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Purchased by the Hammill Missionary Fund. 

BV 2550 .J63 
John, I. G. 

Hand book of Methodist 






For Use of Sunday Schools, Epworth Leagues, and Per- 
sons Desiring Missionary Information. 

^ / 

I. G. JOHN/D.D., 


Nashville, Tenn. : 

Publishing Hoise of the M. E. Church, South. 

Baruee & Smith, Agents. 



To Bishop John C. Keener, D.D., 
a constant friend^ able ad'oocate^ and stanch supporter of 
modern Missions, the inangnrator of our mission xuork in 
Mexico in iSys, and the author of the resolution in 1883, 
ivhich opened the Japan Mission. 

Copyright, 1893. 


The i^reparation of this volume, though far more la- 
borious than at first sight will appear, has been from 
the first a labor of love. In the beginning the work of 
research was undertaken in order to meet a constantly 
increasing demand for concrete facts and information. 
Keen and intelligent inquiries from pastors and people 
required prompt and satisfactory response. In an age 
characterized by celerity of movement and economy 
of time clear-cut facts and condensed statements are 
best appreciated. 

The generous reception given the first hand books 
led to the preparation of the entire series in which 
the most important fields occupied by the Methodist 
Church have been reviewed. The work, though hon- 
estly done, has been carried on in addition to the du- 
ties of the oflSce involving heavy correspondence, edi- 
torial work, and no small amount of travel ; hence in- 
accuracies may have crept in. Corrections will always 
be in order and gratefully received. 

In addition to files of letters and reports extending 
from 1871 to the present time, we are greatly indebted 
to Bishop A. W. Wilson's admirable synopsis entitled 
"Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South," 
written while Missionary Secretary and published in 
1882 ; also to " Missions and Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church," by Eev. J, M. Reid, D.D., 
long Missionary Secretary' of the M. E. Church; and to 
Dr. S. L. Baldwin, Recording Secretary, for most valu- 


4 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

able information secured from the annual reports kind- 
ly furnished. 

Tlie extreme condensation of the work is regretted 
by the writer, yet he would indulge in the hope that 
it may supply, to some extent at least, the urgent de- 
mands of the pastors of the Church, Sunday schools, 
and Epwoi'th Leagues for a sketch of our missionary 
work brought up to a recent date. 

The author receives no pecuniary benefit from the 
publication of this book, the profits accruing from sales 
going into the treasury of the Board of Missions. 

I. Ct. John. 

Nashville Tenn., April 25, 1893. 


This important Hand Book of Methodist Missions 
was born of the editorial instinct and training which 
knows the value of the printed page as an educator 
and that seeks to win a cause by a clear and strong 
statement of facts as well as of arguments in its behalf. 
The eloquent address or sermon is invaluable for the 
advocacy of the cause of Missions, but not less impor- 
tant is the printed page which sets forth the cogent ar- 
gument and preserves for ready access the instructive 
fact. It feeds the fire kindled by the glowing periods 
of the speaker and strengthens the convictions that 
seemed born of the Rpell wrought by fervid speech. 
It furnishes the material out of which great speeches 
are made. With all his fervor Patrick Henry recog- 
nized that the people were most influenced by facts. 
They are best influenced by the speaker who is most 
instructive and wlK>se statements can be reproduced at 
the fireside. 

" Coal is portable climate," said Emerson. A Hand 
Book like this is a portable zeal, and needs only to be 
consumed to change the atmosphere of a home or a 
community. To the doubter who asks if modern 
Missions have in very truth the Christ which saves it 
makes the unanswerable reply: "The blind receive 
their sight, the deaf hear, lepers are cleansed, and the 
poor have the gospel preached unto them." It was 
facts that impressed Charles Darwin^ when he saw 
what Missions were doing for the Patagonians, and 


6 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

made him a lifelong contributor to the missionary so- 
ciety which labored among them. It is a like knowl- 
edge that makes British oliicers the most liberal con- 
tributors to the missions of India and Ceylon and that 
caused a great American general to say, after a tour 
around the world, that if he were seeking to conquer 
any country in Asia he would throw his forces just in 
those great strategic points now occupied by missiona- 

The day is past when Missions are made the butt of 
the wits of the pulpit or of the Reviews, as was the 
case a hundred years ago. The present century was 
already twelve years old when a legislator in Massa- 
chusetts opposed the incorporation of the Board of 
Commissioners for Foreign Missions because " we have 
too little religion in our land to j^ermit any to be ex- 
ported." The world has long known that the real test 
of a religion is whether it will V)ear exporting and 
that only such religions as are marked by missionary 
zeal have made the deepest impression on the land of 
their birth. The contest for supremacy to-day is 
among the three missionary religions of the world: 
Buddhism, Mohammedanism, and Christianity. The 
vigor of each is measured by the strength of its pur- 
pose to share with other nations the truth as it sees it. 
While Buddhism is limited in its missionary opera- 
tions to Asia, and Mohammedanism to Asia and Africa 
together with tlie Turkish posisessions in Europe, it is 
the glory of Christianity that its missions are not alone 
in every continent and the islands of the sea, but that 
missionaries of the cross await anxiously the hour 
when on every plateau of Asia and in every forest of 
Africa they may be peimitted to preach Christ Jesus 
the Saviour. And while comparatively few new tern- 

Introduction. • 7 

pies or mosques are being l^uilt every sun sets on a 
half score of new Christian churches just completed 
and ready for eager worshipers. 

The Christian missionary has always been the best 
pioneer. Commerce follows in the wake of the ship 
which lands a missionary on a heathen shore. The 
Cotton spinners of Manchester study the movements of 
missionaries as eagerly as they read the crop reports of 
the Gulf states. The missionary creates the demand 
and makes the market for the manufactures of Europe 
and America. A new sense of manhood which comes 
with the teaching of the missionary leads to the cloth- 
ing of the nude body and the substitution of the rude 
implements of agriculture or of manufacture. The 
new convert finds that his mind is no less naked than 
his body, and seeks to furnish it. The printing press 
goes with the improved plowshare or loom as the un- 
folding gospel bursts into the full bloom of Christian 
civiHzation. The world of letters now sees how many 
new languages and dialects have been conquered by 
the tireless labors of the missionary. He has reduced 
some of the languages to order and imposed the laws 
of grammatical construction upon speech as wild as 
the swift steeds which have never known a bridle. 
Thus are found the rude treasures of historic lore or 
the fragmentary remains of an attempt at story or 
song. Whether as geographer making maps of dark 
continents, as linguist discovering new languages for 
the w^orld of letters, or as navigator making new 
paths in the sea, the world is larger, wiser, and better 
for the labors of the missionary. The leaven which 
he has put in the five continents is fast leavening the 
world. He has not alone given the needed outlet for 
the manufactures of Christendom, he has made possi- 

8 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ble a better and more joyous Christian life at liome be- 
cause of its vigor in seeking to reach the whole world. 
Methodism and Missions are almost inseparable 
terms. While neither the tirc-t to undertake foreign 
missionary work, nor the largest contributors to the 
cause, the followers of Wesley have never been lacking 
in missionary zeal or effort. The present volume is 
not intended to inflame their pride, but rather to deep- 
en their sense of responsibility as they are reminded 
of what their fathers did with rather hmited resources. 
The Wesleys were born in a missionary atmosphere at 
Epworth. Their father, the Rev. Samuel Wesley, was 
so fired by the success of the Danish missionaries that 
he not only planned a mission to India, but offered 
himself for the work. We can readily imagine the 
frequent conversations on the subject in the famous 
rectory as he tells also of letters received from the 
Governor of the infant colony in Georgia, and of the 
need of missionaries to the Indian tribes in the new 
world. The conscientious Susanna Wesley, who was 
of like mind with her husband about going to India, 
w^is not a woman to neglect the instruction of her nu- 
merous household on the duty of giving the gospel to 
the heathen. In such a home Methodist missions were 
born, and it seems natural to have John and Charles 
Wesley go forth from that atmosphere of prayer and 
missionary zeal to preach to tlie Clioctaws and Creeks 
of Georgia. That they did not succeed in their mis- 
sion made necessary that fuller spiritual equipment 
which tlie later Methodist missionaries needed to 
make them so eminently successful in their work 
among the same Indian tribes. The failure in (Tcoigia 
made i)Ossible the success in Fiji, in Ceylon, in China, 
and Japan. The zeal which was retidy to give all 

Introduction, * 9 

one's goods to feed the poor and even one's body to be 
burned need to be reenforced by the love that hopes 
all things, endures all things, that never faileth. 

The Moravians tauglit Wesley, as they have taught 
Christendom, the secret of missionary success, a gospel 
intended for all, needed by all, adapted to all. There 
has never boen a moment's hesitation caused by a ques- 
tion as to God's purposes respecting the heathen. The 
gospel which could save Kingswood colliers or Lon- 
don mobs could save Brahmin or Buddhist, Fiji or Hot- 
tentot. The condition of the neglected masses at home 
occupied much of the time and enlisted most of the 
labor of the Methodists, whether in England or Amer- 
ica, during the earlier decades of their history in ei- 
ther country ; but they had among them a few like Coke 
whose eye was always on the last creature who should 
hear the gospel, and so took in the whole range of 
mankind. It was lofty minds like these which saw 
the Land of Promise and dared say that Christ should 
yet possess it, despite the walled cities and the Ana- 
kim. They are the heroic names of Methodism, and 
made possible the later organized missionary societies 
which committed the Church to the foreign missionary 
work. When Coke could report over eleven thousand 
converts in the West Indies it was time to think of taking 
the work under the care of the Wesleyan Conference; 
and when fifteen years later he led the way to India and 
was found dead on his knees before his ship reached 
Ceylon, the time was ripe for the organization of the 
Wesleyan Missionary Society, to be followed a couple 
of years later by a similiar organization in the United 
States. Nor with such men as Bunting, Watson, New- 
ton, Arthur, Bangs, Capers, and Durbin to serve as Mis- 
sionary Secretaries has the Church hesitated to give 

10 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

her best sons to the advancement of the cause of Mis- 

This Hand Book of Methodist Missions, giving the 
latest information about the missionary wort of the 
several Methodist Churches throughout the world, and 
especially full m its information as to the Missions of 
the two great branches of Episcopal Methodism, will 
be hailed not alone by the preachers and thoughtful lay- 
men of the Church. A new constituency is now to be 
considered and a mighty one. The Epworth Leagues 
of Methodism are eagerly seeking to know both what 
is being done and what they may be desired to do in 
extending the cause of Missions in heathen lands and 
among the degraded or priest-ridden people of our 
own continent. From this great army of young Chris- 
tians are to come many of our most efficient missiona- 
ries as well as our most liberal and self-denying con- 
tributors to the cause. Let this volume help to in- 
struct them in the victoi-ies won and in the plan of the 
battle now being fought. It should be added to the 
course of reading for the Leagues and be placed in 
every Sunday school library and widely scattered 
among the homes of our people. Whatever differ- 
ences in our ecclesiastical organizations, the triumphs 
in missionary lands are the common heritage and joy 
of all who bear the name of Methodists. The martyrs 
who have borne their faithful testimony and sealed it 
with their blood belong to no one branch of Metho- 
dism, or even to Methodism itself; they belong to all 
who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. May 
none of our Mission Boards lack candidates for the 
field after the wide-spread reading of this Hand Book! 

E. R. Hendrix. 

Kansas City, Mo., April 17, 1893. 



English Methodist Missions 13-72 

Wesleyan Missions: Ceylon Mission— East India Mis- 
sion—West Indies Mission— South Africa Mission— West 
Africa Mission— Australasia— The Friendly Islands— Fiji 
Mission— Cliina Mission. Bible Christian Missionary Socie- 
. ty— Methodist New Connexion Missionary Society— United 
Methodist Free Church Home and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety—Welsh Calvinistic Methodist Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety—Primitive Methodist Missionary Society— Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Church of Canada. 

Missions in the South 73-164 

Missions among the Colored People— Africa— French Mis- 
sion—Brazil Mission— Indian Missions— Texas Missions. 

Foreign Missions of the M. E. Church, South . 165-358 
China Mission— Mexican Mission— Central Mexican Mis- 
sion—Mexican Border Mission— Brazil Mission— Japan Mis- 

Home Missions of the M. E. Church, South . . 359-382 

Missions in Destitute Regions of the Regular Work— Ger- 
man Missions— Western Work— California Mission. 

Woman's Missionary Society, M. E. C, S 383-442 

Missions of the M. E. Church 443-600 

American Indians— Africa — Soutli America— China— 
Scandanavian Missions — Norway — Denmark— Sweden- 
German Missions— Germany and Switzerland— Bulgaria- 
Italy —India— Mexico— Japan— Corea. 

Work of Other Methodist Bodies 601-604 

Missions of the Protestant Metliodist Cluirch— The Wes- 
leyan Methodist Connection— The Missionary Board of the 
African Methodist Episcopal Cluirch. 




With John Wesley the missionary spirit 
was an inheritance. His father, aroused by 
the success of the Danish missionaries in 
Tranquebar, planned a mission to India, and 
offered himself for the work. His mother 
shared her husband's spirit, and sought to im- 
bue her children with her own zeal for the 
spread of the gospel among the heathen. The 
interest of the rector of Epworth in the con- 
version of the Indians of North America 
caused him to correspond with Gen. Ogle- 
thorpe, who had charge of the infant colony 
in Georgia, and this correspondence was 
among the agencies that decided John and 
Charles Wesley to go out in 1735, under the 
auspices of the " Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel in Foreign Parts," as mission- 
aries to the Indians of the New World. God 
had for them a broader field than the natives 
of North America. *'The world was their 
parish." They returned to London to meet 


14 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Peter Boliler, the Moravian missionary, under 
whom they were converted. Speaking of his 
meeting with Bohler, John Wesley said: "O 
what a work hath God begun since his com- 
ing to Enghmd! Such a one as shall never 
have an end till heaven and earth shall pass 
away." These words seem prophetic. The 
Christian world is beginning to recognize the 
agency of the Wesleyan revival in the won- 
derful movement of the present century, which 
has united all branches of Protestant Christi- 
anity in the effort to evangelize the world. 

In 1756 the demands of destitute regions in 
England and Ireland were recognized by the 
"Wesleyan Conference, and a fund was raised 
to supply them with the gospel. This was 
the beginning of Home Missions among the 

In 1769, thirteen years after the Wesleyans 
had opened their Honie Missions, it became 
evident that there was work for Methodism in 
the New World. Mr. Wesley, in the Confer- 
ence of that year, asked: " Who are willing to 
go to America as missionaries?" Eichard 
Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor responded to 
the call. 

In that age a voyage to America was more 
formidable than a tour around the world to- 

Wesley an Missions, . 15 

day; and the crosses those men might antici- 
pate were as heavy as those that the missiona- 
ies of the present day are called to endure. 
Money was needed with which to send them 
out, and Mr. Wesley proposed a collection for 
that purpose. The Conference numbered one 
hundred and ten preachers. The collection 
amounted to £10, or about $7 each, from these 
early itinerants. This was the first collection 
for Foreign Missions raised by Wesleyan Meth- 
odists. Other men followed these two mis- 
sionaries to America; but the work was pros- 
perous, and erelong became self-supporting. 

In 1784 Dr. Coke was made Superintendent 
of Missions. That year a mission was opened 
in the Isle of Jersey. In 1785 missionaries 
were sent to Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and 
the island of Antigua. These missions were 
re-enforced in 1786. In 1787 missions were 
commenced at St. Vincent, St. Christopher, 
and St. Eustatius, and the work strengthened 
in the Norman isles. In 1788 five additional 
missionaries were sent to the West Indies. 
In 1789 the work had spread to Dominica, 
Barbadoes, Saba, Tortola, and Santa Cruz. In 
1790 two more missionaries were sent to the 
West Indies, and Jamaica was added to the 
stations. A committee of nine preachers was 

16 Hand Book of Methodist Missions* 

appointed to take the management of these 
missions. In 1791 Mr. Wesley closed his 

On the death of Mr. Wesley the burden of 
the foreign work devolved on Dr. Coke. Aft- 
er his appointment in 1784 as Superintendent 
his labors had been those of an apostle. He 
traveled over Great Britain, soliciting contri- 
butions, selecting men for the work, and cor- 
responding with the missionaries. After the 
Conference of 1786 he sailed for Halifax with 
.three missionaries, but was driven by stress of 
weather to Antigua. Moved by the religious 
destitution of the people, he distributed the 
missionaries among the islands, and thus laid 
the foundation of the Wesleyan Mission in 
the West Indies. On his return to England 
he spent eighteen months in raising money 
for Missions, and at the close of the Confer- 
ence of 1788 sailed with a company of mis- 
sionaries, whom he placed on other islands of 
the West Indies. He returned to England 
and sent out several missionaries, and in 1790 
went out with another company. In 1791, 
the year of Mr. Wesley's death, these missions 
reported 23 missionaries, 498 French mem- 
bers, 350 mulattoes, and 4,377 negroes— total, 
5,847. To aid Pr. Coke in the work that wm 

Wesleyan Missions, . 17 

multiplying every year, the Conference ap- 
pointed a committee of finance and advice, 
which embraced all the ministers of the Con- 
nection resident for the time being in London. 
This committee was charged with the exami- 
nation of missionaries who were sent out, the 
inspection of accounts, and the correspond- 
ence with the missionaries in the field. This 
year three more missionaries were sent to the 
West Indies, and a mission projected in 
France. In the Minutes of 1792 Sierra Le- 
one, Africa, appears on the list of missionary 
stations. In 1793 the Conference provided 
for a general collection for Foreign Missions 
to be raised in all the congregations of the 

From the Minutes of 1796 we learn that 
Eev. A. Murdoch and Kev. A. Patton were 
solemnly set apart by the Conference for mis- 
sion work in the Foulah country, Africa. In 
1799 Gibraltar was added to the list of mis- 
sion stations. That year Eev. G. Whitfield 
was appointed Treasurer for Foreign Mis- 
sions. At the request of the Conference, Dr. 
Coke drew up a statement of the work of 
God carried on by these missions, and it en- 
tered on its Minutes the following record: 
"We in the fullest manner take these mi§- 

18 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. ' 

sions under our own care, and consider Dr. 
Coke as our agent." 

At the Conference of 1800 a body of rules 
was compiled for the regulation of Foreign 
Missions, and Dr. Coke was authorized to 
send a missionary to Gibraltar and another to 
Madras. In 1804 Mr. Hawkshaw was sent to 
open a mission at Demerara, South America. 
In connection with Dr. Coke as Superintend- 
ent, the name of Mr. Entwistle appears as the 
first Missionary Secretary, with Mr. Thomas as 
Treasurer. These officers were amenable to 
the Mission Committee, consisting of the Lon- 
don preachers. The machinery necessary for 
the management of the missionary movement 
which God was developing through the agency 
of the people called Methodists took shape as 
the demand for it arose. In 1804 the mem- 
bers within the bounds of its various missions 
amounted to 15,846. 

Thus, during those years when William 
Carey was pleading the cause of the heathen 
with his Baptist brethren, the Wesleyan 
Methodists were planting missions among the 
heathen negroes of the West Indies, and their 
converts had been multiplied into thousands. 
The year before the organization of the Bap- 
tist Missionary Society the Wesleyan Method- 

Wesleyan Missions, - 19 

ist Conference had created a Missionary Com- 
mittee to co-operate with the Missionary- 
Superintendent of Foreign Missions in the 
selection of missionaries, the collection and 
disbursement of money, and the correspond- 
ence with men in the field. Without assum- 
ing the name, the Conference was already a 
Foreign Missionary Society. The year that 
the Baptist Missionary Society was organized 
the Methodists were opening a mission in Af- 
rica; and the year that William Carey, with 
very scant support from his brethren, sailed 
for India, the Wesleyans were lifting collec- 
tions in all their congregations for the sup- 
port and enlargement of their Foreign 
Missions, which may rank among the most 
successful of modern days. We do not de- 
preciate the work of other Churches, but sim- 
ply claim for Methodism its rightful place in 
the van of modern Missions. 

Dr. Coke had it in his heart to commence a 
mission in the East Indies, and Providence 
opened the way. Sir Alexander Johnson, 
chief justice of Ceylon, was impressed with 
the importance of a mission on that island. 
He was familiar with the character and re- 
sults of the Wesleyan Missions in the West 
Indies, and earnestly urged the Wesleyan 

20 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Conference to extend its work to Ceylon. Dr. 
Coke warmly seconded the appeal. He not 
only advocated a mission in the East Indies, 
but claimed the privilege of sharing the toil 
of those who wonld pioneer the work. His 
friends sought to dissuade him, but after lis- 
tening to their arguments he burst into tears 
and exclaimed: "If you will not let me go, 
you will break my heart." He proposed not 
only to go out and open the mission, but out 
of his own private fortune to advance the 
money that would be required for outfit, trav- 
el, and settlement of the missionaries in the 
field. It was finally decided to send out with 
Dr. Coke six missionaries for Ceylon and one 
for the Cape of Good Hope. On the 13th of 
December, 1813, he sailed with Messrs. Ault, 
Lynch, Erskine, Harvard, Squance, and 
Clough. On the way Mrs. Ault, wife of one 
of the missionaries, died full of faith, and was 
buried in the deep. On the 3d of May, 1814, 
Dr. Coke was suddenly called to his reward, 
and his companions with sad hearts committed 
his body to the ocean. The death of Dr. Coke 
aroused the Church more effectually than his 
appeals. When left without their leader, both 
preachers and people realized the need of a 
juore thorough organization, and of combined 

Wesleyan Missions. • ^1 

and systematic effort to carry on the work in 
the mission fields which the great Head of the 
Church had plainly committed to their charge. 
In the midst of the general concern as to the 
future of Missions, Bev. George Morley, Super- 
intendent of the Leeds Circuit, proposed the 
formation of a Missionary Society in that city. 

A public meeting was convened in Leeds 
October 5, 1813, and after full discussion of 
the duty and obligation of Christians to send 
the gospel to the whole world, it was resolved 
to constitute a Society to be called "The 
Methodist Missionary Society of the Leeds 
District." The money collected was to be 
sent to the already existing committee in 
London. Other places followed the example 
of Leeds, and erelong there were Missionary 
Societies in every congregation in the king- 
dom. The Connectional Society, with a code 
of " Laws and Regulations," was not organized 
until 1816, yet the Leeds meeting in 1813 is 
considered the true commencement of the So- 

From the " Revised Rules and Regulations 
of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Socie- 
ty, passed at the Conference of 1884," we learn 
that a committee appointed by the Conference 
annually is now intrusted " with the superin- 

22 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

tendence of the collections and the disburse- 
ments of all moneys raised for the purpose of 
the Society, and also the general management 
of the missions." The General Committee 
consists of the President and Secretary of the 
Conference, the ex-President, four General 
Secretaries and an Honorary Secretary, two 
General Treasurers and a Deputy Treasurer, 
and ninety- two members. 

Ceylon Mission. 

The death of Dr. Coke left his little compa- 
ny without a leader. The enterprise had rest- 
ed largely upon his liberality, and they found 
themselves approaching a strange land with- 
out any certain assurance of support. They 
felt, however, that they were there in obedi- 
ence to the call of God, and relied on his hand 
for direction. They soon realized that he who 
said, *'Lo, I am with you alw^ay," was their 
leader in this work. They reached Bombay 
May 21, 1813. Their mission and their letters 
of introduction soon secured friends, who not 
only sympathized with their work, but ren- 
dered counsel and material aid. June 29 
the mission family, with the exception of Mr. 
and Mrs. Harvard, landed at Point de Galle. 
Lord Molesworth, the Commandant of Galle, 

Wesieyan Missions, . 23 

had been directed by the Governor of Ceylon 
to place the barracks at their disposal. He 
met them on their arrival with a fraternal wel- 
come, and rendered them cordial assistance. 
Grateful for these assurances that God was 
opening their way, they entered on their work. 
They decided to open stations at Jaffna and 
Batticaloa for the Tamil portion of the island, 
and at Galle and Metara for the Singalese. 
After celebrating the Lord's Supper together, 
in which Lord Molesworth asked permission 
to join them, Messrs. Lynch and Squance left 
Galle for Jaffna. At Colombo they were cor- 
dially welcomed by the Governor and other 
leading officials as well as the English clergy- 
man and the Baptist missionary. Here they 
met Daniel Theophilus, the first convert in 
Ceylon from Mohammedanism — a man of 
strong mind and good education. He was 
persecuted by his relatives, and his life threat- 
ened. He went with them to Jaffna. Here 
they met Christian David, a Tamil preacher 
from Tranquebar, who told them he had been 
praying for ten years that a missionary should 
be sent to Ceylon. He aided them greatly in 
their work, and they in turn assisted him in 
the way of religious instruction. The En- 
glish schools w^ere placed by the government 

24 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

under their charge. At the request of the 
English residents, they held services in En- 
glish. The other missionaries met, in their 
stations, similar aid and encouragement. 
Thus, though their leader was buried beneath 
the waves, and their means of support appar- 
ently cut off, God had provided for them, and 
opened the way for the accomplishment of 
their mission. They labored hard to acquire 
the language, and lost no opportunity to reach 
the native population. 

Mr. Clough, who remained at Galle, formed 
the acquaintance of the Moodeliar of the dis- 
trict, who called one day and stated that he 
had heard that Mr. Clough desired to open a 
school. He said he desired to place his chil- 
dren under his instruction, and offered him a 
good house near his own residence, well fur- 
nished for the school. The offer was accept- 
ed and the school opened. The influence and 
friendship of the Moodeliar caused many of 
the learned priests to call and inquire about 
the Christian religion. He secured through 
the same influence a competent Singalese 
teacher, and studied diligently the language. 
One of the most influential of the Buddhist 
priests became interested in the study of the 
Bible, and earnestly sought at the hands of 

Wesleyan Missions. . 25 

the missionary instruction respecting the doc- 
trines of Christianity. After two months' in- 
vestigation he avowed his faith in Christ, and 
desired to receive baptism, and by this act 
publicly renounced his faith in the religion of 
his ancestors. As this act would not only re- 
duce him from affluence and high position to 
poverty, but would expose his life to peril at 
the hands of his former followers and friends, 
Mr. Clough informed the Governor of the 
facts in the case and invoked his protection 
for the convert. The reply was that if the 
priest had from conviction embraced the 
Christian religion he should be protected in 
the exercise of his religious rights. Every ef- 
fort was made by the priests and his old 
friends to shake his resolution, but he was 
firm. He had " counted the cost," and on the 
25th of December, 1814, he laid aside his yel- 
low robes, and in the presence of a crowded 
congregation was baptized under the name of 
Peterus Panditta Sekarras. He supported 
himself as a Singalese translator for the gov- 
ernment while he pursued his studies with 
the view of preaching to his countrymen. 
Many of the priests were shaken in their 
faith in Buddhism, and would have embraced 
Christianity, but with the surrender of their 

26 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

yellow robes they forfeited their freehold es- 

The abundant harvest caused the laborers 
to overtax their strength. Mr. Ault, after a 
short but successful career at Batticaloa, laid 
down his trumpet and was buried with marks 
of respect by all classes of people. The ex- 
cessive labors of the others told on their 
health. Mr. Harvard, at Colombo, itinerated 
among the villages in that region, preaching 
through an interpreter. At Colombo a Sun- 
day-school with two hundred scholars was or- 
ganized. A printing-press was put in opera- 
tion under the direction of Mr. Harvard, who 
was a printer ; and spelling-books, hymn books, 
and religious tracts and books were issued in 
the Singalese, Tamil, and Portuguese lan- 

Another Buddhist priest became interested 
in the study of the Bible. He permitted Mr. 
Harvard to preach in the temple of which he 
was chief priest. After an earnest inquiry 
and a severe struggle, he publicly avowed his 
faith in Christ, though at the loss of his in- 
come and friends. He was baptized under the 
name of George Nadoris de Silva, He ac- 
companied the missionaries in their preaching 
tours. Crowds came and listened to the gos- 

Wesleyan Missions, - 27 

pel preached by one who had held high posi- 
tion in the temples of Buddha. Great num- 
bers of the priests acknowledged their belief 
in Christianity; but they had also "counted 
the cost," and were unwilling to make the 
surrender. One man among them, after 
earnest examination of the claims of the 
gospel, was baptized by the name of Benja- 
min Parks. 

In 1814 Eev. John McKinney arrived from 
the Cape of Good Hope, and in 1816 Messrs. 
Calloway, Carver, Broadbent, and Jackson re- 
enforcecl the mission. The work daily gath- 
ered strength. In 1817 the Wesleyans opened 
vernacular schools, and before the close of the 
year they had over 1,000 scholars, and during 
the first thirty years of the history of these 
schools over 21,000 pupils, male and female, 
received instruction in the numerous schools 
of the mission. The school, however, did not 
supersede the pulpit and printing-press. The 
testimony of the converts revealed a Christian 
experience as full and satisfactory as any the 
missionaries had heard or witnessed in Chris- 
tian England. In 1860 the mission reported 
43 missionaries and assistants, 3,195 members, 
and 880 on trial. In 1890 the mission in Cey- 
lon consisted of the Colombo, Kandy, Galle, 

28 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

and Jaffna Districts. These districts reported 
70 missionaries, 3,599 full members, and 1,071 
on trial. 

East India Mission. 

When the Ceylon Mission was established, 
the Wesleyan missionaries realized that God 
had opened the way to India, and in 1817 Mr. 
Lynch, the senior missionary, proceeded to 
Madras. In a short time the field became one 
of considerable usefulness. In 1819 the En- 
glish and Malabar School he had established 
had 150 pupils. In 1817 Mr. Homer and wife 
reached Bombay. He soon acquired the lan- 
guage, and began to preach to the peopla He 
gathered some forty boys in a school, which in 
1819 numbered 180. In 1821 the Madras Mis- 
sion reported 147 members. In 1823 there 
was one missionary at Seringapatum, one at 
Bengalon, and two at Negapatum, and a mem- 
bership in all of 191. In 1827 these reported 
16 schools, with 542 children, and 251 mem- 
bers, including some pioneer soldiers. The 
converts suffered much from loss of caste and 
expulsion from their families, but they "count- 
ed all things loss for the excellency of the 
knowledge of Christ Jesus their Lord." In 
1830 there were reported 9 missionaries, 25 
schools, over 1,000 scholars, many of whom 

Wesleyan Missions, • 29 

were females, and 314 members. This year 
two missionaries were sent to Calcutta, but 
after a time one was sent to Ceylon and the 
other to Bengalon. 

In 1837 Kev. Jonathan Crowther was made 
General Superintendent of the India Missions. 
Five missionaries and their families went out 
with him. There were several conversions 
this year, among them Arumaga Tambiran. 
He was of good family, had been well edu- 
cated, and was zealous for his religion. He 
was of the Siva sect, and made many pilgrim- 
ages, but they gave him no peace. The con- 
version of one of his pupils led to an inter- 
view with the missionary, and this to his own 
conversion. His former disciples sought to 
carry him off by force, and he had to appeal 
to the protection of law. Before the court, 
and in the midst of a furious crowd, he wit- 
nessed a good confession. 

In 1838 a mission was opened in the Mysore 
country. In 1839 several missionaries, among 
them Dr. Authur, author of the " Tongue of 
Fire," were sent out. In 1860 there were cen- 
tral stations at Madras, Negapatum, Manaar- 
goody, Trichinopoly, Bengalore (Tamil), 
Bengalore (Canona), and Coonghul; 17 mis- 
sionaries, and 428 members. In 1890 the 

30 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

East India Mission embraced the Madras, 
the Negapatum, the Trichinopoly, the Hydra- 
bad, the Mysore, the Calcutta, the Lucknow, 
and Benares Districts, with 79 missionaries, 
3,438 members, and 812 on trial. 

West Indies Mission. 

Nathaniel Gilbert, the Speaker of the House 
of Assembly in Antigua, visited England in 
search of health, and was converted under 
the ministry of John Wesley. He returned 
to Antigua in 1760. The African slaves 
of the island were fresh from the heathen- 
ism of Africa. He began to teach them the 
gospel, and two hundred of them were gath- 
ered into the Methodist Society under his su- 
perintendency. He met bitter opposition, but 
was faithful to his charge until death called 
him home. God took care of the little flock. 
John Baxter, a Wesleyan local preacher con- 
nected with the royal dock-yard at Chatham, 
was sent out as a shipwright. He gathered 
the remains of the Society, and in 1778 re- 
ported to Mr. Wesley that the little company 
had been kept together by the prayers and la- 
bors of two faithfid black women. For eight 
years Mr. Baxter, while making his support 
in the dock-yard, continued his labors, receiv- 

Wesleyan Missions, • 31 

ing during that time into the Society about 
two thousand souls. 

In 1786 Dr. Coke and three missionaries 
were on their v/ay to Nova Scotia, when their 
vessel was driven south by a storm, and landed 
at Antigua on Christmas-day. They met Mr. 
Baxter on his way to church. Dr. Coke 
preached that day, and administered the 
Lord's Supper. He remained six weeks in 
the West Indies; and after visiting several of 
the islands, placed Mr. Warrener at Antigua, 
Mr. Clarke at St. Vincent's, and Mr. Hammet 
at St. Christophus. From that time the West 
Indies Mission was carried on with constantly 
increasing success. The good results of the 
labors of the missionaries commanded the at- 
tention and respect of the government; and in 
1795, when the French fleet threatened Anti- 
gua, the missionary was requested to organize 
his members into a military band for the de- 
fense of the island. He and his people 
promptly responded, but the attack was not 

In 1826 all the missionaries of Antigua, 
with part of their families, were returning 
home from a district meeting when the vessel 
was wrecked. Thirteen were lost. Only one, 
Mrs. Jones, was saved. The work was re-en- 

32 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

forced and extended to Trinidad, Demarara, 
St. Eustatiiis, Barbadoes, Tortola, Jamaica, 
Bermudas, St. Domingo, and other points. 
In 1853 there were 397 preaching-places, 79 
missionaries and assistants, 48,589 members, 
259 Sunday-schools, and 18,247 scholars. In 
1890 this mission embraced two Conferences, 
with 90 ministers, 45,928 members, and 2,450 
on trial. In addition to these, the Bahama 
and Honduras District reported 17 mission- 
aries, 5,251 members, and 125 on trial. 

South Africa Mission. 

In 1814 John McKinney was sent to South 
Africa, but on his arrival the Governor re- 
fused to permit him to preach, and he was or- 
dered to Ceylon. In 1815 Barnabas Shaw and 
his wife were sent out. The Governor refused 
to grant him license to preach, but he had a 
commission from the King of kings, and the 
following Sunday, as an embassador from 
God, he delivered his message to a congrega- 
tion of soldiers. He desired, however, to 
work among the natives, and at this juncture 
Eev. M. Schemlen, a missionary of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society, came to Cape Town 
with some Namaquas. He encouraged Shaw 
to attempt a mission among the heathen be- 

Wesleyan Missions. . 33 

yoiid Orange Eiver. While in doubt as to 
whether he should engage in the undertaking 
before receiving the sanction of the Board, 
his brave and devoted wife, though in feeble 
health, urged her husband to undertake the 
enterprise, pledging her personal property to 
pay its cost if the committee in London 
should decline to meet the expense. A wagon 
and oxen and supplies were purchased, and 
they started on their w^eary journey under the 
sultry sun, Schemlen being their guide. On 
the twenty-seventh day of their journey they 
met a party of Hottentots. Conversing with 
their chief, Shaw learned that his people had 
heard of the "great w^ord," and he was on his 
w^ay to Cape Town for a missionary to teach 
him and his people the way of salvation. The 
meeting seemed providential. They had met 
where their roads crossed, and had either par- 
ty been delayed a half-hour possibly they 
would not have met, and the mission would 
not have been opened. 

The delight of the chief was great wdien he 
learned that the white man to wliom he was 
talking was a missionary in searcli of a people 
to whom he could preach the gospel of Christ. 
He wept for joy when Sliaw tol<l him that he 
v/ould go with him and instruct his people. It 

34 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

was two Imiidred miles to the home of the 
chief, and the way lay through tangled forest 
and rugged mountains. When within two or 
three days' journey from their destination, the 
chief hastened on with the good news. On 
their last day's journey some twenty or thirty 
Namaquas, mounted on young oxen and riding 
at full gallop, brought them a welcome from 
the people, and then set off at full speed to 
announce their coming. The whole town 
turned out to meet them. The next day 
they held service. During the sermon the 
chief and many of his people wept aloud. 
After the sermon arrangements for the mis- 
sion were made between the missionary and 
the chief and his people. After seeing them 
safely established in their work, Mr. Schem- 
len left them for his own field, which was dis- 
tant four weeks' journey. Mr. Shaw and his 
wife found an abundance of work. During 
the day they were building a house, tilling 
the ground, and devoting the evenings to the 
religious instruction of the people. Soon a 
chapel was built and a school commenced, a 
class formed, and erelong a Church organized 
with seventeen members by baptism. 

The work spread among the people. When 
the news reached England, great interest in 

Wesleyan Missions. ' 35 

the mission was aroused. In 1818 Kev. E. 
Edwards came out. His arrival caused great 
joy to the missionaries and the people. The 
night of their arrival they were awakened by 
tlie songs of the natives, who had gathered 
around the house of the missionaries, and in 
their native language sung the praises of their 
Redeemer. Mr. Edwards had brought with 
him a forge. When he set it up and began 
work, it was to the people a day of wonder. 
The mission was now enlarged. The nows of 
the great work spread from tribe to tribe, and 
deputations came asking for missionaries. In 
1821 the mission was strengthened by three 
new missionaries. A station was opened in 
Kaffraria and two men sent to Madagascar. 

Among the early converts under the minis- 
try of Barnabas Shaw was a Namaquan who 
was baptized under the name of Jacob Links. 
He was for some time employed as an inter- 
preter, as he understood both Dutch and En- 
glish. He learned the latter that he might 
have access to its religious literature, which 
he studied with great diligence. He soon ex- 
hibited remarkable gifts as a preacher, and 
was employed as an assistant missionary. 
One day he and Mr. Shaw met a Dutch boer 
who denied that the gospel was for the Hot- 

36 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

tentots because their name is not found in 
the Bible. Links replied: ''Master, you say 
that our names do not stand in the book. Will 
yoa tell me whether the name Dutchman or 
Englishman is to be found in it?" No an- 
swer was given. Links then said: "Master, 
you call us heathen. That is our name. Now I 
find that the book says that Jesus came as a 
light to lighten the heathen. So we read our 
name in the book." The Dutchman was si- 
lent. The argument of the Hottentot might 
silence many in our land and day who ques- 
tion the obligation of the Church to send the 
gospel to the heathen. 

Jacob and a native exhorter and Mr. Threl- 
fall, a missionary who was sent out in 1822, 
were on their way to open a new mission 
among the great Namaquas, when they 
were all murdered by the savages employed 
as their guides. After Jacob was shot, he 
died exhorting his murderers and commend- 
ing his soul to God. The death of Mr. Threl- 
fall quickened the interest in England in be- 
half of the mission, and men gladly offered 
themselves to carry on the work. 

Barnabas Shaw visited England in 1837 to 
recruit his health, but soon returned to his 
post. He closed work in 1857 on the field 

Wesleyan Missions. • 37 

where he had planted the cross. In 1860 the 
mission was divided into three districts, with 
39 chapels, 67 other preaching-places, 21 mis- 
sionaries, 2,147 members, and 3,159 Sunday- 
school scholars. In 1890 the South Africa 
Mission reported 21 missionaries, 2,299 mem- 
bers, and 620 on trial. 

West Africa Mission. 

In 1795 Dr. Coke united with a number of 
gentlemen of different denominations to open 
a mission for the civilization of the Foulahs 
of AYest Africa. The scheme proposed to civ- 
ilize and then Christianize the heathen of Af- 
rica. In 1796 Dr. Coke reported the failure 
of the enterprise to the Conference, and after 
earnest prayer and deliberation it was decided 
to open a mission on the west coast of Africa on 
the true missionary plan. The Minutes show 
that A. Murdoch and W. Patton volunteered 
and were solemnly and prayerfully set apart 
for this work. For several years the Minutes 
are silent respecting this mission. In the 
"Arminian Magazine " of 1797 the following 
item appears: " There are also in Sierra Leone, 
upon the coast of Africa, 400 persons in con- 
nection with the Methodist Society, of whom 
223 are blacks and mulattoes." 

88 Hand Book of Methodist Mi. 


In 1804 a letter from Mr. Brown appealing 
to Dr. Coke for help stated that he and Mr. 
Gordon, both local preachers, and a native 
preacher were caring for the little flock. In 
1808 a letter from this native preacher, Mingo 
Jordan, to Dr. Adam Clarke stated that, in- 
cluding the converted maroons, the members 
in and around Sierra Leone numbered 400. 
He pleads for hymn books and clothing for 
the preachers. In 1811 Dr. Coke sent Rev. 
George Warren as superintendent of the mis- 
sion. He found 110 members. The decline 
from 400 in 1797 is thus explained: After the 
war with the United States many negroes who 
had served in the British army congregated 
in London. Their deplorable condition ar- 
rested public attention. *' Subject to every 
misery and familiar w^ith every vice," they 
were festering in that great metropolis. To 
rid the city of this plague the "African Com- 
pany" was formed, the land of Sierra Leone 
was bought, and in 1787 four hundred negroes 
and sixty wdiites, the latter chiefly abandoned 
women, were emptied on the west coast of Af- 
rica. In 1791 about one thousand two hun- 
dred negroes from Nova Scotia were poured 
into this seething pool of vice. In 1808 the 
company transferred the colony to the British 

Wesleyan Missions. . 39 

Government, and it was made tlie asylum for 
captured slaves. Such was tlie material of 
which the population of Sierra Leone, which 
in 1847 amounted to 41,735, was formed. 
The strong hand of the British Government 
could secure law and order, but it could not 
transform the moral character of the people. 
This was the task that confronted the Wes- 
leyan missionaries. The deadly climate in- 
creased their difficulties. 

From 1811 to 1850 the Wesleyan Missionary 
Society sent out, including their wives, 153 
missionaries. Of these, 54 died with the fatal 
fever, and others were forced by sickness from 
the field. The committee at first fixed the 
period of service at seven years, then at three, 
then at two. Only in a few instances was that 
term of service exceeded. Many died within 
the first year, and some in a few months or 
weeks. Often stations were left without a 
missionary for months. Yet as one fell an- 
other stepped into his place, and with a hero- 
ism equal to that of the "Light Brigade," 
those brave Wesleyan missionaries went down 
into the "valley of death." In view of the 
difficulties they encountered, their success has 
been remarkable. In 1860 the Sierra Leone 
District had 31 chapels, 7 missionaries, 107 

40 Hmid Book of Methodist Missions. 

local preachers, and 6,192 members. The 
Gambia District had 6 chapels, 3 mission- 
aries, 8 local preachers, and 817 members. 
The Cape Coast District had 13 chapels, 8 
missionaries, 23 local preachers, and 1,012 
members. In 1890 the West Africa Mission 
reported 55 missionaries, 14,014 members, and 
1,652 on trial. 


In 1815 the Wesleyan Society sent a mis- 
sionary to New South Wales. At that time 
it was a penal settlement under the British 
Government. A few Methodists had gone 
out as farmers and teachers. They were in 
the midst of convicts and savages. In 1812 
they organized three classes with, in all, nine- 
teen members, and wrote to the Missionary 
Committee setting forth the condition of the 
land, and pleading for a preacher. This was 
the beginning of a mission which has grown 
into one of the largest of the British Colonial 

In 1815 Mr. Leigh was sent out. He was 
warmly welcomed by the little band. Soon 
chapels were erected at Sydney, Windsor, and 
Castlereagh, and a circuit with fifteen stations 
formed. Mr. Lawry was sent out in 1816, and 
the work was opened among the natives. In 

Wesleijan Mi fusions. ' 41 

1818 Walter Lawry was added to the mission- 
ary force, and in 1820 Mr. Walker was sent 
out to tlieir assistance. They extended the 
work both among convicts and natives, em- 
bracing widely different points in the circuits. 
Their devotion to their work commanded the 
respect of the settlers and won the confidence 
and love of the heathen tribes. 

In 1836 two missionaries were sent to Port 
Philip, South Australia, and a mission was 
opened at Victoria. The mission, re-enforced 
from England, and raising up preachers from 
its midst, was so wonderfully prospered that 
in 1854 all the Methodist Societies were or- 
ganized under the Australian Conference, with 
the four Annual Conferences of New South 
Wales and Queensland, Victoria and Tasma- 
nia, South Australia, and New Zealand. 

In 1890 the mission in Australia embraced 
the New South Wales and Queensland, the 
Chinese Mission, New South Wales, the Vic- 
toria and Tasmania, the Chinese Mission, Vic- 
toria, the South Australia, the New Zealand, 
the Maori, and the South Sea Missions. Con- 
ferences have reported 2,594 churches; other 
preaching-places, 1,616; ministers and preach- 
ers on trial, 570; full members, 70,754; on 
trial, 6,888; Sunday-school scholars, 166,482. 

42 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

The Friendly Islands. 

In 1797 the London Missionary Society sent 
several missionaries to the Society Islands. 
They were landed at Tongataboo. Three of 
them were murdered during a war among the 
natives, and the others were plundered. In 
1800 an Englkh ship arrived at the islands, 
and the discouraged missionaries were con- 
veyed to New South Wales. 

In 1822 Eev. Walter Lawry, of the Wesley- 
an Missionary Society, reached Tongataboo. 
He met but little encouragement, and removed 
to New South Wales in 1823. In 1825 the So- 
ciety sent out Revs. John Thomas and John 
Hutchison. They built a residence at Hihi- 
fo, and commenced the study of the language, 
and sought to teach the pyople, but with 
small success. They were re-enforced in 1817 
by Revs. N. Turner, W. Cross, and Mr. Weiss. 
They found two native preachers at Nukua- 
lofa, one of the chief towns of the island, who 
were preaching in the Tihiti language. Here 
they erected a chapel and had a congregation 
of over two hundred souls. 

In 1830 Mr. Thomas visited Lifuka, the 
chief of the Habai Islands. He found that 
the king had already renounced idolatry. He 
had visited Tonga a few months before, and 

Wesleijan Missions. • 43 

brought home with him as teachers a young 
man and his wife who were Christians. Mr. 
Thomas began to preach to the natives, and 
opened schools which were attended chiefly 
by adults, both male and female. They were 
taught princii^ally by natives. What one 
learned he taught to others. The king and 
the chiefs were among the scholars. After a 
few months Taufaahau, the king, and a num- 
ber of natives were baptized. A large build- 
ing, holding 1,500 people, was built, which was 
crowded with hearers. The king was active 
in his efforts to induce the people to renounce 

For three years the labors of the mission- 
aries in the island of Vavau had been unsuc- 
cessful. The king of Habai visited Yavau 
with twenty-four canoes, and the missionaries 
wrote to Finau, the king, a friendly letter. 
Taufaahau exhorted him to give up his idols 
and receive the gospel. At length he yielded, 
and burned the house of his idols. Over a 
thousand of his people joined him in renounc- 
ing idolatry. They were eager to be instruct- 
ed, and kept the Habai people busy day and 
night. As one company retired another took 
its place, eager to hear the v/onderful things 
they told them of God, who so loved the world 

44 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

that he sent his Son to die for the salvation of 
every soul. 

Among the missionaries who reached Nuku- 
alofa was W, Woon, a printer. He printed 
school-books, selections from the Bible, hymn- 
books, catechisms, and other useful books. 
They were eagerly bought by the people, and 
greatly advanced the cause. The schools soon 
sent out a supply of teachers, and other 
schools were established on several of the isl- 
ands. Native preachers proved the chief 
evangelical agency in winning the people from 
idolatry to Christ. The wives of the mission- 
aries taught the women to sew, and they were 
soon neatly dressed, while their homes re- 
vealed their advance from barbarism toward 

In July, 1834, a wonderful awakening be- 
gan at Vavau. Thousands had abandoned 
their idols and embraced the lotu^ as they 
called Christianity, but the missionaries saw 
the danger of the people settling down in a 
mere profession without the power of the gos- 
pel. They covenanted to pray for a richer 
baptism of the Spirit. Their prayers were 
heard. A native local preacher was preaching 
at a village named Utui on Christ's compas- 
sion toward Jerusalem. The word came with 

Wesleyan Missions, • 45 

power upon tlie people. They wept and con- 
tinued in prayer all night. The next Sunday 
the displays of power were renewed. The 
whole population were jjenitents. The flame 
spread from Yavau to Habai, and from there 
to Tonga, until witnesses of the power of the 
gospel to save sinners were found in all the 
islands. At Vavau the schools were suspend- 
ed, and in six weeks over 2,000 were converted 
and the members in the Society increased to 

Among the most efficient agencies in the 
great change among these people was Taufaa- 
han, the king. By the death of Fanau he be- 
came king both of Habai and Vavau. After- 
ward, by the addition of Tonga, he became the 
supreme ruler of all the Friendly Islands. 
He was baptized under the name of George, 
and his wife v^as named Catherine. He had 
been a fierce and cruel warrior. After his 
conversion he was not only a wise and faithful 
ruler, but a humble and devout Christian. 
He and his wife met classes and superintended 
schools. He was a faithful local preacher, 
never seeking to be preferred above others, 
but filling his appointments with the greatest 
cheerfulness. Commander AVilkes, of the Unit- 
ed States Exploring Expedition, was greatly 

46 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

impressed with George, both as a king and 
Cliristian, and bore generous testimony as to 
the wonderful work accomplished among his 
people by the labors of the missionaries. 

In 1853 there were on the Friendly Islands 
95 chapels, 9 missionaries, 720 day-school 
teachers, 487 local preachers, 7,161 members, 
and 7,928 Sunday-school scholars. 

Fiji Mission. 
In 1835 Kev. W. Cross and D. Cargill 
opened a mission on Lakemba, one of the Fiji 
Islands. The population of these islands was 
estimated at 200,000. They were a warlike 
race, and noted among the South Sea Islands 
for their cannibalism. When the missionaries 
approached the beach, they were met by two 
hundred men with painted faces, and armed 
with muskets, clubs, spears, and bows and ar- 
rows. They doubted whether they should 
land, but were told that the chief w^anted to 
know who they were. They went to his house 
and stated their business. He seemed pleased, 
and gave them some land and Imilt a tempora- 
ry house for each of the families. They com- 
menced preaching, and several who had re- 
ceived instruction on the Friendly Islands 
were baptized. Many others would have 
abandoned their idols, but feared their chiefs. 

Wesley an Missions. . 47 

After several years, with the aid of native 
teachers and preachers, some of whom were 
from the Friendly Islands, and some were the 
converted Fijians, they carried the gospel 
from Lakemba to Eewa, Vewa, Bna, Naudy, 
and other islands of the Fiji group. They 
usually met a favorable reception from the 
chiefs and the people. In 1845 a religious 
movement commenced in the island of Vewa 
similar to that in the Friendly Islands. The 
conviction of many was deep, and the evidence 
of a change of heart clear and bright. Many 
leaders in wickedness in former days became 
leaders in the Church of Christ. Among 
them was a chief by the name of Varin. He 
had long been the human butcher Seru, one 
of the chief kings. He had superintended 
many a cannibal feast. Under the preaching 
of the gospel his guilty conscience was 
aroused. He found peace through Christ, 
and then, like Paul, he preached the faith he 
once labored to destroy. 

China Mission. 

In 1850 George Piercy felt his heart drawn 
to the heathen world, and the call pointed him 
to the millions of China. He advised with a 
friend, Mr. Henry Peed, an intelligent and 

4:8 Hmid Book of Methodist Missions. 

zealous Christian, who sought to dissuade him 
from so hopeless an enterprise. To every ar- 
gument Piercy quietly replied: "I believe, 
sir, that God has called me to China, but I 
have no impression that I have a call to any 
other part of the mission field." He at last 
consented "for the present" to abandon the 
idea, and returned to his plow. In six months 
he again called on Mr. Eeed, and said: '*The 
impression on my mind regarding China not 
only continues, but is stronger than ever." 
Impressed by the young man's earnestness, 
Mr. Keed gave him a letter of introduction 
to Eev. William Arthur, one of the Secre- 
taries of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. 
He was kindly received by Mr. Arthur, who 
heard his story and told him that the Society 
had no money with which to open a mission 
in the vast empire of the East. Without en- 
couragement or help, Piercy determined to 
obey what he considered the call of God. He 
had saved from his wages sufficient to pay his 
passage to Hong Kong, where he landed Jan- 
uary 30, 1851. He had been told that among 
the British soldiers there was a Cliristian 
sergeant and a few pious Wesleyans. He 
repaired to the barracks and asked the first 
soldier he met if he could tell him where he 

Wesleyan Missions. . 49 

would find Sergeant Eoss. " He is dead," was 
the reply. His heart sunk, and he felt that 
he was indeed alone. A few words revealed 
the fact that the man, a corporal, w^as the only 
living member of Sergeant Eoss's class. All 
had died. The corporal told Piercy he had 
"often longed and prayed for a Christian 
companion." His prayer was answered. 
Piercy told his story, and the soldier and the 
missionary clasped hands as brethren. The 
corporal introduced him to Dr. Legge, of the 
London Missionary Society. That noble mis- 
sionary welcomed him to his home and cheered 
him with Christian sympathy and advice. 
He was soon at work. He secured rooms, one 
of which would hold about sixty people, and 
*'in his cwn hired house" began service for 
the English soldiers. Soon a class of twenty 
was formed, made up of soldiers and their 
wives. These, out of their poverty, gave some- 
thing for his support, while small sums com- 
ing from his friends in England enabled him 
to give his whole time to the work of his Mas- 
ter. After a few months he left Hong Kong 
for Canton, that he might have access to the 
native population. Dr. Hobson, of the Lon- 
don Missionary Society, met him with the 
same cordial sjjirit that had been manifested 

50 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

by Dr. Legge. He devoted himself diligently 
to the study of the language and preparing 
for the work to which he had been so strange- 
ly called. 

He again offered, himself to the Society, 
this time to be accepted. His movements and 
zeal had aroused the Church at home. Two 
young men well equipped for mission work 
requested to be sent to China. A liberal lay- 
man offered $5,000, to be paid wdien two men 
should sail to join Mr. Piercy in the field, and 
also pledged $500 per annum for the support 
of the mission. Other offers of aid came in. 
The committee recognized in these events the 
call of the Master. Piercy was accepted as a 
missionary, and W. K. Beach, J. Cox, and 
Miss Wannop, a trained teacher, were sent 
out to join him in Canton. 

The report of the Wesley an Society for the 
years 1889 and 1890 shows great prosperity in 
this China Mission. It is divided into the 
Canton and Wuchang Districts, having in 
both 18 chapels, with 16 additional preaching- 
places, 21 missionaries, 33 catechists, 1,166 
full members, and 163 on trial. 




The first missionary movement of the Bible 
Christian Missionary Society was for the pur- 
pose of sending missionaries into the morally 
and spiritually destitute regions of Great 
Britain. This was in 1821. In 1831 their 
attention was drawn to North America; 
and two missionaries were sent out. One 
opened work in Canada West, and the other 
in Prince Edward's Island. The mission was 
prospered and became a self-sustaining organ- 
ization, which numbered, when all the Metho- 
dists of Canada were united, about seven thou- 
sand souls. 

In 1850 it was decided to open a mission in 
South Australia, and Eevs. James Way and 
James Eowe were sent to the field. Later 
they sent others to Victoria, Queensland, and 
New Zealand. These missions were success- 
ful, and, as they became self-supporting, were 
placed on the list of independent circuits. 


52 English Methodist Missions. 


China was next chosen as a mission field. 
In 1885 two missionaries were sent out under 
the China Inland Mission. To meet the ex- 
pense a general fund was raised, to which the 
members contributed liberally. Six mission- 
aries were sent to the province of Yunnan — 
three to Yunnan, the capital of the province, 
and three to the city of Chang-fung-foo. The 
work has prospered. A ten days' revival in 
the capital recently led to the conversion of a 
number of the natives to Christ. The Society 
a few years ago was supporting four mission- 
aries. A native Church with seven members 
had been formed, and the day school was 
prosperous. Tracts and Bibles that set forth 
the teaching and work of Cliristianity were 
circulated. Preaching and books, with the 
medical treatment of opium patients, awakened 
much attention and secured the confidence 
of the people. In 1888 they had a station at 
Yunnan, which was served by Rev. T. G. 
Vanstone and wife and S. Pollard, and an- 
other at Chang-fung-foo, served by Rev. S. 
T. Thorne and wife and F. T. Dymond. 

The Society also had 47 missionaries at 
work among the abandoned classes of London 
and other points in England. 

The following figures from the reports end- 

Neiv Connexion Missionary Society. . 53 

ing in 1890 will indicate the expansion of 
these missions: Australia: Ordained mis- 
sionaries, 78; native teachers, 1,755; other 
helpers, 385; preaching places, 334; Sunday 
school scholars, 12,500; communicants, 5,426. 
New Zealand: Ordained missionaries, 7; na- 
tive teachers, 80; other helpers, 22; commu- 
nicants, 294. China: Ordained missionaries, 
6; members, 6. 


The Methodist New Connexion Society be- 
gan its mission work in 1824. Its first field 
was Ireland. A resolution was adopted by 
the Conference that " an effort be made to dif- 
fuse the blessings of Christianity in that is- 
land." The organization was completed at 
the Conference of 1825, and in 1826 a mission 
was opened in Belfast and adjacent towns. 
The work in this field is still continued with 
considerable success. 

Their next mission was in Canada. In 1837 
Rev. John Addyman was sent out. In 1839 
Rev. H. O. Crofts, D.D., was sent to his aid, 
and their united labors were attended with 
marked success. In 1875 it became one of 

54 English Methodist Missions. 

the leading Methodist Churches of the Do- 
minion. When it united with the Methodist 
bodies it brought as its offering to the com- 
mon altar 396 Churches, 7,661 members, and 
9,259 Sunday school scholars. 

The desire to enter the foreign field was 
cherished for years before it was realized. In 
1859 it was decided to enter China, and Rev. 
John Innocent and Eev. William A. Hall 
were commissioned for the work. They en- 
tered and commenced work in Shanghai, study- 
ing the language and surveying the field. 
Tientsin, the great seaport of North China, 
situated at the junction of the Grand Canal 
with the Pei Ho Eiver, about 30 miles from 
the sea and 80 miles southeast of Peking, was 
chosen as their first station. They were the 
pioneers at this point. The work has ex- 
panded into three circuits. At Tientsin they 
have a fine establishment in the British Com- 
pound. It has 2 missionaries and their wives, 
1 single lady, 10 native helpers, 2 out stations, 
3 churches, and 105 members. The college 
for training native preachers has 1 principal, 
1 native teacher, and 18 students. They have 
two chapels for daily preaching. The female 
college for training native women and girls 
has 4 native women and 12 girls. There is 

Neiv Connexion Missionary Society. 55 

also a chapel and native churcli at Taku, and 
at Hsing Clii, to the west of Tientsin. 

The village of Chu Chia Tsai is about 140 
miles south of Tientsin. The mission was 
opened under peculiar conditions. A farmer 
of the village was led by a dream to visit 
Tientsin and listen to the foreign preaching. 
He became a sincere believer in Christ, and 
when he returned home he took with him a 
supply of Bibles, hymn books, and religious 
publications. On reaching home he openly 
confessed his faith in Jesus as the Saviour of 
the world, invited his neighbors to his house, 
read the Bible to them, and told of his con- 
version. The people of the village were 
awakened; the work extended out into the 
district, and ere long an earnest appeal was 
sent to Tientsin for a missionary. They 
gladly responded and regular work was 
opened, and now the circuit embraces up- 
wards of 300 miles of the province and more 
than 40 native churches. 

Near the city of Tai Ping, north of Tient- 
sin, are extensive mines, worked by a syndi- 
cate of Chinese mandarins. They applied to 
the mission for a medical missionary, ojffering 
him facilities for evangelistic work among the 
workmen. The missionary was supplied, and 

56 English Methodist Missions. 

an extensive circuit was formed around the 
Tang San collieries, extending to the city of 
Yung Ping Fu, near the old wall. 

The policy of the Society has been to carry 
on the work chiefly by the aid of native help. 
The remarkable success of the mission is 
largely due to the efficiency of the native 
preachers it has trained in its theological 
school in Tientsin. In 1891, with 6 mis- 
sionaries in the field, they had 40 native 
preachers and catechists, 1,268 members, 227 
candidates for membership, 52 chapels, 19 
schools, and 178 scholars. In Shantung they 
have a hospital with beds for 30 in patients 
and a dispensary, under the charge of a med- 
ical missionary. Patients come from all parts 
of the district, often as many as thirty a day. 
This enterprise is adding largely to the influ- 
ence of the missionaries and the success of 
the mission. A number of pious native wom- 
en have been employed in teaching the gospel 
to their heathen sisters with marked success. 
They are unable to read or write, but being 
endowed with the retentive memories for 
which the Chinese are remarkable, they can 
recite appropriate selections from the Bible, 
catechisms, and hymns to the women, and ex- 
plain them with remarbable force and effect. 

United Meth. Free Church H. and F. M. S. 57 

In Tientsin they have a college for the train- 
ing of these female workers. The women it 
is sending out are carrying the gospel to 
homes and individuals that are inaccessible to 
the male missionaries. 

The report of 1889 gives for the China Mis- 
sion 7 ordained missionaries and 1,301 mem- 


The AYesleyan Association united with cer- 
tain of the Wesleyan Reformers in 1857. 
Prior to this it had opened missions in Jamai- 
ca and the colonies in Australia. Rev. Thom- 
as Pinnock, an ex- Wesleyan minister^ with 
several Churches under his charge in Jamaica, 
had proposed to unite with the Wesleyan As- 
sociation Churches, and they were received 
into the connection. In 1838 Revs. J. Blyth- 
man and J. Larkin were sent to Jamaica. The 
work has been prosperous. The membership 
has been increased and 2,000 boys and girls 
have attended the school. In 1889 the Ja- 
maica Mission reported 10 ordained missiona- 
ries and 2,17G members. 

The mission in Australia was opened in 

58 English Methodist Missions. 

1849 by Eev. J. Townsend. But little ad- 
vance was reported at tlie time of the union. 
Since then there has been an upward move- 
ment. New missionaries have been sent out, 
the work enlarged, and new stations opened. 
At the present time tlie mission is divided 
into the Victoria and Tasmania, and the New 
South Wales and Queensland Districts. In 
1889 they reported a missionary force of 35 
ordained preachers and 2,343 members, with 
88 lay workers, and 71 chapels. 

Rev. J. Tyer man began the mission in New 
Zealand in 18G4. The work has encountered 
difficulties from the removal of members and 
temporary reverses in the colony. In 1889 
there were in this field 11 ordained mission- 
ries, .37 lay workers and 946 communicants. 

In 1859 a body of Christians in Sierra Leone, 
West Africa, were admitted into the connec- 
tion of the United Methodist Free Churches, 
and Rev. Joseph New was sent to take charge 
of the work already open. Soon after Rev. 
Charles Warboys was added to the mission. 
The mission was very successful, but in a 
short time New sank under the fever and 
found a grave in African soil. Mr. Warboys 
continued the work, but soon was forced from 
the field by failing health. The call to fill 

United Meth. Free Church R. and F. M. S., 59 

tlieir places was promptly answered. Eevs. 
J. S. Potts, W. Micklethwaite, S. Walmsley, 
T. H. Cartlieii, and T. Truscott cheerfully met 
the perils of the climate and carried on the 
mission with marked success during its early 
history. Churches were built, schools opened, 
and a ministerial institute for native preach- 
ers established. In 1889 the mission report- 
ed 4 native ordained preachers and 2,809 

Charles Cheetham, of Haywood, a zealous 
member of the Methodist Free Churches, be- 
came deeply interested in the missions of Dr. 
Kraph, the pioneer missionary of East Africa. 
After an interview with the missionary, who 
warmly represented the claims of East Africa, 
and who volunteered to lead a missionary par- 
ty to the field, Mr. Cheetham succeeded in in- 
ducing his Church to engage in the enter- 
prise. Eevs. Thomas Wakefield and James 
Woolner and two young Swiss were appoint- 
ed and sailed for Africa with Dr. Kraph in 
1861. Their leader brought them to the field, 
but very soon his health gave way, the health 
of Woolner also failed, and they were com- 
pelled to return home. They soon were fol- 
lowed by the two young Swiss. Mr. Wake- 
field was alone until Eev. Charles New was 

60 English Methodist Missions. 

sent out late in 1862. The two missionaries met 
bravely the vicissitudes of pioneer work and 
went among the savage races around them. In 
1868 Mr. Wakefield visited England, and, after 
pleading the cause of Africa, returned. Mr. 
New returned home in 1872. The stirring ap- 
peals of these faithful missionaries greatly 
deepened the interest of the Church in behalf 
of the mission. Mr. New returned to the field 
in 1874. He attempted a new mission, but re- 
ceived cruel treatment from a savage chief. 
He attempted to reach Kibe, but his strength 
failed. Mr. Wakefield started to relieve him, 
but when he reached the place his faithful 
comrade had gone to his reward. Mr. New 
possessed noble qualities as a pioneer mis- 

Mr. Wakefield was again alone. He was 
with the Wa Kyika race, some twelve miles 
from the ocean. In addition to faithful evan- 
gelical work he translated portions of the 
Bible and hymns into the language of the peo- 
ple. In 1886 the solitary missionary was 
cheered by the arrival of Rev. John Baxter, 
John Houghton, and Rev. W. H. During, the 
last a colored minister from West Africa. 
Baxter soon broke down and returned home. 
Mr. Houghton and wife, while at Goldbante, 

United Meth. Free Church H. mid F. M. S. 61 

a new station on the river Sana, where Mr. 
Wakefield had recently opened a mission to 
the Gallas, was massacred with a number of 
native converts. Mr, During alone remained 
of the party. He has been a most trustworthy 
and useful missionary. 

Mr. Wakefield remained until 1887, when 
he was relieved by the arrival of Kevs. F. J. 
Horn, T. H. Carthen, and W. G. Howe. They 
were placed respectively at Elbe, Jomvu, and 
Goldbante, in the Galla country, where Mr. 
During was at work. The mission has been 
greatly hindered by tribal contests, especially 
in the Galla country, but the stations have 
not been assailed. The mission is consid- 
ered one of the best and strongest of the Uni- 
ted Methodist missions. In 1889 it had 4 or- 
dained missionaries and 223 communicants. 

The China Mission was opened in 1864 by 
Eev. W. E. Fuller, at Ningpo. He was soon 
joined by Eev. John Mara. In 1868 Eev. T. 
W. Galpin joined the mission. He remained 
in the work about ten years. In 1869 Mr. 
Galpin was alone. In 1871 Eev. Eobert Swal- 
low became his fellow-laborer, and opened 
work in one of the suburbs of Ningpo. A 
little later they were joined by Eev. E. I. Ex- 
ley. He was a zealous missionary, but ere he 

62 Englhh Methodist Mi 


could carry out liis plans consumption closed 
his labors. His place was filled by Eev. W. 
Sootliill, who was sent out to open a new sta- 
tion at Wenchow. ^The war with France had 
embittered the Chinese in Wenchow against 
foreigners, and a riot followed, in which the 
mission premises were destroyed and the mis- 
sion discontinued. When peace was restored 
the Chinese Government made ample compen- 
sation for all losses, and the work was resumed 
and has since been carried on successfully. 

In 1886 Mr. Swallow and family returned 
to England. His chief object was to prepare 
for the work of a medical missionary. His 
object accomplished, he returned with his wife 
to Ningpo, where they have carried on their 
work with greatly increased success. The 
mission in 1889 reported 3 stations, 3 ordained 
missionaries, and 325 members. 

All the United Methodist Missions report 
62 stations, 63 ordained missionaries, and 10,- 
108 communicants. 


The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists felt the 
pulsations of the missionary spirit very early 

Welsh Calvinistic Methodist M. S. -63 

in the present century. Their operations 
prior to 1840 were conclncted through the Lon- 
don Missionary Society. They were liberal 
contributors to its income,. and several of its 
most efficient missionaries had been trained 
for their ministry. The desire that their con- 
nection should have a mission under its own 
charge had been growing for years, and culmi- 
nated January 31, 1810, in the organization of 
the "Welsh Calvinistic Foreign Missionary 

Its first field was on the northeastern border 
of Bengal. It embraces the mountain range 
that sejoarates the valley of Assam from the rich 
I)lains of Bengal, inhabited by the Garos, 
Kliasis, Jaintias, Nagas, and other hill tribes. 
The treaty made by the British Government 
with the Kings of Khasia in 1834 provided for 
a military station at Cherra Punji and a road 
across the Khasia Hills to the British terri- 
tory in Assam. This opened the field to mis- 
sionary labor. It "was soon visited by Mr. 
Lish, of the Serampore Mission, but he did not 
remain. In 1837 it was explored by Kev. J. 
Tomlin, who remained for a few months. 
When the AYelsh Foreign Society was formed 
Mr. Tomlin pointed out Khasia to the directors 
as an open and promising field. His sugges- 

64 English Methodist Missions. 

tions were accepted, and Rev. Thomas Jones was 
chosen to plant the first mission in northeast- 
ern India. He reached Cherra Pnnji on June 
20, 1841. As the people had no literature or 
books, the task of acquiring the language was 
very difficult. With the assistance of two 
young natives who had learned a little English 
from Mr. Lish, he was able to overcome many 
difficulties and make considerable progress. 

In 1842 Revs. W. Lewis, James Williams, and 
Dr. Owen Richards were ordained for the 
mission field. Mr. Williams and wife were 
sent to open mission work in Brittany, in the 
western part of France. The interest awakened 
in behalf of the Bretons arose from the fact 
that being a branch of the Celtic family they 
spoke a kindred dialect. The work is carried 
on at Quimper, Pont I'Abbe, Douarnenez, and 
other points in Brittany. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis and Dr. Richards, the 
latter a medical missionary, reached Cherra 
Punji January 20, 1843. They remained in 
the field until 1861. In September, 1845, Rev. 
Daniel Jones joined the little band, but he 
died in a few months after entering the field. 
Revs. W. Pryse, T. Jones, R. Parry, D. Sykes, 
and G. Hughes were sent out at different times; 
but owing to death, sickness, or defection, the 

Welsh Calvinistk Methodist M. S. '65 

work was reduced to one or two men. There 
were only fourteen converts during the first 
decade of the mission. There was a congre- 
gation at Nongsawlia of from 80 to 100, and a 
day school of 30 boys and 18 girls under 
charge of Mrs. Lewis. 

A mission was established at Jowai, the 
leading city of the Jainta hills, in 1846. The 
work subsequently extended to various parts 
of the hills. Work was opened by Eev. W. 
Pryse at Sythet, in the plains of Bengal, in 
1849. The work was carried on for a time 
with much vigor and some success by Kevs. 
Jones, Parry, Eoberts, and Hughes. Circum- 
stances, however, determined the mission to 
confine its operations to the Khasia and 
Jaintia Hills. 

When the mission was opened the people 
were destitute of a written language. Since 
then the New Testament has been translated 
into Khasi and several editions published; 
also the Pentateuch, a hymn book, Dr. AVatts's 
New Testament History, Pilgrim's Progress, 
and a nuDiber of schoolbooks and tracts. 
The missionaries expect ere long to complete 
the translation of the Old Testament. 

The change wrought among the people is 
visible in their outward condition. Their 

66 English Methodist Missions. 

houses are improved, their persons cleanly, 
and their land carefully cultivated. They give 
liberally to support the gospel, and educate 
their children. They have demonstrated the 
sincerity of their faith by their fidelity under 
persecution from their kindred. Many have 
read the story of U. Borsing Siim, who de- 
clined the Eajahship of Cherra rather than 
surrender his profession of Christ. 

From a recent report we learn that the mis- 
sion was divided into seven districts with six 
missionaries and twenty-one native evangelists. 
There had been an increase of seventeen in 
the places where religious services were held 
and day schools established. An increase of 
217 in the communicants was reported. The 
Cherra District has been under charge of 
Eev. John Roberts. Religious services and 
schools were held at ten stations. The evan- 
gelical work was carried on with the aid of 
four native preachers. The report of 100 can- 
didates indicate their efficiency. Their school 
work has been an important agency. A day 
school was established in Cherra by their first 
missionary. It has grown into a Normal 
School that now supplies many village schools 
on the hills with teachers. The Shillong Dis- 
trict, under Rev. T. J. Jones, reported an in- 

Primitive Methodist Missionmij Society. - 67 

crease of 158 members. During tlie year Mr. 
Jones and wife visited the country northeast of 
Khasia. They found in that region a Chris- 
tian village. It had been settled in 1885 by a 
Christian family from Nongjiri. They were 
joined by several heathen families who had re- 
nounced demon worship, built a schoolhouse, 
and were learning to read with the Christian 
as their teacher. These hill people were very 
superstitious. They believed that all their 
bodily ailments were caused by demons. The 
cures wrought by Dr. Griffith have convinced 
them that the medical missionary is mightier 
than the demon. Many have been thus led to 
the Great Physician. The Rajah of Nonga- 
low has become a zealous member of the 
Church. The communicants reported in 1885 
were 1,110 and the candidates for member- 
ship 1,158. 


The Primitive Methodists arose as a body 
in 1810. In 1843 they began to establish 
mission stations in Canada, New Zealand, 
Australia, Victoria, New South Wales, Queens- 
land, and Tasmania. 

In 1869 a Liverpool trading vessel touclied 

68 Engllsli Methodist Missions. 

at the island of Fernando Po, in the Gulf of 
Guinea, on the west coast of Africa. The 
captain and carpenter were Primitive Metho- 
dists. AYhile on shore Mr. Hands, the car- 
penter, met a few Christians who had been 
connected with a Baptist Mission. Their 
missionary, Mr. Saker, had been expelled by 
the Spanish authorities. The little flock wel- 
comed Mr. Hands, who held several meetings 
wdth them. They wished him to remain, as a 
change in government allowed liberty of wor- 
ship. This was impossible, but he presented 
the wants of this faithful band and the hea- 
then around to the Missionary Committee of 
his Church, and after carefully considering 
the outlook Rev. R. W. Burnett and H. Roe 
and their wives were sent to Santa Isabel, the 
chief town on the island of Fernando Po, in 
January, 1870. Land was soon obtained and 
the work commenced. In 1871 Rev. D. T. 
Maylott was sent out to open a mission on the 
western coast. In 1873, in company with 
Rev. W. N. Barleycorn, one of the first con- 
verts at Santa Isabel, he reached Georges Bay. 
Land Avas secured and houses for church, 
parsonage, and school were built. A cate- 
chumen class was formed in February, 1874. 
In October the first convert, a young man 

Primitive Methodist Missionary Societij. 69 

named Hoorree, was baptized. The work in 
Santa Isabel was very successful, reenforce- 
ments were sent out and a station opened at 
Banni, on the northeast coast of the island, to 
which Mr. Barleycorn was sent. Troubles with 
the Spanish authorities forced his return. A 
better understanding with Spain now exists, 
educational advantages have been secured, and 
the mission is steadily growing. 

In 1869 Eev. H. Buckenham Avas sent to 
open a mission at Aliwall, in Cape Colony, in 
South Africa. He conducted worship for a 
time in a Dutch church. Soon a room was 
fitted up, and after a time a day school for 
native pupils opened. Later a church and 
parsonage and schoolhouse were built. In 
1875 Kev. John Smith succeeded Mr. Buck- 
enham. A training school for natives has 
been opened, which it is hoped will be made 
self-sustaining. In the report for 1891 it is 
stated that in all the foreign stations there 
was a membership of 653, being an increase 
of 127. The work at Aliwall continues to 
grow in every department. It had at last re- 
ports 3 traveling and 27 local preachers, 5 
chapels, and 522 members — being an increase 
of 120. 

In 1889 Eev. H. Buckenham and wife, Kev. 

10 English Mefhodisf Missions. 

A. Baldwin, and Mr. J. Ward sailed for 
Africa where they hoped to plant a mission 
on the Upper Zambesi. They left Kimberly 
March 28, 1890, and after a journey of five 
months reached the Zambesi River. The out- 
look was encouraging. 


Prior to 1883 Methodism in Canada was 
divided into four sections — viz., the Meth- 
odist Church of Canada, the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Canada, the Primitive Meth- 
odist Church of Canada, and the Bible Chris- 
tians of Canada. Up to that date each body 
supported and controlled its own missions. 
Since the union of these bodies into the Meth- 
odist Church in Canada there has been but 
one fund and one management. 

The Missionary Society of the Methodist 
Church in Canada was originated in 1824. 
Its operations were among the early settlers 
on the frontier and the Indians of Ontario. 
The field has extended until it embraces the 
whole of the Dominion, Newfoundland, Ber- 
muda, and Japan. The Domestic Missions — 
which embrace the dependent fields of the 

Methodist Church of Canada. ' 71 

Cbiirch among the English-speaking people 
throughout the Dominion, Newfoundland, and 
Bermuda — report 416 missionaries and 40,376 
members. Their expenditures in 1891 were 

The French work is within the Province of 
Quebec. They report 9 missions, 7 missiona- 
ries, 2 supplies, and 254 members. The work 
is peculiar and difficult. At points the mis- 
sionaries and converts endure persecution for 
the cause of Christ. 

The Society sustains extensive work among 
the Indians. The British Columbia Confer- 
ence reported, in 1891, 14 missions, 10 mis- 
sionaries, 4 supplies, and 1,044 members. 
The Manitoba and Northwest Conference has 
17 missions and 11 missionaries. Some mis- 
sions receive only an occasional visit. It re- 
ports 124 members. The central Confer- 
ences embrace the Toronto, London, Niagara, 
Guelph, Bay of Quinte, and Montreal Confer- 
ences, 28 missions, 16 missionaries, 1, 845 mem- 
bers. Total 47 missionaries and 4,138 mem- 
bers. The expenditure for the Indian work 
reported in 1891 was $42,861.89. 

The Chinese work was begun in 1885 with- 
in the bounds of the British Columbia Con- 
ference. It has missions at Victoria, Nanai- 

72 English Methodist Missions. 

mo, Vancouver, New Westminster, Kam- 
loops, Ladners Landing. It reports 3 mis- 
sionaries, 1 assistant, and 165 members. 

The Society has but one foreign mission. 
The Japan Mission was begun in 1873, when 
two men were sent to that field. They 
have now an Annual Conference with 19 
missions, 28 missionaries, 22 assistant mis- 
sionaries, 12 native teachers, and 1,819 
members. The expenditures for 1891 were 
$26,523.73. In proportion to its force in the 
field and the money expended the Canada 
Methodist Mission is one of the most vigor- 
ous and successful in Japan. The recent 
completion of tlie tabernacle at Tokio has 
added greatly to the efficiency of the work at 
that point. Immense congregations are re- 
ported. During 1891 26 were baptized and 
as many remained on trial. The Bible classes 
and Sunday schools were doing effective work. 
At Azabu the regular congregation was about 
250. The Bible women were doing good 
work. The young men of the Church were 
active in school work and efforts to reach 
young men of their kindred or race. Their 
school, styled Eiwa Gakko, is doing good 
service in preparing young men to preach the 
gospel to their own people. 


Prior to the division of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church into its two great co-ordinate 
branches, its missionary operations were un- 
der the direction of the Parent Society. The 
history of that Society is the common proper- 
ty of both divisions of the Parent Church. 
We recognize the interest our Northern breth- 
ren have in that portion of our early history, 
although in their history of the early missions 
of our Church they are silent respecting the 
claims Southern Methodism may have in this 
portion of our common inheritance. After 
having completed our account of the missions 
of our own branch of the Methodist family, 
we will present in due order a brief history of 
the extended and successful missions of North- 
ern Methodism. 

The Society Organized. 

"Beginning at Jerusalem." That was the 
starting-point; but the Master had said: " The 
field is the world." Moving fj-om that center, 


74 Hand Booh of MetJiodist Missions, 

tlie apostles went forth, their forces multiply- 
ing as they advanced until, before the last of 
their number had laid down his commission, 
the gospel of the kingdom had been X3reached 
among all the nations of the then known world. 
On this line early Methodism moved. Begin- 
ning at London, it soon was heard in Bristol. 
The pulpits of Bristol were closed against it, 
and its message was heard by the colliers of 
Kingswood. It spread from city to city, gath- 
ering strength as it advanced, until its societies 
were organized in all the leading centers of 
the United Kingdom. Then a call was heard 
from America, and Boardman and Pilmoor 
were sent out to carry on the work in the West- 
ern world. Already a flame had been kindled 
by Philip Embury and Capt. Webb, in New 
York. The work spread in the colonies, sur- 
vived the war, and in 1784 the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was fully organized, and entered 
ux3on its work on this continent. Erelong 
Methodism was established in the leading cit- 
ies, towns, and communities of the United 
States, and began to find its way into the des- 
titute regions around. 

About the year 1812 Bishop Asbury began 
to solicit contributions for the support of min- 
isters who were sent to circuits where there 

M/ssio7is in the South. . 75 

was no adequate support. All subscriptions 
were carefully entered by liim in a memoran- 
dum book which he carried with him, and the 
money was employed as the increasing wants 
of these destitute circuits required. This may 
be considered the beginning of Domestic or 
Home Missions of American Methodism. We 
will see before we have finished the account of 
the missions of the Methodist Church that this 
department of Christian effort has not been 

A wide field was also open to earnest evan- 
gelical labor in the vast frontier that w^as rap- 
idly opening in the unknown regions of the 
West. Population w^as pushing out into the 
wilderness, and the field was destined to make 
heavy demands on the zeal of the pioneer 
preachers and the liberality of the older organ- 

TJie Churches in Europe and America w^ere 
beginning to stir under the calls coming from 
the regions overshadowed by the pall of pagan 
night. The Wesleyan Methodists had been 
in the field for nearly a half-century. The 
Baptist movement of 1793 had aroused other 
branches of the Protestant Church. The Con- 
gregationalists and Baptists of the United 
States had fallen into line with their English 

76 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

brethren, and many thoughtful men were be- 
ginning to inquire whether American Meth- 
odism had not also a mission in the heathen 
world. While earnest men were debating this 
question, a voice was heard from the Indians 
of the West that profoundly stirred the con- 
science of the Church. A drunken negro 
(John Stewart), in the town of Marietta, O., 
on his way to the river to drown himself, was 
arrested by the voice of Marcus Lindsley, a 
noted Methodist preacher of his day. The 
sermon resulted in his conversion. An im- 
pulse — who will say it was not the same that 
sent Paul to Macedonia? — moved him to bear 
his message among the savage tribes of the 
North-west. He reached the Wyandotte 
Agency. His simple story touched the heart 
of the agent, and his preaching resulted in the 
conversion of several chiefs and a number of 
the people. This work, demonstrating the 
gospel to be the power of God unto salvation 
of those savage tribes, stirred the entire Church, 
and was among the leading agencies which led 
to the organization of our Missionary Society. 
Nathan Bangs, Joshua Soule, and other lead- 
ers of our Methodist Israel in the city of New 
York, after earnest counsel and prayer, de- 
cided that the time had come when American 

Missions in tJie South. ' 77 

Methodism should jom in the organized mis- 
sionary movements for the conversion of our 

In answer to a call made in the Methodist 
pulpits of the city of New York a meeting was 
held April 5, 1819, at which the pastors, Book 
Agents, editors, and leading laymen were pres- 
ent. Joshua Soule took prominent part in the 
discussion. On his motion the meeting con- 
sidered and adopted the Constitution and pro- 
ceeded to the election of its officers. Their 
names are worthy of record: Bishop William 
McKendree, President; Bishop Enoch George, 
First Vice-president; Bishop Eobert B. Bob- 
erts. Second Vice-president; Bev. Nathan 
Bangs, Third Vice-president; Mr. Francis 
Wall, Clerk; Mr. Daniel Ayres, Becording 
Secretary; Bev. Thomas Mason, Correspond- 
ing Secretary; Bev. Joshua Soule, Treasurer. 

The movement met with strong opposition. 
It was claimed that the Church was poor, 
and that the work growing on its hands to 
meet the wants of the rapidly increasing pop- 
ulation of the country would tax to the ut- 
most its resources. Some of the Board of 
Managers resigned, and months would elapse 
and no meetings would be lield. A few had 
unfaltering faith in the success of the move- 

78 JLind Booh of Metliodisf Missions. 

ment. At one of the meetings of the Board, 
wJien the number present was small and the 
prospect dark, Joshua Soule uttered the char- 
acteristic words: "The time will come when 
every man who assisted in the organization of 
this Society and persevered in the undertak- 
ing will consider it one of the most honorable 
periods of his life." His words were prophetic. 
The Constitution provided that the Society 
should be established "wherever the Book 
Concern should be located," and the Churches 
in all the leading cities throughout the Connec- 
tion were authorized to organize auxiliary so- 
cieties. The women of the Church were the 
first to respond. The first auxiliary was the 
Female Missionary Society in the city of New 
York. It existed for nearly half a century. It 
may be considered the beginning of woman's 
work for woman in organic form in the United 
States. It manifested a special interest in the 
work both of married and unmarried female 
missionaries, and did efficient work in raising 
money and diffusing the spirit of Missions 
throughout the Church. The Young Men's 
Missionary Society in New York was the next 
auxiliary that was formed. Its chief work 
was in connection with missions in Liberia, 

Missions in the So/ffh, 79 

Tlie Bishops cordially indorsed the Society, 
and co-operated actively in its operations. The 
Baltimore Conference was the first to fall into 
line and organize an auxiliary. Then came 
the Virginia Conference, and next the Gene- 
see Conference. The Domestic Missionary 
Society at Boston was organized, and became 
an auxiliary. Auxiliaries were also formed at 
Cortland, N. Y.; Stamford, Conn.; and Colum- 
bia, S. C. These all sent up their collections, 
which at the close of the first year aggregated 
$823.64. The first anniversary of the Society 
was held April 17, 1S20, in John Street Church, 
New York. Nathan Bangs presided and made 
the opening address. The report was read, 
speeches made, and the election and collection, 
with a few items of business, closed the hour. 
The attendance was not large. Many, during 
the days of its infancy, "despised it as a day 
of small things." Many at the present day re- 
joice, for they see in that humble organization 
the hand of God planning a movement that is 
extending itself through the whole earth. 

At the General Conference of 1820, held in 
Baltimore, the bishops in their address called 
attention to the Missionary Society, and warm- 
ly commended it to the favorable consideration 
and action of the General Conference. The ad- 

80 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

dress was referred to a committee, which in its 
report fully committed American Methodism 
to the cause of Foreign Missions. It said: 
"Methodism itself is a missionary system. 
Yield the missionary spirit, and you yield the 
very life-blood of the cause." The report, 
and the Constitution with some modifications, 
received the unqualified indorsement of the 
General Conference; then the New York Soci- 
ety surrendered its life to give birth to the 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The General Conference had barely 
closed its session, when the Treasurer an- 
nounced a donation of $500 from Dr. Nehemi- 
ah Gregory, one of the managers. Other lib- 
eral offerings came in. One by one the 
Conferences became auxiliary to the Parent 
Society, until the organization was complete, 
and Episcopal Methodism was fully identified 
with the great missionary movement of the 
nineteenth century. 

The prophetic words of Joshua Soule have 
been fulfilled. The Church has indorsed that 
organization which, amid many discourage- 
ments, he and his associates established. At 
the close of the year 1821 the collections were 
$2,328.76; in 1844 they were $146,578.78. In 
1890 the collections of Northern and Southern 

Missions in the South. .81 

Methodism for Foreign and Domestic Mis- 
sions, including the collections of the Woman's 
Boards, amounted to 11,934,088.77, 

Missions Among the Colored People. 

As early as 1787 we learn of the existence of 
colored members of the Methodist Church in 
Philadelphia and New York. They had be- 
come dissatisfied with the relations between 
themselves and their white brethren, and the 
troubles which followed resulted in the forma- 
tion of two independent Colored Methodist 
Churches. The cause of complaint, as set 
forthinthe "Preface" to the bookof Discipline 
of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, 
reads as follows: "In November, 1787, the 
colored people belonging to the Methodist So- 
ciety of Philadelphia convened together to 
take into consideration the evils under which 
they labored, arising from the unkind treat- 
ment of their white brethren who considered 
them a nuisance in the house of worship, and 
even pulled them off their knees while in the 
act of prayer and ordered them to back seats. 
For these and various other acts of unchristian 
conduct, they considered it their duty to de- 
vise a plan in order to build a house of their 
own, to worship God under their own vine and 

82 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

fig-tree." These troubles culminated in the 
formation, "in 1816, of the African Methodist 
Episcopal Church," which in doctrine and dis- 
cipline is modeled after the Church from 
which it sprung. The colored Methodists in 
New York, a few months later, organized un- 
der the name of the "Colored Methodist Epis- 
copal (Zion) Church." These two organizations 
are now among the largest negro Churches in 
the world, and are doing noble work for the 
evangelization of their race. After the organ- 
ization of these two colored Churches but lit- 
tle attention was given by the Methodist 
Conferences in the North to the religious in- 
struction of the colored people in their midst. 
Owing to these facts, and also that the great 
bulk of the negroes was in the South, the 
missions of Methodism among the colored peo- 
ple were confined for nearly half a century to 
the Southern Conferences. They furnished 
the preachers who supplied them with relig- 
ious instruction, and the Southern people pro- 
vided the church-buildings in which they wor- 
shiped God. 

The commission of Methodist preachers 
sends them "to all nations," and when the 
negroes came within the range of their min- 
istrations, they shared freely the benefits of 

Missions in the South, 83 

tlieir labors. As Methodism extended in the 
South, this became the established order. 
The same pastor proclaimed the gospel to 
master and slave. Often they assembled in 
the same congregation — the whites in the 
body of the church, and the slaves in the gal- 
lery or a portion of the house set apart for 
their use. When special services were held 
for the colored people, they occupied the body 
of the church, while the master and mistress 
were seated in that part of the church usually 
assigned the negroes. In stations or large ap- 
pointments, and on quarterly or camp meeting 
occasions, special services were held for the 
benefit of the colored people. The pastor who 
preached to all in the morning would j^reach 
to the slaves from the same pulpit in the aft- 
ernoon. Under these ministrations remarka- 
ble results were accomplished, and in the sev- 
eral Conferences the colored membei'fe were 
numbered by thousands. 

In 1808 Bishop Asbury, for the first time, 
records the appointment of missionaries to the 
colored people in South Carolina. J. H. Mil- 
lard was appointed to a mission on the Savan- 
nah River and James E. Glenn to a mission 
on the Santee. These names should be held 
jn sacred remembrance. They are the pioneer^ 

84 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

of a mission that brought multitudes of the 
sons of Ham to a knowledge of the cross. As 
the Church in the South extended its borders 
and multiplied its laborers, this movement, 
opened in South Carolina, was extended 
through the Connection. Missions were organ- 
ized in all the Conferences, and men carefully 
chosen for the work devoted their entire time 
to the religious instruction of the slaves. They 
assembled them in congregations, baptized, 
and organized them into societies, adminis- 
tered the holy communion, visited and prayed 
with them in their cabins, and buried their 
dead. In many places houses of worship were 
built for their use, or when this was not done 
they used the same house in which the white 
people worshiped. At camp, quarterly, or pro- 
tracted meetings religious service was careful- 
ly provided for the colored people. Their re- 
ligious opportunities corresponded with those 
enjoyed by the whites. Many were licensed 
to preach and exhort, and some exhibited such 
remarkable gifts that they attracted crowds of 
white people to their services. They were thus 
trained for the work for which God was pre- 
paring them among their own people. 

While a great work was accomplished in be- 
half of the negro by ministrations of pastors 

Missions in the South. 8.5 

in their charges and by missionaries assigned 
to this special work, thoughtful men realized 
that their provisions failed to reach the negroes 
on the large sugar, cotton, and rice plantations, 
especially when they were located in river val- 
leys, where, owing to malaria, but few white 
people made their homes. Among those who 
were deeply concerned in behalf of this class 
was Dr. (afterward Bishop) Capers. At length 
a way for the supply of this portion of the ne- 
gro population of the South was presented. 
The attention of a wealthy planter on the San- 
tee River had been arrested by the good re- 
sults that had followed the efforts of a Meth- 
odist overseer on tho plantation of a friend in 
Georgia, and he was anxious to employ a man 
of like qualifications. Knowing the interest 
Dr. Capers felt in the religious welfare of the 
slaves, this gentleman called on him to learn 
if he knew of a Methodist exhorter whom he 
could recommend as an overseer. Dr. Ca^Ders 
was unable to name a suitable man, but sug- 
gested that if he would allow him to make ap- 
plication at the approaching Conference to the 
bishop and Mission Board a minister of un- 
questionable character could be sent to his 
plantation, whose time and labors would be 
devoted to the religious instruction of his 

86 Hand Book of 3Iethodist Missions. 

slaves. The suggestion was accepted. Short- 
ly after a similar request was made by two 
planters on the Pon Pon and Combahee. The 
bishop and Mission Board promptly met the 
call. Two men were chosen who seemed spe- 
cially suited to a work of such delicacy and 
importance. The following account of the 
movement from the pen of Dr. (afterward 
Bishop) Wightman, coj^ied by Bishop Mc- 
Tyeire in his "History of Methodism," pre- 
sents clearly the difficulties of the enterprise 
and the. success it achieved: 

" The first missionaries were the Rev. John 
Honour and the Rev. John H. Massey. As if 
to try the faith of the Church and test its 
power of self-sacrifice, John Honour, although 
a native of the low countries, took the bilious 
fever through exposure in the swamps of his 
field of labor, and in September ended his mor- 
tal life and glorious work together and entered 
into his rest. The operations of the first year 
gathered four hundred and seventeen Church- 
members. Foot-hold was gained. The ex- 
periment, eyed with distrust by most of the 
planters, denounced by many as a hurtful in- 
novation upon the established order of things, 
favored by very few, was commenced. The 
noble-hearted e:entlemen who went forward in 

Missions in the South. 87 

the movement were in advance of their time, 
and could not but feel that they had assumed 
a heavy responsibility in indorsing for the 
beneficial results of such an undertaking. Of 
course they watched the development of the 
affair with no small solicitude. As far as it 
went the first year it was perfectly satisfactory. 
The second year the membership of these mis- 
sions more than doubled itself. Incredibly 
small, however, was the treasure-chest of the 
Missionary Society. The sum of two hundred 
and sixty-one dollars was reported to the An- 
nual Conference as the aggregate of the col- 
lections for the year 1830. The following year 
another of the ministers of the Conference was 
added to the small but brave forlorn-hope. 
The oral instruction of the little negroes by cat- 
echism was commenced; two hundred and fifty 
of these were placed under the care of the mis- 
sionaries, and nine handred and seventy-two 
Church-members were reported. At the ensu- 
ing session of the Conference, held at Darling- 
ton early in 1832, a decided and memorable 
impulse was given to the missionary spirit, 
particularly among the preachers, by a speech 
delivered at the anniversary of the Missionary 
Society by the Rev. (now Bishop) James O. 
Andrew. After the usual preparatory exer- 

88 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

cises, he was introduced to the meeting, and 
read the following resolution : ' That, while we 
consider false views of religion as being every 
way mischievous, and judge from the past that 
much evil has resulted from that cause among 
the slave population of this country, we are 
fully persuaded that it is not only safe, but 
highly expedient to society at large to furnish 
the slaves as fully as possible with the means 
of true scriptural instruction and the worship 
of God.' We have heard many good and clev- 
er speeches in our time, a few withal that de- 
served to be called great, but foremost in our 
recollection stands the remarkable speech 
made by Bishop Andrew on that occasion. He 
drew a picture of the irreligious, neglected 
plantation negro, Claude-like in the depth of 
his tone and color. He pointed out his deg- 
radation, rendered but the deeper and darker 
from the fitful and transient flashings up of 
desires which felt after God — scintillations of 
the immortal, blood-bought spirit within him, 
which ever and again gleamed amidst the dark- 
ness of his untutored mind. He pointed out 
the adaptation of the gospel to the extremest 
cases. Its recovering power and provisions 
were adequate to the task of saving from sin 
and hell all men of all conditions of life, in all 

Missions in the Sonfh. 89 

stages of civilization. He pointed to the con- 
verted negro, the noblest prize of the gospel, 
the most unanswerable proof of its efficiency. 
There he was, mingling his morning song with 
the matin chorus of the birds, sending up his 
orisons to God under the light of the evening 
star, contented with his lot, cheerful in his 
labors, submissive for conscience's sake to 
plantation discipline, happy in life, hoi3ef ul in 
death, and from his lowly cabin carried at last 
by the angels to Abraham's bosom. Who 
could resist such an appeal, in which argu- 
ment was fused in fervid eloquence? The 
speech carried by storm the whole assem- 
bly." (McTyeire's "History of Methodism," 
pp. 585, 586.) 

The following extract from the report of the 
Board of Managers at its anniversary, Janu- 
ary, 1832, indicates the character of the work 
and the progress it was making: 

" The mission on the Santee numbers up- 
ward of three hundred members of the Church 
in regular and good standing. A considerable 
number of the slaves have been baptized dur- 
ing the past year. There is an evident im- 
provement among the negroes, both as regards 
the number who attend the means of grace 
and the solemn attention given to the word 

90 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

" The negroes served on the Savannah Eiver 
Mission [by the Rev. James Dannelly] being 
found convenient to meeting-houses, it has 
been judged expedient to throw that mission 
into the regular work of the circuit. 

" The mission on Combahee, Pon Pon, and 
Wappahoola has had an increase the last year 
of 230 members, making the aggregate number 
of members 670. Upward of 100 little negroes 
receive catechetical instruction, 128 have been 
baptized, and the missionary expresses his 
conviction that the religious experience of the 
blacks is deeper and their deportment more 
becoming every year. 

"Guided by experience and cheered by suc- 
cess, we come to bind ourselves afresh to this 
holy work, and to renew the solemn obligations 
which the enterprise of negro instruction and 
salvation imposes on us. Into this long-neg- 
lected field of danger, reproach, and toil we 
again go forth, bearing the precious seed of 
salvation. And to the protection and blessing 
of the God of Missions our cause is confident- 
ly and devoutly commended." (McTyeire's 
"History of Methodism," pp. 586, 587.) 

At the close of 1832 the missionaries re- 
ported 1,395 members and 490 children regu- 
larly catechised. The experiment of four years 

Missions ill the South. , 91 

had demonstrated the success of the move- 
ment. A meeting of planters in St. Luke 
Parish indorsed the missionary system. Prej- 
udice yielded before the results achieved. The 
friends of Missions took courage as the way 
for the gospel was opened to the thousands 
of the sons and daughters of Africa who had 
been thrust by the hand of greed on the slaves 
of the Western Continent. In 1837 there were 
ten mission stations. In 1839 the entire mis- 
sion was supplied by seventeen missionaries, 
under the supervision of three superintend- 
ents. The field embraced 231 plantations and 
97 appointments, with a membership of 5,556, 
and 2,525 children under catechetical instruc- 

The following rule, suggested by the South 
Carolina Conference Mission Board, indicates 
the policy that prevailed throughout the 
Church in providing for the religious wants 
of the colored people: 

" That, as a general rule for our circuits and 
stations, we deem it best to include the colored 
people in the same pastoral charge with the 
whites, and to preach to both classes in one 
congregation, as our practice has been. The 
gospel is the same far all men, and to enjoy 
its privileges in common prouiotes good-will. 

92 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

" That at all preaching-places where galler- 
ies or suitable sittings have not been provided 
for the common people, or where the galleries 
or other sittings are insufficient, we consider 
it the duty of our brethren and friends to pro- 
vide the necessary accommodation, that none 
may make such a neglect a plea for absenting 
themselves from public worship." (McTy- 
eire's " History of Methodism," pp. 587, 588. ) 

Dr. Capers made frequent mention of the 
co-operation rendered the missionaries by the 
colored local preachers. He mentions one, 
Henry Evans, " who was so remarkable as to 
have become the greatest curiosity in the town, 
insomuch that distinguished visitors hardly 
felt that they might pass a Sunday in Fayette- 
ville without hearing him preach." 

The catechisms prepared by Dr. Capers 
were invaluable auxiliaries to the ministry of 
the word in the religious instruction of the 
children. They gave form and fiber to the re- 
ligion these people experienced and enjoyed. 
The old-time singing of the negro congrega- 
tions of those days will never be forgotten 
by those who heard it. The poetry of many 
of their songs might be subject to criticism, 
but the melody of their music often seemed 
an echo from heaven. 

Missions in the South. . 93 

The report of the South Carolina Confer- 
ence Mission Board for 1854 sums up the his- 
tory of the missions to that date in the follow- 
ing words: 

"Twenty-six years ago the South Carolina 
Conference began a system of regular ecclesi- 
astical operations among the plantation ne- 
groes of the low country, by establishing two 
missions. At present there are 26 missionary 
stations, on which are employed 32 ministers, 
who are supported by the Society. The num- 
ber of Church -members is 11,546, including 
1,175 whites. The missionary revenue has 
risen from $300 to $25,000. These are the 
material results, so far as statistics are con- 
cerned. They call for devout acknowledg- 
ments to God, who has given us abundant 
favor in the sight of the community in carry- 
ing on a line of operations confessedly diffi- 
cult and delicate. 

"The testimony of masters and missionaries 
goes to show that a wholesome effect has been 
produced upon the character of the negro pop- 
ulation generally. A change for the better is 
visible everywhere, when the present genera- 
tion is contrasted with the past; and in how 
many cases the gospel ]ias proved the power 
of God to salvation, and presented before the 

94 Hand Book of Ifethodist Missions. 

throne the spirits of these children of Ham, 
redeemed and washed by the "blood of sprink- 
ling," and fitted for an abode in heaven, the 
revelations of the last day will disclose." 
(McTyeire's ^'History of Methodism," pp. 588, 

On the marble that marks the grave of Bish- 
op Capers are the words: "The Founder of 
Missions to the Slaves." He sought no higher 
honor in this world. 

The zeal of South Carolina Methodism for 
the salvation of the slaves was an inspiration 
to all the Southern Conferences. The annals 
of missionary toil can furnish few nobler evi- 
dences of heroic sacrifice than were found in 
the self-denying labors of those men who la- 
bored on the negro missions. On the rice 
plantations of the Atlantic coast and the sugar 
and cotton plantations of the Gulf States 
they bore the message of life to the cabins 
of the slave, teaching the children and train- 
ing their parents respecting the doctrines and 
duties that must govern a Christian life. Ev- 
ery Christian master and mistress co-operated 
gladly in the work. When they were unem- 
barrassed by troubles arising from untimely 
interference from outside influences, their way 
was open; and though the world knew little of 

3Iissions in the South 95 

their devotion, they accomplished a work that 
will live to the end of time. The organization 
of these missions did not relieve the regular 
pastor from his duty to the slave. In Confer- 
ences where but few missions were organized 
thousands of colored members were annually 
reported. In 1846 the Mission Board report- 
ed 24,430 members, while the General Minutes 
gave a total of 124,931. Many of the leading 
ministers of the South were noted for their 
devotion to the religious welfare of the slaves, 
and at an Annual Conference the presiding 
elder could pronounce no higher encomium on 
a minister than to say: "He is a good negro 
preacher." In 1860, when the war disturbed 
our labors among these people, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, reported a colored 
membership of 207,776, or nearly as many as 
the entire number of communicants which in 
that day had been gathered into Church rela- 
tions by all the Protestant missionaries at work 
in the heathen world. When the record of the 
evangelization of the sons of Ham is written 
by the pen of an impartial historian, the work 
of the missionaries of the Southern Methodist 
Church will appear chief among the agencies 
employed by our Master for the redemption 
of the African race. 

96 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

It was not until 1833 that the Missionary 
Society had a missionary in the foreign field. 
At the General Conference of 1824 a report, 
presented by Rev. Joshua Sonle, was adopted 
which contained the following: 

Resolved, by the delegates of the Annual Conferences 
in General Conference assembled, that it is expedient, 
whenever the funds of the Missionary Society will jus- 
tify the measure, for the episcopacy to select and send 
a missionary to the colony in Africa now established 
under the auspices of the American Colonization Society. 

The colony referred to was Liberia. 

In 1825 the Board notified the bishops that 
the state of the funds of the Missionary So- 
ciety justified the sending of a man to Liberia. 
Pive years elapsed before a man suited to this 
important and perilous mission could be found. 
Melville B. Coxe, a native of Maine, was a 
member of the Virginia Conference, and sta- 
tioned at Raleigh, N. C. He met Bishop Hed- 
ding at Norfolk during the session of the Vir- 
ginia Conference in 1831, and offered himself 
as a missionary to South America. The bish- 
op proposed that he should go to Liberia. The 
young man pondered the question but a short 
time, and said: "If the Lord will, I think I 
will go." He met the bishop in May, 1832, 

Missions in the South. 97 

and received his appointment to Liberia, 
Africa. The Young Men's Missionary So- 
ciety in New York guaranteed the support of 
the mission. 

It is a significant fact that the first foreign 
missionary of American Methodism was sent 
out and sustained by the offerings of a local 
society. Bishop McTyeire, in his " History of 
Methodism," records the words of this pioneer 
foreign missionary of Episcopal Methodism to 
Bishop McKendree on receiving the appoint- 
ment: "At present I am in peace: death looks 
pleasant to me; labor and sufferings look pleas- 
ant to me ; and last, though not least, Liberia 
looks pleasant to me. I see, or think I see, 
resting on Africa the light and cloud of heav- 
en." To one of the students of the Wesley an 
University of Middletown, Conn., he said: " If 
I die in Africa, you must come over and write 
my epitaph." 

"What shall I write?" 

"Write," said Coxe, "Let a thousand fall 
before Africa be given up." 

He reached Monrovia March 7, 1833, and 
entered promptly on his mission. The mem- 
bers of the Methodist Church and local preach- 
ers who had been sent out by the Colonization 
Society welcomed the missionary. He organ- 

98 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ized them under the rules of his Church, as- 
sisted them in their Sunday-schools, and 
planned new missions. His work was pro- 
gressing most encouragingly when he was 
stricken down by the fatal African fever, and, 
on Sunday morning, July 21, with the words, 
" Come, come, come. Lord Jesus, come quick- 
ly," he passed to his reward. 

Most earnestly had Mr. Coxe called for help 
as the field opened before him. Two minis- 
ters. Rev. E-ufus Spaulding and Rev. Samuel 
O. Wright and their wives, and Miss Sophro- 
nia Farrington, had offered for this dangerous 
field and had been accepted. Miss Farring- 
ton was the first young lady sent out by the 
Methodist Church to the foreign field. They 
heard of the death of Mr. Coxe before they 
sailed, but they did not falter. They reached 
Monrovia January 1, 1834. The work of Mr. 
Coxe was taken up, and on the 10th of January 
the *' Liberia Annual Conference " was organ- 

On the 4th of February Mrs. Wright, after 
one month's service in Africa, was laid in a 
missionary's grave. On the 29th of March 
her husband joined her in the better land. 
Mrs. Wright was a sister of Rev. E. E. Wiley, 
P.D., who remains among us, one of the lead- 

Missions in the South. -99 

ing members of the Holston Conference. Tlie 
graves of these heroic missionaries hallow the 
soil of the Dark Continent, and are sacred 
links that should bind Southern Methodism 
to that vast mission field. Mr. Spaulding was 
forced by sickness to return to America in May. 

Thus within one year three of the mission- 
aries gave their lives for Africa, and Miss 
Farrington was alone amid the responsibilities 
of the mission. She remained until the mis- 
sion was re-enforced, and returned, a frail, 
emaciated woman, to America in 1835. 

In February, 1835, Kev. John Seys was sent 
out as superintendent of the mission. He 
found that death had stricken down the Pres- 
byterian missionary ; and Miss Farrington, " a 
delicate, frail, emaciated woman," was the only 
missionary to welcome him to the field. He 
took out with him a young colored local preach- 
er by the name of Francis Burns. Mr. Seys 
entered vigorously on his work. He had spent 
fifteen years in the West India Islands, and 
was in a measure proof against the fatal fever 
of West Africa. During the year after his 
arrival upward of two hundred conversions 
were reported. In November, 1835, Mr. Seys 
reported himself and family prostrate with the 
fever and his son already sleeping in his grave. 

100 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

The General Conference of 1836 made Libe- 
ria a Mission Conference with all the rights of 
an Annual Conference, except the right of rep- 
resentation in the General Conference and to a 
part of the dividends of the Book Concern and 
Chartered Fund. 

In 1836 Mr. Seys visited the United States 
to obtain re-enforcements for the field which 
stretched out to the heart of the continent. A 
number responded. After hearing an appeal 
from Mr. Seys in behalf of Africa, a lady, Mrs. 
Ann Wilkins, handed the following note to Dr. 
Bangs : "A sister who has little money at com- 
mand gives that cheerfully, and is willing to 
give her life as a female missionary if she is 
wanted." She was sent, and continued in the 
field until 1856. There were soon some fif- 
teen missionaries in the field. 

In the face of the danger that attended mis- 
sionary labors on the fatal coast volunteers 
were not wanting to fill the places of the men 
who had fallen. In seventeen years twenty- 
five white missionaries died in the field or 
were driven home with broken health. At 
the division of the Church in 1844 this field 
fell to the M. E. Church, North. We will 
complete the history of their missionary 
movements in a future number. 

Missions in the South, 101 

French Missions. 

In 1819, the year the Missionary Society was 
organized, the Missionary Board asked the 
advice of the Committee with reference to 
sending a missionary to the French inhabit- 
ants of Louisiana. Two young men, John M. 
Smith and Ebenezer Brown, were chosen and 
instructed to prepare themselves by the study 
of the French language for this field. Mr. 
Smith for some reason did not go. In 1820 
Mr. Brown, the first missionary of the Board, 
was sent to Louisiana. The field was a hard 
one. The French people were either under 
the influence of Bomanism and very difficult 
of approach, or had reacted from its corrup- 
tions into the infidelity of that day. Mr. 
Brown labored also under the great difficulty 
of speaking but imperfectly the language of 
the people with whom he was called to labor. 
Though he failed to command the attention 
of the French people, he found a little com- 
pany of English-speaking Methodists who 
were greatly strengthened by his ministrations 
and pastoral labors. 

This little band was possibly the nucleus of 
the Church that, under the labors of Rev. 
Benjamin M. Drake, of the Mississipj^i Con- 
ference, has achieved such noble results for 

102 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

evangelical Christianity in New Orleans and 
the surrounding country. 

Beazil Mission. 

Bishop Andrew, in 1835, sent Rev. Fountain 
E. Pitts to pioneer a mission in South Amer- 
ica. He reached Rio de Janeiro in August 
and entered on his mission, visiting families, 
preaching, and organizing a Society. He pro- 
ceeded to Montevideo, where he preached for 
several weeks and organized a Society. He 
then ascended the Rio de la Plata to Buenos 
Ayres, the special field he was to explore. 
After s]3ending a year in the field, he returned 
with an encouraging report. Rev. Justin 
Spaulding was sent to Brazil, but owing to 
papal intolerance the work was delayed for 
forty years. In 1836 Dr. Dempster was sent 
to Buenos Ayres. The w^ork gradually ex- 
tended from the English to the Spanish popu- 
lation, and was the beginning of a prosperous 
mission now under the charge of our Northern 

These early movements, viewed in the light 
of later developments, are most significant. 
They were prophetic of a great work to be 
done for the Spanish-speaking republics of 
South America, as well as for Brazil, with an 
area as great as the United States and a popu- 

Missions of the M. E. C, .S'. 103 

lation of nearly 15,000,000 speaking the Portu- 
guese tongue. A whole continent open to us. 
Surely American Methodism has been highly 
honored by such responsibilities, and put to 
the test by so great an open door. With work 
enterprised at strategic points upon both At- 
lantic and Pacific coasts, the day will come 
when Protestant forces will compass the land. 


Indian Missions. 

Bishop Capers, the "founder of missions 
among the slaves," may also be regarded as the 
pioneer of Methodist missions among the In- 
dians of the Southern States. His heart, like 
the heart of his Master, seems to have been 
drawn toward the lowly of his race. 

In 1821 he was authorized by Bishop Mc- 
Kendree to travel through Georgia, represent- 
ing the- condition and claims of the Creek In- 
dians, at that time occupying lands in Georgia 
and Alabama, and numbering about twenty- 
four thousand souls. He was also authorized 
to collect funds with wdiich to establish a mis- 
sion among them. The appeal met a cordial 
response, and after six months employed in 
this service Dr. Capers entered upon his mis- 
sion. He visited the Creek Agency at Flint 
Eiver in August, 1822. Not finding the Agent, 
he proceeded to Coweta and obtained an in- 
terview with the famous half-breed, Mcintosh 

Missions in the South. 105 

— the most noted warrior of liis tribe. The 
chief met him according to the rnles of In- 
dian etiquette, which required him to converse 
with his visitor through an interpreter, though 
he both understood and spoke the English 
language. Dr. Capers presented a paper, in 
behalf of the Bishop and the South Carolina 
Conference, setting forth the object of his 
mission. It was a\ armly apjjroved by Mcin- 
tosh, but he declined taking any action without 
the approval of the Council and the consent 
of the Agent. The Council met in Novem- 
ber. Dr. Capers received a patient hearing; 
and his proposals, with some amendments, 
were approved. The way being opened, the 
mission was organized, under the name of 
"Asbury Mission," with Dr. Capers as Super- 
intendent and Eev. Isaac Hill as missionary. 
Mr. Hill commenced the erection of the build- 
ings. He was succeeded by Eev. Isaac Smith 
and Eev. Hugh Hamil. The latter was called 
to another field, and Mr. Smith and his de- 
voted wife were left with the entire work on 
their hands. 

Although the government favored the mis- 
sion, and the Council of the nation had cordial- 
ly approved it, it encountered determined op- 
position. A number of prominent Indians, led 

106 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

by "Big Warrior," a noted cliief, and, as many 
supposed, encouraged by the Agent, who felt 
no sympathy for missionary work, stubbornly 
resisted preaching to the adults of the tribe. 
For a time it seemed that the work would be 
arrested. The missionary, impelled by ear- 
nest love for souls, persevered in his work, 
and in due time opened the school. It was 
located at Fort Mitchell, near the present city 
of Columbus, and was named "Asbury Man- 
ual Labor School." Dr. Capers manifested a 
paternal interest in its welfare. He was sta- 
tioned in Milledgeville for two years, that he 
might look after its interests. After a visit in 
1827 he wrote: 

One of our hoy^, within three months from his letters, 
has learned to read in the Testament. It would not 
surprise you to hear that the hearts of these children 
gently opened to the truths of religion. On Sabbath 
I baptized Mr. Martin (hired to manage our little farm), 
and administered the Lord's Supper. While in this 
moral desert we were thus solitarily employed, our 
children, bathed in tears, bowed at their seats, and, 
sobbing out their prayers, gave a heart-cheering ear- 
nest of what shall be. 

These bright prospects, however, were cloud- 
ed by growing opposition among the Indians, 
which was stimulated by the presence and in- 
fluence of reckless whites. If the Agent did 

Missions in the South. 107 

not foster tliis opposition, he made no efforts 
to shield the missionary and to encourage his 
work. Dr. Capers counseled prudence at ev- 
ery step. Mr. Smith, anxious to deliver his 
message, appealed to Mcintosh for permission 
to preach. It was granted, and preaching to 
the adults was commenced; but so violent was 
the opposition that it was deemed wise to sus- 
pend the services for a time. 

The Conference in 1823 sent a memorial to 
the Secretary of War, Hon. John C. Calhoun, 
setting forth the facts, and claiming the pro- 
tection of the government. An investigation 
was ordered; and when the report was made, 
Mr. Calhoun wrote to the Agent, saying: " You 
will give a decided countenance and support 
to the Methodist Mission." Though restrained, 
the opposition to preaching was not subdued. 
The heathen party among the Indians clung 
tenaciously to the customs of their fathers. 
Abandoned white men and unprincipled trad- 
ers excited the untutored savages against their 
best friends, thus preventing access on the 
part of the missionary to the people. In the 
face of this opposition the school prospered, 
and many of the children trained at "Asbury " 
became leaders in the nation and leaders in 
the Church when the tribe was moved to its 

108 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

new home west of the Mississippi. Bishop 
McTyeire mentions the fact that Samuel Che- 
cote, three times elected principal chief of the 
Creek Nation, also a leading member of the 
Indian Mission Conference, and several times 
a presiding elder, was a student in Fulton 
Smith's school at "Asbury," and held him in 
grateful remembrance. 

Dr. Eeid, in his " History of Methodist Epis- 
copal Missions," refers to another agency that 
helped to plant the gospel in the great Creek 
nation after their removal to the West. He 
says: " They became owners of slaves, to whom 
they have been indebted for many Christian- 
izing influences." The present writer was im- 
pressed by this fact a few years ago, while 
attending a camp-meeting among the "full- 
bloods " of the Creek Nation. At its close an 
" all-night meeting " was held. Their fathers, 
at the "green corn dances," were accustomed 
to spend a night in wicked revelry in honor 
of their heathen religion. Now that they had 
learned of Christ, they esteemed it a privilege 
to spend a whole night that closed their meet- 
ing in preaching, prayer, and songs of praise 
to God. Their services, conducted by native 
preachers, were in their native language, but 
their tunes were almost as familiar as the ne- 

Missions in the South. 109 

gro melodies that in other days we so often 
heard on Methodist camp - grounds in the 
South. On inquiring, he learned that these 
songs and tunes, which had awakened within 
him such sacred memories, had been preserved 
by pious slaves whom the Creeks had brought 
with them from the East. They had been led 
to Christ by Methodist missionaries in Geor- 
gia and Alabama, and had brought their relig- 
ion and their songs with them to their West- 
ern home. When the missionary resumed his 
work among the Creeks in the Indian Territo- 
ry, he found the gospel already set to music; 
and the Christian slaves, by their simple and 
sacjred melodies, opening a way for the religion 
of Christ in the hearts of their dusky masters. 
God knows far better than man how to carry 
on his work. 

In 1822 Eichard Neely, a young preacher 
of the Tennessee Conference, was traveling a 
circuit bordering on the Tennessee River, to 
the south of which were a number of Cher- 
okee villages. He formed the acquaintance 
of Richard Riley, an intelligent Cherokee, 
who invited the young preacher to visit 
and preach to his people. Neely gladly com- 
plied, and during his visit thirty-three In- 
dians were converted and admitted into the 

110 Eayid Book of Methodist Missions. 

Clmrch. Among them were Kiley and his wife. 
The following year Mr. Neely traveled a cir- 
cuit which embraced a portion of the Cher- 
okee country. He was succeeded by I. AV. 
Sullivan and A. F. Driskell, who visited the 
infant mission and confirmed the young con- 
verts in the faith. In 1824 Mr. Driskell had 
charge of the mission, and greatly enlarged 
the work. He also taught a school of Indian 
children. Two log houses for preaching and 
school purposes were erected within the mis- 
sion, and flourishing Churches were organized 
at both places. There were many conversions 
under Mr. Driskell's labors, and among them 
were some of the leading men, who, with their 
families, became influential Christian workers 
among their people. The most noted of these 
converts was a young Indian by the name of 
Boot. He was soon licensed to preach, was 
admitted into the Tennessee Conference, and 
became one of the chief evangelists among 
the Cherokees. He moved with his tribe to 
the West; and in their new home continued to 
labor for their salvation until the Master 
called him home. 

In the fall of 1825 three missions were 
formed, and F. A. Owen, A. F. Driskell, and 
Richard Neely were appointed to fill them. 

Missions in tJie South. Ill 

In 1826 William McMalion was Superintend- 
ent of the mission, with four circuits served 
by four missionaries. This was a year of 
great success. Among the converts was Tur- 
tle Fields, a noted Cherokee brave. He had 
fought with General Jackson in the Creek 
War, and was noted for physical strength and 
desperate courage. Returning from the war, 
he found the missionaries among his people. 
He was powerfully converted, was licensed to 
preach, and became instrumental in the con- 
version of many of his tribe. He several times 
visited Annual Conferences in the adjoining 
States, and was always welcomed by his white 
brethren, who rejoiced over the power of grace 
that could transform this savage warrior into 
a meek yet faithful follower of Christ. 

In 1827 William McMahon was again Su- 
perintendent. The mission now embraced 
seven appointments, one of which was sup- 
plied by Turtle Fields. Among the missiona- 
ries appears the name of John B. McFerrin. 
Few men have won a larger place in the hearts 
of Southern Methodists than Dr. McFerrin; 
but he prized it among his highest honors 
that he had been a missionary among the In- 
dians. The mission reported at the close 
of this year 675 members, 

112 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

While faithful in the evangelization of the 
Indians, the missionaries were diligent in the 
instruction of the children. The log school- 
houses in which they preached on Sunday 
were transformed into school-houses dur- 
ing the week, and Indian boys and girls were 
drilled in the alphabet, spelling-book, arith- 
metic, and geography as patiently and as 
prayerfully as when the preacher stood in the 
pulpit or prayed with the penitent at the altar. 
Those early missionaries among the Chero- 
kees built wisely, and the superior civilization 
of this nation may be attributed to the far- 
seeing and faithful labors of the men who 
brought to their villages the news of salvation; 

Another agency in the civilization and 
Christianization of the Cherokee nation came 
to the aid of the missionaries at an early pe- 
riod of their labors. In 1826 a Cherokee In- 
dian by the name of Guess invented an alpha- 
bet, formed mainly after the fashion of our 
Koman letters. It was so simple that the stu- 
dent had only to learn the names and sounds 
of the letters, and was soon able to read in- 
telligently. It was said that Guess devoted 
years of patient study to its perfection. Like 
other men in advance of their generation, his 
work was not appreciated by his friends. 

Missions in the South. 113 

When the alphabet was nearly complete, his 
wife, who neither understood nor cared for 
his invention, one day, in an angry fury, 
flung the result of his labors into the fire, and 
soon it was in ashes. With a patience worthy 
of Isaac Newton, Guess resumed his work, and 
persevered until his alphabet was complete. 
It was published, and was circulated among 
the people, and proved a wonderful stimulant 
to the thought and aspirations of the tribe. 
The people, old and young, were anxious to 
learn to read. The laws of the nation were 
published in their own language; and ere- 
long a newspaper was started, which brought 
them in contact with the civilized world. The 
missionaries promptly availed themselves of 
the alphabet, and soon portions of the New 
Testament were translated into the Cherokee 
language. Hymns were printed, and in the 
congregation the worshipers, with book in 
hand, engaged in the praise of God. Lit- 
tle as the irate wife of Guess imagined, her 
husband was one of the greatest benefactors 
of his tribe. That alphabet proved an impor- 
tant factor in the elevation of the Cherokee 

From a brief account of the Cherokee Mis- 
sion, furnished the writer by Dr. J. B. McFer- 

114 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

rin a short time before liis death, we extract 
the following, which will enable the reader to 
form an idea of mission work among this in- 
teresting people in that day: 

In the fall of 1828 the following missionaries were 
appointed: William McMahon, Superintendent; Wills 
Valley and Oostaknahla, John B. McFerrin; Coosan- 
atee, Turtle Field; Mount Wesley and Asbury, D. C. 
McLeod (school); Charooga, Greenbury Garrett (school) ; 
Sulakowa, Nicholas D. Scales (school) ; Neely's Grove, 
Allen F. Scruggs (school) ; Connesauga, Thomas J. El- 
liott (school); James J. Trott, General Missionary to 
travel through the Nation. The number of schools 
had been increased, and the circuit work w^as greatly 
enlarged. The writer occupied a large field. It was 
nearly four hundred miles in circumference, but he 
passed around it once in every four weeks. He had as 
his traveling companion and interpreter Joseph Black- 
bird, a young Cherokee, who had been educated among 
the whites and taught to read English and understood 
clearly the plain discourses as they were delivered by 
the missionary. This, to the missionary, was an in- 
teresting year. He witnessed the conversion of many 
of the Cherokees, and in his travels was permitted to 
preach in native villages where a white man had never 
before delivered the message of salvation. On one oc- 
casion he preached in a village south of the Coosa Riv- 
er, when an aged squaw, said to have been nearly one 
hundred years of age, with hair as white as wool, and 
deep furrows upon her cheeks, received with gladness 
the word of life, and at once sought admission into the 
Church, During the year he received into the Church 

Missions in the South. 115 

John Ross, the principal chief. Mr. Ross was well ed- 
ucated, and was the most influential man in the Na- 
tion. We preached at his house once in four weeks 
but he was generally at the seat of government en- 
gaged in looking after the afiairs of his nation; for, 
sustaining the relation he did to his people, he had 
many duties devolving upon him. Mr. Ross afterward 
moved to the West, where he long lived as a great fac- 
tor in the work of civilization among his people, and 
died honored and respected. He was the son of Dan- 
iel Ross, a Scotchman whose home was on the eastern 
slope of Lookout Mountain, in full view of where Chat- 
tanooga now stands. There was much good accom- 
plished this year in many parts of the Nation, and at 
the end the membership numbered 736. This year 
Rev. Richard Neely died. In the autumn of 1829 the 
appointments of the missionary work in the Cherokee 
Nation was separated from the Huntsville District, and 
constituted a full district of its own. Rev. F. A. Owen 
was appointed Superintendent. Mr. Owen was then 
a comparatively young man, of fine address and good 
administrative ability. He entered on his work with 
two years' experience as a missionary among the In- 
dians. He was well qualified to take charge of this 
important field, and continued in this office for two 
years, wielding a fine influence throughout the entire 
Nation. The missionary field this year was greatly 
enlarged The schools were kept up, the missionaries 
penetrated the mountains of North Carolina and plant- 
ed the cross among the uncivilized inhabitants of this 
wild region, and down through the valleys as far as 
the Georgia and Alabama lines carried the gospel to 
almost every part of the Nation. This year the mern,- 
bership reached 1,028, 

116 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

In 1830 Rev. Dixon C. McLeod was Super- 
intendent of the mission, wiiich liad ten ap- 
pointments and twelve missionaries. It had 
extended its operations to every part of the 
Cherokee Nation. A number of revivals were 
reported, yet only 855 members were enrolled 
at the close of the year. This was the result 
of the immigration to the West which had 
commenced, which carried with it many mem- 
bers of the Church, who bore with them to 
their new home the gospel that they had re- 
ceived from the missionaries in the East. In 
1832 great prosperity was reported, notwith- 
standing the drain caused by the Western 
movement, and the membership reached 939. 

About this time the question of the removal 
of the Cherokees to the West caused a division 
of the nation into the Ross and Ridge parties. 
The former were determined, if possible, to re- 
main in the land of their fathers, while the 
latter favored their removal to the West. The 
conflict between these two parties was bitter, 
and often resulted in bloodshed. The mis- 
sion work was greatly disturbed. The Ridge 
party removed West. The Ross party, after 
clinging to their homes until the last hope of 
holding them was gone, followed their breth- 
ren to their new home in the West. During 

Missions in the South. Il7 

the later years of their stay they were lim- 
ited to lands in Alabama and East Tennessee, 
and were supplied by missionaries under the 
leadership of Eev. Andrew Gumming. When 
the whole tribe removed to the Indian Ter- 
ritory, Gumming and a few faithful preach- 
ers followed them, and resumed their labors 
in this distant field. Gumming continued his 
labors with the Indians until in old age his 
Master called him to his reward. 

The missions among the Ghoctaws and Chick- 
asaws — kindred races, who occupied lands in 
the States of Mississippi and Alabama — were 
remarkable for their success. Their num- 
bers were estimated at about 20,000. In 1825 
the Mississippi Gonference organized a mis- 
sion among them, with Dr. William Winans as 
Superintendent and Kev. Wiley Ledbetter as 
missionary. For some time the outlook of the 
mission was discouraging. But little impres- 
sion seemed to be made on the minds of the 
savages. In 1827 Eev. Alexander Talley was 
appointed missionary to the Indians in North 
Mississippi, and with his tent as his home and 
an interpreter to aid him in reaching the peo- 
ple he went forth on his mission. The inter- 
preter was afraid to face large crowds, and the 
labors of the missionary for a time were lim- 

118 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ited to small groups in their tents, or around 
tlieir camp-fires in the forest. His preaching 
was simple and direct. He told them of the 
fall, showed them their sins, and pointed to 
the Saviour who died as well for the Indian 
as for the white man. The principal chief, 
Greenwood Leflore, invited him to his house, 
and gave him a cordial welcome. Leflore was 
the son of a French trader, who in earlier days 
had settled on the Natchez trace, married an 
Indian woman, and raised a large family. He 
was prosperous in business ; and his eldest son, 
who was now the leading man in the nation, 
had been educated amoug the whites. The 
welcome he gave the missionary indicated the 
estimate he placed on the religion that had 
done so much for the whites. He never fal- 
tered in his friendship for the missionaries. 
He was an eloquent speaker, and, when need 
required, was ready to act as interpreter for 
the missionary. The Leflore family were thus 
brought under the influence of the gospel. 
Their wealth and intelligence gave them great 
influence among their people, and opened the 
way for the missionary. In 1828 a camp-meet- 
ing was held, which attracted great crowds. 
The power of God was manifest. The people 
listened with wonder to the story of redemp- 

Missions in the South. 119 

tion, and many were converted and united with 
the Church. Among these were the leading 
members of the Leflore family. As religion 
spread the people became more industrious, 
and their homes and farms showed that a 
large step had been taken on the line of civil- 
ization. AYliisky, sold by the traders, had been 
the chief curse of the tribe. An ordinance 
was passed by the Council to suppress the 
traffic with the penalty: " The offender will be 
struck a hard lick on the head with a stick, 
and his whisky poured out on the ground." 
The law was enforced. A brave named Offa- 
homa defied it, but his sore head under the hard 
blow with a stick was a warning to others, and 
the law was henceforth respected by all. Eev. 
Isaac Smith, from Asbury School, then visited 
the mission, and his earnest words and vener- 
able appearance made a profound impression 
on the people. Leflore was his interpreter, 
and as he translated the wonderful message 
from God to the congregation the interpreter 
wept and the people wept with him. The gos- 
pel again demonstrated itself to be the power 
of God to save the savage as well as the civ- 
ilized of our race. Talley well merited the 
name of " The Apostle to the Choctaws." He 
traveled tirelessly through the Nation, and 

120 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

many were converted and joined the Church 
— among them four captains. At a second 
camp-meeting held in 1828 upward of six hun- 
di'ed Indians were converted and admitted 
into the Church. 

In 1828 Talley took a delegation of Indian 
converts to the Annual Conference that met 
at Tuscaloosa. He read his report, showing 
the wonderful results of missionary labor in 
the Choctaw Nation. The Indians were then 
invited to give an account of the work of 
grace among them. Captain Washington re- 
sponded through an interpreter. In his " His- 
tory of Methodism'' Bishop McTyeire says: 
"The Conference was powerfully moved. Bish- 
op Soule rose from his chair, shook the hand 
of the chief, welcomed him and his people to 
the Church, and exclaimed: 'Brethren, the 
Choctaw Nation is ours! No, I mistake; the 
Choctaw Nation is Jesus Christ's! ' " 

Eevs. E. D. Smith and Moses Perry were 
sent to assist Talley in the great work the 
Master had opened through his agency. The 
mission was divided into circuits, and they 
continued to extend and prevail. The work 
of grace among the people was thorough and 
deep. Their lives demonstrated the mighty 
transformation which can be wrought only by 

Missions in the SoutJi. l2l 

the power of the Holy Spirit. lu 1830 be- 
tween three and four thousand members were 
reported. With few exceptions the leading 
men of the nation — chiefs and captains — were 
brought into the Church. Three missiona- 
ries, three school-teachers, and three inter- 
preters had charge of the mission. 

In 1830 the nation w^as divided over the 
question of their removal to the West. The 
gloom resting on the nation greatly dis- 
turbed the work of the mission. When the 
lands were sold and the migration to the 
West began, the devoted Talley accompanied 
the first company to their Western home. 
The old mission was gradually broken up; but 
the missionary met the people as they reached 
the distant territory, and labored to gather 
them into the fold. 

In 1833 Talley had to assist him two native 
preachers and four exhorters. The Mission 
Board secured the translation of portions of 
the Bible, wdiich greatly strengthened the 
work. In 1834 the mission reported 742 mem- 
bers. Talley, broken down by labor and expos- 
ure, surrendered the charge of the mission, and 
Rev. R. D. Smith was sent to take his place. 
Fifteen preaching-places were occupied, at 
each of which classes were organized. In 

122 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

1836 an Englisli school, ten Sunday-schools 
taught by native preachers in the Choctaw 
language, 373 scholars, and a Church-mem- 
bership of 960 were rex^orted. The report 
also showed two missionaries, four native 
preachers, three exhorters, twenty class-lead- 
ers, and five stewards. Kevivals were report- 
ed in 1839. In 1840 the missi on was included in 
the Arkansas Conference, and reported among 
the Domestic Missions. In 1842 six meeting- 
houses Avere reported; also revivals resulting 
in 200 conversions, and as many accessions to 
the Church. 

The enforced removal of these Indian tribes 
was disastrous to the missions which had been 
opened in the East under such encouraging 
auspices. Disheartened by the ruin of their 
homes and embittered by their wrongs, many 
who had accepted the gospel lost faith in the 
white man and in the white man's religion. 
But God had not forsaken the flock gathered 
out of these tribes. Methodism had been 
planted in Missouri, and its preachers were 
at hand ready to gather the fragments of the 
scattered Churches, and build up in the wil- 
derness the walls of their desolate Zion. 

In 1830, when the first wave of Indian im- 
migration was pouring into the Western res- 

Missions in the South. 123 

ervations, we find in the Minutes of tlie Mis- 
souri Conference tiie Cherokee and Creek 
Missions. In 1831 the name of John Harrell 
appears in connection with the Clierokee Mis- 
sion. He lived to see the gospel firmly es- 
tablished among the people for whom lie had 
consecrated so many years of his life. 

In 1836 the General Conference set apart 
the Arkansas Conference. This division placed 
the Choctaws, whose reservation had been in 
the Mississippi Conference, in the new Con- 
ference. In the early part of 1837 the Chick- 
asaws bought of the Choctaws the western 
part of their reservation, which they now oc- 
cupy. This has been one of our most success- 
ful mission fields. 

In 1844 the Indian Mission Conference was 
organized. It included the Indian Territory 
and Indians in the Missouri Conference. At its 
first session, held in October of that year, the 
work was divided into three districts, with 
twenty-five effective men, several of whom were 
Indians, with 85 white, 33 colored, and 2,992 
Indian members. 

In the division of the Church in 1844 the 
Indian Mission Conference remained with the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. How 
far we have met our obligations toward this 

124 Hand Book of 3fethodist Missions. 

mission field may be seen from the following 
summary, taken from the records of the board: 
In 1846 the work was divided into the Kan- 
sas River, the Cherokee, and the Choctaw Dis- 
tricts, with 22 missions, 32 missionaries, 3,404 
members, 9 churches, 18 Sunday-schools, and 
7 literary institutions. The work also included 
missions among the Pottawattamie, Chippewa, 
Peoria, Wea, Kansas, Wyandotte, Shawnee, 
Kickapoo, Qaapaw, Seneca, and other tribes 
or fragments of tribes located on reservations 
in the Indian Territory. The Indian Manual 
Labor School, under the management of Rev. 
J. C. Berryman, reported 137 scholars. They 
were instructed daily in school, the larger 
boys being also employed in the various de- 
partments of agriculture, or in acquiring a 
knowledge of blacksmithing, wagon-making, 
shoe-making, and other mechanical arts. The 
girls, when not in school, were instructed in 
various branches of domestic economy. The 
improvement of the scholars made a favorable 
impression on all the tribes. The older In- 
dians regretted that they had not enjoyed 
these advantages, and many of their leading 
men began to realize that with the coming of 
the missionary a new era was opening before 
their race. Rev. John T. Peeiy, who had charge 

Missions in the South, 125 

of the Kansas Mission, reported great encour- 
agement. The missionary, having acquired a 
knowledge of the language, found ready ac- 
cess to the people, who were anxious for the 
establishment of schools for their children. 
The AVyandotte Indians, of Ohio, among whom 
the first Methodist mission among the Indians 
had been established, had emigrated to the 
Indian Territory, accompanied by their mis- 
sionary, Bev. James Wheeler. Among their 
first buildings was a comfortable hewed-log 
meeting-house. One of the Indians w^as asked 
why he was "more engaged in building a meet- 
ing-house than a dwelling-house." He replied: 
" The benefit of the soul is of more importance 
than the accommodation of the body. When 
I have helped to build a house for the Lord, 
I will then build one for myself." A mission- 
house for the missionary was also built with the 
funds arising from the sale of the mission im- 
provements in Ohio. Their territory was di- 
vided into three school districts, in which two 
comfortable school-houses had been built by 
labor and money furnished by the Indians. 
In 1846, with a population of 568, this tribe 
reported 186 members. The Shawnee mission 
reported 53 members. The work among the 
Kickapoos was disturbed by one of the con- 

126 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

verts, wlio, having acquired sorae new ideas 
about doctrine, announced himself as a proph- 
et sent from heaven for the instruction of the 
Indians. After a time his influence waned, 
and the work among them began once more to 
prosper. The Cherokee nation, numbering 
more than 18,000, was reported as moving 
rapidly on the line of Christian civilization. 
Our mission among them was very prosperous. 
Several comfortable meeting-houses were built. 
Our membership in this tribe was reported at 
1,930. The Chickasaws, who numbered about 
5,000, were very friendly to the missionaries, 
encouraged them in their school-work, and 
were attentive to preaching, though no special 
revival was reported. The Choctaw District 
reported 914 members. In portions of the 
Creek nation, which numbered about 16,000 
souls, there was decided opposition to the mis- 
sion, led by some of the principal chiefs, who 
were firmly attached to their old customs. On 
the Little River Mission, under the charge of 
Rev. James Essex, the organization of the 
Sunday-school excited great interest, and old 
and young came out to see this new thing the 
missionaries had established. Some of the 
people were awakened, but the heathen party 
promptly commenced persecution. A " Town- 

Missions in the South. 127 

square " was organized and laws passed to sup- 
press the gospel. The penalty for hearing the 
missionary preach was fifty lashes on the bare 
back; and if any one embraced the religion of 
Christ, he should receive fifty lashes and have 
one of his ears cut off. The missionary, how- 
ever, held his ground, organized a temperance 
society, formed a Church, and carried on his 
Sunday-school. The Fort Coffee Manual La- 
bor School and the Morris Seminary in the 
Choctaw Nation rendered efficient service not 
only in instructing the children, but in break- 
ing down the prejudices of the adults. The 
field occupied by the Indian Mission Confer- 
ence extended at this time from the Missouri 
River on the north to the Red Eiver on the 
south, and westward to the Rocky Mountains. 

The report for 1847 indicated a decided ad- 
vance in every department of mission work. 
A number of removals were reported, and 
many " sons of the forest " were gathered into 
the fold of Christ. 

The Kansas District, with missions among 
the Shawnees, Delawares, Kickapoos, Wyan- 
dottes, Chippewas, Weas, and Sacs, reported 
494 members, 6 Churches, 8 Sunday-schools, 
and 225 scholars. The Cherokee District, 
which also embraced missions among the 

128 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Quapaw and Seneca tribes, reported 2,031 
members, 13 Churches, 12 Sunday-schools, 
and 397 scholars. The Choctaw District, with 
appointments among the Chickasaws^ reported 
1,107 members, 13 Churches, 12 schools, and 
330 scholars. This gives a total of 3,632 
members, who were under the care of 32 mis- 
sionaries and native preachers. Some litera- 
ry institutions were also reported, with 300 

An arrangement was concluded by Rev. J. 
C. Berry man, the Superintendent of the mis- 
sion, and the Secretary of War and Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, at Washington, by 
which the Missionary Society of the Meth- 
odist Ei:>iscopal Church, South, was to take 
under its superintendence and direction three 
additional academies or manual labor schools, 
to be established in the Chickasaw, Creek, 
and Quapaw nations. While the government 
made liberal appropriations for buildings, and 
for the support of the schools, the terms of 
the agreement demanded large expenditures 
every year on the part of the Missionary So- 
ciety. The Board, after mature deliberation, 
confirmed the arrangement, relying on the 
liberality of the Church for means to carry it 
into effect 

Missions in the South. 129 

The Annual Eeport of May, 1848, indicates 
•prosperity iu every department of the mis- 
sions. School work was yielding large re- 
sults ; " converts were multiplied, and the na- 
tive members built up in the most holy faith." 
The work on the buildings of the govern- 
ment schools was progressing, and the Board 
made ample appropriations to meet its obli- 
gations under the contract into which it had 
entered the previous year. Tlie opposition 
rej3orted a few years before seems to have dis- 
appeared, and in the four great nations and 
the smaller tribes clustered in the north-east- 
ern part of the Territory, and in those located 
north of the present Territory of Oklahoma, 
the way for the gospel was fully open. 

Four districts — the Kansas, the Cherokee, 
the Muscogee, and the Choctaw — now appear 
on the Minutes with 31 appointments, 5,829 
members, 28 Sunday-schools, 887 scholars, 6 
literary institutions, and 257 pupils. In many 
sections the congregations were so large that 
the log meeting-houses would not hold them, 
and they gathered under the shade of the trees. 
In those rnde forest temples how many thou- 
sands of souls among both the red and the 
white men have been led to Christ on that 
great AYestern border that during the present 

130 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

century has been moving to the west until 
it has reached the shores of the Pacific! A* 
pulpit with a puncheon floor, a book board 
sometimes of like material, seats of logs, an 
altar where the leaders in Israel were seat- 
ed, and to which the penitents were invited, 
became a sanctuary where the gospel was 
shown to be the power of God unto the salva 
tion of the hardy pioneer or of tlie untutored 

In 1850 there were 4 districts, 37 missiona- 
ries, 4,042 members, 25 Sunday-schools, 1,347 
scholars, 8 literary institutions, and 380 pu- 
pils. Tliis year the missions of the Kansas 
District were detached from the Indian Mis- 
sion Conference and attached to the St. Louis 
Conference. School work had been pushed 
with vigor, and revivals were reported from 
many portions of the field. The Asbury Man- 
ual Labor School, one of the institutions that 
was established under the contract with the 
government, and approved by the Board in 
1847, after many delay s^ was located in the 
Creek Nation, near the present town of Eu- 
faula, and a spacious three-story building, 
costing nine thousand dollars, was completed* 
The school opened with as many scholars as 
it could accommodate. Many of the leading 

Mlssmis hi the South, 131 

men in the Nation have been educated in this 

The report of 1851, including the work in 
the Kansas District, which had been made a 
part of the St. Louis Conference, embraces 
four districts, with 3,494 Indian members, 177 
white, 587 colored, 27 Sunday-schools with 
1,241 scholars, and 8 literary institutions 
with 395 pupils. Three manual labor schools 
were now in operation. The Asbury Manual 
Labor School, in the Creek Nation, was in full 
operation. The building for the Chickasaw 
Manual Labor School was advancing toward 
completion. It had been delayed until Broth- 
er Browning, who had this work in charge, 
could improve a mill-seat and saw the lumber. 
This fact indicates the difficulties under which 
our missionaries labored. The saw-mill cost 
money; but it not only supplied the material 
for the building, but became a valuable object 
lesson to the Indians; and, by encouraging 
them to exchange their rude and floorless cab- 
ins for comfortable habitations, helped to lift 
them to a higher plain of civilization. The 
ChickasawR were now waking up to the impor- 
tance of education, a movement that was 
warmly encouraged by the missionaries. They 
were especially interested in the manual 

132 Hand Book of Metliodist Missions. 

labor department of the school. They ap- 
preciated its importance in preparing their 
people for self-support as the basis of true 
indeijendence. The farmers and mechanics 
trained in this school have been important 
factors ill tiie elevatioii of tl^is tribe. The 
Fort Leavenworth Manual Labor School in 
Kansas Distri-ct reported 80 scholars. In all 
these schools tho Bible was read, Sunday- 
schools conducted, regular religious services 
observed on Sabbath, with family worship, 
which all attended twice every day. 

From 1852 to 1861 each anjiual report showed 
a steady growth in all departments of the work. 
The schools were well sustained, and may be 
ranked among the leading agencies in the civ- 
ilization and Christianization of these leading 
tribes. Evangelical work was pressed with 
vigor until every community was brought un- 
der its influence. Eevivals at different times 
blessed every portion of the field. In 1861 
the mission reported 26 appointments, 29 mis- 
sionaries, 83 schools, and 465 pupils. 

Then the cloud of war settled down on the 
mission. The work of the missionaries was 
arrested, and much valuable property de- 
stroyed. When the war ended, the Church, 
though impoverished, promptly resumed its 

Missions in tJie South. 133 

mission among the Indians. In 18G6 Bishop 
Marvin held the Annual Conference, and sent 
out 15 white and Indian preachers to gather 
their scattered members, and reorganize the 
work. In 1867 12 preachers met in Annual 
Conference, and reported 1,764 memhers. In 
1868 there were 11 preachers on the Confer- 
ence roll, with 53 local preachers, and a mem- 
bership of 2,226. 

The educational work was resumed, and in 
a few years the whole field was again brought 
within the evangelical operations of the 
Church. Until recently the schools were con- 
ducted under contracts with the several na- 
tions, which required the nations to furnish a 
building and pay a certain sum annually for 
the support of the children, and the Board to 
supply the teachers and maintain the school. 
To this system there were serious objections. 
It gave the natives a control over the school 
wdiich did not allow that freedom and firmness 
of discipline that is essential to jjroper man- 
agement. Again, after the Board had ex- 
pended thousands annually for the support of 
the school the nations could, for political rea- 
sons, cancel the contract and transfer the 
school to another society. We are now mov- 
ing on safer and more permanent lines. The 

134 Hand Book of Methodist Ililsslons. 

Board owns the plant, and controls tlie school. 
Harrell Institute, at Muskogee, Creek Nation, 
is doing a noble work in the education of girls. 
We are laying the foundation of a similar 
school for boys at Vinita, Cherokee Nation. 
The Penn Institute, at White Bead Hill, among 
the Chickasaws, is doing efficient work. The 
Woman's Board has a school among the wild 
tribes at the agency at Anadarko, which has 
the promise of great usefulness. 

A mission was opened in 1887 under charge 
of Rev. J. J. Methvin among the Comanche, 
Apache, Kiowa, and other wild tribes in the 
western part of the Territory. These were 
regarded among the most warlike of the tribes, 
but they received the missionary kindly, and 
we have strong assurances that the good seed 
will yield a rich harvest. Already evidence is 
given that the gospel is the "power of God 
unto salvation" among the savage tribes. 
Brother Methvin calls earnestly for re-en- 

The Annual Report for 1891 indicates the 
prosperity that still marks the operations of 
our Indian Mission. It reported 8 districts, 
92 missionaries, 136 local preachers, 9,669 
members, 152 Sunday-schools, and 6,403 schol- 


Texas Missions. 
God sometimes uses strange instrumentali- 
ties for the accomplisliment of his designs. 
Movements that man has projected with no 
thought of God are often the agencies for the 
promotion of his kingdom among the nations; 
and men who are living for themselves only- 
are pioneering the way for the gospel among 
the waste places of the earth. No more merce- 
nary organization ever existed than the East 
India Company. It forbade the landing of 
missionaries within its jurisdiction, yet it pre- 
pared the way for the establishment of Bri- 
tish power in India, and thus opened a path- 
way for the missionaries it had banished from 
its domains. No nation has less sympathy 
with the Protestant missionary than France; 
but when her guns commanded treaty privi- 
leges in China she opened a pathway for the 
modern missionary among over 300,000,000 of 
people. Large syndicates are planning rail- 


i;-)6 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

way lines down the backbone of the two 
American Continents, and erelong the railway 
systems of Mexico and Brazil will be locked 
together by bands of steel, a highway for the 
gospel will be opened to all the races that live 
between the Rio Grande and Terra del Fuego. 
In the early part of tliis century, Texas, a 
province of Mexico, was thrown open to 
Anglo-American immigration. Its river val- 
leys and fertile uj^lands were waiting for the 
coming of a race who would develop) these 
vast resources. Before the first quarter of a 
century had closed settlements from the 
United States had occupied the " Red Lands " 
of East Texas, and large colonies were being 
planted between the Trinity and Guadalupe. 
These hardy pioneers had little thought that 
they were opening a mission field wdiich would, 
before the century closed, embrace every por- 
tion of that province and extend its operations 
to nearly every State and Territory of the 
Republic of Mexico. They were there on 
other business: they were after rich land, 
and cared but little for a better inheritance. 
There was nothing of the missionary in their 
language or pursuits, and yet these men had 
brought the gospel to Texas, and were pio- 
neering its pathway into the regions beyond. 

Missions in the South. 187 

No one would have suspected the fact had he 
seen the crowd that sometimes gathered into 
tiie nearest town on Sunday morning and, 
hitching their horses near the open saloon, 
spent the day in gambling or drunken revelry. 
The language of Canaan was not on their lips. 
The god of this world seemed to have full 
sway over their hearts. Yet some of these 
had Bibles in their homes. It was a forbid- 
den book in that land of papal intolerance, 
but the priest would have had on hand an 
ugly task had he dared to mutilate one of its 
sacred pages. It bore in its family record 
the names of their parents now in the grave. 
More than that, it told of the Saviour in whom 
those parents trusted as they walked down 
into the valley of death. There was dust on 
its lids, but it would be opened some day and 
fulfill its mission. When God, by any agency, 
has introduced the Bible into either papal or 
pagan lands, he has planted the gospel there. 
Let me just here relate an incident which 
illustrates what the Bible could do in those 
days among the most desperate of men. 
When the Texas forces, while retreating be- 
fore the army of Santa Anna, had reached the 
town of San Felipe, on the Brazos, Gen. Hous- 
ton ordered the town to be burned to prevent 

138 Hand Booh of Methodist Misshns. 

the supplies it contained falling into the 
hands of the enemy. A merchant, seeing no 
hope of saving his goods, told the soldiers to 
help themselves. Among them was one of 
Houston's scouts, known for his reckless dar- 
ing. On the counter was a Bible of moderate 
size which, up to that time, had found no 
market. The scout picked it up with the re- 
mark: " Boys, I'll take this for my share." It 
was a rich joke for that Godless crowd. The 
book was an awkward addition to his knap- 
sack, and often he thought of tossing it into 
the prairie, but for some cause for which he 
could not account he clung to the book. The 
war over, he returned to his home. The book 
was placed on a high shelf and orders given 
to his children that no one should take it 
down. Years passed on. No man in Col- 
orado was more familiar with the gambling- 
table and race-track than that noted Texas 
scout. One day time hung heavily on his 
hands, and, without knowing why, the Bible 
was taken down and its pages opened. The 
first verse fastened on his heart. He read till 
his soul ached out its sins. He read until the 
light of the Saviour's love was shed abroad 
in his heart by the Holy Ghost. His last 
days were spent in hunting up his old com- 

Missions in tlie Soutli. 139 

rades in sin and leading them to Christ; aiid 
when death came, it found him ready to an- 
swer the Master's call. 

Others of those men brought the gospel 
with them in holy memories of the family al- 
tar before which their parents bowed, and the 
house of prayer in which their fathers wor- 
shiped. Sometimes the missionary was led to 
wonder at some unexpected act of kindness 
from men of desperate character and life. On 
one occasion an a^opointment for a two days' 
meeting was announced in the Red Lands of 
Eastern Texas. Some lewd fellows of the 
baser sort determined to break it up. Col. 
James Bowie, a man known throughout the 
South-west for his tried courage, went on the 
ground and declared the meeting should not 
be disturbed. No one was ready to encounter 
this unexpected cham2:>ion of the preachers, 
and the services of the meetings were con- 
ducted in peace. The mother of Bowie was 
a Methodist, and the memory of her pious 
life made him the defender of her faith. 

Others had brought the gospel with them 
in the hearts and lives of their devoted wives. 
Often the preacher met an unexpected wel- 
come in the homes of men noted for their 
abandoned wickedness. For the sake of his 

140 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

true-hearted and devoted wife his house was 
transformed into a house of worship, and in 
many instances through her influence he was 
led to Christ. 

They had also brought to this land, domi- 
nated by priestly intolerance, that love for 
freedom that could not rest until every man 
within its borders possessed the right to wor- 
ship God according to the dictates of his own 
conscience. Other questions brought on the 
conflict which ended in the independence of 
Texas; but the highest boon that was won on 
the field of San Jacinto was that of religious 

After the pioneer came the preacher. The 
entrance of the missionary into Texas was 
the result of a singular mistake. In that day 
the boundary lines between the United States 
and Mexico were not clearly defined, and a 
region of country located between the Ked 
River and the Sulphur Fork, though a part of 
Texas, was supposed to belong to Arkansas 
territory. The settlers who first occupied 
this region were not aware that they were 
making their homes on foreign soil. The 
Methodist preacher, pressing his way into the 
regions beyond, entered this new and inviting 
field without any apprehension of interference 

Mist;i(jns in tlie South. 141 

on the part of the bigoted priesthood of Mex- 
ico. As early as 1815, Dr. Thrall informs ns 
in his " Methodism in Texas," William Stev- 
enson preached on the Texas side of the Red 
River. In .1818 he held a camp-meeting near 
the place where he preached his first sermon. 
The names of Henry Stevenson and two 
brothers, Washington and Green Orr, appear 
as his co-laborers. In 1817 a class was organ- 
ized at a place called Jonesboro, on Red River, 
of which Brother Tidwell was leader. Par- 
ties converted in those early days afterward 
moved into the interior of Texas and helped to 
establish the Church in their new homes. In 
1835 Sulphur Fort appears among the appoint- 
ments. In 1839 it was traveled by Rev. J. W. 
P. McKenzie, who had been for four years a 
missionary among the Choctaws. He after- 
ward established an institution of learning at 
Clarksville. Many of the leading men in 
Texas, both in Church and in State, were ed- 
ucated at this school. In 1844 the Red Riv- 
er country was transferred to the East Texas 
Conference, with seven hundred and seven 
white and sixty-four colored members. 

The advantages possessed by the people 
north of the Sulphur Fork were not enjoyed in 
the rest of Texas. When the emigrant crossed 

142 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

the Sabine, he was under the laws of Mex- 
ico. The Catholic Chnrch was the religion 
of the State, and a corrupt and intolerant 
priesthood were ready to enforce its claims. 

Henry Stevenson may be justly entitled 
the pioneer missionary in Texas, for he was 
first to cross the Sabine and plant the cross 
within the undisputed boundaries of one of 
the provinces of Mexico. In 1824 he visited 
Austin Colony, and preached at private houses 
near Washington; also at Cumming's Creek, 
in Fayette County; at Peach Creek, not far 
from Guadalupe ; at Morris Settlement, on the 
Colorado; at Columbus and San Felipe. He 
afterward revisited these points in 1829 and 
1830. In 1834 he traveled the Sabine Circuit, 
in Louisiana. During the year he visited San 
Augustine County, preached in the house of 
George Teel, and organized a Church with sev- 
eral members. On an occasion near San Au- 
gustine he had an appointment at the house of 
Mr. Stafford, but the alcalde forbade the serv- 
ices. Two days later he preached at the house 
of Mr. Thomas, on Atoyac Creek. In July he 
held a camp-meeting at Col. Lawrence B. Mc- 
Mahan's, a prominent citizen and devout 
Methodist. In the war with Mexico CoL 
McMahan commanded a battalion in the fight 

Missions in the South, 148 

with Pieclras at Nacogdoclies. He had been 
a seeker of religion in Tennessee, and was 
converted after he reached Texas while en- 
gaged in secret prayer. His house became 
one of the centers of religious influence 
throughout the Red Lands of East Texas. 
The pioneer preachers found a welcome in his 
home and in himself and family willing co- 
laborers at the class-meeting or camp-meeting 
altar. It was said that no young man ever 
lived in his family without being converted. 

In the fall Stevenson attended the Missis- 
sippi Conference, and offered himself as a mis- 
sionary to Texas. He encountered decided 
opposition, but his plea at last prevailed, and 
among the appointments of the Mississippi 
Conference for 1835 is the record: "Texas 
Mission, Henry Stevenson." 

Though the Church of Rome was the relig- 
ion of the State and its priests were support- 
ed by the government, yet it was even at that 
day losing its power over the leading minds 
of Mexico. Many of the Mexican officials in 
Texas were not zealous in enforcing the au- 
thority of a religion which has ceased to 
command their respect. A local Methodist 
preacher named Alford and a Cumberland 
Presbyterian preacher named Bacon had an- 

144 Hand Book of Method id Missions. 

nounced a meeting in Sabine County. The al- 
calde pronounced against it. When the hour 
for preaching arrived, a Mr. Johnson appeared 
and declared that he would horsewhip any 
man who entered the stand. Alford, who had 
just reached the ground, took his place in the 
stand, and quietly remarked: "I am as able to 
take a whipping as any man on this ground." 
Johnson looked at the brawny form and reso- 
lute face of the preacher, and retired. These 
facts were reported to the Mexican comman- 
der at Nacogdoches. He asked: "Are they 
stealing horses? " " No." "Are they killing 
anybody?" "No." "Are they doing any 
thing bad?" "No." "Then let them alone." 
That is all that Protestant Christianity de- 

Another agency that was preparing the way 
for the regular missionaries was the local 
preachers who had sought homes in this new 
land, and who endeavored, while providing for 
their families, to preach the gospel to their 
neighbors. Among those who labored in the 
Eed Eiver region was John B. Denton, a man 
of remarkable ability. He was killed by the 
Indians in 1839. Two of his sons are in the 
West Texas Conference. Among the local 
preachers of the Red Lands, east of the 

Missions in the South. 145 

Trinity, none was more noted than William C. 
Crawford. He had been compelled to locate 
in Alabama on account of feeble health, and 
reached Texas in 1835. He held high posi- 
tion as lawyer and statesman; but amid his 
cares and duties was ever a man of power in 
the pulpit and successful in winning souls for 
Christ. At a series of meetings held in and 
near Shelbyville, in which he took an active 
part, over two hundred were added to the 

The name of John W. Kinney was a house- 
hold word among the early Methodists west 
of the Trinity River. He commenced preach- 
ing as an itinerant in 1820, and filled impor- 
tant stations in Ohio, Kentucky, Virginia, 
and Tennessee. After traveling eight years 
he located. He raised a company which he 
commanded during the Black Hawk war. 
The cholera appeared in camp, and he faith- 
fully visited the sick and dying. At the close 
of the war he removed to Texas, and preached 
his first sermon near Washington in March, 
1834. The next month he held a two days* 
meeting on New Years Creek. Though busy 
during the week upon his farm, the Sabbath 
usually found him preaching to the people. 
His appointments soon extended to the lea4- 

146 Hand Book of Methodist llissions. 

ing settlements in what is now Washington, 
Austin, Fort Bend, and Brazoria Counties. He 
was a man of remarkable pulpit power, while 
his wide range of information, sterling integ- 
rity, and sound judgment gave him great in- 
fluence among all classes of society. 

During the summer of 1834 Henry Stev- 
enson again visited Western Texas, preaching 
wherever he went. He was warmly welcomed 
by Brother Kinney, and the wants of the work 
opening so encouragingly were fully discussed. 
It was decided to hold a camp-meeting near 
Brother Kinney's house. An Indian raid into 
the Kerr settlement near the present town of 
Burton reduced the congregation, yet the 
meeting yielded large results. At the close 
of the meeting, after an earnest appeal from 
Brother Kinney, thirty-eight united with the 
Church. Some had been members before 
they came to Texas; others were recent con- 

Among the latter was John Rabb, who filled 
an important part in the history of Method- 
ism in Western Texas. He had been convert- 
ed two months before in a grove near his 
home, on the Colorado, while engaged in se- 
cret prayer. He came fifty miles to attend 
the meeting, and was, possibly, the first con- 

Missions in the South. 147 

vert west of the Trinity to acknowledge Christ.* 
He kept up secret prayer as long as he lived. 
His favorite place was a live oak grove near 
his home. When his heart was drawn out in 
behalf of sinners, the whole neighborhood 
knew that John Eabb was at secret prayer. 
Often at midnight the writer has been awak- 
ened by his voice coming from his closet in 
the grove. We knew he was praying for sin- 
ners. We knew the Church and the preacher 
would not be forgotten. We could not distin- 
guish his words, but we would say "Amen," 
for we were sure that John Eabb's prayer 
would be heard at the mercy-seat. He owned 
a saw-mill. One Sunday afternoon while 
reading his Bible he heard the cry of fire, and 
on looking up he saw the flames driven up a 
little valley below his mill by a strong wind. 
Before he could call the hands, it was in an 
immense pile of rich pine lumber. With all 
his force he fought the flames; but his men 
were driven back, and soon the mill itself 
would be on fire. The loss of the lumber was 
serious, but the loss of the mill meant ruin to 
himself and others. He fell on his knees, told 
God that he held the wind in his fists and 
could save his mill. As he wrestled in prayer, 
the strong south wind was arrested, and be- 

148 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

fore lie rose from his knees the wind was beat- 
ing back the flames and the mill was saved. 

A preacher who had heard of this incident 
but was somewhat skeptical, conversed soon 
afterward with the engineer of the mill, an 
avowed infidel, who was present and heard 
Eabb's prayer. He told the same story, and 
added: " When the old man dropped on his 
knees and commenced praying, I thought he 
had gone crazy. I was looking him in the 
face when he rose, shouting: ' Scatter the lum- 
ber, boys, God has answered my prayer, and 
the wind is changing! ' I looked up and saw 
the tall flames driven back by the north wind. 
I don't know much about religion, but of one 
thing I am sure: I don't want the old man to 
pray against me.'^ Among the agencies which 
helped to give such wonderful success to the 
early missionaries of Texas, we count John 
Rabb's prayers not the least. 

Another camp-meeting was held by Brother 
Kinney on the same ground in 1835. It was 
decided during the meeting that the time had 
come for the. Church to organize, and a Quar- 
terly Conference, to be composed of all who 
had been official members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in the United States, was 
assembled. Alexander Thomson was chosen 

Missions in the South 149 

Chairman. He had 43eeii a class-leader and 
steward in the Church in Tennessee. On his 
arrival at his new home on Yegua Creek, 
Texas, he at once built his family altar. On 
each Sunday morning it was his custom to as- 
semble his family and that of his sister, Mrs. 
Kerr, and some others and hold prayer-meet- 
ing with them. The Secretary was David 
Ayers, the father of Mrs. Park, now an active 
member of the Woman's Board in, the Texas 
Annual Conference. W. P. Smith, M.D., for- 
merly a Protestant Methodist preacher, united 
with the little band, and continued until his 
death a useful local preacher. All felt the 
need of pastoral oversight, and the lot fell on 
Brother Kinney. Some of these proceedings 
may not have been precisely regular; but one 
act of the Conference, under Methodist usage, 
will remain unchallenged: they took up a 
collection. Brother Kinney was a poor man. 
He had been giving a good measure of his 
time to his appointments, but the members 
now assumed a share of the burden. 

These proceedings were unauthorized by 
Mexican law, and some were apprehensive of 
interference on the part of the government. 
Brother Thomson submitted the matter to Dr. 
Miller, who, in the absence of Col. Austin, was 

150 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

the political head of the colony. Dr. Miller 
promptly approved the action of the Confer- 
ence, and subscribed twenty dollars for the 
support of the preacher. 

The members returned to their homes full 
of hope, but a cloud was rising. The Mexican 
army under Santa Anna was on its march to 
expel the foreigners from Texas. Then came 
the war. All who could secure arms were 
summoned, to the battle-field, while others 
were preparing to retreat, if necessary, beyond 
the Mexican border. The conflict closed at 
San Jacinto. The people returned to their 
homes sadly impoverished by the invasion, 
and could do but little toward the support of 
the preacher; but he promptly resumed his 
appointments^ sometimes walking many miles 
to the place of worship when no horse could 
be obtained. Another meeting was held at 
the Kinney Camp-ground in the fall of 1836, 
which reunited and greatly strengthened the 
scattered members. Some who were camped 
with their families on the ground had come 
from the different settlements on the Colorado 
eighty miles distant, to share in the worship 
of God. These annual meetings on the fron- 
tier were like the Feast of Tabernacles among 
the ancient Israelites. 

Missions in the South. 151 

It was now evident to that little band that 
the time had come when the regular mission- 
ary should be summoned to the field. The 
independence of Texas had brought to its 
citizens the boon of religious freedom. Every 
one could now worship God without molesta- 
tion under his own vine and fig tree. Mr. 
David Ayers and Miss L. H. McHenry, the 
sister-in-law of Brother Kinney, opened cor- 
respondence with the bishops of our Church 
and the Missionary Society, setting forth the 
wants of this new field and urging that it 
should be occupied without delay. After ma- 
ture deliberation the bishops and Board de- 
cided to open the mission and prosecute it 
with vigor. In 1837 Bishop Hedding notified 
Rev. Martin Enter, D.D., that he was appoint- 
ed Superintendent of the Texas Mission, with 
Revs. Littleton Fowler and Robert Alexan- 
der as assistants. 

Robert Alexander, who, at the time of his 
appointment, was in Natchez Station, on the 
Mississippi River, lost no time after receiving 
his credentials, but started on horseback to 
his distant field. He crossed the Sabine Riv- 
er at Gaines's Ferry, and entered at once on his 
work. The people had learned of his arrival, 
and a large congregation met in the house of 

152 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

a Mr. Walker. The missionary preached and 
closed the service in the usual form. Weary 
with travel, he retired to a private room to rest. 
He had rested about an hour when Mr. Walk- 
er entered the room and said that the people 
were unwilling to return to their homes with- 
out another sermon. This brought the mis- 
sionary to his feet. The people were hungry 
for the gospel. Again his Bible was opened, 
and another message delivered to the waiting 
congregation. A few days later he reached 
the home of Col. McMahan, where he held a 
camp-meeting, organized a circuit, and held 
Quarterly Conference. During the sermon on 
Sunday it began to rain. As the congregation 
had no protection but a brush arbor, the 
preacher paused; but the people retained their 
seats, and the preacher went on with the ser- 
mon. The missionary remained a month in 
the Red Lands, visiting the different appoint- 
ments, perfecting the organizations of the So- 
cieties, and preaching on Sundays to congre- 
gations assembled usually in a private house. 
The little band at Washington gave the mis- 
sionary a cordial welcome. After counseling 
with Brother Kinney and others, it was decid- 
ed to hold a camp-meeting near Sempronius, 
not far from where the former meetings were 

Missmis in the SoutJu 153 

held. The missionary, who had been raided 
on a farm and knew how to handle an ax, took 
a leading part in clearing the ground, building 
the arbor, and preparing the seats and stand. 
The meeting was of great interest and profit 
to the little band that had been waiting and 
praying for the arrival of the preacher and 
the opening of aggressive evangelical work in 
this newly opened field. As a token of grati- 
tude they organized a Missionary Society, and 
their first collection amounted to a thousand 
dollars. It is not strange that Texas Method- 
ism prospered. It was opened on apostolic 

Littleton Fowler reached Texas by way of 
Eed River, visited and preached at Nacogdo- 
ches, and came on to Washington, where he 
met Alexander, who had just closed the camp- 
meeting at Sempronius. After the colleagues 
had conferred with regard to the work before 
them, Alexander started to attend the Mis- 
sissippi Conference, which met at Natchez. 
He had before him a horseback journey 
equal in distance to that from Charleston to 

Leaving Washington, Fowler proceeded to 
Brazoria, near the coast, where he organized 
a Church. He next visited Houston, where 

154 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the Texas Congress was in session, and was 
elected Cliaplain of the Senate. While in 
Houston he secured the half- block of ground 
on which the parsonage and leading church of 
Houston now stand. His duties at Houston 
ended, he passed on to Chappell Hill. Here 
he found at the home of William Kesee a 
young school-teacher whose confidence he 
was soon able to win. Converted in early life, 
the young man had felt called to preach; but 
unwilling to answer, had wandered out into 
Texas. The presence and piety of the preach- 
er roused his slumbering convictions, and one 
rainy day he invited Fowler to the corn-crib, 
the only private place in sight, and then told 
the story of the conflict within his heart. He 
had found a faithful friend, who placed before 
him the responsibilities a man assumes who 
dares to disobey the call of God. That inter- 
view determined the future of that young 
man. Two years later the name of Daniel 
Carl appeared on the Minutes of the Confer- 
ence in connection with tlie Jasper Circuit. 
The Texas Mission was beginning to provide 
its own preachers. 

The Church is wise when it places its best 
•men in the mission fields. There were no 
better preachers in Antioch than Barnabas 

Missions in the South. 155 

and Saul, and they were chosen by the Holy 
Spirit as missionaries to the Gentiles. Dr. 
Enter, who had been appointed Superintend- 
ent of the Texas Mission, was one of the lead- 
ers of our Methodist Israel in her day. He 
had filled some of the most important ap- 
pointments in the Church. As pastor. Book 
Agent, and College President he held high 

He was President of Alleghany College 
when summoned to the mission field. He 
conferred not with flesh and blood. The Ohio 
E-iver being to low for steam-boats, he put his 
family in a small boat and rowed it with his 
own hands from Pittsburg to Marietta. He left 
his family with his relatives at New Albany, 
Ind., and proceeded by steam-boat to Kodney, 
on the Mississippi River. From this point he 
traveled on horseback to Gaines's Ferry, on the 
Sabine, which he reached November 21, 1837. 
Here he met Mr. Alexander, who was on his 
way to the Mississippi Conference. After 
spending the night together, maturing plans 
for the future,, they parted in the morning. 
The doctor reached San Augustine that day, 
and preached at night in a school-house. 
The next Sunday he preached to large con- 
gregations at Nacogdoches. Crossing the 

156 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Trinity, he spent the night at the house of 
James Mitchel. Learning from Mrs. Mitchel 
that she had not heard a sermon in Texas, he 
requested her to collect her family after sup- 
per and he would preach. She did so, and he 
preached a sermon that was long remembered 
in that household. Reaching Washington, he 
preached on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday. 
Passing down the country, he called on Mr. 
Kinney, who accompanied him to San Felipe 
and Egypt, on the Colorado. At the latter 
point he held class-meeting and organized a 
class with nine members. From Egypt he 
visited Houston, when he met Mr. Fowler. 
He was invited to preach before Congress, 
and his sermon made a deep impression on 
the large and attentive congregation. He en- 
listed a number of leading men of the young 
republic in his plans for the establishment of 
an educational institution. Though he did 
not live to carry out his plans, the interest he 
awakened on the subject during this visit pre- 
pared the way for those educational enterpris- 
es of our Church which have accomplished 
such large results for the Church and State 
of Texas. 

Leaving Houston late in January, Dr. Ruter 
visited Center Hill, Washington, Independ- 

Missions in the Sotif/i. 157 

ence, Gay Hill, the Kerr settlement, and Bas- 
trop. At Bastrop he organized a Church of 
fifteen members. He passed on to the upper 
settlements on the Colorado, preaching at 
Morris Fort in February. During this time 
he had visited nearly all the settled parts of 
Texas, and had taken the names of three hun- 
dred persons who were members of the Meth- 
odist Church before they came to Texas. His 
conclusion was that twelve additional mission- 
aries were needed in the mission. He decided, 
after visiting East Texas, to attend the meet- 
ing of the bishops and Mission Board in New 
York, and secure, if possible, the re-enforce- 
ments the field demanded. He started East, 
and had crossed the Brazos when he was tak- 
en sick and compelled to return to Washing- 
ton for medical attention. It was now evident 
that during his few months in Texas he had 
overtaxed his strength. The fierce northers, 
the beating rains, the swollen streams i^ever 
arrested his travel. To his friends who 
warned him against exposure he replied: 
*'The King's business requireth haste." All 
was done for him that medical skill and lov- 
ing hearts could supply, but his work was 
done. He died in Washington May 16, 1838. 
Saddened by the loss of their leader. Fowler 

158 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

and Alexander continued their labors through 

1838. No definite work had been assigned 
then, and they labored wherever an opening 
was presented. During the year three small 
church-buildings had been erected — one at San 
Augustine, one at the McMahan settlement, 
and another at Washington — while 450 mem- 
bers were gathered into the Church. 

The Texas Mission District was attached 
to the Mississippi Conference. At the ses- 
sion held December 3, 1838, L. Fowler was ap- 
pointed presiding elder and Superintendent, 
and Jesse Hord, S. A. Williams, J. P. Sneed, 
and I. L. G. Strickland were added to the 
preaching force. A meeting was held in a log 
cabin in San Augustine, and the work re-ar- 
ranged as follows: L. Fowler, presiding elder 
and Superintendent; San Augustine, S. A. 
Williams; Montgomery, I. L. G. Strickland; 
Washington, R. Alexander; Houston, Jesse 
Har^. J. P. Sneed reached the field in March, 

1839, and took charge of Montgomery Circuit, 
while Mr. Strickland was sent to assist Mr. 
Hard. I. L. G. Strickland was a young man 
of devout piety and unusual ability; but was 
soon stricken down with congestive fever. 
When assured his end was near, he said, 
"Can this be death?" and then added, *'I 

Missions in the Sontli. 159 

shall soon be m heaven." This earnest, Ibv- 
ing spirit had won the love of saint and sinner. 

The year was marked by a number of re- 
vivals. One in the bounds of Mr. Alexander's 
circuit resulted in over one hundred conver- 
sions. In January of this year Dr. Abel 
Stevens visited Texas and preached at differ- 
ent points wnth great acceptability, and re- 
turned to the North. The year 1839 closed 
with 750 white and 43 colored members. 

At the Mississippi Conference, held Decem- 
ber 4, 1839, two districts were formed in Texas. 
Littleton Fowler had charge of the East Texas 
District, with six preachers and seven pastoral 
charges. Eobert Alexander had charge of the 
West Texas District, with nine preachers and 
nine pastoral charges. Abel Stevens, who was 
assigned to Brazoria Circuit, having returned 
North, his place was filled by O. Fisher, a man 
of remarkable pulpit power. T. O. Summers, 
then in the seventh year of his ministry, was 
sent to Galveston. During the year the 
membership was more than doubled. The re- 
port showed 25 local preachers, 1,623 white 
members, and 230 colored members. 

At the General Conference of 1840 provis- 
ion was made for an Annual Conference in 
Texas. It was organized by Bishop AVaugh, 

160 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

at Entersville, December 25, 1840. T. O. 
Summers was Secretary. The Conference con- 
sisted of nine members and ten on trial. It 
had more probationers than full-grown preach- 
ers. This revealed vigorous and healthy- 
growth. Four districts were formed and 
manned with eighteen men. Their field em- 
braced all the settlements from Marshall on 
Upper Eed Eiver to the valley of the Guada- 
lupe. T. O. Summers was sent to Galveston 
and Houston. 

Bishop Morris held the next Conference. 
He brought with him John Clark and J. W. 
Whipple. They left St. Louis October 18 
by private conveyance, and reached San Au- 
gustine December 23, 1841. Brother Whip- 
ple was sent to Austin. The frontier was at 
that time infested by Indians, and the men 
who carried the gospel to its scattered settle- 
ments needed no small share of native cour- 
age and the grace of God. Every man was 
considered a part of the frontier defense, and 
the preacher who shared the dangers of trail 
and camp when the Indians were on the war- 
path and the women and children were in 
danger was sure of a congregation and a re- 
spectful hearing when he reached his month- 
ly appointment or met ih.Q people on tb© 

Missions in the South. 161 

camp-ground. Few men in Western Texas 
won a larger place in the confidence of its 
early pioneers than Josiali Whipple. Preach- 
ing on circuits, presiding over districts, con- 
ducting camp or protracted meetings, plan- 
ning new fields, working and giving for the 
erection of churches and schools, he accom- 
plished a mission in the Colorado Valley that 
will yiel^ results when the present generation 
is in the grave. 

In 1842 Brother Fowler visited several 
Northern Conferences calling for volunteers 
for the Texas Mission. In answer to the ap- 
peal before the Ohio Conference five young 
men responded. Texas at that day was a far 
country, and the question was raised as to the 
best route to the field. The veteran Daniel 
Poe, who had visited Texas, gave the informa- 
tion. J. B. Finley, the "old chief" of the 
Conference, moved that Brother Poe be sent 
along to take care of the boys. Some one 
asked if Sister Poe would be willing to go. 
Brother Poe replied that when he first saw 
her she was teaching the Indians at the head 
of Lake Superior, and would go to any field to 
which the Church would call her husband. 
They all reached Texas. In two years their 
leader, Daniel Poe, and his heroic wife died 

162 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

witliin an hour of each other, and were buried 
side by side beneath the altar of the church 
in San Augustine, where he had so often 
preached the word of life. J. W. Devilbiss, 
another of that band, after preaching on cir- 
cuit and district from the Brazos to the Kio 
Grande, closed his labors in 1885. His me- 
morial window in our church at San Antonio 
expresses the veneration of our people there 
for the man who planted the cross in that city 
nearly half a century ago. H. S. Thrall is 
the only one of that little company who re- 
mains among us. He shared the trials and 
dangers of that early day, and still leads as an 
effective preacher the van of our army on the 
banks of the Kio Grande. 

Bishop Andrew held the Conference of 1843 
at Kobinson's settlement, near the present 
town of Huntsville. He was told on reaching 
Houston that, owing to excessive rains, which 
had flooded every stream, it would be impos- 
sible to proceed. He replied that it was time 
for a Methodist preacher to stop when he 
could go no farther. He started w^tli Broth- 
er Summers, and by the help of deep fords, 
rafts, and swimming of horses, they were in 
time when Conference convened. 

The Conference reported 1,200 members. 

Missions in the South. 163 

It had inaugurated two colleges: one at 
Enters ville, the other at San Augustine. 
These institutions have given place to others 
of later growth, but they fulfilled an impor- 
tant mission in their day. 

In 1844 the Church was divided, and the 
Texas Conference took its place among its 
sister Conferences of the South. Owing to 
its immense territory provision had been 
made for its division into two Conferences. 
The Eastern Conference was organized with 
four districts, seventeen pastoral charges, and 
twenty-eight preachers. The Western Con- 
ference had three districts, sixteen charges, 
and twenty-three preachers. This gave for 
the republic 51 itinerants, with about 5,000 
white and 1,000 colored members. 

Although the w^ork in many portions of 
these new Conferences was now self-sustain- 
ing, yet on the frontier and border it was en- 
larging every year. As the frontier receded 
before the growing settlements it continued 
to stretch from Red River on the North and 
East for a thousand miles to the Rio Grande 
and Gulf on the West and South. Into this 
vast extent of territory the tide of immigra- 
tion was beginning to pour by the hundred 
thousand every year. To supply this incom- 

164 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ing population with the gospel was beyond 
the ability of the older charges, and hence the 
constant call for men and money to meet the 
demands of this rapidly growing field. Had 
it not been for the re-enforcements sent by the 
older Conferences and the missionary aid 
rendered by the Parent Board, this great mis- 
sion field could never have been occupied by 
our Church. Texas can only pay this debt 
by its offerings of men and money to send the 
gosi^el to the regions beyond. 

Few mission fields have yielded larger re- 
sults. In early days its boundaries were 
sometimes given thus: "On the North by the 
Indian nations, on the East by Louisiana, on 
the South by the Gulf, on the West by the 
providence of God." Were these words pro- 
phetic? During the year 1891 nine Annual 
Conferences will hold their sessions on Texas 
soil. In 1890 these Conferences reported 696 
effective preachers and 138,372 members. 



China Mission. 

No. 1. 
Many complain that missions in China do 
not compare favorably with those in other 
lands. While missionary operations were 
opened among the Chinese early in the pres- 
ent century, the results have been far less 
than those reported from India and the South 
Sea Islands. There are causes for these re- 
sults. It will be conceded by all familiar with 
modern Missions that China is one of the 
most difficult of all the foreign fields. As a 
people the Chinese are intensely conservative. 
Their profound veneration for their ancestral 
customs and religion leads them to regard 
with suspicion and contempt the institutions 
and innovations of other and younger nations. 
Their religions have degenerated into de- 
basing superstitions, from which all true con- 
ceptions of God and immortality have been 

blotted out; hence they turn to this life as 


166 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

their highest good. China may be considered 
the stronghold of the " God of this world." 
It may be the last battle-field between the 
true faith and false religions. 

Their resistance to Christianity has been 
strengthened by their deep sense of the 
wrongs they have suffered from leading Chris- 
tian powers. Many years of missionary toil 
and sacrifice will be needed to efface from the 
Chinese mind the impressions made by the 
iniquitous policy of England with reference 
to the opium trade. 

Again, in estimating the results of mission- 
ary ofjerations in China, we must bear in mind 
the fact that prior to 1844 the empire was 
sealed against labors of the missionary. Dur- 
ing that year the imperial decrees prohibiting, 
under heavy penalties^ the profession of Chris- 
tianity by the natives were partially removed, 
and the missionary allowed to prosecute his 
work in the five ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo- 
chow, Ningpo, and Shanghai. They were 
still " prohibited from going into the interior 
to propagate religion." It was not until 1858 
that these restrictions were removed and 
China opened to the gospel. In 1860 there 
were about 1,600 converts; in 1890 there 
were upward of 38,000. 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. 167 

Previous to the division of Episcopal Meth- 
odism in 1844, the thoughts of leading minis- 
ters and members in the Southern Confer- 
ences were drawn toward China as a mission 
field. In 1843 Kev. Charles Taylor, then in 
his first year in the South Carolina Conference, 
informed his presiding elder, Dr. William Ca- 
pers, that if the Church decided to open a Mis- 
sion in China, he was ready to go. The division 
of the Church for a time diverted attention 
from the movement; but the Louisville Conven- 
tion having fully committed Southern Method- 
ism to the caitse of Foreign Missions, the sub- 
ject was promptly revived. The Church press, 
led by the Southern Christian Advocate, warmly 
advocated the Mission; it became the chief 
topic at Annual Conference missionary anni- 
versaries; preachers echoed the call in behalf 
of China from their pulpits, and the Church 
began to respond with donations and pledges 
for its support. The General Conference that 
met in 1846, without a dissenting voice, gave 
the Mission its indorsement, and the Board 
and the bishops at once decided to carry out 
the manifest wish of the Church. 

Revs. Charles Taylor and Benjamin Jen- 
kins, both of the South Carolina Conference, 
were appointed to the China Mission, and or- 

168 Hand Book of MetJiodlsf Missions. 

dained elders by Bishop Andrew, in Norfolk, 
Va., February 27, 1848. Closing his sermon on 
the occasion, the bishop expressed his regret 
that, "instead of a forlorn hope of two mis- 
sionaries to be sent from the Southern Meth- 
odist Church, it was not in his power to send a 
band of fifty faithful men to the benighted 
millions of the Flowery Kingdom." When 
shall the Avish of the bishop find fulfillment? 

Eeferring to the appointment of Taylor and 
Jenkins to their distant field, the Southern 
Christian Advocate styled the South Carolina 
Conference the "Old Missionary Conference.'' 
The claim was just. Having pioneered the 
missions among the Southern Indians and 
slaves, two of her sons had consented to go 
forth as the first standard-bearers of the cross 
from the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
in foreign lands. 

April 24, 1848, the two missionaries and 
their wives stood on the deck of the little ship 
"Cleone," in Boston Harbor. A little group 
of Methodists of that city joined with them 
in singing the missionary hymn, a prayer was 
offered in their behalf, and they sailed on a 
mission from which one of their company 
would never return to her native land. A 
voyage to China in the slow sailing vessels of 

Missions of the 31. E. C, S. 169 

that day was a diiferent affair from the elegant 
cars and first-class steamers that now bear 
them swiftly across continent and ocean. The 
cabin of the *' Cleone" was ten by fourteen feet 
in size and seven feet in height. The state- 
rooms were six feet by four, with berths two 
feet in width, leaving the same space for 
washing and dressing. They attempted relig- 
ious services for several Sabbaths, but the 
officers of the ship made their efforts so un- 
pleasant that they were discontinued. 
• August 12, 1848, after a voyage of one hun- 
dred and sixteen days, they anchored at Hong 
Kong. Owing to the illness of his wife. Dr. 
Jenkins was detained here until the following 
May. Dr. Taylor and his wife proceeded up 
the coast to Shanghai, which had been select- 
ed as their field. He reached his destination 
in September, 1848. After a diligent search 
of two weeks, a native residence was secured, 
which they rendered as habitable as their 
means allowed. Dr. Jenkins joined his col- 
league in May, 1849. He had made two at- 
tempts to come up the coast, but had encoun- 
tered heavy typhoons and narrowly escaped 

Their report for 1849 shows them diligently 
studying the language and engaged in the dis- 

170 Hand Book of Methodist Missiom. 

tribution of such tracts and books in the 
Chinese language as their means enabled them 
to obtain. Dr. Taylor succeeded in purchas- 
ing a plat of ground a third of an acre in ex- 
tent on the bank of the Yang-king-pang, near 
a narrow wooden bridge, and built on it a 
temporary dwelling. Though small, it was 
more convenient and healthy than the Chi- 
nese house they had occupied. The next year 
he managed to purchase a small addition to 
the lot, and with assistance from the Church 
at home was able to enlarge the mission house 
and build a chapel that would seat 150 Chi- 
nese. The first service in it was held by Dr. 
Taylor in January, 1850. The stream near the 
house was usually alive with boats and the 
bridge often thronged with people. Every 
day the door of the chapel was opened and 
passers-by invited to come in and hear the 
" Jesus doctrines." The location being out- 
side the city walls, our brethren did not pos- 
sess the advantages enjoyed by other mission- 
aries whose Boards had been able to provide 
for them commodious chapels in the city. 
They were glad to be permitted to preach for 
their missionary brethren when ill or absent, 
and to address large crowds in the temples or 
other places of public resort. They were 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 171 

greatly encouraged by the interest manifest 
on such occasions. Two schools established 
by Dr. Taylor the previous year were still 
prospering, though interrupted by small-pox. 
They contained together thirty scholars. 
Both teachers and scholars were assembled 
every Sabbath in the chapel for religious serv- 
ice and instruction. Preaching trips were 
made to adjoining towns and cities. Among 
these they mention Soochow, ninety miles 
north-west of Shanghai. In the midst of 
other duties, Dr. Taylor found time to answer 
calls for medical attention, which opened the 
way for religious instruction. 

In 1851 the hearts of the missionaries re- 
joiced over the first fruits of their toil. Liew- 
sien-sang. Dr. Jenkins' teacher, and his wife 
renounced Buddhism and accepted the religion 
of Christ. He had applied for baptism six 
months before, but was held on probation un- 
til the missionaries were fully satisfied as to 
the sincerity of his change of faith and life. 
A large company of Chinese filled the chapel 
when he and his wife were baptized. At the 
end of the service Liew ascended the pulpit 
and addressed the congregation, setting forth 
his reasons for abandoning idolatry and em- 
bracing Christ. He soon commenced preach- 

172 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ing on Sundays in the cliapel, and during the 
week "in the large inclosure of the temple 
dedicated to the tutelary guardian of the city." 
Often hundreds listened to his message. Dr. 
Cunningham thus mentions our first native 
preacher: "He possessed a vigorous mind, 
quick apprehension, ready and fluent utter- 
ance, with a warm and noble heart. His min- 
istry was greatly blessed. His death, which 
occurred in 1866, was mourned by mission- 
aries and native Christians as a great loss to 
the general cause of Christ." 

Both the missionary families were called 
to bury a little babe. They sleep near to- 
gether in the British cemetery. 

The work was greatly embarrassed by lack 
of proper facilities for mission w^ork. Dr. 
Taylor, having exhausted his stock of med- 
icines, was obliged to send his patients to the 
hospital of the London Missionary Society. 
Not being able to sustain his two schools, one 
was closed. Among the trials of the mission- 
ary, few are more painful than the absence of 
means with which to sustain a prosperous 
work, or to avail himself of opportunities for 
enlargement which are so often presented. 
Among other plans Dr. Taylor proposed at 
that period was a boarding-school for boys 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 173 

and another for girls. He also suggested the 
employment of single ladies as teachers, being 
sure that the children would be easily con- 
trolled by them. 

On the 12th of May, 1852, Eev. W. G. E. 
Cunnyngham and wife sailed for China. They 
reached their destination October 18. Their 
arrival was timely. The health of Mrs. Tay- 
lor had failed. She w^as unwilling to recall 
her husband from his great work, but her 
physicians said she must return home if she 
would prolong her life. She sailed with her 
children, hoping some day to return to the 
Mission, and her husband in his loneliness re- 
sumed his burden. Later in the year the 
health of Mrs. Jenkins yielded to the climate. 
Dr. Jenkins, with his family, sailed for the 
United States some two weeks after the ar- 
rival of Brother Cunnyngham. They had 
waited too long. Mrs. Jenkins died on the 
voyage, and sleeps in the sea. As Brother 
Cunnyngham was engaged in acquiring the 
language, the chief burden of the mission for 
a time rested on Dr. Taylor. Very earnestly 
he appealed to the Board for means with 
which to place the Mission in position for per- 
manent and effective work. A well-appointed 
chapel within the walls of the city was of spe- 

174 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

cial importance. Dr. Taylor mentions the 
fact that (luring the four years he had been in 
China five other Boards had bought lots and 
built churches within the city, while our little 
chapel outside the walls was wholly inad- 
equate to the wants of the growing w^ork. 
This brief statement may furnish another rea- 
son why the Mission in China has not meas- 
ured up to the expectations of many Chris- 
tians at home. Though their ranks had been 
thinued, the missionaries worked bravely on. 
Dr. Cunnyngham wrote: " AVe see enough 
around us to awaken the deepest sympathies 
of our hearts. Could Christians at home 
spend the day with us in this pagan land, no 
sermon or missionary address would be need- 
ed to induce them to do their duty in giving of 
the abundance with which God has blessed 
them to support the missionary or distribute 
the word of life." 

The year 1853 brought unexpected troubles 
to the Mission. The empire was convulsed 
by the Taiping rebellion. Nanking and Chin- 
kiang had fallen into the hands of the insur- 
gents. While at the latter place they were 
visited by Dr. Taylor, wdio had several inter- 
views with one of their leaders. They had 
portions of the Bible, and some knowledge of 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 175 

Christ, and were opposed to idol worship. 
These facts led the missionaries to hope that 
the revolution would result in the overthrow 
of idolatry and the early establishment of 
Christianity. These hopes were not realized. 
The leader in the outset of the movement, 
with defective views of the gospel, may have 
been sincere in his earlier teachings; but the 
movement soon fell under the control of am- 
bitious men who sought to use it for the ov- 
erthrow of the government and the establish- 
ment of a new dynasty. During the year a 
band of insurgents, professing to be acting in 
concert with Taiping, captured Shanghai. 
The mayor of the city was killed, the public 
officers seized, the records destroyed, and a 
sort of military government established. All 
business was suspended and all missionary 
work, except the distribution of books, was 
broken up. 

About the time of the arrival of the insur- 
gents in Shanghai, Dr. Taylor, learning that 
the continued ill health of his wife left no 
hope of her return to China, very reluctantly 
sailed for the United States. Brother Cun- 
nyngham, who had by this time acquired the 
language and was well qualified to manage the 
affairs of the Mission, soon found himself in 

176 Hand Book of Methodist 3Iissio7is. 

the midst of formidable difficulties. The im- 
perial troops charged with the task of retak- 
ing Shanghai were soon before its walls. On 
the 29th of September the first attack was 
made in full view from his house, and within 
three hundred yards of his fence. Battles 
were now a daily occurrence. On the ap- 
proach of the imperial army the missionary 
ladies in the neighborhood of our mission, 
and those within the city, were removed across 
the canal, where Brother Cunnyngham and 
family found a welcome in the house of Mr. 
Nelson, of the Episcopal Mission. For three 
weeks Brother Cunnyngham remained at home, 
in the midst of the fighting, to gnard the house 
and property of the Mission. He was often in 
great danger. The house was seriously in- 
jured by the cannonading from the city walls. 
The roof was shattered and the wall pierced 
by balls. One day Brother Cunnyingham 
was suffering from a severe headache, and 
to secure quiet and relief he went over the 
canal to the house of his friend, Mr. Nel- 
son, where his family had found refuge. 
He was too ill to return that night. In 
the morning when he reached home he found 
that the wall of the building had been 
pierced by a cannon-ball, his bed covered 

Missions of the M. E, C, S. 177 

with mortar and brick, and a twelve-pound 
cannon-ball lying within a few inches of the 
pillow on which his ht^ad usually rested. It 
had buried itself about half its diameter in 
the wall and rebounded back on the bed. 
Had Brother Cunnyngham been in his usual 
place, the messenger of death would have 
plowed through the length of his body. On 
another occasion when closing the gates of the 
mission premises at night he felt on his cheek 
the wind of a two-ounce ball from a "gingal," 
a long-range gun used by the Chinese. It 
cut down a bamboo a few feet from his face. 
God holds his servants in the palm of his 

Liew, the native preacher, had to fly from 
the city, leaving his little property, wliicli was 
all destroyed. Speaking of these times, Broth- 
er Cunnyngham wrote: "But little mission 
work could be done while hostile armies were 
struggling for the city. The country for 
miles was devastated; villages, towns, and 
hamlets laid in ashes; and Shanghai crowded 
with soldiers and refugees. Two of our mis- 
sion houses and our only chapel were burned 
to the ground." Dark as were these days, the 
faith of our solitary sentinel did not falter. 
Writing to the Board in the midst of these 

178 Rand Book of Methodist Missions, 

troubles, he said: "When peace returns, we 
hope to redouble our diligence and by the 
blessing of God to do something for the mul- 
titudes around us. We feel alone in this 
vast wilderness. Do send us help. We will 
not always be in war." 

In the autumn of 1854 Brother Cunnyng- 
ham and wife, who had held their ground " in 
the midst of alarms," were rejoiced by the ar- 
rival of Dr. Jenkins, accompanied by Revs. 
D. C. Kelley, M.D., J. W. Lambuth, and J. L. 
Belton and their wives. Brother Cunnyngham 
had been made Superintendent of the Mission. 
Vigorous efforts were made to repair the in- 
juries the property had suffered during the 
war, and to organize on a broader scale the 
general work of the Mission. The new mis- 
sionaries entered diligently on the study of the 
language. All were hopeful that the war 
would soon end, and the operations of the 
Mission could be carried into the interior. 
But the clouds had not all cleared away. 

The fatal climate again began its deadly 
work. In 1855 the health of Brother Belton 
failed so rapidly that his return home was 
necessary if his life was prolonged. He 
sailed in November with his wife, and reached 
Kew York in time to die and be buried in his 

Missions of the M. E. G., S. 179 

native soil. Our brethren of the Northern 
Church ministered tenderly at his bedside, 
and laid him, as a brother beloved, in his fi- 
nal resting-place. 

Early in October, embracing the first Sab- 
bath of the month, the brethren engaged in 
the services of the first Quarterly Conference 
ever held by our Church in Asia. Brother 
Cunnyngham preached on. Friday, Saturday, 
and on Sunday morning. In the afternoon he 
baptized a woman who had long been a serv- 
ant in his family, and in whose sincerity he 
had implicit faith. 

It became evident in 1856 that the delicate 
health of Mrs. Kelley was yielding under the 
trying climate of Shanghai, and she must re- 
turn home or be buried in that distant land. 
Dr. Kelley felt constrained to return home 
with his family. Their little daughter died 
on the voyage, and was buried in the sea. The 
three remaining missionaries averaged sixty 
sermons a month at their three small chapels, 
besides distributing books and itinerating 
through the adjacent country. Three schools 
were maintained: a male school in charge of 
Brother Cunnyngham, and two female schools, 
one under charge of Mrs. Cunnyngham and 
the other of Mrs. Lambuth. Brother Lam- 

180 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

butli erected a small school-house near his 
dwelling, with accommodations for ten or 
twelve boarders, and soon Mrs. Lambuth had 
eight little girls living with her. Brother Cuu- 
nyngliam, in his report, calls special attention 
to the importance of female schools. "Indi- 
viduals," he said, "may become converts to 
Christianity, but until the mothers become 
Christians the homes must remain pagan." 
During the year Brother Lambuth made a 
twelve days' tour in the interior, preaching 
daily, distributing Testaments and tracts, find- 
ing an open door in all the villages and towns. 

The reports for 1857 tell of good congrega- 
tions, while the schools were increasing in 
number, and several applications for admis- 
sion into the Church were received. Dr. 
Cunnyngham and family, in company with 
two other missionary families, made a trip of 
some two hundred miles into the interior, vis- 
iting among other places the ancient city of 
Hangchow, one of the strongholds of Bud- 
dhism. They preached, distributed books, 
and conversed with priest and people without 
let or hinderance. The barriers in China were 
breaking down. 

The treaty of 1858 having provided that 
Christianity, whether Protestant or Eoman 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 181 

Catholic, should be tolerated throughout the 
empire, our missionaries began to push out 
into the regions beyond. They were now free 
not only to preach the gospel, but establish 
mission homes. Churches, and schools. A 
new era had, under the hand of God, opened 
to the laborers in this vast empire. Dr. Cun- 
nyngham again calls attention to the city of 
Hangchow, and urges the early extension of 
our lines. Brother Lambuth reports encour- 
agingly of evangelical work. His teacher, 
Shu, and his wife were baptized. The Mis- 
sion now reported ten native members, with sev- 
eral on trial. Some of the native converts were 
active in seeking out those who were inter- 
ested respecting the *' Jesus doctrine," and 
bringing them to Church. Brother Cunnyng- 
ham and family were much hindered in their 
work by sickness. He wrote: "More than 
six years' residence in this wretched climate 
has greatly tried our physical constitutions. 
We have seen thirty-seven missionaries sail 
from Shanghai for their native land, only 
eight of whom had been in the field as long as 
we have. We have much cause for thankful- 
ness to God." 

In 1859 it was decided to open a mission in 
Soochow, about ninety miles north-west from 

182 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Shanghai. Its position as a commercial and 
literary emporium suggested its importance as 
a missionary center. The dialects of Soochow 
and Shanghai were so nearly the same that 
our missionaries would lose no time in pre- 
paring for work. As the prejudices of the 
people of Soochow were at this time so strong 
that no foreigner could rent a house, it was 
decided to send the native preacher, Liew, to 
pioneer the work. Although the Chinese 
world was still full of " wars and rumors of 
wars," the work went on. Brother Lambuth 
opened a Sunday-school with from twenty- 
five to thirty scholars. They found the class- 
meeting admirably suited to the wants of the 
Chinese converts. A weekly prayer-meeting 
was commenced. The brethren were encour- 
aged by the readiness with which the converts 
took up the cross and prayed without hesita- 
tion when called on. They reported eleven 
members this year, including the native 
preacher. Some of the other missions had 
been greatly damaged by their haste in ad- 
mitting members. Numbers could not be re- 
lied on as the criterion of success. Careful in 
the admission of members, our Mission seldom 
lost one. 
•Our little band were greatly cheered by the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 183 

arrival, on July IB, 1860, of Eevs. Y. J. Allen 
and M. L. Wood, after a voyage of one hun- 
dred and seventy-five days from New York 
to Hong Kong. Hangchow liad been fixed 
upon as their field of labor, but affairs in 
China were so unsettled that it was deemed 
wise for them to remain for a time at least in 
Shanghai, and commence the study of the lan- 
guage. The Taiping insurgents had taken 
Chang-chow a^id Soochow, and in July they 
visited Shanghai. ''They approached us," 
wrote Dr. Cunnyngham, " through the flames 
and smoke of burning villages and hamlets, 
laden with spoil, and stained with the blood 
of innocent men, women, and children; their 
retreat was marked by the most revolting 
scenes of cruelty and beastly outrage upon the 
helpless towns through which they passed." 
They found the city in the possession of the 
English and French, and after a sharp collis- 
ion retired "with the promise to return and 
drive the foreigners into the sea." The treaty 
between the allied powers and China in Octo- 
ber ended the seclusion of China, and it is 
hoped prepared the way for the final estab- 
lishment of Christianity in that land. Before 
affairs quieted down and plans for the exten- 
sion of the work into the interior could be put 

184 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

in operation still darker clouds gathered over 
the Mission. 

After spending nine years in that unhealthy 
climate, Dr. Cunnyngham and wife were as- 
sured by their physicians that they could not 
survive another season in Shanghai. They 
left for the United States on October 5, 1861. 
Dr. Lambuth and family visited home in 1861, 
but returned to China in 1864 In 1862 Dr. 
Jenkins withdrew from the Mission. In 1864 
Mrs. Wood died in Shanghai, and in 1866 
Brother Wood brought his children home. 

During these years the Civil War in the 
United States had cut ofp all communications 
between the Church at home and its Mission 
on the other side of the globe. Drafts which 
were in their hands were generously honored 
by our brethren of the Northern Church, 
affording, however, only temporary relief. 
They were soon thrown on their own resourc- 
es. Bishop McTyeire, in his "History of 
Methodism," thus spoke of the brave spirit 
with which our missionaries in China met 
this emergency: *'Dr. Allen found employ- 
ment in the service of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, in its translation and editorial depart- 
ment, which gave him access to the higher 
classes, the educated Chinese, and opened for 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 185 

him the opportunity of far diffusing Chris- 
tian thought and truth through native chan- 
nels. Along with this work he continued the 
ministry of the word as he was able. Both 
he and Dr. Lambuth supported themselves 
during those trying years, and carried on the 
mission work until supplies in small amounts 
began to reach them — at once a relief and an 
assurance that the Church had no purpose of 
abandoning her plans, though not in the con- 
dition to enlarge them." 

During the quadrennium ending in 1870 
the office of the Board of Missions was located 
in Baltimore. Though diligent search has 
been made, the records from 1866 to 1870 
have not been found. The following extract 
from a paper furnished Dr. Munsey by Dr. 
Cunnyngham in 1870 supplies a brief account 
of the conditions and operations of the Mis- 
sion up to that date: 

The China Mission has been in existence twenty-one 
years. During this time eight missionaries, with their 
families, have been sent out. Two female members of 
the Mission have died, and one of the missionaries. 
One has withdrawn from the work, four returned, and 
tw^o remain in the field. Between fifty and sixty na- 
tives have been baptized and admitted to full member- 
ship in the M. E. Church, South ; of these, six have died 

186 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

in the faith. Two native preachers of great gifts and 
usefulness have finished their course with joy. 

The mission now occupies three stations : Slianghai, 
Soochow, and Nantziang. The principal station, and 
that at which both Brothers Allen and Lambuth reside, 
is Shanghai. The property belonging to the Board is 
chiefly at this point. It consists of dwelling-houses, 
chapels, and school-houses. What is its present value 
I cannot state (the value of real estate fluctuates great- 
ly at Shanghai)— I would suppose between $15,000 and 
$20,000. Brother Allen reports the "properly intact, 
and as valuable for missionary purposes as at any pre- 
vious period." It has not been neglected or suflered to 
fall into decay. It is amply sufficient, I understand, to 
accommodate one or two more mission families. If 
more missionaries are sent out, no additional expense 
for houses w^ould be incurred. A larger house for 
preaching purposes at Shanghai has always been need- 
ed. There are only two small chapels — one in the city, 
the other outside the city walls. The mission is out of 
debt, and with its "property intact," is financially in 
as sound a condition as before the war — thanks to the 
energy, fidelity, and good management of our mission- 

Of the general state of the Mission, Brother Allen 
says, in a communication to the Georgia Conference ; 
" With the history and statistics of otlier Missions be- 
fore me, I do not hesitate to say that the influence of 
the China Mission of the M. E. Church, South, is in- 
creasing as steadily and in as great ratio as that of any 
other Church represented here, and that it has every 
opportunity and assurance, if properly sustained in the 
future, of becoming as aggressive and useful in the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 187 

East as the Church that planted it is in the West." He 
says, in a letter dated December 14, 1869 : " The present 
year has been one of great encouragement even in our 
own Mis^sion. Our work has been extended and op- 
erated successfully, thougli we are still comparatively 
bound to Shanghai. The prospect is good, therefore, for 
a cheering report by the next mail, which I hope will 
be in time for the meeting of the Board in March." 

Rev. J. W. Lambuth is now devoting all his time to 
regular itinerant missionary labor. He travels and 
preaches through the country, visiting the stations at 
Soochow and Nantziang and other cities in the province. 
This he is able to do because Brother Allen sur- 
renders his part of the appropriation sent by the Board 
to him. Brother Allen's Anglo-Chinese school furnish- 
ing him the means of support. Brother Lambuth has 
associated with him in his itinerant work a native 
Chinaman, who was for some time in this country with 
Dr. Kelley, known as C. K. Marshall. He is a young 
man of promise, and we hope will make an efficient 
helper. He is supported by Dr. Deems's Church in New 
York. Mrs. Lambuth has a girls' school of twelve pu- 
pils under her care, to which she gives much of her 
time, and from which good fruit may be expected in 
due time. Brother and Sister Lambuth are deeply 
pious, earnest, fiiithful, efficient missionaries. 

Rev. Young J. Allen has charge of an Anglo-Chinese 
school, under the patronage of the Chinese Govern- 
ment, in connection with the native college at Shang- 
hai. This school not only furnishes him the means 
of support, but an opportunity of doing much good as 
a missionary. No position attainable by a missionary 
in the empire affords greater facilities for usefulness 

188 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

than this. He is also editing and pubUshing two news- 
papers in Chinese — one a religious paper, the other 
literary and scientific. Both papers have a wide cir- 
culation and are doing good. The Church paper — Mis- 
sionary Christian Advocate — is a beautiful weekly publi- 
cation of sixteen pages, illustrated by neat engravings 
of Scripture scenes, etc. I cannot speak too highly of 
this paper and of the enterprise and taste with which 
it is conducted. It is patronized by missionaries and 
native Christians of all denominations. Among the 
most frequent and able contributors to its columns are 
the native preachers of China. Notwithstanding Broth- 
er Allen's hands are thus full, he preaches regularly in 
Chinese and x)erforms his part of regular mission work. 

The native Church is growing steadily, though slow- 
ly, in numbers. Our missionaries are exceedingly cau- 
tious in receiving candidates. It would be an easy 
matter to swell the list of Church-members rapidly, and 
they could soon astonish the anxious doubters at home 
by "great successes," if not strictly conscientious in ad- 
mitting none to membership but those who give satis- 
factory proof of their sincerity. The native members 
are active in their efforts to build up the Church, and 
liberal with their means in its support. The Chinese 
Christians contribute more per member for the support 
of the gospel than the Christians in this country. 

Among those most active and useful in the Church 
at Shanghai is a widow woman by the name of Quay. 
She is'known as the "Bible-woman." She spends her 
time in distributing Bibles and tracts, praying with and 
exhorting her neighbors. I baptized her and knew 
her well for years, and do not hesitate to say that 
a more consistent Christian I never knew at home or 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 189 

abroad. Many will rise up at the last day and call her 

As the year 1870 drew to a close Eev. Y. J. 
Allen wrote: "We review the year with pro- 
foand gratitude to God, whose providence 
hath shielded us and our work during its 
eventful passage. Rumors, alarms, and dan- 
gers have threatened us all this year, and in 
some places have actually culminated in real 
violence. But none of these things have 
moved us, except it be to renewed devotion 
and a more entire devotion of ourselves to the 
Lord of glory. We hope to date from this 
period a turning point in the history of Mis- 
sions in China, and have no doubt the crisis 
through which we are> passing will accomplish 
that long desired object, to wit: the arrest of 
the Chinese mind, and the wider diffusion of 
missionary influence. Our own Mission work 
is still contracted, and comparatively meager 
of results, from lack of sufficient re-enforce- 
ments and qualified native help, but it is not 
without encouragement." We mention the 
two native helpers, Dzau (C. K. Marshall) 
and Yung, as having rendered efficient service. 
Dzau was stationed at Soochow, which had 
been visited by Liew in 1859. At that place 
five had been baptized and eight were on pro- 

190 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

bation. Ying bad extended his labor from 
Shanghai to the Great Lake, and had also vis- 
ited Nantsiang, when two persons had been 
baptized. The two Bible-v/omen were active- 
ly at work visiting the homes of all who would 
receive them, and exhorting and praying with 
all who were seeking the truth as it is in Je- 
sus. Several of the probationers had been 
brought into that relation by the labors of the 
Bible- women. One of these Bible-women was 
Quay, who had been baptized by Dr. Cun- 
nyngham at the first Quarterly Conference in 
1855. The two boarding-schools had 22 
boarders and 10 day scholars. The Chinese 
Christian Advocate, published by Brother Al- 
len, was now in its third year. Though not 
exclusively religious, it was open to the dis- 
cussion of all questions pertinent to mission- 
ary work. Its circulation extended from 
Shanghai and the regions round about to For- 
mosa, Hong Kong, Singapore, Mongolia, and 
Japan. It had the sanction of more than 
twenty Missions, was subscribed for and 
read by a large number of the literati and 
mandarins and sold in the streets of Peking. 
It enabled the missionary to confront, among 
the higher classes, the errors that prevailed 
among them. It is not every one who can 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 191 

make a paper or magazine a success either at 
home or in the mission field. The man who 
achieves the success has multiplied his influ- 
ence many fold. The "Preachers' Text Book," 
sent out by Dr. Summers for that purpose, 
was translated and ready for press. The 
status of the work was shown by the following 
figures. Two foreign missionaries with their 
families, two student native helpers, two 
Bible-women, fifty-six native members, four- 
teen probationers. 

The following extract from a letter written 
January 29, 1871, from Brother Allen to W. 
H. Foster, superintendent of the Felicity 
Street Sunday-school, N. O., indicates the 
character and results of Sunday-school work 
in Shanghai: 

I have previously had occasion to mention to you 
the great interest the school seemed to take in being 
instructed, and how hopeful the indications that before 
long signal results might be expected; but even my 
fondest anticipations had not foreseen the pleasure of 
this day. 'Twas in the Sabbath-school, and during the 
closing exercises, about half- past 4 o'clock p.m., that 
Pay Yoong-Tsung, a boy of fourteen years, the son of a 
military officer, and a most serious, thoughtful youth, 
arose from his seat, and, addressing me, said: " I would 
like to join the Church." His modest manner and the 
tremulousness of his voice attested his sincerity, and I 
was surprised to find that a similar feeling and a like 

192 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

earnestness on the subject characterized the other mem- 
bers of the school. 

When he sat down, Yang Tub Kwe arose and urged 
a like request, and thus did they all. I was astonished; 
the scene took me unawares. I could but pray : " Lord, 
increase my faith! " The children wept. I wept too. 
Then we sung, "Happy day, happy day, that fixed my 
choice/^ and knelt together, as we never knelt before, to 
pray for pardon, forgiveness, and acceptance. My soul 
yearned for them as we drew nearer and nearer to God 
in prayer. Our hearts were softened, melted, as we 
bowed together. The children dedicated themselves 
voluntarily to God. We arose, and I received them in 
the name of the Saviour, and placed their names on the 
list of probationers. Thank God for the scene of this 
day! thank God for the kind friends of Felicity Street, 
New Orleans ! A good work is begun ; the Lord is with 
us, and it shall go on. Who shall hinder it? Pray for 
us, my brother. Tell your school to praise God for his 
blessings on their gifts, and pray for yet a larger mani- 
festation, both among themselves and us. 

The labors of our two faithful missionaries 
in 1871 were still confined to Shanghai and 
its vicinity, with Dzau at Soochow and Yung 
in Shanghai and interior towns and cities. 
In addition to the chapel at Shanghai there 
was one at Soochow and another at Nantziang. 
The last-named place is mentioned as "a large 
village of thirty thousand inhabitants, about 
fifteen miles from Shanghai." They were anx- 
ious to occupy Kading, a walled town eight 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 193 

miles from Nantziang, where a lot had been 
secured. The religious interest in the Sun- 
day-school was continued. A house was pre- 
pared for the girls' boarding-school at a cost 
of $300, which was contributed by friends in 
Shanghai. Brother Dzau had charge of a 
day-school in Soochow, with eight scholars. 
60,000 copies of the Chinese Christian Advo- 
cate were printed during the year; and of 
these, 50,000 were sold. The membership re- 
ported in 1871 was 68. 

The following extract from a letter from 
Brother Lambuth, published in the annual 
report, exhibits the condition of the work in 

The number of additions to the Church the past 
year, ending 1872, has been eleven. Three have died, 
and two have been excluded from the Church. One 
man has withdrawn his membership and returned to 
the London Mission. There were eleven probationers, 
at the close of the year, in Shanghai, and three in Soo- 
chow. Number of churches, three — one at Shanghai, 
one at Nantziang, and one at Soochow. In Shanghai there 
are two boarding-schools for boys, numbering twenty- 
one boarders and eight day scholars. In Shanghai, 
boarding-school for girls, one; number of boarders, 
nine, and three day scholars. One day-school in Soo- 
chow of twelve boys. Two Bible-women engaged in 
the work in Shanghai ; two Sabbath-schools of about 
forty persons. 

194 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

The work among the women in Shanghai the past 
year has given us great encouragement, and we trust 
that the coming year this work of grace may be more 
abundantly manifest, and that many souls may be con- 
verted to God. Our congregations in the city of Shang- 
hai have been, for the most part, large and attentive. 
During the year almost daily services have been kept 
up each day of the week, and three services on the 
Sabbath, in and out of the city. 


M/SS/OJ\/S OF THE M. E. C, S. 

China Mission. 

No. 2. 
The report of Brother Lambuth, Superin- 
tendent of the Mission for 1873, informs us of 
an addition to the native force: Brother Tsu, 
who was stationed at Chang-chow, 150 miles 
from Shanghai. Brother Allen was still in 
the service of the Chinese Government, though 
preaching on Sunday and editing the Chinese 
Church paper. Two native preachers preached 
daily, conducted prayer-meetings, visited the 
sick and Church-members, and sold Bibles and 
tracts. A young man by the name of AVong 
was teaching at Soochow and preparing to 
preach. A colporter was at work in Shanghai 
and another at Nantziang. Brother Lambuth 
was absent from Shanghai two weeks in each 
month, visiting the out-statious. He traveled 
by boat or w^ieelbarrow. There were eight 
baptisms during the year. Four Bible-women 
w^ere employed. Their work increased in in- 
terest and importance. Upward of 300 cop- 


196 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

ies of the Gospels were sold, and about 35,000 
tracts. The mission in Shanghai greatly 
needed a new chapel. The building in which 
they worshiped had been erected by Brother 
Lambuth in 1856 at his own expense. 

The native force in 1875 was increased to 
five by the addition of two men, who had en- 
tered the service and were preparing for the 
ministry. Brother Fong was placed at Nant- 
ziang and Brother Tsung at Kading. These 
young men, with Brothers Dzau, Yung, and 
Tsu, came to Shanghai once a month to read 
the Scriptures and undergo examination. A 
woman's reading-room was erected in the mis- 
sion premises at a cost of $80. In this room 
two Bible-women met from fifteen to twenty 
Chinese women three times a week, to read 
the Bible and engage in religious conversa- 
tion and prayer. The Mission was greatly 
strengthened by the erection of a new church 
on the mission lot. It was called the " Church 
of the Good News." One man had come six- 
teen miles to be baptized and received into 
the Church. About forty native Christians 
met around the table of our Lord, some of 
whom had come eighty and a hundred miles 
to be present at the dedication. 

The annual report for 1875 mentions the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 197 

great value of tlie Chinese Globe Magazine, the 
religious paper conducted by Brother Allen. 
He gives in a letter the following account of 
its origin: 

The Magazine was com men cod in September, 18G8. 
It was originated at a Mif^sionary Conference held at 
my house. The subject of discussion on that occasion 
was as to the best means ol" extending missionary in- 
fluence so as to reacli the government, the officials, and 
the literati, all of whom are absolutely beyond the 
reach of our ordinary influences. Many suggestions 
and proposals were made by the different brethren, 
and among them I suggested the establishment of a 
newspaper, which, while not being entirely devoted to 
religious subjects, should nevertheless have a decided 
religious character. The suggestion was adopted, and 
unanimously approved; but the question was as to who 
should take charge of the enterprise, and, as no one 
present seemed disposed to be responsible for it, I be- 
came personally responsible for its establishment ; and 
from that time till now, while it has the unqualified 
indorsement of all the Missions and missionaries, I 
alone and unaided have had the whole burden of its 
success or failure thrown upon me. All the editor's 
duties, the correspondence, accounts, mail distribution, 
etc., I have to perform. 

The Magazine contained 36 pages. Its cir- 
culation had increased from 30,000 to 96,000 
copies per annum. It had received cordial 
commendations from the leading missionaries 
in China, 

198 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

In every mission field years are required to 
select the best locations and properly to or- 
ganize tlie work. Our work in China was 
passing tlirough that period, and its work 
was assuming an organized form. The mis- 
sionaries, after waiting sixteen years, were 
cheered by the arrival of Eev. Alvin P. Park- 
er, of the Missouri Conference. He reached 
China in December, 1875, and January 1, 1876, 
entered on his work at Soochow. The Mission 
now reported six native preachers. Work 
was opened at Wangdoo and Woosung. Mrs. 
J.W. Lambuth had the care of the girls' board- 
ing-scliool at Shanghai, and the oversight of 
the four Bible-women. In his report Brother 
Allen stated that in the government school he 
had taught some 300 young men wdio were 
prepared to take government appointments 
under various capacities. In the translation 
department he had furnished the government 
with a general survey of the political history 
of the world in 20 volumes (Chinese), besides 
other important works — such as "Chronolo- 
gy," 4 volumes; the "History of India," 2 vol- 
umes; the "Statesman's Year Book," 8 vol- 
umes; and was engaged on a large work of 
several hundred pages entitled " British Na- 
val Regulations," to be followed by "Instruc- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 199 

tions for the Guidance of Embassadors and 
Consuls to Foreign Countries." Referring to 
the Chinese Globe Magazine and other work, he 
wrote: "From first to last I have distributed 
ten million pages of reading-matter through 
the press." The seed-sower does not always 
behold the harvest. "One soweth, and an- 
other reapeth." But the Master has said: 
"Both he that soweth and he that reapeth 
may rejoice together." 

In 1876 a fresh impulse was given to our 
Mission in China by the visit of Bishop Mar- 
vin, accompanied by Eev. E. E. Hendrix. 
Their letters greatly stirred the Church re- 
specting its duty to this long neglected field. 
Another result of equal, if not greater, im- 
portance was accomplished. The presence 
and administration of Bishop Marvin in the 
China Mission demonstrated the peculiar 
adaptation of our ecclesiastical economy to 
the wants and work of the foreign field. Un- 
der congregational forms of government, con- 
flicts were liable to arise between the boards 
of management and the missionaries at the 
front respecting the proper administration of 
the work in the field. The boards claim that 
they are intrusted with the contributions of 
the Church at home for the support of the 

200 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

work abroad; hence they must so direct the 
operations in the field that they can render a 
faithful account of their work to those from 
whom they have received the trust. The mis- 
sionaries claim that, being on the ground, they 
are better able to plan the work than a com- 
pany of gentlemen five or ten thousand miles 
from the field. Viewing the matter from these 
opposite stand-points, both claims are just; 
but out of their assertion conflicts have arisen 
under some organizations which have dam- 
aged the work both at home and abroad. Our 
economy supplies a safeguard against these 
results. Instead of holding the operations of 
its Missions under the sole control of a com- 
pany of men on the other side of the globe, 
our Church extends its government into the 
mission field, and secures to the missionary 
the same Conference rights and the same 
episcopal supervision that is enjoyed by the 
Church at home. The mission field is not 
dealt with as a mere appendage of the home 
Church, but is considered as part of the 
Church, and entitled to all its rights and 
privileges. Its work being arranged and its 
appointments being made by the same au- 
thorities that supervise the home administra- 
tion, we escape, in a large measure, the fric- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 201 

tion and conflict that has disturbed the work 
of some of our sister organizations. 

Again, as meml)ers of the Board, the bishops 
are in x^osition fully to comprehend its embar- 
rassments when ijlaced between the upper and 
nether millstones of limited collections, and 
urgent calls from the mission field. As chief 
pastor among the missionaries in a mission 
field, the bishop can sympathize with their 
trials, appreciate the pressing demands of 
their w^ork, and intelligently represent their 
claims before the Board and the Church. 
Our Missions in China, Mexico, Brazil, and 
Japan furnish abundant illustrations of the 
advantages which have followed faithful epis- 
copal supervision. 

Bishop Marvin presided over a Conference 
held in Shanghai December 22, 1876. Dsau- 
tse-zeh (C. K. Marshall), Dzung- Yung-Chung, 
Yung- Kin-San, and Sz - tsz - kia were elected 
and ordained deacons; and the first two, Dsau 
and Dzung, were elected and ordained elders. 
Two traveling preachers remained on trial, 
Fong -kwung-hoong and Tsung - san - tsung. 
Dsau was with Brother Parker at Soochow. 
He had been preaching some six years; was 
a good preacher, and useful in many ways. 
He was supported in part by the Church of 

202 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the Strangers, New York. That Church had 
also sent the funds with which the land and 
house in which Dsau lived had been pur- 
chased. Dsung had worked for five years in 
connection with the Presbyterian Mission at 
Hangchow and Soochow without severing his 
connection with our Church. Letters from 
that Mission commended him highly as a 
preacher. He was now supported with funds 
sent out by a minister of the North Carolina 
Conference. He preached in the city of 
Shanghai at the East Gate Chapel in our 
church on the lot first purchased by Dr. 
Taylor, and at two places in the country. 
Yung preached in the city at East Gate and 
the chapel in the mission lot. He was a car- 
penter by trade; had been in the Church 
eighteen years. He was a good and earnest 
preacher. See was a graduate of the Presby- 
terian mission-school at Neungchow. He had 
been properly transferred to our Church, with 
warm recommendations from the Presbyterian 
brethren. He had a fine knowledge of the 
classical language, as well as the Shanghai 
and Ningpo colloquial. He was assisting the 
committee' in the revision of the Shanghai 
colloquial Testament. He preached at various 
chapels and at a point six miles from Shang- 

Missions of the M. E. C, b, 203 

hai. He was useful both in Sunday and day 
schools. Fong had been two years at Nant- 
ziang. He had unusual gifts in teaching the 
young, and reaching the people. He had 
brought a number into the Church. He had a 
boys' school of eighteen scholars, and a girls' 
school of eight. He preached botli at Nant- 
ziang and Wongdoo. Tsung had been a year 
and a half in the w^ork. He preached well, 
and was improving. He preached in Kading 
and the country around. 

Brother Lambuth, as Superintendent, vis- 
ited all the stations and appointments. He 
"was supported by the Board of Missions. 
Brother Allen w^as still in government service, 
from which he derived his support. His Sab- 
baths were devoted to the Mission. Brother 
Parker was at Soochow, and received his sup- 
port from the Missouri Conference. These 
facts are suggestive. Only one of the mission- 
aries w^as at that time supported by the Board. 
The Church at home was but partially alive 
to its duty to " China's millions." 

The Mission had just completed and printed 
500 copies of their new hymn and tune book. 
It contained 150 hymns. One hundred cop- 
ies of the translated Discipline had been 
printed on their parlor press. Translations 

204 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

of Catechisms 1, 2, and 3 had been printed; 
also a catechism with scripture references. 
A chikl's pictorial Bible history was in press. 

A very thorough examination was. made re- 
specting the value to mission work of the 
magazine published by Brother Allen. Let- 
ters from competent sources in China were 
fully satisfactory, giving to the Church at 
large hope of usefulness in that direction. 

At Soochow there was a boarding-school 
under the supervision of Brothers Parker and 
Dsau. In Shanghai the Clopton School, in 
charge of Mrs. Lambuth, was doing efficient 
service. From small beginnings it had been 
enlarged until it now had a study and class- 
room, and a dormitory large enough for twen- 
ty-five children; also a Bible-womau's hall, 
opening by folding doors into the school. 
The annual expenditure per pupil was about 
$40. The interest manifested by friends in 
the home field had brought up the list of pu- 
pils to fifteen. The course of study was 
largely a religious one. 

From the statistical report we gather the 
following items: Property — two residences in 
Shanghai with attached buildings, $18,000 
(this value is given by the great advance in 
property since they were built) ; one church on 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 205 

mission lot, Shanghai, 5t?l,000; one church in 
city, Shanghai, $1,400; one church on mission 
lot, west, $400; one church in Nantziang, $500; 
one church and parsonage in Soochow, $800; 
one parsonage in Shanghai, $202; new school- 
building, Shanghai, $1,050; new school-house 
and Bible-woman's rooms in Nantziang, includ- 
ing land, $349. Five rented preaching-places. 
Native preachers, 6; other native helpers, 6; 
members, 104; Sunday-school scholars, 141. 

The leading event of 1877 was the arrival, in 
November, of Eev. W. K. Lambuth, M.D., and 
the opening of a medical department in the 
Mission. He made several visits to the inte- 
rior, preaching and dispensing medicine to 
those who applied for relief. These visits 
demonstrated the great value of medical work 
in connection with the preaching of the word 
among the Chinese. The people have great 
confidence in the medicines of the foreign 
physician, and the relief which the medical 
missionary is able to afford gives him access 
to multitudes who cannot be reached through 
any otlier agency. Dr. Lambuth's plan was 
to have medicines dispensed at all the sta- 
tions, except the most distant, and these he 
hoped to reacli once in two months. He be- 
gan regular work December 8, extending liig 

206 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

visits from Shanghai and Nantziang to other 
accessible jDoints. In some cases peopha cam^e 
five miles to be treated. One woman was 
brought on a wheelbarrow. One poor woman 
asked for some "heart medicine." She said: 
"I get excited sometimes, and my heart gets 
very mad, for my relations treat me cruelly. 
I want to scratch their faces and say bad 
things. Can't you give me something for my 
heart?" Some will smile at the request. 
Christ would have wept. It was the cry of a 
soul conscious of its greatest need. The mis- 
sionary wrote: "How my soul went up to 
God for wisdom to enable me to point to the 
Great Physician and the only remedy! " The 
profound sympathy these words express for 
that poor heathen woman is the missionary 
spirit so much needed by the Church. When 
will the cry for "heart medicine," coming 
from our heathen sisters, stir, with equal 
power, the heart of the Church at home? 
Speaking of one visit. Dr. Lambuth says; 
"We had to tear ourselves away from the 
applicants for medicine at Chingpoo. The 
church was crowded during service on three 
successive days, many of the congregation be- 
ing patients." Again he writes: "One month 
I am for one week on a circuit of 104 miles, 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 207 

dispensing medicine and preaching at six 
towns and cities; the next month am gone two 
weeks on a circuit of 200 miles, visiting some 
twelve towns and cities." He began to train 
two exhorters for the medical work, hoping 
that in two years they would be able to dis- 
pense medicine as well as preach. He was of 
the opinion that to combine the two, making 
medicine the auxiliary, was the plan on which 
to move. The reports from the general work 
indicate a steady advance this year. There 
were 29 baptisms and 24 on probation. 

In 1878 Dr. Allen, after remaining in the 
field eighteen years, visited the United States 
as a delegate to the General Conference. His 
representations of the work and his earnest 
appeals for re-enforcements greatly strength- 
ened the confidence of the Church in its suc- 
cess, and quickened its conscience respecting 
its obligations to the millions on the other 
side of the world. The work was divided into 
six districts, Rev. J. W. Lambuth having 
charge of the Shanghai District; Dr. W. R. 
Lambuth, of the Nantziang, Kading, and 
Tsingpu Districts; and Rev. A. P. Parker, of 
the Kwunsau and Soochow Districts. At 
the annual meeting Fong and Dsung were 
elected to deacon's orders, and the two dea- 

208 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

cons, Yung and See were elected to elder's 
orders. There were 26 adults baptized dur- 
ing tlie year. Many of those who had been 
baptized in other years had disappeared. The 
population was constantly changing, causing 
by removal frequent loss of members. Only 
those known to the preachers were reported. 
The meml)ership was 97; with 17 probation- 
ers; chapels, 13; boarding-schools, 2; pupils, 
35 ; day-schools, 7 ; pupils, 91 ; Sunday-schools, 
10; scholars, 172. A neat, commodious chapel 
outside of the south gate of the walled city of 
Kading was built with funds raised by the 
Kentucky Conference, and called Taylor 
Chapel, after our first missionary in the field. 
It was opened with appropriate services 
December 29. 

On September 8 Marvin Chapel, at Kwung 
San, was dedicated. It was built with money 
sent by Eev. W. L C. Hunnicutt, of the Missis- 
sippi Conference, chiefly the gift of his wife 
and her sister-in-law. The occasion was one 
of great interest. This was not the first aid 
received from Brother Hunnicutt. The chapel 
at Nantziang in which the Mission was then 
holding four weekly services was the gift of 
of Brother H. and his brother. 

The medical report showed that 766 pa- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. , 209 

tients had been treated in the six districts. 
Dr. Lambuth sought to bring all his patients 
under the influence of the public ministry. 
About 500 of them were also approached per- 
sonally on the subject of their soul's salvation. 
While he was prescribing and preparing the 
medicine, the native preacher in charge of 
the station talked to and prayed with the 
patients. The missionary had occasion to re- 
joice that his work was not in vain. 

June 20, 1879, the Mission mourned' the 
death of Sister Quay, their first and most de- 
vout Bible-woman. She died at Nantziang in 
great peace. October 16, the Mission was 
greatly rejoiced over the arrival of Eev. C. F. 
Reid and his wife, who entered zealously on 
the study of the language and such work as 
they could perform. 

The arrangement of the work for the year 
ending September 30, 1879, was: Shanghai 
District and Circuit, Dr. Y. J. Allen and 
W. R. Lambuth, M.D.; Foreign Mission- 
aries, Shanghai Station, Dsau - tsz - zeh 
(C. K. Marshall); Shanghai Circuit, Fong- 
Kwung-Hoong; Nantziang District and Cir- 
cuit, J. W. Lambuth and C. F. Reid, foreign 
missionaries; Nantziang Circuit, Dzung-Yung- 
Chung, Medical Student and Exhorter, Tser- 

210 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Tsing Gee; Kading Circuit, Lee-Tsz-Nye; 
Tsiiigpii Circuit, Dsung-Saw Tsuiig; Soo- 
chow District and Circuit, A. P. Parker, 
Foreign Missionary; Soochow Station, Sz-Tsz- 
Kia; Soochow Circuit, Tsa-Voong- Tsang; 
Kwunsan Circuit, Yung-Kiung-San. 

It is proper here to state that in 1878 the 
Mission was re-enforced by the marriage o£ 
Brother Parker to Miss Cooley, of the North- 
ern Presbyterian Mission. Having had much 
experience in mission work, Mrs. Parker be- 
came a most valuable addition to our mission 
force. As our five missionaries w^ere married 
men, we may count their number ten. 

The Mission gratefully reported the com- 
pletion of the new school-building at Soochow, 
which has since been known as Bufiington In- 
stitute. The money, six thousand dollars, to 
build a church and boarding-school, was the 
gift of Brother Bu£S.ngton, of Covington, Ky. 
Eternity alone will reveal the benefits con- 
ferred on China by this generous donation. 
The report of the school for the year ending 
September 30, 1879, showed some 17 students in 
attendance. In the advantages of the new 
building a much larger attendance was ex- 

The annual meeting was held in Nantziang 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 21i 

October 8. All the preachers were present, 
and all were full of faith and hope. The 
native preachers were examined on these 
courses of study — viz., "Evidences of Chris- 
tianity," Ealston's "Elements of Divinity," 
Binney's " Theological Compend," the Gos- 
pels of Matthew and Mark, the " Character of 
Christ," the Discipline, andother studies. Ar- 
rangements were made for lectures on various 
subjects by the missionaries for the benefit of 
the native preachers. 

The statistics furnish the following: 
Churches and chapels, 17; sittings, 1,110; 
average attendance, 460; sermons preached, 
2,158; number of preachers, 12; members, 97; 
probationers, 54; Sunday-schools, 13; scholars, 
186; boarding-schools, 2; pupils, 42; day- 
schools, 9; pupils, 105; patients treated, 731. 

The year 1880 opened joyfully with a meet- 
ing of unusual interest in Dr. Allen's new 
church in Shanghai. It had been built at a 
total cost of $3,594.96, and with the exception 
of $165 and $389.52 paid by Dr. Allen was 
the gift of a brother in Georgia. The house 
was designed to seat 200 persons, but on this 
occasion it was packed as only Chinese can 
pack. Upward of 400 crowded into the 
house. On Christmas the house was aoain 

212 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

packed, and Dr. Allen preached. A few came 
forward to seek information, and forty or fifty- 
followed to liear what was said. On Sunday a 
Sunday-school was founded and eighteen 
names enrolled. The interest of the meetings 
was so great that Dr. Allen decided to renew 
the service New - year's - night. They were 
continued several days. On Sunday, January 
4, when the •children's hour came, the house 
was full, with 125 children on the front seats. 
After explaining the object of the Sunday- 
school, thirty-two names were enrolled, making 
fifty in all. The list included only boys who 
had been in Chinese schools and could read. 
Some sixteen persons desired to join the 
Church, and were held on probation. The 
presence of an unusual number of women in 
the congregation was a matter of special note. 
Special provision was made for them. The 
results greatly cheered the missionaries. The 
Church is called in Chinese San Yih Dang, 
which means in English Trinity Church. 

Brother Lambuth reported an interesting 
meeting in Kading at Taylor's Chapel, that 
continued six days. It was conducted by 
Brother Lee, the pastor. Many women at- 
tended, and several persons came forward for 
prayers and instruction. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 213 

Brother Parker reported good congreg'a- 
tions at Soochow in the chapels that were 
opened every day for preaching. Frequently 
persons remained for religious instruction. A 
number of women called nearly every day on 
Mrs. Parker, and she and the wife of the na- 
tive preacher, Tu, talked with them about the 
way of salvation. Brother Parker made a trip 
of four days to nine towns, during which time 
he preached fifteen times to about seven hun- 
dred people. 

The failing health of Dr. J. W. Lambuth 
constrained him to ask for a vacation, and the 
Board at its meeting in May, 1879, authorized 
his return. He and Mrs. Lambuth arrived in 
this country in June, 1880. Soon the health 
of Mrs. W. E. Lambuth became so critical that 
her departure to the United States was imper- 
ative. She returned in 1880, accompanied 
only by her little boy of two years, while her 
husband remained at his post. Brother Beid, 
at Nantziang, was worn down with malarial 
fever, while Miss Lochie and Miss Dora Ean- 
kin, of the Woman's Board, were suffering 
from the same influence, and nervous prostra- 
tion. They visited Kobe, Japan, and under 
its bracing climate were able to return, during 
the first quarter of the mission year, to their 

214 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

work. Brother Parker, burdened with toil and 
many cares at 8oochow, also suffered greatly 
from malarial fever, which greatly reduced 
his strength and interrupted his work. These 
were dark days; but there was sunshine as well 
as cloud. The work of the Master was heavy 
on Dr. Allen. Writing August 24, he says: 

Trinity Church, which at the close of last year was 
opened without a single member, now numbers fifty- 
one adherents. The congrej^^ations are still large, and 
the evidences of a widening influence are manifest. 
Two day-schools, one Sunday-school, a prayer-meet- 
ing, and a probationers' meeting are now organized and 
well attended. Two of the three men baptized re- 
cently are most zealous co-laborers. They have volun- 
tarily undertaken to divide the neighborhood between 
them for purposes of visitation. It is their object to 
follow up the impressions made at the church, and 
speak privately with the people who may have been 
affected. This has already resulted in a grand surprise 
to the circuit preacher. He was unaware of their 
method of proceeding, and at the conclusion of his 
sermon on the night of the 12th instant was hardly 
prepared for the response made to his offer of Christ 
as the Great Physician, when six young men arose 
from the congregation, and came forward, professing 
their faith in, and acceptance of, Christ. Several of 
them had already applied privately to be accepted; 
but it is our rule to have all make a public profession. 
An opening among the women in the neighborhood is 
now thoroughly effected, and at least one-quarter of the 
regular congregation at church is composed of females. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 215 

In October he writes: 

Here, from the very first, the blessing of God seemed 
to rest upon lis. The congregations were always large, 
the capacity of the church (two hundred and fifty) be- 
ing hardly equal to the demand. Women attended in 
large numbers, sometimes as many as sixty being pres- 
ent. The awakening which began the first week has 
continued in almost unbroken interest, resulting, so far 
as yet declared, in 62 accessions, of which 49 still re- 
main on probation, while 13 have been received into 
full membership. The interest still continues, and as 
several of those already admitted to baptism are zeal- 
ous workers, it is expected that a fresh ingathering 
wall soon take place. 

There were usually about 100 at Sunday- 
school, though from lack of teachers they were 
able to supply only about 70 or 80 with in- 
struction. The two day-schools on the prem- 
ises adjoining the church had 36 scholars. A 
school was opened for the benefit of the wom- 
en, who attended Church in large numbers. It 
was placed in charge of Miss Allen. 

During the year Dr. Allen translated the 
following works for the Chinese Government: 
" The Eastern Question, or Turkey and the 
European States," " The Afghanistan Ques- 
tion, or the Relations of England and Russia 
in Central Asia,'' "The Future of China," by 
gir Walter Medhurst, and had in hand when 

216 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

he made his report, "The Armies of Asia and 
Europe." He was still connected with the 
Foreign News Gazette, issued in Shanghai by 
and for the use of the government and offi- 
cials. The Chinese Globe Magazi}ie had now 
entered on its thirteenth year. 

At Christmas Chapel, Shanghai, the work 
prospered under the charge of Brother Mar- 
shall. He had full congregations and a live, 
worki]ig Church. He reported 4 additions to 
the Church, 10 probationers, and 20 inquirers. 
This charge was nearly up on the line of self- 
support. It paid $86 for the support of the 
ministry, $18 for the poor, and $41 for mis- 
sions. Dr. W. E. Lambuth, in reporting this 
work, says: 

Woman's work is the most live and interesting feat- 
ure of all. The majority of the communicants at 
Christmas Chapel are women; and the gladdest sight 
of the week is to watch them coming in, one by one, 
leading or carrying their children with them. It is 
then of all times that our hearts throb exultantly at 
the thought of these regenerated mothers leading Chi- 
na's rising millions to Christ. May Almighty God 
speed the day when Christian mothers shall be found 
in every province, village, and hamlet of this, the great- 
est of all heathen empires! 

On May 1 Dr. W. K. Lambuth opened an 
opium hospital within the walls of Shanghai 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 217 

near the Tea Garden. Among other regula- 
tions, he required the patients to abandon the 
use of the drug at once and entirely. They 
were to be confined in their rooms under lock 
and key three days, and in the hospital yard 
two weeks. They were to pay a fee of f2, 
covering all expenses. It was also arranged 
that prayers should be held morning and ev- 
ening, and one daily sermon, to all of which 
the inmates were cordially invited. By July 
he had forty patients, three of whom were 
women. They were of all grades of consum- 
ers of from 57.98 grains up to 289.9 grains, 
apothecaries* weight. The treatment was he- 
roic, and Dr. Lambuth says that he was not 
without grave apprehensions when the door of 
the ward was padlocked. He says that for three 
days the unnatural appetite asserted its sav- 
age claims; but in nearly every case the fourth 
day found the patient free from its thralls, 
but weakened by the struggle. On the fifth 
day a normal appetite set in, and they im- 
proved rapidly. 

At Soochow Brother Parker reported five 
received into the Chiirch, and ten on proba- 
tion. The boys' school had 22 pupils in at- 
tendance. There were in Soochow 3 day- 
schools, 1 at Kwun San, 1 at Tong Tseu 

218 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

numbering in all 45 pupils. Mrs. Parker 
was able to do mucli work among the women 
who visited her home, and those to whose 
homes she was invited. The Sunday-school 
numbered 55 persons. 

Brother Eeid, of the Nantziang District, re- 
ported regular preaching-places, 7; Sunday- 
schools, 3; scholars, 92; native preachers, 4; 
adults baptized, 4; received into the Church, 
3. The membership of the Mission was 113, 
and the probationers 87. 

On December 8, 1880, Kev. W. W. Koyall, 
of Virginia, Rev. K. H. McLain, of Georgia, 
and their wives, and Rev. G. R. Loehr, of 
Georgia, landed at Shanghai. They met a 
warm welcome, and entered hopefully on the 
work of preparation for the great business be- 
fore them. None gave brighter promise than 
Mrs. McLain, but in a few weeks a light fever 
developed latent tendencies which ended in 
mental derangement. After consulting the 
best physicians the Mission unanimously re- 
quested Dr. W. R. Lambuth to accompany 
her and her husband on their sad journey to 
their home. They reached Atlanta April 2, 

The annual report for 1881-82 opens with 
the following statement: 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. -219 

In the beginning of the year now closing the Eev. 
Y. J. Allen, D.D., was appointed Superintendent of this 
Mission. He had been for nearly eighteen years in 
the employ of the Chinese Government, and had ac- 
quired a familiarity with Chinese language and affairs, 
and an intimacy of association with the better classes 
of the people, which, it was thought, might be used to 
great advantage in the more immediate work of the 
Mission. It was left to his own judgment to make 
such adjustment of his former labors to his new posi- 
tion as would best serve ail interests. Deeming it nec- 
essary, in this new relation, to devote his entire time 
and service to the Mission, immediately upon the re- 
ceipt of his appointment, he sent in his resignation to 
the government. By the terms of his engagement he 
was required to give six months' notice of his retire- 
ment, and accordingly his resignation could not take 
effect until the month of November. He did not fail, 
however, to use such opportunities as he could com- 
mand, and in the latter part of May and the beginning 
of June he visited the various stations, Nantziang, Ka- 
ding, and Soochow, preaching, inquiring into the con- 
ditions of the work, and preparing to assume the charge 
with full understanding of its requirements. 

Dr. J. W. Lambuth, having in a good meas- 
ure recovered his health, after visiting the 
Missionary Conference in London, reached 
Shanghai November 24, 1881. 

The annual meeting was held in Shanghai 
September 24. In his personal report Dr. 
Allen stated that the interest that had been 

220 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

awakened in Trinity Churcli the preceding 
year was still manifest in the large attendance, 
especially at night, while the attendance at 
Sunday-school was larger than they could 
provide for with teachers. Among the mem- 
bers received was a man about thirty years of 
age who was engaged as a teacher in one of 
tlie day-schools. He was desirous of prepar- 
ing to preach, and was studying with great 
diligence that he might be qualified for the 
work. The Chinese Magazine, now in its four- 
teenth year, still received marked encourage- 
ment. The Religious Tract Society had made 
a grant sufficient to provide for 800 copies 
weekly to be distributed, through the assist- 
ance of the missionaries, throughout the em- 
pire, exclusively among the higher officials. 
By this means religious truth was brought to 
bear on elements in Chinese society that were 
reached by no other agency. 

The report of the Trinity schools indicated 
the importance and efficiency of this depart- 
ment of mission work. They had been opened 
in 1879 on the lower floor of a building ad- 
joining the church. The teacher was one of 
the first converts baptized in the church. The 
increase in pupils required another teacher 
and larger rooms. Miss Allen was in charge. 

Missions of the M, E. 0., S. 221 

The report for 1881 shows over 60 in attend- 
ance, ten of whom were girls. In visiting the 
families of the children Miss Allen w^as al- 
ways kindly received. 

The list of books translated by Dr. Allen 
during his twelve years in the department of 
government service embraced 90 volumes, 
besides maps for a complete atlas in Chinese. 
The notice of his withdrawal from the educa- 
tional, editorial, and translation departments 
of the government was met by earnest pro- 
tests, and offers of additional emoluments and 
privileges, all of which he declined that he 
might " give the remaining years of his life 
directly and undivided to the interests of the 
Church in China." Eeferring to this de- 
cision he wrote:- "At any other time than the 
present I might have hesitated to take this 
step; but, being profoundly impressed with 
the opportunities now open to our Mission to 
establish itself here on a broad, enduring, and 
successful basis, and believing that the Church 
at home will strongly sustain me in the efforts 
necessary to achieve such a result, I have 
resigned, and do forego all other considera- 
tions that it may (D. Y.) be accomplished." 

"When Dr. W. E. Laml)uth left for America, 
Brother Parker took his place in Shanghai. 

222 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

He reported good attendance at Christmas 
Chapel, with four ba]3tisms and five probation- 
ers. He opened a station in the town of Tsih 
Pan and the village of Sing Chang, and sent 
to them a native assistant named Dzung- 
Dzing San. At Tsih Pan they had four proba- 
tioners and two day-schools. In August 
Brother Parker returned to Soochow and 
took charge of the boys' boarding-school. 
His report at the annual meeting was very 
encouraging. The boys were making fine 
progress, and he expected two would soon be 
ready to assist as teachers. By the erection 
of the new church on the same lot with the 
parsonage, he could use the chapel built in 
connection with the school as a school-room 
and accommodate more scholars. He re- 
ported 32 in attendance. He had rented and 
fitted up a room near where he lived for a 
street chapel and day-school. Here he had 
good congregations and 17 pupils, who re- 
ceived daily religious instruction, and at- 
tended Sunday-school on Sunday. The new 
parsonage occupied by Brother Eeid, and the 
new church, capable of seating 300 persons, 
greatly promoted the interest of the work. 
Referring to the dedication of this church, 
Dr. Allen wrote: ^^The occasion was one of 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 223 

rare interest; every one was delighted, partic- 
ularly to witness the steady advance of our 
Mission in this great city, culminating in the 
erection of a large and beautiful church. Too 
much praise cannot be accorded to our breth- 
ren, Parker and Reid, for thus solving the 
vexed question as to the peaceable occupation 
of Soochow. The providence of God has 
opened the way for us, and the great pru- 
dence of the brethren has so far secured to 
our cause both force and footing." 

Brother Eeid in his report states that it 
had been decided, after consultation with Dr. 
Allen, to concentrate our efforts in the south- 
eastern part of the city, leaving other quarters 
to be worked by the missionaries of the two 
Presbyterian Boards. In the early part of the 
year Brother Parker had opened a preaching- 
place at Tong Tsing, some twelve miles from 
Soochow. It now reported two members and 
six probationers. He also reported three 
chapels in Soochow. The Sunday-school was 
constantly increasing, a result largely due to 
the improvements made by Brother Parker 
in Sunday-school literature. 

The return of Dr. W. E. Lambuth and wife, 
accompanied by W. H. Park, M.D., and the 
arrival of Revs, D. L. Anderson and O. G. 

224 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Mingledorf, greatly strengthened the confi- 
dence of the Mission. Dr. Lambnth and his 
medical colleague entered vigorously upon 
that department of the work. 

The annual meeting was of special interest 
and great harmony. During the discussion 
of " the extension of work and the use of na- 
tive agency," prominence was given to the 
following points: 

1. It is very important that we show the native 
preachers that we trust them, and seek to cultivate in 
them a sense of honor and self-respect. 2. That special 
effort is necessary to assist them in their studies and 
to lead them in the prosecution of the work. 3. That 
we ought to try to get nearer to them, gaining their 
sympathy and confidence. 4. That the extension of 
our work contemplates the occupation of Southern 
Kiang-Su, its cities and towns and villages, seeking to 
go where the Lord seems to have opened the way ; also 
to try and reach the higher and literary classes by of- 
fering them certain benefits, which can only come 
through a Christian civilization, such as medicine to 
heal their bodies and higher education for their minds, 
and thus prove to them that we are equal and superior 
to them in every department of life. 

The following extract from Dr. Allen's re- 
port will present to the reader the condition 
and demands of the Mission at that period: 

We have chosen the southern half of the large and 
populous province of Kiang-Su as the basis of our op- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 225 

erations, and here it is proposed to concentrate our 
labors and organize a Conference. This territory is in 
tlie form of a parallelogram, being about 120 miles long 
by 100 miles broad, and comprises one of the most fer- 
tile, thrifty, and intelligent sections to be found in 
China. It is also very populous, being dotted all over 
with towns and villages, in the midst of which are up- 
ward of twenty large walled cities, ranging from twenty 
thousand to half a million inhabitants. The country 
is also intersected everywhere by canals — every city, 
town, and village being so connected. A location more 
compact, more populous, or more accessible could not 
invite us or be more conspicuously adapted to the in- 
troduction of our Methodist system of work. The spe- 
cial feature, however, which has been consulted in 
determining the boundaries of our projected Confer- 
ence is that of the language, or dialect, spoken in all 
this section. This is uniform, with slight modifications 
throughout the whole territory, and thus adds com- 
pleteness to its qualifications to receive our methods. 

The plan of occupation, projected and already partly 
carried out, contemplates the division of this territory 
into large districts, each with a central head-quarters 
where the foreign missionaries will live, and where 
will be concentrated for the most part our educational, 
medical, and other work of a permanent or general 
nature. These large districts will also be subdivided 
into smaller ones, each requiring the oversight of a for- 
eign missionary, who will also have his residence at 
the central head-quarters. The advantages of such a 
system are many, but such as can be appreciated thor- 
oughly only by those who have had experience of mis- 
sionary life in China, particularly in the interior, as (1) 
it prevents the isolation and consequent diijabilities of 

226 Hand Booh of MefJiodist Missions. 

mission families ; (2) promotes their health and mutu- 
al helpfulness ; (3) combines, while at the same time it 
diffuses their influence. Again, it makes it possible to 
occupy the field with fewer foreigners, while at the 
same time it will promote the raising up, practical 
training, and much wider and more efiective use of 
native agency, etc. 

Of the larger districts, we now have three with cen- 
tral head-quarters established— viz., Soochow, Nantzi- 
ang, and Shanghai — wdiile a fourth — to wit, Soong Kong 
— is under projection. These are, all of them, selected 
with special reference, (1) to the importance of the 
central position of each, and (2) the facilities they af- 
ford for reaching and occupying the smaller districts 
into which the territory surrounding will be subdi- 
vided. A clearer idea of the location and relation of 
the above centers will be obtained from the map sent 
herewith, which please see. 

Referring now to the progress of equipment and or- 
ganization at these several centers, we have, first, at 
Soochow, the chief city and capital of the province, a 
central head-quarters for the district, comprising a mis- 
sionary community of seven persons, four males and 
three females — wives of missionaries — and the follow- 
ing departments of work: (1) A large central church, 
located in the midst of the missionary community, and 
surrounded with numerous chapels situated on public 
thoroughfares in contiguous parts of the city; (2) two 
boarding-schools— one Bufiington Seminary, belonging 
to the Parent Board, and the other a girls' school, be- 
longing to the Woman's Board of Missions— together 
w^ith several day-schools in parts of the city near by ; (3) 
two hospitals under projen^tion, and which it is hoped 
to- have erected and put in operation the ensuing year. 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. 227 

The work at this center is admirably located, and the 
missionary residences, school-buildings, hospitals, and 
church, etc., form a conspicuous group, attractive in 
appearance, and having an air of permanence and busi- 
ness wliich has already greatly impressed the native 
mind, and not a little modified the prejudice and con- 
tempt Mdth which they were wont to regard us. Sec- 
ond, at Nantziang, the head-quarters of the district by 
that name, we have a mission family, and two young 
ladies representing the Woman's Board ; and the equip- 
ments for work comprise two residences, two large 
school-buildings, both belonging to the Woman's Board 
of Missions, and a fine large church, with which is con- 
nected in the same town other preaching-places in the 
vicinity. The native community at this point has been 
very favorably impressed, and the work at this time is 
on a most encouraging basis. Third, at Shanghai, the 
most important center of all, we have at present four 
mission families and three single persons, and our 
equipments, which are far from complete as projected, 
consist of two mission residences, two large high school 
buildings, one church, and several chapels and rented 
school premises. Shanghai, as holding the key not 
only to work in this province but to a much wider re- 
gion, and Soochow,as being in the center of the imme- 
diate territory which we have chosen as the basis of 
our missionary operations in China, are two points 
which should be occupied in force, and where our 
equipments should be most complete. 

The following suggestions as to the men 
needed in the field will apply with equal force 
to other foreign fields: 

And here is it well to state plainly that Conference 

228 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

men are preferred — men Avith experience, mature in 
judgment, and capable of taking charge at once of a 
responsible work. Younger men might possibly get 
the language more readily, but no amount of facility in 
that respect could atone lor their lack of experience in 
the actual Conference ministry. That such men as we 
need are to be had tliere can be no question, and when 
they come to know that their services are greatly to be 
preferred to those of younger men just out of college, 
with no experience in the field work, and that China 
opens to them opportunities of development and use- 
fulness hardly to be found elsewhere, certainly in no 
other heathen land, they will not be slow to present 
themselves for this work. 

Brother Parker reported forty-two scholars 
in the Biiffington Institute, Soochow. The re- 
ligious condition of the school was very good. 
Three of the boys joined the Church during 
the year, and eight were on probation. Three 
of the young men from the school were em- 
ployed as native assistants. Brother Parker 
was also engaged as one of a committee in 
preparing the books of Genesis, Exodus, 
Psalms, Proverbs, and Daniel in the Soochow 
and Shanghai colloquials to be published by 
tlie American Bible Society. 

The following statistics for the year ending 
December 31, 1883, were reported at the an- 
nual meeting: 

Male missionaries, 10; female missionary, 1; Wom- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 229 

an's Missionary Society missionaries, 7; stations where 
missionaries reside, 3; out stations, 8; communicants, 
158; males, 68; females, 90; self-supporting Church, 1; 
probationers, 32; Anglo-Chineso schools, 3; pui)ils, 246; 
foreign teachers, 6; native teachers, 10; receipts from 
pupils, $1,480; boys' boarding-school, 1; pupils, 47; 
boys' day-schools, 6; pupils, 66; girls' boarding-schools, 
3; pupils, 102; girls' day-schools, 6; pupils, 86; theo- 
logical pupils in Buffington Seminary, 5; Sunday- 
schools, 17; pupils, 479; ordained preachers, 3; unor- 
dained preachers, 9; colporters and helpers, 5; Bible- 
women, 3; church -buildings, 8; sittings, 1,350; value, 
$11,300; rented chapels, 16; sittings, 1,025; average at- 
tendance, 90; male hospital, 1; value, $10,000; in pa- 
tients, 52, out patients, 7,751 ; subscription to hospital, 
$1,487.78; receipts from patients, $680; total hospital 
receipts, $2,167.83; adult baptisms, 30; infant baptisms, 
7; deaths, 2; medical students, 6; books published 
(copies), 1,000 ; books and periodicals distributed, 4,318 ; 
contributions of foreign missionaries and native Church, 
$441.99; total value of Mission property, Parent Board, 
$96,800 ; Woman's Board of Missions, $26,200. 

Few questions in mission fields require the 
exercise of more patience and v/isdom than 
the salary of the native preachers. This 
question came up for discussion at this an- 
nual meeting. While the missionaries realize 
that the co-operation of the native preachers 
is essential to the evangelization of China, 
they were conscious that the oifer of salaries 
that were in excess of those paid in native 

230 Hand Book of MetJwdist Missions. 

business circles might present a temptation 
to men who were seeking the salaries and not 
the souls of their countrymen. These issues 
were kindly but firmly met at this annual 

The report for 1884 shows: 

Parent Board, male missionaries, 10; female, 1; 
Woman's Board, missionaries, 7; communicants, 158; 
probationers, 32 ; ordained native preachers, 3 ; unor- 
dained, 9; colporters and helpers, 5; Bible- women, 3; 
Anglo-Chine?^e schools, 3; pupils, 246; boys' boarding- 
school, 1; pupils, 47; boys' day-schools, 0; pupils, CO; 
girls' boarding-schools, 3; pupils, 102; girls' day-schools, 
6; pupils, 86; hospital, 1. 

The report for 1885 furnishes the following: 

Missionaries of Parent Board, male, 12 (additions, 
Rev. W. B. Bonnell and Rev. O. A. Dukes, M.D.) ; fe- 
male, 1; Woman's Board missionaries, 9 ; ordained na- 
tive preachers, 3; unordained, 6 ; colporters and helpers, 
3; Bible-women, 3; communicants, 163; probationers, 
56; Anglo-Chinese schools, 2; pupils, 269. 

The report for 1886 gives the following: 
Missionaries of Parent Board (Rev. O. G. Mingledorf, 
owing to ill health, returned), 11 ; Woman's Board, 10; 
ordained native preachers, 3; unordained, 6, commu- 
nicants, 141; probationers, 35; Anglo-Chinese schools, 
2; pupils, 195; boys' boarding-school, 1; pupils, 53; 
boys' day-schools, 5 ; pupils, 53 ; girls' boarding-schools, 
3; pupils, 99; girls' day-schools, 6 ; pupils, 107; Sunday- 
schools, 7; pupils, 413; male hospital, in patients, 217; 
out patients, 11,980. 

Missions of the M. A'. C, S. . 2?>1 

During this year Rev. O. G. Mingledorf, 
owing to ill health, and Rev. W. AV. Roy all 
and wife, owing to the sickness of their child, 
returned to the United States. Drs. J. W. 
Lambuth, W. R. Lambuth, and O. A. Dukes 
were transferred by Bishop McTyeire to Japan, 
and began their successful work in that field. 

The report for 1887 furnishes the following: 

Foreign missionaries, Parent Board, 7; Woman's 
Board, 9; stations where missionaries reside, 3; out 
stations, 8; ordained native preachers, 3; unordained, 
6; colporters, 1; Bible- women, 2; communicants, 146; 
baptisms, 11; probationers, 55; Anglo-Chinese schools, 
2; pupils, 106; boys' boarding-school, 1; pupils, 36; boys' 
day-schools, 9; pupils, 199; girls' boarding-schools, 3; 
pupils, 107; girls' day-schools, 11; pupils, 205; Sunday- 
schools, 9; teachers, 61; scholars, 576. 

This year the Board sent Rev. W. B. Burke 
to re-enforce our Mission. 

The report for 1888 furnishes the following: 

Missionaries, 7; local preachers, native, 9; members, 
foreign, 18; native, 198; total, 225; infants baptized, 5; 
adults baptized, 40; Sunday-schools, 10; teachers, 19; 
scholars, 653. Schools : Anglo-Chinese College : Foreign 
teachers, 3 ; native teachers, 3 ; pupils, 107. Buffington 
Institute: Foreign teachers, 2; native teachers, 4; pu- 
pils, 72; day-schools, 9; native teachers, 9; pupils, 114. 

In 1888 Rev. M. B. Hill and Rev. J. L. 
Hendry reached the Mission, and Rev. H. L. 
Gray joined them in 1889. 

232 Hand Booh of Methodist Misswns. 

The report for 1889 gives the following 
figures : 

Missionaries of the Parent Board, including wives, 
18; of the Woman's Board, 14; stations, 6; sub- 
stations, 7; native membership, 312; local preachers, 
12; probationers, 156; infants baptized, 8; adults bap- 
tized, 53; ordained preachers (native), 4; unordained, 
10; colporters and helpers, 5. Anglo-Chinese schools, 
3; pupils, 205; boys' boarding-school, 1; pupils, 78; 
girls' boarding-schools, 3; pupils, 63; day-schools, 31; 
pupils, 579; foreign teachers, 14; native teachers 45; 
Sunday-schools, 20; teachers, 72; pupils, 666; hospitals, 
2; patients, 10,427. 

The following list gives the names of our 
missionaries in China, with the date of their 
arrival in the field: 

Y. J. Allen (married), 1860; A. P. Parker (married), 
1876; C. F. Reid (married), 1880; G. R. Loehr, 1881 ; D. 
L.Anderson (married), 1883; W. H. Park (married), 
1883 ; W. B. Bonnell (married), 1885 ; W. B. Burke 
(married), 1887 ; M. B. Hill (married), 1888; J. L. Hen- 
dry (married), 1888 H. L. Gray (single), 1889; B. D. 
Lucas (single), 1890; O. E. Brown (married), 1890; T. 
A. Hearn (married), 1890; Langhorne Leitch (single), 
1890 ; R. M. Campbell (single), 1890. 

The following report for 1890 indicates the 
condition of the Mission at that date: 

Male missionaries, 16; missionaries' wives, 12; local 
preachers, 6 ; native members, 345 ; foreign members, 25 ; 
adults baptized, 33; infants baptized, 9 ; number of Sun- 
day-schools, 72; number of Sunday-school scholars, 742. 



Mexican Mission. 
The conversion of Alejo Hernandez has 
been styled the beginning of our Mexican 
Mission. He was born in the State of Aguas 
Calientes. His father, who was wealthy, de- 
signed him for the priesthood. He imbibed 
infidel sentiments while in college, and to 
avoid becoming a priest enlisted in the army 
against Maximilian. He was taken prisoner, 
endnred much suffering, and after many mis- 
fortunes found himself on the Rio Grande. 
While here a book entitled "Evenings with 
the Eomanists," fell into his hands. He read 
it, expecting to be confirmed in his infidelity. 
Its quotations from the Bible led him to 
secure a copy and examine it for himself. Its 
divine truths came to him as a revelation. 
He saw that, while Rome was corrupt, in- 
fidelity was spiritual death, and that life 
could be found only by faith in Jesus Christ. 
He visited Brownsville to determine for him- 
self the claims of Protestantism. He was 


234 Hand Book of Methodist Ml 


deeply impressed with the earnestness and 
fervor of the Protestant congregation. He 
said: "I felt that God's spirit was there; and 
though I could not understand a word that 
was said, I felt my heart strangely warmed. 
Never did I hear an organ play so sweetly; 
never did human voices sound so lovely to 
me; never did people look so beautiful as on 
that occasion. I went away weeping for joy." 
He returned to Mexico and began to proclaim 
the Saviour he had found. Being bitterly 
persecuted, an American friend advised him 
to go to Texas and unite with some Church, 
that he might work under its authority and 
support. On reaching Corpus Christi he met 
a hearty welcome from the pastor and a 
noble-hearted layman, was admitted into our 
Church, and in due time licensed to preach. 
He spent some time preaching on the Medina 
River, making his home with Rev. J. W. Devie- 
biss, presiding elder of Corpus Christi Dis- 
trict. In 1871 he was received on trial in the 
West Texas Conference, and ordained deacon 
by Bishop Marvin, who appointed him to the 
Laredo Mexican Mission. We find in the re- 
port of the Secretary of the West Texas Con- 
ference the following account of his work 
during the year 1872. 

Missions of the M. E. C.^ S, 285 

The Mexican Mission, established at the last session 
of your Conference, was served by the Rev. Alejo Her- 
nandez, a man who was led by the good providence 
and Spirit of God from Romish superstition, through 
mazes of dark distress and doubt and infidelity, into the 
marvelous light and liberty of the children of God. 
This man has been operating along the border, and in 
his own country, with some degree of success. A few 
of his fellow-countrymen have heard and heeded his 
words, and some of them have been converted to God. 
And now may be seen the unusual spectacle of a native 
Mexican, rescued from superstition and vice, sitting in 
his own house, reading the divine word, singing the 
songs of Zion, and lifting up heart and voice in earnest, 
fervent prayer. Not many have yet been swayed by 
the scepter of righteousness, because not many have 
yet been reached, but the door is opening and the dark 
places are being gilded with light. Brother Hernandez 
has been subjected during the year to the dire necessities 
of poverty, to the persecutions of superstitious igno- 
rance and bigoted power, and to the no less potent in- 
fluences of flattery and persuasion from those who see no 
good only as it associates with themselves. But out of 
all the Lord hath brought him by his power, and we 
are glad to think that our brother is better prepared 
to-day for the great work of God than ever before. 
May the great Head of the Church ever have him in 
holy keeping! and may a nation in darkness now see 
great light, and flock to Christ as doves to their win- 

In 1872 Bishop Keener appointed liim to 
Corpus Christi Mission. Owing to the ill- 

236 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

ness of his family he was unable to reach his 
charge until May, 1873. 

Central Mexican Mission. 

Early in 1873 Bishop Keener visited the 
City of Mexico and laid the foundations of 
our Central Mexican Mission. After a care- 
ful survey of the field he was convinced that 
the way was open for the vigorous prosecu- 
tion of mission v/ork. He succeeded in pur- 
chasing property in the heart of the city near 
tlie College of Mines. The wisdom of the 
choice is manifest in the fact that it is to-day 
a most eligible location, meeting the demands 
of our work in that great city. 

Having been favorably impressed with Her- 
nandez, Bishop Keener decided to remove 
him from Corpus Christi to the City of Mexi- 
co. He reported promptly to his post; but in 
the course of the year was stricken down 
v/ith paralysis. He greatly desired to die 
among his brethren in Corpus Christi. His 
wish was gratified, and on September 27, 1875, 
he passed peacefully to his final rest. 

Eev. J. T. Daves was appointed by Bishop 
Keener Superintendent of the Mission in 
1873. He entered vigorously on his work. 
In February, 1874, Bishop Keener revisited 

Missions of the M. E, C, S. . 237 

Mexico, and was greatly encouraged by the 
advance Protestantism had made in twelve 
months. He found Brother Daves planning 
wisely as to the Mission, and working dili- 
gently to acquire the Spanish language. The 
bishop preached in our San Andres church, 
and ordained Hernandez to the office of elder. 
In the congregation was the United States 
Minister and his lady, and a goodly company 
of English, American, and Spanish Protest- 
ants. The bishop was impressed with the im- 
portance of having a due proportion of Amer- 
ican missionaries who were conversant with 
the Mexican language to work with the native 
preachers. They would be mutual aids not 
only in evangelical work, but in the organiza- 
tion of the Church, the training of preachers, 
and the proper discipline of the members. 
In view of these facts he expressed the hope 
that college students would turn their atten- 
tion to the study of the Castilian tongue, and 
that colleges would furnish proper facilities 
to all who proposed to enter this portion of 
the mission field. We commend these sug- 
gestions of the bishop especially to those in 
charge of our institutions of learning. French 
and German may grade higher than the Span- 
ish, but the pathway for the gospel has been 

238 Hand Book of Methodist M 


opened among the Spanish-spealdng popula- 
tions of MexicOj Central and South America, 
and our Church schools have a noble oppor- 
tunity to advance the cause of evangelical 
Christianity by equipping young men for 
mission work in this large and interesting 

The unfinished condition of our San Andres 
chapel was a great hinderance to the work; 
and the bishop, while in the city, provided 
for its completion. Brother Daves pressed the 
work industriously, and by August 22, 1885, 
it was ready for dedication. Upward of 400 
were present at the services. In November 
Brother Daves reported sixty members. The 
two native preachers, Sostenes Juarez and 
Jose Elias Mota, proved to be active and 
earnest workers. They were diligeut in study- 
ing the Bible and our Discipline, that they 
might be qualified to preach to the people 
and train the Church. Brother Daves held a 
daily conference with them for Bible reading 
and prayer. He also organized a weekly 
Bible class of young men at his house, which 
soon numbered twenty members. The day- 
school for boys and another for girls had each 
an attendance of about thirty. The Church 
numbered sixty members. At the close of the 

Missions of the M. E, C, S, 23d 

year Brother Daves felt constrained to return 
to the home field, greatly to the regret of the 
native preachers and helpers. 

Sostenes Juarez, one of our first native 
preachers, was the first man who held Protest- 
ant service in Mexico, using on this occasion a 
French Bible brought into the country by a 
Catholic priest in the army of Maximilian. 
AVith others, he had lost faith in the Catholic 
Church, and realized that something besides 
revolutions was needed for the redemption of 
Mexico. In 1865 a band of seven met in a room 
in a house on the Calle San Jose Heal, and or- 
ganized the first Protestant Church in Mexi- 
co. It v/as called the "Society of Christian 
Friends." They adopted a Constitution set- 
ting forth their faith. Juarez was accepted 
as their preacher. The owner of the house 
furnished them a room for their services, and 
here for five years he preached to a large con- 
gregation every Sunday, holding prayer-meet- 
ing during the week. The writer, in company 
with this venerable apostle of Protestant 
Christianity in Mexico, visited this "upper 
room " memorable in the religious history of 
the Mexican people. The eyes of the old 
veteran kindled as he told of the days when 
he and that little company came from under 

240 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions, 

the thraldom of Eome and proclaimed a 
Saviour ready without priestly intervention to 
hear and answer the penitent's prayer. Later 
Juarez removed from the house in San Jose 
Real to another near by at Belle Mintas, where 
he was preaching when Bishop Keener first 
visited the City of Mexico, in 1873. At first 
he regarded the ohispo (bishop) with doubt, 
as he associated that title with the corruptions 
of Rome; but he soon learned the difference 
between Methodism and Catholicism. He 
entered our work, and to his last illness re- 
mained on the effective list as a native preach- 
er. He died May 25, 1891, with his harness 
on. His Bible and the small desk he used in 
the days when he was the only Protestant 
preacher in Mexico are in the Mission Rooms 
in Nashville. 

Bisiiop Keener again visited the City of 
Mexico in February, 1876. We give an ex- 
tract from his report. 

Directly upon my arrival, after night, I went round 
to see our church. AVheii I last saw the spot, the out- 
side of the "capilla" looked like a huge Catholic 
dromedary waiting to he unloaded; now all the lines 
were straight and harmonious as the temple restored. 
The Mexican preachers, by the by, call it the " Templo 
Evangel ico." It was beautifully lighted up with gas, 
and service was going on. I could not but call to 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 211 

mind how heavy my heart was three years ago, just 
before the purchase of this spot— how impossible it 
seemed to do any thing with these "Mafiana" people; 
and I felt a thrill of gratitude and prayer shoot through 
my frame when walking forward to the pulpit. Juarez 
and Mota were both there, and the congregation just 
about to sing. The altar and the front aisle were cov- 
ered with a bright-red carpet, and, better than all, there 
was a goodly congregation present— many of them 
cleanly dressed and intelligent persons. The singing 
was better than any I had ever heard in any of our 
Mexican Pi-otestant Churches here. While the preach- 
er preached in Spanish I had full time to take in the 
height and color of the walls, the frescoing, the width, 
the length, and sittings of this really beautiful room. 
Of course there was a hearty welcome. Spaniards are 
beyond all others in the warmth of their salutation 
and the prolonged ceremony of their a Bios! But be- 
yond this was, evidently, the true fervor of Christian 

That " Hermano Daves " had not returned with me 
was a matter of profound regret to them. Indeed, this 
is universal. He had made a fine impression with all 
classes, and has made the Mctodista del Sur as promis- 
ing as any other Protestant Chui-ch in the city. He 
was attracting to himself young men of influence, and 
just getting a serviceable knowledge of the Spanish. 

The next morning I visited our girls' school, and 
found a very interesting body of girls, and some young 
ladies, refined, quiet, and pleasant in their expression, 
and also a room of little girls, the major partof them from 
poor families. The boys' school is not so large, nor any 
of them so well-grown as in the other. We have two good 
teachers, the gentleman a comjietent teacher of music. 

242 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

On Tuesday morning our preachers brought nie 
three very good-looking young men— two of them 
twenty years of age, one sixteen — sons of Protestants, 
who were ready and anxious to go to tlie United States 
for the purpose of entering our colleges. One of them 
composes music well, and is the son of our organist; 
the other two are going to the schools of Mexico. 
They are represented as piously inclined youths. Two 
of them actually started for the United States, and got 
as far as Vera Cruz on their way to me at New Orleans. 
They obtained from President Lerdo a pass on the rail- 
road, but they could not induce the steamer to take them, 
and returned. Alas! nothing is wanted but money to 
control this hopeful material which the providence of 
God places within reach. 

In the absence of a Superintendent Juarez 
and Mota held their ground. They reported 
70 members, 30 children in the Sunday-school, 
and 65 in the day-school. There had been 
some^olitical disturbances in Mexico during 
the year; but Bishop Keener, who has in- 
formed himself thoroughly respecting the 
affairs of the country, assured the Board that 
"there is no difficulty in our occupying any 
place in the States of Mexico, Hidalgo, 
Morelos, Guanajuato, Tuxpan, and Tampico.' 

The appointment of Kev. W. M. Patterson 
as Superintendent of the " Mexico City Mis- 
sion " marked a new era in its movements. 
Brother Daves had planted our Mission firmly 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. .243 

in the capital of the republic; and Dr. Pat- 
terson, finding the work well intrenched, be^ 
gan to push his lines out in all directions from 
that important center. He began his work 
February 7, 1878. March 18, he wrote that 
he had started out the missionaries, and had 
made a trip himself. Escolar attended to 
the Church in the city; Juarez was sent to 
Leon; Mota, to Cuernavaca; while the Superin- 
tendent visited Toluca, the capital of the City 
of Mexico. His object was "to lay out, as 
soon as possible, as much work as can be de- 
veloped during the year. By this plan we 
can take choice of the places now open, get 
new points from which to radiate and work 
to better advantage hereafter." 

In 1879 Juarez and Cuevas at Leon report- 
ed forty members. This city was under the 
control of a bishop noted for his intolerance, 
and the people were under his influence; but 
the public officers favored religious freedom, 
and with their soldiers protected the Protest- 
ant congregation. The preachers visited the 
surrounding towns, finding in several the way 
open for regular work as soon as the preach- 
ers could be supplied. At Toluca a Church 
with 17 members was reported, and a school 
with 40 pupils. A dozen towns rn the vicinity 

244 Uand Book of Methodist Missions. 

of Toluca were open to missionary labor. 
Angaba reported 40 members and a good 
school. Good congregations were found at 
Cuernavaca and Cuatla. An earnest call was 
made for means with which to erect churches 
at all these points. In the entire Mission 12 
native preachers, eight teachers, and 268 mem- 
bers were reported. 

The expansion of the work will appear from 
the following figures, reported by the Superin- 
tendent March 31, 1880: Stations, 30; native 
preachers, 14; teachers, 10; day-schools, 8;' 
night-schools, 3; school for young preachers, 
1; Sunday-schools, 15; members, 531. The 
work was distributed over a large territory, 
much of which could be reached only by pri- 
vate conveyance, and often through regions 
bitterly hostile to Protestantism. During the 
latter part of the year, while making a round 
of the work, the missionary was assaulted 
"by highwaymen or fanatical Eomanists," he 
could not determine which, and was so severely 
wounded that he was disabled from work for 
some time. But the work went on. A paper 
styled El Evaugelista Mexicana was com- 
menced, and soon sent out 1,500 copies, one- 
half going to the Border Mission. 

In 1881 the Mission was re-enforced by the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 245 

arrival of Rev. Robert W. MacDonell and 
Miss Callie Hallaran. The latter was sup- 
ported by the ladies of New Orleans, and 
rendered most valuable service in the girls' 
school in the City of Mexico. The statistics 
show an advance in every department of mis- 
sion work this year. They are as follows: 
Missionaries, 2; native preachers, 34; foreign 
teacher, 1; native teachers, 22; colporters, 3; 
members, 710; Sunday-schools, 34; scholars, 
740; day-schools, 26; scholars, 600. The work 
which in 1878 was confined to the city had ex- 
tended to the State of Mexico, Morelos, Vera 
Cruz, Hidalgo, Puebla, Oaxaca, Michoacan, 
Guanajuato, and Colima. 

The report for 1882 contains but few fig- 
ures, but these indicate remarkable growth: 
Native preachers, 34; members, 1,150. Dur- 
ing the year. Revs. J. W. Grimes and R. N. 
Freeman joined the mission force. An inter- 
esting account of a District Conference in the 
city of Cuernavaca showed how admirably our 
Methodist economy is adapted to the wants of 
the mission field. Rev. D. W. Carter reached 
Mexico December 21, 1882, and Rev. James 
Norwood January 5, 1883. Brother Norwood, 
having been for several years in the Border 
Mission, entered at once on his work in the 

246 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

city of Toluca. Brother Grimes, after devot- 
ing a year to the study of the language, was 
assigned to the San Luis Potosi District. 
Rev. R. N. Freeman had charge of the En- 
glish congregation in the city of Mexico. 
These additions to the mission force added 
greatly to its efficiency. The girls' school in 
the city of Mexico, under the charge of Miss 
Hallaran, numbered sixty -two pupils. Mrs. 
Norwood superintended a girls' school at To- 
luca, while Mrs. Grimes had charge of an- 
other at San Luis Potosi. 

Early in 1884 Rev. R. N. Freeman was called 
from the field to his reward. He had just re- 
turned from the United States, where he had 
been united in marriage with Miss Lucy Bar- 
ton, when he was stricken down with small- 
pox, and died January 28. A short time before 
he died, speaking of Missions, he exclaimed: 
"Mission work a failure! Never. It is the 
work of God sealed with the blood of Christ, 
and must succeed." Brother Freeman was 
buried in the American cemetery, near the city 
of Mexico. 

During this year, Rev. D. F. Watkins, for- 
merly of the American Board, but for some 
time an independent missionary, united with 
our Church, and was put in charge of the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 247 

Guadalajara District, which had been the 
scene of heroic labors. The Mission was now 
formed into six districts, in charge of compe- 
tent presiding elders. The report gives the 
following items: Weekly preaching-places, 79; 
towns visited, 178; members, 1,614; Sunday- 
schools, 46; scholars, 1,207; working force, 
missionaries, 6; native preachers, 31. 

In 1885 E. W. MacDonell was transferred to 
the Border Mission, leaving five American 
missionaries in the Central Mission. At the 
annual meeting a large class of native preach- 
ers was examined on the first year's course 
of study. Three were ordained deacons by 
Bishop Keener. Writing of this annual meet- 
ing, the bishop said: "At all points the body 
is full orbed, wanting only the development 
of experience." The Mission now reported 
five missionaries, two native elders, six native 
deacons, and thirty -five native licentiates, 
making forty -eight in all. The training 
furnished by the Quarterly and District Con- 
ferences and the two annual meetings was 
preparing the native preachers for the organ- 
ization of the Annual Conference. 

It is worthy of note that the Boys' Indus- 
trial School in the city of Mexico, and the 
schools in Ameca, Eincon, Cuernavaca, and 

248 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Oajaca, and the boys' school at Toluca, were 
supported by the " Eose-buds," under the di- 
rection of " Uncle Larry," of the Virginia Con- 
ference. The Industrial School for Girls, un- 
der the successful direction of Miss Hallaran, 
was supported by the Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety in New Orleans, and a school at Joque- 
cingo by the " Busy Bees," of Gonzales, Tex., 
under the direction of Mrs. Belding, of that 
place. These "special" efforts at this period 
of the history of the Mission contributed 
largely to its success. A school, under the 
charge of Mrs. Watkins at Guadalajara con- 
tained ninety-nine girls and small boys, and 
had excellent success. 

The Central Mexican Mission was organized 
into an Annual Conference February 25, 1886, 
by Bishop Keener. 

The second session of the Central Mexican 
Conference was held in Toluca, beginning 
January 19, 1887, Bishop K. K. Hargrove pre- 
siding. The reports furnished the following 
figures: Local preachers, 11; members, 1,774; 
Sunday-schools, 47; scholars, 1,009. Dr. 
Watkins, owing to ill health, was granted a 
superannuated relation, which left Eevs. W. 
M. Patterson, D. W. Carter, S. W. Grimes, 
and Joseph Norwood on the effective list. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 249 

The work included six districts, which em- 
braced nearly all of Central and Southern 

During this visit, Bishop Hargrove attend- 
ed the Pueblo District Conference. The fol- 
lowing extract from his published account of 
this meeting exhibits the conditions under 
which our Mission in Mexico was carried on 
at that period: 

This gathering of so many Protestants, and that in 
the very midst of their sanctuaries, filled the air with 
threats. Not a single preacher was to survive the first 
day. Special significance was given to their demon- 
strations by the fact that only a few miles out, several 
years ago, twenty-one Protestants were massacred in 
their house of worship. But, as often happens, the 
devil overdid the business in this case. The storm 
stirred had reached the ear of the Jefe-politico (the chief 
ruler in the civil district), and put him on his guard. 

At the close of our first morning session a gentlenan 
entered and was introduced to jne, who proved to be 
the colonel commanding the local soldiery, and who 
came, he said, to assure me that ample steps had been 
taken for our protection. The very silence and order 
on the street where we met was suggestive of unusual 
precaution. Every night a guard of three soldiers oc- 
cupied the room in which Brother Carter and I slept, 
and others were without. Though we had no chains 
on our limbs, and were not exactly in prison, the cir- 
cumstances reminded us of Peter when he slept be- 
tween two soldiers. The Conference passed quietly, 

250 Tlayid Booh of Method ist Mi^^ion^. 

and before daylight on Monday morning we took the 
dihgence under escort of soldiers to the liniit of the 
civil district. 

At the opening session of the Conference I counted 
forty-five persons in the room, all Mexicans except the 
presiding elder and myself, and mainly members of the 
body. After that session, Friday morning, the house 
was crowded with quiet, eager listeners to the close, 
some of whom had walked twenty-five miles to be 
present. From the beginning there was an unusual 
sense of the divine presence, and the interest and so- 
lemnity of the meeting grew till the close. The usual 
order of proceedings was observed, though greatly mod- 
ified in detail by the different conditions under which 
the work is conducted. 

Preaching was had at 11 o'clock a.m. and 7 o'clock 
P.M. each day. By every token the gospel was a wel- 
come message. Unmistakable interest from time to 
time was depicted on the faces of those who heard. 
More than once I saw a shudder pass over a man!s 
frame, and the tears steal down his bronzed face. It 
came over me almost with primitive force that the gos- 
pel is " good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all 
people," as I tried to apen the treasures of the Bible to 
those to whom it had so long been not only a sealed 
but a forbidden book. O how my heart yearned to 
bring the message still nearer to them by clothing it in 
their own mother-tongue! The spiritual forces seemed 
to burn and burden me as I would pause for the inter- 
preter. Several united with the Church, and a number 
of children were bai)tized. Here for the first time I at- 
tempted to use the Spanish language in the baptismal 

The services which most impressed me were the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 251 

love-feast on Sunday afternoon and the Lord's Supper, 
which closed the service on Sunday nifjlit. 

Eev. J. M. Weems, D.D., of the Missinsippi 
Conference, and Rev. G. B. Winton, of tlie 
Pacific Conference, were appointed to the 
Central Mexican Mission in 1888. Dr. AVeems 
Avas assigned to work in Mexico, where he 
and his devoted wife served the mission with 
great efficiency nntil 1891, when his failing 
health compelled his return home. 

In 1888 Rev. J. Norwood located at his own 
request. In 1889 the Conference met in 
Guadalajara, Bishop Galloway presiding. 
The membership reported was 1,663. The 
training school at San Luis Potosi reported 
20 pupils, and was doing thorough work. 

In 1890 the Conference met in the city of 
Mexico, Bishop Haygood in the chair. The 
reports were encouraging. There were now 
in the field five missionaries and their waives. 
The work was divided into six districts, with 
51 pastoral charges. Of these, 31 were filled 
by native preachers, and the others supplied 
by local preachers. The members reported 
were 1,950, with over 2,000 additional heai-ers. 
The net gain in membership was 374. There 
were 31 churches and 8 parsonages, valued at 

252 Band Book of Methodist Missions. 

Mexican Border Mission. 
When Alejo Hernandez was moved to the 
city of Mexico, many were fearful that the 
work among the Mexicans in the Eio Grande 
valley would be arrested. Not so! The work 
was of God, and he was watching over its in- 
terests. The Mexicans on the border were 
ready for the gospel. They were weary of the 
follies and corruptions of Rome. They were 
in contact with a race which regarded freedom 
of conscience as one of the most sacred rights 
of man, and among this class of Mexicans the 
power of the priests was slowly unlocking its 
clasp. Others beside Hernandez were begin- 
ning to inquire whether there was not a better 
way than that in which their fathers had been 
led ; and when under the light of the word and 
the Holy Spirit they were pointed from the 
crucifix to Christ, the darkness of many gen- 
erations began to disappear and they gladly 
welcomed the light of the open Bible. Very 
soon the results of the brief but faithful min- 
istry of Hernandez were manifest. He had 
not only pointed his people to Christ, but he 
had brought them in contact with the preach- 
ers of the West Texas Conference, who, though 
unable to preach in the Mexican language, 
earnestly sought to instruct those ardent 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 253 

seekers after "the truth as it is in Jesus." 
The leaven was in the measure of meal, and 
silently it must spread until the whole shall 
be leavened. While Hernandez, stricken down 
by sickness, w^as wearily wending his way to 
Corpus Christi that he might die with his 
brethren in Christ, God was raising up men 
who would take up his fallen mantle and carry 
on the work he had opened in the Rio Grande 

At the West Texas Conference held in De- 
cember, 1874, three Mexicans presented them- 
selves for admission on trial. Bishop Keener, 
who presided, in a letter to the New Orleans 
Advocate, thus described them: 

They were fine-looking men— two in early and the 
other in mature manhood— intelligent, well-connected, 
and well-educated. Everybody was pleased with their 
proper and modest demeanor. They had come togeth- 
er by a wagon from Corpus Christi and San Diego. I 
suppose the Magi would have traveled the same way, 
only in their country the spring wagon had not as yet 
substituted the camel and dromedary. These men had 
brought with them a very precious freight in honor of 
the King, fully as much so as the gold, incense, and 
myrrh of the East. One of them reported a member- 
ship of sixty-two converted Mexicans, and another of 
sixty-eight, beside some nineteen children baptized; 
the third, Vidaurri, had not as yet had charge of a 
work. When we consider that these men could nei- 

254 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ther speak nor understand English, and knew only 
their native Spanish, they might be regarded rather as 
missionaries sent to us than as the fruit of any messen- 
gers sent by us to them. Have they not come as the 
wise men came, unlooked for, to stir up the very heart 
of Israel? They constitute a powerful appeal to us as 
a Church to be at work, lest our Lord himself come and 
find us sleeping ; to bestir ourselves, and send forth the 
light of that powerful and glorious system of heavenly 
truth which God has conferred upon us for the benefit 
of the myriads, on this continent and elsewhere, who 
have as yet no just thought of the Spirit of the power 
of life which was in Jesus Christ. 

A movement so manifestly the work of the 
Holy Spirit called for unhesitating action on 
the part of the Church. They were received 
on trial, elected and ordained deacons under 
the missionary provision of our book of Dis- 
cipline, and a " Mexican Border Mission Dis- 
trict " constituted, with the following appoint- 
ments: A. H. Sutherland, presiding elder; 
Corpus Christi, Donatio Garcia; San Diego, 
Felipe Cordova; Laredo, Fermin Vidaurri; 
Brownsville, to be s applied; Bio Grande City, 
to be supplied; Conception and Presanas, to 
be supplied. Already the field opened was 
larger than the force the Church could sup- 

Though the field was white, it required 
brave hearts and an ample supply of faith to 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 255 

sustain the men who entered it in the name of 
Christ. The " Gringos " aud the "Greasers," 
as the Americans and Mexicans in that day 
were styled on the border, had for each other 
but little love. Kaids made by bad men on 
both sides of the Kio Grande upon the ranches 
on the opposite side of the river deepened 
the dislike between the races and helped to 
keep the border in a ferment. Desperate 
m-en from other sections songht the border, 
fancying they would be free from the re- 
straints which the laws of their native lands 
imposed. Few men in those days traveled 
that region unattended or unarmed. The 
dense chaparrel on each side of the lonely 
roads furnished a convenient ambush, and no 
one knew when he would be confronted with 
rifles or revolvers. Under these conditions 
our Border Mission was established. The 
missionaries found their Bibles better safe- 
guards than revolvers. The statement, " I am 
a preacher of the gospel," commanded more 
respect than a passport under the seal of ei- 
ther nation. 

The reports from the Border District for 
1875 were full of encouragement. The lives 
of the converted Mexicans gave evidence of a 
genuine faith. One hundred and sixty-four 

256 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

members were reported, with 4 Sunday-scliools 
and 136 scholars. The district was re -ar- 
ranged, with five appointments and ^\e preach- 
ers. The mission at Rio Grande City was of 
special importance, as it carried the gospel to 
thousands on the Mexican side of the river. 
Two congregations were already formed In 
San Antonio, which was the center of a large 
Mexican population. 

The report for 1876 gives 247 members, 8 
Sunday-schools, and 185 scholars. The con- 
version of the Mexican was usually preceded 
by earnest study of the Bible. It furnished 
the reasons that led him to renounce his faith 
in the priests, who claimed full power to par- 
don sin and to open the gates of heaven to 
those in purgatorial flames. From its pages 
he learned that God alone can pardon sin, and 
that pardon free and full could be found by 
every soul that came to God with sincere re- 
pentance and earnest faith in Jesus Christ. 
The class - meeting and Sunday-school were 
specially suited to the wants of these sincere 
seekers after tbe truth. When they found 
Christ, they were ready to give a reason for 
tbe faith that was in them. Another charac- 
teristic of their religion was their desire to 
impart the spiritual gifts they had attained to 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 257 

their fellow-countrymen. Sometimes when 
converted they would travel many miles to a 
village or ranch where their relatives lived and 
seek to open to their minds the light that had 
filled their own souls with joy. Soon a little 
group would be gathered around them; some 
bitterly opposing, others listening with wonder 
to their story. Then their Testament would 
be opened, and from its pages they would seek 
to explain the gospel they preached. Under 
the simple story of the cross thus told, men 
and women were led to a knowledge of Christ, 
and the little group that gathered around these 
earnest teachers would grow into a congrega- 
tion before the missionary could be called in 
to baptize the converts and receive them into 
the Church. The writer, about this period in 
the history of the Mission, attended a session 
of the West Texas Conference, and heard 
Brother Sutherland's report of the wonderful 
work of grace among the Mexicans. Among 
other incidents, he told the following: He was 
on his way to Corpus Cliristi and stopped at 
noon near a stream of water, as was usual in 
that day, to rest his horse and eat his lunch. 
A young Mexican rode uj) and joined him. 
Learning that Sutherland could speak his lan- 
guage, the young man told him of a meeting 

258 Hand Book of Mefliodist Missions. 

lie bad attended the night before in Corpus 
Christi. The singing had attracted him to 
the door. He was invited in. He said that 
they called it a class-meeting. The people 
were talking about Jesus and the pardon of 
sin and the joy they had found in believing. 
Some of them read out of th^ Testament. 
Their vrords were new and strange; but the 
people seemed happy, and their singing was 
beautiful. He asked Brother Sutherland if he 
knew any thing about these people and their 
religion. He told him that he knew a great 
deal about them. They were Methodists, and 
soon he had his Testament in hand and was 
explaining to his new friend the wonderful 
story of salvation through Christ alone, that 
was beginning to make such a stir among the 
Mexicans. They talked on until the evening 
sun reminded the missionary that he had an 
appointment that night in Corpus Christi and 
they must part. The young Mexican was 
anxious for a Testament, and Brother Suther- 
land gave him the copy out of which he had 
been reading. Learning that the young man 
was going to visit his father's family near San 
Antonio, Brother Sutherland wrote a note on 
a page of his memorandum book, and direct- 
ing it to Eev. H. G. Horton, pastor of the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 259 

American cougregation in that city, he told 
the young man that if he would take it to that 
man he could learn more about the people 
who had held that meeting. "And now," said 
Brother Sutherland at this point of his story, 
" I will sit down and let Brother Horton tell 
the rest." Brother Horton rose and told of a 
young Mexican who rode up to his house one 
evening and handed him the note. It told 
him that the bearer was interested on the sub- 
ject of religion, and asked him to introduce 
him to the Mexican preacher. He at once 
conducted him to the preacher's home. The 
young man, during his days of travel, had 
read his Testament. His interest had deep- 
ened as he read, and instead of going directly 
home he had come to San Antonio to learn 
the truth of the things he had heard. He 
found faithful teachers. He remained a num- 
ber of days, devoting all his time to the study 
of the Bible, conversation with his new friends, 
attendance on religious services, and earnest 
prayer. As soon as he fouud Christ as his 
Saviour, he startinl for his home to tell his 
father and mother and brethren the way of 
salvation through faith in Jesus Christ. Tlie 
story did not end tliere. After a few weeks 
the young man returned to San Antonio and 

260 Hand Book of MetJiodist Missions, 

told the preacher of the conversion of his par- 
ents and a number of the family and several 
others, and he had come to ask him to come 
out and organize them into a Church. And 
now the young man was ready to go out with 
this wonderful message to his people. Such 
incidents in our work, both in the Central and 
Border Missions, demonstrate the presence 
and power of the Holy Spirit in leading this 
people to a knowledge of the truth as it is in 
Jesus Christ. 

Erom the official report of the West Texas 
Conference for 1877 we extract the following: 
"Mexican work: Number hearing the word, 
2,650; members, 430; received this year, 144; 
adults baptized, 178; infants baptized, 98; 
Sunday-schools, 13; teachers, 19; scholars, 
324." Rev. Joseph Norwood's name appears 
this year in the report of the Border Mission 
District. He had charge of the Hidalgo 
Mexican Mission. The following incident, 
recorded by Brother Gillett, the Secretary of 
the West Texas Conference Board, illustrates 
the character of the religion of our Mexican 
converts. An intelligent lady of another de- 
nomination said to him: " I had a company of 
Mexicans shearing my sheep, and they had 
prayers night and morning; and on Sunday 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, ' 261 

they bad seme kind of a meeting. One of 
their number talked to- them, and they sung 
and prayed together. They prayed beauti- 
fully — never lacking a word." To those who 
know the Mexicans of that day this was in- 
deed a wonderful change. 

The work was now being pushed across the 
river into Mexico. Brother Paz, after much 
opposition, opened preaching in a yard near 
the plaza in Laredo, Mexico. Work was also 
commenced in Camargo, Villanuera, and Mier. 
At these points the missionaries met much 

In 1878 Brother Sutherland reported that 
nearly all the Mexicans in Texas, and many 
of the bordering Mexican States, had been 
brought under gospel teaching. " There were 
more preaching-places than missions; 20 or- 
ganized societies, with others in formation; 
about 25 Sunday-schools, with over 500 schol- 
ars; more than 600 members of the Church, 
with many believers and probationers, and 
congregations everywhere on the increase." 
Two American and thirteen native preachers 
were employed in the border work, and the 
Superintendent called for three additional 
foreign missionaries. Educational work was 
being carried forward as rapidly as the means 

'262 Hand Booh of Methodisf Missions. 

at command would allow. Brother Norwood 
and his wife had opened a school at Laredo 
which was doing good work. The wife of the 
native preacher at San Diego had a school 
of 45 children. The Superintendent wrote: 
"Very few children remain Protestants long 
without learning to read. As our congrega- 
tions increase in ability there will be more 
and better supported schools among them. 
Our first and greatest care is to get the people 
converted, and then the educational as well 
as every other feature of civilization will be 

From the annual report of 1880 we learn 
that in addition to the two American mis- 
sionaries there were thirteen Mexican preach- 
ers. They preached to about 50 congrega- 
tions and to several thousand soals. Great 
need was felt of a training school for preach- 
ers and teachers. The assistance rendered 
the Mission by the American Bible Society 
and the American Tract Society in furnishing 
them publications on favorable terms was 
highly appreciated by the missionaries. The 
members were faithful in attending class and 
prayer meetings, and out of their great poverty 
were willing to give for the support of the 
gospel. Brother Sutherland mentions the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 268 

case of a young man, Brother Cisneros, a pri- 
vate member who had gone out into Mexico 
over a hundred miles from the border and 
had brought back from a town ho had 'visited 
fifty- one names of candidates for baptism. 
The report gives 651 members (of these 169 
had joined during the year), 138 baptisms, 25 
Sunday-schools, and 472 scholars. 

At the West Texas Conference for 1880 the 
Mission was divided, Brother Sutherland be- 
ing in charge of the upper or San Antonio 
District, and Brother Norwood in charge of 
the^lower or San Diego District. Eev. Elias 
Kobertson, of theNorth-westTexas Conference, 
was added to the Mission force and stationed 
at Laredo, and Kev. J. R. Carter, of Georgia, 
was sent to El Paso. Members reported, 572; 
churches, 3; parsonages, 2; Sunday-schools, 
23; scholars, 572. 

The annual report of 1882 states that Rev. 
J. Norwood was transferred to the Central 
Mission, while Eev. P. C. Bryce was added to 
the Mission force on the border, and placed 
at Eagle Pass. This gave the Central Mis- 
sion four American missionaries. Eev. Jajnes 
Tafolla was placed in charge of one of the 
districts, while Brother Sutherland retained 
the superintendency. Of the eighteen stations 

264 Hand Booh of Metliodist Missions. 

now inchided in tlie Mission, four were wholly 
on the Mexican side of the Kio Grande, and 
five others were part in Mexican and part in 
Texan territory. The Snperintendent wrote: 

Our future progress will be almost entirely in 
Mexico, as the territory on this .«ide is now pretty well 
occupied. We need three or four first-class Americans 
in addition to those we have. At Rio Grande, where 
we lately dedicated a new and elegant church, we very 
much need an American preacher. For over one hun- 
dred miles in any direction there is not one. Rio 
Grande is a town of twenty-five hundred inhabitants, 
and yet we have no preacher to bring the Americans 
under gospel influences. At the earliest moment I 
want to occupy Saltillo, capital of Coahuila, and Chi- 
huahua, capital of the State of the same name. To 
those two distant places in Mexico I would try to send 
with the Americans some of our most trusty natives. I 
may safely say that there are fifty places where as 
many missionaries could be advantageously introduced 
in the four States of Mexico immediately bordering 
Texas — ^Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and Chi- 
huahua. Besides, I am very anxious to extend our 
operations to the Pacific Coast, along the borders of the 
two nations. I have been told that the people over 
there are ripe for the gospel. 

The Superintendent, in another letter to the 
Board, said: 

There is a good prospect of a large increase in the 
number of preachers. A good many are making appli- 
cation for license to preach. Our only inquiry is 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. • 265 

whether they are truly called of God to the work ; and 
this ascertained, we jDut them to study and to work. 
AVith all our carefulness, some enter who ought not to; 
or they fall away, and have to be turned out. The 
same with our Church-membershii). We strive to let 
none in who are not sincere seekers of salvation. 

Eev. S. G. Kilgore appears among the mis- 
sionaries in the border work in 1882. His 
rapid improvement in Spanish enabled him 
soon to preach in the native tongne. The Mis- 
sion now reported 23 charges. Of these, nine 
were in Texas, four occupied territory on both 
sides of the Eio Grande, and ten were in Mex- 
ico. The work had been opened in the States 
of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, Coahuila, and 
Chihuahua. *[t extended 200 miles beyond 
the Kio Grande. The native membership 
numbered 943. Eight substantial churches 
had been built. Owing to lack of means, and 
the rapid growth of evangelical work, the 
Board had been able to do but little in estab- 
lishing schools. The two schools at Laredo, 
especially the Seminary under the charge of 
the Woman's Board, was doing effective serv- 
ice. A male school of like character was 
greatly needed on the border. 

The next year the mission was extended to 
two important points. Eev. John F. Cor- 
bin, who had been laboring among the Ameri- 

266 Hand Book of MetJtodist Missions. 

cans at Laredo, and preparing for work in 
Mexico, was sent to Saltillo. His wife, Miss 
Annie Williams, who had been in charge of 
one of the girls' schools at Laredo before her 
marriage, opened school work in Saltillo. 
Sister Corbin has rendered heroic service in 
every field to which her husband has been ap- 
pointed. Rev. J. D. Scoggins, who had been 
transferred from the North-west Texas Con- 
ference, opened the mission in Monterey. 
He and his wife, without a native helper, 
entered vigorously on the acquisition of the 
language and work among the Americans in 
that important commercial center. 

The following letter, from onewof the native 
preachers to Brother Sutherland, indicates 
the trials some were called upon to undergo 
while preaching to their countrymen the truth 
as it is in Jesus. 

On the 12th instant I reached AUende, and preached 
on Saturday. Sunday on concluding the evening serv- 
ice, some individuals who were outside at the window 
said to me to come out, among other insulting words to 
which I paid no attention. But on Tuesday, the 15th, 
while on the road to Gijedo, just as I w^as passing the 
Chupaderas wood, two bandits assaulted me, one from 
each side of the road, obliging me to get down from 
my buggy. Then they took me away into the center 
of the wood, and said to me; "Do you know why we 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. - 2G7 

brought yon here?" "I am ignorant of yonr object," 
I answered. "Then know that you are going to die! " 
"Why?" I asked. They said: "We will teach you 
how to censure a rehgion so holy and jDure." Seeing, 
then, that the last moments of my life had come, I said 
to them : " Sirs, you do well to be zealous for your re- 
ligion ; biit I will tell you the truth, the religion which 
you defend is not the religion of God, nor of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. The religion you profess is the religion 
of the devil, of antichrist, for you give testimony that 
his desires you do ; for this is not tlie will of God, since 
the children of God, the true worshipers of Christ, do 
not rob, nor kill, nor assault ; consequently you do not 
the will of God, but of the priests, for they are always 
thirsty for the blood of those who believe in God and 
love Christ. They preach and tell their faithful he 
who speaks to a Protestant at a distance of twenty-five 
steps is excommunicated, and he that does a favor to a 
Protestant is already ten times in hell, for your priest 
has preached these things in all this district, not re- 
membering that the Lord Jesus Christ says: 'Bless 
your enemies, and do good to those who do you evil, 
and pray for those who persecute you and speak evil 
of you.' " As I said this, they both raised their voices 
and ordered me to stop and say nothing more. They 
prepared their guns, and pointed them at me. 1 said 
to them : " Friends, I beseech you to let me commend 
my soul to the Lord whom I serve." They said : " Do 
it, but very quickly; for very soon you will go to your 
God ! " Hearing these words, my heart was filled with 
joy at the mention of the place where my soul would 
go after breathing my last. Then kneeling down, and 
resting against the trunk of a tree, I said : " God of in- 
finite goodness, full of mercy, I give thee humble 

268 Hmid Book of Methodist Missions. 

thanks for having made known to me the last moments 
of my existence, and for having kept me faithful to the 
end in which I am to disappear from this world for the 
sake of thy divine and holy word, and that thou 
wouldst be pleased to receive my soul into thy king- 
dom, in the name of thy Son, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
for into thy hands I commend my spirit. And I be- 
seech thee, O blessed heavenly Father, to pardon the 
sin that they are going to commit, for they are not the 
guilty ones. They do the will of the enemies of thy 
word; therefore pardon them, for they know not what 
they do. Lord, convert them, and take from them 
the veil that covers their eyes." The rest of the prayer 
I do not remember, for a great dread seized upon me 
that caused me to lose my senses. But after some 
time, when I awoke from the trance in which I had 
fallen, I arose to look for my enemies, and to tell them 
that I was ready for them to carry out their purpose 
with me. But looking around in all directions, I saw 
no one, but a profound silence reigned ; and I found 
myself alone in that dark wood. But the singing of 
the birds as they flew among the branches advised me 
anew to resume my journey. Directing myself to my 
frail buggy, I crossed the wood as one who quietly 
walks in the shadow of death. Taking my reins in 
hand, I was soon in Gijedo. Going along the road I 
was meditating and giving thanks to God, saying: "O 
Lord, in me has been fulfilled that promise which says: 
' If thine enemies come upon thee by one road, they 
shall flee from thee by seven.' " 

At the West Texas Conference for 1884, 
twelve natives were admitted on trial, and 
seven new missions opened. Of these new 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 269 

missions one was on the extreme frontier of 
Texas and New Mexico, and the other six on 
remote outposts in Mexico. One of the chief 
barriers to the work was the want of houses 
of worship. Owing to the bitter opposition 
of the Catholic priests, it was often extremely 
difficult to rent a house for worship; and 
those secured, owing to their location and 
other causes, were frequently unsuited to 
public worship. Notwithstanding these diffi- 
culties, the work among the Mexicans spread 
with wonderful rapidity. The Mission had 
extended to Chihuahua under charge of Eev. 
S. G. Kilgore, and to Durango under charge 
of Kev. R. W. MacDonell. 

At the session of the West Texas Confer- 
ence of 1885 Bishop McTyeire organized the 
Mexican Border Mission into an Annual Con- 
ference, under the name of the Mexican Bor- 
der Mission Conference. 

The sixth session of the Border Conference 
was held in Chihuahua, beginning October 15, 
1890, Bishop Haygood presiding. It report- 
ed an effective force of seven missionaries 
and their wives, 42 native preachers, 36 local 
preachers, a meml)ership of 1,861, and 1,864 
Sunday-school scholars. 

The Mission has extended its operations to 

270 Hand Book of Metliodist Missions, 

the Pacific Ocean. In view of the vast extent 
of tlie field it was deemed wise, under the au- 
thority of the General Conference, to divide 
the territory into two Annual Conferences. 
The eastern section retained the name of the 
Mexican Border Mission Conference. It em- 
braced the States of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, 
Coahuila, and the Mexican population in 
West Texas south of the Pecos Eiver. The 
western section took the name of the North- 
west Mexican Conference, embracing the States 
of Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora, Sinaloa, and 
the Territory of Lower California, and the 
Mexican population on the American side of 
the border north and west of the Pecos Eiver. 

We crossed the river in 1873, and now we 
are three bands. 

The statistics of Central Mexico Mission 
Conference for 1892 are as follows: Local 
preachers, 28; members, 2,948; net gain dur- 
ing the year, 375; infants baptized, 239; adults 
baptized, 315; number of churches, 30; value, 
$56,464; amount paid preachers, 131.24; paid 
bishops, $34.45; paid Conference claimants, 
$67.04; collected for Foreign Missions, $354.37 ; 
Church Extension, $119.24; number of Sun- 
day schools, 65; pupils, 139; day schools, 14; 
pupils, 349; paid for literature, $65.57. 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. 271 

For the Mexican Border Mission Conference 
for the same year the statistics show: Local 
preachers, 22; members, 1,535; infants bap- 
tized, 153; adults baptized, 170; Sunday 
schools, 66; officers and teachers, 126; schol- 
ars, 1,558; day schools and colleges, 6, with 29 
teachers and 553 students of both sexes. Col- 
lected for Conference claimants, 1181; for For- 
eign Missions, $594; for Church Extension, 
$226; education, $35.21; Bible cause, $186.62. 

The Northwest Mexican Mission Conference 
statistical report for 1892 records the follow 
ing: The Conference consists of 6 missionaries, 
11 native ministers, and 8 local preachers, with 
a membership of 657. There have been 84 chil- 
dren and 70 adults baptized. Sunday schools, 
22; teachers, 53; scholars, 605. Collected for 
Missions, $514; Church Extension, $104; value 
of 6 churches, $13,500; of parsonages, $10,500. 
The MacDonell Educational Institute has 
4 teachers, 80 scholars, and property worth 
$10,000. The institution is at Durango. Pal- 
more Institute, Chihuahua, has 5 teachers, 42 
scholars, and property valued at $12,000. El 
Paso Institute has 3 teachers, 125 scholars, 
and property worth $850. Nogales Seminary 
has 3 teachers, 90 pupils, and property valued 
at $2,000. 



Beazil Mission. 

In a former handbook brief mention was 
made of the mission of Rev. Fountain E. 
Pitts, of the Tennessee Conference, to South 
America. In 1835, tliough the Roman Catho- 
lic was then the State religion of Brazil, the gov- 
ernment was liberal in its spirit and disposed to 
tolerate other forms of Christian faith. Mr. 
Pitts found in Rio Janeiro a number of for- 
eigners from Protestant lands, who were anx- 
ious that religious services should be observed 
in that city. Such meetings were allowed 
provided they were not held in a building 
having the external form of a temple. Mr. 
Pitts held services in a private house, formed 
a society of English-speaking people, and left 
them with tlio promise that a pastor would be 
sent them at an early day. On his return to 
the United States he earnestly recommended 
the establishment of a Mission in Brazil. 

After due deliberation on the part of the 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. .273 

bishops and the Board Rev. Justin Spaulding 
was appointed to this field, and sailed from 
New York in March, 1836. The little band 
gathered together by Mr. Pitts was greatly 
encouraged by the arrival of the missionary. 
He opened services in a private room, and 
soon had a congregation of thirty or forty 
persons. The outlook was so encouraging 
that he wrote for reenforcements. Rev. D. P. 
Kidder was sent out in 1837. Mr. Spaulding 
remained in charge in Rio, and Mr. Kidder 
traveled extensively in the interior. Having 
some knowledge of the Portuguese language, 
he was able to preach where opportunity was 
offered, and to distribute Bibles and religious 
tracts among the people. The society in Rio 
was removed to a larger room. A Sunday 
school was opened in 1836, which metwith great 
success. Weekly prayer meetings were held, 
which proved a great spiritual benefit to the 
little band. Through the aid of an English 
firm, several consignments of Bibles and Tes- 
taments were obtained from the British and 
Foreign Bible Society. The demand for 
them was so great that of the first consign- 
ment two hundred copies were sold at the 
home of the missionaries in three days. They 
feared that this demand was at the suggestion 

274 Hand Booh of Mefliodist Missions, 

of the priests, who wished to secure aud de- 
stroy the Bibles. Careful inquiry satisfied 
them that this was not the case. The mis- 
sionaries were also active in the circulation of 
tracts specially suited to the wants of Brazil. 
As thousands of sailors visited Bio, the mis- 
sionaries preached on the deck of some vessel 
every Sunday. Much interest was taken in 
the work by many English and American cap- 
tains. A British flag was floated from the 
vessel where the service was to be held, and 
the sailors gathered gladly to the place of re- 
ligious worship. 

The success of the Mission awakened oppo- 
sition among the priests, who published many 
gross misrepresentations of the missionaries 
and their work. Their hostility made but lit- 
tle impression on the people, and the mission- 
aries moved quietly on, assured that the gov- 
ernment would protect them so long as their 
operations were within the restrictions of the 
laws of Brazil. 

In one of Mr. Kidder's tours through the 
country he visited Sao Paulo, being, it is said, 
the first Protestant missionary who had 
reached that region. He also visited Bahia, 
Pernambuco, Maranhao, Para, and other 
points to the north and on the banks of the 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. . 275 

Amazon. He preached tlie first Protestant 
sermon ever delivered on the waters of the 
Amazon, and introduced and circulated the 
Scriptures in the Portuguese language on the 
whole Eastern coast and in the principal cities. 
He was diligently preparing himself for the 
work by the study of the Portuguese language, 
when, owing to the death of his wife in 1840, 
he returned home with his motherless son. 
Mr. Spaulding continued his work until 1861, 
when the financial embarrassments of the 
Board occasioned his recall. 
' As evidence of the influence these early Meth- 
odist missionaries exerted during their brief 
sojourn in this field, Kev. H. C. Tucker, one 
of our missionaries now laboring in Brazil, in- 
forms us that he found a few years ago in a 
second-hand bookstore in Bio a work in the 
Portuguese language, entitled, "The Metho- 
dist and the Catholic." It was written by a 
Catholic priest, and was designed to expose 
what it styled the errors and evil effects of 
the doctrine taught by the Methodists. The 
missionaries had certainly aroused the fears 
of the priests. Their efforts to alarm the peo- 
ple did much to call the attention of thought- 
ful minds in Brazil to the work of the mis- 
sionaries, and, no doubt, aided in preparing 

276 Hand Book of Methodist MUs'mis. 

the way for the men who in God's time should 
reenter the fold. The work was not resumed 
until after the division of the Church. The 
Methodist Episcopal Church (North), though 
sustaining important Missions in the Argen- 
tine Eepublic and Uruguay, has no Mission 
in Brazil except an appointment in the Eio 
Grande del Sul under charge of a native preach- 
er, who was, we are informed, once in the serv- 
ice of the Southern Methodist Mission. 

It was not until 1875 that the Mission 
Board of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, could answer the calls from Brazil. In 
May of that year it recognized as a missiona- 
ry in its service Rev. J. E. Newman, who had 
been in that country several years and had or- 
ganized what has been known as the " Santa 
Barbara Mission." Its field w^as among the 
English-speaking residents in that portion of 
the province of Sao Paulo. In 1876 it report- 
ed thirty-eight members, all Americans. 

Rev. J. J. Ransom, of the Tennessee Con- 
ference, was sent to Brazil in December, 1875. 
He landed February 2, 1876. He devoted much 
time to the acquisition of the Portuguese lan- 
guage, regarding that as essential to his fu- 
ture usefulness. He translated Bishop Mc- 
Tyeire's " Scripture Catechism," and by 1877 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 'Ill 

was able to preach with considerable fluency. 
He earnestly recommended Rio Janeiro as the 
point where the serious beginning of the Mis- 
sion should be made. The bishop in charge 
and the Board approved this judgment, and 
in January, 1877, he commenced operations in 
that city. The Mission this year reported 
forty-one American inembers and one Brazil- 
ian. The latter was Joao Correa, who had 
been for some time a colporter in the service 
of the American Bible Society. In January, 
1878, Brother Ransom opened a hall for preach- 
ing, with about forty in attendance. The next 
month he had one hundred present. His 
movements were warmly assailed by the lead- 
ing Romanist journal, and were defended by 
the liberal press. His report for 1878 showed 
thirteen members, foreign and native, and fifty 
Sunday school scholars. The next year he re- 
ported nineteen members, six of whom were 
Brazilians. The work was greatly hindered 
by the want of a suitable building. Being de- 
pendent on rented halls, the frequent changes 
in location were not favorable to the increase 
and permanency of his congregation. He 
visited several points in the interior, and held 
services when he could obtain a room. 

In December, 1879, Brother Ransom and 

278 Hand Book of Methodist 31mions. 

Miss A. A. Newman, daughter of Kev. J. E. 
Newman, were married. This compelled the 
suspension of the school at Piracicaba, which 
had been under Miss Newman's direction. 
Brother Newman, who had been at Piracica- 
ba, returned to Santa Barbara, that point 
being more convenient for work among the 
Americans scattered through the province. 
Aided by his wife, Brother Ransom continued 
his work in Rio until July, 1880, when Sister 
Ransom entered into rest, leaving him alone. 
Brother Ransom soon afterward returned to 
the United States and, under the sanction of 
the Board, visited many of the Conferences 
and principal charges of the Church, present- 
ing the claims of the Brazil Mission. The 
annual report for 1881 says: " The South Car- 
olina Conference agreed to raise the amount 
necessary for the support of Rev. J. W. Koger, 
who, with Rev. J. L. Kennedy, was accepted 
by the Board and recommended for appoint- 
ment to that work. A considerable fund was 
collected for the erection of a church at Pira- 
cicaba, and a beginning was made toward 
building in Rio de Janeiro. 

March 26, 1881, Brother Ransom, Rev. J. W. 
Koger, of the South Carolina Conference, and 
wife, and Rev. J. L. Kennedy, of the Holston 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 279 

Conference, with Miss M. Watts, of the Wom- 
an's Board, sailed for Brazil, reaching* Kio 
May 16. They proceeded to Piracicaba and 
entered industriously on the study of the lan- 
guage. Brother Kansom returned to Rio and 
resumed his work. Brother Kennedy joined 
him in September. Brother Roger organized 
a Church in Piracicaba with thirteen mem- 
bers. He preached his first sermon in Portu- 
guese on Christmas night of 1881, and Broth- 
er Kennedy, who was present on a visit, 
preached his first the following Sabbath. The 
services were continued, with increasing con- 
gregations. The year closed with sixty-four 
members, three Sunday schools, and fifty 

In 1882 Brother Ransom resigned the su- 
perin tendency, and Bishop McTyeire, who was 
in charge of the Mission, appointed Brother 
Koger superintendent. In September the new 
Sunday school chapel, erected on the ground 
purchased in Rio in 1881, was first occupied. 
A new Sunday school was opened in Piracica- 
ba. The statistics indicated a decided advance 
in the work. Rio reported thirty-nine En- 
glish and thirty-two Portuguese members, and 
Piracicaba one hundred and twenty-one. The 
mission was divided into two districts; the 

280 Hand Book of Methodist Iflssions. 

Rio Janeiro District, with Brother Ransom in 
charge; and the Piracicaba District, under the 
charge of Brother Roger. 

The report of Brother Koger for 1883 is a 
valuable paper. We regret our space will al- 
low us to give it only in a condensed form. 
At that time the empire was divided into 
twenty provinces, and these provinces into 
comarcaSy corresponding to what we style 
counties. The government was greatly cen- 
tralized, and its power felt in every province. 
The country was divided into three political 
parties: the Conservative, the Liberal, and the 
Republican; of which the Republican was the 
smallest. The Roman Catholic or State reli- 
gion was divided ecclesiastically into 12 dio- 
ceses, 235 vicarages, 1,629 parishes, and 17 
curacies, which were served by some 2,000 
bishops and priests. The people had no idea 
of Christianity only as taught by the priests, 
and the immorality of the priests had shaken 
the faith of the more intelligent class in the 
divine authority of the Bible. While the ig- 
norant classes were dominated by a corrupt 
clergy, the educated class was drifting swiftly 
into atheism. In 1884 the Prime Minister or- 
dered the execution of the law authorizing the 
secularization of the property of the Romish 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 281 

Brotherhood of Friars and Nuns. The action 
caused great criticism on the part of the dig- 
nitaries of the Church, but evidently met the 
approval of the leading minds of the empire. 
Several members of the Provincial Assembly 
of Sao Paulo pronounced the priesthood a 
useless excrescence in society. The atheistic 
tone of many speeches indicated a disgust for 
all religion arising from their loss of faith in 
the Church in which they had been reared. 
Very few had seen the Bible or heard a state- 
ment of the truths represented by the mis- 
sionaries. As the representative of freedom 
of thought and speech, Protestantism com- 
manded their respect, and hence they were 
ready to assert its right to be heard; but they 
knew nothing of the spiritual blessings that 
belong to vital Christianity. To break down 
the wall of bigotry that controlled the priests 
and the great mass of people, and to overcome 
the profound indifference of the reading por- 
tion of the nation, was a task of vast propor- 
tions. The missionaries labored under the 
additional disadvantage of being foreigners, 
and of speaking a strange language. "VYhile 
the Brazilians respected the superior progress 
of the United States and other Protestant 
lands, they were intensely national in their 

282 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

feelings, and listened with reserve to the 
teachings of another people. It required 
strong faith to sustain the missionaries when 
facing these barriers. 

In August, 1883, the Mission was greatly 
cheered by the arrival of Rev. J. W. Tarboux, 
of the South Carolina Conference, and his 
wife and Sister Kennedy, who accompanied 
her husband on his return to the field. 

Our work in 1883 was within the provinces 
of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Rio was 
our most important station. When Brother 
Kennedy arrived in 1881, Brother Ransom was 
able to devote more time to the pastoral work 
in the city, to visit and revive the work in Sao 
Paulo, and to direct the establishment of new 
work in Piracicaba. The evangelistic work 
was carried on in Rio in rented rooms until 
1882, when a small but handsome church was 
opened for public worship on Cattette Square. 
This opened a new era in our work in Rio, its 
progress being marked since that date. Dur- 
ing 1883 both the English and Portuguese 
congregations were under the charge of Broth- 
er Kennedy until October, when Brother Tar- 
boux took charge of the English congrega- 
tion. Brother Ransom, as presiding elder of 
the district, gave much attention to Rio Sta- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 283 

tion until Brother Kennedy left for the Unit- 
ed States, when he devoted his whole time to 
the work in the city. 

Brother Koger had charge of the station at 
Piracicaba in addition to his duties as super- 
intendent. The work of the preceding year 
had been carefully matured, and eight or nine 
had been received into the Church. Owing 
to the lack of teachers and the continuous 
sickness of the pastor's family, a decline in 
the Sunday school was reported. 

At Capivary, an out station of Piracicaba, 
there was some increase in the congregation 
during part of the year. A Sunday school had 
been opened, but threats of excommunication 
made by the priests alarmed the parents, who 
withdrew their children from the school. De- 
spite opposition and discouragements, the 
missionaries were assured that much good 
was achieved. 

Santa Barbara Circuit remained under the 
useful pastorate of Brother Newman. This 
charge was important, as it provided for a large 
number of American families who, without it, 
would have been entirely without religious priv- 
ileges. It is well for missionaries to have serv- 
ices among the English-speaking residents in 
foreign fields. The people in those lands j udge 

284 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the religion of a nation by the character and 
conduct of its representatives in their midst. 
Often tlie vices of American and English res- 
idents in non-Protestant and heathen lands 
greatly counteract the influence of the faith- 
ful missionaries. Hence the anxiety of our 
brethren to look after that American colony 
in Brazil. 

Brother Ransom opened work in the city of 
Siio Paulo in October, 1883, under encourag- 
ing auspices. Brother Roger took charge of 
the work in November. February 10, 1884, 
four members were received into full connec- 
tion, and one adult and three children baptized. 
Weekly preaching was maintained at Jundia- 
hy, an out station of Sao Paulo. There was 
some interest, but no members secured. 

Brother Roger mentions the useful work of 
Mr. Samuel Elliot, who, near the close of 1882, 
was employed as colporter for the Mission in 
Sao Paulo Province. During fourteen months' 
service he sold 1,153 copies of the Bible, or 
parts of the Bible, and 870 evangelical books. 
He also exercised himself in reading and ex- 
plaining the Scriptures as occasion offered. 
Sr. Giovani Bernini was employed the latter 
part of 1883 in the same service. Brother 
Roger was much impressed with the value of 
this branch of mission work. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 285 

Shortly after the arrival of Brother Tar- 
boux in Brazil he was given the professorship 
of English in the CoUegio Progresso of Kio de 
Janeiro, an American institution, in which he 
did valuable service in addition to his accept- 
able ministry in the English-speaking congre- 

Seeing the destitution of the children near 
her home in Piracicaba, Sister Koger opened 
a school for boys and girls, placing tuition 
rates in reach of all, and admitting free only 
those who could not pay. She soon had six- 
teen pupils, and the outlook was fair until her 
health failed. A young Brazilian of earnest 
piety was employed, and the work yielded en- 
couraging results. The demand for a boys' 
school at this point was manifest to our mis- 
sionaries even in those early days of the Mis- 
sion. It is to be regretted that the want of 
funds has prevented the Board from making 
proper provisions for it. 

The Mission at the close of 1883 reported 5 
missionaries, 4 wives of missionaries, 1 of the 
Woman's Board; total, 10. Colporters, 2; 
members, 130; probationers, 21. 

The following from the excellent report of 
the superintendent for 1884 will enable our 
readers to determine the condition and out- 

286 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

look of the Mission during that part of its 

Our forces were considerably scattered during the 
past year— one in Rio, one in Sao Paulo, one in Piraci- 
caba, one in Santa 'Barbara. This is not the plan of 
our Lord in sending out his seventy disciples, tliese be- 
ing sent in couples ; nor the method of the apostles in 
the prosecution of their work, for they followed the 
plan indicated by the Divine Master, and went in com- 
panies of two for their mutual sympathy, strength, en- 
couragement, and cooperation. There is much in con- 
centrated forces— in mutual sympathy. We need more 
preachers, and shall continue to need them until our 
Mission Church can furnish them to her own peo{)le, 
and send out her sons to press the battles in other 
fields. We see a great necessity for native ministers, 
and our hearts are turned in earnest prayer more and 
more to " to the Lord of the harvest to send forth la- 
borers into his harvest." 

An interesting and significant fact is the compara- 
tive dearth of native priests in the Romish Church. 
There are, perhaps, at least one-third of all the Romish 
parishes in Brazil served by foreigners, the majority of 
whom are Italians. A priest told me last year that 
very few young men were preparing for the priest- 
hood ; that it had lost its prestige among the best fam- 
ilies, and that now only the poor and less influential 
classes were willing for their sons to be priests. All 
this shows at least the great necessity of the thorough 
and widespread religious awakening of this people. 
May the Lord send it upon them! 

The appointments for the year just closed were made 
in the beginning of the year, but were all changed in 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 287 

the month of April, owing to the emergencies growing 
out of Brother Ransom's visit to the United States. 
The new arrangement put the work at Rio de Janeiro 
in charge of Brother Kennedy, who, in addition to 
preaching in English and Portuguese, had the burden 
of the treasuryship of the Mission. The work at that 
point has grown in interest more than appears from 
the statistics, owing to the removal from the country 
of two of the most important families in connection 
with the Church there. All things considered, the 
work ha« been well sustained, and much hope is en- 
tertained for the success of the work there during the 
present year. 

Sao Paulo Station has been under the pastoral care 
of Brother Tarboux since the middle of April, 1884. 
The record shows a steady increase of interest in all 
the departments of the work. Brother Tarboux has 
proved himself fully equal to the demands made on 
him by the importance of that point, and has prosecut- 
ed the work with vigor and constancy in the city and 
neighboring towns. 

Santa Barbara Circuit has continued under the pas- 
toral charge of Brother Newman, under whom it was 
organized some fifteen years ago. There has been lit- 
tle change on the circuit during the past year. The in- 
direct influence of this circuit upon other mission work 
increases the importance of continuing to them tlie 
mmistry of the divine word. If the whole American 
colony were Christian in faith and practice, they would 
be a mighty evangelical power among the Brazilians. 

Piracicaba Station got a good start off in the early 
part of the year during the brief pastorate of Brother 
Kennedy, and has continued to prosper during the 
year. The multiplication of mission forces and inter- 

288 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

ests at this point makes it not only a mission center, 
but renders it very important that great care should 
be used to strengthen and build up all departments 
of the Church here. Besides being an important 
mission station, it is the seat of the Collegio Piracica- 
bano, the institution of the Woman's Missionary Soci- 
ety, in which is invested considerable capital and con- 
centrated many fondly cherished hopes, and whose 
influence, under the blessing of God, will be exerted 
on hundreds of the future families of the province of 
Sao Paulo. So far this is the most interior point of our 
Mission, and is destined to serve as a connecting link 
of the interior with other parts of our Mission. 

The out stations of Botafogo, Jundiahi, Capivary, 
and Santa Barbara received some attention, and some 
interest has been manifested, but no Churches have yet 
been formed. A small school has been taught in Rio 
de Janeiro which has been somewhat embarrassed by 
the fact of the minority of the teacher, who, according 
to the law of the empire, could not teach except in a 
private way. The primary school at Piracicaba has 
done only tolerably well. The teacher is a faithful 
and diligent worker in the gospel, however, and, besides 
the scholastic work in the day and night school, he has 
conducted public service in my frequent absence. 

" By their fruits ye shall know them," said the Di- 
vine Master to his disciples, and we rejoice to see the 
same fruit produced by the gospel here that is pro- 
•duced by it elsewhere. People are converted and live 
a new life, develop the graces of Christian charity and 
liberality. There is an increasing desire to hear the 
gospel and read the Scriptures. Many of the Roman 
Catholics admit readily the superior morality of the 
Protestant Church. There are in the Mission some 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 289 

candidates for the ministry. The people are beginning 
to see that we are here to stay, and consequently our 
cause inspires more i^ublic confidence. 

AS'^afisfe.— Missionaries of Parent Board, 5 ; mission- 
aries of Woman's Missionary Society, 2; helpers, 4^; 
members, 131 ; received during the year, 37 ; removed 
during the year, 23; Sunday schools, 5; scholars, 119; 
primary schools, 2; pupils in day school, 31; pupils in 
night school, 37; school of Woman's Missionary Socie- 
ty, 1 ; number of matriculations, 88. 

Owing to the sad and unexpected death of 
the superintendent, Brother Koger, we have 
no official account for the work in 1885. In 
his last quarterly report, sent January 6, 1886, 
he gives an account of the dedication of the 
new church at Piracicaba, and the reception 
of twenty-five members into that charge dur- 
ing 1885. In the letter inclosing this report 
he made an earnest appeal for more mission- 
aries. That was his last message to the 
Church at home. He died of yellow fever in 
Siio Paulo February 6, 1886. In reporting 
his death to the Church Bishop Granbery, 
who was in charge of the Mission, wrote: 

Shall not his death hallow and endear to us more 
than ever the Mission to which he devoted himself? 
From his grave there comes to our hearts a tender, 
mighty appeal in behalf of the far off land where he 
died for Christ and perishing souls. To that " still, 
small voice " we will not be deaf. The Mission n/jst 

290 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

be strengthened, and in the place of Koger not one 
only, but a number of like-minded men must be sent 
out. Those were sad words of Paul to the Philippians, 
to whom he trusted in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy 
shortly : " For I have no man like-minded, who will 
naturally care for your state. For all seek their own, 
not the things which are Jesus Christ's." We trust in 
the Lord Jesus shortly to send reenforcements to Bra- 
zil. There will not be lacking preachers to go forward 
from a holy zeal in the great cause of the gospel ; and 
may I not add that our people will freely give their 
money as our ministers freely give their lives? 

The Mission Board, with the means at its 
command, has sought to answer the mute ap- 
peal from the grave of the first male mission- 
ary we tfuried in Brazil. When Brother 
Koger died, he left four men in the Mission, 
one of whom was confined wholly to the En- 
glish work. Since then, though embarrassed 
by debt and burdened by pressing demands 
from other Missions, the Board has sent out 
additional missionaries until we now have ten 
faithful and efficient men in that field sancti- 
fied by the dust of this heroic man of God. 

The first to answer this call was Eev. H. C. 
Tucker, of' the Tennessee Conference. He 
went out in 1886 with Bishop Granbery, who 
then made the first Episcopal visit to oar only 
Mission south of the equator. They left the 
United States June the 8th, and reached Rio 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 291 

July 4. They found quarterly meeting in 
progress. At night the bishop preached 
through an interpreter. Sunday, July 11, 
he taught a class in Sunday school, preached 
in the morning to the English congregation, 
and at night to the native congregation through 
an interpreter. 

They next visited Stio Paulo, where Quarter- 
ly Conference was in session. At this meet- 
ing Sr. Bernardo, a native exhorter, was li- 
censed to preach. 

The annual meeting was held in Piraci- 
caba beginning July 18. From the report of 
the Secretary, Brother Tucker, we condense 
the following items: Organized Societies, 7; 
local preachers, 6; exhorters, 3; members, 
211; candidates for membership, 42; adults 
baptized, 39; infants, 12; Sunday schools, 6; 
officers and teachers, 26; pupils, 164; church 
buildings, 3; value, $52,700. The brethren 
reported the spiritual state of these charges 
as very good. They warmly recommended 
a looys' school at Piracicaba. The Mission 
adopted as its legal title the name of Igreja 
Methodista Episcopal do Brazil. 

Brother Bansom returned to the Tennessee 
Conference, Brother Newman remained on the 
Santa Barbara Circuit, and Brother Tucker, 

292 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions^ 

who had to devote much time to the acquisi- 
tion of the Portuguese, was placed in charge 
of the English congregation at Eio. This left 
the Mission with but two missionaries to carry 
on the work among the native population. 
Brother Kennedy was placed in charge of the 
Eio District and the Eio Portuguese congre- 
gation, and Brother Tarboux in charge of the 
Sao Paulo District and Station. 

After the adjournment of the Annual Meet- 
ing Bishop Granbery made an extensive tour 
through the Mission. He visited the Ameri- 
can community which is embraced in the San 
Barbara Circuit. The "meeting on Sunday 
reminded him of a quarterly meeting in Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee." He speaks in his let- 
ters to the Advocate in warm terms of praise 
of the school work under charge of the Wom- 
an's Board, at Piracicaba. Our Church at the 
time of his visit numbered 70 members. In 
company with Brother Tarboux he visited 
Capivary, where the missionary preached, and 
had a conversation with an intelligent and 
thoughtful Brazilian who is studying, with 
the light of the Bible, the claims of Methodist 
doctrine. He found our Church at Sao Paulo 
small, having but 13 members and 19 Sunday 
Bcl: ol scholars, but full of i^romise. They 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 298 

visited Santos, a seax)ort distant fifty miles 
from Siio Paulo. There was no Protestant 
service at that time save that held in the home 
of Brother Porter, a devout Methodist layman 
who on Sunday, in addition to singing and 
prayer, read to his household one of Marvin's 
sermons. In company with Brother Kennedy 
he visited the Province of Minas. At Eio Novo 
they found the native pastor and native helper 
under arrest. Brother Kennedy called on the 
authorities, and learned that the young men 
had failed to show any papers. They were 
released, but instructed hereafter to show 
their license as local preachers. At night the 
bishop preached through an interpreter to a 
small company. They spent Sunday at Juiz 
de Fora, attending Sunday school in our nice 
new church, and the bishop preaching, wath 
Brother Kennedy for interpreter. Beaching 
Eio, they found, on the first Sunday in Sep- 
tember, the new church ready — not for dedica- 
tion, as it was not yet out of debt, but to be 
opened for worship. It is a solid, commo- 
dious stone structure, and will meet the needs 
of our people for many years. At 10:30 
Brother Tarboux preached to over two hun- 
dred persons, and at noon the bishop preached 
to a congregation of over a hundred foreign- 

294 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ers. The services were continued during the 
week, and closed with six candidates for mem- 

On September 16 the bishop met the 
three missionaries — Kennedy, Tarboux, and 
Tucker — in the chapel and organized the Mis- 
sion into an Annual Conference. " This step 
was taken in order to complete a plan for the 
legal incorporation of the body, that it may 
secure the right to hold property." This 
possibly was the smallest Annual Conference 
ever organized in Methodism and is the first 
and only Conference the M. E. Church, South, 
has in the Southern Hem_isphere. Few have 
been established in a wider field or one more 
*' white unto the harvest." 

The visit of Bishop Granbery greatly 
strengthened the faith and quickened the zeal 
of the missionaries. His letters to the Church 
at home added largely to its interest in our 
Mission in South America. 

The following extracts from the quarterly 
report of Brother Kennedy, written February 
7, 1887, will enable our readers to judge the 
condition and outlook of the missions on Rio 
District at that date: 

Our new church in Rio attracts a very considerable 
number to preaching who never attended our services 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. • 295 

before. Making a proper discount for some unfaithful 
members, our congregation is in a fair way, and is 
growing. At Cattette Station there has been a net in- 
crease of eight diu-ing the quarter, seven in the native 
and one in the foreign congregation. Brother Tucker 
is doing good work all around. 

At Palmeiras we have received one member. In 
Macacos one local preacher has a fine day school and a 
Sunday school. Both these works were opened this 
quarter, and have done good. He preaches there and 
at Palmeiras. 

There is no doubt, especially in the Province of 
Minas, that " a great door and effectual is opened unto 
us." Recently two large planters with many families 
and slaves living on their lands, and of considerable 
influence have opened their doors to us. Sometime 
ago, with a local preacher and steward, I visited a large 
coffee plantation. The owner sent horses twelve miles 
to meet us at the railroad station. I preached to the 
family and friends and some slaves. The family is of 
a large and influencial connection, and we trust through 
them to do much good. After the sermon I talked 
with the teacher of the children of the family. He 
had spent four years in a seminary studying for the 
Catholic priesthood, but confessed he had never read 
the Bible. We left him in doubt as to the dogmas of 
Rome. We also left with him a Bible and some reli- 
gious books and tracts. 

In Juiz de Fora we have recently admitted three 
adults on profession of faith. Others will soon make 
like profession. I have made four trips to Rio Novo 
Circuit, and on each occasion from one to four were 
admitted into the Church. On this circuit there has 
been much persecution. On one occasion two of our 

296 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

local preachers were escorted through the streets under 
arrest. Eecently, in the country, a dozen armed men 
lay in wait for two of our brethren, but providentially 
they were led to return by another road, not knowing 
of the conspiracy. In a neighborhood where we have 
one member, a poor woman, it became so unpleasant 
to her that she and her husband, who at first bitterly 
scofied at her, moved to a community where a number 
of families are believers. 

Brother Tarboux, who, in addition to the 
Sao Paulo District, was preacher in charge of 
the Sao Paulo and Piracicaba Stations and 
Capivary Circuit, wrote as follows, January 14, 

The Quarterly Conferences have been held at all 
points. All the workers are busy. Brother Newman, 
owing to bad health, has not been able to preach. I 
suppose his working days are ended. I have preached 
twenty-nine sermons and made eighty pastoral visits 
during the quarter. 

At Sao Paulo Station twenty-six public services have 
been held, with an average attendance of twenty per- 
sons. The number of services are less, having to give 
up one of our halls, but the attendance has improved. 
One adult has been baptized, one received by profession 
of faith, and three by letter. The present member- 
ship is twenty. The ball is slowly gathering size and 
momentum. Sr. Bernardo, the local preacher, is faith- 
ful in study and work. Sr. Manvel, a young man and 
a candidate for the ministry, is now at my home 
studying and helping as directed. Sr. Bernini contin- 
ues as colporter of the American Bible Society, and 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 297 

does earnest work. The Sunday school now numbers 
26. Sao Paulo is a large city, and requires all the time 
and strength of the pastor. 

In Piracicaba Station the three regular services of 
the week have been held without intermission in the 
church; average attendance fifty, though sometimes 
we have eighty hearers. Regular weekly services are 
also held in a distant part of the city with good results. 
Sometimes fifty attend at this point. Six members 
have been received on profession of faith, and three 
by letter. We have now 72 members. The Sunday 
schools in the church and rented hall are both improv- 
ing. During this quarter the city has been greatly 
stirred by eftbrts of the priests to injure our cause. 
They have spoken and written against us. We rejoice 
to know the enemy is alarmed. It show^s we are mak- 
ing real progress. Sr. Severo, helper and teacher, was 
licensed to preach at the Quarterly Conference. He 
came to us from the Presbyterian Church. His time is 
fully employed. He goes to Capivary when I go to 
Pircicacaba, and preaches in that city Saturday night 
and Sunday morning and night. 

No Church is yet organized in Capivary. The peo- 
ple in the States can hardly appreciate the difficulties 
of the work in this land. In Capivary a number of 
persons have from time to time become convinced of 
the truth of the gospel ; but after examining into the 
rules of the Church, have concluded that it was impos- 
sible for them to break loose from their circumstances 
and keep the rules of the Church. Want of ftiith? 
Yes, but also serious difficulties. If a man decides 
to keep the Sabbath day holy, it is very difficult for 
him to get employment and make his bread. We who 
are strong in the faith can trust in the Lord for our 

298 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

bread, or even suffer for his sake, but the unconverted 
man does not see the Ahnighty arm. This is only one 
of many obstacles. 

March 19, 1887, Eev. J. W. Wolling, of the 
South Carolina Conference, and his wife 
sailed from Newport News to join our mis- 
sionary force in Brazil. They reached Rio 
April 15. Their coming greatly strengthened 
our little band. After sharing with her hus- 
band the toils and trials of mission life for 
eight months, Sister Wolling was called home 
by the Master December 27, 1887. The soil 
of Brazil was once more sanctified as the rest- 
ing place of a missionary until the resurrec- 
tion morn. 

Brother Tucker, who had charge of the Rio 
English congregation, was invited to take charge 
of the work of the American Bible Society in 
Brazil. In view of the importance of this 
work and of the special fitness of Brother 
Tucker for its duties. Bishop Granbery and 
the Board felt constrained to respond favor- 
ably to the call. This left an important post 
for a time unsupplied. 

From the report of Brother Wolling, who 
presided at the Annual Conference in 1887, it 
appears that there had been a net gain during 
the year of 45 members, making the member- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. - 299 

ship at that date 256, with 8 local preachers. 
During the year $1,900 had been contributed 
for various Church expenses; showing the Mis- 
sion was moving forward on the line of self- 
support. Three native preachers were admit- 
ted into the Conference on trial: Justiniano 
de Carvalho, Bernardo de Miranda, and 
Felippe de Carvalho. These were the first 
native preachers in Brazil who have been re- 
ceived on trial in our Church. 

The age and failing health of Brother New- 
man made it necessary for him to retire from 
active service. With Brother Tucker detailed 
for the Bible work, the Mission was again left 
with three American missionaries to meet the 
the increasing demands. Each one had double 
work. Brother Kennedy was again in charge of 
both Sao Paulo District and Station, Brother 
Tarboux in charge of the Rio District and the 
Bio Portuguese congregation, and Brother 
Wolling was in charge of Piracicaba and 
Santa Barbara Mission. In addition to the 
missions served by the three native preachers 
who were admitted into Conference, there 
were five appointments supplied by local 

Brother Tarboux reported encouragingly 
respecting the work in Rio District. The 

300 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions, 

preachers were hard at work and the congre- 
gations improving. He urged the importance 
of having a missionary who cotild devote his 
whole time to the Rio Portuguese Mission, as- 
sisted by a native helper. He also urged the 
importance of opening work in two or three 
halls in different parts of the city for preach- 
ing and Sunday schools. 

The Palmeiras Mission had now four ap- 
pointments. The native preacher in charge 
was holding services six nights in the week, 
with invitations from other places for him to 
come and preach. He had asked for an as- 
sistant to aid him in meeting these calls. 
More than sixty candidates for admission into 
the Church were under instruction in this 

Brother Tarboux earnestly called for a mis- 
sionary at Juiz de Fora. As soon as he could 
speak Portuguese the appointments would be 
doubled. We know of no field in Brazil more 
full of promise than this point. Another na- 
tive preacher was needed at Rio Novo Mis- 
sion and two additional halls at adjacent 
cities. A new field was opened at Ouro Preto, 
the capital of the Province of Minas. Brother 
Tucker had been on the ground selling Bibles^ 
and his heart had been stirred by the wants 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. * 301 

of the people and opportunities for successful 

In addition to his work in the Stio Paulo 
District and Station Brother Kennedy was 
editing the Ej'positor Christao, the paper pub- 
lished for the benefit of the people, and also 
translating and preparing for the press an in- 
fant catechism and some of Wesley's sermons. 
He had visited all points of his district, 
meeting encouragement in every charge. In 
Sao Paulo City he received into the Church 
two Brazilian ladies and a young Italian. The 
Italians in that city numbered over 12,000, 
and the province was filling up with them. 
There is another open door. 

With his wife and a baby organ borrowed 
for the trip, he visited the Santo Amaro Mis- 
sion and preached two nights to large congre- 
gations,- some of the people standing during 
the entire service. Two persons expressed a 
desire to become Christians. After he left 
the priest summoned some sixty persons be- 
fore him at the confessional, and abused the 
missionary soundly. 

At Salto de Ytu there are three cotton facto- 
ries, and a paper mill being built by a Brazilian 
who was educated in the United States and is 
friendly to Protestantism. He reported here 

302 Hand Book of Methodist ^fissions. 

five members and two candidates. It is near 
the famous city of Ytu. At Capivary we have 
one zealous member and several candidates. 
Brother Kenoedy closes his report with an 
earnest appeal for reenforcement to enable 
him and his colaborers to occupy the fields 
opening on every side. 

In June, 1888, Kev. E. A. Tilly, of the Hol- 
ston Conference, and Eev. M. Dickie, a local 
preacher, of Eichmond, Va., and his wife were 
sent out by the Board. They reached Eio in 
July. Although some time must be employed 
before they could count for their full strength, 
yet their arrival greatly encouraged our over- 
worked missionaries and enabled them to ex- 
tend their lines into fields that had been wait- 
ing for laborers. 

The Conference of 1888 was held by Bishop 
Granbery in Siio Paulo, including the fifth 
Sunday in July. Three native preachers 
were received on trial, and the two native 
preachers who were admitted on trial the year 
before were advanced to the class of the 
second year. There were now in the Mission 

6 missionary and 3 native preachers on trial, 

7 local preachers and 288 members. The net 
gain in members during the year was 31. A 
chf^ering fact was the report of 155 candidates 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. , 303 

for membership. This indicated the vitality 
of the Mission. Another cheering fact was 
their eagerness to learn the doctrines and 
usages of the Church. They *' search the 
scriptures " and some are able "to give a rea- 
son of the faith that is in them " to their be- 
nighted countrymen. The report showed 11 
Sunday schools, 33 teachers, and 339 scholars. 
The next Annual Conference was held in 
Rio de Janeiro, beginning July 16, 1889, Rev. 
J. W. Wolling presiding. Rev. J. M. Lander, 
a local deacon from South Carolina, and his 
wife; Rev. J. S. Matteson, of the South Caro- 
lina Conference, and his wife; and Rev. J. H. 
Harwell, of the Holston Conference, who had 
left the United States in June, reached Rio 
the day the Annual Conference opened. They 
received a warm welcome, and entered at once 
on their w^ork. 

The Mission force now consisted of 9 for- 
eign missionaries and 5 native preachers. 
This still left 2 appointments to be supplied. 
They reported 6 local preachers, 359 members, 
10 Sunday schools, 26 officers and teachers, 
and 257 scholars. Accompanying the above 
reports are the following statements from the 
pen of Brother Tarboux: 

These statistics show progress along all the lines of 

304 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Christian work, and on nearly every charge in the 
Conference. The reports of the preachers were en- 
couraging. An additional fact was brought out that 
there were in the bounds of the Conference from one 
hundred and fifty to two hundred candidates for 
Church membership under instruction. A calculation 
shows that the three hundred and seventy-three 
Methodists of Brazil, most of whom are extremely 
poor, paid this year to the various Church enterprises 
an average of $7.48 per member. There are few 
charges in the Southern Church that do so well. 

Two young men have been received on trial, and 
three missionaries from the United States, making a 
working force of eighteen men, one of whom is a local 
preacher who serves as a regular supply. The native 
force not only grows in numbers, but, with more ex- 
perience, more education, and deeper consecration, it 
is each year better prepared to do successful work for 
the Church and our blessed Lord. The missionary 
force also, growing in numbers, in acquaintance with 
the people, and in knowledge of the Portuguese lan- 
guage (and I think I can also add, in devotion to the 
Lord's work in Brazil), is better prepared to render ef- 
fective service. The Church ought to, and may safely, 
look for larger results each year. 

All Brazil is open to evangelical work. The field we 
occupy is limited only because our force is small. It is 
possible to go anywhere and preach with some results 
following to the glory of God. Of course difliculties 
are to be met from the world, the flesh, and the devil, 
besides the ignorance, superstition, and prejudices of a 
degraded Romish populace ; but such is the providen- 
tial condition of the country that in every place some 
one is to be found who will give heed to the word of the 

Missmis of the M. E. C, S. . 305 

servant of God. And let me say here that the largest re- 
results of the work already done cannot be touched by 
statistical tables. We have been casting the divine 
leaven into the lump, and have been kneading it dur- 
ing these years. God only knows exactly how far its 
influence has penetrated the mass, but we know that 
it is felt farther than our eyes can see or our figures 
can mark. 

The starting of the Juiz de Fora College and Semi- 
nary by sending Brothers Wolling and Lander there 
with instructions to lay its foundations as Providence 
would open the way marks, I believe, an epoch in the 
Ufe of our Churcli in Brazil. Much depends on that 
future school of Juiz de Fora. Make it a success, and 
it will do much to make Methodism a success in Brazil. 
Its success does not depend upon a large number of 
students. Let it but give six young men, called of God 
to preach, a good Cliristian, Methodist education with- 
in the next ten years, and it will be worth more than 
a mountain of gold to the Methodist work in Brazil. 
Even now there are several students to start with. 

We are indebted to Eev. H. C. Tucker, who, 
with his wife, the daughter of Bishop Gran- 
bery, is on a leave of absence in the United 
States, for the following brief account of the 
Mission during the years 1890 and 1891: 

Brothers Mattison and Harwell were assigned re- 
spectively to the English charges in Rio de Janeiro 
and Santa Barbara. Of the eight native preachers 
who received ai)pointments, two were in the school 
at Juiz de Fora and assisted the missionary on the cir- 
cuit. Apart fi^om the above mentioned the real force 

306 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

engaged in preaching in Portuguese was four foreign 
missionaries and six native preachers. 

During the year a new work was opened at Taubate. 
On the 10th of May, 1890, Brother Mattison died of 
fever at his post in Rio de Janeiro. He was highly es- 
teemed, and the brethren had hoped for much from 
him. His death was a heavy blow. Brazil and the 
work is made dearer to the Conference and the whole 
Church in that the body of this godly man sleeps be- 
neath the stately palms of that country. Notwith- 
standing this death, Brother Tarboux's absence from 
the field, the fact that two of the native men had been 
most of the time engaged in study, this was a prosper- 
ous year, as statistics will show. 

About the close of the Conference year, August 8, 
1890, Bishop Granbery arrived on his third visit to 
Brazil, in company with Brother Tarboux and family, 
returning, C. B. McFarland, of the Holston Conference, 
and R. C. Dickson, of Kentucky. 

The fifth session of the Brazil Mission Conference 
was held in Juiz de Fora, Minas Geraes, August 13^ 
18, 1890, Bishop Granbery presiding. The sessions 
were spiritual and the reports good. The statistics for 
the year showed an increase in the membership of 111. 
Forty-three infants had been baptized during the year. 
There was an increase in collections and in the work 
generally. The Conference was memorable for the real 
worship enjoyed by all and for the presence of the 
Holy Spirit, 

This session will be important in the annals of the 
history of Methodism in Brazil because of the ordina^ 
tion of the iirst Brazilian preachers as deacons, and 
their admission into fiiU connection in the Conference, 
Justiniano R. de Carvalho, Felippe R. Carvalho, Ber- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 307 

nardo de Miranda, and Ludegeo de Miranda were or- 
dained and admitted into full connection. Michael 
Dickie and James H. Harwell were also admitted. 
Manoel de Camargo was also ordained. Of the foreign 
missionaries, James H. Harwell and C. B. McFarland 
were ordained deacons ; and Michael Dickie, elder. R. C. 
Dickson and Joao E. Tavares were received on trial. 
Herman Gartner, Antonio Cardoza de Fonseca, Jose C. 
Audrade, Manoel de Camargo, J. M. Lander, and C. B. Mc- 
Farland remain on trial. So we had in full connection 
in the Conference, 10 ; and on trial, 9. Senhor Bernardo 
de Miranda was compelled to locate on account of ill 
health. His health was partially restored, and he ren- 
dered valuable aid to the Church in Rio until his death 
from fever in February, 1891. He was one of the first 
native preachers to be licensed, admitted into full con- 
nection in the Annual Conference, and ordained dea- 
con. He was the first of their number to pass over the 
river and enter through the pearly gate. Shortlv after 
the session J. H. Harwell was transferred to the North 
Georgia Conference. In September, 1890, J. L. Bruce, 
of Virginia, arrived and began the study of the lan- 
guage. He rendered valuable aid in the school at Tau- 
bate, and at the following session of the Conference 
was admitted on trial. 

Writing of this session of the Conference, Bishop 
Granbery says: "Nearly all the preachers arrived on 
or before Monday, so as to give full time for the ex- 
aminations of undergraduates on the course of study 
It was a memorable occasion. ' It was the most delight- 
ful session of the Annual Conference I have ever at- 
tended,' was the remark of more than one member; 
though it must be acknowledged that their experience 
in this line is not very extensive. Prominence was 

308 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

given to devotional services, and these were marked by- 
clear manifestations of the divine presence. Each 
morning we held a prayer meeting after early coffee. 
The Conference sat from 10 to 1. For the first time 
Brazilian preachers were admitted into full connection, 
and ordained deacons. This was a cause of rejoicing 
and thanksgiving. The brethren thus honored re- 
ceived the congratulations and embraces of mission- 
aries and natives. The whole number admitted into 
full connection was six: Dickie and Harwell, of the 
United States, one native of Portugal, and three na- 
tives of Brazil. Bernardo de Miranda was admitted, 
that he may be eligible to readmission if his health be 
restored. Seven were ordained deacons, two of them 
Americans. Two had not stood on the course of study 
for the second year; but as no bishop may come out 
next year, they were admitted, being men qualified 
by gifts of grace and itinerant experience. No lay 
members of the Conference were present. Few lay- 
men were eligible, and it happened that those elected 
could not attend." 

The sixth session of the Conference was held at Pira- 
cicaba, Sao Paulo, July 23, 1891. H. C. Tucker was 
elected President ; and M. Dickie, Secretary. The ses- 
sion was pleasant and the reports good. There were 
favorable indications of a growing confidence in the 
work. The Conference was organized five years ago 
with 3 members in full connection ; at this last session 
there were 11 ; increase, 8. There were no preachers on 
trial; there are now 8. There were reported then 219 
members ; at this Conference, 528 ; increase, 309. Other 
statistics of this last session were: Local preachers, 10; 
adults baptized during the year, 78; infants baptized, 
58; Sunday schools, 10; oflicers and teachers, 35 ^^ 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 309 

scholars, 333. The Granbery College, under the direc- 
tion of a missionary and his wife with two assistants, 
reported 31 pupils. The school at Taubate, under a 
missionary and his wife with five assistants, reported 
108 pupils. There were reported two colleges under the 
direction of the Woman's Board, with 9 missionaries, 8 
assistants, and 198 pupils. 

There was reported as belonging to the Conference 
3 churches, valued at $67,000, other Church property 
valued at $4,876. During the year a neat, new church 
was built in Juiz de Fora, by the brethren, and they 
were confident of raising on the field the entire amount 
necessary to pay for it. This is about the first effort 
made by the native Church to build a house of worship 
without special aid from the Board of Missions. 

Special attention was given during the year l^oth by 
foreign and native men to the question of ministerial 
self-support. There was raised for this purpose $1,833. 
During the present year it is thought the Churches in 
Piracicaba and Juiz de Fora will contribute enough to 
pay the entire salaries of their native pastors. The 
Conference Board of Missions undertakes this year the 
support of four native preachers. 

There was raised during the year in the Conference 
for all purposes $5,500. There was expended for Sun- 
day school literature $300. 

At the session special attention was given to the re- 
ports of the schools and to the subject of education 
generally. The Granbery College was reported to be 
in a prosperous condition and fall of promise for the 
future. Much interest is felt it this institution as a 
school for training young men for the ministry. A 
very encouraging report was presented from the school 
at Taubate, showing extraordinary progress in but lit- 

310 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

tie time. Education is an important factor in building 
up a strong, self-supporting evangelical Church in 

The report made of the Expositor Christao, the organ 
of the Conference, was interesting. The issue of each 
number had exceeded a thousand copies. The in- 
crease in the number of new subscribers during the 
year was 478; exchanges, 20. The year's receipts 
amounted to $567, an increase over last year of $110. 
It was recommended that the paper be published 
weekly, and that the Sunday school lessons be given in 
it, with suitable notes and comments. There is evi- 
dently a growing demand among the people for whole- 
some religious reading matter. 

At this session of the Conference three lay delegates 
were present and rendered valuable aid in the business 
of the Conference. Their presence and participation 
in the Conference added much interest to the occasion 
and inspired confidence in the permanency of our work 
in Brazil. 

Several local preachers were present also and par- 
ticipated in the worship, and some of them who had 
been supplies made reports and spoke when requested 
by the Conference. Two of these were admitted on 
trial in the Conference. At this present writing there 
are in the Conference in full connection 8 foreign mis- 
sionaries and 3 native preachers ; on trial, 2 foreign mis- 
sionaries and 6 native preachers. There are employed 
also as supplies 2 local preachers. The entire time of 
one foreign missionary is given to the American Bible 
Society. There are, then, 20 preachers actively engaged 
by the Conference. 

Kev. James L. Kennedy gives the following 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. BH 

resume of our Brazilian missions, showing 
their status in 1893 : 

Never before was our Brazilian work in a more prom- 
ising and prosperous condition. Never before was it 
in a more thoroughly organized shape, according to our 
system. The machinery of all our Conferences, from the 
Annual down, is fully at work. We have our Confer- 
ence organ, the Expositor Christao, with a circulation 
nearly or fully double our membership. We have a 
limited number of our own theological and religious 
books, and the religious literature of the Portuguese 
language, in the form of books, tracts, weekly and 
monthly periodicals, though comparatively small, is by 
no means insignificant. Our membership, which ac- 
cording to latest official statistics numbered 679, is not 
less than 825 at this date. We have a corresponding 
Sunday school population. There are 3 districts, 
manned by 10 missionaries, of whom 9 are married, 
and 16 native preachers, besides whom we had at last 
Annual Conference 5 local preachers. We have a 
beautifhl stone church in Rio de Janeiro ; a modest but 
comely brick church in Juiz de Fora, built almost alto- 
gether through Brother Tarboux's energies and the ef- 
forts of our native Church ; a very neat church of brick 
in Piracicaba; a chapel and parsonage in Sao Paulo, 
bought by Brother Wolling since my departure in Au- 
gust last, and other chapels and Church property, of 
many thousands in value. 

The present status is very gratifying, when we re- 
member that about six and a half years ago Bishop 
Granbery organized the Brazil Mission Annual Confer- 
ence with only 3 members and a Church membership 
of 211. 



Japan Mission. 

At the Annual Meeting of the Board of 
Missions, beginning May 6, 1885, the follow- 
ing resolution, offered by Bishop Keener, was 

Resolved, That we establish a Mission in Japan, and 
that we appropriate therefor the sum of $3,000. 

The following September Kev. J. W. Lam- 
buth, in response to a request from home, 
made a tour of inspection upon the coast and 
interior of Japan, and made a favorable report 
to the Board. 

April 20, 1886, Bishop McTyeire, who was 
in charge of the China Mission, appointed J. 
W. Lambuth, W. K. Lambuth, and O. A. 
Dukes, of the China Mission, to Japan. The 
letter which bore the appointment reached 
Shanghai May 20. 

China was endeared to Dr. J. W. and Mrs. 
Lambuth by thirty-two years of faithful and 
successful missionary labor. This call reached 

Missions of the M. E, C, S. 313 

them at a period of life wlien many tliink 
their work is done; but tliey did not hesitate 
in the presence of the formidable work as- 
signed them. In reply to the notice of his 
appointment, Dr. Lambuth replied: "We thank 
you and the friends for this determination to 
open a Mission ir Japan. We shall go, lean- 
ing on the omnipotent arm of God and seeking 
in our work the guidance of the Holy Spirit 
and his blessing." 

On the 25 of July Dr. J. W. Lambuth and 
wife and Dr. O. A. Dukes reached Kobe, Ja- 
pan. Their first meal w^as eaten from their 
hands while standing on the shore. They 
found a shelter, and the first night slept 
on tables, yet they "rejoiced that God had 
called them even unto the isles of the sea to 
herald the matchless claim of the gospel of 
salvation in Christ Jesus." 

Dr. W. E. Lambuth was in hospital work at 
Peking when he received the notice of his ap- 
pointment. Though his wife was in feeble 
health, and they were fearful she could not 
bear the climate of Japan, yet they " counted 
not their lives dear unto themselves," but 
promptly prepared for the field assigned them. 
Leaving his wife in Peking, Dr. Lambuth 
reached Yokohama September 13, when he 

314 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

was rejoiced to meet Bishop Wilson, who had 
charge of the Japan and China Missions, and 
who was accompanijed by Eev. Collins Denny. 
The Japan Annual Conference of the M. E. 
Church (North) being in session at Tokio, 
they had an opportunity to study the mission- 
ary operations of our sister Church before en- 
tering another part of the same great field. 
Proceding to Kobe, they joined Dr. J. W. Lam- 
buth and O. A. Dukes. On September 17, 
just thirty-two years from the landing of 
Dr. J. W. Lambuth in Shanghai, they held the 
inauguration meeting of the Japan Mission, 
Bishop Wilson presiding. Writing of the 
meeting. Dr. W. R. Lambuth said: "It was an 
occasion long to be remembered by us all. 
The words of our leader, freighted with rich, 
ripe thought, his prayers, and the experience 
of others, and the benedictions of both the 
bishop and Brother Denny, warm and fresh 
from the home land, quickened our zeal and 
augmented our faith. The bishop saw and 
heard a great deal in Japan, and was greatly 
pleased with the field, but did not entertain 
any plan of operations, thinking it wise to 
leave us to formulate our plans and organize 
our work, after we had more time to take in 
the situation." 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 315 

Dr. W. R. Lambuth returned with Bishop 
Wilson to China, and having found a substi- 
tute for his hospital work in Peking, reached 
Kobe with his family November 24. 

The first quarterly meeting held by oar 
Mission in Japan, October 2, was an occa- 
sion of great joy, on account of the baptism 
of their first convert. A young Japanese, Mr. 
Sudzuki, had been under Dr. J. W. Lambuth's 
instruction for sonie eight months in Shang- 
hai, and had come with him as his interpreter 
to Kobe. He had been an earnest inquirer 
for six months, and gave marked signs of 
the work the Holy Spirit had wrought in his 
heart. He commenced studying for tlie min- 
istry that he might bear to the people the 
message that had brought healing and happi- 
ness to his own heart. He is now in Cen- 
tral College, Missouri, completing his studies. 

A remarkable call led our missionaries to 
Hiroshima, two hundred miles west of Kob6, 
on the Inland Sea, a city of some eighty thou- 
sand inhabitants. Mr. Sunamoto, a converted 
pilot, a native of Hiroshima, was laboring 
there among his people. He had been con- 
verted in San Francisco, under Dr. Gibson. 
While supporting himself, he attended night 
school for some years in order to obtain a 

316 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

more thorough knowledge of the Christian re- 
ligion. His heart turned toward his native 
land, and he decided to return at his own ex- 
pense to Japan and to tell to his kindred the 
story of the cross. In September, 1886, he 
reached Kob6, bearing to i)r. J. W. Lambuth 
a letter from Dr. Maclay, of the Northern 
Methodist Mission, Yokohama, explaining his 
purpose, and entreating our missionaries to 
go to his aid when he should begin his work 
among his people. About two weeks after 
he reached Hiroshima, he wrote, informing 
our missionaries that his people were greatly 
interested in Christianity, and urging Dr. J. 
W. Lambuth and Dr. Dukes to come to his 
assistance. When they reached Hiroshima, 
they found a work begun of a most encourag- 
ing nature. Before they left five persons gave 
their names as probationers, among them Mr. 
Sunamoto's mother. They found a literary 
man who taught a school of one hundred and 
sixty scholars who was searching the Scrip- 
tures, and a Buddhist priest at the head of two 
hundred and fifty pui3ils asked eagerly for a 
Testament in the Chinese character. They re- 
turned to Kobe greatly encouraged by the 
outlook in Hiroshima. 

The first Church Conference of the Kob6 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. .317 

Mission was held December 3, 1886. Dr. W. E. 
Lambuth, who had been appointed by Bishop 
Wilson, Superintentent of the Mission, with 
his wife, having returned from China, the lit- 
tle baud began to develop their plans. The 
marriage of Dr. O. A. Dukes to Miss M. Ben- 
nett increased their strength. 

Having spent several years in the Woman's 
Union Missionary Society in China, Mrs. Dukes 
was prepared to enter at once into the work of 
the Mission. The members reported at the 
Church Conference were six Europeans, one 
Chinese, and one Japanese. 

A reading room had been opened nightly 
and was well attended. Five members of the 
Bible class had handed in their names as in- 
quirers. Eev. W. B. Palmore, of Missouri, 
who visited Kobe at this period in its history, 
became much interested in the work, and con- 
tributed one hundred dollars annually to pro- 
cure pure sound literature for those young 
men who found so much atheism in Japanese 
libraries and book stores. It was decided to 
call the reading room Palmore Institute. Dr. 
Palmore also added valuable books from his 
own library. A donation of one hundred and 
twenty-five dollars annually for two years 
from J. T. McDonald, of the Memphis 

318 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Conference, aided in enriching the library. 
The Sunday school averaged twenty scholars. 
It was decided to put the Japanese church at 
once on the line of self-support. To this end 
a weekly collection was commenced for the 
purchase of a lot for a church. 

The ladies of the Mission entered cordially 
into the work. Mrs. Dukes rendered efficient 
service in the reading room, especially in the 
absence of the brethren. Mrs. J. W. Lambuth 
had gathered around her the nucleus of a 
school. She found greater access to the wom- 
en in Japan than in China, and her large ex- 
perience in this department enabled her to 
enter the doors now being opened. Married 
women banded themselves together to study 
English, foreign customs, and the Bible. 
Already sixty women from among the best 
families in Kobe w^ere united for Bible study 
under the Congregationalists' missionaries, 
and they requested their teachers to extend the 
time devoted to its study each day. One of Dr. 
W. B. Lambuth's patients, a wealthy Japanese 
naval officer, told him that his wife had be- 
come interested, and he was reading the Bible 
with her. These facts indicated the lines on 
which the Mission could be worked if reen- 
forced. From Dr. W. R. Lambuth's report 

Missions of the M, E. C, S, 319 

of the second quarterly Conference, held De- 
cember 31, we learn: 

Tlie whole length of the Inland Sea had been vis- 
ited twice. The number of inquirers had increased at 
Hiroshima from five to twenty-seven. Among these was 
a well to do physician, several medical students, an 
officer, two school-teachers, a Shinto priest, and sev- 
eral more relations of the Christian pilot. He himself 
had been indefatigable. Expecting to return to Cali- 
fornia in March, he had made the most of his time. 
One trip made by this man to an island village, while 
Dr. Dukes and I were at Hiroshima, was at night in an 
open boat and in the teeth of a wintry gale. There he 
told the story of the cross, and returned during the 
same weather, nearly frozen, but bright, hopeful, and 
enthusiastic. His health has suflfered in consequence 
of repeated exposure, but he contemplates an early re- 
turn J;o his American friends. 

During this quarter the interior to the north 
of Kobe was visited, and the circuits mapped 
out. Kob6, W. B. Lambuth; Hiroshima, J. 
W. Lambuth ; and Lake Biwa, O. A. Dukes. 

In the report made to the Secretary at Nash- 
ville, February 9, 1887, the Superintendent 

We have definitely fixed upon Kob^ as the center 
of our base line. 1. It is the center of our legitimate 
field. The M. E. Church occupies two hundred miles 
to the north of us, and three hundred to the south. 2. 
It is the center of a railway line rapidly being pushed 
to completion. 3, It is the most healthful seaport, of 

320 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

all seasons, of any in Japan. 4. It commands the In- 
land Sea, all coasting vessels making this a depot. 5. 
Being a treaty port in almost weekly communication 
with America, China, and England, we have advan- 
tages here which could not be secured inland. Even 
the right of residence itself, outside of treaty ports, is 
debarred us until the revised treaty is ratified, unless 
we are engaged by a native company to teach. 6. Eest- 
ing as it does upon the southern slope of a lofty range 
of hills, and reaching down along the shore of Osaka 
Bay ; situated almost midway between the extremes of 
a long coast range where arctic winters and torrid sum- 
mers reign; with commanding sites and broad, well- 
graded streets, what wonder is it that eighty thousand 
people have already made their homes in Kob6, and 
others, like ourselves, are anxious to secure a foot- 

In the same report he speaks as follows of 
the field and its wants: 

As soon as feasible we want men from home stationed 
upon the northeast at Osaka, Kioto, and on Lake Biwa ; 
and upon the southwest at Onomichi, Hiroshima, Yama- 
guchi, and Shimonoseki. These southwestern points are 
all important commercial centers, and command the 
hundreds of islands and thousands of villages which oc- 
cupy the Inland Sea. The population of Japan, by rea- 
son of the inaccessibility of its mountainous interior, is 
largely confined to a narrow zone, which fringes the 
coast line, and on account of the bleak winds upon the 
bleaker northern coast, which bears the brunt of Sibe- 
rian winters, there has been a steady gravitation of the 
people to the southern slope of this great volcanic roof. 

Missions of the M. E. C, 8, 321 

Here is our field, and singularly enough occupied, as 
yet, at but one point by resident missionaries. We are 
late upon the field ! Let us occupy vigorously what has 
been so providentially left open to us ! We call for at 
least two men each year for this inviting field ! 

In December, 1886, Dr. W. K. Lambuth 
wrote to the Secretary respecting a remarka- 
ble offer made by the Manager of the Govern- 
ment Schools at Yamaguchi, one of the lead- 
ing educational centers of this portion of Ja- 
pan. A teacher was wanted in the English 
department. An American, a married man 
and a missionary, was preferred. A house 
free of rent and a liberal salary were offered. 
While he could not preach Christianity in the 
school, the students could attend religous 
services in the house of the missionary. 
The influence of a Christian home was 
emphasized as one of the objects sought. 
This arrangement ensured the support 
of the missionary during the time he was 
learning the language, and secured for him 
access to young men who were seeking a lib- 
eral education. Dr. Lambuth visited Yama- 
guchi and had an interview with the Presi- 
dent of the school, and also the Governor of 
the province of which Yamaguchi is the cap- 
ital, who was deeply interested in the move- 

322 Band Book of 31ethodist Missmis. 

ment. He then wrote home, urging that a 
man be sent for the place. He was allowed 
eight weeks to secure the teacher. No man 
could be found within this time; and had the 
man been at command, the Board did not have 
the money with which to furnish his outfit 
and expense of travel to Japan. The place 
was filled by a Presbyterian missionary. But 
soon similar calls came to our missionaries, 
and they again sent the call across the ocean. 
At the Annual Meeting of the Board in May, 
1887, this remarkable opening was presented, 
but, burdened by its indebtedness, the Board 
declined to make an appropriation for their 
outfit and travel to the field. After some 
discussion it consented that proper appli- 
cants might be accepted for whose outfit and 
traveling expenses provision could be made 
by special donations without detriment to the 
regular assessments, and who would find em- 
ployment in Japan as teachers in government 
schools while acquiring the Japanese language, 
and performing such missionary work as time 
and other duties would permit. The call was 
made on the Church. Men chosen of God for 
the work responded. Money for their outfit and 
traveling expenses was given by willing hands. 
Men of wealth in our Churches, who had 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. ,323 

hitherto been content with their scanty offer- 
ings under the assessments, were aroused by 
the opportunity to do larger things for the 
Master, and by the fall of 1888 we had reen- 
forced the mission with three single missiona- 
ries and two married missionaries and their 
wives. They were Kev. C. B. Moseley, of the 
Little Eock Conference; Eev. B. W. Waters, 
of the Baltimore Conference; Kev. J. C. C. 
Newton, of the Baltimore Conference; S. H. 
Wainright and wife, of Missouri; and N. W. 
Utley, of the Memphis Conference. They 
were sent out without costing the Board a 
dollar. This demonstrates what the Church 
can do in the line of special calls. 

The missionaries opened the year 1887 with 
afternoon prayer and class meeting. They 
prayed for twenty-five converts and two hun- 
dred probationers. Ere the evening of that 
New Year's Day had closed they received a 
token that God had heard their x^i'ayer. A 
pale, consumptive-looking young man called, 
and in broken English said: "I want to be a 
Christian. Will you teach me? " With grate- 
ful hearts they unfolded to him the message 
of life, and then knelt with him in prayer. 
Soon he was soundly converted, and his frail 
body seemed to share the power of his new 

324 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

spiritual life. Brother Nakamura became one 
of their most efficient workers. He was stew- 
ard, class leader, and exhorter, and held three 
Bible classes during the week. 

Within twelve months from that New Year's 
night they had received into the Church 
sixty-four adults ^by baptism, four by cer- 
tificate, and had recorded sixty-six on proba- 

In April Mr. Kihara, an educator of Hi- 
roshima, called on Dr. J. W. Lambuth and 
asked him to teach the Bible in his schools 
and to open them with prayers. He had a 
large school of one hundred and fifty boys and 
a school of about thirty girls. The latter he 
wished to place in charge of the missionaries. 
Several of his pupils were anxious to become 
Christians. He said he knew he would meet 
opposition, and perhaps some of the boys would 
not come ; but he was working for the good of 
the people, and the opposition would ba for 
but a short time. The next Thursday he 
called for Dr. Lambuth, and said all the 
teachers gave their consent to the plan. On 
Wednesday Dr. Lambuth went to the school. 
About sixty young men were present. He 
spent an hour in reading and explaining the 
Bible. Each day the number present in- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 325 

creased. When Dr. Lambnth left Hiroshima, 
Dr. Dukes took his place for two months. The 
pressure of other duties compelled him to re- 
turn to Kobe. Had there been a teacher in 
the field to hold the position, no doubt a rich 
harvest would have been gathered. Mr. Ki- 
liara was true to his word, and turned over his 
girls' school to the missionaries. Some fifteen 
of the pupils united with our Christian school 
for ladies. His teacher, Mrs. Nishigawa. 
gave her services without salary, and taught 
an hour a day for months. She was a gradu- 
ate of Tokio Normal School and Vice Presi- 
dent of the Hiroshima Society for the Higher 
Education of Women. Her husband was a 
judge, ranking second in the district. Mr. 
Kihara's wife and niece have since become 
members of our Church. 

About this time a young man by the name 
of Nakayama, a teacher in the town of Sho- 
bara, in the mountains about fifty miles from 
Hiroshima, wrote inviting Dr. Lambuth to 
visit that place. Accompanied by Brother 
Sunamoto, he reached that place May 17. He 
was warmly welcomed by Mr. Nakayama, who 
took them to his private room until he could 
secure a room for them at the hotel. On his 
table they saw the Bible, tracts, and hymn 


826 litmd Book of Methodist missions. 

books. On reaching tlie hotel a company of 
upward of fifty soon gathered around them, 
and soon they had the history of the work 
already commenced in that remote locality. 
Mr. Matsutira, the third teacher in the 
school, had heard the gospel in Hiroshima 
the preceding January, and on his return had 
commenced reading the Bible with his family. 
About two months later Mr. Nakayama, who 
was the principal teacher in the school, and 
teacher in English, and who had heard the 
gospel in Osaka, began also to read the Bible. 
When he heard that Mr. Matsutira was read- 
ing the Bible, he jjroposed that they should 
meet and read together, and they arranged to 
meet every Wednesday and Sunday evening 
and read and pray together. Soon others joined 
them until they had about twenty in their com- 
pany. And thus before they were aware of the 
fact the Church of Christ w^as established on 
the top of the mountains beyond Hiroshima. 
Mr. Matsutira and his family of seven, and 
a young lady living in the family, were ready 
to make public the profession of their faith. 
Their names, with nine others, v/ere handed 
the missionary, who, with a full heart, thanked 
God and took courage. He spent all the aft- 
ernoon explaining the word of God, the pec- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 327 

pie coming in so that he hardly had time to 
take his lunch. This was continued until 
after night, when upward of three hundred 
were present. Fearing the upper rooms of 
the hotel would give way, they adjourned to 
the lower rooms, where he preached to them 
until 10 P.M. Many prominent men of the 
town were present. After the audience was 
dismissed, many who wished to be Christians 
met Dr. Lambuth in his room, where he read 
and explained the Creed and baptismal serv- 
ice, and they again prayed together. On 
Wednesday he visited and addressed the 
school. He was told the Trustees had decided 
to make the Bible a text-book in the school. 
The President of the school and the second 
and third teachers and some of the pupils were 
among the seventeen whose names he had 
received. There were but two Buddhist 
priests in the town, and their religion was 
dead. The way was fully open to the gospel. 
Mr. Nakayama, who was twenty-one years of 
age, went to Kobe and studied theology under 
Dr. J. W. Lambuth. Anxious for his moun- 
tain flock, he wrote them a letter every week, 
containing full notes of the sermons and Bi- 
ble class instructions he heard from his teach- 
ers. Calls as urgent as that from Shobara 


328 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

continued to press on our little band. A 
letter came from a lawyer, and another from 
a teacher in the lower end of the island of 
Shikoku. The lawyer wrote: "I am anxious 
to know more of the Christian faith. My 
wife and daughter are Christians, and I want 
to be a Christian." Then they telegraphed: 
"Wanted, a preacher of the gospel." Dr. J. 
W. Lambuth answered the call to this point, 
two hundred and fifty miles distant on the 
Inland Sea. He was met at the landing by 
fifty young men, several local officers, besides 
teachers and the lawyer. He held several Bi- 
ble classes in the school, where twenty-six 
gave their names as desirous to search the 
Scriptures. He was invited to address the 
public in the theater, where he had an audi- 
ence of over a thousand of the most intelli- 
gent men and women in the place^ who listened 
for an hour and a half, while he told them of 
the wonderful things revealed in the word of 
God. When he left, they besought him to 
send them a missionary at least once in every 
two months. 

June 23, Dr. W. R. Lambuth was writing in 
the school in Osaka, where he was teaching, 
when a pupil, for the third time in a week, came 
to his side and said: "Teacher, when will your 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 329 

father go to my native town of Uajima? My 
people write me so many letters." When 
the missionaries answered this call, they 'were 
met by the entire school of young men and 
women, upward of a thousand respectful 
hearers thronged the town theater, and for 
two hours remained seated on the cold ground 
as they listened to the story of the cross. 
Then followed the illness of the venerable 
Prince Datte, nearly ninety-nine years of age. 
Dr. W. E. Lambuth's invitation to treat him, 
and his recovery and his gratitude; and then 
the organization of the Methodist Church. 

Oita requested a teacher in the government 
schools. The Buddhists sought to create a 
sentiment against Christianity; but this place, 
the key of that part of the coast was secured to 
our Mission by the appointment of Brother 
Waters as teacher. 

At Nishi-no-miya^ Sumiyoshi, and Kanzaki, 
railway stations between Kobe and Osaka, 
Dr. Dukes found the way opened to his daily 
itinerations. Six hours were spent each day 
in Bible teaching. Much interest was mani- 
fest among railway employees. He had knots 
of eager learners all along the line. 

Brother Moseley found an open door at 
Wakayama. The school and government of- 

^80 Hand Book of Methodist Mi 


ficials were friendly^ and good congregations 
attended his ministry. 

The opportunities for woman's work find 
few parallels in the history of Missions. The 
open doors taxed to the utmost the strength 
and time of the devoted wives of our mission- 
aries. Home comforts and cares were held 
subordinate to the pressing demand made upon 

Mrs. J. W. Lambuth had a school of eleven 
ladies in Kob6, each paying fifty cents per 
month. This of course yielded but a trifle in 
the way of an income, but it counted largely 
in training these people for their work of 
evangelizing their own people. These ladies 
were taught the Bible daily, with the other 
branches common to similar schools in Japan. 
The only difficulty encountered was the fact 
that this work developed more rapidly than 
did the resources at the command of the Mis- 
sion. In addition to the day school, Mrs. 
Lambuth taught classes in Palmore Institute 
niglit school which numbered about seventy 

In Hiroshima the day school, in charge of 
Miss Nannie B. Gaines, numbered thirty girls 
and ladies, all paying' their tuition. Every 
lady in the Mission had helped to build up 

Missions of the M. E, C, S. 331 

this work. On Miss Gaines's arrival she was 
placed in charge. She taught three and a half 
hours each day, and one at night. This, with 
the study of the language, kept her busy. 
Some of the pupils attended Sunday school 
and preaching. Through the influence of the 
lady pupils, their husbands became much in- 
terested in the work of the Mission. The 
Buddhist element is very strong in Hiroshi- 
ma, especially among the middle and lower 
classes; but the influence of the school on 
the intelligent portion of the city increased 

The influence of Pahnore Institute in Kobe 
was limited by the lack of room. The night 
school, which was phenomenal in its growth 
and results, was held in the houses of the mis- 
sionaries in connection with the reading room 
of the institute. It had become one of the 
chief factors in the remarkable growth and 
activity of the Kobe Church. Steady Bible 
teaching each night furnished about twenty 
of the most eflicient members of the Church. 
The receipts of the Church were about thirty 
dollars per month, which was reserved to aid 
in building the church in Kob6 and enlarging 
the accommodations of the institute. 

The annual meeting was held beginning 

332 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

September 24 in Kobe. The meeting ad- 
journed to meet Brother Moseley and Miss 
Gaines, who reached the harbor that day. 
The Mission now reported 4 ordained mis- 
sionaries, 3 missionaries' wives, 1 single lady 
missionary, 3 stations where missionaries re- 
side, 9 out stations, 64 adult baptisms, 71 com- 
municants, 66 probationers, 3 Sunday schools, 
7 teachers, 114 scholars, 2 exhorters, and 
4 theological students. The itineration of 
missionaries has been over 24,000 miles. 
Eleven hundred Bible classes had been 

The appointments for the coming year were 
as follows: Kobe Circuit, W. E. Lambuth 
(it embraced Kobe, Hiogo, and Awaji); Kobe 
Day School for Ladies, Mrs. J. W. Lambuth; 
Hiroshima Circuit, J. W. Lambuth (it em- 
braced Hiroshima, Iwakuni, Shobara, Kuri, 
Uajima); Hiroshima Day School for ladies, 
Miss N. B. Gaines; Osaka Circuit, O. A. 
Dukes (it embraced Osaka, Hirano, Otsu, 
and Wakayama); Wakayama SchoolAVork, C. 
B. Moseley. 

Eev. B. W. Waters arrived November 3, 
1887. He at once began teaching in two Jap- 
anese schools in Osaka, some twenty miles 
from Kobe. Living in a native house, he taught 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 333 

four hours a day for his support, and gave the 
balance of his time to Bible class work and 
the study of the language. February 23, 1888, 
he removed to Oita, at the extreme western 
end of the Inland Sea, some three hundred 
and twenty miles from Osaka. Beaching this 
prefectural town February 25, he resumed 
work under the government school authori- 
ties. On this remote shore, with the aid of 
Brother Tariaka, his interpreter, and his faith- 
ful Christian cook, he began the foundation 
of a Christian Church. 

During the last quarter of the year 1887 it 
was decided to build a church at Kobe and 
another at Hiroshima. The native members 
entered heartily into the movement. January 
13, 1890, they reported in hand two hundred 
and twenty dollars. When it is remembered 
that the Church had been organized but a 
year, and with but one member, this collection 
will reveal remarkable and healthy growth. 
The following from a letter of the above date 
from the Superintendent will exhibit the lines 
on which our missionaries were moving: 

We are trjdng to put our probationers and members 
through a thorough Bible drill. Brother Moseley has a 
Bible class once a week, and preaches Sunday ; Broth- 
er Waters, Bible class two hours every night, and holds 


334 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

two services Sunday. Both these brethren fully occu- 
pied with teaching during the week. Dr. Dukes is 
putting in five hours every day, teaching nothing but the 
Bible and Christianity. He has a class at every station 
on the railway between Kobe and Osaka. Trains run 
every two hours. He begins at the first station in the 
morning, teaches an hour and passes on to the next, 
and so on. *Dr. J. W. Lambuth averages four hours 
teaching in Kobe per diem, and three of that is the Bible 
pure and simple; lectures on Christian biography 
Saturday nights, teaches two Bible classes in Hiogo, and 
holds five services every Sunday, occupying seven 

Mrs. J. W. Lambuth teaches seven hours every day, 
more than four being given to the teaching of Christian- 
ity. Mrs. Dukes, Miss Gaines, and Mrs. W. R. Lam- 
buth teach, and all have Bible classes. I myself am 
teaching the Bible almost continually. As I cannot be 
in one place very long at a time, it is impossible to have 
a regular class, but I try to make up for it by drilling my 
interpreter hour after hour as we walk over the moun- 
tains, or ride together in jinrikas, or crouch down among 
the passengers on the little steamboats which ply on 
the Inland Sea. And when we reach a town or village 
where we have organized a Methodist Society, we call 
on the class leader, and telling him we have only twen- 
four or thirty-six hours to spare, send him out after the 
members. In the meantime we eat our lunch, and are 
ready for from 07ie to ten consecutive hours of Bible read- 
ing, comparing of parallel passages, explaining, catechis- 
ing, and applying. Why, the last time Mr. Oka and I 
were at Shobara we began at 10 a.m. and continued 
until 10 P.M.; then, on the morrow, from 6:30 a.m. until 
3 P.M., and then rode eleven miles and preached three 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 335 

hours and a half. The people sat in a circle on the floor 
around us while we ate our dinner and supper, contin- 
uing to ask questions. 

The rapid growth of the membership led 
the Mission to unite in prayer that the Lord 
of the harvest would raise up in the field men 
who would proclaim the gospel to their own 
people. The prayer met speedy answer. Dr. 
W. R. Lambuth in January reported fourteen 
young men who had offered themselves to 
preach the gospel. One was the class leader 
at Shobara. He was over forty years of age, 
and a good Chinese scholar. Another was a 
teacher with a school of fifty scholars. An- 
other the teacher of a school of three hundred 
pupils. Another was a physician connected 
with the Kobe hospital. His wife was an ear- 
nest Bible student. He is very busy in his 
profession, yet so eager to learn that he carried 
his lunch with him, so that he could attend the 
4 P.M. Bible class without loss of time. 

The January report of Miss Gaines gave an 
encouraging account of the girls' school at 
Hiroshima. The pupils were principally ladies 
of rank, and very gentle, studious, and refined. 
All were interested in Bible study, though but 
one had become a Christian. They asked that 
more time might be given to Bible study. These 

336 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

facts acquire additional importance when we 
remember that Hiroshima is one of the strong- 
holds of Buddhism. The school was located 
in a theater building with a Buddhist temple 
on either side. As far as her health would 
permit, Mrs. Daisy Lambuth cooperated with 
the school work at Hiroshima. The demands 
on them were pressing. Young men were 
pleading for a night school, where opportunity 
would be afforded to teach them the Bible. 
Soldiers in the garrison could not attend the 
night school, and asked for a little time in the 
afternoon. A Sunday school must be opened 
and a Sunday afternoon Bible class for young 
men. With incessant calls pressing on them, 
it is no wonder the life of the missionary is 
soon burned out. 

Dr. J. W. Lambuth was greatly encouraged 
by learning that some seven or eight of the 
native members and probationers were meet- 
ing in a mountain, about a mile from their 
home in Kobe, every morning by daylight, to 
unite in prayer for an outpouring of the Spirit, 
and that they might soon have a house of 
worship. He offered his house, so they were 
having in his house a six o'clock prayer meet- 
ing. One of the young men, who was licensed 
to exhort, visited his parents in a neigh- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 337 

boring village. His father is a school-teach- 
er. The young man began to tell them about 
Christ. Soon the questions, " What shall we 
do to become Christians ? " and " Where shall 
we go to hear Christianity ? " were asked. He 
brought his parents to church next Sunday, 
that they might hear Dr. Lambuth ''talk 
about the true religion." 

Dr. W. R. Lambuth visited early in the year 
the town of Uajima. He preached in the 
theater, as the rented chapel would not hold 
the crowd of over ^ve hundred persons. He 
baptized two men, registered six probationers, 
and organized a Methodist Society. At Kiu- 
shiu he found a deep interest in Christianity. 
The provincial judge said: "Send us a native 
preacher who can preach the gospel and teach 
English two hours a day, and we will support 
him." He was also anxious for a missionary 
and his wife. 

The arrival of Rev. J. C. C. Newton and S. 
H. Wainright, M.D., with their wives, May 
21, 1888, greatly encouraged their fellow-mis- 
sionaries. In accordance with the action of 
the Board accepting the proposal of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church to cooperate in the 
work of training a native ministry, Brother 
Newton was appointed by Bishop Wilson to a 

338 Hand Book of Metliodlst Missions. 

professorship in the Philander Smith Biblical 
Institute at Aoyama^ Tokio. He was assigned 
to the chair of Biblical Exegesis and entered 
on the work of teaching theology in teaching 
in English and Japanese, the latter through 
an interpreter. Two of our students were 
there awaiting his arrival, and were soon 
joined by five others, making a class of seven. 
In addition to these duties he was Secretary 
of the Faculty, was engaged in Bible class 
work, preaching, and the study of the language. 
The importance of training a native force for 
the evangelization of Japan had early engaged 
the thoughts and prayers of our brethren on 
the ground, and to their efforts in this direc- 
tion may be attributed a large measure of 
their great success. The Kob6 Church sent 
four, the Hiroshima two, and the Oita one to 
receive the benefit of Brother Newton's train- 
ing. One third of their expenses were borne 
by the native Churches to which they belonged, 
and two-thirds by our native Missionary So- 

Brother Wainright and wife were sent to 
the relief of Brother Waters at Oita, reaching 
their work June 6. By June 24 they had or- 
ganized a Sunday school with forty-two schol- 
ars on the roll. It soon numbered sixty-four. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 339 

Soon several young men asked tliem to have 
a daily Bible class. They had an average at- 
tendance of about twenty. On Sunday even- 
ings they held gospel meetings, which soon 
had an average of forty. The annual report 
showed at Oita an organized Church of twenty- 
seven members. 

Rev. N. W. Utley landed in Kob6 August 
14, the same hour that the corner stone of 
their first church was laid. He entered at 
ouce on his work. Teaching in Palmore In- 
stitute, the night school, two daily Bible 
classes, Chautauqua work, and Japanese study 
soon engrossed all his time. While doing 
full work as a missionary. Brother Utley was 
self-supporting. The second annual meeting 
was held in Kobe, beginning September 1, 
1888, Bishop Wilson presiding. The annual 
review of the work was full of encourage- 

Dr. O. A. Dukes had been in charge of the 
Osaka Circuit, with stations at Osaka, Mikage, 
Nishinomiya, Amagaski,Hirano, and Wakaya- 
ma. His method of working his railroad sta- 
tion Bible classes was peculiar. He loaded 
up his native assistants with sermons and ex- 
hortations to give to them who have not. He 
visited each railroad station in order, holding 

340 Hand Book of Mdhodist Missions. 

Bible classes at each point. As the train 
passed each point every two hours, he was able 
to economize time. On Sunday he preached 
at Osaka, and held his Bible classes during 
the week. Mrs. Dukes accompanied him on 
his circuit, doing efficient work among the 
women, and with organ and voice training 
them in Christian song. 

Brother Moseley was engaged in a govern- 
ment school at Wakayama until October, 1888, 
where he devoted his entire time to mission 
work, his support being now provided by the 

The report of Kob6 Circuit, under charge of 
Dr. J. W. Lambuth, was full of interest. Its 
stations were: Kobe, Hiogo, Uajima, and Sumo- 
to. The steady growth of the Church at Kobe 
demanded much attention, while frequent visits 
to the island of Awaji, and to the city of Ua- 
jima, distant some three hundred and seventy 
miles, made heavy drafts on his time and 
strength. The Bible was taught daily, stead- 
ily, and persistingly. In fact the Mission was 
a great Bible school. Prayer meetings were 
frequent and well attended. A protracted 
meeting had been held in Kob6 during the 
summer, with good results. During the meet- 
ing there was a notable ingathering of women 

Missions of the M. E. C, S, 841 

and whole families. Two years before, one of 
the servants in Dr. Lambuth's family, who 
was a Congregationalist, in her daily -prayer, 
said: "O Lord, bless the poor Methodist 
Church, which has but one believer. '' Subse- 
quently she changed the prayer to "which 
has a few believers, but no women." These 
prayers were answered. The Methodist Mis- 
sion had "many believers, and many women, 
both wives and mothers." The laying of the 
corner stone of our first church in Kobe 
by Dr. J. W. Lambuth opened a new era 
in our work. The site was secured by a 
special donation from a Presbyterian brother 
of Nashville, Tenn. Palmore Institute night 
school, under Dr. Lambuth's management, 
aided by Brother Yoshioka, our native ex- 
horter, had grown until it could not find 
room for all who desired to share its benefits. 
The pupils averaged 60 in number. The cir- 
cuit reported: Adults baptized, 47; children, 6; 
Sunday schools, 3; scholars, 120. 

The work for women was vigorously prose- 
cuted by Mrs J. W. Lambuth. The ladies' 
class occupied her time from 9 to 12 a.m. She 
taught a class of gentlemen from 2 to 4 p.m. 
and a class in the Palmore Institute night 
school. A weekly Bible class for women and 

342 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

children was organized, with an average at- 
tendance at the school of thirty-five. 

The story of the work this year at Uajima 
illustrates so remarkably the character of the 
work in this field, and the movements of the 
Holy Spirit in connection with the labors of 
our missionaries, that we give in full the re- 
port of the Superintendent: 

This city, upon the remote western extremity of the 
island of Shikoku, is upon a rocky and (except by 
■ water) ahnost inaccessible coast. It was opened to us 
by agencies which we knew not of, and has given us 
an illustration of Paul's words : " God hath chosen the 
weak things of the world to confound the things which 
are mighty." We were written and telegraphed for 
several times by a teacher and a lawyer— men whom 
we had never met. They desired to have "the city 
opened to the civilization of the West." We went sev- 
eral times, met with kind receptions, talked for hours 
to private circles, and addressed large audiences in the 
city theater; but for some months had only two believ- 
ers in Christianity, and one of them became a casta- 
way. Besides these two there were a half dozen proba- 
tioners, but to a man they went over to the Congrega- 
tionalists during our absence, the latter having five 
members, but no pastor. The only other human factor 
in our work was a boy of sixteen, whom the two mem- 
bers and prol)ationers, previous to their disaffection, 
had sent to Kobe for religious instruction, that in the 
course of years they might have a native teacher. Ex- 
traneous influences set in with such a tide, and the vi- 
tality of our work during our enforced absence at other 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 343 

points readied so low an ebb that it seemed best to 
hand over the place to the Congregationalists, who pro- 
posed to send a pastor. We felt that this was better 
than to permit them to suffer for attention, for in all 
our bounds we had not a native preacher. Not so, 
thought our young hero, who had in the meantime re- 
ceived baptism in Kobe. Not waiting our arrival to 
consult over the matter, but recognizing the crisis in 
his distant home, he gathered up his books and bedding 
and took passage by the first steamer going west. Ar- 
riving at Uajima, he dauntlessly began his work, gath- 
ered the expiring embers, fanned them into a flame, 
and in the name of the Master told his people that he 
had come to j^reach Jesua and him crucified. House 
to house prayer meetings were held, class meetings 
instituted, a Sunday school organized, and all the means 
of grace within his reach availed of. Brother Nino- 
miya had been taught of the Spirit, and learned his 
lesson well. He urged us not to give up ; of course we 
did not, and as a result of his faithful ministry and of 
Dr. J. W. Lambuth's indefatigable efforts, under the 
blessings of God, the Uajima Church has to-day thirty- 
four members, many probationers, and has become the 
center of a promising work along the coast. The 
teacher has recently been baptized, and now the lawyer, 
after a long and severe illness, surrendered not to civ- 
ilization, but to Christ. Thus the two men who were 
led by other motives to invite the missionary have 
themselves found the true motive and foundation for 
all right doing. The happy conversion within the last 
few weeks of an old woman of eighty-four years, result- 
ing in her throwing away her idols, and her son of 
sixty smashing his wine cup and crying with bitter 
tears over his sinful habits, has made a deep and abid- 

344 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ing impression upon the whole city. The facts are in 
every mouth. There is a sound of a going forth in the 
tops of the mountains. The Spirit is at work. Let us 
be reaiiy lor the marching orders! 

Our young brother's heroism was equaled by his self- 
denial. He came up to annual meeting expecting to 
enter the theological school at Tokio with the other 
members of the class, but as we had no one to send 
to Uajima in his place he cheerfully consented to return 
to his work for another year. In the autumn he must 
go where he can receive instruction, but we are still 
unable to replace him. Who will come from America 
and work in Uajima for four year.-; until he has com- 
pleted his course? Cannot the Church send us the 
help we so much need? 

The Hiroshima Circuit was under the charge 
of Dr. W. E. Lambuth. The stations were 
Hiroshima, Iwakuni, Shobara, and Oita. A 
disturbing element in the Hiroshima Church 
had injured the Church. This had been in- 
creased by the enforced absence of the pastor, 
who in his relation to the whole work had to 
be on the wing. In the spring matters were 
improved by the removal of one factor of the 
disturbing element and the timely aid of 
Brother Nakayama, whose name appears in 
connection with the Church at Shobara. "At 
a time when the girls' school was without a 
Japanese manager, and when the affairs of the 
Church were much disturbed, he quickly 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 345 

stepped in, and in the most unassuming but 
systematic manner restored order and gave 
no small impulse to the work." 

Miss Gaines had worked faithfully at her 
school. It had averaged twenty pupils, who 
represented the best element in Hiroshima. 
Her heart was gladdened by their willingness 
to attend church and Sunday school. One had 
received baptism. It was evident that the 
work was greatly impeded by her surround- 
ings. Her home was an old theater, located 
in a narrow alley, between two Buddhist tem- 
ples. The great need of the school was good 

Good work had been done among the sol- 
diers, and by Miss Gaines and Mrs. Daisy 
Lambuth among the women and children. 
Brother Waters, after he was relieved at Oita 
by Brother Wainright, came to Hiroshima 
to teach in the government schools. His 
presence and help in supervising the work of 
the Church was of great service. 

The statistical reports furnished the follow- 
ing figures: Stations, 5; oufc stations, 10; 
male married missionaries, 5; missionaries' 
wives, 5; male single, 3; female single, 1; 
total, 14; adults baptized, 88; children, 6; 
native membership, 153; net increase, 99; pro- 

846 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

bationers, 79; theological students, 7; total 
preparing for the ministry, 12; exliorters, 4; 
Sunday schools, 15 ; scholars, 359 ; Bible class- 
es, 10; students, 113; night schools, 2; stu- 
dents, 77; day schools, 3; students, 82; church 
building, 1; seating capacity, 300; value, $2,- 
500; (hiiilt without appropriations hij the Board); 
Bible classes held, 2,232 times; itineration, 33,- 
900 miles. 

The visit o£ Bishop Wilson and his wife was 
an inspiration to the missionaries. Their 
deep interest in the work and their sympathy 
for the workers gave them fresh courage. 
They visited many portions of the Mission ; and 
having thoroughly informed himself as to the 
details of the work in all its departments, the 
bishop was able before the Board and home 
Church to represent its condition and press its 
urgent demands. 

The third Annual Meeting was held in 
Kob6 September 4, 1889, Dr. W. K. Lam- 
buth in the chair. The reports were full of 
interest. We regret that our limited space 
will not allow us to give them in full. As the 
Mission Board had been unable during the 
past year to reenforce the Mission, but little 
on the line of expansion had been attempted, 
yet two important cities had been added to 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 347 

the work — viz., Himeji, a city of over 25,000 
inhabitants, thirty-five miles by rail west of 
Kobe, and Tadotsu, with a i3opulation of 6,000, 
eighty miles southwest of Kobe. The latter 
was considered an important strategic point 
on the Inland Sea. 

The number and efficiency of the native 
force had been increased. Kev. Y. Yoshioka 
received the first license to x^reach granted by 
the Mission. A year before he came to the 
missionaries and said: "Having worked for 
foreigners, I know one side of foreign life; 
but I believe there is another side, and I 
want to know something about it." They 
tried to show him the other side, and there he 
found Christ. He was teaching for a support, 
but gave up two hours of work daily, and lost 
the equivalent in salary, that he might devote 
the time to Bible study. His mother was a 
devout Buddhist, but at his baptism she broke 
down. She became one of the happiest Chris- 
tians in the Mission Church. Brother Yoshi- 
oka was the assistant pastor of the Kob6 
Church, and an efficient teacher in the Kob6 
girls' school. Four earnest young men had 
been licensed to exhort, making eight in the 
work, or nine licensed native workers in all. 

The ladies of the Mission, while bearing the 

348 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

burdens of housekeeping, and the almost daily 
entertainment of guests, native and foreign, 
moved on with cheerfulness in answer to the 
exigencies of the work. All had Sunday 
schools for children and classes for women 
during the week. Miss Gaines stood at her 
post against heavy odds in charge of the 
girls' school at Hiroshima. Alone, in the up- 
per story of an old theater, confronted by 
strong Buddhist opposition, the cheerful de- 
termination with which she pulled through 
every obstacle was surprising. 

At a regular meeting of the Mission, held 
July 15, 1889, it was resolved to concentrate 
our educational forces at Kobe, and that im- 
mediate steps be taken to procure a Faculty and 
facilities for thorough academic and Biblical 
training. The action was taken with the 
knowledge and approval of Bishop Wilson. 
This movement would not have been feasible 
but for the bequest of Thomas L. Branch, of 
Bichmond, Va., which placed, through Bishop 
Wilson, $10,000 at the disposal of the Japan 
Mission for the education of young men. 
The report of the Superintendent says: 

A most ehgible site, comprising eight acres upon the 
southern slope of the hills two miles east of Kobe, half 
a mile from and facing the sea, was purchased, and a 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 349 

two -story dormitory rapidly pushed to completion. 
The lower story is to be used for recitations and the 
upper to accommodate twenty-five boarders. Brother 
N. W. Utley, removing his day school from Kobe, 
became Principal of the Academic Department; while 
Professor J. C. C. Newton, who had been laboring in 
Tokio, brought out theological students here and be- 
came Principal of the Biblical Department. As will be 
seen by the minutes of the last Annual Meeting, Broth- 
ers Moseley and Utley were also associated with Brother 
Newton in theological training, the writer making a 
fourth in the Faculty. Still later, upon the arrival of 
Brother T. W. B. Demaree, Brother Utley 's place was 
filled by him, the latter having his hands full with the 
other department, language study, and the duties of 
Mission Treasurer. 

Again we copy from the report: 

One school hour every morning is given up to the 
study of the iScriptures. The object of the school is to 
build up Christian character. The spirit of the school 
is intensely evangelistic and aggressive. Seven out stati<3ns 
are kept up by our Christian students, some of them 
traveling as far out as eighty miles by steamer and rail. 
It is truly an inspiring sight to see these young evan- 
gelists going forth to the help of the struggling Churches 
which have no pastors. The presence of an active Y. M. 
C. A. organization and a daily evening prayer meeting 
help to give the institution an atmosphere of healthy 
devotion, which more than supplements the work 
done in the class room. And now the crowning bless- 
ing of all has been a remarkable series of manifesta- 
tions of God's Holy Spirit to us individually first, a 
pentecostal outpouring upon the Oita Church three 

350 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

hours afterward in the second place, and ten days later 
in great and abundant measure upon our boys' school, 
the work of grace never ceasing until four young men 
were called to the ministry and two women to the Bi- 
ble woman's work— these four from Oita Church— and 
until not one student was left in the dormitory who 
did not profess faith in Christ. A class of twelve are 
now candidates for baptism. The writer, being an eye- 
witness and an unworthy recipient of these gracious 
blessings, is constrained to cry out with the Psalmist: 
" Bless the Lord, O my soul : and all that is within me, 
bless his holy name! " 

Brother Utley, who has charge of the Aca- 
demic Department, thus wrote of the evan- 
gelistic work of these native students of the 
Kwansei Gakuin, as the boys' school at Kob6 
is called: 

Pursuing their studies during the week with untiring 
industry, at its close they gather their bedding and 
Bibles, and go out into the surrounding cities and vil- 
lages and preach the gospel to their kindred and friends. 
It is an encouraging scene to witness their informal 
meetings Monday night after their return. They tell 
of triumphs, disappointments, trials, and victories ; of 
probationers, prayer meetings, and Sunday schools, and 
seldom fail to bring with them calls for more expe- 
rienced and better informed workers to follow up the 
work initiated by themselves. Beginning with less 
than twenty students, and hoping to reach only thirty, 
with boarding accommodations for onlj'- twenty-four, I 
have now to report nearly twice the number begun 
with. The dormitory is full. Every boarder is a con- 

^fissions of the M. E. C, S. 351 

verted follower of the Lord Jesus, and nearly all of the 
day pupils. The students go away to their homes thor- 
oughly evangelistic in spirit, burning with their glorrious 
secret, and open numerous avenues through which the 
missionary may enter into their towns and their homes. 

The statistical report for the year closing 
September 4, 1889, gives the follov^^ing re- 
sults: Stations, 5; out stations, 12; married 
missionaries, 5; female married, 5; male sin- 
gle, 3; female single, 1; total, 14; adults bap- 
tized, 102; children, 13; members, 232; net in- 
crease, 68; probationers, 48; local preachers 
and exhorters, 8; theological students in school, 
7; total preparing for the ministry, 12; Sun- 
day schools, 18; scholars, 485. 

The fourth annual meeting of the Japan 
Mission was convened in the Methodist 
Church, Kobe, September 3, 1890, by Bishop 
A. W. Wilson. The most important events 
that marked the year since their third annual 
meeting was the arrival of the long-expected 

Eev. T. W. B. Demaree,of the Kentucky Con- 
ferei^ce, reached Kobe November 4, 1889; Miss 
Laura Strider, of Virginia, December 3, 1889; 
and Miss Y. M. Kin, M.D., December 4, 1889 
(Miss Kin was already in the field when em- 
ployed by the Board); Miss Mary C. Bice, of 

352 Umid Book of Methodist Missions. 

California, January 29, 1890; Eev. W. E. 
Towson and wife, of the Pacific Conference, 
February 20, 1890; Kev. W. A. Wilson, of 
North Carolina, June 24, 1890; and Miss 
Kate Harlan, who was in the field a self-sup- 
porting missionary when she Was placed on 
the roll of our mission force. These additions 
to their numbers added greatly to the confi- 
dence of the missionaries who had been hold- 
ing their ground for over two years. 

The reports at the annual meeting indicated 
that our brethren and sisters had not only cul- 
tivated diligently fields already occupied, but 
had extended their lines into the regions be- 
yond. We wish we had space for the full 
text of their reports. 

Dr. J. W, Lambuth, presiding elder of the 
Kobe District, called attention to the pressing 
want of a resident preacher and wife, and a 
native preacher at Osaka. The native Chris- 
tians of the town and of the island of Shi- 
koku earnestly called for a resident mission- 
ary, who should be accompanied by a native 
preacher. The work at Tadotsu and sur- 
rounding country, which was on the island of 
Shikoku, would require the entire time of a 
missionary and a native preacher. The peo- 
ple asked at least for a native preacher. They 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 353 

were endeavoring to build a church. They 
had placed in the hands of Dr. Lambuth seven 
armors and over twenty swords to be sold and 
the money used for that purpose. He had 
spent much time in Himeji and the country 
around, and considered it essential that the 
country to the west and north of Kob6 and 
Himeji be immediately occupied. It em- 
braced a country that for two hundred miles 
had been scarcely touched by any foreign 
missionary. He had licensed two young men 
to preach and four to exhort, who were doing 
good work. He had prepared twelve tracts 
on Scripture emblems for publication. 

The report of Brother Moseley for the Kobe 
Circuit speaks largely of the pulpit labors of 
Brother Yoshioka. Every month new proba- 
tioners gave in their names and members 
were added to the Church. Two Sunday 
schools in the city, with scholars of all ages, 
reported an average attendance of fifty. The 
ladies of the Mission conducted Sunday schools 
among adjoining villages. One conducted by 
Mrs. W. E. Lambuth was held in the street, 
as no one would rent a room. One of her 
songs was "Come to Jesus," which won for 
her among the children the title of "Mrs. 

Come to Jesus." 

354 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

The Kwansei Gakuin, with J. C. C. Newton 
in charge of the Biblical Department, and N. 
W. Utley in charge of the Academic Depart- 
ment, amid many discouragements did effect- 
ive work. In addition to other duties, Dr. W. 
K Lambuth and Brother Mosely, with Broth- 
er Demaree, had classes in this school. 

A dispell sary for women and children was 
opened in Hioga February 25, 1890, by Miss 
Y. M. Kin, M.D., which promises important 

In addition to the duties of Treasurer, 
Brother Towson had charge of Osaka Circuit. 
Four regular services were held each week. 
He had a class of bright young men who met 
daily for Bible study. During the year T. M. 
Datte, who had been laboring for several 
years among the Japanese in San Francisco 
as interpreter and evangelist, was licensed to 
preach. He was the second native local 
preacher in the Mission. 

. The ladies of the Kobe District all ren- 
dered effective service in Sunday schools, day 
schools, and night schools. The women they 
trained for Bible work will lead many of these 
heathen sisters to the cross. 

The Hiroshima District, in charge of W, E. 
Lambuth; reported healthy growth. In Hi- 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 355 

loshima a most commodious and well-located 
church had been built, besides buildings for a 
girls' boarding school. Miss Gaines (who was 
in charge of the school), aided by Miss Bice 
and Brother Waters (who was also the pastor 
of the charge), reported twenty-three enrolled 

Dr. Dukes, seconded by Mrs. Dukes and 
Miss Strider, had carried on the work vigor- 
ously at Mateuyama. His boys' school grew, 
and his chapel was crowded with hearers. 

At Oita Dr. Wainright and wife had a 
year of hard work and a season of hot perse- 
cution. Dr. W. E. Lambuth went to their 
aid. In their darkest hour the missionary 
cried earnestly to God for help. The Holy 
Spirit was poured out on the little band; a re- 
vival wave swept over their Church; sinners 
were convicted, and some were converted. 
The native Christians were filled with wonder, 
and said to each other: "We have never seen 
it on this wise before." Out of their company 
three were called to preach the gospel to their 
people. Around Oita there are a million and 
a half of idolaters. Calls came in to Dr. 
Wainright from many villages, but his du- 
ties in Oita would not allow him to go. 

November 12, 1890, Eev. J. M. Rollins, of 

356 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the St. Louis Conference, and his wife reached 
Japan. The Mission now reported: Stations, 
6; out stations, 15; adult baptisms, 77; mem- 
bers, 318; net increase, 87; probationers, 157; 
local preachers and exhorters, 11; preparing 
for the ministry, 13; Sunday schools, 21; 
scholars, 617. 

In 1891 the Mission was reenforced by the 
arrival of Eev. Simeon Shaw, of the South 
Georgia Conference, and his wife, who reached 
the field April 1; and Kev. W. A. Davis, of the 
Missouri Conference, who landed at Kobe 
September 1. They gave the Mission at that 
time a force of 13 male missionaries, 11 wives 
of missionaries, and 4 single lady mission- 

In December, 1890, Dr. W. E. Lambuth, 
owing t-o the failing health of his wife, re- 
turned, under a leave of absence from the 
Board, to the United States. Many years of 
toil, exposure, and sickness in the trying cli- 
mate of China and Japan had prostrated and 
broken her health. If prayer will prevail, the 
health of this devoted missionary will be re- 
stored, that she may close her mission in the 
field to which she had gladly consecrated her 

In October, 1891, a cablegram from Dr. J. 

Missions of the M. E. C, S. 357 

W. Lambutli to Bishop Wilson announced the 
destruction by fire of our girls' boarding 
school in Hiroshima. The value of the school 
to our work called for prompt action. After a 
brief council with the bishop in charge and 
Dr. W. K. Lambuth it was decided to raise 
the fund needed to restore the house by spe- 
cial effort, and the Secretary cabled to Dr. J. W. 
Lambuth the word, "Eebuild." The Bud- 
dhists of Hiroshima, who rejoiced over our loss, 
will in due time look on the walls of another 
Christian school on the site of the old one. 

The report of the Japan Mission for 1891-92, 
as found in the Forty-sixth Annual Eeport of 
the Board, exhibits a most encouraging ad- 
vance in all the lines of work. The Mission 
now has 5 native preachers, 14 local preach- 
ers, 17 theological students, 24 Bible women 
and other helpers, 40 native teachers, 381 na- 
tive members, 128 probationers, 23 Bible 
classes, 248 students, 34 Sunday schools, and 
902 scholars. 

Miss Harlan was called home in the sum- 
mer of 1891 by important interests, and 
Brother Utley in October of the same year 
by failing health. We trust the way will soon 
be opened for their return, and that the Board 
ere long may be able to send out the reen force- 

358 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ments this field so greatly needs. The follow- 
ing table gives the 

Roll of the Mission. 




Rev. J. W. Lambuth 

Rev. 0. A. Dukes 

Rev. W. R. Lambuth 

Rev C. B. Moseley 


S. W. Missouri. 







W. N. Carolina. 

St. Louis. 

N. Georgia. 



Miss N B (iraines . ... 


Rev. B. W. Waters 


Rev. J. C. C. Newton 

S. H, Wainright, M.D 

Rev. N. W. Utley 

Miss Y. M. Kin, M.D 

Rev. T. W. B. Demaree 

Miss L. C. Strider 


Rev. W. E. Towson 

Miss M. F Bice 


Miss Kate Harlan 


Rev. W. A. Wilson 

Rev. J. M. Rollins 


Rev. S. Shaw 


Rev. W. A. Davis 




In 1756 Mr. Wesley called the attention of 
the Conference to the demands of destitute 
regions in England and Ireland, and a fund 
was raised to aid in sending them the gospel. 
This was the beginning of Home Missions 
among the Methodists of England. In 1812 
Bishop Asbury began to call on the people for 
subscriptions for the support of ministers 
where they could not otherwise be sustained. 
All these subscriptions were entered in a small 
pocket memorandum book, and the money was 
used in the destitute regions of the regular 
work and in new circuits on the western fron- 
tier. This may be considered the beginning 
of Home Missions in the Methodist Church 
in America. 

About the year 1812 "Bishop Asbury began 
to solicit subscriptions for the support of min- 
isters on circuits where they could not other- 
wise be sustained, which subscriptions he en- 
tered in a pocket memorandum book that he 


360 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

always carried with him for that purpose." 
This fact may explain the reason why the an- 
nual reports designate 1812 as the date of the 
origin of the Domestic Missions of Episcopa- 
lian Methodism. 

In 1819, when our Church organized its Mis- 
sionary Society, its field was altogether in this 
country: among the Indians, the colored 
people, and destitute regions of our regular 
work. It was not until 1833 that our Church 
entered the foreign field, and sent Melville B. 
Cox to Liberia, Africa. It 1835 it also com- 
menced mission work in South America. 
With the exception of these two missions, our 
missionary operations were confined to the 
home field until after 1844, when the Church 
was divided. It was not until 1848 that the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, entered 
the foreign field. 

From the annual report of the Board of 
Missions for 1846 we find the southern branch 
of the Church had the following Home Mis- 
sions within its bounds: Missions among the 
destitute regions of regular work; Missions 
among the people of color; Indian Missions; 
Texas Mission; German Mission; French Mis- 
sions in Louisiana. 

In former Hand Boohs we have given brief 

Home Missiofis of the M. E. C, S. 361 

summaries of the missions among the people 
of color, the Indians, the Texas mission, and 
the French mission in Louisiana. It remains 
that we should give some account of the mis- 
sions among the destitute regions of the reg- 
ular work, the German missions, and the mis- 
sions in the West. 

Missions in Destitute Eegions of the Keg- 
ULAR Work. 

In 1846 we had in Southern Methodism 47 
missions in destitute regions of the regular 
work, 46 missionaries, and 8,996 members. 
The annual reports fail to show how much 
was expended at that period in each depart- 
ment, but for all the Home Missions the col- 
lections were $68,529.24. Of this less than 
one-half was expended for the missions in the 
destitute regions among the white people. 
The largest part of the collections was em- 
ployed in supporting the missions among the 
colored people. 

In 1861 the annual report showed 257 mis- 
sions, 210 missionaries, and 43,676 members. 

At the General Conference of 1846 both 
Home and Foreign Missions were committed 
to a Board of Managers, which, in conjunction 
with the bishops, determined the fields that 

362 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

were to be occupied, selected the missionaries, 
and distributed the amount to be raised for 
their support among the Annual Conferences. 
In 1866 the General Conference divided the 
mission work of the Church into two depart- 
ments, and provided for the organization of 
two Boards, one having charge of the home 
and the other of the foreign field. In 1870 
the missions of the Church were again placed 
under one Board of Managers. In 1874 the 
constitution was again changed, giving to the 
missionary operations of the Church their 
present organization. The General Board has 
charge of the foreign missions and all others 
not provided for by the Annual Conferences. 
Each Annual Conference is required to organ- 
ize a Board of Missions auxiliary to the Gen- 
eral Board, which shall have control of the 
missions it may establish with the consent of 
the President of the Conference within its 
bounds and of the funds raised for its sup- 
port. This system has its advantages. As 
the management is distributed among the 
Conference Boards, there is no expense for sal- 
aries; and the cost per cent, of administration 
under the missionary economy of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church is among the smallest 
of all the missionary organizations in England 

Howe Missions of the M. K. C, S. 863 

and America. Placing the responsibility of 
supporting the missions within its bounds on 
each Annual Conference may also spring the 
preachers and people forward in their sup- 
port. These advantages may be offset by 
other considerations. This plan dissevers the 
connectional bond so far as this department 
of our Home Missions is concerned. The 
older and more thoroughly established Con- 
ferences are released from their obligation to 
help the new and feeble Conferences. The 
Christian principle that the strong should help 
the weak is withdrawn from this important 
field of Christian effort, and the weaker Con- 
ferences in the older States and the vast 
fields opening in the West are deprived of 
that immediate and direct support their ne- 
cessities demand. It is true the constitution 
in a measure provides for these weaker Con- 
ferences by placing under charge of the Gen- 
eral Board all missions " not provided for by 
the Annual Conferences." Whether this pro- 
vision is the wiser plan may be a question 
that calls for earnest thought. 

We have made earnest efforts to obtain ac- 
curate reports respecting the number of mis- 
sions in destitute regions of the regular work 
each Conference Board is supporting in each 

864 ^[(tnd Booh of Meiliodist Missions. 

of the Annual Conferences. The fullest re- 
port we have obtained is that of 1890. It 
gives 417 missions, 406 missionaries, and 65,- 
448 members. As twelve Conferences made 
no reports, we can safely estimate that we have 
600 missionaries in this field and 100,000 mem- 

German Missions. 

In 1842 Dr. William Winans, of Mississip- 
pi, called the attention of the missionary au- 
thorities to the importance of establishing a 
mission among the Germans who were land- 
ing by thousands every year in New Orleans. 
Rev. Philip Schmucker was sent to open 
the work. He organized a class, but soon 
returned North, leaving the mission in charge 
of a young local preacher who had been 
licensed by Dr. Winans, then presiding elder 
of the New Orleans District. The labors 
of Rev. C. Bremer were greatly blessed, and 
he soon succeeded in building a comfort- 
able house of worship and organizing the 
first German Methodist Church in New Or- 
leans. In the annual report of 1846 we find 
in connection with the New Orleans German 
Mission the names of C. Bremer and N. 
Breckwedel, missionaries, 1 Church, 90 mem- 
bers, 1 Sunday school and 50 members. At 

Home Missions of the M. E. (7., S. 365 

Carrolltoii 15 members were rei)orted, 7 at 
Lafayette, and 27 at Mobile. Total members, 
139. Eev. D. Derick was at work in Charles- 
ton, S. C, and Eev. H. P. Young at Galveston, 
Tex. Mr. Young encountered some perse- 
cution from his countrymen. On one occa- 
sion a crowd w^ho were filled with beer en- 
tered the congregation and broke up the serv- 
ices. This violation of the rights of the 
human conscience met prompt rebuke. The 
leader was summoned the next morning before 
the Mayor of the city, who heard the facts and 
sent the offender to jail. After three days he 
sent to Mr. Young and asked him to pray for 
him and to intercede in his behalf with the 
Mayor. It was cheerfully done, and he was 

In 1847 Mr. Schmucker revisited New Or- 
leans and was greatly impressed with the im- 
portance of the mission and the success of the 
young local preacher he had left in charge 
five years before. Three thousand Germans, 
fresh from the Fatherland, reached its wharfs 
while he was in the city. The missionary 
met them with Bibles and tracts and a kind 
invitation to the house of God. Some were 
in the congregation the following Sabbath. 

Brother Bremer had undertaken a new mis- 

366 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

sion in the lower part of the city, but his work 
was done. He died September 14, 1847. His 
death was a great loss to the mission. The 
membership of the New Orleans Mission de- 
clined from 220 in 1847 to 44 in 1848. In 1849 
Charleston disappeared from the annual re- 
port. J. M. Hofer appeared in charge of the 
First and John Pauly in charge of the Second 
Mission in New Orleans, with 116 members. 
The work in Texas was expanding. C. Kot- 
tenstien reported 93 members in Galveston, 
and C. Grote reported 46 in Victoria. H. P. 
Young had opened work at Seguin and a 
mission was started at La Grange. In 1850 
the name of E. Schneider was added to the 
missionary force. Peter Moelling had charge 
of the Galveston Mission in 1852. In his re- 
port he tells of a revival in which Rev. N. A. 
Cravens, pastor of the American congregation, 
helped him, in which eleven were happily 
converted. In 1854 the membership in 
Louisiana and Texas was 589. In 1855 a mis- 
sion was opened in Louisville, Ky., under the 
charge of C. Quelmelz. He reported 38 
members. _ Another was opened in Nashville, 
Tenn., P. Barth, pastor. Under the direction 
of the General Conference, and authority of 
the Board, a German paper was established 

Home Missmis of the M. E. C, S. 367 

in Galveston, with Peter Moelling as editor. 
It proved an efficient auxiliary to the evan- 
gelical labors of the preachers. There were 
now eight missions in Texas, four in New Or- 
leans, one each in Mobile, Louisville, and 
Nashville, and one just established in Mobile. 
In 1856 the German Missions were organized, 
into a district, with Rev. J. W. De Vilbiss as 
presiding elder. He reported for that year 
a net increase of 126. In 1857 Rev. H. P. 
Young, with about 50 members in Galveston, 
withdrew, and united with the Presbyterian 
Church. About 100 conversions and acces- 
sions to the Church were reported from 
Texas. In 1855 the completion of a new brick 
church in New Orleans was reported. In 
1860 a mission was commenced in St. Louis 
with four preachers. They reported 50 mem- 
bers. In 1861 there were 3 missions in New 
Orleans, 13 in Texas, 1 each in Louisville, Mo- 
bile, Nashville, St. Louis, Hannibal, and 
Glasgow. Then came the war. The fidelity 
of the German missionaries during those days 
of trial is worthy of all praise. With every 
industry in the country crippled and some 
destroyed, the Church could only partially 
support its missions, and the families of the 
faithful missionaries encountered many pri- 

368 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

vations. The writer remembers one of the 
German preachers in Texas whose family for 
many months had nothing on their table but 
corn bread and part of the time black coffee. 
He never murmnred. When Conference met 
he was in his place ready for the toil and sac- 
rifice of another year. John Pauly alone held 
his ground in New Orleans, We remember 
when the storm was over and he was sent to 
help build up the German work in Texas, how 
he thrilled us with the story of his experience 
when he and his wife, for want of a better 
home, slept in a church steeple in New Or- 
leans, while holding his little band together. 
He had in him the material out of which 
apostles were made. 

Many both among the American and Ger- 
man preachers, in those dark days that lin- 
gered after the war, were doubtful whether 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, could 
sustain the German work. In 1866, prior to 
the meeting of the General Conference in 
New Orleans, a convention of German preach- 
ers was held in Bastrop County, Tex., to con- 
sider whether they would remain with the 
Southern Church or accept overtures from 
the Methodist Episcopal Church (North). 
As the meeting was within the district of the 

Home Missions of the M. E. C, S. .369 

writer, he was invited to attend. Rev. F. Vor- 
denbaumen, who still lives, a Nestor in his 
Conference, presided. Letters were read from 
high officials of the Church (North), in which 
the salaries that could be paid the German 
preachers in Texas were stated. The writer, 
who was then Secretary of the Conference 
Board, was asked what might be expected 
from the Southern Methodist Church? He 
frankly adniitted that in the impoverished 
state of the Church we could not hope to be 
able, at least for many years, to pay such sal- 
aries as were offered in the letters. The 
Southern Methodist preachers expected to 
continue their work among their own people, 
ruined as they were in fortune, trusting in 
God for a support. If the German preachers 
were ready to share the lot of their mother 
Church, their American brethren out of their 
poverty would gladly do all in their power for 
the support of the German Mission. The 
question was earnestly and prayerfully dis- 
cussed, the vote was taken, and almost unani- 
mously they decided to share the shattered 
fortunes of their " mother Church." A letter 
was prepared and sent to the General Confer- 
ence by the writer, giving the Church the as- 
surance of the devotion of their German 

270 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the Pacific Ocean. In view of the vast extent 
of the field it was deemed wise, under the au- 
thority of the General Conference, to divide 
the territory into two Annual Conferences. 
The eastern section retained the name of the 
Mexican Border Mission Conference. It em- 
braced the States of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, 
Coahuila, and the Mexican population in 
West Texas south of the Pecos Eiver. The 
western section took the name of the North- 
west Mexican Conference, embracing the States 
of Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora, Sinaloa, and 
the Territory of Lower California, and the 
Mexican population on the American side of 
the border north and west of the Pecos Kiver. 

We crossed the river in 1873, and now we 
are three bands. 

The statistics of Central Mexico Mission 
Conference for 1892 are as follows: Local 
preachers, 28; members, 2,948; net gain dur- 
ing the year, 375; infants baptized, 239; adults 
baptized, 315; number of churches, 30; value, 
$56,464; amount paid preachers, $31.24; paid 
bishops, $34.45; paid Conference claimants, 
$67.04; collected for Foreign Missions, $354.37 ; 
Church Extension, $119.24; number of Sun- 
day schools, 65; pupils, 139; day schools, 14; 
pupils, 349; paid for literature, $65.57. 

Missions of the M, E. C, S, 271 

For the Mexican Border Missiou Conference 
for the same year the statistics show: Local 
preachers, 22; members, 1,535; infants bap- 
tized, 153; adults baptized, 170; Sunday 
schools, QQ; officers and teachers, 126; schol- 
ars, 1,558; day schools and colleges, 6, with 29 
teachers and 553 students of both sexes. Col- 
lected for Conference claimants, $181; for I'or- 
eign Missions, $594; for Church Extension, 
$226; education, $35.21; Bible cause, $186.62. 

The Northwest Mexican Mission Conference 
statistical report for 1892 records the follow 
ing: The Conference consists of 6 missionaries, 
11 native ministers, and 8 local preachers, with 
a membership of 657. There have been 84 chil- 
dren and 70 adults baptized. Sunday schools, 
22; teachers, 53; scholars, 605. Collected for 
Missions, $514; Church Extension, $104; value 
of 6 churches, $13,500; of parsonages, $10,500. 
The MacDonell Educational Institute has 
4 teachers, 80 scholars, and property worth 
$10,000. The institution is at Durango. Pal- 
more Institute, Chihuahua, has 5 teachers, 42 
scholars, and property valued at $12,000. El 
Paso Institute has 3 teachers, 125 scholars, 
and property worth $850. Nogales Seminary 
has 3 teachers, 90 pupils, and property valued 
at $2,000. 

372 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

by their fellow-countrymen. As a result their 
piety was of strong and vigorous fiber and 
their zeal for their religion warm and active. 
One of the presiding elders in Texas reported 
a family altar in the house of every member 
in his district. Their Conference reports 
would have served as models to the entire 
Church. It was a rare thing for a preacher 
to report a deficit in his collections. 

The General Conference of 1886 authorized 
the absorption of the German missions in 
Louisiana and Mississippi in the Conferences 
in which they were located. In the judgment 
of thoughtful men the mission in this part 
of the work had not developed in strength nor 
increased in numbers as a healthy state of 
things would indicate. The cessation of Ger- 
man immigration to New Orleans was assigned 
as one cause. The Americanization of the 
children of German Methodists was another. 
They were educated in American schools, 
mingled in American society, married into 
American families, spoke the English lan- 
guage, and hence many felt no special attrac- 
tion toward the Church of their parents when 
the worship was in the German language and 
the congregations limited to that race. It 
was hoped that by bringing the preachers and 

' Home Missions of the M. E. C, S. 373 

people into closer relations with their Ameri- 
can brethren, and by providing English as 
well as German preaching for their congrega- 
tions, the Americanized children of German 
Methodists could be held to the Church of 
their parents. That we are failing In a large 
measure to hold the young people of our 
German congregations presents to both our 
American and German preachers a question 
for earnest and prayerful consideration. The 
entire mission, in 1886, reported 22 preachers. 
The Louisiana District reported 437 members; 
the West Texas, 481; and the Central Texas, 
390. Total, 1,328. 

In 1888 the Texas Mission was called to 
mourn the death of Kev. Charles Grote. He 
was a man of God and useful in winning souls 
for Christ. In 1891 the German Mission in 
Texas reported 18 missionaries and 1,016 
members. Their preachers are a noble body 
of men. They are working under many diffi- 
culties, but the least is the fact that the Board 
of Missions, burdened with many claims on 
its treasury, has been unable fo.r years to 
make the liberal appropriation this work so 
greatly needs. They have but little symi^athy 
from their own people, and hence cannot en- 
gage in aggressive work unless their Ameri- 

274 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

of the priests, who wished to secure and de- 
stroy the Bibles. Careful inquiry satisfied 
them that this was not the case. The mis- 
sionaries were also active in the circulation of 
tracts specially suited to the wants of Brazil. 
As thousands of sailors visited Bio, the mis- 
sionaries preached on the deck of some vessel 
every Sunday. Much interest was taken in 
the work by many English and American cap- 
tains. A British flag was floated from the 
vessel where the service was to be held, and 
the sailors gathered gladly to the place of re- 
ligious worship. 

The success of the Mission awakened oppo- 
sition among the priests, w^ho published many 
gross misrepresentations of the missionaries 
and their work. Their hostility made but lit- 
tle impression on the people, and the mission- 
aries moved quietly on, assured that the gov- 
ernment would protect them so long as their 
operations were within the restrictions of the 
laws of Brazil. 

In one of Mr. Kidder's tours through the 
country he visited Sao Paulo, being, it is said, 
the first Protestant missionary who had 
reached that region. He also visited Bahia, 
Pernambuco, Maranhao, Para, and other 
points to the north and on the banks of the 

Missions of the M, E. C, S. 275 

Amazon. He preaclied the first Protestant 
sermon ever delivered on the waters of the 
Amazon, and introduced and circulated the 
Scriptures in the Portuguese language on the 
whole Eastern coast and in the principal cities. 

He was diligently preparing himself for the 
work by the stady of the Portuguese language, 
when, owing to the death of his wife in 1840, 
he returned home with his motherless son. 
Mr. Spaulding continued his work until 1861, 
when the financial embarrassments of the 
Board occasioned his recall. 

As evidence of the influence these early Meth- 
odist missionaries exerted during their brief 
sojourn in this field, Kev. H. C, Tucker, one 
of our missionaries now laboring in Brazil, in- 
forms us that he found a few years ago in a 
second-hand bookstore in Eio a work in the 
Portuguese language, entitled, "The Metho- 
dist and the Catholic." It was written by a 
Catholic priest, and was designed to expose 
what it styled the errors and evil eff^ects of 
the doctrine taught by the Methodists. The 
missionaries had certainly aroused the fears 
of the priests. Their efforts to alarm the peo- 
ple did much to call the attention of thought- 
ful minds in Brazil to the work of the mis- 
sionaries, and, no doubt, aided in preparing 

376 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

one of the strongest and purest men in tli« 
Church. Brother Wynne was a preacher of 
one year, and Brother Pollock a presiding 
elder of ability and experience. The Church is 
wise when it sets apart its strongest, wisest, and 
purest men for the mission field. As the move- 
ment was conditioned on special collections 
for its support, the missionaries were instruct- 
ed to devote some time in raising the necessary 
funds. In February, 1850, Dr. Boring wrote 
to the Secretary that their appeals had been 
successful and they would have enough for a 
parsonage besides. A supply of Methodist 
books and Sabbath school publications was 
secured and also a donation of Bibles and 
Testaments from the American Bible Society. 
They left New Orleans February 28, 1850 
A trip to California in that day, by way of 
Panama, was a more serious affair than a voy- 
age to China at the present time. 

The missionaries reached the field in April, 
1850, and opened work at San Francisco, Sac- 
ramento, and Stockton. They soon organized 
three circuits, which were 'supplied by local 
preachers. Ill health soon compelled Pollock 
to return home. Dr. Boring took charge of 
San Francisco, Wynne of San Jose, C. Grid- 
ley of Stockton. Sacramento City, Sonora, 

Home Missions of the M. E.G., S. 377 

Colima, Mad Canyon, and Nevada City were 
left to be supplied. The first year closed 
with over three hundred members. 

Encouraged by the results of the first year's 
labors and the outlook, Dr. Boring appealed to 
the Church at home for a sufficient force and 
means to form a Conference at once. The 
Board approved the call, and each Conference 
was called on for a missionary, whose duty it 
should be, before starting to the field, to raise 
within the limits of their respective Confer- 
ences one thousand dollars for outfit and 
travel and the support of the mission. 

The Pacific Annual Conference was organ- 
ized in San Francisco April 15, 1852, Dr. J. 
Boring, Superintendent of the mission, pre- 
siding. It had eighteen preachers on its roll. 
The work was divided into two districts with 
23 appointments, and 294 members. Dr. Bor- 
ing was editor of the Christian Observer. 

The presence of the venerable Bishop Soule 
at the Conference of 1853 added greatly to 
the zeal of the preachers. The mission re- 
ported 25 preachers, 28 appointments, and 587 
members. From this date the Pacific Confer- 
ence has been reckoned in the regular roll of 
Conferences. Its charges have been self-sup- 
porting, with the excej^tion of special appoint- 

378 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ments which have needed and received assist- 
ance from the General Board. In 1891 it re- 
ported 77 traveling preachers, 45 local preach- 
ers, and 6,060 members. 

In 1860 the Oregon District reported 268 
members, and the Jacksonville District had 
been formed. No reports were received dur- 
ing the war, but the preachers were faithful 
to their charge, for in 1866 this region re- 
ported 14 itinerant preachers, 12 local preach- 
ers, and about 500 members. The General 
Conference of that year authorized the organ- 
ization of the region north of Scott's Moun- 
tain, with Oregon and Washington Territory, 
into an Annual Conference under the name of 
the Columbia Conference. A large portion 
of the region was then unoccupied by other 
Churches. In 1869 the Umatilla District was 
formed, which embraced the upper waters of 
the Columbia River. This in a few years in- 
cluded Walla Walla, in AVashington Territo^ 
ry. In 1882 this Conference reported 22 itin- 
erant preachers, 25 local preachers, and 1,470 
members. In 1890 the General Conference 
provided for the division of this Conference 
into the Columbia and East Columbia Confer- 
ences. In 1891 the Columbia Conference re- 
ported 21 itinerant preachers, 14 local preach- 

Horiic Missions of flie M. E. C, S. - 379 

ers, and 1,305 members; the East Columbia, 21 
itinerant, 27 local preachers, and 1,348 members. 

As the population on the Pacific moved 
soutliward, the Conference extended its lines 
until the Los Angeles District was formed. 
This field was mission ground, and the Board, 
as far as its means allowed, sustained the ef- 
forts of the pioneer preachers. In 1870, 
under authority from the General Conference, 
the Los Angeles Conference was formed. It 
was divided into three districts, one within 
the bounds of Arizona. It reported 19 itiner- 
ants, 17 local preachers, and 875 members. The 
statistics for 1891 are: Traveling preachers, 
35; local preachers, 30; members, 2,012. 

The " three missionaries " that made up 
the " California Mission " in 1850 have grown, 
in 1892, into four Annual Conferences, 154 
traveling preachers, 116 local preachers, and 
10,621 members. 

Our preachers on the Pacific Coast are a 
noble and self-sacrificing band. The men 
who lay the foundation of the Church of 
Christ in a new country must look for their 
reward beyond the boundaries of time. The 
Church in future days will share the results of 
their labors, but will faintly appreciate its in- 
debtedness to these faithful pioneer preachers. 

380 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

As the vast region which now includes 
Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, New Mexico, 
Wyoming, Montana, and Idaho was filling up 
from the Eastern states, a large per cent, of 
the adventurous population were from the 
Southern states, the obligation of the Church 
to follow them with the gospel was clear 
and imperative. The General Conference 
of 1870 provided for the formation of a 
Conference which would include the vast un- 
occupied field east of the Rocky Mountains. 
At the meeting in July of that year Bishop 
McTyeire notified the Board that under this 
authority he would organize a great mission- 
ary Conference, to be called the Western 
Conference, and must have men and means. 
The Board appropriated $3,000. The Confer- 
ence was organized. In 1872 it had extended 
its operations to Kansas, Nebraska, Colorado, 
and Montana, and reported in the field 61 
preachers and a net increase during the year 
of 622 members. The Board has never been 
able to make the appropriations the enlarge- 
. ment of this field has demanded, and as the 
support from the people has been meager, the 
preachers and their families have endured 
great privations. In 1874 the General Con- 
ference formed out of this vast territory the 

Home Missions of the M. E. C, S. . 381 

Denver Confereuce, which embraced the Ter- 
ritories of Colorado, Montana, and New Mex- 
ico. The work in Montana was remote from 
the rest of the field, and in 1878 the General 
Conference provided for another division of the 
territory, and the Montana Conference was 
organized. The preachers in that field have 
held their ground under heavy difficulties. In 
1891 the Conference reported 14 traveling- 
preachers, 6 local preachers, and 532 members. 

During these years railroads have opened 
this vast territory and brought distant points 
near to each other. The stream of population 
passed down into New Mexico, where the 
Mexican population that remains presents an 
additional demand on the missionary zeal of 
the Church. Tn 1890 the Denver Conference 
was again divided, and with some territory 
from Texas the New Mexico Conference was 
formed. Out of the Mission Conference or- 
ganized by Bishop McTyeire we now have 
the Western, Denver, Montana, and New 
Mexico Conferences, with 75 traveling preach- 
ers, 59 local preachers, and 5,673 members. 

The immense population that was pouring 
into the northwest and west frontiers of 
Texas led these Conferences in 1881 to ask 
the Board for aid in providing this region 

382 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

with religions privileges. The work was so 
extensive that their Conferences were nnable 
to meet all its demands. The appropriation 
that was made and continued has greatly as- 
sisted in developing the New Mexico Confer- 
ence and the vast frontier of Texas. 

No field which looks to onr Mission Board 
for help promises larger results than our 
Western work. The Texas Mission, which 
was opened by Ruter, Fowler, and Alexander 
in 1836, reported in 1891 573 traveling 
preachers, 922 local preachers, and 135,513 
members. As the outgrowth of the Cali- 
fornia Mission, opened in 1850, and the 
Western Conference, organized in 1870, we 
have 229 traveling preachers, 175 local 
I)reachers, and 16,394 members. The net re- 
sults from the expenditure of men and means 
in the Western work, including the early 
Texas Mission and the regions east and west 
of the Rocky Mountains, may be summed up 
as follows: Traveling preachers, 802; local 
preachers, 1,097; members, 151,801. About 
one-sixth of the traveling preachers and 
about one-eighth of the members of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, are the 
outgrowth of these missions. 




The great problem of " woman's work for 
woman" commenced its solution over forty- 
three years ago. In March, 1849, Dr. Olin 
preached a sermon before the members of the 
Baltimore Conference. His home during 
the session of the Conference was at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. William Wilkins, on Charles 
Street. A lady friend of the family, the 
President of the "Female Auxiliary of the 
Foreign Evangelical Society," stepping in, 
mission work was discussed, and Dr. Olin in- 
quired why she worked outside her own 

" Because there is no avenue for woman's 
work in the M. E. Church," she replied. 

He said with emphasis: " Create one." 

"How? " was asked. 

"Organize an association for missionary 

"In what field? " was the next question. 


384 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

" China is now opened for missionary en- 
terprise," said Dr. Olin. "Work for China; 
form your society and I will speak at your 
first anniversary." 

The outgrowth of this conversation was the 
organization of the " Female China Missionary 
Society of Baltimore," which was the first 
" woman's " independent organization in this 
country, and from which all kindred organi- 
zations in sister Protestant Churches have 

In 1858 came these words from Dr. Went- 
worth, then missionary to China — a sentiment 
then first brought to view, noiv occupying the 
foreground of mission work: ''China needs 
an army of icomen, ready to lay down their lives^ 
if need be, for their own sex.'' The result of 
this appeal was the establishment of the 
"Baltimore Female Seminary" in Soochow, 
China. Soon after the war a society was or- 
ganized by the ladies of Trinity Church, Bal- 
timore, called "Trinity Home Mission," 
which was soon changed to the name of 
"The Woman's Bible Mission of the M. E. 
Church, South." 

In April, 1872, organization upon a broader 
basis was effected, membership dues fixed at 
2 cents per week, or $1 per annum, and 

Woman's Missionary Society, M. E. C, S, 385 

arrangements made for holding regular meet- 
ings. The visits of Mrs. J. W. Lambuth, of 
missionary fame, to this society in 1876 in- 
creased the interest in and contributions to 
the cause of Foreign Missions. 

In April, 1874, largely through the zeal and 
effort of Mrs. M. L. Kelley, some of the Metho- 
dist women of Nashville, Tenn., formed them- 
selves into an organization known as a " Bible 
Mission" with two distinct objects: one, to 
furnish aid and Bible instruction to the poor 
and destitute of the city; the other, to send 
pecuniary aid to foreign missionary fields. 
This Woman's Missionary Society in three 
years, besides securing a home for the poor 
of the city, and originating the "Mission 
Home " (an institution for the benefit of fall- 
en women), contributed $3,000 for the Chris- 
tian elevation of the women of China. To 
this work Mrs. Kelley dedicated her every 
treasure: prayers, labor, money, friends, 
child, grandchild. She died October 27, 
1877, nearly seventy-two years old. Her last 
message to her granddaughter, who, as the 
wife of a missionary, had just set sail for 
China, was: " Hold out to the last for Jesus! " 

A similar society was about the same time 
organized at Warren, Ark., and in 1876 an- 

386 Hcmd Book of Methodist Missions. 

other at Broad Street Church, Richmond, Va. ; 
others at Mineral Springs and Pine Bluff, 
Ark., Glasgow, Mo., Macon, Ga., Louisville 
and Morganfield, Ky., and Franklin, N. C. 
In New Orleans, La., a society of ladies had 
for several years been vforking for the Mexi-^ 
can Mission. The interest in woman's work 
in Missions seemed increasing throughout 
Southern Methodism. In flourishing Church- 
es, in sparsely settled districts, unaided often 
save by the guidance and influence of the 
Holy Spirit, the women were organizing 
themselves into Missionary Societies, until 
1878 found more than twenty Woman's Mis- 
sionary Societies in the M. E. Church, South, 
doing specific work. In May, 1878, acting 
under this growing impulse, a number of 
representative women of the M. E. Church, 
South, met in Atlanta, Ga., during the session 
of the General Conference, which body, under 
God, answered the prayers of his "hand- 
maidens" by organizing the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society of the M. E. Church, South, 
under the provisions of the Constitution in- 
corporated in the Discipline, the bishops and 
Missionary Secretaries appointing a General 
Executive Association to be governed " there- 
after as by-laws and regulations to be adopt- 

WonudCs M/'ssionarfj Society^M. E. C, S\ 387 

eel by the Association shall provide; and Con- 
ference Societies, to be constituted in accord- 
ance with provisions of such by-laws and 

The following is taken from the General 
Conference Daily Christian Advocate^ May 25, 

General Executive Association — Officers. 

President. — Mrs. Juliana Hayes, 304 North Strieker 
Street, Baltimore, Md. 

Vice Fresidcnts. — Mrs. R. Paine, Mrs. G. F. Pierce, Mrs. 
H. H. Kavanaugh, Mrs. W. M. Wightman, Mrs. E. M. 
Marvin, Mrs. D. S. Dogget, Mrs. H. N. McTyeire, Mrs. 
J. C. Keener. 

Corresponding Secretary.— Mrs. D. H. McGavock, Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Treamrer,— Mrs. James Whitworth, 101 South Spruce 
Street, Nashville, Tenn. 

Managers. — Mrs. Frank Smith, University of Virginia; 
Miss Melissa Baker, Baltimore, Md.; Mrs. R. M. Saun- 
ders, Norfolk, Va.; Mrs. Samuel Cupples, St. Louis, 
Mo. ; Mrs. Witten McDonald, Carrollton, Mo. ; Mrs. E. 
E. Wiley, Emory, Va.; Mrs. H. D. McKinnon, Mineral 
Springs, Ark.; Mrs. B. H. Moss, New Orleans, La.; 
Mrs. S. Henderson, New Orleans, La. ; Mrs. W. H. Fos- 
ter, New Orleans, La.; Mrs. LI. Colquitt, Atlanta, Ga.; 
Mrs. George W. Williams, Charleston, S. C; Mrs. Dr. 
Lipscomb, Columbus, Miss.; Mrs. James Sykes, Co- 
lumbus, Miss.; Mrs. S. E. Atkinson, Memphis, Tenn.; 
T^Irs. S. W. Moore, Brownsville, Tenn. ; Mrs. Dr. Hart- 
ridge, Florida ; Miss Maria Gibson, Louisville, Ky. 

388 Hand Booh of AfetJiodist Missions. 

The previously mentioned organizations 
(except the one in New Orleans working for 
Mexico) became auxiliary to the newly or- 
ganized Society, turning over to its care the 
foreign work undertaken by them. By reso- 
lution the Board of Missions committed the 
school for girls in Shanghai, China, under its 
control, to the care of the new^ branch of the 
system of Missions. And thus the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, 
South, was fairly launched, with "apparatus 
and the openings for carrying on the w^ork." 
God's blessing v/as with the new organization. 
He had directed in the appointment of its 
leaders, for among the many intelligent, con- 
secrated daughters of Southern Methodism 
none could have been found more fully suited, 
better equipped for the work than Mrs. 
Hayes, of Baltimore, Md., and Mrs. McGav- 
ock, of Nashville, Tenn. Said a great man, 
in speaking of the organization at Atlanta: 
"The fullness of time had come. God had 
selected his handmaiden, Juliana Hayes, a 
chosen instrument, able and consecrated, to 
lead the women of the Southern Church in 
bringing back to his Son his promised inheri- 
tance: the heathen world." Prior to the or- 
ganization at Atlanta, Miss Lochie Rankin, of 

Woman's MUsionanj Sociciy, J/. E. C.,S, 389 

Tennessee, had been assigned by tlie bisliop 
in charge of the mission to the school in 
Shanghai. She was immediately adopted by 
the new Woman's Missionary Society and 
recognized as its first representative. This 
school had twenty-nine pupils, and several na- 
tive Bible women employed, and "thus," said 
the gifted Corresponding Secretary, "a nucle- 
us was furnished us, round which we could 
center in the dawn of our missionary morn- 

The first meeting of the General Executive 
Association of the Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety of the M. E. Church, South, was held in 
Broadway Church, Louisville, Ky., May 16, 
1879. Though not quite a year liad passed 
since organization, the seed sown by the wom- 
en of Southern Methodism had been blessed of 
God, and was germinating, budding, blossom- 
ing, giving promise of a rich fruitage in the 
near future. The officers, several of the mana- 
gers, and delegates from the Missouri, Ken- 
tucky, Holston, Tennessee, Little Kock, North 
Georgia, Alabama, North Carolina, Louisville, 
Baltimore, Memphis, and North Mississippi 
Conference Societies, and a number of elect 
ladies and interested friends were present. 
Mrs. F. A. Butler was elected Recording Sec- 

390 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

retary. The opening address of the Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Hayes, was peculiarly appropriate. 
The venerable Bishop Kavanaugh honored 
the occasion with his presence. Dr. A. W. 
Wilson, Missionary Secretary, and Dr. D. C. 
Kelley, member of the Parent Board, having 
been sent by the latter as a committee to con- 
fer with the Executive Association, were in- 
vited to occupy seats with the delegates. 
Mrs. McGavock, in her carefully prepared re- 
port, stated that " from the golden strand of 
California and the verdant valleys and heaven- 
kissed peaks of Colorado to the gulf-washed 
coast of fruitful Florida, Auxiliaries to the 
Woman's Missionary Society are in active op- 
eration, sending out their streams of useful- 
ness and binding Christian hearts in closer 
union." Fifteen Conference Societies had 
been organized, with 219 Auxiliaries, number- 
ing 5,890 members. Total receipts for the 
year, $4,014.27. The foreign work was repre- 
sented by one missionary. Miss Lochie Ptan- 
kin, Shanghai, China; one boarding school 
at Shanghai, with 25 pupils and 6 native Bible 
women. Interesting communications from 
Miss Eankin, Dr. Walter Lambuth, and Mrs. 
J. W. Lambuth, pleading for help that the 
work might be extended, w^ere read; also 

Woman's Missioyiary Society, M. E. C, S, 391 

letters from Eev. J. J. Ransom, missionary to 
Brazil, and Rev. W. M. Patterson, mission- 
ary in the City of Mexico, praying the Wom- 
an's Missionary Society to undertake work 
in those fields. It was decided to send one 
missionary to aid Miss Rankin; $1,500 api3ro- 
priated to building a school at Nantziang, 
and $1,000 recommended to be appropriated 
to Brazil and Mexico, if funds proved ade- 
quate. A touching incident was the recital 
of the first bequest to the Woman's Missionary 
Society of $100, earned by a fragile young 
sister by teaching a little school, "to aid in 
doing what she would gladly have done, had 
her life been spared." Like the "alabaster 
box of precious ointment," may its perfume 
fill the wdiole Church, quickening the hearts 
of our Southern sisters, and wherever the 
name of Helen M. Finlay is spoken, " let this 
be told as a memorial of her." 

May 4, 1880, the Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety convened in Nashville, Tenn., in their 
second annual meeting, the officers and dele- 
gates from twenty-two Conference Societies 
being present. Reports showed the foreign 
work extending, while the growth of the ho)ne 
w^ork in some sections was surprising. Four 
hundred and sixty-five Auxiliaries luimbered 

392 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

12,273 members. The most zealous and ef- 
ficient President had done faithful work in 
the home field. Said the Corresponding Sec- 
retary: "Her journeyings were like those of 
Paul, ' in weariness, in painfulness, in watch- 
ings often, in hunger and thirst, in fastings 
often;' and also like unto the great apostle's, 
in that her visits were a benediction to every 
center of the work.'" 

The consecrated Corresponding Secretary 
was also doing faithful service. Compiling 
and distributing appropriate literature, send- 
ing out Constitution and By-laws to points 
far and near, and with each a kind, personal, 
instructive letter, to incite to cooperation and 
active effort, corresponding with the workers 
abroad, and studying the interest of each 
field separately and its relation to the whole, 
Mrs. McGavock aided largely in securing the 
marked success of the Woman's Missionary 
Society. Conference Secretaries, ofiicers and 
private members of Auxiliaries were also 
working zealously and proving that ^^ prayer, 
faith, and ivorks insure victorij'' During 
the year $13,775 was paid into the treasury. 
The gift of "Louise Home" for the mission- 
aries in China from a member of Trinity Anx- 
ilary, Baltimore, placed the name of WilkinSy 

Woman's Missionary Sociehj, M. E. C, S, 393 

already historic in connection with the origin 
of ''woman's work for woman," in the ar- 
chives of the Woman's Missionary Society of 
the M. E. Church, South. The boarding 
school at Nantziang, ordered and intrusted to 
Dr. W. E. Lambuth, who has ever been a 
most faithful friend to iroman's work, was ad- 
mirably located in the rear of "Louise 
Home." Miss Dora Kankin, who had been 
accepted as a missionary, sailed for China 
in October, 1879, safely joined her sister, 
and they were in charge of the boarding 
school at Nantziang, called "Yoh le dong" — 
Pleasant Home, or Happy School— Clopton 
School remaining under Mrs. Lambuth's care. 
The venerable Bible woman. Qua Ta Ta, who 
fell asleep early in the preceding summer, 
was the only death reported among the work- 
ers. A judicious appropriation of $500 had 
been made to aid Miss Newman's school at 
Piracicaba, Brazil, and $500 used in i^lacing 
four girls at Mr. Norwood's school in Laredo, 
Mexican Border Mission. The imperative 
need of an official organ as an essential requi- 
site to the permanent success of the work 
was freely discussed, resulting in the estab- 
lishment of the Woman's Missionary Advo- 
cate, to be published at Nashville, Tenn., Mrs. 

394 Hand Book of Methodist 3Iissions. 

F. A. Butler, Editor, with a salary of $500. All 
expenses were to be paid out of receipts of 
the paper, and the subscription price was 
iixed at 50 cents per annum. Five associate 
editors and a Business Manager were also 

Faith in God, who giveth the increase, and 
full confidence in the judgment and wisdom 
of the missionaries led to the devising of lib- 
eral things. To the work already under- 
taken in Shanghai was added an appropria- 
tion of $1,500, $600 for a boarding school at 
Soochow, medical tuition for two missionary 
candidates, $3,000 for hospital and Bible 
Woman's Institute, $300 for additional day 
schools, making the total appropriation for 
China $9,672; to Mexican Mission, $12,592; 
to Brazil for school purposes, $1,000; to Mex- 
ican Border Mission, $1,000. Total amount 
of appropriations, $24,264. To prevent em- 
barrassment by delayed action, provision was 
made for the Executive Board to transact all 
necessary business ad interim, subject to the 
approval of the ensuing Executive Association, 
and some needed changes were made in. the 
By-laws of the Association. 

The members of the General Executive As- 
sociation assembled at St. John Church, St. 

Woman's Mhshnary Society, M. E. C.,fl. 395 

Louis, Mo., May 9, 1881, for the opening exer- 
cises of their third annual meeting. The sta- 
tistical reports of the home work showed 
steady growth. In 28 Conference Societies 
were numbered 726 Adult Auxiliaries, with 
76 Young People's and Juvenile Societies— a 
total of 830 Societies with 21,338 members. 
One of the most hopeful signs was the in- 
crease of juvenile organizations. Children 
occupy an important place in the economy 
of the Church. Begin missionary educatian 
early; let the foundation be w^ell laid, then 
add layer upon layer, line upon line, precept 
upon precept, and beautiful indeed will be 
the structure when complete. 

There had been paid into the treasury 
during the year $19,362.18. The foreign 
work was enlarging, notwithstanding the 
sickness among the devoted workers. The 
girls' boarding schools in Shanghai and 
Nantziang were prospering. Property had 
been bought in Soochow for the establishing 
of a girls' boarding school there, and in fur- 
therance of the proposed plan to build a hos- 
pital at that point also. Miss Mildred Phil- 
ips, of Missouri, a lady in every way quali- 
fied, had entered upon a course of study at 
the Woman's Medical College of Pennsyl- 

396 Hand Book of Methodist llissions. 

vania, preparatory to going to China as a 
medical missionary. 

In the Mexican Mission the two schools, 
though small, had borne good fruit. Eligible 
lots for building purposes had been donated 
at Laredo, Tex., a point destined to be an 
important railroad center and crossing on 
the Eio Grande. The Central Mexican Mis- 
sion had been visited by Dr. Wilson, Mission- 
ary Secretary, and his report had increased 
the interest in the spreading of the work in 
that " wide open field." 

In Brazil the school at Piracicaba had been 
suspended early in the year by the marriage 
of Miss Annie Newman to Rev. J. J. Ransom, 
her untimely death, and the failing health of 
her sister, Mary. The visit soon after of Mr. 
Ransom to the "home land" awakened a 
lively interest in the Church; and when he 
sailed for Rio Janeiro March 26, 1881, he 
took with him four recruits. Miss Mattie H. 
Watts, of Louisville, Ky., having been recom- 
mended by the Executive Board ad interim^ 
and appointed by Bishop Keener to school 
work at Piracicaba, sailed with this party of 

Of the seven other applicants for work 
under the Woman's Board, Miss Rebecca To- 

Woman's Missionarij Socielj/, M. E, C, S^ 397 

land and Miss Annie Williams, of Texas, 
were accepted for the Mexican Border Mis- 
sion; and Mrs. Florida M. Pitts, of Winches- 
ter, Tenn., who had already practiced dentist- 
ry, was accepted as a medical missionary and 
assigned to the Woman's Medical College at 
Philadelphia. Early in the follov/ing autumn 
Mrs. Pitts entered upon her studies, but cir- 
cumstances compelled her to withdraw from 
entering the work as a medical missionary, 
and her services were lost to the Society. The 
following appropriations were made: China, 
$17,072 ;"Brazil, $7,500; Mexican Border, $6,- 
500; $5,500 for building college for girls, on 
lots donated at Laredo, and for educational 
purposes of the same; $1,000 for Central Mex- 
ican Mission . Total amount of appropriations, 
$32,072. The new venture, the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Advocate, proved to be an assured suc- 
cess, the agent reporting total receipts, $3,- 
025.39; total expenses, $1,779.88; net earn- 
ings, $1,245.51. 

On the 18th of May, 1882, the Society con- 
vened in McKendree Church, Nashville, 
Tenn., having reached its first quadrennial. 
The borders of both the home and Foreign 
work had continued to widen and spread, 
31 Conference Societies, composed of 1,112 

398 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Auxiliaries, numbering 26,556 members, hav- 
ing been enrolled. The Society supported 2 
missionaries in China, 1 missionary and 1 as- 
sistant in Brazil, and 2 missionaries in Mex- 
ican Border, and had under its care 5 board- 
ing and 10 day schools, and $25,609.44 had 
been paid into the treasury. Since the last 
annual meeting death had hushed the voices 
of three of the most honored members: (Mrs. 
Doggett and Mrs. Marvin, Yice Presidents; 
and Mrs. Davidson, Corresponding Secretary 
of the Baltimore Conference Society), and the 
joyous notes of praise and thanksgiving mel- 
lowed down to a minor chord of sadness. 

Miss Anna Muse, of Atlanta, Ga., was ac- 
cepted as a missionary and assigned to work 
in China. Mrs. S. Burford was also accepted 
and associated with her sister. Miss Williams, 
in Laredo Seminary, while Miss Blanche Gil- 
bert, of Virginia, was recommended for the 
Central Mexican Mission. Miss Nora Lam- 
buth was associated with her mother in Clop- 
tou School, Shanghai, with half salary, the 
full salary of each missionary being $750. 
Miss Melissa Baker, of Baltimore, was ap- 
pointed Treasurer of the Memorial Fund. 
On May 24 Bishop McTyeire met with the So- 
ciety and had read the Constitution which had 

Wonian's Misslonarij Society, M. E, C, S. 390 

been adopted by the General Conference then 
in session, and given to him by Bishop Pierce, 
presiding officer, immediately after the read- 
ing of which Bishop McTyeire was requested 
to occupy the chair during the election of of- 
ficers to serve during the next four years, re- 
sulting as follows: President, Mrs. Juliana 
Hayes, Vice President, Mrs. M. D. AVight- 
man; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. D. H. 
McGavock; Recording Secretary, Miss M. 
L. Gibsou ; Treasurer, Mrs. James Whitworth ; 
Auditor, Mr. J. D. Hamilton. Mrs. F. A. 
Butler was, by acclamation, reelected Editor 
of the Woman's Missionarij Advocate. The 
presence of Miss Annie E. Williams, repre- 
sentative of the woman's work in Laredo, 
added to the pleasure of the meeting. 

The following appropriations were made: 
China, $16,845; Brazil, $12,500; Mexican 
Border, $6,000; Central Mexican, $1,200; In- 
dian Mission, $635; contingent printing and 
office expenses, $3,550. Total, $40,730. 

The fifth annual meeting of the Woman's 
Board of Missions opened in Court Street 
Church, Lynchburg, Va., June 6, 1883. Re- 
ports evidenced satisfactory growth in the 
home work and in foreign fields. There had 
been organized 185 Adult and 99 Juvenile So- 

400 Rand Book of Methodist Missions. 

cieties, making a total of 1,396 upon the roll, 
with a membership of 34,128; supporting 4 
missionaries in China, 3 in Mexican Border, 
1 in Central Mexican Mission, 1 missionary 
and 2 assistants in Brazil; 5 boarding and 17 
day schools were in successful operation, and 
aid was also being given a school in the In- 
dian Territory. From each field came re- 
ports of thorough organization, with promise 
of rich results. In China, under the skillful 
management of the consecrated workers, the 
schools had developed far beyond expecta- 
tions. In Brazil the corner stone of the col- 
lege at Piracicaba was laid February 8, 
1883, with imposing honors and ceremonies, in 
which several prominent men of that country 
took part, thus evincing the interest felt by 
the Brazilians in the enterprise. 

The seminary at Laredo, though not com- 
pleted, was opened October 13, 1882, by Miss 
Williams, assisted by Mrs. Burford, but be- 
fore the meeting of the Board Miss Williams 
had married Rev. J. F. Corbin^ pastor of the 
M. E. Church, South, in Laredo. Miss Re- 
becca Toland was appointed to Laredo Semi- 
nary, and Mrs. Burford recommended to go to 
Monterey, and with her sister, Mrs. Corbin, 
open a day school there. Miss Nannie E. 

Woman's Missionary Societij, M. E. C, & 401 

Holding, of Somerset, Ky., was accepted by 
the Board as a missionary, and assigned to 
work in the Laredo Seminary. Miss Jennie 
C. Wolfe, of Alabama, and Miss Mattie B. 
Jones, of Norcross, Ga., missionary candi- 
dates, were also accepted. Miss Jones was 
appointed to Mexico as a colleague for Miss 
Blanche Gilbert, and Miss Wolfe to China. 
Miss Mildred M. Philips, who had graduated 
with honor March 15, would spend one year 
in the woman's hospital, where she could 
have large opportunities for improvement and 
experience, and the following spring sail for 
Soochow, China, where the hospital and dis- 
pensary were being prepared. In response 
to an earnest appeal from Mrs. S. J. Bryan, 
teacher in Seminole Academy, all available 
funds having been already applied to existing 
work, a special contribution of $1,200 was 
pledged by different members of the Board 
for their respective Conference Societies. 
The following appropriations were made: 
China, $11,168; Mexican Border, $6,250; 
Central Mexico, $8,150; Brazil, $4,750; print- 
ing and office expenses, $3,350. Grand total, 

June 5, 1884, witnessed the opening exer- 
cises of the sixth annual meeting of the 

'402 Hand Book of 3Iethodist Uissioris. 

Woman's Board of Missions in Walnut Street 
Church, Kansas City, Mo. For the first time 
since its organization the detaining hand of 
the Master had been laid upon two of the of- 
ficers, the able and consecrated Corresponding 
Secretary and the efficient Treasurer being 
absent because of sickness. No new work 
had been undertaken during the year, because 
of the heavy tax already upon the missiona- 
ries. The work had developed and grown be- 
yond their strength, and reenf orcements were 
greatly needed. The following statistics 
comprised the summary of the home work: 
Adult Auxiliaries, 67, numbering 1,061 mem- 
bers, and 62 Young People's and Juvenile So- 
cieties, with 2,398 members added, making a 
total of 1,528 Societies, with 37,482 members. 
The resignation of Mrs. Sarah Burford on 
the Mexican Border, was accepted. The un- 
conditional resignation of Mrs. J. W. Lam- 
buth, who had done such faithful service at 
Clopton School, Shanghai, left the Board no 
choice but to accept, which was done after 
passing fitting and well-deserved eulogies 
upon one to whom was due, in large measure, 
the success of this school. Miss Dona Ham- 
ilton, of Texas, Miss Jennie M. Atkinson, of 
Alabama, and Miss Laura A. Haygood, of 

Woman'' s Miss ionarij Society y M, E, C, S. '403 

Georgia^ were accepted as missionaries, and 
appointed to work in China. Miss Mildred 
Philips, medical missionary, would defer 
sailing for her appointed work in Soochow 
until fall, and it was decided to send with her 
an assistant. An appropriation of $23,940 
was made to China. Miss Mary W. Bruce 
was appointed to reenforce Brazil, and an ap- 
propriation of $5,600 made to that field, $14,- 
600 to the Mexican Border, $6,400 to Central 
Mexico, $1,200 to the Indian Mission, and 
$3,500 for contingent expenses, total amount 
of appropriation being $52,740. A thrilling 
incident of this meeting was the offering of 
herself by Miss Lou E. Philips to the 
Board. The rich gift was gratefully accepted 
and Miss Philips subsequently, at a special 
meeting of the Local Board, appointed 
as the assistant of her sister. Dr. Mildred 
Philips. The President, Mrs. Hayes, beauti- 
fully emphasized two points in the annual re- 
port — viz. : the baptism of the Holy Ghost on 
the Conference at Nantziang, and the con- 
version of scholars in the various mission 
schools of the foreign field, for which devout 
thanks were given. 

It being the centenary year of the organic 
existence of American Methodism, wise plans 

404 Hand Book of llethodid Missions. 

were devised for raising a " Centenary Monu- 
mental Fund," for the establishing of a col- 
lege for girls at Kio de Janeiro. The salary 
of the editor of the Woman'' s Missionary Ad- 
vocate was increased to $100 per month, with 
authority to employ assistance when needed, 
and pay for the same out of subscription re- 
ceipts. Miss Marcia Marvin's presence and 
earnest words increased the interest felt in 
the Indian Mission, and during the discussion 
of the work, she arose and offered herself as a 
centenary gift to the Seminole Seminary, in a 
manner which brought to mind her honored 
father, Bishop Marvin. Much precious com- 
munion in Christ was enjoyed during the en- 
tire meeting. Mrs. Whitworth having re- 
signed, Mrs. R. Weakley Brown had been 
elected in the interim, as Treasurer, and re- 
ported 138,873.52 as the total amount received 
during the year. Miss M. Baker, Treasurer 
of the Memorial Fund, reported $556.34 re- 
ceived since last report, making a total in 
hand of $2,308.13. 

As in the "olden time" the seventh year 
was to the people of Israel the year of jubilee, 
so with glad hearts the Woman's Missionary 
Society exchanged joyous greetings in Church 
Street Church, Knoxville, Tenn., on the even- 

Woman's Missionary Socieff/, M. E. C.,S. 405 

ing of June 4, 1885. At no previous annual 
meeting had tliere been as great cause for re- 
joicing, as shown by the carefully prepared 
report of the Corresponding Secretary. In 
no year had so much money been paid unto 
the Lord by his handmaidens; in none had 
so many consecrated themselves to the work. 
In the home field the growth had been steady, 
415 Auxiliaries, with 5,478 members, having 
been added, which increased the number of 
Societies to 1,947, with a total membership of 
43,096. In some Conferences juvenile organ- 
izations had been effected, working in perfect 
harmony with and reportmg to the Woman's 
Missionary Society. North Carolina had se- 
lected for the name of her juvenile workers 
"Bright Jewels;" South Carolina, "Palmet- 
to Leaves;" Holston, "Little Workers;" and 
Kentucky, "Soul-loving Society." Another 
most encouraging feature was the formation 
in mission fields of societies contributing 
money to send the word of life to those be- 
yond, still shrouded in darkness. There were 
two of these in Mexican Border, one in Bra- 
zil, and four in the Indian Territory. In 
some schools and colleges the spirit of God 
had begun to move upon and develop the 
forces in this important element. The plan 

406 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

of publishing a monthly leaflet, to be issued 
quarterly in advance for the use of Auxilia- 
ries, Miss M. L. Gibson, editor and publisher, 
had worked admirably. The 6,000 copies of 
the Sixth Annual Keport ordered published 
and distributed gratuitously had proven a fruit- 
ful "seed sowing." The Woman's Missionary/ 
Advocate, with an ever increasing circulation, 
had won "golden opinions" for the editor 
and the cause she espoused. There were em- 
ployed 15 missionaries, 4 assistants, 2 Bible 
women, 1 medical missionary, and 1 trained 
nurse; 7 boarding schools with 276 pupils, 
and 10 day schools with 241 pupils, a total of 
617 pupils under the control of the Board. 
Eeports from the missionaries proved that 
plans had been wisely laid, and the work far- 
reaching, with present gratifying results. 
The total amount paid during the year was 

The sisterly greetings from the Woman's 
Missionary Societies of the Baptist and Pres- 
byterian Churches found responsive echoes 
in the hearts of the members, voiced by the 
President in beautiful, well-chosen words. 
With peculiar pleasure the Board arose to 
greet its first missionary: Miss Lochie Ean- 
kin, from China, who had been invited "to 

Woman's Missionary Societ//, M. E. C, S. 407 

come apart and rest awhile " from lier ardu- 
ous labors, and Miss Blanche Gilbert, from 
Mexico. Eev. and Mrs. C. F. Reid, from 
China Mission, added to the pleasure of the 
Board by their presence. As questions of 
grave importance connected with the affairs 
of the Central Mexican Mission demanded 
immediate and careful consideration, all mat- 
ters pertaining to this field were referred to a 
special committee. After a full investigation, 
the decision of the bishop in charge in with- 
drawing Misses Gilbert and Jones, the repre- 
sentatives of the Woman's Board, from San 
Luis Potosi was accepted with "becoming 
dignity and Christian grace," the Board at the 
same time expressing *'its unimpaired confi- 
dence in the integrity of its representatives, 
and the assurance to them that in this unfor- 
tunate termination of well-laid plans for useful- 
ness in Mexico it gave them full sympathy with- 
out a trace of blame." It was unanimously 
decided that Misses Gilbert and Jones be left 
without an appointment for the present, they 
sustaining to the Woman's Board of Missions 
the relation of returned missionaries. A plan 
was submitted by Miss Haygood to the women 
of Southern Methodism to form a joint stock 
company to pay into the treasury during the 

408 Hand Book of Methodist Missioyis. 

next year $25,000 outside of all regular dues, 
to establish a Girls' High School and Home 
and Training School for Missionaries at 
Shanghai. Eight hundred and twenty-seven 
shares were at once pledged! Mrs. Park, 
having spent three months in the school at 
Laredo, gave valuable information concerning 
the Seminary and teachers, and was tendered 
resolutions of thanks for the able and satis- 
factory manner in which she had carried out 
the wishes of the Board in superintending 
the enlargement of the school building. The 
value of real estate owned by the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, 
South, was shown to be as follows: In China, 
$30,100; Mexican Border, $18,500; Central 
Mexico, $7,700; Brazil, $18,800. Total, $75,- 
200. The appropriation to China was $22,- 
780; to Mexican Border, $6,250; to Brazil, 
$16,000; to Indian Territory, $1,800; contin- 
gent, printing, and office expenses, $3,500; 
travel and half salaries of two returned mis- 
sionaries, $997. Total, $51,327! The Cor- 
responding Secretary was instructed to pre- 
pare a report of the work of the Woman's 
Missionary Society to the General Confer- 
ence, to convene in Kichmond, Va., May, 1886. 
At the close of its second quadrennium, the 

Womaji's Missioyiary Society, M.E. C.,S, .409 

Woman's Missionary Society met in St. 
John's Church, Augusta, Ga., June 10, 1886, 
in the opening session of its eighth annual 
•meeting, Mrs. Hayes presiding, and other 
officers present. Miss Watts, missionary to 
Brazil, with Mile. Eennotte, who for five 
years had been assisting her in Collegio Pira- 
cicabano, and Miss Dora Kankin, from China, 
were welcomed with loving pride. The So- 
ciety was reported healthful and vigorous. 
The home work was represented by 1,406 
Auxiliaries and more than 45,000 members. 
The mite box, that eloquent but silent plead- 
er for Jesus' sake, was coming into use, and 
gathering up the "fragments, that nothing be 

Miss Lochie Kankin, having been greatly 
refreshed by her brief visit to the home land, 
after nearly seven years' toil in China, had 
returned to her loved employ in October, 
1885. Miss Blanche Gilbert had been ap- 
pointed to Laredo' and Miss Mattie Jones to 
Piracicaba, Brazil. No new missionaries had 
gone to the foreign fields, while every letter 
from the overburdened workers called plead- 
ingly for "help." Buildings were overflow- 
ing and pupils being turned away. The plan 
so enthusiastically received and adopted at 

410 Tland Book of Methodist Missions, 

the seventh annual meeting, to found a home 
for new missionaries, in connection with a 
high school for girls at Shanghai, had met 
with great favor. Miss Lochie Rankin was 
busy with her boarding school of fifty girls at 
Pleasant College, Nantziang, and her sjster 
Dora in preparing sixty boys for higher educa- 
tion in the Anglo-Chinese College. In Soo- 
chow the schools were likewise prospering, 
and Dr. Philips, during the absence of Drs. 
Lambuth and Park especially, "in labors 
abundant." Miss Baldwin, the trained nurse 
taken out by Dr. Philips, after several months 
of acute illness, had returned home. The work 
at Laredo was "lengthening its cords and 
strengthening its stakes." The "Laredo Band," 
a Missionary Society among the pupils, had 
sent over $50 to the Treasurer at Nashville. 
In Brazil, the workers, though mourning the 
death of an invaluable helper and sympa- 
thizer, Eev. J. W. Koger, paused not in their 
wearisome labors. Mr. Kbger, since May, 
had received 25 persons into the Church, 7 of 
whom were inmates of Collegio Piracicabano. 
It was pleasant to hear Miss Watts, fresh 
from the field, tell how the school had become 
self-supporting during the first year, and that 
out of the school fund fences had been built 

Woman's Missionary Society, M.E. C.,S. 411 

and improvements added to the amount of 
several hundred dollars. Good work, with 
satisfactory results, was reported from the 
Indian Territory. The total amount received 
by the Treasurer for the year was $51,588.76; 
amount received by the Treasurer of the 
Memorial Fund, $275.09. The Board ac- 
knowledged by fitting resolutions their great 
indebtedness to Dr. Young J. Allen, mission- 
ary in China, for his valuable assistance in sus- 
taining and directing their w^ork, and for his 
tender care and consideration for the young 
ladies sent out by them. Dr. Allen was ap- 
pointed attorney, with power to attend to all 
business of the Board in China Mission, and 
the bishop in charge was requested to make 
Dr. Allen superintendent of all work under the 
care of the Woman's Board in that field. Due 
acknowledgment of the valuable services of 
Mrs. A. P. Parker, who had given herself as a 
freewill ottering to the Woman's Board of 
Missions for several years, and rendered most 
efficient aid, was made in a resolution of 
thanks, and the paying of her traveling ex- 
penses to the United States on a visit. 

The gratifying action of the late General 
Conference in regard to the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society, having concurred in every 

412 Hmid Booh of Methodist Missions. 

point of the memorial presented by the 
Board, was read by the Corresponding Sec- 
retary, with the following indorsement of 
woman's work by the highest official body in 
the Church, words deemed by the women of 
the Missionary Society of unspeakable worth: 

The Woman's Missionary Society, organized eight 
years ago, has done well, unexpectedly well, in its col- 
lections, marvelously well in its administration, mag- 
nanimously well in its relation to and its cooperation 
with the Parent Board, gloriously well in its achieve- 
ments in the fields of its operations ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the success of the Woman's Mission- 
ary Society, organized eight years ago, has demon- 
strated the wisdom of that movement, and is cause of 
devout gratitude. What they have done has been 
done in excess of what would probably have been done 
during the same period by the Church at large. 
Where they have been most successful in their home 
work and their zeal has been most actively displayed, 
there is not only no diminution of the general collec- 
tions, but rather an increase. That it is, therefore, 
every way desirable that our godly women be encour- 
aged to a continuance of their zeal, and that to this end 
our preachers and people everywhere should cooperate 
with them as their other duties will allow. 

A pleasant incident of this meeting was the 
undertaking by the Juvenile Missionary Soci- 
ety of St. John's Church (in which the meet- 
ing was held) to furnish $200 to provide a 
missionary boat for the comfort and conven- 

Woinan's Missionary Society, M.E. (7.,aS\ 413 

ieuce of the Misses Eankin, and a pledge 
from three ladies to procure a surrey for the 
use of Miss Watts, Collegio Piracicabano. 
Miss Emma Kerr, of Brownsville, Tenn., was 
accepted and recommended to the Nurses' 
Training School of the Woman's Hospital, at 
Philadelphia, to become, assistant to Dr. Phil- 
ips at Soochow. Appropriations for the year 
amounted to $69,770. 

The ninth annual meeting of the Woman's 
Board of Missions was held in Catlettsburg, 
Ky., June 11-17, 1887. The presence o£ 
Bishop Wilson, fresh from the China field, 
was an inspiration to the body of women, 
across whose hearts a dark shadow had fallen. 
December 10, 1886, Dora Eankin, after seven 
years of unremitting service to the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the M. E. Church, 
South, at the age of twenty-five years, re- 
ceived the summons "Enter thou into the joys 
of thy Lord." Bishop Wilson testified that 
" her work and worth will hardly be known 
until the righteous Judge shall declare them." 
The bereft sister was bravely discharging her 
own duties and a part of the work which had 
been undertaken by her sister. The gloom of 
the hour was brightened by the evidence of 
the Spirit's glorious power. 

414 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

There were in Pleasant College seven ap- 
plicants for baptism, and the oldest pupil in 
the high school had declared his desire to 
unite with the Church. In Shanghai five 
additional day schools had been opened 
and the work in other respects broadened, 
though at a cost to the health and strength 
of the little handful of missionaries. From 
Soochow was sent a most interesting and 
gratifying report of Dr. Philips's work, and 
the boarding and day schools in charge of 
Miss Lou Philips. Surely and steadily the 
work at Laredo Seminary, Mexican Border, 
was advancing. After a visit of several 
days, and careful examination into the inter- 
nal management as well as to the location, 
buildings, etc., Bishop Key said: "For each 
and all I have nothing but admiration and 
praise." Bishop Granbery, while on a tour 
of inspection in Brazil, wrote of CoUegio Pi- 
racicabano: " I am delighted with the college, 
buildings, grounds, teachers, mode of in- 
struction, success already achieved, and pros- 
pects of growing usefulness." Miss Watts re- 
turned to her work there in May, 1887. The 
bishop strqngly commended the contemplated 
school at Rio. The work of the Woman's Board 
having been concentrated at Harrell Interna- 

Woman's 3Iissionary Society, 3LE. C.,S. 415 

tional Institute, at Muskogee, Ind. T., the 
Principal, Eev. T. F. Brewer, submitted to the 
Board a liiglily interesting history and report. 
Mrs. J. P. Campbell, of Los Angeles, Gal., 
and Miss Kate Pi. Eoberts, of Nashville, 
Tenn., had been accepted as missionaries and 
sent to China in March, 1887. The minutes of 
the first organized annual meeting of the rep- 
resentatiA^es of the Woman's Board in China, 
presided over by Bishop Wilson, a new fea- 
ture in the foreign work, were recommended 
as good reading. The presence of Miss Hold- 
ing in the interest of Laredo, that institution 
having for the second time outgrown its ac- 
commodations, quickened the sympathy of 
the Board to painful intensity, as enlargement 
could not be met by appropriation. The 
amount needed was $7,000, and Miss Holding 
was given permission to make individual ap- 
peals for the securing of that amount. The 
week before Christmas was appointed a spe- 
cial season of prayer and self-denial, and daily 
prayer at eventide, to gain the outpouring of 
the Holy Spirit, pledged. It was stated that 
the fund for the proposed Home and Training 
School at Shanghai had been raised, and that 
Pvio College had become a real monument of 
centenary^offerings. Miss Lula H. Lipscomb, 

416 Hand Book of Mefliodist Missio 


of the North Mississippi Conference, and Miss 
Ada E-eagan, of the Tennessee Conference, were 
accepted and appointed to Ciiina; Miss Mar- 
cia Marvin, of St. Louis, Mo., was accepted for 
matron of Collegio Piracicabano, Brazil. The 
proposal of Miss Lelia Roberts to place her- 
self and school at Saltillo, Mexico, under the 
Woman\s Board, was accepted. Miss Bettie 
Hughes, of Meridian, Miss., was also accepted 
for work in China. Ten missionaries had of- 
fered and been accepted and appointed since 
the death of Miss Dora Rankin, for whom 
touching memorial services were held by her 
sisters, who, amid their tears, thanked the 
all-wise Father that the new-made grave in 
China was as a magnet drawing the hearts of 
the young women of the Church to that be- 
nighted land. Appropriate resolutions were 
ordered drafted and sent to the Emperor of 
China through Dr. Y. J. Allen, as a testimo- 
nial of the appreciation by the Board as a 
religious body, of the grand and gracious lib- 
erty he had proclaimed to his subjects, open- 
ing wide his gates to the religions of the 
world. The home work numbered 2,000 
Auxiliaries, with 46,999 members; amount 
received by the Treasurer, $48,092.63. Miss 
Baker reported the Memorial Fund having 

Womcm's Missionary Society, M.E. C.,S.Al 7 

been increased $199.25. She had remitted to 
the Treasurer of the Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions, to be applied to "Davidson Memorial 
Training School for Girls," to be founded in 
Shanghai, China, $2,000. Balance on hand 
May 1, 1887, $1,303.56. Total appropriations 
for ensuing year, $66,487. 

The opening exercises of the tenth annual 
meeting of the Woman's Board in McKen- 
dree Church, Nashville, Tenn., May 3, 1888, 
marked with a " white stone " the first decade 
of the Woman's Missionary Society. The 
fact that it was the seventy-fifth birthday an- 
niversary of the able and faithful President, 
who had presided at every annual meeting, 
made the occasion doubly memorable. Other 
facts tended to make this the third testing by 
the Board of Nashville hospitality, and the 
tenth anniversary, notable: the presence of 
the College of Bishops; the Board of Missions; 
Dr. Allen, who had been for nearly thirty 
years a missionary in Shanghai, China; Miss 
Toland, from Mexican Border Mission, who, 
for the first time in seven years, had laid 
aside her work for a season of much-needed 
rest; Miss Jennie Wolfe, who, for several 
years had been employed by the Woman's 
Board in the Indian Territory, with Miss 

418 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Augusta Wilson, sister of Bishop Wilson, and 
Miss Ella Granbery, present as missionary 
candidates, made the occasion peculiarly in- 
teresting. The statistics presented showed a 
gratifying increase in the home work, there 
being 2,399 Auxiliaries, numbering 56,783 
members, besides life members, honorary life 
members, and life patrons. The young peo- 
ple and children had outrun their elders in 
zeal and enthusiasm. 

Miss N. E. Holding came home in May to 
recruit her failing health, having for four 
years rendered faithful service as Principal 
of Laredo Seminary, returning in October 
greatly benefited. The money needed by 
her for the much- desired addition to the 
building had come to her in small, special 
gifts, made precious by love and prayer, and 
the house was built, dedicated "Hall of 
Faith," and stands as an object lesson to her 
pupils of trusting God for all things needed. 
Miss Holding's appeal for $600 additional 
help as a loan was responded to by a pledge 
of $1,500 as a gift from fifteen Conference So- 
cieties. Appreciative thanks were tendered 
Misses Mason and Holderby, of Catlettsburg, 
Ky., for one year's service in Laredo Semina- 
ry, freely and cheerfully given by them. 

Worna7i's Missionary Society, M.E.C.^S. 419 

The presence of Rev. A. H. Sutherland, 
missionary from Mexican Border, gave added 
interest to the meeting, he being called the 
" right arm of the Woman's Board of Missions " 
in that field. Words from Bishop Galloway in- 
creased the interest felt in the "red man." 
Harrell Institute, at Muskogee, had passed 
through a most prosperous year, and addition- 
al buildings were much needed. 

The reenforcements sent to China had 
cheered and strengthened the burdened 
hearts and weary hands of the brave, faithful 
missionaries. In September, 1887, Miss 
Emma Kerr, Miss Lula Lipscomb, Miss Ad- 
die Gordon, Miss Bettie Hughes, and Miss 
Ada Reagan sailed for Shanghai. In Brazil 
the work, amid many hindrances, was advan- 
cing. Miss Marcia Marvin had gone out in 
July, 1887, and was at her post in Rio. From 
every field came the cry: "Helpers are a ne- 
cessity, and must be sent at an early day." 
Miss A. F. Wilson was accepted and appoint- 
ed to Harrell Institute. Miss Kate Warren, 
of St. Louis, was recommended as a teacher 
for Harrell Institute. Miss Ella Granbery 
was accepted and appointed to Brazil, she 
having already given one year's service there. 
A communication from the Business Commit- 

420 Hdud Book of Methodist Missions. 

tee of the General Missionary Conference, to 
be held in London, June 9-19, 1888, contain- 
ing a request for the a^jpointment of one -or 
more delegates to represent the Woman's 
Board of Missions at said Conference, was 
read and Mrs. Hayes elected as delegate. 

The resignation of Miss Jennie Wolfe, 
for five years a missionary of the Board, be- 
cause of failing health, was accepted with as- 
surances of their sympathy and continued 

In addition to the $1,500 to Laredo, over 
$1,000 was pledged to other specific work in 
the Mexican Border by Conference Societies. 
The Board appropriated to China $23,837; 
Mexican Border, $9,800; Brazil, $10,550; In- 
dian Territory, $5,950; for medical students, 
$1,000; to Dr. Allen, $500; expenses of dele- 
gate to London, $300. Total, $54,937. There 
had been forwarded to the Treasurer $69,- 
729.65. McKendree Auxiliary had paid 
$1,500 of this, $284 of which was a contribu- 
tion from Dr. W. A. Candler, assistant editor 
of the Christian Advocate. 

May 1, 1889, witnessed the opening exer- 
cises of the eleventh annual meeting in Eighth 
Street Church, Little Bock, Ark. The ven- 
erable President embodied in her comprehen- 

Woman's MissiGnan/ Society, MJl\C.,S. 421 

sive address an interesting report of the 
World's Missionary Conference in London, 
July, 1888, at wliicli she represented the 
Woman's Missionary Society of the M. E. 
Church, South. The Eecording Secretary 
being absent, Mrs. Trueheart was appointed 
Secretary i^ro tern. Keports showed no 
marked extension in any field, while the work 
seemed steadily growing in each. Miss Gran- 
bery had sailed for Brazil, and Miss Wilson 
had entered upon her work in the Indian 
Territory. Miss Clara Chrisman, of Missis- 
sippi; Miss Ella Yarrell, of Virginia; Mrs. 
Brelsford, of Kentucky, and Miss Lyda How- 
ell, of North Georgia, were appointed to Bra- 
zil. Miss Chrisman, while hastening to New 
York to sail with the other missionaries, met 
a tragic death in the Johnstown flood. A dark, 
heavy shadow/ was thrown over the hearts of 
the women she was to have represented, and 
reaching across the seas, was felt in the mis- 
sion school where she was to have labored. 
Touching memorial services were held 
throughout the length and breadth of the 
Southern Church over the death of this gifted, 
consecrated young woman. Her memory will 
ever be as " precious ointment poured forth." 
Miss Sallie Phillips, of Louisiana, went before 

422 Hand Book of 3Iethodist Missions, 

the Local Board, was recommended to the 
bishop in charge to j&ll the vacancy, and be- 
fore the next meeting of the Board was at 
work in Brazil. 

Miss Lizzie Wilson, of Kentucky, and Miss 
Flora Baker, of North Georgia, were assigned 
to Laredo Seminary; Mrs. A. E. McClendon 
was also sent to Laredo Seminary. Miss 
Ella Tydings, of Florida, was sent to Saltillo, 
Mexico,; Miss Helen Kichardson and Miss 
Lula Ross were appointed to China; Miss 
Mary McClellan, of Brookhaven, Mississippi, 
had sailed for China in August, 1888. 

Miss Bennett, of Kentucky, introduced the 
subject of a training school so forcibly as to 
secure the indorsement of the Board, by ap- 
pointing her their agent to fully investigate 
the subject and secure funds. At this meet- 
ing China had earnest, eloquent pleaders in 
the person of Miss Anna Muse, who had 
spent seven years of service in that benighted 
land, and of Mrs. A. W. Wilson, who, with 
her husband, the bishop, had visited and ex- 
amined into the work. Miss Holding spoke 
touching words for beautiful, sin-cursed Mex- 
ico. The marriage of Miss Addie Gordon, a 
missionary of the Board, to Rev. Mr. Burke, 
of Soochow, was reported. With regret it 

Woman's Missionary Society, M. E. C, S. 423 

was learned that the heavy work upon Dr. 
Allen forced him to resign as superintendent 
of the work under the Woman's Board. The 
announcement of Bishop McTyeire's death 
brought a sense of sadness and bereavement 
to each member, which was expressed in suit- 
able resolutions. 

The number of members reported was 
65,466, a pleasant proof of the extension of 
the home work. Amount paid into the treas- 
ury, 168,165.34. Total amount of appropria- 
tions for the year, $61,350. 

At the opening session of the annual meet- 
ing closing the third quadrennium of the 
Woman's Missionary Society, held at St. 
John's Church, St. Louis, Mo., May 14, 1890, 
there were 31 missionaries in the foreign 
field, 20 assistants, 37 native teachers, 10 
boarding and 31 day schools, 1,248 pupils, 1 
hospital, 1 medical missionary, 1 foreign as- 
sistant and 9 native assistants, 1,986 Auxili- 
aries, with 41,235 members, and 995 Juvenile 
Societies, with 2,991 members; making a total 
of 2,991 Societies, with a membership of 
72,367, and 2,067 life members, 60 honorary 
life members, 10 life patrons, and $181,000 
worth of property. Total receipts for the 
year, $75,486.54. 

424 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Miss Muse was enjoying her well-earned 
rest after seven years of toil. Miss Bruce, 
still suffering from the effects of yellow fever, 
had also come home to recuperate. Dr. Mil- 
dred Philips, enfeebled by her five years of 
arduous labor in China, was granted the priv- 
ilege of returning home. She started, but 
reaching Port Said just as a vessel was leav- 
ing for Shanghai, she transferred to that and 
returned to her post. In China, while the 
workers had suffered from sickness and heavy 
burdens, there had been an increase of 
schools and pupils, and an encouraging condi- 
tion of the work was reported. The Mexican 
Border had been blessed with health and 
great prosperity. Of Brazil Bishop Granbery 
wrote: "The Society has no cause for dis- 
couragement or for relaxation of interest or 
effort in respect to Brazil." The year which 
had just closed had been a trying one to our 
workers in that field. A yellow fever epidem- 
ic, the worst for several generations, closed 
the schools and scattered the faithful band 
of workers. Through the mercy of God, all 
were brought safely through, though several 
were dangerously ill. After the reopening of 
the schools, measles, whooping cough, and scar- 
letina appeared. Amid all these hindrances 

Woman's Missionary Sociefij, M. E. C, S. 425 

good results had been accomplished and 
progress made. The government had quietly 
passed from a monarchy into a republic. In 
the Indian Territory there was promise of 
good fruit. The brave, overburdened work- 
ers in every field were pleading for increased 
appropriations and a large reenforcement of 
laborers, in answer to which the Board ap- 
propriated to the work $74,607, and accepted 
and appointed the following ladies: Miss 
Lucy Harper, of Georgetown, Tex., and Miss 
Mary Turner, of Sharpsburg, Ky., to the 
Mexican Border; Miss Kate P. Fannin, of 
Blountstown, Fla., to work at Saltillo, Mexico; 
Miss Mattie Dorsey, of Charlestown, W. Va., 
to Chihuahua, Mexico; Miss Fannie Hinds, of 
Mt. Sterling, Ky., and Miss Mary L. Smithey, 
of Jetersville, Va., to China. The Board in- 
dorsed the action of the Local Board in ap- 
pointing Miss Helen Kichardson to China, 
and advising Miss Pyles to continue at 
school in preparation for mission work. 

Several circumstances united to make nota- 
ble this twelfth meeting of the Board: the 
session of the General Conference, before 
which went memorials for needed changes in 
the Constitution; the presence of Dr. and 
Mrs. . Parker, missionaries, and Kev. C. K. 

426 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Marshall (delegate to the General Confer- 
ence), from China; Mrs. Watkins and Miss 
Gilbert, from Mexico; Miss Mary Bruce and 
Eev. J. W. Tarboux, from Brazil; Kev. N. W. 
Utley, from Japan; and the gifted young 
women, bravely giving themselves to the 
work; added to which was the grand gift of 
Rev. Nathan Scarritt, D.D., of Kansas City, 
Mo., of $25,000, and a suitable site in Kansas 
City for a training school for missionaries 
and other Christian workers, provided the 
Woman's Missionary Society would for the 
same object furnish $25,000, made sacred a 
few days later — May 22 — by the death of this 
valued servant of God and true friend to 
woman's work. Miss Bennett, agent, reported 
the wonderful success which had attended the 
efforts of herself and assistant, Mrs. Wight- 
man, having secured for said training school 
$11,311.90 in cash, with subscriptions making 
a total of $36,917.34, These ladies were con- 
tinued as agents, and in loving, grateful mem- 
ory of its most liberal donor, the institution 
was named " The Scarritt Bible and Training 
School,'^ and Bishop Hendrix was elected 
Chairman of the Building Committee appoint- 
ed by the Board, Rev. W. B. Palmore and Miss 
Belle Bennett being the other members. 

Woman's Missionary Society, M. E. C, S, 427 

The work having now assumed such large 
proportions, it was decided to increase the 
number of officers; instead of Corresponding 
Secretary as heretofore, to have a "For- 
eign Secretary" and a "Secretary of Home 
AJFairs," appropriating to meet expenses of the 
former $1,200, and of the latter $500. Mrs. 
McGavock was elected Foreign Secretary, and 
Miss Mary Helm, who had for several years 
been her faithful assistant, Secretary of Home 
Affairs; the other officers being reelected for 
another term of four years. 

When the Woman's Board of Missions con- 
vened in Fort Worth, Tex., June 9, 1891, and 
reviewed the work of the thirteenth year of 
its existence, it was pleasant to note that more 
women and children of the M. E. Church, 
South, than ever before had enlisted in the 
work, and more money been paid into the 
treasury. The statistics were: Auxiliaries, 
2,148; members, 42,563; Juvenile Soci-eties, 
1,124, with 32,917 members; life members, 
2,121; honorary life members, 59; life pa- 
trons, 9; amount paid into the treasury, 
$83,865.72. Ten young ladies had been ac- 
cepted as missionaries since the previous an- 
nual meeting, some of whom had gone to 
their appointed fields. Others were in train- 

428 Hand Book of Methodist Missiovs. 

ing schools, preparing for the work. Early in 
the year Miss Yarrell returned from Brazil on 
account of ill health, and Miss Lou Philips, 
from China, and Miss Mattie Jones, from 
Brazil, later came home to recux^erate. Most 
encouraging reports came from the foreign 
field, but the overburdened missionaries were 
still piteously pleading for help. Three of 
the missionaries in China (Misses Lipscomb, 
Roberts, and Reagan) had married, and their 
connection with the Board been thereby sev- 
ered. Miss Dona Hamilton had died in Chi- 
na; some of the most devoted home workers 
had been called from labor to rest, and others 
were hovering between life and death. Miss 
MoUie F. Brown, of Austin, Tex. ; Miss Minnie 
Bomar, of Marshall, Tex.; and Miss Kate C. 
McFarren, for some time in the employ of 
the Presbyterian Board of Missions in South 
America, were accepted. Miss Brown was 
appointed to Brazil, and Miss McFarren to 
Mexico. Miss Bomar was recommended to a 
training school. The resignations of Miss 
Muse and Miss Gilbert were accepted. The 
Board decided to publish a connectional 
juvenile paper, with Miss A. M. Barnes, of 
Georgia, editor; the salary ($750) to be paid 
for the ensuing year out of the general 

Wo)H(r)i's Mlsshnarij Sociefij, M. E. C, S. '429 

treasury; the name and all matters pertain- 
ing to the publication of said juvenile i)aper 
to be decided by the editor and Publishing 
Committee. Miss Helm's resignation as Sec- 
retary of Home Affairs because of ill health 
was not accepted, but a year of rest was 
granted the faithful officer, and Mrs. Nathan 
Scarritt was elected to discharge the duties of 
the office during the time. Mrs. Scarritt de- 
clining to serve, Mrs. S. 0. Trueheart was 
elected by the Local Board to relieve Miss 
Helm of the burdens of the office. 

Miss Lou Philips, late missionary of the 
Board in China; Miss Mattie Jones, repre- 
sentative from Brazil; and Be v. J. J. Meth- 
vin, from the Indian Territory, by their ear- 
nest words and thrilling descriptions of the 
work, its growth and needs, increased the zeal 
and enthusiasm of the Board. With much re- 
gret was the announcement of the approach- 
ing marriage of Dr. Mildred Philips received, 
as the Board would thereby be deprived of 
her valuable • services. The resignation of 
Mrs. ^Y. G. E. Cunnyngham as Editor of 
Leaflets was accepted with resolutions of re- 
gret and of appreciation of her six years of 
valuable service without remuneration, and 
Miss Barnes was elected her successor. The 

430 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

amount of appropriations for the coming 
year was $90,485. 

Miss Belle H. Bennett reported for the 
Scarritt Bible and Training School success 
far beyond the most sanguine expectations. 
Five years had been allowed by the generous 
donor and founder of the institution in which 
to collect the needed $25,000. In two years 
it had been accomplished, and on May 28 
"a company of missionary women and inter- 
ested friends had assembled at the site, and 
after solemn religious exercises the ground 
was broken and actual work on the Training 
School begun." Miss Bennett and Mrs. 
Wightman were continued as agents, and 
special effort promised to secure Easter offer- 
ings for the benefit of the Training School. 

The fourteenth annual session of the Board 
convened for business in Lexington, Ky., 
June 6, 1892, with the President, Mrs. Juliana 
Hayes, in the chair. Every officer, all the 
Managers except one, 24 Conference Secreta- 
ries, and 4 reserve delegates, a total of 40 
members, answering to roll call. The 37 
Conference Societies numbered 3,404 Auxili- 
aries, with 80,963 m^embers. There were be- 
ing supported 29 missionaries: in China, 9; 
Mexico, 12; Brazil, 8. In the Indian Mission 

Woman s Missionarif Society, M. E. C, S: 431 

teachers only were employed. Two mission- 
aries were at home for their health; seven 
young women had been accepted within the 
year, and $66,448.59 was the total amount of 
collections. The Woman's Missionary Advo- 
cate was prosperous, and the new juvenile 
paper, the Little Worker, the name selected 
by the Editor and Publishing Committee, was 
pronounced a success. In China the work 
had been somewhat interrupted by the un- 
settled condition of the country, but 38 na- 
tive teachers and assistants, 2 Bible women, 
and 669 children under instruction, showed 
that the work was advancing, notwithstand- 
ing the forced reduction of the number of 
workers. Loud calls for help came from this 
field. These, emphasized by the presence of 
Miss Hughes, were answered by accepting 
and appointing to it Miss Sallie B. Eeynolds, 
of South Carolina, and Miss Emma Gary, 
of Georgia. Miss Martha Pyles, of Missou- 
ri; Miss Alice Waters, of Tennessee; Miss 
Sue Blake, of Florida; and Miss Minnie Bo- 
mar, of Texas, liaving completed the several 
courses assigned them by the Board; and 
Mrs. Julia Gaither, of Georgia (who had 
been accepted by the Local Board and ap- 
pointed by Bishop Wilson in November pre- 

432 Hand Book of Methodist Missmis. 

ceding, but was prevented by unforeseen cir- 
cumstances from sailing at the time expect- 
ed), were also recommended to rcenforce the 
feeble band in China, and $29,345 was appro- 
priated to that field. Of this reenforcement. 
Miss Haygood wrote: "We had the great joy 
of receiving them October 18, 1892. It hap- 
pened that one or two of the ladies were not 
on deck as the steamer n eared the wharf. 
You would have faintly realized what the ab- 
sence of one of the eight would have meant 
to us if you could have heard the call to Miss 
Hughes, 'Are you all there?' and could have 
felt the relief that came with the answer, 
*Yes, we are all here! ' We had a delightful 
and profitable meeting at McTyeire Home the 
following evening, with all our sixteen ladies 
present, and Bishop Key presiding. . . . 
We, the old guard, ' thank God and take cour- 
age ' because of their coming." Miss Jennie 
Atkinson, having given eight years of faithful 
service to the work in China, was granted 
leave to return home for a season. 

Amid many difiiculties and some discour- 
agements in Mexico, it appeared that the true 
religion of the Bible was overcoming the er- 
rors of popery. There were, in addition to 
the twelve missionaries, 16 assistants and 7 

Woman's Missionarfj Society, M. E. C.,S. 433 

native teachers, while 935 women and chil- 
dren were being taught in the excellent 
schools which had been established in seven 
towns and cities. Miss Delia Holding, who 
for ten years had given faithful service as a 
teacher, was accepted and assigned as a iiiis- 
sionanj to the Mexican Border. Miss Wilson, 
missionary from Chihuahua; Miss Mason, a 
teacher in the school at Saltillo; and Miss 
Holderby, once a teacher in Laredo, in simple, 
earnest words presented forcibly the needs of 
Mexico. The appropriation for the ensuing 
year was $33,940. 

In Brazil the woman's work was established 
in Piracicaba, Eio, and Juis de Fora. 
There were 3 boarding schools in successful 
operation, and 215 pupils enrolled. Yellow 
fever had hindered the work, and there was 
imperative need that two of the workers 
should return home for rest and recuperation. 
Miss Alice Moore, of Georgia; Miss Susan 
Littlejohn, of South Carolina; and Miss 
Amelia Elerding, of Wisconsin, were accepted 
and assigned to Piracicaba, Kio, and Juis 
de Fora, with an appropriation for Brazil of 
$11,600. Permission was granted Misses 
Bruce and Marvin to return home to regain, 
if possible, sufficient strength for the prose- 

434 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

cution of their work, and Miss Watts was also 
granted leave to come, should her health re- 
quire the change. 

In the Indian Mission the work had pro- 
gressed without interruption. Almost every 
needed improvement asked for was granted. 
The total amount of appropriations for the 
year was $86,810, of which $5,425 was appro- 
priated to the wild tribes. A few changes 
were made in the By-laws, a revision of the 
" Manual for Missionaries " ordered, a commit- 
tee appointed to revise the Constitution and 
submit the same to the following annual 
meeting of the Board, and a resolution adopt- 
ed that will bring all missionaries going into 
China and Brazil home to rest at the end of 
seven years. Miss Helm again tendering her 
resignation, it was accepted, and suitable res- 
olutions of appreciation of her valuable serv- 
ices were adopted. Mrs. S. C. Trueheart was 
elected Secretary of Home Affairs. Rev. C. 
F. Eeid, missionary from China, enthusiastic- 
ally presented the great needs of that great 

Mrs. Callaway presented a memorial from 
the North Georgia Conference Society, pe- 
titioning the Board to enter Japan. Mrs. 
Philips presented a memorial from the Flor- 

Woman's Missionary Society, M. E. C, 8.435 

ida Confereuce Society to establish a school 
ill Key West. The Board decided that 
" Japan is an inviting field, which commands 
our sympathies and incites our desires to en- 
ter; but obligations to work already begun in 
other fields must be fully met before work 
can be undertaken in any mission not hitherto 
occupied by the Woman's Board." 

The telegram from Rev. W. B. Palmore 
asking the Board to appoint a committee to 
investigate the West Indies with a view to 
entering that field received due consideration. 

Dr. Palmore had, in a tangible form, shown 
his interest in the work of the Woman's 
Board of Missions, and his suggestions, en- 
kindled by his missionary zeal, were gratefully 
received; but because of the large demand 
upon the resources of the Board, and also by 
reason of its policy to work only in fields oc- 
cupied by the General Board, they could not 
be acted upon. 

A communication from Mrs. J. E. Ray, Su- 
perintendent of the Woman's Christian Tem- 
perance Union Department of Home and For- 
eign Missions to the Colored People, was con- 

Much interest is felt in this peoj^le, and as 
far as comes within the scope of the organi- 

436 Hfoid Book of Methodist Missions. 

zatioii it will assist them in forming societies 
for tlie spread of the gospel among their race. 
Letters from missionaries in the field ask- 
ing for a construction of the "pledge" taken 
by missionary candidates were referred to a 
subcommittee. This committee, after labor- 
ing in vain to find plainer language in which 
to express the meaning of this pledge, brought 
in the following resolution, which was adopt- 
ed by -the Committee on Extension of Work: 

Resolved, That as ive interpret this pledge, every can- 
didate who signs it promises to give not less than five 
years^ service to this Board. Nor do we regard the re- 
funding of outfit and passage money as canceling this 
obligation. Mrs. C. W. Brandon, 

Mrs. W. G. E. Cunnyngham. 

A communication was read from Dr. I. G. 
John, Secretary of the Parent Board of Mis- 
sions of the M. E. Church, South, accompa- 
nying the following resolutions, which had 
been adopted at a meeting of the Board of 
Missions, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
held in the Mission Booms Saturday, May 4, 
11 A.M.: 

Whereas the Woman's Board of Missions of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, will hold its four- 
teenth annual meeting in Lexington, Ky., l^eginning 
June 6; and whereas their great work and the work 

Woman's Missionary Society y M. E. C, S. 437 

of this Board are indissolubly united in effort and de- 
sign; therefore, 

Resolved, That we rejoice over the tokens of divine 
approbation that have attended their work in the dif- 
ferent fields they have entered, and devoutly trust 
that divine wisdom and grace will guide their deliber- 
ations at their coming session, and that every measure 
they shall adopt shall yield large results in the work 
of our Lord in lands of superstition and sin. 

Resolved, That we rejoice that it is our privilege, in 
any way, to '* help those women " in the great work to 
which they have been called, and will not cease our 
prayers that the great Head of the Church will be with 
all the work of the Board and its officers, and with 
those consecrated women whom they are sending out 
in our Master's service in the foreign field. 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary of this 
Board is hereby instructed to send a copy of these res- 
olutions to the Woman's Board while in annual ses- 
sion at Lexington, Ky. 

In presenting to each member of the Board 
a set of the "Missionary Hand Books," as far 
as issued from the press, Dr. John said: "The 
next number should embrace a brief history 
of the origin and work of the Woman's Board. 
It is proper, however, that your Board shoukl 
choose its own historian. If a history corre- 
sponding in size with those now in print can 
be furnished, I will be glad to embrace it in 
the series, assuming all cost of publication." 

On motion of Mrs. Phillips, Mrs. W. S. 

438 Rand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Black, Corresponding Secretary of the North 
Carolina Conference Society, was appointed 
Historian, to prepare a brief history of the 
origin and work of the Woman's Board of 
Missions for the next number in the series of 
"Hand Books" above mentioned. 

A communication from Bishop Keener was 
read, suggesting that the " AVoman's Board 
wo aid do a grand act and a wise one to send 
$25,000 to Japan for the relief of our friends 
there who are suffering from the earthquake." 
The Secretary was directed to answer Bishop 
Keener's letter, assuring him of the apprecia- 
tion by the Board of this token of his confi- 
dence, and regretting its inability to comply 
with the suggestion of the honored senior 
bishop of the Church. 

Mrs. Brandon offered the following: 
Resolved, That the President of the Woman's Board 
of Missions appoint a committee of five on Constitu- 
tion and By-laws of the Woman's Missionary Society ; 
that this committee be instructed to indicate the du- 
ties, powers, and prerogatives of the Local Board; re- 
port of said committee being subject to the action of 
the Woman's Board of Missions at the next annual 
meeting. Mrs. C. W. Brandon. 

This resolution was adopted, and the Pres- 
ident appointed said committee as follows: 
Mrs. C. W. Brandon, Miss Maria Layng 

Woman's Missionary Society^ M. E. C, S. 439 

Gibson, Mrs. S. S. Park, Mrs. A. H. Strother, 
and Mrs. W. G. E. Cunnyngliam. 

Mr. J. D. Hamilton, after years of " un- 
wearying kindness and faithful service" as 
Auditor, resigning, Mr. T. L. Weaver, of 
Nashville, Tenn., was elected as his successor. 

At the memorial service held as a tribute to 
Mrs. Florence Malone, Cori^esponding Secre- 
tary of the White River Conference Society, 
and Eev. J. W. Lambuth, of Japan, sweet, 
touching testimonials of her worth and char- 
acter were spoken by her co-workers. 

The Secretary records: 

Miss Gibson read the tribute to Rev. J. 
W. Lambuth, which had come from the heart 
to the pen of Mrs. W. G. E. Cunnyngham, so 
many years his neighbor while a missionary 
in China. 

Rev. C. E. Reid added his tribute, speaking 
strong words of praise of the veteran mission- 
ary, dwelling chiefly on his godly life and his 
success as a soul winner. 

By request, Rev. Walter Lambuth spoke 
of his father, and as he told of his consecrat- 
ed life in all its sweet humility no one won- 
dered that he had won from the natives the 
title of the "God-man." 

A cause of thanksgiving to the Board and 

440 Hand Book of Methodist 3Iissions. 

to the Church at this meeting was the com- 
pletion of the Scarritt Bible and Training 
School and its equipment for work. An- 
nouncement was made that its dedication 
and opening would take place September 14, 
so that henceforth the Board may send 
thither its daughters that need training, that 
they may be "thoroughly furnished unto 
every good work." 

At a meeting held last July the officers of 
the Board of Managers elected were: Bishop 
E. K. Hendrix, President; Miss Belle H. 
Bennett, Vice President; Mr. J. S. Chick, 
Treasurer; Mrs. Julia E. Simpson, Secretary. 

Miss M. L. Gibson was elected Principal; 
Miss E. E. Holding, Department of Bible 
Study; Miss E. C. Cushman, Head Nurse; 
Mrs. W. H. Waldron, Matron. 

Mrs. Butler was reelected Editor of the 
Woman's Missionary/ Advocate and Miss 
Barnes of the Little Worker and Leaflets. 

The Treasurer's books showed that $93,- 
991.73 was on deposit in the First National, 
Commercial National, and City Savings Bank, 
of Nashville. Total amount received since 
organization, $651,405.68. Value of property 
owned by the Board (1891), $176,300. The 
Secretary records the following: 

Wommi's Missionary Society ^ M. E. C, S. 441 

The service on Thursday night, when ten mission- 
aries were presented to the Board, and repeated the 
pledge in the presence of a large audience, was impress- 
ive, and inspired a doxology from those who had been 
praying for women — a glad thanksgiving that God 
heareth and answereth the supplications of his chil- 
dren. Benedictions were silently invoked on the new 
missionaries as the President delivered the solemn 
charge and Kev. C F. Reid addressed them as his fel- 
low-laborers and offered his congratulations. 

Should the venerable and beloved President 
be spared to meet with the Board another 
year (the fifteenth annual meeting blessed by 
her presence), she will "wear fourscore years 
as a crown." Her fourteenth annual address, 
most appropriate to the centennial of modern 
missions, was heard by six persons only who, 
as members, listened to her first address 
as President of the Board at Louisville. 
God's blessing has crowned the years. The 
language of each consecrated worker is: 

" Master, to do great work for thee, my hand is far 
too weak ; 
Yet, take the tiny stones that I have wrought, just one 

by one, as they were given by thee. 
Not knowing what came next in thy wise thought, 
Set each stone by thy master hand of grace ; 
Form tlie Mosaic as thou wilt. 
And in thy temple pavement give it place." 

Missions of tlie Metliodist Episcopal Cliurch. 


Missions i Methodist Episcopal Cliiircli. 

American Indians. 
The missionary organizations of the two co- 
ordinate branches of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church are of common parentage. Both 
point back to the story of John Stewart, the 
converted negro,, and his w^onderful call to 
preach the gospel among the Wyandots. 
Converted under the preaching of Marcus 
Lindsay, he soon felt an impulse to call sin- 
ners to repentance. It seemed to him that he 
heard a voice from the Northwest saying: 
" You must declare my counsel faithfully." 
At last, packing his knapsack, he followed 
what he felt was the command of his Master, 
not knowing whither he would be led. He 
reached the Upper Sandusky, where the 
agency of the Wyandots was located. He 
found among them a colored man, a backslid- 
den Methodist, whom he had once known in 
Kentucky. Stewart said to him : " To-morrow 
I must preach to these Indians, and you must 
interpret." Pointer protested: "How can I, 


444 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

without religion, interpret a sermon? " Stew- 
art insisted, and the appointment was made. 
Only one old squaw came, but he delivered 
his message. The next day an old man was 
added to the congregation. On Sunday there 
were eight or ten. Soon crowds came out, 
and conversions followed. Among them was 
Robert Armstrong, a white man who had 
been captured when a lad and adopted into 
the tribe. Then the noted chiefs, Between- 
the-logs, Mononcue, and Scuteash and many 
members of their nation. No wonder the 
story of this wonderful work among these ig- 
norant savages stirred the Church profoundly. 
It led to the organization of the Missionary 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
The names of Nathan Bangs and Joshua 
Soule, well known to Methodism, North and 
South, appear among its charter members. 
The history of that Society up to 1844 is the 
joint inheritance of both divisions of the Par- 
ent Church. When, in the providence of 
God, our Israel became two bands the work 
in the Indian Mission Conference fell to the 
lot of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
That work has been wonderfully prospered. 
Our brethren of the Northern Conference 
have not been unmindful of the claims of the 

Missions of the M. K. Church. 445 

Indians within their bounds; but have fol- 
lowed them with the gosj)el as they have 
slowly receded from the advancing tide of im- 

Having made full proof of his ministry, 
Stewart was licensed to preach, and continued 
his work among the Indians. Moses Hinckle, 
a colored man, was very helpful to him, and 
several local preachers from adjoining circuits 
rendered him efficient aid. 

Miss Harriet Stubbs, sister-in-law of Judge 
McLean, heard of this work and surrendered 
her home and the refinements of civilized 
life, and devoted herself to the instruction of 
Indian girls and women. Her influence 
among the dusky w^arriors was wonderful. 
They styled her the "Pretty Red Bird," and 
regarded her as an angel who had been sent 
by the Great Spirit to guide them to the bet- 
ter land. She may be regarded as the pioneer 
of the woman's missionary work of American 

In 1819 the mission among the Wyandots 
was embraced in the Lebanon District, of 
which Rev. J. B. Finley wis i^residing elder. 
He held a quarterly meeting on Mad 
River Circuit, forty miles from Upper San- 
dusky. Some sixty Wyandots, with their four 

44:6 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

leading chiefs and their families, were pres- 
ent. The testimony of these native converts 
left no doubt as to the presence of divine 
power among these sons of the forest. Be- 
tween-the-logs gave a history of religion 
among the Indians. He told of the religion 
of their fathers; then of the coming of the 
Catholic priests, but their teaching failed to 
make the Indians good. Then the Shawnee 
prophet rose, and then the Seneca prophet, 
but they also failed to make the Indians 
better, and they began to think their old re- 
ligion was the best. At last the Great Spir- 
it sent Stewart. They treated him badly 
at first, but he was patient and they began 
to listen; then Christ came down upon them 
in the council house. The Indians had 
found the grace of God and had adopted 
Stewart, and wanted him to stay v/itli them 

At the Conference of 1820 they petitioned 
for a preacher. Moses Hinckle, Sr., was ap- 
pointed missionary to Upper Sandusky. He 
was succeeded in 1821 by Rev. J. B. Fin- 
ley. At the first meeting to form classes 
twenty-three presented themselves. Mr. Fin- 
ley inclosed land, built a sawmill, taught the 
Indians to farm, working with his own hands. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 447 

A grant of $10,000 per year by the govern- 
ment for industrial and literary schools for 
the Indians, greatly advanced the work. Mr. 
Finley commenced building a mission house, 
and appealed to the Church for help. Balti- 
more responded liberally. Kev. John Sum- 
mer field employed his rare powers in pleading 
the cause of the Indian before his congrega- 
tions of children. Bishop McKendree visited 
the mission and greatly cheered them by his 
counsel. He found a large farm under culti- 
vation, a mission house completed, and over 
200 Indians who had professed saving faith in 

Stewart's health gave way in the thirty- 
seventh year of his life and the seventh year 
of his missionary labors. He passed away 
December 17, 1823, addressing earnest exhor- 
tations to fidelity to the people among whom 
he had planted the gospel. 

Under instructions from the Conference of 
1823, Mr. Finley, accompanied by "Monon- 
cue," Gray Eyes, and Pointer, visited the 
Chippeways on Saginaw Eiver, Michigan. 
They made a favorable report, and Kev. 
Charles Elliott was made Mr. Finley's as- 
sistant. They extended their labors to the 
Wyandots on the Huron River and to the Ca- 

448 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

nara, Upper Canada. A class of jSfteen was 
formed, to which twenty-seven were added. 
The year closed with 260 members. 

The health of Mr. Finley was broken down 
by labor and privations, and in 1827 Eev. 
James Gilruth took his place. The same year 
" Between-the-logs " closed his faithful life. 
He was a wise chief and a useful local preach- 
er. At his death there were about 300 Indian 
members, with four native local preachers, fif- 
teen class leaders, and 70 children in school. 
In 1832 the tribe sold their lands in Ohio, and 
about seven hundred in number moved to the 
junction of the Kansas and Missouri Kivers, 
where a remnant of the nation live, having ac- 
quired the right of citizenship and to hold 
their land in severalty. 

Among the Oneidas in New York a work 
was commenced in 1829 by a converted Mo- 
hawk youth from Canada. More than a hun- 
dred were converted. The work spread to the 
Onondagas. In 1831 it reported 130 mem- 
bers. The larger portion of these Indians re- 
moved to Green Bay, Wisconsin, where they 
were followed by the faithful missionary, 
while mission work was continued among 
the remnant who remained in New York. 
Mission work was commenced in 1830 and 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 449 

carried on for several years among the Shaw- 
nee, Kansas, and Delaware tribes. 

Methodist preachers frequently visited and 
preached among the Mohawks, who were 
settled on Grand Eiver, Upper Canada. In 
1822 the Genesee Conference, which then in- 
cluded Upper Canada, sent Rev. Alvin Tor- 
ry to open a mission among them. Supersti- 
tion and heathenism prevailed, but the mis- 
sionary was welcomed everywhere, and a few 
souls were converted. In the settlement there 
was a young man named Seth Crawford, who 
felt called to learn the language and devote 
his life to labor with this people. At a meet- 
ing held while Mr. Torry was at Conference, 
two women were deeply convicted. While one 
of them knelt with her children around her 
at home aiid prayed, a daughter fifteen years 
old and the mother were converted. On Sun- 
day the assembly broke out into sobs and 
cries. Crowds flocked to the church. On 
Mr. Torry' s return twenty united with the 
Church. The work spread to the neighbor- 
ing tribes and settlements. Among the con- 
verts was a Chippewa youth named Peter 
Jones. He had attended school, and before 
a great while felt called to preach. He had 
rare gifts, and became a power among his 

450 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

people. In 1825 the mission reported 150 

About four score years ago a trapper west of 
the Rocky Mountains, after witnessing the re- 
ligious ceremonies of the Flathead Indians, 
said to one of the chiefs: " Your worship is all 
wrong. In the far East the white man has a 
book which tells of the true God, and how to 
worship him aright." After much talk re- 
specting these words, the chiefs of the tribe 
sent four of their number to the East in 
search of the Holy Book that would teach 
them how to worship God. After a weary 
march of 3,000 miles, often through hostile 
tribes, they reached St. Louis. Two of them 
died, worn out by exposure and fatigue. The 
others made inquiry for the Book of God. It 
is said they were directed to the Catholic 
priests, who were not ready to furnish them 
the book; and they started back with sad 
hearts. It is not known whether they reached 
the tribe with the story of their disappoint- 
ment or died on the way. 

While in St. Louis they told their story to 
Gen. Clark, whom they had seen when he was 
exploring the Pacific Coast. He mentioned 
the fact to others. The story reached the 
press and stirred the heart of Dr. Wilbur 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 451 

Fisk. He at once wrote an appeal, headed 
"Hear! hear! Who will respond to the call 
from beyond the Eocky Mountains?" He 
wrote to Jason Lee, then a missionary among 
the Indians, and said: "Money shall be forth- 
coming. I will be bondsman for the Church." 

The call aroused the Church. Lee and 
others volunteered. The money was forth- 
coming, the missionaries reached the field, and 
the Book of God and faithful missionaries 
have since been teaching the Indians west of 
the Eocky Mountains how to worship God. 

The first company of missionaries to that 
distant field consisted of Eev. Jason Lee and 
his nephew, Eev. Daniel Lee, and Messrs. 
Cyrus Shepard, T. S. Edwards, and P. L. Ed- 
wards, laymen. They left St. Louis April 25, 
1834, and reached Walla Walla, on the Colum- 
bia Eiver, September 1 of that year. Jason 
Lee preached the first sermon at Vancouver 
September 28. The mission was maintained, 
and reenforced, with varied fortunes, until the 
tide of immigration poured in, the Indian 
tribes yielded to the superior race, and the 
Indian missions were merged into the regular 
work of Annual Conferences. 
^ It is a fact worthy of record that when the 
title to the immense domain now held by the 

452 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

United States in that northwestern portion of 
its boundary was in dispute with Great Brit- 
ain, according to the testimony of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, the missionaries of the 
American Board and the Methodist Church, 
who had established their stations among the 
Indians in various parts of the country, and 
who attracted thither the tide of American 
emigration turned the scale in favor of our 
government, resulting in the establishment of 
the Territorial Government of Oregon, wholly 
American in its interests, which continued to 
exercise all the functions of government over 
the territory and its six or eight thousand in- 
habitants until the erection of the Territory 
of Oregon by Congress by the act of August, 

The missions among the Indian tribes, 
which were commenced among the Wyandots 
in 1816, have been continued as these people 
vanished before the stronger race, but rem- 
nants of these tribes and relics of former mis- 
sions now remain. There are still stations 
among the Oneidas, Onondagas, Tonawandas, 
and other tribes in New York; among the 
Chippewas and Ottawas, of Michigan; the 

* See Reed's *' History of the Missions of Missionary 
Society M. E. Church," p, 136. 

Missions of the M. E. CMirch. 453 

Oneidas, of Wisconsin; the Navajos, in New 
Mexico and Arizona, and the Yakima natives 
on the Columbia River and other tribes in 
California and on Pnget Sound. The appro- 
priations for all these missions in 1892 
amounted to $13,550. 

In 1879 work was commenced in the Indian 
Territory, It was organized into a Confer- 
ence in 1889. In 1892 it reported 17 members 
of Conference, 928 members, and 389 on pro- 


The mission in Liberia was opened by Rev. 
Melville B. Cox, of the Virginia Conference, 
who reached Monrovia March 7, 1833, and 
closed his labors September 21 of the same 
year. January 1, 1834, Rev. Rufus Spaulding 
and Rev. Samuel O. Wright and their wives 
and Miss Sophronia Farrington reached Mon- 
rovia and resumed the work. February 4 
Mrs. Wright finished her work. She was 
joined in the home of the redeemed by her 
husband March 29. In May sickness forced 
Mr. Spaulding to return home. Miss Far- 
rington, a frail woman, worn with sickness, 
held the post. In February, 1835, Rev. John 
Seys went out as Superintendent of the mis- 
sion. He was accompanied by a young col- 

454 Hmicl Book of Methodist Missions. 

ored local preacher named Francis Burns. 
He readied Liberia October 18, 1834. The 
mission was reenf orced in July, 1835, by the ar- 
rival of Rev. J. B. Barton. The General Con- 
ference of 1836 legalized the Liberia Annual 
Conference, v/ithout the right of a represen- 
tation in the General Conference. In 1836 
Mr. Seys again visited the United States for 
reenf orcements, and returned in October with 
Bev. Squier Chase and Bev. George S. Brown, 
a colored local preacher. The same year 
Dr. S. M. E. Goheen joined the mission as a 
medical missionary. Mrs. Ann Wilkins and 
Mrs. Boers went out in the same vessel. 
Mrs. Wilkins became the faithful and suc- 
cessful Principal of the school at Millsburg. 
In 1838 W. P. Jayne reached the field. The 
mission now reported 17 missionaries, male 
and female, and 421 members. 

Then came trouble with the authorities, in 
which Mr. Seys and Dr. Goheen represented 
the rights and work of the mission. These 
troubles led to the return of Dr. Goheen and 
the resignation of Mr. Seys as Superintendent, 
who returned to the United States with his 
family in 1841. His presence was needed in 
the mission, however, and he was reappoint- 
ed and reached Monrovia Janaury 11, 1844. 

Missions of the M. E. Clmrcli, 455 

Mr. Seys resumed his work with character- 
istic zeal. The mission was enlarged, stations 
being opened at several new points in the in- 
terior. The Superintendent made extensive 
trips, traveling on foot and preaching in vil- 
lages where the voice of the missionary had 
never been heard before. But climate and 
toil were telling upon his strength. The 
health of his wife forbade her return to the 
field, and he again resigned the superintend- 

In the fall of 184:5 Eev. J. B. Benham was 
appointed Superintendent of the mission, and 
Eev. W. B. Williams Principal of the Monro- 
via Seminary, with Rev. W. B. Hoyt as assist- 
ant. They sailed from Norfolk November 4, 
1845. They entered vigorously on their work, 
but Mr. Williams Avas stricken by the fatal 
fever, and died January 5, 1846. Mr. Hoyt had 
charge of the Seminary, but his wife sank 
under the climate and returned home in Au- 
gust. Soon his own health failed, and he re- 
turned in 1847. Miss Laura Brush reached 
Africa to assist Miss AVilkins in her school at 
Millsburg. She suffered greatly from the 
fever, but survived and did good service for 
several years. The Conference met in Mon- 
rovia Dec-ember 8, 1847. It reported 965 mem- 

456 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

bers. Failing health compelled the resignation 
of Superintendent Benham. Kev. N. S. Bas- 
tion was appointed Superintendent, and ar- 
rived in the field with his wife and child Sep- 
tember 19, 1849. Early in 1850 he returned, 
leaving wife and child buried in African soil. 
The bishop appointed Eev. Francis Burns, 
who had gone out with Mr. Seys in 1835, to 
preside at the Liberia Conference January 
3, 1851. They directed the division of the 
Conference into the Monrovia, Cape Palmas, 
and Bassa Districts. The Liberia Conference 
Seminary was opened in February, 1853, with 
Kev. J. W. Home Principal and Mr. Gibson 
assistant. Many of its pupils have become 
useful both in the government and Church 
in Liberia. Mr. Home was forced by the fe- 
ver from the mission in 1855, and Mr. Gib- 
son was left in charge of the school. Mr. 
Home recovered his health, and, with his 
wife, returned to the field, but death closed 
his labors in 1855. 

The visit of Bishop Scott to the Liberia 
Conference in 1853 was of great value to the 
mission. He ordained several preachers who 
were entitled to the ordinance. The financial 
interests of the mission were adjusted, and 
the growing disposition among the preachers 

Missions of the M. E. Chnrch, 457 

to seek political preferment was rebuked. In 
October, 1854, Mrs. Ann Wilkins, returning 
to Liberia from a visit to the United States, 
took with her, by appointment of the Board, 
Miss Staunton, Miss Brown, and Miss Kil- 
patrick. Miss Staunton yielded to the mala- 
ria, and died in April, 1856. The others sur- 
vived and rendered efficient service. 

The embarrassment arising from the want 
of ordained native preachers became a matter 
of great concern. To send out a bishop an- 
nually to perform this duty not only involved 
large expenditure, but the visit was one of 
great danger from the coast fever. The ques- 
tion came before the General Conference of 
1856. After careful consideration the re- 
strictive rule was so amended as to allow the 
General Conference to appoint a missionary 
bishop for any of its foreign missions, limit- 
ing his jurisdiction to the field to which he 
might be appointed. The amendment re- 
ceived the constitutional majority in the Gen- 
eral Conference and Annual Conferences. It 
authorized the Liberia Conference, under the 
direction of the bishop in charge, to elect a 
bishop for Liberia. At its session held in 
January, 1858, the Liberia Conference elected 
Hev. Francis Burns. He was ordained at the 

458 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

General Conference, October 4, 1858, Bishops 
Janes and Baker officiating. 

Bishop Burns was a wise and efficient offi- 
cer. He realized the importance of making 
the Church in Liberia a missionary Church. 
He said the extension of the work among the 
native tribes was a "condition both of our 
spiritual life and our growing usefulness. If 
we stay here, we die." His work was soon 
done. He died April 18, 1863. 

The General Conference of 1864 authorized 
the election of a successor to Bishop Burns. 
Rev. John W. Roberts was elected by the Li- 
beria Conference in 1866, and ordained in 
New York City June 20 by Bishops Scott 
and Janes. He superintended the work of 
the mission with wisdom and zeal until Janu- 
ary 30, 1875, when he died at Monrovia dur- 
ing the session of the Conference, which met 
at Greenville, in the Sinoe country. 

Li 1876 Bishop Haven visited the mission, 
accompanied by Rev. J. T. Gracey, formerly 
of the India Mission. He visited nearly all 
the principal stations, being careful not to re- 
main on shore at night, thus avoiding as far 
possible the deadly malaria. His visit was a 
great benefit both to the financial and spirit- 
ual interests of the Church and Conference. 

Missions of the M. E, Church. 459 

He sought to impress on the preachers the 
importance or aggressive missionary work in 
the interior. He engaged Eev. 0. A. Pit- 
man, of Monrovia, to visit the country as far 
as Boporo, and report the prospects of a mis- 
sion in that region. Mr. Pitman, with Dr. 
E. W. Blyden and others, visited the interior. 
They passed through the Vey coiiutry, dis- 
tributing several copies of the Arabic New 
Testament among the believers in the Koran. 
At Barbahsue, within a day's walk from Mon- 
rovia, the land began to rise. As they as- 
scended the air became colder, and at More 
Lar, about fifty miles from the coast, the air 
was exhilarating and the country abounded 
in cool and shady brooks. At Boporo the 
chief met them cordially and promised to 
open the way for Christian work. They 
returned greatly encouraged and reported 
favorably respecting a mission in that new 
but open field. Bishop Haven appointed 
Kev. Joel Osgood, who arrived in Monrovia 
February 13, 1877. He reached his field in 
five days. He was accompanied by Mr. Pit- 
man, who, after seeing him provided for, left 
him in the wilderness. Upward of fifty re- 
sponded to Bishop Haven's call for volun- 
teers. He selected Piev. E. J. Kellogg as 

460 Rand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Principal of the Monrovia Seminary, and Rev. 
M. Y. Bovard as Superintendent of the Bo- 
poro Mission. Mr. Bovard sailed from New 
York in March, 1878. He reached the field 
in due time, and found Osgood at his outpost. 
They found the climate pleasant and com- 
paratively healthy. The statistics of 1879 
furnish the following items: 1 foreign mis- 
sionary, 2 ladies from the Woman's Society, 
50 local preachers, 1,962 members, 306 proba- 
tioners. Interior Africa: 1 foreign mission- 
ary, 1 day school, 25 scholars. 

In 1880 the Liberia "Conference took incip- 
ient steps toward an independent organization. 
The General Committee had from year to year 
reduced the appropriation to this field from 
$37,000 to $4,500. In distributing t]ie appro- 
priations the committee had sought to remand 
some of the stronger charges to their own re- 
sources. Its aim was to develop that spirit 
of self-reliance which is essential to a self- 
perpetuating Church in any land. A clear 
but kind statement of the facts w^as sent to 
Liberia. The measure adopted by the Con- 
ference was submitted to the laity, and very 
few votes were cast for independence. 

Rev. R. J. Kellogg, Principal of Monrovia 
Seminary, returned home, and Mr. R. P. Mai- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 461 

lett was sent out to take liis place. Miss 
Mary A. Sharpe had coutinned her success- 
ful labors among the Kroos in the suburbs of 
Monrovia. Kev. Joel Osgood continued his 
work in the interior, though he had been much 
interrupted by a fearful war between the 
tribes. He had been able to keep about 
twenty children in his school and do some 
evangelistic work. At the Conference held in 
January, 1881, five young men were admitted 
on trial, and a net increase of 82 full members 

The mission suffered a great loss in the 
death of Rev. J. S. Payne, who died January 
31, 1882. He had held the office of President 
of the Republic during two terms, and had 
served the Church in connection with the 
mission forty years. He died in great peace 
with the whole Conference around his bed- 
side. The "Woman's Society also lost Miss 
Michener. She had surrendered a desirable 
position as teacher in Philadelphia to answer 
a call to open a school in the Bassa District. 
At a farewell meeting she said : " I have been 
asked, if I knew that I should die from the 
effects of the climate, would I still persist in 
going. I can only answer, yes! If I can be 
the humble means of the conversion of one 

462 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

soul in that land before my death, I would go; 
for that one might be the instrument in God's 
hands of bringing many precious immortal 
souls to Christ." Rev. Joel Osgood held his 
ground faithfully until he was stricken down 
by the fever and forced to return to the 
United States. At the Conference in Jan- 
uary, 1882, only seventeen were assigned ap- 
pointments. There was discouragement at 
home and in the field. A more hopeful spirit 
prevailed at the Conference of 1883. Two 
were admitted on trial and a net increase of 
199 members reported. The Liberia Confer- 
ence met January 28, 1884, at Cape Palmas, 
Eev. C. A. Pitman presiding. Rev. Daniel 
Ware was elected clerical delegate to the 
General Conference. The members reported 
were 2,337, with 35 Sunday schools and 2,178 
scholars. Rev. William Taylor was elected 
"Misioiiary Bishop for Africa" by the Gen- 
eral Conference, and was ordained w^itli the 
other bishops elect. 

Bishop Taylor presided at the Liberia Con- 
ference January 29, 1885. Dr. W. R. Sum- 
mers, Levin Johnson, Revs. Taylor and C. 
L. Davenport were received into the Confer- 
ence, being designed for a field southward 
which. Bishop Taylor afterward opened. A 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 463 

letter from Bishop Taylor written November 
16 stated that five stations had been estab- 
lished in Angola and one in Masuba. "In 
four of these there is an ordained minister 
and in two preacliing men." Their health 
had been wonderfully preserved. 

The Conference met February 4, 1886, at 
Edina, Bishop Taylor in the chair. The ap- 
pointments within Liberia embraced seven 
districts, with 27 aj^pointments, some of them 
" to be supplied " by local preachers. A new 
field was opened called the " South Central 
Africa District," which was later divided into 
the Upper Congo and Angola Districts. 

The reports of the Confereuce of 1887 were 
full of encouragement. The work of Sister 
Mary A. Sharpe in the Kroo tribe was warmly 
commended. Over twenty have been con- 
verted, of whom fourteen were baptized by 
Bishop Taylor during the Conference. The 
membership reported was 2,518, with 387 pro- 
bationers. The latter item indicates the ag- 
gressive character of the work. 

The report of the South Central Africa 
District made to the General Committee in 
1889 embraced the operations of Bishop 
Taylor since liis first arrival in Africa in 
1884 Before he sailed he had engaged forty 

464 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

missionaries, male and female, to devote their 
lives to the redemption of Africa. He met 
them on the west coast and proceeded to 
Loanda, the capital of Angola, a Portuguese 
province. He penetrated the interior 300 
miles from Loando^ planting stations along 
the ronte. He bought property and built an 
iron house at Loanda, to serve both as a home 
and mission. It was under charge of Eev. C. 
Ratcliff, with a good missionary force. At 
Dondo, at the head of navigation on the Co- 
anza River 250 miles from its mouth, a good 
mission property was secured, and schools 
and other missionary agencies established un- 
der the charge of Rev. C. Davenport. Sixty 
miles farther, at Malange, S. Mead had charge 
of a station. Further east was N'Hange 
Pepo, under the care of W. P. Dodson. An- 
other station was located still farther east at 
Pungo Andongo. These stations were de- 
signed to extend to the Kassai River. A station 
was established at Mamba, on the coast north 
of the Congo, in the French possession. An- 
other was planted at Kabinda, still farther 
north, near the gateway of the Congo State. 
Another point was the Cavalla River. The 
seaport of this mission is Cape Palmas, 
Liberia. The Cavalla is a navigable river 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 465 

which runs through a good country fringed 
with native villages. In this region Bishop 
Taylor found seventeen kings who asked for 
missionaries. A supply of missionaries were 
allotted to this field and sent forward. 

The central point of the bishop's operations 
was the Congo. He had secured a steamer, 
but owing to the call for transportation by 
Stanley's expedition to Stanley Falls, on the 
occasion of the Arab invasion at that time, he 
was unable to .convey the material 235 miles 
by land around the fall to Stanley Pool. The 
bishop, had been at work, however. He had 
penetrated into the country along this route 
and established several stations. 

The report of 1890 reveals marked advance. 
The new mission work was divided into the 
Congo District, Cape Palmas and Cavalla Dis- 
trict, and the Angola District. There were 48 
missionaries in these three districts, 16 of 
whom were members of the Conference. Of 
the 32 who were not members 12 were single 
ladies. Usually there were two single ladies 
at a station, but at three points they were 
alone. Judging from some incidents the 
bishop relates, they have not only faith but 
pluck. Miss Annie Whitfield was at Tatika, 
on the Cassala Eiver. She had adopted a 

4:66 Hand Book of MetliocUst Missions. 

little family of heathen children. Several 
had been converted. An old leopard made 
himself an nnwelcome visitor, growling around 
the house at night. Miss Whitfield had no 
gun, but prepared a large torch. At night 
their visitor came purring in the bushes a 
few rods from the door. The torch was 
lighted, the door thrown open, and the lonely 
missionary rushed out, swinging the torch in 
the dense darkness. A rush was heard, and 
the leopard disturbed them no. more. 

Miss Agnes McAllister held the station at 
Garaway, on the Kon coast, teaching a large 
school. Thirty of her people had been con- 
verted. A neighboring tribe attacked the 
the town. The people rallied and drove their 
assailants away, but several of the Garaway 
people were killed and twenty-two wounded. 
When the smoke cleared away Miss Agnes 
went to the field with needle and bandages. 
The first she found was a man with a wound 
to the bone in his back a foot long. The car- 
penter of the mission came to help her, but 
his nerve failed till he saw her quietly 
stitching the gaping wound. It was bound 
up and then she turned to another and an- 
other, like an angel of mercy. She w^aited 
and watched with the wounded and dying for 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 467 

a week, and then went back to lier work in the 
mission. No wonder those savage people 
listened to her message. 

Kev. Eckman, of Sastown, had another ex- 
perience. He had a revival at which 175 
were converted. While he was away the 
devil (or conjurer) came into town and made 
the old king believe that Eckman was a spy, 
and would soon bring in an army landed as 
freight in boxes and barrels, kill them all, and 
take their country. The king called his old 
men in council 'and resolved to burn the 
church, tear down the mission home, and kill 
the missionary. There were about a hundred 
Methodist young men who heard of it, and 
forming in line they drove the old men home. 
The next morning the missionary returned, 
and the devil determined to drive him away. 
He came to the mission home and pranced 
around in the garden, trampling and destroy- 
ing the vegetables. Eckman ordered the 
young men to seize him. He was tied with a 
half -inch rope, with the ends long enough for 
halter and lash. He was driven through 
town up and down before the houses. When 
he was untied the people, who had lost their 
fear of him, drove him from their town. 
They called a council of the tribe and passed a 

468 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

law that the devil should never come to town, 
and another that drinking sas-wood poison 
for witchcraft should end. 

Among all these missionaries on the western 
coast but one death during the year is re- 
ported. Some had held their posts three 
years with good health. From the results 
given in this report, West Africa, after the 
missionary ascends from the coast, is as 
healthy as China or Japan. 

In 1892 the old Tiberian work reported 28 
members of Conference, and 29 missionaries 
not members of the Conference, 2,765 mem- 
bers of the Church, and 144 probationers. 

In 1891 the new work reported 271 mem- 
bers, 50 x^i'obationers, 30 parsonages, and 
property valued at $51,500. In 1892 it re- 
ported two districts and 6 stations. 

South America. 
In 1832 the General Conference recom- 
mended the establishment of a mission in 
South America. Not long afterward a letter 
was received from a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in Buenos Ayres, stating 
that he had formed a small class, and asking 
for a missionary. The Board responded, and 
Bev. Fountain E. Pitts was appointed. He 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 469 

started in July, 1835. He found the class 
still in existence. It consisted of eight or ten 
members. He reorganized it as a society, 
and after being licensed to i^reach by the gov- 
ernment he opened worship in the home of 
an American lady. On his return he recom- 
mended the establishment of missions in Rio 
de Janeiro and Buenos Ayres. 

In December, 1836, Rev. John Dempster 
reached Buenos Ayres. The land was under 
the iron rule of Gov. Rosas. He treated the 
missionary with courtesy, but required him to 
confine his labors to foreigners. Mr. Demp- 
ster possessed rare endowments, and his labors 
and reports encouraged the Board to enlarge 
its appropriations for the mission. In 1838 
he visited Montevideo. His favorable report 
led the Board to send to that point Rev. W. 
H. Norris as teacher and preacher. In 1838 
H. A. Wilson was sent to Buenos Ayres to 
open a school of high grade. The school 
was reenforced in 1840 by the arrival of Rev. 
O. A. Howard and wife. The school opened 
encouragingly, but owing to financial embar- 
rassment the Board in 1841 recalled its mis- 
sionaries. This action occasioned great sor- 
row in the field. The congregation at Mon- 
tevideo petitioned Bishop Hedding to return 

470 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

Mr. Norris, and pledged his support. A So- 
ciety called the " Society for the Promotion 
of Christian Worship" offered the use of their 
church and parsonage. He was returned, and 
on January 3, 1843, the church was dedicated 
and his work resumed. Though the country 
was disturbed by civil war during the greater 
part of Mr. Norris' s stay, yet the Church was 

In 1847 Mr. Norris returned and Eev. D. 
D. Lore was sent out. Under his labors 
there was marked advance in the work. He 
was succeeded in the superintendency in 1854 
by Eev. G. D. Carrow. As all restraints on 
religion were removed by the revolution which 
closed in 1855, Mr. Carrow urged the exten- 
sion of the work into the adjoining country. 
Rev. H. R. Nicholson was sent out in 1856. 
Owing to the failure of Mrs. Carrow's health, 
the Board relieved him, and in December, 
1856, Rev. W. Goodfellow was made Superin- 
tendent of the mission. He was instructed 
to give special attention to the Spanish work, 
and also to plan the organization of the 
Church outside and beyond the local "So- 
ciety," by which it had so long been controlled. 
This involved the loss of financial support, 
but the result was salutary, and the super- 

Missions of the M. E. ChurcJi. 471 

intenclency of Mr. Goodfellow, which contiu- 
aed until 1869, was very successful. In 1860 
the w^eek of prayer resulted in the conversion 
of several young men, who became active and 
useful in the work. Among them was John 
F. Thompson, who has been styled the " apos- 
tle to the Spanish people in the Argentine 
Kepublic." In 1863 the mission reported 
eighty members and nineteen probationers. 
In 1868 the Board secured valuable property 
in Buenos Ayres for $30,699 in gold, and in 
1872 a beautiful church building was dedi- 
cated to the worship of God. 

In 1864 Eev. T. Carter and family reached 
Buenos Ayres. He assisted in the work in 
that city until the way was opened for a mis- 
sion in Eosario, a city of 30,000 souls, in the 
province of Santa Fe. By 1865 he had a 
church completed at a cost of $3,000, without 
aid from the Board. In 1865 Mr. Carter 
opened a day school in his own house. When 
the church was finished the school was re- 
moved into one of its rooms. A number of 
the scholars were from leading families. The 
truths of the gospel were presented and many 
young men of Eosario were brought within its 
influence. In 1866 Eev. J. W. Shank arrived 
and began work in Buenos Ayres and the ad- 

472 Hand Book of Methodist Misswns. 

jacent region. Cordova, an old stronghold of 
the Jesuits, was added to the work. In April, 
1866, Rev. D. F. Suavain was at work in Es- 

In October, 1866, Rev. J. F. Thomson, 
having spent four years in the Ohio Wesleyan 
University, returned to the field and entered 
vigorously on the Spanish work. Early in 
1867 he learned that there was a widow lady 
in the "Boca," a place near Buenos Ayres, 
who was anxious for religious services in her 
house. This lady, Dona Fermina Leon de 
Aldeber, had been born in Patagonia, one of 
the most southerly towns of the Argentine 
Republic. A lady from Spain was by strange 
fortune led to that extreme southern border 
of civilization, who had a New Testament 
which she dearly prized. She opened a 
school, and Fermina Aldeber was one of her 
pupils. When this young lady was married 
to Senor Aldeber her teacher presented her 
that Testament as a gift of priceless value. 
It became her support in sorrow. She was 
now a widow with four children, and teaching 
school. She had heard of a clergyman at 
Buenos Ayres who was preaching in Spanish 
the gospel she had found in her New Testa- 
Inent. Her invitation to preach in her home 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 473 

was accepted, and soon regular service was 
commenced. Sunday school and day school 
were established and maintained for ten years, 
when smallpox compelled the lady to move 
her school to the city. Among the converts 
in the " Boca " was Jose Cordoza, a dissipated 
sailor. The moral change was thorough. He 
not only labored for the sujoport of his family, 
but preached and exhorted wherever he went, 
and was instrumental in leading many to the 
cross. During the yellow fever scourge of 
1871, with Mr. Maul, another convert of the 
mission, he was instrumental in saving more 
lives than many of the physicians, while point- 
ing the dying to the Lamb of God. In 1875 
he removed to a colony in the Gran Chaco. 
He carried his religion with him, and the 
light kindled in the schoolroom in the " Boca" 
is burning on that northern frontier. 

Dr. Goodfellow was very anxious to open 
work in the Spanish language, and, as soon as 
Mr. Thomson had prepared himself, the 
work was commenced. The first sermon was 
preached in Buenos Ayres and aroused a 
great interest, and a crowded congregtion 
greeted him in the evening service. Judges, 
lawyers, and physicians mingled with the 
common people to hear the gospel in their 

474 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

own language. In 1868 he alternated between 
Buenos Ayres and Montevideo. In the latter 
place the Masons offered him the use of their 
schoolroom, but it soon became too small for 
the congregations. In 1869 a theater was 
purchased for a church, and a monthly sub- 
scription of $117 being raised for his support, 
he devoted liis whole time to Montevideo. 
His success aroused the attention of the 
priests, one of whom, Father Maurento, chal- 
lenged him to debate. At its close the large 
audience by a rising vote indorsed the heretic. 

June 4, 1868, Rev. H. G. Jackson reached 
Buenos Ayres to take charge of the English- 
speaking congregation aud thus enable Dr. 
Goodfellow to devote his entire time to the 
superin tendency. Dr. Goodfellow's health 
and that of his wife soon declined, and he was 
compelled the following year to ask a release. 
His administration had been very successful. 
Mr. Jackson was appointed Superintendent. 
A change in policy w^as adopted. The German 
and French Missions, as well as the English 
charges, were made self-supporting. Mission- 
ary efforts were confined to the Si3anish-speak- 
ing population. 

In 1870 Rev. T. B. Wood arrived in Buenos 
Ayres. Mr. Carter having returned home, 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 475 

Mr. Wood succeeded him in Eosario to carry 
on the English work until his knowledge of 
the language would prepare him to open a 
Spanish mission. 

The English charge in Buenos Ay res re- 
mained under charge of Dr. Jackson until 
1878. The old church was sold for $40,000 
and another completed at a cost of over $60,- 
000. In 1878 the property in Bitfenos Ay res 
was estimated at $117,000. After Mr. Thom- 
son in 1870 took charge of the Spanish work 
in Montevideo, Dr. Jackson had charge of the 
Spanish work in Buenos Ayres. 

In a single year Mr. Wood was able to 
'preach to the Spanish congregation at Eosa- 
rio. A Sunday school was also opened. In 
1873 the Consulate at Eosario was vacant, and 
without his knowledge Mr. Wood was recom- 
mended and appointed. As the position gave 
him influence and assured protection to the 
mission, it was accei^ted, and he proved an ef- 
ficient officer. 

In 1874 Miss J. E. Chapin and Miss L. B. 
Demming were sent out by the Woman's So- 
ciety. They began work under Mr. Wood's di- 
rection with great promise of usefulness. In 
1876 they were directed by their Board to 
commence separate work. In 1875 J. E. 

476 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Wood, a brother of Thomas B., was sent to 
Rosario and entered with great zeal on his 
duties. In 1878 Dr. Jackson at his own re- 
quest was relieved of the super intendency, 
and Rev. Thomas B. Wood was appointed his 
successor. At that time the mission reported 
342 members, 6 Sunday schools, and 730 

In 1880 the superintendent visited Uruguay, 
and was greatly encouraged by the outlook. 
The occasional preaching of Juan Correa won 
converts who were gathered by Mr. Wood into 
a class. The new work at Colonia was sup- 
plied by Francisco Pensoti, who had aban- 
doned his trade to tell his people of a Saviour 
who could pardon sin without the interven- 
tion of the priest. The people were supply- 
ing his wants. They brought to his wife 
milk, eggs, wheat, and other supplies; so they 
had no lack. The mission was being wisely 
pushed on the line of self-support. As the 
work expanded the call on the Board for re- 
enforcements became more urgent. 

The Spanish work which was commenced 
by Mr. Thompson in 1867, with one meml)er, 
in 1881 outnumbered the English four to 
one. The more gifted native members were 
ripening into efficient workers in all depart- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. ^11 

ments of church enterprise. In 1882 a reviv- 
al, chiefly in the Spanish congregation, great- 
ly advanced the spiritual condition of the 
mission, and brought to it many important 

In 1883 there was a net increase of fifty- 
seven in the membership. The temper of 
the general public toward the mission was 
more favorable than ever, but the priesthood 
were hostile. The arrival of Kev. Thomas H. 
Stockton and family greatly cheered the mis- 
sion. He was assigned to the English con- 
gregation in Buenos Ayres. In the town of 
Porongos, Uruguay, Correa, the efficient na- 
tive preacher, was assailed by a mob with 
shouts of " Death to the Protestants." The 
mutiny was broken up and the preacher was 
saved only by the firmness of his friends and 
the intervention of the police. He laid the 
matter before the authorities, and the nation- 
al government notified the local authorities 
that such meetings should not be interrupted. 
The press discussed such displays of intoler- 
ance, and the verdict of popular opinion in 
favor of religious liberty was emphatic. 

The mission force in 1884 consisted of the 
Superintendent, T. B. Wood, J. F. Thomson, 
A. M. Milne, J. E. Wood, W. Tallon, T. H. 

478 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Stockton, and their wives; five ladies of the 
Woman's Missionary Society, seven helpers 
under regular appointments, and sixteen 
brethren who preached as supplies at various 
points in the mission. It reported 377 mem- 
bers and 399 probationers. 

In 1885 the helpers under regular appoint- 
ment had increased to thirteen, with eighteen 
who were preaching as supplies. These fig- 
ures indicate vitality. Members reported, 
437; probationers, 461. 

In 1886 Rev. T. B. Wood was relieved of 
the superintendency and placed in charge of 
a theological school for training ministers for 
Spanish work. Rev. C. W. Drees, of the Mex- 
ican Mission, was appointed Superintendent of 
the mission. On account of ill health J. R. 
Wood retired from the field, and Rev. C. W. 
Miller was sent out to supply his place. 

The report of 1888 revealed steady advance. 
The native force was very efficient. The mis- 
sion now embraced important points in Uru- 
guay and Paraguay. Four pastoral charges 
in Buenos Ayres v/ere self-supporting. The 
membership was 717, and 616 probationers. 

The roll of 1889 contains the names of nine 
native elders. The work had taken root in 
the soil. The Woman's Society had six mis- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 479 

sionaries in the field. They had schools in 
Kosario, Buenos Ayres, and Montevideo. The 
Parent Board had upwards of twenty self-sup- 
porting Spanish schools. The report says of 
the general work: " There are three Spanish 
charges (each a circuit) in the Argentine Ee- 
public; also two English and two German 
charges; the number of regular preaching 
places about tw^enty. There are one English 
and three Spanish charges in Uruguay, one 
Spanish charge in Paraguay, and one Portu- 
guese charge in Brazil, and the number of reg- 
ular places in the entire mission about thirty- 

In 1890 Kev. A. W. Greenman was added to 
the missionary force, wdiich numbers seven, 
with their wives. The members reported are 
985, with 880 probationers. During the year 
the Superintendent, with Eev. A. M. Milne, 
General Agent of the American Bible Society, 
visited Chili, Peru, and Bolivia. They re- 
ported in these nations a wide field and mul- 
tiplied opportunities. Bishop Taylor's mis- 
sions were in accord with the General Board 
and were doing good work. The general 
work of the mission was very encouraging. 

In 1891 missions were reported in Para- 
guay, Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. These mis- 

480 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

sions are supplied by native preachers. The 
entire field in 1892 reported 7 ordained preach- 
ers and their wives, 1,224 members, and 1,146 
on trial. 


In 1845 a young man by the name of J. D. Col- 
lins, who had graduated in the State University 
of Michigan, and had been licensed as a local 
preacher, wrote to Bishop Janes, offering to 
go as a missionary to China. The Bishop 
explained to him that no mission had been 
opened in that field, and that no money had 
been raised for the support of the missionary. 
The young man replied: "Bishop, engage me 
a place before the mast, and my own strong 
arm will pull me to China, and support me 
while there." 

When the man is ready to go the Master 
will open the way. In 1846 the Committee 
and Board in joint session decided to open a 
mission in China, and appropriated $3,000 
with which to send out and support two mis- 
sionaries in that field. Youug Collins, with 
Bev. M. C. White and his young wife, were 
chosen for the work. Only five ports were 
open at that time. It was decided to estab- 
lish the mission at Foochow. The mission- 
aries reached that city September 6, 1847. 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 481 

A house was secured and they began the study 
of the language and the distribution of tracts, 
which were gladly received by the people. 
They had a little stock of medicine, which they 
used in relieving the sick. In 1848 Kev. H. 
Hickok and wife and Eev. E. 8. Maclay 
reached the mission. Schools were opened 
with native teachers, the missionaries con- 
ducting religious services and giving religious 
instruction. The Sunday school was opened 
with fine prospects of success. A chapel was 
rented at Nantai for the distribution of tracts, 
while the crowd that thronged the street fur- 
nished listeners to the missionaries, who 
availed themselves of every opportunity to de- 
liver their message. 

The Board granted the mission authority 
to build, and a lot was purchased on the main 
street to the south gate of the city outside of 
the walls. The house was dedicated in Au- 
gust, 1855. Another church was dedicated in 
October, 1856. 

The health of Mr. Hickok compelled his re- 
turn to the United States. The superintend- 
ency devolved on Mr. Collins in 1850, but his 
health was broken, and in 1851 he returned 
to the United States by way of California. 
He projected work among the Chinese of 

482 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

San Francisco, but his strength declined, and 
May 13, 1852, the pioneer of Methodist mis- 
sions in China received his crown. 

In 1851 the mission was strengthened by 
the arrival of Dr. Isaac W. Wiley and wife, 
Eev. James Colder and wife, and Miss M. 
Seely. The translation and printing of the 
Bible, and preaching in the chapels were re- 

During the years 1853 and 1854 the work 
was greatly interrupted by sickness. The 
Chinese rebellion was in progress, the insur- 
gents nearing the coast, and Foochow was con- 
sidered in danger. Owing to the unsettled 
state of the city and the feeble health of Mrs. 
Maclay and Mrs. Colder, it was decided that 
under escort of their husbands they should 
retire to Hong Kong. This left Dr. Wiley 
and his wife alone in the field. They also 
yielded to the effects of the climate. In No- 
vember Mrs. Wiley died, and her husband was 
compelled by failing health to return home. 

Mr. Maclay returned to the field, and in 
1855 the mission was reenforced by the arriv- 
al of Kev. Erastus Wentworth and Kev. Ottis 
Gibson and their wives. Within four months 
after their arrival Mrs. Wentworth was called 
to her home in heaven. July 14, 1857, the la- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 483 

bors and prayers of the missionaries were re- 
warded by the conversion and baptism of a 
native. The convert was Ting Ang, a trades- 
man of forty-seven years of age. He had been 
carefully instructed by the missionaries, had 
cleared his house of idols, purchased religious 
books which he studied faithfully, and had 
commenced family and private prayer. There 
was present at his baptism a large congrega- 
tion, who listened to the service with deep in- 
terest. Shortly after his baptism his wife 
and two children were also received into the 
Church. Before the year closed thirteen 
adults and three infants were baptized. Some 
of these converts endured the loss of all things 
for Christ's sake, but all were steadfast. 

In 1858 the Foundling Asylum, designed to 
save female children, thousands of whom were 
abandoned by their parents every year, was 

In 1859 the mission began to extend west- 
ward. A class of fifteen members was formed 
at To-Ching, about fifteen miles northwest of 
Foochow. During the year six native preach- 
ers were licensed, one of whom, Hu Po Mi, 
the first native itinerant in China, was made 
pastor of the To-cheng appointment. Among 
the friends of the Hu family in To-cheng 

484 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

was the Li family. The work extended to 
them. The heathen party made bitter oppo- 
sition, but during the fall twelve were bap- 
tized and the work continued to move to the 
west. The news of this work cheered the 
Church at home, and E-ev. S. L. Baldwin and 
wife, two young lady teachers, and Miss Phoebe 
E. Potter sailed for China. In 1860 Eev. C. 
E. Martin and wife reached the field. The 
arrival of the Misses Woolston opened a new 
era in the work of the mission. The Female 
Seminary under their supervision became an 
important factor in the mission work. 

In 1860 Father Hu, the first convert, dem- 
onstrated in his peaceful death the power of 
the gospel. 

The work in 1861 extended westward, and a 
class was formed and a chapel built at Kang 
Chia. The society met fierce opposition, but 
the gospel triumphed. Owing to the failing 
health of his wife, Mr. Baldwin sailed for 
New York, but when within one week's sail 
of that port Mrs. Baldwin passed peacefully 
to her final rest. Mr. Maclay visited the 
United States and by his earnest appeals 
aroused the missionary zeal of the Church, 
and returned to China accompanied by his 
family and Eev. Nathan Sites and his wife. 

mP**"* ^ 

Missions of the M, E. Church. 485 

Treaty negotiations having opened other 
ports and also the YaEg-tse Eiver to all na- 
tions, the mission continued to move into 
the interior. Increased attention was given 
to the publishing department. Half a mil- 
lion of tracts were issued during the year. 

The first annual meeting was held Sep- 
tember 29, 1862. A course of study with 
examinations was established and the ap- 
pointments announced. Methodism was crys- 
tallizing in organic form. The mission 
embraced eight new fields, with six ordained 
missionaries, eight lady missionaries, eleven 
native preachers, and eighty-seven members. 

After resolute opposition from the Chinese 
authorities^ a house and lot on East Street, 
within the walls of Foochow, was bought, 
and with great joy to the mission Mr. Martin, 
who had charge of the Foochow Circuit, re- 
moved with his family within the city in 1863. 
During this year the mission reported four 
new chapels, four new appointments, three 
new classes of Church members, two day 
schools, and two new Sunday schools. The 
translation of the New Testament was carried 
to the end of 1 Thessalonians, and the print- 
ing department, under the efticient manage- 
ment of Mr. Baldwin, had more than doubled 

486 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

its issues, producing 24,905 copies or 887,490 

During the next year the educational de- 
partment, under Mr. Gibson and the Misses 
Woolston, was very successful, and the western 
movement found the missionary at the gates 
of Yenping, one hundred and fifty miles from 
Foochow. It was also a year of trial. The 
East Street Church and the house of the mis- 
sionary were destroyed by a mob, and women 
and children narrowly escaped. The failing 
health of his wife compelled the return of Mr. 
Binckley to the United States. The devoted 
Martin, after rebuilding the church destroyed 
by the mob, closed his career. He was buried 
the week preceding the Sunday appointed for 
its dedication. His death was sudden. His 
last words were: " It pays to be a Christian." 

The visit of Bishop Thomson in 1865 was 
of great importance to the mission. During 
the year a portion of the territory of the mis- 
sion was fraternally surrendered to the Amer- 
ican Board. The Eef erence Testament of Mr. 
Gibson was completed, and other valuable pub- 
lications issued from the press. 

The mission was strengthened by the ar- 
rival of Eev. V. C. Hart and Rev. L. N. 
Wheeler and their wives in 1866, and of Bev. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 487 

H. H. Lowry aud wife in 1867. The school 
work was greatly prospered. A severe perse- 
cution in Hohchang and Kucheng revealed a 
martyr spirit among the native converts. A 
young disciple, hearing that the native preach- 
er was imprisoned, walked eleven miles and 
asked to share his brother's punishment, and 
remained with him until the danger was over. 
Eight girls in the boarding school became 
members of the Church. The report in 1867 
showed 451 members. Plans were perfected 
for an advance into two more districts of the 
Fokien province and for extending the work 
into the province west of Fokien. In Decem- 
ber Eev. V. C. Hart and Eev. E. S. Todd en- 
tered the Kiang Si province and occupied the 
city of Kiukiang. They found four native 
Christians, and the following November Mr. 
Hart reported thirty-seven on probation. This 
province and the adjacent region contained 
thirty-three millions of souls. 

After prayerful consideration the mission 
resolved to plant a mission in Peking, the cap- 
ital of the empire. The field embraced all 
China north of Yang-tse River, containing a 
population estimated at 200,000,000, nearly all 
of whom could understand the Mandarin dia- 
lect. Owing to the failing liealth of Rev. L. 

488 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

N. Wheeler, which demanded a change to a 
colder climate, he was chosen to pioneer this 
new field. With his family he reached Peking 
March 12, 1869. In about a month he was 
joined by Mr. Lowry and family. They en- 
tered at once on the study of the Mandarin 
dialect. It was not until February, 1870, that 
they secured premises for the mission just in- 
side one of the city gates and not far from the 
foreign legations. On June 5, 1871, the first 
public Methodist service in the capital of 
China was held, with a congregation composed 
of a few foreigners and about forty Manchu 
Tartars and Chinese. 

Bishop Kingsley visited the field in 1869. 
He divided the work into three missions. Dr. 
Maclay was appointed Superintendent at 
Foochow, Mr. Hart at Kiukiang, and Mr. 
Wheeler at Peking. Special attention was 
given to self-support. Each charge was re- 
quired to raise a certain amount for its native 
pastor, while only as much as might be needed 
to complete the salary was appropriated from 
the missionary funds. Bishop Kingsley was 
impressed with the promise of the field, and 
the Church in response to his call sent out six 
young men in 1870. They went out by way of 
San Francisco. 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 480 

The year 1870 tested the faith of the mis- 
sionaries. A massacre took place June 21 
at Tientsin, eighty miles from Peking, in 
which about a hundred native Eoman Catho- 
lics, several Protestants, and twenty-two for- 
eigners were cruelly murdered. A general 
persecution was threatened. The missions at 
Peking, Kiukiang, and Foochow were endan- 
gered. The design of the plot was to drive 
foreigners from China. The newly appointed 
missionaries had reached Japan, and were 
counseled to remain until affairs became 
quiet. Two of them, Davis and Pilcher, 
pushed on to Tientsin. They were welcomed 
by Messrs. Wheeler and Lowry. The Chinese 
were surly, but they proceeded to Peking 
without violence. The persecution purified 
the mission. Those who were faithful among 
the native members increased in faith, and 
favor with the people. The Methodist system 
of itineration was put in practice, the gospel 
was preached, and Christian literature scat- 
tered in hundreds of villages and cities, "from 
Dolonor, on the steppes of Mongolia on the 
north, to the city of Confucius, four hundred 
miles to the south, and from Wu-taishan, 
the sacred mountains of Shansi, on the west 
to the point where the great wall joins the sea 

490 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

on the east." These journeys were performed 
sometimes in Chinese carts, mule litters, or 
on horseback with saddlebags. 

At the annual meeting at Foochow a 
" self-support anniversary " was held. In 
1870 Sia Sek Ong, a native preacher, dis- 
tressed by the suspicion among his country- 
men that he had been " hired by foreign rice," 
had renounced his claim on the Mission- 
ary Society. He was asked if he had cause to 
regret the step. He answered : " I have not 
the thousandth part of a regret. I am glad 
I did it, and I expect to continue this way as 
long as I live." He was asked what he would 
do if supplies failed and his family suffered? 
He said: "They won't fail; but if they do, if I 
come to where there is no open door, I will 
look up to my Saviour and say: *Lord, 
whither wilt thou lead me?'" By a unani- 
mous vote the native preacher and people fa- 
vored self-support. The work is firmly 
planted in a mission field where it roots 
in the soil of self-support. 

During the year 1870, Dr. Maclay returned 
home to recruit his health. While in New 
York the mission to Japan was projected and 
Dr. Maclay was chosen to open this new and 
important field. 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 491 

The want of female workers, especially for 
the teaching and training of Chinese girls and 
women, was apparent to the missionaries and 
the Church at home. In 1871 the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society sent to the mis- 
sion in North China Misses, Maria Brown and 
Mary D. Porter. Owing to the freezing of 
the Pei-ho Kiver, they did not reach their 
destination in Peking until March 6, 1872. 
They at once began the study of the language, 
and as soon as possible established the girls' 
boarding school. They were joined in 1875 
by Miss L. A. Campbell. 

The efforts of the missionaries to secure a 
preaching place in the southern part of Pe- 
king, known as the " Chinese City," where 
the chief business of the city is transacted, 
and where large numbers of Chinese reside, 
were persistently frustrated by the Chinese 
officials, and it was not until 1872 that the 
premises now occupied by the mission were 
secured. A convenient location was secured 
in the Tartar portion of the city, and in 1874 
a large domestic chapel in the mission com- 
pound was dedicated. 

In 1872 the Woman's Society employed in 
the Foochow Mission some twelve deacon- 
esses. The Biblical Institute for their edu- 

492 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

cation was reestablished. The year closed 
with an annual meeting of unusual spiritual 
power. After a sermon by Sie Sek Ong, the 
audience bowed in prayer for the baptism of 
the Holy Ghost. The native brethren said: 
" The like of this we have never before expe- 
rienced." The work was extended in the Kiu- 
kiang Mission. The first annual meeting in 
in Peking was held with much success. 

The work in Tientsin was begun in 1872. 
Rev. G. R. Davis was first assigned to the 
work, but being placed in charge of the Chi- 
nese City Station, Rev. J. H. Pyke opened the 
work. A growing Church has been the re- 

In 1873 eight new missionaries were sent 
to this vast field. The annual meetings were 
presided over by Bishop Harris. At Foochow 
a large tent was erected on the mission com- 
pound. Two natives were ordained elders 
and five ordained deacons. The appointment 
of four native presiding elders was another 
step which marked the development of Meth- 
odism in this heathen land. The year had 
been marked with prosperity in Kiukiang. 
The school of the Misses Howe and Hoag had 
been successfully opened, public congrega- 
tions were increased and females began to at- 

Missions of the M. E. Church 493 

tend them. Nine native preachers and thirty- 
six members and probationers were reported. 
The growth in Peking was reported as steady 
and healthful. The mission suffered a severe 
loss in the failing health and return home of 
Eev. L. N. Wheeler. 

In 1873 the mission in Peking was greatly 
strengthened by the arrival of Miss Dr. 
Coombs, sent out by the Philadelphia bFanch 
of the Woman's Society. The following year 
the New York Branch sent Miss Segourny 
Trask, M.D., to Foochow, while Miss Lettie 
Mason, M.D., was sent by the Northwestern 
branch of the same society to Kiukiang. 

During the year 1874 Eev. D. W. Chandler 
and wife were added to the mission at Foo- 
chow. The annual meeting was one of unusu- 
al religious interest. A neat chapel was built 
in Kiukiang. The gospel was preached to 
thousands and tracts were scattered broadcast 
through the region. The medical work of 
Miss Dr. Coombs in Peking won favor among 
the Chinese. In the fall of 1875 a hospital 
for women and children was opened under the 
charge of Miss Coombs, who conducted it suc- 
cessfully until 1877, when Miss L. A. Howard, 
M.D., took charge of the medical work. Miss 
Coombs was married to Rev. A. Strittmater, 

494 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

and removed to Kiukiang, where her gifts 
were consecrated to the service of the bodies 
and souls of heathen women. 

The visit of Bishop Wiley in 1877 was one 
of unusual interest. The report of the North 
China Mission indicated a prosperous year. 
The membership in Peking had been doubled 
during the year. Four natives were licensed 
to preach. In two new circuits nearly fifty 
probationers had been enrolled. The mission 
had a station in both the Chinese and the 
Tartar city. The mission had extended north 
as far as the great wall, 400 miles from Pe- 
king. The mission had been saddened by 
the death of Miss Campbell, after three years' 
service in the work. 

In the Central Mission the work was going 
on in three chapels and schools, with the out- 
side work divided into three circuits extend- 
ing up and down the river and along the Po 
Yang lake. The missionaries often itinerated 
by water, preaching and selling books at scores 
of cities and towns. They were now able to 
travel without fear of violence. 

Bishop Wiley opened the Conference in 
Foochow December 19. He transferred the 
missionaries, five elders, ^yq deacons, and five 
probationers from home Conferences, making, 

Missions of the M. E, Church. 495 

with native ordained preachers, a Conference 
of twenty members. The bishop said : ''If it 
had not been for the strange language and 
dress, I could hardly have noticed any differ- 
ence, so well prepared were these native 
preachers for all the business of Conference." 
Referring to the growth of the mission since 
he had left it twenty years before, he adds: 
"Then not a soul had been counted. Up to 
that time we were simply met with prejudice 
and opposition, and did not dare to venture 
five miles from the city of Foochow. Now 
our work extends through districts, reach- 
ing two hundred miles to the north and west 
and nearly as many to the southeast. We 
have about eighty native preachers, a Chris- 
tian community of 2,600 souls, an Annual 
Conference of twenty members and fifty 
probationers, and forty-six circuits, averaging 
fully four stations each, making about 184 
points at which the gospel is preached." 

In 1880 the field was strengthened by the 
arrival of Revs. O. W. Willetts and T. C. Carter, 
their wives, and Rev. M. L. Taft. Exposures 
arising from persecution and abundant labors 
broke down the health of Rev. A. Strittmater, 
and he returned home to die. He was a true 
missionary. The purchase in 1881 of a valu- 

496 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

able building in Foochow by Mr. Ahok for 
the Anglo-Chinese College placed that insti- 
tution on solid ground. To this was added 
17,000 by Rev. J. F. Goucher for the theolog- 
ical department. There were soon 45 pay 
scholars in the school. The " Fowler Univer- 
sity of China" was established in Kiukiang. 
Aided by a generous foundation provided by 
Eev. J. F. Goucher, the " Isabella Fisher Hos- 
pital" was opened in Tientsin. Numerous 
revivals were reported from various portions 
of the field. The formal recognition by the 
government of the native adherents of the 
Protestant religion, exempting them from as- 
sessment for the maintainance of certain 
heathen rites, afforded great relief. Hitherto 
this had been conceded only to Catholic con- 
verts. The Central China Mission was reen- 
forced by the arrival of Rev. C. F. Kupfer, 
and the North China Mission by Rev. F. D. 
Gamewell and wife. The opening of the 
West China Mission was a noted event of the 
year. Rev. L. N. Wheeler, D.D., and family, 
and Rev. S. Lewis, sailed for their field in 
September, 1881. A generous offering of 
$5,000 from Rev. J. F. Goucher opened the 
way for this mission. He added another 
special contribution of $5,000 the follow- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 497 

ing year. Dr. Wheeler explored the province 
of Szechuen, and purchased property in 
Chun-king. The outlook was hopeful. The 
missionary force at Foochow was increased by 
the arrival of John L. Taylor, M.D., and wife, 
and Kev. G. B. Smyth, both for the Anglo- 
Chinese College. Kev. W. T. Hobart and 
wife joined the mission at Peking; and Eevs. 
J. H. Worley, T. H. Worley, G. W. Woodall, 
and J. Jackson, and their wives, were added 
to the Central Mission. In 1883 the member- 
ship of the entire field was 1,984, with 1,143 
probationers. From West China came the 
message: "Cities open; property secured, 
schools are started, and seekers are to be found 
at the headquarters of the mission." Bishop 
Wiley visited China in 1884. During his stay 
in Japan a serious disease was developed, but 
when his work was finished in Japan he pro- 
ceeded to Shanghai. During the voyage he 
received medical attention from Eev. W. R. 
Lambuth, M.D., of the Mission of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, South. From Shang- 
hai he proceeded to North China. He attended 
to his duties amid great suffering, being un- 
able to attend the public meetings. He re- 
turned to Shanghai and found a welcome in 
the home of Dr. J. W. Lambuth, of the 

498 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

Southern Methodist Mission. The members 
of the Central China Mission had been noti- 
fied to meet the bishop in Shanghai and spare 
him the long journey to Kiukiang. The an- 
nual meeting was held in the home of Dr. 
Lambuth, as the bishop was unable to go to 
the chapel that was placed at his service. 
The presence of the bishop was a benediction 
to the home whose Christian hospitalities he 
enjoyed. In the midst of great sufferings he 
proceeded to Foochow, the headquarters of 
the Foochow Mission. Eeclining on a couch, 
the dying bishop sought to meet the responsi- 
bilities of his office. He was anxious to at- 
tend to the ordinations at his bedside, but his 
failing strength forbade. Sia Sek Ong, a 
leading native preacher, said: "This is the 
remnant of his work that he must needs leave 
undone to keep up the connection between this 
Conference and the mother Church." Sadly 
the Conference gathered around his bed and 
listened to his dying words; "God bless you! 
God bless you all forever, for evermore. 

The China Mission in 1891 embraced the 
Foochow, Central, North, and West Missions. 
Its growth in each had been steady and vigor- 
ous. Its schools, medical, and publishing de- 

Missions of the M, E. Church, 499 

partments, had been carried on with wisdom 
and energy. It had thoroughly demonstrated 
the value of the itinerant system in subsoil- 
ing and cultivating that peculiar mission 
field. The educational and medical opera- 
tions of the Woman's Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety had been eminently successful. 

The Foochow Mission in 1891 reported 6 
missionaries, 6 assistants, 8 ladies of the 
Woman's Society, QQ native ordained and 96 
native unordained preachers, 2,823 members, 
and 2,544 probationers. 

Central Mission: 14 missionaries, 13 assist- 
ants, 7 ladies of the Woman's Society, 2 na- 
tive ordained and 16 native unordained 
preachers, 369 members, and 213 on trial. 

North China: 15 missionaries, 13 assistants, 
8 ladies of the Woman's Society, 8 native or- 
dained preachers, 9 native unordained preach- 
ers, 1,227 members, and 795 on trial. 

West China: 4 missionaries, 3 assistants, 3 
native unordained preachers, 23 members, and 
32 probationers. 

Total for China: 39 ordained missionaries, 
35 assistants, 23 ladies of the Woman's Soci- 
ety, 76 native ordained preachers, 124 native 
ordained preachers, 4,442 members, 3,584 pro- 

500 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

In 1892 the entire mission reported 16 dis- 
tricts, 109 stations, 44 missionaries, 39 assist- 
ant missionaries, 71 native ordained preachers, 
37 native unordained preachers, 4,842 mem- 
bers, and 3,879 probationers. Tliis splendid 
record ranks the Methodist Episcopal Mission 
among the most successful in that great em- 

Scandinavian Missions. 

As early as 1844 the attention of earnest 
Christians in New York City was drawn to 
the importance of a mission among the immi- 
grants from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 
who were landed annually at that port. In 
addition to the immigrants were the Scandi- 
navian sailors who were returning and leav- 
ing its wharves in large numbers every month. 
Among those concerned for his fellow-coun- 
trymen was Peter Bergner, a Swedish long- 
shoreman who had been raised from aban- 
doned drunkenness into the life and liberty 
of the gospel. Having been delivered from 
the pit, he was eager for the salvation of those 
who were still in its depths. 

In the New York Conference there was a 
young man, a native of Sweden, by the name 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 501 

of Olof Gnstaf Hedstrom, for whom God was 
preparing a great work among his race. His 
attention had been called to the need of a 
mission among the Swedes, but he saw little 
hope in the movement, always replying when 
it was named: " It is as dark as a pocket." In 
the meantime a young merchant, Mr. George 
T. Cobb, became interested in the enterprise, 
and gave $50 for the purchase of a Bethel 
ship. W. G. Boggs and others united and 
bought a ship on North River, gave her the 
name of John Wesley, and had her fitted up 
as a Bethel ship. The matter was laid before 
Mr. Hedstrom during the session *of the New 
York Conference which was held in that city in 
1845, by Rev. David Terry, one of its chief 
promoters, and the faithful Peter Bergner. 
After earnest prayer he accepted the call, and 
was appointed to the North River Mission. 

The first service of Pastor Hedstrom was 
on the " John Wesley" Sunday, May 25, 1845. 
About fifty Swedes were present. Having 
become unaccustomed to his native tongue, he 
did not venture to preach extemporaneously 
until the third Sunday On the afternoon 
and night of each Sunday he preached in 
English. A Sunday school was organized. 
Many Germans lived near the ship, and service 

502 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

was held for them in their own language 
every Sabbath. 

The ship soon became an asylum for des- 
titute immigrants. It was a labor agency 
through which many strangers found honest 
employment. The pastor declined the fees, 
required by Catholic and Lutheran priests, for 
baptism, burial, or other religious services, 
or, when pressed upon him, they were ap- 
plied to the offerings for the ship's fund. 
The public charities of the city were cordially 
accepted by the pastor, and employed in the 
promotion of his work of mercy. 

At the close of the year he reported 56 mem- 
bers, and a Sunday school with 6 teachers 
and 56 scholars. The invitations to penitents 
were constant, and Swedes, Germans, Bel- 
gians, Fins, Norwegians, and English voices 
mingled together at the altar. Many sailors 
were converted, and carried their faith and 
zeal to distant ports. At least three thousand 
strangers were directed to homes in the West 
in 1847. Many carried memories of the Beth- 
el ship of North Eiver and prayers and 
teachings of Pastor Hedstrom to their new 
homes, and became the centers of religious 
influence among the Scandinavian population 
of the Northwest. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 603 

In 1847 a society was formed in the bounds 
of the Kock River Conference, and Jonas J. 
Hedstrom, a brother of the "pastor," was 
sent out as their religious helper and guide. 
In 1848 he was admitted on trial in the Rock 
River Conference, and appointed to the Swed- 
ish Mission. The work spread so rapidly that 
Andrew Erickson was appointed his assistant. 
He soon after reported 6 preaching jjlaces, 
60 members, and 33 probationers. Before the 
close of the year another mission was report- 
ed in Jefferson County, Iowa, just formed by 
the Rock River missionaries. 

Rev. C. Willerup had been received into 
the Genesee Conference and transferred to the 
Wisconsin Conference and appointed mission- 
ary to the Norwegians of the Milwaukee Dis- 
trict. He had largely lost his native language; 
but his tongue was soon unlocked, and he be- 
came a herald of life among the twenty thou- 
sand Norwegians in that region. Rev. C. P. 
Augrelius had come to the land as a Lutheran 
preacher, but on this revival he found that 
though a priest he was unconverted. He 
sought and found pardon, was licensed as a 
local preacher, and became an efficient helper 
of Mr. Willerup. 

The statistics of 1850 report 4 Scandi- 

504 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

navian missions, 6 missionaries, and 838 mem- 

In 1850 tlie General Committee made an 
appropriation to assist the growing work of 
Pastor Hedstrom. A colporter w^as provided 
to distribute Bibles and tracts among the im- 
migrants and to visit the hospitals and asy- 
lums for immigrants and seamen. The Amer- 
ican Bible Society, at the request of the 
mission, had printed the Scriptures in Swed- 
ish. During the year 1850 above 12,000 
Scandinavian seamen had visited the j)ort 
and 15,000 Bibles and Testaments had been 
distributed from the ship. 

Men were raised up as the work enlarged. 
Eev. S. B. Neuman, a Swede, of the Alabama 
Conference, heard through Olaf Peterson of 
the work among his countrymen in New York. 
A correspondence was opened which led to 
his appointment as assistant of Mr. Hedstrom, 
on the Bethel ship. Olof Petersen was a 
Norwegian sailor. He had been awakened at 
some meetings at Boston in 1845. The next 
year his convictions were deepened while at- 
tending some meetings in Charleston, S. C. 
In February of the same year he attended 
services on the Bethel ship, New York, and 
sailed for London. On this voyage he was 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 505 

converted. In 1847 he became a member of 
the Bethel ship, and was employed as col- 
porter in 1850. 

The work in the West was assuming such 
large proportions that under the direction of 
Bishop Waugh, Peter Hedstrom made a tour 
of the shore of Lake Erie, through Chicago 
and the West. The work, in consequence of 
this visit, was greatly strengthened and en- 
larged. By the close of 1853 the Western 
work had three centers — viz., Chicago, Kock 
Island, and Jamestown. Bev. S. B. Neuman 
had charge at Chicago, J. J. Hedstrom at 
Bock Island, with four assistants. The work 
in the Lake Erie region was served by O. 

At the close of 1855, the end of ten years' 
work, the Missionary Society reported work 
in the New York, Erie, Wisconsin, Bock Biver, 
and Iowa Conference as follows: Missiona- 
ries, 21; members, 853; probationers, 221. 

The old ship became so unseaworthy that 
pumping day and night was needed to keep 
her afloat. Another was purchased, named 
" John Wesley," and the work, begun twelve 
years before by Pastor Hedstrom, moved on 
under his charge. AVorn out with labor and 
suffering from ship fever, Pastor Hedstrom 

506 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

was relieved, and Rev. O. P. Petersen took 
his place for a time. After a brief rest tlie 
aged "Pastor" returned to his post, which he 
held until 1875, when he surrendered the 
helm to D. S. Sorlin, and in 1876 Sorlin was 
relieved by Petersen. That year the " John 
Wesley " was moved to a pier at the foot of 
Harrison Street, Brooklyn, where the good 
work was still carried on. 

In 1876, " by order of the General Confer- 
ence," the Minnesota Conference was to em- 
brace the Scandinavian work within its 
bounds, with that in the West Wisconsin, 
Upper Iowa, and Northwest Iowa Confer- 
ences. The Swedish work within the Iowa, 
Central Illinois, Pock Piver, and Wisconsin 
Conferences was to belong to the Central Il- 
linois Conference. The Norwegian work in 
the Wisconsin and Rock River Conferences 
was to belong to the Wisconsin Conference, 
and the Scandinavian work in the cities of 
New York and Brooklyn and their vicinity 
was to belong to the New York East Confer- 
ence. It was also provided that when two- 
thirds of the Swedish members of the Central 
Illinois and Minnesota Conferences should 
ask to be organized into a separate Confer- 
ence the request should be granted. In 1876 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 507 

request was made and the Northwest Swed- 
ish Conference was organized. In 1876 the 
Scandinavian work reported 48 preachers, 
4,939 members, and 711 probationers. 

In 1885 it was estimated that the members 
and probationers in the Norwegian, Swedish, 
and Danish congregations numbered 11,819. 
They were liberal in the support of their 
preachers, and contributed to the missionary 
cause $7,075. The members were noted for 
their depth of piety and steady zeal for 


In 1849 O. P. Petersen, who had been en- 
gaged in the Scandinavian Mission in the 
United States, left New York, intending to 
stay a month in Norway, telling his people 
the power of redeeming grace. His stay was 
continued nearly a year, and many were awak- 
ened under his message. The results of his 
visit were brought before the Mission Board, 
and it was decided to send him to Norway. 
Bishop Waugh wrote him that his mission 
was *'to raise up a people for God." 

He reached Frederickstadt in December, 
1853, and began his work with power and sue- 

508 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

cess. There was also persecution. At his 
request Rev. C. Willerup was sent to his aid 
in 1856, and by the end of the year there were 
119 members at Sarpsborg and 70 at Fred- 
erickstadt. In 1857 a good church building 
was erected in Sarpsborg, without help from 
the home treasury, and the same year an- 
other, not so large, was built at Frederick- 

In 1857 Mr. Willerup was relieved by 
Bishop Simpson of his pastoral charge/ that 
he might extend his evangelistic labors and 
open work in Copenhagen, the capital of his 
native land. Rev. S. A. Steensen was ap- 
pointed to the mission and Mr. Peterson re- 
turned to the United States. Rev. A. Ceder- 
holm and E. Arvesen were added to the mis- 
sion. In 1859 it reported 441 members. Be- 
fore long the names of P. Olsen and M. 
Hansen, an exhorter, appeared among the 
workers. This was a healthy indication. 

In 1868 Bishop Kingsley divided the mis- 
sion and recalled O. P. Petersen to the super- 
intendency of the Norway Mission. His work 
was full of difficulties; but the prospects 
brightened, the churches and meeting places 
were crowded, and revivals were frequent and 
powerful. Leaving things in this prosperous 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 509 

state, Mr. Petersen returned to the United 
States in 1870, and Mr. Hansen met the du- 
ties of Superintendent. Under his wise and 
pious administration the mission began to see 
brighter days. 

In 1876, under authority from the General 
Conference, Bishop Andrews organized the 
mission into an Annual Conference. It had 
six elders, one deacon, and eight probationers, 
three of whom were received into full connec- 
tion. C. Willerup, of Denmark, was trans- 
ferred to the Conference, and five were admit- 
ted on trial. 

Bishop Merrill presided at the Noi;way Con- 
ference in 1880, He was impressed with the 
zeal of the preachers and the poverty and de- 
votion of the members= Calls were urgent 
for the gospel, but men and means were want- 
ing. The following year Bishop Peck pre- 
sided. He reported twenty-five hard-working 
Methodist preachers. Their membership was 
constantly drained by emigration, but they 
carried the good seed with them. They were 
oppressed by the State Church, but had the 
sympathy of many of the people. In 1882 the 
work in Norway and Sweden was formed into 
an Annual Conference. 

Bishop Hurst, who presided at the Confev- 

510 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ence held at Bergen in 1884, was deeply im- 
pressed with the spirituality of the brethren. 
Protracted meetings and revivals had marked 
the operations of the year. The Sunday 
schools were in prosperous condition. The 
people had been liberal in church building 
and the support of the gospel. Publishing in- 
terests had become a power. The chief need 
of the mission was a theological school. In 
1885 an increase of 202 members was reported. 
In 1886 3,737 members and 4,099 Sunday 
school scholars, and $3,666 for Missions in 
the report indicate steady growth. In 1891 
there were in the field 37 ordained ministers, 
61 unordained ministers, and 4,518 members. 

In 1857 Mr. Willerup entered on his work 
in Copenhagen. He was aided by Boie Smith 
as colporteur. Preaching was heard with 
great attention, and several souls were con- 
verted. In 1861 the General Committee ap- 
propriated S5,000 toward building a church. 
It was dedicated in 1866. During this time 
there were appointments at Copenhagen, Veile 
Svendborg, and Fraborg. In 1877 it reported 
608 members and 159 probationers. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 511 

In 1880 the mission welcomed Eev. Mr. 
Thomson from America to its number. The 
dedication of a new church in Svendborg in 
1882 greatly encouraged the mission. There 
was a net increase of 73 members. New open- 
ings for work were numerous. In 1883 a 
gracious revival spirit rested on the Churches 
in Copenhagen, Svendborg, Odense, Aalborg, 
and Frederikshavn. The conversions through- 
out the mission were estimated at 347. 

In 1884 there were in the mission 3 native 
ordained ministers, 4 unordained ministers, 
and 810 members. Their offering in 1890 for 
the support of the gospel was over eight dol- 
lars per member, and for missions about one 
dollar and eighty cents. In 1891 the mission 
had 10 ordained preachers, 7 unordained 
preachers, 2,042 members, and 457 on trial. 

Among the converts at the Methodist Bethel 
ship in New York was a Swedish sailor named 
John P. Larsson. He returned to his native 
land to tell his kindred of the grace he had 
found in America. He was shipwrecked, but 
another vessel picked him up, and he was car- 
ried to Sweden. He began to tell the people 

512 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

of his conversion. He was neither preacher 
nor exhorter; but the power of the Holy Spirit 
was with him, and a revival resulted that de- 
tained him eighteen months, during which 
time he labored industriously for his own sup- 
port. He sought advice of Pastor Hedstrom, 
of the New York Swedish Mission. The pas- 
tor laid the case before the Mission Board. 
It appropriated $200 for Larsson's support; 
and thus the young convert of the Bethel ship 
became the first Methodist missionary to his 
native land. He now devoted his entire time 
to the work, distributing Bibles, visiting the 
people, and holding meetings. In 1855 S. M. 
Swenson, one of the Bethel class leaders, went 
to Sweden on business, and visited Calmar, 
the center of Larsson's work, and at once 
joined his evangelical labors. They spent the 
days, from morning till night, praying and 
speaking to large multitudes that filled sa- 
loons and halls, and visiting from house to 
house. Clergymen, teachers, magistrates, and 
men of learning were in these meetings, be- 
fore whom Larsson and Swenson declared the 
word of God. This work had to be done by 
them as laymen, for there was at that time no 
religious freedom in Sweden. In 1857 the 
liing sought to obtain more liberal laws on the 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 513 

subject of religion; but the State Church of- 
ficials resisted, and the movement failed. In 
1865 Dr. Durbin visited the mission. The 
congregations up to this time had abstained 
from meeting during the hours of service of 
the Established Church, and from administer- 
ing the sacrament. Dr. Durbin advised the 
formation of classes, and an application on 
the part of the people who wished the pas- 
toral care of Methodist preachers to be set 
off from the State Church. 

The same year Mr. Larsson was directed to 
open a mission in Gottenburg. He was aided 
by August Olsen, a local preacher. In 1866 
Kev. y. Witting was sent to Sweden, and took 
work at Gottenburg and Stockholm. A pow- 
erful revival visited the former places in 1867. 
There were also revivals in Calmar, Carlskro- 
na, Monsteras, and other places. In 1868 
Bishop Kingsley visited the field and set it 
off as a separate mission, under the superin- 
tendency of Kev. V. Witting. The year was 
one of general revival. Such prosperity 
awakened opposition, but the work prospered. 
In 1872 Bishop Foster visited the mission and 
confirmed the report of its remarkable growth. 
He found fifty preachers at work and every 
department prospering. In 1874 Bishop Har- 

514 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ris presided, and it was resolved to withdraw 
from the State Church under the new law for 
dissenters. The movement was general and 
met with manifest public favor. The work 
was so enlarged that the bishop divided it 
into three districts. Under authority from the 
General Conference, Bishop Andrews in 1876 
organized the Sweden Conference. 

Bishop Merrill, who presided at the Confer- 
ence in 1880, reported the irregularities of 
some trusted ministers as passing away under 
wise administration. The people seemed 
hungry for the bread of life, and the attend- 
ance on the ministry was wonderful. In 1881 
there was an increase of 8 preachers and 
281 members and probationers. Six im- 
portant places asked for preachers, but for 
lack of means the want could not be supplied. 
In 1883 there was a net increase of 648 mem- 
bers, and 800 on trial. 

When Bishop Andrews returned to the 
Sweden Conference in 1884 he had occasion to 
rejoice over its great prosperity. The in- 
crease in members that year in one district 
was 589, and in the whole Conference 1292. 
The Conference was now divided into three 
districts, and had in its missionary force 50 
ordained and 22 unordained ministers, and a 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 515 

membership of 8,814. Bishop Hurst presided 
at the Conference of 1885. Dr. J. M. Buck- 
ley, editor of the New York Christian Advo- 
cate, was present, and his letters respecting 
the work in the Sweden, Norway, and Den- 
mark Conferences gladdened the Church at 
home, and deepened its interest in the Scandi- 
navian missions. The remarkable advance of 
Methodism in Sweden was indicated by the 
election of J. M. Erikson, the book agent of 
the mission and editor of the Svmeka Sande- 
biidst, as one of the ministers from Stock- 
holm of tJie Swedish Diet. 

In 1887 the work had stretched out into Fin- 
land, with two ordained missionaries and six 
local preachers in charge of converts. It was 
reaching out into certain points in Kussia, 
and the hope was expressed that the time was 
not distant when the missionaries from Swe- 
den and the missionaries from Bulgaria would 
meet in the heart of the Eussian Empire. In 
1888 the mission in Finland reported 279 
members and 175 on trial. In 1891 the Swe- 
dish mission had in its service 84 ordained 
and 155 unordained preachers, 13,689 mem- 
bers, and 2,703 probationers. Thus has Meth- 
odism by the remarkable extension of her bor- 
ders given proof of her providential origin. 

516 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

German Missions. 

William Nast, a young German of twenty- 
one years of age, reached America in 1828. 
His parents were pious members of the 
Lutheran Church. He had been educated for 
the ministry, but during his college life he 
had fallen under rationalistic teaching, and 
when he had finished his course his faith was 
shipwrecked, and he found himself in the 
sea of life with no polar star to guide him 
over its depths. In the United States he 
came in contact with Methodism, and its evan- 
gelical spirit, as well as the joy it brought to 
its converts, awakened and deepened the im- 
pressions of his early life. His conviction 
of sin was profound, . but it was not until 
1835, at a Methodist revival in Danville, 
Ohio, that he realized a joy unutterable and 
full of glory. 

The attention of thoughtful Christians had 
been drawn to the tide of Eomanism and infi- 
delity that was pouring into the United States 
with the annual immigration from Germany. 
The importance of evangelical agencies that 
would arrest these influences that threatened 
both the religious and moral life of the nation 
was manifest. In the conversion of William 
Nast a man was prepared for this mission. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 517 

He was received into the Ohio Conference in 
the fall of 1835, and appointed German Mis- 
sionary in the city of Cincinnati. He entered 
with great zeal on his mission, preaching in 
the churches of English-speaking Christians 
when there was no regular service, and hold- 
ing meetings in rented halls or private houses. 
He soon aroused the attention of his country- 
men and encountered their bitter opposition. 
The first year he reported three conversions, 
one of whom, John Swahlen, became a faith- 
ful and successful preacher. At the close of 
his first year the German Methodist Society 
reported twenty-six members. 

In 1838 Eev. Adam Miller, who had been 
preaching several years in English, was as- 
signed to the German Mission. John Swah- 
len proved a valuable assistant. He visited 
Wheeling, and in two weeks formed a class of 
twenty-four. He was licensed to preach, and 
appointed to Wheeling, where his labors were 
very successful. As early as 1836 Mr. Nast 
urged the importance of a religious literature 
for the Germans. His appeals met responses 
from different parts of the Church, and in 
1839 the Book Agents at Cincinnati began the 
publication of the Christian Apologist, with 
William Nast as editor. He was admirably 

518 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

fitted by natural gifts, superior scholarship, 
and a high order of grace for this department 
of Christian effort. Though relieved of pas- 
toral care, Mr. Nast continued his evangelical 
labors in Cincinnati and other cities and towns 
into which the German population was gath- 

The vitality of the mission was manifest in 
the number and character of the preachers who 
answered its calls. C. H. Doering, a young 
German, reached Baltimore in 1830. He was 
employed by a pious Methodist, and under 
the preaching of Eev. Wesley Browning was 
thoroughly converted, licensed to preach, and 
assigned to the work in Pittsburg. Rev. 
Peter Schmucker, a Lutheran preacher whose 
faithfulness had aroused the opposition of his 
own people, heard the call of Mr. Nast for 
help at a camp meeting. His labors in the 
meeting resulted in his becoming a devout 
and successful pioneer of German Methodism. 
He was appointed to Cincinnati when Mr. 
Nast was assigned to the Apologist. Mr. 
Swahlen, at Wheeling, found a helper in Mr. 
Riemenschneider. He was in due time li- 
censed to preach, sent to Allen Mission, Ohio, 
and afterward became a missionary to the 
fatherland. The work extended from Wheel- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 519 

ing to Marietta, where an appointment was 
organized under the charge of Mr. Koeneke. 
The most noted conversion in 1839 was 
that of Ludwig S. Jacoby. He was a young 
German physician of Cincinnati, of noble in- 
tellect and superior attainments. He went to 
hear Mr. Breunig, a local preacher, out of 
curiosity, but his heart was touched, and after 
earnest search he found the pearl of great 
price. He soon began to preach to others the 
gospel he had once despised. A call for a 
German missionary came from St. Louis, and 
Mr. Jacoby was sent to that large but difficult 
field. His congregations were large, but the 
opposition violent. He was mobbed while 
preaching in the market place, and slander- 
ously assailed in the German papers; but the 
work prospered, and when he opened the 
doors of the Church twenty-two responded. 
Swahlen, from Wheeling, was sent to Pinck- 
ney Mission, Missouri, and J. M. Hartman to 
Bellville, Illinois, and from these points the 
German Mission extended thoughout that 
western land. In 1841 C. H. Doering was 
sent to New York. Rev. Biemenschneider, the 
same year, was sent to open a mission in 
North Ohio. By May the next year he re- 
ported 12 appointments and 38 members. 

520 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Work was opened in Louisville, Ky., by 
Mr. Schmucker. He was succeeded by Mr. 
Alirens, and Schmucker opened work in 1842 
in Evansville. In a few months he had sev- 
enteen members. About the same time Mr. 
Barth preached his first sermon in Columbus, 
O. He had six hearers, a shower of tears, 
and a powerful influence of the Holy Spirit. 
The work extended to Madison, Chillicothe, 
Dayton, and other points. In 1843 Adam 
Miller opened work in Baltimore. John Sau- 
ter began work in Newark, New Jersey, in 
1844. He was then a local preacher, but be- 
came one of the leaders in founding the East- 
ern work. The same year another mission 
was begun in Bloomingdale, New York City, 
which in six months received sixty members. 

The General Conference of 1844 made pro- 
vision for the formation of the German mis- 
sions into presiding elders' districts within 
the Conference, and where they were the most 
numerous. Two districts were formed in the 
Ohio Conference, of which C. H. Doering and 
Peter Schmucker were presiding elders. The 
work in Illinois was also formed into two dis- 
tricts, in charge of Mr. Nast and Mr. Jacoby. 
In 1847, ten years from the beginning of the 
work, there were 6 districts, 62 missions, 75 

Misdons of the 31. E Church. 521 

missionaries, and 4,385 members. In 1848 
Drs. Nast and Jaco-by were delegates to the 
General Conference. In 1864 the Germans 
were a unit in favor of German Annual Con- 
ferences. The General Conference granted 
their request. Three Conferences were or- 
dered—viz., the Central, the Northwest, and 
Southwest. The bishops were also authorized 
to organize an Eastern Conference if its in- 
crease should justify the measure. 

The Central Conference was organized by 
Bishop Morris August 24, 1864, with 76 
preachers and 8,015 members. The North- 
west Conference was organized September 7, 
1864, by Bishop Scott, with 64 preachers and 
4,474 members. The Southwest Conference 
was organized by Bishop Janes, September 29, 
1864, with 70 preachers and 5,376 members; 
making a total at that date of 210 preachers 
and 17,865 members. In 1866 the East Ger- 
man Conference was organized by Bishop 
Janes, with 28 preachers and 2,428 members. 
In 1878 the entire German work reported 409 
stationed preachers, 44,664 members, 734 Sun- 
day schools, and 38,018 scholars. 

522 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Germany and Switzerland. 

Early in this century a young German 
named Christopher G. Mtiller fled from Ger- 
many to England to escape military duty 
under the first Napoleon. He was converted 
under the preaching of the Wesleyans, and be- 
came a local preacher. In 1830 he returned 
to Wlirtemberg, and at Winnenden began to 
tell of the saving grace he had found, and to 
preach the necessity of conversion. Many 
were awakened and converted and organized 
into classes. When he returned to England 
his little flock petitioned the Wesley an mis- 
sionary authorities to return Mr. Mtiller to 
them as a missionary. The request was 
granted, and in 1831 he renewed his work in 
his fatherland. In 1835 he reported 23 ex- 
horters and 326 members. In 1839 he had 60 
assistants and upwards of 600 members. He 
was permitted to labor only where and when 
the State clergy allowed, and was often perse- 
cuted and threatened with imprisonment- 

The hearts of many German Methodists in 
the United States very naturally turned to 
their native land, and the desire grew strong 
that their kindred after the flesh should share 
the blessings tiiey had found in their West- 
ern home. In 1844 Rev. William Nast was 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 523 

authorized to visit Germany and report as to 
the wisdom of undertaking a mission to re- 
vive scriptural holiness amid the dead for- 
malities of the national Church. He found 
the people eager to listen to an evangelical 
ministry, but the Established Church deter- 
mined in asserting its exclusive claims. He 
had a free and fraternal conference with Mtil- 
ler, and was led to believe that this faithful 
man of God was occupying all the ground 
then open for evangelical work in Germany. 

A few years, however, wrought a mighty 
change in Europe, in which Germany largely 
shared. There was a large advance in civil 
and religious freedom. In Germany religious 
liberty was proclaimed. Though this free- 
dom was afterward restrained by the policy 
of the crown, a large advance had been 
gained on the line of religious toleration, 
which neither the State nor Church could ar- 

Nast and Jacoby, at the General Confer- 
ence of 1848, called the attention of the 
bishops and missionary authorities to the fact 
that in Germany the barriers to mission work 
were breaking down. At the annual meeting 
in May the Board arranged for a mission and 
requested the bishops to appoint two mission- 

524 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

aries to Germany. Bishop Morris appointed 
Ludwig S. Jacoby. Owing to failing health, 
Mr. Jacoby had been planning to locate for a 
time, but he rallied to answer this call to his 
native land. He reached Bremen November 
7, 1849. After some delay and much opposi- 
tion he secured the Krameramthaus— a hall 
that would seat four hundred— and on Sabbath 
December 23, it was so crowded that the 
preacher had difficulty in reaching the stand. 
The congregations increased until another 
hall in the same building was secured, which 
held eight hundred persons. On Easter Sun- 
day, 1850, a class of twenty-one converted 
souls was formed. May 21, 1850, the first 
Quarterly Conference was held. The same 
date the first number of Der Evangelist, a 
Methodist religious journal, was printed. 
The means for its support the first year were 
furnished by two brothers, Charles and Henry 
Baker. It has done noble service in Germany 
for evangelical Christianity. 

The work enlarged and in answer to Mr. 
Jacoby's call Kev. C. H. Doering and Kev. 
Louis Nippert were sent to his aid. They 
reached Germany June 7, 1850. A circuit of 
fifteen appointments was formed in and 
around Bremen, to which the new mission- 

Missions of the M- E. Church. 525 

aries were assigned, Mr. Jacoby remaining in 
charge in Bremen. The peculiarities of 
Methodism were faithfully observed. The 
converts were active, some acting as colpor- 
ters, and in August, 1850, Wessel Fiege was 
licensed as exhorter. He was the forerunner 
of an army of native preachers. Mr. Jacoby 
attended the Peace Congress in Frankfort, and 
also visited Muller. They rejoiced together 
over the prosperity of evangelical religion in 
Germany. Muller adopted the hymn book 
of the M. E. Church, and they agreed to re- 
new these fraternal conferences. Jacoby 
preached to a congregation so large that the 
burgomaster was induced to place the church 
at his service. 

The success of the mission awakened oppo- 
sition. Camp and class meetings were often 
disturbed by mobs. Strong persecutions met 
them in the Grand Duchy of Saxe- Weimar, 
the Kingdom of Hanover, and the Duchy of 
Brunswick. Though the Parliament had or- 
dained religious liberty, the missionaries had 
liberty to preach and form congregations 
only in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg and 
the free cities of Germany. Notwithstanding 
the persecution, the work prospered, and in 
1851 Rev. E. Eiemenschneider and Rev. H. 

526 Hand Book of Jjlethodist Missions. 

Nuelsen were sent to reenforce the mission. 
The first annual meeting was held in Bremen 
March 11, 1852. The five missionaries re- 
ported 232 members and 582 Sunday school 
scholars. In view of the number of native 
helpers coming to their aid, the missionaries 
did not press the call for more men from the 
United States. In 1856 there were 10 mis- 
sionaries and 10 native helpers in the field, 
with 537 members. 

Mr. Jacoby, by request of the Board, at- 
tended the General Conference of 1856, and 
by his account of the work added largely to 
the interest felt in the mission in Germany. 
The Conference advised the Board to appro- 
priate $1,000 per annum for four years for the 
publication of books and papers in Germany, 
and also authorized the formation of the 
mission into an Annual Conference. The 
Conference was organized in Bremen, Sep- 
tember 10, 1856, L. S. Jacoby presiding. One 
missionary was added to the force and two 
native preachers were received on trial. Calls 
for preachers came from Switzerland, only a 
part of which could be answered. 

Bishop Simpson presided in 1857. Dr. 
McClintock and Mr. Nast, who were attending 
the Evangelical Alliance, were present. Their 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 527 

presence and the address of Mr. Nast on 
Methodism before the Evangelical Alliance 
removed many prejudices against the mission. 
The reports of the Conference showed a net 
gain of 237 members. In 1858 the mission 
was divided into four districts — viz., Bremen, 
Oldenburg, South German, and Switzerland. 
In 1860 the Conference was held in Zurich. 
The Evangelist and Kinderfreund, published by 
the mission, had become self-supporting. In 
every department advance was reported. In 
1861 Kev. W. F. Warren was appointed pro- 
fessor of the Mission Institute. Five young 
men who had received training in the Insti- 
tute were received on trial in the Conference. 
In 1866 Mr. Warren returned home, and Dr. 
John F. Hurst, of the Newark Conference, 
became his successor. In 1871 Dr. Jacoby 
presided. He had opened the mission, had 
shared its labors for nineteen years, and now 
bade farewell, with loving words, to his breth- 
ren. He closed his life and labors in St. 
Louis, The Conference also lost Dr. Hurst, 
who had accepted a professorship in the Drew 
Theological University. In 1878 there were 
eighty men stationed in the Conference, with- 
out counting the supplies, while the member- 
ship had risen to 11,525. 

528 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

For several years the Churches in Germany 
had been seriously embarrassed with debt. 
In 1880 there were in the Conference eighty- 
three chapels with a total valuation of $452,- 
157, which were mortgaged to the amount of 
$235,179. After deducting rent, the annual 
interest was a drain on the Church of $6,008. 
While this was a heavy tax, had not the debt 
been incurred, the annual rent for chapels 
would have cost at least $22,000. The Socie- 
ty at home appropriated in 1880 $4,800 for 
the principal of the chapel debt, the congre- 
gations in the field making like contribution. 
As means were obtained, this chief burden 
would be removed from the vigorous mission. 

In 1884 Bishop Hurst, who presided at the 
Conference, noted its advance in all depart- 
ments, and particularly the number of genu- 
ine revivals in many charges. The member- 
ship was reported at 10,372, and probationers 
at 2,492. 

In 1886 the Conference was divided and 
the Switzerland Conference organized. The 
division left in the German Conference the 
Bremen, the Berlin, the Frankfort am Main, 
and Wtirtemberg Districts, with 66 appoint- 
ments, 6,697 members, and 2,134 on trial. 
The Switzerland Conference was divided into 

Missio7is of the M. E. Church. 529 

the Zurich and Bice Districts, with 24 circuits, 
4,396 members, and 900 probationers. In 
1891 it reported 30 ordained preachers and 14 
unordained preachers, 5,507 members, and 
1,035 probationers. The reports revealed 
great vitality in both Annual Conferences, and 
demonstrate the fact that Methodism is prov- 
ing a potent agency in quickening the spirit- 
ual life of the German race. The German 
Institute had become an important factor in 
accomplishing these results. It had sent out 
150 graduates into the mission field at home 
and abroad. 


In 1852 the General Committee made pro- 
vision for the commencement of a mission in 
Bulgaria, a province in European Turkey bor- 
dering on the Black Sea and extending from 
the Danube to the Balkan Mountains. Though 
the people had been in the Greek Church 
since the ninth century, they were dissatisfied 
with its priesthood, which had sought to ban- 
ish the Bulgarian tongue, the Church, and 
school. They had heard of the good work 
done by the missionaries of the American 
Board in Roumania, across the Balkans, and 

530 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

had invited its missionaries to come over and 
help them. Unable to occupy the field, the 
American Board had earnestly advised the 
Missionary Board of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church to plant a mission in Bulgaria. 

In 1857 Eev. W. Prettyman and Eev. A. L. 
Long were sent out to commence the work. 
They reached Constantinople, and after coun- 
seling with the brethren of the American 
Board, they took steamer to Varna, on the Eed 
Sea. From thence they visited Shumla and 
Rustchuk, and decided to occupy the former 
city. They were soon settled in their home 
and engaged in the study of the language. 
Encouraged by their report, Eev. F. W. 
Flocken was added to the mission. Letters 
from prominent Bulgarians in Tirnova decid- 
ed them to occupy that point, and Mr. Long 
and his family reached there December 24, 
and opened work in the Bulgarian language. 
The work was scarcely open when the mission 
was denounced from the pulpit, but the con- 
gregation increased until a larger house was 
needed. Two Bulgarian priests called on Mr. 
Long and deplored the sad degeneracy of the 
Church. One begged him for a Bible. He 
was joined by Gabriel Elieff, the first Bulga- 
rian Protestant convert, as colporter and as- 

Missions of the M. E, Church. 531 

sistant. He had been in the employ of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society. He be- 
came one of the chief supports of the mis- 

At Shumla Messrs. Prettyman and Flocken 
continued their studies, the latter preaching in 
German and the former in English. As Mr, 
Prettyman had the work well in hand, it was 
decided that Mr. Flocken should visit Tultcha. 
a city south of the Danube and near the 
Black Sea. It has a population of about 28,- 
000, of whom 10,000 are Bulgarians, 7,500 
Russians, and several hundred Germans. As 
Mr. Flocken spoke both Russian and German, 
he found here an open field, while studying 
the Bulgarian. He became deeply interested 
in a Russian sect called Molokans. In Russia 
they are afraid to speak of their belief, and 
but little is known of their usages and faith, 
Mr. Flocken gained their confidence and 
learned something of their history. Late in 
the last century a young Russian nanded Sim- 
eon Matfeowitch and a young woman named 
Arina Timofeowna were in the service of the 
Russian Embassador to England. During 
their stay they met a people whose worship 
was different from that of their native land. 
They had no temples, but met for worship in 

532 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

dwelling houses. They had no images, no 
cross nor candle, yet were a very pious and 
earnest people. On returning to Eussia they 
told their relations and friends of these peo- 
ple, and many of them concluded to adopt 
these modes of worship but to retain their 
relations to the Eusso-Greek Church. They 
had banished from their houses all images 
and crosses and fasted on Wednesdays and 
Fridays, on which days they lived principally 
on milk. The use of milk (which in Eussian 
is moloko) on Eussian fast days has led their 
enemies to call them Molokans. They in- 
creased considerably in numbers until perse- 
cution under Alexander I. broke out against 
them. They sent their men to the emperor, 
and asked him to allow them to worship in 
his presence, that he might judge for himself. 
After witnessing their w^orship he permitted 
them to return home, and they had peace un- 
til the days of Emperor Nicholas. Notwith- 
standing their persecution, they have greatly 
increased. To escape the intolerance of the 
Eussians they had sought refuge under the 
Turks in Tultcha. Mr. Flocken attended one 
of their services. It consisted in reading or 
singing chapters from the Old and New Tes- 
taments, with occasional comment and prayer. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 533 

They use no water in baptism nor bread and 
wine in the Lord's Supper. Mr. Flocken 
thought that the two persons who had been in 
England had met with the Wesleyans. They 
listened to the teaching of the missionary, and 
he had great hopes of reaching this singular 
people in Eussia through this colony at Tult- 
cha, but his expectations have not yet been 

During the year 1861 each of the stations 
reported a native coworker. At Tirnova Ga- 
briel Elieff had proved an efficient helper of 
Mr. Long. At Shumla Mr. Melanovitsch, a 
Bohemian, was a great help to Mr. Prettyman. 
At Tultcha Ivan lyanoff had great influence 
among his Molokan brethren. Mr. Pretty- 
man did faithful work at Shumla, but he be- 
came discouraged and was permitted to re- 
turn to the United States. In 1863 Mr. 
Long was removed from Tirnova to Constan- 
tinople, where he became associated with Dr. 
Eiggs in the revision of the Bulgarian New 
Testament, to be published by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society. In 1864 he com- 
menced the publication of the Zornltza, 
the " Day Star," which was received with 
great favor by the Bulgarians. 

In 1865 Bishop Thomson visited the mis- 

5^4 Hand Book of Methodist ^fissions. 

sion. He believed much had been accom- 
plished, and recommended three additional 
missionaries. In 1866 Mr. Long visited the 
United States to supervise the stereotyping of 
a parallel edition of the New Testament in 
the ancient Slavic and Bulgarian languages. 
He returned in 1868 to Constantinople, 
where he resumed regular services on Sunday. 
His chief work was the Christian literature 
he gave to Bulgaria. 

Eev. Wanless and wife went out in 1868. 
Mr. Flocken was directed to remove to Rust- 
chuk, on the Danube, with Mr. Wanless as an 
associate, but he was delayed in his departure 
by a revival which was in progress at Tultcha 
among the Lipovans. Many were converted 
and others were inquiring the way of life. 
Dimitry PetroflP, one of their number, had 
been appointed leader, and was licensed to 
exhort. He commenced a special course of 
study with Mr. Flocken, preparatory to assum- 
ing charge of this work among his people. 

Mr. Wanless proceeded to Bustchuk. In 
1870 Petroff took charge of the flock at Tult- 
cha, and Mr. Flocken removed to Rustchuk. 
It reported 17 members, 2 probationers, and a 
Sunday school of 35. Very soon the priests 
developed strong opposition. The work had 

Missions of the 31. E Church. 535 

been maintained amid many discouragements. 
In 1871 the General Committee made provis- 
ion for the return of Messrs. Flocken and 
AYanless, Dr. Long, who had been called to 
a professor's chair in Roberts College, Con- 
stantinople, was to superintend the mission, 
as far as his other duties allowed. These 
changes left Petroff in charge of the mission 
at Tultcha. Gabriel Eiieff retained charge of 
the work in Sistoff and itinerated largely in 
the adjacent towns. Mrs. Proca, who had 
been teacher in the mission, entered on volun- 
teer work as Bible reader. 

In their loneliness Eiieff and Petroff made 
an earnest appeal to the Board. It wasdeter- 
mined to reenter the field with a full force of 
missionaries. Mr. Flocken was directed to 
return to Bulgaria, and Rev. H. A. Buchtel 
was appointed to the field. They left for 
Bulgaria in March, 1873. The outlook was 
encouraging. Separation from the Greek 
Church was complete. It was soon evident 
that these hopes were delusive. The priests 
were ordered by the bishops to read the serv- 
ice in the Slavic instead of the Bulgarian 
tongue. The land was soon in ecclesiastical 
disorder. In addition to these troubles, finan- 
cial distress in the United States made it im- 

536 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

possible to reenforce the mission. Mrs. Buch- 
tel's health compelled her return home, while 
cholera at Shumla and other points dis- 
organized the work. Mr. Flocken was left 
alone. He placed a young man from his theo- 
logical class at Orchania, and Elieff at Plevna, 
and kept up, as best he could, the old work. 

Bishop Harris visited the field in 1874 
He urged the reenf or cement of the mission. 
Eev. E. F. Lounsbury and Eev. D. C. Challis 
were sent out in 1875. Then followed the war 
between Eussia and Turkey in 1877, and the 
missionaries had to retire from the field. In 
1878 Mr. Long was alone, directing as best he 
could the native brethren who endeavored to 
care for their scattered flocks. When the war 
ceased Mr. Challis and Eev. S. Thoneoff were 
sent to the mission. 

In 1884 the missionary force consisted of 

D. C. Challis, E. F. Lounsbury, J. S. Ladd, A. 

E. Jones, T. Constanstine, and their wives, 
Miss L. Schenck, of the Woman's Society, 
four native ordained preachers, and two local 
preachers. The stations were Eutschuk, Sis- 
tof, Loftcha, Orchania, Selvi, and Plevna, 
with 45 members and 31 probationers. In 
1885 the mission was divided into the Lower 
Danube, Upper Panube, Varna, and Balkan 

' Missions of the M. E. Church. 537 

Districts. The mission was again disturbed 
by war, but the missionaries moved on with 
their work, and reported an increase of 12 
members and 10 on trial. In 1891 the mission 
had 4 ordained missionaries, 4 assistants, 128 
members, and 43 on trial. 

At the St. Louis Conference, held in March, 
1871, Bishop Ames appointed " Rev. Leroy M. 
Vernon, D.D., Missionary and Superintendent 
of the Mission Work of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church in Italy." He sailed with his 
family from New York June 28 of the same 
year. In London he conferred with the Wes- 
ley an missionary authorities, and formed fra- 
ternal relations concerning the prospective 
work in Italy. They reached Genoa early in 
August. He entered on the systematic study 
of the language, besides visiting the leading 
cities in order to form an intelligent judg- 
ment as to the point where the headquarters 
of the mission should be located. Rev. Mr. 
Piggott, Superintendent of the Wesleyan Mis- 
sions, proposed the union of the forces of 
the two Societies to constitute one Italian 
Methodism. Dr. Vernon at the time con- 

538 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

cur red, and reported in favor of the plan to 
the Board. When the thoughtful men in 
charge attempted to reduce the theory to prac- 
tice the difficulties they encountered caused 
the proposition to fail. The Board adhered 
to a Methodist Episcopal Mission with cordial 
fraternal relations. 

In December Dr. Vernon was instructed, to 
fix his headquarters at Bologna, with notice 
that Bev. F. A. Spencer was coming. Owing 
to the opposition and interference of the 
priests, it was over four months before Dr. 
Vernon could secure a suitable hall for public 
worship. During this time he met Bev. J. C. 
Mill, of the Church Missionary Society, and 
Signor A. Guigou. After a number of inter- 
views respecting the character and policy of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church and the aims 
of the mission, they united with the Church 
and joined the mission. June 16, 1873, the 
Italian mission opened its public services in 
a hall in Modena. Sigiior Guigou preached 
to some sixty hearers, and Dr. Vernon fol- 
lowed, explaining the character and design of 
the mission. June 22 the hall in Bologna was 
opened by Bev. J. C. Mill. By the close of 
the month work was opened in Forli and Ba- 
venna. Bev. E. A. Spencer arrived in Bo- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 589 

logna in January, 1873. He entered on 
school work with fair success. In view, how- 
ever, of the well-ordered public schools of It- 
aly and the conviction of the Board and bish- 
ops that a Methodistic type of native preach- 
ers was needed and could be formed, the 
committee made no appropriation for schools 
and Mr. Spencer returned in 1874. 

In October, 1874, evangelical work was com- 
menced in the town of Bagnacavallo by Sig- 
nor B. Godino; in Pescara andChieti, by Sig- 
nor B. Malan; and in Eimini, by Signor 
Charbonnier. About the same time B. Dal- 
mas and G. Tourn pioneered the Eomagna as 
colporters. They found many open doors, 
and at times faced fierce fanaticism. 

During the autumn of 1874 Dr. Vernon 
formed the acquaintance of Signor Teofilo 
Gay, a graduate under Dr. d'Aubigne of the 
Genevan Theological School. He had served 
a year as assistant pastor in a French Church 
in London. His ancestry had been ministers 
in the Waldensiau Church. AVhen his pious 
mother saw him enter the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church she said: "This is the Lord's do- 
ing." He was appointed to open the mission 
in Bome. After ten days' search Dr. Vernon 
secured a small hall near the Mamertine pris- 

540 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

on. On Sunday, December 18, Mr. Gay opened 
his message, the hall being entirely filled. A 
movement among the Italian soldiers had 
been commenced by a yoiang Italian who had 
been discharged from service. He maintained 
it at his own expense, with occasional gifts 
from his friends. These resources were in- 
sufficient and Dr. Vernon took up the work 
and affiliated it with the mission. 

At the close of 1873 a mission was planted 
in Florence, with Rev. A. Arrighi in charge. 
A suburban hall was secured, and the attend- 
ance was fair. The priests aroused the people, 
and a mob assailed the house, breaking the 
windows, putting out the lights, and assault- 
ing the sexton. Six rioters were lodged in 
jail the next day. The cause moved forward 
in increasing popularity. 

Early in 1874 work was opened in the town 
of Brescello and Faenza. The most important 
advance was by Rev. J. C. Mill, in Milan, the 
capital of Lombardy. Two places were occu- 
pied and five or six services held each week. 
The work of Mr. Mill in Bologna was supplied 
by Signor E. Borelli, a man of experience and 
ability, who was received into the Church and 

During the year Dr. Vernon was introduced 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 541 

to Dr. Alceste Lanna, at that time Professor 
in Appolinari, the most popular Catholic col- 
lege in Rome. He had long been an earnest 
inquirer after religious truth. He had ob- 
tained some knowledge of the gospel; but with 
his position it was perilous to approach a Prot- 
estant minister, and to profess Protestantism 
would involve the loss of friends, position, and 
income. He frankly told Dr. Vernon and Mr. 
Gay his struggle, and sought with tears their 
counsel. After repeated interviewing, in 
which he impressed Dr. Vernon with his sin- 
cerity and superior gifts and attainments, he 
decided to surrender all for Christ. He en- 
tered fully into the work. 

The first annual meeting of the mission was 
held September 10, at Bologna, by Bishop 
Harris. Nine of the preachers had been ad- 
mitted on trial in the Germany and Switzer- 
land Conference July 2, and E. Borelli and 
L. Capellini had been elected to deacons and 
elders orders under the missionary rule. They 
were ordained at Bologna. Bishop Harris, 
after a survey of the field, transferred the head- 
quarters of the Mission to Eome, and directed 
the removal of the superintendent to that 

The conversion of Prof. E. Caporali, LL.D., 

542 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

in Milan greatly strengthened the Mission. 
He was the son of an Italian baroness, was a 
noted student, and well known as an editor 
and author. He was led to attend the services 
of the mission. The words of the messenger 
reached his heart, and he was subdued by the 
power of the Spirit. He openly confessed 
Christ and united with the Church. Soon he 
turned from the open path of literary distinc- 
tion and devoted himself to evangelical work 
among his people. About April 1, 1875, a 
station was opened in the city of Perugia, 
midway between Eome and Florence, with 
good prospects. Many soon embraced the 
gospel. Eev. Vincenzo Eavi was engaged in 
evangelical work in Rome. He had been con- 
verted several years before while reading the 
Gospels. He abandoned Catholicism, and with 
it the presidency of a college in Sicily. In 
Naples, and afterward at Florence, where he 
pursued his studies in theology, he fell in with 
Protestants. Later he studied in Scotland. 
While there he married a Scotch lady, and, 
with the help of Christian friends, returned 
to engage in evangelical work in Italy. He 
had a little flock in Eome well grounded in 
the truth. He was a watchful pastor and able 
preacher. In May, 1875, he, with his congre- 

mssions of the M. E. Church. 543 

gation of forty members, united with the M. 
E. Church. 

June 30, 1875, Bishop Simpson held the 
second annual meeting in Milan. His coun- 
sels and services greatly impressed the native 
preachers and members. Dr. Alceste Lanna 
was ordained deacon and elder. In April, 
1875, Dr. Vernon secured an eligible site for 
a church. The purchase was approved by the 
Board, and funds appropriated for a small 
church and mission residence. The work be- 
gan July 15. The ground had been Church 
property. Priests and monks were outraged 
that a Protestant church should be built on 
once holy ground. The daily papers welcomed 
the enterprise. The municipal architect, who 
under Italian authority, approved the plans 
and watched over the w^alls, was Col. Calan- 
drelli, one of the Triumvirs of the Eoman Ee- 
public of 1849. He met successfully the in- 
fluence of the clergy in the municipal council, 
and the house was built. The St. Paul's 
Methodist Episcopal Church was dedicated 
by Dr. Vernon on Christmas, 1875. Able ser- 
mons were preached in Italian by Eev. Teofilo 
Gay, Eev, Vincenzo Eavi, Dr. Lanna, of the 
Mission, and brief discourses by representa- 
tives of the evangelical Italian Churches. 

544 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Signor Eavi was sent to Naples in the au- 
tumn of 1875. He began preaching in his own 
residence while seeking a place of public wor- 
ship, and soon had a little class of adherents. 
Early in 1876 a small theater was rented and 
transformed into a sanctuary. Soon a young 
Neapolitan lawyer named Eduardo Stasio was 
brought into the Church. His interest deep- 
ened, and before the year closed he was pre- 
paring for the ministry. About the same time 
Crisanzio Bambini united with the Church 
at Perugia and began to study for his Mas- 
ter's service. In July of the same year a 
young man by name of Daniele Gay applied 
to Dr. Vernon for admission into mission 
work. He and Signor Bambini were sent to 
open a station at Terni. A monk assailed the 
mission in sermons and pamphlets. Mr. Gay 
met him with sermons and pamphlets. The 
work went on, and converts united with the 
Church. Mr. Bambini opened a good work at 
Narni, near Terni. 

In 1876 Kev. F. Cardin, of the Wesleyan 
Mission, united with the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission. After counsel with his late superin- 
tendent, he was admitted, and sent in August 
to open a station in Venice. In 1877, at Dr. 
Vernon's suggestion; the work and workers 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 545 

among the Italian soldiers in Kome were 
turned over to the Wesleyan brethren. With 
part of the funds formerly devoted to the 
" Military Church " a station was planted in 
the Tuscan town of Arezzo, near Florence. 
A place was secured on a long lease. The 
priests were greatly aroused, and assailed the 
mission with great bitterness. The preacher 
was Baron Gattuso. He had served as an 
officer under Garibaldi. He was now an able 
and faithful soldier of the cross. 

The annual meeting was held March 11, 
1877, in Eome, Bishop Andrews presiding. 
The preachers had expected the Italian An- 
nual Conference to be organized, but from the 
act of the General Conference it appeared that 
authority was ''granted to the bishops to or- 
ganize " the Conference. As the bishops had 
not taken action. Bishop Andrews did not feel 
competent to act without their approval. It 
was a great disappointment, but the meeting 
was one of great interest. 

In August, 1877, under direction from the 
Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, Signora 
Amalia Conversi, in Rome, Signora Adele 
Gay, in Terni, and Signora Carolina Cardin, 
in Venice, engaged in the Bible work. En- 
dowed with piety, culture, and zeal, they en- 

546 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

tered precincts inaccessible to men and ren- 
dered service the men had attempted in vain. 
Later the Society provided tried Bible women. 
The American Bible Society cooperated with 
the work, providing the Scriptures and main- 
taining for a time a Bible culporter under the 
direction of Dr. Yernon. 

Silvio Stazi, D.Ph., D.D.. who had been ed- 
ucated with Dr. Lanna, was admitted into the 
Church and mission w^ork near the close of 
1877. He had resisted all efforts to place him 
in the priesthood, and had been called to en- 
dure many trials. He had wandered to En- 
gland, where he obtained some knowledge of 
the gospel. He returned to Italy greatly con- 
cerned for the religious welfare of his people. 
He was a man of rare attainments, and was 
placed in charge of the mission station at 

In 1881 the Mission was organized into an 
Annual Conference. The purchase of a build- 
ing at Florence suitable for a church and par- 
sonage placed the work at this point in good 
position. The conversion of Monsignor Cam- 
pello, a canon of the Patriarchal Basilica of 
St. Peter's, was a notable event. For three 
years he had pondered the momentous ques- 
tion. On September 4 he abjured Catholicism 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 547 

and united with the Methodist Church. Ow- 
ing to his throat trouble, he did not take ac- 
tive work, but desired to labor for the gospel 
through the public press. At the Conference 
of 1882 six native preachers were received on 
trial. In 1883 Kev. J. H. Hargis was added 
to the mission. 

In 1888 Eev. L. M. Vernon, D.D., who had 
founded the mission and served it faithfully 
sixteen years, retired from the field. The 
mission was reenforced by the arrival of Eev. 
E. S. Stackpole, who, after mastering the lan- 
guage, opened a theological school at Flor- 
ence. Kev. G. B. Gatturo^ an Italian preacher, 
was made presiding elder of the Kome District. 
Miss E. M. Hall was directress of the woman's 
work and nine Bible women were at work in 
different cities. In 1889 the entire work was 
placed in one district, with Kev* W. Burt in 
charge. In 1891 the theological school at 
Florence was well equipped for work, with 
Kev. E. S. Stackpole President, and two 
American and two Italian professors as his 
assistants. It was evidently the policy of the 
mission to evangelize Italy through the agency 
of native preachers. The mission now re- 
ported 4 missionaries, 2 native missionaries, 
19 native ordained and 7 unordained preach- 

548 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ers, 836 members, and 236 probationers. In 
In the midst of formidable difficulties the 
faith of the laborers was strong. 

In 1852 Dr. Durbin, Corresponding Secre- 
tary, called the attention of the General Com- 
mittee to the importance of India as a mission 
field, and it was resolved that a fund be cre- 
ated and placed at the discretion of the Board 
and bishops for commencing a mission in 
India, and $7,500 was appropriated for that 
purpose. It was not until 1856 that a man 
qualified for the work of founding the mission 
could be found. In that year Kev. William 
Butler was chosen for the work. He was a 
native of Ireland, and had been a Wesleyan 
preacher before he came to the United States, 
where he labored in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church for four years before he was sent to 
India. He reached Calcutta with his family 
September 25. After a careful survey of the 
field he decided to establish the mission in 
Eohilcund, a large and important section, at 
that time unoccupied by a single missionary. 
The city of Bareilly was selected as the center 
of his operations. On his way to this point 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 549 

the American Presbyterians at Allahabad let 
him have, as interpreter and helper, a young 
native Christian named Joel Janvier. He be- 
came the first native preacher in the mission. 
Mr. Butler had been in Bareilly about two 
weeks when, on March 31, 1857, the Sepoy 
Rebellion broke out. The native soldiers at 
Bareilly mutinied and attempted to slaughter 
every officer and foreigner in the place. A 
few escaped to Nynee Tal, a health resort in 
the mountains. Among the number was the 
missionary and his family. Their home was 
left in charge of the faithful Joel and his 
wife, and in the darkness they started on their 
perilous journey. His family traveled in 
doolies borne by men. The next evening they 
reached a belt of deep jungle at the foot of the 
Himalayas, about twenty miles wide. It was 
the haunt of tigers and rank with malaria. 
At midnight the dooley bearers, weary with 
their burden, refused to go on. In his ex- 
tremity Mr. Butler slipped into the dark 
jungle and lifted his heart in an agony of 
prayer. Writing of that terrible trial he 
says: "My prayer did not last two minutes, 
but how much I prayed in that time! I put 
on my hat, returned to the light, and looked. 
I spoke not. I saw my men at once bend to 

550 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the dooley ; it rose and off they went instantly, 
and they never stopped a moment except 
kindly to push little Eddie in when, in his 
sleep, he rolled so his feet hung out. . . . 
We were ten hours going those fifteen miles. 
At last day broke and our torch bearer was 
dismissed. Hungry and thirsty, our souls 
fainted in us indeed. But at last we reached 
Katgodam and found the mother and babes 
all safe." They reached Nynee Tal, and while 
the storm of war swept over the land the mis- 
sionary continued to work for the Master. 
Religious services were held both in English 
and Hindoostanee. Josiah Parsons, who had 
been in the servic e of the Church Missionary 
Society, joined the mission and, speaking the 
language of the country, did efficient work. 
Joel, the native helper, and his wife saw their 
house in Bareilly destroyed and, after passing 
through fearful dangers, found Mr. Butler in 
Nynee Tal, in April, 1855. Eev. J. L. 
Humphrey and Rev. R. Pierce and their 
families had been sent out to aid in planting 
the mission. They left Boston on June 1, 
the day after the mutiny broke out in Ba- 
reilly. They reached Nynee Tal in April, 
1858. A house and tract of land were secured 
and a chapel in due time erected. 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 651 

As soon as possible, after the English had 
reoccupied Rohilcund, the work was opened 
in the cities of Moradabad and Bareily. Mr. 
Parsons removed to Moradabad early in Jan- 
uary, 1859, and was joined by Mr. and Mrs. 
Humphrey on the 28th of the same month. 
Mr. S. Knowles, who had been an officer in 
the British army, and had joined the mission 
in 1858, was left in charge at Nynee Tal. Soon 
after they opened work in Moradabad they 
were visited by some men of the class called 
Mazhabee Sikhs, who invited them to their vil- 
lage. Their religion was a mixture of Hin- 
dooism and Mohammedanism. Their priest 
had heard the gospel preached by American 
Presbyterian missionaries at the melas on the 
banks of the Ganges, and before he died had 
advised his people to go to the missionaries 
for instruction. They were a low caste among 
their people. The missionaries answered their 
call, native preachers were raised up among 
them, and by 1871, in over a hundred vil- 
lages, two-thirds of this class had been bap- 

Mr. and Mrs. Humphrey removed to Bareil- 
ly February 25, 1859. Every English house 
had been destroyed during the mutiny, and 
they had to occupy a deserted native house 

552 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

two miles from the city, and on the opposite 
side from the English station. They secured 
two efficient native assistants — Joseph Field- 
bran, a Eurasian who had been for several 
years a preacher in another mission, and Azim 
Ati, a converted Mohammedan. The natives 
were unfriendly to the missionaries, but Mr. 
Inglis, the magistrate of Bareilly, gave them 
his cordial support. The American Methodist 
style of preaching seemed specially adapted to 
this field. They stood up in the bazaars, or 
markets, and crowds gathered around, while 
they preached "Christ and him crucified." 
They attended the great melas, or fairs, where 
vast multitudes met on the banks of the Gan- 
ges, or at some noted shrine, for worship and 
trade. At some of these festivals hundreds of 
thousands of people remained for days bathing 
and bartering, or burning portions of the bod- 
ies of their deceased friends, that their ashes 
might be cast into the waters of the sacred 
river. They afforded good opportunity for the 
sale of Bibles and religious books and tracts, 
and presented large congregations gathered 
from all parts of the land. Circuits were 
formed, embracing many towns and villages, 
to which the missionaries, native preachers, 
and colporters in native houses, could meet 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 553 

the people. Often, beneath the shade of a 
tree, the missionary could deliver to old and 
young the story of the cross. 

In July, 1859, Dr. Humphrey baptized the 
first convert, Zahur-ue-Huqq. His family, 
who were Mohammedans, opposed him bitter- 
ly. His father and brothers would not allow 
him to visit them, and his wife refused to see 
him. Dr. Humphrey, who needed an assist- 
ant, employed him. In a few months he be- 
gan to preach, and became a useful member 
of the North India Conference. 

In the fall of 1858 Mr. Butler, accompanied 
by Mr. Pierce, visited the leading towns and 
cities of Kohilcund to select points for mission 
stations. At Lucknow they were warmly wel- 
comed by Commissioner Montgomery. A 
great number of houses had been confiscated 
after the mutiny, aud were at the disposal of 
the government. A location was chosen and 
placed in charge of the mission. Mr. Mont- 
gomery had the buildings repaired and added 
a cash subscription of $250, which his private 
Secretary and other gentlemen made up to 
11,000. Mr. Butler left Mr. Pierce in charge 
in Lucknow, with Joel Janvier as his assist- 
ant. They commenced work in September, 
and by November had four preaching places 

554 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

each week in the bazaars, a class meeting, and 
two schools. They also conducted service and 
held class meetings among the British sol- 
diers. In 1859 J. A. Cawdell, an English 
Wesley an, joined the mission. On May 1 a 
chapel was dedicated. In July the record 
showed in the English class six members and 
nine probationers, and in the Hindoostanee 
class six members and nine probationers. 

In 1859, the mission was reenforced by the 
arrival at Calcutta of Revs. James Baume, O. 
W. Judd, J. W. Waugh, J. R. Downey, E. W. 
Parker, and their wives, and James M. Tho- 
burn. They proceeded to Lucknow and held 
their first annual meeting. Mr. Downey was 
sick on his arrival at Lucknow, and though he 
received every attention, he died in four days. 
It was intended that he should have charge of 
the hospital. Mrs. Downey begged the priv- 
ilege of carrying on his work, which was grant- 
ed. The annual meeting was marked by har- 
monious and vigorous action. New work was 
mapped out, and the following appointments 
were made: Lucknow, B. Pierce, J. Baume; 
Shahjelianpore, J. W. Waugh; Bareilly, J. L. 
Humphrey, Mrs. J. R. Downey; Moradabad, 
C. W. Judd, J. Parsons; Bijnour, E. W. Par- 
ker; Nyuee Tal, J. M. Thoburn, S. Knowles. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 555 

Near the close of the war Maj. Gowan, a 
British officer, placed in charge of Mr. Butler 
the orphan son of a Sepoy officer who had 
been killed in battle. Soon afterward four or 
five boys, whose parents were slain in the mu- 
tiny, were placed in charge of Mr. Pierce, in 
Lucknow. In 1858 they had increased to 
twelve. In August, 1860, Mr. Waugh, who 
had succeeded Mr. Humphrey at Bareilly, re- 
ported twenty-four orphan boys. By the close 
of the year there were thirty-nine. These 
were the beginnings of the " Boys' Orphan- 
age," which afterward was located at Shahje- 
hanpore. During this year the site for the 
mission buildings was secured, a printing of- 
fice fitted up, and publications issued. The 
"Mission Press," or Book Concern, was re- 
moved to Lucknow in 1866. 

Mr. and Mrs. Humphrey removed to Buda- 
on in December, 1859. Premises for a mis- 
sion residence were secured, and, with the aid 
of a native catechist, the work was opened. 
Two schools for boys and one for girls were 
opened. Preaching was carried on among the 
bazaars of the city, and a number of places in 
the district. A famine prevailed, and chil- 
dren were sold in the streets by parents who 
could not feed them. Many of these waifs 

556 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

were turned over to the mission at different 
points. Mr. Humphrey received in this way 
several girls, who in 1861 were gathered to- 
gether at Lucknow and constituted the 
" Girls' Orphanage." 

Among the villages, in the district of which 
Budaon was the center, was scattered a class 
of people, mehters or sweepers, of the lowest 
caste. Some were converted. Among them 
was Chimmar Lai. He studied hard, gradu- 
ated from the theological school at Bareilly, 
and became noted as a native evangelist. He 
went from town to town, and many were led 
to the Lord through his labors. Several oth- 
ers of the same class of people were convert- 
ed, trained in the school, and are now success- 
ful preachers among their people. A Mo- 
hammedan by name of Mahbub Khan, from 
the same region, was led to the knowledge of 
Christ. His people bitterly opposed him, but 
he and his wife and children were baptized. 
He became a useful preacher in the mission. 
The work in the Budaon District was prosper- 
ous. In 1875 the sweeper class as a body was 
favorable to Christianity. The work, carried 
on from nine centers, was manned by native 
preachers, who reported three hundred com- 
municants. Mr. Parker, with two native help- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 557 

ers, opened work in Bijnour in October, 1859. 
They commenced day preaching in the bazaar 
the day of their arrival. They held service 
the first Sunday under a mango tree, and con- 
tinued the Sunday service in the sitting room 
of the mission house. They commenced itin- 
erating in November, preaching in places to 
large crowds, and distributing books and 
tracts. At Bijnour a class and Sunday school 
were organized. At the close of the year 
twenty-four members were reported. 

Mr. Thoburn reached Nynee Tal in October, 
1859, where he remained until 1863. He 
preached to the soldiers while learning the 
language. A boys' school, a girls' school, and 
a boys' Hindoo school, in which were seven- 
teen scholars, were established. An interest- 
ing work was also opened among the Taroos, 
who lived just outside the great Terai jun- 

The second annual meeting was held in 
Bareily February 1, 1861. Four new names 
appear among the missionaries— viz., Kevs. 
Jackson, Hauser, Messmore, and Miss L. A, 
Husk. Eev. J. T. Gracey and wife arrived in 
October, and were appointed to open work at 
Seetapore. This city is midway between Luck- 
now and Shahjehanpore. Mr. Gracey found 

558 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions, 

here ten or twelve native Christians, whom he 
organized into a class. James David was the 
assistant native preacher. The first one en- 
rolled in the class was Henry M. Daniel; the 
-second was Sunder Yal, both of whom became 
ministers. When the class was organized 
Henry M. Daniel was head clerk of the Depu- 
ty Commissioner's office. He had been edu- 
cated in the Secundra Orphanage at Agra, and 
had acquired a knowledge of the Greek, He- 
brew, Arabic, Persian, and English languages, 
and was familiar with Moslem and Hindoo 
life and teaching. He rendered efficient serv- 
ice, preaching on Sunday and at the bazaar 
during the early days of the Seetapore mis- 

The Hindoos in Bareilly were greatly moved 
in 1861 by the conversion of Ambica Churn, 
the son of the native postmaster. The violent 
opposition of his kindred caused him to take 
refuge among the missionaries. The rajah 
visited him and urged his return to his old re- 
ligion. His father-in-law, on one occasion, 
struck him to earth with a heavy stick. His 
wife was taken from him, but he was faithful 
to his newly found faith. He became one of 
the most useful native preachers in the North 
India Conference. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 559 

The next annual meeting was held in 1863. 
Since the annual meeting of 1861 the mission 
had been reenforced by the arrival of Revs. J. 
D. Brown, D. AV. Thomas, W. W. Hicks, T. S. 
Johnson, T. J. Scott, H. Mansell, and P. T. 
AYilson. In 1862 the mission was called to 
mourn the loss by death of Mrs. Jackson, Mrs. 
Thoburn (formerly Mrs. Downey), and Mrs. 
Pierce. Their deaths were triumphant. 

The fourth annual meeting was held in Ba- 
reilly in February, 1864. Dr. Butler made his 
last report and gave notice of his resignation 
as Superintendent. The report revealed re^ 
markable advance in all parts of the work. 

Nine important cities had been occupied; 
nineteen mission houses had been bought or 
built; ten chapels and sixteen schoolhouses 
had been erected: a publishing house and two 
large orphanages had been established; one 
hundred and sixty-one had entered on a Chris- 
tian experience, of whom four were preachers 
and eleven exhorters, while one thousand three 
hundred and twenty-two youths were brought 
under daily instruction. 

At the General Conference of 1864 provision 
was made for the organization of the India 
Mission into a Mission Annual Conference. 
The brethren met Bishop Thomson December 

560 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

8, 1864, and after religious services, the holy 
communioD, and an impressive address by the 
bishop, the Conference was organized. The 
members were Messrs, Butler, Baume, Judd, 
Parker, Waugh, Thoburn, Jackson, Hauser, 
Messmore, Gracey, Thomas, Brown, Scott, 
Johnson, Mansell, Stivers, and Knowles, Joel 
T. Janvier, H. M. Daniel, Zahur-ul-Huqq, and 
J. A. Cawdell were admitted on trial, and P. 
T. Wilson into full connection. On Sabbath 
Knowles, Cawdell, Janvier, and Daniel were 
ordained deacons, and Mr. Knowles elder. 
The report showed one hundred and seven- 
teen members and ninety-two probationers. A 
new mission was planned in Gurwhal, to which 
Mr. Thoburn was ai3pointed. The Conference 
was divided into the Moradabad, Bareilly, and 
Lucknow Districts. 

Mr. Thoburn was in the United States when 
the Conference was organized. Mr. Hauser, 
aided by Mr. Mansel, went from Bijnour to 
Gurwhal, prepared buildings, and opened the 
mission, which Mr. Mansel maintained until 
Mr. Thoburn's return in 1866. Mr. Thoburn 
entered on his charge, visiting and talking 
with the people, circulating books and tracts, 
and looking for suitable openings for the 
work. At the close of the year a day school 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 561 

of thirty or more children was in operation, 
with a Sunday school of twenty-five, and one 
adult baptized. In 1867 six adults, ten orphan 
boys, and two infants were baptized. The 
government school at Sreenugger was trans- 
ferred to the mission, and Thomas Gowan was 
appointed head-master. Houses were built on 
the Paori Mission for students who came to 
school from a distance. Thirty boys soon oc- 
cupied them, eighteen of whom were aided by 
the local government in defraying their extra 
expense. Two girls applied for admittance 
and were received. Three small schools for 
boys and three for girls were started. The 
total number of children was 280, of whom 33 
were girls. After two years of successful 
work. Dr. Thoburn exchanged stations with 
Dr. Mansell, of Moradabad. Mrs. Mansell 
opened work among the women, which re- 
sulted in the accession of many female con- 
verts to the Church. In 1869 seventy mem- 
bers were reported. The Sreenugger property 
was improved and a room fitted up for wor- 
ship, so that there were two chapels on the 
circuit. The total number of scholars in the 
day schools was 406, of whom 51 were girls. 
In 1870 the orphans numbered twelve boys 
and eight girls. 

562 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

The second Annual Conference was held 
February 1, 1866, in Moradabad. The return 
of Rev. James Baume to the United States, 
owing to the broken health of Mrs. Baume, 
was approved. The mission was strengthened 
by the arrival of Revs. F. A. Spencer and S. 
S. Weatherby. A gracious work in the or- 
phanage was reported, at which twenty-two 
girls were converted. 

The third Conference was held January 10, 
1867, at Shahjehanpore, and the fourth, Janu- 
ary 16, 1868, at Bijnour. The General Con- 
ference was approaching, and the question of 
a resident bishop was discussed, but the Con- 
ference did not favor it. The Conference had 
no right to a delegate, but as Mr. Gracey was 
on his way to the United States he was chosen 
to represent them on that occasion. Near the 
close of the session he was admitted as a dele- 
gate, being the first from a foreign land. The 
fifth session met at Bareilly January 14, 1869. 
The session was one of great spiritual power. 
Bishop Kingsley presided at the sixth session, 
also held at Bareilly. It met January 20, 1870. 
Miss Thoburn and Miss Swain, sent out by 
the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, 
were warmly welcomed. Joel T. Janvier and 
Zahur-ul-Huqq were ordained elders. The 

Missions of the M. E. Church. . 563 

seventh session was held at Lucknow, begin- 
ning January 12, 1871. Kev. William Taylor 
(now Bishop Taylor, of Africa), who had been 
invited to visit the mission in 1870, was pres- 
ent, and by request took part in the delibera- 
tions. P. M. Buck and Thomas Craven, new 
recruits from the United States, were also 
present. The eighth session met January 18, 
1872, in Moradabad. E. Cunnigham, W. J. 
Gladwin, and J. H. Gill were added to the 
mission forces. The year was memorable 
because of the gift of $20,000 by Eev. D. W. 
Thomas and $5,000 by E. Kemington, Esq., 
for the establishment of a theological .sem- 
inary. The ninth session was held January 
16, 1873, at Bareilly. J. D. Brown, who 
had been in America seeking health since 
1870, returned, and B. H. Badley and F. B. 
Cherrington were added to the mission. The 
reports showed great expansion in the work at 
the orphanage schools and publishing depart- 
ments. The presence of Bishop Harris at the 
tenth session, which convened January 7, 
1874, at Lucknow, added greatly to the inter- 
est of the occasion. The Conference was re- 
enforced by the arrival from the United States 
of J. Mudge, D. O. Fox, W. E. Bobbins, A. 
Norton, E. Gray, M.D., A. D. McHenry, and 

564 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

J. E. Scott. The eleventh session was held at 
Shahjehanpore January 6, 1875. C. P. Hard, 
F. A. Goodwin, and J. E. Robinson were pres- 
ent. They had been transferred from the 
South India work. The twelfth session met in 
Cawnpore, D. W. Thomas in the chair. The 
mission was reenforced by the return of F. M. 
Wheeler and the arrival of G. H. McGrew for 
North India; and M. H. Nichols, J. Black- 
stock, E. J. Davis, W. E. Newlon, and D. H. 
Lee for South India. 

The General Conference of 1876 had pro- 
vided for two Annual Conferences in Hindu- 
stan. . One, to be caded the North India Con- 
ference, was to embrace the old mission field; 
and the other, the South India Conference, 
to embrace the work under the superintend- 
ency of William Taylor. The South India 
Conference was organized at Bombay, Novem- 
ber 9, 1876, by Bishop Andrews. The thir- 
teenth session of the North India Conference 
was held January 3, 1877, by Bishop Andrews 
at Moradabad. 

Rev. William Taylor came to India in an- 
swer to an invitation written by Dr. Thoburn 
in behalf of all the missionaries. He reached 
Calcutta November 20, 1870. Ten days later 
he was welcomed in Lucknow by the missioii- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 565 

aries, and at once began to preach in the mis- 
sion chapel, with Joel Janvier as his interpreter. 
Services were held for three weeks, and more 
than a hundred presented themselves as seek- 
ers of religion. December 18 he began a 
meeting at the Union Chapel at Cawnpore, as- 
sisted by George Myall, a native preacher. 
The w^ork was interrupted by the holidays, and 
Mr. Taylor resorted to private houses and the 
bazaars. He next visited Seeapore, Shahje- 
hanpore, Bareilly, Budaon, Amroha, and Mor- 
adabad. He stirred up the native helpers, 
gathered some fruit, but had no general reviv- 
al. In October, 1871, he visited Ahmednug- 
ger, to attend, at the request of the missiona- 
ries of the American Board, their annual meet- 
ing. His preaching met some success. On 
November 12 he began Mahratti services in 
the chapel of the American Board at Bombay, 
followed by English services at Institution 
Hall. His methods were severely criticised 
by the ministers and Churches of Bombay. 
This absence of sympathy with his movements 
caused him to consider the importance of or- 
ganizing the converts under his ministry into 
societies within and around the churches after 
the manner of Mr. Wesley. He accordingly 
formed his followers into " Fellowship Bands." 

566 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

It soon became evident that a more permanent 
organization was needed. A petition signed 
by eighty-three of the converts urged him to 
organize a Methodist Episcopal Church in 
Bombay. With this he complied, publishing 
to the world that he did it only to take care of 
such souls as God had given him, not con- 
nected with any other Church. His labors 
had reached the Eurasians, a class in India 
who are of European and native parentage. 
They number about 150,000. They are in mil- 
itary and civil service, while many are teach- 
ers, contractors, clerks, merchants, and me- 
chanics. Owing to their mixed parentage, 
they labor under a sense of isolation and have 
shared but slightly in the evangelical labors 
in India. The earnest and striking style of 
Mr. Taylor had arrested their attention, and 
they answered his appeals as they had an- 
swered no other missionary. In addition to 
this class, a number of Hindoos, Mohammed- 
ans, and Parsees were attracted by his way 
of presenting the gospel. Among his adher- 
ents were several who, in their native lan- 
guage, commenced the work of evangelists 
among their people. Several preached in 
Mahratti, and several in Madras preached in 
Tamil. In July, 1872, he went from Bombay to 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 567 

Pooiia. In September a Chnrcli was organ- 
ized with thirty-seven members. This Church 
soon numbered one hundred. Out of this 
Church sprang a Church at Lanowlee, and an- 
other at Kurrachee. Boon Mr. Taylor needed 
helpers. The first was Mr. James Shaw, a 
Bible reader in the army. Then Rev. George 
Bowen, who had gone out as a missionary of 
the American Board, identified himself with 
the movement. In November, 1872, Rev. W. 

E. Robbins came out from the United States 
at his own expense to help in this revival 
work. Revs. D. O. Fox and A. Norton were 
sent out by the mission authorities for the re- 
lief of Mr. Taylor. In 1873 C. W. Christian, 
from the Bombay bank, and W. T. G. Curties 
and G. K. Gilder gave up good positions in 
the telegraph office and engaged in the work. 
In 1874 Revs. C. P. Hard, J. E. Robinson, and 

F. A. Goodwin were sent out by the Mission- 
ary Society. Part of this expense was paid 
by Mr. Taylor, who was in the United States 
lecturing and selling his books to raise the 

In December, 1873, Bishop Harris, after 
full discussion with Mr. Taylor, and with his 
consent, brought his mission into organic re- 
lations with the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

568 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

Mr. Taylor was appointed superintendent of 
the work he had organized, and he and the 
other preachers became members of the India 
Conference, from which they were appointed 
as missionaries to the field. None of the pe- 
culiarities of the mission were changed by 
this arrangement. This mission had then 
about ten preachers and five hundred members 
scattered through Bombay, Bengal, Central 
India, and the Deccan. At the Conference 
held at Lucknow the appointments of the 
South India Conference were as follows: 
Bombay and Bengal Mission, William Tay- 
lor, Superintendent; Bombay, George Bowen, 
W. E. Bobbins, James Shaw; the Deccan 
(Poona, Lanowlee, Deksal, etc.), D. O. Fox; 
Central India, A. Norton, G. K. Gilder; Ben- 
gal (Calcutta), J. M. Thoburn, C. W. Chris- 
tian, C. R. Jeffries. 

The work went on with increasing vigor. In 
1875 Revs. M. H. Nichols, J. Blackstock, F. 
G. Davis, W. E. Newlon, and D. H. Lee were 
sent out; and in 1876 Revs. I. F. Row, L. R. 
Janney, and C. B. Ward arrived at Mr. Tay- 
lor's cost. Thomas H. Oakes joined the mis- 
sion at Calcutta. P. M. Mukerji, an educated 
Brahmin, united with the movement, as did 
also B. Peters, at Madras. The converts were 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 569 

taught that it was their duty ever to be boldly 
witnessing for Christ. In Hyderabad, under 
the labors of Mr. Shaw, the work was devel- 
oped so rapidly that Mr. Bowen went there 
and organized a Methodist Episcopal Church. 
In a few months it had over a hundred mem- 
bers. About the same time Mr. Taylor went 
to Madras three hundred and forty had con- 
nected themselves with the Church. At a 
meeting held at Bangalore one hundred joined 
the Church. 

Under the labors of Mr. Taylor a class had 
been organized in Calcutta. The first Quar- 
terly Conference was organized September 4, 
1873, when it was determined to build a tem- 
porary tabernacle in a rented lot in Zigzag 
Lane, in a thickly populated part of the city. 
On the 9th of November the place of worship 
was opened. Many were converted, and a si- 
lent but deep interest was awakened in the 
city. In the meantime the foundation of a 
new brick church had been laid at a central 
point in the city. The generous gift of $5,000 
by Kev. George Bowen made the erection of 
the building possible for the struggling but 
devoted little Church. In 1874 Eev. J. M. 
Thoburn was transferred from North India to 
Calcutta. He preached his first sermon to a 

670 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

congregation of about sixty souls. Souls were 
converted. On the completion of the new 
church over four hundred persons attended 
the dedication service. These subscribed suf- 
ficient to free the building of debt. A gra- 
cious revival began. About three hundred 
professed conversion during the first six 
months, and a deep religious feeling extended 
through the city. The work continued 
through the hot season. Souls were saved at 
nearly every service, and class meetings flour- 
ished. When cool weather came on it was de- 
cided to rent the theater for Sunday evening- 
services. It held about fourteen hundred, and 
its seats were filled. Among the listeners 
many educated Hindoo gentlemen were found. 
The house was unfit for service in hot weath- 
er, and the congregation was transferred to 
the chapel. It was decided to build a house 
that would meet the progress of the work. 
An appeal was made to the congregation in 
the theater, and their response justified the 

The collection of funds was continued until 
enough was secured to purchase the lot and 
commence the work. On January 1, 1877, the 
congregation moved into a plain but substan- 
tial building capable of seating two thousand. 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 571 

The financial statement at the dedication 
announced that the building and lot had cost 
$38,000, of which about $19,000 had been paid. 
A call was made for the remaining $19,000. 
It was promptly subscribed. 

A remarkable work had been commenced by 
Mr. Taylor among the Siamese. In 1875 Kev. 
T. H. Oakes was placed in charge. He visit- 
ed their boarding house in Bow Bazaar, and 
also the shipping. Some of the ladies of the 
Church engaged in this work. They led many 
from the streets and grogshops into the sanc- 
tuary, where the earnest preaching of Dr. 
Thoburn led them to Christ. Several cap- 
tains offered their ships for this service. In 
December, 1875, the Seamen's Methodist 
Episcopal Church, of Calcutta, was organized. 
A large building was rented at a cost of $2,400 
a year, and made the headquarters for this 
mission, with a hall for public worship, a 
home for the missionary, a reading room, cof- 
fee room, and apartments for boarders When- 
ever it was possible a class was organized on 
the ships in which the converts sailed, so that 
services were continued when at sea. Up- 
wards of fifty vessels were soon on the ocean 
carrying praying bands made up of converts 
from the Calcutta Seamen's Bethel. 

572 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

November 9, 1876, Bishop Andrews organ- 
ized the Bombay, Bengal, and Madras Mis- 
sion into the South India Annual Conference. 
It opened with fifteen members, one of whom 
was a transfer from the North India Confer- 
ence, two were from the United States, with 
nine probationers. The Conference was di- 
vided into the Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras 
Districts. In 1878 the Conference reported 
one thousand two hundred and seventy-five 
members and four hundred and forty-six pro- 

The value of the theological school at Ba- 
reilly became more apparent every year. In 
1880 it reported twenty-ane under instruction. 
Of these, thirteen were to graduate after a 
course of three years' instruction. The wives 
of three students were regularly trained in a 
class, and bid fair to helj) in the work of their 
husbands. While in the school the students 
preached extensively. They worked in bands 
in the city during the hot season, and among 
the villages in cool weather. As evidence of 
the stability of the native Christians Kev. J. 
H. Hill, missionary at Gurwhal, said that, of 
the two hundred and ninety baptisms since that 
mission was opened in 1866, he was " aware of 
but three persons who could now be called 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 673 

useless wanderers." At Lucknow the evan- 
gelistic work was greatly assisted by a magic 
lantern. Explaining tlie pictures, singing, and 
preacliing, they were able to bring the truth 
very near the people. In portions of the work 
there was a marked willingness on the part of 
both Hindoo and Mussulman to listen to 
preacliing. The work in South India among 
the Euglish-speaking people, Eurasians, and 
natives made steady advance. The Sunday 
school of North India was one of its marked 
features. In 1891 the scholars numbered 
eleven thousand nine hundred and six. Spe- 
cial mention is made of the lecturing tours of 
Ran Chanda Bose, whose visit to the United 
States made a deep impression. Especially in 
Calcutta his lectures and preaching awakened 
great interest among his educated country- 
men. Among the apx^ointments of the North 
India Conference we find the name of Zahur- 
ul-Huqq, i:)residing elder. He was the first 
native to hold that ofiice in India. 

The work of the South India Conference, 
which was now closing the fifth year of its 
history, was able to present encouraging re- 
sults. Its object was to use the small settle- 
ments of Europeans and Eurasians in the large 
cities of India as centers of operation among 

574 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

the heathen and Mohammedan populations. 
The work presented formidable difficulties, 
yet promised important results. The antipa- 
thies of religious faith and the barriers of 
caste were in the way. Owing to constant 
changes in residence every Church had to re- 
new itself about every seven years. Yet they 
had gathered fruit. It had extended its oper- 
ations to Burmah and among the Telugus. 

The year 1883 was signalized by the meeting 
of the great Decennial Conference of the mis- 
sionaries in India. Their reports showed an 
increase in members from ninety-one thou- 
sand and ninety-two in 1851 to four hundred 
and seventeen thousand three hundred and 

In 1886, under authority granted by the 
General Conference, Bishop Ninde divided 
the South India Conference into two Annual 
Conferences, one retaining the original name, 
and the other to be styled the Bengal Confer- 
ence. The former embraced Bombay on the 
west and Madras on the east, with nearly all 
the territory of the peninsula proper, a part of 
Central India, and a part of Sindh at the 
mouth of the Indus. The whole Conference 
was embraced in the Bombay and Madras 
Pistricts. The Bengal Conference embraced 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 575 

the Calcutta, Allahabad, Ajmeer, and Burmah 

During the visit of Bishop Ninde in 1887 
the boundaries of the North India Conference 
were extended so as to include nearly all the 
territory of the northwest provinces of India, 
embracing a population of about thirty mil- 

The India Mission made a grand report in 
1888. In the North India Conference there 
were over two thousand conversions. The 
three Conferences reported four thousand and 
sixty-five members and four thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-two probationers. The 
number on trial exhibits wonderful vitality. 
During this year Eev. J. M. Thoburn, D.D., 
was elected missionary bishop. His field em- 
braced the Indian Empire and Malaysia. 

In 1889 the mission appears under the name 
of India and Malaysia. In his report to the 
board Bishop Thoburn exhibited the magni- 
tude of the field. The North India Confer- 
ence contained a population of forty-three 
million. It included Oude, the northwest 
provinces, and the upper Ganges, and em- 
braced the chief seats of ancient Hindooism, 
and where probably its death struggle will be 
witnessed. He reported the work well organ- 

576 Hand Booh of Methodist Missions. 

ized. A feature of special interest was the 
fact that a large body of youths of both sexes 
had been gathered into schools, from whom 
they expected in a few years to double their 
ministerial force. The South India Confer- 
ence contained eighty-one million souls, and 
the Bengal Conference one hundred and twen- 
ty million. To the southeast, Burmah, with 
people of a different race and religion, was oc- 
cupied; and farther east was the newly opened 
field of Malaysia. 

The reports from North India were full of 
encouragement. In the Eohilcund District 
over two thousand six hundred baptisms were 
reported. The publishing interests of the 
Conference were pushed with vigor. During 
the year twenty-five million seven hundred and 
ninety-nine thousand seven hundred and fifty 
pages were printed. Through the itinerant 
system many villages on their large circuits 
were constantly reached by evangelical agen- 
cies. These villages were rapidly being de- 
veloped into the centers of circuits and the 
circuits into districts. Educational agencies 
were pouring out constantly a stream of evan- 
gelical forces. The Bareilly Theological In- 
stitute had sent out one hundred and thirteen 
theological graduates. The net increase in 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 577 

membership was one thousand one hundred 
and ninety-six. 

The Malaysia Mission was opened in 1885. 
Its first annual meeting was held by Bishop 
Thoburn April 29, 1889. The work embraced 
an English mission and missions among the 
Chinese, the Malays, and the Tamils. The 
Woman's Society had an efficient lady repre- 
sentative, with seven native assistants. The re- 
port showed in the mission five missionaries, 
three assistants, four native unordained 
preachers, eighty members, and twenty-seven 

In 1890 Eev. A. J. Maxwell, agent of the 
Lucknow Publishing House, died of cholera. 
This was the first death of a male missionary 
in over thirty years. There was much sick- 
ness, but the year was one of success. There 
were three thousand six hundred and four in 
the North India Conference, and a net increase 
of one thousand and twenty-nine members. 
The probationers numbered seven thousand 
four hundred and sixty-three. This would in- 
dicate a steady revival. There was a net in- 
crease of eighteen in Malaysia. 

December 21, 1891, Bishop Thoburn wrote 
from the field : *' When in America last year I 
stated that five hundred heathens were com- 

578 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ing over to Cliristianity in our mission every 
month. The statistics showed that I was one 
hundred below the mark. Returning to India, 
I reported that ten thousand souls were ready 
to receive baptism if we could reach them. 
The baptisms thus far exceed sixteen thou- 
sand, and the final summing up may show 
eighteen thousand; and now as we near the 
threshold of another year we are confronted 
by twenty thousand heathen as ready for the 
gospel as were the ten thousand a year ago." 

The report of 1891 gives us the following 
for India and Malaysia: Ordained missiona- 
ries, 30; assistants, 69, native ordained, 54; 
native unordained, 477; members, 7,951; pro- 
bationers, 9,403. 

In 1872 Rev. William Butler, D.D., who 
had planted the mission of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in India, was chosen by 
Bishop Simpson to establish a mission in the 
Republic of Mexico. He arrived in the City 
of Mexico February 23, 1873. Bishop Haven 
had reached the city some three weeks earlier, 
and had visited Puebla, laying his plans for 
the mission to be established. Dr. Butler 
had funds at his command which enabled him 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 579 

to secure a valuable part of the Monastery of 
San Francisco, in the City of Mexico. It had 
been confiscated by the government and sold 
to a theater company. It was known as " The 
Circus of Charinie." It is said that this 
property stands on the ground occupied by 
the palace of Montezuma. It is now the home 
of the missionary, with a large chapel, a large 
female school connected with it, and a well- 
appointed publishing house. In Puebla the 
property secured and transformed into chapel 
and home for the Protestant missionary was 
a part of the Komish inquisition. When 
this property was secularized and streets 
opened through its massive walls cells were 
found containing the bodies of victims who 
had been walled up in cells to die of starva- 

March 13 Eev. Thomas Carter and family 
reached Mexico. Being familiar with the 
Spanish language, he commenced divine serv- 
ices and a day school in a house in Calle de 
Lopez, City of Mexico. The Superintendent 
visited Pacliuca, in the State of Hidalgo, 
where he found a small Mexican congregation 
which had been gathered by a native physi- 
cian, Marcelino Guerrero. On April 25 Eng- 
lish service was commenced in the Chapel of 

580 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

San Andres, the property of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. It had been loaned 
to the mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church by Bishop Keener until the mission- 
ary he had appointed could reach Mexico. 

At the close of the first quarter four Mexi- 
can congregations were reported, with an at- 
tedance of 130 Mexicans and 105 English. At 
the close of 1873 Dr. Cooper, of the Episco- 
pal Church, who had spent several years in 
Spain and had been sent to Mexico by the 
American and Foreign Union for Spanish 
work, united his congregation with that of the 
mission and began work with it. 

Early in 1874 Mr. Carter returned home. 
The Superintendent, with Dr. Cooper, who 
was in feeble health, and two native preach- 
ers, continued the work, but calls that came 
from various parts of the country made the 
need of an increased force imperative. May 
9 Kev. C. W. Drees and Eev. John W. But- 
ler reached the field. In January, 1875, Mr. 
Drees opened work in Puebla. He was ac- 
companied by Eev. C. Ludlow, a local preach- 
er and practical builder, who had charge of 
refitting the buildings for mission purposes. 
While the chapel was being prepared services 
were held in a schoolroom and the public in- 

Missions of the M. E. . Church. 581 

vited. On the first day a mob filled the 
street. A shower dispersed the crowd. Soon 
the little schoolroom was packed with hear- 
ers. August 15, 1875, the chapel was dedi- 
cated with a congregation present of over 150. 
The names of 16 probationers were enrolled. 
During these early years the converts and 
congregation encountered violent abuse and 
frequent acts of violence. These trials dem- 
onstrated the fidelity of the members. 

A station was planted at Miraflores in 
1875. A congregation was gathered. A de- 
voted Christian lady, at her death, arranged 
that $500 should be given to build a church, 
and her husband added a piece of ground. 
Every member contributed something, and a 
handsome church (said to be the first regular 
Protestant church erected in Mexico) was 
built. It was dedicated by Bishop Merrill in 

The health of Dr. Cooper requiring a mild- 
er climate, he was assigned to Orizaba, where 
he opened services in the upper story of an 
old convent. He was insulted and stoned in 
the street, but he labored on until his health 
gave way and he returned home. In 1876 
Rev. S. P. Craver and S. W. Siberts were sent 
to Mexico. On the 9th of February Mr. Si- 

582 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

berts and his wife opened work in the city of 
Guanajuato. The superintendent and mis- 
sionary called on the Governor and repre- 
sented the object and methods of their work. 
He responded cordially. The distribution of 
tracts aroused the clergy. The bishop issued 
an edict denouncing the Protestants and their 
work. Some hostilities were displayed. The 
colporter was attacked and followed to the 
mission house. About 8 o'clock in the even- 
ing the doors and windows were assailed with 
stones, when an order from the Governor 
compelled the police to disperse the mob. In 
1877 ten members were received into the 

In 1879, after seeing the mission well es- 
tablished. Dr. Butler retired from the field. 
In 1880 Superintendent Drees reported a con- 
siderable increase in the working force of the 
mission, a rapid growth in membership, an 
increase of twenty-five per cent, in average at- 
tendance on public worship, large additions to 
the Sunday schools, the acquisition of three 
new places of worship and two parsonages. 
On Sunday, April 30, 1881, Eev. A. W. Green- 
man and his wife, with Senor Cardozo, the na- 
tive preacher at Queretaro, were assaulted by 
a mob of over two thousand people. The lo- 

Missions of the 31. E. Church. 583 

cal authorities professed themselves unable to 
protect them, and the missionaries took ref- 
uge in the city of Mexico. The general gov- 
ernment promptly interposed, and they re- 
turned to their post in July and resumed their 
work. The native preacher at Silao, Senor 
Mendoza, was threatened and his house at- 
tacked. Epigminio Monroy, the native preach- 
er at Apizaco, was murdered. He was on his 
way to an appointment named Santa Amta 
when he was assailed, and he died a few days 
after. One of his companions was mortally 
wounded at the same time. Rev. D. Kemble 
and wife went out to the mission this year. 
The completion of the new hymn and tune 
book greatly promoted the interest of the 
work. The mission press, under the supervis- 
ion of Bev. J. W. Butler, was increasingly 
important. El Abogado Cristiano Ilustrado 
had a circulation of two thousand five hun- 

In 1883 the bishop of Queretaro issued a 
pastoral designed, like that of 1881, to inflame 
the people. The mission was again stoned by 
a mob, but the troops promptly cleared the 
streets. The value of the theological school 
was manifest in the superior character and ef- 
ficiency of the native preachers. They are 

584 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

now the chief evangelical agency in the mis- 

In 1884 C. W. Drees was Superintendent 
and Treasurer; J. W. Butler, Publishing 
Agent; and S. W. Sebirts, President of the 
Theological School. The year was marked by 
violent persecution at certain points. Broth- 
er Gamboa, of Queretaro Circuit, while on 
his way to an appointment, was shot and dan- 
gerously wounded, and his chapel keeper was 
killed. An attempt was made to lasso Broth- 
er Montes, a colporter in the State of Vera 
Cruz, and drag him with horses over the stony 
road, but he escaped in the thicket and re- 
mained in the mountains all night. But the 
work prospered. 

The mission was erected into a Conference 
in 1885. It was embraced under one district, 
with C. W. Drees presiding elder. The in- 
crease of members was one hundred and sev- 
enteen. In 1886 the work was divided into 
the Central, Northern, and Eastern Districts. 

There was a manifest movement in the line 
of self-support, always a healthy indication in 
the mission field. During this year Eev. C. 
W. Drees was transferred to the South Amer- 
ican Mission. 

In 1890 the work was divided into four dis- 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 585 

tricts, with one hundred and twenty-five ap- 
pointments. The mission force embraced 10 
foreign missionaries, 8 assistants, with 9 la- 
dies of the Woman's Society, 13 ordained and 
38 unordained preachers, 1,404 members, and 
1,261 probationers. Estimated value, in Mex- 
ican currency, of churches and chapels, 182,- 
575; parsonages or "homes," $110,925; or- 
phanages, schools, hospitals, book rooms, etc., 
$111,490. Total, $304,988. 

The General Committee in November, 1872, 
authorized tlie establishment of the Japan 
Mission. Eev. R. S. Maclay, of the China 
Mission, was appointed Superintendent, and 
Eevs. J. C. Davison, Julius Soper, and M. C. 
Harris, missionaries. Dr. Maclay and family 
reached Yokohama June 11, 1873. Bishop 
Harris reached Yokohama July 9. Rev. Ir- 
vin Correll and wife, on their way to China, 
were detained by the sickness of Mrs. Correll 
at Yokohama, and, after obtaining medical ad- 
vice, the bishop transferred them to the Ja- 
pan Mission. On August 8 Messrs. Davison 
and Soper and their wives reached Yokohama. 
Bishop Harris remained five weeks, engaged 

586 Rand Book of Methodist Missions. 

in laying the foundations of the mission. On 
the evening of August 8 Bishop Harris ar- 
ranged the work as follows: Superintendent, 
E;. S. Maclay, residence at Yokohama; Yoko- 
hama, I. H. Correll; Tokio, Julius Soper; Ha- 
kodati, M. C. Harris; Nagasaki, J. C. Davi- 

The missionaries made rapid progress in the 
language, at the same time organizing Bible 
classes and Sunday schools, and presenting 
the gospel to all with whom they came in con- 
tact. The first annual meeting was held at 
Yokohama June 27, 1874. They united in an 
earnest appeal for more missionaries, and ar- 
ranged for an early translation of the Disci- 
pline, Catechism, and other religious literature 
needed in mission work. As they mastered 
the language during their second year they 
began public preaching while their Bible work 
and Sunday schools were enlarged. During 
the year Rev. John Ing, who had been con- 
nected with the China Mission, began work in 
Hirosaki, Japan. The first converts, Mr. and 
Mrs. Kichi, were baptized by Mr. Correll Octo- 
ber 4, 1874, in his house in Yokohama. On 
January 14 a lot was secured in Yokohama for 
the use of the mission. Miss Dora Schoon- 
maker, of the Woman's Missionary Society, 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 587 

reached Tokio and began work November 6. 
On January 3, 1875, Mr. Soper baptized, in 
Tokio, two converts, Mr. and Mrs. Tsuda. On 
this occasion the Lord's Supper was adminis- 
tered for the first time in the mission in the 
Japanese language. Mr. Soper commenced 
holding services outside the Foreign Conces- 
sion in a portion of Tokio called Kanda. In 
Yokohama the mission secured its first church 
edifice by purchasing a partly completed 
building. At Hakodati Mr. and Mrs. Harris 
conducted a Bible class with encouraging re- 
sults. The government donated the mission 
an eligible lot on which it built a substantial 
mission house. 

In Nagasaki Mr. and Mrs. Davison en- 
countered the hostility which had been en- 
gendered two hundred and fifty years ago 
when the political intrigues of the Jesuits ar- 
rayed the government against Christianity. 
The missionaries devoted themselves to the 
work of their mission amid many difficulties, 
and were encouraged by the application of 
two persons for baptism. In Hirosaki Mr. 
and Mrs. Ing were cheered by the work among 
their pupils, and June 5, 1875, fourteen young 
men, all students but one, were baptized by 
Mr. Ing in their dwelling. Eight others were 

588 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

to have been baptized, but it was deferred for 
a time on account of the opposition of their 
parents. In the afternoon eighteen met 
around the Lord's table. 

The second annual meeting was held in the 
Bluff Churchy Yokohama, July 5, 1875. It 
had been recently opened for service. The re- 
ports were cheering. A more formal organiza- 
tion of the mission according to the rules of 
the Church, and the introduction of Quarterly 
Conferences were agreed upon. Dr. Maclay 
was devoting much time to the translation of 
the Bible in cooperation with the committee 
engaged in that important work. The third 
annual meeting was held at Yokohama June 
30, 1876. The principal events of the year 
were the erection of a handsome mission 
chapel in Tokio; of a home in Tokio by the 
Woman's Missionary Society; the commence- 
ment of mission out stations; the preparation 
by Mr. Davison of a Japanese hymnal; the 
initiation of a course of study for the native 
helpers; the removal to a new site of the 
Bluff Church at Yokohama, and the recom- 
mendation of ten native helpers connected 
with the mission for admission on trial into 
Annual Conferences in the United States. 
On September 20 Miss Olive Whiting arrived 

Missions of the M. E. Chuixh. 589 

in Tokio to assist Miss Sclioonmaker in the 
work of the Woman's Foreign Missionary So- 

The fourth annual meeting was held in the 
new mission chapel in Tokio beginning July 
10, 1877. After careful examination nine na- 
tive helpers were recommended for admission 
on trial in Annual Conferences in the United 
States. A resolution was adopted urging upon 
the Board the importance of the immediate 
establishment in Yokohama of a mission 
training school. 

February 7, 1878, Bishop Wiley arrived at 
Yokohama and remained in the mission until 
April 6. His experience as a missionary in 
China rendered his counsel of rare value to 
every department of the work. He visited all 
its leading stations, ordaining the native 

In 1880 the mission embraced four leading- 
stations, with twenty-one appointments. In 
1882 Kevs. C. W. Green and W. C. Kitchin 
and their wives and Eev. J. Blackledge joined 
the mission. In January of this year Rev. J, 
F. Goucher proposed, in view of organizing, 
under the auspices of the mission, an Anglo- 
Japanese University at Tokio, to give $5,000 
toward the purchase of a proper site, $800 per 

590 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

annum for ^ye years toward the salary of an 
American professor, and $400 for the salary 
of a Japanese professor. To further the pro- 
posal action was taken to remove the theolog- 
ical and training school from Yokohama to 
Tokio, and steps for the organization of the 
university adopted. The headquarters of the 
mission were transferred to Tokio. 

A remarkable visitation of the Holy Spirit 
came on the mission in 1883. The native min- 
istry was raised to a higher plane of spiritual 
life, the foreign missionaries greatly inspired, 
and the hearts of Christians in America pro- 
foundly stirred. In 1884 the mission was or- 
ganized into an Annual Conference. It had 
a missionary force of 13 ordained missiona- 
ries, 11 assistants, and 10 ladies of the Wom- 
an's Society. The work was divided into the 
East Tokio, West Tokio, North Tokio, Yoko- 
hama, North Yokohama, Nagasaki, Yezo, and 
North Honda Districts. The net increase of 
members in 1885 was three hundred and 
eighty-nine. The Philander Smith Institute 
and Anglo-Japanese College were doing ef- 
ficient service. In 1891 the mission report- 
ed 21 foreign missionaries; 19 assistants; 25 
ladies of the Woman's Society; 27 native or- 
dained and 58 unordained preachers, with 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 591 

3,061 members and 644 probationers; 2 theo- 
logical schools with 10 teachers and 32 stu- 
dents, 10 high schools and 91 teachers. Esti- 
mated value of churches and chapels, $31,164; 
parsonages or homes, $45,600; orphanages, 
schools, hospitals, and book rooms, $107,200. 
Total, $183,964. 


In order to open a mission in Corea the 
General Committee, in 1883, added $5,000 to 
the Japan appropriation. Of this, $2,000 was 
to be a special donation from Eev. J. F. Gouch- 
er. In 1884 Dr. Maclay visited Corea to de- 
termine the outlook. He reached Seoul, the 
capital of Corea, June 24. A paper setting 
forth the design of the Christian missionaries 
was cordially received by the king, who 
granted permission to open work, especially 
medical and school work, so long as it was 
Protestant. He had learned the difference 
between Protestantism and Komanism. Eev. 
W. B. Scranton, M.D., and Eev. H. G. Appen- 
zeller, their wives, and Mrs. Mary F. Scranton, 
the mother of Dr. Scranton, were appointed 
to the mission by the Woman's Foreign Mis- 
sionary Society. 

When the mission party reached Japan, 

592 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

February 27, 1885, they found Corea in the 
midst of political commotion. Both China 
and Japan claimed the country and had an 
armed force in the capital. A collision had 
occurred in which a number of the Chinese 
party were killed. The missionaries were ad- 
vised by many not to enter the country. Dr. 
Stanton, unattended by his family, reached 
Seoul in May. He succeeded in purchasing 
a native house in a good locality, and in due 
time his family, his mother, and Mr. Appen- 
zeller and wife reached the field and purchased 
property adjoining that already secured for 
the hospital. On the arrival of his medicine 
and surgical instruments, Dr. Scranton opened 
his hospital and soon had work. The king 
was notified of their presence and operations, 
and expressed himself kindly respecting their 
work. We find in the report for 1886 the fol- 
lowing statistics: Foreign missionaries, 2; 
assistant missionaries, 2; missionary of the 
Woman's Society, 1 ; probationer, 1; adher- 
ents, 100; conversion, 1; adult baptized, 1; 
Sunday school, 1; pupils, 30. 

The missionaries had been diligent in ac- 
quiring the language. The catechism was 
translated and Mr. Appenzeller was at work 
on other books and tracts. The mission of 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 593 

the Woman's Society had secured property, 
but were discouraged by news from home that 
no extra appropriation had been made for the 
house. Prayer for help was offered and soon 
the word came that a generous donation of 
$3,000, by Mrs. Blackstone, and a gift from 
the New York Branch of $300 had supplied 
their need. The house for teachers, and 
women who would come for instruction, 88 
feet long and 80 feet wide, was soon in course 
of erection. 

In 1887 Kev. F. Ohlinger and wife. Miss 
Louisa C. Eothweiler, and Rev. G. H. Jones 
were appointed to the mission. Bishop War- 
ren visited Corea in September. We give an 
interesting extract from his account of the 

I asked a catechumen who desired baptism if his 
heart really glowed with love to Christ as his personal 
Saviour? A kind of sunrise came over his face as he 
answered : " If I did not love Christ, why should I de- 
sire to be baptized and to join the Church my people 
despise?" I went on: ''But the Corean laws against 
the Christian religion are not yet repealed, and may 
yet be executed, involving all professed Christians in 
death. Are you ready for that? " " I do not know," 
said he, "but if peril and death do come, I believe 
Christ will be with me and support me to the end." I 
then baptized him.* 


594 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

We dedicated the first building ever erected in Co- 
rea for educating men on Christian principles. It is 
76 by 52 feet. The king sent us a name, Pai TjoA Hak 
Dang, "The institute for making useful men." Broth- 
er Appenzeller, the superintendent, is Principal. He 
has three assistants. 

Dr. Scranton has a hospital and dispensaries. His 
first patient he picked up in the fields, where she was 
carried away to die alone. He greatly desires to estab- 
lish a hospital at the East Gate for the sick that are 
carried thence to die in the fields. The W. F. M. S. 
has a school under the care of Mrs. Scranton, mother 
of the doctor. The queen sent it a name, I Hoa Hak 
Dang, "The pear blossom institute." The pear blos- 
som is to the Coreans what the chrysanthemum is to 
the Japanese, the fleur de lis to France, and the red rose 
to the house of Lancaster. 

The report of the superintendent tells of 
the conversion of two native students who 
joined as probationers. They were his first 
baptisms. Evangelistic work as yet was con- 
ducted under restrictions. Though the king 
and his party favored opening the land to the 
influence of "Western civilization, there was no 
religious liberty in Corea. The people had 
not forgotten the persecution of the Catholics 
in 1866. Yet the good seed was being sown. 
A Corean called on Mr. Appenzeller and told 
him he was a Christian. He had been a col- 
porter under the directions of Revs. Boss 

Missions of the M. E. Church. 595 

and Mclntyre in their work on the borders of 
China and Corea. He was employed as col- 
porter, and began the distribution of the gos- 
pel of Mark and the catechism. He was beat- 
en twice, but rejoiced that, in the midst of 
reproach, it was his privilege to bear the gos- 
pel to his countrymen. He said there were 
many believers in the Ping province waiting 
for a missionary to come and baptize them 
and organize a Church. A small house was 
bought for a chapel in September. On Octo- 
ber 5 the missionary held his first service 
with four, besides himself, present. The next 
Sunday he baptized the colporter's wife. In 
April and May Mr. Appenzeller visited Ping 
Yang, the capitol of the northwestern prov- 
ince of the same name. Ground had been 
broken here by colporters sent out Rev. Mr. 
Ross from Mukden, in China, 200 miles from 
the border of Corea. Volunteers were needed 
for this region, but the pioneer missionary 
says the man who enters this promising field 
must be prepared for many hardships. In 
the fall of 1887 we sent out two colporters to 
travel in the northwest part of the peninsula. 
One was robbed by highw^aymen, but found a 
few who listened to his words. The other was 
arrested and kept three days in a cold, damp 

596 Hand Book of Methodist Missions, 

prison, and then brought before a magistrate 
who heard the charges and promptly dis- 
charged him. 

In the spring of 1888, with Eev. H. G. Un- 
derwood, of the Presbyterian Mission, Mr. 
Appenzeller visited the north of Corea, selling 
medicines, books, and tracts. They were re- 
ceived cordially, but in about two weeks they 
received a letter from the United States Min- 
ister in Seoul recalling them. He had a mes- 
sage from the king objecting to their work of 
disseminating the doctrines of the Christian 
religion. Their acquiescence to the king's 
request favorably impressed the government. 

The work among the women, under the ef- 
ficient direction of Mrs. M. F. Scranton, kept 
pace with other departments of the mission. 
Eighteen girls were living at the home. Eeg- 
ular meetings for religious instruction were 
held. Two Bible women were constantly em- 
ployed, and their reports were cheering. On 
one occasion fifty were present at the Sunday 
evening meeting. Four women were baptized 
and a number were awaiting the ordinance. 
Miss Eothweiler and Miss Dr. Howard arrived 
in October, 1888. Miss Eothweiler began 
work in the school, and Dr. Howard began 
^ork among the wom6n in Dr. Scranton's hos-. 

Missions of the M. E. Church, 597 

pital. Slie treated two thousand woman pa- 
tients during the year. 

Dr. Scranton encountered some trouble 
during the year. The obnoxious course of 
the Catholics caused a royal request through 
the several legations that all religious teach- 
ing should cease. The opposition awakened 
was not confined to the Catholics. It was ru- 
mored that foreigners kidnapped babies and 
ate them, using their eyes for medicine and 
photographic purposes. Threats to tear down 
the building were made, and the number of 
patients reduced, but the alarm soon passed 

In 1889 the mission was reenforced by the 
arrival of Dr. W. B. McGill, but was weak-, 
ened by the return home of Miss Howard. In 
1891 the mission reported 5 missionaries, 4 
assistants, 5 missionaries of the Woman's So- 
ciety, 1 native unordained preacher, 6 foreign 
teachers, 15 members, 58 probationers. No 
new work had been opened, but the work in 
hand had been healthfully developed. 

In the fall of 1890 Mr. Appenzeller com- 
menced meetings in Chang No, the center of 
the city, but met with little encouragement. 
In the spring he moved the bookstore to the 
main street, but the attendance at the meet- 

598 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

ings did not increase. The zeal of the native 
brethren compensated, in a measure, for this 
disappointment. They traveled through the 
country, held meetings, sold books and tracts 
at the markets and on the streets of Seoul and 
other towns, without remuneration. A work- 
ing native Church is the hope of every mis- 
sion field. The educational work continued 
to hold the chief place in the work. The stu- 
dents were required to work their way 
through school without financial aid. The 
influence of the medical mission in breaking 
down prejudice and securing the confidence of 
the people was of great value. It was estima- 
ted that in six years twenty thousand people 
had been reached. 

In the spring Mr. Appenzeller and a native 
helper made a trip to the Corean-Chinese 
boundary on the northwest. They visited over 
thirty large cities and districts, selling three 
hundred and twenty-nine copies of the Scrip- 
tures and Christian books and telling to many 
the gospel story. The people were accessible 
and friendly. The work in the large city of 
Piung Yank had suffered for want of attention 
and the removal of a part of the class. They 
were the guests of Mr. Cho, a military noble 
of the fifth class, an earnest Christian, and a 

Missions of the M. JS. Church. 599 

leader among his brethren. The missionary 
and his helper each preached three times. 
Five adults applied for baptism, and were re- 
ceived on six months' trial. They pushed be- 
yond one hundred and fifty miles to the fron- 
tier city of Wuchu, where he was welcomed 
by a little company of brethren who were ac- 
tive and rejoicing in the midst of many dis- 
couragements. Here also there were appli- 
cants for baptism. The native evangelist had 
been there in advance of the missionary. On 
his return to Seoul, a distance of three hun- 
dred and fifty miles, he made a detour to visit 
the city of Hai Chu, the capital of the Hoang- 
hai Province. It was new ground, where he 
hoped ere long to plant a mission. Referring 
to the moral condition of the regions he had 
visited, Mr. Appenzeller writes: " It is impos- 
sible to speak of the moral death of heathen- 
ism. A ride across a pagan country is like a 
plunge into darkness. It is a trite saying that 
* while we can measure only the visible out- 
come of human labor in the Master's vineyard, 
he takes cognizance of vast and eternal re- 
sults which lie beyond human vision.' To the 
worker in Corea, faith in this in pioneer days 
is precious." 

From the report of 1891 we glean the fol- 

600 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

lowing figures that mark the advance of this 
new and interesting mission: Foreign mis- 
sionaries, 5; assistant missionaries, 4; mission- 
aries of the Woman's Society, 3; native or- 
dained preacher, 1; members, 15; on trial, 58; 
pupils in high schools, 85; Sunday schools, 



Dr. GraceY; in his excellent Missionary 
Year Book, gives an account of a missionary- 
society in the Methodist Protestant Church 
" organized in Baltimore in 1870 by Miss Har- 
riet G. Britain, who had been several years in 
India in the service of the Woman's Union 
Missionary Society. It was originated as a 
joint home and foreign board, and so contin- 
ued until 1888, when a division was had by 
the separate organization of the home work." 
In 1888 the income of the Foreign Society was 
$20,000. It has work only in Japan, where it 
sustains three ordained male missionaries, six 
female missionaries, and four native workers. 
They have in Yokohama an Anglo-Japanese 
school, with 190 pupils; a girls' school, with 
95 pupils; a Sunday school, with 230 pupils. 
At Fujisawa they have 10 members and a 
mixed school, with 70 pupils. At Nagoya 


602 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

they have 62 members, a boys' school of 60 
pupils, and a girls' school of 26 pupils. 

The " Encyclopedia of Missions " gives an 
account of the organized work of the Metho- 
dist Protestant Church, which began in 1882. 
Prior to that date money for Foreign Missions 
was given to other boards at the direction of 
the pastor who secured it. Some of the mon- 
ey reached Japan, where Miss L. M. Guthrie 
was employed by the Woman's Union Mis- 
sionary Society, of New York. By this means 
Miss Guthrie learned of the Methodist Prot- 
estant Church. When in this country she 
had an interview with some ladies of the 
Church in Pittsburg, Pa., through whom she 
had received funds in Japan for her work. 
This led to the organization of the Woman's 
Board of the Methodist Protestant Church. 
Soon after the General Conference elected a 
Board of Missions. Kev. F. C. Klein was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the mission in Ja- 
pan. Kev. F. T. Tagg was elected Corre- 
sponding Secretary. He organized methods 
for the collection of funds, the Church became 
more interested in Missions, and the society 
has been able to send more workers to the 
field. In 1890 the Japan Mission reported 

Work of Other Methodist Bodies. 603 

350 Sunday school scholars and 203 mem- 


This society was organized in 1882. Its for- 
eign work was opened in 1887. A mission has 
been opened in Freetown, Sierra Leone, West 
Africa. It reports a membership .of three 
hundred, and an equal number of scholars in 
Sunday school. It has in the field 1 ordained 
and 4 lay missionaries, with 12 native assist- 
ants. The society is preparing to send out 
additional missionaries and extend the work 
out among the interior tribes who have ex- 
pressed the wish to receive teachers. 


This board opened mission work in Free- 
town, Sierra Leone, in 1886. Since then they 
have organized a mission in the interior on 
the Scarciesrim. The king of the country 
has given the missionaries ten acres of land, 
and a mission home which will seat 400 has 
been built. 

The Church is also carrying on mission 

604 Hand Book of Methodist Missions. 

work at Port au Prince, Hayti, San Domingo, 
and the Indian Territory. Its receipts from 
1884 to 1888 were $15,295. 

In 1890 it reported in Sierra Leone and 
Liberia 5 stations and out stations, 3 ordained 
missionaries, 4 lay missionaries, 3 native 
teachers, 207 members. 



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