(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Handbook of English-Japanese etymology"

7/5- 







HANDBOOK 

s* 

OF 



ENGLISH-JAPANESE 



ETYMOLOGY 



BY 



WILLIAM IMBRIE 



SIECOXTID ZEIDITIOlsr 



TOKYO : 
Z. P. MARUYA & Co., Limited. 

YOKOHAMA. SHANGHAI, HONGKONG & SINGAPORE: KELLY & WALSH. LIMITED. 

LONDON; TRUBNER & Co. NEW^YORK; E. STEIGER A Co. PARIS: 

MAISONNEUVE & CH. LECLERc'. LEIPZIG : ALFRED LORENTZ. 



POINTED BY THE SEISHI-BUNSHA, TOKYO, 



PREFACE 

TO THE 

SECOND EDITION. 

HIS edition differs from the first chiefly in three par- 
ticulars : The adoption of the Romaji Kai system of 
transliteration ; the substitution of the term stem for root ; 
and the addition of selections from the Shingaku Michi no 
Hanashi, with a translation and notes. 

The substitution of the term stem for root calls for a 
word of comment. The objections to the names com- 
monly applied to the several foundation forms of the verb 
are obvious. The negative base has in itself no negative 
force whatever : as is evident from the fact that it furnishes 
the foundation for the passive and causative voices. The 
conditional base is the base of the present conditional 
alone : and in verbs of the first conjugation it is identical 
with the imperative. Apparently no one of the four 
foundation forms is derived from any other one : all alike 
are bases upon which the verb is built : evidently there- 
fore it is confusing to designate one of them as the root. 
'Professor Chamberlain, in his Handbook of Col- 
loquial Japanese recently published, suggests two changes. 
Retaining the names negative and conditional base ; he 
substitutes certain present for indicative, and indefinite 
form for root. The difficulty however remains : in each 
case the name exhibits only a single feature of the form : 
the terms are not logical definitions. The negative base 



IV PREFACE. 

is employed otherwise than as a foundation for negative 
forms : and a similar remark is true regarding the condi- 
tional base. The term certain present contains no hint 
of the marked use of the form as an adjective. The in- 
definite form is no more indefinite than the negative base : 
and its indefiniteness is not a more obvious characteristic 
than its constant employment in forming compounds with 
nouns, adjectives, and other verbs (e. g. kimono, miguru- 
skii, buchikorosiL) the peculiarity immediately suggested 
by the old term root. 

The fact is that the several foundation forms serve 
various purposes. One who wishes to name them may 
therefore take his choice. He may select some one marked 
feature and find in that the name, with however the 
certainty that it will prove more or less misleading. 
The only alternative is to content one's self with the simple 
numerical designations first, second, third, and fourth. 
To the writer the latter seems the better course : and he 
would have followed it, but for the desire to keep company 
with others. He has substituted stem for root because it 
is somewhat less misleading, and also because it has been 
adopted by Mr. Aston in the fourth edition of his Gram- 
mar of the Japanese Spoken Language. 

The writer takes great pleasure in acknowledging his 
indebtedness to the labors of Dr. Hepburn and Messrs 
Satow and Aston. His cordial thanks are due to Mr. 
Sanjuro Ishimoto. .Especially is he under obligations to 
the Rev. Kajinosuke Ibuka A.M., without whose patient 
work the book would probably never have been written. 

Tokyo: May 5 th , 1889. 



CONTENTS, 



I. THE SYLLABARY. 
II. THE VERB. 
I. INFLECTION. 
II. AGGLUTINATION. 

1. Moods and Tenses. 

2. Letter changes. 

3. Voices. 

III. TRANSITIVES AND INTRANSITIVES. 

IV. THE VERB TO BE. 
V. AUXILIARY VERBS. 

i. Am, is, are, was, were ; 2. Do, did ; 3. Have, 
had; 4. Shall, will; 5. Should, would; 6. Can, 
could ; 7. May, might ; 8. Let, make, have, 
get; 9. Must; 10. Ought; n. Think, sup- 
pose; 12. Intend; 13. Want; 14. Wish, hope; 
15. Need; 16. Seem, look. 

VI. THE INFINITIVE. 
VII. PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS. 

III. THE NOUN. 

1 . True Nouns and Verbal Roots. 

2. Abstract Nouns. 

3. Concrete Nouns. 



VI CONTENTS. 

4. Compound Nouns. 

5. Names of Trades. 

6. Gender 

7. Number. 

8. Case* 

IV. THE PRONOUN. 

I. PERSONALS AND POSSESSIVES. 
II. COMPOUND PERSONALS. 

III. HONORIFICS. 

1. O and Go. 

2. Honorific Verbs. 

IV. RELATIVES. 

V. INTERROGATIVES. 

V. PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

i. This, that, such; 2. Either, neither, both; 3 
Each; 4. Some; 5. Any; 6. Every; 7. None, 
no; 8. All; 9. Several; 10. Few; n. One, 
ones; 12. Other, another; 13. Same; 14. Much; 
15. Many; 1 6. More; 17. Most; 1 8. Enough. 

VI. THE ADJECTIVE. 
I. CLASSES. 

1. True Adjectives. 

2. Adjectives in na and no. 

3. Presents and Preterites. 

4. Uninflected words. 

II. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

1. The Comparative Degree. 

2. The Superlative Degree. 



CONTENTS. Vli 

VII. THE ADVERB. 

I. CLASSES. 

1. True Adverbs. 

2. Uninflected words. 

3. Participles. 

4. The Conditional Mood. 
II. ADVERB OF PLACE. 

i. Here; 2. There; 3. Where. 

III. ADVERBS OF TIME. 

i. Always; 2. Whenever; 3. Generally; 4. Often; 
5. Sometimes; 6. Seldom; 7. Never, ever ; 8. 
Again; 9. When; 10. While; n. As; 12. 
Then; 13. Now; 14. Already; 15. Formerly; 
1 6. Hitherto; 17. Recently; 18. Ago; 19. Just 
now ; 20. Still, yet ; 21 . Till ; 22. By and by ; 
23. Soon; 24. Directly; 25. Before; 26. After, 
since; 27. Long time; 28. Some time; 29. 
Little while ; 30. Finally. 

IV. ADVERBS OF CAUSE, MANNER AND DEGREE. 

i . Why; 2. Accordingly, consequently, therefore ; 
3. How; 4. So; 5. Like, as; 6. Very; 7. Only; 
8. Too; 9. Even; 10. Almost; n. About. 

VIII. THE NUMERAL. 

1. Cardinals. 

2. Descriptive Numerals. 

3. Ordinals. 

4. Fractions. 

5. Percentage. 

6. Consecutive Numbers. 

7. Address, 



V'ili CONTENTS. 

IX, THE POSTPOSITION. 

i. At; 2. In; 3. On; 4. To ; 5. From, out, off, 
through; 6. By; 7. With; 8. Without; 9. 
Of; 10. For; u. Across, over, beyond; 12. 
Among; 13. Around; 14. Before; 15. Behind; 
1 6. Between; 17. During; 18. Except, besides, 
but; 19. Instead of; 20. Over, above; 21. 
Under, below, beneath; 22. According to, in 
accordance with. 

X. THE CONJUNCTION. 

i. And; 2. Both ; 3. Also, too; 4. But; 5. Though, 
still ; 6. Either, or, whether ; 7. Neither, nor; 
8. If, unless ; 9. Because ; 10. Then ; n. That; 
12. Than. 

XL SELECTIONS WITH TRANSLATION AND NOTES. 
INDEXES. 



ENGLISH- JAPANESE ETYMOLOGY. 



CHAPTER I. THE SYLLABARY. 

Instead of an alphabet Japanese has a syllabary, two 
methods of arranging which obtain : the Iroha so called 
from the first syllables of a verse into which it has been 
cast ; and the Go ju oh or table of the Fifty Sounds. The 
latter is much the more scientific, and should be mastered 
as a key to inflection and agglutination. 

As written in Japanese certain of the syllables represent 
more than one sound, the changes in the consonantal 
element being indicated by the addition of diacritical 
marks. These variations will be found exhibited in the 
Go ju on. 

It will be observed that the Iroha contains forty-eight 
syllables and the Go ju on fifty. The n of the former 
however is an addition : and the yi ye and second u of the 
latter have been inserted to fill up the breaks in the series. 

Iroha. 



i 


ro 


ha 


ni 


ho 


he 


to 


chi 


ri 


nu 


ru 


wo 


wa 


ka 


yo 


ta 


re 


so 


tsu 


ne 


na 


ra 


mu 


u 


i 


no 





ku 


ya 


ma 


ke 


f" 


ko 


e 


te 


a 


sa 


ki 


yu 


me 


mi 


shi 


e 


hi 


mo 


se 


su 


n 



L 



THE SYLLABARY. 

Go ju on. 



$8 *W$1 


u 


e 





2 >tf / 


ku 


kc 


ko 


*. * 


'& 


ge 


V 


3 ** 5//* 


sn % 


se 



SO 


za ji 


#// 


ze 


zo 


4 ta r/z/ 


/5W 


te 


to 


da ji 


^z/ 


de 


do 


5 # i 


nil 


ne 


no 


6 //# ^/ 


fu 


he 


ho 


^ ^f 


bu 


be 


bo 


pa pi 


pu 


pc 


po 


7 *#0 w/ 


mil 


me 


mo 


8 ya yi 


yu 


ye 


yo 


9 r<7 ri 


ru 


re 


ro 

i 


IO ^c'^; / 


u 


e 


wo 



CHAPTER II. THE VERB. 



I. INFLECTION. 

The Japanese verb has four inflections which may be 
termed foundation forms, since upon them is reared its 
entire structure. These are usually called the negative 
base, the stem, the indicative present and the conditional 
base. In the spoken language there are two conjugations : 
and the following table exhibits the terminations of their 
respective foundation forms: 



CONJ. I. CONJ. II. 

negative base ... ... a ... ... e or i 

stem i e or i 

indicative present ... u eru or iru 

conditional base e . ere or ire 



Any one foundation form of a verb belonging to the 
first conj. being known, the remaining three can be readily 
obtained from the Go ju on. 

Forms ending in i u or e preceded by a vowel are to 
be referred to No. 10 and not to No. i. Kuru to come, 
i>uru to do and the honorific masu are irregular. A 
comparison of the following table with the Go ju on will 
make the above clear. 



THE VERB. 





NEG. BASE 


STEM 


IND. PBES. 


COND. BASE. 




I 












2 


kika 


kiki 


kiku 


kike 


hear 




tsuga 


tsugi 


tsugu 


tsuge 


join 


3 


hanasa 


hanashi 


hanasu 


hanase 


speak 


4 


tata 


tachi 


tatsu 


tate 


stand 


5 


shina 


shini 


shinu 


shine 


die 


6 


asoba 


asobi 


asobu 


asobe 


play 


7 


yama 


yami 


yamu 


yame 


cease 


8 


9 


nara 


nari 


naru 


nare 


become 


10 


kazva 


kai 


kau 


kae 


buy 




iiva 


a 


iu 


ie 


say 




fiiruwa 


furui 


furuu 


fitrue 


sift 




yatozva 


yatoi 


yatou 


yatoe 


hire 




ko 


ki 


kuru 


kure 


come 




se or ski 


shi 


suru 


sitre 


do 




mase 


mashi 


masu 


masure 





THE VERB. 



The construction of foundation forms in the second con- 
jugation presents little difficulty, the neg. base and stem 
being alike, and the indie, pres. and cond. base being formed 
by the simple addition of ru and re. 



NEO. BASE 



STEM 1NDIC. PRES. COND. BASE 



FORMS IN 

e eru 



ere 



obtain 



2 ake ake akeru akere open 

a S e a e ageru agere raise 



3 shirase shirase shiraseru shirasere tell 
maze maze mazeru mazere mix 



4 sute % sute suteru sutere throw away 



de 



de 



deru dere go out 



5 ne 



ne 



neru nere sleep 



6 tabe tabe taberu tabere eat 



7 stffi^ 5^;^^ sameru samere cool 



9 i?r^ ore oreru orere break 



THE VERB. 



NEG. BASE STEM INDIC. PES. COND. BASE 



FORMS IN t. 

i i- i iru ire shoot 



2 ki ki kiru kire wear 



3 anji anji anjiru anjire be anxious 



4 haji haji kajiru hajire be ashamed 



m 



niru nire resemble 



6 abi abi abiru abire bathe 



7 mi mi miru mire see 



9 kari kari kariru karire borrow 

10 i i iru ire be 



THE VERB. 7 

Certain verbs of the first conjugation in which the indie, 
pres. ends in ru are sometimes mistaken for verbs of the 
second conjugation, because the ru happens to be preceded 
by e or i. If the student will commit the annexed list and 
make It his habit to learn verbs by the indie, pres. rather 
than by the stem, he will have little further trouble with 
inflection : most verbs in eru and iru excepting those in the 
list belonging to the second conjugation. 



aseru 


hurry 


kiru cut 


fitscru 


lie down 


kishiru . grate 


heru 


diminish 


magiru tack 


hincru 


twist 


mairu come, go 


hoteru 


tingle 


majiru mingle - 


kaeru 


return 


musliiru pluck 


siiaberu 


gossip 


najiru rebuke 


sub eru 


slip 


negiru cheapen 


cliigiru 


tear off 


nejiru screw 


chiru 


scatter 


nigiru grasp 


hairu 


enter 


nonoshiru blaspheme 


hashiru 


run 


saegiru hedge in 


hojiru 


pick out 


seme-iru . invade 


ijiru 


meddle with 


shikujiru be discharged 


iru 


enter, need, parch 


shiru know 


kagirii 


be bounded 


soshiru backbite 


kajiru ^ 


gnaw 


teru shine 



$ THE VERB. 

II. AGGLUTINATION. 

Agglutination consists in the addition to bases of inde- 
pendent words or particles. In many cases however time 
and use have suffered only a fragment of the original suffix 
to remain. 

SEC. i. MOODS AND TENSES. 

The moods and tenses of the Japanese verb are formed, 
for the most part, by agglutination. 

1. In both conjugations, te, ta, tara, taro, tari, tai and 
takunai, added to the stem, form the participle, indie, past, 
conditional past, probable past, frequentative, and the 
affirmative and negative of the desiderative adjective. In 
the second conjugation, yo or ro added to it forms the 
imperative. 

2. In both conjugations, nai or nu, nakatta or nanda, 
nakattara or nandara., nakattaro or nandaro, nakattari or 
nandari, nakereba or neba, and nakute, nai de, dzu, dzn ni 
or dzu ni shite, added to the neg. base, form the neg. of the 
present, past, cond. past, prob. past, frequentative, cond. 
present and participle. In the first conjugation, u added to 
it and the a-u contracted into o forms the future ; in the 
second, yd added forms the future ; and mai, the fut. neg. 

3. In both conjugations, na added to the indie, present 
forms the imperative negative ; in the first, mat added forms 
the fut. neg. 

4. In both conjugations, ba added to the cond. base forms 
the cond. pres. In the first, the cond. base and the impera- 
tive are alike. 



THE VERfc. 

In the paradigms following, the lower forms are made up 
of the stem and the honorific verb masu; they are more 
courteous than the upper ones. Masu however being without 
a desid. adj. of its own, a polite form of that part of the 
verb is obtained by substituting for the simple adjective its 
adverbial form followed by gozaimasu (See VI. I. Sec. I.) 
In the paradigms the stem and its derivatives are presented 
before the negative base. 



PARADIGM OF THE FIRST CONJUGATION. 



korosii to kill. 
korosa koroshi korosu korose 



stem koroshi 

(koroshite killing, having killed. 

oarticiple -j 

( koroshimashite 

(koroshita killed, did kill, have 

indie, past \ 

\koroshimashita killed. 

(koroshitara if killed, should kill ; 

cond. past \ 

\koroshimashitara when killed, kill. 

(koroshitaro probably killed. 

prob. past J 

koroshimashitaro 







THE VERB. 



PARADIGM OP THE FIRST CONJUGATION ( Continued). 



frequentative...- 



korosh itari ki Hi ng. 

koroshimasJiitari 
desid. adj. ....... koroshi(tai wish to kill. 

\to gozaimasit 
desid. adj. neg. koroshitaku(nai not wish to kill. 

\gozaimasenu 



neg. base korosa 

korosa (nai 



indie, pres. 



do not, will not kill; 
have not killed. 



korosJi imasen u 
korosa(nakatta did not kill. 



indie, past -( \nanda 

\koroshiinasenu deshita 

'korosa (nakattara if did not, should not 

cond . past. J \nandara kill. 

koroshimasenu deshitara 
korosa(nakattaro probably did not kill. 

prob. past - \nandaro 

koroshimasenu desh itaro 



THE 



PARADIGM OP THE FIRST CONJUGATION (continued). 



(nakattari not killing, 
frequentative... korosa\ 

[ nandari 

(korosa ( nakereba if do not, will not kill; 
; cond. pres \ \ncba if have not killed. 



participle 



koroshimase 



nu(kereba 



'korosa 



\iiara 
neb a 

(nakute not killing. 
nai 'de 
dzu, dm m 
dzu n i shite 



\korosJiimasc 



inn dc 



dzu 
dzu ni 

m ni sJiite 
(koroso (korosa-u) shall, will kill. 



future affirm . . . \ koroshimasho 
\korosu daro 



will probably kill. 



f2 THE 



PARADIGM Of THK FIRST CONJUGATION (concluded). 



(korosu kill. 

indie, prcs \ 

I koroshimasu 



imper. neg korosuna do not kill. 

'korosumai probably will not kill. 

future neg -| koroshimasumai ^ - . 

\korosanai daro 



cond. base korosc 

(koroseua if kill, if will kill. 

cond. prcs j 

( koroshimasurcba 



(korosc kill. 

imperative \ 

\koroshima(se 



ski 



THE VERB. 



13 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. I. 



ake 



akeru to open. 
ake akeru 



akere 



participle 



stem ake 

(akete 

\akemashite 
(akcta 
\akemashita 
(ake tar a 



indie, past 

cond. past 

prob. past 
frequentative... 



\akemashitara 
(aketaro 
\akemashitaro 
(akctari 

\akcmashitari 
desid. adj ake(tai 



opening, having 

opened, 
opened, did open, 

have opened. 

if opened, should 
open ; when open- 
ed, open. 

probably opened. 

opening, 
wish to open. 



\to gozaimasu 
desid. adj. neg. aketakn(nai not wish to open. 

\gozaimasenu 



THE VERB. 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. I. (continued). 



imperative 



akciro 
\yo 
o akc n as at 



open, 



neg. base ake 

(akc ( nai 



indie, pres - 



nu 



do not, will not 
open ; have not 
opened. 

did not open. 



akemascnu 

'akeinakatta 
indie, past ( nanda 

akemascmi deshita 

(ake(nakattara if did not, should 
cond. past \ \nandara not open. 

\akemasenu deshitara 

ake (nakattard probably did not 
\nandaro . open. 



prob. past J 



akeinasenu deshitaro 



THE VERB. 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. 1. (continued). 

frequentative... ake(nakattari not opening. 

( nandari 
(akeinakcreba if do not, will not 

cond. pres -I \neba open ; if have not 

\ akcniase ( mt ( kcreba opened. 



participle 



future 



akc 



j \nara 

\ncba 
nakutc 

nai de 
dzu, dzu ni 
dzu ni shite 



not opening, having 
opened. 



akeinase 



{nu de 



future affirm... 



dzu 
dzu ni 

\dzu ni shite 
' akemai probably will not 

akemasumai open. 

(akeyo shall, will open. 

I akcmasho 



1 6 THE VERB. 

i 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. I. (concluded). 



(akeru open. 

indie, pres \ 

\akemasu 

imper. neg akeruna do not open. 



cond . base akere 

(akcreba if open, if will open. 

cond. pres -j 

I akemasureba 



I 

PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION. NO. II. 



miru to see 
mi mi miru mire 



stem mi 

(mite seeing, having seen, 

participle ...... j 

\mimashite 

(mita saw, did see, have 

indie, past \ 

\mimasJiita seen. 

(mitara if saw, should see; 

cond. past 4 

\immashitara when saw,s ee. 



THE VERB. 17 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. II. (continued). 

(mi faro probably saw. 

prob. past \ 

\mimasftitard 

(mitari seeing, 

frequentative... \ 

\ mimashitari 



desid. adj mi(tai wish to see. 

\to gozaiinasu 

desid. adj. neg. mitakuinai not wish to see. 

\gozaimasenu 

l mi(ro see. 

j 
imperative < \yo 

\mima (se 
\sfii 

neg. base .. mi 

mi(nai do not, will not see ; 



indie, pres 



nu have not seen. 



mimasenu 



THE VERB. 



PARADIGM OF THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. II. (continued). 



mi(nakatta did not sec. 

( nanda 
mimasenu deshita 

nakattara if did /lot, should not 



indie, past 



cond. past 



nandara sec. 

mimasenu deshitara 

mi(nakattaro probably did not see. 

\nandaro 
mimasenu deshitaro 

frequentative ... mi ( nakattari not seeing. 

nandari 



prob. past 



cond. pres 



mi(nakereba if do not, will not 

\neba see; if have not 



mimase 



^nu(kereba seen. 

\nara 
neb a 



THE VERB. 



PARADIGM OP THE SECOND CONJUGATION NO. II. (concluded). 

'mi 'nakute not seeing, having 

nai de seen. 

participle > dzu, dzu ni 

dzu 'ni shite 



jniinase 



mi de 



future 



future affirm. 



dzu 

dzu ni 

$zu ni sJiite 

( mhnai probably will not see, 

\miinasumai 
(niiyo shall, will see. 



\mimashd 



(mini 

indie, pres -I 

\inimasu 

imper. neg miruna 



see. 



do not see. 



cond. base mire 

( mireba 



cond. pres. 



if see, if will see. 



mimasureba 



20 



THE VERB. 

SEC. 2. LETTER CHANGES. 



When the suffixes te t ta, tara, taro and tari, are added 
to stems of the first conjugation ending in ki, gi, ni, bi, mi, 
chi, rij or /preceded by a vowel, the following letter changes 
take place : 



kite kita kitara etc. become ite ita itara etc. 



gite git a gitara etc. become ide ida idara etc. 



nite nita nitara etc. 
bite btia bitara etc. 
mite mita mitara etc. 



become nde nda ndara etc. 



chite chita chitara etc. 
rite rita r itara etc. 



become tte tta ttara etc. 



aite aita aitara etc. become 



\atte atta at tar a etc. 

\ote ota otara etc. 
' itte itta ittara etc. 



iite iita iitara etc. become - 



iute iuta iutara etc.- 



(utte utta uttara etc. 
uita uitara etc. become \ 

\fite iita utara etc. 



oite oita oitara etc. become 



otte otta ottara etc. 



ote ota otara etc. 



THE VERB. 



21 



TABLE OP VERBS EXHIBITING LETTER CHANGES. 


kakite 


kakita 


kakitara 


write 


kaite 


kaita 


kaitara 




kikite 


kikita 


kikitara 


hear 


kiite 


kiita 


kiitara 




tsukite 


tsukita 


tsukitara 


arrive 


tsuite 


tsuita 


tsuitara 





manekite 


manekita 


manekitara 


invite 


maneite 


mane it a 


maneitara 




okite 
oite 


okita 
oita 


okitara 
oitara 


put 


sawagite 
sawaide 


saivagita 
sawaida 


saivagitara 
sa^vaidara 


be excited 


tsugite 
tsuide 


tsugita 
tsuida 


tsugitara 
tsuidara 


join 


kogite 
koide 


kogita 
koida 


kogitara 
koidara 


row 


shinite 


shinita 


shinitara 


die 


shinde 


shinda 


shindara 




manabite 


manabita 


manabitara 


learn 


manande 


mananda 


manandara 




musubite 


imisubita 


musubitara 


tie 


musunde 


musunda 


musundara 





THE VERB. 



TABLE OP 


VERBS EXHIBITING 


LETTER CHANGES (continued)* 


musebite 


musebita 


musebitara 


choke 


musende 


musenda 


musendara 




asobite 
asonde 


asobita 
asonda 


asobitara 
asondara 


play 


yamite 
yande 


yamita 
yanda 


yamitara 
yandara 


cease 


tanoshimite 
tanoshinde 


tanoshimita 
tanoshinda 


ta n osh im it a ra 
ta nosh indara 


be happy 


nusumite 


nusumita 


nusumitara 


steal 


nusunde 


nusunda 


nusundara 




a%v are mite 
azvarende 


aivareinita 
aivarenda 


aivaremitara 
aivarendara 


pity 


tanomite 
tanonde 


tanomita 
tanonda 


tanomitara 
tanondara 


request 


tachite 


tacJiita 


tachitara 


stand 


tatte 


tatta 


tattara 




buchite 


buchita 


buchitara 


strike 


butte 


butta 


buttara 




mochite 


mochita 


mochitara 


hold 


motte 


tnotta 


mottara 




narite 


riarita 


naxitara 


become 


natte 


natta 


nattara 




shir it e 


shir it a 


shir it ar a 


know 


shitte 

i 


shitta 


shittara 





THE VERB. 



TABLE OF 


VKRBS EXHIBITING 


LETTER CHANGES (concluded). 


urite 


urita 


tiritara sell 


utte 


utta 


uttara 


herite 


herita 


heritara diminish 


hette 


hetta 


hettara 


norite 


norita 


noritara ride 


notte 


notta 


nottara 


surnaite 


smnaita 


sumaitara reside 


sumatte 
^sumote 


sumatta 
sumo t a 


sumattara 
sumo tar a 


Lite 
Me 


iita 
itta 


iitara say 
ittara 


^iute 


iuta 


ittara 


nuite 


mi it a 


nu i tar a sew 


, nutte 


nutta 


nuttara 


^niite 


nuta 


nutara 


yatoite 
iyatotte 
^yatdte 


yatoita 
yatotta 
yatota 


yatoitara hire 
yatottara 
yatotara 



Iku to go is abnormal : ikite etc. becoming itte etc., not 
iite etc. 



34 THE VERB. 

SEC. 3. VOICES. 

1. The passive : Verbs of the first conjugation form the 
passive voice by adding rent to the neg. base, which might 
thus be called the voice base : those of the second, "as well 
as siiru and kuru, by adding rareru. 

2. The potential : The passive does service as a potenti- 
al also. Most verbs of the first conjugation and a few of the 
second have besides a form in eru. In many cases, the two 
forms are used without any appreciable difference in mean- 
ing : when however they do differ, the passive is used of 
ability as regards law, duty, propriety, permission, willing- 
ness, feeling, of moral ability may as opposed to can. 
The form in eru expresses absolute or physical ability the 
strict can. Ureru e.g. means can sell, because some one 
wants to buy : urareru, because the party is at liberty to 
sell, or willing to do so at the price offered. Kikoeru 
and kikareru both signify can hear: kikoeru however 
means either that the sound is audible, or that the person 
has good ears ; kikareru that the matter is no secret, 
or that one has time inclination etc. to listen. In like 
manner, while mieru declares that the object is visible or 
that the person has sight ; mirareru asserts that there is no 
.reason for concealment, or that one has time to look or no 
objection to doing so. (For examples see especially chap. 
II. v. sec. 6.) 

3. The causative : Verbs of the first conjugation form 
the causative voice by adding sent; those of the second, as 
also kuru, saseru to the neg. base. The causative of suru 
is saseru. 

Verbs in these voices all belong to the second conj. in eru. 



THE VERB. 



It being thought more polite to say that one is able to do 
a thing or that he causes a thing to be done than that he 
does it, the potential and causative voices are sometimes 
used instead of the active merely for the sake of courtesy. 



TABLE EXHIBITING THE FORMATION OP THE PASSIVE, POTENTIAL 
AND CAUSATIVE VOICES. 



NEG.BASE. PASSIVE. 



POTENTIAL. 



CAUSATIVE. 



FIRST CONJUGATION. 



ika 



kika kikareru 



( ikareru 

{ ikeru 
( kikareru 

\kikoeru 
(tsugareru 



ikaseru 



kikaseru 



hear 



tsugaseru join 
tsuga 

\tsugeru 

(korosareru . korosaseru kill 
korosa korosareru\ 

\koroseru 

(butareru butaseru strike 

buta butareru \ 

{ buteru 

(shinareru shinascru die 

shina 

\shineru 

(musubareru musubaseru tie 
musuba \ 

\musuberu 



THE VERB. 



TABLE EXHIBITING THE FORMATION OF THE PASSIVE, POTENTIAL 

AND CAUSATIVE VOICES (continued). 


yoma 
kira 
ura 
kawa 

iwa 
nmva 
omowa 


yomareru 
yomareru 
yomeru 

(kirareru 
kirareru \ 
[ kireru 

(urareru 
ureru 
(kaivareru 

\kaeru 

( izuareru 
iwareru \ 
\ieru 

\nmvareru 
nuwareru - 
nueru 

(omowareru 
omowareru \ 
\omoeru 


yomaseru 
kiraseru 
uraseru 
kazvaseru 
^^vaseru 
nuwaseru 
omoivaseru 


read 
cut 
sell 
buy 

say 

| 
sew 

think 


SECOND CONJUGATION. 

/ 


c 

ake 
shirasc 


erareru 
akerareru 
sh ir as erareru 


esaseru 
akesaseru 
shirasesaseru 


obtain 
open 
tell 

! 



THE VERB. 



r 

TABLE EXHIBITING THE FORMATION OF THE PASSIVE, POTENT! A.L 




AND CAUSATIVE VOICES (concluded). 


sute 


suterareni suterareru 


(throw 
sutesaseru \ 
( away 


tabe 


taberareru taberareru 


tabesascru eat 


abi 


abirareru 


abisaseru bathe 




(mirareru 


misaseru see 


mi 









mieru 




kari 


karirarerti karirareru 


karisaseru borrow 


se 


serareru serareru 


saseru do 


ko 


(korareru 
\koreru 


kosaseru come 



III. TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE FORMS. 



SEC. I. 

In English it often happen^ that the same verb is both 
transitive and intransitive : in Japanese such verbs have 
usually only the root in common. In some cases, the 
intransitive belongs to the first conjugation and the transi- 
tive to the second and vice versa ; in others, the transitive 
is a species of causative. The following list comprises most 
in common use. 



28 



THE VERB. 



INTRANSITIVE. 


TRANSITIVE. 


"\ 


I. CONJ. 


II. CONJ. 




aku 


akcru 


open 


itamu 


itameru 


hurt 


katamuku 


katamukeru 


tilt 


shizumu 


shizumeru 


sink 


sorou 


soroeru 


match 


susumu 


susumeru 


advance 


tsuzuku 


tsuzukeru 


continue 


ukabu 


ukaberu 


float 


yamu 


yamerii 


cease 






v 


aratamaru 


aratameru 


amend 


atsumaru 


atsumeru 


collect 


chijimaru 


chijimeru 


contract 


hajimaru 


hajimeru 


begin 


hayatnaru 


hayameru 


hasten (a result) 


hikkakaru 


hikkakeru 


hitch 


hirogaru 


hirogeru 


widen 


kakaru 


kakeru 


hang (on) 


kasanaru 


kasaneru 


double 


kaivaru 


kaeru 


change 


mazaru 


mazeru 


mix 


oka ni agaru 


oka ni ageru 


land 
! 



THE VERB. 



r 

sagaru 


sageru 


lower . 


tamaru 


tarneru 


accumulate 


todomaru 


todomeru 


stop 




x 




tomaru 


tomeru 


" 


ivakaru 


wakeru 


divide 




I. CONJ. CAUSATIVE. 




chiru 


chirasu 


scatter 


fnru 


furasu 


swing to and fro 


hashagu 


hafhagasu 


dry 


heru 


herasu or hesu 


diminish 


isogu, 


isogasu 


hurry 


kawaku 


ka^vakasu 


dry 


korobu 


korobasu 


tumble 


kitsaru 


kusarasu 


rot 


meguru 


megnrasu . 


revolve 


naru 


narasu 


ring 


soru 


sorasu 


warp 


suberu 


suberasu 


slide 


tsumazuku 


tsumazukasu 


trip 


ugoku 


ugokasu 


move 


waku 


ivakasu 


boil (water) 


hitaru 


hitasu 


soak 


ibiLru 


ibusu 


smoke 



THE VERB. 



kaeru 


kaesii 


1 

return 


maivaru 


mawasu 


revolve 


modoru 


modosu 


return 


naoru 


naosu 


heal 


okoru 


okosu 


originate 


utsuru 


utsusu 


move (change place) 


II. CONJ. t 


I. CONJ. 




hodokeru 


hodoku 


untie 


kudakeru 


kudaku 


break 


nejireru 


nejiru 


twist 


oreru 


oru 


break (long thing) 


sakeru 


saku 


burst 


surer u 


suru 


chafe, rub 


wareru 


ivaru 


divide 


yabureru 


yaburu 


burst (of clothes) 


yakeru 


yaku 


burn, bake 




I. CONJ. CAUSATIVE. 




fucru 


fuyasu 


multiply 


fukureru 


fukurasu 


- swell 


fuyakeru 


fuyakasu 


M 


haneru 


hanasu 


explode 


hieru 


hiyasu 


cool 


jireru 


jirasu 


fret 


kogeru 


kogasu 


scorch 


\ 







THE VERB. 31 



sament 


samasu 


cool 


tareru 


tarasu 


drop (of liquid) 


tokcrit 


tokasu 


melt 


yureru 


yurasu 


rock 


nobiru 


nobasu 


lengthen 


kakureru 


kakusu 


hide 


koboreru 


kobosu 


spill 


konareru 


konasu 


digest 


ko^vareru 


koivasu 


break 









SEC. 2. 

A considerable number of English passives are rendered 
into Japanese by intransitives. It should be borne in mind 
however that these intransitives are not in the passive voice 
and are not to accompany ni with the agent which requires 
instead the passive of the corresponding transitive. 

The ship sank, but the sailors were Fune wa shizunda go, sendo wa tans- 

saved. katta. 

The passengers were all saved by the Nori-kyaku wa mina sendo ni tasuke- 

sailors. rareta. 

The dog barked and the children Inu ga hoete kodomo ga odoroita. 

were frightened. 
The children were frightened by the Kodomo wa inu ni odorokasareta, 

dog. 

Kodomo wa inu ni odoroita would mean the children were 
frightened at the dog. Ni makent is another apparent 
exception, really signifying yield to rather than defeated by. 



THE VERB. 



i ~ 

j ENGLISH PASSIVES RENDERED BY INTRANSITIVKS. 


I. C'ONJ* 


TO BE 


TO 


TBANSITIVE. 


itamu 


injured 


injure 


itameru 


hamaru 


hoaxed 


hoax 


hameru 


kirnaru 


decided 


decide 


kimeru 


sadamaru 








sadameru 


sonawaru 


furnished with 


furnish with 


sonaeru 


tasukaru 


saved 


save 


tasukeru 


tozakaru 


estranged 


estrange 


tozakeru 


tsumaru 


choked up 


choke up 


tsumeru 


odoroku 


frightened 


frighten 


odorokasu 


saivagu 


excited 


excite 


sawao-asu 

<& 


sumu 


ended 


end 


sumasu 


yorokobu 


delighted 


delight 


yorokobasu 


hakadoru 


expedited 


expedite 


hakadorascru 


hataraku 


inflected 


inflect 


hatarakaseru 


komaru 


embarrassed, 
perplexed, 
incommoded 


embarrass, etc 


. komarascru 


magotsuku 


bewildered 


bewilder 


(magotsukase- 
\ ru 


todokoru 


delayed 


delay 


todokoraseru 



THE VERB. 



33 



ENGLISH PASSIVES RENDERED BY INTBANBITIVES (continued). 


bikkuri suru astonished 


astonish 


bikkurisaseru 


(wrecked (of 
hasen suru \ 
I ship) 

(wrecked (of 
hasen ni au \ 
( person) 

heiko suru convinced 


[wreck 
a) 

1 " 

convince 


heikosaseru 


hiiki suru biased 


bias 


hiikisaseru 


hydban suru reported 






nanju suru distressed 

abekobe ni) 
\ inverted 
naru } 


distress 
invert 


nanjusaseru 
(abekobe ni 
\ suru 


sakasama ni) 

" 

naru } 





(sakasama ni 
I suru 


se^va ni naru obliged 

abunaku na-\ 
^endangered 
ru } 


oblige 
endanger 


sewa ivo suru 
abtmaku suru 


II. CONJ. 






deru derived 






dekiru done 






hirakeru civilized 


civilize 


hiraku 


migakeru polished 
yakeru burned 


polish 
burn 


migaku 
yaku 



34 



THE VERB. 



ENGLISH PASSIVES RENDERED BY INTRANSITi VES (concluded). 


horobiru 

makeru 

\ 
moreru 


destroyed 
defeated 
omitted 


destroy 
defeat 
omit 


horobosu 
makasu 
morasu 


nukeru 


u 





nukosu 


ochiru 


(4 


tt 


otosu 


tsukiru 


exhausted 


exhaust 


tsukusu 


yogoreru 
yureru 
kutabireru 
tsukareru 


soiled 
pardoned 

fatigued 
< 


soil 
pardon 

fatigue 



yogosu 
yurusu 
kutabirakasu 
tsukarakasu 


aivateru 
katsueru 


flurried 

famished 


flurry 
famish 


awatesaseru 
katsuesaseru 


kogoeru 
osoreru 


benumbed 
afraid 


benumb 
make afraid 


kogoesaseru 
osoresaseru 



IV. THE VERB TO BE. 

There are three verbs in Japanese signifying to * be ' aru 
oru and iru. Excepting the future arumai, the negative 
forms of aru are not in use, their places being supplied by 
the moods and tenses of the negative adjective nai: (see VI. 
I. sec. i.) Oru and iru are synonyms, belonging respective- 
ly to the first and the second conjugation. 



THE VERB. 35 

r . Cru and iru are employed in speaking of things with life 
when they are referred to as present at or in some particular 
place : excepting in connection with the Japanese equivalents 
of relative clauses. In all other cases aru and nai are used. 
Aru is constantly employed also in rendering ' have ', even 
in speaking of animate objects. 

2. Followed by a noun or pronoun as a predicate, to ' be ' 
is rendered by de aru, often contracted da. Followed by 
an adjective as a predicate see VI. sec. I. 

3. Equivalent to ' to become ', * to be ' is rendered by naru. 

Gozaru is more courteous than aru, and o ide nasaru or 
irasskarti more so than oru or iru. De gozaimasu, con- 
tracted from de gozarimasu, is still further familiarly 
shortened into desu. The idiomatic English ' there ' and 
' it ' have no equivalents in Japanese. 

I. 

There is a bat. Asoko ni Jeomori go, orimasu. 

There are no elephants in Japan. Nihon ni wa zo wa inai. 

Is the Emperor in TokyO now? Tenshisama wa ima Tokyo ni tra.ftai> 

masu ka ? 

Where is the Shogun now? Kubosama wa kono setsu doko ni iras- 

shaimasu ka? 

There are two or three dogs in the Niwa ni inn ga ni san biki iru. 

garden. 

There is a man in this neighborhood Kono kinjo ni omocha wo koshiraeru 

that makes toys. m0 no ga aru. 

Is n't there any one who can go in- Dare mo kawari ni ikeru mono wa art- 

stead ? inasenu ka ? 

There are some very pretty views Kiga no kinjo ni wa yohodo keshiki no 

about Kiga. yo i tokoro ga aru. 

How many houses do you suppose Tokyo ju ni ie ga nan gen arimasJiot 

there are in Tokyo? 



36 THE VERB. 

I do not think thore is any telegraph Hakone ni wa denshin-kyoku ga ari 

office at Hakone. masumai. 

Is there only one kind of Japanese Nihon no inu wa rui ga hitotsu shika 

dog? arimasenu ka? 

Once upon a time (long ago) there Mukashi jiisan to baasan ga atta so da. 

was an old man and his wife. 

Are there any other animals like Kdmori no yd na dolutsu ga Jioka ni ari- 

bats ? mashd ka ? 

Why is there no Shogun now? Naze ima de wa Kubosama ga arimasenu 

ka? 

He has three boys and ever so many Otok'ko ga san nin ni vnru no ko ga iku 

girls. nin mo arimasu. 

2. 

Is that smoke, or is it only a cloud ? Are wa kemuri desu ka, tada kumo desu 

ka? 
Was that a fox, or a badger? Are wa kitsune deshita ka, tanuki de- 

shita ka? 

Is n't that a dog sleeping on the ver- Engawa ni nete iru no iva inu de zra 
anda? nai ka? 

3- 
I doubt whether it will be much of a Okii kwaji ni narumai. 

fire. 
If it were only mended, it would be Naoshi sae shitara, moto no tori ni naru. 

as good as ever. 
There is only one left. Mo hitotsu lakari ni natta. 



V. AUXILIARY VERBS. 

SEC. i. AM, is, ARE; WAS, WERE. 
I. Followed by the active participle: 

(a) Am, is, are participle and aru or iru. 

(b) Was, were participle and otta or ita. 



THE VERB. 37 

(c) Is n't ?, was n't ?, expecting yes for an answer de 
wa (contracted jd) nai ka? following the parti- 
ciple and oru or iru for the former; follo\ving 
the participle and otta or ita for the latter. 

2. Followed by the passive participle see II. VII. 

i. (a). 

There is a crow building her nest in Niwa ni karasu ga su wo tsukutte tru, 

the garden. 

The rats are gnawing a hole some- Nezumi ga dokka tenjo ni ana wo akete 

where in the ceiling. iru. 



Were they laughing, or crying? Waratte ita no ka naite ita no ka? 

I was n't writing, I was reading. Tegami wo kaite wa orimasenu deshita. 

hon wo yonde imashita. 

I - i. M. 

Is n't the clock striking now? Ima tokei ga natte iruja nai ka? 

Were n't you whistling just now? Ima kuchi-lue wo fuite itaja nai kal 

SEC. 2. DO, DID. 

1. Do and did are expressed in the present and past of 
the verb. 

2. Don't?, did n't? expecting yes for an answer de iva 
nai ka f following the present for the former ; following the 
past for the latter. 

3. Don't! negative imperative. Please don't! negative 
participle and o kure or kudasai. 

4. Followed by ' ever ' or ' never ' see VII. III. 



38 THE VERB. 

I. 

Why do you leave the door open ? Naze akepanashi ni shimasu lea ? 

They say they don'fc make it that Mo so shite wa koshiraenai so da. 

way any taore. 

Where did you put my umbrella? Watakushi no komori-gasa wa doJto ye 

oita ka ? 

Why did n't you give the coolie the Naze ninsoTtu ni tori ni kita mono ico 

things he came for? watasanakatta ka? 

2. 

Don't the steamers sail twice a mouth Ima de iva tsuki ni ni do zutsu jokisen 

now ? go, deru jet arimasenu ka ? 

Did n't you say you lost your knife ? Kogatana wo nakushita to osshatta tU 

wa arimasenu ka ? 

3- 

Don't put on any more coal. Mo sekitan wo Jsiiberuna. 

Please don't light the lights yet. Dozo mada akari wo tsukenai de kudc. 

sai. 

SEC. 3. HAVE, HAS ; HAD. 

1. Have: 

(a) Affirmative past of the verb. 
(#) Negative negative present. 
(c) Have n't ?, expecting ' yes ' for an answer same 
as did n't? 

2. Have been, followed by the active participle : 

(a) Affirmative participle and it a or iru (or otta or 

oru), according as the action is viewed as 
completed or not. 

(b) Negative participle and inai or oranai. 

(f) Have n't been ?, expecting ' yes ' for an answer 
de iva nai ka f following the participle and ita 
or iru (of fa or .->m ). an the 'case may b?, 



THE VERB. 39 

3. Had:- 

(a) Affirmative mo and the past. 

(b) Negative mada and the past. 

(c) Had n't ? same as did n't? and have n't? 

I. (a). 

Have the coolies brought tho freight ? Ninsoku wa nimotsu wo motte kita ka * 
Have you heard the news to-day ? Kyo no shimbun wo o kiki nasaimaslrita 

ka? 

I. (b). 

Why have n't you brought your dog ? Naze o inu wo tsurete o ide nasai' 

masenu ka? 
The postman has n't brought any Kyo ioa haitatsunin ya ichi do mo tegami 

letters to-day. ivo motte konai. 

Your room has not been swept and O heya wa mada soji ga dekimasenu. 

dusted yet. 
This roof has not been repaired for KOHO yane wa mo ni nen hodo shufuku 

a couple of years. ga nai. 

1. (,). 

Have n't you repaired your house Chikayoro ouclii no shufuku wo nas't- 
lately ? ta ja arimasenu ka ? 

2. (a). 

Have you been reading the paper? Shimbun wo yor.de o idc nas'tta 7ca? 
I have just been trying to lift this Kono sumitori wo mochi-ageyo to shite 

coal-scuttle. ita tokoro da. 

How long have you been living iu Tokyo ni itsu kara snnde o ide nasai- 

Tokyo ? masu ka ? 

The Tokyo merchants have been sell- Tokyo no akindo wa mo hisashiku habit' 

ing foreign goods for a long time rai mono wo utte iru. 

now. 

2. (b). 

They have been a Httlo noisy, but Sukoshi saivaide ita ga kcnka wo shift 
they have not been quarreling. inai. 



40 THE VERB. 

. 2. (c). 

Has n't somebody been sleeping Dare ka koko ni nete ita de wa nai lea t 

here ? 

Have'n't the coolies been resting a Ninsoku iva hisashiku yasunde iru de 

good while? wa nai ka? 

3- () 

I went to the Tokyo Fu, but they Tokyo Fu ye itta ga mo hike ni natta. 

(the officials) had left. 
When you left Tokyo, had the Kobu Tokyo wo o taehi nasaru toki fti, Kobu 

Daigakko been finished ? Daigakko loa mo deki-agarimashita 

ka? 

3- (*) 

When I got to the hotel, my letter Hatagoya ye tsuita toki ni, mada tegami 

had not arrived. ga todokanakatta. 

I had not heard it when the steamer Jokisen ga deru toki ni mada kikima- 

left. senu deshita. 

3- to- 

Had you not left for Kyoto before Sono mae ni Kyoto ye o tachi nas'tta 
that ? ja arimasenu ka ? 

SEC. 4. SHALL, WILL. 

1. Affirmative: 

(a) Opinion ; also in seeking direction and in stating 
one's own purpose future of the verb. 

(ft) Certainty, determination, authority ; also in in- 
quiring into another's purpose present. 

2. Negative negative present. 

i. (a). 
You will spoil it if you put in more Sere yori yokei ni sJiio wo ireru to 

gait. mazuku naro. 

Things will look better as soon as we Ame ga sukosM furi shidai ni keshiki 

have a little rain. go- noon* daro. 



THE VERB. 41 

Shall I send word again to Yoko- Mata Yokohama ye so itte yarimasho ka? 

hama ? 
Shall I call a jinriki as I go to Shiba ? Shiba ye iki gake ni jinriki wo it chd 

yobimasho ka ? 

I will call again in a few days. Sono uchi ni mata agarimasho. 

If you need one, I'll lend you mine. iriyo nara, ivatakushi no wo o kashi 

moshimasho. 

i. (6). 

It will close at six o'clock. Roku ji ni shime-kiri ni narimasu. 

I'll go, if it rains " cats and dogs." Hi go, futte mo yari ga futte mo iki- 

masu. 

Denjiro will go for it. Denjiro ga tori ni ikimasu* 

About how long will you stay ? Itsu goro made o toman' (toman) nasaru 

ka? 



2. 

Put it where it will not get cold. Samenai tokoro ni o oki nasai. 

They say some of the Buddhists will Bussha ni wa ka mo korosanai hito mo 

not kill even a musquito. am so da. 

I won't give a cent more than that. Sore yoriyokei ni wa is sen mo yaranai. 

Will none of these do ? Kore wa dore mo ikemasenu ka ? 

Won't you take something more ? Motto nani ka o agari nasaimasenu ka f 

SEC. 5. SHOULD, WOULD. 

1. Affirmative: 

(a) Opinion, intention future of the verb. 

() Certainty, determination, explicit promise; as 

well as inquiry into the purpose of another 

-present. 

2. Negative negative present. 

3. Preceded by ' if conditional past. (See also X. 
sec. 8.) 



42 THE VERB. 

4. Accompanied by a conditional clause future. If 
however the time of the clause be past (the ' would ' be- 
coming ' would have ') past or probable past, according to 
the degree of certainty to be expressed. No ni adds regret 
or censure. 

5. Ought see II. V. sec. 10. % / 

6. Should ' like to ' see II. V. sec. 13. 

i. (a). 
I thought the jinriki would be here Mojinriki ga kite iyo to omotta. 

by this time. 

Did you think it would be so dear ? Sonna ni takakaro to o omoi nas'tta ka t 
liana, said she would write. O Hana san wa tegami wo yokoso to 

Ufa. 

i. (b). 

Mr. Maeda said positively he would Maeda san wa kitto sono dai wo Juiran 

pay the bill. to iimashita. 

What would you do in case your Ototsan ga o shini nas'tta toki wa do 

father died ? nasaimasu ? 

2. 
It would not pay to sell it for less Go en ni uranakute iva tema ni awanai. 

than five dollars. 
He said the mail would not close till Yubhi wa roku ji made shime-kiri ni 

six o'clock. narauai to. iimashita. 

3- 

If any one should come inquiring for Dare ka taznnete kitara, Yokohama ye 
me, say, I have gone to Yokohama. itta to so ie. 

4- 
You would have time enough, if you Motto hayaku o oki natfltarti* jubun ni 

would get up earlier. toki ga aritnashd. 

If you had been a little more careful, Mo mkoshi o ki wo tsuke nasttara, kes- 
this would never have happened. shite konna koto ni narimasenu de- 

shita. 

If you had gone yesterday, you would Kino irassh'ttara, raku ni o ma ni ai. 
have been in good time. mashita no ni. 



THE VERB. 43 

SEC. 6. CAN, COULD. 

Can and could are rendered in two ways : 

1 . By the potential forms of the verb. 

2. By dekint, which is coupled to the indicative present 
by koto. Dekirn is used with a noun also ; as well as 
independently in the sense of can ' do '. 

Can not is often expressed by the idiomatic phrase, ^vake 

ni iva ikanai added to the indicative present. 

-*- 

I. 

You can say anything in Japanese, H yd wo sae shitte ireba, Nihongo de 

if you only know how. nan de mo iemasu. 

I never can sleep when the fire bells Plansho ga naru to do shite mo nerare- 

ring. nai. 

When I was a boy I could swim half Kodomo no toki ni ham miclii wo oyoge- 

a mile. ta. 

I invited both, but neither of them Futari to mo maneita ga dochira mo 

could come. korarenakaita. 

I've been every where, but I can't Hobo ye amita ga do shite mo nrenai. 

sell it at all (no one wants one.) 

You can not sell it without govern- Seifu no menkyo ga nakereba urare- 

ment permission. masenu. 

It was very noisy and we could not Yakamasliikute nanni mo kikoemasenu 

hear a thing (tha t the speaker said.) deshita. 

He can only hear in one ear. Are loa kata mimi shika kikoenai, 

Can (may) I hear too? Watakushi mo kikaremasu ka? 

If you would open the door (and get To wo aketara miemasho. 

some light) you could see. 

It was pitch dark and we could not Makkura de michi ga mienakatto 

see the road. 

They say cats can not see when they Neko wa umare tate ni wa me ga mic.- 

are first born. nai so da. 

Whea can you see the Fukiago Fukiage no o niwa wa itsu miraremavho 

Garden? ka? 

Can \ve see the inside of the prison, Yurushi wo ukereba rd no naka wo mi- 

if we get a permit ? raremasu ka ? 



44 THE VERB. 

2. 

Can you send anything by telegraph? Nan de mo densliiii dc itte yaru Itoto ga 

dfkhnasu ka? 

I can not take the accounts to-night. Konya wa kanjo sum koto ga dekinai. 
Very few horses can. pull such a load Sonna nimotsu wo hiku koto no dekiru 

as that. uma wa goku sukunai. 

Can your dog sit up on his hind legs Kono inu wa chirxhin ga dekimasu ka ? 

and beg ? 
Some men can study ten hours a day. Ichi nichi nijuji kan benkyo no dekiru 

hito mo aru. 

Can't you do it a little better? Ho sukosM yoku dekinai ka? 

Can't you do this first ? Kore wo saki ni nasaru wake ni wa ika- 

nai ka 1 
Is n't it possible for you to get per- Seifu kara yurushi wo o like nasaru 

mission from the government ? wake ni ica ikimasenu ka ? 

I can not possibly take it, even if he Eel wo sarete mo toru wake ni wa mairi- 

offers it to me. maseuu. 

SEC. 7. MAY, MIGHT. 

1. Possibility, ' perhaps ': 

(a) Accompanying a present, future, or the auxiliary 
'have not' ka mo shirenai following the present. 

() Accompanying the past (including ' might not 
have been') ka mo shirenai following the past. 

(c] Bare possibility may be expressed by mono de mo 
nai following the negative future. 

2. Ability potential or dekiru. 

3. Liberty, permission mo yoi (contracted it) following 
the participle. 

I. (a). 

May be there are some musquitoes in Kay a no naJca ni ka ga irit ka mo shire- 

the net. nai. 

May be the steamer will be in to- Aslrita loajokisen ga tsuku ka mo shire 



THE VERB. 45 

May be we had bettor order them Yokohama ye itte yaru ho ga ii ka me 

from Yokohama. shirenai. 

You might get well if you went to Atami ye o ide nas'ttara naoru ka mo 

Atami. shirenai. 

Perhaps he will not start for a day Mada ni san nichi wa tatanai ka mo 

or two. shirenai. 

Perhaps he has not been told yet. Mada kikanai ka mo shirenai. 

I. (b). 

May be he missed the train. Kisha no ma ni awanakatta ka mo shire- 

nu. 

May be he has been told already. Mo kiita ka mo shirenai. 
If you had started a little earlier, Mo sukoshi hayaku o dekake ni nattara, 

you might have caught the train. kisha no ma ni atta ka mo shirenai. 
If leyasu had not lived, Tokyo leyasu to iu hito ga yo ni denakattara, 
might not have been built. Tokyo to iu tokcn'O ga dekinakatta ka 

mo shirenai. 



Possibly there may be a house to let Koliki Cho ni kashiya ga arumai mono 

in Kobiki Ch5. - de mo nai. 

Some day or other may be you will Itsu ka hanji ni narumai mono de mo 

be a judge. nai. 



If your letter had come yesterday, I Kino o tegami ga kitara, kyo ikemashi- 

might have gone to-day. taro ga. 

If Tsuya had told you so, you might O Tsuya san ga so ittara, isha wo o yobi 

have called the doctor. nasaru koto ga dekitaro ga. 

3- 

May I go to the bath, Sir ? yu ni itte mo yd gozaimasu ka ? 

Yon may put it either in the drawer Hikidashi ye irete mo shodana ye agete 

or up on the book case. mo ii. 

Did you say I might borrow your die- Jibiki ivo haishaku shite mo ii to osshai- 

tionary? mashita ka? 

I told Ginjiro he might go to Asakusa Ginjiro ni kyo hirusugi Asakusa ye itte 

this afternoon. mo ii to iimashita. 



46 THE VERB. 



8. LET, MAKE, HAVE, GET. 

1. These words in the sense of allow, constrain, require, 
cause, are all rendered by the causative voice. Certain 
transitives however having a causative force of their own, 
.'mffice of themselves to express ' let.' 

Get may also be rendered by the participle and morau 
a form which is more courteous than the causative, and 
which must be employed when the idea of favor is to be 
expressed. It does not however always and necessarily 
imply favor. (Comp. IV. III. sec. 2). 

2. Imperative : 

(a) Let us future followed by de wa nai ka ? 

(b) Don't let may be rendered by the negative 

present followed by yd ni shite. 



i. 

Matsu has let the lamp smoke. Matsu wa rampu wo ilmraseta. 

Shall I let these coolies take the box ? Kono ninsoku ni lutko wo molte ikase- 

masho ka ? 

You have had enough now, let me Kimi wa mo jubun nonda kara, uoku ni 

have a drink. ippai nomasete o kure. 

Please don't let the children come in- Kodomo ni kutsu ivo haite uchi ye hat 

to the house with their shoes on. rasenai de kudasai. 

Make him wait a minute. Sukoshi matasete o oki (nasai). 

If those children come in, you must Ano kodomo ga kuru nura, sliizuka n> 

make them keep quiet. sasenakereba ikenai. 

Do make the washerwoman iron these Sentakuya ni kono* kimono tro motto 

clothes better. yoku hinoshi ivo kakesasete o kure. 

I'll have Kisaburo post your letters. Kisaburo ni o tegami ivo yubin ye di&a- 

semasho. 

You nad belter have the carpenter Daiku ni tsukuraseta ho ga yd 

make it. masho. 



THE VERB. 47 

Where did you get this table made ? Kono tsukue wa doko de o koshiraesase 

nasaimashita ? 
You ought to get your grass cut. Shiba wo o karase nasaru ga yd gozai- 

masho. 

Please let the cat go out. Dozo neko wo soto ye dashite kudasai. 

You must not let the water run out Sonna ni hayaku rnizu wo na-rjashite wa 

so fast. ikenai. 

I want to get my watch cleaned and Tokei wo naosliite soji shite inoraitai. 
mended. 

2. (a). 

Let us go up Fujisan to-morrow. Ashita Fujisay, ye noboro ja nai ka t 

Let's go by way of the Tori. Tori wo totte ikoja nai ka ? 

Let's rest and have a pipe. Yasunde ip puku yaroja nai ka? 

Let's pull the cat's tail. Neko no shippo wo hippatte rniyoja nai 

ka? 

2. (. 

Don't let this get cold. Kore wo sainenai yd ni shite oki na. 

Please do not let that lamp smoke. Sono rampu wo iburanai yd ni shite o 

kure. 



SEC. 9 MUST. 



I . Necessity, right, authority : 

(a) Affirmative neg. cond. pres. 

neg. part, and wa 
neg. pres. and to 



[ikenai* 



and \ikaiiai. 






naranat. 



ikenai. 
Negative part, and ^va^ - 

\ and - ikanai. 
pres. and to] 

naranai* 



48 THE VERB. 

2. Conviction : 

(a) Must future. 

(b] Must have probable past. 

I. (a). 

You must be more careful. Motto ki wo tsukenakereba ikenai. 

You must make him take it whether Suki de mo kirai de mo nomasenakereba 

he likes it or not. ikemasenu. 

You must mind what Miss Hana says. Hana san no iu koto wo kikanakute 

wa ikemasenu yo. 

We must leave the house at twelve Junijini uchi wodenai to narimasenu 

o'clock. 

1. (. 

You must not put so much charcoal Hitachi ye sonna ni sumi wo tsuide wa 

in the hibachi. ikenai. 

You must not hold the baby so. Akaribo wo so daite wa ikenai. 

You must n't leave your light burn- Deru toki ni akari wo tsukete oite wa 

ing when you go out. ikenai. 

I told Hachi he must not even touch "0710 hana ni sawatte mo naranai tc 

these flowers. Hachi ni iimashita. 

2. (a). 

It must be so. Kitto so de gozaimasho. 

Maruya must certainly have some Kitto Maruya ni wa mada arimashd. 
more. 

2. 0). 

You must have seen it at Hakone. Hakone de goran nas'ttaro. 
You must have been perplexed. Sazo o komari de gozaimashitaro. 

SEC. 10. OUGHT, SHOULD. 
I . Obligation, propriety : 

(a) Affirmative beki hazu following the verb ; or 

the negative participle and wa, or negative 
conditional present, followed by siimanai. 

(b) Negative participle and vva followed by sumar 

nai. 

3 



THE VERB. 49 

2. Conviction Jtazu following the indicative present 
(ought to have the past), or so na mono da following 
the stem. 

3. Advice, direction, ' had better ': 

(a) Seeking (usually) conditional past and yokaro. 

(b) Giving present, or past and ho> followed by ga 

yokaro or yoi. 

4. Censure, regret, ' ought to have ' present conditional 
and yoi (or yokatta) no ni (comp. sec. 14. 2.) 

With verbs of the first conjugation, beki accompanies the 
indicative ; with those of the second the stem. Some verbs 
of the second conjugation however e.g. kokoro-miru and 
dekiru, following a law of the written language, at times 
change the final vowel of the stem to u. The irregular 
verbs kuru and suru also become ku beki and su beki. Miru 
beki is in use as well as mi beki. 

i. (a). 
The people ought to obey just laws. J-immin wa tadashii okite ni shitagau 

leki hazu da. 

Even an enemy should be forgiven. Teki de sae mo yunisu leki hazu da. 
One ought to speak the truth. Hito wa malcoto wo in beki hazu no 

mono de gozaimasu. 

Everybody ought to be vaccinated. Dare mo ue-boso wo su beki hazu da. 
Sankichi ought to be more respectful. Sankichi wa motto gyo-gi ga yokunakute 

wa sumanai. 

I think you ought to apologize to Take san ni wabinakute wa siimi- 
Miss Take. masumai. 



You ought not to sleep so late. Sonna ni asa-ne wo shite wa suwanat. 

Hankichi ought not to be out so late. Hankichi wa sor.ua ni osoku made dete 

ite wa sumauai. 



50 THE VERB, 

2. 

He ought to be here directly now. Mo jiki ni kuru hazu desu. 

It ought to have struck, it's past Mo ju ni ji sugita kara, natta liazu da* 

twelve. 
This dictionary ought to be good, it Kono jibiki wa gakusha no koshiraeta 

was written by a scholar. no da kara, ii hazu da. 

It ought not to be weak, it was care- Sore wa nen wo -irete koshiraeta no da 

fully made. kara, yowakunai hazu da. 

Oranges ought to be getting very Mikan wa mo yohodo yasiiku nari so na 

cheap now. mono da. 

3- (a). 

Which road should I take? Dono michi wo ittara yokaro ? 

What color ought I to paint this ? Kore wa nan no iro ni nuttara yokaro ? 

How ought I to translate this ? Kore wa do honyaku shitara yo gozai- 

masho ? 

How much water ought I to put in Kono tokkuri ye nani hodo mizu ivo ire- 

th is bottl e ? tar a yokaro ? 

I am going to the railroad, how much Tetsudo made iku n' da ga ikurajinriki 

ought I to give the jinriki ? ni yattara yokaro ne ? 

3- (*) 

You had better take an umbrella. Komori-gasa wo motte o ide nasaru ga 

yokaro. 
Some think you had better go. ide nasaru ga yokaro to omou hito mo 

arimasu. 

You had better not build a bungalow. Hiraya wo o tate nasaranai ga yokaro. 
You had better consult with your Ototsan ni sodan shite goran nas'tta ho 

father about it. ga yokard. 

Hadn't you better buy a couple ? Futatsu o kai nas'tta Jio ga ii ja art- 

masenu ka ? 
You ought to take about thirty drops San jit telti bakari ni mizu wo ni bai 

in twice as much water. watte o nomi nasaru ga ii. 

Then you ought to say so. Sonnara s5 iu ga ii. 

4- 
You ought to have been a little more Mo sukoshi ki wo isukereba yoi no ni. 

careful. 
I ought not to have said a word about Sono koto wa ichigon mo iwanakereba 

it. yoi no ni. 



THE VERB. 51 

I ought to have telegraphed at once. Sassoku denshin -wo kakereba yokatta 

no ni. 



SEC. i r. THINK, SUPPOSE. 

1. Hold an opinion omou, zonjiru, (more courteous) 
oboshimesu, connected with a preceding verb by to. 

2. Regard probable, suppose : 

(a) Likely to be or to happen future. 

(b] Likely to have happened probable past. 



Some people think he is crazy. ' Ano hito wa kichigai da to omou hito 

mo aru. 
What do you think of such conduct ? Konna oko-nni wa do 6bosliimeshima.su 

ka? 
I thought I had plenty, but I can Takusan atta to omotta ga hitotsu mo 

not find one. initsukerarenai. 

I thought I could go there in half an Han ji kan de asoko yc ikeru daro to 

hour. omotta. 

thought Seikichi would probably be Seikichi wa ma ni aumai to omotta. 

late. 

2. (a). 

I don't think you will like the kagos. Kago wa o guki de arimasumai. 
1 doubt whether you will find any Asoko ni nama-uo wa arumai, 

fresh fish there. 
1 suppose there are plenty of neas in Kono tatami ni wa nomi ga takusau iru 

these mats. daro. 

2 .(3). 

Do you suppose the steamer has ar- Yubinsen wa tsukimashitaro ka? 

rived ? 
I suppose the postman passed while Haitatsunin wa rusu no ma ni tottaro. 

I was out. 



52 THE VERB. 

SEC. 12. INTEND. 

1. Purpose tsumori following the indicative present. 

2. Contemplate, think of doing to omou following the 
future. 

i. 

I intend to go by the nine o'clock Ku jl no kiah'i de iku tsumori desit. 

train. 
I intended to let you know, but I had shirase mosu tsumori de atta ga sono 

no time. ma ga nakatta. 

I did not intend to let Hachi know it. Hachi ni sore wo sliiraseru tsumori de 

nakatta, 

2. 

I intended to build a house, but I le wo tateyo to omotta ga kane ga dekt- 

could not afford it. nakatta. 

I was going to tell you yosterday, but Kino moshi-ageyo to omotta ga o ide ga 

you did not eoine, nakatta. 

SEC. 13. WANT. 

1. Followed by a noun : 

(a) Need, require iru or iriyd da ; (of business) yd. 

(b) Desire to have hoshii* 

2. Followed by a verb. : 

(a) Desire to do desiderative adjective. When the 

desire is that another perform the action for 
one participle and moraitaS (comp. sec. 8.) 

(b) Hope that one will ; wish it to- be sec. 14. 2. 

3, Proposition, ' how about ?' ' what do you say to? f 
participle and wa followed by do or ikaga. 



THE VERB. 53 

I. (a). 

Do you want this ? Kore wa o iriyd desu ha '? 

I want a jinriki to go to Asakusa. Asakusa ye iku nijinriki r,a int. 

Don't you need some little ones too ? Chiisai no mo o iriyo ja arimascnu Jca f 

I think we shall not need any straw- Kusa-ichigo wa kyd irimasumai. 

berries to-day. 

What did Hana want ? O Hana san wa nan no yd de kita no 

ka? 

I. (b). 

Hachi wants an orange. Hachi wa mikan ga hoshii. 

Hana wants a hairpin like Take's. Hana san wa o Take san no yd na 

kanzashi ga hoshii. 
Don't you want a pretty little pup ? Kawairashii ko-inu ga hoshikunai ka ? 

12. .(a). 
Hana wants to borrow a hairpin. Hana san wa kanzashi wo karitai. 

I wanted to see Mr. Yamada, but ho Yamada san ni aitai to omotta (or aita- 

was out. katta) ga riisii de aita. 

I did n't want to write that letter. Ano tegami wo kakitaku fjozaimasenn 

deshita. 
I should like to know how to inflect Doshi no hatarakase yd wo oloeid gozai- 

verbs. masu. 

I wish I knew how to do up my hair Itaru san no yd ni kami no ii yd we 
like Hani's. oboetai mow' da. 

I want you to show me' several pat- Iroiro no moyo ivo misete mo-raitai. 

terns. 

I want somebody to call a jinriki. Dare ka nijinriki wo yonde moraita-L 
I wanted the cabinet-maker to make Sashivionoya ni annta no yd na hako wr. 

me a box like yours. kosltiraete moraito gozaimashiia. 

Don't you want Torakichi to post Tordkichi ni yubin ye tegami wo dashiti 

your letters ? moraitakunai ka ? 

Do you want to change pens? Fudc wo o torikae nas'tte wa do desu} 

What do you say to buying a dog ? Inu wo o kai nas'tte wa do desu ? 



54 THE VERB. 

SEC. 14. WISH, HOPE. 

1. Desire to do same as sec. 13. 2 (a). 

2. Desire that a thing is was or will be : 

(a) Simple desire ni shitai or ni shitai mono da 
following a noun, yd ni shitai following a verb 
or an adjective. 

(6) Coupled with doubt fear or regret present con 
ditional and yoi. Doubt is emphasized by ga; 
and regret, by no ni. This idiom also expresses 
' want one to/ in the sense of ' hope he will '. 
(Comp. also sec. 10. 4.) 

2. (a). 

I hope to-morrow will be fine too. Ashita mo yahari tenki ni shitai mono 

da. 
I hope hp will bo a scholar too. Are mo yappari gakiAsha ni shitai 

mono da. 
I hope you will soon recover. Hayaku o naori nasaru yo ni shitai 

mono da. 
I hope it will be done day after to- Asatte dekiru yo ni shitai mono da. 

morrow. 
I want it well made. Yoku dekiru yo ni itashito gozaimasu. 



I wish I had a little change. Snkoshi Tto-satsu ga areba ii. 

I wish somebody would tell him so. Dare ha ano hito ni so icba ii. 

I wish that dog \rould n't bark. Ano inu wa hoenakerela ii. 

I wish you had toid me sooner. Motto hayaku kikasereba, yokatta. 

I wish it didn't rain. Ame ga fiiranakereba ii no ni. 

I wish I were a little taller. Mo sukoshi sei ga takakcreba ii no 



THE VERB. 55 

I hope I shall be able to talk Japan- Itsu ka Nitongo gadekiru yo ninareba 

ese some day. n 9 a> 

I hope it will be pleasant, but it looks Tenki ga yokereba ii ga muzukashi sd 

doubtful. aa " 

I tope ^e shall not have any more KotosU tea mo yuki ga furanakcreba ii 

snow this year. 9 d - 

I hoped he would come by this train Kono kislia de Jcureba yoi to omotta. 
I wanted you to bring your dog. inu wo tsurete o ide nasareba yoi to 

omotta. 



SEC. 15. NEED. 

1. Followed by a noun sec. 13. I (a). 

2. Followed by a verb : 

. (negative participle and mo yoi. 
(a} Negative \ 

(indicative present and ni oyobanai* 

(b) Affirmative same as ' must/ 

2. (a). 

You need not wait any longer. Mo matte inakute mo ii. 

You need not serve tea until six. Roku ji made wa cha wo dasandkute mo 

ii. 
You need n't lock the door when you Dem toki ni to no shimari wo shinakute 

gO OUt . 7710 H. 

Tell Wasuko he need not go to Asa- Kyo wa Asaknsa ye ikanai de mo ii to 

kusa to-day. Wasuke ni itte o kure. 

You need n't run so, we have a long Sonna ni kakczu to mo ii, mada yohodo 

time yet. aida ga aru. 

You need not cut the grass for a hito tsuki no aida kusa wokarunioyo- 

_ 
month. banai. 

You need not bring by bento on Doyonichi ni iva lento wo motte kurn ni 
Saturdays. waoyobanai. 



$6 THE VERB. 

SEC. 1 6. SEEM, LOOK. 

I . Semblance : 

/verb and yd da 

adjective and yd da. 
(a) To appear to be | 

adjective stem and so da. 



and no yd da. 
Ni mieru may take the place of da. 
(b) To appear likely to happen stem of the verb 
and so da. Instead of so da, so ni mieru and so 
na keshiki are often employed. 

2. Report : * it seems that,' * they say,' ' I hear,' ' I believe,' 
' so ' verb or adjective and so da. 



i. . 

The fire seems to be out. Hi ga kicU iru yd da. 

The fire seerns to be going out. Hi ga kie kakatte iru yd da. 

That coal does n't seem to burn very Ano sekitan wa amari yoku mocnai yd 

well. da. 

When Sansuke came for the shoes he Sansuke ga kutsu ico tori ni k;ta toki, 

looked a little angry. sukoslii okotte iru yd deshita. 

Those pictures seem to me to be hung Ano gaku no kake yd wa sukoshi taka 

a trifle too high. sugiru yd da. 

When you talk to him he seems to Dampan suru toki wa shdchi suru yd ni 

assent. mieru. 

These mats seem to be dirty. Kono tatami wa kitanai yd da. 

This machine seems to be out of Kono kikai wa guai ga warui yd da. 

order. 
It seems wonderful that you can send Shiji ka goji kan de Amerika ye den- 

a telegram to America, in four or shin wo kakerareru to ica fushiyi na 

five hours j does n't it ? yd desu ne ? 



THE VERB. 57 

This pond looks deep. Kono ike ica fuka so da. 

That child looks tired and sleepy. Ano ko wa kutabirete itenat so da. 

This seems the better plan. Kono shuko no ho ga yosa so de gozai- 

masu. 

Heikichi looks strong. Heikichi wajdbu so da. 

He seems to be very clever. Ano Into wa taiso rikd so de gozaimasu. 

It seems to be a fire. Kwaji no yd da. 

He looks like a thief. Are wa dorobd no yd da. 

The man. who came here this morn- Kesa koko ye kita Into wa Nipponjin no 
ing did n't look like a Japanese. yd ja gozaimascnu deshita. 

I. ( 

It looks like rain. Ame ga furi so desu. 

The fire looks like going out. Hi ga kie so desu. 

This looks like an obstacle. Kore wa sashi-tsukae ga ari so da. 

Last night it seemed to be going to Yube wa tenki ni nari so de atta. 

clear. 

It does n't look as if there would be Amari kaze ga fuki so mo (or de wa) 

much wind. nai. 

This does not look like peace. Kore wa odayaka ni nari so mo nai. 

This leak has not any appearance of Kono mori wa toman so mo nai. 

stopping. 

He did not look like coming down. Make so na keshiki wa nakatta. 

2. 

It seems there was a fire in Shiba last Yube Shiba ni kivaji ga atta so desu. 

night. 

The mats are very dirty, it seems. Tat ami wa taiso kitanai so desu. 

They say he is very clever. Ano hito iva taiso rikd na so desu. 

There is a terrible famine in China, Shina ni taikikin ga aru so de gozai- 

they say. masu. 

There were no trains yesterday, I Kind wa kisha ga ichi do mo denakatta 

hear. so de gozaimasu. 

So you bought a watch the other Sendatte tokei wo o kai nas'tta so desu 

day. ne. 

So you took a red one. Akai no ni nas'tta so desu ne. 

So the cord was a little short. Himo wa sukoshi mijikakatta so desu. 



58 THE VERB. 

VI. THE INFINITIVE. 

There being no infinitive in Japanese, the English 
infinitive must be rendered differently according to cicum- 
stances : 

1 . As the subject or object of another verb indicative 
present and no (koto) . 

2. Signifying for the purpose of stem and ni. 

3. Signifying with the intention of future and to omotte. 

4. Following the means, instrument, agent indicative 
present and ni. 

5. Equivalent to the verbal noun preceded by 'for 'or 
' in 'indicative present and no ni. 

6. Equivalent to ' if ' and accompanied by ' it will ' or ' it 
would ' participle and vva. The case however must be a 
real one and not a mere hypothesis. 

7. Following verbs of telling, requesting, promising, ad- 
vising, etc. to following the direct narration or yd ni 
following the indicative present. 

I. 

It is wrong to waste time, Muda ni toki 100 tsitiyasu no wa warui 

koto da. 
Are you afraid to have your tooth Ha 100 nuku koto ga Itowd gozaimasu ka ? 

pulled out? 
You will hardly be able to carry that Omae no chikara de wa sono hoko wo 

box upstairs. nikai ye motte agaru no wa, miizu- 

kashikaro. 
The government does not allow for- Seifu de wa gwaikokujin ga naiclii ni 

eigners to live in the interior. sumu koto 100 yurusanai. 

I have decided not to buy a horse. Uma wo kawanai koto ni kimcmasltita . 



THE VERB; 59 

2. 

I went to get that tea cup we looked Sendatte mita chaioan wo kai ni itta go. 
at the other day, but it had been mo urete shimatta. 
sold. 

We only stopped to change jinrikis. Tada jinriki wo kac ni tomatta bakari 

da. 

3- 

I raised my hand to strike. Tatako to omotte te wo ageta. 

Did 3'ovi do it to make him angry ? Okoraseyo to omotte so nas'tta ka ? 
Did you say it to ' make a goose' of Bakaso to omotte so ii nas'tta lea? 

him? 

I called to see what he would say. Nan to iu ka kiite miyo to omotte yori- 

mashita. 

4- 

I want a wagon to send this box to Kono hako wo tetsudo ye yarn ni kuruma 

the railway. ga iru. 

You had better buy a trap to catch Ano nczumi wo torn ni loana wo kail ga 

that rat. ii. 

I want a few nails to mend this box. Kono hako ivo naosu ni kugi ga sukoshi 

iriyo da. 

He wants a little money to pay for Hirumeslii no dai wo harau ni zeni ga 

his dinner. sukoshi iriyo da. 

I should think it would cost f u]ly a Sonna ie wo tateru ni isa sen en tarazu 

thousand dollars to build such a kakarimasho. 

house as that. 

How many hours does it take to send Shiba ye tsukai ico yarn ni nan ji kan 

a messenger to Shiba ? kakarimasu ka ? 

Go and call a plasterer to mend the Engawa wo naosaseru ni shakanya wo 

veranda. yonde o ide. 

Who was appointed to examine the Shosei 100 shiken sum ni dare ga ii- 

students ? tsukeraremashita ka ? 

5- 
How much ought I to give to have Uchi no niwa ye shiba wo uc-tsukcsaseru 

(for having) my garden sodded ? no ni ikura yattara yokaro ? 

I don't know how much I ought to Tetsudo made notte iku nn ni ikura 

pay to ride to the railway. ' harattara yokaro ka shirimasenu. 



60 THE VERB. 

We vent down to the beach, but the Hamabe made itta ga abiru no ni tea 

waves were too high to bathe. nami ga taka sugita. 

How many jinrikis shall we need to Kamaknra ye iku no ni jinriki ga iJcu 

go to Kamakura ? did iru daro ? 

6. 

It will be a great mistake to wait (if Hito tsuki matte wa d uiachiga.i daro. 

we wait) a month. 

It will injure the country to pass (if Sonna okite wo tatete wakuni no gai ni 

they pass) such a law. naru daro. 

I don't believe it would pay to pub- Koelti Mondd wo yokomyi de sliuppan 

lish Koeki Mondo in foreign type. shite wa hiki-aumai. 

It would be inconvenient for me to Yokohama ye hikkcshite wa fulen de 

move to Yokohama. gozaimasu. 

It will not be very pleasant to get Shakkin wo shite wa amari omoshiroku- 

into debt. nai. 

7- 

Tell Yosuke to serve breakfast'. Asamcshi wo dase to (dasu yd ni) Yo- 

suke ni itte o kure. 
Tell J)enzo not to forget about the Sekitan no koto wo wasureruna to 

coal. (wasurenai yd ni)Dcnzd ni itte o kure. 

He promised to meet us in Yoko- Yokohama de awo to yakusoku shima* 

harna. shita. 

I promised to go, but I don't feel Iku yd r,i yakusoku shita ga kagen ga 

well. . warui. 

Did n't the doctor advise you to go Islia wa Atami ye o ide nasaru yd ni 

to Atami ? sitsumemasenu dcshita ka ? 

Shall I tell the tailor to call on you Dai wo itadaki ni agaru yd ni shitateya 

to get his pay? ni moshimasho ka 1 



VII. PASSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS. 

1. The passive voice see II. II. sec. 3. 

2. Intransitives employed to render English passives 
see II. III. sec. 2. 



THE VERB. 6l 

3. It may be said in general that the use of the passive 
voice in much wider in English than in Japanese : many 
constructions therefore which in English are passive must 
be rendered into Japanese at a sacrifice of form : 

(a) When an active construction with * they ' might 

be substituted for the passive one, the sentence 
is usually translated accordingly. 

(b) When the English sentence is explanatory, the 

verb becomes active in Japanese and is used as 
an adjective to qualify a no (mono) following. 

(c) When the clause containing the passive is the 

object of another verb, its verb assumes the 
active form and is followed by no (tokoroj; 
thus instead of saying ' I saw such a thing 
done,' a Japanese would say ' I saw the act of 
doing such a thing.' 

(d) Am, is, are, was and were, followed by the passive 

participle and expressing past action still con- 
tinuing in effect, are rendered by the participle 
and aru, if the Japanese verb be a transitive; 
if it be an intransitive, oi;u or iru takes the 
place of aru. 

(e) The presence of certain ideas may determine the 

mode of translation : Becoming, coming to pass, 
resulting in, change, etc., are expressed by the 
stem of the verb and ni naru, or by the 
indicative present and yd ni naru. Receiving 
is rendered by ukeru and morau. 



62 THE VERB. 

I. 

T -ras invited, but I had another en- Manekareta keredomo hokardyakusoku 
gageinent and declined. shita koto ga atte kotowarimaslrita. 

When Ycshida returns, will he be Yoshida go, kaettara, Eixoku ye koshi 
sent as minister to England ? ni yararcru daro ka ? 

Dont't let yourself be cheated. Damasarenai yd ni shi nasai. 

I was requested by Mr. Ishikawa to Anata ye agaru yo ni Ishikawa san ni 
call on you. tanomaremashita. 

Where were you bitten ? Doko wo kamareta ka ? 

My watch must have been stolen. - Kitto tokei wo nusumareta dan. 

This letter has been read by some- Kono tegami wo dare ka ni yomareta. 
body. 

Fusa has been stung in the finger by Fusa ga hachi ni yubi ico sasareta. 
a bee. 

One of the visitors at Hakone last Kyonen Hakone ye hekislw (hisho) ni 
year was accidentally shot in the itte (nil mono no uclii ni do ka shite 
hand. te wo utareta Idto ya atia. 

Tora has been whipped several times Tora wa sore wo shite iku tali mo tata- 

for doing that. kareta. 

Gonsuke did nothing to be discharged Gonsuke wa hima wo dasareru toga ga 

for. nakatta. 

2. 

The fire started from Kamakura Kamakura Gaslii kara kwaji ga dete, 

Gashi, and about half Tokyo was Tokyo ga taitei hambun yaketa. 

burned. 

When will the new Monzeki temple Monzeld no fushin wa. itsu deki-agari- 

be finished? masho ka? 

It was done long ago. To ni dekita. 

Has the room been swept ? Heya no soji wa dekimasliita ka? 

I hope he will be satisfied with this. Kore de manzoku sureba ii ga. 

They say one of the engineers was Kikaikata ga hitori atama kara tsuma- 

scalded from head to foot. saki made yakedo wo shita so desu. 

Has n't a single one of the Mitsu Mitsu Bishi Kwaisha no June iva is so 

Bishi ships been wrecked ? mo hasen shimasenu ka ? 



THE VERB. 63 

3- (a). 

[s much sugar imported (do they im- Sliina kara mainen sato wo oku yunyu 

port) annually from China-? shimasu ka? 

Tobacco is used (they use) almost Tabako wa taitei doko de mo mochii- 

every where. masu. 

Diamonds have been recently found Chikagoro Afurika de kongoseki wo inte- 
rn Africa. dashita. 

Theology and church history are Shingakko de wa shingaku to kyokwai- 

taught in theological schools. rekishi ivo oshiemasu. 

In some countries, I believe, erimi- Am kuni de wa toganin wo bo de buchi- 

nals are beaten to death with clubs. korosu so da. 

The drains had better all be cleaned Gesui wo nokorazu soji shite shodokulio 

and disinfected. wo okonau ga ii. 

In what month is the rice harvested? Kome ica nan gwatsu ni kari-iremasu ka? 

Where were those oranges put ? Ano mikan wa doko ye okimashita ka ? 

3- (*). 

This (railway ticket) was bbught for Kore wa tomodachi no lun ni katta no 

a friend, but he has not come yet. da ga mada kimasenu. 

It was printed on the Tori. Sore wa Tori de hanko shita mono da. 

This must have been written with a Kore wa empitsu de kaita mono daro. 

lead pencil. 

Honey is made by bees. Mitsu wa haclii ga tsukuru mono da. 

Was this letter brought by the post- Kono tegami wa liaitatsunin ga motte 

man ? kita n' desu ka ? 

Was this cut with a knife or with Kore wa kogatana de kitta no ka *7za- 

scissors ? sami de kitta no ka ? 

What is uiochi made of and when is Moehi to iu mono wa nan de koshiraete 

it eaten ? itsu taberu mono desu ka ? 

3. M. 

I should like very much to hear the Doka samisen wo jozu ni liiku no wo 

samisen well played. kiite mitai mono da. 

I had never seen a cannon tired un- Tokyo ye kuru made wa taiho wo utsu 

til I came to Tokyo. no wo mita koto ga nakatta. 

Did you ever see a man's head cut Hitono kubi wo kiru no wo goran nas't- 

off ? ta koto ga arima.su ka ? 

r in ally we found him on the road- Shimai ni micliibata ni kogoe-shinde ita 

side frozen stiff. no wo mitsuketa. 



64 THE VERB. 

* 3- W. 
The roof of that house is covered Auo ie no yane wa kawara de fuite aru. 

with tiles. 
It is in the drawer, wrapped up in Hikidashi no naka ni, kami ni tsutsun- 

paper and tied with a string. de ito de shibatte aru. 

Neither of these shoos is well sewed. Kono kutsu wa dochira mo yoku nutte 

nai. 

This receipt is not signed yet. Kono nketori wa mada lian ga oshite nai^ 

This fish is not well boiled. Kono sakana wa yoku nite nai. 

It was hidden under the roots of a Matsu no ki no ne no shita ni kakushite 

pine tree. atta. 

It must be hidden somewhere in the Doko ka niwa no uchi ni kitto kakushite 

garden. am daro. 

IB n't the study lamp lighted? Shosai no rampu wa tsuite imasenu ka? 

One is open and the other is shut. Hitotsu wa aite oru shi mo hitotsu no 

wa shimatte orimasu. 

3- M. 

I thought foreigners would be im- Ketojindomo ga jiki ni o uchi-harai ni 

mediately expelled. naru daro to omotta. 

Trading places have been opened in Osaka ni mo Ilyogo ni mo koeki-lra ga o 

both Osaka and Hyogo. h Iraki ni natta. 

After the Revolution the government Go isshin go wa seiji wa Tenslii sama dt 

was assumed by the Emperor. nasaru yd ni natta. 

Will foreigners be allowed to live in Sono tokiniwagioaikoknjin ganaichini 

thje interior then P sumu koto ga dekini yd ni naru daro ka? 

Of late, government proclamations Tina de wa seifu no fukoku wa shimbun 

have been issued in the news- shi ni deru yd ni natta. 

papers. 

Each student is examined before he Shosei wa meimei yurushi ivo ukeru mae 

is licensed. ni shiken wo ukemasu. 

By whom were you baptized ? Anata wa dare kara senrei wo o uke 

nasaimashiia ka? 

Has the carpenter been paid for the Daiku wa shodana no dai wo morai- 

book-case ? mashita ka ? 

The baby was vaccinated by Mr. Uchi no akambo wa Matsumoto san ni 

Matsumoto. ue-boso ivo shite moraimashita. 

I used to be taught by an old rean Moto wa Nagoya kara kita rojin ni 

from Nagoya. oshiete moratta. 



CHAPTER III. THE NOUN. 



SEC. i. 

Besides being supplied with true nouns, such as kaze >' 
wind, chikara strength, hito a person, Japanese makes 
use of many verbal stems to serve as nouns ,* as negai 
request, osore fear. 

SEC. 2. ABSTRACT NOUNS. 

i . Abstract nouns are frequently formed by adding koto 
to an adjective or to the present or past of the verb ; as-^ 



hayai koto rapidity 

kanashii koto affliction 

katai koto hardness 

shibui koto astringency 

urusai koto annoyance 

yoi koto goodness 

komaka na koto accuracy 

rippa na koto beauty 

dekinai koto impossibility 



ki wo tsukeru\ 

[attention 
koto ) 

komaru koto perplexity 

on wo shiranai\ m 

[ingratitude 
koto 



tatsu koto 
cru koto 
shikkari 
koto 



abstinence 
acquisition 

shit a} 

\ firmness 



sugiireta koto excellence 



2. Many abstract nouns are formed by adding sa to 
adjective stems; as takasa height, katasa hardness, 
iiayasa speed. Nouns of the first class express simply 
quality, those of this class express also degree \fukaikoto 
depth, fukasa the depth of. 



66 



THE NOUN. 



SEC. 3. CONCRETE NOUNS. 

Many concrete nouns, names both of persons and things, 
are formed by adding mono to nouns adjectives and verbal 
stems ; as 

adziikari mono deposit 

bake mono ghost 

deki mono ' abscess 

hiyori mono hypocrite 

inaka mono rustic 

ire mono vessel 

kai mono purchase 

ki mono clothing 

SEC. 4. NAMES OF TRADES. 

The names of most of the trades are formed by adding 
ya to the name of the article dealt in ; as okeya a cooper, 
honya a bookseller, toriya a bird-fancier. 

SEC. 5. COMPOUND NOUNS. 

Compound nouns abound ; and are formed either by the 
union of two nouns or verbal stems, or by uniting a verb 
or the stem of a verb or of an adjective to a noun ; as 



inazari mono 


mixture 


nokori mono 


leavings 


nui mono 


sewing 


okuri mono 


gift 


oseji mono 


flatterer 


tabe mono 


food 


umai mono 


dainty 


yaki mono 


pottery 



aka-gane 


copper 


ji-biki 


dictionary 


cha-ire 


tea caddy 


onna-gami 


goddess* 


hari-gane 


wire 


te-oke 


pail 


hiki-dashi 


drawer 


te-suri 


hand rail 


hiki-shio 


ebb tide 


yake-ishi 


lava 


iku-saki 


destination 


yane-ita 


shingle 



THE NOUN/ 67 

SEC. 6. GENDER, 

Distinction in sex is sometimes expressed as in English 
by the use of different words ; as otoko, onna man, woman ; 
chichi, haha father, mother; ototsan, okkasan papa, 
mamma ; musuko, musume boy, girl. Sometimes it is 
expressed by prefixing o or me, which correspond to ' he ' 
and ' she ' in such words as he-goat ; as o shika, me jika 
buck, doe ; oh dori, men dori cock, hen. Properly speaking 
however Japanese nouns are without gender, and in most 
cases even sex is not indicated. 

SEC. 7. NUMBER. 

If necessary the plural can be formed by suffixing domo, 
, tachi or gat a. This however is usually done only when 
ambiguity would otherwise arise. Tachi and gat a, being 
more courteous than domo or ra, are commonly employed 
of persons that should be referred to with more or less of 
respect. 



SEC. 8.- CASE. 
Case is expressed by means of the postpositions. 



CHAPTER IV. THE PRONOUN, 



I. PERSONALS AND POSSESSIVES. 

1, me watakushi (contracted -wataski], 

we, us watakushidamo. 

you sing, omae, omae san, anata. 

(tac/ii, [tachi, 

pi. omac\ omae san\ anatagata, 

\gata, \gata, 

(hito. 
he. him are, ano hito, ano o\ 

\kata. 

(hitv, (hito. 

she, her are, ano\ ano o\ 

\onna, \kata* 

it sore. 

(tachl, 
the} 7 , them arera, ano hito\ ano o katagata. 



Omae san is more polite than omae; and anata, which is 
generally used in addressing equals and superiors, still 
more so ; the same is true also of ano hito and ano o kata, 
as compared with are. 



THE PRONOUN. 69 

Students among themselves, frequently use boku for ' I ' 
and kimi for ' you.' A scholar is sensei; a master, danna 
or danna sari. Tonin means ' Ke ' or ' she ' of one already 
named. -'It,' with verbs of 'saying' and 'doing,' is 
rendered by so. 

It may be said in general that the personal pronouns are 
seldom used excepting when emphasis is to be expressed, 
or when ambiguity would result from their absence. They 
are often employed once at the beginning of a conversation 
or sentence and then dropped. It is also true that some 
pcakers use them more freely than others. 

Possessive pronouns are formed by adding no to the 

rsonals ; as watakushi no my, mine. The adjective form 
of sore however is sono, not sore no; and it may mean ' his ' 
or ' your ' as well as 'its.' 

I brought 1 he bos and Denjiro Watakushi wa hako wo motte kita shi 
brought the bundle. Denjiro wa tsutsumi wo motte 

kimashita. 
This is different from what I ordered. Kare wa watakushi ga atsuracta no 

to chigaimasu. 
He offered me a hundred dollars, but Watakushi ni hyaku en yard to itta ga 

I would n't take it ukenakatta. 

The ladies rode in kagos, but we Fujingata wa kago ni notta ga icata- 

walked. kushidomo wa arukimashita. 

Some of us would like to study his- Watakushidomo no uchi ni rekishi wo 

tory. keiko shitai mono mo gozaimasu. 

Everything I sa.j seems to offend you. Watashi no iu koto ica nani ino ka mo 

o ki ni sakarau yo de gozaimasu. 

Did n't some one bring a parcel for Ima dare ka watakushi no tokoro ye 
me just now ? tsutsumi wo motte kita de wa nai 

ka? 
I think you will tind a i'ew screws in Watakushi no dogu-bako ni neji ga 

my tool-chest. ni sam bon haitte imaslio. 

Was it you that left the door open? Akepanashi ni shita no wa omae ka? 



7O THE PRONOUN. 

You are a little particular. Anata iva sukoshi ko-musukashii hito 

de Qozaimasu. 
There was a man here an hour ar SenJcohi anata wo tadzunete kita hito 

two ago inquiring- for you. ga atta. 

You have holes in both your socks. Oniae no tabi ni wa ryoho ni ana ga 

aite iru. 
That hairpin of yours is very stylish. Anata no kansashi wa taiso iki desu 

ne. 
These are not yours, are they ? Kore wa anata no de wa gozaimasumai t 

na? 

He will probably choose this color. Are wa okata kono iro wo torn daro. 
He is a man of ability, but he is Are wa saishi da ga kiryoku ni tobo- 

lacking in energy. shii hito da. 

Please don't tell him anything. Are ni nani mo kikasenai de kudasai. 

I gave him all the money I had. Ano hito ni ari kiri kane wo yatti 

shimatta. 
I wish I had some of his money. Ano hito no motte iru kane ga sukoshi 

hoshii mon' da. 

What paper did it eome out in ? Sore wa nani shimbun ni demashita ka .* 

How many does it hold ? Sore ni ikutsn hairimasu ka ? 

I don't believe there is one like it in Sore to onoji yd na no wa Tokyo ni 

Tokyo. gozaimasumai* 

As you are about it, wash this too. Sono tsuide ni kore mo aratte o kure. 

There was a fellow na,nied Benkei Sono kerai ni Benkei to in mono ga 

among his retainers. atta. 

Did he say it before people ? Hito no mae de so iimashita ka? 

I'll do it as soon as I can. Deki shidai ni so itashimasho. 



II. COMPOUND PERSONALS. 

Pronouns followed by ' self ' are rendered according to 
the shade of meaning to be expressed : 

i. Simply emphatic the personal pronoun itself. 



THE PRONOUN. ?I 

. One's self as well as another the personal pronoun 
and mo yafian; yahari however is often understood. 

3. One's self as distinguished from others -jibun* 

4. By one's self, alone hitori de. 

5. Of itself, spontaneously shizen ni. 
Jibun and hitori de are sometimes combined. 



I. 

I'll lend it to you just as soon as I Watakushi ga yonde shimattara sugu 
have iinished reading it myself. ni o kashi moshimasho. 

2. 

I have tripped on that sill two or Watakushi mo yahari ano sMkii ni 
three times myself. PJ ni san do ketsmiuizuita koto ga 

s aru. 

3- 

He has a pretty good opinion of him- Jibun wa yohodo dekiru tsumori de 

self. int. 

You can not do it yourself either. Jibun mo yahari dekinai kuse ni. 

Go yourself. Jibun de itte o ide. 

Had n't you better go and see him Go jibim de irassh'tte c,o danji nas'tta 

about it yourself ? ho ga iija arimasenu ka ? 

Are you going to use it yourself ? Go jibun de o tsukai nasaru ka ? 

You ought to be able to answer that Jibun de kotae ga deki so na mon' 

yourself. da. 

4- 

I doubt whether you can do it your- hitori de wa o muzukashiU gozai- 
salf. masho. 

5- 

Do you believe the world came into Sekai wa shizen ni dekita mono deshS 
existence of itself ? kat 



THE PRONOUtf. 






III. HONORIFIGS. 

As stated above, it is a marked characteristic of Japanese 
to avoid the use of personal and possessive pronouns; 
especially is this the case in addressing equals or superiors 
and in speaking of those who should be mentioned with 
respect. In such instances, the absence of the pronouns is 
generally made good by the presence of what usually go 
under the name of honorifics. 

SEC. i. O AND Go. 

The honorific particles o and go are prefixed to * 

1. Nouns. 

2. Verbs: 

(a) When the person addressed or referred to is the 

agent in the action the verb assumes the stem 
form (excepting those verbs made up of a noun 
and surUy in which the suru become nasaru} 
and is followed by nasaru or ni naru. Some- 
times de gozarimasu takes the place of nasaru 
or ni naru, the stem in this case becoming a 
noun. 

(b] When the person addressed or referred to is the 

object either direct or indirect of the speaker's 
action, mosu is employed instead of nasaru. 
Verbs made up of a noun and itasu (sum) 
or ni naru however require no change beyond 
prefixing the honorific. 

3. Adjectives and Adverbs: In sentences addressed to 
equals or superiors the Japanese often prefix o to adjectives 



THE PRONOUN. 73 

and adverbs, even where the English idiom drops the 
pronoun. 

As a rule o precedes Japanese words and go Chinese ; 
o rnsii, o taku and go mottomo however are familiar ex- 
amples of exceptions. 

Sama is sometimes appended to nouns ; and instances 
occur where pronouns are used in addition to o and go* 

Nearly all the examples in this section will be found in 
Satow's Kiiaiwa Hen. Most of them are common expres- 
sions, some of which are not easily rendered literally. 



I. 

Where is your house, Sir ? O taku u'a doJco de fjozaimasu lea ? 

Remember me to your family. O taku ye yorosliiii (ossltatte kudasai). 

What is your opinion ? mikomi wa do de gozaimasu ? 

By your favor. kage de. 

Are you at leisure ? Mma de gozaimasu ka ? 

Is he at home ? uchi desu ka ? 

He is out. rusu de gozaimasu. 

I'm sorry for you. kinodoku sama (de gozaimasu). 

I've kept you waiting. machido sama (de gozaimasu). 

What is your answer ? Go hento wa do desu? 

What is your business ? Nani go yd de gozaimasu ka ? 

That is quite a misapprehension on Sore wa oki ni go ryoken-cln'gai de 

your part. gozaimasu. 

Thanks, you are very kind, but Go shinsetsu wa ariyato gozaimasu 

ga 

As you know. Go shochi no tori. 

You must be very anxious. Sazo go shimpai de gozaimaslio. 

You are right. Go mottomo de gozaimasu. 



THE PRONOUN. 



2. (a). 

What time will you got up, Sir ? Nan doki ni o oki nasaimasu ka ? 

Warm your hands a bit at the hi- Chito hibachi de o te wo o aburi 
bachi. nasai. 



When do you sail ? 

A.re you going already ? 
Did you understand ? 
Do you know that man ? 



Itsu go shuppan nasaimasu ka ? 

Mo o kaeri de gozaimasu ka ? 
walcari de gozaimashita ka ? 
Ano liito wa go zonji desu ka ? 



2. 

As I told you. 

I beg of you. 

I was very anxious about you. 

I'll look for you without fail. 

Shall I show him(a guest) in ? 

I have interrupted you. 

I'll go with you immediately. 

1 was rude to you the other day. 

1 have been very remiss in calling on 

' (or writing to) you. 

I will let you know. 

I am very much obliged to you. 



(0. 

hanashi moshita tort. 

tanomi mosliimasn. 

Oki ni o anji moshimashita. 

Kanarazu o machi mosltimashd. 

toshi mosliimasho ka"? 

jama itashimashita. 

Sugu ni o tomo itashimaslio. 

Senjitsu wa go lurei itashimc.nhita. 

Makoto ni go bitsata Hasliimasliita. 

Go sata iiashimasho. 

Oki ni o sewa ni narimashita. 



I congratulate you. O medeto gozaimasu. 

I am afraid I have been boring you. Sazo o yakamashiu gozaimashitefd. 

It is (what you wish done) no trouble yasui go yd de gozaimasu. 

at all. 

Is n't it too cold for you here? Koko wa amari o samu gozaimatenu 

ka? 

t is very cheap. Makoto ni o yasu gozaimasu. 



THE PRONOUN. / ^5 

SEC. 2. HONORIFIC VERBS. 

I. Used independently: There are certain verbs that 
are used in speaking of the actions of those who are either 
really or by courtesy inferiors, and others that are employed 
when one comes to mention the actions of a superior. Both 
of these classes, especially in conversation between equals 
or with superiors, commonly dispense with the persona 
pronouns and without ambiguity. 

The following list comprises most in daily use. Those 
in parentheses are only relatively humble not absolutely 
so ; humble as compared with those in the second column. 
Mairu however is seldom employed in the second person 
even when inferiors are addressed : it is used in the first 
person, and also in the third both in speaking of equals to 
equals and of inferiors to inferiors : in speaking to inferiors 
of their own actions, iku and kiiru are the proper words to 
employ. This rule regarding maim holds good of mosu 
also, iu commonly taking its place in the second person. 
In familiar conversation with one another, students often 
use /// instead of ossharu. When an absolutely humble 
word is wanted, itadaku is substituted for taberu. 

Kudasaru and itadaku are much more courteous than 
kureru and inorau. Kureru is sometimes employed even 
of one's own action towards an inferior. 

A sentence containing inorau is often the best way of 
repdering an English sentence containing to ' give '; and 
chodai is constantly used where we should say, ' please give 
me.' In the same way, * please lend me* is commonly ex- 
pressed by haishaku. 



THE PRONOUN. 



OF THE INFERIOR'S OF THE SUPERIOR'S 




ACTION. ACTION. 


give, send 


[ kureru 
ageru 
\kudasaru 




morau 


receive 


itadaku 




cJiodai suru 


be 


(imasu) (o ide nasaru 
^prtmasu) \irassharu 


f (suru) ( nasaru 
do 
{(itasu) \asobasu 


say 
{ (mosu) osskaru 


see 


(mini) goran nasaru 


come, go 


(o ide nasaru 
(mairu) 
\irassharu 


call .on 


agaru 


eat 


(tabeni) meshi-agaru 


borrow 


haishaku suru 


show 


o me ni kakeru 


be permitted to see 


haiken suru 



THE PRONOUN. 77 

Fll give you AS many as you need. iriyo dake agemasho. 

If it is convenient to you, 111 give Go tsugo ga yokereba, raigetsic bun no 

you your next month's salary now. gekkyu wo ima agemaslio. 

Did the photographs I sent you the Sendatte ageta shashin wa todoki- 

other day reach you ? mashita ka ? 

I should like very much to get a Danna sama, dozo ichi nichi o hirna 

day's leave, Sir. wo itadakito gozaimasu. 

Yes Sir, I got them ttfter I came Hai, kaette kara chodai itashima- 

horne. shita. 

Who gave you that watch of yours? Sono o tokci wa dare ni o moral nas'tta 

ka? 

Please give me a drink of water. hiya too ip pai chodai. 

Why, I was in the garden. Sore iva sore wa niwa ni orimasliita 

no ni. 

Were you out in the garden, or in Niwa ni dete o ide nas'tta ka, itchi ni 

the house ? o ide nas'tta ka ? 

Where were you when the fire broke Kwaji ga okotta toki ni doko ni 

out ? irasshaimashita ka ? ~ 

I have done it two or three times al- Mo ni san do itashite imashita. 

ready. 

If it were you, what would you do ? Anata nara, do nasaimasu ka ? 

As I just said. Tadaima moshita tori. 

What did you say to that ? Soko de nan to osshaimasldta ka ? 

Did you look in the drawer ? Hikidashi ivo goran nas'tta ka? 

I don't think I can go before four Yo ji mae ni ica rnairaremasumai. 

o'clock. 

Did you ever go to Shiba. Shiba no Zojoji ye o ide nas'tta koto 

ga arimasn ka ? 

Are you going to see the fireworks to- Konya hanaM wo mi ni irasshaimasu 

night ? ka ? 

I called the other day to thank you, Sendatte o rei ni agarimashita ga o 

but you were out. rusu deshita. 

I just called to bring back that book Ghotto sendatte haishaku shita go h-n 

I bo: rowed of you the other day. wo o kat'shi moshi ni agari- 

rnashita. 

I did n't eat any rice at all yester- Sakujitsu wa meshi wo sitkoshi vi 

day. tabemasenu deshita. 

Will you take a little more ? Mo siikoshi meshi-agarimasu ka ? 



?8 THE PRONOUN. 

Please lend me your watch key. Dozo o tokei no kagi wo haishaku. 

Shall I open it axid show it to yon ? Akete o me ni kakemashc ka ? 
May I look at your watch-chain a tokei no kusari wo cliotto haiken. 
minute ? 

2. Used as auxiliaries : Besides being used independ- 
ently, ageru, morau, itadaku, kureru and kudasaru are also 
used in connection with other verbs as auxiliaries. In such 
cases, ageru expresses the idea that the inferior performs 
the action for the superior ; kudasaru and kureru, vice 
versa ; morau and itadaku, that one gets an action per- 
formed for him by another. (Comp. IX. sec. 10.) 

Kudasaru is much more courteous than kureru; o kure 
is frequently employed in civil commands. The same is 
true of itadaku as compared with morau, the latter being 
often used where the service is paid for. 

In all cases politeness requires equals to be regarded as 
superiors. 

Kudasaru and kureru, especially in the imperative, are 
fair renderings of ' please.' 

* 

Kudasaru may follow the stem preceded by o; with this 
exception all five verbs succeed the participle. Ageru, 
morau and itadaku may be accompanied by o and mosu; 
as o moral mosu. 

Shall I do it for you ? So shite agemashS ka ? 

I'll buy it for you on my way home. Kaeri gake ni katte kite agemasho. 

He did every thing for me that I Tanonda koto wo mina shite kure- 

asked him to. mashita. 

Isuke got one (a ticket) for me from Isuke go, iclii mai toinodaclii kara 

a friend of his. moratte kiiremashita. 

Is n't there pome one who will lend Dare ka kashite kureru mono wa ari- 

<n one ? masenu ka ? 



THE 'PRONOUN. 79 

Your father did it for me. Go sompu san ga shite kudasaima- 

shita. 

I suppose you have not copied those Ano shiyo-gaki wa mada iitsusJiite 

specifications for me yet. kudasaimasumal na. 

Did you send me your book ? Go lion wo o yokoshi kudasaimashita 

Jca? 

Please show it to me a minute before Fu wo nasaru mae ni chotto miscte 

you seal it up. kudasai. 

Please take a look at these pens and Kono fude de yoi ka cliotto goran 

see whether they'll do. nas'tte kudasai. 

Please don't put out the light for a Mo sukoshi akari 100 kesanai de oite 

minute. kudasai. 

He says he wants to get you to teach Nihongo wo oshiete moraitai to 

him Japanese. moshimasu. 

Let's get your brother to make us a Niisan ni tako wo Uoshiraete r,iora- 

k/.te. wo ja nai leaf 



IV. RELATIVES. 

X 

Japanese has no relative pronouns. Relative clauses are 
placed before what in English is the antecedent, which 
they qualify as adjectives. 

When the antecedent is ' it/ ' that,' 'one/ or when it is 
not expressed (in clauses with ' what'), it is rendered by no 
(mono or koto, as the case may be). 

It will be observed that the prepositions of relative 
clauses generally drop out in translation. 

It was not rthat said it. Itta no wa -watakushi de wa arima- 

senu. 
Who was that that you bowed to just Ima o jigi wo nas'tta no wa dare desu 

now ? ka ? 

Who was that that bowed to you just Ima o jigi wo shita no wa dare, des 

now ? ka ? 



80 THE PRONOUN. 

He is a fellow that used to be a ser- Are wa moto uchi ni hoko wo sliitc ita 

vant of ours. mono da. 

What is that that that crow lias in Ano kamsu ga kuivaete iru no wa nan 

its mouth ? daro ? 

Do you mean the one I left with Komakichi ni azuketa no (mono) no 

Kornakichi ? koto desu ka ? 

Let me see what you have in your Te ni motte iru mono wo u mise. 

hand. 
What the rats don't carry off the Nczumi ga motte ikanai mono wa ari 

ants eat. ga kuu. 

Have you done what I told you ? Watakuslii ga itta koto wo nasai- 

masliita ka ? 
That horse I paid such a high price Kono aida taikin wo dashite katta uma 

for not long ago is not worth his wa kaiba-tsubushi da. 

oats. 
What was the name of that king Kodomo no toki ni yoku hai wo koro- 

who used to kill flies when he was shita 5 sama no na wa nan to ii- 

a boy ? masu ka ? 

What was the name of that man Okubo Sangi wo ansatsu shite zanzai 

who was executed for assassinating ni natta hito wa nan to moshimasu 

Okubo ? ka ? 

Did they take that carpenter that Ano yane kara ocJiite ude wo kujiita 
fell off the roof and sprained his daiku wo bydin ye tsurete ikimashita 
arm to the hospital ? 7ca? 

Who was that woman you met a little Senkoku o ai nas'tta ko wo obutte ita 

while ago with a baby on her back ? onna wa dare de gozaintasii ka ? 
Which is the drawer you keep your Empitsu wo irete o oki nasant hiki- 

lead pencils in ? dashi wa dore desu ka? 

Is n't this the book you put the let- Kore wa tegami wo hasande o oki nas'tta 

terin? honja arimasenu ka? 

I can not find where the paper is that Kono hon wo tsutsunda kami wa doko n 

these books were done up in. aru ka mienai. 

Where does the clay come from that Kono renga ni sum tsuchi wa doko kara 

they make into these bricks ? kimasu ka ? 

He is an official I dined with yester- Are wa kind issho ni shokuji wo shita 

day. yakunin da. 

Is the man you spoke to me about Kono aida o hanashi no hito wa mada 

recently still alive ? ikite orimasu ka f 



THE PRONOUN. Si 

fs this the carpenter you intend to Yakujo wo wapani tsumori no daiku ioa 

make the contract with ? kono liito desu ka ? 

Where does that carpenter that you Ano o de-iri no daiku wa doko ni 

generally have live? orimasu ka? 



V. INTERROGATIVES. 



] 

1. Who dare, (more courteous) donata: whose dare \ 

no, donata no. 

2. Which: 

(a] Substantive form : 

Of two dochira. 

Of any number (usually more than two) dore, 

(b) Adjective form : 

Of two dochira no. 

Of any number (usually more than two) dona. 

3. What : 

(a) Substantive form nani ; do or ikaga. 
(U) Adjective form nani, nan no ; do iu. 



Do and ikaga (how) are used in inquiries regarding in- 
tention, opinion, et cetera. 

Nani expects a direct categorical answer ; do iu is rather 
' What sort of,' and looks for explanation, description, quali- 
fication ; a distinction however not rigidly observed. The 
i in nani is often elided. 

In inquiries for the name of a thing nan to iu is employed. 

With verbs of ' saying ' nan to may take the place of nani 

'Whose,' ' which ' and ' what/ in the sense of ' belonging 
to what place or premises,' are rendered by doko (where) n#* 



82 THE PRONOUN. 

I. 

Who was it that invented the tele- Denshinki wo hatsumei shita no wa 

graph ? dare desu ka ? 

"Whom have you been taught by Kore made dare ni oshiete moraimashita 

hitherto? ka? 

Whom are you living with? Donate to issJw ni o ide nasaimasu 

ka? 

Whose shoes are those there ? Soko ni aru kutsu wa dare no desu ka ? 

2. (a). 

Which do you prefer? Dochira ga yd gozaimasu ka ? 

Which of these books was published Kono hon wa dochira ga ato de shup* 

last ? pan ni narimashita ka ? 

Which shall I do first? Dochira wo saki ni itashimasho ka ? 

Which of those ships is the fastest? Ano fune wa dore ga iclii ban hayS 

gozaimasu ka? 
Which of the Kyuo Dowa had I better Kyuo Dowa wa dore kara hajimetara 

begin with ? yd gozaimasu ka f 

Which of these photographs was Kono shashin wa dore ga ichi ban saki 

taken first ? ni totta no desu ka ? 

2. (b). 

Which road shall we take ? Dochira no michi too ikimaslid ka ? 

Which carpenter shall I call ? Dono daiku wo yobimasho ka? 

Which room did you put the new Dono hey a ye atarashii koshikake wo 

chair in? oita ka? 

3- (a). 

What are you doing ? Nani wo shite o ide nasaimasu ka? 

What is that lying there? Soko ni ochite iru no wa nan desu ka? 

What do you suppose most mus- Ka wa taitei nani wo tabete ikite iru 

quitoes live on ? mono daro? 

What is a byo ? Byd to iu mono wa nan desu ka ? 

What do you intend to do ? Do sum tsumori da ? 
Let him have it and see what he will Do suru ka yatte goran. 

do with it. 



THE PRONOUN. 83 

What does Mr. Yamada think P Yamnda san ica do omoimasu ka. 

What is Mr. Nakamura's opinion? Nakamura san no oboshimeshi wa 

ikaqa desu ka ? 



What road did you come ? Nani kaido IPO irasshaimasMta ka ? 

What cho does Mr. Nomura live in ? Nomura san no oru tokoro wa nani 

cho desu ka ? 

What is the number of your house? uclii no banchi wa nam Ian desu ka? 

What time does the train start? Kisha wa nanji ni demasu ka? 

Please tell me what is the meaning Kono kotoba wa do iu imi ka kikasete 

of this word. kudasai. 

What is your opinion about free Jiyu-boeki to hogo-zei no koto wa 

trade and protection ? do iu go setsu desu ka ? 

What sort of flowers do you intend niwa ye do iu kusa-bana wo o ue 

to plant in your garden ? nasaru o tsumori desu ka ? 

What is the matter with you ? Do iu go byoki desu ka ? 

What is his name ? Are loa nan to iu Jiito desu ka ? 

What do you call this fish ? Kore wa nan to iu sakana desu ka ? 

What is the name of that place where Sekitan no deru no wa nan to iu tokoro 

they get the call ? desu ka ? 

What do they call the river just this Odawara no jiki temae ni aru no wa 

side of Odawara ? nan to iu kawa desu ka ? 

What (letter) box did you put it in ? Doko no yubin-bako ye ireta ka ? 

What bath do you go to ? Itsu de mo doko no yu ni o ide nasai- 

masu ka ? 

What godown have you stored your Doko no kura ye nitnotsu wo o shimai 

things in ? nasaimashita ka ? 

Which porcelain are you going to Doko yaki no setomono wo o kai 

buy ? nasaimasu ka ? 

Which is the strongest navy? Doko kuni no kai gun ga icni Ian 

tsuyo gozaimasu ka ? 

Whose groom was that here this Kesa koko ye ao-uma wo hiit& kita no 

morning with a black horse ? wa doko no betto ka? 



CHAPTER V. PRONOMINAL 
ADJECTIVES. 



There is an important class of words which have been 
variously classified by different English grammarians. Most 
of them are at times used by themselves and at times to 
qualify other words ; a recent author has accordingly group- 
ed them together under the term pronominal adjectives. 
The classification is open to criticism ; such an arrangement 
however suits the purpose of the present writer better than 
any other. 

SEC. i. THIS, THAT, SUCH. 



1. This, these : 

(/?) Pronominal form kore* 
(b) Adjective form kono. 

2. That, those : 

(a) Pronominal form sore ; are. 
(&) Adjective form sono ; ano* 

3. Such : 

(a) Like this konna, kd in, kono yd na, kd in yd na, 
sonna, so iu, sono yd na, so hi yd na. 

(b} Like that 

anna, aa iu, ano yd na, aa in yd na. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 85 

Sore and sono are used of things near to or connected 
with the person addressed, of subjects therefore which are 
before his mind : accordingly they are the proper rendering 
of ' that ' referring to a matter just mentioned. This also 
explains why sore means * it.' 

Are and ano are used of things more or less remote from 
the speaker and hearer ; they are therefore employed in 
introducing a subject. 

The distinction between sore and are holds good between 
sonna and anna. 

With verbs of ' saying,' ' this ' is rendered by ko and 
' that ' by so. In the sense of ' to-day,' ' this ' is rendered 
by kyo or konnichi. 

When used to specify and emphasize a particular point 
or feature (' just there '), soko takes the place of sore. 

Followed by an adjective, konna, sonna and anna become 
konna ni, sonna ni and anna ni. 

I. (a). 

Is this a musquito or a flea-bite ? Kore iva ka-kui ka nomi-kui Jca ? 
This is neither colloquial nor book- Kore wa zokugo dc ?/io naku gagcn de 

language. mo nai. 

Have you any silk exactly like this ? Chodo kore to onaji yd na kinu ga ari- 

masu ka ? 

Are these first, or second class cars ? Kore wa joto no kuruma desu ka, chuto 

. no kuruma desu ka ? 

i. (b). 

This kago has neither futons nor a Kono kago ni wa futon mo toyu mo nai 

(oiled paper) cover. 

Are n't you done with this pen yet ? Kono fude wa mada o aki m narima 

semi ka ? 



.86 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

X 

I want something to put this water Nani ka kono mizu wo ireru mono ga 

in. iriyo desu. 

These clothes are not starched Kono kimono ni wa nori no tsuke yd ga 

enough. tarinai. 

He said this : Are wa Jed itta : 

This must be the third or the fourth. Kyo wa mikka ka yokka daro. 

2. (a). 

What is that (in your hand) ? Sore wa nan desu ka ? 

You don't need so much as that, I Sore Tiodo wa o iriyo de arimasumai. 

think. 

That is just right. Sore de chodo yoi, 

Put t'hese in the box and those in the Kore iva hako ye irete sore wa hikidashi 

drawer. ye irete o liure. 

What is that (sound outside) ? Are wa nan desu ka ? 

What sort of a machine is that ? Are wa do iu kikai desu ka f 

t 

2. (b). 

Have you ever read that book (beside Sono hon wo o yomi nas'tta koto ga art- 
yon) ? masu ka ? 
You'd better not eat too many of Sono kivashi wo amari tabenai ga yoro- 

those cakes. sliii. 

I have never met either of them. Sono hito wa dochira mo atta koto wa 

naL 
Confound it, that dog next door al- Imaimashii, ano tonari no inu wa itsu 

ways barks at the moon. de mo tsuki wo mite hoeru. 

Do you know how long that rope is? A no tsuna wa nan jaku aru ka go zonji 

desu ka ? 
Ha,s n't that table but two drawers? Ano dai wa futatsu shika hikidashi ga 

nai ka ? 

That dog ought to be killed. Ano inu wa koroshite shimau ga ii. 

Is that what you mean ? Ano koto desu ka ? 

Is n't that box nailed up yet? Ano hako wa mada kugi-jime ni shlma- 

senu ka? 

Who told you that? Dare ga so iimaskita? 

That is his weakness. Soko ga ano hito no ochido da, 

That is the important point. Soko ga kanjin na tokoro da. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. S/ 

That is the beauty of it. Soko ga mryo na tokoro cla. 

That I doa't understand (the rest I Soko wa icakarimasenn,. 
do). 

3- (*) 
How much sugar do you need to Konna kwashi wo kcshiratru ni sato ga 

make cake like this? nani liodo irimasu ka? 

I use a pen like this occasionally. Oriori konna fude too tsukaimasu. 

3- (*). 

How did you make such a mistake ? Do shite sonna machigai wo nasai 

mashita ka? 

Nobody but a' fool would say such a Baka no hoka ni dare mo sonna koto wo 

thing. iwanai. 

Why do you always make such a dis- Naze itsu de mo yd wo Htsukeru to sonna 

agreeable face when you are told ni iya na kao wo sum no da? 

to do any thing ? 

At such a time one does n't know So iu toki ni wa do shite ii ka, wakara- 

what is best to do. nai mono da. 

Such preaching as that does more Anna sekkyo wa kaette tame ni nara- 

harm than good. nai. 

Why do you suppose the Japanese Nihon no oyabune wa naze anna ni tomo 

junks have such high sterns ? no ho ga takai daro? 



SEC. 2. EITHER, NEITHER, BOTH. 



r, Either:- 

(a) One dochira ka. 

(b) One or^the other no matter which dochira de mo. 

(c) Both dochira mo. 

2. Neither (also either with the negative) dochira mo 

and the negative. 

3. Both dochira mo, rydhd, ryonin, futari. 



88 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Dockira and ryoho are sometimes followed by no and 
precede their nouns ; usually however they come after them 
and alone. To mo adds emphasis to ryoho and futari. Ryo- 
nin and f -atari are used only of persons. In the case of an 
action do de mo takes the place of dochira de mo. 

i. (a). 

Is either of those men-of-war an iron- Ano gunkan wa dochira ka kotessen desi* 

clad ? ka ? 

IB either of these pencils yours? Kono ni lion no empitsu no uchi dochira 

ka anata no de gozaimasu ka ? 
Will either of these suit you P Kono uchi dochira ka o ki ni irimasu 

ka? 

I. (b). 

Either of those will do : hand me one, Sono futatsu no uchi dochira de mo ii 
please. kara, hitot.su yokoshite kun na (kure 

nasai). 
Eitlier of those sticks would be strong Sono bo nara dochira de mo daijobu 

enough. daro. 

Either (course) will do. Do de mo yo gozaimasu. 

I. (*). 

You will find that character in either Sono ji wa dochira ni mo arimasu. 

(dictionary). 
Well, it is (Japanese porcelain) more Sayosa, Eikokit no yori Furansu no ni 

like French than English, but it is nite iru ga dochira to mo chigaimasu. 

different from either. 

2. 

Neither of those pens is good for Sono fude wa dochira mo yaku ni tata- 

anything. nai. 

I think neither of those house be- Ano ie wa mo dochira mo Fujita san no 

longs to Mr. Fujita now. mono de iva nakaro (arumai). 

Does n't either of these colors suit Kono iro wa dochira mo o ki ni iri- 

you? masenu ka? 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 89 

You must not touch either of these Kono hon wa dochira mo sawatte wa 

books. ikenai. 

You can not trust either of them. Dochira mo shinyo go, dekinai. 

This character is not in either of the Kono ji wa dochira no jibiki ni mo 

dictionaries. nai. 

Did neither of your friends come ? Dochira no o tomodachi mo o . ide 

nasaimasenu deshita ka? 

Won't Moto lend you either of her Moto san wa dochira no kanzashi 

hairpins ? mo kashite kuremasenu ka ? 

3- 

Both of my flower vases fell off the Hana-ike ga dochira mo (ryoho) ta 

shelf and were broken to pieces. na kara ochite koicarete shimatta. 

These jinriki men are both tipsy. Kono jinriki-hiki wa dochira mo 

(ryoho) namayoi ni natta. 
Please lend me both for a few rniuutes. Dochira mo (ryoho) chotto kashite 

kudasai. 
You mast do both. Dochira mo (ryolio to mo) shina- 

kutcha naranai. 
These ornaments are .both beautiful. Kono kazari wa dochira mo (ryoho to 

mo) rippa de gazaimasu. 

My parents both died when I was a Futa-oya wa dochira mo (ryoho to mo, 
child. futari to mo) watakushi no chiisai 

jibun ni nakunarimashita. 
Bring me the hammer and the screw- Kana,zuchi mo neji-nuki mo ryoho motte 

driver both of them. koi. 

Have you looked in both pockets Kakushi wo ryoho (do- 
(foreign clothes) ? chira mo) 

Ryoho no kakushi wo t 



sagas nima- 
shita ka ? 



SEC. 3. EACH. 

1 . Every one individually meimei, tenden ni. 

2. Apiece zutsu. 

Meimei and tendon ni follow the noun which they parti- 
tion. Meimei is used only of persons. 



90 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Zntsu follows the number or amount distributed. When 
' each ' is used pronominally, hitori, mina and (in the case of 
two things) dochira mo are inserted to prevent ambiguity. 
Sometimes these words are inserted when ' each ' is an 
adjective. 

I. 

Each student lives by himself. Shosei wa meimei betsubetsu ni sunde 

imasu. 
Each soldier had cm a different uni- Heitai iva meimei kaivat ta fuku wo kite 

form. orimashita. 

Each one can do as he likes. Meimei katte shidai ni dekimasu. 

Each child recited in turn. Kodomo wa tenden ni ansho itashi- 

mashita. 
Each church chooses its own pastor. Kyokivai iva tenden ni bokushi wo 

erdbimasii. 

Each one came up wagging his tail, Tenden ni hokori-gao ni shippo ivo 
and looking very proud. futte kimashita. 

2. 

ril take throe of each sort. Hito iro mitsu zutsu ni sliiyo. 

Give a little to each child. Kodomo ni sukoshi zutsu o yan (yari) 

nasai. 

There are two persons in each of those Ana jinriki ni wa hito ga futari zutsu 

jinrikis. notte "" 

Put a spoonful of tea in each of these Kono chawan ye hito saji zutsu cha wo 

cups, irete o kure. 

Put a, two cent stamp on each of those Sono tegami ye ni sen no kitte wo ichi 

letters and post them. ma i zutsu hatte dashite o kure. 

You must put three hinges on each Ichi mai goto ni cho-tsngai wo mitsu 

door. zutsu tsukenakereba ikenai. 

Give two or three of each sort to each. Hitori ni hito iro futatsu ka mitsu 

zutsu o yan nasai. 

You had better give each of them a Mina ni ichi bu ka ni bu zutsu mo yam 

bu or two apiece. ga ii. 

Suppose you take a little of each (two Dochira mo sukoshi zutsu wakete mntcte 

kinds of paint) and mix them. goran. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 91 

There are a few of each (two things) Dochira mo ryohono hikidashi ni suko- 
in both drawers. slii zntsu haitte imasn. 

Each of these lamps (more than two) Kono rampu ni wa mina hoya gafutatsu 
has two chimneys. zutsu tsuite imasu. 

SEC. 4, SOME. 

1. Somebody dare ka. 

2. Something nani ka, 

3. Some one (thing) of a particular group dore ka* 

4. Indefinite designation, ' a certain ' am. 

5. A part/a portion, ' some ' as contrasted with * others ' 
mo, ni yotte wa. 

6. An indefinite quantity : 

(a) Pronominal can only be rendered by some such 

word as sukoski, ip pai t et cetera. 

(b) Adjective not rendered. 

7. Some more: 

(a) In addition motto, 
(b} Left mad a. 

I. 

Somebody is knocking at the gate. Dare ka mon wo tataite ini. 
Somebody must go to Yokohama to- Dare ka ano kinsu wo tori ni kyo Yoko- 

day for that money. Uaina ye ikanakereba narimasenu. 

I am positive somebody has told it. Kitto dare ka itta ni chigai wa nai,. 
Arc some of the students in their Dare ka shosei wa lieya ni imasu ka t 

rooms ? 

2. 

You had better plaut something here. Koko ye nani ka ueru ga ii. 

Something fell down and waked me Nani ka ochite me ico samashita. 

up. 

Have n't you put something heavy Kono hikidashi ye nani ka omotai mono 

in this drawer ? wo ireta de wa nai ka ? 



9^ PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Havo n't you dropped something ? Nani ka otoslii mono wo nasaimasenu 

fea? 

Don't you believe there is some good Nani ka mizu-gwashi no ii no ga nai 
fresh fruit? daro ka ? 

3- 

Can you spare me some one of these? Kono uchi dore ka hitotsu chodai deki- 

inasho ka ? 

Won't some one of the jinrikis by Dore ka hashi no kiwa ni amjinriki 
the bridge do ? de wa ikimasenu ka ? 

4- 
Some scholar has written a history Aru gakusha ga go jis satsu bakari aru 

in about fifty volumes rekishi wo kakimasliita. 

Some general, with two or three Aru taisho ga ni sam byaku no heitai 

hundred soldiers, has defeated the wo motte Shina no gunzei ni kachi- 

Chinese army. mashita. 

T have often heard a certain teacher Watakushi wa aru sensci no o hanashi 

Bay: wo maido kikimashita ga: 

5- 

Some tables have three legs. Sam Ion ashi no dai mo aru. 

Some people sympathize with Eng- Eikoku ni hiiki sum hito mo gozaimasu 

land, and some sympathize with .??, Eokoku ni hiiki suru hito mo 

Russia. gozaimasu. 

Some said go; and some said do not Ike to iu hito mo ari, ikuna to iu hito 

go. mo atta. 

Some of the soldiers were cavalry. Heitai no uchi ni kihei mo gozai- 

mashita. 
Some of the English kings were wise Eikoku no o no uchi ni ica kashikoi 

men. hito mo atta. 

Some of the most celebrated .men Mottomo nadakai hito no uchi ni me- 

have been blind. kura no hito mo atta. 

Most blind men are ignorant, but Mekura wa taitei mugaku desu ga, toki 

some rro celebrated scholars. to suru to nadakai gakusha mo gozai- 

masu. 
Some of them are better than others. Uchi ni wa yoi no mo aru. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 93 

Make some white and some black. Shiroi no mo kuroi no mo kosMraete o 

kure. 
I keep somo of my letters, but most Totte oku tegami mo arimasu ga taitei 

of them 1 burn up. yaki-sutete sliimaimasu. 

Koma put some in the book-case, and Koma ga sliodana ye mo iremashita s7w, 
the rest are still in the box. ato wa mada hako ni nokoshite gozai- 

mam. 

I gave some to Denjiro, I eat some J)eiijiro ni mo yarimashita shi, jibun de 
myself, and the rest I put in the mo tabete, ato wa hikidfishi ni irete 
drawer. okimashita. 

SvOine bees do not make honey. Hachi ni yotte wa mitsu ico koshirae- 

nai no ga aru (mitsu wo koshiraenai 
liaclii mo aru). 
Some flowers have no perfume. Hana ni yotte wa kaori ga nai (kaori 

no nai liana mo aru), 
Some scholars hold a different view. Gakusha ni yotte wa setsu ga chigau 

(setsu no chifjan gakusha mo aru). 

Some boys are always getting into Kodomo ni yotte wa itazura ni kakari- 
mischief. kitte iru (itazura ni kakari-kitte iru 

kodomo mo am). 

They say there are some fish that Sakana ni yotte wa koke no nai no ga 
have no scales. aru soda (koke no nai sakana mo aru 

so da). 

6. (0). 

Sprinkle some there. Sukoshi soko ye furi-kakete o kure. 

May be some was dropped on the way Kaeri gake ni sukoshi otoshite kita no 

home. ka mo shirimasenu. 

Take some to try, and see how you Sukoshi kokoro-mi ni motte itte goran. 

like it. 

6. (b). 

I want to get some silk embroidered. Kinu ni nnihaku wo shite moraitai. 
Tell Han to make some Chinese tea. Han ni Nankin-cha wo irero to itte o 

kure. 

I wish T had planted some roses in Kono kadan ni bara wo uereba yokatta 
this bed. no ni. 



94 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

7- (a). 

Tell Matsu I -want some more nails. Hntsu ni kugi ga motto iriyo da to iite 

o kure. 
Tell Ginjiro to put on some more Ginjiro ni motto sekitan wo kubero to 

coal. itte o kure. 

Please give Chiyo some more paper. Dozo o Chiyo san ni motto kami wo 

yatte kudasai, 

7- 0). 

There are some more in the right Migi no hikidasJii ni mada haitte ima- 

hand drawer. su. 

Did you say there is some more flour Uclii ni mada udonko ga aru to iima- 

in the house? sliita ka? 

SEC. 5. ANY. 

1. Persons: 

(a) Somebody dare k& ; with a negative (nobody) 

dare mo and the negative. 
(#) Any body whatever no matter who dare de mo. 

2. Things : 

(a) Something nani ka ; with a negative (nothing) 

nani (emphatic nanni) mo and the negative. 
(&) Some one of a particular group dore ka ; with 

negative (none) dore mo and the negative. 
(c) Any thing whatever no matter what nan de mo ; 

any one whatever of a particular group dore 

de mo. 

3. One or more, any at all : 

(a) In affirmative sentences not rendered. 
() In negative sentences (none at all) sukoshi mo 
with the negative. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES, 95 

4. Any more : 

(a) In affirmative sentences mada. 

(b] In negative sentences mo with the negative. 

i. (a). 

Is there any one in the church ? Kwaido ni dare ka imam ka ? 

Did any one ever attempt it before ? Dare ka mae ni sore wo yatte mita 

mono ga arimasu ka ? 
I suppose you don't know of any Dare ka ryori-nin^no o kokoro-atari ga 

cook ? arima-sumai ka ? 

Can not any one translate this ? Dare mo kono h-onyaku ga dekimasenu 

ka? 

Did n't any one say any thing to you Dare mo nan to mo moshimascnu deshita 
about it? ka? 

1. (*). 

Please call one of the students: any Dozo shosei wo hitori yonde kiidami; 

one will do. dare de mo yo gozaimasn. 

If any body should call, say I can not Dare de mo kitara, o me ni kakar?nai 

see him. to ie. 

That is a thing any body ought to Sore wa dare de me shitte iru hazu no 

know. koto da. 

Any body who knows the katakana Dare de mo katakana wo shitte iru hito 

oan read it. ni yomeru. 

2. (fl). 

Is there any thing in my eye ? Me ni nani ka Jiaitte imasu ka ? 

Did Mr. Hayashi hand you any thing Hayashi san iva nani ka watashi no 

for me ? tokoro ye yokoshimasMta ka ? 

Have you any business ? Nan?' ka go yd ga arimasu ka ? 

Did Mr. Watanabe tell you any Watanabe san wa nani ka shimbvn wo 

news? kikasemashita ka? 

There was a sound but I could not Oto ga shita ga nani mo mienakntttt. 

see any thing. 

I hope these boxes have n't any thing Kono hako no naka ni nani mo haitte 

in them. inakereba ii ga. 



g6 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Did n't you give him any thing ? Nanni mo o yari nasaimasenu, deshita 

ka? 
Did he say he did n't want any thing ? Nanni mo yoji ga nai to iimashita ka t 



2. (*. 

Was there any one of the pens that Dore ka o ki ni ittafude ga arimatfiita 

suited you ? ka ? 

Won't any one of these do ? Kore wa dore mo ikemasenu ka? 

Won't any of the lamps in the house Uchiju no rampu wa dore mo toloranai 

burn ? ka ? 

2. (*). 

Any thing but daikons will do. Daikon no Jioka ni nan de mo ii, 

Any thing is becoming to Yoni. Yoni sail ni wa nan de mo yoku ni- 

aimasit. 
One can accomplish almost any thing Shimbo sureba taitei nan de mo dekiru 

if he is persevering. mon' da. 

Any soft wood will do. Nan de mo yaivarakai ki de ii. 

Of course any thing heavy will sink. Mochiron nan de mo omoi mono wa 

shizumimasu. 
I think any one of these colors would Kono iro nara dore de mo yokaro. 

do. 
Any one of those toys would please Ano omocha no uchi dore de mo kodomo 

a child. no ki ni iru daro. 

Will any one of these books do ? Kono hon no uchi dore de mo yo gozai- 

masu ka? 
Please give me one of those cups Dore de mo sono cJiawan wo hitotsu 

any one of them. chodai. 

3- (a). 

Are there any Chinese characters in Kono hon ni kanji ga arimasu ka? 

this book ? 
Are there any men-of-wnr at anchor Konosetsu minato ni gunkan ga tei- 

in the harbor at present ? haku shite imasu ka? 

Have you any cheap ivory fans? Zoge no ogi no kakko na no ga am 

ka? 

Have you any good cloisonne ? Shippo-yaki no ii no ga arimasu ka ? 

6 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 97 

3- (*). 

Does n't any grass grow in the Sabaku ni wa knsa go, sukoshi mo 

desert? haemascnu ka? 

Have n't you any money ? Sukoshi mo kane ga nai ka ? 

4- () 

Is there any more flour ? Mada udonko ga ant ka ? 

Have you any more of the sort of Sendatte katta tachi no kami ga mada 
paper I bought the other day ? arimasu ka ? 



Has n't the yaoya any more biwris ? Yaoya wa mo biwa wo motte inai ka? 

Is n't there any more sugar in the Uchi ni sato wa mo nai ka ? 

house ? 

Don't put in any more. Mo ireruna. 

The doctor says he can not do any Isha wa mo nani mo dekinai to ii- 

thing more. masu. 

SEC. 6. EVERY. 

1. Persons: 

(a) Every body, people generally dare mo. 

(U) Every body no matter who, any body whatever 

dare de mo. 

(c) Every one of a particular group mina, dare mo 
ka mo. 

2. Things: 

(a) Every thing, things generally nani mo, nani mo 

ka mo. * . 

() Every thing no matter what, any thing whatever 

nan de mo. 

(c) Every one of a particular group mina t dore mo 
ka mo. 



98 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Nani mo ka mo is more emphatic than nani mo, and is in 
common use. Dare mo ka mo and dore mo ka mo may be 
employed in some cases in the sense of every individual one : 
usually however they give way to mina (all), and unless the 
individualization is clear and strong they must do so. 

i. (a}. 

Every body expected war. Dare mo ikusa get oJcoru daro to 

omotta. 

Nowadays every body rides in jinvikis. Ima de wa dare mojinriki ni noru. 
Every body has to go to the moun- Dare mo natsu ni naru to yama ye 

tains in summer. ikanakereba narimasenu. 

One ought to be polite to every body. Dare ni taishite mo teinei ni su beki 

liazu no mono da. 

I. W- 
Nowadays every body can go up Fuji- Ima de wa dare de mo Fujisan ye 

san (formerly women could not). no'.orareru. 

Does every convict (no matter who Clideki-nin wa dare de mo akai kimono 

he is) have to wear red clothes ? wo kinakereba narimasenu ka? 



Please make every one sit down. Dozo mina smoarasete kudasai. 

When I opened the door, every one To wo aketara, mina ga mada ikenai 

said, you must not come in yet. to itta. 

The weather was disagreeable, and KokoromocM no warui tenki de mina 

every one took cold. kaze wo Mita. 

Every one of the children has the Uchi no kodomo wa dare mo ka mo 

measles. (mina) hashika da. 

2. (*). 

Some people think that every thing Am Into iva nani mo ka mo shizcn ni 

came into existence of itself. dekita yd ni omou. 

It seems to me you always find fault Anata wa itsu de mo nani mo ka mo 

with every thing. togamet? o ide nasa.ni yo desu. 

Have you enough of every thing to Niigata ye tsuku made tsuzuku hodo 

last till you o-et to Niigata ? nani mo arimasu ka ? 

Is every thing ready now ? Mo nani mo shitaku ga ii ka? 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 99 

2. (*). 

Tcu seem to think you know every Nan de mo slritte o ide nasaru yo desu. 

thing. 

It will not be long before the Japanese Chikai uchi ni Nihonjin wa nan de 

will make every thing. mo koshiraeru yo ni naru daro. 

I suppose they teach pretty much Daigaku de wa taitei nan de mo oshi- 

every thing at the University cru daro. 

That baby wants every thing he sees. Ano akambo wa mini mono wo nan de 

mo hoshigaru. 

You must n't give the baby every Akambo ga hoshigaru mono wo yatara 

thing he wants. ni yatcha ikenai. 

This sentence being negative nan de mo can not be used, 
and hence the employment of yatara ni (indiscriminately): 
nani mo would mean, you must n't give him ' any thing.' 

2. (C). 

Leave every thing as it is. Mina sono mama ni shite o oki. 

Every thing in the house was burnt Uchi no mono ga mina yakete shi- 

up. matta. 

Every thing we left in the house was Kaette dasanai mono wa mina tasu- 

saved. katta. 

Have you done every thing as I told Mina itta tori ni shimashita ka ? 

you? 
Tell him to paint every one differ- Mina betsu no iro ni nure to itte o 

ently. kure. 

Every one of these bottles is broken. Kono tokkuri wa dore mo ka mo (mina) 

koivarete iru. 
Every single one is broken in two. Dore mo ka mo (mina) futatsu ni natte 



SEC. 7. NONE, No. 

1. Nobody dare mo with the negative. 

2. Nothing nani mo with the negative. 

3. No one of a particular group dore mo with the negative. 

4. No; 



100 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

(a] Not any negative of the verb. 

(b) Emphatic, none at all, not a single one sukoshi 

mo, hitotsu mo, et cetera, with the negative. 
5. No more mo with the negative. 



I. 

They looked at one another, but no- Tagai ni kao wo mi-awaseta ga dare mo 

body said a word. ichigon mo iivanakatta. 

Nobody may sit up after twelve Dare mo ji7 ni ji sugi made okite ite iva 

o'clock. ikenai. 

No one can like a pert child. Kos'iaku na kodomo iva dare ni mo 

sukarrnai. 
Are none of you wet ? Donata mo o nure nasare wa shimasenu 

ka? 

Nobody expected peace so soon. Dare mo konna ni hayaku odayaka ni 

naro to wa omoivanakatta. 



2. 

The house caught fire but nothing le ni hi ga tsuki-kaketa ga nani mo 

was burned. yakenakatta. 

When I took off the cover there was Futa wo totte mitara nani mo haitte 

nothing in it. inakatta. 

3- 

None of those ships is very fast. Ano fune wa dore mo amari hayaku 

nai. 

He showed me several but none of Ikutsu mo miseta ga dore mo ki ni 
them suited me, iranakatta. 

4- () 

I have had no fire all day. Kyo wa ichi nichi hi no ke ga na- 

katta. 
Are there no snakes about here? Kono hen ni heli ga i wa shimasenu 

ka? 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. lOt 

4- (*) 

Did you say there is no kerosene Nihon ni tea's; fkodtt in(> "sek'iian'-a.MO'a 

(at all; in Japan ? go, nai to ossliaimasliita ka ? 

Mr. Saito seems to have no feeling Saito san wa sukoshi mo ki ni shinai 

about it. yd desu. 

Are you sure there are no musq[uitoes Kitto kaya no naka ni ka ga ip piki mo 

in the net ? imasenu ka ? 

5- 

We have no more figs, but we have Ichijiku wa mo arimascnn ga kaki no 
some very nice persimmons. goku yoi no ga gozaimasu. 

We have no more red ones, but we Akai no wa mo arimasenu ga kuroi no 
have some more black ones. ga mada gozaimasu, 

I believe I have no more letters to Mo tegami wo kaku no ga arumai. 
write. 

SEC. 8. Al-L. 

1. Mina following the noun. All without exception, 
every particle, may be rendered by iiokorazu. 

2. Place and time, (throughout, during)^// (cktij. 

3. The last of a thing kiri* 

4. Extended surface of land or water ichien* 



You'd better throw them all away. Mina sutete shimau ga ii. 

These letters are all for America, Kono tegami wa mina, Amerika ye iku 

no da. 
The cherry blossoms must all be off Sahara w~a mo mina chitte shimai- 

now. mashitaro. 

Put all those needles in the box on Sono liari wo mina tana no hako ye 

the shelf. ircte o kure. 

Please put the kana to all the Chinese Kono kanji ni mina kana ivo tsukete 

characters. kudasai. 

A re the Shoguns 5 tombs all here ? Shogun no haka wa nokorazu koko ni 

arimasu ka? 



102 -PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

I want j;hese books all taken out of Kono lion wo nokorazu hako tara 

their Boxes and arranged in the dashite shodana ye nardbete moral 

book-case. tai. 

The hoop broke and every bit of the Taga ga hazurete mizu ga nokorazu 

water ran out. - koborete sliimatta. 



2. 

Mr. Honda has traveled over pretty Honda san wa taitei sekai ju tdbi u?o 

much all the world. shimashita. 

All Japan is now under one govern- Ima de wa Nihon ju hitotsu seifu no 

ment. shihai wo nJceru yd ni natta. 

Preaching stations have been estab- Mo taitei Tokyo ju ni koshaku-ba ga 

lished in pretty much all Tokyo dekimashita. 

now. 
There was not a man in all the village Mura ju no mono ni gwaikokuj'in wo 

that had ever seen a foreigner. mita mono ga hitori mo nakatta. 

All next month I have to go to Yoke- Eaigefsit ju mainichi Yokohama ye 

hama every day. ikanakereba narimasenu. 

3- 

I have used up all the paper I had. Ari kiri no kami wo tsukatte shimatta. 
Is this all the tea there is ? Cha wa kore yiri desit ka ? 

This is all the flour there is ? Udonko iva mo kore giri de gozai- 

masu ? 

4- 

They say you can see nearly all Mu- Fujisan kara taitei Musashi ichien ga 
sashi from Fujisan. mieru so da. 



SEC. 9. SEVERAL. 

i. Number: 

In connection with the descriptive numerals and some 
such words as nen and koku, ' several ' may be rendered by 
su; in other cases excepting when emphatic it can only be 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 103 

expressed by saying, ' three or four,' or ' four or five.' 
When emphatic ikutsu mo may be employed, iku or nani 
taking the place of ikutsu with descriptive numerals. 
2. Kind (various) iroiro. 

I. 

There are several pencils on this Kono Ion no ue ni wa empitsu ga su 

tray. hon gozaimasu. 

There were several men who declined Iku koto wo kotowarimashita hito ga su 

to go. nin gozarmashita, 

I inquired at several shops, but I did Su ka sho tazunete mimashita ga 

not find any. gozaimasenu deshita. 

We met a coolie just now carrying Ima ninsoku ga tsutsumi wo mitsu yotsu 

several parcels. katsiiide iku no ni atta. 

He took several boxes to the station. Tetsndo ye hako wo ikutsu mo motte 

itta. 

We met several jinrikis on the road. Michi de iku cho mo jinriki ni atta. 

There scorn to be several lame ones Ano inu ni wa bikko na no ga iku hiki 

among 1 those dogs. mo iru yo desu. 

I have had several dogs since I came Tsukiji ye kite kara nam biki mo inu 

to Tsukiji. wo kaimashita. 

A fly has several legs, Hai ni wa ashi ga nam bon mo ari- 

masu. 

2. 

You have several beautiful flowers in niwa ni wa kirei na liana go, iroiro 

your garden. gozaimasu. 

I have several reasons for not doing it. So shinai wake ga iroiro aru. 

Birds build their nests in several Tori wa iroiro no shikata ni su wo 

ways. tsukuni mono da. 

There are several things on this tray. Kono bon no ue ni wa iroiro no mono ga 

arimasu. 

SEC. 10. FEW. 

i. Few (not many) sukunai, which in Japanese is always 
a predicate. 



104 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

2. A few (a small -number) like ' several,' can only b< 
rendered by some definite number ; as ni san, san yo. 

i. 

Few foreigners speak Japanese well. NiJiongo no yoku dekiru givaikokiijimoz 

sukunai. 
Few fish go up a fall like a koi. Koi no yo ni taki-nobori no uo wa 

sukunai. 

Very few people cut their wisdom- Ju go sai mae ni oya-sh'irazu-ba no 
teeth before they are fifteen. haeru liito iva goku suku nai. 

2. 

Bring me a few little stones out of Niwa kara ko-ishi ivo mitsu yotsu motte 

the garden. o ide. 

I went to Asakusa yesterday with a Kino san yo nin no lioyu to Asakusa ye 

few friends. mairimashita. 

Go and buy me a few cigars. Maki-tabako wo ni sam bon katte koi. 

SEC. ii. ONE, ONES. 

No. 

Either red ones or black ones will do. Akui no de mo kuroi no de mo yoi. 

Neither red ones nor black ones will Altai no de mo kuroi no de mo ikcnai. 

do. 

Have n't you any (ones) a little Mo sukoshi ii no loa arimasenu ka ? 

better ? 

The best ones are all in the godown. Iclii banjoto no wa mina kura ni Jiaitte 

orimasu. 

Those will do, but there are ones Sore de mo ii ga futa no tsuita no de 

with covers that are better (ones). motto ii no ga aru. 

Is this to-day's (one newspaper) ? Kore wa kyo no desu ka ? 

Have you any (ones) different from Kore to cliigatta no ga arimasu ka ? 

this? 

SEC. 12. OTHER, ANOTHER. 

1. The rest of, instead of, in exchange for hoka no* 

2. Not the same one, separate betsu no. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 105 

3: Not the same kind betsu no, kawatta. 

4. Besides Jioka ni before the noun. Besides and at 
the same time different betsu ni; a distinction however 
not always observed. 

5. One more in addition mo hitotsu, et cetera, usually 
following the noun. 

6. The other one of two mo hitotsu no. 

7. People generally as contrasted with one's self hito. 

8. Again mat a. 

i. 

See whether the other children do not Hoka no kodomo mo hoshii ka do da ka 

want some too. kiite goran. 

Please tell the others to come in too. Doka hoka no Tiito ni mo o ide nasam 

yd ni osshatte kudasai. 
Are the other boxes the same size as Hoka no liako mo kore to onaji okisa 

this ? ' desu ka ? 

The other ones will be done in a Hoka no wa Into tsnki de dekimasu. 

month. 

I think I'll take another newspaper. Hoka no shimbunshi wo torimasho. 
Hereafter you had better take milk Kore kara hoka no chichiya kara chichi 

from another man. ivo torn ga it. 

You had better take this jinriki, may Hoka no ga nai ka mo shircnai kara, 

be you can't get another one. kono jinriki ni o nori nas'tta, ho ga 

yd gozaimashd. 
I have half a Blind to discharge Seikichi ni itoma ico yatte, hoka no 

Seikichi and get another cook. rydri-nin ivo kakaeyd ka to omou. 

2. 

They came by another train. Betsu no kisha de kimashita. 

He rode in another jinriki. Betsu no jinriki ni. lyirimashita. 

That is another matter. Sore wa betsu no koto da. 

3- 

It seems to ine another color would Betsu no (kawaita) iro no ho ga yosa to' 
be better. da. 



IO6 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Has n't the yaoya some other vege- Kono setsu yaoya ni nani ka betsu nr> 
tables now ? (kawatta) yasai mono get nai ka ? 

4- 

I have not another cent. Hoka ni is sen mo nai. 

Is n't there another pencil in the Hikidashi no naka ni mo hoka ni 

drawer ? empitsu ga haitte inai ka ? 

He really had another reason for Jitsu wa betsu ni iku ivake get, atta no 

going. da. 

I think you will have to get another Kangaku wo nasaru ni ica betsu ni 

teacher (the present one will do for shisho wo o tanomi nasaranakereba 

other work) to study Chinese. narimasiimai. 

5- 

This book- case is not quite big enough, Kono shodana wa sukoshi chiisai kara 

and I shall have to get another. mo liitotsu kaivanakereba naranai. 

Does n't that letter need another Sono tajcimi wa kitte ga mo ichi mai 

stamp ? irit de wa nai ka ? 

Please order me another copy of Dozo Koeki Hondo wo mo ichi bit 

Koeki Mondo. atsuraete kudasai. 

Bring another scuttle of coal. Sumitori ni mo ip pai sekitan wo motte 

koi.. 

6. 

Where is the other hammer ? -Mo hitotsu no kanazuehi wa doko ni ant 

ka? 

I gave ono to Sen and the other to Hitotsu wa o Sen san ni yatte, mo 
Kin. hitotsu no wa o Ein san ni yari- 

masnita. 
This kind is too weak, you had better Kono te ica amari yowai kara, mo 

take the other one. Idtotsu no ni sum ga yokaro. 

IB n't the other man's milk the best ? Mo Intori no chichiya no chichi no ho 

ga ii de wa nai ka ? 

I like this house best, but I prefer Ie iva kono ho ga ii ga basho wa mo 
the ether location. hitotsu no ho ga ii. 

7- 

Do not pay too much attention to Hito no iu koto ni amari tonjaku 
what others say. nasaruna. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

I don't know what others think, and Hito wa do omou ka shiranai ga d5 
I don't caro. omotte mo kamawanai. 

8. 

The news has just arrived of another Mata ikusa ni katta shimbun ga ima 

victory. todoita. 

Did Mr. Suzuki say he would send Suzuki san wa Kobe ye tsiiitara mata 

another telegram from Kobe ? denshin wo kakeru to iimashita lea? 



SEC. 13. SAME. 

1. Not different onaji* 

2. Not two hitotsu. 

I. 

Put the sarae quantity in both bottles. Ryoho no tokkuri ye onaji hodo irete o 

kure. 

Yoshi and Kurd are about the same Yoshi san to o Kuni san wa taitei 

height. onaji sei da. 

Have makoto and honto the same Makoto to itte mo honto to itte mo onaji 

meaning ? imi desu ka ? 

They both have the same pronuncia- On wa docMra mo onaji koto da ga moji 

tion,butthe characters are entirely wa marude chigaimasu (betsu da). 

different. 

I want them made of the same Shina iva onaji mono de, iro ivo betsu ni 

material, but different colors. shite moraitai. 

Aiv the Buddhist temples all built Tera no tate-kata wa taitei mina onaji 

on the same general plan ? desu ka ? 

I told them both the same thing. Futari to mo onaji koto wo itte kikase- 

mashita. 

Were Koeki Mondo and Kaikwa Koeki Hondo to, Kaikwa Mondo wa 

Mondo written by the same man ? onaji liito no kaita hon desu ka ? 

He has the same disease that he had Sakunen wazuratta no to onaji byoki 

last year. da. 

Is this t the same dog that you had Kore iva kyonen katte oki nas'tta no to 

last year ? onaji inu desu ka ? 



IO8 PRONOM NAL ADJECTIVES. 

2. 

We rode in the same jinriki. Hitotsu jinnki ni norimashita. 

Can't you read out of the same book ? Hitotsu hon wo yoriai ni yomemasenu 

ka? 
Let's stop at the same hotel. Hitotsu (onaji) hatagoya ye tomaroja 

nai ka? 



SEC. 14. MUCH. 

1. In affirmative sentences -tanto, 

2. In negative sentences atnari with the negative. 

3. Too much amari, sugiru, yokei. 

4. So much sonna ni. 

5. How much : 

(a) Of price ikura, nani hodo, nambff. 

(b) Of quantity nani hodo, ika hodo. 

(c) About how much dono kurai. 

Amari and sugiru qualify the verb, amciri preceding it 
and sugiru following its stem (comp. VII. iv. sec. 7.): yoket 
qualifies the noun, requiring the addition of na or no when 
it precedes ; it is also employed independently. The con- 
struction of some sentences however permits any one of the 
three to be employed without a material difference in the 
sense. 

I. 

Is there much money in that box? Ano hako no naka ni tanto kane ga 

Jiaitte iru ka ? 
Was much of the rice burnt up by Kyonen wa hidcri de ine ga tanto kare 

the drought last year ? mashita ka ? 

Do they import much kerosene into Nihon ye. sekitan-alura wo tanto -yunyu- 

Japan ? itasliimasu ka ? 

Do you intend to dtudy much during Yasumi no uchi ni tanto benky.5 nat&ru 

vacation ? o tsumori desu ka ? 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. log 

2. 

I do not have much headachy Amari zutsu ga sum koto wa nai. 

I do not think you took much pains Amari ki wo tsukezu ni kakimashitaro. 

with your writing. 

I don't like sardines much. Iwashi wa amari sukimasenu. 

To tell you the truth, I do not feel Jitsu wa kono tenki ni Fi-ijisan ye 

much like going up Fnjisan in this amari noboritaku nai. 

weather. 



Are you not relying too much on ap- Amari mie wo ate ni nasaru de ica ari- 

pearances ? masenu ka ? 

You must not drink too much sake. Amari sake wo nonde wa ikemasenu. 

There is too much sugar in this tea. Kono clia ni wa sato ga amari kachi* 

mashita. 

Are n't you putting in too much. KosJio wo ire sugiru de wa nai ka ? 

pepper ? 

Have n't you put in a little too much Sukoshi dbura wo tsugi sugita de wa 

oil ? nai ka ? 

This is a little too much. Kore de iva sukoshi yokei de gozaimasu. 

You must not spend too much money Kono mono no takai toki ni yokei no 

now that things are high. kane wo tmkatte wa ikemasenu. 

You will not sleep if you drink too Cha wo yokei nomu (amari nomu, nomi 

much tea. sugiru) to ukasaremasu. 

4- 

You must not drink so much sake. Sonna ni sake wo nonde wa ikenai. 

Please do not put on so much coal. Dozo sonna ni sekitan wo kubenai de 

kudasai. 

You need not take so much pains to Sono tegami wo kaku ni sonna ni hone 

write that letter. wo oranai de mo ii. 

Tell the washerwoman she must not Kono kimono ni sonna ni nori ivo tsukete 

starch these clothes so much. wa ikenai to sentakuya ni ie. 

5- (*). 

How much for the lot ? Mina de ikura desu ka ? 

How much did you pay for those Sono nashi wo ikura de katta kat 
pears ? 



I TO PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

How much is the best kerosene a Gokujo no seki-yu wa Into /i7co ikura 

box ? desu ka ? 

How much did the railway to Yoko- Yokohama no tctsudo wa nani liodo 

hama cost ? kakarimasUita ka ? 

5. (b). 

How much silk do you want P Kiuu wa nani hodo o iriyo de gozai- 

masu ka ? 
How much salt is there in this water ? Kono mizu ni shio ga nani hodo majitte 

(haitte) imasu ka? 
How much rice does this land yield Kono jimen wa it tan de kome ga ika 

per tan ? liodo- toremam ka ? 

How long shall I make it ? Nagasa wa nani liodo ni itashimasho 

ka? 
How long is the Sumida River ? Sumida-gawa no nagasa wa nani hodo 

aru ka ? 
How long ought the ladder to be ? Hashigo no nagasa wa nani kodo attara 



5. (c). 

About how much vinegar did you say Su wa mada dono kurai nokotte iru to 

is left ? osshaimasMta ka ? 

About how long is that box ? Sono ha.ko iva nagasa dono kurai ari- 

masu ka? 

SEC. 15. MANY. 

1. In affirmative sentences oku no (in the predicate oi 
VI. i. sec. i). 

2. In negative sentences amari with the negative. 

3. A good many daibu* 

4. A great many taiso, takusan. 

5. Too many d sugiru. 

6. How many ikutsu; with years, months, days, hours, 
ris, feet, et cetera, and also with the descriptive numerals 
iku or nani. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. Ill 

I. 

Confucius has many disciples. Koshi ni wa oku no deshi ga gozai- 

masu. 
Many of the Americans have blue Beikokujin ni wa me no aoi hilo ga oku 

eyes. gozaimasu. 

Many of the Japanese trees make good Nihon no ki ni wa yoi zaimoku ni naru 

lumber. no ga oku am. 



2. 

There are not many ironclads in the Amerika no kaigun ni wa kotessen ga 

American navy. amari nai. 

They have plenty of Chinese scholars, Kangakuska wa takusan am ga ica- 

bnt not many Japanese. gakusha wa amari gozaimasenu. 



It seems to me a good many of the Nihonjin ni wa mcgane wo kakete iru 

Japanese wear glasses. hito ga daibu aru yo desu. 

The Kaitakushi has begun to intro- Kaitakushi de wa chikagoro seiyo no 

duce a good many foreign vege- ao-mono wo daibu tsukuri dashita. 

tables lately. 

A good many of the new ships are Chikagoro dekita fune ni wa Yokosuka 

made at Yokosuka. deki no ga daibu aru. 

A good many farmers have made Kotoshi wa yoliodo kane wo moketa 

a good deal of money this year. hyakusho ga daibu aru. 



We have used a great many coals Kotoshi wa taiso sekitan wo tsukatta. 

this year. 

A great many fishing boats pass by Maiasa hayaku ryosen ga koko wo taiso 

here early every morning. torn. 

The government is making a great Seifa de wa mainen taiso henkaku wo 

many changes every year. itashimasu. 

There are a great many kites in Tsu- Tsukiji ni wa tombi ga takusan ori- 

kiji. mam. 



112 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 



There are too many books on that Sono sliodana ni wa lion ga o sugiru. 

book-case. 

Too many boatmen wreck the ship. Scndo ga o sugite fune wo yama ye 

agent. 

6. 

How many oranges shall I buy? Mikan ico ikutsu kaimasho ka ? 

How many children have you ? Iku nin o ko sama ga gozaimasu ka? 

How many (bottles) are left ? Mo iku lion nokotte im ka? 

How many two cent stamps shall I Ni sen no kitte wo iku mai kaimasho 

get ? ka ? 

How rnnny ken of fence will it take Konojimen no mawari ni wa kakine ga 

to go around this lot ? nftn gen iru daro? 

How far is Hakone beyond Odawara ? Hakone wa Odawara no nan ri saki 

desu ka? 
How far is Odawara this side of Odawara wa Hakone no nan ri temae 

Hakone? desu ka? 

How many months are there in a Iclii nen ni nan ga getsu (iku tsuki) aru 

year? ka? 

How many days are there in a Ik ka getsu (Mto tsuki) ni ik ka aru 

mouth ? ka ? 

How many minutes are there in an Ichiji kan ni nam pun aru ka? 

hour? 

SEC. 16. MORE. 

1. A greater quantity motto. 

2. The greater quantity yokei. 

3. Additional mo. 

For '-some ' more, ' any ' more and ' no ' more sees. 4, 5, 
7 ; more ' than ' X. sec. 13 ; comparative degree VI. H. 

i. 

When are you going to put on more Itsu kara motto shokiinin wo iremasu 
men ? ka ? 

7 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 113 

If you don't pjut on more coal this Motto sekitan wo kubenai to kono hi wa 

fire will go out. kiem daro. 

I wish I had planted more scarlet Kyonen motto momiji wo uete okeba 

maples last year. yokatta. 

I wish I had bought more of this tea. Kono cha wo motto katte okeba yo- 
katta. 
I thought there were more trees here. Koko ni wa motto ki ga am yo ni 

omotla ga. 
You can get a good article if you Kane wo motto daseba yoi shina ga 

wiJl pay a better price. kawaremasu. 

2. 

Wliich (to build of brick or wood) DocMra ga yokei kakarimasu ka ? 

costs the more ? 

Which box holds the more ? Dochira no Jiako ga yokei hairu daro? 

Which have you studied the more, Kangaku to Eigaku to docliira wo 

Chinese or English ? yokei keiko nasaimashita ka ? 

There were more in the other box. Mo hitotxt no hako no ho ni yokei 

liaitte ita. 

3- 

We shall need three more jinrikis. Jinriki mo san cho iriyo da. 
Bring two or three more spoons. Saji wo mo ni sam bon motte koi. 

Go and get a little more ice. Kori wo mo sukoshi katte o ide. 

You had better boil it a little more. Mo sitkoski niru ga ii. 
I had n't a bit more. Mo sukoshi mo nakatta. 

SEC. 17. MOST. 

1. The majority of taitei, taigai. 

2. The greatest of several quantities yokei. 
For the superlative degree VI. II. 

I. 

Most foreigners dislike kagos. Gwaikokujin ica taitei kago ga kirai 

da, 
Most dogs are not worth a cent. Inu iva taitei ichi mon ni mo naranai 

mono da. 



114 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 

Most of you have heard this, I sup- Mina san iva taitei tore wo o kiki 

pose. nasaimashitaro ga. 

There are some that have not been Mada shirasenai mono mo arimasu ga 

told yet, but I think most of them taitei shitte imaslio. 
know it. 

I gave most of them a bu apiece. Taitei hitori ni ichi bu zutsu yarl- 

masliita. 

2. 

Which box holds the most ? Dono liako ga y^ei hairu darn? 

Then I ghall have the most. Sore de wa ivatakushi no lid ga yokei de 

gozaimasu. 



SEC. 1 8. ENOUGH, 

1. Sufficient or a sufficiency yV/fo/;?, takusan. 

2. To be enough tariru,jub i un de aru or takusan de arn, 

3. To do a thing enough : 

(a) In affirmative sentences -jubun with the verb. 

(b) In negative sentences yd ga tarinai following 

the stem. 

4. Enough to hodo. 

Takusan is rather ' enough and to spare ', ' plenty '. 

i. 

Thanks, I have had enough already. ArigatS, mojiibnn itadakimasMta. 

How many nails .shall I bring? Kugi wo nam bon motte mairimasho kai 

Bring plenty. Takusan motte koi. 

Be sure and put enough tacks in the Goza ye kitto byo wo takusan o uchi. 

matting. 

2. 

Is there enough sugar ? Sato ga tarimasu ka f 

There is not quite enough sugar in Kono kivashi ni wa sato ga sukoshi 
this cake? tarimasenu. 



PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES. 115 

Bring another handful, that is not Sore de wa nakanaka tarinai kara t 

nearly enough. mo hito tsukami motte koi. 

Is this enough ? Kort de tarimasu (jubun dem) ka. 

Six inches will be wide enough. Haba roku sun de tariyo (jubun 

deslwj. 

That is plenty. Sore de takusan da. 



3- (*). 

We have walked enough now let us Mo jubun sampo shita Kara kaero ja 

go back. nai ka ? 

That will do you have read enough Mo [sore de yorozlm jubun yomi- 

now. mashita. 

Have n't the coolies rested long Ninsoku wo, mo jubun yasunda de wa 

enough now. arimasenu ka ? 

3- (. 

You have not drunk enough yet. Mada nomi yo ga tarimasenu. 

These potatoes are not boiled enough. Kono imo iva ni yo ga tarinai. 

You did n't polish my boots enough Kesa wa kutsu wo migaki yd ga tari- 

this morning. nalcatta na. 

4- 

Have you enough stamps to put on Sono tegami ni naru liodo kttte ga 

that letter P arimasu ka ? 

Have we coal enough to last till Railiaru made tsukau hodo sekitan ga 

Spring? am ka? 
You had better not walk enough to Kutabireru hodo o aruki nasaranai ga 

tire you. yd gozaimasho. 
Ilavo you studied the subject enough Honto ni wakaru hodo kouo koto wo f 

to really understand it ? shirabe nasaimashita ka ? 



CHAPTER VI. THE ADJECTIVE. 



I. CLASSES. 

Japanese words rendering English adjectives may be 
divided into four classes : True adjectives, adjectives in 
na and no, presents and preterites, and uninflected words 
such as mina and zutsu. 

SEC. i . THE TRUE ADJECTIVE. 

All Japanese adjectives are- wanting in gender number 
and case : the true adjective however like the verb has a 
foundation form, from which moods, tenses and the true 

adverb are obtained by inflection and agglutination. 

* 

PARADIGM OP THE TRUE ADJECTIVE. 



stem 


taka 


high 


adjective 


takai 


high or is high 


adverb 


takaku 


high 


participle 


takakute 


being high 


past 


takakatta 


was high 


probable past 


takakattaro 


probably was high 


conditional past 


takakattara 


(if or when was or 
I should be high 


frequentative 


takakattari 


being high 


future 


takakaro 


will be high 


conditional present 


takakereba 


if is or will be high 


i 







THE ADJECTIVE. 



AMIABLE. 


BAT>. 


HEAVT. 


yasashi 


waru 


omo 


yasasJiii 


warui 


omoi 


yasasJiikn 


waruku 


omoku 


yasashi kut e 


ivarukute 


omokute 


yasashikatta 


warukatta 


omokatta 


y as ash ikattaro 


warukattaro 


omokattaro 


yasashikattara 


^cvarukattara 


omokattara 


y as ash ikattari 


ivarukattari 


omokattari 


yasashikaro 


warukaro 


omokaro 


yasashikereba 


ivarukcreba 


omokereba 



It will be observed that one form serves both as an attri- 
butive and a predicate. Accordingly, ' this is a high 
mountain ' would be rendered, kore iva takai yama da ; and 
' this mountain is high/ kono yama zva takai. When em- 
ployed as a predicate however two other forms are also in 
use : the adjective may be followed by no da, or what is 
more courteous the adverb may be substituted accompanied 
by arimasu or gozaimasu y in which case aku and oku are 
frequently contracted into J, iku into m, and uku into u ; as 
' this mountain is high' kono yama wa takai no da or kono 
yama wa tako gozaimasu. 

Instead of the future, the present is often used followed 
by the future of de aru ; as takai desho 

Negative forms of the true adjective are obtained by 
adding the negative adjective nai to the adverb used as a 
base. 



118 THE ADJECTIVE. 

PARADIGM 0V NEGATIVE FORMS. 



yoku 

yokunai not good 

y&kunaku not well 

yokunakute not being good 

yokunakatta was not good 

yokunakattaro probably was not good 

yokunakattara if or when was not or should 

not be good 

yokunakattari not being good 

yokunakaro will not be good 

yokunakereba if is not or will not be good 



True adjectives frequently unite with other words form- 
ing compound adjectives : 

1 . Without any connecting word ; as 

hodo-yoi moderate kaivari-yasui inconstant 

kokoro-yasui intimate j nasake-nai heartless 
Tvakari-yasui simple | yondokoro-nai unavoidable 

2. An important class is formed by uniting adjectives to 
nouns (and verbal stems) by no, which in the predicate 
becomes ga ; as yama no oi hilly, yama ga oi ' is ' hilly. 
It will be observed that particular words enter into these 
compounds with great frequency ; as di, yoi, warui ; and 
also that the English prefixes and suffixes ' in ' ' un ' and 
' less ' are commonly rendered by warui or the negative 
adjective nai ; as 



/ 


THE ADJECTIVE. It( 


benri no yoi convenient 
dense tsu no yoi eloquent 


hydban no wa-\ 
\ disreputable 
rui ) 


hydban no yoi reputable 


iji no warui ill-natured 


kaori no yoi fragrant 


(incommodi- 


kimari no yoi systematic 


ous 


kokoromochi no\ 
comfortable 


konare no warui indigestible 


yoi } 


sokoi no warui malicious 


kon no yoi energetic 


sube no warui rough 


motenashi no\ 
\ hospitable 
yoi } 


ekdji no warui pig-headed 
yojin no warui incautious 


omoi-kiri no yoi resolute 




sasshi no yoi considerate 


hito no oi populous 


sasoku no yoi self-possessed 


hito-jini no oi sanguinary 


shiawase no yoi fortunate 


ishi no oi stony 


tashinami no] 


kazu no oi numerous 


[temperate 
yoi } 


kaze no oi breezy 


/'convenient 


imi no fukai expressive 


tsugg no yoi \ (of arrange- 


naka no fukai intimate 


( ments) 


utaguri no fu-\ 


lire no yoi saleable 


[suspicious 
kai } 


ivakari no yoi sensible 


enr yd no fukai scrupulous 


wari no yoi lucrative 


yoku no fukai covetous 


yojin no yoi cautious 






ki no okii generous 


benri no warui inconvenient 


(quick-tern- 


hara no warui bad-hearted 


ki no mijrkai \ 
( pered 



I2O THE ADJECTIVE. 


ki no hayai excitable 


katachi no nai immaterial 


me no hayai sharp-sighted 


machigai no nai correct 


(same(mental- 
me. no takai \ 

( ly) 


magai no nai genuine 
rui no nai incomparable 


sei no takai tall 


sasshino nai inconsiderate 


set no hikui short 


shikata no nai hopeless 




soko no nai bottomless 


aji no nai .. flavorless 
chikara no nai powerless 


(unprecedent- 
tameshi no nai \ 
( ed 


hanashi no nai taciturn 


tamochi no nai perishable 


kin no nai undignified 


taema no nai incessant 


nbun no nai faultless 


tsumi no nai innocent 


jibim-gatte no] 
\ unselfish 
nai } 

joai no nai heartless 


utagai no nai indubitable 

^vatakushi no) 
Y disinterested 
nai ) 


kagen no nai intemperate 


eko-hiiki no nai impartial 


kagiri no nai boundless 





3. A number of compound adjectives are found ending 
in de nai or mo nai. In the predicate, mo usually becomes 
ga or wa ; de remains unchanged ; as 



shojiki de nai dishonest 
tashika de nai uncertain 
ariso mo nai unlikely 

(supreme,con- 
kono-ue mo nai\ 

I summate 



taivai mo nai frivolous 
wake mo nai simple 
zosa mo nai easy 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



I2t 



SEC. 2. ADJECTIVES IN na AND no. 

A large number of uninflected words, for the most part 
nouns and many of them Chinese, are made to serve as 
adjectives by the addition of na or no, which in the predi- 
cate become de aru ; as ' is this very fertile land ? ' kore 
wa yohodo yutaka na jimen de gozaimasu ka ? l the land 
was not very fertile ' sono jimen wa amari yutaka de go- 
zaimasenu de shita. Where a true adjective would assume 
the participial form, de arn becomes de ; as ' the path up 
Fujisan is steep and narrow ' Fujisan ye noboru michi wa 
kenso de haba ga semai. 

A few specimens of the class follow : 



ariso na 


probable 


rippa na 


splendid 


chugi na 


loyal 


shizuka na 


quiet 


fushin na 


doubtful 


kin no 


golden 


ikita yd na 


lifelike 


makka no 


crimson 


kenson na 


humble 


makoto no 


true 


kenyaku na 


economical 


mukashi no 


ancient 


kirei na 


pretty 


shinu hodo no 


fatal 


koman na 


proud 


shita no 


lower 


muri na 


unreasonable 


sorezore no 


respective 


nasasd na 


improbable 


ue no 


upper 


noben na 


eloquent 


eikyu no 


eternal 



SEC. 3. PRESENTS AND PRETERITES. 
It is a marked peculiarity of Japanese that the present 
and preterite of any verb may be used to qualify a noun, 



122 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



a peculiarity which is constantly exemplified in relative 
clauses. Accordingly many English adjectives and parti- 
ciples used as adjectives find their equivalents in verbs in 
these tenses. In some instances the verb is affirmative, in 
some negative ; and in some it is only the last word of a 
combination. 

Two points should be borne in mind when adjectives of 
this class are to be used in the predicate : first, preterites 
must be exchanged for participles followed by iru or oru; 
secondly, in a combination made up of either a present or 
a preterite joined to a preceding noun by no, the con- 
necting no becomes ga; as open ait a, ' is ' open aite iru; 
drunken sake ni yotta, 'is' drunk sake ni yotte irii; 
guilty tsumi no aru, ' is ' guilty tsumi ga aru; bloody 
chi no tsuita, ' is ' bloody chi ga tsuite iru. 

Many of the English adjectives endings in ' ble ' arc 
rendered by intransitives or potentials. 



PRESENTS. 



benkyo suru 
dekiru 
hiiki suru 
niau 

shimbo suru 
tad a shite y a 
takaburu 
enryo suru 
yoku areru 



diligent 


kikoeru 


audible 


possible 


motte ikeru 


portable 


partial 


shireru 


knowable 


becoming 


yoku kireru 


sharp (edged) 


patient 


yomeru 


legible 


gratuitous 


shinjirareru 


credible 


proud 


sutnaivarerti 


habitable 


diffident 


taber areru 


edible 


stormy 


dekinai 


impossible 





THE ADJECTIVE. 


123 


hirakenai 


uncivilized 


ydi naranai 


inexcusable 


kaivaranai 


immutable 






nakercba nara- 




yomenai 


illegible 


11 ai 


[necessary 


hakararenai 


incalculable 


odayaka nara- 


). 


hanasarenai 


inseparable 




, L hostile 






nai 




kazoerarenai 


innumerable 


omoi-yoranai 


unexpected 


nogarerarenai 


inevitable 


oyobanai 


unattainable 


nozokarenai 


insuperable 


tamaranai 


intolerable 


sh i-naosare n a i 


irreparable 


ugokanai 


immoveable 








PRETERITES. 





aita 


empty, open 


kataviatta 


solid 


chant o shita 


steady, still 


katta 


victorio**s 


chigatta 


dissimilar 


kawaita 


dry 


futo shita 


accidental 


kimatta 


definite 


futotta 


fat 


kubonda 


hollow 


Jiade-sugita 


gaudy 


kunetta 


crooked 


hakkiri shita 


explicit 


kusatta 


rotten 


hiraketa 


civilized 


nareta 


experienced 


iganda 


perverse 


nebatta 


sticky 


ikita 


alive 


ochita 


inferior 


ippai haitta 


full 


ac hit suit a 


calm 


iri-kunda 


complicated 


ogotta 


sumptuous 


kakaivatta 


relative 


oiboreta 


decrepit 


kaketa 


defective 


onoboreta 


conceited 



i2 4 


THE ADJECTIVE. 




sappari shita 


frank 


tsumatta 


choked up 


shigetta 


luxuriant 


tsuzuita 


continuous 


shikkari shita 


firm 


umarc-tsuita 


innate 


shinda 


dead 


yogoreta 


soiled 


shire-kitta 
sugureta 


obvious 
superior 


yoku togatta . 


(sharp (point 
ed) 


sumi-kitta 


clear 


yoku zvakatta 


sensible 


sutatta 


obsolete 


zatto shita 


cursory 


toshiyotta 


old 







COMPOUND ADJECTIVES PRESENTS. 



doku ni naru poisonous 



gat ni naru 



injurious 



kusuri ni naru wholesome 
shimpai ninaru harassing 
son ni naru unprofitable 
tame ni naru beneficial 



("advantage- 



ekt ni naru 



ous 



me ni tatsu conspicuous 
yaku ni tatsu useful 
gai ni naranai harmless 



ki ni iranai 
me ni mienai 
ri ni kanazva- 



nat 



ri ni azuanai 



disagreeable 
invisible 

illogical 
irrational 



rikutsu ni awa-\ ; 



nat 

ran ni naranai 
tame ni nara- 
nai 
yaku ni tatanai 



inconceiv- 
able 

incontestable 
inexpedient 
useless - 



kagiri no aru finite 
kamben no aru judicious 
katachi no aru material 



mottai no aru dignified 
nasake no aru humane 
tsumi no aru guilty 



THE ADJECTIVE. 



fune no tdrare-\ 
\ navigable 
ru } 


kuchi no mo to-} 
[speechless 
ra nai } 


hone no oreru arduous 

kanben no deki-\ 
[excusable 
ru } 

ha no tatanai blunt 


misu no mora-\ 
[water-tight 
nai } 

shochi no deki- 
inadmissible 
nai } 


hara no suwa-\ 
[irresolute 
ranai } 


suji no kanawa-) 
[fallacious 
nai } 


iiivake no tata-\ 
\ indefensible 
nai } 

ki no kikanai inattentive 


wake no waka-\ . 
incompre- 
ranai 
hensible 
gaten no ikanai> 


ki no tsukanai listless 




COMPOUND ADJECTIVES PRETERITES. 


bumpo ni ka-\ 
[grammatical 
natta } 


shtzen ni wa-\ 
[self-evident 
katta } 


do ni sugita ultra 
hakki to shit a vivid 
ho ni kanatta legal 
ho ni tagatta illegal 
ki ni kanatta satisfactory 


chi no tsuita bloody 
iki no taeta lifeless 
junjo no tatta methodical 
kan no hatta shrill 
kata no tsuita spotted 
ki no kiita attentive 


kobai ni natta sloping 


me no tsumatta compact 


nakadaka ni} 
[ convex 
natta } 


sci no nukcta crestfallen 
suji no itta streaked 



126 THE ADJECTIVE. 

II. COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (AND ADVERBS). 

SEC. i. THE COMPARATIVE DEGREE. 

1. In a greater degree motto. 

2. Two different things being compared : 

(a) When * than ' is expressed yor-i and the posi- 

tive. 

(b) When ' than ' is not expressed ho added to the 

one possessing the quality in the greater degree. 

3. Two comparatives, the increase in one being pro- 
portioned to that in the other (the more the more) hodo 
following the former. 

Instead of motto (more), the Japanese often use mo suko- 
shi (a little more). 

For' more' and 'more than 'signifying not greater in 
degree, but a greater quantity or greater number of see V. 
sec. 16. and X. sec. 13. 

I. 

Had n't you better tie that parcel Sono tsutsumi wo motto kataku shibaru 
tighter ? ga ii <Je wa arimaeenu ka ? 

You ought to be more industrious. Motto sei wo dasanakutclia ikemasenu. 

I wish you had waked me earlier. Mo sukoshi hayaku okvshite kudasareba 

yokafta. 

They seem pretty well made but I Zuibun yoku dekite iru yd da ga md 
wish they were smaller. gukoshi chiisakereba yoi. 

2. (a). 

Miya-no-shita is T -otter than Ha- Miyanoshita wa Hakone yori atsui 

kone. tokoro da. 

He is & good deal taller than his wife. Kanai yori yoJtodo sei ga^takai. 



THE ADJECTIVE. 127 

In Summer the days are a good deal Natsu wa fiiyu yori yolwdo hi ga 

longer than in Winter. nagai. 

Jinrikis are more comfortable than Jinriki wa kago yori nori-gokoro ga 

kagos. yoi. 

Yoshi is a.bout three months older O Yoshi san wa o Yoni san yori mi tsuki 

than Yoni. hodo toshi ga ue da. 

2. (. 

This is the prettier but the other is Kono ho ga kirei da ga mo hitotsu no ho 
the dheaper. ga yasui. 

3- 

The quicker the better. Hayai hodo yoif 

The more the merrier. Oi hodo omosMroi. 

The less said the sooner mended. Kuchi-kazu ga wkunai hodo hayaku 

naoni. 

The more one gets, the more he Mochi-mono ga oku nareba naru Iwdo 

wants. fusoku ga oku naru. 

The more I study, the less I seem Keiko sureba suru hodo mugaku ni naru 

to myself to know. yd na kokoromochi da. 

SEC. 2. THE SUPERLATIVE DEGREE. 

An absolute superlative is rendered by ichi ban pre- 
ceding the adjective ; a relative superlative one in which 
' very ' or ' exceedingly ' might be substituted for * most ' 
without materially affecting the sense, is rendered by some 
adverb signifying ' very ' ; as mottomo, itatte. 

Which is the best hotel in TokyS ? Tokyo de wa nan io iu yadoya ga ichi 

ban yd gazaimasu ka ? 
The first plan seems to me the best. Saisho no kuju ga ichi ban yosa so da. 

I suppose leyasu was among the leyasu wa Nilwn de motiomo nadakai 
most distinguished men of Japan. hito no uchi daro. 



CHAPTER VII. THE ADVERB. 



I. CLASSES. 

Japanese words by which English adverbs are rendered 
may be classified as follows : 

SEC. i. 

The true adverb already noticed in connection with the 
true adjective ; as yoku well, hayaku quickly, zosa mo 
naku easily. 

SEC. 2. 

Uninflected words, which may be divided into three 
groups : 

I . Those employed without the addition of suffixes. 
Certain ones among these however are sometimes found 
followed by ni. Examples 



bakari 


only, about 


naze 


why 


do 


how 


oioi 


gradually 


hikkyo 


substantially 


so 


so 


kitto 


positively 


tabitabi 


often 


mada 


yet 


tada 


only 


mo 


even 


taiso 


very 


mo 


already 


taitei 


generally 


moto 


originally 


zuibun 


pretty 



THE ADVERB. 



I2 9 



2. Those followed by ni and analogous to adjectives in 
na and no; as shizuka ni quietly, makoto ni truly. 

3. Those followed by to. The group referred to are 
Japanese words, for the most part of a sort resembling the 
English words, ' ding-dong ', ' pell-mell ', ' topsy-turvy ', et 
cetera. They are numerous and frequently heard in com- 
mon conversation ; like their English analogues however 
rather inelegant. The fuller form is in to shite, though the 
shite is usually omitted and sometimes the to. Their 
adjectives are formed by changing to shite into to shita, 
the to being sometimes dropped ; as oinyari to shite or 
bonyari to or bonyari dimly ; bonyari to shita or bonyari 
shita dim. Certain Chinese words will also be found 
followed by to; as shizen to naturally, totsuzen to sud- 
denly. These have besides a form in ni, and their Adjec- 
tives which are rare end in no; as shizen no. Examples 



buruburu to 
daradara to 
guragura to 
hakkiri to 
ikiiki to 

kossori to 
I 



tremblingly 

sluggishly 

totteringly 

explicitly 

vivaciously 

stealthily 



shikkari to 
sorosoro to 
surasura to 
ukkari to 
yoroyoro to 
zarazara to 



firmly 

slowly 

glibly 

vacantly 

staggeringly 

roughly 



SEC. 3. 

Participles of certain verbs, some affirmative and some 
negative. Examples occur in which the participle is only 
he final word of a. combination. Examples 



130 

benkyo shite 

damatte 

hokotte 

isoide 

kanashinde 

machigatte 

ochitsuite 

oshinde 

sadamete 

tsumande 

tsutsushinde 

ydjin shite 

yorokonde 

haya-sugite 



THE ADVERB. 




diligently 


ki ni shite 


anxiously 


silently 


ki ^vo tsukete 


carefully 


proudly 


sei-dashite 


vigorously 


quickly 


tanki ni shite 


impatiently 


sadly 


uchi-akete 


candidly 


wrong 


kawarazu ni 


immutably 


calmly 


shirazu ni 


ignorantly 


sparingly 


tayezu 


perennially 


certainly 


kare kore iwazti\ unhesitat- 


briefly 


ni J 


ingly 


respectfully 
prudently 


mono-oshimazu ] 
ni ' ) 


generously 


gladly 


imiko-mizu ni 


rashly 


prematurely 


omote-dataz-u ni 


informally 



SEC. 4. 

The conditional mood ; as ' let's take a walk when the 
gun sounds' taiho no oto ga shitara undo shiyo ja nai kaf 



II. ADVERBS OF PLACE. 



SEC. 



HERE. 



I. This place koko, kochira, kotchi, kore. 
To express situation in or at a place, ni is added ; to 
express action in or at, de; motion towards is rendered by 






THE ADVERB. 131 

ye; from, by kara (comp. IX. sees. I, 2, 4, 5). 

2. This neighborhood kono ken, kono atari, kono ktnjo t 
kono kimpen. 



I. 

Here is the place. Koko da. 

Here is where I lost my watch. Koko wa watakushi ga tokei wo naku- 

shita tokoro da. 
Here is where Sen fell into the river. Koko wa o Sen san ga Jtawa ye ochita 

tokoro da. 

Is the book you bought yesterday Kino o kai nas'tta hon wa koko ni 

here? gozaimasu ka? 

Kuni and Kiku were here a few Kuni san to o Kiku san ica imashi- 

minutes ago. gata koko ni o ide nasaimasMta. 

Do they make pottery here? Koko de seiomono wo yaku no desu ka ? 

Are the troops generally drilled here? Heitai wa taiiei koko de choren wo 

shimasu ka? 
Has n't some one been writing here? Dare ka koko de kakimono wo shite ita 

de wa nai ka ? 

Bring it here. Koko ye motte koi. 

Bring the baby here. Akamlo wo koko ye daite koi. 

Tell Hyo to come here. Koko ye kuru yo ni Hyo ni Me okure. 

So we must take kagos from here, Koko kara kago ni noranakutcha a- 

ranai so da. 

How far is it from here to the next Kore kara tsugi no hatagoya made nani 
hotel ? hodo am ka ? 



2. 

Are th re any deer about here nowiv- I ma de mo kono hen ni shika ga imasu 

days ? ka ? 

Don't they have an ennichi here to- Kono hen ni konya ennichi ga aru de 

night ? wa nai ka ? 

I 



132 THE ADVERB. 

SEC. 2. THERE 

Asoko, achira, atchi, also soko, sochira, *sotchi ; the dif 
ference between the two sets being analogous to that be- 
tween ano and sono. For the postpositions to be added 
comp. sec. I. 

There is a man with a dog and a gun. Asoko ni teppo wo katsuide inu wo 

tsurete iru Into ga arimasu. 

There have been fires there ever so Asoko ni wa koloshi wa iku tali mo 

often this year. kwaji ga atta. 

Do they make a great deal of shoyu Asoko de wa shoyu wo takusan tsukuri- 

there ? masu ka ? 

What kind of a ship is that they are Asoko de koshiraste iru nowananifune 

building there ? desu ka * 

Don't trouble yourself : put it there, Yoroshiu gozaimasu : soko ye oite kuda- 

please. sai. 

I think most of the silk conies from Kinu wa taitei asoko kara deru daro. 

there. 



SEC. 3. WHERE. 

1. Interrogative doko, dochira, dotchi. For the post- 
positions to be added comp. sec. I. 

2. Relative tokoro. 

3. Somewhere doko ka, do&ka, doko zo. For the post- 
positions~to be added comp. sec. I. 

4. Every where; wherever (everyplace); nowhere; any 
where with a negative doko ni (of motion towards ye] mo. 
Every where (in every direction) hobo ; wherever (some 
place) doko ka. 

5. Any where doko de mo. 



THE ADVERB. 133 

I. 

Where does the washerwoman live ? Sentakuya no uchi wa doko desu ka ? 

Whei'e was it that you met Hisa this Kesa o Hisa san ni o ai nas'tta no wa 

morning ? doko desMta ka ? 

Where (what part of) is this vase Kono hana-ike wa doko ga hibi ga itie 

cracked ? imasu ka ? 

Where is Sauza ? Sanza wa doko ni orimasu ka ? 

Where is the spoon I left on the table? Dai no ue ni oita saji wa doko ni am 

ka? 

Where is the shirt I sent to the Sentaku ni yatta jiban wa doko ni aru 

wash ? ka? 

Where did you buy this fish ? Kono sakana wa doko de katta ka ? 

Do you know where these grapes Kono budo wa doko de dekita no ka go 

were grown ? zonji desu ka 1 

Where has ray dictionary gone? Jibiki wa doko ye ittaro? 

Where were you going when I met Sakujitsu o me ni kakatta toki doko ye 

you yesterday ? irassharu tokoro deshita ka ? 

Where does the best rice come from ? Kome no ichi ban yoi no wa doko kara 

mawarimasu ka? 



2. 

Is this where we take the boat ? Koko wa fune ni noru tokoro desu ka ? 

Here is where we have to show our Koko wa menjo wo misenakereba na- 

passports. ranai tokoro da. 

Sit where you can hear. Kikoeru tokoro ni o suwari nasai. 



Is n't there a bridge somewhere on Dok'ka kawa ni hashi ga kakatte 

the river ? imasenu ka ? 

I am sure I dropped it somewhere on Doko de ka kaku-ba de otoshita ni 

the rifle range. chigai nai. 

Are n't there fireworks somewhere Konya doko de ka hanabi ga agaru de 

to-night ? wa ar imasenu ka ? 

It seems to me 1 saw a second-hand Doko ka Tori no honya de sono furui no 

one at some store on the Tori. wo miia yd desu. 



134 THE ADVERB. 

4- 

Are there musquitoes every where in Nihon ni wa doko ni mo ka go, imasu 

Japan? ka? 

Ho smokes wherever he is. Doko ni ite mo tabako wo suite iru. 

He makes friends wherever he goes. Doko ye itte mo tomodachi ga deKiru. 
He is nowhere in the house. Uchi ni wa doko ni mo orimasenu. 

Have n't they fish any where this Kesa wa doko ni mo sakana ga nai 

morning ? ka ? 

Foreigners can not live any where Givaikokiijm wa kaiko-ba no hoka wa 

excepting in the open ports. doko ni mo sumu koto ga dekinai. 

The cat has looked every where for Oya-neko wa ko wo hobo tazuneta. 

the kitten. 

It must be wherever you left it. Doko ka omae ga oita tokoro ni aru ni 

chigai nai. 

5- 

Of course water runs down hill any Mochiron mizu wa doko de mo Mkuki 
where. ni tsuku mono da. 



III. ADVERBS OF TIME. 



SEC. i. ALWAYS 

1. Invariably itsu de mo. f .~ 

2. Constantly, ' all the time ' shijii. 

3. From the beginning moto kara. 

4. All mina. 

I. 

Is June always rainy ? Rokugwatsu wa itsu de mo amegachi 

desu ka? 

Miss E always wears her hair in the E san wa Hsu de mo tosdfu ni kami 
latest style. wo iu. 



THE ADVERB. 135 

Does the Emperor always have a Tenshisama ni wa itsu de mo keiei ga 

guard ? tsuite imam ka ? 

Why do we always see the same side Do hi wake de itsu de rno tsuki no onaji 

of the moon ? ho ga miemasu ka ? 

I suppose the waves are not always Itsu de mokonna ni nami ga takakuwa 

so high as this. arimasumai. 

Do you always put out your light be- Nedoko ye hairu mae ni itsu de mo 

fore you get into bed ? akari ico o keshi nasaru ka ? 



2. 

A.re you always in pain? Shiju itamimasu ka ? 

Is the earth always in motion ? Chikyu wa shiju ugoite imasu ka * 

Were you always well until you had Hashika wo o wazurai nasaru made wa 

the measles ? shiju go tassha deshita ka ? 

Is a bird always on her nest when Tori wa ko wo kacsu toki ni shiju su ni 

she is hatching? tsuite imasu ka? 

Did you keep stiring it all the time ? Shiju kakimawashite ita ka ? 

Ts a sentinel always walking when Bampei iva toban no toki ni wa shiju 

he's on guard P aruite imasu ka ? 



Have you always lived in Tokyd ? Moto kara Tokyo ni irasshaimasu ka ? 

The English have always been good Eikokiijm wa moto kara fune ga jozu 

sailors. da. 

Has Japan always been divided into Nihon wa moto kara ken ni wakarete 

ken? imashitaka? 

Have the Japanese junks always had Nihon no fune wa moto kara hobashira 

one mast ? ga ip pon deshita ka ? 

4- 

Are crows always black ? Karasu wa mina kuroi mono desu ka ? 

Do the bettos always wear blue Beito wa mina kon-tali wo hakimasu 

socks ? ka ? 

Why do you suppose tortoise-shell Mike-neko wa do shite mina me neko 

cats are always females ? desho t 



136 THE ADVERB. 

SEC. 2. WHENEVER. 

1 . At whatever time itsu de mo. 

2. Every time indicative present and tambi ni. Itsu 
followed by the participle and mo is also employed^ bu^ 
tambi ni is usually better. 

I. 

Ill start whenever it is convenient ILsu de mo go tsugo no yoi toJci ni 

to you. dekakemaslio. 

May I borrow your dictionary when- Itsu de mo tori ni agetara jibiki wo 

ever I send for it ? haishaku ga dekimasJio ka ? 

We must go on board whenever the Itsu de mo fune ga tsuitara nori- 

ship comes in. komanakereba narimasenu. 

Be ready whenever Mr. Tanaka Itsu de mo Tanaka tan ga kitart 

comes. shitaku ga ii yo ni shite oki. 

2. 

Whenever I go to Yokohama it rains. Yokohama ye iku tambi ni ame ga 

furu. 

He gets angry whenever he argues. Giron wo sum tambi ni hara wo tatsu. 
Every time I read it it seems harder. Yomu tambi ni muzukashiku naru ya 

da. 
I have a headache whenever I smoke. Tabako wo nomu tambi ni zutsu ga 

su.ru. 

SEC. 3. GENERALLY, USUALLY. 

Taitei, taigai, tsurei. 

What kind of pen do you generally Taitei nan no fude wo o tsukai nasai- 

use? masuka? 

Cholera usually comes in summer. Korera wa taitei natsu aru mono da. 

We generally have tiffin at one. Taitei ichi ji ni Mrumeshi wo tdbe- 



THE ADVERB. 137 

SEC. .4. -OFTEN, FREQUENTLY. 
Tabitabi, shibashiba, maido. 

1 often have headache. Tabitabi zutsu ga itashimasu, 

Come and see me often when you Tokyo ye o ide nas'ttara tabitabi 

come to Tokyo. irasshai. 

Even the wisest plans often fail. Mottomo kashikoi kuwadate de mo 

tabitabi shisonzuru koto ga aru. 

SEC. 5.- SOMETIMES. 

1. Occasionally, now and then, once in a while oriori, 
orifushi, tama ni. 

2. On certain occasions, at particular times, during part 
of the time koto ga aru. 

Aru toki, which is frequently heard as a rendering of 
' sometimes,' means rather ' on a certain occasion/ ' once 
upon a time/ * at one time.' 

i. 

Do you still go to TJeno sometimes? Ima de mo oriori Ueno ye irasshaimasu 

ka? 

Why don't you let us hear from you Naze oriori o tegami wo kudasaranu 

sometimes ? ka ? 

I meet him sometimes, but not very Oriori au ga amari tabitabi wa awa- 

often. nai. 

You may go occasionally. Orifushi itte mo yoi. 

Once in a while I take a nap. Tama ni wa Mru-ne wo shimasu. 

2. 

Sometimes one does not know what Do shite ii ka ivakaranai koto ga aru 

to do. mon' da. 

Sometimes great crowds of people go Kame Ido ye mo ozei hito ga deru koto 

to Kame Ido too. ga aru. 



138 THE ADVERB. 

Sometimes she plays even better Kenya yori mo deki no ii "koto ga aru,. 

than she did this evening. 

Sometimes I half suspect we have Do ka sum to obotsukanaku omou koto 

made a mistake. ga ant. 

When we were at Nikko several years Su nen ato ni Nikko ye itte iru toki ni, 

ago, it sometimes rained for two or futsuka mikka zutsu furi-tsnzuita 

three days in succession. koto ga atia. 

Sometimes I felt as if I could not Mo totemo gaman ga dekinai to omotta 

stand it any longer. koto ga atta. 

Every body loses his temper some- Dare demo tama ni wa hara wo tatsu 

times. " koto ga aru mon* da. 

Sometimes tama ni and koto ga ant Tama ni to mo koto ga aru to mo 

are both used. dochira mo iu koto ga aru. 



SEC. 6. SELDOM. 
Met fa ni followed by the negative. 

I seldom have a cold. Metta ni kaze wo hiku koto wa nai. 

I seldom smoke in the house. Uchi de wa metta ni tabako wo suwa- 

nai. 
You seldom recite as well as you can. Anata wa metta ni dekiru dake yoku 

ansho ico nasaimasenu. 
[ have seldom seen him of late. Ano hito ni wa chikagoro metta ni 



SEC. 7 .NEVER, EVER. 

Temporal : 

(a) On no occasion, not once koto ga (or sometimes 

zva) nai after the verb. When never is pre- 
ceded by ' have/ the verb is preceded by ma- 
- da. Ever (on any occasion) is expressed by 
substituting aru for nai. 

(b) Invariably not itsu de mo with the negative. 



THE ADVERB. 139 

(c) At no future time itsu made mo with the nega- 

tive. 

(d) Never before (for the first time) hajimete. 
2. Emphatic : 

(a) Not at all sappari, tonto with the negative. 

(b) Positively not kesshite> kitto with the negative. 

(c) Simple impossibility totemo with the negative 

(often the potential). 

(d) Do what one may, happen what will, under no 

circumstances do shite mo with the negative 
(often the potential). 

i. (a). 

I never had a toothache until I was Hatachi ni naru made wa ha ga itanda 

twenty. koto wa nai. 

Had the Emperor never come to Go issliin no mae ni TensMsama ga 

Tokyo before the Revolution ? Tokyo ye o kudari ni natta koto wa 

nai ka ? 

I have never ridden in a kago. Mada kago ni notte mita koto ga nai. 

This grass has never been cut. Kono shiba wa mada katta koto ga 

nai. 
Does the small pox ever prevail in Eikoku de mo hoso no liayaru koto ga 

England ? arimasu ka ? 

Did you ever see such a beautiful Konna ni kirei na hi-no-iri wo goran 

sunset ? nas'tta koto ga arimasu ka ? 

Have you ever been robbed ? Dorobo ni atta koto ga aru ka ? 

Had you ever been to Tokyo before me ni kakaru mae ni Tokyo ye o ide 

I met you ? nas'tta koto ga arimasu ka ? 

I. (b). 

Some people never get up till seven Itsu de mo shichi ji ka hacldji made 

or eight o'clock. wa okinai Uto mo aru. 

I never ride first class. Itsu de mo joto no kisha ni wa nora- 

nai. 
Do you never take sugar in your tea ? Itsu de mo cha ni sato ivo irezu ni 

agarimasu ka? 



140 THE ADVERB. 

I. (). 

Do you think the press laws will Shimbunjm'eiwaitsumademokawari- 

never be changed ? masumai ka ? 

Will murderers who have escaped by Wairo wo tsukatte nigeta hitogoroshi 

bribery never be punished ? wa itsu made mo basserarezu ni iyo 

ka? 

1. (d). 

Did you never understand it before ? Hajimete o wakari desu Jca .* 

2. (a). 

The ice man comes any more. Mo koriya ga sappari mairimasenu. 

Are diamonds never found in Japan ? Nihon de wa sappari kongoseki ga 

demasenu ka? 
He never preaches of late. Chikagoro tonto sekkyo itashimasenu. 

2. (b). 

Ill never give him another cent. Kesshite mo ichi mon mo yaranai. 

I can never consent to such a thing. Sonna koto wa kessJiite shochi sum koto 

wa dekimasenu. 
Never do a thing like that again. Mo kesshite sonna koto wo shi nasaru- 



2. (e). 

That child will never walk (been in- Ano kodomo wa totemo arukenai. 

jured). 
He will never study Japanese any Mo totemo Nihongo wo keiko shima- 

more (very ill). sumai. 

He will never get well without an Setsudan shinakereba totemo naori- 

operation. masumai. 

2. (rf). 

I believe I shall never be able to talk Watakushi wa do shite mo Nihongo wo 

Japanese. tsukau koto wa dekimai. 

You'll never find it without a light. Akari ga nakereba do shite mo mi- 

tsukeraremai. 



THE ADVERB. 141 

I shall never get to sleep till those Ano inu ga damaranai ucTii wa do shit c 

dogs stop. mo nemurarenai. 

Can you never forgive him ? Do shite mo yurusaremasenu ka) 

SEC. 8. AGAIN. 

1 . Another time mat a. 

2. Once more mo ichi do. 

3. To do over again by way of bettering naosu follow- 

ing the stem of the verb. 

I. 

I will call again. Mata agarimasho. 

Do call again. Dozo mata irasshai. 

2. 

If you do not understand I will ex- ivakari ga nai nara mo ichi do toki- 
plain it again. akashimasho. 

3- 

You will hare to do it over again. Shi naosanakereba naranai. 
You will have to iron those clothes Sono kimono ni hinoshi wo kake nao~ 
again. sanakereba ikenai. 

SEC. 9. WHEN. 

1. Interrogative: 

(a) At what time itsu, (less definite) itsugoro. 

(b) Until what time, ' how long ' itsu made. 

(c) By what time itsu made ni. 

(d) From what time, * how long ' itsu kara. 

(e) At what o'clock nai* d^H ni, nan ji ni. 

2. Relative : 

(a) At the time -tafc/ (ni). 



142 THE ADVERB. 

(b] By the time made ni. 
(c} After the time conditional past. 
(d] Conditional (if) indicative present and to, or 
conditional present. 

I. (a). 

When did you write this letter ? Itsu kono te garni wo o kaki nas'tta ka ? 

When are you going to Yokohama? Itsu Yokohama ye o ide nasaimasu ka? 

When will it be convenient for you Itsu go tsugo ga yd gozaimaslio ka ? 

to do it? 

When will it be convenient to you Itsu agattara go tsugo ga yd gazaimasho 

for me to call ? ka ? 

When was that? Sore wa itsu no koto desu ka ? 

When was it that foreigners came to Gwaikokujin ga Nihon ye kita no wa 

Japan ? itsugoro desu ka ? 

About when did Jimmu Tenno live ? Jimmu Tenno wa itsugoro no liito desu 

ka? 

I. (b). 
How long can you wait? Itsu made o machi nasaru koto ga 

dekimasu ka? 
How much longer can you wait? Mo itsu made o machi nasaru koto ga 

dekimasu ka ? 
How long do you intend to be at Nikko ni itsu made o ide nasaru o 

Nikko ? tsumori desu ka ? 

About how long did the wind blow? Itsugoro made kaze <ja fukimashita 

ka? 

I. (')- 
When will it be done? Itm made ni dekimasu ka ? 

T. (d). 

About when does the rainy season Tsuyu wa itsugoro kara hajimarimasu 
begin ? ka ? 

i. . 

When shall I wake you up, sir? Nan doki ni o okoshi moshimasho /:a? 



THE ADVERB. 143 

2. (a). 

There were several men killed when Am fune wo orosu toki ni shinin ga su 

that ship was launched. nin atta. 

He broke it just when it was about Chodo deki-agaro to shita toki ni 

done. kowashita. 

Which of the children was it that yobi nas'tta toki ni henji wo shita no 

answered when you called ? wa dochira no ko desn ka ? 

I will order some when I write to .No. Hachiju ku ban ye tegami wo yarn toki 

89. ni sukoshi atsnraeyo. 

"Will the Emperor come by the To- Tenshisama ga o kaeri no toki wa 

kaido when he returns ? Tokaido wo irassharu daro ka ? 

2. (6). 
It will be done when you come. ide nasarit made ni wa kitto dekite 

orimasu. 

Your letter must be written when Haitatsunin ga kuru made ni o te- 
the postman comes. gatii wo o kaki nasaranakereba 

narimasenu. 



2. (*). 

When you have swept and dusted the Heya wo soji sliitara anado wo shimete 

room, shut to the shutters. oite. 

When Han comes back, tell him to Han ga kaettara kono kame wo hako ye 

pack these jars in a box. tsumeru yo ni itte o kure. 

When this sugar is gone I'll buy an- Kono sato ga nakunattara mo hyakki?i 

other picul. kaimaslio. 

What did he say when he was ar- Junsa ni osaeraretara nan to itta ka ? 

rested ? 

When I told him what you said he Osshatta koto wo ittara, kumabachi no 

was as ' mad as a hornet.* yd ni olcorimashita. 

2. (/). 

When the bell rings, the train starts. Kane ga naru to (nareba) kisha ga 

deru. 

When Poverty comes in the door, Bimbo-gami ya haitte kuru to A-ikyo ga 
Love flies out of the window. rnado kara tobi-dasu. 



144 THE ADVERB. 

SEC. 10. WHILE. 

Uchi t aida, tokoro. Tokoro is employed when something 
extraneous comes in affecting, generally interrupting, the 
existing state of things. 

While the kago men took their din- Kagokaki ga Mrumeshi wo taberu uchi 

ner we climbed the mountain. ni yama ye nobotta. 

Make some tea while we are at tiffin. Hirumeshi wo tabete oru uchi ni cha wo 

irete. 

Did you preach while you were in the Inaka nioru uchi ni sekkyo nasareta 

country ? ka ? 

Please do not talk to me while I'm Hige tvo sotte oru tokoro ye mono wo 

shaving. iwanai de kudasai. 

While I was standing in front of the Tera no mae ni tatte iru tokoro ye bozu 

temple a priest came out, ga dete kimashita. 

SEC. ii. As. 

1 . When toki, tokoro. For the force of tokoro comp. 
sec. 10. 

2. Of two actions carried on simultaneously stem of the 
verb and nagara. 

3. As you are about it (taking advantage of the oppor- 
tunity) indicative present and tsuide ni. 

4. On the way stem of the verb and gake ni ; verb and 
tochu de. 

I. 

Do the men-of-war always fire a salute Gunkan wa minato wo deini toki ni itsu 

as they leave port ? de mo shukuho wo uchimasu ka ? 

We got home just as it began to rain. Chodo ame gafuri dashita toki ni uchi 

ye tsuita. 

The postman came just as I was Chodo te garni wo kaite shimau tokoro ye 
finishing my letter, haitatsunin ga kita. 

9 



THE ADVERB. 145 

2. 

I'll read it as I ride. Kuruma ni nori nagara yomimashfi. 

As you read, notice carefully the dif- Yomi nagara kana no kaki yd no 

ferent ways of writing the kana. cliigai wo ki wo tsukete goran na- 

sai. 
As I opened the shojis I took off my Shoji wo ake nagara kutsu wo nugi- 

shoes. mashita. 

3- 

Call a jinriki as you go to town. Maclii ye iku tsuide ni jinriki wo 

yonde. 

As you are mending it, you had better Ncwsu tsuide ni zemmai wo torikaeta ho 
put in a new spring. ga yokaro. 

4- 

As we sailed up the river we stopped Kawa wo nobori gake ni Mukojima ye 

at Mukojima. yorimashita. 

Please post this as you go home. ucJd ye o kaeri gake ni kore 100 yuMn- 

bako ye irete kudasai, 
He told me the story as we went to Shiba ye iku tochu de (iki gake ni) 

Shiba. sono hanashi wo shimashita. 



SEC. 12. THEN. 

1. At that time sono toki ni ; (less definite) sono koro ni t 
sono setsu ni. 

2. Till that time sore made. 

3. By that time sore made ni. 

4. After that time sore kara. 

5. At that point soko de. 



I. 

Will you be here then ? Sono toki ni koko ni o ide nasaimaw 

fa? 



146 THE ADVERB. 

The daimyos all had mansions in Sono koro ni iva daimyo wa mina Tokyo 

Tokyo then. ni yashiki ga atta. 

The farmers paid taxes in rice then. Sono koro ni iva hyakusho wa kome de 

nenguwo osameta. 

2. 

Leave it here till then. Sore made koko ni o oki nasai. 

I intend to be at home till then. Sore made uchi ni oru tsumori de go- 

zaimasu. 
We had better give it up till then. Sore made sutete oku ga yokarS. 

3- 

Will the railway be done then ? Sore made ni tetsudo g< dekiyo ka ? 

Will you be ready then ? Sore made ni o shitaku go, dekimasJio 

ka? 
Will tiffin be ready then P Sore made ni Mrumeshi ga dekiyo ka t 

4- 

Then the wind changed and began Sore kara kaze ga kawatte watakushi- 
to blow towards us. domo no 1id~ ye fuki dasliita. 

Then we hired a boat and went to Sore kara fune wo karite hanabi wo mi 
see the fireworks. 711 ikimashita. 

5- 

What did you say then ? Soko de nan to ossliatta ka ? 

Then I asked him another question. Soko de hoka no koto wo kiita. 



SEC. 13. Now. 

1. At present ima, tadaima ; (less definite) konogoro, 
kono setsu> chikagoro. 

2. Now as opposed to formerly ima de wa. 

3. By this time, already, now that, things -being as they 
are, considering the circumstances mo (often expressed in 
Japanese when only understood in English). 



THE ADVERB. 147 

4. Next kore kara. 

5. Than before saki yori. 

I. 

Is n't Mr. Tornita in Korea now ? Tomita san wa ima Chosen ni oru de ica 

arimasenu ka f 

He is out at present, Sir. Tma (tadaima) rusu de gozaimasu. 

We're just out of it now. Tadaima chodo uri-kirimashita. 

Oil is very high now. Seki-yu wa kono setsu taihen takai. 

There are a good many mad dogs Konogoro yamai inu ga daibu mieru. 

about now. 

Nobody seems to make much money Chikagoro dare mo amari kane ga 

now. mokaranai yosu desu. 

The Japanese do not wear swords Ima de wa Nihonjin wa katana wo 

nowadays. sasanai. 

Nowadays the government tolerates Ima de w a seifu de Yaso-kyo ivo mokkyo 

(tacitly) Christianity. sum. 

3- 

Most of them are probably sold now. Mo taitei urete shimaimashitaro. 

Your house must be about done now- uchi no fushin wa mo taitei deki- 

masliitaro. 

It is too late now. Mo ma ni aivanai. 

How beautiful that island is, now Mo kusa ga aoao to thite ano shima no 

that the grass is green. kirei na koto. 

It would be useless to send for the Mo isha wo yobi ni yatte mo muda 

doctor now. da. 

Now I think you had better apologize. Mo wabi wo nasaru ga yokaro, 

They ought to be here directly now. Mojiki ni ki so na mono da. 

They must surrender directly now. Mojiki ni kosan suru daro. 

Have n't we waited long enough Mo jiibun matta de wa gozaimasenu 

(now) ? &a ? 

You have boiled it enough (now). Mo jubun nita. 

Tea will be ready directly (now). Mojiki ni cha ga dekimasu. 

That will do (now). Mo sore de yoroshii. 



148 THE ADVERB. 

4. 

They say Mr. Matsui is going to read Kore kara Matsui san iva uta wo o yomi 
a poem now. nasaru so desu. 

5- 

The tide is running out more rapidly Shio no hiki-kagen ga said yori liayaku 
now, natta. 

SEC. 14. ALREADY. 

1. At the time of speaking or spoken of mo. 

2. Prior to the same mae ni mo. 

i. 

The wind has begun to blow already. Mo haze gafuki dashita. 

I have already applie;! for a passport. Mo menjo no negai wo dashimashita. 

He says he has been waiting for Mo icM ji kan hodo matte ita to ii- 

about an hour already. masu. 

I was going to give the shoemaker a Kutsuyawo danji-tsukete yard to omotta 

blowing up but they were already ga mo dekite imashita. 

done. 

I have had plenty already. Mo takusan itadakimashita. 

2. 

As I have already explained several Mae ni mo iku tabi mo toki-akashita 

times. tori. 

He has already declined two or three Mae ni mo ni sam ben kotowari- 

times. mashita. 

SEC. 15. FORMERLY, USED TO. 

Moto, izen. 

Formerly all ships were made of Fune wa moto mina Id de tsukutta mono 

wood. da. 

There used to be no jinrikis in Japan. Nihon ni moto jinriki to in mono yci 

nakatta. 



THE ADVERB. 149 

It used to be thought that the sun Mgto wa taiyo ga chikyu wo mawaru 

went around the earth. mono to omotte otta. 

There used to be a temple here. Izen (moto) wa koko ni tera ga atta. 

Formerly foreigners could not live Izen wa gwaikokujin wa (moto) Tokyo 

in Tokyo. ni oru koto ga dekinakatta. 



SEC. 1 6. HITHERTO. 
Kore made, ima made. 

Where have you lived hitherto? Kore made doko ni sunde o ide nas'tta? 

What have you studied hitherto ? Kore made nani wo keiko nasaimashita 

ka? 



SEC. c 7. RECENTLY, OF LATE. 
Chikagoro, konogoro, kono aida, kono setsu, kono tabi. 

Have you read any new books Chikagoro nani ka shimpan no hon wa 

lately ? o.yomi nasaimashita ka ? 

The government has recently built a Seifu de kono aida atarashii denshin- 

new telegraph office. kyoku wo tatemashita. 

Did n't I see you in Yokohama Kono aida Yokohama de o me ni kakatta 

lately ? de wa arimasenu ka ? 

SEC. 1 8. AGO. 

1. Mae ni, izen ni, zen ni, ato ni. 

2. Long ago hisashii ato ni, to ni. 

3. Several days ago, the other day sendatte, senjitsu. 

4. An hour or so ago scnkoku. 

5. A little while ago, a few minutes ago imashigata. 



i$6 TH ADVERB. 

I. 

He died four years ago. Yo nen mae ni nakunarimashita. 

I wish I had written a month ago. Hito tmki mae ni tegami wo yareba 

yokatta. 

How many years ago was Tokyo Tokyo no tatta no wa iku nen zen no 
built ? koto desu ka ? 

2. 

It was made long ago. HisasMi ato ni dekita. 

He promised to lend it long ago. To ni kaso to yakusoku slrimashita. 

I knew it long ago. Hisashii ato kara shitte iru. 

3- 

The man was here the other day with Sendatte ogiya ga taiso kirei na ogi wo 
some very pretty fans. motte kite orimashita. 

4- 

I sent him to the office awhile ago to Senkoku tegami wo dashi ni yubin-kyoku 

post the letters. ye yatta. 

Kin was here an hour or two ago with Senkoku o Kin san ga itoko wo tsurete 

her cousin. kite imashita. 

5- 

As I told you a little while ago. Imashigata o hanashi moshita tori. 

I saw him ride by here a few minutes Imashigata koko wo notte iku no wo 
ago. mimasliita. 

SEC. 19. JUST NOW. 

Ima, tadaima . . . lokoro ; more emphatic (just this in- 
stant) tattaima . . . tokoro. Tokoro is not always ex- 
pressed. 

I have just been looking at a juggler Ima ti'zuma-tsukai ga iroiro no waza 

performing a variety of tricks. wo sum no wo mite kita tokoro da. 

The clock has just struck. Tokei ga tattaima natta tokoro da. 

I just gave you fifteen cents. Tattaima ju go sen yatta tokoro da. 






THE ADVERB. 

SEC. 20. STILL, YET. 



Mada. 



Are you still sick ? Mada go byoki ka ? 

He is still rather young to study Tenzan wo keiko suru ni iva mada 

algebra. sukoshi wakai. 

This pail is not full yet. Kono te-oke wa mada ip pai de nai. 

Is n't tiffin ready yet ? Mada hirumeshi ga dekinai ka ! 

I have not tried either yet. Mada dochira mo yatte minai. 



SEC. 21. TILL, UNTIL. 

1 . Time made (With the negative, generally made zva.) 

2. Degree kodo. 



Wait until he comes. Are ga kuru made matte o ide. 

I read till dark. Kuraku naru made yomimasJiita. 

I eaa't go until ten minutes past five. Go ji jip pun made wa ikarenai. 

I must wait till twenty-five minutes Go ji ni jit go fun mae made mata- 

of five. nakereba naranai. 

I can not leave home until the middle. Eaigetsu nakaba made wa de nakereba 

of next month. tatsu koto wa dekimasenu. 

2. 

I read till I v?as tired. Kutabireru hodo yomimasTiita. 

Don't bend it till it breaks. Oreru hdfto mage nasaruna. 

He pulled the cat's tail till she Hikkakarem hodo neko no shippo wo 

scratched him. hippatta. 



SEC. 22. BY AND BY. 

i . Of future time ndchi hodo. 
^. Of past time y agate. 



152 THE ADVERB. 

I. 

Bring me some hot water by and by. Nochi hodo yu wo motte kite o Jture. 
I want you to go to the post office by Nochi liodo yuMn-kyoku ye itte mo- 
and by. raitai. 

2. 

By and by we found a jinriki. Yagate jinriki wo mitsuketa. 

By and by he took us to another Yagate Iwka no ma ye Jmrete itte 
room and showed us the letter. tegami wo miseta. 



SEC. "23. SOON. 

1. Of days and longer periods chikajika ni, chikai uchi 
;zz, kinjitsu ni, sono uchi ni. 

2. In a little while, before long ma mo naku, hodo naku, 
ottsiike, (of future time only) ima ni, (of past time only) 
yagate. 

3. As soon as : 

(a) With the present present and to siigu ni. 

(b} With the past present and to sugii ni, or con- 
ditional past and s'ugu ni ; the latter being the 
construction for the future perfect also. 

(c) With the future stem and shidai ni. 

I. 

Will the government change the Seifu de chikajika ni shimbun jorei wo 

press laws soon ? kaikaku suru daro ka ? 

They say there will soon be a rail- Chikai uchi ni Hiroshima, ye tetsudo ga 

way to Hiroshima. dekiru so da. 

The steamer will be in in a few days. Sono uchi ni jokisen ga tsukimasho. 

2. 

We must start soon. Ma nio naku dekakenakcrela narima- 

senu. 
The train will leave in a few minutes. Kisha iva hodo naku demasho. 



THE ADVERB. 

It will stop raining very soon I Ottsuke ame ga yamimasho. 

think. .. 

The next house will catch before Tma ni tonari no uchi ye hi ga tsuku 

long. daro. 

Before long the wind began to blow. Ma mo naku kaze ga fuki dashita. 

Very soon the whole house was in Hodo naku ie ju ye hi ga maicatta. 

flames. 

The rain came down in torrents, and Mizu wo kobosu yo ni ame ga fu.ru to 

in a few minutes the roof began to yagate yane ga mori dashita. 



3- (*). 

I take a bath as soon as I get up. Okiru to sugu ni yu ni hairimasu. 

As soon as they get on board every Kisha ni noru to sugu ni mina tabako 
body begins to smoke. wo sui dasu. 

3- (ft- 

He died as soon as he heard it. Sore wo kiku to sugu ni nakunatta. 

I sent a jinriki for you as soon as it Ame ga furi dasu to sugu ni jinriki wo 
began to rain. o mukai ni agemashita. 

As soon as he took the medicine he Kusuri wo nondara sugu ni yoku natta. 

got better. 

I heard about it as soon as I got to Yokohama ye ittara sugu ni sono koto 

Yokohama. wo kikimashita. 

T will go as soon as I have dined. Shokuji wo shitara sugu ni mairima- 

sho. 

3- M. 

I'll take a bath as soon as it is ready. Yu no shitaku ga deki shidai ni hairi- 

masu. 



SEC. 24. DIRECTLY. 

Presently ima, tadaima ; immediately, at once -jiki ni, 
ni, ima sugii ni, tadaima sugu ni, sassoku. 



1^4 THE ADVERB. 

Coming directly. Hee ! Tadaima mairimasu. 

Don't drink that, I'll hare Koina Sore wo o yoshi nasai, ima Kama ni 

bring some fresh directly. kumi-tate no wo motte kosasemasic. 

Take this to No. 18 directly. Sugu ni kore wo ju hacJii Ian ye motU 

o ide. 

Serve breakfast immediately. Asameshi ivo suguni dashite. 

Let me know immediately what he Ano hito no iu Jcoto wo jiki ni kikasete 

says. o Tture. 



SEC. 25. BEFORE. 

With a noun or verb mae ni ; with a verb, also negative 
of the verb and uchi* 

We must start before ten o'clock. Ju ji mae ni deJcakenakerela nan- 

masenu. 
Let's have tiffin before we leave. Deru mae ni hirumeshi wo tdbete ikoja 

nai kat 

I can't go to the country before the Yilbinsen ga tsukanai ucTii wa inaka ye 

mail gets in. mairaremasenu. 

I want to speak to him before he goes Kaimono ni ikanai uchi hanashitai koto 

to market. ga aru. 

They'll not bite well before the tide Shio ga hikanai uchi wa yoku kuwa- 

is out. nai. 



SEC. 26. AFTER, SINCE. 

1. With a verb participle and kara, past and nochi ni ; 
when a definite period is mentioned as having elapsed, it is 
followed by tatsu to or tattara, in which case the kara is 
often omitted. 

2. With a noun ato de, nochi ni, go ni. 

3. Afterwards ato de, nochi ni, go ni. 

4. Past (of the hours) sugi. 



THE ADVERB. 155 

I. 

After we passed Kiga it began to Kiga ivo . totte kara ame ga furi da- 

rain. shita. 

After the war was < ver most of the Senso ga sunde kara heitai wa taigai 

troops returned to Tokyo. Tokyo ye kaetta. 

After you lock the door put out the To no shimari wo shite kara akari wo 

light. keshite o kure. 

It has not leaked once since we Yane wo naoslrite kara ichi do mo 

mended the roof. moranai. 

Four or five days after I came to Tokyo ye kite (kara) shi go niclii tatsu 

Tokyo I was taken sick. to bydki ni natta. 

The road dried an hour after the Ame ga yande ichi ji kan tattard michi 

rain stopped, ga kawaita. 



2. 

After the earthquake every one was Jisliin no ato de mina uchi ye hairu 

afraid to go into the house. no wo kowagatta. 

A-fter the fire we all went out to look Kicaji no ato de mina yake-ato wo mi ni 

at the ruins. demashita. 

I can go any time after the fifth. Itsuka no ato de wa itsu de mo ikare- 

masu. 
The law was changed after the Re- Go isshin nochi ni okite ga kawatta. 

volution. 

How long is it since the Revolution? Go isshin go mo iku nen ni narimasu 

ka? 



Afterwards I moved to Tokyo. Sono ato de wa Tokyo ye hikkoshi- 

mashita. 

Afterwards however another method Keredomo sono ato de wa hoka no 

was adopted. shikata ni natta. 

We intended to stop at Kobe but Kobe ye yoru tsumori de atta ga ato de 

afterwards decided not to do so. yoranai koto ni kimemashita. 

Beseemed considerably better but Daibu yoi yd ni miemashita ga nochi ni 

afterwards he grew worse. waruku narimashita. 



156 - THE ADVERB. 



Ft is after twelve now. Moju niji sugi da. 

I can't go till after four. Yoji sugi made tea ikaremasenu. 

He started a little past three. Sanji sukoshi sugi ni tatta. 



SEC. 27. LONG TIME, LONG. 

1. Long time nagai, nagaku. 

2. For a long time hisashiku, nagai aida. 

3. A long time before : 

(a) Long time requisite nagai aida de nakercba 

followed by the negative. 

(b) Idea of necessity absent made ni iva yohodo 

aida ga ant. 

4. Long ago sec. 1 8. 



I. 

The hot weather seems to last a long Kotoshi wa shoki ga taihen nagai yd 

time this year. da. 

I can not wait long. NagaJcu wa matenai. 

You have been a long time about it. Taihen nagaku kakattaja nai ka? 

2. 

I have not seen your father for a long Ototsan ni wa hisashiku o me ni 
time. kakarimasenu. 

I have been studying Japanese for a Hisashiku Nihongo wo manande on- 
long time. mam. 

I did not understand that for a long Sore iua hisashiku icakari.nasenu de- 
time, sliita. 

He has been sick for a long time. Nagai aida byoki da. 

3- (a). 

It will be a long time before you can Nagai aida de nakufcha Nihonjin no yd 
talk like a Japanese. ni hanasu wake ni ikanai. 



THE ADVERB. 157 

I suppose it will be a long time be- Nagai aida de nakutcha Kyoto ye 
fore the railway is done to Kyoto. tetsudo ga dekimai. 

Don't, you think it will be a long Nagai aida de nakereba satsu wa shokin 
time before satsu are at par ? to onaji sola ni narimasumai ka ? 

3- (*) 

It will be a long time yet before he Mada kuni made ni wa yohodo aida ga 

(man sent for a kago) comes. am. 

Was it a long time before (from the -Tsurei no hanashi ga wakaru yd ni o 

time you landed until) you under- nari nasaru made ni wa yohodo aida 

stood ordinary conversation ? ga atta ka 1 



SEC. 28. SOME TIME. 
Longer or shorter as the case may be shibaraku. 

Will you be in Tokyo for some time. Shibaraku Tokyoni o ide nasaru ka? 

I suppose I shall not see you for some Kore kara shibaraku o me ni kakaru 

time. koto iva dekimasumai. 

It will take some time longer to Deki-agaru ni wa mo shibaraku kaka- 

finish it. rimasu. 

I waited some time but nobody came. Yaya shibaraku matte ita ga dare mo 
konakatta. 



SEC. 29. A LITTLE WHILE. 

Zanji, zanji no aida, sukoshi no aida ; a few minutes, a 
minute sukoshi, chotto. 

You need not go for a little while Mada zanji o ide ni wa oyobimasenu. 
yet. 

If it is done in a little while, it will Zanji no aida ni dekireba yoroshii. 

do. 

He did not wait but a little while. Sukoshi no aida shika machimasenu 

deshitq. 



158 THE ADVERB. 

Please help me a minute. Sukoshi te wo kashite kudaxai. 

Ask him not to come in here for a Chotto koko ye konai de moratte o kure. 

few minutes. 
Wait a minute. Sukoshi mate. 



SEC. 30. FINALLY, AT LAST. 

1. In the end shimai ni. 

2. After delay yoyaku ; after labor, difficulty yatto ; 
when the result was doubtful toto. 



I. 

We walked every where and finally Hobo aruite shimai ni Shiba ye- iki- 

went to Shiba. masMta. 

At last he got angry. Shimai ni okorimashita. 

2. 

Finally the kago men came. Yoyaku kagokaki ga kimashita. 

At last the rain stopped. Yoyaku ame ga yanda. 

Finally we got to the top. Yatto zeteho ye noborimashita. 

At last little by little I came to Yatto sukoshi zutsu wakaru yd ninatta 

understand. 

Finally he consented. Toto shochi shimashita. 
At last the Russians were victorious. Toto Rokokujin ga kachimashita. 



IV. ADVERBS OF CAUSE, MANNER AND DEGREE. 

The great majority of adverbs of manner corresponding 
to English adverbs in ' ly ' require no special illustration. 



THE ADVERB. 159 

SEC. i. WHY. 

Naze, do shite, do in wake de. 

Why did the Shogun resign? Naze Shogun wa jishoku shimashita 

ka? 
Why does wood float and iron sink? Naze hi wa uki tetsu wa shizumu mono 

desu ka ? 
Then why don't you tell him to do Sonnara naze shi naosu yo ni iimasenu 

it over again ? ka ? 

Why did you pick those roses ? Do shite ano bar a no hana wo tsunde o 

shimai nas'tta ka ? 
Why do the convicts wear red Toganin wa do shite akai kimojio wo 

clothes? kite imasu ka? 

Why don't you build your house of Do iu wake de ki de ie ico o tate nasa- 

wpod ? ranai no desu ka ? 

Why did he say he would not go ? Do iu wake de ikanai to iimashita ka ? 

SEC. 2 -ACCORDINGLY, CONSEQUENTLY, THEREFORE. 
Sore da kara, sore yue ni, (mono) da kara. 

Accordingly the Emperor came to Sore da kara, Tenshi ga Tokyo ye o ide 

Tokyo. nasaru yo ni natta. 

Accordingly they changed the law. Sore yue ni okite ico kaemashita, 

It rained for three days in succes- Mikka ame ga furi tsuzitita mono da 

sion and consequently all the kara hashi ga mina ochite shimatta. 

bridges were swept away. 

The train started fifteen minutes Kyo ica Itisha ga itsu mo yoriju go fun 

earlier than usual to-day, and con- hayaku deta mon' da kara, mina ma 

sequently we all missed it. ni awanakatta. 

SEC. 3. How. 

1. Interrogative do, ikaga ; of an action do shite. 

2. The way in which, how to stem of the verb and yd. 



THE ADVERB. 



I. 

How is the road from here to KoJco kara Hakone ye iku rnichi wa dd 

Hakone ? desu ka ? 

How is shoyu made ? Shoyu wa do shite koshiraeru mono desu 

ka? 

Do you know how photographs are Shashin wa do shite torn mono desit ka 

taken ? go zonji desu ka ? 

Did you hear how your friend was tomodachi ica do shite korosareta ka 

killed . o kiki nasaimashita ka ? 

2. 

It, is very strange how a snake He bi no hai yo ma jitsu ni kimyo da. 

crawls. 
Please teach me how to hold my pen. Dozo fude no mochi yo wo oshiete 

kudasai. ; . 

I never understand how to use ga Do shite mo ga to wa no tsukai yo ga 

and wa. wakaranai. 



SEC. 4. So. 

1. Manner: 

(a) In this manner ko, kono yd ni, kono tori ni. 

ise, sono yd ni, sono tori ni. 
aa, ano yd ni, ano tori ni. 

2. Degree : 

(a) In this degree konna ni. 

(sonna ni. 

(b] In that degree j 

\anna ni. 

3. So ... that, so ... as hodo. 



THE ADVERB. l6l 



Please do it so, not so. Dozo so de naku, ko shite kudasai. 

If that is your opinion, why don't you Moslii sono go setsu nara, naze 5 

say so ? osshaimasenu ka ? 

Please ask Hana who said so. Dare ga so itta ka o Hana san ni kiite 

kudasai. 
I thought so. So daro to omotta. 



2. 

Please tell the man not to hold the Dozo jinriki ni kaji-bo wo sonna r ni 

shafts so high. takaku shinai yoni itte kudasai. 

You ought not to have been so hasty. Sonna ni ki-mijika ni shinakereba yoi 



3- 

It is so bright (that) it hurts my eyes. Me ni sawaru liodo akarui. 

It was so hot (that) the grass withered. Kusa ga kareru hodo atsukatta. 

He is so tall he looks awkward. Minikui hodo sei ya takai. 

That is not so good as this. Sore wa kore Jwdo yokunai. 

I do not go to Yokohama so often as Yokohama ye] sakigoro hodo tabitali 

I used to. mairimasenu. 

This house does not rent so high as Kono ie wa mo ik ken hodo_ yachin ga 

the other. takaku nai. 



SEC. 5. LIKE, As. 

1. Manner: 

(a) In a similar way yd (ni)* 

(b] In the (same) way tori (ni)* 

Onaji prefixed to yd has the force of * exactly '. To ' be ' 
like may be expressed by ni nite iru. 

2. Degree (including as . . . as) hodo, dake. 



1 62 THE ADVERB. 

I. (). 

Man's life vanishes like the dew. II ito no inochi wa tsuyu no yo ni kie- 

yasui. 
I wish I could talk Japanese like you. Watakushi mo anata no yo ni Nihongo 

(ja dekitai mono de gozaimasu. 
I should hate to work like the coolies. Ninsoku no yo ni hataraku no wa iija 

da. 
Are the Japanese ironclads exactly Nihon no kdtessen wa Eikoku no to 

like the English ? onaji yd de gozaimasu ka ? 

Have you any silk like this? Kono yd na Itinu ga arimasu kat 

Have you any silk exactly like this ? Chodo kore to onaji yo na kinu ga 

arimasu ka ? 
Is Japanese pottery like French ? Nihon no setomono wa Furansu no yd de 

gozaimasu (no ni nite imasu) ka ? 



As I have already said. Hae ni mo moshita tori, 

Try and repeat the conversation as Kiita tori ni sono hanashi ico shite 

you heard it. goran. 

Why did n't you put out your light Naze iwareta tori ni yube akari wo 

last night as you were told ? kesanakatta ka ? 

Make it round like this. Kono tori ni maruku shite o kure. 

Just like it. Chodo sono tori da. 



2. 

Nothing travels like light. Hikari hodo hayaku hashiru mono tea 

nai. 

Is Yumoto as high as Ashi-no-yu P Yiimoto wa Ashinoyu hodo tako gozai- 
masu ka ? 

Run to the house as fast as you can, Dekiru dake hayaku uchi ye kaketeitte, 
and tell Koma to go for the doctor. Koma ni islia ivo yobi ni ike to itte o 

kure. 



THE ADVERB. 163 

SEC. 6. VERY. 

1 . In affirmative sentences taiso, taihen, yo/wdo, makoto 
ni,jitsu ni, goku, hanahada, itatte. 

2. In negative sentences (excepting when also interroga- 
tive) amari. 



I. 

It was very hot last night. Yube wa taiso atsukatta. 

This pen is very bad. Kono fude wa taihen waruku natta. 

I shall be very busy to-morrow morn- Ashita hirumae wa yohodo isogashiu 

ing. gozaimasu. 

He was very sick, but he is better Yohodo wamkatta ga konogoro yoi ho 

now. desu. 

I slept very badly last night. Yube wa makoto ni ne-gokoro ga 

ivarukatta. 
V r ery few foreigners know much about Waka no koto wo yoku shitte iru 

Japanese poetry. gwaikokujin wa goku sukunai. 

2. 

The sky is not very clear to-night. Konya sora ga amari harete inai. 
They don't like each other very Ano futari wa amari naka ga yokunai. 

much. 
The herons can not fly very fast Sagi wa konna kaze ni mukatte amari 

against such a wind. hayaku tobenai. 

I gave the coolies a bu apiece, but Ninsoku ni ichi bu zutsu yatta ga amari 

they did not seem very well satisfied. manzoku de nai yosu de atta, 

Was n't that .fan very dear ? Ano ogi wa yohodo takakatta de wa 

arimasenu ka ? 
Don't YOU think Michi will be very Michi san wa yohodo komarimanimai 

much annoyed? ka? 

U ii't Hakodate a very cold place in Hakodate wa fuyu ni naru to taisO 

Winter ? samui tokbro de wa nai ka ? 



1 64 THE ADVERB. 

, . 

SEC. 7. ONLY. 

1. Tada, bakari, tada . . . bakari Equivalent to 'but' 
and limiting number or quantity, ' only ' is often rendered 
by shika or kya and the negative. 

2. Preceded by if sae and the conditional. 

3. Not later than, yet mada. 

4. Not until yoyaku. 

5. Contemptuous kuse ni. 



I. 

Don't cry, the dog is only barking. Nakuna inu wa tada Jioete iru no da. 

It was only as company for you that Tada o tsukiai ni itta no da. 

I went. 

I go to Yokohama only once or twice Yokohama ye iku no wa hifo tsitki ni 

a month. tada iclii do ka ni do de cjozaiwasn. 

I have only read it. Yonda bakari de gozaimasu. 

I opened the trap only a little. Wana no kuchi wo sukoshi bakari aketa 

no desu. 

He not only wears a sword, but he Tada katana wo sashite iru bakari de 

knows how to use it. naku, sono tsukai yd mo shitte imasn. 

This jinriki has only (has or has n't Kono jinriki wa wa ga hitotsu shika 

but) one wheel. (kya) nai. 

Only half the number I ordered have Chiimon shita kazu no hambicn shika 

come. (kya) konai. 

The mail goes only every other day, Yubin wa ichi nichi oki ni afnka 

but I will have one of the servants (kya) demasenu ga uchi no mono ni 

take it for you. motasete 'yarimasho. 

Mr. Ikeda has only one brother. Ikeda san wa hitori shika kyodai ga 

nai. 

I expected only twenty, but about Niju nin shika konai dard to omotta ga 

forty came. shi jii nin hodo kita. 



THE ADVERB. 165 

2. 

If we only had a good cat we could Ji neko sae attara kono nezumi ga 

catch these rats. toreru daro. 

Probably there will be no trouble if Hodoyoku sae sureba muzukashii koto 

you only use moderation. wa arumai. 

3- 

To-day is only the fifth. Kyo wa mada itsuka de.su. 

Why ! it is only three o'clock. Nani ! mada san ji da. 

He is only a child. Are wa mada kodomo desu. 

4- 

Your letter reached me only yester- Sakujitsu yoyaku o tegami ga todokii 
day. masJiita. 



S- 
He is only a farmer : what does he Hyakusho no kuse ni : seiji no Ttoto ga 

know about government ? nani ga wakaru mono ka ? 

You fly a kite ? You're only a girJ. Onna no ko no kuse ni : tako ga agaru 

mono ka? 

SEC. 8. TOO. 

1. Amari and the adjective or the stem of the adjective 
and sugiru. 

2. Too . . to amari and the participial form follow- 
ed by the negative. 

I. 

This pencil is too soft. Kono empitsu wa amari yawaraka- ' 

(yawaraka sugiru). 

This bottle is too small. Kono tokkuri wa amari chiisai (chisa 

sugiru). 

Are n't your ceilings a little too high ? Tenjo ga sukoshi taka sugiru de wa 

arimasenu ka? 

This is a little too much. Kore de wa sukoshi o sugiru. 



1 66 THE ADVERB. 

2. 

These clothes are too dirty to wear. A'ono kimono wa amari yogorete ki- 

rarenai. 
That book is too big to go into the Sono hon wa amari okikute shodana ni 

book-case. hairanai. 

Pine is too brittle to make a cane. Matsu wa amari sakukute tsue ni 

naranai. 
His talk is too low to listen to. Ano hito no hanashi wa amari kegare- 

washikute kikaremasenu. 
That is too pitiful to look at. Are iva amari kawaiso de mirarenai. 



SEC. 9. EVEN. 

1. With the subject and also with adverbs of time de 
mo, (more emphatic) de sac mo ; in other cases mo. 

2. Even including made. 



I. 

Even a child understands that. Sore wa kodomo de mo wdkaru. 

Even Denjiro can read Chinese pretty Dewjiro de sae mo zuibun kanji ga 

well. yomeni, 

Even the winters are not very cold Tokyo wa fuyu de mo amari samukit* 

in Tokyo. nai. 

Even to-morrow would do. Asliita de mo yo gozaimasu. 

You would be in time even now. Ima de mo ma ni aimasho. 

Even formerly the farmers did not Moto de mo hyakusho wa katana wo 

wear swords. sasanakatta. 

lie did not eat even his rice this Kcsa meshi mo tabenakatta. 

morning. 

If I walk even a ri I get very tired. IcM ri mo arukeba taihen kutabireru. 

There have been a few cases of cho- Hakodate ni mo korera ga sukoshi atta 

lera even in Hakodate, it seems. so desu. 

Matsu has not even dusted this room Matsu wa kesa kono heya wo hataki mo 

this morning. shinai. 



THE ADVERB. 1 67 

I'll go even if it rains pretty hard. Ame ga zuibun tsuyoku futte mo 

mairimasho. 

Even if you take a kago you will be Kago ni meshite mo yohodo o tsukare 
very tired. nasaimasho 

2. 

They killed even the children. Kodomo made koroshite shimatta. 

Even the trees were withered by last Kyonen no Mderi de ki made kareta. 
year's drought. 



SEC. io. ALMOST. 

1 . Nearly rno sukosJii de. 

2. Nearly all, the most of taitei, taigai. 

' 

It is almost twelve o'clock. Mo sukoshi de ju niji da. 

It is almost a year since I went to YokoJiama ye itte kara mo sukoshi de 

Yokohama. iclii nan ni naru. 

My horse stumbled and I almost fell Uma ga ketsnmazuite mo sukoshi d& 

off. okkochiru tokoro de atta. 

2. 

The rain-water is almost all gone. Ama-mizu wa taitei nakunatta. 

Almost every one in the house has a Taitei uchi jii no mono ga kazake da, 

cold. 

He has thrown away almost all his Yama de taitei shinsho wo sutete shi- 

property in speculation. matta. 



SEC. ii. ABOUT. 

Approximately kttrai, Jiodo, bakari. 

About how much will it cost? Ilcura gurai kakarimasho? 

It'is about three feet six inches long. Nagasa wa san jaku roku sun gurai 

daro. 



1 68 THE ADVERB, 

You had better put in about ten Jik kin lakari ircte ban ji ban niru g* 

pounds and boil it half an hour. yokaro. 

I waited about an hour aud then Ichi ji kan bakari matte jinriki wo 

called a jinriki and went home. yonde uchi ye kaetta. 

She is about five feet high and Take ga go shaku bakari de mekaia g& 

weighs about a hundred pounds. hyak kin bakari da. 



CHAPTER VIII. THE NUMERAL. 



SEC. i. CARDINALS. 

Japanese is supplied with two series of cardinals ; one 
Japanese, the other Chinese. The former ends with ten. 



JAPANESE. 


CHINESE. 


I JlitotSU 


icki 


1 1 ju ichi 


21 ni jii ichi 


2 futatsu 


ni 


12 jit ni 


30 san ju 


3 mitsu 


san 


13 ju san 


40 ski ju 


4 yotsu 


ski 


14 ju ski 


roo hyaku 


5 itsutsu 


g 


1 5 ju go 


200 ni hyaku 


6 mutsu 


roku 


1 6 ju roku 


300 sam byaku 


7 nanatsu 


shichi 


17 ju shichi 


600 rop pyaku 


8 yatsu 


hachi 


1 8 ju hachi 


800 hap pyaku 


9 kokonotsu 


ku 


19 ju ku 


1600 j* 


10 to 


jit 


20 ni ju 


2OOO / 5^^ 


10,000 man 100,000 >ju man 


20,000 ni man 1,000,000 hyaku man 



170 THE NUiMERAL. 

The Japanese cardinals usually follow the nouns which 
they qualify, as chochin mitsu three lanterns : sometimes 
however they precede them, in which case they are gene- 
rally succeeded by the postposition no, as mitsu no 'hako 
three boxes. 

Instances occur also in which a Japanese cardinal drops 
its final syllable and precedes a noun without the con- 
necting no. This construction is commonly (not always) 
employed to express the idea contained in the English 
suffix ' ful ': e. g. hito &uc/anot one mouth but one mouthful, 
fut a saji two spoonfuls, mi hako three boxfuls i. e. the 
quantity contained in three boxes, hito tsukami one handful, 
mi tsiiki three months i. e. the length of time contained in 
three months, futa hari not two needles but two stitches, 
hito ashi not one leg but one step. Instances of this con- 
struction occur however in which the idea expressed by 
ful ' is absent : e. g. mi tsutsumi three parcels (even of, 
different things and different sizes) futa iro two sorts, itsu 
shina five articles (even of different kinds). 

In counting it is usual to say, hi, f^l, mi, yo, itsu, (or t) 
mu, nana, ya, kokono, to. And in rendering accounts, to 
avoid confusion with shi and go, nana is frequently substi- 
tuted for shichi and kyu for ku : e. g. kyu sen nine cents, 
nana ju seventy. Sometimes also yon is substituted for 
$/ii : e. g. yon sen four cents, yonju ni sen forty two cents. 

Up to ten the Chinese series is used only with the descrip- 
tive numerals and Chinese words of measure, weight, time, 
et cetera ; as sun inch, shaku foot, ken six feet, cho 
sixty ken, ri two miles and a half, kin catty, hyd bag, 
ji hour, nen year, et cetera. Above ten the Chinese 
series is the only one in use. 



THE NUMERAL. 



SEC. 2. DESCRIPTIVE NUMERALS. 

In certain instances the English idiom requires a numeral 
to be followed by a word (usually) descriptive of the thing 
enumerated. Sometimes the shape of the article has deter- 
mined the word used, sometimes the form in which it comes 
to market, sometimes a marked feature in it, sometimes 
the need of individualization, et cetera : as two sheets or 
rolls of paper or music, so many panes of glass, pieces of 
tape, stacks of hay, bundles of straw, H blades of grass, drops 
of water, flakes of snow, sticks of wood, head of cattle, 
bales of cotton, pairs of scissors, cups of tea, glasses of 
wine, copies of a book, pieces ot statuary. In Japanese 
words of this sort are constantly met with, not only because 
they are much more numerous than in English but also 
because so many of them are applied to whole classes of 
objects. Out of more than fifty, the following will be 
found to embrace most in common use in the colloquial. 
They are added to the Chinese cardinals ; nin, jo and mat 
however prefer yo (four) to ski. 



persons nin money, clothes, plates^ 

animals Juki > -, r 

sheets of paper, et ce- 

birds wa 

houses ken tera ' and flat thin ^ s 

ships so generally , 



mat 



THE NUMERAL. 



shoes 



pairs of sokii 



socks 

jinrikis, guns, ] 

candles, scissors] 



cho 



masts, trees, pencils,\ 

ropes, umbrellas, tubes, 

\hon 
bottles, and long cylin- 



ders generally 



(volumes satsu cups, glasses, pails, et 
books \ 

(copies bit cetera (full) 



\hai 



mats 



jo 



Nin and jo folfow the numeral without alteration in 
either; as ichi nin, san nin, roku nin,jii nin ; the following 
letter changes take place however when the other words 
are preceded by ichi, san, roku orju. 



HIKI. 



HON. 



HAI. 



KEN. 



85. 



ip piki ip pon ip pai ik ken is so 



sain biki sam bon sam bai san gen san so 



rop piki ' rop pon rop pai rok 



ken 



jip inki jip pon jip pai jik ken jis $6 






THE NUMERAL. 173 

SOKU. SATSU. CHO; WA. MAI. 

is soku is satsu it cho sam ba sam mat 

san zoku rop pa 

fis soku jis satsu jit cho jip pet. 

Hitori, futari and yottari are common substitutes for 
ij ni and yo nin. 

Usually the descriptive numerals follow their nouns ; as 
' bring me three or four cups of tea, cha ivo san ski hai 
motte koi ; instances occur, however, where they come first, 
in which cases they are followed by no ; as go satsu no hon 
five books. 

Illustrations of the use of descriptive numerals will be 
found on pages 101, 104, 105, and throughout the book 
generally. 

,<r 

SEC. 3. ORDINALS. 

Ordinals are formed by adding me to the Japanese, or 
bam CbanJ me to the Chinese cardinals. A third series is 
formed by prefixing dai instead of adding bam me, and a 
fourth by employing both dai and bam me. 

Yo, ju yo, et cetera, take the place of shi, ju s/ii, et 
cetera, before bam me ; otherwise the series is regular. 

No is added to an ordinal to fit it to qualify a noun fol- 
lowing. 



174 THE NUMERAL. 



ISt 



2nd 



4th 



roth 



nth 



20th 



ichi bam me 



(no 



hitotsumeno *"* dai ichi \ 

\barn me no 



futatsu me no ni bam me no dai ni 



(no 



mitsn me no 



[bam me no 

r (sail no 

sam uam me , . J 

no at 1 , 

{sam bam me no 



yotsu me no yo bam me no dai \ 



(shi no 



7U bam me , . ._ 
to me no J daiiu - 

no J 



\yo bam me no 
no 



bam me no 



fii ichi bam , . .. . 7 . 
J daini ichi \ 

4 M I? 1 1 /~l * 



(no 



me no , , 

\oarn me no 



(no 

ni nl * 

me no J 



ni ju bam , . 



bam me no 



When the succession is one of time, do or hen is employ- 
ed instead of ban. In like manner, when the ordinals are 
used in connection with expressions of time, weight, meas- 
ure, or with the descriptive numerals, these words take the 
place of ban, a Japanese word being preceded by a Japa- 
nese cardinal ; as 



THE NUMERAL. 175 

second time ni do me 

fourth time ski hen me 

third day mik ka me 

third month mi tsuki me 

sixth year roku nen me 

fourth pound shi kin me 

first cho it cho me 

third ri san ri me 

eighth tsubo ya tsubo rue 

third man san nin me 

second dog ni hiki me 

fifth house go ken me 

fourth jinriki shi cho me 

sixth cup rop pai me 

seventh page shichi mat me 

eighth bottle hachi hon me 

The adverbial ordinals are formed by prefixing dai and 
adding ni to the Chinese cardinals ; as dai ni ni secondly, 

dai san ni thirdly ; usually the ni is dropped after dai ichi 
first. 



SEC. 4. FRACTIONS. 

Fractions are usually rendered by the Chinese cardinals, 
The denominator comes first, and is followed by bun no 
(sometimes contracted into bit] and the numerator ; as sam 
bun no ni two-thirds, go bun no ichi one-fifth, ju bun no 
shi four-tenths. 

The noun half is ham bun ; the adjective, han ; as 



THE NUMERAL. 

I'll take half. Ham bun torimasho. 

Half will be plenty. Ham bun de takusan da. 

Can't you wait half an hour? Hanji kan \aatar< mascnu ka ? 

SEC. 5. PERCENTAGE. 

Ten per cent is ichi wari ; twenty per cent, ni war I. 
Up to ten, percentage is expressed by bu added to the 
Chinese cardinals ; as ichi bu> ni bu, et cetera. 

SEC. 6. CONSECUTIVE NUMBERS. 

In consecutive numbers the highest comes first, the 
second next, following the English order ; as ' the fourth of 
July, 1776' sen shichi hyaku shichi jii roku nen, shichi 
gwatsu, yokka* 

SEC. 7. ADDRESS. 

The order is from general to particular, directly the 
reverse of that usually followed on an English letter. The 
number of the house is commonly followed by chi (lot); 
as 

Mr. Maeda Toshimitsu, 
No. 2. First Cho, 
Kobiki Ward, 

Kyo Bashi District, 

Tokyo. 
Tokyo, 

Kyo Bashi Ku, 
Kobiki Cho, 

It Cho me ni ban chi* 

Maeda Toshimitsu Sama. 



CHAPTER IX. THE POSTPOSITION. 



What in English are prepositions in Japanese are post- 
positions, which may be classified as simple and compound. 

The simple postpositions are de, ni, ye, no, kara, yori 
and made. 

The compound postpositions are made up of a noun pre- 
ceded by no which links them to the foregoing word, and 
followed by ni ; as no shit a ni underneath, no kawari ni 
instead of, no tame ni for the sake of. De, ye and no 
are sometimes substituted for ni ; de and ye to express 
certain shades of meaning (comp. sees. I, 2, 4), and no to 
join the postposition to a word following. Compound post- 
positions become adverbs by dropping no; following- an 
adjective, also, the no is dropped, as sono ne ni on top of 
it. These words being nouns are often used as predicates, 
in which case da takes the place of ni ; they may also be- 
come the direct object of a verb, when ni gives way to wo. 

Some English prepositions are rendered by participles ; 
as ni yotte according to ; and some, when used in a special 
sense, are translated accordingly, as ' for ' (to fetch) tori ni, 

SEC. i. AT. 
i. Place: 

(a] With a verb of situation ;//. 
(b} With a verb of action de. 



THE POSTPOSITION. 

With a verb of situation, ni is used to render both ' in ' 
and ' at ' ; with a verb of action, de. In certain verbs of 
action, however, as tatsu to stand, sitwarii to sit, the 
idea of action is often subordinate to that of situation : 
under such circumstances, they will usually be accompanied 
by ni. This is the explanation of the ni in sentences of the 
sort on page 95, the point of the inquiry not being whether 
grass grows in the desert, but whether it grows in the desert 
whether there is any grass there ; so in the example on 
page 100, the act of establishing is altogether secondary to 
the fact that preaching stations have been established 
that they exist. Whether de or ni is employed will depend 
therefore upon what idea is prominent in the speaker's 
mind ; as a general rule however it will be found that am, 
oru and iru are accompained by ni, other verbs by de. 

It may be worth while to state in passing that in speak- 
ing of companies, associations, the government and depart- 
ments of the same, et cetera, de is often inserted when in 
English the simplest construction is one without any pre- 
position. The commonest example of this is seifu de ; as 
' I hear that the Tokyo Fu is going to abolish the Chu 
Gakko before long ' kondo Tokyo Fu de Chu Gakkd wo 
haisu so da ; ' so the Beisho Gwaisha met with a serious loss 
the other day ' sendatte Beisho Givaisha de taihen son wo 
shita so da ; ' they say the Mitsu Bishi Kwaisha expect 
soon to buy another lot of steamers ' chikajika ni Mitsu 
Bishi Kivaisha de mata jokisen wo kai-ireru so da. 

2. Time ni. 






THE POSTPOSITION. 179 

I. (). 

There used to be a barrier at Hakone. Hakone ni moto sekislio ga atta. 

Are n't some of the Shoguns' tombs Shogun no haka wa Nikko ni mo aruja 

at Nikko ? arimasenu ka ? 

I hope there are not many musqui- Odaivara ni wa amari ka ga inakereba 

toes at Odawarn. ii ga. 

i. (6). 

We buy our vegetables at that shop. A soko no mise de yasai mono wo kai- 

masu. 

We stayed three days at Kiga. Kiga de mikka todomarimashita. 

Did you rest at Odawara ? Odaivara de o yasumi nas'tta ka 9 

2. 

I got up this morning at half past Kesa yoji han ni okimashita. 

four. 
Wake me to-morrow morning at day- Asu no asa yoake ni okoshite o kure. 

break. 



SEC. 2. IN. 

1. With a verb of situation ni (comp. sec. I.); of a thing 
put into another ni Jiaitte iru ; of holes ni aite iru. 

2. With a verb of action (comp. sec. i.), or when accom- 
panied by a superlative dc. 

3. Inside of, within, in the midst of no ?iaka ni, no 
aid a ni. 

4. Into -ye, no naka ye. 



I. 

Is there a good hotel in Tokyo ? Tokyo ni wa ii hatagoyaga arimasu ka? 

There are two or three fine water- Amerika ni kirei na taki ganisanga 
falls in America. slio aru. 



l8o THE POSTPOSITION. 

Is there any thing in the house ? Uchi ni nani lea aru ka ? 

Is n't it in Kyiio Dowa ? Kyiio Dowa ni aru de iva arimasenu 

ka? 
You must not sit in the draught. Kaze no fuki-tosu tokoro ni swcatte ite 

wa ikenai. 

What is in that box ? Sono hako ni nani ga haitte iru ka ? 

Is there any salt in this bread ? Kono pan ni shio ga haitte imasu ka ? 

There is a hole in this teapot. Kono kibisho ni ana ga aite im. 

2. 

I believe he died in Tokyo. Tokyo de shinimashitaro. 

I must have dropped it in Ginza. Kitto Ginza de otoshita daro. 

How much sake do you suppose is Iclii nen ni Tokyo ju de nomu sake wa 

drunk in Tokyo in a year r nani hodo de gozaimasho? 

You can't get good jinrikis in the Inakadeioa ii jinriki ni .now wake ni 

country. ikanai. 

Which is the longest street in Tokyo ? Tokyo de wa nani cho ga ichi ban nagai 

daro? 
Which is the largest island in the Sekai de nan to iu sJiima ga ichi ban 

world ? okii daro ? 

Who is. the strongest in the family ? Uchi de wa dare ga ichi ban jobu da ? 

3- 
It is in the trunk wrapped up in Ifaivabitsu no naka ni kami ni tsutsunde 

paper. am. 

I saw a fox in tho woods. Hayashi no naka de kitsune wo mita. 

You can ride to the railway ill twen- Ni jip pun no aida ni tctsudo made 

ty minutes. notte ikeru. 

4- 

Please bore a hole in this. Kore ye ana wo akete kndasai. 

Perhaps you put it in your pocket. Kakushi ye o ire nas'tta no ka mo 

sliiremascnn. 

He has gone into the temple to wor- Miya no naka yc orjami ni haitta. 
ship. 



THE POSTPOSITION. I8i 

SEC. 3. ON. 

1. Ni. 

2. On the upper surface of, on top of no ue ui. 

i. 

Please write Kanazawa on this en- Kono jobukuro ni Kanazawa to kaite 

v elope. kudasai. 

There is a stain 011 my haori. Watdkuslii no haori ni shimi go, aru. 

There is a fly (lighting) on the ceil- Tenjo ni liai ga tomatte iru. 

ing. 

Is there a stamp (pasted) on that Sana tegami ni kitte ga hatte gozaimasu 

letter ? ka ? 

There is not a single button (fast- Kono jiban ni ^ca botan ga hitotsu mo 

enecl) on this shirt. tsuite inai. 

He went home on Monday. Getsuyobi ni mlii ye kaerimashita. 

2. 

Is that a dog sleeping on the floor? Ytika no ue ni- netc iru no wa inu desu 

ka? 

My hat is on the table. BosJii wa tsukue no ue ni arimasu. 

Did n't you leave your shoes on the Ilasld no ue ye kutsu wo o oki nasai- 

bridge ? masenu deshita ka ? 

I dropped a stone on my foot. AsM no ue ni ishi wo otoshita. 



SEC. 4. To. 

1. Preceding the indirect object ni. 

2. To a place yc, ni. 

3. As far as made. 



Give something to the dog. Inu ni nani ka o yari. 

Don't lend it to any cue. Sore wo dare ni mo o kaski nasamna, 

What did you aay to Miss Ohiye ? Cine san ni nan to osshatta ka ? 



1 82 THE POSTPOSITION. 

2. 

We're going to E,y6goku Bashi to- Konya hanabi wo mi ni Ryogoku BasJii 

night by boat to see the fireworks. ye fune de mairimasu. 

Would you like to take a walk to- Hon Cho no ho ye undo ni irasshite 

wards Hon Cho ? wa ikaga ? 

Hare n't you taken that box up- Mada ano hako wo nikai ye motte 

stairs yet ? ikimasenu ha ? 

3- 

How much to Asakusa and back ? Asakusa madejoge ikura i 

I went to the Tori, but I did not find Tori made itta get ano hito ni aiva- 

him. nakatta. 

How much is a ticket to Tokyo ? Tokyo made no kitte wa dono kurai 

desho ? 



SEC. 5. FROM, OUT, OFF, THROUGH. 

1. From ( preceding a noun ) out of, off of, through (as a 
way of entrance) kara. 

2. From preceding a verbal noun indicative present 
negative and yd ni. 

3. Off (detached from) tor eta. 

4. Off shore no oki ni. 

5. To pass through torn, through the midst of no na- 
ka wo torn ; to pass something through tdsu. 

I. 

How far is it from here to that tree ? Koko kara ano ki made nani hodo 

arimasu ka ? 

Hang it on the fourth nail from the Migi kara yo lam me no kugi ni o kake. 

right. 

I rode steadily from six in the morn- Asa no roku ji kara ban no roku ji 

ing until six in the evening. made hikkikirazu ni notta. 

Perhaps you can borrow one from Tonari kara karirarcru ka mo sliiri~ 

next door* masenu. 



THE POSTPOSITION. 183 

Take a pound of sugar out of this Kono liako kara sato wo ik kin o 

box. dashi. 

Bring- me a dish out of the closet. Mono-oki kara sara ico iclii mai motte 

hoi. 

Empty it out of this bottle and pour Kono tokkuri kara core ye. utswse. 

it into that. 

Take the clothes out of the trunk Kawalitsu kara kimono wo dashite kaze 

and air them. wo tcshite o kure. 

Take the books off that table. Soiio dai kara hon wo oroshite o kure. 

I fell off iny hoi'se and sprained my Uma kara ochite ashi-kubi wo kiijtiia. 
ankle. 

Let's go in through the window. Mado kara hairoja nai ka? 

Did the rain leak through your roof? taku no yane kara amc $a morima* 

f.hita ka 1 
Won't it go in through the key hole? Kagi-ana kara hairimasenu ka? 



Is there no way to keep books from Hon ni kabi ga haenai yS ni sum 

moulding- ? shikata ica arimasenu ka ? 

Be careful and keep the childien Kodomo ni kaze wo hikasenai yd ni ki 

from taking cold. wo tsuke nasai. 



The leg is off that table. Ano dai no aslti ga toreta. 

The tiles are all off the roof. Kono yanc no kawara ga mina tortft 

shimatta. 



The ship is at anchor oft' (he fort;. Fune ga daiba no oki ni teihaitu shift 

int. 

They tell me a great many fish are Houimoku no oki de taiso sakana ga 
caught oft' IIoiniDoku. toreru so da. 



1 84 THE POSTPOSITION. 

5. 

I ran through the house. le wo tori nuketa. 

I rode through the crowd in a jin- Hitogomi no naka wo jinrild ni notte 

riki. torimashita. 

Pass your thread through the needle Hari ye ito wo toshite liaji wo musunde 

and make a knot in it. o old. 



SEC. 6. -BY. 

1. Of the agent ni (comp. however II, VII). 

2. Of the instrument de, ivo matte. 

3. Beside no soba ni. 

4. Of time made ni. 

I. 

I had it made by the blacksmith. Kajiya ni kosJiiracsasemashita. 
This book was written by a China- Kore wa Shinajin no kaita lion desu. 
man. 

2. 

We went to Odawara by jinriki. Odaicara ye jinrild de ikimashita. 

Please let me know immediately by Dozo siigu ni dcnshin de shirasete 

telegraph. kiidasai. 

Were n't you waked up by the earth- Yube no jishin de me ga same wa 

quake last night ? shimasenu desliita ka ? 



Did you ever stand by a waterfall? Taki no soba ni tatte o ide nas'tta Icoto 

ga arimasu ka ? 
ffhis brook runs by the village. Kono kogawa wa mura no soba 100 

nagarern. 

You are living- in the house by the Hasld no soba no uclii ni sunde iru de 
bridge, are n't you? wa nai Jca? 



THE POSTPOSITION. 185 

4- 

I'll b$ ready by noon. Iliru made ni shitaku ga dekimasho. 

It may possibly stop raining 1 by even- Ban mads ni arm ga yamumai mono de 

ing. mo nai. 

The jinriki must be here by four Jinriki wa yo ji made ni koko ys 

o'clock. konakereba naranai. 



SEC. 7. WITH. 

1. Of the instrument de, wo motte. 

2. Together with, in company with to, to issho ni, to 
tomo ni. 

3. Belonging to, connected with ni tsuite. 



I. 

You had better tie that parcel with Sono tsutsumi wo Jiiino de sliibaru 

a string. ga ii. 

Wipe it up with a cloth. Zokin defuite o kure. 

Wash it with soap. Shalon-mizu de aratte o kure. 

You would write faster with a pencil. Evipitsu de kaita ho ga liayai. 

He writes with his left hand. Hidari no te de kakimono wo sum. 



I argued with him for about an hour. Ano kito to iclii ji kan liodo girotiwo 

shita. 
Send the figs along with the grapes. Ichijiku wo budo to issho ni yatte o 

kure. 
I left the *hoes in the corner with Komori-gasa to issho ni kutsu wo sinni 

the nuibrella. ye oita. 

\\ r eirthen, I'll go with you. Sore ja go issho ni mairimasho. 



I c there no key with this watch? Kono tokti ni wa kagi ga Isuite imasenu 

ka? 



r86 THE POSTPOSITION. 

Is n't there a wick with the new Atarashii rampu rd wa shin ga tsuite 

lamp ? inai ka ? 

Did n't a letter corue with this box? Kono hako ni tegami ga tsuite kimasenu 

deshita ka? 



SEC. 8. WITHOUT. 

1. Preceding a Noun : 

(a) Not having nasJii ni, nakn. 

(&) Unless one has hakereba, nakiite iva. 

2. Preceding a verbal noun negative participle, 

r. (a). 

This letter came without a stamp. K&no tegami wa kitte nashi ni kiriia- 

sliita. 

Why did you make it without hand- Naze te nashi ni koshiraemashita 

les? 

These matches burn without any Kono tsukegi wa nioi nashi ni moem 

smell. 

You must not leave the house again Mata kotowari nashi ni uchi ico dete wa 

without leave. narimasenu. 

I. (b). 

You can't open it without a key. Kagi ga nakereba akeru wake ni ika~ 

nai. 

Mamma can not read any thing any Okkasan wa megane ga nakute wa mo 
more without her spectacles. nani mo yomu koto ga dekinai. 



I suppose it would not do for us to Kutsu wo torazu ni haitte wa waru- 

go in without taking off our shoes. karo. 

You must not go without letting me Watakuslii ni sliirasezu ni itte wa 

know. ikenai. 

You must not buy the sugar without Me ni kakenai de sato wo katte wa 

weighing it. ikemasenu. 



THE POSTPOSITION. l/ 

He went without (taking) an urn- Komori-gasa ico motazu ni itta. 

breila. 
Bring me the lamp without (putting Hoya ico kakezu ni rampu wo motte 

on) the chimney. hoi. 

You aro writing without (putting Sumi wo tsukezu ni kaite i nasaru. 

on) any ink. 
Sometimes the coolies ran without Ninsoku ga waraji wo hakazu ni 

(putting on) their sandals (and hashitta koto mo am. 

sometimes with them on). 
Do you intend to go without (taking) Annai ico tsurezu ni o ide nasaru o 

a guide ? tsumori ka ? 

SEC. 9. OF. 

1. Possession, apposition no. 

2. Partitive : 

(a) Some of a group as contrasted with the remainder 

or emphasized, (hence, frequently accompanied 
by ' some/ ' many/ ' few ') no uchi ni t ni. 

(b) When however there is no contrast or special 

emphasis, * of ' is not expressed. 

3. Made of de. 

i. 

The nails were rotten, and the bot- Kugi ga kusatte hako no soko ga 

torn of the box fell out. nuketa, 

Don't you like the smell of a good Ti tabako no nioi wo o suki jaarima- 

cigar? senuka? 

In the daimyo town of Odawara. Odawara no joka ni. 

2. (a). 

Some of us would like to study his- V/atakushidomo no uchi ni rekishi wo 

tory. keiko shitai mono mo gozaimasu. 

Some of the Tokyo merchants wear Tokyo no akindo ni yqfuku wo kiru Into 

foreign clothes. mo gozaimasu. 



1 88 THE POSTPOSITION. 

Many of them do not know how to Ano Into taclii no uchi ni yomi-kaki no 
read or write. dekinai mono go, oku aru. 

Many of the Japanese epeak English. Nihonjm ni wa Eigo wo tsukau litto 

ga oku aru. 

Few of the jinriki men live to be Jinriki wo hilcu mono ni go jis sat made 
fifty. . ikiru mono wa sukunai. 

2. (6). 

Please hand me one of those pens. Sono fude wo ip pon tolte kudasai. 
Are any of the children sick ? Donata ka o kosama ga go byoki dcsu 

ka? 

One of Mr. Tanuka's daughters was' Tanaka san no musume ga hitori 
married lately. chikagoro katazuita. 

3- 

Make it of pine. Matsu no Id de tsukutte o kure. 

It is made of flour and water. Konn. to mizu de koshiraeta mono da. 

Did n't you intend to build of brick ? Renga de ie ico o tate nasaru tsumori d* 

wa arimascnu deshita ka ? 



SEC. 10. FOR. 

1. For the sake t>f no tame ni. 

2. Instead of no kaivari ni. 

3. To serve as, to be used for ;/// intending to make 
serve as ni shiyo to omottc. 

4. Considering that ni shite iva. 

5. To be delivered to ni yarn. 

6. To be used with, on, by no. 
7 '. Addressed to <no tokoro yc* 

* 8. To fetch, to get tori ni. 
9. To call yobi ni. 
10. Price: 

(a) Buying dc, ni. 



THE POSTPOSITION. 1 89 

(&) Selling ni, de. 

1 1 . Courtesy (comp. IV. III. sec. 2.) ageru, morau, kuda- 
sani, kttreru and (usually of a favor to a third party) yaru. 

i. 

He died for his country. Kuni no tame ni inochi too suteta. 

The doctor recommended me to go to Yojo no tame ni Atami ye maim ga yoi 
Atarni for my health. to islia ga moshita. 

2. 

You must n't use a chisel for a screw- Nomi wo nejinuki no kawari ni tsukatte 
driver. wa ikenai. 

3- 

What are these boards for? Kono ita iva nani ni narimasu kat 

That won't do for the pillow. Sore wa makura ni wa naranai. 

He would do vei-y well for a teacher. Ano hito wa shislw ni goku yokaro. 
I want to engage a man and his wife Fufu mono ivo kozukai ni tanomitai. 
for servants. 

I bought it for a thing to put pens Fude-tate ni shiyd to omotte kaima- 
in. shita. 

4- 
He speaks pretty well for a foreigner. Gwaikokujin ni shite wa kanari yoku 

dekimasu. 

He runs fast for a child. Kodomo ni sliite wa hayaku hashiru. 

It was very badly done for him. Ano Into ni sliite wa yohodo fudeki de 

atta. 

Is n't this weather very hot for To- Kono jiko wa Tokyo ni shite wa taiso 
kyo ? at sui de wa arimasenu ka ? 

5- 

Rin has left something for you. Pin san ga anata ni ya,ru mono ivq 

nani ka cite itta. 

I left a letter here yesterday for Mr. Kimura san ni yam tegami ivo kino 
Kimura. koko ye okimashita. 



1 90 THE POSTPOSITION. 

6. 

I want a key for this box. Kono hako no kagi ga iriyo da. 

Have n't you a cork for this bottle ? Kono tokkuri no kuchi ga arimasenu 

ka? 

While yon are about it, get another Tsuide ni kono rampu no licya wo mo 
chimney for this lamp. hitotsu katte o ide. 

7- 

A telegram has come for you. Anata no tokoro ye demJiin ga mairi- ' 

mashita. 
Did n't a package come for me ? Watakushi no tokoro ye tsutsiuni ga 

kimasenu deshita ka ? 

Has n't some freight come for me Watakushi no tokoro ye Yokohama kara 
from Yokohama ? nimotsu ga kite imasenu ka ? 

8. 

Has Han gone for my watch? Han wa tokei wo tori ni ikimashita 

ka ? 

Send IVnjiro for it. Denjiro wo tori ni o yan nasaL 

Have you written to Yokohama for Mo ano kane wo tori ni Yokoltama ye 
that money ? tegami wo o yan nas'tta ka ? 

9- 

I went for the doctor, but he was out. Islia wo ytibi ni itta ga rustide atta. 
Some time to-day I want you to go Kyoju daiku ivo yobi ni itte moraitai. 

for a carpenter. 

You had better go for another kago. Kago wo mo it did yobi ni itta ho ga 

yokaro. 

10. 

I do not think you can buy one for Jfi en de wa kaemasitmai. 

ten dollars. 

About what can you buy a jinriki Jinriki wa it did ikura gurai de kai- 

f or ? mahso ka ? 

I bought it for five bus and sold it Ichi en ichi bu de katte ichi en ni lu ni 

for six, 



THE POSTPOSITION. igi 

He sold it for 2,500 dollars and got Ni sen go hyaku en ni utte tono dai wo 

the money for it. moratta. 

I'll go for twenty cents. Nijis sen de mairimashd. 

* 

II. 

I was going to engage one for you Zen ni uchi ni otta no u'o tanonde ageyo 

that used to live with us. to omotta. 

Mild wants you to buy a hairpin for Miki san ga anata ni kanzaslii wo 

her. katte moraitai, 

Please sharpen both ends of this Kono empitsu wo ryo-haji to mo 

pencil for me. kezntte kudasai. 

Please buy some toys for the children. Kodomo ni nani ka omocha wo katte 

yatte kudasai. 

Are n't you going to buy a carriage Akamlo ni kuriuna ico katte o yan 

for the baby ? nasaimascmi ka ? 



SEC. ii. ACROSS, OVER, BEYOND. 

1. The other side of no ijmko ni. 

2. Further on than, ahead of no saki ni. 



Who is that across the way? Miclii no mnko ni om no wa dare desu 

ka? 
What is that house across the canal ? Horiwari no nniko ni aru uchi wa nan 

desu ka? 
The wind blow the letter over the Kaze ga tegami ico ie no mitko ye 

house. fu ki-tobasJiita. 

Are there any villages beyond Fuji? Fuji no muko ni vmra ga arimasu ka? 



2. 

^ It is a little beyond Nikon Bashi. Nihon Baslti no sukoshi saki desu. 
He lives just beyond the Post Office. Yitbin-yakuslio no jiki saki ni f,imde 

irn. 
Go on a little further (ahead a little). Mo sukoshi saki ye. 



THE POSTPOSITION. 
SEC. 12. AMONG. 

No uchi ni. no naka ni. 

fc 

I think you'll find it among the tools. Dogu no uclii ni arimasho. 

Is there a dictionary among them ? Sono uchi nijibiki ga arimasu ka ? 

SEC. 13. AROUND. 
No mawari m, no gururi ni, no meguri ni. 

There was a crowd of policemen le no mawari ni junsa ga ozei tatte 

standing around the house. otta. 

Let's put some flowers around the Mizn-gwashi ?w mawari ni liana wo oho 

fruit. ja nai lea ? 

SEC. 14. BEFORE. 
In front of no mae ni, 

He stood before the king. no mae ni tachhuashita. 

Is there a seat in front of the tea- Chaya no mae ni koshihake ga am 
house ? ka ? 

SEC. 15. BEHIND. 

1. At the. back of no ushiro ni. 

2. Further back than, after no ato ni\ following after 
no ato ni tsutte, no ato kara. 

i. 

There is a well behind the house. le no ushiro ni ido ga aru. 

The key has fallen down behind the Toltei no ushiro ye kagi ga ochita. 

clock. 
Please hand rne that book behind ushiro ni aru lion wo totte kudasai. 

you. 



THE POSTPOSITION. IQ3 

2. 

The other boat must be a good way Mo is so no fime iva mo yoliodo ato ni 

behind us now. nattaro. 

The troops inarched behind the Heitai wa TensMsama no o ato ni 

Emperor. tsuite itta. 

You had better make the kagos go Kago tea jinriki no ato kara ikaseru 

after the jinrikis. ga ii. 

Ill come after you. ato kara mairimaslio. 



SEC. 1 6. BETWEEN. 

No aid a ni. 

There is a well between the main Omoya to daidokoro no aida ni ido ga 

house and the kitchen. am. 

It has fallen down between the book- Shodana to kale no aida ye ochita. 

case and the wall. 

Between four and five o'clock. Shi ji kara go ji made no aida. 



SEC. 17. DURING. 

No uchi ni, no aida ni ; following a Chinese noun (fre- 
buently) chu. 

He died during the night. Yoru no uchi ni shinda. 

You ought to study a little every day Yasumi no aida ni mo mainichi sukoshi 

even during vacation. zutsu keiko nasaru ga ii. 

During his trial the people were Gimmi chu wa jinshin ga yohodo doijo 

greatly excited. shita. 

Tf any one should come during din- Dare de mo shokiiji chu ni kitara, 

ner, apologize for my not being shitsurei nagara o me ni kaltnrenui 

able to see him. (o ie. 



194 THE POSTPOSITION. 

SEC. 1 8. EXCEPT, BESIDES, BUT. 

1. Excepting, besides no hoka ni. 

2. Only (comp. VII. IV. sec. 6) shika or kya and the 
negative. 

i. 

I have nothing with me except a five Go ryo satsu no hoka ni nani nw motte 

dollar note. orimasenit. 

Did n't you go any where but to Shiba no hoka. ye wa doko ye mo 

Shiba? irasshaimastnu dcshita ka? 

Every thing excepting that is per- Sono Jioka ni mina yoku wakaru. 

fectly plain. 

Have you no pens besides these? Kono hokani wa fade wa gozaimascnu 

ka? 

I 

2. 

He has taken two himself and has Jibun iva fiitatsu totte watakvs)':i ni 

not given me but (has given me hitotsu shika (kya) kurenai. 

only) one. 

He did n't send but (sent only) half Yakusoku shita hambun shika (kya) 

that he promised. yokosanakatta. 

I won't give but a little more (will Mo sukoshi shika (kya) yarimasenu. 

give only). 

He did n't wait but a little while Sukoshi no aida shika machimasenu 

(waited only). dtshita. 



SEC. 19. INSTEAD OF. 

1. Before a noun no kaivari ni. 

2. Before a verbal noun negative participle. 



i. 



Did n't you put in salt instead of Sato no kawari ni shio wo ireta de wa 
sugar ? nai ka ? 






THE POSTPOSITION. 195 

I wish I had gone instead of him. Ano liito no kawari ni watakushi get, 

ikcba yokatta. 

You had better use a big spoon in- Sono kawari ni okii saji wo tsukau 
stead. ga ii. 

2. 

Instead of going to Yokohama he Yokohama ye ikazn ni Tokyo ye maitta. 

went to Tokyo. 
He sleeps all day instead of doing Shi goto wo sezu ni ichi nichi nete 

his work. imasu. 

I think I'll build instead of buying. le wo kawazu ni atarashiku tateyo to 

omoimasu. 



SEC. 20. OVER, ABOVE. 

No uye ni. 

I think it is hanging over the clock. Tokei no ne ni kakatte imasho. 
Look on the shelf above. Sono ue no tana wo goran. 

SEC. 21. UNDER, BELOW, BENEATH. 

No shit a ni. . 

There is a closet under the stairs. Agaridan no shita ni oshi-ire ga am. 

The dog is under the veranda gnaw- Engawa no shita ni inu ga hcne iso 

ing a bone. kajitte iru. 

The dogs kept barking under my Mado no shita de yo ju inu ga hoete 

window all night long. otta. 

The rat went under the house. Nezumi ga ie no shita wo totta. 

SEC. 22. ACCORDING TO, IN ACCORDANCE WITH. 

1. Dependent on, regulated by ni yotte. 

2. Of opinions, teachings, writings, et cetera ni yoreba* 



Ig6 THE POSTPOSITION. 

3. Of statements no iu (hanashi) ni. 

4. In obedience to, in compliance with ni shitagatte, 
dori ni. 

5. In harmony with ni kanau. 



I. 

The rate differs according to the Kotoba no Jcazu ni yotte ryU ga 

number of words. chigaimasu. 

The postage differs according to the Tegami no mekata ni yotte yubin-zei ga 

weight of the letter. chigaimasu. 

I change my clothes according to the Jiko ni yotte kimono wo kaemasu. 

weather. 

They are arranged according to Iro ni yotte narabeta mono da. 

color. 

I may go or not, according to cir- Shina ni yotte iku ka mo ikanai ka mo ' 

cumstances. shiremasenu. 

2. 

According to the opinion of some Aru gakusha no setsu ni yoreba, kore wa 

scholars, this is a mistake. machigaida. 

According to the Nichi Nichi Shim- Nichi Nichi Shimbun ni yoreba, korera- 

bun, the cholera appears to be byd ga hibi man-en sum yosu da. 

spreading from day to day. 

3- 

According to the doctor, he has the Isha no iu ni wa dno hito wa hoso da. 

sinall-pox. 
According to a certain teacher. Aru sensei no o hanashi ni wa. 

4- 

In accordance with the doctor's ord- Isha no sashizu ni shitagatte, junsa ga 

ers, the police disinfected the whole ie ju ni sho-dokuho wo okonatta. 

hbuse. 
In accordance with the treaty, for- Joyaku ni shitagatte, givaikokiijin wa 

eigners were allowed to live in Tsukiji ni oru koto ga deldta. 

Tsukiji. 



THE POSTPOSITION. 

According to the regulations, school Kisoku dori ni, kyo yori gakko wo 

closes to-day. yasumimasu. 

5- 

Is that in accordance with Japanese Sore ica Nihon nofuzoku ni kanaimasu 

custom ? ka ? 

Your view is not in accordance with Sono go setsu wa joyaku ni kanai- 

the treaty. masenu. 

That is not in accordance with your Sore iva o yakusoku ni kanaimasenu. 

agreement. 

That may be in accordance with the Sore wa okite no bummen ni wa kanau 

letter of the lav, but it is not in ka mo shirenai ga, shui ni iva, kanai- 

accordance with its spirit. maeenu, 






CHAPTER X. THE CONJUNCTION. 



Like most of the other parts of speech, English conjunc- 
tions are rendered into Japanese in a variety of ways : 

1 . By particles ; as to and, mo both, ka or. 

2. By nouns ; as yue ni because, yd ni so that. 

3. By the conditional mood ; as areba if it is. 

4. By the participial forms of the verb and adjective \ as, 
tomatte o yasumi nasaru ga yd gozarimasu you had better 

.stop and rest. 

SEC. i. AND. 
Connecting : 

1. Nouns to (which may be repeated after the last 
noun), ni. 

2. Verbs and adjectives the first verb and usually the 
first true adjective assume their participial forms, the atte 
of de atte being dropped and de naku or de nai generally 
taking the place of de nakute ; adjectives in na and no 
change na and no into de (de atte). In sentences however 
containing two subjects whose actions are more or less in 
contrast, the conjunction is commonly rendered by ski. 

3. Present participles the frequentative form. 

4. Equivalent to ' but ,' ' yet,' ' because,' ' when,' ' if, 1 
' since,' et cetera translated accordingly. 

5. And so forth ya . . . ya . . . nado or dano* 



THE CONJUNCTION. 1 99 

I. 

Please buy some battledoors and Dozo kodomo ni hane to hagoita wo 

shuttlecocks for the children. katte yatte kudasai. 

We met a jinriki a kago and two Tochu de jinriki it cho to kago it cho 

pack-horses on the way. to ni-uma ni hiki ni atta. 

For breakfast we'll have eggs, toast Asameslii ni wa tamago ni (to) yakipan 

and tea. ni (to) cha ni shiyo. 

2. 

t 

The kago men put down the kagos Kagokaki wa kago wo oroshite chaya ye 

and went to the tea-house. ikiinashita. 

I intended to cross over to Kazusa Kazusa ye watatte yadoya wo torn 

and take a hotel. tsiimori deshita. 

I dreamed the house was on fire and Uchi ga yakem yume wo mite odoroite 

woke up with a start. me wo samashita. 

It rained all night and the mails Yodoshi ame ga futte yubin ga okuret' 

were delayed. 

The locomotive ran off the track and Jokisha ga michi wo liazurete norite ga 

several passengers were killed. su nin shinda. 

The ball went over the fence and we Tama ga hei no muko ye itte mienaku- 

could n't find it. natta. 

Denjiro left the hammer out of doors Denjiro ga kanazuchi wo soto ye okizari 

and it is all rusty. ni shite sabi darake ni natta. 

He looked tired and sick. Tsukarete byoki no yo deshita. 

You ought to help and not to hinder Tagai nijama ico sezu ni suke-au beki 

one another. hazu da. 

It was a rainy day and we could not Uten de tatarenakatta. 

start. 

He is a foreigner and does not ap- Gwaikokujin de muzukasliii wake ga 

preciate the difficulties. wakaranai. 

Odawara is hot and noisy. Odawara iva atsukute yakamasliii 

tokoro da. 

Xagoya is a large and busy city. Nagoya wa okikute hanka na machi da, 

In the Spring this grass is green and Haru ni naru to-kono kusa wa aokute 

beautiful. kirei da. 

The kago I rode in was uncomfort- Watakushi no notta kago ica nori 

able and full of fleas. nikukute nomi ga takusan otta. 



200 THE CONJUNCTION. 

This room is chilly and you can't sit Kono lieya wa samukute haze wo hikazu 
in it without taking cold. ni suwatte irarenai. 

This spring water is clear and cold. Kono shi-mizu wa sumikitte tsumetai. 

It was a Japanese and not a Chinese Watalnisni no tanomitai no wa Kan* 
scholar that I wanted to engage. gdku no sensei de wa naku Wagaku 

no sensei desldta. 

It was one bu that I paid and not Watakushi no haraita no wa ni bu de 
two. wa nai iclii bu datta. 

An honest and intelligent servant is Shojiki de riko na kerai wa ie no 

a treasure in the house. takara da. 

This room seems warm and damp. Kono lieya wa atataka de shimette irn 

yd desu. 

Mr. Maeda lives in Kobiki Cho and Maeda san wa Kobiki Clw ni sunde im 

Mr. Tomita in Hongo. shi Tomita san wa Hongo niim. 

Matsu went to post the letters and Matsu wa tcgami wo daslii ni itta shi 

Koma went to market. Koma wa kaimono ni ikimashita. 

One (of two dogs) died and the other Ip piki loa sMnu shi mo ip piki iva 

ran away. nigete shimatta. 

3- 

Were n't you talking and laughing ? Shabettari warattari shite ita de wa 

arimasenu ka ? 

Some girls are always whispering Itsu de mo mhni-kosuri wo shi tar i 
and giggling. Imtsiikutsu warattari shite iru onna 

no kodomo mo gazaimasu. 



I told Mr. Maeda what you said, and Kono aida osshatta no wo Maeda 

he said it is not so. san ni iimashita ga so de nai to 

mosliimasliita. 
This roof was mended barely a Kono yane wa wazuka hito ts'uki mae 

month ago, and it has begun to ni naoshita no da ga mata mori 

leak again. dashita. - 

Koma did not put on enough coal Koma ga sekitan wo jiibun ni Itube- 

and the fire went out. nakatta kara hi ga kieta. 



THE CONJUNCTION. OI 

The cock crowed and all the hens On dori ga toki wo tsuJcuttara men dori 

began to caakle. ga mina naki dashita. 

Tell Kisaburo so and he will do it Kisaburo ni so osshareba, shite age- 

for you. maslio. 

Put them in the sun and they'll dry Hinata ye liosu to jiki ni him. 

directly. 

Every body else gets tickets, and Hito wa dare de mo kitte wo morau 

why don't you ? no ni, omae wa do shite morawanai 

lea? 

5- 
Maruya keeps books, paper, slates, Maruya ni wa lion ya kami ya sekiban 

et cetera,. nado ga am. 

At this season, the river is full of Kono setsu wa kome ya sake ya zai- 

ships loaded with rice, sake, lum- moku nado wo tsunda fane de kaiva 

ber, et cetera. ga ip pai da. 

SEC. 2. BOTH. . . . AND. 

Mo . . . mo. 

There seem to be plenty of both roses- niwa ni wa bara mo tsubaki mo 

and camellias in your garden. takusan am yd desu. 

Some animals can live both on land Dobutsu ni yotte wa oka ni mo mizu ni 

and in water. mo sumu koto ga dekiru. 

It has both rained and snowed to- Kyo tva ame mo furi yuki mo futta. 

day. 
He was great both in war and in Ikusa no toki ni mo odayaka na toki ni 

peace. mo erai hito de atta. 

Many things are both useful and Yaku ni mo tachi kazari ni mo naru 

ornamental. mono ga oku am. 

SEC. 3. Too, ALSO. 

1. In addition mo. . 

2 . Likewise mo yahari or yappari ; yaJiari is sometimes 
understood. 

. 

. 



202 THE CONJUNCTION. 

/ 
i ' 

I. 

Being a spoon along too. Saji mo issho ni motte o ide. 

I'll take tho children too. Kodomo mo tsurete mairimasho. 



2. 

Are you sick too? Anata mo yahari go byoki desu lea ? 

Does your right eye pain you also ? Higi no me mo yahari itamimasu ka ? 

I have a cold too. Watakushi mo yahari kazake de go- 

zaimasu. 

They have a custom just like that in Nihon ni mo yahari sore to onaji yd na 

Japan too. fuzoku ga arimasu. 

Even that is a little too big too. Sore de mo yahari sukoshi oki sugiru. 

I question about this one's being Kore de mo yahari kin ka shirenai. 

gold too (the other one I think is 

gold). 

Did you forget to speak about that Yappari sore ivo iu no mo wasureta no 

too? ka? 



SEC. 4. BUT. 
Ga, keredomo. 

You may go but come home early. Dete mo yoi ga hayaku kaette o ide. 
It looks like rain but it may clear. Ame ga furi so da ga hareru ka mo 

shiremasenu. 

I tried to get him to write for me, Ano Into ni kaite morawo to omotte 
but he would n't do it. tanonda ga kotoivarimashita. 



SEC. 5. THOUGH, ALTHOUGH, STILL. 

1. Although keredomo, (stronger) even though parti- 
ciple and mo. 

2. Even so, and yet sore de mo, da ga, yahari. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 203 

I. 

He will probably get well now, Mada yohodo warui keredomo tabun 

though, lie is sti]] very sick. naorimaslio. 

I suppose we shall have to take it, Ki ni iranai keredomo, shikata ga 

although, it does n' t suit. arimasiimai. 

He won't give a cent though he is a Kanemochi de mo ichi mon mo yara- 

rich man. nai. 

He won't give up smoking- though it Karada no gai ni natte mo tabako 100 

is injuring him. yamenai. 

He is getting pretty old, still he is Yohodo toshiyori ni natte mo, mada 

strong yet. tassha da. 

. 2. 

Still, you had better apologize. Sore de mo wabi 100 nasaru ga yokaro. 

Still, you will have to take at least Da ga sukunakute mo hyakkin gurai 

a hundred pounds of baggage. o nimotsu wo motte ikanakeria (ika- 

nakereba) naranai. 

Still, it will cost a thousand dollars. Yahari sen yen gurai wa kakaru daro. 

Still, you had better stick to it. Yahari yamezu ni yam ga ii. 

Still, she can not possibly be in for a Yappari nagai aida kakaranakutcha 

long time yet. tsuku wake ni ikimasenu. 



SEC. 6. EITHER, OR, WHETHER. 

1. One or the other ka. In questions connected by 
' or ' in which the members are in contrast, and also in 
sentences containing ' whether ' followed by * or,' a verb 
understood in English must be repeated : to put it differ- 
ently, in such cases the Japanese ask two complete ques- 
tions. It should be stated here that questions in Japanese 
are followed by ka ; after such interrogative words as naze, 
dare, et cetera however ka is often omitted. 

2. Either one or the other no matter which ; whichever 



204 THE CONJUNCTION. 

is preferred ; both alike possible, permissible or matters of 
indifference ; in either case mo . . . mo. 

3. Either with a negative and equivalent to any more or 
better than something or some one else yahari. When 
the subject or the object is expressed, yahari is commonly 
accompanied by mo. 



I. 

This must be the third or the fourth. Kyo wa mikka If a yokka daro. 

Is Miss Hana or Miss Take at home ? Hana san ka o Take san wa o uchi 

desu ka ? 

Is this red or black ? Kore wa akai ka kuroi ka ? 

Is this the fifth, or the sixth (which)? Kyo wa itsuka desu ka, muika desu ka ? 

Were you speaking to him, or about Ano hito ni ossliatta no desu ka, ano 

him ? hito no koto wo osshatta no desu ka ? 

Will you need a jinriki, or not ? Jinriki ga o iriyo desu ka, o iriyo de 

gozaimasenu ka ? 

Please ask whether the bath is ready. Yu no shitaku ga yoi ka kiite kudasai. 

Do you know whether it is raining Odawara wa ame ga futte iru ka shitte 

at Odawara ? o ide Jca ? 

I don't know whether it is silk or Kinu desu ka chirimen desu ka zonji- 

crape. masenu. 

I don't know whether it will rain or Ame ga furu ka fnranai ka wakari- 

not. masenu. 

Do you know whether the steamer Jokisen wa kyo deru ka, ashita deru ka 

goes to-day, or to-morrow ? go zonji desu ka ? 



You can either take a kago or walk. Kago ni noru koto mo aruku koto mo 

dekimasu. 

Tell him he may come either to- Ashita kite mo asatte kite mo ii to so it. 
morrow or the da.y after. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 20$ 

I told the carpenter he might make Maruku shite mo shikaku ni shite mo 

them either round or square. ii to daiku ni iimashita. 

I don't care whether it rains or not. Ame ga futte mo furanakute mo ka- 

mawqnai. 

It does n't make a bit of difference Tomatte mo tomaranai de mo do de mo 

whether he stays or not. yoi. 

It does n't make any difference Take de (atte) mo take de nakute mo do 

whether it is bamboo or not. de mo yoi. 

Does it make any difference whether Tatte mo saite mo yo gozaimasu ka ? 

it is cut cr torn? 

Is it all the same whether it is round Marnkute mo shikaku de mo onaji koto 

or square ? dcsu ka ? 

Please buy it whether it costs one Ichi en de mo ju en de mo ti kara, dozo 

dollar or ten ? katte kudasai. 

He will probably die, whether he Sore wo nonde mo nomanakute mo 

takes it or not. muzukashikaro. 

I'll send him whether he likes it or Tya de mo o de mo yarimasu. 

not. 



That won't do either. Yappari ikenai. 

See there, I don't believe you can Sore goran nasai, yahari dekimasumai. 

do it either. 

You must n't leave your light burn- Yappari akari wo tsukete oitcha ikenai. 

ing either. 

You caii't go either. Yahari omae mo ikarenai. 

That pattern does not suit me either. Sono moyo mo yahari ki ni irimasenu. 

He did n't say a word about that Yappari sono koto mo nan to mo iwa- 

either. nakatta. 

They do not say that either. Yappari sore mo iimasenu. 

In this sentence sore takes the place of so (comp. V. sec. i), 
because the reference is to a particular expression and not 
to the general contents of a statement. 



2O6 THE CONJUNCTION. 

SEC. 7. NEITHER . . ' . NOR. 

Mo . . . mo with the negative. When the subject 
is asserted to be neither one of two substantives, mo is pre- 
ceded by de, de nai and not nai being used in predicating 
nouns (comp. II. IV.), as 'this is not a dog' kore wa inu 
de nai ; accordingly, ' this is neither a dog nor a cat ' kore 
iva inu de mo (nai) neko de mo nai ; on the other hand, 
' this is not cheap ' being kore wa yasuku nai, ' this is 
neither cheap nor good ' will be kore wa yasuku mo (nai) 
yoku mo nai. 

It has (or there are) neither mats Tatami mo shoji mo nai. 

nor shojis. 
There were neither fleas nor mus- Nomi mo ka mo oranakatta. 

quitoes. 
A wise man desires neither poverty Chisha loa mazusliiki mo tomi mo 

nor riches. nozomimasenu. 

She is neither young nor beautiful. Ano onna wa wakaku mo utsukushiku 

mo nai. 
It has neither rained nor snowed for Hito tsuki no aida ame mo furazu yuki 

a month. mo furanai. 

This morning you neither swept nor Kesa kono heya wo haki mo sezu hataki 

dusted the room. mo shinakatta. 

Hereafter I'll neither borrow nor Mo kore kara kari mo shinai shi kashi 

lend. mo sMnai. 

He can neither read nor write. Yomu koto mo kaku koto mo dekima- 

senu. 
He is neither a wise man nor a Chisha de mo gakusha de mo nai. 

scholar. 
It is neither a flea nor a musquito. Nomi de mo ka de mo gozaimasenu. 

He is neither very old nor very Amari toshiyori de mo wakaku mo 
young. gozaimasenu. 



THE CONJUNCTION. 2O? 

SEC. 8.- IF, UNLESS. 

r . Followed by : 

(a) The present, future or present perfect negative 

(is, does, be, will, shall, has not (comp. II. V. 
sec. 3.) conditional present, or indicative pres- 
ent and nara. Nara often follows a substan- 
tive directly, de aru being understood. 

(b) The past (was, did, have, had, should, would, 

were, could, might) conditional past, or indi- 
cative past and nara, 

2. When ' if ' introduces a future effect or consequence 
(sometimes expressed in English by ' and '), it is frequently 
rendered by the indicative present and to. 

3. Mere supposition, ' in case/ ' supposing that/ may be 
rendered 'by toki wa (often preceded by moshi). 

4. Even if participle and mo. 

Unless is rendered in the same way as ' if not.* 

I. (a). 

If it is on. the Tori we can find it Tori ni areba jiki ni shireru dard. 

directly. 

You must n't go out if it is raining. Ame ga fntte irebn deta wa ikimasenu. 
I think he'll go if -he is not other- Holta ni ydji ga nakereba iku daro. 

wise engaged. 
I suppose he'll stop at Kobe unless Isoganakeria Kobe ye yorimaslio. 

he is in a hurry. 
You need not pay .for it if it does Id ni iranakereba dai wa yo gozai- 

not suit. mam. 

You had better not buy them unless Yasitkute yokunakeria kawanai ho ga 

they are cheap and good. a, 

You must keep quiet if you come in Koko ye kuru nara sMzuka ni sliina- 

here. kereba naranai yo. 



208 THE CONJUNCTION. 

If you -will lend pie your knife I will Kogatana ico kasu nara tdko wo 

make you a kite. koshiraete yard. 

Shall I call him if ho has not got up Mada c oki nasaranai nara, okoshi- 

yet ? mammai ka 1 

If you have not put it in your room, li^ya ni okanai nara doko ye okima- 

where have you put it? shita ? 

They probably got along without Hashi ga ochinai nara, zosa mo naku 

difficulty, if the bridges have not ikaretaro. 

been carried away. 

What shall I do if he is out? Riisu nara, do shiyo? 
If it is past twelve, we must start Jn ni ji sugi nara, sugu ni dekake- 

immediately. nakuclia narimasenu. 

Don't interrupt him if he seems Isogashi so nara, jama 100 suruna. 

busy. 

I. (b). 

I wonder how they got along, if the Hashi ga ochitara, do shite ittaro? 

bridges were washed away. 

If you saw the letter on the table, Dai no ue ni tegami ga am no wo 

why did n't you post it ? mitara, naze dasliimasenu deshita ka ? 

If he left Kobe the day before yester- Ototoi Kobe wo detara t kyo koko ye 

day, he ought to be here to-day. tsuku liazu da. 

If he left Nagasaki on the 20th, he Ilatsuka ni Nagasaki tvo detara, ni 

must have arrived on the 22nd or ju ni nichi ka san nichi ni tsuita 

23rd. ham da. 

If the ship did not arrive yesterday, Kino feme ga tsukanakattara, mai- 

I can't go. raremasenu. 

If he has paid the money, as a matter Dai 100 Jiarattara, uketori wo yam no 

of course you give him a receipt. wa atarimae da. 

Unless you put it out, the light must keshi nasaranakatta nara, mada 

be burning still. altar i ga tsuite imasho. 

Never mind, if you have sealed up Tegami wo fiijite o shimai nas'tta nara 

your letter. yoroshiii gazaimasu. 

You will never find it, if you have Tori ye o otoshi nas'tta nara, do shite 

dropped it in the street. mo arimasumai. 

What shall I do if he should be out? Rusu dattara, do shiyo? 

Could we see the fireworks if we Sangai ye nobottara, hanabi ga mie- 

went up to the third story? masho ka? 

If I were you, I would n't do it. Watakushi nara, so wa itashimasenu. 

13 



THE CONJUNCTION. 

2. 

You'll break it if you don't take Ki wo tsiikenai to koivaremasu yo. 

care. 

You'll be late if you don't hurry. Isoganai to osoku narimasti. 

You can't stay here if you cry. Naku to koko ni irarenai yo. 

If you let him have it he'll spoil it, Sore wo motaseru to dainashi ni shi- 

masu yo. 

You'll get wet if you don't take au Komori-gasa 100 motte o ide nasaranu 

umbrella. to nuremasu. 

3- 

In case he won't eell it for five Go en ni uranai toki wa roku en o 

dollars, give him six. yari. 

What shall I do supposing my pass- Menjo ga kite inai toki wa do itashi- 

port has not come ? masho? 

If there is none on the Tori, what Tori ninai toki loa do shiyo? 

then? 

In case there should be war with Shina to ikusa ga hajimatta toki iva do 

China, how do you suppose it narimasho ka? 

would turn out. 

4- 
Probably he would not have been Oijogi yd wo shitte ite mo tasukara- 

saved, even if he had known how nakattaro. 

to swim. 
He won't vinderstand even if you Toki-akashite kikasete mo ivakaranai. 

explain it. 
I was going to come even if you Demhin wo o kake nasaranai de mo 

}ad not telegraphed. kuru tokoro de atta. 

I don't think he will come even if Kuni to itte mo ki wa shimai* 

he said he would. 

SEC. 9. BECAUSE. 
Kara, yue ni. 

L prefer Hakone because it is cool. Suzushii kara Hakone no h ga ?'/. 
He went because he had to. Ikaneba naranu wake ga atta kara itUi 

no da. 



2TO THE CONJUNCTION. 

SEC. 10. THEN. 
In that case sonnara, sayo nara, sore de iva. 

Then I don't think you will find one Sonnara Tokyo ni wa arl 

in Tokyo. 

Then he may get well. Sonnara itaorn ka mo sliiremasemi. 

Then you must give np smoking. Sere de w.t tal-ak > wv o yoslii nanara 

nakereba nariwaneitu. 
Then you had bettor put in loss Sore de wa motto mizu wo herasii ga ii. 

water. 

SEC. ii. THAT. 

1. Introducing a statement to. 

2. So that, in order that yd ni. 

i. 

I told Miki (that) she might read it. Miki san ni sore wo yonde mo ii to 

iimashita. 

Did n't the doctor say (that) you had Itlia w,i Atami ye o ide nasaru ga ii to 

better go to Atami ? iimasenu dezliita ku ? 

I learned from Mr. TJchida that Koeki Hondo wa am yakunin no kaita 

Koeki Hondo was written by one lion da to Uchlda san kara kiki- 

of the ofiBlcials. masln'ta. 

2. 

Lift up the cover so that I can see Soto yn mieru yd ni toyu ico agcte. 

out. 

Please open the door so that the air Kaze ga hairu yd ni to wo akete 

will come in. Imdazai. 

You had better roll up your sleeves Nurcnai yd ni sode wo makuni ga ii. 

so that they won't get wet 

Please tighten the net so that the Ka ga nairanai yd ni kaya wo 

musquitoes will not get in. kari shite o oki nasal. 

Take care (that) you don't slip. Snberanai yd ni ki ivo o tsuke* 



THE CONJUNCTION. 211 

SEC. 12. THAN. 

1. With the comparative degree comp. VI. II. sec. i e 

2. Rather than yori isso. 

3. More than (of quantity or number): 

(a) In affirmative sentences (generally) amarior j,to 

yo, De wa kikanai, which is more emphatic, 
may also be used of number, but only in af- 
firming the existence of excess. 

(b] In negative sentences (generally) yori yokei ni. 

i. 

A locomotive is a good deal faster Jokisha wa jokisen yori yoJiodo liayai. 

than a steamer. 

He can not stay longer than toro or Ni san nichi yori nagaku wa toma- 

three days. rarenai. 

Kei is only about three months older Kei san iva o Sei san yori mi tsuki 

than Sei. bakari shika toshi ga ue de nai. 

2. 

I should rather walk than ride. Noru yori isso arukimasho. 

I should rather write to him than Atte hanasu yori isso teciami wo yart- 

tell him. masho. 

I should rather live in Tokyo than Yokohama yori isso Tokyo ni oru ho ga 

Yokohama. yoi. 

Would you rather study French Eigo yori isso Futsugo wo keiko 

than English ? nasaimasu ka ? 

Yv ould you rather lose your child Isha wo yoli ni iku yori mo isso kodomo 

than go for a doctor? wo korosu ka? 

I believe that fellow would rather Ano yatsu wa hataraku yori mo isso 

starve tha.n work. hiboshi ni naru ki daro. 

3- ()- 

I shall want more than ten pounds. Jik kin amari iriyo da. 
It will cost more than five dollars. Go en amari kakarimasu. 



212 THE CONJUNCTION. 

I have waited more than a,n hour for Ichi ji kan no yo o machi mosh 

you, mashita. 

We have more than an hour yet. Mada ichiji Jean no yo aida ga aru. 

You must put in more than a hand- Hito tsuJcami no yo irenakute wa 

ful. ikenai. 

There were more than a hundred Asoko ni otta Into wa hyaku nin de wa, 
men there. kikanai (hyaku nin no yo otta). 

That book has more than a hundred Ano lion wa hyaku mai de wa kikanai 

pages. (no yo aru). 

It is more than ten ri to Odawara. Odawara madeju ri de ica kikanai (no 

yo aru). 

3- ( 

I shall not want more than ten Jik kin yori yokei ni wa irimasenu. 

pounds. 

It ought not to cost more than two Ni sail en yori yokei ni wa kakaranai 

or three dollars. hazu da. 

You must not put in more than a Hito tsukami yori yokei ni irete wa 

handful. ikenai. 

There are not more than ten ships Ima minato nifune gajis so yori yokei 

in the harbor at present. ni wa nai. * 

It is not more than a picul. Hiyak kin yori yokei de wa nai. 

That is a great deal more than is Sore wa taihen yokei da. 

necessary. 






CHAPTER XL SELECTIONS, 



THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

Aru tokoro ni erai aho na Chokichi In a certain place they had an 

extraordinary dunce of a Chokichi. 
wo okimashita. Yo m and mo 01 mono . , , , . , . 

Among other kinds of people there 

naredo, kore wa yoppodo nen no itta are in the world many dunces: but 

this one was an accomplished dunce. 
oho de : mono-wasure sum koto no dai- T 

He was a perfect expert at forget- 

meijin. ting things. 

Aru told uchi no kamisan ga, Kore ! One day his mistress said to him, 

Chokichi yo ! kyo wa go Senzo Sarna See here Ch6kichi ! This is the an ' 

niversary of the death of the found- 
no go meinichi yue, ottsuke o Tera Sama er of our f ani i] yj an d his Reverence 

ga o ide ja hodo ni, go naibutsu ye go wil1 b9 here before lon S : so we must 

have the offerings set before the nai- 

ryoqu sonaete okanya naranu. Sochi ,. . ,,., -r> , . 

butsu. You hurry to Nihon Bashi 

wa isoide Nihon Bashi ye itte ninjin to and buy some carrots, dock, wild 

gobs to yama no imo to shiitake to mi- P otatoes ' mushrooms, and lotus root 

these five things. Saying this she 
kontokonoitsushinawokotekitekure gave him five tempos: and Cho- 

to. Hyaku mon sen wo itsutsu toatashi- kichi, with an exclamation of assent, 

, . tucked up his skirt behind and start- 
maslntareba, Ghokicht wa At! to n 

ed off from the house with the tem- 



nagara, shiri-neji-karage migi no go pos in his hand< As he was 
hyaku mon wo te ni motte-uchi wo kake- ing along towards Nihon Bashi on a 

dashi: Nihon Bashi too sashite tottoto d g- trot > there mefc him his nei g h " 

bour Chomatsu coming from the 

hashint tokoro. muko kara kinjo no ., ,. A . TT ,, 

opposite direction. Holloa! Ch5- 



Chomatsu ga yuki-ote : Kore! ChokicM! tichi said he. You are in an ex- 
Anata wa erai Jiashiru ga; nani wo traordinary hurry : what are you 



214 THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

shi ni ? doko ye yuku ka ? to iutareba : after ? And where are you going ? 

Nihon Bashi ye kaimono ni to iute To Nihon Bashi to bu y s . ome things, 

said he, and hurried on. Well, 
haslnru. bore wa nani wo kai ni IIUKU . 

what are you going to buy? he 
ka? to toeba: Nani wo kai ni ka? asked What am j going to buy? 

Ore tea shiranu y to iu ge na. Daiji na I don't know, said he. So the story 
shujin no ydji wa wasurete tada oji wo S oes - This forgetting the important 

business that his mistress sent him 
hashiru bakari to wa-nanto aho na on ^ only racing the street-what 

koto ja nai ka! a piece of folly ! 

Shikashi kono Chokichi ga metta ni However this Chokichi is not to 

rtaraivaremasenu. Kono o sekedomo ni be Casi1 y J ^g hed at " Tt ma ? not 

be true of this audience, but away 
tea gozaimasumai ga; toi inakanadoni back ^ the conntry there are many 

wa kono Chokichi to onaji koto de kan- people who forget the essential ur- 

gent business, iust like this Cho- 
Jin na kuu-yo wo wasurete oru Into ga 

kichi. And yet so far as other mat- 
dimonoja:sonokuse yoso no koto wa terg are concern ed they know all 

yd shitte oru. Ma, kokoromi ni dare ni about them. For an experiment, 
na to tote gorojimase. ask an 7 bod y- 

Moshi! Hachibei San! Subete kono Holloa Hachibei ! It is said that 

every thino- born into this world 
sekai ye umarete kuni. mono wa mma J 

is born with a commission from 

Tennoiitsuke wo ukete umarete kuru Ue ^ er ,. For example: The cow 
to iu kotoja ga. Hazu : ano ushi wna and the horse _ w hat were they born 
wa kono yo ye nani wo shi ni umareta j n t o the woi'lcl for ? If you 
mono de gozaru ka ? to ton to, Hachibei ask him that, Hachibei will say, 
ga Sori ya shireta koto: emo-ni wo ote hito That is something that any body can 
9io chikara wo tasuke ni umareta mono tell: they were born to carry heavy 



jatoiu. NiwatoriwananiwosUni o " s and to save P e P le labour ' 

The cock what was he born for? 

umareta mono ka ? to ton to, Son ya 

If you ask him that, he will say, 

toki wo tsuge ni umareta no ja to iu. 



Inu wa nani wo shi ni umareta no ka? dog _ what was he born for? H e is 

Sori ya kado wo mamori ni, Neko iva to keep the gate. The cat what is 

nani wo shi ni? Sori ya nezumi wo she for? She is to catch rats. 

torini. Ume no ki wa nani wo shi ni ? The plum tree what is that for? 



THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 2 1 5 

Sori ya ume ico narashi w. Kaki no That is to bear plums. The persim- 
hi wa nani wo shi ni? Son ya kaki ivo mon tree-whafc is that for? That 

is to bear persimmons. Once more : 
narashi ni. Sate mata : kono chaican . , . . ~, L . . , . 

this tea cup ? That is to pour hot 

wa ? Sori ya yu cha ivo kumi ni. Kono wa t er and tea in. This fan ? That 
ogi wa? Sori ya kaze wo dashi ni. is to make a breeze. This book- rest? 

Row kendai wa ? Sori ya shomotsu wo That is to hold b oks ' (Ask what 

you please, so far as ether matters 
nose ni, to iute. (Nani wo tote mo, m concerned he knows all aboufc 

yoso no koto wa, yd shitte oru ga). them). Well then, Hachibei, you 
Sonnara Hachibei San, omae wa kono yourself what were you born into 
yoyenaniwoshiniwnaretaka?totou the world for? If you ask him 
to, sono toki wa Hachibei mo atama *^, then even Hachibei will scratch 

. his head and say about this : Well ! 
wo kaite, Sareba! nani wo shi ni 

what was I born for ? I don t know : 
umareta mono ka? Ore wa shiranu : , ... , T , -, 

most likely I came to eat rice and 
okata meshi kute fusoku ii ni kita no find fault TQ think that man alone 

dearotoiu kuraija. Hito bakari kono has come i n to this world to wander 
yo ye urotae ni Jcita yd ni omote oru wa purposeless that also is to belong 
yappari kono Chokichi nakama ja. to Chokichi's company. 

Fubokushu ni Kyosuke no uta ni : In a poem by Kyosuke in Fuboku- 

shu : 

Waka zakari O Bloom of Youth ! 

Ya yo izu kata ye Whither 

Yuki ni, Hast thou gone, 

Shiranu okina ni Leaving in thy stead 

Mi wo ba yuzurite ? An unknown old man ? 

to gozarimasu ga. Precisely so ! It is man alcaie that 

Naruhodo Into bakari ga kono yo ye has not come into this world to eat 

meshi kute toshitori ni kita mono ja nai. rice and grow old. Man is called the 

Hito wa bammotsu no ret to iute : bam- lord of the universe : of all things 

motsu no uchi no o kashira. Inu ya he is chief. He is not like the dog 

neko to iva chigaimasu kara, ukauka or the cat : and it is not for him to 

shite iva narimasenu. wander aimlessly. 

Sate: kano Chokichi ga Nihon Bashi Well, to go on with the story. 
made itta ga kanjin no kaimono wa Our Chokichi went as far as Xihon 
ivasureta yue, go lnjaku mon wo te ni Bashi, but the necessary purchases 



21 6 THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

mochi nagara sokora-atari wo urouro- he quite forgot. And so, as he was 

urouro suru uclii, futo mochiya no mise loiterin g about the neighbourhood 

with the tempos in his hand, he ac- 
jio mochi 100 mi-tsukete, mazu sore wo . , . ,, 

cidentally spied some mochi in a 

to. bakari mo kote kuta. Sore kara mochi shop> And firsfc he boug h t 
acliira ye urouro kochira ye urouro and eat about a dozen pieces of 

shite, amazake nondari jokan mise ye that ' . Then he loitered here and 

he loitered there : he drank some 

tattari shite, go hyaku mon wa mina . , , , . 

amazake and he stopped at a sake 

kaigui ni tsukai shimai : sono ue ni, shop. And he spent every one of the 

mada fusoku ja. Okamisan no zeni five tem P os in *^% thin S 8 iu tlie 

street and eating them there. And 
no kure yd ga sukunai kara, unagi no besides this he went home grum- 

kabayaki ya kamo-namban ga kuwarenu blin to himself. Tt was n't enough : 

mistress did n't give me coppers 
to tsubuyaki nagara, uchi ye kactte enough; and so T can > t get any fried 

kimashita tokoro uclii ni wa teishii mo eels or Karno-namban. When he 

. . got there in the house the master 
kamisan mo machi-kanete hi no yom 

and the mistress were waiting im- 

natte oru tokoro yue, Kore ! Ghokichi ! pa tiently, as hot as fire. And so 
sochi wa ma, nani wo shi otta noja? t^ey said to him. Look here Cho- 

kichi ! What have you been doing ? 
li-tsuketa mono wo kote kita ka? to ^ , vj. -v X~TA- u o 

Have you brought what I told you ? 

toeba, Chokichi iva kyorori to shite, lya! When they said this, Chokichi an- 

nani mo kote wa kimasenu, to iu. Soko 6wered in a dazed sort of a ?> No : 

I have n't brought any thing at all. 
deteishuwa harawo tatete, watashita TherCTp(m hig master said to him 

zeni wa do shita ka*? to icba, Sore iva ! angrily, What have you done with 

,...,,. , .. T the coppers that were given to you? 

mina katgut ni tsukaimashtta ga, arede * 

Oh the coppers ! said he, I spent 
wa nakanaka tarimasenu to iu yue, tbem al] for things to eat , in the 

teishu mo kamisan mo akire-hatetc, Sore street: aud they were n't nearly 

enough. Both the master and the 
wal md! nani ivo ncqoto wo ii oru noja? 

mistress were completely dumb- 

go hyaku mon no zeni wana ? Sono yd founded. Why ! what are you 

na kaigui seyo to, ivatashi wa semi zo yo! dreaming about ? The five tempos- 

do you understand ? I did n't give 
Ninjin gobo nado.no itsu shina 100 



kawa?eru tame ni watashita no ja. them in any such way as that. I gave 



THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 217 

Sore iii, sono kanyo na mono wa kaivazu them to you to have you buy the five 

things the carrots the dock and the 
m onoga kaigui ni mina tsukatte. sono . . . 

rest. And yet instead of buying 

ue mada zeni ga taranu to wa, Sort ya! what we need, you spent them all on 

your things to eat in the street : and 
doshita o-dawake ka? to tatami wo 

on top of that you tell us that you 

tataite shikarimashitareba (aho to iu had n't coppers enough. Well ! you 

.... must be a perfect idiot ! And they 
mono wa shikata ga nai), kano Chokichi 

beat the mats and scolded away. 

wa akireta kao shite, Fu! ninjin ya (Dunces are perfectly hopeless). 

_, Why ! said Chokichi, with a look 
gobo ga myo m gozanmasu ka ? Son- n 

or utter surprise. Do you want 

nara, tattaima Nihon Bashi made iute some carrots and some dock ? If 

kimashita ni, ano toki ga ehodo yoi that is what 5 ****> Fve 3 ust 

been to Nihon Bashi. Why did n't 
uuide de gozarimashita, to iimashita youtellme? That would have been 

ga. just the very time to get them. 

Nanto! ma nen no itta aho mo aru Well ! well ! He was an accom- 
mono ja: na? Nambo hiroi sekai de plished dunce! And in the wide 
mo sono yd na mono wo kata-toki mo world one would hardly find any 
yashinote oku mono wa arumai kara, one who would keep such a follow 
tsui nigiri-kobushi no futatsu mitsu mo for five minutes even. So in the end 
atama ni itadaite hori-dasareru hoka there was no help for him but to be 
shiyo wa nai. Shikashi donata mo packed off with two or three cuffs 
kono yo na hanashi ivo kiite tada gachi- across his head. However it is 
gachitotvaraubakarideivatsumaranu. quite useless for any of you to hear 

a sto of this kind and merel roar 



Kore wa kari no tatoe-banashi ja zo ! 

over it. This is simply a parable. 
1 * uke.n wo mite wa uchi ni mtzukara . 

And with the words (of Confucius) 
kaerimiru' to, konnichi omae gata mo on Qur ^ CJf j see foUy j ^ 

mata Ttaku iu ivatakushi mo yahari kono within myse]f , to . day both you and 

Chokichi ga nakama ja nai ka? to i a i so w ho thus speak to you should 

yokuyoku mi ni tachi kaete mineba consider well whether we too do not 

naranu koto de gozarimasit. belong to this company of Ghokichi. 

Mazu : go tagai ni Tento Sama to iu In the first place, we received at 

birth from our Master Heaven these 

go Shujin Sama kara kono go tai to iu ,.,,,-,. T . , ., 

admiraole bodies which we call the 

kekko na karada wo umi-tsukete moral; five members. We were provided 



21 8 THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

go hyaku mon no zeni dokoro ka mada with, what we call the five senses, 

mada choho na go /can to iute, me ni wa far more P recious than the $ ve tem ' 

pos the five functions of seeing with 
7?ii, mimi ni tea kiki, hana ni ica kagi, the eje> hearing with the eaT) sme ii- 

kuchi ni ma ajiwai, mi ni tva oboeru no in g with the nose, tasting with the 

mouth, and feeling with the skin. 

itsutsn no hataraki ivo scnae : kokoro ni T . . , , , 

In our hearts, likewise we received at 

wa, go jo to iutejin gi rei chi shin no birth what we call the five virtues 
itsutsu no dori wo umare tsuita mo. the five principles of jm, gi, rei, clii, 

shin. And the real meaning is shn- 
Hikkyo wa go rin to iute-oija ni koko, p]y thig ; Heayen desireg to haye us 

shujin ni chugi, fufu naka-yoku, kyodai buy what we call the five relations 

mutsumashiku,tanin no maji wari ni the carrots and the dock which are 

these five things : obedience to par- 

wa, aitagai ni shinjitsu wo motte maji- ents> l oya lty to masters, concord be- 
icarunokonoitsushinanonhijingobo tween husband and wife, harmony 

among brothers, and in onr inter- 
qa kaivashitai bakarija. Sore ni. sono 

course with others an intercourse 

kanjin na Go Ten Go Kyo no kyu-yo o f mutual fidelity. And yet quite 
wa icasure-hatete, tada akete mo kurete forgetting the essential urgent busi- 

ness of the Five Rules or Doctrines, 
m o,nanigahoshii-kagahoshii-are,ja 



sumanu no kore ga taranu no to iu in nothing but this buying and eat- 

ing things in the street with its, 'I 
kaiqui bakari ni, tsuki hi wo tsuiyasu 

want this I want that that will 

wa:Nanto! Chokichi de wa arumai ka? not do or there is not enough of 

this/ Why! is not this Chokichi? 
Sono yd ni urotae ni umarete kita mono T , 

It was not to wander about thus 

ja naizo el purposeless that we were born ! 



NOTES. 

Oku : to keep in one's service. A/id mo: dunces also, i. e. 
as well as other kinds of people. Nen no itta : elaborate, 
accomplished. Dai-meijin : here, an expert. 

O Tera sama : the temple for the priest : compare o Jiachi 
the bowl for the rice, in the selection entitled Mint Anise 



THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 2IQ 

and Cummin. Hodo ni : here, and not infrequently, used 
in the sense of ' because.' Naibutsu : household idols includ- 
ing both images of Buddha and other gods, and also the 
names of ancestors carved on wooden tablets called ihai. 
Ryogn : more literally, sacred articles. Okanya : okaneba. 
Sochi wa : wa suggests a contrast : Chokichi was to go for 
the offerings ; others were to attend to other things. Itsu 
shina : see page 1 70. Kdte kite kure to (itte) . Hyaku 
man sen : a tempo coin, a tempo. Watashimashitareba : 
when she gave him : the conditional is frequently best 
rendered by the indicative followed by 'and.' // nagara : 
as he said, with an exclamation of. Migi no : the right : 
compare the English expression ' the above : ' here and often 
best rendered 'the.' Tokoro : as. Sore w.a : literally, as 
to that : constantly used as introductory to a statement 
referring to something said or done ; and best rendered by 
some such expression as * well,' or sometimes by the exclama- 
tory 'why!' Are wa : zva implies the contrast, others may 
but / do not. Ge na : so da : so the story goes. To (in 

koto) : here and often rendered ' this/ Sekidomo ni wa 

tdi inaka nado ni iva : zva emphasizes the contrast ; in 

one, one thing ; in the other, another. Voso no koto zva : wa 
rather than wo brings out the contrast : other matters they 
know all about, their own duties they know nothing about. 
Dare ni na to : dare ni de mo. 

To iu koto ja : it is said that. Sori ya : frequently in 
these selections for sore wa. Chazvan : the preacher now 
points to several things lying about him. Sono toki zva : 
zva suggests a contrast : before this time Hachibei had an- 
swered promptly, now he hesitates. Hachibei mo : even 
Hachibei who was so glib about every thing else. Sareba : 



220 THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

well. Kurai expresses the idea that is about what he 
would say. 

Fubokushu : a collection of poems of which KyosiLke is 
one of the writers. The poem is what is called an uta. 
The uta consists of five verses composed respectively of 5- 
7-5-7-7 syllables ; what is called a ku consists of three verses 
composed respectively of 5-7-5 syllables. Both uta and ku 
appear from time to time in these selections : their style is 
of course quite different from that of the colloquial, and no 
grammatical explanation of them is attempted. The uta 
here quoted is a lamentation over wasted opportunities. 
To : the sign of quotation. Hito bakari ga : ga rather 
than wa singles out man as precisely the being that has not 
et cetera. Neko to wa : wa expresses contrast : whatever 
else man may resemble, he is quite different from the ani- 
mals. 

Kaimono wa : zva rather than wo emphasizes the fact that 
it was the forgetting of the great object of his errand that 
led him into error. Mochi nagara : literally, while holding. 
Mazu: here as often meaning ' first : ' frequently it means ' for 
example.' To : trie Japanese use ten indefinitely, as we use 
the word dozen, Bakari : here and often means ' about ' 
rather than ' only.' Mo : here equivalent to ' or so.' Jokan : 
real sake, not amazake. Go Jtyaku mon ^va : had wo been 
employed rather than wa the meaning would be simply 
that he spent five tempos : zva brings out the idea that the 
tempos he spent were the ones so often referred to ; not 
simply five tempos, \)\& the five tempos. Kaigui : buying 
a thing in the street and eating it there. Mada fusoku ja : 
not, I have not had enough to eat ; but the amount of 
money was too small. Kamo-namban ga ; a preparation 



THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 221 

of duck buckwheat and onions, and the greatest delicacy to 
be had at the sobaya : ga rather than ivo expresses the idea 
that the things mentioned were precisely/ the things that 
he would have liked to eat. Tokoro : when. Uchi ni wa : 
iva brings out the contrast : Chokichi had been cool enough, 
at home things were quite different. Shi otta : in Tokyo, 

shite otta. Chokichi iva teishu iva : wa emphasizes 

the contrast : one cool and the other furious ; one said this, 
and the other said that. Kdte wa kimasenu : iva empha- 
sizes kote, bringing out clearly the idea that he had return- 
ed without any purchases. Na : ne. Seyo to (itte) : liter- 
ally, I did not give them saying spend them. Watashi iva 
senu : a stronger form of denial than the simple negative. 
Sore ni : here and not infrequently with the adversative 

force of ' and yet.' To wa: to iu koto iva. To shika- 

rimashitareba : like to iu, to kiku, to omou. Tatami wo 

tataite : very likely with their pipes. Aho nai : 

parenthetical remark of the preacher. Chokichi wa : wa 
still contrasts Chokichi 's coolness with the irritation of the 
others. Gobo ga : had Chokichi wished simply to know 
whether his master desired some dock or not, he would have 
used wa instead of ga. What he really wished to know was 
whether it was because he had no dock that he was excited. 
Do you want some dock ? is that the reason why you are ex- 
cited? And therefore he s&ysga. This principle is of frequent 
application, and in many instances^explains the presence of 
ga rather than iva in interrogative sentences. See page 278. 
Ni gozarimasu : de gozaritnasu. Ano toki" ga : ga rather 
than wa singles out that as a particularly convenient time 
to make the purchases. This use of ga finds its equivalent 
in English in the insertion of such expressions as ' precisely 



222 THE CHIEF END OF MAN. 

that,' ' just the very,' ' that of all others,' ' the: This is a prin 
ciple of wide application: and is one among other cases in 
which the use of ga or wa determines the point of the sen- 
tence.. Yashinote oku mono wa : again wa suggests contrast ; 
there are people who will stand a great deal, but there arc 
very few who will keep such a dunce, Futatsu mitsu mo : as 
often mo imparts indefinite'ness. Shiyo wa : contrast sug- 
gested by wa : whatever else may be tried, that alone is the 
way out of the difficulty. Kari no ; mere. Kaerimiru to 
(itte): with the words et cetera; literally, saying if et 
cetera. Ch okichi ga : Chokichi no.- 

Tento Santa to iu : to iu simply unites Tento Santa and 
go Shu fin in apposition. Dokoro ka mada mada : an idio- 
matic expression equivalent to l far more than.' Go kan to 
iiite : to iute rather than to iu is preferable before the series 

of expressions following. Mo : likewise. Hikkyo 

bakarija : rendered ' the real meaning is simply this : ' other 
renderings of hikkyo are, ' the sum and substance,' ' in fact,' 
' in fine,' ' on the whole,' ' in the long run,' ' looking at it all 
around,' ' after all,' ' in the end,' ' taking it all,' ' the fact 
is that,' 'if we analyze the motives.' Gobo ga : ga rather 
than wo points out precisely what Heaven would have us 
buy. Go Ten and Go Kyo : terms applied to the five virtues 
jin, gi, rei, chi, shin. Sumanu no : no here means ' or.' 
To iu kaigui : to iu connects what precedes as an attributive 
of what follows : rendered, ' with its.' 



THE MASAMUNE. 22$ 



THE MASAMUNE. 

Am kuni no totto inaka no furui In an old farmhouse away back in 

hyakuiho no ie ni, senzo kara mochi- the country i a one of the provinces, 

handed down from their ancestors, 
tsutaeta shomei shoshin no masamune no was a real genuine uiasamune. This 

katana ga am to iu koto wo saru dogu- ^ act a certain curiosity hunter heard 

of. And thinking to himself, "Well, 
zuki no hito ga kikimashite. " Sore wa , 

by a very respectiul request I might 

dozo shomo shite misete moraitai mono" get him to show it to me/* he came 

to omote, harubaru sono ie wo tazunete a lon g wav to visit the house ' saw 

the ma.ster and went through with 

mairi, teishu ni ote shotaimen no aisatsu , -, , . 

the courtesies et cetera customary on 

wo owari. first meeting. 

Sate : "Chikagoro oshitsiikfrjamashii Well : "It was a very great intru- 

koto nagara uketamawari oyobimashita. sion ou his P art but a ru ^or had 

reached his ears. The rnasarn une, the 
Go tdke no go choho masamune no o treasuro of his family> WM not Q 

katana go hiso no mono nagara, ainari- thing to be seen by every body. But 

, , ^ , -j . , . if it were possible he wished to be 
masu koto naraba, chotto haiken itashi- 

permitted to look at it for a moment. 
takn zonji. Konnichi suisan itashi- He had Com3 to . day without an in . 

mashita. Nanitozo o mise kudasareba Citation. And if he would kindly 

. condescend to let him see it, it would 
taiicei sfiicto'cu m zonzuoeshi, to teinei -.-,,. 

afford him the greatest pleasure." 

ni shomo itashitareba, teishu mo yoro- After this courteous request it afford- 

Jioli: " Sore wa sore wa! o yasui koto" ed the host also ^ reat pleasure. 

"Why ! it was no trouble at all," he 
to, sassoku kura kara tori-dashite mise- said _ And immediately he too k (the 

rareru ni, mazu kiri no hako no futa sword) out of the godown and show- 

wo akete naka wo mireba, naka ni wa ed it; to him ' Thereu P^ first of all 

(the visitor) r omoved the cover of the 
kekko na nishiki no fukuro ye irete kiri box and looked inside. And in- 

orikami made ga socte aru wo, fukuro side ( he saw the sw ord) enclosed in a 

beautiful brocade bag with even the 

kara dashite mireba, shiraki no bozaya , -o , . , , -, 

y certificate of genuineness attached. 

ni irete- oyoso isshaku ni san gun no He took it out of the bag and looked 



224 THE MASAMUNE. 

mono ja. Sore wo totte mazu ue kara at it. It was in a plain white scab- 

bard and about a foot and two or 
Icatanan'oswiguwaisnmpokakkonado 



hito tori miawasete : sate mi ico nuko to and first glanced down at the curve 

and the length and the proportions 
surutokoro ga do shite mo nukenu yue, of the sword> And then he attempted 

"Kori ya do slnta koto de gozarimasu to draw the blade, but to save him- 

self he could not get it out. So he 
ka ? "toteishuniwataseba,teishunuka- ^ How isthis? and handed it 

ranu kao shite, " Sore wa hisashiu to the host - Th e h st replied, with 

an innocent face, "That is because 
twkaimasenu yue : okata sabi-tsuita de it hag not been uged for ft long Ume . 

gozarimasho " to ii nagara, sono mama and probably it is rusted fast." And 

as he spoke he took it just as it was, 
totte hizagashira ye oshi-ate, chikara braced (hig ]ef( . hftnd) againgfc hig 

wo ircte nukimashitareba, yoyo jar i-jari ( leffc ) knee a ^ d tugged with all his 

. might: and at last with a scraping 
toiutenukerukotowanukemashitaredo, sound he did manage to get it out, 

But it was a red dried sardine, and 
makka na dka-iwasln m natte saija ye 

had been rusted fast to the scabbard 

kusari tsuite atta so da. So the story goes. 

Kijaku mo akire-hatete, " Taisetsu na The visitor was utterly astounded 
o dogu 100 kori ya do nasareta no de fcoo > and inquired "Why! what have 

, , . . , . . T T you done to your precious weapon ? " 
gozarimasu ka ? to toeba, teishu nuka- * 

VV ith an innocent face the host re- 
ranukaode (( Hei! kore wa senzo mochi- .. , urk , , m ,. . 

plied "Oh! This is a ramous masa- 

tsutaemasliUa masamune no meiken de mune blade, and a sharp instrument. 

yoku kireru dogu ja to mosu koto yue, So it see med to me that it was a tool 

watakushi ga omoimasu ni wa nani de to cut anything with: and as I 

mo kiru tame no dogu nareba, tsukaivazu thought it would be a pity to keep it 

ni oku ^va mueki no koto to zonjite sei- idle > I made full use of it. And this 

dashite tsukaimashitareba, kono yon* is the result." "Why! what did you 

, ' c. u se it for?" said (the visitor). 

mono ni nanmashita to in yue, Son 

"Well! for no one thing in par- 
yal nani ni o tsukai nasaremashita no de ^^ r uged ^ 



gozaruka?" to toeba," Soriyatnanito eg g.plant, and clean fish, and cut 
m koto wa gozaranu. Daikon kittari, gra ss, and split bamboo, and shave 
nasubi wo kittari, uo wo ryori shitari, down wood : and when I plastered 

14 



THE MASAMUNE. 225 

kusa wo kattari> take wo wattari, ki my godown I chopped up a lot of 

wo keziittori, mata kura no Jcabe tvo straw. But as ifc was an old fashion- 

nnru toki ni wa taiso ivarazusa ivo ed thing of course it was never very 

kirimashita ga, do de mo mukashi no handy to use. However I felt that 

mono yue tsukai-katte iva warn gozaru it was one of the things that have 

ga : kore mo senzo kara mochi- conie down from our ancestors : so I 

tsutae no dogu ja kara to zonjite, put up with the inconvenience of it, 

sono tsukai-nikui tokoro ivo shimbo and used it just as long as it could 

shite, kireru ni makashite tsukai- cut. As you see, the point is broken, 

mashitareba ; goran no tori kissaki mo the edge is nickod, it is rusty, and 

oremasu, ha wa koboremasu, sabi mo now it has come to be this useless 

kimashite, ima de wa kono yo na nani sort of a thing. And so as I could 

no yaku ni mo tatanu mono ni nari- not throw it away I put it back into 

mashita yue, suterare mo sezu moto no its old scabbard and set it away in 

saya ye osamete dozo no sumi ye ire- the godown. It must be about twen- 

okimashite, mo ni san ju nen ni mo ty or thirty years ago. But to-day 

narimashoga: konnichi harubaru no o you came to visit me from a long dis- 

,.,,.. . tance : and simply for that reason I 

tazune yue sunaivachi dashite o me ni 

have taken it out and shown it to 
kakemasu ga : nambo masamune de mo ^ . 

you. Eor no matter how much of a 
tsukaimasu to, femo yo na mono ni masamune (a sword) may be> if you 

narimashite nani no i/aku ni mo tatanu use it ifc gets to be a thing like 
surikogi mo onaji koto de gozarimasu'" this. It is of no more use than a 
to iimashita. surikogi" 

Nanto md aho na koto ja nai ka! What a piece of folly ! That he 

Ikanihempi ni umareia hito de shirenu was a man born away back in the 

koto to iva ii nagara, taisetsu na sekai country and did not know, we may 

no takara wo nan de mo nai mono ni admit : at the same time he utterly 

shite shimota. ruined what was a national treasure. 

Shikashi kori ya toza no tatoe-banashi Now this is a mere parable. Wheth- 

de, jitsu ni atta koto de mo arumai ga : er {i eyen reall y happened is very 

doubtful. But are not the voungr 
kono seki no ivakaishu ya jochuqata mo 

men and women in this audience 

yappari kono oyaji no yo na koto shite also doing the same sort of thing as 

de wa gozaranu ka ya ? " Shintai happu tbis old fellow ? " Our wh 1)e bod y 

we receive from our parents: and to 

kore wo fiiboni nke, aetesokonaii/abnra- * , <?--,!, 

take good care of it is the beginning 

zaru it'a ko no hajime nari." Mi wo tate, of filial piety. To elevate one self. 



226 THE MASAMUNE. 

micM wo okonai, na it'o kosci ni agete to put into practice the michi, to 

. baud one's name down to posterity, 
matte, fiibo u'o arawasu ica ko no owan 

and by these means to make known 

nari to. Otagai ni atama no girigiri one's parents, is the end of filial 

piety." From the cro-.ras of our heads 
kara ashi no tsumasaki made nani to the tipg of Qm . ^ ^^ & 

hitotm fusoku <naku fubo yori umi- sin - le ^perfection, you and I alike 

received at birth (our bodies) from our 
tsuketemorai : kokoro niwa gojonodori parents. And in our hearts we are 

provided with the principle of the five 
ico sonae. Mireoa mie, ktkeoa fakaruru . , /TTT , ,, 

virtues. (We are) these famous blades 

jiyu-jizai na Jcono meikenjitsu ni free to do any thing we will, who 

can see if we look, who can hear if we 
shomei multizu no kekko na masamune listen verily and beyond a doubt, 

., . . erenuine flawless magnificent innsa- 

w clugai wa nat. Sono metken 100 nam h 

munes. How are we using these 

n-i tsukote oru zo ? famous blades? 



NOTES. 

Aru : a certain, certain of, one of. Masamune : the 
name of a celebrated sword-maker ; applied also t6 the 

swords made by him. To iu koto wo kikimashite : 

heard that : in rendering Japanese into English it is fre- 
quently simpler to begin a new sentence. Sore iva : well. 
Mo : also, et cetera. 

The language following is very formal and courteous ; 
just such as might be expected under the circumstances. 
Chikagoro : here not ' lately ' but ' very ': so also in the ex- 
pression Chikagoro o kinodoku de gozarimasu. Nagara: but. 
Toke : family. Choho : treasure. Hiso no mono : a thing 
not to be shown to every body. Ainarimasu koto : a pos- 
sible thing. Zonznbcshi : zonjimasu. Sore wa sore wa : 
\vhy ! To : to itte. Miserareru : the preacher uses the 
potential out of courtesy to the owner of the sword : the 



THE MASAMUNE. 22/ 

present is more graphic than the past. Ni : on, thereupon. 
Naka ni zua : tva is often added in repeating a word just 
used, Mireba : the conditional is frequently best rendered 
by the indicative followed by ' and.' Aru wo : in English 
we should supply the word saw. Shiraki no bozaya : plain 
white wood, i. e. not one covered with shark's skin for ex- 
ample. Ue kara hito tori miawasete : glanced down, 

Tokoro ga : but. To : to itte. Sore wa : often best render- 
ed ' that is because.' Yite : because, on account of, therefore, 
and so, and. Sono mama : just as it was ; i. e. without any 
preliminaries, e. g. pouring in a little oil. Nukeru koto ' wa 
nukemasliitaredo : rather than the simple verb expresses 
the idea that he got it out but nothing more : rendered did 
manage. Mo : too, i. e. as w r ell as the preacher's audience. 
Kori ya (kore wa) : like sore zva may mean ' why ! ' Hei ' 
expresses surprise at the surprise of the visitor. To mosu ko- 
to yue : on account of the fact that, and so. Watakushi 

9 .ni wa : it seemed to me, others perhaps would have 

thought differently. Oku wa : oku no zva. To iu yue ; 
because he said: omitted in the translation. Nasubi : in 
T5kyo, called nasu. Kore mo ; this also, i. e. he had some 
other old rubbish ; rendered ' one of the things.' Kir cm ni 
makasliitc : just as long as it would cut : ni makasete is 
employed idiomatically to express the idea of making full 
use of, using without reservation ; hima ni makasete as much 
as my time will permit, fude ni m-akasete kaku to write 
without reservation, ben ni makasete shaberi-tsuznkimashita 
he kept chattering on as long as his tongue would rattle, 
as hi n i makasete kakeru, to run as fast as one's legs will 
carry him. Ha iva : mo would be quite as good as wa. 
Sitter are mo sezu : mo suggests that he could not dispose of 



228 THE MASAMUNE. 

it in any other way either : he had some sentiment about it. 
Say a ye osamete : while using it he had not kept it in its 
sheath. San ju nen ni mo : mo renders the expression less 
definite. Suriawachi : simply for that reason. To wa : 
iv a emphasizes the fact that while admitting that, there is 
another side to the matter. Sekai no takara : about equi- 
valent to national treasure. Toza no : mere. Koto shite 
de wa gozaranu ka : koto ivo shite iva oidc nasarami ka. 
Shintai : the quotation is from the Kokyo of Confucius, one 
of the first Chinese books that Japanese boys read. Aete 
sokonai yaburazaru wa : not to recklessly injure, to take 
good care of. Motte : by these means. To : the sign of 
quotation. /iyu-ji.zai : free to do any thing : with a masa- 
mune one can cut any thing, with his body one can do any 
thing^ Meiken : meiken (de). Chigai iva : wa rather 
than ga suggests that whatever else there may be doubt 
about, there is none as to the fact mentioned. 



FILIAL PIETY. 

Hige-mura no kingo ni Miyoshi- In the neighborhood of Hige- 
mura a place called Miyoshi-rnachi 
macln to moshitcsono koro hum no o wa- J 

is the place where the branch line 

hare no tono no o sumai nasareta tokoro daimyo of the time resided. To the 

ga gozarimasu ga. Sokono ichi yeSeie- fair held tLere his father sent Seie - 

mon on an errand : and as the rain 
man wo oyaji ga tsukai ni yarimasu ni, ^ jugfc hrfd ^ road wag yery 

orifushi ame-agari de michi ga oki ni muddy. Accordingly Seiemon was 

nrtatteorimuuyue, Seicnumwawaraji about to P ut on his ^^ and set 

out. Seeing this his mother said to 
wohanedeteikotosurmoohaJiaoyaga h{ ^ Waraji will not do: wear 

mite, " Waraji de iva warui ashida haite your ashida." " Very well," said he : 



FILIAL PIETY. 229 

ike " to moshitareba : " Hai " to it te, tat- and, taking the trouble to take off 

taima haita waraji too wazawaza made tho wara ^ which he had J ust P ut on ' 

lie put on ashida instead. " Well, 

ashida nihaki-kae," Hai Sayanaraitte goo d bye, I am off/' said he: and 
sanjimasho" to. Nani ge naku dete iko to vvithout making any objection he 

was about to set out. Thereupon 
sum to, mata oyaji ga mite " Michi no . , /. 

his father seeing this said to him, 

ivarui ni ashida de wa kutabirem kara " As the road is bad you will be 

warajihaite ike" toiimashitareba: mata tired if y u wear ashida: wear 

waraji." Again he said, " Very 
" Hai" to tote sugu ni ashida wo nuide ^ jM and ^^ off ^ ^^ 

warajinihaki-kae. " Hai sayonara" to, directly, put on waraji instead, and 

mata dete yuku wo hahaoya ga mata B ^ in % " Gaod b ? e " once more set 

out. Seeing this his mother said to 

mite "Hito no uchi ye yukuni waraji de him> If you wea .r waraji your feet 
wa ashi ga yogoreru. Ashida ni seyo" to ^11 be too muddy to go into any 

. body's house: take your ashida." 
timashitareba : mata 'Hat to mte ashi- . 

Again he said Very well : put on 

da ni haki-kae. Iko to sum wo mata o- ashida instead : and was aHbout to 

go. Once more his father seeing 
yajiga mite "Ashida de wa michi ga f, . 

this said to him, " If you wear ashi- 

kawaita toki komaru de arokara waraji da it will probably be troublesome to 

you if the road should dry : so take 

m seyo to iimashitareba : mata "Hai .. A . , .-, u Tr 

waran." Again he said " Very well." 

to iute waraji to haki-kaeru. and exchanged them for waraji. 

Sono tori ni waraji to ashida wo In this way he kept taking off and 
namben mo nuidari haitari shite on'- putting on waraji and ashida over 
mashita ga, nochi ni wa kata ashi ye and over a S ain - Finally he put a 

waraji 100 haki, kata ashi ye ashida wo wara ^ On one foot and an ashida 

on tho other, and went to Miyoshi- 

naite, ichi ri bakari mo am Miuoshi- , . -, . , , 

machi which lay about a ri away. 

machi ye yukimasu wo shim hito ga Qa the road some one who knew 
tochu de mite "Naze sono yo na migitm- him saw him and asked " Why do 

shii koto wo shite amku ka" to toi- y u walk in mch a rid i<*aous 

fashion as that ?" To which he re- 

maslntareoa: Oyajnva <l Miehi na warui ,. , 

phed "As the road is bad, my 

kara waraji haite ike" to ii hahaoya wa father told me to wear wara j i: and 
" Waraji de wa ashi ga yogoreru kara as uiy feet will be muddy if I. wear 



230 FILIAL flETY. 

ashida haite ike " to in. Dochira mo, waraji, my mother told me to wear 

oya no iitsuke nareba, somukare wa ashida - And > since the J are parent- 

al commands, I can not possibly 

shimasenu kara kono tort m shite , 

disobey either of them : and so I 

ikimasu to into, so da ga. Nanto! travel" in this way." Such is the 
mezurashii koshi mo am mono de wa story: and even such rare filial 
gozarimasenu ka ? sons are to be found. 

Kono hitotsu no okonai de sono Jiito From this single action his daily 
no heizei oya ye no tsukae kata ga conduct towards his parents may be 

inferred: and our tears flow. The 
omoiyararete, namida ga koloremasii. , . ., 

consequence was that the daimyo of 

Sareba sono tokoro no tono sama ga kono tne p ] ace was c i eep i y impressed with 
Seiemon no koko wo fukaku go kanshin the filial piety of Seiemon, and often 

wuare, tabitaln go shoshi mo gozari- ***> liad a word of P raise for him - 

And finally Seiemon was granted 

masliita ga. Nochi ni wa Seiemon ga . . 

in the land held by him one se of 

mochidaka no uclii devjl Into se eitai rice-land in perpetuity and free 
tsukuriftori osetsukeraremashita. from taxes. 

Kore wa Meireki san nen (Hi-no-to This happened in the third year 
no Tori)ju gatsu ni ja yokka no koto of Meireki (Hi-no-to no Tori) on the 

... 2-ith day of the 10th month. And 

de (lazarimashita ga. Sono nocm jii san 

thirteen years later, in the ninth 
n enwoheteKamtunkunen(TsucM-no- o Kambua (yflftr Tsuch i. no .t o 



to no Tori dosU) ni wa, Seiemon ga Mn- no fori), the daimyo hearing of Sei- 

kyu no yosu ^vo tono sama ga o kiki emon's poverty, among other kind- 

nasarete, ginsu rop pyaku me kndasareta nesses, gave him six hundred me of sil- 

koto mo ari. Mata sono ko no SliicUlel ver. Moreover in the time of his son 

to mosu mono no dai ni wa, sor,o ie ni Shichibei the family got heavily into 

, , . 7 7 . j .. i a debt. And when the family seemed 
taiso na shaktizai ga deknnastnte, sude 

now likely to be ruined, the second 
ni sono ie no tsubure so m atta toki mo, **,_..-*<, 

daimyo of the place recalled the filial 
sono tokoro no ni dai me no tono sama . . . . , . , 

piety of the father Seiemon and paid 

ga oya Seiemon no ko-toku wo oboshi- the wholo debfc for them After . 



mtslii dasarete, migi no sJiakuzai wo wards fche f am i] y gradually grew 

nokorazu o nashi nasaretc o yari -nasa- prosperous, their descendants in- 

reta koto mo gczariinasu. Sono go wa herited the property from father 

ie mo shidai ni sakaemashite, shison to son. And to this day they are 



FILIAL PIETY. 231 

sozoku shi: ima ni hyakusho de sono farmers, and retain also in their 
setsu no o kakimono ibo mo mocliiisutaete possession the documents of that 
orimasu. time. 

Kore wa Gei-bi Kogiden ni mo kuiva- This will be found in full in Gei-bi 
shiku dete orimasu ga. Kore de mo yoku K ogiden as well as in other works also. 

. And from this instance too I pray 
kannaetc gorojimase. Mukashi no reki- 

you ponder well what I have been say- 

reki no ie mo told yo ni tsurete wa ing> Even okl illustrious families in 
iyashii mono ni narisagatte wa orimasu, the course of time fall into obscurity. 
keredomo, Seiemon ga ko-jitsu no toku But owing to the filial piety of Seie- 

mon, his family has never become 
ni yotte sono ie ga tsubure mo slnmasezu J 

extinct; gradually his descendants 
oioini shisongasakaeteimani sozoku progperous . and to tllig day 



shite ant to iu wa jitsu ni kono yona they inherit the property from gen- 
medetai yorokolri koto wa gozarimasemi. eration to generation. And this fact 

Mono no seisui wa shun ju no yo na reaUy quite Trithout a parallel for. 

congratulation. Prosperity and ad- 

mono yue, nagai tsuki hi ni wa oriori versity are like Spring and Autumn. 
agari sagari no kawari wa gozarimasu And therefore in the long run they 

have frequent vicissitudes of rising 
aa, michi sae areba ne kara tsuourete -,,,,-,. , , , 

and falling: but n only one follow the 

shimau to iu koto wa gozarimn-semu michi he shall never be utterly ruin- 
Kore ga sunawaclii " Seki-zen no ie ni ed - Precisely this is what is meant 

by " In the house where goodness 
accumulates there is of a certainty 
iu monoja. Sareba tada-tada o tagai overflowing happiness." And therer 

ni oya no kokoro ni somukanu yo, niko- fore for y u and me a sim P le smi1 ' 

ing cheerful service, such as will 
niko ai-aino tsutome ga dai ichi de ^ disregard the wishes of Qm 

gozarimasu. parents that is the great thing. 

NOTES. 

Sono : that, the. Wakare no tono : in some cases a dai- 
my5 assigned a part of his possessions to a son or other 
relative and obtained the rank of daimyo for him from .the 
Shogun : sometimes also the Shogun elevated a man in this 



232 FILIAL TIETY. 

way himself: these were known as wakare no tono. Goza- 
riniasii ga : ga as a connective commonly means ' but ' : fre- 
quently however it is best rendered ' and,' or dropped entirely 
in translation. Ni : on (sending him), best rendered 'and.' 
Orifushi : here means just. Seicmon wa : wa suggests a 
contrast : he put on waraji, others might have worn ashida. 
Ikd to sum (no) wo : the object of mite. De wa : wa em- 
phasizes waraji as what will not do as opposed to ashida. 
Ashida: the high get a. Hal to ittc : hai here expresses 
assent : preceding sayonara below it is an introductory word 
adding little or nothing to the sense. Plaki-kac : put on 
instead. Itte sanjimasho : equivalent to itte mairimasho : 
expresses the idea of going with the purpose of returning. 
To : to itte. To sum to : when he was about to. Ni : here 
means as, since, inasmuch as, because. Ashida de wa : wa 
following de or a participle often has the force of ' if.' Yuku 
(no) wo : the object of mite : most easily rendered into 
English by supplying the word this, and beginning a new 
sentence. Yuku ni : for going, to go. Ni seyo : ni sum 
often means take, in the sense of choose, select, pick out. 

Shite orimashita : kept. Bakari mo : about, something 
like. Aru : to be situated. Yukimasu (no) wo : object 
of mite : in English simpler to introduce the pronoun him 

and begin a new sentence. Oyaji zva hahaoya wa : 

his father advised one thing and his mother another : hence 
the wa. Dochira mo : the object of somukare : not ' since 
both of them are et cetera,' but ' can not disobey either.' 
Somukare wa shimasenu : stronger than the simple nega- 
tive : can not possibly. Ko-shi : filial son. Sareba : the 
consequence was, as a consequence. Hito se : thirty tsubo. 
Meireki ' the era of Meireki : compare Meiji. Hi-no-to no 



FILIAL PIETY. 233 

tori : a second method of reckoning time according to the 
signs of the zodiac : Hi-no-to no tori is in apposition to 
Mcireki : for a grammatical analogy compare, the 22nd 
year of Meiji (A. D. 1889). Seiemon ga : Seiemon no. 
Roppyaku me : six ryo : in purchasing value equivalent to 
sixty yen to-day : me is the mark on the scales. Koto mo: 
mo suggests other kindnesses performed also. Sude ni : 
mo. Toki mo : toki ni mo. Migi no : the above, the. 
Oyari nasarcta : paid it for them. Ima ni : ima ni itaru 
made, ima made. Gei (shu)-Bi (shu) Kogiden: Biography 
of filial men of Geishu and Bishu : a book of no great cele- 
brity. Mo : also, i. e. as well as in other books. Kore dc 
mo : also, i.e. as well as from other instances that might be 
given. Toki yo ni tsurete iva : in the course of time, under 
certain circumstances, sometimes: compare ni yotte iva t 
some. Sagatte wa : iva might be omitted. To iu (koto) 
iva : the fact that. Kono yd na koto iva gozarimasenu : 
not like, without a parallel : wa rather than ga strengthens 
the statement ; since it suggests that that is not the case, 
whatever else may be the case. Kawari wa to iu ko- 
to iva : iva emphasizes the contrast. Areba : if one have, 
with the implication that he follows it. Kore ga : ga rather 
than wa has the particularizing force expressed by pre- 
cisely : see page 221. Seki-zen ari : a quotation 

found in Dojikyo. le ni wa : iva suggests that in other 
houses it may be different. Sareba: and therefore. Ai-ai: 
the exclamation hai-hai : rendered ' cheerfully/ Tsutome 
ga : ga has the same particularizing force as in kore ga 
above : it indicates precisely what is one's great duty : hence 
the rendering, ' that is the* 



234 LITTLE BY LITTLE, 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 

Sate : zensekini mo dandan o lianaslii To resume : As I went on to sav 

mosu tori, nani-goto de mo chiisai koto * vou afc our last session also, in 

every thing whatever it is a law 
Kara okyu nan, karui koto kara omo 

of nature that from the small is pro- 
nari,usuikoto kara atsu naru wa shi- duced the great> from ihe Jight fhe 

zen no dori yue, Koslii Sama ga koko ni heavy, from the thin the thick. 
" Eki no Ron no Kwa no kotoba ni mo, Therefore in the text Confucius said, 

"In the words of the Diagram Kon 
SJtimo ico funde kempyo itaru to lute am . . . . ... ., ,_ 1 

in Eki also it is said. We tread the 

zo yo " to oserareta. frost and the hard ice comes." 

Son ya do in koto nareba : Mizu to iu To make that clear : Water in its 

mono wa gioanrai sunao na yawarakai natural state is something fluid and 

mononaredo,soregakoruto,yukijano yielding, but when it condenses it 

shuno ja no to iu mono ni naru ga. Sono bec mes snow or frost. Moreover the 

7 . 7 . , . . snow or frost accumulates on a road 

yiiki shimo ga hito no kayou doro ye 

where people pass to and fro : and if 
tswnotta ivo mainichi mainichi hi to na , , , ,, , ., . 

day after day they trample it down, 

fumi katameru to, nochi ni wa katai it afterwards becomes hard ice. That 
kori ni naru to iu koto ja. is the meaning. 

Hito no kokoro tno sono tori de : Such also is the heart of ma.n. 
umareta told wa o tagai ni ware to iu When wo were born we were with- 
mono wa mijin mo nai. Sore wa sore out even a particle of what we cal I 
wa! sunao na mono de atta keredomo, self. Why! we were pliant things: 
seiclw sum ni shitagatte, miru ni tsuke, but the older we grow, as we see and 
kiku ni tsuke> shidai-shidai ni waru-jie as we hear, more and more wrong 
ga tsuite, itsu no ma ni yara tsui ware thoughts cling to us; and some day 
to iu mono wo dekashita no ja. Muju there is produced what we call self. 
Tto uta ni : According to a poem by Muju : 

Ayamari ni In my error. 

Kage wo ware zo to I began to take 

Otnoi-some : My shadow for myself* 

Makoto no sugata My real self 

Wasure-liatenuru. I quite forgot. 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 235 

Tsui ni ichi do mo mita koto mo What one lias never once seen, 
naku, Mita koto mo naku, iuta koto never heard of, never said, never 
mo naku, shita koto mo nai koto wa- done > evea ^& te should desire 

omoltakute mo amoi yo mo nai ga, to think of *> there is n W ^ to 

think of it : even though he should 

mayoitakute mo mayoi yo ga nai. So , , 

desire to stray into it, there is no 

mini to, o taaai ni mune no uclii no '. . ., T i *. ^ 

way to stray into it. Looking at tne 

mushakusha ioa hikkyo uki-yo no kage- mafcter thus> the turmoil in our 
boshi de : sono kage-boshi ga itsu no ma breasts finds its source in the shad- 

nL ka hara no naka no aniji to nattc. ow of tnis flee ting world. It is 

. that shadow that some day becomes 
bore ga oyago m fuko wo ehtiari. t , 

the master in our hearts: that it is 
go shujin ni fitchu wo shitari, iroiro that cauges disobedience to parents, 

siiuia.fama no akuji wo shidasu no ja. disloyalty to masters, and produces 

Sono shoko wa : Mukasht no Ishikawa evil deeds of ever y kind ' In P roof 

of that: Neither old Ishikawa Goe- 

Goemon de mo Nthon Zaemon de mo 

mon nor rs ihon Zaemon was such a 

akagono toki kara ano yd na osoroshii terrible fellow from his babyhood. 
mono ja nai. Yoyo gei no hajime ga No doubt at all they were children 

chochi-ehochi a-wa-wa tmmuri-tenten of a sweet cnild ^o d with the first 
7 . tricks learned at lasfc of pat-a-cake, 

Kaiguri-Kaiguri no kaivairaahii ko 

pat-a-cake, a-wS-wa, how big is baby, 

de atta mono ni chigai iva nai. Furui a nd round and round the cider mill. 
ku ni : According to the old verse : 

Osoroshiki The fearful 

Kori no kado mo Ice edge even 

Moto wa mizu. Once was water. 

Sore ja ni yotte, o tagai ni alwji Therefore lest we grow used to evil 
ni narenu yd, tsutomete zenji ico shi- we should give diligence to form 
nareneba narimasenu. habits of virtue. 

Kogo ni mo " Ichi nichi zen wo The old saying also runs : " If for 
okonaeba saiwai imada itarazu to a single day one does right, good for- 
iedoma, ivazaiuai onozukara tozaJcaru " tune ma ^ not come as 3' et > but evil 



, . . 7 .,..,. fortune of itself will keep away." If 

to iute : ivazuka ichi nichi de mo oyago J 

tor even a single clay smilingly and 

ya go shujin ye niko-niko ai-ai no zen cheerfully we practice right towards 
wo okonaeba, tatoi Fuku no kami wa our parents and masters, though Fu- 



236 LITTLE BY LITTLE. 

gozaranu.de mo Binibo-gami wa dete kunoKamiinay not corneBiuibo garni 

yuku ni chigai nai. Mata sono ura de, wil1 doubtless fcike his leave. And 

conversely it says : " If for a single 
lent mcln aku ico ckonaeba, wazawai , 

day one does wrong, evil fortune may 

imada itarazu to iedomo saiioai onozu- not come as yet, but good fortune of 

kara tozakaru " to iute : . Bimbo-gami itse]f wil1 kee P avv& ^" E veu ^ugh 

Bimbo-ganai may not come, Fuku no 

lakonunimo seyo, Fuku no Jeami wa Kami wm doubtless flee away in 
osorete nigeru ni chigai wa nai. fear. 

Sore ja ni yotte, mina sama honshin Therefore it is that I am ever urg- 
wosliireru kotoioo maidb o susume mosu ing it upon you all to know the lion- 
no ja. Yami no yo ni soto 100 aruku ni, shin. If in walking abroad on a dark 
chochin-mochi ivo saki ye tatete aruku night one sends the lantern bearer in 
to, doko ye itte mo abunage wa nai ga : advance, go where he may there is no 

chochin-mochi wa go ken mo shichi ken dan 9 er : butif one strides aloll g with 

. ntn n ,_.,,.. reckless steps with his lantern bear- 

mo ato ye tsurete metta-musho m hashin 

, er thirty or forty feet behind him, 

aruku to, dono yd na tokoro ye mayoi- 

there is no telling what places he 

komi, dono yo na o-kega shit/o mo , . , , 

may wander into or how he may be 

shires. ^Abunai mono ja. Sore ni injured It is a perilous thing to do. 
tsuite koko ni omoshiroi hanashi ga I have an entertaining story that 
ant. will illustrate this. 

A no shojohi to iu mono wa Kara no They say regarding what we call 
umi ni oru shojo no eld wo totte someta shojo-hi, that the genuine is dyed 

with the blood of shojo found in the 
no ga hoinma no shojohi ja to ka nmasu 

China Sea. Now those shojo, among 
ga. Sono shojo to iu mono wa hito no other thingg) like men talk well< 

tori ni mono mo yoku ii-itatte : kashikoi They are exceeding clever things. 

mono yue, toraruru koto wo mae kara And so tne J know before hand aU 

about their being caught: and hide 
yoku shitte umi no soko yefukaku kaku- 

away down at the bottom of the sea. 

rent. Nakanaka te ni awanu mono ja Tt is next to i mpos , s ibl e to get ahead 
so na. Saredo mata ningen no chie wa of them so they say. However the 
betsudan na mono de: shojo wa sake wo intelligence of men is something ex- 

ceptional. They understand per- 
itatte sitku mono yue, sake no nioi wo feody ^ ^ ^^ ^ yery fond of 

kagasuru to, izure umi kara agatte kuru sake ; and therefore if they let them 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 237 

to iu koto too chanto shitte orimasu kara, have a smell of it they will be cer- 

sake-game ye sake wo irete hishaku tain to come U P out of the sea ' So 

they put some sake in sake jars, and 

wo soete umibata no kusaivara ye ikutsu -,-,-, i -^ n 4. 

with chppers ajong side arrange a lot . 

mo narabe-oki. Sate sore kara sono a- o f them in the meadows on the shore. 
tari ni haeta kusa wo hae nari ni tot Then they take the grass growing 

around and, without cutting it off, 
te musubi-awasete kutsu no katachi wo 

tie it together; make a lot of it into 
ikutsu mo tsukutte oite : bannin wa the ghape of ghocg and leaye them 

empo ni kakurete mite orimasu to, sono there. The men on guard retire to 

sake no nioi ga umi no soko ye mo toru a ^stance and watch. Thereupon, 

so it seems, the odor of the sake pene- 
to miete. Shojodomo ga hana wo hiko- ^^ to ^ Q yery bottom of ^ gea . 

hiko sasetc : and the Shojo snuff it up. 

" Kori ya ! Sansuke Shojo yo ! nani " I say ! Sansuke Shojo ! Is n't 

there some kind of pleasant odor? 
ka yoi nioi na sum ja nai ka ? kori y a _, . . , , J .,, , , 

This is that sake : but still let us go 

kano sake ja ga. Nanto! umi kara up out of the sea/' says one. Upon 

this Sansuke ShSjo replies, "No ! no ! 
agaroja nai ka I to iu to, Sansuke 

we must not go up recklessly. It is 

Shojo ga " lyaiya! metta ni agararenu a terrible trap to get us to drink it, 

zol Are wo onoretachi ni nomasete make us drunk and then beat us to 

death." Thereupon one of them an- 
yowasete oite uchikoroso to iu osoroshii swerS} Qh pshaw ! there is no danger 

keiryakuja " to iu to. Ippiki no shojo in S oin S U P Prided we don't drink 

it : it is enough better to go there 
ga, " Nanisa! agatte mo nomi sae seneba an( j get fa e gcent o f t ho sake than u 

yoi. Koko ni otte umi no ao-kusai nioi is to be here and have the sea-weedy 

smell of the sea." "When he says this, 
wo kagu yoriwa asoko ye itte sake no all t]ie sh6j5 ex claini, "Of course: 

nioi wo kagu ho ga yoi " to iu to, mina that is so - There can be no harm in 

merely smelling it. Come along! all 
no shojo ga. " Naruhodo! Soja : kagu 



bakari wa daiji arumai. Sd! sd! the water on tiptoe, come up to the 

Minna toil" to, ute, zorori-zororimizu sake 3 ars: and that is a vcr y dif- 
ferent thing from smelling it at the 
100 hanarete sake-game no soba ye kite bofctom of ^ gf ,. a And so they . all 

miru to, sore wa mata umi no soko kara exclaim, " Ah ! this is fragrance ! 



238 LITTLE BY LITTLE. 

kaida yd na mono ja nai yue, mina ga I can't hold out against this !" And 

"Koriyayoinwija'domotamaranu!" Snuffin S ii} U P the ^ kee P ^tering 

around the jars. Thereupon another 
to; Mna wo hiko-hiko sasete kame no one of ^ sh5j5 gayg> u This is only 

mawari wo uro-uro slii oru go, : mata smelling it. Really I can not resist 

. 7 . < c rr . i the temptation. I say ! suppose we 

ippiki no shojo ga " Kon ya kagu J 

take one dipperful apiece.'' Upon 

bakarija. Domo tamararcnu. Nanto! this another of them says, "Oh no! 
ippai zutsu nomo ja arumai ka " to iu it will never do actually to touch it 

in that reckless way. Those shojo 
to: mata ippiki no shojo ga lyaiya ,, , . , . , 

that have been caught heretofore 

metta ni te wa dasarenu zol ano ima a ] so all of them snatched up the dip- 

made torarcta shojo mo mina sono P ers guzzled down the sake ; and so 

at last got drunk and were beaten to 
hishaku wo ottottegaburi-gaburi nonda ^^ Thereup<m they al] exc]aim 

yue, tsui yote uchikorosareta no ja " to u You are quite right. Tt would not 

into: mina ga Ikasama! Mshaku de do to drink ^ with the di PP ers : 

but it would be quite safe for each of 
nondarawarulcarokeredo,s.ko S hi zutsu 



yiibl ye tsukete nameru gurai wa zuibun little and lick it off. Suppose we do 



yokaro" Mina, So shiyo ja arumai ^" said the J alL Then 

wets his finger in the sake, licks a 
feaT to. Ttndeni ynbi no saki ye tsukete ^ off : and ^ tliat is a very differeilt 

sukofthi zutsu namete mini to, sore iva thing from smelling it. So they 

walk round and round lickin % it 
mata kanla yo na mono ja nai yue, 

off and smacking their lips. While 
aruld-mawari kaeri-mawari pisshari they ave doing . thig another or the 

pisshari nameru uchi ni, mata ippiki no shojo says, "Well really I feel as if 

it were not quite up to the mark, if 
shojo qa ' Domo ko nameta bakan m - . . . 

we are only to lick it off in this way. 

ima hito iki taranu yo na. Hishaku ivo ^ nd even if we do drink with* the 



totte nomu to iute mo, hara ippai nomi di PP 8rs ' Prided we don't drink a 

whole stomacbful, we need have no 
sae seneba you kizukai wa arumai hara, f ear o f getting drunk. I move that 

7 - each one takes a little not enough 
sukoshi zutsu yowanu gurai ni nomu ho 

to get drunk on." " That's so, that's 
ga yokaro'' to iu to: mina ga mata, "So gQ/ , ^ they a] ,_ And each onfl 

ja! sdja" to. Meimei hishaku wo te ni takes a dipper in bis hand, and they 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 239 

totte sukoshi zntsu nonde oru uclii, mata driuk a little all around when an- 

{ r , , . T other of them says, " The fact is 
ippiki yaiimasum wa } ' Zentai sake 

unless one drinks a stomachf ul and 

to in mono wa luira ippai o-nonii shite ge ts out and out drunk, sake is of no 
yowaneba nan no sen nai koto. Sono ue use - B(J skles it is hardly fair to say 

that the shojo that have been killed 
irna made korosarete clii ivo shiborareta ,, . 

up to this time and hap their 

flwjfi wa tada yota bakari de korosarcta blood wrung out were killed simply 

to iu demo nai. Sore! sono ashhnoto because they got drunk. There! 

look down at year feet! There are 
wo miuo! Kitsa no line ncvri ni kutsu qa 

even so many snoes made without 

ikutstt mo koshiraete aru. Sono kutsu cutting off the grass. They put on 

haite irazaru odori u:o odotta yue, the sbocs and danced a needless 

dance, and then tumbled over and 
t ui koronde korosarcta no ja. Tada W ere killed. Merely getting drunk 

yota bakari ga nani mo kmoai koto *oa lms n t.hing dangerous about it/' 

Thereupon the rest o/ the shojo ex- 
nal " to iu to, Iwka no shojo mo "01 fat claim, " Oh ! that's so ! that's so ! 

so ja! soja! Yoie mo kutsu sac haka- Even if we do ^ et drullk we need n>t 

bo afraid of b 'ing beaten to death. 

nebn uchikorosareru kizukai nai, Sore if we don't put on the shoes. And if 

nara you daks nome name" to. Iku ^t is so, take enough to make you 

drunk." When thoy Lave guzzled 

hai mo guigui nonde oki ni you to, (otsu down ever so many dipperf uls and 

nn mono dej do de mo sono kutsu aa are ve ^ drunk > strange to say, in 

spite of themselves they can not help 
hakitakute hakitakute naranu so na. wanting to put on the shoes BO it 

Soko de mata mina ga iimam.ni wa, seems ' Thereupon again all of them 

say, "' I say ! suppose we jusfc put 

"Nanto! ditto kutsu wo hakojaarumai on the i-hoes. Even if we put them 

ka9 Haite mo odori sac odoraneba on, provided we don't dance, we need 

have no fear of tumbling over : so 

koroba kizukai iva arumai kara, tada M1 . . . .,, ,, 

we 11 inst sing a song. . ! hen they all 

uta bakari utote iyo" to. Meimei ni just put on the shoos and sing beat- 



kutm vo haite te-bydshi totte utaimasu ^g time with their hands: and while 



they sing so it seems they get to 

,. , , , 

feeling that they must beat time with 

takutc naranu yd ni naru so na. Soko their feet too. Thereupon another 



aclii ni, domo mata ashi-byoshi ga tori- ,. , , , 

feeling that they must beat time with 



240 LITTLE BY LITTLE. 

de mata ippilri $a " Korobanu yd ni says, "What do you say ? Suppose we 

j- 7 , beat time with our feet once taking 
asln-uyoisni lutotsu f uncle wa do ha? 

care not to tumble ? " Upon which 

to itmasu to, mina ichido ni " Naruliodo all exclaim together, " Just so ! that's 

_.. the idea! we'll do it once, taking 
yokaro; korobanu yo m lutotsu yaro 

care not to tumble/' And when 

to. Ashi wo ageru to, korori to koronde they lift up their feet they just roll 

over, and then they are beaten to 
wa tsui uchikorosarete cln wo toraruru , 

death, and their blood is drawn off- 

to iu koto ja. So the story goes. 

Shikatfii kori ya toi kara no hanashi Still this is a story from away over 
de, mukashi atta koto ka nai koto ka iu China, and whether in old times 

it ever happened or not that I do 
sono A'oro wa zonjimaseun ga : ima wa 

not know: however one does come 
kono Nippon nidaibu kono yo na shojo acrogg a good many o thig kind of 

ga miemasu. shojo noivadays and here in Japan. 



NOTES. 

Zen seki : former mat, i. e. the preceding lecture. Naru 
wa : naru no wa. Koko ni : in the text. Eki : a work 
which Confucius revised. Kotoba ni mo : Confucius reen- 
forces his opinion by a quotation. Shimo . . . itarii : the 
meaning of Confucius is simply that the frost is the 
precursor of the ice : the preacher however reads into the 
quotation the idea of the formation of ice by pressure. 
To iute aru : it is said that. 

Sori ya do iu koto nareba : if it be asked, how is that? 
to make this clear, to explain. Givanrai : in its natural 
state. Koru : to condense : to freeze is koru. Tsiimotta(no) 
zvo : object of funii-katameru. To iu koto ja : means that ; 
that is the meaning. 

Toki wa : wa suggests contrast : at birth it is so, after- 
zvards it is different. O tagai ni : you and I alike, we. 

is 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 241 

% 

Ware to iu mono iva : wa rather than ga suggests that what- 
ever else one may have at birth, he has no ware. Ware is 
(i) consciousness of self of the ego as opposed to the 
non-ego : (2) selfishness, i. e. the seeking to obtain one's 
desires without regard to harmony with the non- ego- 
without regard to one's environment. Sore iva sore wa : 
why ! Miru ni tsuke : the more we see. Yara : ka. 
To iit koto : what we call. Ayamaru . . . hatenuru : a 
Buddhistic poem which the preacher accommodates to his 
philosophy. According to the philosophy of the Shingaku 
Michi preachers, all things are set in a certain environment. 
To live in harmony with that environment it to follow the 
michi or path. All things therefore have a michi to 
follow : it is the michi of the crow to caw, of the fish to 
swim, of the willow to be' green : and with the exception 
of man all things follow their michi. Though man does 
not follow his michi, he should do so : for man has a honshin 
(sometimes rendered conscience) : and to obey the honsJiin 
is to follow the michi. The source of man's error is this : 
he mistakes the parsing phenomena of the external world 
the things which he perceives through the senses for the 
unseen reality : what the preacher calls taking the shadow 
for the substance. The further man goes the more bewil- 
dered he becomes. The way back to the michi is obedience 
to the honshin: but the honshin is not what it once was, 
and the wanderer is without a trustworthy guide. The 
remedy is a course of Shingaku Michi no Hanashi. 

Tsui ni : strengthens the negatives. Mita koto mo naku : 
never seen : compare page 138. Koto iva : koto is qualified 
by all that precedes from tsui ni, and is best rendered ' what.' 
Yd .* way to, means of. Omoi yd mo nai ga : ga has only 



242 LITTLE BY LITTLE. 



a slight connective force. Hikkyo : finds its source : see 
page 222. Kage-boshi ga : ga rather than wa particular- 
izes : it points out precisely what it is that becomes master, 
Wa would mean simply, 'and that shadow becomes': ga 
means, 'it is that shado^v that becomes' : so also of sore ga 
below. Sono shoko iva: in proof of that. Ishikawa Goernon: 
a celebrated robber who replied to Hideyoshi precisely as the 
robber replied to Alexander. He was boiled to death with 
his son, whom he held above his head as long as he could 
stand. Yoyo : hardly, barely, learned after many attempts^ 
Kaivairashii ko de atta mono : children (mono) of a sweet 
childhood. Chigai wa nai : wa strengthens the denial : 
whatever else may be doubtful, the fact stated is not so. 
Kit : see page 220. Sore ja ni. yotte : sore da kara : and 
therefore, and so, then. Yd : yd ni. Imada : mada. To 
iute : it is said (in the old saying) : rendered 'the old saying 
runs'. Fuku no kami : the god of good fortune. Goza- 
ranu : for oide nasaranu. Bimbo-gami : the god of poverty. 
Sono ura de : conversely. To iute : it is said (in the saying). 
Komi ni mo seyo : konu to mo or konai de mo. Abunage 
iva : wa rather than ga brings out the idea that while there 
may be other things, e. g. darkness apprehension et cetera, 
there is no danger. Chochin-mochi wa : wa suggests some- 
thing like jibun wa saki ni understood. Sore ni tsuite : 
in connection with this, in illustration of this, in point. 
Koko ni : here is, there is, I have. 

Shojd-hi : here not the red color, but the cloth dyed with 
the color. Shojo : fabulous apes that live in the ocean. 
Somcta no ga : ga particularizes. Wa would mean simply, 
"the shojd-hi that is dyed with skojo blood is' genuine'' ga 
means, 'it is that which is the genuine' : hence the inversion 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 243 

in the rendering. To ka iimasu : ka weakens the assertion, 
making the difference between ' they say ' and ' they say' 
Mo: also, among other things : they do other things like men 
besides talking. Te ni awanu : hard to beat, hard to get 
ahead of. Omae no te ni awanu / he is more than a match 
for you. Kagasuru : kagaseru. Izure : certain. Chanto 
sJiitte orimasu : understand perfectly. Kara : and so. 
Ikutsu mo : ever so many, a lot of. Sono atari ni : around. 
Hae nari : just as it grows, i. e. without cutting it off. 
Bannin iva : wa perhaps makes the picture more graphic 
by contrasting the bannin looking on from a distance and 
the shojo coming closer and closer. To miete : so it seems. 
Kori ya ! nani ka ct cetera : not, ' does n't this smell 
good ?' but as rendered. Kano sake : kano and also rei no 
usually have the force of ' that ' or ' the,' in referring to some- 
thing already mentioned, previously conversed about, known 
to be in the mind of the person addressed, or generally 
notorious. Rei no o taimatsu wo toinose to gioi nasareta, he 
ordered him to light the (or those) torches, i. e. the houses 
as already understood between them : kano sake is that well 
known sake used by the hunters. Are : it. Oite : and 
then. Uchi-koroso to iu : to iu unites what precedes to 
osoroshii keiryaku, which it qualifies : hence the rendering 
'a trap to get et cetera.' To iu to : when he said, thereupon. 
Ao-kusai: the odor from green vegetation of any kind: 
here, sea-weedy, sedgy. Yori wa : enough better than that 
any how. Kagu bakari wa : ^va suggests contrast : it Avould 
not be safe to taste it, but it is quite safe to smell it. Kite 
miru to : when they came : rendered ' came, and.' Kori ya : 
why ! Ah ! Tamaranu : can not stand this, can not stop 
here, can not resist the temptation to do more. To ; to 



244 LITTLE BY LITTLE. 

itte: exclaimed. Urouro shi oru : kept loitering. The par- 
ticiple followed by oru or iru sometimes expresses complet- 
ed action ; the stem followed by either of them always ex- 
presses continued action : the participle however is much 
more common in TokyS. Mata : another. Nomo ja aru- 
mai ka : suppose we take : nomo j a nai ka ? let's take. Te 
wa : zva rather than wo emphasizes te : they might smell 
it, but it would never do to handle it. Ottotte : snatched 
up : stronger than totte. To iu to : when he said, thereupon. 
Ikasama : naruhodo : of course, just so, quite true, to be 
sure, very likely, I see, really. Gurai wa / to that extent, 
that and no more, merely. Zuibun yokard : quite safe. To : 
to itte, Namete mini to : like kite mini to above. Mata : 
additional, very. Pisshari pisstiari : smacking. Ddmo : 
kd : thus, in this way. Ja : de wa : if : see page 232. 
Ima : mo. Ima hito iki tar ami : one breath more is lack- 
ing, a hair beside the mark, not quite satisfactory. Yd na : 
yd na mono da or yd da. : sort of thing, seems so, feel as if, 
have the sensation of. Mi no ke ga yodatsit yd da to feel 
one's hair stand on end, me ga tobi-deru yd da to feel one's 
eyes start out, hagayui yd da to feel one's teeth grind. 
Nomu to iute mo : nonde mo. You kizukai wa : wa sug- 
gests contrast : there might be danger of something else, 
e. g. getting into a frolic ; but there would be no danger of 
getting actually drunk. Yowann gurai: not get drunk- 
quantity, not enough to get drunk on, To iu to: to iu to itte. 
To : to itte. Shimasu ni wa : wa in such expressions has 
something the force of 'as follows,' 'the following,' 'thus:' 
and is frequently best left untranslated. Sake to iu mono : 
to iu mono is often added in generalizing ; e. g. inu to iu mo- 
no wa chugi no aru mono da. Sen nai koto : sen mo nai 



LITTLE BY LITTLE. 24$ 

koto da : To iu de mo nai : de -mo weakens the denial : it is 
hardly fair to say. Koshiraete am : have been made. Ko- 
ivai koto wa nai : wa suggests some such contrast as, it 
may be very foolish but it is not dangerous. Nome to: 
nomc to itte. Otsu na mono de : myd na mono de, kitai na 
mono de, hen na mono de : strange to say, it is a remarkable 
fact that. Do de mo : do shite mo : do what they might, 
in spite of themselves. Kutsu ga : ga rather than wo par- 
ticularizes the shoes as precisely the things that they 
wished to here, put on. Naranu : tamaranu. Sdna: so 
na mono da or so da. Korobu kizitkai iva : iva suggests the 
contrast; whatever else may happen there will be no danger 
of tumbling over. To : to itte. AsJii-bydshi ga : ga instead 
of wo, as in kutsu ga hakitakutc above. Naranu yd ni na- 
ru : tamaranu yd ni naru, as in ima hito iki taranu yd na 
above : got to feeling what they could n't stand it. Koro- 
banu yd ni : so as not, taking care not to. Ichido ni : 
together. Yard to : yard to itte. Kor<ori to koronde wa : 
toppled over, rolled over : they were so drunk that they 
could not stand up any longer. Wa following a participle 
sometimes has the force of 'because,' 'as', 'when,' 'and then': 
o zakenonde iva suikyd sum, he would drink to excess and 
then become violent. To iu koto ja : it is said that, so the 
story goes. 

Sono koto wa : wa rather than wo suggests the contrast, 
that I do not know something else however I know. Ima 
wa : a good many nowadays, whether there were any for- 
merly I do not know. 



24Q THE RIVER OF NATURE. 



THE RIVER OF NATURE. 

Koshi Sama mo liaica no hotori ni o Confucius stood upon tho bank of 
taehi nasarete mizu no nagare wo goran a river and Batched the flowing of 

the water. And he said, "It may be 
ndsarc. ''Yuka mono wa kaku no tjotoki ,-, , ,, , . ,, , 

that the impermament is thus : day 

ka ; cliu-ya wo sutezu " to oserarete. and night it pauses not." 

Kono sekai ye araware dela mono wa Of all things that appear in this 

nan de aro to (kano Buppo de iu toki world ( to use the familiar language of 

Buddhism) there is none that escapes 

wa) sho ro buo stii .no shi ku ico noqa- ., , 

the tour sorrows oi slid ro byo and 

rum mono wa nai ja. Sore we hitotsu S 7 w - t As a single example of this, let 
kono kite oru kimono no koto de iute us take the story of this kimono that 
mini to : I have on. 

Mazu : Kono kimono no dekita tokoro To begin : When the kimono, 
ga sho to iu mono de kimono no umareta ^ as made that mav be regarded 

no ja. Sore kara oioi furulite yku as the shd ~ ihQ birth of the U ~ 

, , . mono. Then as it grows shabbier 

tokoro ga ro to in mono de kimono no 

and shabbier, that may be regarded 
toshi no yoru no ja. Sore kara suso ga ,. ,111 P , i , 

as the ro the old age of the kimono. 
kiretari kata ga yaburetari sum tokoro Then ag the edge of the gHrt be . 

ga byo to in mono de kimono no byoki comes frayed and the shoulders thin, 

ja. Sore ivo osandono ga ikutabi mo that may be regarded as the byo the 

sentaku shite tsugi-atetari hari de sashi- disease of the kimono. The maid 

tart iroiro to ryoji ico sum ga, tsui ni washes it ever so often, patches it 

yojoaikanawazudeboroninatteshimau darns ^ aad mends it in all sorts of 

t t v i- t.- - + ways. But at last when it is "all 

to, Kon ya domo shiyo ga nai to lute 

over with it" and it is nothing but 
boro-tsuzura no naka ye tsuki-komu. . 

rn,-"S she says, ' This is past saving : 
Sore ga sunawacU shi to iu mono de- aml gtuffs it ^.^ ^.^ That 

kimono no shinda no ja. Shikashikore may be regarded as the shi the 
mo kimono no yogai kara ieba, shinda no deuth of the kitnono. Here again 
ja ga; boro kara ieba, umareta no ja. however regarded as a kimono it is 

death : but regarded ao rags it is 
Kore kara kore sho shi wa gwanrai itxn . . ,. _ .,..,-,-,, 

birth. From this it follows that one 

ri no mono ja to iu koto wo go gatten should perceive that strictly speaking 
nasaru ga yoi. birth and death are essentially one. 



THE RIVER OF NATURE. 247 

Yumi ico iru ya ga ku wo hashim ico A bow is shot, the arrow speeds 
ya no ato kara ieba, muko ye sugite ynki through the air. Looking at this 
oru yue, shinuru to iwanya naranu yo from behind the arrow, it is going; 

, _ 7 . 7 and therefore it might be spoken of 
na mono ja ga; mato no no Kara icoa, 

as death : but looking at it from the 
sot tchi ye ki oru yue, umareru to iivanya, . 

mark, it is coming towards it; and 
naranu. Yuku to kuru to ga futatsu de therefore must be spokon of ag birth . 

mo nai ga, umareru to shimiru to ga Qf all t i lings going aad com i ng are 
betsu na mono de wa nai no ja. SoJco not two: nor are birth and death 
de kcko ni Koshi Sama ga o deshi no different. And therefore in his ex- 

. planation to his disciple Kiro. in the 
K'tro ye no o srnmesln ni, Imaaa set 

passage here quoted, Confucius said, 
ioo shirazu: izukunzosUwo sliiran" 



to oserareta. shall we know death?" 

ate, sore kara migi no boro ga boro- Well, next the rags are put into the 

rag-bag and set away in some corner 
tsuzura ye irerarete dozo no sumi ye of the godown : and the old pieces of 

juban 3:nd bits of obi and odds and 
oslii-ltomerare : juban no yabure yara ends of all kinds come together and 

tell one another the story of their 
obi no chigire yara iroiro no mono ga lives. And perhaps they will com- 

pose poems of the heart, such for ex- 
yori-atte tagai ni mi no lie wo katari-ai. ample as 

Itsu ka mata Whether some time again 

Yo ni idenu koto wa j ^ gQ forth infco ^ ^^ 

Kataito no 

Yoru hint sliirade Ni S ht and da ^ not knowing 

Kurasu mi zo uki! I pass my time. Poor me ! 

nado iu yo na jukkicai de mo yonde oru 
yara mo shiremasenu. 

lya! mata yo no naka to iu mono f Oh no ! Nor is the world is a pL;ce 
wa sono yd ni tansoku suru mono so to sigh in either. When the time 

de mo nai ja. Jisetsu ga kuru to, comes (t he ra g) is draw11 out ^ the 

, , rag-bag and changes its form into 

oorO'tsuzura kara mki-dasarete zokin 

that ot a house-cloth. Aucl here 

to iu mono ni slid wo kaemasu ga. again ^g^ded as rags it is death: 
Sore mo mata 'boro kara ieba, shinuru regarded as a house-cloth it is birth. 



248 THE RIVER OF NATURE. 

no de, zokin kara ieba, umareru no Again in turn the house-cloth also 
ja. Sono mata zohin mo tsukawareru every time it is used grows older 
tdbitdbi nird to iutetoslii ga yotte ( wbat we cal1 r ) ' and then this t 

kuru to ato ni wa, kore mo chigire- gets tbe tatters and is ^ d for n ' 

thing. And then (the maid) says 

chigire no uyoki de nan no yd m 

Ihis is past sa.ving now," and tos- 

mo tatanu yd ni naru to, " Kori ,-,,, , , , , mi ^ 

ses it into the rubbish heap. That 

ya mo shiyd ga nai kara" to iute ig the funeml of tho house . c l o th. 

gomokuba ye hoka shite shimau. Sore w e ll as to the house-cloth too, re- 

ga zokin no shinda soreija. Sate, sono garded as a house- cloth it is death: 

zokin mo zokin kara ieba, shinuru noja but regarded as rubbish it is birth. 

ga: gomoku kara ieba, umareru no ja. A g ain in turn some farmer takes the 



Sono mata gomoku mo hyakushd ga totte, rubbish and makes { 

for his rice field. And when he makes 

ta no koyasln ni shitam : hatake no 

it into a fertilizer for the field, the 

koyashi ni shitari sum to, sono qomoku ,,.,., , -, a , 

rubbish ferments and decays : and by 

ga murete kusaru sei de kome ya mugi 



ga yoku dekiru yue, sono dekita kome ya thrives, and so the rice or the wheat 
mugi ica magai mo nai kano zokin no produced may be regarded as a real 
umare-kaicari to iu yd na mono ja. new birth of the Louse-cloth. And 
Sono mata mugi kome wo hito ga kute wnen in turn some one lives upon 

ikiteoru to, yahari kano zokin no okage the rice or v ' beat ' be m ^ be said 

, ., .. also to live and speak by means of 

de ikite mono mte oru yo na mono yue, 

the house- cloth : and so he begets a 
sono hito ga ko wo umu. Sono ko wa . .. , ,".; ,.,-,!., 

child. And the child likewise may 



yahari knw zokin no umare-kaioari to gafely fee gaid ^ be a new birfh of 
itte mo daiji-nai yo na monoja. the house-cloth. 

Shikashi Icori ya mina ganzen ni All these however are things that 

sono katachi no me ni mie.ru mono are actually visible : and so the four 

yue, sono tori sJid ro byo shi no shi ku sorrows of sho ro byo shi strike the eye 

ga me ni mieru ga: tatoi katachi no ^ the way described. But even of the 

nai mono de mo kono sekai ye ara- tUn S s without form tbat ^^ in 

this world there is not one that es- 

tcareta mono ni kono shi ku wo noga- _^ rn , 

capes these tour sorrows. Why! con- 

ruru mono wa nai. Sori ya! ano oto ., i ,-,. i j 

sider even such things as sounds and 

ya nioi nado no yd na mono de mo gcents The sound of the temple bell 
kangaete gorojiro. Ano tsurigane no sa v Or example : When it first rings 
oto nado de mo, hajime gdn ! to nari- out gon ! that is the birth of the 



THE RIVER OF NATURE. 249 

dashita tokoro ga oto no urnareta no sound : then wlicn it prolongs into 
de: sore kara on-on-on ! to Mite yuku on-on-on! that is the old age of the 

sound : after that when the tound 
tokoro qa oto no toshi no yorn no : a-to . , , , , . 

grows faint and sajs wan-wan ! that 

ni wa oto ga kasuka ni natte ivan-wan! i s now the disease of the sound : and 
to hi tokoro ga mo oto no byo de : kieta when it has died away, that is the 
tokoro ga oto no shinda no ja. death of the sound. 

Sono tori ni tenri no ryiiko wa Thus the river of nature hastens 
makoto 'ni hayai mow de: sore ni by: and so this world keeps moving 

7 . ._ . on. And thereforo simply because it 

tsurete kono sekai ica ugoki-tosu no ja 

. desires to make this known, Buddhism 

Kara, sore wo shirasete yantai oakan 

employs the temple bells. And it 
ni Buppo de wa, ano tsurigane to iu inscribeg on them tbe four phrased 

mono ivo kosliirae. Shaka Nyorai no sentence that Gautama Buddha is 
yama de oni ni kikareta to ka iu slii supposed to have heard from the 
ku no bun no spirits in the mountains : 

Sho gyo mu-jo All phenomena are imperma- 

nent : 

Ze slid meppo This is the law of becoming and 

perishing. 

Sho metsu metsu i Becoming and perishing shall 

perish completely : 

Jaku metsu i raku And the calm perishing (i. e. 

Nirvana) will be bliss. 

to iu koto wo hori-tsuke. Ni roku ji And striking them all through the 
chu ni sore ni tsuite, " Sore! gon! twice six hours, it deigns to bid us, 
kono tori nagare-toshi zo yo " to osliietc " Hark ! gon-gon ! thus ever fleet- 
kudasaru. " ing !" 

Sho gyo mu-jo to wa issai kono sekai Sho gyo mu-jo means, of all things 
ni aru hodo no koto wa nan de aro to in. * bi s world whatsoever they may 
hitotsu to shite todomaru to iu koto be not one a&te*. And it is even so. 

wa nai mono ja to iu koto ja. Nam- When fancy it; is Spring ' * ia 
, . . . . Summer ; when we fancy it is Surn- 

hodo! haru ka to omoeba natsu ni naru, 

mer, it is Autumn ; when we fancy it 
natsu ka to omoeba aki ni naru; yo .,,,.,. -u 

is day-break, it is sunset; when we 

ga aketa ka to omoeba hi ga kureru ; faricy olie is com i ng? he- is gone ; 
kuru ka to omoeba kaeru ; tatsu ka to when we fancy one is standing, he is 



25O THE RIVER OF NATURE. 

omoeba suwaru; mono iu ka to omoeba seated; when w,e fancy one is speak 

damaru; issai todomaru koto wa nai in ' he is silent 5 there is nothing 

that has permanence. Precisely that 

mono de ; sore qa jiki ni tenri no . 

is the river of nature the way of 

ryukoftho shi no michi ja kara, soko birth and deatll . and so it has been 
de ze sho meppo to iufa mono ja. called ze sho meppo. 

Sore wo kono lompu shojin to' iu mono And yet ordinary people, when 
zra domo umareta to ieba, yolwdo mae no they speak of their birth, are prone 
ni ju nen san ju nen mukashi no koto ^ think of !t as something away 

toomotari.-matashimiruto-ieba^nada back twen ^ r tllirty yearS ' S me - 

thing that happened Jong ago. Or if 

mada ima kara yohodo alo no kono 

they speak of their death they think 

karada. no ganyari taoreta toki no of ifc only as a time still far in the 

koto ja to bakari omote oru kara, sore future when this body shall have 
de michi wa sokkon-tadaima no michi fallen down limp. And therefore the 

idea that the niichi is a michi for the 
to in koto aa ad shite mo qaten qa , , 

present they can never comprehend. 

ynkanu. Nangi na mono ja. Sore ni p oor things ! In illustration of this 
tsuite koko ni okashii lianashi ga am. I have an amusing story to tell you. 



NOTES. 

KosJii sama mo : Confucius also : Confucius once ex- 
pressed the views of the preacher. Kaku no gjtoki ka : 
ka weakens the assertion : rendered, ' it may be.' 

Nan dc arc to (mo): nan de mo. Kano : frequently 
used like rei no for that in the sense of the familiar, the well 
known : see page 243. De iu tokizva : if one speaks with, 
to use the language of. Sko, ro, byd, ski : birth, old age 
disease, death. The original words are transferred to the 
translation, because the preacher expounds them. Noga- 
rnru mono wa ; iva rather than ga suggests the contrast, 
whatever else there may be in the world there is nothing 
that escapes et cetera. Sore : of this. Hitotsu : as a single 



THE RIVER OF NATURE. 25 1 

example. Koto : the story of. lute miru to : if we take, 
let us take. 

Dekita tokoro ga : had iva been used rather than ga, the 
statement would answer the question zv/iat is the dekita 
tokoro ? ga being employed the statement answers the ques- 
tion which is the dekita tokoro? i.e. it points out precisely 
which stage in the history of the kimono corresponds to 
birth. The point is brought out in English by inserting 
an emphatic that, Sho : the preacher uses the Chinese and 
gives the Japanese equivalent for the benefit of his audience. 
To iu : may be regarded as. Ydjo aikanawazu : it is all 
over : an expression used when at last a person dies. Shiyo 
(or shikatd) ga nai : unavoidable, hopeless, beyond one's 
resources, beyond saving. Kore mo : literally this also : 
mo suggests the fact that other things also pass through 
a similar experience. Kyogai : the boundary line (here 
between kimono and boro), literally ' if we speak from the 
kimono side of the line (i. e. regarded as a kimono), it is 
death'. Kore kara kore : the second kore might be drop..- 
ped. Gwanrai : strictly speaking. Itsu ri no mono : all 
one, essentially the same. To iu koto : the fact that, that. 

Hashiru (no) ivo : the object of ieba : if we speak of the 
flight of the arrow et cetera. As frequently it is simpler in 
English to begin a new sentence ; hence the rendering 
looking at this et cetera. Iivanya : iivanakereba. Yona 
mono : yd na weakens the assertion, changing ' must ' into 
'might'. Yuku to kurti to ga : ga rather than iva particular- 
izes coming and going as being of all things the things that 
are not essentially different. De mo : nor. Koko ni : Ima- 
da shir an : a quotation from the Analects of Con- 
fucius. The preacher reads his own thought into the quo- 



252 THE RIVER OF NATURE. 

tation. The natural interpretation of the quotation is : we 
know not life and therefore we can not know death, since 
death is mere mysterious than life. According to the 
preacher, the quotation means : we know not life and there- 
fore we can not know death, for life and death are the same 
thing only looked at from different angles of view. If one 
know one, he would know the other. 

Sate sore kara : well, next. Migi no: see page 219. 
Yara : ka. Mi no ue wo kataru : to tell the story of one's 
life : mi no ue hanas/ii, one's personal history. Katari-ai : 
ai is often added to the stem of a verb with the force of 
mutually, together, one another. Kataito : the pillow word 
of yoru : kataito means also a kind of thread : yoru means 
both might and also to twist. For makura kotoba or pillow 
words, see Aston's Grammar of the written Language, 
pages 210 212. Nado iu yd na : such as. 

Jukkivai : a poem expressive of one's feelings. De mo : 

for example, say. Yonde iru : here, compose. The rags 

pass away time in composing poems in the Japanese 

fashion. Yara mo shiremascnu : ka mo shiremascnu. 

lya : the preacher dissents from such a gloomy view of 

existence. Mat a de mo nai : not either, 

nor. Sho : form or nature. Sore mo mata : here again. 
Sono mata : next, in turn. Tabitabi ni : tambi ni. To ato 
ni wa : when and not before, then. Chirigire-chirigire no 
bydki : pieces-sickness : rendered, the tatters. To : when, 
and then. Mo : now, at last. Gomoknba : in Tokyo, go- 
misuteba or gomidame. Hoka surii : in Tokyo, utcharu. 
Sore ga : ga rather than iva particularizes : it shows which 
or precisely what stage in the existence of the kimono cor- 
responds to sickness. Sei : cause, means, because of, that 



THE RIVER OF NATURE. 253 

is why : Shimeri gn nai sei ka, I suppose it is because there 
is no moisture : jiko ni makemashita sei daro, it must be 
because of giving way to the temperature : furui ie no sei 
ka shite, I suppose it is because it is so old : sono sei ka shi- 
te, perhaps that is why : atsusa no sei ka to omou, I attri- 
bute it to the heat. Magai mo nai: genuine. Umare- 
kaivari : re-birth, new birth. To iu yd na mono ja : may 
be called, may be regarded as. Ittc mo daiji nai yd na 
mono ja : even if it be said to be et cetera, it is a no harm 
sort of thing ; i. e. it may safely be said. 

Ganzen ni: before the eye : rendered, ' actually.' Katachi 
no me ni miern : visible. Sono tori : in the way described. 
Sori ya : why ! (introductory to proof). Gorojiro; goran na- 
sai. Nado : say. De mo : for example. Tokoro gn : ga has 
the particularizing force already referred to. Toshi no yoru 
no : toshi no yoru no dc. 

Ryuko : flowing, going, passing, transient, fashion : ren- 
dered ' river.' Sore ni tsurete: conformable to that, and so. 
Ugoki-toru : move on. Nyorai is a generic term for Budd- 
ha : hence Amida Nyorai and Shaka Nyorai: Shaka 
Nyorai is Gautama Buddha. To ka iu : ka weakens the 
statement : rendered, ' supposed to have/ 

Sho (all) gyd (phenomena) mu (not) jo (permanent) ze 
(this) 'sho (becoming) metsu (destruction) ho (law) sho 
(becoming) metsu (destruction) rnctsu (destruction) i (done) 
jaku (calm) 'metsu (destruction) i (becomes) raku (bliss). 
The lines are difficult to translate. For a slightly different 
rendering, and also for an account of the incident referred 
to, see the Introduction of Satow and Hawes' Handbook 
for Japan, papes 77 79. Ni roku ji : according to the old 



254 THE RIVER OF NATURE. 

style the day was divided into twelve (not twenty four) 
hours. 

To wa : to is the sign of quotation, and is constantly 
used when repeating an expression just employed. Nan 
de ard to : nan de ard to mo. Hitotsu to shite : hitotsu mo. 
Todomaru to iu koto wa nai : wa rather than ga suggests 
the contrast, whatever else there may be there is nothing- 
that abides. To iu koto ja : means. Ka tc omou : to fancy 
that. Sore ga : ga rather than wa particularizes : sec page 
221. Jiki ni : here equivalent to sunazvachi. 

Sore wo : and yet : as here, wo at times lias an adversitive 
force. Bompu is the unenlightened man of Buddhism, and 
shojin is the opposite of the kunshi or the superior man of 
Confucianism Here as frequently the terms are about equi- 
valent to common people or the average man. Domo : here 
equivalent to 'prone'. Ganyari : used of wilted flowers. To 
iu koto : that. 



FOR LIFE. 

Am tokoro ni ozakenonde iva suikyo In a certain place there was an idle 
Hint nora-musuko cja atta tokoro, -oya son who .would drink to excess, and 

then become violent. His father felt 
ga oki ni kuro ni omote, aru hi musuko . . ... , , 

very anxious about it and one day saia 

ye iimasu ni wa, "Sonata no sake wa to j lim> "Drinking has an extremely 
hanaJiadii wariii kuse no aru sake bad effect upon you : and so yovi must 

jahodo nf, irai kitto aitsutsusJiimi ' **** yourself and give up sake as 

long as you live." The son wa s thero- 

slifigai kin-shu itashimasei to moshita . ' , 

fore in a great quandary ana fins(yer- 

tokoro, musuko oki ni meiwaku shite, cc \ For you to tell me thut as long 
" Watakiuthi ga are hodo suki na as I live I am not to drink my sake 



FOR LIFE 255 

take ico shogai nomu na to iwasliaru that I am so fond of that is asking 

wa-sorl ya ammari de gozarimasu. to much " Z wil1 ^wevcr give up 

the use of it for two or three years: 

Shikashi ma ni san nen kin-shu , T , , , , .,, 

and I beg you to let me off with 

shimasho kara, sore de kannin shite that." But his father would hear of 
kudasare" to iu tokoro; oijaji ikko nothing of the kind :" No!" said he. 
kiki-irezu, Iyal iya! sonata no aku- "Considering the bad effect that sake 

has upon you, with anything like two 

sho sake wa nakanaka ni nenyasan or three years of abstinence I could 
mn no kin-shu gurai de anshin wa have no peace of mind : and therefore 
dekinu kara, do de mo sliogai sake I am determined that you shall not 

. . 7 . . drink sake as long as j r ou live." Ac- 

wanomuna to ni yiie, mnsiilto lyoryo 

cordingly the son was more and more 
tamoltu shite nanikaavjiteorimasMta perplexed ^ and kept ransacking his 

ga, yagate nanto omoikaeta yara, te brain (for something to propose). 
wo tsuite iimasu ni wa : " Ikasama! Presently a new idea seemed to strike 

, _ , him. He put his hands down en the 

shogai kin-shu no koto wa kitto toku- 

inat and said : " You are ciuite right I 
thin itashhnashita. Shikashi nagara And M to giying it up ' for j^^j 

watalmslii mo are liodo suki na sake agree to that positively. But when. 

wo shogai nomanu koto to omoeM, do I tnink ttat for the rest of m J life T 

, am not to drink my darling sake, 
yara sei ga ochita yo de cliikani naku 

somehow or other it seems as if iny 
omoimasu ,ht, sono tie mohaya kyo ga st , rengtll had failed and j fee l per- 

sake to ica shogai no iki-zvakare to fectly used up. And besides since 
mosu mono nareba, semete no nagori to-day at last is the day when I am 

to bid to sake a life-long farewell, I 
m, kyo ichi mchi tea o yurusln nasa- 

think you might excus 3 me for this 
retekiidasaremase"to mosii yue, oyaji one day _j ust to say good bye." 

mo mottomo no koto to omoi : " Sonnara, His father also thought that that 
kyo ichi nichi wa yurushite nomasu was reasonable. "Well then," he 

charged him, " For this one day you 
leshi, myomcln yon u~a k-itto slioqai 

have my permission to drink: from 

kin-shu zo" to moshitsuke: oki na kami to-morrow positively you will give it 
ye sumi-kuro ni " Shogai kinshu " to U P ^<> r life/' Then, on a ]arge sheet 
kakitsukete yarimashita tokoro, P a P er and in a boWhand he wrote 



down for him, ' Abstinence for life/' 
ga mite iimasu wa, Kono tori irai The son read it over and said, "Here- 
kitio aimamori : sliogai sake wa nomi- after I will positively stick to this to 



256 FOR LIFE. 

masumai. Shikashi nagara, sono uchi the very letter : for life I will drink 

kyowa gome; no tori yue, kono wold sako no more ' But meanwhile as I 

have your consent for to-day, please 
ye, 'Tadashi: kyo wa yunisu : myonichi write down on thig side> * However t 

yori ' to o shirushi Icudarare " to mosu to-day it Ms permitted : from to-mor- 
row/ " This also his father thought 

yue, kore mo mottomo to omote kaite 

reasonable and wrote it clown tor 

yarimashita tolcoro, musuko wa sore him. And then the son covered the 

whole back of it with paste, struck it 
wo mitsuke no hashira ye bettari to 

fast to the pillar before one on enter- 

haritsuke oki. ing the house and left it there. 

Sono hi wa shujitsu nomimashita ga, That day all day long he drank : 

7 and likewise the next day also he 

mata yokujitsu mo asa kara sake wo 

took his sake from the morning on. 

nomimasu yue, oyaji wa akirete iimasu Hig f a ther was greatly surprised, and 
wa, " Kaneie shogai kin-shu no koto said to him " Yesterday as you know 

I gave you positive orders about giv- 
saku'jitsu kitio moshitsuke ano nan- , , . , . .. , T 

ing up drinking for hie: and I ac- 

fuda made kaite ycitta ni, naze ano tually wrote out that placard for you- 
tori 100 mamori oranu?" to togame- And now what is the reason you are 

not sticking to what is written?" 
mashitareba, kano mmuko ga iimasu When he scolded him in this way, 

w?a, "Hail iyal ano tori wo kitto the son replied, "Oh! I beg your 

rcardon! I am sticking to the very 
mamotte orimasu " to in. Oyaji masu- p 

letter of it." His father was still 

masu hara wo tate tl Sore de mo soko more an g ry . But there you are 
ni nonds de wa mi ka?" to moslii- drinking: are you not?" said he. 

"Excuse me," he replied, "on the 

tareba. "lya! ano narifuda ni mo ' Kyd . ., '. ., . ... , , , ., 

placard itsell it is written ' To-day it 

wa o yuruslii ' to gozareba, kyo wa j g permitted' : and so to-day I drink. 

nomimasuru. WafakusU kin-shu wa My abstaining is for life beginning 

with to-morrow." So saying, that 
myomchi yori shogai de cjozani" to ^ ^ QQ ^ ^^ And tbe nexfc 

iute, sono hi mo nomi : mata yoku- day too he said, " Pray excuse me for 

,. _ . . . . to-dai/;" and then he drank. And 

jitsu mo hyo wa gomen ja to lute 

the abstaining for life he never did 
wa nomi shite, shogai kin-shu wa ^ ^ Sucllis ' t he story. And very 

senanda to mosu hanashi ga gozari- likely ignorant people like you and 

61 



FOR LIFE. 257 

masu ga. Okata meimei gotoki no me, just as this son, will say, " I also 

, for life intend to give rny parents 

shojm ga, chodo kono musuko to * 

and the rest of them peace of mind, 

onaji koto de, " Ore mo shogai ni iva ^ ut iQ .& a y i b eg to be excused." And 
oyatachi ni mo ansliin saseru tsumori then they put their parents in a fever 

ja ga,ma kyo wa gomen ja" to iute of anxiet y- "** li f e I a]so intend 

to serve my master faithfully" (they 
wa oya ni kino wo irase. -Ore mo <4 



shogai ni wa shujin ye no hoko 100 cused." And then they neglect their 
taisetsu ni suru tsumori ja ga, ma kyo duties. " For life I also purpose to be 
dake wa o yurushi ja" to iute wa diligent, but for the present I beg to 

be excused," they say. And then they 
"Ore mo shogai spend theip fcime ^ id]encss u Fof 

ni wa ano shugyo wo suru ki, de oru life I also intend to learn the michi, 
ga, ma konogoro wa o yurushi ja " to but now I beg to be excused," they 

.. _ , _ . . say. And then they live without a 

iute wa, asobz. " Ore mo shogai ni WCL * 

purpose, saying only with their lips, 
sono michi ivo manabu tsumori ja ga, rtfop ^ for ]ife/ , Qut in the WOfl& 

md ima wa gomen ja" to iute wa there are many such. But this " for 
ukauka ( tada kuchi de bakari ^ shogai life" what does it mean? After 

, all does it not mean the present 
shogai to iute kurasu Into ga seken 

moment? More than that, it is pre- 
nt wa oku aru mmo ja ga. Sono dgely t]ie present moment that is 

" shogai " to iva itsu no koto zo ? " for life," and it is ever dying. To 
Yahari tadaima tadaima no koto ja P ut tnis matter to you once more and 

. , . accurately. These bodies of ours> as I 

nai ka? Sono mata, tadaima tadavna 

have already said, are things bor- 
ga " shogai " de shini oru koto 100 ima rowed from thig air of heaven> And 

hitotsu kmcashu o hanashi moso nara, they are precisely the things that are 

hito no kono karada wa mae ni mo mei ' e ioans to be P aid in yearly pay- 

ments. The man who dies at twenty 
iu tori kono ten no kuki no karimono 

has borrowed (to pay in) twenty yearly 

?a ga, sore ga chodo ncmpu ni shite payments : the man who dies at thirty 
karite oru yo na mono ja. Hatachi has borrowed to pay in thirty yearly 
de shinuru hito wa ni ju nempu wo payments: the man who dies at fifty 

may be regarded as one of fiftv yearly 
karita no, san ja sai de shinitru hito p ,. 

payments : the man who dies at seven- 

wa san ju nempu 100 karita no, go ju t y, as one of seventy yearly payments: 
sai no hito wa go ju nempu, shichi Urashima Taro as one of eight thou- 



258 FOR LIFE. 

jit sai no hito wa shichi ju nempu, sand, and Tob5saku as one of nine 
Urashima Taro wa hassen nempu, thousand yearly payments. In the 

method of arranging the yearly pav- 
Tobosaku wa ku sen nempu to iu ,'= .J .. J. 

nients whether they shall be lew or 
yo na mono de: sukoshi nempu no many _ there is a elight difference, 

kubari yo ni, nagai to mijikai to no and that is all. In any case they are 

chigai ga aru bakari. Izure nempu loans to be P aid ^ y earl J payments: 

and therefore while we are employed 

no karimono yue, ltd shite oru iichi 

as we are now, hour by hour moment 

ji ji koku koku ni shakusan-kata ye ^ y moment we are making our pay- 
"hiTtitorareru. ments to our creditors. 

Sude ni koncho mo watakushi ga Already this morning, for example, 
kono kami too yuimashita ni daibu in dressing my hair, a number of hairs 
kamigeganukemashitaga:anokamige came out - Thafc hair > X can never 
momokochira no karada ye torikaeso return again to my body : and there- 

fore to that extent there is BO doubt 
to iu koto wa do shite mo dckimasenu ,,,,,,,,.,,. . , 

at all that this body is mine has now 
kara, are hodo wa mo watakushi ga ^^ And so if we should treat this 



kono karada ga shinda no ni chigai too wit , h due resp ect, I suppose we 

wanaino ja. Sore de kore mo taiso should have to have a regular* funeral 

na koto ni shimasurela, soshiki de mo over it. And on that principle we 

senya naranu yd na mono ja ga : sono should say " I have lost a hair," and 

yoni"Kamigeganuketa" to iute wa then have a funeral. We should say 

, , T . , .. . // T 7 . , "I have lost a tooth/' and then have a 

soshiki ico slntan ; " ha ga nuketa ' to 

funeral. We should say "I have pared 
iute wa soshiki wo sliitari ; " tsume wo , . 

my nails, and then have a funeral. 

tsunda" to iute wa soshiki wo shi oru And> . we carr[ed Qut the princiFlef 

to> ato ni wa yaito no kasabuta no at last we should have to have a fuu- 

ochita no made soshiki ivo senya eral even when the scab of the moxa 

naranu kara, sore de md kamige no drops off. And therefore when we 

nuketa gurai wa, cnsaki ye tsumande loose a hair we go with it between our 

dete kuchi nosakide'Fii'to iu kurai fingers out to the edge of the veranda, 

7 . and end the matter with a whiff 
TIG indo de sumashite okimasn na : sore 

from the tips of our lips for the indo. 

de mo viayoi mo senu ka shite, tsui ni However it doeg not wander to and 

kamige no yurei ga deta no nuke-ha frOj it seQ ms : and so we never hear 

no yurei ga deta no to iu koto mo anything about the ghosts of hairs or 

kikanu. teeth appearing and so forth. 



FOR LIFE. 259 

Tsuyn no mi to To say it is a body made of dew : 

lu mo nakanaka How very 

Soragoto yo : F a ) se it is : 

Ide iru iki ni The life that vanishes 

Kiyuru inoclii wo. "With every breath. 

Sono tori ji ji koku koku ni kono Thug hour by hour moment after 

back our 



karadawoshaknsenkatayehikitorarete 

bodies to the creditor. And when 

nempu no sanyo ga sunde shimau to, our yearly payment account is all 
"Ni icU ten saku sanyo aisumi settled, (Tentosama) says "Twice one 

are your account is all settled. I 
moshi soro. Medetaku kashiku to , . J , 

congratulate you." Then he draws 

Tentosama no o chomen ye mmi 100 his pen across his book. And then 
liikareru to, danna-dera ye katsuide * are borne to the family temple on 

the shoulders of the bearers. And it 
yuitc, " l\amu Kara tanno' "Chan . , 

is ".Namukara tanno/ and "Chan 
garan don." Are ga soroban wo nageta garan don/ , And tliat ig the gound 

o/o ja. of flinging down his soroban. 

Ano yd na oto wo kiite mo yahari And yet even when they hear such 
bomlnt to iu mono wa yoso ni bakari sounds, COOTWIOM people think of it as 

only the settling of the yearly pay- 
nemjju no sanyo ga sumu yd ni ornate,, 

ments of some one else. They them- 

waga mi wa kanateko nanzo no yd selves are something like a crowbar. 
ni omote oru kara, soko de " Ham wa And BO they say, " What shall I do 
doshiyo? aki wa ko sMyo ; rainen wa ^ the Spring? In the Autumn I will 

do so and so. What shall I do next 
do shiyo? sarainen wa a suru no" to, m . 

year? The year after next I will 

muri-mutai ni koku wo tsukande kan- do so and so. And recklessly build- 
jin na ima no koto wo okotaru. Nanto! in S castles in the air, they neglect 

the essential present. What a piece 
oroka m mono de wa nai ka? Jikwai Q folly , Jn ^ poemg Q Jikwai 

Sojo no nta ni : Sojo : 

K iku tabi ni Every time one hears of it (death ), 

Yoso no aware to To think 

Omou koso : It is the sorrow of another i 



260 - FOR LIFE. 

. 

Naki hito yori mo That is greater frailty 

Hakanakarikcri. Then even his who is no more. 

Sore ja ni yotte, o tagai ni ima ga Therefore for all of us, the present 

shinuru massaichu: ko shite oru no that is the very midst of death: 

ga shini oru no ja. living as we are that is dying. 



NOTES. 

Ozake nonde iva : seepage 245. Nora-musuko : so also 
nora-neko, a ' fence ' cat. . Tokoro : employed as a connec- 
tive : the preacher might have said ga. Sonata. sake 

ja : the idea of the Japanese is expressed in the translation : 
more literally rendered, " your (drinking of) sake is a (drink- 
ing of) sake having a very bad effect :" compare anata no 
yumi zva jitsu ni go jozu da, you are very skilful with 
your bow. Hodo ni : kara. Ai strengthens tsutsushimi. 
Ltashimasei: itashimase: the imperative, rendered * must.' 
Shogai : for life. Moshita tokoro : moshitareba. Mci^tvaku 
sum : komaru. He was in a quandary because on the one 
hand he could not give up sake, and on the other he could 
not disobey his father. Watakushi ga : watakushi no. 
Are hodo : so. Iiuasskaru (osstiaru) no zva : with regard 
to your saying, for you to say. Kara : because, and there- 
fore, and. Sore de : with that. Tokoro: ga. Aku-sho : 
vicious nature, bad effect. Wa : as to, considering. Gurai 
de : with that quantity, with anything like. Anshin wa : 
wa rather than ga suggests the contrast that whatever else 
might be said in favor of the proposition it would bring 
him no peace of mind. Do dc mo : rendered, I am deter- 
mined. Sake ^cva : wa rather than wo suggests the contrast, 
whatevei else you may drink you shall not drink sake. 



FOR LIFE. 26l 

Nanto (or do] omoi kaeta yara (or ka}: somehow he 
changed his mind, a new idea seemed to strike him : literal- 
ly, How did he re-think? i.e. I do not know the process that 
went on in his mind (but obviously something had taken 
place). Nani wo omotte iru ka? means 'what are you think- 
ing about ? ' Nanto (or do] omotte iru ka ? means 'what do 
you think of it ? ' Watakushi ino : mo brings out the idea 
that the son had an interest in the matter as well as his 
father. Do yara : somehow. Kyo ga : ga rather than ^va 
particularizes to-day as the day. Hence the statement is not 
rendered 'to-day I am to bid farewell et cetera,' but 'to-day 
is the day when et cetera.' Kyo wa watakushi no tanjobi 
da means 'to-day is my birthday, and answers the question 
What is to-day ? Kyo ga ivatakushi no tanjobi da means 'to- 
day is my birthday,' and answers the question When is your 
birthday? Sake to (or ni} wa : not the ordinary farewell 
to one's parents but a farewell to sake : hence wa. Nare- 
ba: since. Semete no nagori ni : just for a good bye. So 
one says to a guest, semete mo ichi nichi o tomarinasai, stay 
just one day longer. Kyo ichi nichi zva : wa suggests the 
contrast, only for to-day not for to-morrow, Nomasu beshi: 
nomaso. Mdshitsuke : charged. Kono tori : this way, i. e. 
to the very letter. Tadashi : added to documents to call 
attention to exceptions et cetera. Kaite yarimashita toko- 
ro : kaite yarimashitareba : wrote it for him. Musuko wa : 
zva suggests the contrast, others might have done different- 
ly put it away in a drawer for example ; he did so and so. 
Sore : the paper. Bettari to : not a little on each corner, 
but all over the back. Oyaji wa : others might not have 
been, his father was surprised : hence wa rather than ga. 
Kanete : already, as you know : kanete moshiageta tori, as 



262 FOR LIFfi. 

I have already said, as you are now aware. Koto : koto 
(ivo). Made : he went beyond a more verbal agreement : 
rendered, 'actually.' Yatta ni : yatta no ni. Ano tori : 
that way, i. e. as written. Sore de mo : but. lya : no, I 
beg your pardon, excuse me. Nonde de 'cva nai ka : honde 
iru de wa nai ka. Harifuda ni mo : on the placard also, 
not merely in their verbal agreement : rendered, ' on the 
placard itself.' To gozareba: to kaite gozareba. To lute : 
so saying. To iute iva : he said, and then : see page 245. 

Shojin : see page 254. Ore mo: I also (as well as others), 
I myself. Shogai ni zva : in contrast with kyo wa : hence 
wa. Oyatachi ni mo : my parents also, i. e. as well as 
others my wife and children for example. Kimo wo ira- 
se : literally, bake their gall. Hoko ^vo taisetsu ni sum : 
serve faithfully. Ki de oru : purpose. Ukauka : with- 
out any fixed purpose. Seken ni wa : wa suggests the 
contrast, out in the ivorld it is so, in the audience it is quite 
different. Aru mono ja : there are. 

To : sign of quotation employed in repeating shdgai. 
Itsu no koto 20 : best rendered, ' what does it 
mean ? ' Yahari : here, after all. Sono mata : more than 
that. Tadaima tadaima ga : ga rather than wa particular- 
izes, identifies, selects : it is precisely the present that et 
cetera ; the present, that et cetera. Koto wo : the object 
of o kanashi mo so. As frequently, it is simpler in English 
to begin a new sentence. Lma : mo. Sore ga : ga as 
above with tadaima : it is precisely they that et cetera ; 
they of all things are the things that et cetera. Chodo yd 
na : just like, mere. Ni shite : as, in. Urashima Taro : a 
Japanese said to have lived for eight thousand years. To- 
bosaku : a Chinaman. To ill yd na : may be regarded as. 



FOR LIFE. 263 

Izure : in any case. Hikitorareru : we are paid over. 

KoncJio mo : this morning also, as well as on other days, 
for example, say. Kamige : in Toky5, kami no ke. To m 
koto wa : whatever else he can do, he can not do that : 
hence wa rather than ga. Are hodo iva : not entirely, but 
to that extent : hence wa. Kore mo : this too, this as we 
treat other parts of the body an arm say. Taiso na koto 
ni sum: to treat with due respect. De mo: even; render- 
ed, ' a regular.' Yd na mono ja : yd na weakens the state- 
ment : rendered, ' I suppose.' Sono yd ni : in that way, on 
that principle. To iute wa : say, and then : see page 245. 
Shioru' continued action : rendered, ' carry out.' Ma: say, 
not to mention other things. Gurai wa : that quantity of 
death (not an arm say, or the whole body) : best rendered 
by ' when ' followed by emphasis on hair. Rural no : that 
quantity of, to serve as, for. Indo : the address of the priest 
guiding the dead man to Gokuraku, and without which he 
would wander though the world a ghost. The puff guides 
the hair whither it should go. Sore de mo : however. The 
rites though simple are sufficient. Mayoi mo : wander, say. 
Mo suggests that ghosts have other disagreeable duties to 
perform. Ka: weakens the statement : rendered, ' it seems.' 
Shite : and so. Tsui ni : never. To in koto : (hear) about. 
Mo : also, among other things, and so forth. Sorag'oto : 
false, because dew is far too enduring a thing to compare 
the body to. NI ichi ten sakii : Tento Sama is represented 
as making out the account on his soroban. Rendered liter- 
ally the words mean, 'two (into) one above make ' 

Ten is the upper part of the soroban. This is one of the 
first things a child learns in learning the use of the soroban. 
Hence it is like saying in English, 'twice one are' 



264 FOR LIFE. 

Medetaku kashiku : employed at the close of letters written 
by women ; and a stereotyped way of saying, no bad news. 
Here, I congratulate you. Namu kara tanno : words from 
the funeral liturgy. Chan gar an don : the sound of the 
funeral music. Are ga : the preacher has been identifying 
the various things, telling which is which : hence ga rather 
than wa. 

Ano yd na oto : i. e. the sound of a funeral service. Yoso 
ni : some where else : here, some one else. Waga mi : he 
himself. Suru no to : suru no to itte. Koku wo tsukamu : 
to grasp the air, be visionary, build castles in the air. So- 
jo : a title conferred upon priests: usually upon men in 
charge of a large temple or a number of temples. Ima ga : 
ga has the particularizing identifying force so often referred 
to : iva would answer the question, What is the present ? ga 
answers the question, When are we in the midst of death ? 
when are we dying? 



IN PURIS NATURALJBUS. 

Sore ni tsuite koto ni okashii liana- In illustration of this I have an 

shi ga am. Kore wa chitto iyasliii amusing story. This is a rather 

hanashi naredo, sennen tvatakushi ga homely story, but it is a thing that I 

am joka no macJii-bata de mita koto saw myself some years ago in the 

de gozarimasu ga. outskirts of one of the castle towns. 

Sono atari no binibonin no ko to What seemed to bo a poor child of 
miete-toshi mo nanatsu yatsu gurai the neighbor hood-a boy of som 

seven or eight years of age bad 
710 otoko no ko ga tofuya ye tofu no . 1 

apparently been to a torn shop to buy 

kara wo kai ni itta no to mietc, chiisa sorne o f ^ ne i ms k Sj had put the hns'cs 
na zaru ye tofu no kara 100 irete in a little basket and set it up on top 



IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 265 

taJcaJcn waga atama no ue ye sashiage, of his head, and was on his way home 

humming a song. On starting out 
hanauta utote modon orimeaihita ga. 

however, when his mother sent him to 

Hajhne sono hahaoya ga, scmo ko too the shop, it seems that she sent him 
kai ni yarn told, " tocha de Into ni off saying that he was to buy the 

husks and come back without letting 
miscnu yo ni shite kote modore, to de , , , 

people see them on the way or some 

wo iute yatta mono to miemasuja. thing of that kind. 

Kore ga kono Edo nado de wa nai In such places as Yedo I suppose 

koto de gozarimashd ga, inaka de ica this never happens, but out in the 

yoku aru koto de gozarimasu. Oya country it occurs frequently. The 

ga limbo de kodomo wa o slii, kyo ico father is poor, and the children are 

kui-kanem to iu yd na gesen na mono numerous; and they can hardly live 

wa, o mcshi no tashi nt, kono tofu no from da ^ t<? **?.. Such humble P eo ' 

pie get along by mixing in these id- 
le irazu wo aemazete kute oru to iu yd . 

iu husks to eke out their rice. And 

na mono ga ikura mo aru koto de there are ever so many people of that 
gozarimasu ga. Sono yd na mono no tind. And yet such persons are ex- 
kuse 7i, sono kirazu wo kau koto ico tremely ashamed of being seen buy- 
erai liito ni hajint de gozarimasu ja. ing the husks. 

Soko de kano hahaoya ga tochu de Accordingly this mother's saying 
hitoni misenu yd ni shite to iuta no ^at he was not to let people see them 

by the way was also of a piece with 
mo yafiari sono kaku na koto de. Sono ,,. m . . , ... . 

this. To her rnrnd, if his companions 

hahaoya no kokoro ni wa, sono ko ga i n the neighborhood should chance 
kirazu wo lidte modoru wo shizen kinjo to see the boy coming home with the 

no tomodaehi ga mita nara, are mo lmsks ' ihe ? mi ^ hfc P erha P s SU PP OSG 

that he was one of the boys whose 

uchi ga binibo de tsune ni tofu no .,. , , . 

families are poor and who never have 

kirazu wo kute sodatsu to de mo omau anything to eat but tofu husks. And 
ka. So suru to kono nochi ano ko ga if so, even if the boy should after- 
wards go out among his companions, 
tomo^ctc"iinonaKft ye dete mo, kata ga . , , , . ' 

he would shrink away from them or 

semai ?io, ganka ni mirareru no, baka would be looked down upon or be 
ni sareru no to iu yo na koto deiroiro treated as a dunce: and such being 

*the case with a mind full of all sorts 
higanda kokoro ga atte iuta koto to of suspicions _ ifc would 8eem that slie 

miemasu. told him what she did. 



266 IN PURLS NATURALIBUS. 

Tokoro ga sonc- ko wa Icano kirazu However the boy carrying the ba,s. 

too ireta, za.ru wo waga atama no ue ye ket with the husks on the top of his 

nosete, kinjo no tomodachi ga ozei asobi head said to a lot of his co npanions 

orimasu no ye mukatte iimasu ni iva : playing together, " Here ! here ! all 

"Ko! ko! minni koko ye kite. Ore of you come here. What has I put 

ga k&ko ni motte oru kono zaru no in this basket that I have? See 

nakaniiva naniwoirete oru ka? iute whether you can tell." Thereupon 

mi nasare," to iimasu ja. So sum to his companions there came clattering 1 

soko ni oru tomodachi ga doyadoya up in a crowd and one of the boys 

to iot'2 kite, hitori no ko ga iimasu said, "I'll guess it for you. It must 

ni wa t " Ore ga iiatete misho. Sore be beans." Upon which the boy with 

wa okata mame de aro" to iimasu the basket shook his head and said, 

to, kano zaru wo motta ko ga kaburi " No! it is not beans: it is not beans." 

wo futte, " liyal mame ja nai, mame Another one of the boys said, " I'll 

ja nai " to iimasu. Mata hitori no ko guegg ifc f Qr you 

go, Ore ga iute misho. Sore wa azuki ^^ ..^ .^ . g 

ja, azuki ja " to iimasu to, " liya ! 

... either: it is not red beans either. 
azuki de mo nai, azuki de mo nai to 

iimasu. Mata hitori no ko ga, Miso Another of fcbc b ^ said, ' It is miso : 

ja, miso ja" to iimasu to, "liya! it is miso/' "No! it is not miso either: 

miso de mo nai, miso de mo nai" to it is not miso either/' said he. And 

iimashite : do shite mo kirazu to iu koto try their best none of them could 

ivo. m!na yo iiatemasen na. So shima- guess that it was husks. And so the 

shitara sono zaru 100 motta ko ga iimasu boy with tto b as k e t said, "Pshaw! 

TO, "Eil minnayo iute de nai. Kore none of yOU caa te ll. Whylitistofu 

iva kirazu ja ni! " to iimasu to so sum . ij.ij.ui. 

J husks." Thereupon a lot of tho boys 
io, ozei no kodomo ga kuchi wo soroete, 

. . , . called out too-ether, " Oh I say ! real- 
" Fiil homma ni son ya kirazu kae? 

Sonnara sono zaru wo oroshite sono ly is it husks P Then take down the 

naka ivo mise nasare" to iimashi- basket and let us see inside." "No!" 

tareba, ' liya! naka wo miseru koto said he, *' I can't let you see inside." 

wa naranu," to iu. "Naze naka wo "Why won't you let us see inside ?" 

mise nasaranu ka?" to ieba, " Sori said they. " Because my mother told 

ya uclii no kakasan ga hito ni misenu me to bring them home without show- 

yo ni shite motte modore " to iwareta ing them to people." Oh the heart 
kara ja to iimashita ga. Nantol- of a child Low innocent, how puro 

kodomo no hara no naka to iu mono it is ! His mother told him not to 

wa makoto ni ninya no hedate no nai, let them be seen, and so in all siru- 



IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 267 

kirei na mono ja na! Oya ga " Mto plicity he would not show them. But 
ni miseru na" to iuta kara, shdjiki why she should say "Do not show 

ni mise wa senu ga, sono " miseru na" . 

them/ he did not understand ; be- 
to in imiai wa, kodomo no hara no 

naka ni wa tonto oboe no nai koto ja cause in his hearfc of a Md {i was a 
yue, ivakaranuja. thing that found no response at all. 

Mata kono hanashi wo am tokoro Moreover when I told this story at 

de hanashimashitara, muko no jin ga a certain place the man to whom I 

iwaremasu wa : " lya moshi. Kodomo was talking said to me, " Oh ! that is 

to in mono wa doko de mo josai no qilite w hat one might expect. Child- 
nai mono de gozarimasu. Watakushi 

T . ren everywhere are innocent things. 
ga Kinjo m mo chodo sono yo na koto 

ga gozarimashita" to iwaruru. " Sori In Ur * ei g h *>orhood a ^o we had 

ya do sliita koto ka?" to toimaslii- 3 ust such an occurrence." -How 

tareba, Kore mo yahari bwibonin no was that ?' J I asked. This also, was 

ko ja so de gozarimasu ga. a story of a poor boy. 

Oya ga yohodo no Umbo de : kanai The parents were very poor : their 
no kigae mo nai shiawase yue, shogatsu condition was such that they actu- 
ally had no spare clothing in the 
ga kite mo fiahaoya ga kodomo ni f ., ,, ? ,, 

family. Therefore even when New 

sentaku shite yarn koto mo narazu: year's time came the mother could 
yoyo Tiaru san gatsu goro no tenki no not even wasli for the children. At 

yoi hi wo hahaoya ga mitatete sono ko lasfc iu the S P rin S' some time in the 

third month, she looked out for a fine 

ye umasu wa, "Kyo wa soclii ga kimono , , .,,,,, U m j 

day and said to the boy, "To-day 

wo sentaku shite yarn hodo ni, soto ye i ain going to wash your clothes for 
dezu ni uchi ni ore," to iute kimono you : and so you are to stay at home 
tvo nugashimashitara, sono ko wa and not go out of doors." So saying 

she took off his clothes. Thereupon 
hadaka de furui-furm " Kakasan ore the boy being naked alld severing 

wa samui to iu kara, " Ol sonnara all over said to her, " Mamma, I a.in 

cold." "Oh! well then," said she, 
ma soko no futon nan to kabutte ore 

" just wrap yourself up m that f utoii 

to iimashita. Soko de sono ko wa, O r anything else." Accordingly the 
"Ail" to iute soko ni atta futon wo boy said, Very well :" took the futon 

that was there, palled it up over his 
totte senaka kara hikikaburi kubi back leaying only hig bgad ^ aad 

bakari dashite suwatte iru to kado- was sitting down, Just then four or 



268 IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 

guchi ye kinjo no tomodachi ga sJii five friends in the neighborhood 

go nin zurede kite, " Mankichi San came in a P art y to the gateway. 

"Mankichi! let us go and play" 
asobo to iu to, sono ko qa uchi kara . , ,, ,, ,. .-,,,. 

said they. When they said this, the 

"Hya kyo wa derarenu wae" to iu boy replied from inside of the house, 

to, hahaoya ga ki wo monde " EH " No ! to-day I can't go out of doors." 

kono ko wa damatte oreba yoi no ni," There upon his mother was worrying 

and thinking, " Pshaw ! I wish the 

to omote oru uchi. mata soto kara boy would hold his tongue." Mean- 

tomodachi ga yobimasu to, " liya! while his companions called to him 

kyo wa derarenu : minna ma koko ye a S aiu f rom outside : and he answer- 

7,. ^ ed, "No! I can't go out to-day: 

KI nasare" to iu kara, hahaoya wa 

come in here all of you. At this 
- Ma torno dachi wo yobaneba yoi no his mother thought to herself> ..j 

ni" to omou uchi haya, tomodachi wa wish he would n't call the boys in." 
doyadoya to agatte kite sono ko no While she was thinking this and be- 

fore she had time to say anything, 
mae ye gururi to inardbi. Naniyara .. , 

his companions came up chattering 

gayagaya ii oru uchi yagate kochira together and stood in a ring before 
no ko ga iimasu ni wa, " Ore iva kyo the boy. While they were chatter- 
nan de kono yo ni futon wo kabutte in g away about something or other, 

presently the boy said to them, " See 
suwatte oru no ka ? iiatete mi nasare to 

whether you can guess why I am sit- 

iimasu to, haliaoya wa mo tamaranaku ting in this way to-day with a futon 
natte kara, hata kara " Korel Man around me." Thereupon his mother 
ya!" to iute nirande misete mo, sono could contain herself no longer, and 

interrupting them said, '' Here ! 

ko no kokoro ni wa sono wake ga Man ,,, and gave him a look. But 
walcaranu kara, haha no kao wo jiro- even so, as the reason why was un- 
jiro mi nagara, ydhari tomodachi ye, intelligible to the heart of the boy, 

he kept glancing up- at his mother's 
" Sal sa! iute mi nasare' to m to, n 

face and still saying to his cornpa- 

tomodachi ica kuchi wo soroete, "Sore niong) Come! come ! see whether 
wa samui kara de aro to iu. So suru you can tell." And his companions 
to, liya! samui kara de wa nai" to iu with one voice answered, "Why! it 

must be because you are cold." At 
to, " Sonnara kaze wo mita no ka? , . , , ... .. XT , ... , , 

which he said, "No! it is not be- 

to iu to, "lya! kaze de mo nai" to cause j am co i& "Well then," 



iu wo hahaoya ga sola kara totte " 01 said they, "have you taken a cold? 



IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 269 

are mo chitto kazake de " to ii- " No \" said he, " it is not a cold 
magiraso to sum to, sono ko ga " Ei! either/' His mother breaking into 

the talk tried to lead them off the 
Kakasan wa ano yd na uso wo iutc in : ,, _ , , 

track by saying, '"Oh! he has a 

ore we, nani mo Icaze hiita no de wa sligllt cold in Ms head to0j and _ 

nai ni! " to iu to, hahaoya wa masu- whereupon the boy replied, " Pshaw 

mother is telling such a fib. Why ! 
masu Id wo monde, " Ei ! ma kono ko . 

it is not because I have taken any 

wa " to omou uclii ni> mata sono ko C old at all." Upon this his mother 

ga iimasu ni, "Minna yd iute de nai more and more ^rried thought to 

herself, "Pshaw! this boy is a." 
kara ore ga kono futon no hashi wo an( , whfle g}io wag fcHnking go once 

chitto akfte mi slid " to iu yite, lialiaoya more the boy said, " None of you can 

mo mo korae-kanetc, Ei! ano laka- tel1 ' so I wil1 turn back the end o 

the futon arid let you see myself/' 
mono me! sonna aho na koto sum M this even his mot her could con- 

mono ja nai" to nirande miscte mo, tain herself no longer and gave him 

a look that said, " Pshaw ! confound 
yanari wakarcwu Kara futon no hasM 

the boy! stop that sort of tom- 

ico chitto akete wa, " Kori yal to ii : foolery I" But even so, as he still 
mata akcte wa Kori yal " to iu yue, did not understand, he would turn 

back the end of the futon a little and 
minna no kodomo qa sono liadaka de ,-. .. T , , > j 

then say, " Look here I" and again 

oru wo mite, " Ari yal kono nii iva he would turn it back and then say, 

hadaka ja na! Naze kono samui no <<Look here! " Accordingly all the 

boys saw that he v/as undressed, and 

ni liadaka de inasaru" to toeba, Sd! exclaimed, "Why ! he has no clothes 
sore wo mata iute mi nasare" to iu on nas he?" And they asked him 

" Why are you all undressed in such 
yue, minna no kodomo aa " Sore wa . , , , ^ 

cold weather? "Come! said he, see 

nan de ka ? Orera wa shirami " to whether you can tell that too." And 

iutareba, sono toki kochira no ko ga so a11 the bo ? s Answered, "Why is 

that? We don't know/' At which 

iimasu wa, " Sonnara ore qa iutc ,, , ., t . ,,- ,, T .,, , ,, 

the boy said, " W ell then I will tell 

kikatf. Kyo wa ore ga kimono no you myse lf. To-day my clothes are 
sentaku ja " to iimashita so da ga. being washed." 

Jitsu ni kodomo to iu mono wa And in truth children are innocent 
ivatakushi no nai mono ja nai ka? things: are they not? In the pro- 



2/0 IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 

Xotowaza ni " nanatsu ni naru ko verb they say, " When a bov gets to 
wa nana sato ni nikumareru " to be seven years old he is hated over 

, seven villages" or something like 

ka nmasu ga. Sore de mo nakanaka ,, J 

that. Really however if we compare 

meimeidow) no kokoro ni kurabete miru the heart of a child with that of any 
to, sore wa! shojo na mono ja : shizuka one of us. Oh ! how pure it is ! how 
na mono ja. Sono shojo na nan to mo free from turmoil ! It is precisely 

that pure characterless state that 
nai tokoro ga Judo de ieba, shi-zen to n f , 7 

Confucianism means by summnm bo- 

iu tokoro; Buppo de ieba, shoshin no num, what Buddhism means by the 

real Nirvana: it is that plane of 



jakumetsu to iu tokoro de:hito no slw- 

mind to which all his life long man 
gai todomari-nukaneba naranu kokoro should str i ve --the peaceful pure 

no kurai anyo-jodo to iu mono ja. land. 

Shikashi dare de mo itokenai toki Moreover in childhood each and 

waminna sono torina mono de atte : 6very ne f UB WaS SUch a bein ^' 

Our bodies were active leaping- and 
karada tea okite tcmdari hanetari shi springing about} but O ur hearts were 

otte mo, kokoro wa yoku neiri-kitte in a deep slumber. But as child- 
hood added year to year and our 

otta mono ja ga. Sore ga oioi toshi , ,. 

bodies grew in stature, we were dis- 

wo kasanete karada ga okyu naru ni turbed in our sleep by the sights 

shitagai, miru ni yusurare kiku ni that meet the eve and the sounds 

that strike the ear: and one day we 
yunirare, itsu no ma ni yara yusuri- were g}iaken Qut rf slumber> And 

okosarete, tsui kono ga to iu mono wo then at last we awaked to conscious- 

cboetsuke, sore kara hasu urotae- ness o self ' ^om that time on we 

began to wander panting and be- 
dashitanoja. lya onore jano tanin wilderod> Myself and himssU'," 

jano" " son jano tokn jano," " m'iketa " loss and gain," " the worst of it and 

., 7 . . the best of it" "right and wron^," 

no Icatta no, " ze jano hi jano, 

"in the light and in the dark," 
" satotta no mayota no" " oni jano a demon and a Buddha," " hell aiid 

Hoioke jano," "jigoJcu jano gokuraku heaven." With such words as these 

on our lips, amid the imaginary we 
jano to, aru to ararenu koto ni 

wander hither and thither in a fiut- 

urotae sawaide, shogai kokoro no ter . and ^ our ]i ves lon g we ncvor 
yasumu ma to iu mono wa nai. have a mind at rest. 



IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 271 

NOTES. 

% 

Aru : a certain, one of the. Machi-bata : macki-kazure. 
Bimbonin no ko : bimbonin no ko da. For a poor child, the 
Japanese do not say bimbo no ko but bimbonin no ko. To 
miete : what seemed. Toshi mo : mo brings out the idea 
that he was young as well as poor. Gurai : quantity, 
about, some. Kara : the husks of the beans left in making 
the tofu. Itta no : itta no da. Miete : apparently. Ta- 
kaku : up. Modori orimashita : the participle followed 
by oru or iru sometimes expresses completed action; the 
stem followed by oru or iru always expresses action continu- 
ing. Hajime : on starting out. Toki : toki ni. To de mo iute : 
de mo weakens the statement, changing 'saying* into 'saying 
something of the kind' or 'with some such directions as'. 
Miemasu ja : it seems. Oya ga : wa \vould suggest that 
the children (or some one else) are rich. Kodomo wa : wa 
suggests some such contrast as kane ^va nai. O ski : oku 
aru ski. Kyo : to-day, i.e. from day to day. Kui-kaneru : 
can hardly live. To iu yd na : such. Here again it is sim- 
pler in English to begin a new sentence. Tashi ni : to eke 
out. Kute oru : get along. Aru koto de gozarimasii : there 
are. Ruse ni : frequently equivalent to and yet preceding 
a statement of inconsistency with some discreditable trait. 
Okubyo na kuse ni yo~aniki wa suki da, he is a coward and 
yet he is found of going out at night. Compare Satow's 
Kaiwa Hen, 17, 16. Erai : greatly, extremely. Hito ni : 
of being seen. These husks are frequently eaten by those 
who are not poor, and there is therefore no real reason why 
poor people should be ashamed to eat them : they generally 
are however. That is the point which the preacher wishes 



272 IN PURTS NATURALIBUS. 

to make. Mo yahari : she was like other poor people. 
Shizen mita'nara : should chance to see. Are mo : he 

also, he was one of. Tsune ni sodatsu: grow up always 

eating, never had anything to eat but. De mo omoii ka : 
de mo and ka both weaken the statement : rendered, ' might 
perhaps.' Kono nochi : afterwards, in after life. Kata ga 
semai : shrink away. No : or. Ganka ni mirareru : be seen 
from below the eye, be looked down upon. To iu yd na 
koto de : and such being the case. 

Tokoro ga : however. Ko wa : wa rather than ga con- 
trasts the action of the boy with that of the mother. Ye 
mukatte iimasu ni iva : said to. Ko ! ko : kore ! kore ! 
Naka ni iva : wa here adds little or nothing. Iimasu ja : 
ja adds nothing. Yotte : together, in a crowd. Mis/id : 
miseyo. Mata hitori no : another. To iu koto : that it was. 
Yd : could. So shimashitara : and so. Yd iute de nai : in 
Tokyo, ienai. Ni : why! Miseru koto iva naranu : wa 
suggests the contrast, he might talk about it but he must 
riot show it. Sori ya: sore ^va: as to that, that is because, 
because. Uchi no : my : Uchi no imi, our dog. Ninga no 
he date no nai: no difference between others (nin) and 
one's self (ga), unsuspecting, innocent. Na : ne. Mise 
wa senu : might talk about but would not shoiu. Oboe no 
nai koto : a thing which did not appeal to his feelings, that 
he did not appreciate, did not see the point of, that found 
no response in him. 

Muko no jin : the man to whom I was talking. lya 
moski : not surprising, quite to be expected. Josai no nai : 
commonly, clever : here, unsuspecting, unsophisticated, in- 
nocent. Watakushi ga : watakushi no. Kore : the story, 
not the boy. So de gozarimasu : it seems. 

17 



IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 2/J 

Kigae : change of clothing, spare clothing. Mo : even ; 
rendered, 'actually.' Shiawase: condition, lot. Shogatsu: 
the Japanese usually buy new clothes at New Year : but 
this family was so poor that the mother could not even 
ivash the clothes the children were wearing, because she 
had no extra clothing for them to wear meanwhile. Senta- 
ku shite yaru :. wash for them. Goro ; some time. Hodo 
ni : because, and so. Sochi ga : sochi no. To iute : so 
saying. Kakasan : in Tokyo, okkasan. Nari to : nari to 
mo : say, for example, or any thing else. Sono : the, Se- 
naka kara ' from, i.e. up over his back. Zurede : in a 
crowd, in a party. To iu to : when they said. Wae.: an 
expletive. To iu to : when he said, thereupon. Ki wo 
monde : worrying, fidgeting. Uchi: meanwhile. Yobimasu 
to : when they called, called . . . and. To iu kara : be- 
cause he said, at this. Haya : conveys the idea of ' before 
she could do any thing to prevent it.' Doya doya to : chat- 
tering. Hata kara : soba kara : breaking in, interrupting. 
Nirdnde misete : gave him a look. To iu wo : to iu no 
zvo : object of totte. Are mo: he also: implying that 

colds were prevalent in the neighborhood. De .* nete 

oru ' he is lying down ' would probably have followed, but 
Man interrupts. Uso wo iute ja : uso wo iute oru. Ni : 
why! Kono ko wa .* something like baka is to be un- 
derstood. Yd iute de nai : in Toky5, ienai. Hahaoya mo : 
even his mother : -i.e. though mothers are proverbially 
patient. Akete iva : he would open, and then: seepage 
245. Ari ya : why! Kono nii : kono niisan : literally 
elder brother. No ni : inasmuch as, as, since, seeing that. 
Sono toki : sore 'kara, soko de : thereupon, at which. 

Watakiishi no nai: commonly unselfish or not egotis- 



2/4 IN PURIS NATURALIBUS. 

tical ; here, unsuspecting, innocent, out-spoken, straight 
forward. Sore de mo nakanaka : really however. Meimei 
domo : any of us. Sore iva : neither it (the heart) nor 
they (the children), but exclamatory. Sono . . . tokoro 
ga : ga rather than wa particularizes, identifies, points out 
precisely what. Shi-zen : the highest excellence, summum 
bonum. Shoshin no jakumetsu : the real Nirvana. Anyo- 
jodo : peace pure-land. 

Okite: active. Sore: itokenai toki. Mini ni : by the 
sights that meet the eye. Yusurare : were shaken (as when 
one is moved without being actually wakened). Ga : con- 
sciousness of self. Urotac-dashita : as frequently, dasu 
added to the stem has the force of 'begin'. lya . . . jano: 
as here iya and jano are employed to head and connect a 
series of examples. Jano to : jano to itte : saying, with 
such words as these on our lips. Aru to ararenu koto : the 
imaginary; aru to arayuru koto; all things. To iu mono 
iva nai : whatever else we may have, we have not that : 
hence, iva. 



HEAVEN AND HELL. 

Mukashi aru knni no bushi ga Once upon a time a bush! from one 
Ikkyu Osho ni shaken sliite iwareuiasu of the provinces came to see Ikkyu 
iva : the Priest and^said to him : 

rt Scsslia mo kore made gakumon "I have been a student myself 

itaslii, oyoso tencWtan no koto nani hitherto, and I feel as if I had settled 

hitotttu utagai mo nai yd ni omoimasu pretty much everything in the imi- 

ga, tada hitotsu gaten no mairanu koto verse. There is however one tssiu^ 

wa Jjiippo ui hoaruru Jigoku Gokurakit that I do not understand : and that 



HEAVEN AND HELL. 

no setsu de gozaru. Mottomo Bussetsu is the doctrine o? Hell and Heaven 

ni mo shikkari aru yd ni toita tokoro taught in Buddhism. I am aware 

mo areba, mata nai yd ni iuta tokoro that even in Buddhistic writings 

mo aru yo ni miemasu ga. Are wa, there are some passages that explain 

zentai dochira wo hontd ni itashita them as really existent: but there 

mono de gozard? lyoiyo aru mono seem to be some passages also that 

de gozaru ka? mata nai mono de spe k of them as non-existent. On 

gozaru ka?"to iwaremashitareba, Ikkyu the whole which of these (views) are 

Osho iva kano samurai no kao wo jitto we to accept as correct ? Do they 

nirame-isuke : " Nanil Jigoku ga aru really exist? or not?" Ikkyu the 

ka? Gokuraku ga aru .ka? Sono yd Priest looked the samurai straight in 

na koto wo tazune-mawaru ? Onorc the face " "What!" said he, "Is 

there a Hell ? Is there a Heaven ? 
wa zentai nani mono zo ? to uvarc- 

Are you going about asking that sort 

maw yue, kano samurai wa yakki of tMn? What 



you 

to natte, " Sessha wa motoyori bushi The gamugai bristling up replied: 
de gozaru ga, Jigoku Gokuraku no j am a bushi to be sure} and I wisll 
u-mu wo uketamawaro to mosu no to inquire whether Hell and Heaven 
.de gozaru ga: nanto itasliita zo?" to exist or not. But what of it?" The 
iwarema.sUtarela, osho wa sesera- Priest laughing contemptuously an- 
warai slii nagara, "Nani lusliijato? swered : "What! a bushi you say? 
Sono homoyahari bushi no uchi ka? Are ^ one of the samurai too? What! 

If you are a bushi, are you a o-bushi 
Nani! Bushi nara, no-busJii ka? J 

or a 7/ama-bushi ? Or, are you a ki- 
iiama-bushi ka? tadashi, ki-bushi ka? , , . , , , . ,. 

bushi or a fcafeuo-busm ? If you are 

katsuo-bushi ka? Zentai makoto no a rea l true bushi, you ought at least 

bushi naraba, bushi do hodo wa shitte to know the duties of a bushi. But it 

or i sona mono ja ga, sono ho wa seems that you do not yet know even 

mada bushi do mo shiranu to mieru. the duties of a bushi. 

" Kore! Bushi to iu mono wa a'tama "Why ! a bushi from the top of his 
110 tcppen kara ashi no tsume no saki head to the tip of his toe shall I 
made to iwo ka?-inochi made mo say ? even to life itself , belongs to his 

, ... , ,_ master: in no sense whatever is he 

ihunn no mono de : sono ho no mono 

his own. And therefore in the first 
de wa mcanrai nai zo yo. Sasureba. 

place, in time or peace, each one day 

mazu jisei no toki wa, meimei no and night gives his minclfo his own 
yakugi ni cliu-ya kokoro wo tsukushi duties, and sees to it that his master's 
ehujin no yoji no kakezaru yd tai- business suffers no loss. And when 



276 HEAVEN AND HELL. 

setsu ? tsutome. ' Suwa! on daiji!' the cry is 'To his rescue!' he must 
to iu toki wa, shujin no go ba zen stand before his master's horse, make 
ni tatte inoclii wo mato ni, teki no *is e a target, rush into the very 

uchi ye mo kakeJri, teki no kuM wo midst of the enem 7 and teke off as 

many of their heads as he can. While 

ikutsu de mo utte toranela naranu . 

holding such an important position 

mono zo yo. So iu taisetsu naru , ' , , , 

as that, you desert your post and 

mi wo motte ori nagara, ukauka to come here inquiring whether there is 

koko ye kite, Jigoku ga aru ka? no a Hell and whether there is a Heaven. 

Gokitraku ga aru ka ? no to. Sori ya! Why ! what a piece of nonsense ! 

nan no taica koto zo! Areba, mata Suppose they do exist, what do you 

do suru ryoken zo? Onoga yd na intend to do then ? A fellow like you 

mono u-o seken de wa wmakura bushi P e P le cal1 a P oor blade of a busti > or 

.. IT,- ITT.. ., -7 a coward of a bushi. or a bushi not 

to mo -ieba, koshmuke bushi to mo leba, 

. worth his rice ! Bah ! you bushi not 
qoku-tsubushi to mo iu wail Yail eel f -,-> ^ 

worth your fodder : and so saying 

koko na kuitsubushi me ga, to ii he rapped him over the head with his 
sama, sensu ico motte atama wo pis- fan> The samura i fl are( j llp . "You 
sTtari to tatakaretareba, kono samurai chattering priest ! I have put up 
wa ku-atto sekiage : "-Onore koko na with your talk from the first: and 
karu-kuchi bozu me! Saizen kara yon have vilified me to your heart's 
iwasMte okeba, katte sliidai na akJco content, Even if you are a priest I 
zBgon. Tatoi buttai wo karite oru to s>i all not let you o/. Come ! say your 
, , prayers!" So saying he seized the 

TOO, sono mama ni I wa sute okanu. Sal p y * 

sword by his side and with a smooth 
kakugo seyo!" to wakiniaru katana ^^ ^ ^ ^ de ^^ ^ 

wo totte sura to hrtinukimashitareba, p riest was aghast. Look ! look ! he 

Ikkyu Osho wa kimo tsubusM : " Sori hag c i rawn> Quick ! Run ! " And 

ya koso! nuita zo I Yare nige yo! " to jumping down into the main yard 

hiro-niwa ye tobi-orite nigerareru ico made his escape. And after him es- 

ushiro yori samurai wa t " Onore nigeru ca.ping chased the samurai, all out of 

to mo nigaso ka?" to, kori no gotoki breath, brandishing his icy blade, 

.,'. .. .7. 7 and calling out "Run as you may 

nukimi ico fun-age, iki wo seite oikake- 

. you need n't think I'll let you get 
mawareba, Ikkyu Osho ushiro wo fun- * _ J ; " 

away.' Thereupon Ikkyu the Priest 

muki sow sugata wo sashite,^ -Aral turned aboutj faced him, and pointing 
osoroshiya I Sore ga Jigoku jai " to a ^ hi m in frig ra.ge, said " Oh how 
iwaremasu to, so7co de kono samurai dreadful 1 That is Hell ! That is 
7?io "Kore wal" to odoroki, mottaru hell!" Thereupon the samurai too 



HEAVEN AND HELL. 2^7 

kafana wo karari to nage-sute : " Ika- with an exclamation of astonishment 
sama! Kori ya Jigoku de gozaru. flung down the sword in his hand 
Sasureba ima no go akko wa kore ico with a ring, and said You are right : 
o shirase kudasarame to no go men ttis is HelL And so your raillery just 

now was a device on your part kind- 
de gozatta . ha ? Tatta-ima made , m . .. ,. . 

ly to show nie this ? The Hell that 

nakatta Jigoku ga Osho no kari no was not uat ,il now came to be the mo- 
go akko ivo kiku to tacJiimachi deki- ment T heard your Reverence's pass- 
mashita. Samreba aru to mo sada- i n g raillery. So then, whether it ex- 
marazu, mata nai to mo sadamarazu ; ists is uncertain, and whether it does 
kore de koso jitsu ni osoroshii mono not exist is uncertain : and that it is 
to mosu koto wa tadaima gaten ga for that very reason a thing to be real- 
mairrmashita. Sate mo sate mo ari- ly dreaded, I now understand. Oh 
gataya! " to namida u - o nagashi reihai how grateful I am ! " And with eyes 
ico seraremashitareba, Ikkyii Osho mo full of tears he did his obeisance. 
nikko to warai, " O / sumiyaka ni Ikkyu the Priest also smiled bland- 
gaten ga maitte : liono ho ni mo ly and said, " Oh ! how quickly you 
manzoku itasu. Yare yard ureshyal have understood : and I too am satis- 
Gokuraku ja, 0! kore ga Gokuraku fied. Oh ! how glad I am ! I am in 
ja!" to iwareta to mosu koto de Heaven. Oh ! This is Heaven !" 
gozarimasu ga. Nanto arigatai shime- Such is the story. And was not 
slii ja gozarimasenu ka ? that a very happy way of putting it ? 



NOTES. 

Bushi: a samurai. The word bushi is retained in the 
translation because of the play upon it occurring below. 
Ikkyu : a well known eccentric Buddhist priest of whom 
many stories are told : he is frequently spoken of as Ikkyu 
Osho, Ikkyu the Priest. 

Sessha mo : I also, I as well as you, I myself. Oyoso : 
pretty much. Tcnchikan : in the universe. Yd ni omoima- 
su : feel as if Rvaruru setsu : the doctrine taught. Mot- 
tomo : I am aware. Busseisu : Buddhistic writings. $hik- 
kari aru yd ni : as really existent. Tokoro: passages. Aru 



2/8 HEAVEN AND HELL. 

yd ni miemasu : there seem to be. Are : these views. Zen- 
tai : on the whole. lyoiyo : certainly, surely. Jigoku ga 
am ka : ga rather than wa is frequently employed in inter- 
rogative sentences when the speaker really means to inquire. 
Is so and so the explanation of a certain fact ? or when he 
really wishes to suggest so and so as likely to serve some 
purpose. So here the point is not to inquire whether there 
is a hell or not, but whether the desire to find out that fact 
was the explanation of the visit. So imi ga iru ka, is there 
a dog? i. e. is that the explanation of the sound I hear? 
Empitsu ga aru ka, have you a pencil ? i. e. would a pencil 
serve your purpose ? Zentai: any-how. From a priest such 
a question would have been quite proper ; but from such an 
inquirer as the bushi it was absurd. The reason for Ikkyu's 
rudeness will appear below. U-inu : aru nai. Nanto ita- 
shita so : what of it ? Suppose I am, what then ? BnsJu 
ja to : bushi j a to iu ka ? Sono ho : you. No-busJu : a no- 
bushi is an outlaw who follows an army and joins the vic- 
torious side.. Yama-bushi : a sort of wandering priest who 
goes about selling charms. Tadashi: mata wa : or : see also 
page 261. Ki-bushi : a piece of wood, a stick. Katsuo- 
bushi: dried bonito. Hodo zva: if nothing else, at least that. 
So na: ought, must, one would suppose you might. Shu j in 
no mono de ; belongs to his master. Sono /id : jibun. 
Gwanrai: strengthens the expression : in no sense whatever. 
Sasureba: and therefore. Mazu : in the first place. Kakc- 
zaru : tarinai. Sircva : an exclamation of surprise at the 
sudden sight or news that the master is in danger : literally, 
when they say Suzuaf Ba sen: before the horse. Mato ni: 
mato t ni shite. Ukauka to: rendered, ' you desert your post.' 
To ; to tasuneru. Areba ; suppose they do exist. Se- 



I-lfiAVEN AND HELL. 

ken de iva : the world, people : you may not have that 
opinion but people think so : hence ^va. Goku-tsubushi ; 

literally, grain-waste. Koko na : kono. Ga . the 

sentence is not finished : some thing like " get along with 
you " is understood. Sama : nagara. Sensu : dgi. Pis- 
shari to ; representing the sound of the blow : rendered in 
the word rapped. Samurai wa : others might have stood 
such talk from Ikkyu, but this one would not : hence iva. 
Saizeii ; senkoku, sakihodo. Iwashite : iwaseie : let you 
say, put up with your talk. Okeba : as frequently, the con- 
ditional is most simply rendered by the past followed by 
'and.' Akkd zdgon : evil-speak abusive talk: zdgon wo iu. 
Buttai zv o karite mo : even if you borrow a Buddha body, 
i.e. even if you are a priest. Sono mama ni wa : literally, as 
you are : iva suggests the contrast. I may not kill you but I 
will not let' you off. Kakngo seyo : make up your mind: 
an expression often used by the executioner. The criminal 
would then say Namu Amida Butvi, and thereupon the 
sword would fall. Sura to ; mz.y indicate the smooth 
sweep, i. e. the movement of the sword ; or it may indicate 
the gliding sound ot the sword leaving the wooden scabbard. 
Kimo tsulmsJii : aghast: of course the terror was feigned. 
Sort ga : there ! look ! Yare : sa ! Nigeyo : let us run : 
spoken to the boys standing listening. Hiro-niwa : proba- 
bly the main yard as opposed to the little one enclosed 
between the wings of the building. Tobi-orite ; jumping 
down. Niger or eru wo : the object of oikake-maivareba. 
Ikkyu OsJid : Ikkyu Osho zva : the two men (one cool and 
the other furious) are contrasted. Ushiro wo furi-muku ; 
to turn about and face. Sono sugata : his appearance his 
bearing, in his rage. Sore ga : ga rather than wa identifies : 



280 HEAVEN AND HELL. 

precisely that. Saimfrai mo ; the samurai also, the samu- 
rai as well as the priest : i. e. both now saw the matter in 
the same light. Kore wa odoroki : (saying or thinking) 
Kore iv a ! he was astonished. Karari to : with a ring. 
Ikasama : you are right. Sasureba : then, and so. Go ak- 
ko ; now the samurai prefixes the honorific. Kndasarame : 
kndasaro. Osho no : like sense i no. Kari no : passing. 
Kore de koso : for that very reason : i. e. because its non- 
existence is a dreadful uncertainty. To mosu koto de goza- 
rimasu ; such is the story. 



MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. . 

Ant [inaka no hyakitsho no ucJii ni In the family of a certain farmer 
gosho-negai no bdsama ga atte : maiasa there was an old woman who wanted 
Nyorai Sama ye sonaeru o meshi wa, to go to Gokurakn. The rice offered 

o hacM to itte, betsu ni taite sonae- eve ^ mornin S to ^ orai Sama slie 

offered calling it o hachi and cooking 

raruru m, sore wo taku kama mo 

it by itself. And she kept a separate 

shakushi mo oke mo fukin mo mina . . ., . , , , , . 

kauia to cook it in, and a shakushi 

Nyorai Sama yo to itte, betsubetsu ni and an oke and a f ukin ; saying that 
Jcoshirae-oki. Sono kama ya sltakushi they were all for the service of Nyo- 
wa o kama jano o shakushi jano iya rai Sama. The kama and the shaku- 
shi she called o kama and o shakushi 
o oke jano o fiikin jano to iwaruru 

and o oke and o fukin. Accordingly 
yue, kanaiju ga Nyorai Sama no koto fche whole fami]y> if eyer fchey refer . 

to sae icba, metta ni teinei ni o liana red to any thing connected with Nyo- 

sama no o altar i sama no iya o koro rai Sama " with over courtesy would 

say o liana sama and o akari saraa and 
sama no o outci sama no to, zoiun 

o koro sa.rna and o buki sama : down to 
made sama to o no ji wo tsukcte the very z6kin thej . aclded the worc i s 

iwaruru- eama and o. 



MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 28 1 

Sore mo, hikkyo iva, sMnda saki de And that also, if we look at her 
Gokuraku ye yatte morote hyaku mi motives, in reality proceeded from a 

.... . selfish desire to obtain admission in- 

no on jiki no goclnso ico honeorazu ni , 

to Gokuraku after death, and witn- 
kuwashite morao to iu ne iva yokushin out labor to be fed on feasts of a 

kara deru no ja keredo^ sore mo ma- hundred dishes and all for nothing. 

ma warui koto de wa nai. Sore ico Nor is that wron in itse]f - With 

that hope before her, provided only 

tanoshimi ni kono yo wo slid jiki ni , , ,-, -, ,, . ^ , .,- 

she passed through this world with 

sae serarureba, Soslti ya Hotoke no a n honest heart, she might be said 
o kokoro ni mo kanau to iu mono ja to be in accord with the mind of the 

7 , , , Founders of the sects and with that 

Keredo, koko no uclii no wa sono yo 

of Buddha too. But in the case of 
na ivake mo rikutsu mo nai. Tada tMg fami]y there were no gucb mo . 

kono yo wa wazuka kari no yado ja tives no such intentions. The fact 

. . a that this world is only a mere tem- 

to lu koto wo waga ete-katte ni kiki- 

porary lodging place they regarded 

konde, fuchu mo fuko mo muri mo from a purely selfish point of view : 
wagamama mo katte sMdal ni sum and Disloyalty and disobedience to 

parents and wrong and self-interest 
tsumori ja. Nanto! tsumaranai mono they calculated on carry i ng on as 

ja nai ka? they please. What a wretched idea ! 

Kari no yo ivo, With the passing world, 

Kari no yo ja tote, As with a passing world, 

* Ada ni su na : Do not trifle : 

Kari no yo bakari The passing world is all 

Onoga yo nareba. The world you have. 

Mirai-eiei no Gokuraku no tane wo The fact that the sowing of seed 

maku no mo, mirai-eiei no Jigoku no for the eternal Gokur aku and the 

sowing of seed for the eternal Jigoku 
tane ivo maku no mo, mina kono kari . ,. ^ . ., . , , . 

are both of them laid up in this pass- 
no yo kara ghi-komu koto yue, tada iug . world> and that therefore this 

kono kari no yo koso daiji no yo ja to passing world is the great world 

iu koto wo-sore wo waga ete katte ni that fact she re g arded from a purely 

selfish point of view: and so she 
kiita mono yue, do shite mo yoi to iu thougllt it likely that she might do 

koto ka to omote oru. whatsoever she pleased. 



282 MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 

Soko de atosaki-sanyo no aicanu Accordingly she had a lot of incon- 
sistencies. For example : The taxes 
koto ga ikura mo aru. Mazu : rnaitoshi .. 

paid yea.r by year to the government 

o kami ye osameru go nengu wa, tokoro she would not pay without being 

dunned five or six times by the local 
7?o yaku nin kara no do mo shichi do . , , 

officials and asking to be let off four 

mo saisoku uke, shi bu go bu iwaneba or five tenths. And yet for the hoga 

or the kishingoto of the temple, with 
dasanu : kuse ni tera no hoga ya kishin- tearg Qf gratitude in her eyeg she wag * 

goto ni wa, namida wo nagashi mi willin g to stri P the V61 T skin from 

her body and offer it. Again.- on 
no kaiva haide mo ageru ki ja. Sono the anniversary of the death of her 

parents or her husband she would 
lie : oi/a ya otto no meinichi ni wa, , , , , . . , 

not even fast, putting it on some 

jiriki ni naru to yara iute shojin mo such ground as that of health) but 

on the anniversary of the death of 
senu ga : Soslii no meinichi ni wa, o the Founder of the sect to which she 

belonged she fasted, because it was 
ju nani nichi sama no, o ni ju nam ,, ,. . ... 

the o something-teenth sama^or the o 

nichi sama no, to iute shojin sum. twenty-gomethingth sarna. 

Sono yo ni katte no machigota uchi Inasmuch as it WHS thus an ill-re- 
yue, yome mo musuko mo wagamama- gutted family, both the daughter in 

T . T .^ . , law and the son were self-willed. And 

kimama de, namzo hitotsu ka futatsu 

if once or twice something happened 
waga ki ni iranu koto ga aru to, oya ,, J ... 

that did not suit them, they would 
ni de mo otto ni de mo oki na tonari- , . , , i . , . 

speak in a loud sharp voice even topa- 

goe shite mono wo iu ga : Sono kuse rentg or husband . And yet the mo- 
Nyorai Sama ye mukau to kyii ni, men t they turned to Nyorai Sama, in 
yasashii tsukuri-goe de, "Namu Amida a soft artificial voice they would say, 
Butsut Namu Amida Butsul Kakaru " Namu Amida Butsu ! Namu Amida 
asamashii itazura mono wo kono mi B tsu J That tllou shouldest deign 
kono mama ni o tasuke to wa-ari- to save such a f vail erring one as 1, 

just as I am : how thankful I am ! 
gataya! katajikenaya! to. Temaeqatte ^ ,, . 

how grateful lam! For their own 

no hitori ryoken de Nyorai Sama ivo se lfi s h motives they made a mock of 
naburi-mono ni sum. Nyorai Sama. 

Korera ga mina, kano suri-kogi It is precisely all such things as 
tsukidasu to iu mono yue, Hotoke mo these that are meant be that suri- 



MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 

Soshi mo sazo o nageki nasaru de aro. kogi worship. And Buddha and the 

" Ore wa ma-ma ano yd ni Gokuraku founders of tlie sects must S" eve 

over them. " Oh !" say they, "Never 
wo ate ni warui koto seyo no, Nyorai 



no Hon-gwan wo tanomi ni fuchu fuko ing on goino* to Gokuraku ; or be dis- 
wo seyo no, to susume wa senu ni, loyal and disobedient, trusting in the 

... T . Great Desire of Nyorai. And yet they 

nasakenai Koto shite ktireru to. Jitsu 

do me the cruelty (so to represent 

ni chi no namida koboshite gozaru. me)." Verily they weep tears of 
Nanto! yo mayota mono ja nai ka? blood. What an error! 

Sate : sono nclii no bdsama ga kano Well, the old woman of that fami- 
o hachi ni taku kome wo arau ni, itsu *J in washing- tlie rice which she 

cooked for Nyorai Sanaa never wash- 
de mo te de arau to iu koto wa nai. J 

ed it with her hands. She put the 
Suri-lachi ye kome wo irete suri-kogi rice in a guri . ko g.i and was hed it 

motte arawareru yue, am hito ga sore with a suri-kogi. And so some man 

wo mite, "Nani yue sono yo na fuju seein g ifc asked her "What do you 

do such a troublesome thing as that 
na koto wo sassho.ru ka? to toeba, 

for? Whereupon the old woman 

lasama no iwarurn ni wa: "Nyorai re pHed, "Why! it is the rice for 
Sama ye sonaeru o liachi ja mono, te Nyorai Sama : and I can not wash 

de wa, arawarenu." "Naze?" to ieba, {i with m ? hfi nds." "Why not? ;> 

. said he. " Because " said she "one's 
Te iva fujo na mono de: dono yo m 

hands are unclean things : no matter 
yoku arote mo, tsume no aida ni aka how we]1 j may wagh them> gg SQme 

ga tamatte aru yue, fujo de gozaru. c \i r t rer uains under the nails, they 
Sore de kono yd ni suri-kogi de arai- are noir clean : and so I wash in this 
masu" to iwaruru yue, " Sore nara way with a suri-kogi." "Well then," 
Nyorai Sama wo ogamu ni wa, do' he asked, "when you worship Nyorai 

shite ogamasharu ka?" to toeba: Sama how do y u do? " "Why!" 

. said she, " I put my two hands to- 
' Sore iva! ryo-te wo awaslnte ogami- 

gether. Thereupon the man replied, 
masu to iwareru. Soko de kano hito _, J . ; , , . 

" That is an unclean thing too. 
ga "Sore wa mata fujo na koto ja. Wh(m y<m worship algo you ghould 

Ogamu ni mo yappari suri-kogi wo bring together two suri-kogi." When 

ni hon awashite ogamashare," to iwa- ^ e sa jd this the old woman was high- 

retareba : bdsama ga oki ni hara ico ly indignant, and said that he was a 

tatete, " messo na koto iu hito ja : man who talked outrageously ; that 



284 MINT ANISE AND CUMMltf. 

sono yd na koto wo shite iva, dai icni to do such a thing would look out of 

miguntshia mo ari ; Nyorai Sama ye p]ace to begirt with, that it would be 

oki na go lurei: mottainai koto ja," very disrespectful to Nyorai Sama; 

to iwareta ga. that it would be an act of sacrilege. 

Ikasama! dare de mo Kami Hotoke And sure enough every body knows^ 

about bringing his two hands to- 
ye mukaeta ryo-te wo aicashite go hon ,, , . 

gether and arranging his five fingers 

no yubi ivo soroeru koto tea shitte oru when he turns to the Kami and Ho- 
toke : but, if one will carefully re- 

ga : yo mi ni tacMkaette mini to a -, , . 

fleet, so far as motives and conduct ar-e 

kokoromocM ya mi no okonai wa suri- concerned there is a great deal of 

putting suri-kogi together. What! 
kogi awasliite oru qa oi. Nantol miqu- ,. . , , . ,,. , 

and is not that something unbeconi- 

rushii mottainai koto ja nai ka ? ing, something sacrilegious ? 

Sore wo koso mukaslii no Hotoke ya Out of pity for precisely this, Budd- 
Soshigata ga fubin ni obosliimeshite. ha of old and the Founders of the 
dozo damasUte nari to suJcashite tuiri sects ' b J a11 tbe means in tteir P W - 
to, hito ni Mto no michi ico nkona- er Aether by hoaxing or by coaxing, 

desiring to get men to follow the path 
tcashite yantai to, iroiro no hoben ico 

for men, established various devices, 
o tate nasareta mono ja. Chodo ame- -o . , ,, . -, 

Precisely as the ame seller in order 
uri ga ame uro tame ni fue fuitari to gell the ame blows hig pipe and 

uta utotai, hamigaki-uri ga Jiamigaki eings ^ s songs . an( j the seller of 
uritari laltari ni koma mawasu yo tooth-powder spins his tops, simply 
na mono ja. because he wants to sell his powder*! 



NOTES. 

Inaka adds little or nothing to hyakusho. Uchi ni ' not, 
'among the farmers' ; but, as rendered, 'in the family of. 
Nyorai: see page 253. Gosho-negai : literally, after life 
prayer. Plachi : literally, the bowl, but here meaning the 
rice in the bowl : compare the cup for the wine in the cup. 
Sonaeraruru : sonaerareru : the potential is employed out 
of feigned courtesy to the old woman : and as constantly 



MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 285 

in these sermons the present is used for the past as being 
more graphic. Ni : here, ' and ' : the preacher might have 
said ga. Yd : use, service. Koshirae-oku : to keep. Sono : 
the. Jano (in Tokyo dano) iya:. often employed in enu- 
merating a list of things. O : as immediately explained the 
honorific is inserted out of respect for Nyorai. ^Mctta ni : 
more than necessary, over indiscriminating. Hana ct ce- 
tera : the flowers, lights, incense-burner, little cups, and 
cloth to wipe the shelf upon which the butsudan stands. 

Sore mo : that too, i.e. as well as other things done by 
the old woman, e.g. her prayers. Hikkyo : if we look 
into her motives : compare page 222. Shinda saki de : 
at, i.e. after death : before death would be shinu saki ni. 
Yatte morote : obtain admission. Kmvashite : kuwasete : 
kuu, to eat ; kuivasete morau, to be fed. Ne wa : the root : 
rendered, in reality. Sore mo : mo implies that other 
things could be mentioned. Hotoke : here, Buddha ; and 
so usually when followed by such words as kokoro. To iu 
koto : the fact that. Waga ctc-katte : one's own interests. 

Mina : here, both. Koso emphasizes what precedes. To 
in koto : the fact that. Sore wo : that fact : inserted for 
greater clearness and emphasis. Ka weakens the statement : 
rendered, 'likely.' 

Kuse ni : and yet : see page 271. Hoga : offerings to a 
temple such as lanterns et cetera (not money). Kishingoto : 
contributions in money (or rice). Ki ja : willing to. To 
yara inte : yara like ka weakens the statement : here 
rendered, * on some such ground as/ No : the no preceding 
;*/ jit means or : the one preceding to iutc is equivalent 
to nado. To iute : literally, saying that it is : rendered, 
' because it is,' 



286 MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 

Sono yd ni : thus. Katte no machigote : ill ordered. So 
katte iw yoi, well arranged, convenient. Kono mi kono 
mama : just as I am. O tasuke to wa : o tasuke kudasaru 
to iu koto wa : that thou shouldest deign to save. To : to 
itte : she says. 

Ore iva ' others may have done so but riot /. No : or. 
Susumc wa senu : more emphatic than the simple negative : 
rendered c never.' Ni : here means ' and yet.' Kureru to : 
kureru to itte. Gozaru : here for oide nasaru. Maydta 
mono : not ' wandering ones ' but 'error.' 

To iu koto iva nai : whatever else she did she never did 
that : to iu adds little or nothing to the sense. Motte : wo 
motte. Arawareru : the potential out of feigned courtesy 
to the old woman. Sassharu : more polite than suru. 
Toeba : literally, when he asked her. Rvaruru ni zva : in 
cases like this after verbs of saying et cetera, the force of 
-wa is not unlike that of ' as follows.' O hachi ja mono : 
mono here expresses. surprise : rendered ' why ! ' Te de wa : 
she might wash it with something else but not with her 
hands. Tomatte aru : in Tokyo, tomatte oru or iru. Many 
similar examples occur in these sermons. Ogamu ni wa: 
wa contrasts ogamu with arau : in washing s& and so, how 
is it in worshipping? Ogamassharu: o ogami nasaru : 
just such language as a man might use in talking to an old 
woman in the country. Shite zva : if she should do so. 

Kami is Shinto : hotokc, Buddhistic. Soroeru koto zua : 
whatever else he may not know. 

Sore wo koso : koso emphasizes sore: rendered 'precisely.' 
Dozo .* here equivalent to such an expression as by all the 
means in their power. Nari to: nari to mo: whether. 



MINT ANISE AND CUMMIN. 28? 

Okonawashite : okonawasete. Yarttai to : yaritaitoomotte. 
Hobcn : often pious frauds, here simply devices. Chddo yd 
na ; precisely as. The general thought is that Buddha and 
others have made use of the idea of Gokuraku et cetera 
simply to induce men to lead a good life. 



INDEXES. 



I. GENERAL INDEX. 

Attributive, 117. 

A. Auxiliary Verbs, 36-57; Aux. Hon- 

orifics, 78. 

Abstract, see Nouns. 

Address 176. B 

Adjectives True, 116-120 ; in na and 

?io, 121; in ?io, 129; Compound, Bases, Foundation Forms, 3; of 
118-125; Gender, Number, Case, Moods and Tenses, 8; of Voices, 
116; Comparison of, 126; koto, 24; Adverb used as, 116. See 
65 ; yd da, so da, 56 ; preceded Negative, 
by o, 72. See Moods, Tenses, Stem, 
Participle, Inflection, Agglutina- 
tion, Attributive, Predicate, Nega- (^ 
tive. 

Adverbs True, 116, 128; Uninflected Cardinals, 169, 170. 
words without suffixes, 128 ; in Case, see Nouns and Adjectives. 
ni and to, 129; Eng. Advs. ren- Causative, formation of Voice, 24; 
dered by Participles, 129 ; by the table exhibiting same, 25-27 ; cer- 
Cond. Mood, 130; Compound, 129; tain Transitives, 27-31; rendering 
preceded by o, 72 ; arimasu or let, make, have, get, 46. 
gosaimasu, 117; of place, 130-134; Chinese words, preceded by o and go, 
Time, 134-158; Cause, Manner, . 73; forming Adjs. by addition of 
Degree, 158-168; Comparison of, na and no, 121 ; Advs. by addition 
126. of ni and to, 129; Cardinals, 169- 

Agglutination, 8, 116. 170; Ordinals, 173-175; accoin- 

Antecedent, English 79. panied by chit, 193. 



11 INDEX. 

Comparative Degree, 126. 8, 9 ; rendering want and wish, 

Compound, see Nouns, Adjectives, 52, 54. 

Adverbs, Postpositions. 

Compound Personals, 90. jji 
Concrete, see N<9uns. 

Conditional Base, see Base. Foundation Forms (Verbs), 3, 5 ; 

Conditional Mood, how formed, 8; (Adjs.) 116, 117. 

rendering Eng. Adverbs, 130 ; Con- Fractions, 175. 

junctions, 198. Frequentative, how formed, 8; ren- 

Conditional Past, how formed, 8 j dering and, 198. 

yokaro, 49; sugu ni, 152; with Future, how formed, 8; de wa nai 

sae, 164 ; rendering if, 41, 207. fcrt > 46; to omou, 51-52; to 

Conditional Present, how formed, omotte, 68; rendering shall and 

8; yoi or yokatta no ni, 49; yoi, ^11, 4 ; should and would, 41; 

yoiga, or yoi no ni, 54; rendering must > 4 '7; think, suppose, 51; 

when, 142; if, 207. See Negative. Present and daro instead of, 117. 

Conjugations, two, 3j Inflect, of See Negative. 

First, 3, 4; Second, 5, 6; Verbs 

of First in eru and iru, 7j Icki, p 

49. 

Conjunctions, rendered by Particles, Gender, see Nouns and Adjectives. 

Nouns, Cond. Mood, Participles, Go ju on, 1,2. 

198. 

Consecutive Numbers, 176. TT 
Courtesy, masu, 9; Pot. and Caus. 

Voices instead of Active, 25 ; Hon. Honorifics, o and go, 72 ; Hon. 

Verbs, 35, 46, 50, 75, 76, 78, 189; Verbs, 75, 76, 78, 189; masu, 3, 9. 

san, anata, ano o kata, 69; o and 

go, 73; Adv. and arimasu or go- 

zaimasu, 117. I- 

Imperative, how formed, 8. See 

Negative. 

D. Indicative, see Present, Past, Prob- 
able Past. 

Descriptive Numerals 171-173; Infinitive, how rendered, 58. 

with su, 102; with t'fai, nani, 103, Inflection (Verbs) 3; tables of same, 

110 ; with Ordinals, 174. 4, 6 ; (Adjs.) 1 16. 

Desiderative Adjectives, how formed, Interrogative Pronouns, 81. 



INDEX. Hi 

Intransitive Verbs, 27; rendering Negative Participles, how formed, 

Eng. Passives, 31, 60; table of 8; culture, kudasai, 37; wa ika- 

same, 32-34 ; with iru or oru, 61 ; nai, ikenai, naranai, 47 ;iva suma- 

rendering Eng. Adjs. in 'ble/ 122. nai, 48; mo yoi, 55; rendering 

Irolial. Eng. Adverbs, 129; without, 186; 

instead of, 194. 

y Negative Present, how formed, 8; 

to ikanai, ikenai, naranai, 47 ; yd 

Letter changes, First Conjugation, w, 182, yd ni shite, 46 ;-~ucM, 154 ; 
20 ; table of same, 20-23 ; Descrip- rendering have not, 38 ; shall and 
tive Numerals, 171, 178 ; Ordinajs, will not, 40; should and would not, 
173-175. 41. 

Nouns, True and Abstract. 65 j Con- 
jir crete and Compound, 66; Gender, 

67 ; Number and Case, 67 ; form- 
Moods, how formed, 8; of True Ad- ing Adjectives, 118-125; no yo da, 
jectives, 116. See Indicative, Con- 56. 

ditional, Imperative, Infinitive, Number, see Nouns and Adjectives. 
Participles, Frequentative, De- Numerals, see Cardinals, Ordinals, 
siderative Adjectives. Descriptive Numerals, Consecutive 

Numbers. 

N. 

Negative Adjectives, nai used for ^ 

Neg. of ant, 34 ; Neg. forms of True 

Adjective, how obtained, 117; pa- Ordinals, 173-175. 

radigm of same, 118. 

Negative Base, 3, 6, 8, 24 ; Adv. used p 

as, 117. 

Negative Cond. Present, how formed, Participles, how formed, 8 ; oru or 

8; ikanai, iltenai, naranai, 47; i rUt u a or otta, 36, 38, 122; oru, 

sumanai, 48; rendering unless, iru, am, 61; mo yoi, 44; morau, 

207. 46, 78 ; moraitai, 52 ; wa, 232, 

Negative Future, how formed, 8; 245; ica ikanai, ikenai, naranai, 

mono de mo nai, 44 ; rendering think 47 ; wa sumanai, 48 ; wa do or 

not, 51. ikaga, 52; agent, morau, itadakin 

Negative Imperative, how formed, 8 ; kureru, kudasaru, 78 ; itsu mo, 136 ' 

don't and please don't, how render- kara, 154 ; following amart, 165 ; 

ed, 37. mo, 202, 207 ; rendering to, 58 



iv INDEX. 

Adverbs, 129; Postpositions, 177; would, 41; Eng. Adjectives, 116 

Conjunctions, 198. See Negative. 121-125. 

Past (Indie.), how formed, 8 ; no ni, Probable Past, how formed, 8 ; ren 

41 ; ka mo shirenai, 44; hazu, ga dering would have, 41 ; must have 

or ho ga yoi or yokaro, 49; so da, 47; think, suppose. 51. 

56; koto, 65; rendering did, 37; Pronominal Adjectives, 84-115. 

have, had, 38; would have, 42; Pronouns, see Personal, Possessive, 

Eng. Adjectives, 116, 121-125. Compound Personal, Relative, In- 

Percentage, 176. terrogative. 

Personal Pronouns, 68-69; Com- 
pound, 70; place supplied by . Q 
Honorifics, 72-78. 

Possessive Pronouns, 68 ; place sup- Questions, followed by ka, 203. 
plied by Honorifics, 72-78. 

Postpositions. Simple, Compound, 
rendered by Participles, 177 ; Case j^ 
expressed by, 67 ; omitted in ren- 
dering Rel. Clauses, 79. Relative Clauses, accompanied by 

Potential, formation of Voice, 24; <*"*&* Syntax of, 79. 

table of same, 25-27; with totemo Relative Pronouns, 79. 

and do shite m^, 139; rendering can 

and could, 43 ; may and might, 44 ; ~ 

Eng. Adjs. in 'ble', 122. * 

Predicate, de am, 35 j sukunai, 103 ; Sex, 67. 

oi, 110; True Adjectives, 116; Stems (Adjective), 116; so da, 56; 

Compound Adjectives, 118, 120; sa, 65 ; sugiru, 165. 

Adjs. in na and no 121. Stems (Verb), Foundation Forms, 3, 

Present (indie.) a Foundation Form, 5, 8; masu, 9 ; beki, so na mono 

3, 8 ; Jcoto ga dekiru, 43 ; ka mo da, 48 ; so da so ni mieru, so na 

shirenai, 44 ; beki hazu, hazu, ga keshiki, 56; ni, 58; ni naru. 61, 

yoi or yokaro, 49 ; tsumori, 52; ni 72; nasaru, mosu, de gozaimasu, 

oyobanai, 55: yd da, so da, 56 ; 72;-kudasaru, 78; sugiru, 108: 

no (koto), ni, no ni, 58 ; yo ni naosu, 141 ; nagara,gake ni, 144 ; 

naru, 61 ; iambi ni, 136; to, 142, shidai ni, 152; yd, 159; used as 

207 ; to, ikanai, ikenai, naranai, Nouns, 65, 66 ; forming Compound 

47; tsuide ni, tochu de, 144; to Adjectives, 118. 

sugu ni, 152; rendering do, 37; Superlative Degree, 127 with de, 179. 

shall and will, 40; should and Syllabary, 1,2. 



INDEX. 



T. 

Tenses, how formed, 8 ; of True Ad- 
jective, 116 See Present, Past, 
Prob. Past, Cond. Present, Coad. 
Past, Future. 

Trades, names of, 66. 

Transitive Verbs, 27; having a Cau- 
sative force, 46; with ant, 61. 

True, see Nouns, Adjectives, Ad- 
verbs. 



V. 

Verbs, 3-64; of telling, requesting, 
promising, advising, 58 ; of saying, 
69, 81 ; 85 ; of action, 69, 178, 179; 
of situation, 178, 179 ; of the First 
Conj. in eru and ini, 7. See Aux- 
iliary, Honorific, Irregular, Tran- 
sitive, Intransitive; also Voices, 
Moods, Tenses, Stems, Bases, In- 
. flection, Agglutination. 



II. ENGLISH WORDS ILLUSTRATED. 



A. 

About 131, 167. 
Above 195. 
According to 195. 
Accordingly 159. 
Across 191. 
After 154, 192. 
Afterwards 154. 
Again 141. 
Ago 149. 
All 101. 
Almost 167. 
Already 148. 
Also 201. 
Although 202. 
Always 134. 
Am 30, 61. 
Among 192. 
And 198, 201. 
Another 104. 
Any 94. 



Any body 94. 

Any more 95. 

Any thing 94. 

Any where 132. 

Apiece 89. 

Around 192. 

As 144, 152, 160/161. 

At 177. 

At last 158. 

At once 153. 

At present 146. 

B. 

Be 34, 36, 76. 
Because 198, 209. 
Before 154, 192. 
Behind 192. 
Below 195. 
Beneath 195. 
Beside 184. 
Besides 105, 194. 



Better (had) 49. 

Between 193. 

Beyond 191. 

Borrow 76. 

Both 87, 201. 

But 164, 194, 198, 202. 

By 184. 

By and by 151. 

c. 

Call on 76. 
Can 24, 43. 
Certain 91. 
Come 76. 

Consequently 159. 
Could 43. 

D. 

Did 37. 
Directly 153. 



vf 


INDEX. 


- 


Do 37, 76. 


H. 


- J. 


During 193. 








Have 38, 46. 


Just now 150. 


E. 


Have been 38. 






Have not 38, 44, 207. 


L. 


Each 89. 


Have not been 38. 




Eat 76. 


Had 38. 


Lend 75. 


Either 87, 203. 


Had not 38. 


Let 46. 


Enough 114. 


He 68. 


Let us 46. 


Even 166. 


Her 68, 69. 


Like 161. 


Ever 138. 


Here 130.* 


Like to '42. 


Every 97. 


Himself 70. 


Likewise 201. 


Every body 97. 


His 68, 69. 


Little while 152, 157. 


Every one 97. 


Hitherto 149. 


Long 156. 


Every particle 101. 


Hope 52, 54. 


Long time 156. 


Every thing 97. 


How 159. 


Look 56. 


Every time 136. 


How many 110. 




Every where 132. 


How much 108. 




Except 194. 




M. 




I. 


Make 46. 






Many 110, 187. 


F. 


I 68. . 


May 24, 44. 




I believe 56. 


Might 44. 


Few 103, 187. 


I hear 56. 


Mine 69. 


Finally 158. 


If 41, 58, 207. 


More 112. 


For 188. 


Immediately 153. 


More than 211. 


Formerly 148. 


In 179. 


Most 113. 


Frequently 137. 


In accordance with 195. 


Much 108. 


From 182. 


In case 207. 


Must 4-7. 




Inside of 179. 


My 68. 


G. 


Instead of 188, 194. 


Myself 70. 




Intend 52. 




Generally 136. 


Into 179. 


N. 


Get 46, 78. 


Invariably 134. 




Give 75, 76. 


Is 35, 61. 


Nearly 167. 


Go 76. 


It 35, 68, 79, 85. 


Need 55. 


Good many 110. 


It seems 56. 


Neither 87, 206. 


Great many 110. 


Itself 70. 


Never 133. 





INDEX. 


vii 


Next 147. 


R. 


T. 


No 100. 






No more 100. 


Rather than 211. 


Than 128, 203, 211. 


No one 99. 


Receive 61, 76. 


That 79, 84, 8*. 160, 


Nobody 99. 


Recently 149. 


210. 


None 99. 




Their 69. 


Nor 206. 


S. 


Theirs 69. 


Nothing 99. 




Then 145, 210. 


Now 146. 


Same 107. 


There 35, 132. 




Say 76. 


Therefore, 159. 


0. 


See 76. 


They 61, 68. 




Seem 56. 


They say 56. 


Occasionally 137. 


Seldom 138. 


Think 51. 


O'clock 141. 


Self 70. 


This 84, 85. 


Of 187. 


Send 76. 


Though 202. 


Off 182. 


Several 102. 


Through 182. 


Often 137. 


Shall 40. 


Till 151. 


On 181. 


She 68. 


To 58, 165, 181. 


One 79, 104. 


Should 41, 48. 


Too 165, 201. 


Ones 104. " 


Show 76. 


Too many 110. 


Only 164, 194. 


Since 154, 198. 


Too much 108. 


Or 203. 


So 56, 160. 




Other 104. 


So much 108. 


u. 


Others 91, 104. 


So that 210. 




Ought 48. 


Some 91, 187. 


Under 195. 


Our 69. 


Some more 91. 


Unless 207. 


Ours 69. 


Some one 91. 


Until 151. 


Out of 182. 


Some time 157. 


Usually 136. 


Over 189, 191. 


Somebody 91. 


Used to 148. 




Something 91. 




P. 


Sometimes 137. 


V. 




Somewhere 132. 




Past 154. 


Soon 152. 


Very 163. 


People 105. 


Still 151, 202. 




Perhaps 44. 


Such 84. 


w. 


Plenty 114. 


Suppose 51. 




Presently 153. 


Supposing that 207. 


Want 52, 54. 






Was 36, 61. 



vni 



INDEX. 



What 79, 81. 


Why 159. 


Y. 


When 141, 198. 


Will 40. 




Whenever 136. 


Wish 54. 


Yet 151, 198. 


Wherever 132. 


With 189. 


You 68. 


Whether 203. 


Within 179. 


Your 69. 


Which 79, 81. 


Without 186. 


Yours 69. 


While 144. 


Would 41. 




Who 79, 81. 






III. JAPANESE WORDS 


ILLUSTRATED. 


A. 


arera 68. 


biki 172. 




arimasu 117. 


boku 69. 


aa 160. 


aru 34, 35, 61, 91, 


178. Ion 172. 


aa iu 84. 


arutoki 137. 


bu 172, 175, 176. 


aa iu yd na 84. 


asobasu 76. 


bun no 175. 


achira 132. 


aso7co 132. 


* 


agaru 76. 


atari 131. 


G. 


agcru 76, 78, 189. 


atclii 132. 




aida 144,149,356. 


ato de 154. 


chi 176. 


amari 108, 110, 


163, ato kara 192. 


cMkagoro 146, 149. 


165, 211. 


afo ni 149, 192. 


c7i?7cai wc7ii 7 152, 


anata 68. 


afo ni tsuite 192. 


cliikajika ni 152. 


anata no 69. 




c7to 170, 172. 


anna 84, 85. 


B. 


chddai 75, 76. 


anna ni 85, 160. 




chotto 157. 


dno 84,85. 


6a 173. 


c7w 101, 193. 


ano hito 68. 


bai 172. 




a?zo o Into 63. 


fca/cari 128, 164, 167. n 


ano o kata 68. 


fca?tt w<2 173. 


* 


ano onna 63. 


ban 173. 


da 35, 177. 


ano tori ni 160. 


&e7a 48. 


c?a #a 202 


ano yd na 84. 


6c7cz hazu 48. 


da kara 159. 


anoydni 160. 


oefsw nt 105. 


da?: 173. 175. 


are 68,84,85. 


betsu no 104, 105. 


daibu 110. 



INDEX. 



IX 



dake 161. 

danna 69. 

dano 198. 

dare 81,203. 

dare de mo 94, 97. 

dareka 91,94. 

dare mo 94,97,99, 

dare mo Jca mo 97. 

dare no 81. 

de 121, 130, 177, 178, donate 81. 

179, 184, 185, 187, dono 81. 

188, 198, 206. 
de aru 35. 
de gozaimasu 35,72. 



dok'ka 132. 

doko ka 132. 

do&o m mo 132. 

do fro no 81. 

do7co ye mo ] 32. 

dofco^o 132. 

dokoro ka mada mada 222. 

domo 67. 

domo 254. 



do?io kurai 108. 

dore 81. 

dore de mo 94. 
de mo 166, 206, 245, 272. dore ka 91, 94. 
de nai 120, 198. dore mo 94, 99. 

de naku 198. dore mo ka mo 97. 

desaemo 166. don' ni 196. 

de loa kikanai 211. dotchi 132. 

de wa nai ka 37, 38, 46. dozo 286. 
dekiru 43,44,49. 
dekubeki 49. 
desho 117. 
desu 35. 
do 174. 

do 52, 81, 128, 159. 
do demo 88. 
doiu 81. 

do iu wake de 159. 
do shite 159. 
do shite mo 139. 
dochira 81, 132. 
dochira de mo 87. 
dochira ka 87. 



JB. 

3,7,24. 



170. 
futari 87, 173. 
to mo 88. 



/ate 67. 

ge na 219. 

#en 171. 

giri 101. 

#o 72. 

go mottomo 73, 

^ro wi 154. 

goku 163. 

grora?i nasaru 76. 

gozaimasu 9, 117. 

gozaru 35. 



dochira mo 87, 90. 
dochira no 81. 
dofco 132. 
do&o de mo 132. 



0a 54, 118, 120, 202, 220, 
221, 232, 233, 242, 251, 
252, 261, 262, 264, 278. 
279. 

gake ni 144.. 



49. 
7iai 172. 
Jiaiken sum 76. 
haishaku 75, 76. 
hajimete 139. 
7iaw own 175. 
7iaw 175. 
hanahada 163. 
7iaya 273. 
Tien 131, 174. 
TwH 171. 
7ii'7c%o 222. 
hisashii ato ni 149. 
hisashiku 156. 
7ttto 105, 170. 
7i/fort 90, 173. 
hiiori de 71. 
hitotsu 107. 
7i^ofsM ?no 100. 
Tzo 49, 126. 
7to6o 132. 
7wdo 108, 114, 126, 151, 

160, 161, 167. 
7iodo nt 219, 273. 



INDEX. 



Jwdo naku 152. 


iru 3, 7. 


E:. 


hoka ni 105. 


f* 172, 173. 




holca no 104 


mo 211. 


^a 198, 203, 243, 253, 


h&n 172. 


it 173. 


285. 


Iwsliii 52. 


#a 35,38. 


ka mo shirenai 44. 


hyo 170. 


itadaku 75, 76; 78. 


7cono 243. 




tow 72,76. 


kanau 196. 


>. , 


itatie 127, 163. 


fcawe^ 261. 


J. 


tteu 141. 


kara 131, 154, 177, 182, 




itsudemo 134, 136, 


138. 209. 


;cfct&an 127. 


tfu kara 141. 


kawatta 105. 


tcfttVn 101. 


iYsu marfe 141. 


A*n 172,173. 


t'i 44. 


itsu made mo 139. 


keredomo 202. 


ik 172. 


tt made ni 141. 


fcWA;i 56. 


t'fca foodo 108. 


#SM . . mo 136. 


kesshite 139. 


ikaga 52, 81, 159. 


#s?f flforo 141. 


kikanai 211. 


rAronai 47,55. 


iu 76. 


kikareru 24. 


ikasama 244. 


tyw'yo 278. 


fa'&oerM 24. 


tfonai 47,55. 


izen 149. 


A-mi 69. 


iku 23,110. 


wini 149. 


kimpen 131. 


tfcumo 103. 




fcw 170. 


tfcwra 108. 




kinjitsu ni 152. 


ikutsu 110. 


J. 


fcfajo 131. 


ikutsumo 103. 




fctVi 101. 


iroa 146, 149, 150, 


153, fc 37. 


fo'tto 139. 


262. 


Jt 170. 


i-o 4. 


ima de wa 146. 


jibun 71. 


ko 85, 160. 


tma made 149. 


jifc 172. 


fcotM 84. 


t'wia t 152. 


jikini 153. 


ko iu yo na 84. 


imashigata 149. 


## 172,173. 


kochira 130. 


twiasw 76. 


jw 172, 173. 


/.oAo 130. 


tnai 38. 


jit 173, 


kokoro-mirK 49. 


ip 172. 


j'tfatt ni 163. 


fco&w 102. 


irassliaru 35, 76 


70 171,172. 


fcon?ia 84, 85. 


z'n'T/o 52. 


jfl 101. 


konna ni 85, 160. 


froiro 103. 


jubun 114. 


konnichi 85. 


iru 34, 35, 38, 52, 


61. 


7co?io 84. 


122, 178. 




ftono aida 149. 



INt>EX. 



XI 



kono atari 131. made 146, 149, 151, 
kono hen 131. 177, 181, 262. 

kono Umpen 131. made ni 142, 184. 

kono kinjo 131. made ni wa yohodo 
kcno setsu 146, 149. ga aru 156. 

kono tabi 149. mae ni 149, 154. 

kono tori ni 160. mae ni mo 148. 

kono yd na 84. mai 171, 172. 

kono yd ni 160. maido 137. 

konogoro 146, 149. maim 76. 

korareru 27. makoto ni 163. 

Tcore 84, 130. mase 4. 

fcore fcara 147. twasw 3, 4, 9. 

&or made 149. maswre 4. 

fcora-w 27. mata 105, 141. 

kosaseru 27. mato itfa 278. 

froso 285, 286. me 67, 173. 

kotchi 130. meimei 89. 
fcoto 43, 58, 65, 77, 241. men 67. 

Tcofo 0a a;-<< 137, 138. meshi-agaru 76. 



138. 



&M beki 49. 
kudasai 37. 



mettani 138,285. 
mi 170. 

mi 6e/a 49. 



kudasaru 75, 76, 78, 189. mieru 24, 56. 
166. miffi no 219. 

. mina 90, 97, 



101, 



Jeureru 75, 76, 78, 189. 285. 



kuru 3, 4, 24. 


mirareru 24. 


fcwsem 164,271. 


mirw 76. 


kya 164, 194. 


wwnt beki 49. 


%ff 85. 




kya 170. 


77W 91, 128, 136, 




198, 201, 202, 




206, 207, 218, 220, 


717" 




xKl . 


251, 263, 285. 


ma mo nakii 152. 


mo yaliari 71, 201. 



mada 39, 91, 95, 128, mo nai 120. 



138, 151, 164. 



mo yoi 44, 55. 



166, mo 39, 94, 100, 112, 128, 
146, 146. 

mo Utotsu 105. 
aida mo Utotsu no 105. 
mo ichido 141. 
mo yukoslii 126. 
mo sukoshi de 167. 
mono 5V 61, 66, 79, 159. 
mono de mo nai 44. 
moraitai 52. 
rooratt 46, 66, 75, 76, 77, 

189. 

moshi 207. 
motu 72, 76, 78. 
mofo 128, 149. 
moto kara 134. 
motte 286. 
motto 91, 112, 126. 
mottomo 127. 

N. 

na 8, 108, 116, 121, 198. 

nado 198. 

nagai 156. 
134 ? na^ai atda 156. 

nagai aida de nakereba 
156. 

nagaku 156. 

nagara 144. 

?iai 8, 34, 35, 117, 118. 
166 > waftereoa 8, 186. 
204 7za/M 186. 
250 ' -naftwte wa 186. 

wam&o 108. 

nan 81. 

nan <fe mo 94, 97, 99. 

nan doki ni 141. 



X1J 



INDEX. 



nanji ni 141. 


ni yoreba 195. 


noc7ti ni 154. 


nan no 81. 


ni yotte 177, 195 


nokorazu 101. 


nan to 81 . 


ni yotte wa 91. 




nan to iu 81. 


nin 171, 172. 


0. 


na?ii 81, 110. 


no 58, 61, 69, 79, 104, 




na?ri hodo 108. 


108, 116, 117, 118, 121, 


o 67, 72. 


nani ka 91, 94. 


170, 177, 187, 187, 188, 


o ide nasaru 35, 76. 


nani wo 94, 07, 99s 103. 198, 222, 272, 285. 


o kure 37, 78. 


nani mo ka mo 97. 


no aiaa ni 179, 192, 


o me ni kakeru 76, 


nanni mo 94. 


193. 


o ntsu 73. 


naosu 141. 


no ato de 154. 


o ta#ai ni 240. 


nara 207. 


no ato kara 192. 


o taku 73. 


naranai 47. 


no ato ni 192. 


o sugiru 110. 


7wzrio 286. 


no ato ni tsuite 192. 


oboshimesu 51. 


nara 35, 62, 72. 


no gururi ni 192. 


oi 110, 118. 


naruJiodo 244. 


no hanashi ni 196. 


oku no 110. 


nasaru 72, 76. 


no Jwka ni 194. 


omae 68. 


nas7ii ni 186. 


no iu ni 196. 


omae no 69. 


nose 128, 159, 203. 


no fcauwi ni 188, 194. 


owae san 68. 


ncn 102, 170. 


no mae ni 192. 


owoi 117. 


ni*81, 58, 128, 129, 


130, no mawari ni 192. 


omotte 58, 188. 


177, 178, 179, 180, 


181, no meguri ni 192. 


omou 51, 52. 


184, 187, 188, 188, 


198, nomukoni 191. 


on 67. 


232, 272, 285, 286. 


no nafca ni 179, 192. 


onaji 107, 161. 


ni aite iru 179. 


no naka ye 179. 


oranai 38. 


ni haitte iru 179. 


noni 42, 49, 54, 58, 


orifusU 137. 


ni kanau 196. 


273. 


orimasu 76. 


ni mieru 56. 


no ofci ni 182. 


on'ori 137. 


ni naru 61, 72. 


no saki ni 191. 


oni 34, 36, 38 3 61* 122, 


ni nite iru 161. 


no shita ni 195. 


178. 


ni oyolanai 55. 


no so&a ni 184. 


ossharu 76. 


ni san 104. 


no tame ni 188. 


otta 36, 38. 


ni sliitagatte 196. 


no tokoro ye 188. 


ottszJce 152. 


nf*7wte 262. 


no uchi ni 187, 192, 193. 


oyobanai 55. 


ni sMte wa 188. 


710 ue ni 181, 195. 




7ii S/W'T/O to omotte 188 


no usliiro ni 192. 


P. 


ni fszw'te 185. 


?io yo 211. 




ni J/aru 188. 


noc/ii hodo 151. 


pa 173. 



INDEX. 



xiil 



pai 172. 


gendatte 149. 


sono setsu ni 145, 


piki 172. 


senjitsu 149. 


sono toki ni 145. 


pern 172. 


senkoku 149. 


oio tori ni 160. 




swsei 69. 


sono wcTii nt 152. 


7? 


serarerii 27. 


sono 7/0 na 84, 


JLv* 


seru 24. 


sono yo ni 160, 286. 


ra67. 


sesw 149. 


sore 68, 84, 205. 


roreru 24. 


sliaku 170. 


sore da fcara 159. 


rerw 24. 


*7 4, 171, 198. 


sore de mo 202. 


reino 243. 


ghibaraku 157. 


sore de wa 210. 


ri 170. 


shibashiba 137. 


sore Tcara 146. 


rofc 172. 


sMdai ni 152. 


sore ?nade 146. 


rop 172, 173. 


sliiju 134. 


so?-e wade ni 146. 


ryoTw 87. 


s7i?'fca 164, 194. 


sore ni tsuite 242. 


ryolw to mo 88. 


sliimai ni 158. 


sore ica 219, 227, 272. 


i*ydnin 87, 88. 


Shingaku Michi 241. 


sore ico 254. 




s7ia 129. 


sore yue ni 159. 


a 


*7&ai 54. 


sotcM 132. 




s7tite 129. 


su 102. 


-sa 65. 


sliizen ni 71, 129. 


su beki 49. 


sde 164, 166. 


so 56, 69, 85, 128, 160 


, sugi 154. 


saki de 285. 


171, 205. 


sugiru 108, 110, 165. 


sakini 285. 


so da 56. 


sugu ni 152, 153. 


saTa j/ori 147. 


so rtt 84. 


sukoshi 91, 157. 


saw 172, 173, 174. 


s5 I'M i/o ?za 84. 


sufcosTw wo 94, 100. 


sama 73, 176, 279. 


so ?ia keshiki 56. 


sukoshi no aida 157. 


san 68. 


so ?ia mo?20 da 49. 


sukuna,i 103. 


san yo 104. 


so ?i?' mieru 56. 


sumanai 48. 


w-ppari 139. 


sochira 132. 


sww 170. 


sarete (serarete)24> f (cou r 1 o - 


soTco 83, 132. 


sure 4. 


sy) 27. 


so7co de. 146. 


SM7-M 3, 4, 24, 49, 72, 7G. 


sareru 24. 


soTctt 172. 


suwaru 178. 


saseru 24. 


sonna 84, 85. 




sassoku 153. 


gonna ni 83, 108, 160. 


1*. 


sateu 172. 


sonnara 210. 


. 


sayonara 210. 


sono 69, 84, 177. 


taberu 76. 


se4. 


sono koi'o ni 145. 


ta&i 149. 


sei/u de 17S. 


sono mata 262. 


totitofif' 128, 137- 



XIV 



INDEX. 



tachi 67. 
tada 128, 164. 
tadashi 251,278. 
tadaima 146, 150, 153. 
talgai 113, 136, 167. 
taihen 163. 
taiso 110, 128, 163. 
taitei 113, 128, 136, 

167. 

takai 116. 
takusan 110, 114. 
tama ni 137. 
tambi ni 136. 
tanto 108. 
tariru 114. 
fa tot 178. 
tatsu to 154. 
tattaima 150. 
tattara 154. 
tenden ni 89. 
fo 47, 51, 52, 58, 129, 

142, 185, 198, 207, 

210. 

toisshoni 185. 
to itte 226. 
to iu 222. 
to iff fcoto 219, 226, 233, 

240, 245, 251, 254. 
tontyona 253f 262. 
to mo 88. 
torn 149. 
to omotte 58, 188. 
to omou 51. 
to s7*ita 129. 
to shite 129. 
to sugu ni 152. 
to tomo ni 185. 
to w;a 221, 286. 



toclittde 144. 

toki (ni) 141, 144. 

tokiiva 207. 

tofcoro 61, 132, 144, 

153, 188, 260. 
tonin 69. 
tonto 139. 
toreta 182. 

tori ni 160, 188, 188. 
tori (ni) 161. 
ton* 182. 
tosu 182. 
totemo 139. 
toto 158. 
tsuideni 144. 
tsumori 52. 
tswra 136. 

u. 

uchi 144, 154, 284. 
ukeru 61. 
urareru 24. 
urc.ru 24. 

IF. 

wa 58, 120, 171, 219, 220, 
221, 227, 228, 232, 244, 
245, 250, 254, 260, 261, 
262, 273, 286. 

wa do 52. 

w a ikaga 52. 

wa ikanai 47. 

wa ikenai 47. 

w a naranai 47. 

wa sumanai 48. 

wake ni wa ikanai 43. 



wari 176. 
warm 116. 
watakushi 68. 
watakushi no 69. 
watashi 68. 
wo 177,254. 
?o wiof te 184, 185. 

F. 

ya 66,198. 

151, 152. 

71, 201, 202, 

204, 262. 
yappari 71, 201, 202, 

204. 

yara 241. 
yarn 189. 
yasashii 116. 
yatara ni 99. 
yatfo 158. 

i/e 131, 177, 179, 181. 
yo 171, 173, 211. 
yobini 188. 
j/o 52, 56, 159, 161, 241, 

285. 

yd da 56. 

yd ga tarinai 114. 
yona 84, 161,244, 263. 
yo ni, 58, 160, 161, 182, 

198, 210. 
yoninaru 61. 
yo ni shitai 54. 
t/o ni shite 46. 
yo&i ni 188. 
yohodo 163. 
yoi 49, 54, 118. 
yoi no ni 49. 



INDEX. XV 

yoliaro 49. yori yokei ni 211. zanji no aida 157. 

yokatta 49. yottari 173. zcn ni 149. 

yokatta no ni 49. yoydku 158, 164. zentai 278, 278. 

7/o/i-ei 108, 112, 113, yue ni 198, 209. zo 172. 

211. zoltu 173. 

yow 170. v zonjiru 51. 

yori 126, 177, 211. xutsu 88> 80. 

yori isso 211. ean;*r 157. 



THE END, 




p PJ p 



H if 
+ - 



I? m 



A 



* * 



*i 



Hm 

SflT 



A 



JL JL /\ /\ 

A A if + 

BB A 

"EB* IB* n in 

W TT P W 

l^C7 P-K 

Hi ft 



ft 



m 



A 



*,/*? 
EP 

ff I 
f 



a 



g 



BJ HJ 

T T 
1 B 



r BJ 
a m 



T T 




it 

ra ft ^ 

T Jll W 

W 



;n t* tr 



ft 



-JJ. 



10 ti ad 



ftt 



m m m fin 



m 



I 



ffl &'A 2fc 



" m 



Kt P^ 



PI 



I 1 

W PTT 



1 

M 



(3 

Ol 

HJ 



WT 



>2S 

I 



;n 






*t 



m H 







m 



THIS BOOK IS DUE ON THE LAST DATE 
STAMPED BELOW 



AN INITIAL FINE OF 25 CENTS 

WILL BE ASSESSED FOR FAILURE TO RETURN 
THIS BOOK ON THE DATE DUE. THE PENALTY 
WILL INCREASE TO 5O CENTS ON THE FOURTH 
DAY AND TO $1.OO ON THE SEVENTH DAY 
OVERDUE. 



2 8 1955 Llj 



LD 21-100m-7,'39(402s) 



M45859 



THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY