Skip to main content

Full text of "A handbook of Florida"

See other formats

«o Air««n iHJi " 

• OF CAlirORNIA o 







• iO A»V«n 3Hi "» 



r #^- 









.• YINlOilTV? JO O 

e THE UfiflARY OF 





• yiN»o<no io 



.» io Aimran aw • 

o ADSiaAtNO 3HI O 

o dO AaVSBIl 3H1 » 

















The right and title to " The Florida Annual," of which 
four editions have been published, has been purchased, and 
the present Handbook is designed to ijreserve its best feat- 
ures in a new form. 


The first section of the Handbook i^roper is devoted to 
sketches of the several counties, with maps compiled from 
the best attainable authorities. In the context the different 
railroad lines crossing the counties are given, with tables 
of stations and distances, so that, if desired, the different 
routes can be followed from county to county. Take, for in- 
stance, Eoute 40, p. 183, Jacksonville to Palatka. The railway 
passes through Duval, Clay, and Putnam Counties. Descrip- 
tions of the counties with their respective maps are alpha- 
betically aiTanged, beginning at page 1. On page 25 are 
stations and distances in Duval County, on page 16 those in 
Clay County, and on page 82 those in Putnam County, so 
that the movement of the train can be followed from one 
map to another throughout the journey. Distances are 
given in both directions as indicated by arrows at the sides 
of the tables. The frequent establishment of new stations 
and the discontinuance of old ones may account for discrep- 
ancies between the maps and current time-tables. In future 
editions these will be corrected as rapidly as jDossible. 

In the other sections travelling routes are described in 
general and in detail, with as much accuracy as possible iin- 
der the changing conditions of a country where, a few years 
ago, railroads were unknown. 

The general plan divides the State into five sections, as 


follows : The Atlantic Coast (p. 103) ; The Gulf Coast (p. 
228) ; Middle or Florida (p. 273) ; Subtropical 
Florida (p. 309) ; West Florida (p. 329). Under these again, 
the towns and places of special interest are designated as 
numbered routes covering the principal resorts and lines of 
travel as they exist. Much information of value to intend- 
ing settlers, as well as to tourists, will be found throughout 
the volume. This is especially true in consideration of the 
county maps, which have never before been published to- 
gether in such convenient shape. 

Reference to the table of contents, i>-p. ix to xii, will 
facilitate the finding of any particular route or locality. 

Hotel rates, the usual prices for saddle-horses, carriages, 
boats, guides, etc., are in the main the result of personal ex- 
perience, or from answers to letters of inquiry. Such rates, 
however, are always variable, with, in general, an upward 

The editor will be grateful for the correction of any er- 
rors, or for information that may increase the value of fu- 
ture editions. 

C. L. N. 

15 East Sixteenth Street, New York, 
November, 181)0. 


[In order to permit the introductiou of new routes in future 
editions of the Handbook, -without disturbing the general arrange- 
ment, tlie routes are numbered deciimMy. Tluis Jacksonville is 
10; Fernandifia, 20; St. Augustine, 30 ; while the intermediate 
numbers, 11, 22, 35, etc., are assigned to routes subordinate to, 
and more or less connected with, each central point of interest.] 


Introductory Matter, Hints to Travellers, etc xiii 

Paragraph History of Florida xx 

Counties and County Maps. 

Alachua County 1 

Baker County 6 

Bradford County 7 

Brevard County 9 

Calhoun County 11 

Citrus County 13 

Clay County 14 

Dade County , 19 

De Soto County 21 

Duval County 23 

Escambia County 27 

Franklin County , 29 

Gadsden County 31 

Hamilton County 32 

Hernando County 34 

Hillsborough County , 36 

Holms County 39 

Jackson County 40 

Jefferson County 42 

Lafayette County 43 

Lake County 45 

Lee County 49 

Leon County .* 51 

Levy County , 54 

Liberty County 55 

Madison County 57 

Manatee County 59 

Marion County Gl 



Monroe County 04 

Nassau County 65 

Orange County 68 

Osceola County 71 

Pasco County 74 

Polk County 76 

Putnam County 80 

Saint Jolin's County 82 

Sumter County 85 

Santa Rosa County 88 

Suwannee County 89 

Taylor County 93 

Volusia County 94 

Wakulla Coun'ty 98 

Walton County" 100 

Washington County 101 

I. The Atlantic Coast. 


10. Jacksonville 103 

11. Jacksonville to St. Augustine and return 110 

12. Jacksonville to Fernandina and return Ill 

13. Jacksonville to Mayport and return 112 

14. Jacksonville to Pablo Beach and return 114 

15. Jacksonville to Green Cove Springs and return 115 

16. Jacksonville to Fort George Island and return 115 

17. The Lower St. John's River and Domenique de Gonrgues 117 

20. Fernandina 127 

21. Amelia Island 130 

22. Amelia River 130 

23. Nassau Sound 131 

24. Cumberland Sound 131 

30. St. Augustine 133 

31. Anastasia Island 175 

33. Matanzas River and Inlet 178 

34. St. Augustine to Jacksonville 183 

35. St. Augustine to Palatka 182 

38. Jacksonville to Palatka by rail 183 

39. Jacksonville to Palatka by river 184 

40- Green Cove Springs 187 

50. Palatka 188 

51. Lake George 190 

52. The Fi-uitland Peninsula 191 

53. Crescent Lake 191 

51. Seville 193 

55. Palatka to Sauford by rail 193 

56. Palatka to Sanford by river 194 

60. Sanford '. 196 



01. De Land 198 

02. Lake Helen 199 

70. Davtona 200 

71. Ormond 202 

72. Halifax River 202 

80. New Smyrna 20B 

81. Ponce Park and Mosqnito Inlet 207 

90. The Indian River 210 

91. Titusville 213 

92. Rockledge 214 

93. Melbourne 215 

94. Jupiter Inlet 216 

95. Jupiter Inlet to Lake Wortli 221 

100. Lake Wortli 222 

101. The Sea Coast South of Lake Worth 220 

II. The Gulp Coast. 

110. Fernandina to Cedar Key 229 

111. Cedar Key 229 

120. Jacksonville to Homosassa 233 

121. Homosassa 233 

130. The Pinellas Peninsula 236 

131. Tarpon Springs 237 

132. Clearwater Harbor 243 

133. St. Petersburg 247 

140. Tampa 249 

141. Port Tampa 251 

142. The Manatee River 252 

150. Charlotte Harbor 254 

151. Punta Gorda 256 

152. St. James-on-the-Gulf (Pine Island) 259 

153. Punta Rassa and Tarpon Fishing 261 

154. The Caloosa River 205 

155. Fort Mvers 267 

156. Lake Okeechobee 269 

157. The Everglades 270 

158. Naples 271 

III. Middle Florida. 

160. Sanford to Tampa Bay and Port Tampa 275 

161. Winter Park 276 

162. Orlando 278 

163. Kissimmee 279 

164. Lakeland 280 

165. Bartow 281 

166. Plant City , . . .^ 282 



170. Jackson vi lie to Ocala 282 

171. Inteilachen 28^^ 

172. Citra 284 

173. OaiiK'Sville ;ind The Land Office 288 

174. Jacksonville to Leesburg 290 

1 7~). Micanopy and the Seminole Wars 291 

180. Ocala 294 

181. The Oklawaha 296 

182. Silver Spring 299 

183. Blue Spring 301 

184. Dunellon 302 

185. Lake Weir 304 

190. Leesburg 305 

IV. Subtropical Florida. 

200. Biscavne Bay 810 

201. The Florida Reefs 315 

202. Key West 323 

V. West Florida. 

210. Jacksonville to River Jirnction : 331 

211. Macolenny , 334 

212. Olustee 334 

213. Lake City 338 

214. Live Oak 339 

215. Madison 339 

216. Monticello 340 

220. Tallahassee 342 

221. The Wakulla Spring 347 

222. St Marks 349 

223. Quincv 350 

224. Chattahoochee 351 

230. River Junction to Peusacola 352 

231. Ii[arianna 353 

232. De Funiak Springs 354 

233. Milton 355 

240. Peusacola 355 

250. The Gulf Coast of West Florida 365 

Miscellaneous Information : Oranges, Lemons, Limes, 

Citrons, Grape Fruit, Pineapple 368 

Native Races of Florida 372 

Seminole Words, etc 373 

Average Temperature 377 

Rainfall, etc , in Florida 378 

Population 378 

The Game Laws of Florida 379 


Thk State of Florida, owing to its semi-tropical climate, 
and its remarkable natiaral attractions, is recognized as the 
most favored winter sauitorium and pleasure resort of Amer- 
icans. Especially is this true of those who reside so far 
North that they are certain to be more or less incommoded 
by protracted cold. 

The Florida Season. — As soon as the weather begins to be 
wintry and disagreeable in the North it begins to be pleasant 
in Florida. Although the fashionable season does not open 
until after Christmas, invalids or others desiring to avoid 
the first approaches of cold can always find comfortable ac- 
commodations near the princiijal places of resort. The lead- 
ing hotels usually open in January and close in May, and the 
travelling facilities are at their best during that i^eriod. 


New York is the natural starting point for travellers from 
the Northern Atlantic States and Canada. Through tickets 
without change of cars to St. Augustine and the other prin- 
cijial resorts in Florida can be procured at any general rail- 
way office. 

The Atlantic Coast Line is the shortest. Time, New York 
to Jacksonville, twenty-four to thirty-six hours. Vestibuled 
trains are run through from New York. 

There are three ordinary express trains daily each way be- 
tween New York and Jacksonville during the winter season. 
The vestibuled trains are made up of drawing-room cars 


with electric lights, libraries, dining-rooms, smoking-rooms, 
bath, and all the luxuries of a modern hotel. 

The direct route passes through Philadelphia, Pa., Wil- 
mington, Del., Baltimore, Md., Washington, D. C, Pkich- 
mond, Va., Wilmington, N. C, Charleston, S. C, and Sa- 
vannah, Ga., to Jacksonville and St. Augustine. 

S/. Louis, Louisville, and Cincinnati are the three points of 
departure from the Northern Central gi'oup of States. From 
these cities frequent trains run either to Pensacola or Jack- 
sonville, or direct to New Orleans, whence communication 
with the Florida railroad system is constant and easy. 

Ocean Routes. 

The journey to Florida may be pleasantly varied by mak- 
ing part of the trijj by sea, as indicated in the following list 
of steamship lines. 

Tlie Ch/de Steamship Comjyani/, Pier 27 East River, office 
No. 5 Bowling Green. Tri-weekly steamers to Jacksonville 
(time, about three days). Monthly schedules are issued, 
giving dates and hours of sailing. All these steamers touch 
at Charleston, S. C. 

The Mallory I/tne, Pier 20 East River, New York, de- 
spatches a steamer once a week to Fernandina, but little 
more than one hour's ride to Jacksonville (about three 
days at sea). 

77^6 Ocean Steamship Conqxint/, Pier 25 East River, New 
York. Steamers once a week from Boston, New York, and 
Philadelphia (the latter freight only), to Savannah, Ga., five 
hours from Jacksonville (about forty-eight hours at sea). 

The Old Dominion Line, Pier 26 North River, New Y''ork. 
Tri-weekly steamers to Norfolk and Richmond, Va. (about 
twenty-four hours at sea), thence twenty-two hours by rail 
to Jacksonville. 


Hints to Travellers. 

Outfit. Woollen undergarments, shirts, and hosiery of light 
or medium thickness, according to individual temi^erament, 
are best. Camels' hair, or some of the so-called unshrinkable 
flannels are preferable. There are days in every month when 
thin outer clothing, suitable for summer wear, is desirable, 
but, in general, clothing of medium thickness is not uncom- 
fortable. Moderately warm wraps, overcoats, and rugs are 
indispensable, and mackintoshes or other waterproofs are 
recommended. For men soft felt hats arc best for general 
use, but sun-helmets of cork, pith, or duck are convenient 
for warm weather. Straw or jDalmetto hats can always be 
purchased in Florida. If much walking is anticipated high 
shoes are desirable, as deep sand cannot always be avoided. 
For men leggings of leather or canvas are recommended as 
a protection against the tangled " scrub " and its living 
inhabitants, especially the " red bugs " and wood-ticks that 
frequent the undergrowth. During the winter months 
snakes are rarely encountered. Leggings are also conveni- 
ent for riding, and are very generally used by tourists and 

All the articles specified can be purchased in St. Augus- 
tine or Jacksonville, at a slight advance upon New York 
prices, and most of them can be found in any of the larger 

The normal clear, winter weather of Florida is i^erfect for 
out-of-door life, but seasons differ greatly. "While summer 
is usually the rainy season there are occasional variations from 
the regular order. Sometimes there are rainy winters, and 
every season brings its "northers," when a cold wind blows, 
sometimes for several days in succession, and fires and warm 
clothing are in demand. "With a limited amount of luggage 
it is often inconvenient to carry a full supply of thick under- 
wear, therefore it is suggested that these sudden changes of 
temperature be met by donning two suits of light underwear 
at once. 

Railway travel in Florida is unavoidably dusty in fair 
\veather, the di;st being of that i)enetrating (Quality that ren- 


clers its perfect exclusion from cars wellnigh impossible. 
Dusters are not pretty to look at, but they add greatly to tlie 
comfort of travel, and any anti-dust contrivances in the way 
of caps, neckerchiefs, and the like will be found equally con- 

Camp Outfit. Two woollen blankets, army size ; one sewn 
together at bottom and along two edges, to form a sleeping- 
bag, and the other left unsewu, for use in warm weather, 
^5.00 ; one rubber j)oncho, $^1.00 ; one suit of oil-skin cloth- 
ing, coat and trousers, §3.50 ; one perfectly water-tight 
match-box (a tightly corked, large-mouthed vial is perhai)s 
best) ten cents ; one pocket or watch-chain compass. This is 
indispensable in Florida, for in cloudy weather there is noth- 
ing to steer by in the piny woods, and the watercourses are 
often so tortuous that bearings are easily lost, fifty cents 
upward; one mosquito net. Florida hunters use "cheese- 
cloth," as that is jDroof against sand-flies while the ordinaiy 
netting is not. The foregoing list covers essentials only. 
The aggregate cost need not exceed $12.00 

Shooting Outfit. Guns according to preference, since every 
sportsman has his favorite. A light 32 or -i-i calibre rifle 
will be found very convenient. Game of all kinds has been 
shot at so much since the introduction of breech-loaders 
that it has become very wild. The rifle can often be used 
with good results when shot-guns are useless. 

For shot, Nos. 9 and 4 with a supply of buckshot for large 
game, and a few long-range cartridges have been found to 
serve well for general shooting. 

Fishing Outfit. An ordinary bass-rod, reel, and line is best 
for general purposes. Common metallic spinners or spoons 
are used for trolling. Florida fishes handle trolling gear 
rather roughly, and *' phantom minnows " and the like are 
apt to come to grief. For general pui-jioses, Limerick hooks, 
ringed and bent, are as good as any. A supply of gut-snelled 
hooks is desirable for use in the perfectly clear waters of 
certain streams, but in general linen snells are best. The 
most useful sizes of hooks range from 610 downward, though, 
of course, for the heavy weights the larger sizes are neces- 
sary. Sinkers must be provided and floats are often useful. 


Special tackle for tarpon and kingfisli is described under 
Eoute 82. 

Money. A list of towns having banks or bankers is given 
below. A supjjly of silver quarter-dollars and of nickel five- 
cent pieces will be found convenient, as small change is apt 
to be scarce away from tlie larger cities. A stock of one 
dollar bills is jireferable to those of larger denominations 
since the weighty and inconvenient silver dollar is in 
Florida almost invariably tendered in change. 

Baxks. ' 

Apopka, Oranse Conntv.— Bank of Apopka. 

Bartow, Polk Conuty.— Polk County Bank. 

Brooks\'ille, Hernando County. — Bank of BrooksvUIe (not incorporated). 

Daytoua, Volusia County. — Bank of Da.^tona. 

De Laud Volus:a County. — F. S. Goodrich. 

Enstis, Orange County.— Bishop Bros. 

Fernandina, Nassau County. — Bank of Femandina. 

Gainsville. Alachua County.— First National Bank. H. F. Button & Co. 

Interlachen, Putnam County. — Taylor A Warren. 

Jacksonville, Duval County. — First National Bank. The Florida Savinss 
Bank. National Bank of Jacksonville. National Bank, State of Florida. 
State Bank of Florida (not incorporated). Ambler, Marvin & Stockton. 

Key West, Monroe County. — Bank of Key West. John White Bank. 

Kissinimee, Osceola County. — Kissimmee Citv Bank. 

Lake City, Columbia County.— N. S. Collins & Co. 

Lakeland, Polk County. — L J. J. Nleuwenkamp. 

Leesburs, Sumter County. — Morrison, Stapylton & Co. Yager Bros. 

Ocala, Marion County.— The Buffum Loan &; Trust Co. First National Bank. 

Orlando, Orange Coiinty.— National Bank of Orlando. Orlando Loan & Sav- 
ings Bank. 

Palatka. Putnam County.— First National Bank. 

Pensacola. Escambia County. — First National Bank of Pensacola. Mer- 
chants' Bank. F. C. Brent & Co. 

Punta Gorda, De Soto County. 

Sanford. Orange County. — First National Bank. 

Seville. Volusia County. — Bank of SeviiA^. 

St. Augustine, St. Johns County. — First National Bank. 

Stanton, Marion County.— The Buffum Loan A Tniet Co. 

Tallahassee, Leon County. — B. C. Lewis A Son. 

Tampa, Hillsboro County.— First National Bank of Tampa. 

Tarpon Springs. — Bank of Tarpon Springs. 

Tavares, Lake County. — Bank of Tavares (not incorporated). 

Titusville, Brevard County. — Indian River Bank. 

Travelling ExpenRes. Individual tastes and habits of ne- 
cessity govern daily expenses. Lawful rates by rail in 
Florida are 3 cents a mile on the main lines, and 4 and 5 cents 
a mile on branches and local roads. If the traveller fi-e- 
quents the most expensive hotels his daily bills will be from 
S3 to .?5 a day, or even more, exclu.sive of "tips," but in 


most of the resorts comfortable quarters can be found at 
lower rates, say $2 a clay, or §8 to 810 a week. With reason- 
able economy So a day should be a fair average, covering all 
strictly travelling expenses, and leaving something to spare 
for emergencies. It is earnestly recommended that travel- 
lers give only reasonable fees to attendants. In all respect- 
able hotels they are paid good wages and excessive fees tend 
to lower their sense of duty. Small fees of five or ten cents, 
given on the spot for services rendered, secure better attend- 
ance, and are less demoralizing to the recipient than large 
fees postponed till the hour of departure. 

In the height of the season it is well to telegraph in ad- 
vance for rooms. If a prolonged stay is made at a hotel an 
itemized bill should be called for at least once a week, since 
errors can be most easily corrected when fresh in mind. 
The final bill should be called for several hours in advance 
of departure — the night before in case of an early morning 
start. This gives time for the inevitable discussion conse- 
quent upon the discovery of actual or supiDOsed mistakes. 

In many of the small hotels away from the principal re- 
sorts, bathing facilities are very primitive, if not wanting al- 
together. A pair of bathing mittens carried in a waterproof 
sponge-bag, so that they can be packed away even when wet, 
has been found an untold luxiiry under such conditions ; 
and in the same category may be mentioned a cake of soap 
in a flannel bag of its own (not waterproofed). Such a liag 
is far better than the ordinary travellers' soap-box, in which 
the soap rapidly deteriorates when not 2)''^cked away in a 
perfectly dry state. 

Biding and Driving. The ordinary Florida road is not 
well adapted for pleasure driving, but there are certain sec- 
tions of the State, as in Marion County, where a carriage may 
be driven for many miles at a moderate pace through the 
open woods. Elsewhere, in sections where clay predomi- 
nates, as in Gadsden and Leon Counties, the roads are excel- 
lent, save in wet weather. Near the coast, too, there are shell- 
roads of admirable smoothness. This is notably the case at 
Fort George Island, Duval County, in the vicinity of Jack- 
sonville, and near New Smvrna. Finallv. the ocean beaches 


from Fernantliiia south to Cape Canaveral are, as a rule, 
23erfect in all respects for driving or wheeling. The only 
drawback is that for an hour or two every day when the tide 
is at full flood the tinest part of the driveway is under 

Equestrians will find passably good saddle-horses at very 
reasonable rates almost everywhere in the State. Eiding 
tlirough the woods is always enjoyable, and a gallop on the 
beaches referred to above is exhilarating beyond descrip- 

Walking Trips. Extended pedestrian excursions are not 
likely to be undertaken in Florida, or, if undertaken, are not 
likely to be repeated. Several weighty reasons are against 
them. The distance from one place of interest to another is 
usually too great to be covered on foot in a day. The coun- 
try roads are always sandy, save in rare instances, and the 
scenery is, as a rule, very monotonous. From many of the 
resorts pleasant Vt'alks may be taken through the woods or 
along the beaches. Often the walking is easy and the 
ground reasonably clear of undergrowth in the pine woods 
as well as in the hammocks, but where the saw palmetto is 
found progress is always difficult. No stranger should ven- 
ture into Florida woods without a compass. None of the 
signs known to Northern woodsmen hold good here, and 
bearings are very easily lost, particularly under a cloudy sky 
or when night is coming on. 

All i3edestrians in Florida will sooner or later form the 
acquaintance of the "red bug," an insect almost invisible 
as to size, but gigantic in his power of annoyance. High 
boots or tight leggings, afford some protection, but a salt- 
water bath (natural or artificial) or rubbing with alcohol 
or ammonia immediately on reaching home is asi;re prevent- 
ive of ill effects. 


Pjirjigraph History of Florida. 

1497. The English claim to priority of discovei*y is based 
on the following passage in Sebastian Cabot's narrative : 
"Despairing to find the passage I turned back again, and 
sailed down by the coast of land toward the equinoctial fever 
with the intent to find the said passage to India), and came 
to that part of this firm land which is now called Florida, 
where my victuals failing, I departed from thence and re- 
turned into England." During the same year, according 
to Francisco Adolpho de Varuhagen, Americus Vespucius 
coasted the whole peninsula. 

1500-1502. Gaspar Corte-Eeal, probably a Spanish trader, 
furnished data from which was traced the first approximately 
correct outline of the North American coast, clearly indi- 
cating the Floridian peninsula (Cantino's map, Lisbon, 1502, 
now preserved in the Biblioteca Estense, at Modeua, Italy). 

1513. March 27. Easter Sunday (Pascua Florida, in 
Spanish) Juan Ponce de Leon sighted the coast near St. 
Augustine, and named it in honor of the day.' 

1513. April 2. He landed in 30° 8' north latitude, prob- 
ably near Fernandina. 

1513. April 8. He took formal possession in the name of 
the King of Spain. 

1516. Diego Miruelo, a pilot and trader, discovered a bay, 
probably Pensacola, which long bore his name on Spanish 
maps. Ponce de Leon made a second voyage of discovery, 
but was driven oflf by the natives, who killed several of his 

1517. February. Francis Hernandez de Cordova, while 
on a slave-hunting expedition, landed at some unidentified 
place on the west coast of Florida. His men were attacked 
by the natives and driven off. De Cordova himself was fa- 
tally wounded. 

1519. Alonzo Alvarez de Pineda discovers the coast in the 

' The year 1512 is usually given as the date of this diBCOvery. Justin Winsor, 
Vcl. n., cites official documents proving that 1513 is the correct dat?. 


vicinity of Peusacola, and proves that Florida is not an 

1521. February or March. Ponce de Leon, commissioned 
as governor " of the Island Florida," landed at some point 
i:)robably not far from St. Augiistiue, and attempted to take 
possession. He was fatally wounded in a fight with the na- 
tives, and the settlement was abandoned. 

Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quexos, sent out by 
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon, discovered a large river and named 
it St. John the Baptist. They kidnapped about seventy of the 
friendly natives, and earned them away. TJiese Indians 
were subsequently retui'ned to their homes. 

1525. Pedro de Quexos returned, by order of Ayllon, 
regained the good-will of the Indians, and explored the 
coast for two hundred and fifty leagues, setting up stone" 
crosses bearing the name of Charles V. of Spain, and the 
date of taking possession. 

1528. April 14. Pamphilo de Narvaez with a fleet of five 
vessels, containing four hundred men and eighty horses, 
landed in Bahia de la Cruz (perhaps Clearwater Harbor). 
The fleet was sent along the coast, while the army marched 
inland and perished, all save four, who escaped after eight 
years of cajitivity. 

1539. May 25. Hernando de Soto reached Tampa Bay, 
and named it Esj^iritu Santo. His force was five hundred 
and seventy men, with two hundred and twenty-three horses 
and a comjilete outfit. He mai-ched northward and westward, 
treating the Indians, friend and foe alike, with cruel treachery 
and violence. Passing beyond the present boundaries of 
Florida he discovered the Mississippi River, where he died 
and was buried beneath its waters. 

1549. June 25. Father Luis Canca de Barbastro, in 
charge of a missionary exiiedition, landed near Clearwater 
Harbor, and was killed by the Indians with four of his asso- 

1559. July 1. Tristan de Luna y Arellano, with one 
thousand five hundred soldiers and settlers, landed in Ichuse 
(Santa Rosa) Bay. A hurricane almost destroyed his fleet, 
on Sejitember 19th. Explorations Avere undertaken, but re- 


suited iu no discoveries of importance. Mutinies followed 
among the troops, and eventually the settlement was aban- 

15G2. May 1. Jean Bibaut, a French Huguenot, with a 
colony of the same faith, entered the St. John's Kiver, re- 
named it La RiviLve do Mai, and erected a stone monument 
bearing the arms of France. No attemjjt at permanent set- 
tlement was made at this time. 

15(54:. June 22. Rene de Laudonniere, a French Hugue- 
not, discovered the harbor of St. Augustine and named it La 
Riviere des Dau2)hines. 

1564. July. Fort Caroline built by the French, i)rob- 
ably at St. John's Bluflf, near the mouth of the " River of 
May" (St. John's). 

■ 1565. August 3. Sir John Hawkins entered the river, 
relieved the wants of the French colony, and told Laudon- 
niere of an intended Spanish attack. 

1565. August 28. Pedro Meuendez d'Aviles, with a 
strong Spanish fleet, reached the coast north of Cape Canav- 

1565. August 28. He discovered St. Augustine harbor 
and named it after Aurelius Augustinus, Bishop of Hippo. 

1565. August 28. Ribaut reached the St. John's with re- 
enforcements for the French. 

1565. September i. Menendez arrived at the St. John's 
River and prepared to give battle to the French, who put to 
sea, pursued by the Sjianiards. 

1565. September 5. Menendez returned to find that 
more French ships had arrived. He retreated to St. Augus- 
tine and, finding the natives friendly, founded the city on 
its present site, the oldest in the United States. 

1565. September 8. Menendez landed the greater part 
of his force and took formal possession of St. Augustine in 
the name of the King of Spain. 

1565. September 10. Ribaut's fleet wrecked in a hurri- 
cane near Canaveral. 

1565. September 29. Menendez received the surrender 
of an advance party of the French who survived the wreck 
of their fleet at Matanzas Inlet, and put 111 of them to 


death. Sixteen wlio i^rofessed to be Catholic^ were spared, 
at the intercession of the Spanish chaplain. 

1565. September 30. Meuendez, having marched over- 
land with 500 men, surprised and put to death the Freucli 
garrison at Fort Caroline. A few escaped, including Lau- 
donniere, the commander. 

1565. October 1. Laudonniere and the survivors of the 
massacre escaped to sea in two small vessels. 

1565. October 10. Ribaut, with the rest of the surviv- 
ing French, reached Matanzas. About half of them sur- 
rendered and were put to death. The rest retreated to Ca- 
naveral and built a fort. 

1565. November 8. Menendez attacked the French at 
Canaveral. Most of them surrendered and were spared. 

1565-66. (Winter.) The French survivors who had es- 
caped to the woods incited the Indians to attack Fort Caro- 
line, which the Spaniards had renamed San Mateo. 

1566. March 20. Menendez returned to St. Augustine 
from a voyage, quelled a mutiny with difficulty, relieved San 
Mateo, reorganized the garrisons, and sailed for Sjjain, which 
he reached in July. 

1568. April. Domenique de Gourgues, with the avowed 
intention of avenging the massacre at Matanzas, captured 
the Spanish forts on the St. John's River, hanged the surviv- 
ors of the fight, and destroyed the fortification. 

1568-1586. European interest in Florida languished. 
Settlements were sustained mainly through the personal ef- 
forts of Menendez. 

1586. Sir Francis Drake, the English freebooter, at- 
tacked St. Augustine. The Spaniards fled, offering scarcely 
any resistance, and the place was burned. After Drake's de- 
jiarture the people returned and began to rebuild the town. 

1593. Twelve Franciscan missionaries were distributed 
among the Indians on the east coast. 

1598. The Franciscan missionaries were nearly all killed 
by the Indians. 

1612-13. Thirty-one Franciscans sent from Spain, 
Florida constituted a Religious Province of the Order, and 
named St. Helena. 


1638. War between Spanish colonists and tlie Apalachee 
tribe, resulting in the subjugation of the Indians. 

1605. St. Augustine pillaged by English freebooters un- 
der Captain John Davis. Tiie Spaniards made little or no re- 

165.5. The hereditary governorship of the Menendez fam- 
ily terminated, and was succeeded by Diego de Eebeilado, 
as Captain-General. 

1(J75. Don Juan Hita de Salacar became Captain-General. 

1680. Don Juan Marquez Cabrera became Captain-Gen- 

1678. The commandant of St. Augustine sent out a suc- 
cessful expedition against the English and Scotch settlements 
near Port Royal. 

1687. A large consignment of negro slaves brought to 
Florida by one De Aila. 

1681. The Governor (Cabrera) attempted to remove sev- 
eral Indian tribes to the islands on the coast. Hostilities 
followed, many Christian Indians were killed and others 
carried away as slaves. 

1696. Under authority of the Viceroy of New Spain a 
settlement was made at Pensacola, and Fort Charles was 

1702. September and October. Governor Moore of South 
Carolina laid siege to St. Augustine, by land and sea. The 
town was occujsied and burned, but the castle (the present 
Fort Marion) held out. Two Spanish vessels appeared and 
Governor Moore withdrew, losing his transports. 

1703-4. Governor Moore sent an expedition into MvJdle 
Florida mainly directed against the Indians friendly to Spain. 
He destroyed several towns and carried off many Indians to 
slavery, at the same time defeating the Spaniards under Don 
Juan Mexia, who came to the aid of their Indian allies. 

1708. Colonel Barnwell of South Carolina invaded Mid- 
dle Florida and raided through the Alachua country east- 
ward to the St. John's River. About the same time Captain 
T. Nairn of the same forces penetrated to the head waters 
of the St. John's, and possibly to the Okeechobee region, 
bringing back a number of slaves. 


1718. March. Fort San Marcos cle Apalacbe erected at 
St. Mark's by Spaniards under authority of the Governor of 
St. Augustine. About the same time the French estab- 
lished Fort Crevecoeur at St. Joseph's Bay, but soon aban- 
doned it and the Spaniards took possession. 

1718. May 14. The French under Bienville, the com- 
mandant at Mobile, attacked the Spaniards at Pensacola, 
and mainly by stratagem captured the entire garrison, who 
were sent to Havana in accordance with a promise made be- 
fore the surrender. 

1718. Two Spanish ships appeared off Pensacola, and 
after a brief bombardment received the surrender of the 
French commander. The fortifications were at once strongly 
garrisoned, and an im successful attack was made on the 
French, who still held Dauphin Island. 

1719. September 18. After a series of actions the Span- 
ish at Pensacola surrendered to the combined land and 
naval forces of the French under Desnade de Ohampsmelin. 
Pensacola was destroyed and abandoned, and the cajitured 
Spaniards were taken to France as prisoners of war. 

1722. Pensacola reocciapied by the Spaniards on declara- 
tion of peace, and the town rebuilt on Santa Rosa Isl- 

1727. Colonel Palmer of South Carolina, after certain un- 
successful negotiations with the Spanish authorities in Flor- 
ida, made a descent upon the northern part of the jarovince, 
and with the aid of Indian allies hari'ied the whole country 
to the gates of St. Augustine, capturing many slaves and 
driving off much live stock. 

1736. Spain formally claimed all territory south of St. 
Helena Sound, as part of her Floridian jjossessions, and 
warned England to withdraw her colonists. Futile negotia- 
tions followed. 

1739. October. AVar declared between England and 
Spain, because of alleged encroachments by both parties in 
the provinces of Georgia and Florida. Governor Oglethorpe 
of Georgia, having already prepared a force, at once invaded 
the disputed territory. 

1739. December. A detachment of OgletlioiiDe's men 


attacked Fort Poppa on the St. John's Uiver, opposite Pico- 
lata, but were repulsed by tlie Spaniards. 

1740. Jaiinaiy. Fort at Picolata captured by the Eng- 

1710. Juue 20 till July 7. Siege of St. Augustine by 
the English under Major-Geueral James Edward Oglethovjie, 
Governor of Georgia. The defence was successfully con- 
ducted by a Spanish garrison of 750 men under Don Manuel 
de Monteano. 

1742. July 5. Monteano led an expedition against Ogle- 
thorpe, sailing from St. Augustine. He was repulsed after 
having forced the English to abandon their first position. 

1743. March, General OglethoriDe invaded Florida, and 
surprised the garrison of St. Augustine, killing some forty 
men before they could gain the citadel. Oglethorpe with- 
drew, not being prepared to conduct a siege. 

1748. Suspension of hostilities by treaty between Great 
Britain and Spain. 

1750. As the result of a tribal quarrel among the Creek 
Indians in Georgia, Secoftee, a noted chief of the tribe, 
headed a movement for secession, and with a large number 
cf followers settled in tlie Alachua country, Florida. These 
Indians became known as Semiuoles, i.e., seceders, out- 

1762. Hostilities renewed between Spain and Great Brit- 
ain. The English capture Havana. 

1763. February 10. By treaty Great Britain and Sjiain 
effected an exchange of Cuba for Florida, and the English 
at once took possession of Florida, and General James Grant 
was appointed Governor. 

1765. The " King's Road," constructed from St. Augus- 
tine to the St. Mary's River. 

1766. Forty families emigrated from Bermuda to Mos- 
quito Inlet. 

1767. Colony of 1.500 Minorcans cstablislied by Dr. Turn- 
bull at Mosquito Inlet (New Smyrna). 

1776. Colony at New Smyrna broken up because of al- 
leged harsh treatment. 

1774. In view of the disaffectiau of the northern colonies 


isendiiig the war for Independence, immigration of loyalists 
was encouraged from Georgia and the Caroliuas. A consid- 
erable number settled near St. Augustine. 

1775. August. An American privateer captured the 
British supply ship Betsey, off the harbor of St. Augustine, 
iu sight of the British garrison. 

1778. Nearly 7,000 loyalists moved into Florida from 
Georgia and the Oarolinas. 

1779. September. Hostilities resumed between Spain 
and Great Britain. 

1780. Sixty -one jsrominent South Carolinians sent to St. 
Augustine by the British authorities as i^risoners of State. 

1781. March — May. The Sijaniards tinder Don Bernardo 
de Galvez, with a naval force under Admiral Solana, invested 
Pensacola, which was defended by about 1,000 English under 
General Oami)bell. A chance explosion of a magazine com- 
pelled the surrender of the English, who caijitulated on 
honorable terms to a largely superior force. 

1783. Colonel Devereaux, a loyalist fugitive from Caro- 
lina, sailed from St. Augustine with two privateers and cap- 
tured the Bahama Islands, then held by the Spaniards. 
They have ever since remained under the British flag. 

1783. September 3. Independence of the American col- 
onies — not including Florida, which had taken no part in the 
struggle — acknowledged by Great Britain. Upon this 
Florida was ceded back to Si)ain, Great Britain retaining the 
Bahamas. English subjects were allowed eighteen months to 
move their effects. The crown transported most of them to 
England, the Bahamas, and Nova Scotia. 

1784. Zespedez, the new Spanish governor, arrived at St. 
Augustine and took possession. 

1795. Spain receded West Florida (Louisiana) to France. 

1811. In view of probable war with England the United 
States Congress resolved to seize Florida in order to prevent 
the English from taking possession. 

1812. March 17. A number of persons styling themselves 
" patriots " met at St. Mary's and organized the Republic of 
Florida. Aided by United States gunboats they took pos- 
session of Fernandina, elected a governor, and shortly after- 

xxviii PAKACRArn history of Florida. 

ward niarclied upon St. Augustine, but were repulsed. 
The United States soon withdrew its open support, but the 
"patriots" continued towage war on their own resjionsi- 
bility, aided by American volunteers. 

1814. August. A British force under Colonel Nichols oc- 
cni)ied Pensacola with the consent of the Simnish comman- 
dant and hoisted the British flag. 

1814. November 14. Pensacola captured by United 
States forces under General Andrew Jackson. The English, 
presumably with Spanish connivance, built and armed a 
fort at the mouth of the Apalachicola River and garrisoned 
it with Indians and negroes. 

1816. August. The fort on the Apalachicola was attacked 
by a combined force of Americans and friendly Indians 
under Colonel Clinch, and captured after one of the maga- 
zines had been exploded by a hot shot. During this time 
Florida was in a state of anarchy, and Indian forays into 
Georgia were frequent. 

1818. April 7. General Jackson, with a force of Ameri- 
cans, severely chastised the Florida Indians, capturing a 
formidable fort at St. Marks. 

1818. May 25. Pensacola, which had been reoccupied by 
the Spaniards, surrendered to General Jackson by the Span- 
ish after slight resistance. 

1819. February 22. Florida ceded by Spain to the 
United States. 

1821. February 19. Treaty of cession formally rati- 

1821. July 10. The Spanish flag hauled down and the 
United States flag hoisted in its place at St. Augustine. A 
like ceremony took place at Pensacola on July 21st. 

1822. March 30. By act of Congress Florida was made 
a territory of the United States, and organized as such. 

1822. June. The first legislative coimcil met at Pen- 
sacola and created four counties : Escambia, Jackson, St. 
John's, and Duval. 

1823. September 18. Treaty of Fort Moultrie made with 
the Indians, inducing them to confine themselves to a reser- 


1823. October. Tallahassee selected as the territorial 

1823-1835. Settlers began to press into Florida and en- 
croach upon Indian reservations. Treaties were made and 
set aside looking to the removal of the Indians. 

1834. April 12. Proclamation by the President pursuant 
to treaty finally adopted, directing the removal ofthe Senii- 
noles west of the Mississippi. 

1835. Autumn. Friendly Indians murdered by those 
who were disposed to resist the execution of the President's 

1835. December 25. The Seminoles made a descent 
upon New Smyrna, burned all the houses, and laid waste 
the plantations. Having been forewarned, the inhabitants 

1835. December 28. Osceola, the Seminole chief, way- 
laid and killed General Thompson, the Indian Commissioner, 
at Fort King, with several companions. On the same day 
the command of Major Dade, U.S.A., 110 strong, was am- 
buscaded and massacred by Indians, under Chief Micanopy, 
near Dragem Junction, Sumter County. Four soldiers 
feigned death and escaped, three of them reaching Tampa 
Bay. Thus began the Seminole War, which lasted seven 

1835. December 31. United States troops under Gen- 
eral Clinch defeated the Indians near the scene of Dade's 
massacre, of which event they were at the time unaware. 

1836. February 27 — March 6. United States trooijs under 
General Gaines attacked by a large force of Indians while 
attempting to ford the Withlacoochee Eiver. The troops 
intrenched themselves, and were besieged for several days, 
with constant fighting, until their provisions were nearly ex- 
hausted, when they were relieved by General Clinch. 

1836. June 9. Indians threatened the stockade at Mican- 
opy. United States forces under Major Heileman marched 
out and routed them after a sharp fight. 

1836. Aiigust 11. Major Pierce attacked Osceola's band 
of Micosukee Indians near Fort Drane, and routed them. 

1836. November 21. Colonel (late Major) Pierce drove a 


large force of Indians into the Walioo swamp, but no de- 
cisive victory could be gained, owing to the impenetrable 
nature of the morass. 

1837. January 20. A detachment, -marching to Jupiter 
Inlet from the head of the St. John's River, found Indians 
strongly posted on the banks of the Loeohatchee. After at- 
tacking and dispersing the Indians a stockade (Fort Jupiter) 
was constructed near the inlet. 

1837. January 27. Engagement near Hatcheelustee Creek. 
The Indians were routed and driven into Great Cypress Swamp. 

1837. February 8. Intrenched camp on Lake Munroe at- 
tacked at night by a large force of Seminoles. The Indians 
were repulsed with heavy loss. 

1837. March 6. Treaty of capitulation signed by Gen- 
eral Thomas S. Jessup and Seminole chiefs at Fort Dade. 
A large number of Seminoles nominally surrendered at this 
time ; the influence of Osceola and the warlike faction 
proved too strong, and by the end of the summer hostilities 
were resumed. 

1837. October 12. Osceola and seventy-one of his band 
seized by order of General Jessup and confined as prisoners 
of war. 

1837. December 25. Colonel Zachary Taylor, with a 
strong detachment, following the main body of the Seminoles 
southward, overtook them on the shore of Lake Okeechobee. 
After a stubborn fight, lasting several hours, the Indians fled. 
Taylor lost one-tenth of his men in killed and wounded. 
This action terminated concerted resistance on the part of 
the Indians. After this they fought in small parties. 

1838. March 22. Colonel Twiggs captured 513 Indians 
and 165 negroes near Fort Jupiter. 

1839. May. A council with the Seminole chiefs resulted 
in an official declaration of peace. 

1839. July. The Indians, without warning, resumed lios- 
tilities in all parts of the State. Colonel Harney's command 
was nearly exterminated at Charlotte Harbor by an over- 
whelming force of Indians. 

1840. August 7. Government station on Indian Key de- 
stroyed by a war party of Indians. Dr. Perrine killed. 


1840. December. Colonel Hamey conducted an expedi- 
tion througli the Everglades. During tlie year the Indians 
adopted the plan of raiding with small jaarties and the whole 
State was harried by these bands. 

1841. May 31. Colonel, afterward General, William J. 
Worth was given command of the United States forces in 
Florida. He inaugurated a summer campaign which proved 
eftective. The Indians were, during the winter of 1841-42, 
either captured, killed, or driven into the most inaccessible 

1842. April 19 — August 14. The Seminole War was de- 
clared at an end. The surviving Indians were removed to 
Arkansas, with the exception of about 360, who were tacitly 
allowed to remain in the Everglades. 

1845. March 3. Florida admitted to the Union as a 

1861. January 6. United States Arsenal at Chattahoochee 
seized by Florida State troops. 

1861. Januaiy 7. Fort Marion, St. Augustine, seized by 
State troops (see p. 151). Fort Clinch, Fernandina, occuj)ied 
the same day. 

1861. January 10. Ordinance of secession adopted by the 
convention assembled at Tallahassee. 

1861. January 10. United States trooijs transferred from 
Barrancas Barracks to Fort Pickens, Pensacola Harbor. 

1861. January 12. All United States property on the 
mainland, including the Navy Yard and Forts Barrancas and 
McBae, seized by Florida State troops, the commandant 
of the Navy Yard with his men being held as prisoners. 

1861. Januaiy 12. Formal demand made for the sur- 
render of Fort Pickens to Florida State troops. 

1861. January 14. Fort Taylor, Key West, garrisoned by 
United States troops. 

1861. January 18. Fort Jefferson, Tortugas, garrisoned 
by United States troops. 

1861. April 12-17. Fort Pickens reinforced. 

1861. August 6. The blockade-runner Alvarado burned 
off Fernandina. 

1861. November 22. Fort Pickens (Pensacola) opens fire 


upon the Con federate batteries on the mainland. An artil- 
lery duel continued all day, 

1862. January 16. Naval attack upon Cedar Key. 

1862. March 3. Amelia Island evacuated by the Confed- 
erates, and (March 4) occupied by Federals, 

1862. March 11. Jacksonville occupied by Federal forces. 

1862. March 14. Brigadier- General James H. Trapier, 
C.S.A., assigned to the command of Middle and East Florida. 

1862. March 17. Colonel W. 8. Dilworth assigned to the 
command of Florida, vice Trapier, transferred, 

1862, March 23, New Smyrna i:)artly destroyed by Fed- 

1862. April 8. Brigadier-General Joseph Finegan, 
C.S.A., assigned to the command of Confederate forces in 

1862. April 9. Jacksonville evacuated by the Federal 

1862, April 10. Skirmish near Fernandina. 

1862. October 4. Jacksonville again occupied by the 
Federals and shortly afterward abandoned, 

1863, March 10. Jacksonville occupied by Federals, 

1863. March 31. Jacksonville evacuated by Federals. 

1864. February 7. Jacksonville reoccupied by Federals, 

1864, February 20. Battle of Olustee. Defeat of the 

1865. October 28. End of the Civil War, Ordinance of 
secession rej^ealed, after which a civil government under the 
supervision of a military governor (General John Pope) was 
temporarily established. 

1868. July 41 The fourteenth amendment to the Con- 
stitution of the United States having been adopted, with a 
new State constitution, Florida was readmitted to the Union 
and military supervision withdrawn. 

1889, June. Discovery of highly valuable phosphate 
beds at Dunellon, Marion County, followed by similar dis- 
coveries in dift'erent parts of the State. 

Alachua County. 

Area, 1,260 sq. m.— Lat. 29" 25' to 29° 55' N.— Long. 82° to 82° 59' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 22,929.— Pop. (1880), 16,462.— Assessed valuation (1888), $3,193,000. 
— County seat, Gainesville. 

The name is of Indian origin, pronounced al-latch-u-ah, 
with the accent on the second syllable. Probably, however, 
the Indian pronunciation accentuated the last syllable. 
The name was originally given to a remarkable chasm in 
the earth near Gainesville (see map), and is said to mean lit- 
erally " the big jug without a bottom;" but there is prob- 
ably a conveyed meaning to the Seminole ear implying, " the 
place where the waters go down." The settlement of this 
region by whites was effected by the agents of Fernando de 
la Maza Arredondo, an enterprising Spanish merchant of 
Havana. Messrs. Dexter and Wanton, under his authority 
and led by the accounts given by Indians of the high roll- 
ing lands, rich soil, heavy forests, and abundant lakes and 
streams, penetrated to the vicinity of Gainesville and there 
established a trading-post. The Indian accounts proved 
true, and Arredondo obtained a Spanish grant of about 
289,645 English acres — rather more than one-quarter of the 
present county of Alachua. The exact date of the original 
settlement cannot be ascertained, but it was no doubt prior 
to the beginning of the present century, when the whole 
interior of Florida was an unexplored wilderness, and the 
discoverer of a fertile tract had only to ask for a grant in 
order to secure what was then regarded as a clear title from 
the Spanish crown. 

Alachua is classed in the United States Government re- 
ports as in the long-leaf pine region. It contains, however, 
tracts of oak and hickory, hammocks and prairies. The 
eastern part of the county, at the point of highest elevation, 
is 250 feet above tide-water ; the western part about 70 feet. 
Near the Levy county line is a range of sand-hills, 120 feet 
above tide-water. The Cedar Key Eailroad crosses this 
range between Archer and Bronson. Along the Santa Fe 
and Suwannee Rivers the underlying limestone frequent- 
ly crops out, forming picturesque and precipitous banks. 


crowned with rich hammock. From northwest to south- 
east, crossing the county, is an irregularly detached belt of 
fine hammock lands, the substratum of which is the peculiar 
disintegrated limestone of this region. Oaks, hickoiy, gum 
trees, bay, magnolia, beech, maple, and other hard woods 
grow here in great luxuriance, although along this belt the 
rock is but thinly covered with soil. The total area of ham- 
mock land is about 2.440 acres. It is of two grades, " black 
hammock," with a sandy loam soil, brown or blackish iu 
color, and nearly a foot deep; and "gray hammock," with 
a lighter soil and higher percentage of sand, underlaid with 
sand or sand-rock. 

The Suwannee River and its tributary the Santa Fe define 
the western and northern boundaries of the county. The 
first named is navigable for steamers throughout this section 
of its course, and the second as far as Fort White, about eight 
miles above the confluence of the two streams. In the west- 
em jjart of the county are countless small lakes and ponds, 
most of them deep and well supplied with fish. They are 
connected by natural water-courses, sometimes on the siu'- 
face, sometimes subterranean, and curious natural wells and 
"sinks" are of frequent occurrence. These wells are usu- 
ally perjiendicular shafts, three or four feet in diameter, de- 
scending through solid limestone rock to a depth of thirty 
or forty feet. Water strongly imjiregnated with lime is 
found in most of them, but some are dry and may be ex- 

This part of the county is sparsely settled as comparetL 
with the eastern, especially the southeastern section. This, 
however, renders it the more attractive for sportsmen and 
campers. Large game has been hunted off in the more 
thickly settled portions of the county, but deer and turkey 
are to be found within easy driving distance of almost any 
of the towns west of Gainesville, and the ordinary game 
birds are reasonably abundant everywhere. 

Large lakes are found in the eastern and especially in thj 
southeastern portion of the county. Of these South Pond 
and Santa Fo Lake are joined by a canal, and are navi-f-able 
for launches and small steamboats. Orange Lake, which 


bounds the county at its southeastern corner, is an irregular 
body of water, the largest in the county, but shallow and 
overgrown with aquatic vegetation. In the season, these 
shallow lakes, are frequented by water-fowl. 

The remarkably open character of the woods at once 
impresses the observant traveller. The scrub palmetto is 
wholly absent over large tracts, and one may ride or drive 
comfortably for miles through a virgin forest without a sign 
of a wagon road or of a human habitation. 

Among the crops that are successfully cultivated in Alachua 
are artichokes, beans, beets, cabbages, celery, cucumbers, 
egg-jilant, lettuce, okra, onions, parsnips, peas, jiotatoes 
(Irish and sweet), pumpkins, radishes, squashes, tomatoes, 
turnips, arrow-root, barley, castor beans, cassava, chufas, 
koouti, corn, cotton, pea-nuts, melons, millet, oats, rice, rye, 
sorghum, sugar-cane, tobacco, and wheat. Oranges are 
grown successfully whenever facilities for transportation 
render it possible to market the crop to advantage. Peaches 
of the Pientau and other early varieties are cultivated ; the 
Leconte pear is a profitable crop, and strawberries in veiy 
large quantities are shipped to the North during January, 
February, and March. 

The Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. "W. system) en- 
ters the county from the westward, Palatka being the nearest 
station of importance. The stations next and within the 
county are : 

27. . . .Cones Crossing {Putnam Co.) 45 

I 29....Colgrove 43 E 

31... Hawthorne ' 41 a 32.... Constantino's Mill 40 i 

Palatka. I 3.5 ... Grove Park 3T Ocala. 

V 40....RGchelle''' 32 

W 45 Mi canopy Jc 2T | 

47 Evinston {Levy Co.) 24 

' Crosses F. C. &. P. Ey. (see p. 5). 

2 Gainesville Br. (see below). For continuation of this Une to Ocala, Lees- 
burg, etc., sec p. G3. 

Gainesville Branch (J., T. & K. "W. .system) : 

I 37....Eochelle' 8 E 1 41. ...Sink 4 a Dist. fr. 

Palatka. V 42. ...Oliver Park 3 i Gainesville. 

W 45.... Gainesville 2. 

' Connects with main line (see above). 

' Connects with S. F. & W. Ry. (see p. 5), and Cedar Key Division F. C. & 
P. (see p. 5). 


The main line of the Florida Central & Peninsula Railway 
enters the county from the northeast after crossing Santa 
Fe River. The stations next and within the county are : 

Dlst. fr. 


79 Hampton {Bradford Co.) 51 

85 ... . Waldo ' 45 

90 Orange Heights 40 

94....Campville 36 

99. . . .Hawthorne = 31 

106 Lochloosa 24 

109 .... Island Grove 21 

112....Citra {Lecy Co.) 18 

Dist. fr. 

> Cedar Key Branch, F. C. & P. (see below). 

2 Crosses Gainesville Branch, J., T. & K. W. For continuation of this line to 
Ocala, see p. 63 ; to Jacksonville, p. 9. 

Cedar Key Division, F. C. & P., crosses the county south- 
westerly from Waldo, where it leaves the main line. 

0... Waldo 70 

; 6 . . . Fairbanks 64 N E 

14 Gainesville' 56 a 

18. .. Hammock Ridge 52 Dist. 

20... Arredondo 59 fr. Cedar 

21 Kanapaha 49 Key. 

V 24.... Palme:- 46 j 

SW 29. ...Archer 41 | 

38 Bronson (Levy Co.) 32 

' Connects with Gainesville Branch, J., T. & K. W. (see p. 4), and with 
Gainesville Division, S. F. & W. (see below). For continuation southwest to 
Cedar Key, see p. 55 ; northeast to Jacksonville, Fernandina, etc., see p. 9. 

Diet. fr. 

The Gaine.sville Division, 8. F. & W. Ry., runs northeast 
from Gainesville to Lake City Junction, Columbia County. 
The stations are : 

Gainesville ' 36 

TkJof f, I 11 Hague 25 SE y.. . , 

Gaines- I 16 . . . . Newnansville 20 a LakeCitV 

Gaines ^ 23 .... High Springs 13 l^akeCity 

vine. -^y^ 33.... Fort White 3 | '''=• 

36 Lake City Jc. (Co^Mmftia Co.). . . . 

' For continuation northwest, see p. 17. For connectione at Gainesville, see 


Baker County. 

Area, 500 sq. m.— Lat. 30° 10' to 30" 25' N.— Long. 82° to 82° 30' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890). 3.312.— ReKistered vote (1889), 651.— Pop. (1880), 2,312.— Aasessed 
valuation (1888), $544,308.— County seat, McClenny. 

The northern part of this county is within the limits of 
the great Okeefenokee Swamp, which extends to the nortli- 



■ward across the Georgia State line. This portion of the 
county is liardly habitable, but is rich in standing timber 
which is rafted down the tributaries of the St. Mary's River 


to tide-water and a market, or else finds its way to the Florida 
Central & Peninsula Railway Company's stations in the 
southern tier of townships. The southern part of the county 
is moderately high pine land, with sandy soil. The j^rinci- 
pal shipments are turpentine and lumber, with an increas- 
ing quantity of peaches and vegetables. 

Near the southwestern corner of the county there took 
place the most considerable engagement that occurred 
within the State during the Civil War. 

The Western Division of the Florida Central & Penin- 
sula Railway crosses east and west near the southern border. 
The stations next to and within the couutv are : 

19. ..Baldwin (Dwi'aZ Co.) 186 E 

I 2S....McClenny 177 a 

Dist. ' 30 .... Glen St. Mary 175 i 

fr. Jackson- ' 37 Sanderson 168 j 

villa. 39.... Pendleton 166 | 

V 47....01sutee 153 ; 

W 52. . . .Mt. Carrie {Columbia Co.) 153 

Dist. fr. 
River Jc. 

Bradford County. 

Area, 550 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 40' to 30° 10' N.— Long. 82° to 82° 40' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 7,502.— Registered vote (1889), 1,370.— Pop. (1880), 6,167.— Highest 
elevation, 210 ft. (Trail Ridge).— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,124,763.— County 
seat, Starke. 

Bradford County is classified in the long-leaf pine region. 
The best land is gently rolling, with sandy loam, well suited 
for the cultivation of cotton, corn, vegetables, fruits, and 
rice. The most fertile land is found along the lakes and 
water-courses — mainly in the southern and eastern sections. 
Second class is for the most part a yellow sandy loam, covered 
with pine forests. It is capable, however, of producing fair 
crops of oats, itc, and barley. The third-class land is sandy 
and low, covered with scrub palmetto and underlaid with 
a compact "hard pan." Cypress ponds abound in the east- 
ern and northeastern sections, and, besides their timber, af- 
ford valuable beds of muck, readily available for fertilizing 

Swift's Creek, Olustee Creek, New River, and Samson 
River are tributaries of the Santa Fe, which in turn flows 
through the Suwannee to the Gulf of Mexico. These streams 


are all available for raftiug purposes, and many of them 
aflford good mill-sites. The more considerable lakes are 
South Prong Pond, one of the sources of Olustee Creek (200 
acres) ; Swift Creek Pond (700 acres), Lake Butler (700 
acres), Samson Lake (2,200 acresj, Crosby Lake (800 acres), 

Eowell Lake (800 acres). At the southeastern comer, be- 
tween Bradford and Alachua Counties is Santa Fe Lake, the 
source of the river of that name, 137 feet above the sea. It 
is the largest body of water adjacent to the county, some 
eight miles long with its connections, and aftbrding water 
transportation to "Waldo, a railroad station near the head of 
the South Pond. 

The main line of the Florida Central Jc Peninsula Railway 


crosses N.X.E. and S.S.W. in the eastern tier of town- 
ships. The stations next to and within the county are : 

61. . . .Highland {Clay Co.) 69 

I 66....Lawtev 64 NNE 

Dist. fr. 6T>6..Bunm 63 a riist fr 

Jack- I 71.... Temple 5S I n!.oio 

60n\'iLle. V 73.... Starke 5T "*^^'^- 

SSW 79... Hampton 51 ' 

85 Waldo (Alachua Co.) 45 

For continuation of this line to Jacksonville, see p. 16 ; to Cedar Key, see 
p. 5. 

Brevard County. 

Area, 3,000 sq. m.— Lat. 27" 10' to 28° 50' N.— Long. 80° 10' to 81° W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 3,399.— Pop. (1880), 1,478.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,007,474.— 
County seat, Titusville. 

The present county was formed from St. Lucie County, in 
January, 1855. The county seat was successively at Fort 
Pierce or Susannah (1855 to 1864), Bassville (1864 to 1873), 
Lakeville (1873 to 1879), and finally at Titusville, or, as it was 
formerly known, Sandy Point. In 1879 the southern part 
of Volusia County was added to Brevard, so that the county 
now includes 108 miles of Atlantic Sea-coast, practically em- 
bracing the whole of the Indian River with its dependencies, 
and nearly covering two degrees of latitude. The coast-line 
forms the eastern boundary of this tract, its general trend 
being N.N.E. by S.S.E. The western boundary is defined 
for about twenty miles by the St. John's River, and then 
follows a township meridian southward to Lake Okeechobee, 
the great inland sea of Central Florida. The greatest width 
is on the southern boundary, about forty-two miles, marked 
by a township line from Okeechobee to the mouth of the St. 
Lucie River. 

Fronting the ocean is a strip of beach, broken by occa- 
sional inlets, and usually varying in width from a few hun- 
dred yards to a mile. This is covered for the most part with 
a heavy growth of timber, and rarely rises to a height of 
more than fifteen or twenty feet above high-water mark. West 
of this is Indian River, a narrow strait or lagoon, averaging 
about a mile in width, but spreading out to some six miles 


at the widest, and contracting to barely a Imndred feet at the 
Narrows. Near the head of the river are large islands or 
peninsulas, and farther south, at the Jupiter and St. Lucie 
Narrows, are innumerable small islands separated l)y channels 
often not more than one hundred feet wide, and covered with 
an almost impenetrable growth of mangroves and other troji- 
ieal vegetation. Indian Eiver is, in fact, not a river as the 
term is ordinarily understood. It is a great lagoon fed by 
countless fresh-water streams, but oi^cn to the ocean through 
several considerable inlets, in which the salt water ebbs and 
flows. The water is partly salt and partly fresh, according 
to the state of the tide, or the distance from an inlet, or from 
fresh-water rivers and springs. The depth averages twelve 
feet in the channel, and there are no natural obstacles of a 
dangerous character from one end of the river to the other. 
The mainland or west shore of the Indian River varies con- 
siderably in height, and in the character of its soil, but it 
offers an almost unbroken succession of desirable building 
sites, and unsurpassed lands for the cultivation of citrus- 
fruits and pineapples. 

This fertile belt is comparatively narrow. To the west- 
ward stretches a wilderness, as yet hardly explored, save by 
the hunter and surveyor, and still haunted by the large game 
of Florida — bears, panthers, wild cats, and deer; while turkies 
and the lesser varieties of wild-fowl are found in abundance. 
Much of this wild region is swamj^y, and there are many 
shallow lakes navigable for canoes. 

There is every reason to believe that this wilderness was 
once a lagoon and that in the course of time — a few thou- 
sand years more or less — the natural processes of geological 
upheaval and accretion will convert Indian Eiver, first into 
a morass, and then into dry land, while jjerhaps another 
beach and another river will form to seaward. 

The shores of Indian River, then, are substantially the 
only inhabited portion of Brevard County. For a more de- 
tailed description, the reader is referred to Routes 70 to 74. 

It remains to describe in general terms the climate of this 
coast, and this is best done by reference to the reports of the 
United States Signal Service. 



lu, l-l t-l I— 1-1 I 

6 ao 


The Indian Eiver Division of the Jacksonville, Tampa, 
& Key West system at present ends at Titusville, near the 
northern boundary. The stations next to and within the 
county are : 

I 23....Maytowii 18 jj 31 Aurantia 10 Diet fr 

Enterprise ^ 35....Mims 6 ^ TitusVille. 

Jc. Q 37 La Grange 4 

* 41 ... . TitusviUe 

For continuation of this line nortli and south from Enterprise Junction, see 
pp. 70, 97. For steamboat routes from Titusville, see Route 70. 

Calhoun County. 

Area, 1,160 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 40' to 30° 30' N.— Long. 8.5° to 85° 40' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890). 1,G71.— Pop. (1880), 1,580.— Assessed valuation, $352,862.— County 
seat, BIonutstowTi. 

This county was organized with its present boundaries in 
1874. It was named after John C. Calhoun, a prominent 
Southern statesman, who died in 1850. The land is sandy, 
with clay subsoil and underlying limestone ; for the most part 
heavily timbered and within easy reach of water transporta- 
tion. The Apalachicola River, navigable for steamers, forms 
the eastern boundary, and nearly parallel to it are the Chi- 
pola River and Brothers River, both of them navigable ex- 
cept during low water. The bottom-lands along the rivers, 
especially the Apalachicola, are rich alluvial deposits of in- 
exhaustible fertility, but subject, of course, to periodical 
overflow. Sjorings of excellent water abound throughout 
the county, and the pine lands are for the most jjart of good 

"West of the Apalachicola the Chiiaola River widens into 
Dead Lakes, sunken areas with dead cypress-trees standing 
or lying in water ten to twenty feet deep. It is thought that 
the subsidence of the lake bottoms is of comparatively recent 
occurrence. This region can only be penetrated in boats, but 
it offers great attractions and novel experiences to sportsmen 
who are not afraid of hard work. 

St. Joseph's Bay is a fine body of navigable water with 
shores well adapted for camping. 





Citrus County. 

Area, 700 sq. m.— Lat. 26° 40' to 28° 10' N.— Long. 82° IC to 82° 50' W.— 
Population (1890), 2,387.— Elevation at Mt. Lee, 214 ft.— Assessed valuation 
(ISSS), $874,752.— County seat, Mannfield. 

This county was organized, June 2, 1887, prior to ■Rhicli 
date it was included in Hernando County. It borders upon 
the Gulf of Mexico, and is drained by the Withlacoochee 
Eirer, a navigable stream forming its northern and eastern 

boundaries. The face of the country is level near the coast, 
covered with heavy hammock growth, and bearing a rich soil 
of varying depth underlaid with coraline and limestone rock 
rich in phosphates. Farther inland are rolling pine lands 
rising to a considerable height. The climate is tempered by 
the Gulf breezes, and northern and easterly winds are of very 
rare occurrence. Several of the wonderful springs peculiar 
to Florida are found within the county. The fishing and 


limiting arc exceptionally lino. Along the coast are numer- 
ous shell-mounds and islands, affording excellent building 
sites. The Homosassa Eiver and its vicinity olfer especial 
attractions to settlers, tourists, and sportsmen. 

The Gulf Coast is bordered by countless islands, or keys, of 
limestone, some of them covered with mangroves, others 
nearly barren. Navigation is very dangerous owing to reefs, 
shoals, and oyster-beds that extend in some cases miles from 
the coast. There are, however, two harbors accessible for 
vessels drawing not more than four feet, at Crystal Eiver, 
and Homosassa. 

Citrus is a rich orange country, and is the natural home 
of the Homosassa orange, which has, jierhaps, the longest 
established reputation of any of the Florida varieties, and, it 
is said, has taken more prizes than any other. 

The Silver Springs, Ocala, and Gulf Railroad crosses the 
county from Dunellon, on the Withlacoochee River, to Homo- 
sassa, near the Gulf Coast. The stations next to and within 
the county are : 

I 26 ... , Dmiellon (Marion Co.) 22 

■n!«f ft. 34....Citrouelle U A rnot *, 

^?n'i, 38.... Park Place 10 j,^h.!i„, 

Ocala. I on n...„„f„i Q Homosassa. 

.Park Place 10 

39.... Crystal. 

48 Homosassa 

For continuation of ttiis line to Ocala, see p. 64. 

Clay County. 

Area, 640 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 41' to 30" 6' N.— Long. 81° 85' to 82° 1' W.— 
—Population (1890), 5,134.— Pop. (1S80), 2,838.— Assessed valuation (1888), 
$1,200,000.— Elevation on Trail Ridge, 150 feet.— County seat. Green Cove 

Clay County was organized in 1856, from Duval County, 
and named after the Hon. Henry Clay, of Kentucky, United 
States Senator for many years, and a candidate for the Presi- 
dency in 1824 and 1844. The St. John's River, separating 
Clay County from St. John's County on the east, is here a 
noble stream varying from one mile to three miles in Avidth. 
Black Creek, one of its tributaries, is navigable for steamers 
as far as Middleburg, where two smaller branches unite to 
form the main stream. These branches find their source re- 
spectively in the northern and southern sections of the coun- 



ty. The South Fork again subdivides into Green's Creek 
and Ates Creek, "which drain the lake region of the county. 
The land is in the main mode*-ately high pine, interspersed 
with hammock and scrub oak. The best plantations lie 
along the St. John's River, where are many flourishing orange- 

groves. Through this portion of the county runs the main 
line of the Jacksonville, Tampa <fe Key West Railway, af- 
fording direct and easy communication with all jjoints north 
and south. The lake region is largely unoccupied as yet, 
but has abundant natural attractions for the sportsman as 
well as for the permanent settler. 



The J., T. & K. W. Ey. follows the west bank of the St. 

John's River. The stations within and near the county are : 

11 ... . Reed's {Duval Co.) 114 

14 . . .Orange Park Ill N 

18.... Peoria 107 a 

20.... Black Creek • 105 

Dipt. 24... Fleming 101 Diet. fr. 

fr. Jackson- 23 Magnolia 97 Port 

ville. 29 . . . Green Cove Spring 96 Tampa. 

.SO Melrose Crossing ' 95 

33....Wallkill 91 

S ....WestTocol 84 

40 Bostwick {Putnam Co.) 79 

' Branch to Florence Mills and Sharon, 9 m. southwest. For continuation of 
main line north, see p. 25 ; south, see p. 82. 

The main line of the F. C. & P. Ry. crosses the north- 
western corner of the county. Stations adjacent to and 
within the countv are : 


fr. Fernan- 


55 . . . Maxville {Duval Co.) 121 N 

56 ...Wilby 122 a 

V 61.... Highland ...117 I 

S 66.... Lavrtey {Bradford Co.) 112 | 

Dist. fr. 

For continuation of this line to Ocala, see p. 9 ; Cedar Key, see p. 7 ; Feman- 
dina and Jacksonville, see pp. 25 and 67. 

The Western Railway of Florida runs to Belmore, li miles 
southwest of Green Cove Spring. The stations are : 

Dist. fr. 
Green Cove. 


Green Cove Spring 14 

3 Clinch's 11 

6. . . . Willkinson 8 

7 Novella 7 

10 Sharon 4 

11 West Sharon 3 

14 Belmore 



Dist. fr. 

Columbia County. 

Area, 860 eq. m.— Lat. 29° 4S' to 30° 33' K— Long. 82" 27' to 82' 50' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 12,844.— Pop. (ISSO), 9,589.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,600,463. 
—Highest elevation, 200 ft. (Lake aty).— County seat, Lake City. 

Columbia is one of the northern tier of counties touching 
the Georgia line, and including a wide tract of unsettled flat 
pine land in its northern half. The southern half is mod- 
erately high pine land, with extensive tracts of good ara- 
ble soil, underlaid in the western portion by soft sandstone, 
and elsewhere by clay, which has been used, since 1847, for 
brick. The long staple Sea Island cotton thrives in this 



[Blounts Ferry 





county, and large warehouses have been established at Lake 
City and elsewliere. Good water is found in natural and 
artificial wells and streams all over the county, save in 
the southwestern i^ortion, wliere limestone i^revails, and, of 
course, affects the water. 

The line of the Florida Central «fe Peninsula Railway 
crosses the central i:)ortion of the county, connecting to the 
eastward and westward with Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and 
Pensacola. From Lake City to Lake City Junction is a di- 
vision of the Savannah, Florida & Western Railway, leading 
to Gainesville and the Suwannee River at New Branford. 
Santa Fe River, separating the county from Alachua on the 
south, is navigable for steamers as far as Fort White, and 
is available for small boats, and for log-rafting to its junc- 
tion with Olustee Creek. Three of the largest creeks in the 
county sink into the ground, to reappear, probably, in some 
of the numerous springs along the principal water-coui*ses. 

The exceptional healthfulness of the central region has 
been recognized by the Trustees of the State Agricultural 
College, who, after due deliberation, selected Lake City as 
the site of the institution. 

The chief articles of export are Sea Island cotton, corn, 
and tobacco, cotton being the largest and most profitable 

The Western Division of the F. C. & P. Ry. crosses the 
county from east to west, with stations, as follows, within 
and adjacent to the boundaries : 

47 ... .0\nstee (Baker Co.) 160 p 

Diet. i 52.... Mt. Carrie 155 ^ -n.vt ft- 

fr. Jackson- w 59 .... Lake City ' 148 ^ -^i^tljr 

ville. w 65....0ffden 142 Kiverdc. 


71 Welborn (Suwannee Co.) 136 

» Connects with Lake City Division. Waycross Short Line, Lake City to 
Lake City Junction, 19 m. ; Fort White, 22 m., and Gainesville, Alachna County. 
For continuation to River Junction, see p. 91 ; to Jacksonville, see p. 7. 


Dade County. 

Area, 7,200 eq. m.— Lat. 25° W to 26° 10^ N.— Long. 80° to 80° 55' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 726.— Pop. (1880), 257.— County seat, Juno. 

Dade County is, at this writing, in the main inaccessible 
to the ordinary tourist, and unopened to the average settler. 
Communication by rail has been established with Lake 
AYorth, near the northern boundary, but the only means of 
reaching Biscayne Bay, its southernmost habitable district, 
is by way of the weekly mail-packets — ordina)'y coasting 
schooners from Key "West. The seventy miles of beach be- 
tween Lake Worth Inlet and Cape Florida are accessible 
only by means of sea-going craft, or on foot, or in canoes 
along the tortuous water-ways that connect the various 
rivers and inlets. The map indicates the scant line of settle- 
ments along the coast, all of them within sound of the surf. 
The rest of the wide domain is unsurveyed, is inhabited only 
by the remnant of the Seminole Indians, and is visited only 
by the more enterprising and adventurous of hunters and 
cowboys. Within the bounds of the county lies the major 
part of the great inland fresh-water lake Okeechobee. To 
the southward and eastward stretch the pathless Everglades, 
separated from the sea only by a comparatively narrow ridgo 
of coralline rock. From the southern reaches of Indian 
River and from Lake Worth something of an export trade 
has opened in pineapples, cocoanuts, tomatoes, fish, and 
turtles. This goes northward by way of the Jupiter & 
Lake Worth Eailway and the Indian Eiver steamers. The 
settlements along Biscayne Bay send similar products and 
a considerable amount of koonti-root starch bv sea to Kev 

To the sportsman the inland and coastwise waters of Dade 
County offer endless attractions, which are described more 
in detail under their approjDriate local divisions. See Jupiter 
Inlet and Vicinity, Lake Worth, Hillsborough Eiver, New 
River, Boca Eatones, Biscayne Bay, Lake Okeechobee, The 
Everglades, etc. 

The only railway in Dade County, and the southernmost 
in the United States, is the narrow-gauge line, seven miles 


long, from Jupiter Inlet to the Lead of Lake Woitli, see 
Eoute 75. It belongs to tlie Jacksonville, Tampa, & Key 
West system, and runs in connection with their boats on the 
Indian Eiver. This Com]mny is extending its surveys to the 
southward, and constructing a wagon-road from Lake Worth 
to Biscayne Bay. 

De Soto County. 

Area, 3,800 sq. m.— Lat. SB" 45' to 27° 38' N.— Long. 80° 50' to 82° 20' W.— 
Population (1890), 4,940.— Assessed valuation, $1,983,640.— County seat, Ar- 

This county was organized in 1887, as the result of a sub- 
division of Manatee County, and was approijriately named 
after the great Spanish navigator, Hernando De Soto. 

It is still in the main a wilderness, some sixty miles wide, 
extending from the Kissimmee River and Lake Okeechobee 
on the east to the Gulf of Mexico on the west. A narrow 
chain of settlements skirts the navigable waters and the line 
of the Florida Southern Eailway, but a few miles on either 
side of these the jjine forests are unbroken until they disap- 
pear in the i^rairies and saw-grass bordering the great inland 
lakes. And yet this region represents large wealth, for here 
begins the great cattle range of Southwestern Florida, ex- 
tending from Peace River on the northwestern side of the 
county to the borders of the Everglades. This whole region 
is flat or gently rolling pine land, interspersed with ham- 
mock, and often opening into prairies and savannas. Except- 
ing in the dense hammock, the whole is carpeted with grass, 
affording nutritious food for cattle the year round, while no 
shelter whatever is required for the animals. 

The county is bisected by the twenty-seventh parallel of 
north latitude, about two-thirds of its area lying to the north- 
ward of that line. With the contiguous county of Lee it con- 
tains by far the largest tract of naturally valuable land in 
South Florida. Owing to its low latitude, tropical fruit cult- 
ure and truck farming for early vegetables are among its 
chief industries. 

The Florida Southern Railwav crosses the countv from 


northeast to southwest, having its terminus at Punta Gorda, 
near the head of Charlotte Harbor, where it connects with the 
Morgan Line of steamers for New Orleans, and with coast- 
wise craft plying to the southward. Charlotte Harbor and 
its adjacent waters afford the best tarpon fishing on the Gulf 
Coast (see Eoute 81), and all the game fish of this region 
abound in the rivers and bays. Deer and turkeys are fre- 
quently killed within five miles of the railroad, but for the 
certainty of good sport the hunter must go farther afield, as 
the large game is generally hunted off in the vicinity of the 
permanent settlements. 

Duval County. 

Area, 900 sq. m.— Lat. 30" 35' to 30° 10' N.— Long. 81° 20' to 820 5' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 26,T55.— Pop. (1880), 19,431.— Assessed valuation (1888), $9,540,619. 
— County seat, Jacksonville. 

Duval was one of the original counties into which the 
territory of Florida was divided in accordance with an act of 
Congress, on the second Monday of June, 1822, nearly a year 
after the United States formally acquired possession. A glance 
at the map will show the peculiar commercial advantages 
that it has always held. Ever since the shi^DS of the French 
Huguenot, Jean Ribaut, anchored inside the bar at the 
mouth of the St. John's, and named it the River of May, 
this noble stream has been the natural avenue of travel and 
trade to and from the interior of the peninsula. Along its 
banks the first settlements were formed and railroads fol, 
lowed the settlements. All traffic between the Atlantic 
States lying to the northward and the Floiidian peninsula 
passes almost of necessity either through the St. John's 
River or near the jioint where the course of the stream 
changes from north to east. 

The county lies on both sides of the river to a point about 
twenty-five miles from the sea-coast. It was named after the 
Hon. William P. Duval first territorial governor of Florida. 

The first white settlement was made by the French in 
1564, at St. John's Bluff, a high promontory on the south bank 
of the river about three miles from its mouth (see p. 118). 



This wrvs merely a military post. The first civil settlement 
is believed to have been made in 1812, at the head of the old 
King's road from St. Augustine, on the south bank of the 

river opposite the present site of Jacksonville. The settler, 
Lewis Z. Hogan, moved across the river in 1816, and thus 
was formed the nucleus of the leading commercial citv of 


Florida. Long before this, however, the banks of the river 
were inhabited by Indian tribes, as is evident from the 
countless shell mounds that exist on both sides of the stream, 
often containing rude pottery, stone implements and the like, 
mingled with bones of men and animals iu perplexing and 
suggestive confusion. 

The sea-coast line is about twenty miles in extent measuring 
southward from the mouth of Nassau Kiver. The greater 
I^art of it is fine hard beach, suitable for diiving and bathing 
and usually backed by sand ridges or hammocks available 
for building-sites. 

All the great railway lines of Florida centre in Jackson- 
ville. The main line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key 
West System runs south to Tampa, Punta Gorda, and Titus- 
ville. Stations within the county and next to the southern 
boundarv are : 

, Jacksonville 125 

Dist. fr. I 4 . . . Edgewood 121 


Jackson- „ 9. ...Black Foint. .'.'..........'.'.'.'.'.'. .116 f^ P^^l' ^' 

V 11 T?„^/iv 11. Sanford. 

ville. c 11... Reed's 114 

14 ... . Orange Park {Clay Co.) Ill 

The Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Halifax Eiver Kailway 
(J., T. & K. W. System) crosses the St. John's Eiver on a 
steel drawbridge, just above the city. Stations within the 
county and next beyond are : 

. . . Jacksonville 37 

1....S. Jacksonville 36 NW 

3 . . . . Phillips 34 a 

5 . . Bowden 32 ; p.. . 

9 Summerville 28 i - al \ 

10....Nesb:t 2T ' fr.St.Au- 

11. ...Eaton 26 | gustme. 

V 14 Sweetwater 23 

SE 16 ...Bayard 21 | 

17 ... . Register (St. John's Co.) 20 

For connections at St. Augustine, see p. 133. 

The Plant System, Savannah, Florida & Western Eailway, 
Waycross short line. From foot of Bridge Street. Stations 
within and near Duval County are : 

Dist. fr. 


Dist. fr. 



. Jacksonville' 

20 NVT 

Dist. fr. 





8 A 






' For connections, see p. 103. 

« Connects with F. C. & P. Ry., eee p. 67. 



D:6t. f:. 

The Florida Central «fe Peninsula Railroad — Jacksonville 
Branch. Between Jacksonville and Fernandina. From foot 
of Hogan Street. Stations are : 

Jacksonville' 37 

j 1 Wavcross Jc 36 S 

Diet. 5 Jacksonville Jc 32 a 

fr. Jackson- I 15.... Duval 22 i 

ville. V 26....Ilart'.s Rd. Jc.= U 

N 27.... Hart's Road 10 | 

37 Fernandina^ 

' For connections, see p. 103. 

2 Connects with Southern Div. F. C. & P., see p. 67. 

3 Connects with Mallory Line Pteamers for New York (see p. 127) ; and coast- 
wise steamers for Georgia ports. 

The Jacksonville & Atlantic Railroad has its station in 
South Jacksonville. Ferry from foot of Market Street. The 
stations are : 

Dist. fr. 


Jacksonville 17.3 

1 S. Jacksonville' 1G.3 

2.8....St. Nichola 14.5 

6 . . . . Pottsburg 11.3 

14.6. . . .San Pablo 2.7 

17.3. . . .Pablo Beach 

> Connects with J., T. & K. W. Svstem. 

Dist. fr. 

The Jacksonville, Mavport & Pablo Railway & Navigation 
Co. has its station at Arlington, on the south bank of the St. 
John's, three miles by ferry, foot of Newnan Street. The 
stations are : 

Dist. fr. 

Jacksonville 20 

3 Aj-liugton 17 

4 ... Egleston .16 

1 ... Verona 13 

8 Cohaseett 12 

9 McCormick 11 

10... Mill Cove 10 

11 Pine Grove 9 

14. ...Idlewild 6 

15 Greenfield 5 

16 Bumside Beach 4 

18.... The Jetties 2 

19 , . Jettv Cottage 1 

19i.. .Light House ^ 

20. . . .Mayport 

Dist. fr. 


Escambia County. 

Area, 720 sq. m.— Lat. 31" to 30° 20' N.— Long. 87° 40' to 87° 50' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), 20,097.— Pop. (1880), 12,156.— Assessed valuation (1888), $3,649,758. 
— County seat, Pensacula. 

The magnificent bay where Pensacola now stands was dis- 
covered by Pamphilo de Narvaez, Avho landed there, accord- 
ing to the English historian Jeffries, in 1528. A iDermauent 
settlement was made in 1696, by the Si^aniards under Don 
Andre d'Arreola, on the present site of Fort Barrancas, and 
since that time, although the location of the town was re- 
peatedly shifted, and it has been held successively by 
French, English, and Americans, it has never been aban- 
doned by Europeans. 

Escambia is the westernmost county of Florida, terminat- 
ing the Gulf range of counties, and separated from Alabama 
on the west by the Perdido Kiver, and on the north by the 
arbitrary interstate line. Its soil is sand underlaid with 
clay, and its agricultural capabilities are rapidly developing. 
Its main export, however, is lumber, since Pensacola is the 
shipping-point for a vast region of heavily wooded land 
lying to the northward, and penetrated by streams, down 
which the logs are floated to tide-water. 

Much of the land in the county is high and rolling, with 
hardwood hammocks along the watercourses. 

To hunters, fishermen, and yachtsmen, the coasts and 
waterways of Escambia County ofier great attractions. The 
extensive land-locked sounds and bays afford safe anchorage 
in all weatheis, and are easy of access from sea at all stages 
of the tide. The shores are almost everywhere available for 
camping purposes, and game abounds, though reckless and 
indiscriminate shooting has made it very wild. 

The Pensacola & Atlantic Division of the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad enters the county from Santa Rosa 
County on the east, crossing Escambia Bay on a long 
trestle. The stations are : 

Ppiisft- ' ^ •i'otiemia 155 a -Rivpr 

i^f V 8....Yn!estra 153 I "i!^"^ 

^°'^- NNE 9. ...Escambia.... 152 '"'• 


The Pensacola & Atlantic Division, Louisville & Nash- 
ville Eailroad, enters Escambia from Alabama on the north. 
Stations near aud within the county are : 

. . . . FlomatOH ' 44 

5. . . .Bluff Springs 39 N 

12 . . McDavid 32 a 

20... Moliiio 24 

24. . . Quintette 20 

28 Cantonment- lo 

32. . . . Gonzalez 12 

37. ...Olive T 

44 Pensacola 

■ Connects with lines to New Orleans, Montgomery, and Selma. 
^ Branch to Muscogee, five miles west. 

The Pensacola & Perdido Eailroad connects Pensacola with 
Millview, six miles west, on Perdido Bay. 

Diet. fr. 

Dist. fr. 

Franklin County. 

Area, 500 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 40' to 30" 5' N.— Long. 84" 30' to 85° 15' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 3,271.— Pop. (1880), 1,791.— Assessed valuation (1888), $495,427.— 
Cotmty seat, Apalachicola. 

Nearly the whole of this county was originally included in 
what was known as the Forbes Purchase, the result of 
negotiations made with the Indians by an English firm, 
Forbes & Co., in 1819. This was just prior to the transfer 
of Florida from Spain to the United States. The sea-coast 
of this county is sheltered by St. Vincent's, St. George's 
Island, and Dog Island, within which are broad sounds and 
bays navigable for vessels of any size and affording fishing 
grounds unsurpassed by any on the coast. Dog Island Har- 
bor especially is one of the finest on the Gulf. 

Owing to its isolated position Franklin County has not yet 
been penetrated by railroads, and for this reason it offers 
attractions to the sportsman not possessed by its more ac- 
cessible neighbors. Tributary to these nearly land-locked 
waters are a number of rivers and estuaries, many of them 
navigable for vessels of considerable size, and all navigable 
for small boats, affording access to some of the hunting 
lands in Florida. The region is most easily reached by way 
of the Apalachicola River, from Eiver Junction, whence com- 
'^ninication by rail is easy and direct from all i^arts of the 
United States. 



Gadsden County. 

Area, 540 sq. m.— Lat. 30" 20' to 30" 40' N.— Long. 84" 15' to 84° 55' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 11,878.— Pop. (1880), 12,169.— Assessed valuation (1888), 11,018,149. 
—County seat, Quincy. 

Organized as one of the original counties into which the 
State was divided in 1822, Gadsden County soon became 
one of the leading agricultural districts of Florida. The 
face of the country is undulating, with a subsoil of red clay, 
well watered, and covered with a heavy growth of hammock 
and i^inc timber. The Ocklockonee Kiver forms the dividing 

line from Leon County on the southwest, and into this flow 
numerous " runs " and creeks of clear water, affording abun- 
dant facilities for water-power and natural irrigation for wide 
tracts of land. The hills rise to a considerable height in the 
northern jiart of this county— more than 300 feet in the 
neighborhood of Quincy. Under the system of cultivation 
that prevailed prior to the Civil War, and before adequate 
means of transportation existed, the annual tobacco crop was 
something like 5,000 boxes of 350 j^ounds each. Within a 
few years this industry has been revived by Northern capital 
on a large scale in the vicinity of Quincy (Route 223). 
The culture of Cuban tobacco was introduced into Gadsden 


Couuty in 1829, by a Virginian who settled in the vicinity of 
Quincy. He was so successful that his example was soon 
followed, and until the Civil War iu 18G0 the value of the 
crop nearly or quite equalled that of cotton, the annual ship- 
ments averaging 1,G00,0U0 pounds. A great advantage of 
tobacco-growers was that the busy season timed itself so as 
not to interfere with cotton -planting. Thus the tobacco 
could usually be harvested after the cotton was started and 
before it was time for j^icldng, while the packing and boxing 
was necessarily done in wet weather, when out-of-door work 
was impracticable. The Civil War first and the abolition of 
slavery afterward jiractically suspended this industry. 

The Western Division of the Florida Central & Peninsula 
Railway crosses Gadsden Couuty with stations as follows : 

9 Ocklockonee (I^oii Co.) 34 

T,, . I 12....Mdvvav 31 SE 

fr.Talla- ' 24...0,umcy 19 a Dist. fr. 


V 33. Mt. Pleasant 10 I Kiver Jc. 

NW 42.... Chattahoochee! 1 ' 

43 River Junctiou - 

' Connects Savannah, Flonda & Western Railway, crossing at once into 

'' Connects Pensaco'a & Atlantic Division L. & N. (see p. 16), and with Chat- 
tahoochee River Steamers. 

Hamilton County. 

Area, 460 sq. m.— Lat. 30" 20' to 80" 40' N.— Lonjr. 82° 40' to 83° 20' W.— 
Population (1890), 8,477.— Pop. (1880). 6,790.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,042- 
495. — County seat, Jasper. 

The county lies between the Suwannee Eiver on the west, 
and one of its main branches, the Alapaha, on the south and 
east. The surface is generally level, with rolling land near 
the rivers, and a fine growth of hammock timber and pine, 
and cypress in some portions. Sea Island or long stajile 
cotton is successfully grown. In the river-swamps and ham- 
mocks the soil is rich and dark. The Florida Central & 
Peninsula Railroad runs through the middle of the county 
from north to south, and the Florida Central & Western 
Railroad passes close to the southwestern corner at EUa- 
ville, Madison County. The county contains a number of 
remarkable springs, sinks, and other natural curiosities. 



Tlio Gaiuesville Division, Savannah, Florida & Western 
Eaijroad, crosses the county with stations as follows : 

Dist. fr. 

130 Dupont 49 

139. ..Forrest 40 N 

150....Statenville 29 a 

163 .. . Jasper 16 

168 Marion 11 1 

171 Suwannee (Suwannee Co.) 8 1 

179. . . Live Oak {Huwannee Co.) ' 

Dist. fr. 
Live Oak. 

I Connects F. C. & P. Ry. running east to Jacksonville, and west to River 
Junction (see p. 91). For continuation to Gainesville, see p. 91. 

The Georgia Southern & Florida Railroad enters the 
county from Georgia on the north with stations as follows : 

Dist fr I 167.... Melrose (Ga.) ^^ ^^^^ Dist fr 

Macon. Ga. s^E l99;;;:w^te Springs-:::. :::.::::::::::n 1 ^^'<^^- 

I Crosses S. F. & W. Ey. 

Hernando County. 

Area, 500 sq. m.— Lat. 28° 25' to 23° 40' N.— Long. 82° to 8»> 40' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890). 2,474.— Assessed valuation (1888). $900.000.— County seat. Brooks- 


Until 1850 this county, then three times its present size, 
was named Benton, after the Hon. Thomas H. Benton, of 



North Carolina, a popular statesman of the day. The pres- 
ent name was chosen when the original county was subdi- 
vided in 1875. 

Brooksville, the county town, lies in the midst of one of 
the finest agricultural regions of the State. The surface soil 
is largely a rich vegetable mould, underlaid with brown sandy 
loam several feet deep, and resting upon a substratum of 
limestone, clay, or marl. In area the land is about equally 
divided into hammock, high pine, low pine, and swamp. 
The hammock lands are almost invariably high and rolling, 

with fine natural drainage, and an exceedingly rich soil un- 
derlaid with sand or clay, and having a substratum of lime- 
stone. All these lands, except the very poorest, are ex- 
tremely productive, yielding cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and 
the various field crops. In the central and western parts of 
the county the ridges rise to a height of some three hundred 
feet above tide-water. There are no navigable rivers, and the 
Gulf coast can be approached only by boats of very light 
draught, save at Gulf Key or Hammock Creek, where there 
is a good harbor accessible for vessels drawing six feet of 
water. Indian Creek, in the same harbor, is also a safe 
anchorage for small vessels. Elsewhere the approaches 
to the coast are shallow, with numerous oyster-beds, and 
an archipelago of small barren islands in the northern part. 


The Florida Southern (J., T. k K. W. sjsiem), the South 
Florida, the Florida Central and the Orange Belt railroads 
cross the eastern part of the county, and a branch of the first 
named penetrates to Brooksville in the middle of the 

Stations of the Florida Southern within and adjacent to 

the county are : 

_ . „ I 63 ... . Pemberton Ferry ' 11 W Dist. f r. y 69... Couper 5 a Brooks- 

Ocala. J, T4. ...Brooksville | ville. 

I Connects wth South Florida Railroad (see below). For continuation of this 
line to Ocala, see p. 87. 

The Bartow Branch of the South Florida Eailroad has sta- 
tions within and next to the county as follows : 

, Pemberton Ferry ' {Sumter Co.) . . 57 fj 

T,. . f 1.... Fitzgerald 56 "-^ 

Dist fr 3. ...Oriole 54 ^ Dist. 

Pemberton g BayCity 51 fr. Bartow. 

J?e.ry. v iq .. Macon (/^a^w Co.) 47 

^ 11.... Orange Belt Jc. - 48 ' 

' Connects with J., T. A K. W. system (see above). 

■■' Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see below). For continuation of this line, see 
p. 76. 

The Tampa Branch of the F. C. & P. Co. crosses the east- 
ern point of the county from north to south. The stations 
are : 

Diet. fr. I 22. . . .Withlacoochee 39 a 

Wild- I 2S. .Lacoochee ; 32 I Plant 

Wood. V 30....Owensboro ••' 31 | City. 

' Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see belowV 

■■' Crosses South Florida Railroad (see p. 76). For continuation of this line, 
see p. 76. 

The Orange Belt Railway crosses the eastern point of the 
county from northeast to southwest. Stations are : 

■n--c=f f, I 06... Wyoming S3 NE 

Monrn^' ^ 71 . . . . Lai:oochee ' 77 a St. Peters- 

^*^°"'^°^' SW 73....Macon2 75 | burg. 

' C. -oases P. C. & P. Ry. (see above). 

- Crosses South Florida Railroad (see above). For continuation of this line, 
see pp. 74 and 87. 


Hillsborough County. 

Area, 1,300 sq. m.— Lat. 27° 2^ to 28" 50' N.— Long. 82° to 82° 50' W.— Popu- 
lation (lS90"i, 14,810.— Pop. (1880), 5,814.— Assessed valuation (1888), $3,200,000. 
— County seat, Tampa. 

This county, or the region adjacent, early received its name 
after the Earl of Hillsborough, Secretary of State for the 
colonies of Great Britain during the American Revolution. 
The county was organized in 1835. It is mainly in the long- 
leaf pine region, naturally all woodland, -with 1,185 square 
miles of rolling pine land, 75 square miles of marshy lowland, 
and 40 square miles of hammock. Of all the Gulf counties 
Hillsborough is j^erhaps the most favored in her coast line, 
which exceeds 150 miles in length, although from north to 
south the county is only 36 miles wide. This is due to 
Tauijia Bay, which with its branches, Hillsborough Bay and 
EiveraudOld Tamj^a Bay, penetrates far into the interior. 
About one quarter of the whole extent of coast is low and 
marshy, while the rest rises quite abruptly from the water's 
edge, often with bluffs and a border of fine beach. The 
greater part of the county is good pine land, with a fair 
amount of hammock and some open prairie. The better lands 
for agricultural purposes lie in the western part. 

Tampa Bay was one of the first discovered and used by 
the early navigators, and it is almost certain that traders and 
freebooters visited its waters prior to Hernando De Soto, who 
anchored there on May 25, 1539, wdth a fleet of several ves- 
sels, and a force of 570 men, comiDrising the very flower of 
Spanish chivalry. He brought with him, also, 223 horses, 
and the whole elaborate equipment of armorei*s, smiths, and 
servants essential to the needs of such a force. The Feast of 
Pentecost of that year fell on the .day of arrival, and the 
noble bay was named Bahia Espiritu Sancto (Bay of the 
Holy Spirit), after the devout custom of these early explorers. 
The Spanish name Mas for centuries retained on the maps, 
but it appears to have been dropped in favor of the still 
older Indian name soon after the English gained a foothold. 

On the shores of the bay and along the Gulf coast and the 
outlying Keys are many Indian mounds of great interest to 


< ^ i > ^ "' 

li S < O >^ !^, 

" ^ " ^ H il 

^8 si 



archicologists. Some account of them is given elsewhere 
with a sketch of the results of such explorations as have thus 
far been prosecuted. See Index. 

Tampa Bay is navigable for vessels of the largest class. 
The bar carries 20 feet of water at low tide, and good an- 
chorage for yachts can be found almost anywhere within 
the bay. There are no dangerous obstructions, and the only 
difficulty likely to be encountered is in running upon the 
shoals which make out from the shore, and occasionally occur 
in mid channel. With a yacht properly constracted for ser- 
vice in these waters running aground is a matter of small 
moment. For hunters and fishermen the woods and wateis 
of Hillsborough County offer abundant sport. All the game 
and fishes peculiar to Florida may be found within a few 
miles of the centres of jjopulation. 

The South Florida Eoad, main line, has the following 

named stations near and within the county : 

83.... Lakeland {Polh Co.) i. 48 

88. . . .Shiloh 43 E 

93.... Plant City. 2. .. 3T a 

98.... Cork 26 I 100....Sparkman 24 

Jackson- 103 ScfEuer 21 Port 

•vdlle. I 105 Mango 19 Tampa. 

109.... Orient 15 

V 111. . . .East Cove 13 

W 115. ...Tampa 9 

124. ...Port Tampa^ 

' Connects with Bartow & Pemberton Ferry Branches, S. F. Rd. (see p. 80). 

2 Connects with F. R. & N. to Pasco County, Dade City, etc. (see p. 76). 

3 Connects with ocean steamers to Key West, Havana, New Orleans, and 
Mobile. Also with coastwise steamboats. 

The Orange Belt Eoad, from Monroe, Yolusia County, to 
St. Petersburg, enters Hillsborough County from the nori h 
near the Gulf and mns southward down the coast. The sta- 
tions in and near the county are : 

lOG. . . .Odessa {Pasco Co.) 42 

114. . . .Tacony 34 N 

116 Tarpon Springs 32 a 

120. . . Sea Side 28 

122. . . .Sutherland 20 

Dist. fr. 123. .. . Yellow Bluff (Ozoiia) 25 

Uonroe. 127 Dnnedin 21 

130 ... . Clearwater Harbor 18 

132 ... . Armour 16 

V 138. . . .Cross Bayou 10 

S 142....Lel!man 6 

143. . . .St. Petersburg : 

' Connects with ferry to Port Tampa and coastwise steamboats. 

Dlst. fr. 
St. Peters- 



Holmes County. 

Area, 540 eq. m.— Lat. 30" 43' to 31° N.— Long. 86° 5' to 85° 30' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), 4,336.— Pop. (1880), 2,190.— Assessed valuation, $332,954.— County 
seat, Cerro Gordo. 

The land in Holmes County is mainly a good quality of pine 
land, ■which produces cotton, sugar-cane, corn, and tobacco, 
as the principal field crops. The soil is clay and sandy loam. 
Peaches, grapes, and plums are successfully grown, and stock- 




raising is among the profitable industries. The Choctawhat- 
chee River is the principal watercourse, finding its source 
in Southern Alabama, running in a southerly direction across 
the county, and falling into Choctawliatchee Bay. It is navi- 
gable for steamboats beyond the county line, and is available 
for logging purposes and small boats well up into Alabama. 
Holmes County is underlaid with cavernous white lime- 
stone, which frequently forms remarkable "sinks " and wells. 
Most of the lakes and ponds are of this nature, often occur- 
ring on ridges where there was a sufficient quantity of sand 
and drift to fill in the cavity when the subsidence occurred. 


The Pensacola <V Atlantic Division of the Louisville & 
Nashville Eailroad crosses Holmes County east and west near 
the southern border. Stations in and near the county are as 

follows : 

43 Chipley ( Washington Co.) 118 

I 53....Bonifav 108 E 

Tkiof *■_ 61 Caryville 100 a T)ipt fr 

^li;/; 63 ...Westville 98 i peng-oia. 

RivcrJc. y 70....PoucedeLeon 91 i-ensacoia. 

W T7....Ar<rvle 84 | 

81 ... . De f uniak Sp 80 

For continuation east and west, see p. 101. 

Jackson County. 

Area, 1,000 sq. m.— Lat. 30° 35' to 31* N.— Long. 84° SC to 85° 40' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 1T,492.— Pop. (1888), 14,372.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,023,985. 
— County seat, Marianna. 

This county is in what is termed the oak, hickory, and 
pine upland region. It contains about 150 square miles of 
red lime lands, 400 square miles of oak, hickory, and high 
pine, and 450 square miles of ordinary long-leaf pine lands. 

It is named after Gen. Andrew Jackson, military Governor 
of Florida, and is one of the original counties organized on the 
acquisition of the Territory by the United States. It is on 
the eastern border of what is known as West Florida. The 
Chattahoochee Eiver sei3arates it from Georgia on the east, 
navigable for river steamers for the whole distance. The 
Chattahoochee unites with the Apalachicola River near the 
southeastern corner of the county. Along the river is a strip 
of bottom land from one and one-half to two miles wide, 
which is of extraordinary richness, but is subject to over- 
flow. The Chipola Eiver, rising in the northern part of the 
county, runs south, dividing it nearly in half. This stream 
is used for floating lumber to the railroad and to the Gulf, 
but is navigable only for small boats. Along the Chipola 
Eiver are rich hammock lauds covered with a heavy growth 
of hard wood timber, as oak, beach, magnolia, maple, 
hickory, and bay. The county is well watei'ed by the tribu- 
taries of the streams mentioned, and is besides well supplied 
with lakes and springs. The soil is for the most part red 



clay and sandy loam, and produces cotton, corn, oats, rice, 
sugar-cane, and tobacco, and all save the strictly subtropical 

The Pensacola & Atlantic Eailroad crosses the county from 



u, ^ _ _, _,' j ^ C 

east to west in its middle belt of townships, having stations 
near and within the county as follows : 

, River Jc. > (Gadsden Co.) 161 tj, 

I 5....Sneads 156 ^ I 15.... Cypress 146 '> 

River Jc. w 25 Marianna 136 Pensacola. 

^ 34....Cottondale 12T 

44 . . Chipley ( Washington Co.) 117 ' 

• Connects witli Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad (see p. 32), and 
Chattahoochee River steamers. 



Jefferson County. 

Area, 500 sq. m.— Lat. 30" to 30° 40' N.— Long. 83° 35' to 84° 5' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), 15,699.— Pop. (1880), 16,065.— Assessed valoation (1888), $1,800,000. 
— County seat, Monticello. 

Jefferson County stretches across that portion of the State 

known as Middle Florida, touching Georgia on the north 


and the Gulf of Mexico on the south. The Aucilla River, 
navigable for steamboats to the natm-al bridge, forms the 
southeastern boundary. The face of the country is unusually 
diversified, the whole of the northern part hilly and well 
wooded, Micosukee Lake forming its northwestern boundary. 
This lake is about twelve miles long and six miles wide at 
its western end, a curiously irregular body of water, sur- 
rounded by extensive forests of pine. The soil is generally 
a sandy loam underlaid with clay, well adapted for the cul- 
tivation of early vegetables and fruits. The field crops are 
mainly cotton, corn, rice, sugar-cane, and tobacco. About 
twenty miles from the coast the hills abruptly disappear, and 
from this point to the Gulf stretch the " flat woods " almost 
unbroken, but full of game, and affording an inviting field 
to the sportsman. 

The Western Division of the F. C. & P. crosses the county 
about twelve miles from the Georgia line. Its stations 
within and nearest to the county are : 

I 12.... Chaires (Leon Co.) 153 W 

Dist. fr. 18. ...Lloyd 147 A 

Talla- I 2T....Driftou' 138 | Jackson- 

hassee. V 34 Aucilla 131 ville. 

E 41 GreenmWe {31'adison Co.) 124 | 

• Connects with branch to Monticello, four miles, and then with branch of 
Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad to Sunny Hill, twelve miles, and 
Thomasviile, Oa., twenty mOes. 

Lafayette County. 

Area, 940 sq. m.— Lat. 29° ZC to 30° 15' N.— Long. 82° 50' to 83° 22' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 3,669.— Pop. (1880), 2,441.— Assessed valuation (1888), $502,818.— 
County seat, New Troy. 

Lafayette County lies along the west bank of the Suwannee 
Kiver for the whole of its navigable course, its natural facil- 
ities for transportation being excellent. The river is navi- 
gable for steamboats to New Branford, where the Savannah, 
Florida & Western Railway touches the eastern bank of the 
river, affording communication by rail with Gainesville, 
Lake City, and Live Oak, and the great trunk lines of rail- 
way. The soil is sandy, underlaid with clay, and there is 
much excellent hammock land as yet unoccupied. The 
southern extremity of the county is within ten miles of 


Cedar Keys, the Gulf terminus of the Florida Central & 
Peninsular Railway. 

The Gulf coast of Lafayette County is very shallow, and 
destitute of harbors, save at the mouth of the Suwannee and 
Steinhatchee Rivers, where small vessels may find shelter and 
anchorage. The fishing is excellent in the rivers and along 
the coast. 

Game of all kinds is very abundant in the heavily wooded 
and sparsely populated region that covers the whole county 
a few miles back from the river. 

Lake County. 

Area, 1,100 sq. m.— Lat. 28° 20' to 28° 55' N.— Long. 81° IS' to 81° 55' W.— 
Population (1890), 8,020. Organized in 188T, no census. — Aesessed valuation 
(1888), $3,724,116.— Highest elevation, 500 ft.— County seat, Tavares. 

Lake County was formed in 1887 by an act of the State 
Legislature uniting portions of the adjoining counties 
(Orange and Sumter). It is among the most beautiful of 
the inland counties, owing to the picturesque groups of lakes 
from which it takes its name, and which cover nearly one- 
sixth of its surface. The larger members of the group are 
known as Lakes Harris, Eustis, Griflfen, Dunham, Dora, Yale, 
Minnehaha, Mineola, and Apopka, the last named lying 
jjartly within the borders of Orange County. Besides these 
there are small lakes, almost without number, and abundant 
flowing streams. That the county is nearly on the "divide " 
of the Floridian Peninsula is evident from the fact that 
streams flowing through its territory find their way to the 
ocean through the three widely divergent channels of the St. 
John's, the Withlacoochee, and the Kissimmee, the first 
named falling into the Atlantic near the northern boundary 
of the State, while the others reach the Gulf of Mexico, 
through Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. In point of 
fact, the highest elevations in the State, nearly five hundred feet 
above tide-water, are found in this county. The appi'oaches, 
however, are so gradual that only the surveyor's level can 
demonstrate the constant rise. The larger lakes are all navi- 
gable for small steamers, and as some of them are connected 



by natural or artificial waterways quite an extensive and 
varied system of navigation exists. 

The Jacksonville, Tanii^a & Key West Railway system, 
through the Florida Southern Railway Company, affords 
abundant transportation facilities, and there are besides the 
Tavares, Atlantic & Gulf, and the Orange Belt Railways. 
These lines intersect in all directions, skirting the lake 
shores and rendering all parts of the county easily accessible. 
Other branch roads are contemplated, notwithstanding the 
multiplicity, for Lake County is one of the richest orange- 
gi'owing counties in the State, and it has been abundantly 
proven that, to be profitable an orange grove must be within 
a very few miles of a railroad. 

The St. John's & Lake Eustis Division of the Florida 
Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) enters the county 
at Astor (forty-two miles from Palatka) after crossing the St. 
John's River. The stations are : 

Diet. fr. 

Astor 25 

4 Bryansville 21 

6 Cummings 19 

7. . . .Sellar'g Lake 18 

12 . . . Summit 13 

15 Ravenswood 10 

16 Pittman 9 

18. . . . Altoona T 

20. . . . Glendale 5 

21.... Umatilla 4 

25 Fort Mason ' 

Dist. fr. 
Fort Mason. 

1 Connects with branches to Tavares and Leesburg (see below). 

Connections with the foregoing at Fort Mason (sixty-seven 

miles from Palatka). This line is U-shaped, curving around 

the north snore of Lake Eustis. The stations are : 

Leesbnrg > 23 

1 . . . . <irandview 22 NE 

2 ...BeUe'reva 21 & 

5....Lanier8 18 8W 

6 ...Tilson IT a 

7. . . Oranpe Bend 16 

8 . . . Lisbon 15 

10 Lancaster 12 

11. . . .Grand Island 11 

V 14 ...Fort Mason 2 9 

NE 16. . . .Eustis 7 

& 17.... Mt. Homer 6 

SW 20.... Tavares ^ 3 

23 . . Lane Park 

' Connects with J., T. & K. W. system to Pemberton Ferry, etc.. and to 
'Ocala, etc. (see p. 48). Also with F. C. A P.. Southern Division (see p. 48). 
'■' Connects with J., T. & K. W. branch to Astor (see above). 
3 Connects with J., T. A K. VV. branch to Sanford (see p. 48). 

Dist. fr. 

Dirt. fr. 
Lane Park. 

Diet. fr. 

Diet. fr. 

48 lakp: county. 

Tho iiiiiin line Florida Southern Eailway (J., T. &, K. W. 
Rystoni), from Ocala, Marion Coiinty, and beyond, has stations 
within and near the county as follows : 

21 ... . South Lake Weir (Marion Co.) 53 

24 Conant 50 N 

26 Lady Lake 48 a 

29 Chetwynd 45 i 

30. . . .Fruitland Park 44 

34 LeeHburg ' 40 

36. . . .Corleys 38 

38... Helena 36 I 

V 39 Okahumpka ' 35 

S 44....Casous 30 | 

48 .... Centre Hill (Sumter Co.) 26 

1 Conuects witb J., T. & K. W. to Fort Mason (see p. 47) ; F. C. & P. to 
Wildwood (see below) ; and Lake Griflin steamboats. For continuation of this 
line, see p. 63. 

The Sanford & Lake Eustis Eailway (J., T. & K. W. sys- 
tem), from Sanford to Tavares, has the following stations near 
and within the county : 

I 8.,..Markbam 21 -p. 

11. ...Ethel 18 -^ 16....Wayland 13 '> 

Sanford. J, 19 ... Sorrento 10 | Tavares. 

24 ...Mt.Dora 5 


29 Tavares 

The Southern Division F. C. & P. enters the county from 
Sumter County on the west. The stations adjacent to and 
within the county are : 

I 5 Bamboo (Sumter Co.) IT j^ 

9 Montclair 13 

Dist. fr. 11 . . . . Leesburg ' U '} 

Wildwood. J, 14. ...Sadie 8 Tavares. 

o l.'i .... Eldorado 7 

22 Tavares 2 

' Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47^. 
2 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47). 

The Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Eailroad has stations as 
follows within and adjacent to the county : 

0... Tavares' 32 N I 4... Ellsworth 28 a 

Tavares. V 8 Victoria 24 Orlando. 

8 10. . . .Gainsboro (Orange Co.) 22 ' 

I Connects with J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 47), and F. C. & P. (sec 


The Tavares, Apopka & Gulf Railroad has stations as fol- 
lows : 

0.... Tavares ' 29 

3.... Ellsworth 25 N 

8....Astatula 20 a 

Diet. fr. 15.... West Apopka U Diet. £r. 

Tavares. 20 .-. . . Montverde 9 Clermont. 

V 23. . . .Watts Jc 6 

S 27 ...Mineola 2 

29... Clermont 

» Connects with J., T. & K. W. ; Tav., Or. & Atlantic ; and F. C. & P. (see 
p. 48). 

The Orange Belt Eailroad from St. Petersburg, on Tampa 

Bay, to Monroe, Orange County, lias stations near to and 

within the county as follows : 

92 Cedar Hammock {Sumter Co.) ... 57 

I 98 Mascotte 51 W 

Dist. fr. I 102.... Sheridan 47 a -nis-f f,. 

StPeters- I 107 .... Clermont ' 42 ' -l'^'"- "• 

burg. V 109 Mineola 40 

E 110... Mohawk 39 

116 Killaruey {Orange Co.) 33 


' Connects with Tavares, Apopka & Gulf Railroad (see above). 

Lee County. 

Area. 1,800 sq. m.— Lat. 25° 50' to 26° 58' N.— Long. 81° 40' to 82° 5' W. 
—Population (1890), 1,413.— Assessed valuation (1888), $875,834.— County seat, 

Lee County was formed by act of Legislature in 1887 out 
of Monroe County. By a popular vote of the inhabitants it 
was named after General Robert E. Lee, the Confederate 
leader. Like the adjacent counties of Dade on the east, De 
Soto on the north, and Monroe on the south, it still is a 
wilderness, mainly, but opening toward the west into 
the vast level savannas and everglades bordering upon Lake 
Okeechobee. The fact that until 1887 the county seat (Key 
West) was one hundred and eighty-five miles from the north- 
ern limit of the county gives an idea of the " magnificent 
distances " of this region. Fort Myers, or Myers as it is now 
called, is the j^resent county seat. 

There are as yet no railroads in this county, the nearest 
terminus being at Puuta Gorda, about nine miles north of 
the boundary line. Access from that point is easy by means 



of steamboats which run down the coast to Naples, and np 
the Caloosahatcliee River. 

The Gulf coast is well provided with harbors in San Carlos 
Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and Ostego Bay. 

The Caloosahatcliee River is the most important of the 
watercourses, finding its source in Lake Okeechobee and 
flowing in a southwesterly direction to the Gulf. For twenty- 
three miles from the month it averages more than a mile in 
widtli and is navigable for vessels drawing about seven feet. 
Above this point it narrows, to about one hundred and 


seventy-five feet, becomes deeper, with banks sometimes 
ten to twenty feet high and clothed with a dense growth of 
virgin forest. The Disston Land Company has straightened 
and dee^jened the channels connecting with the great lake, 
so that now small steamers can go through to and from the 
Kissimmee River, crossing Lake Okeechobee. 

The county in general is flat and low, averaging some 
thirty feet above tide-water. The soil is well adapted to 
vegetables, oranges, pineapples, sugar-cane, and all the 
tropical fruits. The lands bordering the Upper Caloosahat- 
chee are largely vegetable mould, several feet in depth, and 
even in the pine lands muck-ponds are found at short inter- 
vals, affording valuable manure. Considerable quantities of 
egg-jjlauts and tomatoes are shijjijed to the North in January 
and February, and the strawberry, which ripens here in Jan- 
uary, is already an important crop. 

Stock raising is the most important interest of Lee County, 
and from Punta Eassa, at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee, 
the annual shipments to Cuba number about 10, 000 head. 

Leon County. 

Area, 900 sq. m.— Lat. 30° 15' to 30° 41' N.— Long. 84° to 84° 55' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), ir,735.— Pop. (18S0\ 19,662.— Assessed valuation (1888), $2,006,413. 
— Elevation, 250 feet, near Tallahassee. — County seat, Tallahassee. 

Leon County is one of the oldest and most prosperous in 
the State. To the stranger apjDroaching from the generally 
level country to the eastward it presents a pleasing variety 
of landscape, with its wooded hills and picturesque valleys, 
its hard clay roads, its groves of magnolia and live-oak, and 
the extensive plantations of cotton, sugar-cane, tobacco, and 
grain. Pears, peaches, and grapes are profitable crops and 
easily cultivated. 

The soil is clay and sand, the sand predominating in what 
are known as ' ' gray hammocks " while in the rich lands or 
•'veritable hammocks," as they are locally termed, red clay 
predominates and forms a permanently rich and practically 
inexhaustible soil, suitable for almost all agricultural pur- 



poses. Beneath this, at a depth of eight or ten feet, is a bed 
of liuiestone, through which run .subterranean rivers, and in 
which are formed the remarkable "sinks" that are among 
the natural curio.sities of tlie region. As a grazing country 
Leon County is noted all over this part of the State. 
There are several kinds of native grass, which grow with 
great luxuriance, and are apparently quite as good for dairy 
stock as any of the standard Northern grasses. Among these 

are the Bermuda grass, " crab grass," " crow's foot," and 
" beggar weed." The last named is a leguminous plant 
which springs up without seeding on almost all cultivated 
land, after the usual market crop has been haiTested. It 
possesses excellent fattening qualities, and if not used for 
pasturage forms a fertilizing crop which returns to the sur- 
face soil an abundant supply of excellent manure. The 
other kinds of grass make good hay when harvested and 
cured. All kinds of live stock eat them with avidity, and 
thrive as well as on the Northern varieties. 


During the existence of negro slavery, Leon Connty was 
mainly occnpied by large planters, whose estates covered 
thousands of acres, and whose wealth enabled them to live in 
true baronial style. Their crops of cotton and tobacco were 
hauled to the St. Mark's River and shipped thence to the 
markets of the world. Tallahassee, the capital of the State 
and the county seat, was the social centre of this life and 
still retains many of its former characteristics. The great 
plantations are now largely subdivided and sold or let to 
small tenants, and the productive energies of the county are 
adjusting themselves to the now order of things. 

There are several large lakes within the borders of the 
county, all of which afford excellent sport for the fisherman, 
and to the southward, within easy reach, is an almost un- 
broken wilderness, reaching to the Gulf of Mexico, where 
there is an abundance of game. 

The eastern part of the county is drained by the St. Mark's 
River (.see p. 98) and the western part by the Ocklockonee. 
Neither of these streams is navigable within the limits of 
Leon County. 

The "Western Division F. C. & P. crosses the county from 
east to west, with stations in and near the county as follows : 

I 147 .. . Llovds (Jefferson Co.) 61 ^ 153....Chaiies 55 , r>,Kffr 

Jackson- ' 165 .. . Tallahassee ■ 43 /^ Tjfvpr Tr. 

viLe. Z, 174.... Ocklockonee 34 i ■" 

^ m ... Midway (Gadsden Co.) 31 ' 

' Connects with St. Mark's Branch F. R. & N. (see below). For continua- 
tion east see p. 43 ; west, see p. 32. 

The St. Mark's Branch F. C. & P. south from Tallahassee. 
Stations are : 

0,... Tallahassee' 21 N 

^Ta'lli^' '^ ■■ ■??'»'*■--■ ■■•■•■••■_ 17 A _Bist. f r. 


V 16....Wakulla (irafcM^ia Co.) 5 St. Mark's. 

S il....St. Mark's {Wakulla Co.) 1 

' Connects with Western Division F. C, & P. (see above). 



Levy County. 

Area, 940 sq. m.— Lat. 29° to 29" 35' N.— Long. 82° 22' to 83° 5' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), 0,57.').— Registered vote, 1,540.— Pop. (1880), 5,7CT.— Assegsed valua- 
tion (1888), $1,101,369.— Elevation, 120 ft., near Bronson.— County seat, Bronson. 

Levy County was organized in 1850, and named after a 
leading i^olitician of that day, who soon afterward changed 



his name to Yulee. He was a senator of the United States 
and prominent in the movement for secession. 

A large proportion of the land in Levy County is undulat- 
ing pine fore^i with a sandy soil more or less mixed with 
loam and underlaid with limestone. It is well ada^sted for 
the cultivation of fruits and vegetables. The whole county 


is well within the latitude adapted for orauge culture. The 
Suwannee Eiver forms the northwestern boundary, and is 
navigable for river steamers, as is the Withlacoochee, which 
forms the southeastern boundary. Midway between these 
two is the Wacassassa River, navigable for small boats, and 
penetrating what is known as the Gulf Hammock, a rich, 
fertile tract capable of producing all the farm crops in great 

The coast is well provided with harbors for small craft, 
and at Cedar Key vessels of considerable size can find shelter 
and secure anchorage. 

The best oysters on the Gulf Coast are found in this vicin- 
ity and are shipped in large quantities to other parts of the 

The Cedar Key Division F. C. & P. enters the county 
from the northeast. Its stations near and within the county 
are : 

29 Archer {A lachua Co.) 41 -.j p, 

I 38....Bronson 32 ^;^ 

Dist. fr. 50.... Otter Creek 20 '} Dlst. fr. 

Waldo. ' 51....Ellzey 19 Cedar Key. 

c^TT 60 . . . Rosewood 10 

*"^ 70.... Cedar Key ' 

Connects at Gainesville with J., T. & K. W. system, and with F. C. & P. 
(see pp. 4 and 5). 

Liberty County. 

Area, 800 sq. ni.— Lat. 30° to 30" 40^ N.— Long. 84° 40' to 85° 10' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 1,499.— Pop. (1880), 1,362.— Assessed valuation (1888), $238,012.— 
County seat, Bristol. 

Liberty County lies between the Apalachieola Eiver on the 
west and the Ocklockonee River on the east. The land is for 
the most part second and third class pine, with a sandy soil 
underlaid with clay. Oranges are successfully cultivated, 
and the rivers and lakes abound with fish, but the princiiml 
industry is stock-raising, for which the open pine-woods are 
admirably suited. No railroads have as yet penetrated 
the county, but the Apalachieola River affords steamboat 
communication with the Gulf of Mexico and with the Flor- 
ida Central &, Peninsula Railroad at River Junction. 

Bristol, the county seat, has a population of about three 



Imndred souls. In the middle of the county ai'o a number 
of small lakes from one to five miles in length. Taluga 



Biver, a tributary of the Ocklockonee, and New River, flowing 
directly to the Gulf of Mexico, drain the central portion of 
the county. 



Madison County. 

Area, 650 sq. m.— Lat. 30" 12' to 30° 3S' N.— Long. 83° W to 83° 50' W.— 
Population (1890), 14,28S.— Pop. (ISSO), 14,T98.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,- 
500,100. — County seat, Madison, 

The eastern half of Madison County is mainly pine land, 
and the western is largely hammock of good quality. The 
natural division between these two tracts rung irregularly 

A Y "-^ L '°~^ " R L. 


north and south. A clay subsoil underlies the whole region, 
farther below the surface among the pines than among the 
hammocks. In both divisions the soil is productive and so 
well adapted to the cultivation of Sea Island cotton that one 
of the largest manufacturing houses in the world has estab- 
lished a factory at Madison, the county seat. It is claimed 
that nearly one-twelfth of the entire long staple cotton crop 
of the world is grown in Madison County. The climate can 
hardly be considered semi-tropical, but the Gulf of Mexico 


is near enough to prevent destructive frosts, the nights are 
generally cool, and the temperature rai'ely rises above ninety 
degrees in summer, and the health of the settled jjortions of 
the county is exceptionally good. Figs and grapes are 
among the most prolific of the fruit crops. Fig-trees grow 
without cultivation, reaching in a few years a height of fifteen 
to twenty feet, and bearing abundantly. Grapes are raised 
in large quantities, including the native scui:)pernong, and 
foreign varieties, including the black Hamburg, and the 
wine-producing industry has aleady reached respectable pro- 
portions. Le Conte pears have been introduced within a 
few years, and with peaches can be ripened for the North- 
ern markets long before similar fruits come to perfection in 
higher latitudes. 

The Suwannee and Aucilla Elvers with their tributaries 
drain the county, aflbrding abundant water and numerous 
mill-sites. In the extreme southern jjortion, and extending 
into the neighboring counties of Taylor and Lafayette, i.'^ a 
great swamp, known as San Pedro Bay. It has never been 
explored beyond a short distance along the edges. The whole 
tract, save occasional ridges and islands, is under water, and 
four considerable streams flow outward in difl:erent direc- 
tions. These are the Finholloway and the Econfenee on 
the west, and the Spring Warrior and Steinhatchee on the 
east. The "bay" is a noted retreat for large game, including 
deer, bear, jianthers, and wolves. It is no trifling matter to 
hunt in this region, but with competent guides good sport 
may be anticipated. 

The "Western Division F. C. & P. bisects the county, 
crossing it from east to west, with stations at : 

94 Bncki Jc. {Suwannee Co.) 113 

I 95....Ellaville 112 E 

Dist. f r. I 103 .. . Lees 104 a jj-^t ft- 

Jackson- ' 105 .... West Farm 102 

ville. V 110. . . .Madison 9T 

W 124.... Greenville 83 

131 Aucilla {Jefferson Co.) 76 

Elver Jc. 

For continuation east to Jacksonville, see p. 91 ; west to Tallahassee, Pensa- 
cola, etc., see p. 43. 



Mauatee County. 

Area, 1,330 sq. m.— Lat. 26° 56' to 27° 38' N.— Long. 82" to 82° 50' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 2,899.— Pop. (1880), 3,544.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,257,922.40. 
— County seat. Manatee. 

Manatee County takes its name from the manatee, or sea- 
cow, an animal formerly abundant along the coasts of Flor- 

ida, but now nearly extinct (see p. 218). Lying mainly be- 
tween the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth parallels of 
latitude, it is semi-tropical in all its climatic characteris- 
tics, and being on the coast its range of temperature is still 
further modified by the equalizing influence of the Gulf. 


Wilhout projiulico to otlier sections it may Ije said that tlin 
county contains a greater area of strictly arable land than 
any other county south of the twenty-eighth parallel. There 
is a great variety of soil ranging from rich hammocks to 
worthless swamps, but the greater part is pine land capable 
of more or less successful cultivation according to location. 
Some excellent farms have been oj^ened in the flat woods, 
and crops can be grown out of doors the whole year round. 
The i^rairie lands, of which there are tens of thousands 
of acres, are believed to be productive, but at latest ail- 
■saces no considerable attempt has been made to cultivate 

The garden section of the county is aloug the Manatee 
Biver, which is bordered by some of the richest hammock 
laud in the State, and smaller hammocks and "bays" exist 
all through the piney region. 

Early vegetables for the Northern markets are cultivated 
with great success. 

The coast extends from Tampa Bay on the north to the 
headwaters of Charlotte Harbor on the south. It includes 
the mouth of the Manatee River and Sarasosta Bay with its 
outlying keys, and affords an unsurpassed cniising-ground 
for pleasure craft suited to the navigation of these shallow 
waters. Fish, oysters, and turtle abound, the tarpon may 
be caught with the rod, and the devil-fish may be hari^ooned 
out in the Gulf. The keys are many of them quite high 
and well adapted for residence and the cultivation of the 
more tender sub-tropical fruits. 

The nearest railway connections are at Tampa, and St. 
Petersburg on the north and Punta Gorda on the south, with 
which points there is constant communication by coasting 
steamers running to the river towns on Manatee and Sara- 
sosta Bay. 

The county is a great cattle range, with its jorincipal ship- 
ping point at Charlotte Harbor (see Route 81). The fishing 
is good in all the lakes and streams as well as along the coast, 
and deer are found within a few miles of any of the settle- 
ments. The Manatee and the Myakka Rivers are navigable 
for small boats far up into the interior, and these aflTord the 


easiest access to the best Imutiug-grounds, since camp equip- 
age cau be more easily carried by boat than by any otlier 
means of transportation. 

Mariou County. 

Area, 1,55T eq. m.— Lat. 28° 55' to 29° 30' N.— Lonff. 81° 35' to 82" 32' W.— 
Populatlou (1890), 20,T83.— Pop. (1S80), 13,046.— Assessed valuation (1888), $4,- 
222,200.— County seat, Ocala. 

Marion County lies on tlie central ridgo of the Florida 
Peninsula, the natural drainage being toward the Atlantic on 
the east, and toward the Gulf of Mexico on the west. The 
extent from north to south is thirty-eight miles, from east 
to west fifty-four miles, and ifc is one of the richest orange- 
growing counties in the State, possessing besides some of the 
most attractive natural sceneiy and many of the most popu- 
lar winter resorts. 

The land is divided into the usual grades of hammock, 
first, second, and third class pine and scrub, the last named, 
however, being confined almost wholly to the townships 
lying east of the Ocklawaha River, omitting, however, the 
bend of the stream from Moss Bluff to Eaton, where there 
are high rolling hills and excellent soil. The rest of the 
county is very attractive, even to one who sees it only from 
a passing train. The gently swelling hills clothed with oj^en 
woods, and often carpeted with green grass, suggest, even in 
midwinter, some of the most beautiful parts of the North. 
There is an almost total absence of the scrub palmetto, witli 
which the traveller becomes so familiar as the almost ever- 
present undergrowth of the pine forests, and while there are 
wide reaches of inferior pine barrens, the general impression 
conveyed is of a naturally rich and productive country. The 
native growth of wild orange -trees suggested grafting to the 
first settlers, and the result has been some of the finest 
groves in the State, or even in the world. In 1889 valuable 
phosphate beds were discovered in the southwestern part of 
the county. Their extent is not definitely determined. 

Of veritable high hammock land it is estimated that 
Marion County contains nearly one hundred thousand acres, 



covered with a ricli and practically inexhaustible regetable 
mould. These lands were under cultivation by the aborig- 

inal races long before Eui'opeans came, and here the Sem- 
inoles made their most resolute stand against the United 
States forces during the war that resulted practically in their 
extermination or expulsion. 



Orange Lake, Lake Weir, Lake Kerr, Lake Biyant, and 
countless smaller bodies of water are within the borders of 
the county, and Lake George, forming part of the St. John's 
Kiver, touches its eastern boundary. The Ocklawaha River 
runs across the county from south to north, navigable for the 
entire distance. To this stream are tributary. Silver Spring 
Eun, navigable to its source, and Orange Creek, the outlet 
of Orange Lake. The "Withlacoochee River defines the 
southwestern boundary, with Blue River, a wonderfully beau- 
tiful " spring run" as a tributary. 

The main line of the Florida Soiithern Railway (J., T. & K. 
W. system) enters the county from Palatka, etc., on the 
north. The stations near and within the county are : 

45... Micanopy Jc. (Alachua Co.) 101 

4T Boardman 99 N 

49. . . . Mcintosh 9T a 

52....Lochbie 94 

Diet. fr. 

55 Oak Lawn ' 91 

5T. . . Reddick 89 

63.... Martin 83 

TO....F. C. & P. CrosBing.. T6 

72....0cala'' 74 

82. . . . Welshton 64 

85. . . .Candler 61 

88 Oklawaha 58 

89 . . .Weir Park 57 

93 . . . .South Lake Weir 53 

96 Conant {Lake Co.) 50 

Diet. fr. 
Brooks ville 

• Branch east to Citra, 6 m. (see helow). 

2 Connects with Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railway (see p. 64), and South- 
em Division F. C. & P. (see below). 
For continuation south, see p. 48 ; north, see p. 4. 

The Soutliern Division F. C- & P. crosses the outlet of 
Orange Lake from Alachua County on the north. Its sta- 
tions in and near Marion County are : 

Dist. fr. 

111.... Citra' 67 

117....Sparr8 61 

120. . . .Anthony 58 

124. . . .Spring Park 54 

126 ... . Silver Spring Jc. 2 52 

130....Ocala3 48 

141 ... Belleview 37 

146 .. . Summerfield S2 

151 ... . Oxford {Sumter Co.) 27 

Dist. fr. 

' Branch west to Oak Lawni, 6 m. (see above). 

2 Branch west to Silver Siiring, 1 m. 

3 Connects with J., T. & X. W. system (above) ; Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf 
Railway to Homosassa (see p. 64). 


The Silver Spring, Ocala & Gulf Railroad runs southwest 
from Ocala. Its stations in and near the county are : 

0... Ocala" 48 

I 3 Apnew 45 NE 

8....Martel 40 a n-ot fr 

is.t. fr. 13)^. Lcroy 34J.^ 1 ^q'": 

"='^'"- i 20,.. ^r'^^} 2^"^ -- 

SW 26....Dunel!on 22 | 

34 Citronelle ( Citrus Co.) 14 

1 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system, and F. C. & P. (see p. 63). 

Monroe County. 

Area, land and water, 2,600 sq. m.— Lat. 24" 30' to 25' 50' N— Long. 80° 40' 
to 82° 55' W.— Population (1890), 18,T64.— Assessed valuation, $1,408,458.— 
County seat, Key West. 

The county as it exists is far smaller than prior to 1887, 
when the whole northern portion, now Lee County, was 
separated for convenience of administration. The popula- 
tion prior to the division was 10,940 (1880). 

Nearly one-half of the present county is on the main pen- 
insula of Florida, the most southerly portion of the territory 
of the United States. The rest comprises the long line of 
kej's and reefs that reach from Cape Florida on the east 
coast of the peninsula to Key West and the Dry Tortugas 
in the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of about one hundred and 
forty miles. The peninsula section is almost uninhabited, 
and has been only partially surveyed, owing to the nature of 
the country, w'hich has not yet joroved inviting to settlers, 
save hunters or fishermen. The northern and western part 
of this tract is more or less available as a cattle range, but to- 
ward the coast innumerable bayous wind in and out, forming 
a labyrinth known as the Ten Thousand Islands. This re- 
gion has been partially mapped by the United States Coast 
Survey. It affords an attractive cruisiug-ground for sports- 
men provided with small boats. The more imi^ortant part 
comprises the chain of keys or islands, almost wholly com- 
posed of coralline rock, which sweeps in a grand curve around 
the end of the peninsular and forms the northern bank of 
the Gulf stream, at its very source. 

Monroe County lies between the twenty-fourth and twenty 

















sixth parallels of latitude. Frost is unknown within its bor- 
ders, its vegetation is strictly tropical, and its climate milder 
than any other part of the Atlantic seaboard. 

The keys (Spanish, cayo, island) are at once an aid and a 
menace to navigation. They afford shelter to small craft, 
but the channels are so tortuous that they are extremely dan- 
gerous for large vessels. Coral reefs approach the surface 
at intervals throughout a wide belt of ocean. As soon as 
they are built up to within a few feet of the surface man- 
groves take root and in a few years the foundation is laid 
for a new island. 

Key West (see p. 323), is the only large city in the county, 
and the only point to and from which there is at present any 
regular means of access. Eailroads there are none, except 
tramways at Key West, but the possibility of a southern ter- 
minus for a line down the eastern coast of the peninsula is 
in contemplation. Turtle Harbor being regarded as the most 
favorable locality. It has even been seriously suggested 
that a line carried on trestles from key to key is not beyond 
the resources of modern engineering. 

Several lines of ocean steamers touch regularly at Key West, 
and there are mail packets once a week thence to Biscayne 
Bay and the intermediate Keys. 

Nassau Coiiuty. 

Area, 600 sq. m.— Lat. 30" 15' to 30° 45' N.— Long. 81° 26' to 82° 5' W.— 
Population (1890), 8,293.— Pop. (1880), 6,635.— Assessed valuation (1888), $2,- 
564,351.— Highest elevation, 25 to 30 feet. — County seat, Femandina. See p. 

Nassau County, named by its early settlers after William, 
Prince of Nassau, is the northeastern county of Florida. Its 
northern and western boundary is defined by the St. Mary's 
Eiver, sejiarating it from Georgia, and navigable for steam- 
boats as far as Trader's Hill, thirty miles from the sea. The 
Nassau Eiver, with its affluent, Thomas Creek, forms nearly 
the .whole of its southern boundary. 

The soil varies from the clays and marls of the river-bot- 
toms to sandy loam and sand near the coast and among the 



pines of the interior. The immediate sea-coast is formed by 
Amelia Island. It is covered with calcareous sand and is 
one of the islands where the famous long staple sea-island 
cotton originated. Similar soil is found along some of the 
sea-coast rivers, often in connection with what are known as 

" fresh marsh and black rush lands," which are considered 
very valuable for gardening. 

Corn, cotton, and oats are the principal commercial pro- 
ducts, and early vegetables, strawberries, and melons are suc- 
cessfully raised for the Northern markets. Many of the 
semi-tropical fruits can be grown, but not with sufficient 
certainty to make them profitable crops. 

The Savannah, Florida & Western Railroad, the main ave- 



nue of commerce between Florida and the North, enters the 
county at the northwestern angle, running in a southeasterly 
direction to Jacksonville, in Duval, the adjacent county. 
Stations near and within the county are : 

Dist. fr. 

35 Folkston (Georgia) 41 

1 40 Boulogne 36 

1 46....Hilliard 30 

V 56.... Callahan ' 20 

SW 64. . . .Dinsmore (Duval Co.) 12 

76 JackBonville '■* (Duval Co.) 


Dist. fr. 

' Crosses F. R. & N., Southern Division (see below). 

2 Connects with J., T. & K. W. system F. C. & P. (see pp. 25 and 26) ; Jack- 
sonville, Mayport & Pablo Railway (see p. 26). Also with ocean steamers to the 
North, St. John's River steamboats. 

The Southern Division F. 0. & P. (Fernandina to Orlando) 
has the following stations in and near the county : 

Dist. fr. 



Fernandina ' 4T 

11 ... . Hart's Road Jc. ^ 36 

19. ...Italia 28 

27 ... . Callahan 3 23 

32 . . . Crawford 15 

37 ...Dutton 10 

41 . . Brandy Branch 6 

47 Ba'.dwiu ■> (Dttvai Co.) o 


Dist. fr. 

' Connects with ocean steamers. 

" Connects with Jacksonville & Fernandina Branch F. R. & N. (see below). 

= Crosses S. F. & W. Ry., Jacksonville Division (see above). 

•• Connects with Western Division F. C. & P. (see p. 7). 

The Jacksonville and Fernandina Division F. C. & P. runs 
nearly north from Jacksonville to Hart's Road, thence east to 
Fernandina. Its stations are : 

Dist. fr. 

Jacksonville ' 37 

5 Jacksonville Jc 32 

15. . . .Duval 22 

27.... Hart's Road 2 10 

37.... Fernandina 5 

Dist. fr. 

> Connects with railroads and steamers out of Jacksonville (see pp. 25 and ! 

2 Connects with Southern Division F. C. & P. (see above). 

3 Connects with ocean steamers. 



Oraii?^e County. 

Area, 1,250 sq. m.— Lat. 28" 20' to 28° 52' N.— Long. 80° 50' to SI'' 40' W.— 
Population (1890), 12,5T9.— Pop. (1880), 6,618.— Assessed valuation, $4,652,573. 
— County 8eat, Orlando. 

Orange County, as its name implies, is in the central orange 
belt of the peninsula, and includes some of the most exten- 

sive groves in the State. The head waters of the St. John's 
Kiver form its eastern boundary, and a group of lakes adds 
greatly to the natural attractions of the region. Lake 


Apopka, lying mainly within the western boundary of the 
county, is second in size only to Okeechobee, and Lakes 
Monroe, Jessu^j, Harney, Butler, Conway, Maitland, and 
many othei*s, range from a few acres up to thousands of 
acres in extent. Almost without exception the land rises 
from the water in gently rolling hills, securing immunity 
from malarial influences and affording unsurpassed sites for 
homes and for the cultivation of the various crops. 

The face of the country is varied and the soil con-esponds. 
There are high and low hammocks, high, medium, and flat 
pine lands, bay-heads and savannahs, all of which are cajaable 
of different uses for the agriculturist and horticulturist. A 
l^artial list of the fruits that can be successfully and profit- 
ably grown in this county includes oranges, lemons, limes, 
grape-fruit, shaddock, citron, guava, pineapples, pomegran- 
ates, Japanese plums, figs, etc. Rice, sugar-cane, cassava, 
strawberries, plums, and early vegetables are cultivated with 

The central and northwestern townships are the most at- 
tractive, and contain most of the population. Toward the 
east and south there are few or no settlements and an abun- 
dance of game during the winter months. 

The larger lakes and the St. John's Eiver above Lake 
Monroe are navigable for launches and small craft, but there 
are at j^resent no regular boats running above Sanford. 

The main line of the J., T. & K. W. system enters the 
county from the north, with stations in and near Orange 
County as follows : I Enterprise Jc' (Fo^jwza Co.) 7 N -r,, . ^ 

Enterprise V 4....Monroe2 3 a Worrt 

J» 8 7.... Sanford 3 | ^a^^orQ- 

' Connects Indian River Branch J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 97). 

2 Connects Orange Belt Railroad (see p. 70). 

3 Connects South Florida Railway (see p. 70) ; and Sanford & Indian River 
Railway (see p. 71). 

For continuation of this line north, see p. 97 ; south, see below and p. 70. 

The South Florida Railway, connecting with the J., T. 
& K. W. system at a station used in common, has stations as 
follows within and near the countv : 



Dist. fr. 

39 . 
' Connects J. , 

Dist. fr. 
St. Peters- 

0. . . .Sanford ' 124 

3....Belair 121 N 

5 . . . . Lake Mary 119 a 

10 Long wood ^ . 114 

13 ... Altainonte Spring Ill 

15....Maitland 109 Port 

IS.... Winter Park 106 Tampa. 

22.... Orlando s 102 

V 27 Pine Castle 97 

S 34....McKinnon 90 

40 . ..Kiesimmee ■• (O.sreote Co.) 84 

' Connects J.. T. & K. W. system (p. 69), and Sanford & Indian River Kail- 
way (p. 71), and St. John's River steamboats, 
'■i Connects Florida Midland Railway (below). 
3 Connects Tavares, Orlando & Atlantic Railway. 
* Connects Kissimmee River steamers. 

The Orange Belt Bailroad, Monroe to Petersburg on Tampa 
Bay, has stations in and adjacent to tlie county as follows: 

Monroe ' 149 

2....Svlvan Lake 147 NE 

4 ...PaoJa^ 145 A 

6. . . .Island Lake 143 

9. . . . Glen Ethel 140 

11 ... . Groveland 138 

12. . . .Palm Springs ^ 137 

— Granada — 

Dist. fr. 15.... Forest City 134 

Monroe. 18. . . .Toronto - 131 

. . . Lakeville 129 

. . . Clarcona ^ 12S 

. . .Millerton 125 

...Crown Point 123 

.Winter Garden 119 

. . .Oakland 117 

. . . Killamy 115 

...Mohawk {Sumter Co.) 110 

T, & K. W. Bvstem (see p. 69). 
s Crosses Sanford & Lake Eustis Branch J.. T. & K. W. system. 
3 Crosses Florida Midland Railway (see below). 

* Connects Tavares. Or:ando & Atlantic Railway. 

* Crosses Florida Midland Railway. 
For continuation southwest, see p. 87. 

The Florida Midland Railway lies ■wholly within the coun 

ty. Its stations are : 

Longwood ' 27 

3 ...Palm Springs 2 24 N 

4 Altamonte 23 a • 

6. . . .Lake Brantly 21 

8....Fitzville 19 

10... East Apopka 17 

11 ... . Apopka 3 16 

15 Clarcona * 12 

18.... Villa Nova .9 

20.... Oconee 7 

V 21....Minorville 6 

S 23....Gotha 4 

27 Englewood 

' Connects J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 69). 
"Crosses Oranire Belt Railway (see above). 
5 Crosses Tavares. Orlando &"Atlantic Railway. 
* Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see above). 



Dist. fr. 

Dist. fr. 



The Sanford & Indian River Eailroad (S. F. Ry. 
is completed to Lake Charm. The stations are : 

0. . . . Sanford 19 

2 SpeerGrove 17 N 

3....FortKeed 16 ^ 

3.5 ...Onoro 15.5 

4 Silver Lake 15 5....Rutledge 14 

Sanford. 6... Lords 13 

T....Clyde8 12 

12....CUfton T 

V 14....Tnscawilla 5 

S io jOviedo, \ 

^^- • tLake Charm j" 


Diet. fr. 


Osceola Coiintj. 

Area, 2,520 sq. m.— Lat. 27° 10' to 28° 30' N.— Long. 80° 50' to 81° 35' W.— 
Popu'.ation (1890), 3,122.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,667,895.— County seat, 

Osceola County, named after the famous Seminole Chief, 
was formed by act of the State Legislature in 1887, from 
l^arts of Orange and Brevard Counties. A series of large 
lakes, Tohopekaliga, Cypress, Hatcheneka, and Kissimmee, 
connected by canals and natural channels, form the head- 
■waters of the Kissimmee River, flowing southward to Lake 
Okeechobee, and thence through the Caloosahatchee River 
to the Gulf of Mexico. This whole system of inland water- 
courses is navigable to Kissimmee at the head of the chain 
of lakes. The surface of the country is generally level or 
slightly rolling, with vast tracts of rich, low-lying prairie 
land. The soil is especially adapted to the cultivation of 
vegetables, which can be brought to perfection, in ordinary 
seasons, in January and February. 

The latitude of the northern extremity of the county is 28'^ 
30', assuring almost entire freedom from frosts and an abun- 
dance of grass for stock-raising during the whole year. A 
large number of cattle, sheep, and swine range the woods with- 
out shelter, and are " rounded up " at stated seasons, afford- 
ing one of the most profitable industries of the county. 
Large quantities of sugar-cane have been planted on the re- 
cently reclaimed lands, with every prospect of a speedy and 
bountiful yield. 



The temperature at Kissimmee rarely rises above 90° in 
the summer, and the natural healthfulness of the locality 

— i; — 1- -7f-f^^ 

1 Shingle Cr rf' o 
•Ft.Daveuport ' 




I— I 1-^ I— I ^ r— i-i 

5 10 

has been singularly confirmed by the experience of the white 


age company. Since 1881 these men have been employed 
without intermission, even in summer, and have enjoyed un- 
interrupted health. Not a single death had occuiTed up to 
March, 1889, and it had never been necessary to send for a 
physician. As the work is carried on in a region usually 
supposed to be highly malarial, this record is certainly note- 

Osceola County is settled only at its northern extremity. 
To the south of Lake Tohopekaliga the wilderness is almost 
unbroken. Game abounds, and a large part of the egion is 
accessible in small boats by taking advantage of the creeks 
and numerous small lakes that abound throughout this re- 

Within a few years past large drainage operations have 
been undertaken under State patronage by the Okeechobee 
Drainage Company, which have reclaimed extensive tracts of 
land in Osceola County, and bid fair largely to increase the 
sugar product of the State. 

The South Florida Railway from Orange County on the 
north crosses the northwest corner of the county with sta- 
tions near and within the boundaries as follow : 

I 34 McKinnon (Orange Co.) 90 N t,. . ^ I 40....Iiissimmee 84 a ^l|'-"- 

Sauford. V 44. . ..Cambells 80 i rp " 

S 57....Davenport (Poit Co.) 6T | -lampa. 

For continuation of this line north, see p. TO ; south, see p. 79. 



Pasco County. 

Area, 1,700 sq. m.— Lat. 23" 9' to 28" 29' N.— Long. 82° to 82" 4^ W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 4,249.— Assessed valuation (1888), $954,329.— County seat, Dade 

This county was formed in 1887 from the southern part of 
Hernando County. In soil and climate it is among the most 
favored of the Gulf counties, lying just above the twenty- 
eighth parallel of latitude and within the influence of the 
warm Gulf breezes. For the most part the soil is naturally 
of the better grade of pine lands, underlaid with clay, marl, 
and limestone. There are large areas of rich hammock, es- 
i:)ecially in the western townships, which send some of the 
most noteworthy exhibits to the annual fair at Ocala. 

Cotton, oats, rice, corn, and sugar-cane, are the staple^ 
and all kinds of vegetables have been introduced within the 
past few years. The Pithlaschoscootee and Anclote Rivers 
drain the eastern jiart of the county, and the Withlacoochee 
and Hillsborough drain the western part. In some sections 
the land rises to the height of eighty or ninety feet above 
tide-water, and the high hammocks are covered with a mag- 
nificent growth of hard wood. 

The hunting and fishing are good, but for large game it is 
necessary to go ten or twelve miles from the railroads, and 
guides with camping outfits are indispensable for strangers. 

The Orange Belt Railway enters from Hernando County 
on the north and crosses it southwest and northeast. The 
stations adjacent to and within the county are : 

Diet. fr. 



66 Wyoming (Hernando Co.) 83 

71 Lacoochee ' 78 

73.... Macon a 76 

75 . . . Leonard 74 

78....Blanton 71 

79....Cliipco 70 

84 San Antonio 65 

88.... Pasco 61 

91 . . Big Cypress 58 

98 . . . Drexel •. 51 

106 ...Odessa 43 

117 Tarpon SpTings(Hilhborough Co.)32 


Dist. fr. 

St. Pet- 

1 Crosses Tampa Branch F. C. & P. (see p. 76). 

2 Crosses J., T. & K. W. (see p. 76). 
For continuation nortb, see p. 35 ; south, see p. 38. 


I 23. 

Dist. fr. 

1 30. 


V 31; . 

S 44. 



The Tanii)a l>raiich of tlio F. C. & P. enters from Hernando 
County on the north. Stations in and near the county are : 

. . .Withliicoochee {Sumter Co.) 39 

. . . Lacoochee ' 33 N 

, . . Owensboro 2 31 a DiKt. fr. 

..Dade City 2.5 j Plant City. 

...Abbott 17 I 

, . .Plant City {Hillsborough Co.) 

' Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see p. 74). 
'■J Crosses J., T. & K. W. (see below). 
For continuation north, see p. 35. 

The Pemberton Feriy Branch of the South Florida Pail- 
way (J., T. k K. W. system) has stations within and near 
the county at : 

. .Bay City {Hernando Co.) .51 

..Macon 47 N 

.. Orange Belt Jc. ' 4G a 

. . Owensboro '■' 45 

. . Dade City 41 

. Ellerslie 35 

..Richland 34 I 

. . Tedderville 25 | 

..Kathleen {Polk Co.) 20 

' Crosses Orange Belt Railway (see p. 74). 
2 Crosses Tampa Branch F. C. & P. (see above). 
For continuatiou north, see p. 35 ; south, see p. 80. 




Dist. fr. 






k' 23.. 


i 32.. 


Dist. fr. 

Polk County. 

Area, 1,980 sq. m.— Lat. 27° 35' to 28° 10' N.— Long. 81° 25' to 82" 2' W.— 
Population (1890), 7,897.— Pop. (1880), 3,181.— Assessed valuation, $3,500,000.— 
County seat, Bartow. 

The county was formed in 1859, by act of the State legis- 
lature, from portions of the large neighboring counties of 
Hillsborough, Orange, and Sumter, but its organization was 
interrupted by the Civil War, and not perfected, in its pres- 
ent .shape until 1874. It is named after James K. Polk, elev- 
enth President of the United States. The twenty-fifth par- 
allel of latitude runs nearly through the middle of the county. 
It was settled mainly by cattle men, who had served in the In- 
dian wars and noted the natural advantages of the country. 
Its average elevation above the sea is estimated at 150 feet, 
and its greatest elevation, according to the levels run by the 
engineers of the South Florida Railroad, is 235 feet. Nearly 
one-fifth of the surface is water, in lakes of every conceivable 


size and shape, from Lake Kissimmee, eighteen miles long, 
down to little pools too small to be shown on the map, but 
sometimes indicated by a dot. As a rule, these lakes are full 
of pure, clear water, and well stocked with fish. Most of 
them are deep enough to deserve the name of lakes or 
l^onds, but some are little better than savannahs. The lake 
region iiroper lies in the middle of the county. The north- 


ern portion of this region is high rolling land, the bluffs ris- 
ing sharply from the lake shores sometimes as much as sixty 
feet. These afford an endless niimber of excellent building 
sites, with the advantage, somewhat unusual in Floi'ida, of a 
decided elevation. 

The land is sandy and sandy loam, and the usual variety of 
high and low hammock and the three grades of pine land are 
well distributed over the countv. Toward the south the 


face of the country is more generally level, and prairies are 
more frequent. 

Tlie Kissimmco Iliver, hero mainly a succession of lakes, 
is navigable to the Gulf of Mexico through Lake Okeechobee 
and tho Caloosahatchee River. Peace River is navigable for 
small boats to Fort Meade. This stream falls into Char- 
lotte Harbor on the Gulf of Mexico. Its tributaries, with 
those of the Alalia and the Withlacoochee Rivers, drain a 
wide region in the southern and western part of the couniy. 

The best grade of pine lands in this region are considered 
most desirable for agricultural purposes, because, under 
judicious cultivation, their productiveness seems to increase, 
while the high hammocks deteriorate after a few years of 
astonishing productiveness. The dryer kinds of low ham- 
mock are prized for general farming and garden crops, es- 
pecially the early vegetables that are becoming such an im- 
portant factor in the commerce of the State. 

The timber is mainly pine and cypress, but all the hard 
woods are found in the hammocks. 

The summer temperature ranges from 86' to 97° at mid- 
day, falling some twenty degrees during the night. In the 
winter the ordinary range is from 45° to 75°, with, however, 
occasional northers, when the thermometer drops very sud- 
denly to the freezing-point. After the first of February im- 
munity from frost is almost certain, and the thermometer 
ranges from 60° to 78°. The rainy season begins in June 
and lasts till the middle or end of September, rain falling, as 
a rule, almost every day. 

The vital statistics of the county show that general health 
is good, the death-rate from ordinary diseases very low. 

The county commissioners of Polk County certify the follow- 
ing list of its products: Corn, oats, rye, pumpkins, squashes, 
beans in variety (tho snap and lima runners being very pro- 
lific), peas (in variety), i^otatoes, beets, carrots, onions, pars- 
nips, egg-plant, cucumbers, cantaloupes, water-melons, cab- 
bages, collards, cauliflower, kohl-rabi, ruta-bagas, turnips, 
pepper, okra, tomatoes, lettuce, salsify, spinach, miistard, 
sorghum, sugar-cane, cassava, arrow-root, ginger, chufas, 
pindars or ground peas, goubers, grass-nuts, pie melon, etc. 


Of plants and herbs, sweet marjoram, thyme, tea-plants, 
castor-bean, and benue. Of fruits, orange, sweet, bitter-sweet, 
and sour; lemons, limes, grapes, peaches, LeConte and avo- 
cado pears, tiger api^les, sugar apples, citron, shaddocks, 
grape-fruit, mangoes, Japan plums, bananas, pineapples, 
guavas, plums, j^omegranates, figs, olives, and pecans. 
Many of these are not recommended as profitable crops. 
The list is given to show the possible range of agricultural 

The Polk County region was a favorite hunting and farm- 
ing ground of the aboriginal races, and mounds and other 
evidences of prehistoric habitations are found. "When the 
United States surveys were made in 184:8 numerous evi- 
dences existed of extensive cultivation, but the luxuriant 
forest growth has nearly obliterated most of them at the 
present time. 

The South Florida Railway enters the county from Pagco 
County (northwest), and Osceola County (northeast), ita 
branches forming a triangle in the heart of the county. The 
main line has stations near and within the county as follows : 

42 ... Campbells (Osceola Co.) 71 

50... Lake Locke... 63 NE 

54 Emmanton 61 /\ 

57 . . Davenport 58 I 

61... Haines City 54 1 

68. . . .Bartow Jc. ' 47 Diet. fr. 

72 ...Anburndale 43 Port 

77 ... . Fitshughs 38 Tampa. 

81 Acton 34 

83 Lakeland = 32 

V 93.... Plant City 22 

SW 115. ...Tampa 9 

124. . . .Port Tampa 

DIst. fr. 

" Connects Bartow Branch (see below). 

^ Connects Pemberton Ferry Branch (see p. 80). 

The Bartow Branch stations are : 

I Bartow Jc.i IT -kjtj" 

■n:„(. f- 5 ... Winter Haven 12 . T^• f 

RortV/wTn v 9.... Eagle Lake 8 ^^ , ^'^V 

BartowJc. V 2,...Go?don8ville .5 fr. Bartow. 

°^ IT.... Bartow •■' I 

I Connects with main line to Tampa, south, and Sanford, northeast. 
- Connects F. S. (J., T. & K. W. system) for Punta Gorda, Charlotte Harbor, 


The Pemberton Ferry Branch has stations near and within 
Polk County as follows : 

23 ... . Richlaud (Pasco Co.) 31 

I 32. . . .Tedderville 22 NNW 37 .... Kathleen 17 a Dist. fr. 

Pemberton 1 40 . . . Griffin's Mill 17 I Pimta 

Ferry. V 43 . . . Lakeland ' 14 Bartow. 

S8E 51.... Haskell 6 | 


■ Crosges J., T. & K. W. from San ford and Tampa. 

'^ Connects Bartow branch and 1'". S. Ky. to Punta Gorda. 

Putnam County. 

Area, 860 sq. m.— Lat. 29" 20' to 29" 50' N.— Long. 81" 25' to 82" 2' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 11,166.— Pop. (1880), 6,261.— Assessed valuation (1888), $4,130,503. 
—County seat, Palatka. 

Putnam County is one of several organized in 1847, after 
the first Seminole war. It is named after General Israel 
Pufrnam, of the Revolutionary Army. The shajje is very ir- 
regular, some of the boundaries being crooked rivers, and 
others arbitrary lines. As is often the case in Florida, it is 
impossible to give a general statement of the topography. 
The great river St. John's divides the county into two por- 
tions, of which the western is by far the larger. Orange 
Creek, the navigable outlet of Orange Lake, just over the 
line, in Alachua County, joins the Ocklawaha Eiver at the 
southern boixler, and together they form a considerable 
stream tributary to the St. Johns, and one of the famous 
tourist routes of Florida (Route 181). Except in the im- 
mediate vicinity of the water-courses the western part of the 
county is gently undulating, covered with heavy pine forests, 
which are rapidly giving way to orange groves. Through 
this compairatively low region there runs an elevated rolling 
plateau, ten or fifteen miles wide, and in some places said 
to be two hundred feet above tide-water. This plateau is 
dotted all over with lakelets, surrounded by wooded hills. 
Here and there are prairies and swamps of moderate extent. 
An attractive section of the county is the Fruitland Penin- 
sula, a tract of land eight or ten miles wide, somewhat re- 
sembling the plateau just described lying between the St. 
John's River on the west and Crescent Lake on the east. Its 



surface is generally tilly, interspersed with lakes, forests, 
and occasiual marslies. The J., T. & K. W. Railway system 
passes through the entire length of the peninsula. Crescent 
Lake is a navigable body of water, having easy steamboat 
connection with the St. John's Eiver through Dunn's Creek, 

the outlet at the northern extremity of the lake. To the 
north of this stream, still on the east side of the St, John's 
Eiver, is a fine orange region, including some of the oldest 
and best groves in the State. The St. John's Eiver through- 
out this portion of its course is practically a series of lakes, 
varying in width from a mile to four miles. It is slightly 
affected by the ocean tides as far up as Lake George, and the 
current is nowhere so rapid as to interfere with the use of 
small boats as a convenient means of travel. 

The main line (J., T. & K. W. system) from Jacksonville 



DiBt. fr. 
San ford- 

and the north crosses the county nearly north and south. 
Stations are as follows : 

41 . . .West Tocoi {Clay Co.) . . .84 

46 ...Bostvvick 78 N 

49 Teiisdale 75 a 

52. . . .Sauble 72 

55 I'alatka Junction 69 

56....Palatka i 68 

58....Lundy 66 

Dist. fr. 60 Peniel 64 

Jack- 63 . . . .Buffalo Bluff 61 

Bonville. 64 Satsuma 60 

67....8isco 57 

70 Pomona 54 

72....0omo 52 

75 Huntington 49 

V 78 Denver 40 

S 82.... Hammond (Volitsm Co.) 42 

84.... Seville (Volusia Co.) 41 

' Connects St. Aug. & Halifax River Ry. (p. 84) ; St. John's & Halifax River 
Ry. (p. 85) ; and F. S. Ry. to Gainesville (see below). 
For continuation of main line J., T. & K. W. system, see pp. 16 and 97. 

The main line Florida Southern Railway runs east from 
Palatka. The stations within the county and just beyond 
its western line are : 

Dist. fr. 

0. . . .Palatka • 47 

5 Francis 42 

12 . . .HoUister 35 

15. . .Manville 32 

17 . . .luterlachen 30 

19. ..Keuka 28 

21... Clark's Mill 26 

23 Johnson 24 

25. . . .Cooper's Mill 22 

26 Cone's Crossing 21 

29 . . Colgrove 18 

Dist. fr. 

• Connects St. Augustine & Halifax River divisions (see p. 84) ; and with 
main line J., T. & K. W., north to Jacksonville, and south to Tampa and Pnnta 
Gorda (see above). 

Saint John's County. 

Area, 1,000 sq. m.— Lat. 29" 22' to 30° 13' N.— Long. 81° 5' to 81° 40' W.— 
Population (1890), 8,677.— Pop. (1880), 4,535.— Assessed valuation (1888), $2,250,- 
8T0. — County seat, St. Augustine. See p. 133. 

St. John's County may almost be termed a peninsula, lying 
as it does between the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the 
St. John's River on the west. Along the river there are valu- 
able lands under successful cultivation at many points for 
oranges, pears, sugar-cane, vegetables, and the like. A short 
distance back from the river the fiat woods appear, succeeded 





by belts of rich hammock, which in turn give way to palmetto 
scrub that extends to the sea-coast. A few small streams, 
tributary to the St. Johns, water the rolling lands along the 
river, and others find their way into Matanzas Inlet, Halifax 
Eiver, and North River on the coast. Much of the land is, 
and probably must remain, worthless, but, thanks to its 
climate, the county is one of the most prosperous in the 
State, and attracts more tourists than any other section. 
This is due to the existence of St. Augustine, where nearly 
three centuries ago Europeans first learned the salubrity of 
the Floridian climate. The history of St. Augustine is that 
of St. John's County, and will be found in the account of 
that city. 

Fishing is good all along the creeks, inlets, rivers, and 
lagoons, and game is to be found by persevering huntsmen, 
thanks to the almost impenetrable " scrub " in which deer 
and turkeys still find shelter. It is wellnigh useless, how- 
ever, to hunt without guides and dogs, and even then hunt- 
ing is no child's play. 

The harbor of St. Augustine, with its connecting inlets, is 
a favorite resort for yachtsmen, and a short day's mn to the 
northward ojiens the extensive inland cruising grounds of 
the St. John's Eiver and its numerous lakes. 

The Jacksonville, St. Augustine & Halifax Eiver Eailway 
(J., T, & K. W. system), St. Augustine to Palatka, has 
stations as follows : 

O....St. AnsustineJ 31 

0. . . .New St. Augustine 30 NE 

4....TocoiJc 26 a 

8. . . . Smith's 22 

10. . . . Middleton 20 

Dist. fr. 12 Armstrong 18 

St.Augus- 14. ...Holy Branch 16 

tine. 16.... Quid's 14 

18. . . Merrifleld 12 

20. . . .Bueua Vista 10 

V 21. . . .Pattersonville 9 

SW 25. . . .East Palatka Je 6 

31.... Palatka- 

Dist. fr. 

1 Connects vith J., T. & K. W. system to Jacksonville (see p. 85). 
^ Connects with J., T. & K. W. system to Indian River. Tampa and Pmita 
Gorda (see p. 82). 

The Jacksonville, St. Augustine tt Halifax Eiver liailwav 



(J., T. & K. W. system) is the most direct route between the 
two cities. Stations auJ distances follow : 

Jacksonville ' 37 

1.... South Jacksonville S6 NW 

3 . . . . Phillips 34 A 

5 Bowden 32 

9 Summervllle 23 

10. . . .Nesbit 2T 11. ...Eaton 26 D'st. fr. 

Jack- 14 Sweetwater 23 St. Augns- 

sonville. 16 Bayard 21 tine. 

18 Register 19 

19. . . .Clarkville IS 

21. . . .Durbin 16 

V 28 Sampson 9 

SE 32. . . .Magnolia Grove 5 

37 St. Augustine- 

> For railway and steamboat connections see p. 103. 
* Connects with line to Palatka, see p. 84, 

Sumter County. 

Area, 625 sq. m.— Lat. 28° 15' to 28» 57' N.— Long. 81° 55' to 82° 18' W.— 
Population (1890), 5,350.— Pop. (1880), 4,686.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,719,- 
018. — County seat, SumtervUle. 

Sumter County is topographically part and parcel of the 
central lake region, and of the large orange-growing counties 
of Lake, Marion, Citrus, Hernando, and Pasco. It was orig- 
inally organized as a county in 1851, including parts of the 
present territory covered by Orange and Polk Counties. 
Changes to the present boundaries were made successively 
in 1871, 72, '79, and '87. The Withlacoochee Eiver, which 
forms the major part of the western boundary, is navigable 
to Pembertou Ferry. In the winter of 1888-89, during a 
l^eriod of exceptionally high water, a boat crossed from the 
vicinity of Lake Panasoflfkee and the Withlacoochee Eiver, 
thus demonstrating the possibility of crossing from the 
Atlantic to the Gulf. The shooting and fishing are excellent 
over a large portion of the county. Near Dragem Junction 
is the scene of the massacre of Major Dade and his com- 
mand (see p. 305), which was practically the beginning of 
the long Seminole war, 1835 to 1842, which nearly exter- 
minated the then existing settlements in South Florida. 

The Florida Southern Railway (J., T. & K. W. system) en- 


ters the coiintv at a i^oint about twelve miles soiithwest from 
Leesburg. The stations within the county and near its lim- 
its are : 

I 115 Cason's (Lake Co.) 31 -^jp, 

120.... Centre HiU 26 ^. -n, ^ f, 125 ...Webster 21 '^ ^^zll 

Falatka. J, 129 . . . . Dragem Jc. i IT 1 J,,r<> 

Q^P- 135....Pemberton2 11 ^"^*'- 

° " 146 ... . Brooksville (Hernando Co.) ' 

1 Crosses F. C. & P. (see below). 

" Connects with J., T. & K. W. system for Punta Gorda and Tampa. 

The southern division F. C. & P. enters the county from 
Ocala, Marion County, on the north. Stations adjacent to 
and within the county are as follows : 

Dist. fr. 


16 Summerfleld (Marion Co.) 21 

21. ...Oxford 16 . 

26....Wildwood 1 11 '^ 

29 Orange Home 8 

31. ...Bamboo 6 

35 Montclair 2 

37 ... . Leesbm-g2 (Lake Co.) ' 

Dist. fr. 

J Connects with Tampa branch F. C. & P. (see below). 
2 Connects with J., T. & K. W. sj'stem (see p. 4T). 

The Tampa division F. C. & P. connects with the forego- 
ing at Wildwood. The stations are : 

O....Wildwood' 61 

5 Coleman 56 N 

8 Panasoffkee 53 a 9.. . Sumterville Jc 52 Dist. fr. 

Wfldwood. 14....Bn8hnell 4T PlantCity. 

V 18.... St. Catharine* 43 

S 22 . . . .Withlacoochee 39 

28 Lacoochee (Hernando Co.) 33 

' Connects with F. C. & P. to Leesburg (see above). 
2 Crosses J., T. & K. W. system (see above). 

The Orange Belt Eailway crosses the southern part of the 
county. The stations near and within the county line are : 

I 51 Mascotte (La/cfl Co.) 96 p 

56 . . Cedar Hammock 91 ■7 60....TaiTytown 87 y» Dist. fr. St. 

Monroe, w 64 Wyoming 83 Petersburg. 

Xr 70.. .Lacoochee' (flernarido Co.) 77 

" 71 Macon"-' (//ernando Co.) 76 ' 

> Crosses Tampa Branch F. C. & P. (see p. 35). 
' Crosses J., T. & K. W. system (see p. 35). 



Santa Rosa County. 

Area, 1,200 sq. m.— Lat. 30° 19' to 30° 58' N.— Long. 80" 38' to 87° 20^ W.— 
Populiition (1890), 7,948.— Pop. (1880), 6,645.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,282- 
800. —County neat, Milton. 

Santa Eosa County, next to the narrow tenitory of Es- 
cambia, is the westernmost county in Florida, and was one 
of the original civic divisions of the State. 

It takes its name from the fine bay discovered by Tristan 
de Luna in 1559. Santa Kosa has four navigable rivers, 
namely, the Escambia, forming the -western boundary, and 
navigable into Alabama ; the Blackwater, draining the north- 
ern half of the county, a rich lumber region, sparsely settled, 


and affording a fine cattle range ; the Yellow River, crossing 
the county diagonally, and forming jiarfc of its eastern 
boundary, and East Bay Eiver, parallel to Santa Rosa Sound, 
a short distance inland. The lumber and live-stock interests 
are the principal industries, sheep raising having of late 
years taken a foremost place. 

Tlie subsoil is clay with a sandy surface, and rice, corn, 
sweet potatoes, oats, Leconte pears, peaches, grapes, and 
figs are grown successfully. The pecan tree flourishes and 
makes a profitable crop when once the trees are in bearing. 
The nuts are quite equal to those grown in Texas. The 
finest and oldest grove in the State is in the town of Black- 

The Pensacola & Atlantic division of the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad crosses the county on a line running 
nearly northeast and southwest. The stations near and 
within the county are : 

Dist. fr. 
River Jc. 


110 ... Crestview (Walton Co.) 50 .^t, 

114....Chaffin'8 46 ■". 

122.... Holt's 38 -^ 

131 . . .Good Range 29 

141. ...Milton 19 

144 Arcadia 16 

152 Escambia {Escambia Co.) 8 

Dist. fr. 

For continuation southwest to Pensacola see p. 29 ; east, to River Junction 
see p. 101. 

Suwannee County. 

Area, 750 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 52' to 30° 24' N.— Long. 82° 46' to 83° 18' W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 10,505.— Pop. (1880), 7,161.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,579,988.— 
County seat. Live Oalv. 

The name Suwannee is of Seminole or Muskhogee origin, 
meaning "deep water," and the fine stream that bears it and 
gives its name to the county forms the boundary on three 
sides. It is navigable for river steamboats as far as White 
Springs during the greater part of the year, and with its 
numerous tributaries affords many desirable mill sites. The 
river gives easy access to the Gulf of Mexico, and the loca- 
tion of the county within reach of the sea-breezes from both 
directions renders its climate exceedingly equable. The 
temperature averages about 50° in the winter months, and in 



Stammer rarely rises higher than 90°, the average being 80° 
to 85°. 

The soil is a sandy loam with a substratum of clay, fertile 
and easy of cultivation. Large tracts of good land are still 

open to settlement imder the State and United States laws, 
and while considerable portions are held by capitalists, the 
prices of land to actual settlers are by no means exorbitant. 
The lumber within reach of water or railway transporta- 
tion is abundant, and of excellent quality. Hammock lands 


border the water-courses bearing the finest varieties of hard- 
wood, as ash, hickory, live oak, red oak, white oak, cherry, 
red bay, beach, majjle, and magnolia, while pitch pine and 
yellow pine cover thousands of acres of rolling country. 

Sea Island cotton was largely cultivated by slave labor be- 
fore the Civil War, and now, after a lapse of many years, is 
resuming its importance. Some of the leading Northern and 
European cotton factors have permanent warehouses at Live 
Oak and elsewhere. The total annual shipment of cotton, 
accoi'ding to the latest rejjort available, is about three thou- 
sand bales. Oranges can be successfully cultivated, but not 
with the certainty that obtains in South Florida, and tobacco 
is becoming an important and profitable crop. Extensive 
plantations of the Leconte pear are in bearing, strawberries 
are extremely prolific, and all the small fruits are in a 
marketable condition a month ahead of the same kinds in 
Delaware, and two weeks in advance of Georgia. 

The western division of the F. C. & P. crosses the north- 
ern i^art of the county on a line running northwest and 
southeast. The stations within the county are : 

, 71 — Welbom 94 o^, 

Dist. fr. 76... Houston 89 °^ 

Jackson- J, 82. .. .Live Oak" 83 A Talla- 

viUe. T^Vrr 92....BuckiJc.=' 73 

■^" 95....EIlaviile 70 ' 

' Crosses Savannah, Florida & Western Railway (see below). 
" Connects with Suwamiee River Railroad (see below). 

For continuation westward see p. 5S ; eastward, p. 18. 

The Gainesville division S., F. & W. Ed. (Savannah, Gra., 
to Gaines\dlle, 249 miles, 9^ hours). Stations within and near 
the county are : 

Dist. fr. 



168 Marion (Hamilton Co.) 81 

171 Suwannee 77 

179 .. . .Live Oak' 70 

184 ...Padlock 65 

188. .. . Pine Mount 61 

190....McAlpin 59 

196. ..O'Brien 52 

203 . . New Branford^ 46 

216 . . .Lake City Jc.^ (Columbia Co.). . .33 

• Crosses western division P. C. & P. (see above). 
" Connects Suwannee River steamers. 
' Connects Lake City division. 

Dist. fr. 


Tlie Suwannee Iliver Kailway runs from Hudson-on-tlie- 
Suwanuee to Bucki Junction. It is about twelve miles long, 
with no regular stations between termini. "When the Su- 
wannee Eiver is low tliis road is convenient for steamboat 
connections at New Branford. 

Taylor County. 

Area, 1.080 sq. m.— Lat. 29° 40' to 30° 15' N.— Long. S3° 22' to 84" W.— Popu- 
lation (1890), 2,122.— Pop. (1880), 2,2T9.— Asssessed valuation (1888), $270,094.— 
County seat. Perry. 

Taylor County was organized in 1851, and named after 
General Zachary Taylor, the poi^ular hero of the war with 
Mexico, 1847-48, and subsequently President of the United 

The county has about forty miles of coast on the Gulf of 
Mexico, with shallow harbors at the mouths of the Aucilla, 
FenhoUoway, and Econfena Elvers, and in Deadman's Bay, 
available only for small boats. There are no lighthouses on 
this coast. The surface is generally level, intersected with 
plentiful streams, some of which afford excellent mill sites, 
and in all of which the different varieties of fish are found in 
plenty. The piney woods are broken by several large ham- 
mocks, the home of bear, deer, panthers, wild-cats, and tur- 
keys. The game has not yet been hunted out in this region, 
and good sport may be had with the assistance of competent 
guides. Along the Gulf the pine lands are veiy poor, but in 
the interior they are of good quality, the soil varying from 
gray to dark in color, and about two feet deep. The ham- 
mocks are a dark sandy loam, unsurpassed in fertility. 

As a cattle range the county has always afforded excellent 
facilities, owing to the abundant growth of native grasses. 

Tlie climate is that of the Gulf coast of Florida, and is 
healthy when ordinary judgment is used. Along both banks 
of the Econfena River there is a healthy belt ten miles wide, 
while along the FenhoUoway it is sickly, the reason being 
that in the former case the water is pure, while in the latter 
case it is strongly impregnated with lime. In the lime-water 



regions cisterns for rain-water are used by prudent residents. 
Tlie Econfeua Biver rises in Washington County, soiitlieast 
from Oak Hill. Its course is thirty miles from its source to 

St. Andrew's Bay, but this is interrupted by Natural Bridge, 
fifteen miles from the mouth, to which i:)oint the stream is 
navigable. Below the bridge for several miles the voyager 
is delighted by the frequent occiirrence of remarkable springs 
along the west bank. The lands along this river are of fine 


quality and the locality lias a high reputation for liealthful- 
ness. Bear Creek, a navigable tributary, enters the Econfena 
from the eastward, about four miles from salt water. Besides 
the springs referred to are Hampton Spring on Rocky Creek 
and a chalybeate spring on Blue Creek. 

Perry, the county seat, may be best reached from Madison. 
Madison County, thirty-one miles by mail route. 

Tolusia County. 

Area, 1,340 sq. m.— Lat. 28° 35' to 29° 25' N.— Long. 81° 35' to 81" W W — 
I'opiilation (1890), 8,463.— Pop. (1880), 3,294.— Assessed valuation (1888), $3,994,- 
572.— County seat, DeLand. 

Volusia, as may be inferred from the phenomenal increase 
in its population, is, to Northern settlers, one of the most 
attractive counties of South Florida. This is largely ac- 
counted for from its easy access to Northern markets, its ad- 
vantages of soil and climate for invalids, and the facilities 
that it offers to tourists and sportsmen. 

The county was organized under territorial government in 
1825, and its somewhat unfortunate early name was Mosquito 
County, a title which was naturally repudiated as soon as 
possible, and Orange was adopted. It originally included 
Orange and Brevard Counties. In 1854 Volusia and part of 
Brevard were set oflf, and in 1878 the present boundaries 
were established. Lying between the St. Jo^m's Eiver on the 
west, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Volusia County has 
navigable waters on both sides, besides which railroads cross 
it in four directions, affording ready transportation for the 
enormous orange crop. The country bordering the principal 
railroads and watercourses, indeed, is almost a continuous 
orange grove, and the planters claim that no part of the State 
excels it for raising this favorite crop. The land is largely 
high pine and hammock, and very ju-oductive for all kinds of 

Along the ocean front are found the narrow beaches, 
.sometimes, as at Daytona and Ormond, rising into verit- 
able hammocks. Within these, to the westward, are the 
coastwise rivers, the Halifax and the Hillsborough. West- 



•ward again is a wide belt of the richest hammock, two or 
three miles wide, and containing evidences of ancient culti- 

vation in the shape of drains, canals, and mined houses, con- 
cerning some of which all records have been lost, while the 


histoiy of the others, as the Turnbull tract at New Smyrna, 
is tolerably well known. Beyond the hammocks is a belt of 
prairie, broken by islands of cabbage-palm and pine, rising 
first into "flat-woods," and again into the rolling pine-lands 
that extend nearly to the St. John's Kiver at the western 

The first settlement within the present limits of the county 
was made during the British occupancy by Dr. Turnbull, a 
Scotch gentleman of wealth, who, having obtained a large 
conditional grant of hammock land in the vicinity of 
New Smyrna, enlisted a colony of some fifteen hundred 
Greeks, Italians, and Minorcaus, and brought them over 
with the intention of organizing an agricultural community. 
Dissensions followed, and the colony was broken up, but not 
before a large amount of work had been accomplished (see 
Eoute 63). 

In 1803 a colony of nearly twenty families from St. Augus- 
tine resettled the abandoned lands of the Turnbull tract, es- 
tablishing, in spite of hostile Indians, quite a prosperous set- 
tlement. In 1835, however, the Seminole war broke out in 
earnest, and the inhabitants were obliged to escape across 
the river and see their houses and plantations burned behind 
them. Until 1842 the county was abandoned by whites, and 
even after that time Indian alarms were so frequent that, in 
1860, there were barely twenty-five families within the pres- 
ent boundaries. Then followed the Civil War, when New 
Smyrna enjoyed a short lived and costly importance as an 
entrepot for blockade-runners, but was presently shelled by 
United States gunboats, and nearly destroyed. 

An expedition from Jacksonville was sent up the St. John's 
Eiver, and is said to have captured every man in the county. 
Two of the prisoners were released, however, as too small of 
stature for military duty, and for several months these two 
were the only white men in the county. At the first election 
after the return of peace there were twenty-one registered 
voters, and every one of them was present to organize the 
first court. Shortly after this the movement began which 
has so wonderfully increased the population of the county, 
and developed its resources. 



The main line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West sys- 
tem to Saudford (connecting for PuntaGorda and Port Tampa) 
and Titusville follows a generally north and south direction 
near the St. John's Eiver. The stations within and near the 
county are : 

ft". Jackson- 

77 Denver (Putnam Co.) S2 

81 Hammond 78 

84.... Seville 75 

. Bakersburg 71 

.Pierson ..'. 70 

.Eklrld^e 67 

Barbervil e 65 

.Deep CreeSi 62 


99 Sprmp; Garden 60 

103 .. . Glenwood 57 

103....mcrh:aud Park 55 

107....DeLaudJc.i 52 

108. . .Beresford 51 

113.... Orange c:tyJc. 2 47 

118 .. .Ente. prise Jc 41 

12D....Osteeu 30 

131.... Cow Creek 25 

138. . . Maytown 18 

147 Aurantia (Brevard Co.) 9 

151 Mims (Brevard Co.) 5 

153 La Grange (Brevard Co.) 4 

157 .. . .Titusville (Brevard Co.) 

fr. Titus- 

' At DeLand Junction is a spur three miles eastward to DcLand, and two miles 
westward to DeLand Lauding. 

2 At Orange City Junction Is the crossing of the Atlantic & Western Sailroad 
(see below). 

Atlantic & Western Railroad from Blue Springs on the St. 
John's River to New Smyrna on the sea-coast, crossing the 
county from east to west : 

. . .Blue Springs 29 

O?^:.. Orange City Jc 28>4 W 

■nut f_ 3 ...Orange City 26 a Dist. 

Smyrna 8J^ .. Lake Helen 19>^ j fr. Blue 

bmyma. ^ 22 . Waverly 6 Springs. 

E 25>^ . . Glencoe Z}4 

29 New Smyrna 

At Orange City Junction is the crossing of J., T. & K. W. (see above). 



Wakulla County. 

Area, 580 sq. m.— Lat. 30° to SO" 20' N.— Long. 84° 5' to 34° 4.5' W.— Popula- 
tion (1890), 3,109.— Pop. (1880), 2,723.— Assessed valuation (1888), $362,281.— 
Covaity seat, C'rawfordvillc. 

This county is named after the famous spring near the 
Gulf coast. The Seminole word Wakulla means mystery, 
and no one who visits the spring will question the fitness of 
the title (see i?. 348). A further mystery, peculiar to this 
region, is the alleged "Wakulla Volcano," a column of 

smoke or vapor that perpetually rises above the trees at a 
certain point to which no man has as yet penetrated (see p. 
347). The surface is mainly level and sandy, with a clay 
subsoil and limestone rock, often rich in phosphates, not far 
below the surface everywhere. Heavily timbered hard-wood 
hammocks cover a large portion of the county, and game is 
abundant. The Oeklockony River, a considerable stream, 
forms the western boundary, and its tributaries water the 
Avestern part of the county. In the eastern part are the St. 
Mark's and Wakulla Rivers, w Inch unite, forming the Apala- 
chee River, five miles from the Gulf. The former has its 
source in the famous spring just referred to. The latter 
rises in a small pond, nineteen miles northeast from the 


junction of the streams. Boats drawing four feet of water 
can ascend to the sources of both these streams. It is sup- 
posed from topogi-aphical surveys that the St. Mark's derives 
its supply from Lake Micosukee and its tributaries (see 
p. 52). Numerous sinks occur along a certain connecting 
line, and sometimes the river itself emerges for a time above 

The Ocklockony River, forming the western boundary of 
the county, rises in Georgia, and running generally south, 
falls into Ocklockony Bay, twenty miles west of St. Mark's. 
It is navigable for steamboats about fifty miles. Some 
twenty miles from its mouth it divides. New River carrying 
a portion of its waters to the bay. Its principal tributaries 
are Tugalo, Little River, Robinson's Creek, and Rocky Com- 

The Gulf coast line is about twenty-five miles in extent, 
not attempting to trace its various indentations. It forms an 
extensive bight known as Apalachee Bay, early discovered 
by the Spaniards, and the site of attempted settlements in 
the sixteenth century. 

At the mouth of St, Mark's River, on the east side, is a 
lighthouse showing a fixed w'hite light of the fourth order, 
visible fifteen miles at sea. The tower is white, eighty-three 
feet in total height above the water. The channel is well 
buoyed, and admits vessels drawing seven feet at low tide. 

The principal industries are turpentine-making, stock-rais- 
ing, bee-culture, hunting, and fishing. There are many 
natural curiosities as sinks, springs, and the like scattered 
through the county. The supply of drinking-water is mainly 
derived from cisterns, as the natural flow is strongly im- 
l>reguated with lime. 

The St. Mark's Railroad from Tallahassee, in Leon County, 
to St. Mark's, is twenty-one miles long ; through time, one 
hour and forty-five minutes. 

I Tallahassee 21 t,j ' 4....Belair IT . 

Tallahassee, o 16 .... Wakulla 5 '^ St. Mark's. 

° 21 ... St. Mark's ' 

For conoections at Tallahassee (sec p. 53). 



Walton County. 

Area, 1,360 eq. m.— Lat. 30" 20' to 31" N.— Lontr. 85" 52' to 86° 39' W.— Popu- 
lation ( 1890), 4.811.— Pop. (1880), 4,201.— Assessed valuation (1888), $1,122,755. 
— Coucty seat. De Funiak Springs. 

Walton County i.s bounded on the north by Alabama, east 
by Holmes and Washington Counties, south by Choctawhat- 
chee Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, and west by Santa Bosa 
County. The laud is mainly covered with pine woods, flat 

near the coast but high and rolling to the northward. The 
soil is for the most part sandy with clay near the streams. 

The land is highly productive and large shii^ments are an- 
nually made of cotton, corn, sugar, vegetables, fruits, and to- 
bacco. Stock-raising, especially sheep, is extensively fol- 
lowed and is on the increase. This industry was originally 
introduced by a colony of Scotch Presbyterians who settled 
in the Euchee Vallev in 1823, and whose descendants still 


remain among the most prospprous and thrifty farmers of 

this region. 

The Pensacola & Atlantic division of the L. & N. Rd. 

crosses the county from east to west. The stations within 

and near the county are as follows : 

70 Ponce de Leon (Holmes Co.) ... 134 

I TT....Argyle 128 E 

•ni-^ f,. 81 . . . .De Funiak Springs 124 a Y.;^t t- 

River Jc 94.... Mossy Head 109 PengacSk 

Kiverdc. y l01....Deer)and 102 , -t^ensacoia. 

W 110....Crestview 93 i 

114. . . .Milligan {Santa Rosa Co.) 89 

For continuation of this route to Tallahassee, etc., eastward, see p. 40 ; west- 
ward to Pensacola, p. 8T. 

Washiugton County. 

Area, 1.330 sq. m.— Lat. 30° to 30" 40' N.— Long. 85" 20' to 86" 32' W.— Popu- 
lafon (1890), 6,416.— Pop. (ISSO), 4,089.— Assessed valuation (1888), $759,537.— 
County seat, Vernon. 

Washington was one of the original counties organized 
after the United States acquired the territory of Florida. 
Holmes and Jackson Counties bound it on the north, Jackson 
and Calhoun on the east, the Gulf of Mexico on the south, 
and "Walton County on the west. The principal exports are 
cotton, timber, and cattle. The soil is in the main sandy, 
with alluvial bottoms and hammocks along the rivers. Some 
of the cultivated iDortious of the county have been tilled by 
whites for nearly half a century, and from time immemorial 
by the aborigines who preceded them. The sheep-growing 
industry has developed here, as in the neighboring counties, 
during recent years, and bids fair to become a very profitable 
branch of farming. The fine bay of St. Andrew's and its 
viciuity offer exceptional attractions to sportsmen. 

The Western division of the Florida Central & Peninsula 
Eailway closely follows the northern boundary line. The 
stations are : 

34 Cottondale (Jackson Co.) 171 

44....ChipIeY 161 E 

Dist fr \ B3....Bonifay 1.52 a -pi-.^t f- 

KverJc i 61....Caryvil!e 144 , pi^'t^-^- 

xuverdc. y 63. . . .Westville 142 ! I'ensacola. 

W 71 ... , Ponce de Leon 134 

77 ... . Argyle ( Walton Co.) 128 

For continuation of this route eastward to Tallahassee and JacliBonvIlle see 
p. 41 ; westward to Pensacola see p. 40. 



10. Jacksonville, Duval County (C.H.). 

Population (1S90), 17,100.— Lat. 30° 24' N.— Long. 81° 40' W. 

Hotels. — (Rates are given by the day unless otherwise stated. Where rates 
are omitted no reply to inquiry has been received.) (Jarleton Hotel, Rooms $1 
upward; restaurant « /a cajie. — Ducal. — Kterett. — Grand Vieir. — Glenad i, $3 
to $3. 'm).— Hotel Tojni, $2. — Lafayette.— Oxford.— St. James Hotel, $4.— 7're- 
moiit House. — yvindsor Hotel. $4 and $5. 

Special rates are usually mide for permanent guests, or by the week. Besides 
the hotels there are 100 boarding-houses, at $8 to J15 a week. 

Ratlroads, Steamboats, etc. 

Jacksonville, Tampa £ Key West System (to St. Augustine, Indian River, 
Tampa, Punta Gorda, etc.). Station foot of Bridge St. (see p. 25). 

Fcoridt Central d- Peninsula Railway (to Tallahassee, Pensacola, Fernan- 
dina, Cedar Key, Orlando, etc.). Station foot of Hogan St. (see p. 26). 

Savannah, Florid i & Western Railway (Waycross Short Line). Station foot 
of Bridge St. (see p. 25). 

Jacksonville, Mayport d- Pablo Railway d- Xavigation Co. (to Mayport and 
Buruside Beach). Ferry from foot of Market St. (see p. 26). 

Jacksonville d Atlantic Riilroid (to Pablo Beach). Ferry from foot of New- 
nan St. (see p. 26). 

People's Line (St. John's River Steamers). Astor's wharf, foot of Hogan St. 

De Bary Line (St. John's River Steamers). Foot of Laura St. 

Beich d- Miller Line (to Fort Geo ge, Mayport, etc.). Tyson & Co.'s wharf, 
foot of Pine St. 

Clyde Line (New York, Charleston & Florida Steamship Co.). Astor's wharf, 
foot of Hogan St. 

Tramways, with cars at five minute intervals, run through Bay St. eastward, 
two miles to the r.ver bank below Commodore's Point, where there are a race- 
course and one or two hotels, mainly for transient resort. Good view across and 
down the river. Westward tha Bay Street line crosses McCoy's Creek into the 
subiubs. A cross-town line runs ou: Pine St. to the Sub-tropical Exposition 
grounds and beyond, and another out Laura St., two miles to the suburbs of 
Somerville and Warren ; ualform fare, 5c. 

Carriage rate from railroad stations and steamboat landings to any part of 
city 23c. 1 luggage 25c. per piece. 

Livery. — Carriases and saddle-horses may usually be best engaged through 
the hotel clerk; there are, however, many excellent "livery stables where, if de- 
sired, special terms may be made. The following are approximately the pre- 
vailing rates : Saddle-horses, 73c. to 11.50 an hour, $3 a day ; single teams, $1.50 
an hour, $4 a day ; double teams with driver, $2 an hour, $5 upward a day. 

Boats and Launches may be found at the foot of Market St. ; row-boats. 25c. 
an hour ; with attendant, $2 to $5 a day. Special bargains must be made for 
steam launches and tha like, or for protracted expeditfons. 

Points of Ikterest in Jacksonville. 

The Sub-tropical Exposition (p. 104). 

Citv Water-works (p. 104). 

Post Office, Bay St., cor. Market. 

Banks (hou's 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.m.).— Bank of Jacksonville.— First National 
Bank of Florida, cor. Bay and Ocean Sta. — State Bank of Florida.— National 
Bank, State of Florida. 16 West Bay St. — National Bank of Jacksonville. —Flor- 
ida Savings Bank and Raal Estate Exchange. — Ambler, Marvin & Stocktou. 

Cigar Manufactories. 

Fibre Works. 

Churches.— Ba\)tist, Rev. Mr. Plummer.— Consregational, Rev. R. T. Hall, 
Hogau St.— Episcopal, St. John's, Duvil St., near Market. —Methodist, St. Paul's, 
Rev. J. B. Anderson. Duva! St., cor. Newnan.— Methodist. Trinity, Rev. W. S. 
Fitch, Monroe St. and City Park.— Presbyterian (North), Rev. S. W." Paine, Ocean 


St.— Presbyterian (South), Rev. Dr. Dodge. Newuau St.— Roman Catholic. 
Father Kceuy, Newnan St. There are also a large number of small congre- 
gatious, mainly negroes, scattered through the city. 

The Sub-tropical EKposition. The buildings for this an- 
nual exhibition of the products of Florida are in the City 
Water-works Park, on Hogau Street, about three quarters of 
a mile from the river, fifteen minutes' walk from Bay Street 
and the principal hotels. Tramcars run out Hogan Street 
(fare 5c.). The exhibition proper is usually ojoen from early 
in January till about April 1st ; 25c. general admission ; 50c. 
on special occasions, gala nights, and the like. The build- 
ings are open at all times, however, as some objects of in- 
terest always remain, even when the exhibition is closed. 
Among these are the tropical plants within the building, the 
living manatee or sea-cow in the artificial lake, with deer, 
and sometimes other Floridian animals and birds in an en- 
closure to the west of the main building. 

In connection with the exhibition are the Jacksonville 
Water-works. The supply is drawn from artesian wells. 
The first of these was driven in 1883, and the last and deep- 
est in 1889. The water is impregnated with sulphur, and 
emits a slightly unpleasant odor when it reaches the air. 
This odor disappears almost immediately, and the water, a% 
delivered to the service-pii^es, is jjure and wholesome. The 
strata penetrated by the last and deepest boring, 1,020 feet, 
were as follows : Sand, 20 ft. ; clay (phosphatic), 2 ft. ; co- 
quina, 20 ft. ; blue clay. 300 ft. ; fossil limestone, 2 ft. (small 
flow of sulphur water, 8 to 10 gallons a minute) ; blue clay, 
100 ft. ; fossil rock, 30 ft. ; flinty rock, 6 ft. ; open lime rock, 
yielding a strong flow of water, 100 ft. ; hard, sandy lime- 
stone, 350 ft., with a constantly increa.sing flow of excellent 
sulphur water. The maximum flow is 2.333 gallons a min- 
ute, at a temperature of 78' on reaching the surface. 

Shops. The principal stores are on Bay Street, running 
for a mile near and parallel to the river. All the ordinary 
wants of travellers can be supplied here at prices but little 
in advance of the prevailing rates in Northern cities, and it 
is often easier to purchase articles here than to bring them 
from a distance. 
Drives. Within the city pleasurable driving is limited to 


the wooden pavements which now cover most of the prin- 
cipal streets. As these are jjleasantly shaded, and in the main 
bordered with pretty residences, they are quite pojDular. Out- 
side the city the shell road is the favorite drive. Follow 
Pine Street to Eighth Street, one and one-half mile from 
the Court House ; turn to the left, and follow Eighth Street, 
which presently merges in the Moncrief Springs Koad. This 
may be followed to its junction with the shell road, through 
the La Villa precinct, and so back to town, eight miles. The 
Old King's Eoad, a relic of the days of English rule, is still 
in fairly good order for several miles out, and so is the Pan- 
ama Eoad, following the north bank of the river toward its 

On the south side of the river are charming drives on ex- 
cellent shell roads. Cross the river by ferry from foot of 
Newnan Street (moderate extra charge for horses and car- 
riages) ; follow direct road from wharf one-quarter of a mile, 
turn slightly to left, and cross railway. This is the old road 
to St. Augustine and beyond, constructed under the adnun- 
istration of the British Governor, James Grant (1765), Per- 
mission may be obtained at the gate lodge, one mile from fer- 
ry, to drive through the private grounds of Villa Alexandria. 
Eastward the road leads to Devins Point, Arlington Creek, etc. 
It is recommended not to diverge far from the shell roads, 
as the sand makes heavy work for horses. In the saddle, how- 
ever, any of the wood roads may be comfortably followed. 


The site of Jacksonville became important to aboriginal 
tribes long before the advent of Europeans. At this point 
the St. John's River, after flowing for more than two hun- 
dred miles in a tortuous northerly course, makes a sharp 
bend to the eastward, and falls into the ocean twenty miles 
below the city. The elbow of the river formed a natural 
rendezvous for tribal expeditions for war or the chase, and 
the existence of shell and burial mounds in the vicinity at- 
tests its frequent, perhaps permanent occupation. The Ind- 
ians knew it as " Wacca Pilatka," Cow's Crossing, whence its 


early English name, " Cow's Ford." The Freuoh and Sjian- 
iards were not road builders, but dui-ing colonial times the 
English built what was known as the King's Road from St. 
Augustine and points still fartlier south. Cow's Ford was 
the natural crossing point, and the King's Road served as 
the highway for the pioneer. The early Indian and Span- 
ish wars antedated the existence of Jacksonville. During 
the war for independence on the part of the Northern Col- 
onies, Florida was, if anything, royalist in sentiment. 

In 1816, Florida, having jjassed again from British to 
Spanish rule, one Lewis Z. Hogans, a settler on the south 
side of the river, married a Spanish W'idow, Dona Maria 
Suavez by name, who held a grant of two hundred acres on 
the present site of Jacksonville. Moving to his wife's land, 
Hogans was ready to reap the benefit of the tide of immi- 
gration that began in a small way soon after the transfer of 
the territory to the United States in 1819. A feny was es- 
tablished, and an inn oi^ened in 1820, by John Brady, and by 
1822 it became necessary to plan for the future. Streets were 
accordingly laid out, and a town government was organized. 

The town was formally incorporated in 1833, and named 
after General Andrew Jackson, Governor of Florida prior to 
its organization as a territory, and afterward President of 
the United States. Until 1835 the town grew with consider- 
able rapidity, but with the outbreak of the Seminole War 
(see p. ) in that year its prosperity was checked. It be- 
came fox the time a place of refuge ; blockhouses were 
erected and a garrison was maintained, until 1842, when the 
Seminoles were subdued. 

With the return of peace, the town resumed its growth. 
It was the natural port of entry for all traffic from the ocean, 
and the distributing point for such overland commerce as 
sought an outlet by sea. In 1860 the population was 2,118, 
the lumber interest had assumed important proportions, and, 
as a shipping point for all Florida produce, Jacksonville was 
without a rival. The Civil War (1861 to 1865) checked this 
era of prosperity. 

The Confederate authorities garrisoned the place, but no 
considerable measures were taken for its defence. On March 


11, 18(52, the United States gunboats, Ottawa, Seneca, and 
Pembina crossed the bar at some risk. The next day, with 
several lighter draft vessels that had joined, the squadron 
sbeamed np to Jacksonville, which was jDeacefully surren- 
dered by the city authorities. The small Confederate force 
that had been in possession retreated to the interior. The 
report of Lieutenant T. H. Stevens, commanding the United 
States squadron, avers that he found many smouldering 
ruins of mills, houses, and other property that had been 
recently burned, while the Confederates charge the destruc- 
tion of property to the Federals. 

Fortifications were erected and it was announced that the 
place would be permanently held by United States forces. 
Under this assurance a meeting of citizens, held on March 
20th, repudiated the ordinance of secession, and called for a 
convention to reorganize a State government under the laws of 
the United States. Four days afterward, March 24:th, there 
was another meeting, pursuant to adjournment, at which a call 
for a convention was issued in due form. 

Notwithstanding all this, however, there came an order 
on April 10th, withdrawing the whole force, and sending it 
North on what was deemed more important service. Many 
of the inhabitants who had declared their allegiance to the 
United States Government feared to remain, and were given 
transiDortation to the North. 

On October 4th of the same year Jacksonville was again 
occupied for a sliort time by a Federal force under General 
Brannan, and again abandoned. 

An expedition, consisting of the First Eegiment of South 
Carolina Volunteers, Colonel T. W. Higginson commanding, 
and a portion of the Second South Carolina Volunteers, under 
Colonel Montgomery, reoccupied Jacksonville on March 10, 
1863. These troops were negroes, lately slaves, and were 
recruited in South Carolina. They were among the tirst of 
the regiments of colored troops afterward organized in the 
service of the United States. Jacksonville was at this time 
merely a picket station, a considerable body of Confederate 
troops being encamped some eight miles to the westward. 
The purpose of this expedition, as stated in the report of 

108 JA(;KS()NVIIiI.H. 

General Saxton, was to establish a base of operatious in 
Florida, and harass the enemy more by inviting enlistments 
of negroes than by active operations. The three transports 
conveying the troops came up the river under convoy of a 
guaboat. No opposition was met with, the transports made 
fast to the wharves, and the men jumped ashore without 
waiting for the gang-plank. There was much consternation 
among- the few remaining inhabitants, on the unexpected 
arrival of the dreaded negro soldiers, but, as a general thing, 
they were kept well in hand during the period of their stay. 

On March 23d, the Confederates mounted a gnn on a plat- 
form car, and ran it down the track within range of the city. 
On the next day the experiment was repeated, and several 
buildings were struck by shells. On March 26th, a strong 
reconnoitering party marched out along the railroad, under 
command of Colonel Higginson. They had a brush with the 
enemy, losing a few men about four miles from the town. 
To the surprise of all connected with the expedition, an 
order for the abandonment of Jacksonville was received, and 
on March 31st the United States forces were withdrawn. 
At this time there occurred an act of vandalism, the respon- 
sibility for which could never be fixed. A mania for firing 
buildings seemed to seize upon the stragglers and camp fol- 
lowers who managed to escape from the control of their offi- 
cers. A high wind was blowing, and Jacksonville was almost 
wholly destroyed. The fleet steamed away, leaving the place 
in flames. Even at the North the management of this exj^edi- 
tion, involving, as it did, the needless occupation and abandon- 
ment of a jaartly loyal city, provoked severe condemnation. 

On the afternoon of February 7, 1864, the few remaining 
inhabitants of Jacksonville, not much more than one hundred 
souls in all, saw the not unfamiliar spectacle of a gunboat, 
with her crew at quarters in front of the city. A few shots 
were fired by the small detachment of Confederates on duty, 
when comjianies of the Fifty-fourth Massachusetts and the 
Eighth United States Colored Troops landed and took pos- 
session. This was the most formidable expedition that 
landed at Jacksonville during the war, numbering about five 
thousand men. well supplied with cavalry and artilleiy. 


Pausing only long enough to land their material, and leaving 
an adequate garrison, the command pushed on at once along 
the line of the railroad toward Lake City, and met the crush- 
ing defeat at Olustee, described under Route. 

The defeated Federals fell back upon their fortifications 
at Jacksonville, and occupied them until the close of the war 
in 1865. The river was patrolled by gunboats, and no serious 
attack was afterward made by the Confederates. 

Immediately after the restoration of peace, large quanti- 
ties of cotton, which had been stored for safety in the sur- 
rounding country, sought Jacksonville as a convenient port 
of shipment, and since that time her commercial prosperity 
has been assured. 

Jacksonville has been a popular winter resort for Northern 
visitors ever since it became readily accessible to travellers. 
The tract on which it stands was originally what is known 
as I'oUing pine land, having good surface drainage to the 
river in front, and to McCoy's and Hogan's Creeks on either 
side. The natural drainage, however, is mainly through the 
sandy soil, into which the heaviest rains disappear at once, 
leaving the surface practically dry. The streets and public 
squares are well shaded with live oaks, water oaks, and otlier 
native trees, and in the gardens of many of the private 
houses are orange, lemon, lime, magnolia, and other semi- 
tropical trees and shrubs generally unfamiliar to the North- 
ern visitor. 

Many of the orange trees in the streets and elsewhere are 
of the bitter variety, cultivated merely for ornament and 
shade. The fruit is not usually considered edible, though 
it is used in the preparation of certain beverages, preserves, 
and the like. 

The uninitiated Northern visitor often learns the diflference 
between sweet and bitter oranges by practical experience, 
for he is told to help himself freely from any of the trees 
in the public streets or squares. 

The climate of Jacksonville is that of the North Florida 
Atlantic sea-coast (see p. 377). The city is near enough to 
the ocean to enjoy its influence in regard to temperature, 
Avhile the force of the northeasterly gales that are occasion- 


ally experienced is sensibly diminished by the intervening 
belt of timber. 

As a centre from which excursions can be made, Jackson- 
ville is especially convenient, since all the principal railroad 
and steamboat lines diverge from this point (see p. 103). 

The principal streets are paved with the Wyckoff cypress 
pavement, laid with cross sections of cypress logs set on end, 
arranged according to size, and having the interstices filled 
with cement. The streets not so paved are deep with the 
native sand of the locality, or perhaps rendered a degree 
less impassable by means of certain waste material from the 
fibre factories. Wooden sidewalks are almost universal, ex- 
cept on the main business streets. 


11. Jacksonville to St. Augustine. 

J., T. & K. W. Ry., 36 milef5 by railway (1 hour 40 minutes). 

The train passes almost directly from the station to the 
fine drawbridge across the St. John's River. This bridge 
was opened in 1889. It is of steel throughout, with a total 
length of 1,320 feet. The draw is 320 feet long. 

South Jacksonville occupies the point of land formed by 
the bend in the river. It has 800 inhabitants, and is becom- 
ing an attractive suburb. It contains many handsome resi- 
dences. Here terminated the southern section of the Old 
King's Road from St. Augustine, built by the English under 
the administration of Governor Grant (1765). The road is still 
in use. It may be seen to the left of the track as the train 
moves away from the river. For a short time the line passes 
through a scattered growth of oaks, magnolias, and other 
hard wood trees, interspersed with occasional orange groves. 
Then it enters the pines, slightly rolling at first, but grad- 
ually falling off into the flat woods and belts of hammock 
that border the sea-coast. For stations and distances see p. 
85. Between Jacksonville and St. Augustine there are no 
important towns, but the soil is productive, and considerable 
shipments of agricultural products are made. Between 


Sweetwater and Bayard the line crosses Arlington Creek, a 
tributary of the St. John's. A little south of Sampson it 
passes near St. Mary's pond, shortly after which the prairies 
bordering the Tolomato River, open to the south and east, 
and soon the towers and orange-trees of St. Augustine are 
visible beyond. 

Tourists whose time is limited, may visit St. Augustine 
and return to Jacksonville the same day, having about five 
hours for sight-seeing. 

Engage a carriage at the station. Drive to principal points 
of interest (see p. 133). Visit Fort Marion (see p. 157). 
Lunch, inspect the Alameda group of hotels, visit Anastasia 
Island or the North Beach (connection by rail with the latter 
from Union Station). To accomplish all this in five hours ad- 
mits of no loitering, and is not recommended. So hasty a 
visit should only be undertaken rather than lose a look at 
the ancient city altogether. 

12. Jacksonville to Fernandina. 
By F. C. & P. Ky., 37 miles (1 hour 40 minutes). 

Passing through the suburbs of Jacksonville, the line runs 
nearly due north, crossing Trout Creek (five miles) a short 
distance above its junction with the St. John's. Three miles 
farther Cedar Creek is passed, and beyond this is the rolling 
pine forest of Duval County. Six miles north of Duval sta- 
tion is Nassau River (see p. 131), and at Hart's Road Junction, 
the line curves to the eastward. The station takes its name 
from a contractor who cut a military road through the then 
unbroken forest during the earljt Indian wars. Six miles 
farther it crosses Amelia River on a trestle whose predecessor 
was burned during the Civil War (see p. 129), and then turns 
to the northward, soon coming in sight of Fernandina. 

Tourists who have but a short time at their disposal may 
drive about the city and see the chief points of interest dur- 
ing the five or six hoiirs that intervene before the return 
train. For description of Fernandina and vicinity see p. 127. 
Consult local time-tables. 


13. Mayport and Bumside Beach. 

Part steamboat, part rail. Ferry from foot of Pine Street, Jacksonville. 
Boat connects with Mayport & Pablo Railway & Navigation Co. at both ends 
of line. Twenty miles (1 hour 15 minutes). Fare, 50c. ; round trip, $1. Con- 
sult local time-tables. 

The river below Jacksonville is described in detail, p. 117. 
The steam ferryboat from Market Street rounds Commo- 
dore's Point, and connects with the Mayi^ort & Pablo Rail- 
way on the south bank of the river, three miles. Landings 
are sometimes made on signal, at intermediate wharves. 
The conspicuous grove at the mouth of Arlington Creek, 
is Empire Point, sometimes called Devins' Point, the coun- 
try seat of General A. S. Devins. of Boston. 

The railway soon enters the pine woods, and for ten miles 
there are only occasional openings. The line then crosses a 
wide prairie intersected by Pablo Creek and Mt. Pleasant 
Ci'eek. The clumps of dark cedars scattered along the prairie 
mark the site of shell mounds, the work of prehistoric In- 
dian tribes. 

Beyond the prairie the train enters a fine palm hammock. 
Here the newly arrived visitor from the North often makes 
his first acquaintance with the lofty cabbage-palm in its 
native habitat. The hammock extends to the edge of the 
beach. The train runs directly to a platform connected with 
the Pavilion and hotels, where good entertainment can be had. 
Bumside Beach is largely frequented by excursionists from 
Jacksonville and the interior (Palmetto Hotel, $7 to §10 a 
week). The beach is at present making slowly out to sea- 
ward, so that there is quite a stretch of dry sand before the 
hard, level, wave- washed^ bathing-beach can . be reached. 
Looking south one may see the large hotel at Pablo Beach, 
six miles (see p. 114). "Wheelmen often ride from Burnside 
or Mayport to Pablo Beach, whence there is a railway back 
to Jacksonville. The beach is admirable for driving, but 
teams should be secured by telegraph to avoid delay. In 
arranging for a walk or ride between Pablo and Burnside, 
the time of tide should be considered, and the start made 
just after the tide has begun to run ebb. This will insxire a 


roadway of ample width for several hours, or until the tide 
again approaches high water mark. 

From Burnside the train backs to Mavport, two miles, 
keeping just inside the line of sand dunes, between which 
pretty glimpses of the ocean are caught from time to time. 

Mayport, at the mouth of the St. John's Kiver, is so called 
from the name given by the French, in 1562, "La Riviere 
de Mai," before the Spaniards took possession. There is no 
large hotel in the place, but meals and rooms can be had at 
the Burrows House, near the railroad. 

The town has about five hundred inhabitants. There is 
much picturesque life to be seen along shore among the 
fishermen and men engaged in constructing mattresses for 
the jetties (see p. 117). Toward the sea-beach are numer- 
ous summer cottages, belonging, for the most part, to city 
residents. From the lighthouse a good view of the river 
is obtainable. 

The fishing industry at Mavport is of considerable im- 
portance. Shad begin running up the river as early as Jan- 
uary, and are taken in seines in large quantities ; as many as 
ten thousand are said to have been taken in one day. There 
is a tradition among fishermen at the river mouth that shad 
are never known to go to sea again. At all events, that they 
are never taken going out. Some of the fishermen believe 
that the shad perish in the upjier reaches of the river. The 
shad season continues till April, and, when perfectly fresh 
from the water, the fish compare favorably with their North- 
ern brethren. 

The sand composing the Mayjjort dunes is of a peculiarly 
white, fine quality. It drifts like snow across the railroad, 
and great mounds move to and fro, sometimes burying 
houses and trees in their course. Near Mayport the Span- 
iards built a fort which was taken and destroyed by Dome- 
nique de Gourgues, in 1565 (see p. 120). 

The conspicuous group of buildings on^ a large shell 
mound on the opposite side of the river is a mill for grind- 
ing shells for fertilizing purposes. It is possible .sometimes 
to purchase Indian relics from the superintendent or work- 
men, but the supply is very uncertain. Small boats may be 


liiied at Mayport or Pilot Town, with or without attendants, 
to explore the neighl)oriiig shores and inlets. 

Fort George Island and Batten Island are on the opposite 
side of the river, and may be reached by row-boat or feriy. 

A pleasant excursion from Jacksonville is to go to May- 
port by rail as above, and return by boat, or vice versa. 
Tickets are available by either route. 

14. Pablo Beach. 

Hotel, Murray Hall, $2.50 to $4 a day. By Jacksonville A: Atlantic Railroad, 
ferry from foot of Newnan Street, Jacksonville, 17 miles Cflfty-five minutes^). 

The line is nearly straight to the eastward, from South Jack- 
sonville, passing a few unimportant stations in the pine for- 
est, and crossing a wide prairie just before reaching the coast. 
The village of Pablo is mainly a seaside resort, with a fine 
hotel, and a superb bathing-beach three hundred feet wide 
at low tide. The seaward slope of this beach is only eight 
inches in one hundred feet, so that to the eye it is appar- 
ently level, and as the beach is absolutely free from irregu- 
larities, the bathing is safe, even for children. Sand dunes 
covered with beach-scrub and occasional cabbage-palms de- 
fine the shore line, and for a mile these are crowned with 
cottages, hotels, and other buildings suited to a seaside re- 
sort, among them a sanitarium belonging to a large Catho- 
lic institution of Jacksonville. The large hotel, Murray Hall, 
is cleverly contrived to give its guests all possible advantage 
of its fine situation, the parlor windows com.manding an out- 
look to sea, northward up the beach to Mayport, and south- 
ward till the breaking surf and the gray beach disappear in 
the haze. 

Carriages and horses for riding and driving on the beach 
can be had from a well-furnislied livery stable, at reasonable 
rates. Visitors for the day have ample time for an exhilarat- 
ing drive on the beach in either direction, and it is possible 
even to drive to Burnside or Mayport, and return to town 
either by boat or rail from one of those points. 


15. Jacksonville to Green Cove Springs. 

By J., T. & K. \V. Ry. from foot of Bridge Street, 29 miles ^1 hour 15 min- 
utes), or by steamboat. 

By consulting local time-table.s, connections can be made, 
so as to vary the trip, going by rail and returning by boat. 
It is recommended to return by boat, as the afternoon hours 
are pleasant on the river. For description of this part of St. 
John's River see p. 184 ; for Green Cove Springs see p. 187. 

16. Fort George Island. 

This is the most southerly of the Sea Islands, lying just 
north of the St. John's Eiver. It is most directly reached 
by boat down the St. John's from Tyson & Co.'s wharf, foot 
of Pine Street, Jacksonville. If preferred, however, the 
tourist may go by rail to May2:)ort (see p. 112), and cross 
thence in a small boat. The steamers land at Pilot Town, on 
Batten Island. Here are a number of cottages and houses, 
at some of which boai'd and lodging may be obtained at ^7 
to §10 a week. A short distance west of the steamboat wharf 
is a Coquina ruin, of no great antiquity, but interesting for 
its picturesqueness. Others of the same kind are scattered 
about the neighborhood. On this island was the Spanish 
fort gallantly taken by De Goui'gues and his Indian allies, as 
described on p. 121. 

If a visit to Fort George is intended, it is well to telegraph 
in advance for conveyances, to K. Spencer, Postmaster, Fort 
George. The roads on these islands are smooth, hard, and 
level, winding among a magnificent hammock growth, with 
occasional glimpses of the sea, or of extensive island-studded 

A causeway crosses the creek to Fort George Island, one 
of the most attractive localities on this part of the coast. It 
is in area about two miles square. The eastern shore facing 
the ocean has a broad stretch of white sand beach, backed 
by a range of high dunes generally covered with scrub. 
The heavily wooded central ridge of the island rises to a con- 
siderable height. The highest point is Mount Cornelia, on 


■which is an observatory, whence is a fine outlook ovei' the 
neigliboring marshes, rivers, and ocean. The square top of 
this observatory is visible twelve to fifteen miles at sea. The 
hill, or " mount," on which it stands is the most prominent 
natural landmark anywhere on the Southern coast, and has 
been, since the days of the early exjilorers, the mark by 
■which the entrance to the St. John's River was recognized 
by mariners. 

The island was originally settled by one McQueen, a 
Scotchman, who probably named it after some locality in his 
native land. Then it was purchased by a wealthy Southerner, 
Kingsley by name, ■svho made it an ideal jjlantation of the 
old school, maintaining an army of slaves, and largely culti- 
vating cotton and other marketable products. The home- 
stead, somewhat modernized, still stands, ■with its negro 
quarters and outbuildings near the northern end of the isl- 
and, with a fine avenue of venerable moss-draped cedars in 
front and along the river side. 

After the Civil War the family, i^ressed for money, sold the 
whole property for ^7,500, and shortly afterward four hun- 
dred acres were sold to a Boston company, Avho erected a 
large house — the Fort George Hotel — which for many years 
was a favorite resort for Northern visitors. This was burned 
May 1, 1889, and has not yet been rebuilt. Many handsome 
private houses have been built at desirable jjoiuts along the 
sea front, and many wealthy Northern people make this their 
home during the winter months. 

The whole island is intersected with a charmingly irregular 
network of roads, admirable for riding, driving, or walking, 
and there are few more enjoyable experiences in Florida than 
an exploration of these magnificent woods. 


17. St. John's River. 

Called Welaka (chain of lakes) by the Indians, Rivifere de 
Mai by the French (1562), St. John's Kiver by the Spanish 
(1564). This is tlie largest stream in Florida. It rises in 
a vast tract of uncharted and unnamed lakes and marshes 
near the Atlantic coast in Brevard and Osceola Counties, 
about in latitude 28° 10' N., and flows northward, in a di- 
rection generally parallel to the coast, but exceedingly tor- 
tuous when considered in detail, a distance of nearly three 
hundred miles. It falls into the sea in latitude 30° 25' N., 
between Fort George and Batten Islands on the north, and 
the mainland on the south. Between this point and St. 
Augustine Inlet, forty-two miles south, the mainland abuts 
upon the ocean, a condition rarely found on the South At- 
lantic sea-coast. Almost everywhere else a system of islands 
or peninsulas lies a short distance off the coast, affording 
sheltered navigation by an inside route. In this case the 
St. John's River goes far to make good the lack of the usual 
channel, for vessels drawing five feet can ascend about two 
hundred and thirty miles, where they are only about seven 
miles from the tide-water of Indian River. 

The bar at the mouth of the river is one of the most 
treacherous on the coast, although the construction of jetties 
was begun in 1880 and still continues. Prior to this large 
sums were ineffectually expended in dredging. The orig- 
inal plans called for about one thousand feet of jetties, 
extending in an easterly direction from deep water inside 
the bar. It was thought that the scour of the tides would 
thus keep clear a channel of ample width, and with 15 feet 
depth at low water. The jetties had been carried out, 
according to the latest official figures, more than 3,000 feet 
on the north side of the channel, and about 7,000 feet on the 
south side. The contractor reports 20 feet at high water. 
The mean rise and fall of the tide at the bar is 4 feet 6 inches. 

St. John's River Light is a red brick tower with black lan- 
terns, 80 feet above sea level, showing a fixed white light of 
the third order, visible 15 miles at sea (Lat. 30° 23' 37", 
Long. 81° 25' 27"). 


AiJproacliing from sea and looking southward along the 
beach, the houses and wharves of Mayport are seen on the 
left, with the works on shore where the jetty mattresses are 
made and launched. Farther to the south are the hotels and 
cottages of Burnside Beacli and Pablo Beach (see p. 114). 
On the right of the entrance are Batten Island and Fort 
George Island (see p. 115) joined by a causeway. The cluster, 
of buildings is on Batten Island. It includes the pilot and 
telegraph station, and some interesting and picturesque old 
Coquina ruins. On both points of the river mouth forts 
were erected about 1566 (see p. 124). After crossing the 
bar, the most conspicuous natural object is St. John's Bluff, 
with precipitous sand-slopes toward the river, and crowned 
with dense woods. Elsewhere on all sides stretch wide 
marshes, beautiful in color at times, and dotted here and 
there with tree-covered islands, which are often shell mounds 
of unknown antiquity, sometimes containing relics of pre- 
historic races mucli sought after by the antiquarian. 

Just under the bluff a small creek makes into the river 
from tlie southward. This is navigable for row-boats for 
several miles, and at flood tide affords a pleasant trip, par- 
ticularly in the afternoon, when the shadow of the blutf falls 
across it from the westward. About five miles up aie ruins 
of abandoned rice plantations, with old sluice-gates, and evi- 
dences of former cultivation. St. John's Bluff is believed to 
be the site of old Fort Caroline, subsequently Fort Mateo (see 
p. 121). Traces of ancient fortifications of considerable ex- 
tent still exist, mingled with the half- obliterated earthworks 
thrown up by the Confederates during the Civil War. The 
bluff has been washed away by the river, carrying with it the 
remains of the old Spanish citadel and the main works. 
The position was fortified by the Confederates in the 
winter of 1861-62. On September 17, 1S62, a fleet of six 
United States gunboats crossed the bar, and for some hours 
vigorously shelled the woods and batteries about St. John's 
Bluflf. They dismounted or disabled some of the guns, and 
damaged the breastworks. No landing was attempted. 

On October 2, 1862, an expedition consisting of seven gun- 
boats from Commodore Dupout's fleet, and escorting a de- 


tachnient of 1,500 troops, attacked the Confederate fortifica- 
tions on St. John's Blnft". The Confederates soon abandoned 
the works, leaving 9 guns and a considerable quantity of 
munitions of war, which fell into the hands of tiie Federal 

Beyond St. John's Bluff the river widens to three-quarters 
of a mile. Pablo Creek and Mount Pleasant Creek find 
their way through the marshes from the southward in the order 
named, and Sister's Creek, Hannali Mills Creek, and Cedar 
Point Creek from the northward in the order named. These 
are all navigable for several miles, but are not attractive ex- 
cept to sportsmen, as they are for the most part bordered by 
marshes. A wooded shore, with a settlement known as the 
Shijn/ard, borders the river for a mile above St. John's Bluff. 
A chain of marshy islands occupies the middle of the river for 
about two miles, with Clapboard Creek and Brown's Creek on 
the north shore. Beyond Long Island, the last of the marshy 
series, the river widens into Mill Cove, and bends to the 
southwest. Dame's Point Light appears about two miles 
distant. This is an iron structure, painted red, with white 
upper works, standing on a shoal in mid-stream, with deep 
water on both sides. It shows a fixed white light, visible 
eleven miles. A mile below the light is Yellow Bluff (P. O., 
New Berlin), a village of a dozen houses, standing among 
ti-ees on a bluff some thirty feet high. 

Above this the stream widens to near two miles, with the 
channel close to the northern shore, and trends to the north- 
ward and westward. Dunn's Creek enters from the eastward 
two miles above Dame's Point, with a peculiar group of pine 
trees on its eastern bank. One mile farther is Drummond's 
Point, between Cedar Creek on the east and Drummond's 
Creek on the west. Here the river turns again to the south- 
ward, and St. John's Mills is seen about two miles distant. 
The stream that enters from the westward is Trout Creek. 
At the south side of its month is Sandfly Point, and opposite, 
across the St. John's, is Reddies Point, marshy near the water, 
but with high land and numerous houses among the trees at 
a little distance. 

The next stretch of river is about four miles, trending 


southward. Just south of Redclies Point is Chaseville, a 
small town with a wharf. Tlie easterly bank is high and 
heavily wooded. Here Pottsburg Creek enters from the 
eastward. On the west bank, four miles distant, is Commo- 
te ore's Point, with Jacksonville showing beyond. On the 
! outh bank is the lauding of the Jacksonville, Mayport & 
Pablo Beach Railway & Navigation Company. Opposite Com- 
modore's Point is Arlington Eiver, with the village of Arling- 
ton to the north of the mouth, and Empire Point, with General 
A. S. Divens' residence o2)posite. Many otlier handsome coun- 
try places line the east bank of the river in this vicinity. 
Rounding Commodore's Point the city is in sight, with the 
bridge of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Railway sys- 
tem crossing the river to Oklahoma and South Jacksonville. 
For description of Jacksonville and vicinity see p. 103. 

Domenique de Gourgues. 

There is not in all history material for a more romantic, 
pitiful, tragic, and heroic drama than was enacted along the 
placid reaches of the lower St, John. Somewhere beneath 
these shifting sands may still lie the stone cross, carved with 
the fleur-de-lis of France, that Jean Ribaut raised when he 
discovered the river in 1562. Fragments of arms and armor 
are still found from time to time on the sites of the old 
Spanish forts. 

The first discoverers made their welcome harbor here on 
the first day of May, and named the river in honor of that 
month, but the name subsequently given by the Spaniards 
superseded "La Riviere de Mai" of the Huguenots. 

Perhaps Ribaut took a rose-colored view of the land after 
his long sea-voyage in a crowded ship, but he certainly was 
enamoured of the climate and country. " To bee short," he 
wrote in his journal, as done into English (the original is not 
known to exist), "it is a thing unspeakable to consider the 
things that bee seene there, and .shalbe founde more and 
more in this incomperable land " (Hackit's Eng. Transla- 
tion of 1582). He did not long remain here, however, but, 
on June 25, 1564, another French squadron of three ships 


under Ribaut's lieutenant, Ren6 ile Laudonniere, anchored 
off the bar, and were welcomed by Satourioua, the powerful 
chief of thirty neighboring villages. The Indians had care- 
fully preserved, and even sacrificed to Kibaut's cross with its 
mystic symbols. St. John's Bluff is the supjiosed site of 
Fort Caroline, which the French forthwith proceeded to 
build. The climate at once exercised its spell upon the 
members of the expedition even in the heat of July, and 
their accounts of the region are enthusiastic. Venerable In- 
dians were said to have been seen who claimed to be two 
and a half centuries old, and expected to live thirty or forty 
years more. The Indians, after some demur, helped in 
building the fort, which is depicted by Le Moyne, the 
special artist of the exj^edition, in his illustrated narra- 
tive. The Indians were agriculturists, though, like all 
savages, they had their intertribal wars, and Satouriona was 
glad of European allies. When the fort was finished the 
French Protestants, eager for gold as were their Spanish 
contemporaries, pushed their explorations inland, and 
formed other Indian alliances. Complications and threats 
of war followed, and during the winter of 15G4-65 dis- 
satisfaction, conspiracy, and mutiny developed in the little 
garrison of the fort. Laudonniere fell ill, provisions ran 
short, the mutineers took possession under the leadership 
of one Fourneaux, and plans were formed for buccaneer- 
ing expeditions against the Spanish West Indies. After a 
partly successful, but finally disastrous cruise, the bucca- 
neers returned to Fort Caroline, and three of the leaders 
were tried and executed. Their bodies were hanged on gib- 
bets as a warning to future mutineers. 

By May 1, 1565, the French neared the end of their re- 
sources. In a land ready to yield an hundred-fold not an 
acre had been tilled. The hospitality and resources of the 
Indians were well-nigh exhausted, and the colony watched 
wearily for reinforcements that had been promised from 

By dint of threats and i:>ersuasions, Laudonnifere managed 
to wrest provisions enough from the Indians to carry his men 
through the summer. They were building a new ship, in the 

122 JACKSON vii>lj:. 

hope of escaping from the now hatetl land of their exile, 
when, on August 3(1, four ships appeared in the of!iiig, which 
proved to be the English squadron of Sir John Hawkins, 
who had been on a successful slave-hunting expedition to 
the coast of Guinea. Hatred of the Sjianiard was a senti- 
ment common to French Huguenot and English freebooter, 
and the visit of Hawkins seemed most opportune. He 
warned them of an intended Spanish attack, renewed their 
store of provisions, and sold them a ship in v/hicli, with their 
other vessels, they miglit hope to reach Fiance. Prepara- 
tions for departure were hastened, when, on August 28th, 
another fleet appeared. It was Eibaut with the long-e.\i)ected 
reinforcements. All seemed favorable for the establishment 
of a prosperous colony, when, to quote a graphic sentence 
from Parkmau, "at half-past eleven on the night of Tues- 
day, September 4th, the crew of Eibaut's flag-ship, an- 
chored on the still sea outside the bar, saw a huge hulk, gi'im 
with the throats of cannon, drifting toward them through 
the gloom; and from its stern rolled on the sluggish air 
the i^ortentous banner of Spain." It was the San Pelayo, 
flagship of Pedro Menendez, accompanied by five other 
vessels bearing five hundred soldiers, and commissioned to 
exterminate the Lutheran colony. The French sliii)s were 
not ready for a night engagement, so when the Spaniards 
cleared for actiort, they slipped their cables and escajjed to 
sea, keeping up a running fire as they went. Menendez 
j)ursued, but the French outsailed him, and when he re- 
turned he found such preparations made for defence that he 
dared not risk an attack. Accordingly he sailed southward, 
rejoined the rest of his squadron, and founded St. Augustine 
(see p. 135). Here, then, were two "Christian" colonies on 
the edge of an unknown continent, three thousand miles 
from home, each plotting for the other's destruction. 

Eibaut was the first to make a move. After a council of 
war, he sailed for St. Augustine with almost all his able- 
bodied men on September 10th, was caught in a hurricane 
and wrecked near Cape Canaveral. Nearly all escaped with 
their lives, but were brutally massacred by the Spaniards at 
Matanzas (see p. 178). The paltry garrison under Laudon- 


niere left in Fort Caroline numbered nearly two huntlrecl, 
few of them fit to bear arms, and sheltered behind a half- 
dismantled fort. "When Menendez, from the redoubt at 
St. Augustine, saw the French straining every nerve to 
work oft" shore in the teeth of an easterly gale, he con- 
ceived and acted upon the bold idea of destroying Fort Caro- 
line during their absence. Contrary to the advice of his of- 
ficers and priests, he marched on this hazardous errand with 
five hundred men. The storm continued, but at daybreak 
on September 20th, after an arduous march of three days, 
during which only the iron will and fanatical exaltation of 
Menendez prevented open revolt, they found themselves in 
sight of Fort Caroline. Vigilance was somewhat relaxed by 
the guards as day drew on. Menendez, seeing his opi:)or- 
tuuity, gave the word, and his men rushed, shouting their war 
cry "Santiago!" upon the nearly defenceless Frenchmen. 
Resistance was made only by a few. Laudonniere, Le Moyne 
the artist, and Challeaux the carpenter, all of whom wrote ac- 
counts of their exjjeriences, escaped to the woods, where they 
were joined by others, twenty-six in all, and succeeded event- 
ually in reaching the small vessels anchored inside the bar. 
At the fort the work of extermination was concluded with the 
conscientious fidelity that characterized the religious wars of 
the period. One hundred and forty-two souls were slain, and 
their savagely mutilated remains piled upon the river bank. 
Fifty, including women, infants, and boys under fifteen were 

It was generally reported and believed in France that Me- 
nendez hanged a number of those who had surrendered, and 
placed over them this inscriijtion : " I do this not as to 
Frenchmen, but as to Lutherans." 

Leaving a strong garrison in the captured fort, which was 
renamed San Mateo, Menendez marched back to St. Augus- 
tine, where he was soon destined to deal with others of the 
hated Lutherans. 

On September 25th, the escaped survivors of the Fort Car- 
oline massacre sailed for France in two vessels, and, arriving 
in due course, spread the news of the savage deeds of the 
Spaniards throughout the kingdom. 


'I'lieie was boundless indignation in Fiance, but the king 
— Charles IX. — was afraid of his powerful neighbor, and 
woiild do nothing to avenge the insult. When his policy of 
inaction became evident, a private gentleman of France, a 
tried soldier, Donieuique de Gourgues by name, resolved to 
take the matter into bis own Lands. He purchased three 
vessels with his own means, equij^ped them, manned them 
with one hundred and eighty soldiers and sailors, and set 
forth on a crusade as romantic and more desperate than that 
for the Holy Sepulchre. It was not until he reached Ameri- 
can waters early in 1568 that he told his men the true jDur- 
pose of the exisedition, and succeeded in an impassioned 
speech in arousing their enthusiasm and gaining their con- 
sent. Passing within sight of the Spanish forts on the St. 
John's, exchanging salutes with them, indeed, De Gourgues 
sailed to the St. Mary's Kiver or thereabout, and landing 
found the Indians ripe for war against the Spaniards. The 
chief was Satouriona, formerly the friend of Eibaut. 

It took the Indians three days to muster for the onslaught 
and perform their usual incantations. Then, leaving a small 
guard with the shi23S, de Gourgues and his Indian allies 
moved to the attack by way of Amelia Sound, to what is now 
Fort George Island. 

The Spaniards had partly completed a fort near the pres- 
ent site of Pilot Town, and to this de Gourgues first directed 
his attention, keeping his men concealed till the tide 
ebbed, so that they could wade the inlet. Fortune favored 
his movements, and at noon he dashed upon the unfinished 
defences with sach vigor that not one of sixty Spaniards 
within the works made his escajie. Olotoraca, a young chief, 
the son of Satouriona, who accompanied de Gourgues as 
guide, shed the first blood. Leaping the ditch with a French 
pike in his hand, he transfixed a Spanish cannoneer just as he 
was discharging his gun. The surprise and the victory were 
complete, and, save a few reserved for a more terrible fate, 
in remembrance of the acts of Menendez, all were put to 
the sword. 

On the opposite shore, near where Mayport now stands, 
the Spaniards had another fort, which at once opened fire on 


the victorious French. One of de Gourgues' boats capable 
of carrying eighty men, was j^ushed across under fire, and, 
burning with hatred for the Spaniard, the Indian allies of 
the French, each holding his bow and arrows above his 
head, dashed into the water and swam to the south bank. 
The sight was too mucli for the Spaniards ; they forsook the 
fort, and attempted to reach the forest, forgetting in their 
jjanic that the French had already landed. De Gourgues 
met them with his arquebusiers and pikemen, and, before 
they could rally for an organized onset, the Indians swarmed 
across the sands and attacked with such fury that the French 
could only rescue fifteen to be resented for a more deliberate 

The next day was Sunday — the Sunday after Easter — and 
the Lutherans kept it by making scaling-ladders for the as- 
sault on Fort San Mateo. The Indians held the woods back 
of the fort so effectually that no Si^aniard could venture out- 
side the works. Nevertheless, a spy in Indian disguise was 
sent forth by night, but was instantly detected by Olotoraca. 
This man reported that there were 260 men in the garrison, 
and de Gourgues made i^reimrations to attack on Tuesday 
morning. The Indians were placed in ambush on both sides 
of the fort, while the French men-at-arms advanced after 
daybreak along the river side, taking to cover when the 
Spanish culverins opened upon them. With singular want 
of prudence the Spaniards sent out a strong reconnoitring 
l^arty, which Avas cleverly entrajiped by the French and 
killed to a man. Conscience must have had something to 
do with the action of the rest of the garrison, for many of 
them had participated in the butchery of the Lutherans on 
this very spot three years before. At all events, they gave 
way to panic and fled to the woods on the side away from 
the French. Here they were instantly surrounded by whooji- 
ing savages, and the French coming upon them from the 
rear, their extermination was soon complete. Sjianish au- 
thorities claim, however, that some few made good their es- 

It will be remembered how Menendez was said to have 
hanged his prisoners, and placed over their bodies the inscrip- 


tion : -'Not as to Frenclimeii, but as to Lutherans/' It was 
the Frenchman's turn now. De Gourgues had with diffi- 
culty saved the lives of a number of his late antagonists. 
He causetl them now to be brought before him. "Did you 
tliink," he said, according to his own account, " that so vile 
a treachery, so detestable a cruelty, against a king so potent 
and a nation so generous, would go unpunished? I, one of 
the humblest of gentlemen among my king's subjects, have 
charged myself with avenging it. Even if the Most Chris- 
tian and Most Catholic ' Kings had been enemies at deadly 
war, such perfidy and extreme cruelty would have been un- 
pardonable. Now that they are friends and close allies, 
there is no name vile enough to brand your deeds, no pun- 
ishment sharp enough to requite them. But since you cannot 
suffer such punishment as you deserve, you shall receive all 
that an enemy can honorably inflict, to the end that others 
may learn to preseiTe the peace and alliance that you so 
treacherously and maliciously violated. Having said this," 
the narrator writes, "they were hanged on the same trees 
where they had hanged the Frenchmen," and above them 
was nailed this inscription, bui'ued with a hot iron on a jnne 
board : " I do this, not as to Simniards, nor as to 'Marannes,' 
but as to traitors, robbers, and murderers." (Marannes was 
a semi-contemptuous term then applied to SiJaniards.) Thus 
was the ill-fated Huguenot colony avenged. 

De Gourgues and his Indian allies destroyed the forts, re- 
turned in triumjah to his ships and sailed for France, where 
he received a pojiular ovation, biit, will it be believed, was 
coldly received by the King and Court, who were under the 
spell and terror of Spain. He was even obliged for a time 
to remain in concealment to escape Spanish vengeance, but 
finally his services were recognized as a defender of French 
honor ; he was restored to royal favor, and when he died was 
eulogized as one of the bravest soldiers of his time. 

' For several centuries the Kings of France and Spain were known respec- 
tively by these titles. 


20. Femaudiiia. Nassau Co. (C. H.). 

Pop., 4,000.— Lat. SO" 49' N.— Long. 81° 26' W.— Mean rise and fall of tifle. 6 
feet. See county map, pase 6G. 

The Kgmont Hotel, S2 upward, special rates for permanent guests, open at 
all seasons. 

Railroads, Steamers, etc. — The Florida Central & Peninsula Railroad affords 
direct communication with Jacksonville, Tallahassee, Cedar Key, Orlando, Plant 
C!ty, etc. isee p. 6Ti, and consult local time-tables. 

The steamers of the MaUory line make weekly tripe to and from New York, 
leaving New York on Fridays. Time, 4S hours. Cabin passage, including 
room iind table, $23. 

Coastw.'se steamers ply daily through Cumberland Sound to and from the 
Gieorgia ports. 


The harbor of Feruaiulina, the finest on the coast south 
of Chesapeake Bay, was known to the early explorers, 
and was jsrobably used by them as a safe anchorage. De 
Gourgues made it his base of oj^erations against the Sjjan- 
iards in 1568, when it was the head-quarters of an Indian 
tribe able to muster some three thousand warriors. It was 
not until 1808 that a permanent settlement was established 
by the Spaniards. During the period of the embargo under 
Jeflferson's administration it assumed considerable imijortauce 
as a sea-port. In 1818, just after the second war with Eng- 
land, a movement known as the Patriot War was inaugurated, 
with the secret connivance of the United States Government, 
and its first act was the capture of Fernandina, the Spanish 
garrison offering uo resistance worth mentioning. The 
leader of this movement was one McGregor, a Scotchman, 
who forthwith inaugurated a period of prosperity for Fer- 
nandina by making it a head-quarters for the freebooters who 
still infested the Spanish main. McGregor was before long 
forced to abdicate, and the collapse of the " Patriot army " 
soon followed. 

Fernandina grew slowly to be a place of some importance. 
The railroad was opened in 1861, and at the outbreak of the 
Civil War the inhabitants numbered about two thousand. 

Long before this the town was well fortified against an 
attack by sea. Fort Clinch, the most important of the defen- 
sive works, was completed prior to the Civil War, and, being 
without a garrison, was promptly seized by the Confederates 


in 1861. It is a pentagonal structure of brick and concrete, 
with bastions and detached scarps, loopholed for musketry. 
Tlie armament at that time included two large rifled guns, 
and twenty-seven 32-pounders. 

The i^ermanent works were flanked with water batteries, 
and strengthened with sand embankments under the super- 
vision of competent military engineers. A battery of four 
guns was erected on Cumberland Island. 

Approach by sea was imi^racticable in the face of these 
guns, and in view of the tortuous channel. The harbor, 
however, was imjoortant to both parties, as it afforded a 
haven for blockade-runners considerably nearer than any 
other to the neutral i)orts at Bermuda and on the Bahamas. 
The Confederate garrison was aboiit two thousand strong, 
under command of General J. H. Trapier. 

On the morning of August G, 1861, the inhabitants of the 
city were called to arms and to witness a race between the 
United States Ship Vincennes and the Alvarado, a prize of 
the Confederate privateer Jeff Davis. The latter was making 
for the bar under all sail, but was forced ashore, abandoned 
by her crew, and afterward fired by boat crews from the 
Vincennes, it being obviously impossible to set her afloat 
again. In February, 1862, an expedition was organized at 
Port Eioyal by Commodore Dupont, U. S. N , and sailed on 
the last day of that month for the capture of Fernaudina. 
The fleet consisted of nineteen vessels, mainly gunboats of 
light draught. 

On reaching the upper end of the sound Commodore Du- 
pont anchored to wait for the tide, and there learned from 
an escaped negro slave that the garrison at Fernandina was 
already abandoning the town and fortifications. The light- 
est and fleetest gunboats were immediately despatched down 
the Sound under Commander Percival Drayton to prevent 
destruction of property if jjossible, while the rest of the 
fleet took the outside passage. Cumberland Sound proved 
too shallow, however, and only the Ottawa could get through. 
Drayton went aboard of her and pushed on. As he passed 
Fort Clinch, a boat's crew was sent to hoist the American 
flag as a signal to the fleet. A white flag was displayed at 


Fernandina, but shots were fired at the Ottawa, and a rail- 
way train drawn by two engines was discovered just moving 
off. It was naturally supposed to contain trooj^s, and an ex- 
citing chase ensued, as the track was for some four miles 
within range of the river. The Ottawa endeavored to dis- 
able the engines with her large rifled gun, but the train had 
the advantage of si:)eed, and eventually left the gunboat be- 
hind, escaping across the bridge. A steamer, the Darling- 
ton, crowded with refugees, was less fortunate, being captured 
by the Ottawa's boats. 

It is significant of the then existing conditions of warfare 
that Commander Drayton was a native of South Carolina, 
while John Brock, captain of the captured steamboat, was a 

It subsequently apjaeared that the Confederate authorities 
had attempted to remove all the inhabitants under the mis- 
taken idea that they were in danger of brutal treatment 
from the captors. 

Of the United States forts seized by the Confederates, Fort 
Clinch was one of the first to be regained by Government 
forces. The occupation of Fernandina restored to Federal 
control the whole of the sea-coast of Georgia, and afforded a 
convenient base of operations against Jacksonville and St. 

After the capture of the Darlington, the Ottawa steamed 
up the St. Mary's River as far as King's Ferry, fifty-two 
miles, to reconnoitre, and while returning was fired upon by 
infantry, said to have been the Twenty-ninth Mississippi 
Regiment, in ambush on shore. The fire was instantly 
returned at short range with grape-shot, and with such 
deadly effect that no further opposition was experiencedo 
Several men were wounded on board the Ottawa. 


21. Amelia Island, 

on wliicli Fernandina stands, is tliiiteeu milea long, and from 
one to two and one-half miles wide. It is low and fiat, or 
only gently undulating, with marshes along the inland shore, 
but heavily wooded to seaward. Outside of the woods is a 
belt of sand-hills and scrub, and beyond these a fine beach of 
hard white sand on which it is a luxury to walk, ride, or drive. 

A pleasant walk may be taken by following either the 
ocean beach or one of the roads leading north from the hotel. 
The village of Old Fernandina, where the first settlement was 
made, is about a mile and a half from the present city. 

A mile farther is Amelia Island Lighthouse, with the 
keeper's dwelling pleasantly situated among trees on a 
bluff about fifty feet higher than the sea level. The 
light was originally established in 1836. The present tower 
was built in 1880. It is 58 feet high, and the lantern is 112 
feet above the sea level. It shows a white flash-light at in- 
tervals of 90 seconds, vi-sible at sea 16* nautical miles. 
From the lighthouse to the extreme northern point of the 
island is two miles, an easy and jjleasant walk along the 
ocean beach, save at high tide, when the hard belt of beach 
is under water. (See maps, pp. 24: and 26.) 

22. Amelia River 

enters Cumberland Sound just inside the northern end of 
Amelia Island. It is an arm of the sea separating the island 
from Tiger Island and the mainland of Florida. This por- 
tion of the strait is North Amelia River. It connects with 
South Amelia River through Kiugsley's Creek, a narrow 
passage with only two feet of water at the " divide " where 
the tides meet at the southern end of the creek. Shar- 
pies and small boats can j^ass at any time. Six feet draught 
can be taken through from sound to sound at high water. 
The South Amelia is narrow and crooked, bordered by ex- 
tensive marshes. It receives two navigable tributaries, 
Lanceford Creek and Bill's River, the latter running north- 
ward into the St. Mary's through Jolly River after a tortuous 
course of seven and one-half miles. (See maps, pp. 2J: and 26.) 


23. Nassau Sound 

is formed by Amelia and Little Talbot Islandsj the inlet 
between tliem being one mile and a half wide. The sound 
itself is three-quarters of a mile wide for about two miles, 
and then divides, forming South Amelia River on the north 
and Nassau River on the south. The enti-ance is obstructed 
by shifting sands, which make out to sea one mile and a 
quarter, and are marked by a can buoy in twenty-four feet of 
water. There is good anchorage under the south point of 
Amelia Island. (See maps, pp, 24 and 26.) 

24. Cumberland Sound. 

The entrance to this sound is almost exactly a mile wide 
between Cumberland Island on the north and Amelia Island 
on the south. The sound itself, with an average width of 
about a mile, is nine miles long, and affords an inside pas- 
sage between the mainland of Georgia and Cumberland 
Island, to St. Andrew's Sound and the Cumberland River. 
Six feet draught can be carried through at low water, but 
the passage is variable, owing to shifting sand, and a pilot 
is necessary for all vessels of more than two feet draught. 

Viewed from the offing, Cumberland Island appears to be 
divided, but both parts are in reality joined by a stretch of 
low land, which becomes visible on nearer approach. 

Near the southern end of the island formerly stood Dun- 
geuess House, the home of General Nathaniel Greene, of the 
Continental army. In recognition of his conspicuous services 
in the Revolutionary War, the State of Georgia gave him 
this fine estate, which was for many years occupied by him 
and afterward by his heirs. During the Civil War both sides 
respected this historic mansion. When Fernaudina was oc- 
cupied by United States Troops, a safeguard was placed on 
the property, and the following order posted at the entrance : 

Th^s property, belonging orlgiuallj' to General Nathaniel Greene, a Revolu- 
tionary hero and a native of Rhode Island, is now the property of his grandson 
Mr. Nightingale. It is hereby ordered and enjoined upon all who may visit this 


place to hold eve:-j-th;ng about the place sacred, and in no case diBturb or take 
away any article without a special order from Flag Officer Dupont or General 

Tlius protected, the old mansion survived the dangers of 
the time, only to be accidentally burned some years after- 
ward. Subsequently the property was purchased by its pres- 
ent owner, who removed the ruin and erected a modern 
structure in its place. 

Cumberland Sound is almost wholly surrounded by marshes 
through which numerous tributaries find their way. The 
most important of these is St. Mary's Eiver, on which is the 
town of St. Mary's, Ga., about three and one-half miles 
from the mouth. A work of improvement by means of 
jetties was begun in 1881 by United States Army engineers, 
intended to establish a deijth of twenty-one feet at mean low 
water. The jetties are only partially comi^leted, and a large 
portion of them are still submerged. The outer ends are 
about three thousand feet apart, and the outer portions of 
the jetties are jiavallel. The St. Mary's River has its source 
far back in the interior, and for a long distance it forms the 
boundary between Florida and Georgia. It is easily navi- 
gable for sea-going vessels for ninety-three miles, but high 
Avoods shut off the wind, so that it is difficult for sailing 
craft. Jolly River is a navigable arm some six miles long, 
and nearly jjarallel to the lower reach of the St. Mary's. 
Reed's Bluflf is a conspicuous hill of white sand, seven miles 
above St. Mary's. Twenty-seven miles above St. Mary's is a 
cut-off, practicable for small boats at high water, which lessens 
the distance by several miles. There are no special points 
of interest on the river, but there are several lumber mills 
and logging stations, rarely visited by tourists. These, after 
leaving Reed's Bluff, are Port Henry, Wild's Landing, Brick- 
yard, Germantown, Woodstock, King's Ferry, Orange Bluff, 
Camp Pinckney, Calico Hill, and Trader's Hill, which is at 
the head of navigation. Pleasant excursions up the river 
may be made in launches from Fernandina, and fairly good 
shooting may be had for water-fowl in the season. At 
King's Ferry are stores where ordinary supplies may be ob- 


30. Saint Augustine. St. John's County. 

Population, 10,000.— Lat. 29" 53' 7" N.— Long. 81" 17' 12" W.— Mean rise and 
fall of tide, 4 feet. 

Hotels.— (Rates are given by the day unless otherwise stated.) Alcazar, 
rooms $2 upward ; restaurant d la carte. — Carletoii House, $3. — Cordova, $4 up- 
ward. — Florida House, $3.50 to $4. — Hernandez, $2 to $3. — Magnolia, $3 to $4. — 
Plaza Hotel, Rooms 50c. to $2. — Ponce de Leon, $5 upward. — San Marco, |4. 
Special rates usually made for permanent guests, or by the week. There are 
many good boarding-houses, at $8 to $15 a week. 

Railways.— The lines to Jacksonville (p. 85), Palatka (p. 84), and Tocoi, 
all of the J., T. & K. W. system, and the North Beach Railway, converge at 
the Union Station, Malaga Street. The St. Augustine <fe South Beach Railway 
on Anastasia Island is reached by ferry from Central Wharf, near the Plaza. 
Carriage rate from stations to any part of city 25c. ; luggage, 25c. per piece. 

Livery may generally be best engaged through hotel clerk. Saddle-horses, $1 
an hour, $3 a day ; single teams. $1.50 an hoiu*, $4 a day ; double teams with 
driver, $3 an hour, $5 upward n day. 

Boats with attendants, 25c. to $1 an hour, $2 to $5 a day ; to be found at Central 
Wharf, near Plaza. Special terms must be made for steam launches or for sail 
boats for long excursions. 

Guide and hunter, James Ponce, $3 to $5, according to services required, a 

Churches.— Ba])tmt, Sunday service, 10.30 a.m., 7.30 p.m., in Masonic Hall. — 
Episcopalian, Trinity Church, south side of Plaza, Sunday service, 10.30 a.m., 
7 P.M. — Methodist, Grace Church, Cordova and Carriere Streets, Sunday service, 
10.30 A.M., 7 P.M. — Presbyterian, St. George Street near Bridge, Sunday service, 
10.30 A.M., 7 P.M. — Roman Catholic, St. Joseph's Cathedral, north side of Plaza, 
Sunday service, 6, 3, and 10 a.m., 4 p.m. 

Younij Men^s Christian Association. — Rooms in Lyon Block, comer St. Gteorge 
and Alameda Streets. 

Points of Interkst in St. Augustine. 

Fort Marion (p: 157). 

Museums (p. 166). 

St. Francis Barracks, etc. (p. 165). 

Hotel Ponce de Leon (p. 168j. 

The Alcazar (p. 172). 

The Cordova <p. 172). 

Sea Wall, etc. (p. 156). 

The City Gates (p. 173). 

The Catholic Cathedral (p. 156). 

The Plaza (p. 155). 

Post Office, northern end of Plaza, 

Banks.— First National, north end of Plaza (hours 9.30 a.m. to 2 p.m.).— St. 
John's County Savings Bank, Hotel Cordova (hours 9 a.m. to 3 p.m.) 

.S/fop*.- The best stores are in the Alcazar, on the Plaza or its immediate 
vicinity, or on St. George Street, all within 10 minutes of Plaza. 

Physicians may be called by telephone from all the hotels. 



As tlie earliest permanent settlement of Europeans within 
the pi-esent territory of tlie United States, Han Augustin, 
as the Spaniards wrote the name, will always be of exceii- 
tional interest to Americans. In a degree it has claims also 
npon Spaniards, upon the English, and npon the French, 
for all of them have, at one time or another, fought for it or 
against it. 

The early navigators were lured to Florida by stories of 
wealth and magic that met them before even they had sighted 
the shores of the continent. It is curious that the fabled 
" Fountain of Youth " should have crossed the ocean in ad- 
vance of the Spanish ships, and yet we have the testimony 
of Peter Martyr, in an address to the Fope, to the effect that 
the existence of such a fountain was well attested and be- 
lieved by the explorers themselves. There was, indeed, a 
better foundation for this fable than for the tales of gold 
that always accomijanied it. There are a score of sjDrings in 
Florida, any one of which might easily impress an ignorant 
or superstitious beholder with the idea of supernatural vir- 
tues. Probably native descriptions of those marvellous 
springs had much to do with Ponce de Leon's undoubted 
belief in the legend. He was growing old, and with the 
prospect of wealth and renewed youth before him, it was no 
wonder that he was eager to test the truth of every story 
that reached his ears. So it came to jdrss that he landed, and 
claimed " Pascua Florida" for his Most Catholic Majesty the 
King of Spain, a few miles north of St. Augustine. The exact 
locality can never be known, but it could not have been far 
from Seloy, a considerable Indian town on the site of the pres- 
ent city. Hardly had the Sijaniards inade a landing, when 
they were set upon by such a formidable baud of Indians that 
they were glad to escape to their boats, carrying with them, 
fatally wounded, their gallant old commander. This was on 
April 3, 1512, and, as it is not likely that so large a war party 
of Indians could have been hastily rallied at a distance from 
some large town, we may safely assume that Ponce de Leon 
made his great discovery and received his death-wound al- 


most within sight of the spot where the French Huguenot, 
Kene de Laudonnifire, landed fifty-two years afterward (June 
22, 1564). Laudonni(5re translated the native name Seloy 
into French, inadvertently, jjerhaps, and named the estuary 
La Riviere des Dauphines, because of the numerous jior- 
poises or " dolphins " that then, as now, made it their feed- 
ing-ground. The French, however, sailed away in search of 
a more promising location, and eventually built Fort Caro- 
line on the St. John's River (see p. 118). 

This French expedition was the immediate cause of the 
Spanish settlement at St. Augustine. It was essentially a 
Protestant colony, sent out under the patronage of Admiral 
Coligny, and with the assent of Charles IX., then king of 
France. When news of the building of Fort Caroline 
reached Madrid, great was the wrath of the Spanish king 
and his courtiers. It was bad enough that the Spanish 
rights of discovery should be invaded, but that the invaders 
should be heretics was more than Catholic human nature 
could endure. Pedro Menendez de Aviles, a devout and 
bigoted religionist, a brave, cruel, and uncompromising 
soldier, was commissioned to exterminate the French Colony. 
His compact with the king bound him to transport to Flori- 
da 12 priests, 4 Jesuit fathers, 100 horses, 200 horned cattle, 
400 sheeja and goats, 400 swine, and 500 slaves. He agreed to 
establish two or three towns, each of 100 families, and was 
to have the title of Adelentado, or governor, and Marquis, 
with various other privileges and emoluments. 

With 2,600 men in 11 vessels he sailed, and on September 
7, 1565, anchored in the River of Dolphins with about half 
his fleet. 

" On Saturday, the eighth day of September," writes Fray 
Francisco Loj^ez de Mendoza, Chaplain of the fleet, " the day 
of the Nativity of Our Lady, the General disembarked with 
numerous banners displayed, trumpets and other martial 
music resounding, and amid salvos of artillery. Carrying a 
cross, I proceeded at the head, chanting the hymn 7e Deum 
Laudamns. The General marched straight up to the cross, to- 
gether with all those who accompanied him, and, kneeling, 
they all kissed the cross. After this, possession was formally 


taken in the name of his Majesty, and the officers all took an 
oath of allegiance." 

To the many Indians who watched these ceremonies all 
this must have been a wonderful sight. The chaplain says 
that they imitated whatever they saw done, kneeling, cross- 
ing themselves and bowing as they saw the Europeans do. 

The Indian village of Seloy, or Selooe, stood where the 
city now is, and it must have been a place of considerable 
importance. The chief was friendly, and assigned quarters 
to the soldiers in a large building situated near the shore. 
Fatigue parties were instantly set to work, and, almost be- 
fore the kindly chief knew what was doing, a little Si^anish 
fort stood in the midst of his village, with guns in position, 
and sentries walking their beats in regular EurojDean style. 
From that day to this St. Augustine has been the abode of 
Europeans. After the devout custom of the Spanish ex- 
plorers, the place was at once named in honor of the Saint 
of that day, who providentially was a very distinguished 
Saint, namely, Aurelius Augustinus, easily the greatest of 
the four fathers of the Christian Church (a. d. 354 to A. d. 430). 
He was Bishop of Hippo Regius, the ancient seat of the 
Numidiau kings, and his memory and teachings are still 
cherished alike by Catholics and Protestants. 

Eighty cannon were forthwith landed, and the post was 
speedily j^ut in a state for defence. 

On September 10th the French ships came down from the 
St. John's in the night, and, according to the good chaplain 
before quoted, were only j)revented from capturing the ves- 
sels and all who were left on board, by the special interpo- 
sition of Our Lady of Bon Secours d' Utrera, who, in answer 
to the prayers of the frightened mariners, descended in per- 
son upon one of the vessels, bringing a breeze that enabled 
all to escape. Further than this, the good lady, or some 
other power, caused a terrific gale lo arise, which wrecked the 
French fleet before it could regain the St. John's. 

Now was Menendez's opportunity. He promptly despatched 
five hundred men, knowing that the garrison at Fort Caro- 
line must be greatly weakened, sui*prised and captured the 
fort, and put to the sword those of the garrison whom he 


did not hang (see i>. 123). This success "was followed by the 
surrender and execution of most of tlie shipwrecked French- 
men at Matauzas Inlet (see p. 178). 

On Sejitember 28, 1565, St. Augustine set the example 
that has since been followed by neaily every town in the 
State — it had a great fire. The quarters occupied by the 
garrison were consumed, with large quantities of stores and 
jjrovisions. Incendiarism was suspected, but never proved. 
Work was begun immediately on a regular fortification, the 
Sjianiards having before them a wholesome fear of French 
vengeance for the recently perpetrated massacres. More- 
over, it was learned presently that about two hundred French- 
men still survived, and had fortified themselves at Canaveral 
— probably north of the present Caj^e of that name. Against 
this fort Menendez presently moved, and one hundred and 
fifty of the garrison surrendered, and for some inexplicable 
reason were courteously treated as prisoners of war. 

The winter that followed was a most trying one to the 
garrison, increased as it was by the accession of the French 
l^risoners. The Indians, friendly at first, had been estranged, 
as usual, by cruel treatment from the Spaniards. No one 
could go outside the fort to hunt or fish without danger from 
an ever-vigilant and pretematurally crafty foe. It is credibly 
stated that more than one hundred and twenty of the gar- 
rison were thus killed, including several ofiicers. 

At this crisis, while provisions were growing scarce, 
Menendez went to Cuba for relief. During his absence the 
garrison mutinied, and not even his return sufficed wholly to 
restore discipline. Altogether some five hundred men re- 
turned to Cuba, Mexico, and Spain, and for the first time 
in history Florida was denounced to intending settlers as 
barren, swampy, and unproductive. 

The fort was completed before sjiring, but by June pro- 
visions again ran short, and but for the timely arrival from 
Spain of a fleet of seventeen vessels with 1,500 men and ample 
supplies the attempt to colonize Florida must have been 
abandoned. Juan de Avila was admiral of this fleet, and 
with him he brought to Menendez a welcome letter from 
his royal master, Philip II., wherein the " retribution you 


have visited upon the Lutheran pirates " was warmly com- 
mended. In the meantime, operating from St. Augustine, 
as head-quarters, several colonies were planted, and, leaving 
affairs in a seemingly prosperous condition, Menendez caused 
to be built a 20-ton '-frigate," of veiy light construction, 
in which he sailed for Sjiain, making the run to the Azores, 
more than three thousand miles, in the remarkably short 
time of seventeen days. He was received with high honors 
by Philip II , but in the meantime vengeance was brewing 
in France, and before Menendez could return to St. Augus- 
tine, the soldier of fortune, Domenique de Gourgues, had 
captured the Sisanish forts on the St. John's, and avenged 
the massacre of the Huguenot colony (see p. 120). 

Shortly after this Menendez returned from Spain to find 
the garrison at St. Augustine again on the point of starva- 
tion and mutiny. It seems incredible that, in such a pro- 
lific land as Florida has since proved to be, no serious efforts 
were made to cultivate the soil, but it is certain that starva- 
tion more than once threatened the garrison at St. Augustine 
during the nine years that intervened before Menendez's 

In the Church of San Nicolas, at A\'iles, is a handsome 
monument bearing the following inscription, which is here 
translated to show the distinguished titles and honors held 
by the founder of " San Augnstin : " 

" Here lies buried the illustrious Cavalier Pedro Menen- 
dez de Aviles, a native of this city, Adelantado of the Prov- 
inces of Florida, Knight Commander of Santa Cruz of the 
order of Santiago, and Captain General of the Oceanic Seas, 
and of the Armada which his Royal Highness collected at 
Santander in the year 1574, where he died in the 55th year 
of his age." 

After its founder's death the colony at St. Augustine was 
left mainly to its own resources, and soon began to learu 
how to take care of itself. It passed through the usual 
trials of a frontier town during the twelve years that fol- 
lowed, slowly growing, however, in strength and resources. 
On May 28 (O. S.), 1586, the English freebooter. Sir Francis 
Drake, was sailing up the coast and discovered a lookout on 


Anastasia Island. "None amongst us had any knowledge 
of it at all," says Drake in bis narrative. So an armed party 
was sent ashore, who discovered the fort and town, and re- 
jjorted accordingly. Upon this Drake landed a cannon near 
the head of the island and opened fire just as night fell. 
The first shot " strake through the Ensigne," and the second 
struck the wall of the fort. Darkness prevented further op- 
erations, but during the night Christopher Carleil, the lieu- 
tenant-general, made a reconnoissanee in " a little rowing 
Skiife," and was fired at from the fort. 

Morning dawned, and, continues Drake in his narrative, 
"forthwith came a Frenchman, being a Phijjher, in a little 
boat, playing on his Phiph the tune of the Prince of Orange 
his Song." The deserter proved to be one Nicolas de Bur- 
goyne, who had been spared by Menendez at the time of the 
Huguenot massacre. He reported the evacuation of the 
fort. The English immediately manned their boats without 
waiting for full daylight, and found the French fifer's report 
true, the garrison of 150 men having fled in such haste that 
the treasure-chest, containing £2,000, fell into Drake's hands. 

An advance was then made upon the town, which lay some 
three-quarters of a mile to the southward, but, after a feeble 
show of resistance, both soldiers and inhabitants fled, and 
Drake pillaged and burned the place, which had by this 
time attained quite a respectable size, with a "Hall of 
Justice," a parish church, a monastery, and twelve squares 
of dwellings and other buildings, each with its garden on 
the west side. 

The fort (St. John of the Pines) was a rude octagonal af- 
fair of pine logs, set palisadewise, was without ditches, and 
is described as quite incapable of resisting such an attack as 
Drake could have delivered. The narrative says, in fact, 
"So as to say the truth they had no reason to keepe it, being 
subject both to fire, and easie of assault." 

The English soon dejjarted, and the Spanish governor, a 
nephew and namesake of the original founder, led back his 
colony and began the work of reconstruction. 

In 1592 twelve Franciscan missionaries amved and began 
systematically to work for the conversion of the Indians. 


The governor had encouraged Indian settlements, and two 
villages liad been established, known as Talomato and 
Tapoqui, the first being in or near the northwest i)art of the 
town, and the second a little to the northward of the fort, 
where was an Indian church consecrated to '* Our Lady of 
the Milk." In 1598 the native converts began to tire of ec- 
clesiastical restraint, and under the leadership of a young 
chief broke into the chapel at Talomato, which stood near the 
present Roman Catholic Cemetery, and killed Father Corpa 
while at his evening devotion. Thence they went to Tapoqui 
and sei-ved Father Roderiguez in like manner, permitting 
him, however, at his own request, to put on his vestments 
and say mass. He was killed before the altar, which it is 
said was spattered with his blood. The fierce young chief 
then led his band against the several other missions that 
bad been established up and down the coast and in the in- 
terior and very nearly exterminated the Franciscan brother- 
hood in Florida. Of course, summary vengeance was taken 
by the Spaniards, who burned villages and granaries, when 
they could not catch the marauders themselves. The fate of 
the martyred priests served only to stimulate the missionary 
spirit among the Franciscans, and in a few years there were 
twenty prosperous missions in as many of the principal 
Indian towns with their headquarters at St. Augustine. 

In 1638 the Apalachian Indians rose against the Spaniards, 
and many prisoners were brought to St. Augustine and set to 
work on the fortifications. By 1647 there were 300 house- 
holders, resident in the city, and 50 Franciscans occupied 
the monastery. There was a parish church with a full staff 
of ecclesiastics, and the fort was rebuilt on a more secure 
plan. Menendez the Second had been killed by Indians, and 
his son-in-law, Hernando de Alas, succeeded him — the last 
of the Menendez line. 

Diego de Eebellado was Captain-General from 1655 till 
1675 and during his term of office (1665)Cai)tain John Davis, 
an English freebooter like his predecessor Drake, came up 
from Jamaica with a fleet of seven small vessels, landed 
somewhere south of the town and marched directly upon it 
with a force probably greatly superior to that of the garrison. 


At all events, the town was sacked, the garrison, two hundred 
in number, apparently remaining in the fort, not being strong 
enough to make resistance or afford protection. At this time 
the fort was square, with bastions, and capable of a good de- 
fence. The English, at any rate, seem to have deemed it pru- 
dent to take themselves oflf with their plunder without at- 
tacking the fort. 

Don Juan Marquez de Cabrera was appointed Governor in 
1681, and took in hand energetically the work of comjjleting 
the castle (see p. 158). At this time incipient hostilities 
began between the Spaniards in Florida and the English and 
Scotch in Georgia and the Carolinas, each side finding just 
cause for complaint in the encroachments of the other. In 
1675, and again in 1685, the Governor of St. Augustine sent 
armed expeditions against Port Royal. The second one was 
successful, the Spaniards breaking up Lord Oardross' colony 
and plundering plantations along the Edisto River. 

In 1687 Captain Juan de Aila brought from Spain the 
first negro slave imported to the colony, an event that was 
bailed with joy by the inhabitants. Menendez, it will be re- 
membered was authorized to import five hundred slaves, but 
he never did it, and though the Spaniards did not hesitate to 
enslave Indians whenever convenient, they did not prove so 
tractable as negroes. 

Under Don Diego de Quiroga y Losada, in 1690, the con- 
struction of a sea-wall was undertaken as a public work, and 
in the following year substantial aid was received from the 
home government. This old wall apparently extended from 
the castle to the present Plaza. Portions of it were visible 
along the middle of Bay Street until about 1860, and exca- 
vation, were it desirable, would no doubt reveal a consider- 
able i^ortion of the old structure, which the progress of mod- 
ern improvement has covered up (see p. 156). 

The year 1702 saw war formally declared between Great 
Britain and Spain, and James Moore, then Governor of South 
Carolina, a man of energetic and warlike instincts, organized 
an expedition against St. Augustine. The castle was now in 
shape to stand a siege, and preparations were made accord- 
ingly. The inhabitants removed their valuables within the 


walls. Moore's attack was i)lanned T)y land and sea, but the 
land forces under Colonel Daniel arrived first, and occui:)ied 
the town without opposition. Shortly afterward the fleet of 
transports appeared in the offing and the castle was com- 
pletely invested. 

The walls were found to be too strong for the light ord- 
nance brought by Governor Moore and two different mes- 
sengers were sent to Jamaica for heavier guns. The first 
messenger proved inefficient, but the second, Colonel Daniel, 
procured the guns and returned with great expedition. In 
the meantime, however, two Spanish frigates appeared in the 
offing and Moore, thinking that Colonel Daniel could not 
now accomplish his mission, raised the siege and marched 
home, abandoning or burning his ships and firing the town 
as he departed. When Colonel Daniel returned with his ord- 
nance and stores he narrowly escaped capture, not know- 
ing that his colleagues had withdrawn. The Carolinians 
carried home a considerable quantity of rich booty, includ- 
ing vestments and plate from the churches, and thus was St. 
Augustine again forced to begin her career over again. There 
is but small doubt that had Moore awaited Daniel's return, 
the castle would have fallen, for the Spanish frigates had 
but two hundred men, who could not have afforded substan- 
tial aid. The siege had lasted nearly three months, and the 
beleaguered garrison was glad to have it end at any cost. 

This narrow escaj^e had the eifect of inducing a more lib- 
eral policy on the part of the home government. Money and 
men were sent to complete and strengthen the fortifications, 
but in 1712 there was nearly a famine, for the provision 
ships failed to arrive and the Spanish colonists for some 
reason had not learned to make a living by peaceful means. 

The year 1725 found the city with an enemy again at her 
gates, this time Colonel Palmer, of South Carolina. He was 
merely on a raid, however, and as the city was walled by this 
time, he could only destroy everything outside the gates. 

Seven years jiassed. Another martial governor had ajj- 
peared in the north, to wit, James Edward Oglethorpe, of 
Georgia. War still existed between Great Britain and Spain, 
and Oglethorpe, under instructions from the English Crown, 


made a descent upon St. Augustine. The expedition was 
orgauized •with a view to ending the partisan warfare that 
had so long subsisted between English and Spanish colo- 
nists. Oglethorpe held the king's commission as a general 
officer; a regiment of the line was sent from England to 
join the expedition, and several hundred volunteers were en- 
rolled among the colonists. Four 20-gun ships and two 
sloops formed the naval force. 

The Governor of Florida at this time was Don Manuel de 
Monteano, an energetic and able commander, who made 
every effort to strengthen his jDosition. The population of 
St. Augustine was about two thousand. The garrison num- 
bered about seven hundred and forty men, horse, foot, and 
artillery. There were fifty pieces of cannon in the castle — 
12- to 48-pounders. Don Antonio de An-edondo, an able of- 
ficer of engineers, strengthened the works, and threw up in- 
trenchments around the town, the remains of some of which 
are still visible. 

Oglethorpe's forces rendezvoused at the mouth of the St. 
John's, May 24, 1739. Two Si^anish forts on the river, at 
Picolata, had already been captured. 

About two miles north of the Castle of St. Marks was an 
outwork called "Negro Fort," or "Fort Moosa," having at 
that time water commimication with the castle through a 
tidal creek. It was originally intended as a shelter for plan- 
tation hands against the Indians, whence its name, but was 
subsequently garrisoned by the Spaniards. The English 
found it deserted, and decided to destroy it. Probably this 
was the resiilt of some misunderstanding, for hardly was the 
work begun, when it was countermanded, and Colonel Palmer 
was sent with 133 men to hold the position. 

On June 6th, Colonel Vanderdusen arrived with the North 
Carolina Regiment, having marched down the beach from 
the St. John's, but it was not until June 20th that the fleet 
took position and St. Augustine was faiily invested. On 
Anastasia Island, directly opposite the castle was a battery 
of four 18-pounders, and one 9-pounder. Two more 18- 
l^ounders were mounted on higher land. On San Matteo, or 
North Eiver Point were seven more pieces, and, according 


to Spanish accounts, there were thirty-four mortars in posi- 
tion. Tlie remains of the principal battery on Anastasia 
Island can still be traced. 

The town was at once rendered untenable by the English 
guns, and the inhabitants sought shelter in the fort. On 
the night of June 25th a sortie in force was made from the 
castle, and the insufficient garrison at Fort Moosa was over- 
powered after a sharp fight. Colonel Palmer, the nominal 
commandant, had from the first protested against being left 
with so few men in an exjDosed position out of reach of suc- 
cor, and, moreover. Captain Mcintosh, commanding a High- 
lander detachment that formed part of the garrison, was dis- 
posed to be insubordinate — facts which, taken in connection 
with the partial destruction of the fort, sufficiently account 
for its capture. Nevertheless, a stubborn resistance was 
made, and two assaults were repulsed. A third was more 
successful, and the S^janiards gained the interior of the work, 
where their superior numbers soon compelled submission. 
A few of the garrison cut their way out and escaped to the 
English lines, but Colonel Palmer was killed, fighting to 
the last. Captain Mcintosh, with about twenty of his men, 
was captured and taken to Spain. 

After this hostilities consisted mainly of an artillery duel 
between the castle and the batteries, resulting in small 
damage to either side. The walls of the old fort still bear 
marks of shot and shell, but the range was too great for 
the ordnance of that period ; the missiles merely imbedded 
themselves harmlessly in the coquina ramparts. 

Oglethorpe, indeed, counted upon starvation to compel sur- 
render, and his hopes might probably have been realized, 
but for the unaccountable omission to guard Mosquito and 
Matanzas Inlets, thus leaving the authorities at Havana free 
to send supplies in resjionse to Monteano's apjieals for aid. 
There is some doubt as to whether the siege was raised be- 
fore or after the wants of the garrison were relieved. Be 
that as it may, Oglethorpe and his officers believed that sup- 
plies had been received, and were satisfied early in July that 
it was useless to protract the siege with the means at hand. 
On the lOtli of that month, therefore, the little army crossed 


the river, and paraded — drums beating and colors flying — 
"within sight of the castle, in the vain hope that the Span- 
iards would come out and fight in the open. Monteano very 
properly and prudently declined this challenge, and so, after 
a month of siege, " La siempre Jiel Ciiidad de San Augustln " 
was once more left to her balmy sea-breezes, with the flag 
of Sixain floating above her ramparts. 

Great credit is due to the courage, fortitude, and ready re- 
source displayed by Governor Monteano during this siege. 

Early in the .siDring of 1742 St. Augustine was the centre of 
vigorous preparations for a retaliatory exi^edition. A fleet 
of thirty vessels gathered in the harbor and outside the bar, 
and, about July 1st, sailed with Monteano in command to 
carry the war into Oglethorpe's own territory. Barring some 
temporary successes the expedition was a failure. 

In March, 171.3, Oglethorpe was again before the city 
gates, and so swiftly did he come that his Indian scouts 
overtook and slew a number of Spanish soldiers (forty ac- 
cording to Oglethorpe's report) under the very walls of the 

Oglethorpe was merely engaged in a foray, however, and 
after seeking in vain to induce the garrison to come out and 
fight, he returned as quickly as he came. 

Don Alonzo Fernandez de Herrara was appointed Gover- 
nor in 1755. Under his administration the castle was com- 
pleted as it now stands, all save the water battery, which is of 
modern construction. 

After a tacit suspension of hostilities a treaty was ratified 
whereby Florida passed into the hands of Great Britain, and 
in 176.3 the Cross of St. George at last took the place of the 
Spanish lion on the flagstaff of the castle. 

With English rule came an abrupt change of ijolicy. The 
population of the city had, until now been semi-military, 
largely under pay from the crown, and correspondingly idle 
and worthless. Nothing whatever had been done to dis- 
cover or develop the resources of the country. No sooner, 
however, had the English taken possession than they began 
to encourage immigration by publishing accounts of the soil 
and climate which were quite as trustworthy as some of 


more recent date and finer typography. Stork's map of the 
city (1752) is very minute, showing every lot and alleyway in 
detail. Under the English flag the Castle of St. Mark be- 
came St. John's Fort. 

To the Spanish residents the change of flags was unendur- 
able, and nearly all of them emigrated at short notice, not- 
withstanding civil and religious liberty was guaranteed by 
the terms of the treaty. Such was their malicious temper 
that the commandant of the post. Major Ogilvie, had much 
ado to keep them from destroying their houses. Even the 
outgoing Governor uprooted and destroyed the fine garden 
of the official residence. 

During the night of January 2, 1766, the mercury fell to 
20^ and, for the first time on record, lime, citron, and ba- 
nana trees were killed in St. Augustine. 

In the manuscript of John Gerard Williams de Brahm, in 
the collection of Harvard University, it appears that the 
number of inhabitants of St. Augustine and vicinity was 288 
householders (144 of them married), and upward of 900 ne- 
groes. The coquina lighthouse, constructed by the Span- 
iards on Anastasia Island, was surmounted in 1769 by a 
wooden superstructure, sixty feet high, from which a system 
of signals was displayed for the benefit of mariners. 

The first English Governor was Lieutenant-Colonel James 
Grant, of the Fortieth foot. He was appointed in 1760, and in- 
augurated many wise measures for the improvement of the 
town and colony. One of his most noteworthy undertakings 
was the construction of public highways leading north and 
south from St. Augustine. In spite of the neglect of suc- 
ceeding generations these roads are still among the best in 
the country. During his governorship he led two consider- 
able expeditions, the first against rebellious North Carolin- 
ians, and the second against the Cherokee Indians. Siibse- 
quently he was promoted general for services in the Koyal 
Army during the war for American Independence. 

Governor Grant retired iu 1771 and was succeeded by 
Governor Moultrie, a brother of him who was afterward a 
leader in the Kevolutionary War. His administration of 
aftairs was somewhat stormy, and in 1774 he was succeeded 


by Governor Tonyn, who came out from England for the pur- 
pose. In the meantime the northern colonies had revolted, 
and one of the first acts of the new Governor was to issue 
a proclamation inviting the loyalists of Georgia and the 
Carolinas to Florida, assuring them protection and immunity 
from rebel raids. As a result the poj)ulation of St. Augus- 
tine and vicinity was largely increased. 

The sentiment of the town was intensely loyalist, and when 
news of the Declaration of Independence was received, 
Adams and Hancock were burned in eflfigy in the Plaza where 
the monument now stands. 

In August, 1775, there were several British cruisers at 
anchor inside the bar and a considerable garrison in the fort, 
for St. Augustine was a convenient station for military and 
naval ojierations. A powder-laden vessel from London, 
named the Betsy, lay off the bar waiting a favorable tide to 
run in. She was discovered by an enterprising American 
privateer from Carolina and captured under the very eyes of 
fleet and gaiiison. To one who knows this coast such an oc- 
currence is easily explained. An easterly wind in connection 
with a heavy swell on the bar or a flood tide would render a 
rescue out of the question, by anything save a fleet of steam 
launches — i^erhaps not even by them. The impotent wrath 
of the local royalists may be imagined. 

In 1778, the British garrison being small, much anxiety 
was caused in the royalist city by the organization of an 
American expedition for its capture. The plan was aban- 
doned for some reason, and St. Augustine saw nothing of 
the " rebels." A successful British expedition against Sa- 
vannah, Ga., was organized under General Prevost at St. 
Augustine in 1778, making the town gay for a time with 
scarlet uniforms on shore and a fleet of transports in the 

After the capture of Charleston, S. C, by the British in 
1780, sixty-one prominent citizens of the place were seized 
for their rebellious sentiments and brought to St. Augustine 
as prisoners of war and hostages. 

The nominally full list as published in Fairbanks' " History " 
is as follows, and is reproduced here as of interest from the 



many prominent family names that it contains. The number 
it will be be noticed falls four short of the alleged total : 

John J. Budd. 
Edward Blake. 
Joseph Bee. 
Richard Beresford. 
John Berwick. 
D. Bordeaux. 
Robert Cochrane. 
Benjamin Oudworth. 
H. V. Crouch. 
I. S. Cripps. 
Edward Darrell. 
Daniel Dessaussure. 
John Edwards. 
George Flagg. 
Thomas Ferguson. 
General A. C. Gadsden. 
William Hazel Gibbs. 
Thomas Grinball. 
William Hall. 
George A. Hall. 
Isaac Holmes. 
Thomas Heyward, jr. 
Richard Hutson. 
Colonel Isaacs. 
Noble Wimberly Jones. 
William Johnstone. 
William Lee. 
Richard Lushington. 


William Logan. 
Rev. John Lewis. 
William Massey. 
Alexander Moultrie. 
Arthur Middleton. 
Edward McCready. 
John Mouatt. 
Edward North. 
John Neufville. 
Joseph Parker. 
Christoiiher Peters. 
Benjamin Postell. 
Samuel Prioleau. 
John Earnest Poyas. 
General Rutherford. 
Edward Rutledge. 
Hugh Rutledge. 
John Sansom. 
Thomas Savage. 
Josiah Smith. 
Thomas Singleton. 
James Hampden Thompson. 
John Todd. 
Peter Timothy. 
Anthony Toomer. 
Edward Weyman. 
James Wakefield. 
Benjamin Waller. 

The Governor, Patrick Tonyn, as shown by an oflScial 
letter to Lord St. Germain, sought " to have them treated 
with great contempt, and to have any friendly intercourse 
with them is considered as a mark of disresjiect to his 
Majesty and displeasing to me." Nevertheless, these jjesti- 
lent rebels appear to have made friends, and increased the 


number of the disaflfected even in St. Augustine itself. 
They were in custody for nearly a year, and were then sent to 
Philadelphia to be exchanged. 

About this time, 1780, the policy of evacuating East Flor- 
ida altogether began to be agitated, and an order to this ef- 
fect was actually issued by Sir Guy Carleton, but subse- 
quently revoked. The province had, in fact, grown wonder- 
fully under British rule. The exports of East Florida (that 
is, of St. Augustine) amounted in 1768 to £14,078, in 1778 
to £48,236. In 1781, owing largely to the Eevolutionary War, 
they fell to £30,715. St. Augustine had been a considerable 
port of entry for coastwise and foreign traffic, and every- 
thing pointed to a prosperous future, when, after the Inde- 
pendence of the United States was recognized, the British 
Government, on September 3, 1783, re-ceded Florida to 
Spain, with the very unsatisfactory stijDulation that the 
English inhabitants might have eighteen months of grace 
wherein to sell out their property, or move their effects. Al- 
most to a man the English settlers decided to emigi-ate, but 
they did so under great hardship and loss, having been in- 
duced to settle in Florida by liberal grants of land. 

During the British occupation St. Augustine became the 
centre of a rather select society. Among the residents, of- 
ficial and otherwise, were Sir Charles Burdett, Chief Justice 
Drayton, the Rev. John Forbes, General James Grant, 
Lieutenant-Governor Moultrie, William Stark, the historian, 
the Rev. N. Frazer, Dr. Andrew TurnbuU, Bernard Romans, 
Esq., civil engineer, James Moultrie, Esq., and William 
Bartram, Esq., the Quaker naturalist and author. Bar- 
racks capable of containing five regiments were erected 
south of the present town, and the old city within its gray 
coquina walls must have been a very pleasant place of resi- 

The wonderful productiveness of "Florida sand" had 
been promptly discovered by English gardeners, and to this 
day evidences of their thrift and energy are aj^parent, not 
only in the city itself but wherever the land was exception- 
ally good within a reasonable distance from the coast. 

In June, 1784, the new Spanish governor, Zespedez by 


name, took possession, and again after twenty years' absence 
the banner of Spain floated over the castle walls. This 
transfer inaugurated what was perhaps the most idyllic ye- 
riod of the city's history. The world went on fighting as 
usual, but St. Augustine had ceased to be a bone of conten- 
tion. The young republic to the northward was some- 
what aggressive, it is true, but the new order of things 
did not for a generation intimately affect the old city. 
Under the wise and temperate government of Don Enrique 
White a somewhat unique Spanish community appears 
to have developed. Music, dancing, civil and ecclesiastical 
feasts, and all the light amusements dear to the Latin heart, 
were celebrated during the genial winter months and the 
city was a veritable bower of tropical vegetation, with naiTow, 
paved' streets lined with cool gray coquiiia- walled houses. 
Within the gates no hoof of horse ever sounded. Those who 
could afford to ride rode in palanquins. 

In 1792 the city suffered an irreparable loss in the biirn- 
ing of the British barracks — five large brick buildings that 
stood to the southward of the town. 

In a most entertaining volume, entitled " A Voyage to the 
Spanish Main" (London, 1819), "An English Gentleman," 
whose name has never come to light, gives a charming pic- 
ture of the city and its manners and customs at the time of 
his visit (1817), albeit that was almost the beginning of the 

The second war between the United States and Great 
Britain (1812-1814) indicated unmistakably the manifest 
destiny of Florida. The young republic had acquired by 
purchase from France all the surrounding territory. An 
American, or " patriot " party was growing in strength, even 
under Spanish rule, and marauders, too often aided and 
abetted by United States officials, rendered life and property 

Negotiations followed between the governments at Wash- 
ington and Madrid, and as the result of a treaty ratified in 
February, 1821, the Spanish flag was lowered on July 10th 
of that year and the stars and strii^es rose in its place. 
European residents in St. Augustine had already spread 


the fame of her climate, and no sooner was the State fairly in 
the Union than invalids began to flock thither during the 
winter months. 

The facilities for travel were, however, so inferior in those 
days that, until the establishment of coastwise steamboat 
routes, about 1827, no one foresaw the coming importance 
of the modern winter resort. For fifteen years St. Augus- 
tine enjoyed peace and prosperity, but in 1835 the Seminole 
War broke out, and she was again an important centre of mil- 
itary preparations. During this period great prosperity 
prevailed, stimulated, of course, by the fictitious values in- 
duced by Government contracts. War parties of Indians 
prowled under the veiy walls, and many massacres occurred 
in the vicinity. 

In Februaiw, 1835, the mercury fell to 7° F. , a jioint that 
has never been touched since. Even the wild orange-trees 
were killed to the ground. 

Hostilities continued, with more or less danger to the in- 
habitants of the city, until 1842, when the Indians were finally 
subjugated in this vicinity or driven far to the southward 
among the everglades. From this time may be dated St. 
Augustine's prosperity as a resort for invalids and tourists, 
a prosperity that was not seriously interrupted until the 
winter of 1860, when the indications of coming civil war be- 
tween the States became so marked that Northern invalids 
dared not risk their usual flight to the South. 

Secession found Fort Marion in charge of Ordnance Ser- 
geant Douglas, U. S. A., and, like many another of his fel- 
lows about this time, he was confronted on January 7, 1861, 
by a company of volunteers under orders from the Gov- 
ernor of the State, demanding a surrender of his chai-ge. 
He Jiad no choice bui to comply, although he required a re- 
ceipt for all property from the Governor's aide. By this 
prompt action, prior by three days, indeed, to the passage of 
the Ordnance of Secession, the State, and subsequently the 
Confederacy, secured 6 field batteries of four guns each, 20 
sea-coast and garrison cannon, 31 foreign guns of various 
calibres, and a quantity of small arms and ammunition. 
The United States ensign was pulled down, not without 


some unspoken misgivings on the part of the more thought- 
ful spectators, and for more than a year tlie '■ stars and 
bars " floated at the flagstaff. 

On March 11, 1862, the United States gunboat Huron, 
Commander C. P. E. Rogers, appeared in the offing, crossed 
the bar with some difficulty, and approached the city under 
a flag of truce, as had been directed by Commodore Duijont. 
A white flag was soon hoisted on Fort Marion. Uj^on this 
Commander Rogers went ashore with an unarmed crew and 
was received by the Mayor and City Council, who informed 
him that the small Confederate garrison of two companies 
had evacuated the fort during the night. The guns of the 
foi't were not spiked, and on recommendation of Commander 
Rogers the Mayor had the national ensign hoisted on the 
fort. The whole affair was conducted with courtesy on 
both sides, and an adequate garrison of United States troops 
was soon landed to take permanent possession. About one 
thousand five hundred of the inhabitants remained in the 
city, some five hundred having fled when it became evident 
that no defence would be made. On the evening before the 
arrival of the gunboats a number of women cut down the 
flagstaff in front of the United States barracks, in order to 
delay the hoisting of the national colors. This appears to 
have been the only overt act of hostility that was jiermitted 
bv he cooler headed of the inhabitants, who well knew the 
futility of resistance under the circumstances. 

Shortly after the Federal garrison had taken possession, a 
detail of the Tenth Connecticut Regiment was attacked by 
a squadron of Confederate cavalry, while acting as guards 
for a party of wood-cutters. The attacking party made a 
dash for the teams of the wood-cutters, but were driven off 
after a shaip skirmish. Three of the Connecticut men were 
killed and their commanding officer, Lieutenant Brown, was 
fatally wounded. 

During the remaining years of the Civil "VTar St. Augustine 
was merely a quiet gaii-ison town under martial law, with 
the avenues of approach duly guarded and gunboats often at 
anchor inside the bar. The soldiers of the garrison, like the 
Spaniards and the English who preceded them in former 


wars, enjoyed such excellent health that the sick list proved 
a telling advertisement for the healthfulness of the climate. 

No sooner were hostilities over than inquiries began to 
arrive from the North as to hotel accommodations for the 
coming winter, and very soon the sound of preparation 
was heard. New hotels were built, largely with Northern 
capital, new and unfamiliar Paris fashions appeared with 
early winter along the sea-wall, and the old Spanish city en- 
tered upon a career of prosperity which soon surpassed her 
wildest dreams. 


The city of St. Augustine stands near the southern extrem- 
ity of a peninsula formed by the Matanzas and San Se- 
bastian Rivers. The land is in the main level, low in some 
places, and where not cultivated is covered with the beach 
scrub common to this vicinity. The land approaches to 
St. Augustine are by no means inviting, as all three of the 
railroad lines thread miles of fiat woods and cross other miles 
of prairie before the towers and sj^ires of the city can be 
seen. Carriages and hotel stages are always in waiting at 
the station, and the drive to the city, about three-quarters of 
a mile, is over a delightfully smooth asphalt pavement. A 
wide range of choice is offered in the matter of hotels and 

Tlte Plaza de la Constitucion and its surroundings form the 
nucleus of the city. This public square was established 
when the town was originally laid out. Its dimensions are 
very modest, though the narrowness of the adjacent streets 
lend it, by contrast, some apparent extent. Standing on the 
sea-wall and facing eastward, one looks across Matanzas 
Eiver, three-qiiarters of a mile, to Anastasia Island with its 
spiral striped lighthouse, its wharf and miniature railroad 
train, scrab-palmetto and bushes. To the left the land 
drops away to a beach, where Sir Francis Drake posted a 
gun one evening in 3586 and pounded away, as the sun went 
down, at the grim old fortress opposite. Beyond the i:)oint 
is St. Augustine Inlet, La Riviere des Dauphines as the 



French Huguenot Laudonniere named it before the Span- 
iards set foot on its shores. Beyond this again is North 
Beach and the Toloniato Eiver. To the right Matanzas 
Eiver and the shores of Anastasia Island disappear in the 

Turning westward toward the Plaza we face the pretty 
stretch of greensward with its shade trees. Almost opposite, 
in the foreground, is the "Old Slave Market," popularly so 
called, though in reality the original structure was a provis- 
ion market, built in 1840, and used as such until the city 
outgrew its accommodations. The roof and woodwork were 
burned in 1887, but the structure was subsequently rebuilt 
and serves mainly as a lounging-place. Originally the square 
was probably designed as a parade-ground, and as such it 
was certainly used by the British and by the United States 
troops during the Civil War. 

The white coquina monument surmounted by a cannon- 
ball commemorates the adoption by the Spanish Cortez in 
1812 of a new constitution, whence the Plaza takes its of- 
ficial name. The monument was erected in 1813. The in- 
scription translated reads as follows : 

" Plaza of the Constitution jDromulgated in the city of St. 
Augustine, in East Florida, on the 17th day of October, in 
the year 1812; the Brigadier Don Sebastian Kindalem, 
Knight of the Order of Santiago, being Governor. For eter- 
nal remembrance the Constitutional City Council erected 
this monument, under the superintendence of Don Fernando 
de la Maza Arredondo, the young municipal officer, oldest 
member of the corporation, and Don Francisco Robira, At- 
torney and Eecorder. In the year 1813." 

In 1814 Ferdinand VII. was recalled to the Spanish throne, 
and straightway repudiating his pledge to support the 
new " constitucion " ordered all the commemorative mon- 
uments that had been erected to be torn down. Alone, it is 
believed, the far-away province of Florida neglected to obey 
the royal behest. The tablets were removed as a salve to 
loyal consciences, but in 1818 they were replaced and so the 
monument fortunately survives as a curious memento of the 


The other monument tinder the trees on the north side of 
the Plaza commemorates the Confederate dead of St. Augu.s- 
tine. One face bears tliis inscription : " Our Dead. Erected 
by the Ladies' Memorial Association of St. Augustine, Fla., 
A.D. 1872." The second : "In Memoriam. Our loved ones 
who gave their lives in the service of the Confederate States." 
On the third face : " They died far from the Lome that gave 
them birth." And the fourth : " They have crossed the river 
and rest under the shade of the trees." The shaft is of co- 

The Plaza has always been, and is still the scene of public 
meetings. Here the men-at-arms gathered when the alarm 
gnn was fired in the old days of the French, English, and 
American Wars. Here in 1776 the royalists burned Adams 
and Hancock in effigy, when the news, a fortnight or more 
old, came from distant Philadelphia that the Declaration of 
Indejjendence had been signed. Here the Florida Vol- 
unteers fell in on a January morning of 1861 and marched to 
take possession of Fort Marion, and thence subsequently 
they marched away to four years of fratricidal war and final 
defeat. And here, finally, after peace was restored, the Dec- 
laration of Independence was read before a mass meeting of 
approving citizens. On the right, or north side of the Plaza 
is St. Joseph's Cathedral, built under Spanish rule and 
finished in 1701. It was burned in 1887, and immediately 
rebuilt, enlarged, and most tastefully improved by Messrs. 
Carriere & Hastings, architects. Thus the cathedral could 
not, even had it escaped the flames, have claimed a remote 
antiquity, even in the American acceptation of the term. Its 
predecessor, however, dated back to 1682 or thereabout, one 
of the old bells, still preserved, bearing that date and the 
legen d Sancte — Joseph — Ora — Pro — Nobis. 

On the left is the modest spire of Trinity Church, episco- 
palian, and beyond are the post-office, and the towers of the 
great Ponce de Leon and Cordova hotels. To the north and 
south at either hand stretches the sea-wall, terminated at the 
south by the United States Barracks and at the north by 
Fort Marion. 

The Sea- Wall. Some protection against the inroads of the 


. San Marco Hotel 

. Warden's. 

. Cemetery. 

, Fori Marion. 

. Gateway. 

. Museum. 

, Methodist Church. 

, Magnolia Hotel. 

, Opera House. 

, Hernandez Hotel 

. Florida House. 

, Bath House. 

, Court House. 

. Yacht Club. 

. Bank. 

. Cathedral. 

Bishop Moore's. 


Hotel Ponce de Leon. 


Hotel Cordova. 

Post Office. 

Old Market. 


Plaza Basin. 

Plaza Hotel 


Episcopal Church. 

Lyon Block. 

Villa Zorayda. 

Presbyterian Church. 

Barracks Basin. 



Military Cemetery. 

Water Park. 

New Presbyterian Church. 



ocean became necessary as soon as St. Augnstine began to 
consider itself a permanent place of abode. Easterly storms 
with their accompanying high tides often drove the water up 
into the streets, and even now the spray at times flies over 
the stone coping. The first wall was begun in 1690, under 
the administration of Diego de Quiroza y Dosada, who was 
Governor at the time. It extended from the Fort to the 
Plaza and its remains are not far beneath the present sur- 
face of the street. Its location and extent are shown on 
a map of the town made during British occupancy. It is of 
record that the Spanish , soldiers voluntarily contributed 
labor and money to aid in its construction. The present 
wall was begun in 1835 by the United States Government, 
and was finished in 1842. It is three-quarters of a mile long, 
built of coquiua, with a coping of granite three feet wide. 
Tlie wall itself is ten feet above low-w'ater mark. The cost 
was about .$100,000. There are two breaks in the wall, af- 
fording access to the water's edge, one opposite the Plaza, 
and the other near the barracks. These breaks are protected 
by out-walls and the basins are used for loading and un- 
loading fish, fruit, and the other products of sea and shore. 
The Minorcans. In the early part of the present century 
the population of the city was largely made u^j of natives of 
the Balearic Isles, Minorca and Majorca, lying in the western 
Mediterranean, ofi" the coast of Spain. These jseople were 
brought over by Dr. Andrew TurnbuU (see Route 63), in 
1790, with a view to establishing a colony at New Smyrna, but 
they revolted against the rule of his agents, and most of them 
came to St. Augustine, where, for a generation they formed 
a distinct class of the population. A few of their descend- 
ants remain, distinguished by dark ej-es, hair, and com- 
j^lexion, but for the most jDart they have intermarried with 
Americans, and race characteristics have been largely modi- 
fied, or have disappeared altogether. 

Fort Marion. Any of the streets running north — parallel 
to the sea-wall, that is — lead to this ancient fortress, the most 
important and interesting of the Spanish relics. 

On or near this site Menendez constructed a wooden fort 


in 1565, and named it St. John of the Pines (San Jnan de 
Pinos). It was, according to the most trustworthy accounts, 
octagonal in form, and mounted fourteen brass cannon. It 
was this fort that Sir Francis Drake destroyed in 1586, the 
garrison having fled with but a faint show of resistance. 

By this time the Spaniards had discovered the valuable 
properties of coquina for building pui-jooses, and their sub- 
sequent works were of the more durable and less combustible 
material. Little is known of the structure that was threat- 
ened by Davis, the English buccaneer, in 1665, but its walls 
were at that time well advanced, having been pushed forward 
by the labor of Indian captives and convicts from Spain and 
Mexico. We have the testimony of Jonathan Dickinson, a 
Philadelphia Quaker, who was here in 1695, that the walls 
were thirty feet high at that time. Seven years later (1702) 
they were certainly far enough completed to defy Governor 
Moore, of South Carolina, and in 1740 Governor Oglethorpe, 
of Georgia, hammered away at them for more than a month 
without producing any j^erceptible impression. 

The Spaniards named the fort San Marco, the English 
changed the name to St. John, and on retrocession to Sjiain 
in 1783, San Marco was once more recognized. On the ac- 
cession of the United States the saints were laid aside, and 
the name of the patriot soldier of South Carolina was 
adopted by the War Department. 

The fort is planned in accordance with the Vaubau system 
of fortification, which, x\p to the beginning of the present 
century was considered the best. A plan of the work, with 
its outlying defences and the modern water batteries, is ap- 

Approaching from the direction of the town the visitor as- 
cends a path leading up what was formerly the exterior 
slope of the glacis. The mass of masonry on the left, 
pierced for cannon and musketry, is the barbican, an outwork 
intended for the protection of the weakest point in the main 
work, namely, the entrance. An extension of the moat in- 
cludes the barbican, and both moats are now crossed by 
rough plank platforms, where once were regi;lar drawbridges. 
On the left, after passing the angle of the barbican, is a niche 



1. Bridge from glacis to barbican. 2. Stairway to barbican parapet. 3. 
Bridge. 4. Sally-port. 5. Arched passage. 6. Bakery. 7, 8. Store-rooms. 
9, 10. Store-rooms. 11. Bomb-proof. 12. Chapel. 13. Store-room. 14. Treas- 
ure room. 15. Casemate from which Coacoochee and Osceola escaped. 16, 
17. Dark vaults. 18. Guard-room. 19. Incliue to parapet. B, B, B, B. Bast- 
ions, each with a protected watch-tower, W, in the salient angle. The spaces 
left blank are ventilated casemates designed for quarters and ±e like. 


opening into a .stairway, and containing, carved in stone, 
the royal arms of Spain, which, in a sadly dilapidated con- 
dition, barely survive the rough handling to which they have 
been subjected by the elements all the time, and by witless 
vandals at intervals, until protected by an iron grating. 

Turning to the right, another rude structure of planks 
crosses tlie wide moat and leads to the entrance. Above this 
again are the arms of Spain with an almost obliterated in- 
scrii^tion which, restored and translated, reads as follows : 









"Don Ferdinand YI., being King of Spain, and tlie Field 
Marshal Don Alonzo Fernando Hereda, being Governor and 
Captain-General of this i3lace, St. Augustine, of Florida, and 
its jirovince. This fort was finished in the year 1756. The 
works were directed by the Captain-Engineer Don Pedro de 
Brazos of Garay." 

This door is provided with a heavy portculHs, which still 
remains in jjosition, though hardly in working order. The 
door or sally-port is barely wide enough for four men to 
march abreast, Within is a wide arched passage leading to 
the open parade inside the walls. On either side of the 
passage are doors leading to the vaulted chambers or case- 
mates that surround the parade on all sides, and served in 
their time as quarters for the garrison, as cells for jsrisoners, 
including American rebels during the revolution, and Indian 
captives in more recent times. 

The sergeant in charge of the fort conducts visitors through 
the casemates. As this is not part of his regular duty, a fee 
(25c. for each person, or one dollar for a party of several) is 


On the left of the entrance passage is the guavd-room and 
on the right is the bakery, through which access is had to 
two dark vaults, used, no doubt, for storage. 

The terrepleiu, or parade, is 103 by 109 feet, and a broad 
stairway, formerly an inclined plane for the easier handling 
of gun-carriages and the like, leads to the parapet. Directly 
opposite the entrance is the chapel, -without which no Span- 
ish fort of that period was complete ; in it are still visible 
the stations of shrine and altar, and other evidences of the 
decoration customary in such places. It was used for re- 
ligious services as late as 1860 or thereabout, and was turned 
into a schoolroom for the Western Indians who were con- 
fined here in 1875-78. The portico of the chapel was orig- 
inally quite an elaborate bit of decorative architecture, but 
it has long since disappeared. 

In 1882 a party of French astronomers had the use of the 
fort as a station to observe the transit of Venus, and a tablet 
near the chapel-door commemorates their visit. It bears 
this inscription : " Plaque commemorative du passage de 
Venus, observe au Fort Marion le 9 Decembre 1882, par MM. 
le Colonel Perrier, le Commandant Bassat, le Capitaine 
Deffoges de I'armee Francaise." 

The casemates are in the main alike, dark vaults, some of 
them lofty, others divided into two stories, some dimly 
lighted through narrow slits high up near the ceiling, others 
totally dark save for the entrance-doors. 

That captives, red and white, pagan and Christian, have 
pined away their lives in more than one of these dungeons 
is extremely probable when it is remembered that not so very 
long ago the rack and the stake were instruments of nomi- 
nally Christian offices, but no records remain, and the imagi- 
nation may have full play as regards most of the casemates. 

Two of them, however, have authentic histories. In the 
one marked 15, near the southwest bastion, Coacoochee 
and Osceola, two of the most celebrated Seminole chiefs, 
were confined during the war that lasted from 1835 till 1842. 
After the final subjugation of the tribe Coacoochee gave the 
following account of their escape : 

" We had been growing sickly from day to day and so re- 


solved to make our escape or die in the attempt. We were 
in a room eighteen or twenty feet square. All the light ad- 
mitted was through a hole about eighteen feet from the 
floor. Through this we must effect our escape, or remain 
and die with sickness. A sentinel was constantly posted at 
the door. As we looked at it from our beds, we thought it 
small, but believed tliat, could we get our heads through we 
should have no further nor serious difficulty. To reacli the 
hole was the first object. In order to effect this we from 
time to time cut up the forage-bags allowed us to sleep on, 
and made them into ropes. The hole I could not reach 
when upon the shoulder of my companion ; but while stand- 
ing upon his shoulder, I worked a knife into a crevice of 
the stonework, as far up as I could reach, and upon this I 
raised myself to the opening, when I found that, with some 
reduction of person, I could get through. In order to re- 
duce ourselves as much as possible we took medicine five 
days. Under the pretext of being very sick, we were per- 
mitted to obtain the roots we required. For some weeks we 
watched the moon, in order that the night of our attempt it 
should be as dark as possible. At the proper time we com- 
menced the medicine, calculating on the entire disappear- 
ance of the moon. The keeper of this prison, on the night 
determined upon to make the effort, annoyed us by fre- 
quently coming into the room, and talking and singing. At 
first we thought of tying him and putting his liead in a bag, 
so that, should he call for assistance, he could not be heard. 
We first, however, tried the experiment of pretending to be 
asleej), and when he returned to pay no regard to him. This 
accomplished our object. He came in, and went immedi- 
ately out ; and we could hear him snore in the immediate 
vicinity of the door. I then took the rope, which we had 
secreted under our bed, and mounting ujjon the shoulder of 
my comrade, raised myself by the knife worked into the 
crevices of the stone, and succeeded in reaching the embras- 
ure. Here I made fast the rope that my friend might fol- 
low me. I then passed through the hole a sufficient length 
of it to reacli the ground upon the outside (about twenty- 
five feet) in the ditch. I had calculated the distance when 


going for roots. "With much diificulty I siacceeded iu get- 
ting my head through ; for the sharp stones took the skin 
off my breast and back. Putting my head through first I 
was obliged to go down head foremost, until my feet were 
througli, fearing every moment the rope would break. At 
last, safely on the ground, I awaited with anxiety the arrival 
of my comrade. I had passed another rope through the 
hole, which, in the event of discovery, Talmus Hadjo 
(Osceola), was to pull, as a signal to me from the outside, 
that he was discovered, and could not come. As soon as I 
struck the ground, I took hold of the signal for intelligence 
from my friend. The niglit was very dark. Two men 
passed near me, talking earnestly, and I could see them dis- 
tinctly. Soon I heard the struggle of my companion far 
above me. He had succeeded in getting his head through, 
but his body would come no farther. In the lowest tone of 
voice, I urged him to throw out his breath, and then try ; 
soon after he came tumbling down the whole distance. For 
a few moments I thought him dead. I dragged him to some 
water close by, which restored him, but his leg was so lame 
he was unable to walk. I took him upon my shoulder to a 
scrub, near the town. Daylight was just breaking, it was 
evident we must move rapidly. I caught a mule in the ad- 
joining field, and making a bridle out of my sash, mounted 
my comj^anion, and started for the St. John's River. The 
mule was used one day, but fearing the whites would track 
us, we felt more secure on foot in the hammock, though 
moving very slow. Thus we continued our journey five 
days, subsisting on roots and berries, when I joined my band, 
then assembled on the headwaters of the Tomoka Eiver, 
near the Atlantic coast." 

Osceola was subsequently recaptured and sent to Fort 
Moultrie, Charleston, S. C, where he died. 

During the years 1875-78 the fort was again used as a 
prison for Indians brought from the far West. Their cap- 
tivity was nominal during good behavior, and some attempts 
were made to educate them. 

AVithin the northeastern bastion is a chamber known as 
" the dungeon," though there is good reason for believing 

1(;4 SAINT AU(;U.ST1NE. 

that it was originally intended as a magazine. In 1839 the 
masonry in one of the adjacent vaults caved in, and, while 
repairs were in progress, it was discovered that there was 
still another innermost chamber, whose existence had not 
before been suspected. The wall was broken through, and, 
among other refuse, some bones were found so far gone in 
decomposition that the post surgeon could not determine 
whether they were human or not. The mmor spread, how- 
ever, that an entire skeleton had been found chained to the 
wall, and that implements were scattered about suggestive of 
the " Holy Inquisition " and a chamber of hoiTors. The tale 
grew by repetition and for many years it was generally be- 
lieved that the dungeon had once been the scene of a tragedy. 
The author of the "Standard Guide to St. Augustine," how- 
ever, cites the statement of an old resident of the city, who 
w-as employed at the fort when a boy, and remembers the old 
disused magazine in the northeast bastion. According to this 
account, during the later days of Spanish occupancy the mag- 
azine fell out of repair, and became a receptacle for refuse of 
all sorts, until finally it was walled up, being regarded as a 
menace to health. There are still those who insist that the 
tragic accounts of the " dungeon " are the true ones, but 
the weight of evidence seems to be in favor of the more pro- 
saic version. 

Ascending to the parapet, the commanding position of the 
fort is apparent, and the outlook in all directions is very in- 
teresting. With the aid of the map on page 159 all the 
noteworthy points of interest can be traced, and many of the 
historic localities identified. 

In the salient angle of each bastion is a sentry-box of 
stone, where a man-at-arms might be tolerably secure against 
Indian arrows, or even against the firearms of the last 
century ; on the northeastern bastion, the most exposed of 
the four, the sentiy-box has a supplementary story or watch- 
tower, whence a still wider outlook may be obtained. 

To the non-military visitor, who knows not the uses of bas- 
tions, their purpose will at once become e%-ident on looking 
over the parapet. Soldiers posted in these projecting angles 
can, it is easily seen, deliver a direct fire sweeping the entire 


moat to autl bevoud the salient of the opposite bastion. 
Bastioued works reached their complete development under 
the system of Vauban, one of whose disciples, Captain 
Pedro de Brozas y Garay, was the engineer in charge of the 
construction of the fort. 

It is not likely that, even in case of a foreign war, guns 
will ever again be mounted en barbette on Fort Marion. Even 
if the coquina masonry could sustain the weight of modern 
ordnance, it could not long withstand the impact of modern 
projectiles. For this reason the water-battery along the sea- 
face was built in 1842, but the gun-platforms were never 
finished, and the whole work is long out of date. The guns 
that lie rusting along the glacis mostly antedate the Civil 
War, and are worthless save as old iron. 

The floor of the moat was originally of cement, but it is 
covered deep with sand and soil. When the old fort was in 
fighting trim this moat could be flooded at high tide. A 
stairway near the barbican permits easy descent into the 
moat for those who do not choose to jump or climb down 
from the crest of the counterscarp. From this level a better 
idea of the height of the walls is obtained, and one can 
readily understand how Osceola was eflfecfcually disabled by 
his fall from the narrow opening through which he and 
Coacoochee squeezed themselves in the western face of the 

Along the eastern or sea front numerous scars and in- 
dentations may be seen in the masonry, some of which were 
made by British guns during Oglethorpe's siege iu 1740. 
These respectable old wounds will readily be distinguished 
from the ones that have been inflicted by modern riflemen, 
who have at times used the moat as a shooting-gallery. The 
use of all firearms within the fort is now very properly pro- 

The small brick building in the eastern moat is a furnace 
to heat shot for the water battery. It was built iu 1844. 

St. Francis Barracks are named from the old Franciscan 
convent, whose site they occupy. They stand at the south- 
ern end of Bay Street. In front, facing the water, are the 
officers' quarters, with barracks for enlisted men in the rear. 


Usually two compauios of regulars are in garrison at this 
post. The jiarado in front of the barracks is flanked on the 
south by the adjutant's offices and ordnance sheds, and the 
open space is used as a drill-ground and for the usual 
routine jjarades and insijections of the small garrison. 

The old convent was abandoned for i-eligious purposes 
when the British took possession in 1763, and was used as 
bairacks when the Spaniards returned twenty years after- 
ward. Although the buildings have been largely remodelled 
and rebuilt, some of the old coquina convent walls are still 
standing, and are believed to be among the oldest structures 
in the city. It is singular that the memory of St. Fi-ancis 
should be perpetuated at one end of the city, while that of 
St. Mark was obliterated at the other end when the United 
States took possession, but such are the inconsistencies of 

The convent in its time was the headquarters of missionary 
life in Florida. Thence the devoted priests went out and 
built their little chaj^els from the everglades to the Suwan- 
nee, and thither, if at all, they returned, often broken down 
with the labors and perils of their voluntary exile. 

A few steps beyond the officers' quarters is the military 
cemetery, kept in beautiful order by the garrison, and worthy 
of a visit for its associations. Here, under three low pyra- 
mids of masonry, lie many of the soldiers who perished in 
the Seminole War. Near by is a shaft to the memory of 
Major Dade and his command, almost the first victims of the 
long and bloody war that followed. 

The inscription reads : " Sacred to the memory of the Of- 
ficers and Soldiers killed in battle and died on service dur- 
ing the Florida War. This monument has been erected in 
token of respectful and affectionate remembrance by their 
comrades of all grades, and is committed to the care and 
preservation of the garrison of St. Augustine." 

Museums. CJiKpin's Musentn, near Fort Marion, contains 
the most considerable collection of relics, Spanish and In- 
dian arms, armor and implements, and natural curiosities in 
the State. The preserved specimens of birds, beasts, fishes, 
and reptiles are numerous. 


Vender's Museum, on Bay Street, a short distance north of 
the Plaza, adds to a miscellaneous collection of cnrios many 
living birds, animals, and reptiles. The snake-room is es- 
pecially worthy of a visit, and the building in which the 
collection is kept is part of the old Spanish prison, and some 
of the time-worn interior fittings are still visible. 

The St. August ine Institute of Natural Science has its col- 
lection in No. 33 Alcazar Court ; hours 2 to 5 p.m. ; admis- 
sion free. 

The Villa Zorayda. This building faces the Alameda 
near the great hotels. It was the first specimen of mono- 
lithic architecture in the city, and was in this sense the 
pioneer of modern St. Augustine. The credit is due to Mr. 
Franklin W. Smith, of Boston, who made the first experi- 
ments, forming a concrete with fine shells, Portland cement, 
and sand. "While in a semi-liquid condition, the mixture is 
poured into moulds made of boards, where it quickly hardens. 
By setting up the moulds where the walls of the intended 
building are to stand, the whole structure can be solidly 
built up by pouring in successive layers of concrete. When 
finished in its natural tint, the wall presents a slightly rough 
surface, cool gray in color, and of a substance that has thus 
far ijerfectly endured the test of exposure. While in the 
semi-liquid state the cement readily takes any desired color, 
and may thus be adajoted to nearly all the requirements of 
decorative architecture. 

The Villa Zorayda was also the first modern building to 
be erected after the Moorish order. Over the entrance is an 
Arabic inscription, signifying "There is no Conqueror but 
God " — the motto of Mohammed Aben Alahmas, founder of 
the Alhambra. The interior has the traditional open court 
with double galleries, and all is decorated in the Moorish 
style, many of the motives having been derived from the 
Alhambra itself, and from other famous buildings of similar 

The Alameda Hotels. It is not the province of a general 
guide-book to make distinctions in the matter of hotels, but 
the Alameda grouj^ is so remarkable that it seems no more 
than right that an exception should be made. The Alameda 


itself is an open Plaza with asphalt drives, footways, foun- 
tains, and parterres of tropical plants. On the north side is 
the Ponce de Leon, on the south the Alcazar, on the east the 
Cordova, and on the west the Villa Zorayda. The present 
appearance of this Plaza is due to the foresight of Mr. Henry 
M. Flagler and to his choice of architects, Messrs. Carrere 
& Hastings, of New York — neither could have achieved the 
present result without the other. 

The architecture of the Ponce de Leon is Spanish — not 
Moorish, as is sometimes erroneously said. It represents the 
best school of Spanish art, and instead of being a copy of any 
existing examples is the result of conscientious study of 
l^rinciples that have made famous the cathedrals, universi- 
ties, and palaces of classic Spain. 

The Ponce de Leon faces 380 feet on the Alameda, and 
520 feet on Cordova and Seville Streets. The main building 
with its accessory portico surrounds a court 150 feet square, 
with a central fountain and carefully tended beds of flowers. 

On three sides of the court rise the arched galleries, quaint 
windows, and red-tiled roofs of the main building, while 
across the fourth side, that toward the Alameda, stretches 
a roofed portico, which is in fact a continuation of the main 
lower galleries. Above all this rises the central dome, and 
above this again lofty square towers with pointed tinial 
roofs, shaded balconies, and admirable decoi'ative devices in 
iron and terra cotta. 

To describe the vast establishment in detail is impracti- 
cable, but a few words are called for regarding the rotunda 
and the dining-hall. Just within the front or main door- 
way are the spacious vestibule and rotunda, opening a fine 
perspective of columns, caryatides and rich decoration, lead- 
ing by a short flight of steps into the diuing-hall beyond. 
The pavement of the rotunda and its adjacent corridors is a 
marble mosaic, small fiagments set in cement and arranged 
in tasteful patterns. The wainscot is of Numidiau marble. 

The central dome or rotunda rises in four interior galler- 
ies, with arcades agreeably varied in the successive stories. 
The whole is supported by four piers and eight columns of 
solid oak, carved in caryatid figures of remarkable grace and 


beauty. These are arranged in groups of fours, standing 
back to back, and admirably posed to convey at once an idea 
of strength and lightness. 

The decorative standing figures painted on the interspaces 
of the second story are typical of Adventure, Discovery, Con- 
quest, and Civilization. The seated figures represent Earth, 
Air, Fire, and Water. Adventure wears an eagle-crested hel- 
met with a cuirass, and holds a drawn sword, while behind 
her a sheaf of arrows radiate to form a background. Dis- 
covery holds a globe in her right hand and rests her left 
upon a tiller, her sea-blue robe contrasting with sails and 
cordage. Conquest is in full panoply of mail with helmet 
and red draperies, and the gleam of poniards in the back- 
ground. Civilization is clad in white, with an open book 
and the symbols of Christianity as accessories. Of the seat- 
ed figures Earth is in a russet robe with fruits and flowers 
and peacocks of gorgeous jDlumage, while, by way of con- 
trast, Air holds two eagles in leash and with translucent 
draperies of pale blue seems the incarnation of airiness and 
light. Fire, auburn-haired and clothed in red, stands amid 
tongues of flame grasping a blazing torch, with fire-endur- 
ing salamanders in arabesques around her. Water stands 
uiaon a shell to which are harnessed sea-horses. Her robes 
are pale green and white, and all the accessories are sugges- 
tive of the sea and its mystery. 

The decoration of the upper stories is less conspicuous 
until the dome is reached, where Cuj^ids join hands around 
the lower rim, and the highest vault is beautifully modelled 
in delicate patterns of white and gold, with armor and sails, 
and eagles soaring above all. 

A massive yet graceful archway of red Verona marble, with 
spandrel patterns in variegated mosaics, leads to the great 
dining-hall, a room so well proportioned that its noble 
dimensions are at first hardly suspected, and so bold in de- 
sign and rich in decoration that, though finished in 1887, it 
is already famous among students of architectui-e. The ex- 
treme dimensions are 90 by 150 feet, with seats for 800 guests. 
The central section of the hall is .square, with an arched or 
semi-cylindrical ceiling — technically an elliptical barrel- 


vault. At the sides this arch is suiJi^orted by rows of oak 
columns, and beyond the columns are spacious alcoves, form- 
ing a jjart of the grand hall and yet sufficiently separated 
from it to prevent the sense of too great space, so often a 
characteristic of large dining-rooms. The ceilings of the 
alcoves are comparatively low, and each is bounded at tlie 
wings by great bay windows through which tlie daylight 
streams in subdued radiance, and which at night ]-eflect 
gleams of blue and gold from the electric globes overhead. 

The decorations of the central arch will command the at- 
tention of every appreciative visitor. In the spandrels of 
the side arclies are the four seasons, duplicated though not 
repeated. Spring on one side is sowing grain, on the other 
she holds early flowers and opening buds. Summer on the 
right is in the shade of trees, on the left the grain and 
sickle suggest industry. One Autunm personates the 
vintage, the other the harvest, and Winter appears in the 
double role of a woodcutter and a master of festivities. 
In the semicircular spaces over the musicians' galleries are 
Spanish ships in all the glory of gala attire, and in quaint 
letters on wall and ceiling are Spanish proverbs, suggestive 
mainly of good cheer (see below). 

On the ceilings of the alcoves the history of Florida is most 
ingeniously worked out in a series of what may perhaps be 
termed conventionalized Indian hieroglyphics. Here may 
be found the triumphant caravels of Ponce de Leon, the 
wrecked vessels of Narvaez, the fleur-de-lis of Huguenot 
France, the lion of Spain, the rude fort of the early settle- 
ment, the cross of St. George, the naval bombardments, the 
sieges, and finally the American national emblems closing 
the record with the year 1821. 

A happier conception than this picture-written history of 
Florida it were hard indeed to find, and the skill and in- 
genuity with which it has been realized are deserving of the 
highest praise. With the aid of the summaries given else- 
where almost every event of considerable importance may be 
found represented in the beautiful tracery of these alcoves. 

Inscriptions, Mottoes, Etc. — The various inscriptions in 
Latin and Spanish are interesting, and often perplexing to 


vfsitox's. Many of the shields bear simply the uames of cities 
and provinces of Spain, and need no translation. 

In the court-yard, near the west entrance, is a terra cotta 
shield with this inscription : Con lo que Sagno sang Do- 
31INGO ADOLECE — What is one man's meat is another man's 
jjoison (literally, " What keeps Sagno well makes Domingo 

At the eastern entrance : Oveja qve b.vla bocado pierde — 
The sheep that bleats misses a bite. On the escutcheons at 
right and left of the entrance from court to rotunda : No se 
elettes without breaking eggs ; Qcien quando puede no 


may, may not when he will. 

BiEN Venido — Welcome, is the legend that greets the 
visitor who enters from the drive-way. 

On the first landing of the steps leading from rotunda to 
dining-room is the concluding verse of William Shenstone's 
ode " Written at an Inn at Henley," probably about 1710 : 

Whoe'er has travelled life's dull round, 
Where'er his stages may have been, 

May sigh to think he still has found 
The warmest welcome at an inn. 

Over the main entrance to the dining-room is a shield in- 
scribed : Justicia hechobes contra Alava Mal — Alava dooms 
those who strive against liei'. 

In the dining-room on the west side of the central arch 
are four Si^anish proverbs : A>nGO viejo tocino y vino 
anejo — An old friend is both meat and drink ; Quien primero 
LLEGA esela calza — First come first served ; De la mano a la 
BOCA SE pierde LA soPA — There's many a slip 'twixt the ciijj 
and the lip (literally, " Between the hand and the mouth 
the soup is lost ") ; El buen \t;no no ha sienester pregonero 
— Good wine needs no bush. 

On the east side of the arch are these : Oveja que bala 
BOCADO pierde — The sheep that bleats misses a bite ; Re- 
MUDA DE PASTURAGE RACE BizzEROs C0RD03 — Change of feed 


makes fat cattle ; Quien mlcho abraza poco aprieta — He 
who gias^js much, keeps but little ; Quien mas sabe, mas 
CALLA — Who knows most says least. 

In the west alcove, over and above the arches, near the 
bay windows, are shields, inscribed for the most part with 
the arms, names, and mottoes of Spanish cities. Here and 
there are legends as : Cadiz — Hercules dominator fundator, 
in recognition of the Phoenician Hercules, as the fabled 
founder and ruler of the ancient town. Soria cabeza l>e 
ESSORiA PURA REMADURA, a punning motto of the town and 
l^rovince of Soria. 

On the semicircular ceiling of the west alcove are four 
signs of the zodiac — Scorpio, Saggitarius, Leo, Virgo, and 
many of the famous names identified with the early history 
of Florida. 

The corresponding spaces in the eastern alcove bear the 
four signs, Pisces, Aquarius, Taurus, Gemini, with historical 
names and dates ingeniously repeated in varied form, with 
names and arms of cities, including that of Huelva, a mari- 
time city in Spain, in Latin : Huelva, et terr^ custodia 
PORTUS maris — Huelva, entrance of the sea and guardian of 
the land. 

The frescoes and mural decorations are by Messrs. Thomas 
Hastings, George W. Maynard, and H. T. Schladermundt. 

The whole building is in keeping with the magnificence 
of which a brief and inadequate description has been at- 
tempted regarding two of the princij^al divisions, but no de- 
tailed general account can here be given. The visitor should 
not fail to visit the tower and roof terraces, and permits can 
be obtained at the office to inspect the kitchens, laundries, 
and other domestic departments. 

Facing the Ponce de Leon, on the opposite side of the Ala- 
meda, is the Alcazar, an adjunct of the main hotel, the work 
of the same architects, and like it in the Spanish renaissance 
style. The name is from the Al-Kasr (House of Cpesar), but 
the design is original and wholly unlike that of the famous 
Palace of Seville. The general plan embraces an interior 
court with a garden and fountains, surrounded by open ar- 
cades, sho^js, and offices, and a large restaurant. Bev'-:^^! 


are magnificent swimming-baths of water drawn from an ar- 
tesian well, aerated to free it from the odor of sulphur, and 
turned at once into the bath, where it falls in a sheet of 
beautifully clear greenish water, exactly at the right tem- 
perature for swimming. 

Beyond the bath are courts for tennis and croquet, where 
there are yearly matches and toui'naments of interest to all 
lovers of these games. 

The lodging-rooms in the Alcazar are all provided with 
private baths, and are charged at a fixed rate, on what is 
termed in America the " European plan." An excellent res- 
taurant is connected with the establishment, but guests are 
free to go where they please for meals. The Alcazar is open 
throughout the year. 

The Hotel Cordova (formerly known as the Casa Monica) 
was the first of the Alameda group. Like its neighbors, it 
is monolithic, but its style of architecture differs from theirs 
in that it is suggestive of the arts of war rather than of 
peace. Its architect is Mr. F. W. Smith, of Boston, to whom 
is due the credit of having made the first experiments in the 
composition of coquina concrete. The motives for the 
heavy battlemented walls and towers are found in the castles 
of Moorish Spain. The northern entrance is an adaptation 
of the Puerto del Sol of Toledo, and the balconies are after 
those said to have originated in Seville, and known as 
" kneeling balconies." They are said to have been designed 
by Michael Angelo, for the convenience of devotees, who 
desired to kneel during the passage of religious in-ocessions. 

The City Gates. All that remains of the ancient defences 
of St. Augustine stands at the head of St. George Street ; 
two solid, square posts — for they are not high enough to be 
termed towers — flanked by a few yards of coquina wall. The 
stone sentry-boxes still remain in the interior buttresses. 
According to tradition, a guardhouse once stood just within, 
and a drawbridge crossed the moat. Only a few yards of wall 
now remain flanking the gates, and it is not known how far, 
in its best estate, it extended. The most formidable of the 
fortifications defended the land approach, and substantial 
earthworks once reached from river to river, the exterior 


slojie of tlift parapnfc being covered Avitli a dense growth of 
Spanish bayonet, tlirongh which it is well-nigh impossible 
to force a passage. Old engravings of the city show it as a 
completely walled town, and the visitor may find on some of 
the ancient tombstones in the cemetery Latin inscriptions 
containing the word oppidiim, which was often used to dis- 
tinguish a walled town from one without such defences. 
The coquina dwellings of the present town are largely com- 
posed of material plundered from still older structures, and 
there is no way of determining how many roods of city wall 
were taken by builders who cared nothing for Spanish relics. 

The i^resent gateway was the princijDal entrance, was 
strongly guarded, and rejDeatedly saved the town from the 
sudden onslaught of savage or civilized foes. 

The Coast. Between the mouth of St. John's River and 
St. Augustine Inlet, the coast is an iinbroken sand beach 
nearly forty miles long, backed by scrub-covered sand hills 
and strewn with the wreckage of centuries. For walking, 
riding, driving, or wheeling no highway made by mortal 
hands can approach this superb beach during the hours 
when the tide is not at its highest. The coast is monotonous, 
to be sure, but the sea is ever beautiful in color, and there 
are always objects of interest for the lover of nature. Off 
shore the water deepens quickly, and mariners, when once 
they have cleared the shoals at either inlet, may confidently 
run down the beach within half a mile of the breakers. Four- 
teen miles south of St. John's Light are the sources of Guano 
Fiver, in Diego Plains, a short distance inland from the 
beach. This stream flows into Tolomato or North River, a 
tributary of St. Augustine Inlet. It follows the beach all 
the way at a distance of one-quarter of a mile until it joins 
the Tolomato, when the distance is one to two miles. Its 
headwaters may be approximately located from the beach 
or from a vessel by noting the greater distance of the woods 
from the coast. 


31. Saint Anastasia, 

familiarly called Anastasia Island, is the nakiral breakwater 
of St. Augustine. It is nearly fourteen miles long, and at 
the widest part, not far from the inlet, is nearly two miles 
across. Four miles farther south it narrows to a mere strip 
of scrub-covered beach. For the most part the island is 
covered with a dense growth, into which few explorers will 
wish to penetrate after five or ten minutes of faithful elfort. 
With the aid of good dogs or a good guide it is still possible 
to find deer on the island, but only in certain places known 
to the initiated. 

The Spaniards found it necessary at an early date to main- 
tain a lookout on the island. At that time nearly all navi- 
gators — friends and foes — approached from the southward, 
and from the town such sails could not be seen until close 
at hand. The first structures were of tall tree-trunks, with 
a " crow's-nest " or platform at top. Such an one betrayed 
the existence of the town to Sir Francis Drake, in 1586 (see 
p. 138). Subsequently a coquina tower was erected, but 
still with the original idea of a lookout, or perhaps a com- 
bined watch-tower and blockhouse, for the wily Seminole 
was not long in discovering lonely vedettes in exposed i^osi- 
tions. A gun was mounted there after a time, and flag sig- 
nals were made by an established code, whereby the city was 
notified of friend or foe. It was not until the United States 
came into possession that a regular lighthouse was estab- 
lished. The old Spanish tower was rebuilt and utilized for 
the purpose, and the lantern was first lighted in 1823. This 
tower stood a short distance northeast of the present light, 
rnd was originally half a mile from the beach. The sea 
;';radually encroached, however, and in June, 1880, a violent 
gale undermined the walls, and the ruins still cover the rocky 
point south of the railroad station. Here visitors usually 
make their first acquaintance with coquina in its natural 

The present light tower, officially known as St. Augustine 
Light, stands in latitude 29° 53' 7" N., longitude 8V 17' 
12" "W. The nearest light to the northward is at the mouth 


of St. John's liiver, 80 miles ; the nearest to the southward 
is at Mosquito Inlet, 60 miles. The light is of the first 
order, and shows a fixed white light, varied by a white 
every three minutes. It is visible at sea 19 nautical miles. 
The base of the tower is 15 feet above the sea-level, and 
the centre of the lantern is 150 feet above the base. The 
tower is accessible to visitors at all times, except when some 
uniisual duty prevents the keepers from attending. The 
view from tlie gallery is the best that can be obtained of the 
iulet and the adjacent coasts. 

The peculiar painting of the tower in spiral bands is 
adopted so that it can be readily distinguished from any 
other landmark on the coast — an important feature in light- 
house construction, since a momentary sight is often all that 
can be obtained in thick weather. 

The seaward shore of the island is known as the South 
Beach. At the railroad station it is somewhat steeper than 
most Florida beaches, but beyond the site of the old light- 
house it becomes hard enough for riding and driving. 

Tlie coquina quarries are one mile and a half south- 
east from the lighthouse. They may be reached by a fairly 
good path (twenty-five minutes), either by following the 
beach to the rocky jDoint and then striking inland, or by a 
path from the lighthouse, or by a path from Quari-y Creek, 
which falls into Matanzas River three-quarters of a mile 
below the Plaza in St. Augustine. The last-mentioned tri]} 
makes a pleasant excursion from the city by boat, including 
a walk of about two miles going and returning. The quarries 
are interesting as showing the stratifications of the coquina 
(Spanish for shell-fish). The small shells are the accu- 
mulations of ages. Acted upon by water they become par- 
tially dissolved, and then, diying, are firmly cemented to- 
gether in a solid mass. The loose shells are found in vast 
quantities on some of the neighboring beache.5. 

The seaward coast of Anastasia Island offers no obstacles 
to navigation after clearing the shoals at either end. The 
three fathom curve is but half a mile from the beach, and 
shallow boats are in safe depth just outside the breakers. 
About three miles north of Matanzas Inlet, and two miles 


oflf shore, the manner is sometimes startled by the sight of 
l)reakers under his bow where no danger is indicated on the 
chart. One who is familiar with the phenomenon, however, 
may calmly steer directly over the apparent obstacle, for there 
arc twenty-one fathoms of water in the midst of the breakers, 
and nine fathoms all around it. The disturbance is caused 
by a boiling spring, such as occur frequently on the main- 
land of Florida. When directly over or to leeward of the 
breakers the odor of sulphuretted hydrogen may be per- 
ceived, suggesting the same source as the artesian wells 
common on the main land. The volume of water varies 
from time to time, and of course the disturbance at the 
surface of the sea is more apparent at low tide than at high 
tide. Sometimes it is not visible at all. The exact bearing 
of the spring from Matanzas Inlet is N. by E. i E., distant 
3i miles. It may be readily found in calm weather with 
the aid of a pocket compass. 

St. Augustine Inlet is three-eighths of a mile wide. On the 
north is North Point, on the south is Black Point, the north- 
ern extremity of Anastasia Island. Outside the inlet, shift- 
ing shoals make out a mile and a half, and the bar is very 
variable. Generally ten feet may be carried through the 
South Channel, which is the deeper of the two. Sharpies of 
any size can pass in or out at any time of tide, the mean rise 
and fall of which is 3 ft. G in. to 4 ft. 9 in., greatly influenced, 
however, by the direction of the wind. 

The main channel runs close along the outer beach of 
Anastasia Island, with a swift current at the ebb and flow of 
tide. Inside, the inlet divides into Tolomato and Matanzas 
Rivers, the former finding its source, as has been stated, four- 
teen miles up the beach. Sail-boats may ascend the Tolo- 
mato about eight miles, and row-boats still farther. 

Bird Island. To the south of the inlet, half a mile oflf 
shore, is Bird Island, a sand bar of recent formation, which 
appears to be increasing in extent and height from year to 
year. It was formerly a great resort for wild-fowl, but the 
free use of modern breech-loading fire-arms has frightened of them to less frequented shores. Bird Island is often 
visited in fair weather for the sake of the sea-shells that are 


ilirown np iii great variety by every easterly blow. With a 
fair wind the run may be made in an hour from Ht. Augustine. 
North Beach. Opposite Anastasia Island is North Beach. 
The point of laud is two miles (half an hour) from the 
Plaza. Launches aud sail-boats make frequent trips, fare 
25c. The outer beach is rich in sea-shells, strewn with 
wreckage, and offers a tempting surface for walking or riding 
as far as the eye can reach. The North Beach Railroad runs 
frequent trains from the Union Station, crossing Tolomato 
River on a bridge, and landing passengers within a few steps 
of the beach. 

33. Matanzas River and Inlet, 

sejiarating Anastasia Island from the mainland, is thirteen 
miles long to Matanzas Inlet, and has an average width of 
one-eighth to one-quarter of a mile. There is only three 
feet of water at the "divide" at low tide, and six feet is 
about the limit of draught that can be taken through at av- 
erage high water. The rest of the channel is deep, though 
narrow. A pleasant excursion is down this stream to Matan- 
zas Inlet and return. It is practically an all-day trip, though, 
with a favoring wind or in a launch, the round trip may be 
made in five hours with time for a short stop at the inlet. 
One mile south of the Plaza is the movith of Quariy Creek 
(see p. 154). The portion of Anastasia Island south of this 
is known as Fish's Island, though really not separated from 
Anastasia. This tract is the old Fish estate. The original 
owner, Jesse Fish, came from Flatbush, N. Y., prior to 1763, 
during the first Spanish period, and his descendants still 
own the place. This estate includes the most valuable part 
of the island, and its orange groves were once among the 
finest in the State. Mr. Fish made many improvements, 
and his jjlantation was celebrated during the period of 
British supremacy. The old planter died and was buried on 
his own acres, and his tomb is shown almost hidden by sxir- 
rounding orange-trees. 

Four miles farther south, on the mainland, is Moultrie, 
the site of Buena Yista, another famous old plantation, the 


property, in British times, of Lieutenant-Governor John 
Moultrie, who was an active loyalist, while his brother, Will- 
iam Moultrie, of Charleston, S. C, was so prominent a 
rebel that the British brought him to St. Augustine as a pris- 
oner. No doubt the brothers had memorable meetings 
during the i^eriod of confinement. Buena Vista was fortified 
in the early days, and later a regular fort was built, which 
was occupied as one of the outposts of St. Augustine. 
Here, in 1823, was executed the treaty of Fort Moultrie, be- 
tween the Government of the United States and the Semi- 
nole Indians. Alleged infractions of this treaty were among 
the causes of the Seminole War (1835-42). 

Near Matanzas Inlet, on an island, are the picturesque 
ruins of an old Spanish fort, of unknown date. Here the 
Spaniards first and the English afterward kept a small gar- 
rison to prevent the surprise of St. Augustine from this 

On these shores, more than three centuries ago, was 
enacted one of the darkest tragedies of Floridian history. 
In 1564 a colony of French Huguenots under Bene de 
Laudonniere fortified themselves on the St. John's River. 
In August of the following year Pedro Menendez d'Aviles 
with a strong Spanish force established himself at St. Augus- 
tine (see p. 135), having orders from his king to make war 
against the French. Almost simultaneously reinforcements 
for Laudonuiere had arrived in a French fleet under Jean 
Ribaut (see p. 120), who at once assumed the offen.sive. 
On September 10th he appeared off St. Augustine with a 
powerful armament, but a protracted storm compelled him 
to put to sea and the whole squadron was wrecked in the 
neighborhood of Canaveral. 

Giving thanks to Heaven for this signal interposition, 
though he was at the time unaware of the completeness of 
the French disaster, Menendez marched to Fort Caroline, 
where he surprised and slew most of the garrison (see page 
123). Returning at once to St. Augustine he soon heard of 
the shipwrecked Frenchmen on the coast to the southward. 
Marching to Matanzas Inlet ho bivouacked within sight of 
the French camp-fires and awaited the dawn. The ship- 


"wrecked Frenclimeu, ignorant of the fate of Fort Caroline, 
were cautiously making their way thither. Menendez had 
but about sixty men with him, while the French numbered 
from 140 to 200, authorities differ. A parley followet], and 
a party of French officers crossed over in a small boat and 
told jNIenendez their story of recent shipwreck and ijresent 
starvation, asking for treatment as prisoners of war. 

" Are you Catholics ? " asked Menendez. 

" We are Lutherans," was the reply, given doubtless with 
sinking hearts. 

"Gentlemen," said Menendez, "your fort is taken, and 
all in it are pxat to the sword." And no assurance of clemency 
would he give, save that, if the French surrendered, he 
would, to quote his own report, " do with them as the Lord 
should order." After further consultation, the French de- 
cided that surrender was their only hope, and, having de- 
livered up their arms, they were brought over in small 
parties. As they landed, each detachment was marched out 
of sight behind the sand dunes, where their hands were 
securely tied. It was late in the afternoon before the whole 
band, disarmed and helpless, stood before their relentless 
captor, ready for the march. At this point Mendoza, the 
l^riest, i^ut in a plea for the lives of Catholics, and twelve 
Breton sailors professing that faith were released, with foiir 
artisans of whom the Sjianiards were in great need. These 
were sent to St. Augustine by boat, while the rest, with 
gloomy i:)remonitions of their fate, and guarded by the Span- 
ish men-at-arms, followed Menendez, who, with a cane in his 
hand, walked in advance. As the sun sank he halted in a se- 
cluded sjaot among the sand dunes, and drew a line on the 
ground with his cane. Darkness was falling when the 
prisoners came up, and, again to cite the words of Menendez' 
Cciria, " I had their hands tied behind their backs, and 
themselves put to the sword. It appeared to me that, by 
thus chastising them, God our Lord and your Majesty were 
served ; whereby in future this evil sect will leave us more 
free to plant the gospel in these parts." 

The precise locality of this savage deed has never been 
known, and onlv bv accident can it be discovered. 


But Menendez had not yet finished liis work. He sus- 
pected that other ships had beeu wrecked farther down the 
coast, and wliile their crews were at large he could not feel 
secure, since his own forces were scattered, some at sea, 
some at Fort Caroline, and only about one hundred and fifty 
men at hand for service. 

The next day Indians brought news of another detachment 
of Frenchmen at Matanzas, and midnight found the fierce 
Spaniards again awaiting their prey. 

At daybreak Eibaut and his men — for the commander-in- 
chief was with this detachment — were seen making prepara- 
tions to cross the river on a raft. On discovering the Span- 
iards the French drums beat and the trumpets sounded, but 
Menendez told his men to cook their breakfast uncon- 
cernedly. After some preliminaries Eibaut, with eight 
gentlemen, crossed over in a canoe and were courteously re- 
ceived by Menendez, who refreshed them with food and 
wine. Then he led the French commander to where the 
bodies of his late comrades lay among the sand hills. Nego- 
tiations followed, lasting until the next day, and Eibaut was 
led to believe that he had effected an arrangement whereby 
the lives of himself and his men should be spared. The 
French, however, some three hundred and fifty in number, 
were not all of a like mind, and in the end only one hundred 
and fifty surrendered. The remaining two hundred marched 
southward, preferring to face the wilderness rather than 
trust the Spaniard. In the morning Eibaut reported the 
result, and the canoe began its long task of ferrying over the 

Before the first boat load arrived, however, Eibaut was led 
behind a sand hill and his hands were tied! The act re- 
vealed the intention of the Spaniard. At length all were 
brought over^70 says Menendez, 150 says Solis. 

Then came the cmcial question, " Are you Catholics or 
Lutherans ? and is there anyone among you who will go to 
confession ? " 

"I and all here are of the Eeformed Faith," answered 
Eibaut, and then he recited a Psalm. "We are of earth," 
he continued, according to the Spanish narrator (Solis)^ 


"and to earth we must return ; twenty years more or less 
can matter little." Then turning to Menendez he said he 
Avas ready, and the scene of two days before was repeated on 
a larger scale. 

" I saved the lives," says Menendez in his Carta, " of two 
young gentlemen aboxxt eighteen years of age, as well as of 
three others, the fifer (see p. 139), the drammer, and the trum- 
peter, and I caused Jean Ribaut with all the rest to be put to 
the sword, judging this to be expedient for the service of God 
our Lord and of your Majesty." The foregoing account of 
these massacres is from the Spanish authorities, as cited by 
Parkman in his " Huguenots in Florida." The accounts of 
the few French survivors coincide in all essential particulars. 

For an account of the signal vengeance subsequently 
visited upon the Spaniards by Domenique de Gourgues, a 
French Huguenot, see p. 120. 

3Iatanzas Inlet has only about six feet of water at high 
tide and in easterly weather the sea often breaks entirely 
across the entrance. It is, however, practicable for sail- 
boats and sharpies. Matanzas River extends eight or ten 
miles south of the Inlet, finding its source in Graham's 
Swamp. Fellicer's Creek joins it near the Inlet. Sportsmen 
sometime!? find good shooting along these streams, which may 
be ascended in canoes or very light boats far up toward their 
source. Care should be taken not to be left by the tide, as a 
night spent in the swamps is not an agreeable experience. 

34. St. Augustine to Jacksonville (see p. 110). 

35. St. Augustine to Palatka. 
By J., T. & K. W. Ry. Thirty miles (1 hoar 40 minutes). 
The general course of the route is southwest. Crossing the 
prairies to the west of Matanzas River the Tocoi branch di- 
verges to the right and enters a long stretch of piney woods, 
gradually rising and interspersed with occasional hammocks. 
Between Holy Branch and Merrifield we cross Deep Creek 
and shortly aftei'ward approach the richer lands bordering 
St. John's River. At East Palatka Junction change cars if 
bound for Halifax River, otherwise the train crosses St. 


John's Eiver to the i^rinciisal station near the steamboat 
whai'f in Palatka (p. 188). Consult local time table. 
About six hours can be spent in Palatka if it is desired to re- 
turn the same day to St. Augustine. Visit Hart's orange 
grove, drive through the suburbs north and south of Palatka. 

38. Jacksonville to Palatka. 

By J., T. & K. W. Ky., 56 miles {2 hours 5 minutes'), for stations and dis- 
tances, see pages 17, 25". 82. By St. John's River steamboats, 75 miles (about 6 
hours), for landings and distances, see page 186. 

Bi/ Bail to Palatka. The general course of the line is nearly 
north and south, following to some extent the curves of the 
St. John's Eiver, and never more than three or four miles 
from its western bank. The stream, however, is rarely in 
sight, owing to the almost continuous belt of pine 
(see map of Duval County, page 21:), Shortly after leaving 
the station at Jacksonville the line curves to the southward, 
passing through a level country, with occasional villages 
and orange groves. Three miles beyond Edgewood we 
cross HcGirt's Creek on a trestle, and if the day be warm 
and the traveller in luck he may here catch his first glimpse 
of the Florida alligator. Two miles south of Read's the 
train passes into Clay County (see page 14). Just beyond 
Black Creek Station is the stream from which it takes its 
name, navigable to Middleburg, six miles west, where it 
divides into two main bi'anches, and these again into nu- 
merous small ones, draining nearly the whole of Clay County, 
and affording access by small boats to a wild and beautiful 
lake region in the southwestern part of the county. 

For Green Cove Springs see page 187. At Melrose 
Crossing, just south of Green Cove Springs, is the Western 
Railroad of Florida to Belmore, fifteen miles southwest. 
Shortly after leaving West Tocoi, the line passes into Put- 
nam County (see page 80 for map, stations, and distances). 
The large stream crossed two miles beyond Teasdale is 
Rice's Creek, which rises among the lakes of the north- 
western part of the county. This stream is navigable for 


launches and small l):)a;s, and is one of the favorite excur- 
sions for visitois at Palatka. 

39. Jacksonville to Palatka by River. 

This part of the St. John's River is in effect almost a con- 
tinuous lake, often several miles wide, and again narrowing 
to less than a mile. As a rule, the banks are somewhat 
monotonous, though there is always more or less of interest 
in the changing vegetation along the shores and in the var- 
ied forms of life almost always to be seen in air or water. 
Shooting is very properly prohibited on all passenger steam- 
ers. Formerly it was carried to such excess that the river 
trip was often a continuous fusillade. Several accidents, 
one of which resulted fatally, at last compelled a reform of 
the abuse. 

Just above the railroad drawbridge at Jacksonville the 
river bends abruptly to the southward, between Grassy 
Point on the east and Lancaster Point on the west. The 
cluster of three piles, painted red, marks the lower end of 
Middle Ground Shoal. To the eastward are the wooded 
bluffs of Villa Alexandria, one of the finest private estates in 
the neighborhood of Jacksonville. 

A triangular red beacon bearing a red light at night marks 
the upper end of the Middle Ground Shoal. On the east 
bank, two miles above Grassy Point, is Phillip's Point, with a 
steamboat landing. Nearly opposite, on the west bank, is the 
mouth of McGirt's Creek, and just above it Sadler's Point. 
Three and a half miles farther south is Piney Point, marked 
by tall pines showing above the surrounding trees. Just 
above Piney Point, on the same side of the river, is the set- 
tlement and landing of Black Point, and nearly opposite is 
the mouth of Goodsby's Creek. The next landing and set- 
tlement south of Black Point is Mulberry Grove, and across 
the river, nearly opposite, is Beauclerc Bluff, a conspicuous, 
heavily wooded jiromontory, off which stands a black beacon 
(No. 21). 

Two miles above this is Mandarin Point, and on the same 
side are the toYfU a^d lauding of Mandarin, formerly the 


residence of Mrs. Harriet Beeclier Stowe. A little above 
Mandarin a black and red buoy marks the wreck of the 
steamer Maple Leaf, and nearly opposite, just north of the 
entrance to Doctor's Lake is Orange Park, with a long wharf 
reaching out to the channel. 

The next reach in the river is from Mandarin on the east to 
Magnolia Point on the west bank (six and one-half miles) aver- 
aging one and one-half to two miles in Avidth. Julington and 
Cunningham's Creeks enter on the east bank. Four miles 
farther south on the same side is New Switzerland Point, 
heavily wooded and identified by a single tree standing out 
beyond the rest. Opposite, on the west bank, is Hibernia, 
above which, one mile and three-quarters, is the mouth of 
Black Creek (navigable to Middleburg, seme eight miles in 
the interior) and Magnolia Point a high bliift' bank with 
heavy woods. On the east bank, nearly opposite, is Popo 
Point, with Piemington Park and a steamboat landing. 

Turning Magnolia Point a reach of six miles opens south- 
east to Six Mile Point. On the west bank, two and three- 
quarter miles distant, are the hotels and many buildings of 
Green Cove Springs (see page 187). Above this landing, 
one mile and three-quarters, is red beacon No. 38, marking 
Old Field Point on the west and San Patricio Point on the 
east bank. South of the last named point a deep bight 
makes in, called Hogarth's Bay, into which empties Six 
Mile Creek. Beyond this the river narrows to a mile as far 
as Picolata Point, and the town of Picolata on the east bank. 
At this place, and at a point on the opposite side of the 
river, forts were maintained during the period of Spanish 
rule. They were successfully defended against the English 
under Oglethorpe in December, 1739, but were taken in 
January following as preliminary to the siege of St. Augus- 
tine (see page 142). The remains of the earthworks can 
still be traced, but they are not easily found by a stranger. 

From Picolata Point the river is nearly straight for ten 
miles to Federal Point on the east bank. It varies in width 
from three-quarters of a mile to two and one-half miles. 
Three miles south of Picolata are Orange Point, Tocoi Creek, 
and Tocoi, in the order named. The town is the terminus 


of the St. John's Kaihvay, 18 miles to 8t. Augustine. Ka- 
cey's Point is three miles above Tocoi, on the same side of 
the river. Nearly opposite, entering from the westward, is 
Cedar Creek, and above this on the west bank is Nine Mile 
Point, off which stands red beacon No. 44. One mile far- 
ther south is Palmetto Bluff. Federal Point on the east bank 
may be identified by black buoy 35, which is placed a little to 
the north of the landing. 

From Federal Point to Dancy's Point, south by west three 
and one-half miles, the river is about a mile wide. Opposite 
the town of Orange Mills is an extensive flat island, or marsh, 
with a channel on either side. On the west bank are Bo- 
dine's Point and Whetstone Point, in the order named. Off 
the latter is a cluster of three piles, with a red light set at 
night. Another stretch of three and three-quarter miles 
west southwest brings us np with Forrester's Point on the 
east bank and the mouth of Rice's Creek opposite, where, 
with a sharp sweep to south by east, Palatka comes in sight 
with its railroad bridge three miles distant. (For Palatka and 
vicinity, see p. 188.) 

This point is considered the head of navigation for sailing 
vessels, as the river becomes so narrow and crooked in its 
upper reaches that only steamboats can navigate it to advan- 
tage. It is, however, the most interesting to tourists, owing 
to the nearness of the banks and the increasingly tropical 
character of the vegetation. 

Rive}- landings and distances between Jacksonville and 
Palatka are as follows ; those on the east bank are marked E, 
those on the west W : 

Miles. [ 

St. Nichoks, E 2 Orange Dale, E 34 

Riverside, W 3 Hogarth's Landing, E 38 

Black Point, W 10 Picolata, E 44 

Mulberry Grove, W 12 Tocoi, E 46 

Mandarin. E 15 Federal Point, E 58 

Oransre Park, W 15 Oranse Mills. E 63 

Fruit Cove, E 19 Cook's Landing, E 65 

Hibernia, W 23 Daucv's Wharf, E 66 

New Switzerland. E 23 Russell's Point, E 6T 

R-'mington Park, E 25 : Whetstone, W 68 

Masruoiia, W 23 1 Russell's Landing, E 69 

Green Cove Springs, W 30 1 Palatka, W 75 

For landings, etc., above Palatka, see Route 51. 


40. Grreeu Cove Springs, Clay County. 

Population, 1,200. Twenty-nine miles from Jacksonville, twenty-seven miles 
from Palatka. 

Hotels.— Clare, $3 to S4 a day.— Clarendmi, $i a day.— llorganza, $1.50 to $2 
a day. — St. Clair, J3 to §4. — The Fines, S3 a day. Also several smaller hotels 
and boarding-houses. 

Railroads and Steamboats.— Several trains north and south daily by J., T. 
& K. W. Ky. All the St. John's River steamboats touch at this landing. 

This town has been for many years a place of considerable 
resort, owing to its tine sulphur springs, and the natural ad- 
vantages of its situation. Even as seen from the windows 
of a passing train its attractions are evident, for considerable 
labor has been expended in laying out streets, fencing oflf 
parks with massive pine logs, and removing evidences of 
recent clearings. 

A short walk or ride from the station brings the visitor to 
Magnolia Avenue, the business street of the place. A short 
distance farther is the great spring, which discharges three 
thousand gallons of water every minute, at a temperature of 
78^ F., the year round. The wonderful purity of the water, its 
gi'een, mysterious depths, reflections and colors are a source 
of never-ending pleasure. The water is slightly impregnated 
with sulphur, but loses it by evaporation after a short ex- 
posure to the air. Excellent bathing arrangements have 
been provided, and comfortable rustic seats are found at 
almost every turn. Borden Park, including about five acres, 
lies along the river on high ground with its native growth of 
magnolia, live oak, and palmetto, the rubbish only having 
been cleared away. It is private property, but open to the 
public, though a quaint inscription posted at the entrance 
may proiDeiiy prove discouraging to vandals. Much ingenu- 
ity has been displayed in the adaptation of natural tree- 
trunks for fences, gate-posts, tree-seats, and the like. On 
the river bank, and jDrojecting out over the w'ater, is a tree 
said to have been used as a lookout by the Seminoles during 
their wars, for this was one of their permanent camps. Be- 
yond the park a fascinating foot-path extends far along the 
river side and across Governor's Creek to Magnolia, one of 
the pleasantest resorts on the St. John's. 

Green Cove Springs contains many charming winter resi- 


deuces, some of them snironnded with carefully tended gar- 
dens full of horticultural rarities, and most attractive to vis- 
itors from a colder climate. 

The town itself contains churches of all the leading de- 
nominations, schools, stores, livery stables, tramways. Ex- 
cursions may be made by boat up the river as far as Palatka, 
or down as far as Jacksonville, returning by boat or rail the 
same day, and on both sides of the river there are many 
points of interest easily within reach. 

50. Palatka, Putnam County (C.H.). 

Population, 6,000.— Lat. 29° 38' N.— Long;. 81° 38' W. 

Hotels. — Arlington, $2. — Canova, $1.30. — Wtnthrop, $3. — Kean Building, 
Rooms 50c. — Putnam House, $4. — Saratoga, |3. — West End House, f 2 ; $8 to 
$10 by week. 

Railroads, Steamboats, etc.— The J., T. & K. W. system (to Jacksonville, 
St. Augustine, Daytona, Gainesville, Tampa, Pnnta Gorda, etc. ). Stations for 
points north and south, 1 mile west from river ; station for points on sea- 
coast, etc., near steamboat wharf and railroad bridge. Through cars are run 
around the city, making connections without change'(see local time tables). 

Steatiihoats. — All the St. John's River steamboats land at the wharf near the 
railroad bridge. Ocklawaha steamboats land at the same wharf. 

Carriage fare from railways and steamboats, 2.5c. to any part of the city ; 
luggage, '25c. per piece. 

. Jjiver;/.— Saddle-horses, $1.50 a day if reasonably used. Double teams, $2 an 
hour, $5 a day. 

Roicboats, 25c. an hour, $1.50 to $2 a day. Sail-boats 50c. an hour, $3 a day. 
Steam launches can be chartered for |l5 to $25 a day, according to size of 
party and length of intended trip. 

Guidi'.s for hunting or fishing miy be engaged at the hotels or boat landings at 
$2.50 to $3 a day. 

TrarrL-cars at 10 minute intervals run between the railroad stations, fare 5c. 


Palatka was settled in 1821, by James Marver and two 
companions named Hine and Woodruff. They secured a 
Spanish grant and established a trading post for traffic with 
the Indians. Marver's store stood near the foot of Main 
Street, and no doubt the large live oaks on the bluff close at 
hand witnessed many a sharp bargain that brought gold 
into the white man's pocket. He was, however, a great 
favorite with his savage patrons, and had no difficulties with 
them during his stay. 

At some date not precisely fixed Dr. N. Bnish, of New 
York, purchased Marver's lands and interests and continued 


the business, bis two nephews, Thomas and William Brush, 
being his agents. The post was sacked and burned promptly 
on the outbreak of the Seminole War in 1835, and the young 
men barely escaped with their lives. 

A military post was soon afterward established here, and 
in 1840 it was constituted a regular ordnance depot, with the 
barracks and shops necessary for a considerable garrison 
and for the repair of their arms and equipments. Eight 
large log block-houses were constructed along the line of 
Water Street, one of them with a watch-tower eighty feet 
high. The commanding officer's head-quarters were where the 
late Colonel Devall's house now stands. Cavalry stables for 
four hundred horses occupied the site of the Putnam 
House and a large hospital was erected on the Hart property. 
Among the officers quartered here were Scott, Taylor, 
Worth, and Gaines, who won distinction and rank in the sec- 
ond M'ar with Great Britain and in the early Indian war. 
Still younger were lieutenants W. T. Sherman, and Silas 
Casey, who saw their first field service in Florida and rose to 
the highest rank during the Civil War. 

After the subjugation of the Indians and the discontinuance 
of the military post, Palatka became the shipping point for 
the produce of the neighboring country. Prior to the com- 
pletion of the railroad in 1886 it was the most southerly 
lauding of any importance on the river, and soon became a 
favorite resort for invalids who sought a warmer climate and 
dreaded the cold easterly winds of the coast. By 1850 it 
was a delightful place of residence, with many handsome 
houses, some of which are still the finest in town. It was 
fairly embosomed in orange trees, and, being an outpost of 
civilization on the borders of an almost unbroken wilderness, 
offered great attractions to sportsmen. Its commercial pros- 
perity did not begin until after the Civil War, when it be- 
came the distribiiting centre for a wide tract of rich countiy, 
and with the advent of the railroad in 1886 became the busy 
and prosperous place that now exists. It suffered the fate 
of nearly all Florida towns, and was nearly destroyed by 
fire. Like its sisters, however, it rallied pluckih' from the 
disaster and was rebuilt on a more substantial basis. It may 


now be reached in thirty-six hours from New York and 
will, no doubt, long maintain its position as the most impor- 
tant town on the river above Jacksonville. 

The visitor will find pleasant walks in either direction, 
north or south, along the river bank. The roads in the vi- 
cinity are rather sandy for driving, but equestrians may ride 
in almost any direction with the certainty of a pleasant ex- 
perience. The rivers and the neighboring lakes afford a great 
variety of delightful trips. (See Boutes 42 to 54.) 

HarCs Orange Grove, one of the oldest and most famous 
groves in the State, is on the opposite side of the river, about 
three miles from the wharves. It is easily reached by boat 
from the foot of Main Street. This grove was budded on 
wild stock about 1832, was badly damaged by the severe 
frost of 1835, and began bearing about 1845. It covers some 
70 acres of land, contains about 500 trees, and yields about 
12,000 boxes of oranges annually. 

51. Lake George. 

This fine lake, about sixteen miles long and»eight miles 
wide, lies at the junction of four of the most fertile and 
prosperous counties of Florida, namely, Putnam, Lake, Vo- 
lusia, and Marion. Its outlet is about thirty-eight miles 
south of Palatka, and it may be reached either by boat or 
rail, the excursion affording a pleasant all day trij). The 
regular St. John's River steamboats may be taken to any of 
the Lake George landings, or the trip may be extended to 
Volusia, ^vhere the St. John's & Lake Eustis Railway touches 
the river, and train may be taken for Eustis, Leesburg, and 
the Lake region. The time to Volusia by boat is about four 
hours. Steam launches may be hired at Palatka, with which 
the round of the lake may be comfortably made in a day at 
an exi^euse of .S15 to §25. The trip may be varied by stop- 
ping at Seville Landing, about half way up the lake. Con- 
veyances may be secured by telegraphing to the hotel at 
Seville. Tlie distance from the landing to the railroad is 
about four miles. 


52. The Fruitland Peninsula. 

This name is given to a tract of fine land lying between 
the St. John's Eiver and Lake George on the west, and 
Crescent Lake and its outlet, Dunn's Creek, on the east. It 
is about twenty miles long and from six to ten miles wide 
from lake to river. This territory was a favorite with the Ind- 
ian tribes of prehistoric times, whose agricultural instincts 
led them to select the best lands for their field crops. 
One of the oldest settlements on tlie St. John's River was 
formed under English rule at Mount Royal, in the latter part 
of the last century. Considerable progress was made in Eu- 
ropean methods of cultivation, but all lands were abandoned 
with the return of the Spaniards, and it was not until after 
the Seminole War that permanent white settlements were 
resumed. Now the whole peninsula is thickly dotted with 
farms and orange groves, and is one of the most thriving 
communities of Middle Florida. The peninsula consists of 
high pine land, interspersed with hammock, and admirably 
adapted for all kinds of agriculture. The large lakes to the 
eastward and westward, with the smaller bodies of water 
scattered through the interior, equalize the temperature to 
an unusual degree. 

Throughout the peninsula there are pleasant rides and 
drives, and conveyances or saddle-horses may be engaged at 
almost any of the principal river or lake landings. 

53. Crescent Lake. 

Dunn's Creek, the outlet of Crescent Lake, falls into the 
St. John's about six miles south of Palatka. It is a deep, 
crooked, picturesque stream, eight miles long, and traversed 
daily by steamboats. The trip may be varied by passing 
through Murphy's Creek, a branch of the main outlet. The 
lake is sixteen miles long and three miles wide, fed at its 
upper end by Haw Creek, which forms the boundary be- 
tween St. John's and Volusia Counties, and sends its various 


branches well over toward the sea-coast near the head of 
Halifax Eiver. 

Crescent City, the principal town on the lake, is hand- 
somely laid out on the western shore, on high land, and with 
Lake Stella immediately to the westward of the town. The 
level of this lake is said to be forty feet higher than that of 
Crescent Lake. There is a road and regular conveyance from 
Crescent City to the railroad, but the lake steamers from 
Palatka afford tlie easier and pleasanter means of access. 

54. Seville, Volusia County. 

Population, 400. 

Hotels. — The Seville, $3.50 a day ; special rates by week or month. — The 
Grand Vleuc. 

Seville, with its tasteful and characteristic log- built .sta- 
tion, and its jjalm- and orange-lined main street, at once at- 
tracts the eye of the Northern traveller, if only by a casual 
glance from tlie car window. The town is, in fact, one of 
the most attractive in Florida, owing to judicious and liberal 
outlay of money in providing a complete system of sewerage, 
and a water-supply drawn from a neighboring lake. The 
sewage is received in tanks, where the solids are precipitated 
by chemical action, and the liquids are carried off through 
subsoil pipes to the neighboring fields. The works were 
planned by Mr. J. J. Powers, late Sanitary Engineer of Brook- 
lyn, N. Y., and are identical in plan of construction with 
those that solved the very i^erplexing problem of sewerage 
at Coney Island, N. Y. The town site is at the southern 
end of the Fruitland Peninsula, in the midst of the high 
pine orange belt. Four miles west of the railroad station 
and hotels is Lake George, well known to hunters and fish- 
ermen. The town fronts on Lakes Louise and Beatrice, 
two sheltered lakes of pure water, whose shores afford most 
attractive sites for cottages and permanent residences. In 
the vicinity are nearly all the characteristic varieties of Flor- 
ida land. The hammock bordering the lake is very rich, and 
has for many years been known as especially favorable to the 


growth of the wild or Seville orange, the theory being that 
ail the wild orange-trees of Florida are seedlings from fruit 
imported by the Sjjaniards. The name Seville Grove was 
originally given to a considei'able section of this region com- 
prised in the old Storrs grant, and purchased by William 
Kemble Lente, one of the earliest Northern settlers in this 
region. The wild trees were topped and budded, and came 
into bearing in a surprisingly short time. It has since been 
equalled and surpassed by many groves in the vicinity, but 
is still justly regarded as a type of what can be done with 
wild orange- trees in this part of the State. 

Saddle-horses and carriages can be engaged at the hotel 
for drives about this very interesting, prosperous, and well- 
cultivated region. 

55. Palatka to Sanford by Rail. 

J., T. & K. W. Ry., sixty-nine miles (2 hours 50 minutes). For stations and 
distances see pp. 82, 9T. 

The general direction of the railway line is a little east of 
south. Leaving Palatka the train traverses the level sub- 
urbs and, after a few minutes, crosses the St. John's Eiver 
on a long trestle and drawbridge. Here occurs a good op- 
portunity to observe the tangled growth of the low ham- 
mock bordering the river. A range of blufls, remarkably 
bold and high for this region, will be noticed at this point, 
their sides often covered with orange gi'oves. For twenty 
miles after crossing the river the railroad traverses the 
central ridge of the Fruitland Peninsula (see p. 191). At 
times the route seems lined with orange groves for miles on 
both sides, and in the season of fruit and blossoms the pano- 
rama is one not to be forgotten. Many pretty lakes break 
the monotony of grove and forest, most of them deep and 
full of water at all seasons of the year. 

Between Denver and Hammond the boundary line of 
Putnam and Volusia Counties is crossed (see jDp. 80, 94). 

At Seville notice the station, a genuine log-cabin adapted 
to the taste and requirements of civilization, the bark and 


knots smoothed away, the logs finished in oil, and all the 
rudeness of the frontier skilfully eliminated. (See, also, 
account of Seville, p. 192.) On both sides of the track are al- 
most continuous orange groves, the trees thriving on soil 
that to all appearance is nothing better than sand. Those 
who are interested in such matters will do well to stop in 
this neighborhood and inspect methods of orange culture, 
and, if it be the proper season, of harvesting, packing, and 
the like. 

At De Land Junction is the crossing of a branch road to 
the St. John's Eiver on the west and to De Land, the 
county seat, on the east (see Route 53). 

At Orange G'ttij Junction is the crossing of the Atlantic & 
Western Railroad, extending to the St. John's River on the 
west, and to New Smyrna on the east (see Route 63). 

At Enterprise Junction the train divides, part going eastward 
to Indian River (see Rotate 70), and jjart continuing to the 
southward and presently crossing the St. John's River just 
below the outlet of Lake Monroe. At this point is Monroe, 
the junction of the Orange Belt Railway (see p. 49). The 
line now curves to the east, and soon stops in the handsome 
station at San ford. 

56. Palatka to Sanford by River. 

One hundred and twenty mOes (about 8 hours by daylight, 12 hours by 

Above the drawbridge at Palatka lies the most interesting 
part of the St. John's River. Here the stream loses its 
lacustrine character and becomes comparatively narrow and 
swift, and so crooked that the distance to Sanford is nearly 
double that by rail. Local time-tables should be con- 
sulted so as to secure a trip one way or the other by day- 
light. The night trip, however, is by no means devoid of 
interest, for the boats carry brilliant headlights which pro- 
duce striking and novel effects along the densely wooded 
shores. A good view of Hart's Orange Grove is obtained in 
passing (see p. 190). The vicinity of Rollestou was early 


settled by English i^ioneers, but was abantloned wlieu the 
Spaniards resumed control in 1784:. 

A little above Westouia is the mouth of Dunns Creek, the 
navigable outlet of Crescent Lake (see p. 191), and at Buffalo 
Bluff is the railroad drawbridge. Nearly opposite Beecher 
is the mouth of the Ocklawaha River. 

Beyond Fort Gates, a military post during the Indian 
wars, is the outlet of Lake George. The small island to the 
westward is Hog Island ; the larger one is Drayton Island, 
containing 1,870 acres of remarkabh* productive soil, under- 
laid with beds of carbonate and phosphate marl. The island 
was settled by E. W. Towle, in 1875, and now has a well-to- 
do poi^ulation of about one hundred and fifty. Orange cult- 
ure is very successful on the island, owing to the protection 
afiforded by the surrounding waters, and the inhabitants say 
that even the severe frost of 1886 passed over the island 
without doing any harm. 

On the west shore is the outlet of Lake Kerr, a beautiful, 
irregular body of water, with two towns on its shores. Lake 
George, eighteen miles long, affords an agreeable change 
from the narrow, winding stream, but in a short time the 
southern inlet is reached, and shortly afterward Volusia, the 
site of one of the early Spanish Missions. From De Land 
Landing is a short branch railroad to the county town (see 
p. 198). 

Bine Siwing Landing takes its name from a fine spring 
that boils up from iinknowu depths a few rods from the river 
bank. To visit the spring it is necessary to pass through 
private grounds, for which permission should be asked. 
From this landing the Atlantic <fe Western Eailroad (see p. 
97) extends eastward to New Smyrna on the sea-coast. 

A considerable stream joins the St. John's on the west 
side about six miles above Blue Spring. It is the Kissimmee 
Kiver, but has no connection with the large river of that 
name farther south. Passing through the last drawbridge 
on the St. John's, Lake Monroe opens to the eastward with 
the distant buildings of Sanford and Enterprise visible 
among the tall palms on the opposite shores. (For Lake 
Monroe, see p. 197.) 


Rivei- landings are as follows from Palatka to Sanford. 
Distances are given from Jacksonville. E. signifies east 
bank, W. west bank. 

Hart's Orange Grove, E 75 l Yellow Bluff. W 121 

Eollefiton, E 78 i Sprinix (iarden, E 122 

San Mateo. E 79 Spring Grove, E 126 

Edpcwatcr, E 80 Lake View, E 132 

Bufialo Bluff, W 87 Volusia. E 134 

Horse Landing, W • 96 Astor, W 134 

Nashua, E 95 Manhattan, W 136 

Smith's Landing, E 96 Fort Butler, W 138 

Welaka, E 100 Oransre Bluff, E 140 

Beechcr, E 101 Bluffton, E 140 

Norwalk, W 103 , St. Francis, W 155 

MountRoyal.E 105 Old Town, W ... 156 

Fruitlands, E 105 Crow's Landing, W 159 

Poit Gates, W 106 Hawkinsville, W 160 

Pelham Park, E 112 Cabbage Bluff. E 162 

Racemo, E 112 De Land Landing, E 162 

Georgetown, E 113 Lake Beresford, E 163 

Orange Point. E 113 Blue Spring. E 168 

Lake George, E 115 Wekdva, E 184 

Drayton Island. W 116 Shell Bank, E 163 

Salt Springs, W 119 Sanford, W 195 

Benella, W 120 Mellon\ille, W 196 

Seville, E 120 Enterprise, E ...200 

60. Sanford, Orange County. 

Population, 3,500.— Lat. 28° 50' N.— Long. 81° 17' W. 

Hotels.— r^ Sanjord Home, $3 to $4 a day.— San Le(m Hotel, $2 to $2.50 a 

itALLROADS, STEAMBOATS, ETC. Jacksotivilh, Tampa <6 Kep West Railway, 
north to Jacksonville (see pp. 69, 82, 97), and east to Indian River (see p. 97). 

South Florida Railroad, south to Tampa, Punta Gorda, and the Gulf steam- 
ship lines (see pp. 70. 73, 79). 

tianford rf- Lake Eiistis Railimy, west to Tavares, Leesburg, etc. (see p. 48). 

Sanford £■ Indian River Railwai/, southeast to Lake Charm (see p. 71). 

The Orange Belt Railway, southwest to Tarpon Springs and the Pinellas 
Peninsula (see pp. 38, 49, 70, 74. 87). 

All these roads use a station in common near the hotels and business streets. 
Restaurant in station. 

Steamboats. — The steamboat wharf is five minutes' walk east of the Sanford 
House. There are daily boats to and from Jacksonville and intermediate land- 

Carriage rate from station or landing, 25c. ; luggage, 25c. per piece. 

iu'eri/.- Saddle horses, 75c. to $1 an hour, $2 to 13 a day. Double teams, $5 
a day. 

Guides for hunting and fishing. f5 a day with dogs and outfit. 

Sanford is pleasantly situated on the south shore of Lake 
Monroe, the land rising from the water level in a gentle 
slope sufficient for efitectual drainage. The town is named 
after General H. S. Sanford, late United States Minister to 


The surrounding land was an old Spanish grant, and be- 
longed, in 1870, to General Joseph Finegan, an ex-officer of 
the Confederacy. From him General Sanford purchased the 
entire estate (known as the old Levy grant) of twenty-three 
square miles. At that time there was on the lake shore an 
insignificant hamlet called Mellonville, after Captain Mellon, 
U.S.A., who was killed here in an engagement with the 
Seminoles. Genehil Sauford's early attempts to introduce 
organized labor, whether white or black, were resisted by 
force of arms, but he soon became strong enough to defy 
the prejudices of the scattered population, and the result is 
ajjparent in the jiresent prosperity of the place. A large 
number of Swedes were imported with their families, and 
they now form a prosperous part of the community. 

Belair, three miles south of Sanford, and easily reached by 
rail or carriage road, is one of the largest and most famous 
plantations in the State. It is the property of General San- 
ford, who began operations on a large scale soon after liis 
purchase of the Levy grant. The grove contains 95 acres 
of oranges and 50 acres of lemons, with a large experimental 
farm, wliere all kinds of exotics are tested under the best 
possible conditions for ascertaining their adaptability to the 
Florida climate. 

Lake Monroe is nearly circular in shape, six miles long, a 
little more than five miles wide, and with an average depth 
of about twelve feet. Sanford and Enterprise are the only 
two towns on its shores. The fishing for bass and the other 
fresh-water varieties of fish is good in all parts of the lake, 
but of course the fish have their favorite feeding-grounds, 
and until these are ascertained there is little use in fishing. 
The shores of the lake are for the most part wild, and cov- 
ered with a heavy growth of forest and saw jDalmetto. Deer 
and turkies are found within a few miles of the lake, and 
even along its less frequented borders, but without a guide 
and trained dogs it is nearly impossible to shoot them. Above 
Lake Monroe the river is not regularly navigated, though it 
is practicable for good sized launches. It winds for the 
most part among vast stretches of savannah and saw grass, 
occasionally sjireading into large lakes, as Harney, Jessup, 


Poinsett, Winder, and Washington. It is often a very dif- 
ficult matter to decide which is the true river channel, but 
when found the stream is easily navigable and the upper 
lakes are so near the Indian River at Kockledge and Eau 
Gallic that carries are easily made across the intervening 
hammock. The upper St. John's should not be attempted 
save in a boat that will serve as a sleeping-place at a pinch, 
for there are often long stretches of morass where it is im- 
l^ossible to camp comfortably on shore. 

61. De Land. Volusia Couuty. 

Population. 2,000.— Lat. 29° N.— Long. 81° 14' W. 

Hotels.— CarroMtoJi Hous\ $2.50 to i&.—rarceland Hotel, $2.50 to %Z.— Put- 
nam House, $2 to f3. 

Railroads.— Branch to De Land .Junction and Landing on St. John's River, 
five miles west, where connection is made with J., T. & K. W. Ry., and with 
river steamboats. 

Carriage rate from station, 25c. ; luggage, 25c. par piece. 

De Land has good hotels, electric lights, numerous stores, 
cliurches, schools, and a general air of business prosperity. 
As the seat of government of a large county in the heart of 
the orange region it is the centre of a considerable 'Amount 
of business connected with the growing interests of the 
community. The situation is healthful in the high pine re- 
gion, and forest still surrounds it, save where it has been 
cleared away to make room for orange groves and other im- 
provements. The town is named after its founder, Mr. H. 
A. De Land. 

In the immediate neighborhood are several interesting 
l^laces, notably the residence and grounds of Mr. John B. 
Stetson, of Philadelphia, where horticulture in its various 
branches is carried to a high degree of perfection. 

The L-ondequoit Dairy, within easy walking distance of the 
hotels, is interesting as one of the most successful attempts 
to introduce Jerseys, Holsteiu, and other high grade cattle 
into this region. 

Lake Helen, six miles southeast, may be reached from De 
Land either by road through the woods or by rail, changing 
at De Land Junction and Orange City. (See next page.) 

De Leon Spring, six miles north, is a pleasant resort for 


picnic parties. The Spring boils up in such volume that it 
was formeiiy used to drive a sugar-mill, the ruins of which 
are still to be seen near by. 

Spring Garden, three miles north of De Leon Spring, has 
entered successfully ujjon silk culture. There are several 
i:)rosperous silk-farms in the vicinity, where may be seen the 
curious processes connected with this industry. 

Dexter Lake and the St. John's River are available for 
boating and fishing exchrsions. The best hunting grounds 
are to the eastward, in a wide belt of sparsely settled country, 
partly savanna, partly hammock, from five to fifteen miles 
from the railroad. Hunters and guides can be engaged at 
$5 a day, or at a stated amount according to the success 
achieved ; so much for a shot at a deer, so much for a turkey, 
or so much for a wildcat, the hunter, of course, not being 
responsible for the marksmanship of the sportsman, 

De Land University stands on an elevation just outside the 
town, commanding a good view of the vicinity. It is de- 
signed to afford facilities for students of both sexes who 
prefer a southern climate during the winter months. There 
are ample buildings, separate dormitories, and a full staff 
of instructors for the different departments. The school 
year of thirty weeks begins in October and ends in May. 

62. Lflke Helen. Volusia County. 

Lat. 28° 58' N.— Long. 81° 13' W. 

Hotels.— rA« Harlan Hotel, $2 to $2.50 a Any.— The Granville, $7 to $10 a 

Railroads. — The Atlantic & Western Railroad east to New Smyrna and coast- 
wise steamers, west to J., T. & K. W. Ry. and St. John's River steamers. 

Lake Helen is essentially a resort or sanitarium. Its in- 
habitants are mainly Northerners, who come for the winter, 
l^referring the air of the piney woods to that of the sea- 
coast. For such persons the situation is very attractive. 
The laud is high, the surface of the lake being about sixty 
feet above the sea level, and the bluff* where the hotel stands 
some thirty feet higher. 

The place is named after the daughter of its founder, Mr. 
H. A. Da Land. The lake is one of a chain of similar lakes of 


small size, but filled with pure water and of great depth. 
Lake Helen, it is said on good authority, has been sounded 
to a depth of more than two hundred feet without finding 
bottom. The fishing is good and tlie hotel has a large fleet 
of rowboats at the disposal of its guests without extra charge. 
Along the west shore of the lake are a number of handsome 
cottages, with luxuriant flower-gardens containing all kinds 
of tropical and semi-tropical plants that grow and blossom 
in the open air all the year roiuid. The facilities for house- 
keeping are exceptionally good, as there is a large vegetable 
garden connected with the hotel, a local meat market, and 
stores that furnish the ordinary supplies required in this 

70. Daytoiia, Volusia County. 

Population, 1,700.— Lat. 29° 10' N.— Long. 81° W. 

Hotels.- OcedH House, $2..50 to 13 a day.— J^almetto Hotel, $2 to $2..50 a day. 
Eailroads and Steamboats.— St. John and Halifax River Railway, to Pa- 
latka. Steamboats to Lagoon landings, Titusville, and Rockledge. 

From Palatka to Daytona is 57 miles (3 hours 25 minutes). 
The general direction of the railroad is southeast, passing 
from Putnam to St. John's County at Yelvington, crossing 
the latter and entering Volusia County a mile south of Bulow 
(see pp. 80, 82, 94). After crossing the bridge at Palatka 
the famous Hart orange grove may be seen to the south of 
the track. Leaving the hammocks and rolling jjine lands 
that border the St. John's Eiver, the country becomes low 
and the track runs for miles across the head of a great cy- 
press swamp that extends far down into Volusia County. 
Beyond this the country becomes flat and at length ojiens 
out into prairies, which give way again to wonderfully rich 
hammock ridges along the coast. The Tomoka River is 
crossed near a station of that name. 

The town of Daytona stretches for two miles along the 
west bank of Halifax River, a salt water lagoon about three- 
fourths of a mile wide. It has streets pleasantly shaded 
with live oaks and palmettos, including unusually fine speci- 
mens of both. The hammock ridge on which tlie town 
stands averages two miles wide and extends for 60 miles 


down the coast. It is covered with a dense growth of hard 
wood, including wild orange-trees, many of which have been 
grafted and brought under cultivation. Among the notable 
groves of the vicinity are the Higby, Blake, Wilder, and 
Handy groves, the last named being a young grove while the 
others are largely grafted on wild stock. To Holb/ Hill, three 
miles north of Daytona, is a good road bordered with palms, 
and, for tlie greater part of the distance, within sight of the 

Silver Beach. The peninsula that separates Halifax River 
from the ocean rises to a considerable height opposite Day- 
tona and for some miles to the northward. On the landward 
side of this ridge are some of the most charming places in 
Florida. Sheltered from the direct force of the ocean winds, 
the gardens and plantations are remarkably luxuriant and 
produce the more delicate varieties of tropical fruits and 
flowers in abundance. There are several private residences 
at Silver Beach, where a system of subirrigation has been 
introduced with remarkable results, notably in the grounds 
of Mr. Clark Marsh. 

Drives. Many of the roads about Daytona are exception- 
ally good, especially along the shore where shells have been 
available for mixing with the soil. By far the finest drive 
is along the ocean beach in either direction. At low tide an 
expanse of sand several hundred feet wide is laid bare. 
Level and hard as a floor, no finer driveway can be im- 
agined. Bridges cross Halifax River at Daytona and Or- 
mond, so that the route can be conveniently varied. For 
beach drives the time of the tide should always be con- 
sidered, as the sand is very heavy above high water mark. 
Extended excursions np the beach, twenty six miles to Ma- 
tanzas Inlet (see p. 178), or southward to Mosquito Inlet, 
twelve miles (see p. 207), are quite practicable. At Mosquito 
Inlet there are good hotels, but there is none within easy 
reach at Matanzas, so that a good store of jirovisions and a 
supply of freshwater should be taken if the longer excursion 
is attempted. On the main land there are exceptionally 
good roads southward to and beyond New Smyrna. 

202 ORMOND. 

71. Ormond, Volusia County. 

Six miles north of Daytona (see above). Population, 300. 
HoTKL.— 77«« Ormond, $4 a day. 

A fiue bridge spaus Halifax River at this point, and a tram- 
way crosses it extending to the ocean beach at one end and 
to the St. J. & H. R. Railway at the other. Cars run at half 
hour intervals, connecting with all passenger trains. The 
Ormond Hotel has a large and completely apjiointed annex 
on the ocean beach, so that guests can choose between the 
magnificent ocean view or the more sheltered outlook across 
the lagoon. The distance between the two houses is nearly 
a mile, but inter-communication is easy by tramway or car- 
riage road. 

Tomoka River is a tributary of the Halifax, following a 
northerly course nearly parallel to it, and navigable for ca- 
noes and small boats for about twelve miles. The Tomokas 
were a powerful Indian tiibe during the early years of Span- 
ish occupation. A catechism in their language was prepared 
by the Jesuit missionaries and published about 1613. 

For other excursions iu the vicinity of Ormond see Route 

72. Halifax River. 

This lagoon, or tidal river, has a total length of about 
tweuty-five miles from its head to Mosquito Inlet. Its gen- 
eral course is parallel to the ocean, from which it is sepa- 
rated by a narrow strip of land, pai'tly hammock and partly 
the ordinary beach growth of saw palmetto. 

For the first six miles north of the inlet the river is 
bordered by marshes, and is from two hundred to four hun- 
dred yards wide, with at least eight feet of water in the 
channel. Thence for fourteen miles it widens to about three- 
quarters of a mile, with a channel depth of three to eight 
feet. Above this it narrows again, and for a distance of four 
miles is known as Halifax Creek. The headwaters consist 
of two branches. Smith's Creek closely following the beach, 
and Bulow's Creek turning more to the westward and rising 
iu Graham's Swamp. There are bridges at Daytona and 


Ormontl, respectively twelve and eighteen miles from the 

Just north of the inlet is a wide stretch of marsh, inter- 
sected by narrow creeks that connect to the westward M'ith 
shallow bodies of water known as Rose, Strickland, and 
Turnbull Bays. 

Steamboats of light draught run regularly through Halifax 
River, leaving Daytona in the morning on alternate days, 
touching at Blake, Port Orange, Ponce Park, and other land- 
ings, and continuing down Hillsborough aud Indian Rivers 
as far as Rockledge. Railroad connections at Daytona, New 
Smyrna, and Titusville. 

80. New Smyrna. Volusia County. 

Hotel. — Ocean House, $3 a day. 

Railroad. — The Atlantic and Western (see p. 97). 

Steamboats on Ualil'ax and Hillsborough Rivers. 

New Smyrna is one of the oldest settlements in Florida. 
Shell-mounds and barbaric implements are found, proving 
its early occupation by Indians, and there are numerous 
ancient ruins, probably of construction, but concern- 
ing which nothing definite is known. 

Authentic history begins in 1767, when a certain Dr. 
Andrew Turnbull, an English gentleman of fortune, entered 
upon the gigantic task of draining the low hammocks back 
of New Smyrna, and making them fit for cuitivatiou. He 
had satisfied himself of the wonderful richness of this tract, 
and preliminary surveys had proved the possibilities of drain- 
age. This was four years after the cession of Florida to 
Great Britain, and the English were fast learning that they 
need not depend on provision ships for the necessaries of 

Turnbull procured a grant of sixty thousand acres from 
the Governor on condition that certain improvements should 
be made within a specified time. He then sailed to the 
Mediterranean, and secured permission from the authorities 
to transport to Florida a large number of Greek families. 
For this permit he paid £400. Most of the Greeks were 


from the Peloponnesus. The number was further recniited 
from the Balearic Isles, and in the end some fifteen hundred 
persons, men, women, and children, emigrated under his 
leadership. On his part free transportation, with good pro- 
visions and clothing were guaranteed. If any were dis- 
satisfied at the end of six. months they were to be sent home, 
but those who remained and worked for three years were to 
receive fifty acres of land for each family, and twenty-five 
acres for each child. The voyage jjroved long, and many 
died on the passage, but the survivors began work with good 
courage, built jjalmetto huts for the approaching winter, and 
planted crops that yielded full returns in early spring. As 
soon as it was certain that the colony was secure against 
hunger, Turnbull planted indigo. In 1772, about three 
thousand acres were under cultivation, and the net value of 
the crop was £3,174. 

Success seemed assi;ired, but for some reason the manage- 
ment of affairs was left to agents, who inaugurated a sys- 
tem of oppression that soon became absolute slavery with 
all its revolting features. By 1776 only six hundred of the 
colonists were left. In the summer of that year a party of 
Englishmen from St. Augustine visited New Smyrna to see 
the improvements, and, while conversing among themselves, 
their comments on the state of affairs were overheard by a 
bright Minorcan boy, who immediately told his mother what 
he had heard. Secret meetings were held, and a plan was 
concocted whereby a party of three of the bolder sjiirits were 
granted leave of absence to catch turtle. Instead of going 
south, however, they started up the coast, swam Matanzas 
Inlet, and reaching St. Augustine appealed to Governor 
Tonyn for protection , which was promised. The envoys re- 
turned to New Smyrna with the tidings of release. A leader 
was chosen, Pallicier by name, and under his direction the 
able-bodied men provided themselves with wooden spears, 
rations were packed for three days, and with the women and 
children in the centre the six hundred began their mai'ch. 
So secretly was all this managed that they had proceeded 
several miles before their departure was discovered. No at- 
tempt at forcible restraint was made, though it is said that 


Turubull himself waylaid them before the}' reached St. Au- 
gustine, and endeavored to persuade them to return. They 
marched on, however, and reported to the Governor, who 
ordered j^rovisions for them, and organized a court for the 
trial of their cause, the Attorney -General of the Province, 
Younge by name, appearing as their counsel. TurnbuU 
failed to establish any further claim upon their services, and 
they were assured of personal liberty. Lands were assigned 
them, and they soon became an influential element of the 
population iu St. Augustine. Some of their descendants are 
still to be found in the neighborhood of New Smyrna, 
whither they returned after they became assured that there 
was no danger of re-enslavement. 

The canals, half -overgrown trenches, and cmmbling ruins 
of stone buildings are all that now remain of Turnbull's en- 
terprise, but they are beginning to play their part in the new 
agricultural undertakings of the day. No doubt the whole 
elaborate system of drainage will sooner or later again be 

After the Miuorcan revolt New Smyrna was abandoned for 
nearly a generation. In 1803, however, a few pioneers came 
back, and by 1835 some degree of prosperity had returned. 
Then came the Seminole War and the little settlement was 
nearly exterminated by successive raids. After peace was 
restored the survivors found their way back, rebuilt their 
houses, and for twenty years were undisturljed. 

With the outbreak of the Civil War Mosquito Inlet of- 
fered a tempting haven for blockade-runners, and it became 
necessary to break ui? the rendezvoiis. Two United States 
gunboats, the Penguin and the Henry Andrew, reached the 
inlet on March 20, 1862. The last named vessel, being of 
light draft, crossed the bar. On the 22d a boat expedition, 
with 43 men, was sent down to Mosquito Lagoon to recon- 
noitre. They went down eighteen miles, jiassing New 
Smyrna unmolested, but on their return the leading boat 
was fired into from an earthwork near the town, which from 
previous examination was supj^osed to be abandoned. Lieu- 
tenant Budd of the Penguin and Master Mather of the An- 
drew were killed, and in the engagement that followed thir- 

2()<; NEW SMYRNA. 

teen others were killed or woiiDclcd. The survivors took to 
cover on shore aud I'ojoined their ships after night had fallen. 
Of course summary vengeance was taken for this attack, and 
all buildings, wharves, and the like, that could be of service 
to blockade-runners were destroyed. 

New Smyrna is a favorite resort for sportsmen. The pro- 
prietor of the hotel, Captain Sams, is familiar with the 
whole region and is always ready either to accompany his 
guests himself on hunting expeditions or to furnish comi^e- 
tent guides, boats, and equipments. Large and small game 
of all kinds is to be found in the woods and savannahs of the 
mainland, and water-fowl frequent the marshy islands that 
border the lagoons. The best of salt-water fish are caught 
from the wharves or in the channel, especially in the vicinity 
of Mosquito Inlet, four miles distant (see p. 207). 

A few rods south of the hotel is one of the drainage canals 
cut by Turnbull's engineers. On the other side, north of the 
hotel, is a fine shell-mound, on which Turnbull built his 
" castle " which is said to have been a solid structure cap- 
able of good defence. The house that now occupies the 
mound is built over the old cellars. South of the railroad 
are other ruins, the remains of an old stone wharf, an old 
burial-ground, and other evidences of long-forgotten habi- 
tations. Farther back from the shore are ruined sugar-mills, 
indigo-vats, and a network of admirably planned and con- 
structed drainage works. In this direction an excellent 
road continues to Hairks Park (2 miles), a beaiitifully situ- 
ated town with pretty houses, a fine reach of river and easy 
access to an ocean beach that has not a break for 130 miles. 

Four miles north of the town, on a fine shell-mound, are 
the walls of an old coquina house, still in excellent preser- 
vation. It is called "The Rock House," but nothing what- 
ever is known of its origin. It is said to have antedated 
the Turnbull period. Two or three times it has been re- 
jjaired and occupied, but as often has been destroyed by war 
or accident. It is a picturesque little niin, commanding a 
fine ouJook to seaward. The road lies through a magnifi- 
cent forest. Beyond the "Eock House" the road continues 
several miles to a point overlooking Turnbull Bay, where 


Imicheou can usually be procured at a house near hx. It is 
not a public house, however, and such accommodation is by 

81. Ponce Park and Mosquito Inlet, Volusia County. 

Lat. 29° 4' 49'' N.— Long. 80° 5.5' 33" W. 
Pacetli's Hotel, $2 a day. 

ateamboais, on alternate days, north to Daytona and south to New Smyrna 
and Titusville, at all which points are railroad connections. 

The coast from Matanzas Inlet (see p. 178) to Mosquito 
Inlet, forty-eight miles, is a repetition of that to the northward. 
A continuous beach of hard, white sand, with deep water half 
a mile to seaward. The general trend of the coast is south 
by east, curving slightly inward, and the woods from inlet to 
inlet on the mainland are seemingly unbroken. About three 
miles north of Mosquito Inlet there is a conspicuous green 
hill forty feet high, and there are numerous santl-hills in the 
vicinity twenty feet high. Consjjicuous bluffs lie also to the 
southward of the inlet. The break in the beach is half a 
mile wide with a channel two hundred yards wide and five to 
ten feet of water at low tide. The main rise and fall of the 
tide is about two feet four inches. The sand-bars shift rap- 
idly according to wind and tide, and the entrance is dan- 
gerous without a local pilcjt. The lighthouse is a red brick 
tower surmounted by a black lantern 160 feet above the sea. 
It shows a white fixed liglit of the first order, visible eigh- 
teen miles at sea. This tower was finished in 1887 and will 
well repay a visit, for all its appointments are of the most 
approved type. A flight of 218 steps leads to the lantern. 
The walls are twelve feet thick at the base. From the gal- 
lery at the top a strange and impressive view may be ob- 
tained of the inlet and the surrounding wilderness of sea 
and shore. The lighthouse is open to visitors at all hours 
when the keepers are not on duty. The exact latitude and 
longitude of the tower are given at the head of this article. 

Ponce Park is the lawful name of the hamlet half a mile 
north of the light tower. It is a noted resort for fishermen, 
as the neighboring waters abound with shecpshead, bass, 
Spanish mackerel, bluefish, and the other suit- water varie- 


ties. The hotel is adequate for the needs of sportsmen. 
The walks in the vicinity are limited to the beaches and to a 
few trails cut through the scrub to the ocean. From the 
hotel south to the inlet (one mile) is an easy walk and the mag- 
nificent ocean beach may be followed thence as far as de- 
sired. Some of the trails leading from the beach to the 
lighthouse and hotel are very difficult, and should not be at- 
tempted except by good walkers. The ocean beach is very 
fascinating with its rare and curious shells and its endless 
persjjective of sand and surf. It is in perfect condition for 
driving during several hours between tides every day. 

For extended excursions boats are the only available ve- 
hicles, and of these there is a good supply at the hotel. The 
lagoons north and south, the beach beyond the Inlet, and 
the intricate channels leading into Turnbull Bay are all 
open to the boatman, and full of attractions for gunners, 
fishermen, and tourists. 

Hillsborough Riper extends southward from Mosquito 
Inlet thirty-six miles, to the head of Indian River. The 
first few miles are bordered by blufis on the south or sea- 
ward side and marshes on the north. The channel is quite 
deep, vessels drawing ten feet ascend to New Smyrna (see p. 
203), but the shallows are intricate and shifting. Through 
this part of the river the tide runs swiftly. South of 
Smyrna the river is nearly parallel to the beach. The divid- 
ing strip of land is often high and wooded, with occasional 
settlements. The mid section of the river is much cut up 
and obstificted by mangrove islands, and the channels are 
intricate, but the main passage has been well marked by bea- 
cons maintained by the canal company. In some places 
the water is ten feet deep, but only four feet can be carried 

Turtle Mound, ten miles south of Mosquito Inlet, is the only 
conspicuous natural landmark on this pavt of the coast. It 
is so called from its fancied resemblance to a sea-tiirtle, the 
central mound representing the shell, and two flanking 
moiands the flipjjers. Seen from the summit of the mound, 
the resemblance is quite apparent, but it is probably acci- 
dental. The mound is about fortv feet high. The north 


side is quite precipitous, showing the shell strata •with occa- 
sional evidences of fires, and, rarelv, some rude Indian relic. 
An excavation was made bv explorers iu the summit of the 
mound many years ago, but nothing of especial interest was 

The lower or southei'n reach, Hillsborough River, is twenty 
miles long with an average width of about two miles. A 
narrow strip of sand, often not more than two hundred yards 
wide, separates it from the beach. The depth is four and 
one-half to five feet. About twelve miles from its junction 
with Halifax liiver it overlaps the head of Indian River, 
being divided from it on the west by a ridge of limestone 
rock, generally about one thousand yards wide. A canal 
has been cut through the ridge seven hundred and fifty 
yards long and fifty feet wide, and through this the boats of 
the Indian River Steamboat Company now pass regularly to 
and from the Indian River. Below the Haulover Canal the 
land separating Halifax and Indian Rivers broadens into a 
large tract known as Merritt's Island, though it is in reality 
two islands separated by Banana River (see map of Brevard 
County, p. 9). 

Towns and landings on Halifax River, Hillsborough River, 
and Mosquito Lagoon are as follows : 

Miles. Miles. 

Tomoka New Smyrna 5 

Onnond 6 Hawks Park 3 

HollvHill 3 OakHill, \ ,„j. 

Davtona 3 EMora (East bank)/ ^^^ 

Blake 3 Shiloh 5 

Port Orange 3 Haulover 6 

Ponce Park (Mosquito lulet) 5 ; Titusville 12 


90. The Indian River. 

See map of Brevard County, p. 9. The direct ronte from Jacksonville to the 
head of the river is* by J., T. & K. W. Ry., one hundred and fifty-nine miles, to 
Titu^ville (5 hours rtO minutes). This may be varied by <:oin{? to Daytona and 
the C3 by boat southward. Boats leave Daytona on alternate days, or by rail 
to New Smyrna, and thence by boat as above (see p. 209). 

Indian River is in many respects the most remarkable and 
interesting watercourse in Florida. Connected through in- 
lets with the Atlantic Ocean, and more or less affected by its 
tides, it retains many of the characteristics of a freshwater 
stream, owing to the numerous tributaries that join it from 
the great natural reservoirs of the mainland. 

From its head, twelve miles north of Titusville, to its 
southern extremity at Jupiter Inlet, Indian River is one hun- 
dred and forty-two miles long, and so straight that water and 
sky seem to meet, as at sea,wiien one looks north or south 
along the river. The width varies from one hundred feet in 
the Narrows, to three miles or more at the widest part. The 
head of the river is divided opposite Cape Canaveral by a 
broad tract called Merritt's Island. The eastern branch is 
Banana River, and this again has a branch called Banana 
Creek, dividing the Island opposite Titusville (see map of 
Brevard County). Banana River has five to six feet of 
water ; Banana Creek two to three feet. Indian River com- 
municates with the sea through two inlets, namely, Indian 
River Inlet, sixty miles south of Cape Canaveral, and JuiDiter 
Inlet at its soiithern end. The first named has about four 
and one-half feet at high water, and the other about five 

Cape Canaveral (pronounced Can-av'-eral) is a peculiar sharjo 
outstanding angle of the coast, projecting about eight miles 
beyond the general trend of the beach. To the north and 
south the coast line is south-southeast. A glance at the 
map immediately suggests the idea that Merritt's Island 
was once the cape, and that slow geological upheaval raised 
it to its present altitude, while the present cape was thrown 
up by the sea to take its place as a breakwater. The general 
outlines are almost ielentical. The cape is a triangular tract 
of bare sea sand, partially covered with scnib, desolate be- 


Yond expression, but a fine oceau view and an outlook over 
the strange landward prospect may be obtained from the 
tower. The mainland is largely shut off by the compara- 
tively high ridges of Merritt's Island, but the whole course 
of Banana Eiver can be followed. 

The lighthouse tower stands on the northeast pitch of the 
cape, in latitude 28" 27' 37" N., Long. 80° 31' 31" W. The 
tower is 139 feet high, and shows a white flash light of the 
first order every sixty seconds, visible 17| nautical miles. 
The tower is painted black and white in horizontal bands. 
A light was first established here in 1847, and the old tower 
still remains as a landuiark. The present tower was built 
in 1868. An automatic whistling buoy is anchored 6f miles 
off the cape to warn vessels of dangerous outlying shoals 
when the light cannot be seen. In 1887 the sea encroached 
129 feet on the tower, and Congress made an approj)riation 
to constnict a revetment for its protection. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War the lightkeeper, Captain 
Burnham, who had been long in the service of the Govern- 
ment, learned that a project was on foot to seize and destroy 
the costly Fresnel lantern and its machinery. Burnham was 
in symixithy with the cause of secession, but he was never- 
theless faithful to his trust, and baffled all attempts of the 
Confederates to capture the lantern and its belongings. 

Six miles north of the cape are the remains of an old re- 
doubt, evidently the work of Europeans. It is not improb- 
able that this may have been the fort erected by the sur- 
vivors of Eibaut's expedition who refused to surrender to the 
Spaniards at Matanzas (see p. 178). 

The sea-coast from Mosquito Inlet to False Cape is formed 
by the narrow strips of land that sepai'ate the inland l.i- 
goons from the ocean, everywhere is a stretch of beach backed 
by scrub and a forest of pines with an occasional hammock 
island or shell mound. The three-fathom line is in some 
places only a third of a mile from the beach. Between 
False Cape and Cape Canaveral there are dangerous outlying 
shoals, witli a good depth near the beach. 

The boats of the Indian River Steamboat Company leave 
Titusville every morning for Jupiter and intermediate land- 


ings. The conditions of navigation are such and the length 
of the trip so great that it cannot be accomplislied wholly by 
daylight, but the boats are commodious and well equipped 
in all respects, with comfortable state-rooms and an excel- 
lent table. 

The whole trip is interesting to the tourist for its novelty. 
On the one hand is a narrow strip of beach across which, at 
intervals, one may see the masts of southward bound steam- 
ers, keei^ing close in shore to avoid the Gulf Stream ; on the 
other are occasional settlements with the unbroken forest 
between, and beyond them a wilderness that has never yet 
been thoroughly explored. On the broad reaches of the 
river are countless flocks of ducks and geese, and overhead 
are hundreds of unfamiliar birds. The navigation of the 
narrows is always entertaining. The boats are built with 
special reference to short turns, and as they push their way 
through the crooked channels, the mangi-oves brush along 
the guards, and some new surprise awaits the spectator at 
every turn. The water is usually highly ijhosphorescent at 
night, and wonderful displays of natui-e's fireworks may be 
seen as the boat passes through flocks of ducks or over 
schools of mullet and the other fish with which these waters 
abound. At times the surface, for a hundred feet or more 
on either side of the bow, is crossed and recrossed by an in- 
tricate embroidery pattern traced in lines of soft yet bril- 
liant light. 

The last part of the trip to the southward is necessarily 
performed by night, but on the return trip this part of the 
journey is made by daylight, so that, going or returning, 
there is an opportunity to see the whole river. 

The western shore is the home of the famous Indian 
Eiver orange, and in the vicinity of the settlements cul- 
tivated groves have rejjlaced the dense natural growth. In ■ 
most cases a screen of palmettos or other forest trees has 
been left to protect the oranges from the easterly winds, 
which, coming direct from the ocean, are often injurious. 
For this reason few groves are to be seen from passing 
steamers, but during the shipping season the boats are heav- 
ily freighted with crates of the finest fri;it. 


Farther south pineapples become an impoiiant item of 
commerce, and the bluffs near Eden are covered with acres of 
this curious plant. One of the most enjoyable features of the 
trip is the gradual change noted in the vegetation, which as- 
sumes more and more the subtropical characteristics until 
at Jupiter a fine sjDecimen of the cocoa-palm is seen in full 

91. Titusville, Brevard County. 

Popnlation, 1,000.— Lat. 28=- 35' N.— Long. 80° 40' W. 

Hotels.— /ndian River Hotel, $1.50 to $2.50 a day, $6 to $10 a week.— GVand 
View Hotel, same rates. 

Railroad. — Indian River Division J., T. & K. W. system to Enterprise 
Junction. For stations and distances see pp. 11 and 97. 

Steamboats. — The Indian River Steamboat Company. Daily boats to 
Jupiter. Boats on alternate days to Daytona and intermediate landings. 

tiaddle-horses, 25c. an hour, $2 a day. 

Rowboats, 25c. an hour, $2 a day. Sailboats, $2 to $10 a day. 

Guides, $1 to $5 a day. 

Titusville is the county town, with a bank, stores, and con- 
siderable business interests. It affords a good head-quarters 
for tourists or sportsmen desiring to engage boats for long 
hunting and fishing expeditions. In the immediate vicin- 
ity are Cape Canaveral and the creeks, rivers, and ponds in- 
tersecting Merritt's Island, the beaches, the Haulover Canal, 
with the Dummitt orange grove, and the shores of Indian 
River in either direction. 

Titusville was formerly called Sand Point. It was founded 
by one Colonel Titus, a leader in the Kansas Crusade of 1855 
-1856, and a pioneer in this region, who was for many years 
the autocrat of the settlement. 


92. Rockledge, Brevard County. 

Population. 300.— Lat. 23" IS' N.— Long;. 80° 38' W. 

Hotels.— /Hd /aw nicer llatfl. $4 a Any.— Sew Rockledrje, $2..50 a day.— Tro/i- 
cal House, $3 a day. Good boa. d at S12 a week. 
Churches, Episcopal, Methodist, aud Pre8b3-terian. 
Guide, C. E. Coolc. Special tennH must be made. 
Rowboats, $2.50 a day. Sailboats, $4 a day. 

■The appropriateness of the name Eockledge is evident as 
soon as the steamer draws near the shore. For three or four 
miles an abrupt dyke of coralline rock rises along the water- 
side to a height of from six to twelve feet. Along the crest 
of the ridge, sheltered from the ocean winds by a fine growth 
of palms and live oaks, is the town of Rockledge, with nu- 
merous handsome houses, many of them designed for the 
winter residences of Northern visitors, several good hotels, 
and a general air of comfort and prosperity that cannot fail 
to prove attractive. An excellent roadway, suitable for 
pleasure driving, extends for several miles along the water- 

The river is here about a mile and a half wide, the oppo- 
site shore being the southern point of Merritt's Island. Be- 
yond this is the wide Banana River, separated from the 
ocean by a narrow strip of sandy beach. The river in both 
directions offers numerous attractions for hunters, fishermen, 
and picnic parties. 

Three miles west of Rockledge is Lake Poinsett, to the 
shores of which there is a practicable road. Boats are some- 
times hauled across. The fishing in the lake is said to be 
exceptionally good, and game of all kinds is to be found 
along the borders of the savannahs. 


93. Melbourne, Brevard County. 

Popnlatiou, 200.— Lat. 28° 5' N.— Long. SO" 30' W. 

Hotels. — Carleton, Goode House, Idleaild Cottage, Riverside, $1.50 to $2 a day, 
$7 and upward by the week. 

Steamboats.—" Indian Kiver Steamboat Co., daily, north to Titusville, south to 

Churches. — Episcopal, Methodist, Presbyterian. 

At this point the River is two miles across and the penin- 
sula half a mile wide, with a tramway to the ocean beach, 
where are facilities for bathing. The trip across the river 
is made by steam ferry or by small boats, and is the favorite 
short excursion for visitors. Not far distant is the Govern- 
ment House of Refuge provided for the relief of shipwrecked 

There are no roads suitable for driving in this neighbor- 
hood. All locomotion must needs be effected on foot or by 
water. The mouth of Banana River is about six miles north 
of Melbourne. The town of Tropic, with a hotel where 
meals or lodging may be had, is on the point between the 
two rivers. It is an all-day excursion by steam launch to 
Canaveral near the head of Banana River. A difficult trail 
leads westward about seven miles through hammocks and 
swamps to Lake Washington, one of the sources of the St. 
John's River. All kinds of game are to be found in the 
vicinity of Melbourne. There are no professional guides, 
but it is always possible to secure the services of a hunter 
familiar with the region. Special bargains are made accord- 
ing to services required. 


94. Jupiter Inlet, Dade County. 

Lat. 2e,° 50' 54" N.— Long. 80" 4' 48" W. 

Hotel. — T/ie (Jhattahimr.hec (a lar<.'e river steamboat moored to the wharf and 
adapted to this use ), %'A a day. 
Steamlioats. — Indian Kiver Steamboat Company, daily to Titusville. 
Railroad. — .Jupiter <fk Lake Worth Railroad, 8 miles south to Juno. 
Soo<s.— Naphtha launch and rowboats for hire at hotel at reasonable rates. 

Jupiter Inlet marks the southern extremity of the long 
series of rivers or lagoons that skirt the coast of Florida in 
an almost uubroken chain. The opening is about one-eighth 
of a mile wide with three feet depth at mean low water. The 
tide runs swiftly at the ebb and flow, fresh or salt water pre- 
jDonderating according to the stage of the water in the ever- 
glades and the considerable streams that here make down 
from the interior. The inlet widens just within the beach, 
and there is good and secure anchorage for small vessels in- 
side the north jioint. 

The large steamboat that does excellent duty as a hotel is 
moored about a mile from the inlet, and nearly opposite the 
mouth of Jupiter Sound, as the lower reach of the river is 
called. From the upper deck there is a good view of the in- 
let and the neighboring waters. 

No one capable of mounting the stairs should fail to cross 
over to the lighthouse and enjoy the imjiressive view of 
ocean, river, forest, and prairie that spreads map-like to the 
horizon in all directions. 

The tower stands on a high bluff west of the mouth of the 
sound, it is 94 feet high from base to centre of lantern. The 
total height above the sea-level is 146 feet. The light is of 
the first order, showing a fixed white light varied by a white 
flash every ninety seconds. It is visible 20 miles. Cape 
Canaveral, 147 miles nearly north, and the lighthouse on 
Fowey Rocks, 94 miles nearly south, are the nearest neigh- 
bors of this lonely tower, which was established here in 1860 
and save during the four years of civil war has not failed. 
From the lantern gallery one may see, in clear weather, 
more than forty miles up and down the coast, and across the 
intervening forest nearly to the shores of Lake Okeecho- 
bee. To the northward may be traced the courses of Ju- 
piter Sound, North Fork, and Northwest Fork, while to the 


southward are Southwest Fork, and Lake Worth Creek. 
All these streams are easily navigable for many miles, are 
literally alive with fish, and receive numerous tributaries 
which can be ascended in canoes or small boats into the 
heart of the wilderness. Lake Worth Creek is navigable 
with a short carry to the lake, but it is almost impossible to 
find the right channel without a guide. As a rule all the 
streams in this region become very crooked near their 
sources, and the various channels are so often involved that 
the explorer should not forget to mark the different openings 
wherever the current fails to indicate the true course. 

There is no better fishing on the coast than is found at 
Jupiter Inlet. Bluefish, bass, pompano, cavaille, runners, 
ladyfish, sheepshead, and other varieties are taken with the 
rod. Tar^jon are found here, but will rarely take bait be- 
fore May or June. Sharks abound at the inlet and may 
be caught with suitable tackle in the channel or from the 
steamboat wharf. Panthers and wild cats still prowl about 
the settlement at night, and bears frequent the hammocks and 
islands along the water-courses. Deer and turkeys are 
pretty well hunted off by the Indians, who range as far north 
as this from their haunts in the everglades, but with the aid 
of guides good sport may be had "by hunters who are not 
afraid of hard work. 

The lighthouse settlement includes a signal station, with 
a complete outfit of instruments. It is the duty of the ser- 
geant in charge to transmit to Washington daily weather re- 
ports, and as this station is the most southerly on the Atlan- 
tic coast his warnings of cyclonic storms are often of great 
importance. He also signals passing vessels and reports 
them for the benefit of merchants. A Government telegraph 
line runs from this point to Titusville, so that there is easy 
communication with the North. 

Jupiter may be regarded as the northern limit of the cocoa 
palm. A fine large tree in full bearing stands at the foot of 
the bluff below the lighthouse. A few miles farther north, 
on the east side of Jupiter Sound, there is a thriving group 
of young trees, but north of this latitude their existence is 
somewhat precarious. 


Whence Jvii^iter derived its name is not certainly known. 
It was occupied as a militaiy post dui-ing the Indian war, 
and two considerable engagements occurred, one on " Juj^iter 
Creek," on January 15, 1838, and the other near the inlet, 
on Januaiy 24tli of the same year. A large number of Ind- 
ians were captured at that time by the United States forces. 

Aside from the lightkeepers' families, the life-saving crew, 
and the employees about the hotel and wharf, few inhabi- 
tants are discoverable. There is, however, a S2)arse popula- 
tion in the vicinity, and now and then an Indian or a hunter 
finds his way to the landing with game or in search of sup- 

The manatee or sea-cow is still found in this vicinity, 
though he must be regarded as nearly extinct. Inasmuch 
as this curious amphibian is perfectly harmless, and since his 
carcass is neither useful nor ornamental, it is hoped that 
persons with firearms will deny themselves the pleasure of 
shedding his blood. Pelicans, too, are far more interesting 
alive than dead. They readily become quite tame if not 
molested, and, since they cannot be regarded as game 
birds, all true s^jortsmen should oppose their indiscrimi- 
nate slaughter. 

An expedition in a small boat after dark is very enjoyable, 
and often exciting, from the multitudes of fish that dash 
against the boat, and sometimes leaj) over or into it in frantic 
eftbrts to escape from their pursuers. A lantern shown at a 
favorable moment will sometimes bring mullet flying into 
the boat by dozens. 

It is interesting to stand on a lofty observatory after night- 
fall and watch the revolving rays of the lighthouse as 
they touch different points of sea and shore, here penetrat- 
ing a dark nook among the mangroves and there lighting 
up a stretch of beach, with white breakers on the bar. With 
a powerful field-glass one may see strange sights as the rays 
search out bird, beast, or fish, under the fancied security of 

Except in very calm weather small boats should not go 
outside the inlet. The tide sets outward furiously, and no 
one not perfectly familiar with the management of boats 


sbould ventiu'e near the narrow channel. The outer breakers 
are very deceptive. Often when tliey look quite harmless 
from the beach they will be found very formidable when 
near at hand. To be upset or swamped with the tide run- 
ning ebb is a perilous mishap. 

One mile south of the inlet is the United States Life Sav- 
ing Station. The walk to it is not difficult, either along the 
beach or across the point. In either case turn to the left 
after leaving the wharf and follow the road i^ast the post- 
office. Thence a foot-path leads along the sliore of the in- 
let, sometimes at the waterside, and sometimes among the 
trees, to the ocean beach, where the station will be seen about 
one mile to the right. If the old trail to Lake Worth be 
followed it will be found to lead southward through a low 
growth of scrub and cedars. A walk of twenty minutes will 
bring the station in sight to the eastward. A trail has been 
cleared to the road nearly opposite the station. 

There is no danger of losing one's bearings anywhere be- 
tween the railroad and the ocean, for the sound of the surf 
is a sure guide, and both beach and raih'oad track lead 
directly to the hotel. The Life Saving Station was estab- 
lished in 1885. Seven men are continually on duty, and, 
though no wrecks have occurred since the house was built, 
coasting craft often come to grief at the inlet and require as- 
sistance. There are weekly drills in all the operations of the 
■wrecking service, launching the boat through the surf, gun- 
practice., signalling, etc. It is always intei'esting to witness 
these exercises, often involving skilled handling of the life- 
boat in heavy rollers. 

The bea^h on either side of the inlet is strewn with sun- 
cured sponges, sea-beans, cocoanuts, and a hundred strange 
forms of animal and vegetable life swept up from the coral 
reefs by the Gulf Stream, whose dark waters may often be 
seen a few miles off shore. Mangroves, aloes, gum alimbo, 
sea-grapes, and here and there a cocoa palm, are among the 
wild growths that are found along these beaches and wooded 
knolls. Here the mangrove assumes its subtropical vigor, 
and it may afford amusement to athletes to penetrate a man- 
grove swamp by walking and climbing from root to root for 


a few hundred yards. Along the shore of the bight that 
makes in to tlie south of the inlet sand has drifted among 
the mangroves, and there is good walking in all directions. 
It is worth a visit to study close at hand the pictui'esque 
and uncanny shapes assumed by-this strange tree that is con- 
stantly encroaching on the sea, filling up inlets and making 
islands that eventually become a part of the continent. 

The outer ocean beach, or ijeninsula, from Cape Canaveral 
southward, varies in width from a few hundred feet to a mile 
or more. Sometimes it is barren and sometimes covered 
with a fine forest gi'owth of jsine or hardwood. At intervals 
diflferent inlets open or close according to some law depend- 
ent on shifting currents, and on the amount of rainfall in 
the interior'. At different times within the jiresent century 
inlets have existed at Indian River Inlet, St. Lucie Rocks, 
and Gilbert's Bar, but for several years they have all been 
closed. During the summer of 1889 Indian River Inlet re- 
opened and a channel formed with three feet of water at low 
tide, Jupiter Inlet closing at about the same time. 

At intervals along the beach are houses of refuge, estab- 
lished by the United States Government for the relief of 
shipwrecked mariners. These differ from life-saving stations 
in that no full crew is permanently on duty. A keejjer 
is always at hand, and an ample supply of provisions 
is kept in store. Each station has a lifeboat, which in 
case of need can be manned by a volunteer crew. On the 
Indian River beach there are such houses at Chester Shoal, 
one mile and a half north of False Cape ; at Cajje Malabar ; 
at Bethel Creek, ten miles north of Indian River Inlet ; at a 
point just south of Indian River Inlet, and at Gilbert's Bar. 
At intervals of a mile along the beach signboards are set up 
giving the distance and direction of the nearest house of re- 
fuge. Regular life-sa\dng stations are hardly necessary along 
this beach, as vessels usually take the ground in such a way 
that with the exercise of ordinary seamanship no lives need 
be lost. Food and drink, however, are not readily to be 
found, and the houses of refuge often afford needed relief. 

The following is a list of landings and distances on the 
Indian River. The steamboats touch only on signal at 


many of the places named. W. indicates the west bank or 
mainland. Distances going south on the right, north on 
the left. 

154 Titosville, W 

142 Hardeeville, W 12 

140 Courtney (Merritt's Island) 14 

139 Faber's, W 15 

137 Sharp's (Merritt's Island) IT 

136 City Point, W 18 

132 Merritt (Merritt's Island) 22 

130 Cocoa, W 24 

129 Haidee's, W 25 

128 Rockledge, W 2G 

126 Paxton's, W ... 28 

125 Magriidei's 29 

123 Georgiana (Merritt's Island) 31 

121 Whitfield (Merritt's Island) 83 

117 Brantley (Meiritt's Island) 37 

112 Tropic (Merritt's Island) 42 

104 Eau Gallie, W 50 

103 Melbourne, W 51 

96 Tillman, W 58 

94 Malabar, W 60 

86 . . . Miceo, W 68 

81 Sebastian, W 73 

74 O. chid (Peninsula) 80 

71 Enos (Peninsula) 83 

68 Narrows (Peninsula) 86 

48 St. Lucie. W 106 

45 FortPieice, W 119 

38 Aukona, W 116 

31 Eden, W 123 

24 Waveland, W 130 

Jupiter, W 154 

95. Jupiter Inlet to Lake Worth. 

By Jupiter & Lake Worth Railway, 8 miles (30 minutes). By boat, 10 miles inlet to inlet. 

The trip from Jupiter to Lake Worth is now accomi^lished 
in a few minutes. Until the season of 1889-90 it was a tedi- 
ous ride of three hours over a heavy road, where the horses 
could rarely move faster than a walk. The ocean beach in 
this vicinity is not available for driving. A good walker 
may cover the distance between the inlets in three hours, 
but the sand is too heavy for enjoyable walking. 

The little railroad, with its galaxy of mythological names, 
IJrudently takes shelter behind the beach ridge throughout its 
course. Here and there through gaps in the ridge glimj^ses 
are caught of an emerald sea and snowy breakers. On 
the landward "side there i»! but little to break the monotony 

222 jupu'ER inlet— lake worth. 

of saw palmetto, and beach scrub. The intermediate sta- 
tions of Venus and Mars passed, Little Lake Worth is pres- 
ently seen on the left, a small, shallow pond, connected 
with the larger lake by a narrow channel. The headwaters 
of Lake Worth Creek are about one mile to the westward, 
navigable for canoes and ojieniug here and there into small 
lakes, but largely filled with saw-grass and lily-pads, and 
with nothing to distinguish the main channel from count- 
less branches. 

The outside trip is highly enjoyable in fine weather. It 
should not, however, be undertaken save under favorable 
conditions of wind and tide, as the inlets are very treacher- 
ous by reason of shifting sand and swift currents. With a 
fair wind the round trip may easily be made in a day in a 
sailboat, but the chances of being becalmed must always be 

100. Lake Worth, Dade County. 

By boat and rail from Titnsville, 162 miles. 

Hotels. — Coconnut Grove House, Palm Beach, $2.50 a day, $10 a week. — Oak- 
lawn House, Oaklavvn, $2 to $2.50 a day, $10 to $12 a \\ee]i..— Hotel Lake Worth, 
$3 a day. 

Like the more extensive lagoons to the northward. Lake 
Worth is a long, narrow body of water, separated from the 
sea by a ridge of hammock, sand, and savannah, and with a 
shallow inlet through which the ocean tides ebb and flow. 
Beyond this lake to the southward there are no regular 
lines of travel. The next post-office in that direction is on 
Biscayne Bay, fifty miles distant, and the mail is carried 
once a week by a messenger, who walks the beach with the 
pouch on his back, and navigates the intervening inlets and 
creeks in canoes. 

Lake Worth, however, has proved very attractive to North- 
ern residents. The water side is lined for three miles or 
more with tasteful cottages and costly mansions, where 
Northerners who dread a severe winter may lead an almost 
ideal existence. 

The lake is twenty-two miles long, with an average width 
of about one mile, and a channel depth of from six to twelv6 


feet. The inlet lias about five feet of water at low tide. 
The temperature of Lake Worth is largely influenced by the 
Gulf Stream, which runs close in shore at this point, the 
most easterly of Florida, and here the influence of the trade 
winds makes itself felt in equalizing the climatic conditions. 
The normal winter temperature is about 7i>°, falling to 50° 
or 60° under the influence of "northers." 

In its modern aspect Lake Worth dates back only to 1875, 
but the rich hammocks along the shores were evidently un- 
der civilized cultivation centuries ago. No record is known 
to exist of a European settlement, but the existence of canals 
and ruins points unmistakably to a forgotten period, prob- 
ably of Spanish occuj^ancy. 

The favored garden region of the lake is along its eastern 
shore, with the heavily wooded peninsula to serve as protec- 
tion from ocean gales, and a marvelloiisly jiroductive soil to 
foster the growth of fruits, flowers, and vegetables. 

All kinds of sea-fish abound in the lake ; bluefish, sea- 
trout, pompano, Spanish mackerel, barracuda, tarpon, and 
the multitudinous mullet are caught, or *' grained," accord- 
ing to their size and habits. Government surveys have been 
jnished only about twelve miles to the westward. The 
wilderness, speedily merging into the everglades, begins al- 
most with the lake shore. Beyond the ridge that bounds 
the view to the westward is a chain of fresh-water lakes, some 
twelve feet higher than the sea level ; then comes the pine 
forest, and then the "glades." Large game is to be found 
throughout this region. Guides are almost indispensable for 
successful hunting. 

In January, 1879, the misfortune of the Spanish bark 
Providencia proved a god-send to Lake Worth. She was 
cast away on the coast, and her cargo of 20,000 cocoanuts 
distributed itself impartially for miles up and down the 
beach. Many thousands of the nuts were gathered and 
planted (laid on the ground, that is) in rows, in circles, 
singly, and in groups, with the result that now the cocoa 
palm lifts its graceful fronds above every roof, lines walks 
and avenues, and lends a tropical aspect to the whole settle- 


A natui'al sea-wall is formed along the sliore hj the under- 
lying coralline rock, and some of the more wealthy residents, 
not satisfied with this, have added an artificial wall. No 
fences interrui^t the pedestrian along this charming water- 
side. A smooth walk, shaded and, for the most part, well- 
kept, tempts to extended excursions, and leads at intervals 
through i^rivate grounds that are marvels of beauty. Olean- 
ders and jioncianas here are trees twenty or thirty feet high, 
gigantic cacti stand like sentinels on the lawns ; the hibis- 
cus, red, white, and yellow, lavishes its blossoms in every 
garden, and mangoes, guavas, limes, lemons, oranges, figs, 
dates, bananas, and pineapples grow wherever they are per- 
mitted to take root. The west shore is best adapted for 
pineajiples, and already the shipments amount to a consid- 
erable item in the annual returns. 

From nearly every house a walk or trail leads across the 
peninsula to the ocean beach, where a magnificent surf comes 
rushing in warm from the Gulf Stream, and laden with 
shells and marine curiosities that tempt collectors to wander 
for miles along the sands in search of sea-fans, fragments of 
coral, Portuguese-men-of-war, sponges, sea-beans, echinse, 
and countless other waifs that one may often he at a loss to 

South-bound steamers keep close along the beach to avoid 
the current that rushes northward at the rate of ionv or five 
miles an hour a little farther oflf shore. Rarely a day passes 
that several of these fine vessels are not seen, while out in 
the stream northward-bound craft are speeding in the opjDO- 
site direction with wind and tide in their favor. 

After an easterly gale the beach is sure to be particularly 
interesting, since the accumulation of curiosities and general 
wreckage is largely increased. 

The highest point on the peninsula is sixty-five feet above 
the sea level. The land rises somewhat near the lake, and 
again into a wide ridge near the ocean ; between these is a 
low and naturally marshy tract, which has been lai'gely 
drained and utilized for the cultivation of vegetables. 
Strangers should not shoot alligators near the cultivated 
tracts, as some of them are half tame, and are preserved by 


the owners of the land. Elsewhere shooting is allowable. 
Deer are still found on the peninsula ; rabbits and various 
game birds abound, and there is a chance for a wildcat in 
the denser cover. There are five principal landings and nu- 
merous i^rivate landings, where the small steamers that ply 
on the lake stop on signal. 

At Juno, the terminus of the railroad, passengers board 
one of the steamers which presently starts down the 

About one mile south, beyond a low point, is the haulover 
or carry, where canoes may be hauled across one-half mile 
to a small pond, the source of Lake Worth Creek, navigable 
for small boats to Jupiter. 

Pelican Island is passed on the right. Formerly this was 
the resort of countless birds; "a roost," as it was locally 
called. Now it is a most attractive place, with fine live oaks, 
a handsome house, and well-cared-for grounds. It is, in 
fact, an exceptionally rich tract, guano deposits of former 
years adding greatly to its fertility. 

Oak Lawn (P.O.), six miles from Juno, with its hotel, is 
on the west side of the lake, a fine bluff crowned with trees 
rising from the waterside. It is nearly opi)osite the inlet, 
and the fishing here is probably as good as anywhere on the 
lake, while fine shooting is to be found within easy walking 
distance in any direction along shore, or among the savan- 
nahs and woods to the westward. 

Lake Worth (P.O.), eight miles from Juno, is pleasantly 
situated about one mile south of the inlet. Here begins the 
continuous line of houses that stretches along the eastern 
shore. Prominent among these are the residences of Charles 
I. Cragin, of Philadelphia, Mrs. F. Lane, of New York, and 
E. K. McCormick, of Denver, all of which are remarkable 
for the beauty of their surroundings. In general the pro- 
prietors are glad to have visitors enjoy their gi-ounds, but 
permission should of course be asked if it is desired to in- 
spect the immediate vicinity of the houses. 

Palm Beach (P.O.), eight and one-half miles from Juno, 
is fairly embowered in cocoa palms. The hotel especially 
has around it a large number of fine specimens, with a large 


royal i^ionceana, "whistling trees," hung full of curious 
pods, and numerous other curiosities in plant life. There is 
a good country store a short distance north of the hotel, and 
charming walks, either to the Ijeach, where there is a bath- 
house (key at the hotel), or along the lake shore in either 

Figulus (P.O.), eleven miles from Juno, is on the east 
shore of the lake, and Hypoluxo (P.O.), sixteen miles from 
Juno, occupies an island, the southern end of which extends 
to within about one mile of the foot of the lake, where there 
is a "haulover" to the ocean beach, the small creek that 
reaches a short distance to the southward being imjiractica- 
ble even for canoes. 

101. The Sea-coast South of Lake Worth. 

From Lake Worth Inlet south for thirty miles to Hillsboro 
Inlet the beach is unbroken. About half-way, however, is 
the Orange Grove house of refuge, where shelter, food, 
and water may be olitained. Five miles south of this the 
headwaters of Hillsboro River unite a few hundred yards 
from the beach, forming a little lake about three feet deep. 
One-half mile farther south is Lake Wyman, four to five feet 
deep, and with a connecting channel navigable for small 
boats to Lake Boca Eat one and the Hillsboro River. 

At the inlet is a branch stream from the southward that 
closely follows the beach for three miles, ending in a shallow 

Eight miles south of Hillsboro Inlet is the Fort Lauderdale 
house of refuge, to the westward of which ^ about one-half 
mile, the headwaters of New River and its tributaries offer 
inland passage for small boats. 

New River Inlet is fifteen miles south of Hillsboro Inlet, 
the river so-called being a narrow lagoon, about five miles 
long, separated from the sea by a low ridge of sand and divid- 
ing at the head into an infinite number of tributaries and 
lakes with a depth of water varying from three to ten feet 
in the channels. The upper reaches of the river are very 


wild and beautiful. At this writing (1890) there are no per- 
manent settlers, save Indians whose cainps can hardly be 
considered permanent. Two miles south of the house of 
refuge is a conspicuous group of cocoa palms on the 

Eight miles south of New Eiver Inlet is a " haulover," 
where a lake known as Dumfounding Bay approaches within 
one-quarter of a mile of the beach. Thence to the head- 
waters of Biscayne Bay, about two miles, navigation is com- 
paratively easy for small boats, though the channel is very 
crooked. Biscayne Bay house of refuge is about sixteen 
miles south of New Eiver Inlet and eight miles north of 
Norris Cut the most northerly entrance to Biscayne 

From Lake Worth to Norris Cut the beach offers but 
unsatisfactory foothold for man or beast. For near fifty 
miles it is uninhabited, drinkable water is very scarce, and 
there is little to attract the explorer except the perpetual 
beauty of the ocean and the navigable inland waters con- 
nected with Hillsboro and New River Inlets. 

A company of speculators a few years since planted an en- 
ormous number of cocoanuts along this beach with a view to 
the sale of building lots. The trees have been left to caro 
for themselves, but many of them have grown, and it is quite 
possible that in a few years they will materially change the 
aspect of the coast. For Biscayne Bay, the Florida Eeef, 
etc., see p. 310. 

The Gulf Coast. 

From St. Mark's on the noitli to Cape Sable, the southern 
extremity of the i)eninsiila, is a stretch of more than four 
hundred miles. At Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and San 
Carlos Bay, the outlying reefs and shallows open in deep 
channels, affording entrance for large sea-going craft ; else- 
where the underlying rock of the peninsula slopes so gradu- 
ally gulf ward that the " ten-fathom curve," as laid down on 
the charts, is often out of sight of land. Although almost 
everywhere there are scattered lines of keys and reefs close 
along shore, there is nothing that resembles the great la- 
goons of the east coast. Small vessels of shallow draft can 
pass inside the keys and find a haven at the mouths of many 
of the rivers, but even these must give a wide berth to count- 
less oyster bars and rocky reefs known only to the native 

Between Tarpon Springs and Punta Rassa, a distance of 
about one hundred and twenty-five miles, the coast is com- 
paratively high, wooded bluffs rising from the water's edge. 
Elsewhere, with few exceptions, the bluffs and high ham- 
mocks are several miles inland, and the coast mainly con- 
sists of mangrove islands. 

From St. Mark's to Cedar Key there is hardly a settlement 
within ten miles of the sea, and from Cedar Key southward 
again there are other long reaches of uninhabited coast. To 
the cruiser who is provided with a suitable craft this region 
offers endless opportunities for sport on land and water, both 
of which yield abundant supplies for his larder, while his 
fresh-water tanks can be replenished at any time by ascend- 
ing one of the numerous rivers that here find an outlet. 
Some of these streams afford access to hammocks where the 
game has not yet been thinned out by Northern gunners. 

In climate the Gulf coast is somewhat more equable than 
that of the Atlantic. Raw easterly winds are unknown, and 
westerly winds, blowing across the very fountain-head of the 
Gulf Stream, are necessarily tempered by its i^erennial 


Owing to the character of the shore, long coastwise lines 
of railway are impracticable. The great railway systems 
stop when they reach tide-water, the sole exception being the 
Orange Belt, which follows the coast for a few miles south 
of Tarpon Springs. Small steamers, generally well adapted 
for the work that is required of them, jily between all points 
where there are comfortable accommodations for tourists. 

Observations of the United States Signal Service since 
November, 1879, give the following as the average mean 
temjierature at Cedar Key: Spring, 70.3° ; summer, 81.7°; 
autumn, 72.24° ; winter, 60.1°. The average number of fair 
days during the winter and early spring months is as follows : 
November, 24.2; December, 25.1; January, 23.8; Febru- 
ary, 23.2 ; March, 27 ; April, 26, The mean relative humid- 
ity for the same months averages for November, 77.9 per 
cent.; December, 81.2 jier cent.; January, 81.4 per cent.; 
February, 75.1 per cent.; March, 70.7 per cent.; April, 69.4 
per cent. The earliest "killing frosts" of which the Service 
has record were December 22, 1880, December 17, 1882, De- 
cember 16, 1883, November 25, 1884. 

110. Fernandina to Cedar Key. 

By Florida Central & Peninsula Railroad, 157 miles (9 hours 50 min.). The 
line crosses Nassau, Duval, Bradford, Alachua, and Levy Counties in a south- 
westerly direction. For maps see list of counties and consult table of contents. 
In the context will be found tables of stations, distances, etc., within the respec- 
tive counties. The best hotels on the route are at Gainesville. See Route 173, 

111. Cedar Key, Levy County. 

Population, 2,000.— Lat. 29° 12' N. ; Long. 83° W. 

Hotels. —Suwannee Hotel, Bettelini House, Magnolia Hniise, $1.50 to $2.50 a 
Railroad.- F. C. & P., Cedar Key Division. 
Suwannee River steamboats. 
Good general stores. 
Episcopal and Methodist churches. 

The town of Cedar Key stands on Way Key, one of a 
group of is4ands about four miles off the coast. It is a U. 
S. port of entry with a good harbor for vessels drawing not 
more than 12 feet. As the Gulf terminus of the railroad 

"230 CEDAR KEY. 

Avliich was finislied to this point in 18G1, and then known 
as the Floridd Transit Railway, it at once became a i^lace 
of some importance. Dnring the civil war, owing to its ex- 
jwsed situation, it was at the mercy of the Federal gunboats, 
and, since it bade fair to be a convenient harbor for blockade 
runners, it early paid the penalty for a short- lived prosperity. 

A descent was made upon it January 16, 1862, when, as 
the Federals doubtless knew, there were seven vessels in the 
harbor loaded with cotton and turpentine, waiting for favor- 
able weather to run the blockade. These were burned with 
their cargoes, as were also the wharves and rolling stock of 
the railroad. At the time the place was guarded by a lieu- 
tenant and 22 men of the Fourth Florida Regiment, but some 
of the resident citizens begged that no resistance be made, as 
it was obviously hopeless. The guard therefore attempted to 
escape to the mainland, but most of them were captured 
by the man-of-war's boats. After this, occasional visits by 
U. S. cruisers sufficed to prevent the place from assuming 
any importance. 

Shortly after the close of hostilities, the terminal facilities 
of the railroad were reconstructed, and very soon a consid- 
erable trade develoijed in fish, oysters, and turtle. Tlie 
abundance of red cedar in the vicinity led to the establish- 
ment of pencil factories by Northern firms, which now em- 
ploy a large number of hands. The coast to the southward 
has occasional harbors, practicable for light-draft boats. 
(S3e maps, j^p. 54, 13, 34, also descriptions in context.) 

The Suwannee River enters the Gulf 15 miles north of Ce- 
dar Key. It rises in Georgia, west of the great Okeefenokee 
Swamp, about 120 miles from the coast. Its total length is 
about 170 miles. After entering Florida it receives succes- 
sively the Allaj^aha and Little River from the north, and the 
Sante Fe from the east. The main stream is navigable for 
large vessels as far as the mouth of the Santa Fe, and for 
vessels drawing not more than six feet as far as Little River. 
Of minor tributaries, the Suwannee has a score or more, 
draining a water-shed a hundred miles wide, and all nav- 
igable for canoes, at the ordinary height of water. The 
bar at the mouth of the river has naturally only five feet of 


water, but has been somewhat improved by dredging. The 
Suwannee has a rocky bed ahnost throughout its course, 
having cut a channel for itself through the soft underlying 
limestone. At its mouth the stream divides, two main chan- 
nels inclosing Bradford's Island. Throughout the most of 
its course the river passes throiagh a wild and beautiful 
semi-tropical region, with excellent camping ground almost 
auYwliere, fish and game in plenty, and fresii water always 
at hand. Many fine springs are found along the banks ; 
some of them hardly surpassed by the more famous ones 
described elsewhere. The popular song, commonly known 
by the name of this beautiful stream, but whose proper title 
is " The Old Folks at Home," was written by Stephen Col- 
lins Foster, author of " O Susanna " and many similar melo- 
dies that have gained world-wide popularity. Mr. Foster 
was born in Pittsburg in 1826, and died in New York in 

A small Confederate steamer groimded at the mouth of 
the Suwannee River and was captured by a boat from the U. 
S. blockading schooner Fox, on December 20, 1863. Four 
days afterward the British schooner Edwin attempted to run 
the blockade with a cargo of lead and salt, and was also 
taken by the Fox after some show of resistance, during 
which the captain was wounded. 

The Wakassassd River rises in Alachua County, and runs 
southeasterly through a fine grazing country, feeding and 
draining a succession of small lakes and ponds. Near the 
mouth of the stream are evidences of Indian settlement and 
cultivation. The stream is navigable for small steamers 
to about fifteen miles from the Gulf, but the bar is shallow 
and impassable save for light-draft boats. It enters the Gulf 
12 miles west of Cedar Key. Its numerous branches flow 
through, Gulf Hammock, a wild region full of game, and 
easily accessible either from Otter Creek station on the rail- 
road, or by boat from Cedar Key. (Hotel at Gulf Hammock. ) 

The Withlacoochee is the only river on the Gulf coast of Flor- 
ida that, like the larger St. John's on the opposite side of the 
peninsula, takes a northerly course. Itrises nearly in the same 
latitude with the St. Johns, and after running a little east of it 


for GO miles, turns to the westward and falls into tiie Gulf 20 
miles S.E. of Cedar Key. It is a swift stream with rocky 
bottom, high wooded, picturesque banks, and navigable to 
Pemberton Ferry, where the J. T. & K. W. Ey. system 
crosses it. About 18 miles from the mouth it receives Blue 
Spring Eiver, navigable for launches to its source, and well 
worth a visit. Route 183. 

120. Jacksonville to Homosassa. 

By Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf Railroad, 176 miles ; (9 hours) ; Jacksonville 
to Palatka. See Koute 40. 

The main line of the Florida Southern Railway runs west- 
ward from Palatka through a rolling country, often diversi- 
fied with lakes and frequently passing, as at Interlaken and 
McMeekin, within sight of beautiful residences and fine plan- 
tations and orange groves. There is choice between two 
routes to Ocala, namely at Hawthorne and Rochelle. At the 
first-named junction a branch of the F. C. & P. railway nins 
southward to Silver Spring and Ocala, crossing Orange 
Lake on a long trestle, and passing at Citra through some of 
the most remarkable orange-groves in the State. (See Route 
111.) The other coiirse is to follow the main line to Ro- 
chelle, where a branch of the Florida Southern Railway 
diverges southward to Ocala, passing through a beautiful 
country devoid of the almost universal undergrowth of pal- 
metto scrub, and covered with a fine open forest of hard 
woods through which one may ride, walk, or drive at will in 
any direction. Changing to the Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf 
Railroad at Ocala, the direction is southwesterly through 
a region remarkable for its rich j^hosphatc beds and beautiful 
springs to the Gulf terminus at Homosassa. At Palatka and 
Ocala, there are excellent hotels if the traveller wishes to 
make the trip by short stages. The journey may be varied 
by leaving the train at Palatka and ascending the Ocklawaha 
River (Route 181) to Silver Springs, which is but a few min- 
utes ride from Ocala. The journey by rail crosses Duval, 
Clay, Putnam, Marion, and Citrus Counties, maps of which, 
with descriptive context, stations, distances, etc., may be 
found in alphabetical order, pp. 1 to 102 of this handbook. 


121. Homosassa, Citrus County. 

Lat. 28° 48' N., Long. 82° 40' W. 

Hotel.— r/ie Homosassa Inn, $2.50 a day. Board, $1 to $1.50 a day. 
Railroad. — Silver Springs, Ocala A Gulf Railroad. 

Steamboats to the vVithlacoochee River and Gulf coast. Rowboats, 50c. 
to 75c. a day ; with oarsmen, |1 to $1.50 a day. Hunters and guides, $2 a day. 

"River of Fishes" is the modern translation of Homo- 
sassa, though some of the early authorities on Florida say- 
that it means "PejDper Eidge." It was certainly a favorite 
resort of the native tribes in prehistoric times, as is abund- 
antly proven by evidences of ancient cultivation, and by great 
shell mounds along the water-side. 

The land is low and level along the coast, very rich and fer- 
tile, and largely underlaid with disintegrated limestone-rock. 
It is covered with a remarkably dense hammock growth of 
palms, wild orange, live oak, magnolia, and the ordinary hard 
woods, in unusual profusion and luxuriance. The river, fed 
by numerous fiue springs, is an arm of the sea rather than a 
fresh-water stream, and is justly famed for its fine fishing, 
while the adjacent islands and the mainland are amoiig the 
best hunting grounds in Florida. Large tracts of land have 
been acquired in this vicinity by a company of capitalists, 
surveys have been made, avenues cut tlirough the hammock, 
and every effort made to attract permanent settlers as well as 
transient visitors. Probably there is no better or richer 
soil in the State for most of the semi-tropical crops. 

Before the civil war (1861 to 18C5) large sugar plantations 
were under cultivation along the river, notably the one on 
Tiger Tail Island, the property at that time of United 
States Senator D. L. Yulee, who, with a wide knowledge of 
Florida, selected this region as the best suited for the resid- 
ence of a Southern gentleman. He was in active sympathy 
with the secession movement in 1860-1861, and Homosassa 
as well as Bayport, fifteen miles south, became harbors of 
refuge for blockade runners of light draft after Cedar Key 
had fallen into the hands of the Federals. The author is in- 
debted to Captain C. T. Jenkins, of pomosassa, now (in 
1890) nearly eighty years old, for the following account of 
the events of the time, which, unimportant as comjoared 


with the great militai v ojierations elsewhere, are now of in- 

Crystal River, Homosassa, and Bayiiort were ganisoned 
by small detachments of Confederates under Captain John 
Chambers. At Bayport there were 25 men with one piece 
of artillery. Only five families remained in the place, that 
of Captain Jenkins being among them. In April, 18G3, an 
expedition consisting of seven boats with howitzers came 
down from Cedar Key and shelled the place, the little garri- 
son responding so manfully that no permanent landing was 
effected. In June Caj^tain Jenkins was captured and held 
prisoner, for political as well as for military reasons, until 
the conclusion of jjeace. In July, 1863, Bayport was again 
shelled, and a large warehouse burned. Thence the expedi- 
tion went to Homosassa, but Mr. Yulee and family had gone 
to Ocala and only the house servants were left in charge. 
The plantations on Tiger Tail Island were pillaged, and a 
warehouse was burned at Chafie Landing, the greater part 
of the damage being done by deserters and runaway negroes, 
after the United States troops had withdrawn. Bayport was 
again visited by a naval force in July, 1864, and again the de- 
serters and runaway negroes followed, plundering after the 
regular forces had left, and burning all unoccupied houses. 
Captain Jenkins is particular to say that the navy had no 
hand in the wholesale destruction of property, though they 
doubtless committed excesses when not under the eye of 
their officers. The fine, large sugar-house at Homosassa, be- 
longing to Mr. Yulee, was burned through the carelessness 
of cattlemen in June, 1869 — not, as has often been alleged by 
United States troops. The old slave quarters are still stand- 
ing in a good state of preservation, and are always an object 
of curiosity to visitors. 

Eixursions. — Within a few miles of the hotel, are many 
pleasant walks over good roads and foot-paths. Some of 
these lead through the hammock, as to Oltei- Creek; and the 
Natural Bridge. The walk through the hammock is always 
interesting. The creek is a sluggish, shallow stream, practic- 
able even for row-boats only at high water. There are some 
curious horizontally growing palms along the bank. 


Arcadian Spring is easily reached by row-boat from the 
hotel, and like the other wonderful springs of this region, 
always presents some new and surprising feature under chang- 
ing aspects of sky or season. This spring is about sixty feet 
deep with a strong boiling action of the water that causes 
the boat to slide shoreward, unless kept iu the middle of the 
pool by constant rowing. Other similar springs exist in the 
neighborhood, all of which should be visited by the lover of 
the beautiful in nature, for each has something new for an 
appreciative observer. ^ 

Crystal River with its springs is six miles north of Homo- 
sassa ; it may be reached by land, the railroad passing near 
the spring head, or by water through Salt River, a shallow 
channel full of oyster bars, connecting with the Homosassa 
three miles below the hotel. This excursion may well be 
extended down Crystal River, skirting the Gulf within St. 
Martin's Keys, into the Homosassa, and so back to the hotel. 
The lower part of the river is most interesting, with, fine shell 
mounds and islands, picturesque rock formations, some of 
them worn, by the action of the sea and river, into strange 
caverns and columns. Almost everywhere the rock forms 
a natural sea-wall where vessels may make fast to the trees 
as safely as to artificial wharf -posts. 


130. The Pinellas Peninsula, Hillsborough County. 

Between Lat. 27" 35' and 28" 10' N., and on the meridian of 82° 40' W. ' 

Jacksonville to Pinellas Penin&ula. 

All Rail Routes. 

(1) By J., T. & K. W. Ry. to Sanfurd (125 miles), thence by Orange Be.t Ky. 
to Tarpon Springs, 1203<j miles (running time, 10 hrs. 17 min.). There arc two 
fast trains daily from Jacksonville to Sauford, but connections with the Orange 
Be.t are not close in all cases. If it is desired to brealc tlie journey, good hot3!o 
\fHl be found at Sauford. The Orange Belt Railway runs southwesterly from 
Sauford, crossing Orange, Sumter, Pasco, and Hi'.lsborough Count'es. (For 
description of those counties, maps, stations, distances, etc., see pp. 1 to 102.) 

(2) By Florida Central A Peninsula Railway : From Jacksonville to Lacoo- 
chee, thence by Orange Belt Railway as above, (1) 230 miles (running time about 
10 hours 50 min.). Close connections cannot always be counted upon. If it is 
desired to stop over night or for a shorter time, good hotels vrill be fou'jd at 
Silver Springs and Oca'a. The F. C. & P. crosses Duval, Bradford, Alachua, 
and Sumter Coimties. (For maps, lists of stations within the counties, dis- 
tances, etc., consult pp. 1 to 102.) 

To Pinellas Peninsula via the Ocklawaha. 

From Jacksonville to Palatka by rail (see Route 35), thence by steamboat up 
the St. John's and Ocklawaha Rivers to Silver Springs (Route 151), thence by rail 
to Tarpon Springs via Orange Belt Ey. (see above), or to Port Tampa (see 

To Pinellas Peninsula via Tampa. 

By rail to Port Tampa, 249 miles (9 hours 20 min.), steam ferry to St. Peters- 
burg, 9 miles (1 hour). There are two fast trains daily by J., T. & K. Vv'. sys- 
tem from Jacksonville, one leaving early in the morning and the other about 
noon. The journey may be advantageously broken by stopping over night, or 
ov.T a train, at Palatka, Saafo.d, Winter Park, Orlando, Kissimmee, Tampa, 
or Port Tampa (for which places see Contents, p. x). On the best trains coaches 
are run through direct to Port Tampa. (For county maps, stations, distances, 
etc., see Duval, Clay, Putnam, St. John's, Volusia, Orange, Sumter, Pasco, and 
Hillsborough Counties, alphabetically arranged in fii-st part of Handbook, pp. 
2 to 102.) 

Tami^a Bay is formed by the Pinellas Peninsula, wliicli sep- 
arates it from the Gulf of Mexico on the west. (See map, p. 
37.) It is about 30 miles long from the Anclote River on 
the north to Pinellas Point, its southern extremity, and 
nearly 14 miles wide measuring on an east and west line 
near Anona. It narrows to 3 miles near Tarpon Springs, 
where the isthmus is nearly severed by the Salt Lakes and 


Lake Butler, rcachiDg southward from the Anclote River 
toward OJd Tampa Bay. The peninsula includes about one 
hundred and eighty square miles of land, for the most part 
high and well covered with pines, interspersed with oak 
and other hard woods. The Gulf of Mexico on the west, the 
broad waters of Tamjm Bay on the east, are exceptionally 
favorable to an even temperature. It is in effect a lesser 
Florida adjoining the main jjeninsula, but with the pecul- 
iar climatic conditions somewhat intensified. No trust- 
worthy thermometric or other averages are as yet available 
for the peninsula, as it is but a very few years since it was a 
wilderness with only a few scattered settlements. The near- 
est station of the Weather Bureau is at Cedar Key (Route 
111). The railroad was finished to St. Petersburg in 1889, and 
already there are several thriving Mdnter resorts mainly along 
the Gulf coast. It is remarkable that a region almost sur- 
rounded by water should have an atmosphere drier than that 
of Minnesota, yet such appears to be the fact, not only in 
this particular locality, but along the whole Gulf coast of 
Florida. Fish and game hung in the open air dry up and 
harden without becoming oflfensive, and provisions for home 
consumption are largely preserved in this way, the jiroduct 
being similar to the " jerked meat "of Western Indian tribes. 

131. Tarpou Springs, Hillsborough Couuty. 

Population, 500. 

Hotels. — Tarpon Springs Hotel, S4 a A&j.—The. Tropic, $2.50 a day.— Sev- 
eral smaller hotels and boarding-houses. 

Railroad. — The Grange Belt Railway (south to Pinellas Peninsula, Tampa, 
etc.; north to Sanford, Palatka, Jacksonville, etc.). 

Telegraph, express, money order offices. — Bank of Tarpon Springs. — Good 
general stores. 

Episcopal, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches. 

S. D. Kendall, guide. 

Tarpon Springs is among the most attractive of the resorts 
on the Gulf coast. It lies near the mouth of Anclote River, 
which here opens in a series of bayous and land-locked 
harbors, hardly to be distinguished from the fresh-water 
lakes that are found farther iidand. The village has a pecul- 
iarly attractive appearance from the neat board sidewalks 


that are laid along all the streets, and the number of pretty 
cottages that have been erected by Northern visitors. It 
stands uj^on one of the gentle eminences characteristic of 
this region. The bayou containing the great spring that 
gives the jjlace its name, lies to the westward. A land- 
locked harbor, with a plank-walk and a white fence sur- 
rounding it at the water's edge. The steep bluff is lined 
with cottages, in the midst of luxuriant flower and fruit 
gardens. Flights of steps lead down to the plank-walk at 
intervals, and boats of all kinds are moored within reach or 
stored under shelter, just inside the railing. The walk ex- 
tends to the entrance of the bayou on either hand, a total 
length of about one mile. It affords the most charming of 
promenades, while tlie sheltered basin offers perfect facilities 
for boating. Near the head of the bayou is the spring above 
referred to, where a considerable voli;me of water boils up 
through openings in the bottom, and near by is a sulphurreed 
spring which the residents believe possesses valuable medi- 
cinal properties. Launches and boats drawing three feet of 
water can make their way in or out of the bayou into Anclote 
River, and thence into the Gulf. 

The town was founded in 1884 through the enterprise and 
foresight of A. P. K. Sofford, Esq., and has been developed 
through the judicious management of a company formed by 
him and a number of gentlemen associated with him. 


Lake Butler, 1| mile east of hotel. An easy walk of thii-ty 
minutes. Follow the straight road to the eastward from the 
hotel, or any of the pleasanter wood-jjaths leading in that 
direction. The lake is six miles long and often nearly a 
mile wide, crescent-shaped and bordered with sombre woods. 
Brooker Creek, navigable for small boats, falls into the lake 
at its southern extremity after flowing for several miles 
through a dense, picturesque 'hammock growth. The lake 
may also be reached from Tarpon Springs, by boat, ascending 
Anclote River three miles, thence through Salt Lakes and 
across a carry (i mile) to head of lake. Lake Butler has no 


apparent natiival outlet, though it receives a large voliame 
of water from streams and springs ; but like many other 
Florida lakes, it is subject to sudden and unaccountable 
changes of level. At present there are no boats for hire on 
the lake, but arrangements can be made at the hotel to have 
them hauled over if desired. On the west bank of the lake, 
near its northern end, is an estate often occupied by the 
English Duke of Sutherland and his family during the win- 
ter. The dwelling stands on a commanding bluif overlook- 
ing the lake. It is surrounded by private grounds of con- 
siderable extent, from which trespassers are rigidly ex- 
cluded. The regular entrance and roadway is from the side 
nearest Tarpon Springs, where there is a conspicuous gate- 
way with " Sutherland Manor" lettered on the transom. It 
is, perhaps, permissible to say here that the Duke, after 
having personally tried the most noted resorts of the world, 
with a view to finding the best, has chosen this location as 
affording, upon the whole, the most satisfactory hygienic 

Andote River. — This considerable stream is navigable for 
boats drawing four feet to Tarpon Springs and a short dis- 
tance beyond. On the north shore, half a mile from the 
Gulf, is a conspicuous mound 235 feet long, 166 feet wide, 
and 10 feet high. A. preliminary excavation showed it to be 
similar in structure to those on the Kootee River. The 
mound is covered with a growth of moderate-sized pines and 
scrub palmetto, and no thorough exploration has been at- 
tempted. A roadway leads to the top from the water-side, 
indicating that it was once the site of a chief's residence. 
A mile higher up the stream, on the same bank about 
one-qiiarter mile inland, is the Myer's Mound, so called 
from the nearest resident. This consists wholly of sand, 
the pits whence it was procured being still discernible. 
The structure is 168 feet long, 88 feet wide, and 5 feet 
high. The major axis is nearly east and west. Mr. Walker 
caused excavations to be made, and believes the mound to 
have been made for a building site. 

Half a mile northeast of Tarpon Springs is a circular sand 
mound, 95 feet in diameter and 5 feet high, which contains 


numerous human bones, with the peculiarity that, so far as 
examined, the bodies were incinerated before burial, and the 
skulls and bones were piled together in a shallow pit with 
some degree of orderly arrangement. As an entirely differ- 
ent system of interment was observed in mounds only a few 
miles distant, a field for speculation is opened, in which the 
possibility of cannibalism unavoidably suggests itself. Mr. 
Walker, however, holds to the theory of interment after 
partial incineration. Large pine - trees have grown over 
the bones, and the construction of the mound is believed to 
antedate the Spanish conquest. Ten crania in a toleraVily 
jierfect condition were secured, and sent with other relics to 
the Smithsonian Institution in Washington. 

Adjacent to, and connected with, the lower part of An- 
clote Eiver are many beautiful lake-like bayous offering an 
endless variety of excursions by water. The major j^art of 
the main stream lies in Pasco County. (See map on page 
74.) It may be ascended about ten miles in a small boat. 
About eight miles above the bridge near Tarpon Springs is 
a sandy knoll well suited for camp or jncnic parties. Lun- 
cheon should be taken, as this excursion can hardly be ac- 
complished in less than six hours. Other landing - places 
may be found, however, not so far away. The banks are 
for the most part covered with a dense semi - tropical 
growth, unbroken for miles by any sign of human habita- 
tion. Sail-boats are available only in the lower reaches of 
the river. 

Andote Key. — A pleasant two hours' sail from Tarpon 
Springs. The lighthouse is a skeleton iron tower painted 
black, standing on the southerly extremity of the keys, with 
the keepers' houses near at hand. The lantern is 101^ feet 
above the sea, showing a red flash every 30 seconds, visible 
16 nautical miles at sea. Two miles north of the Anclote 
Eiver is Trouble Creek, along the shores of which is an out- 
crop of blue flint rock, and the banks of the stream afford 
abundant evidences of having bqen occupied by Indian 
makers of spear-heads and arrow-heads. It has been sup- 
posed that the Florida Indians drew their supplies of flint- 
headed projectiles from a distance, but this quarry certainly 


Ijroves that they had at least one considerable source of 

^'Kootee " River. — The Indian name in full is Ach-as-koo-tee, 
or Pith-lo-ches-koo-tee, but custom has adopted " Kootee " 
as sufficiently distinctive. It falls into the Gulf of Mexico 
about ten miles north of Tarpon Springs, whence it may be 
easily reached by sail-boat in about three hours with a fair 
Avind ; or in two hours through the woods and over sandy 
roads. Descending the Anclote River from Tarpon Springs 
involves some delay, owing to the crooked channels, but when 
the Gulf is reached the course is jjlain, keeping well out from 
shore to avoid oyster bars. The trip may be undertaken 
with safety even in a strong on-shore wind, for the coast is 
sheltered by outlying keys. The oyster bars increase in 
number off tlie mouth of the river, and entrance can only be 
made in a canoe or skiff. On the south bank, about \ mile 
above the mouth, are two Indian mounds. The one nearest 
the Gulf is 168 feet long, 55 feet wide, 5 feet high. It lies 
with its major axis nearly north and south. To the eastward 
of this, about 300 feet, is another mound, with its major axis 
N.E. and S.W. It is 175 feet long, 50 feet wide at the south- 
west end, and 15 feet wide at the northeast end. Near the 
narrow end is a spur 20 feet long and 10 feet wide. Exca- 
vations made by S. T. Walker, of Clearwater, showed that the 
mounds were composed of alternate layers of sand and oyster 
shells, with abundant human bones and broken pottery. 
The skeletons were all at full length, reclining on the right 
side, and with the heads jjointing to a common centre. They 
were laid in concentric circles. A short distance south of 
the Kootee is Blue Sink, a curious natural well with rocky 

The Gulf Beach. — A pleasant walk (45 min.) from the sta- 
tion. Follow road leading south from Tarpon Springs Ho- 
tel. After passing town limits the road inclines to the 
westward, dividing into several trails after the manner of 
roads in Florida. Following at wull those that lead to the 
westward through pleasant rolling pine lands, the shore, 
wooded nearly to the water's edge, is j^resently reached. 
The beach varies much in character, afibrding good walking 


in some places, but being elsewhere well-nigh impassable. 
One cannot walk far along tlie w'atcr-side, however, without 
finding shady lounging places with a charming outlook 
across the pale-green sea to the distant barrier of reefs and 

Seaside, Sidherland, Ozona, Duvedin, and Clenrtcater, are 
railroad stations on the Orange Belt Railway south of Tar- 
jDon Springs. (For distances, see p. 38.) They are all on 
the Gulf coast, and may be reached by land or water. 

Tlie Gulf Coast South. — Nearly opposite the mouth of An- 
clote River, across Bay St. Joseph, are the Anclote Keys. 
(See p. 37.) To the southward for six miles the outlying keys 
are little more than reefs, but thence almost to Point Pinellas 
shelter and safe anchorage may be found almost anywhere. 
At distances varying from one mile to five miles from shore, 
is an almost continuous line of keys, enclosing sounds and 
inlets of great beauty and sufficient depth for easy naviga- 
tion in the craft adapted for general navigation along this 
coast. It is difficult to go amiss in seeking a camping- ground ' 
on shore, for the beaches are almost continuous, backed by 
wooded blulfs, and with fresh-water to be had, either from 
natural springs or at the cost of a little digging above high- 
water mark. 

Wood roads, rather easier than the average of Florida 
roads, lead southward and across the peninsula to Old Tampa 
Bay. In general the walking through the woods is good, 
though there are frequent sand-dunes and bays near the 
coast that are apt to perplex a stranger. 

Tlie Gtdf Coast North. — Harbors and anchorage for boats of 
light draft are found in the lee of Anclote Keys. 4 miles off 
shore ; at Port Richley, mouth of '' Kootee " River, 9 miles ; 
at Hudson, 15 miles ; at Bayport, 25 miles ; moiith of ^Yeki- 
woochee River ; at the mouth of Chassahowitzka River, 35 
miles ; at the mouth of Homosassa River, 41 miles (see p. 
13) ; and in the lee of St. Martin's Keys, at the mouth of 
Withlacoochee River ; in the bay of the same name, and 
in the lee of Chambers Island, 2 miles oflf shore. Between 
this and Cedar Key is Waccasassie Bay, with Wacassa River 
aff"ording access to Gulf Hammock, the Wekiwa Spring, and 


fine hunting grounds. At Cedar Key (80 miles), the terminus 
of the F. C. & P. Eailway, shipping supplies may be obtained. 
The other places named are small settlements where pur- 
chasing facilities are meagre. In the main this coast line is 
low and uninteresting, with very shoal water extending often 
for several miles off shore. The waters are, however, all 
practicable for good-sized sharpies, and the attractions are 
manifold for fishermen and sportsmen along the inlets and 
among the coastwise hammocks. Shell mounds, suitable for 
camping, are of frequent occurrence, and water-fasks can be 
replenished at any of the harbors named. A post-road fol- 
lows the coast from Tarpon Springs northward as far as Argo, 
whence it diverges east and north to Brooksville, 22 miles. 
From Bayport (see above) is a post-road eastward to Brookc- 
ville, 16 miles. 

132. Sutherland, Hillsborough County. 

Hotel. — Sutherland HoteJ, $4 a day. At boarding-houses special terms may 
be made at $4 to $5 per week. 

The land in the vicinity is mainly owned by Western 
capitalists, who built a large hotel in 1888, which was burned 
in Febmary, 1889, and at once rebuilt on a still larger scale. 
There is a tramway to Lake Butler, 3 miles distant. (See ]). 
251.) Among the local curiosities are Blue Sink, Shell Isl- 
and, and the fine Gulf Beach. For other excursions, see 
Koutes 130 to 133. 

133. Clearwater Harbor, Hillsborough County. 

Hotel.— 0)-a?i(/« Bluff Hotel, $2.50 a Aaj.—S.ea View Hotel, Scranton Hotel, 
$1.50 to $2 a day, with special rates by the week. 

Saddle horses, 30c. an hour, $2 a day.— Single team, 50c. an hour, $3 a dr.y.— 
Double team, 75c. an hour, $5 a day. 

Rowboats, $1 a day. — Sailboats, $2 a day. 

Guides : J. W. Wetmore, Robert Culleii, A. A. Whitehnrst ; rates according 
to service. 

This pleasant resort is reached by the Orange Belt Eail- 
way. (See p. 38.) The town stands on a fine bluff, amidst 
noble live-oak trees. It commands a fine view across the- 
harbor to the outer keys and the open Gulf. A fine natural 


spring of sulphuvreted water boils up through the sand near 
the shore. The water, as the name of the jilace imi)lies, is, 
under ordinary conditions of weather, wonderfully clear and 
sparkling, and it is an endless source of amusement to watch 
the submarine life along the sands and reefs. There are 
Episcopal, Methodist, and Baptist churches in the town, 
and a good school. The surrounding country is high rolling 
land, for the most part heavily wooded, with many fresh- 
water lakes, and excellent hunting and fishing. At John's 
Pass, 18 miles south of Clearwater, is a curious burial mound 
on a low mangrove island, scarcely habitable and without 
fresh water. The island is nearly covered with water at 
high tide, but two parallel ridges of dry land run east and 
west, and at the eastern extremity of the southernmost ridge 
is the mound in question. It is oval in shape, 50 feet long, 
25 wide, and at present only 3 feet high. When discovered 
many skulls and bones lay on the surface, with numerous 
fragments of pottery, exposed through the action of the sea, 
in sjjite of a heavy growth of sea-grape and SiDanish bayonet. 
Mr. Walker found numerous skeletons stretched at full 
length, generally on the right side. Nearly two-thirds of the 
remains were of children. 

On the mainland, nearly opposite John's Pass, on the 
south side of Boca Ciega, or Four Mile Bayou, at the mouth 
of a small creek that falls into the bayou, are two large 
mounds, one of shell and the other of sand. At last advices 
they had never been explored, owing to refusal of permis- 
sion by the owners. 

Long Key lies between Boca Ciega and Pas d'Agrille. It 
is a naiTow key some five miles long. About midway of the 
key, on the landward side, is a dense cabbage hammock, 
covering a turtle-sha^jed mound 108 feet long, 66 wide, 5 feet 
high. Excavations revealed incomplete skeletons reclining 
at full length, but no perfect crania were found. No pottery 
was found nor other relics, and from the structural methods 
it is believed that the builders were of a different race or 
tribe from those about the Anclote River. It is worthy of 
mention that a remarkable turtle mound stands on Halifax 
Biver, near Eldora, on the east coast of Florida (see p. 208). 


The one on Long Key has a testudiuate outline with head 
and tail clearly defined. The flipjaers are represented by 
ditches whence no doubt the mound-builders took their 
material. The Halifax Eiver "turtle," on the contrary, has 
regularly constructed flippers. 

Half a mile north of the village of Dunedin, a short dis- 
tance back from the beach and near fresh-water ponds, is an 
Indian mound, 156 feet long, 80 feet wide, 9 feet high. A 
roadway, beginning 50 feet from the southwest face, ascends 
with a regular incline to the top. The pits whence, presum- 
ably, the sand was taken, are still to be seen near the ends of 
the mound, whose major axis runs N.W. and S.E. Excavations 
failed to reveal any remains, and the mound is believed to 
Lave been made for a fortress or a residence. It stands in 
a low jiine region, and the growth on its top is similar in 
all respects to the surrounding forest. 

Two miles south of Dunedin is Stevens' Creek, a small 
stream rising some five miles inland. Near the source is a 
mound of white sand, 46 feet in diameter and 3 feet high. 
Partly calcined skeletons were found. The only way of 
finding this mound is to ascend the creek to the head of 
tide-water, which may readily be detected by a woodsman. 
Due east from this point are two fresh-water ponds, between 
which is the mound, situate in a "rosemary scriib." 

Pine Key. — About three miles south of Pas d'Agrille are 
two islands. They may easily be taken for one island, as 
they are separated only by a narrow passage. On the south- 
ernmost island is "Duck Pond," or lagoon, and near its 
southern end is a mound 135 feet in diameter and 15 feet 
higher than the general level of the island. The cabbage 
liammock and scrub is very dense, and it is not altogether 
easy to find the mound, though, when reached, it affords 
quite an extensive outlook. Arrow-heads and ornaments of 
bone, inlaid with copper, have been found, also hi;man 
bones which crumble on exposure to the air. The abund- 
ance of small shell mounds shows that the island was a 
favorite camping-place, if not a permanent residence. 


134. St. Petersburg, Hillsborougli County. 

Hotel.— T/ie Detroit, $3 a day. 

Terminus of the Orange Belt Railroad. Steamboat connections wth Port 
Tampa and the " Plant, "and J. T. & K. W. Railway Systems ; also coastwise 
of Tampa and Sarasota Bays. 

St. Petersburg is 6 miles from the extremity of Pinellas 
Point, and 9 miles southwest from Port Tampa across the 
mouth of Old Tampa Bay. (See map, p. 37.) The situation 
is naturally very attractive, high wooded bluffs rising from 
the water-side, which is bordered with a nearly level sandy 
beach. A railroad wharf almost a mile long extends to the 
deep water of the channel. The hotel commands a fine out- 
look to the south and east. A post-road leads south 3 miles 
to Pinellas and thence west, across the jieninsula, to New 
Cadiz and Bonifacio, small settlements on the Gulf coast. 

ExcuiiSiONS. — Old Tampa Bay, extending more than twenty 
miles to the northward. Very shoal water everywhere along 
shore ; good shooting and fishing, especially toward the north- 
ern extremity of the bay. 

Maximo Point, about 2 miles west of Pinellas Point, has 
a large mound in alternate strata of sand and shells, cov- 
ered with an almost impenetrable tangle of undergrowth 
and palms. No accurate measurements have been made, aiid 
at last advices the mound was practically unexplored. It is 
provided with the usual inclined plane on the south side 
leading to the level top, several hundred feet long, and 15 
feet high. 

Bethel Camp. — Two miles north of Point Pinellas is a jilace 
known by this name. There are springs of good water along 
the beach, back of which is a thick hammock, and back of 
this again, in a " rosemary scrub," a fine symmetrical mound 
20 feet high, 200 feet long on the top, and 30 feet wide, with 
a well-constructed gradient on the west side. The sharp 
angles and well-preserved slopes of this mound indicate that 
it is of more recent construction than some of its near neigh- 
bors. Quite extensive excavations have been made in this 
mound, but by whom and with what result is unknown. The 
date 1840 is found deeply cut in several trees on the mounds 


in this section, and it is supposed to indicate the date when 
some party of hunters caused the excavations to be made. 

Fault Fi>iellas — Many mounds, large and small, exist in 
the immediate vicinity of the Point. One of these is sur- 
rounded with an irregular embankment 10 or 12 feet high. 
The main work itself is 20 feet high, of sand and shell. At 
last advices it was practically unexplored. Some of the Pi- 
nellas shell mounds are 25 feet high, while some of the 
sand, or presumably domiciliary mounds, are at present only 
5 or 6 feet high, but surrounded with quite deep ditches 
save where crossed by causeways. The largest of these sup- 
posed domiciliary mounds is 250 feet in diameter. On this 
mound stands the public school-house of Pinellas. Skele- 
tons have been found in some of these mounds. 

De Soto. — Six miles east of Clearwater by port route. 
Also accessible by steamer from Tampa three times a week. 
There is no hotel, but lodgings can be procured in private 
houses. Guides and hunters are always available at moder- 
ate rates. 

Papifs Bayou is tributary to Old Tampa Bay, about 5 
miles from St. Petersburg, and almost directly opposite Port 
Tampa. A perplexing network of bayous behind the point 
renders it difficult for a stranger to find his way. There is 
a fine Indian mound on the north side in Pillan's Hammock. 
It is unique in shape, oval, with a central trench on the 
major diameter, evidently not a modern excavation, but part 
of the original design. At one end two wings or extensions 
are carried out, prolonging the mound to 150 feet in length. 
There are also marks of a roadway leading to the mound 
through the hammock. The mound is largely composed of 
human bones, partly incinerated and buried as in the mound 
at Tarpon Springs (see Route 131). Some three hundred 
yards west of this is another mound of the usual oval type. 

Bayview. — A village near the head of Old Tamj^a Bay, 9f 
miles by port route from Clearwater Harbor. The steam- 
boat from Tampa touches here three times a week. The 
land of the town site is good height above the water. There 
is a fine hard beach, with sulphur sj^rings at frequent inter- 
vals, excellent fishing, and plenty of fine oysters. A mile 


north of Bayview post-office, on the south side of Alligator 
Creek, Old Tampa Bay, is a small mound which Mr. Walker 
found very rich in bones and relics. The mound was only 
46 feet in diameter and but 3 feet high, and situated in so 
dense a growth of scrub jjine that it was very difficult to 
find. The mode of burial was similar to that at Tarpon 
Springs, and the whole mound was a mass of human 
bones disposed in three layers. In the upper layers were 
found large numbers of glass beads, a pair of scissors, and a 
bit of looking-glass. These trinkets fixed the date of in- 
terment at a comparatively recent period, evidently sub- 
sequent to the Spanish invasion. Philippi's Point, eight 
miles north, is, according to local tradition, the place where 
De Soto landed in 1539, and his ships anchored in Safety 
Harbor, at the head of the bay, while the expedition landed. 
Philippics Point. — Here is one of the largest mounds on 
Tampa Bay, but owing to conflicting claims of local owners, 
permission to excavate could not be obtained at last ad- 
vices. To all appearance it is a domiciliary mound, though 
bones have occasionally been washed out by the action of 
the sea. Here it is supposed that in 1539 Hernando de Soto 
was received by Hirrihigues, a powerful Indian cacique, 
whose dwelling stood, according to the Spanish accounts, 
upon a large artificial mound. Here was found one Juan 
Ortiz, a survivor of Narvaez's ill-fated expedition, who 
had been held captive by the Indians since 1528. The 
Spaniards jsresently inaugurated their cruel policy of ac- 
cepting the chief's hospitality while it suited their conven- 
ience, and then seizing him as a hostage in order to extort 
a ransom from his people. From this point, aided by Ortiz 
as interpreter, began that remarkable march which ended 
with the discovery of the Mississippi and the death of Soto, 
after nearly all his followers had perished. 

TAMPA. 249 

140. Tampa, Hillsborough County (C. H.). 

Populatiou, T.OOO.— Lat. 2T" 57' N.— Long. 82" 27' W. Mean rise and fall of 
tide, 2 feet 2 inches. 

Hotels.— The Tampa Bay Hotel.— City Hotel, $3 a. 6a,y.— The Plant, $3 a 
day. — Collins House. — HilUborough House. 

Railroads. — The South Florida Railroad : west to Port Tampa ; east and 
north to Sanford, Palatka, Jacksonville, etc. Connects at Port Tampa with 
ocean steamers from Key West, Havana, Jamaica, New Orleans, and Mobile, 
and coastwise steamers for Bay ports and Pinellas Peninsula. The Florida 
Central & Peninsula Railroad ; north to Jacksonville, Fernandina, etc. 

Livery.— Double teams, $2 an hour ; $8 to $10 a day. Saddle-horses, $3 a 

The city of Tampa, commercially the most important on 
the Gulf coast of the Peiiin.sula, is at the mouth of Hills- 
borough River, and at the head of the eastern arm of Tampa 
Bay (see map, p. 37). The town is regularly laid out upon 
the point of land to the westward of the river, near the site 
of old Fort Brooke, a United States military post established 
in 1821, immediately after the acquisition of Florida by the 
United States. It was an important base of .supplies during 
the Seminole war, and was maintained as a garrisoned jjost 
until after the Indians were subjugated. The site of the 
old fort, ten minutes walk from the main street in a southerly 
direction, is still the most attractive spot within the limits of 
the town. It is now a public park, having been given to the 
city by the United States after the close of the Civil War. 
Within its limits are the remains of several mounds, the 
largest of which is about 100 feet in diameter and 7 to 9 
feet high. Partially incinerated bones and one complete hu- 
man skeleton were found by Lieutenant A. W. Vodges, of the 
Fifth Artillery, when the locality was first occupied by United 
States troops. Some specimens of rude pottery were found, 
also sjjlit and charred human bones, suggestive of cannibal- 
ism on the part of the mound-builders. The mounds have 
been considerably reduced in size, and in some cases almost 
obliterated. Until after the Indian war Tampa was almost 
the only place on the Gulf coast where a white man could 
live in security, and safety here was only secured by the 
Ijresence of a strong garrison. A settlement naturally grew 
up under the guns of the fort. From this point the 
old military roads led north and east to the interior 
posts, and over them all supi^lies had to be haitled under 

250 TAMPA. 

military escort. From Fort Brooke Major Datle aiul his 
commauci marched into the fatal amlniscade in the Walioo 
swamp. And here were organized most of the expeditions 
that wasted away in conflicts with a fierce and vigilant foe, 
who was rarely to be found except when he could fight to 
good advantage. 

On November 3, 1862, Tampa was shelled by United States 
gun-boats to dislodge the small Confederate garrison that 
held possession. Not much show of resistance was made, 
and during the rest of the Civil War an occasional visit from 
a gun-boat sufficed to jjrevent its being made a harbor for 
blockade runners. 

To the westward of the river, in the midst of a i:)ark 150 
acres in extent, is the Tampa Bay Hotel, one of the larg- 
est and most magnificent in the country. It was erected at 
a cost of about one million dollars, through the enterprise 
of Mr. H. B. Plant, and opened to the public in 1890. The 
architecture is Moorish and the material brick and concrete, 
Avith terra cotta ornamentation and fire-proof construction, 
throughout. The building is more than 500 feet long, with 
luxurious furnishing and decorations, rooms single and en 
suite, and everything that ingenuity can devise for the com- 
fort of visitors. 

Tamjia has large commercial interests in trade witli the 
West Indies and as a shipping point for home products, ex- 
tensive cigar factories, excellent stores of all kinds, several 
newspapers, and large fishing and packing industries. The 
streets are well lighted, with good sidewalks, and lines of 
tramways to the suburbs. 

Excursions, — Port Tampa, 9 miles by rail, has good hotels 
and bathing facilities, excellent fishing, and is a favorite 
place of resort at all seasons of the year (see Route 141). 

Tampa Bay and Hillsborough Bai/, with a wide extent of 
admirable cruising, and fishing grounds, offer a great varie- 
ty of camping and hunting fields for parties making their 
headquarters at Tampa, where sail-boats and launches, and 
guides may be hired on reasonable terms. 

Alafia Hirer falls into the bay about 10 miles southeast of 
Tampa, and a little south of it, at the moi;th of Bullfrog 


Creek, is a fine mound, 30 feet liigli and 200 feet in diam- 

Hillsborough River, tributary to the bay of the same name, 
is navigable to "the falls," about twenty miles from the 

At Indian Hill, some twenty miles southeast of Tampa, are 
enormous shell heaps some 800 feet long and 20 or 30 feet 
high, the most conspicuous elevations being visible several 
miles at sea. Human remains are rarely found in true shell 
heaps, but here, in a detached mound, they were found in 
abundance, and under such conditions as to afford strong 
support to the cannibalistic theory. 

141. Port Tampa, Hillsborough County. 

Hotel.— rA« Inn, $4 a clay. 

Railroads. — The South Florida Railroad (to Tampa. Sanford, Palatka, 
Jacksonville, etc.). The Orange Belt Railway (Clearwater Harbor, Tarpon 
Springs, etc.). Reached by steam ferry to St. Petersbui-g, 9 miles. 

Port Tampa is on a loeninsula separating Old Tampa and 
Hillsborough Bays (see map, p. 37). It is the terminus 
of the South Florida Railroad and the landing place for sev- 
eral important lines of ocean steamers, as specified above, 
lu order to reach deep water the railroad track has to be 
carried out seven-eighths of a mile from shore, on a trestle 
■work to the edge of the channel, where a depth of twenty- 
four feet is found. Vessels drawing eighteen feet of water 
can cross the outer bar. At the end of this long wharf is a 
cluster of veritable lacustrine dwellings with all modern im- 
provements, a railway station, freight houses, the various 
appliances for railroad and steamboat shipments, and — of 
chief interest to the tourist — The Inn, an hostelry standing on 
jiiles, surrounded by wide galleries, and so near deeji water 
that one may catch channel bass, Spanish mackerel, and sea- 
trout literally from the windows. This establishment is the 
only one of its kind on the coast, and offers unique attrac- 
tions to lovers of water sports. 

Picnic Island, a short distance south of the railroad wharf, 
is a favorite resort for visitors to Tampa. The island is 
covered with a low hammock growth, bordered with a level 


beach of fine white sand, sloping gradually out to dee}) water. 
On the island are commodious buildings for the accommo- 
dation of transient visitors. 

142. The Manatee River. 

Daily mail steamer from Tampa touching at all river ports. 

The Manatee Country (see map, p. 59), lying jnst with- 
in the main entrance to Tampa Bay, is a naturally rich 
and attractive region embracing the northwestern sections 
of Manatee County. It is most easily accessible by steam- 
boat from Tampa. Manatee Kiver, or bay, is 15 miles 
long and has an average width of one mile or more. It is 
navigable for small steamers to Rye, about eighteen miles 
from the coast. Manatee River rises in De Soto County, 50 
miles from the coast. Rich hammocks border the stream 
and the bay, and there are evidences that the whole region 
was well iJopulated prior to the advent of Europeans. 
Traces of civilized occupation are found along the coast, but 
no records of their history are known to exist. Manatee 
River and the adjacent waters of Sarasota Bay, and Tamjia 
Bay, are among the most attractive to sportsmen. Naviga- 
tion is safe and easy southward to Charlotte Harbor, and 
northward to all points on Tampa and Hillsborough Bays, 
and to Tarpon Springs, still farther north. 

Palma Sola, so called from a lone palm that stands on an 
outlying key, is the most considerable settlement near the 
coast. The Palma Sola Hotel (3^3 a day) is pleasantly situ- 
ated, with a fine outlook to seaward. The harbor affords 
safe anchorage for large vessels. Thei'e is a good store 
where ordinary supplies can be obtained, and boats suitable 
for hunters and fishermen can be hired at reasonable rates. 
A post-road leads to Cortez, G miles southwest, at the head 
of Sarasota Bay. The road continiies eastward to Manatee, 
2 miles, whence it diverges southward along the coast to 
Sarasota, Osprey, and Venice, and southeastward, crossing 
the county diagonally to Pine Level. 

Indian Mounds. — Very large shell heaps extend along the 


Bbores of Shaw's Point, near the mouth of the river, for five 
hundred and sixty-four feet, with a height of fifteen to 
twenty feet at the highest point. The sea has so washed 
away the mounds that an inspection of their structure has 
been possible, and it seems certain that they are the 
natural accumulation of waste material unavoidable in the 
vicinity of an Indian camp. The apparent process was as 
follows : A fire was built on the ground, and around this the 
savages sat cooking, eating, and throwing shells and bones 
over their shoulders. In the course of a few weeks a circu- 
lar bank of shells would be formed around the fire, and at 
length the central sjiace would be so narrowed that the fire 
would be moved to the top of the bank, and the process re- 
jieated. In point of fact, the successive fires in such mounds 
have been located, and found to correspond with this theory. 
Of course the resultant mound is often irregular, but the 
theory is reasonable, and anyone who has camped for a few 
days near a Florida oyster-bed must have noticed the jihe- 
nomenal rapidity with which the jjiles of oyster-shells grow. 
That the Indians, who lived mainly by fishing and hunting, 
should have constructed these huge mounds, is only in the 
natural order of things. 


150. Charlotte Harbor. 

(See general map of Florida, and maps of Do Soto and Lee Counties.) 

Jacksonville to Punta Gorda and Charlotte Harbor. 

By J., T. .fe K. W., and Florida Southern Railway system via Palatka, San- 
ford, Kissiuiee, etc., 324 miles (13!^ hours runninfr time). Sleeping cars on all 
through trains. See Maps of Duval, Clay, Vohwia, Oran;^e, Osceola, I'olk. and 
De Soto Counties, with tables of stations and distances m context. Jackson- 
ville to Sanford, see Routes 40 and 50. 

To Lakeland, eiglity-tliree miles, tlie course is the same as 
in Eoute 130. Thence the general direction is south, follow- 
ing Peace Eiver {Flumen Pads of the early map makers). 
Bartow, the county town (Polk County) is the most imijor- 
tant place on the route. Fort Meade was established as a 
United States military pest December 19, 1849, and main- 
tained until September 20, 1857. It is now a thriving town 
of 400 inhabitants. Near Bowling Green is the line between 
Polk and De Soto Counties (see map, p. 22). A short dis- 
tance south is the site of Fort Choconitka, established Octo- 
ber 26, 1849, and abandoned July 18, 1850. 

Zolfo Springs is so called from the number of sulphur 
springs that exist in the vicinity, the prefix being presum- 
ably a local phonetic abbreviation of the longer word. 

Charley Apopka always attracts attention from its extraor- 
dinary name, which is, in fact, an unpardonable corruption 
from the Seminole Tsalopopkohatchee, meaning "catfish- 
eating creek." The terminal hatches (river or creek) was 
first dropped, and Tsalo-popka was finally Americanized into 
its present form.' 

The name Apopka, properly Ahapopka, is found elsewhere 
in the State, often in combination with other Seminole 

Arcadia became the seat of government of Polk County in 
November, 1889. It has a population of about two hundred, 
a new county court-house, a weekly newspaper, and a phos- 
phate company. 

" For this explanation the editor is indebted to Mr. E. A. Richards, of Or- 


When and by ■whom this fine bav was discovered is a mat- 
ter of some doubt. It is not unlikely that Hernandez de 
Cordova is entitled to the honor. Certain it is that in 1.517, 
Avhen on a slave-hunting expedition, he lauded on the Gulf 
coast at a place whose description answers very well to this, 
and was so warmly received by the natives that he and his 
men were glad to escape with their lives. The earliest maps 
that definitely show the two great and curiously similar bays 
on the Gulf coast, known to us as Tampa Bay and Charlotte 
Harbor, name the southernmost after Ponce de Leon ; but 
there is some uncertainty whether this or a bay south of Cajie 
Romano was intended. Its present name, in the opinion of 
Dr. Brinton, the well-known archajologist, is a European 
corruption of Carloosa or Caloosa, the native tribe that in- 
habited this region at the time of the Spanish discovery. 
The southern part is now known as San Carlos Bay. It 
seems probable that the two were originally considered as 
one and named accordingly. The extreme length of Char- 
lotte Harbor is about 30 miles, lying between 26" 30' and 
the 27th parallel of north latitude. It is separated from the 
Gulf by a long line of partially wooded keys, filled with in- 
numerable islands, and offers unsurpassed attractions to the 
lover of outdoor life. Two large streams, the Myakka and 
Peace Rivers, enter the head of the harbor from the north, 
and near its southern j^asses it receives the Caloosahatchee, 
from Lake Okechobee and the Everglades. The main en- 
trance is practicable for vessels drawing 25 feet, and large 
vessels can find entrance through San Carlos Pass from the 
southward. Lines of ocean steamers run regularly to Ha- 
vana, Key West, and Baltimore. 

The discovery of exceedingly rich phosphates in the bed 
of Peace River has greatly stimulated commercial interests of 
all kinds in this vicinity. The deposit occurs in a semi-fluid 
state, so that it can be pumped from the river bottom and de- 
livered for transportation almost wholly without the em- 
liloyment of manual labor. The crude product is dried and 
packed in cars for transportation to Charlotte Harbor, the 
nearest seaport, or by rail to the north. The discoveries of 
the phosphate deposits were made in the summer of 1889, 


and during the following winter a line of ocean steamers be- 
gan making regular trips to Baltimore. At this writing 
scarcely any change has been made in the level of the river- 
bed, although powerful pumping machinery has been at work 
for several mouths. The semi-liqiiid fertilizer seems to 
flow toward the pumps from all directions, and apparently in 
almost undiminished volume. 

151. Puiita Gorda, De Soto County. 

Lat. 36" 55' N.— Long. 82" 3' W. 

Hotel. — Punta Gorda. $4 a day. 

Railroad. — North to Bartow, Sanford, Leesbtirsr, etc. 

Ocean steamers to Key West, Havana, and New Orleans. Coastwise eteam- 
ers to San Carlos Bay, Caloosahatchee River, Naples, and intermediate land- 

Steam launches, $12 to 115 a day. 

Sail-boats, $1 an hour, $4 to $5 "a day. 

Guides and hiiate.'s, $1.50 to $3 a day. 

Punta Gorda is the most southerly railroad terminus on 
the Gulf coast ; a favorite stojipiug-jilace for sportsmen, 
tourists, and invalids, within easy reach of the most famous 
tarpon fishing-grounds on the coast. The station near the 
hotel is Trabiie, named after one of the pioneers of this re- 
gion, and Punta Gorda is properly the railroad wharf and 
actual terminus, a mile farther south. Pojiularly, the latter 
name is applied to both places. The hotel is of wood, more 
than 400 feet long, with a wide veranda and 150 rooms, all 
commanding an outlook across the bay. In front is a spac- 
ious lawn of Bermuda grass, and from the water's edge a 
wharf extends 1,000 feet to the edge of navigable water. 
From this wharf sea-trout, bluetish, Spanish mackerel, and all 
the common fish of Florida waters may be taken with rod and 
line. From the hotel veranda one looks across the north- 
eastern arm of the bay to Live Oak Point and Oak Bluffs 
(1^ mile). This ai-m of the bay is in reality the mouth 
of Peace River. Beyond the point is the western ami of 
the bay, into which falls Myakka Piiver (see p. 270). On 
the j)oint itself is Charlotte Harbor town, with a number of 
stores and dwellings, including a hotel and several boarding- 
houses. It is the shipping point for a large cattle-grazing 


country to the northward, and several wharves extend from 
the shore to the edge of the channel. A good sand-beach, 
with occasional shell-mounds, offers attractions to camping 
and picnic parties. 

Midway of the harbor is a detached landing and store- 
houses, over piles, for the accommodation of deep-draught 
vessels. To the southward is the railroad wharf, nearly 
one mile long, where the ocean steamers make their land- 
ings, and beyond it Charlotte Harbor proper opens tov,'ard 
the Gulf. Almost eveiywhere the water is shallow for a 
long distance from shore, and frequent oyster-reefs are 
troublesome to steersmen unfamiliar with the channels. 
With boats of shallow draft, however, one may go almost 
anywhere by tho exercise of discretion and seamanship. 

Excursions. — Alligator Eiver, a picturesque stream flowing 
for the \ipper part of its course through heavily wooded 
bluffs with occasional clearings, falls into the bay seven miles 
south of the hotel. The distance by land is five miles. Boats 
can be hired at a house near the river, or the whole trip can 
be made by launch or small boat, as the stream is navigable 
several miles from its. mouth. Numerous creeks and inlets 
along shore are favorite retreats for ducks, and quails abound 
in the open woods and savannas a few hundred yards inland. 
The stream rises in a wild region, extending for many miles 
to the south and east, where, with the aid of hunters familiar 
with the country, large game may be found. 

Myakka River. — Five miles west of hotel. This is a con- 
siderable stream, rising near the eastern border of Manatee 
County, thirty miles north. It may be ascended to Lake 
Myakka and beyond in small boats, but the current is swift, 
at times breaking into rapids. Ten miles from Charlotte 
Harbor it widens, and for the last eight miles is nearly one 
mile wide. It is navigable for launches to where the stream 
narrows ; a pleasant excursion of five hours from the hotel. 
A military post was maintained near Lake Myakka during 
the winter of 1849-50, to restrain the unsubdued remnant 
of the Seminoles after the war was over. 

Peace River. — By some authorities this sti'eam is called 
"Peas" Eiver, and others hold that it takes its name from 


& treaty made with the Indians in comparatively modern 
times. It was charted, however, as "Fiumen Pacis" by Le 
Moyne in 15G0, and was doubtless so named by the Spanish 
discoverers. The railroad follows the left bank of the stream 
• — not often within sight, however — almost throughout its 
course. It receives three considerable streams as tributaries, 
the Chilocohatchee from the west, and Joshua's Creek and 
Prairie Creek from the east. All these may be ascended in 
small boats to good hunting grounds. A favorite excursion 
by steam-launch is up Peace Eiver to Lettuce Lake and Fort 
Ogden (12 miles). The lake is a small body of water, so 
called from the abundance of water-lettuce that grows in its 
shallows. Any point on the river may be easily reached by 
rail, and the return trip made down stream by row-boat. In 
this case, of course, arrangements should be made to have a 
boat on hand at the desired point, as a local supply cannot 
always be counted upon. 

In its lower reaches Peace Piver is bordered with marshes 
and mangrove islands, intersected with a labyrinth of creeks 
where there is good wild-fowl shooting. 

Punta Gorda nearly marks the northern limit on the Gulf 
coast of the Koonti plant or Indian bread-fruit, a graceful, 
palm-like plant growing in the open woods, or among the 
l^almetto scrub. Farther south it is found in great abun- 
dance, and is a staple article of food among the Indians of 
the Everglades. The root, which is large and thick, is 
ground and washed, the product being a fine white flour, 
used for the table much as corn-starch is used, and equally 
palatable. On Biscayno Bay this flour is largely manufac- 
tured by the white residents, both for home consumption 
and for shipment to Key West, where it is extensively used 
as an article of food. The soluble ingredients of the Koonti 
root which are washed out in the jjrocess of manufacture, are 
poisonous, as is the root itself in its raw state, but it is an 
excellent fertilizer for all kinds of vegetables, and a flour- 
ishing garden is the inevitable adjunct of a well-conducted 
Koonti mill. The plant, when it reaches maturity, pushes 
up a large cone of orange-red seeds among its palm-like 
fronds, and these are such a favorite article of food with 


crows and other birds, that they are scattered far and wide 
over the country, insuring an abundant croj) without trouble 
to the planter. Attempts to cultivate the Koonti root arti- 
ficially have not thus far proved successful. 

More extended excursions may be made to Pine Island 
(Route 152), Punta Eassa (Route 153), and Myers, on the 
Caloosahatchee River (Route 154). The latter is a regular 
steamboat route with tri-weekly boats, and weekly boats to 
Naples, thirty miles farther down the coast. The southern 
part of the peninsula separating Charlotte Harbor from the 
Gulf is an attractive region for sportsmen, with high bluifs 
and numeroiis small lakes in the interior. The Gulf coast 
for thirty miles to the northward is studded with mangrove 
islands and outlying keys, affording sheltered navigation 
for the whole distance. 

152. Saint- James-on-the-Giilf, Lee County. 

Lat. 26° 32' N.— Long. 82" 54' W. 
Hotel. — Tie San Carlos Hotel, $3 a day. 

Steamboats three times a week to Punta Gorda and Fort Myers ; once a week 
to Naples, Sarasota Bay, and Tampa. 

Big Pine Island is the largest in Charlotte Harbor, con- 
taining nearly 25,000 acres, mainly in woodland. It is 14 
miles long, and from two to four miles wide. Beaches of 
white sand skirt its shores, except where the mangroves 
have gained a foothold, or occasional inlets bordered with 
saw-grass make their way inland. Mattlacha Pass, to the 
eastward of the i.sland, is very shallow, and practicable only 
for small boats. To the westward is Pine Island Sound, 
navigable for small steamboats and vessels of moderate 
draught. Several thousand acres at the southern end of the 
island are owned by the San Carlos Hotel, and have been 
partially cleared and laid out with a view to inducing tourists 
and residents to purchase and build. There is a good wharf 
accessible through San Carlos Pass for sea-going vessels, 
and the most famous tarpon-fishing gi'ounds on the Florida 
coast are within easy reach. 

The locality and its surroundings are certainly most attrac- 
tive. The great bay and its sounds are studded with islands 


covered ■with semi-tropical vegetation. Between them wind 
intricate channels, through which the hunter may paddle 
his canoe or row his skiff for days without seeing a human 
habitation, ard with a certainty of finding plenty of game, 
on foot and on the wing. Along the outer beaches, the Gulf 
rollers break ceaselessly and renew the supply of curious 
and beautiful shells, with here and there a marine nonde- 
script that may well puzzle even those who are wise in such 

It will be noticed that all important buildings, includ- 
ing the light-keeper's house on Sanibel Island, are raised 
on piles. This is to guard against possible damage from 
hurricanes, which occur in this latitude during the sum- 
mer months, rarely earlier than May or later than October. 
When one of these occurs in conjunction with a high tide, 
the water rises far above its usual level. The hotel stands 
well above the highest point to which hurricanes have ever 
driven the waves. 

Sanibel Island lies directly in front of the hotel, two miles 
distant across San Carlos Bay, curving crescent-wise to the 
westward. It is 13 miles long, and 3 miles in extreme width. 
The inland shore is low, overgrown with mangroves, and 
jsenetrated by shallow bays and inlets. The seaward front 
has a fine unbroken beach, strewn with exqiii-site shells. 
The interior of the island rises often into blnflfs, generally 
well woodel, and offering endless attractions to the sports- 
man-naturalist. Point Ybel is the eastern extremity of the 
island. Near it is the black iron light-tower, with the neat 
keeper's houses near at hand. The tower stands in lat. 26° 27' 
II" N., long. 82° 53" W. It was established in 1884. The 
light is 98 feet high, and shows white, varied by a white 
flash every two minutes ; visible 15f nautical miles at sea. 
Between Point Ybel and Bowditch Point is San Carlos Pass, 
three miles wide, with the ship channel into San Carlos Bay. 
Near Bowditch Point Matauzas Pass opens into a series of 
shallow lagoons. On the north Blind Pass separates Sanibel 
from Captiva Island. 

Captiva and Ln Coata Islands, with siindiy small reefs and 
keys, complete the barrier that divides Pine Island Sound 


from the Gulf. The first is nine miles long, and ranges 
from ahnost nothing to three-quarters of a mile wide. lia 
Costa IS 7i miles long and one mile wide. The two are 
sejiarated by Captiva Pass, practicable for small boats. 

Pioita RciRna, 4 miles bv water (see below). 

3Iyers, 18 miles by water (see Route 155). 

153. Puuta Rassa, Lee County. 

Lat. 26" 30' N.— Long. 82" W W. 

Hotel. — The Tarpon Hotel, $2 a day, $12 a week, $45 a month. 
Steamboats, same as St. .lames-ou-the-Gulf, p. 122. 

Row-boats. 82a day (|4 to $5 with guide;. Sail-boats, $12 a day, with skipper 
and two skiffs. 

Punta Eassa (Barren Point) forms the eastern chop of San 
Carlos i^ass ; an exi^anse of scrub-grown white sand with 
beautiful beaches and a deep channel, through which ocean 
currents set strongly close along shore. It is a great resort 
for sportsmen and cattlemen, being the principal shipping 
point of live stock for the Cuban markets. The accommoda- 
tions and fare are not such as will prove attractive to the 
luxuriously inclined tourist and his family, but for the true 
fisherman it is a recognized headquarters. The house is a 
large unjiainted wooden sti-ucture, rough and picturesque, 
and with equally picturesque surroundings, including exten- 
sive cattle-yards. Sharks of the largest size are caught from 
the wharf that almost serves as a front porch for the hotel ; 
the best tarpon-fishing grounds are within easy rowing dis- 
tance ; the huge and dangerous devil-fish may be harpooned 
just outside the pass, and the waters of the bay are at times 
literally alive with all the game fish of the Gulf. To the 
south and east is the wilderness merging into the Big Cy- 
press swamp and the Everglades, almost as nature made 
it, save that hunters have well-nigh exterminated birds of 
brilliant i^lumage. Game birds and all kinds of four-footed 
game are still abundant. 


The Tarpon. 

Ifc is only since 1885 that the tarpon (Megnlops ikrifisoides 
or atlanticus) has been recognized as a game-fish. He had 
been known to take bait prior to tliat time, but had been 
landed onl}^ by accident. Otherwise he had been harpooned 
and occasionally taken in a seine, but his great size, strength, 
and agility enabled him to defy most devices for his capture. 
In the winter of 1880-81, Mr. S. H. Jones, of Philadelphia,' 
killed a 170-lb. tarpon with bass tackle at Indian Eiver Inlet. 
Mr. W. H. Wood, of New York, was the first, however, to 
reduce the sport to a science by patiently studying the habits 
of the fish. 

The familiar home of the tarpon is the Gulf of Mexico, and 
he is essentially a trojaical fish. Nevertheless stray speci- 
mens have been found, in summer, as far north as Cape Cod, 
and they are certainly abundant in Biscayne Bay and, prob- 
ably, farther up the east coast of Florida. Tarpon may now 
be accei^ted as the common name of the fish, though hereto- 
fore it has often been spelled "tarpum," and is known along 
the remote coasts as " silver king," "silver fish," " grande 
6caille " among French-speaking Creoles, and " savanilla " 
on the coast of Texas. Adult sj^ecimens often exceed 
six feet in length, and weigh nearly or quite two hundred 

The tarijon is herring-like in general shape and appearance, 
has an enormous mouth, with shear-like sides to his jaws, 
large, fierce eyes, and is withal gifted with an exceptional 
degree of muscular energy. When alive, this great fish 
shades off" from dark oxidized silver along the back to the 
most brilliant of metallic silver with gleams of gold along 
the sides and head. Even in death the big scales retain 
much of their beauty. The tarpon is only fairly good as a 
table fish. The coast residents, however, dry the flesh in 
the open air, and keep it as an article of food. 

Tarpon fishing is not all fun, since he does not readily take 
the bait. Persevering, but unlucky, fishermen have been 
known to sit in their boats several hours daily for weeks, and 


finally give up in despair, without having secured so miich 
as a nibble. 

Special tackle is now made for this sport, to wit, rods of 
sjilit-bamboo, seven to nine feet long, large multiplying 
click reels that will hold two hundred yards of (15 to 21 
thread) linen line. The reel should be used with a thumb- 
stall or equivalent device, and a favorite hook is the 10/0 
Dublin-bend Limerick, forged and ringed. How best to rig 
the snell is still in doubt. It must be twenty-four to twenty- 
eight inches long, because it will not hold unless gorged by 
the fish. No hook will hold in the armor-j^lated mouth. 
Wire and small chains are objectionable because sharks fre- 
quently take the bait, and it is desirable to have them bite 
the snell in two, and carry off the hook alone instead of more 
or less line. A solid snell is often cut by the shear-like 
action of the tarpon's jaw-plates. Such a snell passed 
through a small rubber tube has its advocates, but many of 
the most successful fishermen have settled upon a snell made 
of rather loosely laid cotton cod-line, dyed some dark color, 
so as to be nearly invisible when wet. It is difficult for the 
fish to cut this with their shears, nor is he so apt to feel it be- 
fore fully swallowing the bait. A good tarjson rod may cost 
from ??12 to §22 ; a reel from ^5 to §35 ; two hundred yards 
braided linen line, say §3 ; snells, if shop-made, §3 to $5 a 
dozen ; gaff, §4 to §10. Complete outfit, say§25 upward. 

The usual bait is mullet, half the fish being put upon the 
hook, thrown to a distance from the boat, and allowed to sink 
to the bottom. Then there is nothing to do but wait, and 
put on fresh bait every hour. The tarpon feeds in shoal 
water, and may often be seen prowling about and stirring np 
the muddy bottom. When he takes the bait he must be 
allowed to carry off a dozen yards or so of line before strik- 
ing. This amount of line is often unreeled and coiled on 
a thwart, so as to offer no resistance. When struck, the 
fish begins a series of leaps, striving to shake himself 
clear, and it is often two hours before he is so far exhausted 
that he can be brought alongside and gaffed. Experienced 
fishermen say that the protracted excitement of landing a 
tarpon far exceeds that afforded by the salmon, hitherto 



considered the kiDpc of game fishes. Small tarpon, ranging 
not higher than 40 or 50 pounds, may be taken with any 
gaudy fly on the large South Florida rivers a few miles from 
the coast. 

The official tarjion record for 1889, as kept at Punta Rassa, 
is appended. 


Feb. 28 
Mch. 2. 

" 4. 

" 7. 

" 8. 

" 9. 

" If). 

" 18. 

" 21. 

" 21. 

" 22. 

" 23. 

" 2«, 

" 27. 

" 29. 

" 30. 
April 3. 

" 4. 

" 5. 

" 8. 

" 9. 

" 9. 

" 10. 

" 11. 

" 12. 

" 15. 

" 17. 

" 17. 

" 17. 

" 19, 

" 20. 

■' 20. 

" 21. 

" 22. 

C. A. Grymes 

W. W. Jacobus 

Thos. E. Tripler. . . 

Thos. J. Falls. 
Geo. A. Frost. 


Thos. E. Tripler. . . 6 

Geo. A. Frost fi 

Frank L. Anthony. 6 

Thos. J. Falls 5 

Thos. E. Tripler. . . 5 

Thos. J. Falls 5 

Geo. A. Frost 6 

E. Prime 5 

O. A. Mygatt '5 

Thos. B. Astea jS 

Wni. Thorne 6 

R. K. Mygatt 6 

Win. E. Thorne... 6 


" ... 5 

E. Prime 6 

O. A. Mygatt 5 

R. K. Mvg.itt 9 

Wrn. E. Thorne... 6 
Thos. B. Asten ... 5 
Frank L. Anthony. 5 

R. K. Mygatt 5 

E. Prime 6 

R. K. Mygatt. ... 6 

Thos. B. Asten 6 

Frank h. Anthony. '6 









Apr. 23. 


'• 23. 



" 23. 



" 23. 



" 24. 



" 24. 



" 24. 



May 2. 



" 3. 



" 6 



" 7. 



" 8. 



" 9. 



'• 9. 


" 10. 



" 11. 



" 13. 



" 14. 



" 14. 



" 14. 



" 15. 



'• 15. 



" 15. 


" 16. 



" 16. 



" 16. 



" 16. 



" 17. 



" 17. 



" 17. 



" 17. 



" 18. 



" 18. 



E. Prime 

Thos. B. Asten.... 
Frank L. Anthony . 


4 10 

5 3 

E. Prime 

Thos. B. Asten. 
E. Prime 

5 142 

2* 125 


4 SO 

2 135 

5 145 
9 98 

3 115 
8 I 53 

5 10^ 125J 

6 2 139f 
5 5 93i 
5 10 109 

5 ,11 108 
IJ 3i 126 

6 i 106 

5 I 9i 94 

6 2 105* 

5 6i 92i 

6 ! 1 119 
5 lOi' 94 
5 ilOiilOl 

4 64 56 

5 i 6 

6 U 

6 r 



12(1 J 





The tarpon season begins in March and improves for 
sporting purposes as the weather grows warmer. Thus far, 
Charlotte Harbor, in the vicinity of Punta Rassa, has proved 
the best fishing-ground, but this is probably because the 
habits of the game in that vicinity have been more thor- 
oughly studied than elsewhere. Tarpon certainly abound 


all along the Gulf coast, and in a lesser degree on the At- 
lantic coast, as far up as the St. John's River. In February, 
1S89, the upper reaches of Biscayne Bay were alive with 
them, and the residents thereabout were spearing them at 
will. Four skilled fishermen, however, failed to induce 
them to bite, probably because it was too early in the sea- 

Etiquette among tarpon fishers prescribes that when a fish 
is hooked, boats near at hand shall up anchor and keep out 
of the way. 

154. The Caloosa River. 

Caloosa was the name of the native tribe dominant in this 
region at the time of the Spanish discovery; "hatchee" 
meant " river " in their tongue, and still survives in the Sem- 
inole dialect. The Caloosas were a powerful and warlike 
tribe, their province extending as far north as Tampa, and 
embracing some fifty villages. Fontanedo translates " Ca- 
loosa" as "village cruel," which, with a liberal interpreta- 
tion, is suggestive as regards the disposition of the j^opula- 
tiou. For about twenty-three miles from San Carlos Bay the 
river maintains a width of from one mile to two miles, with 
a depth of seven feet. The shores are, for the most part, 
low, with occasional hammock islands and broad savannas. 

From Punta Rassa on the south to Sword Point on the 
north, the mouth of the Caloosa is a trifle over three miles 
wide. The largest and most southerly of the three islands 
lying off the entrance is Fisherman's Key. There are count- 
less unnamed keys lying in every direction, some covered 
witli mangroves and others with palms and hammock. The 
channel is very tortuous, with barely seven feet at low tide, 
but it becomes deeper three miles above Punta Rassa, where, 
after first narrowing to half a mile, the stream widens to 
1| mile. Four miles farther it again narrows, with Redfish 
Point on the north and Palmetto Point on the south, and a 
channel twenty-three feet deep. This is a favorite fish- 
ing-ground. East of Palmetto Point is a bay known as Big 


Slough, opening into a broad savanna. Two miles beyond 
is Niggerhead Point, and beyond this again the pretty town 
of Fort Myers (see Route 155). Six miles above Myers the 
character of the river changes abruptly. The banks rise to 
a height of fifteen to twenty feet, the stream narrows to sixty 
yards, with a deep, strong current, and the l)anks are covered 
with a dense hammock growth, an infallible sign of rich 
land. Human habitations are few and far between. The 
river receives constant accessions from springs and streams, 
usually of cool pure water. Twelve miles above Myers the 
telegraph line crosses the river at Parkinson's Ferry. A mile 
further is Olga, near the sites — now hardly to be discovered 
without careful search — of Fort Simmons on the north, and 
Fort Denaud on the south, bank. The first named was little 
more than a fortified picket post. The second was a station 
of some imi^ortance, established in the winter of 1837-.38 by 
Captain B. L. E. Bonneville, of the Seventh Infantry, and 
named after the owner of the land. The site of the fort was 
two miles from the landing that now bears its name. The fort 
was strongly garrisoned during the closing years of the Semi- 
nole war ; and from it Lieutenant J. T. McLaughlin, U.S.N., 
set out early in November, 1841, with a force of 150 seamen 
and marines, to explore the then unknown Everglades. They 
crossed the peninsula, reaching the Atlantic coast by way of 
Biscayne Bay. Fort Denaud was abandoned shortly after 
this, reoccui)ied in 1849, again abandoned, and once more 
occupied in 1855, and at length, in 1857, finally evacuated, the 
garrison moving to Fort Simmons on the north bank of the 
river (sometimes called New Fort Denaud). Here a garrison 
was maintained till 1858, when it was withdrawn to Fort 

Hollingsicortlt Ferry, 10 miles above Myers, is the jDriucipal 
crossing place for cattle bound to Punta Eassa. Aha, 20 
miles above Myers, is a jiost-ofiice with quite a little settle- 
ment in its neighborhood. 

About thirty-five miles above Myers is Lale Flirt, named 
after a government schooner that was on duty in Florida 
waters at the time of McLaughlin's expedition. Swift water 
is encountei'ed before reaching the lake. This lake, so far as 


known, was first visited by white men in July, 1832, the ex- 
plorers being W. R. Hackley and P. B. Prior, representatives 
of a New York land company. Fort Thomjison, at the out- 
let of Lake Flirt, was a temporary post established to intimi- 
date the Seminoles. From this i^oint to Okeechobee Lake 
the river flows through the borders of the Everglades. Nat- 
urally its upper reaches were not navigable, but the opera- 
tions of the Okeechobee Drainage Company have opened a 
canal through Lake Hickpochee, practicable for boats draw- 
ing five feet. 

155. Fort Myers, Lee County (C. H.). 

Popiil<ation, 700. 

Lat. 26" 37' N.— Long. 81" 50' W. 

Hotel.— jT/^e Cahosa Hotel, $2 a day. 

Steamboat to Punta Gorda three times a week. 

Hunter and gnide, Taylor Frierson. 

As its name implies, Myers was originally a military post. 
It was named after Captain Abraham C. Myers, of the Fourth 
Infantry, who served in the Florida war and was afterward 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel for gallantry in the war with 
Mexico. He resigned his commission to join the Confeder- 
ate States service in 1861. In 1858 the troops from Fort De- 
naud were removed to this point, palisade outworks were 
erected, and j^ermanent quarters built, only to be abandoned 
shortly afterward. During the war for secession it was oc- 
cupied alternately by United States and Confederate troops, 
but it was a point of no strategic importance, and neither side 
cared particularly either to hold or capture it. In 1888 the 
remains of the soldiers who died here during the Seminole 
war, were removed by the Government to the burial-ground 
at Pensacola. 

Fort Myers presents an attractive aspect to the approach- 
ing voyager by river, for as yet the natural waterway affords 
the only means of communication with the outside world. 
Several wharves extend from the shore to the edge of the 
channel. The houses are for the most part shaded by tropi- 
cal trees, some of them not found elsewhere in Florida. 
Among these are several noble specimens of the date-palm, 


royal i)alm, betel-nut, and giant liamboo. A street of gen- 
erous width runs parallel to the river some two hundrfd 
yards from the waterside, with good sidewalks and bordered 
by overhanging orange-groves and gardens wherein grow all 
kinds of wonderful plants, among them, besides those already 
mentioned, are tamarinds, citrons, mangoes, guavas, all the 
citrous fruits, pineapples, pomegranates, cocoa palms, and 
all the moro common tropical and semi-tropical growths that 
are found throughout the State. A short distance west of the 
Caloosa Hotel is the residence of Major James Evans, near 
whose house are a number of jjalm-trees of species not to be 
found elsewhere on the mainland. On the trunks of some of 
these may be seen the marks of the rare frosts that at long in- 
tervals visit this region. In the same enclosure are clumps of 
bamboo, some of them sixty or seventy feet high. A j^eculiar- 
ity of their growth is that before they reach their full develop- 
ment their roots reach the underlying limestone rock, and the 
whole i^lant is lifted bodily from the ground. A few steps 
farther west is a peculiarly symmetrical and vigorous specimen 
of the date-palm, standing somewhat back from the street 
and surrounded by a walled mound of earth. This is within 
the old government reservation, and tradition has it that the 
tree was planted by the late General Hancock, who was sta- 
tioned here during 1856 and 1857. At the lower end of the 
street are houses and laboratories erected by Thomas Edison, 
the famous electrician, with a view to pursuing his scientific 
researches where they cannot be interrupted by cold weather. 

Fort Myers is still a frontier town, for, if we excejit 
Naples, there is not another settlement between this and 
Cape Sable on the south and the Atlantic coast on the east, 
A large part of this region is available for stock-raising, and 
cattle-ranches are scattered throughout the wilderness, where 
at intervals the stock is " rounded up " and branded by 
parties of cowboys. 

Excursions in the neighborhood of Fort Myers are in the 
main limited to the river (see Route 154), but it is possible to 
ride or drive for many miles in any direction. Good shooting 
is to be foimd everywhere, and large game ranges up to the 
outskirts of the settlement. 


156. Lake Okeechobee, Dade, De Soto, and Lee 

Between Lat. 26" 40' aud 27° 11' N., and Long. 80" 29' and 81" W.— Eleva- 
tion above sea-level 20.24 feet. — Area about 1,250 square miles. 

To the Spaniards the lake was vaguely known by report of 
the natives as Myacco, or Myaxo, and later by its present 
name, signifying "Big Water." When Jacob Le Moyne 
made his map of Florida in 1560, or thereabout, he placed a 
large lake in the middle of the peninsula, and made this 
note beside it. " Adeo magnus est hie lacus ut ex una rqxi 
conspici alter a nonpossit." (So great is this lake that one 
bank cannot be seen from the other.) And not so very much 
more is known about it to this day. Le Moyne's informa- 
tion seems to have been more trustworthy than William 
Darby's, whose mai?, published in 1821, ignores the Kissim- 
meeEiver altogether, and shows the lake as Lagoona Mayax : 
a grass-grown swamp. John Lee Williams, writing of this 
region in 1837, says : " The great lakes that are believed to 
supply these rivers are wholly unknown." 

There is a tradition, not well authenticated, to the effect 
that one of the Spani-sh governors sent an expedition to 
Myacco, as the great lake was then called, to search for 
pearls, but no proofs have been discovered. 

The Seminole war led to a partial exploration by Lieu- 
tenant John T. McLaughlin, U.S.N. , who, in November, 
18-il, led a force of seamen and marines to the lake, skirt- 
ing its southern shore, taking daily observations of lati- 
tude and longitude, aud making the first trustworthy report 
as to the topography of this region. During that war it 
was frequently visited by scouting parties, and the second 
outbreak of the Seminoles, in 1856-57, led to further mili- 
tary expeditions. A decisive engagement, known as the 
Battle of Okeechobee, took place near the northern end of 
the lake, December 25, 1837. During the Civil War the lake 
afforded a safe retreat for fugitives from the Confederate 
service, and it has since been frequently visited by hunters 
and camj)ing parties, but it has never been accurately sur- 


veyed, and neither its exact dimensions nor the details of 
its coast lino known with any degree of accuracy. In 1881 
Mr. Kirk Munroe made a solitary voyage of exploration in a 
canoe, and nearly perished before he conld make his way 
out again. He wrote and i^ublished an interesting account 
of his adventures. 

The lake is for the most part surrounded by a wide belt of 
" big saw-grass," through which it is well-nigh impossible 
for human beings to i^enetrate. Camping-places are few 
along shore, very difficult to find, and liable to be sub- 
merged by a change of wind. The water is shallow, rarely 
more than 15 feet deep, but it is drinkable, and there are 
plenty of fish and water-fowl. 

Parties visiting the lake should either make the trip in a 
launch capable of running into the lake and back to the set- 
tlements irrespective of weather, or else in a boat provided 
with good cabin accommodations, ample supplies, and com- 
petent guides. 

The lake ofi'ers few attractions save its mysterious char- 
acter. The shores are low and uninteresting, and except at 
a few points landing is jiractically impossible. Fort Myers, 
on the Caloosahatchee, is the most accessible settlement, 
about 50 miles from the lake shore, though Jupiter and 
Lake Worth, on the Atlantic coast, are really nearer in a 
straight line. Numerous streams flow into the lake from 
the north and west, and there are several small islands near 
the southern end, where the open water gives way to the 
grass-grown Everglades. 

157. The Everglades. 

This vast tract of shallow water thickly overgi'own with 
reeds and grass, lies in Dade, Lee, and Munroe Counties, to 
the southward and eastward of Okeechobee Lake. It is not 
a swamp in the ordinary meaning of the term, but rather a 
shallow lake with a hard rock bottom, and grass growing to 
a height of four or five feet above the surface of the water. 
This sea of grass is studded with numerous islands, many of 
them habitable, and some of them occupied and cultivated by 


the remnant of the Seminole tribes. Through this tract wind 
numerous channels navigable for canoes, which are pushed 
through the grass with setting poles. The Seminole of the 
Everglades hardly knows the use of paddles or oars. The 
Everglades have never been surveyed, though during the 
Seminole wars they were pretty well explored by scouting 
parties, whose business was to catch Indians, not make maps. 
In the winter, the climate of the Everglades is not bad, the 
water is drinkable, the channels are alive with fish, and game 
is abundant. But it is very easy to get hopelessly lost, and 
the labor of following a compass course through the tall 
grass is very exhausting. The Indians are disposed to be 
friendly when not crazed with drink ; but they can rarely 
be persuaded to act as guides to their retreats, and they 
discourage all parties of hunters and explorers from jsene- 
trating the "Glades." Injudicious intrusion upon their 
hunting grounds might easily provoke active resentment, for 
they are well armed, and their tempers are not always an- 

The Everglades are most easily reached from Okeechobee 
by following up some creek, or from Biscayne Bay by as- 
cending Arch Creek, or the Miami Eiver. By this latter 
route a day's excursion may take one well into the edge of 
the " Glades." (See Koute 200.) 

158. Naples, Lee County. 

Lat. 26° IC N.— Long. 81" 54' W. 

Naples is the most southerly settlement on the mainland 
of the Gulf coast. It has a weekly mail service by steam- 
boat from St. James and Punta Gorda, and is jileasantly 
situated on a sandy peninsula with good elevation above the 
sea. The region has been surveyed with a view to its be- 
coming a resort, and strict rules as regards the location of 
stables, etc. , on the streets have been adojited. Miss Eoso 
Cleveland, sister of President Cleveland, was one of the first 
Northerners to acquire proj^erty there, with a view to making 

272 NAPLES. 

it her winter residence. Naples is thirty-eiglit miles south 
of Punta Kassa. 

Miilco, the most southerly settlement on the Gulf coast, is 
on an island thirteen miles south of Naples, and receives its 
mail by special service, which means at irregular intervals, 
or when there is any mail to be delivered. 

South of Punta Eassa the coast is, in the main, uninhabit- 
able, low and swampy, overgrown with mangroves, and in 
short, in process of being turned into dry land by the slow 
methods of nature. The Big Cyjiress Swamp borders the 
coast and merges into the Everglades inland, and into man- 
grove keys toward the Gulf. Here, as elsewhere, great vol- 
umes of water flow outward from the Everglades, and there 
are several goodly streams known to hunters, but whose 
precise location has never been determined. Shark Kiver, 
for instance, was visited by scouting parties during the 
Seminole war, but later attempts to find it proved unsuc- 
cessful, and its very existence is questioned by some recent 
explorers, who claim to have made thorough search. Navi- 
gation along this coast is very difficult, even for small boats. 
The Government is now engaged in making comj^lete sur- 
veys, where none have heretofore been attempted. 

Middle Florida. 

Between the 27th and 30th parallels of north latitude, lies 
the richest section of the Florida peninsula. Parallels of 
latitude, however, do not accurately define its limits. The 
Suwannee River on the noi'th, and the Caloosahatchee on the 
south, more nearly mark the natural boundaries. Within 
this region lie the best agricultural lands, whether for the 
citrous fruits or for the early field and garden crops that are 
becoming now so important for the supply of Northern 
markets. In round numbers, this section embraces an area 
of about 20,000 square miles, a considerable fraction of 
which, including savannas and the like, is unfit for cultiva- 
tion ; and still another fraction is covered by beautiful lakes 
and water-courses which provide natural irrigation and add 
greatly to the attractiveness of the country. The native 
l^ine forest still covers the land from ocean to gulf, save 
where, as along the railways, it has given place to orange 
groves and clearings, or where hammocks vary the monot- 
ony of straight pine-trunks with the gnarled boughs of live 
oak, or a tangle of bays, palms, and wild orange trees. The 
forest land is all of good quality, except where it degener- 
ates into cypress swamps, pine fiats, or hammock so low as 
to be incapable of drainage. To the stranger, much of the 
cleared land looks not unlike an ordinary sea-beach, but 
after he has seen square miles of thriving orange-groves 
growing out of this bare desert, he may realize that Florida 
sand is not like that of other lands. The fact is that this 
soil is very rich in limes and jjhosphates, is often underlaid, 
covered, or mingled with vegetable mould resulting from 
ages of accumulation and decomposition. 

To the ordinary traveller Florida seems a level forest-cov- 
ered plain, varied by occasional ranges of bluffs, and inter- 
spersed with countless lakes. If lie is observant, he will 
notice that above tide-water the streams flow with a strong 
current, indicating a considerable elevation at the source, 
and if he consults the toj^ographical engineers he will learn 
that the central ridge of the peninsula averages several hun- 


drecl feet above tide -water, reaching its greatest height, 
nearly 500 feet, near " Table Mountain," in Lake County. 
In the office of the Plant Investment Co., Jacksonville, is 
a large relief map of Florida that well merits inspection. 
The idea of the map originated with Mr. D. H. Elliott, gen- 
eral agent of the Associated Railway Land Office, and was 
intended to dispel the popular notion that Florida is a mo- 
notonous level. The map is 15 feet by 30, and is jilanned 
on a vertical scale of 50 feet to one inch, and a horizontal 
scale of 2 miles to one inch. To the careless observer the 
disproiiortion between the horizontal and vertical scales is 
misleading, for with identical scales on a map of this size a 
hill of 500 feet would be less than one-fourth of an inch high, 
and, of course, practically invisible. Making due allowance, 
however, for the exaggerated vertical scale, the map conveys 
an excellent idea of the topography of the State. It was con- 
structed by T. C. Leutze for the S. F. k W. Railway Co., 
and was sent to the World's Fair at New Orleans in the 
Avinter of 1884r-85. 

To the tourist or invalid this region ofiers an endless vari- 
ety of attractions in climate, scenery, game, and out-of-door 
life in general. He may ride or walk through open forests 
of pine where there are plenty of quail and a chance for deer 
and turkey ; he may shoot for squirrels in the hammocks, 
and in the wilder regions may secure the pelt of cougar, 
tiger-cat, or black bear. The water-courses are almost all 
navigable for canoes nearly or quite to their sources, and one 
cannot follow one of them far without encountering some 
kind of wild creature, interesting at all events for its own 
sake, and perhaps legitimate prey for rod or gun. 

The great railway systems of Florida cross the midland 
region in all directions. See general map, and for stations and 
distances, consult county maps and context. The St. John's, 
the Ocklawaha Rivers, and the several lake regions of the in- 
terior, afford steam-boat routes tlirougli many of the most 
picturesque regions of the State, including the wonderful 
springs described elsewhere. "Within this section, too, are 
the remarkable phos2)hates recently discovered, which prom- 
ise to add vastly to the wealth and prosperity of the State. 


Within the general boundaries indicated above are three 
regular stations of the U. S. Signal Service, namely, Jack- 
sonville, Sanford, and Cedar Key, representing approximately 
the eastern, inland, and western sections of Middle Florida. 
Observations for temperature have been kept at these stations 
for several years. Taking the average temperatures recorded 
at the three, we have the following result : Spring, 70.3° ; 
summer, 81.2°; autumn, 71.8° ; winter, 57.16°. This state- 
ment for winter does not fairly represent the climate, for, 
in point of fact, the occasional " northers " unduly reduce 
the average temperature, which in fair winter weather is 
from 65° to 70°. From the returns of the same stations, the 
following is approximately the monthly average of clear or 
fair days, when it is pleasant to be out of doors : January, 23 ; 
February, 23 ; March, 27 ; April, 26 ; May, 27 ; June, 25 ; July, 
27 ; August, 27 ; September, 25 ; October, 26 ; November, 23 ; 
December, 26. The Weather Service, how-ever, separates its 
tables of clouds and rainfall, so that, of the 65 days not 
accounted for above, a considerable proportion are not of 
necessity what would be called rainy. 

The average rainfall is as follows: Spring, 9.24 inches; 
summer, 21.36 inches ; autumn, 12.88 inches ; winter, 8.55 
inches. Thus it api^ears that summer is distinctly the rainy 
season, while the winter months, December, January, and 
February have the lightest rainfall. (For comparative 
weather tables see page 377.) 

160. Sanford to Tampa Bay and Port Tampa. 

By South Florida Railroad, 124 miles (5 hours 30 minutes). For stations and 
distances, see pp. 70, 73, 79, and maps of Orange, Polk, and Hillsborough 

For the first forty miles, to Kissimmee, the line runs 
nearly south, bearing a little to the westward. Passing Win- 
ter Park, one of the prettiest places in Florida, and Orlando, 
the busy county town of one of the most prosperous coun- 
ties in the State, the train presently leaves the high rolling 
pine lands and enters upon a comparatively level tract ex- 
tending to the Kissimmee group of lakes. Thence curving 


to tlie westward, it crosses Daveni^ort Creek, a tributaiy of 
the Kissiinmee, and at Haines City enters the Polk County 
lake region, which drains into Charlotte Harbor. At Lake- 
land the train divides, part going southward to Punta 
Gorda (Route 151) and part westward to Tampa and Port 
Tampa, there connecting with the Ward Line Plant Steam- 
ship Line to Key West, Havana, New Orleans, and Mobile ; 
also with coastwise steamers to Manatee River, the Pinellas 
Peninsula, Orange Belt Railway, and the different Bay 
ports (Routes 130 to 142). 

The route passes through four counties, namely : Orange, 
Osceola, Polk, and Hillsborough. For stations and dis- 
tances, see maps and descrijitious in beginning of handbook, 
and consult Contents. 

161. Winter Park, Orange County. 

Population, 600.— Lat. 28° 33' N.— Long. 81° 20' W.— Elevation, 92 feet 
above St. John's River. 

Hotels. — The Seminole. 14 a day. — Rorjers Hotel, f2 to $2.50 a day. 

Railroad.— The South Florida Railroad, south to Tampa and Punta Gorda ; 
the J. T. A K. W. north to Sanford, Jacksonville, etc. Three trains daily. 
The Orlando & Winter Park Ry. to Orlando, 4 miles south. 

2'rainway from station to hotels. 

CAitrc/ies.— Congregational and Episcopal. 

On leaving the train the traveller at once notes an air of 
neatness and thrift in streets, houses, and stores. The busi- 
ness blocks are mainly in the vicinity of the railroad station. 
Elsewhere are charming cottages, often overlooking one or 
another of the several lakes. Well-laid board walks are a 
pleasant relief from the deep sand often encountered, and 
convenient tramways and excellent livery stables afford fa- 
cilities for those who would rather ride than walk. From 
the observatory of the Seminole Hotel fourteen lakes are in 
sight, though some of them can hardly be detected by a 
stranger without the aid of a local expert. The outlook, 
however, covers a most alluring lake region, set in a land of 
wooded hills often rising boldly from the waterside, here 
clothed with the native forest, and there showing the deep 
green and gold of orange-groves. The largest lakes sur- 


rounding the town are Maitlaiid to the north, Osceola and 
Virginia west and south, and Killarney east. Many of these, 
as well as the smaller intervening lakes, are connected by 
channels navigable often for launches, and always for small 
boats, of v.hich there is a good supply at the hotel landings. 
A steam-launch makes two round trips daily through Lakes 
Osceola and Virginia (fare 25c.), a very pleasant excursion. 

The I'ailway to Orlando, after passing between Lakes 
Mizell and Virginia, skirts the north shore of the latter and 
turns southward, crossing a creek to Lake Sue. Then, in 
succession, are Lakes Estelle, Eowena, Formosa, Ivanhoe, 
Highland, and Concord, the last within the borders of Or- 

In the centre of the town is a public park of ten acres, 
surrounding the railroad station, and the general i)lan of 
streets and boulevards is excellent. 

Within easy driving distance is Clay Spring, across which 
strong swimmers strive iu vain to jiass, so powerful is the 
upward rush of water through a dark chasm in the rock. 
Lake Apopka, one of the large lakes of Florida, is twelve 
miles to the westward, and to the eastward is a wide, un- 
settled region, where hunters may find the large and small 
game of the Florida woods. 

Rollins College, situated on a high bluff overlooking Lake 
Virginia, is open from October to May, inclusive. It has 
handsome and well-appointed buildings, and is designed to 
afford facilities for collegiate training to residents and to 
Northerners whose health demands a mild winter climate. 

Winter Park was a wilderness in 1881. It was founded 
and developed by Messrs. Loring A. Chase, of Chicago, and 
Mr. Oliver E. Chairman, of Canton, Mass. 


162. Orlando, Orange County (C. H.). 

Population, 10,000. 

Hotels (rates by the day). — Charleston House, $3. — Magnolia Uoiise, $.2.50 to 
$3. — Wilcox Hoitfc, %'i.— Windsor Hotel, $3. 

Railroads. — South Florida, north to Sanford, Indian River, Jacksonville, 
etc. ; south to Tampa and Punta Gorda. And the Tavares. Orlando & Atlantic 
Railroad west to Tavares, Leesburg. etc. 

Churches.— Koxaiva Catholic, Baptist, Congregational, Episcopal, Methodist. 

JBanks. — National Bank of Orlando. — Orlando Loan aud Savings Bank. 

In location and topographical surroundings Orlando is 
identical with its more rural neighbor, Winter Park ; but as 
a business centre, with the county court-houses, stores, manu- 
factories, and the industrial activities of a rich and product- 
ive region, it has a distinctive and, commercially speaking, 
far more important life of its own. 

From Orlando to Winter Park is a short and pleasant ride 
by rail (4 miles, 25 minutes) or carriage road. To Tavares, 
Leesburg, and Lake Apopka, there is direct and easy com- 
munication by rail, and by the Orange Belt Railway to Tar- 
pon Springs and the Pinellas Peninsula. All kinds of sup- 
plies for hunting and fishing expeditions can be procured to 
good advantage in the city, and guides can be secured for 
extended hunting expeditions toward the headwaters of the 
St. John's River, thirty miles to the eastward. 


163. Kissimmee, Osceok County (C. H.). 

Population (1890), 1,082. Lat. 28" 15' N.— Long. 81" 26' W. 

Hotels.— J'/ic Tropical, $3.50 a, Aay. — The Kissiinmee House, Osceola Hotel, 
South Florida Hotel. Board. $G to $10 a week. 

Railroads.— The South Florida R. R. (J. T. & K. W. System). Sugar Belt 

Steamboats. — To Kissimmee River landings. 

Methodist and Presbyterian churches. 

The Kissimmee Bank. — Good general stores. 

Livery. — Saddle horses, $2.50 a day, smgle teams, $3.50 a day. 

Boats.— Launched, $10 to $15 a day, sail-boats, $3 to S6 a day. 

Guides. — $1 a day or more, according to services required. 

Tlie town is practically at the head of river navigation 
from the Gulf of Mexico, by way of the Kissimmee River, 
Lake Okeechobee, and the Caloosahatchee Eiver. (See 
Routes 156 and IS! and maps, pp. 23 and 77.) It is situated 
at the head of Lake Tohoi^ekaliga (" the lake of the cow- 
pens "), a fine body of water, twelve miles long, and of an ir- 
regular shape, nearly six miles wide at certain jjoints and 
with numerous islands. Its greatest depth is fifteen feet, 
and its normal height above tide-water, 64.59 feet. Five 
miles northeast of Kissimmee is East Tohoj^ekaliga Lake ; 
about five miles wide, irregularly square in shape, and with 
its level slightly higher than that of its sister lake, with 
which it is connected by a canal. These two lakes are at 
the head of what may be termed the Kissimmee system, 
including Lake Cypress (62 feet above tide-water). Lake 
Hatchinea (60.23 feet above tide -water), Lake Kissimmee 
(58.07 feet at tide-water). All these lakes were naturally 
connected by channels little better than marshes, but these 
have been enlarged by the operations of the Okeechobee 
Drainage Co., and it is now possible for steam-launches and 
sail-boats to go through to the head of the Kissimmee River, 
a fine stream flowing southward fifty miles, " as the crow 
flies," to Lake Okeechobee. The actual distance following 
the tortuous river is not accurately known. The drainage 
works have lowered the level of the upper lakes, rendering 
fit for cultivation wide tracts of rich land previously una- 
vailable. Sugar-cane has been planted in large quantities 
along the lake shores ; and early vegetables, notably cauli- 
flowers, have been successfully raised and shipped to the 


Northern markets early in Jannaiy. The other garden crops 
— cabbages, beets, jjotatoes, tomatoes, and the like, are ready 
for market in February and March. 

Kissimmee is a convenient headquarters for sportsmen. 
Reference to the map of Osceola County, p. 72, will show 
that it is a frontier town, with no settlements whatever to the 
south and southeast. There are, in fact, occasional cabins 
and camps throughout the region that appears on the 
maps uninhabited, but in effect it is a wilderness, inter- 
sected with lakes and water-courses navigable for small 
boats, and crossed by trails practicable for teams. 

Guides, boats, horses, and camp equipage may be hired in 
Kissimmee. There is no fixed schedule of i^rices, but favor- 
able arrangements can usually be made through the proprie- 
tor of the Tropical Hotel. The head- waters of the St. 
John's River, running north, are from twenty to thirty miles 
to the eastward. Lakes and branches are known to the 
guides which considerably ]-educe the length of the carry 
between the two streams. It is possible to descend to the 
outlet of Lake Kissimmee, and thence carry over by way of 
Lakes Jackson and Marian to the upper St. John's, which 
is easily navigable to Lake Munroe. (See p. 197.) 

164. Lakeland, Polk County. 

Population, 800.— Lat. 28" N.— Long. 82" W. 

Hotel. — Fremont Hmw-e, S3 a day. 

Rah, WATS. — South Florida and Florida Southern. 

A railway junction of some importance. The jirincipal 
lines from the North cross here, bound for Tampa and Punta 
Gorda. Lakeland is pleasantly situated amidst a cluster of 
pretty lakes, and with an elevation at the railroad station of 
214 feet above the sea (see map, p. 77). Lake Hancock, the 
largest lake in the immediate neighborhood, is 8 miles south, 
near Haskell Station, S. F. Ry. Numerous smaller ponds are 
found in every direction, and good shooting is to be had 
within easy driving distance. Lakeland was settled in. Feb- 
ruary, 1884, under the management of a joint-stock laud 

iJARTOW. 281 

165. Bartow, Polk County (O. H.)- 

Population (1890^ 2,000.— Lat. 2T" 50'.— Long. 81" 53' W. 

Hotels. — Orange Grove Hotel, Willard House, Wright House, Carpenter 
House, $2 to $3 a day. 

Railroads.— The Florida Southern Ry. (Charlotte Harbor Division) to Pnnta 
Gorda. The South Florida Rd. (Bartow Branch) to Bartow, etc. 

Bartow was settled in 1857, and was at first known as Fort 
Blount, from B. B. Blount, of Georgia, who, with John Dav- 
idson, an Irishman, were the first comers. Until the close of 
the Civil War, it was little more than a frontier settlement, 
but it is in the midst of a fine agricultural country, near the 
southern limit of the great " rolling pine " region, with an 
extensive hammock on one side and a prairie on the other. 
Settlers soon began to locate claims in the neighborhood, 
and when the railroad was finished to Punta Gorda, in 1882, 
its ju'osperity became assured. The branch to Bartow, etc., 
was built in 1885, and farther increased its commercial 
facilities. There are Baptist, Methodist, and Presbyterian 
churches and a prosperous school, the Summerlin Institute, 
which at present has about 300 pupils, and is considered 
one of the best in the State. It was founded by Jacob 
Summerlin, who gave the funds required and dedicated the 
institution to "the poor children of Polk County." Bartow 
is near the head-waters of Peace Kiver. To the southeast 
is a flat pine region with numerous lakes and savannas, 
and good shooting extending to the edge of the Kissimmeo 
swamps. To the southwest, some 12 or 15 miles, are the 
sources of the Manatee Biver, flowing through wild ham- 
mock lands tenanted by all kinds of game. Bartow is a 
good headquarters for sportsmen wishing to explore the 
regions indicated. 


166. Plant City, Hillsborough County. 

Population, 300. 

The town stands at the junction of the Florida Central & 
Peninsula and the South Florida railways (see map, p. 3G). 
It is mainly built upon an " oak ridge," with an elevation of 
128 feet above the sea. The underlaying strata are yellow 
and gray sandstone. The first permanent settlement was in 
January, 1884, on the completion of the railroad to this 
point. The Pemberton Ferry Branch leads northward, 
crossing the Orange Belt railway at Lacoochee, and the 
Florida Southern at St. Catherine. The S. F. and F. C. & 
P. railways run westward to Tampa. For stations and dis- 
tances, see p. 48. 

For Tampa and vicinity, see Routes 249 to 252. 

170. Jacksonville to Ocala. 

By J. T. & K. W. Ry. to Palatka, 56 miles (same as Route 40) ; thence by 
Florida Southern Ry., 72 miles (running time 4 hours). There is a choice of 
routes at Hawthorne (Waite's Crossing), where train may be taken down the 
east side of Grange Lake, crossing its outlet, and passing through the great 
o ange-groves of Citra to Silver Spring. The other route is to Ilochelle and 
thence south through a beautiful country, west of Orange Lake, direct to Ocala. 
The route via Rochelle is about 10 miles longer than the other. For stations 
and distances see maps, pages 2 and 62, and tables in context, pp. 4, 5, 63, 64. 

The trip by rail from Palatka westward, by the Florida 
Southern Railroad, is pleasantly varied. After leaving the 
high bluffs in the vicinity of Palatka, the line runs 
nearly due west through a level pine-covered country, in- 
clining slightly to the south and west, the hills reappear in 
the vicinity of Mannville. Lakes are seen in the valleys, and 
oaks, magnolias, bay, and gum trees intermingle with the 
pines. In the clearings orange-groves have taken the place 
of the native forest, especially at Interlacheu (Route 171), 
where they are almost continuous. Near McMeekin the hills 
rise to a noticeable height, interspersed with lakes and wet 
prairies. From the train many attractive homes may be seen 
on the hillsides, with every evidence of prosperous agricul- 


tural industry. At intervals the line crosses five streams, 
some of them in deep ravines. Two miles beyond Mc- 
Meekiu is the line between Alaclma and Putnam Counties. 
At Hawthorne (otherwise Waite's) is the crossing of the 
F. C. & P., running north to Oravge Heights and Waldo, 
south to Silver Spring, Ocala, etc. At Rochelle the line con- 
tinues westward to Gainesville (Route 173). The Ocala train 
turns sharply to the southward. Near liochelle, notice fine 
symmetrical live oaks in the open country. The bays of 
Orange Lake are in sight to the eastward as the train nears 
Micanopy (Micanopy, 6 miles west, Route 175). Two miles 
south of the junction is the Marion County line. The train 
skirts wide reaches of saw-grass bordering Orange Lake, runs 
for miles through heavy timber, cabbage-palms, and grass- 
covered hills. The absence of the saw -palmetto in this 
region renders the open woods very attractive for walks and 
rides. It was a favorite hunting-ground of the native tribes, 
and they made a stubborn fight before they could be driven 
out. * 

Should the route east of Orange Lake be preferred, change 
cars at Hawthorne. The line crosses the lower part of the 
lake, which has considerable area, but little depth. Stop if 
possible at Citra (Route 172), for the orange-groves and 
natural wells, and at Silver Spring (Route 182). 

171. Interlaclieii, Putnam County. 

Hotels. — Hotel Lagonda, $3 a dav. — Lakeview Hotel, 12.50 a day. 
Rahroad.— The F. C. & P. R.R. ' 

Several beautiful lakes are visible from the railroad in 
passing through this region. The two that give Interlachen 
its name are Lagonda and Chipco. The surrounding country 
is fine rolling woodland, \yme and hardwood intermingled, 
and the town itself is very attractive in appearance. It has 
several good general stores, a well-conducted public school, 
and a pretty Congregational church. The great industiy is 
orange growing, as is evident at a glance over the sviiTOund- 
ing hills. A post-road leads northward to Putnam Hall 


(8 miles), Etoniah (l-t miles), and McRae (19 miles), lying 
among a group of lakes near the border between Clay and 
Putnam Counties. 

172. Citra, Marion County. 

Hotel, $1.50 a day. 
Railroad.— The F. C. & P. R.R. 

The orange-groves of Citra are well worth a visit, for they 
are among the largest and finest in the State. So extensive 
are they that one may as easily be lost among the irregular 
avenues as in the neighboring pine-forests. Citra is a station 
on the F. C. & P. Railroad, at its junction with a branch to 
Oak Lawn, a station on the Florida Southern Railway, six 
miles west. Approaching from Hawthorne on the north, the 
line crosses the shallows of Orange Lake after leaving Island 
Grove station, and jiasses through the Bishop and Harris 
orange-groves before reaching the station at Citra. The 
branch railway to Oak Lawn, too, skirts the plantations for 
several miles. The groves lie along the southern shore of 
Orange Lake, within easy walking distance of the station. 
Large packing-houses are beside the railway track, with all 
facilities for ready shipment. Here may be seen all the most 
approved methods of sorting and packing. Tramways lead 
through the groves in all directions — almost a necessity, since 
the trees are often so near together that passage for an or- 
dinary wagon is impossible. These groves are, for the most 
part, budded on wild stock, hence there is no regularity in 
their arrangement. All through the tract stand superb for- 
est trees, some of them dead or dying, and no longer objects 
of beauty ; but they are allowed to stand as a protection 
against frosts and high winds. One may walk or ride for 
miles without once leaving the shade of orange-trees in full 
bearing. From Citra station alone there were shipped, dur- 
ing the season of 1889-90, nearly 250,000 boxes of oranges. 

Near Citra are several of the curious natural wells j^eculiar 
to this region. They are within easy walking distance, and 
a guide can usually be found who, for a trifling fee, or, if a 
white man, for nothing at all, will show the way. 


173. GaineSYille, Alachua Couuty (C. H.). 

Population, 1890. 2,766.— Lat. 29° 40' N., LoiiS- 82° 25' W. 

Hotels.— (Rates by the day.) Arlington Hotel, $2.50 to S3, Brown House, $2 
to f4 ; St. Nicholas, $1 to $3 ; Rockmont Home, S2..50 to .f3. 

Kailroads.— The Gainesville Branch of tlie Florida Southern Ey. (J., T. k 
K. W. System) has its terminus here, with through tains to Jacksonville and 
the North; the Florida Central & Peninsula, S.VV. to Cedar Key, N.E. to 
Fernandina. and the Savannah, Florida, & Western Railroad, N.W. to Way- 
cross, etc. These railways have separate stations, those of the F. S. Ry. and 
the S., F. & W. being adjacent. 

Gainesville was named in honor of General Gaines, who, 
as much perhaps as any man, was instrumental in bringing to 
a successful termination the long war with the Seminoles. It 
occui^ies a " black-jack ridge," the soil being sandy, under- 
laid with clay at a depth of 2 to 20 feet. The locality was 
settled about 1825 by one "Bod " Higgenbottom, but until 
after the Indian War permanent inhabitants were few. The 
surrounding country is very rich, and well adapted to graz- 
ing and agricultural purposes. The East Florida Seminary 
is a military school of excellent reputation. The daily 
drills of the smart gray-clad cadets are well worth seeing, 
and a visit to the seminary buildings and the adjoining bar- 
racks may give the stranger some new ideas regarding the 
educational institutions of Florida. 

During the Civil War Gainesville had but one visit from 
United States troopers. On February 1-4, 1864, Captain 
George E. Marshall, of the Fortieth Massachusetts Infantry 
(mounted), raided Gainesville under orders from General 
Truman Seymour, the same who was so disastrously beaten 
at Olustee one week later. Caiotaiu Marshall's raid was a 
very bold one, leading him far from any possible support. 
He held the place for two days against several attacks, 
and after having distributed among the people of the town 
such Confederate jDrovisions as he could find, he made good 
his escape, rejoining Seymour, who was encamped at Bald- 

Gainesville is the best headquarters for visitors to the 
many natural curiosities of Alachua County. In the imme- 
diate vicinity are numerous lakes, the largest of which, 
Alachua, has a somewhat remarkable history. It occuijies 


what was formerly Payne's Prairie, so named from the chief 
of the local Indian tribe. Through it flowed the surplus 
waters of Newnan's Lake to a point near the middle of the 
prairie, where the whole stream went down into an unfath- 
omed abyss, known to the Indians as Alachua, variously 
translated as " the bottomless pit," or " the place where the 
waters go down." The whites, with excellent taste, took 
Alachua for the county name, but called the chasm the " Big 
Sink." The place became a favorite picnic resort, and par- 
ties of visitors amused themselves by throwing in whatever 
they could lay hands upon, even felling large trees to see 
them disappear. 

The natural result followed in due course, and in 1875 
Alachua refused to swallow any more. Payne's Prairie, 
thousands of acres of rich grazing laud, became a lake, 
and so it remains to this day. It may be that eventually 
Nature will reassert herself, and gradually cut a new sub- 
terranean passage for the waters, which now find their way 
into Orange Lake. Tuscawilla Lake, near the town of Mi- 
cano-pj, on the contrary, was made permanent by the anxiety 
of the owner to prevent the sink, a smaller one than that of 
Alachua, from becoming choked. He attempted to curb it 
with logs, but the bulkhead gave way and the passage be- 
came permanently clogged. 

The Devil's Mill Hopper, another curiosity of similar char- 
acter, is five miles north of Gainesville, a bowl-shaped depres- 
sion about three acres in extent, and 150 feet deep. The 
sides of the bowl are covered with luxuriant vegetation, and 
fifteen springs break from the rock, cascading down into 
a pool at the bottom of the ho^jper, whose level has not 
changed materially since the county was settled. Natural 
wells are found all over the coimtry, especially in its west- 
ern section. They are sometimes full of water, but often dry 
and open to exploration. In diameter they measure two or 
three feet, and are often thirty or forty feet deep, with sides 
as smooth and regular as if cut by the hand of man. 

King Payne, a Seminole chief, conspicuous in the vicinity 
of Gainesville in the first decade of the present century, col- 
lected a band of Indians and runaway negro slaves, and on 


September 11, 1835, attacked a wagon train escorted by a 
party of twenty Americans under Captain Williams. The es- 
cort made brave fight till their ammunition was exhausted 
when the suiA'ivors retreated in good ordei*. General Newnan, 
for whom Newnan's Lake and Newnansville are named, was 
soon on the march to avenge this attack, and met the enemy 
in somewhat superior force on September 26th. Kiug 
Payne was killed early in the fight, and the Indians were re- 
pulsed, but when they learned of their leader's fall they re- 
turned to the attack again and again, in the face of the 
deadly Georgian rifles, and although thrice repulsed suc- 
ceeded at last in forcing the Americans back, and recaptur- 
ing their chief's body. The Americans were so badly cut 
uj) that, after holding the position until October 4th, they 
withdrew, and for the time gave up the attempt to occupy 
the country. 

The Land Office. 

At Gainesville is the United States Land OflBce for the 
State of Florida, and as the Government system of surveys 
is often perplexing to strangers, a brief explanation is here 
given : 

The present system of Government surveys extends through- 
out all the States and Territories, except the original thir- 
teen States and Kentucky, Tennessee, Maine, West Virginia, 
and Texas. It was inaugurated by a committee, of which 
Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was chairman, apiDointed by 
the Continental Congress. On May 7, 1784, this committee 
reported an ordinance which, after much alteration and 
amendment, was finally adopted May 20, 1785. Many sup- 
plementary acts have since been passed, until the system is 
now a model of accuracy, simplicity, and convenience. All 
the maps in this Handbook are divided by a series of parallel 
lines, running east and west, and others in like manner north 
and south, dividing the map into little squares. Each of 
these sqixares is a to'xnship of the public survey, and a knowl- 
edge of their arrangement, the method by which they are 
numbered and subdivided, is a matter of interest and impor- 


As it is not practicable to begin a rectangular system of 
survey ujDon the irregular border of a State, a convenient 
point is chosen within its borders. A base line is established, 
running east and west, also a meridian line, ruiining north 
and south, crossing the base line at right angles. Townships 
are surveyed from tliese lines. 

Shortly after the acquisition of Florida by the United 
States (1821), the intersection of the base and meridian lines 
of the survey was fixed at Tallahassee, that being the centre 
of political interest and influence, though obviously inconve- 
nient for geograjihical reasons, since a meridian line at that 
point could only be about thirty miles long within the State. 
It did very well, however, for a base line, and the long offi- 
cial meridians were laid oflf on the peninsula. On the fold- 
ing map it will be seen that the squares are marked with 
Roman numerals east and west from Tallahassee, while the 
ranges are marked with Arabic numerals north and south 
from the base line, on meridians of about 82' 32', 81° 10', 
80° 15', etc. On the County maps Arabic numerals are used 
throughout as being, upon the whole, more convenient. 

I'owns/iips were first surveyed, and later, were subdivided 
into sections. 

A township is a tract of land six miles square, containing 
thirty-six square miles, or 23,01:0 acres. 

A row, or tier, of townships, running north and south, is 
called a range of townships. 

A section is a tract of land one mile square, forming one- 
thirty-sixth of a township, and containing 640 acres. 

The map of Leon County, page 52, shows the starting- 
point of the Government survey, the base line, the meridian 
line, and the county townships. It may be compared with 
a complete map of the State. The village of " Ferrells" is 
situated, you will find, in township 2, south of the base line, 
range 1, east of the meridian. Centreville is iu township 2, 
north ; range 2, east. The entire peninsula, however, and a 
considerable part of Northern Florida, is south of the base 
line and east of the meridian. Turning to the various coun- 
ty maps, it will be found that Jacksonville is in township 2, 
south ; range 26, east ; Sanford in township 19, south ; 



range 30, east ; EauGallie in townsliip 27, south ; range 37, 
east ; Kissimmee City in townsliip 25, south ; range 29, 
east, etc. 

In like manner, west of the meriflian of Tallahassee, we 
find Quincy in township 2, north ; range 3, west ; and Pen- 
sacola in township 1, south ; range 30, west. 

Subdivisions. — Each township is subdivided into 36 sec- 
tions, each section being one mile square, and containing G-iO 
acres. These sections are arranged as shown herewith in the 
diagram of a subdivided township. 

Each section is, in turn, &x\hi\'\\i(\.eCi\nio quarter -sections ol 
160 acres, and each quarter-section into quarter-quarter-sec- 
tions, of 40 acres each. But wherever the lines of a section 
come out irregularly upon the margin of a large lake, or 
navigable river, or the sea-shore, the broken section is cut 
up into fractional lots. 

Now, should the reader see a description like this, for in- 
stance : Southwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 
7, in township 4, soiith, range 2G, east, he will know that it 
is a forty-acre tract, and he will discover, with the aid of a 
map, that it lies ]ust west of Orange Park, in Clay County, 
on the line of the Jacksonville, Tampa & Key West Kailway. 

A land agent would write the same description in brief, 
like this : S. W. i, of N. E. i, 7-— t— 26, S. & E. 






































Owing to the impossibil- 
ity of absolute accuracy in 
running survey lines by the 
simple process of chaining 
across uneven ground, the 
divisions do not always con- 
tain the exact number of 
acres contemplated by the 
system ; a quartei'-quarter- 
section, for instance, some- 
times contains a fraction 
more or less than forty acres, 
and so on, so that one must 
always inform himself, if 


he wishes to be accurate in the matter of a particular tract. 
This information may always be readily obtained by send- 
ing a letter of inquiry, containing a description of the tract, 
to the United States Surveyor-General, at Tallahassee, or the 
United States Register of Lands at Gainesville. 

171. Jacksonville to Leesburg. 

By J. T. & K. W. Ry. to Palatka (see Route 40) ; Palatka to Ocala (gee Route 
170;; Ocala to Leesbiirg by Florida Southern Railway, 34 miles (whole distance, 
162 miles, running time, 7 hours); or by Fiorida Central & Peninsula (Southern 
Division), 38 miles (whole distance from Jacksonville, 168 miles ; running time, 
6 hours 39 minutes). 

The line of the Florida Southern follov»s a southeasterly 
direction from Ocala, passing near the site of old Fort King, 
established in March, 1827, at the junction of six roads. It 
was attacked by the Seminoles in force April 27, 1840. The 
post was abandoned March 25, 1843. It was to this point 
that Major Dade's command was marching when massacred 
by the Indians in 1835. (See -p. 320.) After passing Lake 
Weir and its adjacent stations (Route 185), the line runs al- 
most due south, crossing into Lake County two miles south 
of Foster Park. Chetwynd and Fiuitland Park will be no- 
ticed as among the most prosperous of the colonies 
in Florida (see Route 190). 

The F. C. & P. follows a more southerly route, passing into 
Sumter County (p. 85) near Dallas, and into Lake County 
about one mile east of Bamboo. At Wildwood the Tampa 
Division continues southward (see Route 140). This station 
was named in 1885 by a pioneer telegraph operator, who, 
finding himself at the end of his wire, reported to headquar- 
ters, dating the despatch "Wildwood," for at that time there 
was nothing else to be seen. From this point the line nins 
a little south of east, through a country lising from level pine 
into rolling hills and hammocks, till the lakes near* Leesburg 
are in sight. 


175. Micanopy, Marion County. 

Hotel. — Tuscawilla, $2 a day. 

Presbjterian, Methodist, and Baptist Chiirclics.— Micanopy High School. 
Livery.- Saddle horses, 50 cents an hour ; $1.50 a day.— Carriages, etc., $1 
to $2 an hour ; $5 to $10 a day. 
Boats can be hired on the adjacent lakes. 

Micanopy is named after a powerful Indian chief of the 
early days, whose village was on the borders of tlie lake, 
within the present limits of the town. They made gallant 
fight for their homes. A military post was established here 
April 30, 1837, and maintained till February 16, 18i3. 
There were sharp fights with Indians on December 20, 1835, 
and on June 9, 1836, prior to the erection of the fort, and a 
formidable attack was made December 28, 1840. Besides 
these engagements desultory bush fighting continued dur- 
ing the whole period. The first settler was Dr. Payne, a 
Virginian, who came here in 1835, and had few neighbors, 
save the post garrison, until after the subjugation of the In- 
dians. Micanopy (accent on the penult) is now a prosper- 
ous town, surrounded by rich hammock lands and productive 
plantations. It is the terminus of a spur of the Florida 
Southern Railway, four miles from Micanopy Junction. 
Good water-fowl shooting and fishing is to be found in 
the several large lakes in the immediate vicinity, and all 
kinds of Florida game abound within a few miles to the 
south and west. There are in this neighborhood vast tracts 
of woodland through which one may ride, drive, or walk all 
day without a beaten trail and rarely seeing a human habita- 
tion. This region was the birthplace of the Indian war 
which involved the whole State. A brief historical sketch 
is appended. 

The Seminole or Florida Wars. 

Shortly after the second war between the United States 
and Great Britain (1812-11), Florida being at the time under 
Spanish dominion, the mixed tribes of Seminoles, Creeks, 
and runaway negroes began to commit depredations on the 
frontiers of Alabama and Georgia. No redress could be ob- 
tained from the Spanish authorities, and British residents 


were not averse to instigating hostilities. At length, in the 
spring of 1818, Generals Jackson and Gaines were ordered 
to carry the war into Florida, which they did so effecttially 
that it was speedily ended. Incidentally the Americans 
were obliged to capture Pensacola and St. Marks, both occu- 
pied by Spanish garrisons, which made only a show of resist- 
ance. Two Englishmen, Arbuthnot and Ambrister, were 
hanged, having been tried by court-martial and found guilty 
of stirring up the Indians to war. The territory was oc- 
cupied by United States troops Tintil Spain evinced the 
intention and ability to restrain the Indians, when our troops 
were withdrawn. The part borne by the two Englishmen 
appears to have been pretty clearly demonstrated, for Great 
Britain never called the United States to account for the 
matter. This ended the First Seminole War. 

The second war was the natural consequence of annexa- 
tion to the United States, and the rush of settlers southward. 
The later periods of Spanish rule were characterized by a 
more jiacific policy toward the Indians than was the case at 
first. So, too, with the period of English dominion. The 
Indians were practically undisturbed so long as they behaved 
themselves, which, it may be added, they generally did, even 
as the scant remnant of the tribe that still haunts the Ever- 
glades is behaving itself to this day, so long as it is left 

With the opening of the country to American settlement 
there came an abrupt change. The aggressive, lawless ele- 
ments of the then frontier States of Georgia, Alabama, and 
Mississippi could now do openly what they had been doing 
for a generation in an underhand way — namely go in and 
possess the land. Nominally certain boundaries were to be 
respected but in practice these were ignored, and in 1822 
Colonel Gad Humphreys was appointed agent to negotiate a 
treaty. At this time the Seminoles numbered about 4,000 
souls all told, including several hundred negro slaves. They 
had their plantations and villages, and though annoyed by 
the encroachments of the Whites they looked for redress and 
protection to their " Great Father " at Washington. 

After some preliminary negotiation, a meeting of chiefs 


and. commissioners was avvangod at Fort Moultrie, five miles 
south of St. Augustine, and a treaty was signed substantially 
guaranteeing certain districts to the Indians. This was in 
September, 1823, shortly after the acquisition of Florida. 
The twelve years that followed gradually led up to open 
liostilities through the usual encroachments on the part of 
the whites, and resistance and sometimes retaliation on the 
part of the Indians. In May, 1832, a treaty was executed at 
Payne's Landing on the Ocklawaha, whereby a considerable 
body of the Seminoles agreed to remove west of the ]\Iissis- 
sippi if on inspection the country proved desirable. Before 
this plan could be carried out, however, the opposing faction 
under Osceola and Micanopy began open resistance b}' mur- 
dering the leader of the friendly chiefs and the unsuspecting 
officers at the agency, and almost simultaneously waylaid 
and massacred Major Dade's command. Then followed 
seven years Qf fighting that seemed at times almost hope- 
less. No one who is unfamiliar with the peculiar topograph- 
ical conditions of Florida can appreciate the difficulty of 
outmancEuvring such a wily foe as the Seminole. Gradu- 
ally, however, they were pushed southward, still fighting 
desperately. The last general engagement was fought on 
Christmas-day, 1837, on the northern shore of Okeechobee 
Lake, a hand-to-hand struggle in the depths of a horrible 
swamp. The Indians were beaten and never afterward faced 
the Americans in force. The war was continued, however, 
by small parties, until 1842, when, their principal chiefs 
having been captured or killed, and their numbers largely 
reduced by surrender and removal, peace was finally se- 
cured. A few hundred determined to make the Everglades 
their home rather than leave their native land altogether, 
and as they could not be caught they were finally allowed to 
remain unmolested. Some of the more important incidents 
of this war are described in connection with the localities 
where they occurred. It cost the United States about 1,500 
lives and §20,000,000 in money to subjugate this gallant and 
in the beginning peaceably disposed race. 

294 o(;ala. 

180. Ocala, Marion County (C. H.). 

Population, 1890, n,400.— Lat. 29" 10' N.— Long. 82" 05' W. 

Hotel. — The O'-nln. |4 a day. 

Railroads. — The Florida Sunthorn Railway (-1., T. 4 K. W. Sy?tem\ north 
to Jaeksonvillp ; soutli to Lcfstui'-rr, etc. Floridu f'cntral & Peninsula Rail- 
road, north to Fcrnandiiw ; soiilh l<i lirdoksvil'.c, I);idc Cty, etc. Silver Spring, 
Ocala .t Gulf Kailway. east to Silver Sprint; and thfOrlilawaha ; west to Uomo- 
eassa (all separate stations, but withlu teu miuutes, fare 2jc.). 

Few inland cities in Florida are more favorably situated 
than Ocala for a iDrosperoiis commercial future. In the 
midst of an exceptionally rich agricultural region, and at the 
junction of important railroads, it would seem that her pres- 
ent prosperity may fairly be expected to increase. Kecent 
discoveries of wonderfully rich phosphate beds in the im- 
mediate vicinity have made her a sort of exchange for trans- 
actions connected with the phosphate interest. The name 
Ocala means, in the Seminole tongue, green or fertile land. 
After crossing the Oklawaha in his march northward, in 
1539-40, De Soto came upon a large Indian village, contain- 
ing, according to the Spanish account, some six hundred 
dwellings. This was Ocali, or Ocala, and De Soto, after his 
usual custom, first made friends with and afterward nearly 
exterminated the peaceably disjDosed natives. It is satisfac- 
tory to know that it cost him a sharp fight. The precise lo- 
cation of the village is believed to have been a short distance 
to the eastward of the present city, perhaps near the site of 
old Fort King, a military post established in 1827 and main- 
tained until 1843. The fort was the nucleus of the early set- 
tlement. It was the scene of the first Seminole attack upon 
a United States post. The Indians had been quarrelling 
among themselves, and had committed some outrages upon 
white settlers, but it was not known that they were on the 
warpath. On December 28, 183-5, they suddenly aj^peared 
at Fort King, waylaying and killing General Thompson, the 
Indian commissioner, and several others who were outside 
the fort. 

Modern Ocala owes its existence to the convergence, since 
1880, of the railroads, and to an incorporated association, 
the Ocala Company, which has built the large hotel and de- 
veloped the resources of the place. In November, 1883, the 

OCALA. 295 

to-wu was almost wliolh' burned, l)ut has been rebuilt on a 
more permanent plan. In the immediate neighborhood of 
the public square are handsome buildings, containing banks 
and shops of all kinds. In 1888-89 the opening of the Semi- 
tropical Exhibition, in a building erected for the purpose, 
attracted to Ocala contributions from all over the State, but 
more especially from Marion and the adjacent counties. The 
resiilt was an exhibition of products that fairly surpassed the 
hojDes of its projectors. Citrus fruits of all kinds were shown 
that had been grown side by side with excellent cereals, and 
the array of native grasses suitable for fodder, of native 
woods of all kinds, and of textile fabrics made from palmetto 
fibre and pine needles, was most interesting and suggestive. 
It is understood that hereafter the exhibition will open every 
other year, alternately with the Subtropical Exhibition at 

Within easy reach of Ocala are numerous points of interest, 
accessible in some cases by I'ail and in others by carriage or 
in the saddle. Among these are : 

Silver Spring (see Route 182), the most famous of all in 
Florida. It is within easy driving or walking distance (5.} 
miles), the road winding mainly through open woods. By 
keeping nearly due east one cannot go far astray, for the 
Ocklawaha cypress swamp presents an impassable barrier 
about 64 miles from Ocala, and the railroad is a safe land- 
mark to the northward. Excursion tickets at low rates are 
sold, including a fascinating trip by steamboat down Silver 
Spring Eun to the Ocklawaha and return. 

Blue Spring (see Route 183). Twenty miles west (1 hour), 
by S. S., O. & G. Ry. Descend Blue S^jring Run (5 miles) 
to Dunnellou and return by rail. The morning train west 
reaches Blue Spring about 8.30 a.m., giving ample time for 
a leisurely voyage down the run, with time to visit the phos- 
phate works, and return to Ocala by afternoon train (con- 
sult local time-tables). There is a good hotel at the 

The Ockhtwalia (see Route 181) may be ascended to Lees- 
burg or descended to Palatka by taking boat at Silver 


Lake Weir (seo Ilonto 157). By F. S. Railway, 32 miles 
(1 hour 45 m.). Boats are lor Lire on the lake, which is 
nearly circular in shape and three miles across. (Hotel, 77<e 
CJiautauqua House.) 

Drives, etc. — In almost any direction there are charming 
drives through open hammock or rolling pine woodland. 
With a suitable vehicle, or on horseback, one may often 
ignore the roads altogether. For explorations of this kind 
a pocket compass is indispensable, as it is impossible for a 
stranger to keep his bearings. Good .shooting may be 
reached -within an hour of the hotel. There is no good fish- 
ing within easy reach, Lake Weir being the nearest of large 
size. In Blue Sj^ring and Silver Sjiring the water is so clear 
that fish can be seen more easily than they can be taken. 
There are numerous small ponds scattered about the vicinity, 
in most of which there are bream, jDerch, etc. 

A good ma]) of Marion County, on a scale of one-half inch 
to the mile, was jiublished by the county commissioners in 
1888. It will be found useful to all who wish to dispense 
with guides. 

181. The Ocklawaha. 

By steamboat. — Palatka to Silver Spring, 135 miles (20 hours). 

The name is Seminole, meaning, freely translated, " dark, 
crooked water." The stream is navigable from its junction 
with the St. John's, twenty -five miles above Palatka, to its 
soiirce in Lake Griffin, about fifty miles as the crow flies, 
but probably two hundred miles as the river runs. There 
are thi'ee points of departure for the Ocklawaha, namely, 
from Palatka, Ocala (near Silver Spring), and Leesburg. 
Tlie usual route is between Palatka and Silver Spring, either 
ascending or descending. The boats are necessarily small, 
but are comfortable, and the service good. The trip occu- 
pies twenty hours, more or less, the conditions of naviga- 
tion rendering piinctuality impossible. To and from Lees- 
burg, on Lake Griffin, adds about seventy miles to the 


The Ocklawalia affords, under comfortable travelling con- 
ditions, an interior view of a great cypress swamp, such as 
cannot otherwise be obtained in Florida. Since the voyage 
cannot be accomplished by daylight, an opportunity is af- 
forded to witness navigation by torchlight under exception- 
ally favorable circumstances. Tlie use of firearms is very 
properly prohibited on all the boats, and as a result the wild 
creatures of the swanijj have become quite fearless, alligators 
often lying still on their favorite logs while the boat passes, 
while herons, eagles, owls, and other denizens of the forest 
hardly take the trouble to flap lazily from their perches. 
"When promiscuous firing was allowed, animal life along 
the river was almost exterminated, and human life on the 
boats was constantly imperiled. The wisdom of jorotecting 
the game must now be evident to all save the most incon- 

The extreme crookedness of the stream, which may be 
likened to a series of capital S's, is such that a i^eculiar re- 
cessed wheel and a double steering gear is necessary. It is 
intei'esting to stand on the upper deck immediately above 
the stern-wheel and watch the operation of the i^eculiar me- 
chanism when turning a sharp curve. The skill of the negro 
pilots, and the strength and endurance displayed by them in 
steering this complicated course is well worthy of notice. 

Some little caution is advisable for passengers on the 
iipper deck, as the rail is often swept by the boughs of trees, 
and serious accidents have occasionally befallen heedless 
travellers. It is only necessary, however, to keep a bright 
lookout. There is always time enough to get out of the 
way, and, when practicable, the boat's officers give warning. 

Canoeists and others contemplating camping expeditions 
along the Ocklawaha should take into account the infre- 
quency of practicable camping places. More than nine- 
tentlis of the distance is through a dense growth of partly 
submerged cypress, and only at a few points does dry land 
approach the channel. 

The following list of landings, localities, and distances 
from Palatka was made out by Captain J. E. Manucy, of the 
steamer Astatula, who began life on the Ocklawaha when 

25) S 


barges propelled by i)oles wei'e the only craft in use, and 
Seminole arrows were always among the chances of the day's 
experiences. The names are mainly those in vogue among 
the bargemen in the early days of pioneer navigation : 


Ila-t's Grove 1 

Rolleston 2-^ 

White's Road 2)4 

San Mateo 6 

Dana's Creek T 

Brown's Lauding 7J^ 

Murphy Island Sti" 

Buffa'o Bluff 9>i 

Hamlin's Old Store 12 

Horse Landing 16 

Satsuma 18 

Kashua 19 

Root's Wnarf 20 

Three Sisters 22 

VVelaka 25 

Mouth of Ocklawaha i'>M 

Double S. S 28 

Boyd's Creek 29 I 

Bear Island 31 I 

Davenport 32 

Toney's Hole 33 

Poo '"Man's Labor (Pinner's) 37 

Narrows 39 

Freeborn's Cut 39)^ 

Riverside 40 j 

Deep Creek 43 j 

Jac 'i Gates 44 \ 

Turkev Creek 45 ] 

Blu3, or Salt, Spring 43 j 

Cedar Landing 50 j 

Jam Log 52 j 

Agnew's Landing 53 

Turkev Foot 54 i 

Fort Brooke 56 ' 

Jordan's Landing 5T 

Orange Creek (O. Spring Land- I 

ing) : 51^' 

Oranse Sprins Shoals 58 

Needle's Eye " 59 . 

Enoch & Collins' Landing 60 

(Here note the re-entrant bends. ) 

Gray's Cut . . 61 : 

McBride's Landing 61M 

Twin Palmettos (west bank) 62 

I-oug Reach 63 Bluff 64 , 

Harper's Ferrv 65 ! 

Bii.' Eddv ...." 66 I 

Matchett's Shoals 67 I 

Tobacco Patch 67^ 


Hart's Secession Camp 68 

Payne's Landing 69 

Douglas Landing 69)^ 

lola 70 

Well's Landing 72 

Forty-foot Biulf 74 

Rough and Ready Cut 75 

Chief's Sign 77 

Log Landing 81 

Eureka Cut-off 84 

Eureka 85 

Cypress Gate 85^^ 

Pine Island 87 

Sunday Bluff 90 

Twin Cypress (east bank) 91 

Bear Tree 93 

Star Island 93}^ 

Suudav Run 94 

Fern Tree 94}is 

Hogau's Landing 95 

Pin Hook 96 

Hell's Half Acre (island) 97 

Park's Landing 98 

Dodger Island 99 

Gore's Landing 100 

Brush-heap 102 

Straits of " Dardin Kenels " 103 

Osceola's Old Field 103 

Durisoe's Landing 106 

Rogers'Cnt .108 

Stua -t Creek 109 

Chitty's Avenue 110 

Palmetto Grove Ill 

Long's Landing 113 

Mill View 114 

Grahamville 115 

Howard's Landing 116 

Shmetavlor 120 

McKro'ikl's Old Field 123 

D.'lk's Bluff 125 

Silver Sprinsr Run 123 

White Oak Laiuliiit,' 127 

HeMngton's Landing 129 

Rogers' Grove 130 

Marshall's Landing .131 

Pasteur's Landinsr 132 

Robinson's Liinding 134 

Turpentine Still Landing 13414 

Jacob's Wells 134>J' 

Silver Springs 135 


182. Silver Spring;, Marion County. 

Hotel. — Silver Springs Hotel, $3 a day. 

Railroad.— The Florida Central and Peninsula, north to Jacksonville (129 
miles), west to Ocala (3 miles). Tickets good in either direction are sold 
from St. Augustine or Palatka. 

Steamers. — To Palatka and Leesburg via the Ocklawaha. (See Route 153.) 

Silver Spring Run. — The cliauge from the dark brown 
water of the Ocklawaha to the crystal transparency of Sil- 
ver Sjiring Enn is almost startling. The run is 9 miles 
long, and clear as the water seems at the mouth it is still 
clearer at the source. There is some reason to believe that 
De Soto visited this wonderful spring on his march of dis- 
covery and conquest in 1539, and if he did so it is hardly to 
be wondered at if he thought he had discovered the verita- 
ble fountain of youth. It is the most famous spring in 
Florida, perhaps because it is the most accessible, for there 
are others that are not unworthy rivals, each having some 
charm peculiar to itself that leaves the visitor in doubt as 
to which is the more beautiful. 

At the ordinary height of water, according to careful 
measurements made by Dr. D. G. Brinton, the spring dis- 
charges daily over three hundred million gallons of 
water, more than three hundred times as much as is car- 
ried by the Croton Aqueduct of New York, and 750 times 
as much as is delivered by the new Liverpool water-works 
at Vyrnwy, Wales. The same observer found the uniform 
temi^erature 72.2° F. The surface level of the spring va- 
ries at different seasons sometimes as much as 3 feet. It 
is ajDt to be highest after the summer rains. At all seasons, 
however, it discharges a stream of suflficient volume to float 
river steamers of moderate size. The water rushes upward 
through dark fissures in the limestone rock, keeping beds of 
white sand in constant agitation. It is "hard" water, not 
good to drink, but of such marvellous transparency that the 
bottom is distinctly visible at depths of 60 to 100 feet. 
There are five principal oi^enings through which the water 
rises near the spring head, and others occur at intervals 
along the run. At one of them, known as "The Bone- 
yard," about two miles down the run, the dismembered 


skeleton of a mastodon has l)cen found. Fully to appreci- 
ate the wonders of this fascinating spot one should explore 
it at leisure in a small boat. Even when seen from the 
deck of a steamer the run affords a strange series of pict- 
ures, the like of which are hardly to be found elsewhere. 
Fish abound in all these springs, but owing to the clearness 
of the water they are not easily taken. 

Every traveller will hear it asserted that the water of Sil- 
ver Spring, as indeed of all oth?r springs of like transpar- 
ency, has a magnifying power. This is obviously a delusion 
where the surface is level, since a curved surface of the 
denser medium, glass or water, is necessary to produce ap- 
l^arent enlargement. Occasionally, in a boiling spring dis- 
torted fragmentary glimpses of magnified objects may be 
caught where the surface momentarily rises to a convex 
form. Even wdien the water is quiet, however, the illusion 
is favored by its very high refractive power, which distorts 
objects not directly beneath the spectator's eye. Thus an 
approximately level bottom seems, when viewed from a 
small boat, to be a hemispherical depression with only a 
foot or two of depth at the rim, but as the boat moves the 
depression seems to move also, the gi'eatest depth remain- 
ing directly beneath the boat. 


183. Blue Spring, Marion County. 

(Post-office, Juliette.) 

Hotel — The Coitarrc Hotel, f2 a clay. 

Sinff^c teams, f 2 to $2.2.5 a day. Double teams. 14 to $5 a day. Boats down 
Blue River. $1, or Si. .50 with oarsman. Stea-m Launch to Dulinellon and re- 
turn, $1 apiece for party, or $1.5 to $20 if chartered for the day. 

Guides, f 1 to $2.50 a "day. 

Blue Spring is a station on tlie Silver Springs, Ocala & Gulf 
Railroad, 20 miles west of Ocala. The spring, named Wekiva 
by the Seminoles and Las Aguas Azul by the Spaniards, is 
one of the most beautiful in Florida, surrounded by an 
amphitheatre of bluffs covered with a fine growth of magno- 
lia, hickory, live oak, bay, and the like, interspersed with 
pine. The spring is 350 feet wide, of a color that varies 
from blue to green, owing to unexplained conditions or 
to individual perception of color. So clear is the water and 
so high its refractive jiowers that, looking from the bank, 
a stranger cannot be convinced that the basin is more than 
three or four feet deep. It is a favorite jiastime among the 
newly arrived to lay wagers regarding the depth and then 
paddle out and take soundings with an oar. The actual 
depth is 25 feet or more. The spring derives much of its 
peculiar beauty from the wonderful vegetation that rises in 
endless variety of color and form along the rocky dykes 
and sand-bars of the bottom. To float upon the absolutely 
invisible water above these fairy-like bowers is an experience 
never to be forgotten. The water boils up through a broad, 
and no doubt a very deep-bed of pure white sand, in vol- 
ume sufficient to forma considerable stream — not nearly so 
large, however, as Silver Spring Run. All along the banks, 
too, are other lesser springs, overhung by ferns and vines 
that rival those beneath the surface of the water. Soon 
after the completion of the railroad a number of loaded 
jiercussion artillery shells were found in shoal water in 
the spring. They were no doubt relics of the Civil War, 
but their presence here has never been accounted for, as 
no military force is Iniown to have visited the i)lace. 

Visitors should not fail to go down the run to Dunnellon, 


either by steam launch or in a row-boat. The distance, 
allowing for tlie windings of the stream, is about 6 miles, 
and the whole trip is a series of surprises. Here and there 
are deep rocky chasms through which fresh volumes of water 
boil upward, and at frequent intervals other springs burst 
from the banks, sometimes utilized to turn water-wheels and 
each i^ossessed of some peculiar charm of its own. The lower 
reaches of the run are bordered with cypresses and fre- 
quented by garfish, turtles, and alligators. Dunnellon is at 
the junction of the "Withlacoochee, and thence, if desired, 
the train may be taken back to Blue Spring. To row back 
against the swift current with such boats as are available 
calls for a good three hours of hard work. 

A word of warning in regard to bathing. The water is so 
pure that its siDecific gravity is low. Hence it is harder to 
swim in. Oue may easily dive to a great dei)th, but it is 
not so easy to reach the surface again, and inexperienced 
swimmers may readily find themselves in trouble. 

184. Dunnellon, Marion County. 

Hotel.— TAc Rcnfro House, SI. 50 a day. 

Railroads.— The Ocala, Silver Springs, and Gulf Railrcad northeast to 
Ocala (20 miles), southwest to Homosassa (28 miles). 

Near the confluence of the Withlacoochee and Blue Riv- 
ers the laud rises into hammock-covered bluffs, affording an 
excellent site for a town. A large tract was acqiiired by a 
land company in 1887, and considerable money was laid out 
in a railway station, cutting avenues through the forest, 
and making the beginnings of a populous community. A 
park was set apart near the junction of the rivers and a 
hotel, church, and schoolhouse were built shortly after the 
completion of the railroad, which here crosses the With- 
lacoochee. The locality is attractive, and the land of excel- 
lent quality. It was not, however, until the summer of 1889 
that the fabulous wealth underlying the soil was discovered. 
There had been some passing excitement in the vicinity con- 
cerning an alleged discovery of gypsum, and every one was 


on the lookout for specimens. Albert Vogt, of Dnnnellon, 
picked up a chalky substance in the hammock, and handed 
it to Mr. J. F. Dunn, who sent it to Ocala lor examination 
by Dr. Rene SnoAvden, a chemist of that jjlace. Analysis 
gave from sixty to eighty-one and a half per cent, of jihos- 
phates, and specimens subsequently found ranged as high 
as ninety per cent. The value of the discovery was at once 
apparent, and the earth was drilled and quarried as if gold 
were sought, instead of a really useful article of commerce. 
The discovery in fact threw upon the market fertilizers of 
such jnirity and strength that for some time it was not 
known how they could be used. The area underlaid by this 
extraordinarily rich deposit is not at this writing clearly do- 
fined. It extends on both sides of the Withlacoochee River, 
in a belt some forty miles long and six to eight miles wide. 
The bed is usually about thirty feet thick, occasionally ex- 
posed, but oftener ten to fifteen feet below the surface. It is 
apjiarentlyan island of exceptionally rich quality, formed by 
some unknown geological alchemy in the vast area of phos- 
phatic rock that underlies the whole peninsula of Floiida. 
That other similar specimens may be found is j^robable, and 
indeed the experimental borings already made have brought 
to light many minerals, of great interest to the geologist if 
not of unsuspected commercial value. 

Aside from the interest of the phosphate works, the visi- 
tor will find the vicinity of Dnnnellon healthful and at- 
tractive. Blue Spring and its outlet (see Route 153) are 
beautiful beyond description. The Withlacoochee affords 
good fishing, and along its banks is game in abundance. 
Oarsmen will do well to remember that the current is swift 
and strong, and that an hour's drift down stream means 
three hours of hard work on the return. It is however a 
pleasant trip to the mouth of the river, 15 miles distant. 
A steam launch is best, considering the return up stream, 
but arrangements can often be made to row down in a small 
boat and return on a river steamer. 

The "Withlacoochee is remarkable in that its general 
course is northerly, like that of the St. John's on the Atlantic 
coast. These are the onlv two Florida streams of anv cou- 


siflerable size that, with their tributaries, run northwaid, 
while between them is the Kissimmee, running almost due 

185. Lake Weir, Marion County. 

Lat. 28" 58' N.-Long. 81° 50' W. 

Hotels. — Chautanqaa Houae, Lake Weir, $2 a day, $25 a month ; La!:e S.'de 
Hotel, South Lake \\e.r. 

Railroads. — The Fonda Southern; sonth to Leesbnrg ; north to Ocala. 
The F. C. & P. Ey. passes 3 miles west of the lake. 

Lake Weir is nearly round, and about three miles in di- 
ameter. This makes no account of two large bays at the 
western end, whicli increase the total length to 5 miles (N.W, 
and S.E. ), and give it a total area of about 6,400 acres. 
From the shores the laud rises into bluffs, often forty 
or fifty feet high, which are largely occuiiied as villa sites 
by winter ]esidents from the North, as well as by permanent 
settlers whose orange-groves stretch back to the border of 
the pine forest. An excellent road makes the circuit of the 
lake, a drive of twenty miles, which can easily be covered 
in three hours. The hotels are well supplied with steam- 
launches and sail-boats, which are for hire at reasonable 
rates. The lake is deep, with clear water and a sandy bot- 
tom, and well stocked with fish. In the vicinity are seven 
post-offices, among which it is desirable to distinguish if 
letters are expected. Lake Weir P.O. is at the north side 
of the Lake. Here are the ' ' Chautauqua " grounds, with a lec- 
ture hall. Hood's Seminary, and stores. Two miles east is 
Ocklairaha Station P.O., through which mns the road from 
Lake Weir to Moss Bluff on the Ocklawaha River (3 miles). 
Three miles south is Eastlalce P.O. Two miles south is 
Staunton P.O. One and a half mile farther south is Foster 
Park P.O., and south of this again. South Lake Weir P. 0. 

In the soiithwestern part of the lake, nearly completing 
the circuit of the shores, are four islands, two of them of con- 
siderable size and under cultivation. West of these islands are 
the broad bays above referred to, and at frequent intervals 
along the shores of lake and bays are charming country seats 
and rich plantations. Between the larger lake and the Ockla- 


waba, on a strip of land some four miles wide and six miles 
long, are thirty or more small lakes and ponds, offering a 
pleasing variety to sportsmen who love an all-day tramp 
with rod or gun. 

190. Leesburg, Lake County (C. H.). 

Population, 1890, 1,200. 

Lat. 28° 45' N.— Long. 81° 53' W. 

Hotels. — Union, Central, Lake City. Leeshurg, $2 a day ; $8 to $10 a week. 

Railroads. — Florida Central & Peninsula, to Ocala, Jacksonville. Tavares, 
etc. Florida Southern to Jacksonville, Brooksville, Punta Gorda, etc. 

Steamboats daily to all points ou the lakes ; weekly down the Ocklawaha 

Saddle horses, 25c. an hour, $2 a day. Single team, 50c. an hour, S3 a day ; 
double team, 75c. an hour ; $4.50 a day. 

Kow-boats, 50c. a day. Sail-boats, 50c. an hour ; $5 a day. 

Guides for hunting and fishing. Special terms are made according to extent 
of trip. 

Leesburg was practically built up around the County 
Court House which was placed here in 1868, as a compro- 
mise between the claims of adjacent towns. There were 
only two or three settlers' cabins on the isthmus at the time, 
and for several years jjrogress was almost impercejatible. lu 
1885 the first railroad came, followed in 1887 by others, and 
since then its growth has been very rajjid. 

The Cential Lake region of Florida includes Lakes Apop- 
ka (73 sq, miles), Harris (28 sq. miles), Griffin (15 sq. miles), 
Eustis (13 sq. miles), Dora (9 sq. miles). Little Lake Harris 
(8 sq. miles), Yale (8 sq. miles). Lakes Harris, Griffin, and 
Eustis (see map, page 46) are close together, with Leesburg 
on a neck of land between Griffin and Hariis. Lake Apop- 
ka,-the largest of the group, is 4 miles southeast of Lake 
Harris. Besides these larger lakes there are numerous 
smaller ones in the immediate vicinity. The country sur- 
rounding Leesburg is in the main rolling pine laud inter- 
spersed with hammocks. Bold bluffs are of frequent occur- 
rence along the lake shores, some of them still covered with 
the native forest, others showing the regular dark-green 
rows of orange-groves. lu the immediate vicinity of Lees- 


burg there is a considerable extent of cleared land devoted 
to the various garden crops as well as to oranges, lemons, 
limes, and the like. 

Five miles northwest of Leesburg, near the shore of Lake 
Grifliu, is Fruitland Park, where one of the most successful 
r of the English colonies is established. It numbers now 
nearly 100 members, has a club, and is already an attractive 
place for young Englishmen who find no satisfactory ojien- 
ing at home. Full information may be obtained from Sta- 
l^ylton & Co., Fruitland Park Colony, Polk County, Florida. 

Excursions by boat on the lakes are among the attractions 
of Leesburg, and the railroad facilities are such that many 
interesting localities as, for instance, Lake Apopka, Lake 
Weir, Lake Eustis, Mount Dora, and Fort Mason, may be 
easily reached. By consulting the local time-tables return- 
ing trains may be met at some other station. Thus one may 
take the early train to Tavares, hire a boat, spend the day in 
sailing and fishing, and catch the Leesburg train at Fort 
Mason. Fairly good roads follow the shores of all the lakes, 
as nearly as the conformation of the land permits. It is an 
all-day ride or drive around any one of these lakes, and 
somewhat monotonous withal, but there are fine forests — 
pine and hardwood, occasional clearings or outlooks over 
the lake, and with proper jjrovision for a midday picnic such 
a trip may be very enjoyable. 

All, or nearly all, the lakes in this vicinity are of clear pure 
water with sandy bottoms, and are well stocked with the 
usual fresh-water varieties of fish. Alligators, while not so 
abundant as formerly, may be seen sunning themselves any 
warm day along the lake shores, and water-fowl are plenty in 
the season, though always wild. 

Lake Aj^ophn, the second largest in the State, is 18 miles 
long and 11 miles wide. It may be reached from Leesburg 
by rail to Apopka station or through a canal from Lake Har- 

LEESBURG. 3(1"; 

Dade's Massacre. 

The first active outbreak of the Seminole \i-ar vcas on No- 
vember 2G, 1835, when a friendly chief, Charley Emathla, 
was killed near Micanopy at the instance of Osceola, leader 
of the hostile party. Thereupon he began a series of at- 
tacks upon solitary settlements, culminating -in the assassina- 
tion of General Thompson and his companions near Fort 
King, and the annihilation of Major Dade's command in 
the Wahoo Swam}:). Dade left Fort Brooke, on Tampa Bay, 
December 24, 1835, with reinforcements for Fort King, 
near Ocala. The old military road ran a little north of east, 
crossing both branches of the Withlacoochee, and skirting 
the edge of the extensive swamps surrounding the forks of 
the river, a favorite retreat of the Indians when hard pressed. 
The command consisted of Captain Gardner's company of 
the Second Artillery, and Captain Frazer's, of the Third In- 
fantry, 110 strong all told. It was not known to the officers 
that hostilities had actually begun at the north, and no pre- 
cautions were taken to guai'd against ambuscade beyond 
marching with loaded pieces. At ten o'clock on the morn- 
ing of December 28th, the command was passing through 
the pines and scrub jDalmetto, with a savanna of tall grass on 
the right, close to the road. From a dense growth of pal- 
mettos a withering fire was delivered by a large party of 
concealed Indians, at a distance of 50 or 60 yards. Major 
Dade was killed at the first fire, and although the column 
was temjiorarily thrown into confusion, the men at once 
rallied and cleared the palmettos with their bayonets, rout- 
ing the Indians for a time. Captain Gardner, now in com- 
mand, took advantage of the moment's respite to drag a few 
logs together, forming a low, triangular breastwork, and be- 
hind this every man lay down, loading and firing as best he 
could till killed or disabled. There they all lay when a 
searching expedition reached the place, six weeks later, 
every man in his place, and most of them with their car- 
tridge-boxes empty. One private soldier, Thomas by name, 
who w'as wounded at the first firs, concealed himself in the 
scrub and reached Fort Brooke the next day. Two others. 

308 LKESHuim. 

severely wouuded, were overlooked in the final massacre 
and dragged themselves sixty-five miles through the woods, 
reaching the fort two or three days later. Their accounts 
agreed with those of a chief subsequently captured, to the 
eifect that nearly half the detachment fell at the first fire. 
The dead numbered 8 officers, 97 non-commissioned officers 
and privates, and 2 civilians, 107 in all ; 3 men barely es- 
caping with their lives. 

So completely did the Indians overrun the country after 
this that, although their main body of warriors was badly 
punished by General Clinch, just below the forks of the 
Withlacoochee, on December 31st, the news of the massacre 
was not known at Fort King till February. The garrison at 
Fort Brooke was not strong enough to venture out, and it 
was not till early in that month that General Clinch was 
sufficiently reinforced to resume the offensive. On the 20tli 
he visited the scene of the massacre and buried the remains 
of the victims, most of whom lay where they had fallen. In 
1842 these were disinterred and removed to the mili- 
tary burial-ground at St. Augustine. Francis Langdon 
Dade was a Virginian, Brevet Major of the Fourth Infantry. 
He was in command of the fated detachment because he 
had volunteered to take the place of Captain Gardner, whose 
wife was dangerously ill at Fort Brooke. Mrs. Gardner, 
however, was sent to Key "West, and her husband hastened 
after his company in time to resume his place at its head 
and die with the rest. 

The scene of this massacre is about 4 miles north of Dia- 
gem Junction, at the crossing of the F. C. & P. and the F. S. 
Railroads. (See crossed sabres on map, page 86.) 

Sub-tropical Florida. 

South of Latitude 27 N. 

Wherever the cocoa-palm will grow and bear fruit per- 
ennially for a generation or two, the conditions may be 
said to be sub-tropical. In Florida the northern limit may 
be placed at Jupiter Inlet for the Atlantic Coast, and at 
Charlotte Harbor for the Gnlf. In other words, sub-tropical 
Florida is that portion of the peninsula that lies south of 
the 27th parallel. This includes Lake Worth and the Char- 
lotte Harbor region, which have been described respectively 
under Parts I. and II. of the Handbook. 

At present, Biscayne Bay and the Florida Keys are jjrac- 
tically the only inhabited and accessible jiortion of sub- 
tropical Florida. The rest is a wilderness, with here and 
there a hunter's cabin or an Indian camp. By far the great- 
er part of the mainland is uninhabitable, and many of the 
Keys are awash when there is a high spring tide, or a strong 
wind setting shoreward. Others of them, however, are 8 or 
10 feet above high-water mark, and are capable of cultiva- 
tion, making delightful sites for winter residences, well 
south of the frost line, and readily accessible. The main- 
land abounds with springs and streams of fresh water, most 
of it more or less impregnated with lime. The water of 
Okeechobee and the Everglades is drinkable, as are also the 
streams that flow therefrom. Almost anywhere in this re- 
gion fresh water may be obtained, by drilling into the soft 
calcareous rock to a depth of 15 or 20 feet, sinking a pipe 
therein and fitting a pump on top. The water is at first 
impregnated with lime, but this largely disappears with 
use. On most of the Keys, rain water or distilled water 
is preferred for drinking. 

Signal service observations at Key West, since 1870, give 
mean temperature as follows : Sjiring, 76,9" ; summer, 83.8° ; 
autumn, 78.8° ; winter, G8.3°. These were noted early in the 
morning, in mid-afternoon, and at eleven o'clock at night. 
The average rainfall for the same period was : Spring, 6.10 


iuclies ; summer, 13.47 inches; auhimn, 14.80 inches; winter, 
5.94 inches. The higliest recoftled temperature "was 97^ 
(Juno, 1880), and the lowest was 44° (December, 1878). 

At the recently established signal station at Jupiter, near 
the northern limit of the sub-tropical region, the averages 
thus far stand as follows : Spring, 72.4° ; summer, 80° ; 
autumn, 75.7° ; winter, 69.4°. Annual mean, 73.9°. 

200. Biscajne Bay, Dade County. 

Lat. 25° 25' to 25° 5(;' N.— Long. 80° 10' W. 
Hotel. — Bay Vien\ at Cocoaimt G.ove, $10 a week. 

Boats. — Good-sized sloop or j-avvl with two men, $50 a month. Sailboats $2 
a day. Few good rowboats. 
Means of access. — Sailing vesse'.s from Key West. 

If natural advantages of climate, location, and surround- 
ings are alone to be considered, Biscayne Bay may challenge 
comparison with any part of Florida. At present the only 
stated means of access is by way of Key West, whence mail 
boats sail once a week. The trip (about one hundred and 
fifty miles) may be made in a day, or it may take a week. 
This is the only nominally " regular " passenger traffic. A 
small steamer, the lola, has been advertised to run from Key 
West to Miami, but no details of its actual sen-ice are at 
hand. It is understood that the Key West and Havana 
steamers from New York will land freight and passengers at 
Cape Florida as soon as paying returns are assured. 

The present inaccessibility of the bay excludes it from the 
list of jjopular resorts, and its beauties and attractions are 
known only to a few appreciative yachtsmen, hunters, fish- 
ermen, and winter residents. 

Lying along the southeastern curve of the great peninsula, 
it is on the very edge of the Gulf Stream, and separated 
from it only by a slender line of coral reefs and islands. 
The trade wind blowing from the ocean keeps the day tem- 
perature in fair weather at an avei'age of about 73° F. The 
habitable part of the mainland is a ridge of coralline rock, 
often not more than four or five miles wide, that separates 
the bay from the everglades. 

biscayist: bay. 311 

Through this ridge, at several different points, streams of 
•nonderful beauty have cut channels through the rock, and 
all along shore there are boiling springs of greater or less 
energy, yielding j^ure, soft water in unfailing abundance. 
The bay itself is about forty miles long by six miles wide. 
It is separated from the ocean by a long peninsula that 
reaches southward from the mainland until the sea breaks 
through at Norris Cut and Bear Cut, forming Virginia Key 
and Key Biscayne. The southern extremity of the latter is 
known as Cape Florida, and is marked by a fine old light- 
house tower, and the ruins of the keeper's house. The light 
was discontinued on the completion of the Fowey Rocks 
light, six miles southeast. The premises, with their pict- 
ures pie ruins, are now leased from the Government by the 
Biscayne Bay Yacht Club, whose headquarters are at Cocoa- 
nut Grove, just across the bay. South of this cape is the 
main oijening between the bay and the ocean, a broad pas- 
sage five miles wide, full of shifting sand-bars, but with 
several good channels, through which vessels of ten feet 
draught may pass at low w^ater. 

In the bay itself are, alternately, sand-bars and wide 
reaches of navigable water, rendering navigation difficxilt for 
all save sharpies and boats of very light draught. There 
is, however, deep water and a good anchorage just inside 
the cape, and ten feet draught may be carried through the 
mid-channels of the bay. 

Cocoanut Grove (P.O.) is the most considerable settlement 
on the bay. Here is the only hotel south of Lake Worth, 
and here the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club has its headquar- 
ters. Several Northern yachtsmen spend the winter months 
in this delightful haven, where as good hunting and fishing 
is to be found as anywhere in Florida, and where the north- 
ers are tempered by the everglades on the one hand and the 
ocean on the other. 

Miami (P.O.), lately the county seat, is at the mouth of 
Miami Eiver, the site of old Fort Dallas, a considerable 
military post during the Seminole War. It was established 
in January, 1838, and abandoned June 10, 1858. The ruins 
of the old fort, with some of the barracks, still standing and 

'>i'2 BIS(L\YNE HAY. 

occupied as dwellings, are on the north side of the river. 
On the south side are several houses and a store, the latter 
being in effect an Indian trading station, where the Semi- 
noles barter alligator hides from the Everglades, and dispose 
of such other trojjhies of their lifles as are not needed for 
home consumiition. It is not uncommon to find two or 
three canoes moored at the wharf, with an indefinite number 
of squaws and papooses on board, and a sujjijIv of fresh meat 
in the shape of turtles, and a live pig or two. In the woods 
between Miami and Biscayne, sj^ecimens of the Royal Palm 
{Oreoduxa Regia) are found growing wild, and the curious 
"gumbo limbo," or West Indian birch (Bitrsera gummifera), 
is of frequent occurrence. 

The Miami River. — For about four miles from the bay the 
stream is from 150 to 200 feet wide, and may be ascended by 
sailboats. It divides into the north and south forks about 
three miles from the mouth, both of them swift, clear 
streams. The north fork has imjiassable rapids, but the 
south fork can be ascended in small boats to its outlet from 
the Everglades, about six miles from the bay. The grasses 
and other aquatic plants that cover the bottom of the stream 
are wonderfully beautiful in their varied color and graceful 
movements as they are swayed to and fro by the clear rush- 
ing water. Sailing about the bay in any direction with a 
suitable shallow-draft boat is the jjerfection of smooth- 
water cruising. Among the points of especial interest are 
the following ; distances are given from Cocoanut Grove. 

Biscai/ne Baif House of Refuge (12 miles). — This station is 
situated on a lonely beach about seven miles north of Norris 
Cut. There is good shooting in the hammock and along the 
ridges at Bay Biscayne. Three miles south of the station is 
the Crocodile Pond, a small, land-locked pool midway be- 
tween the bay and the ocean, which, for some reason, is the fa- 
vorite resort of the crocodile (Crocodilus Acutxs, Floridiensis), 
as distinguished from the common alligator of the fresh- 
water swamps. The principal difference is in the sharper 
nose, more formidable teeth, and fiercer disposition of the 
crocodile, and in the different articulation of his jaws, both 
of them being hinged, whereas in the case of the alligator 

biscayjS'e bay. 313 

only the lower one is liiuged. The alligator is rarely 
dangerous, but the crocodile, it is said, will attack a man if 
he thinks he has a reasonable chance of success. For this 
reason strangers are recommended to exercise some caution 
in visiting this pond. 

Arch Creek (15 miles). — Near the head of the bay. A 
wonderfully beautiful stream, flowing in a strong, deep cur- 
rent through a wide tangle of mangroves near its mouth. 
Two miles up the stream divides. Follow north fork about 
one-half mile to cliffs. Here the stream has worn a jjassage 
throiigh the coralline rock. Cliffs rise at times twenty feet 
or more above the water, draped with a luxuriant growth of 
vines, air-plants, mosses, wild figs, and a x^erplexing wealth 
of troi^ical vegetation. Three miles from its mouth the 
stream flows beneath a wide, low arch of rock, under which 
a boat may jiass at ordinary stages of the water. Arch Creek 
may be ascended to the Everglades, two miles above the arch. 

Bluff Rocks (.3 miles). — This range of cliffs has not its like 
in Florida. Rising abruptly from the water's edge, midway 
between Cocoauut Grove and Miami, it is the most conspic- 
uous natiaral landmark on the bay. The i^i'eciiaitous part of 
the bluff is a little more than one mile long, and at its high- 
est about thirty feet above the water. Of course, this height 
would be insignificant in a hilly country, but in Florida it is 
sufficiently remarkable to be famous. The water is shallow 
at the foot of the rocks, but a landing may be effected in a 
small boat, and the cliffs can be climbed almost anywhere. 
Along the to}) of the cliff is a dense hammock growth, with 
wild groves of orange and lime trees, in full bearing. Here 
and there are ruins, apparently of civilized abodes, and at 
the foot of the cliff near by is the Punch Bowl, to which 
stone-cut stejis lead, and which evidently fui-nished the water- 
supply for these forgotten first settlers. No record exists of 
Spanish occupation, but it seems most reasonable to suppose 
that there was here either a missionary station or a piratical re- 
treat, and in either case Spaniards were j^robably responsible. 

Soldier Key, Elliotfs Key, and Fowey Rocks Light are all 
within easy sailing distance of Cocoanut Grove. On the first 
named are buildings originally erected by the workmen en- 


gaged in constructing Fowey Eocks lighthouse. They liave 
been transfoiTed to the Fish Commission with a view to ex- 
jierimenting in sponge-culture. On Elliott's Key are fine 
plantations of pineapples, and inside this and the neighbor- 
ing keys men are at work gathering and curing the sponges 
that grow in abundance in the waters of the bay. In shel- 
tered positions at the different inlets or " cuts" where the 
tide runs strong are of^en seen square pens or " kraals," 
W'here the sponges are left for a time to be washed by the ebl) 
and flow, and partially bleached by exposure to the sun. 

Fowey Kocks Lirjht (Lat. 25^ 85' 25" N., Long. 80" 5' 41" 
W.) is a pyramidal iron structure standing in about five feet 
of water on the northern extremity of the dangerous Florida 
Reefs. The lantern is 111 feet above the sea-level, and 
shows a fixed white light visible 16^ nautical miles. Tlis 
lighthouse was completed in 1878, and takes the jilace of the 
old tower on Ca[)e Florida, the location being better for 
the purposes of navigation. Formerly these rocks were 
called the " Looe," jwobably a corruption of " Les Loups," 
the wolves, and tradition has it that a frigate was lost 
here in the early days. It is even said that under favoi-able 
conditions her submerged guns and some of her timbers can 
still be seen. 

Walks, etc. — There are no roads in the vicinity of Bis- 
cayne Bay, save a few very rougii cart-paths in the immediate 
vicinity of the settlements. The walking on the ridge separa- 
ting the sea and Everglades is indescribably diflicult and 
even dangerous, owing to the disintegrated rock that covers 
the surface. The stoutest of boots are needed for pedestrian 
excursions, and not even these will last long. The walk 
across the ridge to the Everglades and back is a hard day's 
work, and should be undertaken only by the strong and sure- 
footed. The beaches of Key Biscayne, Virginia Key, and 
of the peninsula to the northward afford good walking and 
are always interesting. So, too, are occasional stretches 
of beach on the mainland to the southward. On one of 
these, about six miles south of Cocoanut Grove, and about 
one-half mile north of Shoal Point, is a bed of singing sand 
that emits a musical note under foot. 


Tai'i^on abound iu Biscayiio Bay, but have not at this 
writing been taken witli the rod. The kingfish is taken by 
trolling or even with the rod just outside the reefs. Spanish 
mackerel, sea-trout, pomi^ano, and the more common kinds of 
salt-water fish abound in the bay, while bass, bream, and the 
usual fresh-water varieties are caught in the various streams. 

Water-fowl are for the most part very shy, as they are shot 
at all the way down the coast on their long journey from 
Labrador. They are abundant, however, and may be shot 
with due exercise of skill and patience. There are plenty 
of quail in the woods and jirairies, but without dogs it is 
wellnigh impossible to find birds that fall in the scrub. Deer 
in considerable numbers find pasturage along the border of 
the prairies and everglades, but they are very shy and are 
persistently hunted by the Indians. 

Yachtsmen intending to winter in these waters should not 
be misled by any preconceived ideas in favor of keel-boats ; 
such craft are worse than useless. The sharpie, with not 
more than three feet draught of water, is the only boat suit- 
able for pleasure-cruising about the Florida Eeefs and adja- 
cent inland waters. 

201. The Florida Reefs, Monroe County. 

Between Lat. 24° 32' 58" and 25° 35' 25" N., and Long. 80' 4' 48" and 
81° 48' 04" W. See map of Monroe County. 

Weekly mail and passenger schooners from Key West and Biscarne Bay ^vill 
land passengers anywhere. Rise and fall of tides, where given, "is from the 
Coast Survey tables, but must be taken with allowance for changes of wind, 
which often makes a difference of several feet. 

"Within a very few years after Columbus landed at San 
Salvador, the Florida Eeefs began to levy tribute on Euro- 
jjean commerce. So intricate were their channels, and so 
powerful the sweep of currents, that the long line of coral 
islands, rocks, and reefs soon earned the name of " The Mar- 
tyrs." They keep up their re^nitation fairly well to this day, 
notwithstanding the lighthouses and beacons that now 
mark the channel from Cape Florida to the Dry Tortugas. 

The general formation of the reefs, as shown on the map, 
would seem at a superficial glance to indicate that they have 


been formed by a powerful current sweeijing southward 
through the straits. In reality, the current sets in the op- 
posite direction, at a rate varying from two to five miles an 
hour, but it is none the less responsiVile for the formation of 
the reefs. 1'ho warm waters of the Mexican Gulf and of its 
outflow, the Gulf Stream, are highly favorable to the life and 
work of the " coral insect" and his lime-making co-laborers. 
Accordingly, after laying the foundation of the Florida Pen- 
insula, they have by successive stages built the limestone 
dams that now confine Okeechobee and the Everglades, have 
gone far toward completing another similar concentric dam, 
represented at present by the long line of wooded keys, 
just off the coast, and have the groundwork of still another 
dyke well under way in the dangerous reefs that now fringe 
the edge of the Gulf Stream. The current is now so jiower- 
ful that the present line of reefs is probably destined to be 
the last of the series. 

' ' Coral Insect," by the way, is a grievous misnomer ; 
for this tiny creature is a polyp, and the lime that he secretes 
forms part of his person — a kind of skeleton, as it were — 
which he outgrows and leaves behind him in the shape of 
solid carbonate of lime. His popular English name, how- 
ever, is " coral insect," and such it will probably remain in 
spite of science, which classifies him as radiate, and divides 
the family into Asti-ceayi Poriles, and 3I(pandrmas (differ- 
ent kinds of "brain corals "), and Madrepores (branch corals). 
All these, with numerous subdivisions, are found alive and 
busy along the reef. In former ages they were at work far 
to the north of their present habitat, but, perhaps largely as 
the result of their own labors, the conditions changed, the 
sea-sands were swept in, and living Florida corals are now 
found only at the edge of the Gulf Stream. 

The coral maker and the mangrove are close allies in the 
work of continent building. The first, by some mystei-ious 
process, extracts lime from sea- water and covers the bed of 
the sea with a forest of branches in which all sorts of sea 
Ijlants and creatures become entangled and die, and in the 
course of time are. entombed in the solid lime. The work- 


er stops buildiug only when he reaches the sea-level (low- 
water mark), aud then the ocean begins to pile up loose ma- 
terial, broken coral and the like, on the reef. Some day, 
when the wind is off shore, a little round, cigar-like stick, 
floating vertically, for it is ballasted at one end, drifts uioon 
the shallows. Its weighted end finds lodgement as the 
tide falls. Before next high-water, it is fast anchored, the 
rootlets growing with surprising raiDidity, and penetrating 
the crevices of the rich lime rock prepared by the coral mak- 
ers. Other brown cigar-like sticks follow this pioneer, and 
in a few years the bare reef has become a mangrove key, 
collecting the flotsam and jetsam of the ocean to form hab- 
itable land. When the mangrove can no longer j'each salt- 
water, it dies, decays, adds its quota to the rich top-dressing 
of the coral, and then the wind and the sea bring cocoa- 
nuts, pine-cones, acorns, and the like, and in a generation 
or two, the bare coral key is covered with a thriving ham- 
mock growth, and is ready for human habitation. 

Tlie late Professor Agassiz discredited the jiopular theory 
that the formation of So'uthern Florida is aided by slow geo- 
logical upheavals. His strongest argument is that the high- 
est levels of keys and main land are practically uniform, 
about twelve feet above the sea-level, closely con-esiDonding 
to the height of hurricane waves ; whereas, if geological 
upheaval had been at work, the inland reefs would be per- 
ceptibly higher than those of more recent formation. Such 
an exceptionally high coral ridge as the Bluflf Kocks, ou 
Biscayne Bay, are merely local, and can be reasonably ac- 
counted for as the result of an earthquake. The coral keys 
are always highest toward the sea, sloping away gradually 
toward the mainland. 

Careful observations and measiirements on submerged 
masonry at Fort Taylor (Key West), and at Fort Jefferson 
(Tortugas), indicate that solid coral forms at the rate of about 
six inches in a century. This rate, however, may be safely 
doubled in the case of exposed reefs, to allow for accumula- 
tions. As the present outer reef averages seventy feet in 
height, it should have been about 7,000 years in building, 
and each of tlie interior reefs, seven of which have been 


traced between the shore bluffs and Lake Okeechobee, was 
probably nearly finished not far from the time when its neai*- 
est outer neighbor was begun. The rock of the oldest reefs 
that have been found is identical with the most recent, and 
on the above basis of calculation the ridge that encircles 
Okeechobee must have been begun at least 70,000 years ago, 
and the microscope jn-oves that the builders and their meth- 
ods were precisely the same then as now. 

The animal life of the keys and adjacent waters is wonder- 
fully pi'olific and interesting. Fish of all kinds abound, 
from the great Jewfish, bonita, kingfish, and the like, down 
to the delicate and beautiful angel-fish, and many-colored 
dwellers among the mangrove roots. Crustaceans are found 
in great variety, inchiding " crayfish " as large as lobsters, 
but without the formidable " nipj^ers." They are very 
abundant, and are excellent for the table. Sea-turtle are 
taken in large numbers ; all kinds of water-fowl nest among 
the mangroves, and large game, bears, wild-cats, cougars, 
deer, and turkeys haunt the wooded keys. 

There is deep, navigable water between the outer reef and 
the keys, and even to some extent between the keys and 
the mainland. Pilots, familiar with the ground can carry 
vessels of moderate draft through the inside j^assage, but 
for strangers or amateurs the only enjoyment lies in light- 
draft sharpies or similar craft, which can make a harbor be- 
hind almost any of the keys in heavy weather, or if stranded 
on a mud-flat by a change of wind, will rest comfortably on 
an even keel until floated off. These intricate channels and 
safe harbors among lofty mangroves were well known to the 
pirates and freebooters of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and 
even of the early nineteenth centuries. It is iDOi:)x;larly sxip- 
posed that their successors, the fishermen, spongers, and 
wreckers of to-day are pirates wjien they have the chance, 
but in reality, while there are desperate characters among 
them, they are upon the whole a benefit to commerce, often 
saving the cargoes of stranded ships, and sometimes even 
floating off the vessels themselves. No doubt they consider 
a wreck strictly from a business point of view, and claim full 
salvage, but they stand in wholesome fear of the revenue 


service and are generally careful not to transgress their law- 
ful rights. 

Virginia Key and Key Discayne separate Biscayne Bay 
from the ocean. They are covered -with sea-sand, are over- 
grown with vegetation, and have lost ilieir true character as 
coral keys. The soutiiern end of Key Biscayne is Cajjo 
Florida. The abandoned lighthouse tower and a fine clumx? 
of cocoa-palms serve as landmarks (see Boute 160). 

Soldier Key, the northernmost of the true reef keys, is 4 
miles due west from Fowey Rocks Light. On it are build- 
ings erected for the workmen who built the light-tower, now 
turned over to the Fish Commission and in charge of Com- 
modore Ralph Munro, of the Biscayne Bay Yacht Club, who 
is investigating the subject of sponge-culture with a view to 
increasing the i^roduction. 

Fowey Hacks Ligld was established in 1878 to take the 
l^lace of the discontinued light on Cape Florida. It stands 
in 5 feet of water on the northernmost knob of the Florida 
Reef. Lat. 25° 35' 25" N., Long. 80° 05' 41" W. 

Ragged Keys. — Here begins the almost continuous line of 
more or less habitable islands that ends with Key West. 
The northernmost are at present insignificant clumps of 
young mangroves. 

Sands Key is 1^ mile long, and three-fourths of a mile at 
its widest, counting a belt of mangroves. 

EllioWs Key is nearly 8 miles long and one-half mile wide. 
There are several houses and large plantations of pineapples, 
also fishing and sjwnging stations. The greater part of the 
island is covered with a dense hammock, and the surface is 
rough and rocky, with a sand beach on the seaward side. 
On the bay side there is a wharf or landing stage with about 
4 feet of water at low tide, and on the ocean side a similar 
landing with 6 feet of water. 

Old Rhodes Key is tlie largest of a grouj) of islands be- 
tween Elliott's Key and Key Largo. Among them Ciesar's 
Creek makes through into Cards Sound — the southern ex- 
tremity of Biscayne Bay — a shallow expanse with scattered 
keys, and not more than 3 or 4 feet of water at low tide. 

Key Largo, as its name implies, is the largest of the reef 


keys, 25 miles long and of uudetermined width. The coast 
survey chait connects it with the mainland, but canoes and 
small craft can work their way through from Biscayne Bay 
and Cards Sound into Barnes Sound and the Bay of Florida. 
The passages are likely at any time to be overgrown by man- 
groves, since inhabitants are few and it is to no one's suffi- 
cient interest to keep a passage open. 

Turtle Harbor. — Two beacons mark the entrance to this 
seemingly exposed, but really safe anchorage. The sea- 
ward beacon on Turtle Reef bears 4f nautical miles N. \ W. 
from Carysfort Reef Light. From Turtle Reef the shore- 
ward beacon bears W. ^ N. distant one mile. The harbor it- 
self is5i miles long, and more than a mile wide, with 4i to 4 
fathoms of water, and good holding ground almost any- 
where. The only obstacle to entering is an island-like reef 
about f of a mile within the beacons. The wider channel 
is to the eastward of this reef, which is well buoyed and 
plainly visible in clear weather. The harbor is effectually 
sheltered by the outlying reefs from all save the most violent 
hurricanes, which are of rare occurrence under such condi- 
tions as would render this anchorage unsafe. 

Carysfort Reef Light is a pyramidal iron structure, painted 
dark brown, with a white lantern 106 feet above the sea. 
It shows a white flash every 30 seconds, visible IG nautical 
miles at sea. The light was established in 1852. It stands 
.on a pile foundation close to the seaward edge of the reef, 
in Lat. 25° 13' 18 " N., Long. 80° 12' 34" W. This tower was 
seized by the Secessionists in 1861, and the light for a time 

The Matecombe Keys, Upper and Lower, are both inhabited, 
and there are abundant natural wells on the upper or east- 
ern key. These have been used by mariners time out of 
mind, and before that by the Indians. Both these islands 
were once, and are still to some extent, covered with a fine 
hammock growth, showing that they have been longer above 
water than their neighbors. 

Indian Key. — A small island just off the jjassage between 
Upper and Lower Matecombe Keys. It is conspicuous owing 
to a number of large warehouses and other buildina:s that can 


be seen from a considerable distance. In the early days the 
crew of a French ship that was wrecked near by, landed on the 
key and were massacred by the Caloosa Indians. Owing to 
its position, midway between Cape Florida and Key "West, 
it became important as a wrecking station. A Mr. Hous- 
man established a store, built a hotel as early as 1837, and 
the place became quite a resort for invalids. The Gov- 
ernment, too, used it as a depot during the Seminole wars, 
but never kept a guard there, as the neighboring Indians 
were considered friendly. During the night of August 7, 
1840, however, a band of Spanish Indians made a descent 
upon the little settlement. Among the residents was Dr. 
Ferine, a distinguished naturalist of the time, stationed here 
for jjurposes of scientific observation. Mrs. Ferine and her 
three children took refuge in a tidal bath-room that had 
been excavated under the house, but the doctor after thias 
concealing his family was murdered by the savages, and the 
house was burned with the valuable library and the owner's 
manuscripts. The mother and children made their escape 
by breaking out through the barred sluiceway and succeed- 
ed in reaching a schooner anchored oif shore. The Indi- 
ans did not seem to be bent upon a general massacre, for 
they sufitered others to escape, and the arrival of the U. S. 
schooner Flirt put an end to further depredations. 

Long Key, 3 miles S.W. from Lower Matecumbe, is the 
property of Mr. Thomas A. Hine, of New York. It is about 3 
miles long, and is largely occupied by cocoa-palms in bear- 
ing. Evidence of occupation by long-forgotten Europeans 
is found in stone walls and other relics of civilized handi- 

Alligator Reef Light bears E.S.E. from Indian Key, dis- 
tant 4^ miles. It stands in Lat. 24'' 51' N., Long. 80° 37' W. 
The light is visible 18 nautical miles at sea, showing red and 
white flashes (every third flash red), at intervals of 5 seconds, 
from a height of 143 feet above the sea level. The mean 
rise and fall of the tide at this point is 1 foot 8 inches. The 
tower is a white skeleton frame-work on a lilack pile founda- 
tion in 5 feet of water, and w'ithin 200 yards of deep sound- 
ings. Established in 1873. 


Sombrero Key is on the line of the outer reef, and ratlior 
more advanced in formation than most of its fellows. The 
present iron light-tower was erected here in 1857; was 
seized and forcibly discontinued by the Confederates in 
18C1, and re-established, with an armed guard in charge, in 
18G3. It stands in Lat. 24° 37' N , Long. 81° 06' W., show- 
ing a fixed white light at a height of 141 feet, visible 18 nau- 
tical miles at sea. 

The VnccKs Kei/s bear nearly due north from Sombrero, 
the nearest distant five miles. They are a dozen or more in 
number, of all shapes and sizes, many of them well wooded 
with pine and liauiuiock growths. The group is 15 miles 
long, with shallow intersecting channels. 

Biihin Honda Harbor, between a key .of that name and the 
Summerlaud Keys, is 10 nautical miles W. by Iv. from Som- 
brero Light. There is fairly good holding ground and shel- 
ter here for vessels drawing under 18 feet. Smaller vessels 
can run in through the jjass, and find safe harbor behind the 
keys. Another similar anchorage is Newfound Harbor, 9 
miles west of Bahia Honda. 

Pine Keys. — Ten miles west of Sombrero the bearing of 
the keys changes. Instead of lying parallel with the axis of 
the Gulf Stream they are almost at right angles to it. The 
larger members of the group are some 8 miles long. For 
the most part they are uninhabited, densely wooded, and 
well stocked with game. The group includes a number of 
islands, large and small, too many to be named here, and 
marks the western limit of the Bay of Florida, lying between 
Cape Sable and the Keys. The Bay of Florida is shallow, 
dotted with uncharted reefs and keys, and liable to turn un- 
expectedly into an extensive mud-flat with a change of wind. 
A few thousand years, more or less, will, no doubt, see it 
converted into everglades. 

American Shoal Light, established in 1880, is a brown pyra- 
midal iron towei", 115^ feet high over all, showing a white 
flash every 5 seconds, visible 16^ nautical miles at sea. Its 
position is Lat. 24" 31' K, Long. 81° 31' W. 

Sand Key Light shows white, varied by white flashes. It 
is 7i uiiles nearly S.W. from Key West light. The tower is 


121 feet over all, a pvramidal iron stnactnre, painted brown. 
Lat. 2i° 27' 10" X., Long. 81° 52' 40" W. 

202. Key West, Mouroe County (C. H.). 

Population, 1890, 1T,"20. 

Lat. 24° 32' 58" N., Long. 81° 48' 4" more or less, according to wind. 
Mean rise and fall of tide, 1 foot 3 inches, W. 

Hotels. — Russell House, $4 a day. — Duval House, Restaurant and rooms. 
Carriages, $1 an hour. 

Steamers, etc.— Jlallory line to New York, Plant Steamship Co. to Havana 
and Tampa, Morgan line to Puuta Gorda and New Orleans. 

Cm/0 Hueso (Bone Island) was the Spanish name, easily 
translated into Key^West by English tongues. Tradition 
has it that the native tribes inhabiting the keys were gradu- 
ally driven frona one to another by the more powerful Caloo- 
sas from the neighboring mainland, until at last they were 
nearly exterminated in a final battle on Key West, and the 
few survivors escaped to Cuba. The abundance of human 
bones found when the island was first discovered suggested 
its name and gave color to the story. Relics of EuroiDean 
occupation are found on this, as well as on some few of the 
neighboring keys — stone walls, remains of earthworks and 
the like, with indications that the island was well known to 
the pirates who frequented these waters during the eigh- 
teenth century, and had not wholly disappeared when Flor- 
ida passed into the possession of the United States. 

The island was granted to one Juan P. Salas by the Span- 
ish crown, in recognition of military services and, the grant 
having been confirmed by the United States, it finally be- 
came the property of John Simonton, of IMobile, on payment 
of $2,000. During the Seminole war (1835-184:2) there were 
occasional alarms, but the frequent presence of Government 
vessels and the use of the port as a supply station guaran- 
teed it against attack. In 181:6 the island was swept by a ter- 
rible hurricane, accompanied by an extraordinarily high tide, 
the sea rising some ten feet above its usual level. The war 
with Mexico (1816-181:8) brought Key West still more into 
prominence as an important military and naval station, and 

324 KEY WEST. 

permanent fortifications and other works were begun which 
largely increased the prosperity of the place. When Flor- 
ida seceded from the Union in 1861, the local Secessionists 
attempted to seize the place on behalf of the Confederacy, 
Major, afterward General William H. French, of the First 
Artillery, was in command at Fort Taylor. The citizens 
were by no means nuauimous in their sentiments, and Major 
French, who had a few regulars under him, organized the 
workmen employed on the fort, accepted the services of a 
company of citizen volunteers, and defied the Secessionists 
until reinforcements arrived. Throughout the Civil War 
Key West was an important military and naval station. Ex- 
tensive fortifications were begun in addition to those al- 
ready under way at Fort Taylor, but nojie of them were ever 

Until 1869 the local population was insignificant, but the 
attempted revolution in Cuba caused a migration that soon 
made it a busy manufacturing place. In March, 1886, the 
city was nearly swept away by a fire that lasted two days and 
destroyed property to the value of near two millions. 

The chief commercial interests of Key West are in cigars, 
fisheries, turtles, and sponges. The cigar-making business 
dates back to 1831, but it made slow jw'ogress until 1872, 
when the influx of Cuban refugees stimulated the i:)roduction 
to an enormous extent, and at present more than §3,000,000 
are annually paid out to cigar-makers. About 6,000 persons 
are employed in the manufacture, at w'ages ranging from 83 
a week for children to $60 a week for experts. A visit to 
any of the large factories when running full time is well 
worth the trouble, though not precisely appetizing to cigar- 
smokers of fastidious taste. Sponges of fine quality are 
taken all along the reefs, and far up the Gulf coast, Key 
West being the central market and ship2>iug point. A large 
fleet of spongers, mostly small schooners, is constantly com- 
ing and going. The sponges can be taken only in calm 
weather. They are detached from the rocky bottom with a 
fork at a depth of 5 feet to 20 feet, and semi-cured before 
packing for shipment. The appearance of the fresh sponge, 
just from its native element, is a surprise to the Northern 


visitor. The spouge business of Key West amounts to 
nearly one million dollars a year. It is interesting to visit 
any of the several sponge lofts in the city, as well as to be 
present in the market and witness the selling at auction of 
fish, turtle, sponges, cocoanuts, and fruit. The market hours 
can be learned at the hotel, failing the criers who are some- 
times sent out to announce a sale. 

The island of Key West (see map of Monroe County, 
page 64) is 4i miles long and 1 mile wide. It consists 
wholly of coralline rock, covered with soil resulting from the 
decay of vegetable and marine growth. The climate ap- 
proaches more closely that of the tropics than any other 
part of the United States. Frost is unknown, and while 
the heat in summer rarely exceeds 90°, the lowest recorded 
temperature is 41°, observed in 1855, before the establish- 
ment of the U. S. Signal Service. 

The objects of interest within the city and on the island 
are Fort Taylor with its half-ruined outworks. A permit 
is necessary, which can be obtained from the sergeant in 
charge, whose quarters are in a small house near the head 
of the foot-bridge that leads to the fort. From the parapet 
a fine view is obtained of the neighboring keys, and on a clear 
day the colors reflected from the submerged reefs and bars 
are very beautiful. Fort Taylor, begun in 1846, is a massive 
bastioned structure, built partly of coral quarried on the 
reef with walls of brick brought from the North. It was 
never actually finished, though fully garrisoned during the 
Civil War, and rendered capable of efficient defence in case 
of need. A fee, of not less than half a dollar, should be 
given to the sergeant — more in case of a large party. Mid- 
way of the seaward shore of the island, and at its eastern 
end, are two martello towers, erected in 1846 for defensive 
purposes, but now fallen to ruin, and sometimes used for 
stabling cattle and the like. 

The Custom House, the Masonic Temple, San Carlos Hall, 
the Convent, the Government stores and wharves, and the 
old baiTacks are among the principal buildings. Tramways 
run through the principal streets, with cars generally at 10 
minute intervals. Everywhere along the streets, and in the 

326 KEY WEST. 

gardens are bananas, palms, pa\\7)aws, and scores of other 
tropical growths. Notable among these is the banyan-tree 
at the old U. S. barracks, which may be reached by follow- 
ing the water-front to the eastward about | of a mile from 
the hotel. This is the only tree of the species growing out 
of doors in the United States. Very like it, however, is the 
Avild fig, or native rubber-tree, common on all the keys and in 
the southern part of the peninsula. Three squares south 
of Eussell House are some curious palms, well worth a vi.sit. 
In one case a date palm and a wild fig have taken root in 
the same crevice, the fig entwining the palm in a network 
of vine-like growth. Both trees when last seen were vigor- 
ous, and neither showed signs of yielding to the other. 
Near by is another similar distorted growth, the palm bent 
far out of its natural shape by the contortions of the fig. 

There are good roads the length of the island, but noth- 
ing of especial interest beyond the always changing as2:>ects 
of sea and sky. 

South Beach, the bathing-place of Key "West, is easily 
reached by tramway or on foot, passing through the Cuban 
quarter of the town. It is not a yery attractive bathing 
beach, nor are the bathing - houses what they should be. 
A better plan is to hire a boat and find some retired jslace 
beyond the city limits. 

There is excellent water-fowl shooting on the neighboring 
keys, and on some of them deer are still to be found, while a 
trip to the mainland, where all sorts of game abounds, may 
be accomplished by any one who can devote a few days to 
the expedition. The countless mangrove islands in the vi- 
cinity aiford an endless field of exploration, and very good 
sport may be had with a fish-spear, grains, or net among 
the mangrove roots, where all kinds of marine creatures 
seek a refuge. With a little practice the spearsman can 
walk upon the projecting roots, and watch for an opportunity 
to strike his game in the shoal water below. Some of the 
creatures that haunt these retreats should be handled cau- 
tiously if captured, as they bite very savagely and make 
troublesome wounds. 

Northwest Passage Light. — This marks the northern ex- 

KEY west: 327 

tremity of the broad shoal lying west of the channel. It is 
a fixed white light throwing a red sector N.N.W. over the 
best water on the bar. The light is on a red and wliite 
screw-pile structure, 50 feet high, the light visible 12| nau- 
tical miles. Through this channel pass nearly all vessels 
bound North and South to and from Europe, the West 
Indies, and the Gulf ports. 

The Marquesas Growp lies 17 nautical miles west from 
Key West. Northwest Channel and Boca Grande intervene, 
with extensive shoals between them, necessitating a wide 
detour. The main key is horseshoe shaped with the con- 
vex side toward the northeast. The open side is well-nigh 
closed with small islands and shoals. Within the curve is 
a shallow lagoon, i^racticable for boats drawing 5 feet. The 
keys are low, almost awash at high tide, and largely cov- 
ered with mangroves. There is nothing of especial interest 
aside from the teeming life of air and sea. No fresh water 
is found on the Marquesas. 

Rebecca Shoal is due west from Marquesas, about midway 
between that group and the Dry Tortugas. A light was es- 
tablished there in 18S6, showing a red and white flash from 
a lantern surmounting a square dwelling 67 feet high. It is 
visible 13| nautical miles. • 

The Dry Tortugas, so called because of the abundance of 
sea-turtles and the dearth of fresh water, are 54 nautical 
miles nearly due west from Key West. The light on Log- 
ger-Head Key, the most westerly of the group, is in Lat. 
24° 38' N., Long. 82° 55' 42" W., a fixed white light, visible 
18^ nautical miles at sea. It was established in 1858, while 
the neighboring fort was under construction. It is a conical 
brick tower, the upper half black, the lower half white, 155 
feet high to the lantern. A fixed white light is shown on 
the S.E. bastion of the fort, at a height of 65 feet above the 
sea. It is visible 13* nautical miles. 

By far the most conspicuous object to the approaching 
voyager is Fort Jefferson, a massive fortification, built of 
brick, with the native coral rock for foundation. It was begun 
in 1846, and practically finished by the beginning of the Civil 
War, when it was armed, garrisoned, and largely used as a 


military prison. It is in shape a great pentagon, with lofty 
casemated walls, enclosing a palm-shaded parade-ground. 
The broad moat is a veritable aquarium for its variety of 
marine life, sometimes including sharks and domesticated 
pelicans. At present the whole structure is falling into de- 
cay, because the Government has no use for it. The only 
inhabitants of the grouji are the army sergeant in charge, 
and the light-keepers on Logger-Head Key. There is a fine 
sheltered anchorage, with 6 and 7 fathoms of wate^ under 
the guns of the fort, but it is visited only by spongers, fish- 
ermen, and wreckers, and by occasional Government supply- 

The conformation of the group of keys is almost identical 
with that of tha Marquesas, though as it is not so far ad- 
vanced, the horseshoe conformation is not yet so apparent. 
A \'isit to this remote coral reef, with its crumbling fortress 
and romantic though lonely surroundings, is most interest- 
ing. With a good sailing breeze, the voyage from Key West 
may be accomplished in six or eight hours, and a week may 
be passed very enjoyably in exploring the neighboring reefs. 

West Florida. 

The Suwannee River is the natural dividing line between 
the western and middle section of the State. It includes 
l^erhaps the most diversified and picturesque country in 
Florida — high rolling hills, well wooded, and rising, in the 
vicinity of Tallahassee, to an elevation of nearly 300 feet. 
Throughout this hill country are good roads, suitable for 
riding, driving, or walking. Frequent lakes and wate]-- 
courses add to the beanty of the landscape, and some of the 
most remarkable si)rings and wells in the world are formed 
in the limestone and sandstone strata that underlie the 
whole country. A belt of low pine-land borders the Gulf 
of Mexico, with occasional swamps and savannas of great 
extent, through which many navigable streams find their 
way into the great sheltered bays and sounds that line the 
coast. Several fine harbors exist, as at Pensacola, St. 
Andrews' Bay, St. Joseph's Bay, Appalachicola, and Dog 
Island. In general, the coast is very sparsely inliabited, 
the bulk of the population lying along the line of the rail- 
road which traverses the State fmm Fernandina and Jack- 
sonville to Pensacola. (See State and County Maps.) Along 
this line are the best agricultural lands, the leading products 
being tobacco, long staple cotton, grapes, pears, and vege- 
tables. Oranges, lemons, and figs thrive under proper care, 
but not so well as in more southern latitudes. Millions of 
feet of lumber are annually cut along the rivers, and floated 
down to tide-water, where the logs are made up into rafts 
and towed to Pensacola for shipment abroad. Other millions 
are stopi3ed at the railroad crossings and used at home. 

This section of Florida has not been so much a resort for 
Northern sportsmen as has the peninsiila and its coasts, and 
the game has not been so mercilessly hunted. From any of 
the railway stations it is easy to reach unfrequented hunting- 
grounds, either by boat or by wagon road. Along the bays 
and inlets the shooting and fishing are of the best. 

As compared with that of South Florida, the climate is 


somewhat cooler. The average temperatures, as reported 
by tlie Weather Bureau at Pensacola, are as follows : Spring, 
67.9; summer, 80.3; autumn, G9.5 ; winter, 5G.0. The 
average rainfall for the same period was : Spring, 14.34: 
inches; summer, 22.53 inches; autumn, 15.52 inches; win- 
ter, 14.92 inches. The earliest killing frost reported at the 
same station was November IG, 1880, and the earliest frosts 
in 1879, 1883, and 1881 were, respectively, on December 
26th, 16th, and 19th. A comparative table of clear and fair 
days in monthly averages will be found elsewhere. 

210. Jacksonville to River Junction. 

By Florida Central & Peninsula Ey. (foot of Hogan St.) to River Junction, 
2^3 miles. Running time, 8 h. 35 min. For stations, distances, and connections 
in deta'.I, see maps and context of tlie following named counties, which are 
alphabetically arranged from page 1 to 102 : Duval, Baker, Columbia, Suwannee, 
Madison, Jefferson, Leon, Gadsden. If it is desired to break the journey, good 
hotels will be found at Lake City, Moiiticello, Lloyd, TaUahxssei, or Qiun:ey. 

The Hue of the Florida Central & Peninsula is nearly east 
and west, Jacksonville, Tallahassee, and Pensacola being 
so nearly in the same latitude that the difference is insig- 
nificant. The country is open and flat for some distance 
after leaving the outskirts of Jacksonville. 

At Miu-ieltit, in February, 1861, a Confederate force under 
General Finnegan made a stand on its retreat from Jackson- 
ville, but was driven out by the Federals. 

Baldicin. — Crossing of the F. C. & P. Southern Division, 
north to Fernandina, south to Ocala, Tampa, Cedar Key, 
etc. This point was fortified by both sides, according to the 
changing fortunes of the Ci^■il War. The remains of earth- 
works can still be seen along the railroad near the station. 
Three miles west of Baldwin is the Duval-Baker county line, 
near Deer Creek, a small stream, tributary to the St. Mary's 

Macdenny. (See Route 211.) — A short distance west of the 
station the ti-ain crosses the South Prong of St. Mary's River, 
a fine rapid stream of coffee-colored water, flowing north- 
ward. On the east bank the Federal troops made a stand 
after their defeat at Olustee. 


Olitfiiee, the scene of a severe fight during the Civil War. 
(See Route 212.) Two miles west of the station the line crosses 
into Columbia County. (See map, page 17.) 

Lake Citif, the county seat, almost hidden in fruit and sliade 
trees, lies just south of the station. (See Route 213.) Here 
is the crossing of the Georgia Southern k Floiida RpiJroad, 
north to Macon, Ga., south, to Palatka. 

Welborn is the first station in Suwannee County — the boun- 
dary crossing the track a short distance east of the station. 
(See map, page 90.) Live Oak', the county seat, is a busy, 
thriving place at the junction of the Savannah, Florida & 
Western Ry. 

At Columbus the railroad crosses the Suwannee River flow- 
ing south with a swift, strong current, between steep rocky 
banks. (See Route 111.) EllavUle, on the west bank, is in 
Madison County. (See map, page 57.) The river is navigable 
to this point at high water, but the usual steamboat lauding 
is at Hudson, 12 miles below. 

West of the river the country changes its character gradu- 
ally, rising to hills that show a reddish soil where the fresh 
earth is exposed. Mudison, the county seat, is pleasantly 
situated among tine forest trees. (See Route 215.) Six miles 
* west of Greenville and three miles east of AuciUa, the line 
crosses the Ocilla or Aucilla River, a considerable stream, 
rising in Georgia in two branches, or prongs, which unite 
four miles above the railroad crossing, and about thirty 
miles from the Gulf. The stream is navigable for canoes, 
except where it breaks into rapids and where it becomes 
subterranean at Natural Bridge, 12 miles from its mouth. 
Interesting geological strata are exposed in the jDrecipitous 
banks near the Natural Bridge. 

Drifton. — Junction with branch, 4 miles north to Monti- 
cello, the county seat (Route 216), connecting there with the 
S. F. & W. for Thomasville, Ga. At Lht/d all trains stojj 
for refreshments — dinner, 75c. at Whitfield House, near .sta- 
tion. Lloyd is considered a very healthy locality. There 
is good hunting in the neighborhood. Hotel, Echo Cottage, 
one-quarter mile from station (.§2 a day ; §10 a week). Two 
miles west of Lloyd is the county line. (For Leon County 


map, distances, etc., see i^p. 51-53.) The country becomes 
more and more hilly as the train nears Tallaha.ssee, with fre- 
quent lakes, streams, and meadows, and now and then a 
glimpse of one of the remarkaV>le " sinks " that occur in this 
region. A large tract lying on l)oth sitles of the railroad in 
this vicinity was granted to the Marquis of Lafayette in 
recognition of his services to the United States during the 
war for Indei^endence. 

Two miles west of Tallahassee, the Murat homestead, an 
unpretentious dwelling, may be seen a few hundred yards 
north of the track. Six miles farther west is the Ocklockony 
River (see p. 99), forming the Leon-Gadsden county line 
(see p. 31). The hill country continues, with fine clear 
streams and evidences of agi-icultural prosi^erity on eveiy 
hand. Quincy, the county town, is well worth a visit. 
(See Route 223.) 

Chattahoochee is at the edge of the hills bordering the 
Appalachicola bottom lands. (See Route 224.) If an all- 
night stop is necessary, the best available hotel will be found 

River Junction. — The terminus of three railroads, namely, 
the Florida Central & Peninsula, east to Jacksonville (208 
miles), the Louisville & Nashville (Peusacola Division), west* 
to Pensacola (162 miles), and the Savannah, Florida <t West- 
ern, which crosses the Georgia line 2 miles north of the station. 
Connections are made here with Appalachicola River steamers 
down-stream on Sunday, Monday, and Friday, p.m. Up- 
stream, Tuesday, Friday, and Sunday. Hours of arrival and 
dejjarture are somewhat irregular, but, the state of the river 
permitting, approximate the arrival of trains. 

Chattahoochee River, forming the eastern boundary of the 
county, finds its source among the mountains of Tennessee 
and South Carolina, and is navigable for vessels of 8 feet 
draught, 300 miles from the sea. Flint River, its principal 
tributary, is navigable to Bainbridge, 40 miles. Some 30 
miles from its mouth it receives Chipola River, also navigable 
as far as a natural bridge a short distance above Marianna. 


211. Macclenny, Baker County (C. H.). 

Hotel.— r/i« Macdenny House; $2 a dav. 

RALLROAD.-The F. C. & P. Ry.; east. 28 miles to Jacksonville; west, 138 
miles to Tallahassee ; ISO miles to' River Junction. (See map, page 6.) 

As the county seat, aud the centre of a frait-growing and 
lumber region, this town is a j^lace of considerable com- 
mercial activitv. It is named after H. C. Macclenny, the 
founder of the place, and a large land-holder in the Adcin- 
ity. Peaches, pears, cotton, and all kinds of vegetables are 
grown with great success in this neighborhood. The popu- 
lation is about 1,000, aud there are good schools, including 
the St. James Academy. The county court-house is here. 

212. Olustee, Baker Countj'. 

(See crossed sabres, map, page 6.) 

A village of about 400 inhabitants, mainly engaged in 
farming and in the large lumber mills near the outlet of 
Ocean Pond. The \AsiCe is notable as the scene of the most 
cousic]^rable engagement that occurred in Florida during the 
Civil War. 

The whole field of battle can be seen from the car windows 
as the train approaches Olustee Station, though the exact 
localities can be distinguished only by one who is familiar 
with them. About twenty minutes after passing Sanderson, 
an enclosure may be seen north of the track, where the Con- 
federates buried the Federal dead after the fight. A little 
farther, and the blue waters of Ocean Pond, with white 
buildings and lumber mills on the shore, may be seen 
through the trees. A small creek, the outlet of the pond, 
nearly marks the line held by the Confederates, their left 
extending to the pond, where earthwork defences were hast- 
ily thrown up. Protracted rains had filled the lowlands 
with water, so that they were nearly impassable, and ren- 
dered the ordinary evolutions of foot-soldiers extremely diffi- 

334 0LU8TEE. 

During the winter of 18G3-64, the headquarters of the 
United States forces in the Department of tho South were at 
Hilton Head, S. 0., with General Quincy Adams Gilniore in 
command. In comi^liance with orders from Washington, a 
force of 10,000 men of tho Tenth Army Corps was detached, 
early in February, to operate in Florida. 

The plan was to make Jacksonville a base of operations, 
march westward along the railroad to Tallahassee, and open 
commnuication thence with St. Mark's, on the Gulf of Mex- 
ico. This would practically secure complete control of the 
peninsula, with a seaport at either end of the line. Jack- 
sonville was held at the time by a force of Confederate States 
trooi^s under General Joseph Finnegan. He had no ade- 
quate means, however, of dealing with the heavy ordnance 
carried by the Federal gun-boats, and prudently withdrew to 
a point near Marietta, seven miles from the river. He was 
obliged to destroy a large amoiint of stores to prevent caji- 
ture by the Federal troops, and incidentally a number of 
buildings were burned at the same time. 

The Confederates had hardly established themselves at 
Marietta when they were compelled again to retire in such 
haste that eight pieces of artillery, one hundred jirisouers, 
and a considerable amount of stores fell into the hands of 
the Federal troops, and a river steamer with two hundred 
and seventy bales of cotton was only saved from cai)ture by 
being burned. 

General Finnegan retreated westward nearly as far as 
Lake City, closely followed by Federal horse under Colonel 
Guy V. Henry, of the First Massachusetts Cavalry, who ap- 
l^ears to have conducted the scouting operations of the cam- 
paign with great vigor and good judgment. 

The Federals advanced as far as Baldwin, then as now an 
important railway junction, and there intrenched themselves. 
Some of the old earthworks may still be seen from the win- 
dows of passing trains. Thus far. General Gilmore had ac- 
comj^auied the expedition to see it fairly, under way ; but he 
now turned it over to his second in command, Brigadier Tru- 
man Seymour, with orders to hold Jacksonville, Baldwin, 
and the South Prong of the St. Mary's River, twelve miles 


farther west. Leaving the command thxis advantageously 
posted, Gilmore returned to Hilton Head. 

No sooner was he gone than Seymour, misled perhaps by 
the impunity with which Henry's light horse had scouted 
almost as far as Lake City, determined to advance on his 
own responsibility. He wrote Gilmore to this effect, and that 
officer promptly despatched orders countermanding the ad- 
vance. The messenger, however, arrived just too late, 
Seymour, with about five thousand men, was already on the 

In the meantime the Confederate department commander, 
General P. T. Beauregard, had been hurrying reinforcements 
to Finnegan, among them the veteran brigade of General 
Alfred Holt Colquitt. Finnegan's scouts kept him advised of 
Seymour's movements, and as soon as preparations for an ad- 
vance were ajiparent he selected Olustee as the most defen- 
sible position within reach of Lake City. Seymour's line of 
march necessarily followed the railroad, which here crosses 
a swampy creek with a lake on one side and piney woods 
on the other. Finnegan was thus able to post his men so 
that, with the usual extemporized field defences, they were in 
quite a strong position. 

At noon, on February 20, 1864, Seymour's advance neared 
Olustee. What with mud and water for miles along the flat 
woods beside the railroad, and the almost impassable pal- 
metto scrub, the important duties of advanced skirmishers 
and flankers were either omitted altogether, or j^erformed 
so superficially as to be ineftectual. At all events the Fed- 
erals marched into a trap, and the first notice they had of the 
presence of the enemy was a scathing fire from an invisible 
foe that told heavily on the advance battalions. Colonel, 
afterward General, Joseph E. Hawley, was at the front with 
his own regiment, the Seventh Connecticut Volunteer In- 
fantry, and but for the presence of these and other veteran 
troops under Colonels Henry, Barton, and Scammon, the dis- 
order consequent upon such an unexpected attack must 
have been instantly overwhelming. A line was however 
formed with creditable expedition, and a s^iirited fire was 
returned. The Confederates had every advantage of position, 


and tired practically from the shelter of an ambuscade. The 
Federals nevertheless maintained the oflfensive, bringing up 
Hamilton's battery of light artillery, and feeling out the ene- 
my's position. 

By mid-afternoon General Seymour succeeded in deploy- 
ing his line, but on advancing the men found themselves 
confronted by an impassable morass. Regiment after regi- 
ment moved forward, exhausted its ammunition against the 
deadly screen of pine and palmetto, and fell back, leaving a 
heavy percentage of dead and dying. Hamilton's battery of 
light artillery w as jjushed forward into an advanced position, 
and in twenty minutes all but ten of its fifty horses were 
killed or disabled, and of the eighty-two men who went into 
action only thirty-seven wei'e able to help drag some of the 
guns to the rear. 

Toward the latter part of the afternoon the Confederates 
assumed the offensive, and a regiment under Colonel Zach- 
erj broke the Federal centre. Just at this time the reserve 
of colored troops, consisting of the Fifty-fourth Massachu- 
setts and the First North Carolina, came up and made a 
stubborn stand. The North Carolina regiment lost its Col- 
onel, Lieutenant-Colonel, Major, and Adjutant, and the Con- 
federate advance was checked long enough for Seymour to 
collect the remnants of his command, and organize an or- 
derly retreat. 

As soon indeed as the Confederates became the aggressors 
the conditions were reversed, and the natural difficulties of 
the country told in favor of the retreating Federals. The 
pursuit was kept up till dark, but it was merely a skirmish 
in retreat, and Seymour was able, before permitting a halt, 
to gain the east bank of the St. Mary's Eiver, a position of 
at least temporary security. The Confederates, besides gain- 
ing the day, captured 500 prisoners, 5 guns, 2 stand of colors, 
and 2,000 small-arms. The Federal loss in killed, wound- 
ed, and missing was 1,828 men, and that of the Confederates 
934, figures which prove beyond dispute the obstinate cour- 
age with which the fight was maintained on both sides. 
Considering the numbers engaged, this action was one of the 
most important south of Virginia. It defeated a well-laid 


scheme for wresting from the Confederates, at one blow, al- 
most the whole State of Florida, which, once secured, could 
have been held with comparatively little trouble. 

General Seymour's hasty change of plans, involving a long 
march throiigh an unknown and exceedingly difficult coun- 
try, has never been satisfactorily accounted for. His per- 
sonal gallantry, however, has never been questioned. Dur- 
ing the action he did all that reckless daring could suggest 
to retrieve the disaster that his own rashness had provoked, 
and his military record, both before and after the fatal day 
at Olustee, is highly creditable. 

213, Lake City, Baker County (C. H.). 

Population, 1,800. 

Hotels. — Central House, t2 a day ; The Inv, $2 a day. 

Railroads.— Florida Cent. & Peninsula Ry. ; east to Jacksonville (60 miles) ; 
west to Tallahassee (106 miles). Ga. Southern Rd. ; north to Macon, Ga. (210 
miles) ; south, to Palatka (75 miles). 

LivEBv. — Single team, 75c. an hour ; $2.50 a day. 

Lake City takes its name from nearly a score of small lakes 
and ponds that surround it, fed by twice as many springs 
which bubble up through the sandy soil. To a stranger the 
trees are the most consjiicuous feature of Lake City. They 
fairly embower the whole place and effectually screen it from 
the publicity of passing trains. As the site of the State 
Agricultural College and the United States Experiment Sta- 
tion, it is evidently considered by experts as fairly typical in 
soil and climate of this section of the State. The first settle- 
ment was in 1820. In 1837 it became a military post, and 
until 1859 was called "Alligator," after a famous Semiuole 
chief. It is the shipping point for a region esijecially favor- 
able to the cultivation of Sea Island or long staple cotton, 
and warehouses have been established here by some of tho 
gi-eat Northern cotton factors. The experimental gardens are 
well worth visiting, and a drive in the vicinity will afford an 
intending settler an excellent idea of the capabilities of this 
section of the State. 

WIdte Sulj)hur Springs, on Suwannee River, twelve miles 
N.W., may be reached by rail or wagon road. It is a beauti- 


ful place, and was a fashionable resort before the Civil '^'av. 
There is good fishing in the surrounding lakes. Lake City 
has Episcopal, Presbyterian, Catholic, Methodist, and 13ai>- 
tist chui'ches, and excellent public and private schools. 

214. Live Oak, Suwannee County (C. H.). 

Population, 1,000. 

Hotels. — Ethel Honse, Live Oak Hotel, $2 to $2..50 a day. 
Raixuoad. — Florida Central & Peniusnla ; east, to Jacksonville (82 milei-) ; 
•west, to Tallahassee (84 miles), etc. 

A thriving place, with large lumber interests, nearly in the 
centre of a i-ich agricultural county, which grows a large 
amount of long staple-cotton, vegetables, and farm ju-oducts. 

215. Madison, Madison County (C. H.;. 

Population, 1,200. 

Hotel. — The Central Park Hotel, $3 a day. 

Railkoai). — The F. C. & P. ; east, to Jacksonville (110 miles) ; west, to Talla- 
hassee (56 miles), etc. 

Madison stands on a considerable elevation, with streets 
pleasantly shaded by forest trees, and all conveniences in 
the way of shipjjing facilities, telegraph, express, and bank- 
ing offices, and good general stores. The surrounding coun- 
try is very productive. Cotton, com, hay, vegetables, and 
fruits are grown in large quantities, and Northern thread fac- 
tories have here their agents and warehouses for the pur- 
chase and storage of long staple cotton. Fairly good roads 
lead north into Georgia, and south into Taylor County. The 
town was settled about 1830. It has a handsome court- 
house, several churches, and good public and private 


216. Monticello, Jefiferson County (O. H.). 

Popnlation, 1,700. 

Hotels. — St. Elmo, $4 a dav ; Madden House, $2 ; Partridfje House, $2. 

Railroads.— The S. F. & W.; north, to Thomasville, Ga. ;24 miles) ; F. C. 
& P.; east, to Jacksonville (143 miles) ; west, to Tallahassee (23 miles), etc. 
Stations separate, but near each other. 

The main business of Monticello, aside from that connect- 
ed with the coiiuty offices, is the shipment of cotton, corn, 
oats, tobacco, lecoute pears, pecan nuts, and general pro- 
duce in the way of vegetables, etc. There are Methodist, 
Baptist, Episcopalian, and Presbyterian churches, with 
public and private schools. The town is laid out in blocks 
200 feet square, with streets 100 feet wide between them, 
shaded by superb trees, and often bordered by gardens 
where roses bloom the year round, and old-fashioned South- 
ern mansions stand among oaks and magnolias. In some 
cases smart new houses and stores have iiushed in among 
their seniors, asserting the changed condition of life in the 
old county capital. 

The following weights and dimensions of vegetables grown 
in this vicinity are vouched for on good authority : a short 
beet 31 inches in girth ; a fiat turnip 11 inches in diameter ; 
a radish 27 inches long and 18 inches in circumference, 
weighing 6^ pounds ; a globe turnip weighing without top 
or tap root 11 pounds 6 ounces; and a water-melon, jierfect 
to the centre, weighing 54 pounds. 

MiccosuTcie Lake, 3 miles north of Monticello, and 19 
miles northeast of Tallahassee, is about 15 miles long, and in 
the widest part some 4 miles across. The principal tributa- 
ries are Ward's CreeJc, rising in Thomas County, Ga., and 
Dry Creeic, flowing from the westward. Half a mile from 
the mouth of Dry Creek, which is known as the head of the 
lake, is a circular basin nearly or quite 100 feet deej) toward 
the southern sliore, but shallow toward the north. A su- 
l^erb growth of hard wood timber nearly surrounds this 
basin. Here may be seen the different varieties of oak, 
hickory, beech, wild cherry, mock orange, red bay, and 
magnolia, often loaded down with enormous grapevines, cle- 
matis, yellow jasmine, and woodbine. Beneath and cover- 


ing the ground are countless shrubs, some of them flower- 
ing, and others merely a tangle of luxuriant vegetation. It 
were hard to find a better jilace than this to study the flora 
peculiar to this part of Florida, and the location is peculiarly 
attractive from the fact that the land rises boldly to a con- 
siderable height, commanding a view of several miles down 
the lake to where the shores curve to the eastward, and 
gi'adually converge until the lake becomes a creek, and after 
the manner of streams in this region, plunges bodily into 
the earth and is lost to sight. Within a mile or two of this 
sink are several others. Long Pond Sink, with a cuiTent 
from west southwest, Black Creek Sink, with a current from 
south southwest, Bailey's Mill Creek Sink, with a current 
from east southeast. (The bearings are on the authority of 
Br. F. A. Byid, of Miccosukie. ) The conformation of the 
land induces the belief that these sinks unite to form a sub- 
terranean river, flowing southwesterly until it breaks forth 
again in the St. Mark's River. 

Other smaller lakes are Erie, Olive, Bradford, Hall, and 
there are numberless and nameless ponds, all abounding 
with fish. The woods and valleys are well watered with 
clear streams, usually of excellent water. 


220. Tallahassee. 

Population, 2,933.— Lat. 80° 2T' N., Long. 84" 18' W. 

Hotels.— /,co»i Hotel, $4 a day ; St. James Hotel, $2.50 to 13. 

Railroads.— The F. C. & P. i Western Division) ; east, to Jacksonville (166 
milesi ; west, to River Junction (42 miles), connecting there with Louisville & 
Nashville Ed. (Pensaco!a Di^^sionl and Appalachicola River Steamers. St. 
Mark's Branch (V. C. & P.) to St. Mark's, 21 miles south. 

Churches and Schools. — Episcopal, Catholic, Fresbyterian, Baptist, Meth- 
odist, State Xornial School, Lincoln Academy. 

Bankers. — B. C. Lewis & Sons. 

Livery.— Saddle Horses, 30c. to 50c. an hour ; $1.50 a day. Single team, $3 
a day. Double team, io a day. Fare from station 25c. 

Whether seen from a distance or near at hand, Tallahassee 
cannot fail to impress the traveller with the beauty of its 
situation. The town, with its wide, shaded streets, quite 
covers the crest of a noble hill that rises nearly 300 feet 
above the sea level, and every street-opening commands an 
extensive view over similar hills, and out across the flat- 
woods to the southward, bordering the Gulf Coast. 

The name Tallahassee, usually translated "old field," ap- 
parently conveys to the Seminole the idea that we associate 
with " ancestral acres." It is applied to any land formerly 
occupied by the tribe as a permanent home. The Spaniards 
established a fortified camp on a hill to the westward of the 
town, probably during a war with the Apalaches in 1638. The 
place is now occupied by a handsome old jilantation house, 
and is known as the Fort St. Luis Place. A piece of armor 
found there is preserved in the State public library, Talla- 

The local Indians were driven out early in the first Semi- 
nole War (1818), and settlers from North Carolina, Vir- 
ginia, and Georgia, practically took possession of Tallahassee 
hill before the treaty of cession was confirmed. In 1823 it 
was made the territorial capital, and naturally became the 
State capital when Florida was admitted to the Union in 
1845. The Indian wars left it practically unmolested, and 
it became famous during the ijeaceful, prosperous years that 
followed as a centre of a society that held itself socially and 
intellectually best in the aristocracy of Southern jjlanters. 
Its delightful climate and beautiful surroundings attracted 
wealthy residents from all over the South, and at Bellair, 


G miles distant, was a sort of rural annex to the more elabo- 
rate life of the State capital. An Ordinance of Secession 
was passed January 10, 1861, and most of the men enlisted 
in the Confederate service. Enough were left, however, to 
repel an ill-advised attempt on the part of the Federals by 
way of St. Mark's. (Route 212.) Civil war dealt leniently 
with Tallahassee, and it was not occupied by United States 
troojjs, save as a precautionary measure, after hostilities 

Daring early spring Tallahassee becomes a veritable bower 
of roses. The old mansions that line its streets, some of 
them good specimens of what is termed colonial architecture, 
stand, as a rule, in the midst of lovely gardens, often in a 
tangle of flowers and vines, shaded by stately oaks, mag- 
nolias, and bays. 

The State House is at the brow of the hill near the south 
end of Main Street. It is an imposing old structure of brick 
and stucco, with a stately j^ortico and a general air of dilapi- 
dation. It stands in a noble grove of trees, and from the 
roof a wide view opens over the surrounding country. The 
roof is rather diificult of access, but ^practically the same 
view can be obtained from the cupola of the court-house near 
at hand. Some interesting war relics are to be seen within 
the building. The original Ordinance of Secession is in the 
Governor's room, a number of tattered Confederate battle- 
flags in the Adjutant-General's office, and interesting maps 
and records in their proper departments. In the Capitol 
grounds stand several monuments with commemorative in- 

The Episcopal Cemetery, five minutes' walk west of the 
Leon Hotel, is crowded with the graves of old Tallahassee 
families. There are no very ancient dates on the stones — 
none, of course, jjrior to the settlement of the town (1827). 
There are, however, a number of interesting monuments and 
inscriptions, among them two modest shafts that mark the 
graves of Charles Louis Napoleon Achille Murat, son of the 
King of Naples and Prince of the two Sicilies, and of Cath- 
erine his wife, daughter of Colonel Bird C. Willis, of Vir- 
ginia. (For a sketch of their story see ojoposite page.) 


Another more modern cemetery is at the foot of the north- 
western slope, where lie most of the Confederate dead whose 
remains coiald be brought home. On Memorial Day of each 
year these graves are decorated with flowers by surviving 

The Murat Estate. — Two miles west of the railway station. 
Follow road leading in that direction near railway. The es- 
tate bears the name of its original owner, eldest son of the 
famous marshal of France under the First Napoleon, who 
was made King of Naples in 1805. On his dejjosition in 
1815, the son, then a boy of 15, was sent to finish his edu- 
cation in Austria. Shortly after reaching his majority he 
cut adrift from early associations and came to America. 

Carriage-roads and bridle-paths were then almost the only 
artificial lines of travel, but the Prince visited nearly all the 
settled portions of the United States. At Tallahassee he 
naturally became enamoured of the climate and the countiy. 
He bought a large estate, erected an unpretentious house, 
still known as the Murat Homestead, though its founder 
named it Lipona. He at once interested himself actively in 
local affairs, became a naturalized citizen, and served suc- 
cessively as postmaster, alderman, and mayor. In 1826 he 
married Catherine, a daughter of Colonel Bird C. Willis, of 
Virginia, and grandniece of Washington. 

Murat was a man of bi'illiant intellectual gifts, but he 
was eccentric to the verge of lunacy, and his personal habits 
were so disgusting that for some time the beautiful, refined 
Virginia girl would not listen to his suit. However, she 
yielded at last and became the Princess Murat, recognized 
as such by all who cherished the memory of the First Napo- 
leon. The Murats visited Belgium together and were re- 
ceived there with royal honors, and after her hiasband's 
death the Princess was received and treated with distin- 
guished favor by the Third Napoleon. 

Murat was the author of three works in French, all treat- 
ing of political afifairs in the United States. These were 
published in Paris (1830 to 1838j and gained for their au- 
thor wide recognition as a writer of ability. His last and 
most considerable work, "The Principles of Kepublican 


Government, as perfected in America," went through fifty 
editions, and was translated into the principal continental 
languages. The shiftless, eccentric habits of the Prince 
wasted his property, and when he died, in 1847, after years 
of disease, through which he was faithfully tended by his 
wife, she was left almost without an income. The restora- 
tion of the Napoleonic dynasty in France, however, brought 
her recognition and a handsome competence from the new 
Emperor, with whom she was a great favorite. With the 
overthrow of the Southern Confederacy her i>roperty again 
disajjpeared, but on the restoration of peace Napoleon III. 
granted her an annuity of 30,000 francs, which continued till 
her death in 1867, only a short time before the Empire was 
again demolished by German arms. 

Excursions — The hill country of West Florida is favored 
above the rest of the State in the matter of roads. The soil 
is such a happy admixture of clay and sand that in addition 
to unsurpassed i^roductiveness in certain fields of agricult- 
ure, it packs into capital roadways, which, without any 
care to speak of, remain hard and smooth during fair weather. 
Koads diverge toward all the cardinal points from Tallahas- 
see — north and east toward Lakes Jackson, lamonia, and 
Miccosukee, south to St. Mark's, Newport, and the famous 
Wakulla Spring, and west to the Oclockonee Eiver and the 
Quincey tobacco lands. In all directions the visitor may be 
sure of a picturesque, diversified country, well wooded, and 
abounding in lakes, streams, sinks, and springs. After heavy 
rains the valley roads are often submerged, and it is no more 
than right to warn strangers against the seemingly shallow 
waters that often cover them. This whole region is under- 
drained by subterranean rivers. " Sinks " sometimes open 
in the most unexpected places. In 1889 a party from Chi- 
cago narrowly escaped with their lives through carelessly 
driving into what appeared to be a shallow jDond that had 
temporarily covered the road. The water, however, is 
usually clear, and there is no danger if a reasonably sharp 
lookout is kei^t. 

These " sinks " always occur in connection with some un- 
derground lake or water-course. Thev mav be large enough 


to take in a good-sized house, or only a few feet across. 
Sometimes the water at bottom is shallow, sometimes deep, 
and still or swift, according to conditions. They are caused 
by the action of subterranean streams wearing away the un- 
derlying rock until a cavity is formed. After a time the 
roof becomes too thin to support the weight overhead, and 
accordingly falls in. It is either swept down stream, or else 
dams up the current, and perhaps the next passer-by finds a 
lake or a full-grown river where none existed before. (See 
Miccosukee and Jackson Lakes.) 

Lake Hall, 6 miles northeast, on Thomasville Road. A 
favorite picnic-ground, with good fishing, fine forest-trees, 
and picturesque surroundings. At this lake the Leon Hotel 
keeps boats for the use of guests. 

Lake Jackson, 6 miles northwest, is irregularly shaped, 
about 6 miles long and 4 miles wide. It is quite deep, and 
shortly after the Charleston earthquake of 1886 it distin- 
guished itself by disappearing entirely through an unsus- 
pected subterranean passage. Large numbers of fish per- 
ished, and for a time pestilence was dreaded by the neigh- 
boring residents. After a few days the lake began to fill up 
again, and since that time has maintained its usual level. 

Lake lamonia, 12 miles northeast, is somewhat larger 
than Lake Jackson, and has many islands. A small town of 
the same name is near its eastern end, on the Thomasville 

Lake Miccosukee, 18 miles northeast. (See Roiite.) 

Bellaii\ 6 miles south, on St. Marks Road. Formerly 
the summer resort of the most select and exclusive circle of 
Tallahassee society. It is in the edge of the flatwoods, and 
why it should have been selected by its frequenters is not 
easy of explanation. In the days of its prosperity, however, 
a number of cottages were built here, and many of the most 
distinguished Southerners of the day entertained their friends 
with the lavish hospitality traditional with them. Nothing 
now marks the place but half-obliterated foundations, and 
groups of shade-trees that have grown to a lordly height 
since the houses crumbled to pieces, or were burned, during 
the lawless days of civil war. 


Si. Mnrloi, 21 miles south by rail (2 hoiii's), or carnage (3 
Lours). (SeeKoute 222.) Train from Tallahassee at 8.30 
A.M., returns at 11 p.m., affording no time for local expedi- 
tions. (Route 212.) 

The Wakulla Volcano. — To the southeast and south of Tal- 
lahassee there extends a vast belt of flat woods, merging 
into an almost impenetrable tangle of iindergrowth and 
swamp. It is a famous hunting-ground, and somewhere 
within its shades is the alleged Wakulla volcano. The cu- 
rious inquirer is sure to hear the most contradictory state- 
ments regarding this mystery. He will be told by some 
that it can be seen from any high obsei-vatory in the vic- 
inity, and by others that it cannot be seen from any save the 
most southerly uplands. He will meet people who have 
seen the smoke almost every day of their lives, others who de- 
clare that there is no such smoke, and still others who say 
that they never heard of it. It seems to be pretty well estab- 
lished, however, that ever since the country was settled, 
and, according to Indian tradition, long prior to that, a col- 
umn of smoke or vapor has been visible in favorable 
weather, rising from a fixed point far within the jungle, to 
which no man has yet been able to penetrate. Several ex- 
peditions have been organized to solve the mystery, but 
none of them have penetrated more than twelve or fifteen 
miles into the morass. Once or twice New York newspapers 
have sent representatives with orders to solve the prob- 
lem, but, according to the local version, they have always 
IH'oved recreant to their duty as soon as the difficulties in 
the way became ai^parent. The "volcano," therefore, bids 
fair to remain a mystery until some concerted measures are 
taken for exploration and discovery.* 

* A column of smoke was pointed out to the author as the alleged " volcano," 
and ou several successive days bearings were taken with a pocket compass from 
the cupola of the Court-hoiise at Tallahassee. The smoke in favorable weather 
was always visible in the same place, rolling up in strong volume, usually 
dense and dark like the smoke from a furnace chimney. The author was as- 
sured by a Northern gentleman, long resident in Tallahassee, that it was often 
lighted with a faint glow at night. The best-informed persons with whom the 
author conversed believe it to be vapor from a boiling spring, possibly inter- 
mingled with inflammable gas that occasionally ignites. It is said that one of 


221. The Wakulla Spring. 

Fifteen miles south of Tallahassee. Foiir miles west of Wakulla Station, St. 
Marks Rd. By carriage from Tallahassee, 2}i hoiu-s. By row-boat from St. 
Marks, 2 hours. 

Wakulla — "Mystery" in the language of the Seminole.s — 
ranks for beauty and size with the other wonderful springs 
of Florida described elsewhere (see Routes 182 and 183). 
In some respects it surjaasses them, its gi-eater depth lend- 
ing to the absolutely transj^arent water shades of color that 
are wanting in the others. The greatest recorded depth of 
the sirring is lOG feet, but it is said that in certain places no 
bottom has been reached with the sounding line. Far down 
in the dejjths a ghostly white ledge of rock is visible, from 
beneath which the volume of water m.shes upward, and 
where fishes, alligators, and turtles are quite safe from hu- 
man snares, though as plainly visible as if nothing but the 
air intervened. The surroundings of the spring are ex- 
tremely beautiful ; preciijitous, heavily-wooded banks over- 
hang the water, and no railroad or steamboat as yet profanes 
the solitude. It is not easy to say which is the better route 
to follow. The drive from Tallahassee is the pleasanter. 
That from Wakulla Station is the shorter and easier. In 
this latter case conveyances must be ordered in advance, 
and are usually sent down from Tallahassee. The trip by 
water from St. Marks is more enjoyable for those who prefer 
boat expeditions. 

Other fine springs are found in the vicinity, notably at 
Newport, 3 miles southeast of Wakulla, where the water is 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, and the springs are be- 
lieved to possess valuable medicinal properties. 

the tributaries of the Ocilla River is distinctly higher In temperature than any 
of the neighboring streams, and though it has never been explored, it flows 
from the direction of the " Wakulla Smoke," aud may have its source in the 
supposed boiling spring. C. L. N. 

348 S'l". MARKS. 

222. St. Marks, Wakulla County. 

F. C. & P. Rd. (St. Marks Branch), Tallahassee to St. Marks, 21 miles (2 

The St. Marks Eiver is the natural seaport of Tallahassee. 
Once across the bar, which has 7 feet of water at low tide, 
there is a good depth to the railroad wharf. In the early 
days of Tallahassee's prosperity a plank road -was built to 
facilitate the transportation of cotton and tobacco. A rival 
company built the railroad in 1846, upon which a feud arose 
between the two companies which threatened to become se- 
rious, biit ended in a victory for the railroad. In 1801 the 
F. C. & P. was finished to the State capital, and naturally 
took the bulk of the carrying trade. 

A fort of considerable strength was built by the Spaniards, 
under Captain Don Jose Primo de Ribeira in 1718, at Port 
Leon, two miles south of the present town of St. Marks. It 
was called San Marcos de Apalaclie. Ruined limestone ma- 
sonry work still marks the site. During the civil war the 
river served to some extent as a refuge for blockade runners, 
but United States gun-boats cruised up and down the coast 
at such short intervals that blockade running was dangerous 
business. A redoubt was thrown up near the lighthouse in 
1862. On June 15, 1863, the work was shelled by the 
United States gun-boat Tahoma, Lieutenant Howell. The 
garrison — a company of artillery — were driven out, taking 
their battery with them. An armed party landed and de- 
stroyed everything about the works that would burn. Salt- 
works of considerable extent were afterward established 
along the river, and the Confederate States largely drew 
their supply of salt from this source. The daily product of 
the works was estimated at 2,400 bushels. Boat expeditions 
from the Tahoma totally destroyed the works on Febniaiy 
17 and 27, 1864. Property not contraband of war was dis- 
tributed among the neighboring inhabitants. On March 6, 
1865, a considerable force of Federals landed near the mouth 
of the river, and marched U]} as far as the Natural Bridge, 
where they were met by a hastily gathered Confederate force, 
and repulsed with considerable loss. The attacking party 


was mainly from a negi'o regiment, the Second U. S. Col- 
ored Infantry, which went into action about 500 strong, and 
lost 70 men in killed, wounded, and missing. Next to the 
battle of Ohistee, this was the most considerable engagement 
fought within the State, but as it occurred only a short 
time before the fall of Richmond and the surrender of 
Lee, it was almost overlooked by all except local historians, 
who gloiT in it as among the last triumphs of the Confeder- 
ate arms. 

Cajiital shooting may be found in the passes and creeks 
about the mouth of the river, and excellent fishing in the 
deep channels of the river itself. The St. Marks is supposed 
to find its source in Lake Miccosukee (Route 216). Its whole 
course may be traced by a succession of " sinks," and occa- 
sional exposed reaches. It rises sedately from its subter- 
ranean ways about 18 miles north of St. Marks, forming a 
pool of considerable depth, but largely overgrown with 
rushes. There are rapids near the outlet, and again at two 
places below, respectively I and 8 miles above St. Marks ; 
elsewhere the stream is wide, placid, and deep. The rapids 
can be easily run in a small boat, but are hard to ascend. 

St. Marks light stands in Lat. 30° 04' 28" N. Long. 84° 
10' 50" W. It was established in 1829 and rebuilt in 1866. 
The tower is white, 83 feet high, and shows a fixed white 
light visible 14f nautical miles. The nearest light to the 
westward is at Cape St. George (52 nautical miles), and the 
nearest to the east and south at Cedar Key (80 nautical 
miles) . 

223. Quincy, Gadsden County fO. H.). 

Population, 600. 

Hotels. — Florida House ; Love House, $1.50 to f2 a day. 

Qniucy was selected as the county town site and laid out 
in 1825. The town is about one mile north of the railway 
station, where carriages are always in waiting on the arrival 
of trains (fare 25 cents). The situation is charming, in a fine 
hilly country with clear rushing streams, good roads, a rich 
soil, and fine forests on all sides. The town itself is in manv 


respects like Monticello and Tallahassee, with its wide 
streets and stately old Southern mansions. Within a few 
years Northern capital has largely developed the tobacco- 
growing interests of the vicinity. There are several planta- 
tions within easy riding distance, one of them containing 
12,000 acres, of which at this writing nearly one-quarter is 
under cultivation. Some of them are worked by negroes, 
and others by colonies of Alsatians imported for the pur- 
pose. The whole business is carried on systematically, sub- 
stantial fences surround the fields, and each section has its 
curing and storage houses. The best way to visit these 
great plantations is in the saddle, as the distances are too 
great to be covered on foot. Vehicles, however, can be 
driven anywhere along the jilantation roads. The general 
superintendent resides in Quiucy, and should be consulted 
as to the most interesting points to visit. During the win- 
ter mouths, of course, the fields are bare, but work of some 
kind is always in progress (see p. 31). 

224. Chattahoochee, Gadsden County. 

The earliest overt act of the Secessionists in the State wa.s 
committed at this point, at 7 o'clock in the morning of Janu- 
ary 6, 1861. The Ordinance of Secession was not j^assed 
until four days afterward, but no doubt, anticii)atiug that 
event with certainty, under date of January 5th the governor 
issued an order granting authority to Colonel Dunn to raise 
a company, seize the arsenal and its contents "now in the 
possession of the General Government, and retain the same, 
subject to my orders." The arsenal was at the time under 
charge of Ordnance Sergeant E. Powell, U. S. A., with a few 
men, and he so stoutly refused to deliver up the keys that 
Colonel Dunn was fain to telegraph to the governor for fur- 
ther instructions, upon receipt of which the 2:)lucky ser- 
geant was compelled to surrender by superior force. The 
post was an arsenal of dejiosit, containing at the time 5,122 
pounds of powder, 173,476 cartridges for small-arms, one six- 
pounder gun with a sujjply of ammunition, and sundry mis- 


cellaneous equipments. This arseual was establislied in 
1833. It was used for various military purposes by the 
Confederates, and after tlie return of peace was given to the 
State of Florida by the United States, and converted into a 
lunatic asylum. 

230. Biver Junction to Pensacola. 

By Louisville & Nashville Rd. (Pensacola Division), 162 miles (7 h. 50 min.). 
Best hotels at Marianua, De Funiak and Milton. 

Shortly after leaving River Junction the train enters upon 
the long trestle over the Appalachicola. This large river, 
whose turbid waters are in striking contrast with the clear 
streams of Leon and Gadsden Counties, is formed by the 
junction of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers ; the second 
of which, in reality the main stream, has its sources in 
Northern Georgia, almost at the Carolina line. It is naviga- 
ble 300 miles from its mouth. Flint River is comparatively 
small, navigable only for about 40 miles. The confluence 
of these streams is at the Georgia line, 2 miles above 
the railroad crossing, and about 100 miles from the sea "as 
the river runs," though only 80 miles in a straight line. 
The river carries down enormous deposits of alluvium, form- 
ing wide stretches of marshy delta in Appalachicola Bay. 
The bottom lands are very rich, but liable to frequent over- 
flow, as may be seen by the flood marks nearly at the level 
of the rails on the trees beside the trestle. 

In Jackson County west of the Aijpalachicola the country 
is less conspicuously hilly than that to the eastward, though 
there are still considerable elevations. At Marianna a 
pleasant stop may be made (Route 231). 

De Fun ink Springs; (Route 232) is a very attractive place, 
with a good hotel and a winter school on the Chautauqua 
plan. A short distance west of Longview tlie railway passes 
into Washington County (page 101), closely following its 
northern boundary to the Choctawhatchee River, where it 
passes into Holmes County (page 39). Crossing numerous 
rapid streams, the Walton County line is reached at Argjde, 
whence are post-roads south to the Scottish Colony that set- 


tied in this region early in the present century. Be Funiak 
Springs is the principal resort of this jjart of Florida. (See 
Koute 232.) About one mile west of Crestview is tlie Wal- 
ton-Santa Kosa County line. The stream crossed just be- 
yond is iShodl River, a north fork of Yellow Water Miver. 

At Miltou (Route 233) the line ci'osses the head of Black- 
water Bay, the mouth of Black River, a deep, rapid stream 
down which large quantities of lumber are floated to Pensa- 
cola and a market. A run of about twenty minutes from 
Milton opens a refreshing view over Escambia Bay, which 
the railway presently crosses on a trestle 3 miles long. 
From this jioint to Pensacola, about 20 miles, the ride is 
most enjoyable for interest and beauty. After leaving the 
trestle the rails, as a rule, follow the water side with the 
Escambia Blufts inland, and occasional wooded points which 
momentarily cut ofi" the bay view. 

231. Marianna, Jackson County (C. H.). 

Popalation, 1,500. 

Hotel.— jT/te Chipola Hotel, $2 a day. 

Railroad. — Louisville & Nashville "Rd. (Pensacola Division) ; west, to Pen- 
eacola (136 miles) ; east, to River Junction (26 miles). 

A pretty village on the hill north of the station. It has 
the county buildings, and a generally attractive appearance. 
The Chipola River, which runs near the town, crossing the 
railway a short distance east of the station, is responsible for 
some of the natural curiosities in the neighborhood. It has 
quarried for itself a natural bridge, near Marianna, and a 
large cave is jjart of the same formation. 

Chijyola Spring, among the most remarkable in the State, 
bursts with great force through a rocky, cavernous opening 
in the side of an oak-covered bluff", sloiiing toward the south- 
west. The chasm is about 30 feet long, east and west, and 
8 to 10 feet wide. Midway of its length it is nearly halved 
by a submerged fragment. The water of this spring, like 
that of those described elsewhere, is crystal clear, but the 
rush of the current prevents leisurely examination from a 
boat. The outlet is a f nll-srrown stream nearlv 100 feet wide 


and 8 feet deep, which joins Chipola River ten miles dis- 
tant, not far above the railroad crossing. 

Long Moss Spring pours out a good-sized creek with such 
violence that fragments of stone thrown into it will not sink. 
The whole watershed of the Chipola in this vicinity is full 
of remarkable springs, caves, and sinks, which cannot be 
depended upon to remain the same for any specified time. 
Early in the present century, the Apalachicola burst through 
into the Chipola, forming the Dead Lake of Calhoun County 
(page 12). 

232. De Funiak Springs, Walton County (O. H.). 

Population, 2,000. 

TloT-E-L.— Hotel Chautauqtta, $2 a day. 

Railroad. — L. & N. Ed.; east, to Pensacola (80 miles) ; west, to River Junc- 
tion (82 miles). 

LivKRY.— Saddle horses, 12 a day. Single teams, $3. Double teams, $5. 
Guides, $1.50 a day. 

A nearly circular lake, which is, in fact, a sj^riug, led to 
the establishment of the county seat, and of the prettiest 
modern village in West Florida. 

The lake is, according to local authorities, 64 feet deep 
and 300 feet above tide-water. On the bluffs surround- 
ing the lake are the assembly buildings and many cottages 
of residents. A plank walk, well shaded by the forest trees, 
follows the line of houses overlooking the lake. Here, too, 
are branches of the State Normal School, a United States 
Experiment Station, and Presbyterian and Methodist 
Churches. Cotton and sugar-cane are successfully raised, 
and olive-trees grow in the open air. Tobacco culture and 
cigar-making, and brick-yards are among the promising in- 
dustries, but they will not be allowed to mar the beauty of 
the place. De Funiak stands in the healthful high pine re- 
gion, but as the laud slopes to tlie southward the pines give 
way to a hammock growtli which extends to the belt of fiat- 
woods along the coast. 

The " Florida Chautauqua Assembly," referred to above, 
is intended to afford in a mild climate the advantages of- 
fered by the famous Northern institution. Full information 
may be had by addressing the Secretary at De Funiak Springs. 


233. Milton, Santa Rosa County (C H.). 

Population, 1,200. 

I{ailr(jai). — L. & N. Rd. (Pensaco'.a Division) ; southwest, to Pensacola (20 
miles) ; east, to River Junction (141 miles). 

One of the old towns of West Florida, retaining many of 
the traditional features of Southern society. The streets are 
well shaded by fine trees, and with its pretty white houses, 
schools, and churches it offers a most attractive api^earance. 

Blackwater, just across the river, resembles it in some re- 
spects. Both places are largely interested in the lumber 
business. On October 25, 1864, Pensacola being held by 
the Federals, and Milton by a small detachment of Confed- 
erates, an expedition was fitted out at Barancas to proceed 
up Black Water River and procure a supply of lumber, of 
which there were large quantities along shore. Through a 
misapprehension of orders the original plan of landing at 
Pierce's Mill was abandoned, and the party, about 700 
strong, proceeded to Milton where they landed and had a 
brisk skirmish with the Confederates who were stationed 
there, driving them out of the town and holding the place 
till the next day, when, after destroying some Confederate 
stores, the detachment returned to Barancas. 

210. Pensacola, Escambia County (C. H.). 

Population (1890), 11,751. 

Lat. 30° 23' N. Lonor. 87" 12' W. 

HoTSL. — Tlie Continental, $3 to $4 a day. 

Railroads.— Louisville & Nastiville (Pensacola Division) ; east, to River 
Junction, 161 miles (7 h. 50 min.) ; Pensacola & Atlantic Rd. to Mobile, New 
Orleans, etc.; Pensacola, Fla., & Perdido Rd.; west, to ilillview, 10 miles. 


Pkobablt the first European crew to sail into the magnifi- 
cent harbor of Pensacola was that of Miruelo, a Spanish 
pilot, who found the natives friendly, traded off his cargo 
of trinkets for silver and gold, and returned peacefully to 
Cuba (1516). Next some of Hernando de Soto's men re- 
discovered the harbor about 1536, but no use was made of 


it, and in September, 1558, Guido de Labazares, after a 
thorough examination of the coast with a view to permanent 
colonization, decided in favor of Pensacola Bay, which he 
named Filijjina, and reported accordingly to his chief, the 
Governor of Cuba. 

A strong expedition was sent out under Tristan deLuna in 
1559, with a view to permanent settlement at Pensacola, but 
he went instead to Ichuse (Santa Eosa Bay), where he lost 
everything in a hurricane. Miruelo named the bay after 
himself ; Tristan called it Santa Maria in 1558, and in 1693 
Don Andre de Pes added " de Galva," in honor of the then 
Governor of Mexico. The eastern part of the bay is still 
charted as St. Maria de Galvez, but this de Galvez is another 
man altogether, not born till nearly a century later. 

The present name Pensacola is probably that of the Indian 
tribe inhabiting the vicinity. It api:)ears on Delisle's map 
(1707), and was probably applied to the surrounding country 
by the Spaniards for many years before that time. 

In 1696 Don Andre d' Arriola took possession, and built 
Fort San Carlos, whose ruins may still be seen near Fort 
Barancas. He made the beginnings of a permanent settle- 
ment, but everything was destroyed by the French in 1719, 
and during the better part of that year the place was a bone 
of contention, the Spanish in the end coming ofif second best, 
and leaving the French in possession till 1722, when dii^lo- 
macy stepped in and confirmed tjie Spanish claim. The 
town was soon rebuilt on Santa Eosa Island, near where Fort 
Pickens now stands. A print made from a sketch taken in 
1743, and published in Jeffries' narrative, shows a stockaded 
fort, a government building, a church and thirty or more 
lesser structures. 

In 1754 a hurricane, in conjunction with a high tide, 
proved the insecurity of the locality, and the i:):esent site 
was selected. In 1763 Florida was ceded to the Englisli, 
and nearly all the Spanish residents removed to Cuba. 
France and Spain, however, made friends in 1781, and tinder 
Don Galvez, of Louisiana, and the Spanish Admiral Solano 
laid siege to the British garrison in Pensacola. The place 
was strongly defended by two well manned forts, St. Mi- 


cliael and St. Bernard, but the accidental explosion of a 
magazine compelled surrender after twelve days of bom- 
bardment. A very creditable Spanish engraving of 1783 
commemorates this triumph over the Engiisli, and with 
free, artistic license represents the instant of the explo- 

The ruins of Fort St. Michael are still to be seen near the 
head of Palafox Street. This surrender occurred May 9, 
1781. Two years afterward Spanish possession was con- 
firmed by re-cession on the part of England, and Pensacola 
saw no more powder burned in earnest until 1814, when 
with Spanish consent the English under Colonel Nichols gar- 
risoned the forts at Barancas and Santa Rosa and hoisted 
the British flag. England being then at war with the Uni- 
ted States, Nichols issued a proclamation urging the inhabi- 
tants of Louisiana and Kentucky to join his standard. In- 
dian massacres were incited along the border, and summary 
measures were necessary. This was in August. On Novem- 
ber 6th General Andrew Jackson, with 5,000 Tennesseeans 
and a number of Indian allies, was before Pensacola. Ee- 
connoitring parties were fired upon from the forts, and 
Jackson prepared to storm the place. By clever manage- 
ment he carried the outworks, and gained possession of the 
town with trifling loss on November lith. 

The Spanish governor jjromised the unconditional surren- 
der of the forts in return for a promise of safety for the 
town, but during the succeeding night the British aban- 
doned St. Michael and St. Bernard, blew up Barancas, and 
escaped to sea. Jackson withdrew after occupying the 
place for two days, and marched eastward, where he subdued 
the Indians and remained in the vicinity to preserve the 
peace. In 1818 ho was again obliged to occupy Pensacola, 
to show the Spaniards that he was in earnest. This and 
other proceedings of an energetic character on the i:)art of 
Jackson opened the eyes of Spain to the American idea of 
" manifest destiny," and in 1819 negotiations were begun 
which resulted in cession to the United States. 

Pensacola was too strong to sufier materially during the 
Seminole wars, and thanks to her fine harbor, which was 


made an important naval station, in 1830 she became the 
most considerable seaport in Florida. 

Florida passed her Ordinance of Secession on Jannary 10, 
1861. By that time the movement at the South had devel- 
oped great strength, while divided counsels and an uncertain 
policy at the North still prevented summary measures for the 
suppression of armed rebellion. The garrison of Fort Bar- 
ancas during the winter of 1860-61 consisted of a company 
of the First Artillery, forty-eight men, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant A. J. Slemmer. Throughout the winter the attitude 
of the authorities of Florida and Alabama had become more 
and more threatening, until, on January 8, 1861, Lieutenant 
Slemmer notified General Scott, Commander-in-Chief at 
Washington, that the danger was imminent. That same 
night a company of about twenty men approached Fort 
Barancas, hoping to take possession unopposed. A ser- 
geant's guard had, however, been stationed in the fort and 
when this was discovered the intending assailants retired. 
The incident was enough to show the danger of delay and 
on January 10th, Lieutenant Slemmer removed his command 
to Fort Pickens, where he could offer formidable resistance 
even with the small force at his disposal. Captain (after- 
ward Commodore) James Armstrong, U.S.N., a Kentuckian 
by birth, was in command at the Navy Yard, having two 
vessels at hand, the Supply, Captain Walker, and the Wyan- 
dotte, Captain Berryman, with a few men available for de- 
fence. From Lieutenant Slemmer's report of the transfer of 
troops and munitions it is apparent that he distrusted Cap- 
tain Armstrong's loyalty. At all events he failed to secure 
much-needed assistance from the Navy Yard, but eventually 
effected the transfer of his command and, at cost of arduous 
labor day and night, put the fort in passable condition for 

On the morning of January 12th the surrender of the Navy 
Y''ard was demanded by Colonel "William H. Chase, com- 
manding some twelve hundred Confederate trooiDs, and 
Captain Armstrong capitulated, effectual resistance being ob- 
viously impossible. The few' men stationed at the yard were 
mustered near the flag-staff when the Confederates marched 


in unopijosed, and Lieutenant Renshaw ordered William 
Conway, a seaman grown old in the service, to haul down 
the flag in token of surrender. 

The habit of obedience is strong in a man-of-war's man, 
but Conway was equal to the occasion. He is said to have 
used tolerably strong language toward his suiaerior officer 
in refusing to obey this unprecedented command. Conway's 
faithfulness under exceptionally trying circumstances was 
promptly recognized and rewarded by Congress. But there 
were plenty of hands ready to do the service, and presently 
the anxious little garrison at Fort Pickens sorrowfully 
watched the United States ensign lowered from the Navy 
Yard flag-staff while the Confederate colors rose to its place. 

After the surrender of the Navy Yard, Lieutenant Slem- 
mer was reinforced by the 31 faithful seamen who refused to 
desert their colors, and now had 82 men all told, including 
nominal non-combatants, to defend a fort designed for a gar- 
rison of 1,200 men. The same evening, just after retreat, a 
deiDutation of Confederate officers, headed by Captain Ean- 
dolph, presented themselves at the gate of Fort Pickens, 
asked for the commanding officer and made a demand for 
the surrender of the fort in the name of the States of Florida 
and Alabama. Slemmer replied that he was there under the 
orders of the President and that he recognized no right of 
any governor to demand a surrender of United States prop- 

On January 15th Colonel Chase made a formal demand 
for the surrender, jDresenting, in temperate and courteous 
but forcible terms, the futility of resistance. Slemmer an- 
swered as before, saying that while he dejirecated bloodshed 
he would defend his post until compelled to surrender. 
In the meantime the little garrison had been working all day 
strengthening the defences, lying by the guns at night on the 
rain-swept parapet, often called to quarters by false alarms, 
and wellnigh exhausted. Not a word of complaint was ut- 
tered, however, and under exceptionally trying circum- 
stances a vigilant watch was maintained until eventually re- 
inforcements came from the North. Much credit is due to 
Colonel Chase, whose i^rudent course undoubtedly restrained 


precipitate action on the part of the half-disciplined troops 
then under his command. He was a native of Massachusetts 
and a graduate of West Point. Until he resigned from the 
army in 1856 he was an officer of the engineer corps, and the 
forts at Pensacola were largely constructed under his suj^er- 
vision. Knowing the strength of the works, he used all his 
influence to prevent an attack which must have resulted in a 
bloody rei^ulse. Colonel Chase took no further active part 
in the rebellion, being probably somewhat distrusted by the 
Confederate authorities because of his Northern birth. He 
died in Pensacola in 1870. 

The U. S. steamship Brooklyn, with a company of the First 
Artillery under Captain Vodges, had arrived off Fort Pickens 
on January 6th, but found orders forbidding the reinforce- 
ment of the garrison pending negotiations for a compro- 
mise with the seceding States then in progress at "Washing- 
ton. Influential Floridians represented that should Pickens 
be reinforced it would be impossible to prevent an attack 
from the somewhat lawless and undisciplined levies that 
garrisoned the shore batteries. 

Until March this state of things continued, but by the 13th 
of that month the authorities at Washington decided that 
further delay was useless, and ordered the reinforcement of 
Pickens. The order, however, was never received, and the 
Confederates continued to erect batteries commanding the 
fort and its approaches. 

On the 12th of March, negro slaves began to make their 
escape from the mainland, under the impression that Fort 
Pickens would be a refuge for them. Under the circum- 
stances Lieutenant Slemmer, having but a limited supply of 
provisions, could only return them as soon as practicable to 
the city authorities. 

In the meantime the Confederate Government had been 
organized at Montgomery, Ala., and General Braxton 
Bragg, who had lately resigned his commission in the ser- 
vice of the United States, superseded Colonel Chase in 
command of the Confederate forces at Pensacola. 

It was determined by April 1, 1861, that all forts re- 
maining in the possession of the United States must be fully 


reitiforced. Colonel Harvey Brown was assigned to tlie 
command of all United States troops in Florida. During 
the night of Aj^'il 12th, a strong force of soldiers, marines, 
and seamen was landed on Santa Rosa Island under cover 
of darkness, and at last this important post was secure to the 
United States. Subsequently a regiment of New York volun- 
teers, "Billy Wilson's Zouaves," was sent from the North 
and placed in camp on the island, east of Fort Pickens. 

On April 26th, according to a contemporary newspaper, 
Bragg's forces numbered 8,000, and a semi-circle of fortifica- 
tions had been thrown up on the main land, extending from 
the Navy Yard to Fort MacEae. The summer passed without 
open hostilities, but on October 9tli, the Confederates took 
the initiative, landing a force of 1,200 men and attacking the 
Zouave camp a mile east of Fort Pickens. The first shots 
were fired about 2 a.m. and the attack was successful at 
first, dire confusion resulting before the regiment could be 
formed. Two companies of regulars were sent from the fort, 
and Wilson, having gotten his men in hand, the enemy was 
soon driven to his boats. The Federal loss was U killed, 
53 wounded and missing. That of the Confederates, 21 
killed, 60 wounded and missing. The camp of the Zouaves 
was fired, and almost wholly destroyed. 

On November 22, 1861, fire was opened from Fort Pickens 
upon the Confederate works on the mainland, and the 
frigates Niagara and Richviond drew in as near as possible 
and devoted their attention mainly to Fort MacRae and the 
adjoining batteries. The Confederate batteries responded, 
and an artillery duel was kept up for two days. The pur- 
pose of the Federal gunners was to destroy the stores and 
workshops at the Navy Yard, and do as much damage as 
possible to the Confederate batteries. A number of buildings 
were knocked to pieces by the shot and shell, and the town 
of Warrenton was greatly damaged, being in the direct 
line of fire. The loss of life on both sides was trifling, as is 
invariably the case in artillery duels where guns are jiroperly 

At 11.30 P.M., May 8, 1862, the Confederates abandoned 
their posts in the neighborhood of Pensacola, as is credibly 


stated, to reinforce Mobile, An attempt was made by them 
to destroy Fort MacKae, the lighthouse, and the buildings iu 
the Navy Yard, but as soon as their design was evident to 
the commanding officer in Fort Pickens, he opened fire in 
the hope of preventing the total destruction of all combus- 
tible public property. In this he probably succeeded, for 
when daylight came it was found that several buildings at 
the Navy Yard remained standing, though preparations had 
been made to fire them. Parts of Pensacola were likewise 
burned, also the village of Warrenton, near the Navy Yaid. 

United States troops took possession and extinguished the 
flames where jjossible, and hoisted the stars and stripes once 
more over the Navy Yard. As soon as it was light enotigh 
to cross the bar, some of the blockading squadron went up to 
the city and called upon the authorities to surrender. This 
was not accomplished until the arrival of another gun-boat 
made it imperative. The people went to work to extinguish 
the flames, and iu the course of a few hours comparative 
order was restored. No serious attempt was subsequently 
made by the Confederates to regain possession of these posts. 

Excursions. — The Forts and the Navy Yard. Steamer 
from Long Wharf, foot of Palafox Street. The boat stops 
at the Navy Yard at night, leaves for Pensacola at 8 a.m. and 
3 P.M. Leaves Pensacola for Navy Yard at 10 a.m. and 5 
P.M. (Fare for round trip, 50c.) The same boat carries 
passengers to Forts Pickens and MacRae, if desired. There 
is an old government road in fair condition from Pensacola 
to the Navy Y'ard. The trip down the bay is highly enjoy- 
able. Ofi'the wharves is usually a busy scene, a large fleet 
of vessels loading lumber from rafts alongside. The ship- 
ping interests of Pensacola are of great commercial impor- 
tance. The latest accessible returns show more than five 
hundred entrances and clearances of vessels annually, with 
a total register of about 350,000 tons. The main business 
is in lumber, the exports amounting yearly to about 140,- 
000,000 feet. Besides this there is growing up a large ex- 
jDort trade in coal from the Alabama mines, for which tliere 
is a large and increasing demand in the West Indies. 

The wooded jjoint opposite the city, Santa Rosa Park, 


separates Pensacola Bay from Santa Rosa Sound. The 
opening, Pas.s- VEnte, witli the vessels at the quarantine sta- 
tion, comes in sight a few minutes after leaving the wharf. 
To seaward are the irregular sand-dunes of Santa Rosa 
Island, with Fort Pickens at its western point, and the yel- 
low walls and buildings of the Navy Yard on the mainland 
opposite. (See historical sketch of Pensacola.) The Navy 
Yard is an immense enclosure, now almost deserted. A few 
officers are stationed here, with enough artificers and watch- 
men to take care of the government property. Some of the 
officers' quarters were burned when the Confederate troops 
abandoned the place, but, considering the artillery fire to 
which they were exposed for two days, the damage was 
small. Very picturesque and quiet is the old yard witli its 
shaded esplanade, wharves of solid masonry, and well-built 
shops, all crumbling through neglect; for, in the judgment 
of the authorities, the Pensacola station is no longer of prac- 
tical use to the Navy. 

Fort Barancas and the lighthouse, with the remains of 
the old Spanish fort, are within easy walking distance to the 
westward. A company of artillery is usiially stationed at 
the fort. No visitor should fail to walk or ride through 
these beautiful, though for the most part uneared for, 
grounds. No guide is required. The visitor may wander 
at will through the extensive works, and watch as long as 
he will the schools of mullet playing about the deserted 
wharves. At the commandant's office at the Navy Y'"ard, 
or at the adjutant's office in Fort Barancas, special directions 
or information can always be obtained. 

Pensacola Bay (see map, p. 28) divides into three smaller 
arms about 10 miles from the Gulf, Santa Maria de Galvez 
Bay to the eastward, and Escambia Bay to the westward. 
The latter bay is 11 miles long, and 4 miles wide. Into it 
flows Escambia River from the north, receiving numerous 
tributaries. The bordering lands are in general low and fre- 
quently overflowed. Santa Maria de Galvez, about the same 
size as Escambia, subdivides again into Blackwater Bay, 
which receives a river of the same name, and Cedar Creek. 


This arm is about 7 miles by 2 luiles, and is full of islands. 
Yellow Water River falls into the main arm of the Bay. It 
is navigable for small craft some 40 miles from its mouth. 
Shoal River, crossed by the railroad about 20 miles east of 
Milton, is its i^i'incipal tributary. 

East Bay, the easterly subdivision of Pensacola Bay, is a 
fine body of water, deep, sheltered, and aflbrding excellent 
anchorage. It is about 7 miles long, narrowing at the head 
into a small creek. On the southeast it is connected with 
Sanjta Eosa Sound, Choctawhatchee Bay, and the Gulf 
through Pass VEste. 

Big Bayou is an arm of Pensacola Bay, 1| mile above 
Tartar Point. 

Bayou Chico is a jiretty land-locked sheet of water, for- 
merly utilized as a harbor for small craft. On its shores 
was Camj) Clinch, during the state of quasi war with Spain 

Bayou Texar falls into the Escambia Bay a mile above 

Perdido Bay (map, p. 28), into which flows a river of the 
same name, separates Florida from Alabama on the west. 
It is a land-locked sheet of water with a narrow, crooked 
outlet, and a shifting bar with not more than 7 feet at low 
tide. The bay itself, however, lias a considerable dejjth, 
is 30 miles long, and from 2 miles to 6 miles wide. The 
shores are in many places quite high, composed of clay 
bluffs, and covered with an almost imbroken forest of pines. 
The river is navigable for small steamers about 7 miles from 
its mouth. It rises in Alabama, and is a good mill-stream. 
Both river and bay abound with fish. A western arm of the 
bay is called La Lance, an indication that we are nearing a 
region first settled by French. Spanish names are almost 
the invariable rule in Florida, but French names predomi- 
nate west of Perdido Bay, and the French tongue is still 
largely spoken. 


250. The Gulf Coast of West Florida. 

From Perdido Bay to Cedar Key the eoast sweeps in two 
great curves with capes San Bias and St. George between 
them. There is no continuous outer line of islands, though 
there are very extensive and beautiful disconnected bays at 
short intervals as far east as Dog Island. Beyond this the 
bays disappear, and from the St. Mark's River to Cedar Key 
there is no shelter except for boats of very light draft which 
can find their way into the many streams and inlets. 

ChoctaiDhatchee Bay (see map, p. 100) lies east and west 
■within its outlying islands, about 40 miles, with a width of 7 
miles to 15 miles, and from 6 feet to 12 feet of water. Nav- 
igation for vessels drawing more than 6 feet is very doubtful, 
since the depth of water is much affected by storms, and 
many bars extend far out into the bay. The always trust- 
worthy sharjiie will however slide safely over most of them. 
The shores along the eastern part of the bay are low, and 
largely bordered with reeds and grass. Farther to the 
westward the land is higher, with frequent shell-hammocks, 
pine barrens, and live-oak woods. The Choctmi-Jialchee- River 
is.the principal fresh-water tributary of this bay. It rises in 
Alabama about 150 miles from tide-water, and is navigable 
about 80 miles. The main tributary is Pea River. The last 
named is really the larger of the two streams. The confluence 
is near the Florida line. Euchee Creek enters from the west- 
ward 25 miles from the mouth, and Sandy Creek about 4 
miles. From the westward come Holms, Big Bar?-en, and 
Pond Creeks, the first named navigable at all times as far as 
Big Spring, and to Shackleford, 15 miles farther, during 
average high water. 

Aliqiia River rises among the " knobs " of Walton County, 
springing almost full-grown from the ground. Its total 
length is about 25 miles, and it is navigable 15 miles. It 
empties into Choctawhatchee Bay. 

St. Andrew's Bay (map, p. 102) has 18 or 20 feet of water 
on the bar, good anchorage, and jierfect shelter from all 
•winds. The bay is very irregular in shape, stretching its 


arms \\p iuto the country to the N. W. and S. E. for 30 miles. 
Hammock Island guards the entrance from the Gulf. 

On the 1st and 2d of December, 1863, a destructive raid 
was made by a detail of men from the gun-boat Restless along 
St. Andrew's Bay, the object being to put an end to the salt- 
works, public and private, from which the Confederacy 
largely drew its supplies. Nearly two hundred establishments, 
large and small, were broken up, according to Eear Admiral 
Bailey's report. The town of St. Andrew's was shelled and, 
taking fire, was partly burned. A very large amount of Con- 
federate salt and stores was thus destroyed. On January 27th 
following, another similar expedition ascended the river 
above St. Andrew's, and completed the work of destruction 
by breaking up some ninety more salt-works. 

Wetappo River has its source in \\'ashiugton County, west 
of the Chipola. For twenty miles it twists and turns in every 
imaginable direction. For the last five miles before falling 
into St. Andrew's Bay it is less tortuous, receiving the S. E. 
Branch. The branch is easily navigable. 

St. Joseph's Bay (map, p. 12) has a wide entrance from the 
northwest, with 17 feet of water on the bar. Between False 
Cape and the mainland, however, there is a "middle 
ground " with 9 feet of water in some places. The main bay 
is 7 miles to 8 miles wide, and 2 miles long, its major axis 
running nearly north and south. Xear the southeast end of 
the bay is a fine island covered with a heavy grove of live- 
oak, cedar, palms, and the usual hammock growth of the 
Gulf Coast. The crooked island that forms the bay reaches 
well out to sea, forming Cape San Bias. Elsewhere, the 
sand is blown up into fantastic dunes behind which the pine 
forest has secured a foothold, and serves as a landmark to 
sailors long before the low-lying shore can be seen. San 
Bias light stands on the south jjoint of the cape in Lat. 29° 
40' N., Long. 85° 21' W. The light was established in 1847 
but abandoned in 1885, and the present iron skeleton struc- 
ture erected. The ruins of the old tower and oil room are 
still standing 300 yards from the end of the cape in 8 feet 
of water. The present tower is 98 feet high. The light 
flashes red and white alternately at intervals of 30 seconds. 


It is visible W^ nantical miles. A dangerous slioal extends 
5 or 6 miles southerly from the caije. 

Aprdachicolii Bcv/ (see mai?, p. 30) is formed by the islands 
of St. Vincent and St. George, is 30 miles long, and averages 
8 miles wide. There is generally 14 feet of water on the 
bar. St. Vincent's Island, defining the bay on the west, is 
roughly speaking, an isosceles triangle in shape, nearly 10 
miles on its longer sides. It is covered with a dense growth 
of magnolias, live-oaks, and palms, and much of its surface 
is green with a natural growth of grass. Fine springs of 
fresh-water are found on the island, and a considerable 
stream flows into the bay on the eastern shore. St. George's 
island, forming the sound of that name, stretches for 40 
miles along the coast, generally in a northeast direction. 
The seaward side is blown into high ]iarallel saud-ridges, 
rising in some places 30 to 40 feet above the beach. Be- 
hind these are pines interspersed with occasional hammock, 
shallows and marshes forming the inland shore. Cape St. 
George light is a white tower 73 feet high showing a fixed 
white light visible 14 naiitical miles at sea. The light was 
established in 1847. It stands in Lat. 29° 35' 18 ' N., Long. 
85° 02' 52" W. Sea-going vessels keep 8 miles oflf shore on 
account of shoals making out southward from the cape. 

Dog Island, at the eastern extremity of the sound, forms 
an admirable harbor. 

Appalache Bay (see map, p. 98) is properly only a bight or 
irregularity in the coast aifording no safe shelter from south- 
erly gales. It is full of reefs and shoals, twenty miles from 
shore, and though navigation between these is safe and easy 
in calm weather, they are very dangerous to careless na^'i- 
gators. Vessels drawing 8 feet may enter Spanish Hole, 
where good shelter and anchorage is found. Apj)alache 
Bay is bordered to the eastwartl by prairies. 


Miscellaneous Inform jitioii. 


The wild Florida orange, while not altogether disagreea- 
ble to the tastei, is not generally regarded as edible. It is 
largely cultivated for ornamental purposes. The sweet or 
China orange is a native of India. Thence it was oiiginally 
brought by the Arabs, and found its way to Florida by way 
of Spain and the West Indies. 

Orange-trees grow, thrive, and ripen excellent fruit all 
over Florida, but there are certain districts whei'e they 
thrive better and produce finer fruit than elsewhere. The 
Orange Belt proper is within the limits of Middle Florida, 
but a very large proportion of the crop is grown on the 
banks of the St. John's River as far north as Jacksonville. 
The Indian River and Halifax River regions produce oranges 
that are unsurpassed in beauty, juiciness, and flavor, and 
again in the vicinity of Ocala and along the Gulf Coast the 
Homosassa orange, originating on Tiger Island, the old 
Yulee plantation, is among the choicest varieties. 

The question as to the best soil for oranges bids fair to 
remain unsettled for many a year. The traveller who is in- 
terested in such matter, will hear the most contradictory asser- 
tions from equally well-informed and trustworthy experts. In 
the " high pine " region he will be told that while fertilizers 
should there be used at first, the tree^, require less and 
less as time goes on, and after a few years require little, if any- 
thing, more than is supplied by nature and ordinary care. 
In the low-lying hammocks along the Halifax and Indian 
Rivers he will hear that there no fertilizers whatever are 
required, that in fact they injure the trees and cause the 
fruit to deteriorate. So, too, on the high hammocks, and 
even among "flat woods," he will find orange-growers who 
are prepared to demonstrate that no other lands can produce 
equally fine oranges. 

The only fair inference is that all these difi"erent condi- 
tions are good, each in its own way. As to which soil or 
which district produces the finest fruit, or which particular 


kind of fruit is finest, individual preferences or prejudices 
must govern. Among the most famous orange groves are 
the following : The Dummit Grove on Indian River, near 
Hanlover, Brevard County ; the Harris Grove, near Citra, 
Marion County ; the Hart Grove, near Palatka, Putnam 
County ; the Belair Groves, near Sanford. Orange County ; 
the Tiger Tail Island Grove, near Homosassa, Citrus 

The Florida orange is probably the finest in the world, as 
even European experts are beginning to acknowledge. Its 
superiority lies in the thinness of its skin, rendering it easier 
to eat without tasting the acrid oil as with the thick-skinned 
varieties ; and in its jieculiarly abundant juiciness, and deli- 
cious flavor. These qualities are especially noted in semi- 
troj^ical Florida, where occasional light frosts seem to bene- 
fit rather than injure the trees when once they have matured. 

In Florida orange-trees begin to bear eatable fruit at 5 to 
8 years from budding, on good stock. From the seed they 
require from 10 to 20 years, and in any case are not certainly 
" tnie " to the seed. How long trees will live and flourish 
is not yet certain, since the oldest known specimens in Flor- 
ida are not more than 50 years old. In Spain there are 
orange-trees with an authenticated record of 700 years, and 
at Hampton Court, in England, there are specimens that 
liave been growing under glass nearly half as long. 

The brownish or rusty appeai'ance of many Florida oranges 
is only objectionable because it detracts from the beauty, 
and therefore from the market value of the fruit. It is 
caused by a minute insect that punctures the skin so that 
the essential oil exudes and oxidizes on exposure to the air. 
The flavor of "rusty" oranges is by many believed to bo 
better than that of the jmve golden specimens. Oranges 
generally ripen during January and February, and will hang 
upon the trees in perfect condition until summer is well ad- 
vanced. If permitted to remain on the trees, however, they 
are subject to many dangers that may be prevented by 
gathering and storing. 

The Florida orange crop of 1889-90, according to the 
trustworthy returns of the transportatioii companies, was, in 


round numbers, 2,000,000 boxes. This, of course, represents 
only the amount shipped for a market, and does not include 
home consumi:)tion. 


Lemon-trees are rather more sensitive to cold than oranges, 
hence they cannot be regarded as a safe crop in the northern 
part of the State, though under exceptional conditions they 
^vill grow up to the Georgia line. They require a dry soil, 
and will not grow on the hammocks. The Florida lemon 
does not yet command the market. It has the reputation of 
being too big, too thick-skinned, and not satisfactory in flavor. 
All these faults are probably due to lack of intelligent culti- 
vation. It is believed by many jjlanters that the lemon will 
at no very distant day rival the orange as a profitable crop. 
Fine lemon groves may be seen in Belair County, and smaller 
ones are scattered throughout the Orange Belt. 


Limes will gi'ow safely and well under ordinary conditions 
south of Palatka, and in favorable localities somewhat far- 
ther north. The variety common in Florida is a native of 
Mexico. The fruit is available for many of the uses that 
create a demand for lemons. It is more generally used 
abroad than in America, but is steadily gaining favor. 
Limes are generally raised from the seed, and require little 
care. It will come into profitable bearing, say 3,000 limes 
to a tree, in about twelve years. 


In Florida two varieties of this fruit are successfully cul- 
tivated, namely, the orange citron and the lemon citron. Its 
value arises from its thick, fragrant rind, which is preserved 
and candied for the use of cooks and confectioners. The 
curing process has only of late been perfected, but the 
Florida product is now making its way in the home mar- 



Grape Fruit. 

This is, by good authority, regarded as a variety of the 
Shaddock, but its habit of growth is peculiar, hanging in 
grape-like bunches, and its flavor is a refreshing combina- 
tion of acidity, bitterness, and grapes. The liking for it, 
like that for fresh figs, has often to be acquired. Grai)e 
fruit is becoming quite popular in the Northern markets, 
which it reaches in December or thereabout. 


The successful cultivation of pineapples on a large scale 
and for market is a new industry in Florida, and has not 
yet enacted for itself a regular code of laws. The pine is 
largely an air-plant. It thrives on third-class pine land on 
the bluffs of Indian River, and on the coralline keys of the 
far south. The finest existing plantations are at Eden, 
some 20 miles above Jupiter Inlet, on Indian River. The 
pineai)iile bears fruit once and then dies, "suckers" spring- 
ing up from the base of the leaves near the ground. From 
these suckers the plant is propagated, as also from the 
" crests " of the leaves, from certain tufts called "crown- 
lets," from "slips," and from "eyes." Indeed, the whole 
plant fairly bristles with regenerative processes, the suckers 
being generally regarded as affording the best and surest 
growth. Within a few years an enormous number of jjine- 
apples will be grown in Florida. The demand is not only 
for table use, but for various extracts and flavors used by 


The Native Races of Florida. 

At the time of its discovery by the Spaniards, in 1513, pe- 
ninsular Florida appears to have been peopled by a race sim- 
ilar in manners, language, and customs to the Lucayans 
of Bahama and the Caribs of the West Indian and Wind- 
ward Islands. The word hammock, frequently used in this 
handbook, and meaning land whereon hard wood grows, is 
the sole survival in English of the original tongue. These 
people were largely agricultural, were bold navigators, and 
brave warriors. There were several confederacies within the 
peninsula, often at war with each other, but generally pre- 
serving their indei^endence. Such were the provinces of 
Tegesta and Caloosa where now are Dade, Munroe, and Lee 
counties. The region of Tampa Bay was Tocobaga, and op- 
posite, on the Atlantic coast and the St. John's River, was the 
dominion of Utina, who held court on a large domiciliary 
mound near the outlet of Lake George. Toward the north 
and west these Carib races became merged in the Red 
Indian type, notably the Apalaches, who were, even in 
Soto's time, the acknowledged superiors of all the other 
tribes. Their territory was between the Suwannee and Ap- 
palachicola Rivers. Soto found them almost half civilized, 
and left them with their chief towns in ashes and most of 
their warriors slain. 

All the early explorers speak admiringly of the natio 
Floridian races. They were of large stature, light olive- 
brown in color, and given to tattooing their skins. They 
were very intelligent, ready to learn, and often possessed of 
courteous, dignified manners. In the beginning they wore 
disposed to be friendly to Europeans, but very naturally 
resented attempts at conquest, and proved their dauntless 
courage on many a hard-fought field. Early in the eighteenth 
century serious dissensions arose among the Creeks and 
Clierokees of Alabama, and under the leadership of one Se- 
cotfee a strong party seceded, invaded the Alachua region, 
subjugated the surrounding tribes, whose strength had 
been broken by the Spanish scourge, and became known as 
" Seminoles," or outlaws. Other northern tribes, as the 


Yemassees and others of the Creek family, followed their 
example, and by the beginning of the nineteenth century 
the Seminoles had overran the State and the native Flori- 
dian had disappeared, or intermarried to an extent that left 
few traces of his existence. 

Seminole Words, Phrases, Names, etc. 

For the following list of words and their meanings the au- 
thor is indebted to memoranda furnished by Mr. Kirk 
Munroe, in addition to that published in the "Florida An- 
nual; " to lists and chance references in Sprague's "Florida 
War," and to Indians and hunters whose versions, if some- 
times confusing, have in general verified the accuracy of 
the vocabulary. So far as known, no systematic attempt 
has ever been made to codify this language beyond imper- 
fect vocabularies compiled at random, as in the present in- 
stance. It has no written signs save rude hieroglyphics, has 
no word for a Supreme Being, and apparently no conjuga- 
tions and inflexions. The accent falls almost invariably 
upon the final syllables Tcah, 2^ah, nah, and the like, which 
one is tempted to regard as different pronunciations of one 
and the same word— an article, perhaps. It is very diflScult 
to convey or obtain a translatable idea from a Seminole. 
Few of them are willing to impart any information concern- 
ing themselves or their language. In conversation among 
themselves they iise the long, clumsy names given in the 
vocabulary, even for the commonest articles of every-day 

Alachua (name of couuty). Big Jug, 

place where waters go down. 
Alligator, Al-la-pat-tah. 
Alive, A-lat-tchuni-pah. 
Ainerican, Fat-shay-not-kah. 
Arm, Tche-suk-pah. 
Astonishment, expression of, I-ce-lah. 
Axe, Pot-sas-nah. 

Bad (adj.), Hnl-wah. 

Bad (no good, exclamation of con- 
tempt). Ho-lee-wah-gus. 

Bad(Thatisabadman), /s-<e-ft»?.i-wrtA- 
stciiay. I Bird, Fus, or, Fns-wah. 

Ball, Po-ko. \ Bitter, sour. At-ma/i. 

Ball, Come and play ball, Po-ko-tchah- 

Basket, Tchmn-pah. 
Bat, Snk-biil-hah. 
Bay-tree, Is-to-riiik-ko. 
Beads, Tchak-e-shah. 
Beads. Kon-no-wah. 
Beads, Ka-koo-sec (Sliccosukee). 
Bear. No-koo-see, 
Bed, To-pah. 
Bed, Pn-ta-kah. 
Bewildered. B-soo-hah. 
Big swamp, Hay-u.p-pah. 



Black, Lvs-tee. 

Black man, Is-te-lus-tee. 

Black water, Wee-lus-tee (a ceremonial 

Blanket, Ah-tchee-tah. 
Blood, Chat-tay. 
Blue, .'•o-pafi. 
Boat (see Ship), Pith-Jo. 
Book, Sah-koo-tchee. 
Boy, Tchee-paw-ncc. 
Branch (creek), Hat-tchu-tchee. 
Brave, a brave man, Is-te-han-naw- 

Breast plate or Bracelet, Tchal-luk- 

Bread, Tok-lee-kee. 
Brother, Tchah-see. 
Brother (young), Tchee-tchah-see. 
Buck (see deer). 
Butterfly, Tiif-oo-lah-pah. 
Buzzard, Soo-lee. 

Camp, Is-tah-ah-poo. 

Camp, Tcho-ko. 

Canoe, Pith-lo (see ship). 

Cannon, It-tcha-kluk-ko. 

Cat-fish, Tsa-Io. 

Cedar, Ah-tchee-nah. 

Cider, beer, ifee-tok-see. 

Chair, seat, Ol-li-gah-tah. 

Chief, Mik-ko. 

Cloak, jacket, Kah-pah. 

Cocoanut, Tah-lah-so-kah, 

Come here, At-tess-tchaJc. 

Corn. At-tehee. 

Com dance, Foo-skee-tah. 

Council house, Tim-pah-nah-kluk-ko. 

Council house, Mik-ko-et-shay (the 

Isjne stands strong). 
Covering, Huk-sah-kee. 
Cow, Wah-kah (Prob. Spanish Vacca). 
Crane (sand hill crane), Wah-too-lah. 
Crazy, mad, Had-jo. 
Crow, Osh-hah-hah-nah. 
Cup, Ah-loo. 

Curlew (red), Ah-lo-lo-tchah-iee. 
C)-press, Ah-tchee-nah-ho. 

Dance house, E-pah-lah-kluk-kah. 

Dark, Fo-not-tchah. 

Daughter, Tchak-shos-tee. 

Day, day star (see to-day), Xeth-lah. 

Day after to-morrow, Pdk-see-ah-sah- 

Day after the day after to-morrow, 

Deer, E-tcho. 

buck, E-tcho-han-aw-no-ivah. 

doe, E-tcho-hot-kay. 

fawn, E-tcho is-tchay. 
Deer fly, S!o-no. 
Deer skin (dressed), Tcho-see. 
Deer skin dresser, Hee lali. 
Dirt, Foo-kee. 

Doe (see deer). 

Dog, E-pah or E-fah. 

Dog (big dog), Wus-lee. 

Don't know, Stoon-tish. 

Dove, Fat-e-lcho-lee. 

Dress, Hoo-nah. 

Drum (fish, also probably the military 

drum I, Kax-ah-lal-ki. 
Duck, Fut-tcho. 

English duck, Fiit-tcho-kliik-ko. 

Summer duck, Filt-tclio-tcfies-iee- 

Eagle (golden), Tah-tchee-lah-7iee. 

Ear, Hatch-ko. 

Earring, Hatch-ko-tot-kah. 

Eat, Hum-hux-tchay (or jay). 

Emathla (Charley Emathla was a fa- 
mous chief), leader. 

Englishman, Met-ah-tchak-ul-kah. 

Eye, IV/t-lah-icah. 

Everglades, Fah-ha-yo-kee (much 
grass in water). 

Fawn (see deer). 

Feather, Tchak-tee-kah. 

Feather, Toii-fah-fah. 

Fire, Loot-kah. 

Fish, 2'o-tee-kah. 

Fire fly, Hock-tah-lat-kay. 

Ford, Fil-lat-kah. 

Fort (enclosure), To-pee-kee. 

Frog, Soo-pat-kah. 

Frock or skirt, Hun-nah. 

Flute, fife, Fiff-pah. 

Girl, Hock-to-tehee. 

Give, give me, Ah-mu-tchah. 

Go, or I go, Hi-e-pas {tehah, some- 
times added). 

Good. Hin-dl-stee. 

Good, too good, Hin-dl-mah. 

Good-by, Ilccp-ah-non-es-tchah. 

Good-morning (I am here), Ah-lah- 

Good I It is well, Hink-lah-mas- 

Not good. It is not well, Hull-wax- 

Gone, all gone, ,^'ooks-tchah. 

Gopher (land turtle), Ko-wee-kah. 

Grass, Fah-kee. 

Green, Ah-ko-lah (Ocala ?). 

Ground, E-kun-nah. 

Gum-tree, Hell-lo-kop-kee. 

Hair, Gi-see. 

Half-breed (of a mixed race), Mal-ee- 

Hammock, Et-say-tchah. 

Scattered hammocks, Pil-lak-li-ka- 
Hand, In-kee. 
Hand, Tc.hin-kee. 



Handkerchief, E-no-chee-aw. 

Hat, Kap-hah-to-kah. 

Hatchet, I'ut-tehus-wah. 

Head, E-kar. 

Hero.1, Wah-ko. 

Horse, E-tcho-lo-ko. 

House-fly, Tchah-nah. 

Houses (the red houses), Tchu-tchu- 

Husband, E-hee (also an expression 

of affection). 
He (pronoun), Ts-iee. 
Hard, Hun-ee-lnh. 

Very hard, Hun-ee-lah-raas-tchay. 
Heart, Ef-fah-gah. 
High, ui-uay. 

Hill, E-kon-huU-wah (tall ground). 
How are you (to the sick only) ? Tchee- 


I, myseli; Ah-ho-wah. 

I do not understand, Git-lo-sthah. 

Ice, Hit-to-tay. 

Ibis, Kat-kat-ah-ivah. 

Indian (red man), Is-tee-tchat-tee. 

Icheepopkasassee (name of a place), 
a place where deer feed, a deer pas- 

Koehadjo (a famous chief). Mad part- 
Knife, Slaf-kah. 
Know (I don't know), Sien-to-see. 

Lake, It-tee-ni-ah. 

Lake, Wet-ee-kah. 

Lake, Wee-pal- !o-hee-see. 

Leader, E-mathlah. 

Leggings, U-fe-e-tah-kah. 

Leggings (lower), Tak-full-wah. 

Lie, It is a lie (literally, that fellow 

lies much), Is-tee-loik-say-tak-inas- 

He lies, Is-tez-lock-say. 
Light (not dark), Sa-path-at-kee. 
Little (diminutive). Tehee. 
Little boy, Hun-nah-nu-tchee. 
Little girl, Is-tah-tchee. 

Magician, Is-tee-hiil-wah. 
Magnolia, 0-kee-tvk-su, 

Man, Han-nah-icah. 
Mantle, Kap-pah-klut-ko. 
Maple, Hah-no. 
Match, E-sah-tooU-kah. 
Medicne bag, Hal-ist-chaio-ioay. 
Mile, distance, Ah-kas-kah. 
Mirror, Stok-hiteh-kah. 
Moccassin (shoe), Stal-lah-pee-kah 
Moccassin (snake), Wee-hat-kay. 
Mocking bird, Fus-way-hnh-yah. 
Money, Sah-to-kah-no-wah. 
Moon, Hak-less-see, 

Moon, Xeth-Jee-hass-see. 
Mother, Tchat-skee. 
Mole, To-kah-lee. 
Mouth, Tchuk-wah. 
Mosquito, 0-kee-hah. 
Muskmelon, Fo-miss-tehah. 
Moustache or beard, Tchak-ig-say. 
My own, E-ree. 
Mystery, Wah-kull-lah. 

Needle, SJah-po-fah. 
Night, J^etk-lee, or Yo-mot-skay. 
Necklace, neckerchief, Sotch-kah. 
No, Coo-ree. 

Oak, Al-lal-kah. 
Orange (sweet), Tah-lah-kah. 
Orange (bitter), Yah-lah-hah-at-mah. 
Orator, Yah-tee-kah. 
Orator, Yah-tee-kah-kluk-ko. 
Owl, Hup-pec. 

Osceola (name of a Seminole chief), 
Rising Sun. 

Palm, \ 

Palme to, or [ Tah-lah. 
Saw palmetto, ) 

Palmetto, Tah-laMo-ko. 

Palmetto (cabbage palm), Tah-lah- 
knl-kee or kluk-ko. 

Paroquet, Po-tchee-lah-nee. 

Partridge, Ko-ee. 

Pelican, Sok-pah-kah. 

Pen (yard), To-po-pee-kee (see fort). 

Pencil, Svat-tchah-kah. 

Pepper range, Ho-mo-sass-sah. 

Person, Is-ie.e. 

Pigeon, Pit-tehee. 

Pine-tree, 7Wnt-lee. 

Pipe, E-tekee-pffk-imh. 

Pithiocoochee (name of a river). Can- 
oe creek. 

Plaza, a public square, Tckuk-ko- 

Potato, Ah-hah. 

Pretty (adj.), Hain-klits. 

Pretty (you are pretty), Tchee-hink- 

Rabbit, I'cho-fee. 
To-lo- Rain, Oos-kee. 

Rattlesnake, Tchit-ta-la-koo. 
Rattlesnake poison, Antidote for, 

Racket-stick, To-ko-ne. 
Red, Tchat-tee. 

Red-bay-tree, Itto-mikko (chief-tree). 
Red bird, Fus-tehat-te. 
Red man, Is-te-tchat-ie. 
Rifle, E-tchas-ata-he. 
River, creek, Hat-tehee. 
River, Wee-chik-ko. 

Salt. 0-kah-kan-ah-icah, 



Sand &y. Itch-kah-picsh-wah. 

Savanna, prairie, Wee-hai-kay. 

Scalp, yurii-har. 

Scalp-lock, Is-say. 

Scissors, .Su-Ui-kah, 

Seminole, Outlaw, wildman, runaway. 

Shingle, Ah-tchee-nah. 

Shi 3, large vessel, Pith-lo-hok-to. 

Shirt, U-kotr-ko-tah. 

Shin, Tok-sah-kee. 

Shoe, Still-lee-pi-kah-icah-kce. 

Short, Kah-tchuk-kah-no-sis (add 

tchay for "very short "j. 
Sister, E-wan-mah. 
Sit down, Lah-gas-tehay. 
Sit down (an expression used only in 

early morning), Hah-hat-kee-hinks- 

Small, Trhat-wah. 
Smoke, Ho-pat-kah. 
Snake, Tchit-tah. 
Snow, Hit-to-kay-hat-kay. 
Son, Tchnh-poot-see. 
Soup, S'lff-kee. 
Spaniard, Sjian-al-kay. 
Spirit (a spirit!, Wy-ho-icay Calso 

alcoholic liquor). 
Spoon, Hok-kah. 
Spring of water, Wee-ki-vah (see We- 

Spy, scout, Is-tee-kay-tchul-kay (one 

who has gone out to see). 
Square, Tchuk-ko. 
Squaw, Hok-tce. 
Starch-root, Koon-te-knt-ti. 
Star, Hut-te'^-tchum-pah. 
Still, be still (used by toys in the 

English sense of "shut up "), Wy- 

kass-tc/tay or Wy-kay-buss-tckay. 
Stone, Tchat-to. 
Store, Xis-kat-tcho-ko. 
Sugar-cane, JIah-Us-tchum-pah. 
Sun, Hass-my. 
Sunday, Xeth-lah-tcJiah-ko. 
Surprise, exclamation of, Hi-ee-lah. 
Sweet, 'rchum-jjah. 

Table, 0-hom-pee-tah. 

Tall, Ull-vay. 

Tallahassee, Old cultivation field, 

" ancestral acres." 
Thread, Ah-fus-icah. 
Thunder, Ten-et-kee, 
Tiger, Kat-shah. 
Tiger-tail, So-ko-tee-mat-lah, 
To-day (see Day). 
Tobacco, E-chee, or Hit-chee. 
Tobacco-field. Hit-chee-puk-sah-see. 
Tobacco - ba g, Ji'- tchee-soo-kah. 
To-morrow, Pak-see. 
Tongue, Tah-las-wah. 
Town, Ta-lo-/ah. 
Trader, Is-nee-sah, 
Trail, Xee-iiee. 

i Tree, It-to. 
I Tribe, Al-kee. 

1 Trout-creek, Tchu-Iah-pah-pah, 
• Turkey, I'em-ce-wah. 
Turtle, Lut-Uha. 

Understand, I don't understand, KiU 

Wakulla (name of county). Mystery. 

War, So-lee-tah-H-ah. 

War-cry, Yo-ho-ee-tchee. 

War-cry of victory, Kah-hah-que-nee. 

Warrior, Tus-te-nitg-ge (often used as 

an affix to a proper name). Add 

Kluk-ko for very great warrior. 
Watch (time-piece), Has-se-tse-kah, 
Water, \yee-u-ah. 
Water-melon, Tchas-ta-lay. 
Water moccassin, Hah-lo-sok-kah- 

Well, it is welL Hink-lah-mas-tchay. 
What, //(. 

Withlacoochee (a river), Kiver creek. 
When, Sta-mar-tce. 
Whip-poor-will, ."iuk-bal-am-bal-lah. 
Whiskey, Wy-o-mee. 
White, Ifat-kee. 

Wife, Tcha-ee.-kah, or Tchee-hi-wah, 
Wild cat, Ko-ah-ko-tche2. 
Wildman, outlaw, runaway, Sem-i-no- 

leh (Seminole). 
Wind, Ho-tah-lee, or Hu-lah-lah. 
Wind, very high, Uo-tah-lee-mas- 

Wind, gentle, Ho-tah-lee-sto-mas-sin. 
Wolf, Yah-hah. 
Woman, Hi-wah, Hok-ta-kay, Hok- 

fee, or 0-kee-tee. 
Woman (old), Hok-tee-huk-tut-nez. 
Womcin (young), Hok-tee-man-nee- 

Wrap or garment, Huk-say-kay. 

TeUow, Lah-nee. 

Yes, Un-kuh, or ITo. 

Young, Man-ah-tchee. 

Your, you, Tchah. 

Yah-hah-had-go (name of Seminole 

chief), Mad-uolf. 
Tah-ho-euchee (name of Seminole 

chief), The great cloud. 


One, Ham-kin. 
Two, Ho-ko-lin. 
Three, Tut-sa-nan, 
Four, Oos-ten. 
Five, Tchoc-ta-pin. 
Six, E-par-kin. 
Seven, Ko-la-par-kin. 
Eight, Sen-na-par-kin. 
Nine, Oos-to-par-kin. 
Ten, Far-lin, 



Eleven, Uam-ko-la-lin. 
Twelve, Ho-ko-lo-korlin. 

Names of Places. 

The following is a partial list of 
names of places in Florida, with their 
English meauings. 

Alachua, The big jug. 
Alaqua (see pa'je 1), Sweet gum. 
Annutilaga, The laying-down place. 
Apopka (see page 228). 
Chasehowiska, Pnmpkin Key. 
Chichuchaltj', The red houses, 
Chokoliska, Old house. 
Chuluota, Beautiful view. 
Echashotee, Beaver house. 
Econhallowey, HiL'h land. 
Etawa, A person po'.eing a boat. 
Etonia, Palmetto scrub. 
Fenhalloway, Young turkey. 
Halpatioka, Many alligators. 
Hichepoksasa, Many pipes. 
Homosassa, Pepper-range. 
Istachatta (name of a town), man- 

Istopoga (iste atepoga). Someone 

Locktshapopka, Acorn to eat. 

Miccanopy (a Seminole chx-f. and the 
name of a town;. Chief-of-ch:efs. 

Myakka, Fine country. 

Ocala (name of a town). Green or fer- 
tile land. 

Okeechobee, Big water. 

Okihumkee, Bad water. 

Oklawaha, Dark water. 

Oklockonee, Crooked. 

Panasofkee, Deep valley. 

Pilaklalakha, Scatteredhammock.s. 

Tohopekaliga, Place of cow pens. 

Tathlapopkahatchee, I Catfish eating 

Isalopopkahatcbee, f creek (see Ap- 
opka ). 

Wakahonta, Cow pasture. 

Wakasassa (name of town), cow pas- 

Wakulla, Mystery. 

Wekewache, Water. 

Wekiva, Big spring. 

Withlacoochee, Swift river (or "long 
narrow water "). 

Wewakiahakee, Clear water. 



Comparative Temperature and Rainfall in Florida. 

Compiled from the U. S. Weather Bureau Reports. 

Mean temperature (in degrees Fahrenlmt) and average rainfall 
(in inches and hundredths) at stations of the Signal Service, 
United States Ai'my, for each season of the year. ( Computed 
from tli€ commencement of ohsercations at each., to and includ- 
ing December, 1884.) 

Middle Flor 
ida, includ 
INQ Atlantic 




Jacksonville . . . 


Cedar Key 



Key West 

West Flobida. 

Pensacola. ... . . 

Sept. 11, 1S71. 
Sept. 1, 1882. 
Nov. 7, 1879. 

Jan. 1, 1888. 
Nov. 1, 1870. 

Oct. 27, 1879. 

Mean Temperatcre. ; Average Rainfall. 

69.1! 81.4' fi9.9] 56.810 47 17.79 16. 70' 9.74 
71.6! 80.5' 73.31 61. 6| 8.4122.35 10.2.3 4.73 
70.3 81.7 72.4 60.1: 8.86 24 10 11.72 11.18 

72.4 80. Oi 75.7 69.4 
76.9 83.8 78.8 70.8 



6.10 13.4714.80 


56.0 14.34 22.53 15.52 14.92 

[The mean temperature is deduced from the three telegraphic observations, taken 
at the same moment of Washington time at all stations. The seasons com- 
prise the following months : Spring — March, April, and May ; summer — 
June, July, and August ; autumn — September, October, and November ; and 
winter — December, January, and February. Observations prior to August 
25, 1872, were taken at 7.35 a.m., 4.35 and 11.35 p.m. (Washington time); 
from August 25, 1872, to November 1, 1879, at 7.35 a.m., 4.35 and 11.00 p.m. 
(Washington time) ; and from November 1, 1879, to December 31, 1884, at 
7.00 A.M., 3.00 and 11.00 p.m. (Washington time).] 



Average Number of Clear or Pair Days, in each Month 
and Year. 

Compiled from the U. S. Weather Bureau Reports. 

Middle Flor- 
ida, INCLUD- 
ING Atlantic S 
AND G c L F 


Jacksonville . . . 


Cedar Key 


Key West 

21.9 20 3 25.5 23.9 25.5 22.8 26.1 25.9 21 .8 23 C 20.8 22.4 280.1 
22.0126.0 2T.0 26.1! 27.0 23.5 28.5 29.2 23.5 25 5 22.5 27 5 322.0 
23.822.0 27.0 26.0 27.0 26.0 26.4 26 6 28.4 27.6 24.2 S5.1 311.0 


West Florida. 


24.5 28.4 27.4 26.6 

24.9 25.8 


23 7 24.124.4 26.5 

20.6 22.8 22.2 24.2124.2 25.0 25.2,25.4 

24.2 21.9 20.2 


274 6 

Note. — The Signal Service rates as clear or fair, days that are in the main 
suitable for out-of-door life, so far as concerns actual rain. Cloudy days, which, 
of coiirso, inalse up the remainder of each month, range from moderately showery 
to a protracted downpour. 

Population of Florida, 390,435. 

(United States Ce/isus, 1890.) 


The Game Laws of Florida.* 

Non-Residents.— McLellan's Digest, 1881, Chapter 80.— 
Sec. 15. It shall be unlawful for any non-resident of this 
State to hunt for game of any kind or description, for the 
purpose of conveying the game killed or caught beyond the 
limits of the State, without first obtaining a license from the 
clerk of the county in which he jjroposes hunting, for which 
he shall -par the sum of twenty-five dollars ; and in case 
there be a company desiring to hunt together under the 
same license, they all may be included in one license by pay- 
ing an additional five dollars each ; but not more than six 
persons shall be included in the same license. [Sec. 16. 
Violation a misdemeanor ; penalty, a fine of S50 to 8500, one- 
lialf to informer. Sec. 17. The drying, salting, curing, 
packing, or caging of game shall he prima facie evidence of 
intent to ship.] 

Sea Birds and Birds of Plume. — Sec. 19. It shall not be 
lawful for any person or persons to wantonly destroy the 
nest, eggs, or young of any sea bird or bird of ijlume in this 
State, on the land or coast, or in any of the seas, bays, riv- 
ers, creeks, or harbors, or within a maritime league of the 
coast of said State. [Sec. 20. Violation a misdemeanor; 
penalty, fine of 810 to 820.] 

Birds of Plume. — Sec. 21. It shall not be lawful for any 
person not a citizen of the United States to kill any birds, 
for the purpose of obtaining plumes therefrom, on any part 
of the coast of Florida, or in any of the bays, rivers, creeks, 
or harbors, or inland waters or prairies of the same, or with- 
in a marine league of the coast of said State. [Sec. 22. 
Violation is a misdemeanor ; penalty, a fine of 85 to 8100.] 

Fish Traps, etc.— Act of June 3, 'l887.— Sec. 2. That it 
shall be unlawful for any person or jjersons to i^ut, plan, 
or maintain any permanent trap or snare, or any other de- 
vice that is permanent, for the purpose of catching fish in 
any of the lakes or streams in this State, or to use any seine 

* From the Game Laws of America, Forest and Stream Publishing Company. 


or drag net for the purjDOse of catching fish in such lakes or 
streams during the months of February, March, April, May, 
Juno, July, August, and September of each year. [Sec. 
2. Violation is a misdemeanor ; penalty, fine of 825 to ??100, 
or imprisonment 10 to 40 days. Sec. 3. Officers are autho- 
rized to seize illegal apparatus.] Sec. 4. That nothing 
in this act shall be so construed as to prohibit any per- 
son from catching fish from waters owned wholly by him- 
self or herself in any manner thought proper, and nothing 
in this act shall i^revent persons from catching fish with a 
hook and line, unless the same is done for the jrarpose of 
shipping out of this State. [But Sec. 1 of this act, forbid- 
ding exportation of fresh-water fish, was repealed by act of 
June 4, 1889.] 

Food Fishes.— Act of January 28, 1885.— Sec. 1. That it 
shall not be lawful for anyone to catch or capture any of 
the following fish : Mullet, trout, red fish, sheep's-head, pom- 
jjano, mackerel, blue fish, red snapper, grouper, or juarell, 
within the waters under the jurisdiction of the State of 
Florida, for the purpose of making oil, fertilizer, and compost 
therefrom. [Sec. 2. Violation is misdemeanor ; penalty, 
fine of not more than ^200, or imj^risonment two months, or 
both, at discretion of the court.] 

Wanton Destruction of Fish. — McLellan's Digest, 1881, 
Chapter 107.— Sec. 8. It shall not be lawful for any person 
or persons, citizens or non-residents of this State, with or 
without a license, to engage in catching fish for the roes 
only, or turtle for the eggs only, or in any manner wantonly 
destroying the fish or turtle on the coast of this State. 

The Seville 

Seville, Voltisia Co. 


Twenty-eight miles south of Palatka; forty- 
two miles south of St. Augustine. On the 
ridge between the Atlantic Ocean and the St. 
Johns. In the piney w^oods, surrounded by 
orange groves and limpid lakes. Supplied with 
water, sweet (fiot sulphureous), from a lake 
fed by living springs. In salubrious country, 
with most approved sew^erage. 


Bath rooms. Fresh vegetables from hotel 
gardens. All express trains stop; through 
Pullman car on train leaving New York at 
9 P.M. daily. 

Rates, $3.50 per Day. 

Of (New) Senter House, Centre Harbor, N. H., 
91 A fiXG E R . 

Abbey & Imbrie, 

18 Vesey Street, 




Send 25 Cents 

Kor 136 Page Catalogue. 



Every Room is a Front Room, Facing the Bay. 
Opens January ist, i89i. 

We take pleasure in announcing to our friends and the pub- 
lic that Hotel Punta Gorda will be open about January first, with a 
full corns of New England service. This new and beautiful Hotel is 
located on Charlotte Harbor at the terminus of the Florida Southern 
Railway (now leased and controlled by the Jacksonville, Tampa, and 
Key West Railway, which is a guarantee of first-class train service). 
All trains arrive at and depart from the Hotel steps. Ticket, Pullman 
Car, Express and Telegraph offices in the Hotel. 

The Punta Gorda is elegantly furnished, has gas, electric bells, and 
open fireplaces ; is three stories high, 150 front rooms with a superb out- 
look over the beautiful Bay, which is about one mile across to Hickory 
Bluffs. The Hotel has a veranda over 400 feet in length, so arranged 
that one can find sunshine or shade at any hour of the day. It has the 
finest lawn in Florida, containing over two acres, with beautiful shell 
walks, hedges, flower plats, shade and fruit trees. It is supplied with 
plenty of soft water and has perfect drainage. The climate at Punta 
Gorda is as nearly perfect as any in the world ; free from cold waves, 
and tempered by the salt water breezes from the Gulf of Mexico, 
which invigorate but do not chill. 

A billiard room is connected with the Hotel, and Sail-boats and 
Row-boats can always be had. The fine pier directly in front of the 
Hotel gives a beautiful promenade. No expense will be spared in the 
endeavor to contribute in everyway to the comfort and pleasure of the 

The celebrated Summit Springs mineral water from Harrison, 
Maine, will be served free to guests in the dining room. 

The only Hotel in the state giving every guest a front room facing 
the Gulf waters. It is also surrounded by the best hunting groui;ds in 

Charlotte Harbor is acknowledged by all to be the finest fishing 
ground in the United States. The tarpon fishing with rod and reel 
takes the lead, while for the hunter there is an inexhaustible supply of 
ducks, wild turkeys, deer and other game. 

The Morgan Line ot steamers arrive and leave twice a week for 
Key West, Havana, Cedar Keys, and New Orleans. 

For terms, etc., address D. H. Swan, 40 Water St., Room 10, 
Boston, Mass. After December 20, Punta Gorda, Florida. 

D. H. SWAN, Hotel Punta Gorda, Florida. 


Proprietor. Manager. 

Also Summit Springs Hotel, Also of United States Hotel, 

Harrison, Maine. Atlantic City, N,J. 



A system of rail and steamer lines, equipped with all the 
modern improved appliances for the comfort of tourists, insuring 
safe, speedy, and reliable transportation without unpleasant trans- 
fers ; covers something more than one thousand miles of tropical 
territory, and reaches direct 


of southern Florida. All through passenger trains on this line 
carry Pullman Buffet, Sleeping, and Parlor Cars. 


Between NEW YORK and HAVANA, 

The only line extending to the 


Direct route to the Orange, Sugar, Tobacco, and Fruit producing 
sections of Florida. 

For maps, souvenirs, schedules, etc., apply to any ticket agent, 
or address the General Passenger Agent, Jacksonville. 

Save yourselves annoyance, and economize in the matter of 
expenditures on your tours, by securing tickets via the Jacksonville, 
Tampa, and Key West System. 


General Manager, General Passenger Agent, 





O THt ilBHAUt Of o 

^1 \ iir !^ 


Santa Barbara 



.i'«-f ,,*r| 



10 aOOaOMH 3HT 

aTv^a OT (i 

.. /• •i-^'.i;tio'^ 




3 1205 02126 1357 



AA 000 880 219 i