Skip to main content

Full text of "A hand-book of Latin synonymes"

See other formats


LATIN SYNONYMES 

S HUMWAY 



o 
o 



7 
6 

4j 



f / 



HAND-BOOK 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



MEISSNER'S "KURZGEFASSTE LATEINISCHE 
SYNONYMIK." 



EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, PH.D., 

PBOFESSOE OF THE LATIN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, RUTGERS COLLEGE. 



REVISED EDITION. 



BOSTON, U.S.A. 
GINN & COMPANY, PUBLISHERS 

1898 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1884, by 

EDGAR 8. 8HUMWAY, 
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



J. 8. CUSHING & Co., PRINTERS, 115 HIGH STREET, BOSTON. 



PEEFATORT NOTE, 



THI work was begun with the design of merely translating Meissner's 
" Kurzgefasste Lateinische Synonymik" for serial publication in the journal 
" Latir>e " ; but it was found that, with the revision and additions neces- 
sary, more space was required than could well be devoted to it in that 
journal A hand-book was therefore decided upon which might serve not 
as an exhaustive discussion of synonymes, but rather as a terse compendium 
whose sections should be germs to be more fully developed by the student 
If the teacher but inspire the pupil with the spirit of exploration, placing 
finger-posts at doubtful places only, he has done far more to educate that 
pupil than if he place before him prolix definitions exhausting every 
shade of meaning, and so deprive the student of that zest and satisfac- 
tion which come from personal discovery. To encourage such explora- 
tions, wide margins have been left to be utilized in recording additions. 

Grateful acknowledgement of valuable assistance is here due to Miss 
Caroline P. Townsend and Mr. Samuel M. Otto, and especially to Mr. 
John Tetlow, who has kindly examined the proof-sheets and given very 
helpful suggestions. 

EDGAR S. SHUMWAY. 

RUTGERS COLLEGE, September, 1884. 



It is hoped that the changes made in this edition will add to the book- 
let's usefulness. I am indebted for suggestions to Dr. Charlton T. Lewis. 

November, 1897. 



EXPLANATORY NOTE. 

The references throughout are not to pages, but sections. In the Latin 
Index figures in bold-face type indicate those sections in which the 
word is explained. A list of easier groups for beginners is suggested by 
stars. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



Abandon. 



2. 

Acknowledge. 



*a 

Admire. 



4. 

African. 



*5. 
Afterwards. 



relinquere, in general; (See 153.) 

deserere (de-serere, lit. disconnect or separate 
from), leave in the lurch, exercitum, amicum 
(partic. perf. pass, destitutus or derelictus, while 
desertus is often adj. = desert). 

fateri, to speak out something that has been con- 
cealed ; 

confiteri, to confess something, culpam ; 

profiteri, to announce clearly, in plain terms, without 
fear, philosophiam or se philosophum (esse). Ita 
libenter confitetur, ut non solum fateri, sed etiam 
prqfiteri videatur ; 

prae se ferre, to keep in view. (See 67.) 

mirari, to deem anything remarkable (mirum) , to be 

surprised at, but also to admire ; 
admirari, to admire something as great or grand. 

Afer (subst.), born in Africa, P. Terentius Afer; 

Africus (adj.), belonging to Africa, ventus Africus ; 

Africanus, a Roman who stands in some outward 
relation to Africa, Scipio Africanus, legiones 
Africanae. Carefully distinguish Asianus Asi- 
aticus (Scipio Asiaticus) ; Gallus Gallicus 
Gallicanus ; Hispanus Hispanicus Hispanien- 
sis ; Siculus Siciliensis. 



posthac (opp. nunc), hereafter or in future, the pres- 
ent of the speaker being taken as the starting-point ; 

postea (opp. antea) , of something happening since a 
past occurrence. 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



5 



6. 

Again. 



*7. 

Age. 



*8. 

Agreeable. 



9. 

All. 



10. 

Almost. 



rursus, rursum (re-vorsus [verto], lit. backwards), 

indicates repetition ; 
itentm, for the second time ; 
denuo (de-novo), anew; 
de integro, afresh. 

aetas, period of life ; 

senectus, of an old man. (He has been successively : 
infans, puer, adulescens, iuvenis, graudior natu 
or senior, senex. Adult, aetas constaus, media, 
firmata, corroborata, not a. virilis.) 

iucundus( hypothetical form iuvicundus, fromiuvare), 
causing joy, iucunda narratio, an agreeable, inter- 
esting story ; 

gratus, welcome. Medicina aegrotis grata, non 
iucunda. 

totus, in opp. to separate parts; 

universus (nnus- verto, lit. turned into one) , the parts 

brought into unity (opp. singuli) ; universum, the 

universe ; 
cunctus (through coniunctus), united (opp. disper- 

sus) ; 

omnis, opp. nemo ; 
integer [in-tango], lit. untouched, still uninjured, still 

whole. 

fere (ferme), about so, (limiting,) esp. with expres- 
sions of number and time, = about, omnes fere ; 
also equals almost always (plerumque), ut fere 
fit; 

paene and prope, if it falls only a little short of com- 
pleteness, paene perii. 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



Ambitious 
Canvass. 



*12. 

Animal. 



13. 

Anyhow. 
At least. 



*14. 

Arms. 

*15. 

Army. 



16. 

Ask. Bequest. 



ambitio (ambire) , orig. the going about of candidates 

canvassing for an office, legitimate ; 
ambitus, illegal canvass. 

animal, animans, every living thing, therefore also 

man; (See 113, 141.) 

bestia, the beast as contrasted with man ; (See 109.) 
belua, the large, unwieldy beast ; 
fera, the wild beast. 

saltern (old ace. [salvus, salus] , lit. saved ; cf. " save " 
= except) , descending from higher to lower ; 

qiiiclem, limiting and emphasizing the word which it 
follows enclitically ; 

certe, assuring, ( ki or at least " = aut). (See 34.) 

anna, including offensive and defensive ; 
tela, offensive only. 

exercitus (exerceo) , the arm}- as a trained body ; 

agmen (ago), on the march ; agmen primum, the van ; 
a. extremum or novissimum, the rear; 

acies (a sharp line), the army in line of battle ; 

copiae (through coopia, from com and ops, lit. abun- 
dance of aids), the army in the hand of the man- 
aging commander, troops, magnae, parvae (as 
individuals = milites). 

rogare (perhaps from the same root as ope'yw, reach 

for, yearn for) , to request ; 
orare, stronger (os) , lit. speak, to request in a formal 

way, to present one's request, rogo te atque etiam 

oro; (See 98, 155.) 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



17. 

Assembly. 



*18. 

Author. 

19. 

Bear. 



obsecrare (ob-sacro), to adjure one by everything 

that is holy to him ; 
implorare (in-ploro), to beseech one (with tears) 

when in need, raisericordiam, esp. deos ; 
supplicare (sub-plico), lit. bending the knee, hence 

meekly beseeching (alicui pro aliquo) ; 
precari (prex), beseechingly to call upon one, to 

pray, deos or aliquid a deis ; 
petere (of the same root as impetus, lit. to grasp 

at) , to seek to attain something, whether by request 

or demand. 

concilium populi, in gen. a meeting of the people ; 

conventus (con-veuio), coitus (con-eo), voluntary 
assembly of the people ; 

contio (through conventio), a deliberative assem- 
bly to hear the statement of a magistrate ; 

comitia, orum, an assembly of the whole Roman 
people which takes conclusive action, whether it 
be for the purpose of forming laws, choosing offi- 
cers, or judging about capital crimes. 

scriptor, writer; 
auctor, voucher. 

ferre, a (esp. a rather light) load ; 

portare, to carry a rather heavy burden ; 

sustinere, to hold on high, upright, the burden which 

presses down ; 
gerere, on one's self, as belonging to the person ; 

vestem ; 

vehere, to move something on (cf. vehi curru, equo) ; 
tolerare, with subjective reference to the state of 

mind of the person bearing; (See 142.) 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



20. 

Beautiful. 



21. 

Because of. 



22. 

Become. 



23. 

Before. 



pati denotes an intellectual permission, no opposi- 
tion being made, like to let happen, also patiently 
to endure, e.g. paupertatem ; 

permittere, to grant what one has a full right to dis- 
pose of; 

sinere, not to hinder, to leave free. 

pulcher, in gen. ; 

formosus, of excellent figure (see forma) ; 

venustus (Venus) , lovely, attractive ; 

amoenus, of beauty of nature, loca amoena ; 

bellus (through benulus, for bonulus ; cf . the Fr. 
beau, belle), the Fr. joli, employed more in col- 
loquial language. 

propter indicates the objective, 

ob, the subjective reason (which exists in one's 
thought) ; 

causa, the purpose (usually following its genitive) ; 

per, either the consent or the hindrance, especially 
with licet and posse ; e.g. per me licet, so far as 
I am concerned ; per aetatem arma ferre non posse, 
to be unable to bear arms on account of his age; 

prae, in negative clauses only, giving the hindrance, 
prae lacrimis loqui nou posse. 

fieri, in general ; 

evadere, with the accessory notion of trouble ; 

exsistere, to step forth. 

coram (com-os, lit. in the face), used of casual; 

apud, of official presence. So distinguish between 
coram populo and apud populum dicere ; (to dis- 
tinguish one's self above all others, praeter 
ceteros florere, not prae ceteris = in comparison 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



24. 

Begin. 



25. 

Beginning. 



26. 

Believe. 
Think. 



*27. 

Besiege 
(assault). 



*28. 

Beyond. 



with the others ; to deliver a speech in one's pres- 
ence, apud aliquem, not ante ; to appear before 
the court, in indicium venire, in iudicio adesse). 

incipere (perf. coepi, opp. desinere), inceptum bel- 

lum deponere ; 

inchoare (opp. absolvere),opus inchoatum absolvere ; 
ordiri, exordiri, e.g. sermonem (opp. to continue) ; 
coepisse, c. inf., especially to begin a transaction. 

Note : lapides iaci coepti sunt. 



initium (inire), starting-point, entrance; 
principium, beginning as foundation, therefore prin- 

cipia rerum, elements, material ; 
exordium (exordior) , especially beginning of a speech. 

credere, from conviction ; 

putare, result of reflection ; sentire, of feeling ; 
opinari, to fancy, suppose ; 

existimare (ex-aestimo), to think, after logical con- 
sideration ; 

iudicare (index), to judge; so arbitrari; 
censere, of official opinions ; [sideration. 

ratus (partic. from reor), after a prearranged con- 

obsidere (ob-sedeo, lit. to sit before something). 

through circumvallation ; 

oppugnare (ob) , to tiy to take by assault or storm ; 
expugnare (ex) , to succeed in taking. 

trans flumen, beyond the river (having crossed); 

ultra flumen, beyond the river (without such impli- 
cation). So are distinguished cis and citra, on 
this side. 



10 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



Black. 



30. 

Blame. 



Blood. 



32. 

Booty. 



33. 

Both. 



niger (opp. candidus), lustrous black, entirely, thor- 
oughly black ; pice nigrior, " pitch black" ; fig. of 
bad men, hie niger est, huiic tu, Romane, caveto ; 

ater (opp. albus), dead black, dark, alba et atra 
discernere non posse ; applied meaning, dies ater 
(bringing evil). 

reprehendere (lit. to hold back or draw back), for 

the purpose of improving ; 
vituperare, stronger (in place of vitiperare, from 

vitio purare [cf. vitio dare, vertere], lit. to make 

faulty), to censure with reproach and rebuke 

(opp. laudare) ; 
increpare, loudly to upbraid ; 
obiurgare, to scold. 

sangnis, the blood circulating in the body ; 

cruor (from root CRU, whence also crudus and 

crudelis), the blood as flowing from a wound. 

Hence bloody war = bellum cruentum. 

praeda, in general (praedarn ferre et agere) ; 

manubiae (manus) , booty, lit. ' booty gained by the 
hands.' 

spolia, orum, the booty which has been taken 
away from the conquered enemy, especially 
arms ; spolia opima, the arms which have been 
taken away by the leader from the leader of the 
enemy. 

ambo, both together ; 

uterque, each of two by himself ; (in app. with two 
names, not to be expressed, e.g. Demosthenes et 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



11 



34. 

Certainly. 
In truth. 



*35. 

Children. 



36. 

Choose. 



*37. 

City. 

38. 

Clothing. 



Cicero, summi oratores not duo summi, etc. ; et 
honor et vita, both honor and life) . 

certo scio (objectively), I know it to be certain 
(mea notitia rei certa est) ; 

certe scio (subjectively) , assuredly I know it (certum 
est me scire) (certo only with scio, certe with all 
verbs) ; 

re vera, only used in opp. to appearance (specie) ; 

profecto, sane, vero, ne (nae) , affirming, the last at 
the beginning of the sentence, and always before 
a pers. pron. (for the third person, ille) ; and truly, 
et profecto, et sane, or et with verb following im- 
mediately. (See 13.) 

pueri, with regard to the age. Hence disciplina 

puerilis or pucrorum, the training of children ; 
liberi (sing, filius, filia), relation to the parents. 

deligere, in general ; 

eligere (e-legere, to read out of), to choose out 

from several ; 

creare, only of the choice of officials ; 
cooptare (publicists' term), to elect to an office ; 

office; 
designare, to designate, esp. to elect or appoint to 

a public office (consul designates). 

urbs, a large city, especially Rome as chief city ; 
oppidum, a small city or a town. (See 180.) 

vestis (only in the sing.), collectively, clothing; 

vestitus, suit of clothes ; 

vestimentum, garment. Note : vestem mutare,to put 



12 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



Command. 



40. 

Complaint. 



41. 

Consider. 



*42. 

Corpse. 

*43. 

Correct. 



on mourning (opp. ad vestitum suum redire), but 
vestimenta mutare, to change one's clothes. 

inhere, in general ; 

imperare, with the authority of a higher position ; 
edicere, to publish an ordinance, of magistrates ; 
mandare (manus-do) , to commit to one's charge ; 
praecipere, to enjoin by right of authority, as a 
teacher. (See 48.) 

questus, in general ; 

querimonia (mind expresses a claim to relief) ; 

querela (feelings express distress). 



contemplari (com-templum, lit. to draw within one's 
horizon), with the mind; 

considerare, lit. to concentrate the glance upon one 
point, sharpl}" to examine with the intellect, care- 
fully to reflect upon ; 

intueri, to look at something sharply, to contem- 
plate ; 

spectare, adspicere, to glance at ; (See 166.) 

speculari, to spy upon. 

cadaver (cadere) , which has alread}* begun to decay ; 
corpus, otherwise (mortuum, homines mortui). 

corrigere (com-regere) , to make right what is defec- 
tive, e.g. mores; (to correct some one, corrigere 
mores alicuius, not corrigere aliquem) ; 

emendare (e-mendum) , weaker, to free from single 
defects. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



13 



44. 

Country (adj.). 



45. 

Cultured. 



46. 

Damage. 



*47. 

Death. 



nisticus, as opposed to city ; vita rustica (opp. 

urbana) country life, i.e. life of those who are 

engaged in agriculture ; then boorish, clownish ; 

less commonly, simply plain ; (See 102.) 
rusticanus, standing in more remote relation to the 

countr}' ; vita rusticana, country life, as merely 

stay in the country ; vir rusticanus, whoever has 

grown up in the country ; 
agrestis. orig. growing wild in the fields (in agris), 

then rough, uncultured. 

eruditus (e-rudis, lit. brought out of condition of 

roughness) , spiritually and morally cultured ; 
doctus. by instruction, esp. one trained in philosophy ; 
litteratus, of literan- culture. 

damnum. damage for which one's self is blamable, 
loss esp. in goods ; 

detrimentum (de-terere), damage occasioned b}' 
another ; 

fraus, damage brought about b} - treachery ; 

iactura (iacere), (lit. throwing overboard, then) 
voluntary giving up of something valuable to 
prevent damage ; or to obtain greater advantage ; 

calamitas (from calamus, straw, lit. damage to the 
crop, whether through blight [robigo] or by hail), 
misfortune as well of individuals as of the State ; 
(damnum facere, to suffer damage, to suffer loss ; 
iaduram facere, to suffer misfortune ; calamttatem 
accipere ; not pati, which = to submit to) . 



mors, natural death ; 
nex, violent death. 



(See 120.) 



14 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



48. 

Decree. 



49. 

Deed. Evil deed. 



50. 

Deep. 



51. 

Deprive. 



senatus consultum, decree of the senate which has 

been sanctioned by the consent of the tribuni 

plebis ; 
senatus auctoritas, decree of the senate in general, 

or simply the senate's judgment without consent 

of the tribunes ; 
edictum (see command, 39), proclamation of the 

magistrates ; 

decretum, decision of any political or judicial body ; 
scitum, of the plebs (cf. plebiscitum). 

res, thing, deed, (res gestae), exploit (esp. battle) ; 
factum, in general, thing done (a common mistake 

is to use factum for res) ; 
consilia et facta, plans and execution ; 
facinus, every weighty deed, gen. in bad sense; 
maleficium, evil deed ; 
scelus, crime ; 
flagitium (flagitare, root FLAG) , disgraceful, evil deed 

done in the heat of passion, 
nefas (see fas), crime against the gods. 

profundus (pro-fundus), lit. downward into the 
ground, bottomless, mare profundum; 

altus (alere), high or deep, especially when the 
height or depth is given in numbers, fossa tres 
pedes alta. (Deep peace, summa pax; deep 
night, multa nox; deep learning, subtilis, exqui- 
slta doctrina, not profundus, which is to be used 
only of space.) 

privare (privus), in general, lit. = to make separate 
[cf. privilegium = enactment for a single person, 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



15 



52. 

Despise. 



53. 

Destruction. 



54. 

Different. 



and privignus, through privus + root GEN, lit. of 

a separate stem = step-son] ; 
spoliare, lit. to take away the spoilt^ fig. to take away 

a source of honor or protection, e.g. d/gnitate; 
orbare (orbus) , lit. = to deprive of children or parents, 

in general, to take away the dearest thing ; 
exuere, to pull off, to put off, pharetram umero, 

ensem vagina. 

contemnere, to consider something as no great thing, 

e.g. pericula, mortem; 
spernere (opp. concupiscere) , to scorn something, 

to consider something not worth}- to be desired, 

e.g. voluptates; 
despicere (lit. to look down from above, opp. suspi- 

cere) , to look down upon something of little value, 

vulgi opiniones ; 

aspernari (opp. appetere) , not to care for a thing ; 
recusare, a decided declaration of unwillingness ; 
fastidire, to feel disgust, to shrink from anything 

unpleasant to the taste, smell, etc. ; 
neglegere (opp. to curare), not to care, be indifferent 

to. (See 1.) 

pernicies, in general ; 

pestis, like pernicies, but may mean the person who 

brings destruction ; 
pestUentia, the pestilence, plague. 

diversus (dis-vertere, lit. turned away from each 
other) , opposed ; diversi abierunt, they went away 
in opposite directions ; 

varius, manifold, variegated, flores, colores. 



16 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



55. 

Discuss. 



56. 

Doubt. 



Earth. 



58. 

Educate. 



disserere (dis-serere, lit. fasten at intervals), to 
develop a chain of thought (of orators and 
philosophers) ; 

disputare (dis-putare, lit. to reckon apart), with 
grounds for and against. (Substantive for both 
verbs is disputatio, not dissertatio, which is post- 
classic.) (See 177, 95.) 

disceptare (lit. to seize hold of and separate), to 
dispute. (See 41.) 

non (hand) dubium est quin = there is no doubt that ; 
sine dubio, beyond all doubt, not sine nllo dubio ; 
on the other hand, sine ulla dubitatione, subjective, 
without any hesitation. (See 34, 13.) 

terra, as matter and element (orbis terrarum, the 
whole earth, lit. circle of lands) ; (See 102.) 

tellus, as the globe (poet.; once in prose, Somn. Scip.) . 

humus, the ground, as the low (humilis) portion of 
the visible world, humi iacere; 

solum, the firm ground, solo aequare, to level with 
the ground. 

educere, to draw out, to educate ; 

educare, to train spiritually and morally, bene, ho- 

neste, liberaliter educare; (See 63.) 
erudire (e-rudis) , lit. to bring out of the condition of 

roughness, to cultivate, artibus et Utteris aliqnem; 
instituere (in-statuere, lit. place into), to instruct, 

aliquem ad dicendum; 
instruere, to furnish with information ; 
informare (in-forma, lit. to give shape to) , to mould ; 
conformare, of one who had previously received some 

instruction. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



17 



59. 

Eloquent. 



Else. 



Empty. 



Enemy. 

63. 

Enjoy. 



'64. 

Entrance. Door. 
Gate. 



eloquens (e-loqui) , speaking well, of a perfect orator ; 
disertus (disserere), speaking clearly and precisely; 

Autonius . . . disertos ait se vidisse multos, elo- 

quentem omnino neminem ; 
loquax (loquor) , chatty ; 
dicax (dico) , witty ; 

facundus (fari), of ready speech (Sail., Liv.). 
copiosus, esp. of things eloquent, e.g. oratio copiosa. 

alibi (= alio loco), else where ; 

alias = at another time, alio tempore ; (See 186.) 

aliter, another way ; 

ceteris rebus (other cases but not ceterum), besides. 

vacuus, in general ; 

inanis, in censure, about that which ought to be full, 
vas inane, fig. inania verba, inanes cupiditates. 

hostis, a national enemy ; 
inimicus, a personal enemy. 

fmi, used only of actual enjoyment, esp. voluptati- 

bus, otio frui ; 
disciplina alicuius uti, magistro aliquo uti = to 

enjoy one's instruction ; 
liberaliter, ingenue, bene educari = to enjoy a good 

education. (See 58.) 

ostium (os), any entrance to enclosed space ; 

ianua (ianus), street-door of a house ; 

foris (usually fores in pi. since the doors of the an- 
cients were generally folding doors), door of an 
ordinary house ; 

valvae, folding doors in temples and fine buildings ; 

porta, gate of a city. 



18 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



65. 

Especially. 



66. 

Experience. 



67. 

Explain. 



Fail. 



maxime, in grade (ef. magis, 117) ; 

potissimum, enclitically after pronouns. 

praecipue (prae-capio) , taken by preference ; 

imprimis (through in-primis) , what one has in com- 
mon with the first, i.e. with a few; 

praesertim (joined with cum and si in short clauses), 
especially ; 

nominatim (nomen), by name, i.e. with the mention 
of the name, therefore without comparison. 

experiri, by effort, attention, or deed, multa acerba 
expertus est it was his fortune to have many 
bitter experiences. 

comperire, ascertain by report. (See 73.) 

explicare, exponere, explanare (planus), to make 
clear ; 

dicere, to sa} - plainly ; 

profiteri, to announce plainly; (See 2.) 

declarare, by deed or example to make clear. To 
declare one's opinion, dicere not declarare; to 
declare war, bellum indicere, denunciare not 
declarare ; 

interpretari (iuterpres), to expound, translate, inter- 
pret, as monstra, fulgura, somnia. 

abesse (opp. adesse),in general of that which is not 

there ; 
deesse and deficere, of necessities, the first of abiding, 

the second of beginning = to begin to fail, soZ, 

pecunia deficit. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



19 



*69. 

Famous. 



70. 

Favor. 



71. 

Fear (to fear;. 



72. 

Finally. 



clams (lit. bright gleaming) , especially of statesmen ; 
celeber, much visited, portus, oraculum, celebrated ; 
nobilis (from root GEN), famed, of artists, etc. 
(See 124.) 

favor, in general ; 

aura (orig. the air in gentle motion) , favor as easy 

to win, easy to forfeit, aura popularis, unreliable 

favor of the crowd ; 
studium, from one of lower rank toward one of a 

higher, temporary, quiet ; 
gratia (opp. invidia), objectively, favor, influence. 

timor, fear, fright, on account of faint-heartedness 

or cowardice ; 
metus, anxiety, on account of one's foresight and 

prudence (without implication of censure) ; 
verecundia, awe, on account of reverence ; 
just so timere, metuere, vereri. Stronger grades of 

fear are : 

pavor, a being disheartened ; 
trepidatio (lit. confused running hither and thither) , 

fear which expresses itself in external haste and 

restlessness ; 

horror, the shuddering fear ; 
formido, shuddering terror (formidiues, monsters, 

frightful objects). 

postremo (ad extremum, ad ultimum), of that which 
is last; (See 103.) 

tandem, of that which happens after long expec- 
tation, frequently also in pressing questions = 
then or in the world ; 



20 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



73. 

Find. 



74. 

Fitted. 



75. 

Flatter. 



76. 

Follow. 



demum, of that which happens later than it should, or 

which could have happened before ; 
denique, at the end of an enumeration : primum, 

deinde, turn, denique (postremum) . Therefore 

turn demum = then at length, turn denique = then 

finally. 

invenire (in- venire, lit. to come upon something), 

generally casual ; (See 66, 127.) 
reperire (re-pario, lit. to make again) , by seeking ; 
idiomatic : to find approval = probari ; to find belief 

= fidem habere; to find one's self satisfied with. 

= acquiescere in aliqua re et al., not invenire. 

idoneus, by nature useful for some purpose, locus 

idoneus ad aciem instruendam ; 
aptus (from obs. apere = to adapt [cf. apiscor, adi- 

piscor]), lit. adapted, adapted by art or practice, 

calcei apti ad pedem, aptus ad dicendum. skilled 

in speech; (See 148.) 
opportunus, seasonable, esp. of time ; 
commodus, convenient ; 
utilis, suitable. 

blandiri alicui, by caresses or agreeable conduct ; 
assentari (assentior) alicui, to say yes to some one ; 
adulari (orig. perhaps of dogs, to wag the tail at) 
aliquem, cringingly to flatter. 

sequi, in general (sequitur ut = it follows that) ; 
succedere alicui, or in locum alicuius, in order, in 
rank or time, to be the successor of any one. 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



21 



77. 

Foreign. 



*78. 

Foremost (adj.). 



79. 

Form. 



80. 

Fortunate. 



Notice also the signification of the following com- 
pounds of sequi : assequi, consequi, to overtake ; 
insequi, to pursue ; persequi, ( 1 ) to follow con- 
stantly, (2) to persecute ; obsequi, c. dat. to agree 
with ; prosequi, to accompany for the sake of hon- 
oring ; subsequi, to follow immediately. 

externus, entirely local (opp. intestinus), mores ex- 

terni; 
exteri (the nom. sing, not to be used), political, 

exterae gentes- (opp. domesticus) ; 
peregrinus, temporarily in a foreign land (peregre) ; 
alienus (opp. suns), belonging to another (alius), 

aes alienum (only in sing.) = debts. 

primus (prior, of two), in time and order; 

princeps (primus-capio), (1) the foremost, whose 
example others follow, princeps in proclaim ibat ; 
(2) in rank and authority the head, e.g. coniu ra- 
tion! s ; principes, leading citizens. 

figura, in general (fingo) ; 

forma, often in aesthetic connection, therefore often 

= beaut)- (cf. formosus. Geometricae formae 

[Cic. Rep. 1, 17] not figurae) ; 
species (from root SPEC), opp. to inner, as simply 

external, therefore = external appearance. 

felix (opp. infelix), for whom all goes according to 

his wish ; 
beatus (opp. miser), who feels himself fortunate, 

bene beateque vivere (beata vita, beatum esse, 
not beatitude, beatitas) ; 
fortunatns (opp. infortunatus), outwardty ; 



22 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



81. 

Fortune. 



*82. 

Freedman. 



83. 

Fruit. 



prosperus, secundus, faustus, of things ; prosperus 
(prospero, according to hope), wished, successus, 
prospere procedere ; secundus (sequi) , lit. follow- 
ing, going according to one's wish (opp. adver- 
sus) ventus secundus, proelium secundum, cf. 
below, res secundae; faustus (faveo), favored, 
made fortunate by the blessing of the gods, fans- 
turn omeu ; quod bonum, faustum, felix fortuua- 
tumque sit ! 

fortuna (orig. the goddess), which intermingles with 
the life of man, the fortune bestowed upon one ; 

felicitas (from root FE, cf. fecunclus, femina ; opp. 
infelicitas) , the happy circumstances produced by 
fortune ; 

res secundae (from sequi, opp. res adversae), con- 
cretely, the fortunate events ; 

fors (fero, to bring) , chance, hap, luck. 

libertus, in relation to the master's house, with gen. 

or poss. pron. = in the employ of ; 
libertimis (opp. servus, ingenuus), with reference to 

rank. 

fructus, not single fruits, but collectively, especially 
of field and trees. Fig. = gain, profit, e.g. fruc- 
tum uberrimum capere, percipere, cousequi ex 
aliqua re ; single fruit is pomum, bacca; 

fruges, product of the field ; 

frumentum (fruor), grain; in sing., of grain har- 
vested ; in plural, generally of standing grain. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



23 



Gift. 

85. 

Grief. 
Mourning. 



86. 

Happen. 



87. 

Hear. 



*88. 

Heart. 



*89. 

Hinder. 



donum, in general (root DO) ; 

munus. performance of a promise. 

dolor, internal (opp. gaudium) ; 

maeror, melancholy ; 

maestitia, lasting melancholy ; 

tristitia (opp. laetitia), mourning which exhibits 

itself in gloomy looks ; 

luctus, through external signs (garb) and lamenta- 
tions, esp. at the death of a dear one. 
fieri, in general ; 

accidere, of casual, generallj' of unlucky ; 
contingere (no sup. with this meaning), obtingere 

(no sup.), of fortunate occurrences ; 
evenire, to turn out as one has expected (cf. even- 

tus, a result) ; 

usu venire, to happen in one's experience, 
audire, in gen. (aliquem, to hear some one ; ex or ab 

aliquo, a thing from some one) ; (See 12G.) 
exaudire, to hear clearly (in spite of distance or low 

voice) ; 
auscultare (instead of hypoth. form ausiculitare from 

ausicula = auricula = the external ear) ; alicui, to 

listen attentively to some one. 

cor (physical) ; 

fig. animus, except in the expression mihi cordi est ; 
(note also the early use of cor for mind : ''Q. En- 
nius tria corda habere sese dicebat, quod loqui 
graece et osce et latino sciret." Gell. 17, 17, 1, 
cf. Cic. Tusc. 1, 9, 18). 

impedire (in-pes, orig. to entangle the foot, opp. ex- 
pedire), to hem in, profectionem, miles impeditus ; 



24 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



90. 

History. 



91. 

Holy. 



92. 

Hostile. 



prohibere (pro-habere), to keep one distant, to pro- 
hibit one from doing something, hostem com- 
meatu, aliquem ab iniuria ; 

implicare (twice inCic.), in-plico, to fold into, to 
entangle, to envelop, encircle, enwrap ; 

irretire, to catch in a net ; 

illaqueare, to take in a snare, as birds. 

res gestae, as compilation of facts, not historia, 
which = representation of history, historical re- 
search, historical knowledge ; 

narratio, narratiuncula, fabula, individual narra- 
tions ; rerum scriptor, writer of history, not his- 
toricus, which = investigator of history, one versed 
in history. 

sacer(opp. profauus), consecrated to divinity, insula 

sacra deorum ; 
sanctns, under divine protection, inviolable, e.g. 

iusiurandum ; of men, morally pure; 
augustus (class, in religious lang.), [augeo] worthy 

of honor. 

hostilis, of hostile thought ; (See 62.) 
nostrum, belonging to the enemy. 

infestus (1) active, malevolent, threatening, gens 

infesta Romanis, (2) passive, unsafe, dangerous, 

iter ; 
infensus (like infestus, from in and the obsolete 

fendo, to ward [cf. de-fendere and offendere]), 

exasperated. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



25 



93. 

Ignorance. 



94. 

Ignorant. 



95. 

Indicate. Show. 



96. 

Industry. 
Industrious. 



*97. 

Inhabit. 
Dwell in. 



inscientia ([cf. inscius], not to be confounded with 
inscitia = inaptness), lack of proper knowledge ; 

ignoratio, ignorance of individual facts ; 

ignorantia (only once in Cic., who freq. uses ignor- 
atio) , ignorance for which one is to blame ; in 
class, usually so inscitia (lasting characteristic). 

inscius, often in censure ; 

nescius, not knowing, with ace. c. inf., wow sum nescius 

te hocfecisse, or iudir. quest. (Sulla, 28) ; 
insciens, unaware, temporary, not in censure. 

monstrare (denominative from stem of monstrum, 
connected with monere), to point out, digito viam; 

ostendere (ob-tendere, to stretch against), to permit 
to be seen, to bring to light, potestatem ; 

demonstrare, to indicate, to call attention to, rem. ; 

significare, to make known by signs (siguis) , dedi- 
tionem ; 

indicare, disclose ; 

exhibere, to hold out into view. (See 2.) 

industria, active, zealous, industry ; 
assiduitas (assideo) , lasting industry ; 
labor, intense activity. (See 206.) 

In the same way are distinguished industrius, 
assiduus, laboriosus. 

incolere locum, of a body of people ; 

habitare, to dwell in (with prep, in, apud, cum), 

used of individuals, habitare in the passive is 

found with nom. of the place ; 
commoror, to sojourn. 



26 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



98. 

Interrogate. 



99. 

Joy. 



100. 

Kill. 



interrogare, to ask a question to which one must 

reply ; 
rogare, an important, particularly official question 

(sententiam rogare) ; (See 16, 155.) 
quaerere, to seek to discover 03- a question, to wish 

to get information, hence of scientific or judicial 

investigations (quaestio) ; 
percontari, to make inquiries about, to seek out, 

make a thorough investigation (exploratus = 

authentic, certain) ; 
sciscitari, "scire velle, ideoque interrogare"; ex 

uliquo aliquid. 

gaudium (opp. dolor), inner; 

laetitia (opp. tristitia), joy which reveals itself. 
Just so gaudere and laetari. (See 85.) 

interficere, in general ; 

caedere, occidere, to cut down, esp. in battle ; 

necare (cf. nex), to kill horribly, verberibus; 

trncidare, to butcher, captos sicuti pecudes ; 

iugulare (cut the throat, iugulum) , kill by treachery 
like a bandit ; 

percutere (per-quatere, strike through), strike dead, 
fulmine or de caelo percuti ; aliquem securi per- 
cutere = to execute ; (See 108.) 

interimere (inter-emere, lit. take out of the midst), 
to put out of the way = (e, de medio) tollere ; 

mortem sibi consciscere, manum sibi afferre, se inte- 
rimere, to kill one's self. (See 120.) 

perimere (per-emo), to destroy, annihilate, hinder, 
prevent. (See 53.) 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



27 



101. 

Lack. 



*102. 

Land. 



103. 

Last. 



104. 

Laziness. 



carere, (1) not to have something whether good or 
bad, bonis, ci/(pa, febri, (2) to be iu want of (a 
worthy thing) ; patria caruit, he had to keep away 
from his native land ; 

vacare, to be free from a troublesome thing, culpa, 
metu (= sum expers) ; 

indigere, signifies the sense of need, and eager long- 
ing to satisfy it. (See 121, 68.) 

terra, as opposed to water ; (See 57, 207.) 
ager, cultivated land, level land ; 
rus, as opposed to city, with reference to manner of 
life, ruri esse, vivere. (See 44.) 

ultimas (opp. proximus)-, most remote in space, 
ultimae terrae ; 

extremus (opp. medius), the extreme part, extra- 
mum oppidnm; in extremo libro, at the end of the 
book ; extrema aestas, the last days of the sum- 
mer ; 

postremus (opp. primus), the last in order. (See 
72.) 

supremus, clearly the last, dies supremus vitae. 

inertia (iu-ars), from lack of skill ; 

desidia (desidere) , sloth ; 

ignavia (in-gnavus [ = navus, cf. navare]), laxness ; 

segnitia, sluggishness, phlegm ; 

pigritia (piget), listlessness, apathy. So are distin- 
guished iners (opp. sellers), deses (idis), ignavus, 
seguis, piger. 



28 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



105. 

Letter. 



106. 

Light (adj.). 



*107. 

Light (subst.). 



*108. 

Lightning. 



109. 

Live stock. 



epistula (cTrio-roA.?/ [eTrio-Te'AAeii/, to send to]) , the letter 

with respect to its form (as sent to) , as contrasted 

with other kinds of writing ; 
litterae, the letter as a written thing, including not 

only the private letter but also the official letter, 

usually of only one ; 
codicilli (caudex) , an address to one within the same 

walls, or a note. (See 48.) 

levis, in respect to weight ; figuratively = unimpor- 
tant, res levis momenti, and = frivolous, homo 
levis. (Opposite gravis, heavy in weight, figura- 
tively = influential, earnest, solid.) 

facilis, easy to do, fig. of persons, one who is easily 
accessible. (Opp. difficilis, hard to do, fig. obsti- 
nate, ill-humored.) 

lumen (hypoth. form lucmen, from root LUC), the 
light-giving body (fig. lumina civitatis = viri cla- 
rissimi) ; 

lux, the light which streams from lumen. 

fulgor, the gleaming flash, cf. fulgurat = it lightens ; 

fulmen (hypoth. fulgimen, root FULG), the gleam- 
ing and, at the same time, striking thunderbolt, 
therefore fulmine percuti. (See 100.) 

pecus, udis, singby, with the added notion of stupidity ; 
pecus, oris, collectively of the smaller live stock, often 

also in the plural ; (See 12.) 
armentum, the larger, especially oxen, horses ; 
iumentum (for hypoth. iugmentum, from root IUG) , 

draught animals, especially horses and mules. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



29 



110. 

Loiig since. 
For a long time. 



'111. 

Lose. 

x 112. 

Love. 



113. 

Man. 



diu, throughout a long period of time ; (See 200.) 

dudum (from diu and dum), from a remote period 
up to the present; (See 150, 130.) 

priclem (prior and obsolete pris are parallel forma- 
tions) , anterior to a remote point ; 

so iamcliu, iamdudum, iampridem (sometimes, how- 
ever, used with the present). 

amittere, with or without blame ; 

perdere (lit., and usually), by one's own fault. 

amare (amor), from inclination (opp. odisse) ; 
diligere (dis-lego), from respect (opp. neglego) ; 

(See 3.) 
adamare (only in perf. and pluperf.), to acquire a 

love for. Loved or dear, carus or poss. pron., 

not amatus or dilectus. 

homo (contrasted with dews, as well as bestia), with 
regard to his virtues and vices as well as birth and 
intelligence (either masc. or fern.) , homo improbus, 
nobilis, doctus ; (See 12, 141.) 

vir (masc.), only with reference to his good quali- 
ties, vir fortis (vir fortissimus = hero, not /teros, 
which means one of divine descent), constans, 
especially of statesmen. In the following, not ex- 
pressed : (1) I am not the man who, non -is sum 
qui; (2) Cato, a man, who Cato, qui; (3) Cato, 
a man of the ancient virtue, Cato, antiquae vir- 
lutis ; (4) there are men who, sunt qui; (5) men 
like Cato = Catones; (6) a man of peace, pads 
amator, of war, bellator. 

homunculus, the powerless being called man, as con- 
trasted with the deity. 



30 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



114. 

Marry. 



115. 

Moment. 



*116. 

Money. 



117. 

More. 



*118. 

Most. 



uxorem ducere (i.e. domum), of the husband; 
nubere (lit. veil, cf. nubes, a cloud), to veil one's self 

for the bridegroom (hence alicui) = to be married, 

of the wife ; 
matrimonio iungi, of both. 

punctum temporis, or simply tempus, as an instant of 

time ; (See 86.) 
momentum (root MOV, hypoth. form movimentum, 

the thing which, like the weight in the scales, 

determines) , important, decisive moment ; 
discrimen (discernere, lit. the separating interval), 

the critical moment. 

pecunia (from pecus, because the wealth of the an- 
cients consisted in cattle) , wealth, magna, parva 
pecunia, much, little mone}' ; 

nummi, single coins. 

plus, comparative of multum, substantively and in 

the sing., quantitative, in answer to the question 

how much ; 
magis, qualitative, in answer to the question how 

greatly, of a higher grade ; 
amplius, more widely, extending farther, of a growth 

or an addition, quid vultis amplius ? 
potius, more willing!}-, of the choice between two 

things (cf. potissimum, 65) ; 
nothing more = nihil iam, no longer = mm iam. 

plurimi, superl. and partitively ; 
plerique, very many ; plerique meministis, very many 
of you remember. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



31 



*119. 

Name (verb). 



120. 

Natural. 



*121. 

Need. 



Neighbor. 

*123. 

New. 



124. 

Noble. 



nominare, call or mention by name ; 

appellare, address with the appropriate title of hon- 
or, amicum, regem; 

nuncupare, to give a name to an object that has 
hitherto been without name ; 

vocare, like appellare. 

naturalis, effected by nature (opp. manu, arte fac- 
tus), naturalis portus, naturale ius; 

nativus (natus), given b}- birth, inborn, nativus le- 
pos ; (follows naturally, i.e. logically, consentaneum 
est, not naturale ; natural death, necessaria niors 
[opp. voluntaria mors, suicide (see 100)], not 
naturalis) . 

egere, of a necessity ; 

indigere, of a thing absolutely indispensable of which 
the pressing need is felt. (See 101.) 

victims (vicus), with reference to house and home ; 
fini.ti.mus (finis), one inhabiting adjoining territory. 

novus (opp. autiquus), what hitherto never was; res 
nova, novelty ; novis rebus studere, to desire revo- 
lution ; homo novus, the first of his family to ob- 
tain a Curule office, an upstart ; 

recens (opp. vetus), what recently occurred for the 
first time, fresh, recens lac; recentes copiae, fresh 
troops, to be distinguished from novi milites, re- 
cruits (tirones). 

nobilis (root GNO), of birth ; (See 69.) 
so generosus (genus) ; 

noble of disposition, bonus, honestus, ingenuus, 
liberalis, generosus ; 



32 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



Oath. 

126. 

Obey. 



127. 

Obtain. 



128. 

Old. 



clams, renowned for eminent services to one's country; 
insignis, distinguished for something either good or 
bad. 

iusiurandum, civil oath ; 

sacramentum, oath of allegiance of soldiers. 

parere, be obedient to ; parentes or imperio subjecti, 
subjects ; 

oboedire (ob-audire), to "hear to," obey (in indi- 
vidual cases) ; 

obtemperare (lit. to restrain one's self toward one) , 
to comply with deliberation ; 

dicto audientem esse, to be obedient to a command, 
as a soldier ; 

obsequi, as an act of free will. 

consequi, assequi, by exertion ; 

nancisci, by chance ; 

adipisci (ad-apisci), something good, b}- good for- 
tune, victoriam; 

impetrare, through asking. Note impetrare ab aliquo 
ut, to be able to bring to pass at the hands of 
some one ; 

inveniri, reperire, deprehendere, in general to find ; 
imply a concealed object which is discovered. 
(See 73.) 

vetus (vetustior, veterrimus), that which has long 
existed and still is (opp. recens), vetus amicus, 
consuetudo, therefore vetus aceusator, a cunning, 
practised accuser ; 

antiquus (ante) , what was in ancient times and is 
no longer (opp. novus), (cf. anliquare [lit. to 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



33 



*129. 

Omit. 



130. 

Once. 



131. 

Only. 



cause to be as before] legem, to reject a bill) oftener 
in praise of the good old time, upright ; 

vetustus, what has been long in use, with the added 
meaning of superiority, vetusta disciplina ; 

priscus (cf. prior), very old, with the added mean- 
ing of worthy of honor, prisca severitas ; 

pristinus, the former condition in opposition to the 
present, in pristinum statum restituere ; 

obsoletus, obsolete, obsoleta verba. 

omittere, e.g. occasionem, intentionally ; 

dimittere, voluntarily = give up ; 

praetermittere, through lack of attention (not inter- 

mittere ; I cannot omit doing = facere non possum 

quin) ; 
neglegere, to be indifferent to. 

quondam, previously, of the past; (See 150, 110.) 
olim (ollus = ille, therefore olim = illis temporibus, 

opp. nunc) , of the distant past or future ; 
aliquando, at some time or other (opp. numquam) 

of the past, present, or future. 

modo (subjectively) , limiting, especially with impera- 
tive, i modo; 

tantum, places the smaller over against the larger, 
lifts one out of a large number ; 

dumtaxat (lit. if one values it exactly) , when care- 
fully considered, the only highest ; 

non (nemo, nihil) . . . nisi, or nisi . . . non, indi- 
cates the only possible case ; (often " only " is not 
expressed, esp. with a word indicating number : 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



*132. 

Openly. 



133. 

Opinion. 



*134. 

Orator. 



*135. 

Others. 



136. 

Ought. 



pauci, only a few ; raro, [but] seldom ; medi- 
ocriter, only moderately, et al.). 

palam (cf . planus, opp'. clam) , before all eyes ; 
aperte (opp. obscure), openly, e.g. dicere ; 
publice (hypoth. form populice, opp. privatim), of 
matters of state, e.g. sepeliri, of a state funeral. 

sententia, well grounded ; 

opinio, subjective, fancy. According to my opinion, 
mea (quidem) sententia, not ex seutentia, which = 
according to wish, tell your opinion, die quid 
sentias or die quod sentis, not sententiam dicere, 
which = vote (of senators and judges) . 

orator: (1) a trained speaker, (2)the speaker, speaker 

(orare) in an embassy ; 
rhetor, teacher of oratory. 

ceteri, of contrast or comparison, hence ceteris prae- 

stare ; 
reliqui, of remainder (counting) , reliqui sex. Ceteri 

and reliqui, the others ; 
alii, others. 



debere (de-habere, to have from some one that which 
one should return), of a moral duty (subjective) ; 

oportet, it is according to the external Bought" 
(objective) , fitting ; 

necesse est, of inner necessity of nature ; (See 101.) 

cogi, of outer necessity ; 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



35 



*137. 

Party. 



138. 

Paternal. 



*139. 

Peace. 



140. 

People. 



opus esse, to have need of; (See 121.) 
ndum est (gerundive), in general, to mark the 
necessity inhering in the circumstances. 

pars, partes, in general ; 

factio, organized party, esp. the oligarchic. 

paternus, what a father possesses, and what origi- 
nates from him, rura, odium; 

patrius : ( 1 ) what belongs to a father as head of a 
family, patria potestas ; (2) what belongs to one's 
native country, mos patrius, the custom in one's 
native country (or ' of one's ancestors ') ; sermo 
patrius, mother tongue, not lingua vernacula. 

pax (from stem pac, cf. pangere, to establish, 
pacisci), peace which has been concluded with 
the enemy ; 

otium (opp. negotium) : (1) rest from business, 
leisure, otio frui ; (2) peaceful times, freedom 
from external enemies, in otio esse or vivere. 

gens (gigno) , with indication of common origin and 
speech ; 

natio (nascor), subdivision of the same; 

populus, as political whole ; 

plebs, the lower class (opp: nobiles) ; 

vulgus, the rabble ; 

multitude, the great mass = oi TroAAoi (do not 
add magna unless "great" is extremely em- 
phatic) . 



36 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



141. 

Person. 



142. 

Permit. 



*143. 

Poem. 

*144. 

Power. 



145. 

Pretend. 



146. 

Promise. 



homo, vir (see 113, 174), not persona, which =type 

of character ; 

ipse, praesens, coram, personally ; 
personal enemy, simply mimicus. (See 62.) 

sinere, indifferently ) , ... 

J > both with aec. c. mf. ; 
pati, patiently J 

concedere (cou-cedere, yield), to yield to one's re- 
quests and finally grant that ; 

permittere (lit. to send to the goal) : (1) to give over, 
alicni potestatem ; (2) of one's own accord to per- 
mit, to let happen (both with ut) ; (See 19.) 

tolerare, to keep up under a burden. 

carmen, in general, esp. a short lyric ; 
poema, a long epic or dramatic poem. 

potestas, might, official ; 

potentia, actual (hence often unjust) ; 

imperium, chiefly military; (See 175.) 

opes, political influence, or ' means of power.' 

vis, strength, physical or mental ; 

robur, hard oak, a power that resists attack. 

simulare (lit. make like, similis), to pretend that 
something is which in truth is not, simulare mor- 
bum, simulat se aegrotum esse ; 

dissimulare, to pretend that something is not which 
in truth is, dissimulare morbum, dissimulat se 
aegrotum esse. (Quae uon stint, simulo ; quae 
sunt, ea dissimulantur.) 

promittere (lit. send forth from the mouth), to 
assure, to put in expectation (opp. facere, prae- 
stare) ; 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



37 



*147. 

Proof. 



148. 

Prudent. 



149. 

Punishment. 
Punish. 



150. 

Recently. 



151. 

Recognize. 
Learn. 



polliceri (pro-liceri, to offer), to proffer, voluntarily 

to pledge one's self (opp. abnuere) ; 
recipere, to pledge one's self to a task consigned. 

argumentum (orig. to make clear, to clear up 

[dpyo's]), argument based upon facts ; (See 95.) 
ratio, the argument resting upon reasoning. (See 55.) 

prudens( through providens), circumspect, sagacious, 
esp. (like prudentia) of statesmen and jurists ; 

sellers (sollus, which = totus and ars ; opp. iuers), 
versed, inventive, practically skilled ; 

peritus, practically acquainted ; (See 74.) 

consultus, versed in law. (See 171.) 

poena (TTOIVT;), originally as fine, penalty, then in 
gen. punishment ; 

multa, a fine ; 

supplicium (supplex), lit. the beseeching plea for 
pardon before the execution, then the execution ; 

castigatio (castum-agere, cf. purgo = purum-ago) , 
the correcting (verbis or verberibus), for the 
purpose of improving. So arc distinguished 
punire, multare, castigare. (In place of the less 
usual punire use rather poena aliquem afficere, 
poenas ab aliquo petere, expetere, repetere, sup- 
plicium sumere.) 

nuper (hypotli. noviper, from novus), lately, of a 

somewhat remote past; (See 110, 130.) 
modo, just now, of a nearer past. 

cognoscere, to learn to know ; 

agnoscere, (1) to recognize something according to 



38 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



152. 

Kelatives. 



153. 

Remaining. 



154. 

Remember. 



155. 

Request. 



its true being, dens agnoscitur ex operibus suis ; 
(2) to recognize, filium. 

propinquus, in general ; 

affinis, by marriage ; 

consanguineus, cognatus, blood relative ; 

necessarius, closely bound not alone by relation- 
ship but by friendship, business relations, etc. 
The corresponding substantive is necessitudo (to 
be distinguished from necessitas = necessity) . 
(Proavus, avus, parentes, pater, mater, f rater, 
soror, vir, maritus, coniunx, uxor, films, filia, 
nepos.) 

relinquitur, as only possibility, nihil relinquitur nisi 
fuga, nothing is left but flight. (No other course 
is left than to, relinquitur ut, not nihil aliud relin- 
quitur nisi ut) ; 

restat, reliquum est ut. when reaching the last por- 
tion, = finally there still remains. 

meminisse (cf. mens), to hold something in memory 

( = memoria tenere, memorem esse) , to keep one's 

self in mind of a thing ; 
reminisci (re-memiui) , to call back to the thought 

again by a mental effort what has vanished ( = in 

memoriam redigere, revocare) ; 
recordari (re-cor [cor = mens]), of a recollection 

which has some duration (as a result of remiuisci) . 

postulare (connected with posco), to desire, want, 
request (in comedy not much stronger than velle) ; 
poscere, to demand with energy ; (See 16, 98.) 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



39 



156. 

Best. 



157. 

Bich. 



*158. 

Bight. 



*159. 

Boyal. 

160. 

Bule (vb.). 



flagitare (cf. flagitiura, root FLAG, whence also fla- 
grare), violently, passionately to demand; 

petere, to ask for something, whether as a request 
or a demand. 

quies, in gen., absence of activity, hence also rest 

after activity, in quiete, in sleep ; 
requies (requietis, no dat., requietem or requiem, 

requie), refreshing rest; 
otium. rest from outside business (opp. negotium) , 

leisure ; 
tranquillitas (lit. stillness of the sea and wind), 

rest of the spirit, animi. 

dives (divitior, divitissimus) , of persons (absolutely) 
rich in money and property ; 

locuples (locus-pleo), rich in real estate; (fig. amplus, 
magnus, uber, copiosus, e.g. amplum praemium, 
uberrimae fruges, not dives ; just so riches, fig. = 
copia, ubertas, not divitiae. To be rich in any- 
thing, abundare, plenum esse). 

ius, human ; 
fas, divine ; 

meo (tuo, suo) lure, optimo iure, with full right, not 
summo iure. 

regius, belonging to a king, domus regia ; 
regalis, befitting a king, ornatus regalis. 

regnare (intrans.), to be king, to rule with absolute 

power ; 
regere (trans.), to direct, to administer, rem publi- 

cam ; (See 39.) 



40 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



*161. 

Kule (subst.). 
*162. 
Safe. 



163. 

Scarcely. 



164. 

Science. 



165. 

Second. 



dominari, to command as master, in iudiciis, in cives ; 
(often esse, valere, vigere, e.g. the opinion, the cus- 
tom rules, opinio, mos est, and rumor, fama viget). 

praeceptum, lex, not regula. 

tutus (tueor) , from danger ; 
securus (se-cura) , from care ; 

certus (lit. decided, cerno), reliable, amicus; or in- 
dubitable, certain, res. 

vix (objective and neg.) = almost not; hence also 
used for noil, did vix potest or vix potest did; 

aegre (subjective and affirmative) , with trouble, with 
regard to the person who feels himself troubled ; 
aegre fero, I do not like it. 

scientia, only in the sing, (subjective), the knowledge 
of a thing, e.g. iuris ; 

doctrina, science acquired through instruction, lib- 
eral culture ; 

ars, science in the higher sense, a scientific system ; 

disciplina (hypoth. discipulina), instruction, teaching, 
also 'system of philosophy ' or ' doctrinal system,' 
e.g. of the Druids ; 

litterae, the science which has been expressed in writ- 
ing; (liberal studies, optima studia, bonae, optimae, 
liberales, ingenuae artes, not pulchra, etc.) ; 

cognitio, a becoming acquainted with, acquiring 
knowledge ; 

notitia, knowing, knowledge, an idea. 

secundus (sequi) , of close order or succession ; 
alter, the second of two actually present ; (in count- 
ing : first, unus, not primus ; second, alter, not 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



41 



<166. 

See. 



*167. 

Several. 

168. 

Sex. 

169. 

Shame. 

170. 

Shore. 



171. 

Shrewd. 
Cunning. 



*172. 

Sickness. 



secundus ; third, tertius, etc., a second " I," alter 
ego ; like a second father, sicut alter parens) . 

videre, in general ; (Note videre also in the mean- 
ings (1) see again, (2) live to see.) (See 41.) 

cernere (without perf. and sup.), orig. distinguish, 
clearly perceive. 

plures (plura), comparatively (more) ; 
complures (a, ia), without comparison. 

sexus, virilis, muliebris, male, female, not genus 
virile, muliebre. 

pudor, sense of shame, modesty (opp. impudentia) ; 
pudicitia, purity (opp. impudicitia). 

ripa, of the stream ; 
litus, of the sea ; 

ora (from os, oris, lit. brink), shore, the laud border- 
ing on the sea, ora maritima. 

callidus (connected with calleo [callum, toughened, 

callous skin]), frequently in a good sense = shrewd, 

quickwitted ; 
astutus (astus [not used by Cicero] = the individual 

artifice ; astutia, the quality of cunning) , usually 

in censure. (See prudens.) 

aegrotatio (with weakness), not aegritudo, which in 

classic prose means grief ; 
morbus. of the whole body. 



42 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



*173. tacere (opp. loqui) , not to speak ; 
Silent (to be), silere (opp. strepere, sonare, cf . silentium), to be 
still, also fig., silent leges inter arma. Each is 
trans, or intrans. 



*174. 

Some one. 



175. 

Sovereignty. 



*176. 

Speak. Say. 



177. 

Speech. 



aliquis, some one or other ; 

quidam, a certain person whose name one either does 
not know or may not give. (See 141.) 

regnnm, of a king ; also unlimited authority, regnum 

appetere ; 

imperium, chief rule, esp. military; (See 144.) 
dominatio, dominatus, arbitrary, tyrannical rule ; 
principatus, the chief place in the state. 

fari, to utter words, to make one's self intelligible 
(cf. <f>rip.ii infans) ; 

loqui, to speak, to express one's thoughts by lan- 
guage ; 

dicere, to say, of the form of the statement ; in 
partic. of an orator ; 

inquarn, I say, regularly placed after one or more 
words of a quotation, as our " said I," " says he " ; 

aio, to say, to affirm, to say yes. 

oratio (orare, orig. to speak, from os, oris) : (1) 
power to express one's thoughts by words, ferae 
orationis expertes sunt, (2) an artistically con- 
structed oration, (3) style of expression, oratio 
pura ; (See 205.) 

sermo (serere, to join) : (1) conversation among 
several ; (2) colloquial language, sermo cotidia- 
nus ; sermo patrius, native speech ; 

lingua, the tongue, utterance, speech. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



43 



178. 

Spirit. Soul. 



179. 

Star. 



180. 

State. 



*181. 

Statue. 

*182. 

Stream. 



183. 

Subdue. 



animus, the thinking, feeling, craving soul, animos 

militum conjirmare; (See 88.) 
anima (lit. the breath, anhnam dncere = to draw 

breath), soul as supporter of life ; animam ayere, 

to lie at the last breath ; animam edere, to give 

up the ghost ; 

mens. the intellect, mente captum esse; 
ingenium (in-gigno), the inborn ability, especially 

creative power. 

stella, the individual star ; 

astrum, the same (as streu-n, Eng. star), used in 

elevated prose and in poetry ; 
sidus, star-group. 

res publica, commonwealth, with regard to its con- 
stitution (also simply res) ; 

civitas (civis) : (1) right of citizenship, (2) com- 
munity, municipality. (See 37.) 

signum, simulacrum, esp. of gods ; 
statua, esp. of men. 

rivulus, smallest ; 

rivns, brook ; 

fluvius, general word for river (not used by Caesar) ; 

flumen, with the notion of flowing (also figuratively, 
e.g. flumen orationis). Hence secundo, adverse 
flumine (not fluvio), with or against the stream ; 

amnis, broad, deep river. 

a people, subigere populum ; 

in potestatem redigere populum, dicionis suae facere, 

to bring a people under one's self, not sibi subigere 

populum ; 



44 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



184. 

Take. 



185. 

Thanks. 
To thank. 



*186. 

Time. 



se imperio alieuius subicere, in deditionem venire, to 
submit one's self to some one, not se alicui subicere. 

sumere (sub-emo, the latter, orig. to take, then to 

buy), in order to use it, e.g. cibum ; 
demere (de-emere) , to take awa}- something from a 

whole (opp. addere) ; 
adimere, to take away with reference to a possession 

(alicui aliquid) ; 
auferre, violently and with purpose of enriching one's 

self, to force away ; 
eripere, against the opposition of the possessor to 

tear awa}- (alicui aliquid). 

gratiam alicui habere, to feel gratitude toward some 
one (in heart) ; 

gratiam alicui referre (meritam, debitam), pro ali- 
qua re, by deed to show one's self thankful toward 
some one on account of something, thankfully to 
recompense some one for something ; 

gratias alicui agere, to express one's thanks to one 
(with words) ; 

grates agere (dis immortalibus) , solemn!}- to return 
thanks to the gods ; 

gratiam alicui debere, to owe one thanks ; 

gratiam mereri, to deserve thanks. 

tempus, in general ; in plur. circumstances of the time ; 

in the time of Pericles, temporibus Periclis, not 

tempore in the sing. ; 
aetas, period of life, or epoch ; the greatest man of 

his times = summus vir illius aetatis, not suae 

aetatis ; (See 7.) 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



45 



*187. 

Together. 



188. 

Translate. 



*189. 

Tribute. 

190. 

Truth. 



191. 

Undertake. 



192 

Use. 



aevum, poetic ; 

tempestas. a point or space of time, a period. 

simul, of time ; 

una, generally of place, = together with, iter fa- 
cere ; 

idem, when a twofold property or occupation of one 
person is expressed, philosophus idemque poeta. 

transferre, word by word (also ad verbum exprimere, 
not verbo tenus, which means " in name merely 
rather than fact ") ; 

vertere, convertere, interpretari, to translate more 
freely (to translate into Latin, in Latinum ver- 
tere), (' translation,' conversio not versio). 

tributum, direct ; 
vectigal, indirect. 

verum dicere, not veritatem d., as veritas is truth in 

the abstract ; 
in truth, certe, sane, profecto, vero, not re vera 

(opp. specie). (See 34.) 

suscipere (opp. recusare), in gen. to undertake a 
thing or business ; 

recipere, to take upon one's self a thing or business 
which has been assigned to one, and to be respon- 
sible for the result (v. promittere) . 

uti, to make use of something ; 

adhibere (ad-habere, to hold something to some- 
thing, to bring one thing to another) , to use for 
a particular purpose, remedia morbis. 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



193. 

Vainly. 
In vain. 



*194. 

Voluntarily. 



*195. 

Vote. 

*196. 

Wall. 



*197. 

Warlike. 

*198. 

Way. 



*199. 

Weak. 



frustra (fraus), subjectively, of the person deceived 

in his expectations ; 
nequiquam (ne [for non] quiquam, modal abl., 

which has come to be an adv. which = in any 

way), objectively, of the matter in which nothing 

is accomplished. 

ultro, without external occasion ; ultro bellum in- 
ferre, to wage an offensive war ; 

mea, tua, sua sponte, from one's own impulse, unin- 
fluenced by others. 

sententiam dicere, of senators and judges ; (See 133.) 
suffragium ferre, in the assembly of the people, 

murus, in general ; 
paries, of a house ; 

moenia, um (munire), wall of the city to protect 
from the enemy. 

bellicus, belonging to war, res bellica ; 
bellicosus, fond of war (bellandi cupidus) . 

via, concretely, of the road or street ; 

iter, frequently abstractly, of the journey or march; 
(to return to the right way, in viam redire or ad 
bonam frugem se recipere, not in rectam v. red., 
and not ad b. f. red.). 

infirmus, without firmness, vires, valetudo ; 
imbecillus, weak of nature (filius, senex), also weak 

in mind (animus, ingenium) ; 
debilis (de-habilis, orig. who has lost the full use of 

his limbs) , lamed, decrepit. 



LATIN SYNONYMBS. 



47 



200. 

While (a little). 



*201. 

White. 

202. 

Wish. 



203. 

Witness. 



204. 

Woman. Wife. 



panunper, for a moment (cf . Fr. un peu) ; 
paulisper, enduring a little while, with notion of the 
continuance. (See 110.) 

albus, in gen. (opp. ater) ; 
candidus (opp. niger), shining white. 

optare (lit. to choose, cf . optio choice, and optimus) , 

to wish as the result of rational choice, as the 

optimum ; 
cupere (cf. cnpiditas), passionately to desire, to 

crave ; 
desiderare (de and root SID., considero. lit. to look 

forth for something absent), to long, yearn for, 

to miss ; 
expetere (lit. to especially desire to reach) , to crave, 

honestum, divitias (opp. fugere). 

testis, establishes a thing by his own knowledge ; 

arbiter (from ar = ad and root BA [cf. /3cuV<o /3ari/p] 
to go to a thing in order to see or to hear), 
(1) ear and eye witness, (remotis arbitris, of two 
alone), (2) the arbitrator. 

femina (from stem FE, cf. fecundus), every female 
creature (opp. mas) , also of beasts ; 

mulier (opp. vir) , the mature woman ; 

uxor, coniunx (opp. maritus, vir) , wife ; 

matrona (mater) , matron of high position ; wives and 
children, coniuges (iixores) ac liberi, as the thing 
dearest to man ; mulieres puerique, pueri, mulieres 
to indicate weakness of kind and age. 



48 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



205. 

Word. 



206. 

Work. 



207. 

World. 



verbum, portion of speech with reference to the 
connection of thought (otherwise frequently 
vocabulum) ; 

nomen (nosco), the name, esp. proper names; 

vox (vocare), as spoken, esp. full of feeling ; 

dictum, ingenious, sharp expression, like a bon mot 
(so scitum) ; (See 177.) 

sententia, word as expression of opinion, however not 
cum gen. of person, as it would in that case mean 
opinion, view. ("Those well known words of 
Homer" is illud Homeri, or Homericum ; "with 
the words," cum diceret [after a praeteritum in 
the prin. clause], cum dicit [after a present in the 
prin. cl.] ; "after the words," ubi dixit ; " to sa}' a 
few words," ut pauca dicam ; " not a single word," 
ne verbum quidem, not ne unum quidem verbum). 

labor, exhausting effort; (See 96.) 

opus, (1) concretely the complete work, especially 
that of the artist, (2) the completion ; 

opera, trouble arising from something (to trouble 
one's self, to take pains, operam dare, without sibi ; 
to take great pains, studiose, enixe operam dare, 
not magnam operam dare : without pains, sine 
negotio, labore ; without any pains, nullo nego- 
tio, sine nllo labore ; with little pains, facile, not 
facili negotio) ; (See assiduitas.) 

contentio, an exertion, a speech, a contest or strife. 

mundus, universe ; (See 57, 102.) 
orbis terrarum, the whole earth, universal empire = 
imperium orbis terrarum ; in the world = in terris ; 



LATIN SYNONYMES. 



49 



-208. 

Worse. 



209. 

Worth. 



210. 

Yearly. 



unexperienced in the world = impeiitus rerum ; 
what in the world ? = quid tandem ? where in the 
world? = ubi terrarum, gentium? all the world = 
omnes (homines) ; all the world knows = nemo 
ignorat, nemo nescit, nemo est qtii nesciat, nemo 
est quin sciat, qnis est quin (qui non) sciat? quis 
nescit ? the learned world = homines docti, litterati ; 
the world of to-day = homines qui mine sunt or 
huias aetatis ; since the creation of the world = 
post hominum memoriam, post homines natos. 

deterior, less good, compared with better ; 

peior, compared with bad. (pessimus can be used 
jocularly, not deterrimus) . 

virtus, inner worth ; 

praestantia, comparative sense, dignitas, or by a 
circumlocution with aestimare, facere, not pretium, 
which = price ; 

to attribute worth to a .thing = tribuere, aliquid 
(multum) alicui rei, not pretium statuere alicui 
rei, which = set a price upon anything. 

annuus, lasting a year, tempus annuum ; 

anniversarius (annus-verto) , (recurring) every year, 
sacra ; 

solemnis (sollus = totus and annus, cf . sellers) , re- 
turning as festal day every year, in general, fes- 
tival, usual, sacra, sacrificia ; 

quotannis (adv.), that which happens at some time 
every year. 



a, ab, 10, 87, 89, 127, 149. 
abesse, 68. 
abierunt, 64. 
abnuero, 146. 
absolvere, 24. 
abundare, 157. 
accidere, 86. 
accipere, 46. 
accusator, 128. 
acerba, 66. 
acies, 15, 74. 
acquiescere, 73. 
ad, 38, 58, 72, 74, 127, 188, 

192, 198, 203. 
adamare, 112. 
addcre, 184. 
adesse, 23, 68. 
adhibere, 192. 
adimere, 184. 
adipisci, 74, 127. 
admirari, 3. 
adspicere, 41. 
adulari, 75. 
adulescens, 7. 
adversus, 80, 81, 182. 
aegre, 163. 
aegritudo, 172. 
aegrotatio, 172. 
aegrotus, 8, 145. 
aequare, 57. 
aes, 77. 
aestas, 103. 
aestimare, 26, 209. 
aetas, 7, 21, 186, 207. 
aevum, 186. 
Afer, 4. 
afferre, 100. 



afficere, 149. 

afflnis, 152. 

Africanus, 4. 

Africus, 4. 

ager, 44, 102. 

agere, 15, 32, 149, 178, 
185. 

agmen, 15. 

agnoscere, 151. 

agrestis, 44. 

aio, 69, 176. 

albus, 29, 201. 

alere, 60. 

alias, 60. 

alibi, 60. 

alienus, 77. 

aliquando, 130. 

aliquis, 16, 23, 43, 58, 63, 
73, 75, 76, 83, 87, 89, 
98, 100, 114, 127, 142, 
149, 174, 183, 184, 185, 
209. 

aliter, 60. 

alius, 60, 77, 135, 153. 

alter, 165. 

altus, 50. 

araare, 112. 

ainator, 113. 

amatus, 112. 

ambire, 11. 

ambitus, 11. 

ambitio, 11. 

ambo, 33. 

amicus, 1, 119, 128, 162. 

amittere, 111. 

amnis, 182. 

amoenus, 20. 



amor, 112. 

amplius, 117. 

amplus, 157. 

anima, 178. 

animal, 12. 

animans, 12. 

animus, 88, 156, 178, 199. 

annivcrsarius, 210. 

annus, 210. 

annuus, 210. 

ante, 23, 128. 

antea, 5. 

antiquare, 128. 

antiquus, 113, 123, 128. 

aperte, 132. 

apisei, 74, 127. 

appellate, 119. 

appetere, 52, 175. 

aptus, 74. 

apud, 23, 97. 

arbiter, 203. 

argumentum, 147. 

arma, 14, 21, 173. 

armentum, 109. 

ars, 58, 104, 120, 148, 164. 

Asianus, 4. 

Asiaticus, 4. 

aspernari, 52. 

assentari, 75. 

assentir, 75. 

assequi, 76, 127. 

assidere, 96. 

assiduitas, 96, 206. 

assiduus, 96. 

astrum, 179. 

astus, 171. 

astutia, 171. 



52 



INDEX. 



astutus, 171. 


carus, 112. 


consciscere, 100. 


ater, 29, 201. 


castigare, 149. 


consentaneum, 120. 


atque, 16. 


castigatio, 149. 


consequi, 76, 83, 127. 


auctor, 18. 


castum, 149. 


considerare, 41, 202. 


auctoritas, 48. 


caudex, 105. 


consilia, 49. 


audire, 87, 126. 


causa, 21. 


constans, 7, 113. 


auferre, 184. 


cavere, 29. 


consuetudo, 128. 


augere, 91. 


cedere, 142. 


consultum, 48. 


augustus, 91. 


celeber, 69. 


consultus, 148. 


aura, 70. 


censere, 26. 


contemnere, 52. 


auricula, 87. 


cernere, 162, 166. 


contemplari, 41. 


auscultare, 87. 


certe, 13, 34, 190. 


contentio, 206. 


aut, 13. 


certo, 34. 


contingere, 86. 


avus, 152. 


certus, 162. 


contio, 17. 




ceteri, 23, 60, 135. 


conventus, 17. 


beate, 80. 


cibum, 184. 


convertere, 188. 


beatitas, 80. 


cis, 28. 


cooptare, 36. 


beatitude, 80. 


citra, 28. 


copia, 15, 123, 157. 


beatus, 80. 


civis, 160, 180. 


copiosus, 59, 157. 


bellandi, 197. 


civitas, 107, 180. 


cor, 88, 154. 


bellator, 113. 


clam, 132. 


coram, 23, 141. 


bellicosus, 197. 


clarus, 69, 107, 124. 


corpus, 42. 


bellicus, 197. 


codicilli, 105. 


corrigere, 43. 


bellum, 24, 31, 67, 194. 


coepisse, 24. 


corroborata, 7. 


bellus, 20. 


cogi, 136. 


cotidianus, 177. 


belua, 12. 


cognatus, 152. 


creare, 36. 


bene, 58, 63, 80. 


cognitio, 164. 


credere, 26. 


bestia, 12. 


cognoscere, 151. 


crudelis, 31. 


blandiri, 75. 


coitus, 17. 


crudus, 31. 


bonus, 80, 101, 124, 164, 


colores, 54. 


cruentum, 31. 


198. 


comitia, 17. 


cruor, 31. 




commeatus, 89. 


culpa, 2, 101. 


cadaver, 42. 


commodus, 74. 


cum, 65, 97, 205. 


cadere, 42. 


commorari, 97. 


cunctus, 9. 


caedere, 100. 


comperire, 66. 


cupere, 202. 


caelo, 100. 


complures, 167. 


cupiditas, 61, 202. 


calamitas, 46. 


con, 15, 17, 23, 41, 43, 


cupidus, 197. 


calamus, 46. 


142. 


cura, 162. 


calcei, 74. 


concedere, 142. 


curare, 52. 


callere, 171. 


concupiscere, 52. 


curru, 19. 


callidus, 171. 


confirmare, 178. 




callum, 171. 


confiteri, 2. 


damnum, 46. 


candidus, 29, 201. 


conformare, 58. 


dare, 30, 39, 84, 206. 


capere, 65, 78, 83, 100, 


coniunctus, 9. 


de, 1, 6, 46, 92, 100, 136, 


178. 


coniunx, 152, 204. 


184, 199, 202. 


carere, 101. 


coniurationis, 78. 


debere, 136, 185. 


carmen, 143. 


consanguineus, 152. 


debilis, 199. 



INDEX. 



53 



debitarn, 185. 


disertus, 59. 


erudire, 58. 


deelarare, 67. 


dispersus, 9. 


eruditus, 45. 


decretum, 48. 


disputare, 55. 


esse, 2, 29, 50, 06, 80, 88, 


deditio, 95, 183. 


disputatio, 55. 


94, 102, 113, 120, 126, 


deesse, 68. 


disserere, 55, 59. 


136, 139, 145, 153, 154, 


deficero, 68. 


dissertatio, 55. 


157, 160, 177, 178,207. 


deinde, 72. 


dissimulate, 145. 


et, 32, 33, 34, 49, 58, 88. 


deligere, 36. 


diu, 110. 


etiam, 2, 10. 


demere, 184. 


diversus, 54. 


cvadere, 22. 


dernonstrare, 95. 


dives, 157. 


evenire, 86. 


demum, 72. 


divitiae, 157, 202. 


eventus, 80. 


denique, 72. 


doctus, 45, 113, 207. 


exaudire, 87. 


clenunciare, 67. 


doctrina, 50, 164. 


exereere, 15. 


dcnuo, 6. 


dolor, 85, 99. 


exercitus, 1, 15. 


deponere, 24. 


domcsticus, 77. 


exhibere, 95. 


deprehendere, 127. 


dominari, 160. 


existimare, 26. 


derclictus, 1. 


dominatio, 175. 


exordiri, 24. 


deserere, 1. 


dominatus, 175. 


exordium, 25. 


desertus, 1. 


domus, 114, 159. 


expedire, 89. 


deses, 104. 


donuni, 84. 


experiri, 66. 


desiderare, 202. 


dubio, 50. 


expertes, 177. 


desidere, 104. 


dubitatione, 56. 


expetere, 14!), 202. 


desidia, 104. 


dubium, 56. 


explanare, 67. 


designare, 36. 


ducere, 114, 178. 


explicare, 67. 


desinere, 24. 


diulum, 110. 


exploratus, 98. 


despicere, 52. 


dum, 110. 


exponere, 67. 


destitutus, 1. 


dumtaxat, 131. 


exprimere, 188. 


deterior, 208. 


duo, 33. 


expugnare, 27. 


deterrimus, 208. 




exquisita, 50. 


detrimentum, 46. 


e, ex, 27, 30, 43, 45, 58, 


exsistero, 22. 


deus, 16, 91, 151, 185. 


59, 83, 87, 98, 100, 151. 


externus, 77- 


dicax, 59. 


edere, 178. 


exterus, 77. 


dicere, 23, 58, 59, 67, 74, 


edicere, 39. 


extremus, 15, 72, 103. 


88, 132, 133, 103, 176, 


edictum, 48. 


exuere, 51. 


190, 195, 205. 


educare, 58, 03. 




dicionis, 183. 


educ-ere, 58. 


fabula, 90. 


dictum, 126, 205. 


cgere, 121. 


facere, 40, 94, 120, 129, 


dies, 29, 103. 


ego, 105. 


140, 183, 187, 209. 


difficilis, 106. 


eligere, 36. 


fadlis, 106, 200. 


digito, 95. 


eloquens, 59. 


facinus, 49. 


dignitas, 61, 209. 


emendare, 43. 


factio, 137. 


diligere, 112. 


emere, 100, 184. 


factum, 49. 


dimittere, 129. 


enixe, 200. 


facundus, 59. 


disceptare, 55. 


enseni, 51. 


fama, 1(!0, 


discernere, 29, 115. 


epistula, 105. 


fari, 59, 176. 


disdplina, 35,03, 128, 164. 


equo, 19. 


fas, 49, 158. 


discrimen, 115. 


eripere, 184. 


fastidire, 52. 



54 



INDEX. 



fateri, 2. 


fuga, 153. 


humilis, 57. 


faustus, 80. 


fugere, 202. 


humus, 57. 


favere, 80. 


fulgor, 108. 




favor, 70. 


fulgura, 67. 


iace're, 46. 


febri, 101. 


fulgurat, 108. 


iacere, 57. 


fecundus, 81, 204. 


fulmen, 100, 108. 


iactura, 46. 


felicitas, 81. 


fundus, 50. 


iam, 117. 


felix, 80. 




iaindiu, 110. 


femina, 81, 204. 


Gallicanus, 4. 


iamdudum, 110. 


fendere, 92. 


Gallicus, 4. 


iampridem, 110. 


fera, 12. 


Gallus, 4. 


ianua, 64. 


ferae, 177. 


gaudere, 99. 


ianus, 64. 


fere, 10. 


gaudium, 85, 99. 


ici, 108. 


ferme, 10. 


generosus, 124. 


idem, 187. 


ferre, 2,19,21,32, 81,163, 


gens, 77, 92, 140, 207. 


idemque, 187. 


195. 


genus, 124, 168. 


idoneus, 74. 


fidem, 73. 


geometricae, 79. 


ignavia, 104. 


fieri, 10, 22, 86. 


gerere, 19, 49, 90. 


ignavus, 104. 


figura, 79. 


gignere, 140, 178. 


ignorantia, 93. 


filia, 35, 152. 


gnavus, 104. 


ignorat, 207. 


filius, 35, 151, 152, 199. 


graece, 88. 


ignoratio, 93. 


fingere, 79. 


grandior, 7. 


illaquere, 89. 


finis, 122. 


grates, 185. 


ille, 34, 130, 186, 205. 


finitimus, 122. 


gratia, 70, 185. 


imbeeillus, 199. 


firmata, 7. 


gratus, 8. 


immortalibus, 185. 


flagitare, 49, 155. 


gravis, 106. 


impedire, 89. 


flagitium, 49, 155. 




impeditus, 89. 


florere, 23. 


habere, 73, 88, 89, 136, 185, 


imperare, 39. 


flores, 54. 


192. 


imperitus, 207. 


flumen, 28, 182. 


habilis, 199. 


imperium, 126, 144, 175, 


fluvius, 182. 


habitare, 97. 


183, 207. 


foris, 64. 


baud, 56. 


impetrare, 127. 


forma, 20, 58, 79. 


beros, 113. 


impetus, 16. 


formido, 71. 


hie, 29, 94, 207. 


implicare, 89. 


formosus, 20, 79. 


Ilispanicus, 4. 


implorare, 16. 


fors, 81. 


Hispaniensis, 4. 


imprimis, 65. 


fortis, 113. 


Hispanus, 4. 


improbus, 113. 


fortuna, 81. 


historia, 90. 


impudentia, 169. 


fortunatus, 80. 


historicus, 90. 


impudicitia, 169. 


fossa, 50. 


homo, 42, 106, 113, 123, 


in, 9, 16, 23, 44, 58, 65, 


frater, 152. 


141, 207. 


73, 76, 78, 89, 92, 97, 


fraus, 46, 193. 


homunculus, 113. 


103, 104, 128, 139, 154, 


fructus, 83. 


honestus, 58, 124, 202. 


156, 160, 178, 183, 188, 


frui, 63, 83, 139. 


honor, 33. 


198, 207. 


fruges, 83, 157, 198. 


horror, 71. 


inanis, 61. 


frumentum, 83. 


hostilis, 92. 


inceptum, 24. 


frustra, 193. 


hostis, 62, 8<J, 92. 


inchoare, 24. 



INDEX. 



65 



incipere, 24. 


invidia, 70. 


locus, 20, 60, 74, 76, 97, 


incolere, 97. 


ipse, 141. 


157. 


increpare, 30. 


ire, 17, 78, 131. 


loquax, 59. 


indicare, 95. 


is, 113, 145. 


loqui, 21, 59, 88, 173, 176. 


indicere, 67. 


ita, 2. 


luctus, 85. 


indigere, 101, 121. 


iter, 92, 187, 198. 


lumen, 107. 


industrius, 96. 


iterum, 6. 


lux, 107. 


industria, 96. 


iubere, 39. 




iners, 104, 148. 


iucundus, 8. 


maeror, 85. 


inertia, 104. 


iudex, 26. 


maestitia, 85. 


infans, 7, 176. 


iudicare, 26. 


magis, 65, 117. 


infelicitas, 81. 


indicium, 23, 160. 


magistro, 63. 


infelix, 80. 


iugulare, 100. 


magnus, 15, 116, 140, 157, 


infensus, 92. 


iugulum, 100. 


206. 


inferre, 194. 


iumentum, 109. 


malencium, 49. 


infestus, 92. 


iungi, 114. 


mandare, 39. 


infirmus, 199. 


iuvare, 8. 


manubiae, 32. 


informare, 58. 


ius, 120, 158, 164. 


manus, 32, 39, 100, 120. 


infortunatus, 80. 


iusiurandum, 91, 125. 


mare, 50. 


ingenium, 178, 199. 


iuvenis, 7. 


maritima, 170. 


ingenuus, 63, 82, 124, 164. 




maritus, 152, 204. 


inimicus, 62, 141. 


labor, 96, 206. 


mas, 204. 


inire, 25. 


laboriosus, 96. 


mater, 152, 204. 


initium, 25. 


lac, 123. 


matrimonium, 114. 


iniuria, 89. 


lacrimis, 21. 


matrona, 204. 


inquam, 176. 


laetari, 99. 


maxime, 65. 


inretire, 89. 


laetitia, 85, 99. 


me, 21. 


insciens, 94. 


latinum, 88, 188. 


medicma, 8. 


inscientia, 93. 


landare, 30. 


medio, 100. 


inscitia, 93. 


legere, 36, 112. 


mediocriter, 131. 


inscius, 93, 94. 


legiones, 4. 


inedius, 7, 103. 


insequi, 76. 


lepos, 120. 


memini, 118, 154. 


insignis, 124. 


levis, 106. 


memorem, 154. 


instituerc, 58. 


lex, 128, 161, 173. 


memoria, 154, 207. 


instruere, 58, 74. 


libenter, 2. 


mendum, 43. 


insula, 91. 


liberalis, 124, 164. 


mens, 154, 178. 


integer, 6, 9. 


liberaliter, 58, 63. 


mereri, 185. 


inter, 100, 173. 


liberi, 35, 204. 


meritam, 185. 


interficere, 100. 


libertinus, 82. 


metuere, 71. 


interimere, 100. 


libertus, 82. 


metus, 71, 101. 


intermittere, 129. 


libro, 103. 


meus, 133, 158, 194. 


interpres, 67. 


liceri, 21, 146. 


mihi, 88. 


interpretari, 67, 188. 


lingua, 177. 


miles, 89, 123, 178. 


interrogare, 98. 


litterae, 58, 105, 164. 


mirari, 3. 


intestinus, 77. 


litteratus, 45, 207. 


mirum, 3. 


intueri, 41. 


litus, 170. 


miser, 80. 


invenire, 73, 127. 


locuples, 157- 


misericordia, 16. 



56 



INDEX. 



modo, 131, 150. 


nescius, 94. 


opeta, 206. 


moenia, 196. 


nex, 47, 100. 


opima, 32. 


momentum, 106, 115. 


niger, 29, 201. 


opinati, 26. 


monere, 95. 


nigrior, 29. 


opinio, 52, 133, 160. 


monstra, 67. 


nihil, 117, 131, 153. 


opottet, 136. 


monstrare, 95. 


nisi, 131, 153. 


oppidum, 37, 103. 


morbus, 145, 172, 192. 


nobilis, 69, 113, 124, 140. 


oppottunus, 74. 


mores, 43, 77. 


nomen, 65, 205. 


oppugnate, 27- 


mors, 47, 52, 100, 120. 


nominate, 119. 


ops, 15, 144. 


mortuus, 42. 


iiominatim, 65. 


optate, 202. 


mos, 138, 160. 


non, 2, 8, 21, 29, 56, 94, 


optimus, 158, 164, 202. 


muliebris, 168. 


113, 117, 129, 131, 145, 


optio, 202. 


mulier, 204. 


163, 193. 


opus, 24, 136, 151, 206. 


multa, 149. 


noscere, 205. 


ota, 170. 


multus,50,59,66,117,209. 


notitia, 164. 


otaculum, 69. 


multare, 149. 


novus, 6, 15, 123, 128, 150. 


ot ate, 16, 134, 177. 


multitude, 140. 


nox, 50. 


otatio, 59, 177, 182. 


mundus, 207. 


nubere, 114. 


otatot, 33, 134. 


munire, 196. 


nubes, 114. 


ot bate, 51. 


munus, 84. 


nullo, 206. 


otbis, 57, 207. 


murus, 196. 


nummi, 116. 


ot bus, 51. 


mutare, 38. 


nunc, 5, 130, 207. 


otdiri, 24. 




nuncupate, 119. 


ornatus, 159. 


nae, 34. 


nunquam, 130. 


os, 16, 23, 64, 170, 177. 


nancisci, 127. 


nuper, 150. 


osce, 88. 


narratio, 8, 90. 




ostendere, 95. 


narratiuncula, 90. 


ob, 16, 21, 27, 74, 95, 126. 


ostium, 64. 


nasci, 120, 140, 207- 


objurgate, 30. 


otium, 63, 139, 156. 


natio, 140. 


oboedite, 126. 




nativus, 120. 


obscute, 132. 


pacisci, 139. 


natus, 7, 120. 


obsectate, 16. 


paene, 10. 


naturalis, 120. 


obsequi, 76, 126. 


palam, 132. 


navare, 104. 


obsidete, 27. 


pangete, 139. 


navus, 104. 


obsoletus, 128. 


parare, 30. 


ndum est, 136. 


obtempetate, 126. 


parens, 126, 152, 165. 


ne, 34, 193, 205. 


obtingete, 86. 


parere, 126. 


necare, 100. 


occasionem, 129. 


pario, 73. 


necessarius, 120, 152. 


occidete, 100. 


pats, 137. 


necesse, 136. 


odisse, 112. 


parumper, 200. 


necessitas, 152. 


odium, 138. 


patva, 15, 116. 


necessitudo, 152. 


offendete, 92. 


pater, 152. 


nefas, 49. 


olim, 130. 


paternus, 138. 


neglegere, 52, 112, 129. 


ollus, 130. 


pati, 19, 46, 142. 


negotium, 139, 156, 206. 


omen, 80. 


patria, 101. 


nemo, 9, 59, 131, 207. 


omittete, 129. 


pattius, 138, 177. 


nepos, 152. 


omnino, 59. 


pauci, 131, 205. 


nequiquam, 193. 


omnis, 9, 10, 135, 207. 


paulisper, 200. 



INDEX. 



67 



pavor, 71. 


popularis, 70. 


pro, 16, 60, 80, 89, 146, 


pax, 50, 113, 139. 


populus, 23, 140, 183. 


185. 


pecunia, 68, 116. 


porta, 64. 


proavus, 152. 


pecus, 100, 109, 116. 


portare, 19. 


probari, 73. 


peior, 208. 


portus, 69, 74, 120. 


procedere, 80. 


per, 21, 100. 


poscere, 155. 


proelium, 78, 80. 


percipere, 83. 


posse, 21, 29, 129, 163. 


profanus, 91. 


percontari, 98. 


post, 207. 


profectionem, 89. 


percutere, 100, 108. 


postea, 5. 


profecto, 34, 190. 


pcrdere, HI. 


posthac, 5. 


profiteri, 2, 67. 


peregre, 77. 


postremus, 72, 103. 


profundus, 50. 


percgrinus, 77. 


postulare, 155. 


prohibere, 89. 


pericula, 52. 


potentia, 144. 


promittere, 146, 191. 


perii, 10. 


potestas, 95, 138, 142, 144, 


prope, 10. 


perimere, 100. 


183. 


propinquus, 152. 


peritus, 148. 


potissinmm, 65, 117. 


propter, 21. 


permittere, 19, 142. 


potius, 117. 


prosequi, 76. 


pernicies, 53. 


prae, 2, 21, 23, 65. 


prosperus, 80. 


persequi, 76. 


praeceptum, 161. 


proximus, 103. 


persona, 141. 


praecipere, 39. 


prudens, 148, 171. 


pes, 50, 74, 89. 


praecipue, 65. 


prudentia, 148. 


pessitnus, 208. 


praeda, 32. 


publice, 132. 


pestilentia, 53. 


praemium, 157. 


pudicitia, 169. 


pestis, 53. 


praesens, 141. 


pudor, 169. 


petere, 16, 149, 155. 


praesertim, 65. 


puer, 7, 35, 204. 


pharetram, 51. 


praestantia, 209. 


puerilis, 35. 


philosophiam, 2. 


praestare, 135, 146. 


pulcher, 20, 164. 


philosophus, 2, 187. 


praeter, 23. 


punctum, 115. 


pice, 29. 


praeterniittere, 129. 


punire, 149. 


piger, 104. 


precari, 16. 


purgo, 149. 


pigritia, 104. 


pretiurn, 209. 


purum, 149. 


planus, 67, 132. 


prex, 16. 


putare, 26, 55. 


plebiscitum, 48. 


pridem, 110. 




plebs, 48, 140. 


priinum, 72. 


quaerere, 98. 


pleo, 157. 


primus, 15, 65, 78, 103, 


quaestio, 98. 


plenum, 157. 


165. 


quatere, 100. 


plerique, 118. 


princeps, 78. 


que, 80. 


plerumque, 10. 


principatus, 175. 


querela, 40. 


plicare, 16, 89. 


principium, 25. 


querinlonia, 40. 


plorare, 16. 


prior, 78, 110. 


questus, 40. 


plures, 167. 


priscus, 128. 


qui, quis, 80, 113, 117, 


plurimi, 118. 


pristinus, 128. 


133, 145, 207. 


plus, 117. 


privare, 51. 


H 11 id :mi, 174. 


poema, 143. 


privatim, 132. 


quidem, 13, 133, 206. 


poena, 149. 


privignus, 51. 


quiquam, 193. 


poeta, 187. 


privilegium, 61. 


quies, 156. 


polliceri, 146. 


privus, 61. 


quin, 56, 129, 207. 



58 



INDEX. 



quod, 88. 


Romanus, 29, 92. 


sexus, 168. 


quondam, 130. 


rudis, 45, 58. 


si, 65. 


quotannis, 210. 


rumor, 160. 


sibi, 100, 183, 206. 




rura, 138. 


Siciliensis, 4. 


raro, 131. 


rursus, 6. 


Siculus, 4. 


ratio, 147. 


rus, 102. 


sicut, 165. 


ratus, 26. 


rusticanus, 44. 


sicuti, 100. 


recens, 123, 128. 


rusticus, 44. 


sidus, 179. 


recipere, 146, 191, 198. 




significare, 95. 


recordari, 154. 


sacer, 91, 210. 


signum, 95, 181. 


rectam, 198. 


sacramentum, 125. 


silere, 173. 


recusare, 52, 191. 


sacrare, 16. 


silentium, 173. 


redigere, 154, 183. 


sacrificia, 210. 


similis, 145. 


redire, 38, 198. 


saltern, 13. 


simul, 187. 


referre, 185. 


salvus, 13. 


simulacrum, 181. 


regalis, 159. 


sanctus, 91. 


simulare, 145. 


regem, 119. 


sane, 34, 190. 


sine, 56, 206. 


regere, 43, 160. 


sanguis, 31. 


sinere, 19, 142. 


regius, 159. 


scelus, 49. 


singuli, 9. 


regnare, 160. 


scientia, 164. 


sol, 68. 


regnum, 175. 


seiscitari, 98. 


solemnis, 210. 


regula, 161. 


scire, 34, 88, 207. 


sellers, 104, 148, 210 


relinquere, 1, 153. 


scitum, 48, 205. 


sollus, 210. 


reliquus, 135, 153. 


scriptor, 18, 90. 


solus, 2. 


remedia, 192. 


se, 2, 59, 88, 100, 145, 183, 


solum, 57. 


reminisci, 154. 


198. 


somnia, 67. 


remotis, 203. 


secundus, 80, 81, 165, 182. 


sonare, 173. 


reor, 26, 


securis, 100. 


soror, 152. 


reperire, 73, 127. 


securus, 162. 


species, 34, 79, 190. 


repetere, 149. 


sed, 2. 


spectare, 41. 


reprehendere, 30. 


sedere, 27. 


speculari, 41. 


requies, 156. 


segnis, 104. 


spernere, 52. 


res, 25, 34, 49, 60, 73, 80, 


segnitia, 104. 


spero, 80. 


81, 83, 90, 95, 106, 123, 


senatus, 48. 


spolia, 32, 51. 


162, 180, 185, 190, 197, 


senectus, 7. 


spoliare, 51. 


207, 209. 


senex, 7, 199. 


sponte, 194. 


respublica, 160, 180. 


senior, 7. 


statua, 181. 


restat, 153. 


sententia, 98, 133, 195, 


statuere, 58, 209. 


restituere, 128. 


205. 


statum, 128. 


revocare, 154. 


sentire, 133. 


stella, 179. 


rhetor, 134. 


sepeliri, 132. 


strepere, 173. 


ripa, 170. 


sequi, 76, 80, 81, 165. 


studere, 123. 


rivulus, 182. 


serere, 1, 55, 177. 


studiose, 20. 


rivus, 182. 


sermo, 24, 138, 177. 


studium, 70, 164. 


robigo, 46. 


servus, 82. 


sub, 16, 184. 


robur, 144. 


severitas, 128. 


subicere, 183. 


rogare, 16, 98. 


sex, 135. 


subiecti, 126. 



INDEX. 



59 



subigere, 183. 


trepidatio, 71. 


venire, 17, 23, 73, 86, 183. 


subsequi, 76. 


tres, 50, 88. 


ventus, 4, 80. 


subtilis, 50. 


tribuere, 209. 


venustus, 20. 


succedcrc, 76. 


tribuni, 48. 


verberibus, 100, 149. 


successus, 80. 


tributum, 189. 


verbum, 61, 128, 149, 188, 


suffragium, 195. 


tristitia, 85, 99. 


205. 


sumere, 184. 


trucidare, 100. 


verecundia, 71. 


summus, 33, 50, 158, 186. 


tn 16, 29, 94. 


vereri, 71. 


supplex, 149. 


tueor, 162. 


veritas, 190. 


suppliearej 16. 


turn, 72. 


vero, 34, 190. 


supplicium, 149. 


tutus, 162. 


vertere, 6, 9, 30, 54, 188, 


supremus, 103. 


tuus, 158, 194. 


210. 


suscipere, 191. 




verum, 190. 


suspicere, 52. 


uber, 157. 


verus, 34, 190. 


sustincre, 19. 


uberrimus, 83, 157. 


vestimontum, 38. 


suus, 38, 77, 151, 158, 183, 


ubertas, 157. 


vestis, 19, 38. 


186, 194. 


ubi, 205, 207. 


vestitus, 38. 




ullus, 66, 206. 


veterrimus, 128. 


tacere, 173. 


ultimas, 72, 103. 


vetus, 123, 128. 


tandem, 72, 207. 


ultra, 28. 


vetustior, 128. 


tangere, 9. 


ultro, 194. 


vetustus, 128. 


tantum, 131. 


uniero, 51. 


via, 95, 198. 


tela, 14. 


una, 187. 


vicinus, 122. 


tellus, 57. 


universus, 9. 


victoriam, 127. 


tempestas, 186. 


unus, 9, 165, 205. 


vicus, 122. 


templum, 41. 


urbana, 44. 


videre, 2, 59, 166. 


tempus, 60, 115, 130, 186, 


urbs, 37. 


vigere, 160. 


210. 


usu, 86. 


vir, 44, 107, 113, 141, 152, 


tendere, 95. 


ut, 2, 10, 127, 142, 153. 


186, 204. 


tenere, 154. 


uterque, 33. 


virilis, 7, 168. 


tenus, 188. 


uti, 63, 192. 


virtus, 113, 209. 


terra, 5V, 92, 102, 103, 


utilis, 74. 


vis, 144, 199. 


207. 


uxor, 114, 152, 204. 


vita, 33, 44, 80, 103. 


terere, 46. 




vitio, 30. 


tertius, 165. 


vacare, 101. 


vituperare, 30. 


testis, 203. 


vacuus, 61. 


vivere, 80, 102, 139. 


timere, 71. 


vagina, 51. 


vix, 163. 


timor, 71. 


valere, 160. 


vocabuhim, 205. 


tirones, 123. 


valetudo, 199. 


vocare, 119, 205. 


tolerare, 19, 142. 


valvae, 64. 


voluntaria, 120. 


tollere, 100. 


varius, 54. 


voluptas, 52, 63. 


totus, 9, 148, 210. 


vas, 61. 


vox, 205. 


tranquillitas, 156. 


vectigal, 189. 


vulgus, 52, 140. 


trans, 28. 


vehere, 19. 


vultis, 117. 


transferre, 188. 


velle, 117,155. 





LATIN TEXT-BOOKS. 



INTROI.. PR1CB. 

Allen and Oreenough: Latin Grammar $1.20 

Shorter Latin Grammar 95 

Caesar, with vocabulary 1.26 

New Cicero, with vocabulary 1.40 

Ovid, with vocabulary 1.50 

Sallust's Catiline, 60 cents ; Cicero de Senectute 50 

Allen: Introduction to Latin Composition 90 

Remnants of Early Latin 75 

Germania and Agricola of Tacitus 1.00 

Collar : Gate to Caesar, 40 cents; New Gradatim 50 

Practical Latin Composition 1.00 

Collar and Daniell : First Latin Book 1.00 

Beginner's Latin Book 1.00 

College Series of Latin Authors : 

Allen's Annals of Tacitus, Books I.-VI 1.50 

Bennett's Dialogus de Oratoribus of Tacitus 75 

Greenough's Satires and Epistles of Horace 1.25 

Greenough's Livy, Books I. and II 1.25 

Greenough and Peck's Livy, Books XXI. and XXII... 1.25 

Kellogg's Brutus of Cicero 1.25 

Merrill's Catullus 1.40 

Smith's Odes and Epodes of Horace 1.50 

Crowell : Selections from the Latin Poets 1.40 

Crowell and Richardson : Bender's Roman Literature 1.00 

Ferguson: Questions on Caesar and Xenophou 1.12 

Ginn & Company: Classical Atlas 2.00 

Gepp and Haigh : Latin-English Dictionary 1.30 

Greenough and Kittredge: New Virgil: Aeneid, I.-VI., with 

vocabulary 1.50 

Bucolics and Aeneid, I.-VI., with vocabulary 1.60 

Gudeman: Dialogus de Oratoribus 2.75 

Keep: Essential Uses of the Moods 25 

Latin School Classics : Clark's Erasmus 50 

Collar's Aeneid, Book VII 45 

Collar's Aeneid, Book VII., with translation 45 

D'Ooge's Viri Romae 75 

Humphreys' Quintus Curtius 50 

Roberts' Nepos 75 

Tetlow's Aeneid, Book VIII., with vocabulary 45 

Tetlow's Aeneid, Book VIII., without vocabulary 35 

Lord: Roman Pronunciation of Latin 35 

Rivi Tiburtini. Metres of Horace set to music 50 

Moulton : Preparatory Latin Composition 80 

Post : Latin at Sight 80 

Stickney: Cicero de Natura Deorum 1.40 

Terence: Adelphoe, Phormio, Heautou Timorumenos (1 vol.).. 1.00 

Thacher: Madvig's Latin Grammar 2.25 

White: Latin-English Lexicon, 1-00; English-Latin Lexicon.. 1.50 
Latin-English and English-Latin Lexicon 2.25 



Descriptive Circulars of our Latin books sent, postpaid, on 
application. The above list is not complete. 

CINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 

Boston. New York. Chicago. Atlanta. Dallas. 



ALLEN AND 
GREENOUGH'S 



NEW CICERO 



REVISED BY 

J. B. GREENOUGH, Professor of Latin in Harvard University, 

AND 

GEORGE L. KITTREDGE, Professor of English in Harvard 
University, formerly Professor of Latin in Phillips Exeter A cademy. 



SPECIAL VOCABULARY, BY PROFESSOR GREENOUGH. 



izmo. Half morocco. Ixv + 478+ 194 pages. Illustrated. 
For introduction, $1.40. 



THIS new edition of Cicero has been treated with special reference to 
the use of the orations as models of classic oratory. The Introduction 
is made to help hi this study of applied logic and rhetoric. There is a 
full life of Cicero, describing his education and development as an orator, 
as well as his political career. There is a chapter connecting the style of 
. the orations with ancient formal rhetoric. There is also a chapter on 
Roman oratory and the place of the orator in ancient civilization. 

The text includes the following orations : The Manilian Law, four 
orations against Catiline, Archias, Milo, Marcellus, Ligarius, the four- 
teenth Philippic, and copious extracts from the Defence of Roscius and 
the Actio Secunda against Verres. 

Almost everything admitting of graphic presentation has an illus- 
tration, and no little study has been expended in finding the most suit- 
able pictures. Views of places, scenes of Roman life, and portraits have 
been specially sought. Many coins are shown. The illustrations are 
fully explained in the Index, with criticisms. 



J. H. Westcott, Professor of Latin, 
Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. : 
I shall recommend the use of it in the 
Princeton Preparatory School. 

Frank Smalley, Professor of Latin, 
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. : It 
is a fine book, splendidly illustrated. It 
will give me pleasure to recommend it to 
teachers in preparatory schools. I have 
seen no edition of Cicero that has pleased 
me more. If I were called on to teach his 
orations I would surely use this book. 



A. O. Hopkins, Professor of Latin, 
Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. : The 
whole make-up of the book is attractive, 
and it will be welcomed as a valuable 
contribution to the undergraduate study 
of Cicero. 

W. B. Owen, Professor of Latin, La- 
fayette College, Easton, Pa. : The many 
beautiful illustrations make a prominent 
feature. I am especially pleased also with 
the excellent chapter on Roman consti- 
tution. It will add greatly to the value 
of the work. 



GINN & COMPANY, Publishers, 



Boston. 



New York. 



Chicago. Atlanta. 



Dallas.