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BV 1090 .N5 1892 

A Hand-book of the history 
sAei organization, and methods 




ioMi lea's Ctirlslian Associalioas. 



The International Committee of Young Men-s Christian Asbociations, 
no. 40 east twenty-third street, 







The demand for a course of study regarding the work of 
the Young Men's Christian Associations led to the prepara- 
tion of an '* Outline of Study" by the International Com- 
mittee in 1881. During the next live years this passed 
through seven editions, each of which was revised and 

In 1885 the opening of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation Training School, at Springfield, Mass., occasioned 
an immediate demand for a text book covering the history, 
organization, and methods of Association work, upon some 
phases of which there was no printed information. 

No sooner was it proposed to undertake such a work 
than inquiries were made concerning it by several classes 
of young men, whose needs have been kept in mind in its 

1. — Students in the Training School, and others who are 
not able to attend it but desire to prepare for the secretary- 
ship as best they may at home. 

2. — Young men engaged in professional or business life, 
and students in colleges, who are investigating the work 
with a view to entering it. 

3. — Men already engaged in the work who have had 
little or no opportunity for systematic preparation, but 
who are eagerly seeking it. 

4. — Leaders of training classes who desire to use portions 


of such a book in their classes with a view to developing 
men for the work. 

5. — Secretaries who would use it in giving information 
to directors or committee men regarding certain lines of 

Being written from this standpoint, the book contains 
much that is already familiar to the experienced Associa- 
tion worker. 

The average Association, with a general secretary and 
owning or expecting to own a building adapted to its 
tvork, has been kept in view throughout the book, but sug- 
gestions are also offered bearing upon the work of the 
larger and smaller Associations. 

Little claim is made to originality. Every available 
source of information has been drawn upon. To any who 
may recognize in the text their own thoughts as expressed 
elsewhere, hearty thanks are tendered. The courtesy with 
which numerous letters of inquiry have been answered and 
local documents furnished is also acknowledged. The 
publications of the International Committee and "The 
Watchman," now the "Young Men's Era," have been 
largely drawn upon. In this mass of material great 
diversity of views was found regarding methods of work. 
Those suggested in the book have usually been practically 
tested. The text is believed to be in harmony with the 
deliverances of the International Conventions. 

Portions of the original text were read by Cephas 
Brainerd, B. C. Wetmore, R. R. McBurney, Richard C. 
Morse, P. Augustus Wieting, I. E. Brown, R. M. Arm- 
strong, David McConaughy, Jr., Robert A. Orr, D. A. 
Budge, W. H. Morriss, Edwin F. See, and others, all of 
whom offered valuable suggestions. These have generally 
been incorporated into the book. Similar help has been 
given by a number of physical directors in criticising 
chapter 25. Much of the book has been used in manu- 
script in the Training Schools at Springfield and Chicago. 


A volume treating of the subjects contained in the first 
seventeen chapters of this book was published in 1888, with 
the hope that it might be followed within a year by 
another. But the editors and the friends upon whose 
counsel they relied were all busy men in other directions, 
much comparison of views was necessary, and it was im- 
possible to prepare the latter part of the work for the 
press until the entire edition of the first volume was 
exhausted. As various changes were then found to be 
desirable in the matter already printed, it was thought 
best to revise it and to issue the whole work in the present 
single volume. The changes just alluded to are usually 
in the line of explanation or expansion, and not of 
variation from the views formerly expressed. 

It was deemed best to print a limited edition of the 
former book. An increase in the size of the present 
edition renders possible a reduction in price. 

The statistics given regarding the Associations are for 
the year 1890. 

The term '' International pamphlets," as used here 
(abbreviated to Int, pphs.), refers to the publications on 
sale at the office of the International Committee, 40 East 
23d Street, New York City, a list of which will be sent on 

If any young man who is inquiring how he may assist 
his fellows to a nobler Christian manhood shall be helped 
by the study of the following pages, this work will have 
served its purpose. 

October 1, 1892. 




Chap. 1.— The Field and its Limits. 

Sect. A. — Why this work is needed 15 

" B. — A definite work— for and by young men IG 

*' C— The aim distinctively religious ... 17 

" D.— Relation to the Church 18 

Chap. 2.— Summary ob^ the Work. 

Sect. A. — A general statement 22 

" B. — The means employed in cities .... 33 

" C. — The means employed in small towns . 34 
Chap. 3.— The Rise and Growth op the Associa- 

Sect. A. — Origin of the present movement ... 36 

" B. — Earlier work for young men . . . , 30 
" C. — Introduction into America, and work 

prior to the civil war 36 

" D. — Army work 40 

" E.— Resumption of home work 41 

" F. — Development of the work 46 

^ " G.— Loyalty to the Church 61 



Chap. 4.— Organization. 

Sect. A. — When and how to organize 66 

" B.— Practical hints 69 


Chap. 5.— Tj'e Constitutiox. 

Sect. A. — General considerations 71 

" B. — A suggestive outline 72 

Chap. 6.— Branches and Sub-Organizations. 

Sect. A. — Branches 76 

" B. — Sub-organizations 79 

Chap. 7.— The Management. 

Sect. A. — The directors 81 

" B.— The officers 87 

Chap. 8.— Standing Committees. 

Sect. A.— Importance, enlistment and composi- 
tion 90 

" B. — How to organize a committee ; the 

chairman, etc 93 

" C— Principles and methods of construction 96 

Diagram of plan of organization ... 99 

" D. — Names and duties 100 

Chap. 9.— Membership. 

Sect. A. — Classes of membership 105 

" B. — How to secure members 106 

" C. — The membership committee .... 108 

" D. — How to retain members 110 

" E. — Fees, tickets, records, and exchange . . Ill 
" F. — The development of active members . 114 
" G.— The associate membership and its rela- 
tions 117 

" H. — The members* meeting or reception . . 118 
Chap. 10.— The General Secretary. 

Sect. A.— The office and work 123 

" B. — The qualifications 125 

Chap. 11.— The General Secretary— His Rela- 
tionships. ^ 

Sect. A. — To churches and pastors 131 

B. — To officers, 'directors, and committees . 133 

C— To other employes 136 

D.— To the members 138 

E.— To the religious work 139 

F. — To the business community 139 

G.— To the press 140 

H. — To his fellow secretaries 141 

Chap. 12.— The General Secretary— Personal 

Hints 143 

contents. ix 

Chap. 13.— Securing and Training Employed 
Officers of the Associations. 

Sect. A. — Demand and supply 154 

'' B. — Methods of training 155 

Chap. 14.— The Association Home. 

Sect. A. — Advantages of owning a building . . 158 

" B.— Location 161 

" C. — Arrangement and construction . . . 162 

" D.— Equipment 174 

Chap. 15.— Care op the Home. 

Sect. A.— General principles 176 

" B. — Repairs and safety 177 

" C. — Order and cleanliness 179 

Chap. 16.— How to get a Building. 

Sect. A.— Preparatory work 181 

" B. — Plan of a canvass 184 

'' C— Hints and cautions 190 

Chap. 17.— The Building Movement 193 



Chap. 18.— Current Finances. 

Sect. A. — Ways and means 198 

" B. — Collections and disbursements . . . . 204 

" C. — Financial bookkeeping 206 

Chap. 19.— Real Estate and Endowment Funds. 

Sect. A.— Incorporation 210 

" B. -Trustees 211 

" C— Endowment 214 

" D. — Debt, taxes, insurance, and leases. . . 216 

Chap. 20.— Records and Public Presentation of 
THE Work. 

Sect. A. — Records and statistics 219 

*' B. — Anniversaries 221 

" C— The parlor conference 224 

*' D.— Printed matter 225 

x contents. 

Chap. 21.— The Bible in Association Work. 

Sect. A. — Individual study, objects, methods, and 

helps 22& 

" B. — Class study, 

1. — A Bible class indispensable . . . 335 

2. — Relation of the general secretary 335 
3.— Divisions — beginners', advanced, 

and training classes 236 

4. — Time, place, and appliances , , . 237 

5.— The teacher 338 

6.— The class 238 

7.— The topics 339 

8. — Preparing the lesson 240 

9. — Teaching the lesson 341 

10.— The training class 243 

" C. — Practical work with the unconverted. 

1. — Personal work 246 

3. — The evangelistic Bible class . . . 350 
3. — The Bible in the evangelistic meet- 
ing 353 

'* D. — Bible readings 353 

Chap. 22.— Religious meetings, etc. 

Sect. A. — The young men's meeting 355 

" B.— Other meetings at the rooms .... 263 

'' C. — Religious work outside the rooms , . 365 

Chap. 33. — The Place and Value of the Secular 

Departments 269 

Chap. 34.— The Educational Department. 

Sect. A.— The reading room 373 

" B.— The library . 379 

" C— Educational classes 389 

" D. — Literary societies 393 

" E. — Lectures and talks 395 


Chap. 35.— The Physical Department. 

Sect. A.— The aim of the department 397 

" B. — Conditions necessary to success . . . 803 

" C— Scientific equipment and methods . . 304 

" D. — Practical equipment and methods . . 311 

" E.— The religious work 333 

" F.— The physical director 335 

" G. — The department committee 330 

contents. xi 

Chap. 26.— The Social Department. 

Sect. A.— The reception committee 340 

" B.— The social rooms 343 

" C. — Social entertainments 345 

Chap. 27.— The Information and Relief Depart- 

Sect. A. — The boarding house bureau 348 

" B.— The employment bureau 351 

" C. — The savings bureau and benefit fund . 352 

" D.— Visiting the sick 353 

" E. — Relieving destitute young men . . . . 354 

Chap. 28.— The Boys' Department. 

Sect. A.— Historical items 356 

*' B. — Necessity, aim and benefits 357 

" C. — Organization 359 

" D.— Methods 361 

Chap. 29.— Work for Special Classes. 

Sect. A. — College students 3G6 

B. — Railroad men . . . ^ 371 

C. — Commercial travellers 376 

D. — Mechanical and manufacturing classes, 379 

E.— Other races 381 

F. — Various other classes 383 

Chap. 30.— Women's Work for YouNa Men . . 387 



Chap. 31.— State and Provincial Work. 

Sect. A. — Growth and organization 391 

" B.— The State Committee 395 

" C— Finances 398 

'' D.— The State Secretary 400 

'' E.— The State Convention. 

1. — Preparatory work, by the State 

Committee 403 

2. — Preparatory work, local .... 407 

3. — At the convention 411 


Sect. F.— The district work. 

1. — Method of organization, the com- 
mittee, etc 418 

2. — Conferences and visitation . , . 420 

S. — Corresponding members .... 423 

4. — The county work 425 

Sect. G. — The relation of the local Associations to 

the general work 425 

Chap. 32.— The American International Work. 

Sect. A.— Growth and organization 428 

'' B.— The field 430 

" C— The work. 

1. — Supervision and extension . . . 431 

2. — Correspondence 431 

3.— Publications 431 

4. — Securing and training secretaries . 432 

5. — Aid to building enterprises . . . 432 

6. — Aid in securing funds 432 

7.— Aid to state and other conventions 433 

8.— Help in disaster 433 

9. — Secretaries of the committee . . 434 

10. — Finances 435 

11. — The International Convention . 436 

12. — The day and week of prayer . . 438 

Chap. 33.— The World's Conferences and the 

Central International Committee 441 

Appendix, containing Fifty-eight Samples of 
Tickets, Circulars, Rules for Committees, 
Record Books, Report Forms, and other 
Blanks 449 








1. — By the command " Go ye into all the world and 
preach the gospel to every creature," the Church of Christ 
became the divinely commissioned agent for the world's 

2. — The Church catholic, or universal, may be defined 
as the whole body of those who trust in Christ as their 
Savior, and worship God in spirit and in truth. In the 
visible Church f these are gathered into various organized 
bodies — churches or denominations — according to nation- 
ality, doctrine, and polity. 

3. — These churches employ a variety of agencies in the 
prosecution of their work. Some are peculiar to, or under 
the supervision and control of, a single body of Christians. 

* Chapters 1 and 2 are reprinted as Int. pph No. 51. 

t This word, when used collectively in this book, will generally mean the 
whole body of professing Christians gathered into the various evangelical 

14 THE FIELD. Chap. 1, A, 4. 

In other cases several such bodies, or tlieir individual 
members, unite in the management of some enterprise or 
department of Christian work. 

4. — New agencies have from time to time been devised 
and put into operation. Such, however, have seldom 
been adopted without first meeting criticism and opposi- 
tion, only being received into general favor after giving 
practical proof of their usefulness. This statement is 
illustrated in the history of the Sunday-school and the 
missionary movement of the present century. 

5. — There should be no needless multiplication of 
agencies, new ones being introduced only as they are 
demanded by the exigencies of the times, 


v. — In reply it may be stated that : 

a. Young men are, as a class, largely outside the in* 
fluence of the ordinary methods of church work. 

'* There are fully thirteen million youn^ men in the United Statep 
^d Canada. Of this number it is estimated that not more than 
one million are members of evangelical churches. There is little 
doubt that at least seven millions of them habitually stay away 
from all churches. Not more than one-third of the boys remain 
in the Sunday-schools after they reach the age of fifteen. It is 
safe to say that ninety-five per cent, of the young men do little or 
nothing in an aggressive way to promote the organized Christian 
work of the churches." — Int. pph. No. 306, p. 4. 

" About nine-tenths of the entire church membership were con- 
verted before the age of twenty-one. When we consider that the 
majority of church members are women, we can form some esti- 
mate of the exceedingly small number of men who accept Christ 
after passing this age." — Int. pph. No. 27, p. 105.* 

* See also Int. pplis. " Young men united," No. 9, and "Why should we have an 
Association in our town ? " Ko. 551. 

Chap. 1, A, 7. THE FIELD. 15 

h. Such an organization should be interdenominational. 

(1) It is impracticable for most individual churches to 
equip and operate an organization of this character on 
such a scale as to attract irreligious young men. 

(2) A number of denominational societies operating in- 
dependently in the proposed field would come into frequent 
and embarrassing conflict. 

(3) The same *work can be done by a united effort with 
great economy of money, time, and labor. 

(4) Special classes, made up of men with a variety of 
religious ideas and prejudices, can be approached better 
in this way ; union effort disarms prejudice and opens 
doors otherwise closed. 

c. Such an organization is needed, primarily, by all 
classes of young men, and also — in their relations to young 
men — by the churches, the family, the business community, 
and society at large: 

(1) As a manifestation of practical Christian unity. 

(2) To strengthen the bond among the young men of 
the churches by associating them together in Christian 
work and fellowship. 

(3) As a training school. Its fields and methods fur- 
nish opportunities and incitements peculiarly favorable to 
this end, and also means through which the latent talent 
of Christian young men may find a wider range and 
fuller scope than is often possible in their own church work. 

(4) To provide for young men generally opportunity 
for their full and symmetrical development — spiritual, 
mental and physical — and for their mutual benefit in 
healthful social intercourse. 

(5) To fill as far as possible the place of home to the 
large numbers of young men whose social surroundings are 
only those of the average city boarding house. 

(6) As a circle into which a young man without cre- 
dentials can be received until he prove his character. 

(V) As a refuge and counter attraction. In many 
• : ■ ies and towns the only doors open to all, and for full 

26 THE FIELD. Chap. 1, B, 1. 

hours every day of the week, are those of the saloons and 
other vicious resorts. The churches should place over 
against them attractions equally positive and influences as 

(8) As an entrance way. Many who could not be in- 
duced to enter a church to hear the gospel can be led by 
various means into the Association, and through it into- 
the churches. 

(9) To reach and influence special classes of young men, 
such as railroad men or students, who, from similarity of 
employment or any close contact with one another, have 
strong class affiliations and can be gained much more 
readily by such an organization. 

(10) As a bond between the employer and employe, 
providing a resort maintained by their united efforts 
where they may meet in social and religious intercourse. 

(11) To strengthen the young men of the nation to re- 
sist the great evils of the day, some of which threaten the 
foundations of our civil and religious institutions. * 



1. — Every organization should have its definite work. 

2. — The object of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion is to save and develop young men. Since man is a 
compound being, made up of physical and spiritual elements, 
he needs a symmetrical development of the different parts 
of his nature in their mutual relations. The Association 
is working more and more intelligently every year in this 

3. — Experience shows that the permanency and success 

• See Strong's " Our Country," esijccially on immigration, intemperance, 
and socialism. 

t See " Why should our work be for young men exclusively ? " Int. pph. No. 
053, also No. 568. 

Chap. 1, C, 1. THE FIELD. 17 

of individual Associations depend on their confining them- 
selves to this onp object; and certainly this work well 
done will absorb all their energies. 

4. — Young men are the most important element for good 
or evil in a community. For example, it is said that a 
sufficient number of young men become voters every four 
years to hold the balance of power in American politics. 

5. — Few will question that young men as a class are 
peculiarly exposed to evil influences. Satan and his agents 
appeal chiefly to them, and often succeed because a young 
man's heart is not neutral ground. Large numbers of 
young men are absent from home and its restraints, hav- 
no one to look after their best interests. The criminal 
classes are composed very largely of young men.* 

6. — Young men are more open to sympathy and good 
influences than older men. Few men are led into the 
Christian life after the age of young manhood. 

7. — A young man converted means the value of his 
whole after life transferred from the service of Satan to 
that of Christ. 

8. — Young men, as a class, are easily reached and 
powerfully influenced by other young men ; they are readily 
associated together and can thus most effectively bring 
one another under good influences. This is shown by 
their numerous club organizations. The Association 
utilizes this tendency. 



1. — The Young Men's Christian Association originated in 
a meeting for prayer and Bible study. 

* The report of the superintendent of state prisons of the State of New York 
for 1887 showed the average age of 1,425 male prisoners in Siug Sing prison at 
the time of conviction to be 28>^ years. Of this number, 1^88 were under 40 
years, and only 137 beyond that age; 1,012 were under 30 years; and 710, or about 
Lalf the number, were under 24 years: whilw 201, or about one-seventh, were 
under 20 years. Of 851 received during 1887, C07 were single men. 

18 THE FIELD. Chap. 1, C, 2. 

2. — For a time the agencies employed were directly re- 
ligious, and the conversion of young men, together with 
their growth in Christian character, were the only things 
the society sought to accomplish. 

3. — Although the organization almost immediately 
undertook other lines of work for young men (see Chap. 23), 
and has since broadened its work until it embraces the 
development of the whole man, yet its ultimate aim has 
always been the evangelization and Christian culture of 
young men. 

4. The first World's Conference, held at Paris in 1855, 
laid down the following '* basis" : — **The Young Men's 
Christian Associations seek to unite those young men 
who, regarding Jesus Christ as their God and Savior, 
according to the Holy Scriptures, desire to be his disciples, 
in their doctrine and in their life^ and to associate their 
efforts ybr the extension of his kingdom among young 

6. — This basis has been re-affirmed from time to time 
by conventions and conferences in various countries, with 
the addition of details adapted to the work in these 

6. — In every Association the religious work is considered 
to be be the important and crowning feature, toward 
which all the other departments lead up. A large pro- 
portion of the time and thought of the best workers is 
given to it. 




a. The Young Men's Christian Association Is not a 
substitute for the Church, is not a rival of the Church, is 

* For a fuller definition of the evaugelical character of tUe Associations, 
see the Portland resolutious, Chap. 3, F, 2. 

Chap. 1, D. 2. THE FIELD. 19 

not an organization outside of the Church. It cannot 
proselyte from the Church, as only church members are 
admitted to its active, e. e., voting and office-holding, 
membership. It has no ordinances, and men led into the 
Christian life through its agency must seek them in the 
Church. * 

b. It is a product of the Church, and a department of 
its -work. In its entire field it co-operates with the churches 
and contributes to their growth and power. 

c. It is the Church at work, inter denomination ally and 
through its laymen, by and for young men. 

cl The Association was for a time regarded by many 
with a feeling of doubt and even apprehension, because of 
ignorance of its real character and aim, because of ill- 
advised acts or utterances on the part of individuals 
interested in it, and because immature plans and mis- 
taken methods were sometimes adopted and put into 

e. But now that the Association as an institution has 
come to be better known; has proved the practical and help- 
ful character of its work; and is outgrowing, under care- 
ful methods of supervision, the errors and crudities incident 
to its earlier, and necessarily experimental, period ; it is 
cordially and generally approved, and prominent ministers 
of all evangelical bodies are among its ardent friends and 


a. The Young Men's Christian Association has, more 
than any other agency, brought about a fraternal union of 
Christian young men. 

b. Its success has suggested the value of organized work 
among young women and young people generally, and 
such efforts have been greatly multiplied. 

c. Practical and personal Bible study has received de- 
cided impetus. 

* See " Relation to the Church," Int. pph. No. 606, and " Watchman," 1880, 
page 233. Also see " The test of active memberBhip," lafc, pph. No. 556. 

20 THE FIELD. Chap. 1, D, 8. 

d. Emphasis has been given to personal effort, and as a 
result the number of practical every-day workers has been 
increased; and beginners in the Christian life as well as 
inactive laymen have been given something to do, kept at 
work, and so trained for service. 

e. Young men have been taught in the Association that 
the Church is a divine institution. Association members 
are loyal adherents of the Church the Avorld over. (See 
Chap. 3, G.) 

f. Money has been generously contributed by cor- 
porations and business men, for Christian work among 
particular classes and for special forms of effort, which 
probably could have been secured only through the in- 
terest awakened by the methods and spirit of the Asso- 

g. Thousands of young men have been led into church 


a. Recognition, founded upon its distinctive mission and 
what it has accomplished. 

b. Co-operation, in the way of a sufficient financial 
support, and the gift of some of its young men to the 
work — especially to the general secretaryship. The best 
talent is needed, and should be given, not grudgingly, for 
no young men are more truly working for the Church than 
those devoted, wholly or in part, to the work of the Asso- 

c. Friendly criticism and advice. The Church is the 
rightful guardian of every department of its work. Its 
mature judgment will be honored, and its wise counsels, 
given in love, will be faithfully heeded. 

d. Any individual church is likely to be to the Associa- 
tion what its pastor is. Therefore the pastor may wisely 
sustain an active relation to the Association; recognizing 
it by publicly praying for and commending it; belonging 
to and working with it, to such extent as he may be able; 
and aiding in making it what it should be. Largely in pro- 

Chap. 1, D, 4. THE FIELD. 21 

portion to the pastor's interest and support will the bene- 
ficial results of the work reach his own church. (See 
Chap. 11, A.) 


a. Filial devotion. It should guard against teachings 
opposed to those of the evangelical churches, and all 
methods not approved by their best judgment; arrange its 
work so as to avoid conflict with their regular appoint- 
ments; and do nothing in any way antagonistic to them. 

b. Positive results. The best energies of the Associa- 
tion should be used in the direction of saving young men 
and bringing them into the churches. 





The work of the Young Men's Christian Association 
may be stated as follows : 

Prevention. To guard young men morally by keeping 
them away from places of evil resort through counter at- 
tractions; surrounding them with wholesome associations; 
and bringing them under the power of the gospel. 

Rescue. To extend a helping hand to the fallen, and to 
lead them to Christ. 

Education. To build up young men, spiritually, intel- 
lectually, and physically. 



1. — Officers, board of directors, and committees, con- 
stituting a volunteer force, upon which devolves the re- 
sponsibility and much of the detail work of the organiza- 

2. — A trained secretary and other employed officers, as 
may be required, to give supervision to the work and 
proper care to the Association home, under direction of 
the board. 

y. — An Association building or rented rooms, adapted 
to the work, and furnished with needed appliances. 

Chap. 3, B, 8. the work. 23 

4. — A religious department : 

a. At the rooms — and for young men only — evangel- 
istic and social religious meetings, various classes for 
Bible study, and workers' training classes. 

h. Meetings for young men outside of the rooms, such 
as hospital, penitentiary, and jail services. 

c. Distribution of religious literature, invitations, etc., 
among young men. 

5. — An educational department. 

a. Reading room. 

h. Circulating and reference libraries. 

c. Evening classes in commercial and industrial lines, 
grammar, composition, national and general history, 
music, art, and languages. 

d. Courses of lectures and ** familiar talks." 

e. Literary society. 

6. — A physical department. 

a. Gymnasium, with trained instructor. 
h. Lavatories, including a variety of toilet and bath- 
ing facilities, swimming bath, etc. 

c. Athletic club, with grounds for outdoor sports. 

d. Outing clubs, for rambling, boating, swimming, 
bicycling, etc. 

e. Lectures on physiology and hygiene, temperance, 
personal purity, first aid to the injured, etc. 

'7. — A social department. 
a. Social rooms for resort, conversation, and amuse- 

h. Social and instructive games, music, etc. 

c. Members' meetings and receptions. 

d. Evening reception committee. 

8. — A department of information and relief. 
a. Boarding house bureau. 
h. Employment bureau. 

c. Savings bureau. 

d. Visitation of the sick. 

e. Relief of destitute young men. 

34 THB WORK. Chap. 3, B, 9. 

9. — Work for boys in all these departments, separate 
from the work for young men. 



1. — These must chiefly be modifications of the agencies 
used in cities, varied according to the size and require- 
ments of the town. In general the nearer these means 
approximate in character to those of the city Association 
the better, if they are also adajDted to local needs. 

2. — Associated influence is a strong power in the small 
towns. Three or four young men may determine the 
moral drift of a whole community. 

3. — In the smallest places rooms are not always essential, 
as good work has been carried on in some instances with- 
out them. 

4. — Religious meetings, social receptions, and literary 
societies may be successfully conducted at private resi- 

5. — Personal work may be done with peculiar advan- 
tage in small places, because of the more general acquaint- 
ance and contact of the people with each other. 

6. — The place of the paid secretary may be supplied by 
a volunteer officer, called the executive secretary. 

7. — Where no salaried officer is employed, the success 
of the entire work depends upon the faith and energy of 
the officers and committees. 

8. — Book and periodical clubs, for the systematic circu- 
lation of good reading matter, may be easily formed and 
accomplish excellent results. 

9. — A reading circle, as the " Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientiflc," or an authors' or travelers' club, may be con- 
ducted under Association ausjHces. 

10. — A series of lectures or "talks," by local talent or 
persons from neighboring towns, will often be practicable. 

Chap. 2, C, 14. THE WORK. 25 

11. — In the line of physical culture an athletic club, for 
outdoor sports, may be organized. 

12. — Judicious work for boys will yield good results. 

1 3. — A practical working connection with a neighboring 
city Association, fostered by the state and district com- 
mittees, will be important and invigorating, especially 
when the Association has no general secretary. 

14. — Seven lines of work may be carried on in any 
town, however small, or in the country where a few 
Christian young men will band themselves together — with 
or without organization : (a) a young men's Bible class; 
(b) a young men's meeting; (c) occasional social recep- 
tions; (d) informal practical talks; (e) a library; (/) 
visitation of sick; (g) furnishing young men leaving the 
community with letters of introduction to college and city 
Associations, and notifying these Associations that such 
letters have been given. 





1. — In 1837, George Williams, an apprentice sixteen 
years of age, employed in a dry goods establishment in 
Bridgwater, England, yielded his heart to the Lord Jesus 
Christ. He soon became anxious for the welfare of his 
associates, and was led to prayer and effort in their be- 
half which resulted in the conversion of a considerable 

In 1841 he removed to London and became a junior 
assistant in the dry goods establishment of Hitchcock & 
Co., St. Paul's Churchyard. Here he found about eighty 
young men, fellow clerks, very few of whom were pro- 
fessing Christians, and many were very profligate. 

The same burning zeal for Christ, that characterized 
him in Bridgwater, manifested itself in London. The 
small band of Christians gathered, for prayer and Bible 
study and frequent reading together in " Finney's Lec- 
tures," in one of the bedrooms on the premises after the 
work of the day was over (it being customary then for 
clerks to occupy rooms in the business houses where they 
were employed). One by one they invited their careless 

* This chapter is based upon "A Historical Sketch," by R. R. McBumey, 1885. 
The statistics regarding Association work are from the Year Book for 1891. They 
were collected in the early part of that year and therefore represent the work of 
1890. This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 52. 

See also " The Influence and Eclatiouships of the Associations," Int. pph. No. COS. 

Chap. 3, A, 2. RISE AND GROWTH. ^7 

associates to join them. Many were converted, and the 
room soon became too small to hold those desiring to 

*" To obtain the permanent and undisturbed use of another room, 
application to the principal became necessary, and this was a 
matter of some difficulty. Able and energetic as a man of business, 
he had shown no signs of religious feeling, he had done nothing 
to secure the comfort or welfare of his young men, nor did he 
check the evils which attended the conduct of business in his 
establishment, in common with many others, at the time. He 
was only known as the employer, and in that capacity, though no 
worse, was not better than the rest of his class. But the young 
men had waited on God for his direction and help, and in the 
strength of faith they went forward with their application. To 
their surprise it was received with sympathy, with tenderness, 
with the heartbroken feelings of a sinner made conscious of his 
guilt and need, and earnestly seeking to know and to do the will of 
God. The room was granted, the young men were thanked for 
their past efforts and prayers on behalf of the establishment, and 
the master became from that hour the father of his household, 
joining with his godly servants in solicitude for its spiritual wel- 
fare, reforming every arrangement inconsistent with the con- 
scientious discharge of the duties or the personal comfort of those 
he employed, and in all things seeking to make that household an 
abode of peace, a pattern of godliness, a center of Christian use- 

2. — One day in conversation with a friend Mr. Williams 
expressed himself as deeply impressed with the importance 
of introducing religious services, such as they were enjoy- 
ing, into every large establishment in London. This con- 
versation resulted in a conference between a few of the 
Christian young men in Mr. Hitchcock's establishment, at 
the close of one of their meetings. They then decided to 
call a meeting of all the Christian young men of the house 
for Thursday, June 6, 1844, to consider the importance 
and practicability of establishing the work on a firmer 

Between the appointment and the holding of this meet- 

* Sliipton's " History of the Young Men's Christian Association of London." 
Vol. I. " Exeter Hall Lectures, 1845—46," London, 1834, p. xxxii. 

28 HISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 8, A, 3. 

ing, James Smith, the principal assistant in another large 
dry goods house, wrote to Mr. Williams under date of May- 
Si, inviting him to attend a prayer meeting at his place 
that evening, and to come early in order to advise with 
him whether Christian effort similar to that being then 
made in their respective houses could be made in other 
houses of their trade. Mr. Williams was unable to attend 
this meeting, because he had previously invited the men 
in his establishment to meet in his room on the same even- 
ing, for the same purpose, but in response to Mr. Williams' 
invitation, Mr. Smith was present at the meeting held in 
the room of the former, June 6, 1844. 

At this meeting it was decided to organize a " Young 
Men's Christian Association," the object of which was 
stated to be " to improve the spiritual condition of young 
men engaged in the drapery and other trades." 

3. — Until a permanent salaried secretary was engaged, 
John C. Symons and William Creese acted as voluntary 
secretaries with great ability and zeal. In 1845, T. H. 
Tarleton, then twenty-five years of age, was engaged as 
the first secretary and missionary of the Association, and 
continued in office until his resignation in 1856 to enter 
the ministry of the Church of England. 

4. — William Edwyn Shipton, who had been an active 
volunteer in the work from 1849, resigned his secular em- 
ployment and was elected corresponding secretary October 
1, 1851, in the twenty-fifth year of his age. He continued 
in office until his resignation, on account of ill-health, 
June 30, 1879. During this long service he was also 
practically the national secretary for Great Britain and 
the managing secretary of the World's Conferences, which 
met triennially in Europe from 1855 to 1878. His influence 
was thus widely felt in Europe and also through corres- 
pondence and printed matter in America, particularly in 
the early stages of our work. He was instrumental in 
keeping the English Associations faithful to their primary 
work for young men. To this fidelity our American 

Chap. 3, A, 6. rise and growth. 29 

Associations are also deeply indebted for example and 

5. — Mr. Williams is now the head of the house of Hitch- 
cock, Williams & Co., which he entered as a junior clerk 
in 1841. On the death of the venerable Earl of Shaftes- 
bury, in 1885, Mr. Williams was elected to succeed him in 
the presidency of the London Association. Few men en- 
joy his privilege of seeing a work, instituted by them- 
selves, so widely extended and so fruitful in blessing as 
is the Young Men's Christian Association. Associations 
may be found in nearly every country of the civilized 
world, aggregating in 1890, 4,150. 

6. — The Association movement both in France and 
Switzerland seems to be directly traceable to the London 
Association. The organization of the German Associa- 
tions began about 1832. Few of them, however, can 
strictly be called Young Men's Christian Associations, in 
the sense in which the term is used in English-speaking 
countries. Their membership is chiefly, if not exclusively, 
confined to some one church or denomination. Beginning 
with the Paris Conference in 1855, they have, however, 
affiliated with the Associations of all lands, and to some 
extent have felt the influence of the Association move- 
ment that originated in London. Particularly has this 
been the case in Berlin, where in 1882 Rev. Frederic von 
Schluembach (for some time German Secretary of the 
American International Committee), while engaged in 
evangelistic work, incidentally helped in organizing an 
Association that more nearly resembles the Young Men's 
Christian Associations here described than those previously 
formed. A competent general secretary was secured. 
Since then similar work has been done in other cities of 
that empire. 

Further details regarding the World's Conferences, etc., 
are given in chapter 33. 

30 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, B, 1. 



1. — The movement in 1844, of which our own American 
Associations are a development, was not the first effort 
specially made on behalf of young men. Walter Wilson, 
in his biography of William Kiffin, a leading Baptist mer- 
chant, speaks of the existence in London, in 1632, of an 
association composed of apprentices who met together at 
five o'clock on Sunday mornings " for prayer and religious 

2. — The same writer, in his biography of the celebrated 
William Harris, D.D., born about 1675, says : 

*' In his youthful days he joined himself to a society of youn^ 
men, who met once a week for prayer, reading, and religious con- 
versation; for the mutual communication of knowledge; and with 
the view of strengthening each other against the solicitations of 
evil company." 

3. — In 1698 Rev. Josiah Woodward, D.D., published the 
second edition of his "Account of tlie Rise and Progress of 
the Religious Societies in the City of London, etc." From 
it we learn that about 1678 

* " Several young men of the Church of England, in the cities 
of London and Westminster, were about the same time touched 
with a very affecting sense of their sins, and began to apply 
themselves in a very serious manner to rehgious thoughts and 
purposes. * * * Upon their frequent application to their 
ministers, the Rev. Dr. Horneck and Rev. Mr. Smithies, it 
was advised that they meet together once a week, and apply 
themselves to good discourse, and things wherein they might 
edify one another. * * * As their sense of the blessedness of 
religion and the value of immortal souls increased, they could not 
but exercise bowels of compassion towards such as discovered little 
concern about these important matters. * * « vj This inclined 
them to endeavor, by discourse with their acquaintance in proper 
seasons, to press upon them those divine arguments whereby them- 

* These quotations are from the sixth edition of Wood>Yard'g " Account," 1744. 

Chpp. 3, B, 3. RISE AND aROWTH. 31 

selves had been roused out of a state of carnal insensibleness. 
And, finding that the grace of God many times seconded these 
their Christian admonitions to good effect, they became more 
habituated to good discourse, especially where there was any prob- 
ability of civil acceptance of it, insomuch that at length they 
could not but stand amazed at the success which it pleased God to 
give them. One of them, to whom God had given a very deep 
sense of religious matters and a very moving manner of expressing 
it, had such success, that be had, under God, induced most of his 
intimate acquaintance at least to an outward reformation. 

* * * * Upon this they made a private order at one of their 
assemblies, that every one should endeavor to bring in one other 
at least into their society, which they did to good effect ; for I 
heard a very serious person bless God with great affection, that 
ever they made such an order and took such resolutions, ' for,' 
said he, * this put one of them upon discourse with me about those 
things, which till that time I little minded, and which now I can 
never forget.' * * * * There is such love amongst those of 
them that have fallen under my observation that scarce any 
natural brothers are so vigorously affectionate. I have often be- 
held their meeting and parting embrace with admiration, and 
those who are newly admitted are soon contracted into the same 
fellowship of Christian brotherhood. They are also far from rigid 
censure and unkind treatment of any sorts of Christians, as they 
truly aim at real Christianity ; so they value it wherever they find 
it. * * * By the blessing of God they have of late years so in- 
creased among us that there are now about forty distinct bodies of 
them within the compass of the Bills of Mortality ; and these have 
produced the like in many other cities and country towns. 

* * * Other societies of this nature have been both formerly 
and lately formed in various parts of this nation, and even as far 
as Dublin, in the Kingdom of Ireland, where from three or fom- 
persons, with which they began, they are now increased to nine or 
ten societies, containing about three hundred persons. And they 
find such encouragement there, from the pious archbishop and 
from several divines and other considerable persons, that they have 
been the means of reviving a ^eat sense of religion in many of the 
inhabitants of that city, and have begun a very hopeful reforma- 
tion of manners among them, the archbishop having signed his 
approbation of their orders, which are copied from those in London. 
And indeed all these good effects were occasioned by the examples 
of the London societies, and by the removing of some few of the 
London associates to Dublin." 

32 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, B, 4. 

A young men's society modeled after those described by 
Dr. Woodward, was doing an efficient work in Taunton, 
Mass., in 1705.* 

4. — Mention should be made of the ** Societies for the Re- 
formation of Manners," which grew out of the religious 
work of the Church of England societies of young men 
just referred to. Woodward states that in the year 1691 
an organization was effected, having for its object the sup- 
pression of vice through legal means. 

The Rev. C. F, Secretan, in his ** Memoirs of the Pious 
Robert Nelson," states that the religious and reform 
societies found in Mr. Nelson a warm advocate and in- 
fluential friend. He also says that 

" The chief design of the religious societies was the promotion 
of personal piety among their members, who were all communi- 
cants of the Church of England ; while the object of the other was 
the enforcement of laws against vice, an undertaking in which 
dissenters from the Church were freely allowed to co-operate. These 
latter societies had their origin, about 1691, in the efforts of five or 
six gentlemen at London, who set themselves to recover public 
morality from the excesses which had disgraced it under Charles 
II, and which still maintained an unblushing face in spite of the 
more decorous example of William and Mary's Court." 

The societies collected an abstract of the penal laws 
against vice. A letter was obtained from Queen Mary, by 
the Rev. Dr. Stillingfleet, Lord Bishop of Worcester, 
directing the justices of the peace to aid the societies in 
carrying out their designs. The members of the religious 
societies became the most active agents of the Societies 
for the Reformation of Manners. 

5. — Cotton Mather, D.D., in his " Bonifacius " or " Essays 
to do Good," published in Boston in 1710, refers to young 
men's religious societies under the name of ** Young Men 
Associated. He says of them : 

*' These, duly managed, have been incomparable nurseries to the 
churches, where faithful pastors have countenanced them. Young 
men are hereby preserved from very many temptations, rescued 

* See "A Help to a National Beformatiou," Prince Library, Boston. 

Chap. 3, B, 6. rise and growth. 33 

from paths of the destroyer, confirmed in the right ways of the 
Lord, and prepared mightily for such rehgious exercises as will be 
expected from them when they come themselves to be house- 

There is evidence of the existence of several of these 
societies in New England prior to 1737.* 

6. — About 1729, when John Wesley was a fellow of 
Lincoln College, Oxford, a serious man, whom he had 
traveled many miles to see, said to him, *' Sir, you wish to 
serve God and go to heaven. Remember that you cannot 
serve him alone; you must therefore find companions or 
make them; the Bible knows nothing of solitary religion." 
Rev. Henry Moore, his biographer, says that he never 
forgot this, and that on his return to the university he 
first spoke to his brother Charles, and afterwards to Mr. 
Morgan, Mr. Hervey, Mr. Whitefield, and others, and this 
led to the formation of an association by these yoang men 
in the university. It was tauntingly named by their fel- 
low students " The Godly Club." 

t " Several members of this association afterwards went as mis- 
sionaries to Georgia ; and during their visits to London, going and 
returning, became intimately associated with the young men's 
societies mentioned by Woodward, and with others, especially 
those meeting in Westminster, Fetter Lane, and Aldersgate 

It was in the meeting in Aldersgate Street, May 24, 
1738, that John Wesley experienced a change wrought in 
his own soul, of which he says : 

I " In the evening I went very unwillingly to a society in Aiders- 
gate Street, where one was reading Luther's preface to the Epistle 
to the Romans. About a quarter before nine, while he was de- 
scribing the change God works in the heart through faith in Christ, 
I felt my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, 
Christ alone, for salvation ; and an assurance was given me that 
he had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the 
law of sin and death. I began to pray with all my might for 

* See Catalogue of Prince Library, Boston. 

t Shiptou's History, p. xix. 

I " We^ley'a Journal," Emory's Edition, N. Y., lo31, p. 74. 

34 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, B, 7. 

those who had in a more especial manner despitefully used me 
and persecuted me. I then testified openly to all these what I 
now first felt in my heart." 

Y. — In 1838, the year before his death, David Nasmith; of 
Glasgow, the founder of the London City Mission, wrote 
to a friend : 

*' Since the close of the year 1823, the privilege has been granted 
me of forming about seventy Young Men's Societies in the United 
Kingdom, France and America. My object in these societies has 
been to bless young men and make them blessings ; and I have not 
been disappointed. You are aware that these societies consist of 
young men between the ages of fourteen and thirty -five, of good 
moral character, and professing no opinions subversive of evan- 
gelical principles. The members of each association meet periodi- 
cally, imder the superintendence of a pious and experienced presi- 
dent, for the purpose of mutual improvement and benevolent ex- 
ertion. The Bible is considered as their rule, and all political 
discussions are prohibited." 

He closes his letter with the following words : 

*' The claims which Young Men's Societies have upon all classes 
of the community appear to me many and urgent. Would that 
the wise and experienced of our ministers, our fathers, our patriots, 
our philanthropists, would but weigh their importance and unite 
their energies to promote the multiplication and efficiency of in- 
stitutions so fraught with blessing. * * O, my dear sir, our 
young men must be trained for the Lord ! " 

The same year Mr. Nasmith wrote : 

*' If, in some instances, we have not found the men of experience 
(I say not of years) to preside over and regulate the proceedings of 
Young Men's Societies, it has generally been where they would 
not come forward who are most competent. I have seen glorious 
results follow many of the Young Men's Societies that I have 
formed ; and my deep regret is that no apostle of Young Men's 
Societies has arisen and thrown his whole soul and mind, as well 
as time, into them, that their important designs might be carried 
into effect. Till then, I feel called on to do all that I can, knowing 
that the Church must think of, nurse and train her young men 
before she can answer the ends for which she exists." 

In 1839, Mr. Kasmith, seeing his mistake in the condi- 
tion of membership in the Y^oung Men's Societies, sought 

Chap. 3, B, 9. rise and growth. 35 

to correct it. On the fifth of March the following recom- 
mendation was adopted at his instance, by the managers 
of the British and Foreign Mission : 

"That all neio societies consist exclusively of young men who 
give evidence of union to the Lord Jesus Christ ; and that the 
societies already formed be still corresponded with and encouraged . " 

The name of the society was changed to " Christian 
Young Men's Union." 

Rev. Dr. Hallock, late secretary of the American Tract 
Society, New York, says, in relation to the Young Men's 
Societies formed by Nasmith in America: 

** As soon as they were formed he went on his way, and I believe 
the fact to be, that not one city mission, or one Young Men's Society, 
formed hy him, continued long in successful operation," 

A few of these societies, however, — among them those 
at Toronto and Montreal — were active for some years. 

8. — A ''Society for Religious Improvement" was 
formed in Glasgow, Scotland, by Mr. Nasmith, in 1824. 
This continued in existence until 1876, when it was merged 
into the present Glasgow Young Men's Christian Associa- 

9. — In Cincinnati, Ohio, as early as October 14, 1848, 
an organization was effected under the name of ''Young 
Men's Society of Enquiry," which, a few months later, 
was changed to "Cincinnati Society of Religious Inquiry." 
In February, 1853, this society added to its name the 
words "and Young Men's Christian Union." 

Frequent attempts were made by progressive members 
of the society at Cincinnati to have its work recognized 
as distinctively for young men, but were not thoroughly 
successful until 1853, nearly two years after the organiza- 
tion of Associations at Montreal, Boston, Buffalo, Wash- 
ington, New York and Baltimore. It was not, therefore, 
until the life of the London movement, through the 
Washington and Buffalo Associations, touched the society 
at Cincinnati, that it really became what is now known as 
a Young Men's Christian Association, 

36 RISE AAD GROWTH. Chap. 3, C, 1. 



1. — Information regarding the London Association soon 
reached America. Late in the j^ear 1849, an attempt was 
made by some one who had visited the London Association 
to cany out some of its plans in Lowell, Mass. (See Fifth 
Report of the London Association, p. 29.) But the first 
Association organized on the London basis was that of 
Montreal, Dec. 9, 1851. 

The first in the United States was organized in Boston, 
Dec. 29, 1851. A letter under date of June, 1850, which 
appeared in the *' Watchman and Reflector," of Boston, 
written from London by George M. Yanderlip, a student 
of the University of the City of New York, described the 
the work of the London Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion and led to the organization of that in Boston. This 
took place as the result of correspondence with Mr. Ship- 
ton of London, without any knowledge of the organization 
at Montreal. During the following year kindred Asso- 
ciations were formed in several other cities. 

2. — Two years elapsed before any systematic effort was 
made to bring the twenty-six American Associations, 
which had by that time been organized, into communica- 
tion with one another. 

William Chauncy Langdon, then a layman and a member 
of the Washington Association, afterwards a clergyman 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church, conceived the idea of 
bringing the isolated Associations into a bond of union. 
Some feared that if a general organization were effected, 
the liberties of the Associations might be abridged through 
its interference in the internal affairs of the individual 

* A statement regardiDg this period, fuU of interesting details, is given by Rev. 
Dr. Langdon in "The eaily story of the Coufederatiou of the Aesociations," Int. 
l^ph. No. 16. 

Chap. 3, C, 3. RISE AND GROWTH. 37 

societies. Extreme sensitiveness was manifested in the 
larger Associations on this point. To overcome sucli 
prejudices and objections was no easy task. Mr. Langdon 
providentially proved equal to the work he had set his 
heart upon. He conducted the delicate negotiations with 
indomitable energy, enthusiasm, tact, and loving devotion ; 
and finally triumphed. Many of the Associations of 
America owe their existence to the organization effected 
through his wise foresight. He did not stop here, but 
initiated correspondence which contributed to the holding 
of the first conference of the Associations of all lands in 
Paris, August 19-24, 1855. At this conference there was 
adopted at his suggestion a system of international corre- 
spondence and co-operation, in the interest of which he 
visited the Associations in Great Britain, France, Germany, 
and Switzerland in 1857. 

The Associations in all lands owe a lasting debt of 
gratitude to Dr. Langdon. 

In the first circular, which was issued February 28, 
1854, and signed by Oscar Cobb, of Buffalo, and William 
Chauncy Langdon, of Washington, corresponding secre- 
taries of the Associations in these cities, we find the 
following : 

"It is now proposed to call, at an early date, a convention of 
delegates, to confer together relative to the formation of an 
American Young Men's Christian Alliance, a union of independ- 
ent, equal, but co-operating Associations, and to secure such 
uniformity of organization and action as may be thought desir- 

The circular then asks whether the Associations to 
which it was addressed would favor this proposition. 
Sixteen affirmative and four negative replies were received. 
The latter, however, generally expressed a willingness to 
send a delegation, if in the minority. Buffalo was selected 
as the place of meeting, and the convention assembled in 
that city June 7, 1854. 

3. — Mr. Langdon, in an address delivered at the conven- 

38 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, C, 4. 

tion, showed that, as far as ascertained, two hundred and fi f ty 
Associations were in existence, distributed as follows 
France, 39; Germany, 100; Great Britain and Ireland, 42 
Holland, 4; Switzerland, 21; Turkey, 2; Australasia, 3 
Canada, 4; United States, 35. 

4. — This convention was the first international confer- 
ence of the Associations ever held, and the first conference 
of any kind of the Associations in the English-speaking 
world. The early action of the convention was un- 
favorable to any afiiliation of the societies, and an adjourn- 
ment without reconsideration of the subject was imminent. 
This danger was averted by the wise course of the Cincin- 
nati delegation, under the leadership of William H. Neff, 
and it was decided to form an organization. A Central 
Committee was appointed, consisting of eleven members, 
with headquarters at Washington, five members being 
resident in Washington and one in each of the following 
cities : Boston, Cincinnati, New Orleans, New York, St. 
Louis, and Toronto. This committee was instructed to 
maintain correspondence with American and foreign 
kindred bodies for the formation of new Associations, for 
the collection and diffusion of appropriate information, 
and for the recommendation from time to time, to the 
local Associations, of any measures that seemed likely to 
promote the general object. No authority was conferred 
on the Central Committee to commit any local organiza- 
tion to any proposed plan of action until approved by it, 
nor to make any pecuniary assessments upon the Associa- 
tions without their consent. The organization was styled: 
*' The North American Confederation of Young Men's 
Christian Associations." It was not until January 15, 
1855, that the requisite number of Associations, twenty- 
two, gave in their adhesion to the establishment of the 
confederation. With this convention began the organized 
affiliated life of the American Associations. Humanly 
speaking, had it not been for this organization, resulting 
from the efforts of Mr. Langdon, the historian even now 

Chap. B, C, 6. RISE AND GROWTH. 39 

would probably be compelled to say of the American Asso- 
ciations, as he says of the seventy Nasmith societies, 
simply that they have ceased to exist. 

5. — The seventh and last convention of the confedera- 
tion was held in New Orleans, April 11-16, 1860. Byitsvote 
St. Louis was selected as the meeting place of the eighth 
convention; but owing to the breaking out of the civil 
war, in April, 1861, no such gathering was held in 1861 or 

6. — A careful analysis of the methods of work pursued by 
the Associations in America, prior to 1861, shows that, in 
the main, their work was kindred to that of the Nasmith 
societies, which existed for purposes of " mutual improve- 
ment and benevolent exertion." Some of them, however, 
emphasized distinctive work for young men to an extent 
previously unknown. The confederated Associations, 
though not uniform with each other in their methods of 
work, Avere on a better platform than the Nasmith soci- 
eties. Christian character and membership in evangelical 
churches constituted the test of active membership in a 
large number of them. 

The report of the last convention of the confederated 
Associations* shows that two hundred and three Associa- 
tions were then believed to be in existence in America. 
Only sixty-nine reported; sixty-four of these sustained 
prayer meetings; fifteen, Bible classes; thirty-four, mis- 
sion schools; thirty arranged for the delivery of sermons; 
thirty-five maintained courses of lectures; forty-eight 
had libraries; thirty-eight, reading rooms; eighteen, lit- 
erary societies; fifty-four reported their activity as on the 
increase. The Associations also conducted singing soci- 
eties; evening and mission schools; visitation and alms- 
giving among the destitute; general tract distribution; 
and gospel meetings among soldiers and sailors, in alms- 

* The reports of tbe series of Interna' ional Conventions, together with the 
Year Books issued by the International Committee, constitute the most important 
source of information regarding the progress of the Associations, 

40 RIS2 AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, B, 1. 

houses, hospitals and homes for the aged, and in villages 
and outlying districts. There was very little in their 
work to attract to their rooms and meetings young men 
who were not Christians; and, with rare exceptions, little 
direct effort was made for the conversion of young men. 
The most aggressive effort in this direction was by the 
Associations of Boston, New York and Philadelphia. 



1. — When the war broke out, the membership of the 
Associations became greatly depleted, and many of them 
died. The New York Association appointed an army 
committee. May 27, 1861, to carry forward religious work 
in the camps and barracks in and about the city. A mem- 
ber of that committee, Vincent Collyer, while visiting the 
soldiers in the vicinity of Washington, became deeply im- 
pressed with the importance of a mission on the part of 
the Associations to the army. Two circulars were sent 
out by the New York Association, one in September and 
the other in October, 1861, urging the importance of sys- 
tematizinor and extendino^ such Christian efforts on the 
part of the various Associations. 

2. — Through the urgency of the New York Association 
the Central Committee called, in October, 1861, a special 
convention of the Associations of the North to meet at the 
rooms of the New York Association, November 14 and 15. 
Fifteen Associations were represented at this meeting, and 
the United States Christian Commission, consisting of 
twelve gentlemen from eight leading cities, was formed. 
This commission proved to be one of the most beneficent 
agencies ever devised to alleviate the miseries and horrors 
of war. It co-operated with and supjilemented the Sani- 
tary Commission, which was a purely secular agency. 
During the next four years the commission received and 

Chap. S, E, 1. RISE AND GROWTH. 41 

distributed voluntary contributions of stores worth nearly 
three millions of dollars, and two and a half millions of 
dollars in money. Nearly five thousand Christian men 
and women were sent as helpers both in hospital and 
gospel work, for such periods of time as they volun- 
teered their services. This work belonged distinctively 
to the Associations only in its origin. They aided it all 
they could through their army committees. But the com- 
mission commanded the practical sympathy and support 
of the Christian public. The Associations in the South, 
notably those in Richmond and Charleston, did good 
service in the Confederate army, but not in any general 
organized capacity. Until the close of the war the Asso- 
ciations of both the North and South devoted most of 
their energies to work among the soldiers, and greatly 
neglected work among the young men who remained at 



1. — The confederation of the Associations continued 
nominally in existence until 1863. During its early years 
its leadership and main support came from Washington, 
Buffalo, and Cincinnati. Later, Richmond and Charles- 
ton vigorously co-operated. New York and Boston 
withheld all official sympathy and co-operation, and 
the confederation was organized without them. The 
New York Association did not formally assent to the 
articles of confederation until 1859. Members of the 
New York Association, however, attended several of the 
early conventions, and in 1854 one of them, Richard C. 
McCormick, made a tour among the Associations of the 
old world ; visiting those in England, Scotland, Ireland, 
France, Switzerland, Italy, and Syria. On his return he 
made an extended report, describing in detail their 
methods and agencies. His interest in the Association 

42 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, E, 2. 

movement led to his editing the " Young Men's Magazine," 
(May, 1857 to April, 1859,) a j^ublication devoted to 
tlie interests of young men and Young Men's Christian 

The eighth convention, held in Chicago, June 4-7, 
1863, refused, by a test vote, to recognize tlie qualifi- 
cations established by the confederation, as qualifications 
for membership in that convention. Thus ended the life 
of the confederation. 

2. — Very little business was transacted at the Chicago 
meeting, except such as related to the work of the 
Christian Commission, and yet there were indications in 
favor of the maintenance of distinct work among young 
men at home, which found utterance in the following 
resolutions, presented by Rev. Henry C. Potter, then of 
Troy, N. Y., now bishop of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church for the diocese of New York : 

'* Besolvedf That the interests and welfare of young men in our 
cities demand now, as heretofore, the steadfast sympathies and 
efforts of the Christian Associaiions of our country, and that it 
behooves us as members of this convention, interested in the well- 
being of society and the salvation of souls, to see to it that the 
special duties and anxieties of the hour do not draw away our 
friends from the work which is to be done at home. 

** Resolved, That the various means by which Christian Associa- 
tions can gain a hold upon young men, and preserve thera from 
unhealthy companionship and the deteriorating influences of our 
large cities, ought to engage our most earnest and prayerful con- 

*' Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed to consider the 
question how far our Christian Associations may be made the 
means of welcoming young men to our cities, and securing for 
them the sheltering influences of Christian homes and refinement, 
and elevating social relations ; how far our Associations may be 
made the means of furnishing wholesome relaxation and recrea- 
tion to young men ; and finally, whether they ought not to be, 
more than they are, the instrument of rescuing young men from 
lives of dissipation and irreligiou, and engaging them in the ser- 
vice of the Church, and, as brethren, in the cause of our common 

Chap. 3, E, 4. rise and growth. 43 

3. — These resolutions resulted in the presenting of an essay 
at the next convention, held in Boston, June 1-5, 1864, by- 
Rev. Henry C. Potter, on " Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciations — what is their work, and how shall they perforin 
it ? " Elaborating the position taken in the resolutions 
above cited, he said : 

"We shall be wise and equitable, only as we let our work at 
home and abroad" — referring to the army — "go hand in hand, 
but let us see to it that w^e neglect neither. There are countless 
undertakings in which we may, if we choose, employ ourselves; all 
of them, doubtless, having some good and desirable end in view; 
but the question for Young Men's Christian Associations ought 
surely to be this: ' How can most be done for young men ? ' Happy 
shall we be, if by God's blessing upon our poor endeavors, we can 
help save our youth, and in these anxious and eventful hours, raise 
up for the defense of truth and freedom and the cause of Christ, a 
mighty and resistless host of regenerate and Christian young men." 

The essay produced a deep impression on the delegates; 
it was printed in the minutes of the convention, and re- 
printed in Germany and France. In our land it was the 
means of awakening renewed interest in legitimate work 
by the Associations for young men in the towns in which 
they were established, but as the war was still raging the 
return to it was delayed. 

4. — The tenth convention, held in Philadelphia, June 
7-11, 1865, showed that the progress in the line of dis- 
tinctive work for young men had been very slow. The 
time of the convention was occupied largely with the work 
of the Christian Commission and the presentation of 
various methods of work quite foreign to the object of the 

It was not until the last evening session that the con- 
vention intelligently considered the practical work of 
Young Men's Christian Associations. The following topics 
were discussed at that session : 

" The best methods of bringing young men in cities under the 
influence of the Association. 

"The best means of making the monthly meetings of Asso- 
ciations interesting and profitable. 

44 RISE AXD GROWTH. Chap. 3, E, 5. 

"Are literary classes desirable — and if so, how should they 
be conducted? 

** How shall young men be best employed and retained in Asso- 

*' What means shall be employed by Associations for improving 
the social condition of young men — that being one of the declared 
objects of these organizations?" 

The discussion of these topics made that Saturday- 
evening session one of the memorable meetings of our 
conventions, and introduced a new method, which has 
since been widely observed; namely, the arrangement of 
topics bearing directly upon the work of Young Men's 
Christian Associations by and for young men, and open 
for discussion to all the delegates attending the conven- 
tion. Prior to that time, it had been customary to refer to 
committees for report all questions presented by individual 
members, instead of discussing them in the convention. 

5. — The re-awakening of the Associations to work at 
home, for young men by young men, dates from the 
Albany Convention, June 1-6, 1866. 

Cephas Brainerd (president of the Philadelphia Con- 
vention), in his remarks calling the convention to order, 
amplified and emphasized the views he had advocated on 
the floor of the Boston Convention in 1864. He said: 

" Our future progress rests upon a hearty adoption of certain 
obvious and unquestionable propositions : 

*' First — An unswerving devotion to the primary objects and 
aims of these Associations — the social, mental and religious im- 
provement of young men. As organizations, with these avowed 
objects, we challenge attention ; as seeking these ends we are 
prominently before the world ; because of these things we are 
what we are. When we deviate from them, we trench upon 
ground assigned to others. But in all this, care should be taken 
not to confine our efforts to the measure of a dry, cold, lifeless 
plan. They should be conceived in a spirit of sound philosophy, 
and embrace our objects in their largest scope. Nor, while we 
cling to our main idea, should we neglect temporary or occasional 
service of a more general character, or special calls in our par- 
ticular localities. The young men taught to love Christ in our 
meetings should always find some work for their hands awaiting 

Chap. 3, E, 5. rise and growth. 45 

the new-borD zeal. Still the primary idea and object should be 
paramount to all. 

*^ Second — A constant remembrance of the principle which has 
enabled us for so lon^ a period to work all the machinery of these 
societies without denominational or sectarian jars. This lies in a 
persistent contemplation and discussion, not of the principles of 
our organizations and the how or the why sects and denominations 
are here exemplifying the highest type of Christian unity, but of 
the work before us, and a steady effort to command all the means 
necessary for its accomplishment. 

" Third — And then in a complete adoption in heart and life, of 
the spirit of the deliverance of the Montreal Convention : 'That 
the vitality of our Associations can be perpetuated only by the 
active efforts of the members in the cause of the Redeemer,' — to 
which I would add, especially in behalf of young men." 

Mr. Brainerd impressed these ideas so clearly and 
forcibly upon the minds of the members of the conven- 
tion, and of young men in the Associations who read 
the report of his address, that from the opening session 
of that convention there went forth clearer views of 
Association work by young men for young men, and with 
God's blessing, a more earnest purpose to accomplish the 
objects of these societies. 

In many respects this convention marked a new era 
in Association work, (a) Sucli sentiment was awakened 
there that methods outside of direct work for young men 
by young men began to lose the place and hold which 
they had on the minds of the members. {b) An annual 
day of prayer for young men and Young Men's Christian 
Associations was appointed and has since been observed 
(see Chap. 32, C. 12). (c) State and Provincial Conven- 
tions were recommended. (d) The publication of a 
" Quarterly " was ordered, (e) The Executive Committee 
was located at New York. 

46 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, F, 1. 



1. — The international organization, as has been stated, 
from 1854 to 1863 consisted of the confederated Associa- 
tions. The conventions met annually, and. appointed a 
Central Committee to publish the proceedings, to call the 
next convention, to correspond with American and foreign 
Associations and to promote the organization of new Asso- 

Tlie Central Committee consisted at first of eleven and 
afterwards of twelve members, five of whom were resident 
in the city selected as the head-quarters. The United 
States and Canada were districted, and one member of the 
committee placed in charge of each district. This practice 
prevailed until the Troy Convention in 1859, after which 
the committee consisted only of five resident members. 

At the Chicago Convention, held in 1863, the committee 
was named the Executive Committee, and was increased 
by one member from each state, district, territory, and 

At the following convention, that of Boston in 1864, 
it was made to consist of five members, with a correspond- 
ing member from each state, district, territory and prov- 

The same general plan of organization continued in 
operation until the Richmond Convention in 1875, when 
the committee was made to consist of twenty-four mem- 
bers, nine being resident and fifteen non-resident. 

At Baltimore, in 1879, it was named, by formal vote, 
" The International Committee," — a designation which for 
years had been popularly applied to it. 

At Milwaukee, in 1883, the committee was increased to 
thirty-three members, ten being resident and twenty-three 
non-resident, and was divided into three classes of eleven 

* See also Chaps. 31 and 32. 

Chap. 3, F, 2. rise and growth. 47 

members each, the first class to hold ofiice for two years, 
the second for four years, and the third for six years. 
Nine advisory members were also elected. An act incor- 
porating the International Committee, authorized by the 
previous convention and passed by the legislature of tlie 
State of New York, was accepted by the convention and 

At Kansas City, in 1891, the committee was increased 
to thirty-nine members. 

The committee was itinerated from city to city until 
the Albany Convention in 1866, being located for one year 
at Buffalo, one at Washington, two at Cincinnati, two at 
Buffalo, one at Richmond, four at Philadelphia, one at 
Boston, and one at Philadelphia. Since 1866 the head- 
quarters of the committee has been in New York City. 

The plan on which the Central Committee, and, at its 
discontinuance, the International Committee was appointed 
was that of direct representation of the Associations, fol- 
lowing the precedent of the national house of representa- 

2. — In 1856 the Montreal Convention ratified what has 
become famous as the "Paris Basis." This had been 
adopted by the first World's Conference of the Associa- 
tions held at Paris in 1855, largely through the suggestion 
and advocacy of an American delegate. Rev. Abel Stevens, 
of New York, afterwards widely known as the author of 
the " History of Methodism." It is as follows : — 

"The Young Men's Christian Associations seek to unite those 
young men who, regarding Jesus Christ as their God and Savior, 
according to the Holy Scriptures, desire to be his disciples, in their 
doctrine and in their life, and to associate their efforts for the ex- 
tension of his kingdom among young men." 

In 1866, the Albany Convention ratified what is known 
as the " Elberfeld Declaration," which had been adopted 
by the World's Conference at Elberfeld, Germany, in 1865, 
as follows : 

" First— That it is one of the chief duties of the Young Men's 

48 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, F, 2. 

Christian Associations to awaken, preserve, and advance the com- 
munion of Ciiristian Ufe among young men. 

** Second — That this communion of Christian Hfe can only be 
truly healthy and blessed when it comes from the true communion 
of the heart with God. 

'* Third — That the Associations have, before all things, to strive 
that this communion with God be awakened amongst young men 
by faithful use of the means of grace and diligent study of God's 

" Fourth — That this conference can only regard those Associa- 
tions as having the true principles of association before them, 
•which cherish this communion of Christian life, resulting from 
the hidden communion of the heart with God." 

The committee appointed at the Portland Convention 
in 1869, to consider the report of the Executive Committee, 
made a variety of recommendations, one of which called 
for a re-affirmation of the resolution adopted at the pre- 
ceding convention, at Detroit, defining the qualifications 
for active membership in the Associations. It read as 
follows : 

** That, as these organizations bear the name of Christian and 
profess to be engaged directly in the Savior's service, so it is clearly 
their duty to maintain the control and management of all their 
affairs in the hands of those who profess to love and publicly 
avow their faith in Jesus, the Redeemer, as divine, and who testify 
their faith by becoming and remaining members of churches 
held to be evangelical ; and that such persons, and none others, 
should be allowed to vote or hold office." 

An inquiry as to the meaning of the term " evangelical 
church " resulted in the appointment of the following com- 
mittee to define what the convention understood by those 
words : Howard Crosby, D. D., New York City ; Rev. 
S. H. Lee, Greenfield, Mass.; Rev. G. M. Grant, Halifax, 
K S.; Rev. H. C. Kellogg, Jr., Providence, R. L, and 
General O. O. Howard, AVashington, D. C. 

The committee's report, which was unanimously adopt- 
ed, recommended the re-affirmation of the Detroit resolu- 
tion, and presented the following definition: 

"And we hold those churches to be evangelical which, main- 
taining the Holy Scriptures to be the only infallible rule of faith 

Chap. 3, F, 3. rise and growth. 49 

and practice, do believe in the Lord Jesus Christ (the only begot- 
ten Son of the Father, King of kings, and Lord of lords, in wliom 
dwelleth the fullness of the Godhead bodily, and who was made 
sin for us, though knowing no sin, bearing our sins in his own 
body on the tree), as the only 'name under heaven, given among 
men, whereby we must be saved' from everlasting punishment." 

The following resolution was also adopted defining the 
qualifications needed by Associations for representation in 
future conventions : 

^^ Resolved, That the Associations organized after this date, shall 
be entitled to representation in future conferences of the associated 
Young Men's Christian Associations of North America, upon con- 
dition that they be severally composed of young men in commu- 
nion with evangelical churches (provided that in places where 
Associations are formed by a single denomination, members of 
other denominations are not excluded therefrom), and active 
membership and the right to hold office be conferred only upon 
young men who are members in good standing of evangelical 

The adoption of these rules at Portland gave members 
and ministers of evangelical churches a confidence in the 
Association movement which they had not had in it before, 
and since that convention the prosperity of the Associa- 
tions has steadily increased. 

3. — a. The committee from its appointment in 1866 car- 
ried on a vigorous correspondence with existing Associa- 
tions and with its corresponding members, edited the 
" Quarterly," and sent representatives to the State Conven- 
tions, without the assistance of any paid agents, until the 
Detroit Convention in 1868. During the year preceding 
that convention, a friend residing in Chicago urged upon a 
member of the committee the importance of seeking to 
reach and influence the young men in the towns rapidly 
forming along the line of the Union Pacific Railroad. The 
member to whom this statement was made was so deeply 
impressed that he immediately solicited contributions to 
enable the committee to undertake the work. The matter 
was brought before the Detroit Convention and the com- 
mittee was instructed to employ an agent to aid in the 

50 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, F. 3. 

organization of Associations on the line of that road, and 
in such other sections as might be determined upon by the 
committee after mature deliberation. Robert Weidensall, 
of Omaha, Neb., was engaged for this service, and has de- 
voted himself since that time to the organization and 
development of the Associations, chiefly in the states west 
of Ohio. 

h. At the Portland Convention, in 1869, the committee 
was instructed to make the "Quarterly" a monthly, and 
to employ a person to act as the secretary of the committee 
and to perform editorial and other duties. In December, 
1869, the committee secured Richard C. Morse for this 
joint service. For two years his time was chiefly occupied 
in editing and publishing the " Association Monthly," but 
in December, 1871, the need of his services as secretary led 
the committee to request Mr. Morse to devote his entire 
time to the secretaryship, the committee undertaking 
to carry on the " Monthly," which was continued for 
about a year longer. Mr. Morse visited extensively among 
the Associations, attending the State Conventions, and be- 
coming thoroughly acquainted with the condition and 
development of Association work. As various departments 
have been added by the conventions to the committee's 
work, the general superintendence of that work has re- 
quired him to spend more time at the central office. 

c. In March, 1870, a systematic visitation of the Associa- 
tions in the South was undertaken. Wm. F. Lee, then a 
member of the committee, and George A. Hall, then secre- 
tary of the Washington Association, visited twenty im- 
portant points in the South, for the purpose of stimulating 
existing Associations, and reorganizing others that had 
disbanded. In 1875 and 1876, Thomas K. Cree, as a vol- 
unteer, and George A. Hall, and in 1877, S. A. Taggart, 
State Secretary of Pennsylvania, made similar visits. 

In the summer of 1876 Mr. Cree became a secretary of 
the committee. He had already performed valuable service 
in Association work, as general secretary of the Pittsburgh 

Chap. 3, F, 3. rise And growth. 51 

Association, as corresponding member for Pennsylvania of 
the International Committee, and as chairman of the Penn- 
sylvania State Committee. Much of his time since his 
connection with the committee has been occupied in re- 
organizing Associations and raising funds for the employ- 
ment of secretaries, for the erection of buildings, and for 
the payment of debts on them. 

In 1875, Erskine Uhl, general secretary of the Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y., Association, became an office secretary of 
the committee. 

d. Through the reformation of a railroad employe at 
Cleveland, Ohio, a work was begun for railroad men in 
the union depot there, by the holding of a preaching ser- 
vice on Sunday. For a time the city pastors conducted 
these services, but soon, and partly at their suggestion, the 
Cleveland Association undertook and heartily entered 
upon the work. The managers of the roads centering in 
the depot fitted up a reading and meeting room. The 
work resulted in the organization of the first railroad 
branch of a Young Men's Christian Association, in 1872. 
It may be mentioned that during some twenty-five years 
previous, considerable money and effort had been expended 
by railroad managers upon libraries and reading rooms for 
their employes; but comparatively little interest had been 
awakened, and no satisfactory or permanent results had 

At the Poughkeepsie Convention, but five minutes were 
given to the secretary of the Cleveland branch for the 
presentation of the railroad work. At the next con- 
vention, at Dayton in 1874, Association work among 
railroad employes was submitted as a topic for discussion. 
In addition to continued success at Cleveland, the Chicago 
Association reported a depot reading room, with religious 
services; and the Erie Association reported the holding of 
Sunday afternoon meetings for railroad men in the round 
house. At the Richmond Convention, the following year, 
this topic was more thoroughly discussed. The committee 

52 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, F, 3. 

of the Cleveland railroad branch stated that $1,800 had 
been raised for the purpose of putting Lang Sheaff into 
the field, and offered 9 portion of his time for the work of 
visitation at important railroad centres, provided the con- 
vention would authorize the Executive Committee to direct 
his labors. The convention adopted a resolution express- 
ing its sense of the great importance of the work among 
railroad men, and urging its vigorous prosecution by the 
Executive Committee. During 1875 the Cleveland rail- 
road committee placed Mr. Sheaff at the service of the 
committee for five months, and he effected several organiza- 
tions. This result was reported to the Toronto Convention, 
in 1876, the committee regretting that further visitation 
was prevented by lack of funds, and urging that *' It is the 
plain duty of the convention to provide its representatives 
with the means necessary for the employment of a visitor, 
at least for the present year.'''* The committee also made 
this statement : " When once thoroughly organized it is 
believed that the railroad corporations would quite gener- 
ally see it to be for their interest to maintain the good 

But it was not until 1877, when E. D. IngersoU was 
employed as secretary for work in this special department, 
that its extension was permanently prosecuted. After his 
resignation in 1887, on account of impaired health,this work 
was carried on for two years by H. F. Williams, and is now 
in charge of C. J. Hicks and C. L. Gates. 

The railroad companies are so impressed with the im- 
provement effected in their employes and the increased 
care of their property, resulting from this work, that they 
are now appropriating a large sum annually (in 1890 about 
$100,000) for its maintenance. (See Chap. 29, B.) 

e. In 1870, Mr. Weidensall, through instructions re- 
ceived from the committee, undertook work among Ger- 
man-speaking young men at St. Louis, where he succeeded 
in effecting an organization. The importance of such 
work was presented at the conventions of 1870, 1871, and 

Chap. 3, F, 3. RISE AND GROWTH. 53 

1872. At the Dayton Convention, in 1874, the presenta- 
tion of the German work made a strong impression, notably 
through the earnest appeals of William Nast, D.D., and 
Rev. Frederic von Schluembach. During the next four 
years Mr. von Schluembach spent a portion of each year in 
German work for the committee, and from the fall of 1878 
to the fall of 1881 devoted his whole time to it. A Ger- 
man National Bund was organized during this period, but 
soon ceased to exist, as it became evident that work for 
German-speaking young men could best be carried on in 
close affiliation with the Associations as already organized 
locally, and in State and International Conventions. 

Since January, 1882, Claus Olandt, Jr., has served as 
German Secretary. (See Chap. 29, D.) 

f. In 1858 students in the Universities of Michigan 
and Virginia, without any knowledge of each others' 
action, organized Young Men's Christian Associations in 
these institutions, the former prior to June, the latter in 
October. Other Associations followed, and in 1876 there 
were some twenty-five, with an aggregate membership of 
about 2,500. These were by no means the earliest relig- 
ious societies among students. The Association in Prince- 
ton College became such by altering but a single article 
in the constitution of a society a hundred years old. But 
the early societies were without similarity of methods or 
the stimulus of fraternal corresj)on deuce with like societies 
in other institutions and in the outside world. 

As early as 1871 Mr. Weidensall organized College As- 
sociations, and visited those already existing. Through 
his efforts students attended, as delegates, the Interna- 
tional Conventions held between 1871 and 1876. Largely 
through the influence of L. D. Wishard, a student in 
Princeton College from Indiana, who had become in- 
terested in Association work in that state, the religious 
organization of that college, as already mentioned, was 
placed upon the platform of the xA.ssociations in 1877. At 
the suggestion of William E. Dodge, Jr., of New York, the 

54 RISE ANB GROWTH. Chap. 3, P, 3, 

Princeton organization asked permission of the committee 
to invite to the next International Convention, at Louis- 
ville in 1877, delegates from the colleges of the country, 
without reference to Associations having been formed in 
them. Such permission was granted, and in response to the 
invitation twenty-five students were sent as representatives 
from twenty-one colleges in eleven states. Their confer- 
ence together inaugurated a system of intercollegiate co- 
operation that has greatly stimulated, broadened, and uni- 
fied Christian work in colleges ; as is shown by the great 
increase in the number of Associations, many of them in 
colleges where previously no systematic Christian work 
was done. In the Louisville Convention the student dele- 
gates urged that the International Committee be instructed 
to place a College Secretary in the field. Mr. Wishard 
was induced to accept the position, and entered on its 
duties in September, 1877. After eleven years of success- 
ful service, he was granted leave of absence that he might 
carrj'- out a long cherished plan of visitation among the 
College Associations of foreign mission lands. (See Chap. 
33, 10). 

g. At the Toronto Convention, in 1876, the delegates 
from the South urged the importance of work among col- 
ored young men in that section. Stuart Robinson, D. D., 
of Louisville, Ky., led the discussion and made the first 
contribution to place an agent in the field for that pur- 
pose. In 1879 Henry Edwards Brown became secretary 
in charge of this department, since which time a number 
of Associations have been organized among colored young 
men, chiefly in colleges and academies. Advance has been 
made slowly and with great caution. Associations have 
been formed in schools only with the hearty concurrence 
of the principals, and in towns after securing the approval 
of the pastors. The first colored general secretary, W. A. 
Hunton, began his work at Norfolk, Virginia, early in 1888. 
Mr. Brown gradually became engrossed in general visita- 
tion, chiefly on the Pacific slope, and in 1890 Mr. Hunton 

Chap. S, F, 3. RISE) An*!) growth. 55 

became a secretary of the committee, with special reference 
to the young men of his own race. (See chap. 29, D.) 

In the spring of 1879 P. Augustus Wieting became an 
office secretary of the committee. 

h. Work for commercial travelers was first presented 
to the Associations at the Richmond Convention. (See 
Chap. 29, C.) At the Baltimore Convention (1879), the 
call for it was more strongly urged, and the committee 
was instructed to direct the attention of the Associations 
to it. In May, 1879, E. W. Watkins was employed as a 
secretary of the committee, with special reference to this 
field, but he soon became almost entirely occupied with vis- 
itation of the Associations and the securing of many young 
men for the secretaryship. His connection with the com- 
mittee closed in 1889. 

L The Boston and New York Associations employed 
men to look after details of their work as early as 1852 and 
1853. In April, 1891, there were nearly eleven hundred 
such men in the United States and Canada, including sec- 
retaries, physical directors, and others, devoting their entire 
time to the work; and about one hundred similar positions 
were vacant. In 1871, when they numbered perhaps twenty 
altogether, thirteen of them met in conference after the 
Washington Convention. So ill-defined was the work of 
their office at that time, that no two were called by the 
same name, and only one, George A. Hall, of the Washing- 
ton Association, bore the name of general secretary, whicli 
was at this meeting chosen as the best name for the office.* 
The conference resulted in tlie organization of ** The Asso- 
ciation of the General Secretaries of the Young Men's 
Christian Associations of the United States and British 

* The day after the farewell meetin<x was spent by many of the delegates in an 
excursion on the Potomac to Mount Vernon. The meeting described above, sug- 
gested by J. B. Brandt, was held in the cabin of the steamer. Those present were 
J. B. Brandt, Indianapolis, Ind; J. D. Blake, Rochester, Minn.; E. W. Chase, st. 
Paul, Minn.: Thomas K. Crec, Pittsburgh, Fa.; L. P. Borland, Minneapolis, Minn ; 
George A. Hall, Washington, D. C; I. G. Jenkins, Buffalo, N. Y.; Robert R. McBur- 
ney, New York; L. P. Rowland, Boston, Mass.; Alfred Sandham, Montreal, Que.; 
Lang Sheaff, Cleveland, O. ; S. A. Taggart, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; auu Ihoraas J. Wilkie, 
Toronto, Out. 

5G RISE AND aRoWTH. Chap. 3, r, B. 

Provinces," which has met eveiy year since. At these 
meetings carefully written papers have been read and dis- 
cussed on every department of the work. With tlie in- 
creasing number of employed officers there has been a 
growth in their apprehension of the nature and details 
of the work entrusted to them, so that these annual 
meetings have been institutes, shaping and defining their 

In September, 1883, J. T. Bowne, general secretary of 
the Association at Newburgh, N. Y., became a secretary of 
the committee, specially charged with looking up suitable 
men for the secretaryship, and investigating the qualifica- 
tions of the large number of men (over two hundred a 
year) proposed or applying for it. In the fall of 1885 
Mr. Bowne was called to the position of superintendent 
and instructor in the secretarial department of the School 
for Christian Workers, then just established at Springfield, 
Mass. After this time the secretarial work of the com- 
mittee was entrusted to Erskine Uhl, and later to John 
Glover and Luther Gulick, M. D., the latter caring for the 
rapidly increasing calls for physical directors. (See *'Secur- 
ing and training employed officers," Chap. 13.) 

j. In 1885 C. K. Ober was added to the force with 
special reference to the college work, but in 1890 he entered 
the general work of the committee. In 1888 John R. 
Mott was secured for college work. In 1890 the number 
of the Colleore Associations had reached 345, with an asforre- 
gate membership of over 22,000. (See " College work," 
Chap. 29, A.) 

h. Walter C. Douglas was for a short time, during 
1886-'7, a secretary of the committee. In 1888, John R. 
Hague, and in 1889, S. A. Taggart, became secretaries of 
the committee, the former engaging in general visitation, 
and the latter being chiefly occupied in presenting to the 
Associations a plan for the extension of the work. (See 
"Extension Fund," Chap. 32, C, 10, e.) 

* See "Summary of Proceedings of Secretaries' Conferences," lut. ppli. No. 6. 

Chap. 3, F, 7. rise And growth. 5^ 

I. After careful consideration of calls from man}^ mis- 
sionaries, the Philadelphia Convention (1889) autliorized 
the sending of secretaries of the committee to foreign mis- 
sion fields, and instructed them to work in harmony with 
missionary bodies and to train the young men as rapidly as 
possible to carry on Association work themselves. 

J. Trumbull Swift, who had already spent a year in 
Japan and proved his helpfulness to work there among 
young men, was commissioned as a secretary of the com- 
mittee for that country in 1889, and was joined by R. S. 
Miller, Jr., in 1890. 

David McConaughy, Jr., started for India on the same 
day that Mr. Swift started for Japan. Myron A. Clark 
sailed for Brazil in 1891. 

4. — As the conventions increased in size, the entertain- 
ment of delegates became so burdensome that at Montreal 
(1867) the number which each Association could send, and 
which till then had been unlimited, was restricted, so that 
no Association could send more than fifteen delegates. 
At Washington (1871), the number was further reduced 
to ten. 

5. — Previous to and including the Detroit Convention 
(1868), much time had been occupied at the annual gath- 
erings with the presentation of a variety of resolutions, 
many of them quite foreign to the purposes of the Asso- 
ciations. At that convention, at the instance of D. L. 
Moody, a resolution was adopted, which has ever since 
been a rule of the conventions, providing for the appoint- 
ment at each convention of a committee, to which all 
resolutions are referred without reading. This rule has 
helped to secure to the work of subsequent conventions 
both harmony and efi[iciency. 

6. — At the Lowell Convention in 1872, the rules of the 
convention were made permanent. 

7. — Electioneering processes have not prevailed in the 
conventions. They have providentially been kept clear, 

5g RISE AND (GROWTH. Chap. 3, F, 8. 

to a remarkable extent, of office-seeking men. The offices 
have sought the men, and not the men the offices. 

8. — An examination of the publications of the Central 
Committee shows that before 1866 the Association men 
themselves, with few exceptions, had no clear understand- 
ing of the work of the Associations. The beginning of an 
intelligent perception of Association work and methods 
dates from the issuance of publications by the Interna- 
tional Committee. These are now over eighty in number. 
They have contributed greatly to influence public opinion 
and to educate the Associations in lines of work for young 
men. They are frequently referred to in this work under 
the abbreviation " Int. pphs." 

9. — One of the most valuable gifts ever received by the 
committee was the " Historical Library of the Young 
Men's Christian Associations," collected by J. T. Bowne, 
and presented by him to the committee in 1883. Mr. 
Bowne has also since that time cared for its preservation 
and increase, without any charge to the committee. It 
contains nearly 2,000 volumes, in fourteen languages, com- 
prising Association reports and periodicals, publications of 
many other societies, and books specially adapted to j^oung 
men. It is hoped that all associations of young men will 
send their publications regularly to this library,* also to 
the leading Association and public libraries, for historical 

10. — It is generally conceded that the finances of the 
International and State Committees are economically and 
judiciously administered. The annual expenditure of the 
International Committee has grown from $521, reported to 
the Albany Convention in 1866, to $57,072, in 1890. Ac- 
cording to the reports for 1890 the total amount expended 
in the local, state and international work, exclusive of con- 
tributions to buildings and building funds, w^as $2,032,127. 

11. — Until 1866 the International Convention offered 

* Address Historical Library of Young Men's Christian Associations, Spring- 
field, Mass. 

Chap. 3, F, 13. RISE AND GROWTH. 59 

the only place for conference to the affiliated Associations. 
Now nearly all the states and provinces are organized, 
having their executive committees, holding state and dis- 
trict conventions, employing traveling secretaries and ex- 
pending annually considerably more than twice as much 
as the International Committee, — in 1890 $133,089. (See 
" History and organization of state work," Chap. 31, A.) 

12. — No account of the international work would be 
complete without mention of its chairman for the last 
twenty-four years, Cephas Brainerd. He, in the beginning 
and when it was unpopular, grasped the basal idea of 
Association work by young men for young men, and he 
has clung to it tenaciously throughout^ Every report of 
the committee to the conventions, since his chairmanship, 
has been written by him. Until 1872 the entire corres- 
pondence was conducted by him, and since that time it 
has been under his careful supervision. The work of the 
secretaries of the committee has largely been prosecuted 
under his direction. This remarkable unsalaried service 
for so many years, by one thoroughly qualified leader, has 
been of incalculable benefit to the work for Christ among 
young men in this and other lands. 

13. — From the beginning of the Association movement, 
there seemed to be a disposition in the Associations and in 
the conventions to give considerable attention to general 
forms of religious and philanthropic work carried on chiefly 
by young men but not for them. 

Such work was much pressed upon the attention of the 
Associations in the western states, and during eight or ten 
years, beginning with 1872, some of the State Committees 
of the East gave their chief attention to the holding of 
general evangelistic meetings. At the International 
Conventions, notably those from 1873 to 1877, the leadeis 
engaged in it particularly urged this form of effort. These 
State Committees or their agents thus constituted them- 
selves a mission to the churches rather than a mission to 
young men and Young Men's Christian Associations. The 

60 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 8, F, 14. 

almost total neglect, by some State Committees, of specific 
Association work, hindered the Associations within the 
jurisdiction of these committees from keeping pace with 
the growth in other sections. But there is now substantial 
agreement regarding the mission and work of the Associa- 

14. — At no period have the Associations conferred upon 
the conventions the right to legislate concerning their 
local work. 

15. — In the Associations, from the beginning, some at 
tention was given to Bible study. The discussion of Bible 
classes and methods of conducting them began at Wash- 
ington (1871), and has been continued in every succeeding 
convention with marked results. Thirteen of the sixty- 
three Associations reporting at Albany in 1866 carried on 
Bible classes. Three hundred and eighty-four of the thirteen 
hundred Associations reporting for 1890 carried on five 
hundred and fifteen Bible classes. And in addition to 
these, three hundred and seventy Associations had four 
hundred and seventy-two training classes, which were 
specially engaged in the study of the Bible for practical 
use in leading unconverted men to the Savior. The hope 
of the development of skillful Christian workers in the 
Associations rests largely upon the multiplication of such 
classes. Bible study of this character was greatly stimu- 
lated by D. L. Moody by the emphasis he laid, early in 
each series of his evangelistic meetings, upon the training 
of Christian workers for dealing with inquirers in the meet- 
ings. A training class, similar to those described above, 
was begun in the New York Association, with relation to 
such meetings in that city in 1876, and has been continued 
to the present time. A paper by Robert Weidensall, pub- 
lished in "The Watchman," Nov. 1, 1878, gives an excel- 
lent outline of the needs, methods, and objects of such 
classes. These classes were first reported as such in 1883, 
when there were fifteen. There had been earlier efforts in the 
same direction, but giving instruction only through lectures, 

Chap. 3, G, 1. RISE AND GROWTH. 61 

16. — Prior to the Albany Convention no Association 
owned a building appropriate for Association purposes. 
The Associations reported at the close of 1890 property 
in buildings, other real estate, and building funds to 
the net value of $10,025,570, and in furniture, libraries, 
and endowments amounting to $1,881,811. (See "The 
building movement," Chap. 17.) 

17. — The growth of the Associations in many branches 
of secular work for young men, and in work for boys, is 
shown in Chapters 23-28. 

18. — Among the agencies for good, besides the Christian 
Commission, which have had their origin in the Young 
Men's Christian Association, may be mentioned the Society 
for the Suppression of Vice, an outgrowth of the New York 
City Association, and the Inter-seminary Missionary Alli- 
ance and the Student Volunteer Movement, both indirectly 
resulting from the college work. 

19. — D. L. Moody, who has been such a wonderful 
blessing to the Church of Christ in this generation, testifies: 
" The Young Men's Christian Association has, under God, 
done more in developing me for Christian work than any 
other agency." On the other hand it should be said that 
the Associations, on both sides of the sea, owe very much 
to Mr. Moody for the spiritual life that he has been the 
means of infusing into their membership and agencies, and 
also for the large material aid which he has secured for 
them, along the path of his aggressive work. 



1. — Throughout their history the Young Men's Christian 
Associations have been loyal to the Church of Christ.* 
Unjust criticisms of the Association movement have some- 

* §96 " Halation to th^ Church," Int. pph, 60'J 

62 RISE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, G, 1. 

times been made by persons who did not understand its 
objects and aims, or were unfriendly to its methods. But 
any candid mind will readily admit that it is not to be 
judged by critics of this class, or by injudicious remarks 
that may have been made by individual members of the or- 
ganization, any more than one of the denominations should 
be judged by the statements of any one member of that 
denomination, even though that member might be a min- 
ister of the gospel. The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions are to be judged by the acts and deliverances of their 
representative bodies. At the Montreal Convention, in 
1856, the following resolution was adopted: 

^^ Resolved, By the Young Men's Christian Associations in con- 
vention assembled, that we do not intend that this institution shall 
take the highest place in our affections, or the largest share of our 
labors, but that we hold this organization as auxiliary to the di- 
vinely appointed means of grace, the Church and the preaching 
of the gospel." 

This resolution was re-affirmed by the conventions at 
Richmond (1857), Troy (1859), and New Orleans (i860). 
At the Portland Convention (1869), the following resolu- 
tions were unanimously adopted : 

** Resolved, That we consider it the bounden duty of the mem- 
bers of all Young Men's Christian Associations, calling themselves 
Christians, to hold their duties and obligations to their respective 
churches, and to the services of the same, as having a prior claim 
upon their sympathy and efforts. 

'* Resolved, That in the prosecution of the work for the Savior 
among yoimg men, which they have assumed, they should heartily 
and zealously co-operate with the divinely appointed ministry and 
with all evangelical bodies of Christians." 

At the International Conference of the General Secre- 
taries of the Associations, held at Buffalo, N. Y., June V, 
1878, the following preamble and resolutions were unani- 
mously adopted : 

" Whereas, It has been publicly asserted that persons connected 
with the Associations have engaged in criticism of the official 
action of evangelical ecclesiastical bodies, that others have admin- 
istered the ordinances of the Church, that the Associations are 

Chap. 3, G, 1. RISE AND growth. 63 

seeking directly or indirectly by lay evangelism and a new church 
organization to supplant or supplement existing church organiza- 
tions on the one hand, or to disseminate Plymouth and anti-church 
Tiews on the other ; and 

"WTiereas, Much public discussion has taken place in regard to 
the same, and the Associations as organized bodies have in some 
quarters been charged with responsibility for these utterances or 
acts, or some of them ; therefore 

*^ Resolved, That we re-affirm the deliverances of the general con- 
ventions of the Associations of this continent, which declare in 
substance that the Associations are not political nor merely moral 
reform societies, nor substitutes for, nor rivals of the churches of 
Christ ; that they hold the obligation and duty of their members 
to the churches with which they are connected ac superior to those 
due the Association ; that they recognize and uphold a divinely 
appointed ministry ; that they hold that questions of doctrine or 
polity, as to which the various branches of the evangelical churches 
are not agreed, are questions with which, as Associations, they 
have nothing whatever to do. 

"jResoZi7ed,That the Associations are not responsible for the opin- 
ions, public declarations, or acts of those who may be members of 
them, unless they be in harmony with the pronounced official 
judgment of the representative bodies of the Associations. 

• 'Resolved, That we do not esteem it just to the Associations nor 
to their members to charge them with the adoption or approval 
of the acts or opinions of any individual, which may be thought 
unscriptural, unsound, or unwise, simply for the reason that such 
individuals are members of an Association or oflSce bearers in the 
same or perform service on the invitation of individual Associa- 

'^Resolved, That we hold that criticism by the Associations or by 
individuals authorized r,o represent them, of the action of evangeli- 
cal ecclesiastical bodies would be a violation of the fundamental 
principle upon which the members of the evangelical denomina- 
tions united to form the Association, and that it would be a disre- 
gard of the pledge given by them and observed through the whole 
period of their growth, and under which they have not only en- 
joyed the confidence of the evangelical churches and ministry, 
but have received in perpetuity valuable properties from the 
members of all these evangelical denominations. 

'^ Resolved, That the objects of the Associations, as we understand 
them, are stated in the declaration made at Paris in 1855 by the 
"World's Conference of Young Men's Christian Associations^ an4 

64 R^SE AND GROWTH. Chap. 3, G. 2. 

re-aflBrmed at Albany in 1866, by the annual convention of the 
American Associations, as follows ; 'The Young Men's Christian 
Associations seek to unite those young men who, regarding Jesus 
Christ as their God and Savior, according to the Holy Scriptures, 
desire to be his disciples in their doctrine and in their life, and to 
associate their efforts for the extension of his kingdom among 
young men,' and 

*' Resolved, That we consider the history of the Associations and 
their official action as furnishing a complete answer to all the ad- 
verse suggestions herein referred to, and by such action we stand, 
and by it are content to hav3 these societies judged." 

It is but just to say that this deliverance represents the 
sentiments of the Young Men's Christian Associations. 
It should be borne in mind that no young man can become 
an active, voting member of the Young Men's Christian 
Association, or be admitted as a delegate to the Interna- 
tional Conventions of the Associations, unless he is a mem- 
ber, in good standing, of an evangelical church. This is 
higher ground than is taken by any other similar organiza- 
tion, not excepting Sunday-schools and Sunday-school con- 
ventions. It will therefore be seen that the Y^oung Men's 
Christian Association has a closer relation to the evangeli- 
cal church than any other organization, and is also more 
loyal in supporting the regular church work and the or- 
dained ministry than any other organization. 

2. — Reference should be made to the recognition, 
throughout the history of the Associations, of the Deity of 
our blessed Lord, and of the personality of the Holy Spirit, 
and his agency in the work of regeneration and sanctifica- 
tion ; and to the insistence in all their meetings and ser- 
vices on the necessity of the new birth, the divine authority 
of the Holy Scriptures, the eternal reward of believers, 
and the eternal punishment of unbelievers. 

3. — It is a source of gratification that no denominational 
jars or jealousies have ever disturbed the harmony of the 
Avork of these societies. As was observed in the report of 
the International Committee to the Milwaukee Conven- 
tion, in 1883 ; 

Chap. 3, G, 3. rise and growth. 65 

** The committee is not so foolish as to deny that mistakes have 
been made in its administration, that mistakes have been made in 
the administration of local Associations ; that things have been 
done, both general and local, which were indiscreet and unwise. 
But there is one fact, with its surroundings, which must impress 
any one conversant with our history with the truth of the propo- 
sition that the hand of God is in this work and that his Spirit 
guides it ; and it is this : that for more than thirty years these 
Associations have existed on this continent, for the avowed pur- 
pose already specified, composed of young men dwelling in dif- 
ferent sections of the continent, having few business relations and 
most of them no acquaintance with one another, and that all this 
time these Associations have been growing in numbers and in 
strength, have been growing in wealth, in influence and in unity ; 
that they have annually come together in general, in state, and 
then in district conventions, and that during all that period there 
has been no substantial break in their harmony, no substantial 
difference in their gatherings, no substantial dispute, when the 
topic was presented, as to the real purpose of the work ; and yet 
there is no formal constitution or legal tie connecting them to- 
gether, and they join hands simply and only because they have 
this common purpose and this one work." 





1. — An Association should not be crowded upon a place 
by outside influence. After the object of the Association 
has been properly presented, the demand for an organi- 
zation should come from the Christian people themselves. 
This fact will add to their interest in the work, and give an 
increased responsibility for its proper maintenance. 

2. — An Association should not be organized in any town 

a. Thorough instruction regarding the character and 
demands of the work. 

h. Assurance that it will be maintained. The ill-ad- 
vised organization, aimless work, and brief existence of a 
multitude of so-called Young Men's Christian Associations 
have been of untold damage to the good name of the 

3. — An organization ma}^ be safely attempted when, the 
conditions named being satisfied, from six to twenty resident 

♦ See "Organization and work of Associations," Int. pph.'No. 553. 

Chap. 4, A, 10. ORGANIZATION. 67 

3'oiing men, members of one or more evangelical churches, 
earnest, willing and capable, feel its need and determine 
upon its accomplishment. 

4. — Begin quietly. Pray and confer together. Talk 
with the pastors. Consult a few substantial men from 
whom financial help would be expected. An organization 
resulting from eloquent speeches at a mass meeting, or 
simply from the enthusiasm accompanying a revival, is 
rarely a success. 

5. — Communicate at once with the State Secretary or 
other properly qualified person, as to mode of organiza- 
tion and other matters essential to be understood at the 

6. — The establishment of a religious meeting for young 
men only will be a safe and practical step at any time dur- 
ing the preliminary proceedings. 

7. — A preamble, setting forth the objects of the proposed 
movement, should be circulated among carefully selected 
Christian young men, of the evangelical churches only, 
to be signed by those willing to unite in the work. The 
size of the place will determine the number of names with 
which it will be judicious to attempt an organization. 

8. — The persons signing the preamble — and these 
only — should meet, adopt a constitution, and elect the 
ofiicers. Several meetings may be necessary to complete 
the organization. There should be no undue haste. 

9. — Let the constitution be simple and clear in its pro- 
visions, fitted to the needs of the particular society for 
which it is designed, and so carefully framed as not to call 
for speedy amendment. (See Chap. 5.) 

10. — Great care should be taken in the selection of 
oflS^cers. They should be men of unquestioned piety, will- 
ing and competent to do the duties assigned them, and 
having the respect of the community. No men should be 
put in office as mere figure-heads. The several affiliating 
churches should be fairly represented, if possible, but the 
other points are the more essential. 

68 ORGAKIZATION. Chap. 4, A, 11. 

11.— The larger Associations will require a board of 
directors, the smaller ones only an executive committee. 
Put the business management in good hands. No Asso- 
ciation can exist long without capable, systematic, and 
energetic men in charge of this department. There should 
be a combination of young and middle-aged men. Both 
the zeal and enthusiasm of the former are needed, as well 
as the experience and caution of the latter. 

12. — The success of a new Association will depend large- 
ly upon the composition of its working committees, and es- 
pecially upon the chairmen. Men adapted to the different 
forms of work should be selected. 

13. — When the organization is completed, the Christian 
people of the community may be called together for prayer 
and conference regarding it. The work should then be 
clearly presented, that they may understand its character 
and be prepared to give it an intelligent support. 

14. — The character of rooms and appliances, or whether 
rooms are needed at all, must be determined by local cir- 
cumstances. The rooms, if obtained, should be the best that 
can be secured, and should be attractively fitted up. Some 
good suggestions can often be gathered by visiting the 
better class of social club rooms. 

15. — If a work is to be undertaken requiring any con- 
siderable outlay of money, the question of finances is spec- 
ially important and should be one of the first things con- 
sidered. The entire amount needed for a year's expenses 
should invariably be raised in advance. In addition to 
the adoption of a permanent membership plan, special con- 
tributions must be secured. This work should be placed 
in the hands of a few energetic business men. 

16. — As an Association is designed to be a permanent 
institution, holding property and receiving bequests, it 
should be incorporated. This is readily done under statu- 
tory provisions. (See Chap 19, A.) 

Chap. 4, B, 11. ORaANiZATiON. 69 



1. — Begin the spiritual work at once, and keep it prom- 

2. — Do not attempt too much at first. Do a few things 
and do them thoroughly. Undertake additional work as 
it is demanded and you are able to do it. 

3. — Do not be anxious to increase the membership before 
the work is thoroughly understood. Embarrassment and 
reaction may result. The strength of the organization is 
not in numbers, but in workers. 

4. — Never contract debts without good assurance of 
paying them. An organization that fails to meet its ob- 
ligations promptly will justly lose the respect of the busi- 
ness community. 

5. — Do not fail to consult the pastors and secure their 
co-operation. Their counsel and support will be invaluable. 

6. — Teach every member that he owes his first duty to 
the work of his own church. 

Y. — Do not expect to become at once a recognized in- 
stitution of the place. An organization must prove its 
right to existence by true, persistent effort, and by sub- 
stantial achievement along the lines of its avowed work. 

8. — Some opposition ought not to occasion discourage- 
ment. New methods of Christian activity rarely meet 
with universal approval. 

9. — Do not depend on large and ambitious meetings, nor 
imagine that because your numbers are few you cannot 
accomplish much. 

10. — Cultivate a feeling of Christian fraternity, and 
stimulate one another in Christian life and activity. 

11. — Let definite work for young men resolve itself into 
definite work for a young man. Be systematic. One 
thing every day by each member for a particular object 
would assure not only certain but great success. 

70 ORaANIZATION. Chap. 4, B, 12. 

12. — Emphasize the study and use of the Scriptures. 

13. — Expect immediate and constant results; yet do not 
be disheartened if they should not appear at once. Ap- 
parent failure may be real success. 

14. — Never allow a suspicion of sectarian or personal 
jealousy. Remember that " One is your master, even Christ, 
and all ye are brethren ;" and practice the Pauline injunc- 
tion, "In honor preferring one another." 

15. — The doctrinal differences of the evangelical 
churches should not be discussed in the meetings or Bible 

16. — Do not attempt to compete with any other local 
society. The field is broad enough for all. Strike out 
into new paths. 

17. — Do not engage as an organization in measures of 
political reform, local or general. 

18. — Beware of a class of men who are always ready to 
enter a new organization for selfish ends or to ventilate 
peculiar ideas. Men of doubtful morals, and those who 
speak evil of the churches must not be tolerated. 

O H A F» T E K, 5. 




1. — A constitution should have adaptation to local needs, 
be simple in its construction, and clear and concise in form 
of statement. 

2. — Its provisions should be practicable. Avoid too 
much "red tape." It is better to have a few rules well 
observed, than an array of articles and sections unknown 
or disregarded by the membersliip. 

3. — Some things are uniformly essential, as the test of 
active membership. Other provisions have by long usage 
been found expedient. Still others will vary with the size 
and class of the organization, or may be matters of mere 
taste or opinion. It is desirable that the less important 
items, and those liable to change, be placed in the by-laws. 

4. — Legal incorporation being desirable (see Chap. 19, 
A.), the constitution must conform to its provisions and 

5. — The framing of a good constitution will require time 
and thought. There should always be consultation with 
the State Committee or experienced workers, and study of 
such models as they may suggest.* 

* The International Committee has on axle two forms. No. 17, " Constitution for 
an Association employing a general secretary," and JSo. 554, "Constitution for an 
Association not employing a general secretary." Also " Essential points in a con- 
stitution," No. 585, on which this chapter is based. 

73 THE coNSTiTUTiois^. Chap. 5, B, 1. 



1. — The object of the Association should be definitely 
stated to be the welfare of young men, by means consistent 
with Christian faith and life. (See Chap. 1, A, 7, c, 4.) 

2. — The membership should be divided into but two 
classes ; namely, active and associate. 

3. — The active members must be young men, members 
in good standing of evangelical churches (see " Member- 
ship," Chap. 9, A.), and they only should have the privilege 
of voting and holding office. Associations organized on 
any other basis are not entitled to representation in the 
International Conventions. 

4. — The associate members should be young men of 
good moral character. 

5. — Other memberships, several classes of which may be 
found in constitutions formed some years ago, should be 
only sub-divisions of these two classes. A life member, 
for example, should be either an active or an associate 
member, elected or admitted in the regular manner, and 
may be designated as life active or life associate. Present 
sentiment is opposed to life membership. Persons sustain- 
ing only a financial relation to the Association are contrib 
utors and not members. 

6. — The membership fee should be moderate, that none 
may be shut out by reason of it. Most Associations make 
the fee for limited membership two dollars. The unlimited 
fee, admitting to the advantages of a fully equipped Asso- 
ciation, is usually five dollars. 

7. — All applications for active membership should be 
referred to a standing committee, which should examine 
into each case and report thereon to a regular business 
meeting of the board or Association, as may be required. 

8. — The investigation of charges justifying suspension 
or expulsion should be made by and before the directors, 

Chap. 5, B, 12. the constitution. 73 

the accused being permitted to appear and defend himself. 
Full records of such proceedings should be preserved. At 
least a two-thirds vote should be necessary for conviction. 

9. — The management of the larger Associations is vested 
in a board of directors. This board should be divided into 
at least three sections, a section being elected annually and 
for three years. This will insure having at all times on 
the board men of experience and familiarity with the af- 
fairs of the Association. It may be well to specify the 
greatest number of one denomination allowed upon the 

10. — The board of directors should be given power for 
the proper management of the Association and its branches. 
The branches ought always to be under the control of the 
board, directly or through a committee. The selection and 
supervision of all paid officers and employes of the Associ- 
ation, and of the general secretaries of the branches, should 
be in the hands of the board. It should also have power to 
All vacancies occurring in its own number or among the 
officers of the Association, the appointees holding office only 
till the next annual election. 

11. — The general secretary in many Associations is a 
member of the board, ex officio or by election. This, 
however, is sometimes forbidden by state law. There is 
also a growing sentiment that the secretary, who is tlie 
employed agent of the board, cannot appropriately be a 
member of it. But the constitution or by-laws should 
provide for his attendance at all board or committee 

12. — The officers should be chosen annually by the board 
of directors from its own number, the method which is used 
by business corporations, and which experience has shown to 
be the wiser plan. The more that the Associations come 
into the possession of property, and into a place among tlie 
permanent institutions of the community, the more unde- 
sirable is any other method. The directors are of course 
elected by the active members of the Association. 


IS. — In small places the Association should liave a presi- 
dent, first and second vice-presidents, executive secretary, 
and treasurer. These five officers constitute the executive 
committee, hold the same relation to the small Association 
that the board of directors does to the larger one, and per- 
form similar duties. 

14. — Standing committees should be provided for, but 
only such as are really needed. Those having to do with 
the business management should be of the directors, the 
others of the Association, members of the board not being 
necessarily excluded. They should be appointed by the 
president — after consultation with the general secretary — 
and approved by the board. They should consist of at 
least three members, the first-named being chairman, and 
should work under direction of the board, reporting to it 
statedly. Committees of the Association should also report 
to the monthly or quarterly meetings of the same. The 
president should have power, with consent of the board, 
to add to the committees at any time during the year or 
to make any desirable changes in their membership. (See 
Chap. 8.) 

15. — The president and executive secretary should be 
ex officio members of all standing committees. The gen- 
eral secretary should be an ex officio member of the stand- 
ing committees of the Association, and a regular attendant 
at all committee meetings, whether of the Association or 
the board. These officers should be notified of all com- 
mittee meetings. 

16. — N"o debt should be incurred unless the money is on 
hand or provided for. Pa^^ments should be made by the 
treasurer only when the bills have been approved by some 
other officer or by a properly constituted committee. No 
money should be solicited except by authority of the board 
of directors. 

17. — Where an Association is in possession of real estate 
or trust funds, such property should be held by a board of 
trustees, whos ^ minutes and accounts should be kept en- 



Chap. 5, B, 24. the constitution. 75 

tirely distinct from those of the board of directors and the 
current expenses. (See "Trustees," Chap. 19, B.) 

18. — An annual business meeting for the election of di- 
rectors, etc., should be provided for at, or just previous to, 
the beginning of the Association year. At this meeting 
reports from the board of directors, treasurer, and com- 
mittees should be presented. 

19. — There should be a public anniversary at which the 
work of the Association for the past year, with its present 
condition and prospects, should be carefully presented, 
with such other exercises as shall create helpful, popular 
interest in work for young men. (See Chap. 20, B.) 

20. — Provision should be made for monthly or quarterly 
meetings of the Association, at which there should be 
written reports from the committees and other necessary 
business. If desirable there may be added social or lit- 
erary exercises. (See Chap. 9, H.) 

21. — The quorum necessary for the transaction of ordi- 
nary business in Association, board, or committee meetings 
should not be too large, or annoying delays will frequently 
occur through an insufficient number being present. 

22. — Power should be given the board of directors to 
make by-laws for its own government and for that of the 

23. — The day and hour for the regular business meet- 
ings, the annual meeting excepted ; the order of exercises 
at such meetings ; and all matters of minor importance 
should be provided for in the by-laws rather than in the 

24. — Amendments to the constitution should require for 
their adoption a presentation in writing at a previous reg- 
ular meeting, and. at least a two-thirds vote of the members 
present. But it should be distinctly stated that the article 
containing the active membership test and the article on 
amendments shall not be altered or repealed without the 
unanimous consent of the Association. 





1. — Early in the development of Association work in 
the larger cities, the importance of opening more than one 
place of resort for young men in the same city was realized. 
This demand has been met most wisely, not by forming 
different independent Associations, but by the establish- 
ment of well located branches of a central ors^anization. 
The Kansas City International Convention (1891) passed 
the following resolution : 

*' Resolved, That the International Committee be instructed not 
to recognize Young Men's Christian Associations that shall here- 
after be organized in cities or towns where such Associations al- 
ready exist, and that such organizations be not entitled to repre- 
sentation at International Conventions, College and Colored 
Associations excepted." 

As these branches have multiplied in some cities and 
have grown in usefulness, calling for additional Association 
buildings and a complex work in each, a careful definition 
of their mutual relations has been called for. In New York 
City, when the branches had grown to the number of ten — 
six of them occupying each an Association building — an 
important step was taken toward promoting the solidarity 
of this entire work for young men within the city limits. 

By a thorough revision of its constitution in 1887, the 
New York City Association released its board of directors 

Chap. 6, A, 2. branches. 77 

from the special care of the work at any one point, and 
placed the board in equal and similar relation of control 
and oversight to every branch of the organization. The board 
of directors is thus enabled to devote itself more effect- 
ively to tlie administration and development of the entire 
work, and to its extension by the establishment of new 
branches. This plan, which has been styled "The metro- 
politan organization," has commended itself to the Asso- 
ciations in the larger American cities. 

It is probably the goal toward which Associations with 
a considerable number of branches are now working. 
The most common method of organization pursued in this 
transition period of development is a natural outgrowth of 
a strong central organization. A call comes for a branch, 
either owing to the size of the city or in order to reach a 
special class of young men. Under vote of the board of 
directors, a committee of management for this branch is 
appointed by the president, and the organization is com- 
pleted as in the case of any other Association.* 

Experience shows that sometimes branches have been 
formed or the metropolitan organization adopted j^rema- 
turely. All such complicated plans are worse than useless 
when the call for them is not imperative. As little ma- 
chinery should be employed as will accomplish the work. 

If in any case the usefulness of a branch ceases, as, for 
instance, by the removal of a large number of railroad men 
from the neighborhood. It should be promptly closed or 
moved to a better location. 

2. — "While local conditions will have much to do with 
determining plans and fixing the proper details of relation- 
ship between the several organizations of a city, some 
general principles may be mentioned which it will be ex- 
pedient to follow: 

a. In order to have harmonious and economical action, 
there must be one common head or management supervis- 

* For full details of the several plans of branch organization, see the constitu- 
tions and by-laws of such organizations in New York, Philadelphia, and other cities. 

78 BRANCHES. Chap. 6, A, 3. 

ing and controlling the entire work in a community. Such 
head will be the board of directors of the Association.* 
Committees of the board should visit the branches regularly. 

b. Each branch should be under the direct supervision 
of a committee of management, composed, as far as possible, 
of men identified with the locality by residence and gen- 
eral interests, or with tlie special class by social or business 

c. This committee should be appointed in the same 
manner and sustain the same relation to the Association as 
other committees. 

d. — Each branch should be complete in organization, 
rales of business, and methods of work ; the committee of 
management being practically a board of directors, with 
its officers and committees, the officers being also the offi- 
cers of the branch. It is customary to use the terms chair- 
man and vice-chairman in designating the officers of the 
branch, to avoid confounding them with those of the As- 

e. — The secretary of the branch should be appointed 
by the board of directors, after conference with the com- 
mittee of management, the wishes of the committee being 
complied with as far as possible in this, and in all things 
connected with the branch, consistently with the constitu- 
tion of the Association. 

f. — The secretary of the branch, whatever his designa- 
tion, is usually subordinate to the general secretary of the 
central or general Association.! He should, however, be 
given all freedom in the local management, consistent with 
his experience and capabilities. 

* The College ABSociatiou has been an exception to this rule. The community^ 
mode of college life, the distinctive character of the membership and of the work, 
and the usual isolation of the college buildings have been considered a sufQcient bar 
to local organic union. A closer connection in our large cities between city and 
college organizations has been deemed desirable, and some successful efforts have 
been made in this direction. 

t It is sometimes held that the branch secretary should be amenable to th« 
board of directors, the appointing power, but not to the general secretary, who is 
only another employ^. With equal propriety it might be said that an army sub- 
altern should be amenable to the war office only, and not to the general in com- 

Chap. 6, B. BRANCHES. 79 

g. — It is desirable to divide the city into as many dis- 
tricts as there are branches (not including any branches 
designed for special classes of young men), and for each 
branch to undertake thorough work in the district where 
it is located. 

h. — A member of the Association is generally entitled 
to any privileges afforded at any other branch which can- 
not be obtained at the branch where he holds his member-, 

i. — The question of financial support must be deter- 
mined by local circumstances. If a branch be able to 
support itself from the dues of its members and contribu- 
tions of friends in its immediate vicinity, or of its special 
class, there will be no need to draw upon the general treas- 
ury. In gome cases partial support may be necessary, and 
occasionally, where the branch is designed to benefit chiefly 
young men in destitute circumstances, it may be necessary 
for all the financial support to come from the central organ- 
ization. In order to avoid the solicitation of funds by the 
board of directors and by one or more branches from the 
same person, it is desirable that the assignment of names 
for solicitation be made by the board, or its representative, 
from lists submitted by the branches. The same course 
may become necessary in the larger cities in regard to all 
solicitation, as, for instance, that of advertisements for 
Association publications. 



A class of sub-organizations is liable to spring up in 
connection with the local work ; such as the literary 
society, the boys' department, athletic club, and others 
similar to them. These sometimes exist without any dis- 
tinct organization, but in general they adopt some form. 

80 BRANCHES. Chap. 0, B. 

The relation of all these to the Association should be not 
only carefully guarded, but definitely fixed and understood. 
They are always, it is sujiposed, designed to work in har- 
mony with the objects of the Association, and to be in 
every sense auxiliary to it, and are often valuable; but 
there should be in every instance such organic connection 
as to bring every department of the work under perfect 
control, and insure against any departure from proper 
methods. No society, committee, club, or organization of 
any kind should be permitted within or in connection with 
the Association, or any of its departments or branches, ex- 
cept by authority of the board of directors or committees 
of management, who should also draft or approve, and 
amend, the by-laws thereof, and appoint or confirm the 
officers and committees. In addition to this the president 
and secretaries of the Association should be constituted 
ex officio members of such societies, and of their executive 
committees, and provision should be made whereby the 
board of directors or committee of management may 
fully supervise, and, for due cause, reorganize or disband 
them. It is very desirable that every such society be 
under the direct supervision of a regular standing com- 




Experience has demonstrated that in the Associations, 
as well as in business corporations, affairs are more effi- 
ciently conducted by a judicious board of directors than 
by the Association as a whole. To this board is entrusted 
the supervision of the entire work, both secular and re- 
ligious, and its guiding, moulding power should be felt in 
every department. The members of the board should be 
representative men of the Association, of their respective 
churches, and of the various business interests of the com- 
munity. If men whose industry and attainments have 
won for them wealth and influence can be led to devote 
the same qualities to the service of the Association, their 
co-operation will be of great value. They are busy men, 
but the best work must be done by busy men ; and, ap- 
preciating the value of time, they will know how to use 
what they can give to the best advantage. 


a. Christian character. — A director must be a man in 
regard to whose integrity in religious matters there can 
be no question — whose life is in keeping with his pro- 

h. Heart. — A director should have a warm heart, full 
of that sympathy for young men in their temptations and 

82 THE MANAGEMENT. Chap. 7, A, 1. 

wants that shall lead him to active effort in their behalf. 

c. Judgment. — He should be a man of tact, who will 
know what to do and how to do it. 

d. Business reputation. — He should be known and rec- 
ognized in the community as a capable, conscientious man 
of affairs, whose connection with the work will be a guar- 
antee that the Association is what it claims to be. 

e. Experience. — A very desirable qualification is wide 
Association experience ; and yet a number of less experi- 
enced but promising young men may wisely be admitted 
to the board — men who will learn readily from the older 

f. Interest. — "With rare exceptions, no man, however 
well qualified otherwise, should be chosen, unless he has 
that genuine interest in the work which will lead him to 
give it thorough attention. 

g. Loyalty to the Association. — A director should be 
one who believes thoroughly in the mission and work of 
the Young Men's Christian Association, who has the cour- 
age of his convictions, and can give at any time an intelli- 
gent and sufficient reason for his belief. 

A. Loyalty to the Church. — He should be in full sym- 
pathy with his own church and with his pastor. This is 
essential in order to a cordial relationship between his 
church and the Association. 

i. Christian activity. — He should be a worker, active in 
both his church and the Association. He will probably 
be unable because of multiplied duties to attend regularly 
all the stated meetings of the Association, but he should 
be in practical sympathy with all Christian effort and 
active to the extent of his ability. 

j. Catholicity. — He should be a man of broad heart, 
who can recognize a brother in every true follower of 

k. Age. — He should not be too young for good judg- 
ment and experience, nor too old for sympathy and act- 
ive co-operation. 

Chap. 7, A, 3. the management. 83 


a. A director should become conversant, if not already 
so, with the local work, even in its details, that he may- 
act wisely upon all questions coming before the board. In 
such action a knowledge of the history and work of the 
Associations in general is indispensable. It can be se- 
cured by reading Association publications, visiting Asso- 
ciations, attending conventions, etc. 

b. He should so identify himself with the active work 
of the Association as to keep in sympathy with it and 
know its needs. He should be a frequent visitor at the 
rooms, and, if practicable, should assume some direct re- 
sponsibility, especially in connection with the religious 
work. A board made up of men thus personally active 
will never fail in interest or efficiency. 

c. He should bring to the management of the Associa- 
tion his best business ability. As a trustee of funds con- 
tributed to this special work, he should know how the 
money is spent. He should act as he would in his own 

d. He should be a contributor to the work financially, 
according to his means. His position and supposed in- 
terest in the work naturally call for this, and his example 
will influence others. 

e. It is the duty of a director to aid personally in the 
solicitation of funds. Men of business can best reach 
business men, and much of the means to support the As- 
sociation must come from the well-to-do part of the com- 

/. He should be prompt in attendance at the meetings 
of the board. It is extremely vexatious to busy men to 
wait for one or two laggards to effect a quorum. Twice 
the necessary time is consumed, and the board meeting 
becomes an irksome duty. 

(/. He should sustain intimate relations to the presi- 
dent and general secretary. Mutual counsel and sugges- 
tion are of great value, and manifest interest on the part 

84 THE MANAGEMENT. Chap. 7, A, 3. 

of members of the board cannot fail to stimulate and en- 
courage the officers. The secretary, probably more than 
any other man he associates with, can aid the director in 
securing the Association education and exj^erience already 
referred to as indispensable. 

h. He is a medium of communication between his de- 
nomination and the Association, standing in each as the 
representative of the other. He should study to make 
his denomination valuable to the Association, and the As- 
sociation helpful to his denomination, thus welding the 
bond of sympathy between the two. 


a. The board of directors is responsible for the judi- 
cious management of the business affairs of the Associa- 
tion, its headquarters, and employes. It must see that the 
funds are used to the best possible advantage, and that 
promptness and exactness characterize all transactions of 
the Association. 

b. The board has a general supervision of every de- 
partment, and should have a plan by which its members 
systematically visit the rooms and see for themselves all 
the practical details of the work. Attention should be 
given to the various secular agencies, the character of the 
working force, the meetings for prayer and Bible study, 
and the culture of those beginning the Christian life. 

c. If a large share of each meeting is devoted to the 
discussion of finances, it is a sure sign of inefficiency either 
on the part of the finance committee or of the board itself. 
AVhere a work is done that wins for itself support, and a 
carefully estimated budget is presented and approved by 
the board at the beginning of the year, the efforts of an 
energetic committee should solve the financial problem 
before three months of the year have passed. 

d. It is the duty of the board to familiarize itself with 
the number and different classes of young men upon its 
own field and their special needs, and then to outline the 

Chap. 7, A, 3. the management. 85 

jjlans of operation by which the Association shall reach 
and benefit them. The details of these plans should not 
absorb the time of the board, but be referred to the proper 
committees. At the same time its familiarity with the 
whole work should be such as to enable it so to counsel 
each committee as to prevent mistake or failure.* 

e. To the board chosen by and from the active mem- 
bership should be intrusted, as in other business corpora- 
tions, the choice of the officers of the Association. (See 
*' Constitution — Suggestive Outline," Chap. 5, 13.) Thus 
the tendency to wire-pulling and contests resulting in bitter 
feeling are likely to be avoided, and greater harmony will 
exist in the management. 

f. That the placing of responsibility for the guidance of 
the Association in the hands of the board of directors may 
not lead to a lack of interest on the part of other active 
members, special effort should be made to preserve a vital 
contact between the board and the working force. The 
monthly or quarterly meetings should be made as attract- 
ive as possible. (See "Members' Meetings," Chap. 9, H.) 
The committees of the Association should report thereto, 
and a statement from the board of its operations would 
add interest to the meeting. The various committees may 
from time to time meet with the board, or its executive 
committee^ for conference about their work. 

(J. That the meetings of the board be successful in at- 
tendance, interest, and results, they should be held regu- 
larly, at a uniform time most convenient to the greatest 
number, and as a rule at the rooms of the Association. 
Meetings are sometimes held at the home of a director, 
and at a meal hour. They should begin promptly and not 
be too long. To this end a carefully digested programme 
of the business to be transacted should be prepared and 
adhered to, time being given at the close for any necessary 
miscellaneous matters. Memoranda of important items in 

* See "Some things apt to be neglected," " Watchman," 1889, p. 484. 

86 THE MANAGEMENT. Chap. 7, A, 4. 

the programme should accompany the notices sent to 

h. The board, as such, should sustain cordial relations 
with its general secretary. It should have a correct ap- 
preciation of his position both in relation to the board and 
the Association. His regular attendance at board and 
committee meetings should be provided for in the by-laws, 
and no action relating to the general work should be taken 
without his knowledge. The board should relieve him 
as far as possible from care and labor in connection 
with the finances. In no case should he be expected to 
solicit or collect funds for his own salary. It is the 
special duty of the board to see that the secretary is 
adequately and promptly jjaid. It is also the duty of the 
board, both as a body and individually, to co-operate 
heartily with him in all proper plans for the advancement 
of the work, and reasonable requests for special help should 
meet with ready compliance, even at the expense of per- 
sonal sacrifice. The secretary should be sent, when prac- 
ticable, to district, State, and International Conventions, 
and to secretaries' conferences, at the expense of the Asso- 
ciation. Such attendance is essential to his highest efii- 
ciency, and equally promotes the best welfare of the local 
Association and of the cause at large. The secretary 
should also be given a reasonable yearly vacation, and 
the time needed each week for study and recreation. * 


a. If the board is too large, it will not only prove un- 
wieldy, but likely to have among its number some who do 
not possess the requisite qualifications, and whose presence 
(or oftener absence) will prove a hindrance rather than a 
help. In practice the number is generally between eleven 
and twenty-one. 

h. It is desirable that the term of office cover several 
years, say three, only a portion of the board being chosen 

♦ See " Duty of the board of directors to the general secretary," Int. pph. No. 678. 

Chap. 7, B, 1. THE MANAaEMENT. 87 

at each election. This gives a stability to the operations 
of the Association impossible where the entire board is 
elected annually. 

c. The affiliating denominations should be fairly repre- 
sented on the board. 

d, A good man is usually kept on the board as long as 
he will serve. The interests of an Association demand 
tried men in its important positions. Its offices are not 
dispensed as personal favors, and the matter is too serious 
for experiment. 



1. — Tlie president, should be a man specially fitted to 
lead. The general qualifications already enumerated as 
desirable in a director should not be lacking. As 
peculiarly the representative man of the Association, he 
should be strong in every essential characteristic of a 
Christian business man, and possess the respect of the en- 
tire community. In the older Associations it will be a gain 
to select from the active workers one who has already 
proved his love for the work ; but care should be taken not 
to choose a man who is already overworked, or whose im- 
pulses will lead him to promise more than he can perform. 
There is real work to be done, and no one should occupy 
the position who cannot give to its duties the requisite 
time. A man should never be chosen simply because of 
his social or business position. As a rule, active business 
men make the best executive officers. Themselves in 
the midst of aifairs, they are alert and quick to devise 
new methods. They are in sympathy with the young 
men about them, and their own success and activity 
inspire confidence and respect. A talent for public speak- 
ing is often advantageous, but with a heart full of a 

88 THE MANAGEMENT. Chap. 7, B, 2. 

good subject, a simple, straightforward talk will always 
gain respect and attention. The president should not as- 
sume nor expect to do everything, but should use his best 
efforts to enlist and guide others, counseling and co-operat- 
ing with the other officers and with the various committees. 
He should, after consultation with the general secretary, 
appoint the chairmen and members of all standing com- 
mittees. All additions to standing committees should 
be made by him ; and he should have power, with the 
consent of the board, to drop members from committees, 
or to disband or reorganize committees, standing or special. 
He should be a member ex officio of all committees. He 
should, under the direction of the trustees or directors, as 
the constitution may provide, sign all leases and other 
contracts of the Association. Punctuality, earnestness, 
kindness, and impartiality should characterize his relations 
both to the business meetings and affairs, and to the in- 
dividual members. 

2. — The treasurer needs fin?.ncial tact, and should have 
the confidence of the community. His duties are to re- 
ceive all funds of the Association, which he should keep in 
a separate bank account as treasurer, the same to be dis- 
bursed under direction of the board, and upon properly 
certified vouchers. Also to report monthly in writing to 
the board the receipts, expenditures, and obligations of the 
Association. He should submit an annual report of receipts 
and expenditures, with vouchers of the same, to the 
finance committee, of which committee he is usually an 
ex officio member. A report should also be made at the 
anniversary meeting. It is desirable that the treasurer 
hold all membership tickets, keeping an account of those 
issued to the general secretary or other officers disposing 
of them. 

3. — The recording secretary needs to be a ready and 
methodical writer, that he may be able to keep cor- 
rect records of business proceedings. He will keep the 
minutes of all meetings of the board and of the Associa- 

Chap. 7, B, 4. the manaoement. 89 

tion in separate books provided for the purpose, notify 
officers and committees of their election or appointment, 
and furnish the chairman of each committee with a list of 
the members thereof and with a draft of the business from 
time to time assigned to such committee. He will also 
receive and file the written reports of the committees. 
Some Associations require the secretary to submit to them, 
at stated times, an abstract of the proceedings of the 
board. The recording secretary should also notify active 
members of their election, unless this duty is otherwise 
provided for. 

4. — In many of the smaller Associations when a paid 
secretary cannot be maintained his place is partially sup- 
plied by a voluntary officer to whom custom has given 
the name of executive secretary. In such an Association 
the young man possessing the best average of qualifica- 
tions, according the standards given in chapters 10 to 12 
on *'The General Secretary," including available time, is 
selected for this position and retained in it as long as 
practicable. His duties will approximate as near as may 
be to those of the paid secretary. In many instances 
very efficient service has been performed by such officers, 
and in several cases men have been led by this means into 
the general secretaryship. For a detailed statement of 
the work of this officer, see "Work of an executive sec- 
retary," Int. pph. No. 556. The chapters just referred to 
also contain many valuable suggestions to such an officer. 





1. — Organization secures the largest result from a given 
amount of exertion. It gives definiteness of purpose, 
fixes responsibility on individuals, and enlists and puts in 
training a larger number of workers. As different men are 
fitted for different kinds of work, organization, through a 
division of labor, taking advantage of adaptation, puts 
the right man in the right place. Statistics show that the 
thoroughly organized Associations are doing the most and 
the best work. (See '* Secretarialism," Chap. 11, B, 5.) 

2. — In the Associations the committee is the chief means 
of organization, and the committees of any individual 
Association will generally index its character and efficiency. 
Too much attention can hardly be given to the proper 
construction, adjustment, and methods of this agency. 

3. — That there may be unity of purpose and action, all 
committees should work under the direction of one head. 
This head is the board of directors ; the president and 
general secretary being the thought and will forces, and 
the committees hands and feet, running and reaching out, 
each having its particular duty, but each in harmony with 
the whole. 

4. — It is desirable that the largest practicable number 
of active members be on the committees. Each man should 

• This chapter is reprinted as lut. pph. No. 53, 

Chap. 8, A, 6. STANDiNa committkks. 91 

have some definite work, but to make sure of his doing it 
you must " organize " him. How men are to be enlisted, 
interested, made efficient, and retained in the work, are 
vital questions that come almost daily before the presi- 
dent and general secretary. There should be kept a 
special ** committee memorandum book" with a full list of 
every committee, and as the work of the year progresses 
the secretary should observe and make notes as to the 
success and adaptation of the different chairmen and 
members. If this is done with system and discrimination, 
he will have a knowledge of the men that will enable him 
to suggest to the president any needed changes, and at 
the beginning of a new year to place in his hands a revised 
list formed on the basis of observation and experience. 
Sometimes an interleaved copy of the annual report is used 
for this purpose. 

5. — In a new held this work of enlistment will require 
time and patience. The matter must first be talked up, 
both publicly and personally. Call meetings of active 
members — perhaps a members' tea — at which pithy papers 
on committee work, its importance and methods, may be 
read and discussed. Obtain printed papers and articles 
from Association periodicals bearing upon this subject 
and put them into the hands of the men you wish specially 
to reach. Be sure they read them. 

6. — Watch for impressions made. Then take the men, 
one by one, and talk with them, earnestly but judiciously, 
about the work to be done. Give them a choice, if possi- 
ble ; they will generally have preferences as to the kind of 
work they will undertake. A strong point is gained if 
they are led to volunteer. This may be done in a general 
way at the meeting spoken of. Some secretaries send to 
members a memorandum of the lines of work sufficiently in 
detail, with a request that they will designate their prefer- 
ence. This work is of course only preliminary, and must be 
followed up, readjusted, and completed; for such preferences 
are often wisely changed on consultation with the officers. 

92 STANDING^ COMMITTEES. Chap. 8, A, 7. 

7. — In the selection of committees some care should be 
taken as to representation from the several denominations 
and classes in the Association, but the first requisite 
should be adaptation. There must however be no unjust 
discrimination. The committees are composed only of 
active members. (See Chap. 9, G, 5.) 

8. — Do not put a man on too many committees — rarely 
on more than two. There will be a tendency to do this in 
the case of some who are capable and willing. Such men, 
however, should not be overloaded. They have duties in 
connection with their churches and elsewhere, which they 
must not neglect, and they cannot do good work Avith too 
many irons in the fire. It may be admissible for the 
chairman of one committee to occupy a subordinate 
position on another, if a dearth of proper material seems 
to require it. 

9. — If you get a man in the right place, keep him there. 
In the annual reconstruction be sure to leave some experi- 
enced man on each committee. Let changes be made for 
a purpose. Experiment with caution. Still let it be kept 
in mind that a judicious system of rotation will produce a 
more evenly developed membership. 

10. — After the committees are appointed call them to- 
gether at a committee tea. Make the occasion a pleasant 
one. Get the members thoroughly acquainted with each 
other. Give some carefully prepared instruction as to 
general principles and methods of committee work. Devote 
some time before the close to earnest prayer, enlisting the 
hearts of the members. It may be of advantage to sep- 
arate into sections for a short portion of the evening. 
This will be specially helpful to such committees as may 
not have organized. 

Chap. 8, B, 4. standing committees. 93 



1. — All Standing committees should be appointed by the 
president (See Chap. V, B, l), who should also, with the 
consent of the board, increase or diminish their member- 
ship during the year, when desirable. Courtesy and the 
welfare of the work, and usually the by-laws, require that 
the general secretary be consulted. Rules for the govern- 
ment of the committees should be made by the board. 
Each committee should keep permanent records of all its 
transactions. The president and general secretary should be 
notified of all meetings. The number of committees may be 
materially lessened by a judicious sub-division of a single 
one. Thus a general committee in charge of the religious 
work may include the care of the various meetings, visit- 
ing the sick, distribution of religious literature, invitations, 
etc., each sub-division having its own chairman. 

2. — The chairman of each committee should be appointed 
by the president, not chosen by the committee. He should 
be a person of some experience, the best available for the 
position, for on him will depend largely the success of the 
committee. He must be a man of executive force. He is 
not to do all the Avork himself, but is responsible for it, 
and must see that it is done. Consultation with a chair- 
man regarding the make-up of liis committee previous to 
its appointment is always desirable. 

3. — The newly appointed chairman should at once in- 
form himself thoroughly in regard to the particular sphere 
of his own committee. He can do this by conference with 
the general secretary and with former chairmen of the 
committee, and by studying Association publications. An 
excellent plan also will be to open a correspondence with 
chairmen of like committees in successful Associations. 

4. — As soon as may be, he is to call the members of his 
committee together. At this meeting the general secretary 


should always be present. There should be earnest prayer 
for guidance in completing the organization and outlining 
the work. 

5. — A permanent secretary is needed, one who will be 
regular in attendance, and keep careful minutes of all 
meetings. It is also his duty to see that records are kept 
of all statistical information coming within the province 
of his committee, and to tabulate the same for use in the 
reports. This last is of special importance. 

6. — The work of the committee must be systematically 
laid out, special duties given to each member, and sub- 
committees formed when necessary. No man should be 
assigned a duty without an expressed willingness to accept 
the same, but having assumed a responsibility he should 
be held strictly to it. 

7. — A time should be fixed for stated meetings of the 
committee, and the meetings held. Economy of time and 
effort can often be promoted by holding such meetings 
immediately before meetings of the board or Association, 
or by holding several committee meetings on the same 
evening. Their frequency will vary with the different 
committees. The regular meetings should not be too fre- 
quent ; it is better to call a special meeting occasionally. 
The chairman should carefully arrange the business to be 
transacted, that there may be no waste of time. He should 
also make it a point to have ready some matter of interest 
relating to his department ; an article from a recent num- 
ber of " The Young Men's Era," items or statistics from 
some Association bulletin or report, or a letter from a 
neighboring chairman. With some painstaking the com- 
mittee meeting may be rendered bright and instructive, a 
place to which the members will delight to come. Occa- 
sional intervisitation between similar committees of con- 
tiguous Associations will be an excellent stimulus. 

8. — A system of reports should be provided for, from 
tlie sub-committees, where there are such, to the committee, 
and also from the committee to the board and Association. 

Chap. 8, B, 11. STANDING COMMITTEES. 95 

These should be made at stated times, and whether brief 
or full, invariably in writing. This is essential, that they 
may be filed for reference. It is desirable that all reports 
either of transactions or statistics end with the calendar 

9. — The committee should, before the close of each year, 
make a careful estimate of any needed expenditures in 
connection with its work for the following year, and sub- 
mit the same to the board, or executive committee. If 
considered a, wise expenditure, this will be included in the 
general budget of the finance committee, and in the appro- 
priations of the board. The members of each committee 
should be made personally responsible, by a provision of 
the constitution, for any bills incurred by them in excess 
of the appropriation. Money coming to a committee by 
special subscriptions, etc., should be passed into the Asso- 
ciation treasury and be added to the regular appropriation 
to such committee. No money, however, should be so- 
licited, nor entertainment held for securing funds, without 
authorization of the board of directors. Each committee 
should keep an account of its receipts and expenditures. 

10. — The relations of the committees to the general sec- 
retary should be very cordial. There should also be oc- 
casional meetings of each committee with the management. 
These are needed both to familiarize the latter with the 
details of the work, and for the encouragement of the 
committee. Each committee should be made to feel the 
important place it occupies in the general work, the duties 
and honors connected, with its service should be emphasized, 
and an earnest Christian esprit de corps created and 

11. — Each member of a committee should become per- 
sonally acquainted with the chairman and assure him of 
his support. He should expect the chairman to plan and 
direct the work, but not to do more than his share in its 
execution. He should inform himself in regard to his 
duties, and ask to be excused from responsibility only in 


cases of necessity. He should be a prompt attendant at 
the meetings of the committee, notifying the chairman if 
obliged to be absent. Any member should be free to offer 
a helpful suggestion or a kindly criticism, but only at a 
proper time and place. 

(See also " Standing Committees," Chap. 5, B, 14 and 15.) 



1. — There is great diversity regarding the number, con- 
struction, designation, and duties of the committees, and 
as to which are of the board, and which of the Association. 
In general those that are mainly for matters of business 
should be composed of the more experienced members. 
The more important committees, and especially those of 
supervision, in all departments of the work, should at least 
be officered by tried men, and include some experienced 
workers ; but these may have associated with them for the 
directly personal and aggressive work the younger and 
more active element. 

2. — In many Associations the work is so extended and 
the responsibility so great, involving large outlay, and fre- 
quently the care of property and the administration of 
trust funds, that there must necessarily be more complexity 
and fixedness in the composition of the management than 
is needed elsewhere. The smaller Associations require 
fewer and smaller committees, and should never undertake 
to carry out a scheme that is too extensive for their needs. 
Each Association must arrange its own system, remember- 
ing that the simplest machinery practicable is the best, 
running with the least friction and liability to derange- 

3. — It might be impossible to suggest a plan suited 
to all organizations, varying so greatly as they do in 


city, town, and country. It would be equally futile to 
attempt even an outline of the many excellent features of 
existing plans. Many an Association believes its own 
peculiar system, built up through years of experience, like 
an old mansion to which rooms have been added as needed 
by the growing family, to be the best, and would be slow 
to consider any radical change in it. 

4. — But as it seems desirable to group together the va- 
rious committees needed in a large Association in some 
systematic plan, the following is presented, although with 
diffidence, due to its not having been thoroughly tested in 
detail. This plan has been made up from many models, 
and possesses a flexibility by which it may be adapted to 
the majority of the Associations without affecting its gen- 
eral principles. 

a. The board of directors, as a matter of course, to 
have general supervision of the entire field. 

h. This field to have two principal divisions : first, 
the business management ; second, the general work. 

c. The business management to be under the direct 
supervision of a finance committee, except such part as 
may be controlled by the trustees, if such exist. There 
will also be general auditors, independent of the finance 
committee, for the stated auditing of all the accounts. 

d. The second division, that of the general work, to 
contain the six departments of religious, educational, phys- 
ical, social, information and relief, and boys' work, each 
under its appropriate committee ; together with any branches 
under the management of the Association. 

e. An executive committee to have the supervision of 
the general work with its committees ; of the building or 
rooms, and appliances, except such details as may be dele- 
gated to other committees ; and of the employes.* 

* It is considered proper for this committee to delegate siich details as it may 
think wise to any of the department committees, and in some instances nearly the 
entire management, thus relieving itself of all but general supervision and the re- 

98 STANDi:\^G COMMITTEES. Chap. 8, C, 4. 

f. The executive and finance committees to be com- 
posed exclusively of members of the board. 

g. Some members of each department committee, at 
least the chairman, if possible, to be of the board, the 
others from the active membership. 

Ji. The executive committee, when practicable, to in- 
clude the chairmen of the several department committees, 
and of the finance committee. 

i. The several department committees, and the finance 
committee, to have such sub-committees as may be re- 
quired. These to be selected from the active membership 
by the president, on consultation with the general secretary 
and the chairman of the main committee, of Avhich at least 
the chairman of each sub-committee should be a member. 

j. The principles of this plan are (1) a systematic 
division and sub-division of the work, all items being as- 
signed to some one of the several well-defined depart- 
ments ; (2) a system by which the chairmen of the sub- 
committees, as far as practicable, compose the main com- 
mittee. This representative principle, running through 
the entire plan till it centers in the executive and finance 
committees, and the board of directors, forms a succession 
of links by means of which communication and supervision 
are easy, systematic, and complete.* 

The accompanying diagram shows the ideal of construc- 
tion. The number of committees needed and their names 
and size in no way affect the principles upon which the 
plan is based. 

The smaller Associations should adapt this plan to their 
needs, rather than attempt to imitate it in full. 

h. One difficulty in carrying out this plan, especially 
in new Associations, would be to find members of the 
board who would be qualified to take the department 
chairmanships, and who would also devote the time re- 

* By arranging to have the executive committee meet just previous to the regu- 
lar meeting of the board or finance committee, etc., time can be economized for 
those who may belong to both. 

(Auditors of all Association Accounts, 
either of or outside the membership.) 




Membership .... 
Auditing, (Current bills) 
Publications .... 
Paid Entertainments . 
Extension Fund . . 

Business ^ ^ 

Department. 3> 

Bible Classes 

Training Classes .... 
Evangelistic Meetings . . 
Social Religious Meetings . 
Church Committee . . . 


Distrib. of Eeligious Reading 


Library . . . , 
Reading Room . . 
Classes . . . . , 
Lectures and Talks 
Literary Societies 



Gymnasium . . 
Athletic Grounds 
Outing Clubs 
Health Talks . . 
Purity .... 

Evening Reception Committee 



Chess Club, etc 

Boarding House Bureau . . 
Employment Bureau . . . . 

Savings Bureau 

Benefit Fund 

Visitation of Sick 








Religious Work 

Educational Work . . . _^__. 

Physical Work I Department 

Social Work ■ 


Railroad, etc. . . . 
(Women's Committee) 




































100 STANDING COMMITTEES. Chap. 8, D, 1. 

quired to the careful oversight of the work. If this were 
impossible, it Avould be necessary to select active members, 
not on the board, for these positions, in which case the 
president of the Association and the executive or general 
secretary, who sustain intimate relations to all committees, 
would constitute the link between the department com- 
mittees and the executive committee or board of directors, 
and it might also be desirable that such chairmen attend 
the meetings of the board. But this difficulty can in time 
be overcome by careful selection and training of the board, 
if the plan is kept in view as the model toward which to 



The following is an outline of the committees generally 
round in the Associations. Tlieir number, names, and 
duties are hardh^ the same in any two constitutions, and 
probably will not exactly correspond in any case with the 
list here given. Details are considered under " Methods 
of Work," Chaps. 18-30. 

1. — Finance committee. — To this committee is given 
the management of financial matters, except such as belong 
to the board of trustees, when such board exists. (See 
Chaps. 18 and 19.) It will be its duty to prepare and 
present to the board of directors an annual budget, 
or estimate of receipts and expenditures ; to plan and 
carry out a system of ways and means, including 
all membership finances ; to keep an account of appro- 
priations, audit bills against the Association, sign all 
warrants on the treasurer where these are used, and prevent 
overdrafts on the part of any committee or person ex- 
pending money. It will also be its duty (under instruc- 
tion of the board of directors) to attend to anj^ details 
entrusted to it by the trustees, or, if there are no trustees, 

Chap. 8, D, 3. STANDi^a committees. 101 

to all duties usually pertaining to them. The items of 
printing and pubiication, when a bulletin is issued, and of 
a paid lecture course, if any, will properly be placed with 
this committee. This detail work of the department may 
be performed either by individual members of the finance 
committee assigned to specific duties, or by sub-commit- 
tees on which may be placed active members not 
belonging to the committee. In the latter case the chair- 
man of the sub-committee should be a member of the 
finance committee. The raemhership committee may j^rop- 
erly be classed in the business department, and may be 
formed according to the last method stated above, under 
the direction of the finance committee. If desired there 
may be a sub-committee on applications, to consist, per- 
haps, of members of the board, and to which shall be 
referred all applications for active membership. The 
membership committee is specifically treated in chapter 
9, C. The finance committee may have a sub-committee 
to audit all bills and accounts presented for payment. 
If a bulletin or a paid lecture course be conducted, the 
first may be placed in charge of a publication, and the 
second of a lecture committee. 

2. — General auditors^ or a committee on records and 
accounts^ will audit the books of the treasurer and finance 
committee, and of all other persons and committees hand- 
ling funds, and also examine the statistical records. This 
Avill usually consist of two or three members of the board 
who are not on the finance committee, and who, perhaps, 
are so situated as not to be able to work on any committee 
save this one. Sometimes men outside of the Association 
are chosen to do this work. 

3. — Executive committee. — As it is generally necessary 
that the work be under closer supervision than can be 
given by the board itself, an " abridgment " of the board 
is constituted, styled the executive committee.* 

*In smaller Associations this committee is not generally needed, the work here 
assigned to it being performed by the board itself. In this case it would be 
specially desirable for the chairmen of the department committees to be members 

102 STANDING COMMITTEES. Chap. 8, D, 4. 

This committee usually meets weekly, and is charged 
with the full powers of the board ad interim; except the 
expenditure of money not already appropriated, and the 
reversal of previous action of the board. This committee 
has the supervision of all work not delegated to the 
finance commitee and trustees, also of the committees, 
rooms, appliances, and employes in connection with the 
same. It will also be its duty to gather from the com- 
mittees of the general work expending money their 
estimates for each year, and present them, with any sug- 
gestions drawn from its experience, to the finance commit- 
tee for incorporation in the annual budget. Sometimes 
it will authorize and supervise the expenditures of these 
committees under the appropriations. This committee, 
as far as practicable, should be composed of the chair- 
men of the department committees and of the finance 
committee. All members of the board have a right to 
attend the meetings of the executive committee. The 
chairmen — and, if desired, the members — of the various 
committees and sub-committees should occasionally meet 
with the executive committee for discussion of their work 
and of new methods proposed for introduction. All com- 
mittee reports may pass into its hands for any needed 
revision, or that abstracts may be made for presentation 
to the board or Association. The executive committee, 
from its composition and close relationship to all the work, 
is able to present for the action of the board intelligent, 
practical, and carefully matured plans and suggestions. 
An accurate record should be kept of all transactions, the 
same to be open to inspection by the board, and to be read 
at its meetings. 

4. — Religious worTc. — It is desirable that all the directly 
religious work be under the supervision of one committee. 
There may be sub-committees on the various meetings and 

of the board, in order that the departments might thus be brought into direct 
contact with it. 

In the smaUest Associations (as suggested in Chap. 5, 14.) there is no board of 
directors, but its work is done by au executive committee, which must not be 
confoixnc.ed with the committee of that name mentioned here. 

Chap. 8, D, 8. standing committees. 103 

Bible classes, the different meetings outside the rooms, and 
such lines of work as invitation, visitation, etc. The work 
sometimes carried on by "yoke fellows" and kindred 
organizations might much better be conducted by a sub- 
division of this committee. The church committee is a 
bond between the Association and the individual churches, 
to interest the churches in the Association's work, and to 
introduce young men led to Christ in the Association to a 
church home. It sometimes co-operates with the member- 
ship committee. Effort in the direction of temperance 
and personal purity may also be made under appropriate 
sub-committees of this department, in co-operation with 
the physical department, where these matters are placed in 
classification. (See Chaps. 21 and 22.) 

5. — Educatio7ial work. — In this department are the 
library, the reading room, evening classes, educational 
lectures or " practical talks " (including " health talks," in 
co-operation with the physical department), and the literary 
society, each of which divisions may be placed under a sub- 
committee. (See Chap. 24.) 

6. — Physical loork. — To this department and under the 
general supervision of its committee belong the gymnasium 
and baths, the various outdoor sports, " health talks," and 
efforts to promote personal purity. (See Chap. 25.) 

7. — Social vnork. — The committee in charge of this depart- 
ment will have an important duty in planning and con- 
ducting the members' meetings and receptions, and another 
in connection with the evening reception work at the rooms. 
The members of the evening committee will, from their 
acquaintance with those frequenting the rooms, be specially 
fitted to act as ushers at the various meetings and enter- 
tainments, and it will be well to have them organized for 
such service. The matter of music, games, and other 
recreations for the social rooms belongs to this depart- 
ment, and requires Droper committee supervision. (See 
Chap. 26.) 

8. — Information and relief worh. — This includes the 

104 STANDING COMMITTEES. Chap. 8, D, 9. 

boarding house and eniploj^ment bureaus, the visitation of 
the sick, tlie savings fund, benefit fund, etc. (See Chap. 27.) 

9. — Boys'^ work. — The committee in charge will adapt 
any of the work that is practicable in the religious, educa- 
tional, physical, and social departments to the needs of 
boys. (See Chap. 28.) 

10. — Branches. — Where branch organization is required, 
a committee of the board should have it in charge. (See 
Chaps. 6 and 29.) 

The unity and efficiency of the work is promoted b}^ 
having each general department under the care of a single 
supervising committee. There is nothing in this plan to 
prevent the formation of literary societies, outing clubs, 
etc., with any variety as to name and organization, so long 
as they come under the general principles of management 
outlined here and in chapter 6, B. 




1. — The prevailing opinion among the Associations is 
that there should be but two general classes of member- 
ship; namely, active and associate. There is a tendency to 
do away with such classes as life and honorary, and to 
consider designations relating to fees in connection with 
the department of finance, f (See Chap. 18, A, 2.) 

2. — The Association proj^er consists of the active mem- 
bers, who alone have the right to vote and hold office. In 
the American Associations active members must be members 
in good standing of an evangelical church. (See Chap. 3, 
F, 2.) As the Association is by name and object distinct- 
ively Christian and evangelical, there can be no question 
as to the propriety of such membership test. J; Without it 
there could be no assurance that the organization would 
maintain its present character, and that the property placed 
in its hands would continue to be used for the purposes 
intended by the donors. 

3. — Every application for active membership should be 
referred to a responsible committee for investigation, and 

* This Chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 54. 

t Much confusion has arisen from confounding the constitutional condition 
of membership with the financial terms of the same. The former are based 
mainly upon the character of the individual and his relation to the Church, while 
the latter are governed by and refer to the secular privileges he desires and is 
willing to pay tor. 

X See " Tho test of active membership," Int pph. No. 555, 

106 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, A, 4. 

reported by the committee for final action. The names of 
persons proposed for active membership are often posted 
in the rooms previous to their election. (For form of letter 
notifj^ing of election to active membership see appendix, 
sample No. 1.) 

4. — Sixteen and forty years are fixed by some Associa- 
tions as age limits in the admission of active members.* 
Active members passing the latter limit are generally 
retained in the same class. 

5. — Good moral character is the only required qualifica- 
tion for associate membership, and it is largely the practice 
for the general secretary to receive such members at his 
discretion, without the formality of a vote. But he should 
carefully guard against the admission of improper per- 
sons to associate membership by making careful inquiries 
regarding them. A form of letter to the persons referred 
to in application blanks is given in the appendix, 
sample No. 2. If a doubt exist in any case, the appli- 
cation should be referred to the membership committee, 
the committee being instructed to act in such cases. 

6. — Persons who are merely subscribers to current ex- 
penses, having no personal connection with the work or 
privileges of the Association, should be denominated sub- 
scribers or contributors, not members. No one should be 
considered a member until he has filled out the application 
blank, and been regularly elected or admitted. 



1. — A membership must be worth something. Few 
young men will join an Association as a matter of simple 
duty. There must be some attractive force. It may be a 
wide-awake young men's meeting, a library, or a gymna- 

* The average age of 1,513 members reoaived in a single year by one of the large 
Associations was nineteen years. 

Chap. 9, B, 4. MEMBERSHIP. 107 

slum. A careful adaj^tation of privileges to the require- 
ments of prominent classes of young men, as the mercantile 
or mechanical, will be specially helpful. 

2. — Having something of value, advertise it. First, by 
having the building, or rooms, eligibly located and easily 
accessible, i^ext, have conspicuous and tasteful signs. 
Keep the privileges of the Association before the people 
by means of the local papers, the bulletin, the annual j^ros- 
pectus, and neatly framed cards in public places. Prepare 
application blanks with privileges and terms of member- 
ship on the back, for generous distribution at public Asso- 
ciation meetings, and by members in their personal work. 
(See appendix, samples Xos. 3 and 4.) Especially let one be 
put promptly into the hand of every young man coming 
into the city to reside. (See Chap. 27, A, 8.) To reach the 
Christian young men hold occasional meetings at the sev- 
eral churches, and present the claims of the work, the op- 
portunities for Christian service, and the privileges of mem- 
bership. To reach young men more generally give recep- 
tions to the various trades and classes of the community at 
the rooms of the Association. 

3. — Bring young men into contact v ith the work. Ask 
them to come and see, telling them of some special occur- 
rence at the rooms, which you believe will interest them. 
Investigation will often lead to interest. Some Associa- 
tions have presented young men with visitors' tickets 
admitting them to the privileges of membership for two 
weeks. Many of these men, after testing tlie value of the 
work, have become members. (See appendix, sample No. 5.) 

4. — Recognize the necessity of personal invitation. With 
all desirable attractions, and general methods of advertising 
them, many young men will still need personal solicitation 
before they will join an Association. To this end an 
important factor is a well-organized and thorough-going 

108 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, C, 1. 



1. — This committee should be composed of the most 
earnest and active young men of the Association. It is 
desirable that it include representatives from all the 
evangelical churches, and from the various classes of 
young men in the community ; clerks, or young business 
men from the different lines of trade, students from the 
several schools and professions, and apprentices and young 
mechanics from the various manufacturing establishments, 
each to work among his fellows. 

2. — The members of the committee must be well informed 
through study of the annual report, prospectus, and other 
publications as to the advantages of membership and the 
work generally, that they may be able to present the sub- 
ject with intelligence and force. In approaching Christian 
young men they are to urge the claims of duty as well as 
to present the idea of advantage. 

'i. — They should realize the importance of their work ; 
that the growth and prosperity of the Association are 
largely dependent upon it. Each new name means an 
added worker or another young man to be influenced for 

4. — The committee should be com^^lete as to its organi- 
zation, meetings, and methods. Other committees should 
be ready to co-operate with it, as many of them can do 
with good effect. The reception committee especially may 
prove an efiicient helper. 

5. — This committee will have much to do with the pre- 
paratory work outlined in the previous section. Its princi- 
pal work, however, is more direct and largely personal. 
It is usual to put forth special effort at stated times, at 
the beginning of the Association year or just previous to 
the opening of the fall work. Plans must be prepared 
well in advance by the chairman, and thoroughly discussed 

Chap. 9, C, G. MEMBERSHIP. 109 

at a full meeting of the committee. Lists of young men 
may be secured by sending blanks to members of the 
Association, and to employers ; or by copying from the 
poll lists of the last election the names of young men, 
aided by the personal knowledge of residents in the 
various election districts. Necessary printed matter should 
be provided, including application blanks, prospectus, etc. 
The blanks will be more convenient if about the size 
of a postal card. Instructions should be explicit and 
the necessity of using tact should be emphasized. There 
must be a systematic division of labor and arrangements 
for a thorough canvass. When all is ready let there be 
a prompt, enthusiastic, and persistent advance along 
the whole line. Following this will be frequent meet- 
ings of the committee to report progress, discuss diffi- 
culties, suggest new methods, and for general encourage- 
ment. The reflex influence of such a campaign once a 
year is excellent. In addition to this, however, there must 
be the continuous w^ork. E very-day effort by the many, 
along ordinary channels, will secure a sure and satisfactory 
aggregate of results. 

6. — The committee will generally have an important 
duty to discharge in connection with the annual collection 
of fees. The membership register should show when the fees 
fall due, and about a month in advance a carefully worded 
notice of the fact should be sent out ; in many instances a 
personal call will also be necessary. (See appendix, sam- 
ple Ko. 6, also section E, 4 of this chapter.) The per- 
manency of the active membership is especially important 
and to be promoted by every proper means. The terms 
"expire" and "renewal" as sometimes used in connec- 
tion w4th the membership tickets, notices, etc., are un- 
desirable, and likely to lead the holders to look upon 
membership as temporary. (A form for the monthly 
report of this committee w^ill be found among the blanks 
in the appendix in connection with chapter 20.) 

110 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, D, 1. 



1. — Do all you advertise to do, fulfilling your promises 
to the letter. Each committee must undertake to carry out 
faithfully its part of the contract. The library and social 
rooms, gymnasium and baths, must be open at the specified 
time, in proper order, and with necessary supervision. If 
it is considered best to close the gymnasium during a part 
of the summer or at any other time, full announcement 
should be made in the prospectus. The classes, the lecture 
course, the social and religious meetings — all these must 
be maintained at the required standard as to number and 
character. The rooms must be neat and attractive, and the 
committee in charge, with the secretary, must see that the 
social atmosphere is what it should be. 

2. — See that new members become affiliated. Get ac- 
quainted with them, learn their tastes and preferences, and 
get them to avail themselves of such privileges as they 
need or desire. It is a good plan, especially during seasons 
when many new members are joining, to appoint evenings 
on which they will receive special welcome and introduc- 
tion. Every new active member should be offered some 
definite work to do. A man who becomes interested 
will stay with you. 

3. — Have definite privileges. No matter how small 3''our 
Association, nor how few the privileges you have to offer, 
make the most of these by allowing certain ones to mem- 
bers only. A young man will not prize a membership 
which brings him only the same privileges that others enjoy 
without it. Let admission to the members' meeting, the 
reception, and the " practical talk " be by ticket. Allow 
no visitors in the gymnasium without a pass from the 
office, and then only in the gallery appropriated to them. 
Let the amusement room be used only by members and in- 
vited guests. Insist that non-members shall not frequent 

Chap. 9, E, 1. MEMBERSHIP. Ill 

habitually the members' parlor. Require one frequenting 
the reading room to register and obtain a "reader's 

4. — Study to add occasionally some new feature. Do 
not get into a rut. Young men tire of sameness. Con- 
tact with other Associations, through the conventions, 
correspondence, and the Association publications, will en- 
able a wide awake organization to keep up a system of 
variation and improvements in methods of work. The re- 
fitting of a room, new singing books, an additional piece of 
apparatus in the gymnasium, a new game in the recreation 
room, an evening class in some new and popular branch of 
study, an added feature in outdoor sports, will, any one of 
them, brighten up the waning interest of a score or two of 



1. — The Fee. — The membership fee should be large 
enough to indicate a positive value, while not so large as 
to bar out any number of self-supporting young men. 
Two dollars is as low as it need be made, while five dollars 
is generally the fee for a full privilege ticket in a city 
Association. The extraordinary privileges afforded by a 
few Associations call for larger fees, but the fees are never 
expected to meet the expense of the privileges offered. 
For the best interest of the member and of the Association, 
payment of fee should be in advance. 

In many Associations all privileges cease as soon as fees 
are overdue ; in others from ten to thirty days grace are 

* Some Associations require the registration of aU non-members entering the 
reading room. Another plan is for non-members who frequent the reading room 
to become what may be termed " registered readers," a pass being given them stating 
that they have the privilege of the reading room for a given time— the pass being 
renewable on application. This plan gives a better control of the rooms, brings the 
readers into contact with the secretary, and makes him acquainted, in an easy, 
routine way, with the name, residence, etc., of each one, (See appendix, sample 
No. 7.) 

112 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, E, 2. 

allowed. None should ever be reported as members whose 
fees are not paid within the limit fixed. (See Chap. 18, 
B, 4.) 

2. — The Ticket J^ — The membership ticket should be of 
durable material, tasteful as to its typography and color, 
and full and explicit in its wording. Card-board of 
different colors may indicate different kinds of tickets. 
The name of the member, amount of fee, the period for 
which the fee is paid, and character of privileges should 
appear on the ticket ; also whetlier the holder be an active 
or an associate member. (See appendix, sample No. 8.) 
If a member joins on or before March fifteenth, date the 
ticket March first ; if after the fifteenth, date it April first. 
The holder's personal signature would be a good addition, 
and may sometimes j^revent fraudulent use of the ticket. 
A traveling, or transfer, endorsement ma}^ be placed upon 
the back of the ticket, and signed by some designated 
officer if used. (See sect. 5.) No membership ticket 
should be entitled to other than local recognition without 
some such endorsement. 

3. — Forfeiture. — It should be understood that wilful or 
continued violation of Association rules, by which a mem- 
ber becomes liable to suspension or expulsion, carries with 
it forfeiture of ticket. 

4. — Records. — Specimen pages of a register having many 
valuable, labor-saving features, known as the " Hersey 
Index and Membership Record," are shown in sample No. 
9, in the appendix. Another, ruled similarly, less expen- 
sive, and answering well for small Associations, is published 
by the Era Publishing Co., Chicago. 

It is desirable that a membersliip register be ruled in 
columns headed as follows : date of joining, name, busi- 
ness address, business, position, privileges, active or asso- 
ciate, when paid, when paid to, old or new, age, nationality, 
residence, denomination, church, and reference. 

These headings generally explain themselves. " Busi- 

* See also " The commercial traveler's ticket," Int. pph. No. 560. 

Chap. 9, E, 5. membership. 113 

iiess " shows the member's occupation, and " position " 
whether he is an employe or proprietor, which will also be 
helpful in planning to reach others in the same position in 
business. " Privileges " shows whether the membership is 
limited, full, or boys', etc. Check marks may indicate 
whether it is active or associate, old or new. " Age " and 
" nationality " are useful in gathering up statistics and in 
arranging for class receptions ; also in planning to influence 
men by those of their own nationality. Under "church" 
an associate member's preference is sometimes indicated, 
followed by " pref." " Reference " shows who proposed 
the member. Of course the application blank should agree 
with the headings of the register. 

So many changes occur in the membership roll from 
non-payment of fees, removals, or other causes, that it is 
desirable to have the register re-written often. In some 
Associations this is done annually, but according to the 
" Hersey " system names are transferred as often as fees 
are paid, thus keeping a clean list of bona fide members. 
In the " Hersey " record all names are also entered in the 
order of admission, so that a glance shows when fees are 
due. (See Chap. 18, B, 4.) There should be system and 
promptness in enrolling new members, and in posting the 
payment of fees from the cash book. 

5. — Exchange of memberships. — At the Atlanta Inter- 
national Convention, May, 1885, a resolution was presented 
recommending a reciprocal recognition on the part of the 
Associations of all unexpired membership tickets held by 
persons removing from one Association town to another, 
and requesting the International Committee to place the 
matter before the Associations for action. Most of the 
Associations have now adopted plans looking to this end. 

The recognition of an unexpired ticket will be beneficial 
in several ways : 

a. Persons kept from joining an Association because un- 
certain how long they are to remain in a locality need not 
hesitate if their tickets are to be recognized in other cities. 

114 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, F, 1. 

h. A person going to a strange place and holding a 
paid-up ticket, for several months, to the privileges 
of a first-class Association is quite certain to claim his 
rights. Thus he seeks out the Association and makes 
liimself known, instead of leaving the Association to look 
up and get hold of the stranger, — a task so difficult as 
often to remain undone. 

c. It largely keeps members from leaving the locality 
without the secretary's knowledge or the chance for a 
parting word. And the writing of the certificate of trans- 
fer, which should be a necessary requirement, will remind 
liim to write to his brother secretary any helpful particu- 
lars relatinsc to the transferred member. 

d. The plan tends to make membership more perma- 
nent. Young men are to a large extent a floating element 
of the population, and the percentage of members lost by 
removal is very large. This system of transfer holds many 
young men to the Association, who, without it, whatever 
their good intentions, would neglect to join it in their 
new home. On the part of even Christian men there is 
sometimes a tendency to excuse themselves from active 
duties in a strange community, and many who might fail 
to identify themselves with the Association, and even with 
a church, are saved to the work, and perhaps to the Cliris- 
tian life, by the transfer ticket and the note of introduction. 



1. — Its importance and necessity. — a. An experienced 
worker may think it easier to do a certain work himself 
than to secure and train others to do it. But the saying 
of Mr. Moody, that * ' it is better to set ten men at work 
than to do the work of ten men," has become axiomatic, 
and the life and vigor of nearly every enterprise must 

Chap. 9, F, 2. membership. 115 

depend on a constant influx of fresh young blood to the 
ranks of the workers. This is especially true in the Asso- 
ciation, where the cares and responsibilities of business 
and family life that come with mature years, together 
with the natural and proper absorption by the individual 
churches of the time and efforts of the trained workers, 
are drafts upon its resources that can only be counterbal- 
anced by a continuous and systematic development of new 

b. If we consider the matter of growth and extension, 
opportunities for which are constantly opening on every 
hand, the value attaching to this subject is still more ap- 
parent. The development of its active members is in 
many particulars the most important work of the Associa- 
tion. Every member interested and trained in the work 
is so much added strength. An intelligent force is started 
that will continue working — that will set in operation still 
other forces — that will extend the influence of the Associa- 
tion indefinitely. Bringing a young man to Christ is a 
blessed work. Enabling him to win a score of other 
young men to the Savior is still more blessed. 

2. — How accomplished. — a. Get hold of them. Look 
over your field and see what material you have. Sit down 
with chairmen of committees and go through the member- 
ship book. Make a list of those already at work. Enlist 
them in the search for others. Call for volunteers as occa- 
sion may offer at the various meetings. Come in contact 
with the members one by one. Get acquainted with them, 
and let them get acquainted with you. Study them, seek 
information from others, learn to know your men thor- 
oughly. By kindness and attention gain their confidence, 
and acquire influence over them. 

h. Inform and interest them. New members must 
be educated. Let Association publications, judiciously 
selected, especially the leading periodicals, be placed in 
their hands. Call attention personally and publicly to 
special articles, Make the members' meetings helpful in 

116 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, F, 2. 

this direction. Invite to committee meetings, especially 
to a joint committee meeting or conference of workers 
for discussion of means and methods. The conventions 
are grand educators. Make the most of them through 
well-arranged meetings for the reports of delegates. Con- 
tact with the work at large broadens the view. The 
members need to know the Association work as a whole. 
Take advantage of personal conversation. At the casual 
interview aim to throw out some item of information. 
Also arrange for meeting one, two, or more at a time. 
Advise with them. Draw out suggestions regarding parts 
of the work they seem to favor. Make them feel that the 
Association is theirs as Avell as yours. Bring in as special 
means the consecration meeting, a pastor's talk on Chris- 
tian activity at the young men's meeting, or an Association 
platform service in a church at which the character and 
needs of the work are presented. The best of all aj)pliances 
to the proposed end is a well conducted training class. 
No Association can afford to be without one. 

c. Set them at work. Take your men one at a time. 
Consider both adaptation and capacity. There is great 
variety of work, secular and religious, and of all grades. 
Give a man that which fits him, and begin small. You 
may break down his courage by making his first load too 
heavy. Let the work be definite. Give each worker some 
regular and specific duty. Emphasize responsibility. 
Whatever the duty be, teach him to assume and fulfill his 
trust religiously. Have confidence in him, and let him 
feel that you trust him. Do not fear mistakes. They 
will be made, but they will be helpful lessons. Too high 
a standard at the beginning may bar out some future 

d. Instruct and encourage. Follow up the young 
workers closely. They will need guidance. See where 
they fail, and advise and correct. Be patient. Do not 
expect too much at first. It is practice that makes perfect. 
Encourage by showing an honest interest. Give hearty 

Chap. 9, G, 3. membership. 117 

commendation when due, but never flatter. ^ Note progress, 
and promote as occasion offers. Place new responsibilities 
where there is courage and ability to bear them. Do not 
let the work suffer at length from inefficiency. Make 
needed changes promptly and judiciously. 



1. — The associate member has some motive in joining. 
Find it out, that you may know from which side to ap- 
proach him. Very likely it is some pri^dlege, as the gym- 
nasium, the library, or one of the evening classes. He 
may only desire a place of resort. Possibly he hopes that 
he may be led into the Christian life, but this he will not 
be apt to tell you. 

2. — This much is true, young men unite with the Asso- 
ciation understanding more or less of its real character, 
and voluntarily place themselves under Christian influence. 
They are comparatively a hopeful class to deal with. With 
regard to them there is great opportunity and responsi- 
bility on the part of the active membership. Their num- 
ber makes the work difficult, and the transient member- 
ship of a large proportion renders it urgent. Many must 
be reached soon or the opportunity for influence, so far as 
the Association is concerned, will be gone. (See Chap. 23, 2. ) 
Every nev/ member should be introduced to some member 
of the reception committee. 

3. — Many of the general methods, suggested in previous 
paragraphs, to interest and retain members apply as well 
to associate as to active members. Two cautions may be 
given. Do not over-amuse. Too much time is often frit- 
tered away in this direction. Do not over-evangelize. 
The importance and opportunity of seeking Christ should 
be constantly kept in view in the work, but not so as to 

118 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, G, 4. 

invade the rights of any member or to attempt the 
coercion of his will. 

4. — The associate member on his part, entitled to a 
large share of privileges, in most instances greatly in ex- 
cess of the financial consideration, sustains moral ob- 
ligations towards the Association Avhich he should realize. 
He is bound to live an outwardly true life, to maintain 
the good name of the Association, and to aid it by his in- 
fluence and effort in all desired and reasonable ways. 

5. — While a consecrated tact may find ways in which to 
wisely use the power and influence latent in the associate 
membership, it is the decided voice of the Associations 
that only active members should be placed on the com- 
mittees, or be made responsible for any department of 
the work. The International Conference of General 
Secretaries, held at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 11, 1885, 
after a long and earnest discussion upon this point, passed 
the following resolution unanimously : 

" Resolved, That in the opinion of this conference it is undesir- 
able to appoint other than active members as members of com- 
mittees in our Associations." 


1. — As the young men's meeting is the religious center, 
the members' meeting is the social center of the Associa- 
tion, a nucleus around which gather and from which should 
radiate a thousand lines of active, healthful influence. 
Its general character should be a happy combination of 
business, information, instruction, and entertainment 

* These two terms are in use, meaning often about the same thing, although 
these gatherings vary greatly in character in different Associations, and at differ- 
ent times in the same Association. Some pocieties however have them both, 
separating the business from the entertainment, and giving a distinct character to 
each. The suggestions and methods outlined can readily be aiscriminated and 
adapted as required. 

Chap. 9, H, 6. membership. 119 

with a genuine social intercourse, the occasion being made 
so thoroughly enjoyable and popular that the members 
will not voluntarily absent themselves. 

2. — The meeting should be held statedly throughout 
the year. Its regular date should be set apart and held 
for this purpose, that the members may learn to rely upon 
its recurrence. Some large Associations hold this meeting 
monthly, but many others find a quarterly meeting more 
useful. Among the reasons for this, — four quarterly reports 
can be made much more interesting than twelve monthly 
ones, and the additional effort needed to insure successful 
meetings every month is burdensome and therefore is 
apt to be relaxed. But where the members are not 
elected by the board it is necessary to make some pro- 
vision for elections by the Association oftener than once 
a quarter. 

3. — So important a matter must have competent super- 
vision. It is often in charge of the social work committee, 
but whoever has the immediate oversight of this meeting 
should be a person of many resources, active, original, and 
a good organizer^ 

4. — Much attention must be given to preparatory work. 
It is well to make a general outline at the beginning of 
the year. In this way an agreeable variety in the matter 
of entertainment is systematically provided for, the prep- 
arations for several meetings can proceed at the same time, 
and all plans are kept well in advance. 

5. — Announcements can be made through the papers, on 
the bulletin board at the rooms, and at the various Asso- 
ciation meetings. Where practicable a printed invitation 
may be prepared and sent out. Particular care should be 
taken to invite new members and those who from any 
cause may be backward or need encouragement. 

6. — The meeting, as its name implies, is for members. 
Exceptions should be specific. Young men intending to 
join or likely to do so, new residents, strangers, and 
relatives or friends of members may be admitted, but 

] 20 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, H, 7. 

only on invitation. The tendency is to make the social 
gatherings of the Associations for young men only. 

7. — The ordinary membership will be present if the 
occasion is Avhat it should be. But there should also be a 
disposition to attend on the part of officers, directors, and 
the older and more prominent men in social and business 
life. The presence of such will aid in giving character to 
the gatherings, will encourage the workers, and be a 
healthful stimulus to the younger members, many of whom 
may be their employes. A courteous social intercourse 
will be a privilege as well as a duty. Few better 
opportunities are offered for the exercise of personal 

8. — Care should be taken in the preparation of the room 
in which the meeting is to take place. See that it is neat, 
and that the heating, lighting, and ventilation are properly 
attended to. Dispose the seats and furniture in a social 
way. Avoid straight lines as much as possible. If the 
hall or assembly room be used, introduce some of the parlor 
furniture. Get rugs for the floors. Dress the windows 
attractively for the occasion.* Scatter some easy chairs 
about. Have several tables, round ones are best, with 
the latest magazines, a few new books, and a pile of en- 
gravings on them. Add two or three games, a microscope, 
stereoscoj^ic views, or any similar attraction. Try to have 
something nev/ each time. 

9. — Have on duty a large and active reception com- 
mittee, the members distinguished by a tasteful badge. 
Station some at the first entrance, to welcome all and 
direct to the coat room or parlors as may be required. 
Others should be placed at the doors of the assembly room, 
and still others should be on duty inside, to take charge 
of strangers or new members, and entertain them or in- 
troduce them to those who will do so, that all embarrass- 
ment may be avoided. Allow no one to pass without a 

* Poles for window and door-way draperies can be in place permanently, and 
curtains can be put up in a few moments. These cui-tains can be borrowed for tho 
occasion if the Association cannot afford to own them. 

Chap. 9, H, 10. MEMBERSHIP. 121 

cordial greeting. Introduce new members to the officers 
of the Association. 

10. — The programme, complete in all its details, should be 
in the hands of the chairman for the evening before the 
opening hour. It will include : 

a. As an important and appropriate part, brief but 
earnest devotional exercises. 

h. Business. There should be new members to elect or 
to report, if elected by the board. Brief reports should 
be presented by the board and committees of the Asso- 
ciation. Announcements of interest for the month or 
quarter to come may be made. Any miscellaneous busi- 
ness should be disposed of promptly. 

c. The meeting should be a means of^instruction. Let 
some one make a five minutes' budget of interesting news 
items from the Association periodicals of the past month. 
Another five minutes may be given to short, pithy articles 
on practical topics, or to a paper by some member. In- 
teresting incidents in the work since the last meeting, 
illustrative of Association methods or affording en- 
couragement to the workers, may be given. All em- 
barrassing personality must of course be avoided. Make 
this part of the programme the most attractive of the 

d. Whatever you have in the line of entertainment 
should be good. Not necessarily professional, but the 
best that can be had. Do not pander to the common 
taste — try to elevate. Guard against having too much in 
this section of the programme. Give variety. If possible, 
have a surprise each time. The general sentiment of the 
Association is decidedly against allowing any character 
costumes on their platforms. Some prohibit it by con- 
stitutional provision. 

e. Favorable opportunity for social converse may gen - 
erally be had previous to the exercises on the programme, 
but at that time all have not arrived and the social spirit 
is not fully developed. Considerable time should be set 

132 MEMBERSHIP. Chap. 9, H, 10. 

apart for this purpose later in the evening and used to 
the best possible advantage. It may be made the most 
profitable as well as agreeable feature of the occasion. 
Refreshments are a great aid to sociability, and should be 
provided at these gatherings as often as practicable. As 
a rule, coffee or chocolate and sandwiches, or ice cream 
and cake, are amply sufficient, and may be served either 
by a committee of ladies or by the young men themselves. 
Try to reserve some taking number of the programme till 
near the close, that the evening may end like a well 
rounded period. Let several of the officers be at the doors 
aS the young men pass out, bidding them good night with a 
pleasant grasp of the hand, a courteous bow, or kind word. 
You may be sure they will want to come again. 

OHAF^TEIl 10. 




1. — The salaried executive officerf of a Young Men's 
Christian Association is called a general secretary, this 
title having been recommended by vote of the first Secre- 
taries' Conference, May, 1871. (See Chap. 3, F, 3, i.) 
Such an officer became necessary in the larger Associations 
as their broadening work required more thorough super- 
vision than was possible under a voluntary plan ; and the 
greater efficiency of the work under such supervision in- 
creased the demand so rapidly that from less than thirty 
paid secretaries and other officers in the United States and 
Canada in 1871, the number in 1890 was over eleven hun- 
dred. Many Associations in towns of but 3,000 to 5,000 
population now employ a secretary ; and the organization 
of Associations in places of the latter size is not generally 
encouraged unless the plans include such an officer. \ 

2. — The office should be permanent. No one lacking 
the requisite qualifications should be allowed to enter the 

* Chapters 10-13 are reprinted as Int. pph. No. 55. 

t The smaller Associations, which cannot support a paid secretary, may wisely 
select one of their number to occupy, as far as possible, the position of such an 
officer. He is generally known as the executive secretary, and a statement of his 
work is given in Int. pph. No. 556 — " Work of an executive secretary." Chaps. 10-12 
on the work of a general secretary also contain many valuable suggestions to such 
an officer. 

+ See " Reasons wby an Association should employ a general secretary." Int. 
pph. No. 577. 

124 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 10, A, 3. 

secretaryship, nor should the work be taken up as a make- 
shift, or a stepping-stone to something else. The Asso- 
ciations cannot afford to make the office an apprenticeship 
to other avocations. There may be mistaken judgment as 
to fitness on the j^art of candidates or their advisers, and 
if on trial one is found to lack the proper qualifications, or 
develops special talent for some other calling, he should 
jjromptly leave the secretaryship. 

3. — Frequent changes are not desirable, and both Asso- 
ciations and secretaries should strive to avoid them. They 
should rarely, if ever, be made without consultation with 
the State Secretary. 

4. — What is to become of the older secretaries? 

a. A secretary keeping in the true spirit of his work 
will continue to be a young man practically till well ad- 
vanced in life. 

h. In many of the larger Associations it will be found 
expedient to retain as chief secretary a man of age and 
experience, while the subordinate places are occupied by 
younger men. 

c. Many positions in connection with the general work 
will demand men of mature experience, just such as will 
be found among the older secretaries. 

d. The peculiar and varied character of the secretary's 
work does not tend to unfit him for business life, as may 
be the case in some professions. On the contrary, many 
qualifications are equally essential to success in the secre- 
taryship and in business. 

e. *^ Does the Lord call me?" and not '* What shall 
I do twenty years hence ?" is the question to be considered 
by a young man contemplating the general secretaryshij). 

Chap. 10, B, 2. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 125 



A candidate for the secretaryship should possess a cer- 
tain natural fitness for the position, have a genuine belief 
in and love for work among young men, and a willingness 
to give his life to the service. The special qualifications 
may be divided under the following heads : 

1. — Physical qualificatio7is. — a. Those entering the 
work should be young. The work is for and by young 
men ; the secretary as the leader should be young himself 
that he may be in full sympathy with those he seeks to 
lead. One who begins young has the advantage of a longer 

h. Good health is important. The work requires 
bodily vigor, and lasting service will be impossible with- 
out it. 

c. Good personal presence is an advantage. Any 
serious defect or peculiarity of body, limb, or feature will 
prove an embarrassment and more or less a hindrance. An 
aptitude for athletic and manly sports will largely increase 
his influence with young men. Where a physical director 
cannot be employed, it is very desirable that the secretary 
be competent to lead gymnastic classes and superintend 
outdoor sports, and train committeemen to do the same. 

d, A good voice, v/ell cultivated for both singing and 
speaking, is a grand reinforcement to any secretary, if 
used modestly and in his legitimate work. 

2. — Mental and social qualifications. — a. Education. — A 
candidate for the general secretaryship should have secured 
at least a good common school education, or, still better, 
have taken a high school or collegiate course. Without 
the former he can hardly hope to succeed. Having this, 
however, as a foundation, the proper desire, will, and in- 
dustry may in time bring him the knowledge and culture 
which a leader of young men in this day should possess. 

126 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 10, B, 2. 

The ability to read, speak, write, and spell correctly, with 
a general knowledge of standard and current literature, 
is necessary to hold the respect of the average J^oung man. 
A broader education will place one on a vantage ground 
with the entire community ; giving him favor with the 
professional and educated classes, who exercise a strong 
influence over the young, and who may be rendered very 
useful in the work. Such a man will be at home in the 
lyceum and the educational class, be able to take a ready 
and intelligent part in any conversation, and to meet with- 
out embarrassment the msmj questions that will naturally 
be referred to him. In connection with the library, knowl- 
edge of books is advantageous, enabling the secretary to 
counsel young men wisely regarding their use. Occasions 
will constantly arise where the ability to impart informa- 
tion and to give instruction will increase the secretary's 
hold on those around him. In fact the secretary must be 
a student in every sense of the word, if he will keep abreast 
of the times and the 02:>portunities of his Avork. 

b. Manners. — The secretary needs good manners and 
address. He will have to do with all classes of society, — 
he should be a gentleman and at home everywhere. An 
easy, graceful presence is not always a natural gift, but 
may be cultivated. The secretary generally has a large 
range of choice as to social surroundings, and he should 
select the best. Associating in his daily work almost en- 
tirely with men, the tendency may be towards carelessness 
in dress and deportment. If single, a boarding house 
where careful attention to polite details is a necessity will 
be an excellent corrective. He must shun affectation. 
One had better be blunt, even uncouth, than affected. 
He must be modest ; never parade his accomplishments, 
never look down on men, or patronize. The highest proof 
of the gentleman is the ability and disposition to make 
every one at home in his presence. The secretary should 
be careful of his personal example as to manners. He 
will be more or less an involuntar}^, perhaps an uncon- 

Chap. 10, B, 2. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 127 

scions, teacher. The Association should be a school of 
good manners as well as correct morals. The two are 
often close allies. He should be cordial and frank, with 
a true Christian heartiness in his greeting. While friendly 
with all, and confidential in his business relations with 
the officers, he should avoid all appearance of favoritism. 
He should be able to keep his own counsel. He should 
never indulge in harsh criticism of others nor countenance 
such conversation in his presence. He should never allow 
himself to become a party to misunderstandings and 
quarrels, but be able and ready to act as a peacemaker. 
The secretary must avoid egotism. While having an 
opinion and maintaining it with proper firmness, he must 
listen to the opinions and advice of others with due defer- 
ence. He should have a disposition to learn, not assuming 
to know everything He should cultivate the spirit of 
helpfulness, being on the alert for opportunities to aid 
those around him. He must crucify selfishness, and learn 
by a daily experience that the true life is found in living 
for others. 

c. Business. — The secretary must be a good business 
man. He will have more or less to do with the business 
affairs of the Association, and will come into close relations 
with the business men of the community. He should be 
systematic, accurate, prompt, and conscientious, both in 
his own affairs and those of the Association ; and these 
principles should extend even to the minutest details. 
Correct financial methods will secure the respect and con- 
fidence of the business community, which are essential. 
Too great emphasis cannot be given to the importance of 
these qualifications in the general secretary, and more or 
less of business training is very desirable as a preparation 
for the office. 

d. Housekeeping. — The secretary must be a good 
housekeeper. In the smaller Associations he will have to 
do practically with this matter, and he should be able in 
all cases to give it efficient supervision. The neatness and 

128 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 10, B, 2. 

attractiveness of the Association rooms will indicate, as 
well as govern, to a large extent, the character of the 
membership. The condition of the rooms will be the first 
thing noticed by a stranger, and first impressions are im- 
portant. When stoves are used the janitor should be 
taught to keep everything tidy about them, using special 
care in handling the coal and ashes. During sweeping 
Avindows should be open, furniture and book-shelves 
covered with cloths, out-of-the-way places should not be 
neglected, and furniture should be moved when the broom 
cannot reach underneath. If lamps are used they must be 
well trimmed, the fixtures clean, and the chimneys bright. 
Dim and smoky lights will soon empty the rooms. There 
should be good ventilation, for pure air is a prime necessity. 
The temperature of the rooms must be kept as even as 
possible — say about 68^ — a thermometer and not the sec- 
retary's feelings being the governing standard. In the 
summer a proper adjustment of windows and blinds will 
often bring a delicious coolness to an otherwise sultry 
apartment. People should not be invited into damp or 
chilly rooms, or to sit in a dangerous draught. It is per- 
liaps well that carelessness here will often make the secre- 
tary himself the first and most constant victim. 

The matter of arrangement, in which comparatively 
few housekeepers are adepts, is indeed a fine art ; and 
the subtle tact so to dispose even plain and scanty 
furniture as to make a room cosy and inviting is not 
often a masculine gift. The ladies must be called in as 
instructors, and after a series of object lessons the secretary 
should at least be able to imitate. 

Work should be done promptly. Each morning should 
see everything in order. Rooms used the previous even- 
ing should be "put to rights," every lamp and stove being 
ready for the match. The janitor work kej^t thus in 
hand, the secretary is prepared for emergencies and is 
not embarrassed if an unexpected visitor asks to see the 

Chap. 10, B, 2. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 129 

e. Leadership) is an essential quality. Many a man 
will run well when " wound up," but the secretary must 
be a man of original thought and action, having the ability 
both to plan and to do. A genuine leader must have : 

Judgment or sound common sense, the power of 
accurate discrimination and a degree of caution, — that 
quality which keeps one on the track and makes him a safe 
man to follow. 

Self-reliance. A man must believe in himself if he is 
to inspire confidence in others. 

Executive ability. He must have not only power of 
thought but of execution. Power to carry out plans. The 
ability to get and keep others at work. That force neces- 
sary to direct successfully many and diverse operations.* 

Tact. That which turns everything to the best 
account. That which will enable a secretary to select and 
adapt to his own field anything of value from the work or 
expericHce of others. That power of unpremeditated 
diplomacy by which an unexpected or even untoward event 
is turned to good results. 

Originality. From his quiet hours of study the sec- 
retary should be able to bring out new lines and fresh 
methods of work for his own field. He should be a plan- 
ner, full of expedients. His thoughts should be broad 
and progressive, but he must be practical — not a mere 

Enthusiasm. A genuine enthusiasm is both inspira- 
tion and strength. It is a cheer in the race, a song on the 
march, the battle cry in a charge. Enthusiasm is con- 
tagious — the leader will impart it to others. 

Perseverance. That which holds a man steadily to 
the work, even through difficulties and discouragement. 
To be fickle is to be weak, but a strong tenacity of purpose 
will inspire courage. 

f. The special qualification required in this work, as 
distinguished from other forms of Christian activity, is an 

* See "The Organizer," " Watchman," 1888, p. 357, 

130 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 10, B, 3. 

intense love for young men, and a readiness to devote one's 
life to their welfare, along all the lines of Association 

3. — Spiritual qualifications. — a, A secretary must be of 
irreproachable Christian character. 

h. He must be spiritually minded, as against the world- 
liness of the many, perhaps even of Christian men, around 
him. He must know the truth by an experience of his 
own and live in daily communion with God, if he would 
direct others to the way of righteousness and lead them 
in it. 

c. He must have a cheerful piety, and of the every- 
day-alike sort. Cant and sentimentalism are both to be 

d. He should love Bible study and be apt to teach. 

e. He must be intelligent and correct as to the car- 
dinal doctrines of the evangelical churches and his belief 
in them. 

f. He should be catholic in spirit. Recognizing the 
oneness of all believers in Christ, he should be above sec- 
tarian prejudices. 

g. Finally the secretary must jjut on "the whole armor 
of God," that he may be able to "stand"; he must seek 
the endowment from the Spirit of "power for service"; 
and ever remember the words of the Master : " He that 
abideth in me and I in him, the same bringeth forth much 
fruit ; for without me ye can do nothing." 





1. — Every secretary should be a member of an evangeli- 
cal church in the town where he lives. His example 
should impress young men with the fact that he places a 
high estimate on church membership. He should make it 
a rule to be present on Sunday morning at his own church, 
and, as often as possible, attend and be ready to take act- 
ive part in the weekly services. It wall not be expedient 
for him to hold an official position in the church, or to be- 
come regularly connected with the Sunday-school or choir. 
His work as secretary will demand most of his time and 
effort. The secretary should sustain a cordial relation to 
his pastor, looking to him for j^ersonal counsel and advice, 
and soliciting and expecting at his hands that kindly criti- 
cism often so necessary and helpful. 

2. — The secretary should appreciate his membership in 
the church catholic, and keep himself in full sympathy 
with every evangelical denomination. He should attend, 
as he may be able, the public and social religious services 
of the different churches, taking such part in the latter as 
may be desirable. On such occasions he should be careful 
not to intrude the Association, yet he may often allude to 
some incident in the work, throw in some word to young 
men, or bespeak the prayers and co- operation of those 

132 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, A, 3. 

present, with modest tact, to the edification of the meeting 
and the interest of the Association. 

3. — Their identity of labors and interests should make 
the secretary and the pastors sympathetic friends, and one 
of the first things to be done by a newly settled secretary 
is to form their acquaintance. He should consult with 
them in regard to the young men of their congregations 
and their relationship to the Association, and specially with 
respect to strangers, or young men interested spiritually, 
who purpose attending or joining their churches. 

4. — The secretary should endeavor to secure the hearty 
co-operation of the pastors in the work of the Association. 
Any possible misunderstanding regarding the work should 
be corrected by a judicious j^resentation of facts. Any 
mistakes, such as conflict with church work, or departure 
from legitimate methods, should be promptly rectified. 
The pastors, as recognized leaders in the Christian work of 
the community, should be consulted in regard to plans 
and methods to be employed, and it may be well for the 
secretary to secure a meeting occasionally for this purpose. 
Where a stated ministers' meeting is held, the secretary 
may be invited to use this as a means of communication. 
The secretary must not expect too much active work of 
the pastors, especially on Sundays, as they are busy men. 
Reasonable calls will generally be responded to, and the 
secretary should be willing to reciprocate according to his 
time and ability. 

5. — The secretary should see that the pastors are kept 
fully informed with respect to both the local and the 
general work, being particular to send them the bulletin, 
all reports of the local Association, and, as far as may be, 
those of the state and international work. He should see 
that they are supplied with " The Young Men's Era," and 
should try to secure the attendance of pastors at conventions. 

6. — The secretary should endeavor to prevent any aliena- 
tion of pastors by reason of the Association becoming de- 
nominationalized. He should see that the several churches 

Chap. 11, B, 2. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 133 

have an equitable representation on the board of directors 
and the various committees. 

7. — The secretary shoukl give the Church, with its 
divinely constituted ministry, its rightful first place, re- 
garding the Association as an auxiliary of the Church. 
He should urge upon every Association worker the duty 
of activity in his church, and discountenance every ten- 
dency to a neglect of church obligations through absorp- 
tion in the work of the Association. 

8. — The secretary's attitude toward the various religious 
and reform organizations in his field, in so far as they are 
recognized by the churches, should be that of a sympa- 
thizer, ready to assist them as his judgment and obligations 
may direct and allow. 



1. — The secretary's relations to the president should be 
cordial and confidential. The secretary should keep the 
president fully informed of all important occurrences, 
and advise with him as to all proposed undertakings. As 
the president is usually a busy man, whose time is valu- 
able and not always at command, somfe particular hour 
may be fixed for a weekly conference, the secretary mak- 
ing daily memoranda of all matters to be discussed, that 
nothing important be forgotten and no time be wasted. 

2. — To the board of directors the secretary is qualified 
by his experience and close contact with all the work to 
be an encyclopedia of information. He should be pre- 
pared to answer all questions at the meetings of the board, 
and to give a careful opinion on any matter referred to 
him. He should remember that he is an agent or employe 
of the board, and that its members are entitled to the 

*See"' The duty of the board of -directors to the general secretary," Int. pph. 
No. 578. 

134 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, B, 3. 

fullest information that they may desire about every de- 
tail of the work, and this he should give without the least 
liesitation. He must not be opinionated, but be willing to 
defer to the judgment of others and submit gracefully to 
the majority, He should never whine nor complain. 
Only a frank and manly bearing will favorably impress 
the men usually managing an Association. 

The secretary should make a written report at each 
stated meeting of the board. This will enable him to 
bring before the members many details of the work with 
which they might not otherwise become familiar, and 
which will tend to increase their interest and activity. 
It will also afford him the opportunity to suggest needed 
changes and improvements, and at a time when there can 
be immediate discussion and definite action. Conference 
should be had in advance with the president and leading 
members of the board regarding all new matters. 

The secretary can do some of his best work in training 
the directors and members in familiar acquaintance with 
Association work at large, by recommending to them 
good reading on the subject, and by inducing them to 
visit other Associations, attend conventions, etc. 

3. — The secretary must sustain an intimate relation to 
the committees, and aid their chairmen in j^lanning and 
organizing the Avork. He should see that committee 
meetings are held regularly, be present at them, and ar- 
range for stated meetings of the chairmen for prayer 
and discussion concerning the more general and reciprocal 
features of their work. The supervision of this important 
department will require constant and patient effort. The 
lazy and the indifferent must be spurred to action, the in- 
efficient be superseded, and vacancies be filled. New 
accessions should constantly be made to the Avorking 
force, and happy will the Association be that realizes in 
the aggregating results '* the survival of the fittest." 

4. — The secretary should not take a prominent part in 
the financial management of the Association, but sustain 

Chap. 11, B, 5. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 135 

the same relation to it as to other departments, meeting 
with the finance committee and studying to promote its 
efficiency. He should be familiar with all the business 
details, knowing who contributes and who does not, and 
just how the money is spent. He should, from the outset, 
cultivate financial capacity m the members, not in the 
finance committee only. If he succeeds here, he is likely 
to succeed in other lines of work. If he leaves a place, he 
should leave it in better condition than that in which he 
found it. Where the money is pledged for a year, men 
sometimes spend it, and then look out for a new field 
where somebody has provided funds for a year, and at 
the end of that time are ready for another change. They 
keep changing, not on account of lack of piety but of 
business capacity. 

But, on the other hand, it will often be necessary for a 
secretary to guard against the encroachment of financial 
matters upon his thought and time to the detriment of 
other interests, especially those of a religious character. 

5. — '"'• SecretarialismP — A general secretary, from his 
knowledge and experience, is apt to undertake the details 
of the work, and to make himself to an unhealthy extent 
the important factor in the Association. He is tempted 
to lead meetings because he can conduct them better than 
the younger members, and sometimes attempts to do all 
the religious work. He becomes responsible for the 
finances of the Association ; in which case, even if he suc- 
ceeds in raising the money for a few years, he utterly 
fails to develop a competent finance committee. In this 
way some Associations have been '* secretarialized " into a 
state of absolute inefficiency, while the secretary himself, 
overburdened with work, has broken down under its pres- 
sure.* Buo on the contrary, the secretary should be a 

* The following extract from a letter written in 1856 by W. Edwyn Shipton, 
secretary of the London Association, to an American correspondent, is a striking 
illustration of what would now be called "secretarialism." " Here we have not, as 
with you, committees for discharging all special duties in connection with tlie 
work; our committees are simply consultative. The secretaries of the society con- 
duct its meetings, arrange its public lectures, keep minutes and accounts, beg 

136 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, C, 1. 

training officer in all departments. He should not rob 
committees of personal responsibility by writing their 
reports, by sending out the notices of their meetings, or 
by caring for any other details belonging to them. He 
should train young men to be winners of souls. In a 
word, he should so develop the working force that if he 
be suddenly removed the work will go on systematically 
and effectively. He should studiously avoid making him- 
self prominent, in the community, in the press, or at con- 
ventions. He should ever put others forward and be 
known only through the efficiency of the Association. 
He should use his influence to secure the presence of 
members of the board and of the working force at State 
and International Conventions, and induce them to serve 
on committees of those bodies in preference to himself. 
They and not he should represent the Association. As 
the number of secretaries increases, the importance of the 
secretary taking and keeping a subordinate place demands 
studied attention. If he is so constituted that he cannot 
do this, he is practically unfit for his office. 



1. — The large Associations employ, in addition to a 
general secretary, one or more assistant secretaries, 
librarians, physical directors, clerks, janitors, etc., be- 
sides seoi-etaries in charge of branches.* The relations 
existing between these will vary, and must be governed 
largely by the local conditions. 

2. — In the majority of cases, however, there will be but 

and disburse its funds, conduct aU of its correspondence, receive young men 
for private religious intercourse, conduct classes and deliver lectures to our own 
or branch Associations ; and daily at the office superintend the reading-rooms, 
receive visitors to the Association and supply information as to its proceedings, 
meet the representatives of branch or kindred Associations, and, as far as oppor- 
tunity permits, use hospitality towards them." 

* In 1891, the paid agents of the Association in New York City, excluding janitors, 
were 42 ; in Philadelphia, 26 ; in Chicago, 23. 

Chap. 11, C, 3. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 137 

one or two employes besides the secretary, and these are 
too often selected without much, care and receive small 
pay, to do janitor work, run on errands, and attend to 
such promiscuous matters as time and capacity permit. 
An assistant should be, rather, a young man possessing 
litness for the secretaryship, to w^hom such an apprentice- 
ship will be helpful. Whether, however, an assistant's 
time is to be employed with minor details, or he be able 
to share in the supervision of the work, the secretary 
should be to him a teacher and a friend, and cordial rela- 
tions should exist between them. The secretary should 
seek to develop his assistants from the working force of 
his own Association. 

3. — The secretary should see that his assistant receives 
a suitable salary. He should aid him in finding a proper 
boarding place, and introduce him to such society as will 
be pleasant as well as helpful. If the secretary has a 
home of his own, the assistant should be made welcome 
there. The secretary should feel a responsibility in re- 
gard to the personal habits of his assistant, and know wdio 
are his companions and where he sj^ends his leisure hours. 
He must look after his spiritual life, aid him in his study 
of the Bible, and see that his church connection is help- 
ful. The assistant should be given time for needed physi- 
cal development and metal improvement, and be taught 
system in using it. The secretary should provide for his 
taking a suitable course of reading, should place respon- 
sibility upon him as he may be fitted to sustain it, and 
allow him to gain a practical experience in different parts 
of the work. An assistant should be allowed to attend 
various commitee meetings, and occasionally a meeting of 
the board and a convention, as such attendance will fit 
him for greater usefulness in his daily work. The secre- 
tary must instruct and advise his assistant, realizing that 
valuable material is placed in his hands to be developed 
and fitted for a high sphere of action, and that no light 
responsibility rests upon him. 

138 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, D, 1. 

The secretary should exercise a careful supervision over 
all the employes, be full and definite in conveying to them 
the instructions of the board, and wlien mistakes are made 
sliould correct them privately and in a kindly raanncr. 



1. — As far as possible the secretary should be a friend 
to the members, upon whom they can call at any time, sure 
of a warm Avelcome. No office business should so absorb his 
attention that he cannot have a cordial greeting and a few 
kindly words of conversation with any one who may happen 
in. Especially should a call for counsel or advice in regard 
to either secular or spiritual matters take precedence of all 
else. Nothing wall better gauge a secretary's influence 
among the young men of the community, or should cause 
him more gratification, than the disposition to approach 
him with such personal confidences. The placard "This 
is my busy day " ought never to be posted in the office of a 
general secretary. 

2. — The secretary should be careful to credit the 
workers with the full importance of their service, in a 
tone not of flattery but of commendation and encourage- 
ment, and impress them with the fact that their work is 
not for men, but for their Lord. 

3. — With the associate members the secretary must use 
discretion; not thinking it necessary to introduce religious 
topics at first, nor at every interview, but allowing a 
young man to lead conversation into his favorite field. 
Becoming familiar he can select opportune times for 
earnest words. A member should feel that the secretary 
is interested in him genei-alh^, and not alone in his religious 
condition ; yet he should never have reason to doubt his 
intense desire for his soul's welfare. The associate mem- 

Chap. 11, F, 1. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 1$9 

bership is the harvest field of an Association. Great 
responsibility rests upon the secretary as a leader, and as 
one after whom the workers will largely pattern. To over- 
evangelize will drive many away, while others may be 
lost forever by neglec 



1. — The secretary, consciously or unconsciously, gives 
direction to much that is undertaken in the Association. 
He should see that the work of the secular departments is 
so carried on as to contribute to the attendance at the 
religious meetings and to reach young men individually. 

2. — He must never become so engrossed in the details of 
his work as to neglect seeking out young men and speak- 
ing to them personally about their souls' interests. This 
work will tend to keep him in communion with God, and 
quicken his own spiritual life. His earnestness in personal 
work will influence others to undc rtake it, and by the aid 
of the training class and other practical means they can be 
fitted for co-laborers in the work of winning souls. While 
the secretary should be in hearty sympathy and, as far as 
may be, in active co-operation with every department, he 
should give his best thought and most constant care to the 
religious work. 



1. — The secretary should be familiar with the business 
life of the community, manifesting an intelligent interest 
in the various local enterprises. If he understand not only 
the general principles, but some of the details, of business 
life he can more readily approach and influence business 

140 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, P, 2. 

men. Manj^ such men ma}^ come to him for advice and 
sympathy. If he show a knowledge of their daily duties 
and trials he can often gain their confidence at once, and 
the word fitly spoken may win them to the Savior. 

2. — The secretary must not be a politician. It is his 
duty to exercise the rights of citizenship ; but he must 
recognize the fact that political prejudices are strong, and 
that in order to maintain close, friendly relations with men 
of all parties he must be conservative and discreet. 

3. — A secretary should undertake no business to increase 
his income, as all his time belongs to the Association and 
he has no right to employ it in private business enterprises. 
Acting as the agent of a publishing house or insurance 
company, singing in a church choir for pay, or any similar 
occupation should be avoided, if he would retain his own 
self-respect and his influence among young men. 



A secretary should appreciate the value of the press. 
There should be a wise use of printed matter in the way 
of circulars, cards, newspaper advertising, etc. But in 
addition to this, and much more effective, will be the use 
of the editorial and local columns of the newspapers. The 
secretary should gain the friendship of editors and re- 
porters, and interest them in the work. He should see 
that they are invited to anniversaries, entertainments, and 
special services; provided with passes, or with tables, when 
such accommodations are needed; and treated with due 
courtesy on such occasions. No one should be neglected, 
for the penny-a-liner of some obscure sheet may soon be- 
come the " local " of a city daily. If reporters are not 
present on such an occasion an account of it may be sent 
them, carefully written and not too long. Association 

Chap. 11, H, 2. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 141 

items of proper brevity will generally be acceptable to the 
city editor, as will reports from a convention, if furnished 
promptly, the secretary always writing as a reporter, not 
officially. N'eios will be printed, while stale matter will 
be often thrown into the waste basket. It annoys a 
printer, from a mechanical standpoint, to have matter come 
in unnecessarily late. Items of interest regarding the gen- 
eral work, its progress, methods, new organizations, build- 
ing enterprises, or secretarial changes in the vicinity, may 
frequently be published. The work is thus brought before 
the public through the most popular and far reaching 
means at command. 



1. — Strong fraternal bonds should exist between a sec- 
retary and his fellows in other fields. No word of dispar- 
agement or unkind criticism should be spoken, and any 
seeming mistakes should be the subject of only personal 
and kindly inquiry or suggestion. Occasional conferences 
of the secretaries of contiguous Associations are beneficial. 
A monthly or quarterly circular letter, stating how diffi- 
culties have been overcome, new methods employed, etc., 
has been found very helpful by the secretaries of a district 
or state. 

2. — Friendly relations ought also to exist between the 
secretary and the executive officers of the State and Inter- 
national Committees. On account of their wider field and 
larger experience these officers will often be able to give 
advice which the local secretary should welcome and 
utilize. He should familiarize himself with their duties, 
methods, and difficulties, and be interested in the financial 
and moral support of their work. He will thus widen his 
own sphere of usefulness and that of his Association. The 

142 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 11, H, 3. 

State ana International Secretaries will sometimes have 
influence with persons in the community whom the local 
secretary may not be able to reach. He can help them in 
their work, and they can help him in his. Experience 
shows that interest taken in the broader work, or financial 
aid afforded it, stimulates and strengthens the local work. 
3. — During the International Secretaries' Conference, at 
Chicago, in 1880, some of the secretaries entered into a 
mutual agreement which has more recently developed into 
the " Secretaries' Insurance Alliance." The object is to 
defray the expenses incident to the last sickness and death 
of any member. Membership is open to any man whose 
whole time is employed by an American Association. The 
assessments, payable upon the death of a member, are very 
small, while each benefit amounts to several hundred dol- 
lars. Further particulars may be had by addressing the 
treasurer of the Alliance, in care of the Chicago Associa- 



1. — Accepting a call. — The attitude of one who expects 
to be used of God should be that of willingness to go to 
the field where he is most needed and to which he is best 
adapted ; not to the largest or easiest place, or where 
the greatest salary is offered. An untried man might 
better take an assistant's place or a small field than 
a large one. Success in the former is almost certain to 
lead to a call to a more important opening, offering greater 
opportunities for usefulness as well as greater responsibili- 

When practicable, a visit should be made to an Associa- 
tion before an invitation to its secretaryship is accepted, 
for the purpose of looking over the field and of consulta- 
tion with the board of directors and other members. 
The candidate may well ascertain : (a) What is the finan- 
cial condition of the Association? Is it free from debt? 
How much was received last year from memberships, 
subscriptions, and other sources, and what were the item- 
ized expenditures ? What is the itemized estimate of re- 
ceipts and expenditures for the coming year? (5) Are 
fairs and entertainments considered legitimate sources of 
current income ? (c) Is the finance committee efficient ? 
{d) Are salaries paid monthly ? (e) What is expected of 
the secretary in relation to the finances of the Association? 
(/) How many hours daily is he expected to devote to the 

144 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 12, 2. 

work ? What weekly rest is he to have, in place of Sun- 
day rest? (g) what paid assistance is furnished, in the 
care of the rooms, etc.? (A) What lines of work were un- 
dertaken last year, and with what results ? (^) How many 
active, reliable workers are there ? (J) Has the Association 
the sympathy and co-operation of the churches, and does 
it stand well with young men and business men ? 

A written agreement or a definite entry on the minutes 
is desirable. 

When a visit is not practicable, these matters should 
be settled by correspondence. 

2. — Beginning loork. A secretary's first duty is to 
get acquainted with his Association — its members and its 
history, including the causes and effects of former success 
or failure. Many facts may be obtained from the records, 
and by interviews with intelligent and unprejudiced 
citizens, including the pastors and both members and non- 
members of the Association. He should have at the out- 
set any helpful information in possession of state or inter- 
national ofiicers. A visit to the historical library of the 
International Committee, or of his own State Committee, 
would often prove very useful. 

If the Association has previously employed a general 
secretary, oris well organized, the new secretary will quietly 
adjust himself to the existing state of affairs, and suggest 
few, if any, changes or modifications at the beginning. He 
will have his own ideas, the result of training and habit, 
which may or may not be better than those now being car- 
ried out, a matter to be determined onl}^ by careful obser- 
vation. He may gradually suggest to the board such 
changes as he thinks desirable, advising previously with 
some of the officers or leading members. Care should be 
taken not to reflect upon previous administrations. 

On entering a new field, or a field where the work is 
to be built or re-built from the foundation, a different 
course is to be pursued. The secretary will, as in the 
other case, need to become acquainted with the members. 

Chap. 12, 3. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 145 

and seek to deepen their interest in the work. A strictly 
confidential list of the members, giving some charac- 
teristics of each, together with the interest he has shown 
in the past and his fitness for special lines of work, would 
be of great value to the beginner. It might be prepared 
with the help of some officer of the Association, suggested 
perhaps by the State Secretary. He should, of course, be 
able to present to them some definite outline of what is to 
be undertaken. Accompanied by some member of the 
board, he should call on business men, former sub- 
scribers, and those who may become such ; inform them 
of the work proposed, and by courtesy and tact secure 
their co-operation. The pastors should be advised with. 
Next will come j^l^nning and setting in operation the 
various lines of work. Let any legitimate work already 
existing be incorporated in the new plans. Committees 
should be formed, or reorganized, and got at work, special 
effort being directed towards the development of the 
active members. The finances should be put upon a 
systematic and permanent basis, and order and system 
established in connection with every department. (Further 
suggestions are given in chapter 4.) 

3. — Correspondence. — The secretary should cultivate the 
art of correspondence, acquiring a fair business hand, and 
a correct style as to orthography and clearness of expres- 
sion. Occasions constantly arise when a secretary pos- 
sessing grace and tact as a correspondent may use the gift 
to advantage. Often a note will be a helpful preliminary 
to a personal visit, or will go where a personal interview 
Avould be difficult or embarrassing. One is sometimes 
able to present a subject more fully, freely, and logically 
in writing than he would be liable to do orally. A busi- 
ness letter will often present the opportunity for a friendly 
word, or a Scripture reference, perhaps bearing some apt 
relation to the topic of correspondence. A member re- 
moving to another city should not only be given a note of 
introduction, but in every case a letter should be written 

146 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 12, 4. 

to the secretary, and, when practicable, to a pastor. Many 
useful hints may thus be given, sometimes starting a train 
of influence affecting a whole life. In some cases a secre- 
tary may kee^) up an occasional correspondence with a 
young man till he is established in his new home, which 
may be followed by placing his name on the mailing list of 
the bulletin. 

A systematic plan by which pastors in suburban towns 
would notify the city secretary of the removal of young 
men from their congregations to his vicinity, would be of 
great practical value. (See " Corresponding members of 
the district committee," Chap. 31, F, 3.) 

The secretary should answer letters prortiptly, especially 
those on business and communications from the State and 
International Committees. It takes no longer at one time 
than another, and delay is often vexatious if not disas- 
trous. Every Association should preserve letter press 
copies of all business letters. 

Caution should be observed in giving letters of intro- 
duction where the applicant is not thoroughly known. A 
short acquaintancee, be it ever so favorable, will not justify 
a full endorsement of character. It is better to be frank 
and state the simple facts than to write in general terms. 
Such letters often mislead or perhaps bring discredit on 
the Association. A general secretary's endorsement should 
rate " Al." A letter of introduction will generally carry 
more weight if addressed to some individual; and there 
can be no impropriety in presenting to the secretary at St. 
Louis or Omaha such a letter addressed to the Chicago 
secretary. At the same time one will naturally be more 
guarded in addressing a letter of introduction to some par- 
ticular person, with whom he may be personally ac- 
quainted and whose good opinion he prizes, than in address- 
ing it simply " to whom it may concern." 

4. — Prominent Visitors. — A visit from a prominent As- 
sociation man may be made helpful to the local work. A 
reception, a members' tea, a conference of the directors, or 

Chap. 12, 6. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 147 

a public service can be readily planned. When practica- 
ble, secretaries should be notified of such intended visits. 

5. — System. — The secretary should have a time for 
everything, and, as far as possible, do everything at its 
time. He should have regular office hours, that those 
having business with him may know where and when to 
find him. Drawers and pigeon holes should be labeled, 
and all documents so classified as to be readily at hand 
when wanted. There should be an orderly arrangement 
of letter files, stationery, and all the et ceteras of a well 
appointed desk. These things, trivial as they seem, are 
important, and index the man and his methods. 

6. — Memorandum Books. — For routine work the fol- 
lowing is suggested; get two diaries, No. 1, " General," to 
be kept at the desk, for entries, as dates become known, of 
such future events as conventions, lectures, entertainments, 
and Association, board, or committee meetings, also outside 
engagements and occurrences likely to interfere with the 
work. Correct the list promptly if dates are changed. 
This book should be open for the inspection and guidance 
of all employes at the building, and of the various officers 
and committees. Diary No. 2,* " To-day," should be con- 
venient for the pocket and always kept on the person, for 
constant and ready reference. Every Monday morning 
transfer items for the current week from No. 1 to No. 2, with 
needed details; and every morning add new appointments 
and duties. 

Another book may contain the items of work that must 
be done every year, arranged under the appropriate 
months. Its use should lead to preparation in advance for 
every such duty, and also to the enlargement of former 
plans, f 

In addition to these the secretary should have, in form 
for easy reference, lists of the different classes of members, 
and of the officers, directors and committees, cut perhaps 

* " standard Diary No. 570," seven days to the page, is especially adapted to this 

t See " Some things apt to be neglected," " Watchman," 1889, page 484, 

148 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 13, 7. 

from the annual report. He should also keep memoranda 
of new members, applicants for membership, inquirers, etc 
It would be well for him to keep a brief journal of the work 
and incidents of each day. An interleaved copy of the 
aimual report, for notes during the year, will be very 

7. — Statistics, etc, — A secretary should realize the im- 
])ortance of preserving statistics and all information re- 
lating to the worK. He should see that complete sets of 
state, international, and local reports, also of " The Young 
Men's Era" and the local bulletin, are preserved for the 
Association library.. These, neatly bound, will form an 
important feature of the library, the value of which will 
increase year by year. 

Newspaper cuttings relating to the local work may be 
pasted chronologically in strongly bound, medium-sized 
scrap books. Other cuttings, printed matter, or notes on 
any subject can be advantageously arranged in strong 
manilla envelopes, 6^ x 9^ inches; and articles in books 
and periodicals may be referred to by a card index. The 
use of Prof. Dewey's "Decimal Classification," published 
by the Library Bureau, 146 Franklin St., Boston, will be 
found invaluable in this connection. In the fourth edition 
of this work, recently published, several pages are given to 
the classification of the publications of Young Men's Chris- 
tian Associations. (See Chap. 24, B, 4.) 

The secretary may mark the articles to be indexed while 
reading them, leaving the preparation of the cards to one 
of his helpers. Such an index will be especially useful in 
directing the workers to sources of information, and save 
the secretary much time. (See Chap. 20, A.) 

All these matters of interest to the local work should 
belong to the Association, the secretary keeping, if he 
desires, a duplicate set for himself. 

8. — Human Nature. — A secretary should be a close 
student of human nature. His relations with persons of 
every class and condition make it necessary for him to 

Chap. 12, 10. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 149 

know a man at a glance, as an attitude of uncertainty may 
place him at a disadvantage. If he acquaints himself with 
the peculiar temptations that surround young men and 
cause them to drift into sin and crime, he may become wise 
to win and strong to succor them.* He must guard against 
imposition, but avoid the extremes of both credulity and 

9. — Dress. — In dress and appearance a secretary should 
be neither careless nor foppish, dressing neatly, without 
eccentricity, and within his means. A clerical garb is 
neither fitting nor helpful. Sanctified common sense should 
render a secretary jjroof against everything foolish, vulgar, 
or offensively peculiar in habits or costume. His field of 
labor includes every class, and nothing in dress or manner 
should bar him from any circle of society. But too much 
attention must not be given to these things. 

10. — Conversation. — He should seek to free himself 
from the use of slang and cant phrases, from the too 
prevalent habit of exaggeration, and from at least the 
common grammatical errors. Observation and a little 
painstaking will ensure a fairly correct use of language on 
the part of any one. The secretary should guard his con- 
versation as to the purity of its moral tone. Wit and 
repartee should not be too freely indulged in and never 
approach the indelicate. Especially should an irreverent 
use of Scripture he avoided. But, on the other hand, a 
man who has little sense of humor may well read humor- 
ous books and cultivate humorous acquaintances. Many 
Christian men err in dwelling too much on the sober side 
of life. A dull young man won't win young men. 

The secretary should avoid gossip, and, as much as pos- 
sible, the " small talk " so common, and should seek with 
tact to lead conversation into sensible and instructive 
channels. It is unnecessary to introduce serious topics 

* The foUowing books will be helpful : " Tempted London " (Armstrongg, New 
York); "Traps for the Young," by Anthonj- Comstock (Funk & Wagnalls, New 
York); "Man Traps of the City," by Thoinas E. Orpen (F. H. Revell Co., Chicago); 
" Dying at the Top," by Rev. J. W. Clokey, Era Publishing Co., Chicago). 

150 THE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 12, 11. 

constantly, but questions of the day, of business, of school 
life, science, and literature may be readily suggested. A 
secretary's conversation should be such that the transition 
at any time to a religious subject will not be difficult nor 
seem incons^ruous. 

11. — Economy. — A secretary deserves a living salary, 
and if others are dependent upon him must consider their 
needs. He should practice system and economy in his 
personal expenditures, and never allow them to exceed his 

The practice of systematically appropriating a portion 
of each month's salary to certain uses is highly commended. 
For example, at $50 a month : board $25, clothing $5, 
church and benevolence $5, books |3, incidentals $7, laid 
by $5, — $50. Some such method may also be safely pre- 
sented to any of the members who are working on a salary. 
No better rule can be adopted by a young man than that 
of strictly cash purchases. An excellent plan is to draw 
one's salary at the close of the month and place it in bank, 
paying out all larger amounts by check and keeping only a 
limited amount in pocket. A daily expense account should 
be kept, and if credit purchases are absolutely unavoidable 
record made of them. The secretary should also carefully 
guard the expenditures of the Association, as far as he is 
responsible for them. Money is not secured without effort, 
and those who give it have the right to demand its judicious 

12. — The Other Sex. — A secretary must be guarded as 
to his relations to the other sex. If he be a young man of 
pleasing address and fond of ladies' society, this will be 
especially necessary. He had better make a recluse of 
himself than have attached to his name the unenviable 
reputation of a flirt. A secretary's honor and discretion 
must be unquestioned. 

13. — Health. — A secretary must take care of his health. 
Many a man who shrinks intuitively from any moral de- 
linquency daily violates the laws of physical being with 

Chap. 12, 13. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 151 

apparent thoughtlessness. An intelligence, a reverence, 
and a conscience are needed concerning this matter that 
can come only by a study of the laws of hygiene, and a 
realization that the body is the temple of the Holy Ghost. 
A sound mind in a sound body is essential to full and con- 
tinued usefulness in any occupation. With a secretary 
the wear and tear of body, mind, and heart is almost con- 
stant and often intense. Hygienic rules must be establish- 
ed and maintained, or he will break down and fail, perhaps 
when his work is only begun. The hours for meals and 
sleep must be sacredly kept free from business cares. 
Meals must not be hurried. Dyspepsia will be the sure 
sequel to rapid eating. Entertaining conversation is an 
aid to digestion. There is no more appropriate place for 
a hearty laugh than at or after meals. Light reading may 
be reserved for the late evening. A few minutes' light 
exercise just previous to'retiring will induce sleep. A^iy 
tendency to sleeplessness should be remedied at once. Eight 
hours' sleep is not too much for a general secretary. 

At least half a day — and better a whole day — in every 
week should be taken for rest and recreation, as the sec- 
retary has no sabbath in the sense of relaxation from his 
usual lines of work. His recreation should as far as practi- 
cable be taken in the open air both in summer and winter. 
Daily systematic exercise, for a few minutes at least, is 
indispensable, and will be far more valuable if taken in 
pleasant companionship. If the Association has a gymna- 
sixim and athletic field the secretary should by all means 
iinp?ove this opportunity for his own physical welfare, and 
for gaining an influence over young men whose acquain- 
tance he might never make elsewhere. (See Chap. 25, B. 
2.) If such facilities are not available, simple and suffi- 
cient apparatus may be placed in his room at trifling cost, 
and he may be the more active in the outing club. A 
home at some distance from the rooms will enforce a good 
walk several times a day. Such time is not lost, for a 
secretary will do more and better work through the re- 

152 'SHE GENERAL SECRETARY. Chap. 12, 14. 

newed vigor thus ohtained. There are excellent books on 
preserving and recovering health, which should be read, 
prominent among them Blakie's " How to get strong." 

14. — Growth. — Young men are full of the spirit of 
activity and progress. With this element lacking in the 
work their interest cannot long be held. The secre- 
tary's inner life of thought and purpose must be fresh 
and earnest, if he would enlist young men of character 
and energy. If he becomes sluggish or mechanical, con- 
tent to run in ruts, the live workers will soon drop out. 
The character of the secretary will govern to a large de- 
gree that of the organization with whose interests he is so 
intimately connected. 

Many come into the secretaryship from business life and 
without the culture and mental discipline derived from a 
thorough course of study, but a well-stored mind is a 
possibility before every young man. The world is to-day 
full of a new class of books, for example the " Chautauqua 
Text Books," which are concise yet comprehensive, fitted 
for busy men, and giving a general knowledge of 
matters upon which students spend many years. An 
hour of earnest work each day, if wisely and systematically 
directed, will in two or three years make one acquainted 
with a large part of that which is really important in 
history, literature, and science ; and this course continued 
will so stimulate and enrich the mind as to naturally 
attract young men of culture and active intellectual life. 
There is also needed a spiritual growth to be gained only 
by an earnest study of God's word. The secretary should 
also grow in knowledge regarding the best methods of 
work, being on the alert to gain both hints and warnings 
from his co-workers in other fields. By reading the religious 
papers of the different denominations he can inform him- 
self as to what they are doing, and what criticisms or 
commendations they make regarding the Association. 

15. — Spiritual Life. — There is not only a possibility but 
a great danger, that in his multitude of labors and liis 

Chap. 12, 15. THE GENERAL SECRETARY. 153 

aiixiet}', even for tlie spiritual work of the Association, 
the secretary will neglect the nurture of his own spiritual 
life. In order to a healthful religious life he must live in 
constant and intimate communion with God. He must 
take time for prayer and meditation, and for the study of 
the Bible for his personal benefit. He must select the 
time of day when he will be least liable to interruption, 
and strictly maintain the habit. The morning hour before 
going to his office is generally considered to be the best 





1. — Previous to 1870 there was but little demand for 
the officer now known as general secretary. No partic- 
ular standard of qualifications had been fixed, and the 
duties of the position were ill-defined, the work in general 
lacking definiteness as to its scope and methods. Since 
then, however, the rapid increase in the number of organi- 
zations, with the improvement and growing similarity of 
methods, has called for more and better men, not only as 
secretaries, but also as physical directors and librarians. 
Assistant secretaries specially qualified for work among 
boys are also sought for. Of late years it has been im- 
possible to properly meet these varied demands.* 

2. — The supply must come mainly from the Associations, 
and through the agency of the secretaries. Young men 
brought to Christ through the Association, and active in 
its work, will more naturally than others appreciate the 
opportunities of the work and desire to enter it ; and the 
secretary, from his position, will be able to lead their 
thoughts in this direction. 

3. — A secretary recognizing his responsibility will be on 
the alert to discover such young men among his workers, 

*See Int. pph. No. 610. 


and his relations to these possible candidates will involve 
important and delicate duties. Some will desire to enter 
the work who are lacking in capacity or adaptation, or 
from inadequate motives. These must be shown their 
mistake and retained as contented workers in the local 
field. Others possessing marked qualifications, but of 
modest disposition, will need encouragement, and can 
safely be prompted to a careful consideration of the 
matter. Others still, although recognizing their fitness, 
may hesitate to give their lives to this particular service, 
especially if somewhat ignorant regarding it. They 
reqnire information regarding the growth and present 
condition of the work, the broad field of opportunity, and 
its need of capable men. In some cases a testing process 
may go on for months or years, but this labor of the secre- 
tary towards the development of his members is not lost, 
no effort being more fruitful, whether the gain be to the 
general or the local field. 

4. — The demand for young men of culture in the secre- 
taryship should incite the oflacers of College Associations 
to special effort in pressing its claims upon Christian 
students. It is necessary to look in this direction for 
many men to fill important positions in the work.* 



1. — When a young man desires to enter the service of 
the Associations, and is believed to possess natural qualifi- 
cations and proper motives, he should secure as thorough 
a preparation as possible. There can be no better founda- 
tion (a good English education being of course taken for 
granted), than several years of experience with a good busi- 

* See " The claims of the general secretaryship on young men of education and 
ability," Int. pph. No. 306, 


ness house, together with practice in varied work under 
an experienced secretary. There should be a systematic 
study of Association publications. The need of the latter 
was recognized early by the International Committee, and 
its ** Outline of study," arranged in 1881, was the first 
practical step towards a course of reading. The present 
volume has been evolved from this ** Outline," by a long 
process of addition and revision. Attendance at conven- 
tions, and especially at international* and state conferences 
of employed officers, is very profitable. These conferences, 
with the permanent literature resulting from the publica- 
tion of papers read at them, have in the past constituted 
one of the most important elements in the training of men. 
Visits to successful Associations, with careful observation 
and use of the note book, will also be helpful; and a term of 
service-as assistant, if the duties are not simply routine and 
mechanical in character, will be a good practical training. 
2. — A plan by which candidates should visit certain 
Associations and pursue a course of training for several 
weeks under their secretaries was inaugurated by the 
International Committee in 1880, and carried on for some 
years. For a long time, however, thoughtful Association 
men felt that there should be some system of equipping 
men more fully for the work, and that, if years of study 
are needed to fit them for other callings, like preparation 
should be made for a life-work requiring such a diversity 
of gifts and involving so much responsibility as this. 
They realized too that a knowledge was required of cer- 
tain foundation truths and principles not gained through 
existing agencies, not apt to be acquired in the busy 
whirl of office life, and yet for want of which many good 
men became discouraged and left the work. It was also 
evident from the brief service of many that they lacked 
essential qualifications, or entered the work with no just 
conception as to its character; and these secretarial failures 
were often disastrous to the Associations. 

* An outline of these conferences from 1871 to 1888 is given in Int. pph. No. 6. 

Chap. ]?S, B, 4. SECURING employed officers. 157 

3. — Such thoughts have found a practical expression in 
the establishment of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion Training Schools at Springfield, Mass., in 1885, and 
at Chicago, 111., in 1890. 

In addition to a general course in the systematic study 
of the Bible and methods of Christian work, special courses 
are provided at these schools for general secretaries, physi- 
cal directors, librarians, etc., these courses including both 
theory and practice. 

4. — Further study after entering the work, fraternal in- 
tercourse with men engaged in the same lines, and attend- 
ance at conventions, secretaries' conferences, and summer 
schools and institutes have decided value. Every Associa- 
tion can afford to place some such opportunities within 
reach of its employes, not as vacation pleasures, for they 
mean hard work, but as a part of their regular service. 



Organized work requires a home. There must be a 
known center at and around which its forces gather and 
from which its influence radiates. To this rule associated 
work for young men is no exception. 

What shall this home be, — what its character as to loca- 
tion, construction, equipment and tenure, — in order to 
place the Association on the highest vantage ground and 
afford the best facilities for its work ? How shall such a 
home be secured ? How shall the home once secured be 
cared for ? Answers to these questions will be attempted 
in this and the following chapters. 



1. — An Association should aim from the beginning to 
secure for itself a suitable and permanent home. Although 
a few small rooms may for a time accommodate its work, 
yet the present is an era of rapid development, when 
many an organization attains in a single year a position 
formerly gained only in a decade; and a vigorous growth 
may be easily and early dwarfed by withholding the facili- 

* Thia term is used in its general sense, covering both the Association building 
and rented rooms. Much in this and the following chapter will apply to both, 
and it will be readily seen where the references are specific, as in section A of this 

Chap. 14, A, 3. the association home. I59 

ties for enlargement. As soon as an Association has prac- 
tically demonstrated its fitness and ahility to live, it 
deserves a home of its own. 

2. — Negative reasons why an Association should possess 
a home: 

a. The difficulty of finding rooms suitable as to loca- 
tion, size, and adaptation. 

b. The cost of such rooms, if found. 

c. The trouble, expense, and often impossibility of 
making the changes needed by a growing organization. 

d. The uncertainty of tenure. 

3. — Positive advantages connected with the possession 
of a building: 

a Permanency. A substantial building owned by an 
incorporated society is a guarantee of stability. It gives to 
an Association and its work a permanent aspect that is 
helpful in many ways, inspiring respect and confidence, 
and provoking liberality, not only as to current support, 
but in the way of bequests and benefactions. It creates a 
home feeling which knits the membership closely together. 
" Formerly a temporary experiment, now an institution of 
the city," happily phrases the transition from rented rooms 
to a permanent home. 

h. Adaptation. To secure the best results with the least 
expenditure of labor there must be adaptation of means to 
the work. Only a building erected, or thoroughly remodeled, 
for the purpose can be well adapted to the multiform work 
and peculiar methods of a fully developed Association. 

c. Publicit}'. There can be no advertisement equal 
to a conspicuous building known as the property and home 
of the Young Men's Christian Association. No stranger 
will ask in vain to be directed to it, and no young man 
seeking a friendly resort need fail to find its door. It is 
a perpetual educator of the people regarding the extent 
and importance of the work. It also stands as a witness 
to practical Christian unity, and the love and care of the 
churches for young men. 

160 THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, A, 4. 

d. Independence. With a building an Association is 
its own master and not subject to the whims of a landlord. 
It can control its immediate surroundings, a very important 
item. It is not liable to censure for every petty irregu- 
larity, real or seeming and sometimes unavoidable, occur- 
ring on its stairways or along its halls. Changes and 
improvements can be made as needed, subject only to the 
will and financial ability of the management. 

e. Popularity. The acquisition of a good property 
at once raises the standing of an Association in the eyes of 
business men. Better men are needed and can be secured 
to manage its growing operations, which gives additional 
character to the institution. The attendance at the rooms 
and the membership increase, and every department of the 
work is pushed with new activity. 

/. Economy. A commodious building, a portion of 
which can be let to suitable tenants without detriment to 
the working of the Association, is the most jjopular form 
of endowment. Men will give large sums of money for 
such a building, which they would not think of giving to 
an endowment fund. And again, in raising the money 
needed for the new and enlarged work in the building, 
men are more willing to solicit, and those solicited are 
more ready to respond. A good property will also enable 
an Association to tide over a financial crisis which might 
otherwise prove fatal. All improvements made upon the 
premises have a permanent value to the Association, and 
the appreciation in real estate, an important matter in 
most cities, instead of increasing expenditure by advancing 
rents, on the other hand augments the income. In letting 
a portion of the building, care should be taken that noth- 
ing improper or annoying is brought into it. The Asso- 
ciation should not tie its hands by long leases, or, through 
false economy, fail to reserve ample room and the best of 
the buildinor for its own use. 

4. — What has been said in this chapter applies only to 
genuine ownership. Some Associations in the past have 

Chap. 14, B, 2. the association home. 161 

entered into stock companies for the ownership of build- 
ings, or into joint ownership with other societies. Such 
plans have never worked satisfactorily for any length of 
time, and have usually resulted in the loss of all that the 
Association has put into the enterprise. 



1. — An eligible site is a matter of the first importance. 
A leading consideration in its selection is the convenience 
of the men for whom the building is specially designed. 
Thus the building of a Railroad Association is placed in 
the neighborhood of the station or freight yards. A Col- 
lege Association locates its building w^here the students 
pass frequently. A town building is placed on or near the 
principal street. In a large city a location is generally 
sought near some center of travel. Several Associations, 
in determining the sites for their buildings, have ascer- 
tained by actual count the spot in the city passed by the 
largest number of young men in a given time, and have 
purchased lots at that point. The border between the 
business and residence portions, between "up" and 
" down " town, is often a good location. In a growing 
place the probable drift of business is to be considered. 
There is in every town a popular section, and generally a 
" right side " of the street. A corner lot gives a more ex- 
tended outlook, and affords better facilities for air and 
light. All buildings over fifty feet wide are greatly bene- 
fitted by such a location. It is an advantage to be entirely 
separated, if by only a few feet, from the neighboring 
buildings, especially if a corner lot cannot be secured. 

2. — The same considerations should govern, as far as 
applicable, in selecting rented quarters as in choosing a 
building site. Opinions differ as to which is better, the 

162 THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, C, 1. 

first or the second floor, but probably nine-tenths of the 
Associations, whether in rented quarters or in buildings of 
their own, liave their main rooms upon the second floor. 
A large flat is usually preferred, although an upper floor is 
often used for class rooms, etc. 



1. — In the proj^er arrangement of an Association build- 
ing, or of rented rooms, there needs to be a well-balanced 
general plan, all departments being considered, and accord- 
ing to their relative importance. It is better to spend 
time and money in perfecting plans than in making alter- 
ations. General adaptation ought never to be sacrificed 
to one or two special features. Outward appearance should 
never be allowed to interfere with the symmetry and con- 
venience of the interior, for the latter is altogether the 
more important to the Association. Just here an archi- 
tect is apt to go astray, and to need specific instructions 
and careful watching on the part of the building com- 

2. — Other points to be considered are economy of space; 
convenience, including adaptation of the rooms to their 
uses and easy supervision; and what maj^ be termed non- 
interference, or such a dis230sition and separation of the 
several departments that the legitimate Avork of any one 
may not interfere with or annoy the others. 

3. — Only general rules are possible regarding arra^ige. 
ment. The location, size, and shape of the building, or 
rooms, will have much to do in determining not only 
details but general plan. Plans of Association buildings 
should be studied, such buildings should be visited, and 
persons familiar with them should be closely questioned 
concerning their good and bad points. Unless this is done 

Chap. 14, C, 5. THE ASSOCIATION HOME. 163 

by both committee and architect, failure in important par- 
ticulars is almost certain. 

4. — An attractive and convenient entrance is one of the 
advantages that can be secured by the erection of a build- 
ing. Commodious and perhaps really line apartments 
have sometimes been reached by a narrow doorway, ladder- 
like stairs, and dark passages. To-day an elegant portal, 
with a broad, easy stairway and well lighted hall, is the 
standard model. Th.Qfull name, "Young Men's Christian 
Association," should be cut in stone over the entrance, and, 
if practicable, elsewhere and more prominently upon the 
front of the building. 

5 . — The following rooms are desirable for a fully organ- 
ized work: 

a. Reception room. Whatever may be the shape of 
the building, its interior is so planned that this shall be the 
initial or focal apartment, by which all enter, from which 
the various rooms or departments are all reached, and 
tlirough which every one must again pass in retiring.* 
By this means each person upon entering and leaving the 
building is brought under the supervision of the officer or 
committee in charge; a very important matter in connec- 
tion with control, economy of administration, recognition 
of strangers, and personal contact with members amd 
others frequenting the rooms. In the evening this room 
is naturally the headquarters of the reception committee 
carrying on this work, which in the day time must gen- 
erally be done by the secretary or his assistant. At all 
hours it should have an air of freedom from the restraint 
necessary in the reading room and some other parts of the 
building. It should be fitted with conveniences for giving 
information on all legitimate matters of public interest. 
The latest time tables and directories of all kinds, the 
Association boarding house register and bulletin board, a 
barometer, weather reports, and when practicable telephone 

* It is generally beet to have the boys' rooms, the kitchen, the janitor's living 
apartments, and the large hall communicate directly with the street, independently 
of the reception room, these being the only exceptions to the above rule. 

164 THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, C, 5. 

and messenger service should be among its appliances. 
The posting of the weekly printed list of unclaimed letters, 
furnished by the post-office, is desirable. This room is 
also a good place for any novel or striking attraction. All 
who have visited the old Aldersgate street rooms of the 
London Association, remember at the entrance of the hall- 
like reception room two immense globes, like sentinels on 
either hand, as if to challenge each comer and ask him 
from what part of the round earth he hails. A simple yet 
novel article, exhibited by one of the smaller city Associa- 
tions, is a section of bark from a California red-wood. It 
has attracted the attention and inquiries of hundreds. A 
little enterprise has made many an Association home rich 
in these pleasing and instructive features. Valuable les- 
sons in this line can be learned from places of vicious 
resort and methods there used to attract the attention. 
The entrance to this room should always be by a glazed 
door; young men, especially strangers, being more free to 
enter a place thus open to view. 

h. Secretary's office. A portion of the reception 
room, partially enclosed by a railing, counter, or glass par- 
tition, is generally used as the business office of the Asso- 
ciation. The desk of one of the secretaries should com- 
mand the entire room and should always be accessible to 
visitors. But a private office, if only a small one, is quite 
as much needed. It usually opens off the public office, 
and is in frequent use for confidential interviews or for 
small committee meetings. Its location should be such as 
to keep the secretary within easy reach of legitimate busi- 
ness. Especially should he not be hidden away during 
the more public and social hours. These offices should be 
fully supplied with closets and cabinets arranged to hold 
Association blanks, reports, stationery, etc. 

c. Reading room. Suggestions are given in chapter 
24, A. 

d. Correspondence room. Facilities for correspond- 
ence are always provided in the reception room or else- 

Chap. 14, C, 5. THE ASSOCIATIOiS- HOME. 165 

where, and in some buildings a room is devoted to tliis 
purj^ose. Such a room may be made especially attractive 
to commercial travelers. 

e. Recreation or amusement room. The name " game 
room " sometimes given to this apartment is deemed ob- 
jectionable by many. "Leisure room" is better. 

/'. Social parlor or parlors. 

g. Lavatory or toilet room, with water closets, and, if 
practicable, baths — the last named being for the use of 
members who do not hold gj^mnasium tickets, and who, of 
course, are not admitted to anj^ of the privileges connected 
with the gymnasium. A ladies' toilet room is also desirable. 

h. Lecture room or small hall, seating from one hun- 
dred and fifty to four hundred persons, and designed espe- 
cially for gatherings of young men. A small room directly 
connected with this hall may be very useful for inquiry 
meetino^s after reliarious services. 

i. Class rooms, fitted with desks, blackboards, etc. 
If not in use every evening for classes, these rooms can be 
occupied by the literary society or committee meetings. 

j. Gymnasium, with adjoining oflice for the physical 
director, overlooking all the physical department rooms; 
dressing and bath rooms, including, if practicable, a swim- 
ming bath; and work shop and store room. A room where 
members of the Associations can keep their bicycles has 
been found useful in a number of Associations. For 
suggestions in detail see chapter 25, D. 

k. Bowling Alley. It is desirable that this be con- 
nected with the gymnasium, but not in the same apai't- 
ment. Each full sized alley requires five by eighty feet of 
floor sj^ace. 

I. Library. A growing library is one of the most 
difficult things to arrange for. Room sufficient for years 
to come should be provided in the original plan, but can 
often be used for other Association purposes or rented 
out until needed. Meantime the books may be kept in 
one of the other rooms, their location being determined 

l^Q THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, C, 5. 

by the convenience both of the readers and custodian. 
Sometimes a gallery in the reading room accommodates 
the library. (See Chap. 24, B.) 

771. Boys' room or rooms, so placed in the basement 
or upper stories as to be isolated, as far as practicable, 
from the rest of the building, provided the Association 
expects to have a secretary or committee man in the room 
whenever it is open. When this is likely to be impractica- 
ble, the secretary should command a vicAV of the room 
from his desk through a window. (See Chap. 28, E.) 

71. Store room and closets. An exceedingly important 
but often neglected item is a proper amount of space for 
storage purposes, so that the rest of the building may not 
be lumbered up and rendered untidy by sundry articles, 
temporarily out of use. 

o. A coat room, arranged to receive hats, coats, and 
umbrellas, is indispensable in connection with the recep- 
tion room. When in charge of a responsible person, it is 
also often a place of deposit for valuables by members 
passing to the gymnasium. For this reason it is desirable 
to have it immediately at the entrance to the gymnasium, 
and also in order that the attendant may admit members 
through a locked door into the latter. Otherwise this 
door must be controlled from the secretary's desk. Where 
there is a long passage to the gymnasium, a mirror is 
sometimes so placed as to assist the attendant in his over- 
sight. There should be a separate entrance to the visitors' 
gallery of the gymnasium, and no possibility of passing 
from this gallery to the floor. 

p. Hall, seating from six to twelve hundred persons.* 

q. Board room. Although meetings of the board and 
committees can be held in the parlors or other rooms, an 

* This is needed in large cities, but is used by the Association far less than many 
other rooms. The few large gatheriuga that most Associations hold can better bo 
accommodated in some other public building, secured for the purpose, than in an 
"Association Hall" which crowds necessary every-day apartments out of the 
building. Such a hall has sometimes been expected to be an important source of 
revenue, but these hopes have generally been disappointed, because an Associa- 
tion, on account of the views of some of its supporters, cannot rent its hall for 
many purposes quite legitimate in the case of an ordinary public assembly room. 

Chap. 14, C, 7. THE ASSOCiATiois^ home. t^f 

apartment expressly for this purpose is very useful. It is 
often provided with conveniences for serving a meal, or 
refreshments, in connection with such meetings. 

r. Kitchen, connected by a dumb waiter with the other 
stories of the building. 

s. Janitor's living rooms are usually located in one of 
the upper stories. 

6. — In the general arrangment of the rooms the best 
light is given to the reading room and library, and the 
pleasantest outlook to the parlor. The principal rooms 
should be connected by double doors, so that they can be 
thrown together for social gatherings. Ready passage 
through the rooms on such occasions is aided by having 
more than one entrance to each room. The gymnasium 
and bath rooms are placed on the ground, unless the 
building has been constructed with reference to their oc- 
cupying upper floors, or such only are available. In the 
latter case special provision must be made for the strength- 
ening of walls, the deafening of floors, protection from 
leakage, etc. By locating the dressing rooms in a low 
story under the gymnasium, space is economized, and the 
noise and jar are experienced where they are least annoy- 
ing. The most approved arrangement gives the physical 
department a wing of the building for its exclusive use. 

7. — The full list of rooms just mentioned is, of course, 
beyond the needs and the means of most Associations. A 
judicious selection and combination ought to be made in 
each case. Many small Associations can afford only a 
single room, perhaps fifteen by twenty feet in size. Nearly 
all employing a secretary will have a reading room, and a 
parlor used also for meetings. Two such rooms connected 
by wide doors may, hj re-arrangement of furniture and 
extra seating, accommodate a varied work. A little in- 
genuity will cut off, by a light partition or even by a cur- 
tain, a corner of one of these rooms for a secretary's oflice, 
and perhaps another corner for a wash room or kitchen. 
A portable wardrobe may be so fitted up with shelves and 

168 THE AsSOClATlOlf HOME. Chap. 14, C, 8. 

pigeon holes as to hold record hooks and papers. Results 
depend not so much upon facilities as upon the wisdom 
and energy of the workers. 

8. — Too much care cannot be taken in the matter of 
building material. Only that which will be durable should 
be used, and also that which will maintain its appearance, 
for there is a good deal in the clean, bright look of a 
building. The drip from some varieties of stone will dis- 
color, and in time seriously damage, the brick work with 
which it is connected. Lumber should be seasoned, even 
if the building be somewhat delayed on that account. With 
the present sensible and tasteful style of finishing in native 
woods, paint and putty can no longer be used to remedy 
defects from shrinkage. 

9. — The foundation of the building is an important item. 
The nature of the ground should be considered in select- 
ing the site. Engineering skill can overcome many natural 
defects, but the foundation should in all events be sure. 
Many an otherwise fine structure becomes unsightly, if 
not unsafe, from its cracked or leaning walls. Deep 
trenches, heavy stone for the lower courses, and abundance 
of good cement are usually essential. 

10. — The basement may often be a very serviceable part 
of the building, and should be so constructed as to be 
available for future contingencies, if not needed at once. 
It should be dry, light, of sufiicient height, and capable of 
good ventilation. In many instances it can be largely 
above ground, but, if not, defects in the items named can 
be overcome by areas and a sub-cellar. 

11. — The walls of any public building should be sub- 
stantial. The extra cost can well be borne when the ad- 
vantages of durability and safety from fire and accident 
are considered. Inside partitions of brick, of good thick- 
ness, are valuable on these accounts. On the other hand, 
iron columns, supporting steel beams, occupy less space 
and allow easier remodelling of rooms, if this becomes 
desirable. The floors should be well supported and deaf- 

Chap. 14, C, 15. THE ASSOCIATION HOME. 169 

ened. Many well recommended methods of deafening 
prove unsatisfactory, especially in connection with the 
gymnasium. Before adopting any plan its practical work- 
ing in some building, under conditions similar to those 
proposed, should be minutely investigated. 

12. — The roof should be covered with slate or metal, 
pains being taken in its construction as well as in its 
covering to guard against leaking or damage by frost 
and snow, matters to be considered in all northern latitudes. 
The greater the irregularity of the roof the more liability 
to trouble in these directions. Cupolas and skylights re- 
quire particular attention. All roof water should be con- 
ducted to the ground by leaders, so as to avoid drip from 
the eaves. It is generally best to have the leaders inside 
the building to prevent their freezing, but in order to ac- 
complish this the entire space through which they pass 
must be warmed. 

13. — Wooden ceilings, finished with oil or shellac rather 
than paint, have many advantages over plastered ones. 
They are specially desirable in the gymnasium and in any 
rooms under it. The former should be without plaster or 
wood work on its side walls. Porcelain faced brick make 
the best side walls, but less costly brick will answer the 
purpose. A hard, smooth brick, requiring little paint to 
cover it, is durable, and a light coat of paint can be repeated 
at small cost. 

14. — Everything practicable should be done to render 
the edifice fireproof, especially in the neighborhood of the 
staircases. Little or no wood should be exposed outside 
the building. Window sills and caps, cornices, and other 
ornamentation should be of stone or metal. Portions 
specially exposed, as the sides or rear when contiguous to 
other buildings, should be protected by iron shutters on 
doors and windows, and by fire walls above the roof. 

15. — Special care is needed in locating and fitting the 
bath and toilet rooms. They should be conveniently 
placed, but not in too public a position. Their floors, 

i'^O THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, C, 16. 

walls, and ceilings should be of material impervious to 
moisture, and as little wood work and plaster as possible 
should be used in them. The supply pipe for a system of 
several baths should be at least two inches in diameter, 
and this size should be maintained as near to the main as 
possible, in order to lessen friction. Perfect ventilation is 
necessary. The windows should open to the external air. 
When this is imj^ossible, ample ventilation should be 
secured by ducts from the upper and lower parts of the 
room. The best materials and fixtures should be used, and 
all pipes and plumbing throughout the building should be 
exposed, so as to be readily accessible. 

16. — There should be sufficient space between wood 
work and flues to insure safety from fire, defective flues 
being the origin of more fires than all other causes com- 
bined. All flues should be so arranged as to secure good 
draught and to be easily cleaned. 

17. — A building should be flooded with day-light, even 
if this require the addition of sky-lights, courts, and light- 
shafts. In the matters of artificial light and heat, the As- 
sociation buildings are usually well equipped. The larger 
buildings are generally heated by steam, probably the best 
means in use, unless hot water be an exception. A high 
pressure boiler for heating purposes will cost but little 
more than low pressure, and may also be utilized to run a 
dynamo for electric lights. Some systems of hot air heat- 
ing, especially when combined with a good plan of venti- 
lation, are excellent in small buildings. Ventilation was 
formerly much neglected, but now receives much more 
attention. The system of heating and ventilating by in- 
direct radiation and fans is superior to all others. The 
first cost is only slightly above that for direct radiation, 
but the expense for fuel is from twenty-five to thirty per 
cent. more. Such apparatus secures the only satisfactory 
ventilation both in summer and winter, being capable of 
forcing air through a building twice each hour in cold 
weather and four times in warm weather. The electric 

Chap. 14, C, 23. the association home. jij-j 

sj^stem is fast superseding other methods of lighting, and 
all new buildings should be wired for it, even if the system 
is not to be used at once. 

18. — Thought must be given to security from the 
weather and economy of fueh Not only the rooms, but 
the halls, lobbies, and stairways should be made comfort- 
able in winter without large expense. 

19. — Acoustics need attention, especially in the assembly 
rooms. Precautions should also be taken against the an- 
noying resonance so common in the public passage wsljs 
of a large structure. 

20. — Accident from fire during the construction of the 
building should be guarded against. There is much more 
danger than is usually supposed from this source. The 
matter of insurance in this connection should be carefully 
looked after. 

21. — The building should be finished, no details being 
left incomplete. The additional expense is slight for the 
satisfaction it brings. The surroundings, the walks, and 
any yard or court connected with the premises should be 
put in order. The cellars should be cleared and proper 
disposition made of all building rubbish which may have 
accumulated. A graceful flag-staff should crown the 
edifice, for the national colors should float from every 
Association building. 

22. — The erection of an Association building is usually 
entrusted to a committee of from three to five thoroughly 
interested and competent men, with full executive power. 
In accepting such responsibility they assume an important 
trust, which should be discharged with conscientious 

23. — This committee should make a careful estimate of 
the cost of the building, and avoid extravagance in its 
construction. Let the impression get abroad that there is 
danger of a reckless use of money, and people will not 
entrust it to the Association. The fact that a city of 
200,000 population is erecting a building worth |100,000 . 

172 THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, C, 24. 

does not constitute a reason why a town of 25,000 should 
endeavor to do the same thing. 

24. — Reasonable provision should be made for the future. 
As will be shown in the next chapter, twenty-three build- 
ings were occupied by Associations during the first decade 
of the building movement, from 1867 to 1876. Nine of 
these have been superseded b}^ other buildings, in order to 
secure adequate accommodations. Another has been en- 
larged, and two others are soon to be replaced by new 
buildings. Most of the remaining eleven buildings are in 
small places. But in a few of them, originally planned 
on a generous scale (among which may be mentioned those 
at Twenty-third Street, New York City; and Poughkeep- 
sie), one rented room after another has been taken for 
Association purposes, and, by some changes in the internal 
arrangement, the growing work has been provided with 
more space. It is best so to plan and construct a build- 
ing that the portions designed for rental can be readily 
made available for the purposes of the Association, with 
little expense and without interfering with the strength of 
the structure. 

Conspicuous buildings have also awakened and kept 
alive a public sentiment regarding Association work that 
has been very helpful toward the acquisition of branch 

On the other hand, the question is raised whether, in the 
light of experience, very large buildings are the most use- 
ful. It is urged (a) that the right men can be more readily 
enlisted and retained on committees of management where 
only a moderate sum must be raised in annual subscrip- 
tions, and that they can also devote more attention to 
details of the entire work if their time is not largely occu- 
pied with financial matters; (b) that the active members 
can exert their influence much more effectively where the 
associate members are not so numerous that it is practically 
impossible to make their acquaintance; and (c) that the 
secretary can better discharge his varied duties without 

Chap. 14, C, 26. the association home. I73 

being deprived by them of close contact with the members; 
so that a really social, home atmosphere may pervade a 
small building, rather than that of an institution. For 
these reasons it is believed that provision for three thou- 
sand members in three buildings rather than in one will 
result in a larger force of managers and workers, and in 
better practical results. This may be accomplished through 
the extension of the branch system. 

25. — In the selection of architect and builder the best 
skill available should be employed. Home talent is pre- 
ferable on general principles, and for convenient future 
consultation. There ought to be no experiments in sup- 
posed economy at this stage of the enterprise. It is some- 
times considered desirable to have several architects 
submit competitive designs for the building, based upon its 
intended size, cost, and general arrangement. None should 
be invited to enter the competition who would not be 
thoroughly acceptable to carry the work through. Money 
premiums offered for the designs adjudged second and 
third in merit will secure better work and afford some 
compensation for labor expended. Plans not accepted 
remain the property of the architects submitting them. If 
it is desired to incorporate any of their features in the 
building, the consent of the owners should be obtained, 
and remuneration offered them. But it is better to select 
a good architect and have him work up the plans. 

26. — If the building is to be erected by contract, esti- 
mates should be invited from a number of reputable 
builders, in order to secure the most favorable terms. 
During its erection there should be competent (usually 
paid) daily supervision on behalf of the committee. 

174 THE ASSOCIATION HOME. Chap. 14, D, 1. 



1. — The prevalent thought in the fitting up of Associa- 
tion rooms is to have them resemble a home, cozy, attract- 
ive, elegant, as the case maybe. In selecting furniture the 
best quality is usually the cheapest, durability being a 
chief essential where rooms are so much used. In these 
matters the nice discrimination of the ladies is valuable 
and is generally brought into requisition. 

2. — Floors of stone or hard wood when really good are 
elegant, durable, and easily kept clean, but are apt to be 
noisy and,- in winter, cold. The difference between good 
and poor hard wood floors often depends entirely uj^on 
their finish. A good floor may be ruined through neg- 
lect, while a somewhat inferior one may be kejjt in fair 
condition by frequent oiling. A partial covering is often 
necessary, especially on the halls and stairways. Rubbet- 
stair treads greatly lessen noise. At least one handsomely 
carpeted room is generally desirable. A properly prepared 
floor, partially laid with rugs, presents an attractive ap- 
pearance. A good quality of linoleum makes an excellent 
covering for an ordinary room, is more durable than oil 
cloth, and more easily taken care of than matting. Both 
matting and carpets are objectionable in the more public 
rooms on account of the dust that lodges in them. 

3. — Walls are usually decorated in some manner. The 
modern styles of frescoing are neat and not very expensive. 
Kalsomine is good enough for ordinary rooms and is easily 
renewed. Paper is also much used, and, with the present 
artistic styles, even cheap papers make the plainest rooms 
inviting, so that there is no excuse for shabby walls and 
ceilings in even the poorest Association homes. Little or 
no wall decoration is desirable in a new building until it 
has had time to settle. 

4. — Di'apery is desirable for windows and some of the 

Chap. 14, D, 6. THE ASSOCIATION HOME. 175 

inner doorways, except in the reading room and library. 
A few pictures, appropriate in character and handsomely 
framed, should adorn the Avails. A mantel with clock and 
vases, something in the line of statuary, or any choice 
articles of hric-a-hrac tastefully disposed about the room 
will add to the general home effect. Plants, birds, or an 
aquarium are attractive, but require considerable care. 
Music is given a prominent place, no parlor being complete 
without either piano or organ, and often several of these 
instruments are found in the various rooms. A group of 
3^oung men gathered about the piano in^ the evening is a 
familiar and pleasing sight. 

5. — Taste can be displayed in the matter of fixtures for 
heating and lighting. Open fireplaces are attractive and 
often convenient, even when chief dependence is placed on 
other methods of heating. They are also valuable aids in 
ventilation. With portable grates they may burn either 
wood or coal. 

6. — In fitting up rented quarters the fact of a probable 
building should be kept in mind, and such furniture pur- 
phased as will have a permanent value. 




1. — Good management of its property on the part of a 
Young Men's Christian Association is not only a matter of 
economy, but of example and influence. There is also a 
question of responsibility. When the people of a com- 
munity, in answer to the appeals of an Association, have 
placed a valuable property in its hands, they have a right 
to expect that it will be cared for on true business prin- 

2. — The direct supervision of the property is usually 
placed in the hands of a competent and experienced com- 
mittee or committees, appointed by and from the directors, 
or (less frequently) the trustees, or both. Sub-committees 
of one or two are often made responsible for certain 
details. It is essential that there be regular and system- 
atic reports from these committees as to condition of 
property, work done, outlay of money, and other impor- 
tant matters. The duties of the committees should be 
specifically stated, and other than routine action should 
be taken only as authorized by the proper board. The 
general secretary will be expected to report to the com- 
mittees any matter needing attention that comes to his 
knowledge, but this should in no way lessen their responsi- 
bility to attend personally to details. 

Chap. 15, B, 2. CARE OF the home. 177 

3. — The care of an Association building embraces the 
following items: — 

a. Finance, including all matters of tenure, liens and 
mortgage obligations, interest, taxes, insurance, leases, and 
the like. 

b. Repairs and alterations; and safety, or the guard- 
ing against accident or damage from any cause. 

c. Order and cleanliness. 

Questions of finance in connection with a building are 
treated in chapter 19. 



1. — A competent supervising committee will provide for 
frequent and thorough inspection of the building, and for 
immediate attention to necessary repairs. Experience 
teaches that most work is more easily and economically 
accomplished at once, while negligence tends to demoral- 
ization. In the model building broken glass is at once 
replaced, wood work is kept bright with paint or oil, walls 
are not suffered to grow dingy, a loosened hinge or broken 
bolt is immediately restored, or the tin roof is kept well 
painted. A tin roof aptly illustrates the importance of 
attention to repairs, often being ruined by a year's neglect, 
but lasting indefinitely with proper care. A janitor should 
be sought for possessing enough mechanical capacity to do 
simple fitting and repairs. All repairs should be in 
keeping with the building; while needless expenditure is 
avoided, the value of the building should be maintained or 

2. — Every possible precaution should be taken against 
fire. Few buildings are really fireproof, and no Association 
building yet erected is professedly so. Where a good 
water service exists there should be either a stand-pipe, or 

178 CA.RE OF THE HOME. Chap. 15, B, 3. 

some sort of hose attachment, with a, sufficient amount of 
hose on each floor. Water pails in various parts of the 
building, 2)rovided they are kept well filled, are better 
than nothing. The chemical fire extinguisher is an efficient 
safeguard and should be found in every building, whether 
with or without water service. It may often be the means 
of quenching an incipient fire, without the damage to 
property following the use of water. The hand fire grenade 
is a simple, convenient, and reliable form of the chemical 
extinguisher, which may be thrown ujDon a fire just start- 
ing or will explode of itself when exposed to a sufficient 
amount of heat. Such grenades may Avell be placed, in 
considerable numbers, in all specially exposed parts of the 
building. All stoves, furnaces, pipes, flues, and the dis- 
position of the ashes should be carefully looked after. 

Oil should be used with extreme caution. It should be 
kept in a safety tank, and a metal tray should be used in 
handling lamps for filling and trimming. None of this 
work should ever be done by artificial light, and Avood 
work should never be allowed to become saturated with 

All parts of the building should be easily accessible; 
the scuttles and, when necessary, the roofs being furnished 
with stairs or fixed ladders. Ample provision should also 
be made for safe and speedy exit from the building, espe- 
cially if a public hall be located on an upper floor, both 
by broad stairways and outside fire escapes. These are 
often required by law. 

3. — It is to be supposed that in the construction of the 
building due precautions have been taken to prevent 
damage from water, snow, frost, and wind in any ordinary 
form or amount, and 3^et the safe plan is to take nothing 
for granted, and the careful supervisor will give his per- 
sonal attention to every such possible source of damage. 
Plumbing requires special oversight, in order to guard 
against the stoppage or bursting of pipes, and the escape 
of sewer gas. The latter often cannot be detected by the 

Chap. 15, C, 3. CARE OF THE HOME. 179 

senses, but if a small quantity of some liquid with a decided 
odor, such as spirits of turpentine or peppermint, is poured 
into water closets in the lower part of the building, and 
the smell from it is perceptible in the stories above, evi- 
dently something is wrong. Gas should be shut off at 
the meters daily when not in use, the burner stops being 
closed before this is done. A thorough airing of the 
various rooms should always take place after using, and of 
the entire building at night. Care should be taken that 
no signs, scuttles, or other fixtures work loose, or be left 
unfastened. Any weakness of the building, resulting from 
a crowded hall or a g^^mnasium, should be noted and 
guarded against. Open windows, which are too often the 
only means of ventilation, should be closed when any 
room is likely to be unwatched for some time, to provide 
against damage from fire or storm. 

SECTio:sr c. 


1. — The old sayings, '' Order is heaven's first law," and 
** Cleanliness is next to godliness," are true as they are 
trite. The plainest rooms if neat and orderly will have 
a certain cheeriness, while dust and disorder will mar the 
attractiveness of the most luxurious home. 

2. — The supervising committee, the secretary, and the 
janitor will share this responsibility. The janitor is to do 
the detail work, the secretary is to see that it is done 
properly, at least certain parts of it, while the committee 
is back of and responsible for all. Much will depend 
upon the industry and tact of the janitor. An Associa- 
tion should get the right man, and then keep him, at any 
reasonable cost. A good janitor will arrange specific 
duties, so far as may be, for each hour in the day, not in- 
terfering with the ordinary use of the rooms, with provi- 

180 CARE OF THE HOME. Chap. 15, C, 2. 

sion for special or occasional Avork. Often the secretary, 
who usually has the direct oversight of this employe, will 
make out a daily or weekly schedule or set of rules. This 
will be particularly helpful to a new or inexperienced man. 
An efficient janitor will want good tools in order to work 
to advantage, and he will keep them in good condition 
and in their proper place — which will not be the public 
lobbies or passage ways. 

With proper management the approaches to the build- 
ing will be kept in good order, and the windows by day 
and the lamps by night will give no dim or uncertain light. 
While the faithful employe will understand that the rooms 
of the Association are designed not for exhibition but for 
actual and constant use, he will be the sworn enemy of 
every description of dirt and disorder, and will never 
grow weary — at least in spirit. There may be times when, 
from insufficient help or press of special work, things in 
this department get a little behind, and the building may 
not be as ^presentable as could be wished, but there seems 
to be no excuse for the very untidy condition in which 
some Association homes may frequently, if not generally, 
be found. 

Additional hints regarding Association housekeeping 
may be found in chapter 10, B, 4. 




1. — The Association must deserve a building. There 
must be a strong organization, able and experienced offi- 
cers in whom the community has confidence, and com- 
mittees that do their work. The financial management 
must be such that the people will not be afraid to enlarge 
the trust. The work must be *' all-sided/' and measure 
up to the full capacity of the society and the means at its 

2. — There must be desire. ISTot only the officers but 
the members generally must so appreciate the need of a 
building as to loaoit it. As this feeling grows in the 
hearts of Christian men, it will lead naturally to another 
step : 

3. — Prayer. Whatever Christians need, tliey have the 
right to pray for. And what can be more reasonable than 
to ask for the very best facilities with which to do the 
Master's work ? Prayer is one of the first and essential 
foundations of every such building. 

4. — The members of the Association must believe in the 
building, exercising that faith which is '* evidence" and 
"substance." The building must be such a real thing in 

* " How to secure a College Association building," Int, pph. No. 303. gives many 
luterestiug details, and should be read iu connection with this chapter, 

182 now TO GET A BUILDING. Chap. 16, A, 5. 

their hearts and minds, that their enthusiasm shall inspire 
all with whom they come in contact. 

6. — Instruction. The public, probably the membership, 
requires information on the subject. It may even be 
necessary to educate the directors themselves up to the 
point of realizing the need and possibility of a permanent 
Association home. Printed matter can be used to advan- 
tage. * The attendance of influential members at conven- 
tions will be very hel]3ful, especially if these are held at 
places having Association buildings. Members visiting 
such places should be supplied with letters of introduction 
to the secretaries located there, with an urgent request 
that they carefully inspect the buildings. Pictures of 
such buildings should be placed in the rooms. An album 
may be easily filled with cuts taken from the Year Books 
and other Association j)ublications. The International 
Committee and several State Committees have stereopticon 
views of many buildings, which they loan to Associations 
with little or no charge. These aid in making a talk 
on the subject instructive and entertaining. A public 
sentiment can be created by a free use of the pen. 
The press is generally ready to aid in this. Short and 
frequent articles are best, and the constantly recurring 
items regarding dedications, the laying of corner-stones, 
and generous gifts can be collated and inserted in the 
papers in such manner as to attract attention. The various 
gatherings of the Association can be used to disseminate 
further information with regard to this important feature 
and its marvelous growth. 

6. — When an Association has taken the foregoing steps, 
it is ready for the next, that of practical agitation. Both 
the need and practicability of the movement must be 
demonstrated. Generally the board of directors will first 
consider these questions, and resolve on a certain line of 
action. This will afterwards be considered in meetings of 

* International Pamphlets Nos. 9, 558, 570, 579, 580, 597 and 603 will be especially 

Chap. 16, A, 8. HOW to get a BUiLDiNa. 183 

the Association, and later in still more public gatherings. 
The pastors will be consulted, for their co-operation is 
essential. Leading business men, expected to be in 
sympathy with the movement, are also to be advised with 
early ; this is both courteous and politic. The press will 
be found still more willing to assist, as it assumes the 
shape of a definite local enterprise. 

7. — A building fund may be started, sometimes years 
in advance, and serve not only as an educator, but as a 
sort of wedge, ready for the strong blow which shall 
finally accomplish the full purpose. Such a fund may be 
founded by a bequest, or by the proceeds of some enter- 
tainment given or set aside for such purpose. A nucleus 
once formed invites further gifts and ajDpropriations. 
Persons will often make a donation or bequest to such a 
fund who would never give, nor be expected to give, any 
considerable amount for current expenses. 

8. — The preparatory step to be noted, and a most 
important one, is the purchase of a building lot. Such 
action on the part of an Association indicates a purpose to 
become a permanent resident, and secures for it a new 
standing among business men. In most cities and towns 
eligible sites are not always available, and land is con- 
stantly advancing in price. In new towns, especially, the 
cash value of a lot often increases one hundred, or perhaps 
five hundred, per cent, in a few years. Associations are 
thus obliged to pay thousands of dollars for land that 
might a little while before have been bought for a few 
hundreds. With present knowledge and experience, no 
Association should neglect the first favorable opportunity 
to secure for itself an eligible and roomy building site. 
That must be a dull town in which the venture Avill not pay 
simply as an investment, and if, when the society is ready 
to build, the location prove undesirable, an exchange can 
be aifected, often to the financial advantage of the Asso- 


184 JSOW TO GET A BUILDING. Chap. 16, B, 1. 



1. — The board of directors may appoint a committee 
composed of prominent business men, who can be heartily 
interested in the project, to supervise the canvass and to 
secure large initial subscriptions. Sometimes gentlemen 
who are not members of the Association will render 
valuable service on this committee. A few large sub- 
scriptions are almost indispensable. One subscription of 
one-tenth of the whole amount needed, made at the start, 
would almost insure success. 

2. — Secure a complete list of persons who can contribute 
large amounts, to be thoughtfully assigned among the 
members of the above committee, each member becoming 
responsible for those whom he can most readily approach. 
This can generally be best done in a full meeting of the 
committee. The city directory, the names of pew holders 
in churches, of contributors to benevolent enterj)rises, etc., 
may be consulted in the preparation of the list. 

3. — Soon after the above committee has made a fair 
beginning, organize an auxiliary committee of young men 
and active business men for a general canvass. 

4. — Each canvasser needs a pocket subscription book, 
with sei3arate pages for different amounts, or, what is 
better, a package of pledge cards. (See appendix, sample 
No. 10.) When using the latter he will show only such 
cards as are expected to stimulate liberal gifts. But 
when an expected contributor looks over the entire list in 
a book, there is danger of his putting himself among those 
who give small sums, without reference to his financial 
ability. A subscriber should fill out duplicate cards, re- 
taining one as a memorandum of the obligation. Each 
canvasser should report new subscriptions promptly to 
some designated person, who should furnish in return daily 

* Int. pph. No, 586 corresponds closely to this section. 

chap. 16, B, 8. HOW to get A BUILDING-. 18S 

reports of all such subscriptions to each canvasser. If any 
givers prefer to be anonymous, their wishes should be 
respected and their gifts announced as from "A friend,'' 
"Cash," etc. Some further suggestions regarding solicita- 
tion are given in chapter 18, 3. 

5. — Organize a committee of young men within the 
Association, to canvass the membership and young men of 
the city. Where the enterprise has taken any deep hold, 
they will be ready to make sacrifices in the interest of the 
building, and their gifts will surprise and often shame the 
older men. 

6. — Rely upon these solicitors, rather than upon outside 
help. The International and State Secretaries, who are 
often called ujpon for aid in such matters, are busy men, 
having time for extreme cases only. Men of the locality 
make the best solictors, if they throw their energy and 
tact into the undertaking, and such labor on their part will 
lead them to take an interest, for years to come, in the 
work done at the building. 

7. — Arrange the terms of subscription judiciously. 
Sometimes these make each subscription absolute and 
unconditional. In general, however, people prefer to give 
somewhat in proportion to the sum to be raised, and often 
the necessity of reaching a given amount before the sub- 
scription becomes binding will be an incentive to both the 
giver and the solicitor. If such an amount is specified, it 
should not be too small a proportion of Avhat will be finally 
required. Neither ought it to be so large as to endanger 
failure, or to needlessly embarrass the building committee 
in beginning operations, for it is not always best to wait 
until the entire amount is raised before starting the build- 
ing. If a lot is bought and the building begun, giving 
may be stimulated. 

8. — Do not extend the payments of the subscriptions 
over too long a period. Building operations cannot go on 
steadily without money, and this, if not due from sub- 
scriptions, must be borrowed on interest. Subscriptions 

186 HOW TO GET A BUlLDlJs^G. Chap. 16, B, 9. 

may be made payable within a year, and it is desirable 
that they should not run much beyond the intended 
completion of the building. The payments are sometimes 
made as follows: the first when ground is broken, the 
second when the building is inclosed, and the third when 
it is finished. And yet some givers can and will contribute 
much more largely if the payments extend over a longer 
period, and the plan should be sufficiently elastic to meet 
their circumstances. 

9. — Get a leading citizen to invite men of means, in his 
own name, to attend a reception at his house, where the 
uses, value, and need of an Association building will be 
presented by competent speakers from the city itself or 
from abroad. Generally the invitation should mention 
that there will be no solicitation of funds during the 
evening. (See Chap. 20, C.) 

10. — Send a letter showing the needs of the organization 
and the advantages of a building to persons who can make 
large subscriptions, a day or two before calling on them. 

11. — Secure from interested pastors pulpit indorsement 
in sermons or in brief expressions of commendation, and 
remembrance in church prayer meetings. 

12. — Make constant systematic use of the press in 
arousing public sentiment by *' locals," letters, and edi- 
torial utterances. Descriptions (with pictures) of Associa- 
tion buildings, or of the progress of building movements, 
are effective. 

13. — Distribute freely and judiciously printed matter 
regarding Association work, wbich can be obtained from 
the International Committee. (See foot note, sect. A, 5. ) 

14. — Place pictures and plans of the proposed building 
in store windows and other conspicuous places. (Photo- 
graph from the architect's designs. ) 

15. — Appoint sub-committees of the auxiliary committee 
to solicit among their associates in stores, offices, mills, 
and other places where considerable numbers of young men 
are employed. 

Chap. 16, B, 22. how To get a building. 187 

16. — After a substantial beginning of the canvass it 
may be well to secure organized help from the ladies in 
canvassing for a '* mothers', wives', and sisters' fund." 

17. — Put subscrijDtion papers, with printed headings, in 
newspaper offices, stores, and other public places, at a 
stage of the canvass when the larger gifts are not likely 
to be reduced by so doing. 

18. — Hold joint meetings of all the committees at private 
houses, at intervals of from three to seven days, to report 
results of the canvass, to plan for further work, and to 
promote enthusiasm regarding it. It will often be helj^f ul 
to invite all persons interested to attend these conferences. 
This can be done through pulpit or newspaper notices, and 
through invitations sent by mail. 

19. — Publish new subscriptions in the daily papers the 
day following each conference. 

20. — One man should bear to the movement the rela- 
tion which a general secretary bears to the entire work of 
an Association, seeing that details are promptly carried 
out and that everyone who engages in the work dis- 
charges his share of it thoroughly. Unless some quali- 
fied member of the Association can take this responsible 
position as a volunteer, it should be occupied by the 
general secretary or by a person temporarily employed for 
this purpose. 

21. — A heavy debt should not be left on the building. 
Of course every effort should be made to dedicate it 
free from debt, but this cannot always be done. If there 
is to be an income from the building sufficient to care for all 
real estate expenses, including interest on mortgage, there 
ought to be no serious danger, yet even in such case the 
debt should rarely exceed one-fourth of the entire cost. 

22. — When a debt is unavoidable, a sinking fund should 
be provided for its gradual extinction, no matter on how 
small a scale. The satisfaction of knowing that the 
burden is lessening, even if slowly, lubricates the whole 
working machinery. 

188 HOW TO GET A BUILDING. Cliap. 16, B, S3. 

23. — But a mere formal following of this plan will 
avail little. Everything depends upon the tact, energy, 
Christian enthusiasm, faith, and prayer with which the 
plan is worked and adjusted to local requirements 

24. — A letter like the folowing has been used success- 
fully by the committee on initial subscriptions: — 

Dear Sir: At a conference of gentlemen held in tliis city a short 
time since, after a full discussion of the social and moral condition 
of the young men in our city and of their needs, it was unani- 
mously resolved, " that the time has arrived for erecting a building 
in tliis city for the Young Men's Christian Association, to cost not 

less than dollars." The undersigned, who were present, were 

appointed a committee to secure the initial subscriptions towards 
the object. 

This committee desires in this connection to submit to you the 
following facts: — 

The Association is carrying on its work in rented rooms, which 
have become wholly inadequate for its growing needs. Here it 

has presented counter attractions to the liquor shops and 

other places of vicious resort in the city. By its library and read- 
ing room ; its parlor ; its gymnasium for exercise and health ; its 
educational night classes, for the practical benefit of the clerk and 
the mechanic ; its concerts and socials ; its lectures, medical, 
literary, and educational ; its employment bureau ; its register of 
desirable boarding houses; its arrangements for the care of the sick; 
all carried on by organized volunteer committees of young men, 
and under Christian influence, this Association has demonstrated 
its right to be placed among the permanent institutions of 
the city. 

This great work for tlie young men of this city can no 

longer be accommodated in any rented apartments. The depart- 
ments of work conflict with each other in the hmited room 
now available, and a building must be had or the work will 

In other American cities, North, South, East, and West, there 

are such buildings, erected for the purpose by Christian 

philanthropy and business sagacity, at a cost of million 

dollars, which have been pronounced by the best social economists 
and business men invaluable in their moral and educational effects. 
The smaller cities and towns have fully kept pace with the larger 

ones in this matter. of these ranging in population from 800 

to 30,000, have buildings valued at § . Among them are 

Chap. 16, B, 24. HOW TO get A building. 189 

Merrimac, Mass. (population 2,600), with a building valued at 
.$10,000 ; Mauch Chunk, Pa. (population 7,000), building $22,500 ; 
Bristol, Tenn. (population 8,000), building $14,700 ; Staunton, Va. 
(population 10,000), building $35,000 ; Selma, Ala. (population 
12,000), building $30,000 ; Charlotte, N. C. (population 13,000), 
building $30,000 ; and New Britain, Conn, (population 19,000), 
building $54,000. This building movement is now spreading more 

rapidly than ever before. Some buildings are now in course 

of construction. Among these are the following: — 

The permanent usefulness of this investment of capital is guaran- 
teed to the subscribers by the fact that the property will be held in 
perpetual trust by the following board of well-known citizens: — 

The building will be fully equipped to carry on the varied work 
already described. 

After a careful study of other buildings recently erected for the 
same purpose, an effort will be made to embody their good points 
in this one. 

While the members will enjoy special privileges and advantages 
at a moderate fee, the building will be opened with a genuine 
hospitality to all young men. 

One gentleman in this city, w^ho has its welfare at heart, has 
given — - dollars toward this object. In order to raise so large a 
sum as is proposed, we venture to express the hope that subscrip- 
tions of like amount may be received from those who have im- 
portant vested interests in this city, and who bear that responsibil- 
ity toward the community which wealth brings. 

Such contributions will, we are sure, open the way for a multi- 
tude of smaller gifts wliich will readily swell the total to the sum 

The payment of subscriptions may be made to extend over a 
period of two years. Subscriptions will become binding when 
$ have been pledged. 

Knowing your interest in all that concerns the progress of our 

city, we submit these facts for your thoughtful and intelligent 

consideration. Some representative of the committee will soon 

call upon you, and we trust that we may receive your liberal aid. 

(Signed by the members of the committee.) 

In another city a letter similar to the above was accompanied by 
the following, signed by all the Protestant pastors: — 

" We heartily sympathize with the efforts of the Young Men's 
Clu'istian Association to secure a building specially adapted to its 
requirements, believing that the efficiency of its work in behalf of 
young men would be greatly increased thereby." 

190 HOW TO GET A BUILDING. Chap. 16, C, 1. 



In beginning a building enterprise an Association 
enters untried ground and encounters many and new 
difficulties. A few practical suggestions gathered from 
the experience of those who have passed through the 
ordeal are placed as cautionary signals for those that are 
to follow. 

1. — Do not neglect the regular work. There is danger 
that the new enterprise so absorb the thought and atten- 
tion of the workers that the all-imj^ortant routine of 
Association work, which has been built wp with so much 
effort, suffer through neglect. The expected impetus from 
the new building will doubtless come, but it will not 
comj^ensate for losses caused by carelessness. ''Do not 
rob the structure itself to get material for the scaffolding." 

2. — Look out for current exjDcnses. This caution is akin 
to the preceding one, but touches the business side. 
Neglect right here has often been all but fatal; the organ- 
ization Avith its new facilities and eager anticipations find- 
ing itself burdened with current debt, and without means 
to take full advantage of its splendid opportunities. The 
regular finances of the Association should be kept well up, 
even if the walls of the new home rise more slowly to 

o. — Do not allow the idea to prevail that the building, 
even if unencumbered, Avill render the Association finan- 
cially indej^endent. People have strange notions about 
Association finances, and sometimes seem to expect that 
the income from two or three rented stores in the new 
building will suffice for current support. The possession 
of a building brings with it many new items of expense to 
offset the single saving in the matter of rent. Supervision, 
repairs, taxes, and insurance often absorb the income from 
such portion of the building as can be spared for rental^ 

Chap. 16. C, 4. HOW to get a building. 191 

while that derived from the influx of new members is 
always less, at the necessarily low fees, than the expense 
of the advantages offered them. 

But aside from this it is doubtful if a full endowment 
would be best. There is a peculiar and vital connection 
between the heart and the pocket, and often a man 
maintains an interest in that for which he contributes, 
while if he were not obliged to give he would soon forget 
it. The time may never come when people will not be 
asked to give towards the support of this institution ; and 
while the possession of a building may include among its 
many advantages that of a partial endowment, lessen- 
ing the amount to be secured by voluntary gifts, the 
people should understand definitely that their financial 
obligations towards the Association are not to cease with 
the payment of a building subscription. 

4. — Provide for the safe holding of the property. Select 
a strong board of trustees, men in whose integrity and 
business competency the community Avill have perfect 
confidence. Have all matters of title and conveyance 
attended to by men of thorough legal ability, so that the 
the charter rights of the Association and the status of its 
board of trustees may be assured. 



The building known as Farwell Hall was dedicated by 
the Chicago Association, September 29, 1867. It was 
named in honor of John V. Farwell, a leading dry goods 
merchant of that city, who gave in money and land 
towards the enterprise the sum of $60,000. This building 
was destroyed by fire, January 7, 1868 ; and a second 
building erected on the same spot was burned in the great 
Chicago fire, October 9, 1871. A third building was 
dedicated November 26, 1874. The cost of the first 
property was $190,000. 

The year following the erection of the first Chicago 
building, the Philadelj^hia Association purchased a build- 
ing for $35,000, and occupied it till the centennial year, 
1876, when it was superseded by the fine structure on 
Chestnut and Fifteenth streets, costing half a million. 

In 1869 the 1^3'ew York Association erected its Twenty- 

* This Bketch relates only to the buildings now owned and occupied for Associa- 
tion purposes, together with buildings which have preceded thom in the same 
Associations. A comparison of tlie lists of buildings in recent Year Books with 
earlier ones shows the disappearance of a number of nsmes. It is probable that in 
many cases these were not properly Association buildings, or that the ownership 
was merely nominal. In some instances the building was owned by a joint stock 
company, the Association itself having but a limited money interest in the concern, 
and soon losing that, together with the occupancy of the building. Thus page 
xxxix of the Year Book for 1873 contains a list of 38 buildings. But in these early 
lists all buildings owned by Associations were included, whether used for distinctiv- 
ely Association pui-poses or not. This is not now done. After deducting from the 
list for 1873 8 chapels and 14 of such uncertain tenure that they soon disapi^eared 
from the reports, but 6 of the number ever recovering either a name or a building, 
it is reduced from 38 to 16. The building tables in the Year Books give many 
interesting facts on this subject, especially the chronological table ou page 96 of the 
Year Book for 1890. - - 


third street building at a cost of $487,000, San Francisco 
built at an expense of $76,000, and New Utrecht, a New 
York village of but 750 population, purchased a building 
for its Association costing $3,000. 

After the interval of a year, the only such in the history 
of the movement, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1871, purchased a 
building for $22,000, and after occupying it for ten years 
purchased another for $60,000. Ten years later the Asso- 
ciation entered its third building, costing $230,000. Three 
other Associations also came into possession of permanent 
homes in 1871, Indianapolis purchasing for $28,500, New 
Brunswick, N. J., for $10,000, and Aurora, 111., building 
at a cost of $10,000. Indianapolis has lately rebuilt, its 
present property being valued at $96,000, andNewBruns- 
wich has greatly enlarged its building. 

Poughkeepsie, N. Y., in 1872, bought and fitted up a 
property at an expense of about $46,000, and Charlotte- 
town, P. E. L, had the honor of erecting the first build- 
ing on Britivsh American territory, at an expense of 

The year 1873 added five more to the list, Boston 
purchasing for $126,000, and Germantown, Pa., for $49,- 
000; while Toronto, Montreal, and St. John, N. B., erected 
buildings at a cost respectively of $48,000, $67,000 and 
$42,000. The Boston Association removed, in 1883, to its 
new building on the Back Bay, erected at a cost of $300,- 
000. Toronto in 1887 dedicated a new building costing 
$90,000. Montreal entered a new building in 1891. 

Cincinnati, Ohio, and two Nova Scotia Associations, 
Halifax and Truro, followed in 1874. The two latter 
built at a respective cost of $36,000 and $13,000, and the 
former purchased for $40,000. Cincinnati entered anew 
building in 1891. 

In 1875 Port Hope and Brantford, both Canadian 
Associations, erected buildings, the first costing $6,500, 
the second $23,000, and the Dayton, Ohio, Association 
purchased and fitted for its use a property at an expense 


of 125,000. Dayton completed in 1887 a new building 
valued at $80,000. 

One building only was added to the list in 1876, which 
was erected at Nahant, a small seaside town of Massa- 
chusetts, at an expense of $1,400. 

This record of the first decade of the building era has 
been given somewhat in detail, in order to show the be- 
ginning and early growth of this important feature of the 
Association movement on this continent. It would be of 
additional interest could the fuller history of some of these 
buildings be traced from the germ thought in the mind of 
some earnest, far-seeing worker, through the incipient 
stages of planning and agitation, to the active operation 
and completion of the scheme. What earnest desire and 
faithful prayer, what purpose a,nd labor and sacrifice, 
rest under the corner-stone and enter as really into 
the structure of many a building as do the stone and 
brick and timber ! But such records were kept by unseen 

Since 1876 the following buildings have been erected or 
purchased. The figures given in a second line under some 
of the years indicate the value of additions made in those 
years to buildings previously erected, together with the 
excess of value of later buildings over those jireceding 
them in the same Associations. These figures should 
\ e added to those in the line above to get the complete 
figures for any year. 

Chap. 17. 






Estimated Value in 
























































181,800 , 





















To June 



The list for 1878 includes the first Railroad Association 
building, erected at "West Detroit. In 1879 the first 
College Association building was erected at Princeton, 
through the bequest of Hamilton Murray, of New York, 
a recent graduate, who was lost on the '^ Ville-du-Havi'e." 
In 1884 the New York City Association purchased for its 
German branch the first building occupied by this depart- 
ment. The Colored Association at Richmond, Va., took 
possession of a building in 1889. 

Several instances have occurred, and they are happily 
becoming more frequent of late, in which a building has 
been erected or bequeathed by a single individual. The 
Princeton building was the first. The following year Dr. 

196 THE BUILDII^a MOVEMENT. Chap. 17. 

Henry Foster, of Clifton Springs, N. Y. , a village of but 
1,500 population, erected for the Association of that j^lace 
a building costing 112,000. 

In 1882 John Sherman, of Watertown, N. Y., bequeathed 
to the Association there the building in which its rooms 
were located, estimated at $40,000. 

In 1884-5 Prof. Henry Fairbanks, of St. Johnsbury, 
Vt., donated to the Association there property valued at 

The building of the Brooklyn Association, erected in 
1885 at a cost of $250,000, was given by the residuary 
legatees of Frederick Marquand. 

Ira D. Sankey, in 1886, erected and equipped, at an 
expense of $33,500, an Association building for his native 
town, New Castle, Pa. 

The building of the Association at Yale University, 
costing with its furniture $60,000, was given by Mr. and 
Mrs. Elbert B. Monroe, of New York City, in the name 
Frederick Marquand. 

At Albany, N. Y. (the gift being conditioned on the 
furnishing of a lot by the citizens), J. B. Jermain erected 
a building at an expense of $75,000, which was dedicated 
in the fall of 1887. In the same year Cornelius Vander- 
bilt completed, at an expense of $183,000, a building 
which, although not held as the property of the New 
York City Association, is devoted to the use of its railroad 

In 1889 a building, costing $25,000, was jn-esented to 
the Association at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., by 
H. B. Silliman, of Cohoes, N. Y. 

In the same year *' Barnes Hall" Avas dedicated at 
Cornell University. The late A. S. Barnes, of Brooklyn, 
gave $45, 000 of the amount needed to erect the building. 
His gift was influenced by the self-sacrificing example of 
the students, who contributed in a few months nearly 

Early in 1890 Eugene Levering, of Baltimore, presented 


a building, costing $20, 000, to the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity Association. 

Mrs. George H. Corliss, of Providence, in 1891, gave a 
building valued at $38,000 to the Newburyport, Mass., 
Association, as a memorial of her husband. 

A building is in the course of erection at Glens Falls, 
iST. Y., through the gift of $50,000 from Jones Ordway, of 
that place. 

According to the Year Book for 1891 buildings were 
owned by 231 Associations, with an estimated value of 
$9,946,085. Deducting the indebtedness which is not 
provided for, amounting to $1,488,5T0, there remained as 
the net value of building property in the hands of 
the American Associations in 1891 the sum of $8,457,515; 
while other real estate, consisting of building lots, chapels, 
etc., was held by them to the value of $2,180,025. At 
the same date they had building funds amounting to 

* Further details regarding College Association buildings are given in Int. pph. 
No. 302 





1. — The Annual Budget. — Either before or immediately 
after the annual meeting the finance committee should 
prepare as accurate an estimate as possible of the receipts 
and expenditures for the coming year. The trustees fore- 
cast the net income from the building or from any funds 
in their charge, and the proper committees estimate the 
receipts from membership fees and other sources; each de- 
partment expending money states the sum needed by itf 
and after careful examination and revision a budget is 
agreed upon, showing the necessary expenses, the reliable 
income, and any additional amount to be raised. A 
new organization may be guided by the estimates of an 
Association doing a work similar to that proposed. The 
appropriation for each fund or purpose should be stated 
definitely and in sufficient detail, and it should be under- 
stood that expenditures must be kept within the prescribed 
limits. Additional expenditure during the year should 
only be made after the decision of the board that enlarge- 
ment of the work is called for and that money for it can 

Chap. 18, A, 2. CURRENT FINANCES. 190 

be secured. Any necessary curtailment sliould be made at 
the beginning of the year. A healthy work, however, 
will call rather for an increased amount from year to 
year. A deficit arising from extraordinary outlays or 
shrinkage of income should invariably be made up, so that 
each year may close with the balance on the right side of 
the ledger. 

Two sample forms of budget are given in the appendix^ 
one for an Association of two thousand members, doing an 
extensive work in its own building; the other for an Asso- 
ciation of five hundred members, occupying rented rooms. 
These are based on a comparison of the financial reports 
of several Associations working on these lines. (See ap- 
pendix, samples Nos. 11 and 12.) 

2. — Income. — a. Interest on endowment funds, includ- 
ing the net income from the Association building. 

h. Membership fees ought always to be an important 
source of revenue. They will, of course, vary with the 
number and expensiveness of the privileges offered. With 
the increase of costly buildings and multiplied facilities, 
there may be a tendency to enlarge the fees, with a possi- 
bility of excluding some young men who most need the 
advantages provided. But the Association cannot wisely 
be made a self supporting club. Let there be such a 
variety and grading of privilege-bearing tickets as will ac- 
commodate all reasonable demands. The fees in the 
average city Association are two dollars for limited and 
five dollars for full membership. 

G. Annual subscriptions must generally be depended 
upon for a considerable portion, perhaps the largest 
portion, of the current income. There are many in every 
community that will become neither members nor pledged 
contributors, but that will give occasionally, or perhaps 
every year, if asked ; and there are usually members that 
can give largely in excess of the regular membership fee. 
It is also very desirable that the young men belonging to 
the Association be trained in the matter of voluntary and 

200 CURRENT FINANCES. Chap. 18, A, 2. 

systematic giving to its support, even if it must be in 
small sums. 

d. Contributors are sometimes willing to make subscrip- 
tions for a specified number of years or until revoked. 
These are denominated running subscriptions^ and include 
the so-called " sustaining memberships." * (See pledge 
cards, appendix, sample No. 13.) There should be sys- 
tematic effort to keep such subscribers well informed re- 
garding the work. An annual visit is better than to de- 
pend altogether upon printed matter, 

e. Festivals, fairs, and various entertainments, which 
are sometimes resorted to, are both uncertain and generally 
undesirable in connection with current finances. Their 
too frequent recurrence tends to demoralize, and to absorb 
the interest that is needed in the other departments of the 
work. There should be more giving from principle ; and 
it will certainly lower the tone of an institution to get 
its money through simply amusing people. Entertain- 

* The phrase " sustaining membership " originated in 1876, and was then 
applied to an agreement on the part of a number of persons that each one would 
contribute a stated amount (usually ten dollars a year) until the pledge was 
formally cancelled, the donors being generally entitled to specified privileges in 
the Association. It was also an essential part of the pledge that it Avas not binding 
until a specified sum was promised, which was expected, in addition to other 
sources of income, to fully defray the current expenses of the Association. 
Each subscriber was thus assured both that the Association would be fully sus- 
tained, and that he would not be called on for further contributions. It was ex- 
pected that liberal friendsof the work would subscribe for several memberships, 
sometimes with the privilege of dividing them among as many young men. Among 
the advantages claimed for the system was this, that the time and labor formerly 
given to soliciting funds year by year might be turned into other channels after the 
sustaining membership was once full. 

But in practical use it was found (a) that many persons of means took a single 
membership, instead of making a subscription amounting to five or ten times as 
much. The feature proposed in the plan of having such persons take several 
memberships was very apt to be overlooked, both by those soliciting and those 
solicited. (&) That the written notice that the fee was due for the second or third 
year did not take the place of the personal call for an annual subscription by a well 
informed solicitor. In other words, that the work and growth of the Association 
needed to be brought every year in some live v/ay before the consciousness of every 
supporter, (c) That from the absence of this vital link, many sustaining members 
dropped out, and that the work of supplying their places was very irksome and apt 
to be neglected, (d) That the distribution of memberships among young men was 
Tindesirable. It has been tried in other conuectiona besides the sustaining mem- 
bership, generally with unsatisfactory results. 

As result of these diflSiculties, it is doubtful whether the system, in its entirety, 
is now anywhere in use. The term, " sustaining membership," is used in a 
number of Associations, but with a variety of practical meanings. A person whose 
first and only relation to the Association is that of a contributor should not be 
included in the membership, and there will probably always be some contributors 
■who will prefer not to be so reckoned. Membership should be secured only by the 
regular process, with whatever it may include in the way of filling out a member' 
ship blank, and election or admission. 

Chap. 18, A, 3, cuaREXT finances. 201 

merits of a high order are sometimes conducted under 
Association auspices, such as art or industrial exhibitions, 
that are very helpful in both educational and social lines, 
and without any objectionable features. But even these 
should not occur too often, and their proceeds had better 
be devoted to some special object outside of current ex- 

f. Sometimes a public meeting is made the occasion for 
raising money. Success usually depends upon thorough 
preparation, including the securing in advance of some 
large pledges. While good results may be obtained now 
and then, this method is always unreliable as a permanent 
resource, and even its occasional use is unsatisfactory. 

3. — Solicitation. — a. The finance committee of the 
board, often composed of the older and more substantial 
business men, may associate with itself, for the special 
purpose of soliciting funds, some of the younger members 
of the Association. The officers and directors should all 
be willinof to aid in this work as needed. Their activitv 
will stimulate other workers, and carry weight with lead- 
inor members of the communitv, whose contributions can 
best be secured by men of their own standing. All the 
solicitors should be loyal to, and well informed about, the 
work; able to answer reasonable questions concerning it; 
and contributors, each according to his ability, to its sup- 
port. Brief, pointed statements regarding the work can 
often be used effectively in solicitation. Where the work 
lias had a healthy growth, comparative figures covering sev- 
eral years will be very useful. Figures showing the 
receipts and expenditures of Associations in cities of the 
same size or smaller may also be used with good results, 
especially in communities where public sentiment regard- 
ing Association matters needs to be educated. 

h. In order to create general interest and helpfulness 
the work must be kept before the public. Details regard- 
ing this matter are given in chapter 20. 

c. The canvass should be organized early in the year 

20^ CCRRENT FINANCES. Chap. 18, A, 3. 

and completed as soon as practicable. This will be more 
successfully and easily done by pushing it thoroughly for 
one month than by letting it drag on to the end of the 

d. An excellent plan, and one much in use, is for 
the soliciting committee to prepare a list of persons who 
have given or are likely to give to the work, and then for 
each member to select the names of those whom it is be- 
lieved he can best influence, and with the expectation of 
securing a definite sum. A concise statement of the work 
of the Association, its financial condition, and needs, sent 
out in advance of the canvass, will contribute to its suc- 

6. It is often an advantage for two solicitors to go 
together. A solicitor should never beg. He should state 
his errand in a manly, straightforward way. 

/. Pledge cards have many advantages over subscrip- 
tion books. When one sees a list of names, he may be 
led to pattern after those who give least, without con- 
sidering the question of ability ; while the solicitor may 
carry with him only such subscriptions on cards as he 
thinks it will be advantageous to show. Such cards are 
also conveniently arranged for filing, both alphabetically 
and by years. The subscriber should always fill out 
duplicates, retaining one as a memorandum of the 

g. The canvass list should be comprehensive and every 
person on it should be seen. A frequent and serious mis- 
take is that many who might give are never asked to do so, 
and the burden rests upon the few. Again, numerous 
small subscriptions are valuable as a manifestation of in- 
terest on the part of many people, and are also more apt to 
be kept up than a few larger pledges. 

h. Pledges made should be promptly reported to the 
office. Careful records should be kept both of new sub- 
scriptions and of calls made without results, with the 
reasons given for not contributing. The original lists, with 

Chap. 18, A, 3. CURRENT FINANCES. 203 

these and other helpful memoranda, should be filed for 
future consultation. 

i. Subscription books, showing all pledges to date, 
may be mailed to persons whom it is impracticable to see 
personally, or from whom small amounts are expected, as 
a gleaning of the field. Written letters accompanying the 
books will be far more effective than printed appeals. 
The use of their business letter heads by solicitors will 
sometimes be advantageous. 

j. Other members of the Association who are not on 
the committee sliould take an interest in this work, striv- 
ing to influence those with whom they are thrown in in- 
timate contact, and giving helpful suggestions concerning 
them to the soliciting committee. 

k. There is nothing to prevent any member from secur- 
ing applications for membership, though in this work the 
desire to increase the income should never be the leading 
motive. It may often be best to suggest the limited 
ticket to the average young man, leaving it optional with 
him to select a more expensive one. In general, this fee is 
so nearly nominal that there need be no false modesty in 
asking any one to become a member. 

l. The suggestions given regarding a canvass for 
memberships and for a building, in chapter 9, C, 5 and in 
chapter 16, B, should be read in connection with this 
chapter. The "plan of canvass for a building" is some- 
times followed with excellent effect in raising money for 
current expenses. 

m. In connection with all this work there will be need 
of tact, courtesy, cheerfulness, persistency, and, above all, 
prayer and faith in God. 

204 CURRENT FINANCES. Chap. 18, B, 1, 



1. — If collections can largely be made at the office, there 
will be a saving of labor and of liability to errors. Col- 
lections outside the office should be made by a regular and 
known agent or responsible member of the Association, a 
boy never being employed except as a messenger carrying 
a sealed envelope. The agent should be able to answer 
all ordinary questions concerning the work. 

Any matter of doubt in collecting should be at once 
referred back to the office. A book should also be kept in 
which to note any excuses for non-payment, promises to pay 
at some future time, reasons for discontinuance of member- 
ship or subscription, and any criticism or suggestion regard- 
ing the work. Such information will be helpful in many waj^s. 

2. — A sealed notice by mail a few days in advance of 
intended collection of subscription is sometimes desirable. 
Many collections can be made by mail, business men often 
preferring to pay thus. Subscriptions are sometimes col- 
lected by the persons soliciting them, either at the time or 

3. — There should be stated times for the payment of all 
fees and subscriptions. All subscription books and cards 
should provide for the subscriber's stating the time of pay- 
ment, if this is not already fixed. All memhership fees 
should be payable ^;^ advance^ from ten to thirty days 
grace being sometimes given old members. The member- 
ship books should be examined monthl}^, and a notice sent 
each member at least two weeks prior to the day on 
which his fee is payable. (See appendix, sample No. 6.) 
If payment is not made voluntarily or in response to 
notice, the parties should be seen personally. This work 
may properly be undertaken by the membership committee. 
It is more important to retain a member than to secure a 
new one. (See Chap. 9, E, 4.) 

Chap. 18, B, 8. CURRENT FINANCSS. 205 

4. — When a member or subscriber has an account against 
the Association which he presents as an offset, the settle- 
ment of this account and the payment of his fee or subscrip- 
tion should appear on the books as distinct transactions. 

5. — Collections are usually authorized and supervised by 
the finance committee, no matter by whom the detail work is 
done. All money raised and expended should pass through 
the hands of the treasurer; * payments being made to him 
directly or through some salaried officer of the Association. 
He may often require assistance from such an officer. 

6. — The credit system should be avoided. A strictly 
cash plan may seem inconvenient and, at times, perplexing, 
but with prompt collections it should be possible. A 
monthly settlement of current accounts is, of course, 
consistent with the cash plan. If credits are allowed, pass 
books should be used. 

7. — The constitution almost invariably provides that 
money be paid out of the treasury only for bills that have 
been audited by the finance committee, and sometimes re- 
quires in addition the presentation of a warrant signed by 
that committee. This committee, presenting estimates, 
keeping an account of the appropriations, and supervising 
the ways and means, is thoroughly qualified for this duty. 
(See Chap. 8, D, 1.) 

8. — All bills should be endorsed as correct by the person 
or committee making the expenditure, before they go to 
the finance committee. A rubber stamp something like 
the following will be a great convenience : 

From Bryan S Co. 

Fund JReligious Dextt. 



Ordered by Jenkins 


June 9 

Received by Gen'l Sec, 


" 13 

Approved by JeiiJcins 


" 15 

Warrant No. 370 


" 30 

* A seeming exception to this rule may be where a course of entertainments, 
or other special scheme of waj's and means, is placed in the hands of a com- 
mittee ; when the committee often manages the financial details and turns over 
the net proceeds into the treasury. A fully itemized report should, however, be 
rendered in every such case. 

206 CURRENT FINANCES. Chap. 18, B, 9. 

9. — As some small items, such as telegrams and express- 
age, must often be paid for in cash, a stated sum from the 
annual appropriation for incidental expenses should be 
advanced to the general secretary at the beginning of each 
month, and he should render an itemized bill at its close. 
There should be a definite understanding with the treasurer 
as to what is to be included under incidental expenses, and 
if cash must be paid for items that belong under other 
sub-divisions of the accounts, separate bills should be ren- 
dered for them. 

10. — Many Associations use a " treasury warrant " (see 
appendix, sample No. 14), which is given by the finance 
committee to the treasurer on the approval of a bill. Under 
this system the original bills are filed by the committee; 
and the treasury warrants, after payment, are held by 
the treasurer as his vouchers. In other Associations the 
finance committee keeps a list of bills approved, but passes 
the original bills over to the treasurer for payment, and 
he retains them as his vouchers. 

11. — Financial papers and accounts should be kept in a 
safe at the office of the Association, except such as are in 
actual use elsewhere. 



1. — The methods of book-keeping should be simple, in- 
volving as little labor as possible. The treasurer and 
finance committee are responsible for every item and should 
give all needed supervision, but details must often be left 
to some paid officer of the Association. Although uni- 
formity cannot be expected, a few suggestions are given, 
with samples of book forms, arranged as far as may be to 
economize writing and facilitate the classification and 
posting of items. 

Chap. 18, 0, 2. CURRENT FINANCES. 207 

2. — The smaller Associations may require only a treas- 
urer's cash book, described under Z>, a register of subscrip- 
tions, described under (?, and a membership register. 
Some items given in the samples may be omitted by such 

The following method, however, embracing the warrant 
system, is suggested for the average Association employing 
a general secretary. The books needed are : 

a. Office cash book (see appendix, sample No. 15), in 
which will be debited classified receipts, and will be cred- 
ited amounts turned over to the treasurer. This book be- 
longs to the finance committee, but may properly be kept 
by an agent at the office. If any money is paid directly 
to the treasurer, he should promptly notify the agent, as 
all receipts should appear on the office book. 

h. Treasurer's cash book (see sample No. 16), in which 
this officer will debit himself with the classified summary 
of amounts received from the office agent, and credit him- 
self with amounts paid out on warrants. Each disburse- 
ment entry should show the number of the warrant and 
the branch of the work to which it is charged, as " educa- 
tional department," " social department," etc. Payments 
should be made by check. 

The closing pages of the book may be used for a com- 
parative statement, arranged by months and years. 

c. Financial registers. (1) A register of subscrip- 
tions (see sample No. 17). This should show the name, 
address, amount, whether running or for one year only, 
when payable, time and amount of payments, etc. (2) A 
register of membership fees. This maybe kept, if desired, 
in a book by itself ; but it can be kept more conveniently 
in the "Hersey" membership book by inserting in the 
column " what privileges " the amount, in addition to the 
description of privileges, or in the Era Co.'s book by doing 
the same in the " Class " column. (See Chap. 9, E, 4; also 
appendix, sample No. 9.) 

Credits should be posted from the office cash book to 

208 CURRENT FINANCES. Chap. 18, C, 3. 

both these books at least weekly, and corrections made 
promptly by adding or dropping names, and changing such 
items as class, amount of subscription, etc. New pledges 
should be entered on the register of subscriptions as soon 
as reported to the office. Every precaution should be 
taken to prevent the duplication of requests for fees and 
subscriptions. It is a good plan to make out all bills or 
receipts from a stub book, and to keep on the stubs such 
items as the fact and date of payment, or when a bill was 
sent, whether by mail or messenger, etc. 

d. Appropriation book (see sample No. 18), in which 
the finance committee will keep an account with each com- 
mittee or department expending money. There will be 
placed to the credit of each the amount originally appro- 
priated by the board, together with any subsequent appro- 
priations; and expenditures by it, or on its account, will 
be charged against it, all bills being analyzed for this pur- 
pose. A better plan is to insist on having a separate bill 
rendered for each order. Paid bills should be numbered 
to correspond with the warrants or bank checks and filed; 
and an account of warrants drawn on the treasurer may be 
kept by means of stubs in the warrant book. All books 
should be provided with such indexes as may be helpful. 

Some Associations insert the items of the budget, in 
red ink, at the top of the columns in the treasurer's cash 
book. But it is desirable to use the appropriation book 
also, in order to have a record of all bills charged against 
appropriations as soon as they are approved, without refer- 
ence to the time of their payment, which may be delayed. 

e. When an Association has a board of trustees, the 
items given in sample 11 as belonging to it must be kept 
in a separate book. 

3. — A form of deposit ticket, to be filed with the treas- 
urer by the office agent with each payment, is shown in 
the aijpendix, sample No. 19. A duplicate stub, signed by 
the treasurer, constitutes a receipt. One hundred or so of 
these may be stitched together like a check book. 

Chap. 18, C, 7. CURRENT finances. 209 

4. — The report of the treasurer, made monthly or 
quarterly, as desired, should show the cash transactions 
classified. Two report forms are given in the appendix, 
the first, sample No. 20, giving receipts and expenditures 
for a single month; and the other, sample No. 21, giving 
the same, together with a comparison with the estimates 
for the year. The report of the finance committee should 
show the current assets and liabilities, real and estimated. 
The financial condition and needs are thus brought statedly 
to the attention of the board. These reports should be 
filed in permanent form. Some Associations print blanks 
with the same headings as the cash books for monthly re- 
ports. A system of comparative statements is very 
desirable, and may be incorporated in the various 

A condensed financial record book, just issued by the 
Young Men's Era Publishing Co., is arranged to contain 
a monthly, comparative, classified summary of receipts and 
expenditures, and also to show their relation to the items 
in the budget. It is sold by the International Committee 
as No. 49. 

5. — Substantial books should be obtained for the finan- 
cial records. Those used often convey any impression but 
that of permanency. Better books tend to better book- 
keeping. Such books, however, should not be pro- 
cured until a convenient and comprehensive system of 
accounts has been worked out by experience. 

6. — Provision should be made in the constitution for a 
stated examination of all books and accounts as to both 
accuracy and neatness. To facilitate such examination 
the entries in the books may be numbered to correspond 
with the bills. If all bills are paid by check, the check 
number may be used in the entry and upon the bill. 

v. — Each committee disbursing money under an appro- 
priation should keep a simple financial account. Com- 
mittee expenditures under appropriations are left largely 
to the several chairmen and the general secretary. 

oh:af»tei^ 19. 




1^ — In order to receive bequests; purchase, hold, and 
transfer real property;* and exercise various other legal 
rights, — an Association must be incorporated. This usually 
simple and inexpensive procedure should be undertaken by 
every Association, thus embodying fundamentally in its 
organization the idea of permanency and property rights, 
A good lawyer should always be consulted in such matters, 
and every necessary step carefully taken. 

An unincorporated society may exercise some of these 
rights through trustees, as individuals, but such a plan 
is complicated and more or less uncertain in its operations. 

2. — Some of the older Associations have special charters; 
but there is a growing opposition to this class of legisla- 
tion which' often prevents its being secured, and in some 
states it is prohibited by law. In most, if not all the 
states, however, general statutory provisions exist suffi- 
cient for all ordinary purposes. In several states, begin- 
ning, it is believed, with Michigan in 1867, general laws 
have been enacted for the incorporation of Young Men's 
Christian Associations. As such laws are prepared for 
passage in other states, it is to be hoped that they may be 

* The real propei'ty of an Association includes its building or buildings, with 
permanent fixtures, and the laud upon which the same is located, but does 
not include furniture and other movable appliances. 


carefully framed, and with as much uniformity in their 
provisions as is practicable. (See especially the general laws 
of New York and Pennsylvania on this subject, which can 
be obtained from the State Committees of the Associations 
of these states.) 



1. — It is considered wise to vest the custody and gen- 
eral supervision of real property and trust funds in a sep- 
arate board generally known as trustees. Through the exist- 
ence of two boards, and a constitutional or charter provision 
for joint action, additional safeguards are thrown around the 
important matters of tenure and transfer.* Such a board 
may also be fixed and conservative in its corporate organi- 
zation, and be composed of older and more experienced 
men than it is desirable to have as directors. Their con- 
nection with the business affairs of the Association will 
increase its weight and influence with the public and 
greatly strengthen confidence in its permanency. The 
directors are naturally younger men, who are in more con- 
stant and close contact with the work. 

But legal provisions vary greatly in the different states 
and provinces, and the plan here suggested must be decid- 

* The New York and Pennsylvania laws provide for a board of trustees, of 
which the president of the Association shall be a member. Section 5 of the latter 
act reads : "The real property of the corporation shall be managed by the 
Board of Directors of such corporation, but all real property which shall be 
given to, or acquired by such corporation, and all gifts and bequests of money 
to be held in trust, shall beheld by the Board of Trustees; but no real property 
belonging to an Association so incorporated shall be conveyed, disposed of or 
mortgaged by said Board of Trustees, except with the consent of the Board 
of Directors of said corporation. The income which the said Board of Trustees 
shall i-eceive from the property under its control, and the said property shall be 
devoted to the purposes of the corporation and for no other purpose; and so 
long as the directors of the corporation shall so expend the same, the income of 
the property so controlled by said Board of Trustees shall be paid over to the 
treasurer of said Board of Directors." 

Section 5 of the New York act differs from this verbally in some respects, and 
contains at the close of the first sentence the additional provision, " nor shall 
such real property be liable for any debt or obligation of the corporation, unless 
such debt or obligation shall have been cgntracted with the approval of th© 
Board of Trustees/^ 


edly modified in many cities. Good legal counsel should 
always be followed. 

2. — The board of trustees should, by constitutional and 
charter provision, be composed of members in good stand- 
ing of evangelical churches, as described by the Portland 
test. (See Chap. 3, F, 2.) The president of the Associa- 
tion is usually an ex officio member of the board. In order 
that the board of trustees may constitute a suitable check 
on the Association, it should be self-perpetuating. The 
best experience of the Associations favors life tenure of 
office. But Avhere office is held for a limited term of years, 
the terms of only one-third or one-fourth of the trustees 
should expire each year, in order that there may always 
be a majority of experienced men on the board. In either 
case the choice of the trustees may be restricted to a list 
of names submitted to them by the board of directors. 
The board should be regularly organized, having a chair- 
man, secretary, and treasurer. The general secretary of 
the Association may be secretary of the board of trustees. 
The constitution of the Association should clearly dis- 
criminate and limit the duties and powers of the two 
boards — trustees and directors — in harmony with the 
specifications of the charter or certificate of incorporation. 
All minor matters, such as the dates of meeting and order 
of business, should be provided for in the by-laws of the 
board of trustees. Quarterly or semi-annual meetings are 
usually found to be sufficiently frequent. 

3. — In detail, the duties of the trustees include the care 
and investment of trust funds; the supervision of taxes, 
insurance, and repairs, and of mortgages and other obliga- 
tions in connection with the real property: the leasing of 
anj^ portions of the property that may not be needed by 
the Association, and the collection of rents ; and the sale 
and exchange of real property. 

4. — These duties clearly may involve a large amount of 
detail work. It is equally clear that men qualified by age 
and business standing for the trusteeship ought to be re- 


lieved, as much as possible, of such work, which belongs 
apjDropriately to the younger men on the board of directors, 
who are also much more familiar with the real needs of the 
Association. Accordingly in some Associations the trus- 
tees authorize the directors to act as their agent in relation 
to the real property, the treasurer of the Association re- 
porting to them quarterly or semi-annually all receipts and 
expenditures connected with such property. 

The act of incorporation of the New York City Asso- 
ciation provides in section 6 : " The body corporate cre- 
ated by this Act shall be capable of taking by purchase, 
gift, devise, or bequest, subject to all provisions of law re- 
lating to devises and bequests by last wills and testaments, 
and holding, and with the consent of the Board of Trus- 
tees, of mortgaging and conveying, any real or personal 
estate for the uses of said corporation." 

The finance committee of the board of directors is given 
the detail care of the real property. " The finance com- 
mittee shall have the care of the real property of the 
Association. All portions of the real property of the As- 
sociation not used for its purposes shall be let or leased by 
them, and all repairs or alterations made in the buildings 
shall be ordered and supervised by them." (By-laws of 
board of directors, art. 2, sec. 4.) 

The trustees retain control of trust funds. " There shall 
be appointed by the Chairman, immediately after his elec- 
tion in each year, a Finance Committee consisting of two 
members of the Board, who shall audit the accounts of the 
Treasurer, and shall, with the Treasurer, direct in regard 
to the disposition, or investment, or care of any funds, 
securities, or property which may be under the manage- 
ment of the board. They shall hold office until the ap. 
pointment of their successors," (By-laws of board of 
trustees, art. 3.) 

No other committee of the trustees is needed in working 
this plan. 

5. — Under such an arrangement no sale or mort- 


gage of real estate is valid unless it is authorized by 
both boards. The trustees are informed regarding the 
conduct of all the business for which they are responsible, 
and have opportunity to express dissent from any action 
of the directors that they deem unwise. 

6. — In some Associations the trustees attend in detail to 
the matters committed to them, in which case several other 
committees are needed, such as committees on {a) building 
and repairs, (b) rentals, (c) taxes and insurance, and (d) ob- 
ligations and investments. 

7. — The president of the Association, as its representa- 
tive, usually signs leases and similar legal documents. 

8. — Financial matters in charge of the trustees should 
be entirely distinct from all others. A separate account 
should be kept of each fund; stated reports should be 
made in detail of the condition of each, including all re- 
ceipts and expenditures since the last report; and any sur- 
plus be placed at the disposal of the directors. Sample 
No. 11, in the appendix — a form of budget for an Associa- 
tion occupying its own building — shows trustees' and 
directors' accounts separated. 



1. — The question of endowment is to be intimately con- 
nected in the future with the stability and efficiency of the 
Associations. No extended work of this character can be 
supported by the fees of a bo?ia fide membership. There is 
too great a disparity between the privileges afforded and the 
price paid for them. An attempt might as well be made to 
conduct a college with no income except the tuition fees of 
the students. A portion of the needed income is readily 
secured from the members ; a certain amount may also be 
obtained from the public by subscriptions; but great harm 


results from too heavy a financial burden of tliis descrip- 
tion. The energy needed in the real work of the organi- 
zation is absorbed in its business affairs, while the constant 
financial pressure wears out the interest of the members, 
discourages the management, and exhausts the patience of 
the community. The remedy for this is to be found only 
in a partial endowment, 

2. — So far, the principal method of endowment has been 
the Association building. The amount otherwise paid for 
rent is thus saved, and often considerable income is realized 
by renting out some rooms. This is well as far as it 
goes, but many an Association, in order to accommodate 
its growing work, is compelled to occupy more and more 
of its building. And there are other reasons for urging 
the creation of cash endowments for special objects, such 
as the library, educational classes, religious work, and 
practical and scientific lectures. Annual appropriations 
for these purposes, although of the first importance, are 
apt to be neglected or pushed aside in the stress of other 
matters, through considerations falsely called practical. 
There are also men who will give generous sums for a 
particular object who would not be interested in the 
general finances. 

An endowment providing for the salary of a general 
secretary would guarantee the permanency of the office, 
and silence a class of fault-finders by allowing the bulk of 
the funds contributed annually to go directly to the work 

3. — It should be the aim of every Association to estab- 
lish some such fund, as early as practicable. The forma- 
tion of a nucleus will be at least suggestive. This should 
be followed by such steady and well directed effort as will 
lead persons to direct their gifts and bequests into the 
channels of widest and most lasting usefulness. That wise 
management and its natural results in the legitimate fields 
of Association work will attract attention is sliov/n by the 
frequent benefactions of recent years. These gifts have 


been increasing in numbers and amount, and will do so 
more and more as those who liave grown up in tlie active 
work of the Associations become successful in business. 



1. — Debt. — A building enterprise often cannot be car- 
ried through on a sufficiently large scale to provide for the 
real needs of the work without borrowing some money. In 
such case the entire debt should be funded with a savings 
bank, or similar institution. It is best to have such obliga- 
tions in one place, and lower rates of interest are thus ob- 
tained than will be usually given on ordinary bank or 
individual paper. Such debt must, of course, be secured 
by mortgage on the building, and it will be necessary to 
carry an insurance equal to the amount of the debt, as col- 
lateral, the policies being assigned to and held by the mort- 
gagee. It will be to the advantage of the Association 
if the terms of the mortgage allow payments of any 
amount on account of the principal each time that interest 
is due. When at all practicable, a sinking fund should be 
constituted hj setting aside part of the income from the 
building, and every other reasonable effort should be made 
to reduce the debt. At an opportune time the balance may 
be canceled by a special effort.* 

2. — Taxes. — The taxation of the real property of the 
Associations varies greatly, not only in the different states 
but among the organizations in the same state, from com- 
plete exemption to payment on full valuation. When no 
special statutory provision exists, the matter is determined 
apparently by the opinion of the adjudicating court, the 
judgment of the assessors, or the energy and tact of the 

* See " How to pay off a mortgage,'' " Watchman," 1886, p. 303; and "Plan of 
a canvass," Chap. 16, B. 


local management. Where there are laws exempting 
religious and educational institutions from taxation, the 
Association should be exempt; and not only the portion of 
the building occupied by it but the rented parts also, so 
long as the entire income is employed in the prosecution 
of its work.* Each Association should be interested in 
securing its rights under existing laws; and there might 
be a systematic effort to procure desirable legislation in 
states where it does not exist. This may properly be 
done in connection with the enactment of a general law 
for the incorporation of Young Men's Christian Associa- 

3. — Insurance. — Failure to provide against loss by fire is 
culpable neglect, the annual premiums being a light ex- 
penditure compared with the loss attending a conflagration, 
if uninsured. It may be doubted whether an Association 
sustaining such a loss has a valid claim on the public for 
pecuniary help to make it good. Not only buildings, but 
furniture, musical instruments, and library should be in- 
sured. Good companies should be selected, the items of 
property that need to be specifically named in a given 
policy should be ascertained, also Avhat are the peculiar 
conditions of the policy as to the character of the risk, 
forfeiture, etc. The amount of premium may be consider- 
ably lessened by insuring for three or five years instead of 
one. An inventory of furniture, books, etc., showing 
purchase price, will often facilitate an equitable settle- 
ment. Duplicates of the original purchase bills should be 
kept for this purpose in a safe place, apart from the 
Association rooms. 

4. — Leases. — The leases of rented portions of the build- 
ing should uniformly be in writing, and should carefully 
exclude improper occupations and practices, all statements 
being very specific. Some needful provisions are that 

* In many communities it is customary to exempt the part of the Association 
building actually occupied by the society, and to tax the part rented out for 
income. But see charter of New York City Association, sect. 7. 







1. — Complete records are useful in many ways : («) they 
furnish accurate information regarding previous transac- 
tions, Avhicli is often needed, especially in connection with 
the business affairs of an Association ; {h) as part of the 
history of an organization they gain interest with each 
added year; (c) they afford an excellent means of marking 
its growth ; {d) they are very helpful in presenting the 
work to the public. 

2. — A complete system will include minutes of all meet- 
ings of the Association, its board of directors, trustees, 
and standing committees ; with full statistics regarding 
the several departments. To secure these there must be 
first a plan, and then thoroughness in carrying out its 
details. Statistics loosely gathered, or guessed at, are apt 
to be exaggerated and are little better than none.* In 
making up a report for publication, specific figures are 
always more satisfactory than general statements. 

3. — Suitable record books, uniform as far as practicable, 
should be furnished the several boards and committees. 
That they may always be accessible, a desk should be pro- 
vided in the office where they may be kept and conve- 

* See "Unintentional lying," "Watchman," 1885, p. 54. 

220 RECORDS, ETC. Cheap. 20, A, 4. 

niently examined or written wp. Minutes of meetings 
should be entered promptly, and it is often desirable that 
a synopsis of reports and other j^apers of permanent value 
be copied into the minute books. 

4. — Regularity and promptness in making reports will 
be stimulated if they are required statedly at the month 1}^ 
or quarterly meetings, a place being provided for them in 
the order of business. They should be complete, concise, 
and always in writing. This may be facilitated by a sys- 
tem of blanks. These should be uniform in size that they 
may be conveniently filed, and paper of a different tint 
may be used for each sort of blank, to aid in distinguish- 
ing them. 

Such forms maj be permanently filed in a binder with 
gummed stubs. The blanks may be prepared cheaply by 
a copying process. 

Some forms are given in the appendix (see samples Nos. 
22-26), as suggesting matters that it is generally desirable to 
include. But the reading, at every meeting, of these forms 
and nothing more will be certain to kill the interest and 
drive men away. Life and freshness must be added by 
the statement of incidents in the work, future j^kans, com- 
parisons with former efforts, etc. 

5. — A general "statistical register'' (see appendix, sam- 
ple No. 27) is so valuable for frequent reference that it 
should be kept at the office. Some person connected with 
each department, class, or meeting, should be furnished 
with suitable blanks (see samples Nos. 28 and 29) and in- 
structed to file them in the office statedly or to enter the 
facts on the secretary's " daily record " pad (see sample No. 
30), keeping also a record for the committee in charge. 
The secretary will also enter on the daily record the items 
with which he is immediately connected. The assistant 
will copy the daily record into the statistical register. If 
there is no assistant, some member of the Association may 
often be found who appreciates the importance of such 
statistics and will undertake this dutv. Facts derived 

Chap. 20, B, 2. records, etc. 221 

from the statistical record can always be used to good 
advantage in the annual report; or an occasional " com- 
parative statistical report" (see sample Xo. 31) given to 
members of the board at their meetings, or to contributors 
Avho are interested in the details of the work, or inserted 
in the bulletin or newspapers, may lead to new activity. 
But the secretary with a passion for statistics should not 
allow them to absorb time that is needed in other direc- 

The attendance at the Association rooms is often esti- 
mated from an actual count on a certain number of days 
each month. There should be a discrimination between 
the number of visits and the number of visitors. More 
visitors have sometimes been reported than there were 
young men in the town. 



1. — Attractiveness, variety, and absolute truth ought to 
characterize all efforts connected with the presentation of 
the work to the public. People who are giving money to 
any institution have a right to know how it is expended. 
Many others whose practical sympathy is desired, as givers 
or as workers, are still ignorant or unmindful of the ex- 
tent or claims of the work. They will be wearied by too 
much talk and disgusted by overdrawn statements ; but 
real figures and results will arrest their attention. New 
features of work should be presented with special clear- 
ness, together with the reasons for undertaking them, and 
accounts of success in similar efforts in other Associations. 

2. — A 2)ublic anniversary, distinct from the annual busi- 
ness meeting, is one of the best means of bringing the 
work before the public, and sliould be held regularly by 
every Association, In towns and smaller cities such a 

222 RECORDS, ETC. Chap. 20, B, 3. 

meeting is often held on Sunday, a union service in one or 
more churches being usually practicable, and a larger 
audience being secured than on a week day. In the larger 
cities, a week evening and a public hall are generally 

3. — There are various plans for promoting the interest 
of these occasions. Helpful material for this j^urpose 
may be collected by keeping notes of incidents occurring 
in the work, also by sending out a circular to the members 
something like that given in the appendix, sample No. 32. 
Effort is made to secure good sj^eakers, some prominent 
man from abroad being frequently obtained for the ad- 
dress. A method called the " Association Day " is some- 
times used on anniversary and other occasions. Speakers 
are gathered from other towns, and, together with local 
representatives, are apportioned among several churches at 
one or both services, neighboring churches sometimes 
uniting, especially in the evening. The chief dependence 
should be upon the local speakers, who sometimes become 
intelligent workers from the interest created in their minds 
by the preparation of their talks. It is usually best for 
them to speak in other churches than their own. By this 
method many more people are reached and a wider influ- 
ence is exerted than would be possible by a single union 
meeting. Of course these services are arranged only with 
the hearty consent and co-operation of the church oflicers. 
It will often be best to vary the places of meeting from 
year to year. 

4. — The anniversary exercises should be carefully ar- 
ranged and not be too long, never more than an hour and 
a half. This cannot be accomj^lished without special care, 
as so many things will appear to deserve a place on the 
programme. If there are several speakers, each should 
understand the particular ground he is to cover and the 
length of time he may occupy. But there should seldom, 
if ever, be more than two speakers, and a single address 
will usually produce the best effect. The report should 

Chap. 20, B, 6. RECORDS, etc. 233 

be definite and concise, showing the past year's work, the 
present situation, and the future outlook. The board is 
responsible for the rej^ort of the Association to the com- 
munit3^ The report should be prepared and presented in 
its name by the officer or officers designated by it for the 
purpose. An explicit financial statement is important. 
The report should be approved in advance by the board or 
executive committee. Detailed reports of the officers and 
committees may be made at the annual business meeting. 
The music should be a feature of the exercises. A chorus 
of members using hymns familiar in Association meetings, 
especially if led by a good orchestra, will be attractive. 
Or the choirs of several churches may be combined for the 
occasion. In any event the selections should be so familiar 
as to induce hearty congregational singing. 

5. — Preparation should begin well in advance, ample 
time being given to all who are to speak or prepare re- 
ports. Special effort should be made to secure the presence 
of friends and patrons, and of others whose attendance 
will be likely to yield good results. Personal invitations 
from the officers and directors will bring many who would 
not otherwise attend. Platform invitations should be sent 
to clergymen, present and past officers, and j^i'ominent 
friends of the work. There should be a tastefully printed 
programme, containing generally a sketch of the year's 
work, a financial statement, and sometimes the hymns. 
If the anniversary is held on the evening of a week-day an 
exhibition of the work accomplished in the educational 
classes, arranged for convenient inspection, will show the 
practical results in this department and may stimulate 
larger gifts of money or the increase of the membership. 
A gymnastic exhibition may also be given. Full reports 
in the newspapers should be arranged for, the material 
being furnished to them in advance, as far as practicable. 

6. — In addition to an increased know^ledge and interest, 
the occasion should produce definite results in the wa}^ of 
new members and financial support, the best work of the 

224 RECORDS, ETC. Chap. 20, B, 7. 

year in these directions being often done in connection 
with the anniversary. Membership applications are some- 
times distributed, to be filled out and returned the same 
evening or subsequently. The time for holding the anni- 
versary, which naturall}^ comes soon after the end of the 
fiscal year of the Association, is sometimes at the close of 
the more active work in the spring, or more frequently in 
the fall, the last being generally considered the best time. 
Y. — In line with the anniversary^, and having some of its 
characteristics, though on a much smaller scale, are the 
monthly and quarterly meetings. (See " The members' 
meeting," Chap. 9, H.) 



1. — This is usually held at a private residence, selected 
with reference to the class of men it is desired to reach. 
The business and social position of the host, in whose 
name the invitation is issued (see appendix, sample No. 
33), should be such as to assure, as far as possible, the at- 
tendance of those invited. The conference may either be 
held at the tea hour, which is occasionally chosen to 
economize time, or later in the evening, in which case 
refreshments should be served. The lady of the house will 
ordinarily prefer to do this, or it may be managed by the 
Association. At tea, or if refreshments are served early, 
the company may sometimes remain at table during the 
entire meetino-. 

2. — The special purpose of the gathering is to bring 
some department or interest of Association work to the 
attention of business men who are not accessible by ordi- 
nary methods, under pleasant social surroundings and free 
from business distractions. Many a man has given more 
thought to the work and gained a more intelligent inter- 

Chap. 20, D, 1. RECORDS, etc. 225 

est in it during such an hour than in his whole previous 
life. The conference is sometimes used as the means of 
organizing an Association, securing a secretary, inaugurat- 
ing a building enterprise, or of presenting phases of the 
state or international work. Sometimes the presence of 
prominent men from out of town is secured as an addi- 
tional attraction. 

3. — The most successful conference is conducted in a 
thoroughly informal manner, and yet there must be pre- 
paration as to every detail. An efficient chairman is pro- 
vided, picked men from the Association are on hand to 
assist, and a programme is so arranged as to bring out the 
desired matters clearly, forcibly, and concisely. An hour 
and a half is generally the maximum length of such a 

4. — It is not considered wise to ask for contributions at 
the conferences, but a list should be made of the persons 
in attendance, and the financial needs of the work should 
be presented to them while the matter is fresh in their 
minds, and, if possible, by some member of the Associa- 
tion who attended the conference. 

5. — It is customary to hold parlor conferences or recep- 
tions in connection with conventions, for delegates inter- 
ested in particular lines of work. (See " Parlor conferences 
during conventions," Chap. 31, E, 3, g.) 



1. — The Bulletin. — a. Association periodicals have al- 
ways been popular. Monthly papers of considerable size 
were formerly common, and some of them were continued 
for eight or ten years. But the development of "The 
Watchman " (now the " Young Men's Era "), which was 
originally a monthly of the Chicago Association, into a 

226 RECORDS, ETC. Chap. 20, D, 1. 

representative of the work at large, together with the fact 
that the local papers just referred to cost too much time 
and money, has led to the discontinuance of most of them. 

h. The practical needs of the local work are now sup- 
plied by what is popularly known as the " bulletin," over 
two hundred being published regularly by the American 
Associations. It is usually a monthly of from four to 
twelve pages, ranging in size from six by nine to eight by 
eleven inches. The latter size is coming into general 
favor, and is recommended for adoption, uniformity being 
desirable both for filing and binding. The model bulletin 
appears regularly at the appointed times, is neatly printed, 
is free from extravagant expressions or grammatical errors, 
and is filled with Association 7iews, local or general, its 
limited space affording no room for miscellaneous and ir- 
relevant matter. Routine announcements and lists of 
officers are given as little room as possible, not on the first 
page, and advertisements are placed on pages by them- 
selves. The latter can usually be made to meet the cost 
of publication, but there should be care as to the class of 
advertisements admitted. The bulletin ought to be issued 
by vote of the board, and with its business details under 
the management of a competent committee. The secretary 
is usually the editor. 

c. The practical benefit derived from the bulletin 
will depend largely upon its circulation. Every mem- 
ber and patron, and as many as possible of the young 
men of the community, should be supplied with it, also 
persons able to aid the work, but hitherto uninterested. It 
is customary to have a subscription price,* usually twenty- 
five cents, but this should not be allowed to hinder its 
general circulation. Common honesty requires that 
neither the letter nor spirit of the postal laws be evaded 
in sending out the bulletin by mail. 

* Some Associations ask all persons joining to add the bulletin subscription 
to their membership fee, placing this request on the application blank. In 
many cases all general announcements to members are made through the 

Chap. 20, D, 3. records, ETC. 227 

2. — Amiiial reports^ etc—a. Most Associations em- 
ploying a general secretary publish an annual report. 
Every effort should be made to issue it within thirty days 
after the anniversary^ It generally contains, in addition 
to the indispensable financial statement and list of contri- 
butions, a single report on belialf of the Association, and 
sometimes statements from various officers and standing 
committees. Such a pamphlet is desirable in addition to 
an}^ newspaper notices of the anniversary, however com- 
plete the latter may be. It is in better form for judicious 
distribution, is more apt to attract attention, and is con- 
venient for preservation and reference. If the Associa- 
tion is obliged to economize, a small pamphlet may be 
printed cheaply by re-arranging the type used in a news- 
paper report. A concise report of a few pages may re- 
ceive fully as much notice as a more pretentious pamphlet. 
It should be sent to the pastors, to contributors and 
prominent citizens, to the working members (and, if prac- 
ticable, to all the members), to the historical libraries of 
the Associations and to prominent public libraries in 
the state, to the officers of the State and International 
Committees, and to Associations with which an exchange 
is desired. 

h. A prospectus, issued early in the fall, and containing 
the fall and winter announcements, is very helpful. It 
should be simply an outline of the privileges, fitted for the 
vest pocket, and with some novelty in design or con- 
tents to render it attractive. Time tables, local direc- 
tories, hints on exercise, etc., are used for this purpose. 
The prospectus should be distributed very widely. The 
expense of publication of the prospectus, and also of the 
report, can usually be met by a few advertisements. In 
many Associations the recent growth of summer work ne- 
cessitates the publication of a spring prospectus also. 

c. The local newspapers are usually open for brief, 
pointed items on Association work, and bring it before 
many readers v/ho would not be reached by the means al- 

228 RECORDS, ETC. Chap. 20, D, 2. 

ready mentioned. Paid advertisements will also be fre- 
quently needed. 

d, "The Watchman" was established in IS'ZS, and 
made a weekly in 1889, its name being changed in 1890 to 
the "Young Men's Era." It is the generally recognized 
medium of communication among the American Associa- 
tions. It gives current news from the Avhole field, and 
discussions of methods and results by some of the most 
successful workers. Effort should be made by Association 
men generally to increase its circulation. 

e. The international and state reports are valuable 
sources of information. The statistical tables, growing 
more full and complete from year to year, give good evi- 
dence of the extent and helpful character of the work. 
These reports should be placed in the hands of thinking 
men. Many of the facts and figures given in them are also 
printed in condensed form for more general circulation; and 
some of the more important papers read at conventions are 
reprinted in tracts and leaflets. A selection suited to a 
given locality or purpose may readily be made, and a large 
amount of helpful information be scattered among the 
people at trifling outlay. Such an one as ISTo. 697, "An 
Association ' Useful and deserving of encouragement and 
support,' " containing testimonies from distinguished men 
to the value of Association work, might well be enclosed in 
letters asking for or acknowledging contributions. Lists 
of such publications can be obtained by application to the 
International Committee. 



Some one has well said that Bible study gives workers- 
willing, enthusiastic, consecrated, strong, intelligent, skilled, 
and armed. 

If the mind is well stored with Scripture truth, this truth 
will be ready for use, and will be suggested when needed, 
brought out by the natural laws of association, and brought 
to remembrance also by the Spirit. 

For successful study of the Bible will be needed a 
settled conviction that it is the word of God, a percep- 
tion of Christ as its great center, the aid of the Holy 
Spirit, prayer, and a recognition of its personal bearing. 



1. — The time and place for any close study should be 
chosen with reference to favorable mental condition on 
the part of the student, and freedom from interruption. 
Though one may possibly educate himself to think amid 
noise and confusion, better v/ork may be done with quiet 
surroundings. Neither should there be a feeling of hurry. 
The morning is usually the best time for clear thought. 
A pleasant study room is desirable, with needed helps at 
hand and a lock on the door. As far as possible there 
should be stated hours for study. 
* This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 59. 


2. — The general purposes or objects of study may be 
classified, for convenience of future reference, under three 
heads : 

a. Devotionaly to feed and build up one's own spiritual 
nature. In order to continued life and growth there must 
be nourishment, and the true sj^iritual food is God's word. 
I. Pet.ii: 2 ; Matt, iv: 4. 

b. Systematic, to acquire general biblical knowledge. 
A thorough and all-sided study of the Bible is needed, and 
every young worker should start out with a settled deter- 
mination to master, as fully as possible, not only the word 
itself, but all helpful collateral knowledge. 

c. Practical, to prepare for specific duties, such as 
giving a Bible reading, conducting a training class, or deal- 
ing with inquirers. If the student possesses the requisite 
general knowledge, his work y/ill mainly be to arrange a 
certain portion of this knowledge so as to adapt it to the 
particular line of effort. 

3. — Methods and Helps. — a. A study of the Bible 
may well be prefaced by reading it through in course. 
This gives a helpful view of the unity underlying its great 
diversity, and of the order and relation of its parts. These 
broader thoughts should be kept constantly in mind in the 
reading. An edition of the Bible arranged in chronologi- 
cal order is especially adapted to consecutive reading, 
giving a more intelligent idea of the relations of historical 
characters and events than will be obtained otherwise. A 
good Bible history would also be helpful. 

b. Methods will be governed largely by the purpose of 
the study. For devotional objects they should not be arbi- 
trary. Usuall}^ a selection of Scripture may be read, with 
prayer and meditation. The study may be profitably con- 
fined to such passages as seem spiritually significant, or 
fitted to personal and present needs. Often a spiritual 
diagnosis may well precede the selection of a Scripture 
prescription. A generally consecutive course of reading is 
often preferred. The psalms, or the prophetic writings, 

Chap. 21, A, 3. THE BIBLE m association work. 231 

or the New Testament will usually be chosen. In addition 
to this, a verse (something, perhaps, that has attracted 
special attention while reading the Scripture) may be made 
each day a topic of thought and conversation, as occasion 
offers, till it is thoroughly digested, memorized, and its 
location fixed in the mind. The text may be written on a 
card, and placed where it will be in sight, or within easy 
reach. If it have some bearing on the practical duties or 
mental exercises of the day, so much the better. Besides 
present benefits, this plan will fix in the memory a large 
number of " golden texts " every year. 

c. Either one of four methods of consecutive study may 
be used in a systematic course : (l) By epochs, taking an 
historical basis. Natural divisions will suggest themselves, 
or one of those already in use may be taken. Among 
them is the following : from the creation to the call of 
Abraham, to the Exodus, to the dedication of the temple 
of Solomon, to the captivity, to the birth of Christ, to the 
day of Pentecost, to the destruction of Jerusalem. (2) By 
biographical ceiiters, taking the chief characters of the 
Bible, such as Abraham, Moses, Elijah, Paul, and grouping 
about the study of their lives, in chronological order, 
related events and teachings. (3) By hooks. The Bible 
is a collection of books, many of them being as complete 
as those in any other library. Every book of the Bible 
has its distinctive features as to historical circumstances, 
scope, and style, which make its study, separately and as a 
whole, intensely interesting and profitable. Especially do 
the Epistles illustrate the necessity of studying a book in 
its entirety. Like other letters, they must be read through 
to get the complete meaning of the writer. No system- 
atic course will be complete without a more or less criti- 
cal study of the Bible by books.* (4) By related groups 
of hooks. The Bible contains many books that need to 
be studied together, e.g., the group of historical books 

* See " The Study of the Bible by Books/' by John A. Broadus, D.D. Int. 
pph. No. 8. . 

^3^ THE BIBLE l:?^^ ASSOCIATION WORK. Chap. ^1, A, So 

from Genesis to Joshua, or from Judges to II. Kings, the 
books of wisdom (Job, Proverbs, Canticles and Ecclesi- 
astes), the Gospels, the E^jistles of Paul, etc. Each one of 
such a group casts light upon all the others. 

d. In the study of doctrines, especially, the topical 
method is often employed. Bible truth, like gold, is often 
found in veins ; so the richest mining must follow the 
*' lead." Whether the thought be faith, repentance, or 
the atonement, the pure nuggets of truth may be extracted 
here and there, all the way from Genesis to Revelation. 

e. In addition to the foregoing methods, which relate 
rather to the subject matter and the order of study, there 
are others which emphasize the process of investigation. 
(1) Analysis picks the subject to pieces, separating its 
parts, that they may be examined one by one. A simple 
analysis of a ScrijDture passage will usually include the 
persons, places, time, and events mentioned, and the things 
taught. These last may embrace both doctrines and 
duties, and these again may be classified into what relates 
to self, to man, and to God. There may also be added 
word-studies and the connection of the events in any nar- 
rative. The power of accurate, clear, and rapid analysis is 
worthy of studious cultivation.* (2) Comparison will be 
constantly used in systematic study. Events in the Old 
Testament are compared with others in the New; prophe- 
cies with their fulfillment ; types with antitypes ; A^arious 

* The following illustrations are from Dr. Vincent's '• Normal Guide " : 


1.— V/ords and phrases. (Present and original meaning and siguiflcanoe.) 
2. — Historical elements : 

a. Persons. 

6. Places. 

c. Actions and expressions. 

d. Time. 

e. Connection of events, biblical and profane. 
/. Peculiarities of manners and customs. 

g. The supernatural — miracles. 
3. — Doctrinal elements. 
4.— Practical elements. 


Parallel passages. (Comparison.) 

Persons. (Biographical.) 

Places. (Geographical.) 

Peculiarities. (Archaeological. 

Dates. (Chronological.) 

Doings. (Historical.) 

Doctrines. (Theological.) 

Duties. (Practical.) 


connections of the same word, narratives of the same 
event by different writers, or similar occurrences at different 
times are compared with one another, and so on. (3) The 
inductive method, comprehending tlie others named, is well 
illustrated in a series of studies in a current periodical.* 
The student may be greatly aided by familiarity with 
this system, which is also well adapted to advanced class 

f. Helps to Bible interpretation may be classified as 
follows : (1) Mechanical. Such are the marginal refer- 
ences and notes, the concordances, Bible text books, espe- 
cially the one published by the American Tract Society, 
indexes, etc., which are valuable time-saving appliances. 
(2) Illustrative. Of this class are books giving facts 
about the Bible, its construction and contents, and about 
the countries, peoples, customs, etc., of Bible times. These 
include Bible histories, contemporary history of all kinds, 
the history of the books of the Bible, sacred geography, 
biography, and archaeology, and the natural history of 
Bible lands ; to which may be added books of travel and 
research, maps, charts, and pictures. A good Bible dic- 
tionary Avill give much of this information in an abridged 
form. Familiarity with the original languages will aid 
critical study, but without it a considerable knowledge of 
their idioms and figures may be obtained. A careful com- 
parison of the different English versions will be helpful, in 
which the present Revised Version, with its margin, will be 
altogether the most valuable, as it is very close to the orig- 
inal. (3) Exegetical and expository. This class comprises 
commentaries and other books of an expository character ; 

*"The Old and New Testament Student, ■" New Haven, Conn., edited by- 
Prof. Wm. R. Harper, Ph.D. The following is a sample outline: 

1. — The material analyzed. 

2. — The material compared. 

3.— The material explained. 

a. Textual topics and questions. 
6. Special topics. 

4.— The material organized. (Classified.) 

5.— The material applied. 

This analysis is found in the series of lessons on the Gospel of Mark, in " The 
Old and New Testament Student,'' Vol. VIII., '88 and '89. Other outlines are 
used ia the series since published. 

234 TSE BIBLE IN Association work. Chap. 21, A, 3. 

also, many works on the doctrines, on the evidences, and 
on the science of Bible interpretation. There are also 
valuable writings that combine the exegetical and illustra- 
tive features. Commentaries differ widely in scope and 
character. Some, like Lange's Commentary, are so critical 
and exhaustive, that they are suited only for scholars ; 
some, like the Cambridge Bible, or the Bible Commentary, 
being intended for more popular use, are helpfully critical, 
but lay special stress on a thorough understanding of the 
text ; others are mainly practical. These invaluable works 
embody the researches of the wisest and best men of the 
Church. Each student must select his commentaries with 
a view to the 'results he is seeking, bearing in mind that 
the cost is no criterion of value, that a first rate introduc- 
tion is half of the commentary, and that a profusion of 
homiletical hints is of little value to a thoughtful man. 

g. The following suggestions are given regarding the 
use of helps : (1) In devotional study use the Bible only, 
with prayer and meditation. (2) ^ In systeynatic study all 
classes of illustrative helps should be used in securing as 
broad and thorough information as possible. The aim of 
the student should be to get into the atmosphere of the 
times, to put himself in the place of the author, as far 
as possible, and see why he wrote as he did — why this 
history was written, to whom this prophetic sermon was 
delivered, under what circumstances this psalm was com- 
posed, what occasioned this epistle, etc. Such information 
is usually the key to judicious interpretation. The student 
should also get an intelligent understanding of cardinal 
doctrines and of the common theological errors and differ- 
ences, with as much general exegetical knowledge as he can. 
Especially should he become familiar with the book 
itself, or the group of books, on which he is at work. He 
should aim to master a general outline of its thought, so as 
to be able to refer confidently to the thought of the whole 
book or section, or to that of any chapter in the book. 
He should also get the location of important texts, and 

Chap. 21, B, 3o the bible in association work. 235 

learn the art of rapid reference and accurate quotation. 
(3) In practical study there should be first independent, 
devout, patient, and intense thought, including careful 
comparison of Scripture with Scripture. After such study, 
and only after such study, helps are appropriate and 
useful. Such a knowledge of the helps themselves is 
needed as will enable the person to readily find that for 
which he is searching. 

h. Every Association library should contain as many 
such helps as possible, and the librarian or secretary should 
make effort to bring them to the attention of the members. 



1. — A Bible class indispensable. — Every Association, 
however weak, should aim to have a stated gathering of 
young men to study together the word of God. Even if 
many of the desirable features here mentioned are lacking, 
even if a competent teacher cannot at first be found, such a 
meeting will greatly promote the spiritual growth of the 
members, and bind them together in Christian fellowship 
and service. A leader will be developed from among 
them, if the work is undertaken with the best material 
at hand and in a spirit of consecration. 

2. — delation of the general secretary, — He will give his 
best attention to the promotion of Bible study in the 
Association he serves. He should teach at least one of the 
classes, both for his own Christian growth amid the variety 
and business activity of his work, and to help him in 
getting a personal hold upon the young men —those who 
are already efficient on committees and those who give 
promise of becoming so. 

3. — The subject is here treated under three general 

* For historical items, see Chap. 3, F. 15. 

^36 THE BIBLE IN ASSOClATlOlf WORK. Chap. ^1, B, t 

divisions, the beginners' and advanced Bible classes and 
I lie training class. Subdivisions, combinations, and modi- 
fications must be made as needed. Where only one class 
can be held, it is desirable to admit those who are not 
Christians^ when the class must be largely evangelistic. 
The evangelistic class, in some respects the most important 
of all, is treated in section C, 2, of this chapter. Workers 
must discriminate among the suggestions in the present 
section, which are general, and adapt them to their own 

a. The begiuiiers* class is composed of recent converts, 
including, perhaps, some who may still be termed in- 
quirers. The objects sought will be to bring out and build 
up Christian purpose, indoctrinate in the simple and fun- 
damental truths of the Bible, and give practical instruction, 
drawn from God's Avord, regarding conduct. That the 
class may not lose its distinctive character, it is usual to 
promote its members to a more general class at the close 
of their first year, or whenever they are evidently fitted 
for it. 

b. The advanced class will include any of the active 
members, with those promoted from the beginners' class, and 
possibly some young men who are not members of the 
Association. Its objects will be similar to those of the 
class just described, taking into account the difference in 
age and experience. Stronger food can be digested, and 
more difficult and advanced ground traversed. 

c. The workers'* training class, as nov/ conducted, is 
believed to have originated with the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. The object is the systematic and practi- 
cal study of the Scriptures as a preparation for Christian 
work, especially in the use of the word itself in dealing 
with the unconverted. To this is often added the study 
of methods in all the various lines of Association 
work. It is generally composed of picked men, who have 
passed, perhaps, through other classes, and enter this as an 
advanced or supplemental course. 

Chap. 31, B, 4 the bible in association work. 237 

4. — Time,placey and appliances. — The time should be 
selected with reference to the convenience of the class, 
that being the best which will secure the largest and most 
regular attendance. Sunday afternoon being usually pre- 
empted for the young men's meeting, it is often advisable 
to hold the Bible classes on week evenings. It is some- 
times practicable to have a class just before or after the 
above service. In the latter case, a plain tea may be pro- 
vided, to hold the members together socially and to econ- 
omize their time. A class may be held early Sunday 
morning, an especially pleasant hour during the summer. 
A week evening is usually preferred for the training 

The place should be one of the Association rooms — if 
possible, an attractive and well-lighted apartment, reason- 
bly quiet, and not liable to intrusion during class hours. 
The model arrangement, for a class of moderate size, in- 
cludes a long, roomy table, with fixed cover, so that the 
students sit facing one another and the teacher. The table 
is convenient for writing, and for holding the books of the 
members and any works of reference for general use. A 
movable black-board is needed. One of silicate and with 
a standard frame is best, and when in use should be placed 
at the teacher's end of the room, where all may see it with- 
out changing seats. A set of Scripture maps should adorn 
the walls, and when needed for class use may be displayed 
from the black-board frame. Many instructive charts 
have been published, and an ingenious teacher will be able 
to originate and prepare various helpful things in this line, 
to illustrate and fix in the mind the historical facts and 
truths of the lessons. A case of reference books is an ex- 
cellent feature of such a class room. A system of small 
contributions from each member at each session of the 
class will secure, in a few years, most things desirable in 
this direction, including many works that few individual 
members would be able to own or gain access to elsewhere. 
Although each student will be expected to have a Bible 


and note book of his own, still an emergency stock of 
Bibles and stationery should be kept on hand. 

5. — The teacher. — A successful teacher must have an ac- 
quaintance with, and an appreciation of, the Bible; a deep 
personal experience of its truth and power; and native 
tact, enabling him to make clear to others what he knows 
himself. Mental acumen, readiness of speech, easy man- 
ners, self-command, are good points. He should be a safe 
and reliable man, well grounded in doctrine, not liable to 
lead astray, nor to swing oif on any fanciful tangent. He 
must steadily insist that the points of difference between 
the evangelical denominations be kept in the background. 
He should have experience in Christian work, and particu- 
larly in Association work, so that he will lead his class to 
realize the need there is for special effort by young men 
for young men. It is scarcely necessary to say that he 
must be strictly correct in his daily life, and that he must 
be a man of prayer and of quick sympathies, if he is to ex- 
pect the deeper results. A teacher should be well read in 
all that pertains to his department, keeping up with the 
times and ahead of his class. He should be an observer 
and collector, carrying a thought of his work in a snug 
corner of his heart all the week. He should study the in- 
dividuals of his class, that he may adapt his teaching to 
them. He should know them outside the class, having an 
interest in their daily lives ; greeting them on the street; 
inviting them, if possible, to his home; and making them 
realize that his friendship is not merely professional. If 
he cannot do all this, on account of the size of the class or 
any other good reason, he will have it done by his helpers, 
under his direction and with frequent reports to himself. 

Q.^—The class. — The composition of the different classes 
is sufficiently stated at the beginning of the section. The 
size of a class will sometimes need limitation. The maxi- 
mum number for a training class is usually from twelve 
to twenty. A larger number might better be divided into 
two or more classes. In fact, more satisfactory results may 

Chap. 21, B, 7. the bible in association work. 239 

always be expected with a small class. A class organiza- 
tion is desirable, with regularly enrolled membership and 
a class secretary, who will keep the attendance and other 
items of interest in a permanent record book. It will often 
be advisable to consult the class as to the course of lessons 
and other matters of mutual concern. Let the members 
feel that it is our class. Organization may also be useful 
in securing additional members, and in looking after 
absentees. Each member should have his own Bible, the 
best he can afford, and a convenient note book. It is poor 
economy to attempt any course of Bible study without a 
systematic plan of notes. The members of the class should 
study their lessons. Some may have more time and better 
opportunities than others, but seldom can any one plead a 
valid excuse for coming wholly unprepared. In the train- 
ing class it is customary to pledge not only regular at- 
tendance, but a certain amount of study, each member 
stating the number of hours he has spent in prepara- 
tion as his response at roll call. With or without the 
pledge, there should be conscientious regularity in attend- 
ance, and in time and thought given to the study of the 

7. — The topics. — a. For the beginners' clasSy the topics 
must be simple, embodying the rudimentary elements of 
Christian character and conduct. The Gospels will be 
chosen most frequently, but many other portions of Scrip- 
ture give practical and definite instruction in the desired 
channels. Such subjects as temptation — how to avoid, 
resist and recover from its influence ; the associations of a 
young Christian; little sins; prayer; reading the Scriptures; 
work for others; purity of thought and action; growth in 
grace; church privileges and duties; etc., maybe so treated 
as to be an invaluable aid to the young disciple. It may 
often be best not to follow a consecutive course of study 
with this class, the more essential point being to present 
in their natural order the most important and practical 
things in connection with the early Chrstian life. 


h. In the young meii's Bible class a consecutive course 
may be taken up, any one of those mentioned in the third 
paragraph of the preceding section being adopted. The 
treatment of the text will be practical and personal, rather 
than critical ; the historical facts and even the doctrines 
will not be made prominent, being rather tht frames with- 
in and through which effects and results may be advan- 
tageously exhibited. Such a course, even if generally 
consecutive, cannot in any sense exhaust the meaning of 
the text, but can take up only the salient and practical 
points. Sometimes the parables, the miracles, or the dis- 
courses of Christ are taken in order, making a very profit- 
able series of lessons. The life of Paul, including, as it 
will necessarily, more or less of his epistles, will be in- 
tensely interesting though better adapted to a somewhat 
advanced class. A course of lessons should be thoroughly 
outlined at the beginning, and so planned as to have both 
variety and comprehensiveness. 

c. For training class topics see ** Notes on the 
Workers' Training Class," ]N"o. 10 of this section. 

8. — Preparing the lesson. — The teacher should begin 
the study of the lesson early in the week. At least he 
should read the text carefully, get an idea of the teaching 
outlines, and, if possible, commit the more important parts 
to memory. Carry a pocket note book and j^ut down 
thoughts as they come. Get the mind fully saturated with 
the subject. Let the reading of the week be largely along 
helpful lines. Do not forget to pray much, and to expect 
the Spirit's guidance. **To pray well is to work well," 
says Luther. Go over the passage word by word, clause 
by clause, with careful comparison. Get also the general 
bearing or drift of the lesson — the deep central truths it 
teaches — which must be kept strictly in mind. *' Until one 
rightly unwinds the clue of thought, he cannot teach any 
passage in its entirety." Difficult doctrinal points should 
be noted. Acquire the habit of patient thought. Isaac 
Newton said, "I keep holding a subject before me, and it 

Chap. 21, B, 9. the bible in association work. 241 

gradually opens and I see into it." But do not hesitate to 
consult others when necessary. It is an excellent plan to 
write in preparatory study ; this gives exactness and fixes 
thought in the mind. Carefully prepared lesson studies 
prove very valuable self-made commentaries for future 
reference. Study with regard to the class, keeping its 
individual members in view, and strive to have something 
for each. Prepare an abundance of illustrative material. 
(See Chap. 22, A, 14.) 

9. — Teaching the lesson. — It has been aptly said that 
the teacher must first get the lesson himself, next impart 
a knowledge of it to the minds of the class, and then im- 
press its truths on the heart. The successful instructor 
will thoroughly accomplidi the first, so plan and manipu- 
late that the class will co-operate largely in the second, 
and in the third will be only a finger pointing quietly to 
the truth. Esj^ecially should this be the case when the 
pupils are bright, earnest young men. 

The following suggestions must be adapted to conditions 
and occasions by the teacher. Few rules are of universal 
application. Having proved all things, hold fast that 
which is good and suited to the work in hand. 

(a) Announce the lessoji in advance. If a few hints 
can be thrown out, suggesting the desired trend of thought 
regarding the topic, this may prevent misconceptions and 
aid in an intelligent study of the lesson from the intended 
standpoint, {h) Teach, h'om. a. carefully/ prepared 2^lan, not 
at random. The plan should not be artificial or arbitrary, 
but natural and adapted to the lesson, (c) Avoid formality , 
seek to have a home atmosphere pervade the place and all 
its exercises, {d) Court the co-operation of the class. Get 
the members at work, for active participation will increase 
interest and fasten truth in the mind. Read the lesson in 
unison or responsively ; assign duties, such as looking up 
words, facts and Bible references, or writing brief histor- 
ical and biographical papers, or reviews of former lessons. 
Adopt the conversational rather than the lecture method 


of teaching, (e) Simplicity ^ C07icise7iess, conce7itratio7i, 
are important j^oints in teaching. Let it be remembered, 
however, that simplicity and superficiality are by no means 
synonyms. Never use a hard word when an easy one will 
convey the full meaning. Technical and difficult terms 
that ought to be understood may be considered in a series 
of special word studies. There is often a tendency to 
digress ; do not think it necessary to follow up every side 
path you cross in the course of the lesson. Controversy 
should be avoided, a close rein held on all discussion, and no 
heed given to curious questions and visionary ideas. (/') 
Teach the lesson as a ichole. Too much time is often spent 
on the details and collaterals. The great truths are far 
more important, {g) All material in the line of illustration 
should be made so completely your own that each text and 
incident and simile will come when needed, as the parts of 
a well ordered procession silently fall into line. A story 
should be told with s^^irit, and a text quoted accurately. 
The black board may be made very useful. Successful 
manipulation of the crayon before the class must be easy, 
simple, and rapid. Much artistic display is not in good 
taste. (Ji) The art of questio7ii7ig should be made a study. 
Clear and definite questions should be prepared in advance, 
so planned as to exhaust the subject, and arranged in 
order so as naturally to grow one out of the other. Study 
to ask questions that call for more than merely yes or no. 
Strive to draw out thought, never telling what you can 
make the class tell. Encourage the asking of questions, 
and if you are not clear as to the answer, say so, and make 
it a subject of mutual inquiry for the week to come, (i) 
JVb hnowledge is really gained taxless retai7ied. The mem- 
ory should be aided by frequent and systematic reviews. 
Begin each lesson by a quiz on the previous one, and end 
it by a thorough recapitulation. Review monthly, quar- 
terly, and particularly at the close of the series of lessons. 
In the secular schools a considerable proportion of the 
time is spent in reviews and exammations. Draw vUv 


again all knowledge imparted, as a telegram is repeated 
to insure its accuracy. Set a good example by not tying 
yourself down to a note book in the class, (j) There will 
be much that is practical and personal in every lesson. Do 
not adopt the old method of making the application at the 
close — apply as you go along. He has a happy faculty 
who can lead those who are taught each one to recognize 
and appropriate that which he needs in his own life, 


a. It is desirable that there be a careful discrimination 
between the objects of the training class and those of the 
Bible class proper, and that the names employed to desig- 
nate them be clearly distinctive. It is suggested that the 
primary thought in the Bible class is the application of the 
truth studied to the individual members, while in the 
training class it is rather how to use the truth in working 
for others. The idea of gaining general Scripture knowl- 
edge of course pertains to both, in the latter the study 
being usually broader and more systematic. There is a 
fear that the training class through its popularity may 
minify the simpler study. The training class should sup- 
plement, not supersede, the other. The simple and direct 
study of God's Word should always have a chief place, 
for the more systematic and critical training class work 
must almost of necessity lack some of that strong devo- 
tional and personal element which so often characterizes 
the j^lainer form. It is indeed a question whether the first 
year or more of the young worker's study should not be 
confined to the Bible class, and whether more or less pre- 
vious Bible study should not form a requisite for admission 
into even the lower grades of specific training. 

Such rudimentary work as learning the names and order 
of the books, and acquiring proficiency in a mechanical use 
of the Bible and of its simpler helps, may properly form a 
preliminary to all class study. Keither can there be objec- 
tion to giving a few minutes of the Bible class hour, if 


desired, to any helpful study about the book, or even 
to considering some objections and answers in inquiry 
work, especially such as may be in a line with the lesson 
under consideration. There need be no fear of trench- 
ing upon the work of the training class, for its field is 

h. The following general subjects are now included in 
some of the training class outlines : 

(1) The Bible, — its contents, construction, and 
authors, with methods of study. 

(2) Analysis of books of the Bible. 

(3) Principal facts and doctrines, God, sin, redemp- 
tion, etc. 

(4) Illustrative studies, — sacred geography and 
archaeology ; Bible languages, including their idioms, fig- 
ures, etc., and principles of interpretation. 

(5) Christian evidences. 

(6) Christian history. 

(7) Methods of work. 

(8) Difficulties and objections of inquirers. 

c. As it is desirable to take up several subjects at each 
session of the class — as, for example, Bible analysis, 
doctrines, and methods with the inquirer — it will be 
necessary to arrange a time schedule and adhere strictly 
to it. 

d. A graded system of classes is needed in the larger 
Associations. To traverse the above outline, or even one 
less extensive, in a manner at all satisfactory, will require 
several years, and can be best accomplished by means of a 
graded course. Kot only will such a plan afford a sys- 
tematic method for the development of the younger mem- 
bers, but it will offer to those who join the Association at 
any time a grade of study suited to their experience and 
capacity. The following is a suggestive outline for such 
a course, including all the subjects. These may be changed 
or modified at pleasure. 

(1) Junior division. Composed of the youngest class 

Chap. 21, B, 10. THE BIBLE m ASSOCIATION WORK. 24:6 

of workers who are fitted for systematic training. Lessons 
made up of the simpler facts about the Bible ; brief out- 
lines of books of the Bible ; something about the leading 
doctrines, and instruction as to the common objections of 
inquirers, and simple methods of work. 

(2) Intermediate division. Composed of graduates 
from the lower grade and others sufficiently advanced to 
begin with this class. More thorough study about the Bible, 
including the illustrative features ; more critical outlines of 
the books ; doctrines continued ; evidences of Christianity; 
the more difficult objections of inquirers ; methods of 

(3) Senior divisio?i. Critical review of the books and 
illustrative studies ; completion of doctrines and evidences ; 
difficult objections continued ; Christian history ; methods 
of work. 

Christian history will embrace outlines of church history, 
and the progress of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tions, Sunday-schools, missions, etc. Methods of work 
will include among other things such topics as how to con- 
duct meetings; dealing with inquirers; the preparation of 
topical talks, Bible readings, etc.; with practical illustra- 
tions of the same. Especially should students be well 
drilled in writing, becoming accustomed to prepare written 
reviews, criticisms, and essays on the different subjects 
coming before the class. This should be begun, in its 
simpler forms, in the lower grades, and fully developed in 
the higher. 

e. It is suggested that, when practicable, the difficulties 
and objections of inquirers be treated in connection with 
the study of the books where the Scripture answers to 
them will naturally be found. Such a plan will certainly 
add materially to the harmony and unity of a series of 
lessons. It is still more desirable that theoretical study 
be accompanied by practical work during the week. In 
this way the members not only receive valuable training, 
but actual cases may be brought before the class, eliciting 


greater interest than will be possible with imaginary 

f. There are various systems of Bible marking, a subject 
that will probably be studied in the class. The systematic 
student will take hints from all and then make up a method 
of his own. (See *' Watchman," 1885, pages 1, 13, 14, 
49, and 75.) 




The duty of personal effort with the unsaved is one that 
appeals daily to the heart and conscience of the earnest 
worker. He is surrounded with young men who are not 
followers of Christ. He comes in contact with them in 
business and social life, and constant opportunities are 
presented him in connection with the varied work of the 
Association. There are two general classes : those who 
may have shown no interest whatever, and yet to whom 
we feel constrained to go with the gospel message, and 
those who come to us, either individually or through the 
invitation at a gospel meeting, and who may be strictly 
denominated inquirers. Many of the following suggestions 
will apply in either case. 

a. Personal fitness of the worker. One of the essential 
qualifications is a consistent every-day life. Then he must 
be spiritual and thoroughly in earnest, sober but cheerful 
and bright, well versed in the Scriptures, and able to use 
them with tact. He must clearly understand the relations 
of the unsaved to God. 

h. Time, place, and manner of approach. A sanctified 

* The following have been among the most popular text-books in use in the 
Associations: "Leaves from a Worker's Note-Book," by David McConaughy, 
Jr.; " Suggestive Teaching Outlines for Workers' Training Classes," by John H. 
Elliott ; -'Personal Work; How Organized and Accomplished— Studies for Bible. 
Training Classes," by C. K. Ober and J. R. Mott. Int. pphs. Nos. 12, 32, and 307. 

Chap. 21, C, 1. THE BIBLE 1^ ASSOCIATION WORK. 247 

common sense is needed. Men may sometimes have been 
startled to repentance by abrupt address, and at seemingly 
the most inopportune time and place ; but the average 
worker will fail if he attempts to imitate the eccentricities 
of even the best men. It has been said that no stranger 
should be allowed to enter the Association rooms without 
being spoken to about his spiritual welfare ; but sometimes 
fishermen quietly bait the waters till the fish, getting 
accustomed to the feeding ground, are not frightened off 
by an occasional drawing of the net. As a rule, a man 
ought not to be *^ attacked" in a public place, or when he 
is apparently busy with other matters. At the rooms a 
stranger may often be drawn into a general conversation 
for a moment as he enters, and again as he passes out, 
when a serious word may be easily added. In the case of 
young men who are frequenters of the building, occasions 
may readily be found for earnest conversation. It will be 
much easier to approach young men in the religious meet- 
ing if the kindly word of invitation or warning has been 
previously spoken in the social rooms or the routine of busi- 
ness life. But while there is sometimes abruptness and 
want of tact, there is more frequently a timid if not care- 
less neglect. It is truthfully said that the unconverted 
are more ready to be spoken to than Christians are to speak 
to them. This subject should be treated much as any 
other matter of practical importance. Straighforward talk, 
in a sympathetic but natural manner, will seldom offend 
or repel. Of course, those who remain at an after-meeting, 
or otherwise seek an opportunity for personal conversation, 
may be approached with comj)arative ease ; and yet a wise 
caution is necessary even here. 

Definite results should be expected at each evangelistic 
meeting. Often some expression is sought from such as 
desire to become Christians, and these, with others who 
are willing, are invited to remain for a second meeting. 
Sometimes, especially if the attendance be small, it may 
be better to have no formal dismission, but allow any who 

248 THE BIBLE i:^ ASSOCIATION WORK. Chap. 21, C, 1. 

prefer to pass quietly out during the singing of a verse. It 
is very essential that a person of experience give the invi- 
tation and conduct the after-meeting. The invitation 
should be repeated in the second meeting, as some who 
are too timid to rise or speak in the larger gathering may 
do so here. Suggest only one mode of manifesting inter- 
est, either rising or lifting the hand. No method should 
be used that may make any one individually conspicuous 
against his will. It is often well to ask all to bow in prayer 
before giving the invitation. Frequently after-meetings 
are entirely informal, each worker assisting the nearest 

c. Methods loith the inquirer. The worker should iirst 
ascertain, as far as practicable, the true spiritual condition 
of the inquirer ; in fact, like a physician, make a careful 
diagnosis of the case before commencing treatment. 
Then, being acquainted with the great specifics, apply 
them. It is essential that the worker rely upon the aid 
of the Holy Spirit in applying God's Word to each 
particular case, rather than upon his own personal ex- 
periences. There may be instances requiring a little 
common-sense logic, so-called, but as a rule there is no 
logic equal to the exact words of Scripture. One familiar 
with the words and methods of the Great Physician 
will be able, under the Spirit's guidance, to select some- 
thing adapted to each particular kind and stage of 
spiritual ailment. 

In the use of Scripture, present a few plain texts — too 
many may confuse. Make no far-fetched applications, and 
use no passage, the natural meaning of which must be 
twisted to make it fit. Discriminate carefully between 
truths addressed to Christians and those meant for the 
unsaved. It is a good plan to have the inquirer read and 
re-read the texts himself, till the truth is firmly fixed. It 
is often helpful to repeat a passage with varying emphasis. 
Some passages, for example, Isaiah liii : 5, may be ren- 
dered very emphatic by changing the pronoun to the 


first person singular. Seek to bring the inquirer to a deci- 
sion, and to an intelligent recognition of and trust in the 
promises of God's Word. Above all be thorough ; insist 
upon compliance with the scriptural conditions of repent- 
ance — a sorrow for and forsaking of sin, and faith in the 
merits of Christ's atonement as the only ground and means 
of salvation. Leave with the inquirer some Scripture 
reference or marked passage, something that shall re- 
main with him to warn, convince, or encourage, as the 
need may be. Ascertain his name and address and the 
church which he is in the habit of attending, or prefers, 
and, upon his accepting Christ, urge his immediate identi- 
fication with it. 

The worker should promptly file with the general secre- 
tary or with the apj^ropriate committee a report of each 
conversation. ^'The Christian Worker's Record," will be 
found very helpful in this connection. (See appendix, 
sample No. 34.) If the inquirer attends any church, the 
pastor should be informed of the interview and its apparent 
result, and some Christian young man in the church led to 
take an active interest in his progress. A letter used by 
one of the Associations in this connection is given in the 
appendix, sample No. 35. But a personal call or a written 
letter will often be much more effective than the use of 
any form, however excellent. 

Personal intercourse or correspondence should be main- 
tained with each inquirer until he appears to have entered 
fully upon the Christian life and has united with the 
church. If this can be done by the original worker all the 
better, but in the larger Associations es]3ecially this will 
often be diflicult to accomplish. When this is the case, 
the best thought and care of the Association should be 
given to some thorough method of carrying it out. Noth- 
ing should take precedence of it. Requiring as it does 
rare patience and tact, no duty is more apt to be neglected. 
(The heading of a record book is given in the appendix, 
sample No. 36.) 



a. Perhaps no agency employed by the Associations to 
lead young men to Christ can be used to better purpose 
than the evangelistic Bible class. Thoroughly informal in 
character, it can often be made more attractive to the un- 
converted than the young men's meeting, and for the same 
reason affords excellent opportunities to get at the spirit- 
ual standing of individuals and to press home the truth in 
a direct and forcible manner. It is here treated as distinct 
from the ordinary Bible class, and when possible should 
be conducted, as its name implies, solely and directly for 
evangelistic purposes. As a rule, the class is in charge of 
the general secretary. Into it he will be able to invite the 
associate members and other young men whom he may 
meet, and through it he will have peculiar opportunities to 
spiritually reach and influence them. 

b. While the majority of the class will usually be non- 
Christian young men, it should also contain a number of 
earnest and trained loorkers. It will probably lack many 
of the elements of organization found in the others, its 
membership being more irregular and transient. Indeed, 
effort should be made in connection with each session of 
the class to secure new attendants. 

c. The usual time of meeting is on Sunday. A conven- 
ient and agreeable meeting place and a cordial welcome 
for all are essential. With a musical instrument singing 
may be made a pleasing addition to the exercises. 

d. The t02ncSf while attractive in themselves, should be 
such as to give, in each lesson, to every unconverted man 
present, a clear and earnest invitation to come to Christ. 
Many passages in the Gospels are well adapted to such a 
purpose. A series of topics for such classes is published 
annually by the International Committee in the same 
pamphlet with topics for young men's meetings. The use 
of these uniform topics has proved very helpful. 

e. Some writer has made the following simple analysis : 
The teacher has first to set forth given historical facts; 


second, to educe from these certain doctrines or moral 
trutlis; tliird, to make a personal application of the truths 
to the individuals of the class. The teacher should strive 
so to present the truth, that, with the help of the Spirit, it 
may not only gain the attention, excite the interest, and 
quicken the intellect, but arouse the conscience and con- 
quer the heart, — thus leading to submission of will, new 
purpose, and Christ-like conduct. 

/. Pains must be taken to make the presentation of the 
lesson attractive. The young men who attend are not 
many of them impelled by duty or strong considerations 
of any kind. They must be interested if they are to be 
held. The exercises should be conducted with earnestness 
and animation, and the lesson aptly illustrated. 

g. The teacher should not occupy all the time. Young 
men like to talk. Such co-operation will not only hold 
their interest, but, as conversation grows free, will tend to 
disclose to the alert mind their real feeling and relation to 
the subject under consideration. Then, too, as men talk 
about personal experiences and look into their own hearts 
they become more and more open to conviction. A single 
word from a diffident student should be cordially noticed 
and aptly brought into line with the conversation. 

h. The teacher must not hesitate to be plain and direct. 
Young men will not tire of jDersonal and practical topics, 
although they may not at the time assent to the conclu- 
sions. It is not best to ask questions personally unless you 
are sure of your man, but a little tact will generally secure 
answers that will afford opportunity for any desired appli- 

i. The end of all Scripture teaching is practical and 
personal, and residts should be constantly looked for. 
Both teacher and workers should often find opportunity 
for personal effort at the close of the class. 

252 THE BIBLE IPf ASSOClATIOJf WORlC. Chap. 21, C, 3. 


The Bible should be made very prominent in all relig- 
ious meetings, but especially in those of an evangelistic 

a. The Scripture lesson. This is a very important part 
of the opening exercises. The passage or passages should 
be selected with reference to their bearing on the topic of 
the meeting, and, if not perfectly familiar, should be 
looked over in advance, that the reading may be with pre- 
cision and the j^roper emphasis. Not infrequently the 
meaning of a passage may be entirely destroj^ed by care- 
less reading. The Bible is in general a book of short 
words, but many names, very j^roperly left without trans- 
lation, are exceedingly difficult. These should be looked 
up both as to meaning and pronunciation. The miscalling 
of words may be embarrassing to the audience if not to 
the reader. The lesson should be read with reverence, 
usually in a standing posture. There is often a tendency 
to too much tone in reading Scripture; a natural conver- 
sational voice should be cultivated. Occasional brief com- 
ments during the reading may be jDrofitable, if carefully 
prepared. A responsive reading will afford a pleasing 

h. Proof texts. The recitation of texts bearing uj^on a 
given topic is sometimes the leading feature of a service. 
The topic may be announced beforehand, affording all the 
opportunity to make selections; these may be made by the 
leader and given out on slips of paper; or the whole ser- 
vice may be impromptu, those present giving appropriate 
passages from memorj^ The success of this last plan will 
depend upon the number and aptness of the Bible students 
present. The Bible song service is similar, but with 
singing as a prominent feature. With good music and 
aptly selected Scripture and hymns, such a service can 
be made very impressive. If the supply of Bibles be 
ample, the young men can usually be led to take • part in 
the exercises. 




So-called Bible readings are simply religious discourses 
based on Scripture truths. While the sermon is usually 
the analysis and expansion of a single text, the Bible-read- 
ing is built out, like a bridge, on piers of Scripture, till the 
topic is spanned. Its excellences are its simplicity, the 
direct use of so much of the written word, the interpreta- 
tion and proving of Scripture by Scripture, and the mani- 
fold ways in which Scripture words and topics may be 
arranged and adapted to interest and instruct an audience. 
There is room for an endless scope and variety in prepar- 
ing and giving the readings, and great tact is often dis- 
played in arrangement and illustration. There is some- 
times a tendency to fanciful methods, and to a play on 
words — often far-fetched— which should be guarded against. 
Texts should never be wrested from their proper connec- 
tions, or their meaning in any way forced. A simple and 
practical subject is the best. A clear analysis should be 
made and the topic divided under its naturally suggested 
heads. The concordance and Bible text book Avill be the 
usual helps. So much material will present itself that the 
beginner will often gather more than he can use. He 
must persistently sift it, retaining the best and only in 
sufficient quantity, as the reading must not be too long. 
There should be a natural and logical development of the 
topic in order to clearly and effectively impress the truth. 
Sufficient and apt illustrations are needed to sustain inter- 
est and fasten thought in the mind. Whether the leader 
will read the references himself, or give them out to be 
read by others, will depend upon the size of the meeting 
and the number of trusted workers present. References 
should seldom be given out at random in a public service. 
The leader must in all cases be ready to give them himself 
in the event of hesitation or error. The texts should be 


read in a full voice and with correct emphasis. If this is 
not done, repetition on the part of the leader will be neces- 
sary. The remarks in connection with a Bible reading 
should be simple and earnest, without rhetorical display or 



The fixed sentiment of the Associations to-day confines 
the religious work, in common with that of the other de- 
partments, to young men. It is believed that general 
evangelistic and mission work should be conducted under 
church auspices, leaving the Associations, as such, to the 
one work which called them into existence and to which 
their means and methods are peculiarly adapted. Young 
men are, however, distinctly taught in the Associations 
that, as members of their respective churches, they should 
be willing workers in any needy field. And wherever they 
labor they will find opportunities to aid the work for 
young men, especially in times of revival interest. A 
general secretary should be interested in and assist all 
such movements, as far as he can without neglecting his 
other duties, but should never conduct a series of general 
evangelistic meetings himself. 


1. — A weekly meeting for young men only, with an 
evangelistic aim, is a prominent feature in our Associa- 
tions. The testimony is positive in favor of this service 
as compared with that for both sexes, formerly so common. 

* A form of report for the religious department is suggested in sample 
No. 2?. 

This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 60. 

256 RELiaious meetings, etc. Chap. 23, A, 2. 

More young men attend, greater freedom exists, religious 
interest is intensified, and results are increased many fold. 
Reasons for this are that certain classes, especially the 
timid, are more free to come, they come for the meeting 
itself, they can be given front seats, can be more plainly 
dealt with, are more ready to commit themselves, and can 
be more easily held for an after-meeting. Many of the 
younger workers are also favorably affected by the same 
conditions, being more free to work and less liable to dis- 

2. — The objects sought are the following, named not so 
much in the order of importance as in that of natural 
cause and effect: true worship, the spiritual U23building of 
the Christian men of the Association, the rescue and spir- 
itual education of unsaved young men. 

3. — The meeting is naturally composed of the workers, 
and those for whom they work; and an important element 
of success is the presence of these two classes of men in 
proportional numbers. 

4. — Some hour on Sunday afternoon not occupied by 
church services is usually considered the best time for the 
meeting, young men as a rule being least occupied then. 
In some large cities, however, Sunday evening is chosen, 
the meetings being held either before or after the regular 
church services. 

5. — The place should be accessible and attractive in its 
appointments, and supplied with a musical instrument, 
singing books, and Bibles. A blackboard is very desira- 
ble, on which the topic and Scripture references may be 
written before each meeting. Neatness, ligbt, and proper 
temperature are also important items. Good ventilation is 
almost as unusual as it is necessary. In summer fans 
should be provided. It is well to arrange the seats in- 
formally if the attendance is not large, and chairs are al- 
ways preferable to settees, the number being proportioned 
to the probable attendance. It is better to bring in addi- 
tional chairs than to have many empty ones. The books 

Chap. 32, A, 8. religious meetings, etc. 257 

may be placed on the chairs or, perhaps better, handed to 
persons as thej^ enter the room. Sometimes the seats have 
inclosed shelves underneath suitable for- both books and 

6. — The meeting is managed by a committee, whose duty 
it is to appoint leaders, select topics, and arrange such 
matters as plan of services, music, ushers, invitations, and 
the care of inquirers. Much depends upon its competency 
and organization. Individual members are usually made 
responsible for specific details. The committee should 
keep a record of statistics and other items of interest, and 
tile a duplicate of the same at the office. (For form of re- 
port of a religious meeting, see appendix, sample No. 29, 
and for hints to the committee, see sample No. 37.) 

7. — The attendance must be secured by earnest and sys- 
tematic work. Active members must be led to take a deep 
interest in the meeting; others need to be informed and at- 
tracted. The newspaper, the Association bulletin, printed 
handbills and invitation cards, and placards posted about 
the building and elsewhere, are usual methods of invitation. 
The invitation committee should also do good service. (See 
sect. C, 5.) It is an advantage if the music from the meet- 
ing can be heard on the street. All the workers should keep 
the meeting in mind, carry a supply of printed invitations, 
and use them, in connection with personal solicitation, as 
opportunity offers. A very definite work may be accom- 
plished when each member agrees to bring one person with 
him to the next meeting, then selects his man, and, if neces- 
sary, calls for and comes with him. If the service be what 
is advertised, a meeting for and by young men, and is con- 
ducted in a prompt, earnest, manly way, those who attend 
once will be likely to come again. 

8. — Young men of good address should be selected as 
ushers, and it is also well to have some of the more promi- 
nent members at the door to welcome those who come. By 
the exercise of a little tact the ushers will succeed in seat- 
ing the young men towards the front, and also prevent the 

258 RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. Chap. 23, A, 9. 

annoying practice, on the part of those who come early, of 
taking the aisle seats. It is a good plan to have a moder- 
ate number of ehairs available at first, near the leader's 
table ; and, after these are occupied, to set out others from 
a reserve supply in the back of the room. 

9. — There should be such a general plan, not only for 
each meeting but for the entire year, as to give a profitable 
and attractive variety. The opportunities for special ser- 
vices offered by public holidays, both of a religious and a 
national character, and the several appointed days of 
prayer, should be improved. Some Associations present 
statedly such topics ag personal purity, temperance, work 
among young men in foreign missionary lands, etc. Many 
Associations publish programmes quarterly, including topics 
and often leaders. The International Committee furnishes 
each year a suggestive list of topics, in pamphlet No. 10. 

10. — The leader should ordinarily be a layman, and, if 
not a young man, in full sympathy with and acceptable to 
young men; well known business men are desirable. 
Where the responsibility is put upon one quite young he 
should be well supported by experienced workers. Never 
jeopardise an evangelistic meeting in order to give a young 
man practice. Custom favors rotation in leaders. 

11. — The leader will follow the general suggestions of 
the committee, but is given the management of details. 
In this he should have a definite plan. Having ascertained 
the key-thought of the topic, his remarks, with the Scrip- 
ture readings and hymns, should cluster around it. Too 
much time should not be taken in opening the meeting, 
seldom more than fifteen or twenty minutes, the remarks 
of the leader being suggestive rather than exhaustive. It 
is often better to have several to speak on the topic, allot- 
ting to each his part, with time for preparation. (See " The 
Bible in the evangelistic meeting," Chap. 21, C, 3.) 

12. — It is essential that young men be trained to take 
part in the meeting. They must be shown the value of 
such participation, both to themselves and others, and that 

Chap. 22, A, 16. religious meetings, etc. 259 

the earlier they begin the less their difficulty in learning 
and the greater their prospect of usefulness. Some simple 
duty should be given them at first, tlieir promise being 
obtained for a definite time and thing. All needed aid 
should be afforded them in preparation. Sometimes short 
meetings are held in advance, for a prayerful study and 
division of the topic among those who are to take part. 

13. — In the character of his remarks a speaker must be 
governed by the make up of his audience, but a simple and 
direct talk will generally interest all. A young man 
should not be too didactic. It is better to have the teach- 
ing largely in the very language of Scripture. A few apt 
illustrations will enrich an address. The Master drew 
largely from the things of every-day life, and the keen 
observer will never fail of a like supply. The Bible itself 
is a very treasury of illustration. One should steadily re- 
sist the temptation to tell a story simply because it is good, 
if the api^lication is far-fetched. Illustrations like windows 
should add light. Pedantry must be avoided. An inci- 
dent from history, a fact of science, a literary quotation, 
or some biblical interpretation may often be introduced 
with the remark " you remember," or " you are probably 
familiar with." A self-sustained but quiet and earnest 
demeanor will disarm criticism and secure consideration. 

1-4. — A speaker especially needs wisdom in talking to 
the unconverted. There must be no semblance of Phari- 
saic superiority in word or manner. The chasm between 
the forgiven and the unforgiven is indeed real, but it must 
be bridged by kindness. Never, or very seldom, use "you" 
but "Ave." On the other hand, young men dislike the 
patronizing and sentimental address sometimes employed. 

15. — It may not always be wise to throw a meeting open 
for voluntary exercises, yet opportunity for them should 
be frequently given; not only that the members may grow 
accustomed to and be benefited by them, but because these 
spontaneous utterances often have an excellent effect. 

16. — During voluntary exercises promptness will usually 

260 RELIGIOUS MEETiis-GS, ETC. Chap. 23, A, 17. 

index the tone of the meeting and promote its interest, but 
if pauses occur the leader should not fret or scold, but 
rather suggest some simple cliange in the order. 

17. — Questions upon which the evangelical churches dif- 
fer should not be introduced. The leader may generally 
shut off ill-timed or too lengthy remarks by quietly rising 
and remaining in a waiting attitude. Obstinate cases must 
be personally dealt with by the committee. Cowardice in 
the management must not permit persistent intruders or 
bores to injure the usefulness of the meeting. 

18. — Good music is an essential feature. It is possible 
to organize a male choir in almost any Association, if a 
suitable leader can be obtained. The ideal leader is an 
earnest Christian man, young and popular, a tenor, and 
with ability and tact as a conductor. Often a cornet, and 
sometimes a small orchestra, can be added to the .piano or 
organ, and will j^rove very helpful in attracting and hold- 
ing the young men. Good singing books and plenty of 
them are needed, those with the notes being greatly pre- 
ferred. For general and continued use no collection has 
probably been so popular as the "Gospel Hymns," but 
many other excellent books ma}^ be brouglit into recpiisi- 
tion to give the variety and freshness so desirable. A 
choir can easily introduce selections from different books 
which will soon become familiar to the stated attendants; 
but the singing should be principally from books that can 
be furnished to all. An occasional solo or quartette selec- 
tion, unannounced and in strict harmony with the meeting, 
is often \ery effective. The singing should be spiritual, 
all mere musical displa}^ being avoided. 

It is better to omit instrumental preludes, etc., after 
the opening exercises. The leader should select the hymns, 
as far as may be, before the service, giving a list to the 
chorister. The tone of the meeting may call for others, 
and he should be able to turn readily to one in accord with 
any sentiment expressed. A few verses suited to the feel- 
ing of the moment are more effective than long hymns. 

Chap. 22, A, 22. religious meetin^gs, etc. 261 

Usually liymns should be announced only by tiie number. 
The choir and instrumentalists should be Oliristianmen. 

19. — AYorkers should be on the watch during every ser- 
vice for any evidences of special interest on the part of 
those present, and no one manifesting such interest should 
be permitted to pass out without a word of sjaiipathy or 
counsel. Often workers are systematically stationed so as 
to bring the entire room under observation. The best re- 
sults may be expected wlien each worker becomes inter- 
ested in and labors for a particular young man. (See 
''Personal work," Chap. 21, C, 1.) 

20. — It is generally best to close before the interest lags, 
even if the hour is not up; a meeting should never be al- 
lowed to "stop on the center." Tliat it end well, a few 
stirring words may be thrown in by the leader, with a 
spirited hymn and one or two brief prayers. The invita- 
tion for the manifestation of special interest should seldom 
be omitted. If circumstances seem to call for more time, 
the meeting should be promptly closed at the appointed 
hour and a second one held. Any necessary notices may 
be given near the beginning of the service. 

21. — A young men's meeting may often be conducted in 
a small town, or even in the country, where there is no 
Association; and strong Associations have grown out of 
such an effort. State Secretaries often and wisel}^ make 
the success of such a meeting a test as to the desirability 
of organizing an Association. Where the meeting is small 
an earnest and faithful committee is necessary as a nucleus. 
The meetings may be held at a church, or at the several 
churches in turn, but better still at an office or a private 
house. Help from an Association in the vicinit}" is often 
called in. 


a. — Open on time, no matter how few are present. 
h. — Sit as near as possible to your audience, 
c. — Speak so that all can hear but not too loudly. Avoid 
tone, cant, and the commonplace. Be natural. 

^62 RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. Chap. 22, A, 22. 

d. — See that the air is kept fresli, — many a meeting is 
suffocated from want of oxygen. 

e. — Be prompt and earnest, and you will impart your 
spirit to others. 
/. — Have variety. Keep out of ruts. 

g. — Adapt yourself to circumstances; if intended plans 
won't work, try others. If men fail you, be ready to take 
their places. 

]i^ — Make the meeting as informal as possible, and free 
from restraint as to order of exercises, posture in prayer, 
and similar non-essentials. 

i^ — Let everything be so simple and straightforward that 
criticism will not be thought of. 

j. — Pray for the meeting before you come, during its 
progress, and after it is over. 

A\ — Never come unprepared; give the best you have; 
never apologize. 

I. — Depend upon the truth and the Holy Spirit, not upon 
manner and methods. 

m. — Hold up Christ so as to hide yourself. 

n, — Be free and cheerful, but never lose the devotional 

o. — Avoid a too familiar and possibly irreverent use of 
the name of the Deity. 

p. — Have plenty of singing, but of the right kind and at 
proper times. 

q. — Urge brightness and brevity in the exercises, and set 
the example. 

r. — Encourage the weak and timid. 

s. — Never lose j^our grip on the meeting. 

?.—Keep in view that the definite object of your work is 
the conversion of souls. 

n. — Aim for immediate results, and strike for them at 
the right time, no matter if at the beginning of the service. 

V. — If praj^er is requested, personally or for a friend, see 
that a response is made during the meeting. It is often 
best to do so at once. 

Chap. 22, B, 2. RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. 263 

w. — When the meeting is over, don't turn your back 
find hurry away. Go among those present and cordially 
greet as many as you can. 



In addition to the " young men's meeting " there are 
many others, some being simply modifications of that 
meeting under. different names. The details given in the 
previous section will be applicable to these, and also to the 
other services here enumerated. 

1. — Social religious meetings. — Under this head are 
meetings composed of Christian young men and intended 
specially for worship and spiritual growth. Of this class 
are the meetings for prayer and conference, the experience 
or testimony meeting, the promise meeting, the praise or 
thanksgiving meeting, and the consecration meeting; the 
particular objects and characteristics of each being indi- 
cated by the name. 

A converts' meeting, or a meeting for beginners and in- 
quirers, is held with the special purpose of developing and 
strengthening these classes, and is very important during 
and after times of special interest. 

A workers' preparatory^ meeting, for prayer and sugges- 
tions, is often held just before an evangelistic service. 

Evening prayers are conducted by many Associations, 
usually under the direction of the reception committee, 
just before the hour of closing. This is an excellent 

Where there are several employes, a short season of 
prayer and Bible study every morning is a fitting prepara- 
tion for the day's work. 

2 — Occasional 7neetings. — The service of song, in which 
singing is a leading feature, has always been popular. 

^64 RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. Chap. ^2, B, 2. 

Hymns are selected and arranged topicall^^ and inter- 
spersed with appropriate Scripture readings and remarks. 
With good music and tact in arranging and conducting 
the service, it may be made very effective. 

Gospel temperance and personal purity meetings are 
held statedly by many Associations. They are designed 
to educate j^oung men in relation to the evils of intemper- 
ance and impurity in all their forms, and to impress them 
so deepl}^ with the peril of yielding to temptation that 
they may be led to fly to Christ for strength and salvation. 
These meetings should be thoroughly evangelistic and be 
immediately followed by meetings' for personal religious 
conversation. Meetings should also be held to point out 
the evils of gambling in any form. 

Meetings are often held for students of medical or other 
professional schools, for commercial travelers, and, where 
there are no separate organizations, for railroad men and 
men of various nationalities. The Associations should 
take advantage of every such desirable opportunity. 

A " watch meeting " on ISTew Year's eve may be made 
very impressive ; part of the time being given to answering 
such questions as, "What led me into the Association ? " 
" How has the Association helped me ? '' " What can I 
do the coming year to increase the usefulness of the 
Association ? " or " to win j^oung men to the service of 
Christ ? " 

Meetings in the interest of work among the young men 
of foreign mission countries, are held by many Associa- 
tions, and an earnest and wide-spread feeling is aroused 
on the subject. An important feature of these meetings 
is the information given regarding the present condition 
and needs of young men in these fields. 

The week of prayer appointed by the International Con- 
ventions, beginning with the second Sunda}'- in November 
of each year, should be observed by a series of special 
meetings. Although the ideal spiritual condition is one 
of continuous earnestness and activity, still Scripture and 

Chap.22, C, 1. RELlGflOUS MEETINGS, ETC. 265 

experience teach that there are sj^ecial " times of refresh- 
ing," and it has been found that this setting apart of a few 
days for special prayer and effort, near the opening of the 
active winter season, is very fruitful of results, stimu- 
lating the membership, leading young men into the Chris- 
tian life, and often marking the beginning of a work that 
continues through weeks and months. If special evangel- 
istic effort is to be made immediately after the week of 
prayer, that week maj^ be devoted to preparatory meetings 
of Christian men. The uniform observance of the week 
throughout the Christian world is an additional incentive 
to faith and effort. The services may often be rendered 
more effective by a judicious exchange of workers between 
neighboring Associations. The social work and entertain- 
ments should be so arranged as to interfere as little as 
possible with the special services. Experience however 
shows that the regular appointments cannot well be 
omitted. If the meetings are held at 9 P. M., as is quite 
customary, many young men from the classes, etc., may be 
induced to attend them. (See " The Day and Week of 
Prayer," Chap. 32, F.) 

Special meetings for young men only, conducted by an 
experienced evangelist, are often held and with excellent 
results. If a sufficient number of thoroughly qualified 
men shall be called into this particular field there will no 
doubt be a rapid increase in such meetings. Success 
depends, however, not simply on the presence of an earn- 
est and capable leader, but upon the consecrated co-opera 
tion of the local workers, as well as upon weeks of sys 
tematic preparation. 



1. — Meetings for young men are sometimes held in board- 
ing houses, either on a week day evening or a Sunday 

266 RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. Chap. 22, C, 2. 

afternoon, a delegation of workers arranging for the place 
and hour, and extending personal invitations to the young 
men in the house and its neighborhood. The meetings 
should be made very social, with a good deal of spirited 
singing, and should not last over an hour. Meetings some- 
what similar in character may be held at hotels in the in- 
terest of commercial travellers and strangers. Wherever 
there is any considerable number of Germans, Scandina- 
vians, French Canadians, or other non-English speaking 
young men, and special branches of the Association have 
not been organized for them, meetings should be estab- 
lished in the localities where they live. 

Seamen have been greatly neglected by the Associations. 
Meetings should be held on vessels in harbors, seamen in- 
vited to our rooms, and correspondence maintained with 
them after they leave port. 

In all such efforts aid may be secured from the young 
men in the religious societies of the various churches. 

2. — Woo'k in piiblic institutions. — Jails and penitentia- 
ries, hospitals, and other public institutions open wide doors 
for personal visitation and religious meetings, and from 
the large numbers of j^oung men which many of them 
contain are legitimate fields of labor for the Associations. 
Association workers should confine their efforts to the 
male wards and departments. 

3. — Sermons to young men. — It is customary to ask 
pastors to give a discourse on the Sunday of the week of 
prayer touching the importance and methods of work for 
young men. It may also be practicable and helj^ful to 
have occasional sermons or addresses specially to young 
men, both to Christians and to the unconverted, delivered 
under Association auspices. These may relate to the evils 
which beset young men and the vices which prevail 
among them. On such occasions special effort should be 
made to secure the attendance of young men at the ser- 
vices, which may be either at the Association rooms or at 
the speaker's own church. 

Chap. 22, C, 5. religious meetings, etc. 267 

4. — Distribution of religious reading matter. — System- 
atic work in this direction, although carried on to some 
extent, is entitled to more time and effort, especially when 
considered as a counteracting influence to the pernicious 
reading with which every community is flooded. A wise 
discrimination is needed, first, in the selection of such 
matter, to procure that which is attractive in form, and, 
as far as possible, entertaining as well as practical and 
pointed in character; and, second, in the distribution, to 
use that which is adapted to the recipient. There is a 
great amount and variety of material, cards, tracts, tract 
papers, and religious newspapers, much of it tasteful in 
typography and beautifully illustrated; and a competent 
committee will soon become sufliciently conversant with it 
not only to make judicious selections but to helpfully ad- 
vise individual workers. Tracts for young men on per- 
sonal purity and kindred subjects are especially desirable. 

There are many methods of distribution. The " take 
one " box, giving out to men on the street and in public 
conveyances, or to seamen on ships in port or in seamen's 
boarding houses, and inclosing with invitations and letters 
sent out, are like the "sowing beside all waters; "but a 
personal and premeditated work is likely to secure a better 
percentage of results. Especially should every worker 
have carefully assorted material with which to effectually 
supplement his conversations with inquirers. Such publi- 
cations can be procured in quantities at little more than 
cost, most houses making special terms to the Associations. 
The American Tract Society gives a liberal discount. 

5. — The invitation committee. — A well organized and 
active committee will come into contact during the year, 
and over and over again, with a large percentage of the 
young men of the community, reaching them with the 
printed and often the spoken invitation, perhaps the only 
religious message that ever comes personally to many of 
them. This committee is usually made up from the 
younger workers, the duties being readily performed by 

268 RELIGIOUS MEETINGS, ETC. Chap. 22, C, 5. 

beginners. The members sometimes have tea together at 
the building before an evening meeting, and after a season 
of prayer go on the streets. The matter distributed con- 
sists of invitations to the rooms and especially to the relig- 
ious meetings. Unwise use of Scripture texts on street 
invitations should be guarded against, also sensational 
phraseology and flashy printing. Associations have some- 
times made serious mistakes in those directions. The re- 
sults from this work are constant and encouraging. Success 
depends largely upon the taste and variety of the printed 
matter, and the earnest tact of the committee. The invita- 
tion committee is usually a sub-committee of that on re- 
ligious work. (See Chap. 8, D, 4.) 



1. — Although beginning with the single idea of benefit- 
ing young men spiritually, the committee of the London 
Association reported as early as its third half yearly meet- 
ing the formation of mutual improvement (or literary) so- 
cieties, in order to bring young men under the influence of 
the Association who could not be reached by directly re- 
ligious agencies. The report says : " We shall deem it no 
unimportant result if in any instance we can lead to the 
library of useful knowledge, rather than to cards or bill- 
iards, to the cigar divan, concert room, theatre, or the 
seductive and polluting resort. In a time when every 
weapon of offence is used for the purpose of blasphemy, 
reproach, and sin, no restrictions should be placed upon 
the agencies which may be used to extend the influences 
of knowledge and virtue, especially v/hen these agencies 
are directed by Christian men." The first j)ractical move 
in the direction indicated was the institution, in the fall 
of 1845, of the Exeter Hall Lectures, which were con- 
tinued under the same auspices for twenty years. Four 
years later library and reading rooms were opened, and 
not only for members but "for all whom their influence 
could reach." Earnest care was taken that these pro- 
visions should be kept as "auxiliaries to, not substitutes 
for, the main object of the Association." And it is stated 

*See" Ihe growth of secxilar agencies in our work," Int. pph. No. 593. 
Chapters 23 and 21 are reprinted arj Int. ppb. No. 61. 

270 VALUE OF THE SECULAR WORK. Chap. 23, 2. 

that, in accordance with the desire and exj^ectation of the 
committee, *'many of those who attended the library and 
reading rooms were led to frequent the religious meetings 
and to accept Christ," and that '*very many of those 
brought v/ithin the spiritual influence of the Association 
could not otherwise have been reached." A summary of the 
first World's Conference (Paris, 1855), mentions among 
indirect means employed in the work reading rooms, lib- 
raries, lectures, evening classes, etc. The records of the 
first live years of the London Association clearly set forth 
the principles underlying present theory and practice. It 
Avill be noticed that the secular agencies first introduced 
Avere intellectual. Something of the social element ap- 
pears in connection with the half yearly meetings, but the 
present phases of both the physical and social work are of 
comparatively recent date. They were introduced by de- 
grees, and no doubt a similar process will go on in the 
future. The action of all these agencies is now recognized 
as controlled by a single aim, namely, to benefit men by 
symmetrical bodily, mental, and spiritual development. 
No one of these departments can be omitted in a complete 
Association work. 

2. — The following facts and suggestions are given re- 
garding secular work in general : 

a. — The size of the associate membership will be largely 
in proportion to the number and excellence of the secular 

h. — Different agencies influence different persons. There 
should be variety, and effort to adapt the agencies to the 
needs of the particular field. 

c. — That Association is most successful in this adapta- 

* The very large proi^ortiou of associate members in the following cities in 
1890 ehows the attraction of the secular privileges. 
New York, total membership 7,204 

Chicago, " " 


23,601 7,116 16,486 


active 1,245 

associate 5,959 



" 3.592 


" 1.522 



" 1,340 



" 1.212 


Chap. 23, 2. value of the secular work. 271 

tioii which reaches the different classes of young men in 
proportionate numbers. The next best thing is to reach 
the largest number of the largest class. 

d. — Each member should be studied and effort made to 
draw him under the influence of the department that will 
best round him out into a complete man. This is a diffi- 
cult undertaking, as it will often run comiter to his natural 
inclination. The gymnast who is not a Christian needs to 
become one, and the Christian Avorker who neglects men- 
tal or physical development needs enlightenment as to his 
duty and privilege in these directions. 

6. — There are differences of opinion, and probably 
always will be, as to the wisdom of certain features and 
agencies in the work. What can be properly and advan- 
tageously employed in a given field must be decided 
largely by the individual Association, influenced by the 
opinion of the evangelical Christians in its community. 
There should be hesitation in publicly criticising methods 
having any considerable endorsement among Association 
men, and not at variance with the settled principles of the 

f. — Great care should be exercised in introducing entirely 
new features. Tendencies and results should be carefully 
noted, and doubtful methods discarded. It will be safe 
to follow the spirit of the Paris basis. 

g. — Every secular appliance should be good, the best 
possible of its kind, commanding the attention and re- 
spect of those whom it is desired to reach. 

A. — A comprehensive plan should be made each year for 
the entire work of the Association, including any special 
appointments in each department. Digressions from this 
plan ought to be seldom, if ever, necessary. The time, 
place, and other arrangements for the religious meetings 
should be such so as to naturally draw into them the 
young men who are interested in the secular departments. 

/. — In newspaper notices of the work, and in the pro- 
spectus, bulletins, and reports, each department should 

272 VALUE OF THE SECULAR WORK. Chap. 33, 2. 

be given its proper place, being neither belittled nor given 
undue prominence. 

j. — Contact with the Association through the secular 
agencies generally wears off that prejudice against the in- 
stitution so widely existing among non-Christian young- 

k. — The secular features, especially those of an educa- 
tional character, are likely, through their practical value, 
to attract the attention of business men and command their 

I. — It is essential to the best success that the leaders in 
all departments be manly Christians. 

in. — The spiritual life and power should always be in ad- 
vance. Every agency should contribute to the awakening 
and growth of the Christian life. 

n. — Systematic provision should be made for bringing 
the workers into contact with the associate members 
throughout all departments. 

o. — The active members should be guarded in their in- 
tercourse with the associate members, who will not always 
discriminate between mere carelessness and real incon- 
sistency. They should so carry themselves that they may 
easily and at any time ap}>roach their fellows on the sub- 
ject of personal religion. 

OHAr>TER 24r. 



1. — As is shown in the preceding chapter the reading 
room was one of the earliest of the so-called secular agen- 
cies adopted, and it soon grew into general favor. To- 
day it is the most common of all appliances, existing in 
nearly every Association where any room is kept open. In 
1890 there were 779 reading rooms for young men and 88 
for boys in connection with the American Associations. 
For many young men it would be difficult to provide 
an attraction possessing greater or more lasting merit 
than a well-stocked and orderly reading room. Where 
Association rooms are maintained with supervision, such a 
room is always practicable. It is useful in itself as a means 
of informing and educating men, and, with right direc- 
tion, improving their tastes ; it is economical, providing 
reading matter in amount, variety, and class that few 
could get by other methods ; it affords opportunity to 
counteract in a measure the influence of pernicious and 
trashy reading matter by offering that which is better ; it 
is readily appreciated and will almost invariably com- 
mend the Association to a community; it forms an ex- 
cellent basis upon and around which to build up a health- 
ful and religious resort. 

* A form of report for this department is suggested in sample No. 24. 


2.— A public reading room requires large cubic dimen- 
sions and the best possible ventilation, as the attendance is 
often greater and more promiscuous than that in other 
apartments. The best light is needed both day and even- 
ing. Artificial lights should be either directly over 
tables and supplied with large shades, or, better, all in the 
upj^er part of the room, so that the eyes of readers may 
escape the glare. Either hard wood or linoleum is pre- 
ferable to matting or carpet. Inclined reading desks with 
stationary files are perhaps necessary for daily papers in 
frequent use, and must sometimes be so high that the 
readers must stand, in order to keep them from remaining 
too long, but tables, easy chairs, and portable files are 
more attractive and homelike. There should be neat wall 
racks, properly labeled, uj^on which files ought to be 
promptly replaced either by the readers or an attendant. 

3. — The approach should always be under supervision, 
and the arrangement of the rooms such as to place the 
reading room under easy control from the ofilice. This may 
often be done by a glazed partition. The room should be 
shut off, if possible, from noisy portions of the building, 
and order and quiet be strictly insisted on. Conveniences 
for the safe-keeping of hats, overcoats, etc., will suggest 
good manners. Absence of spittoons and a neat floor will 
be better than notices not to use tobacco, 

4. — The room should be used for legitimate purposes 
only. Loungers, of whatever age or condition, should be 
excluded. These often include a class of chronic readers, 
both old and young men, seemingly with no other employ- 
ment, whose continued presence and occupation of the 
daily papers are extremely annoying. They must be 
quietly but firmly shown that they are trespassing upon 
the rights of others. Discrimination must be used so as 
not in any case to repel deserving young men, — those who 
may be temporarily out of employment, strangers, or oc- 
casional visitors. This whole matter is best regulated by 
a system of registration and readers' tickets. (See foot 

Chap. 24, A, 7. the educatio^'Al department. 275 

note, Chap. 9, D, 3.) Persons of uncleanly habits and 
young boys should of course be excluded. In some of the 
smaller towns, boys are admitted at certain hours, but a 
separate apartment for them is far preferable. Disorder 
of any kind should be so suppressed as to prevent the like- 
lihood of its repetition. 

5. — The ordinary week-day hours are from 9 a.m. to 10 
P.M., the largest attendance usually being in the evening. 
Most city Associations open their reading rooms on Sun- 
day afternoon, and some both afternoon and evening. It 
is not usual to open any of the Association rooms during 
the regular hours of church services. General sentiment 
strongly favors removing secular papers on Sunday. Per- 
sonal invitations to the meetings may be quietly given in 
the reading room, or printed ones handed strangers as 
they enter. 

6. — There should be systematic effort to come into close 
contact with the young men v/ho are attracted by the read- 
ing room. The secretaries and the evening committee 
may do this through the registry system just mentioned. 
Employes and members should not violate the rules by 
conversing in the reading room, and it is generally unwise 
to interrupt readers by speaking to them. Quietly hand- 
ing them a card asking them to stop at the office before 
going out will serve a better purpose. It is often necessary 
to place a time limit on the use of dailies when others are 
waiting — generally ten to fifteen minutes. 

7.— Papers should be filed promptly, and removed as 
soon as they become ragged or soiled. On portable files 
it may be well to have but one or two copies, especially of 
the weeklies. Exceptions should be made of papers con- 
taining advance notes on the international Sunday-school 
lessons. Papers should be carefully folded and cut when 
filed. Files of the more important periodicals, including 
at least one of the leading dailies, should be preserved for 
reference, and many of them bound. Magazines are often 
kept in the library or in charge of the secretary, to be given 


out on call. If the .smaller j^apers and magazines are filed 
in patent hinders and j^laced on tables with properly- 
labelled divisions, they Avill he kept in good condition and 
he convenient for use, hut when left scattered about they 
soon become soiled and dog-eared. The binder Avill be 
much more easily recognized if the maker puts the covers 
of the magazine to which it is appropiated on its front and 
back. A coat of varnish will insure durability. A list of 
the periodicals should be conspicuously posted in the read- 
ing room, and with it any needed rules. 

8. — The periodicals selected should be adapted to those 
who are to use them, and also as varied as possible. In 
general it pays to get the best. It is not worth while to 
lumber the files with useless matter because it is free or 
cheap, but it is far better to maintain the moral and lit- 
erary tone by discarding everything doubtful. Papers of 
this class are constantly sent to the Associations with the 
hope that they will be filed. Some publishers of desirable 
periodicals will send them for the asking ; others will *' ex- 
change" on application if the usual '* reading notices" are 
inserted in the Association bulletin. No paper should be 
filed without the sanction of the proper committee. 

9. — For the average reading room several dailies will 
be needed, at least one metropolitan in addition to the 
locals, and, if practicable, papers from a number of lead- 
ing cities. The political parties must be recognized, as 
well as the leading evangelical denominations and great 
reform organizations. Effort should be made to furnish 
religious reading in its more attractive forms, that it may 
be sought by the largest number. The higher order of 
secular literature should be a leading feature. Younger 
readers should be well provided for. Such periodicals as 
the Ybiith^s Companion, Harper^s Young People, /St. 
Nicholas, Wide Aioake, and corresponding English young 
folks' papers ought to supplant all second rate matter. 
'* Our Dumb Animals," and kindred publications should 
be found in every reading room. A strong point can 


always be made by putting in generous files of journals 
suited to the industries of the town. No one appreciates 
a good reading room more than the average mechanic. 
The files should include at least one periodical each for 
railroad men, clerks and bookkeepers, stenographers, fire- 
men, Grand Army men, the different trades, etc. College 
papers and catalogues will be of interest to college men 
and students intending to enter college. A bicycle journal, 
and those devoted to outdoor sports, as Forest and Stream^ 
Outing, etc., will attract many young men, and guide books 
for summer tourists are useful in their season. If papers 
printed in other languages are demanded, they should be 
supjjlied. A city Association will find it serviceable to 
file the weeklies of surrounding villages, as the young men 
from these places will be interested, in the home papers. 
Journals representing work for young men or young 
people are especially desirable. Many Association bulletins 
are worth i^reserving, and may be placed on a table by 
themselves. Announcements of the arrival of magazines, 
with lists of their leading articles, conspicuously posted, 
will promote their use. 

10. — Periodicals can sometimes be obtained direct from 
the publishers at better rates than elsewhere. It is con- 
venient to have all subscriptions expire at the same time. 
There should be system and promptness in renewing or 
discontinuing papers. This may be facilitated by a prop- 
erly kept " periodical book," showing such facts as the 
name of each publication on file, where published, how 
often, class or character, stated terras, price paid, where or 
of whom obtained, and date to which payment has been 
made. Bills have sometimes been presented for several 
years arrearage when the periodical was supposed to be do- 

11. — -No valuable reading matter should be wasted. That 
which is not kept for permanent reference is useful for dis- 
tribution in many directions, for instance, among seamen 
or canal boatmen, or in railroad cabooses, fire, police or 


Street car stations, lios})itals, or prisons, or it maybe sent 
to soldiers on the frontier. 

12. — There is of late a tendency towards restricting the 
privileges of the reading room to members only. There 
are two main reasons for this ; the more expensively fur- 
nished rooms in the new buildings, and the imposition to 
which the Association with a " free reading room" is con- 
stantly subjected. In the larger Associations it may be 
practicable to maintain two reading rooms, one especially 
for the members ; if not, a wise discrimination should be 
able to so control the room as not to exclude self-respecting 
young men. A peremptory closing of the public reading 
room, besides depriving many of a needed privilege, shuts 
off a principal avenue of approach hy which young men, 
and especially strangers, are brought into contact with 
the Association. Many first found in the reading room 
can be brought into membership, and not a few come from 
it into the religious meetings and are led to Christ. Any 
tendenc}'' to seeming exclusiveness will also lessen the in- 
fluence of the Association with the industrial classes and 
throw it out of sympathy with the community generally. 

13. — The following applies onl}^ to the smaller Associa- 
tions. Where but a small cash expenditure is possible, the 
suppl}^ ma}^ sometimes be supplemented by second-hand 
matter, particularly in the case of monthly magazines. A 
better Ava}^ however, is to induce one or more j^ersons to 
subscribe for a certain periodical for the year. The club 
plan is sometimes adopted, sections of four subscribing for 
as many monthlies, each having a week's reading of each, 
in turn, and the Association coming in as the beneficiary 
at the end of the month. Bj organizing several sections a 
fine variety of magazines may be secured. The local town 
and county papers will often be donated, and clergj^men 
can frequently secure their denominational papers free, at 
least for the first yeai-. , 

Chap. 24, B, 2. the educational department. 279 



1. — Usefulness.— In 1890 the Associations had 649 librar- 
ies for young men, with an aggregate of 437,347 volumes, 
and 74 libraries for boys. A well selected library is a very 
valuable feature in connection with an Associatioi], con- 
serving or fostering its interests in many directions. It as- 
sures the favorable consideration of that most important 
element in every community, the people of taste and cul- 
ture ; it holds the interest of the more intellectual young 
men, from whom the most is to be expected in the way of 
intelligent and stable co-operation ; lines of technical books 
draw to the Association the earnest students in the various 
trades and professions ; and the librarian, by constant 
effort, may direct the reading of many j^oung men into right 
channels, and greatly improve their literary taste. In fact 
every hundred volumes placed upon the shelves is not only 
more power for good but an added guarantee of the per- 
manency of the institution. In some towns the Association 
may have the only public library, but even if there are 
other excellent facilities of this kind, the Association can 
ill afford to do without a library, and can gather one that 
is more select and more generally helpful to young men. 

2. — Reference and Lending. — The library will usually 
include a reference and a lending department. Many 
expensive and cyclopedic books should not be taken 
from the rooms ; but as many young men will be unable 
to spend much time at the building the general library 
should, whenever practicable, be lending. The department 
should be emphasized that is most needed hj the 3^oung 
men of the place, in view of facilities ofl'ered them bj" 
neighboring institutions. Readers should be liable for the 
loss or unusual damage of a volume. 

* See " Association Libraries and Librarians," Int. pph. No. 590. Also "Young 
Men's Era," 1891, p. 582. 

380 'I'ttE EDUCATIONAL DBPARTMENT. Chap. 24, B, 3. 

3. — Apartments. — These accommodate from one thou- 
sand to perhaps twenty-five thousand volumes. In every 
case reasonable provision should be made for growth. 
Space is best economized by the alcove system; if the ceil- 
ing is high, one or more galleries may be introduced. The 
room may be lighted from above. It should be very light 
and pleasant, with tables and easy chairs to accommodate 
a number of readers, and if possible with the luxury of an 
open fire-place. The librarian's desk should be so located 
as to enable him most conveniently to supervise the library, 
and perhaps the reading room also. The lending and ref- 
erence divisions ma}^ occupy separate rooms, or different 
parts of the same room, divided jDOssibly by a low railing. 
(See Chap. 14, C, 5.) 

4. — Accession, Classification, Cataloguing and Mark- 
ing . — Every library should have an ^' accession book," in 
which is kept an account Avith each volume placed upon 
the shelves. A separate number, known as the " accession 
number," should be given to each, followed by the author, 
title, place of publication, publisher, year, pages, size, 
binding, source from whence received, cost, and class and 
book numbers, a column being given to each item. This 
record will be valuable in many ways. Being a minute 
inventory, it will afford a close description in the event of 
loss by theft or fire. 

It is customary to classify books by their general char- 
acter, keeping each class by itself. It is usual to number 
books upon the back as well as on the inside, and this may 
be done by a gum label, or with white and black inks, 
or with white lead applied with a fine brush. 

Every library of a thousand volumes should be carefully 
classified on an expansive system. Let a class number in- 
dicate the class to which the book belongs, and a book 
number its place in the class. Case and shelf numbers are 
undesirable. Prof. Dewey's " Decimal Classification " sys- 
tem is the best. The sub-conference of those interested in 
the library, held in connection with the International Sec- 


retaries' Conference in 1890 recommended "all Associa- 
tions to adopt the decimal system of classification in their 
libraries, for the sake of uniformity and because of its many 
advantages." As our libraries grow, the benefits derived 
from uniformity, in correspondence, in the purchase of 
supplies, and in many other ways, will become more and 
more apparent. (See Chap. 12, 7.) A card catalogue of 
authors and titles and sometimes subjects, arranged alpha- 
betically on the " dictionary "* plan is recommended. A 
catalogue in book form may be made with little trouble 
and expense by taking the printed catalogue of a model 
library or a list of good books and indicating on the mar- 
gin what books are in the library. The titles left un- 
marked will form an excellent guide in making purchases. 
Mr. Frank C. Patten, of the Library School, at Albanj', 
N. Y., introduced this plan at the Association in that city. 

A book plate having on it the class and book numbers, 
the date of accession, and name of donor, if it is a gift, to- 
gether with rules of the library, may be placed inside the 
first cover. A manilla pocket to hold a card used in charging 
the book sometimes takes the place of the book plate, and 
bears the same marks. Many libraries paste a plain mark 
of OAvnership on the outside of the front cover of every 
book. There is a growing dislike for manilla covers. In 
many instances they injure the binding and it is question- 
able whether they ever pay for the outlay, while all agree 
that every book so covered loses its identity. A " seven 
daj^ book " label is often pasted on the outside of popular 
books while the demand is great. 

5. — Charging. — There are many systems of charging. 
In a small library, from which say fifty volumes are drawn 
each week, a simple record may be kept in a narrow-page 
book ruled in three columns ; first the date, second the 
name, third the number. Credit can be given by checking 
off the number. Sometimes the books are charged and 

* See Cutter's " Rules for a Dictionary Catalogue," U. S. Bureau of Education, 



credited b}^ card slips wliicli are placed in a box and 
written up weekly. In this case the cards should be sorted 
and the debits entered in alphabetical order. The date 
may also be written at the top of the page, which obviates 
the need of a date column. This method easily shows the 
books that are overdue, and notices maj" be sent out by 

Monday, April 12, 1889. 

Armstrong, J. J. 


Burrows, L. C. 


Clark, Wm. 


Another simple plan is to keep a ledger account with 
each borrower as follows : 

John Smith, 108 James St. 





1—3— '89. 

1—12— '89. 

2— 1~'89. 

122, E 37. 
267, H 3. 
913, B 12. 

1—12— '89. 
2—1— '89. 

A fourth line may be added for fines, or these may be 
interlined. A wide page will contain a double set of three 
column records. The card slips, with either a daily or 
weekly posting, may be used also with this system. Most 
large libraries use cards for charging books, keeping them 
in trays. Methods are so various that no attempt will be 
made to illustrate them here. Indeed all these matters 
of accession, classification, cataloguing, marking, and 
charging are intimatel}' connected, having become one of 

Chap. 24, B, 6. the educational department. 283 

the arts of modern life, and the student is referred to 
sources which treat them more fully than is possible in 
this volume.* Methods must be adapted to the size and 
character of the library and the public needs, and depend 
somewhat, also, upon the character of the supervision. The 
more systematic and complete its arrangement, the more 
useful will the library be to its patrons, especially in its 
reference department. 

On a new member's first application for a book, it is a 
good plan to have him sign a card containing the librarj'- 
rules, with this addition : " Desiring to draw books from 
the library, I agree to do so in accordance with the above 
rules." While this agreement furnishes no security against 
a member who intends to take advantage of the Associa- 
tion, it is a decided check on thoughtlessness, to which 
most losses are due. 

A catalogue describing labor-saving devices for library 
and office work, manj^ of wliich have been approved b}^ the 
American Library Association, is sent free on application 
to the Library Bureau, 146 Franklin St., Boston. 

6. — The Librarian . — Only the larger Associations can 
employ a person to devote his wliole time to the librarj^ 
The ofiice of librarian is honorable and responsible. He 
comes in close mental contact with the more intelligent 
young men, both of the active and associate membership, 
and the lines of influence open to him are exceptionally 
broad and strong. Onl}^ a man possessing a full apprecia- 
tion of his opportunities and duties in these respects, in ad- 
dition to his other qualifications, is really fitted for this 

Prof. J. H. Gilraore, of Rochester University, in a 
paper read at the International Convention in 1889, says : 

" The librarian should be well educated, but not a mere book- 
worm ; well trained in library economy, but not a mere machine. 
He should be thoroughly in sympathy with the religious work of 

* S. H. Beny, librarian of the Brooklyn, N Y. Association, has in preparation 
a pamphlet entitled ''The Association Library, its ticiministration and use.'" 

^84 ^'HE EDtiCATiOXAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 24, B, 6. 

the Association — thoroughly affable (speak-to-able) and courteous. 
His function is not merely to purchase, catalogue, and charge 
books ; but (a) to elevate the character of the books read by those 
who use the library — substituting better books for bad books, and, 
finally, the best books for better books. In the crusade against 
bad books, better books are our best weapon. A fairly good book 
that our members will read is better for our purposes than a 
thoroughly good book that they will let alone. 

" Suppose we mark books, with reference to their intellectual 
and moral excellence, on a scale from ten to zero. The influence 
for good of a book whose value is ten, but which two members 
read, is twenty; while the influence for good of a book whose 
value is only five, but which ten members read, is fifty. 

"(5) The librarian should help the members in the choice of 
their reading, and to do this should know the men as w^ell as the 
books. He should not seek to do too much at once ; but should 
endeavor gradually to substitute intelligent choice for mere 

" The librarian should aid such investigations as young men may 
desire to pursue when they are writing papers, preparing for de- 
bates, etc. ; and, especially, aid them in the study of the Bible, in 
which he should be an expert. The library as an adjunct to Bible 
study is a wide theme. The Association building may be, and 
should be, the center for an exchange of opinions, the place where 
expert testimony may be had with reference to all questions con- 
cerning the written word. 

" (c) By thus placing young men under personal obligations, and 
winning their confidence and respect, the librarian should lead 
them to Christ, or fit them for greater usefulness in his service. 
This will be the definite purpose — quietly, unostentatiously, but 
steadfastly pursued — of evety librarian who is worthy of the 

The librarian should be fully admitted into the fraternity 
of secretaries, and his presence and the duties of his office 
recognized in all their conferences. When a librarian can- 
not be employed, liis place should be suj^plied by volun- 
teer service, as far as practicable. In many instances the 
secretary or an assistant Avill perform his duties, especially 
during the day, but often a competent librar^^ committee 
can be secured. Men adapted to tlie work, and able to 
give evening time to it, should be selected an*d continued 

Chap. 24, B, 8. the educational department. 285 

for several years, tliat experience may be added to natural 

7. — Order. — It seems hardly necessary to say that a 
proper care of the library will include order and neatness. 
Books should be in their places on the shelves Avlien not in 
use, free from dust as far as may be, and in good repair. 
Very damp sawdust is useful in sweeping and a slightly 
damp cloth in dusting. The feather duster is an abomina- 
tion anywhere, and should have no place in the librar3^ 
The few necessary rules in connection with the library 
should be strictly and impartially enforced. 

8. — Selecting and Buying Books. — The selection and 
purchase of books will require the best judgment and most 
discriminatincj- taste at command. Get the best books on 
each subject, or the best for the purpose, the best that the 
readers will use. The greatest good to the greatest num- 
ber, and the real needs of the few should both be con- 
sidered. Every library should contain a certain line of 
standard works— history, fiction, poetry, and general litera- 

Books for young men, intended to instruct, counsel, and 
encourage in regard to business, social life, morals, and re- 
ligion should be fully represented. Of this large class are 
Smiles' Self-Help, Character, Duty, Thrift ; Matthews' 
Getting on in the World ; Trumbull's Character Shaping 
and Character Showing. Some of these may easily mark 
a turning point in the reader's life. Books on recreation, 
and indoor and outdoor sports will be useful in connection 
with the physical department. Small, handy, neat look- 
ing books, going easily ' into the pocket, are especially 

At least one encyclopedia is a necessity, and works of 
this class, including dictionaries and general and technical 
works of reference, can hardly be too numerous. 

In a manufacturing community special attention should 
be given to mechanical works, the latest and the best. A 
class of rare or expensive books, not likely to be found 


elsewhere, will add greatly to the value of the library. 
Effort should be made to keep up with tlie times, placing 
promptly on the shelves all new publications that are de- 
sirable, including especially books of history, travel and 
research, science, fiction, and general literature. 

There should be much in the way of standard and pojj- 
ular religious writings, and the reference department should 
be rich in biblical literature, embracing every description 
of helps to Bible study. 

Such works as the Congressional Record, the Census 
Reports, and many other government publications are valu- 
able in their place, and can be secured free by any city 
Association through the member of Congress, or on applica- 
tion to the proper departments. 

In the past many Associations have not saved their 
magazines for binding,but the importance of so doing cannot 
be too strongly urged. Much valuable matter is published 
in this form first, and frequently never in any other. As- 
sociations that are able to do so should collect full sets of 
some of the best magazines, and also get Poole's " Index 
to Periodicals," original volume, which covers the contents 
of the standard magazines of the Avorld for over a hundred 
years back. Other Associations might profitably fill in 
many sets beginning with 1882, and get Poole's " Index," 
first suj^plement, which covers five years, from 1882 to 
1887 ; and, when issued, the second supplement, from 1887 
to 1892 ; and the annual "Co-operative Index to Period- 
icals." The latter should be in everj^ reading room that 
has even half a dozen magazines, whether there has been 
attempt to make up sets or not. It is a key to current dis- 
cussions, valuable to every reader and especially to mem- 
bers of literary societies. 

Many excellent books for the young are now published, 
blending instruction with all that is attractive in style of 
composition, typography, and illustration, and calculated 
to supplant the lower class of juvenile books. The As- 
sociation library has in this connection a special and im- 

Chap. 24, B, 9. the educational DEPARTMEIi-T. 287 

portant mission to the boyi^. When they have a separate 
room ]l<.]ieir books should usually l)e placed in it. 

^^i^reparing lists for purchases recourse can be had to 
catalogues and to excellent works on books and reading ; 
discriminating in favor of the best books, and excluding 
peremptorily everything distinctively faulty in either 
moral or literary tone. Quality rather than quantity 
should be the rule. 

It is very desirable that something new be added at 
short intervals. There is no better way of bringing the en- 
tire library into use. Many readers in looking to see what 
is new will iind something old that just meets their need. 
Without regular additions the library soon becomes "dead 
stock" in the estimation of members, and though, of course, 
it is still valuable, many of them will not use it on this 
account. If for no other reason frequent purchases should 
be made, be they ever so small. 

In making up the library committee one or more men 
should be included with business experience, who know or 
will acquaint themselves with the methods of the book 
trade and be able to secure the best editions and at the 
lowest prices. 

Money is often wasted from want of knowledge. A 
large price is paid for a fair book when a better could have 
been secured for half the money, or two are bought when 
one would have answered the same purpose. What, where, 
and how to buy are questions to which answers of wide 
significance could be given by a competent committee. It is 
also suggested that many a man before whom a list of books 
was i^laced covSting one hundred or live hundred dollars 
might be induced to purchase the entire lot as his jjersonal 
contribution. Such a contribution might well be com- 
memorated by placing the name of the donor in the books. 

9. — Ways and Means. — An endowment fund is the only 
reliable basis, and effort should be made to secure one. 
The beginning may be small, but once started it is sure to 
grow. Till such a fund is in existence some library ap2:)ro- 


priation, if only ten dollars, should be put in the annual 
budget, as systematic effort will have an educating in- 
fluence. It may be practicable to add to this by an oc- 
casional entertainment or a special subscription, which, al- 
though realizing larger sums, should still be considered as 
only supplemental to the regular appropriation. Sometimes 
valuable books are given, j^erhaps through a book recep- 
tion, Avhich method, with all its faults, has added to As- 
sociation libraries many useful books. When those invited 
to such a reception are asked to each bring a book or an 
order for one, either a list of books needed or some sug- 
gestions as to the kind of books desired might well accom- 
pany the invitation. Or it might be better to make such 
request at the reception, rather than in advance, perhaps 
by posting in the rooms lists of desirable books, with their 
prices and space opposite each title for the name of a per- 
son who may offer to secure it for the library or to furnish 
the price of it. Much worthless matter is sometimes given 
to an Association, and there is a strong temptation to put 
everything on the shelves, for tlie sake of swelling the 
number of volumes or for fear of giving offence. There 
should be an understanding that duplicates or undesirable 
books donated may be sold or exchanged. 

10. — Advertising the Library/. — Constant effort should 
be made in this direction. Post in the rooms, or insert in 
the Association bulletin or in the newspaj^ers, lists and brief 
descriptions of new books, and special lists adapted to the 
season, to questions of the day, or to particular classes of 
readers. For example, in the spring a selection on out- 
door life and sports, including such books as Thoreau's 
and Burroughs' ; or, when protection and free trade are 
generally discussed, a list of everything that the library 
has on both sides ; or lists covering questions to be debated 
by literary societies in the Association or elsewhere in the 
city. Lists of books on mechanical lines may be mailed 
to men in factories, or placed in their pay envelopes, or 
posted in the shops. There should be an occasional talk by 

Chap. 24, O, 2. the kducational dp:partment. 289 

the librarian or a coinniilteeinaji on new hooks, the best 
books in certain lines, the use of reference books, etc. 

If practicable give the members free access to the books, 
or at least to a single case, so located that all coming in 
will see it. Put in it new books, or those mentioned in 
the special lists. Many members will select a large share 
of their reading from this case. Ingenuity will discover 
many other like methods. 

The contents of other public libraries in the place may 
be brought before our members in similar ways, after con- 
sultation with the officers of such libraries. 

11. — Helpers. — Some of the more earnest and generously 
disposed readers may be developed into helpers somewhat 
like the '* leaders" described in chapter 25, D, 4, h. The 
educational class teachers also should recommend to their 
pupils the use of helpful books. 


kdu(;ational classes. 

1. — The N'eed. — The educational class is one of the most 
practical branches of the secular work. In every city are 
many young men who are deficient in education, from 
lack or neglect of early opj^ortunities. The ordinary 
schools are beyond their reach, but evening class instruc- 
tion is a possible and excellent substitute. There is no 
doubt that thousands of men occupy positions to-day which 
they could not have attained except for these evening 
schools of the Young Men's Christian Associations. 

2. — Growth. — Although a few Associations carried on 
this work from an early period, yet its growth was slow, 
and only a beginning has even now been made. (It must 
be borne in mind, however, that all the Associations in 
colleges and some of those in small towns have no occa- 
sion for this work). In 1872, twenty-one years after the 

290 THE E1)UCATI0IN-AL DEPARTME^-T. Chap. 24, C, 3. 

organization of the first American societies, only ten As- 
sociations reported work of this charactero In 1878 the 
number liad grown to 49 ; in 1883 it was 156 ; and in 1890 
it Avas 310, each conducting from one to fifteen classes, 
and 292 Associations reported an aggregate of 18,07o dif- 
ferent students in attendance. In addition to these classes 
23 Associations had classes for boys. In several cities the 
number attending the classes exceeds that of the students 
in most colleges. 

3. — Tlie Committee. — The committee in charge of this 
work includes among its duties the organization and super- 
vision of the classes and the securing of instructors. Its 
members should visit the classes often in order to gain a 
personal knowledge of the methods of instruction and the 
progress of the pupils. It may be well to place one of 
them in charge of each class, expecting him to be present at 
least once a month, and to report his observations at the 
monthly meeting of the committee. Occasional visits from 
the officers and friends of the Association will stimulate 
and encourage both pupils and instructors. 

4. — Branches taught. — The branches taught will depend 
upon the demand — which will in turn be largely governed 
by the make up of the membership. Usually this is com- 
posed chiefly, though in varying proportions, of the mer- 
cantile, the industrial, and the student classes. The first 
named will call for classes in bookkeeping, penmanship, 
commercial arithmetic, stenography, typewriting, and 
modern languages employed in commercial life. The young 
artisan will desire instruction in practical mathematics, 
clay modeling, wood carving, mechanical or architectural 
drawing, and applied mechanics. Such branches as vocal 
music, elocution, English grammar, spelling and composi- 
tion, physiolog}", civil government, etc., will attract persons 
of all classes according to individual tastes and needs. The 
demand is sometimes ascertained by sending to the mem- 
bers a list of studies, with a request that they will ch«ck 
such as they desire to take up ; when classes can be 

Chap. 24, C, 6. the educatio^'Al department. 291 

provided in tliose branches having a sufficient number of 
applicants. Ambitious young men should be warned 
against undertaking more than they can successfully carry 

5. — Excellent suggestions have been made of late look- 
in «• to a more oreneral introduction of such liberal studies 
as history, literature, political economy, and social science. 
Thus far the classes have been largely in practical lines 
of study ; but as has been said, " a man needs knowledge 
not only as a means of livelihood but as a means of life," 
using the w^ord in its broader sense. " We need to promote," 
says a prominent educator, " bj^ good teaching or con- 
versational lectures, a knowledge of good books among 
our members, to cultivate better habits of reading, to show 
young fellows how they can better employ and better 
enjoy their leisure." Great social and political problems 
also are to be solved by the next generation, and Amer- 
ican young men need, more than ever, a knowledge of 
history, and of the true principles of government and of 
society, to fit them for the duties of citizenship, — duties 
that are more and more being thrown upon men in early 
life. No agency can better lend a helping hand than the 
educational department of the Associations. 

Some Associations are participating in the. University 
Extension scheme with good results. 

6. — Interest will suiier if too much be attempted at once. 
Two or three classes well attended are better than a dozen 
indifferently supported. Some branches of study may be 
changed in successive j^ears, if greater variety is needed. 
If the classes are arranged and announced early in the 
season, many new members may be brought into the Asso- 
ciation. An approved plan is to have two terms, separated 
by a Christmas vacation. Admission to all the classes is 
usually a membership privilege, but where the membership 
fee is low, or a certain class involves unusual expense, a 
special fee is sometimes charged. Some Associations re- 
quire an entrance fee of one or two dollars, with the un- 


derstaiidingthat, if the pupils' iitteiulance readies eighty 
per cent., it will be returned. This plan is said to greatly 
stimulate regular attendance. 

7. — Frequency of classes. — In many Associations each 
class meets once a week, but in such cases the progress of 
the students is slow. If possible, two evenings a week 
might better be given to each stud}^ It may be doubted 
whether, with the variety of engagements offered by the 
^Association, it is desirable to devote more time than this 
to a class. A young man that is busy during the day 
will make the best j^rogress by pursuing one or two 
branches several evenings each week, and if earnest for 
mental improvement can easil}^ sacrifice for the time being 
much in the line of society and amusement. When the 
students in any branch are numerous, they may be graded 
into different sections. 

8. — Instructors^ etc. — Competent instructors will some- 
times volunteer their services, but must usually be paid. 
It is desirable that they be not only Christian men, but in 
hearty sympathy and co-operation with the spiritual work. 
Suitable rooms are needed, provided with desks or tables, 
blackboards, and other requisites. A case of reference 
text-books will be helpful. There should be a regular 
order of exercises in the classes, an attendance roll, and 
orderly behavior. Examinations are sometimes held and 
certificates of ^proficiency given to successful candidates. 
In a few Associations interest is stimulated by prizes, 
offered perhaps by persons specially interested in this de- 
j^artment. A social reception is sometimes given to the 

9. — Interest the students. — Judicious effort should be 
made to introduce the members of the classes into the other 
branches of the work and attach them permanently to the 
Association. In this work the evening reception commit- 
tee has a definite place. A committee may also be formed 
among the active members who attend the classes. The 
natural and unobtrusive contact and quiet personal inilu- 

Chap. 24, D, 1. the educatiokal department. 293 

ence of consecrated workers will oring about the best 

10. — International pamphlet No. 61, " How can our As- 
sociations better adapt themselves to the needs of young 
men of all classes?" by C. H. Dodge, contains many use- 
ful suggestions regarding educational work. (See ap- 
pendix, samples Nos. 38 and 39, for educational class rules 
and record). 



1. — Usefulness. — According to the reports for 1890, lit- 
erary societies for young men were connected with 133 
Associations, and for boys with 29. These societies consist 
of from six to perhaps fifty members each, organized under 
various forms for engaging in such exercises as debates, 
recitations, essays, and criticism. Although educational 
in character this work is quite distinct from the evening 
class, and of wider scope than the instruction along similar 
lines usually gained in the common school. The lyceum 
debate has peculiar attractions for our American young 
men, and a wise policy takes advantage of tliis fact, not 
only to draw in and influence such men, but to bring these 
exercises under that healthful control and supervision so 
often needed. Such societies have great value, for in 
them many men have received their first ambitious im- 
pulses, and practiced those arts of the speaker and parlia- 
mentarian that have rendered them famous in after life. 
Nothing quickens the mind into greater activity than a 
vigorously contested question in debate. Through such 
exercises a young man also acquires self-possession, and 
learns how to express clearly what he knows. Many 
Christian men who are now silent in meetings for prayer and 
conference, through timidity, might with a lyceum train 

^94 I'hp: educational department. Chap. 24, D, 2. 

ing liave becoiue valued workers. The capacity for impart- 
ing knowledge and enforcing truth is among the grandest 
powers God has given man, and yet none is more often 
neglected. Es})ecially is this apt to be the case with 
young men in business life. 

2. — Organization. — Such a society cannot be success- 
fully organized Avithout a nucleus of thoroughly interested 
3'oung men. The work should be supervised by the de- 
partment committee, and all rules governing the organiza- 
tion should be approved by the board of directors. (See 
Cha]?. 6, B.) Membership is, of course, confined to mem- 
bers of the Association. An executive committee, com- 
posed usually of the officers, together with the general 
secretary, or one or more other representatives of the 
board, should approve all questions for debate or topics: 
for essays, and everything of doubtful character or liable 
to engender bitter feelings should be discarded. 

3. — Methods. — A suitable room will be needed, and all 
proceedings should be conducted under strict rules of order. 
The nearer all transactions approximate to those of real life 
the more helpful w^ill be the experieiice gained. Some- 
times the exercises may take the form of a legislative bod}^, 
a court of justice, a political or business convention ; any 
of which, if properl}^ carried out, will be full of practical 
benefit to the participants. Not least among the results of 
this work will be the stimulus to reading and research nec- 
essarily created, adding many patrons to the Association 
librar3\ The librarian should keep himself informed of 
the topics, and post on his bulletin board lists of books and 
articles in periodicals relating to them. 

The same efforts that are employed elsewhere should be 
made to interest the associate members v/ho are indentified 
with the literary society in the religious work. 




1. — Dangers in ijaid courses. — Thei'c are two classes of 
lecture courses, the paid or "star '• and the " home " course. 
To conduct the first, which is usually done with an eye to 
financial profit, tact, experience and a great amount of hard 
work are necessary ; and, although a few Associations suc- 
ceed, in most cases the results are not satisfactory. There 
is also great danger that in trying to secure attractions the 
moral tone be lowered, or perhaps almost ignored. Helpful- 
ness to young men, not mere financial gain, should be the 
primary object in all such effort. In arranging for such a 
course of lectures the only safe plan is to secure advance 
subscriptions for tickets sufficient to guarantee the expense. 
Preparations, which must be in the hands of an energetic 
committee, should begin early ; and the refusal of the de- 
sired talent be obtained, usually from a responsible bureau, 
till a canvass can be made. Sometimes several Associations, 
conveniently located on lines of travel, can arrange for 
consecutive nights at a reduced rate. Where the Associa- 
tion has a hall large enough for this class of entertainments, 
the financial phase is much simplified. Such a course is a 
material addition to the value of membership. 

2. — Home Talent. — The second class of lectures is given 
either by resident gentlemen or those of neighboring com- 
munities, whose services may be had free or at a nominal 
cost. Such talent will often compare favorably with that 
of the bureaus. A small admission fee for non-members 
will generally meet the expense of this course. 

3. — Practical Tails. — The " practical talk " is somewhat 
in line Avith the last, but on a smaller scale and more in- 
formal, usually for young men only, and frequently held 
in the Association parlor. It is an unfortunjite community 
that does not contain many persons capable of telling the 
average young man much that will both interest him and 


be of practical value in liis dail}^ life. If a taste for such 
subjects is lacking, earnest and persistent effort may well 
be made by the Association to create and foster it. Suit- 
able subjects abound in the lines of business, health, ethics, 
politics, history, travel or science. 

The following suggestive list of topics is selected from 
lists given in " The Watchman," 1884, page 259, and in the 
" Young Men's Era," 1891, page 635. Some of them would 
also be useful as the subjects of essays in the literary society. 

On reading in the line of one's business. 

On reading merel}^ with a view of amusement. 

How to read a newspaper. 

Hints about commercial correspondence. 

How to attain business and professional success. 

How to save money and how to do good with it. 

The development of true manliness of character. 

Sjnnmetrical self-culture. 

The cultivation of studious liabits. 

On the fear of appearing singular. 

On forming a taste for simple pleasures. 


The house we live in. 

Stimulants and narcotics. 

Revelations of the microscope. 

A few modern applications of electricity. 

How to study astronomy with an opera glass. 

How to make a photograph. 

The progress of natural science during the present century. 

Decisive events in colonial history. 

Decisive events in the Revolutionary War. 

Decisive events in the formation of the Constitution. 

Decisive events in the Civil War. 

The choice of intimate friends. 

What society, in its good sense, expects from young men. 

Speculation, is it desirable ? 

The old New England home (for Thanksgiving). 

The privileges and duties of citizenship. 





1. — The object of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion being to save and build up young men, the object of 
its physical department is to save young men physically 
with reference to their salvation and building up as a whole. 
Great emphasis belongs to the last clause — the relation of 
the physical department to the others, and what is said 
about it applies equally to ever}'- department. Each must 
work in sympathy with the others, for the same end, and 
by the same methods. 

2. — The general aim of this department may be con- 
sidered under three sub-heads: Physical healthy physical 
education, ^jhysical recreation. The word physical is in 
each of these, but physical health has to do with intellec- 
tual and spiritual health; physical education is vitally con- 
nected with mental education, some indeed believing the 
latter to be largely an outgrowth of the training of the 
physical senses; and phj^sical recreation is intimately allied 
to mental recreation. 

3. — Physical health. — a. Under this head are included 
hygienic and medical or curative gymnastics. That gym- 

* Tlie subject matter of this chapter was prepared by Luther Guhclr, M. D. 
As this department is comparatively new and unfamiUar, more details are given 
than ill some other chapters, but intiny technical points needed by those im- 
mediately internsred in tlie physical work are omitted, Some further considera- 
tions are given in Int. pphs. Nos. 59.3 and G14. 

This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. C2. 

298 THE PHYSICAL DfiPARTMEXT. Chap. 25, A, 3. 

nasties are useful iu curing or alleviating many diseases is 
not questioned to-day by intelligent persons. 

h. Furtlier, to sa}^ tliat hygienic gymnastics are needed 
by the great majority of civilized mankind for the preven- 
tion of disease, is merely re-stating the general principle 
that each part of man must be cultivated. The sedentary 
habits of large classes in the cities render systematic exer- 
cise imperative, while many men engaged in manual labor 
require, almost equally, some compensative system to ex- 
ercise the unused muscles and bring the body to symmet- 
rical proportions. Young men need to start right in a 
system of body-building that shall make them vigorous 
and teach them how to keep so. To these benefits derived 
from regular exercise may be added its preventive or coun- 
teractive effects and tendencies. It often takes the place 
of questionable amusements, or leads directly to habits of 
temperance and personal purity. 

c. The objection is frequently made that our ancestors 
did not need and did not take this artificial exercise which 
is said to be so necessary to-day. There are four answers 
to this objection: 

(1) The immediate ancestors of our parents lived and 
worked mostly out of doors, and thus their children, our 
parents, had a large account in the bank of health. But 
our parents, many of them, lived in the city; so we are 
city born and bred, without that natural education of the 
physique that our parents received as country children 
almost without their being aware of it; thus we need to 
supply artificially, as far as possible, that which our an- 
cestors possessed naturally. 

(2) Our fathers habitually overworked, and, while 
they may not have broken down, they were unable to 
endow us with their own sturdy constitutions. So the 
children suffer for the overwork of the parents. " The 
fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are 
set on edge." In support of this might be mentioned the 
decadence of many of our best and strongest families. 

Chap. 25, A, 3. the physical department. 299 

whore the vigor has given out, the fathers and mothers 
having used up what belonged to the children. 

(3) Far more is demanded of this generation than of 
former ones. We live in the age of the locomotive and 
the telephone. Our lives are more intense. We do less 
physical and more mental work. We worry as no genera- 
tion ever did, and so our physiques must be improved to 
meet the demand, or we shall become a nation of physical 
bankrupts. Modern life demands a better body, not neces- 
sarily bigger and stronger muscularly, but more wiry, 
more enduring. 

(4) With the great strides that sanitary, medical, and 
surgical science have taken, children are brought up who 
would formerly have died at birth or soon after, and the 
lives of invalids are prolonged; and the children of these 
two classes are often of an inferior grade physically. 

d. To what extent should the Young Men's Christian 
Association attempt medical or curative gymnastics ? 
When men troubled with diseases that can be affected by 
exercise present themselves for examination, the physical 
director should be able to suggest to them such methods 
of living and exercise as would best remove their difficul- 
ties, but always with the advice of a physician, if he is not 
one himself. It is unwise for a physical director to under- 
take definite work in the line of medical gymnastics with- 
out having a legal right to practice medicine, for if the 
treatment should prove unsuccessful, he would not only be 
in an extremely embarrassing position, but would be liable 
before the law. Since medical gymnastics are primarilj^ and 
essentially a specialty in medicine, they should be con- 
ducted for the cure of disease only by regularly qualified 
medical practitioners. 

e. Exercises for the prevention of disease, however, 
belong pre-eminently to us, as well as those which promote 
health and keep the body in such condition that the man 
can do the best work for the longest period of time. This 
subject is considered in section C, 3, 6. 

300 'A'HK PHl'iSICAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 25, A, 4. 

4. — Physical education. — a. The following is a good 
definition of physical education: "To draw out or train 
the physical powers, to prepare and fit the bod^^ for any 
calling or business, or for activity and usefulness in life." 
This is adapted from Webster's definition of education, 
substituting the word phj^sical for intellectual. Thus we 
see that all the training of the physique that is necessary 
in the trades comes under the head of physical education; 
as well as all the simply mechanical part of piano playing, 
that secures control of the finsfers and makes the hand 
supple; all of vocal training that consists in controlling 
the muscles of the throat, abdomen, and diaphragm; all of 
Vv'riting, engraving, etching, and drawing that involves ac- 
curate co-ordination of the muscles; all training of the 
quick eye, and the steady hand. As soon as the brain has 
an idea of what ought to be done, the body should be able 
to do it. The aim of physical education is to fit the body 
to obey the dictates of the mind readily, accurately, and 
thoroughl}^ At the same time the mind receives a train- 
ing that enables it to act with more efficiency and alert- 

h. The qualities that physical education seeks to culti- 
vate may be stated as follows. While some of them relate 
v/holl}^ to the body, others are largely mental. As dis- 
coveries and advances are constantly made in this compar- 
atively recent field of inquiry, this classification is not pre- 
sented as final, nor can hard and fast lines be drawn 
between these divisions. 

(1) Symmetry, — harmonious or all-round development 
of the body. 

(2) Muscular strength, — including the strength of the 
arms, legs, and body, also of the heart and respiratory 

(3) Endurance, — also a matter of the heart, lungs, and 
nervous sj^stem, as well as of the extrinsic muscles. 

(4) Agilit}", — quickness of action, largely an affair of 
the central nervous system. 

Chap. 25, A, 5. the PHYSICAL department. 30X 

(5) Grace, — fundamentally a question of economj^ of 
power. Comparing grace and symmetry, the first is beauty 
of action and the other beauty of form. 

(6) Muscular control, — this is largely nervous, and 
results from that training by which the mind can co-ordi- 
nate the muscles for any bodily action, no matter how in- 
tricate, to the extent of muscular strength. 

(7) Physical judgment, — a correlative of muscular 
control. It is a sort of psychic trigonometry by which the 
trained mind calculates the distance, position, and motion 
of objects, — something by which it weighs and balances. 
Through the delicately combined action of these two 
faculties one learns to jump a ditch, catch a ball, and ride 
a bicj^cle with ease, quickness, and accuracy, and often 
with no apparent effort. Physical judgment tells a man 
what ought to be done and muscular control enables him 
to do it; either one without the other is practically worth- 

(8) Physical courage, — this comes naturally from the 
consciousness of ability gained tlirougli experience. Some- 
times a constitutional timidity or lack of what may be 
called physical faith has to be overcome. A presump- 
tuous daring is not true courage, being born either of 
io^norance of real dano^er or of reckless indifference. 

(9) Self possession, — control of the mind over the 
entire man, enabling him to act naturally in times of 
danorer and excitement. 


(10) Expression, — this has to do with gesture, elocu- 
tion, etc., the aim being primarily to enable the body to 
express thought in the most intelligible way. The Del- 
sarte system is perhaps the best example. 

5. — Physical recreation. — This is for many men the 
most important of the three divisions. When they come 
to the gymnasium their primary need is recreation. They 
are exhausted mentally. Perhaps they are tired physically. 
They need to be stirred up, made to laugh and to throw 
off their business. For such cases educative gymnastics 


would be worse than useless and medical gymnastics 
thrown away. The gymnastic games are adapted to them 
and can be used to great advantage. A little recreative 
gymnastics at the end of class work will often add zest to 
what Av^ould otherwise seem trying. 



Three conditions may be mentioned: A demand for 
such work, a man to give it intelligent supervision, and a 
suitable i>lace. 

1. — There is generally a demand, but if not, it can be 
created by two or three lectures by men from outside the 
city, Mdio are prominently connected with athletics. Lec- 
tures illustrated by the stereopticon are very useful in this 

2. — The fundamental factor is intelligent supervision. 
Many Associations have attempted to carry on a plu'- 
sical department without any one to give it special time 
and attention. This has almost invariably proved a failure, 
damaging the work of these Associations. The members 
have not felt under the restraint that is necessary for suc- 
cess, nor have they received the beneiits that ought to 
have accrued from it but sometimes positive injury. 

Where it is not possible to employ a physical director, 
the general secretary can qualify himself to do this work 
on a small scale at the Association Training Schools. 

Two neighboring Associations ma}' sometimes unite in 
securing a physical director, to the advantage of both. 

Attempts have sometimes been made to have the assist- 
ant secretary conduct the physical department. This, 
however, is not so desirable as for the general secretary 

Chap. 25, B, 3. the physical defartmext. 303 

himself to do this, an assistant relieving him in the general 
work of the Association in order that he may have the 
necessary time. Work in the physical department affords 
the secretary an opportunity to become acquainted with 
the associate members that is never afforded him elsewhere. 
It involves his taking that exercise which is necessary for 
his own well being, but which otherwise he is very likely 
to neglect. It also shows to the members his interest in 
and familiarity with physical work, thus giving him a 
stronger influence with many of them. The fundamental 
idea of the Association, that it is not a one man affair, 
should be kept in mind here, for in conducting the phy- 
sical department the development of leaders is one of the 
most important items. Where the general secretary is 
handling the gymnasium he ought to be obliged, after a 
time, to lead only the leaders' class, and all the other 
classes should be in charge of the men he has trained; just 
as in other lines most of the work is not done by himself, 
but by thosy whom he has developed. 

It would be unwise to start a gymnasium without an 
earnest Christian man to manage it, for a mere physical 
trainer is no more qualified to take charge of a Young 
Men's Christian Association g^^mnasium. than is any sharp 
business man qualified to become a general secretary. The 
building up of the body is only a part of the development 
of the whole man, which the Association seeks to accom- 
plish. When the general secretary cannot undertake this 
work, sometimes a young man can be found in the com- 
munity who can lead some classes in the Association gym- 
nasium, but in all such cases earnest Christian character is 

3.-^A third necessity is a suitable place. This need 
not be an expensively equipped gymnasium or field, 
but some part of the building that is ligbt, dry, and 
clean, set aside for this work; or some small outdoor space, 
even a single city lot, with a few appliances for athletic 


sp:ction c. 


1. — Physical exammations. — The best practical work can 
be done only upon a thoroughly scientific basis. This must 
be laid in an accurate physical examination of each gymna- 
sium member; a careful study of the results of the exam- 
ination; and intelligent advice based upon it, followed by 
an interested oversight, to provide for the carrying out of 
this advice. The examination should be made compulsory 
upon every new member before he takes any exercise in 
the gymnasium. This can be accomplished by giving him 
a card entitling him to an examination, and only furnish- 
ing him with a full ticket after the director certifies 
that the examination has been made. It is desirable that 
examinations be repeated at intervals of six months or a 

a. For making such examinations, and for other per- 
sonal conferences, the physical director needs a private 
office. This must be well lighted and thoroughl}' warmed 
and ventilated, and should be the most attractive part of 
the physical department outfit. It may well be orna- 
mented w4th photographs and medals bearing upon phy- 
sical excellence, all bringing out the idea of the all-round 
man rather than that of excellence in special events, and 
thus helping to keep this idea before the members. 

b. The following measuring instruments are necessary: 
Platform scales graduated to pounds and tenths, on which 
all Aveighing is done by slides instead of movable weights. 
Those with two or three beams, fastened above instead of 
underneath the beam support, are much superior to the old 

A measuring tape divided into inches and tenths, with a 
six ounce spring on the zero end. 

A height measure divided into inches and tenths, not 
feet, inches, and tenths. It is important that all these 

Chap. 25, C, 2. THE physical department. 305 

measurements be taken in inclies and tenths, for otherwise 
accurate tabulation is impossible. 

Calipers, both straight-armed and curved. 

Grip dynamometer. 

A pair of wall parallels adjustable in height, so as to 
allow of both dipping and pulling up. 

Wet spirometer. Dry spirometers are unsatisfactory, 
because ihej are liable to vary from day to day. 

The last named is the least essential, and may be omitted 
when moderate expense is a leading consideration. 

c. The most valuable part of the examination is that 
which entirely escapes the tape or rod, but is evident to 
the eye of the physical director. And here he has an un- 
usual opportunity to become acquainted with men, to cor- 
rect evil habits of life, and to gain an influence over them 
that he can use for their welfare, perhaps for years to come. 
It is a fact that the busiest physical directors find time for 
the most numerous and thorough examinations. If the 
work is not done in such a way as to inspire confidence, it 
is well nigh useless. 

2. — Statistic hlmiks. — The International Committee has 
prepared two such blanks. One is brief, for general use; 
and the other is quite full, containing two or three times as 
many items in examination and history, for use where 
special detail is demanded, as it might be in records of 
fine athletes or unusual cases of any kind. The large 
blank contains far more measurements than it is worth 
while to take except in such rare cases. Measurements 
of the bones of one leg are ample, unless there is evi- 
dently some unusual conformation. It is far better to 
use the small blank carefully, than to use the large one 
hastily and imperfectly. These blanks are based on the 
recommendations of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Physical Education, so that they may 
be in accord with scientific work in this line all over the 
country. It is desirable that all physicial directors take 
these measurements, and take them uniformly, in accord 


with the directions published by the committee,* for only 
by so doing will they be able to utilize the valuable system 
of measurement charts now being prepared. 

3. — Prescription of exercise. — a. Nothing more can be 
done in a brief statement like the present than to lay down 
a few general principles. During the examination of a 
new member his object in coming to the gymnasium should 
be ascertained. As far as is consistent with the funda- 
mental ideas of the Association, each man should be given 
that which he desires; but he should also have impressed 
upon him, as decidedly as seems best in his special case, the 
fundamental idea of all-round development, not merely as 
applied to the physical department but to the development 
of the whole man. The work must also interest him, 
otherwise he will not usually do it long. If sufficiently 
skilled, the physical director can usually find exercises 
that will meet the demands of the individual and at 
the same time interest him. It is a fact better known tlian 
understood that more benefit, both mental and physical, is 
derived from an exercise that gives pleasure, than from 
one that does not. 

h. There is a principle underlying the whole of organic 
life, which it is extremel}^ important to bear in mind in 
the prescription of exercise; namely, '•^Function makes 
structured This means that the structure of an ororan or 
organism is altered by doing a thing repeatedly, and so 
becomes adapted to the work and enabled to do it better. 
For example, if a man wants a symmetrical body, let him 
do exercises that demand symmetry, and he may expect 
that his body will be built up symmetrically. 

c. The j)hysical director should also observe the dis- 
tinction between the use of exercises for health, education, 
or recreation, and should study the needs of each member 
in order to ascertain what exercises are best for him. 
There is no general prescription adapted to all cases, in- 
cluding these three classes of exercises. Few men need 
*See "Manual for Physical Measurements,'" Int. pph. No. 23. 

Chap. 25, C, 3. the PHTsiCAii department. 307 

one class only, and one great art in prescription is to choose 
exercises that combine the desired aims. This is a divi- 
sion of aims, not of exercises. The same exercise may be 
used at different times, or by different people, with opposite 
effects; as in medicine the same drug is employed in differ- 
ent cases, opium being a heart stimulant as well as a nar- 
cotic. When a man has no special need, but only seeks 
greater vigor, exercises should be pi'escribed that call into 
play as much of the body as possible. 

d. Curative gymnastics and their place in our work 
ha,ve already been discussed in section A, 3. For the cases 
that come within the province of the physical director little 
more can be done than to follow out the general principle, 
" Function makes structure," prescribing exercises that de- 
mand the qualit}^ desired; for example, for wry neck giving 
work that requires a straight spine, such as carrying 
v/eights on the head; for incipient spinal curvature swing- 
ing by the arms, thus pulling the spine straight; for un- 
even shoulders, caused by poor muscular development of 
one side, giving work that demands strength on that side 
principally; for weak heart and lungs slow running, that 
demands good development of these organs; in all cases 
beginning gradually and working up to the result desired. 
Exercises may be prescribed for such minor difficulties, 
but where any grave trouble is suspected the physical 
director should work only under the advice of a competent 
physician, unless he himself is one. The relations between 
diseases are such that it is impossible for one who merely 
knows the diseases that can be effected b}^ gymnastic treat- 
ment to determine that the disease which he sees is not a 
symptom of some other one which he does not see and 
which is not susceptible to gymnastic treatment. 

e. Preventive gymnastics belong to the Associations. 
What is health? Perfect co-operation of all the parts. 
The most important of these are the heart, lungs, and 
abdominal organs. The nervous system is considered to 
be in good order if the vital organs show no indication to 

308 THF, PHYSICAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 25, C, 3. 

the contrary. If then a man's abdominal organs work so 
well that a })lentiful supply of blood is maintained, and 
the lungs work so thoroughly that the blood is kept free 
from carbonic acid gas and supplied with the necessary 
oxygen, and if the heart is regular and vigorous, the most 
fundamental requisites for health have been fulfilled, and 
a basis laid for the best work both physical and mental. 

Preventive exercises must fulfill the following condi- 
tions: (1) they must stimulate and allow vigorous breath- 
ing, (2) must exercise the heart regula-rl}^, (3) must agitate 
the abdominal organs, (4) must induce perspiration. The 
value of a health exercise may be judged by the following 
tests: (1) it should induce a tired but not exhausted feel- 
ing, (2) should induce sleep at night, not wakefulness, (3) 
should gradually increase the appetite, (4) should not occa- 
sion nervous trembling of the hands, (5) should not make 
the muscles sore for any length of time. Chest weights, 
in their sj^ecial and peculiar uses, scarcely have tlie health 
producing value commonly attributed to them. Most 
movements connected Avith them that fulfill the conditions 
just given can be as well or better done otherwise. These 
machines are chiefly valuable for the development of certain 
muscles, a matter which has little relation to health, and it 
is doubtful whether as man}^ of them are required in our 
gymnasiums as are often placed there. 

Oxygen is absorbed througli the lungs to a greater or 
less extent, depending rather upon the demand of the sys- 
tem than upon the amount of air they are capable of con- 
taining; so if one wants to make the lungs absorb a great 
deal of ox^^gen he must do those exercises which demand a 
large expenditure of energy in a short time. Putting 
ox^rgen into the lungs when they already have all they can 
use is like leading a horse to water when he is not thirsty. 
To increase the amount of oxygen in the blood work should 
be done which causes a demand for more oxygen, and there- 
fore deeper breathing, rather than deep breathing exercises 
when there is no particular demand for oxygen. But deep 

Chap. 25, C, 3. tHe physical department. 309 

breathing is useful just before and after vigorous work. 
In the first case it fills the lungs v/ith fresh air to meet the 
great demand just coming. In the second case it removes 
rapidly from the lungs the impure gases discharged into 
them in unusual amounts. Voluntarj^ deep breathing 
strengthens the muscles of respiration and thus enlarges 
the chest, but does not necessarily increase the amount of 
oxygen in the blood. 

If a man desires a stronger heart, let him run, slowly at 
first and a little at a time, because this work demands a 
strong heart. For people of sedentary habits movements 
of the trunk, particularly^ of the hips, are helpful in remedj^- 
ing the evil results of such habits. During such active 
movements of the trunk as bending and twisting, or such 
jolting exercises as horseback riding, the organs contained 
in the abdominal cavity are alternately compressed and 
relaxed, and the circulation of the blood through them is 
greatly accelerated. The peristaltic movement of the in- 
testine is also greatly accelerated. Thus the nutritive 
changes in these organs are made more rapid than usual. 

/. Educative gymnastics have been described and 
their aim analj^zed in section A, 4. A man who does not 
feel the need of gymnastic work solely for health may be 
interested and held by the prescription of educative work, 
especially such as Avill develop the qualities needed in his 
business or profession. When his daily Avork requires any 
special physical excellence, exercise may be given profit- 
ably that shall train him for it, although great care must 
be taken not to overtax him in this one direction. Educa- 
tive gymnastics are also specially valuable for weak-minded 
children, awkward men, etc. 

In all this work a progressive method should be followed, 
and more difficult work given step by step. 

g. Recreative gymnastics and educative work are rad- 
ically different, but the former may be combined with 
body-building exercises in games, notably in basket-ball 
and foot-ball, if proper training is given for thenij as they 


supply many condilioiis of body-building, and at the same 
time place the mind in the attitude required for recreation. 
Lawn tennis is not as perfect a combination, as it involves 
too much strain on the nervous system in proportion to the 
muscular exercise. Throwing tlie light hammer is ex- 

Men engaged in intellectua-1 work need recreative gym- 
nastics. They should avoid, on the one hand, intricate 
games or other exercises that require much thought, and, 
on the other, routine work that permits their minds to re- 
vert to their accustomed trains of thought. Such men will 
usually derive more advantage from exercises for the whole 
body than from those which are merely for special groups 
of muscles, even though these be carried on until all the 
groups of muscles have been involved. 

h. Athletic sports are ordinarih'- more health-giving than 
heavy gymnastics, for they call into plaj^ the legs and trunk 
more actively, while heavy gymnastics exercise the arms 
and chest chiefly. Lack of space forbids enlarging on this 
subject. Running and all such exercises affect the health 
much more decidedly than do ordinary chest weight move- 
ments, in which the body is held stationary while the work 
is done with the arms. On the other hand, where health 
is not primarily sought, but muscular growth, those exer- 
cises are best that call into play the fewest muscles at a 
time. Gymnastics usually build up muscle a great deal 
more than athletics, and for this reason if a man wishes to 
develop his upper arm he works it vigorously, so that it 
may receive a disproportionate supply of blood, and at the 
same time rests all his other muscles as much as possible. 

i. Exercise should be frequent and regular. Some- 
thing can be accomplished in an hour twice a week, and 
perhaps the best results in two hours a daj-, not, however, 
all at one time nor devoted to a single class of exercises. 

j. A bath should be prescribed at the close of every 
day's exercise, to be taken before the body has had time to 
cool off, but not when the heart is beating very rapidly 

Chap. 25, D, 1. the physical department^ 311 

nor when the individual is seriously out of breath. The 
bath should be of only a few seconds' duration, and should 
be followed by a vigorous rub. It is a safe rule that the 
beneficial degree of cold is that after which the individual 
has the most perfect reaction or glow. Cold baths are 
hurtful if followed by chilliness. Shower baths are more 
used than any others, as ihey are the best form of brief 
bath after exercise. 



1. — Location and arrangement of the gymnasium. — a. 
A separate wing occupied solely by the physical depart- 
ment is by far the most desirable plan. The lower story 
may contain the bath and dressing rooms, bowling alle3^s, 
and workshop. The gymnasium will be immediately above 
these rooms. It may well be forty by sixty feet in size, 
although good work can be done in a smaller room. A 
convenient height for the ceiling is twenty feet. This 
gives all the room needed for ventilation and light, and 
for the swinging apparatus. If the ceiling is higher, a 
framework or other provision must be made from which 
such apparatus may be hung. 

b. There should be some systematic artificial ventila- 
tion, as otherwise it is hardly possible to keep the air pure 
when large classes are on the floor. Great care should be 
taken, however, that the system adopted does not produce 
drafts. The importance of ventilation becomes more ap- 
parent when the fact is borne in mind that during vigor- 
ous exercise a man often throws off six times as much 
carbon dioxide and uses up six times as much oxygen as 
when he is sitting still, so that ventilation enough for six 
men at rest will be just enough for one man who is exer- 
cising vigorously. 


c. Tliere should be a running track at least nine feet 
above the floor (ten would be better), with semi-circular 
ends, for at every abrupt corner the speed practicable else- 
where must be lessened. It may be suspended from above 
or supported by buttresses. The latter plan should always 
be adopted when there are rooms over it, in order to avoid 
a disagreeable jar. The running track should be from four 
to six feet wide and sloped to correspond with the changes 
of direction, a very sharp turn needing a steep slope, but 
rarely more than one foot in four. An excellent track is 
made by laying boiler felting an inch or two in thickness, 
covering it with canvas, and then applying two or three 
coats of good paint. This is patented as the ** Roberts 
track." The " concave incline " (patented) is also very 

d. For ready use by large classes the entire floor 
should be free from posts. Experience shows this to be a 
very important item. 

e. Where it is impossible to have the gymnasium in a 
separate wing of the building, it may be put in the base- 
ment or one of the upper stories. Neither of these places 
is satisfactory. In the basement it is very difticult to 
make the gymnasium thoroughly lighted, ventilated, and 
dry, which are three essentials. An upstairs gymnasium 
is likel}^ to disturb the whole building by noise and vibra- 
tion, and, if the building is not very strong, to do serious 
damage. Special care will also have to be exercised in re- 
gard to plumbing, and even then leaks are very likely to 
occur. But in some recent buildings these difficulties have 
been overcome quite fully. It is desirable to have the 
dressing rooms and baths on the floor below an upstairs 

/. As explained in Chapter 14, C, « and o, the gymna- 
sium should be approached onl}^ through the reception 
room. The mistake has sometimes been made in the past 
of having a separate entrance, but it will not often be re- 
peated. Discipline and safety make it desirable that only 


members be admitted to the floor of tlie gymnasium, so 
the members' door needs constant supervision by the secre- 
tary or an assistant. Members should carry their tickets 
with them, and sliow them when asked to do so. 

Whenever possible there should be a visitors' gallery, 
with a separate entrance from the reception room, and so 
arranged that no one can pass from the gallery to the 
gymnasium. If this cannot be included in the plan of the 
gymnasium, a particular place in the room may be assigned 
to visitors, beyond which they must not pass. It is inex- 
pedient to exclude them altogether, as many recruits come 
from among them. But they should not be admitted with- 
out passes from the office, and should be kept under con- 
stant supervision. 

Where land is not very expensive, an athletic field next 
the building and entered through the reception room would 
derive such a decided advantage from its close connection 
with the general work of the Association as to compensate 
for a much smaller area than might be secured at some 
distance. The use of the dressing and bath rooms would 
be another advantage. Many men would use such a field 
who would not go even a few blocks to a larger one. But 
if it cannot be secured, the next best plan might be to 
spend the money that distant grounds would cost on the 
improvement of the gymnasium and baths, and to run in- 
door athletics during the summer months. 

g, A bowling alley is a valuable adjunct. It should 
be separated from all other rooms as much as possible, to 
prevent disturbance from noise. Each full sized alley re- 
quires altogether five by eighty feet of floor space, the bed 
of the alley being forty-two inches by seventy feet. 

h. The oftice of the physical director, already referred 
to in section C, 1, a, should command a view of the gym- 
nasium and of the rooms connected witli it, as far as prac- 

i. In connection with every gymnasium, there should 
be a small workshop provided with conveniences for sim- 

314 THE PHYSICAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 25, 1), 2. 

pie carpentry, sewing of mats, splicing of ropes, and 
similar work. Oftentimes serious inconvenience can be 
avoided and money saved by such appliances, Avhicli every 
physical director should be able to use intelligently. Con- 
stant testing and repairing of the apparatus are necessaiy 
to insure safety. 

j, A room wliere members of the Association can keep 
their bicycles has been found useful in several Associa- 
tions. It is most convenient when it opens directly from 
the sidewalk. 

h. Suggestions regarding separate rooms for the boys' 
physical department are given in Chap. 28, D, 6. 

I, The plans for the gymnasium and all the rooms 
connected with it, and for the apparatus, should always be 
submitted to some expert for his suggestions. Hundreds 
of dollars can often be saved in this way, and greater effi- 
ciency secured. 

2. — Bath and dressing rooms. — a. Only second in im- 
portance to the gymnasium itself are the bath and dressing 
rooms. These should be so connected with the gymna- 
sium that there need be no danger of taking cold in pass- 
ing from one to the other. It is desirable that the lockers 
be not less than three feet high, a foot and a half wide, 
and a foot deep. The larger they are, however, the more 
convenient. In some cases a few lockers are placed in 
rooms about six feet square, thus affording more privacy 
to some members, at a higher fee. Lockers may be ar- 
ranged in tiers, and when two rows face each other they 
should not be closer together than five feet. Benches or 
stools between the lockers are useful. If there are more 
than two tiers of lockers, there should be an ample supply 
of high stools or step-ladders for reaching the upper ones. 
But it is far more convenient to have onl}^ two tiers of 

h. Special attention should be paid to the ventilation 
of the dressing rooms, as in no other part of the building 
is there so much foul air to be carried awav. The lockers 


should be constructed so tliat a draft of ah* will go through 
them, in order that the clothes and towels may be dried. 
A method of ventilation suggested by George W. Ehler 
gives promise of great usefulness. It is to have the air 
drawn out of the room through the lockers by means of a 
rotary fan, thus obviating the difficulty that has been ex- 
perienced from drafts produced by such fans. Thus, also, 
the air receiving impurities from sweaty clothing is drawn 
away at once, instead of passing into the room. This plan 
need not be much more expensive than other similar 
methods of ventilation, if it is a part of the original ar- 
rangement of the dressing room and lockers. 

c. Combination locks have met with great favor of 
late. The combination should be changed with every 
change of occupant. 

d. Shower and sponge baths are the most desirable, 
for several physiological reasons that cannot be given here 
for lack of space. They are also used quickly, each per- 
son taking only a short time in bathing, and thus the same 
amount of space is more economically used than for tub 
baths. One or two tub baths are sufficient for most gym- 
nasiums. The pressure in the hot and cold water pipes 
should be constant, so that drawing hot water in one bath 
v/ill not withhold it from some other, and surprise the oc- 
cupant with a dash of cold water while he is using warm. 
This can be accomplished only by the use of independent 
pipes to each bath, or of large pipes (at least one and one 
quarter inches in diameter) and powerful heaters. Spring 
faucets save water in the shower and needle baths. Good 
portable heaters, furnishing from fifty to four hundred 
gallons per hour, are now sold at from $15 to ^50. They 
can be run at small expense. Further details regarding 
these, also regarding combination locks, may be obtained 
at the office of the International Committee. 

e. Plunge baths are expensive, but are extremely at- 
tractive and useful. Swimming can be more easily taught 
in such a place than anywhere else. Many a mother would 


make her son a member simply that he might acquire this 
accomplishment. The water should be changed very often, 
every day if possible, and the whole bath scrubbed out 
frequently. The large quantity of water needed is some- 
times obtained at the least expense from artesian wells. A 
shower bath should be compulsory before using the plunge. 
To aid in enforcing this rule, the plunge baths in the T>Siy- 
ton and Cleveland buildings can only be entered through 
a gate opening inward from the shower bath room, and 
left by another opening outward into the dressing room, 

/*. The strictest discipline is necessary in this j^art of 
the building, as there will be great difficulty in restraining 
the members if they get the idea that it is the proper place 
for throwing water or wads of paper, or for similar amuse- 
ments. Recreative gymnastics are useful, but not in con- 
nection with the bath and dressing rooms. Scrupulous 
cleanliness is nowhere more necessary than in these rooms. 
3. — Outfit of the gy7nnasium. — a. AYherever it is possi- 
ble the gymnasium should have a complete outfit, as young 
men are more attracted where there is variety. In general 
the argument for a well equipped building applies to a well 
equipped gymnasium. It would, however, be as absurd to 
say t*hat because a gymnasium was not perfectly appointed 
therefore no physical department work should be attempted, 
as it would be to say that because an Association building 
was not complete therefore no Association work should be 

h. Every v/ell equipped gymnasium will be supplied 
with wooden dumb-bells, iron dumb-bells, wands, and In- 
dian clubs; a push ball; a bounding punch-bag, suspended 
from a wooden diaphragm adjustable in height; traveling 
and flying rings; a spring-board; a German horse; a buck; 
a good rowing machine; ladders ; horizontal, vaulting, 
breast, and parallel bars, the latter both high and low; 
mattresses to go underneath and beside this apparatus, and 
long mattresses for jumping; and a supply of developing 
apparatus, consisting of from six to twelve pieces of chest 

Chap. 25, D, 4. the physical department. 317 

weights with floor attachments, neck machines, high pulley 
machines, wrist machine, finger machine, and quarter cir- 

c. A good equipment for a small gymnasium just 
starting would be twenty pairs of wooden dumb-bells, 
tw^enty wands, a push ball, a bounding punch-bag, a Ger- 
man horse, a rowing machine, a pair of parallel bars, a 
vaulting bar, four chest weights, and necessary mattresses, 

d. The apparatus should be so located that any piece 
can be used readily b}^ a division of a class without con- 
flicting with other divisions. It is also desirable that the 
floor may be readily cleared, so as to afl^ord room for the 
exercises of the entire class with Indian clubs, dumb-bells, 
and w^ands, in marching and gymnastic games. 

e. In selecting apparatus it is extremely important to 
purchase the best. Such apj)aratus is by far the most 
economical in the long run, as well as tiie most attractive 
and the most readily operated. 

4. — Methods of gymnastic work. — a. Exercises to he 
practised and avoided. — What gymnastics should be 
taught by the Young Men's Christian Associations ? In 
general, such as will best secure the objects of the phj'sical 
department, as already described. Exercises develop the 
faculties that they demand. If an exercise demands 
strength, when faithfully carried out it will produce 
strength; if it demands skill, it will produce skill; or if it 
demands agility, it will produce agility. The instructor 
should not lay undue emphasis upon the development of 
any one faculty, nor allow members to do so through fond- 
ness for certain exercises. It is very undesirable, for in- 
stance, to spend a large amount of time in gymnastics for 
the attainment of skill, to the exclusion of strength or en- 

Exercises should not be practised as an object in them- 
selves, and care should be taken to avoid even the appear- 
ance of so doing. This will totally exclude what is 
ordinarily called "circus work;" that is, all that is done 


with the spectator primarily in mind. It will not exclude 
all intricate gymnastics, because these are valuable in the 
development of the brain centers that co-ordinate various 
muscles. Boxing, wrestling, and similar exercises, al- 
though excellent in themselves, are now seldom allowed on 
tlie floor. This has sometimes been done, but usually to 
the detriment of the Association. If desired by ex- 
perienced members, a j^rivate room might be used and all 
spectators excluded. 

Exercises should also be avoided that involve real dan- 
ger, although this does not mean that there should be no 
progression, for after a man has worked in the gymnasium 
for two or three years he can do things without danger that 
it would have been extremely hazardous for him to attempt 
during his first week. It is wise, however, to use some exer- 
cises that demand courage, a clear head, and quick thought, 
for tliese exercises alone tend to produce these qualities. 
However, great care must be taken not to pass the bounds 
of reason in this line. Other things being equal, exercises 
involving the possibility of serious consequences should be 
avoided. It is better to run the risk of several minor ac- 
cidents than of a single severe one. 

The helpful influence of the gymnasium has been greatly 
broadened by tlie introduction of many exercises, which, 
once learned, can be practiced at home, and also be taught 
to members of the family who cannot visit the gymnasium. 
Such home work should be stimulated and directed by 
proper advice. Simple apparatus may often be introduced 
at liome, to the benefit of the entire household. 

h. Suggested plan of organization. — As in the other 
departments of Association work, the best work in the 
physical department can only be accomplished when the 
physical director is able to secure the active co-operation 
of members of the gymnasium classes who are capable and 
desirous of assisting in giving instruction. The develop- 
ment of such men is one of his most difiicult and, at the 
same time, one of his most important duties. 


There should be a "leaders' class." It slioiild raeet 
weekly, and cover in the course of a year, both in theory 
and practice, what will qualify its members for the leading 
of divisions. A course of study is given later. This class 
should be limited in number (not over twelve, six or eight 
more desirable). The members should pledge themselves 
to do the work of the class for the year. 

In the leaders' class the director will constantly bring 
out the all-round man ideal, and it will soon become evi- 
dent to every member of the class that he needs to have 
that ideal realized in himself, and not merely to be a good 
man physically and mentally. In the hope that this may 
lead to the conversion of valuable men, it may be well to 
admit some non-Christians to the class. 

After this class has been conducted successfully for not 
less than a year, some of the men who have passed an ex- 
amination on its work may be formed into an advanced 
class, called tlie " instructors' class." Its course of study 
is given later. 

The "leaders' corps" may be appointed by the board of 
directors, after a competitive examination and upon the 
recommendation of the physical director, and should be 
recognized as a definite part of the committee organization 
of the Association. In order to maintain a Christian in- 
fluence in the gymnasium, only Christian men should be 
appointed upon the corps. It is advisable to have this 
corps distinguished in the gymnasium from the other mem- 
bers — a stripe over the shoulder or across the breast would 
suflice. This corps should assist the instructor in the 
management of classes, in leading divisions, and in explain- 
in sc to new members special prescriptions of exercise and 
the use of the apparatus, and should continually be on the 
lookout for other opportunities for work. One or more 
members of the corps should be on the floor during the 
time that it is most used, each man having definite hours 
for duty, which should be neither so frequent nor so long 
as to be burdensome. 

320 THK PHYSICAL- DEPARTMENT. Chap. 25, D, 4. 

After a man lias passed through tlie leaders' and the 
instructors' classes, and served on the leaders' corps, he 
may be allowed to compete for the position of ** honor- 
ary instructor." The examination should be entirely on 
theory, the work done on the leaders' corps taking the 
place of the practical examination. This position should 
be regarded as one of tlie highest honor, and only men 
who are well qualified physicall}^, mentallj^, and spiri- 
tually should hold it. The board should appoint to it 
on the recommendation of the physical director and only a 
few at a time. Such appointment by the board gives an 
additional feeling of dignity and responsibility, at the same 
time that it helps to identify the physical department with 
the other work of the Association. 

Each honorary instructor should have full charge of the 
gymnasium during a few regular hours each week, when 
the physical director is necessarily absent. 

In many Associations men qualified to enter a leaders' 
class could not be found at once, but must be carefully 
trained and developed. During the first year of undertaking 
this plan have onl}^ the leaders' class, and use its members 
as leaders of divisions when desirable, but do not organize 
a leaders' corps till some men pass the examination. In 
the second year there will probably be a few members of 
the "corps." For these organize the instructors' class. 
Also start a new leaders' class. In the third year it may 
be possible to have the whole scheme in operation. If one, 
two, or three of the leaders have then passed through tlie 
instructors' class satisfactorily^, and have done good work 
as members of the corps, let them be appointed honorary 
instructors and be given the double bar, or whatever has 
been determined upon as the distinguishing badge. Suc- 
cessful management of such a scheme will require much 
tact and patience on the part of the physical director, but 
it is in the line of his highest usefulness. 

Chap. 25, D, 4. the physical department. 331 


Theory. — Physiology and anatomy^ — twenty les- 
sons. — Text book, " Martin's Human Body," briefer course. 
The instructor should further explain, in connection with the 
appropriate chapters, the physiology of exercise, training, 
mechanism of bodily movements, etc. 

During the year the student should read Blakie's 
"How to get Strong;" " Brawn ville Papers," Moses Coit 
Tyler; "Physical Education," Herbert Spencer. 

Personal purity ^— four lessons. — The director should give 
four talks on physiology of reproductive organs, effects of 
violation of laws of purity on body and mind, and the 
relation of exercise, food, sleep, etc., to these problems. 

First aid, — six lesso?is. — First aid treatment of sprains, 
strains, broken bones, dislocated joints; use of triangular 
bandage; transportation of injured; etc. 

PRACTICE, — The class should be tausrht the chief 
drills used in the gymnasium in such a way that they can 
teach them to others. The instructor should see that each 
student is able to do the work in good form, and is able to 
detect and locate deviations from that form in others. 

He should explain the drills, that is, tell why certain 
movements are used and not others, why they are arranged 
in a certain order, etc. 

He should see that each man knows how to teach all the 
apparatus work, where the difficult points are, and how a 
beginner can overcome them. 

Each man should learn how to explain the prescriptions 
of the director to new members. 

About as much time will be needed to cover the theory 
as the practice, so each hour or hour and a half may be 
divided into two parts accordingly. 


Physical department work, — ten lessons. — This chapter 
may be used as a text book. The instructor will of course 
amplify, illustrate, and explain. 


Gymnastic systems, — te7i lessons. — (1) Swedish: "The 
gymnastic progression," Enebuske ; (2) Delsarte: "An 
hour with Delsarte," Morgan ; (3) German : " Sys- 
tematic training of the body," Schaible; (4) "The system 
of physical training at the Hemenway Gymnasium," 

Man,-— ten lessons. — The unity of man, relation of body 
to mind and spirit, necessity for cultivation of the body. 
Fundamental basis of the Association. 

Read during year: "The nature of physical training, 
and the best means of securing its ends," Hartwell; " The 
pedagogic phase of physical training," Wey. 

c. Class work. — The classes should be graded according 
to the character of the work and the proficiency of the 
workers. It is best that these divisions be quite small, six 
being an excellent number. A leader should be appointed for 
each division, who will be responsible for it during the 
session. These leaders must be shown beforehand how to 
teach others to vault or jump, or whatever the work of 
that evening is to be. 

The work of one class might be as follows : For the first 
ten or fifteen minutes have some general light or prepara- 
tory drill, such as dumb-bells or wands, conducted by one 
of the leaders, the physical director himself being about 
the room criticizing and helping those who are new to the 
exercise. This being over, divisions are formed at the word 
of command, and march to their pieces of apparatus or 
other work, and exercise until the bell announces a change. 
Then they form in line and march to the next piece, and 
so on through the hour. 

These divisions should not be formed anew every even- 
ing, but should be comparatively permanent, and men 
should be promoted from one division to another as fast as 
their proficiency warrants. During class exercise no other 
work can be allowed upon the floor. This should be an 
invariable rule. 

Good order is indispensable, especially in the classes; in 

Chap. 25, D, 4. the physical department. 323 

fact, the beauty of the exercises, which should not be 
ignored, is largely dependent upon the military precision 
characterizing every movement, from the " fall in " to the 
"break ranks." The leaders should be painstaking in 
details, placing the men by height, keeping time, and mov- 
ing sharply at the word of command, and should stimulate 
the men to take pride in the proficiency of their classes. 
Wholesome, common sense rules are needed, which should 
be thoroughly but kindly enforced. Any disposition to 
make the gymnasium a lounging place, to annoy others in 
the enjoyment of their rights, or to misuse the apparatus, 
should be ground for suspension or expulsion. 

At stated times it is well to have examinations for pro- 
motion, and possibly to award prizes. 

Of course, this plan cannot be put into full operation at 
the first opening of a gymnasium, but it should be worked 
toward as rapidly as possible. 

d. Exhihitio7is. — These should show the work that is 
actually being done, for the information of the public. A 
clear distinction should be made between a gj^mnasium 
exhibition and a gymnastic entertainment. Association 
gymnasium exhibitions are desirable, but the latter are 
very questionable. The circus is a type of the gymnastic 
entertainment, a field that the Young Men's Christian As- 
sociation does not aim to occupy. A gymnasium exhibition 
should be made entertaining, but its sole object should 
be to show the work of the physical department, which 
should be explained as the exhibition progresses. It 
should be such that parents seeing it will determine that 
they cannot afford to have their boys miss such training. 

The exhibition should not be an exhibition of the physi- 
cal director. If he appears at all, it should be merely as 
the leader of a class. It is, however, far better for him to 
be known by the quality of his pupils' work rather than by 
his own, for he rests his claim to competency upon intellec- 
tual rather than upon physical excellence. 

Care should be taken regarding dress. Loose clothes 


are decidedly preferable to tights, and quiet colors to 
gaudy ones. The work is to be exhibited, not the person. 
Nothing should be done that in any way compromises the 
person doing it. For instance, clownish performances 
should have no place, — no one should be allowed to play the 
fool. We must stand before the community in the charac- 
ter of our work, in our dress, in our carriage, in our words, 
as manl}^, straightforward Christian men. 

A suggested programme for a gymnasium exhibition: 
Let the first drill be by the boys' class, having for its 
object the development of the extrinsic muscles, requiring 
movements that are simple and occupy a few muscles at a 
time. Let the second drill be by the business men's class, 
intended primarily to affect the lungs, heart, and abdominal 
organs, thus aiming at the " general effects " of exercise. 
Give the stationary run, cradle rock, and other similar 
movements, which produce deep breathing, stimulate the 
heart, and agitate the abdominal organs. Before each 
class and also before each movement the physical director 
or a committeeman should explain the object of each move- 
ment in connection with the whole set of exercises, how 
these exercises will secure these objects, and why they are 
arranged in the order chosen. Next, let a class of young 
men give a series of complicated Indian club movements, 
with the explanation that these movements are difiicult 
not because they require great muscular strength, but be- 
cause they demand great activity in certain portions of the 
brain, and that this same activity is very essential in train- 
ing these portions. Let the next class be of boys. Let 
them run and jump between two ropes that are brought 
nearer and nearer together until the greatest care is neces- 
sary to just clear the one without striking the other. Let 
them jump from one mat to another, aiming to strike a 
certain spot and hold their balance there, thus having to 
calculate the distance and the amount of force required 
while they are running; all of this involving very accurate 
physical judgment and muscular control. In such an ex- 

Chap. 25, D, 4. the physical department. 325 

hibition all the objects of phj^sical exercise may be illus- 

An exhibition of another kind would be to take one or 
more difficult exercises on the parallel bars or the German 
horse, first showing the exercise as a whole, then illustrat- 
ing step by step how the beginner is initiated and gradu- 
ally works up to doing the whole exercise. Let it be shown 
that each step is no harder for the man who has mastered 
the preceding ones than was the first for the beginner. 
Remind the audience that progression is a necessary part 
of education. Exercises for such an exhibition must be 
selected from among those that are capable of perfect 
gradation, which is not possible in all exercises. One of 
the gymnastic games, or something else from recreative 
gymnastics, will add greatly to the interest, and should 
never be omitted in a complete illustration of our work. 

The exhibition must begin and close on time. It must 
go off Avith snap and vigor, proving that it really is what 
it claims to be. Something new and interesting should 
always be shown. A well trained physical director will 
have no difficulty in giving exhibitions year after year, 
without ever duplicating the exercises and still without 
deviating from the actual work done. These exhibitions 
may incidentally be made of financial value to the Asso- 

Frequent informal exhibitions are valuable, to which 
different classes of men are invited, admission being only 
by ticket. At one time invite through personal letters or 
circulars all the physicians of the community, and let the 
exhibition be given and explained from a medical stand- 
point, but not exclusively of medical gymnastics. At an- 
other time let all the ministers be invited, and again those 
working in mechanical trades, educational and recreative 
gymnastics being shown to a large extent. Such exhibi- 
tions are very useful in leading new men to join the Asso- 
ciation, especially when members present follow them up 
for this purpose. 


5. — Out-door work. — a. For several years the Associa- 
tions have given a great deal of attention to such work, 
for they have found that it largely increases the value of 
the physical department, and holds and interests the mem- 
bers at times when the gymnasium is almost unused. It 
also allows a larger number of men to exercise at once 
than the gymnasium does. The fact that the work is done 
out of doors adds greatly to its value, and, as a rule, it is in- 
trinsically more interesting than is that of the gymnasium. 
Athletics also have greater educational and recreative 
value than gymnastics, and can be carried on satisfactorily 
at less expense, — of course by dispensing Avith many cus- 
tomary refinements. In the past many out-door sports 
have been fraught with danger, being carried on amid 
every species of e^dl environment, including sabbath dese- 
cration, drinking, gambling, and profanity. It is a happy 
thing that the Associations are directing the young man's 
innate love for these amusements into legitimate channels, 
and conducting recreations as free as possible from con- 
taminating influences. Not the least helpful office per- 
formed is that of providing good companionship. Few 
young men enjoy even a walk in solitude, and that simplest 
form of open-air recreation loses, not only its charm, but 
largely its physical benefit, if taken alone. The Association 
is able to gather its members into congenial groups, and 
often to stimulate the jDhysically inactive into helpful lines 
of exercise. 

The physical director will usually have general over- 
sight of the outdoor work, especially where athletic 
grounds are maintained. 

h. The character and variety of outdoor work in a 
given locality will be governed by the natural facilities, 
the tastes of the men, and the money at command. Water 
is needed for boating, and the purchase or rental of 
an athletic field may be too expensive. But some- 
thing can always be done, and the proper pluck and 
energy will overcome many difficulties. No more 


should be attempted than has a fair prospect of success. 
Sometimes these things are allowed to assume undue pro- 
portions, overshadowing everything else, and exciting un- 
favorable comment among the more conservative j^eople. 
Too much prominence may sometimes be given to the an- 
nouncements, creating the impression, though a false one, 
that but little else is done during the summer months. All 
these points should be carefully guarded. 

c. Outings include, first, and as perhaps the most 
common feature, the rambling club. A number of young 
men join together for systematic excursions into the 
country, taking a day or part of one each week or fort- 
night. It is well to arrange at the beginning a plan for 
the season, so that an itinerary may be published, wdth the 
places and hours of rendezvous, cost, needed equipment, 
etc. Within easy radius of nearly every city many places 
of interest may be reached, perhaps with a short car or 
boat ride, and a score of pleasant trips be made during the 
season, relieving wonderfully the monotony of the sum- 
mer's toil, and proving a boon especially to those who 
have no other vacation. The company of some one able 
to talk instructively about the civil and natural history of 
the places visited will add interest. Not infrequently the 
suburban home of some friend may be reached during a 
ramble, and the j^arty be pleasantly entertained. Decorum 
should be observed, and the leader, as responsible for the 
behavior of the party, needs tact and judgment. Quite 
similar, but with their distinguishing characteristics, are 
clubs for wheeling, riding, or boating. Where water is 
accessible an Association may well provide several boats 
for its members, together with instruction in swimming. 

d. The athletic field. — This ranges all the way from a 
building lot measuring fifty by a hundred and fifty 
feet to a field containing a quarter of a mile cinder track, 
ball grounds, and opportunity for boating, swimming, and 
so on. The best location of the field has been alluded to in 
section D, 1, y. 


In the smallest of the grounds just mentioned, it will be 
possible to have places made for the high jump, both run- 
ning and standing; hop, step, and jump; three jumps, and 
other similar sports; and for pole vaulting, both for height 
and distance. Such a field will also be large enough for 
putting the twelve or sixteen pound shot; for throwing the 
fifty-six pound weight; and when only half a dozen or so 
use the ground at a time throwing the hammer may be 
carried on, but, owing to the fact that a twelve pound 
hammer may be thrown anywhere from sixty to a hundred 
feet, it ought never to be used while others are within 
range, as the sensations j^roduced by being hit with one 
are said not to be pleasurable. 

The larger grounds should include a flat suitable for the 
various games of ball. The space inclosed by a fifth of a 
mile track is generally sufinicient for this purpose, provided 
the track is not too narrow an ellipse. Tennis courts are 
very serviceable, and almost any Association will use from 
four to six. 

In connection with the field there should be a small 
house where athletic implements may be kept, and where 
the players may change their clothing. Lockers and op- 
portunities for bathing are desirable. A veranda over- 
looking the field will be found very pleasurable. 

In j)reparation for high juinping^ small uprights are 
sunk into the ground, with holes bored through them an 
inch apart from two to six feet above the ground. Pegs 
or nails placed in these holes support a cross-piece to be 
jumped. Figures on the uprights at the holes indicate an 
inch more than the height from the ground, thus giving 
the actual height at the top of the cross-piece. A smooth 
hard track, from three to six feet wide and from twenty to 
forty feet long, leads up to these standards. Beyond them 
the ground must be dug up and kept soft so that there 
shall be a minimum of danger of sprained ankles. 

Pole vaulting. — The apparatus is similar to that for the 
high jump, excepting that the poles rise ten feet from the 

Chap. 25, D, 5. the physical department. S2d 

ground. The ground on the further side should be made 
still softer, owing to the greater height of the fall. An 
excellent method to prevent the pole from going so far 
into the ground as to impede the jumper is to place a strong 
plank two feet square in the ground, inclined toward the 
start, the upper edge being flush 'with the surface, and 
the lower about eight inches below it. 

JBroad jtmiping. — The place is prepared like that for 
high jumping, except that a beam six inches square and 
not less than four feet long should be sunk into the ground 
for a "take oif." The ground should be dug away for 
three or four feet on the further side of this to the depth 
of five inches, so that the jumper cannot step over without 
inconvenience or discovery. 

Putting the shot. — It is desirable to have an iron ring 
seven feet in diameter, with a rim three inches wide, 
placed in the ground with about an inch above the sur- 
face. This makes the best circle from which to put the 
shot or throw the hammer, and may be very easily changed 
from one place to another. 

Iiim7img track. — A track may be made by first grading 
the ground, making the desired slopes and curves, then 
rolling systematically for a month or two, particularly 
after every rain. The ground will become so hard that 
the addition of half an inch of the finest cinders is all that 
is necessary to make it a serviceable cinder track. The 
only care that it will require will be rolling after rains to 
keep it even, and a little wetting in very dry weather. 
It is desirable to have at least a hundred and twenty yards 
" straight away." 

Tennis courts may be made in a similar manner if the 
soil is suitable, except that a coating of cinders is not re- 
quired. The court should be a trifle higher than the sur- 
rounding ground so that rain water will run off. Sand 
and loam or clay courts are preferable to grass courts, as 
they require less care to keep them in order. 

An occasional field-day is popular and useful. Objec- 


tionable conduct and language should be carefully 
guarded against. Especially should everything in the 
betting line be strictly prohibited. Propriety should 
be studied in all printed announcements, particularly in 
the Association bulletins. While there are many distinc- 
tive and proper terms in connection with athletic games, 
a species of technical slang may well be dispensed with. 

Scormg systetn. — The fundamental idea here also should 
be all-round development, and not excellence in individual 
features. All-round competition should form the basis of 
the work, and the prizes should be given for such excel- 
lence. The men should be shown that it is far more 
desirable to do half a dozen things fairly well, so training 
different parts of the body and various faculties, than 
it is to do only one, though with a much higher degree of 

A system of grading is recommended to the Associa- 
tions which seems to afford a solution of many difficulties 
that have presented themselves in the past. In brief, the 
system is as follows: Let five events, the hundred yard 
dash, running high jump, throwing the twelve pound 
hammer, pole vault, and mile run constitute the all-round 
competition. They call into play nearly all the faculties 
that are trained by athletics, and proficiency in them 
secures all-round development. The hundred yard dash 
requires speed and skill as well as quickness in starting, 
and uses primarily the muscles of the legs. The running 
high jump demands much skill in muscular co-ordination 
and elasticity, employing the muscles of the legs and back. 
Throwing the hammer requires considerable vigor of the 
waist and arms, as well as a large amount of skill that can 
only be secured by practice. The pole vault demands 
some muscular strength of the legs, a large amount in the 
waist and arms, and probably more skill than any similar 
exercise. The mile run requires good legs, tries the vigor 
and strength of heart and lungs, and tests endurance. In 
all these exercises there is not merely a training of the 

Chap. 25, D, 5. THE physical department. S31 

body for health, but there is a training of the higher nerve 
centres with relation to exact control of the body. In 
order to obviate the difficulty of comparing the work of 
different men, each one's mark is an absolute record of his 
own work rather than a comparison of his work with that 
of others. This enables him to compare his work day by 
day with all that has been done before, and to learn where 
he is weak and needs development; while if the mark de- 
pends mainly on whether he comes out first, second or 
third in any given event, it is not possible for him to 
accurately gauge and improve on his work. By such a 
uniform system the standing of different gymnasium 
classes also can be accurately fixed. It thus affords an 
excellent guide for systematic development in athletics, 
and places superiority within reach of men who could 
never excel in individual features, but who can be trained 
for all-round work. It is impossible here to describe this 
system in detail. This is done in Int. pph. No. 38, ** Offi- 
cial rules and scoring table for athletic contests." 

At such contests a large blackboard should be provided, 
so ruled as to enable the spectators to keep track of the 
events. It might be well to have a blackboard for each 
event and another for the summing up of all. This will 
also aid the scorer in keeping the record complete. 

Teartx competitions can be carried on by averaging the 
record; that is, the total for the team may be divided by 
the number of men it contains, the size of the team bear- 
ing some relation to that of the physical department mem- 
bership it represents. The objections to this system of 
scoring and competition have been rather of theory than 
of practice, for it has often been carried out successfully. 

c. An Association chcb house at the seaside or at soma 
other pleasant and healthful spot, where young men can 
spend their vacations with abundant facilities for recrea- 
tion, good social and moral surroundings, and at reason- 
able cost, is an experiment worth the trying, especially 
near large centres of population. Some approach to this 


has been made in connection with the summer institutes, 
schools, and camps. 

y. 'Wt?iter sports are popular among the Associations 
in some sections, especially in Canada, where snow shoe 
runs, tobogganing, skating, and the various ice games are 
found to be exhilarating and healthful. 



The object of the Association being to save and build 
up young men, the work of each department must be in 
accordance with and in relation to the work as a whole. 
The physical department must then, first, be instrumental 
in making better men physically, more enduring men, 
men whose bodies are under better control than before. 
But, beyond this, attention must at the same time he 
called to the greater need of good intellects, and to the 
still greater need of strong spiritual characters. 

How can the physical department best accomplish this 
threefold work? The fundamental rule for the accom- 
plishment of this result is that the object of the Associa- 
tion be continually kept in mind by the officers of the As- 
sociation, the physical department committee and leaders, 
and especially by the physical director. His life must be 
given to the all-round idea, not to the physical department. 
The idea of complete development must be embodied in the 
mottoes and symbols of the Association, and in the kinds of 
gymnastics and athletics undertaken. It should be set forth 
so plainly that, although others may not agree with it, 
still they cannot misunderstand it. 

Physical manliness is peculiarly attractive, and, added 
to Christian character and earnestness, gives a young man 
a vantage ground of influence, especially over those with 
whose exercises and sports he is sympathetic. As in all 

Chap. 25, E. the physical department. 333 

the other work, the most satisfactory results may be 
expected from a constant, discreet, personal influence 
through the opportunities afforded here by unusually fam- 
iliar and informal contact. 

As to methods of work, it may be said that organized 
work is always better than unorganized. A disciplined 
army will always beat a mob, and this is as true regarding 
Christian work as anywhere else. The "leaders' corps" 
described in section D, 4, J, is made up of men selected 
on account of ability to lead, and corresponds in this 
department, in its central and important position, to the 
training class of the general secretary. Its members are 
trained both in the practice and the theory of all the gym- 
nastics that are to be taught, not merely in such a way 
that they may know them, but that they may be able to 
teach them to others. They are selected from the active 
members. If there are few such connected with the physical 
department, others may be induced to enter it for the ex- 
press f)urpose of being useful, when they are shown that no 
other department contains so many men that are not 
Christians, and that no other department offers so good an 
opportunity for personal work, physical, intellectual, and 

A reception committee should also be organized, whose 
members will see that new men follow the prescriptions of 
the physical director regarding their work, and that they 
become acquainted with the better members of the gym- 
nasium. They should, of course, be genial men, and their 
hours should be so arranged that at least one will be on the 
floor during the time that the gymnasium is most frequented. 
In no other place will formality be more quickly resented 
and cordiality be more appreciated. When a man steps 
on the gymnasium floor for the first time, he feels strange 
and awkward; he tries one or two of the things that he 
sees done by others with perfect ease, and finds himself 
utterly unable to cope with them. Then is the opportune 
moment for some manly fellow to make his acquaintance 


and secure the influence which will subsequently give an 
opportunity for the realization of the ideal Association 

Committees that will wisely extend invitations to the 
religious meetings and circulate desirable literature, espec- 
ially good tracts on personal purity, will also be useful; 
but they must be carefully selected and work with little 
public demonstration. 

Every physical director should have a Bible class. The 
arguments in favor of the secretary's having one apply 
with equal force here. If he feels himself unqualified to 
conduct such a class, he should study each lesson the more 
carefully, in order to meet this deficiency. His relation 
to the members enables him to speak to them regarding 
these matters from vantage ground. The class is designed 
for gymnasium members and friends whom they specially 
invite. The leaders' corps should keep this upon their 
minds, as an effective means of presenting the word of 
God to such men. They should co-operate with the phy- 
sical director in securing the desired attendance, and in 
making the meetings profitable. Personal, pointed appli- 
cation of Scripture must be made in regard to sin, salva- 
tion, the new life, and kindred matters. Topics that pre- 
tend to be on one subject but are really on another should 
be avoided. 

A meeting having a subject likely to attract the men 
of the department, and led by one of the instructors or 
gymnasium members, may be useful. In some instances 
a series of such meetings has been held successfully on the 
gymnasium floor. Whether this is advisable or not, the 
physical director and leaders should be regular attendants 
at the Association meetings, and secure the presence of as 
many members of the department as possible. Gospel 
temperance and personal purity meetings, which are 
directly related to the physical department, are referred 
to in Chap. 22, B, 2. 

Very efficient work may be done in connection with the 

Chap. 25, F. the physical departme^tt. 335 

physical examination. This may not always be the best 
time to broach questions of personal religion, but it opens 
the way for a peculiar acquaintance and influence, and for 
ready access to those who are either wilfully perverting or 
ignoring their spiritual natures. The physical director 
who neglects this avenue of approach to his members is 
neglecting his greatest personal opportunity to meet their 
spiritual needs, and no greater one is offered in the Asso- 
ciation work. Christian common sense, tact, and know^l- 
edge are necessary here, as well as zeal and enthusiasm. 

Of course, all religious efforts will be made in close 
harmony with the religious department of the Association. 
There will be no attempt to build up an independent work, 
but, on the other hand, constant effort will be made to in- 
troduce into the general religious work the men who are 
first brought under religious influence in connection with 
the physical department. 



The physical director is a leader of men, so he must be a 
man in every sense of that word, an example of what the 
Young Men's Christian Association is aiming to produce. 
He should be a good man physically, having thorough 
control of his body. He should be well educated, a good 
man intellectually. He should be a thoroughly earnest and 
consecrated man spiritually. If he stands for all-round 
development he must strive for it in himself. He must 
keep up his studies, having in his library the best standard 
and current literature in the line of his profession. But 
scientific books of value on many questions arising in his 
work are not yet in existence, so he must be able to solve 
such problems himself, and therefore requires ability to 

*See "The physical directorship as a Ufe work," Int. pph. No. 102. 

336 ' THE PHYSICAL DEPARTME2fT. Chap. 25, F. 

follow a course of reasoning from beginning to end. Cor- 
respondence with his fellow directors in other Associations 
will also be helpful. Spiritual needs are deepest and most 
fundamental, so he must be strong here, for he will meet 
with tendencies towards materialism. He must be fam- 
iliar with the Scriptures and able to use them intelligently. 

He needs also to be a good trainer of men. The high- 
est compliment to a j^hysical director would be that his 
work is so thoroughly organized that it will go right on, 
although he should be absent for a time. 

Among the necessary qualifications is leadership. In 
our gymnasiums we do not endeavor to obtain military 
control of our members. Such an attempt would be un- 
wise. We must discipline and control by leading rather 
than by driving. A man who is naturally a leader will 
have little difficulty in accomplishing this, but one who is 
not will find it impossible. A man can readil}^ tell whether 
he is a leading spirit by looking backward, and seeing 
whether he was chosen captain of the baseball tea,m, 
whether he got up rowing clubs, and led in the sports and 
pastimes of boyhood and early manhood. These seem to 
be indications of capacity in this direction, and the advi- 
sability of a man's going into this work may be questioned, 
if he has not, to some degree at least, been recognized as 
having leadership. Leadership is more fully treated of in 
chapter 10, B, 2, e. Another indispensable qualification is 
common sense, or what is sometimes known as "horse 
sense." Tact is another. The work in the gymnasium 
on spiritual lines is by hand-to-hand methods, and without 
tact a man could accomplish very little. 

What technical training is needed ? The director should 
not follow any single system of gymnastics, but should be 
so familiar with the fundamental bases of the different 
systems that he understands the why and wherefore, and 
can himself meet the conditions that obtain in the gymna- 
sium. He must be acquainted with the history of physical 
education, and know, as far as possible, what was done by 

Chap. 35, F. the physical department. 337 

the Greeks and what is being done to-day. He must study 
the work of Delsarte of France, Jahn of Germany, Ling of 
Sweden, Maclaren of England, and of those who are prom- 
inently identified with the work in America. Only by 
knowing What such men have learned and practiced after 
investigation in these lines, can he use their methods in- 
telligently and originate methods of his own. A man who 
is to prescribe exercise for the body, and oversee its de- 
velopment under widel}^ varying conditions, must also 
have a thorough knowledge of physiology and anatomy; 
not a physiology that looks forward chiefly to the subse- 
quent study of pathology, l)ut that continually studies man 
as he is; not an anatomy that refers to surgery, but that 
studies man as a machine. He must be well acquainted 
with physical diagnosis, not necessarily able to designate 
diseases like typhoid fever, that come under the head of 
medical diagnosis, but able to recognize deviations from 
health and competent to say to a man after examination, 
" Your heart is normal and you are in condition to under- 
take physical work." He needs a thorough knowledge of 
the human form and the laws governing it, gained by the 
stud}^ of anthropometry. He must be familiar with the 
modern methods of tabulation and the use of statistics in 
this direction. Knowledge of hygiene is also essential. 
The most remarkable effects produced to-day in physical 
education are, perhaps, those secured by training the nerve 
centres and those produced upon the mind through physi- 
cal exercises, as at the New York State Reformatory at 
Elmira, and in some private treatment of weak minded 
children. Acquaintance with these facts, and with the 
principles of physiological j^sychology by which they are 
explained, will be very useful. 

In j)ractical gymnastics he should be acquainted with the 
different kinds of calisthenics, and with the use of dumb- 
bells, Indian clubs, wands, the push ball, and the developing 
apparatus, such as chest w^eights and floor and overhead 
pulleys. He should be familiar with the basal movements 


of the vaulting bar, parallel bars, horse, buck, and so on, 
and know how to build up systematically from these into 
complete and desirable drills. 

He should understand the mechanical construction of 
the apparatus and be able to keep it in order and repair it. 
He will be held responsible for the good condition of the 
gymnasium, bath and dressing rooms, and athletic field. 
These cannot be safe and healthful without constant 
watchfulness and repairs. 

The Associations are pushing with great vigor in the 
line of athletics, of which the j^bysical director often has 
charge, and he is always expected to be competent for such 
work. He must be familiar with Avalking, si^rint and 
long distance running, jumping, pole vaulting, jDutting the 
shot, throwing the hammer, baseball, lacrosse, polo, and 
so on. He will be expected to lead swimming parties, to 
give instruction in rowing, and to know how to rescue a 
man from drowning. He needs to know something about 
massage and Swedish movements, and while he may not be 
called on to teach boxing and wrestling, still it is desira- 
ble that he understand them. Fencing he will find to 
be an exercise of growing promise in our work. And 
then he must know how to teach many of these things 
to others, which is an entirely different thing from being 
able to do them himself. Lastly, he should so understand 
the principles of gymnastics that he can originate exercises 
and drills to meet different conditions. The mere commit- 
ting to memory of hundreds of different movements will 
not suffice, for the conditions in different communities are 
never identical, and work must always be prescribed to 
meet the individual case and the individual community. 



In addition to the business management, the members 
of this committee will be the intimate counselors of 
the physical director, and if i^ractical men, as they 
usually must be to have real sympathy with it, they may 
do good work on the floor or the field, aiding in the super- 
vision and making themselves useful in many ways. 
Especially should they assist in bringing the members into 
contact and symjDathy with the other departments, both by 
individual effort and through the various agencies intro- 
duced for this purpose. A good Christian physician may 
be very serviceable on this committee. 

The committee may be divided into sub-committees, each 
one in charge of a special branch of its work. 

The physical director should sustain a similar relation to 
this committee that the general secretary does to the board 
of directors. He is its executive officer. He should either 
be an ex officio member of the committee, or his regular 
attendance at its meetings should be fully provided for. 
He should lay all plans before it and undertake only such 
as are approved. The general secretary, of course, holds 
the same relation to this committee as to all others. 

*A form of report for this committee is given in sample No. 25. 



Tlie specific treatment of tliis branch of the work seems 
to come naturally after that of the religious, intellectual, 
and physical departments, as it relates wholly to mutual 
intercourse, while the others primarily relate to the indi- 
vidual. Much has already been said about social features 
directly connected with the other departments, because a 
hearty social life must pervade them all. An iceberg, 
although purity itself, is but cold and repellent; while 
jsociability, like the sunshine, glows and warms, beautifies 
and attracts. The organization with a true social spirit 
will draw and hold young men in the greatest numbers, 
even if poorly provided with many means and appliances 
suggested in the foregoing pages. 



1. — The social work includes three principal features : 
evening supervision, the social rooms and their appliances, 
and the social entertainments. The committee may 
naturally have several sub-divisions. One of these, known 
as the reception committee, supervises the evening social 

* A form of report for this department is suggested in sample No. 26. 
This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 63. 

Chap. ^6, A, 3. tSe social department. 341 

work, thus occupying a position of great responsibility. 
Its members are on duty when the rooms are most visited, 
and are often the first representatives of the Association 
met by strangers, whose early impressions may fix their 
future attitude towards the organization. In large Asso- 
ciations they also sustain important relations to the culti- 
vation of friendly intercourse among the members, many 
of whom are necessarily strangers to one another. (See 
** Reception committee rules," appendix, sample No. 41.) 

2. — This committee is usually a large one, made up 
chiefly of the younger active members, who are most apt 
to have evening leisure ; and so divided into sections that 
two or more, as the work requires, will be on duty each 
evening. It is desirable that the sections serve weekly, 
but perhaps some valuable members can do so only once a 
fortnight. Each section has its chairman, who directs the 
evening's work, and consults as may be necessary with the 
general secretary. The latter officer will keep the chair- 
men informed as to new members, strangers he has met, 
and other helpful items. A memorandum book in which 
both the secretary and the chairmen record such matters 
will be mutually helpful. The members of the committee 
generally wear a neat badge marked " Reception " or " Re- 
ception Committee." 

3. — The reception room will be the headquarters, near 
the outer door of which one of the committee at least 
should be stationed, to greet those who enter, especially 
strangers. Common sense will be needed here. A person 
Avho wishes merely to glance at a paper, and is perhaps in a 
hurry, should not be bored with conversation; but a young 
stranger dropping in for a social hour, or to learn about 
the Association, possibly with the thought of joining, 
should be shown through the building and given every de- 
sired attention. Some Associations prepare a brief state- 
ment regarding the work, to be studied by every member 
of the reception committee, together with a description of 
pictures or other objects of interest in the rooms, important 

342 THE SOCIAL DEPARTMEifT. Chap. 26, A, 4. 

features of the library, etc. Great care must be exercised in 
the case of non-Christians. Conversation should be thought- 
fully adapted to individuals. They are to be brought into 
the Association, if possible, but must not be repelled by 
over-anxiety. In introducing the subject of personal relig- 
ion, opportunity for which will often occur to the earnest 
committeeman, a consecrated tact is specially required. 
Often a friendly acquaintance may well precede such an 
attempt, and nothing be lost in the waiting. A cordial in- 
vitation to the young men's meeting will sometimes be the 
entering wedge. Every effort should be made to get hold 
of young men coming from the country or the smaller 
towns, who often encounter such temptations in the new 
life of the city that they are speedily lured to ruin. 

4. — The members of the committee should never consider 
themselves as entirely off duty, but should habituate them- 
selves to remember faces and recognize on the street or 
elsewhere the young men whom they meet at the rooms, 
particularly those who lack social advantages. They will 
also call on young men brought to their notice by others. 
All who are connected with the Association should take 
pains either to accompany young strangers to the rooms, 
or send their addresses to the committee. Each committee- 
man may be provided by the Association with cards bear- 
ing his name, his evening on duty, and the address of the 
Association. The free use of such cards may lead many 
friends to drop in at the rooms. (See appendix, sample 
No. 42). Much may also be done in the way of introduc- 
ing young men to the churches, and informing pastors 
about them, particularly when religious interest has been 
manifested or when they carry church letters. In such 
efforts the committee may helpfullj^ co-operate with the 
religious work committee. A " suggestive plan " with speci- 
men blanks may be found in " The Watchman," 1888, 
page 235. 

5. — The systematic collection of statistics will add inter- 
est and assist greatly in reporting the work. A " Re- 

Chap. 26, B, 2. THE social department. 343 

ception Committee Evening Record," issued by the Young 
Men's Era Publishing Co., is shown in the appendix, 
sample I^o. 43. To the items there given should be 
added the number present at evening prayers, when 
these are conducted under direction of the committee. 
Many reception committees use a " daily journal " as a 
record book. A visitors' register may also be made help- 
ful to the work in many ways. A register of resident 
young men is sometimes kept in the secretary's office, in 
which may be entered any new names secured by the even- 
ing committee. Pads of the blank shown in the appendix, 
sample No. 44, will be found useful for this purpose. 

6. — A monthly meeting of the committee should be 
held for reports, comparison of experiences, and suggest- 
ions. Occasionally refreshments should be served at the 
meeting, and a pleasant social hour added to the ordinary 
business session. A bulletin containing the names of the 
committee for each evening of the week should be hung 
in the reception room. 



1. — The social rooms include the reception room and 
parlors, and often a separate room for games. The recep- 
tion room has been described in Chap. 14, C, 5, a, A neat 
lavatory, fully supplied with necessities for the toilet, is near 
at hand. But whatever the available space, there should 
be crowded into it as many as possible of the pleasing and 
convenient characteristics of the home. There will also 
be an absence of the restraints necessary in some other 
rooms, and freedom for conversation, music, and reasonable 
mirth. Anything boisterous should be kindly and quietly 

2, — Such a resort, with the companionsliip of the secre- 

344 THE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 26, B, 3. 

tary, tlie reception committee, and a social membership, 
must attract young men, reaching often where the direct 
religious work does not, and counteracting in no small de- 
gree evil things and places. The social spirit must be 
real and hearty. The active members should aid in mak- 
ing the place a popular rendezvous, and also one that will 
improve the address and conversational powers of those 
Avho frequent it. 

3. — Recreative attractions should be provided. Music 
is easily first on the list. There should be a good instru- 
ment, or, still better, both a piano and organ. There 
should be a variety of written music, secular as well as 
sacred, including college songs. Anj^thing new that is 
specially good should be added at once, that the young 
men may know Avhere to find the latest and best. Noth- 
ing is more attractive to young men than music, whether 
they are musicians themselves or simply listeners. 

4. — Only pictures of real merit should find a place on 
the walls. Consign gift chromos to the storeroom. On 
the tables maj^ be books of engravings, with stereoscopic 
and other photographic views. To these may be added 
plates from magazines or books, mounted at slight cost, 
and woodcuts tastefully arranged on colored cards, in 
albums, or portfolios. 

5. — Natural curiosities, cabinets of minerals, woods, 
birds and insects, a microscope, a telescope, various kinds of 
philosophic apparatus, models of machinery, or a collection 
of coins and curios from other lands, perhaps illustrating 
ancient life especially in Bible times, Avould be both in- 
structive and pleasing. 

6. — Discrimination is made in favor of games of skill, 
and against those whose history or associations render 
them objectionable. Chess and checkers are among the 
most common. These amusements attract many to the 
rooms, and their use under the supervision accorded by the 
Associations has seemed to have real value. Cautions are 
needed. What may be a healthful relaxation should not 

Chap. 2G, C, 3. the social department. 345 

extend to a waste of time. An emploj^e should seldom play, 
except for a purpose — to entertain a stranger or to get ac- 
quainted with an associate member. And this rule maj?- 
apply in a large measure to the active members on duty. 
Professional or habitual players should never be permitted 
to monopolize the games. The privilege of the recreation 
room is usually confined to members and their invited 
guests. It is desirable to have the games apart from the 
library and reading room, but always within easy super- 
vision. This department must not be made too prominent, 
nor allowed to interfere with more important things. (As 
an illustration of methods see " Chess and checker club 
rules," appendix, sample No. 45.) 



1. — In addition to the everyday social life, certain oc- 
casional features are introduced in the way of social gather- 
ings. These have in view several objects : (a) The social 
enjoyment of the members, (b) A more thorough acquaint- 
ance, especially as regards the new members, (c) An op- 
portunity to introduce non-members and give them such a 
glimpse of the society as may lead to their joining it. 
(c?)An occasion when information and instruction about 
the work can be given the members, (e) A chance for 
personal effort in any desired direction. 

2. — The most important of these gatherings is the mem- 
bers' meeting or reception ; for full description see chapter 
9, H. 

3. — Other forms of the social recej^tion will not differ 
materially from this, except that the reports and details of 
work will be largely omitted. These entertainments are 
often given in compliment to some particular class or 
trade,— to clerks in mercantile houses, to young men of the 

346 fHE SOCIAL DEPARTMENT. Chap. 26, C, 4. 

manufacturing orotlier industries, to students, postal clerks, 
railroad men, policemen, firemen, etc. In a large town in- 
vitations for an evening would have to be limited to certain 
establishments or districts. 

4. The parlor social is an informal gathering of young 
men, for conversation and music. Fruit, nuts, or other 
light refreshments may be served according to the season. 
" Camp fires," at which summer vacation experiences, etc., 
are related, are very popular. An open wood-fire lends an 
added charm. 

5. — A strangers' reception is sometimes held, invitations 
being sent to new members and young men who have re- 
cently come to the city. Members of the reception com- 
mittee should be present. 

5. — The committee tea may include one or more of the 
committees, gathered for the purpose of organizing or 
stimulating the work. Provide room for all, and follow the 
tea by an informal conference about the table. 

7. The New Year's reception has been for many years 
a feature of the social work. Often ladies assist in receiv- 
ing, and arrange for " open house " during the afternoon 
and evening. Besides refreshments, it is customary to 
provide good music, and perhaps other entertainments, 
especially for the evening. An Association recently issued 
a tasteful invitation, giving, besides the onenu, a program 
with a change of entertainment for every half hour from 
eight to ten o'clock. A dinner is given by some Associa- 
tions, usually with the help of the ladies, to members and 
other young men who are known to be away from home. 

Every public or national holiday, when young men are 
free from their regular occupations, is a day of special 
temptation to them and of special opportunity to the Asso- 
ciation, particularly in its social department. Forms of 
entertainment will vary with the season of the year. 

The rooms should never be closed on such days, when 
they are most needed and appreciated. The employes 
should find other times for their own holidays. 

Chap. 26, C, 9. the social department. 34'j? 

8. — The interest of the social gatherings will be greatl}^ 
enlianced by good music. Every Association should en- 
deavor to cultivate the musical talent of its young men, 
even at considerable expense. A male chorus, with a 
quartet and, if possible, an orchestra, will be helpful. The 
musical gifts of the ladies should be drawn upon as occa- 
sion may warrant, also the literary and elocutionary talent 
of the community. A wide-awake chairman will see that 
every available force is brought out and marshalled for 
service on this important department of activity. 

9. — Perhaps greater caution is required in the social de- 
partment than in any other, that nothing be permitted in 
connection with, or for the benefit of, the Association that 
is not in accord with the best Christian sentiment of the 
community. Here, as always, the organization should 
keep in close and loyal sympathy with the evangelical 
churches. Nor should just offence be given to any body 
of people, as has been done sometimes, for example, by 
holding athletic games on Decoration Day. 





1. — The work of directing young men to suitable board- 
ing-places has been carried on from the first by some of 
the leading Associations.! 

2. — Reasons for so doing are : 

(a) The chief patrons of boarding-houses are young 

{b) A mutually helpful relation is established between 
these places and the Association. 

c) Young men coming into a town are brought at 
once into contact with the Association, their first necessity 
being a home. 

(d) The men who receive information about homes 
pervaded with good social and moral influences are fav- 
orably impressed and put under certain obligations. 

3. — The first requisite of the work is a committee. Its 
members should possess insight, courtesy, and tact, to which 
may well be added a personal boarding-house experience. 
This committee should thoroughly inspect the premises of 

* This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 64. 

t A circular issued by the Boston Association in 1852, soon after its organization, 
contained the following: ' ' We intend to make this Association a social organization 
of those in whom the love of Clirist has produced love to men, who shall meet the 
young stranger as he enters our city, take him by the hand, and direct him to a 
boarding-place where he may find a quiet home pervaded with Christian influ- 

Chap. 27, A, 5. information and relief. 349 

each applicant for patronage, and also by personal inquiry 
become fully satisfied as to the character and desirability 
of each place. Inquiries may be made of a pastor, of pres- 
ent or former boarders, and of neighboring tradesmen. 
Some ver}'- embarrassing mistakes have taught the necessity 
of great care in these matters. 

4. — A second requisite is the register, in which a list of 
boarding-places, classified generally by different sections of 
the city, is kept for reference. There should be space to 
state all needed facts, also the number and class of vacan- 
cies at a given date. Frequent revision will be necessary 
to keep this register fresh and trustworthy. If intended 
for public inspection, private memoranda may be entered 
in cipher or kept in another book. Application blanks for 
boarders are sometimes sent out statedly to boarding-house 
keepers, to be used as needed. Labor may be saved by 
fastening these original blanks in a letter file with adhe- 
sive stubs and using this as the register. But in this case 
the book with its private notes must never pass into the 
hands of persons seeking board. All information must be 
furnished them by a representative of the Association. As 
such intercourse with young men, many of whom are 
strangers to the Association, offers a special opportunity to 
make their acquaintance and invite them to other privileges, 
it is very desirable. A few Associations are using the card 
catalogue method instead of a book register. A deposit of 
fifty cents is sometimes required from each applicant for 
boarders, which is refunded when the vacancy is reported 
as filled. The object in view is to insure promptness in 
such reports, so that young men looking for homes need 
not make fruitless calls. 

5. — ^Whenever opportunity offers, the committee and 
secretary may well caution young men against the tend- 
ency to hire lodgings and take their meals at restaurants or 
houses giving table board. Even where the social influ- 
ence of a boarding-house is slight, the boarder is regarded 
in some measure as a member of the family and is looked 

350 INFORMATION AND RELIEF. Chap. 37, A, 6. 

after when sick. In lodgings no home influence exists, and 
the young man leads a life of isolation and is more tempted 
to seek female society of a debasing sort. 

6. — Although it may not be expedient to exclude from the 
register any respectable house, yet in directing young men 
to homes a decided preference should be given to those 
tliat are Christian, and it need hardly be said that no place 
should be knowingly retained on the list where good 
character is not made a test of admission. Memoranda 
should be kept of 2:)ersons directed to boarding-places, and 
of any interesting facts connected with the work. 

v. — It should be thoroughly understood that the Associa- 
tion is in no manner responsible for the character and con- 
duct of persons directed to boarding-houses. When the 
parties are personally known, or bring satisfactory refer- 
ences to the secretary, he will furnish them with a special 
note of introduction. 

8. — A boarding-house keeper will usually be willing to 
reciprocate favors received. The Association directory, 
neatly framed, may be hung in the house; or a card invit- 
ing to the Association rooms and meetings, and stating 
that any sick young man will be visited upon notification, 
may be placed in each sleeping room. Such cards are also 
sometimes placed in hotels. (See section D of this 
chapter). Postal card blanks may also be left at each house 
upon which may be reported the names of new comers 
from other sources than the Association. This will be spe- 
cially helpful to the invitation committee. 

9. — An Association undertaking this class of work should 
do it well. Every efficient bureau will tend to popularize 
the system and the Association, especially among the large 
body of young men who are more or less frequently chang- 
ing their places of residence. (See appendix, samples Nos. 
46 and 47, "Boarding-house application and register"). 

Chap. 27, B, 4. information and relief. 351 



1. — Statistics of this work appear first in the Report of 
tlie International Convention of 1875, when thirty-five 
Associations engaged in it. In the Year Book for 1891, 
11,276 situations are reported as secured by 348 Associa- 
tions. A study of these figures with those of the inter- 
vening years shows, first, that a much larger proportion of 
the Associations than formerly are incorpoi'ating this 
agenc}' into their work, and, second, that its success evi- 
dently depends more upon methods than upon the size of 
the place. There is no reason why it may not be a 
useful feature in every city. It would seem possible for 
the system to be so extended and perfected as to become 
the most 2)opular and reliable medium of communication 
between employers and young men seeking employment, 
and to a considerable extent the means of preventing in- 
dustrious young men from lapsing into destitution. But 
this would involve a much larger expenditure of money on 
this department than the Associations have as yet deemed 

2. — The means required for the prosecution of this work 
are a committee, methods of advertising, and a plan for 
obtaining and keeping a record of facts concerning the 
character and capabilities of applicants. Much of the de- 
tail work must usually be done by an employed agent of 
the Association. 

3. — The committee is usually composed of business men, 
those with experience as employers and with a reputation 
for good judgment being secured, if possible. It is custom- 
ary to fix a portion of each day, or of stated days of the 
week, at which applicants may meet the committee or its 

4. — Various blanks are necessary ; one to be filled out 
by the applicant, another by his references — usually former 

352 INFORMATION AND RELIEF. Chap. 27, B, 5. 

employers, and others to be used in soliciting patronage, in 
routine correspondence, etc. (See appendix, samples Nos. 

5. — It should be made very clear that the Association 
does not recommend aj^plicants or assume any responsibility 
regarding them, but that it simply offers for the inspection 
of employers the references which it has collected con- 
cerning them. 

6. — A record book is needed, or a simpler and more de- 
sirable plan is to use a letter file with adhesive stubs in 
which the application blanks themselves can be preserved. 
The recorded facts should be as full as possible ; some 
of them will be required by employers, and others will be 
useful in the statistical reports of the work. A " Graves 
Printed Index," for sale by Hall & McChesney, Syracuse, 
N. Y., is specially valuable in keeping a list of applicants 
for employment and memoranda concerning them. 

7. — Applications from employers are kept in like manner, 
and in connection with each entry may be given the names 
of those sent in response, with memoranda of results. 

8. — The success of this work in any locality will depend, 
as before stated, almost entirely upon methods, — on the sys- 
tem, energy, and judgment of the committee. An aptitude 
at reading character, with care in securing and examining 
references, should result in putting the right men in the 
right places and in rendering the bureau a popular and 
reliable agency. 



1. — During the past few years an increasing number of 
Associations have been urging upon their members, espe- 
cially upon the younger ones, the importance of acquiring 
early in life a habit of systematically saving a part of their 


earnings. Arrangements are generally made to co-operate 
with some reliable savings bank by receiving from members 
at stated times, monthly, weekly, or oftener, smaller sums 
than would generally be deposited directly in the bank, and 
often at hours when the bank is closed. These are passed 
over to the bank, to be credited to the account of the de- 
positor. (See '^Savings bureau rules," appendix, sample 
No. 55). 

2. — A demand for the help derived from membership in 
mutual benefit societies in the event of sickness or death 
has recently led a few Associations to undertake some work 
in this line among their members. 



A verj^ practical feature in Association work is a com- 
mittee for the visitation of the sick, including, if possible, 
one or more Christian physicians. Young men absent from 
home and sick are peculiarly exposed to discomfort and 
even danger, from lack of suitable medical attention and 
friendly care. The Association volunteers its kindly offices 
in these cases of need. Physicians are often asked to 
direct it to those in need of its help. (See samj^le letter 
and reply card, aj^pendix, sample No. 56.) Friendly calls, 
watching or providing professional nurses, securing needed 
medicines and delicacies which might not otherwise be 
obtained, communicating with absent relatives when desir- 
able, and furnishing reading and companionshij? during 
convalescence, are among the duties of such a committee, 
and afford opportunities for doing good to both body and 
soul. Some Associations have wisely arranged for the use 
of one or more hospital beds. Others have organized medi- 
cal clubs among their members, which, on the payment of 
a small fee, guarantee the attendance of a competent phy- 

354 INFORMATION AND RELIEF. Chap. 27, E, 1. 

sician, when needed. In the event of the death of a 
young man away from home and friends, the Association 
often takes charge of tlie funeral arrangements. When the 
services are held at the Association rooms, impressions for 
good may be made upon young men who are present. 
Some Associations have secured cemetery lots for the 
burial of strangers. 



1. — Persons in trouble and destitution often apply for 
help at our rooms. Remembering the example of our 
gracious Lord, all such should be kindly met, their cases 
carefully examined in order to learn their real needs, and 
they should be directed where and how to seek the aid they 
require. To assist him in these efforts the secretary should 
become familiar with all the agencies that relieve the des- 
titute, both male and female, and with the names of their 

2. — The Association will confine its active work in this 
line to young men. While investigation will show some 
men to be worthy, whom it is a pleasure to assist, experi- 
ence shows that the majority of those who come to the 
Association for money, or its equivalent, are impostors ; 
especially those who preface their importunities by attend- 
ance and seeming interest at religious services, or by a 
story of former church or Association membership. Many 
of them are well informed regarding Association matters, 
and talk glibly of prominent workers in other cities, some 
of whom they have doubtless met " professionally." The 
pleas of a lost j^ocket-book, a sick friend to whose bedside 
they have been called, well-to-do relatives or expected em- 
ployment in some other city, and similar stories are the 
stock in trade of large numbers who attempt to work their 

Chap. 27, E, 5. information and relief. 355 

way along the leading thoroughfares by imposition, and of 
whom the Associations get their full share. 

Money should seldom, if ever, be given; but, instead, 
orders for meals, lodgings, or whatever is necessary. The 
secretary cannot undertake even this work from his private 
purse, and it is not desirable to have an Association fund 
for the purpose, as a little ill-judged giving will fill the 
rooms with beggars. It is better to have a few friends 
who can be called upon in cases of real emergency. The 
telegraph may sometimes be used to decide a doubt, where 
the importance of the case warrants. 

3. — In the largest cities there are always many young men 
out of employment and often temporarily in destitution. 
As it has been found impracticable to carry on any ex- 
tended work for such men in connection with the general 
Association, special branches have been organized in a few 
instances for this purpose, having the needed appliances, 
and in charge of persons possessing tact and experience in 
this line of work. 

4. — The idea formerly prevailed that the Young Men's 
Christian Association included among its duties every kind 
of Christian effort, and in some instances a general relief 
work, perhaps in connection with mission Sunday-schools, 
was made a prominent feature. All this is now considered 
entirely outside the scope of Association work, the only 
possible exceptions being occasions of calamity, or severe 
financial depression, when it is the duty of every humane 
and Christian organization to enter heartily into any proper 
schemes for the public welfare. 

5. — The indiscriminate use of the Association address in 
sending and receiving mail matter should not be allowed. 
Undesirable matter coming to the care of an Association 
should be returned to the post-ofiice. The Association 
letterheads and envelopes should not be used by strangers. 
Plain stationery is now generally furnished to them, which 
is better than a special form containing the words " Pub- 
lic Correspondence Table." 




1. — The following statistics indicate the development of 
this work. The first figures appear in the Year Book for 
1874, when three Associations report religious meetings for 
boys. (The statistics in each Year Book represent the 
work of the preceding calendar year). In 1877 this num- 
ber had grown to eighteen. The Year Book for 1880 dis- 
tinguishes for the first time between the religious and 
secular departments. Forty-eight Associations report : 
twenty-seven religious work only, fifteen secular, and six 
both. At Atlanta, in 1885, the subject was first brought 
before an International Convention. Of the 144 Associa- 
tions reporting to this convention, 129 were doing religious 
and 116 secular work, showing a large majority engaged in 
both. For the following year only 148 Associations re- 
ported ; but the table shows twelve varieties of work, from 
one to eight or nine in each Association; an average of 
nearly four varieties; and a total aggregate of 541. Five 
years later 190 Associations reported organized boys' 
branches, and, in addition to this, a number of Associations 
hold meetings for boys, or grant them certain privileges. 
In 1887 the topic, " The province and best methods of work 
for boys in the Young Men's Christian Association," 

* This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 65. 

Chap. 28, B, 1. work for boys. 357 

brought this subject again before the convention. At 
Philadelphia, 1889, a parlor conference of delegates inter- 
ested in this work was first held in connection with an in- 
ternational gathering. 

2. — In 1885 a caref'ul observer gave the following as 
characteristics of this work : instability ; wide diversity 
in aim; equal diversity as to methods; lack of uniformity 
in name, organization, and age limit; and a tendency 
towards definite religious effort; the last being the only 
favorable symptom revealed by the diagnosis. A compar- 
ison of the Year Books for 1888 and 1889 shows an increase 
of four in the number of Associations reporting this branch 
of work; but 57 report it in 1889 that did not report it the 
previous year, while 53 reporting it in 1888 do not report 
it in 1889. In no other department are there at present so 
many changes, which is no doubt due largely to crude and 
ill defined plans and methods. And yet the record of early 
work in other departments would probably be similar, if 
equally careful reports had then been compiled. Where 
the work is on a good basis as to aim and organization, it 
is marked by stability, progress, and good results. 


1. — So rapid nowadays is the transition from boyhood 
to young manhood — seeming to occur earlier and earlier in 
life — and so great the number, power, and activity of evil 
influences, that to neglect the boy may easily place the 
young man beyond our reach. In fact work for the two 
seems so closely allied that it is impossible to tell just 
where the one ends and the other begins. If every boy 
had a good home and could be kept there, perhaps there 
would be little call for this distinctive work ; for the longer 
a boy is contented to pass his leisure hours within the refi- 

35S WORK FOR BOTS. Chap. 28, B, k 

iiing and restraining atmosphere of a Christian home the 
better. But abnormal domestic conditions exist to an 
alarming extent in many nominal homes, especially in 
cities; business and society so absorb the time and thought 
of parents that suitable home attractions are not provided 
for the boy, his social life is neglected, and he is too often 
left to do and go much as he pleases. And many boys have 
no home. All these boys need protection from temptation 
and evil habits, and the development of their entire nat- 
ures. But the so-called street boys need first to be 
" civilized, " perhaps fed and clothed, and in a score of 
ways helped toward a better life. It has been fully de- 
monstrated that work in behalf of these two classes of 
boys cannot be carried on together. If in any case an 
Association is able to undertake both forms of effort, they 
should not only be distinct from each other, but, if possi- 
ble, conducted in different places. The industrial training 
school, in connection with moral and religious instruction, 
is perhaps the best appliance with which to reach and up- 
lift the lower class. 

While it is unsafe to mix together in this work boys of 
widely different moral grades, it must be remembered that 
moral and social lines are by no means parallel. There are 
good boys among the poorest, and these should be drawn 
in without the least reference to their social position. 
There are also some of higher social standing that should 
be excluded. As has been said by an experienced worker, 
a natural rowdy will rule or ruin, and in this work he must 
not be allowed to do either. The influence of a rowdy of 
good social position is especially mischievous. 

2. — This work aims to supply the needs of the boy na- 
ture that may otherwise be left uncared for, and that run 
quite parallel with those of the young man along spiritual, 
mental, physical, and social lines. The work of pre- 
vention — the exclusion of evil habits and tastes by preoc- 
cupying the mind and heart with that which is good — has 
its best chance with the boy; and the stre-ngth and devel- 

Chap. 28, C, 2. WORK FOR BOYS. 359 

opment of Christian character and efficiency often depend 
largely npon the age at which the training begins. The 
testimony is already common that many of the best workers 
in the Association come from the boys' department. Boys 
are more approachable, more easily won, more willing to 
do; and beginning active Christian effort early they ac- 
quire confidence and tact, and escape as they grow up much 
of the diffidence and awkwardness that is so embarrassing 
to many who undertake it later. In a word, " We have 
boys' work for the same reason that you do not wait until 
a boy is twenty-one before you send him to school." 



1. — Two methods have been chiefly used hitherto: {a) 
a committee appointed by the board has the direct man- 
agement, perhaps leaving details somewhat to committees 
composed partly of boys; or {b) under a similar committee 
the boys are systematically organized, with by-laws, officers, 
committees, etc. The former plan is much the wiser. 
With the latter the machinery may easily become to the 
boys of more consequence than the work. It is not safe to 
give the boys full voice in the selection of officers and 
other business matters, even where the committee has veto 
power, as should always be the case. 

2. — There is a growing sentiment that the work for boys 
should have a more intimate connection with the other 
work of the Association than has been common in the past. 
This may be accomplished by placing it in charge of a 
boys' department committee, one or more members of 
which are, if practicable, members of the board of direc- 
tors (See Chap. 8, C, and D, 9). It need hardly be said 
that these men should all have a hearty interest in this line 
of effort and one or more of them, who can devote consid- 

360 WORK FOR Bots. Chap. 28, C, 2. 

erable time to it, should be natural leaders among boys, 
especially where it is not expected to employ a paid agent 
for this purpose. It is unsafe to begin boys' work without 
at least one such leader. 

Each sub-division of the boys' department may be under 
the direction of a sub-committee of the committee just 
mentioned. One member of each sub-committee may also be 
made a member of the corresponding department commit- 
tee of the Association. For example, the same member of 
the Association would thus be on the boys' department 
committee and on its educational sub -committee (probably 
as its chairman), and also on the educational department 
committee of the Association. Such a plan should pro- 
mote harmony between all proposed efforts among the boys 
and the young men. * 

If an Association is ready to undertake only one or two 
sub-divisions of boys' work, this plan can easily be adapted 
to such conditions, and, at the same time, be a constant 
reminder of the desirability of extending the work as soon 
as practicable. But the strength of the Association and of 
its work for young men should always be in advance of its 
boys' work, so that the latter may be simply a department 
— not a central feature. 

* The following full scheme of organization is suggested by one of the Associa- 

COMMITTEE OF BOARD OF DIRECTORS ON BOYs'' WORK, — three members designated 
as A (chairman of this committee), B, C. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, — SBveu members, designated as A (chairman of the de- 
partment), and B, C, D, H, K, O, (chairmen of six sub-committees). 

suB-coMMiTTEES OP THE DEPARTMENT, — active members of the Association, 
whose duties may be " doubled up " when so many men cannot be secured. 








Religious ivork 





Chairman and boy members. 

Training classes 


Chairman and boy members. 



Chairman and boy members. 

Educational work 



Library and reading room 



Literary society 


Social work 





Chairman and boy members. 



Chairman and boy members. 

Members' meeting 


Chairman and boy members. 

Plujsical work 


Chairman and boy members. 



Chairman and boy members. 

Outing Club 


Chairman and boy members. 

Chap. 28, D, 1. WORK FOR BOYS. 361 

As much responsibility as seems wise should be laid 
upon the boys themselves as members of sub-committees, 
leaders of meetings, etc. 

If such a department has a membership, there should be 
two classes, with the same active test as in the Association. 
Fees range from none at all to fifty cents and one dollar. 
Additional fees are charged for fuller privileges. The best 
sentiment excludes all boys under twelve years of age, and 
confines evening admission to those over fourteen. Like 
the lower grades in the city schools, the juniors should be 
considered an essential factor in the institution, and be 
taught to look forward to promotion into membership in 
the Association as a natural and expected result. This 
usually occurs at sixteen, but those who prefer to do so are 
sometimes allowed to remain members of the boys' depart- 
ment until they are eighteen. 

Where the work has been in existence for any length of 
time, junior graduates into the Association will naturally 
find a place on the boys' department committee. 

The term boys' section is sometimes used instead of 



1. — Separate apartments are very desirable. If practic- 
able there should be a separate entrance, especially if the 
younger boys are admitted. A single room may answer 
for reading, recreation, and meetings, but two or three will 
be much better. If the scheme of the Association does 
not provide for the presence of a committeeman or secre- 
tary during the hours that these rooms are in use, they 
sliould be so placed that the secretary can command a view 
of them from his desk through a glazed door or window. 
The rooms will usually be open in the afternoons and early 

36^ WORK FOR BOYS. Chap. 28, J), 2. 

evenings. Some Associations employ an assistant espec- 
ially for the boys' work, who certainly has a wide and 
important field. 

When separate accommodations cannot be had, those 
who have the tact to succeed under difficulties may still 
do something. A corner of the reading room may be given 
the boys at certain hours of the day, and an evening hour 
may be found during the week for a boys' meeting in the par- 
lor or lecture-room. But the boyish habit of sauntering 
about the rooms should not be permitted, nor anything 
else likely to drive out the young men. 

2. — The suggestions made in chapter 14, D, regarding 
furniture and general equipment, apply to the boys' rooms. 
The papering, painting, and carpeting of a room have been 
known to revolutionize the manners of the entire boy 

3. — There is no wiser way to begin this kind of effort 
than to collect a few Christian boys into a Bible or train- 
ing class, and there teach them the need, the possibili- 
ties, the difficulties, and the true spirit of the work. If 
they can be led to such an appreciative love for it as will 
impel them to activity, the best results will follow, — 
other boys will be brought into the class, some will be led 
to Christ, and the way will open naturally for the intro- 
duction of additional agencies. 

4. — The religious work should hold a prominent place. 
Meetings should be as informal as possible, largely con- 
versational, and often a combination of the Bible class 
with the song and j^rayer service. Such a flexible meeting 
can readily be adapted to the age and class of those in at- 
tendance. For the younger boys, it will be held in the 
daytime or early in the evening. With the older Cliristian 
boys a workers' training class is a necessity. Much good 
may also be done by judicious instruction regarding such 
practical matters as total abstinence, personal purity, the 
gambling habit, etc., teaching the boys how to avoid the 
first steps to the prevailing vices, and especially fortifying 

Chap. S8, D. 5. Work for boys. 36B 

their minds against them by religious truth. Every one 
of the various agencies employed should have a constant 
tendency and aim to develop the boys' moral and spiritual 
nature, which is far more receptive and plastic than it will 
be only a few years later. 

When the average boy gets interested in anything, he 
wants to help. Advantage should be taken of this dis- 
position, not only for the real good he may do, but in order 
to keep up his interest and teach him to do Christian work. 
Work in connection with the invitation committee, the 
distribution of religious literature, and a score of other 
things may be given him. Personal effort among his compan- 
ions should be emphasized, and perhaps may be stimulated 
by asking for systematic reports. He should be urged to 
active work in connection with his own church and Sunday- 

5. — The intellectual agencies usually employed are the 
reading room, library, literary society, and practical talks. 
It is especially desirable to preempt a boy's taste as to his 
reading, and it would seem that with the abundance of ex- 
cellent and attractive literature of to-day this might be 
done. All the best papers and magazines for young folks 
should be provided, including some of a scientific and 
technical nature, and not forgetting those that are pub- 
lished in the interest of temperance, kindness to animals, 
etc. Over one-third of the Associations reporting boys' 
work for 1890 had a boys' library. There are reasons 
why a separate library is better than for the boys to have 
access to that of the Association, even when such access is 
practicable. A little well-directed effort will secure a col- 
lection of suitable books.* The literary society may be 
very useful, leading the boys to study and research, and 
teaching them order, business methods, and parliamentary 
rules, together with that tact and self-possession in speak- 
ing so helpful and yet difficult to acquire except in early 

* Many good books are suggested in Sargenf s ' ' Reading for the Young " $1.00 
cloth, Library Bureau, 146 Franklin St., Boston. 

364 WORK FOR BOYS. Chap. 28, D, 6. 

life. The *^ practical talk" has always been popular. In 
every community there are those who can instruct and in- 
terest boys, particularly if allowed to talk informally and 
in line with their own business or study or experience. 
The range of topics is broad, and may include history, bio- 
graphy, travel, reminiscences, mechanical art, business 
habits, morals, and bodily health. It is a good plan to send 
the. boys themselves to invite the speakers. In some in- 
stances the evening class is employed, though it is not con- 
sidered wise to admit school boys to branches included in 
their regular course of study. 

6. — The physical department is particularly attractive 
to boys. Of course they should enter it under the same 
rules and supervision as the young men. A physical ex- 
amination, preferably by the family doctor, should be the 
first step taken in the matter. Every boy who, in the 
judgment of his physician, needs special gymnastic treat- 
ment should bring to the physical director a statement to 
that effect. A separate gymnasium, with fixtures adaj^ted 
to boys, is desirable but cannot often be had. IsTo boy 
should be allowed on the floor or in the bath rooms during 
the hours given to young men. In the Rock Island, 111., 
building, a special stairway runs from the boys' reading 
room to their own bath and dressing room, which is con- 
nected by a corridor with the gymnasium; so that there is 
no occasion for their ever entering the men's bath room. 

Most out-door sports will fit the boys as well as the 
young men, but should be undertaken only under proper 
supervision. The rambling club is one of the simplest as 
well as the most popular forms. A more extended outing, 
in the shape of a boys' camp, is described in the '* Young 
Men's Era " 1891, page 388. 

7. — /Socz'a^ methods will depend largely upon the class 
of boys and the facilities at command. As a rule it is un- 
desirable to admit the younger boys in the evening, but 
they may come during specified hours on some or all days 
of the week. And it is a question whether the attendance 

Chap. 28, D, 8. work for boys. 365 

of the older boys should not be limited to a certain num- 
ber of evenings a week. "No boy with a home should spend 
too many evenings away from it. 

In the selection of social attractions, particularly games, 
preference should be given to those that are quiet, and that 
combine something of instruction or mental training with 
amusement. Noisy games are especially objectionable if 
there is but one room. This class of attractions is so 
numerous that an attentive committee will never be at a 
loss for something new. Not too many should be intro- 
duced at once. When the boys are tired of anything, let 
it be put aside for awhile and it will come out again as 
fresh as ever. Discourage the boys from giving too much 
time to amusements, never the whole evening. It should 
generally be possible to devote the latter part of the even- 
ing to something in another line, either physical, educa- 
tional, or religious. Music should have an important part 
in the social work. 

A boys' bank is described in the " Young Men's Era, " 
1891, page 196. 

8. — An extended work for boys will require some printed 
matter, most of which can readily be modeled after that 
used for young men. 



The Associations are bound to be on the alert that no 
class of young men within reach be neglected in their 
scheme of work. While very much is still unattempted, 
successful effort has been made along several lines. Some 
of this work seems to be best accomj)lished through sepa- 
rate organizations, and this has called into existence the 
college, railroad, and other departments. 


1. — The extent and importance of this field is seen by 
the following statements : There are 350 Protestant col" 
leges in North America, containing 50,000 young men. 
Less than half of these students are professing Christians, 
and it is a conceded fact that but a small proportion are 
converted after leaving college. In addition to the above 
the preparatory, professional, scientific, and commercial 
schools are nearly 1,000 in number, and contain not less 
than 100,000 young men. And the number of schools 
and students is constantly and rapidly increasing. These 

* For historical items see Chap. 3, F, 3, / and j. 
See Int. pphs. No. 26, "The Intercollegiate Association Movement"; No. 27, 
"An Outline of the Work of College Associations"; No. 301, " College Associa- 
tion Record Blanks' ; No. 302. " College Association Buildings"; No. 303, "How 
to Secure a College Association Building"; No. 305, "The Fall Campaign, or 
How to Reach New Students"; No. 308, "The Study of the English Bible in 
College''; No. 304, "How Can the College Association Awaken and Maintain 
Interest in Bible Study"; No. 307, "Personal Work""; No. 310, "Christ as a 
Personal Worker"; (the last two contain studies for training classes); No. 311, 
" Studies in tho Gospel of Luke "; and No. 306, " The Claims of the General Sec- 
retaryship on Men of Education and Ability." 

Chap. 29, A, 5. WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. 367 

men are to occupy leading positions in business and social 
life, and will exert because of their culture a greater in- 
fluence for or against Christ. If saved, it must usually be 
through the instrumentality of their college associates. To 
enlist, organize, and train the Christian students for this 
work is a chief work of the College Association. 

2. — Beyond, however, these results of leading students 
to Christ, and adding to the church and to the number of 
Christian workers, a direct benefit accrues to the Associa- 
tions at large and to their specific work for young men. 
Those led into or trained in the Christian life by the 
college society, or in any way affiliating with it, will often 
identify themselves later with the city Association, bring- 
ing to it their experience and breadth of culture. Many 
men with collegiate training will also be needed as general 
secretaries, and every College Association should provide 
for a stated presentation of the claims of this work upon 
students, and such presentation should be made as clear, 
as forcible, and as impressive as possible. 

3. — Effort should be made to establish and strengthen 
friendly relations between the city and College Associa- 
tions. The college vacation ticket, issued by the Interna- 
tional Committee, entitling the holder to the privileges of 
any Association he may visit during his vacations, affords 
opportunities for extending courtesies which are likely to 
accomplish such results. The professors and upper-class- 
men may also aid a contiguous town Association by ad- 
dressing an occasional literary or religious meeting. 

4. — The character of college life — its comparative iso- 
lation, and the fact that so many young men are congregated 
together and away from the refinements and restraints of 
home — renders the social and religious influence of the 
College Association peculiarly helpful ; and it is none the 
less needed because of other social and literary college 

5. — There are included in the purpose and plan of col- 
lego worl: individual effort, devotional meetings, evangel- 

368 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 20, A, 6. 

istic meetings, Bible classes, development of missionary 
spirit, college neighborhood work, and intercollegiate co- 
operation. In many colleges all these departments are in 
operation under a systematic committee organization. 

a. The committees on work for new students and on 
membership strive to reach the new students. This must 
be done the first week — much of it the first day. A re- 
ception, perhaps at the president's house, on the first 
evening, to which the members of the incoming class are 
invited, affords one of the quickest and best methods. In 
some way each man must be approached and, if possible, 
secured either as an active or associate member. 

h. Devotional and evangelistic meetings are held, the 
former weekly or oftener; the latter perhaps once a month, 
also during the seasons appointed for sj^ecial prayer or at 
times of religious awakening. A committee on religious 
meetings appoints leaders, selects topics, and in every 
practicable way contributes to their success. 

c. A committee on Bible study aims to interest every 
student in this matter, and also provides for systematic 
work, usually by forming small Bible training classes for 
the study of fundamental truths and practical methods of 
dealing with the unconverted. 

d. The missionary committee has supervision of a 
very important department. From the colleges must 
come very largely not only the missionaries themselves, 
but the pastors whose intelligent presentation of the cause 
shall stimulate the churches to sympathy and generous 
benefactions. Many who are to become influential 
and wealthy laymen may receive a bias while in college 
affecting their future attitude towards this cause and 
their gifts to it. The history of the connection between 
the colleges and the missionary movement of the j^resent 
century, from the haystack prayer meeting of the Wil- 
liams' College boys down to L. D. Wishard's departure 
for Japan, is deeply interesting, and should become famil- 
iar to every Association student. 

Chap. 29, A, 10. WORK for special classes. 369 

/. A finance committee secures the money needed by 
the organization, and for a contribution toward the inter- 
collegiate Avork. 

g. A committee on intercollegiate relations brings to 
the Association the results of the experience of similar 
organizations, and makes the influence of the Association 
felt in the intercollegiate movement. 

8. — The organization of the College Association is as 
simj^le as practicable. Aside from the committees whose 
duties have been outlined, there are the usual officers, with 
rules regarding membership, business meetings, etc. A 
form of constitution is in general use that was adopted 
by a college conference at Milwaukee, Wis., in 1883 ; 
revised by a similar conference at Kansas City, Mo., in 
1891 ; and published by the International Committee, as 
No. 309. 

9. — One third of the Associations have rooms devoted 
exclusively to their use. Such rooms are advantageous 
in many ways, especially where it is desired to maintain 
a reading-room or library, and to hold social gatherings, 
as is done by many Associations. Some fine build- 
ings have recently come into the possession of the Col- 
lege Associations, and the number is rapidly increasing. 
Several of these Associations emploj^ general secretaries, 
usually a recent graduate who remains a year or more to 
assist in developing the work. In a few large cities there 
are intercollegiate organizations, local colleges uniting and 
having their headquarters in the city Association building 
or elsewhere. The Associations generally should do every- 
thing practicable to affiliate with their work the students 
of such collegiate and post-graduate schools in their local- 
ity as have no organizations of their own. 

10. — The College Associations receive many visits from 
International and State Secretaries, and much similar work 
has recently been accomplished through the " deputation 
plan," by which selected students are trained in annual 
** deputation conferences," and sent out to instruct and 

370 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, A, 11. 

train the College Associations along legitimate lines and 
advanced methods of work. 

The " student summer schools " began with that held by 
invitation of D. L. Moody at Mount Hermon, Mass., in 
1886, and annually since that time at Northfield. In these 
schools, several of which are now held each year in differ- 
ent parts of the country, many hundred college students 
study the Bible and methods of Christian work, under the 
guidance of prominent scholars and workers from this and 
other lands. 

11. — As an outgrowth of the college work in America, 
resulting from correspondence and visitation, a consider- 
able number of students' Associations have been estab- 
lished in schools in foreign mission lands. Calls have 
also come for competent men to organize and develop 
Association work among young men in the colleges and 
cities of the foreign field, resulting in the round-the-world 
tour of L. D. Wishard, as College Secretary of the Central 
International Committee, and the missions of J. Trumbull 
Swift in Japan, David McConaughy, Jr., in India and 
Myron A. Clark in Brazil. He must indeed be wise who 
would attempt to forecast the results of such movements 
as these. May not David McConaughy's words, penned 
on shipboard in New York harbor, Oct. 2, 1889, become 
historic : " As we start eastward to-day for India, Swift 
also leaves New York for Japan, and at the same time 
Wishard sets out from Japan to join us in India — the circle 
of the globe completed in three segments by influences 
emanating from the American group of this world-wide 
movement of the Young Men's Christian Associations " ? 

Chap. 29, B, 1. work for special classes. 371 



1. — Alms and benefits, — A railroad department of the 
Association is usually located at a railroad center, where 
different roads or divisions meet, and employees come to- 
gether from places hundreds of miles apart. It is thus a 
focal point of converging and radiating influences covering 
an extended area. There is, perhaps, no other large and 
distinctive body of men in the country in which such a work 
would prove so helpful or be so thoroughly appreciated. 
On the road night and day, and through the entire week ; 
largely young men, and in any case much away from what- 
ever home they have ; they are shut out in great measure 
from the higher social privileges, and in many cases almost 
entirely from church life. During their odd hours of 
leisure they must often choose between the caboose or a 
cheerless lodging and the saloon, with its social but de- 
moralizing atmosphere, and it is not strange if the natural 
drift be toward the latter. The Association aims to pro- 
vide, wherever any considerable number of railroad men, 
especially train men, are congregated, a neatly kept place 
of resort, better in every way than the saloon, furnished 
with books and papers, amusements, baths and a score of 
the little conveniences and attractions of home, and pre- 
sided over by a warm-hearted Christian man, to give a 
hearty welcome to each comer and a social cheeriness to 
the whole place. Add to this the religious meeting, the 
Bible class, visitation and care in injury or sickness, kind 
counsel and aid in every trouble, and we have an excellent 
example of practical Christianity operating through Asso- 
ciation methods. The peculiarly responsible duties of 
railroad men in relation to life and property call for clear 
judgment, high personal courage, and strong moral sense, 

* For historical items see Chap. 3, F, 3, d!. 
For various points regarding the raih-oad work see Int. pphs. Nos. 575. 57P 
589, and 592. *^ 

372 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, B, 2. 

things quite incompatible with loose habits and irreligious 

As to the direct results of this work, President Depew, 
of the New York Central Railroad, testifies as follows : 
" The effect of the establishment of one of these socie- 
ties at a railroad center is marked and immediate. The 
character of the service begins to improve. Salaries and 
wages, which had been worse than wasted, are spent upon 
wives and children, and the surplus finds its way into the 
savings bank and from there into a homestead. To many 
of these men are intrusted the lives of the hunjired million 
passengers who annually travel on the railways of the 
country. The demand for speed constantly increases the 
dangers of carriage. The steady hand and clear brain of 
the locomotive engineer, of the switchman at the crossing, 
of the flagman at the curve, of the signalman at the 
telegraph, alone prevent unutterable horrors, and this 
Association does more in fitting men to fulfill these duties 
for the safety of the public than all the patent appliances 
of the age." 

To this may be added the statement of Mr. Cornelius 
Vanderbilt, that, "In all the larger fields of Christian, 
educational, or benevolent endeavor, I know of no efforts 
which accomplish so much for the people immediately 
interested and for the character of the service they render 
to the public, in the safety of life and property, as those 
of the railroad branch of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 

2. — Orga7iization and Finance. — * Practical experience 
shows that the " department " method of organization is 
the best wherever there is a local Association. Where 
there is none, a Railroad Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion may be organized, complete in itself ; but the consti- 
tution should provide for a change to the former plan 
whenever a city Association shall be formed. Occasionally, 

* Int. pph. No. 37 is " Bylaws of a Railroad Department of a Young Men's 
Christian Association," and No. 620, " Constitution of a Railroad Association." 

Chap. 39, B, 3. WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. 373 

in a small place with a population largely of railroad 
people, a joint organization may be advisable. In such 
cases the best results have been obtained by forming a 
Railroad Association and constantly emphasizing the 
work for railroad men, although inviting the young men 
of the town to join. Such organizations are generally 
effected by the aid or under the supervision of the Inter- 
national Committee. For general information concerning 
department methods see chapter 6, A. 

Generous financial aid is given to this work by railroad 
companies. The rooms are often located in a corporation 
building, and heated and lighted free, and it is customary 
for the company either to grant an annual appropriation 
payable in monthly installments or to pay all or most of 
the secretary's salary, his* name being placed on the pay- 
roll as an employee. The additional amount required is 
secured from the railroad men in membership fees or sub- 
scriptions. In the case of a combined town and railroad 
work an equitable part of the budget should be provided 
by subscriptions from citizens. With a building or suitable 
rooms containing the conveniences here outlined, and a 
reasonable amount of company support, there is usually 
little difficulty in obtaining the needed additional income. 
Membership privileges are reciprocal, so that a membership 
ticket at one point entitles to membership privileges at all 

3. — Rooms and Methods. — Nearly all the Railroad 
Associations have rooms, which are usually located in or 
near the stations, round houses, or freight yards. Many 
excellent buildings have been erected specially for the 
work, and the number is growing each year. A conven- 
ient suite of apartments will include reading-room and 
library, social room or parlor, bath and toilet rooms, rest 
rooms, hall for meetings and entertainments and secre- 
tary's office. If necessary, some of these apartments may 
be combined. The reading-room should have, in addition 
to other matter, files of the leading railroad periodicalsi 

374 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, B, 3. 

The library is a very important feature. It should contain 
a good variety of miscellaneous reading including the best 
fiction. Preference should be given to the shorter and more 
concise publications, and to those of a cyclopedic character. 
Many such are being published and are largely superseding 
with busy men the older and more voluminous editions. 
Grote's Greece for example, in twelve volumes, would 
discourage any railroad man ; but a trim little book of two 
hundred pages, containing the gist of the whole might 
tempt to a perusal. There should be a generous supply 
of technical railroad books, both a general and a mechani- 
cal cyclopedia — the best published, and a good list of 
reference books for Bible study. 

The rest room is an apartment divided into a number 
of single rooms furnished with cots, where trainmen, 
coming and going at all times of the day and night, msiy 
catch a few hours sleep between trains within easy call. 
The great convenience of this feature can only be appre- 
ciated by those familiar with railroad life. A lunch room, 
where a cup of coffee, a sandwich or light lunch can be 
secured, is often added in Associations where there are 
large numbers of trainmen away from home. A room is 
often fitted up with cots, stretchers, and a supply of 
bandages and ordinary remedies, and kept as an emergency 
hospital, where men may receive temporary treatment 
when injured by accidents. The baths are not a luxury 
but a necessity, and must be ready for use at all hours. 
The gymnasium may be less needed by railroad men than 
by many others, and yet an assortment of light apparatus 
may be easily provided and be a means of healthful recre- 
ation. A bowling alley and a yard with requisities for 
some out-door games are both popular features. 

Educational classes, social receptions, and practical 
talks all have their place in the railroad work ; especially 
will such topics as "personal purity," "the effects of 
stimulants and narcotics," and " first aid to the injured " 
be very helpful. To these may sometimes be added a 

Chap. 29, B, 8. work for special classes. 375 

series of talks on mechanical subjects. The educational 
work should be so arranged, in the selection of studies 
and in details of teaching, that each session of a class 
has a positive value of its own, independent of preced- 
ing or succeeding sessions. Any plan which necessitates 
a continuous attendance at every session of a course 
is likely to defeat itself, or diminish the usefulness of the 
attempted instruction. In the religious department the 
men's meeting, the Bible class, the workers' training class, 
and evangelistic meetings are employed. The meetings 
and classes will often and of necessity be small and the 
attendance irregular, but this should not prevent systema- 
tic and persistent effort. Results do not always depend 
upon nor correspond to numbers. Cottage meetings have 
reached many men at their homes who would not come to 
the public meetings. The family with whom the meeting 
is held should be interested in gathering friends and 
neighbors to the service, making special effort to secure 
the attendance of the men. The exercises should be of the 
most informal character and not too long. The utmost 
cordiality should be manifested, and effort made to 
induce non-church-goers to attend public worship. These 
meetings are sometimes held at the homes of invalids. 

The general secretary is an indispensable factor. In- 
deed, the element of personal Christian devotion and 
enthusiasm which he throws into the work and cultivates in 
the workers, constitutes the essential difference between 
these efforts and earlier unsuccessful ones. His work is 
quite as varied as that of a city secretary. He must have 
tact to adapt himself and his methods to the characteris- 
tics, habits, and wants of railroad men. Accustomed to 
system in everything, the men will not be pleased with 
loose and careless ways about the rooms. He must be 
frank and hearty in his intercourse with them, and never 
afraid of a soiled hand. More freedom may be allowed 
than in other branches, but tactful effort for the cultiva- 
tion of good manners should not be wanting, and the 


ordinary refinements of home life should be observed. 
The example of the secretar}^, and of leaders enlisted by 
him, will accomplish more in this direction than placards 
on the walls or any such formal method. The few rules 
necessary should be kindly but firmly enforced. If the 
secretary can get into the hearts of the men, and no men 
have larger hearts, his sympathy and advice will be at a 
premium. As many of the men cannot or will not come to 
the secretary to get acquainted, he must go to the yard, 
visiting them in the round house, on the engine, or in the 
caboose. If he has been a railroad man himself he can 
more easily get at them, and a few months on the road in 
some capacity might well be included in his preparatory 
course. He can be specially helpful in connection with 
the sick and injured. The secretary should know what to 
do in an emergency, and be able both to nurse the body 
and to comfort the heart. He should cultivate self- 
possession and such cheeriness of voice and manner that 
his entrance into the sick room will be like a ray of 



There are from 75,000 to 100,000 commercial travelers 
in the country. As a class they are largely young men, 
and of necessity bright, keen, and active. They are con- 
tinually away from home, with little social life save that 
of the railroad car and the hotel, and exposed to subtle 
temptation at every turn. They are intimately connected 
with the entire mercantile community, the class among 
which the Association was originally formed and from 
which it has always drawn very largely both its members 
and patrons. Helpful relations evidently could and ought 
to exist between such a class and the Associations, and for 

Chap. 29, C. WORK FOR special classes. 37^ 

some 3'"ears the International Committee has co-operated 
with Christian traveling men in the Associations in efforts 
to this end. An important introductory step was taken by 
the International Convention of 1879, in instructing the 
committee to issue a commercial travelers' ticket, which 
entitles the holder to certain privileges in any Association 
he may visit while on the road. This ticket is obtained 
through the local organization, or, if there be none at the 
traveler's home, from the Association in the city where the 
house he represents is located. Effort should be made to 
put these tickets into the hands of as many as possible of 
these men. Besides the benefit to the individual from the 
privileges conferred and the helpful associations into 
which he will be led, the tendency will be to interest him 
in the work generally. All tickets should bear dated 
endorsements by the proper officers. 

Each city Association should have a commercial trav- 
elers' committee, consisting of all Christian traveling men 
in the membership who will serve, with, perhaps, a few 
local tradesmen. Some conveniences at the Association 
rooms, as a correspondence room or desk, will be helpful. 
The secretary should learn to recognize a traveling man at 
sight, and give him an off-hand hearty greeting, calling 
him by name, if possible, after his first visit. Each hotel 
and railroad waiting room should have an Association 
directory, in which an invitation to commercial travelers 
should be conspicuous. Many Associations secure addresses 
from the hotel registers, and leave on Saturday night or 
Sunday morning invitations to the rooms and to both 
Association and church services, with a directory of the 
same. A diagram of the city showing the location of the 
Association rooms, principal churches, and public build- 
ings, is a helpful addition. There should also be a card 
for presentation to the usher of any church. There may 
well be in every city church a " young men's pew," eligi- 
bly located and complete in its equipments, to be used in 
connection with this line of work. 


Religious meetings may be held occasionally for travel- 
ing men at points where many of them stop for Sundaj'^jOr 
in cities where numbers of them reside and at seasons when 
they are likely to be at home. An informal service of 
song on Sunday afternoons in hotel parlors has been tried 
with good effect. This should be suggested and, if pos- 
sible, led by one of themselves. It may sometimes be 
practicable, especially at a commercial center, to tender 
them a social reception. At least when a reception is 
given to commercial men, travelers should be particularly 
included in the invitations, and be given prominence in 
some way on the programme. 

But far beyond the possibilities of the local Association 
is the work which may be done by Christian traveling men 
among their fellows ; and the more important object of 
this organized effort is, perhaps, to rouse them to a sense 
of their personal opportunity and duty, the Association 
merely placing at their disposal its various helps. A cer- 
tain reserve, tinctured often with indifference if not moral 
cowardice, takes possession of many a Christian man and 
causes him to shut up his religion like a dark lantern 
when out on the busy and careless thoroughfares of life. 
It is sought to establish a fraternity of such Christian 
symj^athy, courage, and activity, as shall help every man to 
open the slide and show his light. There are a thousand 
chances to throw one's influence on the right side ; hj a 
word, often by a look, by a gentlemanly reproof, an invi- 
tation to a religious meeting, or a judicious use of Christ- 
ian literature. A profane word or a coarse jest will often 
be left unsaid from the mere knowledge that it is distaste- 
ful to one of the company. And then it is much easier 
than we often think to open conversation with a fellow 
traveler on the subject of personal religion. An earnest 
disposition will find abundant opportunities and beget a 
tact and skill that will soon bear fruit. There is a plan 
by which such personal interviews may be reported to the 
home Association, and any impressions be systematically 

Chap. 29, i). WORK FOR special classes. 379 

followed up. (See appendix, sample No. 57). Blanks for 
this purpose, together with several helpful little pamphlets 
are furnished by the International Committee, also the 
special form of membership ticket already referred to. 

Traveling men may often exert a strong influence in be- 
half of the Associations by talking with their patrons 
about them, and especially about the one in the town 
where they are doing business at the time. Possibly 
information coming from such a source, particularly if 
along practical lines, will have more effect than any influ- 
ence the resident members could bring to bear. 


A large percentage of the male population in every 
city is engaged in mechanical pursuits, and no class con- 
tains a better average of earnest, active, and intelligent 
young men. And yet it is often said that the Associa- 
tions do not reach and are not adapted to reach the in- 
dustrial classes. The latter statement is certainly untrue, 
and if the first is in a measure correct, it is the fault, not 
of the institution, but of the membership and methods of 
tlie given locality. Every Association where this im23ort- 
ant element is not being reached should seek to remedy this 
serious defect. There is no good reason why, with a 
proper adaptation of the means at hand in every city As- 
sociation, large numbers of young mechanics cannot be 
attracted to the reading room, the library, classes, and 

The first step, as just suggested, is an adaptation of 
means. Place on file in the reading room the best mechan- 
ical journals, something suited to each of the local indus- 

* See Int. i:>ph. No. 61, "How can our Associations better adapt themselves to 
the needs of young men of all classes ? " 


tries, and including perhaps some expensive periodicals, 
not apt to be found elsewhere. Put the standard works of 
reference on the library shelves, and add any valuable new 
book on mechanics as soon as issued. In arranofinor the 
evening classes and the practical talks, provide something 
that will be especially helpful to apprentices. 

T@ bring the young men into contact with the Associa- 
tion, various methods maybe used; a reception to mechanics 
and manufacturers — in large cities to the employees of 
a certain industry or manufactory, or the distribution of a 
special circular or prospectus, emphasizing the privileges 
likely to attract. This may sometimes be placed in the 
regular pay envelopes. All the ordinary methods of ad- 
vertising should be utilized, such as the newspapers, and 
the Association bulletin, which may contain, at least 
occasionally, a department devoted to mechanical inter- 
ests. Placards advertising the Association privileges and 
especially those adapted to this class may be put n-p in 
shops and factories. 

The membership and invitation committees should strive 
to obtain representatives in each establishment employing 
any number of men, or at least in each distinctive industry. 
Effort should also be made to secure the good will and 
co-operation of employers and officers of corporations, who 
may render great assistance. 

There will often be prejudice, possibly an inclination to 
class jealousy, on the part of some of the young men, 
which must be overcome by frank and kindly intercourse. 
Care will be necessary on the part of the membership gen- 
erally, to do or say nothing likely to offend any or to 
make them ill at ease. Especially should young men be 
cordially recognized wherever met and whatever their 

If some well-known young mechanics be placed on the 
reception committee they may draw many of their fellows 
to the rooms, and similar methods may avail in connection 
with the literary society and the gymnasium. If a Christ- 

Chap. 29, E, 2. WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. 381 

ian mechanic, either employer or employee, leads the young 
men's meeting, the invitation committee may issue a 
special and attractive invitation card. 

The general results of this work must not be overlooked. 
The affiliation of these young men with other classes in 
the Associations will not be without its social signifi- 
cance, and may perhaps help in solving some perplexing 
problems now pending before the country. 



1. — Immigration has filled many of our American cities 
with a foreign-born population, and to such an extent that 
there is often a tendency to retain their former language 
and customs, with a consequent national or race exclusive- 
ness. This is frequently so marked as to render it imprac- 
ticable to reach the young men through the Englisk- 
speaking Associations. There are also two native-born 
races that are best reached through separate organiza- 
tions, namely, colored and Indian young men. There 
were twenty-one Indian Associations in 1890, mostly 
located in the Dakotas. These Associations came into 
existence about 1881, and were affiliated with the Interna- 
tional Convention in 1885. Their work is mostly of a 
religious nature and has been very useful. The French 
and Japanese have also a single branch eacb, located 
respectively in New York and San Francisco. The 
multiplication of these organizations has not yet been 

2. — The German Work.^ — In 1890 there were ten German 
organizations, with an aggregate membership of 2,398 and 
eleven paid officers. Good buildings were owned and 
occupied by the branches in New York, Philadelphia, St. 

* For historical items see Chap. 3, F, 3, e. 

382 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, E, 3. 

Louis, and Milwaukee, and building movements were in 
progress elsewhere. 

This work is important on account of the large German 
population of many cities, but the national temperament 
and the conservative spirit of the German churches has 
made its beginning difficult and slow. The aggressive 
element must come from the Germans themselves, among 
whom there are few lay workers. Peculiar methods, care- 
fully studied out, must be employed. Public and hasty 
effort is repugnant to the German mind, and must give 
way to more quiet, thoughtful, and gradual influences. In 
an emphatic sense will the one-by-one method prove suc- 
cessful. The Bible class, with its calm though direct 
presentation of the truth and its conversational character, 
is especially adapted to them. The junior work is also 
valuable. If the boys, before the age of fixed habits and 
prejudices, can be interested and attached to the Associa- 
tion, many of them may be retained, giving an assurance 
of large success in the near future. As an offset to the 
difficulties of this work it may be said that any substantial 
gains are apt to be permanent. A form of constitution 
designed for German branches is published by the Inter- 
national Committee, through whose agency all attempts 
at organization should be made. Some other pamphlets in 
German can be secured from the committee. 

3. — -The Colored Work. — The Associations among colored 
young men are divided into two classes ; college or aca- 
demic and general. In 1890 there were twenty-two of the 
former and twelve of the latter. The first colored general 
secretary began work at !N'orfolk, Va., early in 1888. Sev- 
eral others have been secured since, and the extension of 
this vital feature promises to give the work a definiteness 
previously unknown. Advance has been made in this 
department cautiously, (see Chap. 3, F, 3, g), yet with a 
colored population of 8,000,000 in the country there can be 
no question as to its vital importance. A paper read at 
the Philadelphia Convention, in 1889, urged the adoption 

Chap. 39, F, 1. work for special classes. 383 

of the branch system in the colored work, in order thut the 
weaker organizations might have the fostering care and 
instruction of the older and stronger ones. Where this 
plan is impracticable, an advisory board of leading white 
citizens will prove very helpful. This plan is in operation 
at several points. 



1. — Soldiers and Sailors. — The only Association now ex- 
isting among the soldiers of the United States army was 
organized in November, 1889, at Fortress Monroe, Va., 
with twenty-seven active and thirty-nine associate mem- 
bers. If there were a few Christian men to carry on such 
a work at every army post, great good might result. 

A work has been conducted for some years, under direc- 
tion of Provincial and State Committees, in the annual 
encampments of the militia, especially in Ontario, New 
York, and Illinois. By means of one or more tents a suite 
of Association rooms is improvised at some eligible locality 
on or near the grounds, and with reading matter, writing 
materials, a cabinet organ, and sundry toilet conveniences, 
thrown open free to all members of the camp. Effort is 
made to place on file the home papers of the several 
detachments during their stay. Social entertainments, 
practical talks, and both parlor and out-door games are 
among the attractions offered ; and religious services are 
held as there is opportunity, in some cases every day. An 
experienced man should be placed in charge of such a 
work, but helpers may be drawn from Associations in the 
neighborhood, and often from among the soldiers them- 
selves, some of whom may be active in their home organi- 
zations. The helpful character of this work has been offi- 
cially recognized by the military authorities, who willingly 

384 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, F, 2. 

second the efforts of the Associations. Not only are the 
men enabled to pass the time while in camp more pleasantly 
and profitably, but the attractions and the positive relig. 
ions influences tend to keep them from its peculiar tempta- 
tions, and many have been led into the Christian life. 
Another good result noticed is that many, both Christian 
and non- Christian men, have been led to affiliate with the 
Associations on their return home. 

For nearly twenty years the New York City Association 
has forwarded weekly to a large number of army posts 
and to some United States vessels papers and magazines 
from its reading rooms. The beneficial results are shown 
in the following extracts from letters : 

From the Indian Territory : " I receive regularly the 
papers and pamphlets you send me, and in return send you 
my best thanks. Representing as they do, various nation- 
alities, languages, and forms of religious thought, as well 
as secular pursuits, these publications meet the wants of 
the army in its varied elements. The soldier in his 
frontier life needs such encouragement ; needs the occa- 
sional memento that he is still remembered in his far awa}' 
home of civilization, and that the prayer offered for 
Christ's church militant includes him personally." 

From a United States training ship : " Could you see 
the boys gather around our reading tables every evening, 
you would comprehend how much your gift is appre- 
ciated, and what an important and valuable factor these 
papers can be made in their training." 

Work has sometimes been carried on among the sailors, 
boatmen, and longshoremen, at sea ports, and lake and 
river towns. Religious literature is distributed, personal 
conversation had with the men, and meetings held, in the 
open air in summer and perhaps in the cabin of some vessel 
in the winter. 

2. — Deaf Mutes. — Branches for such men have been estab- 
lished in connection with several Associations. Shut out 
3s they are from many of the social privileges of life, both 

Chap. 29, F, 3. work FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. 385 

secular and religious, they draw naturally upon Christian 
sympathy, and the Associations everywhere should be 
prompt to aid them, placing the advantages that they can 
use within their reach. Where there are many, they will 
prefer a branch organization, which however may be v^ry 
simple. A Bible class, with printed outlines, and for the 
average mutes quite rudimentary, will be the effort best 
suited to their religious needs. Practical talks may be 
given by any one through an interpreter. These may 
well include such moral and sanitary topics as personal 
purity, the use of intoxicants, and gambling. The edu- 
cated mutes are great readers and ajjpreciate the reading 
room and library. They can also fully utilize the physical 
department. Many of them are peculiarly graceful in the 
use of the so-called sign language taught in all their 
schools, and very apt in humorous pantomime, and can 
furnish occasionally an attractive novelty for a members' 
entertainment. There is said to be, perforce, a certain 
moral obtuseness among the less cultured mutes, but even 
these have often proved themselves capable of deep spir- 
itual convictions and experience. When well educated, as 
very many of them now are through their excellent schools, 
tliey are well up to the average in both intellectual and 
executive ability. 

3. — Lmnbermen. — in some of the northwestern states 
special effort has been made among the lumber camps, 
which contain large numbers of men, separated from all 
ordinary church privileges and often with a low standard 
of morals. The Wisconsin State Committee has employed 
several men who spend their time in passing from camp to 
camp, holding religious services and doing personal work 
as they have opportunity, with excellent results, many 
young men being led to accept Christ. In the summer 
they carry a tent in which to hold meetings. Descriptions 
of their work read like a romance. A few other states 
have undertaken the same work on a smaller scale. Ko 
doubt it is needed in many other parts of the continent. 

386 WORK FOR SPECIAL CLASSES. Chap. 29, F, 4. 

4. — Firemen^ etc. — Effort has been made in some cities 
among the men of the fire department, policemen, and the 
street car employees ; papers have been distributed, and 
sometimes religious meetings held at the various stations, 
or special receptions given at the rooms. A branch Asso- 
ciation of street railway men was organized in San Fran- 
cisco in 1891. 

OHAI^TER. 30. 


1. — Although the Young Men's Christian Association is 
an organized work for and by young men, yet woman's 
influence and effort cannot well be dispensed with. She 
has special aptitude for many things that men do but 
poorly, and is ever ready to exert herself in matters that 
so closely concern her sons and brothers. 

2. — Some method of organization is needed to make 
such service most effective. A common plan has been to 
call the ladies tog^ether and form a committee or commit- 
tees for any special work as occasion required. A more 
permanent organization, however, has usually been pre- 
ferred. The two forms in general use are commonly dis- 
tinguished as the " auxiliary " and the " committee " 
methods. The first of these, known as the women's auxil- 
iary, and which was popular for some years, consists of a 
fully organized society, really independent of the Associa- 
tion except as its name implies, and an article of its con- 
stitution specifies, that it is to aid the Association in its 
work for young men. 

3. — The objections to this arrangement are that its 
machinery is unnecessarily cumbersome ; that the organic 
connection with the Association is not close enough ; and 
that there is consequently a liability to drift into in- 
definite forms of work, to the detriment of the real object. 
The sentiment of the Associations of late favors the second 

* This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 66. 

388 WOMEN'S WORK FOR YOUNG MEN. Chap. 30, 4. 

or committee plan, by which there is appointed annuall}^, 
in the same manner as tlie regular standing or department 
committees of the Association, a "women's committee," 
numbering perhaps from five to fifteen, the chairman being 
named by the president. As much of the success of the 
committee will depend upon the efficiency of the chairman, 
she needs to be a woman of executive ability and genuine 
popularity among her sex. 

4. — Whatever the form of organization there must be a 
wise discrimination in making up the pe7'S07inelj especially 
at the beginning. After securing the consent of some 
capable Avoman to be chairman, it is well to consult with 
her regarding the selection of the members. Undue haste 
will do harm. The various denominations should be rep- 
resented and choice made from each church of those who 
combine mature and earnest Christian character with 
leadership. Attention must also be given to congeniality, 
or work-together-ableness. The machinery should be sim- 
ple. A chairman, secretary, treasurer, and a standing 
committee for each department of work in which the 
ladies are actively interested outline the average working 
plan. An executive committee, to be intrusted with the 
more direct management, msij include the chairmen of the 
general and standing committees. Written reports should 
be submitted to the board of directors of the Association. 

S? — Meetings, if j^i'operly conducted and not held too 
often, will tend to awaken and hold interest in the organi- 
zation. There should be detailed reports from all commit- 
tees, and methods of work may be suggested and discussed. 
Earnest prayer for the work among young men is also an 
essential feature. The general secretary of the Associa- 
tion, who is usually an ex-officio member of the women's 
committee, may be present during some part of the meet- 
ing to report the work and needs of the Association and 
counsel regarding plans. The committee should also re- 
port statedly to the Association. An anniversary to which 
the ladies of the community are invited, where full reports 

Chap. 30, 9. women's work for youngs me im^. 359 

are presented and an address given regarding tlie work, 
would lead to a broader knowledge and interest. This 
might be greatly emphasized if followed by a reception, 
including an inspection of the Association building and 

6. — The followmg outline of sub-committees with their 
respective duties is suggestive : 

(a) Rooms. — To supervise the housekeeping, the order 
and cleanliness of the apartments, the furnishing, decora- 
tions, and the many details that few men have the tact or 
knowledge to attend to. 

{b) Social Work. — To assist the corresponding com- 
mittee of the Association, especially in arranging for the 
entertainment programme at receptions, and in providing 
and serving refreshments. (See Chap. 26, C, 7.) Some- 
times this committee enlists the women of different 
churches, in rotation, to look after these matters at suc- 
cessive receptions. 

It may also provide flowers, fruit, and such delicacies as 
are needed by sick young men whom the Association is 
caring for. 

(c) Library. — To secure either funds or books, by 
such methods as their ingenuity may suggest and their in- 
dustry carry out. 

7. — On special occasions the chairman of the women's 
committee, with the approval of the president of the As- 
sociation, may appoint temporary sub-committees, their 
chairmen being members of the committee, but others 
being invited to serve upon them. 

8. — The committee may render valuable aid by en- 
couraging their friends among young men and boj^s to 
identify themselves with the Association, and among older 
men to give it both a moral and a financial support. Also 
by sending to the office of the Association the names and 
addresses of young men who are strangers in the place. 

9. — They often co-operate in special efforts to raise 
funds. In two instances about $8,000 was raised by them 

390 WOMEN'S WORK FOR \OUNG MEN. Chap. 30, 10. 

towards an Association building, and in anotlier case a 
large library was collected by occasional labor in a little 
over a year. The furnishing of a new building is often 
undertaken by them. 

10. — In the railroad work women aid in A-isiting the sick 
and injured, and in obtaining places for holding cottage 
meetings and giving invitations to the same. 

11. — Great care should be taken that entertainments in 
connection with an Association, or for its benefit, do not 
offend the Christian sensibilities of the members of any of 
the churches. This matter has sometimes been disregarded, 
with serious detriment to the work. 

12. — See appendix, sample Ko. 58, for rules suggested 
for the committee. 






1 —The Young Men's Christian Associations began in 
America with the organization of isolated and independ- 
ent societies, having no organic connection and scarcely a 
knowledge of each other's existence. The ""^"^J-^ 
Association has absolute local jurisdiction, andisaccoi.ed 
direct representation in the conventions, both sta e and 
international, under the active membership test and such 
other rules as are established by these bodies. Ihe con- 
Tentions just -mentioned are the only legislative bodies of 
the Associations ; while in the system of executive com- 
mittees, with their secretaries, correspondence, and publi- 
cations, acting under the instructions of *e conventions 
and covering the entire field with a net-work of helpfu 
supervision, are included th^man^^dvnritages, with.out 


relation of tlae State Committee to the State Secretary aua 
tion F as No. 69, "The District Work". 


the objectionable features, of a strongly centralized organi- 

2. — The first American convention of these Associations 
met at Buffalo, N. Y., in June 1854, and a permanent 
organization was effected by the appointment of a central 
committee with instructions to call a similar meeting 
annually. The state organizations had their rise twelve 
years later, through a resolution of the Albany Conven- 
tion (1866), instructing the corresponding members for 
the several states to call an annual convention in each. 
Four such meetings were held that year, and ten the year 
following. Previous to this the International Convention 
was the one representative body, and the only general 
supervision was that given, first by its executive com- 
mittee, and later by corresponding members of the com- 
mittee located in each state and province. The action at 
Albany Avas very opportune, occurring as it did at the 
close of the war, and just as the true aims and principles 
of the organization were becoming more generally under- 
stood, accepted, and emphasized than at any previous time. 
State work, cultivating many fields in a detailed way im- 
possible to a single central committee, led to the rapid 
and well-ordered growth of the subsequent period. 

3. — The following examples illustrate the variety of 
method in the formative period of the state work : 

a. Ohio established a state organization at its first 
convention in 1867. It comprised a State Association, 
made up of delegates, not less than three nor more than 
fifteen, from each Association in the state ; officers, includ- 
ing a corresponding secretary, who should also act as cor- 
responding member of the International Committee for 
Ohio ; and an executive committee consisting of the corre- 
sponding secretary as chairman ex officio, and four others 
to be elected at each annual meeting. This committee 
was to have '* sub-committees " of three each at six speci- 
fied centers in the state, — to all practical purposes district 
committees. At the third annual meeting, in 1869, the 

Chap. 31, A, 4. state and provincial work. 393 

executive committee recommended the employment of a 
paid agent. Such an agent was employed a part of the 
time from 1874, and regularly from 1877. 

h. New York held its first State Convention in 1866. 
In 1867 the state was divided into nineteen districts, each 
with a secretary to act under the corresponding member 
of the International Committee for the state. An execu- 
tive committee was not formed till 1869. Visiting agents 
were employed temporarily as early as 1871, but the first 
State Secretary, George A. Hall, was engaged in 1876, 
and the same year a state constitution was adopted. 

c. Pennsylvania also held a convention in 1866, but 
not again till 1869, at which time an executive committee 
was formed. In 1870, the committee recommended such 
a location of its members and such a subdivision of the 
state as to insure more thorough organization, which 
was carried into effect. At the fourth convention, in 
1871, the employment of a State Secretary was authorized, 
and S. A. Taggart was engaged, being the first officer of 
this class placed permanently in the field. 

4. — The beginnings of state and provincial work, 

On June 5, 1866, the Albany International Convention 
passed the following resolution : ** Resolved, that the 
convention instruct the corresponding member of the 
executive committee of each state, district, territory, and 
province to call a convention of Associations in such state, 
district, territory, and province annually in the autumn." 

The first conventions in the several states and provinces 
during these early years of the work were held in the fol- 
lowing order : 

1866, Sept. 27-29, "Northwestern States", Milwaukee, 

" Oct. 24-25, New York, Oswego. 

" Nov. 16, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 

' 21-22, Maryland and District of Columbia, 
Baltimore, Md. 



1867, May 21-22, Connecticut, New Haven. 
" Oct. 1-2, New Jersey, Elizabeth. 

" " 8-7, Maritime Provinces, Halifax, N. S. 

" " 10-11, Massachusetts, Springfield. 

" " 16-17, Maine, Lewiston. 

" Nov. 8-10, Ohio, Columbus. 

1868, Aug. 11, New Hampshire, Manchester. 

" Oct. 28-29, Ontario and Quebec, Toronto, Ont. 

" Dec. 1-2, Michigan, Marshall. 

" " 3-4, Rhode Island, Providence. 

1869, April 6-7, Iowa, Cedar Rapids. 

" May 13-14, California, San Francisco. 
" Oct. 6-7, Indiana, La Fayette. 

1870, Nov. 3-5, Wisconsin, Janesville. 

*' Dec. 21-22, Minnesota, Minneapolis. 

1871, " 1-3, West Virginia, Clarksburg. 

1872, Sept. 5-7, Alabama, Selma. 

1873, Nov. 6-9, Illinois, Bloomington. 
" Dec. 5-7, Kansas, Lawrence. 

1874, Dec. 17, Virginia, Richmond. 

To the close of 1890 five hundred and seventj^-one such 
conventions were held. 

5. — The most approved method of state organization at 
present is the formation of a State Association, under a 
constitution embodying the fundamental principles and 
prevalent usages of the institution, and incorporated, in 
order to be legally qualified to accept and control gifts and 
legacies. A form suggested by the International Com- 
mittee provides for an annual meeting of representatives 
from the afiiliating Associations, and for. a State Com- 
mittee, in which is vested the executive powers of the 
State Association. A fixed proportion of its members are 
elected annually, for a term extending over several years. 
See Int. pph. No. 634. 

Chap. 31, B, 2. state and provincial work. 395 



1^ The raerabers of the committee shoiikl be men of 

recognized weight of character both as Christians and as 
men of affairs ; tliey shoukl be broad-minded men, as much 
interested in the work throughout the state as in that at 
their own homes ; and, if possible, men with practical 
experience, and able to devote some time to the state work. 
As a rule, only one or two general secretaries should be 
members of each State Committee. Among the members 
there will often be men of wealth and influence, but such 
qualifications are by no means the most essential. It is 
desirable that the leading Associations and the different 
denominations be represented, if they can furnish suitable 
men. The committee, as a w^hole and individually, must 
work in harmony with the body appointing it. It is usual 
to locate the committee headquarters at a strong Associa- 
tion center, and for a series of years if not permanently/. 
Several good men cai generally be obtained at and in the 
vicinity of such a ciiy, as the nucleus of the committee. 
Meetings should be held only often enough to secure a 
thorough supervision of the work. Notice should be given 
in time for members to offer written suggestions if pre- 
vented from attending, and a summary of transactions 
should be sent to members whether present or absent. 
Meetings, although usually occurring at headquarters, are 
sometimes held in connection with conventions or with 
special pushing of the work in different parts of the state. 

2. — The work of the committee comprises a general and 
thorough supervision of the whole field, and may be classi- 
fied as follows : 

a. General oversight of the local Associations, stimu- 
lating and encouraging their work, suggesting new and 
improved methods, correcting mistakes, and giving advice 
and aid in times of difiicult}^ 

396 STATE AND PROVINCIAIi WORK. Chap. 81, B, 3, 

b. Projecting and carrying out plans of extension — 
organizing Associations, and introducing work for special 

c. Stimulating a general interest in work for young 
men, and aiding the introduction of its practicable forms 
in small towns and country districts. 

d. Seeking out and developing men to enter the ser- 
vice of the Associations, and advising with regard to 
appointments and changes. 

e. Engaging and directing the salaried agents of the 

f. Planning for and suj^ervising the state and district 

(/. Gathering and tabulating statistics, and preserving 
full historical records of the work. 

h. Editing the committee's publications, including the 
bulletin, the convention reports, and circulars of informa- 
tion to the Associations ; and preparing such matter for 
the religious and secular press as shall keep the general 
public instructed regarding the character and j^rogress of 
the work. The convention reports may be given a perma- 
nent value by the exclusion of trivial matters, and by 
judicious presentation of the gist of the papers and discus- 

i. Providing ways and means for the state work. 
j. The successful work of some State Committees in 
militia encampments is described in chapter 29, F, 1. 

3. — It is essential that the members of the committee, 
through personal visitation and correspondence, become 
acquainted with the field, including the condition and 
possibilities of the work, and the number and character of 
the Avorkers. Considerable information on such matters 
will also reach them through visiting agents and district 
committees. Much may also be gained by attending con- 
ventions, and by careful perusal of j^eriodical and other 
publications. There should be a systematic exchange of 
reports among the several State Committees, a set being 

Chap. 31, B, 6. state and provincial work. 397 

bound for office reference, and others, if possible, being 
put into the hands of the members. The state reports 
should also be regularly filed in every public library in 
the state. A knowledge of the work in other fields will 
broaden the interest of the committee and give many 
practical suggestions. 

4. — Several standing sub-committees are usually ap- 
pointed. Much in the line of supervision and extension 
will be accomplished through the district organizations 
and the salaried agents, and to the latter will be referred 
many other details, yet each committee should conduct 
visitation and correspondence, and should be held account- 
able for the work in its particular department. The fol- 
lowing is a suggestive list of standing committees : (a) 
Business, to act for the State Committee in the intervals 
between its meetings ; (b) District work, to have general 
charge of the Associations and organize new ones by 
means of a thorough district organization ; (c) Associa- 
tions, to receive and report on applications for membership 
in the State Association ; (cl) Finance, to provide ways 
and means, recommend a budget, and audit accounts ; 
(e) Extension fund; (/) Publication; (g) Bible study; 
(A) Educational work ; (^) Physical work ; (j) Personal 
purity ; (k) Boys' work ; (I) College work ; (m) Railroad 
work ; (n) Work among non-English speaking young 
men ; (0) Work among commercial travelers. Many states, 
especially in the early years of their work, will not need 
all these committees. The smallest number that will do 
the work thoroughly is always best. 

5. — The several standing committees should report in 
writing at least quarterly, and at the meeting just previous 
to the State Convention should make a full and careful 
statement of the year's work, including tabulated statistics. 

6. — Effort should be made to gather for permanent refer- 
ence at headquarters everything possible in connection with 
the Association work, both general and local ; including 
annual reports, bulletins, constitutions and by-laws, and 


samples of printed matter. The reports and bulletins 
may be bound by cities, and the samples, classified by the 
decimal system suggested in chapter 12, 7, mav be kept 
in large manilla envelopes or in boxes. Nev/spaper and 
magazine articles may be preserved in the same way. 
The material thus preserved will soon become of decided 
practical and historical value. Important manuscripts, 
including written reports, should either be copied, or fast- 
tened on stubs in bound books, for easy reference. A 
large wall map of the field, with the Associations plainly 
indicated on it, will be useful in public meetings. Small 
copies of the map may be inserted in reports and bulletins. 



1. — Financial matters should be placed in the hands of 
good business men, who will carefully oversee them, 
though not necessarily attending personally to all the 
details. They will see that a good system of accounts is 
adopted, and that disbursements are made only to the 
amounts and for the purj^oses for which appropriations 
have been made by the State Committee. They should 
work on a definite plan, including an estimate of expendi- 
tures, of the sources of revenue, and the best ways of 
raising it. The annual report of the treasurer should com- 
prise the receipts in detail, and a statement of expendi- 
tures grouped under proper heads. Full vouchers should 
be submitted for audit at the annual convention. 

2. — There are many difiiculties in the way of raising the 
needed funds. Unlike the individual Associations, the 
state organization has no personal constituency peculiarly 
its own, but appeals largely to men already having local 
work to care for, and not always disposed to realize or 
admit a further obligation. The field is wide and must be 


worked at arm's length, afforclmg little opportunity to 
impress men with the true value of the service. Indeed, 
much of this work, often the more important part of it, 
can neither be tabulated nor easily explained to the j)ublic. 
Giving toward its support must have a broader motive 
than mere local and direct benefit, although few Associa- 
tions are unreached by the helpful hand of the state work, 
and many owe their present life and prosperity to its 
timely and fostering care. 

3. — It is customary to look first to the Associations, 
as such, and the plan commonly adopted of receiving their 
subscriptions at the annual convention is described in 
section E, 3, d. Not only the organizations represented 
at this meeting, but every Association in the state, should 
give generously each year, providing for the amount in 
the annual budget and paying at as early a date as possi- 
ble. Quite a sum will be subscribed personally by mem- 
bers of the State Committee and other delegates at the 
convention, and by others who are not present there — the 
stand-bys, so to speak, of the work. A small amount may 
be realized from collections during the convention and 
from the sale of reports. The remainder must be gathered 
b}^ personal solicitation, either before or after the conven- 
tion, preferably before. Appeal will naturally be made 
first to those who are closely identified with the work ; but 
there is besides a large class of generous and public- 
spirited persons, many of whom give systematically to a 
variety of objects, who can be led to include this cause in 
their list of benefactions. The permanent or running sub- 
scription plan is used to good advantage in some states. 
A canvass of Association towns by one of the assistant 
state secretaries a few weeks before the convention has 
been found very useful in some states. The State Com- 
mittee, with its knowledge of local circumstances, may 
suggest through this representative the amount that may 
be expected from each Association, including contribu- 
tions from individuals. The visiting secretary should in- 


sure the raismg of money by local men, if possible ; but, 
if he cannot accomplish this, he may aid in securing it. 

Although personal visitation of some such description 
must be largely depended upon, the work may be stimu- 
lated by correspondence and the judicious use of printed 
matter, and especially by securing the attendance of gen- 
erously minded persons at conventions or parlor confer- 
ences. The latter are especially practical, as they can be 
arranged for at many convenient points, and a number of 
the people desired can be brought together at each. (See 
Chap. 20, C. ) Every State Committee should aim to se- 
cure an endowment fund, and with well-directed effort 
many stated contributors may be led to make bequests to 
it. A plan of systematic giving, including the state work 
among its objects, is described in chapter 32, C, 10, e. 



1. — As the directors of a local Association need a gen- 
eral secretary to develop its work, still more does a State 
Committee require a similar officer. His necessary quali- 
fications are much like those already outlined for a local 
secretary (see Chaps. 10-12), and include earnestness, tact, 
mature judgment, culture, and especially executive capa- 
city. His knowledge of methods must be comprehensive 
as well as thorough, such as can be gained only by ex- 
l^erience in the local work, coupled with close observation 
and study. Special aptness in such lines as business 
management, organization, and securing funds will be 
very helpful. He must possess another gift, not always 
essential in the local officer, that of acceptable public 
speaking. Much of his contact with communities will 
be through the public meeting, and he should be able 
to present his thoughts in a clear, forcible, and attractive 

Chap. 31, D, 2. sta.te and provincial work. 401 

luanner, so as to impress men in the aggregate as well as 

2. — The State Secretary will be obliged to guard him- 
self personally at many points. Away from home and 
traveling much of the time, uniformly busy and generally 
occupied during the evenings either in consultation or a 
public meeting, irregularity in meals and sleep is inevita- 
ble. Add to this a constant excitement of sympathy and 
anxiety, with the expenditure of nerve force in stimulating 
others — often the discouraged or the apathetic — to faith 
and activity, and a fund of health and strength is needed 
to start Avith and the utmost care in preserving it. The 
same conditions make it difficult to maintain that routine 
of personal religious duties which is always so helpful, 
and only great watchfulness will prevent a spiritual loss, 
even while actively engaged in work for others. Again, 
not only must he keep pace with the progress of the Asso- 
ciation work in his own and other fields, but his general 
reading and study must be broad. Constantly thrown in 
contact with men of affairs and of culture, he must be able 
to converse with them intelligently. As he belongs to 
the Associations of his state, his heart must be big enough 
to take them all in, without any partiality unless it be to 
the weaker ones. The closer his personal contact with local 
boards and general secretaries, the greater will be his 
knowledge of them and his power to aid them. His counsel 
will be sought in many matters, and if wise he may not 
only advise but criticise and reprove, to the great benefit 
of the secretaries and the work. He should strive especi- 
ally to promote Bible study and faithful work in all spirit- 
ual lines. He must always be careful of his personal ex- 
ample. Many opportunities will be afforded him to con- 
duct religious services, and he should be prepared to make 
the most of them. He may create or renew interest in 
Bible study by holding a model training class. An earnest 
man will also find abundant opportunity for personal 


3. — Among the items of work falling, some more, some 
less, to the State Secretary are the following : 

a. Ofiice work, Avhich will embrace a voluminous cor- 
respondence ; preparing and sending out many blanks and 
circulars ; securing reports from Associations, secretaries, 
and district organizations ; tabulating statistics and keep- 
ing records ; and the editing, publishing, and distributing 
of j^rinted matter. 

h. Personal supervision ; visiting the Associations at 
least annually^ devoting tlie most time to those newly 
organized or in difficulty. On such occasions the secretary 
should endeavor to meet either the Association or its board 
of directors, giving timely notice of his coming, that both 
he and the Association may get the most from the visit. 

c. Extension ; investigating and advising as to the 
readiness of new fields, and, when the decision is favor- 
able, aiding in the formation of Associations. 

d. Looking up young men who seem to be adapted to 
Association work, presenting to them its possibilities for 
usefulness, and providing for their practical training 
when they have given themselves to it. Advising and 
aiding as to desired changes among employed officers, and 
the calling of men to new fields. 

e. Finance ; obtaining funds for state work, and aid- 
ing local Associations in efforts to secure buildings, or 
employ secretaries, or meet serious financial emergencies. 

f. Arranging for the various conventions, state, dis- 
trict, and local, and stimulating the attendance. The sec- 
retary should uniformly be present and an active factor, 
but as far as possible keep personally in the background. 

4. — It will be readily seen that the above outline em- 
braces more than one man's work. Ko State Secretary 
can be considered efficient unless he secures much volun- 
teer service from members of the State Committee and 
others, still an office assistant is generally needed, and 
often a third man, who can devote several weeks, on an 
urgent call, to a single Association, putting it upon a per- 

Chap. 31, E, 1. STATE AND PROVINCIAL Y/ORK. 403 

manent financial and worldng basis. A man speciall}^ 
adapted to college or railroad work has also in some cases 
been advantageously added to the force. Some State 
Committees have found use for seven or eight men. 



1. — Preparatory work, — by the State Committee. — The 
details of this work include a conference with the local 
management for mutual information ; 2:)reparation of the 
programme, including the selection of topics and speak- 
ers ; securing rates of transportation ; issuing of invita- 
tion circulars; advertising; and correspondence and visi- 
tation for the purpose of securing a general representation 
at the meeting. 

a. Place aiid time. — The former is generally fixed by 
vote the previous year, the claims of several places being 
often urged in the convention. An effort to secure a new 
building, or some other local need, frequently influences 
the vote, otherwise geographical considerations may de- 
termine the choice. From its knowledge of the whole 
field the State Committee is qualified to make wise sug- 
gestions, and may aid in securing invitations from desir 
able localities. The selection of the place is often and 
advantageously referred to the State Committee. 

The time of the annual meeting varies in the different 
states, the aim being to fix a date that will secure the 
fullest and most representative attendance. The approxi- 
mate date is usually continued from year to year, but the 
convenience of the local Association is always considered. 
The sessions continue from two to four days, usually last- 
ing over Sunday. The hour of opening is sometimes gov- 
erned by the arrival of the principal trains or boats. 

* This section is reprinted as Int. pph. No. G8. 


h. The Programme. — (1) This must be outlined early. 
The proceedings of former conventions will indicate mat- 
ters to be emphasized or avoided, and suggestions should 
be gathered from workers throughout the state. The 
Association entertaining the convention should also be 
consulted, and all consistent effort made to render the 
gathering a local benefit. The many phases of the work, 
each one immediately important to those engaged in it, 
and the continued develojDment of new features, make it 
practically impossible to present them all, even briefly. 
And yet each convention is a training school, and there 
are many one-j^ear pupils ; it is important that the annual 
curriculum be as comprehensive as possible. The parlor 
conferences, which take the place of the whole or part of 
a session, and which are arranged for in connection with 
the local committee, afford opportunity for the introduc- 
tion of a variety of topics. 

(2) The programme should grow in variety and attrac- 
tiveness every year, and something new can generally be 
found for it. Careful study of the work in other states 
will often suggest such topics. Many subjects, such as 
the best methods of state work and the study of the 
Bible, need constant discussion, but they can be turned 
around and a fresh side presented. And yet in the effort to 
secure freshness the presentation of fundamental principles 
must not be overlooked. The more advanced methods 
may be unintelligible to some of the new men present. All 
the themes should be practical and be practically treated. 
The wording of the topics should be clear and precise. 
This is the first essential to their direct, instructive treat- 
ment. But, in order to avoid the possibility of misunder- 
standing, the committee should give each writer further 
definite suggestion as to what is desired. Papers are apt 
to be too long. If they were winnowed, and only the ker- 
nel given, time would be saved for their informal discus- 
sion, which is sometimes of greater practical value than 
the papers themselves. 


(3) Both tact and experience are needed in selecting 
persons to participate in the convention. The announce- 
ment of their names ought to guarantee an interesting and 
profitable meeting. New men should be introduced every 
year, including some from outside the state. Men from 
the smaller towns should not be excluded, and should be 
allowed to speak from their own standpoint. City speak- 
ers are apt to describe only city methods, and it should be 
remembered that these Associations, although perhaps 
occupying the more important field, are in the minority. 
As good speakers are usually busy men, a committee will 
often be at its wits' end before the requisite number is se- 
cured. It is safe to have a force in reserve, for vacancies 
will occur and possibly at the last moment. Effort is usu- 
ally made to secure one or more men of recognized power 
as Christian workers or thinkers, who are in hearty sym- 
pathy with the Associations. Their presence adds to the 
character and attracting power of the gathering. 

(4) In addition to the papers and addresses, certain 
phases, more particularly those relating to personal work, 
are often treated by the " conversation," as it is termed. 
The leader should be an experienced worker, and apt at 
questioning. As the success of the exercise depends much 
upon its informality and freedom of expression, the attend- 
ance is often restricted to delegates. The question drawer 
should always be given a place, because many will write 
what they are too diffident to ask in public, and experienced 
workers may supply pointed questions that need brief con- 
sideration. An expert conductor is needed, who may re- 
ply himself or call upon others to do so. 

(5) The devotional exercises are always one of the most 
interesting and important features. Although, from the 
very nature of the case, there is more spontaneity in the 
religious exercises than in any others, and some persons 
might consider preparation less necessary here, yet effort 
should be made to bring the delegates into contact with 
men who are model leaders and able to give them strong 


spiritual food. There is special opportunity and need for 
this in connection with the study and use of the Bible. 
Sometimes a skilled Bible scholar or worker is secured to 
assist in this feature of the programme throughout the 

(6) The music is always an essential, and both effort 
and money are well expended in obtaining a superior 
leader. There is then assured, almost as a matter of 
course, the selection of a good book ; a male chorus ; 
spirited singing by the whole convention ; quartettes and 
solos to give variety ; and tact to select and sing the 
right thing at the right time, which is very helpful, 
especially in the devotional meetings. A genuine religious 
fervor should prevade the music and nothing be done for 
mere artistic effect. There should be a liberal supply of 
books, which can usually be secured for the occasion at 
small expense. 

(V) Precedent and experience will guide largely in 
arranging the order of the programme, and the time 
allotted to its various parts. Sometimes the invited speak- 
ers must be consulted. The programme should not be 
over-crowded ; interruptions must be expected, and time 
allowed for them. The sessions should not interfere with 
the regular meal hours or other customs of a community. 
Neither must they be so long as to weary the delegates, 
who will not in this case attend promptly and regularly. 
It must be remembered that much committee and other 
work has to be done outside of the sessions. The time 
schedule when fixed should be adhered to, especially in 
this respect that no topic, however interesting its dis- 
cussion, should be allowed to trench upon the time belong- 
ing to another. 

But the pre-arranged programme is not iron-clad. The 
business committee of the convention can provide for any 
changes in it that seem necessary. 

c. The circular calling the convention is usually 
issued a month or more in advance. It should contain a 

Chap. 31, E, 2. state and provii^^cial work. 407 

list of the topics and speakers — the fully arranged pro- 
gramme if possible ; the hour and place of the opening 
session ; the location of the Association rooms or general 
rendezvous, where the credential and entertainment com- 
mittees are to be found ; and the special hotel and railroad 
rates that have been secured. But a transportation circu- 
lar must sometimes be issued later. The Associations are 
also reminded to instruct their delegates how much to sub- 
scribe to the state work, and how many copies of the pro- 
ceedings to order. If arrangements have been made for 
full reports in one or more of the local papers, the fact 
may be announced, with the price, including postage and 
the name of the person to whom orders may be sent. A 
sufficient number of credential blanks is usually inclosed 
with the circulars sent to each Association. An additional 
circular of welcome is sometimes issued by the local Asso- 
ciation. Invitation to attend the convention is usually 
given to pastors and teachers, and to young men inter- 
ested in Christian work and living in towns without Asso- 
ciations ; but in many states the large attendance of ac- 
credited delegates forbids the oifer of entertainment to 
such visitors. It is desirable that corresponding members 
of district committees be present, and the district chair- 
men should be authorized to invite them and accredit such 
as can attend, so that they may be entertained. 

An advance notice should be sent to the press, and will 
generally be published as news. Much correspondence 
and visitation will also be required, especially to secure 
the attendance of representative men whose co-operation 
is needed. Personal effort on the part of members of the 
committee often accomplishes the best results. 

It is customary for the State Committee to appoint in 
advance the committee on credentials, that it may begin 
work on the arrival of the delegates. 

2. — Preparatory work — Local, — a. In securing the con- 
vention the Association and the community in which it is 
located (for concerted action between them is taken for 


granted) assume no small responsibility. Systematic pre- 
paration should begin several months in advance. An ex- 
ecutive committee should be appointed, and an early con- 
ference held with some representative of the State Com- 
mittee regarding what is to be done and how to do it. 
The sub-committees may then be selected and set at work. 
It will be convenient to have the executive committee 
made up of the chairmen of the sub-committees. The 
committee work should be so planned throughout as to be 
burdensome to none, and to keep away from the conven- 
tion as little as possible those who need its benefits. The 
following sub-committees will be required : 

(1) Finance. — An estimate should be made of the 
amount of money needed. This should be raised in ad- 
vance, independently of other funds. 

(2) Entertainment. — It is customary to offer free enter- 
tainment to accredited delegates, and a canvass must be 
made to ascertain who will provide it, either at their homes 
or at hotels and boarding houses. The special rates at 
which the latter will receive visitors to the convention 
must also be put into convenient form, for consultation 
by visitors not entitled to free entertainment and by dele- 
gates that prefer to provide for themselves. The number 
to be expected must be estimated from the attendance at 
previous conventions, the geographical location, and sim- 
ilar considerations, rather than from advance reports sent 
in by the Associations. 

Two registers are needed by this committee : (a) Con- 
taining the names of the hosts arranged alphabetically and 
the addresses of the places of entertainment, and with 
blank lines under each address corresponding to the num- 
ber of delegates to be sent to it. This book should be 
ready for use when the delegates arrive, {h) An alphabet- 
ical list of all delegates and visitors, with both their home 
and local addresses. 

A card will direct the delegate to his place of entertain- 
ment and introduce him to his host. All the assignments 

Chap. 31, E, 2. state and provincial work. 409 

should be made by one or two persons, who are well ac- 
quainted with the homes and have tact enabling them to 
send the right men to the right places. Advance lists of 
delegates, giving age, occupation, church, etc., or sugges- 
tions as to desired room-mates, will be helpful. The State 
Secretary and other persons familiar with the Associations 
may well be consulted regarding assignments from these 
lists. It is often desirable for the State Committee to be 
quartered together at a hotel, to facilitate the necessary 
intercourse between its members and with the other dele- 
gates. As delegates are arriving at all hours and their 
places of entertainment are often at a distance, lunch is 
usually provided on the opening day, either at the Associa- 
tion rooms or the parlors of the church where the meeting 
is held. Special effort should be made to provide accepta- 
bly for the invited guests of the State Committee. 

(3) Receptio7i. — Members of this committee, designated 
by suitable badges, meet the trains and boats during the 
convention, to greet the delegates, and conduct them to 
the general rendezvous and, after assignment, to their 
places of entertainment. Much of this work may be done 
by the boys and younger members of the Association. A 
small guide book, or folder, is sometimes prepared, con- 
taining the convention programme ; a diagram of the city, 
showing the Association building, the railroad stations, 
churches, hotels, etc. ; and a directory of the different meet- 
ing places, and location of credential and entertainment 
committees. Advertisements of a gentlemen's furnishing 
store, a book store, pharmacy, barber shop, etc., will be a 
convenience and pay the expense. 

(4) Places of meeting . — The Association rooms, if at all 
suitable, are the best place for general headquarters, and 
may usually be set apart for this purpose during the few 
days of the convention. Existing facilities can be in- 
creased by improvising for the occasion. There will be 
needed a baggage and coat room, with a check system ; 
abundant toilet accommodations ; a correspondence room ; 


and a teraporaiy post-office, for the sale of stamps and 
paper Avrappers. Tlie general register and tlio tables of 
the credential and entertainment committees should be ar- 
ranged in convenient order, and, when the attendance is 
large, approach to them should be properly regulated. 
Rapid penmen are needed on these committees. Each 
room or table should be plainly designated by a large 
placard and the committeemen by lettered badges. 

If there is a fair-sized meeting room in the Association 
building, it may accommodate the day sessions, — too large a 
room is a disadvantage ; but the evening meetings must 
usually be held in the best audience room in town. Some- 
times a public hall must be used, but such a gathering for 
religious 2)urposes is more decorous in a church than any- 
where else. Several committee rooms and other conveni- 
ences will be needed. Considerable table accommodation 
is required by the officers and by the reporters. The plat- 
form must often be enlarged to afford space for officers, 
speakers, and visitors, together with a cabinet organ and 
male choir. At least one member of the committee should 
be on duty at each session, with several pages and a 
sufficient number of ushers. Something in the way of deco- 
ration is customary, and may safely be left to the ladies. 

b. Welcome exercises, — These are usually held in the 
afternoon or evening of the opening day, and followed by 
a social reception. The arrangements may be in charge of 
the executive committee. Such exercises were formerly 
elaborate and lengthy, but are now generally confined to 
one or two brief addresses by local speakers, and a briefer 
response by the president of the convention, with the pos- 
sible addition of some music, leaving room for a short 
business session and the sociable. This last is felt to be a 
valuable feature, allowing old friends to meet, and others 
to become acquainted, as they will hardly have the oppor- 
tunity to do in the busy days that follow. If refresh- 
ments are added, they should be simple and merely to 
promote sociability. 

Chap. 31, E, 3. state and PROViNCiAii WORIS. 411 

c. Other social gatherings, excursions, etc., are some- 
times arranged for. The State Committee should be fully 
advised in advance of all such plans ; and if, in its judg- 
ment, they will interfere with regular attendance at the 
sessions, they should be dropped. Constant watchfulness 
must be exercised in this direction. 

3. — At the co7iventio7i. — a. The first session. — The pro- 
gramme usually provides first for a devotional meeting. 
At its close the officers of the State Association, or of the 
previous annual meeting, take the platform. After relig- 
ious exercises, with which the business sessions are uni- 
formly opened and which should include the reading of an 
appropriate Scripture passage, motions are in order for the 
appointment of a temporary business committee — to report 
a programme for the first few hours, — and a committee on 
permanent officers. The latter retires at once, and soon 
reports its nominations to the meeting. The vote for 
officers is usually by acclamation, and they are immediately 
presented to the convention and assume their duties. 

h. The officers^ etc. — As the success of a convention de- 
pends in a measure upon its officers, they should be selected 
with care. The president requires knowledge of parlia- 
mentary procedure, and executive force to hold the con- 
vention to its work without disorder and distraction. The 
secretary should be clear-voiced, quick, and systematic. It 
is desirable that this officer be retained for a series of 
years, as the duties are often too complex to be success- 
fully performed by a novice. He sometimes nominates his 

If the convention has no permanent rules of business, 
those needed are adopted at the opening session. The 
rules of the International Convention may be followed in 
many respects. 

Persons entitled to seats as corresponding members, or 
by courtesy, should be invited to sit with the delegates. 
The privilege of the platform, and, sometimes, of an intro- 
duction to the convention should be accorded prominent 


visitors and citizens. The representative of the Interna- 
tional Committee should have such opportunity as he may 
desire to speak of its work, and to offer any practical 

c. The standing committees. — The appointment of 
these committees is one of the first and most important 
duties of the president, and it is no reflection upon his 
judgment to say that he will usually need to counsel with 
members of the State Committee who know the ijersonnel 
of the convention. Only men of known fitness, and with 
some convention experience, should be placed at the head 
of committees. In selecting both officers and committees 
effort should be made to represent the different sections of 
the state, and, as far as practicable, business men, rather 
than general secretaries, should be ai^pointed. The fol- 
lowing are the usual standing committees, with a brief 
statement of their duties : 

(1) Business y to arrange and report a programme of 
exercises, at least a session in advance. When the State 
Committee has prepared a programme, it should be ad- 
hered to as closely as possible, but many circumstances 
may render variation from it necessary. All business of a 
general character, not within the province of other com- 
mittees, will be referred to this committee. 

(2) State Committee's report; to carefully examine this 
document and recommend to the convention plans of work 
for the year, including the nomination of new members of 
the State Committee. These recommendations will often 
be submitted at different times, the important part re- 
lating to finances being needed for action early in the con- 

(3) Devotional meetings / to supervise the devotional 
exercises already provided for, and to arrange for others 
that may be ' desirable. This committee will consult with 
any local pastors desiring the assistance of delegates, and 
with the Association committees regarding the Sunday 

Chap. 31, E, 3. state and provincial work. 413 

(4) Resolutions. — Resolutions offered in the convention 
are usually referred without reading to this committee, 
who advise what action, if any, shall be taken. It is also 
usual to summarize the results of important discussions 
and present them for adoption, together with the custom- 
ary resolutions of thanks. 

(5) Credentials ; to receive credentials, and to keep a 
list of the delegates and corresponding members. This 
committee should be provided by the State Committee 
with a book in which the Associations are entered alpha- 
betically, with sufficient space under each entry for the 
names of delegates. Its report should be prepared as 
early as practicable, and printed proofs distributed for 
correction. In a large convention each delegate is given 
in exchange for his credential a ticket entitling him to all 
exclusive privileges. This committee, being generally 
appointed in advance by the State Committee, registers 
the delegates as they arrive, thus facilitating both its 
own work and that of the entertainment committee. 

(6) Some State Conventions have a press committee, 
containing one or two members of the local Association. 
It renders all needed aid to the reporters and prepares mate- 
rial for the press, especially a letter descriptive of the con- 
vention, which is printed and sold to delegates on Satur- 
day night, to enclose in letters and insert in their home 

d. Business sessio7is. — These may not be the most in- 
teresting, but they are the essential part of the convention, 
without which a state gathering need not be held. The 
report of the State Committee should be presented early, 
and in a manner to attract attention and secure thoughtful 
consideration. It is usually read by the chairman, after 
which its salient points may be briefly touched upon by 
one or more forcible speakers, and printed copies distrib- 
uted. Testimonies to benefit derived from the work may 
be very effective. Sometimes the details of the year's 
work are given by the chairmen of the sub-committees and 

414 STATE A]yD PROVINCIAL WORK. Chap. 31, E, 3. 

the State Secretaries. It will be helj^ful to liave the report 
printed in full in the daily papers, and this can generally 
be accomplished by furnishing them with copy in advance. 

The financial session, already referred to in c, (2), takes 
place after the recommendations regarding expenditures 
for the ncAv year are reported back to tlie convention. It 
should occur when the largest number of delegates is 
present, and when the convention is fresh and not crowded 
for time. The roll of the Associations, contained in the 
credential committee's book, should be called slowly in a 
clear voice. A wise State Committee will secure pledges 
in advance, both from Associations and individuals, which 
are announced at the time that seems most opportune. 
(See section C, 3, of this chapter). The making of these 
offerings is essentially a religious act, and may well be ac- 
companied by earnest devotional exercises. With a good 
leader and a vivid presentation of the state work, this hour 
may be made the most enthusiastic of the convention. 
Collections for this fund are also usually taken at some of 
the evening meetings, the matter being arranged in ad- 
vance with the local Association. 

The further consideration of the report, selection of the 
place for the next convention, etc., will occur either as 
fixed orders or at the convenience of the meeting, but 
should be completed, if possible, previous to the Saturday 
night session. 

e. Reports from Associations. — It is an excellent plan 
to throw this feature, which is really important, into the 
form of a conversation, under direction of the State Secre- 
tary or of some other person thoroughly familiar witli the 
field, the questions centering upon certain phases of the 
work. In this way not only may many delegates partici- 
pate, representing all sections of the state and every class 
of Associations, but the exercises gain in definiteness. 
Sometimes reports from Associations are printed in ad- 
vance, and placed in the hands of the delegates for ques- 
tions. With an experienced conductor this plan may be 

Chap. 31, E, 3. state and provincial work. 415 

made very profitable and economize time. Some pre- 
arranged plan should always be followed. There is little 
profit in random reports. 

A workers' exj^erience meeting is also valuable. Under 
competent leadership and with the hour thoroughl}^ social 
and informal, the most timid can be drawn out to tell both 
of their successes and their difficulties. 

f. Topics. — Those involving detail and matters of 
business can be treated best in the smaller gatherings of 
the morning and afternoon. In the evening meetings even 
the reading of the minutes is commonly deferred, and the 
necessary notices are given only at the opening. Topics 
of general interest and illustrating important depart- 
ments of the work are chosen. The railroad and the col- 
lege sessions will perhaps each fill an evening acceptably. 
Preference is sometimes accorded a topic of immediate 
local interest, for example a building project, and atten- 
tion is called to phases of the work that commend the 
Association to popular approval. Business men are told of 
the interest manifested in other cities, of the sums given 
towards building and endowment funds, and of the appro- 
priations for the railroad work, as practical demonstrations 
of the value of the institution. 

g. Anyioiincements. — As few of these as possible 
should be made in the convention. They may be posted 
on a bulletin board or written on a blackboard in the vesti- 
bule. Assignments of speakers and suggestions regarding 
their topics may be written on blanks provided for the 
purpose and put with their mail, repeated notice being 
given from the platform that this has been done. 

h. Parlor conferences. — These are usually held at the 
homes of leading citizens, in whose names the cards of in- 
vitation are issued. They are so planned for the presi- 
dents of Associations, committee men, and delegates 
specially interested in college, railroad, boys' work, etc., as 
to be attractive to all who are present. Each host specifies 
how manj^ persons he can conveniently entertain, and a 


corresponaing number of cards are given out to delegates 
applying for them. A programme is arranged for each 
conference by the State Committee, generally including a 
paper and a conversation, and some person prominent in 
the particular dej^artment is named as chairman. Refresh- 
ments are usually served, and after a pleasant social hour 
the gathering adjourns. As will be seen at a glance, eight 
or ten such social sessions add materially to the scope of a 
convention, besides permitting those directly interested in 
particular forms of work to come into closer contact with 
one another than might otherwise be possible. Persons 
are carefully selected in advance to give brief but pithy 
reports of these meetings to the convention. Of course, 
the conferences have none of the powers of the convention 
in regard to the passage of resolutions, etc. 

^. Suggestions for next year. — A. meeting of the State 
Committee and invited workers at the close of the Satur- 
day evening session, where fresh suggestions are offered 
for the next convention, is often very valuable. 

/ Devotio7ial exercises. — A devotional service — a Bible 
reading, a prayer meeting, an address, or perhaps a com- 
bination of these — is held in connection with each session, 
and in addition to the more formal exercises at its opening. 
It often i^recedes the session, in which case it may be held 
in a separate but neighboring room. But there is a grow- 
ing inclination to give it a place on the j^rogramme after 
at least one important topic, and when all are present to 
receive its benefit. Closed doors will in any event render 
the service more quiet and profitable. Additional meet- 
ings, either devotional or evangelistic, are often held, but 
ought not to conflict with the regular appointments. The 
sessions are always closed with prayer, in order that, Avhat- 
ever the excitement of debate or the distractions of the 
closing minutes, generally crowded with committee notices 
and business details, the adjournment may bring the mind 
back to the devotional spirit that should pervade the whole 
meeting. Local pastors are often invited to conduct these 

Chap. 31, E, 3. state and provincial work. 417 

exercises. Very often singing and brief seasons of prayer 
are introduced at opportune times during the routine busi- 
ness. Even when embittering differences of opinion have 
threatened the harmony of a session, the power of prayer 
has brought unanimity of thought and action. If special 
religious interest is developed, and personal requests for 
prayer are made at any session, a meeting for prayer and 
conversation with the inquirers should follow. 

k. Conventioji Sunday. — The usual custom is to close 
the business sessions on Saturday, and to hold the farewell 
meeting the following evening. The peculiar privileges 
and opportunities of a convention Sunday tend to make it 
a signal benefit both to the delegates and the community. 
Members of the convention, when invited by pastors, ad- 
dress local congregations, and usually speak on young 
men's work, bringing the subject before many that have 
not attended the sessions. Those who participate in the 
work of the local Association may carry home new plans 
and enthusiasm. A consecration meeting is generally held 
early on Sunday morning, and an evangelistic meeting for 
young men in the afternoon, at an hour not conflicting 
with church services and often in a public hall. Special 
preparation is made for this meeting by selecting earnest 
speakers, arranging for good music, and thoroughly adver- 
tising it by every legitimate means. Especially should 
men be stationed in the neighboring streets a half hour 
before the meeting to invite personally and by card all 
young men who pass. The usual ushers and " look-out " 
committee should be re-inforced for the occasion. The 
workers expect results at this meeting, and are seldom dis- 
appointed. A meeting is often held at the same time for 
boys, and, if the circumstances warrant, others for railroad 
men, etc. Sometimes one is held for women, in which the 
aim is to describe women's work for young men from an 
Association standpoint, and inspire zeal regarding it. 
The interest increases until at the platform meetings, 
which it is customary to hold in the evening, several large 


churches will be filled. A number of short, pithy ad- 
dresses are arranged for each service, an effort being made 
to put the different important phases of the work before 
the public as forcibly as possible. More people are often 
reached at these Sundaj^ evening services than during aU 
the previous meetings, especially of those who are not 
much interested in the Association. 

The farewell meeting is, however, the climax of the con- 
vention. It follows the platform service at one of the 
churches, usually where the public sessions of the conven- 
tion have been held, and to it the delegates gather from all 
the earlier meetings. If a topic is taken, it is some such 
practical one as "What have I gained from the conven- 
tion.^" or "Personal consecration." Invited guests, local 
pastors, and the officers of the convention have opportu- 
nity for a farewell word, and then, all joining hands, the 
familiar parting hymn of the Association is sung, and the 
president announces the adjournment. As the workers 
look into the eyes of old comrades, of newer yet close 
friends, and of the leaders,^-men that in the few days 
together they have learned to love, — and as the chorus 
swells up, often from a thousand voices, many an eye 
moistens and many a heart thrills, as perhaps seldom in a 
life-time. All feel the blessedness of the " tie that binds," 
and many carry from the scene impressions and purposes 
never to be forofotten. 

sectio:n" f. 


1. — The Committee. — a. Organization. — The thorough 
organization of a state necessitates its sub-division into dis- 
tricts, each with its executive committee, its annual con- 

* See several publications by State Committees, especially those of Illinois 
and New York, on subjects connected with this work. 
This section is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 69. 


ference, and a system of visitation, correspondence, and 
reports ; tlie whole in close contact with and under the 
supervision of the State Committee. The direct charge of 
this work is given to a standing committee on district 
work, as mentioned in section B, 4, (Z>), of this chapter ; 
each district having, if possible, a resident member to 
whose particular care its interests are assigned. This is 
perhaps the most important sub-division of the State Com- 
mittee, as to it, assisted, of course, by the State Secretar- 
ies, is given the general oversight of the local Associations, 
including the development and extension of the work. 

In arranging the districts, each of which usually com- 
prises several counties, the Associations should be grouped 
about strong centers, and in such manner that those in 
each district can easily communicate with one another. 
The local district committee is appointed annually by the 
State Convention or Committee, or by the sub-committee 
on district work. The former method has the advantage 
of connecting the district work in the closest way with the 
entire state work. As a rule, a good man is continued on 
the committee for several years. When there are few As- 
sociations in a district, the committee may contain a mem- 
ber from each ; otherwise, some may be represented by 
corresponding members. The general secretaries in a dis- 
trict may be members ex officio, as are always the State 
Secretary, the chairman of the State Committee, and the 
resident member of the standing committee on district 
work. Committees of moderate size are generally the 
most efficient. 

h. Meetings. — The district chairman should call the 
committee together soon after its appointment, to complete 
its organization and to outline the work of the year. It is 
very desirable that both the State Secretary and the resi- 
dent member of the State Committee be present and the 
latter should uniformly attend the meetings. It will be 
convenient if at least the chairman and the secretary live 
in the same or adjacent towns, and be given ad interhn 


executive power. General secretaries should be called to 
neither of these positions if it can be avoided. Such sub- 
committees are constituted as to equably apportion the 
work ; the field being usually divided into sections, each in 
charge of one or more members. 

The stated meetings of the committee will probably 
occur quarterly, and it is advisable to have a fixed time, 
place, and order of business. Special meetings may be 
called, as needed, by the chairman. The following is sug- 
gested as an order of business : (1) Devotional exercises. 
(2) Marking attendance. (3) Minutes of preceding meet- 
ing. (4) Roll of Associations and towns, with reports of 
sub-committees in charge. (5) District conferences. (6) 
Local conferences. (V) Visitation. (8) Corresponding 
members. (9) Extension. (10) Finances. The last six 
items include reports and all other matters pertaining to, 
these departments of the state work. 

Every member of the committee unable to be present 
should notify the chairman, and report fully in writing the 
work under his supervision. A synopsis of the minutes of 
each meeting should be forwarded to absent members and 
to the State Committee. Full tabulated statistics of the 
year's work of the committee should be submitted at the 
last meeting. 

c. Extension of local worh. — Being in close contact with 
the work in their respective fields, the district committees 
are able to judge as to the advisability of extending the 
work, either by the organization of new Associations or by 
the introduction of new lines of effort. In these matters, 
however, there should always be consultation with the 
State Committee, and concert of action both with it and 
with the locality interested. For details in the matter 
of local organization, see chapter 4. 

2. — Conferences and visitation, a. — The district confer- 
ence * in its methods is the State Convention on a smaller 

*Both conferences and conventions are meetings for instruction and discus- 
sion, but the former also has legislative powers while the latter has not. 

Chap. 31, F, 2. state and provincial work. 421 

scale, but multiplied in number, and reaching with its dis- 
cussions and its educating influence many people that 
seldom or never attend a State Convention. Its import- 
ance is enhanced by the restricted representation necessary 
at the latter. The place and time are selected with refer- 
ence to local benefit and the securing of a full attendance. 
The State Secretar^^'s presence is also very desirable, and 
his convenience should be consulted. Not only are dele- 
gates expected from each Association in the district, but 
towns without Associations are invited to send representa^ 
tives, and all corresponding members are specially welcome. 
The sessions usually include parts of two or three days, in 
many cases being held over Sunday, like the State Conven- 
tions. The arrangements for the meeting are made by the 
district committee. The matter of advertising the meet- 
ings in the locality where the conference is held will need 
special attention. It is generally neglected. There should 
not only be notices in the papers, and announcements from 
the pulpits and in the Association meetings ; but special 
dodgers and cards, and personal invitations. 

The chairman of the district committee either presides 
at the sessions or selects others to do so. The topics dis- 
cussed should be thoroughly practical, and the work of the 
small Associations, often slighted in the larger conven- 
tions, should be given prominence. One or more represen- 
tative workers from outside the district will add interest, 
but many local workers who are seldom heard when at the 
State Convention will be very helpful. 

The sessions are usually all open to those interested, but 
a more popular service is often held in the evening, 
designed to inform and interest the general public. It is 
also customary to present, at the most opportune time 
during the sessions, the character and needs of the state 
work, and to secure subscriptions toward its support. In 
some states the necessary expenses of the conference and 
committee are paid out of the amount received, any 
remainder being turned over at the close of the year to 


the State Committee. Other State Committees receive all 
moneys collected, and make the necessary disbursements 
under stated appropriations to the district work.* When 
a larger fund is needed than can be raised at the confer- 
ences, a system of running contributions may be adopted. 

Many suggestions in section E of this chapter apply with 
slight modifications to the district conference. 

When a district is very large, or the means of communi- 
cation are not good, two conferences may be held in con- 
venient localities, the dates being some time apart, that 
those desiring to do so may attend both. District confer- 
ences should be held, if possible, at an interval of several 
months from the State Convention. 

h. Local conferences of contiguous Associations, and 
inter-visitation by delegations or committees, are helpful. 
The latter often takes the form of a tea table conference. 
Such a gathering of earnest workers must result in good; 
they catch new ideas, form fresh purposes, and drink in 
courage and inspiration from the social and spiritual 

c. Visitatio7i. — There should be a systematic visita- 
tion of the entire district by the committee at least annu- 
ally, two or more members, if possible, being present on 
each occasion. Also, as the roll of Associations is con- 
sidered at the committee meetings, the condition and needs 
of each should be carefully noted, and arrangements made 
to render any required aid at once. Existing organiza- 
tions deserve first attention, even if this leaves little oppor- 
tunity to establish new ones. A reserve force of workers 
may be organized for such service. 

♦The Illinois State Committee gives the following instructions regarding col- 
lections : 

" The total gross amount of each collection received in a local, district, or 
other conference, should be sent to the state office (making checks or drafts 
payable to the treasurer of the State Committee), accompanied by (a) the envel- 
opes, pledge cards, etc., used, with the name of person, and amount of payment 
(if any) carefully marked on each : ih) name and address of collector, and full 
description [i. e., name, amount and date payable) of each pledge retained for 
collection; (c) an itemized bill against the State Committee, covering all ex- 
(if any), which will be repaid by the treasurer's check." But sometimes 

the district committee is allowed to deduct expenses and send the balance to the 
treasurer of the State Committee. 

Chap. 31, F, 3. state and provincial work. 423 

3. — Corresponding members. — a. A somewhat recent 
feature is the appointment of corresponding members of 
the district committee in towns and villages where there 
are no Associations. The most active Christian young 
men should be selected, after correspondence or personal 
conference with pastors and Christian business men. 
Teachers of J^oung men's Bible classes may often make 
good corresponding members. The names selected are 
forwarded to the State Committee or the chairman of its 
committee on district work, who, after examining refer- 
ences, formally notifies and instructs the appointees. The 
corresponding member is the representative of the work 
for young men in his community, and the medium of com- 
munication and contact with the organized work at large. 
It will be his duty (1) to keep the district committee in- 
formed by systematic reports of all interesting facts in 
connection with his field ; (2) to receive and communicate 
to others any information or helpful suggestions from the 
district committee ; (3) to develop an interest in work for 
young men in his locality, and to suggest and aid in the 
establishment of such forms of effort as may from time to 
time be practicable ; (4) to provide young men removing 
from his field with letters of introduction to the secretary 
of a city or College Association, or to a corresponding 
member or pastor in a non-Association town, sending also 
by mail to the persons thus addressed such facts and sug- 
gestions as may be helpful. Blank forms are often fur- 
nished by the State Committee, also a list of the secretar- 
ies and correspondents throughout the state. (5) To 
secure for young men coming into his town, especially 
those introduced by this system, such desired advantages 
as he can, and to seek their welfare in all practicable ways. 
(6) Corresponding members often assist in raising money 
for the state work. 

h. Among the means used to foster interest in the 
work are (l) the holding of occasional j^ublic meetings 
addressed by those familiar with the work ; (2) the judi. 


cious circulation of printed matter, and the publication of 
items in the local press ; (3) the observance of the annual 
day and week of prayer in November, with sermons by 
the jjastors, and a union service in the interest of organ- 
ized work for young men as represented by the Inter- 
national Committee ; (4) securing the attendance of Chris- 
tian young men and pastors at the district and local con- 

c. Where there are two or more evangelical churches 
in a community it will be wise for the corresponding mem- 
ber to have associated with him a young man from each, 
thus forming, with the pastors, a strong nucleus from 
which, to originate and supervise any desired movement. 
In addition to stimulating effort in connection with the 
individual churches, it may be practicable to hold a union 
young men's meeting, either for j^rayer or Bible study, or 
a workers' training class ; something may be done in the 
interest of j^ersonal j^urity and the circulation of evangel- 
istic reading matter ; or in every case an earnest personal 
work may be inaugurated, the workers being stimulated by 
a few simple rules and an occasional meeting for prayer 
and conference. 

Corresponding members should be entitled to entertain- 
ment at both the district and State Conventions, and also 
be accorded certain privileges in such Associations of the 
district or state as they may visit, a suitable ticket being 
issued to them by the State Committee. 

d. This semi-organization of non- Association territory 
through the district work, and especially the correspond- 
ing membership system, renders it possible to introduce 
throughout large areas many lines of effort heljiful to 
young men ; it also brings the state work into touch with 
the entire field, creating everywhere an intelligent sym- 
pathy and often an active suj^port for it, and indicating 
where and when a community is ready for a fuller organi- 
zation. But there is another thought, — of the thousands 
of young men annually drifting from country to city life. 


may not a good percentage of those coming from commu- 
nities where this class of work is done be expected to ally 
themselves readily with the city Associations ? 

e. Where the system outlined is not in operation, any 
Association may do a helpful work by holding delegation 
meetings in surrounding villages, with a view to acquaint- 
ing the peoj^le with the organization and its methods. 
Corresponding members of the local Association may be 
constituted in these places, thus more closely connecting 
them with the organized work, and when there are a num- 
ber of such they may be invited to a conference once or 
twice a year. 

f. Pastors of village churches should in any event be 
kept informed of the work by correspondence and such 
published matter as may be at the command of the com- 
mittee, particularly the state and local bulletins. Their 
attendance at the conferences should be encouraged, and 
their hearty co-operation be sought everj^where. The im- 
portance of this is enhanced by the fact that many of 
them will become pastors in Association towns, and their 
previous acquaintance and views may determine their 
attitude towards the work in their new fields. 

4. — A work in many respects similar to that just de- 
scribed has been undertaken in some single counties. See 
"The county work, including the county secretary," Int. 
pph. No. 609. 




Associations sometimes seem to consider all this general 
work as an outside matter, toward which they have little 
relation or responsibility. But reflection will show that it 

*This section is reprinted with sections A-D of this chapter, as Int. pph. No. 


has all been created and is controlled by representatives of 
local Associations, as such ; that it acts solely as the agent 
of local Associations ; and that it labors directly for the 
welfare of local Associations or of young men where 
organization cannot yet be undertaken. The discussion of 
new methods at conventions and conferences and the 
enthusiasm there manifested for work among young men, 
as shown repeatedly in this book, have from the begin- 
ning been a wonderful stimulus to local work. These 
gatherings have also brought the Association movement 
to the attention of the general public in a striking way. 
The information about the work at large collected and 
circulated by the State and International Committees, often 
with much greater expense and effort than would be sup- 
posed, has been another powerful educational agency. The 
quiet and systematic aid of the general committees, many 
details of which can never be put into any report, has been 
the means of establishing and keeping alive many of the 
local societies. 

It seems clear, then, that every Association should co- 
operate heartily and promptly with the efforts of the gen- 
eral committees, and honor their calls for volunteer help of 
any description. Conventions should be made the subject 
of special praj^er for weeks before their meeting. Every 
Association should fill up and return statistical reports at 
once, thus diminishing by half the labor commonly re- 
quired for their collection. It should respond to requests 
for pecuniary aid to general work. It should send to con- 
ventions delegations of its best men, prepared to make a 
brief but precise statement of its condition, and especially 
of any novel features of the past year. If others, not so 
experienced or interested, are persuaded to go, they will 
often come back first-rate workers. Unless it is absolutely 
impossible, delegates should remain throughout the con- 
vention, attending every session, and striving to exert a 
Christian influence on the families that entertain them and 
on all whom they meet. The Association should consider 


it a duty to pay all or a part of its delegate's traveling ex- 
penses, rather than lose the benefit of representation. The 
latter, in his turn, should consider himself responsible to 
get all the useful hints he can for the home work, to make 
a full report at an Association meeting soon after his re- 
turn, and to encourage with all his influence the future 
development of any new plans that may be adopted as a 
result of his suggestions. 

Each Association can also do and get good, and enjoy 
some of the pleasures of the general work, by fraternal 
correspondence and intervisitation with neighboring Asso- 





1„ — The International Committee. — The international 
work in North America began with the first representa- 
tive gathering of Young Men's Christian Associations on 
this continent, which met in Buffalo, June 7, 1854. The 
history of this meeting anJ its immediate results, with 
the various changes in the construction of the executive 
committee, are given in chapter 3, F, 1. This committee, 
as now constituted, consists of thirty-nine members, one- 
third of whom are elected at each biennial convention 
and for six years. Its legal status is defined by a charter 
granted by the New York State Legislature in 1883, and 
adopted the same year by the International Convention 
that met in Milwaukee,. New York City is the permanent 

Sub-committees oversee various departments of the 
work, which usually meet a short time before the monthly 
meeting of the International Committee. At the latter 
meeting the minutes of their meetings are read and 
their recommendations are considered. Through confer- 
ence and correspondence they arrange the movements of 

*Many suggestions given in the last chapter, that apply equally here, are not 
repeated. A clear view of this work cannot be obtained without reading both 

This chapter is reprinted as Int. pph. No. 70. 

Chap. 32, A, 3. AMERICAN international work. 429 

the secretaries in their charge. A large amount of similar 
work receives careful personal attention from the chair- 
man of the committee. 

2. — Its advisory members and trustees. — The Milwaukee 
Convention, in order to retain in semi-official connection 
with the work men unable to continue a more active rela- 
tion, also provided by resolution for nine advisory mem- 
bers, one-third of whom are elected at each International 
Convention. The number has since been increased to 
twelve. Permanent funds coming into possession of 
the committee are held in trust by a self -perpetuating 
board of fifteen trustees. Representative Christian busi- 
ness men are uniformly chosen for these important posi- 
tions, and, as far as practicable, from different sections of 
the country. 

3. — Its corresponding members. — At the reorganization 
of the international work, which took place at Chicago in 
1863 (see Chap. 3, E, 1), the committee was increased by 
one member from each state, territory, district, and pro- 
vince. But the following year, at the Boston Convention, 
the committee was reduced to five, with a corresponding 
member in each state, etc. Although various changes 
have since been made in the number and constitution of 
the committee the latter feature has been retained, the 
corresponding members being generally nominated by the 
State Conventions and appointed by the International 

The duties of this office vary with the condition of the 
field. Formerly, before state organizations became gen- 
eral, the corresponding member called the local conven- 
tions and directed whatever was undertaken in the way 
of supervision or extension. But now such work is 
usually done by the state organizations or, in certain 
cases, by representatives of the International Committee, 
while the corresponding member is expected to be present 
at the State Convention, and to make a brief annual re- 
jDort to his committee. An active and competent man 


may however be very useful, even in a fully organized iield, 
by taking an interest in the general work of his state and 
communicating promptly to the international office any= 
thing that would be of interest to or require the attention 
of the committee. He should also be able to render effi- 
cient aid in stimulating financial contributions. If a rep- 
resentative layman, as is usually the case, his annual re- 
port in the Year Book gives added weight and interest to 
that document, supplementing the testimony of the statis- 
tical tables. 



This has been defined with increasing fullness of detail 
by the instructions of successive International Conventions. 
At each of these meetings tho committee on the report of 
the International Committee has carefully reviewed the 
field and recommended such extension as has seemed desi- 
rable and practicable, and on this basia the convention has 
given directions regarding the work to be undertakeuo 

Territorially^ the field has been the United States and 
British Provinces in North America, a,nd such foreign 
countries as have gradually come into relation tc the 
American Associations through correspondence^ visitation, 
and other means of intercourse. 

The conventions have also enlarged the field from time 
to time by special instructions to promote work among the 
following clr.Gses of young men in America : In 1874 
German speaking young men, in 1875 railroad men, m 
1876 colored men. in 1877 college students, in 1879 com- 
mercial traveiersj m 1885 Indians. In 1889 young men in 
foreign mission fields were included. * 

*Several pamphlets on Association work in foreign mission lands have been 
published by the International Committee. 




The work of the committee may be outlined as follows : 
1. — Supervision and extension^ including : {a) The 
full care of the field where there is no state or provincial 
organization ; (^) an advisory relation to the state organi- 
zations ; (c) the initiation of systematic effort among 
special classes of young men and, in many portions of the 
continent, largely its direction ; {d) the direction of the 
work undertaken by the American Associations in foreign 

2. — The correspondence of the central office is volumin- 
ous, over 200,000 letters and circulars being sent out and 
received in a year. The chairman of the committee has 
for over twenty years conducted much of the important 
correspondence. The reply to a letter often requires re- 
search, experience, and tact, perhaps all combined. Here 
also must originate and be sent out to the traveling agents 
of the committee, its corresponding members, the state 
organizations, the local Associations and general secreta- 
ries, the patrons of the work, and through the press to 
the general public, instructions, advice, or information — as 
may be needed — directing, conserving, and promoting the 
entire work. 

Each traveling secretary must also find such opportu- 
nity as he can to conduct a large correspondence. 

3. — The publicatio7is of the committee include :' {a) 
Books and pamphlets relating to the history, organization, 
and methods of work of the Associations, helps in Bible 
study, etc. These have been useful in training men for 
the secretaryship, in instructing Association officers and 
workers, and in preparing the way for effecting new 
organizations, securing secretaries or starting building 
enterprises. About one hundred such publications are now 
offered for sale, at a little above the expense of printing. 


(h) The proceedings of the International Convention and 
the Year Book. The latter contains the annual reports of 
all the agents of the Committee and of its corresponding 
members ; the year's financial statement ; and a large 
amount of carefully tabulated statistical information, 
covering the American field in detail and in general the 
work elsewhere. The statistics are obtained by means of 
a well-devised and thorough system of reports from the 
Associations, (c) A small annual, containing carefully 
selected Scripture topics for young men's meetings, boys' 
meetings, and evangelistic Bible classes. {d) Record 
books, circulars of information, blanks, tickets, and other 
miscellaneous matter. 

4. — Securi7ig and training employed officers of the Asso- 
ciation. — The committee has much to do in seeking out, 
training, and recommending men for various positions in 
the work, especially in connection with new fields, the 
special departments, and the state work. Methods of 
training originated by the committee are described in 
chapter 13, B. The International Secretaries, having a 
general knowledge of the entire field and maintaining 
communication with it, have many opportunities for 
securing new men and also for aiding in effecting desired 
changes. The state officers, in addition to their indepen- 
dent work in this line, often co-operate with the inter- 
national. The aggregate work done by them in this 
direction is now far greater than that done through the 
International Committee. 

5. — Aid to buildhig enterprises. — Building committees 
often seek advice from representatives of the International 
Committee regarding the location and plans of buildings, 
and methods of raising money. A visit by a secretary of 
the committee to the locality is often necessary. 

6. — Aid in securing funds. — The committee is also 
called upon frequently to aid individual Associations in 
raising building funds and in meeting various financial 
emergencies, or, on the organization of a new field, in 

Chap. 32, C, 8. American international work. 433 

securing the amount needed for the first year's expenses. 
State Committees are also aided, when it appears neces- 
sary, in raising money for their work. Many an enter- 
prise would have failed except for such assistance. The 
international officer from his thorough experience is able 
to suggest right plans, and to rally and organize the local 
workers to aid in their execution. 

7. — Aid to conve?itio?is. — As shown with some detail at 
the beginning of chapter 31, the International Convention 
was the only meeting place of Association men for com- 
parison of views and concerted action between 1854 and 
1866. Under recommendation of the Albany Convention, 
four State Conventions met in the fall of 1866 at the call 
of the corresponding members of the committee. Since 
that time the organization and development of these con- 
ventions and their executive committees has been a prin- 
cipal j)art of the work of the International Committee. 
They exist to-day over almost the entire continent, but in 
varied stages of development calling for more care and 
attention than ever before. Members and secretaries of 
the committee attend every such gathering, as its repre- 
sentatives. Its secretaries have often advised with 
the successive executive committees of the General 
Secretaries' Association. The committee sustains much 
closer relations to occasional gatherings of representa- 
tives of the College and Railroad Associations. Local 
conferences in the interest of either the general work or 
some special department are often held under the auspices 
of the committee, or conjointly with a state or a city 
Association, at which it must be represented. 

8. — Jlel]) ill disaster. — When overwhelming disaster 
comes to an Association or a community, calling for 
sympathy and aid from the Associations or the public, 
the committee, from its advantageous standpoint, is able 
readily and economically to ascertain the facts, appeal 
for the needed assistance, and forward it to the proper 


9^ — Secretaries of the committee. — The executive force 
has increased, with the development of the organization, 
from a single employed secretary in 1868 to twenty-two 
in 1891, together with clerical help in the office. Several 
experienced men are also employed for portions of each 
year in various parts of the field. The secretaries may be 
classified as follows : (<:/) The general secretary, as the 
chief executive officer of the committee, is responsible for 
details of administration, under instructions of the com- 
mittee through its chairman and sub-committees. {h) 
Five secretaries and assistant secretaries are employed at 
the central office, in conducting its correspondence, super- 
vising its publications, perfecting and carrying out its sys- 
tem of records, and in numberless other details, through 
which many workers are advised and stimulated, and the 
individual organizations kept in helpful touch with the 
center and each other, (c) There are twelve field secre- 
taries, one of whom is designated as College Secretary, 
another as Secretary of the German Department, and two 
others as Secretaries of the Railroad Department. The 
others are known as secretaries of the committee and per- 
form any ser^dce required, work being assigned to them 
for which they are best adapted or in which they have had 
most experience. For example, a secretary has for years 
been employed at the South, and chiefly among colored 
young men. Other secretaries have spent most of their 
time in the college and railroad departments. {d) 
The committee has four secretaries in foreign mis- 
sion fields, one in India, two in Japan, and one 
in Brazil, and it is expected that other calls will be re- 
sponded to as soon as the means are at hand. At first 
those secretaries may of necessity take charge of a local 
Association, established perhaps as a working model, but 
as soon as practicable the local work will be put in charge 
of native young men trained for the purpose. This new 
field promises to be fruitful, but will need very careful 
attention from the committee. 


10. — Finances. — The expense of the home work in 1891 
was in round numbers $63,500 and of the foreign work 
$9,500, and the call for additional workers is even more 
urgent now than ever before. The question of ways and 
means is therefore vital with the International Committee, 
especially as most men give precedence to both the local 
and the state work over tliat which seems farther away 
and less obligatory. The ordinary sources of income are : 
(a) Subscriptions from Associations, largely made at the 
biennial conventions. As comparatively few of the Asso- 
ciations are represented at any one convention, the num- 
ber of such subscriptions is not great, but it is increased 
somewhat by correspondence, (h) Week of prayer collec- 
tions. A much larger number of Associations respond, 
often with small sums, but affording valuable aid in the 
aggregate, {c) Individual subscrij)tions constitute by far 
the largest proportion of the money received. Some of 
these subscriptions are received at conventions, but the 
greater part by personal solicitation. After deducting 
the amount given readily, some of it statedly, by able 
friends of the work, a large sum must be secured each 
year from such sources, and often through earnest effort. 
{d) Endowment fund. Only one bequest has been re- 
ceived as yet. The late William E. Dodge, of New York, 
who had been accustomed to contribute annually $250 to 
the work of the committee, bequeathed to it a legacy of 
$5,000. The fund thus started should be increased, until 
it becomes some such stable element in the resources of 
the committee as a local Association has in the possession 
of a building, (e) Systematic Giving through the Exten- 
sion Fund. — Those intimately acquainted with thesQ 
matters have long realized the need of an improved 
system, that would interest a large number of persons in 
giving and relieve the committee from its heavy burden 
of annual solicitation. It is believed that the plan here 
described will, if generally introduced, accomplish these 
results with regard to several departments of the general 


work. It is proposed to secure from the largest possible 
number of the members in each Association weekly or 
monthly pledges, the amounts not being so large but that 
they may be paid Avithout embarrassment or any 
interference with local obligations, the pledges rang- 
ing from a few cents upwards per week or month. 
The money received is to be appropriated and distributed 
by the board of directors. Four objects are specially sug- 
gested ; the home work of the International Committee, 
the state work, the foreign work of the International 
Committee, and the Association Training Schools. The 
committee in charge will attend to the collections, secure 
new pledges, and by j^ersonal effort and occasional reports 
stimulate interest in the movement. Regularity is needed 
in collecting, a desirable plan being to collect each month 
and forward quarterly to the treasurers of the organiza- 
tions benefited. This account may well be kept and re- 
ported apart from the treasurer's regular account. This 
plan includes : (a) a definite motive for acquainting the 
membership regularly with various lines of the work, 
wliich should result in broader views and permanent interest, 
and {b) education in giving, through which young men may 
become not only more systematic but more liberal in their 
benefactions generally. A few Associations are designat- 
ing some selected Sunday in each year as " Extension day," 
and making special effort on that day through reports, 
addresses, and other suitable means to promote interest in 
the movement. 

The International Committee has prepared an " Exten- 
sion Fund Record Book," No. 44. It supplies without 
charge circulars, pledge cards, and pamphlets on the sub- 

11. — The International Coni^ention. — The committee 
has charge of all the arrangements for these conventions, 
which have always been the great representative gather- 
ings of the American Associations, maintaining among the 
multiplied sectional meetings distinctive features that 


render them conspicuous and unique. Chief among these 
is their 'personnel. Delegations are present from nearly 
every state and province to the remotest sections of the 
affiliating countries, and the limited representation is apt 
to secure from the Associations their best men, including 
many of wide reputation. The international, state, and 
provincial officers, and many local secretaries are present, 
and usually delegates from Associations in other lands. 
Added to these are always distinguished visitors from the 
vicinity of the meeting, and others invited to participate in 
the exercises, — men of note as biblical scholars, public edu- 
cators, and statesmen or business men. The social features 
are also peculiarly attractive. Old friends, often former 
fellow-laborers but now scattered over the continent, meet 
again, and many others, familiar to one another only by 
name, become personally acquainted. 

The conventions, at first held annually, were by action 
at Louisville, in 1877, made biennial. There had been a 
growing conviction that the other numerous conventions 
held each year precluded the necessity of an annual inter- 
national meeting, and experience had shown the difficulty 
of securing the attendance of representative men at such 
frequent gatherings. The biennial meetings have been 
held uniformly in May. 

Representation is governed {a) by the " Portland reso- 
lutions " of 1869, limiting it to Associations whose active 
membership is composed of young men that are members 
of evangelical churches (see Chap. 3, F, 2), {h) by the 
numerical basis adopted at TV'ashington in 1871, as fol- 
lows : "Two delegates from each Association of one 
hundred members or less, and one additional delegate for 
each additional one hundred members ; but no Association 
shall be allowed more than ten delegates." Only active 
members are to be enumerated, and the International Com- 
mittee is instructed not to place any Association on the 
roll unless a copy of its constitution and a classified numer- 
ical statement of its membership have been filed in its 


office, (c) Delegates must be active members, (d) At 
Kansas City (1891) the International Committee was in- 
structed not to recognize Associations hereafter organized 
in cities and towns where Associations already exist, nor 
to admit them to representation in International Conven- 
tions, College and Colored Associations excepted. 

Very much in chapter 31, E, regarding the preparatory 
work and conduct of a State Convention applies here. 
For other particulars see the rules of the International 
Convention, which are included in each convention report. 

12.— The Bay and Week of Prayer. — (See Chap. 22, B^ 
2, and Int. pph. Ko. 598.) The annual day of prayer 
observed by the Associations dates from the memorable 
convention of 1866, at which the following resolutions 
were adopted : 

" Resolved^ That this convention recommends to the 
Young Men's Christian Associations of the United States 
and British Provinces, to set apart the first Sunday in 
November as a day of prayer for the increase and spiritual 
prosperity of the Young Men's Christian Associations 
throughout the world. 

^^ Mesolved, That we invite all kindred Associations in 
every land to unite with us on that day in praying for 
this object. 

^^ Mesolved, That we most earnestly request the clergy 
generally to address their congregations on that day on 
the object and work of Young Men's Christian Associa- 

^^ Resolved, That the Executive Committee be, and they 
are hereby, requested to issue a circular before the fifteenth 
day of September next, calling the attention of the Young 
Men's Christian Associations of the world to the action of 
this convention." 

The substance of this action was re-afiirmed at the 
Detroit Convention, in 1868, but the da}^ was changed to 
the second Sunday in ISTovember. Similar action has been 
taken at each convention since. 

Chap. 32, C, 13. American" international work. 439 

The fifth World's Conference (Paris, 1867,) "unani- 
mously decided to set apart the second Sunday of Novem- 
ber and all the evevMigs of the folloioing loeeJc for special 
prayer for Young Men's Christian Associations throughout 
the entire world." 

There was probably no general observance beyond that 
of the annual Sunday for some years, at least in America. 
In 1874, however, the New York City Association began 
the observance of the whole Aveek. The seventh World's 
Conference, which met in August of the next year at Ham- 
burg, Germany, recommended the extension to a whole 
week ; and the following month, in its usual circular to the 
Associations, the American International Committee made 
a similar recommendation. The observance of the week 
was first recognized in the International Convention hj the 
adoption at Cleveland in 1881, of a resolution submitted 
by the committee on the International Committee's report. 
Experience has fully demonstrated the wisdom of such a 
season for prayer and special religious impulse at this time 
of the year. The work of the various secular departments 
should then be thoroughly organized and in full operation, 
and the membership at its best, with a large accession of 
new material, so not only is there every opportunity and 
stimulus for earnest effort, but both the active and asso- 
ciate membership are reminded naturally by the recurrence 
of this stated observance of the high aim of the institution. 
Much benefit also accrues both to the cause at large 
and to the local organization, by bringing the Association 
work before the people each year through the sermons of 
pastors and the public meeting. 

Circulars calling attention to the day and week of 
prayer, together with hints as to their observance, topics 
suggested for the various services, and information for 
pastors and speakers regarding the field and work of the 
Associations, are sent out from the international office well 
in advance, and every effort made to stimulate and aid the 
Associations in making the best use of the occasion. 


At the International Convention of 1874, held at Day- 
ton, Ohio, into tlie usual clay of prayer resolutions the 
suggestion was incorporated that gifts be collected in the 
public meeting held on that day, and devoted to the work 
in charge of the committee. Similar action was taken the 
year following, at the Richmond Convention, where report 
was made of two hundred and fifty dollars received from 
day of prayer collections the preceding year. This excel- 
lent custom has been continued, and the amount received 
from this source in 1891 was $6,843. 



1. — The year 1855 witnessed a very important feature in 
the development of the work of the Young Men's Christ- 
ian Associations. In Paris there had existed for some 
years an Association formed on the model of that in Lon- 
don. The leading spirit of this little society was a young 
Protestant pastor, Jean Paul Cook, whose father was an Eng- 
lish clergyman and his mother an estimable French lady. 
Speaking with equal facility the languages of both his 
parents, and being manager of the business affairs of his 
religious community, he was admirably qualified to influ- 
ence alike the young Englishmen who lived in the French 
capital for commercial purposes and the students who 
came from various parts of France, Switzerland, and Ger- 
many. Better qualification still he had in a loving and 
catholic spirit, and in deep personal realization and enjoy- 
ment of the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. He labored 
in conjunction with a few faithful friends in Paris, and 
was especially assisted by Eugene Laget of Nimes in pro- 
pagating the missionary principles of the Associations 
among the young men of the Protestant churches of 
France, so that in many towns and villages there sprang 
up little meetings for prayer and fellowship among the 
young men, which were blessed as a means of preserving 
them against the assaults of infidelity and the restless and 
unceasing activities of the Romish priesthood. Corre- 

442 THE world's conferences, etc. Chap. 33, 2. 

spondence was kejJt up between these meetings and the 
Union Chretienne de Jeunes Gens in Paris, and at length, 
as the result of a commonly expressed need, they deter- 
mined on a conference for mutual information and encour- 
agement, to be held at the capital in August 1855. The 
purpose once formed was extended, and invitations were 
addressed to other Associations in other countries to send 
delegates, so that there assembled in Paris representatives 
from America, Belgium, England, Germany, Holland, 
Scotland, and Switzerland, as Avell as from many parts of 

2. — The happy results of this original World's Confer- 
ence were, first, that the leaders of this work in different 
countries, through social intercourse and much fervent 
united prayer, had their interest deepened in the common 
enterprise, and their practical knowledge both of methods 
of labor and of the encouragements to labor increased ; 
second, the Associations in all lands became affiliated in a 
succession of similar conferences ; and, perhaps most im- 
portant of all, the adoption of a basis of union by all the 
Associations, which, by recognizing as fundamental the 
doctrines of the deity and atonement of the Lord Jesus 
Christ and the authority of the Holy Scriptures, protected 
them in after time against any attempts to introduce un- 
sound doctrines or to secularize their objects. 

The subsequent conferences have been held in important 
cities of Europe and, as a rule, triennially. Once or 
twice the regular recurrence of the meetings has been in- 
terrupted by a disturbed state of international affairs, 
and they have several times been made to coincide in time 
and place with the holding of a general conference of 
the Evangelical Alliance or of a world's industrial exhibi- 
tion, such coincidence naturally leading to a larger attend- 

'>, — After the first conference no important change oc- 

* The above is slightly abridged from W. E. Shipton's "History of the 
London Young Men's Christian Association," Vol. I. Exeter Hall Lectures. 

Chap. 33, 4 the world's confereis'Ces, etc. 443 

curred in connection with the general work for many 
years. Speaking of the following conferences, Mr. Ship- 
ton says, they " were of necessity occupied in considering 
means for the extension of the work on the principles 
already established, to which there was nothing to add, 
and from which there has been in no case any disposition 
to depart." But definite efforts at extension were of 
necessity made by the various national or local organiza- 
tions, as such, there being no organic agency for the action 
of the united Associations. 

For the relation of the conference to the observance of 
the day and week of prayer, see chapter 32, C, 12. 

4. — In August, 1878, the eighth conference met in 
Geneva, Switzerland, the action of which marked an en- 
tirely new epoch in the general work. Josias Paradon, of 
France, read a paper on " How can we introduce an effec- 
tive international bond of union ? " He described three 
propositions that had been submitted toward the accom- 
plishment of that object : The formation of a permanent 
committee, the publication of a universal newspaper, and 
the adoption of a distinctive badge. He strongly recom- 
mended the first of these, but dismissed the others as being 
inexpedient at that time. A full discussion revealed a 
strong and growing sentiment in favor of the recommenda- 
tion, and a small but determined conservative opposition. 
The second morning, on comparing three sets of resolu- 
tions, drawn up respectively by the Swiss, French, and 
American delegations, they were found so nearly alike 
that one was readily agreed upon for presentation to the 
conference. It contained the following points : The con- 
ference to appoint a Central International Committee ; 
this committee to have its headquarters with a resident 
executive commission at Geneva, with power to fill vacan- 
cies and name a member from each country not repre- 
sented, to prepare and publish a report of the present con- 
ference, and to arrange for the next conference, at which it 
^vonld submit a report of its work, together with statistics 


and information gathered from the Associations of all 
lands ; the Geneva bureau to make no important decisions 
without consulting the non-resident members, and the com. 
mittee to involve the conference in no financial responsi- 
bility. These resolutions were adopted, with but four 
dissenting votes. 

5. — While the initial action in the conference came from 
the French delegation, and the need of some more fixed 
bond of union may have been felt by many, there is little 
doubt but that the action taken was shaped by a knowl- 
edge of the American system and by suggestions derived 
from its successful methods of work. The forty-four 
Americans present in a total attendance of four hundred 
and fifty-five, constituting the first large trans-Atlantic 
delegation at a World's Conference, contributed not a 
little to this result, as, in addition to the influence of num- 
bers, their arguments were backed by a practical exper- 
ience. Financial contributions in aid of the work were 
made at the conference and subsequently, enabling the 
committee to enter upon its duties under advantageous 

6. — As originally constituted, the committee consisted 
of four members resident at Geneva, with an additional 
member each for America, France, England, Germany, 
Spain, German Switzerland, and French Switzerland. Im- 
mediately after the conference members were added for 
Holland and Sweden, and later for Belgium and Italy. 
The necessity for an executive officer of the committee 
was at once felt, and Charles Fermaud, the young presi- 
dent of the Geneva Conference and of the Central Com- 
mittee, was led, at no small sacrifice of worldly prospects, 
to accept such position, which he has since held, and for 
which he is qualified not only by tact and educational 
acquirements, as he speaks fluently the principal European 
languages, but by a loving and earnest zeal in the cause 
of Christ. 

7. — The committee's report to the London Conference, 

Chap. 33, 8. the world's conferences, etc. 445 

1881, outlines the three years' Avork : (a) The publication 
of the proceedings of the Geneva Conference, and of circu- 
lars, (b) A correspondence of some ten thousand letters. 
{(?) Visitation of over two hundred and fifty Asso- 
ciations in France, Germany, Great Britain and Ireland, 
Holland, Spain, Canada and the United States, the 
organization of twenty-five new European Associations, 
and attendance at various Association and other evangeli- 
cal gatherings, (d) The collecting and printing of statis- 
tics, including the preparation and distributing of circu- 
lars and blanks in many languages, (e) Establishing an 
international information agency, for gathering and im- 
parting information, supplying letters of introduction, giv- 
ing assistance, etc. , which has been found very useful in 
connection with work for young men in Europe. The 
committee also reported a design for an international 
badge, which was adopted. Thirty-three meetings were 
held by the Geneva bureau, at many of which one or more 
of the non-resident members were present. 

8. — The Berlin Conference, 1884, advised the committee 
to concentrate its labors j^rincipally upon one or two 
new countries, with the purpose " either to create Associa- 
tions or to give the existing Unions a self-sustaining organ- 
ization." The adoption of this policy resulted in a quicken- 
ing of the work especially in Italy and Sweden, including 
the formation of National Unions in both these countries. 
It was also suggested that a session of the full committee 
be held in the interval between the conferences. This 
was carried out in the summer of 1886, when a two days' 
meeting was held at Geneva, there being present, besides 
the local quorum, representatives from America, Belgium, 
France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and 
Switzerland. One important result was the decision to 
emphasize the securing of local general secretaries for As- 
sociations in the leading cities of the continent. The 
presence and report of the Berlin general secretary made 
deej^ impression in favor of a similar officer and work for 

446 THE world's conferences, etc. Chap. 33, 9. 

Geneva. The work advocated was of the newer type, an 
adaptation of what has been tested as desirable in the 
American and English Associations. 

9. — During tliis interval, correspondence was conducted 
with various missionary societies, for the purpose of 
ascertaining what, if an}', Associations were in existence 
on their fields, whether they might be brought into affilia- 
tion with the alliance, and whether work among 3'oung men 
in the missionary fields could be promoted through the 
efforts of the committee. 

10. — The conference at Stockholm, in 1888, adopted 
among others, the following recommendations: "That 
the Central International Committee continue to give 
chief attention (l) to promoting the development of 
Association work in well selected central cities by the 
calling and training of competent general secretaries for 
such cities ; (2) to stimulating the organization of national 
alliances of the Associations on the basis of 1855." The 
committee was also instructed to codify the existing rules 
and by-laws, witli such additions as might seem desirable 
touching the appointment of the members of the com- 
mittee itself ; the regulation of its business, and of the 
proceedings of the International Conferences and their 
committees ; and to submit a draft of the same to the 
national executives of the various countries, with a view 
to their approval, at least one year before the next confer- 
ence for consideration and adoption. The conference also 
authorized an exhibit of pictures of Association buildings 
and of ^publications at the Paris exhibition of 1889, which 
was successfully carried out. 

At Stockholm, work upon the foreign mission field Avas 
brought to the attention of the conference under the fol- 
lowing circumstances : Xo call from the field had come 
directly to the committee or to previous conferences for 
such personal visitation by a visiting Association secretary 
as the committee had the resources either in men or money 
to respond to favorably. But, while this had been true of 

Chap. 33, 11. THE world's coa^fereivces, etc. 447 

tlie World's Conference, some definite calls had come and 
were coming from the foreign mission field to American 
Associations and Association workers, and the man and 
resources needed for favorable reply had in one case been 
providentially offered in America. This was in connec- 
tion with the college department of the American Associa- 
tions. Members of these College Associations had for 
many years been entering the ministry after graduation, 
and some of these had gone out upon the missionary field. 
The American College Secretary, L. D. Wishard (see 
Chap. 3, F, 3, /), had maintained correspondence with 
many of these missionaries, and previous to 1887 nearly a 
score of College Associations had been organized in for- 
eign missionary colleges ; and Mr. Wishard was solicited 
to visit these children of the American College Associa- 
tions and to extend his labors to neighboring institutions 
and cities, so far as possible. One leading missionary laid out 
for him an entire jear's work in visiting the educational 
institutions of a single country. 

A few of the American friends of Mr. Wishard and of 
the work had offered early in 1888 the considerable sum 
of money needed for such a visitation by him, to continue 
for some four years. The American International Com- 
mittee had granted him leave of absence, but had as yet 
(1888) no instructions from its convention in relation to 
such work upon the foreign mission field. The committee 
of the World's Conference, when they became acquainted, 
early in 1888, with these facts and with Mr. Wishard him- 
self on a visit made by him to Geneva, asked him to act 
as their representative in the tour which he was undertak- 
ing, provided this could be done without any expense or 
solicitation of money by the committee. The Stock- 
holm Conference confirmed this arrangement, and Mr. 
Wishard, after returning to America, set out for Japan to 
begin his visitation early in 1889. 

11- — The Central International Committee elected at the 
Stockholm Conference consisted of ten members resident 

448 THE world's conferences, etc. Chap. 33, 11 

at Geneva, including the active officers ; and of seventeen 
non-resident members, including a member each from 
America, Australia, Austria-Hungary, Belgium, England, 
France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Russia, Spain, Sweden, 
and Switzerland, corresponding members for Denmark and 
Norwav, and an honorary secretary each for England and 


The only attempt here made is to indicate the matter to be 
used in these forms, not the display or style of printing for actual 
use. Wise attention to such details as the selection of paper and 
type, and the amount of space needed where writing is to be 
inserted, adds greatly to the attractiveness and convenience of 
printed matter. 

The full name " Young Men's Christian Association," with the 
address and usually the names of officers of the Association, should 
be given in the headings of letters and circulars. Such headings 
are omitted here. 

SAMPLE No. I. (51^x83^ in.) 
See Chap. 9, A, 5. 



Dear Sir : — It gives us pleasure to notify you of your election to Active 
Membership in our Association. Please return the associate member's ticket 
which you received at the time of your admission, tliat it may be exchanged. 

We would like to meet you on evening, the , to 

confer with you about our committee work, in the hope that you may be able 
to assist in it. If this date is not convenient for you. kindly name one that 
will be. 

We hope you can arrange to attend at least the Members' Meeting on 
the .... of each month, and the j'oung men's meeting on .... . 

Trusting that we may have your heartj^ co-operation in our efforts on behalf 
of the young men of the citj', we are sincerely yours, 

Ch'n. Membership Com. 

General Sec^y. 

P.S.— Will you kindly inform us at once of any change in your business or 
residence address. 

SAMPLE No. 2. (53.^x81/^ in.) 
See Chai'. 9, A, 5. 


Dear Sir : 


has applied for Associate Membership in this association giving us your name 
as a reference. 

The Association admits any young man to Associate Membership, without 
regard to his i-ehgious views, if he is believed to be of good moral character 
Your early reply concerning him, in enclosed stamped envelope, will greatly 
oblige, Yours sincerely, 

To Ch'n. Membership. Corp 

SAMF^LE No. 3. (7>^x8Min.) 

See Chap. 9, B, 2. 


[Large Form— Front.] 

The applicant is admitted on condition that his references, upon investiga- 
tion, i>rove satisfactory. If they are not satisfactory, the fee will be returned. 
For information and terms see other side. 


Cash book folio, . 
Mem. Reg. 



Read carefully the other side. 

I hei-eby a pply for membership in the Young Men's 

of , and promise conformity 

laws, and rules of the association, if accepted. 

Full Name '? 

Residence ? No 

Do you live at home ? Are you boarding ? 

How long have you lived in this city ? 

Business address? No 

To which address shall notices be sent ? 

Limited or full membership ? 

(Limited, $2.00 ; Full, $5.00 ; Fee luust tccorapany applicaiioii. 8eP 
otiier side.) 

Do you wish gymnasium privileges ? 

Date and place of birth ? 

Are you married ? 

What is your religious denomination ? 

What church do you attend ?. 

If a communicant member, of what church ? Where ? 

Name and address of pastor ? 

Name of business firm ? 

Nature of business ? 

Position in the business ? 

3 Christian Association 
to the constitution, by- 

In view of the small 
fee charged for 
membership, it is 
agreed by the ap- 
plicant thac the 
membership ticket 
issued on this appli- 
cation is not trans- 
ferable; that its loss 
or destruction term- 
inates the n^ember- 
ship of the person 
receiving it; that no 
duplicate will be is- 
sued; and that it will 
be forfeited by a 
violation of the rules 
of the Association. 
The ticket must be 
shown on request. 

These questions ai-e 
asked that the Asso- 
ciation may know 
what classes <>f 
young men are seelc- 
ing its privileges. 

References, 1 Address 

2 Address 

By a resolution of the Association, these blanks must be filled to insure the 
reception of the proposition. 

Proposed as an jActive^^^^ member by 

Approved 189. Elected 18 

Please leave cents that the Association bulletin may be mailed to you. 

SAMPLE NO. 3.— Continued. 

(As an illustratiou of the iniornial.iou given, the following is quoted from the 
application blank of the Twenty-third Street Branch of the New York Association. 



Any man over sixteen years of age may be admitted at once by the 
secretary or assistant secretaries to Associate Membership, upon presentation of 
satisfactory evidence that he is of good moral character. 

Any young man over sixteen and under forty years of age, who is a member 
in good standing of a protestant evangelical church, is eligible for election to 
Active Membership by the board of directors. Only active membem have 
voting privileges. It is desired that young men who are eligible, and who are 
willing to co-operate in the work of the branch, make application for active 
membership. Associate tickets are at once issued to such, and changed to 
active on their election. 

Any lad under sixteen years of age, who is engaged in service for his liveli- 
hood, and presents proper vouchers from his parent, guardian, or emjjloycr, 
certifying as to his age, employment, and general conduct, may be admitted by 
the secretarj' to the privileges of the branch, except the use of the gymnasium 
in the evening. No boys under sixteen years will be admitted to the gymnasium 
during the evening. 


Any boy between the ages of twelve and sixteen may become an associate 
member of tlie boys' department, upon furnishing satisfactory references as to 

If a member in good standing of a protestant evangelical church, his name 
may be submitted to the committee of management of the branch, for election 
to active iPxCmbership in the department. 

A member may retain his membership in the department imtil he reaches 
the age of eighteen. 

Annual fee in the boys' department, $1.00. 

3Iembcrs of boys' department, under sixteen years of age, by the payment 
of an additional fee of $;4.00, may use the gymnasium from 3.30 to 4.30 each 
afternoon, from Monday to Friday inclusive, and from 10 to 12 on Saturday 
morning. They will have special class instruction and personal physical exam- 
ination. Two boys will share a locker, for which there is no extra charge. 


Full ticket, entitling to all privileges (except physical department) for one 

year from time of joining, ...... $5.00 

Full ticket, entitling to all privileges (including physical department, with 

locker,) for one year from time of joining, .... 8.00 
Limited ticket, entitling to reading room, library, and members' meetings 

only, .......... 2.00 

Life, payable at one time, ....... 100.00 

Theological student's ticket, ....... 3.00 

Boys' department, annual fee, . . . . . .1.00 

Non-resident student ticket, entitling to all privileges (including physical 

department, except locker,) for six -winter months, . . 4.00 

Ar.r.ual sr.hrcription to "Association Notes," published monthly, 25 cents. 

SAMPLE No. 4. (3x5 in. 

See Chap, o, R, 2. 


[Small Form — Front.] 


•O X 


189 . Duespaidto 189 . 

Full name ? 

Residence ? (St. and No.) 

Business address ? 

At home ? Boarding ? 

Limited or full membership ? Age ? 

(See ether Bide. Tea must accompany applicaticn). 

Attend what church ? 

Member of what church ? — Where ? 

Occupation ? 

Reference ? Address ? 


g. g Proposed as an member. 

<J H By 

[The above, front side only printed, is for sale by the International Com- 
mittee, as No. 632.] 



A cheerful and well-lighted reading room, supplied with the leading papers 
and magazines ; a good libi-ary ; a cosy parlor, with use of piano, games, etc. ; 
entertainments and receptions ; employment and boarding register. 

Annual feepaj'able in advance, two dollars, or less than four cents per week. 


In addition to the foregoing privileges, lectures and educational classes ; 
and a first class gymnasium, furnished with modern apparatus, shower baths, 
lockers, etc., and under supervision of a competent physical director. 

Annual fee payable in advance, five dollars, or less than ten cents per week. 

Membership is not limited to. members of churches. Any young man over 
sixteen years of age, giving satisfactory evidence of a good moral character, may 
be admitted as an associate member by the general secretary. 

Members are divided into two classes : 

Active Members.— Young men who are members in good standing of an 
evangelical church. 

Associate Members.— Young men giving evidence of good moral character. 

SAMPLE No. 5. (5Kx8^in.) 
See Chap. 9, B, 3. 



Dear Sir : — In order to give many young men of the city an opportunity to 
become better acquainted with the Association and the privileges enjoyed by its 
members, our board of directors has authorized the membership committee to 
issue " Visitors' Tickets " good for a period of two weeks. 

In accordance with the above I enclose two such tickets, hoping that you 
will hand them to young men that you are willing to recommend and that are at 
least sixteen years of age. 

The tickets must then be presented to the secretary, at the rooms of the As- 
sociation, for dating and signature, before they will be honored. 

Will you kindly let me know to whom these are given. 
Very truly, 

Ch'n Membership Com. 

General Secretary. 



YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION 

Admit Mr 

To full membership privileges. 

(See other side.) 

S^°Only one visitor's ticket issued to any young man. 

No Good until 

c Secretary. 

Present this ticket at the Association rooms, street, for 

dating and signature. 


This ticket admits to the use of Members' Parlor, Reading Room, Library, 

Educational Classes, Socials, Popular Talks, Gymnasium, and Baths. 

The holder of this ticket is invited to become a member of this Association. 

Annual Fee :— Full membership, including physical department and educational 

classes, $5.00. 
Limited membership, entitling to all privileges, except physical department and 

educational classes, $2.00. 

Not Transferable. 

SAMPLl] No. 6. (5K>x8uin.: 

See Chap. 9, C. 6. 


Dear Sir : 

Your membership fee in the Association will be due on the first day of 
next, and we anticipate your continuance with us. 

'vVe are constantly planning ways of making the Association more attractive 
and boaeScial to young men. If you cannot j'ourself make full use of the privi- 
leges to which you are entitled, you may be sure that your connection with us 
is aiding to benefit many others. 

If you cannot conveniently call at the office, tho amount (S ) may be 

sent by mail. 

Hoping for an early and favorable response, we remain 

Sincerely yours, 

Ch'n. Membership Com. 

General Secretary. 
Gymnasium lockers are emptied unless fees are promptly paid /hen due. 


Dear Sir : 

We mailed you last month a notice that your membership fee ($ ) 

in this Association would be due on the first instant. 

Ti'xll you kindly inform us whether you intend to continue your connection 
with us, and, if you do not, vrill you favor us with a brief statement of the 
reasons, Tliereby the Association may be provided with information of a help- 
ful nature in its efforts to improve the various departments of the work. 

A stamped envelope is enclosed for your answer. 

Yours sincerely, 

Ch'n. Membership Com. 

General Socretarv. 

SAMPLE No. 7. 

{2 X ny- in.) 

See Chap. 9, D, 3. 

Admit Mr. 

YOUXG men's christian ASSOCIATION. j 

Cor streets. ' 


(ilust be thowii w'.in requi eU ) 

Gen'l Secretary. 


SAMPLB No. 8. (2x31^ in.) 

See Chap. 9, E, 2. 


t QI-rMmMmmtm 






In view of the small fee charged for meml 
ship, the holder of this ticket agrees that it is 
not transferable, nr^ust be shown when required, 
will be forfeited for violation of rule? and will not 
be duplicated if lost or destroyed. 



General Secretary. 

kcHk-i^ Leave Notice at Office of Change of Address. 
[These tickets, in two colors for full and limited privilep:es, and with the 
name of the Association printed in, are sold by the International Committee as 
No. 633]. 

SAMPLE No. 9. (l-lj^x-il in., double page). 

See Chap. 9, E, 4. 


Mr. Hersey gives the following description of these two books : 

"The Index, protected by government letters, is unique in this respect: 
that by the use of the marginal signs ample space is afforded for pages and the 
additional advantage of five years' use is gained, to say nothing of the fact that 
the names do not require re-writing each year. Other advantages are rapidity 
in finding any name ; the possibility of using the Index as an extra address 
book ; neatness and simplicity. 

"The Membership Record, also protected by government letters, is adapted 
to a membership ranging from 200 to 2,000 and will last the average Association 
five years. 

"The number column, at the left hand margin of each page, is to aid the 
eye in running the page, and to facilitate finding any name, as these numbers 
correspond with the indexed name-number, e. g. Birstow, George O.— found in 

SAMPLE No. 9.— Continued. 

the Index at "Bi"— will be found in the Membership Record, page 45, line 5. 
Under " Bo" in the Index, Boydeh, Edward S., will be found in the Membership 
Kecord, page 45, line 11. 

'•Most of the other headings explain themselves. We will simply add that 
the " Joined '' column is for the original date on which the member joined ; 
"What Privileges" means whether "Full," "Limited," "Sustaining," "Hon- 
orary," etc. These should be written in each time. 

" Important.— The best plan for accurately recording the membership is to 
do it by months. 

" Have a separate page or pages for January, for February, and so on 
through the year, headed in the order of the months. To get your exact mem- 
bership you have simply to add up the "Active" and the " Associate " columns 
under each month ; once added the footings may be used the next month (of 
course, altering, if any memberships have been transferred or a member has 
withdrawn or died). The aggregate will give j^ou the total membership cor- 
rectly, and in ten minutes, any time in the month. In this respect the monthly 
method of entering names is unequalled. 

" Note.— As the month in which the annual fee is due comes around, you 
write in the " Remarks " column opposite the names of those who pay, "re- 
newed or paid " such a date, and only such as pay are then written forward one 
year. In making up your membership you have now nothing to do with 
the past pages or months, but only to count the membership forward, beginning 
with the month next forward of the date on which you are working. Thus the 
book is ever giving you the actual membership, and at a glance forward you 
may see what members need to "renew " the coming month, and by referring 
to the preceding pages you may readily note those who are delinquent, and urge 
them to continue their relation to the Association." 

The Index and Record are for sale by the Waterbury Blank Book Manufac- 
turing Co., Waterbury, Conn., and by the International Committee. 

SAMPLE No. 10. (31^x6 in.) 
See Chap. 16, B, 14. 


•Believing that the Young Men's Christian Association of 

is an institution that promotes the best interests of Young Men and the welfare 
of our city, and that the work of the Association, which is now dwarfed and 
hampered in its present limited quarters, would be greatly extended in a suit- 
able building , I, the undersigned, promise to pay to the said Association 

dollars, toward the purchase of lots and the erection tliereon of a building 
adapted to the needs of the organization's growing work. 

" This subscription is payable as follows: Twenty-five per cent, when the 

subscriptions reach dollars, and twenty-five per cent. 

each six months thereafter. 


Address, . 

. . . Member of Soliciting Committee, 


See Chai-. i8, A. i. 

For an Association of 1,500 to 2,000 members, occupying its own building. 



Association Building 

Athletic field and buildings, 

Endowment fund, invested in mortgage on city property, 

Less mortgage on Association building, . 


Furniture and gymnastic apparatus. 
Library, 6,000 volumes, 

30.000 135,000 




5,000 13,000 




for 1890-91. 

Received in 

for 1891-92. 

Interest on endowment fund (30,000;, . 
Rents of stores, offices and hall. 








Taxes and water, 

Insurance on building 

Alterations and repairs, .... 

Interest on mortgage (S 10. 000), 

One fifth general secretary, for superin- 
tendence of building. 

One-fourth janitor and assistants, on ac- 
count of tenants, .... 

One-fifth fuel and light, on account of 
tenants, • 

Net income. 

for 1890-91, 







for 1891-92. 














Balance from previous year, . 
From trustees: 

Net income from building, . 

Net income from endowment fund, 

]\Iembership fees 

Boys' depai'tment fees, . . '. 


Miscellaneous, . . 

for 1890-91, 



1,500 1,825 






for 1891-92. 



1,500 1,760 

1,500 2,015 








General Expenses:— 
Four-fittiis general secretary, 



Ca'-e of coat room, 

Three-fourths janitor and assistants, . 
Furniture an<l repairs, .... 
Four-fifths fuel and light, . 
Printing and advertising, 

Office supplies, 


Insurance on furniture 

Religious Department;—* 
Leader of music and hymn books. 
Printing and advertising, 
Work among commercial travelers, . 
Educational Department:— 
Library -Librariau, .... 
New books and binding, 

Reading room, 

Evening classes, teachers and supplies, 
Lectures and talks, less receipts from 
tickets sold. • . . . . 

Literary society, 

Physical Department:— 
Gymnasium -Physical director and as- 
sistants, . 
Apparatus and supplies, 
Athletic field — Superintendence . 

Repairs and supphes, 
Social Department:— 
Reception committee, .... 


Members' meetings, .... 

Estimate Expended i Estimate 
for 1890-91. 1890-91. for 1891-92 


Employment, . 

Boys' Department: — 

Secretary in charge. 

Religious meetings 

Books and periodicals, . 


Printing and stationery, 
German Branch:— + 

Secretary, . . . , 



















General Association work:— 

State work, 

Work of International Com. in America, $ 
Work of International Com. abroad, . 
. Association Training School, 


















24 2,515 












285 1,997 











88 353 








127 215 

















53 826 


















20 180 







* The amounts appropriated to the reUgious and social departments appear 
small in comparison with some of the others. But mucla work is done in these de- 
partments by the secretaries, whose salaries are included in " general expenses." 

t It has been found difficult, if not impossible, to maintain a branch of this 
description without payment by the Association of the salary of the branch sec- 
retary or a considerable part of it. Such payment is also a very useful tie, 
binding the branch to the Association. 

Branches receiving corporate support, such as railroad branches, usually 
meet their own expenses, without appropriations from the Association. 

t A collection for the international work taken at a meeting during the week 
of prayer for young men would not be included in the budget or entered in tha 
regular accounts of the treasurer. 

SAMPLE No. 12. 

See Chap. i8. A, i. 

For an Association or 400 to 500 members, occupying rented rooms. 


Furniture and gjTnnastic apparatus, 
Library. 500 voiiimes. 

350 2,050 



for 1890-91. 


for 1891-92. 

Balance from previous year, . 

Membership fees 

Boys' department fees 

^Vomen's Committee, for furniture, . 





' 40 

















for 1890-91. 


for 1891-92. 

General expenses: — 

General secretary, 



Rent, . , 

Furniture and repairs, . . . , 

Fuel and ight, 

Printing and office supplies. 
Insurance and incidentals. 

40 2,680 

32 2,618 


41 113 

35 2,775 

Religious department:— 
Music and hymn books, .... 


40 120 


125 265 



40 90 





5 45 


50 125 

Educational department:— 
Library and reading room, 
Classes, literary society, and talks. 


119 253 


190 340 

Physical department: — * 
Apparatus, repairs, and supplies, . 

Social department: — 
Reception committee, .... 
Entertainments and members' meetings. 

Boys' department:— 
Reading and amusement room, 

General Association work:— 
State work. ....... 

Work of the International Committee in 


Work of the International Committee 


. Association Traming School, 



38 85 





5 45 



40 90 





5 45 

Balance, ..... 





* The general or assistant secretary superintends the physical department. 

SAMPLE No. 13. (2Mx4i^ in.) 

See Chap. 18, A, 2. 


The undersigned agi'ees to conti'ibute to the Young Men's Chrislian As- 
sociation of until this pledge is increased, diminishe<l, 

or revoked, tiie sum of per year from date, payable 



Unless otherwise stated, sums of $10 and under are to be paid on 

Isteachyear; sums over $10 to be paid one-half on 

1st, and one-half on — 1st each year. 

[Cards like the above are for sale by the International Committee, as 
No. 625.] 


I hereby agree to pay to the treasurer of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion of each year (until this subscription is revoked in 

writing addressed to said treasurer), the sum set opposite my name; to aid in 
meeting the current expenses of the Association, including the employment of a 
general secretary to have ovei'sight of the entire work of the Association, the 
maintenance of a reading room, and the general enlargement of the work. 

Fifteen hundred dollars or more being needed, this subscription is not binding 
until at least twelve hundred dollars are subscribed. 

Signed $ 

[Similar cards, containing also testimonials to the value of Association 
ivork, can be purchased of the Era Publishing Co., Chicago.] 

SAMPLE No. 14. (3 X 9 in. including stub.) 
See Chap. 18, B, 11. 


No-- - $ i No. - $. 

Date i the treasurer of the 



i Pay to the order of 

For i ~ - — Dollars 

i for „ 

I By order of Finance Committee. 


i Fund 


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SAMPLE No. 19. (5x8 in.) 
See Chap, 18, C. 3. 

Deposited with Treasurer. 
By G. F. S. 
Date, Jan. 14, 1891. 

Deposited with Treasurer. 
By G. F. Strong. 
Date, Jan. 14, 1891. 

Previous collections, . . 2,038 00 

Previous collections .... 2,038 00 

Full memberships, . . 5 00 
Limited " . . 2 00 
Boys' Dept " . . 1 00 
Running subscriptions, . . 10 00 
Subs, for this year, . 

Full memberships, 
Boy's Dept. " 
Running subscriptions, 
Subs, for this year, . 

5 00 
1 00 
10 00 


Miscellaneous, . . . . 145 50 

Reed. Jan. 14, 1891, 163 50 
Jos. R. Baldwin, Treasurer. 

Miscellaneous, . 

145 50 
163 50 

[Books containing one hundred of these deposit tickets are for sale by the 
International Committee, as No. G28.] 

SAMPLE No. 20. (5^x8^ in.) 
See Chap. 18, C, 4. 

iSmaU Form.^ ._ 


Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1890, . . , . . 650 65 

Received during December: 

Membership fees— Full, . . . . 60 00 

Limited, . . . 45 00 

Boys, . . . . 20 00 

Subscriptions— Running, . . , 130 00 

This year only, . . 206 00 


57 00 518 00 1, 


Expended during December: 


. 145 00 

Rent, .... 

. 41 66 

Furniture and repairs, 

. 12 00 

Fuel and light. 

. 45 50 

Religious Department, 

. 39 40 

Educational " , 

. 32 00 

Physical " . 

. 19 34 

Social " . 

. 35 25 


. 19 50 

389 65 

Balance on hand, . 

779 00 

[The above is for sale by the International Committee, as No. 627.] 

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SAMPLE No. 22. (8>.-xniD.) 

See Chap, 20, A, 4. 




New members received— active, . 

" " " associate, 

Old members paid fees— active. . 

" • •' " " associate, 

Losses : 
Active, . 

Membership at date 



Died. I Removed, i Discontinued. 






The following are recommended for active membership, each application! 
having been properly vouched. 

Name. Church of which he is a member. 


SAMPLE No. 23. (8'^ X 11 in.) 
See Chap. 20, A, 4. 



• • 

• • 


.... 189 . 

Meetings, etc. 





Leaders and Speakers. 

Bible class, 

Beginners' training class. 

Young men's meeting, . 
Men's gospel meeting, . 

Evening prayers. 
Invitations distributed for 
Bible class, 
" meetings, 
Committee meetings, . 


Remained for inquiry, . 

Confessed Christ, . 

Suggested as candidates 
for church membership. 

United with churches, . 

Received as active mem- 
bers of Association, . 


SAMPLE No. 24. (-81^x11 in.) 

See Chap. 20, A, 4. 



Vols, added : Reference,] 
By purchase, . . 1 
Total : Reference, 
Used in library . . I 

Cost, . 

By donation 
Vols, retired 

Now out 

Average daily attenda nee, 

New periodicals. . 



No. discontinued. 
Total now on file, 





No. Ses- Average 
sions. Attendance 











Attendance. Membership, 



SAMPLE No. 2> (sv^xiiin.) 

See Chap. 20, A, 4. 





Average No. using gymnasium daily, . 

'• of classes daily, .... 

Examinations, ...... 

Matters of special interest connected with examinations. 

No. of sessions, leaders' class, . 
Average attendance. 

No. of volunteer leaders giving instruction, 
New apparatus and repairs, ^ . 


Average No. using athletic field daily, 
"of classes daily, 

No. and character of outings, 

Total No. participants, . 


No. of Bible class sessions. 

Average attendance, .... 

SAMPLE No. 26. (84x11 in.) 
See Chap. 20, A, 4. 



189 . 

Receptions, Members' Meetings, 


Reception Committee. 



No. on committee, 
" appointed for evening duty 
" serving during- month, . 
" evenings supplied, 

Average number on duty per 

No strangers welcomed, . 



Da J- of Month. 

Receptions and 
M'ber's meet'g:. 

Directed to 
Board'g bouses 



No. of Savinf?s 

I Visits 

I to Sick. 



Visits to 



duction, etc. 

Day of Month. 

Day of Week. 

1 Bible Class. 








1 Young Men's 
1 Meeting. 

1 Evening 

1 Prayers. 

dealt with. 

1 Confessed 

1 Christ. 


with Churches. 
! Invitations 
1 Distributed. 


1 Volumes 
1 Added. 



ft ! 






1 New 

1 Periodicals 




1 Practical 

1 Talks. 

1 Using 

1 Gymnasium. 




1 Classes. 





Bible Class. 





SAMPLE No. 28. ^^^5'°' 

See Chap. 20, A, s- 







Memoranda : 


Meeting, . 

SAMPLE No. 29. (3x5 in.) 
Se3 Chap. 20, A, 5. 




Other speakers. 
Topic, etc., 

Attendance, Personally conversed with,. . . 

Confessed Christ, , 

Invitations given : Printed, , Verbal, 

Where given, , 


Add reirarks on back. 

SAMPLE No. 30. (sj^xiiin.) 

See Chap. 20, A, 5. 



Eible class, 
Training: class, 

Preparatory prayer service, 
Young men's meeting, 

Morning prayers, (employees) 
Evening prayers, 
Personally dealt with. 
Confessed Christ, 
United with churches, 
Invitations distributed 
Invitations to com. travelers. 


Volumes added to library. 
Volumes used in library. 
Volumes drawn from library, 

New periodicals. 

Class in ... . 

Class in 

Practical talk. 
Literary society. 

Using gymnasium. 
No. of classes, 


Sessions, leaders' class. 
Using athletic field. 
Participating in outing, 
Bible class, . 



I 1 1 Members' meeting, 


Directed to boarding houses. 
Situations filled, 
No. of savings deposits, 
Visits tP sick. 

Otherwise assisted. 


Bible class. 
Training class. 
Personally dealt with 
Confessed Christ, 
United with churches, 

Volumes added, 
Volumes used, 

Class in. 

Practical talk. 
Literary society. 
Using gymnasium. 
Gymnasium class, 

Social hour, 
Visits to rooms. 


Visits to rooms, . . . l 

No. committee meetings, 

Letters of transfer or introduction, | 

Letters received by sec'y, 
Lettere written by sec'y. 
Calls made by sec'y. 

[Pads containing fifty of these blanks are for sale by the International Com- 
mittee, as No. 630.] 

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Members' meetings, 


Directed to boarding houses. 
Situations filled, .... 
No. of savings deposits, 
Visits to sick, .... 
Otherwise assisted, 


Visits to rooms, .... 

Committee meetings, . 

Letters of introduction, etc., givt'i:. 



__ 1 

=? i 1 





:<5 1 


Bible class, . . . 
Training class, .... 
Young men's meeting, . 
Evening prayers, .... 
Personally dealt with, . 
Confessed Christ, .... 
United with churches, . 
Invitations distributed, 


Volumes added, .... 

Volumes used 

New periodicals, .... 
Class in, .... 


Practical talks 


Using gymnasium. 


Examinations, .... 
Bible Class, 

SAMPLE No. 32. 

See Chap. 20, D, 2, a. 


Will you please reply frankly and promptly, on this shet^t of paper, to the fol- 
lowing questions, in order to aid us in preparing material for the annual report. 
Your name will not be used, unless express pernnssion is given. 

Yours very truly, 

Gen. Sec. 

What advantage have you derived from the Association during the past year, 

Physically ? 

Mentally ? 

Morally ? 

Spiritually ? 

What advantage in any other year of its history ? 

Please make suggestions looking towards a more efficient work the coming 


SAMPLE No. 33. 

See Chap. 20, C, i. 


Mr. and Mrs request the pleasure of your company at their 

residence Thursday evening, May 12th, at 8 o'clock, to meet 

'^ and others, representing the International Committee of 

the Young Men's Christian Associations. 

There will be no solicitation of money. 

1^1 -ase reply. 





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SAMPLE No. 37. 

See Chai'. 22, A, 6. 


" They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament ; and they 
that turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and ever." — Dan. xii : 3. 


1.— Every new member is requested, as soon as possible after his appointment 
upon the committee, to make the acquaintance of the chairman. 

2. — Every new member should report to the chairman of the sub-committee 
to which he is assigned, the first time such sub-committee is on duty after his 

3.— Every member should provide himself with a list of topics, study the les- 
son, and carry his own Bible to the meetings, 

4.— After one month's unexplained absence, or continued irregularity on the 
part of any member, his name shall, with the concurrence of the president, be 
dropped from the roll of the committee. 


1. — The sub-committee is responsible for the tone and vigor of the meeting 
luider its charge, as well as for keeping the meeting close to the topic. Each 
member is expected to do all in his power to insure these ends. 

2. — Every member of each sub-committee should attend the preparatory con- 
ference at 7.40 p. M., and be ready to lead it if necessary. 

3.— Every member of the sub-committee should be prepared to lead the 
meeting, if the appointed leader fails to be present. 

4.— 3Iembers are to act as ushers in such parts of the room as may be assigned 
to them by the chairman of their sub-committee. 

5.— Members are requested to notify tlie chairman of their sub-committee 
when they cannot be present at a meeting. 

6.— It is the duty of each sub-chairman to see that the room is in nroDe^ '^0?- 
clition as to light, ventilation, an-angement of chairs, ?^'-.. for :,he meeting under 
his charge. 

7. At the close of each meeting the sub-chairman, or member appointed by 
him, is to record the name of the leader, the number present, the number of 
inquirers, and number of members of committee on duty, together with such 
remarks or explanations as circumstances may require. 


].— Inquirers are the care of the sub-committee. Members are to deal w'th 
them. Earnest prayer, dependence on the Holy Spirit, practical knowledge of 
the Scriptures, and tact are needed for this service. 

2.— The members of the sub-committee should greet the strangers who attend 
the meeting, and ascertain whether they are Christian men ; and, if they are 
not, endeavor by kindly conversation to impress upon them the wisdom and im- 
portance of yielding themselves to the Savior without delay. 

3.— All inquirers should be urged to attend the converts' Bible class. 

4.— Each member dealing with an inquirer is expected to take his name, 
address, etc., to see or write him within a week after the interview, and report 
the result to the general secretary of the Association. "The Christian Workers' 
Record " will be used for this purpose. 

SAMPLE No. 38. 

See Chap. 24, C, 10. 


1. — Any holdei' of a five dollar membership ticket shall be entitled to enter 
any of the classes for which he is qualified. 

2. — Application for admission must be made to the teacher of the class, and 
the membership ticket shown. 

3.— The text books to be used will be fixed by the educational department com- 
mittee, upon consultation with the respective teachers. 

4.— Text books and blank books can be obtained at the office, at special prices 
to students only. 

5.— The signing of an application blank constitutes an agreement to attend 
punctually each session of the class, or to notify the teacher in case of neces- 
sary absence, and to continue until the close of the term, or to notify the 
teacher of the cause of leaving, if prevented from so doing. 

G. — Unexplained absence from three consecutive lessons will forfeit a mem- 
ber's place in any class for the term. 

7.— No student will be allowed to leave any class while in session, without the 
teacher's permission. 

8. — No classes will meet on legal holidays. 

9.— At the end of the second term, each student whose attendance has been 
over 80 per cent., and who has made progress in his studies, shall receive a testi- 
monial of merit, on the certificate of the teacher to these facts. 

10.— An examination shall be held in each class at the end of the second term, 
to which tne stuae^its of t><^ class whose attendance has been regular shall be ad- 
mitted. The examination, which shall be ox'al or written at the option of the 
teacher, shall be lield in the presence of one or more members of the board of 

11. — The marking on such examination shall be from 1 to 100. Everj' student 
who has completed the course and has passed over 80 per cent, on such exami- 
nation, shall receive a certificate, setting forth the facts on which it is given. 

12.— In the last week of April in each year, there shall be a public exhibition 
of the work of the classes during the year, in which students who have passed 
the examinations most creditably shall take part. 

13.— The general secretary, under the direction of the educational department 
committee, has general supervision of the classes. 

(A list and calendar of classes, prices of text books, and any other details may 
IjH appended.) 


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SAMPLE No. 40. (rxioj^in.) 

See Chap 25, C, 2. 

[Small Form. 









Jhllc. JMO. 






MO. Ida 







TicLet i 

Date of Birth, 

Weight, . . 

Height, . . 


Girths : 

Neck, . . . 

Chest conti-ac*t\l 

Exercise : 

Chest expanded 



Waist, . . . 

R. Forearm. . 

Special Histori/: 

R. Up arm down 


Accidents, etc. 

R. Up-arm up. 


L. Forearm. . 

L. Up-arm down 


L. Up arm up 
R. Thigh, . . 

Occupation : 

R. Calf, . . . 

Health : (Past. ) 

L. Thigh. . . 

L. Calf, . . . 

Muscles : 









H 31 


H 3! 









H M 


H 3' 










G M 


G 31 


Health : 








G 31 


G 3] 



Size, Arm 







L 31 











L 31 


T- 31 


Dip, .... 
Piir-np. . . . 



[The above is published by the International Committee, and is sold as No. 24. 
The use of the blank is explained in the " 3Ianual for Pliysical Jleasurements," 
Int. pph., No. 23.] 

SAMPLE No. 41. 

See Chap. 26, A, i. 

"Be not forgetful to entertain sti-angers ; for thereby some hav© ©atertained 
angels unawares." 


The comiuittee is appointed to welcome strangers and encourage cordiality 
among members. 


1. — The chairman of the committee shall assign members to the eyening on 
which they are to serve. 

2.— He shall appoint a sub-chairman for each evening of the week, and all 
special committees. 

3.— At the monthly meeting of the Association, he shall present in writing a 
complete report of the work during the preceding month, with incidents illustrat- 
ing it. 

4.— He shall report from time to time to the president the names of com- 
mitteemen, who, without excuse, have been absent for three consecutive even- 
ings to which they were assigned. 


1.— The secretary shall keep a record of the proceedings of the meetings of the 

2.— He shall keep posted on the committee bulletin a list of the offlcers of the 
committee and of the members of the sub-committees, the latter being arranged 
in alphabetical order under the names of the sub-chairmen. 

3. —He shall send to the office of the Association, before the fifth day of each 
month, the statistics of the committee for the preceding month. 

4.— He shall notify members of regular and special meetings, and perform such 
other duties as pertain to his office. 


1.— Each sub-chairman shall be responsible to the chairman for his committee. 

2.— He shall make arrangements for family prayers in season, and begin them 
not later than 9.45, and in their conduct avoid foniiality and observe brevity. 

3.— He shall keep in the committee's register a full record of the evening's 
work, including the names of absentees. 

4.— He shall inform the chairman of the committee of the absence, without 
excuse, of any member for three consecutive evenings to which he is assigned. 

5.— He shall present a written report at the monthly meeting of the receptioa 


1.— Seek God's blessing before entering on your evening duties. 

2.— Come cheerfully and promptly at 7.30 o'clock, bearing in mind that many 
opportunities for doing good may be lost by not being on hand early. 

3. — Wear the badge of the Reception Committee while on duty. 

4.— Greet all heartily, without discrimination, remembering that we are 
brothers in Christ's service. 

5.— If a member and a stranger enter the reception room at the same time, 
extend hospitality to the stranger fii-st. 

6.— Bear in mind that your object is to entertain members and strangers, and 
not your fellow committeemen. 

7.— Visitors will obtain their impressions of the Association and judge of it by 
the manner in which you receive them. Receive them naturally and heartily 
as you would friends calling on you at your own home. 

8.— Mauy of iho members of tlie Assouiatiou eve necessarily stran;:jer.s to each 
other, l^omote their acquaintance with one another by every means in your 
power. If the Association is to fulfill its social mission, the rooms, should be 
made to them, through you, the most home-like and attractive place in the city. 

0.— Interest strangers by showing them through the building ; explain the 
work of the Association and the advantages offered to young men. and invite 
them to the religious meetings. 

10.— Inform yourself thoroughly regarding all the work of the Association and 
its branches. Accurate knowledge of the religious and philanthr<»pic work iu 
llie city would greatly assist you in your work. 

11.— When you meet a visitor who does not attend any church ivgularly, as- 
certain the denomination he is most iu svaupathy with, and offer to take steps to 
introduce him to a church of that denomination where he would feel at home. 

12.— Should the visitor be a member of a church, but not acquainted with his 
pastor or his fellov/ church members, consult the secretary of the Association, 
that he may be suitably introduced. 

13.— Do not fail to impress young men with the importance of having a church 
home, and of regular attendance at the stated services on week days as well as 

14.— Seek to lead your conversation v/ith the visitor into religious channels, 
that you may be able naturally to present Christ as a personal savior and friend. 

15.— Before leaving the rooms record in the register j^our name and the time 
of your arrival and departure, together with any interesting incidents that may 
have occurred. 

16.— If you are compelled to be absent on j'our evening, try to secure a sub- 
stitute by exchanging with a member assigned to some other evening. If unable 
to do this, promptly notify your sub-chairman. 

The chairman and members of the committee are appointed b}- the president 
of the Association. Resignations from the committee should be sent to hi in. 

The regular meeting of the reception committee is held on 

SAMPLE No. 42. (5ize of visiting card.) 

StE CilAP. 2.6, A 4. 



At the building of the Young Men's Christian Association 


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SAMPLE No. 44. 

See Chap. 26, A, 5. 


Name,. Age, 


Place of business 

Boards, Home, 

Attends Church. Communicant, 

Time i-esided in city, 


. 189 . Signed, 

SAMPLE No. 45. 

See Chap. 26, B. 2. 


1.— This organization shall be known as the Chess and Checker Club ©f the 
Young Men's Christian Association of 

2.— Its object shall be to give members of the Association who are interested in 
the games of chess and checkers an opportunity to play together. 

3. — Members of the Association may join the club by signing its rules and pay- 
ing an initiation fee of fifty cents. 

4. — The officers of the club shall be a chairman, appointed by the president of 
the Association from among the members of the club, and a secretary and a 
treasurer, elected at the February meeting of each year. 

5. — The chairman shall preside at all business meetings of the club ; the secre- 
tary shall keep a record of its proceedings and conduct its correspondence ; the 
treasurer shall have charge of all moneys belonging to the club, shall disburse 
them as it directs, and shall submit a report at each business meeting. 

6. —Business meetings of the club shall be held at 8 p.m. on the first Tuesday of 

the months of Special meetings may be called by the 

chairman at the written request of five members. A quorum for the trans- 
action of business shall consist of nine members. 

7. — Meetings for play shall be held once a week, and shall close at 10 p.m. 

8.— The name of any member absenting himself from the meetings of the club 
for two months shall be dropped from the roll. 

9.— Any member may, if others do not object, introduce friends who are mem- 
bers of the Association to the privileges of the club. 

10.— No tournaments shall be held with clubs not connected with Young Men's 
Christian Associations. 

11.— Staunton's "Handbook'* shall be the chess authority used by the club, 
and the rules for •• Enghsh Draughts," found in Bohn's " Handbook of Games," 
shall guide in the play of checkers. Cushing's " Manual " shall be followed in 
parliamentary practice. 

12.— These rules may be amended by a two-tliirds vote of the members present 
at any regular business meeting, provided the proposed amendment shall have 
been submitted in writing at the business meeting immediately preceding. 
Amendments shall take effect when they shall have been approved by the com- 
mittee on classes of the board of directors. 

SAMPLE No. 46. (5^x8}^m.) 
See Chap. 27, A, 9. 


No 189 


Residence, street and number 

Between what streets, 


Religious denomination,. 

Member of church, 

Located at, 

Floor Rooms vacant ; Large, Small, 

Description of rooms, 

Bath, Gas, Heat,. 

Hot and cold water, 

Terms, with board .(for one) (for two) . 

Terms, without board, (for one) (for two) . 


Full names of any members of the Association who room or board in the house, 



1. Protect yourself by carefully examining the references of any one who says 
lie has found your address on our register, unless he brings an autograph letter 
from one of our secretaries. 

2. Send word immediately when any room regarding which you have given us 
information is rented. Your name is registered on condition that you will do 
this, and must be erased at once and not entered again, if we find that you have 
not observed the condition. 

(The back of this blank may be arranged for the pi'ivate memoranda of the 











. 1 













1 tL 

SAMPLH No. 48. mx4y^in.! 
See Chap. 27, B, 4. 





Open week days, 8 to 11.30 a. m., for filing applications for positions, such as 
Book-keepers, Clerks, Collectors, 

Copyists, Light Porters, Messengers, 

Salesmen, Stenographers, Teachers, 
Watchmen, Attendants, Nurses, 

Tradesmen, Machinists, Engineers, etc. 
Day laborers, requiring no skill or references, are referred to other bureaus. 
All questions on the application blank must be answered in full, or it will 
receive no attention. 

After an application is filed, the applicant is informed by mail if a position 
opens which it seems likely that he can fill. 

Applications receive impartial attention. In the meantime applicants are 
referred to the following suggestions :— (over) 



If you want work, spend ten full hours every day looking for it. No one wants 
to employ a man who is too indifferent about getting work to l>e persistent in 
seeking it. 

Be courageous; expect to get work; look cheerful ; don't be troubled if forty- 
nine refuse you, the fiftieth may employ you. 

Ahvays ask to see the head man ; ask as though you wanted to see him on 
important business, for so it is. 

Keep clean and neat; no one will care to employ you if you look untidy. 

Do not associate entirely with men who are destitute, as it will drag you lower; 
but with men who are emi^loyed. 

Choose the society of Christians; attend church regularly Sundays; go to the 
evening church prayer meetings; come to our meetings. 

Read your Bible daily ; it is God's word to you; ask him to forgive your sins 
and lead you. 

For ho hath said: " All things work together for good to them that love God." 
'• Seek not ye what ye shall eat or v/hat ye shall drink. But rather seek ye the 
kingdom of God; and all these things shall be added unto you."— Rom.viii, 28; 
Luk.^ xii, eO. 31. 

SAMPLE No. 49. (Hx5iii.) 

See Chai». 27, B, 4. 


Please keep this on your desk. 

YOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION. 

Cor and Streets. 

This Association, through its Employment Bureau, is prepared to furnish, oa 
short notice, Confidential Clerks, Book-keepers, Correspondents, Salesmen, and 
Male Help of all kinds. 

The Bureau is not by any means a charitable or reform institution, where 
broken-down and dissipated men are helped into positions ; but it is conducted 
on business principles, refercjnces being secured regarding each appl xint and 
offered to the inspection of employers. 

SAMPLE No. 50. (8^x11 in.) 

See Chap. 27, B, /. 



Name in full? 

Residence, street and number ? 

Date of birth? Place of birth ? 

How long a resident of this city ? 

Residence of parents, if living? 

Married or single ? If married, how many children ? — 

"VNTiat education ? 

Religious denomination ? . 

If a communicant member, of what church ? TMiere ? . 

Do you use liquor as a beverage ? 

What regular trade, if any ? 

How long out of work ? 

Last salary, per month ? 

Why did you leave your last situation ? , 

Least amount now willing to accept ? 

Employment desired ? 

Two references as to character, names and addresses, 

All former employers, in their order. 

Names of 



1 Your 

Began j 
work. i 






Mo. I Year. 

SAMPLE No. 51. (8>ixiiin.) 

See Chap. 27, B, 4. 



From the 



TOUNG men's christian ASSOCIATION, 


Dear Sir, 

. has applied to this 

Bureau for assistance in his efforts to find employment. Please have the kind- 
ness to answer the questions eisked below, and give such other information as 
you can in relation to him. Desiring to act intelligently in his case, we ask 
your help. Yours very truly, 

Chairman Employment Committee. 

How long have you 
knoAvn him ? 

Is he honest and truth- 

Is he reliable and in 
every way worthy of 
trust ? 

Is he strictly temper- 
ate ? 

Hag he good business 
qualifications ? 

Please state strong and 
weak points m. his 
character ? 

How long was he in 
your employ, and 
why did he leave it ? 

General remarks ; 

SAMPLE No. 52. (3^x61^ in.) 
See Chap. 27, B, 4. 



Firm desiring help 

City address of firm 

Kind of help wanted 

When wanted 

Permanent or temporary work ^ 

Salary offered, $ 

Person sent •..'*.!,'."..*. '.!!'....'..*.]* i *.*.'.*. '. 

Remarks .*.. "*' 

SAMPLE No. 53. (3>ax5J^in.) 
See Chap. 27, B, 4. 



This introduces Mr .whom we send in answer to 

your application for a Please satisfy yourself as to his 

abiUty to do your work. References regarding him are open to your inspection 
at our office. Should other vacancies occur in your business, we hope to have 
an opportunity of filling them, and, at the same time, of assisting some worthy 
young men. Respectfully yours, 

Chairman Employment Committee. 

SAMPLE No. 54. (8^x11 in.) 

Sec Chap. 27, B, 4. 


Dear Sir : 

We referred to you Mr on 189 , in 

response to your application for Did he give satisfaction, and 

is he still in your employ ? We desire to conduct our Employment Bureau in the 
best interest of its patrons, and will appreciate your assistance if you will kindly 
answer this letter on this sheet of paper and add any suggestions that may occur 
to you. 

Respectfully yours, 

Chairman Employment Committee. 


SAMPLE No. 55. 

See Chap. 27, C, i. 

(Printed on the first page of the book showing deposits with the Association.) 

Any amount not less than five cents will be received at the rooms of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, on from . . a. m. to . • p. m. 

As the money so received accumulates to amounts of one dollar, or multiples 

of one dollar, it will be deposited in the Savings .Bank, in the 

name of the individual depositor. 

When the first deposit is made, the individual depositor must go to the bank 
and subscribe his name and residence upon the record books of the bank. All 
subsequent deposits may be made through the Association. 

The undeposited amount standing to the credit of any member, held by the 
Association, may be withdrawn by presenting this book, but amounts depos- 
ited in the savings bank can be withdrawn from it only by the individual depositor, 
on presentation of his bank-book. 

The books of deposit with the bank will be kept at the rooms of the Associa- 
tion, and may be obtained by applying for them during the hours appointed 
for receiving money. 

SAMPLE No. 56. 

See Chap. 27, D. 


Dear Doctor: 

In your professional work you may find young men, who need sympathy 
and help in sickness, such as we can render. 

Will you not keep the enclosed postal cards within your reach, and notify us 
when such cases present themselves, that we may do what we can for them ? 
Respectfully yoiu-s, 

Chairman Committee on Visitation of the Sick. 

Mr. Chairman : 

At No street, there is a young man sick, whose 

name is 

Would suggest to you No 

No. 1. — Make a friendly call. 

No. 2. — Provide night watchers. 

No. 3. — Provide nourishment. 

No, 4.— Provide spiritual help. 

, Physiciarx. 

SAMPLE No. 57. {.-)>2'x8>iin.) 

See Chap. 29, C. 



Met Mr 

At or on 

Travels for 

Located at, 

Resides at 

What line 



Church, , 

Conversed about, , 

Did he manifest any interest in Association work ? , 

Has he ever visited any of the Associations ? 

If a member of any Association, does he carry a C. T. ticket ? 

Any further particulars of the interview ? , 

Will you be able to follow up the acquaintance ? 

Advised general secretary at, of this interview- 
Reported by, 


SAMPLE No. 58. 

See Chap. 50, 21. 


1.— Appointment.— The Mvomen^s committee of the Young Men's 

Christian Association shall consist of not less than five, nor more than fifteen 
members, not more than two of whom shall be members of the same church. 
They shall be appointed in of each year by the president of the As- 
sociation, who shall also name the chairman of the committee. They shall serve 
until their successors are appointed. 

2.—Dicties.—The duties of the committee shall be to assist in carrying out the 
objects of the Association in ways suggested or approved by the board of 

S.— Officers.— At the first meeting of the committee after its appointment each 
year, there shall be chosen from its members by ballot a vice-chairman, secretary, 
and treasurer, whose duties shall be those usually performed by such officers, 
and who shall hold office until their successors are elected. 

The treasurer shall have temporary charge of money secured by the com- 
mittee and shall pay it to the treasurer of the Association, who shall expend it 
as suggested by the committee, after approval by the board of directors. 

4.— Sub-committees.— The chairman of the committee may appoint such sub- 
committees as may become necessary. 

5.— Co-operation.— The committee may from time to time enlist the aid of as 
many other ladies as they may deem necessary for the work to be done. 

Q.— Meetings.— The committee shall meet annually on and at such 

other times as they may be called together by the chaii-man. A majority of the 
members shall constitute a quorum. 

7.— Order of business. — The order of business at meetings of the committee 
shall be as follows : 

Devotional exercises. 
Reading of minutes of previous meeting. 
Reports of the chairman and treasurer. 
Reports of sub-committees. 
Unfinished business. 
Sliscellaneous business. 
8.— Reports.— The chairman shall transmit in writing a report of the work of 
the committee, with a statement of the condition of its funds, as often as the 
board of directors may request, and shall submit immediately after the first day 

of in each year a full report of the work of the committee for the 

preceding year, accompanied by the treasurer's statement of receipts and ex- 

d.—Conti'ol.— The work of the committee shall be subject to the supervision 
and approval of the board of directors, and no funds shall be soKcited by the 
committee or any of its members until the finance committee has approved such 
solicitation and the names of the persons to be solicited. 

10. — Amendments.— These rules may be amended by a two-thirds votes of the 
members of the committee present at any meeting, but no amendment shall take 
effect until approved by the board of directors. 


Active members, see membership.* 
Active membership test, 47-49, 72, 75, 

Advertising, 107, 140, 271. 
All-round men, 271, 306, 319, 332. 
Amendments, see constitution. 
American international committee, 

see international committee. 
American international work : 

Aid and supervision of conventions, 

Convention, international, 436, see 

Correspondence, 431, 

Day and week of prayer, see D. 

Endowment, 435. 

Extension day, 436. 

Extension fund. 435. 

Extension printed matter, 436. 

Field and work, 430. 431. 

Growth and organization, 428. 

Historical items, 36, 428, see H. 

Local finances aided, 432. 

Publications, 431. 

Public disasters, aid in, 433. 

Representation, see conventions. 

Supervision and extension, ^431. 

Systematic giving, 435. 

Trained employees and methods of 
training, 432. 

Year book, 432. 

American tract society, 267. 
Amusement room and amusements, 

165, 344. 
Anniversary, 75, 221. 

Annual budget, 198, samples Nos. 11, 

Annual business meeting, 75. 
Annual election, see elections. 
Annual report, 227. 
Annual subscriptions, 199. 
Application for membership— samples. 

Nos. 3, 4. 
Assistant secretary, 137. 
Associate members, see membership. 
Association address, indiscriminate 

use of the, 355. 
Association day, 222. 
Association home, the : 

Album of buildings, 182. 

Advantages of owning, 158. 

Architect and builder, 173. 

Arrangement, 162. 

Basement, 168. 

Building committee, 171. 

Building fund, preliminary, 183. 

Care of, 176. 

Canvass for a building, 184. 

Circular preliminary to building 
canvass, form of, 188. 

Construction, 168. 

Entrance, 163. 

Equipment, 174. 

Foundation, 168. 

General plan, 162. 

Hints and cautions about building, 

History of the building movement, 
61, 192. 

How to get a building— preparatory 
work, 181. 

* See the sub-title " active members '' under the general title membership 
in the index. References from a sub-title to the letters of the alphabet are to a 
similar general title— thus, under committees " executive, see E," refers to the 
general index title executive committee. When tlie page number indicates the 
begcinning of a section the reference is often to the whole section. All samples 
may be found in the appendix by consecutive numbers. 


Association home — continued. 

Individual gifts, 195. 

Large vs. smaller buildings, 172. 

Light and heat, 170, 175. 

List of rooms, 163. 

Location, 161. 

Order and cleanliness, 179. 

Permanent supervision, 176, 191. 

Pledge for building subscription, 
form of, sample No. 10. 

Repairs and safety, 170, 171, 177. 

fioof, 169. 

Securing a lot, 183. 

Stereopticon building views, 182. 

Walls, floors, and ceiling, 168, 169, 174. 
Association Monthly, 50. 
Association rooms in small towns, 167. 
Ajtpropriation book, 208, sample No. 

Athletics, 310, 326, see physical de- 
Attendance at association rooms— how 

counted, 221. 

Badges, 341, 409, 410, 443. 

Bathing— methods and facilities, 167, 

169, 310, 314, 315, 
Bequests, 183, 210. 215. 
Bible, study and use of the : 

Bible classes, 235, 334, 362, 368. 

Bible readings, 253. 

Class, the, 238. 

Evangelistic bible class, 250. 

Evangelistic meeting, 252. 

Helps, 233. 

Historical items, 60. 

Importance, 229, 235, 334. 

Individual study, 229. 

Methods, 230. 

Objects of study. 230. 

Personal work with the unconverted, 

Preparing the lesson, 240. 

Questioning, 242. 

Teacher, the, 238. 

Teaching the lesson, 241 . 

Time, place, etc., 229, 237. 

Topics, 239, 244, 258. 

Training class, 236, 243, 362, 368— 
graded system, 244. 
Bills, 74, 205, 208. 
Boarding house bureau, 348, samples 

Nos. 46, 47. 
Board of directors, see directors. 
Board of trustees, see trustees. 
Board room, 106. 
Book reception, 288. 
Books and reading, 152,279, 284, 291, 

363, see library and librarian. 
Bowling alley, 165, 313. 

Boys' department : 

Aims and benefits, 357. 

Age limits. 361. 

Boys' camp, 364. 

Department committee, 104, 359,3(51« 

Educational work, 363. 

Fees, 361. 

Games, 365. 

Historical items, 356. 

Library, 286, 363. 

Membership, 361. 

Methods, 361. 

Organization, 359, 

Physical work, 364. 

Religious work, 362. 

Rooms, 166,361. 

Social work, 364. 

Street boys, 358. 

Supervision, 361. 

Training class, 362. 
Branches : 

Action of international convention, 

College associations, 78. 

Control, 73, 104. 

Financial support, 79. 

General principles, 77. 

General secretary's relations, 78. 

Membership privileges, 79. 

Metropolitan system, 76. 

Necessity of, 76. 

Organization, plan of, 77. 
Building and buildings, see association 

Building movement, history of, 192. 
Buildings— how to get one, 181. 

Building subscription pledge, sample 

No. 10. 
Bulletin, 148, 225. 
Burial of strangers, 354. 
Business management, 198, samples 

Nos. 11-21. 
Business meetings, see meetings. 
Business office, 164. 
By-laws, 75, 80, sample No. 58. 

Canvass for funds, 109. 1S4. 201. 
Cash book, 207, samples Nos. 15, 16. 
Central international committee, 444. 

Chess and checker club rules, sample 

No. 45. 
Christian worker's record, sample No. 

Church committee, 103. 
Church, relations of association to the, 

16, 18, 61, 69, 70, 82, 92, 105,131. 255. 
Class rooms, 165. 
Coat i-oom, 166. 
Collections and disbursements, Oo, 100, 

204, 20'J. 
College work : 
Buildings, 369. 


College work— continued. 
Committees, 368. 
Constitution, 369. 
Foreign work, 57, 370. 
General facts, 366. 
Historical items. 53, 56, 369. 
Organization, 78. 369. 
Plan of work. 367. 
PuWications, 366. 
Relations to city associations, 367. 
Summer schools, 370. 
Vacation ticket, 367. 
Colored work, 54, 382. 
Commercial travelers, work among, 

55, 376, sample No. 57. 
Committee of management, 78. 
Committees : 
Appointed by president, 74, 88, 93. 
Boarding house. 348. 
Boys' department, 104, 359, 361. 
By-laws and rules, 93. 
Chairman. 93. 
Church committee, 103. 
College work. 368. 
Committee memo, book, 91. 
Committee tea. 92. 
Composed of active members, 92, 

Composition, 74, 92, 

96, 118. 
Debt, personal responsibility for, 95. 
Department committees, 97, 104. 
Diagram of committee plan, 99. 
Directors, relations to, 85, 95. 
Disbanded or reorganized by presi- 
dent, 74, 8?, 93. 
Educational department, 103, 290. 
[T Emploj'ment. 351. 
Executive, see E. 
Ex- officio members, 74. 
Expenditures, estimate of, 95. 
Finance, see F. 
General auditors, 97, 101. 
General remarks, 74, 90. 
General secretary to be consulted in 

their appointment, :88, 93. 
How to organize, 93. 
Importance, 90. 
Intervisitatiou, 94. 
Invitation. 257, 267, 380. 
Meetings. 94. 

Membership coram.ittee, 101, 108. 
Members— individual responsibility, 

Names and duties, 100. 
Permanent secretary and his duties, 

Physical department. 103, 339. 
Plan for city associations, 97. 
President and general secretary to 

be notified of meetings, 93. 
Reception committee, 103, 120. 163, 
292. 340, 380, samples Nos. 41-44. 
Relations of members to chairman, 

Relations of committees to general 

secretary. 95. 
Religious department, 102. 
Reports, 74, 75. 85. 94. 223. 
Selecting and enlisting workers, 01. 

Committees— continued. 

Social department, 103, 340. 

Solicitation of funds, 95. 

Special funds. 95. 208. 

Standing committees approved hj 
the board, 74. 

Statistics. 94. 

Sub-divisions. 93. 

Ways and means, see finance com- 

Which of the board and which of 
the association, 74. 
Committee tea, 92, 346. 
Comparative statistical report, 221, see 

sample No. 31. 
Constitution : 

Amendments, 75. 

College association, 369. 

Forms of, 71. 

General considerations, 67, 71. 

German association, 382. 

Railroad association, 372. 

State association, 394. 

Suggestive outline— local, 72. 
Conventions : 

Announcements, 415. 

Badges. 409. 410. 

Calling the convention, 406. 

Collections. 414. 

Committees— local. 408. 

Committees— of the convention, 4i2. 

Convention Sunday, 417. 

Corresponding members, 407, 411. 

Credentials and credential commit- 
tee. 407. 413. 

Delegates. 116. 414, 421. 426, 427, 

Devotional exercises, 405, 416. 

Entertainment, 408. 

Excui'sions. etc.. 411. 

Farewell meeting, 418. 

Finance. 398. 408. 

Financial session, 414. 

Local committees. 408." 

Music, 406, 410. 417. 

Newspaper reports, 407, 414. 

Officers, 411. 

Organization, 411. 

Parlor confei'ences, 404, 415. 

Preliminary circular, 406. 

Preparatory v%'ork — local, 407. 

Preparatory work— supervisory, 403. 

Press committee, 413. 

Printed matter, 408. 

Program, 404. 

Question drawer, 405. 

Reception. 409. 

Reports from associations, 414. 

Representation, 391, 437. 

Resolutions, 413. 

Rules of business. 411. 

Sessions, business and public, 411, 
413, 415. 

Social receptions, 410. 

Speakers, 405, 406, 415. 

Special conveniences provided, 409. 

Standing committees, 412. 

State committee. 403, 407, 409, -^11, 
412, 413, 414, 416. 

Time and place, 403, 410. 

Topics, 401, 415. 


Conventions— continued. 

Transportation, 403, 407. 

Ushers, 410, 417. 

Welcome exercises, 410. 
Contents, 7. 
Contributors, 72, 106. 
Correspondence room, 164. 
Correspondence with pastors about 

inquirers, sample No. 35. 
Corresponding members, 392, 393, 407, 
411, 421, 423-425, 429. 

County work and secretary, 426. 
Credentials, see conventions. 
Criminal class— largely young men, 17. 
Current finances, 198, samples ]Sos. 

Day and week of prayer : 

Benefits and methods, 264, 424, 439. 

Circulars. 439. 

Collections. 440. 

Historical items, 438. 
Deaf mutes, work for, 384. 
Debt, 69, 74, 187, 21G. 
Decoration day— improper observance, 

Delegates, see conventions. 
Department committee, 97-99, 102-104. 
Deposit ticket, 208, sample No. 19. 
Destitute young men, 354. 
Dewey's decimal classification, 148. 
Directors, board of : 

Choose officers of the association, 

Composition and construction, 73, 86. 

Duties of members, 83. 

Executive committee, relations of," 

Election, 73, 75. 

General secretary's relations to, 73, 

IJIeetings, 85. 

Order of business, 85. 

Paid employees secured and super- 
vised by, 73. 

Powers and duties, 73, 84. 

Qualifications of members, 81. 

Relations to general secretary, 86. 

Representation of denominations, 73, 

Term of office, 73, 86. 

Vacancies, 73. 

Why and what, 81. 

Working committees, relations to, 
85, 95. 
DiscipUne, 72, 275, 316. 
District committee, see district work. 
District work : 

Advertising, 421. 

Chairman of district committee, 419, 

District work — continued. 
Conferences — district. 420. 
Conferences— local, 422. 
Corresponding members, 421, 428. 
County work and secretary, 425. 
Delegates, 421. 
Delegation meetings. 4S5. 
District committee. 4J6. 
District committee meeting, 419. 
Districts, arrangement of, 419. 
Extending the work, 420. 
Finance, 421. 

Letters of introduction, 423. 
Order of business— district commit- 
tee meeting, 420. 
Organization, 418. 
Reports, 420. 

State committee, 419, 430, 423. 
State secretary, 419, 421. 
Statistics, 420. 
Topics, 421. 
Visitation, 422. 
Week of prayer, 424. 

Educational classes, 289, samples Nos. 

38, 39. 
Educational department, 273, samples 

Nos. 24, 38, 39. 
Educational work— divisions of, 108. 
Elberfeld declarations, 47. 
Elections : 
Annual, 75. 
Directors, 73, 75. 
International committee, 428. 
Members, 72, 105, sample No. 1. 
Officers. 73, 85. 
Tmstees, 212. 
Employees, see general secretaty, 

phj'sical director, etc. 
Employment bureau, 351, samples 

Nos. 48-54. 
Endowment, 191, 214, 287, 400, 435. 
Entertainments — cautions, 121, 200, 

345, 390. 
Evangelistic bible class, 250. 
Evangelistic meetings, the use of the 

bible in, 252. 
Evening pi-ayers, 203. 
Evening record, reception committee, 

sample No. 43. 
Examinations— educational class, 292. 
Examinations— physical, 304, sample 

No. 40. 
Exchange of membership, 113. 
Executive committee : 
Composed of department chairmen, 

etc., 98, 102. 
Duties and powers, 97, 102. 
In sLiiall towns, 74. 
Relations to board. 101. 
Relations to department and other 
committees, 102. 


Executive secretary, 74. SO, V2S. 

Exeter hall lectures, 269. 

Extension work, see systematic giving. 

Fees, annual membership, 72. Ill, 199, 

204, 207. 
Festivals, etc., as sources of income, 

Files— filing periodicals, 275, 276. 
Finance committee : 
Account books, 207, samples Nos. 9, 

15, 17, 18. 
Annual budget, 100. 198, samples 

Nos. 11. 12. 
Bills, 74, 205, 208. 

Collections and disbursements, rela- 
tion to 100, 205. 
Committee special funds, 95. 
Composed of members'of the board, 

Membership committee, relation to, 

Paid lectures, relation to, 101. 
Printing, publication, etc., relation 

to, 101. 
Real estate, relation to if no trustees, 

Report, 209. 
Samples, Nos. 9-19. 
Sub-committees, 99, 101. 
Treasurer an ex-officio member. 88. 
Treasury warrants, 205, 208, sample 

No. 14. 
Ways and means, is a committee on, 
'lOO, 201. 
Financial book-keeping, 206, samples 

Nos. 14-21. 
Financial registers, 207, samples Nos. 

9, 17. 
Firemen, etc., work for, 386. 
Foreign work of the American inter- 
national committee, 57, 370, 434. 

Games, 165, 344, 365, sample No. 45. 
General auditors, 97, 101, 209. 
General relief work, 355. 
General religious work, 59, 255. 
General secretaries' association— or- 
ganization of, 55. 
General secretary : 
Beginning work, 144. 
Branches, relations to, 78. 
Business community, relations to, 

127, 139. 
Business qualifications, 127. 
Call, accepting a, 143. 
Churches and pastors, relations to, 

Committees, relations to, 134. 
Conventions, etc., attendance at, 86, 

General secretary— continued. 

Conversation, 149. 

Correspondence, 145. 

Dress, 149. 

Economy, 150. 

Employees, relations to other, 136. 

Expenditures, plan of, 150. 
f Fellow secretaries, relations to, 141. 

Financial management, relations to, 

Growth necessary, 152. 

Gymnasium, relations to, 302. 

Health, 150. 

Historical items and statistics. 55, 

Housekeeping. 127. 

Leadership. 129. 

Manners, 126. 

Members, relations to, 138. 

Memorandum book, 147. 

Mental qualifications, 125. 

Office and work. 123. 

Officers and directors — relations, 73, 
86. 133. 

Outside business enterprises, 140. 

Permanency of office, 123. 

Physical qualifications,|125. 

Politics, 140. 

Press, relations to the, 140. 

Private office, 164. 

Recreation, vacation, 86, 151. 

Religious work, relations to, 139. 

Report to board. 134. 

Secretarialism. 135. 

Social qualifications. 125. 

Spiritual life and quahfications, 130, 

State and international work, rela- 
tions to, 141. 

Statistics, 148. 

System, 147. 
General work and the local associa- 
tion — mutual relations, 141, 395, 
399, 425, 432. 
German work, .52, 381. 
Graves printed index, 3.'i2. 
Gymnasium, see physical department. 


Hall, 166. 

Hersey membership record and in- 
dex, 112, sample No. 9. 
Historical items : 

Army work during the civil war, 40. 

Bible study, 60. 

Boys' work, 356. 

Brainerd, Cephas, 44, 59. 

Building movement, 192. 

Church, loyalty of the associatiou 
to the, 61. 

College work, 53, 56, 369. 

Colored work, 54. 

Confederation, 38, 41. 

Development of association work 
after the civil war, 41. 

Educational classes, 289. 

Emi:)loved officers. 55. 154. 


Historical items— continued. 
Employment bureau. 351. 
Foreign mission work, 57, 370. 
General secretaries association, 55, 

German work, 52, 381. 
Historical library, 58. 
Indian associations, 381. 
International committee— titles and 

organization, 38. 46, 428. 
International conventions : Albany, 

1866, 44, 47, 392: Boston, 1864, 43 ; 

Buffalo, 1854, 37, 392 ; Montreal, 

1856, 47 ; Philadelphia, 186.5, 43 ; 

1889, 57 ; Portland, 1869, 48. 
Introduction of association work into 

America, 36. 
Langdon, Wm. Chauncy, 36. 
Moody, D. L., 61, 370. 
Nasmith, David. 34. 
Origin of the present association 

movement, 26. 
Outgrowths of the associations 61. 
Paris conference and basis, 18, 29, 37, 

Periodicals and publications, 45, 50, 

Potter, Henry C, 42. 
Railroad work. 49. 51. 
Secular work, early introduction of, 

Shipton, Wm. Edwyn, 28. 
State and provincial work, begin- 
nings of the. 392. 
Stevens, Abel, 47. 
Test of active membership. 47. 
United States christian commission, 

40, 43, 
Wesley, John. 33. 
Williams, George, 26. 
Work for voung men previous to 

1844, SO. 
Work for young men ns. general 

work, 59. 
Historical library, 58, 144. 
Holidays, rooms should be open on, 

Home gymnastics, 318. 

Incidental expenses, 206. 

Income, 199. 

Incorporation, 68, 210, 

Indian associations, 381. 

Information and relief department, 

103, 348, samples Nos. 46-56. 
Inquirers, 245, 248, 261, 267, samples 

Nos. 34-36. 
Instructors, evening class, 292. 
Insurance. 217. 
International committee : 

Advisory members, 429. 

Composition, 428. 

Corresponding members, 429. 

Election, 428. 

International committee— continued. 
Finances, 435. 
Headquarters, 428. 
Historical items, 38, 46, 428. 
Legal status, 428. 
Meetings, 428. 
Publications, 58, 228, 431 . 
Secretaries, 434. 
Sub-committees, 428. 
Trustees, 429. 

International publications, 58, 228,431. 

International work, see American in- 
ternational work. 

Intervisitation, 94, 427. 

Invitation card, reception committee, 
342, sample No. 42. 

Invitation committee, 257, 267, 380. 

Janitor 128. 167. 179. 

Kitchen, 167. 

Ladies toilet room, 165. 

Lavatory, 105. 

Leases, 214, 217. 

Lecture room, 165. 

Lectures and talks, 295.1 

Letters of introduction, 146, 182, 423. 

Librai-y and librarian : 

Advertising, 288. 

Apartments, 165, 167, 280. 

Association publications, 148. 

Book-keeping, 280. 

Book reception, 288. 

Boys' department, 363. 

Librarian, qualifications, etc., 157, 

Reference and lending, 279. 

Selecting and buying books, 285. 

Usefulness, etc., 279. 

Ways and means, 287. 

What to read— aid in selecting, 152, 
279, 284, 291. 
Life members, 72, :05. 
Literary exercises, 75, 121. 
Literary societies, 79, 293, .363. 
Local association — relations to the 

general work, 395, 399, 425, 432. 
London association — references to. 29, 

36, 269. 
Lumbermen, work among, 385. 

Map of the association field, 398. 
Mechan ical and manufacturing classes, 

108, 277. 278, 285, 379. 


Meetings •. 

Annual, 75. 

Association — monthlj or quarterly, 
85, 118. 

Business, 75. 

Board of directors, 85. 

Board of trustees, 212. 

Canvassers, 109, 187. 

Committee, 94. 

Members, 118. 

Reception committee, 343. 

Religious, 255, sample No. 29. 

See conventions, district work, or- 

Membership : 

Active members : applications to be 
investigated, 72, 101, lft>— devel- 
opment, why and how, 114, 258— 
notice of election, sample No. 1— 
qualifications, privileges, and 
duties, 47-49, 72, 105, ^2, 333, 

Advertising privileges, 107. 

Age hmits, 106. 

Application blanks, 107, 109. samples 
Ncs. 3, 4. 

Associate members : large propor- 
tion in chief cities, 270— letter to 
referee, sample No. 2— qualifica- 
tions, 72, 106 — received by general 
secretary, 106— relations, 117. 

Average age, 106. 

Branches, privileges of members of, 

Classes, 72, 105— sub-division of, 72. 

Committee : composition and organ- 
ization, 108— qualifications and 
duties, 108, 109, 380— relations to 
finance committee, 101, 109, 204 
—report blank. 109, sample No. 
22— sub- committee on applica- 
tions, 101. 

Conditions vs. terms, 105. 

Contributor vs. member, 72, 106. 

Definite privileges, 110. 

Election, 72, 105, sample No. 1. 

Exchange of unexpired tickets, 113. 

Fee, 72, 111, 199, 204, 207. 

Fees due, letters about, sample No. 6. 

Forfeittu-e of ticket, 112. 

Hersey membership record and in- 
dex, 112. 113, sample No. 9. 

Life members, 72, 105. 

Members' meeting, 118. 

New members, 110. 115. 

Permanency, 109, 114. 

Privileges of branch members, 79. 

Records, 112. 

Register, samples Nos. 6, 9. 

Retention of members, 110. 

Report form for committee, sample 
No. 22. 

Samples, Nos. 1-9. 

Securing members, IOC, 2Zi. 

Sub-division of classes of, 72. 

Test of active membership, 47-49, 72. 
75, 105. 

Ticket, 112. sample No. 8— forfeiture 
of, 112. 

Visitor's ticket, 107, sample No. 5. 

Members' meeting, 118— program out- 
line, 121. 

Metropolitan organization, 76. 

Missionary meeting, 258, 264. 

Music, 175, 223, 257, 260, 262, 263, 344, 
347, 406, 410, 417, 418. 

Newspapers, local, 107, 140, 182, 183, 
186, 223, 227, 407, 414. 

Non-association territory, work in,423. 

Non-English-speaking men, work for, 

Notice of election to active member- 
ship, sample No. 1. 

Office cash book, 207, sample No. 15. 
Officers of the association : 

How chosen, 73, 85. 

In small towns, 74. 

Vacancies, 73. 
Order of business, 85, 420. 
Organization : 

District, 418. 

International. 428. 

Local— practical hints, G9— when and 
where, 66. 

State and provincial. 891. 
Outgrowths of the associations, 61. 
Outings, 327. 364. 
Outline of study, 156. 

Paid lecture courses, dangers of, 295. 

Paris basis, 18, 47. 

Parlor, 1C7, 343. 

Parlor conferences, 186, 224, 404, "415, 

sample No. 33. 
Pass books, 205. 
Pastors, 20. 67, 69, 82, 131, 132, 145,146, 

186, 189, 227, 266, 342, 416-418, 423- 

425, sample No. 35. 
Pentathlon, 330. 
Periodical liook, 277. 
Periodicals, indexes to, 286. 
Periodicals, selection and care of, 275, 

see reading room. 
Personal purity, 103, 258, 267, 298, 334. 
Personal work, 107, 121, 246. 257, 305, 

333. 378, samples Nos. 34, 35. 57, 

see inquirers. 
Petty cash expenditures, 206. 
Physical department : 
Aims. 297, 

All-round men, 271, 306, 319, a32. 
Approach to gymnasium, 312. 


Social department — continued. 

Statistics, 342. 

Straugeis'' reception, 346. 

Usliers, 103. 
Soldiers and sailors, work among, 266, 

Soliciting funds— principles and meth- 
ods, 74, 79, 95, 201, 223, 225. 
Speakers and speaking, 222, 259, 405. 
Special charters, 210. 
Special classes, work for, 366. 
Special evangelistic meetings, 265. 
Standing committees, 74, 90. 
State and international reports, 228, 

State and provincial work : 391. 

Constitution for state association, 

Delegates, see conventions. 

District work, 418. 

Endowment fund, 400. 

Finance, 398, 408, 421, 423. 

Growth and organization, 391. 

Local associations and the general 
work, 425. 

Map of association field. 398. 

Records and statistics, 396, 397. 

Reports— state and provincial, 396. 

Representation, see conventions. 

Standing sub-committees, 397. 

State association, 394. 

State committee, 395. 

State convention, 403. 

State ccuvention program, 404. 

State secretary, 400. 

Work in non-association territoiy, 
State association, 394. 
State committee, 395. 
State convention, see conventions. 
State secretary, 400. 
Statistical desk pad, 220, sample No. 30- 
Statistical records, 219, samples Nos. 

Store room, 166. 
Student summer schools, 370. 
Sub-organizations, 79. 
Subscriptions, cards and books, 184, 

199-204, sample No. 13. 
Suburban work, 146, 425. 
Sunday-opening and use of rooms, 275. 
Sustaining membership, 200. 
Swimming bath, 165, 315. 
Systematic giving, 199, 435. 

Taxes, 216. 

Temperance work, 103, 258, 264. 
Test of active membership, 47-49, 72> 
75, 105. 

Tickets, membership, 112, sample No. 8. 

Toilet room, 165. 

Topics for bible and training class 

study, 239, 244, 250. 
Topics for religious meetings, 258. 
Training of employees, 154. 
Training classes, 60, 116, 236, 248, 362, 

Training schools, 156. 
Tramps and loungers, 274. 
Treasurer : 
All funds to pass through his hands, 

Cash book, 207, sample No. 16. 
Ex-ofiflcio member of finance com- 
mittee, 88. 
Pay bills only upon approval, 74, 88, 

Qualifications and duties, 88. 
Report, 88, 209, samples Nos. 20, 21. 
Treasury warrant, 205, 208, sample No. 

Trustees, 74, 191, 308, 211. 


Unexpired memberships, exchange of, 

U. S. christian commission, 40, 43. 
University extension, 291. 
Ushers, 103, 257, 410, 417. 

Vacancies, 73. 

Ventilation, 170, 179, 256, 262, 274, 311, 

Visiting the sick, 353, sample No. 66. 
Visitors' register, 343. 
Visitor's ticket, 107, sample No. 5. 


Watchman, the, see Young Men's Era. 

Ways and means, see finance commit- 

Week of prayer, see day and week of 

Wishard, L. D., tour of, 370, 447. 

Women's committee rules, sample No- 

Women's work for young men. 122, 128, 
187, 346, 347, 387, 410, 417. 

Workers' record, sample No. 34. 


Workers' training class, see training 

Work in non-association territory, 423 
Work for boys, see boys' department. ' 
World's conferences and committee : 

Badge, 443. 

Buildings, exhibit of— Paris, 1889, 446. 

Central international committee, 444. 

Conferences, 442— Berlin, 1884, 445— 
Geneva, 1878, 443— London, 1881, 
444— Paris, 1885, 442— Stockholm, 
1888, 446. 

Cook, Jean Paul, 441. 

General secretary of central inter- 
national committee, 444. 

Geneva resolutions, 443. 

Headquarters, 443. 

Historical items, 441. 

International information agency, 

Missionary correspondence. 446. 

Missionary tour of L. D. Wishard, 

Rules and by-laws, proposed codifl- 
•ation of, 446, 

Year book, 432. 

Young men's christian association : 
A definite work— for and by yotm? 

men, 16, 255. 
Benefits— how obtain record of, 222, 

sample No. 32. 
Distinctively religious, 17. 
Historical items, see H. 
Interdenominational, why, 15. 
Means employed in cities, summary 

of, 22. 
Means employed in small towns, 

summary of, 24. . 
Relation to the church, 18, 61, see 

church, relations, etc. 
Why needed, 15. 
Young Men's Era, 132, 148, 225, 328. 
Young men's meeting, 255. 
Young men's meeting — circular to 

committee, sample No. 37. 
Yoke fellows, 103. 

Young converts' record, sample No, 36. 
Young men— facts and statistics, 14, 17, 

Princeton Theological Seminanf Librari^ 

1 1012 01234 4539 

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