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Full text of "Hand-book of Durham, North Carolina : a brief and accurate description of a prosperous and growing southern manufacturing town"

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NORTH CAROL/ N A 



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£ EDUCATOR CO. PUBLISHERS, DURHAM N. C 



THE LIBRARY OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF 

NORTH CAROLINA 




THE COLLECTION OF 
NORTH CAROLINIANA 

PRESENTED BY 




HAND-BOOK 



— OF- 



DUNHAM 



NORTH CAROLINA 



A BRIEF AND ACCURATE DESCRIPTION OP A PROSPEROUS 
AND GROWING SOUTHERN MANUFACTURING TOWN. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



IX'RIIAM, N. C. 

THK 1 D MI-ANV. 

1895. 



CONTENTS. 



PUBLH 1 

Health; City Government; 

and indebtedness . In 

ternal Revenue ; Buildings and Streets 8-10 

Water \\'.> t kv trie Lights and G 

Telephone and Telegraph; Hotels; Hospital 11-19 

Market; >> b olsand College; Churches; Lodges; Social Club; 31-38 

PRTVATB Ivi 1 B 

Banking 29-31 

Tobacco Manufactories 31-41 

Textile Manufactories 41-46 

Cigar Manufactories 

Other Manufactories 4^-5 1 

if Tobacco Brokerage 51-55 

Tobacco Sales Warehouses 55-58 

Miscellaneous Enterprises 5S-62 

Insurance and Commission Brokerage 62-64 

Genera] Mercantile Business 65-71 

Knurueration of Enterprises 7 1 

Advantages am. n 

Railroad Advantages 

Industrial ai 

Educational Advantages 75 

Durham's Needs 77-So 

Stati: ob North C irouna 

Some of Her Products 

Climate of North Carolina 85-88 

Population of 1 88-93 

Government and Taxation 9396 






Hand-book of Durham, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



] )l IKM [AM 

North Carolina. 

Town, People and Public Interests. 

LOCATION OF TOWN. 

DURHAM is located on the main line of the North Caro- 
lina Division of the Southern Railway system (formerly 
known as the Richmond & Danville), and is the termi- 
nus of the Lynchburg & Durham Division of the Norfolk & 
Western Railroad, the Oxford & Clarksville Railroad and the 
Durham & Northern Division of the Seaboard Air Line Rail- 
road. Is twenty-six miles west <>f Raleigh, the State's Capi- 
tal, ami twelve miles northeast of Chapel Hill, where is lo- 
cated the popular and progressive State University. Durham 
is the center of what is known throughout tin- commercial 
world as tin- "Bright Tobacco Belt" of North Carolina. It 
has a population of 8000, ami is tin- first town of the State in 
manufacturing importance. Was incorporated in [869 when 
its inhabitants numbered no more than _><»>, and owes its pros- 
perity in a great measure to the just fame of its excellent 
brands of smoking tobacco and cigarettes, which is world- 
wide, her products finding a market in every civilized and 
ivilized quarter of the globe. Lying in the famous 
Piedmont region, its climate is equable and invigorating and 

the health of its eiti/.eiis excellent. It is surrounded by a 

thrifty population of prosperous fanners and is the market for 
a dozen contiguous counties of wonderful fertility and resour- 

The town was named in honor of Dr. Bartlett Durham, 
who donated the land upon which tin- warehouse and depot of 

the North Carolina Railroad is located. 

The historical interest of Durham is derived from the fact, 
that in neral Joseph I-".. Johnson, near here — at what 

is known as the "Bennett Place" — surrendered to (, 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, X. 




Sherman, which ended hostilities between the North and South 
and sounded the utter collapse of the Southern Confederacy. 

THE PEOPLE. 

The rapid strides 
which this town 
has made in ad- 
vancing its mate- 
rial interests is 
owing primarily 
to the fact that the 
leading busin ess 
men of the place, 
(most of whom are 
old residents), hav- 
ing created a nu- 
cleus for a manu- 
facturing tow n, 
determined not to 
BBI rest content until 
recognition was 
had from the com- 
mercic inters of 
this and other 
countries. While at all times willing and anxious to extend 
a hand of welcome to newcomers possessing energy and cap- 
ital, they at no time relaxed their grasp on every situation as 
it existed, fully realizing that outside capital was to some ex- 
tent a secondary consideration and in the course of time would 
naturally flow to such towns as had created a diversity of per- 
manent manufacturing enterprises, giving every assurance of 
success. Ever cognizant of the fact that unless they utilized 
the advantages they possessed, by creating and fosterir" v new 
industries, the confidence of outsiders would not K. great 
enough to cause them to invest in their midst, they forged 
ahead in the commendable work of establishing new factories, 
until to-day the town has as great a diversity, and more and 
larger manufacturing establishments — all of which are success- 
fully conducted — than any town in North Carolina. To this 
cause almost exclusively, is due the present prosperity of the 
place. 

In addition to the few business men herein referred to, who 
have so largely contributed in numerous ways toward the up- 



THE "BENNETT PEACE. 



TOWN, PEOPLE AM- PUBLIC INTERESTS. 



building of Durham, it should be borne in mind that there are 
man) others who have done much in bringing forward new 
work and have aided in the further development of industries 
that have been in successful operation for sometime, — in fact 
the whole people as a rule are thrift) and industrious, and are 
never wavering in the position they take sustaining the in- 
of the town. As a result of their industry and frugal- 
ity the percentage of idleness and lawlessness is as small 
as cav be found anywhere. Pew manufacturing towns 
throughout the whole coun- 
try can boast of as large a per 
cent <»t" truly good, 1 a w- 
abiding and intelligent cit- 
izens as can this progressive 
city. 

it has often been remarked 
by visitors and former resi- 
dents, that it is not the ex- 
treme beauty of the j> 1 a c e 
that ha> an attracting in- 
fluence, but the genial and 
pushing litics of her peo- 
ple, i .. .I. the humblest cit- 
izen, living in a two room 
to the- wealthiest 
manufacturer, enjoying the 
surroundings of culture and 
refinement, there is an air of 
contentment and satisfaction 
rarely seen among any peo- 
ple. This is due principally 
to the tact that both rich and 
a >nstantly employed 
and find little time to brood and fret over their condition in 
life, and as long as the manufacturing interests of the place 
continue as prosperous as they have been, there is little doubt 
but what all will remain contented. 

The majority of day-laborers hud remunerative employ- 
ment in the many factories and workshops ot the town. 
Strikes, that haw of recent years been such an element of 
loss to both capita] and labor, is something entirely foreign to 
the people of this place, and a feeling of security and 




[SAAC N. LINK, 
Mayor "t Durham. 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



will between employers and those employed exists in a larger 
degree than is usual in manufacturing communities. 

HEALTH. 

The climate ot Durham is mild and invigorating, and the 
health of the people good. The official record shows the mor- 
tality of Durham for some years past to be less in proportion 

to population than 
any town in the 
State. For asth- 
ma and throat dis- 
eases generally, 
the climate and 
atmosphere is pe- 
culiarly beneficial. 
There h a s never 
been an epedemic 
of diphtheria or of 
any other kind in 
the past quarter of 
a century. Be- 
sides attributing 
the cause to the 
sanitary condition 
and favorable lo- 
cation of the town, 
tobacco manufacturing has considerable to do with the excel- 
lent health of the people, for it is a matter of record that an 
atmosphere permeated with the odor of tobacco will ward 
off contagious diseases. The French noted this fact some 
years ago and made it a subject of much discussion. 

CITY GOVERNMENT. 

The government and control of town affairs is vested in a 
Mayor and Board of Town Aldermen, who are annually elect- 
ed by the people. The administration for years past has been 
active and able. The present Mayor and Board are in line 
with their predecessors and are constantly devising and in- 
augurating such new work as will prove a benefit to the peo- 
ple they represent and a testimonial of merit for efficiency to 
themselves. 

The present officers are : Mayor, Isaac N. Link ; Board 
of Aldermen : Leo D. Heartt, H. J. Bass, A. D. Markham, 




DURHAM COUNTY COURT-HOUSE. 



G~ i\\?m. m. 




Board of Aloermen. 



8 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

J. W. Carlton, Jas. W. Walker, W. H. Proctor and C. A. 
Jordan. In addition to these are the many appointive officers 
of the town, such as City Attorney, Street Commissioner, 
Town Clerk, Treasurer, Police officers and others who are ap- 
pointed by the Board. 

TAXABLE PROPERTY. 

A matter of interest is the taxable property in the town 
which is annually listed for taxation. The valuation of 
real estate and personal property for 1894, as listed, is $6,148,- 
614.00, which is estimated to be one-half of the actual 
value, and which exceeds that of any town in the State with 
one exception. This, notwithstanding a number of towns 
in North Carolina have a much larger population than has 
the town of Durham. Besides this they are old places, a 
number of whose citizens have always enjoyed large legacies 
while not a single individual residing in Durham ever had as 
much as ten thousand dollars before becoming one of its 
citizens. This to show what brawn and brain have done, and 
can do, towards building a town of commercial importance. 

Below is given the population, and wealth (as listed) of the 
larger towns of the State : 

NAME OF TOWN POPULATION 

Wilmington, N. C, 22,000 *$6,928,9SS.oo 

Durham, N. C, 8,000 6,148,614,00 

Charlotte, N. C, 14,000 . . 5,500,000.00 

Raleigh, N. C, 13,000 4,800,000.00 

Asheville, N. C, 10,000 4,508,000.00 

Winston, N. C, 8,000 3,547,463.00 

Greensboro, N. C., 8.000 2,146504.00 

*The Income tax of Wilmington is $107,932.00, which has been deducted from above as 
the other towns do not require incomes to be taxed. 

At the present period in the history of most Southern cities, 
an effort is being made to secure desirable immigration and 
capital, such as is looking southward for homes and invest- 
ment. It will be well for all such to bear in mind that the 
places offering the greatest inducements, are those which in 
earlier years of their growth started out on a line of progressive 
policy, with no other assurance of success but such as indom- 
itble will and energy would give. 

REAL ESTATE, TAXES AND INDEBTEDNESS. 
The real estate interest of Durham, although great, is not 



TOWN, PEOPLE \M' PI BLIC [NTERESTS. 



nough to indicate fictitious values. Lots ol every size 
.in.l any location ran be purchased at very reasonable prices 
and on the easiest terms, while land foi factory sites can be 
had for the mere asking. (See Land Corapaii I inning 

lands around the town, from a distance of from one to ten 
miles, ran be had at from $4.00 to$20.oo pei ording 

to distance. Good plantations, yielding all the agricultural 
products adapted to the soil of North Carolina, such as corn, 
wheat, oats, rye, clover, cotton and tobacco, can be bought 
at an average price oi $10.00 an acre, this in a radius not 
exceeding six miles from town. 

City taxes for 1 89 | are as 
folli >\vs on the one hundred 
dollars valuation: For town 
purposes fifty c en ts; fo r 
school pin poses sixteen and 
two-third cents; for school 
bonds five cents; 1 mrham 6c 
Northern railroad bonds six- 
teen and two-third cents; 
Oxford & Clarksville rail- 
road bonds ten cents; 
making a total tax of ninety- 
eight and < »ne-third cents on 
the one hundred dollars val- 
uation. 

Tlu- indebtedness of the 

tow 11 consists of railroad and 

school bonds. Some 
ago the people were at the 
mercy of one line of railway 
and as a result ware thor- 
oughly handicapped Real- 
izing that unless a competing 
line should he put in operation the town could never attain 
to the position it was justly entitled, they began to bestir 
themselves until several liberal propositions were made them; 
one to vote a subscription to the building of a road from 
Durham to Henderson, a distance of forty-one miles, connect- 
ing with the Seaboad Air Line, and another proposition from 
another source to vote a subscription t«> the building ot a line 




. MVP'S \\ TOMS 

Superintendent 



IO HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

from Durham to Keysville, Va. , connecting with the main line 
of the Richmond & Danville (now the Southern), both of which 
propositions the town accepted, the acceptation of same hav- 
ing since proven the foresight and wisdom of the people of 
Durham. The building of a handsome public school edifice 
is the remaining item of the town's indebtedness. 

The entire bond issue to date is: Durham & Northern 
Railroad $100,000; Oxford & Clarksville Railroad $50,000; 
Graded School Building $25,000; making a total indebted- 
ness of $175,000, less $16,841.71 Sinking Fund Drrh un & 
Northern railroad bonds. 

INTERNAL REVENUE. 

As an indication of what the tobacco, cigarette and cigar 
manufacturing interests of the town have been for the past two 
vears, there has been paid by Durham manufacturers into the 
Deputy Collectors office at Durham, $1,241,906.87 as a rev- 
enue on the two years output, which is exclusive of all exports, 
there being no revenue tax paid on same. The exports for 
past two years, if revenue had been paid thereon, would have 
carried the amount to more than an additional $300,000. 

The large amount which these manufacturers annually pay 
to the general government, will no doubt soon secure for the 
place a handsome Federal building. 

BUILDINGS AND STREETS. 

The business houses, stores and factories, are nearly all con- 
structed of brick — none being of wood. Some of the stores, 
bank buildings and factories are highly ornamental in design, 
expensive in cost and would do credit to any larger city mak- 
ing greater pretensions than does Durham. The residences 
as a rule are built of wood; are neat and substantial, and devoid 
of that architectural sameness which is such an eyesore in 
many otherwise beautiful towns. Many of the more wealthy 
citizens occupy mansions of superb architectural splendor, 
possessing every convenience and luxury that ingenuity could 
devise or money procure, and are surrounded by ornamental 
grounds of oriental richness and magnificence. 

The streets run at right angles and have an average width 
of sixty feet including ten feet sidewalks. All the main thor- 
oughfares and some of the more important residence streets 
are paved either with cobble or crushed stone in a substantial 



a PEOPl B \M' PI BLIC INTERESTS. 



w in with hewn granite curbings. The streets are well graded 
and afford delightful diiving. The cit) owns and opei 
modern rock crushei and steam roller, which is being worked 
steadily preparing stone, with a view ol ultimately macadam- 
izing all the streets of the town. 

WATER WORKS 

\. i matter of protection, convenience, cleanliness, health 
and comfort, a good suppl) of pure and wholesome watei is 
indispensable. In addition to the wells that abound, Durham 
is blessed with a syst< m ol 
water works second to none, 
if not superioi toauj system 
in the State. The source of 
suppl) i- located among the 
hills of Eno, about se ve n 
miles away. Prom a cluster 
of never-failing springs the 
watn flows into a large stor- 
age pond. From this supply 
pond it flows b) gravity into 
the settling basin, is filtered ; 
and pumped to a vertical 
height of 225 feet iuto a 5,- 

000, gallon c i i" c 11 1 a r 

reservoirfrom which it passes 
through a suitable system of 
pipes into the city, the high- 
est point of which is 178 feet 
below reservoir level, giving 
a static pressure of seventy 
pounds. A numbei oi fire 
hydrants (see Fire Depart- 
ment)together with watering 
fountains are distributed in various sections ol the town. 1 he 
pumping station is supplied with two splendid Dean power 

Analysis Solid residue. 2 91-100 grains per gallon. Chlorine, jo-ioo 
grains per gallon. Hardness, 9-1 percent Free Amoma 00 per mil- 
Ron parts. Albuminoid amonia, 1 100 of one pari pei million parts, usj 
ousumed, 7 W per million parts, 

„ 1,1 i.kmimn The water enters thesettling basin at the 
west end of building and passes through an eight blade ten inch brass pro- 




|. (.' M h III I 

Dteodenl Darhato w.iw i Works, 



12 



HAXD-BOOK OF DURHAM, X. C. 



pumps of one and one-half million gallons capacity each, 
driven by water from Eno river, in addition to which are two 
Dean pattern steam pumps, one of two million and the other 
one million gallons capacity in twenty-four hours. 




These works are complete and afford a supply ample in 
quantity for a population of thirty-five thousand. 

The office of the Durham Water Company, which is in the 



peller, so arranged to revolve freely with the passage of the water. This by 
means of two small bevel gears and an upright shaft, operates an alum pump 
of unique design, consisting of six hollow arms radiating from a chambered 
hub bent in the direction of rotation. This pump revolves in a small tank 
containing a dilute solution of sulphate of Alumina and by its revolution 
each arm takes up its modicum of alum water, passes it into the hub and to 



TOWN, PEOPLE \M» PUBUC IN 



13 



0" 



n 




j&m 



business portion of town, is connected with the reservoii and 
pumping station !>\ telephone, and can (.11 short notice, in 
case of fire, cut off connection with resei voir and pumpi 

thereb) increasing 

the pressure at will. 
There are at present 
a 1> .» u t five hundred 
furnishing wa- 
ter at very nu (derate 
r ,itn for domestic 
purp< 

This compan 
which Mi. J. C. 
Michie i> Superin- 
tendent, has in con- 
templation t h e ex- 
t e u s i n •» t these 
\v«>rk- take- 

in some of the subur- 
ban parts <>! t h e 
town. 

FIRE DEPART- 
MENT 

The town has a 
well organized a n <1 
thoroughly equipped 
F ire I tepartinent. 
The service is partly 
paid but mainly vol- 
unteer. Near the center of the town is located the Fire House 




■ ■ 

1 1KB HOI SK. 



the deflector which sends it downtothe incoming water The incoming 

\inv; received it- proportionati imount of coagulant, is then allowed 

to remain in the settling basin from fi ft) to sist) mil nable the 

' reaction between the coagulant and the bases in the water t.» take 

• I t.» permit the heavier sediment, together with .1 portion of the 

•- «1 matter t<. settle by snbsidience t<» the bottom <>t the tank, where 

il intervals into • ■ ''<• water with all the fine 

silt suspended Uy all <■! th nd other 

germs present in the water, bound and held together by the insoluable hy- 

!" alumina resulting from th.- addition of the 1 
through suitable pipes ind valves to the filter, and filling the tanl 
down through the fine sand bed, leaving all the coagulated matter upon it, 
and passes from Bit -auk. bright, clear ana sparkling, | 

fitted in every waj t"r all dom< 



14 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

of the "Golden Belt Hose Company," a substantial brick 
structure, thoroughly equipped with all the modern electrical 
appliances for giving alarms, etc. The driver and a number 
of firemen remain on duty both day and night. The "Inde- 
pendent Hose Company" is similiarly located near the factory 
of the American Tobacco Company, in the western part of 
town, while the Hook and Ladder Company, an efficient col- 
ored organization, is quartered at the town's central stables on 
Main street. 

In addition to Mr. W. C. Bradsher, who is chief of this de- 
partment, there are sixty-five active members in the three 
companies. There are 102 Fire Hydrants conveniently dis- 
tributed throughout the city, with a fire pressure of 140 pounds 
when pumping direct from the supply pond, which is suffi- 
cient to project at the same time, ten streams of water to a 
vertical height of over 100 feet. The necessity of a fire en- 
gine is thus obviated. There are eleven signal boxes to the 
alarm system, placed in convenient localities throughout the 
citv. The system employed is that of the Gamewell Fire 
Alarm Company. 

ELECTRIC LIGHT AND GAS. 

An excellent electric lighting service is given the people of 
Durham by a home company. This company was organized 
with a view to furnishing the town and individuals, lights at 
the lowest possible cost consistent with good service. How 
admirably they have succeeded the patrons of the company 
will willingly testify. There are distributed in various sec- 
tions forty Arc lights, while the number of incandescent 
lights in use by individual consumers number many hundred. 
In addition to this plant which is the property of the Durham 
Electric Lighting Company, there are several other good size 
plants which are owned and operated by private parties for 
the purpose of lighting their own factories and residences. 

A. gas company was organized some time ago, but owing 
to the financial stringency of last year and the death of one 
of the prominent projectors, work on a plant has not yet 
begun. 

TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH. 

A*o greater convenience to the business man can be had 
than a well devised and thoroughlv equipped Telephone sys- 



Town, PEOPLE ani» PUBLIC [NTERESTS. i .S 

tmi. As complete a plant as can be found anywhere in the 
South, hasfora number of years been successfully operated 
bj the Southern Bell Telephone Company, who in addition 
thereto has built a line from Durham to Raleigh, a distance 
of twenty-six miles, which is in thorough working condition, 
in constant use, and is pronounced by the patrons ol both 
towns to he almost indispensable. Aside from thissystera a lo- 
cal compan) has recently completed a competitive plant which 
is equal to the Southern Bell in service and less in charges. 

The Western Union and Postal Telegraph Companies each 
have offices in Durham connecting with all parts of the world. 

HOTELS 

It has been truthfully said that the hotels of a town are an 
index tothe character and public spirit of its citizens. From 
this standpoint Durham cannot tail to impress the traveler 
most forcible. 

Hotel Carrolina, one of the most attractive, costly and con- 
veniently arranged hotels in the South, is located in the 
center of the business portion of town, on the corner oi Cor- 
coran and Peabody streets, and occupies about one-fourth ol 
an entire square, commanding a pleasing appearance from 
every point of view. 

This magnificent structure is three stories high and is ol 
modern architectural design. Was built in [893 after care- 
fully devised plans, and contains seventy rooms, all ot which 
are handsomely frescoed by well known artists, while the 
furnishings are efegant ami expensive. The entire building 
is thoroughly equipped with every modern appliance for com- 
fort and convenience. Is heated and ventilated by improved 
methods and is lighted by a private electric plant. 

The main hall and office are decorated in relief, the style 
being French ''Rococo;" the colors are picked out in deli- 
cate shades of salmon and blue. The floors are of tile in 
handsome patterns. The gentlemen's reading-room is deco- 
rated in Louis XV, and is one of the richest rooms in the 
building. Adjoining this room is the ladies' reception-room 
which is decorated in Empire style, the colors being light 
blue and ivory. This room opens in the main parlor which 
is in Louis XVI style, the prevailing tone being ivory and 

Id. The ceiling is decorated in relief and fresco, and 
pares very favorable with those of the fine hotels.,! New 



TOWN, PBOPLB am. PUV.II [NTBRESTS. 17 

York. The dining-room is constructed somewhat on the 
plan of the old English dining-rooms and is very handsome. 
The panels in the ceiling are decorated with hand-wrought 
tapestries and are verj effective and artistic. The walls are 
in a soft green shade, decorated with heroldic designs. 

Besides the main dining-room, which has a seating capacity 
of one hundred, there are several private dining-rooms. 

In appointment and service the "Carrolina" is unsurpassed 
by any hotel North or South. 

Mi Julian S. Carr, one of the firsl citizens of North Caro- 
lina, and a resident of the town, in the belief that nothing is 
■d for Durham, had this building erected and furnished 
at a cost of $85,000.00, not merely with a view to profitable 
investment, but from a public spirit and desire to give his 
place of residence the best hotel in the State. 

This house is conducted by Mr. Howell Cobb, an efficient, 
affable and accommodating gentleman, who has large and 
successful experience in hotel management, and looks well 
after the com tort of his guests. 

In addition to the above named hotel, "Trinity Inn," a 
hotel building ol extraordinary merit, both in design and 
utility, Is located at Trinity Park and is apart of Trinity 
College property. This Inn was built for the purpose of ac- 
commodating the students of the college, and contains sev- 
enty-five dormitories, two parlors, a library, a reading-room, 
a dining-room having a seating capacit) of 250, an office and 
a waiting-room. It is heated by warm air and lighted l>y 
electricity, [ts saVitary arrangements arc- very complete. 

Besides these two hotels there are the Hotel Freeraont, 
Hopkins House and numerous boarding houses. 

HOSPITAL. 

This building 1- situated on a lot containing four and 

One-half acres. It is a groiipof buildings, or a central Admin- 
istration building with ward pavilions on either side, connected 
tied corridors. It is of modern and improved architec- 
ture. Every part and detail has been studied and arranged 
mfort, convenience and safety. It is in every sense of 
the word a model hospital; planned alter careful study of the 
Johns Hopkins and other noted institutions for tin care ol tin 
'.irk and maimed. The drawings and plans were made by 



TOWN, PEOPLE wi> PUBLIC tNTERESTS. [Q 

the renowned hospital architects Rand & Taylor, of Boston, 
M.t-v. who submitted them to Dr. Edward Cowles, of Sum- 
merville, Mass., an expert and authority on hospitals. He 
pronounced this "the most complete low cost hospital I know 
of in the world,*' and was so much pleased that he requested 
a plan and perspective to use in an important article on 
Hospitals, which he was about to publish. Every minoi 
detail, in every room, is something new and of the latest 
device fot ventilation, comfort and convenience. It is equip- 
ped from basement to attic with all the modern improvements 

for the care and attention of the sick and wounded. There 
is nothing like it in the South. 

The central or Administration building is two stori< 
basement, containing in basement: kitchen, laundry, store- 
rooms, boiler-room, &c. First Floor : medical office, recep- 
tion-room, dining-room, matron's bed-room, surgical ward 
and hall. Second story : two special pay wards, two nurse's 
chambers, parlor, bath-room and laboratory. 

In rear of the Administration building, and connected with 
it, is the operating hall with its laboratory, closets, etherizing 
rooms, &C This has an approach on one side for the accident 
patients, and on the other for medical or nurse students. 
I'nder this operating theatre are located the autopsv and 
mortuary rooms. To the < ast and west of the Administration 
building and connected with it are the ward pavilions. 
These each contain a free ward with seven beds; two pay 
wards, nurse's room, diet kitchen, patient's wardrobes, bath 
and laboratory. 

The entin- edifice is arranged with electric lights, electric 
bells and speaking tubes, steam heat and the latest ventilating 
devices known to science. 

This Hospital, furniture and grounds, together with a 
handsome endowment, has been presented to the community 
by Mr. Geo. W. Watts, a philanthropic citizen who has had 
this matter m contemplation for several \ ears, and has studied 
and examined the subject of hospitals at great length before 
coming to the conclusion that this was one of the most prac- 
tical charities a man could bestow upon a people. 



TOWN, PBOPLB AM' PUBLIC ivrr.ui-STS. 21 

CITY MARKET. 

Some years ago the city purchased a ver) desirable pi( 
propert) on which was already constructed a good size build- 
in-, which has ever since been in use as the town Market 
House. The structure although sufficient^ large for the 
present needs of the people, is the least attractive of all the 
public buildings, and will no doubt soon be torn down to 
make room for a larger, more commodious and handsomer 
building. The market is at all times supplied with the best 
viands ol this and adjoining counties which arc- sold at very 
reasonable prices 

The matter of living expenses in Durham is as low as could 
be expected in any town. 

SCHOOLS AND COLLEGE. 

The great and increasing interest the people of North Car- 
olina manifest in the cause of education indicates decided men- 
tal improvement The annual appropriations by State and 
Municipal authorities for this cause is greatly on the increase, 
and will not cease until a good education is given every one 
desiring it. 

Twelve years ago the town of Durham was without a pub- 
he school of any kind, and had only one or two private 
schools. To-da) there are a number of private schools and 
one of the largest graded schools in the State. 

Some years ago the town voted bonds amounting to $25, 
000 for the purpose of erecting a graded school building, 
which was one of the best investments the people ever made. 

This building occupies an elevated position on Dandy 
Street Is built of pressed brick and has two stories and base- 
ment Is heated and ventilated by an improved system. 
: Assembly hall with a seating capacit) of i.< 00, and a 
complete library containing 800 volumes. On the first floor 

are tin- superintendents office, and class-rooms tor the first, 

second, third and fourth grades, while on the second floor are 

rooms for the fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth ami ninth grades. 

Besides the superintendent there are twelve teachers, all 
of whom are thoroughly equipped for the work to which 
they are assigned. A department of drawing and manual 
training has recently been added, and is taught in every grade. 
The instructor in this department is a graduate of Pratt In- 
stitute, Brooklyn. The present scholarship numbers 

lea Mr. Clinton W. Toms, the city superintendent of 



TOWN \M' PUBLIC INT1 I 






schools, there are the following teachers: Messrs k. I,. 
Wharton, E. L. Middleton, Misses Bettie Blair, Bertie Tom- 
linson, Nellie Fuller, Katie Styron, Nettie Bemis, Mesdames 
Jno, W. Jones, J. A. Robinson, k. \V. Bailey, A. W.Jordan 
and J. W. < roodson. 

B< sides this public school for white children, there is 
large public school foi colored children, which is situated on 
South street 

Trinity College, a Methodist institution of learning, is lo- 
cated in the western part of town. The Main building is a 
three story brick structure of handsome design and covered 
with slate, [s lighted with 
electric lights from their 
own plant ; is heated with 
warm air and ventilated l>\ 
a most approved system of 
supplying pure air, either 
warm «>r cold. There are 
>ixt\ dormitories on the sec- 
ond and third floors; twelve 
lecture rooms and offices and 
a Dumber <<\ bathing apart- 
ments. Ha- .i perfect dry 
closet system and perfect 
underground drainage. In 
point of ventilation, archi- 
tecture, comfort and modern 
conveniences it is said to he 
tin- most complete college 
building in the state. 

In addition to the Main 
building is the Technologi- 
cal building, a large three 
story hrick structure, to- 
gether with the residem 
of the professors and president. The College Inn, of which 
mention is els< where made, is also part of the college property 
and is not tar from the Main building. 

use of the removal of this valuable institution 

irning frtm Tnnit X. C. to Durham, was an 

o donation in money 1>\ Mi. Washington Duke, and a 






I 




Kl V JOHN C KII I 

lent Trinity I 



TOWN, \M' PUBLIC INTERESTS. 



a 5 



gift of a sixty-two acre tract of land b) Mr, Julian S. Can, 
valued at more than £25.01 n >. 

This college had its beginning in [838, as a school of 
academic grade, which was afterward turned into a Normal 
College for the training of teachers for public schools, and 
remained as such until [859 when it was chartered as a 
college by the North Carolina Conference, who accepted the 
transfer of the property and 
have been in possession of same 

ev« since. 

Dr. John Kilgo, the Presi- 
dent of the college, was recently 
elected to that position and is 
a young man of profound learn- 
ing and business sagacity. 

The Faculty consists of 
twelve professors and one in- 
structor. The courses of in- 
struction arc complete in every 
department 

A School <»f Fine Art has 
tor a number of years been suc- 
cessfull) conducted 1>\ Mrs. E. 
I. Bi \ an, an artist of consid- 
erable note who has taken s, ,nie 
of the leading prizes as award- 
ed by prominent schools in the 
art of painting. 

A School of Music is another educational feature- that can 
be classed with the institutions of learning which the people 
of Durham now enjoy. This school is conducted by Miss 
Willie Smoot, a lady possessing all the advantages and 
requirements necessarj for proficiency in her particular line 
of work. 

There are in addition to these, a number <»f persons who 

aie engaged in educational work of various kinds at their 
homes. 

CHURCHES. 

The moral influences of every community is, in a large meas- 
ure, attributable to the number of churches and church niem- 




TKIMTY METHODIST CHCKCH. 



2 6 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C 



bership such community affords; providing a spirit of conserv- 
atism, liberality and independence prevail. True Christianity 
can exist in the hamlet where there is 
no church ; in the village where there 
is but one church, but not successfully 
in a town of much size unless there are 
several churches of pronounced activ- 
ity in christian work, for where the 
environments of a 
christian people 
are such as will 
give an opportuni- 
t y for wrong 
doing, there will 
be an absence of 
good deeds which 
are usually dis- 




seminated i n 
c oin m unit y 
churches. 



MAIN STREET METHODIST CHURCH. 



There are, i n 
and around Dur- 
ham, of various 
denominations about twenty churches, the largest and most 
co>tly of which is ''Trinity" Methodist, which was remod- 
eled in 1893, and cost about $50,000.00. 

This building is located at the head of Church street, and 
presents a fine appearance from Main, the principal street of 
the town. Is built of brick with granite trimmings. The 
interior in arrangement, design and finish, is convenient and 
beautiful. The handsome pews, fine artistic paintings and 
decorations in both the main church building and Sunday- 
school rooms are perfect. A large ornamental pipe organ 
occupies an elevated position in the rear of the pulpit. The 
pews are arranged in amphitheater order and were made with a 
view to comfort. 

The Sunday-school room is immediately in front of the 
speaker and has large folding doors, so the two rooms can be 
thrown into one when occasion requires. 

Another church of same denomination is the "Main Street" 
Methodist, a large brick structure on Main street, somewhat 



TOWN, PE< »PLE wi» PUBLIC l\Tl ; 



^ 



arch was built princi- 
of this denomination, 
membership, and the 



in the western part of town. This ch 
pally on account of the rapid increase 
which was too large for a one-church 
growth of the town westward. 

The conveniences <>! this building 
arc all modern am' 
improvement 

Still another in 
edifice is that of tin 
mi the corner oi Ma 
streets. This build 
brick with marble 
trimmings, and is 
of handsome de- 
sign. The inte- 
rior arrangement 
was devised espe- 
cially f o r con- 
venience and coin- 
fort. In addition 
to t h e C h n r c h 
r<» >in which is of 
pleasing appear- 
ance, i- the Sun- 
day school and 
class-rooms which are connected by sliding <! 

The Baptist denomination is well represented among the 

churches of Durham. Then.- arc- two church buildings, both 
of them brick. One is in the center of town, on Mangum 
street, and the other in the western part < >f town, mi Chapel 
Hill street. Sunday-schools are connected with both. 

The Episcopal church is a neat and substantial frame build- 
in- on tin- eastern end of Main stnet. The membership is 
not very large, but considering the fact that some few years 
ago there wen.- scarcely n<> Episcopalians in Durham, the 
increase has been quite rapid. 

In addition to the foregoing named churches there are the 

Christian denomination and the Primitive Baptist, both of 
which own church property in town. 




PRESBYTER! \N 



28 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. 



SECOND BAPTIST CHURCH. 



LODGES AND SOCIAL CLUB. 

There are nine Lodges of various orders in Durham. The 
Masons are represented by three lodges ; the Odd Fellows 
by three, and the Knights of Pythias, Royal Arcanum and 
Ancient Order of United Workmen by one each. These 
lodges have a fajr membership and are reported as being in a 
prosperous condition. 

The Golden Belt Club is a social organization and has a 
large membership. Their rooms are in the Parrish Building 
on Mangum street, and consist of reading-, card-, and billiard - 
rooms. 



Private Interests. 



BANKING. 

Prominent among the leading business interests of Durham 
is that of banking. Prior to [879, such little banking as was 
required was transacted through various outside banks. There 
are now in successful operation in the place, three well con- 
ducted institutions <>f this kind, all of which are doing a large 
and increasing business. 



Till-. MOREHEAD BANKING COMPANY. 

This hank derives its name from Mr. Eugene Morehead 
1 now deceased), who was the pioneer hanker of Durham. 

and has a capital of $200, .00, 

with surplus and undivided profits 
The building this 
com pan) occupies is a two story 
brick building with stone and glass 
plate front, in the- rear of which is 
a large and well constructed vault. 
This property was bought by them 
from the trustees of W. T. Black- 
said Blackwell having built 

same for a hank building at a cos'. 
- {7.OOO. 00. 

The present officers of this insti- 
tution are: \V. 11. Willard, presi- 
dent ; J. T. Pinnix, vice-president ; 
W. M. Morg in, cashier. 

Mr. Willard, besides being presi- 
dent of this bank, is also president 
of the k. F. Morris & Sou Manu- 
ing Company, and the Willard 
M inufacturing Company, and owns 
stocks in various other enterpi 
ability as a financier. 

Mi. W. M. Morgan, the cashier, in i^ ted a posi- 

tion with Mr. Eugene Morehead in Durham's fust hank, and 
onnected with same a- cashier until tin- formation of 




MORBHBAD BANK BUILDING 

[s 1 man of pr< mounced 



30 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



the above named company, with which he has been ever since. 
Being- trained in the practical school of banking, Mr. 
Morgan possesses those requirements which are necessary in 
the office of trust he so acceptably fills. Besides being- a 
director in the Morehead Banking Company, he is a director 

in the Watts Coal 
and Iron Compa- 
nv of Birming- 
ham, Ala. ; The 
Durham Fertilizer 
Company of this 
place, and the 
Philadelphia 
Laud and Trust 
Company of Phil- 
adelphia. 

FIRST NATIONAL 
BANK. 

This bank was 
organized in No- 
vember 1887, with 
a capital of $100,- 
000.00, which has 
since then been 
increased to $150,000.00. Mr. Julian S. Carr is president of 
this institution and Mr. Leo. D. Heartt is cashier. 

The building occupied by this bank is on the northeast 
corner of Main and Corcoran streets, and was built by them 
about two years ago at a cost of $40,000.00. Is of pressed 
brick with granite and brown stone trimmings, and has three 
stories and basement. The lower floor is occupied by the 
bank, while the second and third floors are in use as law and 
other offices. 

The arrangement of the various departments, vault, heaters, 
office furniture &c. , were made with a view to comfort for the 
officers and employees of the bank, and expeditious and per- 
fect accommodation to the public. 

Mr. J. S. Carr, the president, is connected with almost 
every stock company in Durham, and to him is due the credit 
of establishing this bank. 

Mr. Leo. D. Heartt, the cashier, having been engaged in 




FIRST NATIONAL BANK BUILDING 



rim ATE i Nil i 



3 J 



the various offices of banking for many years, thoroughly 
understands the wants of a commercial people and is quick 
to have them supplied. [s .1 director of the D. & X. 
R. R , The Educator Co., and is an Alderman of the town. 




Ukiciii BLOCK. 
Home ol The Fidelity i 



THE FIDELITY 
BANK. 

This institution 
rga n i z ed 
January i-t, [888, 
with the compara- 
tively small capi- 
tal Of $50,000.( H >. 

( >!i January 1 si 

the cajnta 

was increased t<» 

Since 

Tganization 

tliis bank has paid 

out in dividends 

aid has 

a >nrplus of $31 >.- 

000.00 and holds 

over $5,000.00 as undivided profits. 

The home of this bank is on the northwest corner of Main 
and Corcoran streets, and has every requisite necessary for 
comfort and convenience. 

Mr. I'.. X. Duke, the president, is one of the managing 
directors of the W. Duke, Sons & Co. branch of The Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co., and has many investments in the town. 

Mr. J. F. Wilv. the cashier, is ever alive to the best interest 
of The Fidelity Hank, to which his entire attention is given, 
and as a result, has made many friends and customers during 
the short period he has presided as its cashier. 

TOBACCO MANUFACTORIES. 

The greatest manufacturing interest of Durham is that of 
manufacturing tobacco. There are employed in the manu- 
facture of this product five factories; two of which are among 
the largest in the world in their particular line. ( me ot these 
manufacture cigarettes and smoking tobacco ; another smok- 
ing tobacco in the form of granulated, long and plug-cut ; 



32 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 




another granulated smoking tobacco and snuff another 
granulated smoking tobacco, and the other plug tobacco 
exclusively. 

The annual output of these five factories is simply immense, 
amounting in money to millions of dollars, and is shipped to 
every known part of the civilized globe. Thousands of hands 
are employed in these few factories, receiving payment for 
their labor every week, a large amount of which is distributed 
among the merchants of the town. 

BLACKWELL DURHAM TOBACCO COMPANY. 

In 1865, in a small building where now stands the immense 
tobacco works of the above named company, Mr. J. R. Green, 

in a crude way was manu- 
facturing what to-day is 
known the world over as 
the most popular brand of 
smoking tobacco in exist- 
^B| ~ ence, viz : the celebrated 

J m ''Bull Durham." In 1870 

Mr. J. S. Carr purchased 
k' £? B& from Messrs. W. T. Black- 

well and J. R. Day (who had 
previously bought all inter- 
est and title in said business) 
an equal partnership, and 
under the firm name of W. 
T. Blackwell & Co. an ex- 
tensive trade in this and 
foreign countries was had. 
Mr. Day shortly after, sold 
his interest to his partners who still continued under the same 
firm name until 1883, when Mr. Blackwell retired, and under 
the name of the Blackwell Durham Tobacco Company a charter 
was granted to Messrs. J. S. Carr, M. E. McDowell, Samuel 
H. Austin, Jr., and Jno. A. McDowell, to continue the bus- 
iness of manufacturing smoking tobacco. 

From an insignificant factory in 1865, to the large "and 
extensive business of 1883, much could be said which would 
require a good size volume to fill, suffice it to say that this 
great achievement in so short a time, was principally due to 
the executive ability of Mr. J. S. Carr, who presided at the 




JULIAN S. CARR, 
Pics' t Blackwell Durham Tobacco Cc 



PRIVATE i\ i 1 RESTS. 



33 



helm .is financier during these years of growth and prosperity, 
and since then as president, continued to direct the affairs ol 
this corporation to such an issue as to make- it an institution 
of immense profit t<> the stockholders, as well as a pride to 
themselves and the whole State. 

This factor) is located opposite the passenger depot of the 
Southern Railway, [s a foui story brick building with an 
eastern and western wing of sam.- height, together with 
machine sh6p building and engine and boiler house On the 
premises are largeand convenient!) arranged stable buildings, 
fire house, lumber and storage houses, besides eight immense 
buildings for the storage of leaf tobacco, one of which is five 
stories high with a storing capacity of three million pounds. 
In addition to these, this company has in various sections of 
the town a number of other houses used for the same purpose, 
all of them being constantly filled with the natural leaf. In 
all, this company owns buildings with a capacity of [ 0,000,- 

pounds outside of their manufacturing buildings, which 

enables them to carry a two years supply of the unmanufac- 
tured product 

The main factory building is well proportioned. Is sub- 
stantial and attractive, and contains twelve departments for 
various manufacturing purposes, each of which has a super- 
intendent with a general superintendent in charge of the 
whole works. < mi the first floor an- the granulating, shipping, 
bag manufacturing departments (see I folded Belt Mfg Co. 1 and 
business offices. On the second floor are the stamping, print- 
ing, paper-box making, storage and supply departments and 
storekeeper's quarters. < >n the third floor are trie packing, 

w ] printing, and wood box making departments, while on 

the fourth floor is the flavoring department 

The entire building is provided with fire escapes, is heated 
m, and lighted at night by their own electric plant 
Every department is well ventilated, and every convenience 
applied tor the health and comfort of employees. The busi- 
ffices, adjoining which the president has his private 
office, is large and well supplied with safes, vault and office 
furniture. Prom the president's office to every part of the 
building is arranged a system of electrical call-bells. 

This com pan) employs 500 hands; has a capital stock of 
,000 and a manufacturing capacity of eight million 
pounds of smoking tobacco j»er annum. 



k 




Hill 
Hi 




Factory Building of the Blackwell Durham Tobacco Co. 



PRIVATE [NTERESTS. 

Mi. |uli. in S. Can, the president of this company, has 
spent the larger portion of his life in developing the indus- 
trial Interests of Durham. Besides the herculean task of 
supervising and directing his own interests as principal, he 
has innumerable duties to perform as an officei and director of 
many industrial and charitable institutions. His investments 
ittered all over the country in manufacturing, mining 
and farming operations, never losiug sight of the fact however 
that Durham is his first consideration. His ability as a finan- 
cier and executive is acknowledged in that, that liis counsel 
and aid is so universally sought in every undertaking through- 
out the State. He is president of the First National Hank; 
the Golden Belt Manufacturing Co.; the Durham Electric 
Lighting Co. ; the Bessemer Mining Co. ; the Southern Manga- 
nese Co.; the Greensboro Female College Directory; the 
North Carolina State Agricultural Society and the X. C. 
Steel & lion Co. Is a director in the Commonwealth Cotton 
Mills; the Lynchburg & Durham Railroad; the Oxford & 
Clarksville Railroad. Is a member of the Board of Trustees 
of the State University; a Directorof the Oxford Orphan Asy- 
lum and the Soldiers' 1 Lome. 

As fust vice-president of the Southern Immigration, Land 
and Title Company, which was recentl) organized under the 
law- of Virginia, (the purpose of which is to secure for the 
South desirable immigration) Mr. Carr will aid in doing a 
good work for North Carolina in developing her untold 
resources. 

THE W. DUKE, .s«>.\'S & CO. BRANCH OF THE AMERICAN 
TOBACCO COMPANY. 

At the close of the war, in [865, W. Duke went from the 
army to his farm in Orange (now Durham) county. He had 
but little left i xcept his bare plantation, four children and a 
Lot of leaf tobacco. How to provide a living for his chil- 
dren was the question that confronted him. Ready money 
was necessary, so he concluded that the speediest manner by 
which to secure this was to sell the tobacco which had become 
old and mellow laying in his ham. I Ic crushed it with a grain 
flail, separated it with a hand-seive, packed it in -rain sacks 
containing about thirty pounds each, loaded it on his v. 
hitched up his mules and carried it through the country, sell- 
■rtunitv offered. This venture was profitable, and 
tion that he continued to 



36 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

make frequent trips, leaving his boys at home to prepare the 
goods in an old barn, sixteen feet square, as well as to con- 
duct the farming operations. In a few years, by strict econ- 
omy, attention to business, sobriety and industry, he was 
enabled to build a log factory 20x30 feet, one story high. 
His sphere, however, was limited and contracted in the coun- 
try; therefore, in 1874, he 
moved his family and busi- 
ness to the village of Dur- 
ham. 

Here, with his two sons, 
B. N. & J. B., he estab- 
lished the copartnership of 
W. Duke & Sons. His 
other son, B. L. Duke, was 
manufacturing smoking to- 
bacco in the same vicinity 
on his own account. 

In March, 1878, these two 
factories were consolidated, 
and Mr. Geo. W. Watts, of 
Washington duke. Baltimore, became a part- 

ner with Mr. W. Duke and 
his three sons, the firm name then becoming W. Duke, Sons 
& Co,, a title which in a few years became so favorably 
known, not only in this country, but throughout the civil- 
ized world. 

In 1890, upon the formation of the American Tobacco 
Company, this concern became one of its branches, and its 
youngest member, Mr. J. B. Duke, was elected president of 
the consolidation with offices in New York. 

The factory in Durham is an immense brick structure, 
covering three sides of a block, with additional engine, boiler, 
dvnamo and machine houses, It is a four-story and base- 
ment, with a floor area of 185,700 square feet (or over four 
acres), with every modern convenience that could be adapted 
to a factory building, as well as everything for the promotion 
of the safety and comfort of the employees, such as fire es- 
capes, fire company, ice water, dressing-rooms, steam heat, 
fans in summer run by steam, sanitary closets, etc. They 
make their wood and paper boxes, tobacco sacks, labels and 
many of the implements used in their business. The mag- 




l'KI\ \ 11 I\ I $J 

nificent offices are connected with all parts of the factory by 
telephone, speaking tubes and electric bells. They have a 
daily production of three million cigarettes and ten thousand 
pounds of smoking tobacco. In addition to the main factory 
building, they have in various parts of the town storage 
houses, in which are stored millions of pounds of the- natural 
leaf. 

The) employ over 8< •< ■ 
hands, and do an annual 
business of $ }."■ ■• >,< x » ». It 
we had space to go into de- 
tails of this mammoth and 
successful institution, it 
would read like a romance. 
It is one of which our town 
and State should feel proud, 
ubsistence 
to so many people and de- 
riving its revenues from the 
entire world. 

The managing directors 
of this branch arc Mr. B. 
N. Duke and Mr. Ceo. W. 

Watts. Mr. Duke has been engaged in the manufacture of 
o ever since he was a hoy, and is a thoroughly prac- 
ticed man; is president of the Erwin Cotton Mills Company; 
president of the Fidelity Bank, and is a stockholder and 
director in various other enterprises; is deeply interested in 
church and educational work, and is a large contributor to 
these and other institutions of like kind. 

Mr. (»co. W. Watts came to Durham in the spring of 1878, 
and through him W. Duke & Sons and B. L. Duke were led 
to consolidate, he becoming an equal partner with these four 
gentlemen. In [885 the firm of W. Duke Sons & Co. was 
incorporated, and Mr. Watts, on account of his peculiar t|t- 
ind superior knowledge of commercial and financial 
- made secretary and treasurer. In his business 
career he has been very successful; has invested most of his 
earnings right lure at home, making work and wages for the 
people, thus becoming one of the prime factors in the growth 
and prosperity of the town. His recent gift to the town of 
the handsome hospital building, together with a magnificent 





Factory Building of W Duke Sons & Co Branch cf the Amer. Tobacco Co. 



PRIVATE I Ml i 



39 



endowment, is evidence of his true merit, as are also his 
munificent gifts for church and othei purposes. He is inter- 
ested in man) cotton mills and hanks of the town and State, 
and various other enterprises of Durham, liis advice and 
counsel being sought for in all of them. He is presidenl of 
the Pearl Cotton Mills, and is a director in many of the com- 
panies in which 
he holds stock, 
and is also a di- 
rector in the Dur- 
ham & Northern 
Railroad a n <1 
Lynch bui g & 
I hirhani Railroad. 
I [e was a mem- 

tin- hoard 

of town commis- 

- that start- 

ed paved streets 



in Durham, and a 
member of anoth- 
er hoard that in- 
troduced our 

splendid system <>t" water works, and -ranted ordinances for 
the building of several railroads. 




rOBACO 



THl'. /.. I. LYON .v V". TOBACCO WORKS. 

This factory was established in [868, under the firm name 
of X. I. I, von & Co. The members of the firm, Messrs, '/.. 
I., and J. Ed. Lyon, in [887, sold the entire business to Mr. 
!•".. J. l'arrisli, a gentleman of large experience in tlu- tobacco 
trade, who, for main years, had successfully conducted a 
warehouse for the sale of the natural leaf, and dur- 
ing that period was a large broker in t<>l>acco, his sales ex- 
tending to all parts of this and many European countries. 

The factory buildings of this company are situated on the 
corner of Pettigrew and Pine streets. The principal building 
is a three story brick structure, and was erected exclusively 
for a tobacco manufactory. On the first floor are the pack- 
in- and stamping departments and office, while the second 
and third floors an- for granulating and storage. The output 
ut this insists of granulated smoking tobacco, cigars 



40 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



and cheroots. The principal brands are "Pride of Dur- 
ham," "Cut and Slash," and "Picked Leaf." 

Mr. Parrish, besides successfully conducting this business, 
is operating a tobacco warehouse for the sale of leaf tobacco; 
is one of Durham's foremost business men, and is ever alive 
to the interests of the town. 



THE R. F. MORRIS & SON MANUFACTURING COMPANY. 

This business was established in 1865 by Robert F. Mor- 
ris, one of the pioneer tobacco manufacturers of Durham. 

After his death, in 
1872, the same was pur- 
chased bv Messrs. W. 
H. Willard and S. F. 
Tomliuson, and under 
the corporate name of 
The R. F. Morris & 
Son Manufacturing Co. , 
have conducted the bus- 
iness ever since. 

The factory is a three- 
story brick, with large 
two-story frame build- 
ing connected by pas- 
sage way from the sec- 
ond story of one to the 
second story of the 
other. Both of these 
structures are situated 
on Peabody street, im- 
mediately in the rear of 
the "Southern" pas- 
senger depot. This concern manufactures a number of pop- 
ular brands of smoking tobacco and snuff, among which is 
the celebrated "Eureka Durham," one of the finest brands 
of granulated tobacco known to the trade. As snuff manu- 
facturers they have no superior competitors, and find ready 
sales for all the goods they can put up. 

The three floors of the brick building are employed as 
various departments for granulating, packing and stamping, 
while their frame building is used as departments for snuff 
grinding and storage of the natural leaf. 



1 

1 








HSM'WP 


"L 




jiPul'jy ft^L^^M^Vmrsr 


Peohekaduham j 


wgyjl«#« 




% 


gs^ 




^j^^g^ 


-:' 


-J.7T1 


s^^SsiSe^&'sifossTSr^j.- 




-M 



FACTORY OF R. F MORRIS & SON MFG. CO. 



PRIVATE tNTERESTS. |i 

Mr. \V. II. Will. ml, tin- president, is connected with vari- 
ous manufacturing and banking institutions throughout the 
State, eithei as an office] <>i director. \s president of the 
Morehead Banking Company of this pi ice. 

Mi. S. F. Tomlinson, the secretary and treasurer, has the 
management <>!' these works, and has succeeded in creating a 
husiiu-.s that is will known t<. the trade. 



Till' |. \. WHITTED T( >B u v< i i OMPANY 



The factory <>t" this company is a three 
ing, located on Pettigrew street The bu 
cern is manufacturing plug 
tobacco exclusively. 

In iss 4 M,-. J. y. Whitted 
moved his works from I [ills- 
boro, and conducted same 1>\ 
himself until [889, when 

named company was 
formed. The popular brands 
un<k-r which tin- product <>f 
this compan) .in- manufact- 
ured an- extensively known, 
having been on tin- market 
lor a number of years. 

The entire management of 



story 
iiness 



brick build- 
of this con- 




\\ hii iM. roB \'( " 1 \« o.k\ 



this factory is under tin- personal supervision of Mr. [. v. 
Whitted, who thoroughly understands tlu- art of making 
good chewing tobai 

TEXTILE MANUFACTORIES. 

This is comparatively a new manufacturing interest of the 

town, as three out of the four factories have recently been 
established. The Durham Cotton Manufacturing Company, 
the oldest one in the place, began operation in [885, and 
from the start was .0 successful that a determined effort was 
made to inaugurate more factories of this kind, and as a result 
three more win- built and all of them an- now doing a 
good business. The combined capital invested in these four 
mills is %•} giving employment to 940 hands. 

Tin-: DURHAM COTTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

was in . and started work in the Spring of 



42 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



1885, with a capital that has since grown to $150,000.00. The 
main building is a large four story brick structure, 75x150 
feet, in addition to which are the weave sheds, picker building 
and engine and boiler rooms. There are 11,016 spindles and 
244 looms at regular work manufacturing brown sheetings, 

domets and chambrays. On 
the premises are a large num- 
ber of tenement houses for 
the employees and their fam- 
ilies, 225 of the number 
being daily employed in this 
mill. 

J. M. Odell, the president 
of this company, is a gentle- 
man of large and varied 
experience in the manufac- 
ture of cotton goods, being 
identified with a large num- 
ber of mills throughout the 
State, not simply as a stock- 
holder but as an officer who 
conducts the management 
of affairs. 

Mr. W. H. Branson, the 
secretary and treasurer, has 
filled this position ever since 
the formation of the com- 
pany, and also acceptably 
fills the same office with the 
Pearl Cotton Mills. Besides his duties as secretary and treas- 
urer, he has almost the exclusive management of both mills, 
and looks well after the interests of all concerned. 

Not far from this factory and for the benefit of the employ- 
ees, are two well constructed and roomy church buildings, one 
of Methodist denomination and the other of Baptist, each 
conducting Sunday schools of large membership. 

THE ERWIN COTTON MILLS COMPANY 

was organized April 20th, 1892, and has a paid in capital of 
$250,000.00. This mill is a large brick building located in 
the western part of town, and is thoroughly equipped with 
the latest improved machinery throughout. There are in 




W. H. BRANSON, 

Sec't. and Treas Durham Cotton Mfg. Co 




Factory of the Durham Cotton M f'g Co 




Factory of the Commonwealth Cotton M f g Co. 



44 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



constant operation 11,000 spindles and 360 looms, manufact- 
uring fine muslin, chambrays, camlets and denims. The 
main building is 75x347 feet, two stories high. Besides the 
main building is the engine house, picker building, dye house, 
boiler room, &c. Mr. B. N. Duke, of W. Duke, Sons & Co., 

is president; Mr. Geo. W. 
Watts, of the same firm is 
vice-president, and Mr. W. A. 
Erwin is secretary and treas- 
urer. Mr. Erwin has large 
experience in the cotton bus- 
iness, having for a number 
of years been connected with 
Messrs. L. B. & L. S. Holt, 
of Alamance county. 

This mill employs 375 
hands, all of whom reside on 
the premises in nice and con- 
veniently arranged houses 
belonging to the company. 
For the convenience of these 
employees there has been 
built in close proxiinitv to 
this mill a nice church build- 
ing. 

THE PEARL COTTON MILLS 




B. N. DUKE, 
President Erwin Cotton Mills. 



was incorporated 1892, and 
has a capital of $175,000.00. 
Mr. Geo. W. Watts, is president, and Mr. W. H. Branson is 
secretary and treasurer. 

The mill is located in the northwestern part of town, and is 
an immense three story brick building 80x255 feet, with a two 
story picker-room and engine and boiler rooms. This factory 
is equipped with the latest improved machinery known to 
the trade. The class of goods this concern is manufacturing 
is extra wide sheeting, from 72 to 99 inches, no mill in the 
South making anything wider. There are 10,000 spindles 
and 160 broad looms in use. 

Employed in this building are 200 hands, all of whom live 
in houses that have recently been built by this company. 

For the benefit of these employees a church building was 
recently erected on the premises. 




>.'r-tfl^iMWIiiii 



.'. ; ,- !i 



^_ 






f . ■ 

I' 

- 



Factory of The Erwin Cotton Mills compa-.y. 




Factory of The Pearl Cotton Mills. 



4 6 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



THE COMMONWEALTH COTTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

was incorporated June ist, 1890, but did not begin operation 
until January ist, 1893. There was however some little work 
done prior to this time, but it was not until about the begin- 
ning of the year that active work began. 

The mill is located in the eastern part of town, and has a 

capital stock of $125,000.00, 
and gives employment to 
140 hands. Mr. B L. Duke, 
formerly of W. Duke, Sons 
& Co. is president, and Mr. 
V. Ballard is secretary and 
treasurer. 

The main building is 100 
X50 feet, two stories and 
basement, and is built of 
brick. Has a wing 30x50 
feet. Has a new addition 
40x75 feet, two stories and 
basement. Is equipped with 
all the latest improved ma- 
chinery. Has 6,400 spin- 
dles and 58 knitting ma- 
chines in active operation, 
and make yarn (both white 
and colored) and hosiery. 

Mr. B. L. Duke, the pres- 
ident, is a son of Mr. W. 
Duke, and is a gentleman 
who has done much toward 
developing the industrial interests of Durham. In fact his 
entire income up to a year ago was invested in town enter- 
prises, the outcome of which has been a great help to the 
people. 

CIGAR MANUFACTORIES. 

This branch of manufacture in the past four years has 
grown to be of considerable importance among the industrial 
institutions of Durham, there being four factories, all of which 
are supplying the trade in every part of the United States. 




B. L. DUKE. 
President Commouwealih Cotton Mlg. Co. 



PRIVATE INT! I 



47 



SAMUEL KRAMER 8 

This firm began business in Durham in [881, and is the 
oldest cigar factor) in the town. The active member is Mr. 
Samuel Kramer, a gentleman of large experience in the cigar 
who enjoys a reputation throughout the State as a thor- 
oughly reliable salesman, and a manufacturer of considerable 
repute, [n addition to manufacturing "Philopena" "Special 
u Pug," and other popular brands which are sold 
throughout the Southern States, they are agents for the Amer- 
ican Tobacco Co. in North and South Carolina. 

The building this com- 
pany occupj is a tw( > story 
building on Main street, and 
is well suited for tin- busi- 



THE MALLORY 
CHERO >r 



DURHAM 
CO. 




This company established 
themselves in the cigar and 
cheroot business [890, but 
not until [89 I was the con- 
cern incorporated. The cap- 
ital stock amounts to $75,- 
000.00. J. T. Mallorv is 
at, E. C. 1 [ackney, 
secretary and k. C. Pleas- 
ants, treasurer. 

This company own and 
occupy three brick buildings 
on Parrish street, each of 
which is three stoiirs high, 
and give stead) employment 
to 125 hands. The annual 
output 00 cigars and cheroots, and consists f the 

following popular brands: "Belle of Durham," "Pleasant's 
Choice," and "Little Sadie" cigars, and "Old Chunk" 

and "North State" cheroots. 

The success with which this company has nut during in 
short career has been remarkable, as the capital at fust em- 
I was comparatively small and the trade to some extent 
prejudical to home-made goods, 




.1 1 MALLORY, 

• lent Mallorv Durham Ch< t Co 



48 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

W. P. HENRY & CO. 

This factory was established in 1893, under the firm name 
of Henry, O'Brien & Co. In August 1894 the entire busi- 
ness was purchased by Mr. W. P. Henry. The output of this 
factory consists entirely of hand-made cigars. Their leading 
brands are "Sporting Club" and "Southern Beauty," both 
of which are extensively sold throughout the South. 

LYON & REED. 

This firm manufactures nothing but hand-made cigars, their 
most popular brands being "Duchess of Durham" and "Flor 
de Lyon" the sales of which are large. This factory is on 
Mangum street. Messrs. J. Ed. Lyon and M. W. Reed are 
the members, and are both well versed in the manufacture of 
cigars. 

OTHER MANUFACTORIES. 

Among the remaining manufacturing interests of Durham, 
of which mention has not yet been made, is a fertilizer fac- 
tory, a bag factory, a soap factory, and a sash, door and blind 
factory. These institutions employ a large number of hands 
and are of great importance to the town. 

DURHAM FERTILIZER CO. 

One of the largest manufacturing institutions of the place 
is the Durham Fertilizer Company, which was organized in 
1888. Mr. Eugene Morehead (now deceased), together with 
Mr. Samuel T. Morgan and others, conceived the idea of 
establishing a plant for the manufacture of commercial ferti- 
lizers, for which there is great demand by the cotton and 
tobacco planters of this and other states. The business at 
the start being to some extent experimental, a capital of only 
$60,000.00 was invested, which was soon found to be inade- 
quate for their rapidly growing needs, as the popularity of 
their goods soon created a business which demanded their 
present capital investment of $400,000.00. 

Besides their works in Durham, they have a large factory 
in Richmond, Va., and the same stockholders, under the 
name of the Norfolk & Carolina Chemical Company, are now 
constructing immense chemical works at Pinner's Point, near 
Norfolk, Va., from which to draw their supplies for their 



PRIV \ It l\ I l Rl STS. 






Durham and Richmond factories. Not merel) to supply 

these I ire they building these chemical works, but 

to put their goods on the markets of the woi id in competition 

with similai plants. 

Regarding the Norfolk plant, the Mercantile and Financial 

Times, "t New \'< -i k, has 

this t<> sj\ : U A stiikin^ in- 
a of tlu- progressive 

tendencies of the fertilizer 

business, is to hi- seen in the 

undertaking sit mi foot l>\ 

the Norfolk and Carolina 

Chemical Company, n o w 

building at Norfolk, Va. 

the most modern ami com- 
plete chemical ami fertilizer 

w< >rks in the United States. 

The company is organized 

on a thoroughly substantia] 
md has .m authorized 

capita] stock - ,000, oi 

which Si 25, is already 

paid in. T h e gentlemen 

identified with t le enter- 
ire men well known 

in the business and financial 

circles of the South, and 

the management is certain 

to !><.• in the highest degree 

judicious and efficient The officers are: 

President; Geo. W. Watts, Vice-President, 

tary and Treasurer. * Tin- methods ami pro- 

of manufacture will In- tin best known to modern 
, and tlu- best <>i experienced skill will be brought to 

bear in every department of the work. Tlu- establishment 

of this enterprising company is an event of marked impor- 
tance in tlu- business history of tlu- "New South." ' 

The president of the Durham factory, Mr. I.. A. Carr, and 

tin- secretan and treasurer Mr. S. T. Morgan, are men of 

ability and push, and are the active managers of tlu- Durham 
and Richmond factories as well as the Norfolk plant, of which 

Mr. S. T. Morgan 1- president, and Mr. I.. A. Carr secretary 

and tre is- 




I. \ CARR, 
-i'li ni Durham Perl 



S. T. Morgan, 

and U. A- Can, 



50 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



Mr. S. T. Morgan having spent a portion of his life on the 
farm, engaged in raising such crops as are adapted to the soil 
of North Carolina, and thoroughly understanding the nature 
and fertilizing needs of the land, is a master of the situation 

as regards fertilizing ma- 
terial. To his superior 
knowledge, in a large meas- 
ure, is due the success of 
this enterprise. 

The combined c a p i t a 1 
of these factories is $900,- 
000. 00. 



GOLDEN BELT MANUFAC- 
TURING COMPANY. 

Until recent years the 
making of cloth bags of 
every kind was done by the 
ordinary sewing machine, 
and could not be made as 
rapidly as was desired. 
Realizing that unless the 
cost of bag making could 
be considerably reduced by 
the introduction of still 
greatci improved machinery 
than that used, the selling 
price would have to remain 




S. T. MORGAN, 

President Norfolk & Carolina Chemical 

Company. 



correspondingly high, a number of experiments were made 
with a view to making machinery that would do much more 
work than the ordinary sewing machine, and finally success 
crowned the efforts of the experimenters. As a result of this 
success, this company runs twenty-nine machines that are 
protected by patent. They operate in all forty-two various 
machines with a daily capacity of 80,000 salt bags and 180,- 
000 tobacco bags, and give employment in their factory to 
80 hands, while employment is given to 450 more hands out- 
side of the factory, who are engaged in stringing bags. 

The product of this concern consists of tobacco, twin and 
salt sacks, and will soon begin the manufacture of seed bags. 

Mr. J. S. Carr, president of the Blackwell Durham To- 
bacco Co., is president of this company, and Mr. Thos. B. 



PRIVATE INTERESTS. 51 

Fuller is general manager. The capital stock is | 



in kii am S< > w \\< >RKS. 

The business of this company is thai of manufacturing 
soap. In addition to every variety of laundry soap, thev 

and sizing soap, 



of softner 
for washing 



warps, fillings 



manufacture .1 large quantity 

which is used 1>\ cotton mills 
yarns &c. This plant was put 
in operation in the winter of 
with a paid in capital 
e v e 1 j dollar 
of which has done the work of 
two, as is evidenced 1>\ the 
and increasing output 
which already demands a much 
■ c ipital than is now em- 
ployed. 

The product of this factory 
is sold iu ever) portion of tlu- 
United States. The weekly 

1, 1 pounds. 

The officers of this company 
an-: J. R. Blacknall, Presi- 
dent; J. T. Pinnix, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and J. \Y. Waikr- Sec- 
retary and Treasurer. fhe factory is a large four story frame 
building well suited tor tlu- busini 

THE WORTHAM WOODEN MILLS 
was incorporated July [892, and has a paid in capital of 

Si 2, i»ii. i.(.i). Mr. ( ',. C. Farthing is president, and Mr. J. B. 
Christian is secretary and treasurer. These works are near 
two lines of railroad and are well equipped with every kind 
of improved machinery for tlu- manufacture of sash, 
blinds, mantles and general house furnishing wood materials. 
They give employment to a number of hands, all of whom 
an- permanent residents of tlu- town. 

LEAF TOBACCO BROKERAGE. 

: leaf tobacco broker* in Dnr- 

ill of whom appear to be doing a g 1 business. As 

our space 1- somewhat limited, mention will be made of only 




THOS. 1: 1 1 ia.i i< 
Manage) Golden Bell Man I 



52 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



four of the larger firms, who in addition to purchasing tobacco 
for the American trade, are exporters to foreign countries. 
There are in all some fifty tobacco buyers on this market, 
representing leading manufacturers throughout the country 
or are buying on speculation. Ranking among these buyers 
are some of Durham's most progressive and liberal business 
men. 




FACTORY OF THOS 



THOS. H. MARTIN. 

Mr. Martin came to Durham in 1886, and purchased the 
business of Dibrell Bros. & Co., who had up to that time 

been prominent 
buyers on this 
market. The bus- 
iness, under Mr. 
Martin's watchful 
care, soon began 
to increase, and 
instead of remain- 
ing in the quarters 
he first occupied, 
moved to a larger 
building and since 
then on account of 
still greater growth, was compelled to move in the building 
he now occupies in order to secure ample room in which 
to handle the large quantity of tobacco he is constantly pur- 
chasing, which amounts to about three and one-half million 
pounds a year. This factory is a five story brick structure, 
located on Morris street, and is 54x166 feet. 

By his untiring energy and superior business talent, Mr. 
Martin has built, an order business which extends throughout 
the United States and Canada. The almost phenomenal suc- 
cess which has attended his indefatigable efforts in building 
up this large and increasing business is well merited. Besides 
his interests as a tobacco broker, he has interests in various 
other enterprises. Is president of the Durham Tobacco Board 
of Trade, and is a director of the Morehead Banking Company. 

j. T. pinnix & CO. 

Prominent among the leaf tobacco brokers of Durham is 
the above named firm, which is composed of Messrs. J. T. 




I II MARTIN. 



ALBERT KKAMKk. 




J W UM.kl K. 






Prominent Tobacco Brokers. 



54 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 




Pinnix and Jas W. Walker, both of whom are gentlemen of 
great worth in our business community, displaying as they do 
considerable interest in the industrial development of the 
town. 

The business of this firm is that of purchasing almost every 
grade of leaf tobocco which is sold on this market, with 

which to supply their many 
customers. Their purchases 
are made entirely on order 
for large tobacco manufac- 
turing establishments in this 
and foreign countries. 

The factory building they 
own and occupy is a large 
four story structure, which 
was built by them expressly 
for the purpose to which it 
is applied, and has a storing 
capacity of millions of 
pounds of leaf tobacco. 

These gentlemen are both 
interested in other industrial 
enterprises in the town, Mr. Pinnix being vice-president of 
the Morehead Banking Company, and of the Durham Soap 
Works of which Mr. Walker is secretary and treasurer. Mr. 
Walker is a member of the present Board of Town Aldermen. 

ALBERT KRAMER. 

This business was estab- 
lished in January, 1880, by a 
co-partnership between Col. 
Robert F. Webb and Albert 
Kramer. Upon the death of 
Col. Webb in 1891, Mr. Kra- 
mer succeeded to the firm 
name of Webb & Kramer, 
conducting the business with 
signal success until this year, 
1894, when he has bought over 
two million pounds of leaf 
tobacco, which has placed him at the head as one of the largest 
buyers of loose leaf in North Carolina. 



FACTORY OF J. T. PINNIX & CO. 




FACTORY OF ALBERT KRAMKR. 



PRIVATE IN'M 



55 



His trade in the United States has grown to large propor- 
tions, ami having sought also the channels of foreign commerce 
his export trade has assumed a wide scope. His connections 
in foreign countries are the stronget houses, and their satisfac- 
tion is evidenced by a rapidly increasing business. 

The factory buildings of Mr. Kramer are on McMannen 
one of which is a large brick and the other a large 
frame building. 

ii. i. b tss a a •. 

This firm began businessin [885. Mr. II. J. Bass, the ac- 
tive member, was previously engaged in business in Lynch- 



burg, Virginia 
1 e a 1" tobacco 
a business 

known t<> the 
facility for 
storing ami 
co that is 
use l>v them, 
of t h e ir j iro- 
and e n e r g y 
built up quite 
ami valuable 
a n d foreign 




\ OB II J. !:'■. 



Air brokers in 
a n d conduct 
which is well 
trade. Every 

h a ndl i n g , 
drying tobac- 

known, is in 
and as a result 
g ressi veness 
they h a v c 
a n extensive 
tr.uk- in this 
countries. 

The factory buildings of this company are each four stories 
high, with a Storing capacity of millions of pounds of leaf 

toll.li 

Mr. H. J. I'.ass, besides taking an active part in everything 
that pertains to the tobacco interest of Durham, is an able 
member of the Board of City Aldermen and is ever alive to 

the material development of the town and the progress of her 

people. 

TOBACCO SALES WAREHOUSES 

There are five large tobacco warehouses in Durham for the 

>f leaf tobacco, four of which are open for busini 
Durham as a leaf tobacco market is second to none. The 
demand of the large manufacturers of tin- town being greater 

than that of any other manufacturers in North Carolina, nat- 
urally j^ives to the market such strength as it would not <»th- 
have. During th< I the four warehouses of 



56 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



Durham sold about 10,000,000 pounds of the natural leaf, a 
good portion of which was manufactured into tobacco and 
cigarettes by home factories. 

PARRISH' S WAREHOUSE. 

This warehouse, for the sale of leaf tobacco, is conducted 
by Mr. E. J. Parrish, who established himself in the business 

in 1873. In 1879 he built 
in the central portion of the 
business part of town the 
largest brick tobacco ware- 
house ever erected in the 
State, and sold on the first 
day of opening 80, 000 
pounds of tobacco for $15,- 
000. A few years after the 
erection of this building the 
same was destroyed by fire, 
and shortly thereafter, on a 
site just opposite, he built 
the present building, which 
is a large brick structure 
having a floor space of 26,- 
200 square feet. 

The Parrish Warehouse is 
favorably known through- 
out all the tobacco counties 
of North and South Carolina 
and Virginia. 

Besides being present 
every day and personally directing the sales that are made 
at this warehouse, Mr. Parrish is engaged in the manu- 
facture of tobacco. He is one of Durham's leading spirits 
and has spent a large portion of his life in aiding in the work 
of bringing Durham to the front as a hustling, bustling town. 




E. J. PARRISH. 



REAMS WAREHOUSE. 

Messrs. Carrington & Hutchings are proprietors of this 
noted warehouse, which is situated on the corner of Main and 
Corcoran streets. This is a well known warehouse and enjoys 
a large patronage from the tobacco farmers of this and other 
States. The proprietors are prominent men in the trade and 




Parrishs Tobacco Warehouse. 




Globe Tobacco Warehouse. 



58 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

enjoy the confidence and respect of the buyers on the market 
as well as the entire people of the town. 

THE BANNER WAREHOUSE 

is conducted by Messrs. Lea, Burch & Co., every member of 
the firm being a tDbacco men of pronounced ability. This 
concern has been in existence only a short time, but owing to 
their reputation as authority on tobacco questions, they have 
the confidence and good will of all the tobacco farmers with 
whom they come in contact and as a result are well patronized. 

THE FARMERS' WAREHOUSE. 

This house is on Church street and is operated by the 
Farmers' Warehouse Company, of which Mr. B. H. Cozart is 
general manager. Mr. Cozart is an old tobacco citizen hav- 
ing formerly been engaged in the business in Oxford, and has 
not only handled "the weed" all his life but has had the 
experience of producing the same as a farmer. This house 
has been established only a short time, but long enough to 
become known among the farmers that market their crop in 
Durham. 

MISCELLANEOUS ENTERPRISES. 

Under this heading will be found a number of industrial 
enterprises not elsewhere mentioned, which taken together, 
give employment to a large number of hands and are ac- 
counted as valuable institutions to the town. 

DURHAM MARBLE WORKS. 

This business is conducted by Mr. Robert I. Rogers, a gen- 
tlemen who has for a number of years successfully operated 
in Durham, Oxibrd and Henderson, a business of large 
proportions in the making of monuments and tombstones, 
also brownstone and granite trimmings, curbings &c. Besides 
his occupation in this line, he has for a long time been 
actively engaged in real estate transactions, as much for the 
material advancement of Durham as for personal gain. Being 
secretary and treasurer of the Durham Land and Security 
Company, he is in a position to give reliable information re- 
garding the real estate interest in Durham. 



PRIVATE [NTERESTS. 



59 



THE BDTH \ i '< >B I "< 'Mi'AXV. 

In January 1891, this company purchased the job printing 
and book-binding plant oi Mi. 11. ]•;. Seeman, who foi a 
numbei of years bad been successfully engaged in tins busi- 
ness, and established themselves as publishers and priuters. 
The capita] stock is $8,000.00. Mr. J. II. Southgate, a 
member of the insurance firm of J. Southgate & Son, is 
president, and Mr. II. K. Seeman is secretarj and treasurer. 
Besides doing the larger part of the local business in this line, 
they till a large number of orders for various concerns through- 
out the State. Their principal 
work consists in printing tobacco 
labels and bands of which they 
supply the Black well Durham 

Tobacco Co. with over 51 

: annum. Theii place of 
business is on the corner of Main 
and Nfangum streets. 

SEEMAN CARR1 \<.i O >MPANY. 

This business is conducted by 
Mr. Jno. F. Seeman, and is not 
incorporated. The output of this 

enterprise consists of hand-made 

vehicles of every description, oi \^^ ^/ 

which an attractive supply is con- _, ii^TiTTnTTvi 1 

Stantly On display in their show- President of The Bducatoi 

room at "Five Points" on Main street. 




DURHAM ROLLER COVERING COMPANY. 

The business of this company is covering rolls for cotton 

mills. The- same was incorporated in [890 and is a branch 

of the Charlotte Roller Covering Works. Mr. M. A. Liunell, 
<»t Connecticut is president, and Mr. (*.. I:. Richwood 
retary and treasurer. Mr. P. E. Linnell, the genial manager, 
has an experience of twenty-four years in the business and lias 
proven himself a valued citizen of the town. The work of 
this company is distributed throughout the cotton mill section 
of tlu- South. 

P. HOWERTON. 

This gentleman is regularly engaged in the busini 



6o 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



making- hand-made vehicles of every description. His works 
are situated on Mangum street and consist of wood, paint and 
blacksmith shops. His show-room is well filled with work of 
his own and western make. 



THE MANUFACTURERS HOUSE FURNISHING AGENCY. 

The great advancement in improved architecture that for a 
number of years has been made in North Carolina, in the 

building of residences, has 
created a demand for supe- 
rior decorations, painting 
and house furnishings. To 
supply this demand the 
above named agency, con- 
trolled and conducted en- 
tirely by Mr. S. F. Tomlin- 
son, was established some 
five years ago, and during 
this period some of the 
largest and most handsome 
church buildings, hotels, 
and private residences in the 
State have been decorated, 
painted and furnished by 
this agency. Mr. Tomlin- 
son is a true lover of art, in 
addition to which he pos- 
sesses that rare gift of re- 
fined taste, which places 
him as a leader in art deco- 
rations and house furnishing. 
Mr. Tomlinson is secretary and treasurer of the R. F. Mor- 
ris & Son Mfg Co. and is interested in various other Durham 
enterprises. 

R. T. HOWERTON. 

The making of caskets and coffins and a general undertaking 
business is that of the above named gentlemen. His place 
of business is on Mangum street. 

MACHINE AND FOUNDRY WORKS. 

There are two good sized foundries and machine shops in 
Durham, one conducted by Mr. Louis Albezette, and the other 




S. F. TOMI.IXSON. 



PRIVATE INT1 : 



6l 



h\ m,. |. x. K rj variet) and kind of castings are 

made bj theii works, and machines of every description re- 
paired. 

DURH \m STEAM LAI NDRY, 

ised with the miscellaneous industrial enterprises, is the 

Durham Strain Laundry, which business is conducted 1>\ 
G. B. Richwood & Co , gentlemen who have- recently 
taken up their abode in Durham, and arc- known .is pi 

ii.l able businesss nun, 
displaying the usual energy 
with which the average Dur- 
ham citizen is possessed. 
Their works are locat< d on 
Main street, and is kept in 
•ant operation 1>\ the 
libera] patronage extended 
b\ the j>r,blic. 

PUBLICATIONS. 

Among the newspapers 
and periodicals published in 
Durham are two dailies ; the 
Globe-Herald, and the Daily 
Sun. Two weeklies : the 
Dui h a m Recorder a a d 
Weekly Times. Two month 

lies : the National Tobacco 

and Grocer, and Trinity 

ue Record. The two 
dailies are published every 
evening. The I mrham Re- 
corder is the oldest paper published in North Carolina, hav- 
ing been established in 182a The editor, Mr. E. C. Hackney 1 

es owning and conducting this publication, is also one 

of the editors and proprietors of the National Tobacco and 

r, of which Mr. II. K. Sec-man is general manager, ami 

tary of the Mallory Durham Cheroot Company, ol 

which mention is elsewhere made. 

D COMPANIES. 

There are three land companies doing te business 

in Durham. The members of each company are good con- 




62 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

conservative business men, and with one or two exceptions are 
all citizens of the town. These companies are not trying to sell 
their property at large profit and fancy prices, but being in- 
terested in various industrial enterprises of the town, are 
extremely anxious to have new capital locate among them, 
offering every reasonable inducement to that end. 

THE DURHAM CONSOLIDATED LAND AND IMPROVEMENT 
COxMPANY. 

This company own 286 acres of very valuable land immedi- 
ately outside the corporate limits of the town, adjoining the 
Trinity College property; the larger part of which is very de- 
sirable fo 1 ' residential purposes and will be sold at prices and 
terms to suit the purchaser. Many acres of this land is es- 
pecially desirable for factory purposes and will be donated by 
the company to anyone for manufacturing purposes. 

Mr. J. S. Carr, president of the Blackwell Durham Tobacco 
Company, is president of this company; Col A. B. Andrews, 
second vice-president of the Southern Railroad, is vice-presi- 
dent, and Mr. R. H. Wright, is secretary and treasurer. 

MORGAN, WATKINS & COMPANY. 

In various parts of North Carolina this company own large 
tracts of farming lands as well as in and surrounding Durham. 
They are now making an effort to dispose of some of this 
land to desirable persons on the very easiest terms and longest 
peuod of payment In town or country property they can 
suit the most exacting. 

The active member of this company are Mr. W. M. Mor- 
gan, and Dr. J. L. Watkms. 

THE DURHAM LAND AND SECURITY COMPANY. 

The land belonging to this company consists of 300 acres 
of cleared and timbered land lying near the eastern corporate 
limits of Durham, and also own valuable property within the 
town. This land is well located for residences and factory 
purposes, and will be sold in any size lots on the easiest terms. 
For factory purposes this company will donate land free of 
charge. 

The officers are Dr. J. L. Watkins and Robt. I. Rogers. 

INSURANCE AND COMMISSION BROKERAGE. 
There are in Durham four firms conducting a general life 



64 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

and fire insurance business, and three commission merchants. 
Every insurance company in the United States of much im- 
portance is represented by one of these agencies. 

J. SOUTHGATE & SON. 

This large agency was established in 1876, by Mr. James 
Southgate, who, a number of years ago admitted his only son 
Mr. J. H. Southgate as a partner, and under the firm name of 
J. Southgate and Son, have written probably more insurance 
than any concern in North Carolina. Besides being agents 
for some of the largest fire companies in the world, they rep- 
resent some of the larger life and accident companies of 
America. 

W. H. M CCA BE 

Began business in Durham in 1887 with only a few com- 
panies, as at that time it was a difficult matter to secure an 
agency, for nearly all the large companies were already rep- 
resented in the town. In time however he gradually added 
one by one, until to-day he is the resident agent for some of 
the oldest and strongest companies in existence. Aside from 
his fire business he does a large business in life and accident 
insurance. 

W. J. GRISWOLD. 

Established himself in the commission and brokerage 
business in Durham in 1887 representing some of the largest 
wholesale mercantile firms in the United Stati s. In a few 
years after he added to his brokerage business an insurance 
agency and does considerable work in life and fire insurance. 

.MORGAN & CARR. 

This firm is composed of Mr. S. T. Morgan and Mr. L. A. 
Carr two of Durham's leading citizens, both of whom are 
officers in The Durham Fertilizer Company. They do a gen- 
eral brokerage business and are large buyers of cotton. 

\v. B. SURLES. 

Conducts a general brokerage business, in addition to which 
he does some work in insurance. He began business in 
Durham some years ago, and has by industry and thrift, es- 
tablished quite a trade among the merchants and other busi- 
ness men of the town. 



INTRODUCTION 



Believing that it ia the duty of every citizen of the town in which he Uvea, 
to in some w.iv contribute t<> the advancement and prosperity of such town. 
The Educator Company , from motives purely public spirited, adds this its 
■.mis the further progress and development of the thriving manufac- 
turing town of Durham. 

The contents of this hook will be found on investigation, to be just and 
truthful statements, in brief, pertaining to tin.- town and her people ; as can 
. and known by any observant and inquiring person. 

The main purpose of this work is to give to those persons Beeking homes 
and investment, a brief and accurate recital of what the people of Durham 
have done, and with the advantages they possess can do. towards making 

Durham one of the foremost cities of the Smith. To this end we invite your 
careful perusal, with the only request that should you become interested, jrou 
will make inquiry through any private citi/en or public official of the town. 
Concerning the statements herein contained. 

THE BDUCATOB 

Durham. N. C . 
Jany. ist 1895. 



PRIVATE INTERESTS. 



6 5 



GENERAL MERCANTILE BUSINESS 

There ate some over a hundred firms in Durham, represent- 
ing collectively ever) department of the mercantile business 
known to the trade. Mention will be made of onlj a few of 
the larger ones. 

ROY ALL A BORDEN. 

Thi> firm does .1 large business in furniture. Besides having 
J large branch houses, they own and operate a large fur- 
niture, chair and 1 

mattress factory in | 
Goldsboro, which 
i c< inducted i n 
three s e p a r a 1 e 
buildings. T h e 
of this con- 
cern is as large as 
that of an} South- 
ern hciis- and 1 11- 
joj a well-earned 
reputation as nian- 
11 fa c t u rers and 
dealers in that par- 
ticular line. 

The Dur h a m 
branch is conduct- 
ed by Mr. Miks 
Goodwin, an ex- 
perienced and en- 
ergetic you n g 
man, who, 1»\ his superior talent, 
remain with the linn as lonj 
The house they occupy is 



IMju* , (te^s i 



,1 S 






KMTI RE STOR1 



\ ItokliKN. 



has built a trade that will 
as the\ continue in the business. 
a large two-story brick building 
on Corcoran street, and is well filled with a large and attrac- 
tive stock of medium and high grade furniture, together with 
all the latest novelties in furniture and bric-a-brac. 

The members of the firm are M C. Royall and 

J. C Borden, both young men of great business capacity and 
thorough knowledge of ever) detail of the business in which 
they are engaged. 

CHEEK l-i RNITURE < < iMPANY. 

This firm is located on Main street and occupy two floors 



66 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



of a conveniently arranged brick building. The members of 
this company have been engaged in the furniture business for 
many years, and have a perfect knowledge of same. They 
carry in stock every variety and style of fine and medium 
furniture, together with house furnishing supplies. 

HYAMS & LEWETH 

recently established themselves in the furniture business on 
Main street, and have two stories of a large brick building 
well filled with furniture and bric-a-brac of every description. 

T. J. GATTIS & SON. 

Conduct a general bookstore on Main street. Have a trade 
throughout North Carolina that amounts to some twenty-five 
thousand dollars a year. 

THOS. J. LAMBE. 

This gentleman established himself in the clothing business 



in Durham 
o r ten years 
well displayed 
ergy, together 
py faculty 
f r i ends, has 
which extends 
ad joining 
town trade has 
growth year by 
ports glowing 
the balance of 




CLOTHING HOUSE OF T. J. LAMBE. 



some eight 
ago, and by his 
talent and en- 
with the hap- 
o f making 
built a trade 
into various 
counties. His 
had a general 
year, and he re- 
prospects for 
this year. His 



place of business is on the northeast corner of Main and Man- 
gum streets. The building he occupies is a two-story brick, 
both floors of which are well filled with clothing and gents' 
furnishings, hats, &c. 

W. A. SLATER COMPANY. 

This is a clothing company, and conduct a large business 
on the northeast corner of Main and Mangum streets. The 
members of the firm are Messrs. W. A. Slater, J. H. Sneed 
and Mr. T. J. Fetzer, all gentlemen of large experience in the 
business in which they are engaged. The building they oc- 



PRIVATE [NTBREST& 67 

ctipy is a two-story brick, well arranged foi the business to 
which it is devoted. 

\\. II. I'koi T11R. 

This gentleman conducts a wholesale and retail gi 
business on the corner of Mangum and Parrish streets. The 
building he occupies is a large three-story brick structure. 
Besides this main place of business, he has several storage 
houses in which are kept supplies received in car-load lots. 

Mr Proctoi has built up an immense trade, and supplies a 
large number of stores adjacent to the town, [s a citizen who 
stands in line of progress, and is an able member of the cit) 
Board of Aldi mien. 

II. II. MARKHAM. 

The- business of this gentleman is that of general merchan- 
dising. His operations art- carried on in a large two-story 
brick building on the corner of Main and Mangum streets, in 
addition to which Ik- has several storage houses Gives em- 
ployment to a number of men and i> an old citizen of the town. 

\. K. I.I.on I' & COMPANY. 

This firm is engaged in the wholesale and retail hardware 
business, and has a large store on Main street, which runs the 
entire length of a square. Mr. A. K. Lloyd is the active 
member of the firm. 

t . C. TAYLOR 

is employed in the tinsmith and stove business. lie occupies 

a tWO-Storj brick building on Main street, ami docs an c\ten- 

tensive trade throughout this and other counties. Does 
considerable work tor the American Tobacco Com pan} and 
employs a number of hands. 

HI. I. I.N. STONE .\ COMPANY. 

Tin active members of this firm are Messrs. \\\ 1<*. Ellis 
ami \V. H. Stone, two young men who have been associated 

together in the dry good business for a number of vears. They 

do quite an extensive business in this and adjourning COU1 ties 
besides being tin- leaders in this line of business as fl 

the city trade. They occupy a large two-story brick building 



PRIVATE I XII i 






on M.iin street and employ a numbei of experienced clerks. 

■ >. I . K \U I.S. 

in business in Durham some twent) years or more ago, 
.uul is classed as one of most successful merchants of the 
town. His store is on Main street, [s a two story brick 
building both floors of which he occupies. I 1 d bus- 

iness in dry goods and general supplies for the household. 
Has, other interests in industrial enterprises. 

W. M. VEARBY. 

As a druggist and merchant Mr. Yearby has no superior. 
Starting in businessonly a few years, ago, he has b\ hard work, 
close attention to 
business and su- 
perior judgment, 
establ ished a 
trad e which is 
not only a de- 
light to himself 
but to his many 
frie n d s. The 
building heowns 
and occupies is a 
handsome t w o- 
story brick struc- 
ture situated on 
Main street The 
interior in finish 




inTHRIok OB w. M VEARBY'S DRUG STORE. 



is complete. The floor is laid with fancy tiling, the walls 
and ceiling are handsomely and artistically frescoed while 
beautiful hand-painted pictures form a part of, and adorn the 
side walls. This is said to be one of the handsomest drug 
stores in the South. 

I'. W . VAUGHAN. 

The drug store of Mr. Vaughan is on Main street, and is a 
two-story brick building with brown stone trimmings. This 
building was recently purchased by him and remodeled 
throughout The floor is of marble and a portion of the 
windows are of cathedral glass. Mr. Vaughan began busi- 
.; Durham as a proprietor in 1.887, an< * has met with 



7° 



HAND-BOOK OE DURHAM, N. C. 



a success which is well merited. Is one 
stantial citizens. 

R. BLACKXALL & SON. 



of Durham's sub- 



This firm does an extensive drug business on Main street. 
Is the oldest drug store in the town and controls a patronage 
which has been extended them for many years by the older 
residents of the town and county. 

SNEED & THOMAS. 

The members of this firm are Messrs. Paul C. Sneed and 
Allen S. Thomas, two young men who associated themselves 

together about one year 
ago, and have built up 
quite an extensive city 
trade. The building they 
occupy is a large three-story 
pressed brick building with 
marble trimmings, situated 
on the corner ol Main and 
Mangum streets. The ar- 
rangement and finish of the 
interior are in keeping with 
the handsome building and 
it is considered one of the 
finest drug stores in the 
State. 

HEARTT & FARTHING. 

The members of this firm 
are Messrs. Frank Heartt 
and T. B. Farthing, one 
an experienced druggist 
and the other a salesman of 
fine ability. This drug 

store is situated on the corner of Church and Main street, and 

is a large three-story brick building. 

MRS. ADA M. SMITH. 

Conducts a millinery and fancy goods store. Began busi- 
ness some ten years ago, and since then has moved several 
times on account of the rapid increase in her trade. She 
now occupies the handsome store room ou the corner of Main 




DRUG STORE OF SNEED & THOMAS. 



rktv.vn. iNii.Ki-.sTS. 71 

and O ircoran streets which is admirably suited fox the millinery 
business. 

jno. m. WYATT. 

Mr. Wyatt moved to Durham about two years ago, and is 
conducting .1 business of manufacturing harness of every kind. 
He occupies a two-story brick building on Main street, and 
carries a large line of such goods as harness makers generally 
keep in stock. 

CHARLES T. 1'osti.i \ . 

iblished himself in the jewelry business in Durham in 
Occupies a two-story brick building on Main street 

and is one of the- pioneer citizens oi the- town. 

M. 11. JONES 

( iwiis and occupies a large two-story brick building on Main 
street and is engaged in the jewelry business. 

LAWYERS AND PHYSICIANS. 

Among the most prominent lawyers of the town arc Messrs. 
Fuller & Fuller; Boone & Boone; Manning & Foushee, W. 
A. Guthrie, and Chas. E. Turner. 

The most prominent physicians are : Messrs. Can & Man- 
ning; A. Cheatham; Julian A. Smith; X. M. Johnston; X. P. 
BoddiejW. J. II. Durham; L. W. Battle and W. E. Fitch. 

ENUMERATION OF ENTERPRISES. 

Durham has four lines of railroad; five tobacco factories, 
two of which are the largest in the world; tour large cotton 
mills; four cigar factories; one fertilizer factor) ; one bag fac- 
tory; «>ne soap factory; tWO sash, door and blind factories; 
three banks; four tobacco warehouses for the sale of leaf to- 
abotlt i"'» leaf tobacco brokers; two foundries; four 
machine shops; two carriage factories; four job printing 
offices; one book-bindery; one laundry; one marble yard; one 
cotton roller covering works; four insurance agencies; two 
daily papers; two weekly papers and two monthlies; four 

furniture Stores; live drug stores; three hardware stores and 

about too other merchants representing various lines. W-^ 

twelve churches; on. two graded schools and other 

industrial, educational and benevolent institutions. 




Residence of Mr. J. S. Carr. 




Residence of Mr. W. Duke 



Vdvantases and Needs of Durham. 



RAILROAD ADVANTAGES. 

As a railroad center Durham is equalled 1>\ but few towns 
in the State and surpassed bj none. 

Quick transportation, low freight rates, and eas> ac< 
the great commercial, manufacturing and agricultural centers, 
is .1 desideratum which no prudent investoi can afford to over- 
look 01 underestimate in 
this age of sharp compe- 
tition and rapid inter- 
communication. 

A glance at the map 
will at once confirm Dur- 
ham's proposed advant- 
ages in this respect 

With her four railroads 
penetrating the- coal and 
in»n fields ot" Virginia, 
Tennessee ami tin- Caro- 
linas; the rice ami cotton 
plantations and lumber 
regions of t h e South, 
deep wate.T navigation 
easily reached in a five 
hours run; the Nation's 
Capital and leading cities 

ot the North and East 

ssible in from ten to 
fifteen hours travel — our 

iphical situation is 

pecurliarlv inviting to manufacturers, capitalists and home- 
seekers. 

INDUSTRIAL AND SOCIAL ADVANTAGES. 

These advantages are supplemented by man) successful 

enterprises already enumerated in the foregoing pages, which 
need no repetition here. While proud of oui manufacturing 
enterprises, which are well calculated to inspire hope and 
energy, there are yel social and educational advantaged 




RESIDBNC1 OP DR. 




RESIDENCE OF MRS, J. R. DAY. 



RESIDENCE OF MRS. T. D. JONES. 




RESIDENCE OF MR. J. ED. LYON. RESIDENCE OF MR. H. E SEEMAN. 



ADVANTAGES AND N 






equally as great No citj of equal population can boast of 
greater religious freedom and political tolerance. Ours is 
emphatically a cosmopolitan population, representing all 
sections of our common country. Our successful nun are 
the architects of their own fortunes, md rejoice in th< 
conditions, which from the beginning made theii success pos- 
sible; hence honest labor and enterprise is respected and en- 
couraged. It is a remarkable fact that notwithstanding the 
wonderful success of Durham's manufacturers, the> all I 
in a small way, with but little means, and never received 
an) aid from out- 
I I 
: ted that in 
t h e twenty - five 
years of I mrham's 
industrial history, 
not exceeding one 
hundred thousand 
dollars of the- capi- 
tal invested w a s 
brought iro m 
abroad. The 
fou n ders came 
here poor in e n , 
an 1 by industry, 
e CO n m y and 
sound business 

methods creaU d RK sidencb of b. n dukb 

their own capital. 

During all these years of industrial activity her citizens have 

never lost interest in the maintainance and advancement ol 

sound religious and moral principles. 

EDUCATIONAL ADVANTAGES. 

Durham's educational institutions are everything that can 
reasonably be desired, and afford every opportunity for ob- 
taining a business or classical education at minimum i 

Vs an evidence of the interest taken in educational matters, 
sary to point to our public school buildings 
and Trinity College, and to the further fact that there 

not an institution of learning for either race within the 
borders of the State, that has not at some period in their his- 
tory received substantial aid from onr citizens, while .some 





RESIDENCE OF MR. B. L. DUKE. 




RESIDENCE OF MRS. L. L. MOKFHFAD. 



A I >\ \.\T M. I s AM' \1- ! DS. 



77 



have received magnificenl endowments from our men of weal 1 h. 
While justly proud of our industrial, educational and social 
a tainments, we are not satisfied to rest content with conquests 
achieved, but are on the alert to secure desirable accessions to 
<>ur population, who will aid us still further in building up the 
material and social possibilities of our city. 



DURHAM'S NEEDS. 



We want and 
invite m e n of 
enterprise, brain 
and brawn, from 
the East, North, 
West and South 
— the l> a n k e r 
a n d capitalist, 
the manufactur- 
er and educator, 
the professional 
man and woman 
t h «.- trad< sman 
and skilled la- 
borer,all tocome 
among u s and 
give ns tlu- ben- 
efit of their skill 
and energy, with 
an a s s u r a □ c e 
that their for- 
tunesand happi- 
ness will be aug- 
mented h Y 50 
doing. We want 
g o o d men re- 
gardless of t h e 
s e c t i o u from 
whence they come 
convictions. 




Kl si ID Ml i>l U U . II I.I.I K 



their religious sentiments or political 
We need them in the fields of trade and com- 
merce ; in the pulpit, the forum and the sanctum. We want 
them to share- with us in gleaning the golden advantages and 
•ping the great resources whu-h a kind Providence has 
placed at <>ur doors. There are unoccupied fields in almost 




RESIDENCE OF MR. S. F. TOMLINSON. RESIDENCE OF MR. d A. CARR. 




TRINITY M. E PARSONAOE. 



RESIDENCE OF MR. w. H. BRANSON. 



ADVANTAGES AND NEEDS. 



79 



branch of trade and industry, which promises a rich har- 
vest for whoever will intelligently develop thetn. 

Among the inviting opportunities in manufacturing, we 
would suggest the following as the most flattering : A furni- 
ture factory for the manufacture of cheap and medium priced 
goods ; a chair factory ; a coffin factory ; a factor) f< r the man- 
ufacture of agricultural implements; a shoe factor) ; .> cloth- 
ing factory ; a wood and willow-ware factory ; a bucket and 
wooden plate factory. The materials for the wooden factories 
t numerated is al- 
ni o s t contiguous 
to tin- city, prac- 
tically inexhaus- 
table in quantity £ 
a u d unsurpass 
in quality. This 
is not a mere as- 
sertion, but is em- 
inently sustained 
by indisputa b 1 e 
facts w h i c h are 
eas ) of verifica- 
tion to a u v o n e 
who is disposed to 
make the in vest i • 
gation. On the 
banks (> f Nfeuse 
river, only eight 
• 

forest of hard- 
wood thousands of acres in extent. The Oxford & Clarksville 
Railroad, and the Durham & Northern Railroad runs along 

its borders. This, and the forests of New Hope, six miles 

fthecity, is pronounced by experts to be the finest body 

of hard-wood timbers in the South. Among the species, the 
white oak, red oak, post oak, Spanish oak, willow oak, pop- 
lar, sweet gum, sycamore, maple, ash, cedar, hickory and 
od predominate. The property is owned by different 
parties, all of whom are liberal and progressive, and finan- 
cially able if necessary, to mill it, or lease to those who will, 
whenever a local demand is created. 

Our climate is mild, our soil productive, our location ad- 
vantageous and prospects encouraging. To those who are 




RESIDENCE mi GEO \V WATTS. 



8o 



HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 



seeking a new location with a view to pleasure and profit we 
extend an invitation to come and see and investigate for 
themselves, feeling- assured that every statement we have 
made in regard to Durham will be fully verified. 




RESIDENCE OF WM. A. GUTHRIE. 




The Stale ol North Carolina. 

SOME < >F HER PR< >DUCTS. 

[Portion of an article from ;i recent number of the Soi rin.i-s Si iTBa 

M v.. \ • i m i.\ Bennett I >* »l>t>in. J 

Writing of the North Carolina climate a former resident of 
Minnesota says in substance that the Tar Heel State covers a 
wide extent of soil aud climatic conditions. In the West are 
found lofty mountains where the Canadion fir, hemlock and 
white pine thrive, and in the East is a low coast region where 
the palmetto attains a lofty growth. The mountain region is 
the best in the United States : pears, peaches and grapes grow 
in abundance ; the uplands are full of indigenous and culti- 
vated fruits, while the coast region is literally overspread with 
the famous scuppernong vines which furnish wine to the pop- 
ulation of the whole commonwealth. This writer states that 
he has passed three years in North Carolina ; that the lowest 
temperature was seventeen degrees above zero and the highest 
ninety-six. He says that sunstrokes are never known, and 
that he does not remember any snltry nights or any in which 
he did not want a little covering on the bed. 

Considering more in detail the economic aspect of the ques- 
tion, the home-seeker m •■>• ask: "Will it pay to leave the 
North and go to this region of which you speak '.■' ,, In reply 
I will permit this to answer his own ques- 

tion. I hive already said that the territory is one of diversi- 
fied s tils an 1 a climate suited to all grales of husbandry, and 
it may be further said that on the ana of an ordinary farm 

the owner will find conditions suitable to the cultivation oi 

numerous crops. On one portion of his farm he can raise 
cotton ; some part of it will be especially adapted to the u to- 
patch," which has become so popular in all the upland 
> of the Carolinas ; one field can be sown to Kentucky 
blue-grass and another will yield and enormous cutting of 
clover ; the cow-pea crop will grow as luxuriantly here as any 
place in the South ; on the river bottom he may rais 
while in the mellow sandy loam, which will comprise the 
greater part of his farm, he can -row corn, wheat, orchard 



m 



y 











e: 



__. . . f A North Carolina Tobacod Field. 

By.k.indness of 

Southern States Magazine, 



NORTH CAROLINA. 83 

grass, melons, peaches, pears and apricots or anything else 
that may please his fancy. < m a model North Carolina farm 
of suit ible proportions, when under full cultivation, the fanner 
can produce lx.-t.-t', pork, mutton and chickens in abund 
and a considerable amount of butter and cheese ran be deriv- 
ed from the herd. Corn, win.-. a, buckwheat, oats, barley, rye 
and millet, hay and broom-corn, caster beans, cotton 
sweet potatoes and tobacco will make up the rotation of his 

In the- garden, cucumbers, onions, turnips, cabl 
white potatoes and artichokes, unions and peanuts will grow 
in sufficient quantities to supply tin family, while on the lawn 
before his house ran be found in their season the- brightest 
and most beautiful flowers that ever beautified the field or 
adorned the home of a country gentleman. This is what the 
Carolina farmers cm do, and I leave it to the better judgment 
of the home seeker as to whether it will pay, with a trunk 
line railroad in readiness to transport every product quickly 
to market. 

Cotton, of course, is one of the principal crops of this 
tion, but while growing cotton the farmers have been i 
edin improving their farms and developing a diversity in ag- 
riculture which has been of enormous advantage The coun- 
try of which I write is white with cotton in the picking 
son. while it pro onsiderable part of the peanuts, to- 

bacco, small units, hay, rice and melons shipped annually 
from the Southern States. Cotton is king in this region, but 
it is only one of the monarchs in the North Carolina faemers' 
court. 

•\ tobacco man know- that the soil and climate of 
North Carolina is the best in the world for the cultivation of 
high-grade tobaccos. That incomparably fine product known 
a- "Virginia Brights" is grown <>nlv in the old North State, 
and now it has been demonstrated that fine- Havana-seed to- 
rown in tin Caroiinas. Tobacco in the hands 
of industrious and intelligent planters is an immensely valu- 
able crop, and when all the difficulties of curing and preparing 
for the market have been surmounted, the territory Kin- be- 
tween Norfolk and Atlanta will stand forth preeminently as 
the banner tobacco producing section of the Southern States. 
The annual product of North Carolina alon »o,ooo 

pounds of leaf each • pounds of which find a 

:n the markets ol the State, where prices ranging 




_ , . , A No?th Carolina Vineyard. 

By kindness ol 

Southern Statb6 Magazikb. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 

50a pound are sometimes secured, and where 
grades properly cured bring good prices whenever offered in 
the warehouses of Durham and other points accessible to the 

\ er. 
tain fertilizers must be used, but when the soil is naturally 
.1 the plant grows too rank and like that fine flavor and 
color so much desired. What tobacco most needs is constant 
and patient care, and the exercise of intelligence in growing 
and curing it. On almost every farm of any size there is a 
patch of ground well adapted to tobacco, and as the cultiva- 
tion of such a patch fits in well with other general farm work, 
small fa-Ids of it can l>c planted as a side ciop, and the ready 
cash which the product is sure to bring i-* no small consider- 
ationtothe farmer. Raising tobacco is no more difficult than 
ordinary truck farming, and an intelligent person can soon 
learn the whole secret of cutting and curing the crop. The 

chief difficulty in the past has been entrusting this important 
part of the work to ignorant and incompetent farm laborers. 
Tobacco is an all season crop, being planted in May and, by 
the new process of curing the leaves as they mature, i> not en- 
tirely gathered until frost kills the stalk. The exact « 
producing tobacco cannot be readily estimated, hut it is safe 
to state that the cash receipts for a fair crop are double the 
actual expenditures, and that the more time and money ju- 
diciously given to the crop the greater will he the profits and 
the -mailer the proportionate expense of production. Prices 
vary also, so that it is difficult to arrive at actual figures, hut 
I crop i^ always profitable and sometimes it pays enor- 
mously — as much a- S,V' M to $500 net per a 



CLIMATE OF NORTH CAROLINA. 

[From tli.- Handbook of North Carolina.] 

It will lie conceded without question that the influence of 
climate on human progress is supreme, because, in its happy 
or adverse conditions, are involved all that rel uifort, 

health, energy and success in the occupations which enlist 
human effort The regions that most abound in fertil< 
exuberant vegetation, anil which favor the production of the 
most valued and most profitable subjects ofagricultm 
those that most often have those treasures closed against the 

efforts of industry by those extremes of heat and those excesses 



86 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

of moisture against which the physical frame of the cultivator 
is unable to contend; and the most prolific lands of the most 
abounding regions of the world are so oppressed with heat, 
saturated with moisture, or poisoned with miasma, as to make 
the attainment of their treasures the evidences of their cost 
in vigor, health, or of life itself 

That land is a happy one which enjoys the just mean be- 
tween cold and heat, drought and moisture, arctic sterility 
and tropical exuberance; a land in which energies are stimu- 
lated by the bracing breath of a tempered atmosphere, cool 
enough to inspire physical action and elastic vigor; warm 
enough to assure the rewards of labor by the certainties of 
healthful maturity and abundant yields as returns for the 
labors bestowed, carried on under the happy conditions of a 
genial air, a friendly sun, and of a responsive soil. 

Such are the conditions which North Carolina enjoys, with 
no portion of it either too cold on the one hand or too hot on 
the other to obstruct work at any season of the year, while at 
the same time presenting most remarkable apposition of the 
high temperature atmosphere of the North and the balmy 
breath of the semi-tropical South. In passing from east to 
west, from the low lands of the cost, only a little above the 
tide, to the high summits of the mountains, a mile or more 
above the sea, there is found the same gradation in tempera- 
ture, in soil, in products, as if the same territory, instead of 
stretching from east to west over a number of degrees of lon- 
gitude, had extended itself from south to north over the same 
number of degrees of latitude, thus giving to the State not 
only a soil which gives something of every product yielded 
by all the other parts of the United States, but a climate not 
alone favorable to its own people, but inviting the invalid 
from every other part of the country, North, South, East and 
West, to seek under its recuperative influences the blessings 
of renewed health, the restaration of impaired vigor, or the 
arrest of insidious ailments. 

The eastern margin of the State is thrust far out into the 
ocean and brought within the soft influences of the Gulf 
Stream, assuring thereby not only the vegetation of a more 
southern latitude and its earlier and more rapid development 
— an important element in the success ot the now great inter- 
est of truck farming — but of a climate so modified by a not 
excessive degree of heat and moisture as to be more constantly 



88 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

mild and genial, if somewhat more debilitating, than that 
.enjoyed in the interior or far west. On the other hand, the 
western margin lifts itself up to such hights as to gain all the 
advantages of a high latitude — a cooler climate, more invig- 
eration, and a genial healthfullness not surpassed on any por- 
tion of the globe. Intermediately lies that great zone, between 
the coast and the Mountain Section, emphatically a warm and 
genial temperate zone, with neither extremes of heat or cold, 
with a healthfulness unequalled over so exensive a territory, 
and with such general favoring conditions of soil and climate 
as to emphasize its special adaptation for the perfection of 
all the grains, field crops and fruits of the temperate zone. 



THE POPULATION OF THE STATE. 

I From the Handbook of North Carolina.] 

This is a topic of interest to the people of North Carolina 
from the marked fact of their present homogeniousness, ex- 
cepting, of course, the important and large element of the Af- 
rican race, and the smaller and inferior remnant of the abo- 
riginal Indian, still in possession of a large territory in the 
western part of the State, and the still smaller body of half- 
breeds known as the Croatans, occupving a part of Robeson 
County, and believed, fancifully or otherwise, to be the de- 
scendants of the lost members of the lost colony of Captain 
John White, the first effort at permanent settlement made by 
Anglo-Saxon whites on the American continent. The whites 
of this State, now so intermingled and blended by intermar- 
riage and industrial intercourse as to present between them 
few distinctive traits of their origin, are the descendants, medi- 
ately or immediately, of the dominant European races coming 
directly to our shores, but more largely the off-shoots of the 
northern colonies grown populous and powerful enough to in- 
dulge in that early development of the American characteristic, 
love of change and adventure, or the more practical motive or 
bettering their condition by the acquirement of new lands, 
unrestricted in limit, of nearly nominal cost, and with the 
fame of unbounded fertility and unequalled salubrity. 

In 1709 the Baron De Graffenreid, with a colony of Swiss, 
established himself at the confluence of the rivers Neuse and 
Trent, and there founded the present city of Newbern — a set- 
tlement destined to be permanent, but of slow growth, and re- 



go HAND-BOOfc OF DURHAM, N. C. 

ceiving few farther accessions from the native land of the 
founder. 

A small colony of Huguenots found a refuge from persecu- 
tion in the same section, but, beyond the impress of their 
principles and their names, contributed only in small degree 
to the settlement of North Carolina. 

Perhaps the largest bodies ot Europeans coming approxi- 
mately at one times and constituting a distinctive foreign el- 
ement, was the Scotch or Highland colony, which occupied 
the country along the upper waters of the Cape Fear, now 
known as the counties of Bladen, Cumberland, Moore, Rob- 
eson, Richmond and Harnett. These came, some voluntarily, 
most of them by compulsion, after the disastrous defeat of 
Culloden in 1746. They have also blended with the other 
European families, but still retain in marked degree their 
natural characteristics of piety, morality, and care of education. 

The Lords Proprietors, through their influen:es and induce- 
ments offered, added to the population, which, however, came 
in singly or in groups and increased slowly, though early in 
the colonial history making the Eastern Section the most 
prosperous in the State. 

The location of his large colony of Moravians by Count 
Zinzendorff, in 1754, in the present county of Forsyth, is the 
only instance of attempted complete isolation, of the seclu- 
sion of an entire colony, and the culture of peculiar ideas and 
creeds — ideas and creeds more in harmony with the real aim 
and ends of a pure Christianity than human philanthrophy 
has often aimed to put in practical force. This, like all other 
colonies, has in process of time blended with the great mass, 
but with the distinct and triumphant survival of its nobler 
characteristics — benevolence, integrity, devotion to morality, 
religion and education, and that untiring energy which brought 
prosperity to the wilderness colony, and future increase of 
growth and wealth to those fine towns, Winston and Salem, 
the matured, or rather still growing and maturing outgrowths 
of the simple, pious unambitious, religious Moravian colony. 

Of the negro population it suffices to say that it is chiefly 
descended from the slaves capiured in former years in Africa, 
and introduced into the South by English, Dutch, and, in 
latter years, New England slaveships. Importations of slaves 
into North Carolina was very rare after the beginning of this 
century. The increase, therefore, has been from natural 
causes, a genial climate, a humane public system and the 



NORTH CAROLINA. 91 

kindly tempers of the owners, a temper softened as much by 
humanity — very often by affection — as it was influenced bj 
interest. Through these combined causes the negro popula- 
tion increased until it earlj attained the ratio to that of the 
whites it has held and still holds — about one-third of the 
. 

the emancipation of the race, the policy of the State 
government, sustained bj a just and humane public senti- 
everything c insistent with the existence of 
and ineradicable ethnical antagonisms, to efface 
all the badges of former slaver) . The negro has all the rights 
of the citizen, and is secured and protected in the exer< 
them, with the same jealous safeguard of the law as the white 
citizen. IK- testifies before the courts without question as to 
race competency ; he accumulates, it he will, property, per- 
sonal and real ; he is admitted on equal terms with the whites 
t<> the practice of the learned professions ; he has the amplest 

n in the exercise of his religious beliefs, and tin 
absolute control in his ecclesiastical affairs. His infirm, the 

deaf, the dumb, the blind and the insane are eared for by the 
State in institutions, proportionately to the number of patients, 
- well built, as costly, and as well supervised by 
competent heads, as those of the whites. His education is 
weli provided for, and though he pays a little more than one- 
: the poll-tax, and on one-thirtieth of such property tax 
ssigned t<> the maintenance of the school fund, his allot- 
ment of that fund is in proportion to population, not to that 
of race contribution. Apart from the colleges, some, if not 
all, of which are largely sustained by contributions from the 
Northern Si ites, the negro shares in the Normal Institute 
system which is sustained by the State. He holds, also, his 
Animal Industrial State Fair, organized and controlled by his 
own race, but aided by annual appropriations from the State 
ury, and encouraged by the good-will and active co- 
rn <>f the whites, thus having conspicuous opportunity 
to give evidence of 1. 3 and his capacity to maintain 

friendly rivalry in the industrial field with the dominant race, 
population of North Corolina by the Census 
50 ; by that of [890, [,617,947 — an in- 
.It is classified as follows: Whit' 

• ; Chinese, and Japanese, 15 ; In- 
dians (excluding Croatans) 1,571. 








Stone Quarries. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 93 

The foreign horn population is. by the same census, 
The descendants of foreigners form a considerable element, 
but theii numbers do not materially affect the horaogeneous- 
ness of the mass of population. The large body of immi- 
grants which annually lodge themselves in the territory of the 
United States, direct themselves to other homes than are to 
be found in the South Atlantic States. The immigration into 
North Carolina is largely from the New England, Middle and 
some of the North-western states, and gives manv and much 
I and much valued accessions to sources of material de- 
velopment 



GOVERNMENT AND TAXATION. 
From the Handbook of North Carolina.] 

The government of North Carolina is a pure democracy. 
It is based upon the will of the people as expressed in the 
Constitution, an instrument framed by them in their sover- 
eign capacity through delegates appointed for that purpose. 
The will of the people « f this and of cadi State, when thus 
expressed, and in conformity to the Constitution of the United 
States — tor the will of the people of each State is subordi- 
nate to the collective- will of the people of all the States — is 
the- supreme law. The- State Constitution thus made is the 
measure and test of all laws passed by the- Legislature, and 
these laws must stand or fall by their agreement or disa- 
ment with it. 

The- Con titution is a short instrument bul wide in its 
and bearing. It contains a brief statement <>t the 
fundamental principles of civil and individual liberty, creates 
the- different departments of government — Executive, Legis- 
lative and Judicial — and prescribes the- powers ofeach;es- 
tablishes educational charitable and penal institutions; 
directs who shall he- liable- to duty in militia; and prescribes 
the- rights of citizenship. 

The Legislature enacts laws. The Judician passes upon 
them when a question arises as to their constitutionality, and 
expounds them when a question is presented as to their 
meaning. Tin- execution of the- law is entrusted to the- Ex- 
ecutive. The- Executive in this State possesses no veto upon 
ts of the- Legislature. When the- law is once- made, his 
duty, as that of every other citizen, is obedience in his sphere. 



NORTH CAROLINA. 95 

The rights of citizenship is the only point for consideration 
od these depend upon age, residence and previous 

citizenship. . . 

A citizen of a foreign country can make himself a citizen 
here bv becoming a resident; declaring before the i 
tribunal his purpose to become a citizen; and taking the pre- 
scribed oath of allegiance. 

A citizen of any other of tin- United States becomes a citi- 
zen here by changing his residence from that State to this. 
All persons who an- born and continue to reside within 

5l ite an- citizens thereof. 
The chief privilege of citizenship is suffrage. The Con- 
stitution ordains that, "every male person born in the United 
and every male person \vh<> has been naturalized, 
twenty-one years old, or upward, who shall have resided in 
ite twelve months next preceding tin- election, and 
ninety days in the county in which he offers to vote, shall 
hi- deemed an elector. 

Suffrage here embraces the right t«» vote for ever) ol 
in the State from tin- Governor down to constable. One only 
exception to the principle exists in this State— that is in the 
Justices of the Peace. These arc- appointed bv the 
tun Logical consistency was sacrificed in this 
ure what, in the- judgment of the Convention, was a 
>f far higher importance, namely, the sound adminis- 
tration of justice in tin- county, and the administrati 
count) both of which an- uudei the control of the 

s. In mam of the eastern counties the colored popu- 
lation predominates. NYwh emerged from si 
and consequently ignorant of the duties of citizenship; 

f the law and therefore incapable of administering it; 
themselves without property and therefore without the judg- 
ment mecessan to administei tin- finances of a community; 
med best to respose the power of mak 
m another body; thus guarding those communities 
against error, whether of ignoranct or design, until 

and education should mak. thos 
safe ,, mch power. This provision <>! the Con- 

stitution was inspired 1>\ no led- rd the 

1 man; it was a provision ol safi ty as well 
I as the white man. The provision was mad< iinpai 
tial in its operation; it applies to ever) county in tru 

whether the majority he white or black, and the object was 



96 HAND-BOOK OF DURHAM, N. C. 

secured. No such provision was necessary in the cases of 
officers elected by general ticket, for there the experience of 
the white population accustomed to the exercise of citizen- 
ship and educated to its responsibilities would counterbalance 
the inexperience of tb.2 colored race. 

Citizenship under the Constitution of North Carolina 
carries with it high and important rights apart from suffrage. 
It confers a right to an education by the State, such as will 
qualify the citizen for the duties to be performed. If he be 
without property , it gives him a right to support from the 
county, if incapable of earning it by sickness or old age. If 
he have property and is overtaken by irremedial misfortune, 
it exempts from execution personal property to the value of 
five hundred dollars, and vests in the owner in fee-simple the 
homestead and the dwellings and the buildings used there- 
with not exceeding in value one thousand dollars, to be 
selected by him. The unfortunate have thus a secure refuge 
in case of disaster in business. 

It regulates taxation by providing that the General Assem- 
bly levying a tax shall state the object to which it is to be 
applied, and enjoins that it be applied to no other purpose. 
It establishes an equation between the property and the cap- 
itation tax by directing that the capitation tax levied on each 
citizen shall be equal to the tax on property valued at three 
hundred dollars in cash. The capitation tax is levied on 
every male inhabitant in the State over twenty-one and under 
fifty years of age, and shall never exceed two dollars on the 
head. The effect of this limitation upon the capitation tax 
restricts the tax on each hundred dollars worth of property to 
sixty-six and two-thirds cents. It further directs that the 
amount levied for county purposes shall not exceed the double 
of the State tax, except for a special purpose and with the 
approval of the Legislature. 

The rate of State tax now levied for the present year is 28 
cents on one hundred dollars valuation, besides 15 cents for 
school purposes. In addition there are taxes levied on cer- 
tain pursuits, industries and interests devoted to certain pur- 
poses, some in aid of the general school fund, some for 
pensions. 



Advertisements. 



97 




The Man in the Moon 

would be happier if he could have a supply of 



Coo) 
Fragrant 

i ral Soothing 



Blackwell's Bull Durham 
Smoking Tobacco 

ror over twenty -five years tne standard smotcing ropacco or me wunu. 

To-day More Popular than Ever. 
To hav? a good smoke anytime and everytime it is only necessary to 
get Bull Durham. It is all good and always good. 

BLACKWELL'S DURHAM ' TOBACCO CO., 
DURHAM. N. C. 



H. J. Brown Coffin House. 



J. W. BROWN, Proprietor 
3/ intent! Jlii'crto* itntl l r mliiiliiici;. 

Telegraph orders Promptly Aitsnded to Day or Night. 

EALEI3H, 1ST. C. 



Advertisements. 




JSO, M, WYATI, 

MANUFACTURER OF AND DEALER IN 

Buggies, Carts, 
Harness, Saddlery, 

Shoe Findings, &c. 

DURHAM, N. C. 



WORTHAM WOODEN MILLS, 



MANUFACTURERS OF- 



SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, k HOUSE FURNISHING WIATERIALS. 



We do nothing but First- Class Work. 
G. C. FARTHING, - - - - President & Manager, 

TRIMITg i COLLEGE, 

DURHAM, NORTH CRROIilNfl. 

Five departments of instruction, each in charge of specialists, 
i) Department of Philosophy and Letters, leading to A. B. 
Degree. 

2) Scientific Department, leading to B. S. 

3) Theological Department, leading to B. D: 

4) Technical Department, leading to three engineering de- 
grees. School of Pharmacy. 

5) Department of History, Political and Social Science, lead- 
ing to Ph. B. 

School of Finance and Economy for higher education of 
business men, leading to Ph. B. 

Catalogue of special bulletins relating to any department 
sent free on application to the president. 

JOHN C. KILGO, 

President. 



Advertisements 99 



YARBO ROUGH * HOUSE, 

KA.LEI3-H, 1ST. O. 

L. T. BROWN, = = Proprietor. 

In Ev^ry Particular. 



Cuisine Service equal to any in the Country. 

BSFRATES REASONABLE.-^ 



THE 



Hou^e Furnishing and Decorative AgeqciJ, 

Informs the public that it employs none but Fi>st-class Artists, and 
is fully prepared to execute all hinds of 

Painting, Braining and Decorative Work, 

With Wall topers, Stenceting, Tiling. Anaglypta Linerusta, Fresco. 

French Applique Relief, Silks aril Painted or Woven 
tnd in the Modern or 
Classic Styles. 

IF YOU NEED 

©ecorafi&e • T2?orR or • jfurmsrjtwja 

of any hind, let us give you an estimate 



Advertisements. 



HARRISON HOUSE, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 

Mrs. E. M. HARRISON, Proprietress. 

Located plearanlli/ in the centre of the city and pronounced bv the traveling 
public as the best moderete priced hotel south of Mason & Dixons's tine. 

Terms, $1 00 and $1 50 Per Day. 

Special rates given to State and County Officers, Drummers Canvass- 
ers, Farmers' Alliance and to the Theatrical Profession. 
Rooms newly furnished and well ventilated. Table supplied with all the 
delicacies of the season. Servants polite and attentive. Meals at all hours. 

DISTANCE. 
Fro<n Raleigh to | Miles Front Raeigh to \ Miles Prom Raleigh to \ Miles 

Cary, N C 9 Tarboro 160 Wiuston loo 

San'ford 43 Franklin, Va 140 Keidsville Iu6 

Fayettevi 1e 80 Portsmouth, Va 177 Greensboro 82 

Southern Piues, 19 Petersburg, Va 150 Chapel Kill 45 

Hamlet 97 Richmond, Va 173 Durham 26 

Charlotte 175 Danville, Va 129 Washington. D C. . . . 295 

Shelby 229 Waynesville, N. C 311 Baltimore, Md 335 

Frankliuton 27 Charleston, S. C 342 Philadelphia, Pa 424 

Henderson 44 Warm Springs 302 New York 521 

Weidon 97 Asheville 272 Atlanta, Ga 443 

Goldsboro 49 Morgauton 210 Charleston, S. C 345 

New Hern, 109 Hick rv 180 Columbia, S. C 280 

Morchead 144 Staiesville 155 New Orleans, La 937 

Wilmington 132 Salisbury 13^ Jacksonville, Fla 763 

Rocky Mount 89 High Point 96 

zbtxiXjOD tt:p home 

— BY 

Patronizinq Home Enterprise. 



MALLORY DURHAM CHEROOT CO., 

3DXJR.PIA.IwI, 1ST. C, 
ARE MANUFACTURING AS FINE 

Cigars, Cheroots ano Cigavros 

AS CAN BE FOUND ON THE MARKET. 

THEIR LEADING BRANDS ARE : 

"BELLE OF DURHAM." A Dime Cigar for a Nickle. Hand-made Havana filled. 
"BLACKWELL'S DURHAM." A very mild Nickle Cigar. Sumatra wrapper, long 

filler Havana. Hand-made in honor of Col. Buck Blackwell, 
" JULE CARR " A five cent Cigar Sumatra wrapper, Hand-made. Havana filled. A 

sure winner, named in honor to Col. J. S. Cair, Pres. Blackwell Durham Tob. Co. 

" LITTL E S a DIE '* Cigarros, 10 for 10 cents. 

"OI_L> CHUNK'S'' Cheroots 5 for 10 cents. The finest smoke for the money. 
"OLD (NORTH S I ATE" Cheroots 3 for 5 cents. A hummer that always pleases. 
Stick to home and send us your orders. Special brands put up when desired. Address, 

Mallory Durham Cheroot Co., 

DURHAM N. C. 



Advertisements. 

S- A. L. 
Seaboard A«r L'ne, 

ai:.s iLUTELY THE 

Fastest Freight and Passenger Route, 

TO AND FROM ALL POINTS ™Ottb, SOUlD, 

East m\b IXlcst 

OWNING AND OPERATING 

"The Atlanta Special" 

The Fastest Train in the South. 



COMPOSED OF 



Pullman Buffet Drawing Room 

SLEEPERS and DAY COACHES, VESTIBULE!) THROUGHOUT. 



ALSO THE 



INTERSTATE EXPRESS FREIGHT, 

RUNNING SOLID BETWEEN 

PORTSMOUTH AND ATLANTA. 

TVw mi L- !>v the above trains is unequalled. The.S 

is Unsurpassi <i. 
The Seaboard Air Line is now operating Double Daily Pas- 
senger trains connecting at 
■ l: -its South and West and at 

Weldon and Portsmouth lor all Points North and East. 
irthar information, apply to 

dent, JOHN II. WINDER, Genl Manager 

stnonth, \ a \il ,, • 

T J ANI " '■ II W i; QLOVEB 

i,i Agent 
Portamontl 

R. I. CHEATHAM, Agent, Durham, X. C. 



io2 Advertisements. 



W. H. w;llard, s f. tomlinson, 

President. Secretary & Treasurer. 

The R. F. Morris & Son Manufacturing Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

"EmW • Durhanj • {Smolpig ♦ Tobacco, 

SWEET, AND PLAIN STRONG SNUFFS. 



Give our goods a trial and you will be convinced that nothing 
on the market is superior. 

ROYALL & BORDEN, 

—MANUFACTURERS OF— 

Suits, Bureaus, Bedsteads, Safes, Mattresses, 

HARD AND SOFT WOOD, 

GOLDSBORO, N. C. 

Branch Houje buRHAn, N. C. 
Write for Catalogue and Prices. 

Baby Carriage Catalogue now ready. 



Advertisements, 103 

RAWLS NEW YORK CASH STORE. 

119 EAST MAIN STREET, 
IS 111 1. \( KNOWL1 1 G] D 

Headquarters in Durham 

— 1 -. 
Dry Goods, Notions, Hats. Shoes Tinware, &c. 

GKTEEO 3z THOMAS, 

Druggists and Pharmacists, 

Corner Alain & Mangum Sts. Durham, N. C. 

A Large and Varied Assortment of Fancy and Toilet Articles. 

Cl<JAR5 ^B 5M0KER5 QoOD5. 

pounded both Day or Night. 

THE CHEEK FURNITURE CO, 

Furniture, Carpets, Lamps, Clocks, Baby Carriages, Window Shades, 

Dinner and Tea Sets, Washstand Sets, Tin Toilet Sets, 

Pictures, Easlcs, Mirrors, 

THEY ARE UP TO DATE IN STILES. 

Lowest Cajm M°(jse Easiest IruTALnEirr. 

102 Main Street. 

TR1T TiEIIEIM:. 



Z. I. LYON & CO,, TOBACCO WORKS, 



u Tl Rj 



Granulated Smoking Tobacco i Cheroots, 

( "Cut and Slash," "Pride," AN " 

Our Leaders: "Pick Leaf," Tobaccos, AND 

I "Cut and Slash" Cheroots. 

G-i^e Tliess Erands a, Trial. 



io4 



Advertisements. 



Albert Kramer, 

NORTH CAROLINA 

gRiGBT • Lehf • Tobacco, 

For Export and Home Trade. 

DURHAM, N. C. 



W. A. SLATER CO., 

MENS' m and m BOYS 9 o OUTFITTERS, 
Clothing, Furnishings, 

Shoes and Hats, 

n..~ C«^S„1+*r. CHILDREN'S ALL=WOOL SUITS, 

Our Specialty: with 2 pairs Pants $3 50> 

Sent anywhere in the United States, on receipt of price. 




Life, . . . 
Fire, . . . 
Tornado, . . 
Accident, . . 
Fidelity, . . . 
Employers, 
Liability. 



W. J. QRL5W0LD, 
INSURANCE, 

100 West Main Street, Durham, N. C. 



None but Reliable Companies Represented. 

See me when in need of any kind of Insurance. 



WHEN YOT7 "WAIsTX 

•^i@oo^ or <§)t&tioneryU^ 

SEND TO 

Alfred • Williams ♦ & • Company, 

BOOKSELLERS ™B STATIONERS, 

RALEIGH, N. C. 
Catalogue free on application. 

Correspondence Solicited. 



Advertisements. i<>- 



J. K. tilacknall. J. I. I'mmv, Jss. \V. Walker, 

President ul, 



Durham Soap Works, 



TDTJFlttATSA, 1ST. c. 



MM I li II i;t 



\ Fine Laundry Soap, and . . . 
• A Superior Cotton Softener 



:fo:r 

COTTON * MILLS. 

SOUTH EK/N RAILWACJ, 

THE GREAT TRUNK LINE 

AM) 

U. S. MAIL- route: 

NORTH, SOUTH, EAST AND WEST, 

Dger trains daily to Washington. Baltimore. Philadelphia. New 
York and all points Baal Three passenger trains dail) fo« Atlanta. Birmingham, Mem 

phis. Chattanooga. Montgomery, .Mobile, New Orleans, and points Sol rH and WEST 

TH: SHD3T LINE TO FLO-IDA. 

••The New York and Florida, Short Line Limited" runs s. lid beta 
lie and St Augustine, arithout change carrying fit st-class da) • 
Washington and SI Augustine, Pullman Palace Drawnngroom and L'ompartmeut Cars 
petwceti New y lie and SI Augustine, also Pullman Pals 

bet wen New York and i .1 m j. * . and Dining Cars between New York and SI Augualiue. 

TH WASHINGTON AND SOUTHWESTERN VESTIBULED LIMITED 

Thia train ia composed entirely of Pullman Pals epingandDin 

tigns, 

For Speed, I u\ur>. comfort and Safety, Our Service cannot be Kxcelled. 
Call on any Agent Southern Hallway for Rates, Tun. tables Sec. 

w a GR] u a TURR Gei 

Washington, i> C 
J \f iti.iv Traffic Man gi a H H \ki>\\ : 

Washington Allanl 

CHAD I.. UOPKINB, Ti 



io6 Advertisements. 



W. DUKE, SONS & CO., BRANCH 

OF 

THE AMERICAN TOBACCO CD, 

—MANUFACTURERS OF — 



@ ^ y^^^ <Q ^ 



CIGARETTES %\ SMOKING TOBACCO. 



Nothing guT Pure $oods {V^hde. 

HANAGINQ DIRECTORS: OFFICE AND FACTORY: 

Geo N w D watt s , DURHAM, H. C. 



L. A. CARR, J. S. CARR, S. T. nORGAN, 

President. Vice-President. Sect and Treas. 

Durham Fertilizer Co., 



nANUFACTURERS OF 

HIGH GRADE AMMONIATED FERTILIZERS. ACID PHOSPHATES 

AND FERTILIZING MATERIALS. 



nAIN OFFICE: 

DURHAM, N. C. 



FACTORIES: 

DURHAM, N. C. 
RICHMOND, VA. 



Advertisements. 107 



\v. 1 = 

ni 



i 

■DURHAM. N e. 

MAM I 



Brown Sheeting, Domets and Chamhrays. 

Large Capacity Great Improvem ants. 

-SAMPLE CAPITAL. -^^ 

GBO W WAT rs, . W. 11 BRANSON, S 

The Pearl Cotton Mills, 

DURHAM, N. C. 

man ■ 1 ac 1 1 ki:rs of 

-${ EXTRA W l PR S HEETING. fr- 



New Mill. Latest Improved Machinery. 

The Educator Company, 

ZD xj Ft k -A. ivr , isr. c. 
PRINTERS, PUBLISHERS AND gINDERS. 



BOOK WORK 

of Every Description Executed With Nearness and Despatch. 



Bank, Warehouse and Fact°ry Work a Jpecialty, 



GIVE US A TRIAL. ORDER. 



io8 Advertisements. 



ZE3L MAHLER, 

Watches * and * Jewelry, 

-SILVER- 

-AND- 



* Silver flMateb Mare, 

Clocks, Diamonds. 

228 Fayetteville Street, RALEIGH, N. C. 

MISS MAGGIE REESE, 

209 Fayetteville St., 
"R. .A. LEIGH , 1ST. O 





MILLINERY . AND > FANCY 

WOOLS, ZEPHYRS 



3£mbroi6eti> /Ifcaterials &c. 

Orders From a Distance Will Receive Prompt Attention. 



THOMAS H. BRIGGS & SONS, 

ZR^ILjIEICrlES:. 3ST. c. 

HARDWARE, 

CUTLERY, GUNS, PISTOLS, SHELLS, WADS, 

SASH, DOORS, BLINDS, 

PAINTS, OILS, GLASS, 

LIME, PLASTER, CEMENT. 

BEST GOODS, 

LOWEST PRICES, 

SQUARE DEALING. 



Advertisements. 109 



B. N. in m PnsMaal JNO. P. WILY. CuHir. 

THE FIDELITY BA/NK, 

DURHAM, N. C. 

Capital $1C0,000.C0, Surplus, $30,0C0.00. 



II. 1- unple facilities for every reasonable accommodation. 

Solicits Business from every section of the United Slates 

C. C. TAYLOR, 

DEALER IN 

TINWARE. STOVES. COOKING UTENSILS, LIPS, &C. 



Every Variety of Tinsmith Work Done on .Short Notice 
and at Reasonable Prices. 

FOJR. 

PICTURE -FRAMES, WINDOW SHADES 

ARTIST MATERIALS. 

ORDER FROM 

FRED A. WATSON'S 

PICTURE AND ART STORE, 

RALEIGH, N. O. 

fSTPKM-i:-. Satis* ictory. 

"\*7\ ZE3I. McCABE, 

Insurance Bgencg, 

When in need <>f Fire, Life, Accident, Steam Boiler, Plate 
1 Employers' Liability, Use and Occupancy Insurance or 

I of Suretyship, call on or write- to 

Yours vi-rv truly. 

W\ H. McCABF., 

Main Street Durham, N c 



Advertisements. 



f 9 IL YEAMIBF, 
"Druggist ® and ® Seedsman, 

DURHAM, N. C. and CHAPEL HILL, N. C. 

^PRESCRIPTIONS A SPECIALTY.;^- 



SOLE AGENT FOR 

fJinJIef's BoiiBon^ aqd (Jhocolafag. 

«s$g>£Mai/ Orde.s Promptly Attended Jo. ■k^£> 

ONLY THE B EST OBTAINABL E. 

DARNELL & TM0MA5, 

LEADING 

MUSIC HOUSE, 

114 FayelteTilld Street. Raieigli, and 
105 East Haiti Sleet, i nrhaiu, N. 0. 

— DEALERS IN— 

PIANOS AND ORGANS. 

Best Goods! Lowest Prices ! Easiest Terms ! 
Sheet Music and Small Musical Instruments. 
Sail and examine Our goods or send for cataloeue. 

JAMES SOUTHGATE & SON, 

LIFE, FIRE AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE, 

I5XJI^KCA.]Vr, 1ST. O- 




Largest and Best Companies Represented. 



Advertisements. hi 



j s c\KK. Prtisdnt. ■' "i «TT 

PlRST ^aTIONHL gSNR ; 



JDTJFtX-T ATvl. 3ST. O. 



1 a Gi ni rai Banking Busini ss. 

mmodaiion consist ant with Conservative Hanking 
will be extended its patrons. 

PROMPT ATTENTION TO COLLECTIONS. 

Durham ® Steam ® Laundry, 

231 /V\a|n Street "Durham, N. C 

G. B. EICHWOOD & CO , Proprietors, 

Work collected and delivered in every portion of the city 
FREE OF CHARGE. 

BEST UJORK DONE IN THE STATE. 
. . . LATEST inPROVED HACHINERY THROUGHOUT . . . 

AGENTS WANTED. 

Sam'l Kramer & Co., 

MA' ' '£ OP 

-^jFINE CIGARS,!(- 

Smoke Phihpena 5; re/// Cigar^ made <>/ selected tobacco and 

i an; lied. 

DURHAM MARBLE WORKS, 

hdctie^iei^im:, isr. o„ 
R. I. ROGERS, - - Proprietor. 

Monuments, Tombstones, Tablets, Brownstone and 
Granite Curbings &c, 



Microfilmed 
cniiNFT/ASERL PROJECT 



ii2 Advertisements. 

Clotbing! Clotbing! 

REMEMBER. WHEN IN NEED OF 

# Clothing, ♦Shoes, ♦ Hats * 

AND ALL KINDS OF 

FTJK,nsrisH:i^Ta- goods 

-->>WE AREV- 

Leaders not only in Quality and Low Prices, but in 
Quantity to Select From. 

The only two story CLOTHING and GENT'S FURNISHING GOODS 

House in the City with both floors filled with the most 

Desirable Goods to be found. 

Give us a Look, no trouble to Show Goods. 

T. J". LAMBE, 

THE CLOTHIER AND GENT'S FURNISHER. 

W. H. Willard, Prest. J. T. Pinmx. Vice-Prest. 

THE MOREHEAD BANKING COMPANY, 

DTJRHAivr. ]sr. c, 



CAPITAL, - $200,000 OO 

SURPLUS, and Undivided Profits, - - $35,00000 



We possess every facility necessary for accommodation and expeditious 
and accurate transactions. 



Business solicited from every section of County. 

THOS. H. MARTIN, 

LEAF TOBAeeO BROKER, 

DURHAM. N. C. 



possesses even? facility for IbanNino v* Storincj. 

ALL GRADES BOUGHT ON ORDER. 



iIII7iiiiiiiiiT CHAPELH,u 

00032761084 



FOR I SE ONLY l\ 

■HI NORTH ( \Ko].i\\ COLLET llo\ 



lh»i> TlILE HAS BEEN MICROFILMED