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MINI 



HANDBOOK OF MARKS ON POTTERY 
AND PORCELAIN 



MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 

LONDON • BOMBAY • CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

NEW YORK • BOSTON • CHICAGO 

ATLANTA • SAN FRANCISCO 

THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, Ltd. 

TORONTO 



UK 

H2-I5" 

cfcefHANDBOOK 



OF 



MARKS ON POTTERY 
& PORCELAIN 



BY 



W. BURTON, M.A. 



AUTHOR OF ' A HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION OF ENGLISH PORCELAIN,' ' A HISTORY AND 

DESCRIPTION OF ENGLISH EARTHENWARE AND STONEWARE,' 

' PORCELAIN, ITS MANUFACTURE,' ETC. 



R. L. HOBSON, B.A. 

AUTHOR OF THE GUIDE TO, AND CATALOGUES OF, THE POTTERY JtND PORCELAIN 

IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM, ' PORCELAIN ORIENTAL, CONTINENTAL, 

AND BRITISH,' ETC, 



MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED 

ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON 

1909 



Y 

A 

8 



Ref- 




INTRODUCTION 



The ardent collector of Pottery or Porcelain, even when he 
has long passed his "novitiate," constantly feels the need of a 
reliable pocket volume containing the authentic and indisputable 
marks of the pottery and porcelain of the best " collectors' " 
periods. It has been our aim to supply such a volume in a 
condensed and practical form. The only marks given in this 
book are those which are beyond dispute. The arrangement 
is geographical, the different species of ware being separately 
treated wherever practicable ; but, by elaborate indices, ready 
reference has been provided to each mark, as well as to each 
factory. In addition, a condensed account of the important 
productions of every country prefaces each section of the 
work. The aim, throughout, has been to render the work as 
complete and self-contained as such a pocket manual can be; 
though, in his study, the collector will naturally turn for fuller 
information to the important histories or monographs, such 
as those mentioned in the bibliography. 

It has been assumed that the collector is acquainted with 
the broad distinctions of Simple Pottery, Faience, Stoneware, 
and Porcelain. The terms are used here in a very definite 
way. 

Simple Pottery includes all the forms of earthenware 

whether made from white or coloured clays, glazed 

with a transparent lead glaze. 
Faience includes all the forms of earthenware, coated 

with tin-enamel, such as Majolica, Delft, and their 

related types. 



vi POTTERY MARKS 

Stoneware includes the hard, vitrified and impermeable 
kinds of earthenware, whether Rhenish, English, or 
Oriental. 

Porcelains are the translucent and (generally) white 
forms of pottery. 

The porcelains are classified in the customary way, as 
hard-paste or soft-paste. The hard-paste group includes such 
well-defined types as the Chinese, Japanese, German, and 
modern Continental porcelains. The soft-paste group includes 
all the porcelains in which the fired body is distinctly softer 
than in the former group. The soft-paste porcelains comprise 
two distinct varieties, which are of widely different value to 
the collector. 

A. The soft-paste glassy porcelains (invaluable on account 

of their quality and rarity), such as those made at 
Florence (sixteenth century), Rouen (seventeenth 
century), and the early French and English porcelains 
(eighteenth century) ; 

B. The soft bone-paste porcelains, such as the English 

porcelains made in the later eighteenth and through- 
out the nineteenth century. 

So much attention has been paid to marks that it may be 
necessary to state clearly the exact value of a mark. Other 
things being equal, a marked example of any period is more 
valuable than an unmarked one. But the mark alone must 
not be considered as the sole criterion of excellence or even 
market value. Unfortunately since factory or workmen's 
marks have become general, quite a large proportion of pieces 
have been sent out without any distinctive mark, especially in 
byegone centuries. This has been the opportunity of the 
forger and "faker," and the reader is earnestly warned to be 
on his guard against their abominable cleverness. The marks 
which are most difficult to imitate, and are in that respect 
most reliable, are those which occur under the glaze ; as was 
generally the case before the eighteenth century. During the 
eighteenth century there was a gradual introduction of marks 
painted, printed, or stencilled over the glaze, and this practice 



INTRODUCTION vii 

has been increasingly followed, with some exceptions, to the 
present day. 

The under-glaze marks are of two kinds : (a) those stamped 
or incised in the body of the ware while it is still soft. These 
are perhaps the most reliable of all marks, for once made it is 
very difficult to remove or alter them. They may, however, 
be so imperfectly formed, or have been so obliterated by the 
glaze as to be deciphered with difficulty, (b) Marks painted 
under the glaze. This is the most important class of marks, 
being found on Oriental porcelain, Persian earthenware, 
European faience, and nearly every kind of European pottery 
and porcelain. Down to the end of the eighteenth century, 
practically all under-glaze marks were in blue (the most avail- 
able colour), and it is only in the nineteenth century, as a rule, 
that under-glaze marks in black, pink, or green are found. 
Many of these later marks are printed and not painted. In 
all the old wares, where not otherwise specified, it may be 
taken for granted that the mark is painted in blue. 

With the introduction of over-glaze, or enamel, colours and 
gilding in the eighteenth century we get an increasing use of 
marks in the same style. The fact that these marks are 
painted over the glaze detracts greatly from their value, for 
several reasons. Such marks are easily added to any piece of 
pottery or porcelain, as they can be fired at a temperature 
that will not seriously impair the previous decoration. 
Genuine over-glaze marks can be readily removed and a more 
valuable mark substituted, so that they cannot be regarded in 
themselves as being so safe and trustworthy as those which 
occur under the glaze. 

The marks themselves consist of factory names, or trade- 
marks as they are called nowadays, the signatures of potters, 
painters, or gilders, with or without dates and descriptive 
notes, placed in some inconspicuous place, occasionally in the 
design, but generally under the base of the piece. Some of 
them, especially the early ones, afford precise information as 
to the origin of the piece on which they occur, but others are 
mere workmen's signs or pattern marks, or numbers which are 
of little value unless supported by other evidence. The 



viii POTTERY MARKS 

tendency of many old factories (and some modern ones) to 
borrow each other's marks, or to adopt signs similar to those 
in use at some more famous works, is a source of endless 
confusion which can only be avoided by a knowledge of the 
wares themselves. 

The period covered extends roughly from the Middle Ages 
to 1850, though a selection of certain modern marks has been 
included, especially of such wares as are already finding favour 
with collectors. No attempt has been made to reproduce the 
exact size of the individual marks, because of the constant 
variations in size and form of the same painted mark on 
different pieces. Stamped and written names have been 
reproduced in Roman and Italic types respectively, except in 
those cases where striking individuality of script rendered a 
direct copy necessary. Each new factory, or group of factories, 
as it occurs is printed in conspicuous type. The dates given 
for the European wares require no explanation, but in the 
Oriental sections, with which especial pains have been taken, 
the dates are those of the actual specimen from which the 
mark was copied. These Oriental marks cannot be regarded 
as date- marks when they are mere symbols or benevolent 
expressions. 

Special acknowledgments are due to M. Papillon, the 
author of the Guide to the Ceramic Museum at Sevres, for 
permission to use his complete list of Sevres Marks ; to 
Professor E. S. Morse, for a similar courtesy with regard to his 
invaluable Catalogue of the Japanese Pottery in the Museum 
of Fine Arts, Boston, U.S.A. ; and to Mrs. Hobson, for assisting 
in the compilation of the Indices. 

W. B. 

R. L. H. 



CONTENTS 











PAGES 


Italian Maiolica 








1-22 


Italian Porcelain 








22-24 


German Pottery 








25-32 


German Porcelain 








33-39 


Austria -Hungary 








40-41 


Holland 








43-5o 


Belgium 








50-51 


Scandinavia 








52-53 


Russia . 








53-54 


Switzerland 








54-55 


Alsace-Lorraine . 








55-56 


French Pottery . 








57-7i 


French Porcelain- 








72-88 


Spain and Portugal 








89-92 


British Porcelain 








93-101 


British Pottery . 




.- 




102-114 


America 






114-115 


Modern British Mar 


ECS 






1 1 6-1 19 



x POTTERY MARKS 

Persia and the Near East 
Chinese Porcelain 
Chinese Pottery 
Japanese Pottery 
Japanese Porcelain 
Index of Names . 
Index of Initials 



PAGES 
I2I-I25 

127-151 

152 

153-179 
l8l-191 
193-199 
201-204 



Index of Marks other than Names or Initials 205-206 
Index of Oriental Marks and Names . . 207-210 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THIS WORK. 

h.p. = hard-paste porcelain, 
s.p. — soft-paste porcelain, 
p. = painted, 
pr. = printed, 
inc. = incised. 

imp. = impressed or stamped. 
St. = stencilled. 



WORKS OF REFERENCE CONSULTED 

Auscher, E. S., A History and Description of French Porcelain. 

Barber, E. A., Marks of American Potters. 

Berling, F. , Das Meissner Porzellan und seine Geschichte. 

Brinckmann, J., Fiihrer durch das hamburgisches Museum ftir Kunst und 

Gewerbe. 
Burton, W., A History and Description of English Porcelain. 

A History and Description of English Earthenware and Stoneware. 
Bushell, S. W., Chinese Art. Vol. II. Victoria and Albert Museum 

Handbooks. 
Chaffers, W., Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain. 
Church, A. H., The Catalogue of the Schreiber Collection. 

English Earthenware. 

English Porcelain. 

In series of Victoria and Albert Museum Handbooks. 
Fortnum, C. D., Maiolica. 

Fouquet, D., Contribution a l'etude de la ceramique orientals 
Franks, Sir A. W., Catalogue of a Collection of Continental Porcelain at 
the Bethnal Green Museum. 

Catalogue of a Collection of Oriental Porcelain and Pottery. 

Japanese Pottery. 
Graesse-Jaennicke, Guide de l'amateur de porcelaines et de poteries. 
Havard, H. , La Faience de Delft. 
Hobson, R. L., The Catalogue of English Tottery in the British Museum. 

The Catalogue of English Porcelain in the British Museum. 
Jaennicke, F. 

Grundriss der Keramik. 

Deutches Steinzeug, Mettlacher Museum. 
Jewitt, LI., The Ceramic Art of Great Britain. 
Morse, Prof. E. S. , Catalogue of Japanese Pottery in the Museum of Fine 

Arts. Boston, U.S.A. 
Pazaurek, G., Mitteilungen des nordbohmischen Gewerbe-Museum. 
Solon, L. M. , German Stoneware. 

A History and Description of the Old French Faience. 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA 

The term Maiolica is applied in these pages to the decorated 
Italian pottery made from the fifteenth century onwards, though 
it is often used to embrace certain kinds of ware to which the 
name is not strictly applicable, viz. mezza-maiolica, graffiato wares, 
and the later lead-glazed, white earthenwares of the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. 

Mezza-maiolica is the name given to a common buff 
earthenware, coated with a wash of white clay (slip), and painted 
in simple, often crude tints of green, blue, and purplish brown, 
under a thin colourless glaze. It was the precursor of true maiolica. 

Graffiato ware is a mezza-maiolica, with a substantial coating 
of white slip, which was decorated by scratching or cutting out a 
pattern through this slip-covering, so as to disclose the buff or 
red body beneath — colours, if used at all, were usually added in 
patches or washes — and in any case the ware was finished with a 
clear, straw-coloured, lead glaze. This, like the painted mezza- 
maiolica, was a very early type of product, which, however, has 
continued in use, in the north of Italy especially, to the present 
time. 

Maiolica proper was fashioned in a buff ware, more carefully 
prepared and closer in texture than mezza-maiolica, and is coated 
with a white, opaque layer of tin-enamel (instead of slip), on which 
the painter laid his colours : the later and more delicately painted 
maiolica was finished with an additional thin coat of colourless 
glaze, applied over the fired colours, like the varnish over a picture. 
Up to the eighteenth century one firing sufficed for the colours 
and the tin-enamel, and only such pigments could be used as 
would stand the full heat of the maiolica kiln. The marks, on 
wares of this period, are almost always in blue. 

5E b 



2 POTTERY MARKS 

Early in the eighteenth century a new process was introduced. 
The body and its tin -enamel coating were baked and finished 
first, then the decoration was applied to the fired surface in on- 
the-glaze colours, which were fixed at a comparatively low heat 
in the enamelling kiln. From this time marks in various colours 
on the glaze became common. 

The most famous period of true maiolica was from about 1500 
to 1560 when the typical decoration consisted of pictorial subjects 
copied from engravings after the great Italian painters. The 
marks at the period are often very elaborate, and tell us not only 
the name of the painter of the piece, but the botega or factory in 
which he worked, the name of the master under whom he served, 
and the title of his subject. Hence the frequent occurrence of 
such words (sometimes in contracted form) as botega, maestro, 
vasaro (potter), pictor, fatto (made), fecit, pinxit, etc. On the 
lustred wares of Diruta and Gubbio the mark is usually in lustre. 
Maestro Giorgio Andreoli of Gubbio (q.v.) was famed for his skill 
in the production of lustres, especially ruby lustre, and the potters 
of other towns sometimes sent their pieces to Gubbio, after they 
had been painted and fired, to be embellished with lustre by 
Giorgio. Such pieces bear Giorgio's mark in lustre, in addition 
to the mark or signature of the original painter, which is in blue. 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN 

The earliest Italian porcelain, of which marked examples are 
known, was made at Florence under the patronage of Francesco 
Maria di Medici in the last half of the sixteenth century, and is 
called " Medici Porcelain." This " Medici " porcelain owed its 
translucence to the glass used in its preparation. It is among 
the rarest of ceramic treasures, and an authentic specimen is 
worth many times its weight in gold. Nothing more is heard 
of Italian porcelain until about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, when the rage for porcelain manufacture was at its 
height in Europe. 

Hard porcelain in imitation of the celebrated Meissen porcelain, 
as well as soft-paste porcelain, was then made at Venice successively 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN 3 

by Vezzi, Hewelche, and the Cozzi family. The more famous 
porcelain made at Doccia (1737 onwards) was a soft paste during 
the early years of the factory, but a hard paste was made afterwards, 
and the same may be said of the royal factory, started at Capo 
di Monte in 1743, an d subsequently transferred to Naples. At 
Treviso and Vinovo another kind of porcelain, containing silicate 
of magnesia, was produced for a few years at the end of the 
eighteenth century. This ware has a yellowish waxen appearance, 
and is peculiar to certain Italian and Spanish factories. 



4 ITALIAN MAIOLICA— FLORENCE, CAFFAGGIOLO 



Mark. 




G.F.F. 1560 

PI GIVLIE A SFORZZA 



M. F. 



IOHANNES. ANTONIUS. 
BARNABAS. CUTIUS. 

PAPI^ENSIS 



1734 la 26 marzo 
Pavia 




c 

6* 



Description. 



Graffiato Ware 

Citta di Castello 

or Perugia 

c. 1520 



c. 1650 



1676 

and other members 

of the Cuzio family 

at Pavia 



Maiolica proper. 
Tuscany 

Caffaggiolo or 

Florence 

1491 



Florence 
15th cent. 



Caffaggiolo 
c. 1500 



Caffaggiolo 




Faenza 
c. 1500 



Mark. 





Description. 



Caffaggiolo or 
Faenza 
c. 1500 



,, c. 1510 



,, c. 1510-20 

(Monogram of 

P.L.A.T.) 



1515-20 



1500-20 



? Caffaggiolo 



Caffaggiolo 



1500-20 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— CAFFAGGIOLO, SIENA 



Mark. 



Description. 



PP 

i 



Caffaggiolo 



c. 1520 



1513 



t-S^S-^ 




Mark. 



< 



GO*€L^ 



^ 



in a panel on 

which is a 

cupid 



c'. 1520 







Description. 



Caffaggiolo 



c 1550 



In Galiano, a 
hamlet neai" 
Caffaggiolo 



_/#/# 1 Siena 
da m° benedetto 



S lZjSZZ * 



The Rape of 
Helen, made 

in Monte 
(a hamlet near 

Caffaggiolo) 



Siena 

Maestro 
Benedetto 
c. 1510-20 



IP" 



c. 1510 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— SIENA, PESARO 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 






1 / 


Pesaro 


Q^\% ^CsD^ 


Siena 


1 f 




XjL&r' 




V 


c. 1510 


Ferdinando Maria 




V 




Campori Senese 




C • H • O • N 




dipinse 1733 




H f 




-A. 




v 




¥ 


? F. Campori 


1 > 




Pisa 


Pisa 

1 6th century 


*f* 


1500-10 

(Pessaro or 

Faenza) 


Rafaello 


Montelupo 


* 




GlROLAMO FECIT 








Mte. Lupo 




f-\ 




1639 




>£ 


? Pesaro 












M 


» 


Dipinta Giovinale 




/Jfc>v 




Tereni da Montelupo 




vi£y 


' ' 


F. P. 
Asciani 


Asciano 

1600 


G 




F. F. D. 


1578 


in la botega da mastro 


1542 






■ Girolamo da le Gabice 


Made in the Lan- 


FORTUNATUS 

Philligellus 






franchi workshop 
by Mo. Girolamo 


P. Asciani 




In Pesaro 


(or Gironimo) 


C 


Pesaro 


Fato in botega di 
Mastro Gironimo 


I. P. =Jacomo 
pinxit, 


5 


Early 16th cent. 


Vasaro I. P. 


Jacomo was son 
of Girolamo 


\ / 




Terencio fecit in la 


i55o 


y 


1520-30 


bottega di Mastro 

Baldessar Vasaro da 

Pesaro 





ITALIAN MAIOLICA— PESARO, GUBBIO 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


iS48 


Pesaro 




Gubbio 


di Maestro T. 


Terencio 


AD) 


Giorgio's mark is 






r v) 


sometimes accom- 


I. S. 




V 


panied by a head, a 
vase, a merchant's 


dA 


Casali and 




mark, etc. 




Caligari, 
painted by 






*/*£, 


Pietro Lei 
? Francesco de' 


m 




F. F. 


Fattori 


T 






1 8th cent. 


T 






Gubbio 


4 




(S 


1490-1500 
? Gubbio 


15-3,6 




/ kA 


? Gubbio 


A c, 


? Salimbene, 


v£y 






brother of Giorgio 


tf 




A 




" 


j* 




*Wx 


c 153° 


<f 




&$ 


N is supposed to 
contain the letters 


^J»A 


c- -1525 


M 


V I N, and to be the 

monogram of 

Vincencio, son of 


■A^,<j> 


Marks of 
Maestro 


■1 


Giorgio 


Giorgio Andreoli 








whose dated 

works range from 

1501-41 


£> 
M 


Other initials, e.g. 

D, M, occur in 

Gubbio lustre 



8 ITALIAN MAIOLICA— GUBBIO, CASTEL DURANTE 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 








Castel Durante 


$ 


Pesaro or 
Gubbio 
c. 1480 


it, cA&el 


c. 1520 


J£ 


? G. A. for 




(Si 


Giorgio 
Andreoli 
c. 1540 


•SB* 




""jy 


Probably for 
M° Giorgio 


IN TERR(A) 
DVRANTIS 




/« gUbio $. ma.no 
d viajtro prejtino 

o 


Prestino 
A- *536-57 




1532 


rr 


" 








' 1 


Carocci, 

Fabbri , 

& Co. 

19th cent. 


\ 

c 


/ 
T> 




A 




P. M astro Simono 
in Castelo D urate 


1562 


# ^^^ 




S. 


1580 




Castel 
Durante. 


G. S. 
F. R. 


c 1530 


f acta f u i Castel 
durat 1 zona 
■maria vro 


Giovanni 

Maria, potter 

1508 


$*$ 








H. R. 


in scrolls 


Ne la botega 
d Sebasliano 
d Marforio 


i5 r 9 


Hipollito Rombaldoni 
d Urbania pinse 1647 


Urbania 
= Castel 
Durante 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— URBINO 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


5L I 


Urbino 




Urbino 


<N? 


monograms 


/&&A 


Orazio 


\tAL 

da vrtiintf 


of Nicola 
Pellipario, 
also called 


W$? 


Fontana 


WCcoUl- cLx. 


Nicola 
da Urbino, 


$H 


? Orazio 
Fontana 


V 

if i . 


who came 

to Urbino 

in 15 19 and 






/fJte.ff 


worked in 
the botega 
of his son 


FATTO IN BOTEGA 
DE M°ORATO FONTANA 








Guido 


-4-f «^^ ^ 




y 


Fontana. 


TlTVi 


Flaminio 


T 


He died 


Jt*Jt U 


Fontana 


i 


about 1550 


«F«F. 


1583 


<BD 




Sforza. D. P. 


i5 6 7 


& 


1528 


fra Xanto. A. daRovigo 
i Urbino pi 


Francesco 
Xanto 
Avelli 


yiz#£ z*« Urbino in 
botega de M° Guido 


Fontana 
family 


fxrx.ro- a- 


da Rovigo 
whose signed 


fontanel vasaro 




Roui"y;7) 
\jrhino • 


works range 
from 1530-42 


nella botega de M° 








Guido durantiuo 








in Urbino. 1535 




?i 


The words, 
historia, nota, 


L.V. 


on a dish 




orfabula, and 




attributed to 


•ft* 


a description 




Orazio Fontana 


of the subjects 
occur on 


© 


Monograms 
of Orazio 
Fontana 


KXAKju'ttor 


pieces painted 
by a pupil 
of Xanto 


-V-rv< 


fl. 1540-71 


historia 




<8o 




not a 




^qp/x 






Francesco 






fracesco durantiuo 


Durantino 


ts 




JVJ> 


c. 1544 



10 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— URBINO 



Mark. 



Francesco Duratino 

Vasaro A mote 
Bagnolo i Peroscia 

In Urbino nella 

botteg di Francesco 

de Si Luano 

fato in Botega de 
Guido Merlino 

Gironimo Urbin 
fecie 1583 

gironimo et tomaso 

FGC 



M 

GOBo 




Description. 



Urbino 

i5S3 

Probably at 

Bagnara, a village 

near Perugia 

i54i 
— Silvano 

i55i 



1575 

in scrolls 
c. 1580 

by the same 
artist 

1542 uncertain 



i53i 



with initials 

and date EFB 

1594 



c. 1540 



Mark. 




Pompio 

O. F. V 

1590 

G. L. P 

Urbini Patana fecit 



ALFONSO 
PATANAZZI 
FECIT URBIN 



Description. 



R 



URBINI EX FIGLINA 
FRANCISCI PATANATII 



vincentio patanatai 
de anni 12 



E. B. 




Urbino 



? Caesari 
Cari 1536-51 



? Simone di 
Antonio Mariani 

1630 uncertain 

1654 



1667 ,, 

1584 The 
Patanazzi family 

1606 



in a shield 



1608 



by Vincenzio 

at the age of 

12 in 1619 

School of the 
Patanazzi 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— URBINO, DIRUTA 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Urbino 




Diruta 


Fabrica di Maiolica 




<r 




fina di Monsiur Rolet 






in Urbino . . . 1773 








at Borgo San 


(Lh 




Citta Borgo S. Sepolcro 


Sepolcro 


\ Yj/^ 




Mart. Roletus fecit 


1771 
San Quirico 


nm 




Bar Terchi Romano 


D'Orcia 


*r\ 1 




in S. Quirico 


Bartolomeo 
Terchi 


Vv 






worked 





with the words 




also at 

Bassano 

{q.v. ) 


I 


in dervta 
1544 




c>£/»iit<* (Jc 


El Frate 




*ifiKn*f*p*f*~ 


pinse 
( = painted it) 


Bar : Terc 




A Rf* 




Romano 




4r 






Diruta 


S X? 




I.DERVTA 


1505 






G. 




Tnc(erut<v 




N 


1480 


£*, 


* 


1545 


CB 










T 


? Diruta 








CDL 




G. V. 


Probably 
Giorgio Vasaio 


fran co . Urbini 


1537 


Antonio Lafreri 


1554 


I deruta 




In Deruta 





ITALIAN MAIOLICA— DIRUTA, VITERBO 



Mark. 



1771 

FABRICA DI 
MAIOLICA FINA 

DI 

GREGORIO CAS 

ELLI IN DI 

RUT A 




e- 
b 



Description. 



Diruta 



Mark. 



with lustred 
scrolls 



c. 1560 
? Diruta 



io silvestro 

d'agelo trinci 

da dervta 

FATT IN 

BAGNIOREA 

1691 



fabriano 
1527 




IFR 
VITERBIEN 



IN VITERBO 
i544 



Description. 



? in village 
of Bagnara 
(see p. 10) 



Fabriano 



Viterbo 



on a ribbon 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— ROME, FAENZA 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Rome 




Faenza 


1579 fata in 








botega da Anto>iio 




^ 




da Casteldurate 
in Roma 




15th century 






X 

* 


marks 


FATTO IN BOTEGA 






DE M. DIOMEDE 


1600 






DURANTE IX ROMA 




n 
¥ 




FATTO IN ROMA DA 




M 


Faenza or 


GIO PAULO SAVlNO 




Florence 1460 






tlU 


Faenza or 


ALMA ROMA 




¥-7 


Caffaggiolo 


1623 




Ft 


1490 
On pavement 


b<ML 




7vk\ 


tiles in the 
Church of San 


ROMA 




I )D, I 


Sebastiano, 


KAGM>6p 




^S— 5s 


Venice, 1510. 


Vgr 




j&'\*_ 




X 




*" l_l As^ 


Faenza 






^TT^ 


1510-20 




on porcelain 






biscuit and 


7tQ> JLJ 




G'VOLPATO.ROMA 


white pottery- 
figures 








1790-1831 


JL 


? Betini family 




Faenza 


r'j. 




PETRUS 


Signatures 




ANDREA 


on pavement 


i T* 


others assign 


DE FA 


tiles at 


* /S 


these marks to 


BOLOGNI 


Bologna 


\J 


Castel Durante 


BETINI FEC 


in the 


y\ 




1487 


San 
Petronio 


if 





14 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— FAENZA 



Mark. 



O 

% 

(=Wn? IN FAENZA 
IN CAXA PI ROTA 





Description. 



Faenza 



c. 1520 



The Casa 
Pirota 
factory 



1530 



c 153° 



c 1525 



c. 1520 



1527 



Mark. 









Description. 



Faenza 

Casa Pirota 
c 1525 



c - I52S 



I53i 



this mark also 

occurs with the 

letter S 



c. 1520 



c 1525 




c. 1540 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— FAENZA 



Mark. 



-f-<umtin.e 




Description. 



'tvtii uzrayrvenu s t<t. 



Faenza 

Baldasara 
Manara. 1534 



? Faenza 
c 1500 



1527 



Perhaps the 

mark of the 

Atanasio 

factory in 

Faenza 



1508 

1520-30 

Ennius Ray- 

neriusFaentinus 

faciebat 1575 

1583 

also inscribed 
Giovano Brama 

di Parlerma 
1546 in faenza 



i6 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— FAENZA, VENICE 



Mark. 



fato in. faienze in 
Botega di M° fran. 



Io Ant Romanino 
Cimatti de Favesc 



Zacharia Valaressi 
1 65 1 in Faenza 



FB F 



Description. 




Faenza 

1556 



1SS6 

Cimatti or 

Cimani 



Francesco 

Ballanti 

1 8th cent. 

Benini 

fabrique 

1777-8 



Forli 



1485-90 



i5 2 3 



Mark. 



/ la botega 

da M° Iero 

da Forli 




AF.I(»)FOR(Z)I 



RAVENA 



Thomas Masselli 
Ferrarienfec 



in Rimino 1535 



i 



II CKtimtn. 



nonx- 



i 



Description. 



Julio da Urbino in 

botega de mastro 

alisandro in 

arimino 



In Venetia in Cotrada 

di S ta Polo in botega 

' di M° Ludovico 




Forli 



Faenza or 

Forli 
c. 1510 



Ravenna 



Ferrara 



Rimini 



1535 



*535 



Venice 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— VENICE 


17 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Venice 




Venice 


+ + 


? Mark of 

M° Ludovico 

c. 1540 




Marks of the 

Bertolini 

factory 

c 1753 


Io Sfe/ano Barcella 
Veneziano Pihx 








M° Jacomo da 

Pesaro 


In S to Barnaba 

in Venice 
1542 


9t 




Guido Merlingo 
Vasaro da Urbino 


In San Polo 

in Venice 

J 54 2 






AoUst>i»K 


1543 


^T 




M° Francesco da 
Castel Durante 


In Sa Thoma 

in Venice 


S GIB 


c. 1750 


in venezia in chastello 

G 

Zener domenigo da 


I 545 

1546 
1571-1622 

1568 


mo 


Probably 

Venetian 

Marks 

1 8th cent. 


Venecia 
Baldantonio in Venecia 


^o 1 




Bariselio 


1587 


F.S.M 




Jacomo J'asellaro 


!593 


vc 




P. da Madre 

Suor Zuana 


J 596 


f& 




D. M. SEIMO 




&- 




G.L.P. 1667 




^<^ 





1 8 ITALIAN MAIOLIC A— VERONA, MILAN, TURIN 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Verona 




Turin 


Giovani Batista 




1737 
Fabbrica de Torino 




da faenza 
in Verona 


1563 






M 


Milan 


% 


Rosetti factory 


# 






- 


?tl 


Pasquale 

Rubati 

1762 


% 


- 1629 


Jfa£ M 




to 




few 




j ^ 




v 




& 


Uncertain 
Turin marks 


C&iCuhJ 


Felice 


^r 




S^ 


Clerici 

1745 


T. 




JLU° 




T.G. 








Borgano 


c. 1823 


3% 


Pavia 


Eredi Imoda 




GA OF 




Luigi Richard e C. 




iyo« 










GRATA PAGLIA 




MAM 




FE : TAVR : 




f 




V- 

DG 


Vinovo 


c. 1 7 10 


Mark of Vittorio 


Turin 


Amadeo Gioanetti 
c. 1776 


& 


Arms of 




Mondovi 


m 


Savoy under 




Benedetto Musso 


W 


a crown 


M. M. 


19th cent. 


\r 




BG 


Giuseppe Besio 


Fixtta cHlbnixo 


1577 










M A 


Annibale Musso 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— TREVISO, LODI 



J 9 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


D.O.N. P.A.R.I.S.T.O.E.D. 
A.T.R.A.V.I.S.I.O. 

S. M. 1595 


Treviso 

1538 

Bassano 

? Simone Marioni 


S3 

AWE 


Nove 

G. Baroni 

Early 19th cent. 


^3^A(V0 
in 


Antonio 
Terchi 


S./G 


1750 

A star of six 
points alone is 
a Nove mark 






A/ICO 
LETl 


Padua 


B°T*rcU' 


Bartolomeo 

Terchi 
(See p. 11 ) 


W+F- 


J 563 


BaSSano 

A. 


mark used by 
Terchi 


+ 




a. 


mark used by 

Manardi, 
late 17th cent. 


•f- X 


c - 1555 


A C/q) * 

m 


Manardi 
at Bassano 


Candiana 

1620 

S.E.C. 


Candiana 

On imitations 

of Turkish 

faience 


A,n£aron *f?p 

GBAB: 


incised 

Nove 

Giovanni 

Battista 

Antonibon 


Fabbrica di Rosetti 
in Lodi 


Lodi 


<2fc 


Early 18th cent. 


Felix Crevani 
fecit 1767 





ITALIAN MAIOLICA— SAVONA 



Mark. 



cf 

GrWS 

L-L- 



\T1\ 



»G, »G * 



Description. 



Savona t?z.o 




Savona 

Mark of 
Siccardi 
c. 1700 

also a star of 
five points 



i8th cent. 



? Girolamo 
Salomini 



Luigi 

Levantino 

c. 1670 



Mark of 
Levantino 



also on piece 
dated 1751 



with signature 
of A. Ratti 



Mark. 



Description. 




S«B, 




h^> 




Savona 



S. Rubatto 



Mark of Chiodo 
c. 1667 



Mark of 
Rartolomeo 
Guidobono 



Bdrtot* m * 0, Boierv 



2$ 



Mark of G. 
Salomone 



Mark of 

Pescetto, 

also three 

fishes. 

Falcon, 

mark of 

Folco 



1729 



Siccardi 
[see above) 



ITALIAN MAIOLICA— SAVON A, NAPLES, CASTELLI 21 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Savona 




Castelli 


M. Bo relli 
A. S. 1735 


Borelli factor)' 


(2 


= Bernardino 
Gentile fece 


Jacques Bo re Hi 


1779 


^Ifidfe 




* 




Bernardino Gentile 


1670 




Albissola 


C. G. P. 

Gentile p. 


Carmine 
Gentile pinxit 




Naples 


G. Rocco di Castelli 


1732 




Marks of 

F. Brandi 

1654 


Capelleti 
Fuina 




0o\/o G>ccore 


1784 


Luc. Ant Cianico 






Math. Rossetti 




F DV 
M 


Del Vecchio 

Naples 

19th cent. 




Naples 

1760 to present 

day 


C. A. G. /*. 


Castelli 

Carl Antonio Grue 
17th cent. 


5 


, , 


Z>. Francisci Antonii 
Xarerii Grue 


^7ib 


» ^ 




L. G. P. 


Liborio Grue 

(t 1776) 


mm 


Mark of 

Cantigalli 

of Florence 


ib-r^e j> 


Saverio Grue 
(t 1799) 




Modern 


)e;^'74/ 


One of the 
Grue family 

i 





22 ITALIAN MAIOLICA AND PORCELAIN— FLORENCE 



Mark. 




T7E 



TyL 



♦*S' V A* 

Geo BATA .M15RCATI 



3onfiencLer 



Description. 



Uncertain 
marks 

? Diruta 

or Viterbo 

1600-20 



? Urbino 



Name of an 
artist of Citta 
S. Sepolcro, 
whose design 
was copied on 
a plate 

? Monograms 
of the same 



? Castel 



Mark. 




<* r 




Description, 



Marks on 

porcelain made 

at Florence 

under the 
patronage of 
Grand Duke 

Francesco 
Maria, who 

died 1587 

The first repre- 
sents the 
cupola of the 
Cathedral of 
Florence : 



the second 
the arms of 
the Medici 



On a plate 
which has also 
the first mark 

All are painted 

in blue under 

the glaze 



ITALIAN PORCELAIN— VENICE, DOCCIA 



23 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Venice 




Venice 


Ht-* 


Marks of the 
Vezzi factory 


X 


Cozzi factory 
p. in red 


A 


1719-40 
h.p. and s.p. 


<J^ 




VEW: 


p. in blue 


I.Ga 






) 




AEW 


also with 
initials 
G. M. 


v 


;W 


p. in blue 


m 








AG K 










s jtJ / ^ ai ' 




Fortunato 

Tolerazzi Fecc 
Venesia 1763 


at the Hewelche 

factory 

(1758-63) 

inc. 


Ludovico Ortolan! 


p. in lake 


C*T 




Veneto dipinse nella 




1^ I 


? Venice or 


Fabrica di Porcelana 




J^* ^%~ 


Le Nove 


in Venetia 




? 




Ven a A. G. 1726 


p. in red 


Doccia 






X CA 

N.S. 


Factory founded 






by the Marchese 


t*Y 




Carlo Ginori 
in 1735 and con- 
tinued to the 


<0t* if° 






present day 

N.S. = Niccolo 
Sebastiano 


Iacobus Helchis 


1758-63 




p. in blue 


fecit 


h.p. 


P-F 


In a circle 
initials of 




The Cozzi 




Fanciullacci 


Venezia 


factory 






Fab' 1 Geminiano 


1764-1812 






Cozzi 


p. in red 
s.p. 


GINORI 


s.p. at first 
h.p. afterwards 



24 ITALIAN PORCELAIN— LE NOVE, CAPO DI MONTE 



Mark. 




* 




JrevijQ 



>v? 



t 

Slid 



t 






Description 



Le Nove 

1762-1825 

The star mark 

sometimes 

ascribed to 

Doccia 

in red and blue 
s.p. 



Cf. marks on 

Le Nove pottery 

on p. 

p. in gold 



Treviso 

s.p. 

Fratelli 

Fontebasso 

p. in gold 
s.p. 

also with initials 
G.A.F.F. 

Vinovo 

1776-1815 

' ' hybrid 
porcelain " 

p. in grey 
]). in black 



p. in grey and 
inc. 



Dr. Gioanetti 

(see p. 181 



1. in irold 



Mark. 



N 



M 



GLOrda.no 
Afi.ULlo 






Description. 



Capo di Monte 

(Naples) 

The factory was 

removed to 

Naples about 

1 77 1. These 

marks are 

after that date. 

s.p. till c. 1780. 

Marks p. in blue 

and inc. 



Cypher of King 
Ferdinand 
p. in red 

Incised on figures 
names of 
modellers 



and other forms of 

the fleur-de-lys : 

supposed to be 

early Capo di 

Monte marks, but 

probably Madrid 

(seep. 91) 

p. in blue 

Giustiniani 
factory (see p. 21) 



Vicenza 



? Fste 
s.p. 



GERMAN POTTERY 

A NUMBER of potters in Germany and Switzerland from the 
sixteenth century onwards were engaged in the manufacture of 
elaborate stove-tiles, usually ornamented with reliefs in sunk 
panels and coloured with slips, glazes, and tin enamel ; brown, 
yellow, green, blue, maganese purple, and white were the principal 
colours used. The manufacture of tin-glazed faience after the 
Italian and Dutch styles was common in most parts of Germany 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; and a certain amount 
of slip-decorated and graffiato earthenware was made in South 
Germany, at Gennep in Luxembourg, and at Schaffhausen in 
Switzerland, in the eighteenth century. 

In the Rhenish provinces a large stoneware industry developed 
in the sixteenth century at Siegburg, Raeren, Cologne, Frechen, 
and elsewhere, and during the two following centuries at Grenz- 
hausen in Nassau. The typical Rhenish stoneware varies from 
white to freckled brown, and is ornamented with panels in low 
relief made in moulds and applied, as well as with stamped and 
incised decoration : the ware was glazed with salt, and sometimes 
coloured with patches of cobalt blue and maganese purple. The 
cutting of moulds for the reliefs was an important branch of this 
industry, and most of the marks are those of the mould-cutters, 
and appear in relief in the panels. Bottles with a bearded mark 
on the neck, known as Bellarmines or Greybeards, are the 
commonest specimens of Rhenish stoneware. The tall, tapering 
tankards of white Siegburg ware are among the best examples of 
this class. Another variety, made chiefly at Kreussen, is heavily 
painted in enamel colours. 



25 



26 GERMAN PORCELAIN 



GERMAN PORCELAIN 

The secret of true or hard-paste porcelain, after the manner of 
the Chinese, was discovered about 1707 at Dresden by J. F. 
Bottger, an alchemist, in the employ of Augustus II. of Poland, 
Elector of Saxony. He discovered about the same time the 
method of making a fine red stoneware, now known as Bottger 
ware, but called by him red porcelain. This ware was finished 
by polishing on the lathe, or covering with a black glaze and 
enriching with gold and silver ornament or engraving. Bottger 
and his secrets were transferred in 17 10 to Meissen, where he 
started the celebrated Meissen porcelain factory under strict 
surveillance. The process, however, could not be kept hidden, 
and escaped workmen carried the secret first to Vienna and 
afterwards to all parts of Germany. Factories sprung up in one 
principality after another under the protection of the ruling houses, 
who vied with each other during the eighteenth century in the 
production of true porcelain. All the German porcelain is hard 
paste, varying in fineness according to the sources of the porcelain 
clay. The finest material was obtained from Aue in Saxony, and 
a coarser earth mined near Passau produced the greyer and 
inferior wares made in the Thuringian factories at the end of the 
eighteenth century. Each factory had its distinctive mark 
usually painted in blue under the glaze, though among the minor 
factories, particularly those of the Thuringian district, there was a 
tendency to use marks suspiciously similar to the Meissen crossed 
swords. The latter mark is sometimes found with one or two 
cuts across it : this signifies that the ware was faulty and rejected 
by the Meissen factory as unfit for decoration, and any ornament 
on pieces so marked must have been added elsewhere. 



GERMAN POTTERY AND STONEWARE— SIEGBURG 27 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


R.A. 1589 


Marks on 
stove tiles 


L 


1589 


ADAM VOGT 
1626 


Augsburg 


P V 1605 


Peter Vlack 


HANS KRAUT 


Villingen 
1578 


B M 1577 


Raeren 

Baldem Menneken 


H< 


" 


I M 1578 


Jan Menneken 


cw isvi. 




I E 1576 


Jan Emens 


m 


155° 


E P E K 1584 






Siegburg 

Marks of the 

potters and 

mould carvers 


E E 1586 
G E 1590 


Georg Emens 


B K 1557 
M P D 1551 


Bertram Kmitgen 




V 


Jan Emens 

1587 

and ' ' merchant's 

mark ' ' 


L W 1573 








I M 


1573 


D P 1591 
R 


D. Pitz 
Raeren 


CF 


" 


ENGEL KRAN 


1584 


I VS 


" 


H H 1595 


Hans Higler 


A^3^\ 




H K 1600 




yy 


Monograms of 
this kind are 

known as 

" merchant's 

marks ' ' 


I K 
I M 1601 
I T 1623 




C K, P K 


Christian and 

Peter 

Kniitgen 


H B 
I B 


Baldems 

family 

17th cent. 



28 GERMAN STONEWARE— RAEREN, GRENZHAUSEN 



Mark. 



I A 

M H 

G B 

W.E. W.A. D.P. 




L W 
A. Ernst 
J. Ernst 




AC 
A M 



Description. 



Raeren 

Jean Allers 

Mel si or 
Honckebour 



Willem 

Em ens 



? Willens 



? Raeren 



On Saxon 
wares 



Mark. 



M 1597 

WF.S 

L W 

KBL Hohr 

Johannes Mennechen 
Hohr 1790 




Description. 



Hohr-Grenz- 

hausen 
in Nassau 



1 8th cent. 



Grenzhausen 
modern 

Bouffioux 

? Pierre Morfroy 

Jean Rifflet 

Jean Bertrand 

Jean Allers 

Cologne 

17th cent. 

Kremer 

1 8th cent. 
pottery 

Kreussen 

Vosrel 



1628 



603 



GERMAN STONEWARE AND FAIENCE— KREUSSEN 29 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Kreussen 




Nuremberg 


CASPAR VEST 


Stoneware 


G. F. Greener 
Gliier 1723 


1720 


HANS CHRISTOPH VEST 


1600 


J oh ami Sebalt Franz 




ADAM SCHARF 


1644 


T 




MATTH^EUS 


On ware made 






SCHRONVOGEL 


at Passau 


Stebner 


1771 


ZU BASS A U 


1638, in the 








Kreussen style 


ioh : schaper 


1665 a decorator 


X. 


Nuremberg 
maiolica 


I $ 


J. Schaper 


£ 


1583 






+1 ■» 




M. Schmid 1722 


a follower of 
Schaper 


HERR CHRISTOPH 


1712 






MARX 




JLF 


1688 


JOHANN CONRADT 








ROMEDI 


In the Marx 
factory 1730 




" 


B 




W«tf 


? Memmingen 

in Swabia. 


N. Possinger 


1725 


IAS 


c. 1560 


3XK 


? Kordenbusch 


Kiinersberg 




G. Kordenbusch 






? Kunersberg 


J. G. K. 




? JtV/ 


in Wiirtemberg 

17th and 1 8th 
cent. 


B. K. 












B 




K. 






Schreitzheim 






,3SS»i 


near Ellwangen 


G. K. 




W 


founded by 






f s 


Wintergurst 


A0 AS AS 




early 18th cent. 



30 GERMAN FAIENCE— ANSBACH, BAYREUTH, GENNEP 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


Matthias Rosa in 
Anspath 

A 


Ansbach 

late 17th cent. 
style of Rouen 
and 1 8th cent. 


ANTONIO CARDINAL 
GERRIT LONNE 

PETER MENTEN 


Gennep 

.(in Luxembourg) 

18th cent. 
Graffiato ware and 


? Arnstadt 
or Ansbach 


is 


slip ware 
names and initials 


Pinxit F. G. Fliegel 
Arnstadt 1775 


Arnstadt 


J HA 


of potters 


J\» 


18th cent. 


Pieter Heichens fecit 
in Berlot 1777 


Hochst 


HS 


Goggingen 

near Augsburg 

c. 1700, style 

of Savona 


R 


* 


1 8th cent. 

(see also p. 35) 

faience 


V3 


y 


fcjcitireuTfye 


Bayreuth 

1728-35 


%& 




ttdHci' 

BH. 


Knotter (1728-40) 


® 


Marks of 

Zeschinger, 

who sometimes 

signs his full name 


BK ' 




XX 




c 




9 




pr -W 


Pfeiffer 
(1728-40) 


e 




& 




/ 


? Hochst or 
Dirmstein 


9 

ANTONIUS BERNAKDUS 
VON VEHLEN 


17th cent. 

Gennep 

1770 


x> 


Damm 

near Aschaffen- 

berg, c. 1825 


£M WM 


? Gennep 
T 7i5 




en 


Fldrsheim 

1781 



GERMAN FAIENCE— FRANKENTHAL, HANAU, KIEL 31 



Mark. 







Description. 



Frankenthal 

Hannong 
1 8th cent. 



Mainz 

18th cent. 



Marburg 



Poppelsdorf 

1 8th cent. 



Bonn 



Hanau 



(1661-1805) 
H. Bally (1680-90) 



Van Alphen 



? Hanau 



Mark. 



II 



Johann Otto Lessel 

sculpsit et Pinxit 

Hamfairg 1756 

Kiel 

Buchwald Director 
Abr: Leihamer fecit 



J77±_ 

ft-.Skhedt: 
/bfec: 

<&Jhrt. 
AX 6 J 

«, JL 

A. Z 

«- AC 



#■*. Ti.C 






A. 1 

3- JL 



Description. 



Hamburg 

c. 1680 



Kiel 

1769 



Schleswig 

(1775-1819) 



Rambusch 
1753-1801 



32 GERMAN FAIENCE— ECKERNFORDE, STRALSUND 



Mark. 




Description. 



#-£ 







Eckernforde 

1767 

OEB = Otto, 

Eckernforde, 
Buchwald 



Stockelsdorff 

Buchwald 
1773 



? Hadensee 

or 
Stralsund 



Stralsund 

N.E. Prussia 
1768 



(this mark 
also assigned 
to Marieberg, 

Sweden) 



Mark. 










p 
r 



5b 



Description. 



Lesum 

Vielstich 
(1755-94) 



Minden 
1 8th cent. 



Kellinghusen 

1 8th cent. 



1796 

Fulda 

(1740-58) 



Berlin 

1771, Liidicke 

Potsdam 

1770 

Frankfort 

(on the Oder) 
1770 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— MEISSEN 



33 



Mark. 



J jr 


■It * 


if tff 




zpo. 

w. 



Description. 



Meissen 

Marks incised on 
Bottger's 

wares 
1707-1719 



Imitation 

Chinese and 

Japanese 

marks on 

Meissen 

porcelain 

earl)- 18th cent. 

p. in blue 



(Incised mark 
on porcelain 
in the royal 

collection 
at Dresden) 



Mark. 




George Ernst Keil. 

Meisseri Inv. 6 Jiili 

1724 




Description. 



Meissen 

" Caduceus " 

mark, properly 

the rod of 

iEsculapius. 

p. in blue 

and purple 

1727-35 



Cypher of 
Augustus II. of 
Poland, Elector 

of Saxony. 

p. in blue 

and purple 

1725-40 

" Kosel " mark : 
said to have been 
only placed on 
wares made for 
the Countess of 
Kosel, mistress 
of Augustus II. 



An early mark in 



gold 



In an ornamental 
escutcheon 



The cross swords 

from the Arms of 

Saxony used 

from 1725 

onwards. 

p. in blue, 

rarely in gold, 

purple or red 



Inc. 



34 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— MEISSEN 



Mark. 



JtJi.CW. 

f>.?.t 

Hvesderi* 




C. F. Herold 

invt : et fecit a meisse 

175° 



Description. 



Meissen 

K. H. C. W. = 

Konigliche 

Hof Conditorei, 

Warsaw 

(Royal Court 

Confectionery). 

p. in purple 



Konigliche 

Porzellan 

Manufactur. 

p. in purple 

1723-30 



Impressed 
very rare 



Mark. 




/. /. Kaendler 

^ JV"o. 




La nche fecit 
Dresden 



Description. 



Meissen 



The dot used 

mostly from 

1756-80 



The star used 
during the 

directorship of 

Count Camillo 
Marcolini and a 

few years after 
1780-1816 



Sculptor and 
modeller 

Workmen's signs 
impressed or 

painted, painters' 

and gilders' 

marks 



A pheasant, 
in gold 



Loehnig pinxit. 
p. in purple 



painter's name 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— MEISSEN, ANSBACH, HOCHST 35 



Mark. 



K 
E 
L 

Mo 
B 
H 



JAW 



B»7^ 



Description. 



Meissen 

Kretzschmar 
or Kohnberger 

Eggebrecht 

Lindner 

Mobius 

Berger 

Hammer or 
Hempel 

Marks of 

decorators not 

attached to the 

factory 

Busch, canon 
of Hildesheim, 
who etched his 
designs with a 
diamond point 

I. A. Botten- 
gruber of 
Breslau 

(Wrattislau) 



Ansbach 

c. 1760 

The eagle of 

Brandenberg, 

to which family 

the Margraves 

of Ansbach 

belonged 



Mark. 



A 

A 



Metzsch 
1748 
Bavr. 



Bayreuth, Fee. Jncht 



rB 



9 

van 

R 



Description. 



Ansbach 

p. in blue 



Arms of 
Ansbach 



Bayreuth 

p. in grey 

Jucht, a painter, 
p. in blue 



? Bayreuth 
p. in grey 

Hochst 

1746-96 
p. in blue or 
colours, or 
impressed. 



Marks of 

Zeschinger 

(see also p. 30) 



3 6 GERMAN PORCELAIN— HOCHST, FURSTENBERG 



Mark. 








Description. 



Hochst 
p. in blue 



Joseph Schneider 
imp. 



Mark of a figure 

repairer [not 

Melchior) 

Damm 

(see p. 30) 
where the Hochst 

moulds were 

used from about 

1840 

Fiirstenberg 

T750-C 1850 



p. in blue 



Horse of 
Brunswick imp. 

Frankenthal 

1755-c 1800 

Lion of the 

Palatinate and 

monogram of 

T. A. Hannong 

p. in blue 

Paul Hannong 



Mark. 



F 



J765f 

JA«. 










Description. 



Frankenthal 

Cypher of Carl 

Theodor, Elector 

Palatine. 

p. in blue 

? Frankenthal. 
p. in lilac 



? Von Recum 
c. 1800 



Mark used 

at Pfalz- 

Zweibriicken 

i7 6 9-75 ( and 
at Gutenbrunn 

1767-69) 



Nymphenburg 

1754 to present 

day- 
Arms of Bavaria 
imp. 



p. in blue 



imp. 



= Churfiirstliche 

Hof Zehrgaden 

(Electoral Court 

Store-room ) 

p. in brown 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— NYMPHENBURG, BERLIN 37 



Mark. 



C. H. Co?iditorey 

17 
1771 



C. H. Silberkamer 



(ZZZI 

w 



Amberg. 1774 




jC 



X 






Description. 



Nymphenburg 

= Churfiirstliche 
Hof Conditorei 
(Electoral Court 
Confectionery). 
p. in brown 



plate- 
chamber 



Arms of Bavaria, 
p. in blue 



imp. 



Name of an artist, 
p. in lilac 

Ludwigsburg 

1758-1824 

Arms of 

Wiirtemberg, 

3 stags' horns. 

p. in blue 



Stag's horn from 

the arms of 

Wiirtemberg. 



Cypher of 

Charles, Duke 

of Wiirtemberg. 

p. in blue 



F R, cypher of 

Frederick I. King 

of Wiirtemberg 

(1805-16). 

p. in red. 



Mark. 






KPH 

I 

KPM 

KPM 




Description. 



Berlin 

(1750 to 

present day) 

Initial of Wegeli 

(i75 -57) 

Gotzkowski 
(1761-63). 
p. in blue 

Sceptre of Elector 

of Brandenburg 

1763-1837: 

with dots Jan. 1837. 

p. in blue 

P. with sceptre 
and eagle from 

1832 

Konigliche Por- 

zellan Manufactur 



1834-1844 



In red and brown 
(1823-32) 

in blue 
(1844-1847) 

1847-49. 
And with sceptre 
(1849-80) 
The eagle also 
used by Schuman 
of Moabit with his 
name from 1832 

From 1870 



From 1882. 
Seger Porzellan 



Painter's mark 
in blue 1803-10, 
in red 1821-23 



38 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— THURINGIA 



Mark. 



to 
X 

a 

LB 



Description. 




Gru.6«r *«* 
3'naaaf 

x 



* 



Kelsterbach 

c. 1760-72 

H D = Hess 

Darmstadt. 

p. in blue 

Limbach 

(Thuringia) 

1762 onwards. 

Crossed Ls used 

at Limbach and 

Grosbreitenbach 

till 1788. 

p. in blue 

Limbach 



Trefoil (seal of 

G. Greiner) used 

at Limbach and 

Grosbreitenbach 

from 1788 

onwards and 

at Ilmenau 

Factory of 
Grosbreitenbach 

dates from 1779 

to present day. 

inc. 

Wallendorf 

c. 1778 
p. in blue 



Volkstedt 

1762-87 used 
hayfork (from 

arms of 

Ruddstadt), 

and cross swords 

Mark of Nonne 

at Volkstedt 

1787 onwards. 

p. in blue 



Mark. 





NSLR 



Description. 



Closter 
Veilsdorf 

1765-c. 1825 

Arms of Saxony. 

p. in blue 



c 1787 



c. 1783 

Also the cross 
swords of 

Meissen 

Gotha 

(1767 onwards) 
1767-1790. 
p. in blue 

c. 1805. 

MarkofRotteberg 

the director 



St. in red 
(? rebus for 
Henneberg) 



? Gotha or Gera 



Ilmenau 

1777-1788. 
p. in blue 



1787 



1788-92 

Nonne and 
Roesch 
c. 1800 



GERMAN PORCELAIN— THURINGI A, BOHEMIA 39 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


R 

R-w. 


Rauenstein 

1783-1860. 
p. in black 


1 ' 4% 


Baden 

Late 1 8th cent, 
p. in gold 


X 


c. 1787. 
p. in blue 


S I 


Schlaggenwald 

(Bohemia) 
1792 onwards 


X 


Modern 
mark 


TgHJ 


Lippe and Hesse, 
p. or stamped 


R— n. 








<# 


Gera 

c. 1780 




Thun-Klosterle 

1793 onwards 

p. in blue 


5" 


Cf. Gotha 


ri 




G 




ip 






? Sitzerode 
Fulda 






+ 


1768-c. 1790 

Fiirstlich 
Fuldaisch. 
p. in blue 

Cross from arms 
of prince-bishop 


F p 


Prague 

imp. 

1793 onwards 

Teinitz 

Witby 

1793 onwards 


of Fulda 


^*4£jfc&c 


imp. 


t 


p. in black 
? Fulda 


\t t 


(Pottery) 
Giesshiibel 

(by Karlsbad) 
1793 onwards. 
BK imp. since 


O 


Potschappel 


* 3K 


1815 


X 


(near Dresden) 




Dalwitz 


A 


T for Thieme. 
19th cent. 


V 


1804 onwards 
imp. 


& fF 


Uncertain 


FF 

D 




\/ 


marks 


F4tU 




*kz>jYi 




*Jcw,K.cnr<JL 


Eodau 

(Karlsbad) 

1 8 10 onwards 

imp. 



4o 



BOHEMIA— AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 



Mark. 



Description. 





B: 



S 

XI 

4 



KLUM 

Neumark 

K lent sch 

W 
HARDMUTH 



Altrohlau 

(Karlsbad) 

from 1813 

onwards 

imp. 



A. Nowotny 

Elbogen 

1 8 15 onwards. 

p. in blue till 

1833, and then 

imp. 

Haidinger 

brothers 



Budau 

1825 onwards 
mostly p. in blue 



Schelten 

1820 onwards 

P for Palme 

imp. 

Pirkenhammer 

Carl Fischer 

c. 1840 

imp. 

Fischer and 
Reichenbeck 

Klum 

imp. 

Neumark 

Klentsch 

Budweis 

The last four 
from about 1820 
imp- 



Mark. 



Description. 



Yienrce tejuty 

J[rd?*J(nrei]ter 

\Si(es:f Vienna '?$o 
CJUottino ru.6er-r 



HoUitstk 



% fjt.ee 



H 

'222 



Hi 

JJb J£ 



Vienna 

(1718 onwards) 

Austrian shield 

used from 1774 

in blue, and after 

1827 impressed. 

Since 1784 last 

two numerals of 

the date are often 

impressed as well 



A.nton ius,Anreiter, 
painter 



I. A. Bottengruber 
who also painted 

in his own 

establishment in 

Breslau. 

(See p. 35 ) 



Herend 

in Hungary 
19th cent. 
Celebrated for 
copies of Oriental, 
Sevres, Capo di 
Monte, and other 
porcelains. Imp. 

Hollitsch 

faience and 
earthenware 
1743-1827 



and other initials 

combined with 

H 



AUSTRIA-HUNGARY-rMISCELLANEOUS 



4i 



Mark. 



+5 £B 

p 

J? 

li 

%l\N7HM 
1%. 

HK.16H 



Description. 



I 



!=! 



Salzburg 

1736-1815 
faience 

Moser 
1736-77 

J. Pisotti 
1777-1814 



Gmunden 

1 740- 1 820 
J. Reinthal 



E. Fotinger 



Auspitz 



Frain 

late 1 8th cent 



Znaim 

Klammerth 
19th cent. 



Mark. 




* 




( °M£TTLACM fo 



^ Limoges 



HaC? 



c^ 



Description. 



Funfkirchen 

(Pecs) 

W. Zsolnay 
1855 onwards 
(lustred wares) 



The Hague 

Modern porcelain 

works in the 

suburb of 

Rosen burg den 

Haag 



Mettlach 

Villeroy and Boch. 

Mark on modern 

pottery 

(See p. 51) 



Limoges 

Marks of Havi- 
land and Co. , an 
American firm of 

porcelain manu- 
facturers 



Mark 011 modern 
Italian majolica 



THE NETHERLANDS, SCANDINAVIA, 

RUSSIA, SWITZERLAND, AND 

ALSACE-LORRAINE 

The tin-glazed earthenware made at Delft in Holland is so 
celebrated that the word delft has come to be used as a generic 
term for the stanniferous wares of the North of Europe. Though 
the use of tin glaze was understood in the Netherlands at least a 
century earlier, it was about the year 1600 that the manufacture 
developed in Delft. The processes used at Delft were in most 
respects similar to those of the Italian maiolica potters (see p. 1 ), 
but the results were very different owing to the divergent styles 
of decoration affected in the two countries. The object of the 
potters of Delft was to make a ware resembling blue and white 
Oriental porcelain. Hence the predominance of Oriental forms 
and of blue painting after the style of the Chinese. Towards the 
end of the seventeenth century coloured ornament in " Old Japan " 
style came into fashion, and still later enamel painting on the 
glaze was adopted. The marks of the earlier wares, are usually 
in blue : the coloured specimens were often marked in colours or 
gold. The marks are as far as possible grouped in factories each 
of which had its sign, like an inn, e.g. The Three Bells, The 
Flower Pot, The Claw, etc. The remaining marks are arranged 
chronologically, the last being that of Jan Van Putten & Co., 
with whom the old Delft industry may be said to have ended in 
the first half of the nineteenth century, though imitations of the 
old wares are made at this day. The manufacture of tin- glazed 
wares showing the influence of Delft spread rapidly over the North 
of Europe ; England, Scandinavia, and the North of Germany 
numbered many factories, while in France the manufacture became 
national and developed a character of its own. The tin-enamelled 
wares died out gradually owing to the improvements in the 
making of porcelain and the cheaper and more serviceable 

43 



44 POTTERY MARKS 

English earthenwares invented in Staffordshire at the end of the 
eighteenth century. 

A red ungiazed ware after the manner of the Chinese " buccaro " 
was made in Holland by de Milde and de Calve early in the 
eighteenth oencury. 

A few hard-paste porcelain factories were established in Holland 
and Belgium towards the end of the eighteenth century, and an 
important manufacture of soft-paste porcelain, after the French 
fashion, flourished at Tournay from 1 750-1 799. 

The principal Scandinavian potteries were at Herreboe, Ror- 
strand (a district of Stockholm), and at Marieberg. Tin-enamelled 
faience after the fashion of Delft was the chief product, though 
porcelain also was made at Marieberg for some years. 1 The 
hard-paste porcelain of Copenhagen was first made in 1772, and 
the factory holds an important position for its artistic wares at the 
present time. It had been preceded by the manufacture of soft 
paste, examples of which are very rare. 

Russian porcelain was made principally at the Royal factory 
in St. Petersburg, and by Gardner and Popoff in Moscow : hard 
paste, after the manner of Meissen, was made at both places. 

Stove-tiles, slip-wares, and tin-enamelled faience were produced 
in considerable quantity in Switzerland in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries^ chiefly at Winterthur, Zurich, Schaffhausen ; 
and porcelain works flourished at Zurich and Nyon, making chiefly 
hard-paste porcelain, though soft paste was tried for a time at 
Zurich. 

In Alsace-Lorraine the principal factories were those of Strass- 
burg, Hagenau, and Niderviller where good faience and hard- 
paste porcelain were made in the eighteenth century. The 
Strassburg faience is noted for its rococo forms and its enamelled 
decoration resembling the painting on porcelain. Fine earthen- 
ware and terra-cottas were made at Luneville and at Niderviller, 
the figures and groups modelled by Cyffle at the former place, 
and Lemire at the latter being justly celebrated. 

1 The factory at Rorstrand has for many years produced many varieties 
of porcelain, earthenware, and stove-tiles. Its present-day porcelain is worthy 
of note. 



HOLLAND— DELFT 



45 



Mark. 


Description. 


MARK: 


Description. 




The Alpha 






$E 


Samuel van 
Eenhorn 


^K. 


Gillis de Koning 
1 72 1 


JvOH 


J. van der 


HDK. 


Hendrick de 

Koning 


"V 


Heul, 1 70 1 


VJK 


Thomas Spaan- 
donck, 1764 


ITD 


Jan Theunis 
Dextra, 1759 


TVS 


The Flowerpot 

Pieter van der 
Stroom, 1693 


7T 


Jacobus Haider 


L Icm/svC 


= Blompot 


jLIL 


Andriaensz 


<iB 


Paulus van der 

Burgh ( or Verburg) 

1759 




The Boat 






D.Wtfoot 


Dirck van der 
Kest, 1675 


The Fortune 

Joris Oosterwijck 


/£A 


Tohann den Appel 
*759 


1706 


^ 




P\'}.D' 


Pieter van den 
Briel, 1759 


(7)> s~ 






Widow van den 




The Claw 


W v DlS 


Briel 


^r 






The Four Roman 


asr* x 




FB 


Heroes 

Mathijs Boender 


</<t— 


Cornelia van 




1713 


CV:S 


Schoonhoven or 
Cornelius van 


TI+ATV* 


The Stag 


Schagen, 1694 


t'karT 




3V-5 LKS 


Bettje and Lysbet 

van Schoonhoven 

1702 

Kornelis van 
Dyck, 1759 


HV/MD 


Hendrick van 
Middeldijk, 1764 


fctf> 


MD/i 


" 








The Metal Pot 


^ 


The Double 
Flagon 

Amerensie van 


P 


Pieter van Kessel 
1634 




Kessel, 1675 


£ 


Lambertus 
Cleffius, 1667 


>£ 


Louwys Fictoor 






1689 


\E V£ 


Lambertus van 








Eenhorn, 1691 



4 6 



HOLLAND— DELFT 



Mark. 



CVt 

IVH 

iK 



R$ 
GVS 

1DM. 



— Z* 
— ZJ 

J5 © 



Description. 



The Metal Pot 

Cornelis van 
der Kloot, 1695 

Pieter Paree 
J 759 

The New 
Saracen's Head 

Johannes Ver- 
hagen, 1759 

The Old 
Saracen's Head 

I. W. Jacob 

Wemmersz 

Hoppestein, 1661 

Jacobus Kool 
1676 

Rochus Jacobs 
Hoppestein, 1680 

Anthoni Kruis- 
weg, 1759 

Geertruy 
Verstelle, 1764 



The Peacock 

1651 

= D. Pauw 



Jacobus de Milck 
1759 

The Pole 

= Inde Dessel 

The Porcelain 
Axe 

1679 

Justus Brouwer 
J 759 



Mark. 



/WW 
ED 

I-L 

o 

DH. 

P 

F 

9 

CVS 







isc 



Description. 



The Porcelain 
Bottle 

Jan Sicktis van 
den Houk, 1659 

Pieter van 
Doorne, 1759 

Johannes Harlees 
1770 



Dirck Harlees 
1795 

The Porcelain 
Dish 

Johannes Pennis 
*759 



Johannes van 
Duyn, 1764 



The Roman 

c. 1670 



Imitations of 
Chinese marks 



Petrus van 
Marum, 1759 

Renier Hey, 1697 

Johannes van der 
Kloot Jansz, 1764 



HOLLAND— DELFT 



47 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


R«6 3 <g3 


The Rose 




The Three Ash- 


l6 75 


* 


barrels 

Gerrit Pietersz 


xn ^ 




Kara, 1674 


LOO 




V 


De drie 


2* 




*v STcnixe 


Aschtonnen 


*■ 




f-l V'kuorn. 


Hendrick van 
Hoorn, 1759 


D\Z>D 


Dirck van der 
Does, 1759 

The Star 

1690 


hivH 

t 4 * 


The Three Bells 


(4 


Damis Hofdick 






1705 


xxz> 


Willem van der 
Does, 1764 


<9 


Cornelis de 
Berg, 1720 


W(. 


The Three 
Bottles 


1 Aai^cs 


Aalmis, 1720 
(also at Rotter- 
dam) 




Willem Kool 
1697 

The Three 
Porcelain Bottles 

Jacobus Pynacker 


XB 


Justus de Berg 
1759 


1672 


AK 


Albertus Kiell 
1764 


B 


Hugo Brouwer 
1764 


LpKctrx. 


The Ewer 

or {Lampet kan) 


£ E»EX. 


The Three Tuns 

Zacharias Dextra 




founded by Gerrit 




1720 




Brouwer, 1759 








W-VB 


The Two 
Savages 

Willem van Beck 
1764 


fl^f /<<:l?u 




^ 


The Two 


a^ec^ 


Abraham van der 
Keel, 1780 


i? 


Wherries 

Anthony Pennis 
1759 



48 



HOLLAND— DELFT 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Miscellaneous 


Al 




TOKE 


Thomas Jansz 


Arij Jansz, 1658 


8WA 


1590-1611 


rvrRVToK 


Frederick van 
Frytom, 1658 


tf^H^M 


Gerrit 
Hermansz 
1614 — 


/c, 


Jan Groenlant 
1660 


6 


Cornelis 






Cornelisz, 1628 


U 


Jan Ariensz van 


P 


Pieter van 


Hammen, 1661 


Kessel 
Lambrecht 


® 


Jan Jansz 

Culick (or 

Kulick), 1662 


Ghisbrechts, 1640 


k, 








Johannes Kruyck 




Isaack Junius 
1640 


re 


1662 

Jacob Cornelisz 
(van der Burgh) 


/K 


Aelbrecht de 
Keiser, 1642 


2*2-^ 


1662 


oK 




f 


Augustijn 


<£ 


Ghisbrecht 
Lambrechtse' 


j8 


Reygens (or 

Reygensberg) 

1663 


n 


Kruyk, 1645 
(who worked 


M 


t v 


? at The Alpha) 






Gr 


" 


Vvf 


Willem Kleftijus 


K. 


" 


-t 


1663 


IH- 


Jan Gerrits 
van der Hoeve 


\pw 


Jan de Weert 
1663 


S 


1649 


K 


Johannes Mesch 
1667 


*r 


Q. Aldersz 
Kleijnoven, 1655 


R 


Pieter Gerritsz 
Kara, 1667 








Cornelis 
Albrechtsz de 


IVK 


Jeronimus 
Pietersz van 

Kessel, 1655 


Keizer, 1668 
The same com- 






yP* 


bined with Adrien 






/x 


Pynacker 



HOLLAND— DELFT 



49 



Mark. 



P 

r 

AT 

it 
'A 
A 

iv>w 

\£ 

I." Ba^^ 



Description. 



Mark. 



Miscellaneous 

Jan Pietersz 
1668 



Flyt. M. Byclok 
1669 

Arij Jansz van 
der Meer, 1671 

Lucas Pietersz 
van Kessel, 1675 

Dirck Jansz van 
Schie, 1679 



Johannes 
Groen, 1683 



Adriaen 
Pynacker, 1690 



Pieter Poulisse 
1690 

Johannes van 
der Wal, 1691 

Lucas van 
Dale, 1692 



Jan van der 
Buergen (or .. 
Verburg), 1693 



Cornells 
Witsenburg, 1696 

J. Baan 

c. 1698. (Also 

AB in monogram 

for A. C. Brouwer 

1699) 




GAALt 






VA 



PU 



tfrouir 



Description. 






Sixtius van der 
Sand, 1705 



Johannes 
Gaal, 1707 



(MVB = Math : 

van der Bogaert 

1714) 

Leonard van 

Amsterdam, 1721 

Paulus van der 
Stroom, 1725 



Frederick van 
Hesse, 1730 



Piet Vizeer, 1752 



1760 

Jan van Putten 

and Co. , 1830. 

Combined the 

Three Bells, Claw 

and Rose factories 

Amsterdam 

c. 1780 
H. van Laun 



5° 



HOLLAND AND BELGIUM— PORCELAIN 



Mark. 




I 

It 




*8>. 



A 



Description. 



Holland 

Early 18th cent, 
on red ware 



Weesp 

1764-71 
h. P . 

p. in blue 



p. in blue and 
red 



? Luxemburg 

Late 18th cent. 
h.p. 

p. in lilac 
The Hague 

Arms of the 

town 

1775-86 

h.p. 

p. in blue 

p. in red 



Oude Amstel 

1782-c 1800 
h.p. 



p. in blue 



A. Dareuber, 
director 



Mark. 



M.o£ 



<x Amsterdam. 
^ flo&trdcvfn, 

1 a 




x 



* 



♦& *« 



&& 



6% XJl 



Description. 



OudeLoosdrecht 

c. 1772-1782 



Moll, the founder 

h.p. 

Inc. , p. in blue 

and red 



Amsterdam 

1810 
h. P . 



? Painted only 
at Rotterdam 



Tournay 

1750-99 

Porcelain, s.p. 

A tower, arms of 

the town 

Earl}' mark 

p. in red, gold, 
and blue 



Arms of Peterinck 

(founder of the 
factory) 1769-97 

p. in blue and 
gold 

I D ? initials of 

the painter 

Duvivier 



Tournay faience 



BELGIUM— PORCELAIN AND EARTHENWARE 51 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


Lctetti 


Brussels 

Late 1 8th cent. 

Rue d'Aremberg 

1791 


ccc 


Tervueren 

1767-81 
Manufactory of 
Prince Charles of 
Lorraine in the 


, £< 


Porcelain, h.p. 


CP 


Castle of 
Tervueren. 


L. Crette. 

p. in red 




Faience 


$ 


? Ebenstein. 


IM 


Malines 

18th cent. 


p. in brown 






tSfe 


? Brussels or 
Thuringian. 


Q 


Bruges 

Briquet from the 

arms of the town 

1 8th cent. 


B 


p. in blue 


H> HC 


H. Pulinx 






/tfSxfis. 


Luxemburg 


•vs 


Faience, 1705. 

Witsenburg 
and Mombaers. 


IXi / h IrHI 


(Septfontaines) 
Boch brothers 
1767 onwards 


ws,s£i 


Ph. Mombaers 




Earthenware 




1724 




» 


CB 


" 


Jk^mmf 




• » 




& 




^S- 




Bx 


> » 


S „ 




<y^ 




J^ 




J> ^ Jfl!muw, «^ 


Ardennes 


— - 




<3&i&) 


B. Lammens 

and Co. 

Early 19th cent. 


r 




Liege 


^"trrrrmr*^ 


Earthenware 


'L 


C» 


1 8th cent. 


A).W. 


A. van der Waert 



52 NORWAY, SWEDEN, AND DENMARK— FAIENCE 



Mark. 



% 






/V25 



woirftrcunb 
U 



Description. 



Herreboe 

(Norway) 
1750-63 
Faience 



Gudumlund 

Wolfsen and Sons 
1805 



Stockholm 

Rorstrand 
T726-83 



Faience 



Mark. 



ale 

m 6s 



* 

B.&G 



Description. 



Eorstrand 

(Stockholm) 
1726-83 



Marieberg 

1758-c. 1789 
Faience 



Gustafsberg 

Godenius, 

1820-60 

Eneret Hebrix 



Copenhagen 

Porcelain 

s. p. 1760-65 

Cypher of 

Frederick V. in 

gold and blue. 

1772 onwards 

h.p. The mark 

represents the 

Three Belts. 

p. in blue 

? Copenhagen, 
p. in blue 

Bing and 
Grondahl 
19th cent. 



SWEDEN AND RUSSIA— PORCELAIN 



53 



Mark. 







f 



% 



KIEBZ 



I.R 

jbaranvffka 

Kortfc 
9 



Description. 



Marieberg 

1758-89 
Porcelain, s. p. 
c. 1758. Inc. 

H.p. The Three 

crowns from the 

arms of Sweden 

and initials of 

directors or artists 

F. S. etc., 1778-82 

p. in blue. 



on a hybrid 
porcelain 



The three crowns 

and emblem of 

the house of 

Vasa. 

p. in pink 



Russia 

Kieff pottery 



Stawsk 

1843-7 

Pottery 



Baranowka 

in Volhynia 

Porcelain, h.p. 

p. in sepia 

Korzec 

Porcelain, h.p. 

Early 19th cent. 

p. in red 



Mark. 



1 






J* 









6 

crt 

// 




Description. 



St. Petersburg 

porcelain, h.p. 
c. 1745 onwards. 
The double eagle 
occurs in a wreath 

Royal cyphers. 

p. in blue. 

Catherine II. 

1762-96 

? director's 
mark 



Pridvornie = 

belonging to the 

prince's court 



Paul (1796-1801] 



Alexander I. 
(1801-25) 

Nicolas I. 

(1825-55) 

Alexander II. 
1855-81 

Nicolas II. 
1894 

Moscow 



i 7 8o 

h.p. 

Gardner 



pr. in red 



54 RUSSIA & SWITZERLAND— PORCELAIN & POTTERY 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Moscow 




Winterthur 


nonoBM 


H.p. porcelain 

A. Popoff 
Early 19th cent. 


WG 


Hans Heinrich 
Graf, 1662 


/n 


P. in blue 
Gospodina 
factory : 


M M 


? Ehrhardt 


4>r 




H. E. A. M. I. T. 


(Stove tile makers) 


TyAMHA 


Gulena, potter 
c. 1850 


1647 
D M 


Steckborn 


BPATbEBfc 


Brothers 


Daniel Hafner 






Korniloff, 


Steckborn 


1790 


KopHMOBhVCb 


St. Petersburg' 




Bern 


1827 


E. I. F. 


Fruting, 1772 


,* 




H. K. R. 1705 ' 




( , 3o*^<a 


•■ 


Simon Jean. Renaud 


Neuchatel 


faixvyHtyPy 




fecit, 1769 




^-ft -RuxS 






Vaud 






Lutri 1602 


Lutry 




Mezer 






X * 


Early 19th cent. 


iS-92 


Zurich 

Pottery 


tr y ^ • 




W 


Caspar Meyer 


cfomasxxrw 








\sfX&ejL*3 


Winterthur 


yn. 


" 


L. P. 1620 


(Switzerland) 
Ludwig Pfau 


Bait us Meyer 1602 








Heinrich Stadler 


1670 


D. P. 1636 


David Pfau 










D. S. 


David Sulzer 


A. P. 1686 


Abraham Pfau 










Hans U I rich Hegner 


1656 


A. B. 1638 


(Signatures, chiefly 
on stove tiles) 


Hans Jacob DA. KER 


1724 


8. M. S. 1647 




Hoffmann pinxit 


I7S7 


H. P. Z 




2 A 


Zurich 
Faience 


B. E 






1763-179 1 


. 




s 





SWITZERLAND, LORRAINE— POTTERY & PORCELAIN 55 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




? Solothurn 




Strassburg and 


s .O. 1^1 H.C.W. 


Pottery 


• 


Hagenau 


40 




Joseph Hannong 






H 


Porcelain, h.p. 






1760-80. 


f 


(Poppelsdorf 

near Bonn 


VC4-6 


p. in blue 


I ^ 


1 8th cent. 


» 




K^S 


M. Wessel) 
Schaffhausen 


1 H 




Schaphuyseti 
Gerrit Evers 


c I79S 

Slip ware 


'£5*2 




Paulus Hammekers 


c 1743 


w vw 


? Strassburg 
Faience 




Zurich 


w 

T 






porcelain 


Niderwiller 


Z ^* 


(1763-1791) 

s.p. at first 

afterwards h.p. 


JC 


Beyerle' ; faience 
1754 ; porcelain 


## 


p. in blue 


h.p. 1765- 


^^>< 


Nyon 

1781-1813 


Jtr 


Comte de Custine 


J 1**^ 


Arms of the town 


1780-1801 


D 


p. in blue 
D = ? Dortu 


X ±X 




G*'<fe 


1789 
Gide, painter 


X 




5V&£ 


Pfluger freres 


<J5^ 


Claude Francois 
Lanfrey, 


cC^ 


&Co. 


m 


manager to 1801, 
and proprietor 




Strassburg 


^ta^ 


to 1827 


CH ck 


Ch. Hannong 

(1710-39) 
Faience and 


NIDERVILLER 

Le Mire Aind 


18th cent. 
Lemire, modeller 




porcelain 


N Nider 


since 1794 


HM *+> 


H.p. 1721-55- 
* p. in blue 


Niderwiller 




0. 






Luneville 




/CYFFLEV 


(173 1 onwards) 








Cyffle\ modeller 


«l 


Paul Hannong 
1739-54 


(aluneville] 


b. 1724, t 1806. 
pottery 


5 





5^ 



ALSACE, LORRAINE 



Mark. 



Description. 



TCRRE DE 
LORRAINE 



TDL 



T B 



a: «f g. 

LUNEVILLE 




Luneville 



(1731 — *— ) 

Cyffles 
terracottas 



= Terre de 
Lorraine 

Toul 

c. 1790 
Earthenware 

Bayard at Toul 



Keller and 

Guerin 

late 1 8th cent. 



Mark. 




B&gj 



Description. 



Saargemtind 

(Sarreguemines) 

1775 

Pot. and 
porcelain 



Utzschneider 
& Co. 



FRANCE 

It is not yet definitely settled where the celebrated "Henri II. 
ware" was made. Formerly it was supposed to have been made at 
the Castle of Oiron, near Thouars, but it is now more generally 
assigned to the neighbouring village of Saint -Porchaise. This 
ware is very rare and remarkable. It is a fine, glazed earthenware 
of ivory colour, with stamped patterns, like those on contemporary 
book-bindings, inlaid with darker clays, and occasionally touched 
with colour. The shapes are carefully and elaborately moulded ; 
and the occurrence of the royal arms, and the cyphers of Henri II. 
and Diane de Poitiers attest the royal appreciation of the ware. 
Commoner lead-glazed earthenwares were made from early times 
at Beauvais, and in the neighbourhood of Saintes, but they are 
rarely marked. Nor has any marked example of undisputed 
Palissy ware been found. Bernard Palissy, the most renowned 
of French potters, was born about 1510 near Saintes, and by 
extraordinary patience and all -sacrificing industry succeeded in 
making the peculiar type of pottery associated forever with his 
name. It is a fine dense pottery with rich lead-glaze mottled or 
splashed with blue, green, purple, and yellow : most of the pieces 
are enriched with relief designs, but perhaps the most characteristic 
are the rustic dishes with accurately moulded shells, lizards, eels, 
and aquatic creatures in relief and coloured after nature. Palissy 
is said to have died in the Bastille about 1 592. His sons continued 
the work, and among his other followers were several potters at 
Avon, near Fontainebleau, including Barthelemy de Blemont, to 
whom the mark B B (p. 59) is attributed. Palissy ware has 
been frequently copied, Pull of Paris, about 1850, being particularly 
successful in this work. 

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the French potters 
devoted themselves to the manufacture of tin-enamelled faience, 

57 



5 8 POTTERY MARKS 

first in imitation of Italian maiolica, and afterwards of Dutch 
delft. The processes employed were essentially the same as 
those described on page i in connection with the Italian ware. 
Indeed the art was introduced into the south of France by Italian 
potters at the end of the sixteenth century, and the early wares of 
Lyons and Nevers are purely Italian in style. Among the many 
forms of decoration adopted on French faience five distinct schools 
are observable :— (i) The Italian. (2) The Persian style adopted 
at Nevers for a short period in the seventeenth century ; it consisted 
of white floral ornament on a deep blue ground. (3) The Rouen 
school, characterised first by the use of scalloped borders and 
embroidery patterns, recalling lace work, and afterwards by a 
commoner decoration, in which a cornucopia is the central motive. 
(4) Delicate arabesques with Chinese figures and interfacings, after 
the designs of Berain, adopted at Moustiers early in the eighteenth 
century. (5) Enamelled bouquets of flowers and landscapes in 
scroll-edged panels, after the manner of the porcelain painters, 
introduced at Strassburg, and largely developed at Marseilles and 
elsewhere in the eighteenth century. About 1780" cream-colour " 
and other English forms of fine earthenware threatened to oust 
the national faience, and attempts were made to produce the 
English types of earthenware, notably at Douai and Creil. The 
marks on French faience are mostly painted in blue, sometimes 
in colours. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN 

FRANCE was the home of soft-paste porcelain. At the end of 
the seventeenth century this ware was successfully made, first at 
Rouen, then at St. Cloud, and a few years later it was made at 
Lille, Mennecy, and Chantilly. The perfection of soft paste was 
reached at Vincennes and Sevres between the years 1740-70. 
The true soft -paste largely consists of a glassy composition 
or frit mixed with sand and marl or pipe-clay and other 
ingredients, and is coated with a luscious lead-glaze of creamy 
tone. The body is tender enough to be easily scratched with a 
steel point, and the glaze is so soft that the enamels painted upon 
it sink in and become incorporated in the moderate heat of the 



FRENCH PORCELAIN 



59 



enamelling kiln. The ware is very beautiful, but unsuited for 
household usage. About 1768 the manufacture of true or hard- 
paste porcelain from natural clays and rocks was introduced at 
Sevres, and very soon superseded the soft-paste there and elsewhere 
in France. It was made in large quantities in Paris from about 
1770 to the end of the century, but since then the chief centre of 
production has been Limoges. Figures and groups in " biscuit " 
or unglazed porcelain were made in both hard and soft paste. 
These are usually marked by incising in the raw body, whereas 
the glazed wares are marked by painting in under-glaze blue, 
over-glaze red, and other colours or gilding, and on the modern 
wares by printing chiefly in red. 



EARLY FRENCH EARTHENWARES 



Mark. 




Description. 



Saint Porchaire 

1 6th century. 

Formerly 
attributed to 

Oiron. 

The ware is 

commonly called 

" Henri II. ware.' 

The crescents 

refer to Diane 

de Poictiers 



Cypher of 

Henri II. and 

Diane de Poictier; 



Mark. 




mc 



Description. 



Beauvais 



16th cent. 



Saintes 



16th cent. 

? Francois Briot, 

Paris 

? Barthelemy de 

Blemont at Avon 

c. 1580 

Mark of a 

follower of 

Palissy 



60 FRENCH 


FAIENCE— LYONS, NEVERS, ROUEN 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Lyons 




Nevers 


^Cyorv 


Combe's pottery 
c. 1740 


frCuftodeff 


J. Custode 
17th cent. 


c $- 




H-B 

i68cf- 


H. Borne 


€■ 








I. P. S. 


? Patras 
c. 1750 


ULF 


Denis Lefebvre 
1636 


Patras 




FR 


Fran9ois 

Rodrique 

early 18th cent. 


J. B. Revol 


c 1753 










3? 


. Jacques Seigne 


Pierre Marie Mongis 
Rogd 


c. 1750 


1726 


Bondino 


And others in 
1 8th cent. 


L® 




\ ■ fc—^. 


Nevers 


N® 


? Nicolas Viode 
c. 1700 


^1^ 


late 1 6th cent. 






3^ 


Dominique 
Conrade 


E 




^to*r<jj 




MJSSt 


Signoret 
1870 




Jacques Bourdu 

at the Conrade 

factory early 

17th cent. 


~K 


T. Ristori 
1850 


% 




Ja-tcta Rouen 


Rouen 


± B 


? J. Poulard 


16+y ' 





FRENCH FAIENCE— ROUEN 


61 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


GdLo 

■¥ouS 


Rouen 

(1644-c. 1800) 
Guillebaud 
1722 — ■ — ■ 


(\aYoin. 

tj9° 
rttonj 


Rouen 

1782 

P. Omonz 


Anno 1M8 




J [(/ u<Mawm.e 




-Q3* 'P*> 


Claude Borne 


? Le Vavasseur 


I PeKBV 
Fosse 


1734 
I75 6 

Veuve Fosse" 
c- 1757 


* * 




t/ii&iw 


1759 


; 




SaS 


c. 1756 
1743-94 


i f p- 


And other 
numbers 

(see p. 62) 


a Rouan 


Le Vavasseur 
1743-1800 


6 




c//R 




1 B 




VR. 









6 2 FRENCH FAIENCE— ROUEN 



^ B *L? G.V & N'B VD 



<$ 




DD 



53 



_ v 9 ,vlr M> VL 

BB PP #3 <-A pj ^ VU 

I GIB '** <PZ> XBC 

331 B 4 £^tfX J DC fr0 onw C a r ds 75 ° 

C >/ identify the 

parts. 



A number of 
marks prob- 
ably of 
painters 



Numbers 

also occur 

referring to 

the value of 

the ware. 

Single letters 

also occur on 

ware made in 

two pieces 



FRENCH FAIENCE— ST. CLOUD, SINCENY, LILLE 63 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


<*T 


St. Cloud 

c. 1670 onwards 


ftouy 


Rouy 

1790-c. 1850 


+ 




/tS* 


Lille 


S-C 


T initial of Trou 
c. 1710 


Lfj 


J. Boussemart 
(1729-1802) 


T 




<%${ 




s sy 


Sinceny 

1734-1864 


M 








Jg 


J. F. Boussemart 

(Lille or St. 

Amand) 






ri3 




*<y $ 




C3.M B C M 


Painter's mark 


L-/LC, 




D 


? Dorez 


pinxtC ja^efj^ 






& C"f H7 




L LL 




3T 


Bertrand 


/v-a: 




<M 


Joseph Bedeau 


DORE£ 


Dorez (1720-50) 

Faience and 

porcelain 


5-A C5- 




?*£ 


? Lille 




Pierre Jeannot 
L. Mal^riat 


B #£ 


Lefebvre et Petit 


&-/u 


Ghail 


\£$ 





64 FRENCH FAIENCE— VALENCIENNES, MOUSTIERS 




Mark. 



S/L 



Description. 







Valenciennes 

F. L. Dorez 
Early 18th cent. 



Picard's factory 
c. 1756 

Saint-Amand- 
les-Eaux 

1 8th cent. 

marks of Pierre 

Fauquez 



Painter f 18 15 

Dijon 

1669-1854 



Mark. 



G. viry f. a Moustiers 
chez CUrissy 171 1 



F. V. F. 



G. V. F. 



Description. 



If/Fe 

ft. If 



M..C 

MCA i}S6 
J A O 

r r u 

<SollU.CL 

MtGltel W<uc 

ca 

Po Gia.nvel 
CROS 



Moustiers 

1679-1852 

Clenssy's factory 
1679-1748 

Fran9ois Viry 

fecit 

c. 1685 

Gaspard Viry 
fecit 



? Fouque 

successor of 

Cleiissy 



Fouque and 
Pelloquin 
1749- 

Jean Etienne 
Baron, c. 1750 



? Ferraud 

Painters at 

Clerissy's 

1 8th cent. 

See also 

Alcora (p. 90) 



FRENCH FAIENCE— MOUSTIERS 



65 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Olerys, a painter 
at Clerissy's 




Moustiers 

Guichard 


factory, started 
a pottery in 1738. 

The monogram 


G> H v> 

v.^fc) J 


c. 1763 




of O L indicates 




i> 3t£ 


his work. 
His factory lasted 






till 1749, his 








partner being 
Langiers. 

After 1749 ne 
worked as a 
painter again 


+ A 


Varages 

c. 1750 


tJi f$ 


till 1783. 


6 s- 


Tavernes 

c. 1760 


&£ A£ 




#g* 


G. for Gaze 






/^tz^n. 


Marseilles 


•Oy 






A. Clenssy, 1697 


W T-P 


? Ferraud 


\ J& ntgrfeille/ I 




8 2; 


Late 1 8th cent. 
? Achard 

P. Fournier 


V> l/lt 


? Savy, 

1749- 
The flenr-de-lys 
after 1777 

J. G. Robert 
c. 1750-93 

Veuve Perrin 
c. 1760 


\ $ 




B- 


Antoine Bonnefoy 


**m* * 




F 


J. Fauchiez 


«L 


1778 


Ynf? 1 *"? 


Jacques Borelli 

(see p. 21) 

1781 



66 FRENCH FAIENCE— MONTAUBAN, LA ROCHELLE 



Mark. 



FAZ 



DL-5 



nj* 



% 



CLennon 

771 



©/ 







Laurens Basso 
A Toulouza 

NISMES, 1581 



Description. 



Montauban 
(1720-1820) 

Mouchard, 1792 



D. Lestrade 



Lapierre 

Lapierre et 

Quinquiry 

c. 1780 



Clermont- 
Ferrand 

1734 



Samadet 

1732 



Ardus 

i73 6 

Pichon, c. 1752 



Dupr£, c. 1740 

Montpellier 

Le Voulant 
1 8th cent. 



Toulouse 

i75 6 

Nimes 



Mark. 



PBC 

* C 

B. 

-J*R- 

HSAN 

H 

At 

4* ^ 



Description. 



Nimes 

Plautier 

Boncoirant & Co. 

19th cent. 

La Rochelle 

last half of the 
1 8th cent. 



? Pouhet 
Colin or Chaux 



1783 



Jean Roland 
17C0 

= Manufacture 
La Rochelle 

Marans 

1740-56 



Sceaux 

1736-1813 

S P = Sceaux 

Penthievre. The 

anchor refers to 

the Due de P. 

high admiral 

of France 



FRENCH FAIENCE— APREY, RENNES, QUIMPER 67 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


A>J 


Aprey 

1744- 
Jarry, painter, 
and others 


T 


Rennes 

Tortia 


Mv. 




Pierre Le Due 


1834 


A 




Morice {Jean) 


1834 


K c 


Rennes 


IRPAlVAdEAV 


Nantes 


hire/ de choisy pencil 


II. de Choisy 
1767 


R 


Apt 

1 8 th cent. 


WG 




M^ 


Bordeaux 

Vieillard & Co. 
19th cent. 


CHOISY FT 




AMO%R£LM: 


Lahens and 
Rateau 

Poitiers 

J 75 2 


^Otllp©«.tt> 




rattier*, 




'?7t 




FF 


Felix Faucon 


pinxit baron a rennes 

Michel Derennes 
fait a Rennes Rue Hue 


Baron 

1772 

1771 
1769 


TC C 

Z A 


Quimper 

(1690-c. 1800) 

Pierre Caussy 
1749-82 


Luc Bouchereau 
Raymond 


1780 


_^hK 


A. de la 
Hubeaudiere 
1782- 



68 FRENCH FAIENCE— ST. OMER, VRON, DESVRES, DOUAI 



Mark. 



Description. 



H 

5 p 

p 
w 

Fait a Desvres, 1778 
/. van der Plas 

*> P 

G- xi 



St. Omer 

1751-90 



Mark. 



Aire 

1780 

? Prudhomme 

Vron 

late 1 8th cent. 
Verlingue 



? Vron 



Desvres 



Dupre-Poulaine 
1732 



DOUAI 




win 

Leigh. scC'f 

w 

i£Js 



D. C. BR A. 
R. 

HALSFORT 

BLONDEL 

Martin Damman 

Castilhon 

EPINAL 

S.PAUL 



Description. 



Douai 

1780-1820 

Leigh k Co. 

Cream ware in 
English style 



Houz6, de l'Aul- 

noit & Co. 

1784 

followed by 
Halsfort in 1788 



1799-1803 

Castillon 
late 1 8th cent. 

fipinal 

1760 

Premieres 

J. Laval le 
1783 — 

St. Paul 

') 1 8th and 
^ 19th cent. 



FRENCH FAIENCE— CREIL, ORLEANS 



69 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Creil 


1 


Bourg la Reine 


CREOL 


1794 

Cream ware 


Q-- 


Veuve Laurier 






«7 ; 


et fils. 


»-k 


Monogram of 


v/ 


Rebus of 


M 


Stone, Coquerel 
and Legros, 


V 


Chapelet, painter. 
19th cent. 


Km.Krf 


agents in Paris 






PARTS 


c. 1830 








imp. 
Angouleme 


fa$h<$[ 


Tours d'Aigues 


" Angouleme 


V|»«l" n " |«|1/' 


1 8th cent. 


anno, 1770 








Amu 


Casamene 


fX 




w 




c 1753 


jmEa 


Early 19th cent. 


/ n \ 




§g» 


(near Bebancon) 


i. l 








Beraerac 


Bergerac 


CAMBRAY 


Cambray 




EPERNAY 


Epernay 

17th and 1 8 th 


1 


Renac 




cent. 


■IV 


1 8th cent. 




Vauvert 


^ r 




JEAN GAUTIER 


(near Nimes) 








c. 1736 




Courcelles 




Martres 


Courcelles 


(Maine), c. 1783 


fait a Mart res 


1775 




Saint Longe 






Saint Longe 


Late 1 8th cent. 




Goult 






+ M 


1740 


Lacouves Gal let 


Ligron 

1787. Copy of 






de Ligroti 


Palissy ware 




Moulins 






a Moulins 


18th cent. 


Gf^^s 


Orleans 


Chollet fecit 


1742 


£^ 




de Moulain 





1753 


BUK 


Bourg la Reine 


T3UH 




BR Op 


18th cent. 


tom&^s 


Forges les Eaux 

18th cent, 
imp. 



yo FRENCH FAIENCE— CHANTILLY, ST. CLEMENT 



Mark. 



D V 



Claude Pelisie 
1726 



M. Sansont 
1738 



d' Entoine 
d'engle fon ta in e 



CHANTILLY 



MA 



M 

CH 



A Limoges 
1741 



Fait a tours 
1782 



LOVIS LIAVT 



avtsseau a tour 



JC 



Description. 



? Mennecy 
or Rouen 

1 8th cent. 

Val Sous 

Meudon 



Englefontaine 



Chantilly 

1 8th cent. 



M. Aaron 

1845 

porcelain 
Mathaux 

(Champagne) 
1 75 1 -1 800 

Ogues 

(Aisne), 1748-8; 



Limoges 



Tours 



Avisseau 
c 1855 



imitations of 
Palissy ware 



Mark. 



h 



L'italienne 



§ 




A. D. T. 



Manufacture 
de Saint Clement 



GALLE NANCY 



Geoffroi 







Saint A mans 



3P 



Description. 



Laugeais 

Landais 
19th cent. 

Style of Palissy 



near Beauvais 
late 1 8th cent. 

Batignolles 

19th cent. 
Lesorre 



Rubelles 

(Seine et Marne) 
1836-58 



Baron de Tremble 
1856 

Saint Clement 

1757 — - 



19th cent. 



Gien 

19th cent. 



Geoffroi 
pr. and imp. 



Bayeux 

T 8io 

porcelain 



Lamarque 

1835-58 

Meudon 

1 8th cent. 



FRENCH FAIENCE -PARIS 



7* 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Sevres 




Paris 


SEVRES 


late 1 8th cent. 
Lambert, 
Levasseur, 


Vve. Dumas 


1834-62 




Clavareau 


Pull 


Pull, c. 1850 




c. 1806- 




Style of Palissy 


t<y 


Voisinlieu 






J & 


initials of 






** V& 


J. Ziegler 
(in a double 


TO 


Th. Deck 
1859 — 


%A/f 


quartrefoil). 






WW 


19th cent. imp. 




V. Barbizet 


A^ 




B V 


1850 

Style of Palissy 




Paris 






Pajou, 1787 


terracotta 


H 


Vincennes 

1767-71 
Hannong : 


Claude Remey 


C. Remey 18 17 


qz 


faience 


OLLIVIER 


Rue Roquette 


<) 




A PARIS 


late 1 8th cent. 


oc* 




Masson 


formerly Olivier 
19th cent. 


& 




* f\ 


J. Petit, at 






jR 


Belleville 






1770 






• ■ ♦ 


Porcelain 






® 


M. Gille 

1845 

Porcelain biscuit 
imp. 






PASCAL 


F. M. Pascal 


_ 






c. 1850 

J. Devers 






&£> 


19th cent. 







72 FRENCH PORCELAIN— ST. CLOUD, LILLE, MENNECY 



Mark. 



Description. 



* 




T 

+. DP 

Ft *«- 




Judbrun a cCUte 

w 



Paris 

? Reverend 

1664 

s.p. 

Saint Cloud 

late 17th cent. 

— c - T-773 
s.p. p. in blue 



Trou 

1712 

p. in blue and inc. 



p. in blue 



Mark. 



Description. 



Lille 

i 7 n 

s.p. 

Dorez. 

p. in blue 



Leperre Durot 

1784 

h.p. 

under patronage 

of the Dauphin 



p. in black 



VALENCIEN 

lb 

CUanldCu 



Valenciennes 

!785-97 
h.p. 

Fauquez and 
Vannier 



Fauquet and 

Lamoninary. 

p. in blue 



■P-vf 



DV 



p. in red 



Chantilly 

1725-89 
s.p. 



p. in red or gold 



Mennecy 

Due de Villeroy 

1735-73 
s.p. 

p. in blue or inc. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— BOURG-LA-REINE, ORLEANS 73 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Bourg-la-Reine 




Orleans 


R 11 


1774-89 


1 1 j[ 


1753-70 


13 It 


s.p. inc. 




Soft paste 


oB ■ 


? Bourg-la-Reine 


*-*-» 


1770 


^ 

AP 


Sceaux 


4. 


hard paste, 
p. in blue 


s-X 


1749 

s.p. inc. 


7t 


Inc. 


Sx 


p. in blue 


s c 


Bourdon 

c. 1788 

G = ? Gerault 


<•> 


Under patronage 


SStt 




-T" 


of the High 




■* 1 - 


Admiral, Due 


,'oFA 




^J^ 


de Penthievre. 


1790-1811 




Hence the anchor 


{ <ip 




S.P 


and S. P. = 

(Sceaux 
Penthievre) 




/R 


Arras 

c. 1782-88 


$c 


Le Brun 

1808-11 


I AA 


s. p. p. in blue 




Bordeaux 


P 


Etiolles 

Iy 68 


YX. 


1770 — — 
Yerneuille 




Pelleve" 




Boisette 


2" 


s.p. and h.p. 


fi>.. 


1778. h.p. 


Yitliii/ifte 


inc. 


p. in blue 








Limoges 


S? 


Monnier 
I7 86 


c-J> c& 


h.p. 1783 

Grellet 
(1783-88) 


, 


Marseilles 


x^"— *v 




K R 


J. G. Robert 
c. 1777 


\ JUL J 


? Alluaud 




h.p. 


V_ ^s 


I7 88 


Ti 


p. in blue 


UMQ6E5 

JA 





74 FRENCH PORCELAIN— CAEN, BOULOGNE, PARIS 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Caen 




Paris 


CAEN 


1798-1808. 

h.p. st. in red 


MA? 


h.p. 
Faubourg 
St. Antoine 


Le fra7icois 

a 

Caen 




X 


*773 

Morel 








Boulogne 

Haffringue 

19th cent. 

h.p. 


0-5 


Rue de la 
Roquette 
Souroux 
i773- 8 4 
Fabrique de la 




h ^ r 










rHc\ 


St. Amand- 


Y \ J* 


Court i lie 


U\) 


les-Eaux 


A \f 


1773 


^jxTC 


19th cent. 


n X 


Locre\ 


qOQd 


h.p. and s. p. 


4% /\ 




¥ 


Montreuil 


yy 


with letters 
R, X, W, H, etc. 


/\ 


19th cent. 


/N /\ 


inc. 


A 


h.p. 


^ 




j&g?\ 


Choisy-le-Roy 


<£?L 


Locre" and 

Russinger 

1784-94 


mB 


c. 1780 
h.p. pr. 


A 






Paris 


LetR 


» 




h.p. 




Pouyat and 


& 


Le Comte de 


P. R 


Russinger 


Brancas 
Lauraguais 




c. 1800 


h % 


c. 1758. 
Faubourg St. 

Lazare 

1769-1810. 

Mark of P. A. 

Hannong 

1772-75. 


i 4 

OH <§>. 


Rue de Reuilly 

Lassia 

1774-c. 1800 

Chanou 


cp. 
cp 


Cypher of Charles 






Philippe Comte 

dArtois, patron. 

p. in gold 


f p 


Rue du Petit i 
Carousel 
1775 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— PARIS 



75 



Mark. 



* 



D 






Moitte 
M 



GROSSE 
L'ISLE SAINT DENIS 



A A 

A. 

Housel 



gR 



Rue Thtrou 
a Vsris. 



MANUFRE 

de M er le Due 
d' Anoouleme 



MANUFRE 

de MM 

Guerhard et 

Dihl a Paris 



Description. 



Paris 

h.p. 

Clignancourt, 

1775-c. 1790 

founded by 

P. Deruelle under 

the patronage of 

Monsieur, the 

King's eldest 

brother, p. in 

blue, gold, and 

red 



De Moitte who 
succeeded Deruelle 



L isle Saint Denis 
c. 1780 

Fabrique de la 

Reine, 
Rue Thiroux, 

1778 

3. in blue and red : 

founded by 

Leboeuf. 

Cypher of Queen 

Marie Antoinette. 

Managed by Guy 

and Housel after 

the Revolution 



Mark. 



Rue de Bondy, 
founded in 1780 
by Guerhard and 
Dihl under the 
patronage of the 
Due d'Angouleme, 
st. in red 




ttaSt a pai/s 
NAST 

DARTE 

M RoydL 



M 

B 



<£> 



Description. 



Poiicr 

PB 



Eh 



Paris 

h.p. 

Rue de Bondy. 

p. in blue 



Monogram of 
G.A. 



Rue de Popin- 

court, 1780 ■ ■ 

Bought by Nast 
in 1783 

In gold 



M. Darte 
fl. 1812 



Pont- a ux- Choux 

1784-c. 1806 
Cypher of Louis 
Philippe, the 
patron, and 
monogram MJ of 
the Director 



Monogram of 

J. B. Outrequin 

de Montarcy 

1786 



Rue de Crussol, 

1789, 

founded by Potter 

an Englishman 

p. in blue 



7 6 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— PARIS, VINCENNES 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




La Seinie 




Paris 


°^ cry 


c. 1774-94 
h.p. 


& 


h.p. 
Feuillet 


u>* 


(near Limoges) 


\S^ ^ 


19th cent. 


<&l 


Paris 

h.p. 
St. Denis 


& 




FLEUKY 


. n 






late 1 8th cent. 


I p 


Belleville. 




Ponteinx 


t/n 


Jacob Petit 
1790 onwards. 


PONTEINX 


1790-c. 1810 
(Landes) 


<t/> 


p. in blue 




Paris 

h. P . 
Gros Caillou. 
J. L. Broillet 


i& 


Vincennes 

h.p. 
cypher of the 


Sb 


1762-69 
A. Lamarre 


*? 


patron Louis 
Philippe, Due de 




1773- 


Chartres, 1767-86 


F. D. HONORE 


Boul d St. Antoine 








1785 


" htK 


Hannong 


F. M. HONOR& 




? Hannong and 
Lemaire. 


K. F. DAGOTY 




^ j* 


p. in blue 


DAGOTY ET HONORE 




hY 




FABRIQUE DE 


Boul a Poissoniere 






l'imperatrice 


1780 


V • 




P. L. DAGOTY 


4$*1£ 




le Bon halley 
I 


? Paris. In gold 


^^ /f^ 


Vincennes 


Monginot 


20 Boulevard des 
Italiens 


X«N^Y 


s.p. 

(1740-56) 




Pillivuyt &> Co. 




? painter's name 


C. H. PILLIVUYT 


1817- 




c. 1750. 


Manufacture dc Foescy 


also at Foescy 


X 


p. in red. 
Incised on 




Faubourg 


J J 


Vincennes 


Schoelcher 


St. Lazare 


porcelain, 1753 




early 19th cent. 


' 





FRENCH PORCELAIN— VINCENNES, SEVRES 



77 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


1 

Description. 




Sevres 




Sevres 




inc. marks on 






F 


biscuit porcelain. 

Fernex or 

Falconet 


yjytLcAjxic) cu*i* 


1823 


M'S- 




dD 


1806 
initials of 


-6 


Brachard 
father and son 


i.% 


repairer 


Z?^ 


? Bourdus 


7L 


Vincennes 

(1740-56) 


j^ 


Liance 




soft paste, 
p. in blue 


*U 


? Robert le 
Lorrain 


0^, 




<s> 




«& 


1753 




Le Riche * 




Sevres 


X /I 




'K 


(1756 onwards) 

i75 6 - 
soft paste made 
exclusively till 


9 




oA>V 


1769, and as well 


1771 


°52° 


as hard paste till 
c. 1804 ; after 








which hard paste 


T 




^^ 


almost entirely. 


? Tristan, 1769 


2£ 


1777. 






0^0 


p. in blue 


P 


? Perrotin, 1774 


^>c^ 




60 




3±£ 

7^ 




BD 




1772 
on hard paste 
porcelain from 






c^uV, 


1769 


X.ptnf 


Alexandre 
Brachard 


^^T* 


1 



78 



FRENCH PORCELAIN -SEVRES 



Letters, marks, and numbers indicating the year in which Vincennes 
and Sevres porcelain was decorated. 



A denotes 


the year 1753 


A A denotes the year 1777 


T9 denotes the 


B 


!754 


BB ,, ,, 1778 


ix year 1801 


C 








X x 1802 


1755 


cc 


1779 




D 


1756 


DD 


1780 


11 ,, xi ,, 1803 


E 


1757 


EE 


1781 


4= ,, xii ,, 1804 


F 


*758 


FF 


1782 


Hh ,, xiii ,", 1805 


G 


1759 






d> -,, XIV ,, 1806 


H 


1760 


GG 


1783 


7 denotes the year 1807 


1 


>, 1761 


HH 


1784 


8 ,, ,, 1808 


K 


1762 


II 


1785 


9 ,, ,, 1809 


L 


1763 


KK 


1786 


10 ,, ,, 1810 


M 


1764 


LL 


1787 


oz ,, ,, 1811 


N 


1765 


MM 


1788 


dz ,, ,, 1812 


o 


1766 


NN 


1789 


tz ,, ,, 1813 


P 


^67 


OO 


179° 


qz ,, ,, 1814 


Q .. 


1768 


PP 


I79 1 


qn ,, ,, 1815 


R 1 ,, 


1769 


QQ 


I79 2 


sz ,, ,, 1816 


S 


1770 






ds ,, ,, 1817 


T 


I77 1 


RR „ ,, 1793 




u 


!772 


Letters denoting the year 


From 1818-1834 the year 


V 


!773 


fell into disuse during the 


was indicated by the last 


time of the Revolution, 


two figures of the date, e.g. 


X 


1774 


and between 1793-1800 


18 denotes 18 18 


Y 


1775 


such marks were rare. 
From 1 80 1 the following 


19 ,, 1819 and so 
on. After 1833 the date 


z 


1776 


signs w 


ire used. 


is given in full. 



1 To recall the comet of 1769 some of the decorators substituted the mark Jf-«Si|=- for the date 
letter R. 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



79 



Mark. 



JSvred 
R.F 



Jevrtt- 



is 



M N 

SevreS 
— //— 



M.Imp- 
de SevveS 



/ t 



■V 




\ 



*^VR£9 



Description. 



Sevres 

1792-1804 

p. in blue and 
lilac 



The First 
Republic 



p. in blue 



1800-2 

p. in gold and 

colours 



1803 to 
May 8th 1804. 
Consular period 



First Empire 

1804-9. 

st. in red 



1810-14. 
pr. in red 



Mark. 









Sfevres 
3Q. 



Description. 



Sevres 

Louis XVIII. 

1814-24 

the two last 

numbers of the 

year added from 

1814. 

pr. in blue 



Charles X. 

1824-28. 

pr. in blue 



1829-30 



1829-30 



Louis- Philippe 
1830 



So 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 



Description'. 










Sevres 

Louis Philippe 

1831-34 

pr. in blue 



cypher of Louis 
Philippe 



Mark. 



Description. 



pr. in green 



marks on wares 

destined for the 

Royal Chateaux. 

pr. in red 






Sevres 

Second Republic 
1848-52 
pr. in red 



j Second Empire 
1852-4. 
pr. in red 



T:=tendre, with 

reference to a 

soft paste made 

temporarily 



1854-70 



j Third Republic 
1880-89. 
pr. in red 



1890- 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 










Description. 



1871 

in red. 

The cut indicates 

a spoilt piece 

1900 
in green 



1900-2 

in red to indicate 

the gilding 



1902-4 
in red 



1848 

on porcelain 

made for Ministers 

pr. in red 



1898-1904 

on porcelain 

made for various 

Embassies 



Mark. 



Description. 






J?. 

m 



A 

PA 

£ 

B 

f* 

di 

& 

33 



Marks and monograms of 

painters, decorators, and 

gilders at Sevres. 

Aloxcle, birds, etc. 

1758-81 
Andre, Jules, landscapes, 

1843-69 

Anteaume, landscapes, etc. 

1754 
Apoil, Alexis, figure subjects 

1845-64 

Apoil, Mme. , figures, 1864- 
1894 

Archelais, decorator, 

1865-1902 

Armand, birds, etc.. 1745- 
1746 

ASSELIN, portraits, etc., 
!75o-94 

Aubert aine, flowers, 1754- 

Auvillain, ground colours 
1877- 

Avisse, decorator, 1850- 
1884 

Bailly fils, flowers, 1750- 



Ballanger, decorator, 
1902 

Barbin, decorator, 1824-39 

Bardet, flowers, 1751-1800 

BARRAT, bouquets, etc., 
1780-91 

Barre, detached bouquets, 
1780-91 

Barre\ flowers, 1846-81 

Barriat, figures, 1852- 
1883 



32 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 



Y 
.B 

* 
t. 

JB 
V- 

A/ 



Description. 



Baudoin, ornaments, 1750- 

Becquet, flowers, etc. , 
1748- 

Belet, 'E. , flowers, etc. , 
1878-1900 

Belet, L., decorator, 1879- 

Ber anger, figures, 1807- 
1846 

Bertrand, bouquets, 1750- 
1800 

Bieuville, decorator, 1877- 



Bienfait, gilding, 1756- 

Binet, bouquets, 1750- 
1800 

Binet, Mme. (nee Chanou) 
flowers, 1750- 1 800 

Blanchard, decorator, 
1811 

Blanchard, A. .decorator, 
1878-1900 

Bocquet, decorator, 1902- 



BoiTEL, gilding, 1797- 1822 

Bonnuit, decorator, 1858- 
1894 

Boucher, flowers, 1754- 

Bouchet, landscapes, etc. , 

1757-93 
Boucot, flowers, etc. , 

1785-91 

Bouillat, flowers, etc., 
1800-11 

Boullemier, gilding, 1822- 
• 1841 

Boullemier aine\ gilding, 
1822-41 

Boullemier fils, gilding, 
1802-12 



Mark. 



Description. 



0i 

4 

#y 

MB 

V 
9- 
A 

fox 

A 

? 

k 
c. 

*• 

I.G 



Boulanger, flowers, 1754- 
1800 

Boulanger fils, subjects, 
1770-81 

Brachard, sculptor 

Brecy, decorator, 1880- 

Bulidon, bouquets, 1745- 
1792 

Bunel, Mme. , flowers, 
1778-1817 

Buteux pere, flowers, 1756- 
1786 

Buteux fils aine\ flowers, 
1773-1822 

Buteux fils jeune, sub- 
jects, 1780-94 

Buteux, flowers, after 1800 
Cabau, flowers, 1848-84 



Capelle, borders, 1745- 

Capronnier, gilding, 1800 
Cardin, bouquets, 1749- 

Carrier, flowers, 1752- 

Castel, landscapes, etc., 
1750-1800 

Catteau, decorator, 1902- 
1904 

Caton, subjects, etc. , 

*753 
Catrice, flowers, etc. .before 

1800 

C£los, decorator, 1865- 
1894 

Chabry, subjects, etc., 
1749 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



83 



Mark. 

c.p 

LQ 

t 

CM. 

cc. 
c.z. 

c. 
c. 

JZ 

A) 

2>.3* 

2>.p. 



Description. 



Chanou, Mme. (nee 

Durosey), flowers, before 

1800 
Chapuis aine\ flowers, etc. 

before, 1800 
Chapuis fils, bouquets, 

before 1800 
Charpentier, decorator, 

after 1800 

Charrin, Mme., subjects, 
etc., after 1800 

Chavaux pere, gilding, 

1752- 
Chavaux fils, gilding, etc., 

1770-83 



Chevallier, flowers, 1 



755 



Choisy, de, flowers, etc., 
1800-1817 

Chulot, flowers, etc., 1755 

Commelin, bouquets, be- 
fore 1800 

Constant, gilding, 1804- 
1815 

Const antin, figures, 1823- 

1845 
Cornaille, flowers, 1755- 

1793 

Courcy, de, figures, 1866- 
1886 

Couturier, gilding, 1783- 

Coursajet, decorator, 
fi886 

Dammouse, figures, etc., 
1862-80 

David, decorator, 1852- 

1882 
D Avignon, landscapes, 

1814 

Delafosse, figures, 1805- 
1815 

Desperais, decorator, 1794- 
1822 

DERICHSWEILER, G. , de- 
corator, 1858-84 



Mark. 



CD 

5> 

B.i. 

A 

*r 
K. 

%> 

9)% 

*** 

2). 
LT 

r 

HF 

r 



Description. 



Develly, landscapes, etc., 
1813-48 

Devicq, decorator, 1880- 

Deutsch, decorator, 18015- 
1817 

Didier, decorator, 1819- 

1845 
Dieu, Chinese subjects 

gilding, before 1800 

Doat, sculptor, 1878- 

Dodin, figures, etc., 1754- 
1803 

Draud, Chinese figures and 
gilding, before 1800 

Drouet, decorator, 1879- 



Drouet, flowers, 1828 
Dubois, flowers, etc., 1756- 

Ducluzeau, Mme., figures, 
etc., 1818-48 

Durosey, gilding, 1802-27 

Dusolle, bouquets, before 
1800 

Dutanda, bouquets, be 
fore 1800 

Eaubonxe, d', decorator 
1904 

Escallier, Mme., decor 
ator, 1874-88 

Evans, birds, insects, etc. 

1752- 
Falot, birds, insects, etc. 

before 1800 

Faraguet, Mme., figures 
1856-70 

Ficquenet, flowers, 1864 
1881 

Fontaine, miniatures, etc. 
1752 



34 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 



Description. 



sr 

9 
Y 

A.F 



RF 

u 



JC 



J.G. 
t 

v. 1 

4 
2).g. 



Fontaine, flowers, 1827- 
1857 

Fontelliau, gilding, 1753- 

Four£, flowers, before 
1800 

Fournerie, decorator, 
1903 

Fournier, decorator, 1878- 

Fragonard, figures, etc., 
1847-69 

Fritsch, figures, etc., 1763- 
1765 

Froment, figures 

Fumez, bouquets, 1777- 

1801 
Ganeau fils, gilding, after 

1800 

Gauthier, landscapes, 
etc., 1787-91 

G£bleux, decorator, 1883- 



Gely, decorator, 185 1- 
1888 

Genest, figures, 1752 
Genin, flowers, etc., 1756 

Georget, figures, etc. , 
1802-23 

Gerard, subjects, before 

1800 
GERARD, Mme. (n£e Vau- 

trin), flowers, before 1800 
GlRARD, Chinese figures, 

before 1800 

GOBERT, figures, 1852-91 
Gobled, decorator, 1902- 
GODIN, gilding, 1808-28 



Mark. 



F.9 
X 

m 

■A-c. 

H 
ft.t. 

k> 

<£ 

/ 



Description. 



Gomery, flowers, 1756 
Goupil, figures, 1863-79 

Gremont, bouquets, 1770- 
1781 

Grison, gilding, 1749 

Guillemain, decorator, 
after 1800 

Hallion, E. , landscapes, 
1884 

Hallion, Fr. , gilder, 1866- 

1895 
Henrion, bouquets, before 

1784 

H^RICOURT, bouquets be- 
fore 1800 

Hilken, figures, etc., be- 
fore 1800 

Houry, flowers, 1747-55 

HuARD, decorator, 181 1- 
1846 

Humbert, figures, 1862- 
1870 

Huny, flowers, 1791-99 

JARDEL, decorator, 1886- 



JOYAU, bouquets, before 
1800 

Jubin, gilding, before 1800 

Julienne, renaissance or- 
naments, after 1800 

Lambert, flowers, 1864-96 

Langlaciv, landscapes, 
1813-44 

La Roche, flowers, before 

1800 
Lasserre, decorator, 1896^ 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



35 



Mark. 



Description. 



3L 
JJ 

Ji(3. 
JLA 

¥ 

L 

tfJLL 
iL 

<5 

EL. 

/ 

AC 

CL 

M 



Latache, gilding, after 
1800 

Le Bel ain6, figures, etc. , 
before 1800 

Le Bel jeune, bouquets, 
1780-93 

Le Bel, landscapes, 1804- 
1844 

L^ANDRE, subjects, left in 

1785 
Lecat, ground colours, 

1872- 

Lecot, Chinese subjects, 
before 1800 

Ledoux, landscapes, etc. , 

1758 
Leger, decorator, 1902- 



Le Guay, gilding, 1748 

Le Guay, figures, etc. , 
1778-81 

Le Gay, decorator, 1866- 

1884 
Leguay, miniatures, etc. , 

1772-1817 

LEGRAND, gilding, after 
1800 

Leroy, gilding, 1864-88 

Leye pere, flowers, etc. , 
1754 

Leve, F. , flowers, etc., be- 
fore 1800 

Ligxe, decorator, 1883- | 

Lucas, decorator, 1878- J 

Maqueret, Mnie. (nee j 
Bouillat), flowers, before 
1800 

Martinet, flowers, 1861- 
1878 

Massy, flowers, 1779-1806 



Mark. 



(Vg 

S 
S 

X 

JLC 
/SUM 

m 

LM 
M 

JW 
AM 

A 
ncj 

ad, 



Description. 



Maugendre, sculptor, 

1881-86 

MAUSSiON.Mme. de, figures 

1860-70 
Merault aind, decorator, 

i754-9i 
Mkrault jeune, bouquets, 

1786-89 

Merigot, decorator, 1848- 
1884 

Meyer, A., figures, 1863- 
1871 

Micaud, flowers, 1759 

Micaud, gilding, 1792- 
1812 

Michel, bouquets, before 
1800 

Milet, O. , decorator, 1862- 

1877 
Mimard, decorator, 1884- 

Moiron, bouquets, 1790- 
1791 

Mougexot, flowers, 1754 

MOREAU, gilding, 1809-15 

Morin, naval and military 
subjects, 1754 

Morin, gilding, 1888- 

Moriot, figures, 1830-48 

Mutel, landscapes, 1754 

NlQUET, bouquets, left in 
1792 

Noel, flowers, etc., 1755 

Nouailhier, Mme. (ne'e 
Durosey), flowers, before 
1800 

OUINT, Ch. , decorator, 
1879-82 



86 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 



e 

o 

•p 

y 

PJi 
JCJ? 



P.T. 

/ 

EH. 

r 

*t 

P 
2> 
/J 
R 
HP. 



Description. 



Ouint, E. , coloured 
grounds, 1888-93 

Ouint, Em. , coloured 
grounds, 1877-89 

Paillet, figures, 1882-88 

Parpette, flowers, etc., 

1755 
Parpette, Mme. , flowers, 

etc., 1794 

Parpetti, Mme. , L. .flowers, 
1789-1825 

Pajou, sculptor, 1750 
Peluche, decorator, 1880- 

Petit, flowers, 1756 

Pfeiffer, bouquets, before 
1800 

Philippine aine\ subjects 
1780-91 

Philippine, flowers, 1787- 
1791 

Pierre alne\ flowers, be- 
fore 1800 

Pierre jeune, bouquets, be- 
fore 1800 

Pihan, decorator, 1888- 

Pithou aine, subjects, 
before 1800 

Pithou jeune, figures, 
etc. , before 1800 



Pline, gilding, 1831 

Porchon, gilding 

POUILLOT, bouquets, be- 
fore 1778 

Poupart, landscapes, 

i8iS-45 

Prevost, gilding, 1754 



Mark. 



<& 



**~ 



"ft 
2R 



to 00 

ER 



LK 



Be. 

PR 
CR 
% 



Description. 



Quennoy, decorator, 1902 

Raux, bouquets, before 
1800 

Regnier, F. , figures, 1820- 
1866 

Regnier, H., figures, 1825- 
1870 

Rejoux, gilding, 1862-90 

Renard, E. , decorator, 
after 1800 

Renard, H., decorator, 
1881 

Richard, Em. , flowers, 
1869-1900 

Richard, E. , flowers, 1838- 

1872 
Richard, F., decorator, 

1848-78 

Richard, S. , decorator, 
1832 

Richard, L. , decorator, 

1902 
Richard, P., gilding, 1849- 

1881 

Riocreux, I., landscapes, 
1824-49 

Riocreux, D. , flowers, 
1807-72 

Robert, P. , landscapes, 
1806-43 

Robert, Mme. , flowers, 
after 1800 

Robert, J. F. , landscapes, 
1806-12 

Rocher, figures, etc., 1758 

Rosset, landscapes, 1753 

Roussel, bouquets, before 
1800 

Roussel, figures, 1842-72 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


§ 


Sandoz, decorator, 1890- 


%. 


Troyon, decorator, 1802- 
1817 


EJS. 


Schilt, L. , flowers, 1822-55 


JU 


Ulrich, decorator, 1889- 
1904 


J.h. 


Schadre, birds, etc., before 
1800 


TZ> 


Vaud£, gilding, etc., 1753 


* 


Sieffert, figures, 1883-88 


w 


Vavasseur, arabesques, 
1753 


U 


Simard, decorator, 1883- 


w# 


Vieillard, decorator, 
1752-90 


M 


Sinsson, flowers, 1780-95 


tf 


Vignol, decorator, 1883- 


S.Sj) 


Sinsson, flowers, 1820-25 


2000 


Vincent, gilding, 1752-91 


•* *• 


Sioux ain£, bouquets, 1752- 


W 


Walter, flowers, 1832-82 


o 


1792 

Sioux jeune, flowers, 1752- 
1792 


W 


Weydinger, gilding, c. 
1814 


$1 


Solon, M., figures, etc., 
1862-71 




Xrowet, flowers, etc., 1750 
Yvernel, landscapes, etc., 


J.W 


Swebach, landscapes, 1806- 
1814 


f 


1750 





Tabary, birds, 1754 




Decorators who signed 
in full 


* 


Taillandier, bouquets, 
I753-90 




Andr£, J., landscapes, 

1843-1869 
Baldisseroni, figures, 


• • • 


Tandart, flowers, 1755 




1865-1879 
Barriat, decorator, 1852- 


^> 


Tardi, bouquets, 1757-95 




1883 
Beranger, J. , figures, 1807- 




Theodore, gilding, before 




1846 


• ••• 


1800 




Bois, Th. du. , sea subjects, 


i 


Thevenet pere, flowers, 
etc., 1745 




1842-1848 
Boquet, landscapes, 1804- 
1814. 


3X. 


Thevenet fils, decorator, 




Boquet (Mile. Virginie), 


i75 2 




landscapes, 1835-1863 


Trager, J., flowers, etc. 




BuCQ(Le), landscapes, 1843 


1841-73 




Bulot, flowers, 1862-1883 








Brunel, figures, 1863-1883 


IT 


Trager, H., decorator, 
1887- 




Cabau, C, flowers, 1848- 
1884 


.X 


Trager, L., decorator, 




Celos, J., decorator, 1865- 


1888- 




1894 


ft> 






CooL(Mme.de), figures, 1870 


Tristan, decorator, 1879- 
1882 




Courcy (de), figures, 1866- 
1884 



88 



FRENCH PORCELAIN— SEVRES 



Degault, figures, 1808-1817 
Demarne, subjects, 1808- 1814 
Demarxe (Mile. Caroline), landscapes, 

1822-1825 
DENOIS (Mile. Jenny), portraits, 1820 
Desbois, sculptor, 1886-1887 
Develly, C. , landscapes, 1813-1848 
Didier, decorator, 1819-1845 
Ducluzeau (Mme. Adelaide), portraits, 

1809-1848 
Dufresne, Henry, figures, 1862 
Fontaine, flowers, etc., 1850 
Fragonard, Th., subjects, 1847-1869 
Froment Delormel, Eug. , figures, 

1853-1884 
Gallois (Mme.), figures, 1871 
Garneray, L. , sea subjects, 1838-1842 
Gely, J., figures, 1851-1888 
Georget, figures, 1803-1806 
Godde, enamels and reliefs, 1 861- 1863 
Hamon, figures, 1849-1854 
Jaccober, flowers and fruit, 1818-1848 
jADELOT(Mme. S. ), subjects, 1864-1871 
Jaquotot (Mme. Victoire), portraits, 

1801-1842 
Labbe, flowers, 1847-1853 
Lamarre, landscapes 
Lambert, landscapes, 1858 
Lasserre, decorator, 1896- 
Laurent (Mme. Pauline), figures, etc., 

1850 



Langlace, landscapes, 1807-1844 
Langlois (Polycles), landscapes, 1847- 

1872 
Lebel, portraits, etc., 1804- 1844 
Leguay, subjects, figures, 1778- 1840 
LESSORRE, figures, 1834 
Lynybye, landscapes, 1841-1842 
Merigot, F. , flowers, etc., 1848-1888 
Meyer-Heine, figures, 1 862-1 868 
Moriot, figures, portraits, 1830-1848 
Parent, L.-B. , figures, 18 16 
Philip, enamels, 1847-1877 
Philippine, still life, 1785- 1840 
Poupart, A., landscapes, 1815-1845 
Regnier, landscapes, 1836-1870 
Richard, E. , decorator, 1858 
Robert, landscapes, 1806- 1843 
Rodin, sculptor, 1881-1883 
Roussel (P.-M.), figures, 1848-1872 
Schilt (L.-P. ), flowers, 1822-1855 
Schilt (Abel), figures, 1847-1880 
Solon (Mile. L.), figures, 1862-1871 
Swebach, landscapes, etc., 1806-1814 
Trager, J., birds, etc., 1841-1873 
Treverret (de), figures, 1819 
Tristan, figures, 1863 
TuRGAN (Mme. Constance), portraits, 

1834 
Van Os, flowers and fruits, 1811-1814 
Van Marck, subjects, 1825-1862 
Verdier, J., designer, vers, 1890 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 

The manufactory of a tin-enamelled earthenware decorated in 
blue, manganese and green, or in blue and lustre pigment, or in 
lustre alone, flourished in Spain from an early date, and was most 
probably introduced by the Moors. Manises and Valencia were 
centres of the industry, which was at its best in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries. In the seventeenth century several Italian 
potters settled in Spain, and introduced the manufacture of their, 
then decadent, maiolica there. Later, when French faience was 
at its height, some French potters removed to Spain, so that 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries tin -enamelled 
wares were made at Alcora, Talavera, and elsewhere, some of 
which recall the later styles of Italian maiolica, while others 
resemble French faience. Wall -tiles with elaborate geometrical 
patterns of Moorish origin, known as azulejos, were largely made 
in Spain from early times, and formed a special industry. 

Porcelain was manufactured in due course in the eighteenth 
century, the most important factory being that of Buen Retiro, 
near Madrid, founded in 1760 by the help of workmen and 
moulds removed from Capo-di-Monte, Naples. The ware was 
at first a soft paste, but after 1780 a harder magnesian porcelain 
was made. 

Clever copies of Palissy ware and the mottled earthenwares of 
Staffordshire are made by Mafra, at Caldas, in Portugal. 



S 9 



9 o SPAIN— VALENCIA, MANISES, ALCORA, SEVILLE 



Mark. 







Description. 



Hispano- 
Moresque 

pottery 
15th cent. 
Valencia 



15th cent. 



1610 
(and a hand 
in a circle) 



Puente de 
Arzobispo 

1 6th and 
17th cent. 



Alcora 

18th cent. 



Mark. 



A At 
Co* 

CR°S Pc 



ALCORA ESPANA 

Soliva 



FABRICA REAL DE 
ALCORA ANO 1735 



CHRIS- OVALEROS 

MOX po 

S 
it 



De la Real Fabrica 
de Azulejos de Valencia 



Soc de Juan a Zamore 



Real Fabrica de 
D° Maria Salvador 



Description. 



Alcora 

Pottery and 
porcelain 
1 8th cent. 



Painters' marks 



Talavera 

17th and 
1 8th cent. 

Seville 

19th cent. 



? Valencia, 1786 

Disdier 

1808 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL— SEVILLE, PORTO 



9i 



Mark. 




V£G/l 



a> 



*!***, 




"**CaD£ V 



& 




Description. 



Seville 
Early 19th cent. 



Valladolid 

? 1 8 th cent. 



Sargadelos 

19th cent. 



Segovia 

19th cent. 



Portugal 

Porto 

Pottery of 
Massarellos 
1738-1833 



Miragaia 

c 1755 



Rato 

1 8th cent. 



Mark. 



VWMWA 



V 



J' 

CALDAS 



*••'# 



HAGJ O 







Description. 



Viana de 
Castello 

1 8th cent. 



Coimbra 



Caldas 

c. 1870 
Imitations of 
Palissy ware 



Lisbon 

c 1833 



Buen Retiro 

(Madrid) 

1760-1804. 

Soft paste till 

about 1780, and 

afterwards a hard 

hybrid porcelain 

p. in blue 
and imp. 



92 SPAIN AND PORTUGAL, PORCELAIN— BUEN RETIRO 



Mark. 



(jiusej>be dkmo 

g gj 

JOSEPH GRICC* 

* 7 

(Ml 



Description. 



0£ 



R F E PORCELANA 
S SMC 





Buen Retiro 

Porcelain 



c. 1763 



1803 



1804-8 



Mark. 



Jx 



1 



V-/t 



>A??a 



9 



tTAJMHAGRAN' 
XM PGRCtRA 

USBOA 



Description. 



Buen Retiro 

1804-8 



VA 
VA 



A 



Portugal 

Lisbon 

J. Ferreira 
19th cent. 



Lisbon 



Vista Alegre 

1790- 



Malta 

c 1844 

Stoneware 



THE BRITISH ISLES 

Various attempts to make porcelain in the neighbourhood of 
London culminated in factories of Bow and Chelsea, both of which 
were active as early as 1745. The ware was a soft-paste 
porcelain, the secret of which had been learnt, no doubt, from 
French potters. Shortly after 1750 other factories sprung up at 
Derby, Worcester, Lowestoft, Longton Hall, Bristol, and Liverpool. 
All the early English porcelains were varieties of soft-paste, some 
distinguished by the admixture of bone-ash, and others by that of 
steatite. The only true hard-paste porcelain was made of Cornish 
materials at Plymouth from 1768-70 and at Bristol from 1770-81. 
The English porcelains continued to vary under fresh experiments 
till the end of the eighteenth century, when a more permanent 
mixture was arrived at by Josiah Spode in Staffordshire. This 
was the modern English porcelain, made chiefly of China clay and 
China stone from Cornwall, and bone-ash ; it combines the 
strength of hard-paste with some of the soft mellowness of the old 
soft-paste porcelain. The decoration passed through regular 
phases, first copying the Chinese white wares, then the blue and 
white, then the enamelled Japanese porcelain exported from Imari ; 
next came imitations of the Meissen and Sevres styles, from the 
rococo to the pseudo-classical ; and at the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century the Japan patterns were revived in a very free 
rendering of the more elaborate " Imari " designs. After this the 
potters fell back on imitations of the earlier styles until new life 
was infused into their work at the end of the last century. 

Marked specimens of English earthenware are practically 
unknown before the seventeenth century. It was then that delft 
or tin-enamelled ware in the Dutch fashion began to be made, 
chiefly at Lambeth : this industry spread over the country in the 
eighteenth century, and considerable factories sprung up at Bristol 

93 



94 POTTERY MARKS 

and Liverpool. In Staffordshire and at Wrotham in Kent, 
in Derbyshire and other places the more English method of 
decorating earthenware with coloured slips was largely practised, 
and many of the pieces bear the names or initials of potters as 
well as those of the destined possessors of the pots. At the 
end of the seventeenth century salt-glazed stoneware was made by 
Dwight of Fulham, and at Nottingham, and a fine red stoneware 
after the Chinese buccaro was made by Dwight and by Elers in 
Staffordshire. Early in the eighteenth century the Staffordshire 
potters became celebrated for a fine, white, salt-glazed stoneware 
of remarkable thinness and sharpness which is called "salt-glaze" 
par excellence. This was followed by a lead-glazed earthenware 
of creamy-yellow tone perfected by Wedgwood in his Queen's 
ware about 1760. It was decorated, first with splashes and 
mottlings of green and brown or brownish-purples, and afterwards 
by painting in enamel colours. Towards the end of the century 
numerous earthenwares and stonewares were invented or perfected 
by Josiah Wedgwood and his contemporaries, e.g. jasper wares, 
black basalt or Egyptian black, cane-coloured stoneware, pearl- 
ware, etc. ; and in the early nineteenth century a host of iron-stone 
chinas, improved stone chinas, etc., mostly hard white earthen- 
wares, were invented as cheap substitutes for porcelain. Marks 
on English pottery are mostly impressed and are often difficult to 
decipher because the glaze has filled up the hollows of the stamp. 






BRITISH PORCELAIN— BOW, BRISTOL, CAUGHLEY 95 



Mark. • 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 






vtf 


? Bow or Chelsea 


1 


? John Bacon on 


<T 


c. 1750 


Bow porcelain 


V 


p. in blue 


inc. 




Bristol 


ffi^ 


Belleek 


¥ V 


1770-81 

h.p. 

The Meissen 


p^'j^lS 


Co. Fermanagh 


A X 


h/*w\jj/ 


Ireland 


n XX 


cross swords 


$M^£s^&!-Jk^! 


1857- 


/ 


borrowed by 


(^3^^^S^^? 


Pr. 




Champion. 


r\ 


Bow 


% *x 


p. in blue. 
The numbers 
1 -17 probably 


T if 


1745-76 


/l\ 


indicate different 


▼ X 


s.p. 




painters. 


I 


inc. 


x x 


Bone and 
Stephens are 


^^ 




/. 17 


said to have 
been i and 2 


H 


p. in red 


By 28£ 

A s 




it 




*-X 


Plymouth and 
Bristol marks 


w^ 




combined 


r t 


p. in blue 


«^^^ 


A leaf painted 
over the word 




O^^is*/ 


' Bristoll ' in 








raised letters 


cH K. 




T® 


Tebo, modeller 
(see above) 


r 


? Monogram 
of Th. Frye 

Tebo 


A- J. 


inc. 


'"po 


modeller 






B 


inc. 


Brisfoll 


In low reliefs. 
Mark of an early 






factory, c. 1750 


53 

7? 


? Bow 


c 

5 


Caughley 

1772-1814 

s. p. p. in blue 

These works 

were absorbed 




* 


by Coalport. 






S = Salopian. 
Disguised numeral 








resembling an 








Oriental mark 



96 BRITISH PORCELAIN— COALPORT, CHELSEA 



Mark. 



/+ 



c 

I- 



3> 



X 

SAtOPIAN 



1 



Vie CBD 




JOHN KOSE & CO. 
COLEBROOK DALE 



ENGLAND 



COALPORT 
A.D. 175Q 



3^ 



Description. 



Caughley 

1772-1814 

s.p. 
p. in blue 



? Caughley 

Caughley and 
Coalport 

1780 onwards 

CBD = 

Colebrookdale 



Monogram of 
C. S. with letters 

C = Caughley, 

S = Swansea, 

N = Nantgarw, 

factories absorbed 

by Coalport ; 
used since c. i860 



Modern mark 
pr. 



Imitation of 

Sevres 

on blue printed 

ware 



Mark. 



Ghe&ta-, 



urn. 



m 



A* 



s 




i) 



Description. 



Chelsea 

c. 1745-84 s.p. 

Period I. 

c. 1745-5° 
triangle mark inc. 

. Period II. 

1750-c. 1753. 
Anchor in relief 
on an oval pad 

Same mark out- 
lined in red 



Anchor in blue 



Period III. 

c. 1753-8. 

Anchor in red 



Period IV, 

1759-70. 
Anchor in sold 



Roubiliac, 
sculptor, inc. 



Early mark copy 
ing a Chinese seal 

p. in red 



Period V. 
1770-84 

Chelsea- Derby 
period, during 
which Duesbury 
of Derby owned 
the works 

p. in gold and 
colours 



BRITISH PORCELAIN— DERBY 



97 



Mark. 



£ 



Z) Ojvo vajt 
48/ 

DoKOircink Trisk. 
M a-rLufxtctltre 



G> 



if* 1 ): (* y 



Description. 



Mark. 






°3 6 3 




Donovan of Pool- 
beg St. , Dublin, 
decorated Minton 
and other 
porcelains 
c. 1800 

p. in red 



Derby 

s.p. 
p. blue 
1770-84 



Crown Derby 
mark painted in 

colours 

c. 1782 onwards, 

Early marks in 

blue, puce, or 

gold, later in red 

Incised on figures 

and vases, pattern 

numbers and 

workmen's mark 

added 







Monogram of 

Duesbury and 

Kean, 1795-7 

p. in colour 





Description. 



Derby 

pr. in red 

Bloor period 

1811-44 



pr. in red 



pr. in red 





on imitations 
of Sevres 



Derby porcelain 

with Meissen 

mark 

Rare mark in blue, 

on porcelain 
printed by Hold- 
ship at Derby 
c. 1764 

Copy of Chinese 
tripod mark 

Cocker, figure 
maker at Derby 
early 19th cent, 
and in London 
c. 1840- inc. 

King Street 

c. 1850 

after the closing 

of the old factory 

pr. 



BRITISH PORCELAIN— DERBY, LOWESTOFT 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


7- .* "k 


Derby 




Lowestoft 


King St. 


J w 


copies of 


\ \ L?V 


c. 1870 


Worcester marks. 


tess? 


Initials of 


w 




S X H 


Stevenson .and 

S. Hancock 

pr. in red 


/. Sadler, Liverpool 


Liverpool 

Sadler and Green 

printers, • 1756-99 

(see p. 103) 


:p?W 


Mark of the Royal 


Sadler, Lip 1 




\^/ 


Crown Derby 






w 


Factory in 
Osmaston Rd. 
1876- 


Sadler, Lip 1 , enam 1 




<^4 


pr. 


Evans, sculpsit 
Gilbody, maker 


c. 1770 


49 


Isleworth 




Herculaneum 


Shore & Goulding 




works 


1760-c. 1800 


HERCULANEUM 


c. 1800-41 




s.p. 




(see p. 103) 




p. in colour 






Sftore C* C ° 




NANT-GARW 


Nantgarw 






c.w. 


China works. 




Lowestoft 




Co. Glamorgan 


JtLUsrt. 


1757-1802 


G 


1811-14 and 


cCount^ojt 


s.p. 
Allen, painter 
late 1 8th cent. 




1817-19 
s.p. mark imp. 






jr 


Pinxton 

(Derbyshire) 
s.p. 1796-1812. 


r v^ 


Numbers 

(7 to 25) and 

workmen's mark 


p 


p. in colour 


tt_ Vl 


on Lowestoft 
porcelain, 
p. in blue 


p X, 


? initial of 
Billingsley 


-s < ,c 




±6 


Billingsley 
decorated various 


\ 




JfLeLnsflelcL 


wares at Mansfield 
in 1801 


H $ 




% 


Plymouth 


Imitation 


h.p. 1768-70. 


K *t 


Chinese marks. 


* * 


works removed to 


p. blue 


Bristol in 1770 


■*v 




and converted 




into the Bristol 






China manufactory 


9 






in 1773. 


#? "*• 






p. in blue and 
colours 



BRITISH PORCELAIN— ROCKINGHAM 



99 



Mark. 




yiocktAmhcum IVonJi 



3 ivumeZd 



BRAMELD 



I 



s>h 



f 



Description. 



Rockingham 

Porcelain 
made by 
Brameld 
1820-42 
Pr- 



in a wreath 

Staffordshire 

Longton Hall 

Littler & Co. 

i7S 2 -5 8 s.p. 

p. in blue 




SPODf 
Spote 

t/orneta.cft 




COPELAND 



New Hall 
c. 1781-1825 

s.p. 



pr. in red 



Stoke-upon- 
Trent 
Spode 

1797-1833 



p. in colours 
and gold 

in a wreath 



pr. 

Copeland was 

Spode's 

London 

agent and 

afterwards 

partner 



Mark. 



X 



*•& 



COPELAND 



§ SPODE S 



#0 



*J m\_, 



M. B. 

MINTON & BOYLE 
M. & Co. 




DAVENPORT 
LONGPORT 



Description. 



£8? 



Lane End, july 1787 



Turner s Patent 



Staffordshire 

Stoke-upon- Trent 
W. Copeland 
bought Spode's 

business in 1833 

Garrett a partner 

1835-47 
pr. 



Minton 
1796 onwards 
early marks, 
p. in colour 

Minton and Boyle 
1836-42 imp. 



Modern mark 
pr. 



Lo?igport 
Davenport 
1794-1887 
pr. in red 



P. Warburton 
New Hall 
patent for print- 
ing in gold, 1 8 10 

W. & J. Turner 

of Lane End 
with or without 
Prince of Wales' 
feathers. Patent 
for improvements 
in porcelain, 1809 



ioo BRITISH PORCELAIN— STAFFORDSHIRE, SWANSEA 



Mark. 



MILES 



i^3 



MASON 

M. MASON 

Shorlbose<kC2 

EILEY 

WEDGWOOD 




W. T. 

ENGLISH PORCELAIN 

J. R. & Co. 




JjUrto-nMCX. 

SWANSEA 



SWANSEA 



Description. 



Staffordshire 

M. Mason at 

Lane Delph 

c. 1804 pr. 

imp. 



Han ley 

c. 1820 
p. in blue 



Burslem 

1814-26 
imp. 

Stencilled in red 

or blue, 1805-15 

(cf. p. 113) 

? Ridgway 
(see p. no) 



Ridgway 

1814-55 
pr. 



Early 19th cent. 

Swansea 

1814-24 

s.p. 
p. in red 



1815-1 
imp. 



Mark. 



Decorated by 

SWANSEA 

H. Morris 



Pardoe, Bristol 

c C 



Description. 



14^ W 

m 



% n 

4 



Swansea 

Morris continued 

to paint porcelain 

of various kinds 

at Swansea after 

1824 

1809-20 
(cf. p. 104) 

Worcester 

175 1 onwards 

s.p. 
crescent used 
__s alone from 

c 1751-1793 
p. and pr. in blue 

on painted and 
blue printed wares 

c 1751-1783- 

Imitations of 

Oriental marks. 

p. in blue 



fvn 



3 



Copy of the 

Chinese jade 

mark 

Copies of Meissen 

Chelsea, Sevres, 

and Tournay 

marks 



BRITISH PORCELAIN— WORCESTER 



Mark. 



Description. 



k r r 

T 





B.F.B 



FBB 



£ 




# Jiancockfeat Worcester 



Olftale 
'HP 



Worcester 

s.p. 

Workmen's marks 

i75i- 8 3 



Similar marks 

occur on Lowestoft 

and 

Bow porcelains 

p. in blue 



Flight period 

I783-93- 
The mark 

FLIGHTS 

incised occurs 

rarely. 

B incised for Barr 

(1793-1803). 

Flight & Barr 
1793-1807 

Barr, Flight, and 
Barr, 1807-13 



Flight, Barr, and 
Barr, -1813-40 



1851-62. 

This mark under 

a crown 1862 

onwards, pr. 

Marks of R. 
Hancock 

(i75 6 -74). 

engraver. 

The anchor for 

? R. Holdship 

On printed ware 

Painter of animals. 
(Monogram of ID 
for John Donald- 
son, also occurs 
on vases, c. 1768) 



Mark. 



Chamberlains 
I I ~o re ester 



CHAMBERLAIN 



ftftf* 1 **^ 





&L 







ENCLANO. 




Description. 



Worcester 

Chamberlain's 

factory, 1789- 

1840 

With other 
marks giving 
the address of 

the London 
house 



pr. 



Grainger's 

factory 
1801-1888 



pr. 



Modern 
pr. 



pr. 



io2 BRITISH POTTERY— NEWCASTLE, SUNDERLAND 



Mark. 



Jibsolon Yatfy^ 




DAWSON & CO. 
O 



FERRYBRIDGE. 



F. WEDGWOOD. 



WEDGWOOD <X CO. 



Tomlinson & Co. 



FELL, NEWCASTLE 



'<£ 




J. PHILLIPS 
HYLTON POTTERY 

SCOTT Brothers 6* Co. 



Moore df Co. 

Stoneware 
Southwick 



Description. 



Yarmouth 

a decorator 
late 1 8th cent. 



Hull 

1826-41 
pr. 



Hylton 

1800- 
imp. 
Ferrybridge 

1792-early 
19 th cent. 



1796- 

1792-96 and 
1801-34 

Newcastle 

1817- 



Middlesboro 

1831-44 
imp. 



1817- 
See above 

Southwick 

1789- 



Wear Pottery 
1803- 




Mark. 



W. S. & Co. 

QUEENS WARE 
STOCKTON 

W. S. & Co. 
WEDGEWOOD 

SEWELLS & DONKIN 

DIXON, AUSTIN & CO. 
SUNDERLAND 

I. W. & Co. 
PHILLIPS & CO. 

ROCKINGHAM 



MORTLOCK'S CADOGAN 



DON POTTERY 



Description. 



North Hylton 

1762 — moved 

to Newcastle 

in 1817 



Stockton-on- 
fees . • 

W. Smith & Co. 
1820- 
pr. 



also S. & W. 

Newcastle 

St. Antony's, 
c. 1780- 

Suuderlaud 

1800- 



Rockingham 

1765-1843 
(cf. p. 99) 

(the same in a 
wreath) 

Early 19th cent. 

Swinton 

1790 onwards 



BRITISH POTTERY— CASTLEFORD, LEEDS 10; 



Mark. 




D. D. & Co. 

CASTLEFORD 



fcRL tvx 



HARTLEY, GREENS 

& CO. 
LEEDS * POTTERY 



<« 



** 



<<? 



°/. 



V 



L. P. 



R. B. & S. 



9 



Description. 



Swinton 

Don Pottery 
1790 onwards 



Castleford 

late 1 8th cent. 

onwards. 

David 

Dunderdale & Co. 

(1803-21) 



interlaced Ds 

? David 

Dunderdale 



Nottn. 1703 

Made at Nottingham 

ye ijth day of August 

A.D. 1771 



Leeds 

c. 1760-18 



Leeds Pottery 

R. Britton 
and Sons 
1863-78 

L for Leeds 
(in a quatrefoil 
within a circle) 



Nottingham 

stoneware 



Mark. 



/. Sadler, Liverp 1 

Sadler, sculp* 

Green, Liverpl. 

J. Johnson 



HERCULANEUM 
POTTERY 




bourne's 
potteries 



J. BOURNE & SON 

BOURNE'S POTTERIES 

DENBY & CODNOR PARK 

DERBYSHIRE 



Description. 



Liverpool 

Pennington 
1 8th cent, 
p. in blue 



Sadler and 

Green, printers 

and potters 

1756-99. 

Sadler retired 

about 1774 

Engraver 
c. 1790 

Herculaneum 

pottery 

1794-1841 



pr. 



pattern mark 

on Liverpool ware 

pr. 



Belper 1800-34. 
Denby 

1812 onwards 



Codnor Park 

Pottery taken 

by Bourne in 

1833 and closed 

1861 



io 4 BRITISH POTTERY— DERBY, BRISTOL, SWANSEA 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Chesterfield 




Bristol 


J. OLDFIELD & CO. 




^-5\ A-*^ 


said to be the 




Derby 


AM? 


monogram of 
Richard Frank 


S. M. 1726 


slip ware. 
? Samuel Meir 


mx 


at Brislington 
in lustre 






late 1 8th cent. 


R S 


Richard Meir 




on earthenware 






J. Eaves, Bristol 


early 19th cent. 


John Meir, 1708 












J. Doe, 1797 


painter 


SS 






W. Fi field, 


By Stephen Shaw 


incised 


W. F., 1848 


painter 


1725 






(b. 1777, d. 1857) 




Joseph Heath 


POUNTNEY & ALLIES 


1816-35 


I H 


c. 1770 
cream ware 










POWELL, BRISTOL 


Mid. 19th cent. 


Pot Works in Derby 


pr. 
c. 1770 










Marthar Wilkinson 


painter : 


Radford Sculpsit 




Bristol Pottery, 1808 


mark incised 




Lowesby 


Pardoe, fecit, Bristol 


1809-20 


J<L 


c 1835 




Wincanton 


^oJtbs"^ 


imp. 


WINCANTO 


delft ware 




Nathaniel Ireson, 1748 


c. 1730-5° 




Bristol 




Plymouth 


•S 3" 


delft ware 
1 8th cent. 


P. P. Coy. L. 
Stone, China 


Pottery Co. 
c. 1850 


SF 


? Flower 




Donyat 






T. M. 1790 


(Somerset) 


ijCl Bouren Petit 


p. in blue 




graffiato ware 
Welsh 


-*, ■ .^^ 




J. G. Mkr. 1669 


graffiato ware 


/BristolN 


cream ware 




' 


I Pottery J 


1786-c. 1840 


James Daves 
Pencoyd 


Pencoyd 

Glamorganshire 
1822 


+ 


? Bristol 




Swansea 






Cambrian Pottery 


earthenware 
1769-1870 



BRITISH POTTERY— SWANSEA, RYE, LAMBETH 105 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Swansea 




Chailey 


CAMBRIAN 


Cambrian 

Works 
1769-1870. 


RICHARD NORMAN 


(near Rye) 
1842 


OPAQUE PORCELAIN 


invented c. 1790 




"Wrotham 






I. L. 1638 


(Kent) 
slip ware 


SWANSEA 






probably initials 






G. R. 1651 


of the potters 


DILLWYN & CO. 


1801-17 








and 1824-50 


I. W. 1656 




Swansea 












H. I. 1669 


? Jull 


dillwyn's 




N. H. 1678 




ETRUSCAN WARE 


1845-6 


I. E. 1697 




BEVINGTON & CO. 








SWANSEA 


1817-24 


IE WE 1699 

WROTHAM 


Mortlake 




pr. 


Kishere, Mortlake 


early 19th cent. 
Isleworth 


»itfcwrN*c? 


Glamorgan 


S&G 


Shore and 

Golding 

1760-1830 


^J-TVg^ 


Works 




Fulham 


\&M&!ar 


Baker, Bevans 


Fulham Pottery 


early 19th cent. 


Vv^w 


and Irwin 




mark 




1816-39 






OPAQUE CHINA 


pr. 


T. Wetherill 
Modeler No. 1 


Lambeth 

stoneware 


B&B 




Cleaver St. , Lambeth, 


19th cent. 


4 


Rye 


London 




Rye {Sussex) Pottery 


c. 1790 onwards 


J^^^^s 






Cadborough 






Works 


yf S%t<Lf> ke«\ \S 




R^>H/ 




ill ^ re ^' 1 1 1*1 


c. 1837 


Bellevue Works 


i\\L CLmUettx) 1/ 


imp. 




1869 onwards 


^&^ 





io6 BRITISH POTTERY— LAMBETH, IRELAND 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Lambeth 




Staffordshire 


Doulton & Watts 


1820-58 


CARTWRIGHT 


c. 1650 


Lambeth Potteiy 


stoneware 










JOSEPH GLASS 


1703 




Glasgow 






J. & M. P. B. & Co. 


Bell and Co. 
1842- 

Portobello 


Thomas Heath, 1677 
Job Heath, 1702 


? Derby 


SCOTT 




Joshua Heath, 177 1 


1 1 


PB 


late 1 8th cent, 
onwards 






6 




Richard Meir 
Joh?i Meir, 1708 


c. 1708 


gSL 


Dublin 

cream ware 


Richard Mare, 1696 




^Jr 


c. 1770 


Richard Meer, 1680 
W. RICH, 1702 




^{JLU-LLK 












TH. SANS, 1650 


? Wrotham 


WOODNORTH & CO. 


? Staffordshire 
1818 


R. SHAW, 1692 
JOHN SIMPSON, 1735 




Engraved by James 
Brindley 


Staffordshire 


RALPH SIMPSON 


c. 1700 


B«&aSt, 7 z+M 


Belfast 


WILLIAM SIMPSON 


1685 






M»R 


on delft ware 


THOMAS TOFT, 1 67 1 




•7 i * 


Fremington 


RALPH TOFT, 1 67 6 






(N. Devon) 


JAMES TOFT, 1705 




John Pidler his hand 


Fishley's factory 








c. i860 


CHARLES TOFT 


Modern 


John Hovle 


Bideford 


RALPH TURNOR, 1680 






c. i860 


WILLIAM TALOR 
GEORGE TAYLOR, 1690 






1852 

graffiato and 

slip wares 

1 


JOHN TAYLOR, 1700 




John Phillip Hoyle 


JOHN WRIGHT, 1707 
JOHN WEDGWOOD 


All in this column 
are makers of 




1691 


slip- ware 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE . 



107 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Staffordshire 


minton 


Stoke-upon- 
Trent 


jsjaj 


f* 




On red stoneware 
made by Elers at 


M. & C. 


1793 onwards 


[c3pjj 




Bradwell (1690- 
1710) and after- 


B. B. New Stone 


Minton and Co. 










wards by many 
1 8th cent, potters 










M. &. B. 


Minton and Boyle 




imp. 


+H4LU** 


c. 1824 

pr. 




jF5 


» w 




On a black teapot 
supposed to have 


mz&P* 


~ f 


been made by 






* , 


Twyford 


36 

Ra Wood 


Burslem 


early 18th cent. 


Ralph Wood 




Bur stem 


b. 1716, d. 1772 


^y 






and his son of 


1q 




R. Wood 


same name 
b. 1748, d. 1797. 


D 




ENOCH WOOD 


b. 1759-d. 1840 


JZ-J 


? Twyford's mark 






<=& 


inc. 


ENOCH WOOD & CO. 
WOOD & CALDWELL 




py 




BURSLEM 


1790-1818 


Th* 




<&3u** 




ill 






** f V 










til %J$$L^" £j 






Saltglaze 


T^^iJK 




V 


c 1745 


BURSLEM 




«\f fV 


marks on 






\a/u 


saltglaze are 


LAKIN 


1770-1795 


W V 


very rare 


LAKIN & POOLE 






? William Taylor 






W. T. & Co. 


& Co. c. 1760 


R. POOLE 


1795- 




Stoke-upon- 


Drab Porcelain 


? made by 


SPODE 


Trent 




Lakin 


c 


1770-1833 


J. LOCKETT 


c. 1786-1829 


Spode 




W. S. KENNEDY 


c. 1838 




pr. 


J. MACINTYRE 




cf. p. 99 


MOSELEY 


c. 1811-1857 


S&otiQ-Chdna 









BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



Mark. 



OPERATIVE UNION 
POTTERY 

MACHIN & POTTS 
Burs lent, Staffordshire 

P. B. & Co. 




I. DALE. 
BURSLEM 



T. & R. B. 



Description. 



J 



ROGERS 



STONE CHINA 

JAMES EDWARDS & CO. 

DALE HALL 

J. E. & S. 



Edge &> Grocott 

ANTHONY SHAW 
BURSLEM 

STEEL 
BURSLEM 



Burslem 

19th cent. 



1834 



With crown 

and wreath. 

Pinder, Bourne 

and Co. 

A4iddle 19th cent. 



Boote 
1850- 



Late 1 8 th cent. 
1842 



1842 onwards 



idob-39 

? Burslem 
19th cent. 



850- 



1766-1824 



Mark. 



RILEY S SEMI-CHINA 

ALCOCK AND CO. 

HILL POTTERY 

BURSLEM 

S. -A. & Co. 

ASTBURY 



J. VOYEZ 

Voyez , 
Sculp* I?6>9 



VOYEZ & 
HALES, Fecit 





NEALE & WILSON 
NEALE & CO. 



Description. 



Burslem 

Early 19th cent. 

1826 at Cobridge 
c. 1850 at 
Burslem 



Hanley and 

Shelton 
Astbury; jun. 
(c. 1760-80) 

Voyez, sculptor- 

and potter, also 

worked for 

Wedgwood 

and Palmer 



c. 1780 



1760-76 
imp. 



1776-78 



imp. 



1778-87 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



109 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


WILSON 


Hanley 


£3£3&X$? 


Hanley 


■lUtftttL 




]N°l$ [ 


Meigh, Old Hall 
Hanley 


@ 




@r~s- — X5? 


1770-1860 


c 




^i 7 




WI L.SON 




^tf D 1 4jv 




John Daniel, 1775 




STONE 




6". Daniel, Stoke 


Engraver 


OPAQUE PORCELAIN 




Wolfe 6° Hamilton 
Stoke 


c. 1790 


ENAMEL PORCELAIN 


,, 


E, Mayer 


1770-1813 


SALT 


c. 1820 


E. Mayer &r Son 


1813-1830 


EASTWOOD 


W. Baddeley of 

Eastwood : 
1 8th cent. 


Joseph Mayer 6° Co. 


Early 19th cent. 


' T. SNEYD 
HANLEY 


Early 19th cent. 


T. J. & J. MAYER 


c. 1830 onwards 










MANN & CO. 
HANLEY 


1857-8 


MAYER BROS. 


" 






Mayer & Elliot 


,, 


KEELING, TOFT & CO. 


Early 19th cent. 


Published by 
■ C. R. BOOTH & CO. 


1839 


. JOHN RICKHUSS AND 
CHARLES TOFT 


c. 1854 


Hanley, Staffordshire 








E I B 


Birch 

late 1 8th cent. 


S? HOLLINS 


1774-1816 


BIRCH 




T. & J. HOLLINS 


Successors of 
S. Hollins 


SHORTHOSE & HEATH 


c. 1800 


WARBURTON 


c. 1780-1826 


SHORTHOSE & CO. 


c. 1821 


HACKWOOD 


1842-56 


• 




C. & H. , Late 


Cookson and 


HEATH 




HACKWOOD 


Harding 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



Mark. 



FLETCHER & CO. 
SHELTON 



W. STEVENSON 
HANLEY 

R. M. W. & Co. 

Ridgway 

Ridgway &> Sons 



&<* 



Description. 




G. BAGULEY, HANLEY 



MASON S CAMBRIAN 
ARGIL 



FENTON 
STONE WORKS 
C. J. M. & Co. 



Hanley 

Middle igth cent. 

1786-1810 
■ block printers 



1828 

Ridgway, Mosley 
Wear, and Co. 

1794 onwards 
1802-14 



pr. 



afterwards 

Brown, Westhead, 

Moore, and Co. 

1855- 
pr. 



Lane Delph 
late 1 8th cent. 



C. J. Mason 

and Co. 

1825-51. 

The words 

Granite China" 

and a view of the 

works also occur 

with this mark. 



Mark. 



^|°% 



V^^^HTniaSiP •■*// 






<& 3T *s 




ENOCH BOOTH 

1757 



A. & E. KEELING 



Description. 



Hanley 

Mason's iron- 
stone china was 
patented in 18 13 
pr. 



Ashworths 

bought up 

Mason's works 

and rights, 1859 



Tunstall 

Early 19th cent. 

c. 1763 

19th cent. 

pr. 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



Mark. 


DESCRIPTION. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Tunstall 




Lane End 


ADAMS 


1787 onwards 


IV. Greatbach 
Lane Delf 


1778 


W. ADAMS & SON 








W. A. & S. 




Radford 


Engraver 
(cf. p. 104) 

A feather in a 


W. A. & Co. 






crown and word 






C. HEATHCOTE & CO. 


CAMBRIA 

on a ribbon 


MARSHALL & CO. 
6 


Early 19th cent. 




accompany 

this mark 

early 19th cent. 






MYATT 


c. 1800 


( S? 


Hilditch and Son 






(E3? 


early 19th cent. 


T. Harley, La/ie End 


c. 1800 


A. STEVENSON 




HARLEY 




WARRANTED 
STAFFORDSHIRE 


19th cent. 










Aynsley, Lane End 


c. 1790 


HALL 


Early 19th cent. 








Fenton 


Lane End 




T. GREEN 


c 1835 










B. Plant, J^ane End 


Late 1 8th cent. 


S. GREENWOOD 


1770-80 






PRATT 


c. 1800 onwards 


BAILEY & BATKIN 


c. 1815 


F. and R. PRATT & CO. 
FENTON 


Lane End 


M. & N. 264 

May r fr 3 iVewfid 


Early 19th cent. 


TURNER 


1762-1803 
Prince of Wales' 






W. & J. TURNER 


feathers also 
added to this 


CYPLES 


c. 1786 


TURNER & CO. 


mark 






J. MIST, 82 FLEET ST. , 
LONDON- 


London agent 


CHEATHAM & 
WOOLLEY 


Early 19th cent. 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



Mark. 



Thomas Wooley 
G. ^ 1811 



<#* n Po+ 




I STONE CHTnaI 



Description. 



CLEWS 



PHILLIPS, LONGPORT 



R. DANIEL 



m> 



Lane End 

inc. 



Longport 

1794-1887 
imp. 



pr. 



pr. 

cf. p. 99 



1819-29 



1 760- 1 9th 
cent. 

Cobridge 

1 8 th cent. 



1802-1840 
imp. 



Mark. 



JONES & WALLEY 

J. & R. G. 
Elkin, Knight & Co. 



W 




Description. 



Wedgwood 

WEDGWOOD 

WEDGWOOD 

Wedgwood 






£r° 






WEDGWOOD 
& BENTLEY 

Wedgwood 
& Bentley 



Cobridge 

1835-60 

John and Robert 
Godwin 
,c. 1843 

Lane Delph 
19th cent. 

Etruria 

and Burslem. 

Wedgwood, 

on red stoneware 

c. 1760 

imp. 



On cream ware 

c. 1760 

(The letters 

irregular) 



In varying sizes 

from 1760 

onwards 



1768-80 



In varying sizes 



BRITISH POTTERY— STAFFORDSHIRE 



"3 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Etruria 




Staffordshire 


WEDGWOOD & SONS 


Rare mark 


(St 


(miscellaneous) 




c. 1790 


z\ 


Registration 
mark used 






m?\ 


on Minton, 


JOSIAH WEDGWOOD 




Copeland, and 


Feb. 2, 1805 


Very rare 


V 


other wares from 
c. 1850 

Tunstall 





Various commas, 


F. MEIR 


c. 1842 


dashes, numbers 






and single letters 
occur on the 


Crystal Ware 


19th cent. 
? Davenport 


earlier wares 








Three letters 


^^£^^Tej\^y\ 




OS X 


combined at 
random occur 


^^^^^ 


19th cent. 




after 1868 


\iP*fi?*5o<^ 




WEDGWOOD 








ETRURIA 


In varying sizes 






Wedgwood 


c. 1840 


BATTY & CO. 


19th cent. 


Etruria 










Stencilled on 


Mohr and Smith 






porcelain 


Patentees 


" 


WEDGWOOD 


1805-15 
and again after 








1879 


J. CLEMENTSON 


With a phoenix. 


/""^ /? » 




Ironstone, Tillenberg 


Hanley, c. 1845 


r*@p*K~ 


Painter, 1859-75 


/ , 




v- «/ 




/ hunt 


p 


-4 




DUCROZ & MILLIDGE 


c. 1850 
In a garter 


^^ 


From 1 891. 




enclosing the 


/^v% 


England added 


ROYAL TERRACOTTA 


Royal crown 


X^ffPhA 


on porcelain 


PORCELAIN 




r^SsrV 


exported 






V^llSitf// 


to United States 






\fi~Sy 


pr. 


BOTT & CO. 


Early 19th cent. 


WEOGWOOO 






Holland and 


ENGLAND 


The Wedgwood 

marks are nearly 


REGINA 
H. & G. 


Green, Longton 
after 1853 




all stamped. 






A single letter 








indicates the year 


Sampson Lownds 


? Tunstall 




on modern wares 


1786 





ii4 



BRITISH POTTERY— AMERICA 



Mark. 



Description. 



Mark. 



Description. 



/. Hollingshead 



S. Smith 



RAINFORTH & CO. 



PROUDMAN 



Staffordshire 

c. 1750 



Fenton 

1 8th cent. 

(also on Newcastle 

ware 19th cent. 



late 1 8th cent. 



c. 1770 



? Boot or Booth 

on lustre ware 

c. 1 8 15 



19th cent. 



U.S.A. 

Mr. Clarkson Crolhis 
. 1798 



PAUL CUSHMAN 



NORTON & FENTON 
BENNINGTON V T 



LYMAN FENTON & CO. 



ROOKWOOD POTTERY 
CIN. O. 



R. P. CO. M.L.N. 



# 



America 

Potter's Hill 
New York 



c. 1809 

Albany, N.Y. 



(in a circle) 
Vermont 
1839- 



c. 1848 



RookwoodPottery 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
established, 1877 



RookwoodPottery, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, 

Maria Longworth 

Nicholas 



E. & W. BENNETT 
CANTON AVENUE 
BALTIMORE, M. D. 



STONE CHINA 

K.T. & K. 



HARKER, TAYLOR, & CO. 
H.P. Co. 



c. 1846 



(and a buffalo) 
Knowles, Taylor, 

and Co., East 
Liverpool, Ohio, 
1870- 



Harker Pottery 
Co. , East Liver- 
pool, 1840- 





AMERICA 


"5 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Philadelphia 




Philadelphia 




Bonnin & Morris 


William Ellis Tucker 




P 


Southwark 

c. 1770 
p. in blue : 
cream ware 


China Manufacturer 

Philadelphia 

1828 

Tucker & Hulme 


h. p. porcelain 


JJy~.UA 


Bucks Co. , Pa. 


1828 




Joseph Smith 






£ 


pottery 


fo s Hemphill 


1832-36 


t \<^f 


1767-1800 




workman's marks 


3C31 


Henry Rondebush 
1811-16 


yrw 


inc. 
Walker 




Montgomery Co. 

Pa. 


m 


Morgan 


tltruiu R<ru£Li(ruJU 


.. 


1 


Frederick 






H 


Hand 


Stf 


Samuel Troxel 


V 


Vivian 


^ 


!823-33 
graffiato pottery 


c/» 


C. J. Boulter 


®$ 


Georg Hiibener 

graffiato pottery 

1785-98 


Smith, Fife, & Co. 
Manufacturers, Phil a 

RALPH B. BEECH 


Pore. c. 1830 




I. Taney 


PATENTED 


Kensington, Pa. 


IT 


Bucks Co. 
c. 1794 


JUNE 3, 1851 
KENSINGTON, PA. 








AM. POTTERY MANUF G 


Jersey City, N.J. 


J oh an Drey 


CO. 
JERSEY CITY 


(on a flag) pr. 
1833- 




D. & J. 


In a circle 






Henderson, Jersey City 


c. 1829 


AH 


Initials of potters 






pm 


in Pennsylvania 




American 
Porcelain Manu- 






A. P. M. & Co. 


facturing, Co. 
Gloucester, N.J. 


H.T.IS.T 


Montgomery Co. 
J. Scholl, of 




1854-57 


"\tffa. 


Tyler's Port 


, MERCER POTTERY 


Trenton, N.J. 


9 


c. 1830 
a fuchsia imp. 


TRENTON, N.J. 


semi-porcelain 
1868- 



n6 



MODERN BRITISH 



Mark. 



Description. 



BISHOPS WALTHAM 



CROSSLEY 
COMMONDALE 



R. W. MARTIN 
Ftilha?n 



* 




Viii 





Mark. 



Hants 

on terra cotta 
1862-66 



Yorks 

on terra cotta 
1880-83 



On artistic 
stoneware 



Louis Marc Solon 
on porcelain 
decorated in 
pdte-sur-pdte : at 
Sevres, and after 
1870 at Minton's, 
Stoke-upon- Trent 



Marks on Lancas- 
trian lustred and 
flambd pottery 
made by 
Pilkington and Co 
at Clifton 
Junction 
Manchester. 
VIII = 1908 



Mark of 
G. M. Forsyth 



Mark of 
W. S. Mycock 









Description. 



Marks of 
decorators of 
Lancastrian 

pottery. 

Lewis F. Day 

(designer) 



John Chambers 



Richard Joyce 



Walter Crane 
(designer) 



C. E. Cundall 



Dorothy Dacre 



Jessie Jones 



Gwladys Rodgers 



Annie Burton 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



117 



Mark. 



ENGLAND 

V?MARD 





BRETBY 



Description. 



Bernard Moore. 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 

on Flambe 

glazed ware 



Ridgway. 
Shelton, Staffs. 



Aller Vale and 
Watcombe 

Art Potteries, 
S. Devon. 
Mark also 

ALLER VALE 



Royal Essex 

Pottery, Castle 

Hedingham 

Essex 



W. Howson 

Taylor. 

Ruskin Pottery, 

Birmingham 



Torquay 



Tooth and Co. 

Bretby Pottery 

near . 

Burton-on-Trent 



Mark. 



f OLEY C// 




*AfCLM*° 



e$i> 



<*&*. 




Description. 





Wileman and Co. 
Foley Potteries 
Longton, Staffs. 



E. J. D. Bodley. 
Burslem, Staffs. 



Brownfields 

Pottery 

Cobridge, Staffs. 



J. Dimmock 

and Co. 
Hanley, Staffs. 



Old Hall 

Porcelain Works 

Hanley, Staffs. 



n8 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



Mark. 




.?0Re, 







Taynsley] 

£NGLANO 





Description. 



W. Adams 
and Co. 

Tunstall 
Staffs. 



H. Alcock and Co. 
Cobridge 

Staffs. 



John Aynsle)^ and 

Sons 
Longton, Staffs. 



W. Ault. 

Swadlincote 

near 

Burton-on-Trent 



Bishop andStonier. 
Hanley, Staffs. 



Mark. 



,«K<*#% 




T. B. & S. 




O. H. BRANNAM. 

ESTABLISHED 

I8 @P§50 

.FOLEY CHINA. 




.B & Is 




Description. 



T. and R. Boote. 

Burslem 

Staffs. 



Booths, Ltd. 

Tunstall 

Staffs. 



Brannam. 

Barnstaple 

Devon 



Foley China 

Works 

Fenton, Staffs. 



Burgess and Leigh. 
Burslem 

Staffs. 



Burslem 

Pottery Co. 

Staffs. 



T. C. Brown- 

Westhead, 
Moore and Co. 



MODERN BRITISH POTTERS' MARKS 



119 



Mark. 







fan 



ENGLAND 






Description. 



Cochran and 
Fleming. 
Glasgow 



Doulton and Co. 
Lambeth 



Elton, Sunflower 

Pottery 
Clevedon, Som. 



Charles Ford. 
Burslem, Staffs. 



Th. Forester 

and Sons. 

Longton, Staffs. 



Furnivals, Ltd. 
Cobridge, Staffs. 



W. H. Goss. 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 



Mark. 






CNGL^«> 




Description. 



W. 



H. Grindley 
and Co. 
Tunstall 



G. Jones and Sons. 

Stoke-upon-Trent 

Staffs. 



Locke and Co. 
Worcester 



Lovatt and Lovatt 
near Nottingham 



J. Macintyre and 

Co. , Burslem 

Staffs. 



A. Meakin, Ltd. 
Tunstall, Staffs. 



J. and G. Meakin, 
Hanley, Staffs. 



PERSIA, SYRIA, ASIA MINOR 
AND EGYPT 

The pottery of the Near East, while embracing many kinds of 
earthenware, is usually characterised by a friable body of sandy 
texture : this is occasionally coated with tin-enamel, oftener with 
white " slip," though it is sometimes decorated directly on the 
body. Painting in blue and brown, turquoise and green, or in 
lustre pigments was practised from very early times, and the ware, 
except when tin-enamelled, has a translucent glaze of remarkable 
depth and quality. It appears probable that Egypt was the 
nursery of the art after the fall of the Roman Empire and in the 
early Middle Ages, and that its practice spread thence into Syria, 
Persia, and Asia Minor, where brilliant and attractive types of 
pottery were made from the eleventh to the seventeenth century. 
The rubbish mounds which cover the site of Fostat (Old Cairo) 
have proved rich mines of fragments and waste pieces of pottery 
evidently thrown away from kilns — many of which bear marks ; 
some of the marks show that Persian and Syrian potters, or their 
descendants, were working in Egypt alongside the native Egyptians. 
Indeed the most common name Ghaiby signifies " stranger," and 
is qualified on one piece with the further description El Chamy, 
" the Syrian." The dates of these marked fragments range from 
the ninth to the seventeenth century. 

Lustre pigments were used with great skill in Persia from the 
thirteenth to the seventeenth century, and perhaps also in Egypt 
at an earlier date. Under Turkish rule, from the sixteenth 
century onwards, a particularly beautiful pottery of the same type 
was made in Asia Minor and at Damascus. This ware, formerly 
known as Rhodian and Damascus ware, is noted for its brilliant 
colours and its decorative schemes of semi-naturalistic flowers — 
pinks, hyacinths, marigolds, roses, fritillaries, etc. A large propor- 

121 



i22 POTTERY MARKS 

tion of this ware, exclusive of that made at Damascus, is dis- 
tinguished by the use of a fine red pigment, always in palpable 
relief. This pigment, generally known as " Rhodian red," was 
obtained from Armenian bole. 

Marked examples of Persian, Syrian and Turkish wares are 
uncommon. 

A translucent pottery, which is generally known as Persian 
porcelain, was made at a very early date, and then again about 
1600 and even as late as 1800. This ware frequently bears 
delicately incised patterns or is ornamented with pierced patterns 
the openings of which are filled with glaze. It was formerly 
known in England as " Gombroon Ware." 

The marks found on Persian pottery occur most frequently on 
the wares of the sixteenth to the nineteenth century, particularly 
on the pieces in which Chinese influence is apparent in the 
decoration. Marks also occur on Anatolian wares of Minor 
importance. 



PERSIAN, SYRIAN, AND EGYPTIAN FAIENCE 123 



Mark. 




*.# 



Cl± 



'£> 



* 




# * 



JK 



M 



Description. 



Gha'iby 
(= stranger) 
16th cent. 
one of his 
pieces also 
bears the 

words 

El Chamy, 

meaning 

the Syrian 




Son of 
Ghaiby 



Aagami 
( = Persian) 
1 6th cent. 



JUJf 



Ghazal 

1 6th cent. 

Syrian style 



Mark. 



Description. 









El Hermizi 

(=from Hormuz 

in Persia) 

16th cent. 



El Masry. 

Egyptian 

13th or 14th cent, 



El Chamy, Syrian 




(U~4 



El Taurizi(=from 
Tauris) 1 6th cent. 



Mark on 
14th cent, ware 

Aioub 

13th or 14th cent. 

Egyptian 



Bism 

1 6th and 17th 

cent. 

Syrian style 



124 PERSIAN, SYRIAN, AND EGYPTIAN FAIENCE 



Mark. 



MM 



Description. 



El Chaer 
15th cent. 
Egyptian 



El Siouaz 

1 6th cent. 

Syrian 



El Istaz, 13th 

or 14th cent. 

Persian 



El Maallem 

15th or 1 6th 

cent. 

Egyptian 



El Mouslem 

on ? 9th cent. 

lustred ware 

Egyptian 



Nakkach 
15th or 1 6th 

cent. 
Syrian style 



El Barrany 
13th cent. 
Egyptian 



El Fakid 
16th cent. 
Syrian style 



Mark. 



OJJM 




(r 



.JL 



Description. 



Charaf 



Abou-1-iizz 
17th cent. 
Egyptian 

Abolo 
17th cent. 
Egyptian 



Aahmad. 
Egyptian 



Rikk. 

Style of ■ 

Damascus 



Fathh : style 

of Damascus 

1 6th cent. 



Kallass. 
Syrian style 



Tal : 1 6th or 
17th cent. 
Egyptian 



PERSIAN, TURKISH, AND ANATOLIAN FAIENCE 125 



Mark. 





Description. 



Oh 







Persian 
blue and white 
faience, 16th or 
17th cent., imita- 
tion of a Chinese 
seal 



Persian 

" porcelain " 

p. in lustre 

16th or 17th cent 



Signature of 
Hatim 



= ■ ' The decorator 

of it the poor 

Zari A.H. 1025 " 

( =A.D. 1616) on 

blue and white 

faience 



= ' ' The work of 

Mahmud Mi'mar 

ofYezd" 



17th Persian 
resembling a 
Chinese mark 



19th cent. 
Persian 



= ' ' Made by 

Muhammed Ali 

A.H. 1234 " 

( = A.D. 1819) 

On " Gombroon " 
ware 



Mark. 



Description. 



jew 



= ' ' Belonging 

to Ahmed. 

Made by 

Muhammed Ali 

A.H. 1232" 

(=A.D. 1817) 



= ? " Made by 
Muhammed 
Harbaty " 



Blue and white 
Persian, 
19th cent. 




Turkish faience 
1 6th cent. 



Anatolian 

faience 
17th cent. 



Mark of Youaz 
1 8th cent. . 



CHINESE PORCELAIN 

It seems probable from literary evidence that porcelain was made 
in China at least as early as the T'ang dynasty (618-907 A.D.), 
but no examples of this period have reached Europe. The 
various makes of the Sung (960-1279) and Yuan (1 280-1367) 
dynasties are known to us chiefly through a few of the coarser 
specimens of the creamy white ware of Ting-chou and the grey 
green celadon of Lung-ch'iian-hsien, and through the comparatively 
modern copies which abound. Marks on these wares appear to 
have been unusual, though we read that the Chim-chou porcelain 
was sometimes marked with an engraved numeral, and a palace 
mark of the Yuan dynasty (Shttfu) is given on p. 1 49. Under the 
Ming dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.), the Yung-lo period (1403-24) 
was celebrated for its fine white porcelain with engraved orna- 
ment ; the Hsiian-te period (1426-35) for blue and white (i.e. 
white porcelain painted in underglaze blue) and a brilliant under- 
glaze red decoration ; the Ch'eng-hua period (1465-87) for coloured 
decoration, painted in enamels and in glazes ; the Hung-chih 
period (1488-1505) for a pale transparent yellow; the Chia-ching 
period (1522-66) for blue and white; the Lung-ch'ing (1567-72) 
and Wan-li (1 573-1619) periods for enamelled decoration com- 
bined with underglaze blue, principally in five colours, including, 
green, yellow, manganese purple and red. Genuine specimens 
of Ming porcelain made before the sixteenth century are practically 
unprocurable, though the marks of Hsiian-te and Ch'eng-hua 
occur very commonly on comparatively modern wares. 

The reigns of K'ang-hsi (1662-1722), Yung-cheng (1723-35) 
and Ch'ien-lung (1736-95) have supplied practically all the finest 
Chinese porcelain in European collections. The K ; ang-hsi period 
is noted for the perfection of blue and white porcelain ; enamelled 

127 



i 2 8 POTTERY MARKS 

porcelains in three and five colours, 1 with a predominance of 
green in various shades, whence the French name fa,7nille verte ; 
porcelain with coloured grounds, e.g. greenish-black, powder- 
blue, coral-red, coffee-brown, leaf-green, etc., and reserved decora- 
tion in other colours ; single-coloured wares with glazes of sang 
de bceuf red, peach-bloom, apple-green, and other tints. The 
reign of Yung-cheng (1723-35) was noted for the clever imitations 
of the ancient wares of the Sung dynasty with single-coloured, 
splashed, and crackled glazes. Indeed most of the archaic-looking 
specimens in our collections, with glazes of this description, were 
made about this time. Among enamels the various rose tints 
which came into use at the end of the preceding reign, were fully 
developed ; and this period marks the transition of the famzlle 
verte into the famille rose, the old translucent enamels of limited 
range being replaced by an extended palette of opaque colours. 
The elaborately and minutely painted " egg-shell" plates and 
services (often with ruby-red ground underneath) were decorated 
at Canton mainly for export ; and from this time onward large 
consignments of porcelain decorated to order with crests and 
coats of arms were shipped to Europe. The porcelain itself was 
made, like nearly all the Chinese porcelain known to us, at'Ching- 
te-chen, 2 in the province of Kiangsi, but the enamelled decoration 
in Western taste was added in Canton. 

During the long reign of Ch'ien-lung (1736-95) mechanical 
perfection was reached in the manufacture of porcelain. There 
was little, old or new, that the potters could not achieve. Their 
glazes imitated jade, bronze, carved wood, lacquer, natural stones, 
and all kinds of ornamental materials ; and many new glaze 
colours were adopted, e.g. souffle red of coral tint, deep sapphire 
blue (known as the "Temple of Heaven" blue), "iron-rust" and 
" tea-dust " glazes. The painted wares are wonders of manipu- 
lative skill, though their delicate and elaborate finish may not be 
so pleasing as the bolder style and broader effects of the K'ang- 
hsi porcelains. A gradual but sure decline set in after the reign 
of Ch'ien-lung, and the nineteenth-century porcelain can usually be 
distinguished from the old wares by its inferior potting, weaker 

1 The enamels are always translucent, and at this time an overglaze 
enamel blue largely replaced the underglaze blue in the five-colour decoration. 

2 The principal exception to this statement is the ivory-white porcelain 
known in France as blanc de Chine, which has been made in the province of 
Fu-chien from the early part of the Ming dynasty. 



CHINESE PORCELAIN 



129 



colours, and comparative poverty of design. Marks on Chinese 
porcelain group themselves as follows : — (A) Date marks. (B) 
Hall marks. (C) Marks of commendation, description, etc. (D) 
Signatures. (E) Symbols. The inscriptions are either in ordinary 
script or in ancient seal characters (see p. 136), the ideographs 
being arranged in parallel columns, read from the top, and the 
columns taken from right to left. The mark is nearly ahvays 
under the base and sometimes enclosed in a double ring, but on 
some of the older specimens it occurs on the side or neck of the 
vessel in a single vertical or horizontal line. It is usually painted 
in blue under the glaze ; though it also appears in red, black or 
gold on the glaze, particularly on wares of the present dynasty ; 
and it is sometimes stamped like a seal in the body of the ware. 

(A) Date Marks. — Chinese dates are reckoned by two systems 
of chronology — (1) Cycles of sixty years ; (2) the nien-hao, i.e. 
arbitrary names given by the Emperors to the periods during 
which they reigned. 

1. Cyclical dates are not common and are, as a rule, incon- 
clusive, because they mention only the year of the cycle without 
specifying the cycle itself. The Chinese cycles are reckoned from 
B.C. 2637 ; but the table on p. 133, which begins at the 45th cycle 
and ends with the 76th {i.e. A.D. 4 to 1923), will suffice for ceramic 
purposes. Each year of the sixty is known by a name composed 
of one of the " Ten Stems " combined with one of the " twelve 
Branches," which are also the names of the signs of the Zodiac. 
Two examples will explain their use : — 

12 3 456 6 _ 45 

Wu-ch'en nien Liang-chi shu = painting of Liang-chi in the 

1 2 A 3 

Wu-ch'en year. The first two characters will be found to 




1 



represent the fifth year in the table, but no indication is given of 
the cycle to which it belongs. The second instance is exceptional 

K 



i 3 o POTTERY MARKS 

i 2 3 4 5 

and the date can be guessed. It reads Yu hsin-ch'ou nien chih = 

i 5 

made in the hsin-ch'ou year recurring. The hsin-ch'ou year, 
the 38th of the cycle, recurred in the reign of Kang-hsi who 
completed a full cycle of his reign in A.D. 1721. 

2. The commonest system of dating porcelain is by the 
Nien-hao, or reign-name adopted by the Emperor on the New 
Year succeeding the death of his predecessor. These dates are 
usually written in six characters in two columns ; the name of 
the dynasty coming first, followed by the reign-name of the 
Emperor ; the usual ending is nien (year or period) chih (made), 
but the latter word is occasionally replaced by tsao which also 

1 2 

>K L, means "made" (see p. 150) e.g. Ta Ming 

4 tG J\j 3456 e 3 

Cfteng hua nien chih = made in the Ch'eng- 

5-£p* n/j2 hua period (of the) great Ming (dynasty). 
' ' The mark is sometimes shortened into four 

ifclj JLS characters by the omission of the name of 

'pR^ r>*^ the dynasty, (see p. 136). The individual year 
of the reign is very rarely specified. Occasion- 
ally the wordjj/zk', Imperial, is used instead of nie?i : (see p. 150). 

The reader is cautioned that these reign-marks cannot be 
accepted as true dates, without other evidence. The Chinese, 
who venerate antiquity, make a practice of putting ancient dates 
on modern wares. Hsiian-te and Ctt eng-hua in the Ming 
dynasty, K'ang-hsi, Yung-cheng and ChHen-lung of the ChHng 
dynasty are commonly used in this way, because of the ceramic 
greatness of the reigns indicated. The exception to this caution 
is the Imperial porcelain, on which the mark is accurately and 
skilfully inscribed. 

The following tables include the principal reign-names of the 
Ming and ChHng dynasties, marks previous to these being 
virtually unknown, although they are reputed to have been first 
placed on Imperial wares by order of the Emperor Chen-tsung in 
the period Ching-te (1004-7 A.D.). From the reign of Yung 
Cheng onwards seal characters were commonly used in the reign- 
marks, as shown below. A list of Chinese numerals is appended. 

(B) Hall Mark. — The term "hall" here used is vague but 
comprehensive. It may refer to the shed of the potter, the 
studio of the painter, the shop of a dealer, the hall of a noble 



CHINESE PORCELAIN 131 

or the palace or pavilion of an Emperor. It may equally signify 
the place where, or the place for which the ware was made ; and 
in the absence of any preposition the meaning of the hall-mark 
must often remain obscure. The word used in those marks is 
usually fang, a hall (see p. 142) ; but fing, a summer-house also 
occurs, as well as chat, a studio (p. 144), hsuan, a terrace (p. 151), 
and/dTZ^-, a retreat (p. 143). 

(C) Marks of Commendation, etc., include (1) laudatory 
terms such as Pao sheng (of unique value) on p. 147, "a gem 
among precious vessels of rare jade " (p. 146), etc., referring to the 
beauty of the ware ; (2) words of good omen such as Shou 
(longevity), Fu (happiness), etc., implying a wish for the welfare 
of the owner of the vessel ; and (3) inscriptions which refer to 
the subject of the decoration, e.g. Tsai cJinan chih lo — u Feeling 
pleasure in the water," the subject being fishes in a pool (p. 147). 

(D) SIGNATURES are rare on Chinese porcelain, chiefly because 
of the minute division of labour in the factories, where one 
piece sometimes passed through seventy hands. Some of the 
" hall marks," however, must be regarded as containing " studio 
names " of potters or decorators, and therefore as a kind of 
signature. 

(E) Symbols, devices, etc., so dear to the Chinese mind, are 
often found in place of a written mark, the commonest being the 
Eight Buddhist symbols, the attributes of the Taoist Immortals, 
the Hundred Antiques, and Emblems of Happiness or Long-life 
such as the bat and the fungus. More rarely a group of objects 
can be translated rebus-fashion into a good wish ; e.g. a pencil- 
brush {pi) with a cake of ink {ting) and a (fu'i) sceptre or magic 
wand, together connote the phrase Pi tingjui, " May (things) be 
fixed as you wish" (p. 141). 

In the year 1667 the Emperor K'ang-hsi forbade the use of 
the Imperial title or any sacred phrase on china, lest it should 
be broken and desecrated. It is unlikely that the prohibition 
remained in force for more than a few years, but during that 
time the double ring intended to enclose the mark either 
remained blank or was filled with a device or symbol or some 
other permissible substitute. 



i 3 2 POTTERY MARKS 



CHINESE POTTERY 

The manufacture of pottery in China is of immemorial 
antiquity, but its history prior to the Han dynasty (B.C. 206- 
A.D. 220) is only of antiquarian interest. At this time it appears 
from literary evidence that stoneware, a very hard and partially 
vitrified pottery, was made ; and from actual existing specimens 
that a red earthenware with green or yellow glaze was fashioned 
in vases of more or less artistic form, borrowed from the still 
more ancient bronzes. The spread of tea-drinking during the 
T'ang dynasty (a.d. 618-907) proved, no doubt, a great stimulus 
to the potters, but we know little about the results of their efforts 
before the Ming dynasty (A.D. 1 368-1 644). It was in the reign 
of Cheng-te (1 506-1 521) that the potteries of Yi-hsing-hsien, in 
the province of Kiangsu, were started. The Yi-hsing ware is an 
unglazed pottery of varying hardness, and usually of red, buff, or 
fawn colours. It was called by the Portuguese "buccaro," and 
is best known in tea-pots of fantastic shapes, such as Bottger of 
Dresden, certain Dutch potters, and Dwight and Elers in 
England copied at the end of the seventeenth and the beginning 
of the eighteenth centuries. The later examples are often 
enamelled and the manufacture continues to this day. Important 
stoneware factories exist in the province of Kuang-tung, dating 
perhaps from the Sung dynasty (a.d. 960-1279), but best known 
to us by their later products, e.g. jars, vases, and figures with 
splashed and mottled glazes with a prevailing blue or bluish grey 
tone streaked and flecked with scarlet, green, and olive brown. 
There are potteries near Peking producing good copies of the 
porcelain with turquoise and aubergine glazes, and there are 
many obscure factories which supply local needs ; but the Chinese 
pottery in European hands can, as a rule, be safely assigned to 
either a Yi-hsing or Canton origin. 

Marks on Chinese pottery usually consist of impressed seals 
giving the name (or art-name) of the potter or place of 
manufacture ; and date-marks are uncommon. 



CHINESE CYCLES 45 TO 76, or A.D. 4 TO 1923 133 







Cycle 


Beginning 






Cycle 


Beginning 


C/j 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 


A.D. 





4 


64 











4 


64 








w 

J 


3°4 


364 


124 


184 


244 




3°4 


3 6 4 


124 


184 


244 


< 


604 


664 


424 


484 


544 


< 
u 


604 


664 


424 


484 


544 




904 


964 


724 


784 


844 


!3 




904 


964 


724 


784 


844 


u 


1204 


1264 


1024 


1084 


1144 


u 


1204 


1264 


1024 


1084 


1144 




1504 


1564 


1324 


1384 


1444 




i5°4 


1564 


i3 2 4 


1384 


1444 




1804 


1864 


1624 


1684 


1744 




1804 


1864 


1624 


1684 


1744 


¥ ¥ 


04 


64 


24 


84 


44 


f?if. 


34 


94 


54 


14 


74 


z.a 


°5 


65 


25 


85 


45 


z,%. 


35 


95 


55 


15 


75 


1 m 


06 
07 


66 
67 


26 
27 


86 
87 


46 
47 


TS5 


36 
37 


96 
97 


56 
57 


16 
17 


76 

77 


fZR 


08 


68 


28 


88 


48 


AA 


38 


98 


58 


18 


78 


ee 


09 


69 


29 


89 


49 


ZM 


39 


99 


59 


*9 


79 


*^ 


10 


70 


3° 


90 


5° 


m* 


40 


100 


60 


20 


. 80 


** 


11 


7i 


3i 


9 1 


5i 


*a 


4 1 


101 


61 


21 


81 


s * 


I2 ? 


72 


32 


92 


52 


515 


42 


102 


62 


22 


82 


*'S 


13 


73 


33 


93 


53 


§SW 


43 


103 


63 


23 


83 


*j* 


14 


74 


34 


94 


54 


<?m 


44 


104 


64 


24 


84 


z.* 


15 


75 


35 


95 


55 


ce 


45 


105 


65 


25 


85 


t>9f 


16 


76 


36 


96 


56 


m* 


46 


106 


66 


26 


86 


Tl 


17 


77 


37 


97 


57 


Tpfc 


47 


107 


67 


27 


87 


J** 


18 


78 


38 


98 


58 


jdt * 


48 


108 


68 


28 


88 


ajjR 


19 


79 


39 


99 


59 


mm 


49 


109 


69 


29 


89 


us 


20 


80 


40 


100 


60 


5° 


no 


70 


30 


90 


*e 


21 


81 


4i 


101 


61 


¥M 


5i 


in 


71 


3 1 


9i 


i* 


22 


82 


42 


102 


62 


if 


52 


112 


72 


32 


92 


1?* 


23 


83 


43 


103 


63 


^5 


53 


113 


73 


33 


93 


f * 


24 


84 


44 


104 


64 


¥ IS 


54 


114 


74 


34 


94 


Z.® 


25 


85 


45 


i°5 


65 


Z.01 


55 


i J S 


75 


35 


95 


P5J& 


26 


86 


46 


106 


66 


P^Jl 


56 


116 


76 


36 


96 


T3? 


27 


87 


47 


107 


67 


T& 


57 


117 


77 


37 


97 


/** 


28 


88 


48 


108 


68 


&¥ 


58 


118 


78 


38 


98 


as 


29 


89 


49 


109 


69 


Bi£ 


59 


119 


79 


39 


99 


!£:£ 


30 


90 


5° 


no 


70 


& * 


60 


120 


80 


40 


100 


*« 


3 1 


9i 


5 1 


III 


7i 


^ffi 


61 


121 


81 


4i 


101 


is 


32 


92 


52 


112 


72 


i J$ 


62 


122 


82 


42 


102 


3*e, 


33 


93 


53 


113 


73 


*5K 


63 


123 


83 


43 


103 



134 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 

The Nienhao of the Emperors which commonly occur 
on Porcelain and Pottery. 



Mark. 



mm 



m 

VJU l ■ 1 

BS) Lp 

m 
t A 

ft* 

ft* 



Description. 



Sung dynasty 



Ching Te. 
(1004-7) 



Yuan Feng 
(1078-86) 



Ming dynasty 

Hung Wu 
(1368-98) 



Yung Lo 
(1403-24) 



Mark. 




11 




I 

MM 



n-nQjSj 



Description. 



Ming dynasty 



Yung Lo in 
archaic script 



Hsiian Te 
(1426-35) 



Hsiian Te 
(1426-35) 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



i35 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


4t A 


Ming dynasty 


* A 


Ming dynasty 




Ch'eng Hua 

(1465-87) 




Wan Li 
(1573-1619) 


%* fy 




*.*. 




£ it 


The same 


* $ 


T'ien Ch'i 
(1621-27) 


fi5l\£ 


The same in seal 


H* 




sshy 


characters 


4 § 


Chung Chen 


tt A 




Jt* 


(1628-43) 


¥ n 


Hung Chih 
(1488-1505) 


fe A 


Ch'ing dynasty 


H & 




4 * 


Shun Chih 
(1644-61) 


$ A 




ft »s 




4 m 


Cheng Te 
(1506-21) 




The same in seal 
characters 


* a 




E A 




4 9i 

» 


Chia Ching 
(1522-66) 


4 f 


K'ang Hsi 
(1662-1722) 




II 




H ft 


Lung Ch'ing 
(1567-72) 


Mill 


The same in seal 
characters 



136 



CHINESE DATE MARKS 



Mark. 






ftri 



m 

M 
f it 






KnBSIIlin 

lifi 






n-n 



mi 

m 
« at 



Description. 



Ch'ing dynasty 



Yung Cheng 
(1723-35) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Ch'ien Lung 
( J 736-95) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Mark. 



Chia Ch'ing 
(1796-1820) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Tao Kuang 
(1821-50) 



HI 

intelf) 



ill 



si 



Si 



El 



* * 

BR. 

iSI 



Description. 



Ch'ing dynasty 



Tao Kuang 
(1821-50) 



Hsien Feng 
(1851-61) 



The same in seal 
characters 



T'ung Chih 
(1862-74) 



The same in seal 
characters 



Kuang Hsu 
1 875-1909 



The same in seal 
characters 



CHINESE NUMERALS 137 



CHINESE NUMERALS 



l 


'1 


1 1 


^ 


III 


£ 


X 


m 


s 


1Z 


-L. 


fffi 


JL. 


15 



Yi 



Erh 
~ -g San (rare) 



4 

5 £, 



A ± M 



Liu 
Ch'i 

Pa 

Chiu 
Shih 



These Chinese numerals will assist in calculating those rare Chinese and 
Japanese dates in which a particular year, month, or day is specified. 
Three forms are given : the common form on the left, the short form in 
the middle ; and the long form on the right. Chinese numerals of the 
common form were used as marks on the Chun-chou porcelain of the Sung 
dynasty (960-1279 A.D. ). 

The numerals in Japanese read : — r. Ichi. 2. Futatsu or Ni. 3. San. 
4. Yotsu or Shi. 5. Itsutsu. 6. Mutsu or Roku. 7. Nanatsu or Shichi. 
8. Yatsu or Hachi. 9. Kokohotsu or Ku. 10. Ju or To. 



138 CHINESE PORCELAIN— SYMBOLIC MARKS 



Mark. 








Description. 





The Eight 

Precious Things 

(Pa Pao) 

Chu (a jewel) 



Ch'ien (" a cash ") 



Fang-sheng (a 

lozenge, symbol of 

victory) 



Hua (a painting) 



Ch'ing (a hanging 

musical stone of 

jade) 



Shu (a pair of 
books) 



Chiieh (a pair of 

rhinoceros horn 

cups) 



Ai-yeh (an arte- 
misia leaf) 



Mark. 





Description. 





The Eight 
Buddhist Em- 
blems (Pa Chi- 
hsiang) 

Cheng (a bell] 
Sometimes the 
wheel (lun) is 
substituted for 
the bell 

Lo (a conch 
shell) 



San 
(State umbrella) 



Kai (canopy) 



Lien Hua 
(lotus flower) 



P'ing (vase) 



Yti (a pair of 
fishes) 



Chang 
(entrails) an 
endless knot 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— HARE, LEAF, LOTUS, ETC. 139 



Mark. 




^&^ 




Description. 



A hare looking at 

the moon. 

K'ang-hsi period 

(1662-1722) 



A hare (T'u). 

Late Ming and 

K'ang-hsi periods 



The hare which 

lives in the moon 

making the elixir 

of life, is venerated 

by the Taoists 



Artemisia leaf : a 
good omen 



Lotus flower 



Mark. 





n^> 



Description. 



Lotus flower 



Flowers 



Prunus spray 
(Mei hua) 



Fungus 
(Lingchih) 
Emblem of 
Longevity 



A bat and two 
peaches (Fu 
shou Shuang 
ch'uan) a rebus 
= "Happiness 
and longevity 
both com- 
plete " 



1 4 o CHINESE PORCELAIN— FLOWER, TRIPOD, ETC. 



Mark. 




Va» 



G63 




Description. 



Description. 



Flower 



Head of a ju'i 
sceptre (of Long- 
evity) 



Endless knot 




Insect 



Four-legged in- 
cense burner 
(Ting) See p. 97 




A tripod vase 



tailless stork. 

Marks engraved 
on specimens in 
the Dresden col- 
lection : — zigag, 
on blue and white : 

cross on Japanese 

wares : 

H, on Chinese 

famille verte : 

triangle, on white 

Chinese : 

arrow, on red 

Chinese : 

parallelogram on 

" Old Indian " 

porcelain 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— SYMBOLIC MARKS 141 



Mark. 







Fu (one of the 12 
ancient embroidery 
ornaments) 



Pearl symbol 



Description. 




Shell svmbol 



Pearl symbol 



? Musical instru- 
ments 



Lozenge symbol 



Swastika symbol 

or fylfot, in a 

lozenge 



Lozenge symbol 



Mark. 









Description. 



Lozenge symbol 



Pair of books 



Cash symbol 



Two fishes, 
emblem of felicity 




Perhaps rhinoceros 
horn cups 



A brush (pi) 

1 cake of ink (ting) 

and a sceptre of 

longevity (ju'i), 

making the rebus 

Pi ting ju'i = 

' May (things) be 

fixed as you 

wish ! " 



142 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— " HALL " MARKS 



Mark. 









ft- 



Description. 



Yii fang chia ch'i 

= beautiful vessel 

for the jade hall. 

Late Ming and 

early Ch'ing 

dynasties 



Yung lo fang chih 
= made at the 

Yung lo (perpetual 

enjoyment hall) 

c. 1730 



Ts'ai hua t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

painting. 

1820-50 



Chih hao fang 

ch'ing shang = 

pure gift from the 

hall of good 

endeavour. 

!73 6 -95 



Ts'ai hsiu t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

decorations. 

.1796-1820 



Yu tzu. t'ang chih 

= made for the 

hall of friends and 

scholars. 

1662-1722 



Mark. 









* 







Chih yuan t ang 

chih = made at 

the hall of wide 

extension. 

i73 6 -9S 



Ch'ing wei fang 

chih = made for the 

hall of respectful 

awe. 

A palace mark 

1736-95 



Description. 



T6 hsing t'ang 

chih = made for the 

hall of fragrant 

virtue. 

1573-1620 



Lu yi fang = 

Hall of waving 

bamboos : 

on K'ang-hsi and 

Tao-kuansr wares 



Yii hai t'ang 

chih = made in the 

hall of ocean jade. 

1662-1722 



Shun te fang chih 

= made for the 

hall of cultivation 

of virtue. 

Palace mark 

1820-50 



CHINESE PORCELAIN, "HALL" MARKS 



43 



Mark. 



f ir 
* JR. 



* A 



«■ A 



'^1 






Description. 



Shun te fang po 

ku chih = antique 

made at the Shun- 

te hall, 1820-50 



Ch'ii shun mei yii 
t'ang chih = made 
at the Ch'ii shun 
hall of beautiful 

jade, 
late 17th cent 



Ts'ai jun t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall of brilliant 

colours, 
early 19th cent. 



I yu t'ang chih = 

made at the hall 

of ? prosperity 

and profit. 

? 17th cent. 



Ta shu t'ang chih 

= made at the 

big tree hall. 

1820-50 



Ch'i yii t'ang chih 
made at the hall 
of rare jade. 
1662-1722 



Mark. 





Description. 



Lin yii t'ang chih 

= made at the hall 

of abundant jade. 

1662-1722 



Ching lien t'ang 

fang ku chih 

= imitations of 

antiques made at 

the Chinglien hall 

late 1 8th cent. 



Yang ho t'ang 

chih = made at the 

hall for the 

cultivation of 

harmony. 

1723-3S 



Jui lu shan fang 

chien chih = made 

in the mountain 

dwelling under the 

superintendence 

of Jui-lu. 

1662-1722 



Chih Ian chai 

chih = made in 

the epidendrum 

studio. 

17th cent. 



Tan ning chai 

chih = made in the 

pavilion of peace 

and tranquillity. 

1736-95 



i 4 4 CHINESE PORCELAIN— HALL MARKS, ETC. 



Mark. 











Description. 



Ssu pu chai chih 
= made for the 
pavilion of medita- 
tion for the correc- 
tion of faults. 
? early 18th cent. 



Kuei yueh shan 
chuang = work- 
hop of the Cassia 
Moon Mountain. 
1820-50 

Jo shen ch'£n 

tsang = to be 

treasured like a 

gem from the 

deep. 

1 8th and 19th 

cent. 



Huo ch'i jo shen 
•ch'en tsang = to 
be treasured like 
a deep jem from 
the boiling 
stream, 
early 18th cent. 

Ya su kung shang 

= For the learned 

and common 

alike to take 

pleasure in. 

early 18 th cent. 

Hsi ch'en ku wan 

= antique of the 

" mat jewel " 

(i.e. scholar) 

1662-1722 



T6 hua ch'ang 

ch'un = Virtue 

culture and endur 

ing spring ! 

surrounded by the 

date mark of 

Wan-li 
(1573-16x9) 



Mark. 




3 .*. 



A 






-H- 



Description. 



Yung ch'ing 

ch'ang ch'un 

= Eternal pros , 

perity and 

enduring spring ! 

T'ien ti yi chia 
ch'un = Springtime 

in heaven and 

earth — one family. 

(Motto of the 

late Empress 

Dowager) 

and Ta Ya Chai 

= Pavilion of 

grand culture : 

(one of her 

palaces) 

late 19th cent. 



Ssu yu mei yii ya 

chih = thoughts 

elegantly expressed 

in beautiful jade. 

1662-1722 



Ta chi = Great 
sood-luck ! 



Chi hsiang ju i 

= Good fortune 

and fulfilment of 

wishes ! 



Shuang hsi = 

Double( or wedded ) 

joy ! On weddin 

gifts 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— FORMS OF SHOU 



145 



Mark. 



Description. 



.-Jr. 

oi 






W 









'D3\ 



/03\ 
/I 

HP 






si 
St 

m 






151 
/it 

*2* 



V±/ 



* 



* 



® 



o 



3*6 






m 



AT 

Jfc. 



«4» 



fl 



A 



C 
\±/ 

PHI 



i 



flfa 

AIA 

Ik 

130 



W 






Various forms 

of Shou = 

longevity, the 

common form 

of which is 



~* 






\±s 




=E - 1 ?- PFl PH 



«rf . 



i 4 6 CHINESE PORCELAIN— COMMENDATION MARKS 



Mark. 




1 M 





Description. 



Shou (longevity) 

A curious form 

known in Holland 

as the spider mark 



Fu = happiness 



in various forms 



Mark. 



Lu = emolument 



An unusual form 

of Fu Shou = 

Happiness and 

long life ! 



Wan fu yu t'ung 

= May infinite 

happiness embrace 

all your affairs ! 

1 6th cent. 




ft * 



ft 



i* -t- 

S. if 



Description. 



Fukuei chia ch'i 
= fine vase for the 
rich and honour- 
able. 
1 6th cent. 



Ch'ang ming fu 

kuei = Long life, 

riches , and honour 

in a circle like a 

' 'cash." 

1 6th cent. 



Ch'ing = Con- 
gratulations ! 



Ch'i yu pao ting 
chih chein = A gem 

among precious 

vessels of rarejade ! 

1662-1722 



Ch'i shih pao ting 

chih chen = A gem 

among precious 

vessels of rare 

stone ! 



Ch'i chen ju yii 

= A gem rare as 

jade ! 

1662-1722 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— COMMENDATION MARKS 147 



Mark. 



A. 
-ft 

fl M 
% k 



Description. 



Hsi yii = Western 

jade 
early 18 th cent. 



Yu lai = Arrival of 
friends 



Pao sheng = In- 
expressibly 
precious 
early 18th cent. 



Tan kuei = red 

olive : emblem of 

literary honours 

16th cent. 



Tsai ch'uan chih 
lo = Rejoicing in 
the water (refer- 
ring to fishes in 
the decoration) 
early 18th cent. 



Shuai fu kung 
yung = for public 
use in the general's 
hall. 17th cent. 



Sheng yu ya chi 
= Elegant collec- 
tion of holy friends 
1662-1722 



Mark. 



ih 4 



t 



if Tf 






IS 



B 






'Bh -is 



ffi 



c<r 



Description. 



Ai lien chen shan 

= Precious reward 

of the lover of 

the lotus ! 

1820-50 



Po ku chen wan 

= a jewelled 

trinket of antique 

art 



T'ien kuan tz'u fu 

= May the 

heavenly powers 

confer happiness ! 



Wan shou wu 
chiang = A myriad 
ages never ending ! 



Wan shou wu 

chiang = A myriad 

ages never ending 

Usually written 

in an horizontal 

line 



48 CHINESE PORCELAIN— COMMENDATION MARKS 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


a ± 


Wen chang shan 
ton = Scholarship 


X 


T'ien = heaven 
early 18 th cent. 


•L -4- 


lofty as the hills 

and the Great 

Bear! 

1662-1722 


a 


Ya wan = elegant 

trinket 
early 18th cent. 


3. 


Yu = jade 


* 




* 


Ku = antique 
1662-1722 


-Ft 
3L 


Chen yu = verit- 
able jade 


* 


Chen = a pearl 
1662-1722 


VL 


Wan yii = trinket 
jade 


* 


Ya = elegant 
17th cent. 






^ 


Ch'iian = complete 
17th cent. 




Chen wan 
= precious trinket 


lj\2 


Sheng = holy 
1662-1722 








? Pao (precious) 




m 




_^^1 










or Shan wang 


* 


Shun = elegant 
1662-1722 






18th cent. 
? A shop mark 




' 


i fn 




J* 


Hsing = exalted 
1662-1722 




afl 




undeciphered 












/\ 


Shih fu = manifest 






yV\y 


happiness 


m 


Kuo = national 


(§) 


enclosed in a 


1662-1722 


ground, engraved 
1662-1722 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— NAMES OF POTTERS, ETC. 149 



Mark. 



la 



eq;ii 





SHi/ 



IU 



3E UJ 

Sfimm 
3tt ^ 

ouri 



it 



$ 



Description. 



Fu fan chih tsao = 
manufactured on 
the boundaries of 
(the province of) 

Fuchien. 
Early 16th cent. 



? Lai (a name) 
1662-1722 



? Chao-chin 

(a name) 

Early 18th cent. 

stamped 

Cheng ku shih = 

CMng-ku family 

1 8th cent. 

engraved 



-chih (a name) 

stamped 
1 8th cent. 



Lin c'hang fa tsao 

= made by Lin- 

ch'ang fa 

i73 6 -95 



Ch'en mu chih 

tsao = made by 

Ch'en-mu-chih. 

on biscuit 

1662-1722 



Mark. 











ft 




Description, 



Shang su 
(name) 
1736-95 



Yuan Sin-hsing 

tsao = made by 

Yuan Sin-hsing 

19th cent. 



Chang Ming kao 

tsao = made by 

Chang Ming-kao. 

on biscuit 

1 662- 1 722 



Chih = made to 
order {i.e. 
imperial) 



Fa = emitted 

{i.e. for sale) 

1622-1722 



Shu fu = imperial 

palace. On Yuan 

dynasty ware 

(1280-1367) 



Baragon Turned = 

Western Turned 

1820-50 

(Mongolian script) 

Made for the 

princess of the 

west wing of the 

Turned Mongolian 

banners 



150 CHINESE PORCELAIN— DESCRIPTIVE MARKS 



Mark. 



Ufa 




Description. 



Ch'a=:tea 



Chiu = wine 



Tsao t'ang = 

decoction of dates 

(chow-chow) 

Chiang t'ang = 
decoction of ginger 



Kuan lien fang 
chih = made for 
the look-lily boat 
(i.e. excursion 
boat for viewing 
the lotus flowers) 
i73 6 -95 



Ts'ang lang 
lii shiu = green 

water of the 

boundless ocean 

1 6th cent. 



Chung eh'eing fu = 
father ' ' governor ' ' 
(i.e. governor of a 
province) 



Chung ch'eng 

= governor of 

a province. 

On copies of old 

crackle ware 

made 1723-35 



Mark. 














Description. 



Shan jen ch'£n 

wei = The Hermit 

Ch'en-wei 

? 17th cent. 

inc. on white 

Fuchien porcelain 



Hsieh chu tsao = 

made for the 

Hsieh bamboos 

early 19th cent. 



Hsieh chu chu jen 

tsao = made for the 

Lord of the Hsieh 

Bamboos 

early 19th cent. 



Kuan yao nei tsao 

= made at the 

government factory 

1820-50 



Yung cMng yii 
chih = made by 

order of the 

Emperor Yung 

cheng 

(1723-35) 



Lien ch'eng 

ch'i hou 

Probably Lien- 

ch'eng is a potter's 

name 



CHINESE PORCELAIN— POTTERS' NAMES, ETC. 151 



Mark. 



i l IP 



nn 



tja 



\r3j 

Ml 






G 




BM 



Mm 






Description. 



= Made by Wang 

Sheng-kao at the 

end of the 4th 

month of the 

3rd year of Chia- 

ch'ing" (z>. 1798). 

on " rice-grain " 

porcelain 



Probably a copy 

of the letter G 

(1662-1722) 



Chu shih chii = 

The red rocks 

retreat 



"Wan shih chii = 

The myriad rocks 

retreat 



Tsui Yueh hsiian 

chih = made on the 

terrace of the 

drunken moon 

c. 1800 



Ling nan hui chi 
= a Lingnan [i.e. 
Canton) painting ; 

and the seal 

Pai shih = White 

Rock (a studio 

name of a painter) 

c. 1724 

on an " egg-shell " 
porcelain plate 



Mark. 





ni§3? 



li 


» —, 


~ -J 


#rl 



a 



Description. 



Yii feng yang lin 
= Yang-lin of Yii 
feng (a place not 

far from Ching-te- 
chen). on an 

" egg-shell" plate 



Yu chai = quiet 
Pavilion (studio 
name of painter) 
c. 1724. on an 
' egg-shell" plate 



Kung ming fu 
kuei Hung fu ch'i 
t'ien = " A famous 
name, riches and 
honour : abound- 
ing happiness 
reaching to 
heaven ! " on an 
" egg-shell "plate 
c. 1724 



Uncertain seal 
marks 



Square seal 

(1662-1722) 

copied at 

Worcester 



Mark (unde- 

ciphered) on 

porcelain made 

for the Siamese 

market. 1 8th cent. 



152 CHINESE POTTERY AND STONEWARE— CANTON 



Mark. 





"XT 

re 



Description. 



Wu chen hsien 
yao = pottery of 
Wu chen-hsien 



Canton stoneware 

I sh£ng = 

Harmonious 

prosperity. 

on Canton stone- 



Ko Ming hsiang 

chih = made by 

Ko Ming-hsiang 

1 8 th cent. 



Ko yuan hsiang 

chih = made by 

Ko Yiian-hsiang 

1 8th cent. 



Huang-yiin chi 

= registered by 

Huang-yiin 

19th cent. 



Chien yuan kai ti 

= The respect of 

Chen-ytian 

1 8th cent. 



Mark. 



it 

ft 







"£W 






Description. 



Canton stoneware 

Li-ta-lai (name 0/ 

a potter) 

Canton stoneware 

18th or 19th cent, 



T'ai yuan (potter 
1 8 th or 19th cent. 



Yiieh ch'ang 
(potter) 

Yi-hsing pottery 

Yi-hsing (on red 
stoneware of Yi- 
hsing-hsien, in 
Chang-chou-fu) 
19th cent. 

Hui Meng-ch'en 
chih = made by 
Hui Meng-ch'en. 
An old name on 
modern wares 



Meng-ch'en and 
Hui 



Yu-lan-pi chih = 

made by Yu-lan- 

Pi 



Chin-Yiian-yu chi 

= registered by 

Chin-yuan-yu 

-19th cent. 



JAPANESE POTTERY 

THOUGH a primitive pottery was made in Japan before our era, 
it was not till the practice of tea-drinking necessitated a better 
class of ware that anything of artistic pretensions was made. In 
the thirteenth century Kato Shirozaemon, better known as Toshiro, 
journeyed to China to learn the secrets of the Chinese potters. 
On his return he made the first glazed wares, which consisted 
chiefly of tea-jars and tea-bowls of fine stoneware with rich streaky 
glazes, amber brown, chocolate, and purplish black, sometimes 
superposed. A yellow glaze was added in the next generation. 
These glazes, known as Seto gusuri, or Seto glazes, were for long 
the only covering for Japanese pottery. Towards the end of the 
sixteenth century, after the invasion of Corea, a number of Corean 
potters were transplanted to Japan by the victorious Hideyoshi 
and proved a powerful influence in Japanese ceramics. Tea- 
drinking became an organised cult, and the tea societies (Chanoyu) 
acquired a semi-political significance. In their ceremonies the 
tea-drinkers studied an almost rude simplicity, and the wares 
affected by them were of an archaic character, so that the potters 
had to devote themselves to copying the old Seto and Corean 
wares. The latter included wares with greyish-white glaze, or 
grey stoneware inlaid with white or black clays in what was called 
Mishima style. Another important class of tea-ware was a soft 
pottery with smooth waxen glaze in brown, black, salmon red, or 
yellow colours, known as Raku ware and introduced by a Corean 
named Ameya early in the sixteenth century. A seal engraved 
with the word Raku (Happiness) was given to Chojiro, the second 
generation of the family in 1588, and has been used by his 
descendants ever since. Raku ware was easily made and required 
only a low temperature in the baking ; it has been manufactured 

153 



1 54 POTTERY MARKS 

by a large number of potters, professional and amateur, in various 
parts of Japan. 

Among the old factories Takatori was noted for rich, variegated 
and mahogany glazes of the Seto style ; Karatsu and Hagi for 
wares of Corean type ; and Shigaraki for rough archaic pottery 
with blistered and corrugated glaze. A rich brown or slatey grey 
stoneware, with no glaze at all or only an accidental covering, was 
made in Bizen from early times : admirably modelled figures 
and groups have for long been made at Imbe, in this province. 
A grey stoneware with translucent glaze specked with brown was 
made at Iwaki in the province of Soma, and was generally 
decorated with a tethered horse, the princely badge of the 
province. Grey ware with fine inlaid white ornament, a develop- 
ment of the Corean Mishima style, is peculiar to Yatsushiro ; and 
the province of Ise is distinguished by the work of a clever 
amateur of the eighteenth century whose art name is Banko. He 
also worked at Yedo copying Raku, Corean, and Kioto wares. 
His seal was used by Mori Yusetsu, who revived his work in 1830, 
and who was further noted for the use of interior moulds for his 
fine stoneware teapots which show outside the finger-prints of the 
potter. 

The Kioto potters worked in every style, but the district of 
Awata is specially noted for a beautiful pottery with hard greyish 
white body and translucent glazes varying from grey to cream 
colour and finely crackled. In the early part of the seventeenth 
century this ware was painted in blue or brown under the glaze ; 
but in the latter part of that period the celebrated potter, whose 
art name is Ninsei, learnt the secret of enamelling on the glaze 
from the porcelain makers in Hizen. He was followed by the 
Kenzan, Kinkozan, Hozan, Taizan and other families whose 
descendants in many cases still produce the finely enamelled 
Awata faience. But the most beautiful pottery of this type is the 
ivory white ware of the province of Satsuma, with its lustrous 
velvety surface and scarcely perceptible crackle. This ware, which 
probably dates from the seventeenth century, was at first under- 
rated ; enamelled ornaments were sparingly applied in the eigh- 
teenth century, but in modern times the quality of the ware has 
degenerated and the mass of decoration increased. Indeed a 
large proportion of the ware is now sent to Tokio, where it is 
entirely covered with rich enamels and gilding. There were 
other and older wares made in the province of Satsuma with 



JAPANESE POTTERY 



55 



glazes of Seto type, shrivelled glazes resembling shark-skin in 
texture, mottled tortoiseshell glazes, and brown painted designs, but 
these are little known or appreciated in Europe. 

Another kind of pottery, in close imitation of a Chinese ware 
called by the Japanese Kochi-yaki, was successfully made by 
Zengoro Hozen, whose art name is Eiraku. This is a stoneware 
or semi-porcelain with turquoise, green, and purple glazes usually 
kept apart by the raised outlines of the ornament, but sometimes 
laid on singly over the entire piece. Eiraku flourished in the first 
half of the nineteenth century and his family still uses his seal. 
He worked at Kioto and in the province of Kishiu or Kii. 

Marks on Japanese pottery are incised, stamped, or painted. 
The stamps or seals are by far the most numerous. They usually 
give the name of the potter or place of manufacture or, more 
rarely, the name of the Temple or place where the ware was sold. 
Japanese craftsmen almost always adopt an " art-name," sometimes 
more than one, and these are the names that chiefly occur in the 
potter's marks. Thus Zengoro Hozen signed with the name 
Eiraku and also with the seal Kahin Shiriu given to him by 
a princely patron, while Ogata Shinsho, best known by his art 
name Kenzan, is credited with at least ten pseudonyms. 
J»V X Japanese potters worked singly, and the number of signa- 
■5"* tures of professional and amateur potters is immense. 

*^" I 2 

Marks containing the words tei (house) and yen (garden) 
|3|1 n correspond to the Chinese " hall marks." The following 
•*■ 2 list is a selection of the most important marks arranged 
geographically. Japanese marks are usually written in Chinese 



"j5J = tsukuru, sei, seisu, or zo = made ) ^uT 

yCr =Koreo tsukuru = made this . t ~&** 



= sei =made (synonym of tsukuru) 



&, 



■ saku = made 



hitsu = drawn 



= ga or yegaku = 
painted 



156 POTTERY MARKS 

script or seal characters, more rarely in the cursive Japanese 
writing. They commonly end in the word sei or tsukuru (Ch. 
chih) = made, varied by such words as saku = made : hitsu (pencil) 
= drawn : ga or yegaku = painted. Tsukuru followed by the 
word JCore( = this) is read Kore o tsukuru = made this. Some- 
times the mark ends in, or solely consists of a Kakikan, i.e. 
written seal (see p. 179), a flourish or sign without literary 
meaning. 

Date marks are given in two ways as on Chinese wares : (1) 
the cyclical system which is identical with the Chinese (p. 1 29) ; (2) 
the nengo which corresponds with the Chinese nien hao, being a 
period, the name and length of which are determined by the 
Emperor. The list of nengo began in 645 A.D. ; but the following 
section beginning in 1370 is sufficient for identifying pottery 
marks. The table of numerals on page 137 will be useful in this 
connection. 

In the columns of Japanese marks the headings in heavy type 
are the names of provinces. Place-names have been printed in 
italics, where they might be otherwise confused with the names 
of potters, which are printed in ordinary type. 



JAPANESE POTTERY 



157 



JAPANESE DATES (nengo). 



it IE 

IS"? 
lEHf 

IE Iff 
JEX 

t§ 



iE7K 
tKA 



Ken-toku 
Bun-chu 
Ten-ju . 
Ko-\va . 
Gen-chu 
Mei-toku 
O-ei . . 
Sho-cho . 
Ei-kio . 
Ka-kitsu 
Bun- an . 
Ho-toku 
Ko-toku 
Ko-sh5 . 
Ch5-roku 
Kwan-sho 
Bun-sho 
O-nin 
Bun-mei 
Cho-ko . 
En-toku . 
Mei-6 
Bun-ki . 
Ei-sho . 
Dai-ei . 
K6-roku 
Tern -bun 



1370 
1372 

1375 
1381 

1384 

1393 

1394 

1428 

1429 

1441 

1444 

1449 

I45 2 

1455 

1457 

1460 

1466 

1467 

1469 

1487 

1489 

1492 

1501 

1504 
1521 
1528 
1532 



XtJk 



IE 7c 

■Jk% 
mm 



WW 

use 






Ko-ji 

Ei-roku . 

Gen-ki . 

Ten-sho . 

Bun-roku 

Kei-cho . 

Gen-na . 

Kwan-ei 

Sho-ho . 

Kei-an . 

Jo-o . 
Mei-reki 
Man-ji . 
Kwam-bun 
Em-po . 
Ten-na . 
Jo-kio . 
Gen-roku 
H6-ei . 
Sho-toku 
Kio-ho . 
Gem-bun 
Kwam-po 
En-kio . 
Kwan-en 
H6-reki . 
Mei-wa . 
An-ei 



• I55S 

• 1558 

• i57o 

• 1573 

• 1592 

• i59 6 

• 1615 
. 1624 

• 1644 
. 1648 

• 1652 

• 1655 

• 1658 
. 1661 

• 1673 
, 1681 
. 1684 
. 1688 

• i7°4 
. 1711 
. 1716 

• i73 6 

• 174* 

• 1744 

• 1748 

• i7Si 

• 1764 

• 1772 



i58 



POTTERY MARKS 



JAPANESE DATES (] 



TO 

ft-*: 



jBc^ 



S*&7G 



s^ 



Tem-mei 


. 1781 


Kwan-sei 


• 1789 


Kio-wa . 


. 1801 


Bun-kwa 


. 1804 


Bun-sei . 


. 1818 


Tem-po . 


• 1830 


Ko-kwa . 


. 1844 


Ka-ei 


. 1848 


An-sei . 


• 1854 


Man -en . 


. i860 


Bun-kiu . 


. 1861 


Gen-ji 


. 1864 


Kei-o 


. 1865 


Mei-ji . 


. 1868 



On p. 189 is a complete ex- 
ample of a Japanese mark, in- 
cluding a date, i.e. "MadeatOto- 
koyama, in Southern Kii, in the 
first year of Ka-ei" (a.d. 1848). 
Below are five other examples of 
date-marks. 




Gen-ki nen sei 
= made in the 
Gen-ki period 

(A.D. 1570-73). 



<4£ % 



Em-po nen sei 
= made in the 
Em-po period 
(a.d. 1673-81). 



I^HI \3rj Mei-ji nen To-yen 
*, sei — made by 






sei 

To-yen in the 
Mei-ji period 

(a.d. 1868- ). 



$1 4fc 



Bun-kwa nen sei 

= made in the 
Bun-kwa period 
(a.d. 1804-1818). 




Tai min nen sei 

= made in the 

Tai min dynasty 

i.e. The Great 

Ming dynasty of 

the Chinese 
(a.d. 1368-1644). 



JAPANESE POTTERY— HIZEN, BIZEN 



*59 



Mark. 



■tr 



<i 



% 



o»4 






^ 

^ 

.* 



Description. 



Hizen 



Shichi ju ni sai 

Niraku saku = 

made by 

Niraku at the age 

of 72 years 

c. 1800 



Gorohachi. 

Mark on a copy 

of old Corean 

ware, c. 1800. 

The original 

Gorohachi worked 

in the 16th cent. 



Kameyama 
19th cent. 



Bogasaki, in 
Nagasaki 
1830-43 



Bo (for Bogasaki) 



Mikawa for 
Mikawaji 
c. 1820 



Shoto 
c. 1800 



Mark. 





Description. 



Prov. of Bizen 

Various marks 
used by potters to 

identify wares 

fired in the public 

kilns 

17th cent. 



Cho 

1 8th cent. 



Ka ichi 
c. 1680 



Kimura Uji 
1780-1830 



Riku 
1780-1830 



Totei 
19th cent. 



Dai Nippon Imbe 

to = Imbe ware of 

great Japan 

19th cent. 

Terami 
c. 1850 



K'wa-bo 
1 8th cent. 



i6o 



JAPANESE POTTERY— BIZEN, SETTSU 



Mark. 






** 



Spa 



5* 




Description. 



Bizen 

Kiyo-chika 
19th cent. 



Dai Nippon 

Imbe to (seep.159) 

and Kimura 

Kiyochika 



Naoyoshi 
1 8th cent. 



Yoshida tsukuru 

= made by 

Yoshida 

c. 1840 



Mori 



Okayama 
19th cent. 



Mark. 



Mushiage 



Mushiage 
Makuzu 
c. 1830 





Description. 




Tsushima 

Shiga 



Tosa 

Odo 
[9th cent. 



Sokan tsukuru = 

made by Sokan 

c. 1680 



Settsu 

Naniwa (old 

name of Osaka) 

c. 1680 



Kosobe and 

Shichi ju rojin 

Tai-nen sho = 

painted by Tain en 

at the age of 70 

years 

19th cent. 



Kikko ( + 1861) 
at Jusan, Osaka 
1819- 

(see p. 179) 



Sakurai 

and no Sato = 

Sakurai (a village) 

in Sato 

c. 1830 



JAPANESE POTTERY— SETTSU, OMI, HIGO 161 



Mark. 




© 



% 



ft 



k 

r 



Description. 



Settsu 

Shosai at Osaka 
c. i860 



Omi 

Baizan 
c. 1850 

Seta 

17th cent. 

onwards 



Mompei and 

Mompeizan 

c. 1830 



Bairin at Beppo 
c. 1800 



Omi 

Koto = east of the 

lake (Biwa). 

Mark on wares 

made at 

Sawayama 

1815-50 



Hira 
c. 1830 



Zeze Tora. 

Tora Kichi 

potter, at Zeze 

c. 1850 



Mark. 



\/ 




Description. 



tiJti 





Omi 

Yuko 
c. 1850 



Shigaraki Uichu. 

Uichu, potter of 
Shigaraki 
1 7th cent. 



Takuzan ; made 
pottery at Yedo 
(1815-40) with 
Shigaraki clay 



Higo 

Higo 



Yatsushiro 



Sogen 



Gen 

To 

Kiln marks (see 

note on Bizen 

ware, p. 159) on 

Yatsushiro ware 

19th cent. 



M 



1 62 JAPANESE POTTERY— HIGO, KAGA, ISE 



Mark. 




t±\ 




Description. 



Higo 

Ya= Yatsushiro 
late 19th cent. 



Higo 

Amidayama 
c. 1797 



Shodai 
c. 1840 



Shofu 



Kaga 

Rinzan 
c. 1800 



Ju (for Okura 
Juraku) 
c. 1872 



Toko 

at Rendaiji 

c. 1806 



Mark. 







K 








Description. 



Kaga 

Ohi 
1780 onwards 



Ohi 



Yamamoto 
c. 1810 



Kinju (Mark of 

Mokubei in 

Kaga) 

c. 1807 

Ise 

Anto 
1740-J850 



Banko 

early 18th cent. 

onwards 



Akoji 
c. 1850 



Sahei 
c. 1640 



JAPANESE POTTERY— ISE, YAMATO 



163 



Mark. 






$JK 



i^7 






Description. 



Ise 

Banko 



Banko 



Nippon Banko 

and Date tsukuru 

= made by Date 

19th cent. 



Banko 



Nippon Yusetsu. 

Yusetsu was a 
potter who revived 

the Banko ware 
c 1835 



Banko Fueki. 

Fueki was brother 

of Yusetsu 



Banko 



Bokusai 
19th cent. 



Mark. 




I 

ill 





Description. 



Ise 

Yurin, maker 

of Banko ware 

19th cent. 



Ko-tei = lake 
house: 

mark on 
Banko ware 

19th cent. 



Isazva 
c. 1810 



Yamato 

Akahada 
1 8th cent. 



Akahadayama 
(19th cent.) 



Bokuhaku 
(1850-70) 



Issai 
(Akahada 
or Hagi) 
19th cent. 

Seto-suke, 
mark on ware 

made at 

Yokka-ichi, 

in Ise 

c. i860 
(also on an 
older ware 
made in the 
province of 

Echizen 

c. 1665) 



1 64 JAPANESE POTTERY— SUO, SADO, AWAJI 



Mark. 



Description. 









Echizen 

Alikuni 



Fukui 
c. 1840 



Chikugo 

Yanagawa 
c. 1840 



Suo 

Iwakuni 
{Tad a) 
c. 1770 



Iwakuni 



Kikko (at Tada) 
c 1835 



Jusan-ken ; 
mark of Kikko 



Sado 

Sa-kin saku 
: made by Sakin. 
Kintaro " ware 
1800 



Mark. 



It 




ft 



if 




Description. 



Awaji 

Mimpei 
c. 1830 



Nippon Awaji 
Sampei 
c. 1880 



Rissai (Awaji 
or Tosa) 
19th cent. 



Nu-no Gun-jiro 
1850 



Buzen 

Ho and a spiral 

mark of the 

potter Hosho 

at Agano 

c. 1800 

Denko (name of 
a ware made \ 
at K at aril) 
c. 1856 

Izumi 

Min at '0 

c. 1800, 

and Minato yaki 

= Minato ware 

19th cent. 



JAPANESE POTTERY— IZUMI, KII, IGA 



165 



Mark. 







m 



«. 



Description. 



Izumi 

Sen-shiu Sakai 

moto Minato yaki 

Kichi-ye-mon 

= Original 

Minato ware of 

Kichiyemon at 

Sakai in Senshiu 

(i.e. Izumi) 

19 th cent. 

Kwan-kei 



Iwami 

Nag-ami 
c. 1840 



Iwao (another 
mark of the 
same potter) 



Kii 

Kairakuyen sei 

= made by 

Kairakuyen. 

A name given to 

Eiraku Hozen by 

Prince Harunori. 

Kairakuyen sei 



Kairakuyen 

(in a gourd). 

The factory 

was in the 

Kairakuyen park 

at Nishiyama 

and was active 

from 1828-68 



Mark. 








Description. 



Kii 



Otokoyama 

near Nishiyama 
1847-66 



Nan-ki 



Nan-ki. 
Otokoyama 
= southern 
Otokoyama 

Seinei. 
A mark said to 
have been used 
by Raku Tanniu 

in Kii 
c. 1840 



Zuishi 

c. 1790. 

A ware made 

at Meppotani 



Iga 

Iga 

c. 1800 

(Two forms 

of the mark) 



Iga yaki 

= Iga ware 

c. 1840 



Totei (at 

Mar-ubashiro] 

c. 1850 



1 66 JAPANESE POTTERY— NAG ATO, HARIMA, IZUMO 



Mark. 








Description. 



Nagato 

Toyo-ura-yama 

' c. 1846 

(The factory 

existed from 

1716 onwards) 



Totomi 

Shidoro 
1 8th and 
19th cent. 



Harima 

Akashi 
1700-1860) 



Akashi-ura 



Asagiri 

Sohei 

19th cent. 

The Asagiri 

factory dates 

from 1700-1830 



Wafuken 
and Maiko 
(1750-1800) 



Hoyen : 

a mark used 

by Maisen 

who followed 

Wafuken 

c. 1800 



Mark. 







Description. 



Ui 



Harima 

Suma 

1800-50 

Two forms of 

the mark 

Tozan 

the hill from 

which the clay 

was taken for 

the factory at 

Hi?neji 

1826- 

Izumo 

Zen and Zenshiro. 

A family working 
at Fujijia 
1750-1860 



Rakuzan at 
Matsuye 
1780-1840 



Unyei at 
Fujina 
c. 1830 



Izumo 

Wakayama : 

late 19th cent. 

Chikuzen 

Takatori yo 

= Takatori 

pottery 

c. 1770 

Ka 
c. 1780 

Yamaka 

c. 1800 

(oven marks 

see p. 159) 



JAPANESE POTTERY— CHIKUZEN, SANUKI 167 



-4 






Description. 



Chikuzen 

(Takatori) 
Ki. c. 1820 



Taka (for 
Takatori) 
19th cent. 



Teiten 
c. 1850 



Soshichi 

at Hakata 

1827 



Soshichi 



Shun (for 

Shunzan) in Suo 

c. 1780 



Sanuki 

Shun-min Hiraga 

c. 1780 

(Hiraga Gennai 

took the name 

Shun-min) 



Mark. 




ft 





Description. 



Shido Shun-min 
c. 1780 



Shun-min 



Min 



Minzan 

at Shido 

1780-1830 



Shinzan 
c. 1830 



Taka (for Taka- 

matsu) on " Inari- 

yama " ware 

1740-60 



Yashima 

at Shido 

c. 1800 



Yashima 
c. 1820 



1 68 JAPANESE POTTERY— SANUKI, TAMBA, OWARI 



Mark. 




Description. 





Sanuki 

Yashima 

Rinso 

tsakuru = 

Yashima 

(ware) made by 

Rinso. 

1817 



Mark. 



Yashima 



Yohachi 
1810-30 



San yo = 
Sanuki 
Pottery 
c. 1840 



Tamba 

Naosaku 
1835-60 



Owari 

Owari 
19th cent. 






Description. 



Owari 

Bizan 

c. 1800. 

On ' ' Ofuke " ware 



Fuke. 

Mark on 

' ' Ofuke ' ' ware 

made at Akazu 



Sobokai 
1800 



Shunu 
c. 1790 



Shunzan 
c. 1770 



Shuntai 
c. 1830 



Shunyetsu 
19th cent. 



Shuntan 
c. 1800 



JAPANESE POTTERY— OWARI 



i6< 



Mark. 



■r 



$r 



% 



t&\ 



a 
^ 



dU 



i 



Description. 



Owari 

Makusa 
c. 1780 



Gen (for Gempin) 
c. 1640 



Mark. 



Gempin 

on a copy of 
Gempin ware 
made c. 1730 



Chozo 

(at Tokoname) 

c. 1830 



Ikko 

(at Tokoname) 
c. 1850 



Sobaitei (at 

Akazu or Kioto) 

1 8th cent. 



Masaki (at 

Nagoya and 

Tokio). c. 1820 

Bokuko 

(style of Masaki) 

19th cent. 











Description. 



Owari 

Inuyama 
1730 onwards 



Inuyama 

(which has the 

same ideographs 

as Kenzan) 

c. 1800 



Yoshitoyo 
(at Seto) 
c. 1780 



Toyohachi 
(at Nagoya) 



Toyosuke 



Toyoraku 
(or Horaku) 



Toyoraku. 

Four marks on 

ware made by 

Toyosuke at the 

Horaku factory at 

Nagoya. c. 1820 



17© JAPANESE POTTERY— OWARI AND KIOTO 



Mark. 







ss 




II 



Description. 



Owari 

Bairaku 

(on Toyosuke 

ware) 

c. 1820 



Sasashima 

(near Nagoya) 

1750-1870 



Fuji 
(marks of the 
Fujimi family) 
1800 onwards 

Yamashiro 

Kuchu : on 
' ' Takagamine " 
ware made by 
Kuchu or Koho 

c. 1630 : 

and Ko in a circle 

(for Koho) 

Sei (for Ninsei) . 
17th cent. 

Kiyo 

(mark used by 

Ninsei) 



Ninsei 



Mark. 







* 





© m 



Description. 



Yamashiro 

Ninsei : in a seal 
the top of which 
. is like a looped 
curtain (Maku-in) 



Akashi 

Mark of Seisuke 

working with 

Ninsei 

c. 1680 

Seikanji 
(Ninsei worked 
there c. 1670) 



Onike : on ware 
made at Mizoro 
early 19J.I1 cent. 



Harima : mark of 

Tsuji Harima 

1720-30 



Tsuji 



Harima 



Fuji 

(at Kiyomizii) 

c. 1700 



Awata (Kioto) 
17th cent, 
onwards 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



171 



Mark. 



CD 









Description. 



Yamashiro 

' ■" Iwakura 
The Kinkozan 
family worked at 
Iwakura, moving 
to Kioto in 1750, 
where they used 
the same marks 

Iwakurayama 



Hozan (family) 
17th cent, 
onwards 
at Awata 



Hozan 



Taihei (used by 
Hozan c. 1800) 



Bu (=?Bunzo) 
1 8 th cent. 



Gobosatsu 
17th cent, 
onwards 



Taizan (at 

Awata) 

1760 onwards 



Giozan 
1820-50 



Mark. 




Description. 



Yamashiro 

Kinkozan (at 
Iwakura and 
Kioto). 17th 
cent, onwards 



Bizan (at Awata) 
19th cent. 



Tanzan (at 

Awata) 
1846 



Kozan 
c. 1820 



Kiyomizu 

(17th cent. 

onwards) 

a district of 

Kioto 



Kiyo 
(for Kiyomizu) 



Kiyomizu 

Gusai 
19th cent. 



Kanzan 
(at Kiyomizu) 
1805 onwards 



Eisen (at 

Kiyomizu ) 

c. 1760. 

' An amateur 

potter, who made 

the first Kioto 

porcelain 



72 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



Mark. 






Description. 




Yamashiro 

Roku. Mark of 

Rokubei I., at 

Kiyomizu 

(1737-99) 



Sei in a hexagon. 

Mark of 

Rokubei I. 

and III. 



Rokubei I., and 

Rokubei III. 

(1820-85) 



Sei in a double 

hexagon. Mark 

of Rokubei II. 

1797-c. 1850 



Shichibei 

(1840-60), and 

Sei in a heptagon 

at Kiyomizu 



Dohachi 

(The first Dohachi 

dates 1737-93 : 

Dohachi II. 

died 18 s6 : 

Dohachi Id I. 

c. 1840-75 

Dohachi IV. 

1875- 
at Kiyomizu 



Dohachi 



Mark. 




v\ rp 





IIP 




Description. 



Yamashiro 

Dohachi II. 
(in a shell) 



Nina and 
Ninarai : marks 
of Dohachi II. 



Kachutei Dohachi 
sei = made by 
Dohachi in the 
Kachu house 



Shuhei : at 

Kiyomizu 

c. 1810 



Yosobei I. (at 
Kiyomizu) 

c. 1800 

Yosobei II. 

c. 1830 



Yosobei III. 
c. 1850 



Tosetsu : at 
, Kiyomizzi 



Kitei (at 

Kiyomizu). 

Four generations 

dating from 1790 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



173 



Mark. 








fk & 



+\ 



** 




Description. 



Yamashiro 

Kitei : at 
Kiyomizu (Kitei 
= tortoise house) 



Ki for Kitei 



Tei on a tortoise 
mark of Wake 
Kitei, c. 1850 



A tortoise 



Zoroku 



Zoroku (mark of 
Genyemon at 
Kiyomizu) 
1841- 



Otani : mark 
used by Zoroku 



Seifu (at 

Kiyomizu) : three 

generations dating 

from c. 1844 



Mark. 




« 






Description. 



Yamashiro 

Tsuyen : at 

Kiyomizu 

c. 1800 



Ippodo 

c. 1850 

on Suminokura's 



Arashiyama 
c. 1830 



Asahitei 
c. 1840 



Shonsui Gorosuke 

at Gojosaka 

1840-60 



Kinsei 
c. 1800 



Kosai 
1840-50 



174 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



Mark. 



&m 







Description. 




Yamashiro 

Raku. This seal 

was given to 
Chojiro, son of the 
Corean Ameya, by 
Hideyoshi in 1588. 

The family have 

used it since, and 
the 13th generation 

is still at work in 
Kioto 

Raku 
(= enjoyment) 



Raku 



Seinei : mark of 

Raku Tanniu 
:. 1840 (seep. 165) 



Other makers of 

Raku wai-e at 

Kioto 

Jizan saku — made 

by Jizan. 

19th cent. 



Sei-ji, 19th cent. 



Ko-sa-o 
1 8th cent. 



Mark. 





Description. 






•nfO 



Yamashiro 

Ichi-raku 

{Kioto) 
19th cent. 



Rakuwo 

(Kioto) 

1 8th cent. 



Kagura = 

mark on 
Okazaki ware 
of Raku type, 

made by 
Bunzaburo 

1850-70 

Kyuraku : 

mark used by 

Yasuke 

(Kioto), 

c 1855 

Saburo: an early 
mark used by 

Kenzan, 

the celebrated 

Kioto potter 

(t 1743) 



Kenzan 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



175 



Mark. 



Description. 



Mark. 



Description. 



x> 






Yamashiro 

Sandai Kenzan 
= Kenzan of the 
3rd generation, 
early 19th cent. 







\^g? 




Mokubei : at 

Kiyomizu 
(1767-1833) 

Koki kwan 

Mokubei tsukuru 

= made by 

Mokubei 

connoisseur of 

antique pots 



Asahi : mark 

on pottery 
made at Uji in 
17th cent, and 
revived in 1852 

Ryozen 

c. 1810 

(10th generation 

of the Zengoro 

family) at Kioto 

Eiraku : mark 

of Hozen, nth 

generation of the 

Zengoro family 

1825-53 

(see p. 165) 



Kahin Shirin : 

mark used by 

Hozen 



Hozen 







Yamashiro 

Omuro: mark used 

by Wagen (12th 

generation of the 

Zengoro family) 

c 1853 



Ouchi-yama 

Sei en : mark used 

by Zengoro Wagen 



Tenkaichi 
Soshiro : mark of 

Soshiro, of the 

4th generation of 

the Zengoro family 

c. 1640 



Marks used by 

Zenshiro (brother 

of Wagen) 

c. i860 

The first reads 

Omuro and the 

other Toho 



Otcwa 
17th cent. 



Otowa and 

Ken (for Kentei) 

c. 1850 



176 



JAPANESE POTTERY— KIOTO 



Mark. 



•i- 



-** 



h 



d 





Description. 



Yamashiro 

Giyoku-tei 

(Kioto) 
1 8th cent. 



Makuzu family : 
1840 onwards at 
Makuzu-ga-hara, 
a district of Kioto 



Rengetsu : a 

woman potter 

1830-60, and 

a 2nd generation 

1860-80 



Riokozan : mark 
used by Rengetsu 



Rantei 
c. 1865 



K'wan-riyo 

(? Kioto) 

late 1 8th cent. 



Shuzan 
c. 1870 



Sei shi 
c. 1872 



Mark. 




Description. 





Yamashiro 

Kiunken (Kioto) 
19th cent. 



Sei 



Shigen 
late 1 8th cent. 



Musashi 

Kenzan sho 

= Kenzan wrote 

it. Kenzan (see 

p. 174) worked at 

Iriya, Tokio 

early 19th -cent. 



Kenya : mark of 

Miura Kenya in 

Asakusa 

1830-c. i860 



JAPANESE POTTERY— TOKIO 



77 



Mark. 





ft it 





Description. 



Musashi 

Kaseizan 
worked near 
Yotsuya, Yedo 

c. 1780 



Rakurakuyen : 
the garden of the 
Daimio of Owari 
in Tokio, where 
pottery was made 
1804-30. 

Masaki was in 
charge for a time 



Korakuyen : mark 

of the private kiln 

of the Prince of 

Mho, at Tokio 

1832 



Sanrakuyen 

mark of private 

kiln of the Duke 

of Tosa, Tokio 

1848 



Kikko, who came 

to Yedo in 1855 

(see p. 160) 



Hashimoto 

Sanjiro : at Imado 

19th cent. 



Mark. 










1k 



Description. 



Musashi 

Shisei : at 
Matsuyama 
19th cent. 



Shoson 
19th cent. 



Gosaburo : 
at Imado 
c. 1840 



Sumidagawa : 

mark used by 

Kikkutei at Yedo 



Tamagawa : 

probably Tokio 

c. 1850 

Koren saku 

— made by Koren: 

a woman potter of 

Tokio 

c. 1878 



178 JAPANESE POTTERY— TOKIO, SOMA, SATSUMA 



Mark. 







m 



Description. 



Musashi 

Makuzu Kozan 

tsukuru (in a 

gourd) = made by 

Makuzu Kozan (see 

p. 176) who moved 

from Kioto to 
Yokohama in 1870 

Makuzu Kozan 
(in a gourd) 



Iwaki 

Soma. 
Soma ware was 
made at Naka-- 

mura, 1631 
onwards. It is 
usually decorated 
with a prancing 
horse tethered, 
the device of the 
Prince of Soma 

Shoda : mark on 

Nakamura ware 

c. 1850 



Kanashige 
1850-70 



Yenzan 

? 1 8th cent. 

on Soma ware 



Komaru 
1816- 
at Ohorimura 



Rakuzan 

1830 

mark used by 

Komaru 



Mark. 









Description. 




Satsuma 

Satsuma : in 

ordinary and 

contracted 

forms 



Hoju 
1780-1800 



Hohei 
1820 



Hoyei 
1820-40 



Tatsumonji 

Hoyu 

c. 1840 



Hoko 
i860 



Seikozan 
1830 

Hayashi (with a 

leaf usually added). 

? Satsuma or 

Kioto 

c. 1840 



JAPANESE POTTERY— SATSUMA, ETC. 



179 



Mark. 



Description. 



Satsuma 



Satsu sei : on 

Tachino ware 

c. 1830 



Tei-ji on netsuke 

made at ? Kioto 

19th cent. 



Mikawa 

Kakitsubata (an 
ris) and Okunisan 
(honourable pro- 
vince): marks used 
on Kusumura 
ware 
c. 1840 



Five examples of 
Kakihan (hand 
seals) occasional!) 
used by potters 
in place of, or 
accompanying, 
the ordinary 

signature. 
They are mere 
nourishes made 
with the brush 
and do not repre 
sent actual 
characters. 



Mark. 






I 



Description. 



Miscellaneous 



Toshiro : 

supposed to be the 

signature of Kato 

Shirozaemon 

or Toshiro, 

the originator of 

glazed pottery 

in Japan in the 

13th century 



Sen-ki : mark on 

Ohi-machi ware 

(see p. 162) 

19th cent. 



Jusan-Ken : mark 
of Kikko at 

at Osaka and Yedo 
(see p. 160) 



Soyen : mark on 

Raku ware 
{Kioto) 19th cent. 



Bunki on. Raku 
ware [Kioto) 
? 19th cent. 

Sensuke seizor 

made carefully by 

Sensuke : on Ota 

ware c. 1874 made 

in the prov. Kii 

Ni-Ko 
on ware made for 
sale at the temple 
of Niko near Tokio 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN 

The pioneer of Japanese porcelain was Gorodayu Go-Shonsui, 
who spent five years in China learning the art at Ching-te-chen. 
Returning to Japan in 1 5 1 5 he made blue and white porcelain 
with imported Chinese materials ; but as he was unable to find 
the necessary clay in Japan, his success was only temporary and 
left nothing behind but the knowledge of painting in blue under 
a glaze. The requisite materials, however, were discovered in 
the province of Hizen by a Corean named Risampei, about the 
year 1605, and forty years later two potters named Tokuemon 
and Kakiemon, with some help from a Chinese, developed the 
art of painting in enamel colours. A flourishing industry now 
sprang up in the village of Arita and its neighbourhood, and 
much of the ware found its way to Europe on Dutch ships 
trading with Imari, the sea-port of the Arita district. This 
"Old Japan" porcelain falls roughly into two classes : (1) a fine 
white ware with delicate and sparse decoration of floral sprays, 
birds, and animals in brilliant enamels, blue, manganese-purple, 
green, and red — commonly called Kakiemon ware; and (2) a 
heavier, greyer porcelain with crowded ornaments chiefly in 
dark impure blue, soft Indian red, and gold, obviously made 
for export, and commonly called Old Imari ware. Two other 
factories in the province of Hizen were celebrated in the 
eighteenth and the first half of the nineteenth centuries ; the one 
at Okawaji, under the patronage of the feudal chief of Nabeshima, 
and the other at Mikawaji, taken under the protection of the 
chief of Hirado in 175 1. The Hirado porcelain was the finest 
made in Japan ; and the best specimens were painted in a pale 
but pure blue of great delicacy, a favourite subject being boys 
playing under an ancient pine, the number of boys, seven, five, 
or three, indicating the quality of the piece. 



182 



POTTERY MARKS 



In 1660 Goto Sajiro, a native of the province of Kaga, set 
out to discover the secrets of the Arita potters, and from his 
return in 1664 dates the growth of a nourishing industry at 
Kutani-mura and its neighbouring villages. Kaga porcelain was 
chiefly noted for its rich enamels — blue, green, purple, and red — 
either painted in the Arita style or laid on in broad washes over 
formal designs pencilled in black. In the nineteenth century a 
specialty was made of decoration in red and gold, which has 
come to be regarded as typical of Kaga ware. 

The Kioto potters did not turn their attention to porcelain 
till the end of the eighteenth century. Eisen was the first and 
he was followed by Mokubei, Rokubei, Eiraku, Dohachi, and a 
number of other clever potters. The Seto factories, destined 
to be the most productive in Japan, owe their knowledge of 
porcelain-making to Kato Tamikichi, who penetrated the secrets 
of the Arita potters in the first decade of the nineteenth century. 

-Chinese influence is almost always apparent in Japanese 
porcelain, and the early wares, if marked at all, usually display 
a Chinese date, 1 symbol, or mark of commendation. Moreover, 
the better factories were directly under the patronage of a feudal 
chief who did not permit the workmen's names to appear on 
the wares. Thus it is not till the nineteenth century that true 
potters' marks are common on Japanese porcelain ; and much 
of the older wares have no mark at all. Marks beginning with 
the words '■'•Dai Nippon'''' (see p. 186) may be safely regarded 
as of nineteenth-century date. 

1 Such as the nienhao of the Ch'eing Hua (Jap. Seika), Chia Ching (Jap. 
Ka-sei), Wan Li (Jap. Man-reki), Ch'ien Lung (Jap. Ken-riu) for which see 
P- 135- 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN— COMMENDATION MARKS 183 



Mark. 






a 




Description. 



Bun-mei 
Kai-k'wa = 

enlightenment 
and civilisation 
on Seto ware 
c. i860 



Ho = precious : 

on Arita porcelain 

c. 1700 



Ho tei no takara 

= a gem among 

precious vessels. 

on Arita ware 

18th cent. 



Kin (gold) : on 

Okawaji ware 

18th cent. 



Ka = happiness 



Roku = 

emolument : 

on Hirado ware 

1 8th cent. 



? Fu wan chih = 

made by Fu-wan. 

on Arita ware 

c. 1800 

Fu wan = 

ten thousand 

blessings 



Mark. 





c^eL 




On Arita porcelain 



Fuku = happiness 

(common on 
Kaga porcelain) 



Description. 



Tiu = long life 



Doubtful seal 

mark on 
Kaga porcelain, 
early 18th cent. 



Doubtful seal. 

mark on 

Kaga ware 

17th cent. 



1 84 JAPANESE PORCELAIN— COMMENDATION MARKS 



Mark. 



■ 






it 

fts 



ft 




Description. 



Doubtful seal 
mark : Arita 

porcelain 
? 1 8th cent. 



Sei = made (to 

order) : on Kaga 

porcelain 

1 8th cent. 



Ornamental seal 

mark on Arita 

porcelain 

1 8th cent. 



Gwan = a trinket. 
Kameyama ' ware 
early 19th cent. 



Seigen = pure 

trinket. 

Seto ware 

19th cent. 



Fuki cho shun = 

Riches, honour 

and eternal 

spring ! 



Swastika or fylfot 

symbol : the 

Chinese wan = 

ten thousand 



Five-leaved 

flower in red on 

Arita porcelain 

17th cent. 



Mark. 



Wtf* 







Description. 



Flower in red, 

and mark of 

the Dresden 

collection incised. 

Arita porcelain 

17th cent. 

Leaf mark copied 
from the Chinese 



fungus mark : 

copied from the 

Chinese 



Fungus mark 



Hizen 



Arita 



Nishina 
Arita ware 
19th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN— HIZEN 



185 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Hizen 




Hizen 


m 


Hizen Kuwan Yo 
Xembokuan Kizo 


m BE 




I I it 


sei = made by 

Xembokuan Kizo 

in the Hizen 


111 ffijf 


Hizen S a ray am a. 
late 19th cent. 


Mb % 


government kiln. 
Arita 






'XJ 


19th cent. 


A& m 






Xembokuan Kizo 
tsukuru = made by 
Xembokuan Kizo 


U )W 


Mikawaji Mori 

Chikara tsukuru 

= made by 

Mori Chikara 

at Mikawaji. 


* * 




«S ft 


late 19th cent. 


/yv. 




&]-¥- 


Hirato sei = made 


$ 9 


Xichi Hizen 
Fukagawa 




at Hirato 

(on Mikawaji 

ware) 


ill BE 


tsukuru = made 
by Fukagawa 








in Hizen. 


/tS 


Masa-ichi : a 






(ii) 


netsuke maker : 


ft Ui 


late 19th cent. 




Mikawaji 
19th cent. 






— -3fe 




it BE 


Hizen Kuwan 


— Mi 




Tsuji tsukuru = 


'/r7\l 


Zoshun tei 




made by Tsuji in 


frf* ■£? 


Sampo sei = made 


» ft 


the Hizen govern- 


vf* HL 


by Sampo at the 


ment (kiln). 


J*T* ^p* 


Zoshun hall 




late 19th cent. 


** 


Mikawaji 


11 nc 




c. 1830 




Hichozan Shimpo 
tsukuru = made by 




Kushide (comb 


Hichozan Shimpo. 

Arita 

19th cent. 


- ' ■ 


pattern) on the 

foot rim of 

Xabeshima ware 


1 1 11 1 1 1 








Kozan sho = 


made at Okawaji 

■ 1 8th and 19th 

cent. 




s* 








written by Kozan. 








m 




? Okawaji 
1 8th cent. 




3JU 




Hako sei = made 

at Hakodate 
c. 1850 




> 


k/W 





1 86 JAPANESE PORCELAIN— HIZEN, HARIMA, ETC. 



Mark. 



m & 

it IT 

at m 

* m 

m ft 
if *$ 

1 






4 i% 



Description. 



Hizen 

Gorodayu Go 

Shonsui tsukuru = 

made by Gorodayu 

Go Shonsui. 

This potter was 

the originator of 

Japanese porcelain 

in the i6th cent. : 

imitations of his 

ware are common 



Narau waga zo- 
sen Shonsui Goro- 
dayu tqkoro sei = 
made in imitation 
of my ancestor 
Shonsui 
Gorodayu 



Kameyama sei 

= made at 

Kameyama 

1803-46 



Harima 

Himeji sei = 

made at Hi?neji 

(see p. 166) 

c. 1826 



Banjo Tozan. 

Tozan is the 

mountain where 

the material was 

mined for Himeji 

ware 



Mark. 




Description. 



Settsu 

Sakurai no Sato 
-Sakurai in 

Sato 
19th cent, 
see p. 160) 




P m 



#L *• 



Kaga 

Kutani. 

Dai Nippon 

Kutani sei = 

made at Kutani 

in Great Japan.. 

19th cent. 



Tozan no in = 

seal of Tozan. 

Kutani 

19th cent. 



Ktrfani Shiozo. 
late 19th cent. 



Dosuke chin 

;wan = precious 

trinket of 

Dosuke. 

Kaga ware 

1 8th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN— KIOTO 



.87 



Mark. 



Id b 

• I' 



Description. 



Yamashiro 



Kioto 



Dai Nippon 

Eiraku tsukuru = 

made by Eiraku 

in Great Japan. 

Mark of Eiraku I. 

early 19th cent. 

and Eiraku III. 

late 19th cent. 

(see p. 175) 



Kachu tei 

Dohachi = made 

by Dohachi in the 

Kachu house. 

Kioto 

c. 1840 



Heian toko 

Rokubei sei — 

made by Rokubei 

the Heian potter. 

Heian is an old 

name for Kioto. 

early 19th cent. 

(see p. 172) 



Yaki nushi 

Sosendo = the 

potter Sosendo. 

Seto 

c. 1840 



Mark. 









-*- 



$£ 



y 



v 



% m 
f 



■c 



Description. 



Yamashiro 



Heian toko 

Rantei seizo = 

carefully made by 

Rantei the 

Kioto potter. 

early 19th cent. 



Rantei sei gwan = 

pure trinket of 

Rantei 



Rantei 



Kisui seizo = made 

by Kisui. Kioto 

late 19th cent. 



Shimbei tsukuro = 

made by Shimbei 

? Seto 

19th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN— KIOTO 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Yamashiro 




Yamashiro 


® 


Kiyen tsukuru 
= made by Kiyen. 


m # 


Kanzan sei sei = - 
carefully made by 


(incised). Kioto 
19th cent. 


m ui 


Kanzan. Kioto 
19th cent. 


m * 


Dai Nippon Kosai 
tsukuru = made 


&> &L 




m h 


by Kosai in. Great 


'$£ &T 


Kanzan kin sei 


Japan. Kioto 


*r** *7 I 


. = respectfully 


m # 


c. 1850 


Jt^ 


made by Kanzan ] 


Hi 

my 


Kosai 




Makuzu Kozan 

tsukuru = made 

ay Makuzu Kozan. 

Kioto 






& m 


1851- 


ffi * 








m. 


Dai Nippon Seifu 
tsukuru = made 

by Seifu in Great 

Japan. Kioto 

19th cent. 


& m 


Fuji yo Makuzu 1 
tsukuru = made 
at the Fuji kiln 

of Makuzti. 
Makuzu is here 

the district 

of Kioto. 

early 19th cent. 

Fuku shun ken 










s -m 


Giyokusei tsukuru \ 
= made by 




■"ii 








Seifu tsukuru 


m m 

m m 


Giyokosei in the 
Fukushun garden ] 
Kioto 
late 19th cent. 








'St L 


Ogata Shuhei. 
Kioto. 


5-5C 




jf-j& 


c, 1810 


■ Jfc 


= Roki, maker. 


f £ 


Sahei seizo 
= made by Sahei. 




Kioto 
19th cent. 


mark of Zoroku 


FV 




^ f, 


[Kioto] 
19th cent. 


2?v 







JAPANESE PORCELAIN— KII, OMI, OWARI 189 


Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 




Eii 




Owari 


^ M 


Kayei g'wan 
nen Nanki 


**. 




IE M 


Otokoyama sei 




Dai Nippon Seto 


= made at 


£ A 


sei = made at Seto 


& 7C 


Otokoyama, in 


in Great Japan 


southern (Kii) 


19th cent. 


111 # 


in the first year 

of Kayei 

(i.e. 1848) 


* "*• 




m 


(see p. 158) 
Omi 


Ms 


Owari 




m 




Koto = east of 
the lake (i.e. 
lake Biwa). 


h 






* 




early 19th cent. 
(see p. 161) 






-4 


Meiho : a 
signature on 


A& 




m 


Koto ware 


$L 




\h 




m- 








Kato Kanshiro. 


n 




& 


Seto 
late 19th cent. 


& 


Koto Jinenan ji 

= vessel of 
Jinenan of Koto 






i 






Seal mark on 
Seto ware 


& 


Owari 


SJ 


19th cent. 


* 
5 


Nagoya 






19th cent. 


# "' 


Kawamoto 

Masukichi. Seto 




* * 


late 19th cent. 



i 9 o JAPANESE PORCELAIN— OWARI, MINO, AWAJI 



Mark. 





Description. 



Owari 

San-han. Seto 
late 19th cent. 



Kito ken Hoku- 

han tsukuru 

= made by 

Hokuhan at the 

Kito (curious 

pottery) house. 

Seto 
late 19th cent. 

Seikan yen Goho 

sei = made by 

Goho in the 

Seikan garden. 

Seto 
late 19th cent. 



Mark on 

? Korakuyen, or 

Mito, ware made 

at Tokio with 

Seto materials 

1832 (see p. 177) 



A tortoise : on 
Seto ware 
19th cent. 



Dai Nippon 
Hansuke tsukuru 

= made by 

Hansuke in Great 

Japan. Seto 

late 19th cent. 



Mino 

Togiyoku yen sei 

= made in the 

Togiyoku (jade 

pottery) garden 

Mi?io. 19th cent. 



Mark. 



3l m 

m 5 

m m 

3l m 



K 



c- 



m & 

h m 



Description. 



Mino 

Togiyokuyen 

Gosuke sei 

= made by 

Gosuke in the 

Togiyoku garden. 

19th cent. 



Nippon Mino 

kuni Kato 

Gosuke sei 

= made by Kato 

Gosuke in the 

province of 

Mino, Japan 



Yamato sei 

= made at 

Yamato 

on eggshell 
porcelain 
19th cent. 



Awaji 



Nippon Awaji 

Kashiu Sampei. 

late 19th cent. 



JAPANESE PORCELAIN— COMPANIES, ETC. 191 



Mark. 


Description. 


Mark. 


Description. 


m u 


Nippon Tokio 


«4m» 






Hyochiyen gua 


2~? s 7 




m # 


= painted at the 

Hyochi garden 

Tokio. 


^%V 






On Arita 


r ^ 




m m 

m M 


ware painted 
at Tokio. 
19th cent. 


tt 


Nippon Tokio 

Kinshosha 
tsukuru = made 




' * % N ~*zz* 


by the Kinsho 


M 




\7 


Company at 
Tokio in Japan. 
late 19th cent. 




Oite Koransha 

Seizan sei 

= made by Seizan 

of the Koransha 


ft 




(company). 


*AJ 






Mikawaji 


^gT"* 






late 19th cent. 




Ul it 




/f< 




m 








If* 


Shippo Kuwaisha. 
mark of the 






X 


Shippo Company 






Owari 






^ 


late 19th cent. 






E| 








^i. 









INDEX OF NAMES 



Aalmes, 47 

Aaron, 70 

Absolon, 102 

Achard, 65 

Adams, m, 118 

Aire, 68 

Albany, 114 

Albarez, 90 

Albissola, 21 

Alcock, 108, 118 

Alcora, 64, 89, 90 — 

Alisandro, Maestro, 16 

Allen, 98 

Aliens, 28 

Allies, 104 

Alluaud, 73 

Alphen, van, 31 

Altrohlau, 40 

Amberg, 37 

Amstel, 50 

Amsterdam, 49, 50 

Andrea, Petrus, 13 

Andreoli, Maestro G., 2, 7 

Andriaensz, 45 

Angaron, 19 

Angouleme, 69, 75 

Anreiter, 40 

Ansbach, 30, 35 

Antonibon, G. B., 19 

Antonio, 13 

Aolasdinr, 17 

Apiello, 24 

Aprey, 67 

Apt, 67 

Aranda, 90 

Ardennes, 51 

Ardus, 66 

Arnstadt, 30 

Arras, 72 

Arzobispo, 90 

Asciano, 6 

Ash worth, no 

Astbury, 108 

Atanasio, 15 

Augsburg, 27, 35 

Augustus II., 26, 33 

Ault, 118 

Auspitz, 41 



Austin, 102 
Avisseau, 70 
Avon, 57, 59 
Aynsley, in, 118 
Azulejos, 89, 90 

Baan, 49 
Bacon, 95 
Baddeley, 109 
Baden, 39 
Bagnara, 12 
Bagnolo. to 
Baguley, no 
Bailey, 111 
Baker, 105 
Baldantonio, 17 
Baldems, 27 
Baldessar, Maestro, 6 
Baranowka, 53 
Barbizet, 71 
Barcella, I. S., 17 
Bariselio, 17 
Barker, 114 
Barnstaple, 118 
Baron, 64, 67 
Baroni, G., 19 
Barr, 101 
Bassano, 19 
Basso, 66 
Batignolles, 70 
Batista, G., 18 
Batkin, in 
Batty, 113 
Bayeux, 70 
Baylon, 114 
Eayreuth, 30, 35 
Beauvais, 57, 59, 70 
Beck, van, 47 
Bedeau, 63 
Beech, 115 
Belfast, 106 
Bell, 106 

Belle Vue, 102, 105 
Belleek, 95 
Belleville, 71, 76 
Belper, 103 

Benedetto, Maestro, 5 
Bennett, 114 

193 



Bentley, 112 
Berg, de, 47 
Berger, 35 
Bergerac, 69 
Berlin, 32, 37 
Berlot, 30 
Bern, 54 
Bertolini, 17 
Bertrand, 28, 63 
Besio, G., 18 
Betini, 13 
Bevans, 105 
Bevington, 105 
Bideford, 106 
Billingsley, 98 
Bing, 52 
Bingham, 117 
Birch, 109 
Bishop, 118 

Bishop's Waltham, 116 
Blemont, de, 57, 59 
Blondel, 68 
Bloor, 97 
Boch, 41, 51 
Bodley, 117 
Boender, 45 
Bogaert, van der, 49 
Boisette, 73 
Bologna, 13 
Bondino, 60 
Bone, 95 
Bonn, 31 
Bonnefoy, 65 
Bonnin, 115 
Bonpencier, 22 
Boote, 108, 114, 11S 
Booth, 109, 114, 118 
Bordeaux, 73 
Porelli, 21, 65 
Borgano, 18 
Borgo San Sepolcro, 

22 
Borne, 60, 61 
Botero, B., 20 
Bott, 113 

Bottengruber, 35, 40 
Bottger, 26, 33, 132 
Bouchereau 67 



194 



POTTERY MARKS 



Bouffioux, 28 

Boulard, 60 

Boulevard de St. Antoine, 

Boulevard des Itahens, 76 

Boulevard Poissoniere, 76 

Boulogne, 74 

Boulter, 115 

Bourdon, 73 

Bourdu, 60 

Bourdus, 77 

Bourg la Reine, 69, 73 

Bourgouin, 67 

Bourne, 103, 108 

Boussemart, 63 

Bow, 93, 95, 101 

Bowen, 104 

Bowers, no 

Boyle, 99, 107 

Brachard, 77 

Brama, G., 15 

Brameld, 99, 102 

Brandi, F., 21 

Brannam, 118 

Breitenbach, 38 

Breslau, 40 

Bretby, 117 

Breteuil, 80 

Briel, van den, 45 

Brindley, 106 

Briot, 59 

Brislington, 104 

Bristol, 93, 95, 98, ioo, 104 1 

Britton, 103 

Broillet, 76 

Brouwer, 46, 47 

Brown, no, 118 

Brownfields, 117 

Bruges, 51 

Brussels, 51 

Buccaro, 44, 94, 132 

Buchwald, 31, 32 

Budau, 40 

Budweis, 40 

Buen Retiro, 89, 91, 92 

Buergen, van der, 49 

Burgess, 118 

Burgh, van der, 45 

Burslem, 100, 107, 108, 117-9 

Burton, 116 

Burton-on-Trent, 117 

Busch, 35 

Byclok, 49 

Cadborough, 105 
Cadogan, 102 
Caen, 74 
Caffaggiolo, 4, 5 
Caldas, 89, 91 
Caldwell, 107 
Caluwe, de, 44, 50 
Cambray, 69 
Cambrian, 104, 105 
Campori, F. Maria, 6 
Candiana, 19 
Cantigalli, 21 



Capelleti, 21 
Capo di Monte, 3, 24, 81 
Carassus, 24 
Cardinal, 30 
Cari, Caesari, 10 
Carocci, Fabbri & Co., 
Cartwright, 106 
Casa Pirota, 14 
Casamene, 69 
Caselli, G., 12 
Castel Durante, 8 
Castelli. 21, 22 
Castillon, 68 
Castleford, 103 
Caughley, 95, 96 
Cauldon, 118 
Caussy, 67 
Chailey, 105 
Chamberlain, 101 
Chambers, 116 
Chanou, 74 
Chantilly, 58, 70, 72 
Charles X., 79 
Chaux, 66 
Cheatham, in 
Chelsea, 93, 95, 96, 100 
Child, no 
Chiodo, 20 
Choisy, H. de, 67 
Choisy-le-Roy, 74 
Chollet, 69 
Cianico, L. A.,. 21 
Cimani, 16 
Cimatti, A. R., 16 
Cincinnati, 114 
Citta di Castello, 4 
Clavareau, 71 
Cleffius, 45 
Clementson, 113 
Clerici, Felice, 18 
Clerissy, 64, 65 
Clermond-Ferrand, 66 
Clevedon, 119 
Clews, 112 

Clifton Junction, 116 
Clignancourt, 75 
Closter Veilsdorf, 38 
Coalport, 95, 96 
Cobridge, 108, 112 
Coccorese, C, 21 
Cocker, 97 
Cochran, 119 
Codnor Park, 103 
Coimbra, 91 
Colebrookdale, 96 
Colin, 66 
Cologne, 25, 28 
Commondale, 116 
Conditorey, 37 
Conrade, 60. 
Cookson, 109 
Copeland, 99, 113 
Copenhagen, 44, 52 
Cornelisz, 48 
Courcelles, 69 
Courtille, de la, 74 



Cozzi, G., 3, 23 
Crane, 116 
Creil, 69 
Crette, 51 
Crevani, F., 19 
Crolius, 114 
Cros, 64/90 
Crossley, 116 
Cushmann, 114 
Custine, 55 
Custode, 60 
Cutius, 4 
Cuzio, 4 

Cyffle, 44, 55, 56 
Cyples, in 

Dacre, 116 

Dagoty, 76 

Dale, 96, 108 

Dale Hall, 108 

Dale, van, 49 

Dalwitz, 39 

Damm, 30, 36 

Damman, 68 

Daniel, 54, 109, 112 

Dareuber, 50 

Darte, 75 

Davenport, 99, 112, 113 

Daves, 104 

Dawson, 102 

Day, 116 

Deck, 71 

Delft, 43-49 

Denby, 103 

Derby, 93, 96-8, 104 

Derennes, 67 

Deruelle, 75 

Desvres, 68 

Devers, 71 

Dextra, 45, 47 

Dieul, 61 

Dihl, 75 

Dijon, 64 

Dillwyn, 105 

Dimmock, 117 

Diomede, 13 

Dirmstein, 30 

Diruta, 2, n, 12, 22 

Disdier, 90 

Dixon, 102 

Doccia, 3, 23 

Doe, 104 

Does, van der, 47 

Domenigo, Z. , 17 

Don pottery, 102, 103 

Donaldson, 101 

Donkin, 102 

Donovan, 97 

Donyat, 104 

Doorne, 46 

Dorez, 63, 72 

Dortu, 55 

Douai, 68 

Doulton, 106, 116 

Dresden, 26, 33, 34 

Dreux, 80 



INDEX OF NAMES 



195 



Drey, 115 
Dublin, 97, 106 
Ducroz, 113 
Duesbury, 96, 97 
Dumas, 71 
Dunderdale, 103 
Dupre, 66 
Dupre-Poulaine, 68 
Durot, 72 
Duvivier, 50 
Duyn, van, 46 
D wight, 94, 132 
Dyck, K. van, 45 

East Liverpool, 114 
Eastwood, 109 
Eaves, 104 
Ebenstein, 51 
Eckernforde, 32 
Edge, 108 
Edwards, 108 
Eenhorn, 45 
Eggebrecht, 35 
Ehrhardt, 54 
Elbogen, 40 
Elers, 94, 107 
Elkin, 112 
Elliot, 109 
Ellvvangen, 29 
Elton, 119 
Emens, 27, 28 
Englefontaine, 70 
Entoine, d', 70 
Epernay, 69 
Epinal, 68 
Ernst, 28 
Esione, 22 
Este, 24 
Etiolles, 73 
Etruria, 112, 113 
Evans, 98 
Evers, 55 

Fabriano, 12 

Faenza, 4, 6, 13, 14, 15, 16 

Falconet, 77 

Fanciullacci, 23 

Fattori, F. de, 7 

Faubourg St. Antoine, 74 

Faubourg St. Lazare, 74, 76 

Fauchiez, 65 

Faucon, 67 

Fauquez, 64, 72 

Fell, 102 

Fenton, no, in, 114 

Ferdinand, King, 24 

Fernex, 77 

Ferrara, 16 

Ferraud, 64, 65 

Ferreira, 92 

Ferrybridge, 102 

Feuillet, 76 

Fictoor, 45 

Fife, 115 

Fifield, 104 

Fischer, 40 



Fishley, 106 

Fleming, 119 

Fletcher, no 

Fleury, 76 

Fliegel, 30 

Flight, 101 

Florence, 2, 4, 13, 21, 22 

Florsheim, 30 

Flower, 104 

Foescy, 76 

Fontebasso, 24 

Folco, 20 

Foley, 117, n8_ 

Fontana, Flaminio, 9 

Fontana, Guido, 9 

Fontana, Orazio, 9 

Ford, 119 

Forester, 119 

Forges les Eaux, 69 

Fcrli, 16 

Forsyth, 116 

Fosse, 61 

Fotinger, 41 

Fouque, 64 

Fournier, 65 

Frain, 41 

Fran., Maestro, 16 

Francesco (Urbini), n 

Francesco Durantino, 9, 17 

Frank, 104 

Frankenthal, 31, 36 

Frankfort, 32 

Franz, 29 

Frate, El, 11 

Frechen, 25 

Frederick, 115 

Fremington, 106 

Friiting, 54 

Frye, 95 

Frytom, 48 

Furnival, 119 

Furstenberg, 36 

Fuina, 21 

Fulda, 32, 39 

Fulham, 105, n6 

Fumo, 92 

Fiinfkirchen, 41 



Gaalj 49 
Gabice, 6 
Galiano, 5 
Gallet, 69 
Gardin, 61 
Gardner, 44 
Garrett, 99 
Gaudry, 64 
Gautier, 69 
Gaze, 65 
Gennep, 25, 30 
Gentile, 21 
Gera, 38, 39 
Geoffroi, 70 
Gerault, 73 
Ghail, 63 
Ghisbrecht 
Gide, 55 



S3 



P 



Gien, 70 

Giesshiibel, 39 

Gilbody, 98 

Gille, 61, 71 

Ginori, 23 

Gioanetti, A., 18, 24 

Giordano, 24 

Giorgio, Maestro, 2, 7, 8 

Girolamo, Maestro, 6 

Girolamo, R., 6 

Gironimo, 6, 10 

Giustiniani, 21, 24 

Glasgow, 106, 119 

Glass, 106 

Gloucester, 115 

Gliier, 29 

Gmunden, 41 

Gobo, 10 

Godenius, 52 

Godwin, 112 

Goggingen, 30 

Gonela, 5 

Goss, 119 

Gotha, 38, 39 

Gotzkowski, 37 

Goulding, 98, 105 

Goult, 69 

Graf, 54 

Grafnato ware, 1, 4, 25, 

104, 106, 115 
Grainger, 101 
Grangel, 64 
Greatbach, in 
Grebner, 29 

Green, 98, 103, 105, n 1 
Greenwood, in 
Grellet, 73 
Grenzhausen, 25, 28 
Gricci, 92 
Grindley, 119 
Grocott, 108 
Groen, 49 
Groenlant, 48 
Grondahl, 52 
Gros Caillou, 76 
Grosbreitenbach, 38 
Grosse, 75 
Grue, 21 
Gruber, 38 
Gubbio, 2, 7, 8 
Gudumland, 52 
Guerin, 56 
Guerhard, 75 
G uichard, 65 
Guidobono, B., 20 
Guillaume, 61 
Guillebaud, 61 
Gulena, 54 
Gustafsberg, 52 
Gutenbrunn, 36 

Haag, 38 
Hackwood, 109 
Hadensee, 32 
Hadley, 101 
Haffringue, 74 



196 



POTTERY MARKS 



Hagenau, 44, 55 

Hales, 108 

Hall, in 

Halley, 76 

Halsfort, 68 

Hamburg, 31 

Hamilton, 109 

Hammekers, 55 

Hammen, van, 48 

Hammer, 35 

Hanau, 31 

Hancock, 98, 101 

Hand, 115 

Hanley, 100, 108-110 

Hannong, 31, 36, 55, 71, 74, 

7 6 
Harding, 109, no 
Hardmuth, 40 
Harker, 114 
Harlees, 46 
Harley, in 
Hartley, 103 
Haviland, 41 
Heath, 104, 106, 109 
Heathcote, 11 1 
Hebrix, 52 
Hegner, 54 
Heichens, 30 
Helchis, I., 23 
Hempel, 35 
Hemphill, 115 
Henderson, 115 
Henneberg, 38 
Henri II., 57, 59 
Herculaneum, 98, 103 
Herend, 40 
Hermansz, 48 
Herold, 34 
Herreboe, 44, 52 
Hess, 49 

Hesse Darmstadt, 38 
Heul, van der, 45 
Hewelche, 3, 23 
Hey, 46 
Higler, 27 
Hilaire, 61 
Hilditch, in 
Hill pottery, 118 
Hispano-moresque, 90 
Hochst, 30, 35, 36 
Hoeve, van der, 48 
Hofdick, 47 
Hoffmann,- 54 
Hohr-Grenzhausen, 28 
Holdship, 97, 101 
Holland, 113 
Hollingshead, 114 
Hollins, 109 
Hollitsch, 40 
Honckebour, 28 
Honore, 76 
Hoorn, van, 47 
Hoppestein, 46 
Houk, van den, 46 
Housel, 75 
Houze& Co., 68 



Hoyle, 106 

Hubeaudiere, de la, 67 
Hiibener, 115 
Huet, 69 
Hull, 102 
Hulme, 115 
Hunt, 113 
Hylton, 102 

Ilmenau, 38 
Imoda, Eredi, 18 
Ireson, 104 
Irwin, 105 
Isleworth, 98, 105 

Jacomo, 6, 17 
Jansz, 46, 48 
Jeannot, 63 
Jersey City, 115 
Johnson, 103 
Jones, 112, 116, 119 
Joseph, 63 
Joyce, 116 
Jucht, 35 

Julio da Urbino, 16 
Junius, 48 

Kaendler, 34 
Kam, 47, 48 
Kean, 97 
Keel, van der, 47 
Keeling, 109, no 
Keil, 33 
Keiser, de, 48 
Keller, 56 
Kellinghusen, 32 
Kelsterbach, 38 
Kennedy, 107 
Kensington, 115 
Ker, 54 

Kessel, van, 45, 48 
Kest, van der, 45 
Kieff, 53 
Kiel, 31 
Kiell, 47 
Kishere, 105 
Kleftijus, 48 
Kleijnoven, 48 
Klentsch, 40 
Kloot, van der, 46 
Klum, 40 
Knight, 112 
Knotter, 30 
Knowles, 114 
Kniitgen, 27 
Kodau, 39 
Kohnberger, 35 
Koning, de, 45 
Kool, 46, 47 
Kordenbusch, 29 
Korniloff, 54 
Korzec, 53 
" Kosel" mark, 33 
Kran, E., 27 
Kraut, H., 27 
Kremer, 28 



Kretzschmar, 35 
Kreussen, 25, 28, 29 
Kruisweg, 46 
Kruyk, 48 
Kulick, 48 
Kiinersberg, 29 

La Rochelle, 66 

La Seinie, 76 

Lafonde, 50 

Lafreri, A., 11 

Lahens, 6j 

L'isle Saint Denis, 75 

Lakin, 107 

Lamarque, 70 

Lamarre, 76 

Lambert, 71 

Lambeth, 93, 105, 106 

Lammens, 51 

Lamoninary, 72 

Landais, 70 

Lane Delph, 100, no, 111 

Lane End, 99, in, 112 

Lanfrey, 55 

Langeais, 70 

Langiers, 65 

Lapierre, 66 

Large, 52 

Lassia, 74 

Lauche, 34 

Laun, van, 49 

Lauraguais, Comte de, 74 

Laurier, 69 

Lavalle, 68 

Le Brun, 73 

Le Due, 67 

Le francois, 74 

L'italienne, 70 

Le Nove, 23, z\ 

Le Riche, 77 

Le Voulant, 66 

Lee, 101 

Leeds, 103 

Lefebvre, 60, 63 

Lei, Pietro, 7 

Leigh, 68, 118 

Leihamer, 31 

Lemaire, 76 

Lemire, 44, 54 

Leonardus, 49 

Leopold, 56 

Lessel, 31 

Lessore, 113 

Lestrade, 66 

Lesum, 32 

Levantino, L., 20 

Levasseur, 71 

Liance, 77 

Liaute, 70 

Liege, 51 

Ligron, 69 

Lille, 58, 63, 72 

Limbach, 38 

Limoges, 41, 59, 70, 73, 76 

Lindner, 35 

Lisbon, 91, 92 






INDEX OF NAMES 



197 



Littler, 99 

Liverpool, 93, 94, 98, 103 

Locke, 119 

Locker, 97 

Lockett, 107 

Locr6, 74 

Lodi, 19 

Loehnig, 34 

London, 102 

Longport, 99, 112 

Longton Hall, 93, 99 

Lonne, 30 

Loosdrecht, 50 

Lorrain, R. le, 77 

Lorraine, 56 

Louis XVIIL, 79 

Louis Philippe, 75, 76, 79, 

80 
Lovatt, 119 
Lowesby, 104 
Lowestoft, 93, 98, 101 
Lownds, 113 
Ludicke, 32 

Ludovico, Maestro, 16, 17 
Ludwigsburg, 37 
Luneville, 44, 55, 56 
Lutri, 54 

Luxemburg, 50, 51 
Lyman, 114 
Lyons, 58, 60 

Machin, 108 

Macintyre, 107, 119 

Madrid, 91, 92 

Mafra, 89, 91 

Mainz, 31 

Maleriat, 63 

Malines, 51 

Maling, 102 

Mallet, 61 

Malta, 92 

Manara, Baldasara, 15 

Manardi, 19 

Manises, 89, 90 

Mann, 109 

Mansfield, 98 

Marans, 66 

Marburg, 31 

Marcolini, 34 

Marconi, G., 19 

Mare, 106 

Marforio, Sebastiano di, 8 

Maria Salvador, 90 

Maria, Zona, 8 

Mariana, Simone di A., 10 

Marie Antoinette, 75 

Marieberg, 32, 44, 52, 53 

Marseilles, 58, 65, 73 

Marshall, in 

Martin, 116 

Martres, 69 

Marum, van, 46 

Marx, 29 

Mason, 100, no 

Masse, 56 

Massarellos, 91 



Masselli, Th., 16 

Masson, 71 

Mathaux, 70 
j, Mayer, 109, in 
i^Meakin, 119 

Medici, 2, 22 

Meer, 106 

Meer, van der, 49 

Meigh, 109 

Meir, 104, 106, 113 

Meissen, 2, 26, 33, 34, 35, 
93, i?o 

Memmingen, 29 

Mennecy, 58, 70, 72 

Menneken, 27, 28 

Menten, 30 

Mercati, 22 

Mercer, 115 

Merlino, G., 10, 17 

Mesch, 48 

Mettlach, 41 

Metzsch, 35 

Meudon, 70 

Meyer, 54 

Mezer, 54 

Middeldijk, 45 

Milan, 18 

Milde, de, 44, 46, 50 

Millidge, 113 

Minden, 32 

Minton, 99, 107, 113, 116 

Miragaia, 91 

Mist, in 

Moabit, 37 

Mobius, 35 

Mohr, 113 

Moitte, 75 

Mombaers, 51 

Mondovi, 18 

Monginot, 76 

Mongis, 60 

Monnier, 73 

Montarcy, O. de, 75 

Montauban, 66 

Monte, 5 

Montelupo, 6 

Montpellier, 66 

Montreuil, 74 

Moore, 102, no, 117, 118 

Morel, 74 

Morfroy, 28 

Morgan, 115 

Morice, 67 

Morreine, 67 

Morris, 100, 115 

Mortlake, 105 

Mortlock, 102 

Moscow, 44, 53, 54 

Moseley, 107 

Moser, 41 

Mosley, no 

Mouchard, 66 

Moulins, 69 

Moustiers, 58, 64, 65 

Musso, B., 18 

Myatt, in 



Mycock, 116 

Nancy, 70 
Nantes, 67 
Nantgarw, 96, 98 
Naples, 3, 21, 24 
Nast, 75 
Neale, 108 
Neuchatel, 54 
Neumark, 40 
Nevers, 58, 60 
Newbold, in 
Newcastle, 102, 114 
New Hall, 99 
New York, 114 
Nicholas, 114 
Nicola da Urbino, 9 
Nicoleti, 19 
Niderviller, 44, 55 
Nimes, 66 
Noex, 16 
Nonne, 38 
Norman, 105 
Norton, 114 
Nottingham, 103 
Nove, 19 
Nowotny, 40 
Nuremberg, 29 
Nymphenburg, 36, 37 
Nyon, 44, 55 

I Oiron, 57, 59 
I Ognes, 70 

Oldfield, 104 

Old Hall, 109, 117 

Olerys, 65 

Olivier, 71 

Omonz, 61 

O'Neale, 101 

Orleans, 69, 73 

Ortolani, L., 23 

Ovaleros, 90 

Padua, 19 

Pahl, 32 

Pajou, 71, 77 

Palissy, 57, 59, 69, 70, 71, 

89 
Palme, 40 
Palmer, 108 
Palvadeau, 67 
Pardoe, 100, 104 
Paree, 46 

Paris, 69, 71, 72, 74-76 
Paristoe, Don, 19 
Pascal, 71 
Passau, 26, 29 
Patana, 10 
Patanazzi, 10 
Patras, 60 
Pavia, 4, 18 
Pearl ware, 94 
Pelisie, 70 
Pellevd, 73 
Pellipario, Nicola, 9' 
Pelloquin, 64 



Pencoyd, 104 

Pennington, 103 

Pennis, 46, 47 

Perdu, 61 

Pereira, 92 

Perrin, 65 

Perrotin, 77 

Perugia, 4, 10 

Pesaro, 6, 7, 8 

Pescetto, 20 

Peterinck, 50 

Petit, 63, 71, 76 

Pfalz-Zweibriicken, 36 

Pfau, 54 

Pfeiffer, 30 

Pfluger & Co., 55 

Philadelphia, n s 

Philligellus, F., 6 

Phillips, 102, 112 

Pichon, 66 

Pickman, 91 

Pidler, 106 

Pietersz, 49 

Pilkington, 116 

Pillivuyt, 76 

Pinder, 108 

Pinxton, 98 

Pirkenhammer, 40 

Pisa, 6 

Pisotti, 41 

Pitz, 27 

Plant, in 

Plas, van der, 68 

Plautier, Boncoirant, &Co., 

66 
Plymouth, 93, 95, 98, 104 
P5ssinger, 29 
Poitiers, 67 
Portobello, 106 
Pompio, 10 
Pont-aux-Choux, 75 
Ponteinx, 76 
Poole, 107 
Popoff, 44, 54 
Poppelsdorf, 31, 55 
Potschappel, 39 
Potsdam, 32 
Potter, 75 
Potts, 108 
Pouhet, 66 
Poulisse, 49 
Pountney, 104 
Pouyat, 74 
Prague, 39 
Pratt, in 
Premieres, 68 
Prestino, Maestro, 8 
Proudman, 114 
Prudhomme, 6S 
Puente de Arzobispo, 90 
Puertas, 10 
Pull, 71 

Putten, van, & Co., 43, 49 
Pynacker, 47, 48, 49 

Quimper, 67 




Quinquiry, 66 



Radford, 104, 111 

Raeren, 25, 27, 28 

Rainforth, 114 

Rambusch, 31 

Rateau, 67 

Rato, 91 

Ratti, A., 20 

Rauenstein, 39 

Ravenna, 16 

Raymond, 67 

Raynerius, E., 15 

Recum, von, 36 

Reinthal, 41 

Remey, 71 

Renac, 69 

Renaud, 54. 

Rennes, 67 

Reverend, 72 

Revol, 60 

Reygens, 48 

Rich, 106 

Richard, L., & Co., 18 

Rickhuss, 109 

Ridgway, 100, no, 117 

Riffiet, 28 

Riley, 100, 108 

Rimini, 16 

Ristori, 60 

Robert, 65, 73 

Rocco, G., 21 

Rockingham, 99, 102 

Rodgers, 116 

Rodrique, 60 

Roesch, 38 

Roge, 60 

Rogers, 108 

Roland, 66 

Rolet, n 

Rombaldoni, H., 8 

Rome, 13 

Romedi, 29 

Rondebush, 115 

Rookwood, 114 

Rorstrand, 44, 52 

Rosa, 30 

Rose, 96 

Rosetti, 18, 19, 21 

Rossi, 91 

Rotteberg, 38 

Rotterdam, 47, 50 

Roubiliac, 96 

Rouen, 58, 60-62 

Rouy, 63 

Rovigo, Xanto A. da, 9 

Rozenburg den Haag, 41 

Rue de Bondy, 75 

Rue de Crussol, 75 

Rue de Popincourt, 75 

Rue de Reuilly, 74 

Rue de la Roquette, 71, 74 

Rue du Petit Carousel, 74 

Rue Thiroux, 75 

Ruskin, 117 

Russinger, 74 



Rye, 105 



Saargemiind, 56 

Sadler, 98, 103 

St. Amand-les-Eaux, 63, 64, 

74 
Saint Amans, 70 
St. Antony's, 102 
Saint Clemont, 70 
Saint Cloud, 58, 63, 72, 80 
Saint Denis, 76 
Saint Longe, 69 
St. Omer, 68 
St. Paul, 68 

St._ Petersburg, 44, 53, 54 
Saint Porchaire, 57, 59 
Saintes, 57, 59 
Salimbene, 7 
Salomini, G. , 20 
Salomone, G., 20 
Salopian, 95, 96 
Salt, 109 
Saltglaze, 107 
Salzburg, 41 
Samadet, 66 
Sand, van der, 49 
San Quirico, n 
Sans, 106 
Sansont, 70 
Sargadelos ; 91 
Sarreguimines, 56 
Savino, G. P., 13 
Savona, 20, 21 
Savy, 65 
Sceaux, 66, 73 
Schaffhausen, 25, 44, 55 
Schaper, 29 
Scharf, 29 
Schelten, 40 . 
Schie, 49 

Schlaggenwald, 39 
Schleswig, 31 
Schmid, 29 
Schneider, 36 
Schoelcher, 76 
Scholl, n 5 
Schoonhoven, 45 
Schreitzheim, 29 
Schronvogel, 29 
Schuman, 37 
Scott, 102, 106 
Sebastiano, N., 23 
Seger (> 37 
Segovia, 91 
Seigne, 60 
Seimo, D. M., 17 
Seville, 90, 91 
Sevres, 58, 59, 71, 77-88, 93, 

96, 100 
Sewells, 102 
Sforzza, 49 
Shaw, 104, 106, 108 
Shelton, 108, no 
Shore, 98, 105 
Shortbose, 100, 109 
Siccardi, 20 



INDEX OF NAMES 



199 



Siegburg, 25, 27 

Siena, 5, 6 

Signoret, 60 

Silberkamer, 37 

Silvano, Franc. de,.io 

Simono, Maestro, 8 

Simpson, 106 

Sinceny, 63 

Sitzerode, 39 

Smith, 102, 113-15 

Sneyd, 109 

Soliva, 64, 90 

Solon, 116 

Solothurn, 55 

Souroux, 74 

Southwick, 102 

Spaandonck, 45 

Spode, 93, 99, 107 

Stadler, 54 

Staffordshire, 99, 100, 106- 

114 
Stawsk, 53 
Stebner, 29 
Steckborn, 54 
Steel, 108 
Stephens, 95 

Stevenson, 98, no, in, 112 
Stockelsdorff, 32 
Stockholm, 52 
Stockton, 102 
Stoke-upon-Trent, 99, 107 
Stonier, 118 
Strassburg, 44, 55 
Stroom, van der, 45, 49 
Stralsund, 32 
Strobel, 29 
Sulzer, 54 
Sunderland, 102 
Swadlincote, 118 
Swansea, 96, 100, 104, 105 
Swinton, 102, 103 

Talavera, 89, 90 

Talor, 106 

Tamart, 68 

Taney, 115 

Tannowa, 39 

Taunay, 76 

Tavernes, 65 

Taylor, 106, 107, 114, 117 

Tebo, 95 

Teinitz, 39 

Terchi, Bartolomeo, n, 19 

Terencio, 6, 7 

Tereni, G., 6 

Tervueren, 51 

The Hague, 41, 50 

Thieme, 39 

Thun-Klosterle, 39 

Thuringia, 26, 38, 51 

Tolerazzi, 23 

Toft, 106, 109 

Tomaso, 10 



Tomaszoff, 54 

Tomlinson, 102 

Tooth, 117 

Torquay, 117 
I Tortia, 67 
I Toul, 56 

Toulouse, 66 

Tournay, 44, 50, 100 

Tours, 70 

Tours d'Aigues, 69 

Tremble, de, 70 

Trenton, 115 

Treviso, 3, 19, 24 

Trinci, d'Angelo, 12 

Tristan, 77 

Trou, 63, 72 

Troxel, 115 

Tucker, 115 

Tunstall, no, in 

Turin, 18 

Turner, 99, 11 1 

Turnor, 106 

Tuscany, 4 

Twyford, 107 

Ugubio, 7 
Urbania, 8 
Urbino, 9-11, 22 
Utzschneider, 56 

Valaressi, Z., 16 
Valencia, 89, yo 
Valenciennes, 64, 72 
Valladolid, 91 
Val sous Meudon, 70 
Vannier, 72 
Varages, 65 
Vaud, 54 
Vauvert, 69 
Vavasseur, 61 
Vecchio, del, 21 
Vega, 91 

Vehlen, B., von, 30 
Velasquez, 92 
Venice, 2, 16, 17, 23 
Verhagen, 46 
Verhuast, 49 
Verlingue, 68 
Vermont, 114 
Verona, 18 
Verstelle, 46 
Vest, 28, 29 
Vezzi, 3, 23 
Viana, 91 
Vicenza, 24 
Vieillard& Co., 67 
Vienna, 26, 40 
Vilax, 64 
Villeroy, 41, 72 
Villingen, 27 
Vincencio, 7 
Vincennes, 58. 71, 76-78 
Vinovo, 3, 18, 24 



Viode, 60 
Viry, 64 
Vista Alegre, 92 
Viterbo, 12 
Vivian, 115 
Vizeer, 49 
Vlack, P., 27 
Voisinlieu, 71 
Volkstedt, 38 
Volpato, 13 
Vogel, 28 
Vogt, A., 27 
Voyez, 108 
Vron, 68 

Waert, van der, 51 
Wal, de, 49 
Walker, 115 
Wallendorf, 38 
Walley, 112 
Walton, 108 
Warburton, 99, 109 
Watcombe, 117 
Wear, 102, no 
Wedgewood, 94, 102 
Wedgwood, 100, 102, 106, 

112, 113 
Weert, de, 48 
Weesp, 50 
Wegeli, 37 
Westhead, no, 118 
Wetherill, 105 
Wileman, 117 
Wilkinson, 104 
Willens, 28 
Wilson, 108, 109 
Wincanton, 104 
Wlntergurst, 29 
Winterthur, 44, 54 
Witby, 39 
Witsenburg, 49, 51 
Wolfe, 109 
Wolfsen, 52 
Wood, 107 
Woodnorth, 106 
Wooley, in, 112 
Worcester, 93, 98, 100, 101. 

119 
W T right, 106 
Wrotham, 94, 105 

Xanto, 9 

Yarmouth, 102 

Zamore, 90 
Zehrgaden, 36 
Zeschinger, 30, 35 
Ziegler, 71 
Znaim, 41 
Zsolnay, 41 
Zuana, S., 17 
Zurich, 44, 54, 55 



INDEX OF INITIALS 



A., 4, 15, 21, 22, 30, 31, 


32, 


B. &L., 118 


C. D. in monogram, 06 




35, 50, 53, 62, 74, 75, 


90, 


B. A., 20 


C. D. L., n 




95 




B. A. S., 14 


C. F., 22, 27, 40, 60 




A. A., 73 




B. B., 59, 62, 72, 107 


C. F. L. in monogram, 


55 


A. B., 54, 62, 77 




B. C, 62 


C. G, 7 




A. B. m monogram, 27, 


35, 


B. D., 62, 77 


C. G. in monogram, 10 




36, 49 
A. B. C, 59 




B. D. in monogram, 62 


C. G. P., 21 






B. E., 54 


C H., 55, 70, 74 




A. C.,28 




B. E. in monogram, 51 


C. H. in monogram, 74 




A. D. in monogram, 50 


72, 


B. F. in monogram, 62 


C. H. O. N., 6 




76 




B. F. B., 101 


C. J. M. & Co., no 




A. D. T., 70 




B. G., 18, 21, 24 


C. K., 27 




A. D. W., 51 




B. H., 62 


C. K. in monogram, 48 




A. E. W., 23 




B. K., 27, 29, 30, 39 


C. L. in monogram, 10, 


29, 


A. F. in monogram, 15, 


17 


B. L. 62 


45 




A. G., 23 




B. L. in monogram, 32, 50, 


C. M., 30, 62, 117 




A. G. in monogram, 62 




5i, 74 ' 


C. O., 62, 90 




A. G. G., 20 




B. L. C, 51 


C P., 23 




A. H., us 




B. la R , 69 


C. P. in monogram, 51, 


74 


A. H. in monogram, 29 




B. M., 15, 27 


C. P. S., 46 




A. I., 48 




B. M. F., 15 


C. S.,62, 63 




A. K. in monogram, 46, 48 


B. 0., 77 


C. S. in monogram, 96 




A. L., 31, 40, 90 




B. P., 30, 117 


C- T. in monogram, 36 




A. L. in monogram, 64 




B. R., 69, 73, 77 


C V.,38 




A. M., 28 




B. R. A., 68 


C. V. in monogram, 38 




A. M. R. in monogram, 


15 


B. S., 17, 32 


C. V. K. in monogram, 


46 


A. N., 40 




B. T., 63 


C. V. S., 45, 46 




A. P.,.54 




B. V., 71 


C. W., 27, 49, 98 




A. P. in monogram, 10, 


47, 


B. V. S., 45 






54, 67 




B. W. M. & Co., 118 


D., 7, 11, 30, 36, 39, 55, 


63, 


A. P. K. in monogram, 


49 


B. W., 31 


64, 66, 67, 68, 72, 75, 


9& 


A. P. M. &Co., 115 






97,.9 8 




A. R.,.33, 73 




C, 4, 5, 12, 32, 48, 63, 66, 


D. with paraph, n 




A. R. in monogram, 48 


62, 


67, 79, 95, 96 


D. & J., 115 




64 




C. & H., 109 


D. A., 62 




A. S., 90 




C. A., 23, 64 


D. C.,68 




A. S. in monogram, 7 




C. A. G.,21 


D. C. 0., 72 




A. T., 49 




C. B., 11, 31, 47, 51, 62, 115 


D. D., 62 




A. V. in monogram, 70 




C. B. in monogram, 61, 66 


D. D. & Co., 103 




A. V. K. in monogram, 


45 


C. B. D., 96 

C. B. D. in monogram, 96 


D.E.X., 45, 47 
D. G. , 24, 62 




B., 12, 14, 29, 31, 32, 


35, 


C. B. M., 63 


D. K. in monogram, 97 




40, 51, 60, 63, 65, 66, 


68, 


C. C, 60 


D. L., 99 




73. 77. 95, 9 8 > IOO > 


JOI, 


C. C. in monogram, 21, 37, 


D. L. in monogram, 61 




114 




55 


D. L. F., 60 




B. with paraph, 16 




C. C. B., 62 


D. L. S., 66 




B. & B., 105 




C. C. C, 51 


L>. M., 13, 54, 62 




B. & G., 52 




C. D., 73 


D. P., 27, 54,62, 68 





202 



POTTERY MARKS 



D. P. A. V. W. in mono- 
gram, 46 
D. S., 54 
D. S. K., 45 
D. V., 70, 72 
D. V. D.,47 

D. V. K. in monogram, 45 

E., 32, 35, 53, 62, 66 

E. B., 10, 75 
E. E., 27 

E. F., 41 
E. F. B., 10 
E. I. B., 109 

E. I. F.,54 

E. J. D. B. in monogram, 

117 
E. K., 27 
E. M., 39 

E. M. S. in monogram, 48 
E. P., 27 

E. Z. P., 23 

F., 6, 12, 15, 22, 32, 36, 39, 
49, 52, 62, 65, 76, 77, 91, 
99, 102, 104, 115 

F. & B., 40 
F. & R., 40 
F. & U., 39 
F. A. Z., 66 
F. B., 59, 62 

F. B. in monogram, 63 

F. B. B., 101 

F. B. F., 16 

F. C, 18 

F. C. in monogram, 18 

Fd., 64 

F. D., 9, 32 
F. D. V., 21 
F. E. V., 90 
F. F., 4, 7, 9, 24, 39, 62, 64, 

6 7 
F. F. in monogram. 39 
F. F. O., 9 
F. G., 91 

F. L. in monogram, 72 
F. M. P. in monogram, 71 
F. O., 90 

F. O. I. in monogram, 5 
F. P., 6, 65 

F. P. in monogram, 64 
F. P. R., 18 

F. R., 7, 8, 14, 15, 60, 91 
F. R. in monogram, 16, 37, 

62, 73 
F. S. N., 17 
F. V. in monogram, 72 
F. V. F., 64 

F. X., 9 

G., 7, 17, 21, 30, 32, 37, 38, 
39. 4 8 , 53, 62, 64, 65, 68, 
73) 9 2 , 9 8 

G. & Co., 101 
G. A., 62 

G. A. in monogram, 8, 75 



G. A. O. F., 18 

G. A. R. in monogram, 62 

G. B., 19, 28 

G. B. A. B., 19 

G, B. E. in monogram, 21 

G. B. F., 10 

G. D. K., 45 

G. E., 27 

G. F. A., 19 

G. F. B., no 

G. F. F., 4 

G. H., 63, 75, us 

G. H. in monogram, 48 

G. H. A., 62 

G. I., 16 

G. I. in monogram, 19 

G. I. B., 62 

G. J. in monogram, 119 

G. K., 29 

G. K. in monogram, 47, 48 

G. L., 62 

G. L. in monogram, 71 

G. L. M. E. L., 28 

G. L. P., 10, 17 

G. M., 23, 62 

G. P. in monogram, 6 

G. R., 18, 105, 112 

G. R. D., 62 

G. S., 8, 20, 62 

G. V., ir 

G. V. F., 64 

H-, 12, 31, 35, 36, 40, 47, 

52, 55, 68, 71, 76, 115 
H. &G., 113 
H. &S., in 
H. B., 27, 60, 62, 77 
H. B. in monogram, 31, 47, 

H. C, 67 

H. &Co.,_ 4 i 

H. C. D. in monogram, 27 

H. C. E. in monogram, 54 

H. D. in monogram, 59 

H. D. K., 4s 

H. E. A. M. I. T., 54 

H. G. in monogram, 69 

H. H., 27, 40 

H. H. G., 54 

H. H. K., 55 

H. I., 105 

H. K., 27, 31 

H. K. in monogram, 27, 51 

H. K. R., 54 

H. L. in monogram, 46 

H. L. L., 76 

H. M., 28 

H. M. in monogram, 36 

H. P., 108, 114^ 

H. P. in monogram, 51 

H. P. Z.,54 

H. R, 8, 62, 115 

H. S., 30, 49 

H. S. R., 60 

H. T., 62 

H. T. I. S. T., 115 



H. V., 62 
H. V. H., 47 
H. V. M. D., 45 
H. Z., 36 

I-, 7, 29, 38 

I. A., 28 

I. A. G., 91 

I. A. H., 36 

I. A. W., 35 

I. B.,-_2 7 , 62 

I. B. in monogram, 46 

I. B. S., 100 

I. C, 48 

I. D., 46 

I. D. A., 45 

I. D. B. in monogram, 47 

I. D. M., 46 

I. D. W., 48 

I. E., 27, 105 

I. E. W. E., 105 

I. F. P. (reversed), 101 

I. F. R., 12 

I. G., 23, 48, 49 

I. H., 45, 48, 104 

I. H. in monogram, 48 

I. H. K. in monogram, 48 

I- I-, 3i 

I. K.,27, 36, 46 

I. K. in monogram, 48 

I. L., 105 

I. M., 27, 41, 51 

I. P., 5, 6 

I. P. in monogram, 46 

I. P. K. in monogram, 47 

I. P. S., 60 

I. R-, 15, 41 

I. S.,_7, 36, 68 

I. S. in monogram, 29 

I. T., 27, 115 

I. V., 28 

I. V. D. H., 46 

I. V. D. W., 49 

I. V. H., 46 

I. V. K., 48 

I. V. L. R., 62 

I. V. P. &Co., 49 

I. V. S., 27 

I. W., 23, 105 

I. W. in monogram, 46 

I. W. & Co., 102 

J-, 38, 98, 99 

J. & M. P. B. & Co., 106 
J. & R, G., 112 
J. A., 28, 64, 73 
T. A. H. in monogram, 36 
J. B.,28 

J. B. in monogram, 62, 63 
J. D. in monogram, 71, 101, 

117 
J. E. B. in monogram, 64 
J. E. & S., 108 
J. G.,.104 

J. G. in monogram, 29 
J. G. K., 29 



INDEX OF INITIALS 



203 



J- H.,'31, 45 
J. H. A., 30 
J. L., 68, 77 
J. L. F., 29 

J. M. & Co. m monogram, 

J. P., 41, 71, 76 

J. R., 28, 53, 66, no 

|. R. in monogram, 65, 73 

J. R. & Co., 100' 

J. S., 30 

]. S. in monogram, 60 

J. U. D. H., 45 

J. W. R., no 

J. Z., 30, 35, 71 

K-, 29, 31, 33, 35, 39, 48, 

95 
K. B. L., 28 
K. et G., 56 
K. H., 8, 32 
K. H. C. W., 34 
K. P. M., 34, 37 
K. T. &K., 114 
K. V. D. in monogram, 45 

L., 22, 27, 31,35, 37, 6 °> 6 3, 

66, 70, 72, 74, 76, 103 
L. et R., 74 
L. A., 62 
L. B., 38, 76 

L. B. in monogram, 38, 73 
L. C, 51, 62 
L. C. in monogram, 15 
L. D., 62 
L. F., 62 
L. G., 48 
L. G. P., 21 
L. & H., 39 
L. I., 62 
L. K., 49 
L. L., 20, 63, 72 
L. L. in monogram, 72 
L. M., 62,63 

L. M. S. in monogram, 116 
L. P., 54, 75, 103 
L. P. in monogram, 76, 80 
1. p. k., 47 

L. Q. in monogram, 66 
L. R.,6 7 , 74, 77 
L. R. in monogram, 66 
L. S., 76 

L. S. in monogram, 76 
L. V., 9 

L. V. D. in monogram, 49 
L. V. G., 36 
L. V. S., 45 
L. \V., 27, 28 
L. W. in monogram, 29, 50 

M., 6, 7, 12, 15, 22, 28, 31, 
32, 54, 62, 66, 70, 75, 97, 
99, "5, "7 

JY1. in monogram, 10 

M. with paraph, 5, 8, 13, 15 

M. & B., 107 



M. & C, 107 

M. & Co., 99 

M. & M. G., 28 

M. & N., in 

M. A., 70 

M. A. in monogram, 6, 18, 

31,62 
M. A. B., 19 
M. A. M., 35 
M. A. P., 74 
M. B. in monogram, 32, 45, 

51, 52, 53, 66, 99 
M. C, 21, 64 
M. C. A., 64 
M. D., 62. 
M. D. K., 45 
M. F., 4 
M. F. F., 15 
M. G., 77 
Rio. G°., 7 
M. H., 28 
M. I. A., 24 
M. J. in monogram, 75 
M. J. W. C, 2~8 
M. K., 41 
M. M.. 18 
M. M. C, 28 
M°, 7, 90 
Mo, 35 
M. O. L., 50 
M. O. X., 90 
M. P. ,28, 91 
M. P. in monogram, 46, 62, 

73 
M. P. D., 27 
M. R., (6 

M. R. in monogram, 62 
M. V. B., 49 

N., 4, 7, 11, 24, 53, 55, 60, 

68, 80, 97, 98, 99 
N. in monogram, 7, 9 
N. & R., 38 
N. B., 62 

N. B. in monogram, 29 
N. D., 92 
N. F., 19 
N. H., 62, 104 
N. S., 23 

O., 9, 14, 69 

O. in monogram, 9 

O. B., 73 

O. F., 9 

O. H. E. C, 117 

O. L. in monogram, 65 

O. M. in monogram, 75 

O. P., 69 

O. S. X., 113 

O. Y., 65 

P., 5, 6, 11, 15, 32, 39, 41, 
45, 48, 49, 53, 62, 63, 66, 
67, 68, 70, 77, 90, 98, 103, 
ris, 116 

P. with paraph, 13 



P. A.. 62 

P. A. in monogram, 65 

P. A. R. in monogram, 62 

P. B., 62, 75, 106, 108 

P. B. C, 66 

P. C, 67 

p. c. a, 74 

P. D., 46, 62 

P. F., 23, 64, 74 

P. F. in monogram, 64 

Pfr. & C, 55 

P. F. Z., in monogram, 36 

P. G., 4 

P. G. in monogram, 21, 22 

P. H., 36 

P. H. in monogram, 36, 55, 

7i, 74 
P. J., 41 

P- K., 27, 53 ' 
P. K. in monogram, 29, 48 
P. L. in monogram, 49, 60, 

72, 75 
P. L. A. T. in monogram, 4 
P. M., 3 o 
P. N., 62 

P. N. M. in monogram, 115 
P. O. in monogram, 61 
P. P., 5, io,- 13, 104 
P. R., 74 

P. R. in monogram, 66 
P. V., 27 
P. V. B., 45 

P. V. B. in monogram, 45 
P. V. C, 91 
P. V. D. S., 49 
P. V. M. in monogram, 46 
P. V. S., 45 
P. W-, 55 

Q , 55, 67. 

Q. A. K. in monogram, 48 

R -, 27,31, 35,38,39>49,52, 
62, 65, 67, 68, 69, 73, 91, 
95, 96, 100 

R. & S., 118 

R. A., 27 

R. B. & S., 103 

R. B. F., 16 

R. C, 31 

R. D., 62 

R. F., 79, 80, 81 

R. F. in monogram, 79, 80 

R. H., 68, 77 

R. H. in monogram, 101 

R- g-, 38 

R. G. in monogram, 17 

R. M. W. &Co., no 

R. P. in monogram, 114 

R. P. C. O. M. L. N., 114 

R. S., 104 

R. S. R., 117 

S., 4, 6, 7, 8, 20, 29, 31, 39, 
41, 49, 62, 63, 74, 81, 95, 
96 



204 



POTTERY MARKS 



S. with paraph, n 

S. & G., 98, 105 

S. & W., 102 

S. A., 22, 63, 64, 108 

S. A. in monogram, 74 

S. A. M., 10 

S. A. S., 61 

S. B., 8, 41 

S. C. E., 4 

S. C. L. in monogram, 69 

S. C. T., 63, 72 

S. C. Y., 63 

S. G., 62 

S. H., 98 

Sgr. P., 37 

S. I. G., 19 

S. L., 115 

S. M., 15, 18, 104 

S. M. S., 54 

S. N., 92 

S. O., 55 

S. P., 66, 73 

S. P. in monogram, 40 

S. P. in monogram, with 

paraph, 5 
S. P. E., 72 
S. Q., n 
S. R., 20, 92 
S. S., 104 
S.T., 7 3. 

S. V. E. in monogram, 45 
S. X., 73 

T., 7, 18, 29, 39, 56, 62, 67, 

68, 77, 104 
T. & R. B., 108 



T. JE., 22 

T. B., 62 

T. B. in monogram, 13, 14 

T. B. & S., 118 

T. D. L., 56 

T. F. in monogram, 95, 101 

T. F. & S., 119 

T. G., 18 

T. G. B., 118 

T. H. D. in monogram, 71 

T. K.,39 

T. K. in monogram, 39 

T. M., 104 

T«., 95 

T. P.,62 

T. P. in monogram, 91 

T. R., 24 

T. R. in monogram, 11, 18, 

60 
T. R. F. in monogram, 24 
T. Z., 71 



U. & Cie., 56 



V., 6, 
90, 
V. A. 
V. A. 
V. C. 
V. D. 
V, D. 
V. D. 
V. E. 
V. F. 
V. I., 



I, 64, 



12, 16, 24, 32, 
9 1 * "5 
. 31, 92 

B., 28 
* 17, 90 
, 62 

G.,18 

K. in monogram, 46 

in monogram, 15, 45 
,64 

32 



V. L. in monogram, 62, 63, 

72 
V. M., 92 
V. P. ; .i 7 

V. P. in monogram, 65 
V. R., 61 
V. R. in monogram, 15, 29, 

36 
V. Z., 30, 35 

W., 24, 29, 32, 33, 35, 36, 
37, 38, 50, 54> 6i> 68, 72, 
98, 100, 104, 112, 115 

W. A., in 

W. B., 117 

W. B. in monogram, 51 

W. D., 32 

W. D. in monogram, 47 

W. E., 28 

W. F., 104 

W. F. S., 28 

W. H. T. in monogram, 117 

W. K. in monogram, 47, 48 

W. M., 30, 50 

W. R., 31 

W. S. & Co., 102 

W. T., 39, 100, 107 

W. V. B., 47 

W. V. D. B., 45 



X., 9 

X. Z., 30, 35 

Y.,68 



54. 55, 91 



INDEX OF MARKS OTHER THAN 
NAMES AND INITIALS 



Amherst Japan, 107 

Anchor, 17, 23, 28, 31, 52, 
55, 66, 73, 74, 91, 95, 97, 
99, 100, 101, 102, 112, 119 

Antlers, 36, 37, 39 

Arm holding knife, 7, 40 

Arrow, 29, 39, 77, 92, 95, 
108 

Arrows crossed, 74 

Arrowhead, 32 

Astonne, 47 

Axe, 39, 46, 141 

Basket, 102 

Beacon, 32, 52 

Bee-hive, no, 118 

Bell, 43, 47, 102, 138 

Belts, 52 

Bird, 34, 38, 103, 117, 119 

Bisto, 118 

Blompot, 45 

Boot, 45 

Bottle, 46 

Bow and Arrow, 95 

Briquet, 51 

Britannia, 119 

Brush and palette, 16 

Buffalo, 114 

Buildings, no 

C's crossed, 21, 37, 55, 79, 

9h 99 
Caduceus, 33, 95, 118 
Cambria, in 
Cambrian Argil, no 
Cambridge, 103 
Cards, 34 

Cartouche, 32, 105, 109 
Castle, 41, 69, 70, 117 
Chinese imitation mark, 9, 

33, 46, 95, 9-> 98, 100, 106, 

112, 125 
Circle, 28, 37, 40, 46, 48,60, 

65, 7 1 , 9°, 9 1 , 9 2 , 95, 

101 



Circle with cross, 14, 63, 90, 
91 

Claw, 43, 45 

Cliff, 117 

Cock, 21, 49 

Comet, 78 

Comma, 113 

Crane, 116 

Crescent, 5, 10, 24, 59, 96, 
98, 100, 101, 119 

Cross, 4, 13, 17, 18, 19, 23, 
24, 3 2 > 33, 39, 52, 61, 62, 
63, 65, 69, 72, 91, 95, 96, 
104 

Crown, 10, 12, 17, 19, 20, 
21, 24, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 
41, 5i, 52, 53, 55, 56, 69, 
74, 75, 76, 77, 79, So, 91, 
92, 95, 96, 97, 9 8 , 99, 103, 
109, no, 112, 113, 117, 
118, 119 

Crystal Ware, 113 

Cuba, 105 

D's crossed, 98, 103 

Deer, 118 

Dolphin, 72 

Dome of Cathedral, 22 

Dog and Harp, 95 

Drab porcelain, 107 

Dragon, 56, 99 

Eagle, 20, 35, 37, 53, 79, 80, 

81, 107 
Elephant head, 35 
Enamel Porcelain, 109 
Ermine, 99 
Eye, 53 

Fabula, 9 
Falcon, 20 
Feather, in 
Felspar Porcelain, 99 
Fish, 20, 55, 138, 141 
Flag, 115 

20S 



Fleur de lys, 24, 29, 61, 63, 
65, 67, 73, 79, 91, 92, 104 
Flower, 98, 138-140, 183 
Fork, 9 
Fortuyn, 45 
Fuchsia, 115 

Garter, 113, 118 
Globe, 99, 119 
Globe and cross, 20 
Goose, 59 

Hand, 90 
Hare, 125, 139 
Hart, 45 
Harp, 106 
Hayfork, 38 
Head, 7, 46 
Heart, 33 
Historia, 9 
Horn, 70, 72 
Horse, 36 
Hound, 118 

India Temple, no 
Insect, 52, 140 
Ironstone, no, 113 

J's crossed, 38 
Jade mark, 100 
Jupiter, sign for, 95, 98 

Key, 30, 31 

Knot, no, 117, 118, 138, 140 

L's crossed, 38, 71, 75, 76, 

77, 79, 9 6 > 97, 99, 100 
Label, 73 
Leaf, 95, 139, 183 
Lighthouse, 20 
Lion, 23, 36, 50, 103, 119 
Liver, 103 
Lovique, 119 

Lozenge, crossed, 5, 14,33, T 3^ 
L Pkan, 47 



206 



POTTERY MARKS 



Merchant's Mark, 7, 8, 18, 

27, 28 
Mountain, 20 

Necklace, 69 
New Stone, 107 
Nider, 54 
Nota, 9 
No. 5, 50 

Numeral, 33, 61, 95, 97, 98, 
109, 113, 140 

Obelisk, 51 
Opaque china, 105 
Opaque porcelain, 105, 109 
Orb, 37 

Pearl ware, 103 
Pentagram, 20 
Phcenix, 113 
Pipes, 30, 76 

Prince of Wales's feathers, 
99- "I 

Quatrefoil, 68, 69, 71, 103 

R.52 

R's crossed, 117 
Regina, 113 
Registration mark, 113 
R— n, 39 



Roos, 47 
Rose, 47 

Royal Terra cotta porce- 
lain, 113 
Rubella, no 
Ruin, 91 

St. A., 64 

Sceptre, 37 

Scythes, 119 

Semi-china, 108 

Sevres groups, 117 

Shears, 90 

Shell (conch), 6, 138 

Shield, 4, 10, 20, 31, 33, 35, 

36, 37, 3 8 , 4°, 4 1 , 49, 59, 

68, 90, 118, 119 
Shield with cross, 16, 18 
Ship, 112, 119 
Sign board, 34 
Snake, 28, 53 
Spiral, 14 
Spires, 41 
Stag, 50 

Star, 4, 19, 24, 47, 90 
Staves, crossed, 38, 39, 50, 54 
Stone China, 107, 108, 109, 

112, 114, 117 
Stone Ware, no 
Stork, 41, 50, 140 
Sun, 20, 72, 97, 100 



Swan, 119 

Sword, 15, 95 

Swords, crossed, 33, 34, 35, 

38, 39, 5o, 74, 95, 96, -97. 

98, 100 

Terre de Lorraine, 56 

Thart, 45 

Tillenberg, 113 

Tower, 41, 50 

Torches crossed, 74 

Tree, 28, 92 

Trefoil, 38 

Triangle, 20, 34, 53, 54, 67, 

92, 96, 97, 108, 140 
Triangles crossed, 24, 36 
Trident, 5, 8, 14, 95, 100 
Tripod, 97 
Trumpet, 20 

V's crossed, 71, 73 
Vase, 7, 8, in, 113, 118, 138, 
140 

Warranted Staffordshire; 

in, 113 
Wheel, 30, 35, 36 
Windmill, 75 
Workman's Signs, 34, 101 
Wreath, 39, 99, 100, 102, 

105, 118 



INDEX OF ORIENTAL MARKS 
AND NAMES 



Aagami, 123 
Aahmad, 124 
Abolo, 124 
Abou-1-iizz, 124 
Agano, 164 
Ahmed, 125 
Al lien chen shang, 147 
Aioub, 123 
Akahada, 163 
Akashi, 166, 170 
Akazu, 168, 169 
Akoji, 162 
Ameya, 153, 174 
Amidayama, 162 
Anatolian, 125 
Arashiyama, 173 
Arita, 181-185, 191 
Asahi, 175 
Asahitei, 173 
Asagiri, 166 
Asakusa, 176 
Awaji, 164, 190 
Awata, 154, 170, 171 
Axe, 141 

Bairaku, 170 
Bairin, 161 
Baizan, 161 
Banko, 154, 162, 163 
Banjo, 186 
Baragon Turned. 149 
Bell, 138 
Beppo, 161 
Bism. 123 
Bivva, 161, 189 
Bizan, 168, 171 
Bizen, 154, 159, 160 
Bo, 159 
Bogasaki, 159 
Bokuhaku, 163 
Bokuko, 169 
Bokusai, 163 
Books, 141 
Brush, 141 
Bu, 171 



Buccaro, 132 
Bunki, 179 

Bun-mei Kai-k'wa, 183 
Bunzaburo, 174 
Bunzo, 171 
Buzen, 164 

Cairo, 121-125 

Canton, 128, 132, 152 

" Cash," 138, 141 

Ch'a, 150 

Chang ming fu kuei, 146 

Chang Ming-kao, 149 

Chao-chin, 149 

Charaf, 124 

Chen, 148 

Chen mu chih, 149 

Chen yti, 148 

Cheng ku shih, 149 

Chi chen ju yu, 146 

Chi hsiang ju i, 144 

Ch'i shih pao ting, 146 

Chiang fang, 150 

Ch'ien yuan, 152 

Chih, 149 

Chikugo, 164 

Chikuzen, 166, 167 

Chin-yiian-yu, 152 

Chinese marks, imitation of, 

125 
Ch'ing, 146 
Ching-te-chen, 128 
Chiu, 150 
Cho, 159 
Chojiro, 153, 174 
Chozo, 169 
Chu shih chii, 151 
Ch'uan, 148 
Chiin-choii, 127 
Chung ch eng, 50 
Companies, 191 
Cyclical dates, 129, 133 

Damascus, 121 
Date, 163 

207 



Denko, 164 
Dohachi, 172, 182, 187 
Dosuke, 186 

Dresden Collection, 14c 
184 

Echizen, 163, 164 

Egypt, 121-125 

Eiraku, 155, 165, 175, 187 

Eisen, 171, 182 

El ESarrany, 124 

El Chaer, 124 

El Chamy, 121, 123 

El Fakid, 124 

El Hermizi, 123 

El Istaz. 124 

El Masry, 123 

El Mousiein, 124 

El Siouaz, 124 

El Taurizi, 123 

Empress Dowager, 144 



Fa, 149 
Fathh, 124 
Fish, 138, 141 
Flower, 139, 140, 184 
Fostat, 121-125 
Fu, 146 

Fu fan chih tsao, 1-49 
Fu ki cho shun, 184 
Fu kuei chia ch'i, 146 
Fu shou, 146 
Fu wan, 1S3 
Fuchien, 128 
Fueki. 163 
Fuku, 183 

Fuku shun ken, 188 
Fuji, 170 
Fujimi, 170 
Fujina, 166 
Fukagawa, 185 
Fukui, 164 
Fungus, 139, 184 
Fylfot, 141, 184 



208 



POTTERY MARKS 



G., 151 

Gempin, 169 
Gen, 161, 169 
Genyemon, 173 
Gha'iby, 121, 123 
Ghazal, 123 
Giozan, 171 
Giyokusei, 188 
Giyokutei, 176 
Gobosatsu, 171 
Goho, 190 
Gojosaka, 173 
Gombroon, 122, 125 
Gorodayu, 181, 186 
Gorohachi, 159 
Gorosuke, 173 
Gosabaro, 177 
Gosuke, 190 
Goto, 182 
Gwan, 184 

Hagi, 154, 163 

Hakata, 167 

Hako, 185 

Hakodate, 185 

Hall marks, 129, 142, 143, 

i44. i55 
Ch'i yii t'ang, 143 
Chih hao t'ang, 142 
Chih Ian chai, 143 
Chih yuan t'ang, 142 
Ching lien t'ang, 143 
Ch'ing wei t'ang, 142 
Ch'ii shun t'ang, 143 
I yu t'ang, 143 
Lin yii t'ang, 143 
Lu yi t'ang, 142 
Shun te t'ang, 142, 143 
Ssu pu chai, 144 
Ta ya chai, 144 
Tan ning chai, 143 
Te hsing t'ang, 142 
Ts'ai hsiu t'ang, 142 
Ts'ai hua t'ang, 142 
Ts'ai jun t'ang, 143 
Yang ho t'ang, 143 
Yii hai t'ang, 142 
Yii t'ang, 142 
Yu tzii t'ang, 142 
Yung lo t'ang, 142 

Hansuke, 190 

Hare, 125, 139 

Harima, 166, 170, 186 

Hatim, 125 

Hayashi, 178 

Heian, 187 

Hichozan Shimpo, 185 

Higo, 161, 162 

Himeji, 186 

Hira, 161 

Hirado, 181, 185 

Hiraga, 167 

Hizen, 154, 159, 181, 184-6 

Ho, 164, 183 

Hohei, 178 

Hoju, 178 



Hoko, 178 
Hokuhan, 190 
Horaku, 169 
Hosho, 164 
Hoyei, 178 
Hoyen, 166 
Hoyu, 178 
Hozan, 154, 171 
Hozen, 155, 165, 175 
Hsi ch'en ku wan, 144 
Hsi yii, 147 
Hsieh chu, 150 
Hsing, 148 
Huang-yiin, 152 
Hui Meng-ch'en, 152 
Hyochiyen, 191 

Ichiraku, 174 
Iga, 165 
Ikko, 169 
Imado, 177 
Imari, 93 
Imbe, 159, 160 
Inariyama, 167 
Inuyama, 169 
Ink, 141 
Insect, 140 
Ippodo, 173 
Iriya, 176 
Isawa, 163 
Ise, 163 
Issai, 163 
Iwaki, 154, 178 
Iwakuni, 164 
Iwakura, 171 
Iwami, 165 
Iwao, 165 
Izumi, 164, 165 
Izumo, 166 

Jewel, 138 

Jinenan, 189 

Jiu, 183 

Jizan, 174 

Jo shen ch'en tsang, 144 

Ju, 162 

Ju'i, 140, 141 

Jui lu shan fang, 143 

Juraku, 162 

Jusan, 160, 179 

Jus an-ken, 164 

Ka,i66, 183 
Ka ichi, 159 
Kachutei, 172, 187 
Kaga, 162, 182, 183, 186 
Kagura, 174 
Kahin Shiriu, 155, 175 
Kairakuyen, 165 
Kakiemon, 181 
Kakihan, 156, 179 
Kakitsubata, 179 
Kallass, 124 

Kameyama, 159, 184, i8f 
Kanashige, 178 
Kanzan, 171, 188 



Karatsu, 154 

Kaseizan, 177 

Kashiu Sampei, 190 

Kataru, 164 

Kato, 182, 189 

Kawamoto, 189 

Ken, 175 

Kentei, 175 

Kenzan, 154, 155, 169, 174- 

176 
Kenya, 176 
Kichiyemon, 165 
Kii, 155, 158, 165, 179, 

189 
Kikko, 160, 164, 177, 179 
Kikkutei, 177 
Kimura, 159, 160 
Kin, 183 
Kinju, 162 
Kinkozan, 154, 171 
Kinsei, 173 
Kinshosha, 191 
Kintaro, 164 
Kioto, 154, 169, 170-176, 

178, 179, 182, 187, 188 
Kishiu, 155 
Kisui, 187 
Kitei, 172, 173 
Kitoken, 190 
Kiunken, 176 
Kiyen, 188 
Kiyo, 170, 171 
Kiyo-chika, 160 
Kiyomizu, 170-173 
Knot, 138, 140 
Ko, 170 

Ko Ming-hsiang, 152 
Ko Yiian-hsiang, 152 
Kochi-yaki, 155 
Koho, 170 
Komaru, 178 
Korakuyen, 177, igo 
Koransha, 191 
Koren, 177 
Kosai, 173, 188 
Kosao, 174 
Kosobe, 160 
Kotei, 163 
Koto, 161, 189 
Kozan, 171, 178, 185, 188 
Ku, 148 

Kuan lien fang, 150 
Kuan yao, 150 
Kuang-tung, 132 
Kuei yueh shan chuang, 

144 
Kuchu, 170 
Kung ming fu kuei, etc., 

151 
Kuo, t 4 8 
Kushide, 185 
Kusumura, 179 
Kutani, 182, 186 
K'wa-bo, 159 
Kwan-kei, 165 
K'wanriyo, 176 



INDEX OF ORIENTAL MARKS AND NAMES 209 



Kyuraku, 174 


Ninsei, 154, 170 




Niraku, 159 


Lai, 149 


Nishina, 184 


Leaf, 138, 139, 178, 184 


Numerals, 137, 140 


Li-chih, 149 


Nuno Gunjiro, 164 


Li-ta-lai, 152 




Liang-chi, 129 


Odo, 160 


Lien ch'eng, 150 


Ofuke, 168 


Lin ch'ang fa, 149 


Ogata Shinsho, 155 


Ling nan hui chi, 151 


Ogata Shuhei, 188 


Lotus, 138, 139 


Ohi, 162 


Lozenge, 138, 141 


Ohimachi, 179 


Lu, 146 


Ohorimura, 178 


Lung-ch'iian, 127 


Okawaji, 181, 183, 185 




Okayama, 160 


Maiko, 166 


Okazaki, 174 


Maisen, 166 


Okunisan, 179 


Maku-in, 170 


Omi, 161, 189 


Makusa, 169 


Omuro, 175 


Makuzu, 160, 176, 178, 188 


Onike, 170 


Marubashiro, 165 


Osaka, 160, 161, 179 


Masa-ichi, 185 


Ota, 179 


Masaki, 169, 177 


Otani, 173 


Matsuyama, 177 


Otokoyama, 158, 165, 189 


Matsuye, 166 


Otovva, 175 


Meiho, 189 


Ouchi-yama, 175 


Meppotani, 165 


Owari, 168-170, 189, 190, 


Mikawa, 159, 179 


191 


Mikawaji, 159, 181, 185, 




191 


Pai shih, 151 


Mikuni, 164 


Pao, 148 


Mimpei, 164 


Pao sheng, 131, 147 


Min, 167 


Peach, 139 


Minato, 164 


Pearl, 141 


Mino, 190 


Peking, 132 


Minzan, 167 


Persia, 121- 125 


Mishima, 153, 154 


Pi ting ju'i, 131, 141 


Mito, 177 


Po ku chen wan, 147 


Miura Kenya, 176 




Mizoro, 170 


Raku, 153, 154, 165, 174, 


Mokubei, 162, 175, 182 


179 


Mompei, 161 


Rakurakuyen, 177 


Mompeizan, 161 


Raku wo, 174 


Mori, 160 


Rakuzan, 166, 178 


Mori Chikara, 185 


Rantei, 176, 1S7 


Muhammed Ali, 125 


Rendaiji, 162 


Muhammed Harbaty, 125 


Rengetsu, 176 


Musashi, 176-178 


Rhinoceros horn, 138, 141 


Mushiage, 160 


Rhodian, 121, 122 


Musical instrument, 141 


Rikk, 124 




Riku, 159 


Nabeshima, 181, 185 


Rinso, 168 


Nagami, 165 


Rinzan, 162 


Nagato, 166 


Riokozan, 176 


Nagoya, 169, 170, 189 


Risampei, 181 


Nakamura, 178 


Rissai, 164 


Naniwa, 160 


Roki, 188 


Nanki, 165, 189 


Roku, 172, 183 


Naosaku, 168 


Rokubei, 172, 182, 187 


Naoyoshi, 160 


Ryozen, 175 


Nembokuan, 185 




Nengo, 156-8 


Saburo, T74 


Nien-hao, 129, 134-6, 156 


Sado, 164 


Niko, 179 


Sahei, 162, 188 


Nina, 172 


Sakai, 165 


Ninami, 172 


Sakin, 164 



Sakurai, 160, 186 

Sampei, 190 

Sampo, 185 

San yo, 168 

San han, 190 

Sanjiro, 177 

Sanrakuyen, 177 

Sanuki, 167, 168 

Sarayama, 185 

Sasashima, 170 

Sato, 160, 186 

Satsu, 179 

Satsuma, 154, 178, 179 

Sawayama, 161 

Seal marks, uncertain, 151, 

183, 184, 189 
Sei, 170, 172, 176 
Seifu, 173, 188 
Seigen, 184 
Seiji, 174 
Seikanji, 170 
Seikanyen, 190 
Seikozan, 178 
Seinei, 165, 174 
Seishi, 176 
Seisuke, 170 
Seizan, 191 
Senki, 179 
Sensuke, 179 
Seta, 161 

Seto, 153, 154, 155, 182. 

184, 187, 189, 190 
Seto-suke, 163 
Settsu, 161, 186 

Shan jen ch en wei, 150 

Shang su, 149 

Shell 138, 141 

Sheng, 148 

Sheng yu ya chi, 147 

Shichibei, 172 

Shido, 167 

Shidoro, 166 

Shiga, 160 

Shigaraki, 154, 161 

Shigen, 176 

Shih fu, 148 

Shimbei, 187 

Shinzan, 167 

Shiozo, 186 

Shippo, 191 

Shisei, 177 

Shoda, 178 

Shodai, 162 

Shofu, 162 

Shonsui, 173 

Shop mark, 148 

Shosai, 161 

Shoson, 177 

Shoto, 159 

Shou, 145, 146 

Shuai fu kung yung, -147 

Shuang hsi, 144 

Shu-fu, 127, 149 

Shukei, 172, 188 

Shun, 148, 167 

Shun-min, 167 



2IO 



POTTERY MARKS 



t 77 

73 
184 



Shuntai, 168 
Shuntan, 168 
Shunu, 168 
Shunyetsu, 168 
Shunzan, 167 
Shuzan, 176 
Sobaitei, 169 
Sobokai, 168 
Sogen, 161 
Sokan, 160 
Soma, 154, 178 
Sosendo, 187 
Soshichi, 167 
Soshiro, 175 
Soyen, 179 
Stone, 138 
Stork, 140 
Suma, 166 
Sumidagawa, 1 
Suminokura, 1 
Suo, 164, 167 
Swastika, 141, 
Syria, 121-125 



Ta chi, 144 
Tachin.0, 179 
Tad a, 164 
T'ai yuan, 152 
Taihei, 171 
Tainen, 160 
Taizan, 154, 171 
Taka, 167 
Takagamine, 170 
Takatori, 154, 166, 167 
Takuzan, 161 
Tal, 124 
Tamagawa, 177 
Tamba, 168 
Tan kuei, 147 
Tanniu, 165, 174 
Tanzan, 171 
Tatsumonji, 178 
Te hua ch'ang ch'un, 1. 
Tei, 173 
Teiji, 179 
Teiten, 167 
Tenkaichi, 175 



Terami, 159 

T'.ien, 148 

T'ien kuan tz'u fu, 147 

T'ien ti yi chia ch'un, 144 

Ting-chou, 127 

To, 161 

Tobo, 175 

Togiyokuyen, 190 

Tokio, 154, 176, 179, 191 

Toko, 162 

Tokoname, 169 

Tokuemon, 181 

Tora Kichi, 161 

Tortoise, 173, 190 

Tosa, 160, 164, 177 

Tosetsu, 172 

Toshiro, 153, 179 

Totei, 159, 165 

Totomi, 166 

To-yen, 158 

Toyohachi, 169 

Toyoraku, 169 

Toyosuke, 169, 170 

Toyo-ura-yama, 166 

Tozan, 166, 186 

Triangle, 140 

Tsai ch'uan chihlo, 131, 147 

Ts'ang lang lii shiu, 150 

Tsao t'ang, 150 

Tsui yueh hsiian, 151 

Tsuji, 170, 185 

Tsushima, 160 

Tsuyen, 173 

Turkish, 125 

Uichu, 161 
Umbrella, 138 
Unyei, 166 

Vase, 138, 139, 140 

Wafuken, 166 

Wagen, 175 

Wan fu yu t'ung, 146 

Wan shih chii, 151 

Wan shou \vu chiang, 147 

Wang Sheng-kao, 151 



Wen chang shan tou, 148 

Wheel,^i 3 9 _ 

Wu chen hsien, 152 

Ya, 148, 162 

Yang-lin, 151 

Ya su kung shang, 144 

Ya wan, 148 

Yamaka, 166 

Yamamoto, 162 

Yamashiro, 170-176, 187, 188 

Yamato, 163, 190 

Yanagawa, 164 

Yashima, 167, 168 

Yasuke, 174 

Yatsushiro, 154, 161, 162 

Yedo, 154, 161, 177, 179 

Yenzan, 178 

Yi-hsing, 132, 152 

Yohachi, 168 

Yokka-ichi, 163 

Yoshida, 160 

Yoshitoyo, 169 

Yosobei, 172 

Yotsuya, 177 

Youaz, 125 

Yu, 148 

Yu chai, 151 

Yii feng, 151 

Yu lai, 147 

Yuan sin-hsing, 149 

Yiieh ch'ang, 152 

Yuko, 161 

Yu-lan-pi, 152 

Yung-cheng yii chih, 150 

Yung ch'ing ch'ang ch'un, 

144 
Yurin, 163 
Yusetsu, 163 

Zari, 125 

Zengoro, 155 
Zenshiro, 175 
Zeze, 161 
Zoshuntei, 185 
Zoroku, 173, 188 
Zuishi, 165 



Printed by R. & R. Clark, Limited, Edinburgh. 



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