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Full text of "The handbook of Palestine; edited by Harry Charles Luke and Edward Keith-Roach. With an introd. by Herbert Samuel"

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The Right Hon. SIR HERBERT SAMUEL, P.C., G.B.E. 


Issued under the Authority of 
the Gover?t?nent of Palestine 








The Handbook of Palestine has been written and printed 
during a period of transition in the administration of the 
country. While the book was in the press the Council of 
the League of Nations formally approved the conferment 
on Great Britain of the Mandate for Palestine ; and, 
consequent upon this act, a new constitution is to come 
into force, the nominated Advisory Council will be succeeded 
by a partly elected Legislative Council, and other changes 
in the direction of greater self-government, which had 
awaited the ratification of the Mandate, are becoming 
operative. Again, on the ist July, 1922, the adminis- 
trative divisions of the country were reorganized. The 
editors of the Handbook have endeavoured, to the best of 
their ability, to keep pace with these changes and to make 
the work as up-to-date as possible ; but, in view of the 
difficulties with which they have been faced in this con- 
nexion, they ask the indulgence of their readers if, at times, 
events have moved faster than the printer. 

They desire gratefully to acknowledge the assistance that 
has been so readily placed at their disposal. In the first 
place they wish to thank the High Commissioner for the 
encouragement he has given them in their task, and for 
being good enough to contribute the introduction to the 
volume. They are also indebted in general to Governors 
and Heads of Departments, and in particular to Sir Wynd- 
ham Deedes, Mr. Ronald Storrs, Mr. N. Bentwich, Mr. 
J. B. Barron, Mr. J. N. Stubbs, Mr. G. Blake and other 
officials too numerous to mention here, who have kindly 



supplied them with information regarding their particular 
spheres. Several members of the Administration have 
helped, too, in matters outside their departmental work, 
and a debt of gratitude is due in particular to Colonel 
E. R. Sawer, Director of Agriculture, to Dr. W. K. Biggar, 
Messrs. I. Aharoni, E. Rabinovitch, and P. A. Buxton for 
the sections on Natural History ; to Mr. E. T. Richmond 
for a valuable review of the Moslem architecture of 
Palestine, a task not previously attempted elsewhere ; to 
Professor Garstang and Mr. W. J. Phythian- Adams for 
several notes. To Colonel R. B. W. Holmes, General 
Manager, Palestine Railways, they owe permission to use 
the map which is attached to the volume. 

They are greatly indebted to Pere H. Vincent, O.P., of the 
Ecole de S. Etienne, for the review of the Christian archi- 
tecture of Palestine, and to Bishop Maclnnes and Canon 
H. Danby for the paragraphs respectively on the Anglican 
diocese and on Judaism in Palestine after 70 a.d. Dr. C. R. 
B. Eyre; Sub-Warden of the Hospital of the Order of S.John 
of Jerusalem, has kindly contributed the section on the 
postage stamps of Palestine, Lt. -Colonel H. Pirie-Gordon's 
Palestine Pocket Guide-books have been consulted with 
advantage ; and material help in connexion with the 
preparation of the volume for press has been received from 
Mr. A. G. Antippa of the Palestine Civil Service. 

irp. ml 

H. C. L. 
E. K.-R. 


September, 1922. 



Introduction .._----- xi 



§ I. Introductory ------- i 

§ 2. Geography and Scenery ----- 2 

§ 3. Palestine in Biblical Times _ - _ - 3 
§ 4. Palestine under Rome, Byzantium and the 

Arabs - - - - - - - - 12 

§ 5. The Crusades - - - - ^ - - - 15 

§ 6. Palestine under the Mamelukes and Turks - 21 

§ 7. Palestine under the British Mandate - - 24 



§ I. Race and Language ------ 32 

§ 2. Population - - - 32 

§ 3. Arabs and Syrians ------ 34 

§ 4. Circassians, Bosnians and Magharbeh - - 35 

§ 5. Islam in Palestine ------ 36 

§ 6. The Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem - 39 

§ 7. The Latin Church in Palestine - - - 41 




§ 8. The Uniate Churches ------ 43 

§ 9, The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem - 44 

§ 10. Jacobites, Copts and Abyssinians - - - 44 

§11. The Anglican Diocese of Jerusalem - - 45 

§ 12. The 'American Colony ' - - - - - 48 

§ 13. The German Templar Community - - - 48 

§ 14. The Jews - - -.- - - - - 49 

§ 15. The Jewish Colonies ------ 55 

§ 16. The Samaritans ------- ^6 

§ 17. Druses and Metawileh ----- 57 

§ 18. The Baha'is - - - - - - - - 58 



§ I. Archaeology and Art in Palestine - - - 60 

§ 2. Department of Antiquities - - - - 74 

§ 3. The Palestine Museum 75 

§ 4. Coins - ~ ' 77 

§ 5. The Southern Province ----- 80 

§ 6. Jerusalem and Jaffa Province - - - - 86 

§ 7. Samaria Province -_-_.. jqi 

§ 8. The Northern Province 104 



§ I. Palestine as a Tourist Resort- - - - no 

§ 2. Routes to Palestine - -- - - -113 

§ 3. Inland Communications - ' - - - - 115 

§ 4. Accommodation - - - - - - - 122 

§ 5. Books of Reference ------ 123 

§ 6. Mineral Springs of Palestine - - - - 125 



§ 7. Weights and Measures ----- 126 

§ 8. Table of Sunrise and Sunset in Palestine - 129 
§ 9. Festivals - - - - - - - -130 

§ 10. The Pro-Jerusalem Society . - _ - 131 



§ I. System of Administration - - - - - 133 

§ 2. Administration of Justice - - - - - 137 

§ 3. Finance, Currency and Banking - - - 144 
§ 4. Customs - - - - - - - -160 

§ 5. Commerce and Industry ----- 169 

§ 6. Immigration - - - - - - - -171 

§ 7. Education - - - - - - - -173 

§ 8. Land Tenure ------- 181 

§ 9. Agriculture and Forestry . _ - - 186 

§ 10. Public Works and Harbours - - - - 195 

§11. Palestine Railways ------ igS 

§ 12. Public Security - - - " - - - - 202 

§ 13. Medical and Meteorological - - . . 204 
§ 14. Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones - - - 210 
§ 15. Municipalities - - - - - - . 224 

§16. Parliamentary Papers - - - _ _ 226 . 
§ 17. Trans-jordania 227 



I. Geology 


§ 2. Mineral Resources ------ 238 

§ 3. Mammalia -------- 242 

§ 4. Birds --------- 243 

§ 5. Reptilia - - - 256 



§ 6. Fishes - - - - - - - - - 260 

§ 7. Insects --------- 261 

§ 8. Animal, Insect and Vegetable Pests - - 264 

§ 9, Game Preservation - . - - - - - 265 

§ 10. Flora --------- 266 



§ I, Moslem, Orthodox and Jewish Kalendars - 267 

§ 2. Official Holidays ------ 272 

§ 3. Transliteration - - - - - - - 273 

§ 4. Newspapers and Periodicals . . - - 276 

§ 5. War Cemeteries in Palestine - - - . - 276 

§ 6. Foreign Consuls in Palestine - - - - 277 

§ 7. Boy Scouts and Girl Guides - - - - 278 

§ 8. R.S.P.C.A. -------- 279 


Mandate for Palestine - - - . - - - 280 

Index ---- 291 

Railway Map of Palestine and Trans-jordania 

In pocket at end of volume" 


If I were called upon to express in a single word the dis- 
tinguishing characteristic of Palestine I should say Diversity 
— diversity of religions, diversity of civilizations, diversity 
of climate, diversity of physical characteristics. If the 
traveller wishes for coolness in the summer, he may live 
3,000 feet above the level of the sea ; if he wishes for 
warmth in the winter, he may live 1,000 feet below. He 
may find among the Beduin of Beersheba precisely the 
conditions that prevailed in the time of Abraham ; at 
Bethlehem he may see the women's costumes, and, in some 
respects, the mode of living of the period of the Crusaders ; 
the Arab villages are, for the most part, still under mediaeval 
conditions ; the towns present many of the problems of the 
early nineteenth century ; \>i:hile the new arrivals from 
Eastern and Central Europe, and from America,, bring with 
them the activities of the twentieth century, and sometimes, 
perhaps, the ideas of the twenty-first. Indeed, it is true 
to say that in Palestine you can choose the climate, or the 
century, that you prefer. And these conditions are found 
in a country so small that it is easy to motor in a single day 
from the northernmost town to the southernmost, and in a 
morning from the eastern boundary to the sea. 

These diversities would be enough to lend to Palestine 
an unusual interest ; but her position as the birthplace of 
religions renders that interest unique. Still farther is it 
enhanced by the conditions of the present time. 

Palestine has witnessed many and great changes in the 
four thousand years of her recorded history. But it is 



necessary to go back to the time of the Crusades for Si 
change as fundamental as that which is involved in the! 
ending of the Turkish Administration and the substitution 
of a British Mandate. An era of new development opens 
widely before her. A multitude of new problems arise. 
To the importance of the country as a centre of religious 
associations, new political and economic considerations are 

In these circumstances a Handbook of Palestine — accurate 
and readable as this Handbook is — will be of service ; both 
to those whose interest is dista.nt, and to those who, more 
fortunate, are able to visit the country, to experience the 
charm of its scenery and climate, to come into contact with 
its history, to study at first hand the many complexities of 
its present-day problems, and, above all, to hear the voice^ 
of its spiritual appeal. 






§ I. Introductory p 

Palestine is bounded on the north by the French sphere 
of Syria, on the west by the Mediterranean, on the south by 
Egyptian and Hejaz territory, the boundary running from 
a point west of Rafa on the Mediterranean to east of Taba 
at the head of the Gulf of Akaba, and then north-east. On 
the east is the territory of Trans-jordania, which is included 
in the area of the Palestine Mandate. 

The boundary on the north was determined by the 
Franco-British Convention of the 23rd December, 1920, 
and was delimited in 1922. It runs from the Mediterranean 
at Ras al-Nakura eastwards to Yarun, thence N.E. to the 
village of Kades, thence N.N.E. to Metullah and across the 
upper Jordan Valley to Banias, thence S.S.W. to Jisr Benat 
Yaqub, thence southwards along the Jordan to Lake 
Tiberias, thence along the eastern shore of the Lake of 
Tiberias to a point almost due east of the town of Tiberias, 
thence S.S.E. to al-Hamneh Station on the Semakh-Deraa 
railway. The Huleh basin and all the Lake of Tiberias are 
thus within the borders of Palestine. 

The area of Palestine according to the Turkish admini- 
strative divisions was 13,724 square miles. The area of 
Palestine under British administration, excluding Trans- 
jordania, is something over 9,000 square miles, with an 


estimated population (1922) of about 754,500. Of these 
about 583,000 are Moslems, 84,500 Christians, and 79,300 
Jews. These figures do not include the garrison. 

§ 2. Geography and Scenery. 

General. — ' Within the limits of a province,' it is stated in 
the High Commissioner's interim report on Palestine for 
1920-21, Palestine ' offers the varieties of soil and climate 
of a continent. It is a country of mountain and plain, of 
desert and pleasant valleys, of lake and sea-board, of barren 
hills, desolate to the last degree of desolation, and of broad 
stretches of deep, fruitful soil.' The most important 
geographical fact in Palestine is the deep fissure of the 
Jordan Valley, which divides Palestine proper so distinctly 
from Trans-jordania. Palestine is, generally speaking, a 
mountainous plateau which forms an extension of the 
Lebanon chain and runs southwards till it loses itself in 
the desert or is linked up with the mountainous part of the 
Sinai Peninsula. More than two-thirds of the country lie 
on the western side of the watershed, and on the western 
side the slopes are gradual ; on the east they are precipitous 
and are broken by valleys of great depth. 

The country may be divided into three sub-regions, the 
coastal plain, the mountainous plateau, and the desert. 

The Coastal Plain. — The coastal plain varies considerably 
in width between Acre, its northern, and Gaza, its southern 
extremity. At Acre its width is about 4 miles ; farther 
south, at Haifa, it widens out into the Plain of Esdraelon, 
which intersects the whole country ; south of Haifa, as it 
rounds the buttress of Mount Carmel, it is reduced to a bare 
200 yards. Southwards from Athlit it expands to a width 
of about 20 miles, its breadth at Ascalon. The coastal plain, 
the northern portion of which is known as the Plain of 
Sharon, is on the whole extremely fertile, although covered 
in parts with a shallow layer of sand ; of proverbial fertility, 
too, is the Plain of Esdraelon, also known in Hebrew times 
as Armageddon. 


The Plateau Region. — The plateau region is divided by 
the Plain of Esdraelon into two sections, the hill country 
of Galilee to the north and the hill country of Samaria and 
Judaea to the south. 

At the southern end of the hills of Galilee rises Mount 
Tabor (1,845 ft.). The range becomes continuous and 
increases in height in the neighbourhood of Safed. The 
highest points of the range are Jermuk (3,934 ft.) and 
Jebel Heider (3,440 ft.). 

The principal highlands of Samaria lie near the water- 
shed between the Mediterranean and the Jordan. The 
highest points are Mount. Ebal (3,077 ft.) and Mount Gerizim 
(2,849 it.) near Nablus, and Tel Asur (3,318ft.) further south. 
On the eastern side of the watershed the most important 
feature is the system of deep parallel valleys running from 
the plain south of Nablus into the Jordan Valley. 

The plateau of Judaea takes the form of a long zig-zag 
central spine which throws out a series of steep spurs to 
east and west. South of Hebron the range becomes lower 
and finally loses itself in the desert. On the western side 
of the watershed the plateau of Judaea extends about half- 
way to the sea, broken by deep valleys. On the east side 
it descends abruptly within 20 miles from a maximum of 
over 3,000 feet above sea-level to 1,300 feet below sea-level 
to the Lower Jordan and the Dead Sea. The slopes are 
mere rocky wastes, almost without vegetation and water, 
inhabited only by a few Beduin and hermits. They 
descend in a series of terraces sometimes terminating in 
walls of cliff, such as the Mount of Temptation above Jericho, 
and are deeply seamed by profound caiions such as Mar 
Saba and the Wadi Qelt. 

The Desert. — The desert country is, roughly speaking, a 
rectangle, of which the corners are Gaza, Beersheba, Rafa 
and al-Auja. East and south-east of this rectangle is a 
broken mountainous region falling to the east in a series of 
terraced escarpments to the Wadi Araba and the depression 
at the southern extremity of the Dead Sea. Farther south 
and east are the deserts of Sinai and Northern Arabia. 


Lakes. — Palestine possesses a geographical feature unique 
in the world in the Jordan Valley, or Ghor, and the chain of 
lakes through which the Jordan flows. Rising near Banias 
at a height of about 3,000 feet above sea-level, the Jordan 
enters Lake Huleh (the Waters of Merom) , whose surface is 
7 feet above sea-level. The depth of Lake Huleh varies 
from 10 to 16 feet ; its width is 4 miles from north to south 
and 3 miles from east to west at its broadest point. Between 
Lake Huleh and the Lake of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) the 
river drops 690 feet in a distance of 10 miles, and becomes a 
narrow turbulent stream. 

The Lake of Tiberias is 13^ miles long and 7^ miles broad. 
The surface is 682 feet below sea-level, and the greatest 
depth 160 feet. The northern end of the Lake is muddy, 
this being due to the turbulent nature of the Jordan, but 
its southern part is quite clear and is potable, except in the 
neighbourhood of the town of Tiberias. The Lake, as in 
biblical days, is liable to sudden storms, and the local boat- 
men avoid, so far as possible, crossing its centre after 

Between the Lake of Tiberias and the Dead Sea, whose 
surface lies 1,292 feet below sea-level, the Jordan falls nearly 
600 feet. The Dead Sea, called by the Arabs Bahr Lut (the 
Lake of Lot), is 48 miles long and 10 miles wide at its greatest 
breadth, both dimensions being almost identical with those 
of the Lake of Geneva. Its maximum depth is 1,310 feet, 
but its southern extremity is shallow, and is separated from 
the principal basin by a low-lying peninsula called al-Lisan 
(' The Tongue '). It has been calculated that 6^ million 
tons of water fall into the Dead Sea daily, and, in con- 
sequence of the extraordinary evaporation which ensues, 
the water remaining behind is impregnated to an unusual 
extent with mineral substances. The water contains about 
25 per cent, of solid substances, chloride of sodium (common 
salt) contributing 7 per cent. The water has a bitter and 
nauseous taste, due to the chloride of magnesium, while the 
chloride of calcium makes it smooth and oily to the touch. 
Owing to the intense buoyancy of the water, swimming is 


difficult, as the feet have too great a tendency to rise to the 
surface. Fish cannot hve in Dead Sea water, which, indeed, 
destroys practically all organic life. 

The Jordan Valley itself seldom exceeds 3 miles in width 
until it reaches Jericho and the neighbourhood of the Dead 
Sea. It is highly fertile, and across it the Jordan winds 
with unending sinuosities. 

Harbours and Rivers. — The principal ports of Palestine 
are, beginning in the north. Acre, Haifa, Jaffa and Gaza, 
which will be described from the commercial point of view 
in another part of this Handbook. 

The principal rivers of Palestine, other than the Jordan, 
and apart from wadis running dry in summer, are the 
Jarmuk, the Kishon (Nahr Muqatta), the Zerqa and the 

Coast-line. — The shore along the whole coast-line of 
Palestine is conspicuously uniform and low, mainly con- 
sisting of long shallow curves of low sandy beach. With 
the exception of the headland of Mount Carmel there are 
no strongly marked prominences producing sheltered bays. 
The small estuaries of the coastal streams are usually 
closed by sand-bars. 

§ 3. Palestine in Biblical Times. 

Meaning of the term * Palestine.' — The term ' Palestine ' 
originally denoted only the coast strip once ruled by the 
Philistines, 1 but had come by the beginning of the Christian 
era to denote the territory lying between the ' River of 
Egypt ' and Lake Huleh. Under the Roman Empire the 
province of Palaestina extended along the coast from 
a point near Rafa to Caesarea, and inland across the 
Jordan to Gerasa and Canatha in what is now the Hauran. 
In the last years of the Roman Empire and under 
Byzantine rule the country was divided into Palaestina 
Prima, corresponding roughly to Judaea, P. Secunda, 
corresponding roughly to Galilee, and P. Tertia, cor- 
responding to Arabia Felix. In this Handbook the term 

IC/. Part III., §5. 


Palestine denotes the British Mandatory area exclusive of 

Early Days. — From the earliest period of history Palestine 
has been inhabited by peoples of Semitic race, who moved 
from Arabia to Syria and Palestine in a long series of 
immigrations. The Canaanitish immigration is the oldest 
of which we know with certainty, its earliest w^ave including 
the Phoenicians, who penetrated farthest to the west. 
Following the example of the Old Testament, we are 
accustomed to call the tribes who settled to the west of the 
Jordan by the collective name of Canaanites, though they 
are probably more correctly specified by the older biblical 
writers as Amorites. At a later date seven tribes are 
specified : Amorites, Canaanites, Hittites, Hivites, Girga- 
zites, Perizzites and Jebusites. The Hittites, as also the 
Philistines, were non-Semitic. The Tel al-'Amarna tablets 
(fifteenth century b.c.) refer to the ' Khabiri,' who included 
the Israelites, Moabites, Amorites and Edomites, and are 
identified by a once criticized but now increasingly 
accepted theory with the Hebrews. The Canaanites were 
followed by the Aramaeans, who were already settled in 
Trans-jordania under the Kings of Israel. In these early 
days Palestine was largely dependent upon Egypt, being 
governed by princes tributary to the Pharaohs. Despite, 
however, the political supremacy of Egypt the Tel al- 
'Amarna tablets, which are written in Babylonian cunei- 
form, indicate how largely the country lay under the 
influence of Babylonian culture. Among these tributary 
princes is mentioned a King of Urusalim (Jerusalem). 

Early Jewish History. — The leader of the Israelites, to 
whom they owed the basis of their religious development, 
was Moses. Their settlement in the country west of the 
Jordan was effected very slowly, partly by force of arms, 
partly by peaceful assimilation with the Canaanites, 
who at that time occupied a much higher plane of culture 
than the Israelites. In the Old Testament the Israelites 
are represented as divided into twelve tribes, several of 
which, however, became merged in others in prehistoric 


times ; thus the villages of the tribe of Simeon afterwards 
belonged to Judah, while the tribe of Levi never possessed 
any territory of its own. It is impossible to determine 
accurately the districts of the individual tribes, as they 
were subject to many variations. The boundaries men- 
tioned in the book of Joshua represent merely a later theory. 
The central position was occupied by the powerful tribe of 
Joseph (Ephraim and the Half Tribe of Manasseh). Close 
to these was the tribe of Benjamin, while the country to 
the south was occupied by Judah, a tribe equal in power to 
Joseph. Issachar occupied the Plain of Jezreel, extending 
to the Jordan. Still farther to the north lay the territory 
of Zebulon and Naphtali, and on the coast that of Asher. 
The territory of Dan lay isolated in the extreme north. 
The southern portion of the country to the east of the 
Jordan was occupied by Reuben, whose territory, however, 
was gradually conquered by the Moabites. Similarly Gad 
and particularly the Half Tribe of Manasseh in Bashan had 
great difficulty in defending themselves against the incur- 
sions of their neighbours. According to the oldest historical 
document, the Song of Deborah (Judges, v.), the men cap- 
able of bearing arms numbered 40,000, which would imply a 
total population of about 200,000 Israelites. The estimates 
of the later writers are exaggerated. The chief bond of 
union between the tribes at the so-called Period of the 
Judges was the common veneration of the national deity 
Yahweh, to whom corresponded Ba'al, the national god of 
the Canaanites. Both were worshipped on the ' high 
places,' and for this reason the later Hebrew historians 
regard the worship of the high places as idolatry. 

The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. — The severe contests 
of the Israelites with their western neighbours, the Philis- 
tines, led to the establishment of a national kingdom 
under Saul. The jealousy of the tribes, however, seriously 
interfered with the stability of this administration. 

Soon after the death of Saul, David succeeded in making 
himself prince of Judah. But it was not till after the 
murder of Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, and his able general. 


Abner, that he succeeded in extending his sway over the 
other tribes. Under David the kingdom attained its 
greatest extent. He made Jerusalem, the town of the 
Jebusites, his capital, delivered the country from the Philis- 
tines, humbled the Moabites, Edomites, and Ammonites, 
the ancient enemies of Israel, and placed Damascus under 
tribute. In internal affairs he was successful in suppressing 
the conspiracy of his son Absolom and the revolt of the 
northern provinces. He introduced an organized scheme 
of administration, regulated the fiscal system, and created 
a small standing army. 

The government of Solomon contributed still more to 
develop the resources of the country. He fortified Jeru- 
salem and erected a magnificent palace and imposing 
Temple. His reign seems also to have seen the beginning 
of the Israelites' successful adoption of the richer culture of 
the Canaanites and other neighbouring nations. Intercourse 
with the neighbouring nations, especially with Egypt, 
became more active. After a brief period of prosperity, 
however, the decline of the empire began. Damascus 
threw off the yoke of the Israelites, Edom revolted, and 
dissensions sprang up in the interior. On the death of 
Solomon the kingdom fell into two parts : Judah to the 
south and Israel to the north. 

First Shechem and then Tirzah was made the capital of 
the Northern Kingdom, or Kingdom of Israel, by Jeroboam 
I., but the seat of government was afterwards removed to 
Samaria by Omri. Owing to the constant discord and 
jealousy which disquieted the rival kingdoms, as well as 
their internal dissensions, they fell an easy prey to the 
encroachments of their neighbours. The princes of Dam- 
ascus undertook several successful campaigns against 
the northern kingdom, and it was not until the reign of 
Jeroboam II. (785-745 b.c.) that the kingdom again attained 
to its former dimensions. From this period dates the stele 
of King Mesha of Moab, the most ancient monument bearing 
a Semitic inscription yet discovered. 

By the middle of the eighth century the Assyrians had 


succeeded in making serious encroachments upon the 
northern kingdom, and it was only with their assistance that 
King Ahaz of Judah succeeded in defending himself against 
Israel and Syria. He, as well as his successor Hezekiah, 
paid tribute to the Assyrians. In 722 the kingdom of 
Israel was destroyed, the inhabitants sent to the east, and 
colonists substituted for them. In spite of the warnings 
of Isaiah, Hezekiah entered into an alliance with Egypt 
and Ethiopia, in consequence of which Sennacherib of 
Assyria proceeded to attack the allies. The conquest of 
Jerusalem, however, was prevented by the well-known 
incident of the destruction of Sennacherib's army. 

Meanwhile the worship of Yahweh was essentially 
advanced by the writings of Amos, Hosea, Micah, Isaiah, 
Jeremiah, and other prophets. The advance consisted 
mainly in loftier ideas of the moral and spiritual nature of 
the Deity, leading to the conception of Yahweh as the God, 
not merely of Israel, but of the whole world. This was a 
basis on which the religion of Israel could be preserved and 
developed amid the coming troubles. One of the most 
important events in the history of the religion of Israel is 
the centralization of the worship of Yahweh in Jerusalem 
in the days of Josiah (620 b.c), a movement consequent on 
the introduction of the new book of the law, Deuteronomy. 

The Captivity. — At length, in 597, the kingdom of Judah 
was virtually destroyed, and Nebuchadnezzar carried off 
King Jehoiakin with 10,000 of the principal inhabitants, 
including the prophet Ezekiel, to Babylon. A revolt by 
the last king, Zedekiah, resulted in the destruction of Jeru- 
salem in 587 and a second deportation of its inhabitants. 
Soon after this many Jews, Jeremiah among them, migrated 
to Egypt. 

During the Captivity, besides Ezekiel and Jeremiah, there 
flourished the sublime anonymous prophet who wrote 
chapters 40-66 of the book of Isaiah. In the year 538 
Cyrus, after having conquered Babylon, permitted the 
Jews to return to their native country. Only some of these, 
however, availed themselves of this permission, and the 


new Jewish State was wholly comprised within the ancient 
limits of Judah. The erection of the new Temple, which 
had long been obstructed by the neighbouring nations, was 
at length promoted by the prophets Haggai and Zechariah 
(520-515), Ezra and Nehemiah established a set form of 
ritual, following Ezekiel and the priestly legislation in 
Leviticus and Numbers. The Idumaeans or Edomites 
established themselves in South Judaea and Hebron. The 
Nabataeans, an Arabian tribe which settled at Petra 
about 300 B.C., supplanted the Edomites in the south-east 
of Palestine. They conquered the territory of Moab and 
Ammon, and even penetrated farther north. The central 
districts were colonized by Cuthaeans, from whom, and also 
from the remains of the earlier population, descended the 
Samaritans, who erected a sanctuary of their own on Mount 

The Macedonian Supremacy and the Maccabees. — The 
Macedonian Supremacy began in 332, but after Alexander's 
death Palestine became the scene of the wars between the 
' Diadochi,' as his successors werQ called. Greek culture 
soon made rapid progress in Syria, as is evidenced by the 
ruins of Graeco-Roman theatres, the relics of temples, the 
inscriptions and coins. The Jews adhered steadfastly to 
their traditions, but, in the third century B.C., the Aramaic 
language gradually began to supplant the Hebrew. Greek 
also came into frequent use among the cultured classes, 
and in Egypt the sacred books were translated into Greek. 
Among the Jews was even formed a party favourable to the 
Greeks, which, aided by Jason, the high priest, succeeded 
in securing the supreme power in the state. In consequence 
of this a fierce struggle took place, for which King Antiochus 
Epiphanes chastised the Jews severely. This, and still 
more the desecration of their Temple, drove the Jews into 
open revolt. At the head of the insurgents was the heroic 
priest Mattathias, whose equally distinguished son Judas 
Maccabaeus at length succeeded, in 165 B.C., in inflicting a 
decisive defeat upon the Syrians. Under the Asmonean 
princes, or Maccabees, the Jews enjoyed a comparatively 


prosperous period of national independence, and John 
Hyrcanus I. even succeeded in extending considerably the 
dominions of Judaea by his conquests. During this epoch 
the form of government was a theocracy, presided over by 
a high priest, who, at the same time, enjoyed political 
power, and ruled the country with the title of ' High Priest 
and Uniter of the Jews ' ; but from the reign of Aristobulus 
I. the Asmoneans assumed the title of king. The indepen- 
dence of the country was at length disturbed in 63 B.C. by 
the Romans, who, under Pompey, captured Jerusalem. 
The Asmonean Hyrcanus II. reigned after this date under 
Roman suzerainty. 

The Idumaeans. — In 40 b.c. the Parthians plundered 
Syria and Palestine, and in the troubles of that period 
Herod the Idumaean, son of Antipater, the friend of 
Hyrcanus, rose to power by the support of the Romans. 
Herod, espousing throughout his career the Roman as 
against the national Jewish side, bribed Cassius and Antony 
in turn, succeeded in preserving his position under Augustus, 
and was recognized by the Jews as King in 40 B.C. 

Herod was a great builder, and the brilliance of his reign 
earned him the title of the Great. Many of the Jews, how- 
ever, resented deeply his encouragement of foreign civil- 
ization and art. 

In the time of Herod, the Jewish territories were divided 
as follows : (i) Judasa, including Idumaea ; (2) Samaria ; 
(3) Galilee ; (4) Peraea (' the country beyond ') ; (5) the 
tetrarchy of Philip. 

The Hellenistic towns east of the Jordan {e.g. Philadelphia, 
Gerasa, Gadara, Pella), together with Scythopolis west of 
the Jordan, formed a more or less compact political unit 
under the name of the Decapolis. 

Of the birth and ministry of Christ, and of the incidents 
of His earthly life, this Handbook is not the place to speak. 

Herod the Great died in the year of the birth of Christ, 
i.e. 4 B.C. according to the accepted chronology as deter- 
mined by Dionysius Exiguus in 525 a. d. The dominions 
of Herod were now divided. To Philip were given the 


districts of the Hauran (S.E.), to Herod Antipas, Galilee and 
Peraea, to Archelaus, Samaria, Judaea, and Idumaea. In 6 
A.D. the territory of Archelaus was added to the Roman pro- 
vince of Syria, but was governed by procurators of its own. 
The power of the native princes, such as Agrippa I., who 
was the last prince to unite the whole of Herod's kingdom 
under one monarch, and Agrippa II., whose share of Jewish 
territory was, strictly speaking, confined to a few towns in 
Galilee, became merely nominal as that of the Roman 
governors increased. At length, in consequence of the 
maladministration of Gessius Florus, a national insurrection 
broke out with great violence. Jerusalem was captured 
by Titus in 70 a. d., and the Temple was destroyed. Under 
the leadership of Simon, surnamed Bar Cochba (' son of 
the star '), there was a final revolt against the foreign yoke. 
After a struggle lasting for three and a half years (132-135), 
the insurrection was quelled and the last remnant of the 
Jewish kingdom destroyed. Jerusalem became a Roman 
colony under the name of ^Elia Capitolina, and the Jews 
were denied access to their ancient capital.^ 

§ 4. Palestine under Rome, Byzantium and the Arabs. 

Boman Rule. — The ensuing three centuries were relatively 
uneventful in the history of Palestine. After the revolt of 
the Jews in 132-5 a.d. the Emperor Julian the Apostate 
once more raised the hopes of the Jewish people for a brief 
moment. Previous to the interlude of his short reign a 
change of the utmost importance had taken place within 
the Roman Empire by the adoption of Christianity as the 
official religion of the State, and this change was felt par- 
ticularly in Palestine. The unaccustomed interval of peace 
which the country was enjoying caused many Christian 
pilgrims to visit the Holy Land in emulation of the Empress 
Helena, and the country was soon thickly covered with 
Christian religious establishments. 

1 Cf. Sir G. A. Smith, Atlas of the Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 
London, 1915. 




Byzantium and the Arabs. — On the partition of the 
Roman Empire in 395 a.d., Palestine fell naturally to 
the eastern or Byzantine half, but it was not long before the 
growing power of Persia menaced the hold of the Byzantine 
Emperors on the Holy Land. In 614 Jerusalem fell to 
Chosroes II. after a siege of twenty days, and its treasures 
were plundered. The Emperor Heraclius subsequently 
recovered the country ; but in the struggles with the 
Persians the Byzantine Empire underwent a process of 
exhaustion which accounts very largely for its subsequent 
collapse before the Arab invaders. 

The Arab Conctuest. — The Arabs had from time im- 
memorial ranged over the vast Syrian Plain as far as 
Mesopotamia, and were now beginning to press forward 
into Syria and Palestine. The southern Arabs (Yoqtanids 
or Qahtanids) settled in the Hauran, while opposed to 
them were the tribes of Northern Arabia (Ishmaelites) ; 
but these tribes acquired a new significance after their 
union had been effected by the Prophet Mohammed. As 
the Byzantine Empire grew weaker, the raids of these 
Arabs into Palestine became more frequent. Finally they 
took the definite shape of deliberate conquest. The 
invasion began in the south of Palestine, where the local 
Governor, Sergius, operating from Caesarea, was defeated 
early in 634. This Arab victory was followed up by another 
in the same year, when Theodore, the brother of Heraclius, 
was defeated in the Wadi al-Sant. Further victories 
were won by the Arabs in 635, and in September of that 
year Damascus surrendered. Heraclius now made his one 
great effort to save Syria. In the summer of 636 an army 
of imperial mercenaries and Armenians and Arabs (drawn 
from the settled tribes of Syria) advanced through the 
Biqa' and past Baniyas and across the Jordan, south of 
Lake Huleh. They cut the communication between 
Damascus and Arabia. But the Arabs had already aban- 
doned Damascus and had taken their position on a strong 
line of defence, just south of the River Yarmuk. The 
opposing armies^seem to have faced one another on opposite 


sides of the Yarmuk for some weeks. Futile negotiations 
were carried on. Perliaps both sides awaited reinforce- 
ments and feared to risk attack. Apparently the Greeks 
at length took the offensive. The Arab victory was of 
supreme importance for the future of Islam and therefore 
for the history of the world. Unfortunately the course of 
the battle cannot be ascertained in detail. Certainly the 
Moslems were not greatly superior in point of numbers. 
During one phase of the struggle the Greeks appear to have 
been within sight of victory. But the composite character 
of their army was a disadvantage. Their leaders were at 
variance and perhaps their full force was not employed. 
Although most of the Arabs fought on foot they had a 
distinguished cavalry leader (Khalid ibn Walid), who seems 
to have dealt the decisive blow. A sand-storm blowing in 
the faces of the Greeks may have turned the scale against 
them (20th August, 636). 

After this battle Heraclius abandoned Syria. Probably 
his resources were exhausted by the Persian war, so that he 
could not do otherwise. The fate of the country therefore 
depended upon the attitude of its own population. Jews, 
Samaritans, and Christians all welcomed the Arabs as their 
deliverers from the persecution and oppression of the 
' orthodox ' Greeks. Naturally the Arab tribes of the 
eastern frontier were ready to throw in their lot with 
the new-comers. Not a single Syrian town was captured by 
force of arms. Sooner or later they all Accepted the generous 
terms of the Arab chiefs. Jerusalem and Caesarea were 
strongholds of Greek sentiment and power. They sub- 
mitted in the years 639 and 640 respectively, and, after the 
surrender of Caesarea, Gaza and Ascalon made their 

Palestine under the Omayyad and 'Abbasid Khalifs. — 
For a century after the Arab conquest Palestine enjoyed 
almost unbroken peace within its borders. From 661 till 
750 it was ruled from Damascus by the Omayyad Khalifs, 
and, after their overthrow by the 'Abbasids (so called on 
account of their descent from the Prophet's paternal uncle 


'Abbas), from the capital of the latter at Baghdad, But the 
distant 'Abbasid Khalifs never held the allegiance of Syria 
and Palestine as did the Omayyads, and the process of 
disintegration commenced in the Arab Empire. By the 
middle or end of the ninth century Palestine and Syria 
stand once more apart in their accustomed relation to 
Egypt on the south and to the rulers of Mesopotamia on the 
north-east. In 969 the Fatimite Khalifs began to rule over 
Egypt and soon conquered Syria and Palestine. In the 
eleventh century they were followed by the Seljuq Turks. 
In the latter half of the tenth century, however, the Byzan- 
tine Emperors had undertaken no fewer than four invasions 
of Syria and Northern Palestine (in 975 the Emperor John 
Zimisces actually reached Tiberias and Acre) ; and these 
invasions, coupled with the internal dissensions of the Arab 
Empire, paved the way for the Crusaders. 

§ 5. The Crusades. 

The First Crusade. — The Crusades, considered as a con- 
quest of Palestine, were marked by several unique features. 
They were, in the first place, the product of artificial co- 
operation between a number of Western Powers, which was 
only maintained with difficulty and frequently broke down 
altogether. Its promoters were actuated by a variety of 
motives : religious, romantic, dynastic, commercial. The 
Crusaders proceeded with their task slowly and inter- 
mittently, and their purpose, which was to plant western 
feudalism in an eastern land, never wholly succeeded. 
From the date of their first success the Crusaders organized 
their conquests into four independent states, the Principality 
of Antioch, the Counties of Tripoli and Edessa, and the 
Kingdom of Jerusalem. It is only with the last of these 
that the Handbook of Palestine is directly concerned. 

The First Crusade aimed not merely at the deliverance of 
the Holy City from Moslem rule or even only at the conquest 
of Palestine and Syria ; rather was it an expedition by the 
Christians of Western Europe, under the auspices of Western 


Europe's spiritual leader, the Pope, to relieve the Christians 
of the East in general from Moslem oppression. Its leaders 
were Robert, Duke of Normandy, Raymond, Count of 
Toulouse, Robert, Count of Flanders, the Norman Dukes 
Bohemond and Tancred, Godfrey de Bouillon and his 
brother Baldwin, afterwards King Baldwin I. of Jerusalem. 
Antioch was captured by Bohemond in 1098, and Jerusalem 
on the 15th July, 1099 ; Damascus, however, together with 
Homs and Aleppo, was never lost by the Moslems. There 
is no space here to enter into the extremely picturesque 
details of Crusading history ; it must suffice to chronicle 
the outstanding facts. In the reign of Baldwin II. the 
Latin conquests in the East reached their climax and the 
Kings of Jerusalem, together with their vassals, the Princes 
of Galilee, the Counts of Ascalon and Joppa, the Lord of 
Montreal and others, ruled the land in feudal fashion. The 
organization of the kingdom is well displayed in the famous 
' Assizes of Jerusalem,' which laid down the constitution of 
the country on a strictly feudal basis. The ' Assizes,' which 
received their final form from the Cypriote jurisconsults of 
the thirteenth century, embodied "the usages which Godfrey 
ordered to be maintained and used in the Kingdom of 
Jerusalem, by the which he and his men, and his people, 
and all other manner of people going, coming, and dwelling 
in his kingdom of Jerusalem were to be governed and 
guarded. "1 

The Assizes included two codes, one for the nobles, the 
other for the bourgeoisie, which were deposited in a coffer 
in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and from the place of 
their custody were called ' Les Lettres du Sepulcre.' The 
coffer could only be opened for the purposes of consulting 
or modifying the law, and then only in the presence of nine 
persons particularly specified, including the King and the 

The Second Crusade. — The early Crusaders weakened 
their strength by repeated and futile attempts to capture 
Damascus. Here they were opposed by the powerful 

* Assizes of Jerusalem, i., 22. 


Emir Zanki (1127-40) ; and the second conquest of Edessa 
by his son Nur al-Din (1146-74) gave rise to the Second 
Crusade (1147-49). It was in the reign of Nur al-Din that 
there came to the fore the famous Salah al-Din, better 
known in the West as Saladin. Saladin, who was the 
grandson of a 'Kurd named Shadi ibn Merwan and nephew 
of Nur al-Din's general Shirkuh, soon made himself master 
of Egypt ; and, after Nur al-Din's death, took advantage 
of the dissensions in Syria to conquer that country also, 
and thus to become the Franks' most formidable opponent. 
The breach of a truce concluded between himself and the 
Crusaders led to war, and on the 4th July, 1187, Saladin 
' broke the Franks on the horns of Hattin and slew a great 
multitude, and took their king prisoner.' This was the 
greatest disaster which had as yet overtaken the Crusaders. 
The True Cross was lost, and King Guy, together with his 
nobles, made captive. Saladin now marched south. Nablus, 
Caesarea, Jericho, Jaffa, opened their gates to him w;ithout 
resistance; and on the 2nd October, 1187, he took Jeru- 
salem, granting to the besieged terms of almost unparalleled 

The Third Crusade. — The fall of Jerusalem led to the 
Third Crusade (1189-92), and the Latin colonies in Palestine 
were saved from extinction for the moment by a great 
European intervention. The Holy Roman Emperor, 
Frederick I. Barbarossa, who headed the expedition, was 
drowned in Cilicia before he reached the Holy Land. 
The hero of this Crusade was King Richard Coeur de Lion ; 
but Richard, although he performed prodigies of valour, 
did not recover Jerusalem. The resources of the Third 
Crusade were impaired by the rivalry between Richard and 
the French King, Philip Augustus, and the only solid 
advantages secured from Saladin by the peace signed on 
the 2nd September, 1192, were the possession of a narrow 
strip of coast between Tyre and Jaffa, and the right of the 
Latins to make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, which city 
remained in the hands of the Moslems. 

The Fourth and Fifth Crusades. — Saladin died in 1193, 
i.V- n 


and his empire was dismembered. Nevertheless, the 
respite which the Third Crusade had given to the Latin 
Kingdom was a precarious one ; and the Fourth Crusade 
in 1204 went sadly astray and did nothing to promote 
Frankish interests in Palestine. The Fifth Crusade, led by 
King Andrew of Hungary in 1217-18, was 'equally unsuc- 
cessful. In both these Crusades the Italian maritime cities 
of Amalfi and Pisa, Genoa and Venice were impelled by their 
commercial ambitions to take an active part. 

The Sixth Crusade. — Of more importance was the Sixth 
Crusade, led by the heterodox Emperor Frederick II. By 
the irony of history Frederick, who in many respects was far 
in advance of his time, was first of all excommunicated for 
not going on the Crusade, and was then excommunicated 
for going. In 1229 he became master of Jerusalem without 
shedding blood, only to find that the services of the Church 
could not be celebrated in the Holy Sepulchre, because the 
Pope had laid every town in which Frederick might be, the 
goal of the Christian world not excepted, under an interdict. 
For the next ten years Jerusalem was again a Latin city. 

The Last Crusades. — At the end of Frederick's ten years 
of truce with the Moslems the Seventh Crusade set out 
under the leadership of Theobald, King of Navarre, and 
landed at Acre in the autumn of 1239. An attempt to 
recover Ascalon involved the Christian army in disaster, 
and in the following year Theobald went home, leaving a 
large number of prisoners in the hands of the Moslems, from 
whom their freedom was subsequently bought by Richard, 
Earl of Cornwall. In 1244 Jerusalem was sacked by the 
Khwarizmians, a Tatar tribe from the south of Lake 
Aral. ^ 

The Eighth Crusade (1248-50) owed its inception to the 
piety and enthusiasm of S. Louis IX. of France, but, in 
spite of its leader's zeal, accomplished nothing tangible so 
far as Palestine was concerned. With the Crusade of 
Edward, Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward I. of England 
(1271-72), the Crusading movement spent its force. 
Accounts of the Crusades from the western point of view 



are numerous and need not be detailed here ; for a lucid 
history of these events from the Moslem point of view the 
reader is referred to Stevenson, The Crusaders in the East 
(Cambridge, 1907). 

The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. — The following 
sovereigns occupied the throne of Jerusalem between 1099 
and the fall of Acre in 1291 : — 

Godfrey de Bouillon (refused title of King) 

Baldwin L - 

Baldwin II. - 

Melisende and Fulk of Anjou {jure 

uxoris) ------ 

Melisende and Baldwin III. - 

Baldwin III. alone - _ _ _ _ 

Amaury I.- 
Baldwin IV. - 
Baldwin V. ----- - 

Sybil and Guy de Lusignan (Lord of 

Cyprus, 1 192) {jure uxoris) 
Guy de Lusignan alone - - - - 
Isabella and Henry of Champagne {jure 

uxoris) ------ 

Isabella and Amaury II. (I, of Cyprus) 

{jure uxoris) ----- 
Isabella alone - - - - - 
Mary - - - - - ' - 
Mary and John de Brienne {jure uxoris) - 
Yolande and John de Brienne {jure filiae) 
Yolande and Frederick (Emperor Frederick 

II.) {jure uxoris) - _ _ _ 
Conrad and Frederick {jure filii) 
Conrad alone ------ 

Conradin ----_. 

Hugh (III. of Cyprus) - - - - 

Charles of A njou disputes the crown 
John (I. of Cyprus) - _ _ _ 

Henry (II. of Cyprus) - . - _ 











i2yy - 1286 


During the latter years of its existence the Latin King- 
dom dwindled rapidly in extent and strength. Not only 
was it being shaken by the advancing assaults of the 
Moslems, but it was torn by internal and dynastic dis- 
sension between rival princes and between these and their 
vassals. Conrad and his son Conradin, the last of the 
Hohenstaufen, were Kings of Jerusalem in name only ; 
they were never crowned as such and never took possession 
of the kingdom. On the execution of Conradin the crown 
of Jerusalem, together with the meagre remnants of the 
kingdom, passed to the Kings of Cyprus ; and with the 
capture of Acre, its last remaining town, by the Mame- 
luke Sultan Melek al-Ashraf, son of Sultan Qala'un, in 
1291 1 the de facto existence of the Kingdom of Jeru- 
salem came to an end. The Kings and Queens of 
Cyprus continued to bear the title until the end of the 
Lusignan Kingdom of Cyprus in 1489, and after the fall 
of Acre received the crown of Jerusalem at Famagusta, 
as being the Cypriote town geographically nearest to 
the lost kingdom. The title then passed by descent to 
the House of Savoy, now the Royal House of Italy ; and 
until 1 86 1 the coins of the Kings of Sardinia bore the legend : 
' King of Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jerusalem.' The title 
' King of Jerusalem ' is borne to this day by the Kings of 
Spain as heirs of the Angevins and through them of Mary 
of Antioch, as it was until 191 8 by the Emperors of Austria. 

The Military Orders. — The most characteristic, and 
perhaps the most permanent features of the Crusades were 
the Military Orders, of which the most prominent were the 
Templars and the Hospitallers. Both Orders owed their 
institution to the charitable purpose of attending the 
poor and sick Christian pilgrims ; both derived their origin 
from the Holy City of Jerusalem ; both subsequently became 
sovereign states and the most forrnidable military instru- 
ments of the Crusaders. Most of the remarkable Crusading 
castles which still crown the strategic heights of Palestine 
and Syria (Krak des Chevaliers, Banias, La Pierre du 

^See Schlumberger, Prise de St. Jean d'Acre en Van 1291. Paris, 1914. 


Desert, Montreal, Safita, Merqab and many others) were 
the strongholds of these Orders ; and at times the Crusading 
Kings found the Knights to be as truculent and unruly in 
peace as they were valiant in war. The Knights Templar 
ruled Cyprus as its sovereigns from 1191-1192, and were 
dissolved by the Pope in 1312 ; the Knights Hospitallers, 
after reigning in Rhodes and then in Malta until the dawn 
of the nineteenth century, now reside in Rome, where they 
still maintain under their Grand Masters their sovereign 
status as the Order of S. John of Jerusalem. For the 
Crusading activities of this Order see Delaville Le Roulx, 
Les Hospitaliers en Terre Sainte et a Chypre (Paris, 1904). 
For the English Order of S. John of Jerusalem, see 
Part n., § II. 

§ 6. Palestine under the Mamelukes and Turks. 

The Mamelukes. — For the ensuing two centuries Palestine 
practically disappears from history. With the final depar- 
ture of the Franks in 1291 it loses all semblance of 
independence, and passes, together with Syria, under the 
Mameluke (Caucasian slave) dynasty of Egypt. The out- 
standing Mameluke figures in the annals of Palestine are 
the Sultans Bibars (1260-1277) and Qala'un (1279-1290), 
both equally famous as warriors and as builders. At the 
beginning of the fifteenth century the land was plagued by 
the Mongols under Timur-lenk (' Timur the Lame,' Tamer- 
lane), but afterwards, under the Mameluke Sultans, enjoyed 
a farther period of immunity from external attack. In 
15 16 war broke out between the Mamelukes and the Ottoman 
Turks ; and by 15 17 Egypt, Syria and Palestine were in the 
hands of the latter. 

Palestine under the Turks. — The sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries are on the whole unimportant in the history 
of Palestine, although it may here be noted that the walls 
of Jerusalem were rebuilt in their present form in 1542 by 
Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent. Two men alone emerge 
from an obscure multitude of Pashas and Beys. The first 


of these, 'Omar al-Daher, was early in the eighteenth century 
an Arab chief, whose principal village was Safed. Having 
seized Tiberias he carried on war with the pashas of 
Damascus, just as Tancred had done with their pre- 
decessors in the Crusading period. In 1749 he seized Acre 
from a subordinate of the pasha of Sidon and established 
himself in it. He restored somewhat the defences of the 
city, attracted the population by his good government, 
increased his power by treaties with Arab tribes and with 
the Metawileh, and thus became strong enough to wage 
war with Damascus on equal terms. When he allied himself 
with the Egyptian ruler 'Ali Beg (1770-3), and obtained 
the help of Russian ships (1772-3), there was a prospect of 
his becoming master of all southern Syria. But the death 
of 'Ali Beg (1773) and the peace between Turkey and Russia 
(1774) and quarrels with his own sons resulted in his defeat 
and death (1775). His successor in Acre was Ahmed al- 
Jezzar. He was a Bosnian by birth, had been a slave of 
the Egyptian Begs, and had recently won a military reputa- 
tion in Syria. Adventurers flocked to his service, and his 
pashalik extended until it included the coast from Beirut 
to Caesarea, along with northern Palestine and the Biqa'. 
His efforts to gain the pashalik of Damascus were not 
permanently successful, but he was the most powerful ruler 
in Syria, and by fortifying Acre (from 1786 onwards) made 
it the strongest town on the coast. The Ottoman Govern- 
ment would have dispossessed him more than once if they 
had been able. Yet when Napoleon invaded Syria they 
appointed him at once chief commander of their forces. 

The Invasion of Napoleon I. — In 1799 Napoleon, return- 
ing from Egypt, captured Jaffa and laid siege to Acre. At 
this juncture the French in Egypt were being threatened 
by the British Fleet under Commodore Sir Sidney Smith, 
while a Turkish army was assembling in Syria. Napoleon's 
object was to compel the Ottoman Government to come to 
terms with France. He defeated the Turks on the Plain 
of Jezreel, and advanced as far as Nazareth and Safed ; but 
he failed to capture Acre, gallantly defended by Sidney 


Smith. By the beginning of June, 1799, Napoleon had 
withdrawn from Palestine. 

Mohammed 'All and Ibrahim Pasha. — The reforming 
Sultan Mahmud II. (1808-39) introduced some order into 
the Turkish administration of Palestine, but his efforts 
were hampered by the turbulence of 'Abdullah, son of 
Jezzar, who became Pasha of Acre in 1820 and soon made 
himself almost independent of the Sultan. The crisis and 
end of 'Abdullah's career were provoked by a conflict with 
Mohammed 'Ali, ruler of Egypt. The Egyptian invasion 
of Palestine in 1831 was directed against 'Abdullah in the 
first place, although it was taken by the Ottoman Govern- 
ment to be a challenge to its authority, and so inaugurated 
a war between Egypt and the Ottoman Turks for the 
possession of Syria. A brief campaign, in which a siege of 
Acre and a battle near Homs were the chief events, secured 
Palestine and Syria for the Egyptians. A^ter several 
years of occupation, in which the Ottoman Government 
acquiesced, the struggle was renewed (1839). A fleet, 
chiefly British, representing the. European allies of the 
Sultan, attacked the coast towns in 1840. Within four 
months, without any great battle being fought, the 
Egyptian army, under Ibrahim Pasha, evacuated the 
country. Nevertheless, the nine years of Egyptian occupa- 
tion had done much towards centralizing the administration 
of the country. Ibrahim abolished the decentralized 
pashaliks and broke the power of the local chieftains ; he 
enforced regular taxation ; and he compelled the recogni- 
tion of non-Moslem rights in local government. During 
his regime, moreover, Europeans were encouraged in 
Palestine and Syria as they were by his father in Egypt ; 
and to this period we owe the travel books of Kinglake, 
Lamartine and many others. During these nine years 
Europe progressed from a state of mediaeval ignorance 
of the country almost to its present well-informed con- 

Palestine held aloof from the troubles which beset Syria 
in i860 and led to the intervention of Napoleon III. 


The highly centraHzed rule of 'Abdu'l Hamid II., while 
oppressive in many respects, was distinctly beneficial to 
the advance of Palestine, and during his reign the land 
increased in prosperity and population. 

§ 7. Palestine under the British Mandate. 

Capture of Palestine, 1917. — The circumstances attending 
the entry of the Ottoman Empire into the war and the 
brilliant operations which led to the capture of Palestine 
from the Turks by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 
under the command of General (now Field-Marshal Lord) 
AUenby, are too recent in the public memory to require 
detailed narration here. They are well recounted in the 
Record of the Advance of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, 
compiled by Lt. -Colonel H. Pirie-Gordon, Military Editor 
of the Palestine News, Cairo, 19 19. General Allenby began 
his operations in October, 19 17, and on the 31st of the 
month had taken Beersheba. Gaza fell on the 7th 
November, and on the i6th November Jaffa was occupied 
without opposition. These successes enabled a converging 
movement to be made on Jerusalem ; and at noon of the 
9th December a Turkish parlementaire conveyed the sur- 
render of the city to the Commander-in-Chief, who made 
his official entry two days afterwards, walking into 
Jerusalem by the Jaffa Gate, followed by his staff and by 
representatives of the French and Italian contingents. 
The notable proclamation which, standing at the top 
of the Citadel steps, he caused to be read to the people in 
English, French, Italian, Arabic and Hebrew, ran as 
follows : 

' To the inhabitants of Jerusalem the Blessed and the 
people dwelling in the vicinity. The defeat inflicted upon 
the Turks by the troops under my command has resulted 
in the occupation of your city by my forces. I therefore 
here and now proclaim it to be under martial law, under 
which form of administration it will remain so long as 
military considerations make it necessary. However, lest 


any of you should be alarmed by reason of your experience 
at the hands of the enemy who has retired, I hereby inform 
you that it is my desire that every person should pursue 
his lawful business without fear of interruption. 

' Furthermore, since your City is regarded with affection 
by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind, 
and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pil- 
grimages of multitudes of devout people of these three 
religions for many centuries, therefore do I make known 
to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, 
shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or 
customary place of prayer, of whatsoever form of the three 
religions, will be maintained and protected according to 
the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faiths 
they are sacred.' 

The Balfour Declaration. — Zionism is the movement for 
the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the 
Jewish People. As a tnovement of return it may be said 
to date from the destruction of the national existence of 
the Jews in Palestine by the Romans in the second century 
A.D. Since that time the ideal has been tenaciously pre- 
served by Jews throughout the world. 

During the nineteenth century various English statesmen 
gave such political support as was then possible to the 
ideal. In modern times, too, England has been pre-eminent 
amongst the Powers in encouraging and furthering its 

Jewish colonization in Palestine, as it is now understood, 
began in 1880. It was at that period that the persecution 
of the Jews in Russia and Eastern Europe stimulated the 
return to Palestine, and Jewish settlements sprang up in 
different parts of the country. It was not, however, until 
Theodor Herzl, an Austrian Jewish publicist and dramatist, 
conceived, in 1897, the project of summoning a Congress 
of Jews, that Zionism became a political movement. That 
Congress defined the meaning of Zionism as the effort to 
win ' a legally-secured, publicly-recognized Home for the 
Jewish People in Palestine.' 


Even when it was still impracticable to obtain a charter 
for Jewish settlement in Palestine, the British Government 
made an offer of a tract of land in British East Africa for 
the up-building of an autonomous Jewish State ; but this 
alternative was not accepted by the Zionist masses. 

On the outbreak of war, however, what had hitherto been 
a vision of idealists became the practical policy of statesmen, 
and on the 2nd November, 191 7, during the advance 
into Palestine of the Allied Forces under General Allenby, 
the Earl of (then Mr. Arthur) Balfour, at the time Foreign 
Secretary, made on behalf of His Majesty's Government 
the following historic Declaration : 

' His Majesty's Government view with favour the estab- 
lishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish 
people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the 
achievement of that object, it being understood that nothing 
shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious 
rights of existing non- Jewish communities in Palestine, or 
the rights and political status enjoyed by the Jews in any 
other country.' 

The Declaration was endorsed by the principal Allied 
Powers and embodied in the Treaty of Sevres, signed on the 
loth August, 1920. In that Treaty, under which Turkey 
renounces her sovereignty over Palestine, it is provided that 
the country shall be entrusted to a Mandatory Power, 
which shall carry out the terms of the Declaration according 
to a Mandate to be approved by the League of Nations. 
At the Supreme Council of the Allied Powers held at San 
Remo in April, 1920, it was agreed that Great Britain should 
be entrusted with the Mandate. 

After the Balfour Declaration a body, then known as the 
Zionist Commission, was constituted of representatives of 
the constituent federations of the World Zionist Organiza- 
tion to act in Palestine as a link between the British 
authorities and Zionist interests. This body, which is 
now known as the Palestine Zionist Executive, is financed 
by subscriptions from Jews throughout the world, and 
administers the greater part of Jewish education in 


Palestine, besides controlling many projects of agriculture 
and colonization. 

The meaning of the Balfour Declaration can best be 
summarized in the following extracts from the High Com- 
missioner's Interim Report on the Civil Administration of 
Palestine, 1920-21 {cf. Part I., § 2, and infra), and from a 
statement made by him on the 3rd June, 192 1 : 

' They [sc. the Jews) ask for the opportunity to establish 
a " home " in the land which was the political, and has 
always been the religious, centre of their race. They ask 
that this home should possess national characteristics — in 
language and customs, in intellectual interests, in religious 
and political institutions. . . . 

■' If the growth of Jewish influence were accompanied by 
Arab degradation, or even by a neglect to promote Arab 
advancement, it would fail in one of its essential purposes. 
... In a word, the degree co which Jewish national aspira- 
tions can be fulfilled in Palestine is conditioned by the rights 
of the present inhabitants. . . .' 

In the statement of the 3rd June, 1921, the Declaration 
is defined to mean that ' the Jews, a people who are 
scattered throughout the world, but whose hearts are always 
turned to Palestine, should be enabled to found here their 
home, and that some among them, within the limits that 
are fixed by the numbers and interests of the present 
population, should come to Palestine in order to help by 
their resources and efforts to develop the country, to 
the advantage of all its inhabitants.' 

The Military Administration, 1917-1920.— At the head of 
the Military Administration of Palestine General Allenby, 
whose headquarters were then at Ludd, appointed Brigadier- 
General (now Sir Gilbert) Clayton, who was also Chief 
Political Officer to the Commander-in-Chief. The first 
Military Governor of Jerusalem was Borton Pasha, Post- 
master-General of Egypt, who, owing to a breakdown in 
health, was succeeded after two weeks by Mr. Ronald 
Storrs, Oriental Secretary to the Residency in Cairo. The 
Governorate was first established in Hughes's Hotel, but 


was soon moved to the German Lazarist Hospice of S. Paul, 
by the Damascus Gate. 

The part of Palestine already occupied was divided into 
the following districts : Jerusalem, Jaffa, Gaza, Hebron 
and Beersheba. This division continued in vigour until 
Lord AUenby's great drive in September, 1918, when the 
remainder of Palestine, Syria and Cilicia were cleared of the 
Turks. Thereupon Military Governors were posted to 
Nablus, Jenin, Tulkeram, Haifa, Nazareth, Acre, Tiberias, 
and Safed. 

In 1919 the districts were reduced from thirteen to ten 
by the amalgamation of Acre with Haifa and of Tiberias 
and Safed with Nazareth, and were again reduced, on the 
establishment of the Civil Government on the ist July, 
1920, from ten to seven by the absorption of Jenin 
into Nablus, of Tulkeram into Haifa and Jaffa, and of 
Kebron into Jerusalem, when the seven official districts 
consequently became Jerusalem, Jaffa, Beersheba, Gaza, 
Phoenicia (Haifa), Galilee (Nazareth) and Samaria (Nablus). 

As a general rule Municipal Councils continued in office 
and, at the expiration of their period of office, were replaced 
by nomination by the Military Governor. In some cases 
the Administration advanced subsidies in order to assist 
Municipalities to meet the demands of the Public Health 
Authorities for a higher standard of sanitation. 

As far as was compatible with the military nature of the 
occupation and with the peculiar political conditions of 
Palestine, the Ottoman codes of law were applied to the 
country. Early in 19 18 a Legal Adviser was appointed, 
and the Courts, whose action had been interrupted for a 
few weeks only, were again set going, so far as possible, 
with Palestinian judges and officers, superintended by 
trained British officers. 

The Police were recruited partly from the better and more 
active elements of the former Turkish police and gend- 
armerie, partly from the Palestinian population. 

Among the other institutions with which the military 
authorities endowed the country may be cited public 



gardens, Chambers of Commerce, branches of the Boy Scouts 
and Girl Guides, the Jerusalem School of Music, subsequently- 
presented to the Jewish community. Indigenous industries, 
that had been allowed to die out, were revived under the 
auspices of the Pro- Jerusalem Society, of which more will 
be said hereafter. In 191 8 a well-known British architect 
was summoned from London to examine and report upon 
the state of the venerable mosques and other buildings in 
the ancient Temple enclosure in Jerusalem, which had 
been neglected by the Turks and allowed to fall into decay. 
Large sums were spent upon improving the roads of 
Palestine, the bridges destroyed during the military opera- 
tions were strengthened or rebuilt, and a steel bridge was 
thrown across the Ghoraniyeh passage of the Jordan. 

The state of Jerusalem in December, 191 7, can hardly 
be imagined by those who see it now. No sanitary 
arrangements of any sort existed in the old city, and 
practically none in the new. As the only water supply 
was derived from private rain-fed cisterns, it was impossible 
to do very much to combat the resulting evils until a proper 
water supply had been introduced. Seven military sanitary 
sections were lent by the army and placed at the disposal 
of the Governorate. In addition to this, it was made the 
work of one special sweeper to patrol the Via Dolorosa from 
end to end and to keep it free from pollution. Later in the 
spring of 191 8, to the intense satisfaction of the inhabitants, 
the Commander-in-Chief gave the order for a piped water 
supply to be put into Jerusalem. At Arrub, south of 
Bethlehem, pumps were erected over an ancient reservoir, 
said to have been excavated by Pontius Pilate. Pales- 
tinians of all classes were not slow to remark that the Turks, 
after an occupation which had lasted over four hundred 
years, had left Jerusalem, as regards the water supply, 
slightly worse than they found it, whereas the British Army, 
whilst still uncertain of its tenure, had, in a few months, 
endowed the city with a supply which rendered it, to 
a certain extent, independent of the chances of the 


which W 
Jeru- I 

One of the gravest and most harassing problems 
beset the Government was that of the food supply, 
salem is fed largely by wheat imported from Trans-jordania 
or, if that fails, from overseas. At the time of the British 
occupation the first of these sources was cut off by the 
Turks, who were still in possession of the rich corn lands of 
Amman, Kerak and the Hauran. The second was curtailed 
by submarines. The Turks had moved with them all food 
supplies that they could carry. There were practically no 
available supplies in the city. Army provisions were, very 
naturally, required for the army ; and transport was work- 
ing over broken and unmade roads under every sort of 
disadvantage. Women and children were to be seen 
walking in the streets in every stage of emaciation and 
besieging Government offices for a crust of bread. Here 
again the British Army came to the rescue and, on the 
urgent representations of the Government, supplied at once, 
and continued to supply until long after, a sufficient quantity 
of wheat to enable the Government to set up food stores 
and ration cards, and to avert the terror of starvation. 

In the spring of 1920 occasional minor disturbances 
occurred in more than one part of Palestine ; and on the 
4th April, 1920, a racial riot, which was soon suppressed, 
broke out in Jerusalem. 

The Chief Administrators under the Military Administra- 
tion subsequent to Brigadier-General Clayton were : 

Major-General Sir A. Money - March, 1918-July, 1919. 

Major-General Sir H. D. Watson August-December, 1919. 

Major-General Sir L. Bols - January- June, 1920. 

The Civil Administration, 1st July, 1920.— The Military 
Administration (Occupied Enemy Territory Administration) 
terminated on the 30th June, 1920, and on the ist July the 
Rt. Hon. Sir Herbert Samuel, P.C., G.B.E., assumed office 
as His Majesty's High Commissioner for Palestine, and a 
Civil Administration was set up. In October, 1920, there 
was constituted an Advisory Council, consisting of 10 
unofficial members nominated by the High Commissioner 
(4 Moslems, 3 Christians, 3 Jews) and of 10 official members. 


English, Arabic and Hebrew were made the official languages 
of the country. 

On the ist May, 1921, and succeeding days there was 
rioting in Jaffa and neighbourhood, which developed into 
racial strife. A Commission, under the chairmanship of 
Sir T. Hay craft. Chief Justice of Palestine, was appointed 
to inquire into the disturbances ; its report was presented 
to Parliament in October, 1921 (Cmd. 1540). 

For a succinct official account of the first year of the Civil 
Administration of Palestine the reader is referred to the 
High Commissioner's Interim Report (Cmd. 1499), published 
in August, 1921. 

On the ist July, 1922, there took place a reorganization 
of the administrative divisions of the country {cf. 
Part v., § i). 

On the 24th July, 1922, the Council of the League of 
Nations approved the Mandate for Palestine, the text of 
which is printed in the appendix to this volume. 




§ I. Race and Language. 

Palestine, the land which has given to the world Judaism 
and Christianity and has played an important part in the 
early development of Islam, is now inhabited by representa- 
tives of many races. The largest element of the population 
is composed of Arabs and Syrians,^ both separately and 
in every degree of combination. The language of this m 
element is Arabic ; its religions are Islam and Chris ti- 11 
anity. Next in numerical strength are the Jews, whose 
languages will be referred to below. Immigration in the 
nineteenth and twentieth centuries has contributed the 
bulk of the present Jewish population of Palestine ; the sole 
representatives of ancient Israel continuously inhabiting ■ 
the country are to be found in the small remnant of the 
Samaritans {cf. infra). Other races are only represented 
on a small scale, and will be referred to below under their 
religious classifications. , 

§ 2. Population. 

No census has been taken in Palestine since the country 
has come under British administration, and it is there- 
fore impossible to give in this edition of the Handbook 

^ For the definition of the wider sense in which the term " Syrian " is used here, 
see below, § 3. 



anything more than approximate estimates of the popu- 

The population of Palestine (exclusive of Trans-jordania 
and exclusive of the British garrison) is estimated as follows 
(1922) : 

Moslems - - - - 583,188 

Christians - - - - 84,559 

Jews ----- 79,293 

Druses ----- 7,034 

Metawileh - - - - 160 

Baha'is _ . - - 158 

Samaritans - - - - 157 

Total, - 754.549 

The Moslem total includes not only Arabs and Syrians, 
but a number of Circassian, Magharbeh (North African) 
and Bosnian immigrants and a few Turkoman nomads. 

The Christian total includes adherents of the Orthodox, 
Roman Catholic, Greek Uniate (Melchite), Anglican, Arme- 
nian (Gregorian), Armenian Uniate, Jacobite, Jacobite 
Uniate (Syrian), Coptic, Abyssinian, Abyssinian Uniate, 
Maronite, Chaldaean (Nestorian Uniate), Lutheran and other 

The British population (exclusive of the garrison) is 
estimated at 1,100 souls. 

The density of the population is about 80 to the square 

Principal Towns. — The following towns have a popula- 
tion of 10,000 and over (the figures are approximate) : 


Jerusalem - - - - 64,000 

Jaffa- - - - - 45,100 

Haifa - - - - 39,000 

Nablus - -• - - 20,600 

Hebron _ _ - - 16,300 

Gaza - - - - 15,000 

Safed - - . - - 12,500 

Ramleh - - - - 1 0,000 


§ 3. Arabs and Syrians. 

The Arab population falls naturally into two categories, 
the nomads {bedawi), and the settled Arabs {hadari). The 
former are the purer in blood, being the direct descendants 
of the half-savage nomadic tribes who from time immemorial 
have inhabited the Arabian peninsula, and who to this day 
dwell in portable tents of black goats' hair (' the tents of 
Kedar '). The camps of the different tribes vary in form : 
some, such as those of the Ta'amireh, are as a rule rect- 
angular, others are circular, others oval. Small in numbers, 
the tribes generally avoid open places for their camps, not 
only for shelter but in order not to be conspicuous ; for 
similar reasons they pitch their camps at some distance 
from their watering places. Natural caves in the wadis 
are preferred by some families [e.g. at Mar Saba), as they 
afford better shelter and protection. There is little or no 
cohesion between the various tribes. Their watering places 
are springs, standing pools of rain water, and cisterns 
roughly cut in the rock in the valley bottoms. On the 
border between ' the desert and the sown ' the people tend 
to change their mode of life ; the nomads become partly or 
wholly sedentary, the sedentary become semi-nomadic. 
Thus the people on the western edge of the Judaean Desert, 
as, for example, the Ta'amireh, who were ovigimWy fellahin, 
take their cattle out into the desert and live a nomadic life ; 
on the other hand, genuine Beduin in the desert regions, 
such as the Rasha'iden of 'Ain Jidi, remain so long in certain 
places as to become almost sedentary. 

The Beduin are for the most part Moslems, but are on 
the whole less devout than the settled Arabs. Some of 
the Beduin, especially around Salt and Madaba in Trans- 
jordania, still retain the Christianity which they adopted 
in the early centuries of the Christian era. 

A negroid element is found among the inhabitants of the 
tropical Ghor region in the lower Jordan Valley and around 
the Dead Sea. The presence of these people is attributed 
by some to a settlement from the Sudan, by others to the 


introduction of negro slaves purchased at Mecca by pilgrims 
and retailed at Ma'an. 

The settled Arabs are of more mixed descent than the 
Beduin, and form the link between these and the Syrians, 
by whom we understand the descendants of all those 
peoples, other than the Jews, who spoke Aramaic at the 
beginning of the Christian era. Some of these have retained 
their Christianity, but the majority have in the course of 
ages embraced Islam. The Aramaic language, after holding 
its ground for a considerable time in Palestine and Syria, 
ultimately gave place to Arabic (though surviving among 
the Samaritans and, as regards Syrians, in three villages 
north-east of Damascus), and this process was facilitated 
by the continuous replenishment of Palestine and Syria 
from the tribes of the Arabian Desert. This Arab infiltration 
has created and maintains the specific racial character of the 
population. The distinction between the Arabs and the 
Syrians is now not so much racial as cultural. The Syrians 
are agriculturists and dwellers in towns, civilized, industrial, 
and of peaceful inclinations ; the Arabs are a pastoral people 
organized in tribes and with a natural tendency towards 
inter- tribal warfare. Palestine and Syria offer, on their 
eastern border, examples of every stage of transition from 
the nomad Beduin to the settled fellahin ; the Arab conquest 
of the eighth century was only the flood-tide of a continuous 
overflow from the desert into the cultivated land of the West. 

§ 4. Circassians, Bosnians and Magharbeh. 

Circassians. — The Russian conquest of the Caucasus in 
the sixties of the last century caused many Moslem tribes- 
men of the Caucasus range and adjacent provinces, unwilling 
to live under Christian rule, to seek refuge in a Moslem land. 
The Treaty of Berlin in 1878 gave an added impetus to this 
movement, and 'Abdu'l Hamid cleverly made use of the 
circumstances to plant colonies of these virile and truculent 
fighting races on the desert fringes and marches of his 
empire. He established a number of colonies of these 


people, generically termed Circassians, but including besides 
Circassians proper members of several other tribes, on the 
eastern border of Syria and Palestine and in what is now 
termed Trans-jordania. There are at present about 900 
Circassians in Palestine, and a number have latterly been 
enrolled in the Gendarmerie. 

Bosnians. — Similarly, upon the occupation of Bosnia and 
Hercegovina by Austria in 1878, a number of Moslem 
Bosnians (who are Islamized Serbs), elected to emigrate 
into Turkish territory. The Turkish authorities granted 
facilities to them, and established some families within the 
ruined city of Caesarea, where the community, now number- 
ing 331 souls, continues to cultivate its lands. 

Magharbeji. — The influx of Moslems from North Africa 
into Syria and Palestine began in the early years of the 
eighteenth century, when the mercenary infantry of the 
pashas was composed in part of these people. Some had, 
indeed, been established in Jerusalem from religious motives 
from a yet earlier period ; while others followed in the 
nineteenth century in consequence of the French conquest 
of Algeria. There is a large and ancient settlement of 
Magharbeh in the low-lying part of the old city of Jeru- 
salem, situated between the Wailing Wall of the Jews and 
the Dung Gate, also called the ' Gate of the Magharbeh ' ; 
its inhabitants were established there by the charity of the 
Abu Madian waqf. In Galilee the number of Magharbeh 
is estimated at 1,900. 

§ 5. I slant in Palestine. 

With the exception of small Shiah colonies (see below 

under ' Metawileh ' ) the Moslems' of Palestine are Sunnis 

(Traditionists) , divided among the four rites {mazhah) 

approximately in the following proportions : 

Shafi - - - - 70% 

Hanbali - - - 19% 

Hanafi _ _ _ 10% 

Maliki , , , lO/^ 


Under the Ottoman Government the Hanafi was the 
estabhshed rite, it being to this school that the majority of 
Turks belong. 

Jerusalem, chronologically the first qibleh (point of 
adoration) of Islam, is almost as sacred in the eyes of 
Moslems as are Mecca and Medina ; and from the early ages 
of Islam Quds al-Sherif, to give the city its Moslem name, 
has been a place of pilgrimage for the entire Mohammedan 
world . According to Moslem belief it is from Jerusalem that 
Mohammed was translated to heaven. There are in Jeru- 
salem old-established tekyes (convents) set apart for North 
African, Indian, Afghan, Bokharan, Sudanese and other 
Moslem pilgrims. 

Shrines. — There are three Moslem shrines of the first 
importance, beside many lesser ones, in Palestine, namely 
the Dome of the Rock and the Mosque al-Aqsa in the Haram 
al-Sherif in Jerusalem, and the Mosque of Abraham, which 
encloses and surmounts the Cave of Machpelah at Hebron. 
These monuments will be farther described in Part III. 

Sharia Council and Courts. — Arising out of a series of 
conferences of Moslem 'Ulema and notables there was 
established, by the High Commissioner's Order of the 20th 
December, 192 1, a Supreme Moslem Sharia Council, to have 
authority over all Moslem waqfs and Sharia Courts in 
Palestine. The Council consists of a President, known as 
the Rais al-'Ulema (Haj Emin al-Huseini, elected in 1922), 
and four members, of whom two represent the District of 
Jerusalem, one Nablus, and one Acre. The Rais al-'Ulema 
is permanent President of the Council, the four members 
being elected by an electoral college for a period of four 
years. Embodied in the High Commissioner's Order are 
the regulations, drawn up by a Moslem Committee, laying 
down the functions and powers of the Council. 

For details of the Sharia Courts see Part Y.,A dministration 
of Justice. 

Waqfs. — Moslem religious endowments {waqfs), that is, 
property appropriated or dedicated (by a document called a 
waqfiah) to charitable uses and the service of God, are 


divided as regards their administration into two categories, 
those formerly administered or supervised by the Ottoman 
Ministry of Evqaf, and those which are independent of 
Government control. Of the endowments formerly under 
the control of the Ministry there are two classes : 

(i) Mazhuta waqfs, or waqfs administered and controlled 
directly by officials of the Ministry of Evqaf ; 

(ii) Mulhaqa waqfs, or waqfs which were under the general 
supervision of the Ministry, but were not under their direct 
administration. This class of foundation is a family settle- 
ment corresponding in general with an English trust. 

Under the Turkish regime the administration of the 
waqfs of the Sanjaq of Jerusalem (the Qazas of Jerusalem, 
Jaffa, Gaza and Beersheba) was in charge of a Mudir 
(Director) posted in Jerusalem ; in the Sanjaqs of Nablus 
(the Qazas of Nablus, Jenin and Beisan) and Acre (Haifa, 
Acre, Nazareth, Tiberias and Safed) it was under a Mudir 
at Beirut, with Mamurs (assistants) stationed at Acre and 
Nablus. On the occupation of Southern Palestine by the 
British troops a Waqf Committee was formed in Jerusalem, 
and was afterwards made the directing authority for all 
Waqfs in Palestine and styled ' The General Waqf Com- 
mittee.' The Committee was charged with the administra- 
tion of and the preparation of the estimates for all Mazbuta 
waqfs ; and with the supervision of Mulhaqa waqfs. The 
estimates were approved by the Chief Administrator, and 
the accounts subjected to Government audit. 

By the High Commissioner's Order of the 20th December, 
1 92 1, referred to above, all waqfs are placed under the control 
of the Supreme Moslem Sharia Council, which has autono- 
mous powers conferred upon it. The estimates and accounts 
are forwarded to the Government for its information only. 

The chief source of revenue of Moslem endowments is the 
tithe. Tithe was dedicated as waqf hy the Sultans or, with 
their permission, by feudal chiefs, from the earliest times 
of the Islamic conquests. It forms 55 per cent, of the 
revenue of the Moslem religious endowments in Palestine, 
and the waqf tithe is approximately 12.75 per cent. 


of the total tithe revenue of the country. The revenue 
department collects the waqf share of the dedicated 
tithes, handing over the proceeds to the Supreme Moslem 
Council. For the financial year ended 31st March, 192 1, 
the collections on behalf of Moslem endowments amounted 
to LE.27,649 ; and for the financial year 1921-22 have 
considerably exceeded this sum owing to the restitu- 
tion of the Khasqi Sultan Waqf by the Government 
to the Waqf authorities. This famous waqf, which 
was founded by the mother of Sultan Suleyman the 
Magnificent in 1547, was seized by Ibrahim Pasha when he 
occupied Palestine and Syria in 1831 (see Part I., § 6) and 
was retained by the Ottoman Government when it resumed 
control of the country in 1841. The return of its revenue, 
which amounts to c. LE. 10,400 per annum, to the objects 
of dedication has demonstrated the impartiality of the 
present Administration, and has favourably influenced 
Moslem opinion throughout Palestine. 

One of the oldest Mulhaqa waqfs in Palestine is the 
Tamimi waqf at Hebron. This waqf, it is claimed, was 
dedicated to the Tamimi family by the Prophet Mohammed 
himself. Another important (tithe) waqf, also connected 
with Hebron, is one attached to the Mosque of Abraham 
mentioned above. Its average annual revenue amounts 
to LE. 15,000. 

The waqf receipts for the financial year 1921-22 are 
estimated at LE.43,297, the expenditure being fixed at the 
same sum. The tithes of Mulhaqa waqfs are excluded from 
the above calculations, the Mutawalis (Trustees) undertak- 
ing their direct collection. They amount approximately to 

§ 6. The Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. 

History. — The Bishopric of Jerusalem, out of which the 
Patriarchate subsequently arose, counted its bishops from 
S. James the Less, the ' Brother of the Lord,' and was 
in Apostolic times the centre of the Jewish Christian 


community. When, after the destruction of Jerusalem in 
70 A.D., Caesarea became the civil capital of Palestine, the 
Church followed the Government, and the Bishop of ^Elia 
Capitolina became only a local bishop under the Metropoli- 
tan of Caesarea. Nevertheless, his peculiar position as bishop 
of the most sacred city of Christendom was recognized by 
the Council of Nicaea with the grant of ' the succession of 
honour ' ; and at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 the see 
was raised to the dignity of a Patriarchate, the other Patri- 
archates being Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria and 
Antioch. At the conquest of Jerusalem in 637 by the Khalif 
'Omar, Sophronius was Patriarch. Sophronius begged to 
be allowed to surrender the city to the Khalif in person. 
'Omar agreed, travelled with one single attendant to 
Jerusalem, promised the Christians the possession of their 
churches and freedom of worship on the usual condition— 
a poll-tax — and then entered the city side by side with the 
Patriarch, discussing its antiquities.' ^ 

On the division between East and West the Patriarch 
of Jerusalem, as one of the four remaining Patriarchs, 
became one of the four Heads of the Holy Orthodox Eastern 
Church. The Crusades caused the Orthodox Church to give 
way before the Latin, and for many centuries thereafter the 
Patriarchs were content to reside in Constantinople, whence 
they only returned to Jerusalem in 1867 .under Cyril H. 
In 1672, however, was held the important Synod of Jeru- 
salem, which made the last notable official pronounce- 
ment of the Orthodox Church in matters of faith. 

Present condition. — The British civil administration of 
Palestine found, on its assumption of office, the Patriarchate 
of Jerusalem in a state of tribulation, partly owing to 
financial difficulties caused by the cessation of financial 
supplies from Russia, partly owing to a deadlock which had 
arisen between the Patriarch Damianos and his Synod. 
The Government accordingly appointed a Commission, 
consisting of Sir Anton Bertram, Chief Justice of Ceylon, 
and Mr. H. C. Luke, Assistant Governor of Jerusalem, to 

' Fortescue, The Orthodcx Eastern Church. 


inquire into and if possible find a solution for these diffi- 
culties. The Commissioners, whose report was published 
by the Oxford University Press in 1921, found in favour 
of the Patriarch on the constitutional issue. 

The Patriarch, whose jurisdiction is practically co- 
extensive with Palestine and Trans-jordania, and whose 
flock consists of 40,000 to 80,000 Orthodox, almost wholly 
Arabic-speaking, is assisted in his duties by a number of 
titular bishops, who bear the title of Metropolitan or 
Archbishop. These prelates have no real diocesan juris- 
diction, their function being either to represent the Patriarch 
in the Districts or to assist in the ecclesiastical ceremonies 
in Jerusalem. The titular sees thus held at present 
(1922) are the following : — Metropolitans : Ptolemais, 
Nazareth ; Archbishops : Lydda, Mount Tabor, Gaza, 
Kyriacoupolis, Philadelphia, Neapolis, the Jordan, 
Sebasteia, Tiberias, Diocaesarea, Hierapolis, Madaba, 
Pella, Eleutheropolis. 

The Patriarchs since the beginning of the last century 
have been : Anthimos, 1788- 1807 ; Polycarp, 1808- 1827 ; 
Athanasios IV., 1827-1845 ; Cyril II., 1845-1872 ; Pro- 
copios, 1872-1877 ; Hierotheos, 1879-1882 ; Nikodemos, 
1882-1889 ; Gerasimos, 1890-1897 ; Damianos, 1897-. 

For the history of this Patriarchate, see the Report of 
Bertram and Luke above referred to ; Fortescue's Orthodox 
Church ; Archdeacon Dowling, The Patriarchate of Jeru- 
salem, London, 1908; and Papadopoulos, 'lo-ro/aia t?]^ 
'EKKA?^trtas 'le/jocroAv/xwi', Jerusalem, 1910. 

§ 7. The Latin Church in Palestine. 

Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem. — The Roman Catholic 
Church was officially established in Palestine on the capture 
of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade, the first 
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem being Daimbert, Archbishop 
of Pisa. For the ensuing two centuries the history of the 
Patriarchate is largely that of the Latin Kingdom of Jeru- 
salem ; on the capture of the city by Saladin in 1187 the 


Patriarchs established themselves in Acre ; and, when that 
fortress fell in 1291, the Patriarchate ceased effectively to 
exist, although ten more de jure occupants of the see, 
including one Englishman, Antony Beake, Bishop of 
Durham (Patriarch, 1305-1311), were appointed. The 
dignity of Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem then became a 
purely titular one, accorded to prelates of the Roman 
Curia, and so remained until the de facto revival of the see 
in 1847. 

Custodia of Terra Santa. — During the five and a half 
centuries in which the Patriarchate was in abeyance the 
Latin Holy Places in Palestine were in the charge of the 
Franciscan Order under the ' Most Reverend Father 
Custodian of Terra Santa,' who was and is the Superior of 
the Franciscan establishments in Palestine, Syria, Egypt, 
and Cyprus. The Father Custodian during this period had 
quasi-episcopal jurisdiction, could administer confirmation 
and the minor Orders, conferred the Latin Order of the 
Holy Sepulchre on behalf of its Grand Master, the Pope, 
and had the right to maintain a merchant marine flying 
the flag of Terra Santa (argent a cross potent between four 
crosses crosslet gules). 

Revival of the Patriarchate. — In 1847 Pope Pius IX. 
re-established the Patriarchate as a resident see, and the 
Patriarchs resumed these special rights from the Custodia. 
The Latin Patriarchs of Jerusalem are now Lieutenants of 
the Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre, in 
whose name they are entitled to bestow the Order. 

The Patriarchs since 1847 have been : Giuseppe Valerga, 
1847-1872 ; Vincenzo Bracco, 1873-1889 ; Ludovico Piavi, 
1889-1905 ; Filippo Camassei, K.B.E. (afterwards Cardinal), 
1906-1919 ; Luigi Barlassina, 1920-. 

The Custodia To-day. — The Fathers Custodians are 
appointed for a period of six years by the General of the 
Franciscan Order and are always of Italian nationality. 
They are assisted by a French Vicar, a Spanish Procurator, 
and a Council of Four composed of an Englishman, a 
Frenchman, an Italian and a Spaniard. Much valuable 


historical material in the possession of the Custodia has been 
since 1906 in course of publication by Fr. G. Golubovich, 
O.F.M., under the title of Biblioteca Bio-Bibliografica della 
Terra Santa e dell' Oriente Franciscano. 

Beligious Orders. — In addition to the Franciscans, many 
Roman Catholic religious Orders are represented in 
Palestine. Among these are the Discalced Carmelites, who 
take their name from the parent house on Mt. Carmel ; the 
Dominicans, with their admirable library and Biblical 
School in the Convent of S. Stephen, Jerusalem ; the 
Benedictines, Salesians, White Fathers, Lazarists, Passion- 
ists and Assumptionists. Among the Orders for women 
are the Franciscans, Benedictines, Carmelites, Clarisses, 
Dames de Sion, Sceurs Reparatrices, Soeurs de S. Vincent 
de Paul, and others. 

§ 8. The Uniate Churches. 

The Uniate Churches (Eastern Churches acknowledging 
the general supremacy of the Pope, but preserving in a 
greater or lesser degree their own liturgies and customs) 
represented in Palestine are the following : Melchites, 
Maronites, Armenian Uniates, Nestorian Uniates or Chal- 
daeans, Jacobite Uniates or Syrians and Abyssinian Uniates. 
These churches are represented in Palestine by very small 
flocks, principally resident in Jerusalem. 

The most considerable of these communities as regards 
Palestine is that of the Melchites, who have a seminary 
connected with the Church of S. Anne in Jerusalem, 
governed since 1878 by the White Fathers. The Melchite 
Patriarch of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem (Mgr. 
Kadi) generally lives in Damascus ; a Melchite Archbishop 
of Galilee resides at Haifa. 

The Armenian Uniates possess a handsome cathedral in 
Jerusalem (Our Lady of the Spasm), and are under a Vicar- 
General ; from 1855 to 1867 there was an Armenian Uniate 
Archbishop of Jerusalem. 


§ 9. The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem. 

From early times there has been a Bishop of the Armenian 
(Gregorian) Church in Jerusalem, where the Armenians have 
a community of some hundreds and enjoy the ownership 
or part-ownership of several of the Holy Places. Their 
Cathedral of S. James the Less, together with a vast Patri- 
archate, schools, chapels, and gardens, occupies most of the 
south-west corner of the old city. In the seventh century, 
according to some authorities, the Armenian Bishops of 
Jerusalem obtained the title of Patriarch ; and there is 
record of the Patriarch Zacharias being taken prisoner by 
Chosroes. In 1006 the Patriarch was Arsen ; in 131 1, Sarkis 
(Sergius). The jurisdiction of the Armenian Patriarch of 
Jerusalem extends over the Gregorian Armenians in Pales- 
tine, Cyprus, and parts of Syria. In September, 1921, His 
Beatitude Yeghiche Turian, ex-Patriarch of Constantinople, 
was elected Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem, after the 
throne had been vacant for eleven years, and was enthroned 
on the 7th November following after receiving the formal 
approval of the King to his appointment. This was the first 
occasion on which a British Sovereign officially approved 
the election of an Eastern Patriarch. 

§ 10. Jacobites, Copts and Ahyssinians. 


The Jacobite Bishopric of Jerusalem. — The Jacobites 
take their name from Jacob Baradai, who built up a Mono- 
physite Church in Syria in the sixth century. They are in 
communion with the Copts. Their rite is a Syriac form of 
the ancient rite of Antioch, with the liturgy attributed to 
S. James the Less. We first hear of a Jacobite Bishop of 
Jerusalem at the end of the sixth century (Severus), and 
from 11 40 onwards the succession is regularly maintained. 
For centuries the office of Bishop of Jerusalem was combined 
with that of ' Mafrian,' .who was the principal auxiliary of 
the Jacobite Patriarch of Antioch. The present Jacobite 


Bishop of Jerusalem is the Right Rev. Awanis Ehas, con- 
secrated in 1896. He is assisted by a Suffragan, and his 
residence is the convent built around the traditional house 
of S. Mark in Jerusalem. 

The Copts. — The first Coptic Metropolitan of Jerusalem 
was appointed in the middle of the thirteenth century, since 
when there has been a regular succession, although at 
present the Metropolitan spends most of his time in Egypt, 
being represented in Palestine during his absences by a 
Vicar-General. The episcopal residence adjoins the eastern 
end of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and there is a 
large Coptic Convent at Jaffa, principally intended for the 
accommodation of Coptic pilgrims from Egypt. 

The Abyssinians. — The Abyssinians have preserved, in 
the heart of Africa and surrounded by Moslem and pagan 
peoples, the Christianity, to which they were converted in 
the fourth century. They are Monophysites and in com- 
munion with the Copts, from whom they receive their chief 
Bishop {Abuna). The Abyssinians, in common with the 
other Christian episcopal churches, are represented in 
Jerusalem, where they have several convents, including 
one situated on the roof of S. Helena's Chapel in the Holy 

§ II. The Anglican Diocese of Jerusalem. 

The History of the Bishopric. — The Jerusalem Bishopric 
is the oldest of the twenty-one dioceses throughout the 
world which do not come within any ecclesiastical province, 
but are directly under the metropolitical jurisdiction of 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. Indeed, the ' Jerusalem 
Bishopric Act,' passed in 1841 to sanction the consecration 
(in England) of Bishops for places outside the British 
Dominions, was used not only for the first consecration of 
an Anglican Bishop in Jerusalem, but under its provisions 
all other such Bishops have since been consecrated, the King 
giving his Mandate to the Archbishop of Canterbury in each 


The aims and procedure of the founders of the original 
Bishopric in 1841 are not without interest. 

The failure of several attempts on the part of Lutheran 
Germany to secure episcopal orders through Rome led 
King Frederick William IV. of Prussia to approach England 
with the purpose of founding a Bishopric in Jerusalem in 
the hope of attaining that object, and in 184 1 it was founded. 
Its income was provided by ;^6oo a year, the interest of an 
endowment fund raised in England, and a further ;^6oo, the 
interest of a capital sum set aside from the privy purse of 
the King of Prussia. The nomination to the See thus 
provided for was alternately with England and Prussia ; 
the Archbishop of Canterbury nominating for England to 
the Crown, and having the right of veto on the Prussian 

The Bishopric, as then founded, was unpopular with many 
churchmen on account of its connexion with a non-episcopal 
communion, and from their failure to appreciate the dif- 
ference between episcopal jurisdiction as exercised in the 
West, where it is territorial, and in the East, where several 
Bishops rule in the same area, each over members of their 
own communion. This led to the unfounded fear that there 
was an intrusion on the rights of the Orthodox Patriarch as 
Bishop of Jerusalem. 

A further failure to obtain episcopal orders for the 
Lutherans resulted in the withdrawal of Prussia from 
the contract (together with the portion of income 
guaranteed by the King) on the death of Bishop Barclay | 
in 1 88 1, when the Bishopric fell into abeyance for nearly 
six years. 

After considerable inquiry and much careful thought 
Archbishop Benson revived the See as an Anglican 
Bishopric ; and Dr. Blyth, then Archdeacon of Rangoon, 
was consecrated Bishop of the Church of England in Jeru- 
salem on the 25th March, 1887, the Orthodox Patriarch of 
Jerusalem having said that it was ' necessary that a Bishop 
of the Church of England . . . should be placed in this Holy 
City.' Ever since that date the Anglican Bishopric has 


been growing more and more part of the religious life of the 
city, until it now holds a position which is unique in oppor- 
tunity for promoting a good understanding among its many 

The Aims of the Bishopric. — The aims of the Bishopric 
may be summed up as follows : 

"To represent the Anglican Church as worthily as possible 
amongst the other Churches represented in the Holy City ; 
to cultivate relations of friendship and sympathy with the 
ancient Churches of the East, always remembering the 
Redeemer's prayer, ' that they all may be one ' ; to provide 
churches and chaplains for Anglican communities within 
the diocese ; and to present the Christian Faith in its 
fulness to non-Christians and to commend the Faith by 
two special means, the training and education of the young 
and the healing of the sick." 

The Bishop's Mission, known as the 'Jerusalem and the 
East Mission,' is taking a prominent part in the education 
of young Palestinians, both by means of its own schools 
and by joint action with other societies in carrying on the 
English College for young men and the British High School 
for Girls in Jerusalem. 

Jurisdiction of the Bishopric. — The Bishop's jurisdiction 
extends over the congregations and interests of the Anglican 
Church in Palestine and Syria, in part of Asia Minor and in 
the Island of Cyprus. Until the end of 1920 it also included 
Egypt and the Sudan, but those countries were then formed 
into a separate, independent diocese under the Bishop of 
Khartum. In addition to the Cathedral Church of S. 
George the Martyr in Jerusalem, built by the late Bishop 
Blyth, there are other churches and British or Palestinian 
clergy and congregations in Jerusalem, Gaza, Jaffa, Ramleh, 
Bethlehem, al-Salt (Trans-jordania), Ramallah, Nablus, 
Haifa and Nazareth, besides various other places in the 
country districts and also in Cyprus and Syria. Much of 
the work is carried on by the Church Missionary Society 
and the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst 
the Jews. 


List of the Anglican Bishops. — Michael Solomon Alex- 
ander, 1841-1845 ; Samuel Gobat, 1846-1879 ; Joseph 
Barclay, 1 879-1 881 ; George Francis Popham Blyth, 1887- 
1914 ; Rennie Maclnnes, 1914-. 

The English Order of S. John of Jerusalem — This Order 
is represented in Palestine by an admirable ophthalmic 
hospital overlooking the Valley of Hinnom in Jerusalem. 
The Order has fitted up the Chapel of S. John of Jerusalem 
in S. George's Cathedral, in Jerusalem, and enjoys, through 
the courtesy of the Orthodox Patriarch, the privilege of 
celebrating services in the crypt of the Orthodox Church 
of S. John the Baptist in the old city. 

§ 12. The ' American Colony.' 

A characteristic community of Jerusalem is that known 
as the ' American Colony.* This community was estab- 
lished in Jerusalem in 1881 by a lawyer of Chicago, Horatio 
Spafford, and his wife, and at that time consisted of 14 
adults. Its membership is now 90, drawn from 10 different 
nationalities, among which citizens of the United States 
and Swedes preponderate. The aims of the colony are 
religious, and are based on non-dogmatic Christianity. The 
colony, which is financially self-supporting, performs useful 
charitable and educational work by maintaining an orphan- 
age and an industrial school. 

§ 13. The German Templar Community. 

The name of this community, which has no connexion « 
with the Knights Templar, is derived from Ephesians ii., 21. 
The Templars originated in the middle of the nineteenth 
century in the Kingdom of WUrttemberg under the leader- 
ship of the brothers William and Christopher Hoffman. 
The Templars considered their task to be, in the first place, 
to erect the ideal Christian community in the ' land of 
promise,' and thence to regenerate the social and religious 


life of Europe. They reject the ordinary dogmas of Chris- 
tianity and base their rehgious theories largely on Old 
Testament prophecies. Their first colony was founded at 
Haifa in 1868, the second immediately afterwards in Jaffa; 
and they also have colonies in Jerusalem, Sarona and 
Wilhelma (near Jaffa), and Beit-Lahm, near Nazareth. 
They are excellent agriculturists. 

§ 14. The Jews. 

Judaism in Palestine after 70 a.d. — The destruction of 
Jerusalem and the Temple at the hands of the Romans in 
70 A.D. marked the material ruin of the Jewish nation in 
Palestine. But it survived spiritually. The Jews no 
longer had a national territory to govern ; nevertheless they 
still had a great national literature to preserve, to expound 
and to propagate. Rabbi Johannan ben Zakkai founded 
at Jabneh a new Jewish centre where the hakhamim (the 
' learned ') toiled to collect their spiritual possessions, to 
tabulate and correlate the religious Law {Tor ah), both that 
which was written and that which was traditional. These 
hakhamim organized themselves into what was an academic 
imitation of the Sanhedrin, but they naturally had no 
power beyond that with which the piety of their co- 
religionists chose to invest them. 

The collapse of the rebellion under Bar Cochba (135 a.d.) 
and the persecuting edicts of Septimus Severus caused the 
remnant of the Jews in Judaea to seek a fresh home. A 
large proportion settled in Galilee, and there, for some two 
centuries, the rabbinic Sanhedrin under its Nasi (' Prince ') 
and Ah beth din {' Father of the Law Court ') carried out its 
functions. Its home changed from*time to time : we hear 
of it first at Usha, then at Sepphoris, and finally at Tiberias. 
Its labours are preserved to us in the Mishna (a codifica- 
tion, roughly according to subject-matter, of the legal 
prescriptions of the Pentateuch, together with much 
discussion over debatable points, interpretations and 
corollaries), the Palestinian Talmud (an explanation of the 

L.P. D 


Mishna and a mass of more or less relevant additional™! 
matter), and kindred literary output. The compilers of 
the earlier period are known as the Tannaim ; those of the 
later, Amor aim. 

With the Christianization of the Roman Empire and the 
increase in numbers and power of the Christians in Palestine 
after Constantine the Great (312-337 a.d.), Palestinian 
Judaism weakened and almost disappeared, and its spiritual 
centre shifted to Babylonia, where it long continued to 
flourish. Theodosius abolished the ' Sanhedrin ' (425 a.d.), 
and Palestine became a Christian country. Tiberias, how- 
ever, still continued for some centuries to be a centre of 
Hebrew learning, and it was here, in the ninth century, that 
the system of vocalization now in use in Hebrew Bibles 
received its final shape. 

Throughout the Middle Ages the Jewish population in 
Palestine remained a negligible quantity. Benjamin of 
Tudela visited the country in 11 70-1 and found only about 
1440 Jews. Moses ben Nahman Girondi in 1267 reports 
the existence of only two Jewish families in Jerusalem, 
engaged as dyers ; as a result of Moses ben Nahman's 
efforts one of the old synagogues in Jerusalem was rebuilt, 
more families settled in the town, a Rabbinical College was 
set up and Jewish students began to resort to Jerusalem 
from neighbouring countries. Apart from Jerusalem, 
Jewish centres developed in Safed, Acre, Ramleh and 

During the following century the condition of the Jews 
greatly improved, both numerically and economically, and 
at the beginning of the fifteenth century the immigration 
of Jews from Germany is first reported ; these founded a 
settlement in JerusaleA, which was afterwards destroyed 
by the native Jews. 

It was the expulsion of the Jews from Spain (^492) and 
Portugal (1495) which first created a ' ^Return ' on a con- 
siderable and effective scale. Many of the refugees were 
men of wealth, and more were men of learning. Little more 
than a generation saw the Jewish community in Palestine 


some ten thousand in number, with the influence and 
leadership in the hands of Sephardim, as the Jews from 
Spain were called. A strong rival to Jerusalem quickly 
grew up in the north Galilean town of Safed. The Jews of 
Spain had brought with them that mystical method of thought 
and Biblical interpretation known as Kabhdld, and in 
Safed Kabbalistic literature was studied and its professors 
acquired fame throughout the whole of Jewry. It may be 
noted that it was here, in 1563, that the first printing press 
was set up in Palestine, by the brothers Abraham and 
Isaac Ashkenazi. 

With the addition of Palestine to the Turkish Empire by 
Selim I., in 15 17, the Holy Land became more accessible to 
all the Jews of the East, and large numbers of other Sephar- 
dim, who had previously found a refuge in North Africa and 
Egypt, settled in Jerusalem. Throughout the subsequent 
half century the conditions remained good, with occasional 
changes for the worse consequent on the whims of individual 

The Kabbalistic movement at Safed was closely wrapped 
up with the idea of the speedy coming of Messiah and the 
redemption of the Jewish race. The latter half of the 
sixteenth century saw the development of 'Ascetic Kabbala' 
(Kabbdld ma'asith), the adaptation of ideas derived from 
the earlier ' Speculative Kabbala ' {Kabbdld 'lyyunith) to a 
rigorous life of penitential discipline : the more intense 
the asceticism, the sooner would come the Redeemer. The 
leader of this movement was Isaac Luria, and the publishing 
of his teachings by his pupil Hayyim Vital gave them a 
widespread influence throughout the entire Diaspora and 
created the atmosphere favourable to the False Messiahs 
who, from time to time, appeared during the following 
century, culminating in the sensational career of Shabbatai 
Zevi (Jerusalem, 1663 a.d.). 

One other event, only, need be recorded as of paramount 
importance in the Jewish life of Palestine. Consequent on 
earthquakes, famines and persecutions, the economic 
position of the Jews in the Holy Land had become pre- 


carious. Thereupon, in 1601, the leaders of the Jewish 
congregations in Venice came to their aid with ' A Fund 
for the Support of the Inhabitants of the Holy Land.' The 
same course was followed by the Jews in Poland, Bohemia 
and Germany. This was the origin of the Halukka system, 
which only in the last few years has ceased to be a prime 
factor in the economic life of the Palestinian Jews. This 
Halukka {' division,' ' dole ') was a scanty financial subsidy 
distributed amongst the Jews of the Holy Land to support 
them while they led a life of study and prayer on behalf of ._ 
their fellow- Jews of the Dispersion. ll 

Recent Jewish Immigration. — In 1839 the Jews of 
Palestine were reported to number about 12,000. In 1880 
they were estimated at 35,000, in 1900 at 70,000 ; and at 
the outbreak of the war at about 85,000. It was about 
1880 that Jewish immigration was resumed on an appreci-J 
able scale, and since this period most of the Jewish! 
immigrants have been Ashkenazim from Central and| 
Eastern Europe. The Balfour Declaration has, of course, 
given a considerable impetus to further Jewish immigration 
from all parts of the Jewish Diaspora. 

In addition to the Ashkenazim and Sephardim there are 
in Palestine, and particularly in Jerusalem, other Jewish 
communities, attracted to the country by its sacred 
associations. One of the most interesting of these is the 
colony of so-called Bokhara Jews in Jerusalem, consisting 
of picturesquely clad Jews from the Khanates of Bokhara 
and Khiva, and from Samarkand in Russian Turkestan. 
These people speak Hebrew or Persian Yiddish, and write 
in a peculiar and handsome variety of Hebrew cursive' 
script ; they claim to be the descendants of Jews who 
emigrated from Babylon to Persia and thence to Central 
Asia, where they have been established since the time of 

Another element deserving of mention is the colony of 
Yemenite Jews, who speak both Hebrew and Arabic, and 
have been cut off from the rest of the world since the rise 
of Islam in the seventh century of our era. They are q. 



remnant of those large Jewish nomadic or semi-nomadic 
communities, many of them autonomous, which existed 
throughout Arabia in the time of Mohammed. They have 
maintained themselves absolutely distinct and orthodox in 
religion in the Yemen for many centuries, and have acted 
as metal workers, craftsmen and carpenters for their Arab 
rulers. In the course of the last twenty years or so a 
number of these people have been returning to Palestine, 
which now numbers about 4,000 Yemenite Jews. 

In the village of al-Bukeia (Pekiin) in the sub-district of 
Acre is a small community of Arabized Jews, indistinguish- 
able from their Arab neighbours except by their religion, 
and claiming a continuous history of many centuries in that 

The survival in Jerusalem should be chronicled of an 
infinitesimal number of Qaraites, whose headquarters at 
present are in the Crimea. The Qaraites separated from 
the main body of Jews in the eighth century a.d., and re- 
ject the Talmud. The small mediaeval semi-underground 
synagogue of the Qaraites in the old city of Jerusalem is 
not without interest. 

Languages. — While the usual language of the Ashkenazim 
is Yiddish or ' jargon ' (a foundation of Middle High German, 
to which are added a few common Hebrew words, and then 
a multitude of foreign words according to the taste and 
linguistic surroundings of the speaker), and that of the 
Sephardim either Arabic or, more usually, that mixture of 
fifteenth century Castilian and Hebrew known as Judaeo- 
Spanish or Ladino, the use of Hebrew as a spoken and 
written secular language has made enormous strides in 
recent years, largely owing to the impetus which the Zionist 
movement has given to its revival. ' The Hebrew 
Language,' to quote the High Commissioner's Interim 
Report on Palestine for 1920-21, ' which, except for pur- 
poses of ritual, had been dead for many centuries, was 
revived as a vernacular. A new vocabulary to meet the 
needs of modern life was welded into it. Hebrew is now 
the language spoken by almost all the younger generation 


of Jews in Palestine and by a large proportion of their 
elders. The Jewish newspapers are published in it. It is 
the language of instruction in the schools and colleges, the 
language used for sermons in the synagogues, for political 
speeches and for scientific lectures.' 

Organization. — When the British civil administration 
was set up in Palestine, the Jewish community in the 
country possessed no recognized ecclesiastical organization. 
In 1 92 1, on the invitation of the Government, the Jews of 
Palestine established an elective Rabbinical Council, which 
embodies a lay element and is under the presidency of two 
joint Chief Rabbis (Abraham ha-Kohen Kuk and Jacob 
Meir), the one representing the Ashkenazim, the other 
the Sephardim. 

The Jewish community of Palestine is organized for lay 
purposes both centrally and locally. There is a represen- 
tative Jewish Council {Va'ad L'ummi, National Council) 
which is elected by adult Jews of all communities throughout 
the country. The method of election is by adult suffrage, 
but women have not the right to be elected as members of 
the Council. The original assembly was elected in the 
autumn of 1920 and appointed an executive committee, 
which deals with the Government, in respect of internal 
matters of the Jewish community. 

In each principal town where there is a considerable 
Jewish population there is a committee {Va'ad ha-'Ir), 
which represents the local community before the local 
Government authorities, and which is recognized as the 
representative body in matters concerning the Jewish 
population. The Va'ad ha'-Ir is elected, usually by male 
suffrage. Committees of this kind exist in Jerusalem, Jaffa, 
Haifa, Tiberias, Safed and Hebron. They have been 
given the right to impose a fee on the unleavened bread, 
which is baked for the Passover Feast ; and a scheme is 
being prepared by which they will obtain the right to 
charge other fees for services affecting the Jewish popula- 
tion. In all Jewish villages there is a committee {Va'ad 
ha-Mcshabhah), which is elected, usually by adult suffrage. 


and which is concerned with the general management of 
the colony, and with the provision of common services, 
such as water and lighting, the school and the synagogue, 
the reading room and the club. 

§ 15, The Jewish Colonies. 

The Jewish agricultural colonies have grown up in the 
course of the last forty years and show a level of agri- 
cultural and scientific development far in advance of any- 
thing else of the kind in Palestine. They established 
themselves in many cases on uncultivated and unpromising 
land and have transformed it into extensively cultivated 
and remunerative plantations. They drained swamps, 
planted eucalyptus and pines, cultivated the vine, and 
greatly developed the orange trade of Jaffa. 

There are at present 61 of these colonies, large and small, 
with a population of about 17,000. The colonies are 
grouped in four districts as follows : — 

In Judaea there are 21, viz. Mikveh-Israel, Rishon le 
Zion, Ber-Jacob, Ness-Zionah, Rehoboth, Ekron, Gederah, 
Ber-Tobia, Ruhama, Petach-Tikvah, Ain-Ganim, Kfar- 
Mlal (ain-Hai), Kfar-Saba, Ben-Shemen, Hulda, Kfar 
Urieh, Artuf, Mozah, Kiryath Anavim (Dilb), Kalandiah 
and Nahlath-Yehudah. In Samaria there are lo, viz. 
Hederah, Hefzi-bah, Kerkur, Gan-Shmuel, Zicron-Yacob, 
Marah, Shveyah, Bath-Shlomon, Giveath-Binyamin (Shuni) 
and Athlit. In Lower Galilee there are 20, viz. Nahalul, 
M rhaviah, Balfouria, Ein-Harod, Giveath-Yeheskiel, Tel 
Yossef, Sedshera, Kfar-Tabor (McvSha), Yabneel (Yemma), 
Beth-Gan, Rama (Sarona), Poriah, Mizpah, Kinereth, 
Daganiah, Hittin, Migdal, Tel-Adas, Bethaniah and Mena- 
hamiah. In Upper Galilee there are 10, viz. Rosh-Pinah, 
Pekiin, Ayeleth-Hashachar, Mahnaim, Mishmar-Hayarden, 
Yessod Hamaalah, Ein-Zeitim, Kfar-Gileady, Tel-Hai and 
Metullah. Most of the colonies are provided with schools, 
synagogue, library, town hall, hospital, pharmacy and 
public baths. Of the above-mentioned the following 


settlements belong to the Jewish National Fund, which was 
established by the Zionist Organization for the purpose of 
acquiring lands to remain the national property of the 
Jewish people : Ben-Shemen, Hulda, Kfar-Mlal, Kiryath, 
Anavim (Dilb), Nahlath- Yehuda, Nahalul, Merhaviah, 
Ein-Harod, Giveath Yeheskiel, Tel-Yossef, Kinereth, 
Dagania and Hittin. The Palestine Land Development 
Company, a Society similarly organized by the Zionist 
Organization, possesses the lands of Tel Adas, Kalandiah, 
some lands on the Carmel, at Jaffa, Jerusalem, etc. The 
other colonies were mostly founded by Baron Edmond de 
Rothschild and by the Jewish Colonization Association. 
This Association administers all the properties of Baron de 
Rothschild. The total area of the Jewish settlements is 
590,020 donums or about 147,505 acres. There are 35,481 
donums (about 8,870 acres) of plantations, and among 
them : 14,777 donums (about 3,695 acres) vineyards, 
33,825 donums (about 8,456 acres) almond groves, 13,322 
donums (about 3,330 acres) olive plantations, 12,456 donums 
(about 3,114 acres) orange groves, and 4,566 donums (about 
1,141 acres) eucalyptus plantations. There are two 
agricultural schools, at Mikweh-Israel and Petach-Tikvah 
respectively. The Zionist Organization hopes soon to 
resume the work at the Jewish Agricultural Experiment 
Stations at Athlit and Zichron Jacob, which has been 
suspended since 1918.^ 

§ 16. The Samaritans. 

The Samaritans are one of the most interesting religious 
and racial survivals in the world. They are the only 
distinct representatives of ancient Israel in Palestine, and 
they still cling in Nablus, although reduced to a very small 
community, to their ancient beliefs and practices and to 
their sacrifices on Mount Gerizim. Of the Old Testament 
they accept only the Pentateuch, which they preserve in 

»See A. M. Hyamson, Palestine: The Rebirth of an Ancient People, London, 


an ancient Aramaic version [Tar gum). They keep the 
Sabbath very strictly, but do not use phylacteries, fringes, 
or the written ' inscriptions on the lintel ' [mezuzoth) . Their 
language is a dialect of Palestinian. Aramaic, and their 
writing is an archaic alphabet derived from the Old Hebrew. 
For the ordinary purposes of everyday life, however, they 
use the Arabic language. Their present High Priest is 
Isaac the son of Amram, who succeeded his cousin Jacob 
in 1914. The Samaritan community consisted in 1922 of 
132 persons in Nablus, J3 in Tulkeram, and 12 in Jaffa. 
The distinctive feature of the Samaritan dress is a red silk 
turban wound round the fez. 

For general information on the Samaritans, see J. A. 
Montgomery, The Samaritans, Philadelphia, 1907. For 
their Liturgy, see A. E. Cowley, The Samaritan Liturgy, 
Oxford, 1909. 

§ 17. Druses and Metawileh. 

The Druses. — The Druses, of whom 7,000 inhabit Palestine, 
principally Galilee and Phoenicia, are both a race and a 
religion. Their original home is the Lebanon, over which, 
for centuries, they disputed authority with the Maronites. 
After the events of i860, however, the Druses migrated in 
large numbers to the Jebel Hauran, which now contains a 
greater Druse population than the Lebanon itself. 

The Druse faith is secret not only to the world at large, 
but to the majority of the Druse themselves, who are 
divided into initiated {'uqal, ' intelligent ') and uninitiated 
[juhal, ' ignorant '). It is a chaotic mixture of Islam, 
Christianity, and yet older elements, and it regards both 
the Gospel and the Quran as inspired books, although it 
gives to them a peculiar interpretation. The word ' Druse ' 
is commonly derived from one Isma'il Darazi, the first 
missionary to the Druses ; though others derive it from the 
Arabic darasa (those who read the book), or darisa (those 
in possession of Truth) or durs (the clever or initiated). The 
Druses believe in the divinity of the mad Fatimite Khalif 


Hakim (996-1020), whose apostle was the above-mentioned 
Darazi. Their meeting-place is known as the khahveh. 

The Metawileh. — The name ' Metawileh ' is believed to 
mean ' Friends,' i.e. Fjriends of 'Ali. The community traces 
its origin to a Companion of the Prophet, Abu Darr Ghifari, 
who is supposed to have first taught his doctrines in the 
villages of Sarafend and Meis. Others regard the Meta- 
wileh as immigrants from Persia who entered Syria and 
Palestine during one of the Persian invasions. Their 
religion is a form of the Shiah division of Islam, and they 
still maintain contact with the shrine of Kerbela. Most of 
the Metawileh dwell in Syria, where, in the eighteenth 
century, they were a powerful political force ; there are 
only about 160 in Palestine, partly in Galilee, partly in 

§ 18. The B aha' is. 

In 1844 a Persian, Mirza 'Ali Mohammed, proclaimed 
himself in Tabriz as the 'Bab,' or Gate, whereby communica- 
tion was to be re-established with the ' hidden ' or Twelfth 
Im&m, or Mahdi, whose return to earth is awaited by a large 
number of Shiah Moslems. Later he stated that he himself 
was the expected Imam, but his ministry was cut short by 
martyrdom in Tabriz in 1850. Before his death he 
appointed as his successor a lad named Mirza Yahya, 
called Suhh-i-Ezel (' the Dawn of Eternity '), who, with his 
half-brother Mirza Husein 'Ali, afterwards better known as 
Baha'u'llah, and other Babi leaders, took refuge in Baghdad 
in consequence of the persecution to which the sect was 
subjected by the Shah. After they had spent twelve years 
in Baghdad the Persian Government persuaded the Porte to 
have them removed, and they were taken to Adrianople, 
where they remained from 1864 to 1868. In a.h. 1283 
(a.d. 1866-67) occurred an event which rent the sect in 
twain. Baha'u'llah, who was of more assertive character 
than the retiring Subh-i-Ezel, suddenly announced that he 
himself was the expected Im§,m, and that the ' Bab ' had 


been no more than his fore-runner ; and he called upon all 
Babis, including Suhh-i-Ezel, to acknowledge him. This 
the latter refused to do, and Babis were now divided between 
Ezelis, who acknowledged the original Bab and his suc- 
cessor Subh-i-Ezel, and Baha'is. or followers of Baha'u'Uah. 
Meanwhile both sections were again deported by the Turks, 
Suhh-i-Ezel and his family to Famagusta in Cyprus, Baha- 
'u'Uah and his followers to Acre. From Acre the Baha'i 
faith has spread over Asia and America and into Europe, 
and counts two millions of adherents ; the Ezelis have 
dwindled to a handful. 

Baha'u'Uah died on the i6th May, 1892, leaving, among 
other children, two sons, 'Abbas Effendi and Mirza Moham- 
med 'Ali, who for a while disputed the succession. Ultimately 
there prevailed the claims of the elder, 'Abbas Effendi, 
who took the spiritual title of 'Abdu'l Baha, meaning ' The 
Servant of the Glorious.' 'Abdu'l Baha was born in Teheran 
on the 23rd May, 1844, the day of the Declaration of the 
Bab, and died at Acre on the 27th November, 1921. His 
successor is his grandson, Shawki Effendi, who is Life- 
President of the Council of Nine, which regulates the affairs 
of the community. The number of Baha'is in Palestine 
is 158. Sir 'Abbas Effendi 'Abdu'l Baha had travelled 
extensively in Europe and America to expound his 
doctrines, and on the 4th December, 1919, was created by 
King George V. a K.B.E. for valuable services rendered 
to the British Government in the early days of the Occupa- 
tion. For farther information on Babism and Baha'ism 
the reader is referred to the works of Professor E.G. Browne, 
published by the Cambridge University Press. 



§ I. Archaeology and Art in Palestine. 

Introductory. — The records of the great Egyptian con- 
queror Thothmes III. (c. 1479 B.C.) and the famous Tel 
al-Amarna letters addressed to the heretic king Amen- 
hotep IV. (c. 1375 B.C.) give us some idea of Canaanite 
civilization in Palestine. Unfortunately its treasures, if 
they exist unspoiled, lie for the most part under the tels 
(artificial hills), which mark the sites of the ancient cities 
of this period. 

Thus, as he passes northwards along the Philistine plain, 
the traveller will notice the lofty mound on which the 
present town of Gaza is built, and the similar but sand- 
covered mass of ancient Ashdod, which lies to the west of 
the present village of Esdud and \ mile south of the railway 

In the plain of Acre (north of the railway) can be seen a 
number of such unidentified sites ; and in the adjoining 
plain of Esdraelon a series of them, including the famous 
cities of Megiddo, Ta'anach and Bethshan, guard the passes 
southwards over the foothills of Carmel and the steep 
descent into the Jordan valley. 

Thus, while the Israelite towns, with one or two excep- 
tions, have left little or no trace of their existence on the 
bare rocks of the mountains, the earlier sites in the lowlands 



have better survived the lapse of centuries, and afford us 
to-day the fullest, and almost the only evidence for the 
ancient history of Canaan. 

Excavations so far carried out in Palestine, notably at 
Tel al-Hesy (Lachish), Tel al-Jezer (Gezer), Ain Shems 
(Beth Shemesh), Ascalon (Askalon) and Tel al-Mutesellim 
(Megiddo), have established a chronological framework for 
these earlier periods on evidence largely derived from the 
development of the pottery types and their decoration in 
successive ages. 

These periods may be tabulated as follows : 

Palaeolithic. The instruments, which are confined in their 
distribution to the hill-country, are mostly of the 
" Chellean " type, though other forms are occasion- 
ally found. 

Neolithic. The date and distribution of this age are un- 
certain. Its instruments are coarse and, with its rude 
hand-made pottery, shade into the following period. 

Early Bronze [c. 2000-1700 B.C.). Vases are wheel-made but 
still coarse in type. 

Late Bronze {c. 1700-1200 b.c). This period shows strong 
Cypriote and Mycenaean (Mediterranean) influences 
at work. 

Early Iron (1200-600 B.C.). New types, due to Philistine 
and Israelite invasion, are predominant. Egyptian 
scarabs and amulets are very common. 

Hellenistic (600-100 b.c). Attic vases are useful as dating 
factors. Both black-figured (600-450 b.c.) and red- 
figured (450-200 B.C.) are found in the more important 

Roman and Byzantine (100 B.C.-636 a.d.). Lamps, glass, etc. 

Dolmen groups are to be found at the north-west end of 
the Sea of Galilee, but are of no special interest except to 
the archaeologist. Of greater importance are the five mega- 
lithic monuments called the Caves of the Children of Israel 
(Kabur Beni Isra'in), which lie close to the village of 
Hizmeh, a few miles north of Jerusalem, Their origin and 


purpose are unknown, but they are most probably con- 
nected with the burial of the dead. 

Old Testament Period. — The earlier archaeological monu- 
ments in Palestine are cisterns and pools for the collection 
of rain-water, oil and wine presses, and rock tombs {kokim). 
Hebrew architecture is derived partly from that of the 
Phoenicians, who borrowed their types from Egyptian and 
Babylonian sources, partly from the Hittites. David's 
palace and Solomon's temple were works of Phoenician 
architecture, whose peculiarity lay in the fact that its 
fundamental source was not the column but the sculptured 
rock. Hence the plan of the structure was apt to be sub- 
servient to its material ; hence, also, was probably due the 
use in building of enormous blocks of stone, such as are to 
be seen in the Herodian walls of Jerusalem and Hebron. 
The excavations which have taken place in Palestine reveal 
a standard of material civilization throughout the period 
covered by Old Testament history, which is low when 
compared with the standard of the sublime literature to 
which that period gave birth. 

Greek and Roman Periods. — Research has not yet given 
us a consecutive chronological account of the monuments, 
or the remains of monuments, that have survived. They 
may, however, be said to include the rock tombs to be seen 
in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, Beit Jibrin and else- 
where. A rock tomb may have a much more ancient origin 
than its surface decoration would suggest. Some of those 
at Beit Jibrin contain decorations of the Roman period, 
though the excavated caves themselves may be much earlier. 
Similarly the tomb of Absalom and the Pyramid of Zacharias 
in the Kidron Valley to the west of Jerusalem may be works 
of a more remote age than is suggested by the Egyptian 
and Graeco-Roman character of their surface treatment. 

Herod the Great did much to spread the influence of 
Roman architecture ; and, subsequently, the civilization 
and arts of Rome were extended by the emperors to the 
most remote districts of Palestine beyond Jordan and 
Arabia Felix. 


Roman sites in Palestine, unlike those in Trans-jordania, 
have been continuously occupied. Successive occupants 
destroyed the buildings upon them and used the materials 
for their own purposes. It is probable that there was no 
period more destructive of Roman buildings than that of 
the Crusades. At Caesarea the Crusaders built their walls 
from stones taken from the Roman walls and used Roman 
columns as bonding stones. Gaza and Ascalon were treated 
in much the same way, and nothing now is left above 
ground level of these Roman cities. At Caesarea fragments 
of Roman masonry may still be seen on the seashore. 
Samaria (now called Sebastieh) was an important Roman 
city. Excavations have revealed the remains of a basilica. 
The monolithic columns, the capitals of Corinthian design 
and the details of the pedestals seem to show that the 
building may date from Herod the Great. The remains of 
a great temple built by Herod in memory of the Emperor 
Augustus may also be seen, together with the grand stairway 
which led up to it. Ascalon has for centuries been used as 
a quarry. Nothing remains above ground level, but ex- 
cavations have disclosed what remains of Herod's cloister. 
Of Roman Gaza practically no trace is visible above ground 

Mention may be made of the remains of Jewish syna- 
gogues in Galilee. At Capernaum ^ there is an interesting 
example. This building of the second or third century 
would seem to illustrate an imperfectly informed but in- 
teresting attempt at interpreting, by Jewish workers, the 
details of Roman architecture. 

Christian Architecture in Palestine. — As an ample litera- 
ture exists on the periods enumerated above, it has been 
thought sufficient to deal with them somewhat summarily 
in this Handbook. The Christian and Moslem architecture 
of Palestine, on the other hand, have hitherto received so 
little attention that rather fuller treatment here has been 
thought desirable. 

At the beginning of the reign of Constantine the glorious 

J See Fr. Mejstermann, O.F.M., Capharnaum et Bethsaide, Paris, 1921, 


biblical names of Zion and Jerusalem had been largely 
forgotten ; and Aelia Capitolina, with its colonnades, with 
its Forum surrounded by temples and municipal monu- 
ments, with its Capitol and its camp of legionaries, differed 
nowise from other Roman provincial cities, whose sole 
ambition it was to emulate the metropolis. 

When Constantine made Christianity the State religion 
of the Empire, he determined that Jerusalem should give 
in its buildings striking evidence of the change. 

The sites of Calvary and of the Holy Sepulchre had not 
disappeared by the beginning of the fourth century ; and 
for more than ten years from 325 a.d. onwards Constantine 
lavished the skill of his builders and much treasure on 
giving to these sites a worthy covering. It was his aim 
to surpass the most ambitious architectural monuments of 
previous ages ; and, from the vestiges which contemporary 
archaeology has been able to recover, the realization fell 
not far short of his ambition. 

The impressive group known as the " Holy Sepulchre," 
consisting of a collection of separate edifices within a single 
enclosure, evoked universal enthusiasm and attempts at 
imitation throughout Christendom. It marked, however, 
no striking departure from the principles and details of 
classical architecture. The rotunda of the Holy Sepulchre 
was derived from the Pantheon, itself modelled on the 
mausoleums of the Hellenistic age ; the basilica of the 
Martyrium was purely Roman ; the porticos differed only 
in their additional decoration from the porticos and 
peristyles to be met with throughout Aelia Capitolina or 
any other Romanized city. At the same time, Christian 
symbolism, ritual requirements and liturgical developments 
began to effect certain adaptations in purely classical 

The internal troubles of the Empire after the death of 
Constantine for a time diminished building activity in the 
Holy Places ; and during this period only the Church of 
the Caenaculum was added (towards 345) to the original 
trilogy of Holy Sepulchre, Mt. of Olives and Bethlehem, 


Before the end, however, of the fourth century the strong 
hand of Theodosius had imposed peace ; and building 
activities were resumed. The ruins of Gethsemane, whose 
earhest basiUca dates from this period, indicate that Chris- 
tian architecture had already become to a certain extent 
emancipated from classical traditions : the rigid propor- 
tions of the classical basilica have undergone modification, 
and ornamental sculpture has assumed a new form. This 
emancipation proceeded farther during the first quarter of 
the fifth century, when the generosity of the great Roman 
ladies, such as Paula and the two Melanias, who had estab- 
lished themselves in Jerusalem, gave a fresh impetus to 
religious 'building. The interesting octagonal Church of the 
Ascension, of this period, introduced into Jerusalem a type 
of building as yet little known in the Christian world. 

A particularly fruitful epoch for Jerusalem was inaugu- 
rated by the exiled Empress Eudocia, wife of Theodosius II. 
A zealous builder and possessed of an ardent devotion to 
the Holy Places, Eudocia was responsible for a large number 
of new constructions. Apart from churches of modified 
basilican type, such as the Martyrium of S. Stephen, 
and the Church of the Paralytic built over the Piscina 
Probatica, there begin to appear new types of buildings, 
such as the domed church over the Pool of Siloam, and, 
above all, the tri-apsidal church which survives to-day 
almost unchanged in the crypt of the Church of S. John the 
Baptist [cf. Part II., § 11). This church appears to be the 
earliest known dated example of a form in architecture 
subsequently introduced by Justinian in the Constantinian 
basilica at Bethlehem. 

The curious domed edifices inside the Double Gate of the 
Haram enclosure, and the remarkable Golden Gate, also 
date in all probability from the time of Eudocia. Assisted 
by the development of monasticism and the donations of 
the Christian world to the Holy Places, the impetus given 
by the Empress to Christian architecture in Palestine 
endured until, in the first half of the sixth century, Justinian 
gave to it a new life and made of Jerusalem the dyia ttoA^^ 


of the Madaba mosaic. Then came a period of Persian 
invasions and Imperial decay, followed in 637 by the 
conquest of Jerusalem by 'Omar. Notwithstanding the 
tolerance of the earlier Khalifs, Moslem rule inevitably 
arrested the development of Christian religious art ; and 
such gifts as the Holy Places now received came rather 
from the West, through the liberality of Charlemagne, than 
from the Byzantine East. The first Western note is struck 
by certain monastic foundations, in particular by those 
which afforded hospital treatment for pilgrims. The fanati- 
cism of the mad Khalif Hakim in the first years of the 
eleventh century led to the almost complete destruction of 
Christian religious buildings ; and the efforts of the Emperor 
Constantine Monomachus could barely cope with the vast- 
ness of the ruin. The exhausted Eastern Empire could 
only attempt a hasty restoration of the Holy Sepulchre ; 
while a few hospitals were constructed by merchants of 
Amalfi. The situation was reversed by the liberation of 
the Holy Places at the hands of the Crusaders in 1099. 

The character of the artistic renascence of Jerusalem in the 
twelfth century and during the lifetime of the Latin King- 
dom has often been misunderstood. Because it coincided 
with the Byzantine renascence under the Comneni, because 
a judicious adaptation of local conditions introduced certain 
technical formulae and certain innovations in the art of the 
West, because the co-operation of Greek craftsmen has been 
definitely established, it has been thought that Palestine, 
and Jerusalem in particular, were a fruitful school in which 
Prankish architects acquired the knowledge which made 
possible the full development of their art. The study of 
the surviving monuments indicates that such was not the 
case. The technical structural detail and the decoration 
of the principal buildings of the Crusading period indicate 
that they are products of Romanesque art, similar to the 
buildings which arose throughout the West after the first 
half of the eleventh century. 

The remarkable castles with which the Crusaders en- 
dowed Palestine and Syria are alluded to in Part I., § 5. 


These gesta dei per francos have been fittingly studied by 
French scholars ; and the works of de Vogiie, Riant, Rey, 
and the more recent studies of PP. Vincent and Abel, O.P., 
are indispensable for the student of this period. 

Moslem Architecture in Palestine. — That Palestine is 
rich in examples of Moslem architecture is not surprising. 
That it is not very much richer is because the country has 
suffered from many wars and many inroads of destructive 
barbarians. The natural constitution of Palestine and the 
building aptitudes of its inhabitants favour the productior^ 
of noble works of architecture ; but the situation of the 
country on the high road between continents has always 
endangered their permanence. Hence periods of great 
prosperity are followed by and are sharply contrasted with 
periods of great disaster. But newcomers, if they chose, 
could always profit by the building skill and building 
traditions of the population, and were able to use materials 
from the ruined works of former generations. 

At the time of the Arab conquest in the seventh century 
A.D. there were in Palestine many workers skilled in all the 
building crafts. There was also a wealth of already wrought 
material ; and, moreover, of material that was available 
for use without having recourse to the destruction of build- 
ings then standing. In the year 636 a.d. the Arabs cap- 
tured all the cities of Palestine from Gaza to Nablus. In 
the following year Jerusalem capitulated {cf. Part I., § 4). 
Twenty-two years earlier the country had been invaded and 
a large proportion of its buildings had been destroyed by 
the Persians. The land, when the Arabs arrived, was doubt- 
less still covered by the ruins caused by that invasion. 
Dismantled walls of wrought stone, fallen columns, slabs of 
marble and other remains of ruined Byzantine or earlier 
structures were plentiful, and provided a supply of excep- 
tionally fine materials that could only be exhausted by many 
years of intense building activity. The Arabs were not 
barbarians, nor was architecture an art altogether strange 
to them. They were a people of great taste and liberality 
as well as of not a little political sagacity. They fully 



ined f | 


appreciated the pleasure as well as the profit to be gained* 
from splendid architecture ; and when, fifty years after the 
conquest, the fifth Omayyad Khalif, 'Abd al-Melek ibn „ 
Marwan, founded the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, he « 
took every advantage of his ample opportunity. He used 
the traditional skill of the workers established in the country, 
and he employed the unsurpassed building materials that 
lay ready. The traditions of the workers were, of course, 
Byzantine ; and the famous domed shrine that they erected 
was consequently Byzantine in character. This character 
the shrine has, to a large extent, retained even to the present 
day, notwithstanding the many changes in method or style of 
architectural expression that have developed during the long 
life of the Dome of the Rock, and have, from time to time, 
been incorporated with the structure or with its decoration. J 
The columns used by 'Abd al-Melek were taken from earlier | 
buildings or, rather, from their ruins ; some, possibly, from 
the ruins of Constantine's basilica of the Holy Sepulchre, 
which the Persians had destroyed. Internally the enclosing 
octagon wall was covered, as it still is, with marble slabs 
in the Byzantine manner. The dome, the drum on which 
it rests and the supporting arches were decorated with glass 
mosaics of Byzantine character. Mosaics also covered the^ 
outside of the building, except the lower half of the octagon 
wall, which then, as now, was clothed in marble. Within 
the shrine the mosaic method of decoration has survived in 
the main, with the important exception of the dome. But 
externally a decoration of glazed tiles has taken the place 
of the mosaics. Thus, though inside there is much left of 
the original Byzantine character, yet, outside, the Dome 
of the Rock is now clothed in a Persian dress, the product of 
an art of high antiquity that can be traced back to four 
hundred years before our era and to the coloured glazes of 
Susa. Earthquakes, fire, winter storms, hands of varying 
degrees of skill directed by minds as varied in their taste 
as in their intentions, together with periods of neglect due 
to political conditions, have all played their part in the 
production of the Dome of the Rock as we know it to-day. 


The shrine as it now stands constitutes a most precious and 
remarkable record of history and of human effort. In it is 
to be found the handiwork not only of many generations 
of men but also of many races ; of Greeks and Armenians, 
of Arabs, Persians and Turks, and even of Franks. 

The present purpose is not, however, to describe but to 
direct attention. Those who desire a fuller knovv^ledge will 
refer to the many already published descriptions of this 
famous shrine, and, above all, will examine the shrine 

There are in Palestine no other monuments of the Omay- 
yad period ; for, though the Mosque of al-Aqsa was founded 
by 'Abd al-Melek ibn Marwan, yet it has been so altered 
as to bear but little relationship to the mosque he built. 
Nor are there in Palestine any architectural remains to 
reflect the splendid days of the earlier 'Abbasid Khalifs. 
Towards the end of the ninth century these Khalifs ceased 
to possess any real power in Palestine. The power passed 
successively to the Tulunid, Ikhshidid and Fatimite dynas- 
ties of Egypt. Nothing is left of their works. To the 
inroads of the Karmathians in the tenth century, of the 
savage Turkomans towards the end of the eleventh century 
and to the Crusades is no doubt largely due the destruction 
of the Tulunid, Ikhshidid and Fatimite work. It is not 
until after the Battle of Hattin in 1187 {cf. Part I., § 5), 
the capture by Saladin of Jerusalem from the Crusaders 
and the loss by the Crusaders of all the hill-country and 
the Jordan valley, that we again find examples of Moslem 
architecture. In respect of Moslem architecture in Pales- 
tine there is, then, a blank period of five hundred years 
between the Dome of the Rock (687 a.d.) and the next 
Moslem architectural work that has survived in Palestine 

Saladin 's first task was to undo much that the Crusaders 
had done. The Dome of the Rock, which they had turned 
into a church, he restored to its former use. He did the 
same for the Aqsa Mosque. The existing mihrah (prayer 
niche) of that mosque is his work. An inscription above 


the niche records his thanks for victory. The beautiful 
pulpit, dated 564 a.h. (1164 a.d.), that stands near the 
mihrab was brought by Saladin from Aleppo. It is an 
extremely fine example of twelfth century Moslem wood- 

Saladin, in general, readapted all buildings of Moslem 
origin to their original purposes and adapted Christian 
buildings to Moslem needs. For example, he turned the 
palace of the Latin Patriarchs in Jerusalem into a' great 
khanqa (hostel), whose entrance, built by him, still stands ; 
he converted the Church of S. Anne into a school for the 
teaching of Shafi doctrine. He also repaired the walls of 
Jerusalem. Although these walls have since been dis- 
mantled, largely rebuilt or repaired, yet they still contain 
much of his work. 

The three centuries, the thirteenth, fourteenth and fif- 
teenth, which followed Saladin 's capture of Jerusalem were 
distinguished by great building activity. Despite the 
neglect from which they suffered in Turkish times, many 
noble specimens of Moslem architecture produced during 
the three centuries preceding the Ottoman conquest remain 
to us. Most of these monuments are to be found in Jeru- 
salem. To the early thirteenth century belong the ruins of 
a great madrasa (Moslem seminary) built in 1209 a.d. by 
Melek Mu'azzam al-Tsa to the north of the Haram al-Sherif . 
To the same period appears to belong the gateway of the 
Haram known as the Bab al-Hitta. Into the lower part of 
this gateway a fine Frank altar or tomb has been built. In 
the street from the Bab al-'Atm (one of the northern doors 
of the Haram) to the Tariq Sitti Maryam (Via Dolorosa) is 
one of the finest examples of Moslem architecture in Pales- 
tine. This is the madrasa al-Salamieh. This school dates 
from 1300 A.D. It has a stalactite entrance of exquisite 
design and workmanship. The masonry of the whole build- 
ing is most finely dressed and perfectly jointed. It is 
deeply to be regretted that this magnificent building is 
completely neglected and is falling into ruin. Among the 
hostels built in the thirteenth century "are the great Mansuri 


hostel (1282) in the Tariq Bab al-Nazir, used as a prison 
by the Turks and now as a khan for Moslems from the 
Sudan ; the hostel of Ali al-Din (1267) near the Bab al- 
Hadid, and the Rabat al-Kurd (1290), situated opposite the 
splendid fa9ade of the Arghunieh madrasa outside the Bab 

Just as 'Abd al-Melek ibn Marwan in the seventh century 
both profited by the skill of the craftsmen he found in the 
country and employed materials from earlier buildings, so 
also did the Bahrite Mamelukes of Egypt, who ruled in 
Palestine from 1250 to 1390 a.d., not only benefit by the 
existence of the large body of practised craftsmen which 
the country clearly possessed while under Frank rule, but 
also used, when it proved convenient to do so, materials 
from Christian buildings for incorporation in their own 
works. Hence we find, in some of the Mameluke buildings, 
many stones that their own masons had neither quarried 
nor dressed, stones that they took from Frank structures. 
The bridge at Ludd (Lydda) built by the conqueror of 
S. Louis, the Mameluke Sultan Bibars {cf. Part I., § 6), 
bearing his emblem, the lion, appears to be largely con- 
structed of materials worked by Christian masons or at 
least by masons trained in Frank methods. The Mame- 
lukes much admired the Frank buildings. They themselves 
were great builders, and they were sometimes tempted to 
destroy a building they admired (but perhaps had no use 
for as it stood) in order to make use of the parts they liked 
best or could most conveniently adapt for their own pur- 
poses. After Bibars had captured and destroyed Jaffa, he 
sent the wood and the marble of the buildings to Cairo for 
the construction of his mosque there ; Sultan Mohammed 
al-Nasr ibn Qala'un similarly treated a doorway of the 
Cathedral of Acre ; and in the porch of the great Mosque 
of Sultan Hasan in Cairo are to be seen most interesting 
fragments of carved Gothic work, evidently looted from 
some Frank building in Palestine. The stones composing 
the arches of the porch to the shrine of Abu Huraira at 
Yebna are of Frank origin. An inscription records the 


building of this porch by Bibars. The minaret of the 
mosque at Yebna, the tomb known as the Kebekieh in the 
Mamilla Cemetery outside Jerusalem, and the north-west 
minaret of the Haram al-Sherif in Jerusalem are among the 
many Moslem buildings in which Frank materials are found. 
One of the capitals that adorn the north-east minaret 
referred to is carved with a representation of the Presenta- 
tion of Jesus in the Temple. The Frank shrine from which 
it, with its column, came was not destroyed. Evidently 
some only of the columns and capitals were needed. The 
rest of the shrine was spared and still stands. 

Among the other notable buildings of the Bahrite Mame- 
lukes the following must be mentioned. At Ramleh there 
is a tower which was the minaret and is the only part left 
standing of a great mosque. It dates from the first quarter 
of the fourteenth century, and illustrates very well the 
conditions of that time : on the north and west sides of 
the Haram al-Sherif are, amongst others, the madrasas 
known as the Khatunieh (1354), the Asardieh (1359), the 
Manjaqieh (1360), and the Malikieh ; all these are fine 
examples, though sadly neglected, of the work of their 
time. In the Tariq Bab al-Silsileh are the madrasa al- 
Taziya (1329), the madrasa Tashtamurieh (1382) and, near 
the Bab al-Silsileh, the madrasa al-Tanqizieh (1329), with 
a very fine entrance porch. In the Tariq Bab al-Hadid, 
just outside the Haram, is the madrasa Arghunieh (1357). 
This college contains the tomb of its founder. Of this tomb 
the dome has lately fallen through neglect. In general the 
whole of this exceptionally fine but deserted college is in 
urgent need of attention. 

The Burjite Mamelukes of Egypt, who succeeded the 
Bahrites, ruled Palestine from 1390 to 15 16. Among the 
works of that time may be mentioned the great palace of 
the Lady Tonsoq al-Muzaffar. This palace is in the street 
known as Aqabet al-Sitt. The fa9ade of this magnificent 
building stretches up the side of most of this street. Oppo- 
site the palace is the lady's tomb. The palace is certainly 
one of the most remarkable Moslem buildings in Jerusalem. 


How mucli is left of its interior is not accurately known, 
but it is to be feared that a good deal has fallen to ruin. 
On the west side of the Haram al-Sherif is the great Ash- 
rafieh madrasa, the upper part of which is unfortunately in 
ruins. Its splendid fan-vaulted entrance porch still stands. 
This madrasa was built in 1480 by the Sultan Kait Bai, 
whose fine tomb in Cairo is so well known to every visitor. 

The many hostels and colleges built in Jerusalem during 
the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth centuries show that 
in those centuries Jerusalem was a city affording oppor- 
tunities for study to large numbers of people, who doubtless 
came from all over the Moslem world to visit the holy sites 
and to gain learning. Each of these colleges was endowed 
with land, whose revenues went to their support. To dis- 
cover the land allotted to the maintenance of each college 
would provide an interesting study and might result in the 
provision of the money needed for their repair and re- 
establishment as seats of learning. 

Soon after the opening of the sixteenth century the 
Mamelukes fell before the power of the Ottoman Turks. 
For a few years after the Ottoman conquest, energy con- 
tinued to be spent upon building. The Dome of the Rock 
was repaired and retiled ; the gates and walls were repaired 
and rebuilt. The Damascus Gate in its upper part is of 
this time (1537). A number of sebils (fountains) were con- 
structed in the year 1536. But this energy was ephemeral. 
A great period had come to an end. The Ottoman had 
arrived. The world was changing. The Cape route to 
India had been discovered, and those who held Egypt and 
Syria could no longer grow rich on the dues extracted at 
Alexandria and Alexandretta from merchants engaged in 
trading in Far Eastern and Indian goods in transit for 
European ports. 

Of later date than the sixteenth century there is hardly 
any building in Palestine worthy of note. But mention 
may be made of the Mosque at Acre built by 'Abdallah 
al-Jezzar in the eighteenth century. It is a *charming 
domed building of the Turkish type and is set in delightful 


surroundings. Another mosque worth referring to is the 
Mosque of Hashim at Gaza, built or rebuilt in the nineteenth 
century on the square open court plan. 

§ 2. Department of Antiquities. 

Constitution and Functions. — Upon the establishment 
of the Civil Administration of Palestine, a Department of 
Antiquities was formed under the control of the Director 
of the British School of Archaeology, which had lately been 
founded in Jerusalem. Shortly afterwards an Archaeo- 
logical Advisory Board was constituted and an Antiquities 
Ordinance promulgated. 

The Advisory Board, an important feature of the con- 
stitution of the Department, consists of representatives of 
the several archaeological bodies working in Palestine 
(British, French, American, Italian, Greek and Jewish) 
under the chairmanship of the Director of Antiquities, and 
deals with all archaeological questions of importance, 
especially with those likely to involve opposing interests, 
and more particularly with permits to excavate. The exist- 
ence and authority of this board constitute a recognition of 
the international character of archaeological work in the 
Holy Land. 

The Antiquities Ordinance, whose aim is the protection 
of the antiquities of the country, is a comprehensive 
document, based not only on the collective advice of 
archaeological and legal experts, but also on the results 
and experience of neighbouring countries. In due time it 
is anticipated that it may be simplified and modified 
in some particulars to bring it into line with the proposed 
French Law of Antiquities for Syria. 

Its underlying principles are, firstly, that the antiquities 
and monuments of Palestine belong to the country and its 
people ; secondly, that the Government shall facilitate in 
every possible way the carrying out of excavations by 
scientific • bodies of recognized standard irrespective of 



The term " antiquity " as defined by the Ordinance 
inchides all monuments down to 1700 a.d. 

Excavations. — The Palestine Exploration Fund, under 
the direction of Professor Garstang, has opened an exten- 
sive excavation at Ascalon which has yielded important 

The colonnade and cloisters, with which Herod the Great 
endowed his birthplace, have been identified and partly 
cleared, some interesting statuary has been brought to light, 
and traces of Philistine and pre-Philistine occupation have 
been traced in the acropolis. 

At Gethsemane the Franciscans of Terra Santa have 
excavated a basilica of the third or fourth century ; they 
have also resumed excavation on the site of the synagogue 
of Capernaum (Tel Hum), where efforts will be made to 
rebuild a portion of the fallen masonry. 

At Tiberias the Palestine Jewish Exploration Society has 
been excavating ancient Jewish remains ; and at Ain Duk, 
near Jericho, the Dominicans of the " Ecole Biblique " of 
S. Stephen, Jerusalem, have completed the clearance of an 
ancient synagogue, where, as a result of the war, portions 
of a mosaic floor had been laid bare. 

A magnificent Roman mosaic of about 300 a.d. was 
unearthed in October, 192 1, at the village of Beit Jibrin 
(Eleutheropolis) in the sub-district of Hebron, near which 
are also situated the famous " painted tombs of Marissa " 
of the second century B.C. {cf. § 5 below). 

The University Museum of Pennsylvania began in 1921 
at Beisan excavation work, which now assumes important 
proportions. The site of Samaria has been provisionally 
reserved for the University of Harvard, which organized 
the original excavation there, and that of Megiddo for the 
University of Chicago. 

§ 3. The Palestine Museum. 

The Palestine Museum is at present housed in the Depart- 
ment of Antiquities, and consists largely of antiquities found 


in the course of pre-war excavations at Gezer, Ain-Shems, 
Tel al-Safi and elsewhere. 

An important selection of vase-types has been presented, 
for purposes of comparative study, by the Cyprus Museum 
Committee. The gold jewellery exhibited is for the greater 
part the gift of Miss Newton of Haifa. Mr. S. Raffaelli, who is 
responsible for the arrangement of the coins, has deposited his 
private collection in the Museum to supplement the series. 
Wall Cases. — The wall cases contain groups of vases, 
bronzes, etc., arranged in chronological order : 

Case A (left and right sections). Primitive Culture and 
" Red Slip " vases of c. 2000 b.c. 

Below (right), selected specimens of early Bronze 
Age vases from Cyprus. 
Case B (left to right). Bronze Age vases from c. 1800- 
1200 B.C. 

1 . Group from High Place Grotto at Ain-Shems. 

2. Group from East Grotto at Ain-Shems. 

3. Tomb Group from Cyprus. 

4. Selection of contemporary vases from Palestine. 
Case C (left to right). Early Iron Age wares from 1200- 

600 B.C. 

1. Selection of painted " Philistine " pottery 

2. Selection of contemporary vases from Cyprus. 

3. Tomb group from Ain-Shems (No. i). 

(The drawer contains the smaller finds from 
this tomb.) 

4. Tomb Group from Ain-Shems (No. 8). 

(The drawer contains the smaller finds from 
this tomb.) 
Case D (left to right). 

1. Vases of Hellenistic date (from 600 B.C.). 

2. Selection of vases, lamps and glass of the Roman 

and Byzantine periods (to 600 a.d.). 

In the centre cases are exhibited scarabs, beads, gold, 
jewellery, selected flint implements, terra cottas, bronzes, 
glass, and coins. 




Drawer cabinets, which support the show cases, are in- 
tended to receive pottery fragments from all important 
Palestinian sites arranged in stratigraphical layers. Those 
of Ascalon and Ain-Shems are already in position. 

Sculpture. — The sculpture includes : 

(i) bust of a Roman lady (Princess ?) of the third century 
A.D. (Gaza ?) ; 

(2) statuette of Hermes (Gaza ?) ; 

(3) torso of a kneeling female (Venus) of fine workman- 

ship (Ascalon) ; 

(4) statuette of a draped woman (Ascalon) . 
Inscriptions in Greek, Latin, and Arabic are arranged in 

the vestibule. 

A sale-room attached to the Museum contains duplicate 
specimens of glass and pottery derived from various excava- 

The Museum is open daily, except on holidaj^s, from 9 a.m. 
to I p.m. 

Local Museums. — Local Museums have been opened at 
Ascalon, Caesarea and Acre ; while a Jewish section of the 
Government Museum is in course of formation in Jerusalem. 
The formation of an Arab section is under consideration. 

§ 4. Coins. 

Early Jewish Period. — The range of the coins of this 
period is from 141 to 40 B.C. They are as follows : 

Thick silver shekels of the five years 141 to 136 b.c, 
half-shekels, and the rare quarter-shekel of the fourth year 
attributed by some scholars to Simon the Maccabee (141 
B.C.), by others to the Jewish Revolt (66 to 70 a.d.) ; large 
bronze coins with jug, palm-tree and lyre, with the legend 
" Simon Nasi Israel " ; Maccabean bronze " Zion " coins 
of the second, third and fourth year (140 to 137 b.c.) ; small 
Asmonean bronze coins ending with the larger Mattathia- 
Antigonus, the last Asmonean ruler (40 B.C.). 

Herodian Period. — The Herodian coins include those of 
Herod the Great (37 B.C.) and his sons, Antipas, Archelaus, 


Philip, Agrippa I. and H. (42 a.d. to 95 a.d.). All of these 
are bronze, and some are very rare. 

Late Jewish Period. — The coins of Bar Cochba (122 or 
132 A.D.) comprise the silver tetradrachm and denarius with 
the inscription of Simon, Jerusalem and Eleazar ha*-Kohen, 
and large bronzes with jug, palm-tree and lyre, and the same 
legend. These are dated 

(i) Leheruth Yerushalayim - - 122 or 132 a.d. 

(2) Shnat Achath Geulath Israel - 123 or 133 a.d. 

(3) Shnat Bet Lachar Israel - - 124 or 134 a.d. 
Some are very rare. 

Greek and Roman Period. — The coins of this period 
include : 

(i) Small bronze coins of the Roman Procurators struck 
at Caesarea, beginning with Caponius (6 a.d.) or, 
as some think, Ambivius (9 a.d.), and ending with 
Antonius Felix (52-60 a.d.) ; 

(2) " Judaea Capta " bronze coins struck by Vespasian, 

Titus, and Domitian to commemorate the conquest 
of Judaea ; 

(3) " Aelia Capitolina " bronze coins struck with the name 

" Aelia Capitolina," the new city built by Hadrian 
on the site of Jerusalem. These begin with that 
Emperor (125 a.d. or 135 a'd.) and end with 
Hostilian (251-2 a.d.) ; 

(4) Imperial and Colonial bronze and silver coins struck 

in Palestinian cities, and bearing the busts and 
names of the Emperors, the City Goddess, and the 
names of the Cities. 

Coins of the following cities have been found : 
Anthedon, Antipatris, Ascalon, Bostra (Araba), 
Caesarea, Diospolis (Lydda), Eleutheropolis (Beit 
Jibrin), Gaza, Gadara, Gerasa, Hippos, Joppa, 
Nicopolis-Emmaus, Neapolis (Nablus, Shechem), 
Nysa-Scythopolis, Philadelphia (Amman), Panias, 
Philippopolis, Ptolemais (Acre), Sepphoris-Dio- 
caesarea, Sebaste, and Tiberias. 


Byzantine Period. — A large number of gold, silver and 
bronze coins of the Byzantine period were largely circulated 
in Palestine, but none were struck in the country. 

Arab Period. — The Arabian conquerors of Syria and 
Palestine struck their coins in the first decades of the Hejra 
after the Byzantine model, with Greek and Arabic legends. 
After the famous reform of the coinage by 'Abd al-Melek 
(77 A.H., 696 A.D.), the legends became entirely Arabic and 
contained the Mohammedan confession of faith, but the 
coins still kept their Byzantine standard-weight. The 
principal coin was the gold dinar (from denarius), of 4-25 
grammes weight. The silver dirhem (from SpaxM) "^^^ 
struck on the Sassanian type, and was of 2-97 grammes 
weight. The copper /(?/s (from the Latin /o//is) , which was 
not considered as a standard coin, varied in weight according 
to the district. 

The chief mints in Palestine were : Acre, Ascalon, 
Caesarea, Gaza, Jerusalem, Ludd, Ramleh, Tiberias. Coins 
are known of the Omayyad, 'Abbasid, Tulunid, Ikhshidid 
and Fatimite dynasties. 

Crusading Period. — The coinage of the Latin Kingdom 
of Jerusalem is scanty if compared with that of the Kingdom 
of Cyprus or even with the coinage of Tripoli and -Antioch. 
The principal coins which have hitherto come to light are 
deniers (gr. 0-9) and ohols {c. gr. 0-4) of billon. Coins are 
known of the following reigns : Amaury I., Baldwin (pro- 
bably) II. and III., Guy de Lusignan, Henry of Champagne 
and John de Brienne. The most important mints were 
Jerusalem, Acre and Tyre. Of the many feudatories of the 
Kings of Jerusalem who had the right of coinage only the 
Princes of Galilee, the Counts of Jaffa, and the Lords of 
Sidon, Beirut, Tyre and Toron are so far known to have 
exercised their privilege. 

The coins referred to above were for the most part of 
base metal and low value, intended for petty disbursements. 
For more important payments the Crusaders adopted the 
strange device of striking, at Acre and elsewhere, gold 
bezants in imitation of the Fatimite dinars, and silver 


drachmae and half drachmae in imitation of the Ayubid 

The earlier types of these curious coins imitate more or 
less clumsily the Arabic inscriptions, which are frequently 
full of errors and intermixed with crosses and occasional 
Latin letters ; the later types bear Christian legends 
correctly rendered in Arabic characters. 

Bibliography. — For Jewish coins see F. de Saulcy, 
Recherches sur la Numismatique Judaique, Paris, 1854, and 
F. W. Madden, Coins of the Jews, London, 1903. The Greek 
and Roman coins are described in de Saulcy, Numismatique 
de la Terre Sainte, Paris, 1874, and G. F. Hill, Catalogue of 
the Greek Coins of Palestine, London, 19 14. .The best work 
on the Crusading coins is Schlumberger, Numismatique de 
r Orient Latin, Paris, 1878-1882 (with bibliography). 

§ 5. The Southern Province. 

The Handbook of Palestine in no sense aims at taking th 
place of a guide-book, and the space which it can give to 
places of interest is necessarily limited. Its function in this 
connexion must be to enumerate rather than to describe. 
For a list of the several excellent guide-books to the Holy 
Land the reader is referred to Part IV., § 5. 

Route from Kantara to Gaza.^ — Kantara (Arabic for 
" bridge ") marks the site of the ancient crossing of the 
caravan route between the two lakes by which the patriarchs 
and the Holy Family travelled from Canaan into Egypt. 
One kilometre north of al-'Arish (155 kilometres from Kan- 
tara) the railway line crosses the broad and shallow wadi 
which was the " River of Egypt " of the Bible (Numbers, 
xxxiv., 5 ; Isaiah, xxvii., 12). Al-'Arish, the ancient Rhino- 
colura, and the Laris of early Christian times, was the 
death-place of Baldwin I. of Jerusalem, and was taken by 
Napoleon in 1799. 

At Khan-Yunis (kilo. 211) is a mosque built by the 

^See Bishop M'Innes's booklet, Notes on the Journey Kantara to Jerusalem, Nile 
Mission Press, Cairo. 


Egyptian Sultan Barquq, and here Napoleon had a remark- 
able escape from capture by Arabs. 

Just beyond kilo. 202, 2^ kilos, beyond Rafa (Rephaim), 
is the frontier between Palestine and Egypt. 

Gaza. — Gaza was the southernmost of the five allied 
cities (the others being Ascalon, Ashdod, Gath and Ekron) 
of the " Pelishtim " or Philistines, the non-Semitic people 
inhabiting the country of Peleshet, which was the name 
given to the low-lying plain between Mt. Carmel and the 
frontier of Egypt. Through the land of Peleshet lay the 
only route practicable for armies between Egypt and Baby- 
lonia ; and Gaza has been the scene in the course of history 
of innumerable battles. Its affinities in antiquity were 
generally with Egypt ; and although it is now the last 
outpost of Palestine towards the south (and since 1922 the 
capital of the Southern Province of Palestine), historically 
it has rather been the sally-port of Egypt towards the 

Beside the main transit route from Egypt to Damascus, 
three other routes reached the sea at Gaza. The first was 
the frankincense route from Yemen through the Hejaz to 
Petra, whence a branch ran to Gaza ; the second was the 
sea route from the east, of which one branch led to Egypt 
and another to Ezion-geber (Akaba), and thence by caravan 
to Petra and Gaza ; the third connected Gaza by way of 
Petra and Jauf with lower Mesopotamia. This was the 
most direct route across northern Arabia, and, in as late 
a period as the Roman Occupation, was thronged with 
caravans. For Gaza the most important route was the 
frankincense route. The demand for frankincense and 
myrrh in ancient worship was immense and could only be 
met in the one way ; when Alexander the Great took Gaza, 
the booty of the city included vast stores of frankincense 
in its warehouses. Gaza was then ., the largest city in 
Palestine and Syria. 

Gaza was famous under the Philistines for the worship 
of the fish-divinities Dagon (Marnas) and Derketo (Atar- 
gatis), who probably had Minoan affinities. The story of 

L.P. F 


Samson (Judges, xiii., 5^.) gives a graphic picture of the 
perpetual and frequently successful struggle maintained by 
the Philistines with the Israelites for the hegemony of 
Palestine. Pharaoh gave Gaza to Solomon as his daughter's 
dowry, and Moslem tradition makes Gaza Solomon's birth- 

Under the Romans Gaza was an important city with the 
name of Minoa ; and although its traditional first Bishop 
was the Philemon to whom S. Paul addressed the Epistle 
of that name, paganism survived almost until the Arab 
conquest. S. Jerome considered Marnas (Dagon) to be 
the worst enemy of Christianity after the Egyptian god 
Serapis^, and it was not until the beginning of the fifth 
century that Bishop Porphyry of Gaza was able to secure 
the destruction of his temple. The Empress Eudocia 
caused a large cruciform church to be erected on the site, 
but the pagan tradition lingered ; and for many years the 
women of Gaza refused to step on the once holy marbles. 
Again, when Justinian I. closed the pagan schools of Athens 
in 529, he permitted those of Gaza to continue the teaching 
of Neoplatonism. 

In 634 Gaza was occupied by the Khalif 'Omar, and 
became important to Moslems, partly because the Prophet's 
great-grandfather Hashim (a direct ancestor in the male 
line of the King of the Hejaz) is buried there, partly 
because it is the birthplace of Ibn Idris al-Shafi, the founder 
of the Shafi rite or school of Sunnite Islam {cf. Part II., § 5). 

During the Crusades Gaza was hotly contested between 
the Saracens and the Crusaders, but received a terrible blow 
in 1244, when the Christians and Moslems, on this occasion 
in alliance, were defeated by the Khwarizmians {cf. Part I., 
§ 5). Finally, it was the scene of two battles (26th-27th 
March and i7th-2oth April, 191 7) between the British and 
the Turks in the late war, and was very largely destroyed 
by the Turks and by subsequent bombardments. It was 
occupied by General AUenby on the 7th November, 19 17. 

The principal surviving monuments of Gaza are the 
ruined Orthodox church of S. Porphyry ; the great mosque 


(Jami' al-Kebir), also originally a Christian church ; the 
J ami' al-Sayid Hashim, containing the tomb of Hashim ; 
and the sanctuary of Abu al-'Azm ("The Father of 
Strength "), with the reputed tomb of Samson. 

Ascalon. — Ascalon is best reached from the town of 
Mejdel, which lies on the railway (kilo. 259). One of the 
most important of the Philistine cities, a seat of the worship 
of Derketo, and the birthplace of Herod the Great, Ascalon 
has a long and varied history from the time of Joshua until 
its final destruction by Bibars in 1270. 

It is perhaps worthy of mention that onions were always 
extensively cultivated at Ascalon, which, through its Latin 
name Ascalonia and the Norman form Escallion, has given 
the word shallot to the English language. ^ 

Excavations were undertaken at Ascalon by the Palestine 
Exploration Fund in 1920-21. A large public building of 
fine workmanship in good classical style was uncovered near 
the crossing of the central routes in the area. It is identified 
with the cloisters that Herod the Great is said to have set 
up, and is connected with the Senate House, of apsidal plan 
(as at Samaria) ; the whole was more than a hundred yards 
in length, and was adorned with statuary and Corinthian 
columns of considerable beauty. A museum of the anti- 
quities is to be found on the spot, where there is also a 
guard of the Department of Antiquities. The inscriptions 
recording decisions of the Senate (or Boule) and the smaller 
statues have been removed to the Museum in Jerusalem. 
Other excavations were of a scientific character and the 
results are not visible. The site as a whole repays a 
thorough inspection. The circuit of the ramparts is about 
two miles ; they form a semicircle facing the sea. Numerous 
columns and capitals, remains of a Byzantine church. 
Crusaders' buildings, and other antiquities are visible. 

Tel al-Safi. — North-east of Mejdel, commanding the outlet 
of the great Wadi al-Sant (Valley of Mimosa ; probably the 
Valley of Elah of i Samuel, xvii., 2), stands Tel al-Safi, 
which has been identified with the Philistine city of Gath. 
Here stood the Crusaders' castle of Blanchegarde ; the 


und l|] 

excavations carried out by the Palestine Exploration Fund 
revealed nothing of outstanding interest. 

Esdud and Yebna. — Esdud (kilo. 272) is the ancient 
Ashdod, one of the five cities of the Philistines, and the 
Azotus of the New Testament (Acts, viii., 40). Fifteen 
kilometres beyond Esdud is Yebna, the Jabneel and Jabneh 
of the Old Testament, the Jamnia of the Maccabees, and 
the Ibelin of the Crusaders. After the Roman capture of 
Jerusalem in 70 a.d. Jabneh became an important Jewish 
spiritual centre under Rabbi Johannan ben Zakkai {cf. 
Part II., § 14). The principal mosque of the village was a 
Crusaders' church. 

Beersheba. — From Rafa a branch line (60 kilos.) of the 
standard gauge railway runs to Beersheba (Bir al-Seba), 
now a small town of about 1,760 inhabitants. 

Beersheba was the southernmost town of the Israelites, 
whence the expression " Dan to Beersheba " ; and its wells 
played a prominent part in the history of the patriarchs 
(Genesis, xxi.). In early Christian times Bishops of Beer- 
sheba are occasionally mentioned, but by the fourteenth 
century the town had lost all importance. Beersheba was 
captured by the British on the 31st October, 1917, and it 
was from Beersheba that was made the advance resulting 
in the capture of Gaza. 

Hebron. — Hebron, now a town of 16,332 inhabitants, is 
one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. 
Here Abraham pitched his tent, under the oak of Mamre 
the Amorite, and, on the death of Sarah, purchased from 
Ephron the Hittite the double cavern of Machpelah, where 
he buried her, and was subsequently himself laid to rest, 
together with Isaac, Rebecca, Jacob, Leah and Joseph. 
The Arabic name of Hebron (" al-Khalil," which is an 
abbreviation of Khalil al- Rahman, i.e. Abraham the 
" Friend of God ") preserves its association with the 

Hebron was destroyed by Joshua, and from Hebron 
David ruled over Judaea for j\ years after the death of 
Saul. Abner was slain by Joab at the gates of Hebron, 


and by its pool the murderers of Ishbosheth were hanged 
by David. Except for a small Jewish community Hebron 
is a Moslem town, and, owing to its connexion with Abraham, 
is a place of intense Moslem veneration. The town, with 
its tall stone houses, narrow streets, and the picturesque 
vaulted bazaars, which display the sheep-skin coats and 
blown glass for which Hebron is renowned, is a remarkably 
complete specimen of an Arab city. Characteristic, too, 
are the figured veils worn by the Hebron women. 

Hebron's great monument is the Haram,i the sacred area 
which encloses and surmounts the Cave of Machpelah. The 
outer wall of the Haram is built to a height of about 40 ft. 
of very large drafted blocks, apparently of Herodian age, 
strengthened externally by square buttresses. A flight of 
steps leads between the old wall and a more recent enclosing 
wall to the interior of the court ; to the left of the sixth 
step, leading into the outer of the two caves, is a hole in 
the old wall, by which petitions addressed to Sarah are still 
thrown by childless women into the cave below. The 
mosque itself, which occupies the southern side of the 
Haram, has been adapted by the Arabs from a Crusaders' 
church of the twelfth century. It stands over the cave ; 
the entrance to the inner cave is sealed, but through a hole 
in the floor of the mosque a boy is let down at infrequent 
intervals into the outer cave to collect the petitions which 
have been thrown in it. 

The cenotaphs of Abraham and Sarah occupy two 
octagonal chapels to the north of the church ; those of 
Isaac and Rebecca are inside the church ; those of Jacob 
and Leah in chambers at the north of the Haram. In a 
separate enclosure is the cenotaph of Joseph, All are 
covered with heavily embroidered palls, and the chapels 
of Abraham and Sarah are particularly richly decorated. 

Noteworthy is the pulpit of the mosque, a noble specimen 
of twelfth-century Moslem wood carving similar to the 
pulpit of the Aqsa mosque {cf. § i above). 

' See Vincent and Mackay, Hebron : Le Haram El-Khalil, Sepulture des Patri- 
arches, Leroux, Paris, 4to, 1922. 


Beit Jibrin. — In the District of Hebron, west of Hebron 
town, lies Beit Jibrin, alluded to in §§ i and 2 above. 

On the adjacent Tel Sandahannah stood the Israelitish 
town of Mareshah (the Greek Marissa), excavated by the 
Palestine Exploration Fund. Of great interest are the 
extensive rock caverns and tombs, many dating back to 
the ancient Hebrew period. The finest tomb, of more 
recent date, is that of Apollophanes (second century B.C.), 
with gabled roofs — the only one of the kind hitherto found 
in Palestine — and interesting wall pain tings. ^ For the 
Roman mosaic recently unearthed at Beit Jibrin, cf. § 2 

Beit Jibrin was the Roman Eleutheropolis and the 
Crusading Gibelin. 

Tel al-Hesi. — South-west of Beit Jibrin lies Tel al-Hesi, 
the ancient Lachish, excavated by Flinders Petrie and 
others under the auspices of the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. 2 These excavations laid the foundations of our 
knowledge of Palestinian ceramics. 

§ 6. Jerusalem and Jaffa Province. 

Jaffa. — Jaffa, the port of Jerusalem and now a town of 
about 45,000 inhabitants, is the ancient Japho, the Greek 
Joppa and the Crusaders' Japhe. 

In mythology Jaffa is the scene of the rescue by Perseus 
of Andromeda from the sea-monster, whose fossilized bones 
were long exhibited in proof of the story, together with the 
chains with which Andromeda was fastened to the rocks by 
the shore. It was also the place where Jonah was swallowed 
by the whale (Jonah, i., 3). 

The name of the city occurs on the pylon of Thothmes III. 
at Karnak in a list of Syrian towns overthrown by Pharaoh 
in the sixteenth century B.C. In the fifteenth century Jaffa 
was a Phoenician city under Egyptian suzerainty, and then 
became, and remained for about a thousand years, Philistine. 

• See Peters and Thiersch, The Painted Tombs at Marissa, P.E.F., London, 1905. 

* See Petrie, Lachish ; BHss, A Mound of many Cities, P.E.F., London. 


During this period the cedar logs for King Solomon's Temple 
were landed here after being floated down from the Lebanese 
ports by Hiram, King of Tyre. The Maccabees made of 
Jaffa a typically Jewish town ; and, after its conquest by 
Pompey, it became a Roman Free City. During the ensuing 
century it was frequently bandied about between Rome and 
the Idumaean princes, and at one moment was given by 
Mark Antony as a love-token to Cleopatra. Christianity 
was introduced at an early period into Jaffa, where, in the 
house of Simon the Tanner, S. Peter saw the vision recorded 
in Acts, ix., 43. 

Under Byzantine, Seljuq and Fatimite rule the history 
of Jaffa is comparatively uneventful, but with the advent 
of the Crusaders it again becomes varied. King Baldwin I, 
signed here the Treaty of Jaffa with the Genoese, the 
foundation of many future conquests, and Jaffa was con- 
stituted a county, the investiture of which was always 
given to the heir to the throne of Jerusalem. In that year 
of disaster to the Crusaders, 1187, the town was captured 
and destroyed by the brother of Saladin, was subsequently 
retaken by Richard Coeur-de-Lion, and was sacked by 
Bibars in 1267. In 1799 it was stormed by Napoleon. 

In spite of its age, Jaffa offers little of interest to the 
visitor. The oldest part of the city clusters citadel-like on 
a rocky hill overlooking the harbour, its streets narrow and 
labyrinthine. At the southern end of the old city the site 
of the house of Simon the Tanner is shown in an insignificant 
little mosque, although the present tanners' quarter lies 
farther south, on the shore below the Ajami quarter. 

To the north of Jaffa lies the Jewish township of Tel Aviv, 
much enlarged under the stimulus of recent Zionist develop- 
ment, and offering, in its European modernity, a striking 
contrast to the eastern character of Jaffa. Inland of Jaffa 
lie the orange groves for which the place is famous ; for the 
German Templar colonies, see Part II., § 13. 

Jaffa to Jerusalem. — Ludd, so called by the British 
troops but properly Lydd, the ancient Lydda, is the junction 
for the Kantara-Haifa and Jaffa- Jerusalem railway lines. 


It is a town of some 7,000 inhabitants, of whom about 5,000 
are Moslems and tlie remainder Orthodox Christians. Its 
chief interest lies in its connexion with S. George of England, 
generally identified by Moslems with Sheikh Khidr (Elijah). 
We hear in the sixth century of a church built over his 
tomb. The Crusaders erected a cathedral over the shrine, 
and portions of this mediaeval building are still discernible, 
embodied in the present church restored in the nineteenth 
century. It is not improbable that the legend of S. George 
and the dragon and its connexion with Lydda are due to 
the conveyance to the Saint of the legend of Perseus and 

Ramleh means " the sandy," and was founded in the 
eighth century a.d. by the Omayyads. Its celebrated Tower 
(the " Tower of the 40 Martyrs ") is of Moslem origin and 
dates from . the fourteenth century (see § i above) . The 
Tower was the minaret of a large mosque originally built 
by Khalif Suleyman, the founder of the town. 

Gezer, whose ruins lie near the village of Abu Shusheh, 
figures in the Tel al-'Amarna letters, and was excavated by 
Professor Macalister, who traced therfe the remains of Arab, 
Christian, Roman, Maccabean, Jewish, Israelite and 
Canaanite civilizations. ^ 

Latrun marks, for travellers by road, the end of the plain 
and the beginning of the Judaean hills. The name, which 
was originally Natrun, was confused in the Middle Ages 
with the Latin latro, a robber, and from this association 
there arose the mediaeval legend that this was the birth- 
place of the Penitent Thief. 

Amwas, which lies close to Latrun, disputes with the not 
far distant Qubeibeh the claim to be the Emmaus of the 
New Testament. 

Enab, also known as Abu Ghosh or, in full, as Qariet 
al-Enab (" the village of grapes "), contains a mediaeval 
church recently restored by the Benedictines. 

The last big village before Jerusalem is reached is Ain 
Karem, probably the Karem of the Septuagint and the 

iSee R. A. S. Macalister, Bible Sidelights from the Mound of Gezer, London, 1906. 



traditional birthplace of John the Baptist. Franciscan and 
Russian monasteries surmount sites connected with the 
Baptist's birth and life. 

Jerusalem. — Jerusalem's unique history can only be 
touched upon here in outline. We have seen (Part I., § 3) 
that Urusalim appears among the cities of Palestine in the 
fifteenth century b.c. ; and as Jebus the city was captured 
by David from the Jebusites about 1000 b.c. Enlarged by 
Solomon and embellished with the First Temple, it became, 
after the division of the kingdom, the capital of Judaea. 
In the reign of Rehoboam the city surrendered to the 
Egyptian King Shishak, who despoiled Temple and Palace 
of much of their ornaments. 

King Hezekiah endowed his capital with a water-supply 
and, at the approach of Sennacherib, repaired the forti- 
fications. Jehoiakin surrendered it to Nebuchadnezzar, 
who destroyed the Temple and carried away to Babylon 
the king, together with thousands of the principal inhabi- 
tants. The attempt of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah, 
to revolt led to the destruction of the city in 587 and to 
the second deportation of its inhabitants. After the return 
of the Jews from the Captivity in 538 the Second Temple 
was built by Nehemiah. 

The Maccabean period has been referred to in Part I. ; 
then came Herod the Great, a mighty builder, who aspired 
to renew in Jerusalem the glories of King Solomon. He 
built the Third Temple, erected a sumptuous royal palace 
protected by the towers Hippicus, Phasael and Mariamne, 
and endowed his capital with municipal buildings, theatre 
and a circus for gymnastic games. 

The subsequent vicissitudes of Jerusalem are so entirely 
bound up with the general history of Palestine (of which a 
sketch is given in Part I.) that it is needless to recall them 
here. The next outstanding date after the city's capture 
by Titus in 70 a.d. is its surrender to 'Omar in 637. The 
Arabs treated the inhabitants with clemency, and permitted 
them to remain in the city on payment of the kharaj 
(poll-tax). The Khalif Harun al-Rashid is said actually to 


have sent the keys of the Holy Sepulchre to Charlemagne ; 
and we have seen in § i above that the Carolingian 
Emperors sent contributions for the support of Christian 
pilgrims proceeding to Jerusalem. 

The Arabs named the town Beit al-Maqdes (" house of 
the sanctuary "), or, more shortly, al-Quds (" the sanc- 
tuary "), and its present Arab name remains Quds al-Sherif. 
The oldest known plan of Jerusalem is contained in the 
mosaic map of Palestine discovered in 1897 at Madaba in 
Trans-jordania, and dates from about a century prior to the 
capture of the city by the Arabs. 

The Crusading period has been dealt with in Part I. In 
15 1 7, as we have seen, Jerusalem surrendered to the Ottoman 
Turks under Sultan Selim I., and in 1542 the walls of Jeru- 
salem were rebuilt in their present form by Suleyman the 
Magnificent. In 1862 the Prince of Wales, afterwards King 
Edward VII., visited Jerusalem and did much to bring about 
the constitution of the Palestine Exploration Fund. For 
the improvements wrought in Jerusalem since the British 
Occupation, see Part I., § 7. 

It is not proposed here to describe or even to enumerate 
all the monuments and sights of Jerusalem, or to attempt 
to enter into the vexed question of its topography ; this 
must be left to the guide-books. It must suffice to indicate 
the outstanding objects of interest of a city, where almost 
every stone has its history and significance. 

The principal monuments are the Haram al-Sherif ; the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, together with the remains of 
the basilica of Constantine ; the walls, gates and citadel ; 
the Wailing Wall of the Jews ; the Armenian cathedral ; the 
Caenaculum or tomb of David ; the Jewish tombs in 
the valley of Jehoshaphat ; the Crusaders' Church of 
S. Anne ; the Ecce Homo arch and adjoining remains ; 
the Church of the Tomb of the Virgin and the Garden of 
Gethsemane ; and the Mount of Olives. The old city within 
the walls, that " city compact together " with its vaulted 
suqs (bazaars) and narrow streets that have undergone no 
change for centuries, with its steep alleys flanked in many 


cases by masterpieces of Saracenic architecture, may well, 
however, be regarded as the greatest monument of all, 
unique in its compactness, in its appearance of hoar anti- 
quity, and in that homogeneity which it is the aim of its 
present administrators jealously to preserve. 

The Haram al-Sherif is the platform, artificially prolonged 
towards the east and south on substructures known in part 
as " Solomon's Stables," upon which stood the Temple of 
Solomon and its successors. In the centre of the Haram 
area is an outcrop of the naked rock, now . surmounted by 
the beautiful mosque known as the Dome of the Rock. 
This rock can probably claim a greater continuity of 
religious tradition than any other spot in the world. On 
it there stood in all likelihood the altar of burnt-offerings 
of the First Temple ; traces of a channel for carrying off 
the blood, which are visible in the rock, would appear to 
confirm tliis theory. Here, or hereabouts, stood Hadrian's 
Temple of Aelia Capitolina ; here the Khalif 'Omar built 
a small wooden mosque, which subsequently gave place to 
the present masterpiece of Moslem architecture ; on the 
rock, finally, the Crusaders erected an altar when they 
converted the mosque into the Templum Domini. 

The Dome of the Rock (in Arabic, Qubbet al-Sakhra),^ 
was built by Khalif 'Abd al-Melek towards the end of the 
seventh century, and was probably restored by the Khalif 
al-Mamun in the ninth century, and again in 913. The 
dome itself, consisting of two concentric wooden vaults, was 
erected by the mad Khalif Hakim in 1022 in the place 
of the original dome, which had collapsed six years 

The mosque is in the form of a flat-roof ed _ octagon sur- 
mounted by a drum, on which is borne the dome. The 
outer surface is covered, as regards the lower part, with 
marble slabs, as regards the upper, with a brilliant series 
of coloured tiles added by Suleyman the Magnificent in 
1561. It is of interest to record that the original kilns in 

* See E. T. Richmond, The Dome of the Rock and its present Condition, Oxford 


which these tiles were manufactured were discovered in the 
Haram precincts after the British Occupation, and that 
potters from Kutahia have been brought to Jerusalem under 
the auspices of the Pro-Jerusalem Society to make tiles in 
the old manner to replace such original tiles as have been 
destroyed by weathering in the course of centuries. 

The interior of the building is a marvel of colouring and 
decoration. The roof of the octagon is richly decorated in 
green, blue and gold ; the drum is adorned with sumptuous 
mosaics by Byzantine artists of the tenth and eleventh 
centuries ; the stucco incrustation of the inner dome pro- 
duces a most rich effect with its red and golden tones. Not 
the least beautiful feature of the interior lies in the coloured 
glass of the windows. The rock itself is surrounded by a 
screen of wrought iron, placed there by the Crusaders when 
they converted the building to Christian use. The in- 
scription on the inside of the drum records its construction 
in 72 A.H. (691 A.D.) by 'Abd al-Melek, whose name was 
excised from the inscription and replace^ by that of al- 
Mamun one hundred and twenty years later. 

Many traditions, Moslem and Talmudic, attach to the 
rock, which is believed to hover over the waters of the 
flood and to be the centre of the world, the gate of hell, 
the scene of the sacrifice of Isaac, and much else of a fan- 
tastic nature. According to Moslem belief it was from the 
rock that Mohammed was translated to heaven on the back 
of al-Buraq, his magic steed of the human face. 

To the south of the Dome of the Rock stands its tiny 
prototype, the Dome of the Chain, built by 'Abd al-Melek 
as a treasure-house to contain the money which he had 
set apart iox the reconstruction of the Haram area. At 
the southern end of the Haram rises the celebrated Mosque 
al-Aqsa, the " more distant " shrine, to which God conveyed 
the Prophet in a single night (Sura xvii., i). The Aqsa 
mosque in its present form occupies the site of Justinian's 
Church of the Panagia, and, despite almost complete recon- 
struction by the Khalifs and their successors, retains, in 
outline at all events, much of its original character of a 


Byzantine basilica. The dome, which is of wood, covered 
with lead without, is handsomely decorated in a manner 
similar to the dome of the Qubbet al-Sakhra. Its mihrab 
and pulpit have been referred to in § i above. A staircase 
in front of the narthex of the mosque leads down to the 
southern substructures and to the vestibule of the old 
Double Gate ; " Solomon's Stables " are entered from the 
south-east corner of the Haram area. 

Enclosing and overlooking the Haram on the west and 
south are a series of superb madrasas and other Saracenic 
buildings of the highest merit {cf. § i above) ; the Suq 
al-Qattanin (bazaar of- the cotton merchants), which forms 
the principal entrance to the Haram area, is the most 
important of the old vaulted bazaars of Palestine and Syria, 
and was preserved from imminent destruction in 1919 
through the efforts of the Pro- Jerusalem Society. The 
minaret in the north-western corner of the Haram rises on 
the remains of the Antonia tower. 

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre ^ stands in the north- 
western corner of the old city, but is concealed from view 
by the many Patriarchates, monasteries, chapels and other 
ecclesiastical buildings, which cluster round it and only 
leave open to view the southern fa9ade. Originally a group 
of small separate churches, rising on the holy sites in the 
fourth century and after, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre 
received its present form from the Crusaders, who erected 
one large Romanesque church to embrace the chapels cover- 
ing the several sites. In 1799 a great part of the Church 
of the Holy Sepulchre was rebuilt, only to be destroyed 
almost entirely by fire in 1808 ; another comprehensive 
rebuilding followed in 1810, Of its two conspicuous domes, 
the larger westerly dome, surmounting the Rotunda and 
the Sepulchre itself, was constructed of iron lattice girders 
under Russian auspices in 1868. The eastern dome is part 
of the Crusading building, and appears to have escaped 

' The most recent Erio;li3h work on the Holy Sepulchre is Jeffery, A Brief 
Description of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, and other Christian Churches in the 
Holy City, xvith some account of the mediaeval copies of the Holy Sepulchre surviving 
in Eifrope, Cci\nhrk\f^e, i()tq. 


untouched the reconstruction of 1810 ; it is probably the 
largest dome of its type ever built in Palestine. The belfry 
is twelfth-century work, but has lost its topmost story. 

The two-storied Romanesque fa9ade is interesting : the 
lower story forms a double portal, the lintels of both 
doors being adorned with admirable bas-reliefs of the 
twelfth century. The upper story encloses windows. 

The interior is divided into two principal parts, the 
Rotunda and the old " Chorus Dominorum," now the 
Orthodox cathedral. The Rotunda, whose central object 
is the small shrine covering the Tomb of Christ, dates in 
its present form, together with its dome and the shrine of 
the Sepulchre, from the nineteenth century, although the 
design and dimensions have been meticulously preserved 
from the earlier buildings. On the other hand, the " Chorus 
Dominorum " and transept date from the twelfth century, 
the vaulting over the transept being of particular interest 
as the earliest known example of the diagonal rib, a feature 
which differentiates pure Gothic from Romanesque. The 
chapels of Golgotha are reached by steps leading upwards 
from the east of the porch ; the interesting chapel of 
S. Helena is at a lower level and is reached by a flight of 
steps descending from the ambulatory. From S. Helena's 
chapel another flight of steps leads down to the chapel of 
the Invention of the Cross. 

What renders the Church of the Holy Sepulchre of out- 
standing interest, apart from its sanctity in the eyes of a 
large portion of mankind, is the fact that it is shared by 
representatives of most of the Churches of Christendom. 
Roman Catholics, Orthodox, Armenians, Jacobites, Copts 
and Abyssinians have their appointed chapels and rights 
within its walls (formerly also Georgians and Nestorians), 
and in it is celebrated almost every known form of Christian 
liturgy and ritual. During Holy Week and at the other 
great festivals of the Christian year it offers to the spectator 
a diversity of Christian ceremonial visible nowhere else under 
one roof. 

Adjoining the Holy Sepulchre to the south-east is the 


Orthodox monastery of Abraham, in one of whose chapels 
the Church of England has the right to celebrate services ; 
below this, again, is the modern building belonging to 
the Russian Palestine Society, which encloses important 
remains of the " Martyrium " of Constantine. 

The oldest part of the Walls is that which is also the 
enclosing wall of the Haram area ; much of this is Herodian, 
but is partly concealed by immense masses of debris. The 
walls received additions at the hands of the Romans and 
the Byzantines, and were comprehensively restored by 
Saladin, not a little of whose work survives. The city 
walls, apart from the Haram section, owe their present 
form in the main to the Ottoman Sultan Suleyman the 
Magnificent. The Gates, beginning with the Damascus 
Gate, and going eastwards are : the Damascus Gate, Herod's 
Gate, S. Stephen's Gate, the Golden Gate (an elaborate 
Byzantine structure within the Haram area, built by the 
Empress Eudocia in the fifth century and walled up by 
the Turks in 1530 ; the Gate through which the Palm 
Sunday processions entered the city during the Crusades), 
the Dung Gate or Gate of the Magharbeh, the Zion Gate, 
the Jaffa Gate, and the modern opening known as the New 
Gate. Adjoining the Jaffa Gate is the Citadel, a massive 
fortress of five mighty towers, probably occupying the site 
of Herod's Palace. The Citadel in its present form dates 
from the beginning of the fourteenth century, with six- 
teenth-century additions. But the drafted blocks of the 
foundations are of much earlier date, and the north-east 
tower probably corresponds with the tower of Phasael of 
the Herodian structure. Much work has been done by the 
Pro-Jerusalem Society in repairing the Citadel and in clear- 
ing up the debris with which the interior and the moat 
were encumbered. 

The Wailing Wall of the Jews is an ancient section of the 
western Haram wall, and is much resorted to for the purp'ose 
of prayer by pious Jews, particularly on the Sabbath, when 
the festal dress of the Ashkenazim offers a picturesque 



The Armenian Patriarchate and Cathedral, the largest con 
ventual enclosure in Palestine, occupies with its hospices, 
schools and gardens the greater part of the south-western 
quarter of the old city. The Cathedral of S. James the 
Less, with its rich treasury, is of considerable interest, 
and is lined with Kutahia tiles of an unusual figured type.^ 

Within the Armenian compound is shown an interesting 
old chapel regarded as occupying the site of the house of 
Annas ; while to the south of the Zion Gate is the Armenian 
Monastery of Mt. Zion with the traditional house of Caiaphas 
and the tombs of the Armenian Patriarchs of Jerusalem. 
The house of Annas is also known as the " Convent of the 
Olive Tree " (from a very old olive believed to have sprung 
from the tree to which Christ was bound), and, together 
with the house of Caiaphas, is decorated with tiles similar 
to those of the Cathedral. 

The Caenaculum or Tomb of David (al-Nebi Daud), to 
the south of the Zion Gate, is a venerable shrine known in 
the Middle Ages as " Mater Ecclesiarum " because con- 
sidered to be the house of the Virgin Mary and the place 
where the Last Supper was celebrated. The existing monu- 
ment is a Gothic church built, probably by Cypriote masons, 
in the middle of the fourteenth century ; after being in 
the possession of the Augustinian Canons and afterwards 
of the Franciscans, it passed in 1547 into the hands of the 
Moslems, in whose ownership it has remained. The " Upper 
Chamber " is accessible to non-Moslem visitors, but the 
lower room, alleged to contain the Tomb of David, is shown 
only to Moslems. 

The Valley of Jehoshaphat (Valley of the Kidron ; Wadi 
Sitti Maryam) runs along the eastern boundary of the city, 
which it separates from the Mount of Olives, and has been 
from time immemorial the burial-place of the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem. Of particular interest are the Jewish monu- 
me^its of uncertain dates known as the Tomb of Absalom 
(a remarkable rock-cube surmounted by a superstructure 

» These tiles are described and illustrated in C, A. Nomicos, Ta XpiariavcKa 
KepafiovpyrffxaTa tov 'Apfx^fiKov lla-Tpt.ap)(eiov iCty 'lepoa-oKvfjuov, Alexandria, 1923, 


terminating in an oddly shaped spire), the so-called Tomb 
of Jehoshaphat, the Grotto of S. James, and the Pyramid 
of Zacharias. Below these tombs the valley leads past the 
village of Siloam (Silwan) until it is joined at right angles 
by the Valley of Hinnom. 

Among the most complete remains of the Crusading era 
are the Church of S. Anne, inside S. Stephen's Gate, and 
the Church of the Tomb of the Virgin, outside it on the road 
to the Gethsemane. The former was built by the Queen 
of Baldwin I. in the twelfth century, was offered to and 
refused by the British Government after the Crimean War, 
and was then presented to Napoleon III., by whom this 
well preserved Gothic building was intelligently restored. 

The Church of the Tomb of the Virgin is in its present form 
the handiwork of Queen Melisende, whose tomb it contains. 

The adjoining Garden of Gethsemane is divided into shares 
belonging respectively to the Latins, the Orthodox Patri- 
archate of Jerusalem, the Russians, and the Armenians. 
The early Christian basilica recently excavated in the Latin 
Garden of Gethsemane has been referred to in § 2 above. 

The Ecce Homo Arch is probably part of a Roman or 
Byzantine triumphal arch, whose northern end has been 
ingeniously incorporated within the church of the " Dames 
de Sion," 

The Mount of Olives (in Arabic, Jebel al-Tur) stands 
2,680 feet above sea-level, and is crowned by a number of 
churches and convents, of which the most ancient is the 
small octagonal Church of the Ascension, dating from 
the fifth century (see § i above). Other buildings are the 
Orthodox Convent of Galilee ; a modern Russian convent 
with its conspicuous view-tower; and a group of Latin 
buildings, including the Church of the Paternoster. 

Dominating the northern end of the Mt. of Olives is a 
massively constructed German Protestant Hospice, built by 
William II. in 19 10 and now the Government House of the 
Palestine Administration. 

The most satisfactory of the modern buildings of Jeru- 
salem is the Anglican Cathedral and Close of S. George with 

L.P. G 


its small and attractive cloister, built for the late Bishop 
Blyth by Mr. George Jeffery. Conspicuous are the German 
Catholic Church of the Dormition outside the Zion Gate (its 
design based on that of the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle), 
and the Lutheran Church of the Muristan, embodying frag- 
ments of the mediaeval Church of S. Maria Latina. 

One and a half miles west of the Jaffa Gate lies the 
ancient Orthodox Monastery of the Cross, for many cen- 
turies in the possession of the Georgians. 

Bethlehem. — Bethlehem lies 5^ miles south of Jerusalem, 
and is reached by a main road which passes, after 4 miles, 
the Tomb of Rachel. The birthplace of Christ and of King 
David is now a town of 6,200 inhabitants, mostly Christians, 
and stands 2,500 ft. above sea-level. The name Bethlehem 
(Beit al-Lahm) means the " house of meat," and has been 
the appellation of the place from earliest times. Bethlehem 
is the scene of the story of the Book of Ruth, and in Old 
Testament times is famous for its association with the 
House of David. Since the time of Constantine Bethlehem 
has been predominantly Christian, and is remarkable for 
the number of its churches and religious institutions of all 
periods surrounding an agglomeration of ancient, narrow 
and picturesque streets. Noteworthy is the mediaeval 
dress still worn by the Bethlehem women, married women 
being distinguished by a tall white coif. 

Bethlehem's outstanding monument is the Basilica of the 
Nativity ^ erected over the traditional birthplace of Christ. 
It is the oldest Christian church still in use, and, although 
restored and enlarged by Justinian in the sixth century, 
is essentially one with the basilica built by Constantine 
in 330. The church, whose diminutive entrance was 
intended as a protection against the entry of camels, 
donkeys, etc., consists of a nave and double aisles, of a wide 
transept and a semj-circular apse. The nave and aisles are 
separated from each other by four rows of monolithic 
columns, surmounted, by Corinthian capitals. The walls 

* See Vincent and Abel, BethUem : Le Sanchaire de la Nativity, Gabalda, Paris, 


of the nave and transept are decorated with mosaics, with 
which the church was endowed by the Byzantine Emperor 
Manuel Comnenus in the twelfth century. In 1482 the 
roof, which had fallen into decay, was repaired, the lead 
for this purpose being given by King Edward IV. of England. 

Two flights of steps descend into the Chapel of the 
Nativity and the Chapel of the Manger, which are situated 
below the choir. The unsightly wall, which formerly 
separated the nave from the transept and practically 
divided the church into two separate parts, was removed 
at the instance of the Governor of Jerusalem in 19 19. 

Like the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Church of 
the Nativity is shared by several communities (Orthodox, 
Latin, Armenian, Jacobite, Abyssinian and Coptic). In 
the extensive grotto below the church is shown the tomb 
of S. Jerome, who dwelt for many years in Bethlehem and 
died there in 420. 

Two miles south of Bethlehem are the three mighty 
ancient reservoirs known as the " Pools of Solomon." 
These reservoirs are of considerable antiquity and collected 
the water for Jerusalem's early water-supply. They are now 
again being brought into use in conjunction with the other 
ancient sources at Arrub {cf. Part I., § 7, and Part V., § 10). 

Between Bethlehem and the Dead Sea, at the head of a 
deep cafion, lies the Orthodox Monastery of S. Sabbas (Mar 
Saba), an ancient settlement of ascetics established in the 
fifth century. Ladies are not admitted within the monas- 
tery, which stands precipitously on the side of the cafion, 
but are able to overlook it from a mediaeval tower outside 
the porch. About 45 monks at present inhabit the monas- 
tery and lead lives of great austerity. 

Jericho. — Jericho (in Arabic, Eriha) was the scene of the 
first victory of the Israelites in Palestine, was sacked by 
Joshua, but was subsequently rebuilt and formed part of 
the inheritance of Benjamin. It was liere that Elijah per- 
formed the miracle of rendering a bitter spring sweet. After 
the Captivity Jericho increased in prosperity, and was subse- 
quently given by Mark Antony to Cleopatra, who, in her turn, 


sold it to Herod the Great. The latter irrigated the district 
and built a winter palace, the ruins of which were excavated 
by the Germans in 1909. Herod died at Jericho in 4 B.C. 

New Testament Jericho sprang up somewhat to the north 
of the older town, became the seat of a bishop in the fourth 
century, but decayed after the fall of the Crusading kingdom, 
together with its once prosperous cultivations of dates, 
sugar-cane, balsam, henna, and other sub- tropical products. 
It is now a somewhat squalid township of 1,000 inhabitants 
and, as being the lowest town on the earth's surface (820 
feet below sea-level), is unbearably hot in summer, although 
its winter climate is pleasant. 

There is little to see in Jericho itself beyond the excava- 
tions of the German Oriental Society, which have laid bare 
the traces of an outer and inner course of walls and have 
unearthed a part of the actual masonry. Jericho is over- 
looked to the south-west by the Mount of Temptation (Jebel 
Qarantal), half-way up the face of which is perched an 
Orthodox monastery, remarkable chiefly for its amazing 
situation and for its fine view over the Ghor. Running 
westward from the Ghor is the caiion known as the Wadi 
Qelt, containing the small Orthodox monastery of S. George, 
also perched on the face of the cliff. The whole of this 
region was, in early Christian times, thickly dotted with the 
settlements of hermits. 

Interesting processions to the Jordan take place from 
Jericho at the Orthodox Epiphany and Easter, when pil- 
grims, robed in white shrouds, bathe in the river. The 
bathing-place of the pilgrim is supposed to be the scene of 
the Baptism of Christ, the miraculous division of the waters 
by the cloak of Elijah, and the legend of S. Christopher, 
who carried the Infant Christ across the river. Between 
Jericho and the Dead Sea lie the large Orthodox monasteries 
of S. John (also known as the " Castle of the Jews ") and 
of S. Gerasimos, incorporating early Christian remains. 

For the peculiar tropical flora of the Jordan Valley, see 
Part v., § 9 ; for the Ghor and the Dead Sea in general, see 
Part I., § 2, and Part VI., § i. 

ct 1 


§ 7. Samaria Province. 

Nablus. — Nablus, the capital of Samaria Province, is 
peculiar among the towns of Palestine in having kept its 
more recent name, NeaTroXf?, in preference to its original 
name Shechem. 

Shechem is associated with the earliest period of Jewish 
settlement in Palestine, for here Abraham pitched his tent 
on entering the country, and set up the first altar to Jehovah 
on a spot still shown on the slope of Mt. Ebal. Again, to 
Shechem, which lies in the long and narrow valley separating 
Mt. Ebal from Mt. Gerizim, Joshua led the Israelites after 
the miraculous passage of the Jordan, and on the slopes of 
the two mountains recited the Law of Moses. From Ebal 
and Gerizim were pronounced the blessings and the cursings . 

The community most enduringly associated with Nablus 
is that of the Samaritans {cf. Part II., § 16), who claim 
Gerizim as the hill of Joshua's altar and as " the place where 
men ought to worship " (S. John, iv., 20). 

Abimelek, who was the son of Gideon and a woman of 
Shechem, ruled here for three years, and then destroyed the 
city in order to punish the Samaritans, who had risen against 
him. Rehoboam's foolish speech at his coronation in 
Shechem led to the division of the Jewish State into the 
Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, and Jeroboam established 
here the first capital of the Northern Kingdom. After the 
fall of Jerusalem Shechem is recorded as being inhabited 
by the Samaritans (Jeremiah, xli., 5), and, after the Jewish 
wars, becomes, under Vespasian, the city of Flavia Neapolis. 

In the early centuries of Christianity Neapolis was con- 
stantly the scene of strife between the Samaritans and the 
Christians, and Justinian was compelled to put down with 
severity a serious revolt of the former ; from this revolt is 
to be dated the decay in the numbers of the Samaritan 

Nablus was captured by the Crusaders under Tancred, 
and an important ecclesiastical Council was held here in 
the reign of Baldwin II. 


:ine is m 

One of the best authenticated holy sites in Palestine 
Jacob's Well, which lies just outside the eastern end of the 
town, below the little village of Sychar, and is the scene of 
Christ's conversation with the woman of Samaria. A 
Byzantine church, which was erected over the well, gave 
place to a Crusaders' church, on whose ruins a modern 
Orthodox church is in course of construction. 

Nablus itself is long and narrow, and is traversed by two 
parallel stcqs, containing several mosques which were for- 
merly Byzantine or Crusaders' churches. The " Great 
Mosque," in the eastern part of the town, was originally a 
basilica built by Justinian and rebuilt by the Crusaders in 
the twelfth century. Its interesting eastern porch is well 
preserved. Other mosques of Crusading origin are the 
Jami' al-Khadra and the Jami' al-Nasr ; the former is 
believed to stand on the spot where Joseph's brethren 
brought his coat to Jacob. The small, compact Samaritan 
quarter lies in the south-western part of the town, in that 
corner of Nablus which runs up the valley towards Mt. 

Samaria. — Samaria, now the village of Sebastieh, stands 
on the ' egg-shaped ' hill from which the ancient Jewish 
town took its name of " watch-hill." Samaria was founded 
by Omri, King of Israel, remained the capital of the Northern 
Kingdom until its capture by Sargon in 722 B.C., and, in 
the days of the Maccabees, gave its name to all Central 
Palestine. Herod the Great rebuilt it on an ambitious 
scale, endowed it with handsome monuments, made of it a 
pleasure resort, and, in compliment to Augustus, gave to 
it the name of Sebaste, which it still bears. 

Excavations were conducted at Samaria by the Univer- 
sity of Harvard in 1908-9. The chief discoveries were, on 
the summit, the foundations of a large temple built by 
Herod the Great, including the grand stairway (still visible) , 
an altar, and a torso of Augustus. In the same area deeper 
cuttings exposed older buildings, some of the masonry of 
which was shown to be of the period of Omri and Ahab. 
On a broad terrace, north-east, there were uncovered the 


remains of a basilica in classical style. . This is more 
properly the Senate House (Curia) or Council Chamber 
of the city ; and the tiers of seats, forming a half- 
theatre around the well of the apse, are well seen. This 
part was roofed, while the forecourt was open with a sur- 
rounding cloister. The style and character of the work are 

Other features of interest are the fine Roman gateway to 
the west, with circular flanking towers upon older square 
foundations ; an avenue of columns indicating the principal 
road through the town ; and the site of the Stadium on the 
low ground to the north-east. 

Below the village stands the well-preserved Crusaders' 
church of S. John the Baptist, now a mosque. Tradition 
places both the beheading and the burial of the Baptist at 

Ta'anach and Megiddo. — In the rich plain of Esdraelon 
or Jezreel, north-west of Jenin, lie the ancient sites of 
Ta'anach and Megiddo, where excavations have brought to 
light not only a good deal of pottery of an early period, but 
many evidences of Babylonian culture. 

Beisan. — East of Jenin, in the Jordan valley, lies Beisan, 
the Beth-Shan of the Old Testament and the Greek Scytho- 
polis. Excavations were begun here, in the imposing mound 
called Tel Hosn, by the University of Pennsylvania in 192 1, 
and are proceeding. The site dominates the approaches to 
Palestine by the Jordan and Esdraelon from the direction 
of Damascus, and is aptly called the key to Palestine. Trial 
sections have disclosed stratifications leading back to the 
earliest phases of settlement in the Bronze Age. Systematic 
clearing from the top has recovered the plans of superposed 
mediaeval and Byzantine cities, with monastic buildings of 
the later date and a great rotunda of the earlier date. The 
excavations promise results of great interest. A monument 
of the Egyptian Pharaoh Seti I. has been found, together 
with tombs of the same period. 


§ 8. The Northern Province. 

Haifa and Mt. Carmel. — Haifa, the capital of the 
Northern Province, is a flourishing port of some 34,000 
inhabitants situated at the foot of Mt. Carmel. Archaeo- 
logically, however, it has nothing of interest to offer. 

Mt. Carmel, famed from Old Testament times for its 
beauty, is one of the most attractive regions of Palestine. 
Not very high (its highest point is only 1,810 ft.), it is more 
than twelve miles long, running from Haifa in a south- 
easterly direction. Its perennial green, which it owes to a 
heavy dewfall, contrasts pleasantly in summer with the rest 
of Palestine, while re-afforestation by the Government is 
endeavouring to repair the ravages to its once thick forests. 
At a height of 560 ft., commanding a wide view, stands the 
Carmelite Monastery, the parent-house of a monastic order 
which was founded here in 1156 and takes its name from 
the mountain. Accommodation in the monastery is occa- 
sionally available on application to the Vicar of Mt. Carmel. 
The so-called " Place of Burning," commemorating the 
miracle of Elijah and the priests of Baal (i Kings, xviii.), 
is on the south-eastern point of Mt. Carmel, at a height of 
1,685 ft. 

Athlit and Caesarea. — On the coast south of Haifa lies 
the Crusaders' castle of Athlit, a stronghold of the Knights 
Templar under the names of Chateau Pelerin and Petra 
Incisa. It was the very last possession of the Crusaders in 
Palestine, being captured by Melek al-Ashraf on the 14th 
August, 1 29 1, after Acre had already fallen. The Depart- 
ment of Antiquities has recently undertaken certain work 
of clearing and preservation in the castle, and has exposed 
the remains of a polygonal church. 

Very little remains to-day of the ancient city of Caesarea, 
after 70 a.d. the capital of Roman Palestine and residence 
of the Procurators, and the ecclesiastical capital until 
451 A.D. {of. Part II., § 6). S. Paul was a prisoner in 
Caesarea for two years. The town was taken by the 
Crusaders under Baldwin I. in iioi, when the booty included 


the green crystal vase supposed to have been used at the 
Last Supper, and subsequently famous in mediaeval litera- 
ture and legend as the " Holy Grail." Caesarea was finally 
destroyed by Bibars in 1265, and its ruins are now inhabited 
by the Bosnians referred to in Part II., § 4. 

Acre. — The varied history of Acre has been touched upon 
in Part I., §§ 5 and 6. It is mentioned only once in the 
Old Testament (Judges, i., 31), under the name of Accho, 
and once also in the New Testament (Acts, xxi., 7), under 
its Greek name of Ptolemais. According to the Talmud 
the Jews regarded Acre as being outside the confines of 
the Holy Land, whose frontier was its outer wall. The 
town became of importance during the Crusades, and was 
the favourite seat of the Court of the Latin Kingdom. On 
the fall of Jerusalem it succeeded that city as the capital 
and as the headquarters of the Knightly Orders, owing its 
full name of S. Jean d'Acre to the Knights Hospitallers. 
It was for several years, until its fall in May, 1291, the last 
outpost of the Crusaders in Palestine. 

Even after the disappearance of the Franks Acre remained 
the usual landing-place for Christian pilgrims from the 
West. In more recent times it has stood several sieges, 
notably by Napoleon in 1799 ; was captured by Ibrahim 
Pasha in 1831 ; and was bombarded in 1840 by the British, 
Austrian and Turkish fleets under Stopford and Napier. 
In later Turkish times Acre was the capital of the Sanjaq 
which bore its name. Its connexion with the Balia'i sect 
is described in Part II., § 18. 

Now a town of about 4,000 inhabitants. Acre is one of 
the most picturesque places in Palestine. The walls and 
earthworks, which have been described as a perfect example 
of a late eighteenth-century fortress, are practically intact. 
Built largely on Crusaders' foundations and from the debris 
of Crusaders' walls by 'Omar al-Daher, and completed by 
Jezzar Pasha between 1775 and 1802, they form a most 
interesting feature of the place, and still bear signs, in the 
form of round shot embedded in them, of the bombard- 
ment of 1840. 


From the direction of Haifa a picturesque view is obtained 
of the southern battlements, the ruins of the ' Tower of 
Flies,' and the remains of the Phoenician breakwater. The 
town is entered through an archway in which still stand 
the original massive iron-plated gates. Here can be seen 
a beam on which criminals were formerly hanged. Inside 
the gate is the ' White Market,' with a vaulted roof of 
curious construction, while the general markets and bazaars 
stretch down towards the harbour. Acre possesses no less 
than four commodious khans, for, prior to the construction 
of the Damascus-Haifa Railway, all the wheat trade passed 
through Acre ; during the season from two to three thousand 
camels would arrive daily laden with grain. The most in- 
teresting of the khans are the Khan Shahwarda, which 
contains a number of old cannon of the time of Sir Sidney 
Smith, and the Khan al-Umdan near the harbour. The 
most important of Acre's six mosques was built by Jezzar 
Pasha about 1790 of materials brought from Ascalon, 
Caesarea, Sidon and elsewhere ; it has dignity and grace, 
and is set in pleasant surroundings. The courtyard is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade and by domed cells for the accom- 
modation of scholars. In a detached building are the 
tombs of its bloodthirsty founder, Ahmed Pasha al-Jezzar, 
the Butcher Pasha of Napoleon's siege, and of his successor 
Suleyman. On the opposite side of the road is the Turkish 
arsenal, where lie stacks of round shot of all sizes, bar and 
chain shot, fireballs, cannister, grape and other ordnance of 
the eighteenth century, much of which was put on shore 
by the English at the time of Napoleon's siege. Under the 
Citadel, which was built by 'Abdallah Pasha about 1820 
and is now used as a central prison, and under the Girls' 
School on the opposite side of the road, are the crypts of 
the residence of the Knights of S. John, in good preservation 
and worthy of a visit. The porch of the Crusaders' Cathe- 
dral, now destroyed, was removed after the city's fall to 
Cairo, where it may still be seen embodied in the fagade of 
the iiXrhe of Mohammed al-Nasr. In the Citadel tower, 
whence there is a fine view, is a small museum with a 


collection of Phoenician glass. Near by is the hamniam 
built by Jezzar, the finest Turkish Bath in Palestine. 

About half a mile to the east of the walls is Tel al-Fukhar, 
where King Richard pitched his tent in 11 90-1 ; from this 
place Napoleon directed operations in 1799. About one 
mile to the north-east is the village of Menshieh, where was 
the French Camp, and close by are the orange gardens of 
Baghche and the tombs of Baha'u'llah and Sir Abbas 
Effendi 'Abdu'l Baha. Across the plain to the north can 
be traced the aqueduct — rebuilt by Jezzar and 'Abdallah, 
probably on the ruins of a Roman aqueduct — conveying 
the water a distance of 8 miles into Acre. To the north- 
east on the hillside can be seen the late Arab castle of 
Jeddin, and to the north the white cliff of Ras al-Nakura 
(the boundary between Palestine and Syria) and the be- 
ginning of the " Ladder of Tyre." The beautiful Wadi 
Qurn, well wooded and with a strongly flowing stream, 
deserves a visit, together with the ruins of the Crusaders' 
castle of Montfort (Qala'at Qurein). This castle of Mons 
Fortis was begun in 1229 by Hermann von Salza, the Grand 
Master of the Teutonic Order, and was the principal strong- 
hold of the Order in Palestine. It was destroyed by Bibars. 

Acre is connected with Haifa by a narrow-gauge railway, 
which crosses the rivers Kishon (Nahr Muqatta) and Belus 
(Nahr Na'mein) . The latter provided and still provides the 
murex, from which the Phoenicians extracted the famous 
Tyrian purple ; and Pliny records that glass was made from 
its exceptionally fine sand. 

There is a local prophecy to the effect that when the 
waters of the river Belus reach the east gate of Acre the 
English will take the town. This possibility arose from 
the fact that Belus changes his course every year. In 1910 the 
river approached so close to the gate that, in view of the 
prophecy, the Turkish authorities became anxious. Num- 
bers of sheep were publicly sacrificed on the spit of land 
between the river and the gate, and that winter Belus moved 
himself away from the walls. 

Nazareth (al-Nasira). — No mention of Nazareth, where 


Christ spent His early youth and taught in the synagogue, 
occurs in the Old Testament ; and in the time of Christ the 
place was so insignificant that the term Nazarene was 
applied to Him in derision. Down to the time of Con- 
stantine Nazareth was inhabited by Samaritans ; then 
dwindled rapidly in importance after the Arab conquest ; 
revived during the Crusades only to contract again when 
the Franks left Palestine ; but grew once more in the 
seventeenth century, when the Franciscans were enabled 
by the Druse Emir Fakhr al-Din to establish a church and 
convent on the supposed site of the House of the Virgin 
before its miraculous journey to Loretto. The enterprising 
'Omar al-Daher {cf. Part I., § 6) increased the prosperity of 
the place, which is now a flourishing town of about 9,000 

Nazareth is, like Jerusalem, a place of religious and 
charitable establishments, and the heights around it are 
crowned by imposing orphanages, hospitals and schools. 
There are no buildings of great antiquity, unless we except 
the church of the Melchites, which, it is claimed, is the 
synagogue where Christ preached (S. Luke, iv., 16 sqq.). 
The general aspect of Nazareth, with its hilly background, 
its orchards, its cypresses and its many churches, is reminis- 
cent of some Tuscan or Umbrian hill- town. Rising abruptly 
from the plain south-east of Nazareth is the dome-shaped 
Mt. Tabor. 

Tiberias. — The road from Nazareth to Tiberias (16 miles) 
passes Kafr-Kanna, the traditional scene of the Miracle of 
Cana (S. John, ii.), and, farther on, runs close to the hill of 
the " Horns of Hattin," the scene of the disastrous defeat 
of the Crusaders in 1187 {cf. Part I., § 5). 

Tiberias lies on the west bank of the Lake, and was 
founded by Herod Antipas in honour of the Emperor 
Tiberius, whose name it received. During the Jewish war 
the town voluntarily surrendered to Vespasian, and on this 
account the Jews were permitted to continue to reside 
there. During the second, third and fourth centuries a.d. 
it was the headquarters of the Jewish remnant in Palestine 


and the seat of the rabbinic Sanhedrin, the birthplace of 
the Mishna and of the Palestinian Talmud [cf. Part II., 
§14). It is still the resort and the dwelling-place of 
orthodox Jews, and continues to be a favourite place of 
Talmudic study. 

The town lies 681 ft. below sea-level and, as seen from 
the hills overlooking the lake, is of picturesque appearance. 
It is built, like many towns of S3^ria and Trans-jordania, 
of black basalt, which gives it, on closer approach, a some- 
what sombre look. It is partly enclosed within walls and 
bastions, built or restored by 'Omar al-Daher. 

A little to the south of Tiberias are the hot baths de- 
scribed in Part IV., § 6, and below these, again, is the tomb 
of the celebrated Talmudist Rabbi Meir. The tombs of the 
philosopher Maimonides and of Rabbi Ben Akiba lie to 
the north of the town. 

At the northern end of the lake is Capernaum (Tel Hum), 
whose interesting synagogue, now in process of excavation, 
is referred to in § i above. 

Safed. — Safed is the northernmost town of any size in 
Palestine [c. 12,500 inhabitants) and stands at a height of 
2,749 ft. Like Tiberias, Safed is a Jewish holy town, which 
it became after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and 
Portugal. It then developed as a centre for the study of 
the Kabhala ; and we have seen in Part II., § 14, that the 
first printing press in Palestine was set up at Safed in 1563. 

Safed contains the remains of a Templar castle, and 
commands an extensive view towards Mt. Hermon and the 
north. At Meiron, north-west of Safed, are the tombs of 
Hillel and other famous Jewish teachers, to which pilgrims 
resort in great numbers on the 30th April of each year.^ 

For Lake Huleh (the Waters of Merom), see Part I., § 2. 

' For an explanation of the burnt-offerings which are still made by the pilgrims on 
this occasion see Sir J. G. Frazcr, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (3rd edn. revised, 1910), vol. i., 
pp. 178-9. 



§ I. Palestine as a Tourist Resort. 

Attractions of Palestine. — Palestine as a resort for 
tourists possesses unique attractions, religious, historical, 
climatic and archaeological, which need not be enlarged 
upon here. 

By the quickest route, under normal conditions, Palestine 
is reached from London in six to seven days and from Cairo 
in eighteen hours. 

The best season to visit Palestine is from January to June. 

For climate, see Part V. 

Communications. — Rapid and comfortable communica- 
tion between Egypt and Palestine is provided daily by trains 
from Kantara East. In Palestine itself communication is 
assured by an efficient railway system, by motor-car services 
and by an extensive road system, all the first and second 
class roads being suitable for motoring. 

Hotels. — In the principal towns very fair accommodation 
and cooking can be relied upon. Some of the hotels are 
not of first-rate European standard, but they are clean, and 
a stay in them is comfortable. 

All the points here mentioned are dealt with in detail 


Passport Regulations. — 


1. British passports are issued by the Department of 
Immigration and Travel, Jerusalem, and by British diplo- 
matic and consular officers abroad. The charge for a British 
passport is PT. 37. Application should be made on the 
authorized form obtainable from those authorities. 

2. British subjects making their homes or staying for 
more than three months in Palestine should be registered 
at the Department of Immigration and Travel. 

3. British passports are not valid beyond two years from 
the date of issue. They may be renewed for four further 
periods of two years each, after which, or if at any time 
there be no further space for visas, a fresh passport must 
be obtained. The fee for each renewal is PT. 10. 

4. The passport is only available for travel to the coun- 
tries named thereon, but may be endorsed for additional 
countries. The possession of a passport so endorsed does 
not, however, exempt the holder from compliance with any 
immigration regulations in force in British or foreign coun- 
tries or from the necessity of obtaining a visa where required. 

5. Passports endorsed as valid for the British Empire are 
also available for travelling to territory under British pro- 
tection or mandate, excluding, however, Palestine, Meso- 
potamia or Egypt, for which countries the passport must 
be specially endorsed. 

6. During the two years for which a British passport is 
valid, no further endorsement is required for journeys to 
the countries for which the passport has already been made 
available, unless the contrary is stated. 

7. For journeys to countries other than those for which 
the passport is already available, endorsements should be 

8. For journeys to countries other than British Posses- 
sions, visas must be obtained from the foreign consular 
representatives concerned. 



1. Laissez-Passers valid for one year are issued b} 
Department of Immigration and Travel at Jerusalem, Haifa, 
or Jaffa. 

2. Holders of Laissez-Passers desiring to travel in the 
British Empire or to territory which is under British pro- 
tection or mandate must obtain the necessary British visas, 
either from the Department of Immigration and Travel in 
Palestine or from His Majesty's representatives abroad. 
British visas, unless otherwise endorsed, are valid for one 

3. Holders of Laissez-Passers who desire to travel to 
countries other than British Possessions must obtain visas 
from the foreign consular representatives concerned. 


1. Passports are issued by the Consular Representatives 
of Foreign Countries. 

2. The regulations regarding British and Foreign visas, 
mentioned in {b) 2 and 3 above apply also to the holders of 
Foreign passports. 

For list of Foreign Consuls, see Part VII. 
Health Arrangements for Tourists. — Specially conducted 
parties of tourists may land and proceed immediately on 
their tour, except in cases where plague or cholera has 
occurred on board the ship during the voyage or where the 
ship has called at a cholera-infected port within five days 
of reaching Palestine. 

No individual or personal inspection of tourists will be 
made, provided the following procedure is complied with : 
(a) the Medical Officer of the ship will inform the Quaran- 
tine Medical Officer at the Port of the state of 
health of the whole party ; 
{b) the Tourist Agent concerned will supply the Quaran- 
tine Medical Officer with a nominal roll in duplicate 
of each party landing for a special itinerary ; 


(c) the Tourist Agent conducting the party will report 
the state of health on the third and fifth days after 
the party lands to the District Health Office of the 
town in which the party chances to be on these 

§ 2. Routes to Palestine. 

Shipping. — Pre-war shipping and transport conditions are 
not yet fully re-established. At the time of writing the 
following are the details available : 

{a) Prince Line. — From London — Gibraltar — Malta — 
Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian coast ports. 
Monthly calls. 

Agents : A. Cassar, Jaffa ; S. Catoni & Son, Haifa. 
{b) Wilson Line. — From Hull — Gibraltar — Alexandria 
— Jaffa and Syrian coast ports. 
Monthly calls. 
Agents : Messrs. Cox worth, Jaffa. 

(c) Moss Line. — From Liverpool and Swansea — Gibraltar 

— Malta — Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian 

coast ports. 
Monthly calls. 
Agents : Messrs. Pardess & Co., Jaffa ; S. Catoni & 

Son, Haifa, 

[d) E Herman Line. — From Liverpool and London — Gib- 

raltar — Malta — Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and 

Syrian coast ports. 
Monthly calls. 
Agents : Messrs. Pardess & Co., Jaffa ; S. Catoni & 

Son, Haifa. 
{e) Khedivial Mail Line. — From Alexandria — Port-Said 

— Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian coast ports. 
Weekly calls. 

Agents : A. Cassar, Jaffa ; S. Nassif, Haifa. 
(/) Fabre Line. — F"rom Marseilles — Mediterranean Ports 

to Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian coast ports, 
Bi-monthly calls. 
Agents : W. Tamari, Jaffa ; V, B. Motawa, Haifa, 

L.P, H 


(g) Message-vies Maritime s. — From Marseilles via Italy to 
Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Bi-monthly calls. 

Agents : D. N. Tadros, Jaffa ; S. Catoni & Son, Haifa. 
(h) Servizi Marittimi. — From Genoa-Italian coast ports — 
to Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Weekly calls. 

Agents : E. Alonzo, Jaffa ; A. Picaloga, Haifa. 
{i) Marittima Italiana. — From Genoa-Italian coast ports 
— to Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Bi-monthly calls. 

Agents : M. Alonzo, Jaffa ; M. Khouri, Haifa. 
[j) Lloyd Triestino. — From Trieste — Brindisi — Alex- 
andria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Weekly calls. 

Agents : A. Mantura, Jaffa ; J. Mantura, Haifa. 
{k) Kerr Line. — From New York — Mediterranean ports — 
Alexandria — Jaffa — Syrian ports — India, etc. 
Monthly calls. 
Agents : J. Pascal, Jaffa. 
(/) Deutsch-Levant _Linie. — From Germany — Gibraltar — 
Malta — Alexandria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Bi-monthly calls. 

Agents : J. Kuebler, Jaffa ; Messrs. Kirchner & Co., 
(m) Affreteurs Reunis. — From Marseilles — Alexandria — 
Jaffa and Syrian ports. 
Weekly calls. 

Agents : M. Dizengoff, Jaffa. 
{n) Deutsch-Orient Line. — From Stettin — Malta — Alex- 
andria — Jaffa — Haifa and Syrian ports. 
Bi-monthly calls. 

Agents : J. Aberle, Jaffa ; Messrs. Kirchner & Co., 
There are also the following services from Europe to 
Alexandria and Port-Said : 

(a) Anchor Line. — Monthly. From Liverpool — Mar- 
seilles — Port-Said- 



(6) Bibby Line. — Bi-monthly. From Liverpool — Mar- 
seilles — Port-Said . 
10% rebate for Government Officials. 

(c) British India. — Bi-monthly. From London — Mar- 
seilles — Port-Said . 

{d) City 6- Hall Lines. — Bi-monthly. From Liverpool 
or London — Marseilles — Port-Said. 

{e) Lloyd Triestino. — Weekly. From Trieste — Brindisi 
— Alexandria. 
20% rebate for Government Officials. 

(/) Orient Line. — Monthly. From London — Toulon — 
Naples — Port-Said. 

(g) P. &> O. Mail Steamers. — Weekly. From London — 
Marseilles — Port-Said . 

[h) P. <sy O. Intermediate Line. — Bi-monthly. From 
London — Marseilles — Port-Said . 

{i) Rotterdam Lloyd. — Bi-monthly. From Marseilles to 

{j) Union Castle Line. — Monthly. From England — 
Marseilles — Port-Said . 

{k) Servizi Marittimi. — Weekly — From Genoa — Naples 
— Syracuse — Venice — Brindisi — Alexandria. 
20% rebate for Government Officials. 

(/) Messageries Maritimes. — Bi-monthly. From Mar- 
seilles to Alexandria. 
20% rebate for Government Officials. 

For Coast and Harbour Regulations, see Part V. 

§ 3. Inland Communications . 


The Sinai Military Railway (Standard Gauge — 4' 8^') 
runs from Kantara East on the Suez Canal across the 
desert of Sinai to Rafa, the boundary between Egypt 
and Palestine. Under arrangements with the British 
Army Authorities this line is operated by the Palestine 



Government Railways. The Palestine Government Rail- 
ways {cf. also Part V., § ii) are : 

(a) Standard Gauge. Rafa to Ludd — Ludd to Haifa — 
Rafa to Beersheba — Jaffa to Ludd — Ludd to Jeru- 
salem, and all branch lines connecting. 

{b) Narrow Gauge (105 cms.). Haifa to Semakh. — Haifa 
to Acre — Afule to Nablus — Mesudieh to Tulkeram 
— Nasib to Ma'an (Trans-jordania), and all branch 
lines connecting. 

The Junctions and Branch Lines are as follows : 

(«) Standard Gauge : 

- Junctions for Beersheba an 
joint station with the Sinai 
Military Railways. 

- Junctions for Sarafend Army 

- Junction for Beit Nabala Quar- 

- Junction for- Jaffa and Jeru- 

- Junction for Petach Tikvah. 

- Junction for Nablus and Afule 
(Narrow Gauge). 

Rafa Station 

Sarafend Station 

Kafr J inn is 

Ludd Station 

Ras al-Ain - 
Tulkeram Station 


[b) Narrow Gauge : 
Kilo 4 1 (from Haifa) 
Afule " 

Kilo 12 (from Afule) 

Junction for Acre. 
Junction for Nablus and Tul- 
keram (Broad Gauge). 
Junction for Jenin Army Can- 
The stations on the lines are : 

{a) From Kantara East to Haifa : Romani, al-Abd, Mazar, 
al-Arish, Gaber Amir, Rafa, Khan Yunis, Deir 
al-Belah, Gaza, Deir Seneid, Mejdel, Esdud, Yebnah, 
Rehoboth, Bir Salem, Ludd, Kafr Jinnis, Ras al-Ain, 
Kalkilieh, Tulkeram, Khedera, Zicron Jacob, 
Athlit, Kafr al-Semir, Haifa. 
{b) From Rafa to Jerxisalem : Rafa, Imara, Beersheba, 


(c) From Jaffa to Jerusalem : Jaffa, Tel Aviv, Ludd, 

Ramleh, Wadi Surar, Artuf, Deir al-Sheikh, Bittir, 

(d) From Haifa to Acre : Haifa, Acre Junction, Acre. 

(e) From Haifa to Nablus : Haifa, Acre Junction, Tel 

al-Shemmam, Afule, Jenin, Arabeh, Sileh, Mes- 

udieh, Nablus. 

(/) From Haifa to Semakh : Haifa, Acre Junction, Tel 

al-Shemmam, Afule, Shutta, Beisan, Jisr al- 

Mejammie, Semakh. 

There is an excellent service of trains from Egypt to 

Palestine daily, connexion with the Egyptian State Railways 

being made at Kantara by means of a floating footbridge 

across the Suez Canal from Kantara East to Kantara West 


The following are the time-tables of trains, including 

Egyptian State Railway connexions : 

(i) From Egypt to Kantara West : 

Alexandria dep. 3.30 p.m. 1 , ^ , 

T^ , T,r , r ^ ^ Vchange at Benha. 

Kantara West arr. 9.56 p.m. j ^ 

Kantara West 

Kantara West 

Kantara West 

(ii) From Kantara East to Palestine : (^sleeping and Dining Car.) 

(Daily except Sundays.) 


6.15 P.M. 
9.56 P.M. 


6.15 P.M. 
7.08 P.M. 

dep. 5.00 P.M. 1 , ^ . 

^ Vchange at Ismaiha. 

arr. 9.56 p.m. | ° 


TLeave Kantara East - - - - 1.30 a.m. 

(Arrive Ludd _ . _ _ _ g ^o a.m. 

/Leave Ludd _____ 10.00 a.m. 

lArrive Haifa - - - - - 12.45 a.m. 

/Leave Ludd _____ 10.01 a.m. 

\Arrive Jerusalem ----- 12.25 a.m. 

/Leave Ludd _____ 10.02 a.m. 

1 Arrive Jaffa _ _ _ _ . 10.45 p.m. 



(iii) From Palestine to Kantara East : 

{Daily except Sundays.) 

(Leave Jaffa ------ 9.00 a.m. 

Arrive Ludd - - - - - 9.43 a.m. 

/Leave Jerusalem ----- 7.30 a.m. 

\Arrive Ludd ----- 9.47 a.m. 

TLeave Haifa - - - - - 7.00 a.m. 

1 Arrive Ludd 9-45 a.m. 

/Leave Ludd _ _ - _ _ 10.15 a.m. 

\ Arrive Kantara East - - - - 5.30 p.m. 
(iv) From Kantara West to Egypt : 
Kantara West dep. 7.15 a.m. 
Cairo arr. 10.50 p.m. 

Alexandria arr. 5.30 a.m. change at Benha. 

Suez arr. 12.00 change at Ismailia. 


Kantara West dep. 10.06 p.m. 
Port-Said arr. 11.00 p.m. 

Through coaches from Jerusalem connect at Ludd with 
the Haifa-Kantara train, but passengers from Jaffa have to 
change carriage at Ludd. 

Berths can be booked at the offices of the International 
Sleeping Car Company at Haifa and Cairo, and at the offices 
of Messrs. Thos. Cook & Sons, Jerusalem. Berths are 
allotted in strict order of application. Passengers may only 
take small hand baggage in carriages. 

The Customs examination of passengers' hand baggage 
inwards is carried out between Rafa and Gaza on board the 
train, but outward-bound passengers on reaching Kantara 
West station are subject to examination by the Egyptian 
Customs Administration, who undertake this duty for the 
Egyptian and Palestine Governments. 

There are no dining or sleeping cars on the Narrow Gauge, 
but a Railway Buffet has been opened at Semakh. 


There are regular services for passengers with a very 
limited supply of baggage daily, connecting Jerusalem-Jaffa 


and Jerusalem-Hebron. There are also motor-bus services, 
two or three times daily, connecting Jerusalem-Bethlehem 
and Jerusalem-Ramallah. In addition there are large 
numbers of cars for hire from Jerusalem to Northern Pales- 
tine at varying rates according to the type of car. 

(c) ROADS. 

Classification of Roads. — During the war the Turks, and 
later the British Military Authorities, greatly improved the 
existing system of roads, and Palestine now possesses roads 
of high order over which motoring is easy. 

The roads of Palestine are classified as follows : 

{a) ist class, having 5 metres of metalled surface ; 

{b) 2nd class, having 3-75 metres of metalled surface ; 

(c) 3rd class, having 3-75 metres of metalled surface (but 

metalled and bridged only where necessary) ; 

[d) 4th class, unmetalled and unbridged. 

1st and 2nd class roads are normally fit for Motor Trans- 
port, but 3rd and 4th class may be taken as normally 
impassable by Mechanical Transport from ist December to 
31st March in ordinary years, excepting during protracted 
intervals of fine weather. 

Table of Distances. — The following is a list of distances 
in kilometres : 

(i) 15^ and 2nd class roads : 

Jaffa to Ramleh 18-5 — Bab-al-Wad 22-5 — Jerusalem 

(Jaffa Gate) 20. — Total 61. 
Jaffa to Ludd 20. 
Jerusalem (Damascus Gate) to Bethany 45 — to 

Jericho 30. — Total 34-5. 
Jerusalem (Jaffa Gate) to Solomon's Pools 13-25 — to 
Hebron 21 — (2nd class) al-Dhaheriyeh 21 — Beer- 
sheba 25-75. — Total 81. 
Jerusalem (Jaffa Gate) to Bethlehem 10. 
Jerusalem (Post Office) to Railway Station 1-40. 
Jerusalem (Post Office) to Government House, Mount 
of Olives 4-5. 


Jerusalem (Damascus Gate) to Ramallah 11-50 — 
Nablus 50 — Jenin 43^Nazareth 29 5 — Tiberias 
335 — Rosh Pina 23-5 — Safed 4-5. — Total 195-5. 

Nablus to Tulkeram 29. 
^ Nazareth to Haifa 375. 

Tiberias to Semakh 1 1 . 

(ii) ^rd class roads {dry-weather tracks) : 
Beersheba to Rafa 61. 
Gaza to Rafa 32. 
Gaza to Beersheba 56. 
Gaza to Mejdel 25-75. 
Mejdel to Babal-Wad 22. 
Jaffa to Petach Tikvah 13-5. 
Jaffa to Rishon-le-Zion 13-5. 

Jaffa to Kalkilieh 25 — Tulkeram 175. — Total 42 5. 
Tulkeram to Zichron Jacob 31-5 — Haifa 35. — Total 

Haifa to Acre 16. 
Nazareth to Beisan 38. 
Jenin to Beisan 43. 

Rule of the Road. — The general rule for all kinds of 
vehicles is to keep to the right. 

Fast-moving vehicles may take the centre of the road, 
except : 

(a) when approaching traffic coming from the opposite 
direction ; 

{b) when about to be overtaken by another vehicle ; 

(c) at a corner or a sharp bend in the road, in which cases 
they must slow down and bear to the right. 

For purposes of this rule motor-cycles are classified as 
fast-moving vehicles. 

Slow-moving vehicles will always travel on the right-hand 
side of the road. 

A vehicle or animal overtaken may be passed only on the 
left, and on no account between it and the right-hand side 
of the road. {Vide Regulations under Road Transport 
Ordinance issued ist March, 1922.) 


Rules as regards Lights. — ^Every vehicle standing or 
travelling on any public highway between sunset and 
sunrise shall be lighted as follows : 

(i) Animal-drawn vehicles shall carry two lights, one in 

front on the left or off side and one in rear ; 
(ii) bicycles and tricycles shall carry one light in front ; 
(iii) trailers shall carry one light in rear ; 
(iv) every motor vehicle of four wheels shall carry a white 
reflector light on each side of the front part of the 
vehicle, and a red light at the left side of the back 
part. Every motor vehicle of less than four wheels 
shall carry a white light in front and a red light 
or a red reflector at the back. 
An Ordinance was passed in July, 1921, setting forth the 
conditions under which vehicles are licensed. 

No vehicle is allowed to be driven on any road until the 
owner has obtained a licence to keep such vehicle. 

No vehicle having a carrying capacity exceeding three 
tons shall be driven on any road. 

Driving Licences. — The age-limit for the granting of a 
driving licence is 17 years in the case of a car and 14 years 
in that of a motor-cycle. 

The usual rules apply to Palestine with reference to pro- 
duction of driving licence for Police Inspection, stopping 
when called upon, endorsement of licence, etc. 

Special provisions for Motor Vehicles. — Motor vehicles 
must be registered with the Police, who will assign a separate 
number to each vehicle. 

The cost of a licence for private motor-cars is, for a sitting 
capacity of i to 5 persons, /E. 8 per annum, and of 6 to 12 
persons, £E. 12 per annum. £E. 1-500 m/ms. per annum is 
payable for a motor-cycle, and £E. 2 per annum for motor- 
cycle and side-car. The cost of registration is PT. 50 and 
PT. 25 respectively. 

Foreign Motor Vehicles. — The owner of a motor vehicle 
registered abroad, who, being resident abroad, brings such 
vehicle into Palestine while on a visit, must comply with 


the rules above mentioned regarding the Hcensing of the 
vehicle and the driver, but he is not liable to pay the fees 
for a licence unless his stay in Palestine exceeds four months. 
No person shall in any circumstances drive a motor 
vehicle on a road at a speed exceeding 30 miles per hour, 
and the Director of Public Security has powers for making 
regulations regarding the maximum speed in any area. In 
Jersualem the maximum speed is 15 miles per hour. 


The usual means of transport when motor-cars are not 
available is by diligences or victorias drawn by two or three 
horses, and, in the absence of carriage roads, by donkeys 
and camels. 

Arab horses are used to some extent, but donkeys are 
used largely for conveying tourists to outlying places. 
Camels are almost entirely used for the transport of goods. 

§4. Accommodation. 

The following are the principal hotels and hospices in 
Palestine : 

Jerusalem. — Hotels : Hotel Allenby (Jaffa Road) ; 

Grand New Hotel (inside Jaffa Gate) ; Olivet House 

(Hensman's Hotel, near Post Office) ; Central Hotel 

(old city) ; S. John's Hotel (old city). 
Hospices : Notre Dame de France (opposite New 

Gate) ; Casa Nova (New Gate) ; Austrian Hospice ; 

German Hospice. 
Jericho. — Hotel Belle Vue ; Jordan Hotel. 
Jaffa. — Cliff Hotel ; Jerusalem Hotel ; Kaminitz Hotel. 
Tel- Aviv. — Herzlia Hotel ; Ben Nahom Hotel ; Barash 

Tiberias. — Hotel Tiberias (Grossman's); Tabgha Hospice. 
Nazareth. — Galilee Hotel ; Franciscan Hospice. 
Haifa. — Hotels : Herzlia Hotel ; Nassar Hotel ; Carmel 

Hotel ; New Hotel. 

Hospice : Roman Catholic Hospice. 


Village Accommodation. — In the villages accommodation 
is very scanty, although sometimes it is possible to obtain 
a room, but as a rule the traveller has to take with him his 
own provisions, cooking appliances and cook. Village rooms 
are not recommended, and tents are preferable. 

Posts, etc. — See Part V. for information regarding Posts, 
Telegraphs and Telephones. 

§ 5. Books of Reference. 

The volume of literature dealing with Palestine is vast. 
Rohricht's Bihliotheca Geographica Palaestinae (Berlin, 1890) 
is a catalogue raisonne of the descriptions, manuscript and 
printed, of the Holy Land written between the years 333 
and 1878 ; and Dr. P. Thomsen's Die Paldstina-Literatur, 
of which three volumes have hitherto appeared (in Leipzig), 
is a complete bibliography of all works relating to Palestine 
from 1895 onwards. 

A brief classified list of recent books likely to be most 
useful to residents and visitors is given below ; other more 
specialized w^orks are noted in those sections of the Handbook 
to which they have particular reference. 

Guide-Books. — Fr. B. Meistermann, O.F.M., Nouveau 
Guide de Terre Sainie, Paris, 1907. 

Macmillan's Guide to Palestine and Syria, London, 1908. 

Baedeker's Palestine and Syria, Leipzig, 1912. 

Professeurs de Notre Dame de France, La Palestine : 
Guide Historique et Pratique, Paris, 1912. 

H. Pirie-Gordon, Palestine Pocket Guide-Books, 4 vols., 
Jerusalem, 19 18- 19. 

General. — A. Goodrich-Freer, Inner Jerusalem, London, 

Vicomte E. M. de Vogiie, Syrie, Palestine, Mont Athos, 

Paris, 1905. 
D. S. Margoliouth and W. S. Tyrwhitt, Cairo, Jerusalem, 

Damascus, London, 1907. 
G. L. Bell, The Desert and the Sown, London, 1907. 


Canon J. E. Hanauer, The Folk-Lore of the Holy Land, 
London, 1907 ; Walks about Jerusalem, London, 1910. 
Comte de Kergorlay, Sites delaisses d'Orient, Paris, 191 1. 
L Cohen, Zionist Work in Palestine, London, 191 1. 
J. Pulley love and J. Kelman, The Holy Land, new edition, 

London, 191 2. 
Sir C. Watson, The Story of Jerusalem (Mediaeval Town 

Series), London, 1912. 
A. Forder, Daily Life in Palestine, London, 191 2. 
E. Reynolds-Ball, Jerusalem, London, 1912. 
R. Hichens, The Holy Land, London, 1913. 
P. J. Baldensperger, The Immovable East, London, 191 3. 
N. Bentwich, Palestine of the Jews, London, 1919. 
D. Maxwell, The Last Crusade, London, 1920. 
C. Diehl, Jerusalem (Les Visites d'Art), Paris, 192 1. 
G. N. Whittingham, The Home of Fadeless Splendour, 

London, 1921. 

Geography, History and Archaeology. — See in general 

the Quarterly Statements of the " Palestine Exploration 

Fund," also the works, published for the Fund, of Sir 

Walter Besant, Bliss and Dickie, Conder, Harper, Hull, 

Macalister, Tristram, Sir Charles Wilson and others. The 

latest archaeological works of importance are the full and 

admirable monographs of the Dominican Fathers Vincent 

and Abel of the Ecole Biblique de S. Etienne, Jerusalem, 

on Jerusalem, Hebron and Bethlehem (Paris, 1914, 5^^.)- 

Marquis deVogiie, Les Eglises de la Terre Sainte, Pa-ris, i860. 

G. Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems, London, 1890. 

C. S. Clermont-Ganneau, Archaeological Researches in 

Palestine, London, 1896-99. 
Sir W. Besant and E. H. Palmer, Jerusalem : The City 

of Herod and Saladin, 4th edition, London, 1899. 
A, W. Cooke, Palestine in Geography and History, London, 

C. R. Conder, The City of Jerusalem, London, 1909. 
Sir G. A. Smith, Historical Geography of the Holy Land, 
new edition, London, 1917 ; Jerusalem to yoA.D., 
London, 191 8; Syria and the Holy Land, 'London, 191 8. 


N. Sokolov, History of Zionism, London, 1919. 

C. R. Ashbee, Jerusalem, igi8-ig30, London, 1921 (c/. 

§ 10 below). 
Fiction. — Maurice Hewlett, Richard Yea-and-Nay. 
E. S. Stevens, The Mountain of God ; Sarah Eden. 
Selma Lagerlof, Jerusalem. 
George Moore, The Brook Kerith. 
Myriam Harry, La Petite Fille de Jerusalem. 
Marmaduke Pickthall, The Valley of the Kings ; The 

House of Islam ; Oriental Encounters. 

§ 6. Mineral Springs of Palestine. 

The Holy Land abounds in mineral springs, as, for in- 
stance, at Gadara (east of the Sea of Galilee) and at Hamamim 
Sulimani (east of the Dead Sea). Their temperature ranges 
between 80° and 140° Fahrenheit. Intensely saline springs 
exist along the banks of the Dead Sea, all cathartic and 
useful in the cases of liver and other diseases. Especially 
celebrated are the hot springs at Tiberias, which, ever since 
the Roman occupation, have been renowned for their 
curative powers, and in bygone ages were compared with 
the famous waters of Baiae. 

The present baths at Tiberias were built by Ibrahim 
Pasha in 1833 during the Egyptian occupation. Additions 
were made in 1890 by the Turkish Government, but the 
accommodation is inferior. 

The temperature of these springs is about 143° Fahrenheit, 
and the waters contain sulphur, chloride of magnesium, and 
iron. They are in many respects similar to those of Carlsbad. 
The hot springs of 'Tiberias are largely frequented, and 
are reputed to cure chronic rheumatism and various skin 

In Roman times the springs were called Ammaus. Pliny 
extolled their excellent properties. Roman villas, temples 
and baths surrounded, and Herod's acropolis crowned, the 
heights near the thermal baths. 

There appear to be two springs, but these are said to have 


a common origin. The water issues at a temperature of 
about 150° F. A recent analysis shows the total dissolved 
salts to be thirty-two parts per thousand parts of water 
(when cold), a proportion equal to that of sea water. The 
specific gravity of the water is one thousand and twenty- 
three (distilled water =1000). The dissolved salts are 
chiefly chlorides of sodium, calcium and magnesium, with 
a smaller proportion of sulphates and carbonates. It has 
been stated that the water possesses radioactive properties. 

§ 7. Weights and Measures. 

The metric system is followed by the Government, and 
its use regulated by Ordinance, but the local weights and 
measures are still commonly employed. These vary 
greatly throughout the country, but are, subject to con- 
siderable fluctuation, as follows : 


I draa or pic ^6^ centimetres — 26 -38 inches. Cloth measure. 
I draa =75 centimetres — 29-53 inches. Building and 

Land measure. 
I donum =1600 sq. pics — 919 sq. metres — 23 acre. 

Land measure (4-4 donums to the acre). 
(The official donum is 919 sq. metres ; in actual practice 
the donum ranges between 900 and 1,000 sq. metres.) 


I dirhem =4814 grains — 3 205 grammes. 

I okka (oke) =400 dirhems — 1-248 kilogrammes — 

2-751 lbs. 

I kantar (South) =100 rotls — 225 okkas — 288 kilo- 
grammes — 634 lbs. 

I kantar (North) =100 rotls — 200 okkas — 256 kilo- 
grammes — 564 lbs. 

I rotl (South) =12 okkiahs — 2-25 okkas — 900 dirhems — 
2-88 kilogrammes — 6-34 lbs. 

I rotl (North) =12 okkiahs — 2 okkas — 800 dirhems — - 
2-56 kilogrammes — 5-64 lbs, 





(wheat) I tabbeh (South) =2 midd — 4 sa'a — 8 ruba'ia 

— 23 kilos — 50 -6 lbs. 
(barley) i tabbeh (South) =16 okkas— 20 kilo- 

grammes — 44 lbs. 
I Galilee kail (North) =50 okkas — 62 4 kilo- 
grammes — 137-28 lbs. 
I jarra (oil measure) =16 okkas — 22 litres — 20-2 

kilogrammes (olive oil). 

Comparative List of Weights and Measures used in 
Tithes Estimation in Palestine. — Jerusalem, Hebron, 
Ramallah and Nablus use the tabbeh and kail as the unit. 
All other Districts and Sub-Districts use the kail as the unit. 


tabbeh of wheat 

= 8 rotls = 

= 23 kilos. 

kail of barley 

= 7 .. =21 „ 


tabbeh of wheat 

= 9 „ =28 „ 

kail of barley 

= 6^ ,, =20-22 kilos. 


tabbeh of wheat 

= 1333 rotls =40 kilos 

,, of barley 

= io-66 ,, =32 ,, 

of durra 

= 12 

= 36 .. 

of lentils 

= 13-33 > 

= 40 „ 

of beans 

= 1333 . 

= 40 .. 

of sesame 

= 9.75 . 

= 29 „ 

of chickpeas 

= 1333 . 

= 40 » 

of kersaneh 

= 1375 , 

= 40 ,. 


kail of wheat 

= 28 5 rotls =64 kilos. 

,, of barley 

= 18 ., =45 .. 

,, of durra 

= 285 „ =64 ,. 

,, of lentils 

= 285 „ =64 ,, 

,, of beans 

= 28-5 „ =64 „ 

,, of sesame 

= 36 okkas =45 ., 

Shefa Amr. 

kail of wheat 

= 80 kilos. 

,, of barley 

55 .. 

,, of sesame 

= 44 okkas. 

Acre and 

kail of wheat 

= 28 '5 rotls =72 kilos. 

Marj . 

,, of barley 

= 20 „ 

= 50 ,. 


Acre and 


kail of durra 

= 72 kilos. 

Marj . 


,, of lentils 

= 72 „ 


,, of sesame 

= 40 okkas =50 kilos. 



kail of wheat 

= 12 sa'a =6 midd 

= 24 rubieh =48 tumnieh 

= 75 kilos. 


,, of barley 

= 12 sa'a =6 midd 

= 24 rubieh =48 tumnieh 

= 50 kilos. 


,, of durra 

= 70 ,. J 


,, of lentils 

= 75 ,. % 


,, of beans 

= 12 sa'a =6 midd 

= 24 rubieh =48 tumnieh 

= 75 kilos. 


,, of sesame 

= 50 .. 


,, of kersaneh 

= 12 sa'a =6 midd 

= 24 rubieh =48 tumnieh 

= 75 kilos. 



kail of wheat, kersaneh, lentils, peas and beans 

= 78 kilos. 


,, of barley 

]- ■■ 



,, of sssame 


,, of durra 


•=73 .. 





kail of wheat 

= 27-30 kilos. 


,, of barley 

= 18-20 „ 


,, of durra 

= 25-27 „ 1 


,, of lentils 

= 28-30 „ i 


,, of beans 

= 28-30 „ 1 


,, of sesame 

= 12-16 „ ^ 


,, of lupine 

= 27-28 „ 


,, of chickpeas 

= 28-30 ,, 


,, of kersaneh 

= 28-30 ,, 



kail of wlieat 

= 1 43 mashaa 

= 1-46 sa'a =30 kilos, 





Gaza. I kail of barley =i"5o mashaa 

=;i-35 sa'a =20 kilos. 
I ,, of durra =i*43 mashaa 

= 1-45 sa'a =30 kilos. 
Beersheba. i kail of wheat =22-5 okkas = 10 rotls 

= 30 kilos. 
I ,, of barley =15-78 okkas = 7 rotls 

= 21 kilos. 
I ,, of lentils =22-5 okkas = 10 rotls 

= 30 kilos. 
I ,, of beans =22-5 okkas =10 rotls 

= 30 kilos. 
The figures are only approximate, as the relationships 
vary in the Districts themselves. 

Olives and Olive Oil. — In Nazareth olives are measured 
by the kail, which equals 70 kilos. In Jerusalem, Jaffa and 
Hebron they are measured by weight. 

Olive oil is reckoned in Jerusalem and Jaffa by the jarra, 
which equals 6 rotls or 17-500 kilos. In Nazareth it is 
measured by the rotl, which equals 2 okkas or 2| kilos. 
Currency. — For currency, see Part V., § 3. 
Time. — The time adopted in Palestine is Eastern Euro- 
pean time, which is two hours later than Greenwich. 

§ 8. Table of Sunrise and Sunset in Palestine. 










































9. Festivals.^ 


The Great Feast of the year with the Moslems is that of 
the Sacrifice {'Id al-Adha ; the Turkish Qurban Bairam), 
celebrated on the tenth day of the Pilgrimage Month. 
Among the Beduin a camel, if possible, is sacrificed ; else- 
where a sheep or goat. Scarcely less popular is that which 
is celebrated on the first day of the month Shawwal, which 
follows the fasting month of Ramazan ; this is kept with 
enthusiasm even among tribes which neglect the fast. 
Among the Beduin an animal is slaughtered in every tent 
whose owners can afford the expense ; poorer families club 
together to provide one. In the towns and villages the 
people wear new clothes, and spend part of the day visiting 
the graves of their relations. The Christian Easter attracts 
great numbers of pilgrims to Jerusalem, chiefly for the 
purpose of witnessing the sacred fire issue from the Holy 
Sepulchre on Easter Eve ; the notion that this is mira- 
culous, which was long believed, is now scarcely main- 
tained. About the same time as the Christian Holy Week 
the Moslems of Jerusalem and the neighbourhood celebrate 
the Feast of the Prophet Moses (Nebi Musa), which lasts 
seven days. It is largely attended by the fellahin, who, in 
the course of it, visit the supposed tomb of Moses, which 
Moslem tradition places about an hour and a half south- 
west of Jericho. On the first day of this feast a religious 
service is held in the Haram al-Sherif in Jerusalem, atten/ded 
by the chief functionaries ; after its conclusion the pro- 
cession starts for the tomb. The chief Feast of the Jews 
and Samaritans — the Passover — is celebrated about the 
same time. Many of the local saints, Moslem, Christian, 
and Jewish, have yearly feast-days, when their tombs are 
visited by the devout. A popular local feast among the 
Moslems is that of Nebi Saleh, celebrated at Ramleh one 
week after the return of the pilgrims from Nebi Musa. 

1 Cf. also Part VII., §§ i and 2. 


§ 10, The Pro- Jerusalem Society. 

The Pro- Jerusalem Society was founded in 191 8 for the 
following objects : 

(i) the protection of and the addition to the amenities 

of Jerusalem and its neighbourhood ; 
(ii) the provision and maintenance of parks, gardens, and 

open spaces in and around Jerusalem ; 
(iii) the establishment of museums, libraries, art galleries, 
exhibitions, musical and dramatic centres or other 
institutions of a similar nature for the benefit of 
the public ; 
(iv) the protection and preservation, with the consent of 
the Government, of antiquities in and around 
Jerusalem ; 
(v) the encouragement of arts, handicrafts and indus- 
The Honorary President of the Society is the High Com- 
missioner, and the President is the Governor of Jerusalem. 
The Council, which meets once a month, has as an Honorary 
Member Lord Milner and numbers amongst its other mem- 
bers the Mayor of Jerusalem, the Grand Mufti, the Orthodox, 
Latin and Armenian Patriarchs, the Anglican Bishop, the 
Chief Rabbi, the President of the Jewish lay community, 
representatives of the Dominican and Franciscan Convents, 
of the Department of Antiquities, etc. 

Amongst the achievements of the Society are the freeing 
and completion of the Rampart Walk, whereby it is now 
possible, for the first time for several hundreds of years, to 
" Walk about Sion and go round about the towers thereof ; 
mark well her bulwarks." 

Others include the establishment, on the ancient tradi- 
tional basis, of a tile and pottery factory, one of whose first 
tasks will be to cover with new tiles the bare spaces on the 
Mosque of the Dome of the Rock ; the Jerusalem Looms — 
handlooms upon which fabrics for everyday use are woven 
by Palestinians for Palestinians out of Palestinian materials ; 


the restoration of the Citadel and Tower of David, in which 
an Academy of Fine Arts was held in 192 1 by the Society 
and an exhibition of Palestinian products by the Govern- 
ment in 1922 ; the design of a Jewish market on the Jaffa 
Road and of a khan shortly (it is hoped) to be erected in 
place of the present unsightly buildings near the Damascus 
Gate ; the revival of the Hebron glass industry. 

In 1921 the Council of the Society published through Mr. 
John Murray its first volume -of Annals in a handsomely 
illustrated quarto volume with the title Jerusalem, igiS- 
IQ20 : Being the Records of the Pro- Jerusalem Council during 
the British Military Administration. The Society also issues 
a Quarterly Bulletin, printed in Jerusalem. 

The High Commissioner has been pleased to "grant to the 
Society its Charter and to make an arrangement whereby 
the Government contributes a subvention at the rate of ;^i 
for £1 for all monies collected or earned by the Society. 

Donations to the Pro-Jerusalem Society, or membership 
subscriptions (;^E. 5 per annum) entitling the subscriber to 
the Annals and other publications of the Society, may be 
addressed to any of the following : 

The Governor of Jerusalem ; 
The Civic Adviser (Governorate, Jerusalem) ; 
Mr. John Whiting, Hon. Treasurer of the Pro- 
Jerusalem Society (American Colony 
Store, Jerusalem) ; a 

Mr. D. G. Salameh (Messrs. Thomas Cook & ■ 
Son, Jerusalem). 




§ I. System of Administration. 

High Commissioner. — Under the Palestine Order in 
Council, His Majesty may, by a Commission under his 
Sign Manual and Signet, appoint a fit person to administer 
the Government of Palestine under the designation of High 
Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief. 

Chief Secretary. — The Chief Secretary is the High Com- 
missioner's principal adviser on administrative matters, and 
is the usual channel of communication between the High 
Commissioner and other officials. He normally administers 
the Government during the absence from Palestine of the 
High Commissioner. 

Appointment of OfRcers. — The High Commissioner may, 
subject to the direction of the Secretary of State, appoint 
or authorize the appointment of such public ofiicers of the 
Government of Palestine under such designations as he may 
think fit, and may prescribe their duties ; and all such 
public officers, unless otherwise provided by law, shall hold 
their ofiices during the pleasure of the High Commissioner. 

Attorney- General.— The Attorney-General is the legal 
adviser of the Government. He drafts all Government 
bills and gives the necessary instructions to the Solicitor- 
General in all criminal cases tried on information. 




Autonomous Sanjaq of Jerusalem 

Treasurer. — The Treasurer is the chief accounting officer 
of the Government, whose financial and accounting 
operations are under his general management and super- 

Districts. — At the end of the period of Turkish rule 
Palestine lay, administratively speaking, partly in the 
autonomous ^ Sanjaq (Liwa, Mutesarriflik) of Jerusalem, 
partly in the Vilayet of Beirut. Its administrative divisions 
were as follows : 




Sanjaq of Acre (in Vilayet of c^ . .' 
T^ . ,. ^ { Safed. 

^'''™*) Nazareth.^ 


Sanjaq of Nablus (in Vilayet of t • 

B t^ 1 J®^^"- 

' [Tulkeram. 

Each Qaza was administered by a Qaimaqam, who was 
responsible to the Mutesarrif. The Qazas were sub-divided 
into Nahiehs, under officials known as Mudirs ; and the 
smallest unit in this symmetrical administrative organi- 
zation was the village, ruled by its Mukhtar (headman) and 
his Azas (elders). 

From 1920 to 1922 the country was divided into the seven 
Districts of Jerusalem, Jaffa, Phoenicia, Galilee, Samaria, 
Gaza and Beersheba, each of which, with the exception 
of Beersheba, was farther divided into sub-Districts. 
On the ist July, 1922, there was effected an amalgamation 

' I.e. not a part of any Vilayet, but subject immediately to Constantinople. 

^ From 1906 to 1908 the Qaza of Nazareth was included in the Sanjaq of 



of Districts into four Pro^ 
divisions are now as follows 


Jerusalem and Jaffa 

vinces, and the 





f Jerusalem. 






J Phoenicia, 












\ Beersheba. 



Northern Province 

Samaria - 

Southern Province - 

Governors. — The Governor is for most purposes the head 
of all executive departments in his Province. The cele- 
bration of marriages of British subjects in Palestine is 
conducted under the Foreign Marriages Act, the Governor 
being the Marriage Officer within his Province. 

Mukhtars. — Under the Governors and District Officers 
are the Mukhtars, or headmen of villages. Their powers 
and duties have not yet been codified, but included among 
them are : 

(a) to keep the peace within the village ; 

(b) to send information to the nearest Police Station of any 

serious offence or accident occurring in the village ; 

(c) to assist Government Officers in the collection of 

revenue : 



(d) to publish in the village any Public Notices or Pro- 

clamations sent to them by the Governors ; 

(e) to keep a register of all births and deaths within the 

village, and to send a copy to the Principal Medical 
Officer once a quarter. , 
Principal Departments. — The principal Departments of 
the Government of Palestine, besides those already men- 
tioned, are the Departments of : Agriculture and Fisheries 
(including Veterinary and Forests) ; Antiquities ; Customs 
(including Ports and Lights) ; Commerce and Industry 
(including Stores) ; Education ; Public Health ; Land Regis- 
tration ; Public Security (including Gendarmerie) ; Posts, 
Telegraphs and Telephones ; Public Works ; and Railways. 
Executive Council. — There will be, for the purpose of 
assisting the High Commissioner, an Executive Council 
consisting of the Chief Secretary, the Attorney-General 
and the Treasurer, who shall be styled ex officio members, 
and such other persons holding offices in the public 
service of Palestine as the High Commissioner may appoint. 
Whenever upon any special occasion the High Commis- 
sioner desires to obtain the advice of any persons within 
Palestine, they may be summoned for such special occasions. 
Legislative Council. — There will be a Legislative Council 
consisting of 22 members in addition to the High Commis- 
sioner, of whom 10 shall be official and 12 unofficial. 

The unofficial members will be elected in accordance with 
such Order in Council, Ordinance or other legislative enact- 
ment as may from time to time provide for elections to 
the Council. 

The Legislative Council will have full power and 
authority, without prejudice to the powers inherent in, 
or reserved by this Order to. His Majesty, and subject 
always to any conditions and limitations prescribed by any 
instructions under the Sign Manual and Signet, to establish 
such Ordinances as may be necessary for the peace, order 
and good government of Palestine, provided that no Ordi- 
nance shall be passed which shall restrict complete freedom 
of conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, 


save in so far as is required for the maintenance of public 
order and morals ; or which shall tend to discriminate in 
any way between the inhabitants of Palestine on the ground 
of race, religion or language. 

§ 2. Administration of Justice. 

Law. — The criminal, civil and administrative law of 
Palestine is Ottoman Law except in so far as it has been 
modified or altered by Ordinance of the Palestine Govern- 

Turkish Courts. — Under the Ottoman Government a 
Court of First Instance composed of three judges was 
established in each Qaza, and a Court of Appeal, composed 
of five or more members, in each Sanjaq. In Palestine 
there were thirteen Courts of First Instance and three Courts 
of Appeal. In addition single judges, or Justices of Peace, 
were appointed in the principal towns, their jurisdiction 
being laid down in a law passed in 191 3. 

O.E.T.A. — The Administration of Justice during the two 
and a half years of Military Occupation was controlled by 
a British official known as the Senior Judicial Officer, who, 
on the one hand, took the place of the Ottoman Ministry 
of Justice, and exercised administrative control over all the 
Courts and Land Registries that had been established by 
the Military Authorities, and, on the other hand, acted as 
Legal Adviser to the Chief Administrator and the different 
Departments of the Administration. 

Civil Administration. — The establishment of the Civil 
Administration in July, 1920, did not involve any large 
change in the administration of justice. 

The Senior Judicial Officer of the Military Administration 
became the Legal Secretary of the Civil Administration, and 
continued his former functions of 

(a) advising the Government on legal matters ; 

{b) acting as a responsible Minister of Justice ; 
in addition he was entrusted with the general supervision 
of the Land Registries, cadastral surveys, and questions 


concerning land. In July, 1922, the post of Legal Secretary 
was abolished and that of Attorney-General substituted. 

Court of Appeal. — The Court of Appeal is presided over 
by the Chief Justice of Palestine, and includes a British 
Vice-President and four Palestinian members. Sitting as 
a Court of Appeal, the Court has jurisdiction, subject to 
the provisions of any Ordinance, to hear appeals from all 
judgments given by a District Court in First Instance or 
by the Court of Criminal Assize or by a Land Court. 
Sitting as a High Court of Justice, it has jurisdiction to hear 
and determine such matters as are not causes or trials, but 
petitions or applications not within the jurisdiction of any 
other Court. 

In civil matters, when the amount of value in dispute 
exceeds ^E. 500, an appeal lies to the Privy Council. 

District Courts. — There are four District Courts, namely : 
the Court of Jerusalem, serving the Jerusalem District ; the 
Court of Jaffa, serving the Districts of Jaffa and Gaza ; the 
Court of Phoenicia, sitting at Haifa and serving the District 
of Phoenicia ; and the Court of Samaria and Galilee. Each 
Court consists of a British Judge and two Palestinian 

District Courts exercise jurisdiction 

(i) as a Court of First Instance : 

(a) in all Civil matters not within the jurisdiction of 
the Magistrates' Courts in and for that District ; 
(6) in all criminal matters which are not within the 
jurisdiction of the said Magistrates' Courts or the 
Court of Criminal Assize ; 

(2) as an Appellate Court from the said Magistrates' 
Courts, subject to the provision of any Ordinances 
or Rules. 

In commercial cases the President of a District Court 
may appoint two persons of commercial experience to sit 
with him in lieu of the other members of the Court. 
Such persons so appointed are judges of fact and not of 



Magistrates' Courts. — There are Magistrates' Courts in 
each Sub-District having competence in civil suits where 
the value of the subject-matter does not exceed £E. 100, 
and in criminal cases where the maximum penalty is one 
year's imprisonment. 

Magisterial "Warrants. — Governors and certain District 
Officers are given magisterial powers, in virtue of which 
they can try minor offences under the Penal Code and con- 
traventions of the Ordinances issued by the Administration, 
and can pass sentences up to six months' imprisonment. 

Capitulations. — The Capitulations are abolished as 
regards Palestine by Art. 8 of the Manda,te. Citizens of 
the United States have, however, the right to be tried in 
criminal cases before their Consul. 

Tribal Courts. — The High Commissioner may establish 
Tribal Courts for the District of Beersheba and in such 
other tribal areas as he may think fit. Such Courts may 
apply tribal custom, so far as it is not repugnant to 
natural justice or morality. Accordingly, in the District 
of Beersheba, which is inhabited almost entirely by 
Beduin tribes, there is, besides a Civil Magistrate, a Court 
composed of the leading Sheikhs, which deals with minor 
offences and tribal disputes ; a British Judge from Jerusalem 
tries the more serious criminal cases when they occur, and 
hears appeals from the judgments of the Sheikhs' Tribunal 
and also from the Civil Magistrate. 

Blood Feud Commissions. — In those parts of Palestine 
inhabited principally by Beduin, ancient local custom 
recognizes the authority of Blood Feud Commissions, com- 
posed of leading and trusted Sheikhs and Notables of the 
region in question, to settle the blood feud by the payment 
of blood-money {diyet), so that the feud may not develop 
into an ' interminable vendetta. The preliminary of the 
agreement is a truce {atwa), arranged between the families 
of the murdered and the murderer, the family of the mur- 
dered producing a guarantor {kafil), who pledges that it will 
not attack the family of the murderer during the time the 
atwa is in force. 


When the final arrangements for the peace-making {tiba) 
are made, the family of the murderer visit the injured 
family, pay the diyet, whereupon the murderer is produced 
and pardoned. 

Languages of Pleadings. — Arabic is the normal language 
of pleading in the Magistrates' Courts. Summonses and 
other legal processes are issued in English and Hebrew 
according to the character of the person to whom they are 
addressed. In certain areas, called " tri-lirigual areas," 
official documents are written, and oral pleadings are con- 
ducted, in any of the three official languages. The tri-lingual 
areas, in which, Hebrew and English may be used, comprise 
the three principal towns of Palestine, namely : Jerusalem, 
Haifa and Jaffa, and also the District of Jaffa and the 
sub-districts of Tiberias and Safed. 

Municipal Benches. — Honorary Municipal Magistrates 
have been appointed with power to deal with contraventions 
of Municipal by-laws and Government regulations, and with 
authority of imposing penalties not exceeding £^.5 or 
imprisonment not exceeding 15 days. 

Land Courts. — Special Courts have been established for 
hearing actions concerning the ownership of land and also 
for settling the title to immovable property. The Ottoman 
restrictions against foreigners and corporations holding land 
have been repealed. 

Moslem Religious Courts. — The Moslem Religious Courts 
have exclusive jurisdiction in matters of personal status of 
Moslems and Moslem waqfs. 

Under the Turkish Government there were Sharia Courts, 
each presided over by a Qadi, in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Hebron, 
Gaza, Beersheba, Ramleh, Nablus, Jenin, Tulkeram, 
Nazareth, Tiberias, Safed, Acre and Haifa. These Courts 
have been maintained. The Sharia Courts deal with 
matters of Moslem personal status (marriage, divorce, 
inheritance, intestacy, constitution of waqf and the like), 
and in addition to their contentious work deal with a large 
amount of non-contentious business. 

There are Muftis (elective Moslem jurisconsults, whose 


duty it is to issue, in the form of a fetwa, canonical rulings 
on points of Moslem religious law) of the Hanafi rite in the 
above-mentioned fourteen towns, and a Mufti of the Shafi 
rite in Jerusalem. 

There is an appeal from the Sharia Courts to the Moslem 
Religious Court of Appeal, sitting in Jerusalem and con- 
sisting of a President and two members. An Inspector 
visits the Sharia Courts of the country and reports upon 
their work. 

Non-Moslem Religious Courts. — The non-Moslem Com- 
munities exercise jurisdiction in matters of marriage, divorce 
anci alimony, and inheritance over the members of their 
community, and the judgments given by their religious 
courts in these matters are executed through the Execution 
Office of the Civil Courts. 

The Courts of Christian Communities have : 
(i) exclusive jurisdiction in matters of marriage and 
divorce, ahmony, execution and confirmation of 
wills of Palestinian members of the Community ; 
(ii) exclusive jurisdiction in any other matters of per- 
sonal status of such persons, where all the parties 
to the action consent to their jurisdiction ; 
(iii) exclusive jurisdiction over any case concerning the 
constitution or internal administration of a waqf 
constituted before the Religious Court according 
to the religious law of the community. 
A Rabbinical Council composed of two Chief Rabbis — one 
for the Sephardic and one for the Ashkenazic communities — 
and six Rabbinical members together with two lay Coun- 
cillors, was elected in February, 192 1. This Council, which 
constitutes a Court of Appeal from the Rabbinical Courts 
of the Jewish Communities in the towns and villages, is 
recognized by the Government as the sole Rabbinical 

The Rabbinical Courts have : 
(i) exclusive jurisdiction in matters of marriage and 
divorce, alimony, execution and confirmation of 
wills of Jewish Palestinian subjects ; 


(ii) jurisdiction in any other matter of personal status 
of Jewish persons, where all the parties to the 
action consent to their jurisdiction ; 
(iii) exclusive jurisdiction over any case as to the con- 
stitution or internal administration of a waqf con- 
stituted before the Rabbinical Court according to 
Jewish Law. 
Under the Turkish regime the registration of marriages 
and divorces was carried out by the Census Office {Nufus). 
Under the British Administration the registration is carried 
out by the religious authority which celebrates the marriage, 
a copy of the certificate being sent to the Governor, who 
keeps a register of all marriages and divorces in his Province. 
For the Moslems mazuns (registrars) have been appointed 
in each District by the Qadis, who are alone qualified to 
celebrate and register marriages. For the Christians the 
Patriarchates and for the Jews the Rabbinical Council, are 

Advocates. — The number of advocates admitted in 
Palestine at the beginning of 1922 was as follows : 
52 licensed before the Civil Courts alone, 
51 before both Civil and Sharia Courts, 
29 before the Sharia Courts alone. 
Law Classes. — In response to a widespread desire for 
legal training, Law Classes were opened in Jerusalem in 
November, 1920, and are now attended by 150 students. 
Lectures are given in English, Arabic and Hebrew. The 
courses are of three years, at the end of which period a 
student who obtains a diploma in all subjects will be 
entitled to a licence as an advocate, after serving for a 
certain period with a qualified lawyer. 

Registration of Companies, Co-operative Societies and 
Partnerships. — When the Civil Administration was estab- 
lished immediate measures were taken to encourage cor- 
porate enterprise, and two Ordinances were published 
A^ith : 

(i) Co-operative Societies ; 
(2) Companies with limited liability. 


The first was based upon the Indian Law on the matter, 
the second on the British ConsoHdated Statute of 1907, with 
the introduction of considerable simphfications. The regis- 
tration is carried out by the Courts. During 192 1, 24 Hmited 
liabiHty Companies were incorporated in Palestine with an 
authorized capital of £K. 850,000. 14 foreign companies and 
32 commercial partnerships were registered in Jerusalem 
alone and 14 co-operative societies were incorporated. 

Eegistration of Trade Marks and Patents. — The regis- 
tration of Patents and Trade Marks is also carried out at 
the Courts. 

Legislation. — Since the establishment of the Civil Admin- 
istration an abnormal amount of legislation has necessarily 
been called for, and Ordinances have been passed by the 
Advisory Council dealing with the following subjects : 
immigration ; advertisements ; passports ; immovable 
property ; land law ; land transfer ; forestry ; fisheries ; 
antiquities ; credit banks ; prevention of crimes ; town 
planning ; port dues ; police ; local councils ; land courts ; 
rents ; survey ; road transport ; pharmacists ; notaries 
public ; Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem ; tobacco 
taxation ; collective responsibility for crime ; etc. 

Court Cases. — The following table shows the number of 
cases tried by the various Courts in Palestine in 1921 : 
Court of Appeal and District Courts : 
^ Civil — First Instance - - - - 644 

Criminal — First Instance - - - 698 

Civil — Appeal ----- 1,038 

Criminal — Appeal - - _ - g^^ 

Magistrates' Courts : 

Civil ------- 18,197 

Criminal - - - - - - 16,119 

Moslem Religious Court of Appeal - 268 

Sharia Courts 3, 811 

Land Courts - - - - - 137 

Municipal Courts - - _ - 389 

The fees received by all Courts in Palestine in the year 
192 1 amounted to £E. 55,380. 


§ 3. Finance, Currency and Banking. 


Taxation and Revenue. — The present Administration 
has maintained the Ottoman Government's system of 
taxation, in some cases modifying the taxes levied, in 
others abpHshing the more vexatious and oppressive. 
Ottoman taxation embraces a peculiarity which does not 
^xist in other countries. A number of lucrative and 
important imposts are collected by the Administration of 
the Ottoman Public Debt (O.P.D.A.), the receipts appearing 
in the State accounts but being retained by the Debt. Any 
balance, which may exist after the amounts due to the 
bondholders have been set aside, are distributed in varying 
proportions between the State and the O.P.D.A. Thus 
there are two revenue collecting agencies operating side by 
side, but the Revenue Department exercises a general 
supervision over the Debt Agencies, who look to their head- 
quarters in Constantinople for administrative orders. 

The principal taxes and other sources of revenue in 
Palestine are : 

1. Customs — including import duties, specific and ad 
valorem (for details and exemptions, see later). 

2. Port Dues — {vide Port Dues Ordinance, 192 1). 
(i) Port Dues are payable at the following rates : 

On the tonnage up to 500 tons, 5 milliemes per 

registered ton ; 
Over 500 and up to 1000 tons, 3 milliemes ; and 
Over 1000 tons, 2 milliemes per registered ton. 
The maximum due payable on any vessel is £&. 20, but 
if a vessel has paid dues at one port in Palestine, half only 
of the dues, with a maximum of £R. 10, shall be payable 
at any other port in Palestine. In the case of a vessel 
arriving and leaving without taking or discharging cargo, 
or passengers, only one-half of the due shall be charged. 

(ii) A fee of PT. 15 is charged for the measurement of a 


(iii) The following vessels are exempt from the dues : 

(a) Men of War ; 

(/5) Vessels in distress or making use of the port as a port 
of refuge ; 

(y) Vessels, tugs, lighters' pontoons and launches plying 
exclusively in any or between ports of Palestine, 
which pay the dues mentioned below ; 

(S) Yachts belonging to recognized Yacht Clubs- and 
wholly in ballast. 

(iv) All Port Dues are payable at the office of Ports and 
Lights, and a clearance certificate is obtainable at a fee of 
PT. 5. 

(v) The following Palestinian vessels shall be registered 
and pay the following annual rates : 

(a) Sailing, steam or motor vessels, steam 
or motor launches, and vessels of a 
similar nature _ _ _ _ ^E. 4 p. a. 

(y(3) Steam or motor lighters - - - £'E. 2 p. a. 

(y) Sailing or man-handled lighters - £R. i p. a. 

(S) Boats - - - - - - .^E. I p.a. 

(vi) Boatmen, fishermen, lightermen, stevedores, ship- 
chandlers, hotel representatives, etc., are licensed for a fee 
of 300 milliemes per annum, and any other person whose 
occupation or profession brings him within the enclosure of 
a Palestinian port pays a fee of 200 milliemes per a"nnum. 

(vii) A fee of 15 milliemes is payable for each policeman 
placed on board a vessel for any period up to 12 hours. 

Quarantine Dues. — For fees, see Regulations for Quaran- 
tine Services. 

3. Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue not otherwise 

(i) Tithe (Ushur). — The system of tithe dates from earliest 
times. Originally one- tenth of the crop was taken in kind. 
Ottoman legislation, through financial necessity, has in- 
creased this rate to one-eighth or 12^%, viz. i|% by Decree 
of 1302 (1886) and 1% by Decree of 13 13 (1897). Tithes 
were farmed out to contractors at the time of the British 

L,P. K 



Occupation, and were often a source of abuse and imposition 
upon the peasantry. 

Since the Occupation the system of tithing has been con- 
tinued, but the contractor has been ehminated, and direct 
assessment and collection of tithes inaugurated. The tithe 
of one-eighth, formerly taken in kind, is now collected in 
money, and assessed in kilogrammes. The list of prices is 
fixed and a statement of assessment is posted in each village. 
Appeals against the redemption price are heard by a special 
committee, whose decision is final. Such appeals must be 
lodged within ten days from the publication of the redemp- 
tion price. 

Redemption prices are fixed by the Department of 
Revenue after consultation with Governors, who, in turn, 
obtain the opinions of local councils, mukhtars, notables, 
big farmers, etc., fixing the redemption price slightly below 
the local market price. 

Comparison of Redemption Prices : 







Wheat per kilo 












Simsin ,, 

- 4-8 



Oranges per case - 

- 12 



Olive oil per kilo 

- 12 



The collection of the redemption price is not made from 
each individual cultivator, but from the mukhtar, who 
undertakes to collect the entire amount due from his village 
against a rebate of 2% of the amount collected. The 
amount may be settled in three monthly and equal instal- 
ments. Arrears due after this period are subject to 9% 

Tithe is taken on cereals, fruits, and vegetables. The 
produce of mulk lands, which are of the freehold category, 
is exempted when enclosed to the extent of less than one 
donum. Other mulk lands in the vicinity of towns also 


enjoy immunity from tithe, but they are subject to a higher 
rate for land tax, i.e. 10 per mille, with additions amounting 
to 56% of the original tax. 

Seasonal variations in crops necessitate two separate 
annual assessments, the first, during the months of April, 
May and June, known as the " Winter Tithe," and the 
second, during July and August, known as the " Summer 
Tithe." Separate estimations are carried out on fruits and 

An estimating commission is composed of two Government 
representatives, a clerk and a village elder, the two former 
being salaried officials of the Government. Control is 
exercised by special control commissions, which are again 
further controlled by officials of the District Adminis- 

The estimation of crops is carried out in some instances 
by assessing the standing crops ; in others, crops are 
assessed on the thrashing floor, the choice of either method 
being left to the Governors' discretion. 

The assessment for tithe amounted in 1919 to ^E. 273,000, 
in 1920 to £E. 488,600, and in 1921 to £E. 292,000. 

The above figures include tithes which are assigned to 
Moslem religious endowments [awqaf). 

The Government continues to carry out the provisions of 
the Ottoman Tithe Laws of 1889 and 1891, which in so far 
as the theory of tithing is concerned are adequate. Vine- 
yards planted with American stock are exempted from 
tithes for a period of ten years from the date of planting 
(Public Notice of the 25th September, 1920). 

Cotton is exempted from the payment of tithe for a period 
of two years (Public Notice of the 15th February, 1921). 
Lands which are leased by or through the Department of 
Agriculture for crop experimentation are immune from the 
payment of tithe. 

(ii) Animal Tax {aghnam). — During the months of 
February and March the following animals are enumerated 
by tax-collectors, and are taxed per head : Sheep, PT. 48; 
Goats, 4-8 ; Camels, 12 ; Buffaloes, 12 ; Pigs, 9. 


Camels used solely for the purpose of ploughing are 
exempted from this tax by a decision of the High Com- 
missioner, dated the 4th March, 192 1. 

(iii) Immovable Property Tax {Werko). — All property, 
whether built upon or otherwise, is subject to a tax varying 
according to the nature of the property of from 4 per mille 
to 10 per mille of the capital value as ascertained by assess- 
ment commissions. The valuation of property in Palestine 
was carried out some 25 years ago, and is, therefore, an 
obsolete assessment. It is grossly inaccurate and under- 
valued. The Ottoman authorities, aware of the annual loss 
in revenue through this cause, endeavoured to remedy it 
by increasing the rates of taxation by arbitrary additions, 
which at the outbreak of war were 56% in the case of land, 
and 51% in the case of building property. These additions 
are maintained, but the increase in the value of property 
since the war makes a new valuation of all immovable 
property a matter of necessity in the near future. This 
especially applies to building property in the towns of 
Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa, where the annual value has 
increased in some cases by 300% On properties being 
transferred or conveyed new assessments are made and 
inserted in the registers. 

(iv) Wine and Spirit Licences and Excise Duties. — The 
licence for the sale of wines and spirits is applicable to 
hotels, clubs, shops, restaurants, cafes or any places where 
alcoholic beverages are sold in open measure. The licensing 
fee is calculated upon the rental value of the space utilized 
for sale or drinking purposes, and varies from 8-^% to 25% 
according to the class of the establishment. The excise 
duty is leviable on all producers. Elaborate regulations 
are laid down by the Ottoman Laws of the 14th August, 
1881, and 13th August, 1912, which fix the duty at 30% 
on the prices of all alcoholic beverages, excepting wine and 
beers, which pay 15% and a tax of PT. i 875 on each kilo 
of pure alcohol. 

Imported wines and spirits are subject to an ad valorem 
import duty of 11% only. Upon wine exported abroad a 


rebate of one-half of the excise duties paid is granted upon 
presentation of a certificate of arrival from the country of 
(v) Licences : 

(a) Advocates : Every person applying to be examined 
by the Legal Board pays a fee of £E. 2 ; for a licence 
to practise PT. 50, but new scales are proposed. 
(^) Boat and Boatmen (see Port Dues). 
(y) Fisheries : The taxes upon the fishing industry were 
two, i.e. a. licence and a tax upon the catch. The 
licensing fee is PT. 10 per annum and is leviable 
upon all persons fishing on seas, lakes or rivers. 
The tax of 20% of the auction price of the fish was 
abolished by Public Notice dated the 31st August, 
{S) Game : PT. 50 for a licence to carry firearms, and 

PT. 20 for shooting game or birds. 
(e) Hawkers : A registration fee of PT. 5 to PT. 25 per 
mensem. The Department of Public Health also 
charges a fee of PT. 5 per annum. 
(^) British Marriages : 

For receiving notice of an intended £ s. d. 
Marriage - - - - - -0100 

For receiving notice of a caveat - -100 
For every Marriage solemnized by or in 
the presence of a Marriage Officer, and 
registered by him - - - -100 

For Certificate by Marriage Officer of 

notice having been given and posted up o 5 o 
For registration by Consular Officer of a 
Marriage solemnized in accordance with 
the local law in addition to the fee for 
attendance - - - - - -100 

{rj) Medical Practitioners : Licence for 

{a) Physicians, Surgeons or Dentists to practise, 

[b) Pharmacists or Druggists, £E. 1. 
{c) Midwives, PT. 25. 


{0) Tobacco : The sale of tobacco in the Turkish Empire 
was a monopoly ceded to the O.P.D.A., who, in 
turn, farmed out its rights and privileges to a 
company known as the " Regie Co-interessee des 
Tabacs de 1' Empire Ottoman." This company, 
established in 1883, was given a concession for 
thirty years, which was renewed in 19 13 for a 
farther fifteen years. 

Their rights and privileges were declared to be 
suspended in Palestine as from the ist March, 1921, 
by Ordinance dated the 7th April, 1921. By this 
Ordinance the monopoly was abolished, and the 
cultivation and sale of tobacco products were 
declared free. The following duty has been 
imposed : 

A tax upon all tobacco and tombac (a Persian 
tobacco smoked in narghiles) grown in Palestine 
as follows : £E. 2 per donum of land sown with 
tobacco or with tombac, with a minimum payment 
of PT. 50 in each case. 
(f) Tombac : A licence of PT. 100 is payable by vendors 
selling tombac in District capitals ; elsewhere PT. 50. 
The sale of tombac grown in the Ottoman Empire 
is unrestricted. 

4. Fees of Court. — The following fees are levied in all 
Courts in Palestine : 

(i) Fees due on actions : 

(a) A fee of 2% of the value of the subject-matter of 
a claim or appeal payable in advance by the 
plaintiff and i % in certain other cases ; 
(^) 1% in possessory actions ; 
(y) The fee levied is not less than PT. 10 or more than 

PT. 2,000 ; 
{S) If the subject-matter of the claim cannot be 
assessed in terms of money, a fixed fee of PT. 50 
in Magistrates' Courts and of PT. 150 in other 
Courts is levied. 


(ii) Fees due on judgments : 

1% on the value of the subject-matter of the judgment 
on delivery of the first copy, provided the sum so levied 
shall not be less than PT. 10 ; but if the fee paid on the 
claim exceeds 2%, only such amount shall be payable as 
shall make the total fee 3^% of the value of the subject- 
matter of the judgment. 

1% of the value of the land awarded on judgments in 
possessory actions, provided the total fee levied shall not 
exceed 1%. 

(iii) Fees due on copies of judgments, decisions, etc. : 

PT. 10 in the Magistrates' Courts and PT. 40 in other 
Courts on any copy of judgment or a decision other than 
the first copy, and on every page of copies of other docu- 

(iv) Fees due on deposits : 

^% oi the value of the sum or article deposited payable 
in advance by the depositor and |% for every fraction of 
a year. 

(v) Fees due in District Courts and Court of Appeal : 

PT, 5 on every statement, etc., presented for registration 
to the District Courts or Court of Appeal, on every state- 
ment to be transmitted to the Moslem Religious Courts 
or other Departments, and on every document presented to 
the Public Prosecutors. 

(vi) Fees on notification : 

PT. 10 for serving or drawing or copying a legal document. 

(vii) Fees due on proceedings in bankruptcy : 

PT. 50 on a demand for the declaration or annullation of 
bankruptcy, etc. 3^% on the first £'E. 100, and i^% on 
any amount in excess in respect of the judgment levied upon 
the assets of the bankruptcy. 

(viii) Fees due on execution proceedings : 

PT. 10 on notification of judgments. 

PT. 20 on a demand for seizure. 

PT. 20 in advance on any notice inserted in a news- 


(ix) Fees due in Magistrates' Courts : 
The following are the fees due on judgments in criminal 
matters in Magistrates' Courts : 

For judgments of fine up to PT. loo or imprisonment up 
to 7 days, PT. lo. 

For judgments of fine up to PT. 100-200 or imprisonment 
from 7-15 days, PT. 20. 

For judgments of fine of PT. 200-500 or imprisonment 
from 15-30 days, PT. 40. 

For judgments of fine of PT. 500-1000 or imprisonment 
from 1-2 months, PT. 50. 

For judgments of fine of PT. 1000 or imprisonment from 
2-3 months, PT. 60. 

For judgments of imprisonment from 3-6 months PT. 70. 
,, ,, ,, ^-i year - PT. 80. 

,, ,, ,, 1-2 years - PT. 90. 

,, ,, ,, 2-3 years - PT. 100. 

(x) Fees due in other Courts : 

The following fees shall be levied in other Courts : 
PT. 20 on every commital order. 
PT. 20 on every report of proceedings of the trial. 
PT. 100 or PT. 150 on a judgment of the District Court 
or Court of Appeal, 
(xi) Fees in Moslem Religious Courts : ^ 

In Moslem Religious Courts, subject to certain provisions, 
fees are levied according to the Ottoman Law of Court Fees 
now in force. 
5. Land Registries. — 
(i) Sale : 

3% on the market value of the property trans- 
(ii) Exchange : 

3% on one-half of the aggregate market value of 
the properties exchanged, 
(iii) Gifts : 

(a) 2% on the market value of the property, 
if the gift is to a descendant or 
ascendant or wife or husband. 


(i8) 3% on the market value of the property, 
if the gift is to any other person." 
(iv) Lease : 

(a) 5% on the rent for one year when the lease 
is for a term of more than 3 years 
and less than 10 years. 
{/S) 10% on the rent for one year where the lease 

is for a term of 10 years and over. 
The Municipal registration fee of 1% of the 
amount of the rent shall be payable in addition 
on leases of property within a Municipal area. 

(v) Mortgage : 

1% on the amount of loan. 

(vi) Further Charge : 

1% on the increased amount secured. 

(vii) Transfer of Mortgage : 

1% on the amount of the secured loan trans- 
ferred . 
(viii) Sale of mortgaged properties at the request of 
Mortgagees : 

on the purchase price realized on sale 

by auction — Registration fee. 
on the purchase price realized on sale 

by auction — Execution fee. 
on the purchase price realized on sale 
by auction — Auctioneer's fee i%. 

(a) 1^% on the market value of the shares trans- 
ferred by way of succession to de- 
scendants or ascendants or wife or 

(/3) 3% on the market value of the shares trans- 
ferred by way of succession to 
brothers, sisters and their descen- 
(y) 5% on the market value of the shares trans- 
ferred to any other heirs. 










(x) Bequest : 

(a) io% on the market value of the property 
transferred by way of bequest if the 
legatees are not legal heirs of the 
{j3) if the legatees are legal heirs of the 

testator, the fees payable are as set 
out in Section 9. 
(xi) Partition : 

1% on the market value* of the property the 
subject of the partition, 
(xii) Issue of Certificate of Registration when property 
does not appear on the register : 
5% on the market value of the property in 
respect of which a certificate is applied for. 
(xiii) Fees on transfer of Waqf Land : 

2^% fees payable on the constitution of land as 
zvaqf, of the market value of the land up to 
the value of £E. 200. 
1% on the value of the land in excess of £E. 200. 
One-half of the fees levied in respect of the con- 
* stitution of waqf or the transfer of waqf shall 

be paid to the Waqf Administration and one- 
half to the Treasury, 
(xiv) Search : 

5 PT. for every property in respect of which 
search is made, 
(xv) Extracts from the Registers and Documents : 
4 PT. for every one hundred words. 
2 PT. for every one hundred words certifying any 
copy to be a true copy. 

In addition to the fees payable for preparing the copy, 
the search fee of 5 PT. shall be payable in respect of every 
property included in the copy supplied, 
(xvi) Printed Forms : 

I or 2 PT. for every printed Land Registry Form. 



(xvii) Correction of the Register : 

25 PT. for every property in respect of which 
correction is required. 

6. Post Oflace.— (See § 14.) 

7. Revenue of State Domains. — The receipt from State 
Domains comprise revenues from 

(i) Crown lands ceded to the Ottoman Treasury by the 
Civil List, following the proclamation of the Constitution 
in 1908. These Imperial Domains were originally the 
private estates of the Sultans acquired through feudal 
means or by purchase from their subjects. It is customary 
for such lands to be rented to individual cultivators or 
tribal communities on the payment of 10% of the produce. 
The Revenue Department includes these lands within its 
assessment for tithe, the rate being 22^% or 12^% tithe 
plus 10% rent. 

(ii) Lands which have been acquired by the State 
through escheat or failure of heirs, or through lapses of 

(iii) Building property constructed upon sites belonging 
to the State, such as the town of Beisan in Galilee and the 
village of Mukarraka in Gaza. 

8. Stamp Fees. — There are two sources from which this 
kind of revenue is drawn : 

{a) The Ottoman Stamp Law of 1906 replacing earlier 

legislation relating to Stamp Fees. 
{b) The " Timbre du Hejaz." 

The law of 1906 establishes a multiplicity of fees ^upon 
documents of every conceivable kind, constituting an 
irksome and vexatious impost falling mostly upon the 
non-rural inhabitants, but its incidence cannot be said to 
be oppressive since townspeople escaped the payment of 
tithes and are in general lightly taxed. 

By the decree of Muharram, 1881, the revenues accruing 
from this source form a portion of the revenues of the 
O.P.D.A. The law is divided into two sections, one dealing 


with the timbre ancien, and the other known as the 
timbre a surcharge. Great confusion exists in the minds 
of the pubhc as to the terms of the law and the fees 

Certain items of the law have been cancelled and others 
modified ; thus, the fees imposed upon passports, visas and 
laissez-passer, railway tickets, land transfers, mortgages and 
sales of lands have been cancelled or amalgamated into a 
new scale of duties. 

The " Timbre du Hejaz " was created to provide funds 
for the construction of the Hejaz Railway. It is, for the 
most part, a surtax upon documents already taxable under 
the law of 1906. The receipts do not form a portion of the 
revenues of the Ottoman Public Debt. 

The revision and amalgamation of stamp duties is now 
under consideration. 

9. The Ottoman Public Debt Administration. — The 
Decree of Muharram, i88t, instituted the Council of the 
Administration of the Public Debt. This body was charged 
with the collection of the revenues assigned to meet the 
obligations due by the Turkish Government to the foreign 
bondholders. The revenues ceded to it included among 
others " the five revenues " receivable from salt, stamp 
duties, wine and spirit licences and excise dues, fisheries 
and silk ; the proceeds of the sale of and tithe upon 
tobacco ; and the surtax of 3% upon the ad valorem 
customs import duties ; licences for shooting game and 
selling tombac. 

By the Treaty of Sevres the Mandatory Powers of Occu- 
pied Territories are responsible for the payment of an 
annual sum which is to be fixed by an international financial 
commission sitting in Constantinople. The revenues ceded 
to the Public Debt then became a portion of the ordinary 
revenues of the mandatory State. Though the Treaty is 
still unratified, the arrangements advocated have been partly 
adopted. The collection of the ceded revenues is still in 
the hands of the Public Debt agents, but the net receipts 
are credited to the Government of Palestine. 


Ottoman Taxes not enforced. — The following vexatious 
Ottoman taxes have been abolished : 
(i) temettu (Professional tax) ; 
(ii) Fees collected in lieu of military service {badl 

askariya) ; 
(iii) Tax in lieu of forced road labour [badl sukhra) ; 
(iv) Certain small licensing fees. 

Revenue and Expenditure. — The following statements 
show the total revenue and expenditure under the various 
heads for the financial year 1921-22 : 

Revenue. £E. 

(i) Customs ------- 623,273 

(ii) Port Dues ------- 10,705 

(iii) Licences, Excise and Internal Revenue - 758,107 

(iv) Fees of Court and Office Receipts for Specific 

Services and Reimbursements - - 150,496 

(v) Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones - - 141,287 

(vi) Railways ------- 557,334 

(vii) Revenue from Government Property - - 32,289 

(viii) Agricultural Department - - - - 2,637 

(ix) Royalties and Concessions - - - - — 

(x) Interest ------- 20,428 

(xi) Miscellaneous - - - - - - 34,562 

(xii) Land Sales - - - - - - 1,153 

Total - - - ^E. 2, 332, 271 


Expenditure. £E. 

(i) Pensions - - 16,645 

(ii) Public Debt and Loan Charges - - 6,516 

(iii) His Excellency the High Commissioner - 12,809 

(iv) Secretariat - - - - - - 32,358 

(v) District Administration - - - - 78,608 

(vi) Legal Department 75,542 

(vii) Land Department and Land Registry - 19,443 

(viii) Survey Department _ _ _ _ 1,834 

(ix) Financial Secretary ----- 4,868 

(x) Treasury - - - - - - - 29,322 

(xi) Audit Department ----- — 

(xii) Department of Customs Revenue and Ports 104,034 
(xiii) Department of Cornmerce and Industry 

(including Stores and Labour) - - 15,409 

(xiv) Department of Health - - - - 142,931 

(xv) Education Department - - - - 88,158 

(xvi) Department of Agriculture and Fisheries - 45,179 

(xvii) Public Security and Prisons - - - 320,806 

(xviii) Defence ------- 7,995 

(xix) Department of Immigration and Travel - 13,304 

(xx) Department of Antiquities _ _ - 6,649 

(xxi) Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones - - 103,121 

(xxii) Railways ------ 527,657 

(xxiii) Public Works Department _ _ _ 38,200 

(xxiv) Public Works, Recurrent - - - - 63,539 

(xxv) Public Works, Extraordinary - - - — 

(xxvi) Miscellaneous 141,471 




Currency. — There is no Palestinian currency. Legal 
Tender consists of Notes of the National Bank of Egypt, 


Egyptian silver and nickel coins, and the English gold 
sovereign, which is reckoned at PT. 97-50. 

Notes : PT. 5, 10, 25, 50 ; £E. i, 5, 10, 50, 100. 

Silver : PT. i, 2, 5, 10, 20. 

Nickel : Milliemes i, 2, 5, 10. 

10 milliemes =1 PT. (piastre tariff) =2^d. 
1000 milliemes ---£E,. i. 


1. Anglo-Egyptian Bank, Ltd. Established 1864. Head 
Office, 27 Clement's Lane, London, E.C. 4 (associated with 
Barclays Bank, Ltd., London). 

Capital ;^ 1 , 800, 000, of which ;^6oo, 000 is paid up . Reserve 
Fund ;^720,ooo. 

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — (with an 
Agency at Ramallah) Manager, A. P. S. Clark (also Manager 
of the Palestine Branches) ; Jaffa ; Haifa ; Nazareth. 

Banking hours 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. (Sundays excepted). 

2. Imperial Ottoman Bank. Established 1863. Head 
Offices : Constantinople, London and Paris. 

Capital ^10,000,000 — divided into 500,000 shares of ;^20 
each. The shares are all issued, but ;^io only is paid up. 
Reserve Fund (1920), ;/^i, 250,000. 

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — (with sub- 
branch at Ramallah) Manager, E. E. Wiles (also Manager 
of the Palestine Branches) ; Jaffa ; Haifa. 

Banking hours : 9-12 and 2-4 daily (Sundays excepted) ; 
on Saturdays from 9-12 only. 

3. Banco di Roma. Established 1880. Head Office : 

Capital (fully paid up) 150,000,000 Italian Lire. Reserve 
Fund 11,714,265 Italian Lire. 

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem — Head Office — Manager, 
G. Spagnolo ; Jaffa ; Haifa. 

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 3 to 4 p.m. 
(Sundays excepted) . 

4. Anglo-Palestine Company, Ltd. Established 1902. 


Head Office : Brook House, Walbrook, London, E.G. 4. 
Head Office for the Orient : Jaffa, Palestine. 

Capital (fully paid up) ;^300,029. Reserve Fund £'j,oi'j. 

Branches in Palestine : Jerusalem, Haifa, Hebron, Safed, 
and Tiberias. General Managers : D. Levontin and S. 

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. and 3 to 5 p.ifl. 

5. Credit Lyonnais (Societe Anonyme). Established 
1863. Head Office : 19 Boulevard des Italiens, Paris. 

Capital (fully paid up) 250,000,000 Francs. Reserve 
Fund 200,000,000 Francs. 

Palestine Branches : Jerusalem and Jaffa ; Manager, M. 

Banking hours : 9 a.m. to 12,30 p.m. (Sundays excepted). 

§ 4. Customs. 

' Customs Stations. — There are customs stations at the 
following towns : 

/with sub-stations at Ludd and 
^ \ Tulkeram. 

„ r with sub-stations at Beersheba and 

Gaza - - I T^i, AA • 

I Khan Yunis. 

^^ .- f with sub-stations at Tantura, Acre 

Haifa - - { , r^ , , 

[ and Semakh. 

Accommodation for Goods. — Customs warehouses exist 
in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Ludd, Gaza, Haifa, Acre and Semakh. 
The free period during which goods may be stored is seven 
days, except at Jerusalem, where the period is five days. 
Bonded warehouses exist in Jaffa and Haifa, and arrange- 
ments have been made for larger premises ; but bonded 
warehouses do not perform any work which is properly the 
duty of the Customs Department. 

Under the provision of the Treaty of Sevres the port of 
Haifa is declared a free zone. The underlying principle 
regarding " free zones " is that equality of treatment shall 


be accorded by the Territorial or Mandatory Power con- 
cerned to the subjects of all States without discrimination 
in cases where a port serves more than one country. Haifa, 
which in the past served only Turkish territory, now handles 
traffic destined for, or originating in, the territories under 
British and French influence respectively. 

Frontiers. — The geographical situation of the frontiers of 
Palestine makes the provision of an adequate customs con- 
trol a matter of some difficulty. The frontier on three sides 
is open, while on the fourth the Mediterranean Sea forms 
a barrier, extending from Rafa in the south to Ras al-Nakura 
in the north, having few inlets, but for the most part 
accessible to the smaller sea craft which are numerous 
along the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean. On the 
eastern side the Jordan Valley, extending to the south of 
the Dead Sea, forms the eastern frontier separating Palestine 
from Trans-jordania. In the south the boundary between 
Egypt and Palestine demarcated before the War runs from 
Rafa south-east to the Gulf of Akaba. From the earliest 
ages in history the people inhabiting Palestine have acted 
as the middlemen of the East. They have been the carriers 
between East and West, they stand between the nomadic 
tribes of the Arabian Desert and the civilization of the 
West, and they act to-day, as they have done for ages in 
the past, as the bridgehead for the products of a hinterland 
stretching to the confines of Mesopotamia. Innumerable 
camel tracks cross the frontiers from Trans-jordania or the 
Sinai Desert into Palestine, and in the north the great 
trunk road from Damascus leads into Galilee across the 
bridge of Benat Yaqub. The northern frontier stretching 
from Lake Huleh to the sea at Ras al-Nakura possesses no 
geographical obstacles, and is crossed by mule tracks leadmg 
from the large towns of Syria to Acre and Haifa. Under 
the Turkish regime the problem of frontier control was not 
present, since the sea was the only boundary of any im- 
portance, and the numerous tracks radiating from al-Arish 
in the south towards Gaza, Hebron and Beersheba were 
ignored. A Customs frontier-guard patrols the Rafa-Beer- 


sheba area, and at al-Arish the Egyptian Customs Adminis- 
tration collects the import and export duties on behalf of 
the Palestine Government. 

Trans-jordania. — There is no customs barrier between 
Palestine and Trans-jordania. All import duties and 
formalities on articles consigned to Trans-jordania from 
abroad are collected and carried out at the customs station 
of arrival in Palestine. Jerusalem and Nablus are the dis- 
tributing centres for the East of the Jordan, the principal 
imports being manufactured goods, such as cotton and 
woollen articles, and tobacco. In return there is a con- 
siderable export trade from Trans-jordania into Palestine, 
and if markets are available, to Europe, in the shape of 
wheat. The Government of Palestine pays to Trans- 
jordania a proportion of the import 'and export duties 
calculated upon the estimated volume of foreign imports I 
into Trans-jordania. The principal trade routes are via 
the Dead Sea, the Allenby Bridge near Jericho, Jisr Damia j 
opposite Nablus, and Beisan. j 

Syria. — The rich territory, of which Damascus is the 
centre, provides a lucrative field for foreign import trade. 
The railway linking Haifa, via Deraa, to Damascus provides 
a convenient mode of transit, while there is constant traffic! 
by road via the Benat Yaqub Bridge between Lakes Tiberias 
and Huleh. Before the advent of the railways this road 
was one of the great highways of the Near East. It is still 
used as a route for transporting wheat and other cereals 
from the agricultural district of the Hauran into Palestine. 

On the establishment of the Military Administration of 
Palestine a Customs Station was opened at Haifa, where 
import duties were collected on articles either consigned in 
transit to Damascus or for local distribution. The Customs 
facilities offered at the port make it a convenient route for 
importers of foreign consignments, and coupled with advan- 
tages of a railway to Damascus, have led to the develop- 
ment of a considerable transit trade with the East. Under 
the Military Authorities the revenue accruing from the 
foreign import trade formed a portion of the receipts of 


the Palestine Customs, but on the estabHshment of Civil 
Administrations in Palestine and Syria it was not possible 
to continue the collection of these charges at Haifa on con- 
signments destined for Syria, and a Customs agreement was 
accordingly signed by the High Commissioners for Palestine 
and Syria on the 25th August, 1921. 

The Syrian-Palestine Customs Agreement. — The Agree- 
ment establishes the principle that articles manifested in 
transit to Syria pass through Haifa in bond and become 
dutiable at the country of destination. 

The Customs officials of the country of destination pay 
from the dues collected one-half per cent, on the value of the 
goods to the country of transit to cover the cost of formalities. 

For foreign articles, not in transit, but which may have 
broken bulk at Haifa and are subsequently exported to 
Syria, the exporter obtains a certificate from the Palestine 
Customs authorities stating the value of the articles and 
the amount of duty paid when first imported into Palestine. 
The goods are then allowed to proceed to Syria without 
additional duty being charged. The Customs officials at 
the place of importation register the particulars of such 
consignments, claiming from the Government of Palestine 
the amount of duty originally paid on the entry of the goods 
into Palestine. Similarly, for the export of foreign goods 
from Beirut or Damascus into Haifa or other places in 
Palestine, the Syrian Customs authorities refund to Palestine 
the amount of duty chargeable on the articles on their 
first importation into Syria. These arrangements ensure 
the greatest possible freedom in trade between the two 

Foreign articles which are manufactured in part from 
foreign raw material are regarded by both Governments as 
the hona-fide produce of the country of manufacture and, 
like all local produce, are admitted by either country free 
of duty and free of all restrictions. 

No duties are chargeable upon goods exported from or 
imported to Syria, or vice versa, which are the local produce 
of the countries concerned. On the export of such goods 


by sea, a deposit of one per cent, ad valorem is taken and 
is refunded on a certificate being produced that the goods 
in question have reached their destination. The arrange- 
ment is reciprocal. No deposit is required on local produce 
exported by rail. 

Rates of Duty. — The rates of duty throughout the 
Ottoman Empire were fixed, by treaties of commerce con- 
cluded in 1 86 1 and 1862 with the Powers, at 8% ad valorem 
for imports and 1% ad valorem for exports. The import 
duty was increased in 1907 from 8% to 11%. The increase 
of 3% formed a portion of the revenue of the Administration 
of the Ottoman Public Debt. 

The Government of Palestine maintains the import duty 
oi 11% ad valorem and the 1% ad valorem on exports, except- 
ing in the case of Egypt and Turkey. The local produce 
and manufactures of these countries, whether such goods 
contain foreign raw material or otherwise, are imported into 
Palestine at an import duty of 8% ad valorem. Syria, as 
already mentioned, is excluded from the above. 

Foreign Additional Import Duty. — A special duty, 
called the Foreign Additional Import Duty, is added to 
these import rates and is levied on behalf of Municipalities. 
An ad valorem duty of i % is collected on all foreign imports 
(except in the case of inflammable liquids, such as petrol, 
mineral oil, etc., and alcoholic drinks, including wines arid 
beers, on which the additional duty is 2% ad valorem). 
Tobacco products are subject to an additional duty of PT. 5 
per kilogram only. 

These duties replace the octroi of i % ad valorem formerly 
collected by the Municipalities of Palestine and abolished in 
1 92 1 (see below under " Municipalities "). 

Special Duties. — There are special rates of import duty 
upon the following articles : 

[a) 3% ad valorem on live stock, as enumerated below, 
imported for agricultural or slaughtering purposes : 

camels, horses, donkeys, cattle and sheep. 
The Foreign Additional Import Duty of 1% must 
also be paid. 

38 per ki 


55 >. 


60 ,, 


60 „ 


20 ,, 


TO ,, 


{h) 3% «^ valorem on building material [e.g. timber, iron 

and steel bars, hollow bricks and tiles, cement), 
(c) The Tobacco Taxation Ordinance, 1921, amended by 
the Tobacco Taxation Amending Ordinance, dated 
December, 1921, lays down the duties payable on 
imported tobacco products : 

uncut tobacco - - - PT. 
manufactured tobacco and 

cigarettes - - - ,, 
cigars and chewing tobacco 
snuff - , - 
tombac (Persian) 

(other than Persian) 
Any person who re-exports from Palestine any of the 
above articles, and proves to the satisfaction of the Customs 
Department that such articles were manufactured from 
imported tobacco or tombac, is entitled to a drawback of 
80% of the import duty originally paid. The Foreign 
Additional Import duty of PT. 5 per kilogram is also pay- 

Exemption from Duty. — 

(i) Imports. — The following articles are exempted from 
Import Duty : 

{a) agricultural machinery, as specified below: grain, 
chaff, root and bean cutters ; crushers, grinding 
machines and bruising mills ; ploughing machinery ; 
mowers ; threshing machinery ; reapers ; straw 
elevators and threshing machines ; cultivators, 
harrows and hoes ; hand rollers ; winnowers ; 
grain graders ; hand seed drills and seed layers ; 
dairy machinery ; cream separators, milk filters, 
heaters, coolers, refrigerators, sterilizers and 
butter-making machines ; incubators ; fruit-drying 
machinery ; oil mills and crushers, with parts and 
accessories ; spraying machinery, and spray pumps ; 
fumigation machinery and fumigation tents ; 
tractors ; almond hullers ; poultry houses, chicken 
pens, brooders and foster mothers (complete or in 



section) ; bee-hives, hive frames, honey extractors, 
centrifugal machines for honey extraction and liive 
foundations ; 
{b) recognized chemical manures and seeds for agri- 
cultural purposes up to a reasonable quantity ; 
(c) samples of no commercial value ; 
{d) printed matter as follows : books, reviews and other 
publications, bound or unbound ; manuscripts ; 
plans or other architectural designs ; maps, atlases 
and geographical diagrams, scientific pictures and 
diagrams of all kinds ; newspapers and magazines ; 
commercial catalogues, price lists and commercial 
announcements ; prints and photographs des- 
patched by parcel post ; 
{e) used personal and settler's effects, including used 
household effects, tools and instruments of the 
trade or occupation of the settler, 
(ii) Exports. — The following commodity may be ex- 
ported free of duty : 

wine jnanufactured in Palestine. 
Prohibited Imports. — 

(i) The importation of the following articles into Pales- 
tine is prohibited : 

arms and ammunition, explosives (with the ex- 
ception of sporting guns and sporting gun 
ammunition) ; salt ; drawings, engravings and 
all printed and manuscript matter of an immoral 
or seditious character, whether as merchandise 
or wrappings ; hashish and raw opium ; shaving 
brushes exported from Japan, China, Manchuria 
and Korea. 

(2) The following may be imported under special licence 
issued by the Director of Public Security : 

blasting explosives and saltpetre. 

(3) The importation of the following articles is permitted 
under permit from the District Governors (Public Notice 
No. 180, dated the ist September, 1920) : 

sporting guns and sporting gun ammunition. 


(4) The importation of the following articles is only per- 
mitted when the articles are accompanied by a certificate, 
signed by a competent agricnltnrist in the country of origin, 
certifying that they have been examined and found to be 
free from disease : 

living plants of any description ; bees. 

(5) The importation of the following articles into Palestine 
is only permitted under special certificates issued by the 
Director of Health, viz. : 

{a) medicinal opium ; 

{b) all preparations (official and non-official, including 

the so-called anti-opium remedies) containing more 

than 0-2 per cent, of morphine or more than o-i per 

cent, of cocaine ; 

(c) heroin, its salts and preparations containing more 

than o-i per cent, of heroin ; 
{d) all derivatives of morphine, of cocaine, or of their 
respective salts, and every other alkaloid of opium, 
which may be shown by scientific research, generally 
recognized, to be liable to similar abuse and produc- 
tive of like ill-effects. 
Prohibited Exports. — 

(i) The exportation of the following articles from Pales- 
tine is prohibited : 

live stock (excluding camels in transit and goats) ; 
hashish and raw opium. 
(2) The exportation of antiquities is permitted only under 
special licence issued and signed by the Inspector of Anti- 

There is free and unrestricted movement of all com- 
modities within Palestine. 

Goods entering Palestine manifested in transit to other 
destinations may be allowed to proceed, with the exception 
of the following : 

{a) arms and ammunition, explosives (with the exception 

of sporting guns and sporting gun ammunition) ; 
{b) drawings, engravings, and all printed and manuscript 
matter of an immoral or seditious character, 
whether as merchandise or wrappings ; 

1 68 



(c) hashish and raw opium ; 

{d) blasting explosives and saltpetre (unless under special 

licence issued by the Director of Public Security). 
Value of Imports and Exports. — The total value of 
imports and exports is as follows : 

Year Ending 

Imports. Exports. 


£E. £E. 


31st March, 1920 - 


4,191,060 773.443 


3Tst March, 1921 - 


5,216,633 771,701 


"3 1 St March, 1922 - 


5.645.343 935.490 


Principal Imports. 


principal imports for the period 

1st April, 1921, to 31 

st March, 1922, were : 


cotton fabrics 


14,083,876 metres £'E 

= 572,016 

sugar - 


9,205 tons 

= 289,548 

flour - - - 


8,607 .. 

= 179,697 

coal _ _ _ 


61,816 ,. 

= 241,130 

rice - - _ 


9,172 „ 

= 179,887 



692,944 tins ,, 

= 206,759 

clothing - - - 


— value 

= 219,610 

iron and steel manuf 



= 226,848 

timber - 



= 148,503 



266 tons 

= 297,893 



— value 

= 167,638 

cotton yarn and sewing 




= 90,829 

cement - 


20,747 tons 

= 101,800 

Principal Exports. - 


principal exports for the period 

1st April, 192 1, to 31 

st March, 1922, were : 


soap - - - 


3,316 tons £E 

= 186,255 

oranges - 


1,234,252 cases 

= 325.374 

melons - 


— value 

= 59,757 

apricot paste - 


977 tons 

= 32,356 

wine - - _ 


1. 59 1. 500 litres 

= 52,964 

lentils - 


3,195 tons 

= 33,220 

lupins - - - 


2,967 .. 

= 15,182 



552 „ 

= 24,667 

peas - _ _ 


1.508 „ 

= 14,669 


The principal countries of import and export are : 

(a) Import. — Great Britain ; Egypt ; France ; United 
States of America ; Italy ; India ; Germany ; Japan ; 
Belgium and Holland. 

{b) Export. — Great Britain ; Egypt ; France ; United 
States of America ; Germany. 

Trade with Egypt. — For the year ended the 31st March, 
1922, the value of goods declared as of Egyptian origin 
imported to Palestine was £K. 724,734, showing an increase 
in value of £'E. 55,278 over the total for the previous year. 
The exports from Palestine to Egypt for the year ended 
the 31st March, 1922, were valued at £R. 527,579, being a 
decrease of £K. 6,716 from the previous year. The increase 
in the value of the Egyptian import trade is largely due 
to the removal of the prohibition on the importation of 
tobacco by the Tobacco Taxation Ordinance, 192 1. The 
Egyptian Government has removed the restrictions imposed 
upon the export of rice and Egyptian sugar, which, together 
with the abolition of the prohibition on the export of 
cereals from Palestine, has also provided an incentive to 
trade between the two countries. 

§ 5. Commerce and Industry. 

General. — A Department of Commerce and Industry 
advises the Administration on economic matters, and gives 
to the public information on commercial and industrial 
affairs. The Department purchases all Government stores, 
other than Railway Stores and certain technical stores used 
by the Department of Posts and Telegraphs. 

Industry and Production. — Although industries in 
Palestine have no greater protection than that afforded by 
an ad valorem duty on imported merchandise, the year 192 1 
has witnessed the beginning of an industrial movement of 
some importance, which is significant in having begun at 
a time when power is extremely expensive. Coal for com- 
mercial use averages more than £'E. 5 per ton in ports. 

With the recrudescence of building activity to meet 



growing demands, the building industry has assumed an 
important place in the country's industries, and many 
brick, tile and cement block factories now exist at Jaffa. 
Soapmaking from olive oil, an old-established industry of 
Palestine, has its main centres at Nablus and Jaffa, but 
factories with more modern methods now exist at Haifa 
and contribute materially to what is an important Palestine 
article of export. Wine-growing is a very important 
industry, and Palestine wines constitute one of the main 
articles of the country's exports. The chief centres of 
production are Richon-le-Zion and Zichron Jacob. 

The production of salt from the waters of the Medi- 
terranean at Athlit is a new Palestinian industry, which will 
in the near future not only meet the entire requirements of 
the country, but will add another article to the list of 
Palestine's exports. 

There is a great need of Industrial and Mortgage Banks, 
who would be prepared to advance money to manufacturers 
on long terms at reasonable rates, and also to Import and 
Export Houses working on modern lines. 

Chambers of Commerce exist in the principal towns. 
Traditional Industries. — The following are the traditional 
and long established industries of the country : 

Weaving (carpets, mats, rugs, 
clothes, abayas, braid), 
manufacture of agals, 
purses, tassels, plaiting of 
belts, dyeing, needlework, 
embroidery, lacemaking ; 
masonry, carpentry, joinery, 
cabinet making, mud brick 
making, lime and cement 
making ; 
r blacksmiths, coppersmiths, 
tinsmiths, gold and silver 
smiths, making of peasant 
jewellery, cutlery and camel 
bells : 

(i) Textile 


Building and 
Allied Trades 

(iii) Metal Industries - 




(iv) Eeatlier and 
Tanning - 




(vi) Domestic Utensils 

[handling and tanning of local 
\ skins, manufacture of boots, 
I shoes, and of water skins ; 
forging of ploughshares, 
sickles, etc., shaping of 
plough handles, manufac- 
ture of saddles, whips, 
fishing nets, manufacture 
of soap from local olive oil ; 
basket-making, manufacture 
of brooms, sieves, wooden 
spoons, bellows, pipes and 
pipe-tubes, glass-making, 
manufacture of musical 
instruments (lutes, aoudes 
and drums). 

Orange Export Trade. — The following table gives the 
export figures and values of oranges exported from Jaffa 
since 1909. It will be noticed, from the decreased quan- 
tities exported, to what extent the gardens suffered during 
the war : 

Cases. Value. 

1908-9 - - - 744.463 I'P-- £^^5M5 

1909-10 - - 853,767 235,605 

1910-11 - - 869,850 217,500 

1911-12 - - 1,418,000 283,600 

1912-13 - - 1,608,570 297,700 

1919-20 - - 647,063 162,409 

1920-21 ■ - - 830,959 200,475 

1921-22 - - 1,165,937 306,517 

* The quantities sent to Great Britain were 282,500 cases, 

valued at £^. 64,409, in 1921, and 215,899 cases, valued at 

£E. 56,839, in 1920. 

§ 6. Inimi.^ration. 

Immigration. — An Immigration Ordinance was promul- 
gated in September, 1920, stating the terms under which 


immigrants might be allowed to enter Palestine ; at the 
same time the principle was laid down that immigration 
should be regulated according to the economic needs of the 

The Zionist Organization, as the Jewish Agency recog- 
nized by the Administration, was authorized to introduce 
into the country a fixed number of immigrants (16,500) on 
condition that they accepted responsibihty for their main- 
tenance for one year. 

Entry into Palestine was then authorized to the following 
categories : 

{a) immigrants whose maintenance was guaranteed by 

the Zionist Organization ; 
{b) persons of independent means or persons who could 
produce evidence that they would become self- 
supporting ; 
(c) persons of religious occupation who had means of 

maintenance in Palestine ; 
{d) members of families at present residents in Palestine. 

During the eight months ended the 30th April, 1921, 
8030 immigrants entered Palestine (62% men, 22% women, 
16% children) under the auspices of the Zionist Organiza- 
tion ; and 2031 (48% men, 31% women, 21% children) 

On the 4th May, 1921, immigration was suspended, and 
on the 3rd June the old categories were cancelled and the 
following were substituted for them : 

{a) travellers, i.e., persons who do not intend to remain 
in Palestine for a period exceeding three months ; 

(b) persons of independent means who intend to take up 

permanent residence in Palestine ; 

(c) members of professions who intend to follow their 

calling ; 

(d) wives, children and other persons wholly dependent 

on residents in Palestine ; 

(e) persons who have a definite prospect of employment 

with specified employers or enterprises ; 

he 1 


(/) persons of religious occupations, including the class 
of Jews who have come to Palestine in recent years 
from religious motives and who can show that they 
have means of maintenance here ; 
(g) returning residents. 

The total number of immigrants who entered Palestine 
from the 3rd June, 192 1, when immigration was reopened, 
to the 31st December, 1921, was 4861, of whom 4784 were 

The following table shows the percentage per country of 
immigrants that have come to Palestine during the period 
ist September, 1920, to 31st December, 192 1 : 

Poland- 33 0/0 

Russia 15% 

Smaller East European States - - 11% 
Central Asia- - - - - - 10 % 

Rumania _--___ 5% 

Great Britain and Dominions - - 3i% 

Other Countries - - - - - 22-|% 

Tourists. — The tourist traffic, once a source of consider- 
able profit to Palestine, has begun, in 1922, to revive after 
an abeyance of eight years, due to the war. 

§ 7. Education. 

History and Organization. — Under the Ottoman Govern- 
ment the educational system in Palestine was mainly con- 
fined to education of a very elementary nature, although 
during the war Jemal Pasha attempted to introduce a rather 
better type of school. Christian education was conducted 
entirely by private religious bodies and individuals. Jewish 
education was catered for by Jewish religious bodies and 
by the European Communities, whose nationals were living 
in Palestine, assisted by the generous donations of wealthy 
private individuals. 

Turkish was the official language in the schools as else- 
where in Palestine, and even Arabic was taught through 



its medium. Arabic was, therefore, educationally speaking, 
a foreign language, and there were very few persons, and 
these mainly educated abroad, who were acquainted to any 
extent with the literature and history of their own language. 

During the war the system became seriously disorganized ; 
and the reorganization of education in Palestine by the 
Occupying Power on the lines of the Ottoman regime, 
according to international law, presented an intricate and 
difficult problem. 

In 191 7 the Occupied Enemy Territory Administration 
began the work of educational reconstruction. Arabic was 
made the medium of instruction, schools that had existed 
before were re-opened in as many districts as possible, and 
some of the older Sheikhs, who had not been taken for 
military service, gathered together the children in the 
mosque or the village school building, and began again to 
teach them the Qoran and Arabic reading and writing. 

After the occupation of Jerusalem in 191 7 a more exten- 
sive system of education was planned, including the insti- 
tution of two Training Colleges. 

In August, 19 1 8, a qualified English lady from Cairo was 
appointed to be headmistress of the Government Girls' 
School in Jerusalem, and also to help in the general organi- 
zation of female education. 

In 1919 the Military Administration voted £E. 53,000 for 
the Education Budget. Elementary schools were opened 
in nearly all towns of Palestine, and a system was drawn up 
of grants-in-aid to villages, under which the Administration 
paid £E,. 30 a year on condition that the Community sup- 
plied another £E. 30. Fifty- two of these grant-in-aid 
schools were opened during 1919. 

Later in the year Training Colleges, both for men and 
women, were opened in Jerusalem. Hostels for boarders 
were attached to them, and a teaching staff, composed of 
both Moslems and Christians, appointed. 

In the financial year 1920-21 the sum of £R. 78,000 was 
voted for education, and more elementary schools were 


A programme of elementary education, which fore- 
shadowed the opening of 75 elementary schools a year for 
four years, was presented to the Advisory Council in 
November, 1920. The majority of these schools were to 
be in villages which up to then had possessed no educational 
facilities. It was hoped that, at the end of this period, 
every child in Palestine would have an opportunity of 
attending school, with the possible exception of some chil- 
dren of Beduin tribes in outlying districts, for whom special 
provision has been made by appointing peripatetic teachers, 
who live with the tribes and teach the children in tribal 

In 192 1 seventy-five of these schools were opened, and 
the grant-in-aid schools formerly organized by the Depart- 
ment were also taken over as Government schools. 

For the financial year 1921-22 £E. 103,000 was voted for 
the Education Budget and, in addition to this, the awqaf 
mundarisa, the revenues from which amounted to ^E. 4,800, 
were handed over to the Department of Education, on the 
understanding that the income was to be spent on Moslem 

An extension of the Men's Training College, permitting 
an increase in the number of boarding students from 50 to 
75, was effected in 1921, while the Women's Training 
College moved into a larger building. 

The language of instruction in all Government Schools is 
Arabic ; English being taught only in the larger town 
schools, beginning in thp third year. Hebrew has not yet 
been introduced, as the number of Jewish children in 
Government schools is at present insignificant. In towns 
the Government supplies the building, pays the teachers 
and provides for the expenses of the school. In villages 
the community supplies the building, keeps it in repair and 
supplies the school furniture, while the Government pays 
the other expenses. 

Teaching Staff. — Teachers' Examinations were held in 
1919 and 1920, and a temporary certificate granted. In 
192 1 Higher and Lower Examinations for Government 


Schoolmasters were arranged, the standard of the former 
being not much below that of the London Matriculation. 
Great difficulty has been and is still being experienced in 
finding an efficient teaching staff, especially in the more" 
remote districts, largely owing to the lack of any proper 
system of training under the Turks, but the existing Train- 
ing Colleges and the system of teachers' examinations will, 
it is hoped, raise the teaching staff in a few years to the 
level of a European elementary standard. 

Educational Committees. — Local educational committees 
have been formed in most Districts, consisting of some five 
or six notables of the community. The Governor of the 
District or his representative presides at meetings, and these 
committees have been helpful in rousing local interest and 
in giving advice. 

In 1 92 1 a Central Education Committee was formed under 
the presidency of the Director of Education, for the purpose 
of maintaining a harmonious feeling between the com- 
munities in educational matters, and to facilitate inter- 
communication between the various^ educational bodies. 
The Committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Depart- 
ment of Education, but has no executive powers. It con- 
sists of eleven unofficial members (of whom three are ladies), 
selected from the three Communities, and of senior members 
of the Headquarters Staff. 

Total Number of Government Schools. — The total 
number of Government schools now opened is 28 boys' 
and 23 girls' schools in the larger towns and 190 village 
schools for mainly boys. These schools are attended by 
about 14,000 boys and 2,800 girls. 

Grants-in-aid. — In the budget of 1921-22 the sum of 
^E. 6,125 was set aside for the assistance of non-Government 
schools, subject to Government inspection, and was dis- 
tributed on a per capita basis. As the majority of the non- 
Government school population are Jewish children, the 
bulk of this grant was given to Jewish schools, and a Jewish 
Inspector was engaged in January, 1921, with the special 
object of keeping the Department in touch with Jewish 


education. Though the percentage of the Jewish popula- 
tion in Palestine does not exceed 11% of the total, the 
number of Jewish children attending non-Government 
schools is slightly larger than that of the total number 
attending Government schools ; the reason being that, 
whereas the Zionist Organization and other Jewish bodies, 
such as the " Alliance Israelite " and the Anglo-Jewish 
Association, have been able to provide educational facilities 
for the majority of Jewish children, the onus of providing 
education for the Moslems mainly falls on the Government 
as it did during the Turkish regime. Up to the present, 
owing to lack of funds, the Department has not been able 
to cater for more than about one-seventh of the number of 
Moslem children of the country. 

The Orthodox, Latin, Anglican and other Christian com- 
munities are in receipt of grants in proportion to the number 
of pupils attending their respective schools. 

Secondary Schools. — There are at present no Govern- 
ment schools devoted entirely to secondary education. In 
Jerusalem, Nablus, Nazareth and Acre secondary classes 
have been opened : these are attached to the elementary 
schools, and are being developed as necessity arises. It is 
hoped to attach hostels for boarders to these schools. A 
number of non-Government secondary schools exist in 
Palestine, but none of these use Arabic as the medium of 
instruction, and almost all have primary classes attached 
to them. 

Training Colleges. — 46 girls (17 Moslems and 29 Christians) 
are boarded at the Women's Training College. In addition 
to the English Principal, who also acts as Chief Inspectress 
of Girls* Schools, two English ladies have recently been 
appointed as Assistants in this institution in order to 
improve instruction in kindergarten work and domestic 
economy. The Men's Training College is developing 
rapidly ; tliere are 67 students in residence, of whom 53 are 
Moslems and 14 Christians. 

Technical Education. — An attempt has been made to 
introduce elementary technical education into some of the 


schools. All schools have gardens attached to them, and 
in some localities there have been opened workshops, where 
the boys are taught carpentry, iron work, saddlery, etc. 
Great importance is attached to the introduction of manual 
training in elementary schools, but there is a lack of com- 
petent instructors. 

Such technical education as exists, in the true sense, is 
confined mainly to Jewish effort. In addition to the 
Bezalel Institution in Jerusalem, where craftsmanship in 
metal is the main feature, and a well-organized Technical 
School at Haifa, both under Jewish Administration, the 
Schneller Orphanage (a Protestant institution) in Jerusalem 
provides instruction in pottery, leather work, carpentry, 

The schools of ceramics and of weaving, both under the 
auspices of the Pro-Jerusalem Society, receive an annual 
grant from the Department with a special view to training 
apprentices. The numbers of apprentices are not very 
large (14 in ceramics and 11 in weaving), but the instruction 
is given by experts, and the results, so far, have been 

Agricultural Schools. — Small Government Agricultural 
schools exist at Gaza and Tulkeram, and it is proposed, in 
conjunction with the Department of Agriculture, to organize 
other schools in the near future. 

The largest Agricultural school is that situated at Mikveh- 
Israel, under the auspices of the " Alliance Israelite." Here 
the language of instruction is Hebrew and all the students 
are Jewish, 

Education of Girls. — There are at present approximately 
2,800 girls attending Government schools. There are 
schools for girls conducted by Government or by private 
bodies in every town and in some of the villages. Some 
of the better Moslem families still prefer to send their 
daughters to the schools of the European Missionary 
Societies. Such Government schools for girls as existed 
under the Turkish regime were unsatisfactory, and it is not 
surprising that the e^fcellent moral training, which Jias 


,nd i 


always been a characteristic feature of missionary institu- 
tions, should still attract the parents of Moslem girls. 

Non-Government Schools. — 

(a) Moslem : A few Moslem private schools exist, but 
these as a rule do not reach the standard attained by those 
of the other Communities. The best known of these is the 
Rawdat al-Ma'aref in Jerusalem. There is also a consider- 
able number of mosque-schools {kuttab), in which instruction 
is mainly confined to the Qoran. 

{b) Christian : The majority of the Christian population 
in Palestine belong to the Orthodox Church. They have 
for many years had schools, conducted by the ecclesiastical 
authorities, in all parts of the country where members of 
that community are to be found. These schools have 
suffered severely owing to the financial difficulties of the 
Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, but are beginning to 
show signs of revival. 

In Phoenicia and Galilee, where the Greek Uniate (Mel- 
chite) Church is largely represented, there exist schools of 
that denomination. The Roman Catholic community 
likewise conducts schools, mainly for children of its own 
faith, in many parts of the country. 

To the Christian Missionary Schools, more especially 
to those conducted by Anglican and Presbyterian societies, 
Palestine owes a deep debt of gratitude. The English 
College in Jerusalem, which is under the direct auspices of 
the Anglican Bishop, is at present the only institution in 
the country which definitely prepares students up to English 
matriculation standard, and which will probably develop 
into a College of University type. The Presbyterian Boys' 
School, formerly at Tiberias, and recently re-opened at 
Safed, has an established reputation ; while S. George's and 
Bishop Gobat's Schools (Anglican), both in Jerusalem, and 
both with adequate accommodation for boarders, are well 
attended by Moslems as well as by Christians. Bishop 
Gobat's School was founded in 1853, and its certificate is 
accepted for entrance to the Freshmen Class in the American 
University of Beirut. English is the language of the school, 



;his ^ 

but Arabic is equally well taught. Former scholars of this 
institution are now holding prominent positions in Palestine. 

As regards female education, one of the best Girls' 
Schools in Palestine is the British High School in Jerusalem, 
conducted by Miss Warburton, M.B.E., and staffed by a 
competent body of English and Palestinian ladies. The 
Church Missionary Society has smaller schools for girls in 
various centres. More than one American Society has 
shown great educational activity, and one has done specially 
valuable work in the villages round Ramallah. 

(c) Jewish : There are over 17,000 registered pupils in 
the Jewish Schools, of whom some 11,500 are in the schools 
of the Zionist Organization. These latter include 46 kinder- 
gartens on modern Froebelian lines, 62 elementary, 6 
secondary and 10 technical and special schools. Evening 
courses are provided for the teaching of the Hebrew lan- 
guage and commercial training, and as continuation schools 
for youths engaged in some trade during the day. The 
non-Zionist schools are those of the " Alliance Israelite," 
the Evelina de Rothschild school for Girls under the Anglo- 
Jewish Association, one Training College and one Technical 
School, a number of Orthodox institutions mainly very 
elementary, and a few independent private schools chiefly 
of technical character. 

The Zionist Schools are on the whole similar in pro- 
gramme and standard to corresponding schools in Europe, 
more especially those in Switzerland, the Hebrew language 
and Jewish literature and history taking the place of the 
national subjects taught in other countries. The same may 
be said of most of the non-Zionist schools other than the 
Orthodox, except that in some of them Hebrew is not the 
language of instruction. All schools in the colonies, and 
some in the cities, are mixed. In the secondary schools, 
Greek and Latin have been excluded from the syllabus, as 
not being intimately connected with the Jewish civilization. 
The syllabus of the Zionist Orthodox schools lays stress on 
religious subjects. 

The budget of Jewish Schools is defrayed partly by the 


various governing bodies, partly by tuition fees (over 
£K. 20,000 per annum) ; the bulk of it, however, over 
£E. 100,000, comes from the Zionist Organization. In 
1920-21 £K. 3,550 was allotted to these schools by the 
Palestine Government from the funds available for grants- 
in-aid to non-Government schools. 
Law Schools. — See § 2 of this Part. 

§ 8. Land Tenure. 

' General. — The tenure of immovable property in Palestine 
is governed by the Ottoman Laws in force at the time of 
the occupation of the country by the British Army. Since 
that date these laws have been to a small extent amended 
by local legislation, but they still remain the guiding 
authority under which all matters relating to imjnovable 
property are ad j usted and administered by the Government 
and in the Courts. Special Land Courts have been con- 
stituted to deal exclusively with matters affecting owner- 
ship of land. Any immovable property can be acquired 
compulsorily for the purpose of public utility, for the needs 
of the Army or for the purpose of carrying into effect any 
scheme of town planning. Werko (Land Tax) is levied upon 
all real estate. Prior to the introduction of the Ottoman 
Land Code of 1274 a.h. (1858 a.d.) titles to mulk land and 
buildings were registered in the Sharia Court, but no form 
of registration of miri land existed ; since that time all 
titles have been granted by the State through the Land 
Registry Department, and no person can legally hold im- 
movable property which is not registered. Land Registry 
offices exist in all the Sub-Districts of Palestine. The 
registration is of deeds and not of title ; that is to say that 
the documents affecting any transaction in land must be 
filed in the Registry, but no guarantee of registered title is 
given. Owing to religious and political disabilities imposed 
by the Turkish Authorities on non-Moslem and non-Ottoman 
subjects most of the land in Palestine belonging to the big 
religious and charitable institutions is registered by nam 


musta'ar, i.e., in 'the name of a trustee who is an Ottoman 
subject. The trust has no legal sanction but is respected 
in practice ; and, under the Correction of the Land Register 
Ordinance, 1920, this land is now being registered in the 
name of the true owners, as corporate bodies and foreigners 
may now own land. 

Categories of Land. — Immovable property in Palestine 
is divided into five main categories : [a) mulk ; {b) miri ; 
(c) waqf ; {d) metruqe ; {e) mewat. 

{a) Mulk. — Mulk approximates very closely to the 
English form of freehold, the holder exercising complete 
rights of ownership and disposition, except devise by will, 
which, in accordance with Islamic doctrine, is limited to 
one-third of the testator's mulk property, the remaining 
two-thirds devolving on the heirs of the holder according 
to Sharia Law. 

{h) Miri. — Miri is property over which the State has the 
right of ownership but over which the right of occupation 
or usufruct is enjoyed by private individuals. The holder 
has the right to use the property as he desires provided he 
cultivates it. He may sell, mortgage or lease, but cannot 
bequeath part of it by will, nor can it form the subject of 
a gift or be constituted waqf. If it remains uncultivated 
for three consecutive years without lawful excuse (as, for 
instance, the absence of the holder on military service), it 
reverts to the State. The possessor may, however, redeem 
it on payment. of badl misl, i.e., the unimproved capital 
value. On the death of the holder it devolves upon his 
heirs in accordance with the Law of Inheritance of 1331 a.h., 
and in the event of failure of heirs it reverts to the State. 
Most of the land in Palestine is of this class. In the majority 
of the villages the miri lands are held in masha'a, that is, 
in common undivided shares, and are registered in the 
name of four or five notables, while in reality the property 
of all the villagers, possibly numbering hundreds of persons. 
The villager does not hold the same plot of land con- 
tinuously ; at intervals varying from one to three years 
a fresh portion is allotted to him. This allocation gives 


rise to much trouble among villagers, with the result that 
the cultivator has neither the energy nor the inclination to 
improve his temporary holding, and the productivity of the 
soil and the revenue of the country suffer. Inducements 
are now being offered by the Government to villagers to 
partition their masha'a lands. 

{c) Waqf. — W^a^/ lands (see Part 11. , §5) are mortmain 
property, which lias been dedicated to some religious or 
charitable object and has been derived mainly from mulk 
and mm. Waqf oi mulk i^th.e only txixe waqf ; it is governed 
by the religious law and is not subject to the Land Code. 
It was previously administered by the IFa^/ Administration, 
but is now under the control of the Supreme Moslem Sharia 
Council, and is subject to the conditions laid down by the 
founder. Waqf oi miri (tahsisai) is State land, the proceeds 
of which have been dedicated to some special object either 
by the Sultan or by others with Imperial sanction. The 
Nizami (civil) land laws apply to this form of waqf, and the 
waqf Administration stands in the same relation to it as the 
State stands to miri. Waqf lands are governed partly by 
the Sharia Law and partly by the Nizami. They are 
complex and heterogeneous in tenure, and persons acquiring 
such lands should proceed with great caution and obtain 
sound legal advice before completing their transaction. 
Land cannot be dedicated as waqf without the sanction of 
the Director of Land Registries. 

(d) Metruqe. — Metruqe comprises («) land left for or 
dedicated to the public, e.g., roads, etc. ; (^) land left and 
assigned to the inhabitants of a particular town or village 
as a body, e.g., communal pasture or forest lands, parks, 
places of worship, markets and similar public places. Land 
of this class cannot be held individually nor can it be bought, 
sold or inherited, and it cannot be used for any purpose 
other than that for which it has been dedicated or assigned 
ab antiquo. 

{e) Mewat. — Mewat (lit. " dead " or " waste " land) is 
unowned land, which has not been left or assigned to the 
inhabitants of a town or village. It must also be so far 


from a town or village that the loud voice of a person from 
the. nearest inhabited spot cannot be heard there. The 
Land Code further specifies that the distance between the 
unowned land and the nearest inhabited town or village 
must be about one and a half Turkish miles, a Turkish mile 
(the equivalent of an English league) being regarded as the 
distance covered at walking pace in an hour by a horse or 
donkey* Practically the whole of the unoccupied land in 
Palestine is of this class. It is governed by all the pro- 
visions of the Land Code applicable to miri. Under the 
Mewat Land Ordinance, 1920, it is forbidden for any person 
^to occupy mewat land without first obtaining the permission 
of the Government. Applications to take up these lands 
must be made to the Department of Lands. 

Approximate Values. — It is difficult to value even 
approximately the agricultural land in Palestine. It varies 
according to the nature, situation and productivity of the 
land. From figures available from transactions registered 
during the year 192 1, the average value of agricultural land 
may be taken at £E. 4 per donum. It is impossible to 
hazard an opinion as to the value of town land, because 
the transactions registered give no indication of the im- 
provements existing upon the land. Sales of unimproved 
building allotments in the immediate vicinity of Jerusalem 
have, however, been effected at prices varying from £E. 2 
to £E. 4 per square metre. 

Transactions. — The procedure in dealing with real estate 
is inexpensive and, where the titles are in order, simple. 
In most cases, however, complications of titles render trans- 
actions involved and tedious. The fees are low (c/. § 3 
above). Under the Transfer of Land Ordinance, 1920, the 
consent of the Administration is required to all dispositions 
of immovable property. This consent is given by the 
Director of Land Registries or by the District Registrar in 
any of the thirteeji towns in which registries are established . 
All dispositions are opened by petitions lodged at the Land 
Registry Office of the District within which the land is 
situated. The Registrar undertakes free of charge the 

om 11 


preparation and completion of all documents necessary to 
carry the transaction through. In cases in which survey 
is necessary the work is carried out by Government sur- 
veyors at a nominal cost. The parties to the transactions 
must appear in person before the registrar, or be repre- 
sented by an authorized agent. To avoid the fraud which 
might arise from secrecy, all transactions must be sup- 
ported by a certificate of the Mukhtars or notables of the 
village within which the land is situated. 

Sales. — In the case of sales the existing title-deeds are 
cancelled, and a new qushan (certificate) is issued to the 

Mortgages. — Mortgages must comply with the Pro- 
visional Law of Mortgages of 1331 a.h. as amended by the 
Mortgage Law Amendment Ordinance, 1920, The rate of 
interest must not exceed 9%. In case of foreclosure of 
mortgage the mortgagee applies to the District Court for 
an order of sale. The Court has discretionary powers and 
may postpone the sale in cases in which it would appear 
that undue hardship would be imposed upon the debtor. 
If sale is approved, the property is submitted to public 
auction by the execution officer and is registered in the name 
of the highest bidder. 

Succession. — On the death of the holder of any land, the 
Sharia Court is at present the only authority competent to 
issue a certificate of succession showing the heirs and the 
shares under which the property should devolve upon the 
surviving heirs. In mulk land the succession is in accord- 
ance with the Sharia Law, it being provided, however, that 
the deceased may bequeath one third by will. Other lands 
devolve according to the Law of Inheritance of 1331. 
Succession fees vary from i^% to 5% on the market value 
of the property according to the degree of heirship. 

Partition. — Partition of land held in joint ownership may 
be effected by the consent of all the parties through the 
Land Registry Office. Where, however, the parties fail to 
agree as to the division, the matter is referred to the Magis- 
trate's Court. 


Lease. — ^AU leases for a period exceeding three years musi 
be registered in the Land Registry, and leases for a shortei 
period within a Municipal area with the Municipality. In 
cases in which leased land is being disposed of the Govern- 
ment may withhold its consent to the sale unless the tenant 
in possession has sufficient land elsewhere for the reasonable 
maintenance of himself and his family. 

Attachments. — The Courts may order the attachment of 
any registered land and may charge it with payment of any 
sum due under the judgment of the Court. This attach- 
ment is registered, and the debt represented by it takes 
priority over all other unregistered debts and obligations of 
the judgment debtor. 

Searches. — Intending purchasers, mortgage holders, judg- 
ment creditors or other persons having an interest in any 
land may apply for and obtain particulars of the registration 
of the land in which they are interested, and may, on 
payment, have copies of or extracts from all documents 
relating to that property. 

§ 9. Agriculture and Forestry. 

General. — Smaller than Belgium or Wales in habitable 
area, without visible coal, oil, timber or minerals of com- 
mercial value, Palestine at present depends to a large extent 
economically and fiscally upon its rural industries. For 
this purpose not more than two million hectares of land 
are available within its boundaries, and of this area only 
half a million are at present under perennial cultivation, as 
a result of heavy mortality among working cattle during 
the war and a subsequent collapse of agricultural credit. 
Primitive methods of farming and a very low standard of 
yields, coupled with a lack of crops of high intrinsic value, 
further limit agricultural revenue. 

Department of Agriculture. — The GovernmerTt Agricul- 
tural Department was constituted as an administrative unit 
in April, 1920, the Ottoman provincial service having 
disappeared completely during the war, leaving neither 


concrete nor docuihentary evidence of its official activities. 
The Department is responsible for the agricultural, veterin- 
ary, forestry, soil-survey and fisheries services. In addition 
to its normal duties, the agricultural field staff assists on 
demarcation commissions, tithe assessments, and inspec- 
tions of government loans ; while forest rangers act as tax 
collectors for several classes of revenue. The veterinary 
service provides treatment, drugs and farriery for all Govern- 
ment live stock, including gendarmerie and police animals, 
and inspects meat supplies, slaughter houses, markets and 
public stables. 

The Department assumes responsibility for research 
and education, and, in the absence of text-books of local 
application and teachers of local origin, land has been 
secured in the neighbourhood of departmental headquarters 
in the hope that it will be possible to establish, in due 
course, a school, laboratories, experiment farm and veterin- 
ary hospital, where a junior staff may be afforded practical 
courses of training, which in turn they can pass on to the 

To each District are appointed agricultural assistants, 
veterinary inspectors and forest rangers, who continuously 
tour the villages. Agricultural shows and ploughing 
demonstrations are organized by the Department. 

Preventive services also constitute an important part of 
the work of the field staff, which is responsible for animal 
quarantine on the borders and the isolation of infected 
stock in the interior ; inspection of plant imports and 
exports ; measures for the destruction of locusts, field-mice 
and rats ; and the demonstration of spraying and fumiga- 
tion methods. 

Land Development. — It may be assumed for all practical 
purposes that the total exploitable land surface in Palestine 
does not exceed ^^ million acres or, say, 1,820,000 hectares, 
of which 50% may be written off as uncultivable. Of these, 
the rainless desert to the south of Beersheba is, in point of 
area, the most important. The rocky, barren plateaux of 
Judaea and, in lesser degree, the denuded limestone hills 


of Samaria and Galilee, limit the productivity of the central 
districts ; while the coastal plain is margined on the sea- 
board by a regular alternation of sand-dune and swamp. 
The potential value of swamp areas and measures for their 
reclamation have been exhaustively examined, from the 
agricultural and medical standpoints, and effect has already 
been given to approved schemes. It is also hoped to afforest 
large expanses of sand-dunes on the coast. Considerable 
areas, amounting to some 300,000 hectares, of arable soil 
remain uncultivated. 

A sparse population living in economic isolation and 
employing very primitive methods naturally adopts a 
farming system based on bare fallowing. Land is cropped 
without manure until exhausted and then abandoned until 
a measure of fertility has been recovered. Increasing pres- 
sure of population, and the upward trend in the values of 
agricultural holdings and produce, the partition of common 
lands, improved communications and the practical demon- 
strations of better methods by new settlers are, however, 
having their effect. Manuring and a rotation of crops for 
the maintenance of fertility are becoming recognized 
practices, and, based on a system of mixed farming, should 
solve the problem of closer settlement and financial 

The average returns for the country at large of wheat, 
barley, lentils and black vetch [kersaneh), were less than a 
third in each case of corresponding Egyptian figures for 
1919-20. Thus, a hectare of wheat in Palestine produced 
on an average 593 kilos of grain, as compared with 1,793 
kilos harvested in Egypt. The reasons are primitive ^ 
methods of cultivation, weed-growth as an aftermath of ; 
war, lack of manure and chemical fertilizers, poor seed and 
unproductive varieties. That there is response to better 
cultivation and manuring has already been determined by 
a few progressive farmers. The settlers of a colony near 
Ludd harvested wheat crops ranging from 1,200 to 1,400 
kilos, and barley yielding from 1,800 to 2,700 kilos per 



The climate is characterized over the northern and 
central regions by a winter rainfall of rather more than 
600 mm. ; a rainless summer ameliorated by heavy dews 
and much humidity ; a relatively small range in mean 
temperature and an absence of killing frosts. The Jordan 
Valley enjoys a fairly regular rainfall of about 500 mm., 
the value of which is limited by an excessive mean summer 
temperature, lower humidity and smaller dew-fall. The 
south receives on an average between 400 and 300 mm. of 
rain, but suffers from prolonged periods of drought. 

Field crops, with few exceptions, are still sown by hand 
and hand-cleaned, cut with the sickle and trodden out by 
cattle on the village threshing-floor. 

The standard of dairy and beef cattle, woolled sheep, 
horses, mules and donkeys is not high. Protracted maturity 
and poor fattening qualities render the Arab steer an un- 
profitable subject for fattening and finishing. The sheep 
produce wool which is at present only fit for carpet making, 
and local horses and mules are few. Donkeys have had to 
be imported from Cyprus and Syria. 

Forestry. — Centuries of neglect and failure to apply the 
most elementary principles of forest management, wholesale 
fellings during the war, and deforestation in favour of meagre 
cereal crops, have produced dire results ; and, with the 
exception of a few artificial plantations, the remains of the 
natural forests have been destroyed and the greater part of 
the hill-country is entirely bare. 

As a consequence, measures have been taken to guard the 
forests against further destruction. 

In 1920 was passed an Ordinance, under which the rights 
of villagers to the products of the neighbouring forests have 
been clearly recognized ; firewood, timber for houses and 
ploughs, and the right of grazing on open land, have been 
allowed free of charge. In return, the villagers must assist 
to prevent and extinguish fires in the forests, and keep their 
animals away from places where young trees have been, and 
are being planted, or new growth is springing up from the 


At present it is forbidden to cut down oak and caroub 
trees ; and, where brushwood, Pistachia terebinthus , Rhus 
coriaria (sumac), etc., exists, it is being utihzed as fuel. 

The work of afforestation in Palestine will necessitate an 
enormous amount of labour. 

At Beit alrjemal, a village of Jerusalem, a large forest 
has been established on hills which have in the past been 
covered with the evergreen Kermes oak {Quercus coccifera). 
During the war these trees were cut down, but a second 
growth is now springing up from stool. A nursery for the 
propagation of trees has also been established at Beit 
al-Jemal. Measures are being taken to regenerate the 
forests in the Carmel mountains, as it has been observed 
that the oaks which compose these forests produce larger 
trees than the Kermes oak of the Hebron forests, and the 
timber is equal in quality to that of the Kermes oak. Many 
of the trees which have been cut down are producing new 
growth from the base, and, if the young shoots are pro- 
tected from goats, etc., the forest will soon re-establish 

Forest nurseries have been organized in Jerusalem, 
Hebron, Nablus, Acre and Nazareth. These places will be 
made the centres of distribution and forests established on 
the neighbouring hills. The nurseries will also serve for 
the propagation of fruit trees, such as olives, almonds, vines 
and other plants suited to the hill-country. In this con- 
nexion great importance is attached to the flood-bed of the 
Jordan River, 

At Beersheba considerable numbers of eucalyptus have 
been planted and are growing well. 

It is contemplated that in the future greater use will be 
made of Tamarix articulata, casuarina and wattles. Ar- 
rangements have already been made to plant wattles on the 
sand-dunes along the sea coast. 

The distribution and extent in hectares of the hill forests 
is as follows : 

Acre 25,000 ; Bethlehem 120 ; Haifa 6,450 ; Hebron 
4.945 ." Jerusalem 880 ; Jenin 9,000 ; Nablus 1,000 ; 


Nazareth 1,380 ; Ramallah 412 ; Safed 4,000 ; Tiberias 
350 ; Zummarin 8,700 : total, 62,237. 

Fruit Trees. — 

Olives. — The most important fruit-tree in the hill-country 
is the olive. Apart, however, from the destruction of olive 
trees during the war, it is evident that the development of 
the olive industry has been at a standstill for many years. 
The number of young trees is very small and the creation 
of a source of supply of young plants is imperative. 

Caroubs. — The caroub tree is not as extensively cultivated 
in Palestine as it might be. 

Almonds. — Although there is not such a wide market for 
the produce of almond trees as for that of the olive, the 
demand for the former is sufficiently great to justify a large 
increase in the cultivation of the tree in Palestine. Ex- 
cellent almond plantations exist at Ramleh, and almond 
trees are found throughout the hill-country. 

Grapes. — The cultivation of grapes for wine-making in 
the hinterland of Jaffa is carried on scientifically, and 
efforts are being encouraged for the cultivation of raisin 
grapes on the hillsides. 

Figs. — Fig trees are cultivated everywhere in Palestine. 
There are many varieties, but the most important one is 
a dark-coloured drying fig which is sold commonly in the 
local markets, but which is considered too dark in colour 
for the European markets. 

Oranges. — The farther development of the orange in- 
dustry depends upon the extension of irrigation facilities. 
The " Shamouti " orange is considered the best as an article 
of export. No other country produces this class of orange, 
so that there is no competition in European markets. The 
quality of this orange is good, and its thick skin enables 
it to travel without careful packing. 

Apart from oranges, citrous fruits are not largely culti- 
vated in Palestine. Italian lemons arc fairly common. 
Mandarines, grape-fruit and limes are rare. 

Apricots and Peaches. — The quality of the apricots grown 
in Palestine is good. The production of dried or otherwise 



iient. «| 

preserved fruits or kernels is capable of development 
Peaches are not extensively cultivated. 

Apples and Pears. — These fruits are found in gardens 
throughout the country, but the methods of cultivation 
call for great improvement. The produce is consumed 
locally, and it is not anticipated these fruits will assume 
any importance for exportation. 

Walnuts. — Walnuts grow very well and produce abun- 
dantly in Palestine, especially at Jenin. 

Chestnuts. — Chestnut trees are growing very slowly in 
Palestine on account of non-irrigation. 

Date Palms. — Date palms are cultivated along the coast 
as far north as Haifa. There is also a considerable number 
of palms at Jenin. The fruit produced at these places 
appears to be of a very inferior quality and badly ripened. 
The Jaffa dates are better. Steps are being taken to plant? 
palm trees at Beersheba and in the Jordan Valley. \ 

Bananas. — Scattered clumps of bananas are met with 
everywhere in gardens, and at Jaffa there is a plantation 
of the Canary banana. 

Vegetables. — The cultivation of vegetables in Palestine is 
carried on in a primitive manner, except at Beersheba and 
Gaza. Except as regards cabbages and cauliflowers, Pales- 
tine vegetables are of indifferent quality. 

Forest Species. — Palestine is the meeting ground of three 
continents, and exhibits such variety of soil, rainfall, climate, 
and physical conformation, from the coastal range and 
sand-dunes to the deep chasm of the Jordan Valley, that 
the singular richness and interest of its flora is not sur- 
prising, j 

The prevalent orders are Compositae, LeguminosaeA 
Gramineae, Lahiatae, Umhelliferae, Boragineae, Cruciferae. '■ 

(i) Species constituting high forest. — Quercus coccifera ; 
Quercus pseudococcifera ; Quercus aegilops ; Ceratonia 
siliqua ; Pistacia terebinthus ; Olea Europaea ; Pinus 
Halepensis ; Pinus pinea. 

(ii) Species constituting undergrowth. — Pistacia lentis- 
cy-s ; Pistacia mutica ; Rhus coriaria ; Styrax officinale ; , 


Arbutus unedo ; Arbutus Andrachne ; Rhamnus Palaestina ; 
Crataegus azarolus ; Crataegus monogyna ; Phillyrea media ; 
Lycium barbarum ; Laurus nobilis ; Cercis siliquastrum ; 
Myrtus communis ; Clematis cirrhoda ; Clematis flammula ; 
Clematis vitalba ; Paliurus aculeatus ; Calycotome villosa ; 
Genista sphacelata ; Cistus villosus ; Cistus salviaefolius. 

(iii) Tropical species found in the Jordan Valley. — 
Balanites Aegyptiaca ; Zizyphus vulgaris ; Zizyphus Spina- 
Christi ; Tamarix Jordanis ; Reaunuria Palaestina ; 
Populus Euphratica ; Populus alba; Salix Safsaf ; Salix 
alba ; Salix fragilis ; Salix triandra ; A cacia Seyal ; 
A cacia albida ; Osyris alba ; Prosopis spicigera ; Capparis 
spinosa ; Leptadenia pyrotechnica ; Glycyrrhiza echinata ; 
Calotropis procera ; Retama raetam ; Abutilon fruticosum ; 
A butilon muticum ; Periploca Graeca ; Cleome trinervia ; 
Cleome droserifolia ; A Ihagi Maurorum ; Lycium Euro- 
paeum ; A triplex Palaestinum ; A triplex leucocladum ; 
A triplex halimus ; Statice Thouini ; Statice limonium ; 
Statice spicata ; Zygophyllum dumosum ; Zygophyllum 
album ; Zygophyllum coccineum ; Boerhavia repens ; Cassia 
obovata ; lyidigojera argentea ; Moringa aptera ; Salvadora 
Persica ; Ephedra caynpylopoda ; Ephedra alte ; A nastatica 

(iv) Exotic species now sub-spontaneous. — Melia 
azedarach ; Acacia saligna ; Parkinsonia aculeata ; Robimia 
pseudoacacia ; Acacia Farnesiana ; Ailanthus glandulosa ; 
Cupressus sempervirens . 

(v) Sand-dune plants. — Ammophila arenaria ; Saccharum 
A egyptiacum ; A rtemisia monosperme ; Imperata cylyndrica ; 
Ononis matrix ; Eriantus Ravennae ; Scirpus holoschaenus ; 
Pancum rigidum ; Tamarix tetragyna. 

Collection of olives and extraction of oil. — The olive 
tree begins to blossom in April and the fruit to form in 
May. The olives are ripe and .collected in October and 
November. Children climb the trees, while the men beat 
the branches with heavy sticks and the women collect the 
fruit from the ground in bags or baskets. 


In consequence of this practice, the branches of the 
trees are always broken down, and the yield is reduced 
in the following year. The Bethlehemites, however, prune 
their trees to within reach of the ground. The pruned 
branches are used for feeding sheep during the period of 
scarce pasturage. The olives are then taken to the houses 
for pressing. Those who crush their olives early obtain a 
yield of good oil, which is known as zeit itfah (virgin oil) ; 
others, who delay the process, get an inferior product, 
which is suitable for soap-making only. A short crop 
and irregular supplies are often the cause of delay in 

The olives are brought down to the badd (press), which \ 
may or may not be in the same village. It is generally 
agreed to give the owner of the press about io% of the oil, 
as remuneration for the use of it. 

In construction the olive press consists of a vertical wheel 
of stone 125 cms. in diameter by 40 to 50 cms. in width, 
worked by a horse or mule. The olives are poured in, and 
the oil escapes at a point of exit for collection. The residue 
of the olives is put into baskets for crushing in an iron or 
oakwood twin-screw press till the bulk of the remaining oil 
has been extracted. The oil is stored in jars, and the olive 
waste, commonly known as jift, is used for fuel in bake- 

Stock. — The following is a census of animals in Palestine 
for 1920-21 : 

milch cows ----- 24,681 

ploughing oxen - - - _ 57,785 

calves ------ 26,034 

horses - - - - - - 6,548 

mules ------ 3,934 

donkeys - - - _ _ 32,689 

sheep ------ 205,967 

goats ------ 325,512 

buffaloes - " - - - - 615 

camels- - - - _ _ 8,846 




The number of animals imported into Palestine through 
the different Quarantine Stations in 1921 was : 

horses ------ 2,636 

mules ------ 5,943 

donkeys ----- 26,629 

sheep ------ 26,211 

goats ------ 13,954 

cattle - - - - - - 2,916 

pigs ------ 278 

camels 10,886 

The number of animals slaughtered in Palestine during 
192 1 was : 

bulls and bullocks - - - 5,603 

cows ------ 2,352 

buffaloes ----- 63 ' 

calves ------ 482 

sheep ------ 65,013 

goats ------ 34,613 

pigs ------ 259 

camels- - _ _ _ _ 152 

§ 10. Public Works and Harbours. 

The Department of Public Works is organized into five 
branches : constructional, electrical and mechanical, archi- 
tectural, stores, accounts. An Engineer is appointed to 
each Province. 

Boads. — Limestone of varying hardness is in general the 
only material available for road stone, except in parts of 
the Galilee District, where basalt is obtainable, but the high 
cost of carriage prevents its use in other parts of Palestine. 
Roads in the alluvial maritime plain are much more ex- 
pensive to construct and maintain than in the highlands 
owing to the cost of carriage of road metal. For a list of 
the principal roads cf. Part IV., § 3 [c). 

Bridges. — Few bridges of any length exist in Palestine. 
The largest bridge crossing the Jordan is the AUenby Bridge 


{cf. Part L, § 7) on the road from Jerusalem to al-Salt, an 
" Inglis Rectangular " girder bridge in three spans, 240 feet 
long. Masonry arch bridges exist at Jisr al-Damieh, Jisr 
Sheikh Husein, Jisr al-Mejamieh, Jisr Benat Yaqub, at 
al-Gajir across the Jordan and at Jisr Saghir across the 

Water-supply. — There is in process of materialization a 
water-supply scheme for Jerusalem which will bring into 
use for storage purposes the disused " Pools of Solomon," 
a few kilometres south of Bethlehem, whence water will be 
pumped via the existing gravity main to the existing gravity 
storage reservoirs in Jerusalem. This will double the piped 
water-supply of the city. The pumping machinery is that 
formerly installed at Romani for pumping water across the 
Sinai Peninsula in the Kantara-Palestine Pipe Line, and has 
been purchased from the Disposals Commission. 

The Government advances loans in aid of Village Water 
Supplies up to £E. 400, and the work is executed by the 
Public Works Department. 

Ports and Lights. — The coast of Palestine is a coast 
without harbours ; on the 140 miles of coast-line there are 
only three ports of any size, and all three are open road- 

Jaffa (Lat. 32° 3' N. ; t^ong. 34° 47' E.) is situated 
between a sea-wall on the N.E. side of the town and a 
fringe of low rocks. The entrance of the port is N. of these 
rocks, and there is also a passage between the rocks about 
2 1 cables from their northern end. The port consists of a 
Customs House and a jetty, and southward of the Customs 
House is a short wharf, where lighters land their cargoes in 
smooth water. In winter, owing to the absence of any 
protection, communication with the shore is often stopped 
for several consecutive days. 

The light at Jaffa consists of an alternating red and white 
light with a visibility of 30 miles, and is exhibited in the 
S.W. part of the town, 69 ft. above high water. A signal 
station exists at Jaffa, and signals are received and sent by 
day and night. 


Haifa (Lat. 32° 49' 8" N. ; Long. 35° o' o" E.) is a safe 
anchorage in summer in about 36 ft. of water with the end 
of the railway pier bearing 207° true. The pier is 425 yards 
long and runs in a N.E. direction from the town. The 
Customs House is situated at the shore end of this jetty. 
One 25-ton crane and another of 5 tons are provided by 
the Palestine Railways for working cargo. The Railways 
also provide electric light when necessary for night working. 

The Haifa town light is a red flash light every 3 seconds. 
It has a visibility of 6 miles, and is exhibited from a white 
mast surmounting a tower of the old castle. 

A temporary fixed white light with a range of 10 miles 
is exhibited on Mt. Carmel at 490 ft. above high water from 
a white stone tower a cable N.N.W. of the Carmelite Con- 
vent. There is a signal station at Haifa. 

Acre (Lat. 32° 55'.27''N. ; Long. 35° 4' 16" E.) is an 
ancient port with a small mole on the eastern side of the 
town. The harbour is shallow and gives shelter to small 
coasting craft only. 

There is an anchorage in 9-10 fathoms of water about 
one mile S.W. of the lighthouse and of Talbot reef, with 
the end of the west mole bearing 50° W. 

The Acre light is a fixed red light visible at 10 miles, and 
is shown from a white tower 33 ft. high on the rampart of 
Acre town at 51 ft. above high water. 

Gaza (Lat. 31° 30' o" N. ; Long. 34° 28' o" E.) is a small 
harbour, through which is exported wheat, barley and daH 
seed. There is a 7-fathom anchorage with sandy bottom, 
which is fairly safe between May and October. During 
other months, when westerly winds prevail, anchorage is 
not safe. The best months are August, September and the 
first twenty days in October. Anchorage bearings are two 
white domes of al-Nesleh about 118'' true, i| miles distant. 

In 1921, 422 steamers, of a total tonnage of 628,450, 
visited Jaffa ; of these 156 were British of 185,052 registered 
tonnage. 401 steamers, with a tonnage of 518,331, of whom 
163 were British, of 194,698 registered tonnage, visited 


Lesser Ports include al-Haram, al-Burj and Abu Zabura, 
which are approximately lo, 20 and 30 miles N. of Jaffa, 
are only used for the export of melons and wine, and during 
July and August are very busy. No protection exists at 
al-Haram and al-Burj, but Abu Zabura affords a fair shelter 
for small craft during bad weather. 

Caesarea (Lat. 32° 30' N. ; Long. 34° 53' E.), Tantura 
(Lat. 32° 26' 30'' N. ; Long. 34° 54' 50" E.) and Athlit (Lat. 
32° 42' N. ; Long. 34° 53' 30" E.) are ancient seaports whose 
ruins still exist. The first has a summer anchorage in about 
10 fathoms of water half a mile off the shore. There is a 
Customs officer at Tantura, and grain and melons pass 
through this port. These three ports have a small fishing 

Inland Waterways. — The inland waterways consist of 
Lake Huleh and Lake Tiberias in the north, and the Dead 
Sea in the south, all connected by the River Jordan {cf. 
Part I., § 2). 

There are 6 fishing boats on Lake Huleh, and 3 motor- 
boats and 37 sailing craft on Lake Tiberias. The motor- 
boats operate between Tiberias, Semakh and Tabgha. One 
steamer, 3 motor- boats and 14 sailing boats at present ply 
on the Dead Sea. 

§ II. Palestine Railways. 

Lines in operation. — In July, 1920, the Palestine Rail- 
way system was divided into 'three groups : 

(i) the standard gauge (4' SY) lines laid by the British 
Army and extending from Kantara on the Suez 
Canal across the Sinai Peninsula to the Palestine 
frontier at Rafa, and on to Haifa via Ludd ; 

(2) the Jerusalem- Jaffa Railway, belonging originally to 
a French Company {Chemin de fer de la Palestine), 
formerly of 3' 6" gauge, and converted to standard 
gauge by the British Army, with the exception of 
the line between Ludd and Jaffa, which had been 


torn up by the Turks and was relaid (by the Army) 

with 60 centimetre track ; ^ 

(3) the captured enemy lines consisting of those portions 

of the Hejaz Railway (3' 6") lying within Palestine. 

On the ist October, 1920, the railways within Palestine 

were transferred to the Civil Administration. The section 

Kantara-Rafa remained the property of the British Army, 

but an agreement was made whereby the Palestine Railways 

should act as agents for the War Office and control the line, 

sharing profits and losses equally. This Railway is called 

the Sinai Military Railway {cf. also Part IV.). 

The sections of line at present (1922) in operation by the 
Palestine Railways are : 

(i) Standard gauge (4' 8|") Kilometres. 

Kan tara-Ludd -Haifa - - - 415 

Rafa-Beersheba - - - - 60 

Jaffa-Jerusalem - - - - 88 

Ras al-Ain-Petach Tikvah - - 6^ 

(ii) Narrow gauge (3' 6") — 

Haifa-Semakh - - - - 87 

Haifa-Acre - - " - - - 22^ 

Afule-Nablus - - - - 78 

Mesudieh-Tulkeram - - - . 20 

Nasib-Ma'an (Hejaz Railway) - 323 

Total - 1,100 

The section of the Hejaz Railway between Nasib and 
Ma'an in Trans- jordania was re-opened by the Palestine 
Railways on the 15th June, 1921, since when two trains 
have run weekly between Haifa and Amman. The opening 
of this service entailed an agreement with the French 
authorities in respect of the section of the Hejaz Railway 
under trench control, viz. between al-Hammeh (beyond 
Semakh) and Nasib. 

* During August and September, 192 1, the section between Ludd and Jaffa was 
relaid with standard gauge by the Military Authorities at the request of the Civil 


Construction work. — During the period of military con- 
trol little expenditure had been incurred on upkeep, except 
that which was absolutely necessary to keep the line open 
and moderately safe for traffic. 

Station buildings and staff accommodation at outlying 
stations were scanty and improvised. Much new work, 
therefore, has been carried out since the transfer. This 
includes 38 new bridges, constructed of steel girders with 
masonry abutments and piers ; 160 kilometres of track 
between Rafa and Haifa have been ballasted with about 
250,000 cubic metres of ballast, and drains have been 
cleaned, cuts widened, and banks and ditches repaired ; 
eight new stations have been opened and a new platform 
and station building have been erected at Ludd. 

The approximate number of bridges of over 2 metres span 
is 129 ; of 2 metres span and under, 120 ; culverts, 140. 

The standard gauge line is equipped throughout with the 
electric staff instruments, and 36 instruments are being 
installed on the narrow gauge lines. 

The locomotive shops at Kantara are being dismantled 
for removal to Haifa, and the stores are being moved there 

Experiments have been made on the Rehoboth road with 
loco-tractors", and new branch lines laid to Beit Nabala 
quarry and Sarafend cantonments. 

Boiling stock. — A great deal of reconstruction was 
necessary for the rolling stock handed over by the Military 
authorities, and now, together with new purchases, the 
stock of standard gauge consists of six new 2-8-4 loco- 
motives of special type, capable of hauling 250 tons on the 
steep Ludd-Jerusalem line ; 50 American and 36 old English 
locomotives ; 58 passenger coaches and 1,880 wagons, 
together with 200 steel box-covered wagons, vacuum fitted. 
On the narrow gauge lines there are 31 locomotives, 24 
passenger vehicles and 135 wagons. 

Passenger Traffic. — The number of passengers carried in 
192 1 was 553,832 below the figure for 1920. This can be 
attributed, among other causes, to the large decrease in 


military traffic, the raising of the fares in November, 1920, 
and the large number of motors plying for hire. 
Below are given the figures for the two years : 


ist class - 




ist cla^ 


2nd class - 


2nd class 


3rd class - 


3rd class 


Total - 1,263,264 Total - 709,432 

The passenger fares in force at present are approximately 
100% over pre-war rates and are calculated throughout the 
system on the following basis : 

ist class - 12 milliemes per passenger per kilo. 
2nd class - 8 „ 
3rd class - 5 
The 3rd class fare is approximately twopence per mile. 
Goods Traffic. — The comparative figures for goods traffic 
are : 

1920. 1921. 

Merchandise 551,372 tons Merchandise 502,453 tons 
Live stock - 64,447 head Live stock - 39,211 head 
The rates are approximately 150% over pre-war rates, 
but are subject to tariff minima, and are classified under 
seven heads, as on English railways. It may be noted, 
however, that cereals, which form the bulk of the traffic, 
and oranges are carried at pre-war rates. 

There are special rates for wine, returned empties, animals 
by goods train, perishables by passenger train, melons and 

With two exceptions best Welsh steam coal has been used, 
the consumption pe» mile beijig 52-33 lbs. on the narrow 
gauge, and 63-33 lbs. on the standard gauge. 

During 192 1 the approximate coal consumption was : 
Narrow gauge - - - 7,048 tons 

Standard gauge - - 22,454 
Prices fluctuated considerably during 192 1, reaching the 
highest point of ;^E, 7,429 per ton in January, 1921, and the 


lowest, £E. 4,088, in December, 192 1. Coal is off-loaded at 

Organization. — The Palestine Railways maintain their 
own ttdiveWmg ghaffir force, and a higher standard of security 
against thefts is now. being maintained. 

Schools for apprentices in all mechanical trades and 
traffic staff have been opened in Haifa. The Traffic Station 
staff wear uniform. 

A Provisioning Department supplies, by means of travel- 
ling vans, food for the staffs working on all sections of the 
railway, and buffets for the travelling public have been 
opened at Semakh, Jerusalem, and Ludd under the same 
management. Railway headquarters are at Haifa. 

§ 12. Public Security. 

The Department of Public Security is divided into four 
branches : Police, Criminal Investigation, Gendarmerie and 
Prisons, under the supervision of the Director of Public 

{a) POLICE. 

The Palestine Police were first raised in January, 191 8, 
and consisted of one British officer and 340 other ranks. As 
the British Army advanced the strength of the Police in- 
creased, and at the conclusion of hostilities it consisted of 
about 45 Palestinian officers and 1,048 other ranks, of which 
480 were mounted. 

In 1920 a separate cadre of British officers was sanctioned, 
and at present the force consists of 16 British and 55 Pales- 
tinian officers, and 1,144 other ranks, of whom 395 are 

Arms and Training. — The Police ai^ armed throughout 
with 191 4 Lee-Enfield pattern rifles. 

A Training School was opened for both Officers and 
Constables in February, 1921, and as many recruits as 
possible undergo a course of three months' duration. There 
are separate classes for officers, and for men recommended 
for promotion. 


Duties. — The Police, besides fulfilling the ordinary duties 
of a constabulary, such as the preservation of law and order 
and the detection and prevention of crime, act, as far as 
their numbers will allow, as escorts for the protection of 
tax-collectors, serve summonses issued by the judicial 
authorities, distribute Government notices, and escort 
Governrnent treasure throughout the country. 

Police Stations. — 

Jerusalern District : Jerusalem — Ramallah — Bethlehem 
— Hebron — Jericho. 

Jaffa District : Jaffa — Ramleh — Tulkeram. 

Beersheba District : Beersheba. 

Gaza District : Gaza — Mejdel. 

Samaria District : Nablus — Jenin — Selfit. 

Phoenicia District : Haifa — Acre — Zichron Jacob. 

Galilee District : Nazareth — Tiberias — Safed — Beisan. 


Britisli Gendarmerie. — A force of British gendarmerie for 
service in Palestine was recruited in March, 1922, chiefly 
from among constabulary and auxiliaries who have served 
in Ireland. This force is entirely composed of infantry, 
and its strength is 49 officers and 701 other ranks. Its 
headquarters are at Bir Salem. 

Palestine Gendarmerie. — The Palestine Gendarmerie, 
which consists of cavalry, camelry and infantry units, was 
formed on the ist July, 1921. 

The enlistment of recruits is regulated so as to maintain 
a certain proportion amongst the various sects and religious 
creeds, which comprises Arabs, Jews, Circassians and Druses. 

The present strength of the Palestine Gendarmerie is as 
follows : 234 Arabs, 157 Jews, 72 Circassians and 27 Druses, 
of whom 250 are mounted on horses and 50 on camels, the 
remainder consisting of infantry. 


The Central Prison, Jerusalem, is at present housed in one 
of the hospices for Russian pilgrims, and has a holding 


capacity of 250. The Acre prison, when completed, will 
accommodate 350 convicts. There is a local prison at Jaffa 
for no prisoners. 

Two gaol labour companies are employed on making roads 
and railway cuttings. The following trades are taught to 
prisoners undergoing penal servitude : rug-weaving, boot- 
making, carpentry, tailoring, blacksmith's and tinsmith's 


The Criminal Investigation Branch is divided into four 
sections : records, special investigation, identification, and 


§ 13. Medical and Meteorological. 


Organization. — The Department of Health consists of the 
directorate (Jerusalem), divided into the following sections : 
(a) epidemic and health, {b) medical, (c) quarantine, relief 
and lunacy, (d) laboratory, {e) medical stores, (/) sanitary 

The District organization under Principal Medical Officers 
comprises : Medical Officers of Health in each District and 
Sub-District, Medical Officers of hospital, education, epi- 
demic, quarantine, and railway services, with a staff of 
pharmacists, nurses, quarantine and sanitary Sub- 
Inspectors, disinfectors, medical orderlies and guards. 

An ophthalmic and special surgical service controls a 
travelling ophthalmic hospital,, ophthalmic clinics, school 
ophthalmic treatment, and special surgical instruction in 
Government Hospitals. 

Government Hospitals. — Government hospitals for 
general patients, with infectious annexes, are established 
in Jerusalem, Jaffa, Haifa, Ramleh, Acre, Nablus, Tulkeram, 
Ramallah and Beersheba, and Government epidemic and 
casualty posts at Hebron, Gaza, Jenin, Nazareth, Tiberias, 
Safed, Beersheba, Mejdel and Jericho. 




A special children's chnic is held daily at the Jerusalem 
Hospital Annex. Railway employes' clinics are conducted 
at Haifa and Ludd. 

Voluntary Hospitals. — Palestine is richly endowed with 
voluntary hospitals, which are situated as follows : 

Jerusalem - British Ophthalmic Hospital (English 
Order of S. John of Jerusalem). 
S. Louis (French) Hospital. - 
Italian Hospital. 
Rothschild Hospital (A.Z.M.U. or 

Hadassa) . 
English Mission Hospital (London Jews' 

Society) . 
Shaare Zedek, \ 

Mizghab Ladach, 
Becur Cholim, 

Jewish Ophthalmic Hospital, 
Leper Hospital (International Moravian 
Society) . 
Bethlehem - French Hospital. 
Tantur Hospital. 
Hebron - United Free Church of Scotland. 
Jaffa - English Hospital (Church Missionary 

Society) . 
French Hospital. 
A.Z.M.U. Hospital. 
German Hospital. 
Gaza - - Church Missionary Society. 
Haifa - S. Luke's Hospital (Jerusalem and the 

East Mission). 
Italian Surgical Hospital. 
Nablus - Church Missionary Society. 
Nazareth - British Hospital (Edinburgh Mission). 
French Hospital (Sceurs de la Charite). 
Austrian Hospital. 
Tiberias - Scottish Mission Hospital. 

A.Z.M.U. Hospital. 
Safed - A.Z.M.U. Hospital. 


Attendances. — The total number of daily attendances 
for 1921 at Government dispensaries and clinics was 155,523, ■ 
of whom 4-4 were Jews, 1 48 Christians and 806 Moslems. 

Burials. — The time and conduct of interments are regu- 
lated by Public Health Ordinance No. i of 1918. Except 
in the case of death of a Jew after 4 p.m. on Sabbath eve, 
no burial may take place after sunset. For regulations of 
re-interment of dead bodies, see Public Health Ordinance 
No. 2. 

Public Establishments and Unhealthy Trades. — The 
Department controls by means of licences unhealthy trades • 
and industries {cf. Public Notice in Official Gazette No. 23), ^ 
and, in particular, those concerned with the preparation and • 
sale of food products, beverages and milk. 

Slaughter-houses are also subject to a licence. \ 

Disinfection. — On outbreaks of infectious diseases, dis- ;i 
infection is carried out gratuitously by the Department of I 
Health. Means of disinfection by steam exist in each 
District. Neglect to notify infectious diseases is punish- ; 
able [vide Public Health Ordinance No. i). 

Notifiable diseases are the following : anthrax, cerebro- j 
spinal meningitis, chicken-pox, cholera, dengue, diphtheria, 
dysentery, enteric fever (including paratyphoid fever), 
German measles, glanders, hydrophobia, leprosy, Malta 
fever, measles, mumps, plague, puerperal fever, relapsing ' 
fever, scarlet fever or scarlatina, small-pox, tubercle of lung, i 
typhus, whooping cough, diarrhoea, erysipelas, pneumonia, 1 
influenza, and malaria (including blackwater fever) . I 

Rabies. — Owing to the considerable incidence of rabies j 
amongst dogs, jackals and wolves throughout Palestine, | 
poisoning of dogs is carried out on a large scale. Free | 
anti-rabic treatment is granted at Government expense to ''• 
the poor at the Pasteur Institute in Jerusalem, and a system 
of treatment by carbolized emulsions is being instituted in : 
the Districts. 

The number of animals killed in anti-rabic measures 
during 1921 was 2,818. 

Vaccination and Inoculation. — Vaccination of infants 


against small-pox is compulsory within three months of 
birth ; failure to be vaccinated entails penalties under 
Public Health Ordinance No. i. 

Anti- malarial Measures. — The Department conducts a 
vigorous anti-malarial campaign by means of destruction of 
mosquitoes, inhibition of mosquito breeding, medical treat- 
ment of infected persons, drainage and reclamation of swamp 
areas, etc. 

Quinine for prophylactic use is on sale at all Post Offices, 
in Palestine, and in the villages quinine solution is dis- 
tributed by the Department free of charge. 

Training in First Aid — Courses in first aid are con- 
ducted by Medical Officers ; they are officially recognized 
by the S. John's Ambulance Association. Successful can- 
didates are awarded the certificate and badge of the 

School Medical Service. — A special School Medical 
Service is organized to train school teachers in hygiene, to 
vaccinate pupils, to treat children affected with the eye 
disease, malaria, and vermin, to advise parents on child 
welfare, and to control infectious disease in schools. This ■ 
service operates special clinics for the treatment of trachoma 
in the larger schools. 

School for Midwives. — A School for Mid wives is estab- 
lished in the Government Children's Hospital, Jerusalem. 

Laboratory Section. — The Laboratory Section of the 
Department comprises bacteriological, entomological and 
chemical branches ; while smaller clinical laboratories are 
attached to the larger hospitals for simple routine bacterio- 
logical examinations, and milk and water tests. 

Quarantine. — The Quarantine Service of Palestine las 
been established in accordance with the International 
Sanitary Convention of Paris, 1920. Medical observation 
of travellers arriving in the country by sea or land (Kantara) 
is carried out for a period of five days after their arrival, in 
general at their destinations, but where circumstances 
demand travellers may be detained and isolated in a Quar- 
antine lazaret for the period of observation. 


Travellers, whose isolation and detention is not necessary, 
are required to report the state of their health on the ist, 
3rd and 5th days after their arrival. Failure to report is 
punishable by imprisonment or a fine. 

There are Quarantine offices at Jaffa, Haifa, Acre, and 
Gaza, and Quarantine lazarets in Haifa and Jaffa. 

The Department undertakes each year the arrange'ments 
for the Pilgrimage to Mecca. All Palestinian pilgrims leave 
and return to the country as one party, and a Medical 
Officer of Health accompanies them on their journey. 

Relief. — Two orphanages are supported by Government 
funds, and only children who are under 12 years of age and 
who have lost both parents are considered as candidates 
for admission. In addition the Government places at the 
disposal of Governors a sum of money for cases of urgent 
distress which are brought to their notice. 

Registration of Medical Practitioners, etc. — The De- 
partment conducts the registration of medical practitioners, 
dentists, midwives and chemists, and grants licences for 
practising in Palestine. 

Registration of Births and Deaths. — The Department, 
through its District offices, carries out the registration of 
births and deaths, and issues certificates on payment of a 
-small fee {cf. Public Health Ordinance No. 3). 


Climate. — The climate of Palestine is healthy and is 
characterized not only by the extreme annual range of the 
thermometer, but also by considerable variations of tem- 
perature within the limits of a single day, amounting in 
Jerusalem to 23° in summer, 14-5° in winter. On the hills 
east of the Jordan, in the winter months the thermometer 
sometimes falls below 32° in the night, rising again to 
77° Fahr. 

In Jerusalem snow is not an infrequent sight in winter, 
although it melts quickly. In February, 1920, there was 
the heaviest recorded fall of snow for 50 years, and the city 
was cut off for some days. 



Jerusalem and the hills are very cold in December, 
January, February and March, owing to the somewhat 
heavy rainfall accompanied by cold winds ; the maritime 
plain is considerably warmer. 

The summer heat of the maritime plain is higher than 
that of the mountains, but is tempered by the cool sea- 
breezes, which also bring daily relief to Jerusalem. 

In the winter months clothes suitable for a cold English 
winter — tweeds, thick overcoats, etc. — are required ; in the 
summer, white ducks and helmets are desirable, but warmer 
clothing should be worn in the hills at sun-down. 

Meteorological. — The following tables give the mean tem- 
perature of Jerusalem throughout the year : 





January _ _ _ 

46° Fahr. 


February _ _ _ 

49° , 


March - - - - 

51° . 


April - - - - 

60° , 


May - - - - 

65° . 


June - - - - 

71° > 


July - - - - 

74° , 


August - - - - 

74° , 


September _ _ - 

71° , 


October - 

66° , 


November _ _ _ 

56° , 


December _ _ _ 

48° , 


The highest observed temperature is 112° in August, 1881, 
and the lowest 25° in March, 1920. 

Rainfall. — Palestine has practically two seasons only, a 
dry hot summer and a rainy winter. There are three dis- 
tinct climatic zones : the maritime plain, the central range 
of mountains, and the tropical Jordan valley. The spring 
lasts from the beginning of March to the end of May, when 
the hot season commences. From the middle of May to 

L.P. O 



the end of October the sky is almost uninterruptedly 

The average yearly rainfall is 26 inches. 

Winds. — The prevailing winds are as follows : 

March - 
April - 
May - 
June - 
July - 

sou th-sou th- wes t . 




The khamsin (scirocco), from the south-east, usually sets 
in in May before the hot season, and sometimes blows for 
several days without intermission, the thermometer rising 
rapidly to 104° Fahr. 

§ 14. Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones. 


Turkish Organization. — Prior to the British Occupation 
of Palestine, Posts and Telegraphs were administered by 
two separate Departments. 

The postal service was, however, so unreliable that certain 
of the European Powers maintained their own services 
between Europe and various towns in Palestine. All foreign 
mails were landed at and despatched from Jaffa, but the 
Turkish Post Office was the only one allowed to use the 
railway to Jerusalem, and the mails of other nationalities 
had to be conveyed by road. 

There was no public telephone service during the Turkish 


Present Organization. — Posts, Telegraphs and Telephoner, 
are now under one Department, the organization of which 
is based on that of the British Post Ofhce. 

Postal Services. — 

(a) Inland : Despatches are exchanged daily, in some 
cases twice daily, between all the principal towns. 

(/3) Foreign : Despatches are exchanged daily (Sundays 
excepted) between Palestine and Egypt, and thrice weekly 
by rail, supplemented by steamer when available, between 
Palestine and Syria. Despatches for the United Kingdom 
are forwarded by the weekly P. and O. mail steamer from 
Port-Said and by all intermediate steamers leaving Port- 
Said or Alexandria. There are at least two, generally more, 
despatches per week between Palestine and Europe. 

A travelling Post Office, fully equipped with sorting 
accommodation, etc., runs daily (Sundays excepted), in 
each direction between Kantara and Haifa. 



Rates of Postage and Limits of Size and Weight. - 

(i) Inland : 


Limits of size. 

Limits of 

Letters, not exceed- 

ing 20 gms. 


60 cm. in length 

2 kilos. 

Each additional 

20 gms. or 


part thereof - 


30 cm. in width 
or depth. 


Post Cards (single) - 


Minimum 10 cm. 
in length, 7 
cm. in width. 
Maximum 14 
cm. in length, 
9 cm. in width. 


Newspapers, per 



Same as letters 

I kilo. 

Printed papers, each 

50 gms. or part 

thereof - 


Same as letters 

I kilo. 

Commercial papers. 

each 50 gms. or 

part thereof - 


Same as letters 

I kilo. 

Samples, each 50 


gms. or part 


thereof - 


Same as letters 

2 kilos. 

Blind literature, 

each 500 gms. - 


Same as letters 

3 kilos. 

Parcels, not ex- 

Greatest length 

ceeding I kilo - 


I metre. 

Exceeding i kilo 

but not ex- 

Greatest length 

5 kilos. 

ceeding 3 kilos 



and girth com- 

Exceeding 3 kilos 

bined — 2 

but not ex- 


ceeding 5 kilos 




(2) Foreign : 

(All countries except Trans- jordania.) 


' Liniiis of size. 

Limits of 

Letters, not ex- 
ceeding 20 gms. 
Each additional 


British Empire 
Countries, 60 

2 kilos. 

20 gms. or part 
thereof - 


cm. in length 
by 45 cm. in 
width or depth. 
Other Coun- 
tries — 45 cm. 
in any direc- 
tion. Letters 
in form of a 
roll — 75 cm. 
X 10 cm. in 

Post Cards (single) - 

Newspapers and 

other printed 

matter, each 50 


Same as Inland. 

gms. or part 
thereof - 


Same as for 

2 kilos. 1 

Commercial papers : 
Not exceeding 

250 gms. 
Each additional 



2 kilos. 

50 gms. or part 
thereof - 


Samples : 

Not exceeding 
100 gms. 


British Empire 

2 kilos. 

^Exceptionally, printtd volumes for any destination sent singly may weigh as 
much as 3 kilo?. 


(2) Foreign — continued. 


Limits of size. 

Limits of 

Each additional 

Countries and 

50 gms. or part 

Non - Union 

thereof - 


Countries 60 
cm. in length, 
30 cm. in 
width ordepth. 

Other Coun- 


tries 30 cm. 


in length, 20 

cm. in width. 

10 cm. in 


depth, unless 


in form of a 


roll, for which 


limits are 30 


and 15 cm. 


Literature for the 

Same [as for 

3 kilos. 


printed papers. 


Each 500 grammes 


or part thereof 



Not excee 



Ik. 3k. 

5 k. 





Parcels : 

Egypt 10 10 

10 ^ 

Sudan 12 12 


India 18 18 




Same as Inland 

Same as 

Kingdom 12^ 17 



States of 


America i8| 283 



(3) Trans-jordania : 

Limits of size. 

Limits of 

Letters and other postal 

matter except parcels : 
Parcels : Not exceeding 

I k. 3 k. 5 k. 

PT. PT. PT. 


Same as Inland 

Postage rates and conditions of accept^ce of parcels for 
other countries can be obtained on application at any Post 

(4) Air Mail Service — Fortnightly : 
Mesopotamia (Mraq) only. 

Postal matter of all kinds, except parcels, is accepted. 
Postage rate is the usual foreign rate for the class of 
matter despatched, plus a special fee of 25 milliemes for 
every 20 grammes or part of 20 grammes. 

Correspondence should be clearly addressed in bold Latin 
characters and endorsed " By Air Mail " in the upper 
left-hand corner. 

Dates of departure can be ascertained at any Post Office. 
Money and Postal Orders. — Inland and Foreign money 
orders are issued and paid at all Post Offices. 

The maximum amount of any one order is £E,. 40, but 
for some foreign countries it is less. Particulars can be 
obtained on application at any Post Office. 
The rates of commission charged are as follows : 
Inland Orders : 

Not exceeding _ _ _ 
Exceeding £E,. i but not ex- 
ceeding - - - _ 
Exceeding £E. 5 but not ex- 
ceeding - - - _ 
For each additional £liL. 10 

up to - - - - ;/;E. 14 - 2 PT 


I - 



5 ■ 

- 3PT. 


10 - 

- 4PT. 


Foreign Orders : 

One per cent, of the amount of the order, fractions of a 
pound being reckoned as a pound. 

Telegraph Money Orders {Inland Service only) : " 

Money may be transmitted by telegraph from any Post 
Office which is a despatching office for telegrams, arid may 
be made payable at any Post Office in Palestine which 
effects the delivery of telegrams. 

An advice of payment of any Money Order may be 
obtained on payment of an additional fee of 13 milliemes. 

British Postal Orders : These are issued and paid at all 
post offices in Pafestine. The denominations available are 
of 6d., I/-, 1/6, 2/-, 2/6, 3/-, 3/6, 4/-. 4/6, 5/-, 6/-. 7/-, 8/-, 
9/-, 10/-, 12/6, 15/-, 17/6, 20/. 

Palestine Postal Orders : Palestine Postal Orders pay- 
able in Palestine only, are issued in all multiples of 5 piastres 
from 5 PT. to 100 PT. 

Registration. — All kinds of correspondence and parcels 
may be registered for the Inland Service, and all, except 
parcels, for the Foreign Service. 

The fee for registration is 13 milliemes ; an acknowledg- 
ment of receipt may be obtained on payment of an addi- 
tional fee of 13 milliemes. 

Insurance of Letters and Parcels (Inland Service only). 
— Letters and parcels posted in Palestine for addresses in 
Palestine can be insured, subject to the regulations, which 
may be seen on application at any Post Office. 

The sums payable for insurance, including registration 
but not postage, are as follows : 

Insurance Fee. Limit of Compensation. 

PT. £K. 

2 10 

3 20 

4 30 

5 40 

List of Post Offices. — Acre, Beersheba, Ber Yacob, 
Bethlehem, Gaza, Haifa, Hebron, Hedera, Jaffa, Jaffa 
(Ajami) B.O., Jenin, Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Mea Shearim) 



B.O., Ludd Junction, Ludd village, Mejdel, Nablus, Naza- 
reth, Petach Tikvah, Ramallah, Ramleh, Rehoboth, 
Rishon-le-Zion, Roshpinah, Safed, Sarafend, Semakh, 
Tel Aviv, Tiberias, Tulkeram, Zichron Jacob. 

In general the hours of public business at sub-offices are 
from 8 a.m. to i p.m. and 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. from Monday to 
Friday, and from 8 a.m. to i p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. 
Hedera, Mea Shearim, Petach Tikvah, Rehoboth, Rishon-le- 
Zion, Tel Aviv and Zichron Jacob are closed on Saturdays. 
All the above offices issue and pay Money Orders and 
accept and deliver telegrams, with the exception that 
telegrams are not accepted or delivered at Mea Shearim 
and Ludd village. 

At Haifa, Jaffa and Jerusalem the following special 
facilities exist : 

Haifa and Jaffa - Letters registered up to. 6 p.m. Monday 
to Friday, and i p.m. on Saturday and 
. Sunday. Postage stamps sold, Poste 
Restante correspondence delivered, and 
telegrams accepted and delivered 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m. daily. 
Jerusalem - Letters registered up to 6 p.m. Monday 

to Friday, and i p.m. on Saturday and 
Sunday. Postage stamps sold and 
Poste Restante correspondence de- 
livered 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. daily ; tele- 
grams delivered up to 9 p.m. and 
accepted at all hours of the day and 
Postage Stamps. — The following postage stamps are 
issued by the Palestine Post Office : 

I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 13 milliemes, and i, 2, 5, 9, 10 
and 20 piastres. 


First Issue. — At an early date during the Military occu- 
pation of Southern Palestine permission was granted to the 



civilian population for the transmission of postal matter 
through the Army post of&ces. 

A special series of stamps was designed and executed by 
the Typographic Department of the Survey of Egypt, Cairo. 
The paper was the same as the contemporary stamps of 
Great Britain, being watermarked with the Crown and 
Royal Cipher in horizontal rows. 

The design consists of an upright rectangle of solid colour, 
in the centre of which are the words " Postage Paid," 
enclosed in two white tablets above and below an Arabic 
inscription of the same meaning. The initials E.E.F. 
(Egyptian Expeditionary Force) were placed across the 
head and foot of the stamp, and the value in English and 
Arabic on either side. 

The printing was done by the modern typographic pro- 
cess. As no perforating machine was available a rouletting 
apparatus was used. This issue of stamps was not placed 
on sale in the ordinary manner ; the stamps were affixed 
by the postal authorities themselves. This postal service 
was carried on by 15 post offices. 

Error. In the 5 millieme surcharge in the earlier sheet 
issued on the loth stamp of the first row th6 word 


loth Feb., igi8 - 

I piastre 

dark indigo 

Control No. ] 


A. 18 

Number issued 


i6th Feb., 1918 - 

5 mills, on 

blue rouletted. 

I piastre 


B. 18 A. , 

Number issued 


5th March, 191 8 - 

5 mills, on 

blue rouletted. 

I piastre 


C. 18 B. 

Number issued 


5th March, 19 18 - 

I piastre 

blue rouletted. 


C. 18 

Number issued 


13th May, 1918 - 

5 mills. 

blue gummed 

D. 18.C. 

Number issued 



Second Issue. — On the i6th July, 191 8, a second series 
of values was issued. The stamps were of the same design 
as before and were printed by Messrs. Harrison & Sons, in 
England, and perforated 15 x 14, the watermark being the 
Crown and Royal Cipher. 

Date of issue. 

1 millieme 

2 mills. - 

3 mills. - 

4 mills. - 

5 mills. - 

1 piastre 

2 piastres 
5 piastres 
9 piastres 

10 piastres 
20 piastres 

i6th July, 1918 

17th Dec, 1918 
i6th July, 1918 
25th Sept., 191 8 
9th Nov., 1918 
i6th July, 1918 

17th Dec., 1918 

27th Dec, 1918 



reddish brown. 



blue black. 


lilac red. 


light blue. 


Shades : All values can be found in varying degrees of 
shade, notably tne one, two and three milliemes. 

Errors and plate varieties : 

One millieme 

Two milliemes 

No. 124 : no stop after second 
" E" at foot ; 

b) No. 3 : dot on final " E" in 

millieme ; 

c) No. 91 : two dots over first Arabic 

letter in centre. 

a) Nos. 34 and 130 : TWQ ; 

b) No. 214 : spider's web variety in 

Arabic centre ; 

c) No. 3 : comma for first stop in 

upper panel ; 

d) Nos. 118 and 191 : AI joined in 


e) Nos. 49 and 145 : stroke through 

" E" in lower panel. 



One piastre 

Four milliemes - {a) Nos. iii and 207: Arabic "O" 

added in upper right corner ; 

b) No. 229 : no dot after second " E " 
in upper label ; 

c) No. 68 : no dot after first " E " in 
upper label ; 

d) No. 8 : broken " A " at upper 

a) No. 215 : large Arabic " i " in 
upper corner ; 

b) No. 229 : no dot after first " E " 
in lower label ; 

c) No. 121 : no dot after first " E " 
in upper label ; 

d) No. 122 : no dot after second " E " 
in upper label ; 

e) Nos. 230 and 231 : no dot after 
second " E " in lower label. 

No. 200 : last Arabic character 
" U " for " O " ; 

b) No. 54 : no stop after second " E " 
at foot ; 

c) Nos. 56, 65, 90, 91, 92 : - no stop 
after first " E " at foot ; 

d) No. 66 : no stop after first and 
second " E " at foot ; 

e) No. 41 : heel to Arabic character 
in centre. 

stroke over Arabic character in 
centre ; 
b) short upper limb of letter " F." 
missing " o " of 10 in lower value. 
No. 2 : two dots over the first " E " 
in lower panel. 

I piastre shows an inverted watermark. 
1920. — The current issue was over- 
printed in Arabic, English and Hebrew at the commence- 

Two piastres 

Five piastres 

Ten piastres 
Twenty piastres - 

Watermark error 
1st September, 


ment of the Civil Administration. The Orthodox Patri- 
archate Press in Jerusalem obtained the contract, and the 
lower values, up to i piastre, were affixed by the Post Office 
officials so as to restrict the sale in large numbers. Towards 
the end of September, 1920, this order was withdrawn. 

The trilingual overprint was in three lines, Arabic above, 
English in the centre and Hebrew below the Arabic ; the 
overprint measures 8 mms. A silver powder was used for 
the I piastre overprint. 

Perforation 15 x 14 - - all values. 

Perforation 14x14 - - 2 mills., 3 mills., 5 mills. 

This perforation was done at Somerset House owing to 
the breakdown of the 15 x 14 machine. During the first 
three weeks of September most of the local letters in Jeru- 
salem, Haifa and Jaffa were franked by a circular hand- 
stamp only with the name of town and value inscribed, 
printed in a reddish ink. 

The error in the series is 3 mills, inverted. The overprint 
errors and varieties are principally : 

(a) overprinted inverted three milliemes (only one sheet 

known) ; 
{b) two lines only, Arabic and English ; 
(c) four lines ; 
{(l) various degrees of heavy and light printing. 

December, 1920. — A new overprint block was made, the 
Arabic overprint measuring 10 mm. and the English and 
Arabic letters being more clearly printed. 

Perforation 15 x 14 - all values. 

Perforation 14x14 - 1,2,4,5, i piastre, 5 piastres. 

There are two settings of this overprint, the second setting 
being made in January, 1921, and differing from the first 
by the spacing between the Hebrew and English being 
longer. Only the three and five milliemes have so far been 

20th September, 1921. — The overprinting was trans- 
ferred to Messrs. Harrison & Sons, England, and a different 


type of letters adopted, the essential differences being the 
sans-serf English printing in the centre line and the small 
Arabic overprint. The whole printing is much clearer than 

The colour of the i piastre stamp is changed from a dark 
blue to an " electric blue " colour, so as to avoid using the 
silver overprint as before. 

All values have appeared with this London overprint. 

August, 1922.— 

Denomination. Colour. 

1 millieme - - - - brown. 

2 milliemes - - - - pale yellow. 

3 ,, - _ - - blue green. 

4 ,, - - - - pink. 

5 ,, - - - - orange. 

6 ,, - - - - light green. 

7 ,, - - - - light chocolate. 

8 „ - - - - red. 

13 ,, - - - - dark blue. 

1 piastre - - - - slate gray. 

2 piastres - - - - olive. 
5 „ - - - - purple. 

9 ,, - - - - bistre. 
10 ,, - - - - cobalt blue. 
20 ,, - - - - mauve. 

Trans-jordania. — In October, 1920, the current issue of 
Palestine stamps was overprinted in Arabic in one line 
across the centre of the stamp with the words " Shark 
al-'Urdan," signifying ' East of Jordan.' 

Perforations : 15 x 14 - i mill., 2 mills., 3 mills., 

4 mills., 5 mills., 2 piastres, 

5 piastres. 
Perforations : 14 x 14 - all values to 20 piastres. 


The telegraphs and telephones of Palestine are operated 
by the Government. The length of the main route wires 


is 11,179 kilometres ; of local route wires, 1,656 kilometres. 
There is telegraphic communication between all the larger 
towns, an'd direct circuits exist between Jerusalem, Cairo 
and Beirut. 

Wireless communication with the United Kingdom and 
ships at sea is provided via Egypt. 

Palestine has an extensive telephone service (for rates of 
installation, see the Telephone Directory), and the number 
of instruments in use exceeds 1300. 

Telegraph Rates. — 

(a) Inland : 5 PT. for the first ten words and i PT. for 
each additional two words or part thereof. 

(6) Foreign : 
Egypt and Syria - 8 PT. for the first eight words ; 
'2 PT. for each additional two 
words or part thereof. 
United Kingdom (by Ordinary — 53 milliemes per word ; 
cable from Egypt) Deferred — 27 milliemes per word. 

Urgent — triple ordinary rates. 
United Kingdom (by Ordinary — 41 milliemes per word ; 
wireless from Egypt) Deferred — 21 milliemes per word. 
Other Countries - Rates may be had on application at 
any Telegraph Office. 
Government Telegrams are accepted 
at half the ordinary rate. De- 
ferred rate tel-egrams must be in 
plain language. 

(c) Radio-telegrams to ships, etc. : Rates may be had on 
application at any Telegram Office. 

Telephones. — Trunk lines connect all the principal towns 
and villages of Palestine, and public call offices exist at all 
post offices and at Jericho. 

The scale of trunk call charges can be seen at any post 

No person is entitled to use a trunk line continuously for 
more than six minutes. 


§15. Municipalities. 


There are twenty-two municipalities in Palestine, namely. 
Acre, Beersheba, Beisan, Beit-Jala, Bethlehem, Gaza, Haifa, 
Hebron, Jerusalem, Jaffa, Jenin, Khan Yunis, Ludd, Mejdel, 
Nazareth, Nablus, Ramallah, Ramleh, Safed, Shefa 'Amr, 
Tiberias and Tulkeram. 

The municipal councils possess extensive powers as regards 
local taxation, but, as with the State system of taxation, 
there is a multiplicity of small and often oppressive taxes 
and fees, which in the aggregate yield a small return. A 
Commission sat from November, 1920, to review the sources 
of municipal revenue and the methods of collection, and to 
report what changes were desirable. The Commission's 
recommendations are being introduced gradually as circum- 
stances appear desirable. 

The municipalities are entirely responsible for their own 
finances, subject to the approval of their budget by the 
Governor of the District. They cannot levy any new con- 
tribution without legislative sanction. 

Ottoman Municipal Tax Law of 1915. — Under the 
provisions of the Ottoman Municipal Tax Law of 1915, 
Municipalities may impost taxes on 

(i) immovable property, including an addition to the 
State werko tax on buildings ; on the ground space of new 
buildings leviable once only ; on premises utilized for dis- 
pensing alcoholic beverages, at the rate of 5% of the rental 
value ; on places of entertainment, etc. ; and 

(ii) on movable property, including a tax of 2^% on 
auction sales ; a fixed tax per kilogram on inflammable 
liquids ; an ad valorem tax of 2|% on all animal sales ; a 
tax on road transport ; a kantar tax, and various fees, such 
as fees for slaughtering and on advertisements, etc. 

Other Ottoman decrees authorize the collection of a fee 
on leases registered at the office of the Municipality ; a tax 
on betterment values, etc. 

Changes introduced by the Military Administra- 
tion. — The British Military Administration introduced two ^ 


important innovations, which were based upon the provisions 
of the Ottoman Law of 1915, namely, a general house rate 
to replace the additional percentage made to the State 
werko tax, and an octroi duty. The house rate is levied upon 
the rental value of all building property, including the value 
of the site. It replaces the percentage added to the werko 
tax, and certain rates separately levied for street watering, 
lighting and scavenging. The maximum rate at which the 
tax can be levied is 'j\% of the rental value. 

The institution of an octroi duty was intended primarily 
to find means of revenue for the increasing financial needs 
of municipalities. 

Side by side with the octroi duty, which was levied on all 
the articles, foreign or otherwise, at the rate of 1% ad 
valorem, there existed a kantar tax, which is an Ottoman 
tax on articles and produce, imposed generally on cereals, 
levied on the basis of weight. On the recommendation of 
the Municipal Tax Commission, octroi duty, kantar tax and 
the tax on inflammable liquids were abolished, and were 
replaced by the Foreign Additional Imports Duty {cf. 
Part v., §4). 

Road Transport Ordinance, 1921. — The Commission on 
Municipalities recommended that the law in regard to the 
licensing and regulation of road transport should be revised 
and an amended scale of taxation introduced, and State and 
Municipal Taxes be amalgamated as the position was com- 
plicated and confused by a number of different enactments. 
75% of the receipts collected witt^n Municipal areas are 
allocated to Municipalities. 

Licensing of Sea Craft. — The Ottoman Municipal Tax 
Law included a licensing fee chargeable upon all vessels 
plying between Turkish ports, or on inland seas, lakes and 

The Port Dues Ordinance, 1921, provides that this and 
other port duties shall be collected by the Government, and 
that half the receipts accruing from the registration of 
Palestinian vessels shall be credited to the municipalities in 
whose area the fees are collected. 

L.P. p 



Municipal Receipts and Expenditure. — The receipts and 
expenditure of the principal municipaHties in 1920-21 were 
as follows : 




Acre - 

_ ' _ 



















Jerusalem - 




















Nazareth - 

. _ 



Nablus - 








Tiberias - 




Tulkeram - 

, - 



Local Councils. — The Local Councils Ordinance, 1921, 
enables the High Commissioner on the recommendation of 
the Governor to grant to villages the power of forming a 
local council, which will be able to impose certain taxes 
and exercise some of the rights of local government. As 
regards quarters and suburbs within a municipal area, the 
Ordinance provides for the constitution of a local council 
which will be subordinate to the Municipality. 

§ 16. Parliamentary Papers. 

The following is a list of Parliamentary Papers relating 
to Palestine : 

1921. Cmd. 1 176. Draft Mandates for Mesopotamia 
and Palestine. 


1 92 1. Cmd. 1 1 95. Franco- British Convention of De- 

cember 23, 1920, on certain 
points connected with the Man- 
dates for Syria and the Lebanon, 
Palestine and Mesopotamia. 

Cmd. 1499. Interim Report on the Civil Ad- 
ministration of Palestine, ist 
July, i92o-3oth June, 1921. 

Cmd. 1500. Final Drafts of the Mandates for 
Mesopotamia and Palestine. 

Cmd. 1540. Reports of the Commission of 
Inquiry with correspondence 
relating to the disturbances in 
Palestine in May, 1921. 

1922. Cmd. 1700. Correspondence with the Palestine 

Arab Delegation and the Zionist 
,, Cmd. 1708. Mandate for Palestine : Letter to 
the Secretary-General of the 
League of Nations. 

§ 17. Trans- j or dania. 

Thd territory of Trans-j ordania, which is included in the 
area of the Palestine Mandate and is administratively linked 
with Palestine through the High Commissioner, is bounded 
on the north by the French sphere of Syria, on the west by 
the Jordan and the Dead Sea, on the south by the territory 
of the Hejaz ; its eastern boundary is undefined. Its 
population is approximately 350,000, Moslem and Christian, 
consisting partly of settled townspeople and agriculturists, 
partly of semi-nomadic and nomadic Beduin. Its capital 
is Amman, and other principal towns are al-Salt, Kerak, 
Madaba, Irbid and Jerash. 

When Palestine was occupied by the British military 
administration, 'Trans-jordania was included within the 
sphere of the Arab administration of Damascus, then under 
the Emir Feisal, now King of 'Iraq. After the withdrawal 


of the latter from Damascus in July, 1920, the High Com- 
missioner for Palestine proceeded, in August of that year, 
to al-Salt and announced to an assembly of notables and 
sheikhs that His Majesty's Government favoured the estab- 
lishment of a system of local self-government, assisted by 
a few British officers as advisers. 

Local councils, independent of one another, were accord- 
ingly formed, and British officers were appointed to advise 
the councils and to assist in the organization of a gendar- 
merie. Owing, however, to the lack of cohesion between 
the several districts of Trans-jordania, and to the limited 
authority which the local councils enjoyed, this administra- 
tion was not entirely successful, and was unable satisfactorily 
to cope with all its difficulties. 

In November, 1920, the Emir 'Abdallah, second son of 
King Husein and brother of King Feisal, arrived from the 
Hejaz at Ma'an, whence in March, 1921, he moved to 
Amman, In the same month a conference took place in 
Jerusalem between the Secretary of State for the Colonies, 
who was then in Palestine, the High Commissioner and the 
Emir 'Abdallah, at which an arrangement was made whereby 
the Emir 'Abdallah undertook temporarily to assume the 
administration of Trans-jordania, under the general direction 
of the High Commissioner for Palestine as representing the 
Mandatory Power. He was to be assisted by a small 
number of British officers. Order and public security were 
to be maintained, and there were to be no attacks against 
Syria. In July, 192 1, Parliament voted a grant-in-aid of 
;^i8o,ooo for the assistance of Trans-jordania. Since then 
considerable improvement has been shown both in public 
security and general administration. A Gendarmerie has 
been raised ; more than 300 kilometres of the previously 
derelict Hejaz railway within Trans-jordanian territory 
have been repaired and are being worked by the Palestine 
Railway administration ; and a system of telegraphs is 
slowly being put into operation. 



§ I. Geology.^ 

Succession of Rocks. — The succession of rocks in descend - 
. ing order hitherto recognized in Palestine is as follows : 
V. Quaternary : Post-Glacial and Pleistocene ; 
IV. Cainozoic : Pliocene, probably Miocene, Eocene ; 

{Upper : Senonian, Tiir- 
onian, Cenomanian ; 
Lower ; 
(i) Jurassic ; 
II. Palaeozoic : Cambrian probably (Hull considered it 
Carboniferous) ; 
I. Pre-Cambrian. 

I. Pre-Cambrian Rocks : These oldest rocks are found in 
the east side of the Ghor, from the Lisan Peninsula, near 
the south end of the Dead Sea, southward. 

They consist of crystalline schists, gneiss and granite. 
Grey granite may be seen forming a dark rugged foothill 
in the east wall of the Ghor just north of Wadi Hesi at the 
south end of the Dead Sea. 

The above rocks are cut by red and pink granite and- 
felsites. In addition to the felsite, which is an old volcanic 
rock, there are occasional masses of volcanic agglomerate, 

* This section is based on the sketch of the geology of Palestine by Major R. W. 
Brock, R.E., in vol. iii. of the Palestine Pocket Guide Books. 



containing, besides blocks of felsite, some of granite. Such 
a mass occurs at the base of Jebel Labrush near al-Salieh. 

These ancient rocks formed the floor of an old continent 
that suffered heavy erosion before being submerged in a 
later pre-Cambrian and Cambrian sea. As its waters en- 
croached on the old land, boulders accumulated on the 
shore, over which, as the waters deepened, sands were 
deposited. This has given rise to the formation of con- 
glomerate and sandstone, which may be seen on Wadi Hesi. 
Shoulders of rock protruding through the terrace deposits, 
that join the Lisan peninsula to the east, are also of con- 

II, Cambrian : As depth increased, beds of lime car- 
bonate, the remains of the animal life of the sea, were laid 
down ; and these have been preserved as a dark dolomite 
which overlies the sandstone of Wadi Hesi. From the fossil 
remains found in it, it is considered to be of Cambrian age. : 

For succeeding geological ages the district as a whole 
would appear to have been land since, except for s'ome - 
Jurassic limestone on Mount Hermon and in the Lebanon ; ^ 
no rock formations are met with until we come to the 
Cretaceous, and the first of these is a shallow water formation. ; 

III. The Mesozoic series : 


Along the east coast of the Dead Sea is a uniform sand- 
stone, to whose variegated hues much of the admired colour 
effects of the " Mountains of Moab " are due. It extends 
southward above the old rocks almost to the Gulf of Akaba. 
On the west side of the Ghor it does not appear until the 
Gulf of Akaba is approached (except perhaps under Jebel 
Usdum). This great sandstone formation is spoken of as 
the Nubian sandstone, as it is supposed to be the same as 
this Egyptian rock, 


Following the deposition of the sandstone, this country, 
in common with a large part of eastern Asia, northern Africa 


and southern and middle Europe, was more deeply sub- 
merged, and there was deposited the great thickness of 
limestones which form the grea»ter part of Palestine, namely, 
the plateau country east of the Ghor and the hill-country 
of western Palestine. 

These rocks may be subdivided, in descending order, as 
follows : 

Senonian : About 800 feet of soft white limestone and 
chalk with numerous flint bands. A few beds show 
incipient crystallization ; one bed has limestone 
concretions up to six feet in diameter, 

Turonian : About 700 feet of hard limestone and dolomite 
with flint at certain horizons ; some bands of oolitic 
limestone and marl ; the hard bands are crystallized 
in places to marble : the upper beds weather reddish 
or somewhat variegated. 

Cenomanian : About 1 100 feet of hard yellowish limestone 
and dolomite with bands of soft marl and chalk. 

While from a little distance these subdivisions may usually 
be broadly distinguished, especially the soft, white Senonian, 
on the spot the line of demarcation is often difficult to pick 
out without the aid of fossils, and fossils are not plentiful 
except in certain -beds, and even here the forms are often 
obscure. In the environs of Jerusalem fossils may be 
obtained. At the base of the Senonian about Nebi Musa 
and Mar Saba is a highly fossiliferous horizon. Below it 
at Nebi Musa and on the new Jericho road near by is the 
well-known black bituminous limestone, " Moses stone " or 
" Dead Sea " stone, or " stink-stone." It weathers light 
grey, but the fresh fracture is brown in the less bituminous 
and jet black in the highly bituminous beds. Below this 
bituminous limestone is a spotted brown one made up 
largely of fish remains and foraminifera. 

The dark flint is characteristic, especially if the Senonian 
beds occur as nodules and bands. The latter are found 
between the beds of the formation and are continuous over 
long stretches. They sometimes attain a thickness of two 


feet. As they resist weathering, they stand out con- 
spicuously from the soft limestones. The flint is formed 
by the solution and redeposition of silica from sponge and 
other animal remains in the rocks. 

It is interesting to note that in Cretaceous times the 
conditions in Palestine and in England were similar. Both 
were deeply under water, in both immense deposits of lime 
carbonate were laid down, in both the latest beds are chalks 
characterized by richness in flints. 

The distribution of these rocks is easily understood v/hen 
the structure is noted. The hill-country is formed by the 
folding of the rocks into an arch or anticline. Off the 
highest part of the arch the soft Senonian beds have been 
removed by denudation, uncovering the harder Turonian 
limestones and marbles. Thus, coming from the Coastal 
Plain, the first beds met are the Senonian chalks and lime- 
stones ; then, when the beds rise up in the limb of the 
arch, the Turonian is exposed, and these beds form the 
backbone of the hills. Beyond Jerusalem, on the gently 
dropping eastern slope, the white Senonian is again seen, 
in many places disturbed so that the flint bands are frilled, 
curled and crumpled ; the lower harder beds of the Turonian 
and Cenomanian form the rock terraces and wall of the 
Ghor (except just north of the Dead Sea, where the Senonian 
descends to the Jordan Valley), and the walls of the deeper 

At a few points, as on Mount Carmel, basalt is found in 
the Turonian but not in the Senonian, suggesting some 
volcanic activity in the Cretaceous between these two 

IV. and V. Tertiary and Quaternary Series : 

{a) EOCENE. 

At a number of points in Samaria and northwards there 
occurs a limestone which, from its nummulitic fossils, is 
evidently of Eocene age. The most southerly occurrence 
is on the hills about Nablus. Fossils may be collected on 
Mount Gerizim. 



It was probably soon after these Eocene limestones were 
formed that the land was upraised from the sea and began 
to take on its present aspect, for no widespread miocene 
or later marine deposits have been found. Before com- 
menting upon its recent history, which is somewhat com- 
plicated and not fully worked out, it will be well to mention 
the remaining rocks and other records upon which such a 
discussion must be based. 

(c) MARINE. 

Along the Coastal Plain, from below Gaza northward, 
there are at intervals exposures of a yellowish, reddish, or 
brownish weathering sandstone with a lime carbonate 
cement. It is sometimes fairly hard, but it is generally 
porous and soft. It is a comparatively recent formation 
though sufficiently consolidated to show jointing. Its exact 
age is as yet uncertain, but it is probably Pliocene or early 

Younger than this are the sands, gravels and shell-beds 
that mark an encroachment of the Mediterranean to an 
elevation of 220 feet above its present level. These sea- 
beds are well exposed between Jaffa and Ramleh. Near 
the latter they are represented by a calcareous conglomerate 
— the old beach. They are, no doubt, middle or late 

The recent alluvium and sand-dunes may hide other 
marine formations, just as they cover much of these just 


The highest terraces of the Ghor, marking the extreme 
limits of the lake, consist of gravel or shingle, at an elevation 
a little above that of the Mediterranean. Such are the 
terraces about Safed, around Lake of Huleh, in the Araba 
valley, at Ain al-Weibeh, and on Samrat al-Fiddan. 

The lowermost beds at the mouths of the larger wadis 
consist of boulders and sand, bearing evidence of the eroding 


power of these streams when the dimate became moist 
enough to furnish water in excess of the loss by evaporation, 
and the Dead Sea began to rise and fill the Ghor. 

The material that forms the main terraces of the Ghor, 
so well exhibited along the Jordan and along the coast of 
the Lisan peninsula, is quite different. While some clay 
beds occur near the bottom, it consists almost entirely of 
finely laminated marl, gypsum and salt. Over a consider- 
able thickness the laminae average no more than J in., and 
they are sometimes as fine as paper, but even the thinnest 
are continuous. They are the precipitates deposited after 
the climate had again become dry and the waters of the 
lake were being evaporated. 

A pair of laminae of marl, gypsum and salt no doubt 
represent the deposits of one year, so that by counting these 
an accurate estimate of the length of time occupied in their 
formation could be obtained. 

At several horizons in the Dead Sea formation large con- 
cretions of gypsum are forming, with long crystals of gypsum 
radiating from the centre. In these gypsum horizons 
nodules and also thin bands of light flour sulphur occur. 
Sulphur also forms coatings on the gypsum. One of these 
horizons is about forty feet above the Jordan, and a second 
about 1 20 feet above. The sulphur occurs in the same way 
and at similar horizons down to the south end of the Dead 

Into the Dead Sea formation the Jordan has cut its 
channel. One of its flood plains is 20 feet above the summer 
level of the river and one 40 feet. Yellowish or 
weathering stratified clays, deposited by the Jordan, occa- 
sionally veneer the lowest terrace of Dead Sea formation, 
or cover lower levels of it to a height of 70 feet. 


Masses of basalt are found capping the plateau of Moab, 
and sending streams down the gorges and slopes toward 
the Dead Sea ; the dark lava showing up conspicuously 
against the light colours of the limestone or sandstone. It 



may be observed near Wadi Mojeb (Arnon), the Plain of 
Zara, Wadi Zerka, and on the north-east corner of the Dead 
Sea, where it plunges beneath its waters. 

Above Lake Tiberias the basaltic lavas occur on the west 
side of the Jordan ; the lake has basalt on all sides of it. 
The most important mass of basalt on the west is Jebel 
Safed. At Jebel Jish, 5 miles north-west of Safed, an 
extinct crater may be recognized. 

In all these volcanic outpourings only basaltic rocks 
have been met with. It will be noted also that, except 
about Tiberias, volcanic activity has been confined to the 
east side of the Ghor. 

Vulcanism extended over a considerable period and up 
to very recent, but not historical time (the nearest histori- 
cally active volcano is near Medina). That it extended 
over a considerable period is shown by the successive lava 
flows and the erosion of an older before the outpouring of 
a succeeding one. Th'at it continued until very recently is 
shown by the freshness of the cones, by the lava flows, 
constituting the most recent feature in the topography, and 
by the hot springs that are still active in these volcanic 
centres, while some of the springs in the Ghor may derive 
their comparatively low temperatures from the rock tem- 
perature at their source or from chemical change in the 
gypsum of other salts. The very hot springs are associated 
with the volcanic centres and undoubtedly are connected 
with vulcanism. They afford evidence that volcanic heat 
has not yet disappeared. In fact, volcanic activity might 
again be renewed. The great earthquake of 1837 which 
destroyed Tiberias, killing thousands, is a further reminder 
that the district has not yet settled down to quiet life. 

The Ghor. — The Ghor is a great fault or dislocation in 
the earth's crust, along which the west side has relatively 
sunk. This fault may be seen in the Araba valley on its 
east side, where Cretaceous limestone is brought into con- 
tact with the old Pre-Cambrian rocks. At the south-east 
end of the Dead Sea these old rocks are still exposed. 
Along the east side of the Dead Sea the lower Cretaceous 


sandstone forms the base of the exposed formations, while 
on the west the upper Cretaceous limestones occupy this 
position. This discrepancy in the level of the same horizon 
on the two sides of the Ghor amounts to 5000 feet at Mount 
Hor and about 1000 feet along the shore of the Dead Sea. 
The actual fissure is not visible from the Dead Sea north- 
wards, as it is covered by the sea or its deposits ; but the 
east wall of the Ghor is the fault scarp, for it cannot be 
the result of erosion, since there has been no glacier in this 
valley, neither has there been a river flowing into the sea, 
as is shown by the rock-bed in the Akaba Valley at the 
watershed 660 feet above sea-level or 1952 feet above the 
Dead Sea. Indeed, the scarp itself shows that it is not 
river-eroded, for there are no interlobes but a straight wall 
between the tributary streams. The evidence for this 
fissure is conclusive, but the simple fissure and the sinking 
of the west side do not suffice to explain the complete 
trough. For the deepest portion of the trough is not where 
such sinking has been greatest, but where it is only 1000 
feet ; indeed, where it is greatest is the highest point in 
the trough. Nor is there any sign of warping. The full 
explanation would appear to be that this is one of the rare 
instances in which a trough has been formed by a sinking 
in of a strip of the earth's crust between two parallel faults 
(dislocations). The floor of the Ghor has dropped down. 
This would account for its deepest portion (over 2600 feet 
below sea-level) being in its centre. It would also answer 
the question as to what has become of the materials that 
once united the walls of the Ghor. 

The formation of the Ghor commenced at the close of the 
Tertiary or beginning of the Pleistocene, and reached 
practically its present state before there set in the moist 
period, that produced glacial conditions in northern Europe. 
The climate must have been much the same as at present, 
for the old caiions of the Zerka and the Mojeb are very 
similar in size, shape and depth to their present ones. 
When the moist or Pluvial period came and the level of the 
old Dead Sea rose, they filled in their old caiions with gravel. 


During this Pluvial period, which no doubt was con- 
temporaneous with the glacial period in Europe, the Dead 
Sea, as we have seen, rose to a height of about 1400 feet 
above its present level, forming a fresh-water lake from 
forty miles south of the Dead Sea to north of Lake Huleh, 
nearly 200 miles long. The beach deposits, rock terraces 
and cliffs show that it maintained this level for some 

Following the Pluvial period came a period so dry that 
the waters of this great Jordan lake evaporated until only 
a remnant was left, a Dead Sea smaller than it is at present. 
During its desiccation various salts were precipitated, 
forming the thick deposits of marl, gypsum and salt that 
are now so marked a feature in the detailed topography of 
the Ghor. The long sloping terraces indicate even and 
continued lowering of the lake, the steep gradients pauses 
in the process of evaporation. A number of fresh- water 
shells, of which a considerable portion are existing species, 
are found in these deposits. 

The salts in the water were derived from the salts released 
by the weathering of the rocks and brought in by the 
streams, or supplied by the thermal springs and volcanic 
emanations. The present water of the Dead Sea repre- 
sents the remaining " mother liquor " of Jordan lake, with 
such additional salts as have been brought in since it 
reached its present stage, less the salts (mostly common 
salt and gypsum) that have been and still are being pre- 
cipitated on the floor of the Dead Sea. 

Since Kitchener's survey in 1883-4 ^^e sea has risen 18 
or 20 feet. This is positive evidence that the climate has 
been growing moister, but it is of course possible that this 
may be of short duration or subject to periodic changes of 
moisture and drought. 

The water of the lagoon south of the Lisan peninsula is 
only slightly over 30 feet deep, and the channel between 
the Lisan and the west shore only 29 feet deep. It is quite 
probable that within historical times the south end has 
been dry land, and physically possible that tradition is 


correct when it fixes the sites of Sodom and Gomorrah 
beneath the oily waters of the Dead Sea. 

The Ghor is still in a youthful condition. Its walls are 
still precipitous ; tributaries have succeeded in excavating 
only narrow canons, down which they plunge in waterfalls. 
Faulting of the Dead Sea deposits and the earthquakes 
which still occasionally disturb the district give warning 
that the Assuring and faulting and deepening of the Ghor 
may still be proceeding, and that its dark sides may once 
more glow with streams of molten lava and the green 
plateau of Damascus again be lighted up by a wide crescent 
of volcanic fire. 

§ 2. Mineral Resources. 

Sand. — The coast-line is bordered by dunes, much of the 
sand of which is suitable for glass making. Figures given 
by Dr. R. Sabath show that the total oxide of iron and 
alumina vary from -42 to 1-5% ; very pure limestones exist, 
and soda products may soon become available from utiliza- 
tion of Dead Sea salts. These sands also provide an un- 
limited supply for building purposes. 

Limestone. — The limestone beds of Cenomanian and 
Turonian age furnish the principal building stones of 
Jerusalem and other towns. 

They are known under the general names of mizzi, a hard 
limestone, and kakidi, a soft limestone. 

The various divisions of the mizzi building stones appear 
to be somewhat confused by masons. They are 

(i) mizzi ahmar — a red-flecked marble ; 

mizzi yasini — well bedded red and grey limestone, 
(ii) mizzi Yahudi — ^thick bedded dark grey or yellow 

limestone traversed by veinlets of calcite ; 
'iii) meleki — a hippurite marble ; 
(iv) mizzi helu—a, white compact splintery limestone with 

chalcedonic nodules of Turonian age ; 
(v) kakuU — a soft whitish limestone which quarries in 
slabs and is used for lintels, etc. 


Higher up in the series occur phosphatic beds of Danian 
age, which form a hard but rather sombre building stone 
of a brown to black colour. In places the beds are entirely 
altered to apatite and provide beautiful green and red 
building stones, such as the mizzi akhdar of Beit Suhar. 
They are usually described as marbles, but are harder and 
more durable. In Galilee, where basalt is the prevalent 
rock, this is utilized both for road making and building 

In the hilly parts of Samaria and Judaea as well as the 
southern part of Trans-jordania surface rocks are mostly 
limestone, which provides good material for burning to fat 
limes. Dolomite limestone and marl beds also occur, and, 
though the latter are often associated with gypsum, much of 
the material could probably be used for the manufacture 
of Portland Cement. 

Thin bedded clays also occur in the Jordan valley and 
could be utilized for pottery, etc. 

Phosphatic Deposits. — Immediately overlying the top 
flint beds of the Campanian division of the Senonian forma- 
tion are the beds containing bones, coprolites, etc., of 
phosphatic composition. These beds are very widespread 
both in Palestine and Trans-jordania. They have never 
been properly surveyed. Hence the information available 
only deals with a few scattered localities. Blanckenhorn 
examined samples from Nebi Musa and found 30% tri-calcic 
phosphate in beds 20 feet thick. It is, however, believed 
that much richer beds than these occur in Palestine. In 
Trans-jordania more careful examination has been made ; 
and at Abu Tara three beds 10 metres, 7 metres, 3 metres 
in thickness occur, carrying an average of 51% tri-calcium 
phosphate. At Khar bet Botin the plateau contains beds 
3 metres thick with 54-6% tri-calcic phosphate. Most of 
these deposits are close to the surface, and could very easily 
be quarried. 

Bitumen. — Above the bone-beds there occurs in many 
parts of Palestine a shaly or bedded bituminous limestone, 
containing 10 to 30% of oil and bitumen. The best known 


localities are at Nebi Musa, al-Salt, Wadi al-Quneitra, Safed, 
the Yarmuk valley, Bethlehem, Wadi Mahawit, etc. 

Some of the material is poor in quality, but much of it 
would make excellent material for road asphalt. Some 
deposits are shaly, but those which Blanckenhorn ex- 
amined contained less than 2% of argillaceous material. 
In composition some varieties resemble the Val de Travers 
asphalt, and could be similarly utilized. The richer qualities 
are often used as fuel ; the rock, once set on fire by means 
of brushwood, will continue to burn. 

Several attempts have been made to utilize the material 
by distillation, the yield of oil being 8% or more, there being 
also a valuable proportion of combustible gas and bituminous 
tarry matter. 

In addition to the bituminous limestone, bitumen 
sufficiently pure to mine occurs in various parts of the 

Petroleum. — Besides the above occurrences of bitumen, 
which are examples of inspissated oil, there occur gas 
emanations and sepages of oil in several parts of the country, 
but more particularly in the southern part of the Dead Sea 
region. The dolomite at Ain-Gedi and Mas'ada drips oily 
bitumen, ^nd the sandstone on the east shore of the Dead 
Sea and at Jebel Usdum is bituminous. 

The consensus of expert opinion is that oil occurs in 
southern Palestine, but that only drilling will decide as to 
what are the commercial aspects of the problem. It is 
generally agreed that sunken blocks of the Ghor are 
petroleum-bearing, and that oil will be obtained by drilling 
into the Senonian-Turonian beds. The greater prospects of 
oil occurring in large quantities in the anticlinal flexures to 
the west are at present the principal attraction. 

The Standard Oil Company is now prospecting over the 
area granted by pre-war concessions around Kharnub, and 
is optimistic as to the final outcome of its efforts. 

Dead Sea Salts. — One of the greatest mineral assets of 
Palestine is the salt of the Dead Sea {cf. § i above). The 
average percentage of salts in the strong brine is at least 


25%, of which 34% is sodium chloride, 4% to 7% potassium 
chloride, and up to 1% or more magnesium bromide. 

The volume of the Dead Sea is somewhere in the region 
of 120,000,000,000 cubic metres; hence the area contains 
roughly 30,000,000,000 tons of mixed salts, of which possibly 
1,500,000,000 tons are potassium chloride. Palestine is 
thus the richest country in the world for potash resources. 
These also occur under the most favourable conditions. 
The salts occur as a strong brine, immediately ready for 
evaporation and crystallization for the production of pure 
salts by the natural heat of the sun. 

With the advent of cheap transport and abundant sup- 
plies of electricity, other manufactures, such as electrolytic 
production of alkali, are possible. The salt deposits of Jebel 
Usdum also appear to be of considerable extent. 

Metallic Minerals. — Palestine is not rich in metallic 
minerals, as the following notes indicate : 

Copper : Copper ores were worked by the ancients in the 
older Palaeozoic rocks south of the Dead Sea in the 
neighbourhood of Fenan. The metal was also ex- 
tracted or smelted on the spot. The present state 
of deposits is unknown. Copper ores are also said 
to exist in the vicinity of Mt. Carmel. 
Iron Ores are known to occur in small quantities in 
many localities throughout Palestine, but there is 
no information of deposits of any considerable 
Gold has been reported, "but the localities given seem 
unlikely, and authentic occurrences are yet to be 
The country has been so little prospected for metallic 
minerals, particularly in the south and north-east, that 
our present knowledge of the subject cannot be accepted 
as an indication of its resources ; and it is possible that 
farther exploration may reveal valuable deposits of ore. 

I.. p. 


§ 3. Mammalia. 

Palestine exhibits a remarkable range of climate, eleva- 
tion and topography. Fauna and flora in consequence 
present a strange assembly of European, Asiatic and African 
types, of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate character. 
Few groups have as yet been exhaustively studied, and 
much material of recent collection awaits detailed examina- 
tion. In these circumstances, the present notes can only 
be offered as a preliminary outline of a very intriguing field 
of research. 

The mammalian fauna of Palestine is remarkable for the 
number of larger animals which are on the verge, or have 
recently passed the verge, of extinction, a result due in 
part to modern firearms, in part to the destruction of the 

Among those which have become rare or extinct in 
the last few decades are the roe deer {Cervus capreolus), the 
fallow deer (C. dama), the leopard [Felis pardus), and the 
Syrian bear {Ursus syriacus). The gazelle {Gazella dorcas) 
and the Syrian ibex {Capra heden) are also much scarcer 
than formerly. 

Several carnivorous mammals are still far from rare, such 
as the jungle cat {Felis chaus), the wild cat [F. bubastis 
Ehrenbg.),the striped hyaena {Hyaena striata) , the mongoose 
{Herpestes ichneumon), the wolf {Vulpes portali), the jackal 
{Canis aureus), and one or two races of fox. 

Among the smaller animals, may be mentioned several 
species of hare, the porcupine {Acanthion leucurus), spiny 
mice {A corny s), the dwarf hamster {Cricetulus migratorius) , 
many gerbils and jerboas in the south of the country, a 
vole {Microtus syriacus : Brants), several species of dor- 
mouse and of shrews, a race of the European hedgehog 
and of the desert hedgehog Erinaceus auritus) , and a score 
of bats. The most interesting of the bats is Rousettus 
{Cynonycteris) aegyptiacus, a fruit-bat which is very destruc- 
tive to figs and other ripe fruit, and spends the day in 


The smaller animals of Palestine are still very imperfectly 
known. The full list would be a long one, because desert 
rodents and hedgehogs occur side by side with such northern 
forms as the voles, the European hedgehogs and the dwarf 

The European house mouse {Mus musculus) and various 
races of the black rat {Rattus rattus) have been imported, 
and are abundant in the towns. 

Among types recently described, Nesokia bacheri Nhrng, 
a big, rat-like rodent from the southern shore of the Dead 
Sea, is killed by the Beduin in large numbers. Procavia 
Schmitzi Matsch, a hyrax-like animal, is found in the moun- 
tains surrounding Lake Huleh. • 

§ 4. Birds}- 

The geographical position of Palestine accounts for the 
very large number of migratory birds which have been 
recorded. While the country can boast of only about one 
hundred resident species, at least two hundred migrants, 
some of which may breed locally in small numbers, have 
been described on indubitable authority. 

(w.v, — winter visitor, s.v, — summer visitor.) 

1. Turdus viscivorus. Missel thrush ; occasional w.v. 

2. Turdus philomelus. Song thrush; very common w.v. 

3. Turdus pilaris. Fieldfare ; occasional w.v. 

4. Turdus merula. Blackbird ; common w.v. and 
locally common resident. 

5. Monticola solitarius. Blue thrush ; common w.v. 
and locally common resident. 

6. Monticola saxatilis. Rock thrush ; uncommon 
migrant, common in some years. 

7. Oenanthe oenanthe. Common wheatear ; common 

•For fuller notes on some of the birds of Palestine see Col, R. Meinertzhageii, 
Not^s on the Birds of Southern Palestine, in The Ibis for January, 1920 


non 11 

8. Oenanthe isabellina. Isabelline wheatear ; common 

migrant and locally common resident. 

_ ,7 , ■ , f Black-throated wheatear. 

Q. Oenanthe hispamca. i -r^, , -, -, . 

^Black-eared wheatear. 

Very common s.v. in both forms ; the former is the more 

ID. Oenanthe deserti. Desert wheatear ; uncommon 

11. Oenanthe fins chi. Arabian wheatear ; common w. v. 
and resident in the south. 

12. Oenanthe pleschanka. Eastern pied wheatear ; once 
recorded from Rafa. 

13. Oenunthe moesta. Tristram's wheatear : rare resident. 

14. Oenanthe lugens. Pied wheatear ; locally common 

15. Oenanthe monacha. Hooded wheatear ; rare resident. 

16. Oenanthe leucopyga. White rumped wheatear ; un- 
common resident near Dead Sea. 

17. Cercomela melanura. Blackstart ; not uncommon 
near the Dead Sea. 

18. Saxicola rubetra. Whinchat ; uncommon migrant. 

19. Saxicola torquata. Stonechat ; common w.v. 

20. Phoenicurus phoenicurus. Common redstart ; com- 
mon migrant. 

21. Phoenicurus p. mesoleuca. Ehrenberg's redstart; 
common migrant. 

22. Phoenicurus ochruros. Black redstart ; common w.v. 

23. Luscinia luscinia. Sprosser nightingale ; migrant. 

24. Luscinia megarhyncha. Nightingale ; migrant (Tris- 
tram states that it breeds in Palestine). 

25. Luscinia s. suecica. Bluethroat ; fairly common w.v. 

26. Luscinia s. volgae. White-spotted bluethroat ; w.v. 
less common than the last. 

27. Erithacus rubecula. Robin ; common w.v. 

28. Prunella modularis. Hedge sparrow ; fairly common 

29. Sylvia communis. Whitethroat ; common migrant 
and s.v. 

BIRDS 245 

30. Sylvia curruca. Lesser whitethroat ; common 
migrant. (Perhaps breeds.) 

31. Sylvia cantillahs. Subalpine warbler; uncommon 
migrant and s.v. 

32. Sylvia conspicillata. Spectacled warbler ; fairly 
common resident. 

33. Sylvia melanothorax . Palestine warbler (one pair 
obtained by Tristram near the Dead Sea). 

34. Sylvia melanocephala. Sardinian warbler ; fairly 
common resident. 

35. Sylvia melanocephala momus. Bowman's warbler ; 
common resident. 

36. Sylvia hortensis. Orphean warbler ; common migrant 
and s.v. 

37. Sylvia ruppelli. Ruppell's warbler ; uncommon 

38. Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap ; common w.v. (a few 
remain to breed). 

39. Sylvia borin. Garden warbler ; common migrant 
(Tristram states that it breeds in Palestine). 

40. Sylvia nisoria. Barred warbler ; rare migrant. 

41. Sylvia nana. Desert warbler; only recorded from 
south end of Dead Sea. 

42. A gr abates galactotes. Rufous warbler ; very common 

43. Scotocerca inquieta. Scrub warbler ; uncommon 

44. Prinia gracilis. Graceful warbler ; common resi- 

45. Cisticola cisticola. Fantailed warbler ; locally com- 
mon resident. 

46. Phylloscopus superciliosus. Yellow-browed warbler 
(one obtained by Tristram at Jericho in 1864). 

47. Phylloscopus collybita. Chifchaff ; common w.v. 

48. Phylloscopus irochilus. Willow warbler ; common 

49. Phylloscopus sibilatrix. Wood warbler ; common 
migrant in the plains. 


50. Phylloscopus bonellii. Bonelli's warbler ; common 
migrant and uncommon s.v. 

51. Hypolais olivetorum. Olivetree warbler; common 
migrant (a few remain to breed). 

52. Hypolais languida. Upchir's warbler ; common s.v. 
in the hills. 

53. Hypolais pallida. Olivaceous warbler ; common s.v. 
in the plains and Jordan valley. 

54. Acrocephalus scirpaceus. Reed warbler ; common 

55. Acrocephalus palustris. Marsh warbler ; migrant. 

56. Acrocephalus arundinacea. Great reed warbler; 
common s.v. 

57. Acrocephalus stentoreus. Clamorous reed warbler; 
common s.v. in Huleh marshes. 

58. Acrocephalus schoenicola. Sedge warbler; uncom- 
mon migrant. 

59. Lusciniola melanopogon. Moust ached warbler ; com- 
mon in Beisan marshes in winter ; possibly resident. 

60. Locustella fluviatilis . River warbler ; uncommon s.v. 

61. Locustella luscinioides . Savi's warbler ; scarce s.v. 

62. Cettia cettii. Cetti's warbler ; possibly resident. 

63. Crater opus squamiceps. Palestine bush babbler ; 
common near Jericho. 

64. Parus major. Great tit ; common resident. 

65. Troglodytes troglodytes. Wren ; rare w.v. 

66. Motacilla alba. White wagtail ; common w.v. and 
rare resident. 

67. Motacilla vidua. White-winged wagtail (obtained 
by Dr. Herschell in the Jordan valley). 

68. Motacilla cinerea. Grey wagtail ; uncommon w.v. 

69. Motacilla flava. Blueheaded yellow wagtail ; very 
common migrant in the plains. 

70. Motacilla melanocephala. Blackheaded wagtail ; un- 
common migrant. 

71. Anthus pratensis. Meadow pipit ; common w.v. 

72. Anthus trivialis. Tree pipit ; common w.v. 

73. Anthus cervinus. Redthroated pipit ; common w.v. 


BIRDS 247 

74. Anthus spinoletus . Water pipit ; uncommon w.v. 

75. Anthus campestris. Tawny pipit ; common migrant 
and scarce resident. 

76. Anthus sordidus. Brown rock pipit ; common s.v. in 
the hills ; said to winter in the plains and Jordan valley. 

77. Pycnonotus xanthopygius. Palestine bulbul ; com- 
mon resident. 

78. Oriolus galhula. Golden oriole ; common spring 

79. Lanius excubitor elegans. Pallid shrike ; common 
resident round Gaza and southward. 

80. Lanius e. aucheri. Finsch's shrike ; common resident 
in the Jordan valley. 

81. Lanius minor. Lesser grey shrike ; irregular s.v. to 
the plains. 

82. Lanius senator. Woodchat shrike ; common s.v. 

83. Lanius nubicus. Masked shrike ; common s.v. 

84. Lanius collurio. Red-backed shrike ; common mi- 
grant and locally common s.v. 

85. Muscicapa striata. Spotted flycatcher ; common s.v. 

86. Muscicapa hypoleuca. Pied flycatcher ; uncommon 

87. Muscicapa albicollis. Collared flycatcher ; uncom- 
mon migrant. 

88. Hirundo rustica. Common swallow ; common s.v. 

89. Hirundo r. transitiva. Palestine swallow ; common 

90. Hirundo daurica. Red-rumped swallow; common s.v. 

91. Delichonurbica. House martin; uncommon migrant. 

92. Riparia riparia. Sand martin ; fairly common 
migrant (a few breed). 

93. Riparia rupestris. Crag swallow ; fairly common 

94. Riparia obsoleta. Pale crag swallow ; resident in 
Dead Sea basin. 

95. Cinnyris osea. Palestine sunbird ; common resident 
in the Jordan valley and spreads over the rest of the country 
in winter. 


96. Carduelis carduelis. Goldfinch ; very common resi- 

97. Acanthis cannabina. Linnet; common resident. 

98. Serinus canarius. Serin ; common w.v. 

99. Spinus spinus. Siskin ; rare w.v. 

100. Chloris chloris. Greenfinch ; common resident, 
loi. Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Hawfinch; occa- 
sional visitor. 

102. Passer domesticus. Sparrow ; very common resi- 

103. Passer hispaniolensis . Spanish sparrow ; common 
resident and w.v. 

104. Passer moabiticus. Dead Sea sparrow ; resident 
near Dead Sea. 

105. Petronia petronia. Rock sparrow ; common s.v. 

1 06. Fringilla coelebs. Chaffinch ; common w.v. 

107. Carpodacus sinaiticus. Sinai rosenfinch ; rare resi- 
dent between Beersheba and the Dead Sea. 

108. Erythrospiza githaginea. Desert bullfinch ; uncom- 
mon resident in the extreme south. 

109. Rhodospiza obsoleta. Persian desert bullfinch ; un- 
common w.v. 

no. Emberiza melanocephala. Blackheaded bunting; 
common s.v. 

111. Emberiza calandra. Common bunting; common 

112. Emberiza hortulana. Ortolan bunting; common 

113. Emberiza striolata. S.triped bunting; uncommon 
resident near the Dead Sea. 

114. Emberiza cia. Meadow bunting; fairly common 

115. Emberiza caesia. Cretzschmaer's bunting; com- 
mon s.v. 

116. Sturnus vulgaris. Starling; common w.v. 

117. Sturnus unicolor. Sardinian starling ; scarce w.v. 

118. Pastor roseus. Ros6-coloured starling; irregular 
visitor, usually following locusts. 

BIRDS 249 

119. Amydrus iristrami. Tristram's grakle ; resident 
near Dead Sea. 

120. Garrulus atricapillus. Syrian jay ; common resi- 

JE2I. Corvus monedula. Jackdaw; common w.v. and 
locally resident. 

122. Corvus frugilegus. Rook; common w.v. 

.123. Corvus comix. Hooded crow ; common resident. 

124. Corvus affinis. Fantail raven ; resident near Dead 

125. Corvus corax. Raven ; common resident. 

126. Corvus c. umbrinus. Brown-necked raven ; com- 
mon resident in the south. 

127. Alaemon alaudipes. Bifasciated lark ; resident in 
the southern desert. 

128. Galerita cristata. Crested lark ; very common 

129,. Alauda arvensis . Skylark; very common w.v. 

130. Lullula arbor ea. Woodlark ; common w.v., possibly 

131. Ammomanes deserti. Desert lark ; common resident 
in desert parts of the country. 

132. Calandrella brachydactyla. Short-toed lark ; fairly 
common s.v. 

133. Calandrella minor. Lesser short- toed lark ; fairly 
common in deserts ; resident. 

134. Melanocorypha calandra. Calandra lark ; common 
resident in northern Palestine. 

135. Melanocorypha bimaculata. Eastern calandra lark ; 
common resident on the coastal plain. 

136. Apus apus. Common swift ; common s.v. 

137. Apus melba. Alpine swift ; common s.v. 

138. Apus affinis. White-rumped swift ; locally com- 
mon s.v. 

139. Caprimulgus europaeus. Common nightjar ; com- 
mon migrant. 

140. Caprimulgus ruficollis. Red-necked nightjar ; once 
recorded from Jerusalem. 


141. Caprimulgus tamaricis. Probably resident near 
Dead Sea. 

142. Dry abates syriacus. Syrian woodpecker ; common 

143. Yunx torquilla. Wryneck ; common migrant and 
a few winter in the Jordan valley. 

144. Alcedo arthis. Common kingfisher ; common w. v. 

145. Ceryle rudis. Pied kingfisher ; common resident. 

146. Halcyon smyrnensis. Smyrna kingfisher ; common 

147. Coracias garrula. Roller; common migrant and s. v. 

148. Merops apiaster. Common bee-eater ; very com- 
mon s.v. 

149. Merops persicus. Blue-checked bee-eater ; uncom- 
mon s.v. 

150. Merops viridis. Green bee-eater ; possibly migrant. 

151. Upupa epops. Hoopoe; common s.v. 

152. Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo ; common migrant. 

153. Clamator glandarius. Great spotted cuckoo ; com- 
mon migrant and scarce resident. 

154. Tyto alba. Barn owl ; common resident. 

155. Ketupa zeylonensis . Brown fish owl ; resident in a 
few wadis. 

156. Asio otus. Longeared owl (Tristram found this 
bird in Galilee). 

157. Asio flammens. Shorteared owl ; migrant. 

158. Otus scops. Scops owl ; common s.v. 

159. Bubo ascalaphus. Egyptian eagle owl ; resident in 
the southern desert. 

160. Bubo ignavus. Eagle owl ; resident. 

161. Athene glaux. Southern little owl; very common 

162. Gypaetus barbatus. Bearded vulture (found by 
Tristram near the Dead Sea). 

163. Vultur monachus. Black vulture ; occasional. 

164. Gyps fulvus. Griffon vulture; very common resident. 

165. Neophron perenopterus. Egyptian vulture ; very 
common s.v. 

BIRDS 251 

166. Circus aeruginosus. Marsh harrier ; very common 
w.v. (a few are said to breed). 

167. Circus pygargus. Montagu's harrier ; scarce mi- 

168. Circus cyaneus. Hen harrier ; fairly common resi- 

169. Circus macrourus. Pallid harrier ; common resi- 

170. Buteo vulgaris. Common buzzard ; commop mi- 

171. Buteo ferox. Longlegged buzzard ; common resi- 

172. Pernis apivorus. Honey buzzard ; migrant. 

173. Aquila chrysaetus. Golden eagle ; w.v. 

174. Aquila heliaca. Imperial eagle; fairly common 

175. Aqiiila clanga. Spotted eagle ; scarce resident, 

176. Aquila rapax. Tawny eagle ; scarce resident. 

177. Aquila fasciata. Bonelli's eagle ; common resident. 

178. Hieraetus pennatus. Booted eagle ; uncommon 

179. Circaetus gallicus. Short -toed eagle ; very common 

180. Accipiter nisus. Sparrow hawk ; common w.v. 

181. Milvus milvus. Red kite ; common w.v. 

182. Milvus migrans. Black kite ; common resident. 

183. Milvus m. aegypticus Egyptian kite ; occasional 
in the south. 

1.84. Elanus coervileus. Black-shouldered kite ; occa- 

185. Falco peregrinus. Peregrine ; fairly common resi- 

186. Falco hiarmicus. Lanner falcon ; common migrant, 
locally resident. 

187. Falco subbuteo. Hobby ; fairly common s.v. 
i88. Falco eleanorae. Eleanora falcon ; rare s.v, 

189. Falco columbarius. Merlin ; common w.v. 

190. Falco vespertinus. Red-footed falcon ; rare s.v. 


191. Falco tinnunculus . Kestrel; very common resident . 

192. Falco naumanni. Lesser kestrel ; common s.v. 

193. Pandion haliaetus. Osprey ; common w.v. 

194. Phalacrocorax carbo. Cormorant ; common w.v. 

195. Phalacrocorax pygmaeus. Little cormorant ; com- 
mon w.v. (perhaps breeds in Huleh marshes). 

196. Pelecanus onocrotalus. Rosy pelican ; fairly com- 
mon w.v. 

197. Pelecanus crispus. Dalmatian pelican ; fairly com- 
mon w.v. 

198. Plotus levaillantii. African darter ; w.v., to Huleh. 

199. Ardea cinerea. Grey heron ; very common migrant. 

200. Ardea purpurea. Purple heron ; common resident. 

201. Egretta alba. Great white heron ; rare w.v. 

202. Egretta garzetta. Little egret ; uncommon resident. 

203. Bubulcus ibis. Buff backed heron ; uncommon w.v. 

204. Ardeola ralloides. Squacco heron ; common mi- 
grant (possibly breeds). 

205. Nycticorax nycticorax. Night heron ; uncommon 

206. Ixobrychus minutus. Little bittern ; common resi- 

207. Botaurus stellaris. Bittern ; common resident. 

208. Ciconia ciconia. White stork ; very common 

209. Ciconia nigra. Black stork ; uncommon migrant. 

210. Platalea leucorodia. Spoonbill ; rare w.v. 

211. Plegadis falcinellus. Glossy ibis ; occasional w.v. 

212. Phoenicopterus ruber. Flamingo ; uncommon w.v. 

213. Anser cinereus. Grey goose ; "1 occa- 

214. Anser segetum. Bean goose ; ^ sional 

215. Anser albifrons. White-fronted goose ; J w.v. 

216. Branta leucopsis. Barnacle goose ; fairly common 

217. Cygnus olor. Mute swan ; occasional w.v. 

218. Cygnus musicus. Whooper swan ; occasional w.v. 

219. Alopochen aegyptiaca. Egyptian goose ; occasional 

BIRDS 253 

220. Tadorna tadorna. Common shell-duck ; uncommon 

221. Tadorna casarca. Ruddy shell-duck; uncommon 

222. Anas platyrhyncha. Mallard; common w.v. 

223. Anas strepera. Gadwall ; common w.v. 

224. Anas angustirostris. Marbled duck ; fairly common 

225. Anas acuta. Pintail duck ; common w.v. 

226. Anas querquedula. Garganey ; fairly common mi- 

227. Anas crecca. Teal ; very common w.v. 

228. Anas pmelope. Wigeon ; uncommon w.v. 

229. Spatula clypeata. Shoveller ; fairly common w.v. 

230. Nyroca ferina. Pochard ;, fairly common w.v. 

231. Nyroca fuligula. Tufted duck ; very common w.v. 

232. Nyroca nyroca. White-eyed duck ; common w.v. 

233. Oedemia nigra. Scoter ; occasional w.v. 

234. Erismatura leucocephala. White-headed duck ; said 
to be resident. 

235. Mergus serrator. Merganser ; common w.v. 

236. Mergus albellus. Simew (obtained by Tristram).' 

237. Columhapalumhus. Wood pigeon; common migrant. 

238. Columha oenas. Stock dove ; common w.v. 

239. Columba livia. Rock dove ; common resident. 

240. Streptopelia turtur. Turtle dove ; very common s.v. 

241. Streptopelia decaocto. Collared turtle dove; com- 
mon resident in the Jordan valley. 

242. Streptopelia senegalensis. Palm dove ; resident in 

243. Pterocles orientalis. Black-bellied sandgrouse ; 
resident in the southern desert. 

244. Pterocles alchata. Pintailed sandgrouse ; common 
resident in the south. 

245. Pterocles senegallus. Senegal sandgrouse ; very 
common resident in the south. 

246. Pterocles exustus. Singed sandgrouse ; common 
resident in the south. 


247. Alectoris graeca. Chucar ; common resident. 

248. Ammoperdrix heyi. Hey's partridge ; common 
resident near Jericho. 

249. Francolinus vulgaris. Francolin ; common resident 
in marshes. 

250. Coturnix coturnix. Quail ; very common migrant. 

251. Rallus aquaticus. Water-rail; uncommon resident. 

252. Porzana porzana. Spotted crake ; common migrant 

253. Crex crex. Landrail ; common migrant. 

254. Porphyrio caeruleus. Purple gallinule ; occurs in 
Huleh marshes. 

255. Gallinula chloropus. Moorhen ; common resident. 

256. Fulica atra. Coot ; common w.v. 

257. Megalornis grus. Crane ; fairly common w.v. 

258. Anthropoides virgo. Demoiselle crane ; fairly com- 
mon w.v. 

259. Otis tarda. Great bustard ; possibly migrant. 

260. Otis tetrax. Little bustard ; possibly resident. 

261. Burhinus oedicnemus. Stone -curlew; common 

262. Glareola pratincola. Pratincole ; common.s.v. 

263. Cursorius gallicus. Courser ; common s.v. in the 

264. Charadrius apricarius. Golden plover ; fairly com- 
mon w.v. 

265. Charadrius helveticus. Grey plover ; not uncommon 
w.v. on the coast. 

266. Charadrius geojfroyi. GeofEroy's plover ; common 

267. Charadrius hiaticula. Ringed plover ; common w.v. 

268. Charadrius curonica. Lesser ringed plover ; com- 
mon w.v. (perhaps breeds). 

269. Charadrius alexandrinus. Kentish plover ; com- 
mon resident. 

270. Charadrius morinellus. Dotterel ; common w.v. 

271. Hoplopterus spinosus. Spur- winged plover; fairly 
common resident. 

272. Vanellus vanellus. Lapwing ; very common w.v, 

BIRDS 255 

273. Recurvirosta avocetta. Avocet ; uncommon w.v. 

274. Himaniopus himantopus. Stilt ; fairly common 

275. Scolopax nisticola. Woodcock ; common w.v. 

276. Gallinago gallinago. Snipe ; very common w.v. 

277. Gallinago gallinula. Jack snipe; very common w.v. 

278. Erolia alpina. Dunlin ; very common w.v. 

279. Erolia ferruginea. Curlew sandpiper ; common 

280. Erolia minuta. Little stint ; very common w.v. 

281. Philomachus pugnax . RuflE ; common migrant. 

282. Calidris arenaria. Sanderling ; fairly common w.v. 

283. Limicola falcinellus. Broad-billed sandpiper ; un- 
common migrant. 

284. Totanus hypoleucos. Common sandpiper ; common 
migrant (probably breeds). 

285. Totanus ochropus. Green sandpiper ; common w.v. 

286. Totanus stagnatalis. Marsh sandpiper ; fairly com- 
mon migrant. 

287. • Totanus glareola. Wood sandpiper ; uncommon 

288. Totanus calidris. Redshank ; common w.v. 

289. Totanus fuscus. Spotted redshank ; rare migrant. 
"290. Totanus canescens. Greenshank ; uncommon mi- 

291. Limosa limosa. Black-tailed godwit ; uncommon 

292. Numenius arquatus. Curlew ; fairly common w.v. 

293. Numenius phaeopus. Whimbrel ; rare w.v. 

294. Sterna fluviatilis. Common tern ; common s. v. 

295. Sterna minuta. Little tern ; uncommon w.v. 

296. Sterna media. Allied tern ; 

297. Sterna anglica. Gull-billed tern ; 

298. Sterna caspia. Caspian tern ; 

299. Sterna bergii. Swift tern ; 

300. Hydrochelidon hyhrida. Whiskered tern ; fairly 
common resident. 

301. Hydrochelidon nigra. Black tern ; uncommon s,v, 

rare w.v.s. 



302. Hydrochelidon leucoptera. Whitewinged black tern ; 
fairly common migrant. 

303. Larus ridibundus. Black-headed gull; common 

304. Larus melanocephalus. Adriatic gull ; possible 
common w.v. 

305. Larus ichthyaetus. Great black-headed gull ; com- 
mon w.v. on sea of Galilee. 

306. Larus canus. Common gull ; fairly common w.v. 

307. Larus gelastes. Slender-billed gull ; uncommon w.v. 

308. Larus cachinans. Yellow-legged herring gull ; 
common w.v. 

309. Larus argentatus. Herring giill ; uncommon w.v. 

310. Larus fuscus. Lesser black-backed gull ; common 

311. Puffinus anglorum. Manx shearwater; one speci- 
men found by Tristram. 

312. Puffinus kuhlii. Mediterranean shearwater ; some- 
times seen near shore. 

313. Podiceps cristatus. Great crested grebe ; very 
common w.v. (probably breeds on Huleh). 

314. Podiceps nigricollis. Eared grebe ; common s.v. 

315. Podiceps griseigena. Red-necked grebe ; rare w.v. 

316. Podiceps fluviatilis. Little grebe ; common resident. 

§ 5. Reptilia. 

Venomous snakes are of comparatively rare occurrence in 
Palestine and the number of species is small. Viperine 
types are seldom found in densely populated areas, their 
habitat being characteristically the true desert or stony 
and unfrequented hills. In habit they are almost ex- 
clusively nocturnal and viviparous. A collector of standing 
states that, of hundreds of ophidia secured during a period 
of twenty-one years, he has only obtained in the Jaffa 
district four viperine specimens {Daboia xanthina and 
Viper a confluenta), apparently driven from the hills by 


military operations. He had similarly been unable to 
obtain a single viperine snake from the vicinity of 

On the other hand, the valuable services rendered by the 
colubrine snakes, as destroyers of field mice, locusts and 
other insect pests, have been repeatedly advanced in pleas 
for the protection of this group. 


1. Typhlops syriacus. Syrian blind snake; so-called 
from its rudimentary eyes. This snake is found everywhere 
in Palestine and feeds largely on insects. 

2. Onychocephalus simoni. Onl}^ known to occur in the 
Jaffa and Haifa areas ; feeds on insects. 

3. Micrelaps mulleri. Generally found in the hills, but 
also in the Jaffa area. 

4. Rhyncocalamus melanocephalus . A small, black- 
headed snake of very general occurrence ; feeds on worms 
and insects. 

5. Ablabes modestus. One variety {A. m. inornata : 
Jan.) is only recorded from Jerusalem. A. m. deceme- 
lineata, however, has been reported from Jerusalem, Plain 
of Sharon and Lake Huleh ; A.m. quadrilineata occurs 
throughout Galilee, Phoenicia and Jerusalem. 

6. Lytorhynchus diadema. A brownish-yellow snake 
with darker rhomboidal spots on the back, only known to 
occur in the Jaffa district. 

7. Periops parallelus. This colubrine snake is recog- 
nizable by the small scutella between the inferior edge of 
the eye and the superior labial scuta ; only found in the 

8. Zamenis caudaelineatus . In rocky hills. 

9. Z. carhonarius. A black coluber which devoured 
enormous numbers of locusts during invasions of this insect 

10, Z. gemonensis var. Asiana. Of general occurrence. 
During the winter hundreds of specimens may be found 
rolled up together in a single burrow. 



rrenr.e. II 

11. Z. dahlii. A grey-green snake of general occurrence. 
Black ' ocelli ' with white margins are found on the 

12. Z. ravergieri. A hill type characterized by a zigzag 
line following the length of the back, in which each sinus 
is marked by a prominent spot. 

13. Tropidonotus tesselatus v. hydrus. Found in all rivers, 
pools and ponds. Destructive to fish. 

14. T. natrix. A less common water-snake than the 
above, with similar habits. 

15. Coelopeltis lacertina. A big coluber of general occur- 
rence which destroys large numbers of field mice. 

16. Psammophis moniliger : v. hierosolymitana. From 
Jerusalem, Jaffa and Haifa. 

17. Tarbophis vivax : v. syriaca. Of general occurrence. 
This species and Typhlops syriacus are the only colubrine 
snakes of nocturnal habit. 

18. Eryx jaculus. Occurs in sandy areas on the plain of 
Sharon. Simulates a viperine type by the small size of the 
cephalic scutella, and the number of rows of escutcheons 
between eye and oral fissure. 

19. Naja haje. Confined to the desert south of Beersheba 
and very rarely found. 

20. Viper a euphratica. Found near Jericho. 

21. Daboia xanthina. Commonly found near human 
habitations, and is responsible for some loss of live stock in 
stables ; fairly common in the south. 

22. Vipera confluenta. Rarely found in the Jaffa area. 

23. Cerastes hasselquistii. Occasionally found round the 
Dead Sea and in the Wadi Araba. In Syria it is of very 
common occurrence and is the only viper known to that 

24. Echis arenicola. Occurs from the Wadi Fara'a to the 
Dead Sea in the Jordan valley. 


25. Psammosaurus scincus. A huge lizard attaining a 
length of a metre. Of common occurrence in sandy places. 



Feeds on birds, smaller reptiles, gerboas, rats and locusts. 
Eaten by the Arabs and employed locally for medicinal 

26. Lacerta viridis. This green lizard is only found among 
herbage on the hills. 

27. L.judaica. Occurs in towns and frequents ruins and 
broken walls. 

28. L. agilis. In the Jerusalem area and round the Dead 

29. Ophiops elegans. Of general occurrence ; char- 
acterized by the absence of eyelids. 

30. Acanthodactylis syriacus. Of general occurrence in 
sandy plains ; exhibits fringed toes. 

31. Podarcus pardalis. A coastal type of general occur- 

32. Pseudopus apus. A gigantic lizard of general but 
rare occurrence ; distinguished by a deep neck and body 

33. Ablepharus panonicus. In the Haifa area. 

34. Eumeces schneideri. Common in sandy plains. 

35. Euprepes fellowsi. Of general occurrence. 

36. Ophiomorus miliaris. Common in Galilee. 

37. Gongylus ocellatus. Abundant everywhere ; dis- 
tinguished by regular, black and white, transverse bars. 

38. Seps monodactylus . Abundant in marshes. 

39. Sphenops capistratus . Found in the Jaffa area ; 
passes rapidly through sand at considerable depths below 
the surface. 

40. Platyodactylus hasselquistii. Chiefly in towns. Of 
nocturnal habit, catching moths and insects attracted by 
artificial light ; utters a characteristic clicking sound. 

41. Platydactylusmauritanicus. Occurs only in caves and 
rock crevices. 

42. Stellio vulgaris . A spiny gecko of common occurrence 
on walls, ruins, etc. ; partial to locusts. 

43. Chamaeleo vulgaris. Occurs everywhere ; attains an 
abnormal size at Jericho. 



§ 6. Fishes. 

Varieties. — A large variety of edible fish occurs in the 
coastal and lacustrine waters of Palestine. Both the tunny 
and sardine, among other migratory types, visit the coast 
at regular seasons, and the question of developing a very 
primitive fishing industry is receiving attention. The 
following species figure in the catch brought to the local 
markets at Haifa, Jaffa and Gaza : 

Arabic name. Scientific name. 

Ataut. Lichia glauca, l>2ice-pede. 

Buri. Mugil cephalus, Cuvier. 

Bursh. Raja sp. 

Dawakir. Epinephelus aeneus, Geoffroy. 

Dhahaban. Mugil auratus, Risso. 

Farriden. Pagellus erythrinus, L. 

Geragh. Pristipoma Bennettii. 


Isfirna. Sphyraena vulgaris, L. 

Kelb el Bahr. Phoca vitulina. 

Lahat. Cirrhosa umhrina, L. 

Lukus. S err anus sp. 

Marmir. Pagellus mormyrus, L. 

Muskar. Sciaena aquila, Cuvier. 

Salbieh. Lichia vadigo, Risso. 

Salfooh. RMnohatus cemiculus, Geoffroy. 

Samak Musa. Solea vulgaris, Risso. 

Saraghis. Sargus sp. 

Sardyna. Clupea sardina, Cuvier. 

Sultan Ibrahim. Mullus surmuletus, L. 

Tarakhol. Caranx fusus, Geoff. S. Hillaire. 

Tobara. Mugil capita, Cuvier. 

Turgollos. Caranx rhonchus, Geoff. S. Hillaire. 

Industry. — The fishing industry employs only 649 men 
and 117 boats, of which 115 men and 26 boats are found 
on the Lake of Tiberias. As no harbour exists on the whole 
coast-line, craft are limited to open rowing boats which 


can be launched from the beach, and these in no case exceed 
three tons in measurement. Faihng even slipways, the 
difficulties of landing prohibit fishing in any but the finest 
weather, while the size of boat places trawling out of the 
question. An Ottoman Public Debt tax of 20% ad valorem 
on the catch led to a deliberate policy of limiting production 
with a view to maintaining what were practically famine 
prices. This impost was consequently repealed by decree 
in August, 1920 ; while the common practice of dynamiting 
and poisoning were prohibited by the " Protection of 
Fisheries Ordinance " promulgated in the same year. The 
first requirement of the industry having been definitely 
established as safe harbourage for fishing craft, the coast- 
line was examined in detail, sites selected which lent them- 
selves to economic development, and plans prepared for 
works at Gaza, Jaffa and Haifa. An endeavour was then 
made to interest foreign capital in the manifest opening for 
profitable investment. All species of edible fish commonly 
brought to the market were collected and identified : a 
daily record of the varieties, size and weight of fish landed 
at the three principal ports permitted the construction of 
charts showing periodicity of migratory types, spawning 
and maturity seasons ; while the establishment of meteoro- 
logical stations at three points on the coast enables the 
fishery service to complete a review of the conditions in 
which any company attempting a development of fishing 
on modern commercial lines would be called upon to work. 
Consolidated and amended fishery regulations are being 
based upon the results of this investigation. 

§ 7. Insects. 

The following species represent a preliminary examination 
of insects of economic importance in Palestine, including 
forms of both noxious and beneficial character. The field 
of economic entomology is, as yet, almost untouched, with 
the exception of a detailed investigation of the scale insects 
by visiting entomologists from Egypt. Recent official 



appointments, however, should result in an early addition 
to the present limited fund of information. 


Carcharodus altheae. Hb. 
Daphnis nerii. L. 
Euprepia oertzeni. Ld. 
Ocnogyna loewii. Z. 
Pericyma squalens. Led. 
Hydrilla muculifera. Stgr. 
Sesamia cretica. Led. 
Thalpochares ostrina. Hb. 
Dasycorsa modesta. Stgr. 
Ptychopoda calunetaria. Stgr. 
Mecyna polygonalis, Hb., 

var. gilvata. Fabr. 
Scythris temper atella. Ld. 
Lozopera mauritanica. 



Mintho isis. Wied. 
Bibio hortulanus. L. 
Ceratitis capitata. Wied. 
Ophyra leucostoma. 
Lasioptera sp. nov. 
Culicoides newsteadi. Austen. 
Bombilius medius. L. 


Sitodrepa panicea. L. 
Agabus nebulosus. Forsk. 
Agabus biguttatus. Oliv. 
Philhydrus quadripunctatus . 

Dry ops auriculatus. Geoffr. 
Crypticus maculosus. Fairm. 

Sisyphus schaeferi. L. 
Onthophagus cruciatus. 

Aphodius fimetarius. L. 
Hydrophilus caraboides. L. 
Aulonogyrus concinnus. Kl. 
Cossyphus rugosulus . Peyron. 
Tenebrio obscurus. L. 
Anoxia orientalis. Cast. 
Aethiessa floralis. F. 
Oedemera virescens. L. 
Cyphosoma euphratica. Lap. 

et Gory. 
Acmaeodera despecta. Bdi. 
Acmaeodera Goryi. BruUe. 
Dasytes delagrangei. Pic. 
Scobicia chevrieri. Villa. 
Ptirms latro. Fabr. 
Pholicodes conicollis. Desbr. 
Rhabdorrynchus anchusae. 

Lixus constrictus. Bohem. 
Hypera variabilis. Hbst. 
Tychius fuscolineatus . Luc. 
Larinus longirostris . Gyl- 

Baris traegardhi. Auriv. 
Hypebaeus scitulus. Er, 
Malachius flabellatus. Friv. 
Stenodera puncticollis . 

Stenodera oculifera. Ab. 

Caucasica. Erch. 
Teratolytta dives. BruUe. 
Lydus algiricus. L. 



Lydus suturalis. Reiche. 
Halosimus luteus. Waltl. 
Mylahris lederevi, var. 

Mylahris floralis . Pall . 
Exosoma thoracica. Redtnb. 
Chrysomela polita. L. 

,, regalis. Oliv. 

Cassida bella. Fald. 
Gynandrophthalma limbata. 

Omophlus syriacus. Muls., 

var. versicolor. Kirsch. 
Phytoecia virgula. Charp. 
Agapanthia violacea. Fabr, 
Agapanthia cardui. L. 
Plagionotus hohelayei. Brulle. 
Niphona picticornis. Muls. 
Calathus fuscipes. Goeze. 
Cicindela lunulata. Fisch. 
Bembidium ^-guttatum. F. 

Dielis collaris. F. 
Acroricnus syriacus. Mocs. 
Tricholabioides pedunculata . 

Anthidium variegatum. F. 
Ceratina tibialis. Mor. 
parvula. Sur. 
Eucera grisea. F. 
Trichofoenus pyrenaicus. 

Sycofaga sycomori. L. 

Scantius aegyptius. L. 
Pasira hasiptera. Stal. 

Geocoris lineola Ramb, var. 

distincta. Fieb. 
Anisops producta. Fieb. 
Velia rivulorum F. v., ven- 

tralis. Put. 
Prionotylus brevicornis. Muls. 
Enoplops cornutus. H.S. 
Stagonosomus bipunctatus, 

var. consimilis. Costa. 
Amaurocoris curtus. Brulle. 
Cor anus angulatus. Stal. 
Sciocoris helferi. Fieb. 
Eurygaster integriceps. Put. 
Ploiaria domestica. Scop. 
Holotrichus luctuosus. Muls. 

et Mayet. 
Nemausus simplex. Horv. 
Stenocephalus albipes. Fabr. 
Sehirus bicolor. L.- 
Patapius spinosus. Rossi. 
Plinthisus hungaricus. Horv. 
Sehirus dubius Scop. v. 

melanoptera. H. S. 
Eremocoris verbasci. F. 
Notonecta glauca. L. 
Lethaeus nitidus. Dougl. et 

Prostemma aeneicolle. Stein. 

Festella festai. G. Tos. 
Xiphidion fuscum. F. 
Platycleis tesselata. Chafp. 
Dociostaurus genei. Ocsk. 

anaiolicus. Kr. 
Pyrgomorpha granosa. St. 
Platypterna pruinosa. Br.- 


Morphaeris fasciata, ah. Degeeriella socialis. Giebel. 

sulcata. Thnbg. ,, decipiens. 

idem. Colpocephalum subaequale. 


Hemianax ephippiger. Burm. Philopterus ocellatus. Scop. 
Lestes barbarus. Fabr. Laemobothrion titian. P. 

Neuroptera. Linn. 

Ascalaphus syriacus. Philopterus lari. O. Fabr, 

M'Lach. philopleri. Menacanthus ovatus. Piag. 

§ 8. Animal, Insect and Vegetable Pests. 

The animal and insect pests of common occurrence in 
Palestine include field mice, locusts, scales, ticks, a group 
of borers and fruit flies. A plague of mice and rats, affect- 
ing all edible crops, waxes and wanes apparently in pro- 
portion to the activities of the rodents' natural enemies, 
of which a tick is the most important. The identity and 
life-history of the • latter interesting parasite is at the 
moment under examination. Attempts to initiate epidemic 
disease among field mice, by means of such preparations as 
the Liverpool Virus, have met locally with the same lack ] 
of success as in other countries. Various approved formulae 
for poison pastes are consequently being tested for possible • 
adoption in a poisoning campaign. 

The migratory locust, which invades Palestine at lengthy 
intervals, has been referred to the species Acridium migra- 
torium, and apparently comes from the Nubian desert, 
reaching this territory during the months of March and 
April. No record of the local occurrence of a second 
spfecies, Calopterius staticus, which inflicts much damage 
in Anatolia, has been obtainable. The most recent in- 
vasion of locusts took place in 1915, with a resultant loss 
of practically the entire season's work. To obviate, if 
possible, a repetition of this disaster, a campaign has 
been organized, combining the various methods of control. 


such as trenching, poisoning and the use of flame 

More insidious, but none the less real, is the danger of 
an uncontrolled spread of scale insects, which constitute a 
menace to an important orange industry. The black scale 
{Aspidiotus aonidum), which inflicts much damage in Egypt, 
only occurs locally in Phoenicia and Galilee. A fumigation 
campaign has consequently been undertaken in the hope 
of extirpating this species before it spreads to the Jaffa 
district where the bulk of orange groves occur. Local 
outbreaks of the Cottony cushion scale {Icerya Purchasi) 
are being successfully treated with colonies of the parasitic 
lady-bird {Chilocorus bipustulatis) , which has been arti- 
ficially propagated for the purpose. 

One of the most serious pests of cereal crops in Palestine 
is found in a moth {Scythris temper atella) , the larva of which 
has destroyed large areas of growing wheat. Early planting 
and a full rotation of crops afford the only apparent means 
of control. Peach, olive and melon flies cause considerable 
damage, but in most cases are parasitized, and this fact 
gives promise of a useful weapon for employment against 
this group of pests. 

A number of parasitic weeds, including several types of 
Dodder {Cuscuta monogyna), Broom rape {Orobanche lavan- 
dtdacea) and Trixago {T. apule), assume an economic im- 
portance. The primitive method of cultivation and 
thrashing still obtaining throughout the country foster the 
dissemination of such parasites, which can only be con- 
trolled by better agricultural practice. 

§ 9. Game Preservation. 

A Game Preservation Commission has recently recom- 
mended the amendment and consolidation of sections of 
the Ottoman Code with reference to the protection of game 
and the control of vermin. 

Regulations recommended for proclamation under a draft 
empowering Ordinance will prohibit the destruction at all 



times of ibex, eagles, vultures, kestrels, owls, storks, cranes, 
hoopoes, bee-eaters and spur-wing plovers ; and will afford 
a close-season from the ist February to the 31st August 
for all species of partridge, francolin, sand-grouse, hares and 

The collection and sale of eggs of all game birds will be 
prohibited. Rewards would be offered for the destruction 
of vermin as scheduled in the regulations. Game licences 
would be issued by Governors to residents in the district 
approved by District Game Commissions, and sale licences 
to licensed and resident butchers. All " closed forest 
areas " will constitute game reserves or sanctuaries. 

§ 10. Flora. 

The wealth of the Palestinian flora is attributable to the 
same causes which have endowed the country with an 
extraordinary variety of bird and animal life. Geographical 
position, variety of soil and range of climate, rainfall and 
elevation account for the singular richness and interest of 
the vegetation. 

The geographical characteristics of Palestine enable the 
flora of the country to be divided into three distinct groups. 
The coast-land belongs to the region of the Mediterranean 
flora, similar to the flora of Cyprus, Cilicia, Spain, Greece, 
Sicily and North Africa. 

The hill-country produces a typical oriental vegetation 
of the steppes ; while in the depression of the Jordan valley 
with its intense heat, we find a sub-tropical flora resembling 
that of the Sudan and Abyssinia. 

For the prevalent orders and for lists of the principal 
trees and shrubs of Palestine, see Part V., § 9. 

The classical work of the plants of the country is Dr. G. 
Post's Flora of Syria and Palestine, published in Beirut. 



§ I. Moslem, Orthodox and Jewish Kalendars. 

Moslem Kalendar. — The Hejra, or flight of Mohammed 
from Mecca to Medina, is reckoned to have taken place on 
the night of the 20th June, 622 a.d. The Mohammedan 
era, instituted seventeen years later by the Khalif 'Omar, 
dates from the first day of the first lunar month, Muharram 
(Thursday, 15th July, 622 a.d.). The years are lunar, con- 
sisting of twelve lunar months, each commencing with the 
approximate new moon, without any intercalation to keep 
them to the same season with respect to the sun, so that they 
retrograde through all the seasons in about 32^ years. They 
are partitioned also into cycles of 30 years, 19 of which are 
common years of 354 days each, and the other 11 intercalary 
years, having an additional day added to the last month. 

The Ottoman ' Financial [Malieh) Year,' an invention of 
the Turkish Government, is divided into solar months, and 
is now about three years behind the Mohammedan era. 

To find the year of the Christian era corresponding to any 
Mohammedan (Hejra) date, deduct 3 per cent, from the 
Mohammedan year and add 621-54 to the result. Thus, 
take A.H. 1318 : 

1318 1318 1278-46 

3 39-54 621-54 . 

39-54 1278-46 1900-00 



Lunar Months {Shuhur Qamariyeh) : 


Safar _ _ _ 

Rabi' al-Awwal 

Rabi' al-Thani 

Jumada al-Awwal - 

Jumada al-Thani - 

Rajab _ - - 

Sha'ban - 



Zu (a)l-Qa'deh 

Zu (a)l-Hejja - 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days. 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days. 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days. 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days. 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days. 

- 30 days. 

- 29 days (or, inter- 

calary years, 30). 

Solar Months [Shuhur Shamsiyeh) 

Adar - - _ _ 

Nisan - - _ _ 

Ayar - _ _ _ 

Huzairan _ _ _ 

• Tammuz _ _ _ 

Ab- - -• - 

Aylul - - - - 

Teshrin al-Awwal - 
Teshrin al-Thani 
Kanun al-Awwal 
Kanun al-Thani 

Shbat - - - - 

The year 1341 a.h. 

- March. 

- April. 

- May. 

- June. 

- . - J"iy. 

- August. 

- September. 

- October. 

- November. 

- December. 

- January. 

- February. 

began on the 25th August, 1922. 

Moslem Prayers [Salat). — The hours of prayer are : 

1. Salat al-Fajr, between dawn and sunrise. 

2. Salat al-Duhr, when the sun has begun 


3. Salat al-'Asr, midway between Nos. 2 and 4. 

4. Salat al-Maghreb, a few minutes after sunset. 

5. Salat al-'Esha, when the night has closed in. 




Moslem Festivals. — The principal Moslem festivals are : 


New Year ----- 

Yom 'Ashura (date of Noah leaving 
the Ark, and of the death of Husein 
at Kerbela) 

Mauled al-Nebi (Mohammed's birth- 

Lailat al-Raghaib (night of Moham- 
med's conception) 

Lailat al-Me'raj (night of Moham- 
med's miraculous journey) 

Lailat al-Baraat (" Night of De- 
crees," when the guardian angels 
receive from the Almighty tablets 
recording the fate of their charges 
in the coming year) 

Ramadan ----- 

Lailat al-Qadr (" Night of Power," 
on which the requests of all wor- 
shippers are believed to be granted) 

'Id al-Fetr (Sheker Bairam — 3 days) 

'Id al-Adha (Qurban Bairam — 3 days) 

^ Descent of Holy Banner (Sanjaq 
al-Sherif) from Jerusalem to Nebi 

1 Return of Banner from Nebi Musa 


I Muharram. 

10 Muharram. 

12 Rabi' al-Awwal. 

Eve of first Friday in 

27 Rajab. 

15 Sha'ban. 

1-30 Ramadan. 
27 Ramadan. 

1-3 Shawwal. 

10-12 Zu al-Hejja. 

Friday before Ortho- 
dox Good Friday. 

Orthodox Maundy- 

Orthodox Kalendar. — The members of the Orthodox 
Eastern Church, in Palestine and elsewhere, still retain the 
Julian Kalendar (Old Style), and their reckoning is now 
thirteen days behind the rest of Europe. 

1 Peculiar to Palestine; cf. Part IV., § 9. 



Orthodox Festivals. — The principal Orthodox festivals 
are : 

Christmas Day, New Year's Day, Epiphany or Theo- 
phania. Purification, Annunciation, Palm Sunday, Good 
Friday, Easter Day, S. George, Ascension, SS. Constantine 
and Helen, Whitsunday, SS. Peter and Paul, Transfigura- 
tion, Assumption, Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 
Exaltation of the Holy Cross, S. James, S. Nicolas. 

Orthodox Services.— The principal services of the 
Orthodox Church are : 

1. Matins {opOpo^), 6 a.m. to 7 a.m. 

2. Eucharist (^ Oeia Xeirovpyla), 7 a.m. to 9 a.m. 

3. Evensong {ea-Trepivo^), 4 V-^- to 4.30 p.m. (in 

summer 5 p.m. to 5.30 p.m.). 

Jewish Kalendar. — The Jewish year consists of 12 
months, namely, Tishri (30), Heshvan (29), Kislev (30), 
Tevet (29), Shevat (30), Adar (29), Nisan (30), Eeyar (29), 
Sivan (30), Tamuz (29), Ab (30), Elul (29). 

In enumerating the months it is usual to start with Nisan, 
following God's command to Moses (Exodus xii., 2). 

In spite of the fact that the ordinary year is a lunar year, 
it is made to correspond with the solar year in the course 
of a cycle of 19 years by making seven years in one cycle 
leap-years. A leap-year is an ordinary year with Adar B 
(30) added. A cycle terminates with the years in the 
Jewish Kalendar (creation of the Universe) that are a 
multiple of 19. The following years in any one cycle are 
leap-years : Nos. i, 4, 7, 10, 12, 14, and 17. The last cycle 
closed in 5671. 

Thus 19 solar years (including 4-5 days in leap-years) 
= 6939- 40 days ; 19 Jewish years= 6936 days. The dif- 
ference of 3-4 days is made up by occasionally adding a 
day to Heshvan. The addition of this day incidentally 
serves another purpose. The Day of Atonement cannot 
fall either on a Friday or a Sunday, and, when it would 
normally fall on such a day, this additional Heshvan day 
puts it off until the following Saturday or Monday. When 



more than 3-4 days have been added this way in the course 
of the cycle, and the same danger is in sight, a day is taken 
off Kislev when necessary and replaced by an additional 
day in Heshvan at a later date. 

The year 5683 began on the 23rd September, 1922. 

Jewish Festivals. — The Jewish festivals are divided into 
three categories : {a) days of rest ; {b) festivals on which 
work is permissible ; {c) fasts. The following is a complete 
list : 


Category (a). 

Category (b). 

Category (c). 



Rosh Hash- 
ana- (New 



Yom Kippur 
(Day of 

I St Day Ta- 

Yom Kippur. 




8th Day Suk- 
kot (Sim- 
hat Tora). 

2nd-7th Day 



25 to 






A'sara Be- 
tevet (Siege 
of Jeru- 



Tu Bishevat 
(Tree New 



(Fast of 




Category {a). 

Category (b). 

Category (c). 



Purim (in 


only) . 




ist Day Pass- 




2nd-6th Pass- 





7th Day Pass- 

Lag Laomer 







Shiva' Asar 
tion of Jeru- 
salem) . 

Tisha' Beav 
of the Tem- 

§ 2. Official Holidays. 

The official holidays are as follows : 

1 . Common to all Communities : The King's Birthday 

(3rd June). 

2. Moslems [cf. § i ante) : 

Return from Nebi Musa of the Sanjaq al- 
Sherif (Holy Banner) ; 'Id al-Fetr (Sheker 
Bairam), 3 days ; 'Id al-Adha (Qurban Bairam), 
3 days ; Mauled al-Nebi. 




3. Christians (observed according to Gregorian or 

Julian Kalendar as the case may be) : 

New Year's Day ; Epiphany ; Good Friday ; 
Easter Monday ; Ascension Day ; Whit Mon- 
day ; Christmas Day ; Boxing Day. 

4. Jews : 

Passover (2 days) ; Pentecost (i day) ; New 
Year (2 days) ; Atonement (i day) ; Taber- 
nacles (2 days). 

• § 3. Transliteration. 

The joint committee for Arabic and Hebrew translitera- 
tion appointed by the Government of Palestine to recom- 
mend a system for official use in the country has adopted 
the following principles : 

^ {a) ARABIC. 

Several recognized systems of transliteration were studied 
by the Committee, who, however, came to the conclusion 
that, having regard to the special needs of the Palestine 
Administration, there would have to be evolved a new 
system, which took into account the paramount importance 
of simplicity, the limitations of the typewriter, and, in 
general, the exigencies of administrative routine. It was 
felt that there was no room for the adoption of an exact 
and strict system involving the use of diacritical marks 
and conventional signs. At the same time, the Com- 
mittee wished so to frame their system as to ensure a 
standardized and uniform spelling of Arabic names in 

The system outlined below aims, therefore, at standards 
of consistency and simplicity rather than of scholarly exacti- 
tude. It is not intended to be an ideally perfect system ; 
but it is believed that, in admitting a certain sacrifice of 
precision, it achieves a greater gain in convenience, 

L.P. s 



(i) The Alphabet : 


[N.B. — All English vowels are pronounced as in Italian.) 


^ = s 

.^ = b 

^ = d 

o = t 

L = t 

^ = th 

k = z 


• ? = ' 


ji = gh 


^ = f 

^ = d 


i = z 

d = k " 

J = ^ 


J = ^ 

^ = m : 

^ = s 

^ = n . 

J, = sh 

j = u or w 
ij = ioyy 

(ii) Vowel-sounds : 

-^ (damma) = u 

-^ (fatha) =a 


— (kasra) =e 

Examples : 

J^ = 'Ali 


= Awqaf 

^^1 = Aqsa 


= Yarmuk 

U^ = Haifa a1)1 j^ = 'Abdallah 

^JX^ = Hamdi JJ^, = Khalil 

j^U = Hamed jJU = Khaled 



(6) HEBREW. 

The vowels are deemed to be pronounced as in the ItaUan 

5< = a 

5 = k 

^ = ei 


^ = i 

D, ^ = m 

K.iX = o 

^ = n 

X = u 


l = b 

^ = apostrophe after 
the vowel 


3 = P 

l = d 

V = ts 



) = v 


T = z 

t:^ = sh 





(consonant) ^ = y 

Sheva na' is transliterated by the addition of the " e " 
to the consonant. Dagesh is indicated by doubling the 
consonant, except in the case of ' sh,' which is underlined 

to indicate the dagesh ; e.g. 1^p7, " leqasher " (to bind). 

Proper names, geographical or otherwise, that have a 
commonly accepted spelling and pronunciation, are main- 
tained as commonly spelt and pronounced in English, e.g. 
Tiberias, not Tiveria ; Jerusalem, not Yerushalayim ; 
Isaiah, not Yesha'ia. 




§ 4. Newspapers and Periodicals. 

Official (periodical) publications are the Official Gazet 
of the Government of Palestine, published on the ist and 
15th of each month in English, Arabic and Hebrew, and 
the Commercial Bulletin of the Department of Commerce 
and Industry, issued fortnightly. 

The periodical publications include : 

English : The Palestine Weekly. 

Arabic: Al-Nafayes ; Lisan al-Arab ; Al-Sabah ; Beit 

al-Maqdes ; Miraat al-Shark ; Rakib Sahyun ; ] 

Falastin ; al-Akhbar ; Zaharat al-Jamil ; al-Karmel ; j 

al-Nafir ; al-Salam. 1 

Hebrew : Doar Hayom ; Haaretz ; Hattor ; Hashiloah ; | 
Hapoel Hazair. 

The provisions of the Ottoman Press Law of 1327 apply 
to all publications, the most important being the necessity 
for registration with the local authorities of all relevant 
particulars of the publishers and responsible editors, and 
the deposit of a security for good conduct. The Law pre- 
scribes penalties for the usual forms of Press offences of 
conduct and context. 

§ 5. War Cemeteries in Palestine. 

The War Cemeteries in Palestine are situated at Beer- 
sheba, Gaza, Ramleh, Deir al-Belah, Jerusalem (Mt. of 
Olives) (General and Indian), Sarona, Wilhelma and Haifa, 
and are administered from Jaffa by representatives of the 
Imperial War Graves Commission. 

There are some 10,000 dead buried in these cemeteries, 
whose welfare is the special care of a local organization, the 
Anglo-Palestine War Graves Committee. 

The sites of all the war cemeteries have been presented 
to the Imperial War Graves Commission by the people 
of Palestine, in pursuance of a resolution spontaneously 

; of j 





proposed by the non-official members of the Advisory Council 
in December, 1920. This act of generosity is commemor- 
ated in the inscription which it is proposed to set up 
at the entrance of each cemetery : 

" The land on which this cemetery stands is a free gift 
of the people of Palestine for the perpetual resting- 
place of those of the Allied Armies who fell in the 
War of 19 1 4-1 8 and are honoured here." 
A Memorial Service for the fallen is conducted by the 
Bishop in Jerusalem at the War Cemetery on the Mount of 
Olives on the 15th April of each year, when offerings of 
flowers are laid upon the graves. 

§ 6. Foreign Consuls in Palestine. 

France : A Consul-General and Consul in Jerusalem ; 

Vice-Consuls at Haifa and Jaffa ; Con- 
sular Agents at Nazareth, Safed and 
Greece : A Consul in Jerusalem. 

Italy : A Consul-General in Jerusalem ; a Vice- 

Consul at Haifa ; a Consular Agent at 
A Vice-Consul at Haifa. 
A Consul in Jerusalem. 
Vice-Consuls at Haifa and Jaffa ; Consular 

Agents at Safed and Tiberias. 
A Consul in Jerusalem ; a Vice-Consul at 

Netherlands : 
Norway : 
Persia : 

Spain : 

Sweden : 

United States 

A Consul at Jaffa ; a Vice-Consul in Jeru- 
A Consul and Vice-Consul in Jerusalem. 


7. Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. 


Boy Scouts. — There are two organizations of Boy Scouts 
in Palestine : 

{a) The Baden-Powell Boy Scouts were started in Pales- 
tine in April, 191 3, and now consist of thirty 
troops, each about forty strong, working in most 
of the chief centres in the country. The Baden- 
Powell Boy Scouts are members of the " Boy 
Scouts Association " founded by Sir Robert Baden- 
Powell, and are in direct connexion with the 
Imperial Headquarters in London. The Honorary 
Secretary in Palestine is the Rev. R. O'Ferrall, 
S. George's School, Jerusalem. 
{b) The Jewish Boy Scouts are a similar organization, but 
not directly dependent on London. They were 
founded after the war, and are grouped in Jeru- 
salem, Jaffa, and Haifa, and in the larger Jewish | 
Colonies, in connexion with the Jewish Schools. 
The Association contains a number of Girl Scout 
troops and a Sea Scout troop. The Honorary 1 
Secretary in Palestine is Mr. J. L. Bloom, c/o the 
Department of Education, Jerusalem. 
Both organizations are recognized by the High Com- 
missioner, who is Chief Scout for Palestine ; and matters 
which affect the welfare of both are discussed by a joint 
Council, to which both send representatives. 

Girl Guides. — In addition to the Girl Scout troops belong- 
ing to the Jewish Boy Scout Association, Girl Guides were 
started in Palestine in the year 1919 in direct connexion 
with the Girl Guide Association in England. At present 
there are three companies of Guides, all in Jerusalem, con- 
nected with the British High School for Girls and the 
Evelina de Rothschild School. A training camp for Guide 
Officers was held at Ramallah in 192 1. The Honorary 
Secretary in Palestine is Mrs. F. Rowlands, Jerusalem. 

R.S.P.C.A. 279 

§8. R.S.P.C.A. 

A Jerusalem branch of the R.S.P.C.A. was founded in 
1909, but ceased working in 191 5 on account of the war. 
Anti-cruelty work was carried out under Army auspices 
during the British Occupation. In 192 1 the Society was 
re-started under the presidency of the High Commissioner, 
Sir Herbert Samuel. 

The Veterinary Hospital situated in Mamilla Street, 
Jerusalem, has been taken over by the Society on lease 
from the Municipality, and is now entirely under the 
Society's own management. Only those animals are de- 
tained which are suffering from serious causes. A minimum 
charge for forage is made and treatment is provided free to 
animals whose owners cannot afford to pay. The Hospital 
is under the inspection of the veterinary officials of the 
Government, and is open to visitors at all times by arrange- 
ment with the Secretary. 

The efforts of the Society are strictly limited by the 
amount of voluntary support that is forthcoming from the 

The Honorary Treasurer is Mrs. K. L. Reynolds, S. 
George's School, Jerusalem. 




The Council of the League of Nations : 

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have agreed, for 
the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of Article 22 
of the Covenant of the League of Nations, to entrust to a 
Mandatory selected by the said powers the administration 
of the territory of Palestine, which formerly belonged to 
the Turkish Empire, within such boundaries as may be 
fixed by them ; and 

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have also agreed 
that the Mandatory should be responsible for putting into 
effect the declaration originally made on November 2, 191 7, 
by the Government of His Britannic Majesty, and adopted 
by the said Powers, in favour of the establishment in 
Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being 
clearly understood that nothing should be done which 
might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing 
non- Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and 
political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country ; and 

Whereas recognition has thereby been given to the 
historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine 
and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home 
in that country ; and 

Whereas the Principal Allied Powers have selected His 
Britannic Majesty as the Mandatory for Palestine ; and 

Whereas the mandate in respect of Palestine has been 
formulated in the following terms and submitted to the 
Council of the League for approval ; and 



Whereas His Britannic Majesty has accepted the 
mandate in respect of Palestine and undertaken to exercise 
it on behalf of the League of Nations in conformity with 
the following provisions ; and 

Whereas by the aforementioned Article 22 (paragraph 8), 
it is provided that the degree of authority, control or 
administration, to be exercised by the Mandatory not having 
been previously agreed upon by the Members of the League 
shall be explicitly defined by the Council of the League of 
Nations ; 

Confirming the said mandate, defines its terms as follows : 

Article i. 
The Mandatory shall have full powers of legislation and 
of administration, save as they may be limited by the 
terms of this mandate; 

Article 2. 
The Mandatory shall be responsible for placing the 
country under such political, administrative and economic 
conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish 
national home, as laid down in the preamble, and the 
development of self-governing institutions, and also for 
safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabi- 
tants of Palestine, irrespective of race and religion. 

Article 3. 
The Mandatory shall, so far as circumstances permit, 
encourage local autonomy. 

Article 4. 
An appropriate Jewish agency shall be recognised as a 
public body for the purpose of advising and co-operating 
with the Administration of Palestine in such economic, 
social and other matters as may affect the establishment of 
the Jewish national home and the interests of the Jewish 
population in Palestine and, subject always to the control 


of the Administration, to assist and take part in the develop- 
ment of the country. 

The Zionist organisation, so long as its organisation and 
constitution are in the opinion of the Mandatory appro- 
priate, shall be recognised as such agency. It shall take 
steps in consultation with His Britannic Majesty's Govern- 
ment to secure the co-operation of all Jews who are willing 
to assist in the establishment of the Jewish national home. 

Article 5. 

The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no 
Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way 
placed under the control of the Government of any foreign 

Article 6. 

The Administration of Palestine, while ensuring that the 
rights and position of other sections of the population are 
not prejudiced, shall facilitate Jewish immigration under 
suitable conditions and shall encourage in co-operation 
with the Jewish agency referred to in Article 4 close settle- 
ment by Jews on the land, including State lands and waste 
lands not required for public purposes. 

. Article 7. 
The Administration of Palestine shall be responsible for 
enacting a nationality law. There shall be included in 
this law provisions framed so as to facilitate the acquisition 
of Palestinian citizenship by Jews who take up their per- 
manent residence in Palestine. 

Article 8. 

The privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the 
benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection as formerly 
enjoyed by Capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, 
shall not be applicable to Palestine. 

Unless the Powers whose nationals enjoyed the afore- 
mentioned privileges and immunities on August i, 1914, 


shall have previously renounced the right to their re- 
establishment, or shall have agreed to their non-application 
for a specified period, these privileges and immunities shall, 
at the expiration of the mandate, be immediately re- 
established in their entirety or with such modifications as 
may have been agreed upon between the Powers concerned. 

Article 9. 

The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that the 
judicial system established in Palestine shall assure to 
foreigners, as well as to natives, a complete guarantee of 
their rights. 

Respect for the personal status of the various peoples 
and communities and for their religious interests shall be 
fully guaranteed. In particular, the control and adminis- 
tration of Waqfs shall be exercised in accordance with 
religious law and the dispositions of the founders. 

Article 10. 

Pending the making of special extradition agreements 
relating to Palestine, the extradition treaties in force 
between the Mandatory and other foreign Powers shall apply 
to Palestine. 

Article ii. 

The Administration of Palestine shall take all necessary 
measures to safeguard the interests of the community in 
connection with the development of the country, and, 
subject to any international obligations accepted by the 
Mandatory, shall have full power to provide for public 
ownership or control of any of the natural resources of the 
country or of the public works, services and utilities estab- 
lished or to be established therein. It shall introduce a 
land system appropriate to the needs of the country, having 
regard, among other things, to the desirability of promoting 
the close settlement and intensive cultivation of the land. 

The Administration may arrange with the Jewish agency 
mentioned in Article 4 to construct or operate, upon fair 


and equitable terms, any public works, services and utilities, 
and to develop any of the natural resources of the country, 
in so far as these matters are not directly undertaken by 
the Administration. Any such arrangements shall provide 
that no profits distributed by such agency, directly or 
indirectly, shall exceed a reasonable rate of interest on the 
capital, and any further profits shall be utilised by it for 
the benefit of the country in a manner approved by the 
Administration . 

Article 12. 

The Mandatory shall be entrusted with the control of 
the foreign relations of Palestine, and the right to issue 
exequaturs to consuls appointed by. foreign Powers. He 
shall also be entitled to afford diplomatic and consular 
protection to citizens of Palestine when outside its terri- 
torial limits. 

Article 13. 

All responsibility in connection with the Holy Places and 
religious buildings or sites in Palestine, including that of 
preserving existing rights and of securing free access to 
the Holy Places, religious buildings and sites and the free 
exercise of worship, while ensuring the requirements of 
public order and decorum, is assumed by the Mandatory, 
who shall be responsible solely to the League of Nations in 
all matters connected herewith, provided that nothing in 
this Article shall prevent the Mandatory from entering into 
such arrangements as he may deem reasonable with the 
Administration for the purposes of carrying the provisions 
of this Article into effect ; and provided also that nothing 
in this Mandate shall be constructed as conferring upon 
the Mandatory authority to interfere with the fabric or 
the management of purely Moslem sacred shrines, the 
immunities of which are guaranteed. 

Article 14. 
A special Commission shall be appointed by the Mandatory 
to study, define and determine the rights and claims in 


connection with the Holy Places and the rights and claims 
relating to the different religious communities in Palestine. 
The method of nomination, the composition and the 
functions of this Commission shall be submitted to the 
Council of the League for its approval, and the Commission 
shall not be appointed or enter upon its functions without 
the approval of the Council. 

Article 15. 

The Mandatory shall see that complete freedom of 
conscience and the free exercise of all forms of worship, 
subject only to the maintenance of public order and morals, 
are ensured to all. No discrimination of any kind shall be 
made between the inhabitants of Palestine on the ground 
of race, religion or language. No person shall be excluded 
from Palestine on the sole ground of his religious belief. 

The right of each community to maintain its own schools 
for the education of its own members in its own language, 
while conforming to such educational requirements of a 
general nature as the Administration may impose, shall 
not be denied or impaired. 

Article 16. 
The Mandatory shall be responsible for exercising such 
supervision over religious or eleemosynary bodies of all 
faiths in Palestine as may be required for the maintenance 
of public order and good government. Subject to such 
supervision no measures shall be taken in Palestine to 
obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of such bodies or 
to discriminate against any representative or member of 
them on the ground of his religion or nationality. 

Article 17. 

The Administration of Palestine may organise on a 

voluntary basis the forces necessary for the preservation 

of peace and order, and also for the defence of the country, 

subject, however, to the supervision of the Mandatory, but 


shall not use them for purposes other than those above 
specified save with the consent of the Mandatory. Except 
for such purposes, no military, naval or air forces shall be 
raised or maintained by the Administration of Palestine. 

Nothing in this article shall preclude the Administration 
of Palestine from contributing to the cost of the maintenance 
of the forces of the Mandatory in Palestine. 

The Mandatory shall be entitled at all times to use the 
roads, railways and ports of Palestine for the movement 
of armed forces and the carriage of fuel and supplies. 

Article i8. 

The Mandatory shall see that there is no discrimination 
in Palestine against the nationals of any State Member of 
the League of Nations (including companies incorporated 
under its laws) as compared with those of the Mandatory 
or of any foreign State in matters concerning taxation, 
commerce or navigation, the exercise of industries or pro- 
fessions, or in the treatment of merchant vessels or civil 
aircraft. Similarly there shall be no discrimination in 
Palestine against goods originating in or destined for any 
of the said States, and there shall be freedom of transit 
under equitable conditions across the mandated area. 

Subject as aforesaid and to the other provisions of this 
mandate, the Administration of Palestine may on the 
advice of the Mandatory impose such taxes and customs 
duties as it may consider necessary, and take such steps as 
it may think best to promote the development of the 
natural resources of the country and to safeguard the 
interests of the population. It may also, on the advice of 
the Mandatory, conclude a special customs agreement with 
any State, the territory of which in 1914 was wholly 
included in Asiatic Turkey or Arabia, 

Article 19. 
The Mandatory shall adhere on behalf of the Adminis- 
tration to any general international conventions already 
existing, or which may be concluded hereafter with the 


approval of the Leagii-e of Nations, respecting the slave 
traffic, the traffic in arms and ammunition, or the traffic 
in drugs, or relating to commercial equality, freedom of 
transit and naviga'tion, aerial navigation and postal, 
telegraphic and wireless communication or literary, artistic 
or industrial property. 

Article 20. 

The Mandatory shall co-operate on behalf of the Adminis- 
tration of Palestine, so far as religious, social and other 
conditions may permit, in the execution of any common 
policy adopted by the League of Nations for preventing 
and combating disease, including diseases of plants and 

Article 21. 

The Mandatory shall secure the enactment within twelve 
months from this date, and shall ensure the execution of 
a law of Antiquities based on the following rules. This 
law shall ensure equality of treatment in the matter of 
excavations and archaeological research to the nationals 
of all States, Members of the League of Nations. 


" Antiquity " means any construction or any product of 
human activity earlier than the year 1700 a.d. 

The law for the protection of antiquities shall proceed 
by encouragement rather than by threat. 

Any person who, having discovered an antiquity without 
being furnished with the authorisation referred to in 
paragraph 5, reports the same to an official of the competent 
Department, shall be rewarded according to the value of 
the discovery. 


No antiquity may be disposed of except to the competent 
Department, unless this Department renounces the acquisi- 
tion of any such antiquity. 



Any person who maliciously or negligently destroys or 
damages an antiquity shall be liable to a penalty to be 


No clearing of ground or digging with the object of 
finding antiquities shall be permitted, under penalty of 
fine, except to persons authorised by the competent Depart- 


Equitable terms shall be fixed for expropriation, temporary 
or permanent, of lands which might be of historical or 
archaeological interest. 


Authorisation to excavate shall only be granted to 
persons who show sufficient guarantees of archaeological 
experience. The Administration of Palestine shall not, in 
granting these authorisations, act in such a way as to 
exclude scholars of any nation without good grounds. 


The proceeds of excavations may be divided between the 
excavator and the competent Department in a proportion 
fixed by that Department. If division seems impossible 
for scientific reasons, the excavator shall receive a fair 
indemnity in lieu of a part of the find. 

Article 22. 

English, Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages 
of Palestine. Any statement or inscription in Arabic on 
stamps or money in Palestine shall be repeated in Hebrew 
and any statement or inscription in Hebrew shall be repeated 
in Arabic. 

Article 23. 

The Administration of Palestine shall recognise the 
Holy days of the respective communities in Palestine as 
legal days of rest for the members of such communities. 


Article 24. 
The Mandatory shall make to the Council of the League 
of Nations an annual report to the satisfaction of the 
Council as to the measures taken during the year to carry 
out the provisions of the mandate. Copies of all laws and 
regulations promulgated or issued during the year shall be 
communicated with the report. 

Article 25. 
In the territories lying between the Jordan and the 
eastern boundary of Palestine as ultimately determined, 
the Mandatory shall be entitled, with the consent of the 
Council of the League of Nations, to postpone or withhold 
application of such provisions of this mandate as he may 
consider inapplicable to the existing local conditions, and 
to make such provision for the administration of the terri- 
tories as he may consider suitable to those conditions, 
provided no action shall be taken which is inconsistent with 
the provisions of Article 15, 16, and 18. 

Article 26. 

The Mandatory agrees that if any dispute whatever 
should arise between the Mandatory and another Member 
of the League of Nations relating to the interpretation or 
the application of the provisions of the mandate, such 
dispute, if it cannot be settled by negotiation, shall be 
submitted to the Permanent Court of International Justice 
provided for by Article 14 of the Covenant of the League 
of Nations. 

Article 27. 

The consent of the Council of the League of Nations is 
required for any modification of the terms of this mandate. 

Article 28. 
In the event of the termination of the mandate hereby 
conferred upon the Mandatory, the Council of the League 
of Nations shall make such arrangements as may be deemed 
L,P. TP 




necessary for safeguarding in perpetuity, under guarantee 
of the League, the rights secured by Articles 13 and 14, and 
shall use its influence for securing, under the guarantee of 
the League, that the Government of Palestine will fully 
honour the financial obligations legitimately incurred by 
the Administration of Palestine during the period of the 
mandate, including the rights of public servants to pensions 
or gratuities. 

The present instrument shall be deposited in original 
in the archives of the League of Nations and certified copies 
shall be forwarded by the Secretary General of the League 
of Nations to all Members of the League. 

Done at London the twenty-fourth day of July, One 
thousand nine hundred and twenty- two. 


'Abbasids, 14, 69. 

'Abdallah, Pasha of Acre, 23, 

73, 106-107. 
'Abd al-Melek, 68-69/ 79, 9^, 

'Abdu'l Hamid II., 24, 35. 
Abyssinians, 33, 43, 45, 94, 99. 
Acre, 5, 18-20, 22, 23, 28, 42, 

50, 60, 73, 105-107, 196, 204. 
Administration, System of, 

Administrative divisions, 28, 

Agriculture and Forestry, 186- 

Ain Karem, 88-89. 
Ain Shems, 61, 76-77. 
Allenby, Lord, 24, 27, 82. 
'American Colony,' the, 48. 
Animals, Society for the Pre- 
vention of Cru-elty to, 279. 
Antiquities, Department of, 

74-75. 83, 104, 131. 
Aqsa, Mosque of al-, see Haram 

Arabs, 13-15, 32, 34-35, 203. 
Aramaic, 10, 35, 57. 
Archaeology and Art, 60-77. 
Architecture — 

Christian, 63-67. 

Greek and Roman, '62-63, 

Jewish, 62, 63, 96-97. 

Moslem, 67-74, 88. 
Area, i. 

Armenians, 33, 43-44, 94, 96, 

97. 99- 
Arrub, 29, 99, 196. 
Ascalon, 14, 18, 61, 63, 75, 77, 

81, 83, 106. 
Ashdod, see Esdud. 
Assizes of Jerusalem, the, 16. 
Athlit, 104, 198. 

Baha'is, 33, 58-59, 105, 107. 
Baldwin I., 16, 80, 87, 97, 104. 
Baldwin II., 16, 79, loi. 
Balfour Declaration, the, 25- 

27. 52. 
Banks, 159-160. 
Beduin, 34-35. i3o,i39-i4o.i75- 
Beersheba, 28, 84, 276. 
Beisan (Bethshan), 7, 60, 75, 

Beit Jibrin, 62, 75, 86. 
Belus, River, 107. 
Bethlehem, 47, 64, 98-99, 240. 
Bibars, 21, 71, 83, 87, 105, 107. 
Birds, 243-256. 
Blood Feud Commissions, 139- 

Blyth, Bishop, 46-48. 
Books of Reference, 123-125. 
Bosnians, 33, 36, 105. 
Boy Scouts and Girl Guides, 

29, 278. 
Byzantine Empire, the, 13, 15, 

66, 79, 87. 

Caenaculum, the, 64, 96. 





Caesarea, 5, 13, 14, 17, 40, 63, 

104-105, 106, 198. 
Cana, 108. 
Canaanites, 6, 61. 
Capernaum, 63, 75, 109. 
Capitulations, the, 139, 282. 
Captivity, the Babylonia,n, 9, 

89, 99. 
Carmel, Mt., 2, 5, 60, 104, 231, 

Carmelites, 43, 104. 
Castles, Crusaders', 20-21, 66, 

104, 107. 
Circassians, 33, 35-36, 203. 
Climate, 208-209. 
Coins, 77-80. 
Colonies, Jewish, 55-56. 
Commerce and Industry, 169- 

170, 276. 
Companies, Limited Liability, 

Constantine the Great, 63-64, 

95. 98. 

Consuls, Foreign, 277. 
Co-operative Societies, 142-143. 
Copts, 33, 45, 94, 99. 
Costume, 85, 98. 
Crusades, 15-21, 63, 82, 83, 85, 

87, 91, 92, 93, 101-103, 105, 

Currency, 158-159. 
Customs Department and 

Dues, 160-168. 
Cyprus, 16, 20-21, 44, 47, 59, 

61, 76, 96, 266. 

David, King, 7-8, 84-85, 89, 

96, 98. 

Dead Sea, the, 4-5, 125, 198, 
230, 234-238, 240-241. 

Decapolis, the, 11. 

Departments, Government, 1 36. 

Dome of the Rock, see Harain 

Dominicans, Biblical School of 
the, 43, 67, 75, 124, 131. 

Druses, 33, 57-58, 108, 203. 

Education, 173-180, 

Emmaus, 88. 

Enab, 88. 

England, Church of, in Pales- 
tine, 33, 45-48, 95, 97-98, 179- 

Esdraelon (Jezreel), Plain of, 
22, 60, 103. 

Esdud (Ashdod), 60, 81, 84. 

Eudocia, Empress, 65, 82, 95. 

Executive Council, 136. 

Exhibitions, 132. 

Fatimites, 15, 69, 79, 87. 

Festivals, 130, 269-273. 

Fishes, /%6o-26i. 

Flora, 266. 

Forestry, see Agriculture. 

Franciscans, 42-43, 89, 96, 108, 


Frederick I. (Barbarossa) , Em- 
peror, 17. 

Frederick II., Emperor, 18. 

Frontiers, i, 162-163. 

Galilee, 49, 63, 195, 239. 
Galilee, Sea of, see Tiberias, 

Lake of. 
Gam.e Preservation, 265-266. 
Gath, see Tel al-Safi. 
Gaza, 5, 14, 24, 28, 33, 47, 60, 

63, 74, 81-83, 196, 233, 276. 
Gendarmerie, 203. 
Geography, 1-5. 
Geology, 229-238. 
Georgians, 94, 98. 
Gethsemane, 65, 75, 97. 
Gezer, see Tel al- jezer. 
Godfrey de Bouillon, 16. 

Haifa, 5, 28, 33, 47, 49, 104, 

122, 160, 196, 202. 
Haram al-Sherif, 29, 68-69, 72, 

91-93. 130, 131- 
Harbours, 5, 196-198. 
Hattin, Battle of, 17, 69, 108. 
Health, Public, 204-208. 
Hebrew, revival of, 53-54. 



Hebron, 28, 33, 37, 39, 84-85. 
Hejaz Railway, the, 116, 199, 

Heraclius, Emperor, 13, 14. 
Herod the Great, 11, 62-63, 75. 

83, 89, 100, I02, 125. 
Herzl, Theodor, 25. 
Hezekiah, King, 9, 89. 
Holidays, Public, 272-273. 
Holy Grail, the, 105. 
Holy Sepulchre, Church of the, 
64, 66, 90, 93-95. 130. 

Order of the, 42. 
Hospices, 122. 
Hospitals, 204-205. 
Hotels, no, 122. 
Huleh, Lake, 4, 5, 109, 198, 


Ibrahim, Pasha, 23, 39, 105, 

Idumaeans, 11-12, 87. 
Immigration, Jewish, 52-53, 

Industries, see Commerce. 
Insects, 261-265. 
Islam in Palestine, 36-39, 140- 

141, 268-269. 
Israel and Judah, Kingdoms 

of, 7-9, lOI. 
Israelites, early history of, 6-7, 


Jabneh, see Yebna. 
Jacobites, 33, 43, 44-45, 94. 

Jaffa, 5, 17, 24, 28, 31, 33, 

45, 47, 49. 86-87, 122, 196, 

Jericho, 17, 99-100, 122. 
Jerome, S., 82, 99. 
Jerusalem, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 

17, 24. 27-30, 33, 37, 47, 49, 

50, 52-53, 63, 68-74, 89-98, 

Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of, 

15, 19-20, 41, 105. 

Jews, 6-12, 25-27, 32, 49-56, 
77-78, 84, 95, 105, 108-109, 
141-142, 203, 270-273, 278. 

Jezzar Pasha, 22, 105-107. 

Jordan River and Valley, 4-5, 
34, 100, 193, 232-238, 266. 

Joshua, 83, 84, 99, loi. 

Juhan the Apostate, 12. 

Justice, Administration of, 
137-143. 150-152. 

Justinian, 65, 82, 92, 98, loi. 

Kalendar — 

Jewish, 270-272. 

Moslem, 267-268. 

Orthodox, 269. 
Khwarizmians, 18, 82. 
Kishon, River, 5, 107. 

Lachish, see Tel al-Hesi. 

Lakes, 4-5, 198. 

Land Tenure and Courts, 140, 

152-155, 181-185. 
Languages, Official, 31. 
Latin Church in Palestine, 33, 

40, 41-43, 94 . 97. 99- 
Latrun, 88. 
Law and Law Courts, see 

Justice, Administration of. 
Legislation, 143. 
Legislative Council, 136-137. 
Live-stock, 194-195. 
Louis IX., S., 18. 
Ludd (Lydda), 71,- 87-88. 

Maccabees, lo-ii, 77, 87, 102. 
Madaba mosaic, 66, 90. 
Magharbeh, 33, 36. 
Mamelukes, 21, 71-73. 
Mammalia, 242-243. 
Mandate, British, Palestine 

under, 24-31 ; text of, 280 

Mar Saba, 3, 99, 231. 
Medical Department, 204-208. 
Megiddo, 60-61, 'j^, 103. 
Meiron, 109. 



Melchites, 33, 43, 108. 
Melisende, Queen, 97. 
Metawileh, 22, 33, 36, 58. 
Meteorological data, 208-210. 
Mineral resources, 238-241. 
Mineral springs, see Springs. 
Mishna, the, 49, 109. 
Mohammed 'Ali, 23. 
Montfort, Castle of, 107. 
Moslem Sharia Council and 

Courts, 37-38, 140-141. 
Motor-car services, 11 8- 119, 

Mountains, 3. 
Municipalities, 28, 140, 224- 

Museums, 75-77, 83. 

Nablus (Shechem), 8, 17, 28, 
33, 47, .56-57. 101-102, 231. 

Napoleon I., 22, 81, 87, 105- 

Napoleon III., 23, 97. 

Nazareth, 28, 47, 107-108, 122. 

Nebi Musa, Feast of, 130, 269, 

Newspapers, 276. 

Olives, cultivation of, 193-194. 

Olives, Mt. of, 64, 96, 97, 276. 

'Omar al-Daher, 22, 105, 108, 

'Omar, KhaUf, 40, 66, 82, 89, 
. 91. 

Omayyads, 14-15, 68-69, 88. 

Oranges, 55, 87, 171. 

Order of S. John of Jerusalem, 
20-21, 105-106. 

, English, 48, 205. 

Orthodox Patriarchate of Jeru- 
salem, 33, 39-41. 94. 97. 99- 

Palestine Exploration Fund, 

75, 83, 84, 86, 90. 
Palestine, meaning of term, 5. 
Parliamentary Papers, 226-227. 
Passport Regulations, 111-113. 

Petroleum, 240. 
PhiHstines, 6, 75, 81-83, 86. 
Phoenicians, 6, 62, 86. 
Police, 28, 202-204. 
Population, 2, 32-33. 
Postage Stamps, 217-222. 
Postal Services, 210-217. 
Prisons, 203-204. 
Pro-Jerusalem Society, the, 29, 

92, 93. 95. 131-132. 
Public Works, 195-196, 

Qala'un, Sultan, 20, 21. 
Qaraites, 53. 
Qarantal, Jebel, 100. 
Quarantine, 207-208. 

Rafa, 81, 84. 

Railways, 115-118, 198-202, 

Rainfall, 209. 
Ramleh, 33, 47, 50, 72, 88, 130, 

233. 276. 
Reptilia, 256-259. 
Revenue and Expenditure, 

Richard Coeur-de-Lion, 17, 87, 

' River of Egypt,' the, 5, 80. 
Rivers, 5. 

Roads, 119-122, 195. 
Romans, 11-12, 87. 

Safed, 22, 28, 33, 50-51, 109, 

Saladin, 17, 41, 69-70, 95, 
Samaria (Sebastieh), 8, 63, 75, 

Samaritans, 10, 14, 32, 56-57, 

101-102, 108. 
Samuel, Sir Herbert, 30, 278, 

Sarafend, 50, 58. 
Schools, see Education. 
Seljuqs, 15, 87. 
Shipping, 1 1 3- 1 15, 225. 
Shrines, Moslem, 37. 



Simon bar Cochba, 12, 49, 78. 
Smith, Sir Sidney, 22, 106. 
Solomon, King, 8, 82, 89, 91. 
Solomon, Pools of, 99, 196. 
Springs, Mineral, 109, 125-126. 
Stone, Building, 238-239. 
Suleyman the Magnificent, 21, 

39. 91, 95- 
Sunrise and Sunset, 129. 
Syrians. 32, 34-35. 

Ta'anach, 60, 103. 

Tabor, Mt., 108. 

Tantura, 198. 

Taxation, 144-157. 

Tel al-'Amarna tablets, 6, 60, 

Tel al-Hesi (Lachish), 61, 86. 
Tel al- Jezer (Gezer), 61, 76, 88. 
Telal-Safi (Gath), 76, 81, 83-84. 
Tel Aviv, 87, 122. 
Telegraphs and Telephones, 

Templar Community, German, 

48-49, 87. 
Templar, Knights, 20, 104, 109. 
Temple, the Jewish, 8, 10, 12, 

62, 87, 89. 
Terra Santa, Custodia of, 42-43. 
Tiberias, Lake of, i, 4, 61, 198, 

, Town, 22, 28, 49, 50, 75, 

108-109, 122, 125-126, 235. 
Tithes, see Taxation. 

Titus, 12, 78, 89. 

Tobacco, 150, 165. 

Trade Marks and Patents, 143. 

Trans- jordania, i, 50, 34, 36, 

41, 62-63, 109. ^62, 222, 227- 

228, 239. 
Transliteration, Arabic and 

Hebrew, 273-275. 
Transport, 122. 
Turks, 21-25, 73- 

Uniate Churches, 33, 43. 
Usdum, Jebel, 230, 240-241. 

Venice, 18, 52. 
Vespasian, 78, loi, 108. 
Via Dolorosa, the, 29, 70. 
Virgin, Tomb of the, 90, 97. 

Wadi al-Sant, 13, 83. 
Wailing Wall, the, 90, 95. 
Waqfs, 37-39, 183. 
War Cemeteries, 276-277. 
Water-supply of Jerusalem, 29, 

89, 99, 196. 
Weights and Measures, 126- 


Yebna (Jabneh), 49, 71-72, 84. 
Yemenite Jews, 52-53. 
Yiddish, 52, 53. 

Zedekiah, King, 9, 89. 
Zionism, 25-27, 53, 56, 87, 180. 




An experience of over fifty years in Egypt and Palestine 
has placed Thos. Cook & Son in an unrivalled position 
with regard to travel in these countries. 

On the Nile their fleet of First-Class Passenger 
Steamers make frequent voyages between Cairo, Assuan 
and the second Cataract, and it may be asserted with 
some confidence that on no other river of the world can a 
voyage be made with greater or more studied luxury. 

In Palestine, in spite of the new regime, travel is still 
a very different thing from travel in Europe, and it is 
only by such an organization as theirs that the country 
can be visited under the best conditions. 

A booklet of arrangements for travel in both Egypt 
and Palestine may be obtained from 



CAIRO, - - - Nr. Shepheard's Hotel 

ALEXANDRIA, - - 2 Rue Fouad Premier 

PORT SAID, - - Chareh Sultan Hussein 

LUXOR, - - - Nr. Winter Palace Hotel 

ASSUAN, - - - Gd. Assuan Hotel 

BEYROUT, - - - Nr. Hotel d'Orient 

JERUSALEM, - - David Street 



Anglo-Palestine Company 


Head Office : 

Head Office for the Orient : 





All description of Banking Business transacted 
on the most favourable terms 

Imperial Ottoman Bank 


Authorized Capital, - - L.Stg. 10,000,000 
Paid up Capital, - - L.Stg. 5,000,000 

Reserve, - - - - L.Stg. 1,250,000 

Branches in Palestine : 


The Imperial Ottoman Bank transacts every descrip- 
tion of British and Foreign Banking Business. With 
its seventy branch offices all over the East and its 
correspondents in every important town in the world, 
it offers special facihties to travellers for the cashing of 
Circular Notes, Letters of Credit, etc. It has a specially 
organized Merchandise Department. 

London Office, - 26 and 27 THROGMORTON ST., E.G. 2 
Paris Office, - 7 RUE MEYERBEER 




Governor : 

Fully paid Capital, 
Reserve Fund, - 


London Agency : 

6 AND 7 King William Street, E.C.4 

Branches in all the Principal Towns in 
EGYPT and the SUDAN 



(Ex "Fast") 

Situated in a very select part near the Jaffa Gate 
and the Post-Office. 



150 Beds. Bathrooms. Electric Light. 


Music at Tea and Dinner daily. Small Dances 
every Saturday evening. 




Special Guides, who are at the disposal of visitors, are 
attached to the Hotel. 


CAIRO . . 



The most up-to-date and best situated 
Hotel in town. Entirely Renewed. 
Overlooking Ezbekieh Gardens. 
Opera Square. Famous Terraces. 
400 Rooms. 200 Bathrooms. 

Cairo s Fashionable Griil-Room Restaurant, 

Daily Concerts. Weekly Dances. 



At the foot of the Pyramids. 
The Ideal Hotel out of town. 









P.O. Box 177 

Telegraphic Address "AMDURSKY," Jerusalem. 
Telephone No. 154. 

Near Jaffa Gate oppo- Situated in the modern 

site David's Tower. section of the Old 

Verandas looking over City. Windows over- 

the most Historical looking the Church of 

Sites. the Holy Sepulchre. 


European Kitchen Electric Light 

Bath Rooms Very Comfortable 

Hotel Agents and Porters meet all trains 






Proprietrix : 






Beautiful view on the Lake and 
surrounding hills 



Managing Agents : 

CYPRUS MAIL LINE (subsidised by the British Government) , 
Royal Mail steamers leave Alexandria on the ist, nth and 
2ist of each month at 4 p.m., and Port Said on the 3rd, 13th 
and 23rd at 9 a.m., for Famagusta, Larnaca, and Limassol, 
returning to Alexandria via Port Said. 

SUDAN MAIL LINE. Mail steamers leave Suez on the ist and 
nth of each month at 5 p.m. for Tor, Yambo, Jeddah, Port 
Sudan and Suakin, returning to Suez via the same ports. 

Mail steamers leave Suez on the 21st of each month at 5 p.m. 
for Tor, Wedj, Jeddah, Port Sudan and Suakin, returning to 
Suez via the same ports and calling at Yambo after Jeddah. 

GREECE-TURKEY LINE. Steamers leave Alexandria every 
alternate Wednesday for Piraeus, Smyrna, Mitylene and 
Constantinople, returning to Alexandria via the same ports. 
This service will shortly be made weekly from Alexandria. 

SYRIAN-PALESTINE LINE. Steamers leave Alexandria 
about every fifteen days at 3 p.m., and from Port Said one day 
later at 6 p.m., for Jaffa, Caifa, Beyrout, Tripoli, Lattakia and 
Mersina, returning via Alexandretta and the above ports. 

leave Alexandria and Port Said twice monthly, and cargo 
steamers (with limited First-Class accommodation) fortnightly, 
for Jaffa, Caifa, Beyrout, TripoU, Lattakia, Alexandretta, 
Mersina, Adalia, Rhodes, Chios, Smyrna, Mitylene, Dardanelles 
and Constantinople, returning via the same ports. 

ADEN MAIL LINE. Steamers leave Suez monthly for Wedj, 

Yambo, Jeddah, Port Sudan, Suakin, Massowah, Hodeidah 

and Aden, returning via the same ports. 

(Line is temporarily suspended. Will be resumed in 

September 1922.) 

All passenger steamers carry Doctors, and are fitted with 
electric light and fans. 

For further particulars regarding dates of sailing, passenger 
fares and rates of freight, apply to the Company's Agencies, at 
Alexandria, Port Said, Suez and all ports of call. For passenger 
fares and dates of sailings only apply to Cox's Shipping Agency, 
Cairo ; Thos. Cook & Son (Egypt) Ltd., and other Tourist 

Agents in Palestine : 
JAFFA - - Mr. A. Cassar. Cargo and Passengers. 

CAIFA - - SoLiMAN Bey Nassif. do. 

JERUSALEM - The Palestine Passengers only. 

Express Co. Ltd, 

The Palestine Express 
Company Limited 


Foreign Agencies : Vienna, London, New York 
Telegraphic Address for all Branches : PECOLD 
Codes : A. B.C. 5TH and 6th Editions — Bentley's Code 
Bankers : The Anglo -Palestine Company Limited 





Independent and conducted Tours 
throughout Palestine, Syria and 
Egypt. Special arrangements for 
parties interested in the Jewish 
historical places and colonies. 

Tickets booked for all Steamship 
Companies. Official appointed 
Agents of the White Star Line and 
the International Mercantile 
Marine Company. 

Agents of the Palestine Railways. 
Tickets booked for the Egyptian 
State Railways, and the principal 
trains in Europe and America. 

Goods of all kinds forwarded and 
shipped, stored and insured. Ad- 
vances against goods C.O.D. col- 
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effected against all risks by land, sea 
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accompanied baggage by ready 
policies. General Agents to : 

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The Mondial Marine Insurance Co. 

The European Goods and Luggage Insurance Co. 

Publishers of Guide Books. 


52 E. loTH Street. 

Cables : Oleyregel, New York — Bentley's Code. 





Intending visitors to the Holy Land could not consult 
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trips with 



Independent Tourist Contractor of 




S. Barakat, who has had years of training and experi- 
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suited for families and week-end parties. 

SELIM BARAKAT, Proprietor. 



Telegrams: "OCTAVE," Haifa 


Agents at Haifa and Acre for : 

Codes used : 
A. B. C. 5TH Edition. SCOTT'S CODE, ioth Edition 



Telegrams: "MESSAGERIE," Haifa 

Agent for : 

Commissaire cl'Avaries clu 

Codes used : 
A. B. C. 5TH Edition. SCOTT'S CODE, ioth Edition. 



Do you wish to visit the 




with Comfort, Economy, and Success ? 

Before deciding on your tour it will be 
worth your while to communicate with 


Tourist and Passenger Agent 

(Established 1892) 

Telesrams: p q g^^ j27, 

1 adros 1 ours, 

Jerusalem. JERUSALEM 

Excursions arranged at fixed rates in above Countries. 
Passages secured by all Lines. Railway tickets issued. 
Forwarding and Insurance of baggage. Foreign money 
exchanged. Hotel accommodation reserved. Private 
automobiles supplied. 

Specially Conducted parties organized from England & America 

Offices and Agencies : 

Jaffa, Jerusalem, Haifa, Beyrout, Damascus, Cairo, Port Said, 

Alexandria, Athens, Constantinople, Naples, Marseilles, Paris, 

London and New York. 

L.P. 13 U 


:: French Mail Line :: 
Luxe Steamers from 19,000 tons 


Marseilles, Alexandria, Port-Said, Jaffa, Haifa, 
Beyrout, and vice versa. 


Marseilles Naples Piraeus Smyrna 

Constantinople Rhodes or Vathy Beyrout 

Haifa Jaffa and vice versa. 


India China Japan Ceylon Australia 
and East coast of Africa. 


For Passages and Freight apply : 


Tourist and Passenger Agent 

(Established 1892) 

Sole Official Representative 


Near Custom House Outside Jaflfa Gate 

or from the other offices and agencies of the Company, 





DS Luke, (Sir) Harry Charles 

107 Joseph 

.3 The handbook of Palestine