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UC-NRLF 




557 



! 



! ill 



llli.1 i 



J Henry Senger 




A HANDBOOK OF 

GERMAN GRAMMAR 



BY 
FRANK ADOLPH BERNSTORFF, PH.D. 

INSTRUCTOR IN GERMAN IN NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY 



GINN AND COMPANY 

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON 



IN MEMORIAM 



COPYRIGHT, 1912 
BY FRANK A. BERNSTORFF 



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
912.10 



gftc fltftenaeum Bre 

GINN AND COMPANY PRO- 
PRIETORS BOSTON U.S.A. , 



PREFACE 

This handbook, as the name implies, contains only the essentials 
of German grammar. It is a drill book and is intended primarily 
for review work in second-year classes. It may, however, be used 
very successfully as a first-year book. 

The subject matter has been arranged topically, and not in the 
form of lessons. For reviews and for convenience of reference this 
plan should prove most serviceable. Abundant examples are given 
in the text to illustrate the various points of grammar, and, in addi- 
tion, English exercises to be translated into German are given in 
the back part of the book. The list of nouns given under sections 
322-339, will, it is hoped, help to simplify vowel mutation and the 
declension of nouns. 

The Appendix contains a new treatment of the declension of 
nouns, which may appeal to many teachers as a simple and practical 
way of presenting this rather difficult subject. 

The author is under especial obligation to the publishers for 
many valuable criticisms, to his wife Lilian Bergold Bernstorff for 
helpful suggestions, to Professor Chester Nathan Gould of The 
University of Chicago for a careful reading of the manuscript, and 
to Professor George O. Curme of Northwestern University for 

scholarly suggestions and advice. 

F. A. B. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

PRONUNCIATION i 

DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES 6 

CAPITALS . 7 

THE ARTICLES 8 

THE NOUN 10 

Strong declension and vowel mutation 10 

Weak declension . . 15 

Mixed declension 16 

Peculiarities of nouns 17 

Differentiation of certain nouns 19 

Proper nouns 21 

Gender of nouns 22 

THE ADJECTIVE : DECLENSION AND COMPARISON 24 

THE ADVERB 33 

THE NUMERALS 35 

THE PRONOUN 36 

Personal 36 

Reflexive 38 

Possessive 39 

Interrogative 41 

Relative 42 

Demonstrative 44 

Indefinite 46 

THE PREPOSITION 47 

THE CONJUNCTION . 51 

THE INTERJECTION 54 

V 



vi HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

PAGE 

THE VERB 55 

Auxiliary verbs of tense 55 

Weak verbs 55 

Irregular weak verbs 67 

Strong verbs 67 

Separable and inseparable verbs 70 

Reflexive verbs . 72 

Passive voice 74 

Modal auxiliary verbs 77 

Impersonal verbs 80 

Subjunctive mood 81 

THE ORDER OF WORDS 87 

VOWEL GRADATION 93 

LIST OF STRONG VERBS 95 

DIFFERENTIATION OF CERTAIN VERBS 101 

LISTS OF STRONG NOUNS 103 

APPENDIX in 

EXERCISES 119 

VOCABULARIES 133 

INDEX . ... 153 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN 
GRAMMAR 

PRONUNCIATION 
1. The alphabet. 

GERMAN GERMAN ROMAN GERMAN ROMAN 

FORM NAME FORM SCRIPT SCRIPT 



9( 


a 


a (ah) 


A 


a 


9 


b 


be (bay) 


B 


b 


e 


c 


ce (tsay) 


C 


c 


& 


b 


de (day) 


D 


d 


@ 


e 


e(ay) 


E 


e 


g 


f 


ef (eff) 


F 


f 





9 


ge (gay) 


G 


g 





f) 


ha (hah) 


H 


h 


3 


i 


i(ee) 


I 


i 


3 


i 


jot (yot) 


J 


J 




/ 



J8 I ka (kah) K k 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



GERMAN 

FORM 


GERMAN 

NAME 


ROMAN GERMAN ROMAN 
FORM SCRIPT SCRIPT 


S I 


el (el)- | 


LI ^ S ? * 


>J?m/ 


em (em) 


M m ^ _ C^/C t 


9? n 


en (en) 


N n ^ _ $ * 


D o 


o (oh) 


Oo # , ^ ^ 


SP P 


pe (pay) 


P p <&f & / 


Q q 


ku (koo) 


Qq f 7 @ } 


9J r 


r (err as in error) 


R r ^ C^ ^ 


ewa 


es (ess) 


s s ^y> ^ ^ 


6 


es-zet (ess-tset') 


SZ 6 x^ * 


s t 


te (tay) 


T t i/ 4<r (^x ^ 


U u 


u (oo) 


U u <W J^ $$ i 





vau (fow) 


Vv ^^^ ^ , 


28 n> 


w (vay) 


Ww ^? ^ @f. * 


s s. 


ix(ix) 


x* e&g @$ * 


8 *) 


ypsilon (ipsilon) 


Yy #2 ^ $M n 
, *f ^ ^ ^ 


3 s 


zet (tset) 


z z <2 @ * 

^ z ^ ? ^ t 



PRONUNCIATION 3 

2. Mutated vowels. 31, a ; ), o ; U, it ; $tu, du ; aa and oo be- 
come d and o. 

3. Diphthongs. 2tt, at ; @t, ei ; 3lu, au ; 6u, eu ; 2Iu, du. 

4. Consonant combinations. gfy, d) ; dt ; $E), pf) ; f), tf) ; ; 

*,W; fc< 

5. The use of ff, jj, f , and 3, To express ss in German use jj 
only between two short vowels, otherwise always use fy. When one 
s occurs in a word it is expressed by the round s (g) only at the 
end of a word or syllable ; in all other positions long s (f) is used. 

6. Pronunciation of vowels. A vowel is short when followed by 
two or more consonants other than inflectional endings : lafjen, 
fprecfyen, fyoffen. 

7. A vowel is long (i) when doubled: ba ^3aar; (2) when 
followed by a consonant, or by I) plus a consonant, in an accented 
syllable : lefert, 33reel, fefylen ; (3) when followed by more than 
one consonant, provided the consonant (or consonants) after the 
first is an inflectional ending : lobft, lobt, Xag3 ; and (4) sometimes 
when followed by rf) or ft : fucfyen, Sud), Dftern. 

NOTE. The vowel t is long when followed by c : fcteten, Sieb. 

8. Simple vowel sounds (11, note). 

LONG ENGLISH GERMAN SHORT ENGLISH GERMAN 

a = a in father-. SSater a (see note) : al3 

C a in late : fefyr C = e mpen : benn 

.. film e = ^ mso/a: lobe 

=t in machine'. ( ' (finan 

Ipe i = /in//: ift 

= <? in &?///: Tt)0^l P (see note) : fyoffen 

U = ^ in boot : gut It = u in /// : butrf) 

ft has no equivalent : 33 diet ft = * in w<?/ : ()(itte 

iJ has no equivalent: fybren ii has no equivalent: offnen 

ii has no equivalent: iiber jyj^ ii has no equivalent: mujjen 

NOTE. In German short a has the same sound as long a, but is pro- 
nounced more quickly. Short o is between the English o of note and the 
o Qinot\ examples: nodj, foften, fyoffen. 



4 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

9. Diphthongs. 

rti = ai in aisle : 5Rai ftU = ou in house : 

ei = in height : fei lit = we: pf ui 

flu = ^ in ^7 : Stiume 

eu = tfy in boy : treu 

10. Pronunciation of consonants. 

ft initial = English b : Slid), bitten. 

6 final or followed by a consonant =/ : 2ob, lobt. 

C before a, o, u, or a consonant = k : Gonto, Grebit. 

c before e, i, t), d, b = ts : Gent, Gtfterne, Gcifar. 

d) after e or i : (i) Prolong the pronunciation of English long e\ 

(2) let the e-sound disappear abruptly ; (3) continue the stream 

of breath forcibly : id), mid), ed)t. 

d) after a, o, u, has a rough guttural sound : ad), bod), fud^en. 
d) in words of French origin = sh : Gfyef, Gfyarabe. 
(Jj in most words of Greek origin = k : Gfyloroform. 
d)$ when 3 belongs to the stem = ks : J>ad)3, roadmen. 
b initial = d\ ber ieb. 
b final = /: unb. 

b before another consonant = /: rebltd). 
f =/: fiir, ttef . 
g initial =g hard : eneral, geben. 

r. , f ch in North German V' * cm ^ 
q final = -{ >: Xag, 2Beg, ^rteg. 

L k in South German J 

g before e in French derivatives = z in azure : ^5age, ente. 

gtt in French derivatives = ny : G^ampagner. 

^ at the beginning of a syllable = h : anb, 2Bet^ett (13). 

| = y : ja, jetjt. Capital ^5 before a vowel is a consonant ; before a 

consonant it is a vowel : IJalob, $faaf . 
t in French derivatives = z in azure \ te \ 



I = /, but German I has a clearer sound than English /: loben. 
ttt, n, )J = m> n,p : mein, nun, 



PRONUNCIATION 5 

ttg = ng in singer-. (Stinger, finger. 

qil = kv nearly : Quefle. 

t in stage pronunciation = r lingual. 

t in conversation = r guttural. 

f when final = ss; in all other positions \ = z\ nwS, bag, but lefen, 

fef)en. (See ft below.) 
frfjtt) = shv nearly : fdfjroarg, fcfyroetgen. 
fp initial = shp : fptit, fpredfjen. 
ft initial = sht \ ftefyen, tufyl. 
ft final = English st\ fjaft, ift, ^Haft. 
t = /, but before i plus another vowel, in terminations, it = ts : 

Nation, patient. 
t(j t : X^eater. 
to =f: SSater. In foreign words to initial or medial = v\ 3Senu. 



j x : er.e, Senien. 

^ = u long or short : 35lt)t^ologie, SD^prte. 

8 = #: gu, Sett. 

11. Efercise in pronunciation. 

S3ud) anb ^nabe patient 

ab lobt rebltd^ al Sweater je^t 

6onto eneral S^9er oetfye rufen 

Sent 2ag 2Beg DueHe 2lt^let 3Keer 

(Stifar ^onig nw 3Sater raad^fen 

id^ mid^ Courage fe^en 3Senu fie 

ad^ bodjj S^ampagner lefen raenn fei 

6fyef ^o^cinn fpred^en SKpt^ologte ^offen 

Gfyrift Sf aa ^ ftc^cn gu je^n SKonwnent 

journal Nation Sett raerben 



NOTE. The sound of but very few German letters may be said to have 
an exact equivalent in English. Paragraphs 8, 9, and 10, therefore, are only 
approximately correct. Good pronunciation can be learned only by hearing 
each sound pronounced correctly. 



6 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

12. Accent. German words as a rule are accented on the first 
syllable. 

EXCEPTIONS, i . The inseparable prefixes (250) : nerfteljen. 

2. Many words of foreign origin: lafteten, Iurio3, relatin, Nation, 
etubent, Snbianer, $bee, flartoffel, glaneil, papier, aftufil, goift, 3?atur. 

3. Many words with foreign suffixes: fto^ieren, lantonal, )rutferei. 

4. Many compound adverbs : tyercwf, baoon, roomit, metteidjt, t>orbei. 

5. A few special words: lebenbig, Spohmber, gorelle, usually luttyerifdjj. 

13. There are no silent letters in German except I) and e. The 
former is silent only in a medial or final position : f efyen, fafy ; the 
latter in most words of native German origin : bieten, Siebe. 

DIVISION OF WORDS INTO SYLLABLES 

14. In pronunciation. A single consonant is pronounced with 
the following vowel : lo-ben, ru=fen, SBeisjen ; also the digraph cf) 
after a long vowel : fu=rf)en 

15. Double consonants and the digraphs dj (after a short vowel) 
and ng are divided equally between the two vowels : lafjen, fyoffen, 
foUen, fennen, lad^en, fangen, badten (dt = kk). 

16. If two or more consonants, except the digraphs d) and ng 
(14, 15), stand between two vowels, the last one goes with the 
following vowel. After a consonant or a long vowel ft goes with 
the following vowel. Examples : fyel=fen, $arp=fen, txwd)=fen, fedHen, 
raf=ten, but fu^en, ber=ften, fyu-ften, tauten (from tafen). Similarly 
2, ^ (= ks, ts) : eje, i^e, pronounced ef -fe, it-fe. 

17. Compound words are divided according to their component 
parts: wn=arbetten, blut=arm, ent=el)ren, 2)onner3'tag. Exceptions 
are bar, war, fyer, ^in before a vowel : ba-riiber, tt)a=rum, ^ 



18. At the end of a line. A single consonant is written with the 
following vowel: Io=ben, ru=fen, tre^ten, 6e=gel, 2)ie=ner. The con- 
sonant combinations fi, <$, f$, p, ft, and tl) are never separated and 
follow the above rule : fii-d)ett, lau-fd)en, $fyi=Io=fO'pfyie, la=tt)0'lifd^. 



CAPITALS 7 

19. Of two or more consonants, except the above-mentioned 
consonant combinations (18), the last one goes with the following 
vowel : fyel-fen, top-fen, Irat^en. 

20. The combination tf becomes ff and the last f goes with the 
following vowel: acfe becomes al=fe. 

21. In foreign words combinations of b, p, b, t, g, and I with 
I or t generally go with the following vowel : ^U'b 



22. Compound words are separated according to their com- 
ponent parts, but each part of a compound is separated into 
syllables the same as if standing alone : ent=ef)ren, fyerniber. 

CAPITALS 

23. With an initial capital are written : 

1. All nouns : 33ud), $<xrl. 

2. All words used as nouns : ber ute, bet efcmbte, bag Soben. 

3. The pronoun (5ie, you. 

4. The possessive pronoun ^fyrer, ^fyt, %*%, yours. 

5. The possessive adjective $f)r, 3$te ^t, your. 

6. In letters the pronouns bu and ifyr, and their possessives betn 
and euet, when they refer to the person or persons to whom the 
letter is* addressed. 

7. Proper adjectives in er formed from names of cities or coun- 
tries : ber Joiner SDom, nadfj @d^tt)eier 2lrt. 

8. Proper adjectives referring to persons : bd Sufffdje au3. 

24. With a small initial are written : 

1. The pronoun /: id). 

2. The reflexive fid) even in polite address : freuen <5te fid). 

3. Proper adjectives not referring to persons : ba beutfdje 



NOTE. There is a slight tendency at present not to adhere strictly to 
the rule of beginning every German noun with a capital. This is especially 
true of scientific works. 



8 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

THE ARTICLES 

25. The definite article is declined as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

NOM. bet bte bag, the bte, the 

GEN. beg bet beg, of the bet, of the 

DAT. bent ber bem, to or for the ben, to or for the 

Ace. ben bte bag, the bte, the 

NOTE. For the declension of biefer see 91. 

26. The definite article, as a rule, is not omitted before nouns 
in German. 

27. The definite article is used before a noun when it denotes 
all or a definite part of its class. If only an indefinite part is 
referred to, the article is omitted. 

3>ie 9JMW& tft billiger alg ber 2Betn. 
Milk is cheaper than -wine. 

S)ie 3Kild) in btefem lag tft fauer. 
The milk in this glass is sour. 

%$ trinlc lieber 3JWd& ate flaffee. 
/ like milk better than coffee. 

28. The definite article is used instead of the possessive ad- 
jective when the possessive relation is so evident that it cannot 
be mistaken. 

aft bu ben SSater gefefyen ? 
Have you seen my father'} 

6r ftecfte bte anb in bie'3fofd)e. 
He put his hand into his pocket. 

29. The definite article is used before abstract nouns, names of 
the seasons, months, days of the week, streets, proper names when 
preceded by an adjective, feminine names of countries, and the 
neuters bag (SIfajs and bag 



THE ARTICLES 9 

2)ie Unfcfyulb fyat einen $reunb im immel, innocence has a friend 

in heaven. 
2)er $rul)ling ift bie jcfyonfte $eit be Qa^reS, spring is the most 

beautiful time of the year. 

er 6onntag ift em Sftufyetag, Sunday is a day of rest. 
3d) roofyne in bet SBefyrenftra^e, I live in Behren Street. 
5Der !leine eorg ift gefaflen, little George has fallen. 

NOTE. The article is omitted before names of months and days of the 
week when used adverbially, except after the prepositions an and in : feit 
Suni E)at e3 nitf)t geregnet, it hasn't rained since June ; er ift feit 3JUmtag 
franf, he has been sick since Monday ; but am onntag, on Sunday, im 
3itni, in June. 

30. The indefinite article tin, a, an, and feitt, not a, no (adj.), are 
declined as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

M. F. N. M. F. N. M. F. N. 

NOM. ein eine ein fein teine fein !eine 

GEN. eineS einer eine feineS leiner feine fetner 

DAT. einem einer einem feinem leiner leinem feinen 

Ace. einen eine ein feinen leine fein feine 

NOTE. The word fein is a negative article. 

31. The indefinite article is generally omitted before a predicate 
noun used in a general sense, designating a whole class of objects 
or beings. It is always omitted after al3. 

@r ift 2lrt. 

He is a physician. 

@r ift al8 elefyrter fefyr beru^mt. 
He is very famous as a scholar. 

32. The possessive adjectives mein, my, bein, thy, your; fein, 
his; ifyr, her; jein, its; unfer, our; euer, your; ifyr, their; gfyr, 
your, are declined like fein. When used without a noun they are 
possessive pronouns (136). 



10 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

THE NOUN 

33. Declension of nouns. There are three noun declensions : the 
strong, the weak, and the mixed. 

34. The declension, vowel mutation, and gender of nouns can 
best be learned by constant drill in giving their principal parts. 
These are the nominative and genitive singular and the nominative 
plural. In learning these forms the definite article must always 
accompany the noun. Examples : nom. sing, ber Xag, gen. sing. 
beg Xageg, nom. pi. bie Sage ; nom. sing, bag aug, gen. sing, beg 
aufeg, nom. pi. bie aufer. 

35. Table of endings. 

DECLENSION N. SING. G. SING. N. PLURAL VOWEL MUTATION 

Strong (41) 

Class I -g Sometimes 

T Masc. monosyllables often 
Class II -g or -eg -e J Fem - monosyllables always 



Class III -g or -eg -er Always 

Weak -n or -en -n or -en Never 

Mixed -g or -eg -n or -en Never 

36. All nouns end in n in the dative plural. 

37. Feminine nouns do not change their form in the singular. 

38. All feminine nouns except SJlutter and Sodjter belong either 
to the second class strong or to the weak declension. 

39. Only strong nouns have vowel mutation. 

40. The last member of a compound noun determines its gender 
and declension : bag aug, ber cfyliifjel, ber aitgfrf)luffel. 

41. The strong declension. The strong declension has three 
classes. They are distinguished from each other by the nominative 
plural. The first class does not take an inflectional ending in the 
nominative plural ; the second class adds e, and the third et * 



THE NOUN II 

EXAMPLES : NOMINATIVE GENITIVE PLURAL 

First Class ber paten beg patens bie paten 

Second Class ber Sag beg ageg bie Sage 

Third Class bag aug beg fraufeg bie >aufer 

42. The ending eg of the genitive singular is usually confined 
to monosyllables ; and even there it is used only when is difficult 
to pronounce, or to avoid a clash of accents when an accented 
syllable follows in the next word. 

EXAMPLES : beg gufceg, beg Sifdjeg, beg aufeg, beg >orfeg or 2)orfg, 
beg Xageg or Sagg ; but beg -Jftanneg 2Jhit, not beg -Jtfanng 3Jhit. 

43. Usage varies in regard to adding e in the dative singular. 
It is generally confined to monosyllables, and is often omitted even 
there. It is always omitted in nouns of the first class. 

EXAMPLES : bem Sage or Sag ; bent aufe or aug ; bem $onige or 
$omg ; but always bem efyrer, bem SSogel, bem paten. 

44. The strong declension, class I. Examples : ber paten, 
spade \ ber Sefyrer, teacher-, ber 93ruber, brother-, bag ebaube, 
building. 

SINGULAR 

ber paten ber Sefyrer ber Sruber bag eba'ube 

beg patent beg Sefyrerg beg Sruberg beg ebdubeg 

bem paten bem Se^rer bem Sruber bem ebaube 

ben paten ben Sefyrer ben Sruber bag ebaube 



PLURAL 


bie paten 


bie Sefyrer 


bie Sruber 


bie ebaube 


ber paten 


ber Sefyrer 


ber Sriiber 


ber eba'ube 


ben paten 


ben Sefyrern 


ben 33riibern 


ben eba'uben 


bie paten 


bie Sefyrer 


bie Srttber 


bie ebaube 



45. Membership. 

1. Masculines in el, en, er. 

2. Neuters in el, en, er, d)en, lein, and those beginning with the 
prefix ge and ending in e. 



12 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



3. Two feminines : 9Jtutter and Softer. 

NOTE i. Here belong infinitives used as nouns ; also ber $tife. 

NOTE 2. No monosyllabic nouns belong to this declension, except 
occasionally bd3 $nie. 

NOTE 3. Nouns in cfjen and lein are neuter and usually have the stem- 
vowel mutated. 

46. Vowel mutation in class I. 

1. 21 masculines in el, en, er (327). 

2. 3)a3 Softer. 

3. Two feminines : Sautter and Sod)ter. 

47. The following nouns of this class generally omit n in the 
nominative singular: ber $riebe, ber $unle, ber eban!e, ber 
laube, ber aufe, ber 9Jame, ber Same, ber Scfyabe, and ber 3Bide. 

48. 2)er $elfen often drops en in the nominative and accusative 
singular. 

49. The strong declension, class II. Examples: ber Sag, day; 
bie Stabt, city, bag 

youth, young man. 



year; ber Sontg, king; ber Bungling, 
SINGULAR 



ber Sag 



bem Sage 
ben Sag 

bie Sage 
ber Sage 



bie tabt 
ber tabt 
ber tabt 
bie tabt 

bie tabte 
ber tabte 



ber Sbnig ber Bungling 



bem 
ba 

bie 
ber 



bem $bnig 
ben 



PLURAL 



bie Sbnige 
ber $bmge 



bem ^tingling 
ben Bungling 

bie Sunglinge 
ber ^iingltnge 



ben ^agen ben^tdbten ben Qa^ren ben 5lonigen 

bie Sage bie tcibte bie ^afyre bie ^bntge bie Qiingltnge 

50. Membership. 

1. Most masculine monosyllabic and many polysyllabic nouns. 

2. Feminines: 

(a) Mutating : about 33 monosyllables, mostly in t, b, or (324); 
and compounds in tunft and flud)t, as bie 2lu!unft, bie 
(//) Those ending in ni and fal, as bie Seforgm3, bie 



THE NOUN 13 

3. Neuters: 

(a) All neuters in nig and fal, as bag tnberntg, bag Sdjicffal. 
(fr) All mutatable nonmutating neuter monosyllabic nouns, as . 
bag $al)r, bag $aar (335). 

(c) Two mutating neuters : bag $lo and bag Gfyor (51, A 3). 

NOTE. No practical rule can be given for this class. All masculine and 
neuter nouns not included in one of the other declensions belong to the 
second class strong declension. 

51. Vowel mutation in class II. 

A. Monosyllables : 

1. About 200 masculines (322). 

2. All feminines (324). 

3. Two neuters: bag fjlofc, pi. bte $loj$e, and bag (Sfyor, pi. bte 
Gfybre or gfyore (66, 326). 

B. Polysyllables: 

1. Nine foreign masculines, as ber 2Utar (329). 

2. Feminines: 

(a) Compounds in funft and f(ud)t. 
(f) ie 2lrmbruft and bte (Sefd&nwlft. 

52. The strong declension, class III. Examples: ber 3Utann, 
man\ bag $tnb, child-, bag aug, house; bag 2lltertum, antiquity. 

SINGULAR 

ber 5Ulann bag ^tnb bag aug bag 2Utertum 

beg 5!Jlanneg beg $inbeg beg aufeg beg Slltertumg 

bem 5Ranne bem Sinbe bem auje bem 3lltertitm 

ben 9JJann bag Ktnb bag aug bag 3lltertum 

PLURAL 

bte 5Ranner bte $tnber bte aufer bte 3l(tertumer 

ber SRanner ber ^tnber ber aufer ber Slltertitmer 

ben 3Kcinnern ben ^tnbern ben aufern ben 2Htertumern 

bie banner bte ^tnber bte aufer bte 2lltcrtumcr 

NOTE. Nouns in turn mutate the vowel of this suffix and take er in the 
plural. See also 74, 5. 



14 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

53. Membership. 

1. Eight masculine monosyllables (323). 

2. About 50 neuter monosyllables (325, 333). 

3. Eight neuter polysyllables (331). 

4. All nouns ending in turn (74, 5). 

54. Vowel mutation in class III. All mutatable nouns of this 
class have vowel mutation. 

55. Recapitulation of vowel mutation. Most monosyllabic and 
polysyllabic nouns do not mutate ; but a large number of nouns, 
especially monosyllables, do mutate. The mutating nouns fall into 
the following groups : 

A. Monosyllables : 

1. About 200 masculines (322, 323). Six of these take er in the 
plural and the rest take e. 

2. All feminines (324). 

3. About 35 neuters: 

(a) 33 with plural in er (325). 

() Two with plural in e: bag $Iof$, pi. bie $lbj$e, an ^ bag @fyor, 
pi. bie Sfjbre or 6f>ore (66, 326). 

NOTE. The group of nonmutating monosyllables is very large. It in- 
cludes about 265 masculines and all neuters except about 35. For a list of 
the more common nonmutating monosyllables see 333-336. 

B. Polysyllables with vowel mutation. 

Only a very small number of polysyllabic strong nouns have 
vowel mutation. To this group belong : 

1. 21 masculines in el, en, er (327). 

2. Two masculines in turn : ber 3Reirf)tum and ber $rrtum (74,5). 

3. Nine foreign masculines (329). 

4. The feminines Gutter, od)ter, 5lrmbruft, and efcfyrrjulft, and 
the feminine compounds in funft and fludjt, as bie 2(ugfunft, pi. bie 
aUtgtiinfte. 

5. All neuters in turn (74, 5), bag Softer, and bag emarf), bag 
efyalt, bag ettmnb, bag ofyital (331-332). 



THE NOUN 15 

56. The weak declension. The weak declension contains only 
masculine and feminine nouns. Masculines add n or en in all cases 
except the nominative singular. Feminines add n or en only in 
the plural. 

57. Examples : bet Snabe, boy ; bie $rau, lady ; ber tubent, 
student ; bie Sefyrerin, lady teacher bet err, gentleman, Mr. 

SINGULAR 

bet $nabe bie grau ber tubent bie Sefyrerin ber err 

be3 $naben ber grau be3 tubenten ber Sefyrerin be errn 

bem $naben ber grau bem tubenten ber Sefyrerin bem errn 

ben $naben bie $rau ben tubenten bie Sefyrerin ben errn 

PLURAL 

bie Snaben bie grauen bie tubenten bie Sefyrerinnen bie erren 

ber ^naben ber grauen ber tubenten ber 2efyrerinnen ber erren 

ben ^naben ben ^rauen ben tubenten benSefyrerinnen benerren 

bie $naben bie ^rauen bie tubenten bie Sefyrerinnen bie erren 

NOTE i. Weak nouns do not have vowel mutation. 
NOTE 2. No neuter nouns belong to the weak declension. 
NOTE 3. Feminines formed from masculines by adding in double the n 
before adding the plural ending en. 

NOTE 4. The noun err omits the inflectional e in the singular. 

58. Membership. 

1. All feminine nouns except those contained in the second 
class strong declension (50, 2), and Gutter and Xodjter (45, 3). 

2. Masculine nouns in e representing living beings, as ber Snabe, 
ber Soroe, ber 2lffe ; and two representing things : ber 23urf)ftabe 
and ber Sefyttte. // 

NOTE. Here also belong a number of masculines which do not end in e 
in the nominative singular, as ber raf (337). 

3. Foreign words : 

(a) Masculines accented on the last syllable and representing 
living beings, as ber 2egat. 



l6 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

EXCEPTIONS. Nouns ending in accented al, an, tin, ar, tir, eur, ier, or, 
belong to the second class strong declension whether they represent 
living beings or lifeless things, as ber eneral, ber $umpan, ber <5out)eran, 
ber $omtnentar, ber <Se!retar, ber (Eljafjeur, ber Officer, ber 



() Masculines in accented anb, enb, ant, ent, and grapfy, repre- 
senting persons or things, and also ber Cornet and ber planet. 
Examples: ber s IRulttpltlanb, ber SRinuenb, ber ga&rtfant, ber 
tubent, ber ^aragrapfy. 

59. The mixed declension. The mixed declension uses strong 
endings in the singular and weak in the plural. Nouns taken 
from French, English, and other modern languages add g in the 
plural. (For examples see 61,^3.) The noun erg is irregular m 
declension. 

60. Examples: bag 2luge, 'eye\ ber SDoltor, doctor-, bag @iu= 
btum, study. 

SINGULAR 

bag 2luge ber o!tor bag tubium bag erg 

beg 2lugeg beg SDoftorg beg 6tubiumg beg ereng 

bem Singe bem 2)o!tor bem tubium bem 

bag 3luge ben SDoftor bag tubium bag erg 

PLURAL 

bie 2lugen bte 2)oftoren bie (Stubten bie 

ber 2lugen ber oltoren ber Stubien ber 

ben 3lugen ben o!toren ben 6tubten ben 

bte 3lugen bie oltoren bie tubien bie ergen 

61. Membership. 

A. Native German words : 

1. About 50 masculines, a few of which are monosyllabic (338). 

2. About 15 neuters, mostly monosyllabic (339). 

B. Many foreign words : 

i. Masculine nouns in on, or, ug, and tug from Latin and Greek. 
(See notes i and 2 below.) 



THE NOUN I/ 

NOTE i. Both on and or are short and unaccented in the singular but 
long and accented in the plural, as ber 2)o!tor, pi. bie 2)oftoren ; ber 2) a* 
tnon, pi. bie 2)amonen. Words in accented on, or, belong to the second 
class strong declension, as ber 9)2ajor, pi. bie JTCajor'e. 

NOTE 2. Foreign masculines in u3 and iug usually remain unchanged in 
the singular, as ber -ftunttug, beg 9?Utttiug, bie -ftuntten. Those in ug are 
going over to the second class strong declension, as ber Iobti3, beg lo= 
buffeg, bie lobuffe or loben. 

2. Neuter nouns from Latin and Greek : 
(a) Those ending in a, as bag 2)rama. 

() Those ending in eum, turn, uum, on (unaccented), which in 
the plural become een, ten, uen, en, as bag SJtufeum, pi. bie -JKufeen ; 
bag tubiutn, pi. bie tubien ; bag ifiirf)on, pi. bie iftid)en. 

(c) Those ending in il, al, with plural in ten. These nouns are 
going over to the second class strong declension. Examples : bag 
gofftl, pi. bie $offile or goffilten ; bag -JKineral, pi. bie 5RineraIe 
or 3JJineralien. 

(d) bag Snfcft and bag ^ntereffe. 

3. Masculine and neuter nouns and a f ew f eminines from 
French, English, and other modern languages. These words add g 
in the plural. Notice the following examples : 

' bag SReftaurant beg Seftaurantg bie SReftaurantg 

bie SSitta ber SSilla , bie SSiEag or ffitUen 

ber Sorb beg Sorbs bie Sorbg 

bie Sabp ber Sabt) bie Sabng or Sabteg 

ber on beg ong bie $)ong 

ber $af^a beg ^afc^ag bie 



NOTE. Foreign words of the mixed declension are not usually accented 
on the last syllable. Exceptions are nouns ending in il, al, bag 3nfelt, and 
a few others. 

62. Peculiarities of nouns. The singular form of masculine and 
neuter nouns of weight, measure, or quantity is used after numerals. 
Two feminines, bie anb and bie 3Kar!, also belong here. 

Karl tranf groei lag 2Baffer. 
Carl drank two glasses of water. 



1 8 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



ift funfjefyn 
The horse is fifteen hands high. 

)ag 3^ mmer foftet groei 9Jtarf. 
The price of the room is two marks. 

63. The noun denoting the material weighed or measured is in 
apposition to the noun of weight, measure, or quantity; but if ac- 
companied by an article or a demonstrative adjective, it is in the 
genitive, or in the dative with t)on ; if accompanied by an adjective 
without the article it may be in apposition or in the genitive. 

Sroei lag 2Baffer, mit groei lag SBafjer, two glasses of water, with 

two glasses of water. 
ib mir groei lag beg fallen SBafferg or t)on bem fatten SBaffer, give 

me two glasses of the cold water. 

3tt)ei Ia falte 2Bafjer or fallen 2Bafjerg, two glasses of cold water. 
JJtit roei lag faltem 28afjer or jeneg 2Bafjerg, with two glasses of 

cold water or of that water. 

64. Some nouns have no plural, as bte 2lfcf)e, ber afer, bie 
5Mat^ematif, ber Sn^alt; others no singular, as bie Item, bie Dftern, 
and bie $erien. 

65. Nouns with borrowed plurals. 

ber Sau be Saueg bie 33auten building 

! ber Seruf beg Serufg bie Serufgarten calling 

v bag Seftreben beg SSeftrebeng bie 33eflrebungen effort 

ber Setrug beg Setrugg bie Setriigereien fraud 

ber Sunb beg S3unbeg bie Sunbnifje league 

bag @rbe beg 6rbeg bie rbfd^aften inheritance 

bag $euer beg ^euerg bie ^euer3britnfte conflagration 

bie gurdjt ber gurd^t bie Sefurdjtungen fear 

c violence, violent 
bte eroalt ber eroalt bte eroalttattgfetten 4 

bag liicf beg litcfeg bie titcfgfdae I f ortune > fortu ~ 

L nate experiences 



THE NOUN 



bie imft 


ber unft 


bie imftbegeigungen 


favor 


ber Summer 


beg $ummerg 


bie ^iimmerniffe 


sorrow 


bag Seben 


beg 2ebeng 


bie 9JJenfd)enleben 


life, lives 


bag Seib 


beg Seibeg 


bie Seiben 


suffering 


ber Sofyn 


beg Sofyneg 


bie Selo^nungen 


reward 


ber 9Korb 


beg TOorbeg 


bie -JKorbtaten 


murder 


ber Sat 


beg Sateg 


bie Satfd^Idge 


counsel 


ber 5Raub 


beg Saubeg 


bie Sdubereien 


robbery 


^er dfjmuc! 


beg d^mudteg 


bie d^mudtfad^en 


ornament 


] ber egen 


beg egeng 


bie egnungen 


blessing 


^ ber treit 


beg treiteg 


bie treitigfeiten 


dispute 


' ber Sob 


beg Sobeg 


bie Sobegfatte 


death 


bag Ungliic? 


beg Ungliidtg 


bie Ungludfgfdtle 


misfortune 


f /7W/CY777 twnrh- 


ber SSerrat 


beg SSerratg 


bie SSerrdtereien < 


. 




L 


erous acts 


s ber 3<mf 


beg 3<*n!eg 


bie 3imfereien 


quarrel 


66. Differentiation of certain nouns. 


^ ber Sanb 


beg Sanbeg 


bie S9dnbe 


volume 


bag Sanb 


beg Sanbeg 


bte Sdnber 


ribbon 


ybag S5anb 


beg Sanbeg 


bie Sanbe 


bond, fetter 


bie Sanbe 


ber S3anbe 


bie Sanben 


band, troop 


ber Saiier 


beg <3auerg 


bie 33auern 


peasant 


| ber 93auer 


beg x3auerg 


bie 93auer 


bird cage 


ber Sunb 


beg <3iinbeg 


bieSunbnifje(Sunbe) 


alliance 


bag Sunb 


beg "Ounbeg 


bie 93imbe 


bundle 


ber @hor 


beg v^-borg 


bie 6bbre 


choir 



bag 



beg 



bie 



< choir (part of a 



ber ienfttnann 



bie ien[imdnner 






{servant ( i?i 
\ 
I. a home) 

bet Sienfimann beg ienftmanne3 bie ienftmannen 



20 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



bag 2)ing 


beg Singeg 


bie inge 


( thing (a general 
\ term) 


bag ing 


beg ingeg 


bie Singer 


f thing (a specific 








i. term) 


ber orn 


beg S)orneg 


bieornen(2)orner) thorn 






bie Some 


varieties of thorns 


ber (gffeft 


beg gffclts 


bie (gffcfte 


effect 






bie ffeften 


movable goods 


ber @rbe 


beg @rben 


bie @rben 


heir 


bag @rbe 


beg grbeg 


bie @rbfrf)aften 


inheritance 


\ ber gaben 


beg gabeng 


bie gtiben 


thread 


M ber $aben 


beg gabeng 


bie ^aben 


fathom 


ber glur 


beg ^lurg 


bie $lure 


entrance hall 


I 

bie $lur 


ber ^lur 


bie gluren 


(field or entrance 
{ hall 


|bag efjalt 


beg e^alteg 


bie e^dlter 


salary 


^ber efyalt 


beg e^alteg 


bie exalte 


intrinsic value 


/bag ejtcfyt 


beg eficfytg 


bie efid)ter 


face 


: bag efid)t 


beg efid)tg 


bie efidjte 


vision 


ber eibe 


,beg eiben 


bie eiben 


heathen 


bie eibe 


ber eibe 


bie eiben 


heath 


bag orn 


beg orneg 


bie Corner 


horn 






bie orne 


kinds of horn 


1 ber ut 


beg uteg 


bie iite 


hat 


-bie ut 


ber ut 


bie uten 


guard 


J ber $unbe 


beg ^unben 


bie ^unben 


customer 


bie $unbe 


ber $unbe 


bie Sunben 


news 


A ber Saben 


beg Sabeng 


bie Saben (Saben) 


shutter 


ber Saben 


beg Sabeng 


bie Saben 


store 


bag Sanb 


beg Sanbeg 


bie Sdnber 


land 






bie Sanbe 


states, districts {parts 
of a political whole) 


NOTE. The 


old plural form 


Sanbe sometimes occurs in poetry in place 


of Sanber, and 


remains also in 


proper names, as bie 


s jieberlcmbe. 



THE NOUN 



21 



bag td)t 


beg Sidjteg 


bte Stater 


light 


bag Sid&t 


beg Sidjteg 


bte Std^te 


candle 


ber Sat 


beg Sateg 


bte Satfcfyltige 


advice 


ber Sat 


beg Sateg 


bie Sate 


councilor 


ber d)ilb 


beg cfyilbeg 


bie djilbe 


shield 


bag rf)iib 


beg ^tlbeg 


bte d^tlber 


shop sign 


ber rfjur^ 


beg djjurgeg 


bie c^itrge 


apron for men 


bte rf)ttre 


ber dt)ure 


bte dtjitrgen 


apron for women 


ber ee 


beg eeg 


bie een 


lake 


bte ee 


ber ee 


bie een 


sea 


) ber tod 


beg todeg 


bie tbde 


cane 


ber tod 


beg todeg 


bie tode - 


story (of a house) 


r^ber trauft 


beg traufteg 


bte trau^e 


ostrich 


ber traufc 


beg trau^eg 


bie trau^e 


combat, bouquet 


ber etl 


beg Setlg 


bie Xeile 


part 


bag Scil 


beg ^etlg 


bie Xeile 


share 


bag Sor 


beg Sorg 


bie Xore 


gate 


ber STor 


beg ^oren 


bie Soren 


fool 


bag !udf) 


beg 2itd)eg 


bie Sitdjer 


piece of cloth 


bag Zud) 


beg Sud^eg 


bie Xudje 


kind cf cloth 


bag SBort 


beg SBorteg 


bie Sffiorter 


word 






bie 2Borte 


f words in connected 

, j 








L speech 



67. Proper nouns. Proper nouns add g in the genitive singular. 
Those ending in a sibilant (f, , fd), , 5) take the apostrophe only 
or add eng in the genitive, but names of places take t)on, as bte 
tra^en Don $artg. Feminines in e may take either g or ng. But 
proper nouns, except neuter names of countries, take no ending 
when preceded by the definite article. 

68. When a proper noun is preceded by a title (except err, 
which is always declined) the name only is declined. But if the 
definite article is used before the title, the title and not the name 
is declined. 



22 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

69. Examples : 
Sari griij 
SarlS gri$' 

or 

Sari 
Sari 



Suife 


Serta 


ber fleine Sari 


SuifenS 


SertaS 


beS lleinen Sari 


or SuifeS 






Suife 


Serta 


bem lleinen Sari 


Suife 


Serta 


ben lleinen Sari 



bag t>ereinigte SDeutfd^Ianb Saifer SBil^elm ber Saifer 

beg oereinigten eutfd^lanb Saifer 2Btl^elmg be Saifer^ 3BilE)elm 

bem t)ereinigten 2)eutfd^lanb Saifer 2Bil^elm bem Saifer 2Bil^elm 

ba t)ereinigte SDeutfd^lanb Saifer 2Bil^elm ben Saifer SBilfyelm 

err ^rofeffor <Sd^mibt ber err ^Jrofeffor d^mibt 

errn ^rofeffor <5dE)mibt3 be errn $rofeffor d^mibt 
errn ^rofeffor djmibt bem errn ^rofeffor d^mibt 
errn ^5rofeffor d^mibt ben errn $rofeffor d^mibt 



NOTE. 2)a3 Dereinigte 3)eutfd^lanb means .united Germany, err ^5ro= 
feffot C^tntbt, simply Professor Schmidt, and not Mr. Professor Schmidt. 

70. Gender. Very few rules in respect to the gender of German 
nouns are practical (34). A careful application of the following 
statements, however, may prove helpful. 

71. Nouns denoting living beings usually follow natural gender. 

72. Masculine are : 

1. The names of the seasons, months, days, and points of the 
compass : 

(a) grilling, ommer, erbft, SBinter. 

(V) Sanuar, gebruar, 3Kar, 2lprtl, 3Kai, $uni, $uli, Slugufi, 
September, Dftober, 3tot)ember, 3)eember. 

(c) onntag, SJlontag, ientag, SRittroocI), SDonner^tag, ^reitag, 
onnabenb or (SamStag. 

(d) ber 9Jorben, ber uben, ber Dften, ber 2Befien. 

2. Nouns in m, ling, id^, ig, as ber Saum, ber 3tin9lhtg> ber 
Seppid^, ber Sonig. 

EXCEPTIONS : ba3 eim, bag Samm, bie 



0& 



THE NOUN 23 

3. Nouns in er denoting agency : ber dfjneiber. 

4. Nouns in en, unless they are infinitives used as nouns (74, 3) : 
ber arten, ber Dfen, but bag Seben, bag Semen. 

5. Most monosyllables formed from the roots of verbs, as frf)lie= 
f;en, ber (2>$lu; binben, ber Sanb. 

73. Feminine are: 

1. The names of German rivers. Exceptions: ber Sftfyetn, ber 
Jfedfar, ber 9Katn, ber Sober, ber Sorfjer, ber Serf), and a few others. 
Most foreign rivers are masculine : ber $orban, ber SJliffiffippt. 

2. The names of trees, plants, flowers, and fruits : bte (Std)e, bie 
2;raube, bie 9^ofe, bte Strne. 

EXCEPTIONS : ber Slpfel, ber $ftrfid), ber Sorbeer, ber 

3. All nouns ending in ei, fyett, lett, fdfjaft, ung, and in : bte 
33raueret, bie SBetgfyeit, bte Sletntgfeit, bte $reunbfrf)aft, bie 33ebin= 
gung, bie greunbtn. 

4. All nouns in e derived from adjectives and the roots of verbs, 
as fait, bie Salte ; Iteben, bie Stebe. 

74. Neuter are : 

1. The names of cities, countries, and islands: Serltn, 2)eutfrf)= 
lanb, ^ranfreid^, tgtlten. 

EXCEPTIONS : bie (Sd^roeij, bie iir!et, bie ^Sfalj, and a few others. 

2. The names of minerals, except ber tafyl. Examples: bag 
olb, bag 6tfen, bag tlber. 

3. All parts of speech other than nouns, used substantively and 
not referring to persons : bag efyen, bag $iir unb SBtber, bag 2lrf) 
unb 2Bel), but ber 2Ute, bte ute. 

4. The letters of the alphabet: bag 31, bag 51. 

5. All nouns in turn and tel, except ber $rrtum and ber 3ftetrf)= 
turn. Examples: bag $urftentum, bag SDrttteL 

6. All nouns in d)en and letn. These endings are diminutive 
suffixes and usually cause mutation, as bte $rau, bag gtauletn ;. 
bte 5Kagb, bag 



24 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

THE ADJECTIVE 

75. Adjectives are of two kinds : 

' (a) The definite article (25). 

) The demonstrative and interrogative adjectives 

1. Limiting^ (91, 97). 

(<:) The indefinite article and the possessive and 
indefinite adjectives (30, 89, 90). 

2. Qualifying, as gut, alt. 

76. Most adjectives in German are declined, but qualifying 
adjectives used in the predicate or appositively are declined only 
when accompanied by an article. 

77. There are two adjective declensions, the strong and the 
weak. An adjective is declined strong when no determining word 
precedes it, and weak if it is preceded by a determining word. See 
note, and 78-80. 

NOTE*. When eitrig-, mefyrer-, roenig, mel, and fold) precede the quali- 
fying adjective it is weak in the singular and strong (or sometimes weak) 
in the plural (90). 

78. The determining words are : 

1. ber, biefer, jener, jeber, ad, einig-, mefyrer- (90, note 5 ; 91). 

NOTE. The masculine of mefyrer- is not used in the singular. 

2. etn, lein, rnein, betn, fein, unfer, euer, tfyr, 5fyr ( 32 )- 

3. mcmd)(er), fol$(er), tnel(er), n)eldj(er) (80; 90, note i; and 96). 

79. The words ein, !etn, mein, etc. (78, 2) have no ending in the 
nominative singular masculine and neuter and in the accusative 
singular neuter. The adjective following them, therefore, takes 
the strong endings (masculine er and neuter e3) in these three 
cases. Thus we have what is sometimes called the mixed declen- 
sion of adjectives. 

80. The words given under 78, 3, sometimes omit their inflec- 
tional endings, and the adjective following them then has strong 
endings, as man$ guter 3Utcmn, triel gute3 23rot. 



c(cr) 


WEAK 


e(i 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


e 


CO 


/ 'ln~ 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 


en 



THE ADJECTIVE 25 

81. Table of endings of the adjective declensions. 

STRONG 

er e e3 

en er en 

em er em 

A en e e$ 

e e e 

er er er 

en en en 

- e e e 

82. The strong endings are like those of the definite article, ex- 
cept that the genitive singular masculine and neuter of qualifying 
adjectives is always weak, that is, ends in en. Present usage does 
not admit the old genitive ending e3, but it is still retained in a 
few fixed expressions, as reined ergen, gute SRutg. Limiting ad- 
jectives (75), however, end in e3 in the genitive singular masculine 
and neuter. 

i. Notice the vowels in bie, ba3, and e, e3. 

83. Two or more qualifying adjectives used with a noun follow 
the same declension : nom. guter alter 5Rann, gen. guten alten 
3Jlanne3; nom. ber gute alte SRann, gen. be3 guten alten -IJJanneS. 

84. The strong declension (adjective + noun). 

SINGULAR 

guter 3Dtann gute $rau gute 

guten -JftanneS guter $rau guten 

gutem 9Jlanne guter $rau gutem Stnbe 

guten 3Kann gute grau gute^ Sinb 

PLURAL 

gute Scanner gute ^rauen gute $inber 

guter banner guter ^rauen guter $tnber 

guten TOannern guten ^rauen guten ^tnbern 

gute SRcinner gute ^rauen gute 



26 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



85. The weak declension (determining word -+- adjective -f noun). 



bet gute 3Jlann 
beg guten -Kanneg 
bem guten 5Jtanne 
ben guten SJJann 

bie guten Scanner 
ber guten 9Jtdnner 
ben guten DJlannern 
bte guten -JRanner 

fein guter SWann (79) 
feineg guten 9Jtanneg 
feinem guten 9Jtanne 
feinen guten 5Rann 

leine guten -JRanner 
leiner guten 9JZanner 
feinen guten s JRannern 
feine guten Scanner 



SINGULAR 

bte gute $rau 
ber guten $rau 
ber guten grau 
bte gute grau 

PLURAL 

bie guten $rauen 
ber guten grauen 
ben guten gtauen 
bte guten grauen 
SINGULAR 

feine gute grew 
feiner guten $rau 
feiner guten grau 
feine gute $ratt 

PLURAL 

feine guten $rauen 
feiner guten grauen 
feinen guten grauen 
feine guten grauen 



bag gute 
be guten 
bem guten Sinbe 
ba gute ^inb 

bie guten Sinber 
ber guten Sinber 
ben guten ^inbern 
bie guten ^inber 

fein gute Sinb 
feineS guten SinbeS 
feinem guten Sinbe 
fein gute3 Kinb 

feine guten Sinber 
feiner guten Sinber 
feinen guten Sinbern 
feine guten ^inber 



86. Adjectives used as nouns retain the adjective declension. 



SINGULAR 

uter ute ber ute bag ute fein uter 

uten uter beg uten beg uten feineg uten 

utem uter bem uten bem uten feinem uten 

uten ute ben uten bag ute feinen uten 



PLURAL 



ute 
uter 
uten 
ute 



bie uten 
ber uten 
ben uten 
bie uten 



feine uten 
feiner uten 
feinen uten 
feine uten 



einigeg ute 
einigeg uten 
einigem uten 
einigeg ute 

einige uten 
einiger uten 
einigen uten 
einige uten 



NOTE, itttgeg ute in the singular means some good (an abstract noun) ; 
in the plural, some good things or some good people. 



THE ADJECTIVE 2/ 

87. Participles used as adjectives or nouns are declined like 
adjectives. 



SINGULAR 



gelefyrter SJlann 
gelefyrten 3JZanne3 
gelefyrtem -JRanne 
gelefyrten SRann 


bet elefyrte 
be3 elefyrten 
bem elefyrten 
ben elefyrten 


!ein elefyrter 
feineS elefyrten 
feinem elefyrten 
feinen elefyrten 



PLURAL 

gelefyrte banner bie elefyrten feme elefyrten 

gelefyrter Scanner bet elefyrten feiner elefyrten 

gelefyrten DJJannern ben elefyrten feinen ele^rten 

ge!eE)tte banner bie elefyrten feine ele^rten 

88. An adjective may be formed from the name of a city by 
adding er. It is indeclinable and written with a capital (23, 7) : 
nom. bet Sblner om, gen. be3 Joiner 2)om3, dat. bem fiblner 2)om, 
ace. ben Joiner om. 

89. The possessive adjectives are mein, bein, jein, i^r, fein, unfer, 
euer, i^r, and ^^t. They are possessive adjectives when used before 
a noun, as mein ut, feine $eber, unfer 33ud). For their declension 
see 30 ; for their use as possessive pronouns see 136-140. 

90. The indefinite numeral adjectives may be grouped as 
follows : 

1. Those containing the idea of number. 

(a) Uninflected : allerfyanb, allerlei, all kinds qf-, ein paar, a few. 

(b) Inflected: ember-, other \ beib-, both ; manrf), many a\ 
tne^rer-, several ' \ jeber, each (never weak, but mixed (79) if pre- 
ceded by the indefinite article). 

(c) The indefinite article : ein, # , an (30). 

2. Those expressing quantity. 

(a) Uninflected : ein roenig, a little ; etnwS, some ; bi^en, little 
(bit}. 

(b) Inflected : gan, all, whole ; ^alb, half. 



28 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

3. Those expressing quantity before a noun in the singular, and 
number before a noun in the plural. 

(a) Uninflected : genug, enough ; mefyr, more ; lauter, eitel, noth- 
ing but. 

(&) Inflected (strong): all, all\ roeld), some. 

(c) Inflected : eintg-, some, a few, harmonious-, gefamt, all, entire-, 
famtlid), all, entire ; iibttg, the rest ; triel, much, pi. many ; roenig, 
little, pi few. 

(d) The negative article : feitt, not a, no (adj.). 

NOTE i. When manrf) precedes the indefinite article it is not declined. 
It is also sometimes not declined when it precedes another adjective. 
Examples : mand) ein 3Jtann, mancfj eines 2ftanne3 ; mancf) guter .2JJann, 
mantf) guten 2ftanne3, 

NOTE 2. The form mefyrer- is a double comparative, being composed of 
the comparative mefyr and the comparative suffix er. 

NOTE 3. An article, or a demonstrative or a possessive adjective, pre- 
ceding bi|tf)en, is in the neuter gender regardless of the gender of the noun 
which follows bifjdjen. 

NOTE 4. ang and fjalb are not declined when used alone before neuter 
names of places, as nom. ganj 3)eutfrf)lanb, gen. gang 2)eutfdjlanb3, but 
nom. ba3 ganje SDeutfdjlanb, gen. be3 garden 25eutfd)lanb3. 

NOTE 5. 2111 before the definite article or a possessive adjective gener- 
ally remains undeclined in the singular and sometimes also in the plural : 
all bag SBaffer, all or alle meine Spfel. 

91. The demonstrative adjectives are biefer, jener, bet (92), bet* 
jelbe, berjenige (92), bet ntimlidje (85), and fold) (96). When they 
do not limit a noun they are demonstrative pronouns (152). The 
declension of biejer and berfelbe is as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL 

^ 

biefer biefc biefeS biefe berfelbe biefelbe ba^felbe biefelben 

biefe3 biefer biefe biefer be^felben berfelben be^felben berfelben 

biefem biefer biefem btefen bemfelben berfelben bemf elben benfelben 

btefen biefe biefe^ biefe benfelben biefelbe ba^felbe btefelben 

NOTE. Limiting adjectives do not take en in the genitive singular mas- 
culine and neuter (75, 82). 



THE ADJECTIVE 29 

92. er as a demonstrative adjective is declined like the definite 
article. SDerjenige is declined like berfelbe. 

93. The forms be3gleid)en (sing.) and bergleidjen (pi., but used 
also of the sing.) are indeclinable. 

94. 2)iefe3, neuter nominative and accusative singular, often 
drops its ending e3 and becomes bie3. 

95. tefer and jener call attention to nearness and remoteness, 
while bet merely emphasizes. To indicate its stress bet is often 
printed with spaced type. 

SDtefer 3Jtann ift reid), jener ift arm. 
This man is rich, that one is poor. 

2)er 9Jtann ift reid). 
That man is rich. 

3in ber infid)t fyaben @te redjt. 
In that respect you are right. 

96. oldj is never declined when it precedes the indefinite article, 
and is often not declined before another adjective. Examples : 
nom. fold) ein 3Jlann, gen. fold) eine3 -Dtanne^ ; nom. fold) gute3 
33rot, gen. fold) guten 33rote3. 

97. The interrogative adjectives are roeldjer, which, what, and 
fiir etn, what kind of. They are declined as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

roeldjer 9Jfarm roelcfye -JRtinner 

roeldjeS 3Ulanne3 tpeld^er Scanner 

tueld^em 9Jtanne roeldjen 3JJannern 

tuelc^en 5Rann t^eld^e banner 

fiir ein 9Kann tt>a3 fiir banner 

fiir etne3 9Jlanne n)a fiir 3Mdnner 

fiir etnem 3Wanne raa fiir 9Jidnnern 

fiir einen SUtann raag fiir SJldnner 

NOTE. 2Beldj)er as an interrogative adjective is declined like biefer. 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



98. Comparison of adjectives. Adjectives are compared in Ger- 
man by adding to the positive er to form the comparative and ft 
to form the superlative. If the positive ends in a dental (b, t) 
or a sibilant (f, j$, fd), $), the superlative adds eft. Participles in 
enb or et add ft. Adjectives in el, en, er, suppress an e if another 
syllable is added which begins with e, as ebel, eblet, bet eble, ben 
eblen or ben ebeln -JRcmn. Examples : 



deep 


tief 


tiefer 


tiefft 


am tiefften 


diligent 


fletfeig 


fleifetger 


fletfetgft 


am fleifcigften 


wild 


rotlb 


ttnlber 


nrilbeft 


am roilbeften 


old 


alt 


alter 


alteft 


am alteften 


sweet 


w 


fiifeer 


ffljjep 


am fii^eften 



charming retjenb reigenber reigenbft am reigenbften 
cultured gebilbet gebilbeter gebtlbetft am gebilbetften 

99. A number of adjectives are irregular in comparison. 

good 
much 

little 

large 
near 
high 

NOTE, -iftaf) adds c in the superlative, 
bfoer, ber foofie SBaum, etn 



gut 


beffer 


beft 


am beften 


tnel 


me^r 


meift 


am meiften 




r n>emger 


roemgft 


am roenigften 


toenig 


L minber 


minbeft 


am mtnbeften 


grofe 


grower 


grb^t 


am grofcten 


nal) 


na^er 


nad^ft 


am ndd)ften 


^0^ 


^o^er 


fyocfyft 


am l)5d)ften 



drops c when e follows, as 



100. A number of adjectives, used only in the comparative and 
superlative, are derived from adverbs. 



ADVERB COMPARATIVE 

au^en ber bie ba3 tiu^ere 

erft ber bie ba etftere 

fytnten ber bie ba3 fytntere 

tnnen ber bie ba tnnere 

le^t ber bie ba le^tere 



SUPERLATIVE 
ber bie bag du^erfte 
ber bie bag erfte 
ber bie bag fytnterfte 
ber bie bag tnnerfte 
ber bie bag lete 



am aufjerften 
am erften 
am fymterften 
am innerften 
am le^ten 



THE ADJECTIVE 31 

101. The comparison of equality is expressed by fo . . . al, 
fo , . . nrie; ebenfo . . . ate, ebenfo . . . rate. 

@ie ift jo (ebenfo) reidj ate (rote) er. 

She is as rich as he is. 

<5ie ift ebenfo fjiibfd) ate (rote) ifyre Scfyroefter. 

She is just as pretty as her sister. 

102. 9JJefyr and roeniger are used in comparing two qualities of the 

same object. 

@r ift mefyr fleifeig ate begabt. 

He is more industrious than talented. 
@r ift roeniger begabt ate fleifctg. 
He is less talented than industrious. 

103. The English than is expressed in German by ate, and 
the ... the by je . . . je or je . . . befto. 

Carl is larger than his brother. 
Sari ift grower ate fein SBruber. 
The sooner the better. 
3e e^er je (befto) beffer. 

104. The superlative of adjectives may be classified as follows : 
the relative, as ber, bic, ba3 tieffte; the am form (used only in the pred- 
icate), as am tiefften ; and the absolute, as liebft, or fjodjft intereffant. 

105. The relative superlative of an adjective expresses the high- 
est degree with reference to two or more persons or things. 

grit* ift ber flei^igfte Snabe in ber 6dule, Fred is the most studious 

boy in school. 
Sari fyat einen gro^en 2lpfel, aber gri$ l)at ben gtb^ten, Carl has a 

large apple, but Fred has the largest one. 
griis ift ber fletfjigfte t>on alien, Fred is the most studious of all. 
Unfer au ift bag neuefte in biefer <5traf$e, our house is the newest 

in this street. 

NOTE. In the third and fourth sentences ber fleifctgfte and ba3 neuefte 
are predicate superlatives (106). 



32 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

106. The superlative degree of a predicate adjective is expressed : 

1. By the relative superlative. 

$arl ift grofc. 
Carl is tall. 

Sari ift bet grojste t)on ben bret Snaben. 
Carl is the tallest of the three boys. 

NOTE. See also 105, third and fourth sentences. 

NOTE. A predicate adjective is one that is used as complement to a copu- 
lative verb. 

2. By the am form, which is a phrase in the dative case, and 
is used : 

(a) When a person or thing is compared with itself at different 
times or places or under different circumstances. 

() When objects are. compared which do not belong to the 
same class. 

iet tft bet @ee lief, here the lake is deep. 

ier ift bet @ee am lief [ten, here the lake is deepest. 

6r fiifylt fid) fdjroad), he feels weak. 

6r fill) It fid) fyeute am fd)ttwd)ften, he feels weakest to-day. 

ie ^Pflaume ift grofc, bie 33irne nod) grower, abet bet Slpfel ift am 

grbjsten, the plum is large, the pear larger, but the apple is the 

largest : ; but notice 
2>er 2lpfel ift gro^, bicfcr nod) grower, abet jener ift ber grofste, that 

apple is large, this one is larger, but that one is the largest. 

107. The absolute superlative is used to express a very high, or 
the highest, degree without making a comparison, as liebfter SSater ! 
dearest father-, befte 2Bare u billtgften ^reifen ! best goods at the lowest 
prices. It may be expressed by the superlative alone or by the 
superlative strengthened by after, as afterliebfte3 Stnb, dearest child, 
but more frequently it is expressed by using in connection with the 
positive form of the adjective a word which has the general mean- 
ing of very, as fefyr, fyod)ft, du^etft, riefig; for example, fybd)ft tnter= 
effant, very interesting-, aujjerft angenefym, extremely agreeable. 



THE ADVERB 33 

108. Declension. Comparatives and superlatives follow the reg- 
ular adjective declension. 

SINGULAR 

dlterer 3Kann ber altere 3ftann mein alteftcS Sinb 

dlteren 5Ranne be3 dlteren 9Jtanne3 metneS dlteften $inbe3 

dlterem SRanne bem dlteren SRanne meinem dlteften $inbe 

dlteren SRann ben dlteren 5Rann mein altefteS Sinb 

PLURAL 

altere banner bie dlteren Planner meine dlteften Sinber 

dlterer banner ber dlteren Scanner meiner dlteften Sinber 

dlteren -JJZdrinern ben dlteren SDtdnnern meinen dlteften ffinbern 

altere SUfdnner bie dlteren banner meine dlteften Sinber 

109. Vowel mutation. A few very common monosyllabic adjec- 
tives mutate the root vowel in the comparative and superlative. 

alt grob fyod) Hug lang fdjroarg sometimes also bang, 
arg groft jung franl nafy ftar! bumm, rot, and a 

arm fyart fait furg fd^arf roarm few others 

j 

THE ADVERB 

110. Comparison of adverbs. Adverbs are compared as follows : 
beautifully frfjon fcpner am fd^onften aufs fd^onfte 
easily leid^t leister am leicfyteften auf leid^tefte 
near nal) naljer am ndd^ften auf^ nddjfte 
often oft ofter am bfteften auf bftefte 

111. Adverbs form their comparative like adjectives. The super- 
lative is generally expressed by a dative or an accusative phrase 
which may be called respectively the relative and the absolute 
superlative of adverbs (105, 107). The relative superlative of an 
adverb, however, must not be confused with the am form of the 
adjective (106, 2). Decide in each case whether the corresponding 
positive form is an adjective or an adverb. The adverbial superla- 
tive without a preposition occurs in only a few cases (116). 



34 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

112. The relative superlative of an adverb expresses the rela- 
tively highest degree attained by a person or thing when compared 
with another person or thing, or with itself at different times 
or places or under different circumstances. 

Sari frf)reibt am fd)bnften t)on aft ben Snaben. 
Of all the boys Carl writes the most beautifully. 

Sutfe fingt immer frfjbn, aber fyeute fang fie am fcpnften. 
Louise always sings beautifully, but to-day she sang more beautifully 
than ever. 

113. The absolute superlative of an adverb expresses a very high 
degree without making a comparison. 

6r empfing mid) auf freunblicfyfte. 
He received me most cordially. 

2)er SKenfd) ift auf nad)fte mit ben Sieren uerroanbt. (oet$e.) 
Man is very closely related to the animals. 

114. A number of adverbs are irregular in comparison. 

gut beffer am beften balb efyer am efyeften 

ffer am beften r roeniger am roentgften 

. roofyler am roofylften L minber am minbeften 

gern lieber am liebften mel mefyr am meiften 

115. Notice the meaning of mel, fefyr, gern, lieber, and am Iteb- 
ften in the following sentences : 

@r fprirf)t mel, he talks much. 

@r Itebt fie fe^r, he loves her very much. 

6r trinlt gern SRildj, he likes milk. 

@r trinft lieber See al Saffee, he prefers tea to coffee. 

6r trinlt am liebften 5ftildj, he likes milk best of all. 

116. Several absolute superlatives are formed irregularly, as 
dufjerft, balbigft, ergebenft, freunblid)ft, gefdEigft, giitigft, fyerli<i)ft, 
^bd^ft, jiingft, Idngft, meift, minbeft, mbglid)ft, beftenS, erften^, britten^, 
fruf)eften, ^od^)ften, meiftenS, minbeften^, roenigften^, nadjftenS. 



NUMERALS 35 

NUMERALS 

117. Cardinals. The cardinals are : 

1 ein, 2 groei, 3 brei, 4 met, 5 fiinf, 6 fed)3, 7 fieben, 8 adfjt, 
9 neun, 10 gefyn, 11 elf, 12 groblf, 13 breigefyn, 14 wergefyn, 15 fiinf- 
gefyn, 16fe<i)geE)n, 17 fiebgefyn, 18 acfytgefyn, 19 neungefyn, 20 groangig, 
21 einunbgrtmngig, 22 groeiunbgroangig, 30 breiftig, 40 tnergig, 50 
fiinfgig, 60 fedjgig, 70 fiebgig, 80 arf)tgig, 90 neungig, 100 fyunbert, 
1000 taufenb, 1,000,000 eine SKiHion. 

118. The cardinals except etn are not declined. $wei and brei 
sometimes form a genitive graeier, breier, and a dative groeien, 
breien. 

119. @in when used with a noun is either a numeral adjective 
or the indefinite article. As a numeral adjective it is sometimes 
printed with spaced letters or with a capital. It is declined like 
the indefinite article, or when preceded by the definite article it is 
declined like a weak adjective. 

NOTE. For the use of etn as an indefinite pronoun see 162. 

120. Ordinals. The ordinals from one to twenty are formed by 
adding t to the cardinals and from twenty upwards by adding ft, as 
bet tnerte, bet tnergefynte, ber gttwngigfte, bet brei^igfte, ber fiebgtgfte, 
bet fyunbertfte. 

EXCEPTIONS. @rft, britt, fed^ft, ftebt (beside fie&ent), and ud)t. 

121. The ordinals are declined like adjectives. 

122. Words derived from numerals. 

1. Nouns. They are formed by adding tel (derived from Xeil) to 
the ordinals, as ein Srittel, ba SDritteL 

2. Adjectives. These are formed from the cardinals by adding 
facf), fdltig, erlei, and malig, as einfarf), tnerftiltig, breierlei, einmalig. 

3. Adverbs. Ordinal adverbs are formed by adding mal to the 
cardinals and en to the ordinals, as eintnal, erftenS ; groeimal, 
groeitenS. 



36 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

PRONOUNS 

123. Personal pronouns. 

SINGULAR PLURAL 

First Second Third First Second Third 

Person Person Person Person Person Person 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

NOM. id) bu er fie eg trnr ifyr fie 

GEN. meiner beiner feiner ifyrer feiner unfer euer ifyrer Sfyrer 

DAT. tnir bir ifym ifyr ifym ung eud) ifynen 3$nen 

Ace. mid) bid) ifyn fie eg ung eud) fie ie 

124. In poetry the genitives meiner, beiner, feiner are frequently 
replaced by the older forms mein, bein, fein. 

125. A personal pronoun referring to a preceding noun agrees 
with it in gender and number. 

2Bo ift mein ut ? aben @ie ifyn gefefyen ? 
Where is my hat ? Have you seen it ? 

126. Personal pronouns referring to neuter nouns which denote 
persons, as bag grdulein, bag -IRabdjen, bag SBeib, generally follow 
the natural gender. 

2Bie Ijeifet bag 3Kabd)en ? @ie (or @s) ^ei^t SKarie. 
What is the girPs name ? Her name is Marie. 

127. The genitive singular of eg was formerly eg, and this form 
still occurs in certain phrases, as : 

@r ift eg roert. 
He is worthy of it. 

$d) bin eg miibe. 
I am tired of it. 

128. When things are referred to, the dative and the accusative 
of the personal pronouns after a preposition are represented by the 
adverb ba (bar before vowels). a (bar) is prefixed to the prep- 
osition, and the resulting compound is an adverb. 



PRONOUNS 37 

@r rouble mdf)t3 batxm. 

He knew nothing of it or of them. 

3$) bin bafiir. 

I am in favor of it or of them. 

ier ifi ein ifd). Segen 6ie ^fai 33urf) barauf. 
/> a table. Lay your book upon it. 



129. The genitive forms are compounded with roegen, tmflett, 
and fyalben, and the r of the pronoun changes to t, as meinetroegen 
from meiner 4- roegen ; likewise meinettmlien, euretfyalben, etc. 

130. For the sake of emphasis the personal pronouns of the third 
person are often replaced by the demonstrative ber, bie, ba (152). 

3)en Sdcfer fenne id^ fefyr gut, abet ber E)ei^t cfymtbt unb nid^t 2Berner, 
The baker 1 'know quite well, but his name is Schmidt and not Werner. 



131. The pronouns of address bit, ifyr, and 

1. <5ie is used where no great intimacy exists. It is plural in form 
and takes its verb in the third person plural, but is used in address- 
ing one person or more than one. It is always written with a 

capital letter. 

@te ftnb fletjstg. 

You are industrious. 

3$ fyabe Ste nid)t gefefyen. 
I didn't see you. 

6r roirb 3$nen gleirf) fyelfen. 
He will help you immediately. 

2. The singular bu and the plural tfyr are used in speaking to 
near relatives, intimate friends, children, animals, and inanimate 
objects. 2)u is also used in addressing God. 

9Jiein ofyn, bu bift fefyr fletftig, my son, you are very industrious. 
$<i) fyabe bid) nidfjt gefefyen, I did not see you. 
^inber, i^rmu^t je^tnad^ aufe tty\\, children, you must go home now. 
Unfer SSater, ber bu bift in bem ^tmmel, our Father which art in heaven. 



38 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

132. Reflexive pronouns. There is but one distinctively reflexive 
form, which is fid), self, an d it occurs only in the third person. The 
other forms are supplied by the personal pronouns. The declension 
is as follows : 

NOM. 

GEN. metner beiner feiner ifyrer tmfer euer ifyrer 3$ r e* 

DAT. mir bit fid) fid) un3 eud) fid) fid) 

Ace. mtdj bid) fid) fid) un3 eud^ fidf) fid) 

NOTE i. Reflexive pronouns have no nominative (254). 
NOTE 2. Illustrative sentences : 

3d) fcfyone metner, I spare myself. 
3d) fd)meid)le mir, I flatter myself. 
3d) freue midj, I am glad. 
@r freut ficl), he is glad. 
greuen te ftcty ? Are you glad? 

133. The indeclinable forms felbft and felber, self, are intensive 

pronouns. 

2Bir felbft (or feiber) finb ^ier. 

We ourselves are here. 

2)er ^rdfibent felbft (or felber) formte nid^t fommen. 
The president himself could not come. 

134. To avoid ambiguity in the plural, the reciprocal pronoun 
eincmber is sometimes used instead of the reflexive. 3Bir lieben un3 
may mean we love each other or we love ourselves ; whereas roir 
lieben eirtanber can mean only we love each other. 

135. The dative of the reflexive pronoun, in connection with the 
definite article, is often used in German for the English possessive 
adjective when the sense is clear, especially when referring to parts 
of the body. 

3$ fyabe mir ben 3lrm gebrodfjen. 
I broke my arm. 

@r fyat fid) in ben finger gejdjnitten. 
He cut his finger. 



PRONOUNS 



39 



136. Possessive pronouns. The masculine nominative of the 

possessive pronouns (except unf(e)rer,eu (e) ret) is like the genitive of 

the corresponding personal pronouns (123). The personal pronouns 

with their corresponding possessives in all' genders are as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL 



tdj 
bu 
er 
fie 



meiner 

beiner 

feiner 

ifyrer 

feiner 



meine 

beine 

feine 

ifyre 

feine 



tt)ir 



fie 

<5ie 



unf(e)rer unf(e)re unf(e)re 
eu(e)rer eu(e)re eu(e)re 
ifyrer ifyre 



meine 

beineg 

feineg 

ifyreS 

feineS 

137. The possessive pronouns may be preceded by the definite 
article, and meiner, meine, meineS then become ber meine, bie meine, 
ba3 meine. There is also a form in ig which is never used without 
the definite article : ber meinige, bie meinige, ba3 meinige. Notice 
the possessive pronouns in the following sentences : 2Bo ifi $E)r (89) 
ut ? meiner (ber meine, ber meinige) ift fyier, where is your hat ? 
mine is here ; eben Sne mir 3$ren (89) SaH bitte, id) fyabe meinen 
(ben meinen, ben meinigen) t)erloren,^'^ me your ball, please, I have 
lost mine. Without the definite article the possessive pronouns are 
declined like limiting adjectives (82) ; with the definite article they 
are declined like qualifying adjectives. 

SINGULAR 

M. 

ber meine 
be3 meinen 



M. F. N. 

meiner meine meineS 
meineS meiner meineS 
meinem meiner meinem 
meinen meine meineS 
PLURAL 

M.F. N. 

meine 
meiner 
meinen 
meine 



N. 

ba meine 



SINGULAR 
F. 

bie meine 

ber meinen be meinen 
bem meinen ber meinen bem meinen 
ben meinen bie meine hen meinen 
PLURAL 

M. F.N. 

, bie meinen 
ber meinen 
ben meinen 
bie meinen 



40 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

138. In the predicate the possessive pronoun expresses either 
mere ownership or identity of ownership. In the first case the pro- 
noun is uninflected and emphasizes the idea of possession, whereas 
in the second it is inflected and emphasizes the idea of identity. 
Notice the following examples : 

1. Of ownership. 

2)er ut I r the hat i 

ie $eber \ ift mein, \ the pen \ is mine. 

SDag SBudf) J [the book J 

2Bag metn ift, ift aucf) bein, what is mine is also thine. 

3)ag ift aHeg metn, that is all mine. 

enn bein ift bte $raft, for thine is the power. 

SBag euer ift, foE euer bleiben, what is yours shall remain yours. 

NOTE. The forms tfyr, her, tfyr, their, and 3^r, your, are always inflected 
when used in the predicate. 

2)a3 Slid) ift if)re3 (bag tljre, bag i^rige). . 

The book is hers or theirs. 

2)a3 Sud) ift3E)reg (bag 3^re, bag S^rige). 

The book is yours. 

2. Of identity. 

2)ein 28iHe ift aud^ bet meine (ber meinige, meiner). 
Your will is also mine. 

ein Sog rourbe aud^ bag unfere (bag unfrige, unfereg). 
His fate became ours too. 

139. The personal pronouns er, fie, and eg, used as subject, are 
followed in the predicate by the uninflected possessive, and the in- 
definite pronoun eg (157) by the inflected possessive. 

28em (141) gefybrt biefer ut? 6r ift metn. 
JBem ge^ort biefe geber? @ie ift mein. 
2Bem ge^ort bief^g 33ud^ ? @g ift mein. 

(this hat 1 
this pen \ belong ? It is mine, 
this book ] 



PRONOUNS 41 

2Bem gefybrt biefer ut? @3 ift meiner (ber meine, ber meinige). 
2Bem gefybrt biefe $eber ? @3 ift meine (bie meine, bie meinige). 
JBem gefybrt biefe^ Sud^ ? @3 ift rneine^ (ba meine, ba meinige). 
r Mw /^^/ i 

To whom does < this pen \ belong ? It is mine. 
\ .,* ,__v| 



140. The possessive pronouns with the definite article are often 
used as nouns, the plural referring to one's relatives or party asso- 
ciates, the neuter singular to one's property or duty. 

3d) liebe bie SReinen, Hove my people. 

2)ie uerbunbeten g-elbfyerren fafyen roie bie $f)tigen furs SSaterlanb 

fdmpften, the allied generals saw how their soldiers were fighting 

for their country. 

Gr Derlor ba3 (Seine, he lost his property. 
Gr ^at ba einige geian, he has done his duty. 

141. Interrogative pronouns. The interrogative pronouns are 
toer, who ; nm3, what ; raeld^er (97), which one ; and n)a fiir einer, 
what kind. They are declined as follows : 

SINGULAR PLURAL MASCULINE 

roer roa roelcfyer rceldje n>elc^e roeld^e roag fiir einer 

roeffen roeffen n>eld^e roelcfyer raeld^e^ raeld^er roa fiir eine3 

went roeld^em raeld^er roeldfjem raeld^en n)a fiir einem 

wen roa raeld^en raeld^e raeldje^ raeld^e roa fiir einen 

142. 28er is both masculine and feminine, singular and plural, 
and refers to persons. 2Ba is neuter and refers to things. 28er 
and Ttw3 can never be used as interrogative adjectives. 

28 er roar e3 ? Who was it ? 

2Beld)er raar bag ? Which one was that ? 

28c$ roollen @ie ? F"/to do you wish ? 

3$ l)abe einen fd^raarjen ut. 2Ba fiir einen {)aben te ? / /^z'<? 

^ tor^ hat. What kind have you ? 
ier finb groei JHofen. -JBeldje raoHen ie? Z^r^ ^r^ two roses. 

Which one do you wish ? 



42 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



143. The dative of tofl3 is often supplied by the adverb tt)0 (root 
before vowels) plus a preposition, as tx)orau3, roobei, tDOtnit, tt)0t)on, 
n)0u, roonad). The accusative admits of the same substitution, as 
rooburd), roofur, roogegen. The tendency at present is to use roaS 
in all cases, as roegen ttw3, mit txw3, um trm3, etc. 

NOTE. For the use'of : 

1. 3Bet, Tt)a3, and roelcfyer as relative pronouns see 145-148. 

2. 2Ber and roelcf) as indefinite pronouns see 163. 

3. SBelcfyer and wa% fur ein as inf Adjectives see 97. 

144. Relative pronouns. The r^ i ^ronouns are ber, bie, ba ; 
roeldjer, roeldje, roeldje^ ; and sometimes roer and wa%. The former 
are definite relatives and the latter indefinite. 

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL 

bet bie bag bie roeldjer roeldje raeld^eS trjeldje 

befjen beren befjen beren befjen beren befjen beren 

bent ber bem benen njeld^em raeld^er roeldjem tDeld^eti 

ben bie ba bie roelcfyen n)eld>e raeld^e^ raeld^e 

145. SBelrfjer as a relative pronoun uses the genitive of bet. Its 
own genitive, singular n)eld)e3, roelrf)er, roeldjeS, plural roeld^er, occurs 
very rarely and never stands before the noun upon which it depends. 

2)ie tabt, beren 3Kauer (never roeldfjer 5Rauer) nod) ftefyt, l)ei^t 

SRotljenburg. 
The city whose walls are still standing is called Rothenburg. 

ie Waiter, innerfyalb beren (or raeld^er) bie 2Utftabt liegt, rourbe 

or 3>af)rfyunberten erbaut. 
The wall which surrounds the old part of the city was built centuries ago. 

146. When the relative pronoun refers to things its dative and 
accusative after a preposition are often replaced by the adverb roo 
(roor) plus a preposition. 

a Sudf), rootton (t)on bem, won roeldjem) id) fpredje, ift fefyr alt. 

The book of which I am speaking is very old. 

2)a3 ifi ber s $unft roorum (um ben, um roeld^en) e3 fid^ 

That is the point in question. 



PRONOUNS 43 

147. 293cr as a relative pronoun means he who, whoever. It 
always includes its antecedent, which, however, is sometimes em- 
phasized by the demonstrative pronoun bet. 

2Cer nirfjt fyoren null, muf; fiifylen. 
He who will not hear must feel. 

SSer fdjltift, bet fimbigt nid)t. 
He who sleeps sins not. 

2)er -JJtann, ben < ~\) id) faf), war beuifdj. 

The man whom j,s a German. 

148. 2Bd$ as a relative pronoun means that which, whatever. 
It is an indefinite neuter relative, and is used more extensively 
than roer. 28a3 may include its antecedent, or its antecedent may 
be a neuter personal, demonstrative, or indefinite pronoun, as 
e, ba, aHe, etroaS, nid)t3, a neuter noun of indefinite meaning 
(especially a superlative used as a noun), or a whole clause. 

5Ba fid) liebt, necft fid). 
Lovers tease each other. 

2Ba3 mid) auf btefer SBelt betrubt, bag nmfyret furge 3^t, 
2Ba abet meine 6eele liebt, ba bleibt in (Sroigfeit. 
The trials of this world are of short duration, 
But that which satisfies my soul is eternal. 

@r bat mid) u fdjreiben, roa id^ aud) tat. 
He asked me to write, which I did. 

NOTE i. If the antecedent is in a different case from roer or roa3, it must 
be expressed by a demonstrative. 

SBer liigt, bem glcwbt man nidjt. 
One does not believe him who lies. 
2Ba3 roaljr^aft tft, bem benfet nad^. 
Think on those things which are true. 

NOTE 2. The words and), immer, aud) immer, nur, autf) nur are frequently 
used with roer and raa^ as relatives and thus make their meaning more 

general - 3Ber er auc^ fei. 

Whoever he may be. 



44 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

149. In a relative clause the inflected verb comes last. 

ag 33urf), bag auf bem Xifrfje Itegt, ift eine rammatif. 
The book which lies on the table is a grammar. 

3$ fyabe bag Surf) gefunben, bag @te aerloren fatten. 
I found the book which you had lost. 

150. A personal pronoun of the first or second person, used as 
antecedent of the relative bet, bie, bag, is often repeated after the 
relative. If it is not repeated, the verb is in the third person. 

2Btr, bie nrir bie emfen jagen, nrifjen bag, we who hunt the chamois 

know that. 
3$), bet trf) 3fyr greunb bin, traue Sfynen, I who am your friend 

trust you. 
2)u, ber bu metn greunb btft, txrirft mtr fyelfen, you who are my 

friend will help me. 
33eracfyteft bu fo beinen $atfer, Sell, unb mid^, ber fyier an fetner 

tatt gebtetet ? Do you thus despise your emperor, Tell, and 

me who rules here in his stead? 

151. In German a relative clause is always set off by commas. 
See sentences above. 

152. Demonstrative pronouns. The demonstrative pronouns are 
bet, biefer, jener, berfelbe, berjemge, folder, folrf) etner, etn folder, 
and fo etner (91). 

SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL 

ber bte bag bie fold) etner etn foldjer foldje 

beflen beren befjen beren, berer fold) etneg etneg folrfjen folder 
bem ber bem benen fold) etnem etnemfold^en folrfjen 

ben bte bag bte folrf) etnen etnen fol^en jold^e 

NOTE.' For the declension of biefer, berfelbe, berjenige, and folder, see 91. 

153. The demonstrative pronoun ber is declined like the relative 
ber, except that it has two forms in the genitive plural, beren and 
berer. The form berer usually refers to persons. 



PRONOUNS 45 

@r gebadjte berer, bie in 3Rot roaren. 

He was mindful of those who were in distress. 

@ie erinnert fid) gern ifyrer greunbinnen, befonberS berer au ifyrer 

djuljeit. 
She enjoys recalling her friends, especially those of her school days. 

<5ie erinnert fid) gern ijrer_@rlebniffe, befonberS beren au3 tfyrer 



She enjoys recalling her experiences, especially those of her school days. 

154. The genitive of the demonstrative pronoun refers to an 
oblique case in a sentence, while the possessive adjective refers to 
the subject. 

2)er raf fyat biefem 9Jtanne unb beffen ofyne afleS anwertraut. 
The count has intrusted everything to this man and to his (the man's) 



2)er raf fyat biefem 3Kanne unb fetnetn o^ne atte ant)ertraut. 
The count has intrusted everything to this man and his (the count's) son. 

155. The neuter nominative and accusative form biefeg often 
omits its ending e3 and becomes bte. 

156. old) may precede the indefinite article and is then not 
declined (see 96) : nom. fold) etner ; gen. fold) etne3. 

157. The demonstrative pronouns ba and bte3, the indefinite 
e3, and the interrogative roeld)e3 are used with the verb fetn and a 
predicate noun of any gender and number to express identity of the 
subject and predicate. The predicate noun governs the verb. 

ftnb Sitter, those are books. 
tft eine Sofe, this is a rose. 
finb Spfel, they are apples. 

finb bie fcpnften Slutnen ? Which are the most beautiful 
flowers ? 

NOTE. For the demonstrative ber, bie, ba3 used for the personal pro- 
nouns see 130. 



46 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

158. The former is expressed by jener and the latter by btefer. 

err dfjmibt unb err 33run finb 3?acf)barn; biefer i[t reidfj, jener 

arm. 
Mr. Schmidt and Mr. Bruns are neighbors ; the former {Mr. S.) is 

poor, the latter (Mr. B^) rich. 

159. The dative and the accusative of bte and ba$ after a prepo- 
sition are often replaced by tyier or ba plus a preposition (cf. 128). 

SDdDon roeifc idf) nidf)t3. 
Of that I know nothing. 

agu bin tdj nod) nidfjt berett. 
I am not ready for that yet. 

ierin ftimmten fie nid^t iiberein. 
In this they did not agree. 

160. The idea of nearness or remoteness is emphasized by using 
the adverbs fyier, ba, or bort in connection with the demonstratives. 

SDtefer 9Kann fyier ift reidfjer ate jener bort. 
This man here is richer than that one yonder. 

161. Indefinite pronouns. The indefinite pronouns are man, one ; 
jemanb, somebody ; niemanb, nobody ; jebermann, everybody ; etroa, 
some, something \ and nid^t, nothing. They are declined as follows : 

man jemanb jeberman 

eine jemanb^ jebermanng 

einem jemanb(em) jebermann 

einen jemanb(en) jebermann 

NOTE. Niemanb is declined like jemanb. @ttt)a3, sometimes contracted 
to ttm3, and md)t^ are indeclinable. Notice also that the oblique cases of 
man are replaced by eitt-. 

162. The following indefinite adjectives are used also as indef- 
inite pronouns. In the singular : einer, irgenb einer ; in both sin- 
gular and plural : jeber, jebroeber, jeglicfyer, and f einer ; in the plural 



PREPOSITIONS 47 

only : atte, cmbere, beibe, einige, etlidje, manege, mefyre, tnefyrere, t)iele, 
and roenige. Of these the following may be preceded : 

1. By the definite article: bet anbere, bie beiben, ber eine, ber 
jebe, ber jebroebe, ber jeglidje. 

2. By the indefinite article : ein anberer, ein jeber, ein jeglidfjer, 
ein manner, and ein mefyrereS. 

NOTE. The words given in the preceding paragraph are declined like 
adjectives. 

163. The interrogatives roer and roeldj may be used as indefinite 
pronouns. They are then frequently accompanied by irgenb : 



@r roifl un3 roelrfje geben. 
He wants to give us some. 

%tf) fyabe letn elb. aben @te 
I have no money. Have you some? 

63 muf$ mir irgenb n>er etraa^ leifyen. 
Somebody must loan me some. 



PREPOSITIONS 

NOTE. Only those prepositions which are of frequent occurrence are 
given in the following lists. 

164. Prepositions which govern the genitive are : 

rodfyrenb, during bieSfeit, this side of um . . . roiEen,/^ 

roegen, on account of jenfeit, the other side of the sake of 

ftutt, 'i . - innerhalb, within 

V instead of 
anftatt, J aufterfyalb, outside of 

iro^, in spite of unterfyalb, below 

oberfyalb, above 

NOTE i. SBegett sometimes follows the word which it governs. For 
meinetroegen etc. see 129. 

NOTE 2. Slnftatt and ftatt govern also an infinitive, as anftatt JU gefjor- 
djen, instead of obeying. 



48 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

165. Prepositions which govern the dative are : 

au3, out of nad), towards, to, after, gegenitber, opposite 

auj$er, outside of, according to nad)ft, next to 

except feit, since, for nebft, besides 

bei, by, with, at the non, of, from, by famt, together with 

house of u, to guttnbet, contrary to 

nut, with entgegen, against 

166 When nadfj means according to, it follows its noun : -JReiner 
URetnung nad) irren @ie fidfj, according to my opinion you are mis- 
taken. Observe also the difference between nad) bem aufe, nadf) 
>aufe, and gu aufe : $d) gefye n'ad) bem aufe, I am going to the 
house ; ,^d) gefye nad^ mufe, / am going home ; 3>d() bin u aufe, 
7^7^ at home. Also note the difference between icfy gefye nad) ifym, 
I am going after him (that is, to get him), and id) gel)e gu il)m, /<^w 
going to see him, I am going to his house. The present tense of a 
verb accompanied by the dative after feit is used to express an 
action or a state which began in the past and still continues in the 
present : (St tft fd)on feit etner 2Bod)e franf, he has been sick for a 
week ;. 2Btr n>ofynen feit bem erften 9Jtai in unferem neuen aufe, we 
have been living in our new house since the first of May. 

167. Prepositions which govern the accusative are : 

bt, up to gegen, against tmber, against 

burd), through ofyne, without entlang, along 

\\\\ f for um, about, around 



NOTE. Dfyne and um are followed also by an infinitive, as ofyne tfjn 
, without seeing him ; lim IlltJ JU jetn, to be brief. 



168. Prepositions which govern both the dative and the accu- 
sative are : 

an, at, to, by in, in, into, to unter, under 

auf, on, upon, for neben, beside or, before, ago 

fyinter, behind iiber, above, across nnfd)en, between, among 



PREPOSITIONS 49 

169. The prepositions of the preceding paragraph govern the 
dative in expressions : 

1. Of place where, in which. 

2. Of time when. 

3)ie ^inber finb auf bem ad), the children are on the roof. 

2)ie ^inber laufen in bem arten, the children are running in the 

garden. 
$ri gefyt am onnabenb immer nadj aufe, Fred always goes home 

on Saturday. 

SSor einer 2Bod)e roar idj u aufe, a week ago I was at home. 
3jm 3>uni fd)lief$t bie <5d)ule, ^^/ closes in June. 

170. The prepositions given under paragraph 168 govern the 
accusative in expressions : 

1. Of place where to, towards, or into which. 

2. Of time how long, until when. 

te Sinber laufen in ben arten. 

The children are running into the garden. 

gri cjefyt nur auf einen Xag nadfj aufe. 
Fred is going home only for a day. 

eute iiber einen SRonat roerben tx)ir in 33erlin fein. 
A month from to-day we shall be in Berlin. 

171. In abstract expressions where the idea of motion or of 
place does not appear an, in, unter, and t)or take the dative, auf 
and iiber the accusative. 

Sin ifyren $riirf)ten foHt ifyr fie erfennen. 
By their fruits ye shall know them. 

3jn bet infidjt fyaben 6ie red^t. 
In that respect you are right. 

3$ freue mid) iiber meine Hlaffe. 
I am delighted with my class. 



50 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

172. The following examples may serve to illustrate more fully 
the use of the prepositions which govern both the dative and the 
accusative. 

ACCUSATIVE DATIVE 

3$ lege bag 33ud() auf ben Sifdj. SDag 33ud() Kegt auf bem 23fd&. 

I lay the book on the table. The book lies on the table. 

3d) gel)e in bag ftimrtm. 3$ gefye in bem 3tmmer auf unb ab. 

/ # #2 going into the room . 1 am walking to and fro in the room. 

3d) gelje fyinter bag aug. 3$ 9^ fyinter bem aufe. 

I am going behind the house. I am walking behind the house. 

3d) gefje an bie Stir. 3$ &in cin ber ur. 

./#; ^ztfflg 1 ^ ^ d&w. /^w ^/ M^ door. 

3d) fd^reibe ben a^ an bie Safcl. er a| ftc^t an ber Safcl. 
/^zw writing the sentence on the The sentence is on the board. 
board. 

35a3 Jltnb fefcte fid^ neben fie. 2)a Sinb fa^ neben tyr. 
7%^ r^/7(/ J^/ down beside her. The child sat beside her. 

SDie 6i^ung bauerte bi fpat in 2Bir famen fpat in ber 9Jad)t nadlj 

bie S^ad^t. aufe. 

The sessionlasted far into the night. We came home late at night. 

liber ben ^hinft fagte er nidjt. 5Jtid) graut t)or ber ^riiftmg. 
He didn't say anything concern- I dread the examination. 
ing that point. 

173. The definite article often contracts with a preposition. 



an bem = am gegen ba = gegenS iiber bag 

an ba = an ^inter bem = Ijinterm urn bag 

auf bag = aufg fyinter bag = fyinterg unter bem = unterm 

au^er bem = au^erm in bem = im unter bag = unterg 

bei bem = beim in bag = ing t)on bem t)om 

burd^ bag = burd^g iiber bem = iiberm u bem = gum 

fiir bag = furg iiber ben = iibern gu ber = gur 



CONJUNCTIONS 51 

CONJUNCTIONS 

174. Conjunctions are of two kinds, coordinate and subordinate. 
Coordinate conjunctions connect elements of the same kind or 
rank. Subordinate conjunctions connect elements of unequal rank. 

175. Coordinate conjunctions. Some of the most common pure 
coordinate conjunctions are : 

i. Simple 2. Correlative 

unb, and ebenfo . . . rote, both . . . and 

abet, but nicfet nur . . . fonbern aud), ") 

, \not only . . . but also 
alletn, but, yet md)t auem . . . fonbern aud), J 

fonbern, but foroof)! . . . al$ (or aud)), as well . . . as, both . . . and 
benn,y^ entroeber . . . ober, either . . . or 

ober, or roeber . . . nod), neither . . . nor 

176. The above conjunctions do not affect the position of the 
verb, ntroeber . . . ober, however, may take either the natural 
or the inverted order : Gntroeber er ift nidjt flei^ig ober er ift butnm, 
or gntroeber tft er nid)t fleifcig ober er ift (or tft er) bumm, he is 
either lazy or stupid. 

177. 9l6ct is used after negative as well as affirmative statements. 
It qualifies the preceding statement, but does not contradict it. 

Gr tft begabt, aber faul. 
He is talented, but lazy. 

<5te tft nid)t fyiibfd), aber fie ift gut. 
She is not pretty, but she is good. 

6r lam nidjt, aber er blieb nid)t ofyne tunb u aufe. 
He didrft come, but he had reason for remaining at home. 

178. Sonbent contradicts, and is used only after a negative. 

@r ift nidjt reid), fonbern arm. 
He is not rich, but poor. 

6r fyat ba au3 nidjt gemietet, fonbern er fyat e3 gelauft. 
He did not rent the house, but he bought it. 



52 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

179. Stttctn is used very little. It admits the preceding state- 
ment, but introduces some limitation. 

)te S3lume ift fdjon, allein fie buftet nicfyt. 
The flower is beautiful, but it is not fragrant. 

2)a3 gfeft t)erltef prddjtig, aHetn e3 bauerte gu lange. 
The festivity was a great success, but it lasted too long. 

180. Adverbial coordinate conjunctions generally cause inversion 
(293). Some of the most common are : 

1. Additive. 

audf), also \&vfo\& , furthermore 

auf$erbem, besides bergletdjen, likewise 

bagu, besides wmt\\i\\ , particularly 

ubem, moreover befonberS, especially 

2. Partitive. 

tetl3 . . . teil, partly . . . partly 

eineStetlfo . . . anbernteil^, 1 on the one hand . . . on the 

einerfett3 . . . anberfettg, ] other hand 

3. Adversative or restrictive. 

fytngegen, 1 ilbrigen^, moreover 

bafjingegen, \-on the contrary tro^bem, in spite of that 

bagegen, J inbeffen, meanwhile 

glei<i)tt)0l)l, ^ beffenungead^tet, notwith- 

standing 



groat, 
bod), 



however, never- 

,, , fogar, even 

theless 

fonft, 

anbernfaU^, 



otherwise 



md)t3beftott)emger, nevertheless tneltnefyr, but rather 

4. Ordinal. 



"?'. \fint Jann,/^ 8 Ie|t, | 

erftenS, J ferner, further 



gtt)eiten, second barauf, thereupon balb . . . balb, now 

S, third, etc. . . . now 



CONJUNCTIONS 53 

5. Illative. 

alfo, so bann, then folqlicfo, 1 

, ' , ' 8 ^consequently 

barum, 7 - raeut(D>&fe.ttm fomtt, j 

I therefore, on 

- - 



, 

beshalb, J- 7 nun, ^w, conse- bemnadb,^ .. . 

\thataccount P , \accordingly 

be^roegen, j quently jonadl), ) 



bafyer, hence fo, so 

NOTE. An illative conjunction joins an inference or a conclusion to a 
preceding clause. 

181. Subordinate conjunctions. Subordinate conjunctions con- 
nect dependent with principal clauses. The verb in a dependent 
clause stands at the end. For exceptions see 295-297. 

182. The following list contains only the most important sub- 
ordinate conjunctions : 

al3, as, when nacfybem, after ' ttwtttt, when 

al3 ob, ^asif, jenadjbem, according as roeil, because 
al3tt)enn,J as though ob, whether roenri, if, when 

bet)or, before obgleid),! roenn audj, "1 

big, until obfdbon, \although raenn aleid), \ 

* I /^ */ 
ba, j, ^. VKCO obtool)!, j ruenn fd^on, j 



ii, in order that \t\i, since (of time) rcarum 

^ 

* j , r r , r= > . 

ecje, ^w fobalb al, J rt)te, 



bafe, M^/ fobalb, ^ roeSbalb 

' ' 



, "1 
b/j y 



falls, ^ ^^ M^/ fooft, l n)o, 

I ' ' >as often as 
tnbem, i ,., fooytal,j roofer, whence 

tnbefjen, / roci^renb, while wo^in, whither 

' i . 2Bcmn in direct or indirect questions. 
2 . 3lfe in referring to one occasion in past time. 

TTru f^ n re ^ errm g to the present -and the 

wnen = ^ 

future. 

. - . 

in referring to repeated or customary 

action in the past. 



54 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

* 

184. UBatttt is used only in direct or indirect questions 

2Bann ttrirb ber Slr^t lommen ? 
When will the doctor come ? 

$>d() tt)etf$ ntd)t, nwnn er lommt. 
/ do not know when he will come. 

185. 211$ as a temporal conjunction refers to one occasion in 

3$ roadjte auf, a(3 bie Ufyr fed) fdjlug. 
I awoke when the clock struck six. 

@r roar fdjon fyier, al icf) fam. 
Z^ was here when I came. 

2113 id) i^n fat), bad^te id) an 6te. 
When I saw him I thought of you. 

186. SBetttt as a temporal conjunction refers to the present or 
the future in all circumstances, but to the past only in case of 
customary or repeated action. It cannot be used in a question. 

S)ic Slumen bliifyen, roenn e3 grufyjafyr rairb. 
The flowers bloom when spring comes. 

@r roirb lommen, raenn e gu fpat ift. 
He will come when it is too late. 

$ri lam tmmet, n>enn bie tunbe j($on angefangen ^atte. 
Fred always came when the lesson had begun. 

2Benn idf) ifyn faf), bad)te id^ an ie. 
Whenever I saw him I thought of you. 

INTERJECTIONS 

187. Interjections are used to express sudden emotion, a feeling 
of surprise, or a command. 

188. When an interjection is used in connection with the names 
of the Deity the expression must not be translated literally. This 
would be misinterpreting the meaning of the German phrase. 



A. Form -{ 



VERBS 55 

VERBS 

189. The verb in German bears a strong resemblance to the verb 
in English. It has two voices, the active and the passive ; four 
moods, the indicative, subjunctive, imperative, and conditional ; six 
tenses, the present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, future, and 
future perfect ; three persons, first, second, and third ; two numbers, 
singular and plural ; and two kinds of verbal substantives, the in- 
finitives and participles. 

190. Notice the following outline of the verb as to form and 
meaning : 

' i. weak : loben (224). 

2. strong: frf)lagen (231). 

3. irregular weak: brennen (230). 

f (a) of tense : fyaben, fetn, roerben (221- 

I 223). 

1 (b) of mood : biirfen, Ibnnen, mogen, 
miiffen, foflen, rooHen (267). 

r i. transitive: loben, fdjlaqen (196). 
B. Meaning <( 

I 2. intransitive: fallen, leben. 

191. No verb can be conjugated without the aid of the auxiliary 
verbs of tense, but the auxiliaries themselves may be used independ- 
ently of other verbs. 

192. A verb may be conjugated with the auxiliary verbs of mood 
to express ability, necessity, and the like. 

193. Weak verbs in German correspond to regular verbs in 
English. The imperfect ends in te or ete, the tense sign of weak 
verbs, and the past participle in t or et. The stem vowel never 
changes 

loben, lobte, gelobt, to praise 
reben, rebete, gerebet, to speak 
rubern, ruberte, gerubert, to row 
fycmbeln, fycmbelte, gefyanbelt, to act 



56 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

194. Strong verbs in German correspond to irregular verbs in 
English. In the imperfect the stem vowel changes and there is no 
ending to indicate tense. The past participle ends in en. 

fatten, ftel, gef alien, to fall 
frf)lagen, frf)lug, gefdjlagen, to strike 

195. Irregular weak verbs have the characteristics of both strong 
and weak verbs. They have vowel change and add the tense sign 
ie in the imperfect, as brennen, brannte, gebrannt, to burn. 

196. Only transitive verbs have voice the active and the 
passive (260). In the active voice the subject is acting, in the passive 
voice the subject is acted upon. 

3<$ lobe ben 3Utonn. 
I am praising the man. 

3$ roerbe gelobt. 
I am being praised. 

197. The principal parts of a verb are the present infinitive, the 
first person of the imperfect indicative, and the past participle. It 
is of the greatest importance to learn the .principal parts of every 
verb and how they are applied in the conjugation. Examples : 
loben, lobte, gelobt ; fcfylagen, fd)lug, gefcfylagen. 

198. The present infinitive of most German verbs ends in en. 
Exceptions : fein, iun, and verbs in eln and ern, as fycmbeln, to act, 
and rubern, to row. 

199. The perfect infinitive is composed of the past participle of 
the verb to be conjugated and the present infinitive of its auxiliary 

haben or fein. . , 

gelobt fyaben, to have praised 

gelommen fein, to have come 

200. The stem of a verb. 

1. The present stem is found by dropping the ending en (n after 
el and er) of the infinitive. 

2. The imperfect stem is the second member of the principal parts. 



VERBS 57 

201. The present participle is formed by adding b to the present 
infinitive, as lobenb, jefyenb. Exceptions : feienb and tuenb, whose 
infinitives are respectively feitt and tun. 

202. The gerundive, or future passive participle, in German is 
formed by using u with the present participle. 

3)er gu nerefyrenbe 9Kann. 
The man to be honored. 

ie nie gu t>ergeffenben Xaten. 
The deeds never to be forgotten. 

203. The past participle has the prefix ge. Exceptions : insepa- 
rable verbs, verbs in teren and eien, and the strong participle of 
the modal auxiliaries (248, 275). 

serftefyen, t)erftanb, t>erftanben, to understand 
roiberftefyen, tmberftanb, twberftanben, to withstand, resist 
regteren (12, 3)", regterte, regiert, to rule 
burfen, burfte, geburft or burfen, to be allowed 

204. The first and third persons plural, present indicative and sub- 
junctive, are always like the present infinitive. Exceptions : \ ein (221) 
and tun, which has tuen in the subjunctive. 

205. The stem vowel of the present subjunctive in all German 
verbs is always like that of the present infinitive. 

206. The use of (jadcu as an auxiliary. All transitive verbs and 
most intransitive verbs are conjugated with fyaben. 

207. Verbs conjugated with Ija&etU 

1. All transitive verbs. 

2. All reflexive verbs. 

3. The modal auxiliaries. 

4. Most impersonal verbs. 

5. Durative intransitive verbs. 

NOTE. Durative intransitive verbs express duration without calling atten- 
tion to the beginning or the end of an act. They refer to the whole dura- 
tion of an action even though it take but a second. 



58 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

er Setter fyat ben driller gelobt, the teacher praised the pupil. 

Set Secret fyat fid) gelobt, the teacher praised himself. 

2Ber fyat bag 33ud^ getoollt ? Who wanted the book ? 

@3 fyat geregnet, it rained. 

3$ fyabe gut gefdjlafen, I slept well. 

Sinb fyat geweint, the child has been crying. 

33lume fyat gebliifyt, the flower has bloomed. 
fyat ben gangen Xag gerttten, he rode the whole day. 

$tnb ^at gefd^rten, the child screamed. 
ie 2olomotit)e ^at gepftffen, the engine whistled. 

208. The use of fettt as an auxiliary. Only intransitive verbs are 
conjugated with fein. If, however, they call attention to the duration 
of an act, they are conjugated with fyaben (207, note). 

209. Verbs conjugated with fetru 

1. Verbs which express a change of condition. 

2. Verbs which denote motion to or from a place. 

3. Verbs which denote motion pure and simple without calling 
attention to duration. 

4. Verbs which call attention to the beginning, the end, or the 
result of an action. 

5. The following impersonal verbs: gefdfjefyen, gelingen, gliidten, 
geraten, mifjltngen, mi^gludten, mtftraten, 

6. (5ein, roerben, bleiben. 

3)er -JRann tft geftorben, the man died. 

tft in bag 2)o,rf geritten, Carl rode into the village. 

$tnb tft gef alien, the child fell. 
ift etngefdfjlafen, he went to sleep. 
ift aufgeroadjt, he has waked up. 
ie Slume tft erbliiljt, the flower has blossomed out. 

@d)iff ift gefunfen, the ship has sunk. 
ift gefc^eljen, it has happened. 
ift tnir gelungen, I succeeded. 

bin ba geblieben, I stayed there. 



VERBS 59 

210. Classification of tenses. The tenses may be classified as 
follows : 

1 . Simple : present and imperfect. 

2. Compound : perfect, pluperfect, future, future perfect, present 
conditional, and perfect conditional. 

NOTE. Compound tenses take an auxiliary, simple tenses do not, as id) 
fyabe gelobt, id) roerbe loben; but id) lobe, id) lobte. 

211. Formation of tenses. The perfect indicative is formed by 
adding the past participle to the present indicative of either jew or 
fyaben. 

212. The perfect subjunctive is formed by adding the past par- 
ticiple to the present subjunctive of either fein or fyaben. 

J 213. The pluperfect indicative is formed by adding the past par- 
ticiple to the imperfect indicative of either fein or fyaben. 

214. The pluperfect subjunctive is formed by adding the past 
participle to the imperfect subjunctive of either fein or fyaben. 

215. The future indicative is formed by adding the present in- 
finitive to the present indicative of roerben. 

216. The future subjunctive is formed by adding the present 
infinitive to the present subjunctive of roerben. 

217. The future perfect indicative is formed by adding the per- 
fect infinitive (199) to the present indicative of roerben. 

218. The future perfect subjunctive is formed by adding the 
perfect infinitive to the present subjunctive of roerben. 

219. The present conditional is formed by adding the present 
infinitive to the imperfect subjunctive of roerben. 

220. The perfect conditional is formed by adding the perfect 
infinitive to the imperfect subjunctive of roerben.- 

NOTE. Apply the above remarks to the conjugations which follow. 

(Spricfjroorter. Ubung macfyt ben ^OZetfter. 

28a3 an3d)en nid^t lernt, lernt an3 nimmermefyr. 



6o 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



221. Conjugation of feitt, to be. 

fetn roar 

feienb (201) 

fet feib 



geroefen (197) 
geroefen fetn (199) 
feien 6ie (240) 



INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 
Present 



id) bin 
bu btft 
erift 
roir finb 
ifyr feib 
fie finb 



fet 

feieft 

fet 

feien 

feiet 

feien 



Imperfect 



id) roar 
bu roarft 
er roar 
rotr roaren 
il)r roart ' 
fie roaren 



rodre 

rodreft 

ware 

n>dren 

nwret 

roaren 

INDICATIVE 

icfy roerbe fein 
bu toirft fetn 
er n)irb fein 
Ttnr roerben fein 
il)r roerbet fein 
fie toerben fein 



INDICATIVE 

Perfect 

id) bin geraefen 
bu btft geroefen 
er ift geroefen 
twr finb geraefen 
i^r feib geraefen 
fie finb geroefen 

Pluperfect 

idj roar geroefen 
bu roarft geroefen 
er roar geroefen 
roir roaren geroefen 
t^r roart geroefen- 
fie roaren geroefen 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

fet geroefen 
feieft geroefen 
fei geroefen 
feien geroefen 
fetet geroefen 
feien geroefen 

rodre geroefen 
rodreft geroefen 
rodre geroefen 
roaren geroefen 
rodret geroefen 
roaren geroefen 



Future 



Future Perfect 



id) roerbe geroefen fein 
bu roirft geroefen fein 
er roirb geroefen fein 
rotr roerben geroefen fein 
ifyr roerbet geroefen fetn 
fie roerben geroefen fein 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

roerbe fein 
roerbeft fein 
roerbe fetn 
roerben fein 
roerbet fein 
roerben fein 

roerbe geroefen fein 
roerbeft geroefen fein 
roerbe geroefen fein 
roerben geroefen fetn 
roerbet geroefen fein 
roerben geroefen fetn 



VERBS 



61 



Present 

id) rxwrbe fein 
bu nwrbeft fein 
er tmirbe fein 
twr nwrben fein 
ifyr ttwrbet fein 
fie roiirben fein 



CONDITIONALS 

Perfect 

roiirbe geroefen fein 
ttmrbeft geroefen fein 
ttwrbe geroefen fein 
nwrben geroefen fein 
nnirbet geroefen fein 
nwrben geroefen fein 



222. Conjugation of (jabcn, to have. 

^aben 
^abenb (201) 



INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 



Present 



id) fyabe 
bu |aft 

er fyat 



tyr Ijabt 
fie fyaben 



fyabe 

Ijabeft 

^abe 

Ijaben 

l)abet 

fyaben 



Imperfect 



id^ ^citte 


l)dtte 


bu fjatteft 


fytitteft 


er ^atte 


^dtte 


rt)ir fatten 


fatten 


ifyr ^attet 


^dttet 


fie fatten 


fatten 



INDICATIVE 
id) roerbe i)aben 
bu twrft ^aben 
er rairb l)aben 
nnr raerben ^aben 
i^r raerbet fyaben 
fie raerben {)aben 



geljabt (197) 
gefyabt ^aben (199) 
^aben @ic (240) 



INDICATIVE 



Perfect 



id) ^abe gefyabt 
bu ^aft ge^abt 
er fyat geEjabt 
n)ir ^aben ge^abt 
ifyr J)abt ge^abt 
fie ^aben gefyabt 



Pluperfect 



id) ^atte ge^abt 
bu fyatteft ge^abt 
er ^aite gefyabt 
roir fatten geljabt 
i^r fyattet ge^abt 
fie fatten getjabt 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

fyabe ge^abi 
^abefi ge^abt 
fyabe ge^abt 
^aben ge^abt 
^abet gefyabt 
tjaben ge^abt 

f)dtte ge^abt 
fyatteft ge^abt 
^dtte ge^abt 
fatten gefyabt 
^cittet geljabt 
fatten ge^abt 



Future 



SUBJUNCTIVE 
roerbe ^aben 
raerbeft l)aben 
roerbe ^aben 
raerben Ejaben 
raerbet fyaben 
raerben E)aben 



62 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Future Perfect 

id) roerbe gefyabt fyaben rnerbe gefyabt fyaben 

bu nrirft gefyabt fyaben roerbeft gefyabt fyaben 

er n)irb gefyabt fyaben roerbe gefyabt fyaben 

ttrir roerben gefyabt fyaben roerben gefyabt ^aben 

t^r roerbet ge^abt fyaben raerbet geE)abt l)aben 

fie roerben ge^abt ^aben roerben getjabt fyaben 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 



\ tDurbe ^aben raiirbe gel)abt ^aben 

bu nwrbeft ^aben rourbeft ge^abt fyaben 

er Toiitbe ^aben roiirbe gefyabt ^aben 

rait raiirben ^aben ^ wiitben geljabt ^aben 

iE)t nwrbet ^aben njurbet geE)abt l)aben 

fie roiirben E)aben n>urben ge^abt fyaben 

NOTE. The conditionals are periphrastic forms of the subjunctive, and 

may be used instead of the subjunctive in conditional clauses. 



223. Conjugation of toerben, to become, grow. 

roerben nwrbe (rtwrb) geroorben (197) 

rt)erbenb (201) geroorben fein (199) 

n>erbet roerben @ie (240) 



INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 
Present Perfect 

id) roerbe rcerbe id) bin geraorben fei geraorben 

bu rairft raerbeft bu bifi geroorben feiefi gen)orben 

er roirb raerbe er ift geroorben fei geraorben 

wir rt)erben roerben n)ir finb geraorben feten geroorben 

iFjr rcerbet noerbet iljr feib geroorben feiet geraorben 

fie roerben werben fie finb geworben feien geraorben 



VERBS 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE INDICATIVE 

Imperfect 

id) raurbe (raarb) raiirbe 
bu raurbeft(raarbft) raiirbeft 
er raurbe (raarb) raurbe 
rair raurben raiirben 

ifyr raurbet raiirbet 

fie raurben raurben 



63 

SUBJUNCTIVE 
Pluperfect 

idj raar geraorben ware geraorben 
bu raarft geraorben raareft geraorben 
er raar geraorben raare geraorben 
rair raaren geraorben raaren geraorben 
ifyr raart geraorben raaret geraorben 
fie rcaren geroorben tt)dren geraorben 



INDICATIVE 

id^ roerbe rt)erben 
bu rairft raerben 
cr ttnrb raerben 
tuir raerben roerben 
i^r tt)erbet roerben 
fie roerben raerben 



Future 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

tuerbe roerben 
werbeft roerben 
njerbe raerben 
roerben roerben 
raerbet tDerben 
toerben roerben 



Future Perfect 



id^ roerbe geroorben fein 
bu roirft geroorben fein 
er nrirb geraorben fein 
roir raerben geraorben fein 
i^r roerbet geraorben fein 
fie roerben geroorben fein 



roerbe geraorben fein 
raerbeft geraorben fein 
raerbe geraorben fein 
raerben geraorben fein 
raerbet geraorben fein 
raerben geraorben fein 



CONDITIONALS 



Present 

id) raiirbe raerben 
bu raiirbeft raerben 
er raiirbe raerben 
rair raiirben raerben 
i^r raiirbet raerben 
fie raiirben raerben 



Perfect 

raiirbe geraorben fein 
raiirbeft geraorben fein 
raiirbe geraorben fein 
raiirben geraorben fein 
raiirbet geraorben fein 
raiirben geraorben fein 



6 4 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



224. Weak verbs. Conjugation of lobcn, to praise. 
loben lobte gelobt (197) 



lobenb (201) 
lobe 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 
Present 



lobt 



gelobt fyaben (199) 
loben @ie (240) 



id) lobe 
bu lobft 
er lobt 


lobe 
lobeft 
lobe 


tt)ir loben 


loben 


tyr lobt 
fie loben 


lobet 
loben 


Imperfect 

id) lobte 
bu lobteft 
er lobte 


lobte 
lobteft 
lobte 


tmr lobten 


lobten 


tyr lobtet 
fie lobten 


lobtet 
lobten 



INDICATIVE 

id) roerbe loben 
bu tmrft loben 
er txnrb loben 
n>ir werben loben 
ifyr roerbet loben . 
fie roerben loben 



INDICATIVE 



Perfect 



id) fyabe gelobt 
bu fyaft gelobt 
er fyat gelobt 
n)ir l)aben gelobt 
ifyr ^abt gelobt 
fie fyaben gelobt 



Pluperfect 



id) l)atte gelobt 
bu fyatteft gelobt 
er fyatte gelobt 
n)ir fatten gelobt 
iljr Ijattet gelobt 
fie fatten gelobt 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

fyabe gelobt 
^abeft gelobt 
fyabe gelobt 
Ijaben gelobt 
l)abet gelobt 
^aben gelobt 
t 

fyatte gelobt 
Ijdtteft gelobt 
l)dtte gelobt 
fatten gelobt 
pttet gelobt 
fatten gelobt 



Future 



Future Perfect 



id) n>erbe gelobt ^aben 
bu roirft gelobt ^aben 
er wirb gelobt fyaben 
roir raetben gelobt fyaben 
il)r n>erbet gelobt ^aben 
fie roerben gelobt l)aben 



SUBJUNCTIVE 

roerbe loben 
roerbeft loben 
werbe loben 
roerben loben 
roerbet loben 
roerben loben 

rx)erbe gelobt Ijaben 
roerbeft gelobt ^aben 
n)erbe gelobt Ijaben 
werben gelobt ^aben 
raerbet gelobt l)aben 
n>erben gelobt l)aben 



VERBS 65 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

idj ttwrbe loben nwrbe gelobt fyaben 

bu nwrbeft loben ttmrbeft gelobt fyaben 

er nwrbe loben ttwrbe gelobt fyaben 

tt)ir roiirben loben nwrben gelobt fyaben 

ifyr nwrbet loben nwrbet gelobt fyaben 

fie nwrben loben roiirben gelobt fyaben 

225. Table of endings for both weak and strong verbs. 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present Imperfect 

1. I. 

2. ft 2. ft 

3- 3- 

1. tt i. it 

2. i 2. t 

3- H 3- tt 

226. Weak verbs in eltt or em drop e before I and r when an 
ending is added which begins with e. Notice the following forms 
of fycmbeln, to act, and rubern, to row : 

fycmbeln ^anbelte gefyanbelt rubern ruberte gerubert 

fyanbelnb gefyanbelt fyaben rubernb gerubert Ijaben 

fyanble Ejanbelt ^anbeln @ie rubre rubert rubern <Sie 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present Present 

id) fyanble Ejanble id^ rubre rubre 

bu fyanbelft ^anbleft bu ruberft rubreft 

er Ejanbelt ^anble er rubert rubre 

tmr l)anbeln ^anblen nrir rubern rubren 

il)r ^anbelt fyanblet il)r rubert rubret 

fie fyanbeln l)anblen fie rubern rubren 



I. 


e 


i. 


e 


2. 


ft 


2. 


eft 


3- 


t 


3- 


e 


i. 


en 


i. 


en 


2. 


t 


2. 


et 


3- 


en 


3- 


en 



66 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

227. Connective C in weak verbs. Weak verbs which have the 
connecting vowel e before the regular endings ft, t, and te are those 
whose stem ends : 

1. In a dental b or t, as reben and beten. 

2. In a single m or n (except lernen and roarnen), as atmen and 
tegnen ; but llemmfl, fount, etc., with double m or n. 

228. Weak verbs with sibilant stems. Weak verbs whose stems 
end in the sibilants f, fp, fj, f;, fd), , and 3 generally add t instead 
of eft in the present indicative second singular, and they always 
omit the connecting vowel before t and te. 

229. Examples of verbs having connective e and of verbs with 
sibilant stems : reben, to speak ; atmen, to breathe ; rafen, to rave ; 
griiften, to greet-, ttwnfdfyen, to wish ; reigen, to excite, charm. 

reben rebete gerebet rafen rafte geraft 

atmen atmete geatmet grii^en gruftte gegrufst 

txwnfdfyen nwnfd)te gettmnfd)t 

rei^en reite gereigt 
PRESENT INDICATIVE 

id) rebe atme rafe grille nwnfcfye rei^e 

bu rebeft atmeft raf(ef)t gtu^(ef)t n)Unfd)(e)ft rcij(cf)t 

er rebet atmet raft grii^t raunjc^t reijt 

n)ir reben atmen rafen grii^en n>unfc^en rei^en 

ifyr rebet atmet raft grii^t roiinfdjt rei^t 

fie reben atmen rafen gruften n)iinfd^en ret^en 

2lKer Slnfang ift fd^roer. 

SBer 21 fagt, muf$ aud^ S3 fagen. 

^etne 5Kofen ol)ne 2)ornen. 

(Snbe gut, aEe gut. 

9Benn bie 9Jot am gro^ten, ift otte tlfe am nad^ften. 

SRorgenftunbe fyat olb im SKunbe. 

Gin gute eroiflen ift ein fanfte SRufyefifjen. 

SKu^iggang ift aEer Safter 3lnfang. 

2Ber ben pfennig nid^t efyrt, ift be Balers nid^t roert. 



VERBS 



6 7 



230. Irregular weak verbs. Irregular weak verbs have in the 
imperfect stem and the perfect participle the characteristics of both 

strong and weak verbs. They are : 

IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 

brennen brannte gebrannt brennte 

brtngen bracfyte gebrad)t bradfjte 

benlen bad)te gebadfyt bad)te 

biinlen beudfjte gebeud)t beucfyte 

lennen lannte gefannt fennte 

nennen nannte genannt nennte 

rennen rannte gerannt rennte 

fenben fanbte gefanbt fenbete 

roenben roanbte geroanbt roenbete 

NOTE. 2)iinfett, fenben, and roenben are often regularly weak* 

231. Strong verbs. Conjugation of fdjlagctt, to strike, hit. 



frf)lagen 



201) 



(197) 

gefcfylagen l)aben (199) 
fd)Iagen <Ste (240) 



INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 
Present 



INDICATIVE 



SUBJUNCTIVE 



Perfect 



i<* 

bu fd)ldgft fdjlageft 

er fd)lagt fdjlage 

nut fcfylagen fd)lagen 

tfyr fdjlagt fdjlaget 

fie fd)lagen fdjlagen 

Imperfect 



td^ l)abe gefd^lagen 
bu fyaft gefd)lagen 
er l)at gefcfylagen 
n>ir l)aben gefd^lagen 
t^r fyabt gefd^lagen 
fie l)aben gefd^lagen 



fyabe gefd^lagen 
^abeft gefd^lagen 
l)abe gefdjlagen 
l)aben gefd^lagen 
^abet gefdjlagen 
l)aben gefdjlagen 



Pluperfect 



bu fd^lugft fd^liigeft 

er fd)lug fd)liige 

tt)ir fd^lugen fdf)liigen 

tE)t fd^lugt fd^liiget 

fie fd^lugen fd)liigen 



td^ Ijatte gefdjlagen 
bu l)atteft gefdjlagen 
er ^atte gefdjlagen 
nnr fatten gefdjlagen 
il)t fyattet gefdjlagen . 
fie fatten gefdjlagen 



^atte gefdjlagen 



fyatte gef^Iagen 
fatten gefdjlagen 
fyattet gefdjlagen 
fatten gefdjlagen 



68 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Future 

idj roerbe fdjlagen n>erbe fdjlagen 

bu roirft fd)lagen roerbeft fd)lagen 

er rwrb fcfylagen roerbe fdjlagen 

twr roerben fdjlagen roerben fdjlagen 

ifyr tuerbet fcfylagen roerbet fdjlagen 

fie roerben jd)lagen raerben fc^lagen 

Future Perfect 

id) tDerbe gefd)Iagen ^aben n>erbe gefdfylagen 

bu rairft gefd^lagen fyaben raerbeft gefc^Iagen 

er twrb gefdt)lagen ^aben tuerbe gefd^Iagen fyaben 

tt)ir raerben gefd)Iagen ^aben roerben gefd^lagen ^aben 

t^r raerbet gefcfylagen fjaben n>erbet gef($lagen ^aben 

fie roerben gefd^lagen ^aben raerben gefd)lagen ^aben 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

. idj roiirbe fd^lagen i($ raiirbe gefd^lagen ^aben 

bu iDiirbeft fd)lagen bu wurbeft gefd^Iagen ^abe 

er ttwrbe fd)Iagen er tourbe gefcfylagen ^aben 

tt)ir tDiirben fd)lagen txrir wiirben gefd^lagen 

il)r txwrbet fd^lagen il)r n>urbet gefd^lagen fyaben 

fie raiirben fd^lagen fie ttwrben gefdjlagen l)aben 

232. The present indicative of strong verbs. Examples of the 
present indicative of strong verbs : fcfylagen, to strike, hit ; fpred)en, 
to speak ; fefyen, to see ; gefyett, to go. 



id) fdjlage 


id) fpred^e 


i($ fefye 


id^ ge^e 


bu fd)lagft 


bu fpridjft 


bu flc^p 


bu geljft 


er fd)lagt 


er fprid^t 


er fieE)t 


er gefyt 


roir fd^lagen 


wir fpred^en 


rair fe^en 


wir gel)en 


i^r fc^Iagt 


ifyr fpred^t 


i^r fe^t 


fy gefjt 


fie fdjlagen 


fie fpred^en 


fie fefyen 


fie ge^en 



VERBS 69 

233. Strong verbs whose stem vowel is a have vowel mutation 
in the second and third persons singular present indicative. Also 
Icwfen, faufen, and ftojjen. Exceptions : fd)affen and flatten. 

234. Strong verbs whose stem vowel is short e have short i in 
the second and third persons singular present indicative and in the 
bu form of the imperative. Three verbs whose stem vowel is long 
e also belong to this class. They are : geben, nefymen, and treten. 

NOTE. The stem vowel e of strong verbs is short when it is followed by 
two consonants, provided the first of the two is not fy; see also 6 and 7, 2. 
Examples: effen, fyelfen, treffen. 

235. Seven strong verbs whose stem vowel is long e have ie in 
the second and third persons singular present indicative and in the 
bu form of the imperative. They are: befefylen, empfefylen, gefcfyefyen, 
lefen, fcfyeren, fefyen, and ftefylen. 

236. Seven strong verbs whose stem vowel is long e have no 
vowel change. They are : beroegen, gefjen, genefen, fyeben, pflegen, 
ftefyen, and roeben. 

237. Strong verbs whose stems end in b or t take the connecting 
vowel e before the endings ft and t. They are : binben, finben, lei= 
ben, meiben, frfjeiben, fd^inben, fcfynetben, fcfytDtnben, fteben, ttrinben, 
biekn, bitten, gleiten, reiten, fcfyreiten, and ftretten. The follo\ving 
use e before t only in the second plural of the present and imperfect 
and in the second plural imperative ; they omit it before ft in the 
present, but may have it in the imperfect : 

1. laben, braten, fyalten, raten. 

2. treten. 

3. berften, fed)ten, fledjten, gelten, fd^elten. 

NOTE. The verbs under 3, and all but laben under i, omit the tense 
sign t in the third person present indicative, as e3 gilt, er fycilt. 

238. Strong verbs with stems ending in a sibilant, , ff, fj, fdj, , 
and g, often omit the connecting vowel e, and the endings eft and et 
then become t. The third singular present indicative never takes 
the connecting vowel. Notice the following examples : 



70 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

PRESENT INDICATIVE 

tdj effe id) fyetfte id) ft^e 

bu ifet (iffcft) bu l)eifct (l)eifjeft) bu fifct (ftfceft) 

er tftt er fyeijst er fi|t 

tt)ir effen nut fyeiften rair fi^en 

iljr efjt (effet) tyr Ijeifct O&etfeet) tyr ftfct (ftfcet) 

fie efjen fie fyeiften fie fi^en 

239. List of strong verbs whose stem ends in a sibilant : 

1. genefen, fiefen, lefen, preifen. 

2. efjen, frefjen, mefjen. 

3. fid) befleif$en, bei^en, flie^en, geniefcen, gie^en, glei^en, ^ei^en, 
rei^en, fd^ie^en, fd)Iei^en, fdjmei^en, fprie^en, fto^en, Derbrieften. 

4. brefd^en, lreifd)en, lofd^en. 

5. ft^en, fd^melgen. 

240. The imperative of strong verbs. Examples : 

fd)lag(e) fd)lagt fd^Iagen @ie 

fprid) fpred)t fprec^en ie 

Iie left lefen @ie 

gc^(c) ge^t gefjen @ie 

241. The bu form of the imperative of strong verbs often omits 
the ending e. It is always omitted in those verbs which change e 
to t or ie, except in fefyen, which has both fiefy and fiefye. 

242. The pronoun @tc, in imperative forms, is always expressed, 
but bu and tfyr are expressed only in case of emphasis. 

243. The ifyr form is always like the second plural present in- 
dicative. For the vowel in the bu form see 234-236. 

244. Vowel mutation in the imperative of strong verbs occurs 
only in those verbs whose stem vowel is mutated in the infinitive. 

245. The imperfect subjunctive of strong verbs is formed on the 
imperfect stem by mutating the stem vowel (a, o, u) and adding e. 

246. Separable verbs. A separable verb is composed of a verb 
and a separable prefix. The prefix of a separable verb always bears 
the accent. For the order see 304. 



VERBS 71 

247. Conjugation of nnfftcfjcu, to stand up. 

aufftefyen fianb . . . auf aufgeftanben 

aufftefyenb aufgeftanben fein 

ftefye auf ftefyt auf ftefyen @te auf 

INDICATIVE 
Present Imperfect 

id) ftefye auf id) ftanb auf 

bu ftefyft auf bu ftanbeft auf 

er ftefyt auf er ftanb auf 

roir ftefjen auf roir fianben auf 

tfyr fte^t auf il)r ftanbet auf 

fie ftefyen auf fie ftanben auf 

Perfect Future 

id^ bin aufgeftanben id^ n>erbe auffte^en 

Pluperfect Future Perfect 

idl) war aufgeftanben i($ raerbe aufgeftanben fein 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

id) raiirbe aufftefyen id^ roiirbe aufgeftanben fein 

248. Inseparable verbs. An inseparable verb is composed of a 
verb and an inseparable prefix (203, 250). 

249. Conjugation of fcetfteljett, to understand. 

flerftefyen Derfianb t)erftanben 

t)erftefyenb uerftanben !>aben 

en @ic 



INDICATIVE 
Present Imperfect Perfect 

idf) uerftelje id^ t>erftanb id^ l)abe t)erftanben 

bu t>erftel)ft bu t)erftanbeft Pluperfect 

er t)crfte^t er uerftanb id^ ^atte t)erftanben 

rait Dcrflc^en rair t)erftanben Future 

ifyr t)erfie^t i^r werftanbet id) raerbe 

fie t)erftel)en fie t)erftanben etc. 



72 HANDBOOK OF ^GERMAN GRAMMAR 

250. Prefixes. The inseparable prefixes are be, ge, ent (etnp be- 
fore f), er, t)er, ger, and nriber. 

251. The separable prefixes are generally prepositions, adverbs, 
adjectives, or nouns. They usually retain their regular meaning. 
Examples: aufftefyen, fortgefjen, loglaffen, fyauSfyalten. 

252. The prefixes which may be either separable or inseparable 
are the prepositions burd), iiber, urn, imter, and the adverb ttneber. 
When separable the prefix bears the accent, when it is inseparable 
the verb is accented. 

253. Reflexive verbs. A reflexive verb is one whose subject is 
both the doer and the recipient of an action. 

254. The reflexive pronoun is the accusative of the correspond- 
ing subject form, except in the third person, where it is [id). A few 
reflexive verbs govern the dative and a still smaller number the 
genitive, as : id) fd)metd)le mir, bu fd)meid)elft bit, er fdf)meid)elt fid), 
and idj fpotte meiner, bu fpotteft beiner, er fpottet feiner. 

255. In the simple tenses the reflexive pronoun follows the verb, 
in the compound tenses it follows the auxiliary. 

256. Any German verb may.be reflexive if the sense permits. 

257. Reflexive verbs do not have a passive voice. 

258. Conjugation of fid) fdjlngen, to strike one's self. 

fid) fd)lagen fd)lug fid) (fid)) gejd)lagen 

fidj fd)lagenb fidj gefd)lagen fyaben 

fdjlage bid) f#)tagt eud) fd)lagen ie fid) 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present 

id) fd)lage mid) id) fdjlage midj 

bu fdjltigft bid) bu fd)lageft bid) 

er fd)ldgi fid) er fd)lage fid) 

nrir fd^Iagen un tt)ir f($Iagen unS 

i^r fdjlagt eud^ i^r fdjlaget eud^ 

fie fcfylagen fid^ fie fdjlagen fid() 



VERBS 73 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Imperfect 

id() fcfylug mid) . id) fd)luge mid(j 
bu fd)lugft bidl) bu fdljlugeft bid) 

er fdjjlug fief) er fdjliige fidf) 

tDtr fcfylugen un3 nrir fd)liigen un3 

ifyr fdjlugt eudfj tf)t fd^Iiiget eudfj 

fie fd^Iugen ftd^ fie fcfyliigen fic^ 

Perfect 

id^ ^abe midf) gefd^lagen id^ Ijabe mid^ gefdfjlagen 

bu l)aft bid^ gefcf)lagen bu fyabeft bid^) gefd^lagen 

er fyat fid^ gefd^Iagen er l)abe fidf) gefd^Iagen 

tt)ir ^aben un gefdfylagen roir ^aben ung gefd)Iagen 

ifjr Ijabt eud^ gefdjlagen t^r fyabet eud^ gefd^Iagen 

fie l)aben fidf) gefc^lagen fie E)aben fid^ gefcfylagen 

Pluperfect 

id^ l)atte mid^ gefcfylagen id^ ^dtte mid^ gefc^Iagen 

Future 

id) raerbe mid^ fd^Iagen id) raerbe mi($ fd)Iagen 

Future Perfect 

itf) roerbe mid^ gefd)Iagen fyaben id^ raerbe mid^ gefd^lagen fyaben 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

id^ nwrbe mid^ fd)Iagen id^ tt)Urbe mid) gefd^Iagen ^aben 

259. Separable reflexive verbs. Reflexive verbs may take a sep- 
arable or an inseparable prefix (250, 251). The conjugation of fidf) 
umfefyen, to look around, is as follows: 

fid) umfefyen fafy fid) um (fid)) umgefefyen 

fid) umfefyenb fid) umgefefjen fyaben 

fiel) bid um fefyt eud^ um fe{)en 6ie fid^ um 



74 ' HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present 

itf) fefye mid) urn id) fefye mid) um 

bu fiefyft bid() um bu fefyeft bid() um 

er fiefyt fid) um er fefye fid) um 

nrir. fefyen un3 um tt)ir fefyen un3 um 

ifyr fefyt eudjj um tfyr fefyet eudfj um 

fie fefyen fid^ um fie feEjen fid) um 

Imperfect 

idj fal) mid) um id) fd^e mid^ um 

Perfect 

idl) ^abe midf) umgefefyen id^ ^abe mid) umgefe^en 

Pluperfect 

id() E)atte mi($ umgefe^en id(j E)dtte midf) umgefe^en 

Future 

id() werbe mid^ umfeE)en i($ roerbe mid^ umfe^en 

Futtire Perfect 

id(j roerbe mid^ umgeje^en ^aben idjj roerbe mid^ umgefe^en E)aben 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

idi) roiirbe mid) umfefyen idf)rDurbemid^umgefe^en^aben 

260. The passive voice. The German verb forms its passive 
voice either with fein or with roerben (196). The passive with roerbett 
may be called the actional passive, and the passive with fein the 
perfective passive. 

261. The actional passive denotes action in progress. It is 
formed by combining the past participle of a transitive verb with 
the conjugation of the auxiliary verb roerben. Notice the position 
of this participle in the conjugation (264). 

262. The past participle geroorben drops the prefix ge when pre- 
ceded by a past participle. Notice the compound tenses in the 
conjugation (264). 



VERBS 75 

263. The perfective passive denotes completed action. It is 
formed by combining the past participle of a transitive verb with 
the conjugation of the auxiliary verb fein. Observe carefully the 
following illustrative sentences showing the difference between the 
actional and the perfective passive : 

au3 rotrb gebaut, the house is being built. 
au3 ift gebaut, the house is built. 
SDte ur rotrb gefcfyloffen, the door is being dosed. 
2)te iir ift gefdfjloffen, the door is dosed. 

264. Conjugation of the actional passive. Example: lobw, to praise. 

gelobt roerben ttwrbe gelobt gelobt roorben 

gelobt roerbenb gelobt tuorben fein 

fei gelobt feib gelobt feien ie gelobt 

NOTE. The passive imperative is formed with jein instead of roerbett. 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present 

id) roerbe gelobt idj roerbe gelobt 

bu n)it[t gelobt bu roerbeft gelobt 

er tDtrb gelobt er roerbe gelobt 

tt)ir roerben gelobt tt)ir roerben gelobt 

ifyr roerbet gelobt t^r raerbet gelobt 

fie roerben gelobt fie roerben gelobt 

NOTE. 3^ tt)erbe gelobt means I am being praised (263, sentences). 
Imperfect 

idj ttwrbe gelobt idj raiirbe gelobt 

Perfect 

id^ bin gelobt roorben id^ jet gelobt roorben 

Pluperfect 

i<^ roar gelobt raorben id^ radre gelobt roorben 

Future 

id^ tt)erbe gelobt trjerben id^ rcerbe gelobt roerben 

Future Perfect 

tdfj roerbe gelobt roorben jein td^ roerbe gelobt roorben fein 



76 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

CONDITIONALS 
Present Perfect 

id) roiirbe gelobt roerben id) roiirbe gelobt roorben fein 

265. Conjugation of the perfective passive. Example: tetten, 
to save. 

gerettet fein roar gerettet gerettet geroefen 

gerettet feienb gerettet geroefen fein 

fei gerettet feib gerettet feten @ie gerettet 

INDICATIVE SUBJUNCTIVE 

Present 

id) bin gerettet id) fei gerettet 

bu bift gerettet bu feieft gerettet 

er ift gerettet er fei gerettet 

roir finb gerettet roir feten gerettet 

ifyr feib gerettet ifyr feiet gerettet 

fie finb gerettet fie feien gerettet 

NOTE. 3d) bin gerettet means I am saved (263, sentences). 
Imperfect 

id) roar gerettet id) roare gerettet 

Perfect 

id? bin gerettet geroefen id) fei gerettet geroefen 

Pluperfect 

id) roar gerettet geroefen id^ roare gerettet geroefen 

Future 

id^ roerbe gerettet fein id^ roerbe gerettet fein 

Future Perfect 

i$ roerbe gerettet geroefen fein id) roerbe gerettet geroefen fein 

CONDITIONALS 

Present Perfect 

id) roiirbe gerettet fein id) roiirbe gerettet geroefen fein 



VERBS 77 

266. Substitutes for the passive. The passive voice occurs less 
frequently in German than in English. Some of the most common 
substitutes are : 

1. 9Kan, as subject of an active verb. 

9Kcm fagt, ba er lugt. 
It is said that he lies. 

3Jtan baut aufer au3 ol unb (Stein. 
People build houses of wood and stone, or 
Houses are built of wood and stone. 

2. A reflexive verb (especially when the agent is not important), 
whose subject may be the agent of the action or the agent may be 
implied in the whole sentence. 

3)er <5d)liiffel txnrb fid) finben. 
The key will be found. 

5Da 3j)t bffnete fid) bent Sieger. 
The gate was opened to the victor. 

3. Saffen with a reflexive verb. 

)a3 iaf$t fid) Ieid)t fagen. 
That is easily said. 

@r f)at fid) nidjt iiberreben laffen. 

He did not allow himself to be persuaded. 

267. The modal auxiliaries. The modal auxiliaries are : 

IMPERFECT SUBJ. 

biirfen burfte geburft to be permitted biirfte 

Ibnnen lonnte gelonnt to be able (can) lonnte 

ntogen ntod^te gemoc^t to like (may) mbdjte 

muffen ntu^te gentu^t to be compelled (must} mii^te 

foEen foHte gefoHt to be obliged (shall) f cute 

rooEen raollte geraoEt to be willing (will) rooftte 

NOTE. These six verbs and the verb ttriffen are often called preterit- 
present verbs, since their present tense has the form of the imperfect of 
strong verbs (273). 



78 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

268. 280 Hen is the only modal auxiliary which has imperative 
forms : rooUe, roodt, rrjoHen 6te. 

269. Sonnen sometimes means to know. $onnen @ie 2)eutfcf)? 
Do you know German ? 

270. often sometimes means to be said: @r foft reidj fein, he is 
said to be rich. 

271. The present indicative of the modal auxiliaries and roiffen. 

id) barf farm mag mu foil roift trjeif; 

bit barffi fannft magft muftf foftft rrjiftft roeifct 

er barf farm mag muj$ foft roill roeift 

rmr burfen fonnen mogen miiffen foHen rrjoHen rrjiffen 

i^r biirft fonnt mogt miifet foflt rooUt roiffet (rrji^t) 

fie biirfen fonnen mogen miiffen foHen rooCien nriffen 

NOTE. The principal parts of rotflen are rotffen, WU^te, geroufjt, and the 
imperfect subjunctive is roiijjte. 

272. The vowel in the singular of the present indicative, except 
in foUen, is different from that of the plural, and the tense sign 1 
is omitted in the third person singular (267, note). The remaining 
tenses are formed regularly. 

273. The modal auxiliaries were originally strong verbs, whose 
imperfect assumed a present meaning, and in its place a new weak 
imperfect was formed. 

274. Infinitives depending on the modal auxiliaries omit the 
preposition u. Infinitives depending on fufylen, fybren, lafjen, and 
fefyen always, and on bleiben, fyet^en, fyelfen, lefyren, and lernen often 
take the same construction. The verb fpagieren also omits gu when 
it depends on gefyen, fasten, and tetten. 

@r ttritt fommen, he wants to come. 
28ir fonnen Sfynen fyelfen, we can help you. 
$d) fybre jemanb tufen, I hear some one calling. 
$cf) gefje fpagieren, I am taking a walk. 



VERBS 79 

275. The past participle of the modal auxiliaries occurs in its 
old form, that is, without the prefix ge and with the ending en, if it 
is preceded by an infinitive (203). eif$en, fyelfen, laffen, fefyen, and 
sometimes fyoren, lefyren and lernen, take the same form of participle 
when an infinitive precedes. 

(Sr fyatte bag 33udj gerooflt, he had wanted the book. 

Gr fyatte bag 33ud) fefyen rooKen, he had wanted to see the book. 

3$ roerbe eg gerooEt fyaben, I shall have wanted to do it. 

$dj roerbe eg fyaben tun rooHen (277), I shall have wanted to do it. 

Qdj fyabe i^n tufen fyoren, I heard him calling. 

$<$) ^abe fie tangen fel)en, I saw her dance. 

u ^atteft ba bleiben follen, you should have remained there. 

276. Saffen and fetn, and sometimes bleiben, fyeifcett, ^oren, fe^en, 
and fiefjen, are followed by an active infinitive with passive meaning. 

@r Itifct ein aug bauen: 
He is having a house built. 

@3 ift nid)tg gu fefyen. 
There is nothing to be seen. 

2Ba ift gu tun ? 
What is to be done ? 

277. A modal auxiliary may take an infinitive as complement. 
Such an infinitive immediately precedes the modal auxiliary in the 
compound tenses. In the future perfect fyaben is removed from its 
position at the end and is placed before the complementary infini- 
tive : id) roerbe gefonnt fjctben. but id) roerbe fyaben fdjlagen fonnen. 
Notice the following synopsis in the indicative : 

id) lann fdjlagen 

id) lonnte fdjlagen 

id^ E)abe fd)lagen fonnen 

id) Ejatte fd^lagen fbnnen 

id^ roerbe fd^Iagen lonnen 

id^ raerbe fyaben fd)(agen lonnen 



80 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

278. The forms id) farm gefdjlagen fyaben (/ may have struck) 
and id) lonnte gefdjlagen fyaben (I might have struck) date from an 
earlier period of the language, when the modal auxiliaries did not 
yet have a past participle, and, instead of using the perfect and 
pluperfect tenses of the modal auxiliary with a dependent present 
infinitive (277), it was necessary to add a perfect infinitive to the 
present and imperfect of the modal auxiliary. Compare the Eng- 
lish translation of these expressions. 

279. Impersonal verbs. The impersonal form of verbs occurs : 

1 . In expressions denoting the phenomena of nature. 

@ fd&neit. @3 blifct. @3 ift warm. 

@ regnet. @3 fyagelt. @3 ift fdjnwl. 

@S borinert. @3 friert. @3 ift fityl. 

2. In expressions denoting states of body or of mind. 

@3 friert mid). 
@3 fdjnrinbelt mir. 

3. In expressions of time. 

@ ift jroolf U^r. 

4. In certain idioms. 

@3 tut mir leib. 
@3 gel)t mir gut. 
@3 fe^lt mir etnwS. 

5. In phrases with geben and fetn, as e gibt, e ift. 

6^ gibt bie3 3 a ^ l Dbft, there is much fruit this year. 

@3 ift Dbft in bem Sorbe, there is fruit in the basket. 

@3 gibt aHerlei Seute in ber 2BeIt, there are all kinds of people in the 

world. 
63 finb gnwngig <5tubenten in biefem 3t8*ttt$*/ there are twenty 

students in this room. 

NOTE. The impersonal form of geben is used in broad general state- 
ments, while that of'fein is used in speaking of specific persons and things. 



VERBS 8 I 

280. The subjunctive. The indicative in general may be regarded 
as the mood of the actual, the subjunctive as the mood of the ideal 
and unreal. The indicative deals with facts, .the subjunctive with 
what is desirable, possible, probable, or represented as a matter of 
hearsay. The use of the subjunctive, therefore, depends upon the 
question of reality or unreality. It occurs in direct and indirect 
discourse, and in both principal and dependent clauses, but its use 
in dependent clauses is rare except in indirect discourse. 

NOTE. The subjunctive may occur in noun, adjective, and adverbial 
clauses. 

281. The present and imperfect subjunctive are alike in tem- 
poral meaning, both denoting present or future time, except in 
indirect discourse, where they are used in place of the present only 
(never the future) of direct discourse (288). A statement in the 
present subjunctive, however, is felt as more probable than one in 
the imperfect. The pluperfect always denotes past time. 

The rule, therefore, for tense in the subjunctive, except in in- 
direct discourse, is : 

1 . Present or future time is expressed by either the present or 
the imperfect. 

2. Past time by the pluperfect. 

282. The hortatory subjunctive supplies missing imperative 
forms. 

efye er nad) aufe. 
Let him go home. 

ingen tmr ein Sieb. 
Let us sing a song. 

@bel fei bet 9ftenfrf). 
Let man be noble. 

283. The optative subjunctive is used in wishes. The words 
bod) and nut are frequently used with the verb. Periphrastic forms 
with mogen, lonnen, and rootten are usually possible. Notice the 
following subdivisions : 



82 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

1. The more probable optative (present). 

ein 3Retrf) lomme ! 
May thy kingdom come ! 

Sang lebe bet $onig ! 
Long live the king ! 

SKoge er balb lomtnen ! 
May he soon come ! 

2. The less probable optative (imperfect). 

Same er bod) fyeute, morgen, narfjfte 2Bod(je, etc.! 

Would that he would come to-day, to-morrow, next week, etc. ! 

turbe er borf) ! 

O that he would die ! 

A wish may be impossible of realization. 

Sebte er borf) norf) ! 

Would that he were still alive ! 

3. The optative subjunctive in past time (pluperfect). 

ZBtire er nur geftern gefommen ! 
O that he had come yesterday ! 

284. The concessive subjunctive occurs in principal and depend- 
ent clauses. The concession made in the dependent clause in no 
way affects the assertion of the principal clause. Periphrastic forms 
with mogen or lonnen are often used. 

i. The more probable concessive subjunctive (present). 

@3 fet fo, rote bu gefagt fyaft. 
Let it be as you have said. 

ei ber Serg aurf) norf) fo fyorf),, id) befteige tfyn (297). 
IRbge ber Serg aud^ norf) fo l)od^ fein, td^ befteige ifyn. 
Let the mountain be ever so high, I shall ascend it. 

NOTE. Even the indicative is possible here : 3ft ber 23erg CMCf) nod) fo 
tyorf), ic^ befteige i^n, or 3Jtag ber Serj auc^ nodi) fo fjorf) fein, id^ befteige ifjn. 



VERBS 83 

2. The less probable concessive subjunctive (imperfect). 
SBdre ber 33erg and) nod) fo fyod), id) beftetge tfyn. 
2Jtbd()te ber 33erg audi) nodi) fo fyodf) fetn, id) befteige ifyn. 
Were the mountain ever so high, I shall ascend it. 

285. The potential subjunctive denotes possibility, and is closely 
related to the subjunctive of unreality. Periphrastic forms with 
mbgen, fbnnen, foflen, and bitrfen are often used. 

1 . In doubting inquiries and exclamations. 

2Bare eg n)of)l mbglidf) ? Would it perhaps be possible? 
$bnnte eg roofyl tnbglid) fetn ? Could it be possible? 
2Ber txwj$te bag nid)t ! Who wouldn't know that ! 

2. In modest assertions. 

rotire raohl moqlidb,^ J 

. .. c r , P . } ^^ miM/ be possible. 

burfte roofyl fetn, J 

te biirften fid) getrrt fyaben, ^ w^y ^^^ tow mistaken. 

@3 Ite^e ftd^ nod^ tneleS bariiber fagen, w^r// w/^/ still be said in 

regard to that. 
$d) bad)te, bag nwfjte bod^ ein jeber, I should think everybody would 

know that. 

3. In unreal conditions. 

The potential subjunctive in unreal conditions has two tenses 
the imperfect, which denotes present time, and the pluperfect, 
which denotes past time. In the principal clause (the conclusion) 
the present and perfect conditionals may be used instead of the 
imperfect and pluperfect. This is also possible in the subordinate 
clause (the condition), but it occurs much less frequently. 

SBenn id) 3ett ptte, fo fdjrtebe td^ ttytn etnen 33rtef, or fo nwrbe tdj 

i^m etnen 93rtef fd^retben, 
If I had time, I should write him a letter. 

2Benn id& 3tt ge^abt l)dtte, fo ^atte i^ t^m einen Srtef gefc^rteben, 

or fo roiitbe tdfj i{)m etnen 93rtef gefd^rteben fyaben. 
If I had had time, I should have written him a letter. 



84 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

Occasionally the imperfect indicative occurs in either clause of 
unreal conditions, thus making the statement more real. 

JRit biefem groeiten $feil burd()fd)of$ idj @ud), roenn id) mein liebeg 

$inb getroffen fettle. 
With this second arrow I should have pierced your body if I had hit 

my child. 

4. In clauses after al3 ob and al3 roenn. If ob or roenn is 
omitted, the clause has inverted order. 

6r fiefyt au3, al3 ob (al roenn) er Iranf rodre. 
@r fiefyt au3, al3 nwre er fran!. 
He looks as if he were sick. 

5. In clauses after a question or a negative. 

The subjunctive is used in a subordinate clause after a question, a 
comparative, the adverb gu plus an adjective or adverb, a negative, 
a negative conjunction (bafc nicfyt, ofyne ba, al bajs), or a negative 
relative (bet ntd^t, roelcfyer ni($t). If, however, the statements are 
regarded as facts, the indicative must be used. 

(a) More probable (present). 

2B.O tft bet Sefyerjte, bet taud^e in biefe Siefe nieber ? Where is the 
courageous man who wotild dare to dive down into these depths ? 

9Jid)t3 ift, bag bte eraaltigen l)emme, there is nothing that would 
deter the mighty. 

$3) nwnfdje mdjt3 33effere3, al ba^ e Q^nen rootyl ge^e, I wish noth- 
ing better than that you may fare well. 

Reiner ifi, ber no$ aufred^t ftefye, a(g id^ gang aEein, there is no one 
still standing erect save me alone. 

(fr) Less probable (imperfect and pluperfect). 

2Bo ift ein Serg im gangen Sanb, ben er nicfyt beftiege ? Where is there 
a mountain in the whole country which he would not ascend ? 

3$re 33erfbf)nung ift u plo^lid^, al^ ba^ fie bauerfyaft fein fonnte, 
your reconciliation is too sudden to be able to last. 



VERBS -85 

2Bo tfi ein 33erg im ganen Sanb, ben er nidjt beftiegen fycitte ? Where 
is there a mountain in the whole country which he has not climbed? 

3$re SSerfbfynung roar 511 plotjlici), al3 baj$ fie fyatte bauerfyaft fein 
f i)ttnen (296), your reconciliation was too sudden to be-able to last. 

286. Indirect discourse. In indirect discourse the speaker or 
writer reproduces in his own words what has previously been said, 
thought, or felt. If he wishes definitely to represent as uncertain 
the statements which he is reporting, or if he does not wish to 
assume any responsibility in regard to them, he always uses the 
subjunctive. If he positively wishes to indorse what he is report- 
ing, or to lend greater vividness and directness to it, he uses the in- 
dicative. Accordingly the question of mood in indirect discourse 
depends on the speaker's or writer's attitude toward that which he 
is reporting. 

287. In changing from direct to indirect discourse the -present 
and future may remain, and the imperfect, perfect, and pluperfect 
are put into the perfect. When the present, the perfect, the future, 
and the future perfect subjunctive are like the corresponding forms 
of the indicative the imperfect is substituted for the present, the 
pluperfect for the perfect, the present conditional for the future, and 
the perfect conditional for the future perfect. The present with future 
meaning is generally changed to the future in indirect discourse. 

288. The following table of tenses may serve to illustrate the 
rules given above (287) : 

DIRECT DISCOURSE INDIRECT DISCOURSE 

Present Present or Imperfect 

Imperfect "1 

, f Perfect or 

Perfect \ 

, I Pluperfect 

Pluperfect J 

f Future or 
Future \ _ 

I Present Conditional 

f Future Perfect or 
Future Perfect \ ^ . 

I Perfect Conditional 



86 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



289. The more common changes from direct to indirect 
course may be illustrated by the following sentences : 



DIRECT 

3d) bin Irani. 
/ am sick. 

$d) roar Irani. " 

3>d) bin Irani geroefen. 
%tf) roar Irani geroefen. 
/ was sick. 

SDer Sefyrer roirb nid)t 

men. 
The teacher will not come. 

@ie roe^ben lommen. 
They will come. 

3ft e3 roa^r? 
Is it true ? 



fyaben @ie getan ? 
What did you do ? 

6r roar frufyer Sefyrer. 



INDIRECT 

@r fagt (fagte), bafc er Irani feu 
He says (said) that he is (was) sick. 

Gr fagt (fagte), baf; er Irani geroefen fei. 

He says (said) that he has (had) been sick. 

er filler fjofft (fyoffte), ba ber Sefyrer 

nidjt lommen roerbe. 
The pupil hopes (hoped] that the teacher 

will (would) not come. 

6r meint (meinte), bafe fie lommen roiir- 

ben (not roerben). 
He thinks (thought) that they will (would) 

come. 

@r fragt (fragte), ob e3 roa^r fei. 

He asks (asked) whether it is (was) true. 

(Sr fragt (fragte), roa id) getan ^atte. 
He asks (asked) what I have (had) done. 

9Jf an fagt (fagte), baft erfrii^er2el)rer roar. 



He was formerly a teacher. They say (said) he used to be a teacher. 

2Bir lommen au3 Sfyuringen. @ie fagten, ba^ fie au X^itringen lamen. 
We come from Thuringia. They said that they came from Thuringia. 

NOTE. Statements .of certainty may be followed by either the subjunc- 
tive or the indicative. 

r rouf$te, ba id) Irani roar, he knew that I was sick. 
6r rou^te, baf$ fie nic^t lommen roerbe, he knew that she would not come. 
$d) roar geroi^, bafs er unrest ^atte, I was certain that he was wrong. 
Gr beroie3, ba^ er unfd^ulbig fei, he proved that he was innocent. 



ORDER OF WORDS 8/ 

ORDER OF WORDS 

290. The position of words in a German sentence is largely 
determined by emphasis. The most important position is the be- 
ginning of the sentence, the next important the end, and the least 
important the middle of the sentence. Euphony and logical im- 
portance are also taken into consideration. A general impression 
as to the arrangement of words may be gained from the following 
scheme : 

1. Subject 7. Predicate adjective or noun 

2. Inflected part of verb 8. Negative 

3. Pronoun object 9. Separable prefix 

4. Adverb of time 10. Past participle 

5. Noun object n. Infinitive 

6. Other adverbs 

291. The position of the inflected part of the verb is not deter- 
mined by emphasis or logical importance. According as it stands 
after the subject, before the subject, or at the end of a clause, three 
fixed types of order the normal, the inverted, and the transposed 
are distinguished. 

292. The normal order, in which the inflected part of the verb 
follows the subject, occurs : 

1. In independent declarative clauses, unless some element other 
than the subject begins the clause. 

2. In independent interrogative sentences whose subject is an 
interrogative pronoun or a noun modified by an interrogative 
adjective. 

$inb fyat eine 9tofe, the child has a rose. 

$inb fyat mir jet feine 9Rofe gegeben, the child has now given 

me its rose. 

2Ber fyat bie 3Rofe gdjabt ? Who had the rose ? 
SBeldjer 3lpfel ift bet grbfcte ? Which apple is the largest! 
2Btr tDerben ifyn begleiten, we shall accompany him. 



88 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

293. The inverted order, in which the inflected part of the verb 
precedes the subject, occurs: 

1. In independent declarative clauses beginning with some ele- 
ment other than the subject. 

2. In independent interrogative sentences beginning with some 
element other than the subject. 

3. In imperative sentences. 

4. In principal clauses, for emphasis, in connection with bod). 

5. In sentences in which a participle or an infinitive is put first 
for the sake of emphasis. 

eftern lam $ri| u fpat, yesterday Fred was tardy. 

JRorgen roerben roir nadl) aufe gefyen, to-morrow we shall go home. 

2Bem gefyort biefe $eber ? To whom does this pen belong ? 

2Beld)en 2lpfe( rooflen @ie? Which apple do you wish ? 

$m 3 U fwfc bit Xage am langften, in June the days are the longest. 

aben 6ie fid) gefiird)tet? Were you afraid? 

Sen 9ftann fenne id) nidjt, that man I do not know. 

ruir an f am en, roar e3 fdf)on ^ag, when we arrived it was day. 
3, bente id), ift meine $flidf)t, that, I think, is my duty. 
,,golge mir", fagte er, "follow me" said he. 
3ft bet Snabe fleij$ig ? Is the boy industrious ? 
eben @ie mir bag S3ud), bitte, give me the book, please. 
efyen rair nad) aufe, let us go home. 
ab id) ben SJJarlt unb bie tra^en bod^ nie fo einfam gefefyen ! Why, 

I never saw the market and the streets so deserted ! 
eflofyen roar allcS, all had fled. 

rmorben lafjen fann er mic^, nid^t rid^ten, he may have me murdered, 
but he cannot judge me. 

294. In the transposed order the inflected part of the verb stands 
at the end of the clause. This is also called the dependent order, 
since it occurs only in dependent clauses : 

ift ber 3Jknn, ber geftern fyier roar, that is the man who was 
here yesterday. 



ORDER OF WORDS 89 

3$ fyabe ba3 $ud(), ba3 idfj Berloren fyatte, I have the book which I 

had lost. 

3>d) roetjs, baf$ er nidf)t lontmen roirb, I know that he will not come. 
2)er Sebtente fagte, baj$ fein err jet nidf)t gu aufe fei, M<? servant 

said that his master was not at home now. 
9Zad)bem id) ben Srief gefdfjrieben fyatte, bin idf) fpajteren gegangen, 

after I had written the letter I took a walk. 
SSer roeifj, nw3 bie 3 u ^ un f^ un ^ bringen rairb ^ Who knows what 

the future has in store for us ? 
r^tifyle mir, raa gefcfyefyen ift, tell me what has happened. 

295. The conjunctions baj$ and roenn are sometimes omitted. If 
baj$ is dropped, the order is normal, or, if some word other than 
the subject introduces the subordinate clause, inverted. If roenn 
is omitted, the order is inverted. 

$d) tt>eij$, er rturb nirf)t fommen. 
I know he will not come. 

3)er Sebtente fagte, jet fei fein err nid^t ju aufe. 
The servant said his master was not at home now. 

2Bdren >ie gefiern gefommen, fo fatten @te un u aufe getroffen. 
If you had come yesterday, you would have found us at home. 

NOTE. See 294, third and fourth sentences, and 181. 

296. A dependent clause containing an infinitive followed by 
another infinitive or by the old form of the past participle (275) has 
the normal order. In the future perfect not only the inflected form 
of roerben is removed from the end of the clause but also the 
infinitive fyaben. 

3d) roetft, ba tdf) e3 nid^t roerbe tun lonnen^ 
I know that I shall not be able to do it. 

(r tnetnte, ba tdf) e3 ntd^t fyabe tun tonnen. 
He thought that I could not have done it. 

%tf) glaube, ba er bt jetjt bie (Sd^ulb rairb l)aben be^afylen muffen. 
I believe that by this time he will have been obliged to pay the debt. 



90 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

297. In concessive clauses the order may be either inverteu or 
normal ; but if a conjunction, relative pronoun, or conjunctive 
adverb is expressed, the transposed order occurs. The principal 
clause may take either the normal or the inverted order. 

6ei ber 93erg aud() nod) fo fyodfj, "i 

er 33erg fei audf) nod) fo fyod), Ud)beftetgetl)n,orbeftetgetd)t)n. 

SBenn ber 33erg aud) nod) f o fyod) fet, J 

Though the mountain be ever so high, I shall ascend it. 

SBo ber 33erg audf) liege, i$ befteige ifyn, or befteige id) ifyn. 
Wherever the mountain may be situated, I shall ascend it. 

2Beid)e 3Sorurtei(e man audfj gegen tfyn Ijege, rairb er bodj fein 3^^ 

erreid^en. 
Whatever prejudices people may foster against him, nevertheless he 

will accomplish his purpose. 

298. The conjunctions unb, aber, allein, fonbern, benn, and ober 
do not affect the order. 

299. A relative pronoun is generally not separated from its 
antecedent. 

300. The indirect object usually precedes the direct object if 
both are nouns, unless the former is modified by a relative clause 
or it is desired to emphasize the latter. 

3d) gab bem Sefyrer ba 33ud(j. 

I gave the teacher the book. 

3>dj gab bag Sudf) bem Setter, ber in biefem Banter roar. 

I gave the book to the teacher who was in this room. 

301. If both objects are personal pronouns, the direct object 
generally precedes the indirect. The datives mir and bir are often 
followed by e : mir'3, bir'3. 

@ic fyat eine 5tofe. $<$ fyabe fie tfyr gegeben. 
She has a rose. I gave it to her, 
Sie twrb fie ^fynen geben. 
She will give it to you. 



ORDER OF WORDS 91 

302. An indirect pronoun object precedes a direct noun object. 

3d) fyabe ifyr bie ^Rofe gegeben. 
I gave her the rose. 

303. Adverbs do not stand between the subject and the personal 
verb in principal clauses. Exceptions : alfo, inbefjen, namlid:), groat. 

@r fpricfyt oft t)on $fynen. 
He often speaks of you. 

(Sie fingt nie. 
She never sings. 

)er 33rief alfo ift nidjt angefommen. 
So the letter was not received. 

304. Separable prefixes stand at the end of the clause. 

@r ftefyt jeben 5Korgen urn fiinf UE)r auf. 
He gets up every morning at five o'clock. 

305. If there are several adverbs in a sentence, the order usually 
is time, place, manner, cause, purpose. 

(r ift fyeute fjter. 
He is here to-day. 

@r ift geftern fd)nell nadj aufe gelommen. 
He hurried home yesterday. 

306. Adverbial phrases follow simple adverbs. 

Ste fyatte ftdj t>orn in ben Safyn gefe^t. 

She had seated herself in the front of the boat. 

307. Adverbs of time precede the direct object when it is a noun, 
and follow it when it is a pronoun. 

JBir fyaben fyeute eine lange 3lufgabe. 
We have a long lesson to-day. 

r fyat mid) fyeute befud^t. 
He called on me to-day. 



92 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

308. The negative nid)t stands after a direct object. It precedes 
predicate adjectives, participles, and infinitives. Other positions are 
determined by meaning. 

$d) fenne ben SUlann nidljt. 

/ do not know the man. 

(r ift nicfyt Irani. 

He is not sick. 

@ie ift nicfyt gefommen. 

She did not come. 

309. Present and perfect infinitives, perfect participles, and sep- 
arable prefixes (251) stand at the end of the clause. 

@ie roirb ein beutfdfjeS Sieb fingen, she will sing a German song. 
<5ie Ttnrb ein beutfcfyeg 2ieb gefungen fyaben, she will have sung a 

German song. 

ie fyat ein beutfcfyeS Sieb gefungen, she has sung a German song. 
aite.fie ein beittfdjeS Sieb gefungen ? Had she sung a German song? 
(r marf)t bie Xiir auf , he is opening the door. 

NOTE. In a dependent clause the separable prefix and the present or 
imperfect of the verb meet and are joined. 

3<i) bacfjte, bafj er bie Xiir aufmatf)te. 
I thought he was opening the door. 

310. The infinitive with gu is preceded by all of its modifiers. 
If unmodified, it may be included within the clause of which it 
forms an adjunct, but usually it follows. When modified it regu- 
larly stands outside of the clause. 

Siefe Slufgabe lernen ju miiffen, mad)t mir leine $reube, to be obliged 
to learn this lesson does not make me feel happy. 

@ie fjat fid) entfdjloffen, ein beutfcfyeS Sieb u fingen, she has decided 
to sing a German song. 

<5ie fing an gu fingen, or @ie fing 511 fingen an, she began to sing. 

@r l)at mir etroa^ u iun gegeben, he gave me something to do. 

(Sr ift an mir t)orbeigegangen, o^ne mid^ gefefyen u Fjaben, he passed 
by me without having seen me. 



VOWEL GRADATION 93 

VOWEL GRADATION 

311. Strong verbs have vowel change in their principal parts. 
The vowel of the imperfect stem is never like that of the infinitive. 
The vowel of the past participle may be like that of the infinitive 
or of the imperfect stem, or it may be different from either. This 
change of vowel in the principal parts is called vowel gradation. 

312. CLASS I. i. Gradation ei i i. 

beifsen, bifc, gebifjen 
reiten, ritt, geritten 

Membership : All strong verbs with ei plus d), f, , and t, and 
leiben and fcfyneiben. Exception : fyeif$en. 
2. Gradation ei ie ie. 

bleiben, blieb, geblieben 

Membership : All strong verbs with ei except those belonging to 
Class I, i and fyeiften. 

313. CLASS II. Gradation ie o o. 

fliegen, flog, geflogen 
fltefcen, flojj, geflo|en 

Membership : All strong verbs with ie (except liegen), besides a 
few that do not have ie in the infinitive and which are given in 
the following list. The o is short in the imperfect and past parti- 
ciple when it is followed by two or more consonants (6), otherwise 
it is long. 



beroegen 


brefdjen 


fd)melen 


fdjaKen 


gciren 


liiren 


fyeben 


fedjten 


fd)tx>eflett 


jaufen 


fd(jtt)tiren 


liigen 


pflegen 


flecfyten 


glimmen 


faugen 


tt)dgen 


iriigen 


fd^eren 


ntelten 


flimmen 


fd^nauben 


Iofd)en 




roeben 


quetten 




fd^rauben 


f(|n)oren 





SLugenb befteljt. 
3eber ift feine^ liicfeS d^mieb. 



94 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

314. CLASS III. i. Gradation i a u. 

binben, banb, gebunben 

Membership : All strong verbs with i plus nb, ng, and nl. 

2 . Gradation i a o . 

begtnnen, begann, begonnen 

Membership: The following verbs with i plus nn, and fdfyrotmnten : 
begtnnen, getmnnen, rinnen, finnen, fptnnen. 

3. Gradation e a o. 

fyelfen, fyalf, gefyolfen 

Membership: bergen, berften, gelten, fyelfen, fdjelten, fterben, t)er* 
berben, roerben, roerfen. 

315. CLASS IV. Gradation e a o. 

fpredfjen, fpracfy, gefprocfyen 

Membership: befefylen, bredfjen, empfetylen, nefymen, fd^redten, jpre- 
d^en, fted^en, ftefylen, treffen, treten. 

316. CLASS V. Gradation e a e. 

fel)en, faf), gefe^en 

Membership : All strong verbs with e except those belonging to 
Class III, 3 and to Class IV. The verbs bitten, bat, gebeten ; Itegen, 
lag, gelegen ; and fi|en, faj$, gefeffen, also belong here. 

317. CLASS VI. Gradation a u a. 

fasten, fufyr, gefafyren 

Membership : badten, fasten, graben, laben, fd^aff en, frf)Iagen, tragen, 
wad^fen, raafd^en, and ftefyen, ftanb, geftanben. 

318. CLASS VII. Gradation a te a. 

fyalten, Ijielt, ge^alten 

Membership: blafen, braten, fatten, Ejalten, lafjen, raten, fd)lafen, 
and l)auen, ^ieb, gefyauen; laufen, lief, gelaufen; rufen, tief, gerufen; 
^ei^en, ^ie^, ge^ei^en ; ftofcen, ftie^, gefio^en ; fangen, fing, gefangen ; 
^angen, tying, getyangen ; and getyen, ging, gegangen. 



LIST OF STRONG VERBS 



LIST OF STRONG VERBS 



95 



319. The following list of strong verbs is meant to contain those 
which are regularly strong, and also such as have weak forms. The 
imperfect subjunctive, when irregular, is given below the imperfect 
indicative. A number of strong verbs are omitted in this list, but 
they may be found under 320. 

NOTE. For the vowel of the present indicative see 232-236. 



befefylen 


befall 


befo^Ien 


command 




before 






fidj befleifjen 


beflifc fu$ 


ftdj beflifjen 


apply one's self 


beginnen 


begann 


begonnen 


begin 




begimne 






beifsen 


bife 


gebiffen 


bite 


bergen 


barg 


geborgen 


hide 




biirge or barge 






berften x 


barft 


geborften 


burst 


betriigen 


betrog 


betrogen 


cheat 


biegen 


bog 


gebogen 


bend 


bieten 


bot 


geboten 


offer 


btnben 


banb 


gebunben 


bind 


bitten 


bat 


gebeten 


ask 


blafen 


blie 


geblafen 


blow 


bletben 


blieb 


geblieben 


remain 


braten 2 


bratete (briet) 


gebraten 


roast 


bred)en 


brad) 


gebrod^en 


break 


bingen 8 


(bang) 


gebungen 


hire 


brefdjen 


brof^ (brafd^) 


gebrofdjen 


thresh 


brtngen 


brang 


gebrungen 


press 


empfefylen 


empfafyl 


empfo^Ien 


recommend 




empfbt)le 






erlbfcfyen 


etlofd^ 


erlofdjen 


go out (of a light 



1 Sometimes weak. 2 Present sometimes weak. 8 Generally weak. 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



erfdjreden 


erfd^raf 


erjd^rodten 


be afraid 


efjen 


^ 


gegefjen 


eat 


fasten 


fu^r 


gefa^ren 


go, drive 


fallen 


fiel 


gefallen 


fall 


fangen 


ffo 


gefangen 


catch 


f ed)ten l 


fod|t 


gefod^ten 


fight 


finben 


fanb 


gefunben 


find 


fled&ten * 


Pod|t 


geflodfjten 


braid 

*- _ i k 


fliegen 


flog 


geflogen 


fly 


flieljen 


fto| 


geflo^en 


flee 


fliefsen 


W 


geflofjen 


fiow 


freffen 


fra^ 


gefrefjen 


devour 


frieren 


fror 


gefroren 


freeze 


gebaren 2 


gebar 


geboren 


bear 


geben 


gab 


gegeben 


give 


gebetfyen 


gebieJ) 


gebieE)en 


thrive 


gefjen 


9^9 


gegangen 


go 


gelmgen 


gelang 


gelungen 


succeed 


geiten 


gait 


gegolten 


be worth 




golte 






genefen 


genaS 


genefen 


recover 


genie^en 


geno^ 


genoffen 


enjoy 


gefcfyefjen 


gefd^a^ 


gefdje^en 


happen 


getDtnnen 


geroann 


geroonnen 


win 




gerobnne 






giefeen 


90^ 


gegoflen 


pour 


gleid^en 


glid^ 


gegli($en 


be like 


gleiten l 


glitt 


geglitten 


glide 


glimmen l 


glomm 


geglommen 


glimmer 


graben 


grub 


gegraben 


dig 


gteifen 


8ff 


gegriffen 


seize 


Ijalten 


E)ielt 


geJ)aIten 


hold 



1 Sometimes weak. 

2 3$ gefctire, bu geMerft (gebcirft), fie gebiert (gebcirt). 



LIST OF STRONG VERBS 



97 



^hauen 


l)ieb 


ge^auen 


hew 


VT^eben 


^ob 


gefyoben 


raise 


Ijeiften 


l)ie^ 


gel)ei^en 


be called 


fjelfen 


^alf 


ge^olfen 


help 


Jiefen * | 
^liiren J 


lor 


geloren 


choose 


f limtnen l 


llomm 


gellommen 


climb 


Ilingen l 


Hang 


gellungen 


sound 


Ineifen 


Iniff 


gelniffen 


pinch 


lommen 


lam 


gelommen 


come 


Ireifd^en l 


(Irifrf)) 


gelrifd^en 


scream 


v'friecljen 


Irod^ 


gelrod^en 


creep 


laben 2 


lub 


gelaben 


load, invite 


lafjen 


lie^ 


gelaffen 


let 


laufen 8 


lief 


gelaufen 


run 


leiben 


litt 


gelitten 


suffer 


leifyen 


lid) 


geliefjen 


lend 


lefen 


Ia 


gelefen 


read 


liegen 


lag 


gelegen 


lie 


Ibfdjen 1 ' 4 


loft 


gelofd^en 


(go out, put out, 
\ quench (thirst) 


liigen 


log 


gelogen 


lie 


. mafylen 5 


ma^lte 


gema^len 


grind 


meiben 


ntieb 


gemieben 


shun 


mellen l 


moll 


gemollen 


milk 


meffen 


ma 


gemefjen 


measure 


mij^lingen 


mi^lang 


mi^lungen 


fail 


nefymen 


na^m 


genommen 


take 


pfeifen 


Pfiff 


gepfiffen 


whistle 


preifen l 


prie 


gepriefen 


praise 


raten 


riet 


geraten 


advise 


teiben 


rieb 


gerieben 


rub 


1 Sometimes 


weak. 2 


Sometimes weak in present, 


3 See 233. 


4 bu lifd^eft, er lifd&t. 6 


Now always weak except in 


participle. 



9 8 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



reifcen 


ti^ 


gerifjen 


tear 


tetien 


ritt 


gerttten 


ride 


tied^en 


rod^ 


gerod^en 


smell 


ringen 


tang 


gerungen 


wrestle 


tinnen 


tann 


geronnen 


run 


tufen 


rtef 


gerufen 


call 


jalgen l 


fatye 


gefalgen 


salt 


faufen 2 ' 5 


foff 


gefoffen 


drink 


faugen 


fog 


gefogen 


suck 


jdjallen 8 


(f^oB) 


(gefd^oUen) 


sound 


fdfyeiben 


j^ieb 


gefc^ieben 


part 


jcfyetnen 


fd&ten 


gefd^ienen 


shine 


fcfyelten 


Walt 


gefd^olten 


scold 




polite ornate 






fcfyieben 


fd)ob 


gefd^oben 


shove 


fcfyiefcen 


fd^o| 


gefdjofjen 


shoot 


fdfjinben 


fdfjanb 


gefd^unben 


flay 


fdfylafen 


fd^Iief 


gefd)lafen 


sleep 


fdf)lagen 


Wlug 


gefd^lagen 


strike 


^letd^en 


f Cult CD 


gefd^Iid)en 


creep 


fcpefcen 


fdnlo B 


gef^Iofjen 


shut 


jd^lingen 


Wang 


gefd^Iungen 


sling 


fd^mei^en 


frf)mtj$ 


gefd^miffen 


dash 


fdfjnauben 4 


fd^nob 


gefdjnoben 


snort 


jdfjneiben 


fd^nitt 


gefd^nttten 


cut 


jd^tauben 4 


fd^rob 


gefcfyroben 


screw 


fd^reiben 


fcfyrieb 


gefd^rieben 


write 


fd^reien 


jd^rie 


gefd)tten 


cry 


fcfyretten 


f^rttt 


gefd^ritten 


stride 


fdjroten l 


fd^rotete 


gefd^roten 


grind 


fd)tt)dren 


fd^roor (fcfyrtwr) 


gefdfyrooren 


fester 



1 Now always weak except in participle. 2 Sometimes weak in present. 
8 Present now always weak, and other forms generally weak. 4 Usually 
weak. & See 233. 



fdjtDetgen 
fdfjnnmmen 

fcfyttnnben 

fcfyromgen 

fdfjrooren 

fe&en 

fein 

fieben 1 

fingen 

finlen 

finnen 

fi^en 

fpalten 2 

fpeien 8 

fpinnen 

fpredjen 

fprtefjen 

jpringen 

ftedjen 

ftecf en l 

ftefyen 

[tel)Ien 

fteigen 

fterben 

ftteben 

fttnfen 

fio^en 4 

ftreid)en 

ftteiten 

tragen 

treffen 



fd^roamm 

fdjroomme 

fd)tDanb 



LIST OF STRONG VERBS 99 

gefd)ttnegen be silent 

gefd)tt>ommen swim 

gefd^rounben vanish 

gejd^tDungen swing 

gefd^rt)oren swear 

gefefyen see 

geroefen be 

gefotten boil 

gefungen sing 

gefunlen sink 

gefonnen think 

gefefjen sit 

gefp alien split 

gefpien spit 

gefponnen spin 

gefprocfyen speak 

gefprofjen sprout 

gefprungen ' spring 

gefiodjen prick 

(geftodten) stick 

gefianben stand 

gefio^len steal 

gefttegen climb 

gefiorben die 

geftoben scatter 

geftunfen stink 

geftoben push 

geftrtdjen stroke 

geftritten contejid 

getragen carry 

getroffen hit 

Some- 



fd^raur 

fa| 

roar 

(fott) 

fang 

fanl 

fann 

fa* 

fpaltete 

jpie 

fpann 



fprofe 

fprang 

[tad) 

ftaf 

ftanb 



ftteg 
ftarb 
ftob 
ftan! 



ftrtc^ 
ftritt 
trug 
traf 



1 Usually weak. 2 Now always weak except in participle, 
times weak. 4 See 233. 



IOO 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



tretben 


trieb 


getrieben 


drive 


treten 


ttat 


getreten 


tread 


triefen l 


(troff) 


getroffen 


drip 


trinlen 


tranf 


getrunlen 


drink 


trugen 


trog 


getrogen 


deceive 


tun 


tat 


getan 


do 


nerberben 


Derbarb 


t)erborben 


spoil 




t>erburbe 






nerbrtejsen 


t>erbro^ 


t>erbrofjen 


vex 


nergeffen 


Derga^ 


t)ergefjen 


forget 


t>erlieren 


Derlor 


t)erloren 


lose 


raad)fen 


rauc^S 


geraad^fen 


grow 


raagen 2 


n>og 


geraogen 


f weigh (with 
\ the mind} 


raafd)en 


raufd^ 


geraafd^en 


wash 


raeben 1 


raob 


geraoben 


weave 


raeidjen 


nridf) 


geraidfjen 


yield 


raeifen 


rates 


geraiefen 


show 


raerben 


raarb 


geraorben 


sue 


raerben 


raurbe (raarb) 


geraorben 


become 


raerfen 


raarf 


geraorfen 


throw 


nriegen 3 


raog 


geraogen 


weigh 


nrinben 


raanb 


geraunben 


wind 


gei^en 


gie^ 


ge^te^en 


accuse 


gieljen 


gog 


ge^ogen 


draw 


graingen 


graang 


getpungen 


force 



(Exprtcfyrobrter. unget ift ber befte 

SReben ift ilber, d^raeigen ift olb. 
S3er anbern eine rube grabt, fatlt felbft 
2^ue 5ted()t unb fd)eue ntemanb. 
2Ber ott t)ertraut, ^at tt)ol)l gebaut. 



1 Usually weak. 2 SBagen is transitive and is used figuratively ; nriegett 
is both transitive and intransitive, and has a literal meaning. 3 "See 



LIST OF STRONG VERBS 

DIFFERENTIATION OF CERTAIN VERBS 
320. List I. 



101 



badfen 


barfte (buf) 


gebadten 


bake 


bacfen 


badtie 


gebadtt 


stick\ take. 


erbletdfjen 


erbltd^ 


erbltd^en 


die' ' ; 


erbletdfjen 


erbletd^te 


erblei($t 


tur,i pale 


erfrfjrecfen 


erfd^raf 


erfdjrorfen 


be terrified 


erfdjjredEen 


erfdjredfte 


erfd^rerft 


terrify 


gdren 


gor 


gegoren (lit.) 


ferment 


gdren 


gdrte 


gegdrt (fig.) 


ferment 


fyangen "1 
pngen / 


^ing 


gefjangen (intr.) 1 


hang 


fjdngen 


^dngte (E)ing) 


gef)dngt (geljangen) hang 






(trans.) 




pflegen 


pfbg (pflag) 


gepflogen 


carry on, manage 


pflegen 


pflegie 


gepflegt 


nurse, be accustomed 


f($affen 2 


fd^uf 


gefd^affen 


create, produce 


fdjaffen 


Wafftc 


gefcfjafft 


remove, work, procure 


fdfjeren 


fc^or 


gefd^oren 


shear 


fcfjeren 3 


fd>erte 


gefdjert 


r concern, bother (impv. 
i ^ off} 


fdfyletfen 


Bff 


gef^liffen 


grind 


fdjleifen 


f^Ieifte 


gef^Ieift 


drag 


fdfjtnel^en 3 


Wmolj 4 


gefdfjmolgen (intr.) 


melt 


fd^melen 


fd^melgte 


gefd^mel^t (trans.) 


melt 


fd)tt)eEen 


fd^n)oQ 


gefd^raoEen (intr.) 


swell 


fdf)tt)eEen 


fd^rueEte 


gejrf)tt)eEt (trans.) 


swell 


t)ern)irren 


t)errairrte 


Derraorren 


be confused 


flerroirren 


Dertwrrte 


t)ern)irrt (trans.) 


confuse 


radgen 5 


raog 


geroogen 


weigh (with the mind] 


rategen 5 


raog 


geraogen 


weigh 


raiegen 


raiegte 


gerategt 


rock 


1 Sometimes also transitive 


. 2 See 233. 3 Present both strong and weak. 


4 Sometimes 


transitive. 5 See p. 100, note 2. 



102 HAN] 


DBOOK ( 


321. List II. 




beten 


betete 


bieten 


bot 


bitten 


\ bat 


bredjen 


brad) 


brings 


. btad^te 


banfen 


banfte 


benlen 


bad^te 


fliegen 


flog 


fliefyen 


w 


genefen 


genag 


geniejjen 


aenoR 


fyauen 


nieb 


fyeben 


l)ob 


fennen 


fannte 


fonnen 


lonnte 


ieiben 


litt 


leiten 


leitete 


legen 


legte 


liegen 


lag 


lugen 


log 


madden 


madfjte 


mogen 


ntodfjte 


fe^en 


fc^tc 



gebetet 

geboten 

gebeten 

gebrod^en 

gebrad^t 

gebanlt 



geflogen 

gcflo^cn 

genefen 

genofjen 

ge^auen 

ge^oben 

gelannt 

gefonnt 

gelitten 

geleitet 

gelegt 

gelegen 

gelogen 

gemad^t 

gemod^t 

gefe^t 

gefefjen 

genwdfjfen 

geraafd^en 



pray 

offer 
ask 

break 
bring 
thank 
think 

fly 

flee 

recover 

enjoy 

hew 

raise 

know 

be able 

suffer 

lead 

lay 

lie 

lie 

make 

like, may 

place, set 

sit 

grow 

wash 



SRedjjt unb Siebe 



fagt: ,,3ebem ba3 eine! 
SDie Siebe: ,,3ebem ba 5Deine!" 



STRONG NOUNS WITH VOWEL MUTATION 103 



in ber 2Belt Itifct fid) ertragen, 
nicf)t eine Seifye t>on fd)5rten agen. 



STRONG NOUNS WITH VOWEL MUTATION 1 

MONOSYLLABLES 



322. Masculines with plural in C+ 



ber Slbt 
ber 3lrgt 
ber 21ft 
ber Sad) 
ber Satt 
ber Sart 
ber Saum tree 



abbot 
physician 



ball 



ber 33otf he-goat 
ber Sraud) custom 
ber 33rud) fracture 
ber Sunb alliance 
ber Sufd) 
ber SDamm < 
ber 



ber uft 
ber unft 
ber gall 
ber glofy 
ber glud) 
ber glug 
ber glujs 
ber grofd) 
ber 
ber 



fragrance 



rver 



ber ang walk 
ber aft guest 
ber aul horse 
ber runb mww 
ber rujj greeting 
bet U^ casting 

ber 

ber 

ber, 

ber 

ber 

ber Samm comb 

ber Sampf combat 

ber Sauf purchase 

ber Sau brown owl 

ber Slang sound 

ber SI of; dumpling 

ber Slo$ 

ber Snauf 

ber Snopf button 

ber Snuft 

ber Sod) 

ber Sopf 

ber Sorb basket 

ber Srampf <mzw/ 



ber Sran 
ber Sran 
ber Sropf 
ber Srug 
ber Su 
ber a 
ber Sauf 
ber So^n 
ber Sfarft 
ber 9J?arfd^ 
ber 9ftop3 
ber 3Japf 
ber ^5apft 
ber $af$ 
ber $fa^l 
ber ^flocf 
ber Spflug 
ber ^fropf 
ber 
ber 
ber 
ber $uff 
ber 9Rang 
ber Sat 
ber 3Raud) 



wreath 



pitcher 

kiss 

corset, bib 

course 

reward 

market 



pope 



cork 



place 



thump 
rank 
councilor 
smoke 



1 Nouns of infrequent occurrence have been omitted in these lists. 



104 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

bet 3Raum space bet d()0f$ lap foi&imm^ stocking 

(intoxi- bet d)tant case bet ttunl stump 
bet $iau|db \ . ~~ . , - , ~. r/ . 
L <r<2/z0/2 bet dtjtunb deft bet tufyi flfer 

bet Sodf #?#/ bet dfyitb /^^ bet tutrtpf stump 
(trunk bet d)UJ3 shot bet tutm ^rw 


bet SRumpf J (<?///^ 


betd^n)amm sponge 


bet turg /// 


Uttfy) 


bet rf)ttmnt prank 


bet umpf swamp 


bet aal room 


bet d^raang to'/ 


bet Sanj dance 


bet act sack 


bet dfjrcwtm swarm 


bet Son /^^^ 


bet aft /#/<# 


bet d)TX)u(ft swelling 


bet Sopf /<?/ 


bet atg coffin 


bet d^tDung swing 


bet Sotf /^^/" 


bet a sentence 


bet d^rout ^M 


bet Stanf drink 


bet aum ^<?/ra 


bet of)n jtf 


bet Xtaum dream 


bet cfyaft shaft 


bet pan shaving 


bet ^tog trough 


bet dj)a treasure 


bet pa^ y'<?^ 


bet Ztopf simpleton 


bet djaimt /^w 


bet ptud^ saying 


bet Xutm /^w<fr 


r /^w//^ 


bet ptung y>/w/ 


bet 33ogt governor 


bet d)Iaf \ (of the 


bet punb bung 


bet 2BaH rampart 


[head} 


bet tab j/^ 


bet SBanft paunch 


ber djlag blow 


bet tall stable 


bet SBoIf w^ 


tf (leather 
betdblaudb-l . 
L ^^ 


bet tamm /r/^^ 
bet tanb rank 


bet 2Bud^ growth 


bet d)Iunb chasm 


bet totf stick, cane 


bet SButf throw 


bet d^Iutf ^-^ 


bet totdf) ^r> 


bet 3 a ^ n ^^ 


bet d)iuj$ close 


bet td push, pile 


bet 3^m M'^ 


bet d^mau y^^^/ 


bet ttang r^ 


bet Sftun y^^r^ 


bet djnapio whisky 


bet ttaudj bush 


bet ,3^ /^// 


bet d^opf tuft 


bet ttom stream 


bet Spf cue 






bet 3^Q train 


323. Masculines with plural in et. 


bet ott ^-^ 


"bet Dtt //^r^v? 


bet2Balb forest 


bet SRann man 


bet Stanb ^^ 


bet 2Butm worm 



NOTE. Only two nonmutatable masculine monosyllables, bet eift, spirit, 
and bet Seifc, body, take et in the plural. 



STRONG NOUNS WITH VOWEL MUTATION 105 
324. Feminines with plural in e. 



bie 3lngft 
bie Slri 
bie 33anf 
bie 33runft 
bie SBruft 
bie gauft 


anxiety 
ax 
bench 
fire, lust 

fist 


bie Sluft deft 
bie $taft strength 
bie $ufy cow 
bie Sunft art 
bie Saug louse 
bie Suft air 


bie 3Jal)t 
bie 3lot 
bie 5tu^ 
bie @au 
bie Scfylucljt 
bie d^nur 


nut 
sow 
cleft 


bie grud)t 


fruit 


bie Suft pleasure 


bie tabt 


city 


bie ang 


goose 


bie 3Jlad^t might 


bie ud^t 


malady 


bie tuft 


vault 


bie 3Jlagb servant girl 


bie 2Banb 


wall 


bie anb 


hand 


bie 3ftaug mouse 


bie 2Burft 


sausage 


bie aut 


skin 


bie5Ra$t *#/ 


bie 3^ft 


guild 


325. Neuters with 


plural in Cf * 






bag 3lag 


carcass 


bag rag ^T^JJ 


bag Sod) 


hole 


bag 2lmt 


office 


bag ut property 


bag 3Waul 


mouth 


bag Sab 


bath 


bag aupt head 


bag ^Pfanb 


pledge 


bag Slatt 


leaf 


bag aug /^w^ 


bag 5Rab 


wheel 


bag 33ud) 


book 


bag olj a/^// 


bag d^lo^ 


castle 


bag 3)ad) 


roof 


bag orn ^<?^^ 


bag Sal 


valley 


bag SDorf 


village 


bag llE)tt chicken 


bag Sud) 


cloth 


bag $&$) 


compartment bag Salb calf 


bag Soil 


people 


bag $a$ 


barrel 


bag orn grain 


bag 2Bamg 


waistcoa 


bag lag 


glass 


bag $raitt ^^ 






bag tab 


grave 


bag Samm /0aw 







326. Neuters with plural in C. 

bag 6^ or <r^<?/r {part of a church) 



bag 



raft 



gern nod^ Idnger beg Setters Siirben, 
SBenn driller nur nid)t gleic^ Secret raurben. 



oetlje 



106 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

POLYSYLLABLES 

327. Masculines in el, Ctt, er, with no additional ending in the 
plural. 

bet 3ldt er field ber afen harbor bet Dfen stove 

bet 2lpfel apple ber ammer hammer ber attel saddle 

ber 33oben ^/7 ber ^anbel quarrel ber djaben damage 

ber 33ruber brother ber Saben j/0r<? ber djjnabel fo0 

ber gaben thread ber SKangel w^^/ ber d^raager brother-in-law 

ber arten garden ber SRantel ^?^ ber SSater father 

ber raben /#&/* ber ^Jtagel // ber 3SogeI 



328. The two masculines in tum with plural in Ct (74, 5). 
ber Srrtum error ber Steid^tum wealth 

329. Nine foreign masculines with plural in C* 

ber 3lltar altar ber eneral general ber ^arbtnal cardinal 
ber 33ifd^of to/^^/ ber $anal canal ber ^Ulorafi morass 
ber (Sfyoral ^w ber Saplan chaplain ber ^alafi /a/^ 



330. Two feminines with no additional ending in the plural. 
bte -JRutter mother bie 5tod^ter daughter 

331. Neuters with plural in er (52, 53). 

ba efyalt salary bag erocmb garment 

ba emad^ room (of a house) bag ofpital hospital 

NOTE. Without vowel mutation : bag eftt)lett)t, race, sex ; bag 
ghost ; bag SfJegiment, regiment ; and bag emitt (pi. emitter), w/'< 
sition. 

332. One neuter with no additional ending in the plural. 

bag Softer monastery 



STRONG NOUNS WITHOUT VOWEL MUTATION io/ 
2)er redjte Sefyrmeifter 



g' alg ^unger nidjjt bem Secret, befjen aal ift immer t>oH, 
SBeil im <5piel er aHe 6rf)iiler u Soltoren madden foH ; 
SDer mit 9JUil)' bem 2)oltor lefyret, bafc er nut ein <5$uler ift, 
SDefjen fleine ^Pforte jud^e, e^ u gro^ bu worben bifl 



STRONG NOUNS WITHOUT VOWEL MUTATION 

MONOSYLLABLES 
333. Nonmutatable neuters with plural in er* 

ba 33ilb picture 

ba 33rett board 

bag 6i ^* 

bag $elb field 

bag elb money 
bag Ueb 



bag $tnb child 


bag 3Reig shoot 


bag $leib dress 


bag 9Rinb <?/" 


bag trf)t light 
bag 2ib eyelid 
bag Sieb song 


bag dfyroert sword 
bag <5ttft institution 
bag -JBeib woman 


bag 9Zeft nest 





334. Nonmutatable neuters with plural in 



bag Seet - 


{ bf g arfen } 


bag eer 
bag cft 


army 
notebook 


bag 6$iff 

bag dfyroeii 


ship 
fthog 


bag Scil 


ax 


bag Snie 


knee 


bag eil 


rope 


bag Sein 


leg 


bag Sreug 


cross 


bag ieb 


sieve 


bag Sier 


beer 


bag SJleer 


sea 


bag 6piel 


play 


bag edt 


deck 


bag 9te^ 


net 


bag ttidf 


piece 


bag @r 


ore 


bag fifyr 


(eye of a 
\ needle 


bag Scil 
bag ^ier 


share 
animal 


bag gefl 


hide 


bag DI 


oil 


bag 2Ber! 


work 


bag geft 


festival 


bag $ferb 


horse 


bag 3^H 


tent 


bag ift 


poison 


bag SRe^ 


doe 


bag 3iel 


goal 


bag leig 


track 


bag Seid^ 


empire 







io8 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



335. Mutatable neuters without vowel mutation with plural in 



bag S3oot boat bag $al)r year bag ^funb pound 
bag 33rot bread bag $od) yoke bag ^Sult desk 
bag 33unb bundle bag Sog /#/ bag Quart quart 
bag arn j0ra bag Sot plumb bag cfyaf sheep 
bag rag #ra.$vr bag -JJlal #V* bag rfjrtmb ja/M 
bag ramm #ra*8 bag 9JJug stewed fruit bag Sau heavy rope 
bag aar //0*V bag ^$aar /0/r bag Sor ^a/* 

336. Mutatable masculines without vowel mutation with plural 
in e 


ber 


aai 


eel 


ber 


ra J 


t grain (a 


ber 


$unft 


point 




ber 


aar 


eagle 






L weight) 


ber 


Qualm 


vapor 




ber 


ait 


act 


ber 


urt 


girth 


ber 


Quarg 


quartz 




ber 


arm 


arm 


ber 


aft 


clasp 


ber 


9tuf 


call 




ber 


Sannj 


proscrip- 
tion 


ber 
ber 


uf 


hoof 


ber 
ber 


d>alf 


shaft 
rogue 




ber 


SSorn 


fount 


ber 


unb 


dog 


ber 


d)uft 


scamp 




ber 


Sorft 


crack 


ber 


Ro^l 


cabbage 


ber 


cfyul) 


shoe 




ber 


<3udng 


box tree 


ber 


Sulm 


peak 


ber 


tar 


starling 




ber 


^Dacbg 


badger 


ber 


Siirg 


course 


ber 


toff 


stuff 




ber 


Sod)t 


wick 


ber 


Sa^g 


salmon 


ber 


trold^ 


vagabond 


ber 


old) 


dagger 


ber 


2aut 


sound 


ber 


unb 


strait, sound 


ber 


om 


cathedral 


ber 


Sud^g 


lynx 


ber 


Sag 


day 




ber 


3*k 


groove 


ber 9JZof)r 


nightmare 


ber 


Salt -1 


\time (in 




ber 


garn 


fern 


V^PV 


^T?nTrh- 


(sold- 




t music) 


ber 


gaun 


faun 


v\,\ 


JLUUIUJ 


\ mander 


ber 


Sfyron 


throne 




ber 


gl(Kl)g 


flax 


ber 


gjlunb 


mouth 


ber 


Soaft 


toast 




ber 


gunb 


find 


ber 


$aft 


agreement 


ber 


Sro^ 


crowd 




ber 


olf 


gulf 


ber 


$fab 


path 


ber 


Suf*| 


flourish 


of 


ber 


rab 


degree 


ber 


$ulg 


pulse 




\ trumpets 



prid)tt)brter. ie 2iebe ift blinb. 

2Bte ber SS.ogel, fo bag (Si. 



WEAK NOUNS 



109 



WEAK NOUNS 

337. Masculine nouns denoting living beings which do not end 
in C in the nominative singular. 



ber 


33dr 


bear 


ber 


fierr 


f gentle- 


ber $fau 


peacock 


ber 


33aper 


Bavarian 




C 


\rnan 


ber $ritt5 


prince 


berSr W e){-75 

' I fellow 


ber 
e. rt%> ( 


irt 

rtY)/ivf^ 


shepherd 
(human 


ber dfjenf 


( cup- 
-bearer 


ber 


G&rift 


Christian 


t>er 


yJiettiu) 


\ being 


ber@d^ultl)e^ 


R ma vor 


ber 


ginl 


finch 


ber 


9Jio^r 


Moor 


ber tetnttiet 


(stone- 


ber 


gran! 


franc 


ber 


5Rarr 


fool 




- -cutter 


ber 


Siirft 


prince 


ber 


Dberft 


colonel 


ber Zoic 


fool 


ber 


raf 


count 


ber 


Dcfyg 


ox 


ber SSorfafyr 


ancestor 


ber 


reif 


griffin 


ber 


s ^arb 


panther 


ber 3<u 


Czar 


ber 


elb 


hero 


ber 


^Pfaff 


priest 







MIXED NOUNS 
338. Some of the more common masculines. 

ber Sauer peasant 
ber 2)orn thorn 
ber et)atter godfather 
ber Sorbeer laurel 
ber 3JJa[t w^^/ 
ber 9Jlugfel muscle 



ber 

ber 

ber 

ber SHeif 

ber 

ber 



pain 



ber 9iacpar neighbor ber 



sparrow 



339. Some of the more common neuters. 

bag 2luge eye 
bag S3ett ^<?^/ 
bag (Snbe ^^/ 



bag 

bag ^letnob jewel 

bag 3Kbbel furniture 



ber taat 
ber tacfyel 
ber tra^l ^7 
ber Setter cousin 
ber Sing interest 



bag Dfyr 



APPENDIX 

THE NOUN 1 

1. Declension of nouns. There are three noun declensions, the 
strong, the weak, and the mixed. 

2. Strong nouns, except feminines, take or e3 in the genitive 
singular and usually e in the plural. Feminines take no endings in 
the singular, but are inflected regularly in the plural. 

3. Weak nouns, if masculine, take n or en in all cases singular 
and plural, except in the nominative singular. Weak feminines take 
n or en in the plural. 

4. Mixed nouns add 3 or e in the genitive singular and n or en 
in the plural. 

5. The declension, vowel mutation, and gender of nouns can best 
be learned by constant drill in giving their principal parts. These 
are the nominative and genitive singular and the nominative plural. 
In learning these forms the definite article must always accompany 
the noun. Examples: 

NOM. bet Stag GEN. beg ageg NOM. PL. bie age 
bag aug beg aufeg bie aufer 

6. The last member of a compound noun determines its gender 
and declension, as bag aug, bet 6cfylufjel, ber ^augfdjlufjeL 

7. Feminine nouns do not change their form in the singular. 

8. All nouns end in n in the dative plural. 

1 The treatment of nouns as given in the Appendix was suggested by 
Professor George O. Curme of Northwestern University. It is a departure 
from the customary way in which the noun in German has been treated, 
but its simplicity and compactness will, no doubt, appeal to many teachers. 

in 



112 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

9. The inflectional ending e is never used after el, en, er, d^en, 
and iein. 

10. The strong declension. To the strong declension belong the 
great body of German masculine and neuter nouns, a few fem- 
inines, and the great majority of foreign words accented on the last 
syllable if they represent lifeless things. 

. 11. This declension takes g or eg in the genitive singular and 
usually e in the plural forms, sometimes with, but more commonly 
without, vowel mutation. 

12. The ending eg of the genitive singular is usually confined to 
monosyllables ; and even there it is used only when g is difficult to 
pronounce, or to avoid a clash of accents when an accented syllable 
follows in the next word, as beg $uf;eg, be% Stfdjeg, beg aufeg, beg 
SDorfeg or SDorfg ; but beg 9Jtanneg SJhit, not beg SKanng 3Kut. 

13. Usage varies in regard to adding e in the dative singular. 
It is in general confined to monosyllables, and is often omitted even 
there, as bem Sage or Sag; bem aufe or aug; bem ^bnige or 
$bnig; but always bem Sefyrer, bem Sogel, bem paten. 

14. The strong declension. Examples: ber Sag, day, bag $afyr, 
year-, ber 9JJonat, month-, bag Monument, monument. 

SINGULAR 

ber Sag bag $afyr ber 3Konat bag Monument 

beg Sageg beg ^afyreg beg SJlonatg beg SJIonumentg 

bem Sage bem ^afyw bem 9Konat bem SRonument 

ben Sag bag $af)r ben -Jftonat bag Monument 

PLURAL 

bie Sage bie 3 a ^^ bit donate bie SJtonumente 

ber Sage ber 3al)re ber DJJonate ber 3Utonumente 

ben Sagen ben S^m* ben SJlonaten ben SRonumenten 

bie Sage bie 3>al)re bie SRonate bie -Jftonumente 

prid^tDort. @g fytlft nid)tg, fid) iiber gefd^e^ene SDtnge gu argern. 



APPENDIX 113 

15. Exceptions to the strong declension. The following classes 
of strong nouns form their plural irregularly. The first class omits 
the plural ending e, and the second takes er instead of e in the plural. 

16. Class I. To this class belong all masculine and neuter nouns 
in e, el, en, er, cf)en, and lein. Nouns in rf)en and lein are neuter and 
usually have the stem vowel mutated. 

17. Examples of class I : bet paten, spade; ber Secret, teacher 
ba3 ebaube, building bag $raulein, young lady, Miss. 

SINGULAR 

ber paten ber Sefyrer bag ebaube bag graulein 

beg Spateng beg Sefyrerg beg ebaubeg beg grauleing 

bem paten bem Sefyrer bem ebaube bem graulein 

ben paten ben Sefyrer bag ebaube bag graulein 

PLURAL 

bte paten bie Sefyrer bie ebaube bie ^rauletn 

ber paten ber Sefyrer ber ebaube ber gtauletn 

ben paten ben Severn ben ebduben ben graulein 

bie paten bie Sefyrer bte ebaube bie $rauletn 

18. The following nouns of class I often omit n in the nomina- 
tive singular : ber grtebe, ber gunle, ber ebanfe, ber laube, ber 
aufe, ber 9lame, ber ante, ber dfjabe, and ber 2Bttte. 3)er $elfen 
often drops en in the nominative and accusative singular. 

19. Class II. To this class belong the following groups : 

1. Eight masculine monosyllables, as ber eift (323). 

2. About 50 neuter monosyllables, as bag $inb (325, 333). 

3. Eight neuter polysyllables, as bag efd)led)t (331). 

4. All nouns ending in turn, as bag SUtertum (74, 5). 

pridjroorter. eute rot morgen tot. 

Sg i[t nicfytg jo fetn gefponnen, 

@g fomtnt bod^ enblid) an bie onnen. 



114 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

20. Examples of class II: ber eift, spirit-, bag $inb, child \ 
bag efd)lerf)t, race, sex. 

SINGULAR 

bet eift bag $inb bag efdjlecf)t 

beg eifteg beg $inbeg beg efrf)led)tg 

bem eifte betn $inbe bem efd)led()t 

ben eift bag $inb bag efcf)led)t 

PLURAL 

bie eifter bie Sinber bie efdfjledfjter 

ber eifter ber ^tnber ber efdjlerfjter 

ben eiftern ben $inbern ben efd)led)tern 

bie eifter bie $inber bie efdf)le$ter 

21. 2)er eift and ber Seib are the only nonmutatable masculine 
monosyllables which take er in the plural. 

22. ag efd)Ied^t, bag efpenft, and bag 9te<riment are the only 
nonmutatable neuter polysyllables which take er in the plural. ag 
emilt, which has the vowel mutated both in the singular and the 
plural, also belongs in this,, class. 

23. Vowel mutation in strong nouns. The majority of strong 
nouns do not have vowel mutation. The group which mutates, 
however, is composed of many monosyllables and a small number 
of polysyllables of frequent occurrence. 

24. Monosyllables with vowel mutation. This group contains : 

1. About 200 masculines. Six of these take er in the plural 
and the rest take e (322, 323). 

2. 33 feminines (324). 

3. About 35 neuters; 

(a) 33 with plural in er (325). 

(b\ Two with plural in e : bag glofc, //. bie glofte ; bag Sfyor, 
//. bie @f)ore or (Sfyore (326). 

pridjroort. SBer bie Seiter fyinauf roill, ntujs bei ber unterften 
(Sproffe anfangen. 



APPENDIX 



25. Examples of monosyllables with vowel mutation : ber 

tree; bte tabt, city; bag Slid), book; bet 2lrt, physician ; bet 







SINGULAR 






ber 33aum 


bte tabt 


bag Surf) 


ber 2lrt 


ber ^Iu^ 


beg Saumeg 


ber tabt 


beg 33urfjeg 


beg airgleg 


beg ^lufjeg 


bem Saume 


ber tab! 


bem Surfje 


bem 3lr5te 


bem glufic 


ben Saum 


bte tabt 


bag 33ud^ 


ben 2lrgt 


ben glu^ 






PLURAL 






bte 33aume 


bte table 


bte Siirfjer 


bte Sir^te 


bte gliiffe 


ber Saume 


ber table 


ber 33itd(jer 


ber 3trte 


ber gluffe 


ben Saumen 


ben labten 


ben Sud^ern 


ben Srglen 


ben glitfjen 


bie Saume 


bte table 


bte S3itrf)er 


bte Srjtc 


bte glilffc 



26. The group of nonmutating monosyllables is very large, and 
includes about 265 masculines and all neuters except about 35. For 
a list of the more common nonmutating monosyllables see 333-336. 

27. Polysyllables with vowel mutation. Only a very small num- 
ber of polysyllabic strong nouns have vowel mutation. To this 
group belong : 

i . The following masculines : 

(a) 2 1 in el, en, er (327). 

(b) Two in turn : ber SHetdfjtum and ber 3frrtum ( 74 > 5)- 
(V) Nine foreign nouns, as ber Slltar (329). 

2. The following feminines : 

(a) te gjJutier, bte 2ocf)ter, bte 2lrmbruft, and bte efd)nwlft. 
() Compounds in funft and flud)t. 

3. The following neuters : 
(a) ag filofter. 

(fr) All neuters in turn. 

(c) 2)a3 emac^, bag e^alt, bag eroanb, and bag ofptta(, which 
take er in the plural. 

28. All mutatable nouns which take er in the plural mutate the 
vowel (a, o, u) in the plural. 



n6 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



29. Nouns in turn mutate the vowel of this suffix and take er in 
the plural. For the gender of nouns in turn see 74, 5. 

30. Examples of polysyllables with vowel mutation : bet Slpfel, 
apple \ ber arten, garden ; bie 9Jtutter, mother-, bag 2lltertum, an- 







SINGULAR 




ber 2lpfel 


ber arten 


bie Gutter 


bag 2lltertum 


beg 2lpfelg 


beg arteng 


ber Gutter 


beg 2lltertumg 


bem 2lpfel 


bem arten 


ber Gutter 


bem 2lltertum 


ben 2lpfel 


ben arten 


bie Gutter 


bag 2Utertum 






PLURAL 




bie Spfel 


bie arten 


bie Gutter 


bie 3lltertiimer 


ber tpfel 


ber arten 


ber flitter 


ber 2lltertiimer 


ben 2(pfeln 


ben arten 


ben 5UZuttern 


ben 2lltertumern 


bie tpfel 


bie arten 


bie Gutter 


bie 2tltertiimer 



31. The weak declension. Nouns of the weak declension end 
in n or en except in the nominative singular masculine. Feminine 
nouns are not inflected in the singular. There are no neuters. 

32. Weak nouns do not have vowel mutation. 

33. Examples of the weak declension : ber Snabe, boy, bie $rau, 
lady; ber tubent, student-, bie Sefyrerin, lady teacher; ber err, 

gentleman, Mr. 

SINGULAR 

ber tubent bie Sefyrerin ber err 

beg Stubenten ber Sefyrerin beg errn 

bemStubenten ber 2efyrerin bem errn 

ben Stubenten bie 2efyrerin ben errn 

PLURAL 

bie ^naben bie gtauen bie Stubenten bie Se^rerinnen bie erren 

ber ^naben ber grauen ber tubenten ber Se^rerinnen ber erren 

ben ^naben ben $rauen ben Stubenten ben Se^rerinnen ben erren 

bie Snaben bie grauen bie Stubenten bie Se^rerinnen bie erren 

NOTE. The noun <Qerr omits the inflectional e in the singular. 



ber Snabe bie $rau 
beg ^naben ber $rau 
bem^naben ber^rau 
ben ^naben bie $rau 



APPENDIX II/ 

34. Feminines formed from masculines by adding in double the 
n before adding the plural ending en. 

35. Membership. 

1 . All feminine nouns except the following, which are strong : 

(a) The mutating feminines 5Rutter and 2orf)ter. 

(b) About 33 mutating monosyllables (324). 
(V) Those ending in nig and fal. 

(d) Mutating compounds in lunft and flud)t. 

2. Masculines in e representing living beings, as ber Snabe, bet 
Sbroe, bet 2lffe ; and two representing things : bet 33ud)ftabe and 
ber gefynte. 

3. Foreign words : 

(a) Masculines accented on the last syllable and representing 
living beings, as ber Segat. Exceptions : nouns ending in accented 
al, an, tin, ar, at, eitr, ier, or, belong to the strong declension whether 
they represent living beings or lifeless things, as ber eneral, ber 
$umpan, ber ouueran, ber ^ommentar, ber efretar, ber Gfyaffeur, 
ber Officer, ber -JRajor. 

(li) Masculines in accented anb, enb, ant, ent, and grapfy, repre- 
senting persons or things, and also ber Cornet and ber planet. 
Examples : ber SJtuliipIifanb, ber SJlinuenb, ber gabrifant, ber <5tu= 
bent, ber ^aragrapfy. 

36. The mixed declension. The mixed declension uses strong 
endings in the singular and weak in the plural. The genitive sin- 
gular adds g or eg and the plural n or en. Nouns taken from 
French, English, and other modern languages add g in the plural. 

37. Examples of the mixed declension : bag 2Iuge, eye; ber 5Dof- 
lor, doctor; bag tubium, study; ba %Q\\\\, fossil*. 

SINGULAR 

bag 2luge ber Softor bag 6tubium bag $offtl bag erj 

beg 2lugeg beg Sottorg beg 6tubiumg beg gofftlg beg er$eng 

bem 2luge bem SDoftor bem tubium bem ^\\\\ bem 

bag 3lugc ben SDoftor bag tubium bag goffil bag 



Il8 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

PLURAL 

bie Slugen bie Softoren bie tubien bie $ojfilien bie Bergen 

ber 2lugen bet SDoftoren bet 6tubien ber gofftlien bet 

ben 2lugen ben SDoItoren ben tubien ben goffilien ben 

bie 2lugen bte SDoftoren bie tubien bie $offilien bie eren 

NOTE. The noun Jperj is irregular in declension. 

38. Membership. 

A. Native German words : 

1. About 50 masculines, a few of which are monosyllabic (338). 

2. About 15 neuters, mostly monosyllabic (339). 

B. Many foreign words : 

i. Masculine nouns in on, or, ug, and tug from Latin and Greek. 

NOTE i. Both on and or are short and unaccented in the singular but 
long and accented in the plural, as ber 2)ottor, pi. bie 2)o!toren ; ber 2)timon, 
pi. bie 2)timonen. Words in accented on, or, belong to the strong declen- 
sion, as ber Sftajor, pi. bie 3ftajore ; ber )ia!on, pi. bie 2)ia!one. 

NOTE 2. Foreign masculines in u and iu usually remain unchanged in 
the singular, as ber hunting, beg -ftuntiuS, pi. bie -ftuntien. Those in u3 are 
inclined to become strong, as ber $rotilg, beg $roflt3, bie 



2. Neuter nouns from Latin and Greek : 
(a) Those ending in a, as bag SDrama. 

(fr) Those ending in eum, ium, uum, on (unaccented), which be- 
come in the plural een, ten, uen, en, as bag -JJtufeum, pi. bie 3Jhtfeen ; 
bag tubium, pi. bie tubien ; bag 3)iftirf)on, pi. bie SDiftidjen. 

(c) Those ending in il, al, with plural in ten. These nouns, how- 
ever, are inclined to become strong, as bag $offil, pi. bie $0ffile or 
$ojftlien; bag Mineral, pi. bie 3Kinerale or SKineralien. 

(d) ag gnfctt and bag ^ntereffe. 

3. Masculine and neuter nouns and a few feminines from French, 
English, and other modern languages. These words add g in the 
plural. Examples : bag 3Re[taurant, beg Seftaurantg, bie SHeftaurantg ; 
ber Sorb, beg Sorbg, bie Sorbg ; bie Sabt), ber Sabp, bie Sabpg or 
Sabieg ; bie SSitta, ber SSiHa, bte SSiUag or SStHen ; ber 5Don, beS 
S>ong, bie ong ; ber $afdf)a, beg ^Jafc^ag, bie $afdjag. 



EXERCISES 

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE 

i. Poverty is no disgrace. 2. Work strengthens the body. 
3. February is the shortest month. 4. The peasants have horses 
and cows. 5. We (9Kan, 161) see soldiers everywhere in Germany. 
6. Do you drink tea or coffee ? 7. I prefer pears to apples. 
8. Wolves are enemies of sheep. 9. Switzerland is a republic. 
10. In autumn the leaves fall from the trees, n. Where is little 
Anna? 12. In (SBeim) writing we use our arm and our fingers. 
13. Winter brings snow and ice. 14. Birds have beaks. 15. Meat 
is dearer than bread. 16. When pride rises fortune sinks. 17. It 
was in the month (of) June. 18. We go to church on Sunday. 
19. Love hopeth all things. 20. Death knocks at the door of huts 
and palaces. 21. Dogs like to eat meat. 22. Water is colorless. 
23. Sorrow (//.) has killed him. 24. I haven't seen him since 
Monday. 25. Hawks are birds. 26. Our hotel is in Ring Street. 
27. The mother had her child in her arms. 28. The student has 
a book in his hand. 29. The students were singing songs. 
30. Since the year 1871 the kings of Prussia have also been the 
emperors of Germany. 

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE, THE POSSESSIVE 
ADJECTIVES, AND letn 

i. My friend is very successful as a lawyer. 2. A king lives in 
a castle. 3. He is expecting his father at the station. 4. The 
yard before our house is very small. 5. My son is a tailor. 6. Her 
nephew lives in a village in the Black Forest. 7. The spade belongs 
to our gardener. 8. Birds are distinguished from other animals 

119 



120 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

by (burdf)) their feathers. 9. Your letter was lying on my table. 
10. His brother wishes to become a physician, n. Have your 
friends gone to (auf) the country? 12. Their teacher likes music. 
13. We do not like him as a neighbor. 14. His father will be 
ninety years old in January. 15. They have our table and your 
chair. 16. The eye is a mirror. 17. Edward, write your letter 
now. 1 8. I can't understand a word of French. 19. The man 
has a book and a cane ; he is a professor. 20. We always write 
our exercises with pen and ink. 

DECLENSION OF NOUNS 

i. The basket is in the garden. 2. She has her pen and your 
book. 3. The apples of this tree will soon be ripe. 4. My teeth 
are good, but my eyes have always been weak. 5. The maid is 
making the beds. 6. Our neighbors have two horses and a cow. 
7^ His head is large, but his feet are small. 8. The farmers of 
(in) this state are rich. 9. My cousin has two sons, but they do 
not live in this city. 10. The faith of the heart is strong, n. A 
year has twelve months, a month four weeks, a week seven days, 
and a day twenty-four hours. 12. The churches in this city are 
beautiful. 13. She took your comb and my brush. 14. In the 
box we found plates, cups, knives, forks, and glasses. 15. I laid 
the key on the table beside the watch. 16. This forest belongs to 
the king. 17. Joseph had written a letter to (an) his uncle. 
18. There (@3) are seven boys and ten girls in this class. 19. The 
teacher did not know the names of all his pupils. 20. The count 
and the countess rewarded the shepherd. 21. The sons of kings 
are princes. 22. We can see five villages in the valley below. 
23. The rooms of this cloister are very small and gloomy. 24. Mother 
put my shoes under the bed. 25. The king's castle stood among 
the trees near the lake. 26. Have you seen this picture of my 
nephew ? 27. His coat is hanging behind the door. 28. The lion 
is the king of beasts. 29. In olden times (antiquity) people 



EXERCISES 121 

believed in (an) many gods. 30. In the banks there are generally 
neither chairs nor benches. 31. The cook (fern.) is cooking soup 
and vegetables on the stove. 32. This afternoon she will bake 
bread and cake. 33. The fish are lying in the bucket behind the 
stove. 34. You will find the tub, the broom, and the brush in the 
kitchen. 35. The old woman with the gray horse sells peas, beans, 
turnips, and potatoes. 36. My daughter brought me a glass of 
water. 37. Here is a bottle of vinegar. Do you also want a 
pound of butter? 38. This ticket costs six marks. 39. At ($u) 
Easter we have a week's vacation. 40. These ashes are still 
warm. 41. Our horse is fourteen hands high and weighs eleven 
hundred pounds. 42. Father drank two cups of hot coffee for 
(um) breakfast. 43. My parents were both born in Germany. 
44. In this region the peasants raise oats. 

PROPER NOUNS 

i . The people called Emperor Frederick, the father of Emperor 
William II, ,,Unfern $ri". 2 Frieda's mother's name was Mar- 
garet. 3. The houses of (t)0n) Paris are very beautiful. 4. Fred's 
parents have moved to New York. 5. Professor Meyer's oldest 
daughter will be married next month. 6. I am committing some 
of Schiller's and Heine's poems to memory. 7. We did not see 
Herman and Agnes. 8. Mother gave Marie a new dress and Max 
a pair of skates. 9. This flower is for little Bertha. 10. Have 
you ever read Voss's ,,uije" ? n. The universities of Germany 
are very famous. 

THE ADJECTIVE 

i. Good children obey their parents. 2. Old friends are like 
(rate) old wine; their worth increases with their age. 3. The 
young man with a basket in his right hand brings us a dozen 
fresh eggs every week. 4. Her little brothers are very obedient 
and lovable boys. 5. The pretty girl on the brown horse was the 



122 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

sister of my friend Christopher. 6. My son wrote me a long letter 
yesterday. 7. The fresh green of the leaves is changing into a 
reddish brown. 8. Many poor people live in small, dark rooms. 
9. One day a little yellow bird came to (urn) drink out of the large 
bucket which hung over the deep well. 10. My daughter has a 
large head, a well-formed nose, and large blue eyes. n. We 
never had such a good president. 12. The noble knight was a 
very good and brave man, always ready to help the poor and the 
weak. 13. Our German teacher has a new house and a beautiful 
flower-garden. 14. I read several good books this summer. 15. My 
little brother will be eight years old next month. 16. Our faithful 
old servant died last night. 17. A sleeping fox catches no chickens. 
18. Children who-have-been-burned fear the fire. 19. No one 
greeted the stranger. 20. This coming week we intend to depart. 
21. The gain which-is-to-be-hoped-for will not be large. 22. All 
the bread in this box was baked yesterday. 23. The lesson to be- 
learned is too long. 24. All my relatives live in Germany. 

THE INDEFINITE NUMERAL ADJECTIVES 

i . Our neighbors have all kinds of flowers. 2 . We picked a 
few red roses. 3. There was only a little oil in the bottle. 4. All 
Germany helped the count. 5. We have enough butter but not 
enough potatoes. 6. These presents cost little money but much 
work. 7. That happened several years later. 8. You have n't any 
meat. Oh yes, I have some. 9. The English duke remained only 
a few days in Berlin. 10. That is sheer nonsense, n. He has 
bought Goethe's entire works. 12. This young man has too much 
money and too many friends. 

DEMONSTRATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVES 

i. This picture belongs in that room. 2. What kind of watch 
have you ? 3. Have we the same lesson to-day that we had yester- 
day ? 4. It was that man whose house burned down. 5. To 



EXERCISES 123 

which child do you wish to give this doll ? 6. Such a man is wel- 
come everywhere. 7. In what kind of factory are you working ? 

8. I do not know which sentence you mean. 9. Which horse do 
you wish to sell, this one or that one ? 10. For what kind of 
room do you want this carpet ? 

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES 

i . Did you ever see a larger apple ? 2 . Have you still younger 
sons ? 3. John is the biggest of the boys. 4. A diamond is harder 
than the hardest metal. 5. I have never read a more interesting 
book. 6. Paul has always been one of my most faithful friends. 
7. That was an exceedingly agreeable surprise. 8. Here the ice 
is strongest. 9. My grandmother is the oldest woman in this 
village. 10. These cherries are riper than those, n. My uncle 
is older than my father. 12. This plum is the largest. 13. This 
pupil is less talented than industrious. 14. The tree is higher than 
our house. 15. The coldest water is in the deepest well. 16. Marie 
is just as clever as her sister. 17. Anna has a large apple, Eliza- 
beth a larger one, but George has the largest. 18. Carl is most 
diligent when he goes to school. 19. This is the shortest day of 
the year. 20. That is very disagreeable to me. 

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS 

i . John ran the fastest. 2 . (The) Jupiter is comparatively near 
the earth, (the) Mars is still nearer, and the moon is the nearest. 
3. We were in Leipzig longer than in Dresden, but we remained 
longest in Berlin. 4. The older my father gets, the less he reads. 
5. It will be twelve o'clock at least before I shall have finished these 
sentences. 6. Bertha told her story the best. 7. That occurs very 
rarely. 8. The airship is traveling (fasten) faster than the train. 

9. The fire in this stove burns better when the wind is in (comes 
from) the north. 



124 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

NUMERALS 

i. I have three brothers; the first is twenty-five years old, the 
second twenty-two, and the third is in his fifteenth year. 2. Give 
me half of your apple. 3. He has been here three times. 4. There 
are all kinds of people in the world. 5. To-day is the twenty-second 
of February. 6. Here are two kinds of pears. 7. Write the first 
sentence and the sixth. 8. Three is a fifth of fifteen. 9. We have 
read the first twenty pages. 10. A fourfold cord will hold all the 
(befto) better. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS 

i . I thank you very much for the stamps which you sent me for 
my collection. 2. He will help me. 3. You learn quickly, but you 
also forget quickly. 4. Here is a brush; lay it on the table. 

5. That girl is very industrious. Do you know what her name is ? 

6. Henry, stop beating your dog. 7. The birds are singing in the 
trees. 8. This hat is too small for me ; I can't wear it. 9. What 
do we do with our eyes ? We see with them. 10. I sat behind you 
in church last Sunday, n. Mother said to me, " Helen, what are 
you doing?" 12. Here is a gold watch; what will you give me 
for it ? 13. Did you ever read this story ? 14. Give us this day 
our daily bread. 15. Child, you must not take off your mittens. 
16. I saw you, but I know you didn't see me. 17. She will not 
disturb you, father. 18. Mr. Schmidt, have you seen our new 
house ? 19. My sister's children never obey her, although she 
punishes them quite often. 20. We hope to see you and your 
husband in Prague next year. 

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 

i. He is rejoicing at his success. 2. She is washing her hands. 
3. Are you afraid to stay here alone ? 4. They always flatter each 
other. 5. My parents will be surprised at my progress. 6. Fred 
looked around at me. 7. They had lost their way in the forest. 



EXERCISES 125 

8. I sat down in order to rest myself. 9. We both hurt ourselves 
on that nail. 10. The poor child is not feeling well to-day, n. You 
contradict yourself in everything that you say. 12. He imagines 
that he is especially talented. 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS 

i. The fault is ours. 2. Whose book is this? It is mine. 

3. He was thinking of my brother and yours. 4. I have lost all 
my possessions. 5. Is this your umbrella ? No, it is his ; that one 
is mine. 6. Do not forget to distinguish between what-is-mine and 
what-is-yours. 7. Our table is larger than theirs. 8. Their piano 
cost more than ours. 9. I have not seen my people for five years. 
10. This room is hers ; but, as you see, it is not as pretty as yours. 
n. I have his pen and he has mine. 12. My father was a physi- 
cian and hers was a merchant. 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS 

i. Who loaned me this lead pencil ? 2. What have you in your 
hand ? 3. He showed me two umbrellas and asked me which one 
I wanted. 4. For whom are you making this beautiful present ? 
5. What were you laughing about? 6. Whose picture is that? 
7. What were you standing on ? 8. Whom do you mean ? Which 
one did he mean ? 9. Fred has a gold watch. What kind of one 
have you ? 10. What did the child hurt itself with ? n. I do not 
know whose dog bit my little niece. 12. What did his mother say? 

RELATIVE PRONOUNS 

i. There were many people there whom I did n't know. 2. Have 
you a key with which I can open this door ? 3. The donkey which 
had been carrying the sacks to the mill became old and lame. 

4. Whatever is beautiful is not always good. 5. This is the moun- 
tain at the top of which is a hotel. 6. The man whom we met is 



126 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

my English teacher. 7. The lady whose watch I found yesterday 
on the stairway is one of my students. 8. He does not understand 
all the teacher says. 9. This is the plant of which I was speaking. 
10. Do you know the famous doctor whose daughter is going to 
marry the count ? n. I have found the knife which you had lost. 
12. Whoever says that doesn't know anything about (t)0tt) music. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 

i. These pears are larger than those. 2. Is that enough bread 
for you ? 3. Those who help us in misfortune are our true friends. 
4. This is my brother and those are my sisters. 5. This is her 
watch ; it was lying on that book. 6. I do not believe that. 7. He 
has my book and also my sister's. 8. Those are plums, but these 
are cherries. 9. What do you think of that? 10. Herman gave 
Walter and his brother a new sled. n. He says that that is 
impossible. 12. I know there are such. 13. The elephant and 
the whale are the largest animals ; the former lives on land, the 
latter in the water. 14. He is one of those whom you (man) can- 
not trust. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS 

I. Offend no one, but help every one. 2. Somebody has stolen 
my overcoat. 3. He knows something about it. 4. Some people 
have much money and spend very little. 5. No one knew how the 
fire had started. 6. Many were invited, but only a few came. 
7. Both of your children are very talented. 8. Everybody's 
business is nobody's business. 9. Many of the best students are 
poor. 10. I do not know any of your friends in Berlin. 

PREPOSITIONS 

i. The glasses are standing on the table. 2. We are going 
without him. 3. According to my opinion he should not have 
done it. 4. The earth revolves about the sun with great rapidity. 



EXERCISES 127 

5. He could not come on account of the illness of his mother. 6. I 
shall go to church with my father. 7. The painting (picture) 
hangs above the altar. 8. She laid the cloak on the bed. 9. Her 
hat was lying on the chair beside the bed. 10. We sat around the 
fire on the beach and told stories, n. My parents will not return 
from their trip to Germany before next week. 12. When both 
objects are nouns the dative stands before the accusative. 13. The 
book had been lying under the bench. 14. We generally get up 
at six o'clock. 15. He came to my house this morning. 16. She 
sat opposite me at the table. 17. We were swimming against the 
stream. 18. When are you going home ? 19. We have been 
good friends for many years. 20. I saw him a week ago when he 
was at home. 21. The enemy's camp is above the city. 22. The 
roofs of the houses were covered with snow. 23. The parson 
laughed at (iibet) the peasant's stupidity. 24. Both armies fought 
bravely until sundown. 25. Carl came instead of his brother. 
26. The students wrote the sentences on the board, and the teacher 
corrected them. 27. He made the trip at (auf) my expense. 
28. The sun stood high above the village. 29. The general praised 
the colonel on account of his bravery. 30. Last year I lived at 
(bet) my grandmother's. 31. A month ago to-day we were in Paris. 

32. No one came to see us on New Year's day except my aunt. 

33. It has n't rained here for a month. 34. She had to stay in the 
house last week on account of the cold. 35. Do you know the 
difference between strong and weak verbs ? 

CONJUNCTIONS 

i . The children ran into the house and asked their mother for 
some bread. 2. We are going home, for it will soon be dark. 
3. Here is a bird's nest, but there are no eggs in it. 4. He is 
very poor, otherwise he would dress better. 5. I don't drink wine, 
but I like to eat grapes. 6. Either you must make up your mind 
now or I must set out alone. 7. Man is often abandoned by his 



128 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

best friends, yet God never abandons us. 8. She is small but 
pretty. 9. Nature has peculiar beauties both in autumn and in 
spring. 10. Our servant is not only very diligent but he is also 
very faithful and honest, n. Even that did not satisfy him. 
12. He is poor because he is lazy. 13. If I were in your place, I 
would do it. 14. He asked me whether I knew him. 15. It was 
not his sister but his niece who sang before the emperor. 16. Every 
mother knows that a good book is an acceptable present for a 
diligent boy. 17. I shall come as often as I can. 18. He does 
not know where his teacher lives. 19. We shall remain here until 
they return. 20. If you see him, ask him when the concert begins. 
21. We shall depart as soon as the train arrives. 22. When the 
wind is in the north it is always too cold in this room. 23. The 
child slept while I was writing a letter. 24. I have no time, other- 
wise I would help you. 25. Carl will receive his inheritance when 
he is (will be) twenty-one years old. 26. We don't know when they 
will come. 27. The struggle was hard, but the victory was glorious. 

VERBS 

i . Do you always speak German at home ? 2 . The teamster is 
beating the horse. 3. My mother often combs and braids my hair. 
4. The fire had gone out. It will have gone out. 5. Frederick 
the Great offered the miller a large sum for his mill, but he 
didn't wish to sell it. 6. The workman fell from the roof of 
the church-tower. 7. Both armies fought bravely until sundown. 
8. The snow is melting on the roofs. 9. In the fall the swallows 
fly to the south. 10. We wanted to put the matter off. n. The 
mother has rocked her child to (in) sleep. 12. The child has gone 
to sleep. The child is sleeping. 13. The thief hid in the forest. 
He had hidden the money in a dry tree. 14. Mr. Black died from 
(cm) the effects of the operation. 15. It is getting late, we must 
hasten. 16. The king's carriage was drawn by six white horses. 
17. Bad company corrupts good morals. 18. This dog does not 



EXERCISES 129 

chase the sheep. He follows me wherever I go. 19. Eat, drink, 
and be merry. 20. The old man sat down in his armchair. 
21. Shakespeare's dramas have been translated into many lan- 
guages. 22. They will move into their new house next month. 
23. He rode at full speed through the village. 24. Diligence 
overcomes many difficulties. 25. When I get up in the morning 
I drink a glass of cold water. 26. The storm frightened the 
people. The people are frightened. 27. My friend induced me 
to go hunting with him. 28. A mother prays for her children. 
29. It has been raining for several hours. 30. Mother, are you bak- 
ing bread ? This cake was not baked enough. 31. Whoever does 
not know (fbnnen) a foreign language knows nothing of his own. 
32. This river flows through a beautiful valley. 33. In the begin- 
ning God created heaven and earth. 34. Do you like (eat gladly) 
fried potatoes ? 35. I do not think that the teacher will come to- 
day. 36. During the summer four new houses were built on (in) 
this street. 37. The coat was not hanging in the closet. 38. I 
often have to loan my brother some money. 39. We expect to 
remain here until the first of June. 40. Henry did not act accord- 
ing to the advice of his friends. 41. The rain has laid the dust. 
42. Are you the lady who lost her watch? 43. They blasted all 
the rocks in the harbor. 44. The enemy has fled and the victory 
is ours. 45. We got up early in order to see the sun rise. 46. The 
coachman was watering his horses. 47. Carl fell on the ice and 
broke (re/I.) his arm. 48. I must stay at home to-day and help 
my mother. 49. He had grown much older since I last saw him. 
50. Are you acquainted with the president of the bank ? 51. The 
clerk is measuring the cloth. 52. The poor widow and her little 
children seemed to v have suffered very much during the winter. 
53. Not more than a quarter of an hour before the storm not a 
leaf was stirring. 54. My aunt, who lives in Denver, has invited 
me to visit her next summer during my vacation. 55. Last week 
we had to water the plants every day on account of the heat. 
56. More railroad accidents occur in America than in Europe. 



130 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

57. If the patient can partake of (enjoy) food he will surely re- 
cover soon. 58. My wife is taking a drive in the park this after- 
noon. 59. Cats catch rats and mice. Our cat doesn't catch birds. 
60. That arrangement does not suit me at all. 61. I hope that 
you will succeed. He will never succeed. 62. How many pounds 
can you lift? He lifted the child out of the carriage. 63. That 
region will be laid waste by the enemy. 64. This plant flourishes 
only in the south. 65. Many people are called Smith. 66. My 
cousin was bitten by his little black dog. 67. The child will soon 
be bathed by its aunt. 68. A good workman is usually well paid. 
69. The doors opened at seven o'clock. 70. These apple trees 
were planted two years ago. 71. Not many soldiers were killed, 
but a large number were wounded. 72. The English were de- 
feated by the French. 73. I have been told that your son wishes 
to become a physician. 74. Those apples are ripe and must be 
picked. 75. Harry is throwing the ball against the house. 76. The 
little boy was very much ashamed because he was blamed by his 
mother. 77. A friend brought that picture along for me from Eng- 
land. 78. By that time the debt will have been paid. 79. This bell 
is rung only when fire breaks out. 80. Goethe's " Faust " is read 
not only in Germany but also in many other countries. 81. Thou 
shalt not steal. 82. The door should remain closed. 83. You 
must not exert yourself too much (fefjr). 84. People ought to love 
their enemies but they generally do not. 85. In our town children 
are not allowed to be outside after nine o'clock. 86. He had to 
go home early because he had some letters to write. 87. May I 
pick one of these flowers ? 88. My friend cannot speak German. 
89. I do not know him, but I know where he lives. 90. She was 
obliged to stay at home last week. 91. He does not know the 
multiplication table. 92. That may be true, but I cannot believe 
it. 93. The little girl said, " My papa does not like me in blue." 
94. We are to write these sentences and bring them to class to- 
morrow. 95. Every one ought to tell the truth. 96. That family 
wouldn't need to endure want if it had not been extravagant. 



EXERCISES 131 

97. Carl can't go to school to-day, he will have to stay at home. 

98. I think he will be able to go to-morrow. 99. The lecture is 
to begin at eight o'clock. 100. I should think we could read ten 
pages a day. 101. He is said to be an excellent teacher. 102. We 
wish to go to (in) the concert this evening. 103. Do you know 
this book ? No, I have never read it. 104. That must be done 
immediately. 105. He is having a new suit made. 106. I shall 
not be at home next week. 107. He had to learn German, for 
he lived in Berlin several years. 108. If you wish to write a let- 
ter, I will bring you a pen and some paper. 109. 'Will you please 
lend me your pencil ? I would do so gladly, but I wish to use it 
myself, no. Mr. Freund is said to have gone to Florida with his 
uncle, in. The soldiers will be permitted to go home to visit 
their parents. 112. Mother, may I stay at home to-day? No, 
my son, you must go to school. 113. It is better to lose one's 
life than one's honor. 114. Two regiments marched through our 
village this morning. 115. Do you recognize the goodness and 
wisdom of God in nature? 116. I generally wake up at five 
o'clock. 117. The fox called the wolf a stupid animal. 118. The 
teacher did not have me recite to-day. 119. I think you are mis- 
taken. 

THE SUBJUNCTIVE 

i. Long live the king! 2. May God grant you a long and use- 
ful life. 3. She said that she did not know it. 4. If that were 
only true! 5. I do not believe that all he says is true. 6. They 
asked me if you knew him. 7. He said he no longer lived in 
Dresden. 8. That might easily be the case. 9. The teacher asked 
the boy how old he was. 10. He looks as if he were sick. n. If 
I had only done that yesterday ! 12. Even if the physician should 
come, he would not be able to help. 13. Even if the physician 
had come, he would not have been able to help. 14. I wish I were 
at home with my mother! 15. She dresses as if she were rich. 
16. If I had enough money, I should travel a great deal. 17. If I 



132 HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 

had had enough money, I should have paid you sooner. 18. My 
mother would be glad to see you. 19. I have just heard that he 
died this morning. 20. He knew of a certainty that I would not 
disappoint him. 21. He admitted that he had not yet read the 
book. 22. I do not know whether he is at home. 23. When I 
asked him what time it was he replied he did not know, since he 
did not have his watch. 24. The students would like to have two 
weeks' vacation during the holidays, but the teachers think one 
week is enough. 25. He spoke loud enough so that every one 
could hear what he said. 26. Let him be silent if he cannot 
explain what he wants. 27. I should have been allowed to go if I 
had not been obliged to help mother. 28. He says that he should 
have been permitted to go to New York if he had been well. 29. I 
should like to stay longer but I must not for it is already getting 
dark. 30. I hope she will soon be well again. 31. It vexes me to 
think that much could have been saved if the firemen had done 
their duty. 32. Dr. Bauer thinks that one can work best in the 
morning. 33. The teacher asked me whether I had my book. 
34. Daniel must be sick, for he has been absent all the week. 35. A 
German proverb says that idleness is the beginning of all vice. 
36. Anna says she is going to study Latin next year. 37. He 
asked me whether I saw the palace near the cloister. 38. Let us 
not think of (an) ourselves alone. 39. The laborer asked himself 
what would become of his wife and children if he should die. 40. I 
have told him nothing which could influence him. 41. These 
pears look as if they were ripe. 42 . Had I only known that the 
train was late! 43. We could have read another book if we had 
wanted to. 44. If I were a European count, I should marry an 
American heiress. 45. I had to tell him that Germany's flag is 
red, white, and black. 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



r, but, however 
bie 2(Btet, abbey 
adj, ah, alas 
ber 5(ffe, ape,, monkey 
ber 2HJ0W, maple tree 
aU, all 
al f when, than 

art, old 
anber, other 

ber 9lnfang, beginning 

anfangen, to begin 
ber 9tyfef, apple 
arg, bad 

ftcf) argent, to be angry 

arm, poor 

bie SlrmBrnft, crossbow \/' 

bie 5lrt, kind 

bte 9lfrf)e, ashes y 

ber SWffet, athlete 

atmen (weak), to breathe 
and), also 

anfftefjen, to stand up 

bte 9ln3lnnft, information 
nujklt, outside 



(atfen, to bake 

fcalb, soon 
ber SBattb, volume 
ba3 ^Banb, ribbon 
Bang, afraid 
Batten, to build 



133 



ber S3anm, tree 

bie 23ebingnng, condition 

Betbe, both 

Berften, to burst 

bie SBeforgmS, care j/ 

Befte^ett, to endure 
Betett (weak), to pray 

Bteten, to offer 
Btnben, to bind 
bie S3trtte, pear 

Bitten, to beg, ask (um with ace., for) 

BfetBett, to remain 

Bftnb, blind 

Bltttarm, as poor as a church mouse 

bie Sraneret, brewery 
Brennen, to burn 

bie SBre^eJ, cracknel 

Brtngen, to bring 

t, bread 

ty, book 
ber S3ndjftaBe, letter 
bie SBnrbe, burden 



ber dljaffettr, light infantry soldier 

ber <fjef, head, chief 

ber (I)or, choir 

bag Gfjor, choir (part of a church) 

ber <f)rtft, Christian 

bag (0ntO, account 

ba, there 

bag $adj, roof 



134 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



ber $arf)3, badger 

ber $>am0tt, demon \J 

bimt&er, over it, over that, about it, 

about that 

battmt, about it, about that 
bettt, thy, your 
bCttfeit, to think 
betttt, for (conj.) 

bergleirfjen, of that sort 

bcrjemtJC, that one, he (who) 
betfd&e, the same 

be^gleirfjeu, of that sort 

beiltfd), German 
ber $>te&, thief 
ber Wiener, servant 
btefer, this, this one 

bag $>utg, thing 

bag $)ifttd)0tt, distich 
bod), yet, however 
ber ^Oltt/ cathedral 
bag $>0rf, village 

ber $)ortt, thorn 
bort, there, yonder 
bretetlet, three kinds of 

brefrfjen, to thresh 

bag irtttd, third part 
bltmm, stupid 
bitltfcu, to seem 
bure^, through 
bitfter, dark 



Ct^t, genuine 
Cbel, noble 
bag (i, egg 
bte (Sit^C, oak 
CUtfarf), simple 
Ctltmal/ once 
ba^ (Jifctt, iron 
bag (Slfag, Alsace 



bte (tent, parents 
eittj)fei)fett, to recommend 
bag (Sttbe, end 
cnbltd), finally 
Cttteljrett, to dishonor 
crgcbcttft, respectfully 

erft, first 
crften^, first 
ertragen, to endure 
Cffett, to eat 
some 



^, some 
eiier, your 
curctttJiKcu, on your account 



ber gfabrifattt, manufacturer 
fasten, to drive 

fatten, to fall 
fangen, to catch 
ferfjten, to fight 
bie gfeber, pen 

fe^lCtt (weak), to fail, lack 

fein, fine 

bie g-erieit (//.), vacation 

ftnben, to find 

ber finger, finger 

flerfjteit, to braid 

ftiegeit, to flow 
bag $foff, raft V 
fortgeljen, to leave 
bag fjfofftt, fossil 

bie JJtait, lady, woman, Mrs. 
bag ^rauletlt, young lady, Miss 

freffett, to eat 

firf) freuett, to rejoice 
bie gfreuttbttt, lady friend 
frcuubltrf), friendly 
bie ^reUttbftf)aft, friendship 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



135 



ber Sfriebe, peace 

friilj, early 

ber gfrityUttg, spring 

fitl)(eu (weak), to feel 

ber gunfe, spark 

fitr, for 

bag gurftCtttttttt, principality 

ber gfuft, foot 



^ whole, entire 
ber (Garten, garden 
geben, to give 
ber (SJebanfe, thought 

gefalltg, agreeable 

bag ef|alt, salary } / 

gef)cn, to go 

gelefjrt, learned 

ber def>rte, scholar 

gcfingcn, to succeed 

bag Qkmarf), room (of a house) 

bag Cttte, genius 

geiuefcen, to enjoy 
gent, willingly 
ber QkfaubtC, ambassador 
gefrfjefjen, to happen / 
bie ^efrf|Wttift, swelling J 
bag QkttWttb, garment 
bag ^CWiffcn, conscience 
glaferu, of glass 
ber toit&e, faith 
g(cttl). immediately 
bag Hirf, fortune 
graben/ to dig 
ber raf, count 
b, coarse 



n, to have 
e, hoe 

ber ^afer, oats ' 
5a(b, half 
Ijafteit, to hold 
bie Ajanb, hand 

l^art, hard 

ber ^aufe, heap, crowd 
bag ^Ott^, house 
^attSijaftett, to keep house 
ber $au3frf)luffei, door key 
bag jpeim/ home 

^Clfcit, to help 
Ijcrauf , up 
ber $)crbft, autumn 
r, across 



ft, large 
bie @rubc, pit 
gut, good 
giitig, kind 



Itd)/ hearty, cordial 
Ijettte, to-day 
bie ^pcjc, witch 
tyter, here 
bie $i(fc, help 
tytttab, down 

^inauf, up 

bag ^tttbcrni^, hindrance 

t)tttCtn, inside 

^ittten, behind 

l)tttttber, across 

bie ^>i^c, heat 

l)0dj, high 

^offCtt (weak), to hope 

IjbtCU (weak), to hear 

bag ^of^ital, hospital 
ber wtger, hunger 

^ttftcn, to cough 

ber ut, hat 



n, him 



136 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



tljr, her 

immer, always 

ber $ttf)alt, contents 

tttttett, within 

bag ^Itfelt, insect 

bag ^tttereffe, interest 

ber 3rrtltm, mistake 



commentary 



ber 

ber ^iittig, king 
foftcn (weak), to cost 
frattf, ill, sick 

Ira^en, to scratch 
ber ^rteg, war 
ber ftumpait, companion 
Ittrj, short 



i*/ yes 
jeber, 

jebtuebet, r every one 

leglike*, 

jcittrtltb, somebody, anybody 

jetter, that one 

jeijt, now 

ber 3'0uriut(ift, journalist 

Jung, young 

ber Bungling, young man 



lalt, cold 
bie alte, cold 
ber arpfen, carp 
ber $afe, cheese 
fatfjoltfrf), catholic 
few, not a, no (adj.) 
lettttett, to know 
bag SHttb, child 

bag Stiffen, pillow 

Keitt, little 

bie SHetttigfett, trifle 

bag ^loftcr, monastery 
Hug, clever 
ber ^italic, boy 
bag ^nic, knee 
ber $orf), cook 
^ij(n, Cologne 
ber ftomct, comet 



(ad)Cn (weak), to laugh 
bag amm/ lamb 
(ang, long 
laffeit, to leave 
bag Saftcr, vice 
laufen, to run 

laufdjCU (weak), to listen 
lebett (weak), to live 

(efccnbtg, alive 
(c^ren, to teach 
ber Sefjrer, teacher 
bie Setter, ladder 
lenfen, to guide 
lernen, to learn 

lefett, to read 

le#, last 

bie fitefce, love 

lieBen, to love 

bag Steb, song 

loden (weak), to praise 

bag Solicit, praise 

ber fior&eer, laurel 
lo^laffen, to let loose 
ber Sotoe, lion 

m 

bag $labrf)ett, girl 
bie 9Jlagb, maid 
ber SPiat, May 
ber $lajor, major 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



137 



for my sake 



matt, one, they, people 
mattd), many a 

ber Sftamt, man 
bcifo WlttVf sea 
mefyr, more 
mcfjrere, several 
meibett, to avoid 

mettt, my 
metuctiucflcit, 
mciiiettutUcH, 
ber 3fteifter, master 
meffen, to measure 
ba3 SJlettum, meter 
mtt^, me 

ttttfiglitrfett (weak), to turn out a 
failure 

mtgHitgen, ; 

.J ' y to turn out a failure 

mtgratett, J 

tltogltcf), possible 
motgett, to-morrow 
ber ^Otgett, morning 
ber 9Jhutb, mouth 
miiffett, to be obliged to, must 
ber 3)^it^tggattg, idleness 
ber 9JJltt, courage 
bie Butter, mother 
C, myrtle 



)r to, after 
ttdef)ften3, next 

Italj, near 

ber Stfame, name 

ber utimltdje, the same 

neftmcu, to take 

ttCntten, to name 

nit^t, not 

tttrfjtg, nothing 
tttemnub, nobody 
itimmer, never 



ttO(^, yet, still 

ber -Worben, north 

bie $lot, need, distress 

tttttt, now 

ber 9httttitt3, nuncio 

nur, only 

o 

ubcr/ or 

ber Dfcn, stove 

ber Offset, officer 

liffncn (weak), to open 

Uljtte, without 

ber Often, east 

bie Dftent (//.), Easter 



pair 
, page 

, the Palatinate 
ftrf), peach 
(weak), to care for 
(weak), to praise 

, public 
, desk 



ber 



ber 



o 

bie Cucflc, spring 



tafctt (weak), to rave 
bie Ofaft, rest 
raftcn, to rest 
ratett, to advise 
retf|t, right 

rebctt (weak), to speak 
rebltrf), honest 
regttett (weak), to rain 
ber fftetdjtitm, riches 



138 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



bie deifje, row 
rein, clean 
reigen, to tear 
reiten, to ride 
reisen, to excite 
rennen, to run 
bie 9lofe, rose 
tot, red 
tttfctt, to call 
bie $nf)e, rest 



ber (Same, seed 
fanft, gentle, soft 
ber Sanger, singer 

faufcit, to drink 






ber Sdjabe, loss, harm 
frfjaffen, to create, produce 
flatten, to sound 

bie 3rf)am, shame, modesty 
frfjarf, sharp 
frfjenen, to fear 
bag djicffaf, fate 
frfjlngen, to strike 

fdjliefeen, to close 

ber 9rf)(uf;, conclusion 
ber (Scfyliiffef, key 
fdjmctcfjdn (weak), to flatter 
ber 3rf)micb, smith, forger 
ber Scfjneiber, tailor 

ftf)UH, beautiful 

bie (Scfjonfyeit, beauty 

ber Settler, pupil 

frfjttwrs, black 
fdjlDCtgen, to be silent 
bie 8rf)U)Ct5, Switzerland 
fattier, heavy 

bag (Begcl, sail 
fe^en, to see 
feljr, very 



fcitt, to be 

fcin, his 

ber 6efrctat, secretary 

fcttbeu, to send 

ftC, she 

bag SU&er, silver 

fold), such 

fatten, shall 

ber (Summer, summer 

f unbent/ but 

bie Sonne, sun 

ber 3uuuertitt, sovereign 

tyfit, late 

ber Spatcn, spade 

fJW-$ieren (weak), to take a walk 

fptnncn, to spin 

f gotten (weak), to deride 

f^rec^en, to speak 

bie S^Jroffe, round of (a ladder) 

ber Staljl, steel 

ftarf, strong 

fteljCtt, to stand 

ber (Stein, stone 

ftoften, to push 

ftnbieren (weak), to study 

ber Stttljl, chair 
fnd^en (weak), seek 
ber Siiben, south 



X 



, day 



, carpet 



ber 

ber 

ttef, deep 

ber Xift^i, table 

bie Sorfjter, daughter 

tot, dead 

bie XtanBe, bunch of grapes 

treten, to tread 

tren, faithful 

bie Xfii&fal, affliction ^ 



GERMAN-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



139 



bie ugenb, virtue 

tun, to do 

bie Xiirfei, Turkey 

U 

iiber, over 

bie Ubnng, practice 

Ultt, about, around 

urn ar bet ten (weak), to remodel 

1Mb, and 

ber Unban!/ ingratitude 

nnfer, our 

ttnter, under 



ber $ater, father 
toeretnigt, united 

to pass away 
, to understand 

toertranen, to trust 

Did, much 

trierfdltig, fourfold 
ber 2$0ge(, bird 



ttJCnbett, to turn 

ttenig, little 
njcnn, if 
mer, who 

tticrbcn, to become 
merfen, to throw 

ttlCrt, worth 

ber 28eften, west 
ttltber, against 
iweber, again 
ber SSiUc, will 
toinben, to wind 
ber Winter, winter 

ttliffCtt, to know 

tt)0, where 

UJO&Ct, at which, at what place 

, by which, by what 
r, for which, for what 
tt)0l)f, well 

ttWtnit, with which, with what 
lumtad), according to which, accord- 
ing to what 

nioranSf out of which, out of what 
ttJODOit, about which, about what 
n, for which, for what 



nwrfjfcn, to grow 

uiarm, warm 

to aw en (weak), to warn 

war urn, why 

toa3, what 

bag SBaffer, water 
toebett, to weave 
ber 2Beg, way 

toe!), woe 

bag SBctb, woman 

bie 233et3l)eit, wisdom 
ber SSctsen, wheat 
bie %8tlt, world 



$ent0n, epigram 



3 

$e!jn, ten 

ber 3e!jnte, tenth 

bie geit, time 



bie 3nflttrf|t r refuge 
t, last 

f, twice 
5tt>etten3, secondly 



L/ 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



The principal parts of nouns are given except in -weak polysyllabic feminine nouns 
and in proper names 



abandon, serlafjen 

able, to be, fonnen 

above, oberfyalb 

absent, to be, abroefenb fein 

acceptable, angenefym 

according to, nac 

accusative, ber 2lf!ufatit> -g -e 

acquainted, to be,tennen,be!anntfein 

across, iiber 

act, tun, fyanbeln 

admit, geftefyen 

Adolph, Slbolf 

advice, ber 3tat -eg *e 

afraid, to be, fidj) fiirrf)ten 

after, nad) 

afternoon, ber -ftacfymittag -g -e 

again, roieber 

against, gegen 

age, bag filter -g - 

ago, t)or 

agreeable, angene^tn 

all, all, (entire) ganj; all things, al= 

leg; all kinds of, allerlet; not at 

all, gar nic^t 
allowed, to be, biirfen 
alone, allein 
already, fd^on 
also, aud) 

altar, ber 2lltar -3 *e (-e) 
although, obgteic^ 



always, immer 
America, Slmerifa 
American, amerifanifdj 
among, unter 
and, unb 

animal, bag ier -eg -e 
Anna, 2lnna 
another, ein anberer 
answer, bie Slntraort 
antiquity, bag Slltertum -g ^er 
any, etroag ; not any, fein 
anything, etroag; not anything, nirf)tg 
apple, ber 2lpfel -g * 
apple tree, ber 2(pfelbattm -g -e 
r arm, ber 2(rm -eg -e 
armchair, ber ef)nfeffel -g - 
army, bie Slrmee 
arrangement, bie inridjtung 
arrive, anfommen 
as, a(g ; as if, alg ob 
ashamed, to be, ftdj fc^a'men 
ashes, bie Slfc^e 
ask, fragen; ask for, bitten urn 
at, an, bet 
aunt, bie Xante 
autumn, ber erbft -eg -e 



bad, bofe, fcf)letf)t 

bake, bacfen 

ball, ber Sail -eg *e 



140 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



141 



bank, bie 23cm! -en 

barrel, bag ftafi -ffeg *ffer 

basket, ber orb, -eg *e 

bathe, baben 

be, fein 

beach, ber tranb -eg -e 

beak, ber djnctbel -g JL 

bean, bie 33ol)ne 

beast, bag Xier -eg -e 

beat, fdjlagen 

beautiful, frf)bn 

beauty, bie cfyontyeit 

because, roeil 

become, roerben 

bed, bag S3ett -eg -en 

before, prep. t)or ; conj. ef)e 

begin, anfangen 

beginning, ber Slnfancj -g *e 

behind, fyinter 

believe, glauben 

bell, bie locfe 

belong, gefyoren 

below, unten 

bench, bie 33an! ^e 

Berlin, Berlin 

Bertha, Serta 

beside, neben 

between, -jurifcfjen 

big, gro 

bird, ber SBogel -g *\ bird's nest, 

bag SSogelneft -g -er 
bite, beifjen 
black, fd^raarg 
Black Forest, ber 
blame, tabeln 
blast, jprengen 
blue, blau 
board, bie Xafel 
body, ber ^orper -g - 
book, bag SBiirf) -eg ^er 



born, to be, geboren fein 

both, beibe 

bottle, bie giafdje 

box, ber $aften -g - 

boy, ber $nabe -n -n 

braid, fled)ten 

brave, tapfer 

bravely, tapfer 

bravery bie Xapferfeit 

bread, bag 23rot -eg -e (*e) 

break, brec^en ; break out, augbred^en 

breakfast, bag gru^ftutf -g -e 

bridge, bie SBrurfe 

bring, bringen; bring along, mit- 

bringen 

broom, ber 33efen -g - 
brother, ber Sruber -g * 
brown, braun ; bag 33raun -g 
brush, bie Surftc 
bucket, ber inter -g - , 
build, bauen 
bump, ftofien 
burn, brennen; burn down, nieber= 

brennen 
bury, begraben 

business, bag^efd^aft-g-e, bie <Sad;e 
but, aber, fonbern 
butter, bie Sutter 
buy, faufen 
by, big, uon 



cake, ber ^ucfyen -g - 

call, rufen, (name) nennen; to be 

called, fyeijjen 
camp, bag Sager -g - 
can, fonnen 
cane, ber totf -eg ^e 
carpet, ber Xeppid) -g -e 
carriage, ber SBagen -g - 



142 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



carry, tragen 

case, ber gall -eg *e 

castle, bag d&Iofj -ffeg *jfer 

cat, bie $ae 

catch, fangen 

certainty, of a, genrif; 

chair, ber @tul)l -3 *e 

change, fid) ctnbern 

chase, Derfolgen 

cheat, betriigen 

cherry, bie $irfd(je 

chicken, bag ul)n -g ^er 

child, bag $inb -eg -er 

Christopher, Gljriftopf) 

church, bie $ird)e 

church tower, ber $ircf)turm -g *e 

city, bie tabt *e 

class, bie Piaffe 

clean, rein 

clerk, ber Sabenbiener -g -, ber 



company, bie ejellfc^aft 

comparatively, 

concert, bag ^onjert -g -e 

contradict one's self, fidj nriber= 



clever, Hug 

climb, flettern 

cloak, ber Mantel -s * 

cloister, bag Softer -S * 

close, fc^lie^en 

closet, ber cfyranf -eg ^e 

cloth, bag 3 eu 9 ~ e ^ ~ e 

coachman, ber $utfcf)er -g - 

coat, ber SHorf -eg "e 

coffee, ber $affee -g 

cold, fait ; bie ^dlte 

collection, bie (Sammlung 

colonel, ber Dberft -en -en 

colorless, farblog 

comb, ftimtnen ; ber ^amm -eg ^e 

come, lommen; come in, l)erein= 

!ommen 
commit to memory, augraenbig 

lernen 



convince, iiberreben 

cook, focfyen ; bie ^6cl)in 

cord, bie cfynur -en (^e) 

correct, uerbeffern 

corrupt, cerberben 

cost, foften 

count, ber raf -en -en 

countess, bie rtifin 

country, bag Sanb -eg ^er ; to go to 

the country, aufg Sanb ge^en 
cousin, ber better -g -n 
covered, bebecft 
cow, bie $uf) ^e 
crawl, friectyen 
create, jrfjaffen 
cry, fc^reien 
cup, bie Xafle 



daily, tdglid^ 

danger, bie efatyr 

dark, finfter 

dative, ber 2)atit) -g -e 

daughter, bie Xocfjter JL 

day, ber ag -eg -e ; this day, tyeute 

dead, tot 

dear, teuer 

death, ber 5tob -eg 

debt, bie @tf)ulb -en 

decide, fid) entftf)liej$en 

deed, bie Xat -en 

deep, tief 

defeat, befiegen 

depart, abreifen 

diamond, ber )iamant -en -en 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



143 



die, fterben 

difference, ber Unterfd^ieb -eg -e 

difficulty, bag ^inbernig -ffeg -ffe 

diligence, ber gleif; -eg 

diligent, fleijjig 

disagreeable, unangeneljm 

disappear, Derfdjtwnben 

disappoint, taufd^en 

disgrace, bie djanbe 

distinctly, beutlicf) 

distinguish, unterfdjeiben 

disturb, ftoren 

do, tun 

doctor, ber Slrjt -eg *e 

dog, ber unb -eg -e 

doll, bie $uppe 

donkey, ber (Sfel -g - 

door, bie ur -en 

dozen, bag 2)ufcenb -g -e 

drama, bag Xrama -g -en 

draw, jiefjen 

dress, fid) anie(jen ; bag $leib -eg -er 

drink, trinfen 

drive, treiben ; to take a drive, fpa= 

jieren fa^ren 
dry, trodfen 
duke, ber ersog -g ^e 
during, rca^renb 
dust, ber (Staub -g 
duty, bie ^fltd)t -en 

E 

each, jeber 
early, frii^ 
earth, bie @rbe 
easily, (eid^t 
Easter, bie Dftertt 
eat, effen, (devour) freffen 
Edward, buarb 
effects, bie golgen 



egg, bag @i -g -er 
eight, ad^t 

either ... or, entraeber . . . ober 
elephant, ber lefant -en -en 
eleven hundred, elffyunbert 
Elizabeth, (glifabct^ 
emperor, ber $aifer -g - 
endure, leiben 
enemy, ber getnb -eg -e 
England, nglanb 
English, englifrf) 
enough, genug 
entire, fa'mmtlid^ 
especially, befonberg- 
Europe, (Suropa 
European, ber uropaer -g - 
even, aurf) ; even if, roenn aucf) 
evening, ber 2lbenb -g -e; this eve- 
ning, fjeute abenb 
ever, je 

every, jeber ; every one, ein jeber 
everybody, jebermann 
everything, atteg 
everywhere, iiberall 
exceedingly, a'ufjerft 
excellent, rortrefflid^ 
exercise, bie Slufgabe 
exert one's self, fic anftrengen 
expect, erraarten 
expense, bie ^ed^nung 
experience, bie (Srfa^rung 
explain, erJIaren 
extravagant, t)erjc^raenberifc 
eye, bag Sluge -g -n 



factory, bie gabrif 
faith, ber laube -ng -n 
faithful, treu 
fall, fallen; ber erbft -eg -e 



144 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



family, bie gamilie 

famous, beriifytnt 

far, twit 

farmer, ber SBauer -g (-n) -n 

fast, fdjneil 

father, ber SSater -g * 

fault, bie <5d)ulb -en 

fear, fid) fiird)ten (t)or) ; bie gurcljt 

feather, bie geber 

February, ber gebruar 

feel, fid) fiifylen 

few, toenige ; a few, einige, roenige 

field, bag gelb -eg -er 

fight, fed)ten,'!ampfen 

find, finben 

finger, ber ginger -g - 

finish, t)ollenben 

fire, bag geuer -g - 

fireman, ber geuerroetyrmcmn -g 

-leute 
first, erft 

fish, ber gifd) -eg -e 
five, fiinf 
flag, bie gaf)ne 
flatter, fid) fc^meid^eln 
flee, flie^en 
flourish, gebeiljen 
flow, flie^en 
flower, bie SBlume; flower garden, 

ber Slumengarten -g * 
fly, fliegen 

follow, folgen (with dat.) 
food, bie $oft 
foot, ber gu^ -eg ^e 
for, prep, fiir, feit ; conj. benn 
foreign, fremb 
forest, ber SBalb -eg ^er 
forget, aergeffen 
fork, bie abel 
former, jener 



fortune, bag liicl -g 

four, t)ier 

fourfold, Dierfaltig 

fourteen, trierjetyn 

fox, ber gud^g -eg *e 

Fred, gri| 

Frederick the Great, griebritf) ber 



French, franjofiftf) 
Frenchman, ber grangofe -n -n 
fresh, frifd) 

friend, ber greunb -eg -e 
frighten, erfcfyrec!en (weak trans., 

strong intr.) 
from, t)on 
fry, braten 



gain, ber enrinn -g -e 

garden, ber arten -g "- 

gardener, ber tirtner -g - 

general, ber gelb^err -n -en 

generally, geroofjnlirf) 

gentleman, ber err -n -en 

George, eorg 

German, beutfd^ 

Germany, 2)eutfd)lanb 

get (become), rcerben ; get up, auf= 

fte^en 

girl, bag 2fta'bdl)en -g - 
give, geben 
glad, to be, fid) freuen 
gladly, gern 
glass, bag lag -eg *er 
gloomy, triib 
glorious, glorreid^ 
go, ge^en ; go along, mitgefyen ; go 

out, auggefyen, E)inaug ge^en 
God, ber ott -eg ^er 
gold, golben; bag olb -eg 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



- good, gut 
goodness, bie iite 
grandmother, bie roftmutter JL 
grant, geben 
grape, bie Xraube 
gray, grau 
great, grofc 

green, grtin ; bag rim -eg 
greet, grujjen, begriifjen 
grow, raadjfen ; grow old, alt raerben 



hair, bag aar -eg -e 

half, fjalb ; bie fcalfte 

hand, bie anb -eg "e 

hang, fyangen 

happen, gefrf)ef)en 

na PP7> glurflirf) 

harbor, ber afen -g - 

hard, I) art 

Harry, ^einj 

hasten, eilen, firf) beeilen 

hat, ber ut -eg *e 

have, ^aben ; have to, miifjen 

hawk, ber abicf)t -g -e 

head, ber opf -eg ^e 

hear, E)5ren 

heart, bag ^erg -eng -en 

heat, bie rifce 

heaven, ber Spimmel -g - 

heavy, fc^raer 

heiress, bie rbin 

Helen, elene 

help, (jelfen 

Henry, einrid^ 

here, E)ier 

Herman, ermann 

hide, jic^ oerftetfen 

high, ^od^ 



hold, 

holiday, ber geiertag -eg -e ; the 

holidays, bie gerie-n 
home, nad) aufe ; at home, 511 auf e 
honest, etyrlitf) 
honor, bie (Sfjre 

hope, offen, (expect) erroarten 
horse, bag ^Pferb -eg -e 
hot, ei 

hotel, bag otel -g -g 
hour, bie (Stunbe ; a quarter of an 

hour, eine SSiertelftunbe 
house, bag aug -eg ^er 
how, rate 

hunting, to go, auf bie 3 a 9^ QC^en 
hurt one's self, fid) roel) tun 
husband, ber atte -u -n, ber 3ft ann 

-eg *er 
hut, bie Spiitte 



ice, bag @ig -eg 
idleness, ber aftiifctg 
if, raetm 
illness, bie 
imagine, fid) einbilben 
immediately, fofort, jogleid) 
impossible, unmoglic^ 
in, in ; in order to, um 
increase, gunefytnen 
induce, beraegen 
industrious, fleifjig 
influence, beeinfluffen 
inheritance, bie @rbfd)aft 
ink, bie Xinte 
intend, beabfttf)tigen 
interesting, interefjant 
into, in 
invite, einlaben 



146 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



January, ber 

John, ^o^ann, ang 

Joseph, 

June, ber 

Jupiter, ber 

just, eben, gerabe; just as, ebenfo 

K 

keep, befjalten 
key, ber <5tf)luffel -g - 
kill, toten 

kinds of, two, groeierlei 
king, ber $omg -g -e 
kitchen, bie $itrf)e 
knife, bag Sfteffer -g - 
knight, ber fitter -8 - 
knock, flopfen 
know, roiffen, fennen 



laborer, ber Slrbeiter -g - 

lady, bie 2)ame 

lake, ber (See -g -n 

lame, lafym 

land, bag Sanb -eg -^er 

language, bie prad^e 

large, grof; 

last, le^t ; last time, gum le^ten 3JJal 

late, jpa't 

Latin, bag Satetn -3 

latter, biefer 

laugh, lad^en (ilber) 

lawyer, ber 2lbuo!at -en -en 

lay, legen ; lay waste, uernwften 

lazy, faul 

lead pencil, ber SBleiftift -^ -e 

leaf, bag Slatt -eg ^er 

learn, (ernen 



least, raenigft; at least, roenigfteng 
lecture, ber SSortrag -g ^c, bie 3Sor= 

lefung 

leg, bag 23ein -eg -e 
lend, leiljen 
less, toeniger 
lesson, bie 2lufgabe 
letter, ber Srief -eg -e 
lie, Uegen 
life, bag Seben -g 
lift, ^eben 
like, gern (with a verb, as gern fyaben, 

gern efjen) 

lion, ber Soroe -n -n 
little, (of size) Hetn, (of quantity) 

roentg ; a little, ein tpenig 
live, leben, roo^nen 
loan, leifyen 

long, long ; no longer, nidjt me^r 
look, augfeE)en; look around, fid) 

umfefyen (nad^) 
lose, t)erlieren ; lose one's way, fidj 

Dertrren 
loud, Unit 
Louise, Suife 
lovable, liebengrourbig 
love, Iteben ; ' bie Siebe 

M 

maid, bie Sftagb ^e 

make, madden 

man, ber 2J?ann -eg -^er, ber 30?enfd^ 

-en -en 
many, mel 
march, marjd^ieren 
Margaret, SOtogarete 
mark, bie 3D^ar! 
marry, fjeiraten ; to get married, fidl) 

cer^eiraten 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



147 



Mars, ber 3J?arg 

Mary, 2ftarte 

matter, bie adje 

may, biirfen, mogen 

meal, bag 3M)l -g 

mean, meinen 

measure, ntefjen 

meat, bag gletfd) -eg 

meet, begegneu (with dat.), treffen 

meeting, bie 23erfantmlung 

melt, frfjme^en 

members, (of the body] bie Iteber 

merchant, ber $aufmann -g -leute 

merry, guteg -UJutg 

metal, bag detail -g -e 

Meyer, 3J2ener 

milk, bie 

mill, bie 

miller, ber 2ftiiller -g - 

mind, ber inn -eg -e; make up 

one's mind, fid) entfd^Ite^en 
mirror, ber (Spiegel -g - 
misfortune, bag Ungliic! -g 
mistaken, to be, ftd^ irren 
mitten, ber anbftf)uE) -g -e 
modest, beftfjeiben 
Monday, ber aftontag 
money, bag elb -eg -er 
month, ber aftonat -g -e 
moon, ber -JRonb -eg -e 
morals, bie itten 
more, tnefyr 
morning, ber 3)2orgen -g - ; this 

morning, Ijeute morgett 
mother, bie Gutter * 
mountain, ber 33erg -eg -e 
mouse, bie 2ftaug ^c 
move, giefyen (intr.}, fid^ beroegen 

(trans.) 
Mr., err 



much, mel 

multiplication table, bag @inma(= 

eing - 

music, bie aftufif 
must, tniiffen 
myself, jelbft 

N 

nail, ber 3?agel -g * 

name, ber 9? ante -ng -n; to name, 

nennen ; to be called, f>eif;en 
nature, bie -ftatur 
near, na^, bet, neben 
need, braud^en 
neighbor, ber 5^ad^bar -g -n 
neither . . . nor, roeber . . . ttod) 
nephew, ber 9teffe -n -n 
never, nte 
new, neu 
New Year's Day, ber ^euja^rgtag 

-eg -e 

New York, 9?eut)or? (^ero 5)orf) 
news, bie ^ac^rtd^t 
next, nad^ft 
niece, bie -fttcfyte 
night, bie S^ad^t ^e 
ninety, neunjtg 
no, adj. fetn; adv. netn; no one, 

ntemanb 
noble, ebel 

nobleman, ber belmann -g -leute 
nonsense, ber llnftnn -g 
north, ber -ftorben -g 
nose, bie -ftafe 
not, ntd^t ; not a, fetn ; not only, 

ntrf)t nur; not yet, nodj ntrf)t 
nothing, nid^tg 
noun, bag Spaiiptroort -g ^er 
now, jet 
number, bie 



148 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



oats, ber afer -g 

obedient, gefyorjam 

obey, gef:)ortf)en 

object, bag Dbje!t -g -e 

obliged to, to be, miiffen 

occur, t)orlommen 

o' clock, one, ein Ufyr 

of, Don 

offend, beleibigen 

offer, bieten 

often, oft 

oil, bag Dt -eg -e 

old, alt 

on, auf f an ; on account of, roegen 

once, einmal ; at once, jofort 

one, man, einer 

only, nur 

open, offnen, fidj offnen 

operation, bie Operation 

opinion, bie 9JJeinung 

opposite, gegenuber 

or, ober 

other, anber 

otherwise, fonft 

ought, follen 

out of, aug 

outside, brauften 

over, iiber 

overcoat, ber llberrocf -3 "e 

overcome, uberttrinben 

own, eigen 



page, bie ette 
painting, bag emtilbe -g - 
pair, bag ^aar -eg -e 
palace, ber ^alaft -g ^e 
paper, bag papier -g -e 



parents, bie Item 

Paris, ^arig 

park, ber $ar! -g -e (-g) 

parson, ber ^Pfarrer -g - 

partake, genie^en 

patient, ber patient -en -en 

Paul, ^aul 

pay, bejaljlen 

pea, bie @rbfe 

peace, ber griebe -ng 

pear, bie SBirne 

peasant, ber Sauer -g (-n) -n 

peculiar, bejonber 

pen, bie geber 

pencil, ber Sleiftift -g -e 

people, bie Seute 

permitted, to be, burfen 

physician, ber Slrjt -eg tt e 

piano, bag Glacier -g -e 

pick, pflitcfen 

picture, bag 33ilb -eg -er 

place, ftellen ; bie tette . 

plant, pflanjen ; bie ^flange 

plate, ber teller -g - 

please, bitte 

plum, bie ^pflaume 

poem, bag @ebid;t -g -e 

poet, ber 2)ict)ter -g - 

poor, arm 

potato, bie artoffel 

pound, bag ^pfunb -eg -e 

poverty, bie 5lrmut 

powder, bag ^Suluer -g 

Prague, ^rag 

praise, loben 

pray, beten 

prefer, lieber (with a verb, as lieber 

effen) 

present, bag efcfyen! -g -e 
president, ber ^rafibent -en -en 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



149 



pretty, 

pride, bie orf)mut 

prince, ber ^rinj -en -en 

professor, ber ^Srofeflor -g -en 

progress, ber gortfdjrttt -g -e 

proverb, bag prirfjroort -g *er 

Prussia, ^reufcen 

punish, beftrafen 

pupil, ber <Srf)iUec -g - 

put, ftellen ; put off, auffrf)ieben 



quarter of an hour, eine SSiertel= 

ftunbe 

quickly, jtfjnell 
quite, fefyr 

R 

railroad accident, bag @tfenbaljn= 

unglitcf -g -gfa'Ue 
rain, regnen ; ber ^egen -g - 
raise, bauen 

rapidity, bie c^nelligfeit 
rarely, felten 
rat, bie ^atte 
read, lefen 
ready, bereit 
receive, befommen 
recite, ^erfagen 
recognize, erfennen 
recover, genejen 
red, rot 
reddish, rotlic^ 

regiment, bag Regiment -3 -er 
region, bag ebiet -S -e 
rejoice, jtrf) freuen (iiber) 
relative, ber SSernwnbte -n -n 
remain, bleiben 
reply, antroorten 



republic, bie 

rest one's self, ftc^ augru^en 

return, guriitffommen 

revolve, ftc^ bretyen 

reward, belo^nen 

rich, reid^ 

ride at full speed, fprengen 

rider, ber better -g - 

right, rerf)t 

ring, tauten 

Ring Street, bie 9ttngftrafje 

ripe, reif 

rise, ftetgen, (of the sun} aitfge^en 

river, ber glufl -fleg 'fjc 

rock, rciegen ; ber tein -eg -e 

roof, bag 2)arf) -eg -"er 

room, bag Qimmev -g - 

rose, bie 9?ofe 

run, laufen 



sack, ber atf -eg *e 

same, berfelbe 

satisfy, befriebigen 

save, retten 

say, fagen 

school, bie <Srf)iile 

see, f efjen ; go to see, befitcfyen 

seem, fc^einen 

self, felbft 

sell, uerfaufen 

send, fdjiden, fenben 

sentence, ber <3a -eg ^e 

servant, ber Wiener -g - 

set out, abretfen 

seven, fieben 

several, meljrere, eintge 

shall, follen, (of futurity) roerben 

sheep, bag d^af -eg -e 

sheer, lauter 



ISO 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



shepherd, ber irt -en -en 

shoe, ber d)ufy -eg -e 

short, lurj 

show, geigen 

sick, Iran! 

silent, to be, fdjroeigen 

since, prep, feit; conj. ba 

sing, ftngen 

sink, untergefyen 

sister, bie cfyroefter 

sit,*fi|en; sit down, ficfy fyinfe^en 

six, fecfyg 

skate, d)littfd)uf) laufen 

sled, ber djlitten -g - 

sleep, fdjlafen; go to sleep, ein= 

fd)lafen 
small, flein 
Smith, djtnibt 
snow, ber djnee -g 
so, fo 

soldier, ber olbat -en -en 
some, etroag, einige, roelcfye; some 

people, manege Seute 
somebody, jemanb 
something, etroaS 
son, ber (SoEjn -eS *e 
song, ber efang -S -"c 
soon, balb 
sorrow, bie (Sorge 
soup, bie (Suppe 
sour, fauer 
south, ber iiben - 
spade, ber paten -3 - 
spark, ber gunfe -n3 -n 
sparkle, funfeln 
speak, jprec^en 
spend, au^geben 
spring, ber grueling -S -e 
stairway, bie reppe 
stamp, bie SBriefmarfe 



stand, fte^en 

start, anfangen 

state, ber taat -e -en 

stately, ftattlid) 

station, ber Sa^n^of -g ^e 

stay, bleiben 

steal, ftefjlen 

step, treten 

still, noc^ 

stir, jic^ bercegen 

stop, cmfOoren 

storm, ber turm -eg *c 

story, bie efd^tc^ie 

stove, ber Dfen -g ^ 

stranger, ber grembe (declined as adj.) 

stream, ber trom -eg ** 

street, bie trafje 

strengthen, ftdrfen 

string, ber gab en -g * 

strong, ftar! 

struggle, ber.5!ampf -eg ^t 

student, ber tubent -en -en 

study, ftubteren 

stupid, bumm 

stupidity, bie SDummtyett 

succeed, gelingen (impers. with dat. 

of the person) 
success, ber (Srfolg -g -e 
successful, erfolgreic^ 
such, fold); such a, fold), (or fo) etn 
suffer, letben 

suit, gefaHen ; ber Slngug -g -"e 
sum, bie umme 
summer, ber ommer -g - 
sun, bie onne 
Sunday, ber omttag 
sundown, ber onnenuntergang -g 
surely, genrif; 

surprise, bie liberrafd^ung 
surprised, to be, fief) nwnbern 



ENGLISH-GERMAN VOCABULARY 



swallow, bie 
sweet, fiif; 
swim, fdjnrimmen 
Switzerland, bie <Sdjroei 



table, ber Xifdj -eg -e 
tailor, ber (Scfyneiber -g - 
take, netymen ; take a drive, 

ren fafyren ; take off, au^te^en 
talented, begabt 
talk, fprecfjen 
tall, grof; 
tea, ber Xee -g 
teacher, ber Sefjrer -g - 
teamster, ber gufyrmann -g -leute 
tear, bie rane 
tell, fagen, (relate) er^aljlen 
ten, gefjn 
than, alg, rate 
thank, banfen (with ctat.) 
the, (</<?/". 0r*.) ber, bie, bag ; (correL 

adv.) the . . . the, je . . . befto 
there, ba, e^ 
thief, ber 2)ieb -eg -e 
think, benten, glauben, nteinen 
this, biefer 
three times, breimal 
through, burc 
throw, raerfen 
ticket, bie ga^r!arte, ba3 

-e (-S) 

time, bie 3^t 
to-day, ^eute 
to-morrow, morgen 
too, aud^, gu 
tooth, ber Qa^n -eg *c 
top, ber tpfel - - 
torn, jerriflen 
town, bie labt -e 



train, 

translate, iiberfe^en 

travel, reifen 

tree, ber Saum -eg K 

trip, bie Dieije 

trouble, bie 

true, raa^r 

trust, trauen (with dat) 

truth, bie SSa^r^eit 

tub, ber 3uber -g - 

turnip, bie ^iifce 

twelve, jraolf 

twenty-four, trierimbatDanjig 

two, jraei ; two kinds of, groeterlei 

U 

umbrella, ber ^egenfcfyirm -g -e 
uncle, ber Dnfel -g - 
under, unter 
understand, Derfte^en 
undertake, unternetymen 
university, bie llnit)erfitat 
until, big 
use, gebraucfyen 
useful, nii^Iid^ 
usually, geroofynltdj 



vacation, bie gerien (//.) 
valley, bag Xal -eg *er 
vegetables, bag emiife -g 
verb, bag Qeitroort -g "er 
very, fefyr ; very much, fetyr 
vex, argern 
vice, bag Safter -g - 
victory, ber @ieg -eg -e 
village, bag >orf -eg *er 
vinegar, ber @ffig -g 
violently, f)eftig 
visit, befud^en 



152 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



W 

wagon, ber SBagen -g - 

wake up, cwfroadjen 

wall, bie SBanb *e 

want, rooUen; bie -ftot 

warm, roarm 

wash, nwjdjen 

waste, Derfdjroenben ; lay waste, t)er= 

roitften 

watch, bie llfjr -en 
water, (horses) trdnfen, (plants) be= 

giefeen; bag Staffer -g - 
weak, frf)tt)adj 
wear, tragen 
week, bie 2Bod)e 
weigh, ttriegen 
welcome, tt)ill?ommen 
well, gefunb, gut, roofyl; bev 33run= 

n en -3 - 

well-formed, roofylgebilbet 
whale, ber SBalfijrf) -cS -e 
what, roa3, raeld^er ; what kind of, 

ttmS fiir ein 

when, raann, raenn, al^ 
where, n)0 
wherever, TOO immer 
whether, ob 
which, roeldjer 
while, rad^renb 
white, raeif; 
whoever, n)er 
why, raarum 



widow, bie SBitroe 

wife, bie grau -en 

will, rcollen, (of futurity) toerben 

William II, SBt^elm II. 

wind, ber SBinb -e -e 

window, bag genfter -S - 

wine, ber SBein -eg -e 

winter, ber SBtnter -g - 

wisdom, bie 

wise, flug 

wish, roollen, 

with, mit 

without, ofjne 

wolf, ber 23BoIf -eg *e 

woman, bie ^$\,&\\, -en 

word bag SBort -eg ^er 

work, arbetten; bie 2lrbett, bag 

2Berf -eg -e 

workman, ber Slrbeiter -g - 
world, bie 9Bett -en 
worth, ber SBert -g 
wound, bie SBunbe 
write, fdjretben 



yard, ber of -eg *e 
year, bag Sa^r -eg -e 
yellow, gelb 
yes, ja 

yesterday, geftern 
yet, bocf), nod) 
young, jung 



INDEX 



The references are to sections of the text. 



aber, 177 

accent, 12 

adjectives, 75-109: 

comparison of, 98-109 ; declen- 
sion of, 84-86, 108 ; demonstrative, 
91-96; indefinite numeral, 90; in- 
terrogative, 97; limiting, 75; par- 
ticipial, 87; possessive, 32, 89; 
proper, 88 ; qualifying, 75 ; table 
of endings, 81 ; used as nouns, 86 ; 
vowel mutation in, 109 

adverbs, 110-116 

all, 90, note 5 

alphabet, 1 

al3, 31, 103, 183, 185 

ate ob, 285, 4 

am form of the superlative, 106, 2 ; 
111 

article, 25-32, 173 : 

definite, 25~29, 173; indefinite, 
30-32 

aufftefyen, 247 

bringen, 230 

capitals, 23 
conjunctions, 174-186: 

coordinate, 174-180; subordinate, 

181-186 

consonant combinations, 4 

ba + preposition, 128 
biefer, 91 



diphthongs, 3, 9 

bu, 131 
bun!en, 230 
burfen, 271 

etn paar, 90, i a 
ein roenig, 90, 2 a 
eitel, 90, 3 a 
eg gibt, 279, 5 

former, 158 

ganj, 90, note 4 
gefjen, 236 
gender, 70~74 
genug, 90, 3 a 
gerundive, 202 
griifjen, 229 

Ejaben, 206, 207, 222 
b, 90, note 4 
226 

rjorf), 99 

tf)r, 89, 123, 131, 136, 138, note 
imperative, 234-237, 240-244 

impersonal verbs, 279 
indefinite pronouns, 161-163 
indicative, present, of strong verbs, 

232-238 

indirect discourse, 286-289 
infinitive, 198, 199, 274 



'53 



154 



HANDBOOK OF GERMAN GRAMMAR 



interjections, 187 

interrogative pronouns, 141-143 

jeber, 162 
jemcmb, 161 

feitt, 30, 162 
fennen, 230 
fonnen, 271 

lafjen -f- infinitive, 276 
latter, 158 
Icwter, 90, 3 a 
ioben, 224 

man, 161, 266, i 

manrf), 90, note i 

mefyr, 90, 3 a 

mefyrer-, 90, note 2 

mein, 89 

metner, 136, 137 

modal auxiliaries, 267-278 

mood, 280 

mutated vowels, 2 

mutation, in adjectives, 109 ; in 

nouns, 35, 39, 46, 51, 54, 55 ; in 

verbs, 233, 244 

naf), 99 

md)t, 308 

nid)t3, 161 

nouns, 33-74 : 

declension of, 33-61 ; class I, 
strong, 44-48; class II, strong, 
49-51; class III, strong, 52-54; 
mixed, 59~61 ; weak, 56~58 ; with 
borrowed plurals, 65 ; differentia- 
tion of, 66 ; list of, 322-339 ; mono- 
syllabic, 322-326, 333-336 ; poly- 
syllabic, 327-332 ; with mutation, 



322-332 ; without mutation, 333- 
339 ; of weight, 62, 63 ; proper, 
67-69 
numerals, 117-122 

order of words, 290-310 : 

inverted, 293 ; normal, 292 ; trans- 
posed, 294 

participles, 87, 201, 203, 275 

passive voice, 260-266 

prefixes, 250-252 

prepositions, 164-173 

principal parts of nouns, 34 ; of 
verbs, 197 

pronouns, 123-163 : 

demonstrative, 152-160 ; indef- 
inite, 161-163 ; interrogative, 141- 
143; personal, 123-131; posses- 
sive, 136-140; reflexive, 132-135, 
254, 255 ; relative, 144-151 

pronunciation, 6~13 

reben, 229 
rubern, 226 

fdjlagen, 231 

fefjen, 235, 241 

jein, 208, 209, 221, 276 

felber, felbft, 133 

fid) fcfylagen, 258 

fi$ umfeljen, 259 

fie, 123 

@te, 123, 131 

fold), 96, 156 

fonbern, 178 

jtefjen, 236 

subjunctive, 280-289; vowel of 
present, 205; vowel of imper- 
fect, 245 



INDEX 



I5S 



superlative, 104-108, 111-116 

syllables, division into, 14-22 

tenses, formation of, 211-220 
unreal conditions, 285, 3 

verbs, 189-298 : 

auxiliary, 190 ; conjugation of, 
221-265 ; differentiation of, 320, 
321 ; endings of, 225 ; impersonal, 
279; in eln, ern, 226; in ieren, 
eien, 203 ; inseparable, 248, 249 ; 
irregular weak, 230 ; list of strong, 
319; modal auxiliary, 267-278; 
present indicative of, 232-238; 
present subjunctive of, 204, 205 ; 
reflexive, 253-259 ; separable, 
246, 259 ; stem of, 200 ; strong, 
231-245; strong verbs with a, 
232, 233; strong verbs with e, 
232, 234-236 ; weak, 224-230 



n, 249 
triel, 90, 3 c 

voice, 196 ; passive, 260-266 
vowels, 6-9, 39, 205, 232-238, 311 : 

gradation of, 311-318 ; in present 
indicative, 232-238; in present 
subjunctive, 205 ; in imperfect 
subjunctive, 245 ; mutation of, 
39, 46, 51, 54, 55 ; pronunciation 
of, 6-9 

rocmn, 183, 184 

nmS, 141-144, 148, 161, note 

wa% fur ein, 97, 141 

weight, nouns of, 62, 63 

roenig, 90, 3 c 

roenn, 183, 186 

roer, 141, 142, 144, 147, 163 

roerben, 223 

roifjen, 271 

WO + preposition, 143, 146 




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