Christ, and the resurrection of 
the dead to life and judgment. Their 
main doctrinal emphasis may be said to 
be upon the love of God manifested in 
the redemptive life and death of Jesus, 
the inner testimony of the Spirit, and 
Christian conduct in everyday affairs. 

The sacrament of infant baptism by 
sprinkling is practiced, through which 
children become noncommunicant mem- 
bers until confirmation. There are 60,000 
members in 160 churches. Members are 
admitted by vote of the congregational 
board of elders. The Lord's Supper is 
celebrated at least 6 times a year, and 
the old custom of the love feast is pre- 
served. A variety of liturgies is used in 
worship: the church is notable for one 
especially beautiful outdoor service held 
at Easter. 

The Moravian Church is divided in 
the United States into 2 provinces, 
northern and southern, and works under 
a modified episcopacy. Congregations are 
grouped into provincial and district 
synods; internationally they are joined 
in a "unity" with a general synod meet- 
ing as a world body every 10 years. 
The highest administrative body in each 
American province is the provincial 
synod, composed of ministers and lay- 
men and meeting every 5 years; it di- 
rects missionary, educational, and pub- 
lishing work, and elects a provincial 
elders' conference, or executive board, 


which functions between synod meet- 
ings. Bishops are elected by provincial 
and general synods. They are spiritual, 
but not administrative, leaders in the 

Missionary work has always been a 
first concern of the Moravians; with a 
comparatively small membership they 
conducted the most efficient missionary 
work among the Indians of any of the 
early colonial churches. The world-wide 
Moravian Church now supports work in 
13 foreign missionary fields, including 
North, Central, and South America, 
Africa, Tibet, and Palestine. A home 
missions work among the Eskimos of 
Alaska has been carried on since 1885. 
The church maintains 2 colleges, a the- 
ological seminary, and 2 girls' boarding 
schools. Both of the latter trace their 
origins back to the pre-Revolutionary 

Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 

Consisting of 2 churches and 230 mem- 
bers, this group was founded in Iowa be- 
tween 1858 and 1895. It has no connec- 
tion with other Moravian churches but 
maintains "friendly relations" with the 

Presbyterian and Reformed Bohemian 
churches of the East and Northwest in 
educational and missionary work. Mem- 
bers accept the Helvetic and Westmin- 
ster confessions and use the Heidelberg 
and Westminster catechisms. Polity is 
Presbyterian with local church govern- 
ment in the hands of boards of elders 
and trustees. 

Evangelical Unity of the Czech- 
Moravian Brethren in North America 

This group originated among Czech 
and Moravian immigrants arriving in 
Texas about 1850. In 1864 they organized 
as the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren 
and in 1903 as the Evangelical Union 
of Bohemian Brethren. A number of 
Iowa churches united with the Evangeli- 
cal Union in 1919, and the present name 
was adopted. There are few departures 
from the doctrine and polity of the 
Moravian Church in America (Unitas 
Fratrum) except that the synod meets 
every 2 years. The church has no col- 
leges or seminaries. In 1959 it reported 
6,028 members and 32 churches con- 
fined to Texas. 






This is a body founded in 1932 by the 
Rev. Dr. David William Short, a former 
minister of the Missionary Baptist 
Church. Dr. Short wished to "proclaim 
the Orthodox Christian spiritual faith"; 
he was convinced that no man had the 
right or spiritual power "to make laws, 
rules, or doctrines for the real church 
founded by Jesus Christ," and that the 
denominational churches had been 


founded in error and in disregard of the 
apostolic example. He held wisdom, 
knowledge, faith, healing, miracles, 
prophecy, discerning of spirits, and 
divers kinds of tongues to be spiritual 
gifts of the Holy Ghost and as parts of 
the church of Christ. He believed that 
all races should and must be accepted in 
the true church. 
The members of this church consider 


themselves to be the true and universal 
church of Christ and not just another 
denomination. They rely entirely upon 
the Holy Ghost for inspiration and di- 
rection; their church constitution they 
claim to be found in I Cor. 12:1-31 and 
Eph. 4: 11. Their organization is made up 
of pastors, prophets, prophetesses, bish- 
ops, archbishops, eiders, overseers, divine 
healers, deacons, mothers, choir mem- 
bers, missionaries, altar boys, and altar 
girls. Archbishop Short is the chief gov- 
erning officer; there is a national execu- 

tive board, which holds a national an- 
nual assembly. 

A restricted home missionary work is 
conducted in hospitals, and a nursing 
home is maintained. A monthly news- 
paper, The Christian Spiritual Voice, is 
published at Kansas City, Missouri. 
Archbishop Short is also founder, presi- 
dent, and mentor of the St. David Ortho- 
dox Christian Spiritual Seminary, which 
was dedicated in 1949 at Des Monies, 
Iowa. The membership is reported at 
43,850 in 65 churches. 


THE NEW APOSTOLIC Church of North 
America is a variant or schism of the 
Catholic Apostolic Church movement in 
England. It claims common origin with 
the Catholic Apostolic Church in the 
appointment of an apostle in the parent 
body in 1832. Debate arose in 1860 over 
the appointment of new apostles to fill 
vacancies left by death. Insisting that 
there must always be 12 apostles at the 
head of the true church, Bishop 
Schwarz of Hamburg was excommuni- 
cated from the Catholic Apostolic 
Church in 1862 for proposing the elec- 
tion of new apostles. A priest named 
Preuss was elected to the office of apos- 
tle "through the spirit of prophecy" to 
lead the dissenting body, and Bishop 
Schwarz served under him until his own 
elevation to the apostolic office. 

Under Preuss and Schwarz the New 
Apostolic Church spread from Europe 
to America, where today it is organized 
into apostles' districts, bishops' districts, 
and elders* districts. Each church has a 
rector and one or more assistants (priests, 
deacons, and so forth), who serve usually 
without remuneration. All ministers 
and other "office-bearers" are selected by 
the apostleship. The American church is 
a constituent part of the international 
organization supervised by Chief Apostle 


J. G. Bischoff in Frankfurt, Germany. 
Just as the true church must be gov- 
erned on the scriptural pattern by 12 
apostles, members of this church believe 
that only the apostles have received from 
Christ the commission and power to for- 
give sin. The New Apostolic Church ac- 
cepts the Apostles' Creed and stresses the 
authority and inspiration of the Bible, 
the apostolic ordinance of the laying on 
of hands, the necessity of gifts of the 
Holy Spirit (which include prophecy, 
visions, dreams, divers tongues, songs of 
praise, wisdom, discrimination of spirits, 
the power of healing and performing 
wonders), tithing, and the speedy, per- 
sonal, premillennial return of Christ. 
Three "means of grace" are found in 3 
sacraments: baptism (including chil- 
dren), Holy Communion, and Holy 
Sealing (the dispensing and reception of 
the Holy Spirit). Work "along broader 
interior and missionary lines" is con- 
ducted in the United States and Canada. 
There are 16,500 members in 210 
churches and 39 missions in the United 
States, and about 600,000 in 4,000 
branches in the international organiza- 
tion in Canada, England, Germany, 
Switzerland, Holland, France, Australia, 
South Africa, and South America. 


Old Catholic churches in the United 
States are outgrowths but unconnected 
branches of the Old Catholic movement 
and churches of Europe. The European 
bodies originated in a protest against the 
doctrine of papal infallibility adopted 
by the Roman Catholic Vatican Council 
of 1870; Roman priests in Germany who 
refused to accept the doctrine were ex- 
communicated and organized the Old 
Catholic Church under the leadership of 
Bishop Doellinger in 1871. A similar 
break occurred in Holland and Switzer- 
land, where other Old Catholic churches 
were established. 

This revolt did not break completely 
with Roman Catholicism. It rejected 
papal infallibility, the doctrine of the 
Immaculate Conception, compulsory 
celibacy of the priesthood, and in some 
instances the filioque clause of the 
Nicene Creed, but kept much of the 
other doctrine, creeds, customs, and 
liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church. 
It was also most anxious to preserve the 
orders and the apostolic succession of its 
priests and bishops inasmuch as they con- 
sidered apostolic succession as vital in 
a valid Christian ministry. Much con- 
fusion has resulted in conflicting claims 
of succession and validity of orders, 
especially in American Old Catholic 
churches. All Old Catholic bodies in this 
country were at one time or another con- 
nected with European bodies, but that 
is not true today. With the exception 
of the Polish National Catholic Church, 
none of the American Old Catholic 
churches are recognized by European 
churches or authorities, and most Amer- 
ican groups have severed their connec- 
tions with churches abroad. Someone 
has said that most of the Old Catholics 
in America are either dissatisfied 
Anglicans or former Roman Catholics; 
and there is some truth in that, if not 
all the truth. Several attempts have been 
made, however, to merge Old Catholic 
churches with those of the Church of 
England or the Greek Church, and ges- 


tares have been made toward member- 
ship in the World Council of Churches. 

Old Catholic missionaries were in 
America soon after 1870, establishing 
scattered congregations. Father Joseph 
Rene Vilatte, a French priest ordained 
by the Old Catholics in Switzerland, at- 
tempted to organize these congregations 
and at once became the storm center of 
the rising confusion. Vilatte himself 
vacillated between rival bodies; he 
studied in a Presbyterian college at 
Montreal and twice returned to submit 
to the Roman Catholic Church, dying 
at last in a French monastery. Vigor- 
ously opposed within his own church and 
by American Protestant Episcopalians, 
whose ranks he refused to join, he went 
to Switzerland in 1885 for ordination as 
an Old Catholic bishop and was finally 
consecrated as an archbishop by Arch- 
bishop Alvarez of Ceylon, who claimed 
orders through the Syro- Jacobite Church 
of Malabar. He returned to America to 
found the American Catholic Church. 

Separated and competing as they are, 
the Old Catholics in the United States 
have a firm common doctrinal basis. This 
doctrine is similar to that held by the 
Greek and Latin churches before those 
2 bodies separated; among the Old Cath- 
olics it is now more Eastern Catholic 
than Western. They accept the 7 
ecumenical councils of the church held 
before the division into Eastern and 
Western bodies in 1505; they generally 
reject the filioque clause of the Nicene 
Creed, all dogmas of papal infallibility 
and celibacy, and all advocacy of the 
union of church and state. Bible reading 
is encouraged, and national tongues 
rather than Latin are used in all wor- 
ship. There is a strange blend here of 
orthodoxy and rationalism both in doc- 
trine and in ritual. 

There are 4 main divisions of Old 
Catholic churches in the United States, 
with an approximate total of 100,000 
members in 129 churches the American 
Catholic Church; the American Catholic 


Church, Archdiocese of New York; the 
North American Old Roman Catholic 
Church; and the Old Catholic Church in 
America. The African Orthodox Church, 
a Negro group, is listed often as an Old 
Catholic body; but actually it is Prot- 
estant Episcopalian in origin and con- 
nection. Three other groups the Polish 
National Catholic Church of America, 
the Lithuanian National Catholic 
Church, and the Uniat Churches may 
be said to have certain common origins 
and doctrines with the Old Catholic 
churches but have been listed separately 
in this book in consideration of their dis- 
tinctively nationalistic character. 

American Catholic Church 

This church was established by Father 
Vilatte, as already described in Chicago. 
Before returning to the Roman Catholic 
Church, Vilatte consecrated Bishop 
F. E. J. Floyd, a former Protestant 
Episcopal priest, who assumed the 
primacy and title of archbishop in the 
reorganized church. There are actually 
2 small bodies within the American 
Catholic Church, both seriously affected 
by withdrawals from its membership 
and now reporting about 5,000 members 
in 29 churches. Faith and polity are gen- 
erally that of other Old Catholic groups. 
There is an archbishop, 2 auxiliary bish- 
ops, and a titular bishop. In 1951 the 
Apostolic Episcopal Church was merged 
with the American Catholic Church. 

The American Catholic Church, 
Archdiocese of New York 

This church was organized by its 
present archbishop, the Most Rev. James 
Francis Augustine Lashley, in 1927 and 
incorporated in 1932. Its orders are de- 
rived from the Syrian Church of Antioch 
through Father Vilatte, and it had a 
membership of 8,435 in 20 churches in 
1947, all of which are located in New 
York City and Brooklyn. Roman Cath- 
olic forms of ordination and consecra- 

tion are followed in the investing of holy 

North American Catholic Church 

The largest Old Catholic body in the 
United States, this church has 78,278 
members and 60 churches. Various in- 
dependent congregations have united 
with this group from time to time, giv- 
ing it its present impressive strength. 
Church officers, including archbishops, 
bishops, general vicars, priests, and dele- 
gates, are elected by the local congrega- 
tions and confirmed by the primate; each 
foreign group of churches has a bishop 
of its own nationality. There is a the- 
ological seminary in Chicago; and there 
are several home for religious orders, 
aged priests, and needy laymen. The 
church is identical with the Roman 
Catholic Church in worship and doctrine, 
acknowledging "the supremacy of the 
successor to St. Peter" but with Masses 
held in the vernacular of the people. 
The clergy are allowed to marry. It was 
received into union with the Eastern 
Orthodox Church by the Archbishop of 
Beirut on August 5, 1911, and by the 
Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria on 
February 26, 1912, 

The Old Catholic Church in America 

Deriving its episcopate from the Old 
Roman Catholic Church of Holland and 
from the Eastern Orthodox Church, this 
body represents the Old Catholic 
churches of Poland, Lithuania, France, 
Morocco, Central America, and Yugo- 
slavia. It accepts the decrees of the 7 
ecumenical councils, holds Mass in Eng- 
lish, permits its priests to marry before 
ordination, and employs the rituals, 
slightly modified, of both Roman Cath- 
olic and Eastern Orthodox churches. An 
unusually effective intercommunion has 
been established among the Protestant 
Episcopal, Anglican, Polish National 
Catholic, and Old Catholic churches, 



which may be the first step toward a 
merger of these bodies. 

There are 6,000 members in 22 

The Reformed Catholic Church 

(Utrecht Confession) 
Province of North America 

This is the American branch of an 
international group of Reformed Cath- 
olic Churches (others are found in Great 
Britain, France, and Germany). They 

hold highly valid orders derived from 
Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic 
sources, from the initial period of the 
church in the seventeenth century. 

Doctrine, generally, is based on the 
Nicene Creed and the pronouncements 
of the ecumenical councils prior to the 
Great Schism. A primate and a chancel- 
lor stand as the top officers of the church, 
and a provincial convocation meets every 
three years. 

There are 2,217 members in 20 
churches, as of 1957. 


Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc. 
was originally composed of two revival 
movements: namely, Bible Standard, 
Inc., founded in Eugene, Oregon, in 
1919; and Open Bible Evangelistic As- 
sociation, founded in Des Moines, Iowa, 
in 1932. Similar in doctrine and govern- 
ment, the 2 groups amalgamated on July 
26, 1935, taking the combined name, 
"Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc." 
with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa. 

The Pacific coast group, with activi- 
ties centered in Oregon, spread through 
Washington, California, and into the 
Rocky Mountain areas of the West; the 
Iowa group expanded into Illinois, Mis- 
souri, Ohio, Florida, and Pennsylvania. 
There are now churches in 24 states, with 
the main concentration in the central 
and far- western states. 

The teachings are "fundamental in 
doctrine, evangelical in spirit, mission- 
ary in vision, and pentecostal in testi- 
mony"; they include emphasis on the 
blood atonement of Christ, divine heal- 
ing, baptism of the Holy Spirit, personal 
holiness, the premillennial return of the 
Lord, and baptism by immersion. 

Churches are grouped into 5 geo- 
graphical divisions, subdivided into 17 
districts. Seventeen district superintend- 
ents who are also pastors guide the work 
under the supervision of divisional 


superintendents. Individual churches are 
congregationally governed, locally 
owned, and are affiliated by a charter 
with the national organization. The 10 
departments function under the leader- 
ship of departmental heads with the ad- 
vice of a committee and are represented 
on the general board of directors. The 
highest governing body is the General 
Conference, which meets annually and 
is composed of all licensed and ordained 
ministers and 1 lay delegate from each 

There are 48 missionaries at work in 
8 foreign countries, and 5 Bible training 
colleges for the training of national 
workers. In the United States there are 
5 Bible institutes and Bible colleges, 
with a total enrollment of about 400 stu- 
dents, located at Des Moines, Iowa; 
Eugene, Oregon; Dayton, Ohio; St. Pet- 
ersburg, Florida; and Pasadena, Cali- 

A board of publications is responsible 
for the preparation of conference publi- 
cations; a nationally owned book store 
and press, known as "Inspiration Press 
and Book Store," is located at Des 
Moines and circulates a monthly period- 
ical, The Message of the Open Bible, 
and lesson materials for their Sunday 


The denomination is a constituent Association of Evangelicals. As of I960, 
member of the Pentecostal Fellowship there were approximately 26,000 con- 
of North America and of the National stituents in 263 churches. 


Pentecostalism is a most inclusive term 
applied to a large number of revivalistic 
American sects, assemblies, and churches. 
Many of them have come out of either 
Methodist or Baptist backgrounds, and 
they are primarily concerned with per- 
fection, holiness, and the Pentecostal ex- 

They offer statements of faith which 
are often long and involved and highly 
repetitious, but through which may be 
traced certain common strains and ele- 
ments. Most of them believe in the Trin- 
ity, original sin, man's salvation through 
the atoning blood of Christ, the virgin 
birth and deity of Jesus, the divine in- 
spiration and literal infallibility of the 
the Scriptures, manifestations and 
"blessings" of the working of the Holy 
Spirit often running into excessive emo- 
tionalism shouting, trances, jerking, 
hand clapping, "tongue talking," and so 
forth the fiery Pentecostal baptism of 
the Spirit, premillennialism, and future 
rewards and punishments. Two sacra- 
ments are found in most of their sects 
baptism, usually by immersion, and the 
Lord's Supper. Foot washing is fre- 
quently observed in connection with the 
Supper. Many practice divine healing, 
and speaking in tongues is widespread. 

Ultrafundamentalistic, varying in size 
from small group meetings to huge mass 
meetings, and working independently of 
any recognized denominational organi- 
zation, Pentecostalists are found in every 
state in the Union with their greatest 
strength in the South, West, and Middle 
West. They use a great variety of names; 
only those including the word "Pente- 
costal" are included here, and they are 
comparatively small sects. The majority 
of American Pentecostalists may be 


found in the Tomlinson groups of the 
Church of God and their offshoots. No 
accurate count of their total member- 
ship is possible inasmuch as many groups 
never offer statistics of any kind. 

Calvary Pentecostal Church, Inc. 

This church was founded at Olympia, 
Washington, in 1931 by a group of 
ministers who sought a ministerial fel- 
lowship rather than a separate denomina- 
tion, and freedom from the sectarian 
spirit. The body was incorporated in 
1932, and a home and foreign missionary 
society was incorporated in the same 
year. Home missions work today con- 
sists mainly of evangelistic work, relief 
to weak churches, and the establishment 
of new churches. A general superintend- 
ent and executive presbytery board ad- 
minister the work of the church; the 
general body meets in convention an- 
nually or semiannually. Seminary, col- 
lege, or even Bible-school education is 
considered beneficial but is no requisite 
for the ministers of this church. Min- 
isters include both men and women; 
those who give evidence of having heard 
the call of God to preach are qualified 
by ordination. There are 35 churches 
and 20,000 members. 

Emmanuel Holiness Church 

This is a group organized on March 
19, 1953, at the Columbus County Camp 
Ground in Whiteville, North Carolina. 
The founders had come to a general con- 
ference of the Pentecostal Fire-Baptized 
Holiness Church but withdrew from that 
church in protest against certain posi- 
tions taken by the conference on polity 


and doctrine. They now have a mem- 
bership of 1,200 in 56 churches. Their 
chief administrative body is a general 
assembly, and a general overseer is their 
church officer. A periodical, Emmanuel 
Messenger, is published at Anderson, 
South Carolina, 

Pentecostal Holiness Church 

This church was organized in 1898 
at Anderson, South Carolina, by a num- 
ber of Pentecostal associations which at 
the time used the name Fire-Baptized 
Holiness Church, A year later another 
group organized as the Pentacostal Holi- 
ness Church; the two bodies united in 
1911 at Falcon, North Carolina, under 
the latter name. A third body, the 
Tabernacle Pentecostal Church, joined 
them in 1915. There are 51,688 members 
in the United States, in 1,214 churches, 
and 19,597 in 419 churches in foreign 
mission fields. 

The theological standards of Meth- 
odism prevail here, with certain modifi- 
cations. It accepts the premillennial 
teaching of the Second Coming and be- 
lieves that provision was made in the 
Atonement for the healing of the body. 
Divine healing is practiced, but not to 
the exclusion of medicine. Three dis- 
tinctive experiences are taught: two 
works of grace justification by faith 
and sanctification, as a second work of 
grace and the Spirit Baptism, attested 
by speaking in other tongues. Services 
are often characterized by "joyous 
demonstrations. " 

Polity algo is Methodistic; there are 
annual conferences and a quadrennial 
general conference which elects one 
general superintendent (bishop) to hold 
office for 4 years only. The general 
conference also elects 4 assistant general 
superintendents, a general secretary, and 
a general treasurer of the church, these 
constituting the general executive board. 
There is a general board of administra- 
tion composed of the executive board 
and the superintendents of all annual 


conferences in the United States except 
the home missions conferences. There 
are 28 annual conferences in the United 
States, 3 in Canada, 1 in England, and 
1 white or European conference in South 
Africa. Foreign missions are found in 
Hong Kong, India, South Africa, Cen- 
tral Africa, West Africa, South Amer- 
ica, Central America, the Hawaiian Is- 
lands, Alaska, Mexico, and Cuba. There 
is a junior college (Emmanuel College) 
at Franklin Springs, Georgia; a junior 
college (Southwestern Bible College) at 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; a theological 
seminary (Holmes Theological Sem- 
inary) at Greenville, South Carolina; a 
children's home (Falcon Children's 
Home) at Falcon, North Carolina; a 
home for the aged (Carmen Home) at 
Carmen, Oklahoma. 

There is a publishing house which also 
houses general offices for the church 
(Advocate Press) at Franklin Springs, 
Georgia, the international headquarters 
of the denomination. 

Pentecostal Fire-Baptized 
Holiness Church 

This church was organized in 1911 by 
a small group who declined to continue 
in the union of the Fire-Baptized Holi- 
ness Church and the Pentecostal Holi- 
ness Church; their objection had to do 
mainly with matters of discipline in the 
wearing of ornaments and elaborate 
dress. They withdrew from the union 
in 1918 and were joined in 1920 by the 
Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Church. 

Members of this church are forbidden 
to buy or sell, or to engage in any labor 
or business for which they may receive 
"pecuniary remuneration." They are also 
forbidden "filthiness of speech, foolish 
talking or jesting, slang, attendance at 
fairs, swimming pools or shows of any 
kind, the use of jewelry, gold, feathers, 
flowers, costly apparel, neckties." 

The sect is strongly premillennialist 
and perfectionist; "joyous demonstra- 
tions" are prominent, finding expression 


in hand clapping, crying, and shouting. 
State conventions support convention 
evangelists, and there is a general con- 
vention which elects a 7-member board 
of missions. Foreign missions are sup- 
ported in Mexico. There are 576 mem- 
bers and 40 churches. 

Church of God in Christ (Pentecostal) 

This is a small body with 210 members 
and 9 churches in 1936. It was founded 
in the early 193 Q's and is under the 
supervision of a bishop, who has head- 
quarters at Bluefield, West Virginia. 
Local churches are reported to have 
been established in Michigan, West Vir- 
ginia, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee, Texas, 
and Alabama. 

International Pentecostal Assemblies 

This body is the successor to the As- 
sociation of Pentecostal Assemblies 
founded in 1921 and the National and 
International Pentecostal Missionary 
Union founded in 1914. Doctrine follows 
the usual Pentecostal standards; the sick 
are anointed with oil and healed by 
prayer, foot washing is optional, and 
there is strong opposition to participa- 
tion in war. The last membership report, 
in 1952, listed 5,000 members in 50 
churches under the general supervision 
of an official board which directed the 
activities of the church in 23 states at 
home and on several foreign mission 
fields. The entire work is supported by 
tithing of the membership. 

Pentecostal Assemblies 
of the World, Inc. 

This was an interracial body at the 
time of its organization in 1914; the 
white members withdrew in 1924 to 
form the Pentecostal Church, Inc., which 
in turn became a constituent body of 
the United Pentecostal Church, Inc., in 
1945. Origin is traced "directly back to 
Pentecost, A.D. 33." Doctrine reveals no 


important departure from that of Pente- 
costalism in general. Secret societies are 
opposed, as are church festivals and col- 
lecting money on the streets; the wear- 
ing of jewelry, attractive hosiery, bobbed 
hair, bright ties, low-necked dresses is 
forbidden. Divorce is not permitted 
when both man and wife have had the 
"baptism of the Holy Ghost"; but when 
the unbeliever in a marriage contract 
procures a divorce, the believer may re- 

Organization is similar to that of The 
Methodist Church: a general assembly 
meets annually under a presiding bishop; 
there are a secretary-treasurer for foreign 
missions, a committee of 3 on evangelism, 
and a board of 24 district elders. An 
executive board composed of bishops is 
elected each year by the ministerial mem- 
bers of the assembly. Local assemblies 
are presided over by district elders. 
There is evangelistic work conducted in 
the United States and in several missions 
abroad. In 1951 there were 50,000 mem- 
bers in 600 churches. 

Pentecostal Church 
of God of America, Inc. 

This church was organized at Chicago 
in 1919, incorporated in Missouri in 
1936, and held its first national conven- 
tion in 1940. The words "of America" 
were added to its name to distinguish 
it from a Kansas City body bearing a 
similar name. It is typically Pentecostal 
in faith, with immersion, Spirit baptism, 
speaking in tongues, foot washing and 
divine healing. 

In the United States 100,000 members 
are reported in 994 churches. Officers in- 
clude a general superintendent, secretary- 
treasurer, director of world missions, 
executive secretary-treasurer of world 
missions, director of Indian missions, 
district superintendents, and district 

A general convention meets biennially; 
district conventions, annually. More than 


300 mission churches are supported in 
13 countries abroad. 

Pentecostal Church of Christ 

Founded by John Stroup at Flatwoods, 
Kentucky, in 1917 and incorporated at 
Portsmouth, Ohio, in 1927, this church 
subscribes to the usual Pentecostalist 
doctrines of the Trinity, the personal 
spiritual experiences of regeneration, 
sanctification and baptism by the Spirit, 
and it puts strong emphasis upon divine 
healing. They have 41 churches, 1,190 
members. A monthly periodical, Pente- 
costal Witness, is published in London, 

United Pentecostal Church, Inc. 

This church is made up of a union of 
2 Pentecostal bodies merged in 1945: 
the Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ 
and the Pentecostal Church, Inc. The 

first body was the result of a merger of 
several groups which refused to enter 
the General Council of the Assemblies of 
God, and the latter consisted of the 
white members who withdrew from the 
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World 
when it ceased to be an interracial body 
in 1924, One of the few white Pente- 
costal organizations believing in the 
necessity of water baptism in the name 
of Christ (Acts 2:38), the United Pente- 
costal Church, Inc., has 1,680 churches, 
3,536 ministers, approximately 150,000 
members organized into 26 districts in 
the United States, the superintendents 
of which make up their (annual) gen- 
eral board, or top administrative body. 
They support 70 missionaries and over 
200 native workers abroad, maintain 15 
summer campgrounds in this country, 
and have established headquarters, a 
modern printing plant, and publishing 
house at St. Louis, Missouri 


The Rev. Martin Wells Knapp, a 
Methodist minister, organized the Inter- 
national Apostolic Holiness Union in 
1897 in his home at Cincinnati, Ohio, to 
encourage the preaching of the original 
Wesleyan doctrines of holiness, pre- 
millennialism, divine healing, and a re- 
turn to "apostolic practices, methods, 
power, and success." His intention was 
to form a union of Holiness and Pente- 
costal groups in agreement with his 
ideas; but eventually, through a rather 
bewildering series of mergers, the pro- 
posed union became a full-fledged de- 
nomination. The bodies joining his union 
were the Holiness Christian Church, the 
Pentecostal Rescue Mission of Bing- 
hamton, New York, the Pilgrim Church 
of California, the Pentecostal Brethren 
in Christ in Ohio, the People's Mission 
Church of Colorado, and numerous other 
small bodies. These, united in the Pil- 


grim Holiness Church, now have a 
strength of 47,703 members in 1,790 
churches. About 1,010 of these churches 
with 32,310 members are in the United 
States and Canada, and 780 churches 
with 15,393 members are in foreign lands. 
There are churches in 37 states and in 
the province of Ontario in Canada. 

The Pilgrim Holiness Church is close 
to the Church of the Nazarene in both 
doctrine and polity, although doctrine is 
described as Arminian and Methodist and 
government as a "combination of Epis- 
copal and Congregational forms." Theo- 
logically it is conservative, stressing the 
Trinity, the new birth, entire sanctifica- 
tion, divine healing, premillennialism, 
and the inspiration and infallibility of 
the Scriptures. Baptism, the mode of 
which is optional, and the Lord's Sup- 
per are practiced as sacraments. Mem- 
bers are admitted on confession of faith 


following appearances before an advisory 
board and the church congregation. Both 
men and women are accepted as min- 

Local churches are governed by a 
church board composed of the pastor, 
elders, deacons, and other church 
officers; women may be elected 
deaconesses. District organizations meet 
annually, made up of ministers and lay- 
men; they elect district councils which 
hold authority over the ministers and 

churches of their various districts. A 
general conference meets every 4 years 
and elects 3 general superintendents, 
secretary, treasurer, secretaries for 
foreign missions, church extension, Sun- 
day schools, youth work, and a publish- 
ing agent. Home missionaries work 
largely in the South; foreign missions are 
located in Africa, Mexico, South Amer- 
ica, the Philippines, and the West Indies. 
There are 5 Bible colleges and 1 liberal 
arts college. 



Organized at Scranton, Pennsylvania, 
on March 14, 1897, the Polish National 
Catholic Church was born in resentment 
against certain resolutions passed by the 
Roman Catholic Council of Baltimore in 
1884. These resolutions seemed to the 
dissenting Polish congregations to give 
the Roman hierarchy and priesthood an 
unwarranted religious, political, financial, 
and social power over their parishioners, 
and to permit an "unlawful encroach- 
ment upon the ownership of church 
property and to pave the way for the 
political exploitation of the Polish peo- 
ple." (Some feel that the cause of the 
dissention roots even farther back, in the 
demand in Poland in the Reformation era 
for a Polish National Church.) Resent- 
ment smoldered gradually into open re- 
volt and resulted in the founding of an 
independent Polish body with approxi- 
mately 20,000 members mainly in the 
eastern states. This is the only break of 
any considerable size from the Roman 
Catholic Church in the United States; 
but there are other groups among 
Slovaks, Lithuanians, Ruthenians, and 
Hungarians which have also broken 
away. Several of the Slovak and Lithu- 
anian parishes have merged with the 
Polish National Catholic Church. 

A constitution for the new church 

was adopted by the Scranton parish in 
1897, claiming the right for the Polish 
people to control all churches built and 
maintained by them, to administer such 
church property through a committee 
chosen by the parish, and to choose their 
own pastors. The first synod was held 
at Scranton in 1904, with 147 clerical 
and lay delegates representing parishes 
in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, and New Jersey, 
The Rev. Francis Hodur, the organizer 
and dominant figure in the group, was 
chosen bishop-elect; he was consecrated 
bishop in 1907 at Utrecht, Holland, by 
3 bishops of the Old Catholic Church. 
This synod also ordered all Latin serv- 
ice books translated into Polish and es- 
tablished a seminary at Scranton. 

The doctrine of the church is founded 
upon the Scriptures, the holy traditions, 
and the 4 ecumenical synods of the un- 
divided church; the Apostles' and the 
Nicene creeds are accepted. Doctrine is 
expanded in a confession of faith which 
includes statements of belief in the Trin- 
ity; the Holy Spirit as man's source of 
grace, power, and peace; the necessity 
of the spiritual unity of all believers; 
the church as teacher and confessor; the 
equality of all people as the common 
children of God; immortality and the 



future justice and judgment of God. The 
doctrine of eternal damnation or punish- 
ment is rejected. 

Even sinful man, after undergoing ^ an 
intrinsic regeneration through contrition, 
penance, and noble deeds, may have a 
chance to regain the grace of God. . . . Man, 
by following the Supreme Being, is in this 
life capable of attaining a certain degree of 
the happiness and of the perfection which 
is possessed of God in an infinite degree. . . . 
Faith is helpful to man toward his salvation, 
though not without good works. 

Sin is 

a lack of perfection, a consequence resulting 
from a lack of spiritual, godly life within 
the being, in whom predominates a mean, 
animal life, and as mankind progresses in 
this knowledge of the causes of life and 
nature of God, and comes nearer and nearer 
to Him, sin will gradually grow less and 
less until it vanishes entirely. Then man 
will become the true image and child of 
God, and the kingdom of God will prevail 
upon earth. 

Seven sacraments are observed, with 
baptism and confirmation being recog- 
nized as one sacrament; actually con- 
firmation is a complement of baptism. 
The word of God "heard and preached" 
Is proclaimed as a sacrament. Two forms 
of confession are in general use a private 
or "ear" confession and a general public 
confession for adults only. 

A general synod is the highest au- 
thority in the government of the church. 
It meets every 4 years, except for such 
special sessions as may be considered 
necessary, and is composed of bishops 
(of whom there are now 7), clergy, and 
lay delegates from every parish. Admin- 
istrative power rests with Prime Bishop 
the Most Rev. Leon Grochowski, suc- 
cessor to the late Bishop Hodur. A 

church council meets twice annually, or 
on call, and is composed of all the bish- 
ops, 4 clerical, and 4 lay delegates elected 
by the general synod. In like manner the 
authority of the diocese is vested in a 
diocesan synod which meets every 4 
years. Each parish is governed by an 
elected board of trustees. There are 
274,658 members in 157 churches in the 
United States and 5,412 members in 
Canada. The Polish language is used in 
the worship and in the educational pro- 
gram in parish schools, taught largely 
by pastors; but English may be used if 
necessary for sacraments, sermons, 
gospel, and other church rituals, with 
permission of the bishop. The clergy 
may marry, but only with the knowledge 
and permission of the bishop and the lay 
members of the congregations. 

The Polish National Union, a fraternal 
and insurance organization, was estab- 
lished by the church at Scranton in 1908, 
set up on parish lines and as an adjunct 
to parish life. It consists of 12 districts 
divided into 257 branches and has 35,000 
members, all of whom are not required 
to be members of the church. A mis- 
sionary work was begun in Poland in 
1919, and by 1951 had 119 parishes and 
a theological seminary in Krakow. Mis- 
sionary Bishop Padewski was imprisoned 
by the Communists at Warsaw and died 
in prison in 1951; since then these 
churches in Poland have come under 
the control of the Red government. A 
home for the aged and disabled was 
established by the church and the Polish 
National Union at Spojnia Farm, Way- 
mart, Pennsylvania, in 1929. 

An unusually effective intercom- 
munion has been established between the 
Protestant Episcopal, Anglican, Old 
Catholic, and Polish National Catholic 


Presbyterianism has two firm and deep presbuteros (elder) and has to do with 
roots: one goes back to the Greek word the system of church government of 



ancient and apostolic times; the other 
goes back to John Calvin and the Prot- 
estant Reformation and has to do with 
the form of government used by all 
people calling themselves Presbyterian 
and holding the faith of the Reformed 

Calvin (1509-64) was a Frenchman 
trained for the law. Turning to theology, 
his keen, legalistic mind and his lust for 
freedom from the rigid, confining forms 
of Roman Catholicism drove him as a 
fugitive from Roman reprisal to the city 
of Geneva, where he quickly grasped 
the reins of leadership in the Reformed 
sector of the Reformation, Resolute and 
often harsh to the point of cruelty with 
those who opposed him, he established 
himself and his theological system at the 
heart of a "city of God" in the Swiss 
capital, making it, according to Macau- 
lay, the "cleanest and most wholesome 
city in Europe." 

Calvin's whole thought revolved about 
the concept of sovereignty: 

the sovereignty of God in His universe, the 
sovereignty of Christ in salvation, the 
sovereignty of the Scriptures in faith and 
conduct, the sovereignty of the individual 
conscience in the interpretation of the Will 
and Word of God. 

His system has been summarized in 5 
main points: human impotence, uncon- 
ditional predestination, limited atone- 
ment, irresistible grace, and final per- 
severance. God, according to Calvinism, 
rules the world; man is completely 
dominated by and dependent upon him; 
man is also totally depraved and unable 
to save himself (the doctrine of total 
depravity); God chooses or elects to 
save some and predestines others to be 
lost (the doctrine of predestination); 
even babes may be damned and without 
hope (infant damnation). But both elect 
and damned have definite rights and 
duties: man has a covenant with God, 
which must be honored; whatever his 
state he must keep faith in God's grace 
and ultimate goodness. 

Out of this Calvinism came miracles 
of reform; few reformers have made as 
many contributions as John Calvin in so 
many fields at once in education, in the 
building of an intelligent ministry, in the 
liberation of the oppressed and perse- 
cuted, and in the establishment of demo- 
cratic forms of government in both 
church and state. In his thought lay the 
germ which in time destroyed the divine 
right of kings. He gave a new dignity 
to man, and representative government 
to man's parliaments and church coun- 
cils. He struck the final blow at feudal- 
ism and offered a spiritual and moral 
tone for dawning capitalism. 

Strictly speaking, John Calvin did not 
found Presbyterianism; he laid the 
foundations upon which it was recon- 
structed in Switzerland, Holland, France, 
England, Scotland, and Ireland. He in- 
spired fellow Frenchmen out of whose 
ranks came the Huguenots; by 1560 
there were 2,000 churches of Presby- 
terian complexion in France. He in- 
fluenced the Dutchmen who established 
the Dutch Reformed Church in Holland. 
He gave courage to British Presbyterians 
in their bitter struggle against Catholic 
Bloody Mary. To him came Scots who 
became Covenanters; to him came John 
Knox, who went home to cry "Great 
God, give me Scotland, or I die." Knox 
and the Covenanters set Scotland afire 
and made it Protestant and Presbyterian. 

A delegation of Scots sat in the West- 
minster Assembly of Divines along with 
121 English ministers, 10 peers, and 20 
members of the House of Commons, re- 
solved to have "no bishop, and no king." 
This Westminster Assembly is a mile- 
stone in Presbyterian history. Meet- 
ing at the call of Parliament to resolve 
the struggle over the compulsory use 
of the Anglican Book of Common 
Prayer, it sat for nearly 5 years (1643-48) 
in 1,163 sessions, produced a Larger and 
a Shorter catechism, a directory for the 
public worship of God, a form of gov- 
ernment, and the Westminster Confes- 
sion of Faith, which, built upon the Old 



and New Testaments, became the 
doctrinal standard of Scotish, British, 
and American Presbyterianism. 

Dominant in the Westminster As- 
sembly, the Presbyterians soon dominated 
the British government. Cromwell com- 
pleted the ousting of a monarch and 
established a commonwealth; the com- 
monwealth crashed, the monarchy re- 
turned, and the fires of persecution 
flamed again. British Presbyterians fled 
to America with the Puritans; an at- 
tempt to establish episcopacy in Scotland 
after 1662 sent many Presbyterians out 
of Scotland into Ireland, where economic 
difficulties and religious inequalities drove 
them on to America. The Presbyterian 
British, and even more the Presbyterian 
Scotch-Irish, became the founders of 
Presbyterianism in America. Beginning 
in 1710 and running into mid-century, 
from 3,000 to 6,000 Scotch-Irish came 
annually into the American colonies, 
settling at first in New England and the 
middle colonies, then spreading out more 
widely than any other racial group ever 
to reach our shores. 

There were Presbyterian congregations 
in the colonies long before the Scotch- 
Irish migration of 1710-50. One was 
worshiping in Virginia in 1611; others 
were worshiping in Massachusetts and 
Connecticut in 1630. Long Island and 
New York had congregations by 1640 
and 1643. What is probably the oldest 
continuing Presbyterian church in the 
United States was founded by the Rev. 
Francis Makemie at Rehoboth, Mary- 
land, in 1683. Makemie ranged the coast 
from Boston to the Carolinas, planting 
churches and giving them unity with 
one another; 6 groups were united into 
the first presbytery in Philadelphia in 
1706; in 1716 this first presbytery had 
become a synod made up of 4 presby- 
teries and held its first meeting in 1717. 

The United Presbyterian Church 
in the U.S.A. 

Overwhelmingly the largest single 
body of Presbyterians in America, this 

church is the result of a merger (1958) 
of two groups in the United States: The 
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., and 
the United Presbyterian Church of 
North America. We shall consider them 
first, separately, under their original 
names, and then as a united church. 


The Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 
dates back to the organizing of the Gen- 
eral Presbytery in 1706. The first gen- 
eral synod of its spiritual forefathers, 
meeting in 1729, adopted the West- 
minster Confession of Faith with the 
Larger and Shorter catechisms "as be- 
ing, in all essential and necessary articles, 
good forms of sound words, and systems 
of Christian doctrine.", The same synod 
denied to the civil magistrates any power 
whatever over the church or any right 
to persecute anyone for his religious 

Free in the new land with their Scotch- 
Irish fire and Covenanter background, 
the Presbyterians quickly set about pro- 
curing trained ministers; creeds and col- 
leges have been their stock in trade from 
the earliest days. William Tennent, Sr. 
organized a "log college" in a cabin at 
Neshaminy, Pennsylvania. He started 
with 3 of his 4 sons as his first pupils, 
and this family school grew into the most 
important Presbyterian institution of 
higher learning in America. Out of it 
came the College of New Jersey (now 
Princeton University), and a stream of 
revivalist! c Presbyterian preachers who 
played leading roles in the Great 
Awakening of the early eighteenth cen- 
tury. Prominent among them were Wil- 
liam Tennent, Jr. and his brother Gil- 
bert, who met and liked the British 
revivalist George Whitefield and fol- 
lowed him in preaching an emotional 
"new birth" revivalism which came into 
conflict with the old creedal Calvinism. 
The camp-meeting revival grew out of 
the Great Awakening enthusiasm; it was 



born as a Presbyterian institution and 
was continued by the Methodists when 
the Presbyterians dropped it. 

Presbyterian objection to emotional re- 
vivalism went deep; it split their church. 
Preachers took sides; those of the "old 
side" opposed revivalism, while those of 
the "new side" endorsed it, claiming 
that less attention should be paid to col- 
lege training for the ministry and more 
to the recruiting of regenerated com- 
mon men into the pulpit. The two sides 
quarreled until 1757, when they reunited; 
in 1758, the first year of the united 
synod, there were 98 ministers in the 
Presbyterian Church in the colonies, 200 
congregations, and 10,000 members. One 
of the ablest of the new-side preachers 
was John Witherspoon, president of 
Princeton (founded in 1746), member 
of the Continental Congress, and the 
only ministerial signer of the Declara- 
tion of Independence. 

Witherspoon may have been instru- 
mental in the call of the general synod 
upon the Presbyterian churches to "up- 
hold and promote" the resolutions of 
the Continental Congress. The Scotch- 
Irish accepted the revolution with relish; 
the persecution they had experienced in 
England and Ulster left them as natural 
dissenters and solidly anti-British. Their 
old cry, "No bishop, and no king," was 
heard as far off as England; Horace 
Walpole remarked that "Cousin Amer- 
ica" had run off with a Presbyterian 

The Presbyterians moved swiftly to 
strengthen their church after Yorktown, 
meeting as a synod at Philadelphia in 
1788 at the same time that the national 
constitutional convention was in session 
in the same city. The national adminis- 
trative bodies of American Presbyterian- 
isrn were known as the General Pres- 
bytery from 1706-16; as the General 
Synod from 1717-88, and as the General 
Assembly from 1789 to the present time. 
John Witherspoon was a delegate at the 
Presbyterian gathering and with James 

Wilson helped put into the govern- 
mental statutes of the nation and the 
Presbyterian Church those principles of 
democratic representation which make 
them so amazingly alike even though he 
was not a member of the Constitutional 

From 1790 to 1837 membership in the 
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. in- 
creased from 18,000 to 220,557. This 
growth was due to the revival which 
swept the country during those years 
and to the Plan of Union with the Con- 
gregationalists. Under this plan Presby- 
terian and Congregational preachers and 
laymen moving into the new western 
territory worked and built together; 
preachers of the 2 denominations 
preached in each other's pulpits, and 
members held the right of representa- 
tion in both Congregational association 
and Presbyterian presbytery. The plan 
worked well on the whole, absorbing the 
fruits of the national revivals and giving 
real impetus to missionary work both 
at home and abroad. Then came dis- 
agreements between old-school and new- 
school factions within the church over 
matters of discipline and the expenditure 
of missionary money. The general as- 
sembly of 1837 expelled 4 new-school 
presbyteries, which promptly met in 
their own convention at Auburn, New 
York. The Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S.A. was split in two between new- 
school men who wanted to keep the plan 
of union and old-school men who were 
suspicious of the "novelties of New Eng- 
land (Congregational) theology." 

These years promised to be an era of 
expansion for the Presbyterians. Marcus 
Whitman drove the first team and wagon 
over the south pass of the Rockies into 
the great Northwest. After him came 
hosts of Presbyterian preachers and lay- 
men building churches, schools, colleges, 
seminaries. From 1812 to 1836 the Pres- 
byterians in the United States built their 
first great theological seminaries: Prince- 
ton, Auburn, Allegheny, Columbia, Lane, 



McCormack, Union in Virginia, and 
Union in New York City. They also set 
up their own missionary and educational 
societies. But the era of unity suddenly 
became an era of schism. Even earlier 
than the old-school-new-school division 
the Cumberland presbytery had broken 
away in 1810, following a dispute over 
the educational qualifications of the min- 
istry, to form the Cumberland Presby- 
terian Church. Antislavery sentiment was 
increasing. A strong protest was made 
in 1818, but it was later modified. In 
1846 the old-school assembly regarded 
slavery in the southern states as no bar 
to Christian communion; but the new- 
school assembly took action in the same 
year, condemning it without reservation. 
By 1857 several southern synods had 
withdrawn to organize the United Synod 
of the Presbyterian Church, and the 
greater and final break came in 1861 
when 47 southern presbyteries formed 
their General Assembly of the Presby- 
terian Church in the Confederate States 
of America. In 1865 the United Synod 
and the Confederate churches merged 
into what is now known as the Presby- 
terian Church in the United States. The 
Synod of Kentucky united with it in 
1869 and the Synod of Missouri in 1874. 

The old-school and new-school bodies, 
holding separate assemblies since 1837, 
were reunited in 1870 on the basis of 
the Westminster Confession; they were 
joined in 1906 by a large majority of the 
Cumberland churches and in 1920 by 
the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists. 

From the 1920's through the 1950's, 
two strong emphases were noticeable 
in this church: one was the emphasis 
upon theology, seen in the struggle be- 
tween liberals and conservatives; and the 
other was the emphasis upon Presby- 
terian unity. The latter was evident in 
the proposed merger with the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, which was not real- 
ized, and in the 1958 merger of the 
Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. with 
the United Presbyterian Church of North 



The United Presbyterian Church of 
North America was formed by the merg- 
ing of the Associate Presbyterian Church 
and the Associate Reformed Presby- 
terian Church at Pittsburgh in 1858. The 
doctrines, traditions, and institutions of 
the two combining bodies were pre- 
served; government in the United 
church followed the Presbyterian form 
with session, presbytery, synod, and a 
general assembly which met annually. 

In matters of faith this church rested 
upon the broad foundation of the West- 
minster Confession with certain modi- 
fications, one of which amended the 
chapter in the confession on the power 
of civil magistrates. A confessional state- 
ment of 44 articles was drawn up by 
the United Presbyterian Church in 1925; 
it contained the substance of the West- 
minster standards and symbols but 
restricted divorce cases to marital un- 
faithfulness, denied infant damnation, ex- 
tended sacramental privileges to all who 
professed faith in Christ and led Chris- 
tian lives, withdrew the protest against 
secret or oath-bound societies, aban- 
doned the exclusive use of the Psalms, 
maintained insistence upon the verbal 
inspiration of the Scriptures, affirmed the 
sufficiency and fullness of the provisions 
of God for the needs of a fallen race 
through the atonement of Christ, 
emphasized the renewing and sanctify- 
ing power of the Holy Spirit, and held 
salvation to be free to all sinners. 

The usual boards, conducting work in 
missions, education, publications, pen- 
sions, and relief were combined with 
the boards and commissions of the Pres- 
byterian Church in the U.S.A., with the 
merger. To this merger, the United 
Presbyterians brought 251,344 members, 
833 churches, 6 colleges, 1 theological 
seminary, several homes for the aged, 
1 hospital and 1 orphan's home, and 
missionary establishments in Egypt, 
Ethiopia, Pakistan, and the Sudan. 



All Presbyterian bodies in this coun- 
try subscribe to the principles and the- 
ology of the Westminster Confession. 
Some modifications or enlargements have 
come as the church has developed, but 
the Confession is its cornerstone. While 
no new "statement of faith" has yet ap- 
peared, the United Presbyterian Church 
in the U.S.A., proceeding from the Con- 
fession, puts its main emphasis upon the 
sovereignty of God in Christ in the 
salvation of the individual; and the sal- 
vation of every individual believer is 
recognized as a part of the divine plan. 
Salvation is not a reward for either faith 
or good works; it is the free gift of God. 
Regeneration, too, is an act of God; 
man is powerless to save himself, but 
once saved he remains saved. 

Each congregation has its local session 
which acts in receiving and disciplining 
members and in the general spiritual wel- 
fare of the church. Congregations in 
limited districts are grouped in presby- 
teries, which examine, ordain, and install 
ministers; review reports from the ses- 
sions; and hear cases or complaints 
brought before them. The synod super- 
vises the presbyteries of a larger district, 
reviews the records of its constituent 
presbyteries, hears complaints and ap- 
peals from the presbyteries, organizes 
new^ presbyteries, and functions in an 
administrative capacity in all denomina- 
tional matters lying within its jurisdic- 
tion. The highest judiciary of the church 
is the annual general assembly, made up 
of clerical and lay delegates elected by 
the presbyteries on a proportional basis. 
The general assembly settles all matters 
of discipline and doctrine referred to it 
by the lower bodies, establishes new 
synods, appoints boards and commissions, 
and reviews all appeals. Its decisions are 
final except that it cannot itself amend 
the constitution of the church. The of- 
ficers of the general assembly are the 
stated clerk as the chief executive of- 
ficer of the denomination, elected for 5 
years with the privilege of re-election, 
and the moderator, chosen each year to 

preside over the sessions of the general 

The general assembly has provided for 
a general council and a permanent 
judicial commission. The general coun- 
cil is appointed to function between 
meetings of the assembly; it is composed 
of the moderator and 2 living ex-mod- 
erators; 2 members each, representing the 
4 boards of the church; 1 representative 
of the council on theological education; 
and 18 "members at large," The stated 
clerk, the secretary of the general coun- 
cil, the secretary of finance, the secretary 
of stewardship and promotion, and the 
general secretary of each of the 4 boards 
are corresponding members with the 
right of the floor but without vote. This 
council is an important body; it has 
wide powers assigned by the assembly, 
and it formulates much of the policy 
under which the boards carry on their 
work. The council idea is carried down 
through the synods and presbyteries, 
which elect similar bodies with com- 
parative powers. The permanent judicial 
commission is composed of 8 ministers 
and 7 ruling elders, no two of whom 
belong to the same synod. It was created 
in 1907 to act as a supreme judicial 
court. Judicial cases not affecting the 
doctrine or constitution of the church 
terminate with the synod as the final 
court of appeal; all others terminate 
with the general assembly. 

Administrative direction of the work 
of the church is in the hands of the 
boards, reduced to 4 in 1923; the Board 
of National Missions, the Commission on 
Ecumenical Mission and Relations, the 
Board of Christian Education, and the 
Board of Pensions. The work now con- 
ducted by the Board of National Mis- 
sions was begun by the general presby- 
tery in 1707; the general synod of 1717 
set up a "fund for pious uses," which 
eventually became the Presbyterian Min- 
isters* Fund the oldest life insurance 
concern in the United States. Home mis- 
sions work was conducted for some time 
through the American Board of Com- 



missioners for Foreign Missions, organ- 
ized in 1810; a series of adjustments and 
consolidations resulted in the formation 
of the present Board of National Mis- 
sions in 1923. The work of the board is 
carried on in all the 50 states and in 
the West Indies; it includes aid to 
churches, city and rural (about 90 per 
cent of the churches in the United States 
are said to have begun with the help of 
national mission funds), Sunday schools 
in pioneer areas, schools from primary 
to college level, hospitals and clinics, 
agricultural and community projects. 
The program employs more than 3,000 
missionaries, ordained ministers, teach- 
ers, doctors, nurses, and community 

The Commission on Ecumenical Mis- 
sion and Relations, elected by the general 
assembly, has 66 members (lay and 
clerical, men and women). It supports 
1,369 missionaries and inter church serv- 
ice representatives in 39 countries and 
maintains or co-operates in the work of 
56 universities, colleges, and training 
schools; 118 secondary schools; 1,252 
schools of lower grades; 77 hospitals; and 
275 dispensaries and clinics. The Board 
of Christian Education, with 48 mem- 
bers, provides Presbyterian youth, chil- 
dren, and parents with study materials 
and supervises the work of Westminster 
Foundations on 114 college campuses. 
Its work reaches into 45 church-related 
colleges, 3 Christian education training 
schools, and 9 theological seminaries. Its 
publications are issued by the West- 
minster Press, one of the most efficient 
church publishing houses in American 
Protestantism. The Presbyterian period- 
icals Today and Presbyterian Life are 
published independently. The Board of 
Pensions administers a fund of $110,000,- 
000, together with relief grants admin- 
istered in co-operation with the Min- 
ister's Emergency Relief Fund. 

So, with few minor modifications, 
doctrine and polity remained the same 
with the merging of the Presbyterians 
in the U.S.A. and the United Presby- 

terians; together, they have in 43 coun- 
tries some 45 seminaries, 53 hospitals, 79 
clinics, 86 colleges in the United States, 
150 neighborhood houses, 200 student 
centers, and 435 schools. Other reunions 
with other Presbyterian bodies, now 
under consideration, will greatly swell 
this total. Total membership of the 
United Presbyterian Church in the 
U.S. A. is 3,209,682 in 9,389 churches. 

In 1960 there were 10 different Presby- 
terian denominations in the United States 
with a total membership of 4,126,583; of 
these, 3,964,085 are found in the two 
major divisions: the United Presbyterian 
Church in the United States of America 
and the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States. Of these 10 churches 7 
are working together, in the western 
area of the Alliance of Reformed 
Churches Throughout the World Hold- 
ing the Presbyterian Order, organized 
in 1875. 

Presbyterian Church 
in the U.S. 

This church in 1960 was composed of 
6 synods with a total of 869,452 mem- 
bers and 3,984 churches. Often called 
"The Southern Presbyterian Church" (an 
objectionable term, to many, for its in- 
ference of regionalism) it has work and 
churches in 18 states and the District of 
Columbia. The organization of this 
church has already been described (see 
p. 179). Relations between the Pres- 
byterian Church in the U.S.A. and the 
Presbyterian Church in the United States, 
disrupted by the Civil War, became 
cordial again once that war was over. 
Fraternal relations were re-established in 
1882, and in 1888 the two groups held a 
joint meeting in Philadelphia to celebrate 
the centenary of the adoption of the 
Presbyterian Constitution of 1788. In 
1897 they also united to observe the 
250th anniversary of the Westminster As- 

The original differences between these 
two bodies have been resolved, but others 



remain to keep them apart; prominent 
among these are the question of conserva- 
tive versus liberal theology and the prob- 
lem involved in the assimilation or 
segregation of Negro members and 
churches. Neither of these current prob- 
lems, however, seem impossible of solu- 
tion. Conservatism and liberalism in the- 
ology are fairly prevalent in both groups, 
and it becomes increasingly difficult to 
draw any firm line in this area. While 
racial problems were prominent in the 
declination of the Presbyterian Church 
in the United States to join the proposed 
three-way merger with the Presbyterian 
Church in the U.S.A. and the United 
Presbyterian Church in 1954-55, con- 
tinuing efforts are being made to work 
out an acceptable Christian solution in 
this situation. 

Doctrinally this church is conserva- 
tively Calvinistic. As in most Reformed 
churches, ministers, elders, and deacons 
are required to give adherence to a con- 
fessional statement. Women are excluded 
from the ministry and eldership, but are 
encouraged to enlist in other fields of 
Christian work. Polity, like doctrine, fol- 
lows the general Presbyterian pattern. 

Five boards and 9 other agencies exe- 
cute the work of the church. The boards 
are World Missions, Christian Educa- 
tion, Church Extension, Annuities and 
Relief, and Women's Work. A general 
council concentrates on stewardship, 
public relations, research, and church 
finance. Various other permanent and 
standing committees are also appointed 
by the assembly. 

In the Presbyterian Church in the 
United States there are 16 Synods, 83 
presbyteries, 3,068 ministers, 3,984 
churches, and 869,452 communicants in 
18 states. The church supports 4 the- 
ological seminaries Austin, Columbia, 
Louisville, and Richmond 27 institu- 
tions of collegiate or higher rank, 4 sec- 
ondary schools, 2 mission schools, and 
15 orphans' homes and schools. Students' 
work is maintained in 30 colleges with 


full-time student work and in 19 other 
colleges with part-time workers. Ap- 
proximately 61 presbyteries are receiving 
aid for work among the Indians in Texas 
and Oklahoma, mountain work in the 
Ozarks and the Appalachians, Latin- 
American work in Texas, and work 
among southern Negroes; 483 mission- 
aries are serving abroad in Formosa, 
Africa, Brazil, Japan, Korea, Mexico, 
Ecuador, Iraq, and Portugal. There are 
about 140,000 foreign communicants, 
over 1,200 organized congregations, 4,000 
outstations, approximately 4,000 trained 
native workers, 2,400 mission schools at- 
tended by 60,000 students, and 13 hos- 
pitals in which 126,000 patients were 
treated in 1958. There are 29 periodicals 
published by the Board of Education, 
which also operates John Knox Press. 

Associate Presbyterian Church 
of North America 

This church maintains the traditions 
of the secession movement of 1733 in the 
Church of Scotland. Missionaries from 
Scotland organized the Associate Pres- 
bytery in America in 1754. This presby- 
tery merged with the Reformed Presby- 
tery in 1782; 2 ministers and 3 ruling 
elders refused to accept the union and 
continued the organization of the As- 
sociate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. 
Other presbyteries joined the Pennsyl- 
vania group, which in 1801 was named 
the Associate Synod of North America. 
In 1858 this associate synod and the As- 
sociate Reformed Presbyterian Church 
of North America consummated a union 
under the name United Presbyterian 
Church of North America. Eleven min- 
isters refusing to enter this union con- 
tinued the Associate Presbyterian 

This church believes in restricted 
Communion, expels members who join 
secret orders, and uses the Psalms ex- 
clusively in worship services. It follows 
the Westminster Confession and has an 


associate testimony of its own explaining 
its doctrinal position. Polity differs in no 
essential elements from that of other 
Presbyterian churches. Home missions 
are conducted by itinerant pastors, and 
foreign missionary work is supported in 
India. There are no colleges or other 
schools; there are 500 members and 7 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church (General Synod) 

This is a synod of the former Associ- 
ate Reformed Presbyterian Church; it 
is a body of Covenanter origins and tra- 
ditions. ("Covenanter" here refers to 
the Reformed branch of the church. The 
Associate Prebyterian Church of North 
America, in distinction, is of Seceder 
origin; the Associate Reformed Church 
is a result of the union of the Associate 
and Reformed groups.) Feeling that the 
distances which separated them from 
their fellow members in the North were 
too great, the synod of the Carolinas 
withdrew in 1822 from the Associate 
Reformed Church to form the Associate 
Reformed Synod of the South. Follow- 
ing the creation of the United Presby- 
terian Church in 1858 (which this group 
never joined), they dropped the phrase 
"of the South," thereby becoming the 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian 
Church. They became a General Synod 
in 1935. 

The standards of the Westminster 
Confession are followed. For some years 
the only music in this church was in 
the singing of the Psalms; this position 
was modified in 1946, permitting the 
use of other selected hymns. Foreign 
mission stations are located in Pakistan 
and Mexico; Erskine College and Erskine 
Theological Seminary are maintained at 
Due West, South Carolina; summer as- 
sembly grounds are at "Bonclarken," 
Flat Rock, North Carolina. Total mem- 
bership is placed at 27,629 in 149 

Bible Presbyterian Church 

Within a year after the founding of 
the Orthodox Presbyterian Church (see 
p. 184) in 1936, a group under the 
leadership of the Rev. Carl Mclntire 
withdrew to organize the Bible Presby- 
terian Church. They continued the pro- 
test against tendencies which they con- 
sidered to be "modernistic, pacifistic and 
communistic" not only within Presby- 
terianism but within American Protes- 
tantism generally. 

This protest has been continued and 
widened in the organization, under the 
inspiration of Mclntire, of the Ameri- 
can and International Councils of 
Churches, in both of which the Bible 
Presbyterian Church holds a prominent 
place; these two organizations oppose 
the teaching and work of the National 
Council of the Churches of Christ in 
the U.SA. and the World Council of 
Churches. On the positive side the Bible 
Presbyterian Church advocates a con- 
servative theology, built around the doc- 
trines of the verbal inspiration and in- 
fallibility of the Bible, the premillennial 
return of Christ, and "separation from 
worldly practices and belief." 

Its churches, at first limited to the 
eastern coast, have spread across the 
nation; in 1958 they are reported to have 
8,870 members, 212 ministers, 103 
churches, and 14 additional churches "in 
affiliation" with 500 members. A theo- 
logical school, Faith Theological Sem- 
inary, is located in Philadelphia; there 
are independent home and foreign mis- 
sions boards. A general synod meets 

Colored Cumberland Presbyterian 

This church was built on the 20,000 
Negro membership of the pre-Civil War 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church with 
the full approval of the general assembly 
of that church, held in 1869. The first 
3 presbyteries were organized in Ten- 
nessee, where the first synod, the Ten- 



nessee Synod, was organized in 1871. In 
doctrine this church follows the West- 
minster Confession with 4 reservations: 

(1) there are no eternal reprobates; 

(2) Christ died for all mankind, not for 
the elect alone; (3) there is no infant 
damnation; and (4) the Spirit of God 
operates in the world coextensively with 
Christ's atonement in such manner "as 
to leave all men inexcusable." Polity is 
genuinely Presbyterian except that 
bishops are included as pastors among 
its officers. There were 19 presbyteries, 
4 synods Alabama, Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, and Texas 121 churches, and 
30,000 members found in all sections 
of the country in 1949. In May of 1940 
the general assembly accepted an over- 
ture from a presbytery of 17 churches 
and 1 school in Liberia, Africa, and 
voted to make it a part of the Colored 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church. 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 

An outgrowth of the Great Revival of 
1800, the Cumberland Presbytery was 
organized on February 4, 1810, in Dick- 
son County, Tennessee, by 3 Presby- 
terian ministers, the Revs. Finis Ewing, 
Samuel King, and Samuel McAdow. 
Contributing factors to the organization 
were a rejection by the founders of the 
doctrine of fatality of the Westminster 
Confession of Faith, and an insistence 
that the rigid standards of the Presby- 
terian Church for the education of the 
clergy be relaxed in the light of extraor- 
dinary circumstances existing on the 
American frontier. The presbytery for 
a time sought admission into the Pres- 
byterian Church, but, failing in this 
effort, developed eventually into a de- 
nomination. A union with the Presby- 
terian Church, U.S.A., in 1906 was only 
partially successful. A considerable seg- 
ment, to whom the terms of union were 
unsatisfactory, perpetuated the Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Church as a sep- 
arate denomination. 

This church reports 88,000 members 
in 990 congregations located for the 
most part in 11 southern states, with 
some congregations in the states of In- 
diana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Iowa, 
Kansas, New Mexico, and California. 

The church sponsors missionaries in 
Colombia, South America, Japan, China, 
and the Hong Kong area. The Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Theological Sem- 
inary is located at McKenzie, Tennessee. 
Bethel College is sponsored by the 
church at the same location. The Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Children's Home 
is located at Denton, Texas. The Cum- 
berland Presbyterian Center publishing 
plant, bookstore, and denominational 
board offices is located at Memphis, 

The Orthodox Presbyterian Church 

This church was organized June 11, 
1936, in protest against what were be- 
lieved to be modernistic tendencies in 
the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. 
(now the United Presbyterian Church 
in the U.S.A.). Led by the late Rev. 
J. Gresham Machen, the dissenters had 
formed a foreign missionary society 
which they were ordered to disband; re- 
fusing, they were tried, convicted, and 
suspended from the Presbyterian Church 
in the U.S.A. They organized the Pres- 
byterian Church of America; an in- 
junction brought against the use of that 
name by the parent body resulted in 
the change in 1939 to the name Ortho- 
dox Presbyterian Church. 

The Westminster Confession and the 
Westminster Larger and Shorter cate- 
chisms are accepted as subordinate doc- 
trinal standards or creedal statements. 
Stronger emphasis is laid upon the in- 
fallibility and inerrancy of the Bible 
(the books of the Bible were written 
by men "so guided by Him that their 
original manuscripts were without error 
in fact or doctrine"); original sin; the 
virgin birth, deity, and substitutionary 
atonement of Christ; his resurrection 



and ascension; his role as judge at the 
end of the world and the consumma- 
tion of the Kingdom; the sovereignty of 
God; and salvation through the sacrifice 
and power of Christ for those "whom 
the Father purposes to save." Salvation 
is "not because of good works, [but] 
it is in order to good works." 

The Presbyterian system of govern- 
ment is followed; a general assembly 
meets annually. The church constitution 
contains the creedal statement of the 
group, a form of government, book of 
discipline, and directory for the wor- 
ship of God. Committees appointed by 
the general assembly conduct work in 
home missions and church extension, 
foreign missions, and Christian educa- 
tion. There are 10,233 members in 92 

Reformed Presbyterian Church in 
North America, General Synod 

This is the original New Light group 
which was organized following the di- 
vision of the Reformed Presbyterian 
Synod in 1883. It is similar to the pre- 
ceeding body except that it allows its 
members to vote and hold public office. 
It accepts the Westminster standards 
and Reformed Principles Exhibited as 
their subordinate standards; uses hymns 
as well as Psalms in worship, and organs 
and pianos in their singing; preaches 
the headship of Christ over all nations; 
and advocates public social covenanting 
(although this is not practiced as much 
today as formerly). Polity is distinc- 
tively Presbyterian. There are 3 presby- 
teries with 19 congregations and 2,060 
communicant members (including min- 
isters) in the United States, one pres- 
bytery with 5 congregations, and 2 mis- 
sion stations and 171 communicant mem- 
bers in India. 

Reformed Presbyterian Church of 
North America (Old School) 

A body of direct Covenanter lineage, 
its first minister came to this country 
from the Reformed Presbytery of Scot- 
land in 1752. Most of the early member- 
ship joined the union with the Associate 
Presbytery in 1782, but a small group 
remained outside the union and re- 
organized in Philadelphia under the 
name Reformed Presbytery in 1798. A 
synod was first constituted at Philadel- 
phia in 1809, only to split in 1833 into 
Old Light and New Light groups in 
a dispute over citizenship. The synod of 
the Reformed Presbyterian Church (Old 
Light) refused to allow its members to 
vote or participate generally in public 
affairs; the general synod of the Re- 
formed Presbyterian Church (New 
Light) imposed no such restrictions. 

The government of this church is thor- 
oughly Presbyterian except that there 
is no general assembly. The Westminster 
Confession is the doctrinal standard. The 
members pledge themselves to "pray and 
labor for the peace and welfare of our 
country, and for its reformation by a 
constitutional recognition of God as 
the source of all power, of Jesus Christ 
as the Ruler of Nations, of the Holy 
Scriptures as the supreme rule, and of 
the true Christian religion." Until that 
reformation is accomplished, they refuse 
to vote or hold public office. They ob- 
serve close Communion and use only 
the Psalms in worship. No instrumental 
music is permitted in their services, and 
members cannot join any secret society. 

Home missionaries work among the 
Indians, Negroes, and Jews in America; 
foreign missionaries are at work in 
Cyprus and Japan. There are a church 
at Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, a theologi- 
cal seminary at Pittsburgh, and a home 
for the aged; 6,214 members were re- 
ported in 72 churches in 1954. 



It is stated in the preface of the Book 
of Common Prayer of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church that "this Church is 
far from intending to depart from the 
Church of England in any essential point 
of doctrine, discipline, or worship." 
Therein lies the hint of its origin: the 
Protestant Episcopal Church constitutes 
the "self-governing American branch of 
the Anglican Communion." For a century 
and a half in this country it bore the 
name of the Church of England. 

Its history runs back to the first mis- 
sionaries who went to the British Isles 
from Gaul prior to the Council of Aries 
in A.D. 314. It is traced down through the 
days when Henry VIII threw off the 
supremacy of the pope (Henry, accord- 
ing to Anglican scholars, did not found 
the Church of England; it was a church 
that had always been more British than 
Roman); through the reign of Edward 
VI, when the Book of Common Prayer 
and 42 Articles of Religion were writ- 
ten; through the period of Catholic res- 
toration under Bloody Mary and through 
her successor Protestant Elizabeth, who 
put the united church and state under 
the Protestant banner and sent Sir 
Francis Drake sailing to build an em- 

Drake came ashore in what is now 
California in 1578. His Church of Eng- 
land chaplain, Francis Fletcher, planted 
a cross and read a prayer while Drake 
claimed the new land for the Virgin 
Queen. Martin Frobisher had reached 
Labrador in 1576, also with a chaplain. 
After them came colonists to Virginia 
tinder Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir 
Walter Raleigh; Raleigh's chaplain bap- 
tized an Indian named Manteo and a 
white baby named Virginia Dare before 
the settlement vanished. With Captain 
John Smith came Chaplain Robert Hunt, 
who stretched a sail between two trees 
for a shelter and read the service from 
the Book of Common Prayer. 

In the South the transplanted Church 
of England quickly became the Estab- 

lished Church. It was at heart a tolerant 
and catholic church, but the control of 
the crown brought an almost ruthless 
authority which made the church sus- 
pect in the eyes of those colonists who 
had come here seeking freedom from all 
such authority. The Virginia House of 
Burgesses set the salary of the Virginia 
clergyman at "1,500 pounds of tobacco 
and 16 barrels of corn." It was a British 
clergy supported by public tax and as- 
sessment and by contributions from the 
Church in England through the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. And 
it was technically under the jurisdiction 
of the Bishop of London. In that fact 
lay one of its almost fatal weaknesses: 
colonial ministers had to journey to 
England for ordination, and few could 
afford it. This, coupled with the rising 
tide of the American Revolution, placed 
the colonial Church of England in an 
unenviable position. 

Yet the church did well. Membership 
grew rapidly. William and Mary College 
was established in 1693, and the Church 
of England became the predominant 
church in the South. King's Chapel in 
Boston, the first Episcopal church in 
New England, was opened in 1689; in 
1698 a church was established at New- 
port, Rhode Island, and another, called 
Trinity Church, in New York City. In 
1702 a delegation from the Society for 
the Propagation of the Gospel came 
from England to survey the colonial 
church and found about 50 clergymen 
at work from the Carolinas to Maine. 
The visitors sensed the need for Ameri- 
can bishops to ordain American clergy- 
men; they also sensed the increasing op- 
position of the American patriot to a 
British-governed church. 

The Revolution almost destroyed the 
colonial Church of England. Under spe- 
cial oath of allegiance to the king the 
clergy either fled to England or Canada, 
or remained as Loyalists in the colonies 
in the face of overwhelming persecution. 
That many of them were loyal to the 



American cause meant little; the Rev. 
William White was chaplain of the Con- 
tinental Congress, the Rev. Charles 
Thurston was a Continental colonel, 
and in the pews of the Episcopal 
Church sat Washington, Jefferson, Pat- 
rick Henry, John Jay, Robert Morris, 
John Marshall, Charles and "Light-Horse 
Harry" Lee, and John Randolph. But 
their presence could not stem the tide. 
The Anglican house was divided, and 
it fell At the war's end there was no 
episcopacy, no association of the 
churches, not even the semblance of an 
establishment. Few thought of any fu- 
ture for this church, which suffered be- 
tween Lexington and Yorktown more 
than any other in the colonies. 

There was, however, a future and a 
great one. In 1782 there appeared a 
pamphlet entitled The Case of the Epis- 
copal Churches in the United States 
Considered, written by William White. 
It was a plea for unity and reorganiza- 
tion, and it proposed that the ministry 
be continued temporarily without the 
episcopal succession since the latter "can- 
not at present be obtained." In 1783 a 
conference of the Episcopal churches 
met at Annapolis, Maryland, and for- 
mally adopted the name Protestant Epis- 
copal Church "Protestant" to distin- 
guish it from the Church of Rome, 
"Episcopal" to distinguish it from the 
Presbyterians and the Congregationalists. 
In the same year the clergy in Connec- 
ticut elected Samuel Seabury as their 
prospective bishop; he went to England 
and waited a year for consecration at 
the hands of English bishops. This was 
denied, and he then went to Scotland to 
be consecrated bishop in 1784. Ulti- 
mately Parliament and the Church of 
England cleared the way, and two other 
bishops-elect from New York and Penn- 
sylvania were consecrated by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury in 1787. In 1789 
the constitution of the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church was adopted in Philadel- 
phia, the Book of Common Prayer was 
revised for American use, and the Prot- 

estant Episcopal Church became an in- 
dependent, self-governing body. 

There were complete harmony and 
expansion for the next half century. 
There were established new churches 
and church institutions: Sunday schools, 
Bible, prayer book, and tract societies, 
theological seminaries, colleges, boarding 
schools, guilds for men and women, and 
the Domestic and Foreign Missionary 
Society. Diocesan organizations replaced 
state organizations; new bishops moved 
into the new West. Bishops J. H. Hobart 
in New York, A. V. Griswold in New 
England, Benjamin Moore in Virginia, 
and Philander Chase in Ohio worked 
miracles in overcoming the revolution- 
ary prejudices against the church. W. A. 
Muhlenberg, one of the great Episco- 
palian builders, 

organized the first free church of any im- 
portance in New York, introduced the 
male choir, sisterhoods and the fresh air 
movement, while his church infirmary sug- 
gested to his mind the organization of St. 
Luke's Hospital [in New York], the first 
church hospital of any Christian communion 
in the country. 

Muhlenberg was a man of wide vision; 
he inspired a "memorial" calling for a 
wider catholicity in the Protestant Epis- 
copal Church, which resulted in the 
famous Lambeth Quadrilateral on 
Church Unity in 1888 and the movement 
which produced the further revision of 
the American Book of Common Prayer 
in 1892. 

With the outbreak of the Civil War 
disruption again threatened the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church, but it did not 
come. Among the major Protestant 
churches this one alone suffered no 
division. New England churchmen 
may have been abolitionists, and a 
Louisiana bishop, Leonidas Polk, may 
have been a general under Lee, but Polk 
prayed for Bishop Charles Pettk Mcll- 
vaine of Ohio in public, and the Ohioan 
prayed for Polk, and they were still in 
one church. A temporary Protestant 



Episcopal Church in the Confederate 
States was organized to carry on the 
work in the South, but the names of the 
southern bishops were called in the gen- 
eral convention in New York in 1862; 
and once the war was over, the Episco- 
palian house was in 1865 quickly re- 

The years following Appomattox 
were years of new growth. A dispute 
over churchmanship, rising out of the 
Oxford Movement in England, resulted 
in the separation of a group into the 
Reformed Episcopal Church in 1873, but 
otherwise Episcopalian unity held fast. 
New theological seminaries were estab- 
lished, and old ones were reorganized 
and strengthened. This period saw the 
organization of Church Congress, the 
Brotherhood of St. Andrew, and numer- 
ous other church agencies. The expan- 
sion continued into the next century; 
two world wars failed to halt it. In 1830 
the Protestant Episcopal Church had 12 
bishops, 20 dioceses, 600 clergymen, and 
30,000 communicants; in 1930 it had 152 
bishops, 105 dioceses, 6,000 clergymen, 
and 1,250,000 communicants. 

The Episcopalian form of government 
closely parallels that of the federal gov- 
ernment. The basic unit is the parish, 
governed by a priest, who is called a 
rector; wardens, who have charge of 
church records and the collection of 
alms; and vestrymen, who have charge 
of all church property. There are also 
lay readers and deaconesses in the local 
congregation. Parishes are grouped geo- 
graphically into 77 dioceses, each of 
which includes not less than 6 parishes; 
the dioceses, which elect the bishops, 
were at first identical with the states, but 
with the growth of the church larger 
dioceses became necessary. Government 
in the diocese is vested in the bishop and 
the diocesan convention, made up of 
clerical and lay representatives and meet- 
ing annually. It is self-governing but ap- 
points a standing committee as the ec- 
clessiastical authority for all purposes 
declared by the general convention. Sec- 


tions of states and territories not organ- 
ized into dioceses are established by the 
house of bishops and the general conven- 
tion as missionary districts, which may 
be elevated into dioceses or consolidated 
with other parts of dioceses as new dio- 
ceses. In addition to the 10 domestic 
missionary districts there are 10 over- 
seas missionary districts and 5 extracon- 
tinental missionary districts. 

Dioceses and missionary districts are 
grouped into 8 provinces, each gov- 
erned by a synod consisting of the bish- 
op, 4 presbyters, and 4 laymen elected 
by each constituent diocese and mis- 
sionary district. Once in 3 years there 
is a general convention composed of a 
house of bishops and a house of deputies 
with lay and clerical delegates having 
equal representation. The 2 houses sit 
and deliberate separately; both must ap- 
prove of a measure before it can become 
law. The ecclesiastical head of the 
church is the presiding bishop elected 
by the general convention; he serves 
until the age of retirement, set at 68. 

In 1919 the general convention pro- 
vided for a national council to act be- 
tween sessions of the convention. It is 
one of the most important administra- 
tive agencies of the church, made up of 
32 members consisting of bishops, priests, 
laymen, and laywomen; the presiding 
bishop is president, and the council 
facilitates the work of the church in 6 
departments: foreign missions, domestic 
missions, religious education, Christian 
social service, finance, and promotion. 
The general divisions of laymen's work, 
women's work, and research work in 
co-operation with all 6 of the depart- 

The Episcopalian accepts 2 creeds 
the Apostles' and the Nicene. The arti- 
cles of the Church of England, with 
the exception of the twenty-first and 
with modifications of the eighth, thirty- 
fifth, and thirty-sixth, are accepted as a 
general statement of doctrine; but ad- 
herence to them as a creed is not re- 


quired. The clergy make the following 

I do believe the Holy Scriptures of the 
Old and New Testaments to be the Word of 
God, and to contain all things necessary to 
salvation, and I do solemnly engage to 
conform to the doctrine, discipline, and 
worship of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
in the United States of America. 

The church expects of all its members 
"loyalty to the doctrine, discipline, and 
worship of the one holy Catholic Apos- 
tolic Church, in all the essentials, but 
allows great liberty in nonessentials." It 
allows for more variation, individuality, 
independent thinking, and religious liber- 
ty than most of our larger Protestant 
churches. Liberals and conservatives, 
modernists and fundamentalists, find cor- 
dial and common ground for worship in 
the Prayer Book, which next to the Bible 
has probably influenced more people 
than any other book in the English lan- 

There are 2 sacraments, baptism and 
the Lord's Supper, recognized as "cer- 
tain sure witnesses and effectual agencies 
of God's love and grace." Baptism by 
pouring or immersion is necessary for 
regeneration for either children or 
adults^; baptism by any church in the 
name of the Trinity is recognized as 
valid baptism, baptized children are con- 
firmed as members by the bishop, and 
those not baptized in infancy or child- 
hood must accept the rite before con- 
firmation. Without stating or defining a 
holy mystery the Episcopal Church be- 
lieves in the real presence of Christ in 
the elements of the Supper. The church 
also recognizes the sacramental char- 
acter of confirmation, penance, orders, 
matrimony, and unction. 

Some Episcopalians are high church- 
men with elaborate ritual and ceremony; 
others are low churchmen with a ritual 
less involved and with more of an evan- 
gelistic emphasis. There are Anglo- 
Catholics, stressing the catholicity of the 
church; they constitute about one third 


of the members. All, however, have a 
loyalty to their church which is deep 
and lasting; in more than 300 years this 
church has known only one minor divi- 
sion; today it stands sixth among all 
denominations: it had 3,359,048 members 
in 7,485 churches in the United States in 

Stanley I. Stuber has called this the 
"Church of Beauty," and it is an apt 
description. Its prayer book is matchless 
in the literature of religious worship, 
containing the heart of the New Testa- 
ment and the best of Old Testament 
devotions. Members have built stately 
cathedrals in this country, among them 
the Cathedral of St. John the Divine in 
New York City, which is the third larg- 
est cathedral in the world, and the Na- 
tional Cathedral at Washington, some- 
times called the American Westminster 
Abbey. Stained-glass windows, gleaming 
altars, vested choirs, and a glorious ritual 
give the worshiper not only beauty but 
a deep sense of the continuity of the 
Christian spirit and tradition. Next to 
their stress on episcopacy their liturgical 
worship is a distinguishing feature; vary- 
ing in degree according to high or low 
church inclinations, it has its roots in the 
liturgy of the Church of England and 
includes the reading, recitation, or in- 
tonation by priest, people, and choir of 
the historic general confession, general 
thanksgiving, collects, Psalter, and pray- 
ers, all of which are written in a beauty 
and cadence second only to that of the 
King James Version of the Bible. 

Home missions, supported or aided by 
national missionary funds, are found in 
32 dioceses and missionary districts in 
the United States. Special emphasis is 
placed upon work in town and country 
areas, in college communities, and in 
Negro, Indian, and Spanish-speaking 
fields. Overseas missions are located in all 
American territories the Panama Canal 
Zone, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and 
Puerto RJco and in Brazil, Cuba, the 
Dominican Republic, Haiti, India, Japan, 
the Near East, Liberia, Mexico, Oki- 


nawa, Taiwan, Central America, and the 
Philippines. The church sponsors or 
maintains 12 theological seminaries, 6 
colleges, 1 university, 3 training schools 
for deaconesses, 180 secondary schools 
for boys and girls in the United States, 
Alaska, Hawaii, and the Philippines, 76 
homes for the aged, 78 institutions for 
child care, 79 hospitals and convalescent 
homes, and work for seamen in 8 dio- 
ceses in America. This church is unique 
in Protestantism for its orders of monks 
and nuns; there are 11 orders for men 
and 15 for women, employed in schools, 
hospitals, and various forms of mission- 
ary work. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church has 
an undeserved reputation for exclusive- 
ness and non-co-operation with other 
Protestant bodies; actually it has been 
most co-operative. The Lambeth Quad- 
rilateral, already mentioned, was adopted 
by the house of bishops at the general 
convention of 1886 and accepted with 

modifications 2 years later. It had 4 
points for world unity of the churches: 
the Scriptures as the word of God, the 
Apostles' and the Nicene creeds as the 
rule of faith, the 2 sacraments of baptism 
and the Lord's Supper, and the episco- 
pate as the central principle of church 
government. In 1910 the general conven- 
tion appointed a commission to arrange 
for a World Conference on Faith and 
Order; the first conference was held at 
Geneva in 1920, the second in 1927 at 
Lausanne, the third at Edinburgh in 
1937. The church is active in the Na- 
tional Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America and in the World Council 
of Churches. An unusually effective in- 
tercommunion has been established 
among the Anglican, Old Catholic, Po- 
lish National Catholic, and Protestant 
Episcopal Churches, which may be the 
first step toward a merger of these 


When the Belgic Confession was writ- 
ten in 1561 as the creedal cornerstone 
of the Reformed churches in Belgium 
and Holland, the "Churches in the 
Netherlands which sit under the Cross" 
gave thanks to their God in the preface 
of that document, where they said, 
"The blood of our brethren . . . crieth 
out." There was real cause for crying 
out, for the Reformation was spreading 
into the Netherlands from Switzerland 
in the midst of the long Dutch struggle 
against Catholic Spain. The Dutch Re- 
formed Church was cradled in cruelty. 

Those Reformation-founded churches 
called Reformed, as distinguished from 
those called Lutheran, originated in 
Switzerland under Zwingli, Calvin, and 
Melanchthon; they were Reformed in 
Switzerland, Holland, and Germany; 
they were Presbyterian in England and 
Scotland, and Huguenot in France; still 
others in Bohemia and Hungary used 

national names. As they moved overseas 
to the American colonies, they formed 
into 4 groups of churches: 2 from Hol- 
land became the Reformed Church in 
America and the Christian Reformed 
Church; 1 from the German Palatinate 
became the Reformed Church in the 
United States, now the Evangelical and 
Reformed Church; the fourth, coming 
from Hungary, became the Free Magyar 
Reformed Church in America. All of 
them were and still are Calvinistic and 
conservative, basing their doctrine gen- 
erally upon the Heidelberg Catechism, 
the Belgic Confession, and the canons of 
the Synod of Dort, and using a modified 
Presbyterian form of government. 

Reformed Church in America 

This church had an unorganized mem- 
bership along the upper reaches of the 
Hudson River in the neighborhood of 



Fort Orange (Albany), New York, in 
1614. Members had no regularly estab- 
lished congregations or churches; but 
they were numerous enough to require 
the services of Reformed ministers, two 
of whom came from Holland in 1623 
as "comforters of the sick." By 1628 
the Dutch in New Amsterdam had a 
pastor of their own in Dominie Jonas 
Michaelius and an organized Collegiate 
Church, which was to become the oldest 
church in the middle colonies and the 
oldest church in America with an un- 
interrupted ministry. 

When the English took New Amster- 
dam in 1664, Dutch churches were 
thriving in Albany, Kingston, Brooklyn, 
Manhattan, and at Bergen in New Jersey. 
As s the immigration from Holland 
ceased, there were perhaps 8,000 Dutch 
churchmen and churchwomen in the 
country, holding their services in Dutch 
and served by either native clergymen 
or pastors sent from Holland, It was 
difficult and expensive to send native- 
born ministerial candidates to Holland 
for education and ordination; the ques- 
tion rent the Reformed Church and 
was finally resolved in the building of a 
college and seminary at New Brunswick 
(Queen's College, later Rutgers). It was 
the first theological seminary to be built 
in this country, and it was fathered by 
the famous Dominie Theodore Frelin- 
ghuysen, who also took a leading part 
in the revival called the Great Awaken- 

A sharp controversy disputing the au- 
thority of the classis of Amsterdam re- 
sulted in the complete independence of 
the Dutch churches in America; a gen- 
eral body and 5 particular bodies were 
created, a constitution was drawn up in 
1792, and the general synod was or- 
ganized in 1794. The names Dutch Re- 
formed Church in North America and 
Reformed Dutch Church in the United 
States of America were both in use in 
1792; in 1819 the church was incorpo- 
rated as the Reformed Protestant Dutch 

Church, and in 1867 it became the Re- 
formed Church in America. 

The American Revolution had little 
effect upon the Reformed Church in 
America except to offer the Dutchmen 
a chance to even matters with the Eng- 
lish. Once the war was over, Scotch, 
English, and Germans began joining 
the church, creating a problem in the 
use of the Dutch tongue which took 
years to resolve. A second Dutch im- 
migration from the Netherlands started 
in the middle of the nineteenth century, 
bringing whole Dutch congregations 
with their pastors. One group, led by 
Dominie Albertus van Raake, settled in 
western Michigan and established the 
community called Holland, known today 
for Hope College, Western Theological 
Seminary, and an annual tulip festival. 
Van Raalte and his group became part 
of the Reformed Church in America in 
1850. Another colony, led by Dominie 
Scholte, settled in Pella, Iowa, in 1847- 
48 and in 1856 merged with the Re- 
formed Church in America except for 
a small dissenting group. 

Domestic missions began in 1786; ac- 
tually, missionary work among the In- 
dians had begun much earlier. Needy 
and destitute churches in New York, 
Pennsylvania, and Kentucky were as- 
sisted by the domestic missionaries of the 
classis of Albany for many years, and in 
1806 the general synod took over admin- 
istration of all missionary agencies. This 
church co-operated with the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. In 1832 the Board of Foreign 
Missions was created but continued to 
work through the American Board un- 
til 1857, from which time it has oper- 
ated independently. Insisting from the 
start upon 7 years of college and sem- 
inary training for its ministers, the 
church established the Education So- 
ciety of the Reformed Church in Amer- 
ica in 1828 and changed it to the Board 
of Education of the General Synod in 

The explicit statements and principles 



of the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg 
Catechism, and the Synod of Dort are 
still the doctrinal standard of the Re- 
formed Church in America. The mild 
and gentle spirit of the confession with 
its emphasis upon salvation through 
Christ is a central theme; the primacy 
of God and his power in human life 
are at the heart of the preaching of 
the church as they are at the heart of 
the canons of Dort; and the Heidelberg 
Catechism, based as it is on the Apostles' 
Creed, is employed in all catechetical 
classes. The divine authority of the 
Scriptures is important here; "the final 
authority in the Reformed faith is the 
Holy Scripture, the living Word of 
God, spoken to every man through the 
Holy Spirit of God." 

Worship is semiliturgical, but it is 
an optional liturgy; only the forms for 
baptism and the Lord's Supper, the 2 
recognized sacraments of the church, are 
obligatory. It is a corporate or congrega- 
tional way of worship, blending form 
and freedom and distinguishing this 
from other Protestant communions. 

Government of the church stands mid- 
way between the episcopal and Pres- 
byterian forms; it might be called "modi- 
fied Presbyterian." The governing body 
in the local church is the consistory, 
made up of elders, deacons, and the 
pastor, who is always president. Elders 
are charged with the guidance of the 
spiritual life of the church, and deacons 
are in charge of benevolences; but they 
generally meet and act as one body. A 
number of churches in a limited area 
are grouped into a classis, which has 
immediate supervision of the churches 
and the ministry, and is composed of all 
the ministers of the area and an elder 
from each consistory. Classes are 
grouped into particular synods, of which 
there are 6, meeting annually and made 
up of an equal number of ministers and 
elders from each classis, and supervising 
the planning and programing of the 
churches within the area. The highest 
court of the church is the general synod, 

representing the entire church, meeting 
once a year, and consisting of delegations 
of an equal number of ministers and 
elders from each ciassis. The size of the 
delegation, however, varies in accord- 
ance with the size of the classis. The 
general synod directs the missionary 
and educational work through its various 
boards. The president of the general 
synod, elected by the delegates, holds 
office for 1 year. 

The Board of Foreign Missions directs 
164 active missionaries abroad in the 
Philippine Islands, south India, Japan, 
Arabia, Iraq, Mesopotamia, and Africa; 
a total of $1,175,758 was received to 
finance foreign missions for the year 
ending December 31, 1958. The Board 
of Domestic Missions offers help to 
needy and mission churches, administers 
the church building fund and the South- 
ern Normal School in Brewton, Ala- 
bama. It also directs work among Dutch 
immigrants in Canada and among Ital- 
ians, Chinese, and Jews in the United 
States; operates missions in Kentucky; 
supports other missionary projects 
among Japanese-Americans, Italians, In- 
dians, migrants, and sharecroppers; pro- 
vides scholarships in the denominational 
colleges, and carries on evangelistic work 
in Mexico and among urban American 
Negroes. In 1958 the churches and vari- 
ous organizations contributed $1,158,171 
for the work of the board. The Board 
of Education offers funds for student 
aid in 3 colleges and 2 theological sem- 
inaries, and plans the work for Sunday 
schools, catechetical classes, young peo- 
ples' activities, and adult groups. Living 
donors in 1958 contributed $708,437 to 
this board. The Board of Pensions ad- 
ministers annuities, pensions, and relief 
funds for widows, disabled ministers, 
and orphans. About 552 persons received 
a total of $282,257 from these funds in 

The Reformed Church in America 
in 1959 listed 219,770 members in 867 



Christian Reformed Church 

This is the second largest Reformed 
body in the United States, with 184,346 
members and 402 churches reported in 
1959. It began with the dissent of a 
number of members and 2 Michigan 
ministers of the Reformed Church in 
America, who found themselves in dis- 
agreement with the parent church on 
certain matters of doctrine and disci- 
pline. A conference held at Holland, 
Michigan, in 1857 effected the separa- 
tion of the Holland Reformed Church 
from the Reformed Church in America. 
Through a series of changes in name 
the Holland Reformed Church became 
the present Christian Reformed Church. 

Dissension split its ranks soon after 
organization; by 1863 there were only 
3 Christian Reformed pastors for the 
entire body. Immigration from Holland 
and anti-Masonic agitation in the Re- 
formed Church in America, however, 
brought several groups into merger and 
gave the church a new lease on life. 
The Christian Reformed Church today 
is largely an English-speaking church 
with a few congregations still using 
Holland Dutch. Doctrine shows 110 im- 
portant differences from Reformed 
standards; the 3 historic creeds are ac- 
cepted. Organization bears the usual 
Reformed markings, including 30 classes 
which meet every 4 months (in some 
cases every 6 months) but with no in- 
termediate or particular synods between 
the classes, and a general synod made up 
of 2 ministers and 2 elders from each 
classis, meeting annually. 

Interest in missions, ministerial train- 
ing, Christian primary and high schools, 
labor unions, and tuberculosis and psy- 
chopathic hospitals distinguishes this 
denomination. Thirty-three home mis- 
sionaries work among the Navajo and 
Zuni Indians, among American Jews, 
Negroes, and Chinese in New York City 
and Chicago, and in unchurched com- 
munities in other American cities. Forty- 
six foreign missionaries work in Japan, 

South America, northern Nigeria, Cuba, 
and Formosa; there are churches and 
stations in Canada. Calvin College and 
Seminary are located at Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, and there are a number of 
Christian school societies made up of 
parents who support the denomination's 
Christian schools. There are 18 homes 
for the aged, 2 junior colleges (Durat 
College at Sioux Center, Iowa, and 
Trinity College at Chicago), and a pub- 
lishing house at Grand Rapids. 

Hungarian Reformed Church 

in America 

With 38 churches and 10,000 mem- 
bers, the Hungarian Reformed Church 
in America was organized in 1904 under 
the supervision of the Reformed Church 
of Hungary. The Reformed Church of 
Hungary transferred most of these 
American congregations to the Reformed 
Church in the United States in 1922 un- 
der the Tiffin Agreement, made at Tiffin, 
Ohio. When the Reformed Church in 
the United States united with the Evan- 
gelical Synod of North America in 1934, 
3 Hungarian congregations that had re- 
fused to accept the Tiffin Agreement, 
together with 4 other Hungarian con- 
gregations, merged to form the Free 
Magyar Reformed Church in America. 
The present name was adopted in 1958. 

This church is divided into eastern 
and western classes, which together con- 
stitute a diocese. Both classes have a dean 
and a lay curator; the diocese is headed 
by an archdean and a chief lay curator. 
In polity it occupies middle ground be- 
tween episcopacy and Presbyterianism. 
The doctrine and polity of the mother 
church in Hungary are followed; the 
church recognizes the Second Helvetic 
Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism 
as "symbolic books." The diocese meets 
annually; there is a constitutional meeting 
every 3 years. Local churches are found 
in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and Michigan. 



Netherlands Reformed Congregations 

This is the smallest of all the Re- 
formed groups in the United States; it 
has 14 churches and 2,223 members. Its 
short history (from 1907) began with 
a secession from the State Church in 
Holland; immigrants coming to the 
United States from Holland organized 
in that year, basing their belief on the 
Belgium Confession, the Heidelberg 
Catechism, and the Canons of Dort. 
There are 8 Sunday schools and 4 
clergymen; a synod meets every 2 years. 

Protestant Reformed Churches 
of America 

Three consistories of the Classis Grand 
Rapids East and Grand Rapids West 
of the Christian Reformed Church, with 
their pastors, were separated from that 
church as the result of a disagreement 
over the doctrine of common grace 
(Arminianism). The debate began in 
1925; the dissenters were formally 
organized as Protestant Reformed 
Churches of America in 1926. They 
stand for particular grace, for the elect 
alone, and hold to the three Reformed 

Confessions the Heidelberg Catechism, 
the Belgic or Netherlands Confession, 
and the Canons of Dortrecht as the 
basis of their belief in the infallible word 
of God. In government they are Pres- 
byterian, subscribing to the 87 Articles 
of the Church Order of Dortrecht. 
Their General Synod meets annually, 
in June. 

A small theological seminary is main- 
tained at Grand Rapids. An association 
of Protestant Reformed men in the 
same city publishes a bimonthly periodi- 
cal known as The Standard Bearer, and 
another publication, a monthly called 
Beacon Lights, is issued by the denomi- 
nation's Young Peoples Federation. 
There are 1,414 communicant members 
in 19 churches located in Michigan, 
Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, Minnesota, 
Colorado, California, and Washington. 

The ranks of this church were split 
in 1953 by the deflection of a considera- 
ble number of churches and members 
under the leadership of Rev. H. de 
Wolf, a former leader of the earlier 
(Hoeksema) group; they have formed 
another denomination bearing the same 


The Reformed Episcopal Church was 
organized in New York City in 1873 
by 8 clergymen and 20 laymen who 
formerly had been priests and members 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church. A 
long debate over the ritualism and eccle- 
siasticism of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church lay behind the separation; the 
immediate cause of the division lay in 
the participation of Bishop George 
David Cummins of Kentucky in a Com- 
munion service held in the Fifth Avenue 
Presbyterian Church in New York City. 
In the face of criticism and in the con- 
viction that the catholic nature and 
mission of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church were being lost, Bishop Cum- 

mins withdrew to found the new de- 

Doctrine and organization are similar 
to that of the parent church with several 
important exceptions. The Reformed 
Episcopal Church rejects the doctrine 
that the Lord's table is an altar on which 
the body and blood of Christ are offered 
anew to the Father, that the presence of 
Christ in the Supper is a presence in the 
elements of bread and wine, and that 
regeneration is inseparably connected 
with baptism. It also denies that Chris- 
tian ministers are priests in any other 
sense than that in which all other be- 
lievers are a "royal priesthood." Clergy- 
men ordained in other churches are not 



reordained on entering the ministry of 
the Reformed Episcopal Church, and 
members are admitted on letters of dis- 
missal from other Protestant denomina- 

Worship is liturgical but not repres- 
sively or exclusively so; at the morning 
services on Sunday the use of the prayer 
book, revised to remove certain objec- 
tionable sacerdotal elements, is required. 
At other services its use is optional, 
while at any service extempore prayer 
may be used by the minister. 

Parish and synodical units prevail in 
the administration of the church; the 
triennial general council of the Re- 

formed Episcopal Church is not like the 
general convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church, however, as its bish- 
ops do not constitute a separate house. 
A home missionary work is conducted 
among the Negroes of the South; and 
foreign missions are maintained in India, 
Equatoria, Sudan, and northern Rho- 
desia, Africa, and Germany. In India 
and Africa there are 20 primary schools, 
2 hospitals, and 1 orphanage. There are 
2 seminaries in the United States located 
at Philadelphia and Summerville, South 
Carolina. In 1957 the church listed 8,900 
members in 68 local churches. 


Across the first 1,000 years of Chris- 
tendom the principal church was the 
Roman Catholic Church; for the first 
1,500 years, up to the time of the Prot- 
estant Reformation, the Western world 
was almost solidly Roman Catholic. The 
eleventh-century separation left the faith 
divided between Roman Catholic and 
Eastern Orthodox sectors; and the Ref- 
ormation left continental Europe and 
the British Isles divided between Roman 
Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed 
Churches, with the prospect of still 
further division as denorninationalism 

The Roman Catholic Church dates its 
beginning from the moment of Christ's 
selection of the apostle Peter as guardian 
of the keys of heaven and earth and as 
chief of the apostles, and it claims this 
fisherman as its first pope. It gained real 
authority and power when it arose as 
the only body strong enough to rule 
after the fall of the city of Rome in 
A.D. 410. A house of terror ravaged first 
by Goths, Vandals, and Franks and then 
by Saxons, Danes, Alemanni, Lombards, 
and Burgundians, Europe found its only 
steadying hand in the Roman Catholic 
Church. Without the church anarchy 

would have been king from Britain to 
the Bosphorus. The first mention of the 
term Catholic (meaning "universal") 
Church was made by Ignatius about A.D. 
110-15, but the first real demonstrations 
of its Roman authority came as it won 
the barbarians to its banners while it 
kept the flame of faith burning in its 
churches and the candle of wisdom alive 
in its monastic schools. The "City of 
God" of which Augustine wrote so 
brilliantly was in fact the Church of 
Rome. Augustine deeply influenced its 
theological and philosophical structure, 
and he gave the papacy its finest justi- 
fication and defense. He left it strong 
enough to give crowns or deny them 
to Europe's kings. 

The church beat back the threats of 
its enemies at home and from afar; it 
converted the barbarian, won against 
the Saracen, and employed the Inquisi- 
tion against the heretic boring from 
within. It brought the hopeful interval 
known as the Peace of God; it also sup- 
ported chivalry and feudalism, fought 
the Crusades, created a noble art and 
literature, and sent friars in^gray called 
Franciscans as the missionaries of peace 
to the world and friars in black called 



Dominicans to instruct in the dogma of 
the church. It built schools and cathe- 
drals, dominated Europe, and reached 
for the world with Loyola and his 
Jesuits. Africa, India, China, and Japan 
were visited by Roman Catholic mis- 

Inevitably there came the temptations 
of power and prosperity within the 
church and opposition to its growing 
power and prosperity from without. 
Then came the Reformation. Roman 
Catholic scholars readily admit that there 
were corrupt individuals within the 
church, that many of its members had 
sinned and that some of its hierarchy 
had done wrong, and that reform was 
necessary. Indeed, reform was under 
way before the Reformation broke; 
Martin Luther himself was a Catholic 
reformer within the church before he 
became a Protestant. Erasmus and 
Savonarola wrote and preached against 
the corruption and worldliness of certain 
Roman Catholic leaders and laymen, 
but they stayed within the church. That 
all these reformers had a case against the 
members of the Roman Church is not 
denied by the Roman Catholics; they 
do, however, maintain that while priests 
and bishops and even popes may err, the 
one true church cannot err, and that 
Luther was wrong in rebelling against 
the church. But rebel he did, and the 
Roman Church suffered its most fateful 

There were, too, other reasons for 
the revolt. There was the growth of 
nationalism and secularism, the ambitions 
of political princes and rulers with great 
personal ambitions who wanted no in- 
terference from the church. And there 
was the Renaissance, with its revival of 
Greek and Roman pagan influences and 
emphases. All these forces worked to- 
gether to produce the Reformation; even 
the Counter Reformation already at 
work within the structure of the Roman 
Church, which came to a head in the 
Council of Trent, could not stop it, for 
the Protestant insistence upon Christ as 


the head of the Christian church, the 
Bible as its authority, the Holy Spirit 
as its inspiration, the fellowship of its 
membership as its strength, personal ex- 
perience in Christ as the way to salva- 
tion, and the right of individual inter- 
pretation of the Scriptures denied too 
much of the authority and dogma of the 
Roman Catholic church for any com- 
promise to be effective. 

But long before Luther, Roman Cath- 
olics had reached America. The first 
Roman Catholic diocese on this side of 
the Atlantic was established in Green- 
land in 1125; there were bishops in resi- 
dence there until 1377. A bishop of 
Catholic Spain came with Columbus in 
1492; missionaries came with Coronado 
and with the other early Spanish ex- 
plorers. Most of them perished; one of 
them started the first permanent parish 
in America at St. Augustine, Florida, in 

French Catholic explorers, voyageurs, 
and colonizers Cartier, Joliet, Mar- 
quette, and others were generally 
Roman Catholics supported by mission- 
ary groups. Among them were the 
Recollets, Jesuits, Sulpicians, Capuchins, 
and the secular clergy. New France be- 
came a vicariate apostolic in 1658 with 
Bishop Laval at its head. The See of 
Quebec (1674) had spiritual jurisdic- 
tion over all the vast province of France 
in North America, reaching down the 
valley of the Mississippi to Louisiana. 

In 1634 the Roman Catholics founded 
Maryland; later they were restricted by 
law in Maryland and in other colonies, 
and the restrictions were not removed 
until after the Revolution. In the face 
of these restrictions and in view of the 
fact that most of the colonial immigrants 
were Protestants and not Catholics, the 
Roman Catholic Church grew slowly. In 
1696 there were only 7 Catholic families 
in New York, and 80 years later they 
were still traveling to Philadelphia to re- 
ceive the sacraments. In 1763 there were 
less than 25,000 Catholics in all the 
colonies; they were under the jurisdic- 


tion of the vicar apostolic of London. 

Catholics in large numbers were in 
the Continental Army during the Rev- 
olution. Among the signatures on the 
Articles of Confederation, the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the Constitu- 
tion are found those of Thomas Fitz- 
simmons, Daniel Carroll, and Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton, all of whom were 
Catholics. The Revolution brought them 
a complete and genuine freedom, reli- 
gious as well as political; religious equal- 
ity became the law with the adoption 
of the Constitution in 1787. 

There was no immediate hierarchal 
superior in the United States when the 
war ended, and the vicar apostolic in 
London refused to exercise jurisdiction 
over the "rebels." After long investiga- 
tion and delay and an appeal to Rome 
the Rev. John Carroll was named su- 
perior, or prefect apostolic, of the 
church in the 13 original states; and the 
Roman Catholic Church in this country 
became completely independent of the 
Roman Catholic Church in England. At 
that time there were 15,800 Catholics in 
Maryland, 700 in Pennsylvania, 200 in 
Virginia, and 1,500 in New York, with 
many others along the Mississippi, un- 
organized and with no priests. At the 
turn of the century there were 80 
churches and about 150,000 Roman 
Catholics; by 1890 there were 6,231,417 
an amazing growth due primarily to 
the flood tide of immigration from the 
Roman Catholic countries of Europe. 

Baltimore became the first American 
diocese in 1789 and an archdiocese in 
1808. Other dioceses and archdioceses 
were formed as the church expanded, 
covering the country from coast to 
coast. Three plenary or national coun- 
cils were held at Baltimore in 1852, 1866, 
and 1884. Archbishop John McCloskey 
became the first American cardinal in 
1875, and Archbishop James Gibbons of 
Baltimore was elevated to the same rank 
in 1877. The Catholic University of 
America was founded at Washington, 
D.C., by the third plenary council in 


1884. The first apostolic delegation met 
there in 1893. 

The Civil War and two world wars 
failed to disturb the work of the church 
or to interrupt its growth. Indeed the 
First World War produced one of the 
ablest hierarchal Roman Catholic agen- 
cies in the country, the National War 
Council, now known as the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference. The na- 
tional and international strength of Ca- 
tholicism was dramatized in the twenty- 
eighth International Eucharistic Con- 
gress held at Chicago in 1926 with more 
than 1,000,000 Catholics from all parts 
of the world participating. There were 
18,605,003 Catholics in the United States 
in 1926; in 1960 the Roman Catholic 
Church was the largest church in the 
United States, with 40,871,302 members 
in 23,346 churches. 

The faith and doctrine of Catholicism 
are founded upon "that deposit of faith 
given to it by Christ and through His 
apostles, sustained by the Bible and by 
tradition." Thus they accept 3 creeds 
(the Apostles', the Nicene, and the Ath- 
anasian), the Bible, and tradition (the 
official teaching of the church) as the 
sources of their faith. (They also accept 
the creed of Pope Pius IV, which affirms 
all the articles of the Nicene Creed, 
the traditions of the apostles, the sacra- 
ments, the sacrifice of the Mass, purga- 
tory, indulgences, the invocation of the 
saints, and the Holy See.) Specifically, 
the National Catholic Almanac for 1960 
offers the following main points of 
Catholic faith in a "Summary of Cath- 
olic Belief: 

God: There is one God, a pure spirit, 
Creator of heaven and earth, without be- 
ginning or end, all holy, all good, omni- 
present, knowing and seeing all, omnipotent, 
infinite in perfection. 

The Holy Trinity: There are three Per- 
sons in God, equal, and of the same sub- 
stance: the Father; the Son, begotten of the 
Father; the Holy Spirit, proceeding eternally 
from the Father and the Son. All three are 


eternal and infinitely perfect; all three are 
the same Lord and the same God. 

Creation and the Fall: God created the 
angels to be with Him forever; some of 
them fell from grace, were consigned to hell 
and became devils. God created Adam and 
Eve, the first parents of the human race, and 
he placed them in Paradise, whence they 
were justly banished in consequence of 
Adam's sin. Because of the fall of Adam, all 
were born in the state of original sin and 
would be lost if God had not sent a Saviour. 

Jesus Christ, Redeemer: The Saviour is 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God equal to the 
Father and the Holy Spirit in all things 
and perfect Man with a human soul and 
body. The divine Person of Christ unites 
His divine and human natures. Christ was 
conceived in the womb of the Virgin Mary 
by the power of the Holy Spirit, without 
any man for His father; Mary, His Mother, 
remained a pure virgin. During His life 
Christ founded the Catholic Church. He 
offered Himself as a sacrifice for the sins 
of the world by dying on the cross to gain 
mercy, grace and salvation for mankind. 
After His death and burial Christ arose on 
the third day and manifested Himself to 
His disciples for 40 days before ascending 
into heaven, where he continually inter- 
cedes for us. He sent down His Holy Spirit 
upon His apostles, to guide them and their 
successors in truth. 

The Church: Christ is the invisible head 
of the Catholic or universal Church; the 
Holy Spirit is its guiding Spirit of Truth 
(Soul of the Church). Christ founded the 
Church on a rock of infallibility and in- 
vincibility. The Church has these marks: 
one, because its members profess one faith 
and one communion under one pastor (the 
pope), the successor of St. Peter, to whom 
Christ committed His whole flock; holy, be- 
cause the Holy Spirit abides in the Church, 
which teaches holiness in doctrine and 
morals, has the supernatural means to holi- 
ness, and in every age produces living ex- 
amples of holiness; catholic, because it has 
existed in all ages, has taught all nations the 
truth, and teaches the whole body of divine 
revelation; apostolic, because it derives its 
doctrines, mission and succession from the 

Rule of Faith: The Scriptures, Old and 
New Testaments, were deposited by the 
apostles with the Church, which is their 
guardian and protector, and the interpreter 


and judge of all controversies concerning 
them. The Scriptures and Tradition, as 
authentically interpreted and taught by the 
Church, comprise the proximate rule of 

Sacraments: Christ instituted seven sacra- 
ments: baptism, confirmation, Holy Eucha- 
rist, penance, extreme unction, holy orders, 

Mass: Christ instituted the Sacrifice of 
His Body and Blood as a remembrance and 
unbloody renewal of His Passion and death, 
which is perpetuated in the Mass. Christ is 
immolated upon the altar at Mass, being 
Himself both priest and victim. Through the 
Mass, men participate in the sacrifice and 
merits of Christ, adore God, thank Him, 
make reparation for sin and petition for 

Communion of Saints: In the Church there 
is a communion of saints i.e., a union of 
grace and good works embracing the faith- 
ful on earth (Church Militant) , in purgatory 
(Church Suffering) and in heaven (Church 
Triumphant) . Members of the Church Mili- 
tant are in communication with each other 
through prayer and good works. They com- 
municate with the Church Suffering by 
prayer for the souls in purgatory. The faith- 
ful on earth communicate with the blessed 
in heaven by imitating them, honoring them 
by prayer and by seeking their intercession 
with God. The blessed in heaven com- 
municate with the Church Militant and the 
Church Suffering by praying for the souls 
on earth and in purgatory. 

Necessity of Grace: Without divine grace 
man cannot make even one step toward 
heaven; all merits result solely from co- 
operation with the grace of God. Christ died 
for all men. God is not the author of sin. 
His grace and His knowledge does not take 
away the free will of man. Prayer and good 
works are necessary for salvation. 

Death, Judgment, Heaven, Hell: Christ 
will judge all men in a particular manner 
at the time of death; according to their 
spiritual condition, they will be consigned 
to heaven, purgatory or hell. At the end 
of the world, the dead, good and bad, shall 
rise from their graves to be judged in a gen- 
eral judgment, according to their works: 
the good shall go to heaven, body and soul, 
to be happy for all eternity; the wicked 
shall be condemned, body and soul, to the 
everlasting torments of hell. 


Baptism, necessary for membership in 
the church, is administered to both in- 
fants and adults by pouring; ail baptized 
persons are listed as members of the 
church. Confirmation by the laying on 
of hands by a bishop and anointing with 
the holy chrism in the form of a cross 
follows baptism. The Eucharist (Lord's 
Supper) is served to laymen, laywomen, 
and children usually following a fast; 
the laity receive it in the form of bread 
alone, and the body and blood of Christ 
are considered as actually present in 
the eucharistic elements. The sacrament 
of penance is one through which post- 
baptismal sins are forgiven. Extreme 
unction is administered to the sick who 
stand in danger of death. The sacra- 
ment of orders, or holy orders, is one 
of ordination for the bishops and priests 
of the church. Marriage is a sacrament 
which "cannot be dissolved by any 
human power"; this rules out divorce. 
Members are required to attend Mass 
on Sundays and obligatory holy days, 
to fast and abstain on certain appointed 
days, to confess at least once a year, to 
receive the Holy Eucharist during the 
Easter season, to contribute to the sup- 
port of the pastors, and to observe strict- 
ly the marriage regulations of the 

The government of the Roman Cath- 
olic Church is hierarchal and completely 
authoritarian; no layman may have any 
voice in the government; parishes can- 
not call their own priests, but the parish 
laymen are often consulted on certain 
phases of parish work. At the head of 
the government stands the pope, who 
is also bishop of Rome, the "Vicar of 
Christ on earth, and the Visible Head 
of the Church." His authority is su- 
preme in all matters of faith and disci- 
pline. Next to him is the College of 
Cardinals, never more than 70 in number 
and of 3 orders cardinal deacons, car- 
dinal priests, and cardinal bishops, indi- 
cating not their jurisdictional standing 
but their position in the cardinalate. 
Generally cardinal priests are bishops 


or archbishops, and the cardinal dea- 
cons are priests; many of the cardinals 
live in Rome, acting as advisers to the 
pope and as heads of members of the 
various congregations or commissions 
supervising the administration of the 
church. When a pope dies, the cardinals 
elect his successor; they hold authority 
in the interim. 

The Roman Curia is the official body 
of papal administrative offices through 
which the pope governs the church; it 
is composed of congregations, tribunals, 
and curial offices. The congregations 
include the Congregation of the Holy 
Office, Consistorial Congregation, Con- 
gregation of the Sacraments, Congrega- 
tion of the Council, Congregation of the 
Affairs of Religious, Congregation of 
Sacred Rites, Congregation of Cere- 
monies, Congregation of Seminaries and 
Universities, Congregation for the Prop- 
agation of the Faith, Congregation for 
Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, and 
Congregation for the Oriental Church. 
Curia tribunals include the Sacred Peni- 
tentiary, the Sacred Roman Rota, and 
the Apostolic Segnatura. The offices of 
the Curia include the Cancellaria, Da- 
taria, Secretariate of State, and others. 

In the United States the government 
of the church has its top representative 
in the apostolic delegate at Washington; 
and there are 5 cardinals, 32 archbishops, 
190 bishops, and 53,796 priests. The arch- 
bishop is in charge of the archdiocese 
and has precedence in his province. 
There are 26 archdioceses, 113 dioceses 
grouped into 26 provinces. Bishops are 
the ruling authority in the dioceses, but 
appeals from their decisions may be 
taken to the apostolic delegate and even 
to Rome. The diocese also has a vicar- 
general who acts under certain condi- 
tions as representative of the bishop; 
there is also a diocesan chancellor or 
secretary, a council of consultors, and 
a number of boards of examination and 
superintendence. The parish pastor is 
responsible to the bishop; he is ap- 
pointed by the bishop or archbishop and 


holds authority to celebrate the Mass 
and administer the sacraments with the 
help of such other priests as the parish 
may need. 

Bishops are appointed from Rome, 
usually upon suggestions from the hier- 
archy in the United States; they in turn 
send to the Holy See at Rome every 2 
years the names of priests fitted to be- 
come bishops and often make sugges- 
tions as to the best of the priests avail- 
able. The clergy in the Roman Catholic 
Church may be members in minor or- 
ders, subdeacons, deacons, or priests. 
Candidates for orders studying in di- 
vinity schools are called seminarians; 
following their vows of chastity they 
are ordained by the bishop as subdea- 
cons, deacons, or priests. There are 96 
diocesan seminaries, 429 religious and 
scholasticate seminaries, and a total of 
39,896 seminarians in the United States. 

Religious orders are of 2 kinds: Mo- 
nastic and religious congregations of 
priests, and the various brotherhoods and 
sisterhoods. This would not include the 
Franciscans or Dominicans, who are 
neither monastic nor religious congrega- 
tions. The Official Catholic Directory 
for I960 lists a total of 162 separate reli- 
gious orders of priests, 24 religious 
orders of brothers, and 687 religious 
orders of women. Most of the members 
of orders take perpetual, but solemn, 
vows. A president or superior heads 
each order; he is often represented in 
different countries by subordinates or 
councils, although some orders form 
completely independent communities. 
Ordained clerical members of the or- 
ders are known as regular clergy to 
distinguish them from the parish priests, 
who are called diocesan clergy; both 
classes of clergy go through the same 
forms of ordination and induction. 
There are also lay members in the or- 
ders, who take vows but are not inducted 
or ordained into the priesthood. Lay 
brothers, of whom there are 10,473 in 
the United States, assist the ordained 
leaders in the work of the order. All 


orders are divided into provinces or 
communities, and their members are 
under the jurisdiction of the head of 
the province or community. Those in 
the sisterhoods (there are 168,527 sisters 
in the United States) and brotherhoods 
are required to take vows but are not 
ordained; they are engaged primarily in 
educational, philanthropic, and charita- 
ble work. 

Three ecclesiastical councils form an 
important part of the Catholic system; 
they are known as general or ecumeni- 
cal, plenary or national, and provincial 
councils. A general council is called 
by the pope or with his consent; it is 
composed of all the Roman Catholic 
bishops of the world, and its actions on 
matters of doctrine and discipline must 
be approved by the pope. Plenary coun- 
cils are made up of the bishops resident 
in the country; their acts, too, must be 
submitted to the Holy See for confirma- 
tion and correction before promulga- 
tion; they do not define but repeat the 
doctrine defined by the general councils, 
and they apply a universal discipline 
determined by these councils and the 
Holy See through explicit statutes in 
each country and province; they may 
initiate such discipline as national cir- 
cumstances demand. These councils 
function as legislative bodies and are 
known in every country in the world in 
which the church is represented. Below 
them are smaller diocesan and provincial 
councils which make further promulga- 
tion and application of the decrees 
passed by the other councils and ap- 
proved by the pope. 

Nationally the Roman Catholic 
Church in the United States is thus gov- 
erned by its hierarchy, made up of 182 
members, and by its priesthood. Church 
property is controlled by a board of 
trustees appointed in each diocese by 
the bishop. The board includes a ma- 
jority of priestly members and a minori- 
ty of laymen; property is held under 
the title of the bishop or archbishop. 
The total work from the local parish 


to the highest offices and divisions is 
financed by pew rents, plate collections, 
baptismal and wedding offerings, 
Masses, and so on. The priest controls 
all moneys, retaining enough for his 
salary which is determined by the dio- 
cese and is uniform throughout the dio- 
cese and the running expenses of the 
parish, and putting the balance to the 
credit of the church. 

Masses are held on Sundays from 5 
A.M. to noon. High Mass, with the li- 
turgy sung in part by priest and choir 
and with a sermon, is held between 10 
A.M. and noon; all others, called low 
Masses in which the Mass is read and 
a short instruction but no sermon is 
given are celebrated at various hours 
between 5 and 12. Vespers are sung in 
the afternoon and evening. Mass and 
liturgy, except in Eastern Rite churches 
and in a few Uniat churches, are always 
in Latin; but sermons, instruction, and 
the reading of the Bible are in the lan- 
guage of the congregation. 

With the most centralized government 
in Christendom the Roman Catholic 
Church has accomplished a work almost 
unbelievable in scope. The Holy See 
at Rome has representatives in 58 coun- 
tries of the world; 41 are of diplomatic 
status, and 17 are apostolic delegations, 
nuncios, internuncios, or other repre- 
sentatives. As of January 1, 1960, there 
were Roman Catholic churches estab- 
lished in 217 countries, with a world 
total of 527,643,000 members. 

Missionary work in the United States 
is conducted under the direction of the 
American Board of Catholic Missions, 
under which the Commission for Cath- 
olic Missions for the Colored People and 
the Indians is at work. Some 595,155 
American Negroes are Roman Catholics; 
in 1959 there were 493 Negro Catholic 
churches served by 719 priests, and 340 
Negro Catholic schools with an enroll- 
ment of 90,756 pupils. There were also 
120,110 Catholic Indians (about one 
third of the Indian population of the 
United States and Canada is Catholic), 


served by 231 priests in 415 churches; 
there are 57 mission schools for Indians, 
with 8,367 students enrolled. 

The Society for the Propagation of the 
Faith is the over-all representative for- 
eign missionary body. In 98 foreign 
countries, more than 6,000 Catholic 
Americans are engaged in missionary 
work. There are 57 religious institutes 
or groups sending priests, brothers, and 
scholastics abroad, and 82 communities 
of sisters. 

Education has been a primary interest 
of American Catholics ever since the 
establishment of a classical school in 
St. Augustine, Florida, in 1606; the first 
Catholic college was established at Mew- 
ton, Maryland, in 1677. Jesuits in Phila- 
delphia founded "the mother of all 
parochial schools in the English-speaking 
colonies" in 1782, and parochial schools 
since that time have been the basic edu- 
cational unit of the Roman Catholic 
Church. As of 1960, there are 9,897 ele- 
mentary parochial schools with 4,195,781 
students, 475 private elementary schools 
with 90,115 students, 1,567 diocesan and 
parochial high schools with 520,128 stu- 
dents, 866 private high schools with 
324,171 students, 265 colleges and uni- 
versities with 302,908 students, 20 dio- 
cesan teachers' colleges and normal 
schools, and 33 junior colleges. Elemen- 
tary education is almost exclusively in 
the hands of religious orders of women, 
while secondary schools and colleges 
have teaching staffs of religious orders of 
both men and women, and lay teachers 
as well. There are 160,632 full-time 
teachers in Catholic schools, of whom 
10,890 are teaching priests, 4,778 are 
teaching brothers, 98,471 are teaching 
sisters, and 45,506 are lay teachers; they 
instruct a total of nearly nine million 

Roman Catholic charity and welfare 
work is conducted by many different 
organizations, religious and otherwise. 
The National Conference of Catholic 
Charities acts as a general information 
and co-operating body, but the bulk of 


the work is conducted by several reli- 
gions orders of men and women devoted 
(full time) to the relief of the poor 
in homes or in institutions. There are 
also bureaus of charities in many of the 
dioceses. The Society of St. Vincent de 
Paul is perhaps the largest and most 
effective charity organization; across the 
last 37 years this society has admin- 
istered a fund of $95,861,663 for the 
relief of the poor. Numerous other 
groups the Little Sisters of the Poor, 
the Sisters of Charity, the Daughters of 
Charity of the Society of St. Vincent 
de Paul, the Sisters of Mercy, and the 
Third Order of Franciscans are active 
among the poor in Catholic hospitals, 
orphanages, and homes for the aged. 
There are 808 general hospitals treating 
12,819,798 patients annually and 137 
special hospitals treating 209,686 each 
year; 326 homes for the aged, with 
31,098 guests; 279 orphanages and in- 
fant asylums caring for 25,589 children, 
plus 20,667 children in foster homes. 
Nearly 50,000 American children are 
dependent on the Roman Catholic 

The members of the hierarchy in the 
United States are also members of the 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, 

a clearinghouse of information on the 
activities of Catholics which works to 
make the teachings of the church more 
effective. This is not a council or a legis- 
lative body, so the resolutions of its 
meetings do not have the force of law. 
It merely facilitates discussion of all 
policies affecting the interests and activi- 
ties of the church, and unifies, co-ordi- 
nates, and organizes the work in social 
welfare, education, immigrant aid, civic 
education, and other activities. Every 
bishop in the United States and its terri- 
tories and possessions has a voice in 
the conference; it is governed by an 
administrative board of 10 bishops and 
archbishops elected by the hierarchy. 
Under its direction 8 departments func- 
tion: executive, education, press, immi- 
gration, social action, legal, youth, and 
lay organizations. In addition there are 
special episcopal committees on Cath- 
olic missions, Christian doctrine, mo- 
tion pictures, the propagation of the 
faith (foreign service), obscene litera- 
ture, the North American College, sem- 
inaries, relief, war emergencies, the 
pope's peace points, and refugees. This 
board is one of the most important and 
effective in the American church. 


William Booth, an ordained minister 
in the Methodist New Connexion body 
in England, regretfully left the pulpit 
of that church in 1861, to become a 
free-lance evangelistic preacher. This 
step led him, in 1865, to the slum areas 
in London's East End and to a dedica- 
tion of his life to the poverty-stricken, 
unchurched masses in that area. His 
first plan was to make his work sup- 
plementary to that of the churches, but 
this proved impractical because many 
converts did not want to go where they 
were sent, often they were not accepted 
when they did go, and Booth soon found 

that he needed his converts to help 
handle the great crowds that came to his 
meetings. He began his work in Mile 
End Waste under the name of The 
Christian Mission; in 1878, the name was 
changed to The Salvation Army. 

Being a Methodist, Booth first or- 
ganized his movement along lines of 
Methodist polity, with annual confer- 
ences at which reports were made and 
programs planned. With the changing 
of the name to The Salvation Army, the 
whole organization became dominated 
by the new title. "Articles of War" 
(declaration of faith) were drawn up, 



and soon the mission stations became 
corps, members became soldiers, evan- 
gelists became officers, and converts were 
listed as prisoners. Booth was desig- 
nated as "General," and gradually he 
set up his organization on a military 
pattern which provided a direct line of 
authority and a practical system of train- 
ing personnel for effective action. The 
leader reasoned that it was "just as valid 
to build an army of crusaders to save 
souls as it has been to send armies to 
recover a sepulchre." 

The work spread quickly over Eng- 
land, Scotland, and Wales, and in 1880 
it was established in the United States 
by a pioneer group under the direction 
of Commissioner George Scott Railton. 
Once committed to a policy of expan- 
sion, Booth lost no time in sending pio- 
neering parties in different directions, 
reaching Australia and France in 1881; 
Switzerland, Sweden, India, and Canada 
in 1882; Iceland and South Africa in 
1883; and Germany in 1886. Today, The 
Salvation Army is working in 86 coun- 
tries and colonies with 25,000 officers, 
preaching the gospel in some 120 lan- 
guages in 17,000 evangelical centers, and 
operating more than 3,000 social wel- 
fare institutions, hospitals, schools, and 

Administratively, the Army is under 
the command of "The General of The 
Salvation Army," with top leaders in 
charge of 50 territorial and departmental 
commands of which 23 encompass the 
work in "missionary" lands or sub- 
sidized areas. The present national com- 
mander in the United States is Com- 
missioner Norman S. Marshall. In this 
country the Army conducts its reli- 
gious and social welfare program in all 
50 states, implementing its purpose of 
preaching the gospel and effecting the 
spiritual, moral, and physical reclama- 
tion of persons coming under its influ- 
ence through 8,547 centers of operation 
and including 6,337 service extension 
units. These are administered by more 


than 5,000 officers, assisted by about 
12,000 employees. 

The unit of the Army is the corps, 
of which there may be several in one 
city. Each corps is commanded by an 
officer ranging in rank from lieutenant 
to brigadier who is responsible to a 
divisional headquarters. The 45 divisions 
in the United States each consist of a 
number of corps, and the work of each 
division is under the direct supervision 
of a divisional commander. The divi- 
sions are grouped into four territories 
Eastern, Central, Southern, and West- 
ern with headquarters in New York 
City, Chicago, Atlanta, and San Fran- 
cisco. Territorial Commanders are in 
charge of the work in each territory, 
and the four territorial headquarters are 
composed of departments to facilitate 
the supervision and direction of all 
phases of Army work. National head- 
quarters is the co-ordinating office for 
the entire country, and the national com- 
mander is the chief administrative offi- 
cer, official spokesman, and president of 
The Salvation Army Corporation estab- 
lished under the laws of New York, and 
of local corporations in 14 other states. 
Property and revenues are in the cus- 
tody of a board of trustees or directors, 
and citizens' advisory boards assist in 
interpreting the work of the Army to 
the general public. 

Within the structure of the Army, 
converts who desire to become soldiers 
(members) are required to sign the 
Articles of War after which, as mem- 
bers, they give volunteer service. The 
function of officers is similar to that of 
ministers of other churches, and officers 
are commissioned to full-time Salva- 
tion Army service. 

Basic training for each officer, regard- 
less of his field of service evangelical 
or social is a two-year-in-residence 
course at one of the Army's four schools 
for officers' training located in New 
York, Chicago, Atlanta, and San Fran- 
cisco. The chief source of officer- 
candidates is The Salvation Army corps. 


After a soldier has served actively for 
at least six months, he may make ap- 
plication for officership and, if accepted, 
may enter the School for Officers' Train- 
ing where his curriculum, in addition to 
formal study, includes practical field 
experience in corps and social service 
institutions as well as orientation in all 
possible areas of Salvation Army service. 
He is graduated from the school as a 
probationary lieutenant and, following 
additional studies, is eligible thereafter 
to attain the ranks of captain, major, 
brigadier, lieutenant colonel, colonel, 
lieutenant commissioner, and commis- 

The motivating force of The Salvation 
Army in all of its work is the religious 
faith of its officers and soldiers; and 
the fundamental doctrines of the or- 
ganization are stated in its Foundation 
Deed of 1878 in 11 cardinal affirmations. 
These statements document the Army's 
recognition of the Bible as the only rule 
of Christian faith and practice; of God, 
who is the creator and Father of all 
mankind; the Trinity of Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost; Jesus Christ as Son of God 
and Son of man; sin as the great de- 
stroyer of man's soul and society; salva- 
tion as God's remedy for man' sins and 
man's ultimate and eternal hope made 
available through Christ; sanctification as 
the individual's present and maturing 
experience of a life set apart for the 
holy purposes of the kingdom of God, 
and an eternal destiny that may triumph 
over sin and death. While the Army has 
a dual function of church and social 
agency, its first purpose is the salva- 
tion of men "by the power of the Holy 
Spirit combined with the influence of 
human ingenuity and love." To the 

Salvation Army, its social services are 
merely a means of putting the socially 
disinherited the needy in both the 
physical and spiritual realm into a con- 
dition to be physically and spiritually up- 
lifted. In meeting the needs of the "whole 
man," the Army has established a wide- 
spread social welfare program. 

The work of the Army in the United 
States today includes 118 treatment cen- 
ters aiding 56,000 men annually; 37 ma- 
ternity homes and hospitals, of which 
two are general hospitals, with a total 
bed complement of 954 hospital beds, 
566 bassinets and 1,149 maternity home 
beds, providing service for 18,000 hos- 
pital patients and 10,160 unmarried 
mothers of whom 7,257 unmarried 
mothers were in residence in maternity 
homes; 54 camps, providing camping 
experience for 16,521 children; 394 boys' 
and girls' clubs and community recrea- 
tion centers, with a membership of 
43,518; 30 Salvation Army-USO and 
Red Shield Clubs for servicemen, regis- 
tering a total attendance of 2,924,979; 
186 mobile canteens serving 437,372 per- 
sons in emergencies and 73,528 military 
personnel; Family Service Bureaus aid- 
ing 444,765 families; and hotels and 
lodges for men and women; nurseries; 
settlements; Missing Persons Bureau; 
care for alcoholics; Correctional Service 
Bureaus which work with prisoners and 
their families; community centers for all 
ages; and other allied services. The 
services are given without respect to 
race, color, creed, or condition; its 
work is financed through voluntary sub- 
scriptions, participation in Federated 
Funds, and its own annual maintenance 


Kaspar Schwenkfeld von Ossig olic Church and experienced a spiritual 
(1489-1561), a Silesian nobleman, was awakening in 1519. Disappointed in his 
baptized and reared in the Roman Cath- hope to help reform the Roman Cath- 



olic Church from within, he played a 
leading role in the Reformation, advo- 
cating wider reading of the Bible by lay- 
men, urging the need of the power, 
guidance, and leading of the Holy Spirit, 
and preaching that the elements of bread 
and wine in the Holy Communion were 
symbols that did not represent the body 
or change into the body and blood of 
Christ. This interpretation of the Lord's 
Supper, together with his insistence upon 
complete separation of church and state, 
led him into disagreement with Luther 
and Lutheranism. He founded a number 
of spiritual brotherhoods, whose mem- 
bers in time came to be known as 
Schwenkf elders. 

The body has disappeared in Europe 
but persists in the United States in a 
church of about 2,500 members in 5 local 
congregations. A large body of them ar- 
rived in this country in 1734; their first 
formal society of Schwenkfelders was 
organized in 1782. Their 5 churches to- 
day are all located within a radius of 
50 miles of Philadelphia. 

All theology, they hold, should be 
constructed from the Bible alone; but the 
Scriptures are considered as dead with- 

out the indwelling Word. Christ's divin- 
ity was progressive, his human nature 
becoming more and more divine with- 
out "losing its identity"; faith, regenera- 
tion, and subsequent spiritual growth 
work a change in human nature; but 
justification by faith is not to be per- 
mitted to obscure the positive regenera- 
tion imparted by Christ. 

Their theology is thus Cnristocentric. 
In polity they are congregational, each 
church being incorporated, self-sustain- 
ing, and conducting its affairs through 
its district or local conference. A general 
conference composed of all the local 
churches meets twice a year to develop 
the larger program of education and 
missions. Church worship is free and 

The general conference sponsored the 
founding of the Perkiomen School for 
boys at Pennsburg, Pennsylvania, in 
1892; and a majority of the board of 
trustees of that school are still members 
of Schwenkf elder churches. Since 1884 
members have been engaged in preparing 
a critical edition of the works of their 


The Servants of Yah seem to be dedi- 
cated to much the same crusade as the 
Life Messengers (p. 132), with the ex- 
ception that the Servants have a definite 
body of positive teaching in their efforts 
to counteract the teachings and influ- 
ence of Jehovah's Witnesses. They are 
people formerly associated with The 
Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society 
but who left that Society "for one rea- 
son only, viz., the call of Prophecy." 

According to the Servants of Yah, 
the Bible is "entirely Prophecy," and 
prophecy being fulfilled only in our 
own times. No part of it refers to a 
past history of ancient peoples; rightly 
translated, all its superstitious doctrines 
disappear to reveal the true character of 


God (Yah), and the Servants of Yah 
have it rightly translated. The genuine 
word of God had never been known be- 
fore the Yah translation; it had been 
"covered over by the handiwork of 
man." In the Old Testament, "the origi- 
nal text consisted of consonants only, 
but became buried beneath the Jewish 
vowel points, which made the text read 
quite differently. By the use of these 
vowel points the ancient Jews were able 
to manufacture and weave into the text 
their many 'fables and genealogies,' while 
the true message was lost. In the New 
Testament, the Living Yah has hidden 
His message in a Hebrew text within 
the Greek." 
Doctrines denied include that of (the 


Jehovah's Witness) Armageddon, the 
flood of Genesis, the teaching of Satan 
and demons, hell, and literal (water) 
baptism. American headquarters are lo- 

cated at GPO Box 542, Brooklyn 1, 
New York, and a European office is 
maintained in Vienna. 


This is a body organized in Illinois 
in 1867 by a small group of persons from 
various denominations, holding quite 
orthodox doctrines but disagreeing in 
certain matters of interpretation of 
Scripture, discipline, and decorum. In 
1958 they reported 2 associations, each 
meeting annually, 1 general assembly 
meeting biannually, 29 churches located 
in Illinois, Michigan, and Indiana, and 
1,520 members. 

Their confession of faith emphasizes 
the following points: 

The infinite power, wisdom and goodness 
of God, in whom are united three persons 
of one substance, power and eternity, the 
Father, Son and Holy Ghost. 

The authority and consistency of the 
Scriptures, comprising the Old and New 
Testaments, as containing all things neces- 

sary to salvation, "so that whatsoever is not 
read therein nor may be proved thereby is 
not required of any man that it should be 
believed as an article of faith or thought to 
be requisite or necessary to salvation." 

Regeneration and sanctification through 

Eternal salvation of the redeemed and 
eternal punishment for apostasy. 

The ordinances of baptism and the Lord's 
Supper for true believers only. Baptism may 
be by sprinkling, pouring or immersion. 

Lay members of the church should have 
the right of suffrage and free speech, but 
ministers are called to preach the Gospel 
and not for political speeches. 

Polity is a fusion of Baptist and Meth- 
odist structures and customs; and the 
work of the Social Brethren, aside from 
efforts in mutual aid and assistance, 
is largely evangelical. 


Spiritualism is as old as man's longing 
to communicate with his dead; as an 
organized religion it began at Hydesville, 
New York, in 1848 with the Fox sisters. 
The sisters heard repeated knockings or 
rappings in their cottage at Hydesville 
and later in Rochester, and believing 
them to be signals from the spirit world 
worked out a code of communication. 
Their seances became famous, and inter- 
est in Spiritualism spread rapidly. How- 
ever, in 1847 Andrew Jackson Davis had 
published a book entitled Nature's Di- 
vine Revelations, which stated the funda- 
mentals and philosophy of Spiritualism; 
the seances of the Fox sisters only sub- 
stantiated the writings of Davis* 


The first Spiritualist organizations 
were small, scattered, and without legal 
sanction. Little groups gathered about 
the mediums, and in cities the congrega- 
tions soon became large. The first at- 
tempt at national organization did not 
come until 1863 and lasted for only 9 
years. In 1893 the National Spiritualist 
Association was organized at Chicago; 
it is today the outstanding Spiritualist 
body in the United States. Small, inde- 
pendent congregations are still scattered 
across the country, independent in polity 
and worship and unwilling to grant any 
real authority to a centralized govern- 
ment; but many state and sectional Spir- 
itualist groups function under the gen- 


era! direction of the president and board 
of the N.S.A. 

The movement is known popularly 
for its mediums, seances, clairvoyance, 
and so on. Ouija boards, table tipping, 
and spirit rappings and conversations 
have attracted thousands anxious to com- 
municate with their departed ones. But 
Spiritualism has genuine religious bases 
and connotations as well as psychic ex* 
periments. The movement has become a 
church, comforting and strengthening 
and healing thousands within and with- 
out its membership. The N.S.A. offers 
a Declaration of Principles, which reads 
as follows: 

1. We believe in Infinite Intelligence. 

2. We believe that the phenomena of 
Nature, both physical and spiritual, are the 
expression of Infinite Intelligence. 

3. We affirm that a correct understanding 
of such expression and living in accordance 
therewith constitute true religion. 

4. We affirm that the existence and per- 
sonal identity of the individual continue 
after the change called death. 

5. We affirm that communication with 
the so-called dead is a fact scientifically 
proven by the phenomena of Spiritualism. 

6. We believe that the highest morality is 
contained in the Golden Rule. . * . 

7. We affirm the moral responsibility of 
the individual, and that he makes his own 
happiness or unhappiness as he obeys or 
disobeys Nature's physical and spiritual laws. 

8. We affirm that the doorway to refor- 
mation is never closed against any human 
soul, here or hereafter. 

9. We affirm that the practice of 
Prophecy, as authorized by the Holy Bible, 
is a divine and God-given gift, re-established 
and proven through mediumship by the 
phenomena of Spiritualism. 

The teaching of God as love is central 
in Spiritualism; the Lord's Prayer is used 
in both public worship and private 
seance. Christ is recognized as a medium; 
the Annunciation was a message from 
the spirit world, the Transfiguration was 
an opportunity for the materialization 
of the spirits of Moses and Elias, and 
the Resurrection was evidence that all 


men live on in the spirit world. Man's 
soul is often called the "astral body"; 
at death the material body dissolves, and 
the soul as the body of the spirit pro- 
gresses through a series of spheres to a 
higher and higher existence. There are 
2 lower spheres in which those of lower 
character or sinful record are purified 
and made ready for the higher existences. 
Most of the departed are to be found in 
the third sphere, called the Summer 
Land; above this are the Philosopher's 
Sphere, the Advanced Contemplative 
and Intellectual Sphere, the Love Sphere, 
and the Christ Sphere. Ail reach the 
higher spheres eventually; Spiritualists 
do not believe in heaven or hell, or that 
any are ever lost. 

Services and seances are held in private 
homes, rented halls, or churches. Most 
Spiritualist churches have regular serv- 
ices with prayer, singing, music, selec- 
tions read from the Spiritualist Manual, 
a sermon or lecture, and spirit messages 
from the departed. The churches and 
ministers are supported by freewill offer- 
ings; mediums and ministers also gain 
support from classes and seances in 
which fees are charged. The attendance 
at church services is invariably small; 
one authority estimates the average con- 
gregation at 20 to 25. But membership 
cannot be estimated on the basis of 
church attendance; for every enrolled 
member there are at least 15 who are 
not enrolled but are interested in the 
movement and in attending its services. 
Nearly 180,000 Spiritualists were re- 
ported as members of their churches in 
1954, but this is not comprehensive or 
inclusive of all using the services of the 

Administration and government differ 
slightly in the various groups, but most 
of them have district or state associa- 
tions and an annual general convention. 
All have mediums, and most have min- 
isters in charge of the congregations. 
Requirements for licensing and ordina- 
tion also differ, but a determined effort 
is being made to raise the standards in 


education and character in the larger 

International General Assembly of 

Organized at Buffalo, New York, in 
1936, this is a co-operative body endeav- 
oring to establish cohesion and unity in 
the Spiritualist movement. It had an in- 
clusive membership of 164,072 and _ 209 
churches in 1956 and was organized 
originally as an auxiliary of the General 
Assembly of Spiritualists in New York 
to care for churches outside that state, 
Its present purpose is to charter new 
Spiritualist churches; headquarters are 
located at Norfolk, Virginia. 

The National Spiritual Alliance of 

the U.S.A. 

This body was founded in 1913 by the 
Rev. G. Tabor Thompson and has its 
headquarters at Lake Pleasant, Massa- 
chusetts, where it was incorporated. 
Holding general Spiritualist doctrines, 
the alliance stresses subnormal and im- 
personal manifestations and intercom- 
munication with the spirit world. Salva- 
tion is held to be through the develop- 
ment of personal character; "one reaps 
as he sows, yet ... all things are working 
together for good and evolution obtains 
perpetually in all persons." 

The local churches of the alliance elect 
their own officers and choose their own 
ministers; a 3-day convention is held an- 
nually with delegates from all the 
churches electing their national officers 
president, secretary, and treasurer. An 
official board of directors directs the 
missionary work of ministers and certi- 
fied mediums; college training is not re- 
quired of a minister, but he must have 
passed a course of study arranged by the 
alliance. Mediums may baptize, but only 
ministers may officiate at the ceremonies 
of ordination and marriage. The work of 
the alliance is mainly in benevolent, 
literary, educational, music, and scien- 

tific activities. There are 3,085 members 
and 32 churches. 

National Spiritualist Association of 


With 8,001 members in 214 churches, 
this association is influential far beyond 
its immediate membership, furnishing lit- 
erature for the whole movement and 
advocating higher qualifications in 
mediums and ministers. It has a seminary, 
the Morris Pratt Institute, for the train- 
ing of its ministers; a great deal of the 
work of the seminary is by correspond- 
ence. A national director of education 
directs a training course for members, 
licentiates, lecturers, mediums, and or- 
dained ministers. The N.S.A. holds an 
annual legislative convention which 
elects officers triennially. This is the 
orthodox body of American Spiritualism. 

Progressive Spiritual Church 
This church was founded in Chicago 
in 1907 by the Rev. G. V. Cordingley 
and has its own confession of faith. It 
was organized "to lift spiritualism above 
mere psychic research, to establish it 
upon a sound, religious basis, and to 
secure its recognition among other 
Christian denominations." The confes- 
sion of faith states the members' belief in 
the communion of spirits, in man's res- 
toration to everlasting life, in God as 
an absolute divine Spirit, and in angels 
who as departed spirits communicate 
with the living by means of mediums. 
Jesus Christ is recognized as a medium 
controlled by the spirit of Elias and the 
spirit of Moses and the spirit of John 
the Baptist. "The fingers of the hand 
of a medium under control can write 
and deliver divine messages and visions. 
... A divine understanding of dreams 
can be had. . . . The stars divine the 
pathway of He of every character." 
The Bible is acknowledged as the in- 
spired word of God, a guide to the spirit 
life as well as to the phases and phe- 
nomena of Spiritualism prophecies, 



spiritual palmistry, spiritual automatic 
writing, spiritual materialization, spir- 
itual triumpet speaking, spiritual healing 
by magnetized articles, and so forth. 
Heaven and hell are believed to be con- 
ditions, not locations. 

Four sacraments baptism, marriage, 
spiritual communion, and funerals are 
observed. Ministers, who may be of 
either sex, must pass a course of instruc- 

tion in the church seminary. Church 
officers include a supreme pastor, secre- 
tary, treasurer, and board of trustees. 
Local churches elect their own officers 
but are subject to the constitution and 
bylaws of the mother church. The work 
of the church is largely benevolent, so- 
cial, literary, scientific, and psychical. 
There are 11,347 members and 21 


Founded in Georgia in 1902 by Elder 
E. D. Smith, this church teaches the 
cleansing from sin in all "justified" be- 
lievers through the shed blood of Christ; 
entire sanctification as an instantaneous, 
definite work of second grace obtained 
through the faith of the consecrated be- 
liever; the second coming of Christ; and 
baptism by fire as a scriptural experience 

also obtainable by faith. General over- 
seers are the chief officers of the body; 
they meet quadrennially in what is called 
the International Religious Congress; 
otherwise the work of the church is 
carried on by state, county, and local 
officers. There are 70,079 members and 
690 churches. 


Historically, in the United States, our 
tvjo outstanding liberal Christian groups 
have been the Unitarians and the Uni- 
versalists. A merger of the two bodies 
'was approved in May of I960, and the 
Unitarian Universalist Association 'will 
be -formally launched in May of 1961. 
We consider them here first as separate 
bodies, then as a unit, under their ne<w 

It has always been claimed by the 
Unitarians that their thought reaches 
back into the early Christian centuries, 
before the concept of Trinitarianism 
was developed. Unitarianism as we know 
it today, however, began with the Prot- 
estant Reformation, among Arminians 
and Socinians. The movement spread 


from independent thinkers and Anabap- 
tists in Switzerland, Hungary, Transyl- 
vania, Holland, Poland, and Italy to 
England, where it found champions in 
such leaders as Newton, Locke, and 
Milton. No attempt was made to or- 
ganize the movement in England until 
late in the eighteenth century. 

American Unitarianism, however, de- 
veloped independently out of New Eng- 
land Congregationalism. Members of the 
liberal wing of the Congregational 
Church in eastern Massachusetts, asked 
only to join a covenant in that church 
and never to subscribe to a creed, were 
branded as Unitarian while still within 
the Congregational membership. The 
first organized church to turn to Uni- 
tarianism as a body, however, was not 


a Congregational church but the Epis- 
copal King's Chapel in Boston in 1796. 

In the second half of the eighteenth 
century many of the older and larger 
Congregational churches moving toward 
Unitarianism were known as Liberal 
Christian churches or groups; the name 
Unitarian was finally accepted in 1815. 

The basis for the split with Congrega- 
tionalism came in 1805 with the ap- 
pointment of Henry Ware as professor 
of theology at Harvard; it was made 
certain when William Ellery Channing 
of Boston preached his famous Balti- 
more sermon in 1819 and in it outlined 
the Unitarian view. In that sermon the 
liberals had their platform. A missionary 
and publication society known as the 
American Unitarian Association was 
formed in 1825, and with it began an 
activity looking forward to the forma- 
tion of a separate denomination. A na- 
tional conference was established in 

Channing defined the true church in 
these words: 

By his Church our Saviour does not mean 
a party bearing the name of a human leader, 
distinguished by a form or an opinion, and 
on the ground of this distinction, denying 
the name and character of Christians to all 
but themselves. . . . These are the church- 
men made better, made holy, virtuous by 
his religionmen who, hoping in his 
promises, keep his commands. 

The Unitarians proceeded from this 
to formulate their views. They have no 
creed; the constitution of the general 
conference stated that "these churches 
accept the religion of Jesus, holding in 
accordance with his teaching that prac- 
tical religion is summed up in the love 
to God and love to man." Cardinal 
points in their doctrinal attitudes are 
those of the oneness of God (as op- 
posed to Trinitarianism), the strict hu- 
manity of Jesus, the perfectibility of 
human character, the natural character 
of the Bible, and the ultimate salvation 
of all souls. They deny the doctrine of 


total depravity and believe in the divine 
nature of man; Trinitarianism is rejected 
as unscriptural, and they reject the deity 
of Christ but say they believe in his 
divinity as all men are divine as the 
sons of God. Salvation is by char- 
acter; character is not an end but a 
means, and salvation lies in being saved 
from sin here, not from punishment 
hereafter. Hell and eternal punishment 
are held to be inconsistent with the con- 
cept of a loving and all-powerful God; 
to admit that God would permit eternal 
punishment would be to admit that he 
was powerless to save. Heaven is a state, 
not a place. Unitarians do not accept 
the doctrine of the infallibility of the 
Bible; they believe that the Bible is not 
a book but a library of books, all of 
which cannot be accepted as of equal 
value and importance. These ideas have 
been prominent in Unitarianism, but 
within this ideological framework the 
widest possible freedom is encouraged 
in personal interpretation and belief; 
even students and teachers in Unitarian 
theological schools are not required to 
subscribe to any dogmatic teaching or 
doctrinal tests. Emphasis upon individual 
freedom of belief, democratic principles, 
hospitality to the methods of science in 
seeking truth, and less concern with tra- 
ditional doctrinal matters characterize 
the Unitarian movement. 

In accordance with its charter, the 
American Unitarian Association con- 
sidered itself to be devoted to certain 
moral, religious, educational, and chari- 
table purposes which to the non-Uni- 
tarian may be as enlightening as an 
analysis of their religious or doctrinal 
statements; under these purposes, the 
Association felt obligated to 

(1) Diffuse the knowledge and pro- 
mote the interests of religion 
which Jesus taught as love to God 
and love to man; 

(2) Strengthen the churches and fel- 
lowships which unite in the As- 
sociation for more and better 
work for the kingdom of God; 


(3) Organize new churches and fel- 
lowships for the extension of Uni- 
tarianism in our own countries 
and in other lands; and 

(4) Encourage sympathy and co- 
operation among religious liberals 
at home and abroad. 

Organization has always been liberally 
congregational; independent local 
churches were grouped in local, county, 
district, state and regional conferences, 
and were united in an international as- 
sociation for the purposes of fellowship, 
counsel and promotion of mutual inter- 

At the moment of merger, there were 
2 denominational seminaries and 2 pre- 
paratory schools, 386 churches and ap- 
proximately 115,000 members. Foreign 
work was conducted through the Inter- 
national Association for Liberal Chris- 
tianity and Religious Freedom with 
headquarters at Utrecht, Holland; the 
International Association has corre- 
spondents in 22 countries. 

The Universalists draw their inspira- 
tion and find evidence of their thinking 
and philosophy in many cultural streams; 
much that is basic with Universalism is 
discovered throughout the world's sev- 
eral religions. Universalism is not ex- 
clusively a Christian denomination, hav- 
ing roots in both pre-Christian and 
contemporary world faiths, yet within 
the Christian frame of reference Uni- 
versalists claim roots in the early Chris- 
tian Gnostics, Clement of Alexandria, 
Theodore of Mopsuestia, in the Ana- 
baptists of Reformation times and in 
seventeenth- and eighteenth-century 
German mystical universalists. American 
Universalism has its direct origin in the 
work of Dr. George DeBenneville, one 
of the German mystics; in John Murray, 
the British anti-Calvinist; and in Hosea 
Ballou, an original universalist thinker. 

DeBenneville, the English-educated 
son of French Huguenot emigres, studied 
medicine in Germany, came under the 
influence of the early Brethren and 


Friends of God and the German pietists 
in Pennsylvania in 1741, and preached 
his gospel of universal salvation as he 
practiced medicine among the settlers 
and the Indians. 

In 1759 James Relly of England wrote 
a book entitled Union, in which he op- 
posed the Calvinistic doctrine of the 
election of the few. Relly's conviction 
of universal salvation deeply influenced 
John Murray, a Wesleyan evangelist 
who came to New Jersey in 1770; Mur- 
ray found groups of universalist-minded 
people scattered along the Atlantic coast, 
and became minister to one such group 
in Gloucester, Massachusetts. The Inde- 
pendent Christian Church of Gloucester 
became the first organized Universalist 
Church in America in 1779. One of its 
charter members was Gloucester Dalton, 
a Negro. Murray served as a Revolu- 
tionary War chaplain in the armies of 
Washington and Greene. 

The Universalists met at Philadelphia 
in 1790 to draft their first declaration of 
faith and plan of government. Govern- 
ment was established as strictly congre- 
gational; doctrinally, they proclaimed 
their belief in the Scriptures as contain- 
ing a revelation of the perfections and 
the will of God and the rule of faith 
and practice, faith in God, faith in 
Christ as a mediator who had redeemed 
all men by his blood, in the Holy Ghost 
and in the obligation of the moral law as 
the rule of life. War was condemned; 
statements approving the settlement of 
disputes out of the courts, the abolition 
of slavery and the education of the 
Negro, testimony by affirmation rather 
than by oath, and free public education 
were approved. This Philadelphia Decla- 
ration was adopted by a group of New 
England Universalists in 1794; at about 
the same time Hosea Ballou, a school- 
teacher and itinerant preacher in Ver- 
mont, was ordained to the Universalist 

Ballou broke radically with Murray's 
thought; in 1805 he published a book, 
Treatise on Atonement, which gave Uni- 


versalists their first consistent philos- 
ophy. Ballou rejected the theories of 
total depravity, endless punishment in 
hell, the Trinity and the miracles. Man, 
said Ballou, was potentially good and 
capable of perfectibility; God, being a 
God of infinite love, recognized man's 
heavenly nature and extraction and 
loved him as his own offspring. The 
meaning of the atonement he found, not 
in bloody sacrifice to appease divine 
wrath, but in the heroic sacrifice of 
Jesus, who was not God but a son of 
the eternal and universal God revealing 
the love of God and anxious to win all 
men to that love. It was an avowedly 
Unitarian-universalist statement of theol- 
ogy which deeply influenced American 
Universalism. Ballou made another last- 
ing contribution with his insistence that 
the base of Christian fellowship lay not 
in creeds but in mutual good faith and 
good will; from this principle came two 
consistent aspects of modern Univer- 
salism a broad, liberal latitudinarianism 
in theology and a universal concern for 

It must be kept clear that the Uni- 
versah'sts have never had an official state- 
ment of faith or covenant. From time 
~to time they have set down thek basic 
principles, not as tests of membership 
nor to be used in any official way, but 
only to examine thek emphases at a 
given moment in history. Accordingly, 
in four successive statements, they have 
grown progressively liberal and inclu- 
sive. The Philadelphia statement of 
1790, for instance, had obvious trinita- 
rian overtones and spoke in prevailing 
orthodox terms on the Scriptures, God, 
the Mediator, and the Holy Ghost; the 
Winchester Profession of 1805 human- 
ized Jesus and thus dkectly opposed 
Trinitarianism, and re-emphasized salva- 
tion for the whole family of mankind; 
it also saw the Bible as one revelation 
of the character of God. A statement 
of five Universalist principles in Boston 
in 1899 liberalized thek doctrine still 
further, and in 1935, in Washington, 

D. C, they adopted their latest state- 
ment, which read as follows: 

The bond of fellowship in this Convention 
shall be a common purpose to do the will 
of God as Jesus revealed it and to co- 
operate in establishing the kingdom for 
which He lived and died. 

To that end we avow our faith in God as 
External and All-Conquering Love, in the 
spiritual leadership of Jesus, in the supreme 
worth of every human personality, in the 
authority of truth known or to be known, 
and in the power of men of good will and 
sacrificial spkit to overcome all evil and 
progressively establish the kingdom of God. 
Neither this nor any other statement shall 
be imposed as a creedal test, provided that 
the faith thus indicated be professed. 

In 1942, the charter of the Universalist 
Church of America was changed to 
read: "To promote harmony among 
adherents of all religious faiths, whether 
Christian or otherwise." This was the 
final of a long series of steps calculated 
to meet the challenges of intellectual and 
social developments, and to safeguard 
the Universalist conviction that no doc- 
trinal statements should be employed as 
creedal tests. Consequently Universalism 
has become a harmonious body of the- 
ists, naturalists, humanists, mystics, 
Christians, and non-Christians, who find 
great significance and meaning in a uni- 
versal approach to life. 

A keen sense of ethical responsibility 
has accompanied this sense of the im- 
portance of freedom among Universal- 
ists. They were very early active in 
movements of reform for prisons and 
working women; they opposed slavery 
from their earliest days, stood for separa- 
tion of church and state, maintained a 
continuing interest in the fields of 
science, labor management, civil rights, 
and humane concern. They have placed 
medical workers in West Berlin and 
South German refugee centers in mod- 
ern times; international student work 
camp teams are serving underprivileged 
children and refugee youth in Europe. 
American Universalists are feeding chil- 



dren in Japan; developing community 
centers in India; providing child care 
for Negro children in Virginia and a 
social center at an interracial public- 
housing development in Chicago; and 
doing work in various state mental hos- 
pitals. They have founded several col- 
leges or universities Tufts, St. Law- 
rence, Lombard (now part of the Uni- 
versity of Chicago), Goddard, California 
Institute of Technology, Akron, Dean 
Junior College, and Westbrook Junior 
College. Through membership in the 
International Association for Religious 
Freedom, they contributed to the sup- 
port of liberal religious groups in 22 
countries abroad, and they maintain a 
close affiliation with Universalist groups 
in Holland, Japan, Korea, and the Philip- 
pines. At the time of the formation of the 
Unitarian Universalist Association, they 
had 68,949 members in 334 churches. 

Joined now in their new association, 
neither Unitarians nor Universalists seem 
to have lost anything of their original 
ideology, theology, or purpose. Except 
for matters of organization and govern- 
ment, the churches involved will con- 
tinue as they have been across the years; 
no minister, member, or congregation 
"shall be required to subscribe to any 
particular interpretation of religion, or 
to any particular religious belief or 
creed." The aims and purposes of the 
association are stated in their new con- 

(1) To strengthen one another in a free 
and disciplined search for truth as the 
foundation of our religious fellowship; 

(2) To cherish and spread the universal 
truths taught by the great prophets and 
teachers of humanity in every age and tradi- 
tion, immemorially summarized in the Judeo- 
Christian heritage as love to God and love 
to man; 

(3) To affirm, defend and promote the 
supreme worth of every human personality, 
the dignity of man, and the use of the 
democratic method in human relationships; 

(4) To implement our vision of one 


world by striving for a world community 
founded on ideas of brotherhood, justice 
and peace; 

(5) To serve the needs of member 
churches and fellowships, to organize new 
churches and fellowships, and to extend 
and strengthen liberal religion; 

(6) To encourage cooperation with men 
of good will in every land. 

Separate headquarters will be main- 
tained by the 2 denominations until the 
new organizational structure is complete. 
Under the constitution recently ap- 
proved, a general assembly is the over- 
all policy-making body for carrying out 
the purposes and objectives of the as- 
sociation. Both ministers and laymen are 
represented in this assembly. The 
General Assembly meets annually, in 
April or May, or in such special sessions 
as may be called by the Board of 
Trustees. The elected officers of the as- 
sociation (a moderator, president, 2 vice- 
presidents, secretary, and treasurer, all 
elected for 4-year terms), together with 
20 other elected members, constitute the 
Board of Trustees, which appoints the 
executive and administrative officers of 
the association and generally carries out 
the policies and directives of the General 
Assembly. Members of this board have 
the usual powers of corporate directors 
as provided by law. The trustees meet 
3 times a year, between regular meetings 
of the General Assembly. A series of 
committees is appointed to facilitate and 
co-ordinate the association's work Un- 
der the General Assembly there is a 
nominating committee, program and 
business committees, and a commission 
on appraisal; under the Board of 
Trustees, an executive committee, a min- 
isterial fellowship committee, finance 
committee, and investment committee. 

All churches in the association are 
grouped into geographical regions; 
regional organization, based upon the 
principle of local church autonomy, will 
be developed by the General Assembly 
in consultation with the churches con- 


United Brethren in the United States 
are found in 3 churches the Church of 
the United Brethren in Christ (Old Con- 
stitution), the United Christian Church, 
and the Evangelical United Brethren 
Church. Originally one group, they were 
the spiritual descendants of Philip Wil- 
liam Otterbein and Martin Boehm (for 
their early historical background see 
Evangelical United Brethren Church, 
p. 101). At a general conference of the 
parent body held at York, Pennsylvania, 
in 1889 a dispute arose over proposed 
changes in the church constitution con- 
cerned mainly with permitting members 
to join lodges and secret societies. There 
was a division into 2 churches: the 
majority group under the name of the 
Church of the United Brethren in Christ 
and the minority in the Church of the 
United Brethren in Christ (Old Con- 
stitution). The larger body merged in 
1946 with the Evangelical Church. 

Church of the United Brethren 
in Christ (Old Constitution) 

This is the dissenting group which op- 
posed constitutional changes in 1889; 
their dissent is still one of discipline 
rather than of doctrine. In common with 
other United Brethren they believe in 
the Trinity; the deity, humanity, and 
atonement of Christ. Scriptural living is 
required of all members, who are for- 
bidden the use of alcoholic drinks, mem- 
bership in secret societies, and participa- 
tion in aggressive but not defensive war. 
Baptism and the Lord's Supper are ob- 
served as ordinances of the church. 

Quarterly, annual, and general con- 
ferences are held; the general confer- 
ence meets quadrennially and is com- 
posed of only ministers, district superin- 
tendents (presiding elders), general 
church officials, and bishops. Both men 
and women are eligible to the ministry 
and are ordained only once as elders. 

Missionary societies administer a work 
in evangelism and church aid in the 
United States and on foreign fields in 
Sierra Leone, West Africa, Jamaica, 
China, and the republic of Honduras 
in Central America. A college and sem- 
inary are located at Huntington, Indiana, 
with secondary schools in Jamaica and 
Sierra Leone. There are 20,896 members 
in 329 churches. Still insisting upon 
loyalty to the old constitution, they work 
in harmony with evangelical groups in 
other denominations. 

United Christian Church 

This church separated from the orig- 
inal body in 1862-70 "on account of 
conscientious convictions" dealing chiefly 
with questions of infant baptism, the 
bearing of arms in war, secret societies, 
and the wearing of fashionable clothes. 
The Rev. George W. Hoffman was one 
of its most influential leaders, and for 
years members were known as Hoff- 

Hesitant to create another denomina- 
tion, this body had no formal organiza- 
tion until 1877. A confession of faith 
was approved that year, and the present 
name adopted a year later at Campbell- 
town, Pennsylvania. The confession of 
faith, constitution, and discipline now 
in use were approved in 1920. 

Orthodox and evangelistic, doctrine in 
this church emphasizes the inspiration of 
the Scriptures, the Trinity, total de- 
pravity, justification, regeneration, entire 
sanctification, and strict Sabbath ob- 
servance. Baptism (the mode of which 
is optional), the Lord's Supper, and foot 
washing are observed as ordinances. 
There are district, annual, and general 
conferences and an itinerant ministry; 
local preachers vote in the annual con- 
ference. Foreign missionaries are sta- 
tioned in Africa and India; there are 595 
members and 14 churches, as of 1955. 



Three churches of historic importance 
in America constitute the United Church 
of Christ: the Congregational Churchy the 
Christian Church, and the Evangelical 
and Reformed Church. The first two 
were merged into the Congregational- 
Christian Churches in 1931, and were 
joined by the Evangelical and Ref owned 
Church^ in the new United Church of 
Christ, in 1951. Pending the approval of 
a constitution by the local churches 
represented in these denominations 
(hoped to be accomplished by mid-1961), 
the present denominational policies and 
administrations will continue. In the fol- 
lowing account, the backgrounds, pol- 
icies, and doctrines of the three bodies 
'will be considered separately; to this is 
added an outline of polity and procedure 
for the United Church, as contained in 
the proposed constitution and bylaws. 

Congregational Church 

Congregationalism has been implicit in 
Christianity from the beginning; it be- 
gan, as Gaius Glenn Atkins suggests, 
"without a name and with no sense of 
its destiny." Even before the Reforma- 
tion broke over Europe, there were little 
dissenting groups of churchmen in Eng- 
land "seeking a better way" than that 
of the Established Church (Anglican 
Church or Church of England). As the 
Reformation developed in England, dis- 
sent took corporate form in the Puritan 
movement, of which Congregationalism 
was the most radical wing. 

Until a few years ago it was generally 
believed that Congregationalism had its 
rise in separatism, a movement which 
began in the days of Queen Elizabeth 
and which held that the Church of Eng- 
land was unchristian; that to attempt to 
reform it from within was hopeless; and 
that the only course for a true Christian 
to take was to separate himself from it 
completely. Recent historians, however, 
have proved that though Robert Browne 
and other separatist leaders developed 

sundry ideas which were identical with 
those of early Congregationalism, the 
2 groups were wholly distinct, the 
former being perfectionists who refused 
co-operation with other branches of the 
church, the latter being as co-operative 
as possible without giving up their prin- 

John Robinson, one of their most in- 
fluential early leaders, first enters church 
history as a separatist; in 1609 he fled 
persecution in England and settled at 
Leiden in the Netherlands with the exiled 
congregation from Scrooby in Notting- 
hamshire. There he met William Ames, 
Congregationalism's first great the- 
ologian, and Henry Jacob, its first great 
pamphleteer and organizer. These men 
were also fugitives from the ecclesiastical 
courts of Britain. By them Robinson was 
converted from rigid separatism to the 
position of Congregationalism. 

For 12 years Robinson and his con- 
gregation enjoyed peace and freedom 
under the Dutch; but haunted by the 
conviction that their sons would not 
grow up as Englishmen, a large part of 
the company sailed for America in 1620 
aboard the historic "Mayflower." In a 
hostile new world, with the wilderness 
before them and the sea at their backs, 
they helped lay the foundations of the 
American commonwealth; the demo- 
cratic ideals of their Plymouth colony, 
worked out slowly and painfully, were 
the cornerstone of the structure which 
gave us our free state, free schools, and 
free social and political life. 

Other Congregational churches were 
established at Barnstable, Salem, and else- 
where along the Massachusetts coast. 
Between 1630 and 1640, 20,000 Puritans 
came to Massachusetts Bay. It was in- 
evitable that the "Bay People" who came 
direct from England and the "Plymouth 
People" from the Netherlands should 
join forces, which they did, establish- 
ing thereby an all-powerful theocratic 
government over both settlements. 

Church and commonwealth were this 



theocracy's two instruments. It was a 
stern and at times an intolerant 
regime. Suffrage was limited to church 
members; Anne Hutchinson and Roger 
Williams were banished; Baptists were 
.haled into court; and 4 Quakers were 
hanged on Boston Common. It was a 
dark but a comparatively short period, 
ending with the Act of Toleration in 

In 1636 Thomas Hooker led a com- 
pany of 100 to what is now Hartford, 
Connecticut; the freeman's constitution 
drawn up by Hooker and his associates 
became the model of the American^ Con- 
stitution. Dissenting from the rigidity of 
current church worship, Congregation- 
alists such as Jonathan Edwards of 
Northampton played leading roles in 
the Great Awakening which broke in 
1734; that revival was marked not only 
by the eloquence of George Whitefield 
but by the vigorous writings and preach- 
ings of Edwards, whose books are still 
regarded as American classics. 

Emerging stronger than ever from the 
Revolution, in the preparation of which 
it played a great heroic part, Congrega- 
tionalism was concerned for the next 
century with 5 significant developments: 
higher education, missions, the Unitarian 
separation, the formation of a national 
council, and the production of a uni- 
form statement of belief. In the field of 
education this church had already made 
tremendous contributions: it had founded 
Harvard in 1636; Yale (1701) was a Con- 
gregational project for the education of 
its clergy; Dartmouth (1769) developed 
from Eleazer Wheelock's School for In- 
dians. These, with Williams, Amherst, 
Bowdoin, and Middlebury, were among 
the first colleges in New England. By 
1953 there were 48 colleges and 10 the- 
ological seminaries in the United States 
with Congregational Christian origin or 

Interest in missions among American 
Congregationalists began the day the 
Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. The May- 
hews, David Brainerd, and John Eliot 

were soon at work among the Indians. 
Eliot spent 7 years mastering the Indian 
tongue, put the Bible in their language, 
and published an Indian catechism in 
1653, the first book to be printed in 
their language. By 1674 there were 4,000 
"praying Indians" in New England, with 
24 native preachers. When the wagon 
trains went West after the Revolution, 
the families of Congregational ministers 
and missionaries were prominent. Manas- 
sell Cutler, a preacher from Hamilton, 
Massachusetts, was instrumental in fram- 
ing the famous Northwest Territory 
Ordinance of 1787; and other ministers 
led in the founding of Marietta^ Ohio, 
the first permanent settlement in the 
Northwest Territory. 

The American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions was or- 
ganized in 1810 and was concerned at 
first with both home and foreign mis- 
sionary work. On it served not only 
Congregationalists but representatives of 
Presbyterian, Dutch Reformed, and As- 
sociate Reformed churches. This was the 
first foreign missionary society in the 
country, and it was interdenominational. 
The first 5 men ordained were the 5 
young men who had participated in the 
famous "haystack" meeting at Williams 
College. After them came missionaries 
to more than 30 foreign countries and in 
American territories, not the least of 
which was Hawaii, where Congrega- 
tional missionaries within 25 years taught 
a whole nation of people to read and 
write, laid the foundations of a constitu- 
tional, democratic government, and made 
of their beautiful islands a sociological 
laboratory filled with many races living 
together in harmony and understanding. 
The Congregational achievement in 
Hawaii is one of the greatest in the 
whole history of Protestant missions. 

The rise of denominationalism worked 
against the interdenominational com- 
plexion of the American Board, and by 
mid-century the non-Congregationalists 
had all withdrawn to go their separate 
ways. It is still known as the American 



Board, but It is no longer interdenomina- 

Moving westward, Congregationalists 
from New England came into contact 
with Presbyterians moving out from the 
middle and southern states. To avoid 
competition and duplication of effort, a 
plan of union was worked out under 
which ministers and members from both 
churches were exchanged and accepted 
on equal basis. Adopted in 1801, the 
plan eventually worked out to the ad- 
vantage of the Presbyterians; it was dis- 
continued in 1852, leaving the Presby- 
terians stronger in the West and the 
Congregationalists with a virtual church 
monopoly in New England. But the 
plan did much to inspire new Congrega- 
tional missionary work. In 1826 the 
American Home Missionary Society was 
founded; it was active in the South be- 
fore the Civil War and especially ef- 
fective there toward the end of that con- 
flict with its "contraband" schools for 
Negroes, one of which became Hampton 

Meanwhile differences of opinion be- 
tween theological liberals and conserva- 
tives were developing within the church. 
Strict Calvinists and Trinitarians were 
opposed by Unitarians, and a famous 
sermon by William Ellery Channing at 
Baltimore in 1819 made a division in- 
evitable. The American Unitarian As- 
sociation was established in 1825. Almost 
all the older Congregational churches in 
eastern Massachusetts went Unitarian; 
only one Congregational church was left 
in Boston. Debate and legal action over 
property and funds were not finished 
until about 1840. 

In spite of the Unitarian deflection 
Congregationalism continued to grow. It 
assumed such proportions that a national 
supervisory body became necessary, and 
a series of national conventions or coun- 
cils evidenced the growing denomina- 
tional consciousness of the widely scat- 
tered independent local churches. A 
national council held at Boston in 1865 
was so effective that a regular system 


of councils was established. Following 
conferences between the associations into 
which the churches had grouped them- 
selves, the first of the national councils 
was called at Oberlin, Ohio, in 1871. 
Known today as the General Council of 
the Congregational Christian Churches, 
it meets biennially and acts as an over- 
all advisory body for the entire fellow- 

The council of 1913 at Kansas City 
adopted a declaration on faith, polity, and 
wider fellowship which has been ac- 
cepted by many churches as a statement 
of faith. While it did not in any way 
modify the independence of the local 
churches, it did give a new spiritual unity 
to the church. It reads as follows: 

Faith. We befieve in God the Father, 
infinite in wisdom, goodness, and love; and 
in Jesus Christ, His Son, our Lord and 
Savior, who for us and our salvation lived 
and died and rose again and liveth ever- 
more; and in the Holy Spirit, who taketh 
of the things of Christ and revealeth them 
to us, renewing, comforting, and inspiring 
the souls of men. We are united in striving 
to know the will of God, as taught in the 
Holy Scriptures, and in our purpose to 
walk in the ways of the Lord, made known 
or to be made known to us. We hold it to 
be the mission of the Church of Christ to 
proclaim the Gospel to all mankind, exalting 
the worship of the true God, and laboring 
for the progress of knowledge, the promo- 
tion of justice, the reign of peace, and the 
realization of human brotherhood. Depend- 
ing, as did our fathers, upon the continued 
guidance of the Holy Spirit to lead us into 
all truth, we work and pray for the trans- 
formation of the world into the kingdom 
of God; and we look with faith for the 
triumph of righteousness and the life ever- 

Polity. We believe in the freedom and 
responsibility of the individual soul and the 
right of private judgment. We hold to the 
autonomy of the local church and its in- 
dependence of all ecclesiastical control. We 
cherish the fellowship of the churches united 
in district, State, and national bodies, for 
counsel and cooperation in matters of com- 
mon concern. 


The Wider Fellowship. While affirming 
the liberty of our churches, and the validity 
of our ministry, we hold to the unity and 
catholicity of the Church of Christ, and 
will unite with all its branches in hearty co- 
operation; and will earnestly seek, so far as 
in us lies, that the prayer of our Lord for 
His disciples may be answered, that they 
all may be one. 

The "wider fellowship" is taken 
seriously; unity and co-operation across 
denominational lines have been outstand- 
ing characteristics of Congregationalism 
all through its history. Christian En- 
deavor, the largest young people's or- 
ganization in ail Protestantism, was 
founded by a Congregationalist, Francis 
E. Clark, in 1881; by 1885 it had become 
an interdenominational organization 
known all over the world as the United 
Society of Christian Endeavor. In 1924 
the Evangelical Protestant Church of 
North America was received into the 
National Council of Congregational 
Churches as the Evangelical Protestant 
Conference of Congregational Churches; 
the two mergers with the Christian 
churches and the Evangelical and Re- 
formed churches, coming comparatively 
close together, again witness to the wid- 
ening fellowship and vision of the Con- 
gregationalists. Into the most recent 
merger they brought 47 church-related 
(not church-controlled) colleges, 11 the- 
ological seminaries, foreign mission sta- 
tions in Africa, Mexico, Japan, the 
Philippines, India, Ceylon, Greece, 
Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Korea, and 
Micronesia, and home missionaries in 
every state in the Union and Puerto 
Rico. Congregational-Christian member- 
ship in 1959 was 1,419,171, in 5,500 
churches; they may not, however, take 
that many into the merger, due to the 
hesitancy of some local churches to 
adopt the proposed constitution. 

Christian Church 

The Christian churches, like the Con- 
gregational, were born in protest against 


ecclesiasticism and the denial of indi- 
vidual freedom in the church. There 
were actually 3 revolts which resulted 
in the establishment of Christian churches 
in New England and in the South. 

The first came in 1792, when Jarnes 
O'Kelley, a Methodist minister in Vir- 
ginia, withdrew from that church in 
protest against the development of the 
superintendency into an episcopacy, 
especially insofar as it gave the Method- 
ist bishops absolute power in appointing 
ministers to their charges. O'Kelley and 
his followers organized under the name 
Republican Methodists; this was later 
changed to "Christian," with the new 
church insisting that the Bible be taken 
as the only rule and discipline, and that 
Christian character be made the only 
requirement of church membership. 

Abner Jones, convinced that "sec- 
tarian names and human creeds should 
be abandoned," left the Vermont Bap- 
tists to organize at Lyndon, Vermont, 
in 1801 the First Christian Church in 
New England. This was done not so 
much in objection to Baptist organiza- 
tion or doctrine as from a desire to se- 
cure a wider freedom in religious 
thought and fellowship. Like O'Kelley, 
Jones insisted that piety and character 
were to be the sole test of Christian 

In the Great Awakening which swept 
Tennessee and Kentucky in 1801 there 
was a great deal of preaching which 
either ignored the old emphasis on the 
doctrines of the various denominations 
involved or was often in direct contra- 
diction to them. Barton W. Stone, ac- 
cused of anti-Presbyterian preaching, led 
a number of Presbyterians out of the 
Synod of Kentucky to organize a Spring- 
field Presbytery. This presbytery was 
discontinued as its members gradually 
came to accept the ideology of James 
O'Kelley and Abner Jones, and adopted 
the name "Christians." Stone, an ardent 
revivalist, was deeply influenced by the 
preaching of Alexander Campbell and 
led many of his followers and churches 


into the fold of the Disciples of Christ. 
But the large majority of his Christian 
churches remained with the original 
Christian body. 

The groups under O'Kelley, Jones, 
and Stone engaged in a long series of 
conferences which resulted in their union 
on 6 basic Christian principles: 

1. Christ, the only head of the Church. 

2. The Bible, sufficient rule of faith and 

3. Christian character, the measure of 

4. A right, individual interpretation of the 
Scripture, as a way of life. 

5. "Christian," the name taken as worthy 
of the followers of Christ. 

6. Unity, Christians working together to 
save the world. 

No council or other body in the 
Christian Church has ever attempted to 
draw up any other creed or statement. 
Their creed is the Bible. Their interpre- 
tation of Bible teaching might be called 
evangelical, but no sincere follower of 
Christ is barred from their membership 
because of difference in theological be- 
lief. Open Communion is practiced; bap- 
tism is considered a duty, but it is not 
required; immersion is used generally, 
but any mode may be employed. 

The union of the Congregational and 
Christian churches has been thoroughly 
democratic, leaving both free to continue 
their own forms of worship and each 
with its own polity and doctrine. Ad- 
hering strictly to the congregational idea, 
each local church is at liberty to call 
itself either Congregational or Christian, 
and the same choice is found in the self- 
governing district and state associations 
into which the churches are organized. 

Evangelical and Reformed Church 

The Evangelical and Reformed Church 
is the product of a union established 
at Cleveland, Ohio, on June 26, 1934, 
between 2 bodies of Swiss and German 
background with basic agreements in 


doctrine, polity, and culture the Evan- 
gelical Synod of North America and 
the Reformed Church in the United 

The Evangelical Synod was the 
younger of the 2 bodies, originating with 
6 ministers who met at Gravois Settle- 
ment near St. Louis in 1840 to form the 
Evangelical Union of the West. They 
were ministers of Lutheran and Re- 
formed churches in the Evangelical 
United Church of Prussia. Two had been 
sent to America by the Rhenish Mission- 
ary Society and two by the Missionary 
Society of Basel; the other two were 
independent, one coming from Bremen 
and the other from Strassburg. 

The Evangelical Union of the West 
was a co-operative ministerial association 
until 1849, when the first permanent or- 
ganization was established. As the move- 
ment spread to the East and Northwest 
among German-speaking Lutheran and 
Reformed peoples, headquarters were 
established at St. Louis and a new name, 
the German Evangelical Synod of North 
America, adopted. A series of amalgama- 
tions with 4 other bodies of similar be- 
lief and polity the German Evangelical 
Church Association of Ohio, the Ger- 
man United Evangelical Synod of the 
East, the Evangelical Synod of the 
Northwest, and the United Evangelical 
Synod of the East resulted in the forma- 
tion of the Evangelical Synod of North 
America, giving it a membership of 
281,598 at the time of the merger with 
the Reformed Church in the United 

The Reformed Church in the United 
States had its origin in Switzerland and 
Germany, and particularly in the flood 
tide of German immigration to Penn- 
sylvania in the eighteenth century. More 
than half the Germans in Pennsylvania 
in 1730 were of the Reformed per- 
suasion; their congregations were widely 
separated along the frontier; and lacking 
ministers, they often employed school- 
teachers to lead their services. Three of 
their pastors, Johann Philip Boehm, 


George Michael Weiss, and Johann Bar- 
tholomaeus Rieger, were deeply in- 
fluenced by Michael Schlatter, who had 
been sent to America by the Synod 
(Dutch Reformed) of South and North 
Holland; with him they organized in 
1747 a coetus (synod) in Philadelphia. It 
was a synod directly responsible to and 
in part financially supported by the 
synod in Holland, from which it de- 
clared its independence in 1793, taking 
the name of the German Reformed 
Church; and in that year it reported 178 
congregations and 15,000 communicants. 
The word "German" was dropped in 
1869; from that time on the denomina- 
tion was called the Reformed Church 
in the United States. 

Reformed Church missionaries went 
early across the Alleghenies into Ohio 
and south into North Carolina. An over- 
all synod of the church divided the 
country into 8 districts or classes in 
1819, and an independent Ohio classis 
was formed in 1824. Franklin College 
(now Franklin and Marshall) was 
founded at Lancaster, Pennsylvania, with 
the support of Benjamin Franklin; a 
theological seminary was opened at Carl- 
isle and later moved to Lancaster; an 
academy which later became Marshall 
College was established in 1836. The 
Synod of Ohio established a theological 
school and Heidelberg University at 
Tiffin, Ohio, in 1850. The mother synod 
in the East and the Ohio Synod were 
united in the General Synod in 1836, 
which functioned until the merger with 
the Evangelical Synod of North Amer- 
ica in 1934. 

Difficulties arose in the early years 
of the last century over the languages 
used in the Reformed Church; the older 
Germans preferred the use of German, 
and the second-generation members de- 
manded English. Inevitably in a church 
of such mixed membership there were 
conservatives and liberals in conflict. 
Some of the churches withdrew and 
formed a separate synod but returned 
in 1837 as wiser heads prevailed and 


compromises were made. New district 
synods of both German-speaking and 
English-speaking congregations were 
created, and 2 Hungarian classes were 
added in 1924 from the Old Hungarian 
Reformed Church. 

By 1934 the boards of the church were 
directing a widespread home missions 
work and foreign missionary work in 
Japan, China, and Mesopotamia. There 
were 12 institutions of higher learning, 
3 theological seminaries, and 3 orphan- 
ages. There were 348,189 members in 
the Reformed Church at the time of the 
1934 merger, largely concentrated in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

Few difficulties were encountered in 
reconciling the doctrines of the 2 bodies 
when the union was finally accomplished. 
Both churches were German Calvinistic; 
the Reformed Church had been based 
historically on the Heidelberg Catechism 
and the Evangelical Synod on the 
Heidelberg Catechism, the Augsburg 
Confession, and Luther's Catechism. 
These 3 standards of faith were woven 
into one in the new constitution of the 
Evangelical and Reformed Church in 
these words: 

The Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 
Testaments are recognized as the Word of 
God and the ultimate rule of Christian faith 
and practice. 

The doctrinal standards of the Evangelical 
and Reformed Church are the Heidelberg 
Catechism, Luther's Catechism, and the 
Augsburg Confession. They are accepted 
as an authoritative interpretation of the 
essential truth taught in the Holy Scriptures. 

Wherever these doctrinal standards differ, 
ministers, members, and congregations, in 
accordance with the liberty of conscience 
inherent in the Gospel, are allowed to ad- 
here to the interpretation of one of these 
confessions. However, in each case the final 
norm is the Word of God. 

Two sacraments baptism, usually ad- 
ministered to infants, and the Lord's 
Supper are accepted; confirmation, gen- 
erally before the thirteenth or fourteenth 
years, ordination, consecration, marriage, 


and burial are considered as rites. Al- 
though hymns and forms of worship are 
provided for general use, a wide freedom 
of worship is encouraged. 

Church polity, when this church joined 
the Congregational Christians in 1957, 
was modified Presbyterian; each local 
church was governed by a consistory 
or church council elected from its own 
membership. Local churches formed a 
synod, of which there were 34, each 
made up of a pastor and lay delegate 
from each charge; the synod met twice 
a year and had jurisdiction over all min- 
isters and congregations, examined, 
licensed, and ordained all pastors and 
elected its own officers a procedure 
quite different from that of the Congre- 
gationalist-Christian churches. It led 
many to wonder whether a union be- 

tween two such different forms of gov- 
ernment could possibly work; that 
wonder, or hesitancy, is a root cause for 
the dissension of the few churches that 
have thus far refused to co-operate in 
the merger. 

The Evangelical and Reformed Church 
was a thriving church, in 1957-1960, 
when the details of union were being 
worked out. There were 810,000 mem- 
bers in 1959, in 2,740 churches, 8 col- 
leges, 3 theological schools, 2 academies, 
foreign missionaries in India, Japan, 
Hong Kong, Iraq, Africa, and Honduras, 
and a widespread home missionary work 
in the United States among the people of 
the Ozarks, the American Indians, the 
Volga Germans, Hungarians, and Japan- 

On July 8, 1959, representatives of the 
Congregational-Christian churches and 
the Evangelical and Reformed Church 
adopted, at Oberlin, Ohio, a Statement 
of Faith for the United Church of Christ, 
into which they were merging. It reads 
as follows: 

We believe in God, the Eternal Spirit, 
Father of our Lord Jesus Christ and our 
Father, and to his deeds we testify: 

He calls the worlds into being, creates 
man in his own image and sets before him 
the ways of Hfe and death. 

He seeks in holy love to save all people 
from aimlessness and sin. 

He judges men and nations by his 
righteous will declared through prophets 
and apostles. 

In Jesus Christ, the man of Nazareth, our 
crucified and risen Lord, he has come to us 
and shared our common lot, conquering sin 
and death and reconciling the world to 

He bestows upon us his Holy Spirit, 
creating and renewing the Church of Jesus 
Christ, binding in covenant faithful people 
of all ages, tongues, and races. 

He calls us into his Church to accept the 
cost and joy of discipleship, to be his 
servants in the service of men, to proclaim 
the gospel to all the world and resist the 


powers of evil, to share in Christ's baptism 
and eat at his table, to join him in his 
passion and victory. 

He promises to all who trust him for- 
giveness of sins and fullness of grace, cour- 
age in the struggle for justice and peace, his 
presence in trial and rejoicing, and eternal 
life in his kingdom which has no end. 

Blessing and honor, glory and power be 
unto him. Amen. 

This is "a testimony rather than a 
test of faith"; it is not intended to set 
forth doctrinal positions (the doctrines 
and theological positions of the three 
churches now within the United Church 
of Christ remain as they were before 
the union was accomplished), nor to 
stand as a substitute for the historic 
creeds, confessions, and covenants of the 
churches involved. It is not binding, in 
any creedal or theological sense, upon 
any local church in the denomination; 
no congregation is required to subscribe 
to the statement. But it does stand as a 
tribute to the faith, charity, and under- 
standing of the merging groups. 

Equally impressive is the understand- 
ing and co-operation evident in the gov- 
ernmental provisions of the constitution. 


The United Church of Christ represents 
a union of Congregationalism and Pres- 
byterianism "it establishes Congrega- 
tionalism as the rule for the local con- 
gregation and presbyterianism as the basis 
for organization of the connectional life 
of the churches." (Harold E. Fey.) The 
constitution is explicit: "The autonomy 
of the local church is inherent and mod- 
ifiable only by its own action. Nothing 
. . . shall destroy or limit the right of 
each local church to continue to operate 
in the way customary to it" But be- 
yond the local church, protected as it is, 
are associations, conferences, and^ the 
General Synod. Local churches in a 
geographical area are grouped into as- 
sociations. The association is concerned 
with the welfare of the local churches 
within its area; assists needy churches; 
receives new churches into the United 
Church of Christ; licenses, ordains, and 
installs ministers; adopts its own con- 
stitution, bylaws, and rules of procedure; 
and is made up of the ordained ministers 
and elected lay delegates of the area. The 
association meets annually, and is re- 
lated to the General Synod through its 

Associations are grouped into con- 
ferences, again by geographical areas. 
The voting members of the conference 
are ordained ministers of the associations 
in the conference, and lay delegates 
elected from the local churches. The 
conference acts on business, requests, 
counsel, and references from the local 
churches, associations, General Synod, 
and other bodies. It meets annually, and 
its main function is one of co-ordinating 
the work and witness of the local 
churches and associations, rendering 
counsel and advisory service, establish- 
ing conference offices, centers, institu- 
tions, and other agencies. 

The General Synod is the top repre- 
sentative body of the church; it meets 
biennially and is composed of delegates 
chosen by the conferences, and of ex 
officio delegates (the elected officers of 
the church, members of the Executive 

Council, the moderator, and assistant 
moderators). The conference delegates 
are clergymen, laymen, and laywomen, 
in equal numbers; there are also as- 
sociate delegates, with voice but with- 
out vote. General Synod has no power 
to "invade" local churches, associations, 
or conferences; it nominates and elects 
the officers of the church (a president, 
secretary, and treasurer) for 4-year 
terms, and a moderator who presides 
over the sessions of the General Synod 
and holds office for one year only (his 
duties are quite similar to those of a 
moderator among the Presbyterians). 

The major boards, commissions, coun- 
cils, offices, and "other instrumentalities" 
of the church are established by the Gen- 
eral Synod; these include the Board for 
World Ministries (foreign missions), 
made up of 225 ministers, laymen, and 
laywomen; the Board for Homeland 
Ministries (home missions), also with 
225 ministers, laymen, and laywomen; 
the Council for Higher Education com- 
posed of the executive heads of the 
academies, colleges, and theological 
schools of the church; the Council for 
Health and Welfare Services, adminis- 
tered by the heads of church institutions 
in these fields; the Council for Christian 
Social Action; Council for Church and 
Ministry; Council of Lay Life and Work; 
and the Stewardship Council. Public re- 
lations, TV, radio, and visual aids are 
in charge of an office of communication. 
Pension and relief activities are admin- 
istered by a nonprofit corporation (s) re- 
sponsible and reporting annually to the 
General Synod. Four committees (nom- 
inating, credentials, budget, and long- 
range planning) are also appointed by 
the General Synod, and it is authorized 
to appoint such other committees as they 
are necessary. 

An executive council of 21 voting 
members (ministers, laymen, and lay- 
women) is elected by the General Synod 
to act for the synod in the interims be- 
tween synod meetings. It determines the 
salaries of the officers of the church, ap- 



points the editor of United Church 
Herald (the United Church periodical 
combining the old Advance and Mes- 
senger of the two church groups), pre- 
pares the agenda for all meetings of 
General Synod and appoints committees 
not otherwise provided; it also submits 
to General Synod "any recommendation 
it may deem useful" to the work of the 
As of 1959, there were 1,419,171 mem- 

bers and 5,500 churches in the Congre- 
gational Christian churches; there were 
approximately 810,000 members in 2,740 
churches in the Evangelical and Re- 
formed Church. While some local 
churches in both groups may still de- 
cline to enter the merger, there would 
seem to be an approximate strength of 
over 2,000,000 members and 8,000 
churches in the United Church of Christ. 


A Negro Pentecostal sect originating 
at Method, North Carolina, in a meeting 
held by the Rev. Isaac Cheshier in 1886, 
this body was successively called the 
Holy Church of North Carolina, the 
Holy Church of North Carolina and 
Virginia, and finally (1918) the United 
Holy Church of America. Its purpose 
is to establish and maintain holy convo- 
cations, assemblies, conventions, confer- 
ences, public worship, missionary and 
school work, orphanages, manual and 
trade training, . . . also religious resorts, 
with permanent and temporary dwellings. 

Articles of faith contain statements 
of belief in the Trinity, the record of 
God's revelation of himself in the Bible, 
redemption through Christ, justification 
and instantaneous sanctification following 
justification, the baptism of the Holy 
Spirit, divine healing, Sabbath observ- 
ance, and the ultimate reign of Christ 
over the earth. The chief officer is the 
president; a 9-member board of trustees 
supervises the general work of the 
church. There are 28,000 members in 
432 churches. 


Up to 1947, this was "The Mennonite 
Brethren in Christ"; the present church, 
however, has no Mennonite connection 
and has grown away from all Mennonite 
influence. Members do a widespread 
work in evangelism, stressing holiness. 
Doctrinally, they believe in the Trinity, 
the virgin birth, the Atonement, second 
coming, and redemptive mission of 
Christ, the Bible as the inspired word of 
God. There are three diversions from 
the Dordrecht Confession of the Men- 
nonites, in statements on entire sanctifi- 


cation, justification, and regeneration; 
divine healing; and the millennium. Bap- 
tism is by immersion. 

There are three levels of governmental 
administration: local, district, and gen- 
eral conferences; there are district con- 
ferences in Michigan, Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, 
South Dakota, Washington, Oregon, 
Idaho, and California, and two in Can- 
ada. A new constitution, drawn up in 
1955 in connection with merger negotia- 
tions with the Missionary Church As- 


sociation, gave a more centralized form 
to the government, with a general super- 
intendent at the head of the church and 
the affairs of the denomination being 
administered generally between the 
superintendent and a general board. The 
general board, composed of representa- 
tives from the district conferences, meets 
at least semiannually; the general con- 
ference meets triennially, the district 
conferences annually, and local confer- 
ences at least annually, 

Home missions are highly evangelistic; 
111 foreign missionaries are at work in 
Africa, India, South America, Lebanon, 
Egypt, Formosa, Japan, Mexico, Co- 

lumbia, the Dominican Republic, and 
Sierra Leone; co-operative work is done 
with the Missionary Church Associa- 
tion, the Christian and Missionary Al- 
liance, and the Oriental Missionary So- 
ciety. There are 2 Bible Colleges in 
Canada, and a liberal arts college 
Bethel at Mishawaka, Indiana. A nation- 
wide radio broadcast, "Your Worship 
Hour," is sponsored by the Gospel 
Center Church in South Bend, Indiana; 
and two publications Gospel Banner 
and Missionary Banner have world- 
wide circulations. A total of 10,233 
members are reported in 188 churches. 


Charles Fillmore, bankrupt and a 
cripple, and his wife Myrtle, seriously 
ill with tuberculosis, discovered in 1887 
"a mental treatment that is guaranteed to 
cure every ill that the flesh is heir to." 
The treatment, or system, is offered to- 
day in the Unity School of Christianity 
as a curative in many areas beyond 
physical healing. Unity is not a church 
or denomination, but a nonsectarian re- 
ligious educational institution devoted 
to demonstrating that the teaching of 
Jesus Christ is a practical, seven-day-a- 
week way of life. 

The Fillmores held that "whatever 
man wants he can have by voicing his 
desire in the right way into the Uni- 
versal Mind," and this emphasis upon 
Mind they found originally in Christian 
Science. Both studied Christian Science, 
though neither was ever a part of the 
movement. They also studied New 
Thought, Quakerism, Theosophy, Rosi- 
crucianism, Spiritism, and Hinduism; out 
of their studies came an ideology both 
old and original, built on ancient truths 
and concepts but moving in new direc- 

Unity teaches that all thought goes 
back to God, who is "Principle, Law, 


Being, Mind, Spirit, All Good, omnip- 
otent, omniscient, unchangeable, Cre- 
ator, Father, Cause and Source of all 
that is." In the attribute of Mind is found 
the "meeting ground of man and God." 
Unity has a Trinity: "The Father is 
Principle, the Son is that Principle re- 
vealed in a creative plan. The Holy 
Spirit is the executive power of both 
Father and Son carrying out the creative 
plan." Jesus Christ is "Spiritual man . . . 
the direct offspring of Divine Mind, 
God's idea of perfect man." Man is a 
son of God filled with the Christ con- 
sciousness. It is through Christ, or the 
Christ consciousness, that man gains 
eternal life and salvation, both of which 
terms have meanings different from those 
in orthodox Christianity. Salvation here 
may be said to mean the attainment of 
that true spiritual body which replaces 
the physical body when man becomes 
like Christ. This transformation takes 
place not in any hereafter but "here in 
this earth" through a series of reincarna- 
tions and regenerations. Man suffers no 
final death but only change into in- 
creasingly better states until he becomes 
as Christ. All men will have this ex- 


Unlike Christian Science, Unity recog- 
nizes the reality of matter, the world, 
sin, and sickness. Sin and sickness are 
real but may be overcome. Health is 
natural; sickness is unnatural. Anything 
that injures the body is to be avoided 
such emotions, for instance, as strife, 
anger, hatred or self-interest, or the use 
of alcohol or tobacco, or indulgence in 
sex except for the purposes of procrea- 
tion. But all this is strictly personal, and 
a matter of individual decision; Unity 
lays down no laws concerning health 
but concentrates on spiritual goals, know- 
ing that healthful living habits will fol- 
low. Some Unity students are vege- 
tarians, in the interests of health; many 
are not. Unity is personal; there are no 
social or health "programs" as such, no 
hospitals or relief agencies. 

Solutions are suggested for every 
human want and illness. The follower is 
told to repeat over and over certain af- 
firmations, which develop the all-power- 
ful mind and bring to him from the 
Divine Mind whatever he needs. Mr. Fill- 
more once wrote a revised version of 
the twenty-third psalm calculated to 
help in the area of economic struggle 
and success: 

The Lord is my banker; my credit is 

good . . . ; 

He giveth me the key to His strongbox; 
He restoreth my faith in riches; 
He guideth me in the paths of prosperity 

for His name's sake.* 

He does, however, stress the im- 
portance of giving above receiving and 
condemns the greed of mere money- 
getting as sinful and destructive. 

The Bible is used constantly in Unity, 
but it is not considered the sole or final 
authority in faith and practice; man 
must be in direct, personal communion 
with God and not be dependent upon 

* From Prosperity. Used by permission of 
Unity School of Christianity. 

such secondary sources as the Scriptures. 
The sacred books of other faiths are 
also used in Unity. 

Established on a huge estate near 
Kansas City (Lee's Summit, Missouri), 
Unity insists that it is not a church. 
"The true church is a state of con- 
sciousness in man." Ecclesiastical organi- 
zation is distrusted, but Unity does have 
a national conference and annual con- 
ferences, a statement of faith, pulpits 
supplied with ministers who must be 
approved by Unity headquarters, and 
rituals for baptism, Communion, wed- 
dings, and funerals. Local groups are 
organized into centers, which are linked 
to headquarters by a field department. 
Fifty radio stations broadcast 250 Unity 
programs per week. 

The real work of Unity School is 
done through what is called Silent Unity. 
A large staff of workers in the Kansas 
City building is available for consulta- 
tion day and night, answering telephone 
calls, telegrams, and letters an average 
of 10,000 calls a week. It is a service of 
counsel, prayer, and affirmation, offering 
help on every conceivable problem. Each 
case or call is assigned to one of this 
staff, who suggests the proper affirma- 
tions. The whole staff joins in group 
prayer and meditation several times a 
day. All calls and requests are answered. 
There is no charge for this service, but 
love offerings are accepted. In one year 
Unity answered 600,000 such calls for 
help, most of them coming from mem- 
bers of various Christian churches. No 
correspondent is ever asked to leave the 
church to which he belongs. 

This is a growing movement; it is said 
to have at least 5,000,000 followers, al- 
though no official statistics are available. 
In addition to the services of Silent 
Unity some 4,000,000 books, booklets, 
tracts, and magazines are published and 
undoubtedly used by many who never 
contact headquarters at all and never in 
any sense become members of the school. 



The members of the Vedanta Society 
are followers of the Vedas, the scriptures 
of the Indo-Aryans, the oldest religious 
writings which exist in the world. This 
Indian philosophy, explaining the nature 
and end of all wisdom, harmonizes the 
findings of modern science and offers a 
scientific and philosophical basis for re- 
ligion. It was first expounded in Amer- 
ica by Swami Vivekananda at the 
World's Parliament of Religions held in 
Chicago in 1893. This society was 
founded by Swami Vivekananda in 1894. 

There are eleven Vedanta centers in 
America. All belong to and are under 
the management of the Remakrishna 
Math and Mission founded by Swami 
Vivekananda with headquarters in Belur 
Math, near Calcutta. Each center is an 
independent, self-supporting unit with 
its own board of trustees, made up of 
American citizens. The Swamis are or- 
dained monks and come as guest-teachers. 
There are approximately 1,200 members 
in the 11 societies. 


The Volunteers of America is a re- 
ligious social welfare organization 
founded in 1896 by the late Ballington 
and Maud Booth and incorporated in 
the same year under the laws of the state 
of New York; 28,146 members were re- 
ported in 1958, but this figure hardly 
tells the whole story of services rendered 
to hundreds of thousands of people in 
the principal cities of the United States. 

Religious services are offered in mis- 
sions, Volunteer churches, Sunday 
schools, companionship leagues, prisons, 
and on the streets; the organization has 
its own rituals for baptism, the Lord's 
Supper, and marriage. Doctrine is evan- 
gelical, with strong emphasis on the sav- 
ing grace of God, the Trinity, the atone- 
ment of Christ, regeneration through the 
Holy Spirit, the necessity of repentance 
and conversion, immortality, and future 
rewards and punishments. 

The social welfare programs include 
departments of family welfare, salvage, 
health camps, day nurseries, hospices for 
working girls, maternity homes, homes 
for mothers and children, adoptive place- 
ments, clubs and homes for the aged, 
rehabilitation workshops, family coun- 
seling centers, transient men's homes, and 
boys' and girls' clubs. There is an ex- 
cellent prison department, assisting dis- 


charged and paroled prisoners, men and 
women in prison, and their families; 
300,000 prisoners are enrolled in the 
Volunteer Prison League. 

Operation of the Volunteers is based 
on a semimilitary plan modeled on that 
of the United States Army. All officers 
bear military titles and wear uniforms. 
The chief governing body is called the 
Grand Field Council and is composed of 
those officers bearing the rank of 
lieutenant major or above. There is a 
board of 10 members known as the Na- 
tional Executive Board, which functions 
when the Grand Field Council is not 
in session. The incorporation has a di- 
rectorate of 9, who are responsible 
financial officers and who act as trustees 
and custodians of all property. Military 
regulations do not apply in the selection 
of these top officers; they are chosen by 
democratic election. The commander in 
chief is elected for 5 years and is also 
president of the corporate body. There 
are 4 administrative areas known as 
eastern, central, midwestern, and western 
areas; national officers and staff are 
located in New York City. 

The Volunteer statistical report for 
1958 showed a total of more than 3,000,- 
000 people receiving material assistance 
through its various departments exclusive 


of religious services; 3,871,014 meals and teers; 21,921 persons were employed in 

901,110 lodgings were furnished; 4,226 the industrial department. Over 17,000,- 

children were taken under the care of 000 articles such as furniture and clothing 

the organization; 14,301 elderly persons were distributed free or at nominal cost; 

participated in the Sunset Club program; positions were found for 17,012 unem- 

17,007 interviews were held in prisons; ployed. The organization is maintained 

149,838 prisoners attended Volunteer re- through the voluntary contributions of 

Hgious services; 1,420 released prisoners the public, 
were paroled in custody of the Volun- 



(Addresses of denominational headquarters are given wherever possible; otherwise, names 
and addresses of chief, and preferably permanent, officials are listed.) 


Seventh-day Adventists: Takoma Park, Washington 12, D. C. 

Advent Christian Church: Rev. J. Howard Shaw, Sec., 917 Hardin Street, Aurora, 111. 
Primitive Advent Christian Church: Rev. C. D. Jones, Pres., 1036 Red Oak St., Charleston, 

W. Va. 

Church of God (Abrahamic Faith) : National Bible Institution, Oregon, 111. 
Life and Advent Union: Miss Mildred A. Hooper, Pres., 98 Grove Hill, Kensington, 

The African Orthodox Church: Archbishop William E. Robertson, 122 W. 129th St., 

New York 27, N. Y. 

Amana Church Society: Henry G. Moerschel, Pres., Homestead, Iowa. 
American Ethical Union: 2 West 64th St., New York 23, N. Y. 
American Evangelical Christian Churches: 192 N. Clark St., Chicago 1, 111. 
American Ministerial Association: P. O. Box 1252, York, Pa. 
American Rescue Workers: 2827 Frankford Ave., Philadelphia 34, Pa. 
Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God: Bishop W. T. Phillips, 1070 Congress St., 

Mobile, Ala. 

Assemblies of God, General Council: 434 W. Pacific St., Springfield 1, Mo. 
Baha'i: 536 Sheridan Road, Wilmette, IU. 

American Baptist Convention: 152 Madison Ave., New York 16, N. Y. 
Southern Baptist Convention: 127 9th Ave., N., Nashville 3, Tenn. 
National Baptist Convention, U.S.A., Inc.: 412 4th Ave., N., Nashville, Tenn. 
National Baptist Convention of America: 523 2nd Ave., N^ Nashville 3, Tenn. 
American Baptist Association: 214 E. Broad St., Texarkana, Ark.-Tex. 
Baptist Gen'l Conference of America: 5750 North Ashland Ave., Chicago 26, 111. 
Bethel Baptist Assembly: 701-707 Main St., Evansville 8, Ind. 

Christian Unity Baptist Association: Elder D. O. Miller, Mod., Mountain City, Tenn. 
Conservative Baptist Association of America: Dr. B. Myron Cedarholm, Gen. Dir., 2561 

N. Clark St., Chicago 14, 111. 
Duck River (and Kindred) Associations of Baptists (Baptist Church of Christ): Elder 

S. P. Arnold, Mod., R. 3, Readyville, Tenn. 
Free Will Baptists: 3801 Richland Ave., Nashville 5, Tenn. 
General Baptists: Rev. Vern Whitten, Clerk, 1629 Stinson, Evansville 12, Ind. 
General Association of Regular Baptist Churches: 608 So. Dearborn St., Suite 848, 

Transportation Bldg., Chicago 5, 111. 
General Conference of the Evangelical Baptist Church: 1601 East Rose St., Goldsboro, 

N. C. 

General Six-Principle Baptists: Erving D. Matteson, Clerk, RFD 1, Coventry, R. I. 
Independent Baptist Church of America: Rev. Elmer Erickson, Pres., 6370 Able St., NJL, 
Minneapolis 21, Minn. 



National Baptist Evangelical Life and Soul Saving Assembly of the U.S.A.: 441 Monroe 
Ave., Detroit 26, Mich. 

National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.S.A.: 834 West Clinton St., Huntsvilie, Ala. 

North American Baptist Association: 716 Main St., Little Rock, Ark. 

North American Baptist General Conference: 7308 Madison St., Forest Park, HI. 

Primitive Baptists: W. H. Cayce, Thornton, Ark. 

Regular Baptists: Regular Baptist Magazine) H. M. Flinn, Ed., Kensington, Md. 

Separate Baptists: Rev. Russell Peterson, Clerk, Box 43, St. Paul, Ind. 

Seventh Day Baptists: 510 Watchung Ave., Plainfield, N. J. 

Seventh Day Baptists (German): Rev. Crist M. King, Pres., 238 So. Aiken St., Pittsburgh, 

United Baptists: Omer E. Baker, Correspondent, Whispering Pines Retreat, Route 2, 
Box 260B, Wilmington, N. C. 

The United Free Will Baptist Church: Kinston College, 1000 University St., Kinston, N. C. 
Bible Protestant Church: Rev. F. Leon Taggart, Pres., 125 Walnut St., Audubon 6, N. J. 
Brethren (Dunkers): 

Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio): Ashland, Ohio. 

Church of the Brethren: 1451 Dundee Ave., Elgin, HI. 

Brethren Church (Progressive) : Clyde K. Landram, Sec., Box 245, Winona Lake, Ind. 

Church of God (New Dunkards) : Rev. W. H. Patterson, Mod., 613 Park Ave., Ander- 
son, Ind. 

Old German Baptist Brethren (Old Order Dunkers): Elder O. A. Custer, Foreman, 

North Manchester, Ind. 

Plymouth Brethren: A. S. Loizeau, Correspondent, 430 Woodbine Ave., Towson 4, Md. 
River Brethren: 

Brethren in Christ: Bishop H. H. Brybaker, Gen. Conf. Sec., 2001 Paxton St., Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Old Order, or Yorker, Brethren: Rev. Jacob L. Horst, Elizabethtown, Pa. 

United Zion Church: Rev. Wesley P. Martin, Gen. Conf. Sec., 711 Oak Ave., AJbron, Ohio. 
Buddhist Churches of America: 1881 Pine St., San Francisco 9, Calif. 
Catholic Apostolic Church: 417 W. 57th St., New York 19, N. Y. 
Christadelphians: Edwin A. Zilmer, Sec.-Treas., 507 Mitchell Ave., Waterloo, Iowa. 
The Christian and Missionary Alliance: 260 W. 44th St., New York 36, N. Y. 
Christian Catholic Church: 2700-14 Enoch Ave., Zion, 111. 
Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) International Convention: 221 Ohmer Ave., P. O. 

Box 19136, Indianapolis 19, Ind. 
Christian Church of North America: Rev. Alfred Palmer, Gen. Sec., 705 Hamilton St., 

Syracuse 4, N. Y. 

Christian Congregation: Rev. O. J. Read, Correspondent, Augusta, Tex. 
Christian Nation Church: Rev. R. E. Brockman, Gen. Overseer, 2319 Wythe Ave., Blue- 
field, W. Va. 

Christian Union: Rev. Wayne Caulkins Sec., Grover Hill, R. R. 1, Ohio. 
Christ's Sanctified Holy Church: S. Cutting Ave. and East Spencer St., Jennings, La. 
Church of Christ (Holiness) U.SA.: 329 East Monument St., Jackson, Miss. 
Church of Christ, Scientist: 107 Falmouth St., Boston 15, Mass. 
Church of God (Cleveland, Term.) : 922-1080 Montgomery Ave., Cleveland, Tenn. 
Church of God (Anderson, Ind.) : Box 1004, Anderson, Ind. 
Church of God (Seventh Day, Denver, Colo.): 1510 Cook St., Denver, Colo. 
Church of God (Seventh Day, Salem, W. Va.) : Box 328, Salem, W. Va. 
Church of God (Tomlinson) : 9305 224th St., Queens Village 28, N. Y. 
The (Original) Church of God: 1611 S. Lyerly St., Chattanooga 4, Tenn. 
Church of God of Prophecy: Bible Place, Cleveland, Tenn. 
The Church of God and Saints in Christ: Belleville, Portsmouth, Va. 
The Church of God in Christ: 958 Mason St., Memphis, Tenn. 
The Church of Illumination: Beverly Hall, Clymer Rd., Quakertown, Pa. 



Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the Apostolic Faith, Inc.: 112-118 East 125th St., 

New York 35, N. Y. 

Church of the Nazarene: 6401 The Paseo, Kansas City 10, Mo. 
Churches of Christ: Gospel Advocate, B. C. Goodpasture, Ed., 110 7th Ave., Nashville 1, 

Churches of Christ in Christian Union: Circleville Bible College, 459 E. Ogio St., Circle- 

ville, Ohio. 

Churches of God, Holiness: Bishop K. H. Burruss, 170 Ashby St., Atlanta, Ga. 
Churches of God in North America (General Eldership): 13th and Walnut Sts., Harris- 
burg, Pa. 

Churches of the Living God: 
Church of the Living God (Christian Workers for Fellowship) : 4355 Washington Blvd., 

St. Louis 8, Mo. 
House of God, Which is the Church of the Living God, The Pillar and Ground of 

the Truth, Inc.: Bishop A. H. White, 741 N. 40th St., Philadelphia 4, Pa. 
Churches of the New Jerusalem: 

General Church of the New Jerusalem: Bryn Athyn, Pa. 
General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the USA: Rev. Horace C. Blackmer, 

Reed. Sec., 134 Bowdoin St., Boston 8, Mass. 
Disciples of Christ: See Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ). 
Divine Science Church and College: 1400 Williams St., Denver 18, Colo. 
Eastern Churches: 
Albanian Orthodox Church in America: Archbishop Fan Stylian Noli, 26 Blagden St., 

Boston 16, Mass. 
The American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church: The Very Rev. 

John Yurcisin, Chancellor, 249 Butler Ave., Johnstown, Pa. 

The American Catholic Church (Syro-Antiochean) : The Most Rev. Archbishop Metro- 
politan Ernest L. Petersen, Pres., 1811 N.W. 4th Court, Miami 36, Florida. 
The American Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Eastern Church: The Most Rev. 

Clement J. C, Sherwood, Archbishop Pres., 126 E. 128th St., New York 35, N. Y. 
The American Orthodox Church: 52 Kingsbridge Road West, Mount Vernon, N. Y. 
Assyrian Orthodox Church: Rev. Elias Sugar, Statistical Officer, 701 87th St., North 

Bergen, N. J. 
Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church: The Very Rev. Kiril Antonoff, Administrator, 

13th and G. Streets, Madison, 111. 
Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America: 314 East 35th St., New York 

16, N. Y. 

Greek Archdiocese of North and South America: 10 E. 79th St., N. Y. 21, N. Y. 
Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the East (Assyrian): The Patriarchate, 1520 

Sycamore St., Turlock, Calif. 
Holy Orthodox Church in America (Eastern Catholic and Apostolic) : See House, 

321 W. 101st Street, New York 25, N. Y. 
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America: 2522 Grey Tower Road, RFD No. 7, 

Jackson, Mich, 
Russian Orthodox Catholic Church, Archdiocese of the Aleutian Islands and North 

America: 15 East 97th St., New York 29, N. Y. 

Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia: 75 East 93rd St., New York 28, N. Y. 
Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of America: 59 East 2nd St., New York 3, N. Y. 
Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church: St. Sava Monastery, Libertyville, El. 
Syrian Antiochian Orthodox Church: 239 85th Street, Brooklyn 9, N. Y. 
Ukranian Orthodox Church of America (Ecumenical Patriarchate): St. Mary's Church, 

1410 Vyse Ave., New York 59, N. Y. 

Ukranian Orthodox Church of U.S.A.: Box 595, South Bound Brook, N. J. 
Evangelical and Reformed Church: 1505 Race St., Philadelphia 2, Pa, 
Evangelical Congregational Church: Myerstown, Pa. 
Evangelical Covenant Church of America: 5101 N. Francisco, Chicago 25, HI. 



The Evangelical Free Church of America: 2950 Nicollet Ave., Minneapolis 8, Minn. 
The Evangelical United Brethren Church: Evangelical Press Bldg., Harrisburg, Pa., and 

Knott Bldg., Dayton 2, Ohio. 
Evangelistic Associations: 
Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean): Elder Stephen Babin, 1466 Park Haven Road, 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Apostolic Christian Churches of America: Elder Joe A. Getz., Corr., 410 E. Jefferson 

St., Morton, 111. 

Church of Daniel's Band: Rev. Wesley Hoggard, Pres., RFD 2, Midland, Mich. 
Church of God (Apostolic): St. Peter's Church of God (Apostolic), llth and Hickory 

Sts., Winston-Salem, N. C. 

Church of God as Organized by Christ: Information not available. 
Hepzibah Faith Missionary Assn.: No information available. 
Metropolitan Church Assn.: Box 156, Dundee, 111. 

Missionary Church Assn.: 3901 South Wayne Ave., Fort Wayne, 6, Ind. 
Pillar of Fire: Zarepath, N. J. 

Fire Baptized Holiness Church: 556 Houston St., Atlanta, Ga. 
Fire Baptized Holiness Church (Wesleyan): Independence, Kansas. 
Free Christian Zion Church of Christ: Nashville, Ark. 
Religious Society of Friends (General Conference): Clarence E. Pickett, Chairman, 

510 Panmure Rd., Haverford, Pa. 

Five Years Meeting of Friends: 101 Quaker Hill Drive, Richmond, Ind. 
Religious Society of Friends (Conservative) : John P. Williams, Clerk, Springville, Iowa. 
House of David: Box 477, Ben ton Harbor, Mich. 
Independent Assemblies of God: Information not available. 
Independent Churches: No headquarters. 

Independent Fundamental Churches of America: 542 South Dearborn St., Chicago 5, 111. 
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel: Angelus Temple, 1100 Glendale Blvd., 

Los Angeles 26, Calif. 

Jehovah's Witnesses: 124 Columbia Heights, Brooklyn 1, N. Y. 

Jewish Congregations: Synagogue Council of America, 110 W. 42nd St., New York 36, N. Y. 
Kodesh Church of Immanuel: Rev. F. R. Killingsworth, Sup. Elder, 1509 S. St., N. W., 

Washington, D. C. 
Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons: 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons: 47 E. South Temple St., 

Salt Lake City 1, Utah. 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints: Independence, Mo. 
Church of Christ, Temple Lot: Temple Lot, Independence, Mo. 
Church of Jesus Christ: P. O. Box 72, Monongahela City, Pa. 

Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerites) : Mrs. Amy L. Whiting, Sec., Clitherall, Minn. 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Strangites) : Elder Vernon D. Swift, P. O. 

Box 522, Artesia, N. M. 

Liberal Catholic Church: 2041 N. Argyle Ave., Los Angeles 28, Calif. 
Life Messengers: 3530 Bagley Ave., Seattle 3, Wash. 
Lithuanian National Catholic Church: Oak & Summer Sts., Scranton, Pa. 

The American Lutheran Church: 422 So. 5th St., Minneapolis 15, Minn. 
Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church: 2445 Park Ave., Minneapolis 4, Minn. 
American Evangelical Lutheran Church: Rev. Alfred Jensen, Pres., 1232 Pennsylvania 

Ave., Des Moines 16, Iowa. 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (Eielsen Synod) : Rev. J. H. Stensether, Sec., 

3032 17th Ave., S., Minneapolis 7, Minn. 

Evangelical Lutheran Synod: Rev. M. E. Tweit, Pres., Lawler, Iowa. 
Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference of N. A. : Rev. Herbert J. A. Bouman, Sec., 
20 Seminary Terrace, St. Louis 2, Mo. Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of America: 
Rev. Andrew Mickelsen, Pres., Hancock, Mich. 



Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (Suomi Synod): Dr. Raymond Wargelin, Pres., 

403 Cooper Ave., Hancock, Mich. 
Lutheran Brethren of America: Fergus Falls, Minn. 

Lutheran Church Missouri Synod: Lutheran Bldg., 210 N. Broadway, St. Louis 2, Mo. 
Lutheran Free Church: 2122 Riverside Ave., Minneapolis 4, Minn. 
National Evangelical Lutheran Church: Rev. R. W. Heikkinen, Pres., Box 93, Sebeka, 

Negro Missions of the Lutheran Synodical Conference: Dr. H. J. A. Bouman, Sec., 20 

Seminary Terrace, St. Louis 5, Mo. 
Protestant Conference (Lutheran): Rev. W. I. Beitz, Sec., 2217 Wood Street, La Crosse, 

Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church: Rev. Paul Rafaj, Pres., 25 Hillcrest Drive, Olyphant, 


United Lutheran Church in America: 231 Madison Ave., New York 16, N. Y. 
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod: 3624 West North Ave., Milwaukee 8, Wis. 
Mayan Temple: No information available. 
Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches: Information, Ellrose D. Zook, Ed. Mennonite 

Yearbook, Scottdale, Pa. 

Church of God in Christ (Mennonite): Goltry, Okla. 

Conference of the Evangelical Mennonite Church: 1615 Vance Ave., Fort Wayne, Ind. 
Conservative Mennonite Conference: David Showalter, Sec., Gays Creek, Ky. 
Evangelical Mennonite Brethren: Sam J. Schmidt, Gen. Sec., Marion, S. D. 
The General Conference Mennonite Church: 722 Main, Newton, Kan. 
Hutterian Brethren: Rev. Daniel S. Wipf, Cor., Alexandria, S, D. 
Krimmer Mennonite Brethren Conference: Arnold Holm, Sec., 659 llth St., Huron, S. D. 
Mennonite Brethren Church of North America: Joel Wiebe, Sec., 2149 Toulumne, 

Fresno, Calif. 

Mennonite Church: Dr. John C. Wegner, Mod., Goshen, Ind. 
Old Order Amish Mennonite Church: Information, Ellrose D. Zook, Ed. Mennonite 

Yearbook, Scottdale, Pa. 
Old Order (Wisler) Mennonite Church: Information, Ellrose D. Zook, Ed. Mennonite 

Yearbook, Scottdale, Pa. 

Reformed Mennonite Church: Bishop J. Henry Fisher, 30 College Ave., Lancaster, Pa. 
Stauffer Mennonite Church: Bishop Jacob S. StaufTer, Route 3, Ephrata, Pa. 
Unaffiliated Mennonites: Information, Ellrose D. Zook, Ed. Mennonite Yearbook, Scott- 
dale, Pa. 

African Methodist Episcopal Church: 414 8th Ave., S., Nashville, Tenn. 
African M. E. Zion Church: Rev. Claude Spurgeon, Gen. Sec., 1326-28 U Street, N. W., 

Washington 9, D. C 

African Union First Colored Methodist Protestant Church, Inc.: 602 Spruce St., Wilming- 
ton, Del. 

Apostolic Methodist Church: No information available. 
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church: Rev. A. R. Davis, Sec., 2412 Emmitt St., Omaha, 


Colored Methodist Protestant Church: No information available. 
Congregational Methodist Church: 906 West Jefferson Blvd., Dallas 8, Texas. 
Congregational Methodist Church of the USA: Decatur, Miss. 
Cumberland Methodist Church: Rev. Carl A. Shadrick, Pres., Whkwell, Tenn. 
Evangelical Methodist Church: 301 Palm St., Abilene, Texas. 
Free Methodist Church of N. A.: Winona Lake, Ind. 

Fundamental Methodist Church, Inc.: Rev. Onas Biellier, Chm., Route 8, Springfield, Mo. 
Holiness Methodist Church: Rev. Henry C. Kurtz, Gen. Supt., 2823 Newton Ave., N., 

Minneapolis 11, Minn. 
Independent African M. E. Church: Information unavailable. 



Lumber River Annual Conference of the Holiness Methodist Church: Bishop M. L~ 

Lowry, P. O. Box 81, Pembroke, N. C. 

The Methodist Church: 475 Riverside Drive, New York 27, N. Y. 
New Congregational Methodist Church: Bishop Joseph E. Kelly, 354 E. 9th St., Jackson- 
ville 6, Fla. 

People's Methodist Church: No information available. 
Primitive Methodist Church, USA: Rev. Richard E. Owens, 313 E. Juniper St. y 

Hazleton, Pa. 

People's Methodist Church: No information available. 
Primitive Methodist Church, USA: Rev. Richard E. Owens, 313 E. Juniper St., Hazieton, 


Reformed Methodist Church: No information available. 
Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church: Charleston, S. C. 
Reformed New Congregational Methodist Church: No information available. 
Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church: Bishop G. W. Taylor, High Street, South 

Hill, Va. 

Southern Methodist Church: Rev, Lynn Corbett, Pres., 2728 Preston St., Columbia, S. C. 
Union American M. E. Church: Bishop David McClellan Harmon, 774 Pine St^ 

Camden 3, N. J. 

Wesleyan Methodist Church of America: P. O. Box 548, Marion, Ind. 

Moravian Church (Unitas Fratram): 69 W. Church St., Bethlehem, Pa. 
Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: Rev. Francis R. Larew, RFD., No. 2, Cedar Rapids, 

Evangelical Unity of Czech-Moravian Brethren in North America: John A. Hegar, 

Corr. Sec., Route 2, West, Texas. 
National David Spiritual Temple of Christ Church Union: Archbishop David William 

Short, Pres., 2812 Prospect Ave., Kansas City 28, Mo. 

New Apostolic Church of North America: 3753 N. Troy St., Chicago 18, 111. 
Old Catholic Churches: 

American Catholic Church: 218 Mira Mar, Long Beach 3, Calif. 
The American Catholic Church, Archdiocese of New York: Most Rev. James Francis 

Lashley, Primate, 457 W. 144th St., New York 31, N. Y. 
North American Catholic Church: Most Rev. Archbishop Hubert A. Rogers, 954 Gates 

Ave,, Brooklyn 21, N. Y. 
The Old Catholic Church in America: Archdiocesan Chancery, Box 433, Woodstock, 

N, Y. 
Reformed Catholic Church (Utrecht Confession) Province of North America: Most 

Rev. W. W. Flynn, P. O. Box 2421, Los Angeles 28, Calif. 
Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc.: 851 Nineteenth St., Des Moines 14, la. 
Pentecostal Bodies: 

Calvary Pentecostal Church, Inc., 416 S. 12th Ave., Seattle, Wash. 
Emmanuel Holiness Church: Rev. Clark Sorrow, Gen. Overseer, Social Circle, Ga. 
Church of God in Christ (Pentecostal): Bluefield, W. Va. 
International Pentecostal Assemblies: 892 Berne St., S. E., Atlanta 16, Ga. 
Pentecostal Church of Christ: Box 263, London, Ohio. 

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World: 3040 North Illinois St., Indianapolis, Ind. 
Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc.: 1601 Maiden Lane, Joplin, Mo. 
Pentecostal Fire-Baptized Holiness Church: Toccoa, Ga. 
Pentecostal Holiness Church: Franklin Springs, Ga. 

United Pentecostal Church, Inc.: 3645 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis 18, Mo. Pilgrim Holi- 
ness Church: 230 East Ohio Street, Indianapolis 4, Ind. 

Polish National Catholic Church of America: 529 E. Locust St., Scranton 5, Pa. 
Associate Presbyterian Church of North America: Rev. Paul J. Hindman, Clerk, Box 

349, Minneola, Kansas. 



Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church: Rev. A. M. Rogers, Principal Clerk, P. CX 

Box 47, Chester, N. C. 

Bible Presbyterian Church: Stated Clerk, 1347 Andrews Ave., Lakewood 7, Ohio. 
Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church: Rev. J. I. Hill, Stat. Clk., 905 Crim Street, 

Henderson 4, Texas. 
Cumberland Presbyterian Church: Rev. H. Shaw Scates, Stat. Clk., Box 5535, Memphis 

4, Tenn. 

Orthodox Presbyterian Church: SchafF Bldg., 15th and Race Sts., Philadelphia 2, Pa. 
Presbyterian Church in the U. S.: 341-A Ponce de Leon Ave., N. E., Atlanta 8, Ga. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church in North America, Genl Synod: Rev. Harry H. 

Meiners, Genl Sec., 1818 Missouri Ave., Las Graces, N. M. 
Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America., Old School: Rev. D. Howard Elliott, 

Clerk, 207 Darlington Rd., Beaver Falls, Pa. 
United Presbyterian Church in the USA: 510 Witherspoon Bldg., Walnut at Juniper 

St., Philadelphia 7, Pa. 

Protestant Episcopal Church: 281 Fourth Ave., New York 10, N. Y. 
Reformed Bodies: 
Christian Reformed Church: R. J. Danhof, Stat. Clk., 2850 Kalamazoo Ave., S. E^ 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Hungarian Reformed Church in America: Bishop Zoltan Beky, 180 Home Ave., Trenton 

10, N. J. 
Netherlands Reformed Congregations: Rev. W. C. Lamain, 1935 Plainfield Ave., Grand 

Rapids, Mich. 
Protestant Reformed Churches of America: Rev. G. Vanden Berg, Stat. Clk., 9402 

South 53rd Court, Oak Lawn, 111. 

Reformed Church in America: 475 Riverside Drive, New York 27, N, Y. 
Reformed Episcopal Church: Rev. Theophilus J. Herter, Sec., 232 Wendover Drive, 

Havertown, Pa. 
The Roman Catholic Church: Apostolic Delegation, 3339 Massachusetts Ave., N. W^ 

Washington, D. C. 

The Salvation Army: 120-130 West 14th St., New York 11, N. Y. 
The Schwenkf elder Church: Pennsburg, Pa. 
Servants of Yah: P. O. Box 175, Levktown, L. L, N. Y. 
Social Brethren: Rev. J. Roy Carr, Mod., Golconda, 111. 

International General Assembly of Spiritualists: 1915 Omohundro Ave., Norfolk, Va. 
National Spiritual Alliance of the USA: RFD 1, Keene, N. H. 
National Spiritualist Assn. of Churches: Emil C. Reichel, Sec., 11811 Watertown Plank 

Rd., Milwaukee 13, Wis. 

Progressive Spiritual Church: No information available. 
Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ: Bishop D. H. Harris, 7122 Campania 

Ave., Pittsburgh 6, Pa. 

Unitarian Churches: 25 Beacon St., Boston 8, Mass. 
United Brethren: 

United Brethren in Christ: United Brethren Bldg., Huntington, Ind. 
United Christian Church: Elder Henry C. Heagy, Mod., Lebanon R.D. 4, Lebanon 

County, Pa. 

United Church of Christ: 257 Fourth Ave., New York 10, N. Y. 
United Holy Church of America, Inc.: 500 Gulley St. Goldsboro, N. C. 
United Missionary Church: 1819 So. Main St., Elkhart, Ind. 
Unity School of Christianity: Lee's Summit, Mo. 
Universalist Church of America: 16 Beacon St., Boston, Mass. 
Vedanta Society: 34 West 71st Street, New York 23, N. Y. 
Volunteers of America: 340 West 85th Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



The term "membership" seems to have various connotations and different bases of 
reckoning among the churches of the United States. The Roman Catholic Church and 
the Protestant Episcopal Church, and some Lutheran bodies, now report^ all baptized 
persons as members. The Jews regard as members all Jews in communities having congrega- 
tions. The Eastern Orthodox churches include all persons in their nationality or cultural 
groups. Most Protestant bodies, however, count only those persons who have attained full 
membership, all but a small minority of whom are over thirteen years of age. 

These statistics are quoted from the annual survey of churches and church membership 
taken by the Bureau of Research and Survey of the National Council of the Churches of 
Christ in the U.S.A., and are mainly for the calendar year 1959, or a fiscal year ending in 
1959. Many of them will be different from statistics quoted in the body of this book, due 
to the fact that in many cases our information and statistics were secured after the National 
Council survey had been taken. We are indebted to Dr. Benson Y. Landis of the National 
Council for permission to reproduce these tables from the Council's Yearbook of American 
Churches for 1961. 



Adventist Bodies: 

Advent Christian Church 1959 412 30,586('58) 

Church of God (Abrahamic Faith) 1959 107 5,400 

Life and Advent Union 1959 3 363 

Primitive Advent Christian Church 1959 12 586 

Seventh-day Adventists 1959 3,002 311,535 

African Orthodox Church 1957 24 6,000 

Amana Church Society 1959 7 780 

American Evangelical Christian Churches 1959 40 Not available 

American Rescue Workers 1959 33 2,3 10 

Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God 1956 300 75,000 

Armenian Church, Diocese of N. A. and Diocese of Calif.. 1959 51 125,000 

Assemblies of God 1959 8,149 505,703 

Associated Gospel Churches No report 

Baha'i Faith No statistics available 

Baptist Bodies: 

American Baptist Association 1959 3,073 647,800 

American Baptist Convention 1957 6,362 1,555,360 

Baptist General Conference 1959 516 68,930 






Christian Unity Baptist Association 1959 12 643 

Conservative Baptist Association of America 1959 1,300 275,000 

Duck River (and Kindred) Associations of Baptists 1959 28 3,139 

Evangelical Baptist Church, Inc., Gen. Conf 1952 31 2,200 

Free Will Baptists 1959 2,500 200,000 

General Association of Regular Baptist Churches 1959 887 130,612 

General Baptists 1959 738 55,637 

General Six-Principle Baptists 1959 2 58 

Independent Baptist Church of America 1959 2 30 

National Baptist Convention of America 1956 11,398 2,668,799 

National Baptist Convention, U.SA., Inc 1958 26,000 5,000,000 

National Baptist Evangelical Life and Soul Saving 

Assembly of U.SA 1951 264 57,674 

National Primitive Baptist Convention of the U.SA 1957 1,100 80,983 

North America Baptist Association 1959 1,980 330,265 

North American Baptist General Conference 1959 292 50,455 

Primitive Baptists 1950 1,000 72,000 

Regular Baptists 1936 266 17,186 

Separate Baptists in Christ 1959 85 7,209- 

Seventh Day Baptist General Conference 1957 60 5,963 

Seventh Day Baptists (German, 1728) 1951 3 150 

Southern Baptist Convention 1959 31,906 9,485,275 

Two-Seed-In-The-Spirit Predestinarian Baptists 1945 16 201 

United Baptists 1955 586 63,641 

United Free Will Baptist Church 1958 836 ('52) 100,000 

Bible Protestant Church 1959 37 2,477 

Bible Way Churches of Our Lord Jesus Christ 

World Wide, Inc 1959 130 25,000 

Brethren (German Baptists): 

Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio) 1958 108 19,474 

Brethren Church (Progressive) 1959 172 25,198 

Church of the Brethren 1959 1,070 201,21? 

Church of God (New Dunkards) 1958 8 667 

Old German Baptist Brethren 1959 56 4,002 

Plymouth Brethren 1944 664('36) 25,000 

Brethren (River): 

Brethren in Christ 1959 151 6,698 

Old Order, or Yorker, River Brethren 1936 7 291 

United Zion Church 1958 23 910 

Buddhist Churches of America 1959 52 20,000 

Catholic Apostolic Church 1936 7 2,577 

Christadelphians 1957 500 15,000 

Christian and Missionary Alliance 1959 1,014 59,644 

Christian Catholic Church 1959 4 7,000 

Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ), 

International Convention 1959 8,060 1,801,414 

Christian Nation Church 1959 35 800 

Christian Union 1959 122 7,300 






Christ's Sanctified Holy Church 




Church of Christ (Holiness), U.SA 




Church of Christ, Scientist 




Church of Eternal Life 




Churches of God: 

Church of God (Cleveland, Tenn.) 




Church of God (Anderson, Ind.) 




Church of God (Greenville, S. C.) 




Church of God (Seventh Day) 




The (Original) Church of God, Inc 




The Church of God 




The Church of God (Seventh Day), Denver, Colo 




The Church of God by Faith 




The Church of God of Prophecy 




Church of God and Saints of Christ 




Church of God in Christ 




Church of Illumination 




Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the 

Apostolic Faith, Inc 




Church of the Gospel 




Church of the Nazarene 




The Church of Revelation 




Churches of Christ 




Churches of Christ in Christian Union 




Churches of God, Holiness 




Churches of God in NA. (General Eldership) 




Churches of the Living God: 

Church of the Living God (Motto: Christian 

Workers for Fellowship) 




House of God, Which is the Church of the Living God, 

the Pillar and the Ground of Truth, Inc 




^Churches of the New Jerusalem: 

General Convention of the New Jerusalem in the U.SA. 




General Church of the New Jerusalem 




Congregational Christian Churches 




'Congregational Holiness Church 




Divine Science Church and College, Inc 

No report 

Eastern Churches: 

Albanian Orthodox Diocese in America 




American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox 

Greek Catholic Church 




American Catholic Church (Syro-Antiochean) 




The American Holy Orthodox Catholic 

Apostolic Eastern Church 




The American Orthodox Church 

No report 

Apostolic Episcopal Church 




Assyrian Orthodox Church 




Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church 








Church of the East and of the Assyrians 1952 10 3,200 

Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church in America Membership dispersed, 1959, to 

other Orthodox churches 

Greek Archdiocese of North and South America 1959 380 1,200,000 

Holy Orthodox Church in America 

(Eastern Catholic and Apostolic) 1959 3 213 

Holy Ukrainian Autocephalic Orthodox Church in Exile 1959 16 5,000 

Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America 1959 52 50,000 

The Russian Orthodox Catholic Church, Archdiocese of 

the Aleutian Islands and North America No statistics available 

The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia 1955 81 55,000 ('51) 

The Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church 

of America 1957 352 755,000 

Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church 1959 73 250,000 

Syrian Antiochian Orthodox Church 1959 81 115,000 

Syrian Orthodox Church of Antioch (Jacobite) 1959 23 50,000 

Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America 1959 37 40,250 

Ukrainian Orthodox Church of U.S.A 1959 92 84,500 

Ethical Culture Movement 1960 28 6,600 

Evangelical and Reformed Church 1959 2,742 809,137 

Evangelical Congregational Church 1959 163 29,676 

Evangelical Covenant Church of America 1959 514 59,396 

Evangelical Free Church of America 1958 368 31,192 

Evangelical United Brethren Church 1959 4,317 749,788 

Evangelistic Associations: 

Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean) 1959 37 1,960 

Apostolic Christian Church of America 1959 65 8,400 

The Christian Congregation 1959 167 26,240 

Church of Daniel's Band 1951 4 200 

Church of God (Apostolic) 1954 22 600 

Church of God as Organized by Christ 1938 14 2,192 

Metropolitan Church Association 1958 15 443 

Missionary Bands of the World, Inc Merged, 1958, with Wesleyan 

Methodist Church 

Missionary Church Association 1958 118 7,577 

Pillar of Fire 1948 61 5,100 

Federated Churches 1936 508 88,411 

Fire-Baptized Holiness Church 1958 53 988 

Fire-Baptized Holiness Church (Wesleyan) 1957 53 1,007 

Free Christian Zion Church of Christ 1957 728 18,989 


Central Yearly Meeting of Friends 1959 11 515 

Five Years Meeting of Friends 1959 494 68,399 

Ohio Yearly Meeting of Friends Church (Independent) . . 1959 90 6,540 

Oregon Yearly Meeting of Friends Church 1959 62 5,398 

Pacific Yearly Meeting of Friends 1959 25 1,055 

Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of 

Friends Included in statistics for the 

Religious Society of Friends 
(General Conference) 






Religious Society of Friends (Conservative) 1957 21 1,894 

Religious Society of Friends (General Conference) .... 1958 279 31,473 

Religious Society of Friends (Kansas Yearly Meeting) . . 1959 89 8,580 

Holiness Church of God, Inc 1959 29 652 

House of David No statistics available 

Independent Churches 1936 384 40,276 

Independent Fundamental Churches of America 1959 400 90,000 

Independent Negro Churches 1936 50 12,337 

International Church of the Foursquare Gospel 1958 697 79,012 


Christian Church of North America 1958 217 20,200 

Jehovah's witnesses 1959 4,020 239,418 

Jewish Congregations 1954 4,079 5,500,000 

Kodesh Church of Immanuel 1936 9 562 

Latter-Day Saints: 

Church of Christ, Temple Lot 1956 12 3,000 

Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonites) 1959 38 2,500 

Church of Jesus Christ (Cuderites) 1957 1 22 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 1959 3,290 1,457,735 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints 1959 927 152,408 

Liberal Catholic Church 1956 8 4,000 

Lithuanian National Catholic Church 1959 4 3,950 


The Evangelical Lutheran Synodical 
Conference of North America: 

Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod 1959 5,109 2,304,962 

Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (formerly 
Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Wisconsin 

and Other States) 1957 841 342,993 

Evangelical Lutheran Synod 1959 77 14,302 

Norwegian Synod of the American Evangelical 

Lutheran Church Name changed to Evangelical 

Lutheran Synod, 1958 
Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches (formerly 

Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church) 1958 59 19,931 

Negro Missions of the Synodical Conference 1959 53 7,999 

National Lutheran Council Constituents: 

American Evangelical Lutheran Church 1959 79 23,800 

American Lutheran Church 1959 1,961 1,002,015 

Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church 1959 1,200 596,147 

The Evangelical Lutheran Church 1959 2,482 1,125,867 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (Suomi Synod) 1959 155 36,264 

Lutheran Free Church 1959 329 82,595 

United Evangelical Lutheran Church 1959 164 66,623 

The United Lutheran Church in America 1959 4,260 2,369,263 






Church of the Lutheran Brethren of America 

1958 50 4,771 

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 

(Eielson Synod) 

1957 44 4,220 

Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of America 

1957 60 6,567 ('53) 

National Evangelical Lutheran Church 

1959 54 9,772 

Protestant Conference (Lutheran) 

1959 8 3,000 ('58) 

Mennonite Bodies: 

Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches 

1959 25 2,217 

Church of God in Christ (Mennonite) 

1957 33 4,156 

Conference of the Evangelical Mennonite Church 

1959 22 2,303 

Conservative Mennonite Conference 

Included with statistics of the 

Mennonite Church 

Evangelical Mennonite Brethren 

1959 26 2,536 

General Conference, Mennonite Church 

1959 208 35,531 

Hutterian Brethren 

1959 26 ('57) 2,005 

Krimmer Mennonite Brethren Conference 

1959 21 1,578 

Mennonite Brethren Church of N. A 

1959 72 11,582 

Mennonite Church 

1959 853 72,138 

Old Order Amish Mennonite Church 

1959 244 17,321 

Old Order (Wisler) Mennonite Church 

1959 28 4,391 

Reformed Mennonite Church 

1958 17 615 

UnafHliated Conservative and Amish Mennonite Churches 

1958 13 882 

Methodist Bodies; 

African Methodist Episcopal Church 

1951 5,878 1,166,301 

African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 

1959 3,090 780,000 

African Union First Colored Methodist 

Protestant Church, Inc 

1953 33 5,000 

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 

1951 2,469 392,167 

Congregational Methodist Church 

1957 223 14,274 

Congregational Methodist Church of U.S.A 

1954 100 7,500 

Cumberland Methodist Church 

1954 4 65 

Evangelical Methodist Church 

1959 99 5,779 

Free Methodist Church of N. A 

1959 1,203 55,568 

Fundamental Methodist Church, Inc 

1959 15 696 

Holiness Methodist Church 

1959 30 1,000 

Independent A.M.E. Denomination 

1940 12 1,000 

Lumber River Annual Conference of the Holiness 

Methodist Church 

1959 7 360 

The Methodist Church 

1959 39,236 9,815,460 

New Congregational Methodist Church 

1958 11 518 

Primitive Methodist Church, U.S.A 

1959 90 14,613 

Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal Church 
Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church 

1954 33 11,000 
1956 52 12,000 

Southern Methodist Church 

1959 48 4,608 

Union American Methodist Episcopal Church 

1957 256 27,560 

Wesleyan Methodist Church of America 

1959 1,051 43,392 

Moravian Bodies: 

Moravian Church in America (Unitas Fratrum) 

1959 156 60,470 

Unity of the Brethren (formerly Evangelical Unity of 

the Czech-Moravian Brethren in N. A.) 

1959 32 6,103 





Muslims No report 

National David Spiritual Temple of 

Christ Church Union (Inc.) . U.S.A 1959 69 40,715 

New Apostolic Church of N. A., Inc 1959 155 13,595 

Old Catholic Churches: 

American Catholic Church, Archdiocese of N. Y 1947 20 8,435 

North American Old Roman Catholic Church 1959 52 71,521 

Old Catholic Archdiocese of America and Europe No statistics available 

Old Catholic Church in America ^ 1958 22 6,000 

The Reformed Catholic Church (Utrecht Confession), 

Province of North America 1957 20 2,217 

Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc 1959 265 25,000 

Pentecostal Assemblies: 

Calvary Pentecostal Church, Inc 1944 35 20,000 

Emmanuel Holiness Church 1955 56 1,200 

International Pentecostal Assemblies 1957 43 5,000 

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc 1958 600 50,000 

Pentecostal Church of Christ 1959 42 1,199 

Pentecostal Church of God of America, Inc 1958 900 103,500 

Pentecostal Fire-Baptized Holiness Church 1958 42 615 

Pentecostal Free-Will Baptist Church, Inc No statistics available 

Pentecostal Holiness Church, Inc 1959 1,214 51,688 

United Pentecostal Church, Inc 1958 1,595 160,000 

Pilgrim Holiness Church 1959 1,042 32,558 

Polish National Catholic Church of America 1958 157 271,316 

Presbyterian Bodies: 

Associate Presbyterian Church of N. A 1959 6 475 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 

(General Synod) 1958 148 27,561 

Bible Presbyterian Church, Inc 1959 69 5,956 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church 1959 984 87,263 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church in the U.S. and Africa 

(formerly Colored Cumberland Presb. Church) 1959 121 ('44) 30,000 ('49) 

Orthodox Presbyterian Church 1957 80 9,352 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S 1959 3,978 889,196 

Reformed Presbyterian Church in N. A. (General Synod) 1957 1 1 1,206 

Reformed Presbyterian Church of NA. (Old School) . . 1959 72 6,214 

The United Presbyterian Church in the U.SA 1959 9,145 3,145,733 

Protestant Episcopal Church 1958 7,011 3,126,662 

Reformed Bodies: 

Christian Reformed Church 1959 541 236,145 

Hungarian Reformed Church in America 1959 40 11,110 

Netherlands Reformed Congregations 1959 14 2,300 

Protestant Reformed Churches of America 1959 19 2,754 

Reformed Church in America 1959 867 219,770 

Reformed Episcopal Church 1957 70 8,928 






Roman Catholic Church 1959 23,346 40,871,302 

Salvation Army 1959 1,259 253,061 

The Schwenkf elder Church 1958 5 2,500 

Social Brethren 1959 28 1,548 


International General Assembly of Spiritualists 1956 209 164,072 

National Spiritual Alliance of the U.SA 1959 33 3,145 

National Spiritualist Association of Churches 1959 245 8,825 

Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God in Christ 1959 700 71,089 

Unitarian Churches 1959 384 109,508 

United Brethren Bodies: 

United Brethren in Christ 1959 328 20,896 

United Christian Church 1959 14 530 

United Holy Church of America, Inc 1959 453 28,300 

United Missionary Church 1959 208 10,357 

United Seventh Day Brethren 1959 5 70 

Universalist Church of America 1958 334 68,949 

Vedanta Society 1959 11 1,000 

Volunteers of America 1959 202 28,234 

Totals: (254 bodies reporting) 314,345 112,226,905 

An arrangement of the latest information by six major groups reveals the following: 
Number of Churches and of Members by Religious Groups 


No. OF 



No. OF 


No. OF ' 


Old Catholic, Polish National Catholic, and Armenian 

Church of North America, Diocese 

Eastern Churches 

Jewish Congregations* 

Roman Catholic , 



* Includes Orthodox, Conservative, and Reform. 

















40,871,302 l 

62,543,502 1 

112,226,905 " 



THE DEFINITIONS HERE depend largely upon four sources: The Dictionary of Religion 
and Ethics, by Matthews and Smith (Macmillan); Funk and W agnails College Standard 
Dictionary; Webster's Dictionary (Merriam); and the new Comprehensive Desk Dic- 
tionary, by Thorndike and Barnhart (Doubleday) . 

ABSOLUTION: The remission of guilt and penalty for sin, by a priest, following confession. 
ADOPTION: A legal term appropriated by theology, originating in Paul and signifying the 
act by which the privileges of a child of God are conferred upon the believer in Christ. 
ADVENTIST: A believer in the incarnation of God in Christ, at the time of Christ's birth, 
or in the Second Coming or Advent. 
AFFUSION: The pouring or sprinkling of water in baptism. 

ANNUNCIATION: The announcement by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary that she 
was to be the mother of Christ. 

ANOINTING: The act of consecrating by the application of oil, used in consecrating sacred 
objects or persons, as preparation for death, or in completing the efficacy of baptism. 
ANTINOMIANISM: The doctrine that the gospel or the Christian faith does away with 
the old moral law, so that the Christian is not bound by it. 

APOSTOLIC: Of or pertaining to an apostle or according to the belief or practices of the 

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION: The doctrine of an unbroken line of succession in the episcopacy 
from the apostles to the present time, maintained in Greek, Roman, and Anglican churches. 
ARMINIAN: The follower of Arminius (1560-1609), a Dutch Protestant theologian. 
Arminius denied Calvin's doctrine of unconditional predestination, limited atonement, 
and irresistible grace, and stood for universal salvation for all. 

ATHANASIAN: The belief of Athanasius (293-373), who was a defender of the orthodox 
view of the divinity of Christ. He opposed and won over Arius at the Council of 
Nicea; Arius held that Christ was created by but was essentially different from the Father. 
ATONEMENT: The reconciliation of the sinner with God through the sufferings of Jesus 

AUTOCEPHALOUS: Ecclesiastically self-controlling, or having jurisdiction as an independent 
head. "Autocepjiali" was a term applied to bishops in early Christian times who recog- 
nized no ecclesiastical superior. 
AUTONOMOUS: Self-governing, or independent. 

BAN, THE: A sentence which amounts to excommunication or outlawry by the church 
upon those guilty of an act or speech forbidden by the church. 

BAPTISM: The ceremonial application of water to a person by either sprinkling, im- 
mersion, or affusion as a sign of the washing away of sin and of admission into the 
church as commanded by Christ in Matt. 28:19. Spirit baptism in some sects is a baptism 
by the Holy Ghost, not with water. 

CALVINISTS: Those holding the faith of John Calvin (1509-64). (For a summary of the 
five points of Calvinism see p. 176.) 



CATHOLICOS: An Oriental primate or head of a sect. "CathoEkos" was a term assumed 
by the spiritual head of the Armenian Church and later applied to several prelates 
under him. 
CELIBACY: The state of being unmarried. 

CHASTITY: The state of refraining from sexual relations in order to obtain religious or 
moral purity. 

CHRISM: An ungent, usually olive oil or balm, used in the Greek and Roman Catholic 
churches for anointing at baptism, confirmation, ordination, and consecration services, 
and sometimes for extreme unction. Chrismation is the act of anointing. 
CHRISTOCENTRIC: With Christ as the center. 

CLASSIS: In some Reformed churches a court made up of ministers and ruling elders 
with a status between a consistory and a synod, corresponding to the presbytery in 
Presbyterian churches. It may also mean the district it represents. 

COMMUNION: The Lord's Supper. "Open" communion is a sacrament open to all Chris- 
tians; "close" communion is closed to all except those of a particular faith or belief. The 
word is also used occasionally as a synonym for denomination. 

CONFESSION: A statement of the religious beliefs of a religious body, or an admission 
of sin upon conversion. 

CONFIRMATION: The initiatory rite by which persons are inducted into the church, or the 
approval of authorities by which the election of bishops is ratified by the church. 
CONGREGATIONAL: The church polity which makes the authority of the local congregation 
supreme within its own area. 

CONSECRATE: To set apart as sacred certain persons, animals, places, objects, or times. 
CONSISTORY: An ecclesiastical court. The papal (Roman Catholic) consistory is composed of 
the college of cardinals, over whom the pope presides, and meets to ratify various measures. 
(2) The Dutch Reformed consistory corresponds to the Presbyterian session. (3) The 
French Reformed consistory is similar to the presbytery in Presbyterian polity. (4) The 
Lutheran consistory (abroad) is appointed by the state. (5) The consistory of the Anglicans 
has diocesan jurisdiction. 

CONSUBSTANTIATION: The theory that, following the words of institution in the Lord's 
Supper, the substantial body and blood of Christ join sacramentally with the bread and 
wine (which remains unchanged), the union remaining only untU the purpose of the 
consecration is fulfilled. Applied often to Lutheran doctrine, it is denied by the Lutherans. 
CONVERSION: Religiously, a radical spiritual and moral change, commonly attending a change 
of belief, and involving profoundly altered spirit and conduct "a change of heart." 
CREED: A statement of belief including the fundamentals considered necessary to salva- 
tion; a creed differs from a confession in that it may be held by Christians generally 
and recited in public worship. 

DEACON: A minor church officer; its origin is often identified with the appointment 
of the seven in Acts 6:1-6, 

DIOCESE: The territory of a church under the jurisdiction of a bishop. 
DOCTRINE: That which is taught as the belief of a church. 
ECCLESIASTICAL: Pertaining to the church or the clergy. 

ECUMENICAL OR OECUMENICAL: General, universal, representing the whole Christian Church. 
ELECTION: Selection of an individual by God for salvation. 
EPISCOPAL: Having to do with bishops, or governed by bishops. 
EUCHARIST: Holy Communion, the Lord's Supper. 

EVANGELICAL: A word used to denote primary loyalty to the gospel of Christ in con- 
trast to ecclesiastical or rationalistic types of Christianity, spkitual-mindedness and zeal 
for Christian living as distinguished from ritualism, and so on. 



FASTING: Going without food or certain foods for a specified period. 
FOOT WASHING: The practice of washing the feet of fellow church members, sometimes as 
a ceremonial cleansing from defilement preparatory to worship, sometimes as an ordinance, 
by Mennonites, Dunkards, the Church of God, and so on. 

FREE WILL: Man's power to choose between good and evil without compulsion or neces- 

FUNDAMENTALIST: One who believes in the infallibility of the Bible as inspired by God 
and that it should be accepted literally, as distinguished from the modernist, who inter- 
prets the Bible in accordance with more modern scholarship or scientific knowledge, and 
who accepts the conservative orthodox position in all matters of doctrine and theology. 
FUTURE PUNISHMENT: The punishment inflicted upon sinners after death. 
GENERAL CONFESSION: A public, congregational confession of sins; among Roman Catholics, 
a confession in which the individual sums up past sins; among Protestants, a section of 
the ritual recited in unison by pastor and congregation, modeled on historic Roman 
Catholic and Anglican forms. 

GENERATIONISM: The belief that the soul as well as the body is procreated by the parents 
of the child, in the act of propagation. Similar to traducianism, but different from 
creationism and pre-existence. 

GENUFLECTION: The act of bending the knee in worship, or in entering the sanctuary or 
approaching the altar, as an indication of reverence and humilitya custom dating from 
the early church, still prevalent in many liturgical churches. 
GIFT OF TONGUES: Ecstatic speech induced by religious excitement or emotion. 
GRACE: The gift of God to man of the divine favor and inner power necessary to salvation. 
HIERARCHY: Government by priests or prelates, as in the Roman Catholic Church. 
HOLINESS: A state of moral and spiritual purity and sinlessness, or designating persons set 
apart for religious service. 

IMMACULATE CONCEPTION, THE: The dogma that the Virgin Mary was conceived free of 
original sin. 

IMMERSION: Baptism by complete submersion in water. 

IMPANATION: The doctrine that the body and blood of Christ are present in one substance 
in the bread and wine of the Eucharist after consecration, but without transubstantiation; 
held to be heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. 
IMMORTALITY: Life after death, life imperishable. 

INFALLIBILITY: The authority of the Scriptures as incapable of error, or a term applied to the 
pope of Rome. 

INSPIRATION, VERBAL: Signifying the supernatural influence upon the writers of the Scrip- 
tures by which divine authority was given their work and which places the Bible beyond 

JUSTIFICATION: Freeing or being freed from the guilt or penalty of sin and restored to divine 

JUDGMENT, JUDGMENT DAY: The act of judging by God on the last "judgment day," when 
rewards and punishments are to be declared. 

Kiss OF PEACE, OR HOLY Kiss: A religious greeting or ceremony, a kiss of welcome. 
LITURGY, LITURGICAL: A liturgy is a prescribed form or collection of forms for public 
worship; in liturgical churches rite and ceremony are more prominent than the emphasis 
upon preaching or evangelism. 

LAYING ON OF HANDS: A rite of consecration and confirmation. 

LOVE FEAST: A common devotional meal partaken of by the early Christians, culminating 
in the Eucharist; sometimes called agape. 

MASS, THE: The central worship service of the Roman Catholic Church, consisting of 
prayers and ceremonies; sometimes the Holy Eucharist as a sacrifice. 



MODERNIST: See Fundamentalist. 

MEDIUM: A person through whom supposed messages from the spirit world are sent, as in 

MONOPHYSITISM: The doctrine that Christ had but one composite divine-human nature. 
NESTORIAN: Member of a Christian sect named after Nestorius, a fifth-century Syrian 
patriarch of Constantinople condemned as a heretic; still found in Turkey and Persia. 
NICENE: Pertaining to Nicaea, where the Nicene Creed was adopted at the famous council 
of 325, settling the controversy concerning the persons of the Trinity; properly called the 
Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. 

ORDERS, HOLY: The clerical office, or the spiritual power distinguishing the ecclesiastical 
hierarchy from the laity. 

ORDINANCE: A religious rite or ceremony not considered as a sacrament. 
ORTHODOXY: Belief in doctrine considered correct and sound, or holding the commonly 
accepted faith. 

PACIFISM: Opposition to all military ideals, preparedness, war, and so on. 
PATRIARCH: A bishop of highest rank, standing above metropolitans and ruling patriarchates. 
POLITY: A particular form or system of government. 

PENANCE: An ecclesiastical punishment inflicted for sin, or a sacrament of the Christian 

PENTECOSTAL: The religious experience of conversion based upon the descent of the Holy 
Ghost upon the apostles at the Jewish Pentecost. 

PERFECTION: The complete realization of moral or spiritual possibilities in personal experience. 
PLENARY: Full, complete; a plenary council is attended by all its qualified members. 
PREDESTINARIAN: A believer in predestinarianism that all events are predetermined by God 
and that each person's eternal destiny is fixed by divine decree. 

PREMILLENARIANISM: Belief that the personal visible return of Christ will precede his reign 
for a thousand years on earth; postnudlenarians believe that the return will come at the end 
of the millennium. 

PRESBYTERY: A church court or assembly having the ecclesiastical or spiritual rule and 
oversight of a district, or the district itself. 

REGENERATION: A new birth, re-creation, a radical renewal of life, or conversion. 
REMISSION OF SIN: Pardon or forgiveness for sin. 
REPENTANCE: Turning from a sinful to a godly life. 

REPROBATION: Eternal condemnation, the fate of those not included in God's election. 
SABBATARIAN: One who believes that the seventh day should be observed as the Christian 

SACERDOTAL: A term denoting a religious system in which everything is valued in relation 
to the ministrations of the priestly order. 

SACRAMENT: A religious rite composed of two elements, a physical sign and a spiritual good. 
SALVATION: The rescue of man from evil or guilt by God's power, that he may obtain 

SANCTIFICATION: The work of the Holy Spirit by which the believer is set free from sin 
and exalted to holiness of life. 

SECOND COMING: The second advent of Jesus. See Premillenarianism. 
SEE: The local seat from which a bishop, archbishop, or the pope exercises jurisdiction. 
SYNOD: An ecclesiastical council either of regular standing or appointed as needed; in 
Presbyterian churches a body between the presbyteries and the general assembly. 
TOTAL DEPRAVITY: The equivalent of original sin, every human faculty having an innate 
evil taint. 

TONSXJRED: The shaved head of a person admitted to a monastic order or to holy orders. 



TONGUES, GOT OF: An ecstatic utterance induced by religious excitement. 

TRANSFIGURATION: Change in form or appearance, such as the transfiguration of Jesus 

(Mark 9:2-10). 

TRANSMUTATION: The change from one nature, substance, or form to another. 

TRANSUBSTANTIATION: The doctrine that there is present in the Eucharist after consecration 

of the elements the substantial body and blood of Christ, with his whole soul and divinity. 

TRINE IMMERSION: A form of baptism in which the candidate is immersed three successive 

times, in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

TRINITARIAN: A believer in the Trinity that there is a union of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost 

in one divine nature. 

UNCTION: A ceremonial anointing with oil, as in extreme unction in case of death or 

irnminent death. 

UNIAT: Persons or churches acknowledging the supremacy of the pope but maintaining 

their own liturgies or rites. 

UNITARIAN: The theology which insists upon the unity of God, denying the doctrine of 

the Trinity. 

UNIVERSALISM: The universal fatherhood of God, and the final harmony of all souls with 




Included in this listing are books recommended by scholars and leaders within the 
various denominations, as they appeared in the first revised edition of the Handbook) and 
books added by the editor as he prepared this second edition. They are selected on the basis 
of accuracy and authority, and the list includes volumes published as recently as 1959-60. 

Books are listed in two classifications: "General," covering the whole field of the church 
in the United States; and "Denominational," covering the separate groups. 

Beyond this there are of course innumerable treatises, tracts, memorials, disciplines, 
theological outlines, confessions, and other statements of belief and organization obtainable 
from the headquarters of the churches, listed on pp. 229-35. 


Religious Bodies: 1936. 2 vols. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the 

Yearbook of American Churches. New York: National Council of the Churches of Christ 
in the U.S.A. Publ. annually. 

Anderson, W. K. (ed.) . Protestantism: A Symposium. Nashville: Commission on Ministerial 
Training, The Methodist Church, 1944. 

Bach, Marcus. Faith and My Friends. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1951. 

. Report to Protestants. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1953. 

Bilheimer, R. S. The Quest for Christian Unity. New York: Association Press, 1952. 

Braden, C. S. These Also Believe. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1949. 

Brauer, J. C. Protestantism in America. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1953. 

Carroll, H. K. (ed.). American Church History Series. 12 vols. New York: Christian Lit- 
erature Co., 1893. 

Clark, Elmer T. The Small Sects in America. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1949. 

Dorchester, Daniel. Christianity in the United States. New York: 1888. 

Eckardt, Arthur Roy. The Surge of Piety in America. New York: Association Press, 1958. 

Engelder, Theodore, et aL Popular Symbolics. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1934. 

Ferm, Vergilius (ed.). The American Church of the Protestant Heritage. New York: Philo- 
sophical Library, 1953. 

Garrison, W. E. The March of Faith. New York: Harper & Bros., 1933. 

Mayer, F. E. The Religious Bodies of America. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1954. 

Mead, Frank S. See These Banners Go. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1936. 

Neve, J. L. Churches and Sects of Christendom. Rev. ed. Blair, Nebr.: Lutheran Publishing 
House, 1952. 

Rowe, H, K. The History of Religion in the United States. New York: The Macmillan 
Co., 1924. 

Schaff, Philip. The Creeds of Christendom. New York: Harper & Bros. 

Sperry, W. L. Religion in America. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1946. 



Stuber, Stanley I. Ho<w We Got Our Denominations. Rev. ed.; New York: Association 

Press, 1948. 
Sweet, Wm. W. The American Churches: An Interpretation. New York: Abingdon 

Press, 1948. 
Religion in the Development of American Culture. New York: Chas. Scribner's 

Sons, 1952. 

The Story of Religions in America. New York: Harper & Bros., 1930. 

Williams, J. Paul. What Americans Believe and Hoiv They Worship. New York: Harper 
& Bros., 1952. 



Froom, Le Roy E. The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers. 3 vols. Washington, D.C.: Re- 
view & Herald Publishing Assn., 1946-54. 

Loughborough, J. N. Rise and Progress of Seventh-Day Adventists. Nashville: Southern 
Publishing Assn., 1892. 

Olsen, M. E. A History of the Origin and Progress of Seventh-Day Adventists. Wash- 
ington, D.C.: Review & Herald Publishing Assn., 1925. 

White, Ellen G. The Desire of Ages. Mountain View, Cal.: Pacific Press Publishing Assn., 

The Great Controversy Between Christ and Satan. Mountain View, Cal.: Pacific 

Press Publishing Assn., 1927. 

, The Ministry of Healing. Washington, D.C.: Review & Herald Publishing Assn., 

Steps to Christ. Washington, D.C.: Review & Herald Publishing Assn., 1908. 


Esslemont, J. E. Bahd'tflldh and the New Era. Rev. ed.; Wilmette, 111.: Baha'i Publishing 

Committee, 1952. 
White, Ruth. Baha'i Leads Out of the Labyrinth. New York: Universal Publishing Co., 


Barnes, W. W. The Southern Baptist Convention: 1845-1953. Nashville: Broadman Press, 

These Glorious Years (German Baptists, 1843-1943). Cleveland: Roger Williams 

Campbell, Alexander. Christian Baptism with Its Antecedents and Consequences. Bethany, 

Va.: A Campbell, 1852. 

Carroll, B. H. Baptists and Their Doctrines. Westwood, N.J.: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1913. 
Cox, Norman W. Encyclopedia of Southern Baptists. 2 vols. Nashville: Broadman Press, 


Mead, Frank S. The Baptists. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1954. 
Newman, A. H. History of the Baptist Churches in the United States. Rev. and enl. ed.; 

Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1913. 

Newton, Louis De Votie. Why I Am a Baptist. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1957. 
Olson, Adolf. A Centenary History (Baptist General Conference of America). Chicago; 

Baptist Conference Press, 1952. 

Schwartz, E. M. A Compendium of Baptist History. Boston: Meador Publishing Co., 1939. 
Straton, H. H. Baptists: Their Message and Mission. Philadelphia: American Baptist 

Publication Society, 1941. 



Sweet, Wm. W. Religion on the American Frontier: The Baptists, 1783-1830. New 

York: Henry Holt & Co., Inc., 1931. 

Torbet, R. G. A History of the Baptists. Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1950. 
Ramaker, A. J. The German Baptists in North America. Cleveland: German Baptist 

Publication Society, 1924. 
Vedder, H. C. A Short History of the Baptists. Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1907. 


Brumbaugh, M. G. A History of German Baptist Brethren in America. Elgin, 111.: 

Brethren Publishing House, 1899. 

Frantz, Edward. Basic Belief. Elgin, 111.: Brethren Publishing House, 1943. 
Mallott, Floyd E. Studies in Brethren History. Elgin, 111.: Brethren Publishing House, 1954. 
Winger, O. History and Doctrine of the Church of the Brethren. Elgin, 111.: Brethren 

Publishing House, 1920. 


Bates, Ernest S., and Dittemore, John V. Mary Baker Eddy. New York: Alfred A. 
Knopf, Inc., 1932. 

Beasley, Norman. The Cross and the Croiw: the History of Christian Science. New York: 
Duell, Sloan & Pearce, 1952. 

Eddy, Mary Baker. Retrospection and Introspection. Boston: Christian Science Publish- 
ing Society. 

Science and Health 'with Key to the Scriptures. Boston: Christian Science Pub- 
lishing Society. 

. Truth vs. Error. Boston: Christian Science Publishing Society. 

Powell, Lyman P. Mary Baker Eddy. Boston: Christian Science Publishing Society, 1930. 
Wilbur, Sibyl. The Life of Mary Baker Eddy. Boston: Christian Science Publishing So- 
ciety, 1938. 

Brown, C. E. When the Trumpet Sounded (History of the Church of God of Anderson, 

Ind.). Anderson, Ind.: Warner Press, 1951. 
Ferguson, C. W. The New Book of Revelations. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 

Inc., 1929. 

Forney, C. H. History of the Churches of God. Harrisburg, Pa.: 1914. 
Frodsham, S. H. With Signs Following. Rev. ed. Springfield, Mo.: Gospel Publishing 

House, 1941. 
Riggs, R. M. The Spirit Himself. Springfield, Mo.: Gospel Publishing House, 1949. 


Redford, M. E. The Rise of the Church of the Nazarene. Kansas City: Nazarene Pub- 
lishing House, 1951. 

MacClenny, W. E. Life of James O'Kelly. Indianapolis, Ind.: United Christian Missionary 

Society, 1950. 
Stone, B. W. Biography of Elder Barton Warren Stone. Cincinnati, Ohio: Standard 

Publishing Co., 1847. 
West, E. Search for the Ancient Order. Indianapolis, Ind.: 1951. 


Barrett, B. F. The Question, What Are the Doctrines of the New Church? answered. 
Germantown, Pa.: Swedenborg Publication Association, 1909. 



Smyth, J. K. Gist of Swedenborg. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1920. 
Swedenborg, Emanuel. Complete Works. Boston: Houghton MifHin Co., 1907. 

Atkins, G. G., and Fagley, F. L. History of American Congregationalism, Boston: Pilgrim 

Press, 1942. 
Burton, C. E. Manual of the Congregational and Christian Churches. Boston: Pilgrim 

Press, 1936. 
Dale, R. W. History of English Congregationalism. New York: Doubleday, Doran & 

Co., Inc., 1907. 
Horton, W. M. Our Christian Faith (Congregationalism Today and Tomorrow). 

Boston: Pilgrim Press, 1945. 


Abbott, B, A. The Disciples, an Interpretation. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1924. 
Campbell, Alexander. Debate with N. L. Rice. Cincinnati: Standard Publishing Co., 1917. 
Campbell, Thomas. Declaration and Address. Cincinnati: American Christian Missionary 

Society, 1908. 

Garrison, W. E. An American Religious Movement. St. Louis: Bethany Press, 1945. 
, and DeGroot, Alfred. The Disciples of Christ: A History. St. Louis: Bethany 

Press, 1948. 
Tyler, B. B. History of the Disciples of Christ (American Church History Series, Vol. 

XII). New York: Christian Literature Co., 1893, 

Attwater, Donald. The Catholic Eastern Churches. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 

Bulgakov, S., et al. Revelation. Ed. John Baillie and Hugh Martin. New York: The 

MacmiUan Co., 1937. 

. The Wisdom of God. New York: Paisley Press, Inc., 1937. 

Fortescue, Adrian. The Orthodox Eastern Church. London: Catholic Truth Society, 1929. 
Gavin, Frank S. B. Some Aspects of Contemporary Greek Orthodox Thought. New 

York: Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1923. 
Horton, W. M. Continental and European Theology (The Rediscovery of Orthodox 

Theology, ch. 4). New York: Harper & Bros., 1938. 
Janin, Raymond. The Separated Eastern Churches. Tr. P. Boylan. St. Louis: B. Herder 

Book Co., 1933. 

Kephala, E. The Church of the Greek People. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1930. 
Spinka, Matthew. The Church and the Russian Revolution. New York: The Macmillan 

Co., 1927. 


Evangelical Catechism. St. Louis: Eden Publishing House, 1929. 

Bruning, D., et al. Evangelical Fundamentals. St. Louis: 1916. 

Horstmann, J. H. E., and Wernecke, H. H. Through four Centuries. St. Louis: Eden 
Publishing House, 1938 

Schneider, C. E. The German Church on the American Frontier. St. Louis: Eden Pub- 
lishing House, 1939. 


Albright, R. W. History of the Evangelical Church. Harrisburg, Pa.: Evangelical Press, 



Breyfogel, S. C. Landmarks of the Evangelical Association. Reading, Pa.: 1888. 

Drury, A. W. History of the Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Dayton, Ohio: 

Otterbein Press, 1924. 
Eller, P. H. These Evangelical United Brethren. Dayton, Ohio: Otterbein Press, 1950. 


Barclay, Robert. An Apology for the True Christian Divinity. 
Braithwaite, W. C. The Beginnings of Quakerism. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1912. 

The Second Period of Quakerism. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1919. 

Comfort, W. W. Quakers in the Modern World. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1949. 
Gnibb, Edward. Quaker Thought and History. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1925. 
Jones, Rufus M. The Faith and Practice of the Quakers. New York: Harper & Bros., 1927. 

The Flowering of Mysticism. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1939. 

The Later Periods of Quakerism. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc. 

The Quakers in Action. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1929. 

Lucas, Sidney. The Quaker Story. New York: Harper & Bros., 1949. 

Russell, Elbert, The History of Quakerism. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1942. 

Sykes, John. The Quakers, A New Look at Their Place in Society. Philadelphia: J. B. 

Lippincott Co., 1959. 
Thomas, A. C. and R. H. A History of the Friends in America. 6th ed., rev. and enl.; 

Philadelphia: John C. Winston Co., 1930. 
See also Principles of Quakerism, 1909, and Faith and Practice, 1926, published by the 

Philadelphia Book Store, and The Book of Discipline (Hicksites), 1927, published by 

the Race Street Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Watch 

Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1950. 
The Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Publ. annually since 1933. Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 
Russell, Charles Taze. The Divine Plan of the Ages. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Watch Tower Bible 

& Tract Society, 1908. 
Studies in the Scriptures. Brooklyn, N. Y.: Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 

Rutherford, J. F. The Harp of Gold, 1921; Deliverance, 1926; Creation, 1927 \ Light, 1929; 

Prophecy, 1929; Riches, 1936; Salvation, 1939; Religion, 1939. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Watch 

Tower Bible & Tract Society. 

Agus, Jacob Bernard. Guideposts in Modern Judaism. New York: Bloch Publishing Co., 

Finkelstein, Louis. The Jews: Their History, Culture, and Religion. New York: Harper 

& Bros., 1949. 

Gaer, Joseph. Our Jewish Heritage. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1957. 
Gordon, A. I. Jews in Transition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1949. 
Janowsky, Oscar I. (ed.). The American Jew. New York: Harper & Bros., 1942. 
Levinger, Lee J. A History of the Jews in the United States. New York: Union of 

American Hebrew Congregations, 1935. 

Pool, David de Sola. Why 1 Am a Jew. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1957. 



Steinberg, Milton. Basic Judaism. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1947. 
Wouk, Herman. This Is My God. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday & Co., Inc., 1959. 


Hinckley, G. B. What of the Mormons? Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1947. 
Richards, F. D., and Little, J. A. A Compendium of the Doctrines of the Gospel. Salt 

Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1925. 

Smith, Joseph. The Book of Mormon. Ed. John A. Widtsoe. Salt Lake City: Deseret 
Book Co., 1925. 

The Doctrines and Covenants. Ed. John A. Widtsoe. Salt Lake City: Deseret 

Book Co., 1925. 

The Pearl of Great Price. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1921. 

Smith, J. F. Essentials in Church History. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1928. 
Talmage, James E. Articles of Faith. Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1925. 


Allbeck, W. D. Studies in the Lutheran Confessions. Philadelphia: Muhlenberg Press, 1952. 

Bainton, Roland. Here I Stand (Biography of Luther). Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1950. 

Beck, Victor Emanuel. Why I Am a Lutheran. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1956. 

Bente, Frederick. American Luther anism. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1919, 

Carnarius, Stanley E. What Lutherans Believe. Philadelphia: United Lutheran Publishing 
House, 1951. 

Fendt, E. C. (ed.). What Lutherans Are Thinking. Columbus, Ohio: Wartburg Press, 1947. 

Ferm, Vergilius. Crisis in American Lutheran Theology. New York: Century Co., 1927. 

, (ed.). What Is Luther anism? New York: The Macmillan Co., 1930. 

Kerr, H. T., Jr. (ed.). A Commend of Luther's Theology. Philadelphia: The Westminster 
Press, 1943. 

Neve, J. L. History of the Lutheran Church in America. Burlington, Iowa: Lutheran 
Literary Board, Inc., 1934. 

Introduction to the Symbolical Books of the Lutheran Church. Columbus, Ohio: 

Lutheran Book Concern, 1926. 

Richard, J. W. The Confessional History of the Lutheran Church. 1909. 

Sasse, Hermann. Here We Stand. Tr. T. G. Tappert. New York: Harper & Bros., 1938. 

Wentz, A. R. The Lutheran Church in American History. Philadelphia: United Lutheran 
Publication House, 1933. 

Wentz, A. R. A Basic History of Lutheranism in America. Rev. ed.; Philadelphia: Muhlen- 
berg Press, 1955. 

Bender, H. S. Conrad Grebel, 1498-1526. The Founder of the Swiss Brethren, Sometimes 

Called Anabaptists. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1950. 

Hershberger, G. F. War, Peace, and Nonresistance. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1953. 
Smith, C. H. The Story of the Mennonites. 3rd ed., rev. and enl. Newton, Kan.: Mennonite 
Publication Office, 1950. 

Wenger, John C. Glimpses of Mennonite History and Doctrine. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald 
Press, 1949. 

Introduction to Theology: An Interpretation of the Doctrinal Content of Scrip- 
ture. Written to Strengthen a Childlike Faith in Christ. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 

, Separated Unto God: A Plea for Christian Simplicity of Life and for a Scrip- 

tural Nonconformity to the World. Scottdale, Pa.: Herald Press, 1951, 




The Journal of John Wesley. 8 vols. Ed. N. Curnock. 

Anderson, W. K. (ed.). Methodism. New York: Methodist Publishing House, 1947. 
Carter, Henry. The Methodist Heritage. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1951. 
Clark, Elmer T., Potts, J. Manning and Payton, Jacob S. The Journals and Letters of 

Francis Asbury. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1960. 

Faulkner, J. A. The Methodists. Rev. ed.; New York: Methodist Book Concern, 1925. 
History of Methodist Missions. New York: Board of Missions and Church Extension 

of the Methodist Church, 1949-1957. 
Harmon, Nolan B. The Organization of the Methodist Church. Rev. ed.; Nashville: 

Methodist Publishing House, 1953. 
, Understanding the Methodist Church. Nashville: Methodist Publishing House, 

Kennedy, Gerald Hamilton. The Methodist Way of Life. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: 

Prentice-Hall, 1958. 

Lee, Umphrey. The Lord's Horseman. New York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1954. 
Luccock, Halford E., and Hutchinson, Paul. The Story of Methodism. Rev. ed.; New 

York and Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1950. 

Rowe, G. T. The Meaning of Methodism. Nashville: Cokesbury Press, 1926. 
Stokes, Mack B. Major Methodist Beliefs. Nashville: The Methodist Publishing House, 


Sweet, W. W. Methodism in American History. Rev. and enl. ed,; New York and Nash- 
ville: Abingdon Press, 1954. 
Tipple, E. S. (ed.). The Heart of Asbury's Journal. New York: Methodist Book Concern, 



The Moravian Manual. Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian Book Store, 1901. 
Allen, W. H. The Moravians, a World-Wide Fellowship. Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian 

Book Store, 1940. 
Hamilton, J. T. A History of the Church Known as the Moravian Church or the Unitas 

Fratrum. Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian Book Store, 1900. 
Schweinitz, E. A. The History of Unitas Fratrum. Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian Book Store, 

and Schultze, A. The Moravians and Their Faith. Bethlehem, Pa.: Moravian 

Book Store, 1930. 

Clark, E. T. The Small Sects in America. Rev. ed.; New York and Nashville: Abingdon 

Press, 1949. 
Ferguson, C. W. The New Book of Revelations. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 

Inc., 1929. 
Frodsham, S. H. With Signs Following. Rev. ed.; Springfield, Mo.: Gospel Publishing 

House, 1941. 

Riggs, R. M. The Spirit Himself. Springfield, Mo.: Gospel Publishing House, 1949. 
Stolee, H. J. Pentecostalism. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1936. 


Briggs, C. A. American Presbyterianism. New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1885. 
Drury, C. M. Presbyterian Panorama. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1952. 



Gillet, E. H. History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. Phila- 
delphia: Westminster Press, 1864. 

Loetscher, Lefferts A. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Rev. ed.; Philadelphia: West- 
minster Press, 1958. 

Miller, Park Hays. Why I Am A Presbyterian. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1956. 

Reed, R. C. History of the Presbyterian Churches of the World. Philadelphia: Westmin- 
ster Press, 1905. 

Roberts, W. H. A Concise History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of 
America. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1920. 

Thompson, R. E. A History of the Presbyterian Churches in the United States (American 
Church History Series, Vol. VI). New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons. 

Zenos, Andrew C. Presbyterianism in America. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons, 1937. 


Addison, J. T. The Episcopal Church in the United States: 1789-1931. New York: Chas. 
Scribner's Sons, 1951. 

Chorley, E. C. Men and Movements in the American Episcopal Church. New York: 
Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1946. 

Damrosch, Frank, Jr. The Faith of the Episcopal Church. New York: Morehouse-Gorham 
Co., 1946. 

Manross, W. W. A History of the American Episcopal Church. New York: Morehouse- 
Gorham Co., 1950. 

McConnell, S. D. History of the American Episcopal Church. Milwaukee: Morehouse 
Publishing Co., 1916. 

Tiffany, C. C. A History of the Episcopal Church (American Church History Series). 
New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons, 1895. 

Will, Theodore. The Episcopal Church. New York: Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1934. 

Wilson, Frank E. Faith and Practice. New York: Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1941. 


The Word of God and the Reformed Faith. American Calvmistic Conference. Grand 
Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House, 1942. 

Berts, H. The Christian Reformed Church in North America. Grand Rapids, Mich.: 
Eastern Avenue Book Store, 1923. 

Boettner, Loraine. Studies in Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub- 
lishing Co., 1941. 

Brown, W. D. History of the Reformed Church in America New York: Board of Pub- 
lication & Bible School Work of the Reformed Church in America, 1928. 

Corwin, E. T., et al. A History of the Reformed Church, Dutch, the Reformed Churchy 
German, and the Moravian Church in the United States (American Church History 
Series, Vol. VIII). New York: Chas. Scribner's Sons. 

Demerast, D. D. The Reformed Church in America. New York: Board of Publication 
of the Reformed Dutch Church, 1884. 


Catholic Dictionary. Ed. Donald Attwater. 2nd rev. ed.; New York: The Macmillan Co., 

The Catholic Encyclopedia. 15 vols. New York: Robert Appleton Co., 1907. 
Hughes, Philip. A History of the Church. New York: Sheed & Ward, Ltd., 1934-47. 
Maynard, Theodore. The Story of American Catholicism (by a convert). New York: 
The Macmillan Co., 1941. 



McSorley, Joseph. An Outline History of the Church by Centuries. St. Louis: B. Herder 
Book Co., 1948. 

O'Gorman, Thomas. History of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States (Amer- 
ican Church History Series). New York: Christian Literature Co., 1895. 

Sheehan, Michael Apologetics and Catholic Doctrine. Philadelphia: Peter Reilly Co. 

Smith, G. D. (ed.). The Teaching of the Catholic Church, a Summary of Catholic 
Doctrine. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1949. 

Stuber, S. I. Primer on Roman Catholicism, for Protestants. New York: Association Press, 


The Spiritualist Manual. Washington, D.C.: National Spiritualist Assn. of the United 

States of America. 

Bach, Marcus. They Have Found a Faith. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Inc., 1946. 
Braden, Chas. S. These Also Believe. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1949. 
Graebner, Theodore T. Spiritism. St Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1919. 
Hill, J. A. Spiritualism: Its History, Phenomena and Doctrine. New York: Doubleday, 

Doran & Co., Inc., 1919. 
Leaf, H. What Is This Spiritualism? New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1919. 

Scholefield, H. B. UnitarianismSome Past History and Present Meanings. Boston: Beacon 

Press, 1950. 
Wilbur, E. M. A History of Unitarianism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 

. Our Unitarian Heritage, Boston: Beacon Press, 1925. 


Ballou, Hosea. The Ancient History of Universalism. Boston: Marsh & Capen, 1829. 
Brotherson, B. W. A Philosophy of Liberalism. Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 


Cole, A. S. Our Liberal Heritage. Boston: Beacon Press, 1951. 
Kapp, M. A. These Universalists. Boston: Universalist Publishing House. 
Perkins, F. W. Beliefs Commonly Held Among Us. Boston: Universalist Publishing House. 
Thaver, T. B. The Theology of Universalism. Boston: Universalist Publishing House, 




Ab, Feast of, 121 

*Abdu'l-Baha, 30, 31 

Act of Toleration, 216 

Adler, Felix, 26 

Advanced Contemplative and Intellectual 

Sphere, 207 

Advent Christian Association, 22 
Advent Christian Church, 22 
Advent Christian General Conference of 

America, 22 
Adventists, 19 

African Methodist Church, 153 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, 156 
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, 157 
African Orthodox Church, 24 
African Union Church, 157, 163 
African Union First Colored Methodist Prot- 
estant Church, Inc., 157 
Akron College, 213 

Albanian Orthodox Church in America, 89 
Albright, Jacob, 101 
Aldersgate Street, 152 
Alemanni, 195 
Alexander, Archbishop, 91 
Alfred University, 50 
Allen, Richard, 157 
Allegheny Theological Seminary, 178 
Alvarez, Archbishop, 167 
Amana Church Society, 24 
American Baptist Association, 39 
American Baptist Convention, 35 
American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society, 

35, 40, 42 
American Baptist Home Missionary Society, 

35, 40 

American Baptist Missionary Union, 35 
American Baptist Publication Society, 33, 35, 


American Bible College, 27 
American Bible School, 27 
American Board of Catholic Missions, 201 
American Board of Commissioners for 

Foreign Missions, 191, 216 
American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Greek 

Catholic Church, 91 
American Catholic Church, 168 
American Catholic Churchy Archdiocese of 

New York, 168 

American Catholic Church (Syro-And- 
ochean) , 96 

American Council of Christian Churches, 53, 

American Ethical Union (Federation of So- 
cieties for Ethical Culture) , 25 

American Evangelical Christian Churches, 26 

American Evangelical Lutheran Church, 140 

American Friends Service Committee, 110 

American Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic 
Eastern Church, 98 

American Jewish Committee, 123 

American Jewish Yearbook, 122 

American Judaism, 123 

American Lutheran Church, 136 

American Lutheran Church (Original) , 137 

American Millennial Association, 27 

American Ministerial Association, 20 

American National Baptist Convention, 38 

American National Educational Baptist Con- 
vention, 38 

American Orthodox Church, 98 

American Rescue Workers, 28 

American Unitarian Association, 210, 217 

Ames, William, 215 

Amherst College, 216 

Amish, 147, 148, 150 

Amish Mennonite Church, 148, 150 

Amman, Jacob, 147 

Anabaptists, 32, 146, 209 

Ancient and Mystical Order of Po-ahtun, 146 

Andrew, Bishop James O., 154, 155 

Angelus Temple, 117 

Anglo-Catholics, 189 

Ansgarii Synod, 100 

Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith, 123 

Anti-Pedobaptists, 32 

Antimission Baptists, 49 

Antioch, Patriarch of, 95 

Apache Indians, 146 

Apology of Augsburg Confession, 144 

Apostles' Creed, 24, 100, 135, 137, 144, 154, 
163, 164, 166, 188, 190, 192, 197 

Apostolic Christian Church (Nazarean), 103 

Apostolic Christian Churches of America, 103 

Apostolic Episcopal Church, 168 

Apostolic Methodist Church, 158 

Apostolic Overcoming Holy Church of God, 



Apostolic Segnatura, 199 

Armageddon, 78, 119, 206 

Armenian Church, Diocese of America, 29 

Arminian Baptists, 43, 45, 49, 52 

Arminians, 209 

Articles of Confederation, 197 

Articles of Organization and Government 

(Methodist), 154 

Articles of Religion (Methodist) , 153, 154 
"Articles of War," Salvation Army, 202 
Asbury, Francis, 152, 157 
Asbury Methodist Church (Wilmington, 

Del.) , 162, 163 
Ashland Group, 56 
Aspire to Better Living, 86 
Assemblies of God, General Council, 29 
Associate Presbyterian Church of North 

America, 182 

Associate Reformed Churches, 182-83, 216 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, 179, 

Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 

(General Synod) , 183 
Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church 

of North America, 182 
Associate Reformed Synod of the South, 183 
Associate Synod of North America, 66, 182 
Association of Pentecostal Assemblies, 172 
Association of Pentecostal Churches in Amer- 
ica, 78 

Assyrian Jacobite Apostolic Church, 96 
Assyrian Nestorian or Chaldean Church, 96 
Assyrian Orthodox Church, 96 
Assyrian Protestant Church, 96 
Assyrian Uniat Church, 96 
Athanasian Creed, 24, 135, 137, 144, 197 
Athenagoras, Archbishop, 92 
Atkins, Gaius Glenn, 215 
Auburn Theological Seminary, 133, 178 
Augsburg Confession, 137, 138, 141, 144, 164, 


Augustana Evangelical Lutheran Church, 140 
Augustana Synod, 134, 141 
Augustine, 195 
Aurora College, 22 
Austin, Ann, 109 
Austin Theological Seminary, 182 

Bab, the, 30, 31 

Bacone College, 35 

Baha'i, 30 

Bahd'u'llah, 30 

Ballou, Hosea, 211 

Baltimore yearly meeting, 113 

Baptist Alliance of North America, 34 

Baptist Church of Christ (Duck River) , 42- 


Baptist General Association, 39 
Baptist General Conference of America, 40 
Baptist Joint Committee on Public Affairs, 34 
Baptist National Educational Convention, 38 
Baptist World Alliance, 34 
Baptist Young People's Union, 33 


Baptists, 32 

Baradeus, Jacobus, 96 

Bardas, Caesar, 87 

Bashir, Archimandrite Antony, 96 

Bates, Joseph, 20 

Bay People, 215 

Beachy Amish Mennonite Churches, 148 

Beachy, Bishop Moses, 148 

Becker, Peter, 51, 54 

Beissel, John Conrad, 51, 55 

Belgic Confession, 190, 192, 194 

Belleville Industrial School, 76 

Benjamin I, Patriarch, 91 

Bethel Church, Philadelphia, 157 

Bethel Baptist Assembly, 41 

Bethel Home, 119 

"Bible Bigots," 151 

Bible Colportage Service, 68 

"Bible Moths," 151 

Bible Presbyterian Church, 183 

Bible Protestant Church, 52 

Bible Protestant Messenger, 53 

Bible School of Gilead, 120 

Bickerton, William, 131 

Bickertonites, 131 

Biennial Council of Community Churches, 

Billett, Grant T., 27 

Bischoff, J. G., 166 

Black Jews, 76, 125 

Black Muslims, 53 

Bloody Queen Mary, 176, 186 

Boardman, Richard, 152 

Boehm, Johann Philip, 219 

Boehm, Martin, 102, 214 

Bohemian and Moravian Brethren, 165 

Bohemians, 163 

Bohdan, Archbishop, 95 

"Bonclarken," 183 

Book of Common Prayer (Church of Eng- 
land) , 153, 176, 186, 187 

Book of Common Prayer (Protestant Epis- 
copal) , 187, 189 

Book of Discipline (Independent African 
Methodist Episcopal Church) ,161 

Book of Doctrines and Covenants, 127 

Book of Mormon, 126, 127 

Book of Ritual, 102 

Book of Worship (Swedenborgian) , 85 

Booth, Ballington, 226 

Booth, Maud, 226 

Booth, William E., 202, 203 

Bowdoin College, 216 

Boydton Institute, 70 

Brainerd, David, 216 

Brandeis University, 123 

Brethren in Christ, 54, 60, 61 

Brethren of Christ, 60 

Brethren Church (Ashland, Ohio). See 
Brethren Church (Progressive Dunkers) . 

Brethren Church (Progressive Dunkers) , 56 

Brethren (Dunkers), 54 

Brinser, Matthias, 60 


Bruisers, 59 

British Baptists, 33 

Brooks, Nona Lovell, 86 

Brotherhood by the River, 59 

Brotherhood of St. Andrew, 188 

Brown, E. D., 108 

Browne, Robert, 215 

Bryan, Andrew, 38 

Buddha, 61 

Buddhist Churches of America, 61 

Buddhist Mission of North America, 61 

Bulgarian Eastern Orthodox Church, 91 

Bulgarian Orthodox Church, 91 

Bulgarian Orthodox Mission, 91 

Burgundians, 195 

Burkhart, Roy, 116 

Burruss, K. H., 82 

California Baptist Missionary Institute, 40 

California Institute of Technology, 213 

California yearly meeting, 113 

Calvary Pentecostal Church, Inc., 170 

Calvin College and Seminary, 193 

Calvin, John, 33, 133, 176, 190 

Campbell, Alexander, 66, 80, 218 

Campbell, Thomas, 65, 66, 80 

Canada yearly meeting, 113 

Cancellaria, the, 199 

Canterbury, Archbishop of, 187 

Capuchins, 196 

Carey, William, 33 

Carfora, Archbishop C. H., 133 

Carolina Missionary Baptist Institute, 40 

Carroll, Charles, 197 

Carroll, Daniel, 197 

Carroll, John, 197 

Cartier, 196 

Case of the Episcopal Churches in the U. 5. 

Considered, The, 187 
Cathedral of St. John the Divine, 189 
Catholic Apostolic Church, 62 
Catholic Directory, 200 
Catholic University of America, 197 
CJB.A. Builders, 42 

Central Conference of American Rabbis, 122 
Central Mennonite Conference, 149 
Chalcedon, Council of, 87 
Channing, William Ellery, 210, 217 
Charles the Great, 87 
Chase, Bishop Philander, 187 
Chesier, Isaac, 223 
Child Study Movement, 26 
Children of Light, 109 
Children of Truth, 109 
Chornock, Orestes P., 91 
Christ Missionary and Industrial College, 70 
Christ Sphere, 207 
Christadelphians, 62 

Christian and Missionary Alliance, 63, 105 
Christian Association of Washington, Pa., 66 
Christian Catholic Church, 64 
Christian Church, 153, 218 
Christian Church of North America, 65 


Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) , 65, 

JL lo- 

Christian Congregation, 68 

Christian Endeavor, 218 

Christian Faith Band, 104 

Christian Indicator, 68 

Christian Mission, 202 

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church, 158 

Christian Nation Church, 69 

Christian Reformed Church, 193 

Christian Science, 71, 224, 225 

Christian Science Journal, 72 

Christian Science Monitor, 73 

Christian Science Quarterly, 72 

Christian Science Sentinel, 72 

Christian Spiritual Voice, 166 

Christian Union, 69 

Christian Union Churches, 82 

Christian Union Witness, 70 

Christian Unity Baptist Association, 41 

Christian, William, 84 

Christians. See Christian Churches (Disciples 

of Christ) . 

Christmas Conference, 153 
Christ's Sanctified Holy Church, 70 
Chrysostom, John, 96 

Church Congress (Protestant Episcopal) , 188 
Church Congress (Romanian Orthodox) , 92 
Church Equality Baptists, 39 
Church of Christ (Holiness) , U.SA., 70 
Church of Christ, Scientist, 71 
Church of Christ, Temple Lot, 130 
Church of Daniel's Band, 104 
Church of England, 108, 151, 152, 167, 186, 

187, 188 

Church of God, 73 

Church of God (Abrahamic Faith) , 23 
Church of God (Anderson, Ind.) , 74 
Church of God (Apostolic) , 104 
Church of God (New Dunkards) , 56 
Church of God (Seventh Day) , Denver, Colo., 


Church of God (Tomlinson Groups) , 62, 170 
Church of God (Winebrennarian) , 47 
Church of God and Saints of Christ, 76 
Church of God as Organized by Christ, 104 
Church of God in Christ, 76 
Church of God in Christ (Mennonite) , 148 
Church of God in Christ (Pentecostal) , 172 
Church of God of Prophecy, 73 
Church of Illumination, 77 
Church of Jesus Christ (Cutlerites) , 131 
Church of Jesus Christ (Mormon) ,131 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints 

(Strangites) , 131 
Church of Laestadius, 143 
Church of Our Lord Jesus Christ of the 

Apostolic Faith, Inc., 78 
Church of Scotland, 182 
Church of the Brethren, 54 
Church of the Full Gospel, Inc., 45 


Church of the Living God (Christian Work- 
ers for Fellowship) , 84 
Church of the Lutheran Brethren of Amer- 
ica, 141 

Church of the Nazarene, 78 
Church of the v United Brethren in Christ, 

101, 214 
Church of the United Brethren in Christ 

(Old Constitution) , 214 
Churches of Christ, 80 
Churches of Christ in Christian Union, 82 
Churches of God, Holiness, 82 
Churches of God in North America (General 

Eldership) , 83 

Churches of the Living God, 84 
Churches of the New Jerusalem, 84 
Circle of Fellowship, 58 
City of God, The, 195 
Civil War, 110, 134, 157, 163, 181, 187, 197 
Clark, Francis E., 218 
Clarke, John, 33, 50 
Clement of Alexandria, 211 
Clymer, R. Swinburne, 77 
Coke, Thomas, 153 
College of Cardinals, 199 
Collegiate Church (N.Y.C.) , 191 
Colored Church, South, 70 
Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 


Colored Methodist Church in Louisiana, 70 
Colored Methodist Protestant Church, 158 
Colored Primitive Baptists, 46, 47 
Columbia Theological Seminary, 178, 182 
Columbus, Christopher, 196 
Comenius, John Amos, 164 
Commandment Keepers, or Black Jews, 125 
Commentary, 123 
Commission for Catholic Missions for Colored 

People and Indians, 201 
Common Service Book (Lutheran) , 139 
Communion of Brethren (Jednota JBratraska) , 

Community churches. See Independent 


Concordia Seminary, 144 
Conference of Defenseless Mennonites of 

North America, 148 
Conference of the Evangelical Mennonite 

Church, 148 
Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical 

Affairs, 199 

Congregation for the Oriental Church, 199 
Congregation for the Propagation of the 

Faith, 199 

Congregation of Ceremonies, 199 
Congregation of Sacred Rites, 199 
Congregation of Seminaries and Universities, 


Congregation of the Affairs of Religious, 199 
Congregation of the Council, 199 
Congregation of the Holy Office, 199 
Congregation of the Sacraments, 199 
Congregational Church, 215 


Congregational Holiness Church, 85 

Congregational Methodist Church, 158 

Congregational Methodist Church of the 
U.S.A., 158 

Congregationalists, 107, 178, 187, 209, 210, 215 

Conservative Baptist Association of America, 

Conservative Baptist Fellowship, 42 

Conservative Dunkers, 54, 57 

Conservative Judaism, 125 

Conservative Judaism (quarterly) , 123 

Conservative Mennonite Conference, 148 

Consistorial Congregation, 199 

Constantine, 87 

Constantinople, Councils of, 87 

Constitution, U.S., 197 

Continental Congress, 178, 187 

Continuing Eastern Conference of the Meth- 
odist Protestant Church, 52 

Cordingley, G. V., 208 

Coronado, 196 

Council of Aries, 186 

Council of Bishops, 156 

Council of Trent, 196 

Council of the Episcopate, 92 

Council of the Twelve Apostles (Mormon) , 

Counter Reformation, 196 

Covenant Churches, 99, 100 

Covenanters, 176 

Cowdery, Oliver, 127 

Cox, Elder Thomas J., 104 

Cramer, Malinda E., 86 

Cromwell, Oliver, 177 

Crowdy, William S., 76 

Crusades, 195 

Cuba yearly meeting, 113 

Cumberland Methodist Church, 159 

Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 184 

Cummins, Bishop George David, 194 

Cumorah, 126 

Curia, the, 199 

Cutler, Alpheus, 131 

Cutler, Manasseh, 216 

Cutlerites, 131 

Cyril, 163 

Dalton, Gloucester, 211 

Danes, 195 

Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church Associa- 
tion, 137 

Danish Evangelical Lutheran Church in 
North America, 137 

Darby, John, 59 

Dare, Virginia, 186 

Dartmouth College, 216 

Dataria, the, 199 

Daughters of Charity, 202 

Davis, Andrew Jackson, 206 

Dawber, Mark, 116 

Dean Junior College, 213 

DeBenneville, George, 211 


Declaration of Faith (Foursquare Gospel) , 


Declaration of Independence, 178, 197 
Declaration o Principles (Spiritualist) , 207 
Deed of Declaration (Methodist) , 152 
Defenseless Mennonite Church of North 

America, 148 
Disciples of Christ, 65 

Divine Science Church and College, Inc., 86 
Doellinger, Bishop, 167 
Domeplaars, 54 
Dominicans, 196, 200 
Dordrecht Confession of Faith, 147, 148, 150, 


Dow, Lorenzo, 161 
Dowie, John Alexander, 64 
Drake, Sir Francis, 186 
Dropsie College, 123 
Duck River (and Kindred) Associations of 

Baptists (Baptist Church of Christ) , 42 
Dunkard Brethren, 51 
Dunkers, 54 

Dutch Reformed Church, 190, 216 
Dutch Reformed Church of Holland, 176 
Dutch Reformed Church in North America, 


East Africa yearly meeting, 113 

Eastern Baptist Institute, 40 

Eastern churches, 87 

Eastern Rite (Catholic) Churches, 97, 201 

Ebenezer Society, 25 

Echo Park Evangelistic Association, 117 

Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, 


Eddy, Mary Baker, 71, 72, 73 
Edson, Hiram, 21 
Education Society of the Reformed Church 

in America, 191 
Edward VI, 186 
Edwards, Jonathan, 216 
Effendi, Abbas, 30 
Egli, Henry, 148 
Eielsen, Elling, 142 
Eielsen Synod (Lutheran) , 142 
Eleazer Wheelock's School for Indians, 216 
Eliot, John, 216 
Elizabeth, Queen, 186 
Elk River Association, 42 
Embury, Philip, 152 
Emmanuel Holiness Church, 170 
Emmanuel Messenger, 171 
English Baptists, 49 
Ephesus, Council of, 87, 97 
Ephrata Community, 51, 55 
Erasmus, 196 
Ethiopian Overcoming Holy Church of God, 


Evangelical Adventists, 20 
Evangelical and Reformed Church, 219 
Evangelical Association, 99, 101 
Evangelical Associations, 103 
Evangelical Church, 99, 101, 102, 214 


Evangelical Congregational Church, 99 
Evangelical Covenant Churches of America, 


Evangelical Free Church Association, 100 
Evangelical Free Church of America, 100 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, 137 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 

(Eielsen Synod) , 141 
Evangelical Lutheran Synod (Formerly the 

Norwegian Synod of the A.E.L. Church), 


Evangelical Mennonite Brethren, 148 
Evangelical Mennonite Church, 148 
Evangelical Methodist Church, 159 
Evangelical Mission Covenant Church of 

America, 99 
Evangelical Protestant Church of North 

America, 218 

Evangelical Protestant Conference of Congre- 
gational Churches, 218 

Evangelical Synod of North America, 193, 219 
Evangelical Synod of the Northwest, 219 
Evangelical Synodical Conference, 142 
Evangelical Union of Bohemian Brethren, 165 
Evangelical Union of the West, 219 
Evangelical United Brethren Church, 101 
Evangelical United Church of Prussia, 219 
Evangelical Unity of the Czech-Moravian 

Brethren in North America, 165 
Exclusive Brethren, 58 
Eyman, Peter, 56 

Faith-Life, 145 

Faith Theological Seminary, 183 

"Faith for Today," 22 

Federated churches, 106 

Federation of Societies for Ethical Culture, 25 

Felton, Ralph A., 106 

Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church (N.Y.C.) , 

Fillmore, Charles, 224, 225 

Fillmore, Myrtle, 224 

Finnish Apostolic Lutheran Church of Amer- 
ica, 143 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Church (Suomi 
Synod), 140 

Finnish Evangelical Lutheran National 
Church of America, 145 

Fire Baptized Holiness Association of Amer- 
ica, 107 

Fire Baptized Holiness Church, 107 

Fire Baptized Holiness Church (Wesleyan) , 

Fire Baptized Holiness Church of God, 107 

Free Christian Church in New England, 218 

First Colored Methodist Protestant Church, 

First German Lutheran Synod of Wisconsin, 

First Presidency (Mormon), 128 

Fisher, Mary, 109 

Fitzsimmons, Thomas, 197 

Five Years Meeting (Friends) , 110, 112 


Fletcher, Francis, 186 

Florida Baptist Institute, 40 

Floyd, Bishop F. E. J M 168 

Foreign Missionary Baptist Convention, 38 

Formula of Concord, 133, 135, 144 

Forty- two Articles of Religion, 186, 188 

Foundation Deed (Salvation Army) , 204 

Founding Tome of 1922, 91 

Four Truths of Buddhism, 61 

Foursquare Crusaders, 117 

Fox, George, 108, 109 

Fox sisters, 206 

Francescon, Louis, 65 

Franciscans, 195, 200, 202 

Franconians, 143 

Franklin, Benjamin, 220 

Franklin College, 220 

Franks, 195 

Free Christian Zion Church of Christ, 108 

Free Church of America, 100 

Free Magyar Reformed Church in America, 

190, 193 

Free Methodist Church, 159 
Free Methodist Church of North America, 159 
Free Will Baptists, 43 
Freedman's Aid Society, 38, 110 
Frelinghuysen, Dominie Theodore, 191 
Friends, 108 
Friends of God, 211 
Friends of Truth, 109 
Friends World Committee for Consultation, 


Frobisher, Martin, 186 
Froelich, S. H., 103 
Fundamentalist Fellowship, 42 
Fundamentalist Methodist Church, Inc., 160 

Gavin, Frank, 89 

General Assembly (Presbyterian) , 178 

General Assembly of Spiritualists of New 
York, 208 

General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
of the Confederate States of America, 179 

General Association of Regular Baptist 
Churches, 44 

General Baptist Brethren, 51, 55 

General Baptist Messenger, 44 

General Baptists, 43 

General Church of the New Jerusalem, 84 

General Conference Mennonite Church, 149 

General Conference of the Evangelical Bap- 
tist Church, Inc., 45 

General Convention of the New Jerusalem in 
the U.S.A., 84, 85 

General Council (Lutheran), 139, 141 

General Council of the Congregational Chris- 
tian Churches, 217 

General Council of the Italian Pentecostal 
Assemblies of God, 65 

General Missionary Convention of the Bap- 
tist Denomination in the U.S.A., 33 

General Presbytery, 178 

General Rules (Methodist) , 154 


General Six-Principle Baptists, 45 

General Synod (Lutheran) , 139, 141 

General Synod (Presbyterian) , 178 

General Synod (Reformed) , 220 

German Baptists, 47, 54 

German Evangelical Church Association of 
Ohio, 219 

German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Mis- 
souri, Ohio, and Other States, 143 

German Evangelical Synod of North America, 

German Iowa Synod (Lutheran) , 134 

German Reformed Church, 83, 219 

German United Evangelical Synod of the 
East, 219 

Gibbons, Cardinal James, 197 

Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, 186 

Gloria Dei Church (Philadelphia) , 141 

God's Invasion Army, 41 

Goddard College, 213 

Goths, 87, 195 

Grace Group, 56 

Graceland College, 130 

Grand Field Council (Volunteers) , 226 

Grand View College, 140 

Gravois Settlement, 219 

Great Awakening, 191, 216, 218 

Great Sobor, the, 92 

Greater Vehicle (Buddhism) , 61 

Greek Archdiocese of North and South 
America, 91 

Gregory the Enlightener, 29 

Gribanovski, Metropolitan Anastassy, 94 

Griswold, Bishop A. V., 187 

Gorchowski, Prime Bishop Leon, 175 

Gruber, Ludwig, 25 

Gurney, John, 114 

Halle, University of, 134 

Hampton Institute, 217 

Hanoverians, 143 

Hanukkah (Feast of Lights) , 121 

Hard Shell Baptists, 49 

Harmon, Ellen, 21 

Harvard College, 216 

Hauge, Hans Nielsen, 142 

Hauge's Norwegian Evangelical Lutheran 

Synod, 142 

Hauge Synod (Lutheran) , 137 
Hebrew Union College, 123 
Heck, Barbara, 152 

Heidelberg Catechism, 190, 192, 193, 194, 220 
Heidelberg University, 220 
Helwys, Thomas, 43 
Henry VIII, 186 
Henry, Patrick, 187 

Hepzibah Faith Missionary Association, 104 
Herald of Christian Science, 72 
Herald of Life, The, 24 
Herford, R. T., 120 
Herr, Francis, 151 
Herr, John, 151 
Hicks, Elias, 113 


Hicksites, 110, 113 

Hinayana Buddhism, 61 

Hindmarsh, Robert, 85 

Hinduism, 224 

Hobart, Bishop J. H., 187 

Hodur, Bishop Francis, 133, 174, 175 

Hoeksema, H., 194 

Hoffman, George W., 214 

Hoffmanites, 214 

Holdeman, John, 148 

Holiness Christian Church, 173 

Holiness Church of Christ, 78 

Holiness Methodist Church (N.C. and ND.) , 


Holland Reformed Church, 193 
Holy Apostolic and Catholic Church of the 

East (Nestorian) , 97 
Holy Church of North Carolina, 223 
Holy Church of North Carolina and Virginia, 


"Holy Club," 151 

Holy Eastern Orthodox churches, 88, 96 
Holy Orthodox Church in America (Eastern 

Catholic and Apostolic) , 95 
Holy See of Etchmiadzin, Armenia, USSR, 29 
Holy Synod of Bulgaria, 91 
Holy Synod of Greece, 91 
Holy Trinity (Old Swedes) Church, 141 
Hooker, Thomas, 216 
Hope College, 191 
House of David, 114 
House of God, Which is the Church of the 

Living God, Pillar and Ground of the 

Truth, Inc., 84 
House of Israel, 125 
Howell, Elder James R., 162 
Huguenots, 190 

Hungarian Reformed Church in America, 193 
Hunt, Robert, 186 
Huss, John, 163 
Hutchinson, Anne, 216 
Hutter, Jacob, 149 
Hutterian Brethren, 149 

Ignatius, 87 

Illinois yearly meeting, 113 

Immersion Baptists, 33 

Independence Mission, 162 

Independent African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, 160 

Independent Assemblies of God, 115 

Independent Baptist Church of America, 45 

Independent Christian Churches, 115 

Independent churches, 116 

Independent Fundamental Churches of Amer- 
ica, 116 

Independent Fundamental Methodist Church, 

Independents (Disciples of Christ) , 68, 115 

Indiana yearly meeting, 113 

Indo-Aryans, 226 

Inquisition, 195 


International Association for Liberal Chris- 
tianity and Religious Freedom, 211, 213 

International Apostolic Holiness Union, 173 

International Bible Students, 118 

International Bible Students Association of 
England, 118 

International Church of the Foursquare 
Gospel, 117 

International Convention, Disciples of Christ, 
65, 68 

International Council of Christian Churches, 
53, 183 

International Council of Community 
Churches, 116 

International Eucharistic Congress, 197 

International General Assembly of Spiritual- 
ists, 208 

International Missionary Alliance, 63 

International Pentecostal Assemblies, 172 

International Religious Congress, 209 

International Spiritual Assembly (Bdha'i) , 31 

Iowa yearly meeting, 113, 114 

Italian Christian Churches of North America, 

Ives, Richard H., 28 

Jablonsky, 164 

Jacob, Henry, 215 

Jacobite Apostolic Church, 96 

Jamaica yearly meeting, 113 

James, Fannie Brooks, 86 

Jaredites, 126 

Jarratt, Devereux, 152 

Jay, John, 187 

Jednota Bratraska (Communion of Brethren) , 


Jefferson, Thomas, 187 
Jehovah's Witnesses, 118, 132, 205 
Jerome of Prague, 163 
Jesuits, 196 

Jewish Congregations, 120 
Jewish feasts and fasts, 121 
Jewish Frontier, 123 
Jewish Institute of Religion, 123 
Jewish Life, 123 
Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, Inc., 


Jewish Spectator, 123 
Jewish Theological Seminary, 123 
~ohn Street Methodist Church, 152, 157 

r oint Defense Appeal, 123 

"oint Synod of Wisconsin, 135 

bliet, 145, 196 

ones, Abner, 80, 218, 219 

'ones, C. P., 70 

ones, Rufus, 112 

Kansas yearly meeting, 113, 114 

Kaplan, Mordecai, 125 

Kaufman, P. J., 104 

Kehukee Association of North Carolina, 48 

Kent, Grady R., 73 

Khan, Genghis, 97 


KiUingsworth, Frank Russell, 126 
King's Chapel in Boston, 186, 210 
Kinston College, 52 
Kirkelig Missions] 'or 'ening, 140 
Knapp, Martin Wells, 173 
Knorr, Nathan H., 119 
Knox, John, 133, 176 
Kodesh Church of Immanuel, 126 
Koorie, Deacon Hanna, 96 
Korteniemi, Solomon, 143 
Krimmer Mennonite Brethren Conference, 

Lake Mohonk, 110 

Lambeth Quadrilateral on Church Unity, 187 

Landmann, Barbara, 25 

Landmark Baptists, 46 

Landmarkers, 39 

Lane Theological Seminary, 178 

Lashley, James Francis Augustine, 168 

Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons, 126 

Laval, Bishop, 196 

Law, William, 151 

Lawson, R. C., 78 

Lee, Charles, 187 

Lee, "Light-Horse Harry," 187 

Lesser Vehicle (Buddhism) , 61 

Liberal Catholic Church, 132 

Liberal Christian Churches, 210 

Life and Advent Union, 23 

L.I.F.E. Bible College, 117 

Life Messengers, 132, 205 

Lithuanian National Catholic Church, 133 

Little Sisters of the Poor, 202 

Living Church (Russian) , 92, 93 

Livingstone College, 157 

Living Yah, the, 205 

Local Church Co-operation in Rural Commu- 
nities, 106 

Locke, John, 209 

Lombard College, 213 

Lombards, 195 

London yearly meeting, 113 

Longer and Shorter Catechisms. See Luther's 

Louisiana Missionary Baptist Institute, 40 

Louisville Theological Seminary, 182 

Love Sphere, 207 

Loyola, Ignatius, 196 

Lumber River Annual Conference of the 
Holiness Methodist Church, 160 

Lumber River Mission Conference of the 
Holiness Methodist Church, 160 

Luther's Catechisms, 133, 135, 137, 138, 144, 

Luther League of America, 139 

Luther, Martin, 74, 133, 196 

Lutheran Church in America, 139 
Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, 143 
Lutheran Church of Denmark, 138 
Lutheran Free Church, 144 
Lutheran Layman's Movement for Steward- 
ship, 139 

Lutheran Synod of Buffalo, 137 

Lutheran Synodical Conference of North 

America, 135, 142, 145, 146 
Lutheran World Action, 135 
Lutheran World Convention, 136 
Lutheran World Federation, 136, 139 
Lutherans, 133 

Macaulay, 176 

McCloskey, Archbishop John, 197 

McCormack Theological Seminary, 178 

McGuire, George Alexander, 24 

Machen, J. Gresham, 184 

Mcllvaine, Bishop Charles Pettit, 187 

Mclntire, Carl, 183 

Mack, Alexander, 54 

McPherson, Aimee Semple, 117 

Mahayana Buddhism, 61 

Makemie, Francis, 177 

Manteo, 186 

Manual of the Mother Church (Christian 
Science) , 72 

Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, 97 

Marquette, 196 

Marshall, Abraham, 38 

Marshall College, 220 

Marshall, John, 187 

Martin, H. R., 151 

Mason, C. H., 76 

Matthew, Rabbi Wentworth David, 125 

Mayan Temple, 146 

"Mayflower," 215 

Mayhews, the, 216 

Melanchthon, Philip, 190 

Mennonite Brethren Church of North Amer- 
ica, 149 

Mennonite Brethren in Christ, 223 

Mennonite Central Committee, 147 

Mennonite Church, 150 

Mennonite Kleine Gemeinde, 148 

Mennonites, 146 

Menorah Journal, 123 

Mesrob, 29 

Message of the Brethren Ministry, 56 

Message of the Open Bible, 169 

Messenger, The, 50 

Messenger Elijah Muhammad, 53 

Messiah College, 60 

Methodist Book Concern, 153 

Methodist Church, The, 28, 83, 104, 155, 159, 

Methodist Episcopal Church, 52, 79, 153, 154, 
155, 156, 162, 163 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 38, 52, 
154, 155, 158, 161, 162, 163 

Methodist New Connection (England) , 202 

Methodist Protestant Church, 52, 153, 155 

Methodist Publishing House, The, 156 

Methodists, 38, 66, 107, 151-55, 178 

Methodius, 163 

Metropolitan Church Association, 105 

Metropolitan Methodist Church of Chicago, 



Metz, Christian, 25 

Michael, Archbishop, 92 

Michaelius, Dominie Jonas, 191 

Michigan Synod, 146 

Middlebury College, 216 

Midstream, 123 

Millennial Dawnists, 118 

Miller, William, 19, 20, 22 

Millerites, 19 

Milton, John, 209 

Minnehaha Academy, 100 

Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 134, 139 

Minnesota Synod, 146 

Mirzd 'AH Muhammad (Bahd'f) , 30 

Mirzd Husayn 'Ali (Baha'f), 30 

Missing Persons Bureau, 204 

Mission Covenant Churches, 99, 100 

Mission Synod, 100 

Missionary Baptist Church, 165 

Missionary Baptist Institute, 40 

Missionary Baptist Seminary, 40 

Missionary Baptists, 43, 47 

Missionary Church Association, 105 

Missionary Society of Basel, 219 

Missouri Synod, 134, 143-44, 145 

Mohammed, 30 

Moore, Bishop Benjamin, 187 

Moorish Science Temple, 125 

Moravian Church (Unitas Fratrum) , 164 

Moravians, 152, 163 

Mormons, 107, 126-32 

Morris Pratt Institute, 208 

Morris, Robert, 187 

Mother Church (Christian Science) , 71, 72, 73 

Mount of Praise School, 82 

Mount Union Baptist Association, 41 

Muhlenberg, Henry Melchior, 134 

Muhlenberg, W. A., 187 

Mumford, Stephen, 50 

Murray, John, 211 

National and International Pentecostal Mis- 
sionary Union, 172 

National Baptist Convention, 36, 38, 49 
National Baptist Convention (Unincor- 
porated) , 38, 46 
National Baptist Convention of America, 38, 


National Baptist Convention of the U.S.A., 38 
National Baptist Convention of the U.S.A., 

Inc., 38, 39 
National Baptist Evangelical Life and Soul 

Saving Assembly of the U.S.A., 46 
National Bible Institution, 23 
National Cathedral (Washington, D. C.) , 189 
National Catholic Welfare Conference, 202 
National Conference of Catholic Charities, 201 
National Convention of the Churches of God, 

Holiness, 82 
National Council of Community Churches, 


National Council of the Churches of Christ 
in the U.S.A., 36, 55, 136, 139, 183, 190 

National David Spiritual Temple of Christ 

Church Union (Inc.) , U.S.A., 165 
National Evangelical Lutheran Church, 145 
National Executive Board (Volunteers) , 226 
National Jewish Post and Opinion, 123 
National Lutheran Council, 135, 139, 140, 141, 


National Primitive Baptist Convention of the 
U.S.A. (Formerly Colored Primitive Bap- 
tists) , 46 

National Serbian Church, 94 
National Spiritual Alliance of the U.S.A., 208 
National Spiritual Assembly (Baha'f) , 31 
National Spiritualist Association of Churches, 

National War Council (Roman Catholic) , 

National Young Buddhist Co-ordinating 

Council, 62 

Nature's Divine Revelations, 206 
Navajo Indians, 193 
Nazarene Manual, The, 79 
Nebraska yearly meeting, 113 
Negro Baptists, 38 
Nestorian Church, 97 
Nestorius, 97 

Netherlands Reformed Congregations, 194 
New Apostolic Church of North America, 166 
New Congregational Methodist Church, 161 
New Dunkers, 54, 56 
New England School of Theology, 22 
New England yearly meeting, 113, 114 
New Hampshire Confession, 34 
New Hampshire State Baptist Convention, 34 
New Lights (Baptist) , 33, 50 
New Lights (Presbyterian) , 185 
New School (Presbyterian) , 179 
New Thought, 224 
New York yearly meeting, 110, 113 
Newsweek, 156 
Newton, Isaac, 209 
Niagara Christian College, 60 
Nicene Creed, 24, 87, 88, 96, 132, 135, 137, 144, 

167, 169, 188, 190, 197 
Niceo-Constantinopolitan Creed, 88, 133 
Nicols, Ignatius, 98 
Noli, Bishop T. S., 90 
North American Baptist Association, 47 
North American Baptist General Conference, 


North American College, 202 
North American Catholic Church, 168 
North Carolina yearly meeting, 113, 114 
North Park College and Theological Sem- 
inary, 100 
Northern Baptist Convention, 33, 35, 36, 49, 


Northwest Territory Ordinance, 216 
Northwestern Holiness Association, 160 
Norwegian-Danish Conference, 137 
Norwegian Lutheran Church of America, 135 
Norwegian Synod, 137 



Norwegian Synod of the American Evan- 
gelical Lutheran Church. See Evangelical 
Lutheran Synod. 

Notes on the New Testament (Wesley's) , 154 

Ofiesh, Aftimios, 98 

Oglethorpe, General, 15 

Ohio yearly meeting, 113, 114 

Ohio Synod (Lutheran) , 137 

O'Kelley, James, 80, 218, 219 

Oklahoma Missionary Baptist Institute, 40 

Old Catholic Church in America, 168 

Old Catholic Churches, 167 

Old German Baptist Brethren (Old Order 

Dunkers) , 57 

Old Lights (Baptists) , 33, 50 
Old Lights (Presbyterian) , 185 
Old Order Amish Mennonite Church, 147, 

148, 149, 150 

Old Order Dunkers, 54, 57 
Old Order (Wisler) Mennonite Church, 150 
Old Order or Yorker Brethren, 60 
Old Roman Catholic Church of Holland, 168 
Old School (Presbyterian) , 179 
Old School Baptists, 49 
Open Bible Evangelistic Association, 169 
Open Bible Standard Churches, Inc., 169 
Open Brethren, 58 
Oregon Bible College, 23 
Oregon yearly meeting, 113 
(Original) Church of God, Inc., 74 
Orthodox Catholic Patriarchate of America, 


Orthodox Judaism, 123 
Orthodox Lutheran Conference, 145 
Orthodox Mission to the Americas, 98 
Orthodox Presbyterian Church, 183, 184 
Otterbein, Philip William, 101-2, 214 
Oxford Methodists, 151 
Oxford Movement, 188 
Oxford University, 151 

Padewski, Missionary Bishop, 175 

Palmer, Paul, 43 

Palmquist, Gustav, 40 

Parker, Elder Daniel, 51 

Parliament of Religion, 226 

Particular Baptists, 33, 49 

Patton, George, 56 

Peace of God, 195 

Pearl of Great Price, The, 127 

Pedobaptists, 32 

Penn, William, 47, 54, 109, 147 

Pentecostal Assemblies of Jesus Christ, 173 

Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc., 172 

Pentecostal Bodies, 170 

Pentecostal Brethren in Christ in Ohio, 173 

Pentecostal Church, Inc., 172 

Pentecostal Church of Christ, 173 

Pentecostal Church of God in America, Inc., 


Pentecostal Church of the Nazarene, 78 
Pentecostal Evangel, The, 30 

Pentecostal Fire-Baptized Holiness Church, 

Pentecostal Free Will Baptist Church, 171 

Pentecostal Holiness Church, 171 

Pentecostal Rescue Mission, 173 

Pentecostal Union, 106 

People's Methodist Church, 161 

People's Mission Church of Colorado, 173 

Perkiomen School, 205 

Pesach (Passover) , 121 

Peter the Great, 92 

Peter, Jesse, 38 

Philadelphia Association (Baptist) , 34, 35 

Philadelphia Confession, 34 

Philadelphia Declaration, 211, 212 

Philadelphia yearly meeting, 110, 113 

Philips, Obe, 146 

Phillips, W. T., 28 

Philosopher's Sphere, 207 

Phoebus, William, 157 

Photius, 87 

Pietists, 54, 59 

Pilgrim Church (California) , 173 

Pilgrim Holiness Church, 173 

Pillar of Fire, 105-6 

Pilmoor, Joseph, 152 

Pioneers, 119 

Pius IV, Pope, 197 

Plan of Union, 178 

Plates of Laban, 131 

Plymouth Brethren, 57 

Plymouth People, 215 

Polish National Catholic Church of Amer- 
ica, 133, 168, 174, 190 

Polish National Union, 175 

Polk, Bishop Leonidas, 187 

Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 65 

Presbyterian Church in the U. S., 181 

Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 177 

Presbyterian Church of America, 184 

Presbyterian Life, 181 

Presbyterian Ministers' Fund, 180 

Presbyterian Synod of Pittsburgh, 66 

Presbyterians, 65, 66, 83, 107, 175-85, 187, 190, 
216, 217 

Preuss, 166 

Priesthood of Aaron, 127, 128, 129 

Priesthood of Melchizedek, 127, 128 

Primitive Advent Christian Church, 23 

Primitive Baptists, 48 

Primitive Methodist Church, U.S. A., 161 

Primitives (Quakers), 110 

Princeton Theological Seminary, 178 

Princeton University, 177, 178 

Progressive Dunkers, 54, 55, 56 

Progressive Spiritual Church, 208 

Protestant Conference (Lutheran) , 145 

Protestant Episcopal Church, 186 

Protestant Reformed Churches of America, 

Providence Baptist Association of Ohio, 38 

"Publishers of the Kingdom," 119 

Purim (Feast of Lots) , 121 



Pumell, Benjamin, 114 

Quakerism, 224 

Quakers. See' Friends; Religious Society of 


Queens College, 191 
Quorum of the Twelve (Mormon) , 131 

Rabbani, Shogi, 31 

Rabbi Isaac Elehanan Theological Seminary, 

Rabbinical Assembly of America, 122 

Rabbinical Council of America, 122 

Raleigh, Walter, 186 

Randall, Benjamin, 43 

Randolph, John, 187 

Rankin, Thomas, 153 

Re-Baptizers, 146 

Recollects, 196 

Reconstructionism, 125 

Reconstructionist, The, 123 

Redstone Baptist Association, 66 

Reform Judaism, 124 

Reformation, the, 133, 163, 176, 190, 195, 196, 
205, 209 

Reformed Bodies, 190 

Reformed Catholic Church (Utrecht Con- 
fession) , 169 

Reformed Church, 133, 195 

Reformed Church in America, 190-92 

Reformed Church in the U. S., 190, 193, 219 

Reformed Church of Holland, 102 

Reformed Church of Hungary, 193 

Reformed Dutch Church in the U.S.A., 191 

Reformed Episcopal Church, 188, 194 

Reformed Mennonite Church, 150 

Reformed Methodist Church, 161 

Reformed Methodist Church in New York, 82 

Reformed Methodist Union Episcopal 
Church, 162 

Reformed New Congregational Methodist 
Church, 162 

Reformed Presbyterian Church (New Light) , 

Reformed Presbyterian Church (Old Light) , 

Reformed Presbyterian Church in North 
America (General Synod) , 185 

Reformed Presbyterian Church of North 
America (Old School), 185 

Reformed Presbyterian Synod, 185 

Reformed Presbytery, 182, 185 

Reformed Presbytery of Scotland, 185 

Reformed Protestant Dutch Church, 191 

Reformed Zion Union Apostolic Church, 162 

Refuge Temple, 78 

Regular Baptists, 49 

Religious Society of Friends (Conservative) , 

Religious Society of Friends (Five Years 
Meeting), 113 

Religious Society of Friends (General Con- 
ference), 113 

Relly, James, 211 

Remakrishna Math and Mission, 226 

Renaissance, the, 196 

Renovated or Living Church (Russian) , 92, 

Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- 

Day Saints, 129 

Republican Methodists, 153, 218 
Rescue Herald, The, 28 
Restitution Herald, The, 23 
Review and Herald Publishing Association, 21 
Revolution, American, 109, 153, 186, 191, 


Rhenish Missionary Society, 219 
Rhodes, S. W., 21 

Richmond Theological Seminary, 182 
Rieger, Johann Bartolomaeus, 220 
Rigdon, Sidney, 131 
River Brethren, 59 
Roberts, B. T., 159 
Robinson, John, 215 
Rock, Johann, 25 
Roman Catholic Church, 87, 88, 97, 132, 133, 

163, 167, 168, 174, 195-202, 204 
Roman Catholic Council of Baltimore, 174 
Roman Curia, the, 199 
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate of America, 


Rosh Hashana, 121 
Rosicrucianism, 224 
Russell, Charles Taze, 118 
RusseUites, 118 
Russian Orthodox Catholic Archdiocese of 

the Aleutian Islands and North America, 


Russian Orthodox Church, 92 
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia, 94 
Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church of 

America, 94 
Rutgers College, 191 
Rutherford, Joseph F., 118, 119 

Sacred Penitentiary, the, 199 
Sacred Roman Rota, the, 199 
Sahak, 29 

St. Basil's Academy, 92 
St. Basil the Great, 89 

St. David Orthodox Christian Spiritual Sem- 
inary, 166 

St. Lawrence College, 213 
St. Peter, 168 

St. Sava's Serbian Monastery, 94 
St. Sophia, Council of, 87 
Salvation Army, 202-4 
Salvation Army Corporation, 203 
Sander, J. A., 162 
Santamaria, John, 65 
Santamaria, Rocco, 65 
Saracens, 195 

Sarepta Old People's Home, 141 
Savonarola, 196 
Saxons, 195 



Scandinavian Augustana Synod of North 
America, 141 

Schlatter, Michael, 220 

Schnell, W. J,, 132 

Scholte, Dominie, 191 

Schwarz, Bishop, 166 

Schwenckfeld von Ossig, Kaspar, 204 

Schwenkfelder Church, 204 

Science and Health with Key to the Scrip- 
tures, 71, 72 

Seabury, Samuel, 187 

Second Helvetic Confession, 193 

Secretariate of State, 199 

Semple, Robert, 117 

Separate Baptists, 32, 33, 43, 50, 52 

Separate Baptists in Christ, 50 

Separatists, 215 

Serbian Eastern Orthodox Church, 94 

Serbian Patriarchate of Yugoslavia, 94 

Sergius, Patriarch, 93 

Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life, A 
(William Law) , 151 

Servants of Yah, 205 

Seven Keys, The, 76 

Seventh-Day Adventists, 20 

Seventh Day Baptists, 50 

Seventh Day Baptists (German, 1728) , 51 

Shabuoth (Feast of Weeks) , 121 

Shearth Israel, 120 

Short, David William, 165, 166 

Silent Unity, 225 

Simons, Menno, 32, 146, 148 

Simpson, A. B., 63 

Sisters of Charity, 202 

Sisters of Mercy, 202 

Slovak Evangelical Lutheran Church, See 
Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches. 

Smalcald Articles, 133, 135, 137, 144 

Small, Alethea Brooks, 86 

Smith, Elder E. D,, 209 

Smith, Elias, 80 

Smith, Hyrum, 127 

Smith, Captain John, 186 

Smith, Joseph, 126, 127, 128, 130, 131 

Smith, Joseph, Jr., 129 

Smyth, John, 43 

Social Brethren, 206 

Society of Friends (Five Years Meeting") , 110, 
112,113 ' 

Society of St. Basil, 98 

Society of St. Vincent de Paul, 202 

Society for the Propagation of the Faith, 201 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
151, 186 F 

Socinians, 209 

Soderblom, Archbishop Nathan, 136 

Solomon Korteniemi Lutheran Society, 143 

Soule, Bishop Joshua, 155 
Southcott, Johanna, 114 
Southeast Kansas Fire Baptized Holiness As- 
sociation, 107 

Southern Baptist Convention, 36 
Southern Methodist Church, 162 

Southern Normal School, 192 
Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, 
*5> I 

Spiritism, 224 

Spiritualist Manual, 207 

Spiritualists, 206 

Spojnia Farm, 175 

Spurling, Richard G., 73, 74 

Standard, The, 41 

Stauffer, Jacob, 151 

Stauffer Mennonite Church, 151 

Stinson, Benoni, 44 

Stone, Barton W., 80 

Strang, James J., 131 

Strangites, 131 

Strawbridge, Robert, 152 

Stuber, Stanley I., 189 

Stuyvesant, Peter, 120 

Sukkoth (Feast of Tabernacles) , 121 

Sulpicians, 196 

Summer Land, 207 

Sunset Club, 227 

Suomi Synod (Lutheran) , 135, 140 

Supreme Ecclesiastical Council, 98 

Swedenborg, Emmanuel, 84, 85 

Swedenborg Foundation, 85 

Swedenborg Society in America, 85 

Swedenborgians, 84-85 

Swedish Evangelical Mission Covenant of 
America, 100 

Swedish Free Baptists, 45 

Swedish Pentecostal Movement, 115 

Swiss Brethren, 146 

Synagogue Council of America, 122 

Synod of Dort, 190, 192 

Synod of Evangelical Lutheran Churches 
(Formerly the Slovak Evangelical Lutheran 
Church) , 145 

Synod of Iowa (Lutheran) , 137 

Synod of Kentucky (Presbyterian), 179, 184 

Synod of Missouri (Presbyterian), 179 

Synod of Northern Illinois (Lutheran) , 141 

Synod of South and North Holland ale- 
formed) , 220 v 

Syrian Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of 
New York and All North America, 95 

Syrian Antiochian Orthodox Church, 95 

Syrian Church of Antioch, 168 

Syro-Jacobite Church of Malabar, 167 

Tabernacle Pentecostal Church, 171 

Talmud, the, 120 

Tamerlane, 97 

Tammuz, Feast of, 121 

Taufers, 54, 146 

Tebeth, Fast of, 121 

Tennent, Gilbert, 177 

Tennent, William, 177 

Tennent, William, Jr., 177 

Tennessee Synod (Presbyterian) , 183-84 

Texas Baptist Seminary, 40 

Texas Synod (Lutheran) , 137 

Thaddeus, 29, 97 



Theodorovich, Archbishop John, 95 

Theosophy, 224 

Theravada Buddhism, 61 

Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, 154, 164 

Thirty Years a Watchtower Slave, 132 

Thirty Years' War, 163 

Thomas, John, 62 

Thompson, G. Tabor, 208 

Thurston, Charles, 187 

Tiffin Agreement, 193 

Tikhon, Patriarch, 95 

Tillie, a Mennonite Maid f 151 

Today, 181 

Toleration Act (1689) , 109 

Tomlinson, A. J., 73 

Tomlinson, Homer A., 73 

Tomlinson, Milton A., 73 

Torah, 121 

Toth, Alexis, 91 

Treatise on Atonement, 211 

Treatise on Christian Perfection, A (William 
Law) , 151 

Trinity Bible College and Seminary, 101 

Trinity Church (N.Y.C.) , 186 

Triumph the Church and Kingdom of God 
in Christ, 209 

Truth About the Pharisees, The, 120 

Tufts College, 213 

Tunkers, 54 

Turner, Nat, 38 

Two-Seed-in-the-Spirit Presdestinarian Bap- 
tists, 51 

Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America 

(Ecumenical Patriarchate) , 95 
Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the U.S.A., 95 
Ukrainian Orthodox Churches, 95 
Ukrainian (Roman) Catholic Church, 98 
Unaffiliated Conservative Amish Mennonite 

Churches, 151 

Unaffiliated Mennonites, 151 
Unaltered Augsburg Confession, 135, 137, 140 
Uniat churches, 91, 93, 97-98, 168, 201 
Union, 211 
Union American Methodist Episcopal Church, 


Union Church of Africans, 162 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 

Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations 

of America, 122 
Union of Orthodox Rabbis of the U.S. and 

Canada, 122 

Union Theological Seminary (N.Y.C.) , 179 
Union Theological Seminary (Va.) , 179 
Unitarian Universalist Association, 209 
Unitas Fratrum (Moravian) , 163, 164, 165 
United Baptist Churches of Christ in Virginia, 


United Baptists, 52 
United Brethren, 214 
United Brethren in Christ, 102 
United Christian Church, 214 

United Church of Christ, 215 
United Church of the U.S., 116 
United Evangelical Church, 99, 101 
United Evangelical Lutheran Church, 137 
United Evangelical Synod of the East, 219 
United Free Will Baptist Church, 52 
United Holy Church of America, Inc., 223 
United Lutheran Church in America, 135, 

136, 139-40 
United Lutheran Church Men and Women, 


United Missionary Church, 223 
United Norwegian Church, 137 
United Pentecostal Church, Inc., 173 
United Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 177 
United Presbyterian Church of North 

America, 179 

United Society for Christian Endeavor, 218 
United Synagogue of America, 122 
United Synod of the Presbyterian Church, 179 
United Synod of the South (Lutheran) , 134, 

135, 139, 141 

United Zion's Children, 54, 59, 60 
United Zion Church, 60 
Unity School of Christianity, 224 
Universal Christian Spiritual Faith and 

Churches for All Nations, 165 
Universalists, 107, 211-13 
University of Judaism, 123 
Unorganized Italian Churches of North 

America, 65 
Upland College, 60 
Urban VIII, Pope, 132 

Valparaiso Christian Hospital, 68 

Valparaiso University, 144 

Van Raalte, Dominie Albertus, 191 

Vandals, 195 

Varrick, James, 157 

Vedanta Society, 226 

Vedas, 226 

Vilatte, Joseph Rene, 24, 167, 168 

Virginia House of Burgesses, 186 

Vivekananda, Swami, 226 

Vladimir the Great, 95 

"Voice of Prophecy," 22 

Voliva, Wilbur Glen, 64 

Volunteer Prison League, 226 

Volunteers of America, 226 

Walpole, Horace, 178 

Walther League, 144 

Ware, Henry, 210 

Warren Association of Rhode Lsland, 35 

Washington, George, 187 

Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New 

York, Inc., 118 
Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of 

Pennsylvania, 118 
Watchtower, The t 119 
Weaver Mennonites, 151 
Webb, Captain Thomas, 152 
Weiss, George Michael, 220 



Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, 179 

Welsh Tract, 43 

Wentz, Abdel R., 133 

Wesley Chapel, 152 

Wesley, Charles, 151 

Wesley, John, 74, 78, 151, 152, 153, 154, 159, 

Wesleyan Methodist Church of America, 163 

Wesleyan Methodist Connection, 152 

Westbrook Junior College, 213 

Western (Indiana) yearly meeting, 113 

Western Theological Seminary, 191 

Westminster Abbey (American) . See Na- 
tional Cathedral. 

Westminster Assembly of Divines, 176, 177, 

Westminster Catechism, 165 

Westminster Confession, 164, 165, 177, 179, 
182, 184, 185 

Westminster Larger and Shorter Cathechisms, 
176, 177, 184 

Weyeneth, Benedict, 103 

Wheeler, Frederick, 21 

White, Alma, 106 

White, Ellen Harmon, 21, 75 

White, James, 20 

White, Bishop William, 157 

Whitefield, George, 33, 50, 151, 153, 164, 177, 

Whitman, Marcus, 178 

Whittier, John, 110 

Wider Quaker Fellowship, 112 

Wiebe, Jacob A., 149 

Wilbur, John, 114 

Wilburites, 114 

Wilcoxen, Earl, 162 

William and Mary College, 186 

Williams College, 216 

Williams, Frank, 53 

Williams, Roger, 33, 43, 216 

Williamson, Ralph, 106 

Wilmington (Ohio) yearly meeting, 113 

Wilson, James, 178 

Winebrenner, John, 83 

Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, 145 

Wisler, Jacob, 150 

Witherspoon, John, 178 

Woman's American Baptist Foreign Mission 

Society, 35 
Woman's American Baptist Home Mission 

Society, 35 

Woolman, John, 110 
World Convention of Churches (Disciples) , 

World Council of Churches, 36, 55, 112, 136, 

167. 183, 190 
World War I, 110, 197 
World War II, 197 

Yale University, 216 

Yeshiva University, 123 

Yivo Institute, 123 

Yom Kippur, 121 

Young, Brigham, 127, 128, 130, 131 

Zinzendorf, Nicholas Louis, Count, 164 

Zion City (111.) , 64 

Zion Union Apostolic Church, 162 

/ionism, 123 

Zionist Organization of America, 123 

Zoroaster, 30 

Zuk, Joseph, 95 

Zuni Indians, 193 

Zwingli, Ulrich, 129, 190 


C Z 
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